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Spoken Language Services, Inc. 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Wehr, Hans (Date) 

A dictionary of modern written Arabic. 

"An enlarged and improved version of 'Arabisches Worter- 
buch fiir die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart' and includes the con- 
tents of the 'Supplement zum Arabischen Worterbuch fiir die 
Schriftsprache der Gegenwart.' " 

1. Arabic language-Dictionaries-English. 
I. Cowan, J Milton. 11. Title. 
[PJ6640.W43 1976] 492*.7'321 75-24236 
ISBN 0-87950-001-8 

O Otto Harranowltz, Wiesbaden 1961, 1066, 1971 

© Spoken Language Services, Inc. 1976 

Spoken Language Services, Inc. 

P.O. Box 783 

Ithaca, New York 14850 


Shortly after the publication of Professor Hans Wehr's 
Arabisches Worterbuch fiir die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart 
in 1952, the Committee on Language Programs of the Ameri- 
can Council of Learned Societies recognized its excellence 
and began to explore means of providing an up-to-date Eng- 
lish edition. Professor Wehr and I readily reached agreement 
on a plan to translate, edit, and enlarge the dictionary. This 
task was considerably lightened and hastened by generous 
financial suppwrtfrom the American Council of Learned So- 
cieties, the Arabian American Oil Company, and Cornell 

This dictionary will be welcome not only to English and 
American users, but to orientalists throughout the world who 
are more at home with English than with German. It is more 
accurate and much more comprehensive than the original 
version, which was produced under extremely unfavorable 
conditions in Germany during the late war years and the early 
postwar period. 

Ithaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

November 1960 

Preface to The Pocket-Book Edition 

In order to meet the enormous increase of interest in Arabic 
brought about by political, economic and social develop- 
ments of the past decade, we have now published our 3rd 
Revised Edition of A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic in 
this handy, comprehensive and unabridged version. 

Miinster Hans Wehr 

Ithaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

February 1976 


Thifl diotionwy presents the vocabuJafy and phraseology of modem written Arabic. It U 
based on the form of the language which, throughout the Arab wcM*ld from Iraq to Moroooo, is 
found in the prom of books, nevepftpeiB, periodicals, and letters. This fcffm is also employed in 
formal public address, over radio and television, and in religious ceremomal. The dictionary will 
be most us^uJ to those working with writings that have appeared sinoe the turn of the century. 

The morphology and syntax c^ written Arabic are essentially the same in all Arab ooun- 
triea. Vocabulary differences are limited mamly to the domain of specialized vocabulary. Thus 
tlra written language continoeat as it has done thrcmghout centuries of the past, to ensure the 
linguistic unity of the Arab wca'ld. It provides a medium of commumcation over the vast 
geographical saea whose numerous and widely diverse^ local dialects it transcends. Indeed, 
itgives the Arab people of many conntiiesasenaeof identity and an awareness of their common 
oulturaJ heritage. 

Two powerful and conflicting forccfl have affected the development of the modem Arabic 
lexicon. A reform movement originating toward the end of the last centniy in Syria and 
Lebuion has reawakened and popularized the old conriotitni of educated Arabs that the 
ancient *arab%ya of pre-IsUmio times, which became the claasical form of the language m the 
early centuriee of Islam, is better and more correct than any later form. Propooenta of this 
purine doctrine have held that new vocabulary must be derived exduaively in accordance 
with aneirait models or by sconantio extouion of older forma. They have inaieted on the 
replacement of all fore^ loanwords with purely Arabio forms and expressions. The purists 
have had considerable influence on the development of modem literary Arabio although 
there has been widespread protest against their extreme point of view. At the sune time 
and under the increaung influence of Weatem civilization, Arab writers and journalists 
have had to deal with a host of new concepts and ideas previoiraly alien to the Arab way 
of life. As actual usage demonstrates, the purists have been unable to cope with the sheer 
bulk of new linguistic mafceriaJ which has had to be incorporated into the language to 
make it current with advances in world knowledge. The result is seen in the tendency 
of many writers, especially in the £elds of science and technology, simply to adopt foreign 
words from the European languages. Many common, everyday expressions from the various 
colloquial dialects have also found their way into written expression. 

From its incepticoii this dictionary has been compiled on scientiflc descriptive principles. 
It contains only woirds and expressions which were found in context during the course of 
wide reading in literature of every kind or which^ on the basis of other evidence, can be shown 
to be unquestionably a part of the present-day vocabulary. It ia a faithful record of the 
language as attested by usage rather than a normative presentation of what theoretically 
ought to occur. Consequently, it not only lists classical words and phrases of elegant rhe- 
torical style side by side with new coinages that conform to the demands of the purists, but 
it also contains neologisms, loan translations, foreign loans, and colloquialisms which may not 
be to the linguistic taste of many educated Arabs. But since they occur in the corpus of ma- 
terials on which the dictionary is based, they ore included here. 

Introd notion VIII 

A Dumbei of epecial problems nonfront the lexicographer dealing with preaent-day Arabio. 
Since for many fields of knowledge, especially those which have developed outside the Arab 
world, no generally accepted terminology has yet emerged, it is evident that a practical 
dictionary can only approximate the degree of completeness found in comparable dictionaries 
of Western languages. Local terminology, especially for many public institutions, offices, 
titles, and administrative affaire, has developed in the several Arab countries. Although the 
dictionary is baaed mainly on usage in the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean, 
local official and administrative terms have been included for all Arab countries, but not with 
equal thoroughness. Colloquialisms and dialect ezpieesions that have gained currency in 
written form also vary from country to country. Certemly no attempt at completeness can 
be made here, and the user working with materials having a marked regional flavor will be well 
advised to refer to an appropriate dialect dictionary or glossary. As a rule, items derived iiom 
local dialects or limited to local use have been so designated with appropriate abbreviations. 

A normalized joumalistio style has evolved for factual reporting of news or discussion of 
matters of political and topical interest over the radio and in the press. This style, which 
often betrays Western influences, is remarkably uniform throughout the Arab world. It 
reaches large sections of the population daily and constitutes to them almost the only stylistic 
norm. Its vocabulary is relatively small and fairly standardized, hence easily covered in a 

The vocabulary of scientific and technological writings, on the other hand, is by no means 
standardized. The impact of Western civilization has confronted the Arab world with the 
serious linguistic problem of expressing a vast and ever-inoreasing number of new concepts 
for which no words in Arabio exist. The creation of a soientiflo and technological terminology 
is still a major intellectual challenge. Reluctance to borrow wholesale from European languages 
bas spurred efforts to coin terms according to productive Arabic patterns. In recent decades 
innumerable such words have been suggested in various periodicals and in special publications. 
Relatively few of these have gained acceptance in common usage. Specialists in all fields 
keep coining new terms that ore either not understood by other specialists in the same field 
or are rejected in favor of other, equally short-lived, private fabrications. 

The Academy of the Arabio Language in Cairo especially, the Damascus Academy, and, 
to a lesser extent, the Iraqi Academy have produced and continue to publish vast numbers 
of technical terms for almost all fields of knowledge. The academies have, however, greatly 
underestimated the difficulties of artificial regulation of a language. The problem lies not so 
much in inventing terms as it does in assuring that they gain acceptance. In some instances 
neologisms have quickly become part of the stock of the language; among these, fortunately, 
are a large number of the terms proposed by academies or by professional specialists. However, 
in many fields, such as modem linguistics, existential philosophy, or nuclear physios, it is 
still not possible for professional people from the different Arab states to discuss details of 
their discipline in Arabio. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the purists 
and the aoademies demand the translation into Arabio even of those Qreek and Latin tech- 
nical terms which make possible intenuitional understanding among speoialista. Thus while 
considerable progress has been made in recent decades toward the standardization of Arabic 
terminology, several technical terms which all fit one definition may still be current, or a 
given scientific term may have different meanings for different experts. 

Those teohnical terms which appear with considerable frequency in published works, or 
which are familiar to specialists in various fields and are considered by them to be stand- 

IX Ictroduotion 

ardized terminology, presented no particular problem. NeTertheless it has not always been 
possible to aaoertain the terms in general acceptance with the experts of merely one country, 
let alone those of all. Doubtful cases are entered and marked with a special symbol. A descrip- 
tive dictionary such as this has no room for the innumerable academic comages which experi- 
ence has shown are by no means assured of adoption. Only those that are attested in the 
literature have been included. 

Classicisms are a further special problem. Arab authors, steeped in classical tradition, 
can and do frequently draw upon words whioh were already archaic in the Middle Ages. The 
use of classical patterns is by no means limited to belles-lettres. Archaisms may crop up in 
the middle of a spirited newspaper article. Wherever an aesthetic or rhetorical effect is intend- 
ed, wherever the language aims more at expressiveness than at imparting information, 
authors tend to weave in ancient Arabic and classical idioms. They are artistic and stylistic 
devices of the iirat order. They awaken in the reader images from memorized passages of 
ancient literature and contribute to his aesthetic enjoyment. Quotations liom the Koran or 
from classical literature, whose origins and connotations may well elude the Western reader, are 
readily recognized by Arabs who have had a traditional education and who have memorized a 
wealth of ancient sources. In former years many writers strove to display their erudition by 
citing lexical rarities culled from ancient dictionaries and collections of synonyms. As often as 
not the author had to explain such navxidir in footnotes, since nobody else would understand 
them. This pedantic mannerism is going out of fashion and there is a trend in more recent 
literature toward smoothness and readability in style. Nevertheless it is elear from the 
foregoing that it is not possible to make a sharp distinction between living and obsolete usage. 
All archaic words found in the source material have, therefore, been included in this dictionary, 
even though it is Bometimes evident that they no longer form a part of the living lexicon and 
are used only by a small group of well-read literary connoisseurs. Such included forms are 
but a small sample of what the user is likely to encounter in the writings of a few modem 
authors; the impossibility of including the entire ancient vocabulary is obvious. The user who 
encounters an old Arabic word whioh he does not understand will have to consult a lexicon 
of the 'arablya. Finally, some modern authors will occasionally take great liberties with older 
words, so that even highly educated Arabs are unable to understand the sense of certain pas- 
sages. Items of this kind have not been entered. They would contribute nothing to a dic- 
tionary whose scope did not permit inclusion of source references. 

The vocabulary of modem Arabic, then, is by no means standardized, its scope in times 
difficult to delirpit. These results emerge from the very character of modem Arabic — a 
written language, powerfully influenced by traditional norms, whioh nevertheless is required 
to express a multitude of new foreign concepts, not for one country only, but for many distrib- 
uted over a vast geographical area. Arabic phonology, morphology, and syntax have re- 
mained relatively unchanged from earliest times, as has much of the vocabulary. Here tradi 
tional adherence to ancient linguistic norms and to the models of classical literature, especially 
the Koran, has had the effect of preserving the language intact over the centuries. But 
as vocabulary and phraseology must adapt to the new and ever-changing requirements 
of external oireumstanoes, these are more prone to ohange. Strictly speaking, every 
epoch of Arab history has had its own peculiar vocabulary, whioh should be set forth 
in a separate dictionary. But as we have seen, the vocabulary of modem Arabic con- 
fronts the lexicographer who aims at completeness with more than a fair share of prob- 
lems and difficulties. 


In the preaentation of the entries in the dictionary, homonymous roots are giren separate- 
ly in only a few eapecially dear instances. The arrangement of word entries under a given 
root does not necessarily imply etymological relationship. Consistent separation of such roots 
was dispensed with because the user of a practical dictionary of modem Arabic will not 
generally be concerned with Semitic etymology. In conformity with the practice customary 
in bilingual dictionaries of modem Kuropean languages, where the material is treated in 
purely synchronic fashion, the origin of older loanwords and foreign terms ia not indicated. 
For recent loans, howerer, the source and the foreign word are usually given. Personal names 
are generally omitted, but large numbers of geographical names are included; the nisba 
adjectives of these can be formed at will, hence are not entered unless some peculiarity such 
as a broken plural is involved. In transliteration, while the ending of niaba adjectives regu- 
larly appears as -! (e.g., janHbi, dirSei, makki), the same ending is shown as -tj for nominal 
forms of roots with a weak third radical, i.e., where the third radical is contained in the 
ending (e.g., ga^y, fabiy, ■mahmly, mabnly). This distinction, not present in Arabic script, 
may prove valuable to the user of the dictionary. Because of a distinction which retains 
importance in quantitative metrics, the third person singular masculine suffix is transcribed 
with a long vowel (-iu, -hi) following short syllables and with a short vowel (-iu, -At) after 
long syUables. In any bilingual dictionary, the listing of isolated words with one or more 
isolated translations is, strictly tpesking, an inadmissible abstraction. In order to provide 
the syntactical information to be expected in a dictionary of this size, a liberal selection 
of idiomatic phrases and sentences illustrating usage has been added. Symbols showing the 
aconsative and jaepoeitional government of verbs are also supplied. Synonyms and trans- 
latioila have been included in large numbers in order to delineate as accurately as possible 
the semantic ranges within which a given entry can be used. 

The material for the dictionary was gathered in several stages. The major portion was 
collected between IWO and 1944 with the co-operation of several German orientalists. The 
entire wcH-k was set in type, but only one set of galleys survived the war. The author resumed 
the collection of material in the years 1946 through 1948 and added a considerable number 
of entries. The German edition of the dictionary, Atabischea WdrterlnuA fur die Schriflaprache 
der degeitwarl, which appeared in 1852, was based on a corpus of approximately 46,000 slips 
containing citations from Arabic sources. The primary source materials consisted of selected 
wOTks by Taha Husain, Muhammad Huaain Haikal, Taufiq al-HakIm, Mahmud Taimiir, 
al-Manfaiati, JubrSn Kalil Jubrfln, and Amin ar-RaihSni. Further, numerous Egyptian 
newspapers and periodicals, the Egyptian state almanac, laqwim mifr, for 1935 and its 
Iraqi counterpart, daltl (U'irSq, for 1937, as well as a number of specialized Egyptian 
handbooks wore thoroughly sifted. The secondary sources used in preparation of the German 
edition were the first edition of L6on Bercher's Lexiqut arabe-franfais (1938), which 
provides material from the Tunisian press in the form of a supplement to J. B. Belot's 
Vocabuhire arabe-franfais, G. S. Colin's Four lire la presae arabe (1937), the third edition of 
E. A. Elias' comprehensive Modem Dictionary Arahic-Englith (1929), and the glossary of the 
modem Arabic chrestomathy by C. V. Od6-Vaaailieva (1929). Items in the secondary sources 
for which there were attestations in the primary sources were, of course, included. All other 
items in the secondary sources were carefully worked over, in part with the help of Dr. Tahir 
Khemiri. Words known to him, or already included in older dictionaries, were incorporated. 
Apart from the primary and secondary sources, the author had, of course, to consult a number 
of reference works in European languages, encyclopedias, lexicons, glossaries, technical 

XI IntroduoUon 

dictionariea, and Bpeoialised literature on the moet diverse subjeota in order to ascertain the 
correct translation of many technical terms. For older Arabic forms, the avaUable indices and 
collections of Arabic terminology in the fields of reUgion (both Islam and Eastern Church), 
juriaprudence, philosophy, Arabic grammar, botany, and others were very helpful. These 
collectlonfl were, however, not simply accepted and incorporated en bloc into the dictionary, 
but used only to sharpen the definition of terms in the modem meanings aotuaUy attested 
in the primary source materials. 

After publication of the German edition the author continued collecting and presented 
new material, together with corrections of the main work, in Supplement zum arabitchen 
WoTterb'uch fiiT die Schriftrpnuihe ier Qegmwart, which appeared in 1959. The Supplement 
contains the results of extensive coUeotion from the writings of 'AbdassalSm al'UjaUi, 
Mik&'il Nu'aima, and Karam Malham Karam, from newspapers and periodicals of all Arab 
countries, as weU as from Syrian and Lebanese textbooks and specUlized Uterature. In the 
postwar years several lexicographical works dealing with modem Arabic became available 
to the author: the second edition of Bercher (1944), the fourth edition of Elias (1M7), 
D. Neuatadt and P. Sohusser's ArabicHebrew dictionary, MiUdn •Arabi-'Ibri (1947), Charles 
Pellafs L'arabevivarU (1952), and C. K. Baranov's comprehensive Arabic -Russian dictionary, 
Arabeko-Buiskiy Slovar (1957). In preparing the Supplement, the author compared these with 
his own work but was reluctant to incorporate items which he could not find attested in 
context, and which would merely increase the number of entries derived from secondary 

The author is indebted to Dr. Andreas Jacobi and Mr. Heinrich Becker who, until they 
were called up for military service in 1943, rendered valuable assistance in collecting and 
collating the vast materials of the German edition and in preparing the manuscript. A con- 
siderable amount of material was contributed by a number of Arabists. The author wishes 
to express his gratitude for such contributions to Prof. Werner Caskel, Dr. Hans Kinder- 
mann. Dr. Hedwig Klein, Dr. Kurt Munzal, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel, Dr. Richard Schmidt, 
and especiaUy to Prof Wolfram von Soden, who contributed a large amount of eioellent 
material. I am deeply grateful to Dr. Munzel, who contributed many entries from news- 
papers of the postwar period and likewise to his colleague Dr. Muhammad Saf^i. I 
appreciate having been able to discuss many difficult items with them. The assistance 
of Dr. Tahir Khemiri was especially useful. He contributed 1,500 very valuable items and, 
until 1944, his advice to the author during the coUeotion and sifting of material shed light 
upon many dubious cases. Prof. Anton Spitaler likewise provided valuable observations and 
greatly appreciated advice. Contributions to the SuppUment were suppUed by Dr. Eberhard 
Kuhnt, Dr. Gotz Schregle, and Mr. Karl Stowasaer. Moreover, in the course of two visits to 
a number of Arab countries, many Arab contributors, students, scholars, writers, and pro- 
fessional people too numerous to mention generously provided useful information and counsel. 
Here, as in the prefaces to the German edition of the dictionary and the SuppUment, the 
author wishes to express his sincere thanks to all those who have contributed to the 
success of this undertaking. 

This English edition includes all the material contained in the German edition of the 
dictionary and in the Supplement, as well as a number of additions and corrections the need 
for wl ioh became obvious only after the publication of the SuppUment. Additions have been 
inserted in the proof almost up to the present time. It was therefore possible to include a 
number of contributions made by Dr. Walter Jesser in Alexandria. The number of cross- 

Introduction XII 

references has been considerably increased. A new type font was introduced for the Arabic. 
The ucond edition of Webster's New International Dictionary was used as a standard refer- 
ence for spelling and for certain definitions. On the suggestion of the editor, three changes 
were made in the system of transliteration used in the German edition » namely, ; for r, 
if for jF, and g for ^. Also, following his preference, proper names were transliterated without 
capital letters, siDce there is no capitalization in Arabic soript. The author followed a sugges- 
tion made by Prof. Charles A. Ferguson in his review of the dictionary (Language 30: 174, 
1Q54) to transcribe feminine endings of roots having a weak third radical (iU) with the pauoal 
form -ah instead of -d(. Also following Dr. Ferguson's advice, the author has transcribed many 
more foreign words than in the German edition. The letters e, e, 9, o, 5, p, v, and p, which 
have no counterpart in classical Arabic, have been added. The system of transcription for 
Arabic wordfl throughout the dictionary is simply a transliteration of the Arabic script. For 
foreign words and Arabic dialect words, however, the usual transliteration of the Arabic is 
inadequate to indicate the pronunciation. In order to avoid discrepancy between spelling and 
pronimciation, the author, in his Gorman edition, would often refrain from giving any tran- 
acription at all, but merely enter the foreign word as a rough guide to pronunciation. In the 
present edition practically all foreign words have been transcribed (e.g., dibtdmoH, hdikoptar, 
vud, vSt6) with the help of the added letters. Arab students at the University of Mtinater were 
consulted for the approximately correct pronunciation. Nevertheless, in many instances the 
foreign source word is also entered because pronunciation varies considerably from speaker to 
speaker, depending on the dialect and the degree of assimilation. One other deviation from 
a strict transliteration of the Arabic was made for certain foreign words in order to provide 
a closer approximation to the usual pronunciation. In writing European words with Arabic 
letters, I , j, ^f ^^> contrary to regular practice in Arabic, frequently used to indicate abort 
vowels. Where this is the case, we have transcribed accordingly (e.g., j5Vk*^J^ ototndtiki, 
ilj U' I ^ danmark) . 

Finally, the author wishes to erpresa his sincere gratitude to the editor. Prof. J Milton 
Cowan, thanks to whose initiative and energy this English edition can now be presented to 
the public. His generous expenditure of time and effort on this project has been greatly 
appreciated by all involved. To Theodora Ronayne, who performed the exacting task of 
preparing a meticulously accurate typescript, thereby considerably lightening our labors, 
we are indeed grateful. Professor Cowan joins me in recording our special thanks to Mr. Karl 
Stowasser, whose quite remarkable command of the three languages involved and whose 
unusual abilities as a lexicographer proved indispensable. He has devoted his untiring efforte 
to this enterprise for the past four years, co-ordinating the work of editor and author across 
the Atlantic. The bulk of the translation was completed in 1967-I9S8, while he was in 
Ithaca. During the past two years in Milnater he has completed the incorporation of the 
Svpplement into the body of the dictionary and assisted the author in seeing the work through 
the press. 

The following paragraphs describe the arrangement of entries and explain the use of 
symbols and abbreviations: 

Arabic words are arranged aocording to Arabir> /oots. Foreign words are listed in straight 
alphabetical order by the letters of the word (cf. ^^jt baria Paris, jiS" kddir cadre). Arabi- 

XIII Introduction 

cized loanwords, if tliey clearly fit under the roots, are entered both ways, often with the root 
entry giving a reference to the alphabetical listing (of. JjJU qanun law, ;])y naizak spear). 
Two or more homonymous roots may be entered as separate items, including foreign 
words treated as Arabic forms (e.g., fji" karim under the Arabic root ^^i' and ''(_J', the 
French word crime; cf. also the consonant combination k-r-k). In order to indicate to the 
reader that the same order of letters occurs more than once and that he should not confine 
his search to the first listing, each entry is preceded by a smoil raised numeral (cf. J j'., _,.•). 

Under a given root the sequence of entries is as follows. The verb in the perfect of the base 
stem, if it exists, comes first with the transliteration indicating the voweling. It is followed 
by the vowel of the imperfect and, in parentheses, the verbal nouns or mafadir. Then come 
the derived stems, indicated by boldface Roman numerals II through X. For Arab users 
unaccustomed to this designation generally used by Western orientalists, the corresponding 
stem forms ore: II J^ /o"aJa, III >li jaaki, IV J-JI a/'aia, V J^' taju'ala, VI JtUJ 
ta/a'ala, VII J*iil inja'aUi, VIII J«:il ijta'ala, IX J^l ij'aUu, X J,^-! islafala. Wherever 
there is any irregularity, for the rare stems XI througli XV, and for the derived stems of 
quadriliteral verbs the Arabic form is entered and transliterated (cf. j.< VII, i^j VIII, ^ir- XII, 
-WL. III). Then come nominal forme arranged according to their length. Verbal nouns of the 
stems II through X and all active and passive participles follow at the end. The latter arc 
listed as separate items only when their meaning is not immediately obvious from the verb, 
particularly where a substantival or adjectival translation is possible (of. ._-»-U- hOjib under 
^, J^U mhil under J^). The sequence under a given root is not det«rmined by historical 
considerations. Thus, a verb derived from a foreign word is placed at the head of the entire 
section (cf. lil aqtama, 'i!sj II). 

Essentially synonymous definitions arc separated by commas. A semicolon marks the 
beginning of a definition in a different semantic range. 

The syntactic markings accompanying the definitions of a verb are • for the occusative 
of a person, » for the accusative of a thing, U for the feminine of animate beings, ^ for a 
group of persons. It should be noted that the Arabic included in parentheses is to be read 
from right to left even if separated by the word "or" (cf. ^j>, ^^j). Verb objects in English 
are expressed by h.o. (someone) and (something), tlie reflexive by o.s. (oneself). 

A dash occurring within a section indicates tiiat the following form of a plural or of a 
verbal noun, or in some instances the introduction of a new voweling of the main entry. 
holds for all following meonings in the section even if these are not synonymous and are 
separated by semicolons. This dash invalidates all previously given verbal nouns, imperfect 
vowels, plurals, and other data qualifying the main entry. It indicates that all following defini- 
tions apply only to this latest sub-entry (cf. JjU- kajiiqn, Jac 'addla). 

In the transcription, which indicates the voweling of the unpointed Arabic, nouns are 
given in pausal form without tanwln. Only nouns derived from verba with a weak third 
radical are transcribed with nunnation (e.g., ^\i gddin, ^^r' a. muqladan, JL. matan in 
contrast with ^j^, bulrd). 

A raised ^ following the transcription of a noun indicates that it is a diptote. This indication 
is often omitted from Western geographical terms and other recent non-Arabic proper names 
because the inflected ending is practically never pronounced and the marking would have 
only theoretical value (cf. ^j<S>-' iaiokholm, Jj^l abrll). 

The symbol O precedes newly coined technical terms, chiefly in the fields of technology, 
which were repeatedly found in conteit but whose general acceptance among specialists could 

Introduction XIV 

not be establi^ed with certainty (cf. j\i\j iilfSz television set, ^u»- hade intuition, j< miharr 
heating infitallation). 

The symbol D precedes those dialect words for which the Arabic spelling Buggests a 
colloquial pronunciation (cf. Jil'l*- haddaj, 'Ju^ It). 

Dialect words are marked with abbreviations in lower-case letters (e.g., ayr., teb., mud.-ar., 
etc.). These are also used to indicate words which were found only in the sources of a particular 
area. This does not necessarily mean that a word or meaning is confined to that area (cf. jjjU- 
jSruTf ^ ba^fa, oULt Silmdn). 

The same abbreviations, but with capital letters, mark entries as the generally accepted 
technical terms or the official designations for public offices, institutiona, administrative 
departments, and the like, of the country in question (cf. ^Uif majlis, 'iS^ mahkama). 

The abbreviation Isl. Law marks the traditional terminology of Islamic fiqh (cf. uLiA*- 
hadc4, uUf li*dnt *ji:^ mtd^a)t as distinguished &om the technical terms of modem juris- 
prudence which are characterized by the abbreviation jut. (cf. ^x^ 'amdi^ ^j^ talahhus). 
For other abbreviated labels see List of Abbreviations below. 

Elatives of the form afalu are translated throughout with the English comparative 
because this moat often fits the meaning. The reader should bear in mind, however, that in 
certain contexts they will best be rendered either with the positive or the superlative. 

The heavy vertical stroke f terminates the definitions under an entry. It is followed by 
phrases, idioms, and sentences which illustrate the phraseological and syntactic use of that 
entiy. These did not have to be transcribed in fuL because it has been necessary to assume 
an elementary knowledge of Arabic morphology and syntax on the port of the user, without 
which it is not possible to use a dictionary arranged according to roots. (Consequently, no 
transcription is given after the vertical stroke for: 

1 the entry itself, but it is abbreviated wherever it is part of a genitive compound (e-g-, 
^, al-ma^oli under pohib^ Aum oj-u. under uhdvia); 

2 nouns whose Arabic spelling is relatively unambiguous (e.g., *-JU, ^U, jUT, jU); 

3 words known &om elementary grammar, such as pronouns* negations, and prepositions 
the third person perfect of the verb type fa'cda, occasionally also the definite article; 

4 frequent nominal types, such as: 

a) the verbal nouns (mofiddir) of the derived stems II and VII— X : 
J-^ij to/'tl, (JIaajI inji*al, jLcil ifti*dl, J:A»il if'ildl, jUii-l istif'al; 

b) the active and passive participles of the basic verb stem: 
JpU fd'Uf <UU fd'iia, and LiyJ^ maj'vlt '^jtju maf'ula; 

c) the nominal types J^ fa'il, <1^ fa'lla, JU Jf'aZ, and ij_^ fu'ul (also as a plural); 
4}[jiJVala and 4}_yj fuitla as well as ^1 <if<tl; 

d) the plural forms JUil af'dl, »">Uil af'ild', JJUi fa'aiH, JaLjI afd''il, J*U- mafd'il^ 
JjUi fa'd'il, J#-L*i fa'd'H, JJUi fa'alU, J^lil a/o'ii, J^^^UJ tafd'il, J^LL mafd'il, 
UlU* fa'dliia. 

Ail other possible vowelings are transcribed (e.g., «/'di, /a"ai, fu*ail, fa'ul, af'ul, fd'al). Words 
with weak radicals belonging in the form types listed above are also transcribed wherever 
any uncertainty about the form might arise (cf. '9Aj rdgin under _^j, fjjJ-l *io j under c^_j zait, 
^c^'^\ 4j»mII under jU*.^ maajid). 


List of Abbreviations 

In transcription, two nouns forming a genitive compound are treated aa a unit. Thoy are 
transcribed aa noun — definite article — noun, with the entry word abbreviated (of. under ^.^^U. 
aakib, ._t IM). In a noun compound where the second noun is in apposition or attributive, 
it alone is transcribed (cf. under >j\ ibra, iU jild). In this manner the difference between 
the two conatructionB is brought out clearly without resorting to transliteration of the i'rab 
endings, A feminine noun ending in -o, as first member of a genitive compound, is also abbre- 
viated, and the construct ending -(is to be read even though it is not expressed in the 

In view of the great variety and intricacy of the material presented, it is inevitable that 
inconsistencies will appear and that similar examples wiil be treated here and there in a different 
manner. For sueh incongruities and for certam redundancies, we muat ask the user's indulgence. 

November 1960 

Haks Wkhb 

List of Abbreviations 










anno Domini 
















year of the Hegira 






construction engineering 






ante meridiem 


































east, eastern 










circa, about 






for example 

List of AbbreviationB 



























Great Britain 


















that is 







inter j. 


Intern. Law 

International Law 








Islam, Islamic 




Jordan Kingdom 










































north, northern 


noun, nom en 


North Africa 


northeast, northeastern 







n. un. 

nomen unitatis 

n. vie. 

nomen vicis 


northwest, northweatern 














parliamentary language 












pereon, personal 















pL comm. 

pluralie communis 


post meridiem 












which see 




Liat of Abbreviations 















Bouth, Bouthem 



Saudi Ar. 

Saudi Arabia 


theatrical art 






Bouthoast, aoutheastem 





















United Arab Republic 












west, western 






southwest, aouthwostern 


Yemenite usage 





I a particle introducing direct and indirect 
questions; ^1 — la — am in alternative 
questions; ^! — I *\j^ sawd'un a — ■ am 
no matter whether — or; j\ a-wa particle 
indicating or implying doubt: or? per- 
haps T ijj J ^iJjLJjl {iaAuklcu) you 
wouldn*t doubt It, would you? do you 
perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? 
V' a-ld and L.I a-md intensifying inter- 
jections introducing flent*nce6: verily, 
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., IjJiJLi VI 
(fa-nzuru) oh, do look! why, look! .ijl Lil 
(mnoAu) why, he is ... ! 

^ J db^ August {month ; Syr., L€b.,jQrd.,Ir.) 

^^-j\ see _^l 

'._<1 abba u to long, yearn (iitj Jl ild watanihi 
for one's homeland) 

*k-^l look up alphabeticaUy 

JLI (It. abate) abati abbot (Chr.) 

iJLl ibdla, ibbdla bundle, bale 

jl L 

' _H 

jjf^l abjad alphabet 

(^Jjcl abjadi a]phabetic(ai); oLjjf I 
elementary facts, simple truths | oj^l 
4ja*:VI the letters of the alphabet, the 

Jjl abada i {j_^l -ubud) to stay. Linger (i_j at a 
place); — t u to roam in a state of 
wildnesa, run wild, be shy, shy away, run 
away {animal, game) II to make lasting 
or permanent, perpetuate, eternize (* V to be perpetuated, become 
lasting or permanent; to return to a 
state of wildncss 

J^\ abad pi. jI>T dbdd endless, eternal 
duration, eternity; I-1j1 abadan always, 
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the 
future), not at all, on no account; (alone, 
without negation) never! not at all! by 
no means! | J^y\ Jl, -uVl J* and jkSi\ j^\ 
abada d-dahri forever; ij'-'j'^l 4jl abada 
l-abadin and j^-bVI -bl Jl ild abadi l-a. 
forever and ever 

t^jOjl abadi everlasting, eternal, endless 

t^-bVl al-abadi eternity 

jjOjI abadlya infinite duration, endless 
time, eternity 

-uT dbid wild, untamed 

fljjT ahida pi. Xi\j\ awdbid^ unusual 
thing, prodigious event | LJ-i)l x>\j\ a. 
ad-dunyd the Wonders of the World 

-ij^ mu'abbad eternal, endless, ever- 
lasting I Jjjj jf^ (sijn) life imprisonment 

'j- 1 abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate 
(* a palm tree) 

Sj-I ifcrapl, j-l iiar needle, pin; indicator 
(of an instrument); shot, injection (med.); 
ating, prick \ »j\ "CJU- Jioqanahu ibratan to 
give 8.0. an injection; ^1^1 oyl t. ar-rd'% 
geranium {bot); i;_wA.Li. aj-l {magndlUiya) 
magnetic needle ; i ^ VI J^ sitgl al-i. 

_rl« mi'bar needlecase; pack needle 

^jljT ofcdr see Jj 

4-1^1 abraSiya and v-jj-l abrii^iya pi. -at 
diocese, bishopric (Chr.); pariah (Chr.) 

,j^j-\ abramis, ^_j-x.l^l bream {^ooL) 

j j\ ibriz pure gold 

g-^j\ ibrisam, tbrisivi silk 

^Jjyl ifrrffpl. ^jljl abdriq* pitcher, jug 

Jj y 1 abril April 

0>1 abzan pL jjM oAd*tn' washbowl 

^_>I iteim pi. i^jU oMzim^ bucklo, claap 

^j^i vhi} pi. ^1{T d^u^ and ^^U ma'bi4 pi. 
^j^*L ma'dbitP hollow of the knee, popliteal 

^ I V to take or carry under one's arm (a ; 
to put one's arm («, * around s.o.^ around, hold in one's arm (*, * s.o., 

iul ibf pi. I>ljT abdf m. and f. armpit 

j^l aba^ i (JU t^uf) to escape, run away 
(a slave from his master) 

^1 abaq a kind of hemp 

^y)\ dbiq pi, lib I ii/^Adi? runaway, escaped; 
a fugitive 

*Jjl t6i7 (coll.) camels 

*4JL1 t&ala, ib&a£a bundle* bale 

jjjl v&Iiz alluvial depoeits (of the Nile) 

^J^^ iblisfl pi. <Jljt abdlisa devil, Satan 

*^j- 1 II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (• a de- 
ceased person), deliver a funeral oration 
(« in praise of s.o.) 

4itl ubTta passive pederasty 

oLjI ibbdn time; jiji ihbdna during, 
obi j at the time of, during 

4>jIj ta'bin commemoration (of a de- 
ceased person) | ^^juJI «U^ haflat ai-i. 
commemorative celebration (in honor of 
a deceased person) 

OjA* nu^bun catamite; weakling, molly- 
coddle, sissy^ scoundrel 

^J'y^} abnus ebony 

4i\ abaha and abifta a {abh) to pay attention 
(J, also <y to), heed (J, also <-^, take 
notice (J, also ■-- of ) | *I 4jJ; "^ _^l (yu'bahu) 
an insignificant, unimportant matter V to 
display proud, haughty manners; to turn 
away, keep one'a distance, remain aloof 
(jF from), look down (^je■ upon), think 
o.B. far above (^ s.o or 

<f\ vbbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation, 
pageajitry; pride 

<-j\ oZr pi. »1jT aba father (also eccl.); ancestor, 
forefather; c-jI L ya abati my father! 
ol^'ill al-abawdn the parents, father and 
mother; lJ_^l abund reverend father, form 
of address and title of a priest (CAr). | 
a»- ^ Ll aban 'an jaddin handed down 
from father to son, as inherited from 
forefathers; j*- _^l abu su'n marabou; 
jO-" jjl abu n-naum poppy; J^l _^l 
ohu l-haul the Sphinx; olLJLJI _^1 abu 
l-yaqzdn rooster, cock 

\ji\ -ubuwa fatherhood, paternity 

^_^i ahawi paternal, fatherly 

CMy\ ebonite 

*Jj>l (Fr. abonni) abunih pi. -at subscription; 
subscription card (e.g., for public convey- 
ances, a concert season, etc.) 

(jl aba a (.LI tia% S.U ibd*a) to refuse, 
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn, dis- 
dain (j»; to deny (a Jp s.o. | 
^1*4; jl "ill j' {illo «n yafalaku) he in- 
sisted on doing it; jl VI ^^ ij^ God wiDed 
that ... V to refuse, decline 

•U ibd*, »t\j\ ibaa rejection; dislike, 
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride 

jl ably disdainful, scornful; proud, lofty, 

t_jT Sbin pi. iVi I vbdh reserved, standofiish ; 
unwilling, reluctant, grudging 

u-yl abib the eleventh month of the Coptic 


tfijjA^^ dbiqun Epicurean 

4jj_^l (Aiqiiriya Epioureamsm 

^J\ litrujj ajid ^J\ vtrunj oitnm (Citrus 
medica; hot.) 

i^>^T (Turk, aief^i) dUSgi fireman, stoker 

i^ md'tam pi. ^Xa ma'&im* obsequies, funeral 

'OUI atdn pi. ^T ofun, ^1 ittun, utn female 
donkey, she-ase 

^UjSl atun, cUiun pi. ^^1 itiun, ^'i\l\ atdlin^ 
kiln, furnace, oven 

SjUt itawa pi. ^jUi atawd duty, tax, tribute 

,^^^1 (Fr.) oiobis autobus, bus 

JwUjjI (Fr.) otomailkX automatic 

J— ._^1 and J-j^^jUl (Ft.) otomobil automobile 

J I ata i (ulJl ityan, J I aty, «IjL rruitdh 
to come (ft or J[ to; J* over e.o.), arrive 
(a or Jl at); »_> Jl to bring, bring forward, 
produce, advance, accomplish or achieve 
s.tli.; 4^ • ijl to bring, give or offer a.o. 
s.tb.; to do, peiform (a a deed), carry out, 
execute {* e.g., movements); to commit, 
perpetrate (a a sin, a crime); to mention 
(J*; to finish off (Jp, also s.o.); 
to finish, complete, carry through, dispose, 
settle, wind up, conclude, terminate, bring 
to a close (Jx;; to destroy, annihilate, 
eradicate, wipe out (J*; to eliminate, 
carry away, sweep away (J*, do 
away (Je with); to use up, exhaust (also 
a subject), present exhaustively, in great 
detail (J*, elaborate (J*^ on | 
JL LT as follows; -^^T Jp Jl {dkirihi) 
to complete, finish; to spend or use 
up the last of; ^^Ulj ^.^^-V' J* Jl 
to destroy everything, wreak havoc ; 
Lr'^jJ »> *^^l Jl (intyiUa) to tackle in the right way, knock on the right 
door; JJ ^ Jjj yu*td min qibali is under- 
mined, weakened, ruined by III to offer. 

fumiah, give, afford (<_> • to s.o., 
provide, supply (t-» • s,o. with); to be pro- 
pitious, be favorable {* for s.o.), favor 
(* S.O.); to turn out well (» for s.o.), be in 
favor (• of); to suit, befit, become (» s.o.), 
be appropriate (• for s.o.); to agree (• with 
s.o.; food) I »^^ ^^ ^\:'^ {kuUu iaiUn) every- 
thing WAS in his favor, turned out well 
for him, came his way IV to bring (a a s.o.; to give (a s s.o.; to grant (a • 
to s.o., bestow (a • upon s.o, | 
l^J\ JT (zakdta) to give alma V to origi- 
nate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result 
(jc from); to end (jt with), result (jc 
in); to get (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); to he easy 
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be 
attainable, go well, progress; to go about (J) gently, cautiously X to ask to 
come, induce to come (« s.o.) 

JU TTia'tan pi. ou ma'aiin place where comes from ; place at which one arrives ; 
access; pi. Cji» place of origin; origin, 
source, provenance; place where one has 
been or to which one has come; place where starts, where ends 

Ct\ aiin coming, next; following | P^.-V 
J VI {ushVr') the coming week, next week; 
J V If as follows 

iltl_^ mu'otin, ■tnuwdUn favorable, pro- 
pitious, opportune, convenient, suitable 

cltl aUa u i a (iuljl a^la) to be luxuriant, grow 
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up, prepare 
(a,); to furnish (> an apartment) 
V to be or become rich, wealthy, to prosper; 
to be furnished 

«t>ljl atdt furniture, furnishings (of an 
apartment, of a room) 

w^u Ui'tit furnishing 

*l»i aU, it^\ cUU abundant, luxuriant, 
profusely growing (hair, plants) 

^^1 atara u i {air, 4jL*i atdra) to transmit, pass 
along, report, relate (a, ^ from, or 
based on the authority of, B.o.) II to 


affect, influence ( j or J« s.o.,, act 
((i 0^ ii^ upon), produce an effect, make 
an impression* have influence ( j or Jf on) ; 
to induce {jthya.) IV to prefer ( J« a s.tb. to], 
like (m more ( J» than); to have a pre- 
dilection, a liking (a for), like (a, be 
fond (jt of); to choose, deem vise or ad- 
visable (jt to do; to adore {m, * 
a.o., I _^X-'lj *— ij j\ { bi-U 
hair) to wish o.b. well, hope for the best 
for O.B. Y to be impressed, be Lnfluenoed; 
to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to 
be moved, be touched (^ or J by, also 
j^); to be excited, be stimulated; to be 
affected (i^ by, said of materials, e.g., 
iron by add); to be induced {phys^); to 
follow in 8,o.*8 (•) tracks, follow a.o.'s 
example, emulate (• s.o.); to pursue, follow 
up (a a question, a problem) ; to perceive, 
feel (a X to claim a monopoly; to 
possess alone, with the exclusion of others, 
monopolize [l^; to appropriate (>_^, take exclusive possession (^ of); 
to preoccupy (a> engross (a the 
attention) | aj d! j'L>l the Lord has taken 
him unto Himself 

j-\ akir pi. jljT dtdr track, trace, vestige; 
sign, mark; touch; impression, effeot, ac- 
tion, influence (j on); tradition (relating 
the deeds and utterances of Mohammed 
and his Companions); work (of art, eep. 
of literature); ancient monument; jUT an- 
tiquities ; remnants, vestiges ; ( religious ) 
relics | j\j')l\ U 'Um <U-d. archeology; 
j\j)i\ jlj museum of antiquities; *) yl V 
(aiara) ineffective, ineffectual; fj^j _rlj 
(raft) with retroactive force (;ur.); n^l 
J^t Xu \J\ a^)aha aiaran ha' da *ainin to 
be destroyed, be wiped out, leave noth- 
ing but memory behind ;^p-Uj tyl«i»Ul (a'a» 
dahu) to destroy completely; tj\ Ja, 
V ' bi (^^<^ A k'^^) t^ ^ (i^) track, at his 
heels, after him; immediately afterwards, 
presently, thereupon; ^Vl Jp immediately 
afterwards, presently 

yl t«m (prep.) immediately after, right 

^j I atari archeologic(al); archeologist 
(also t^jLlT dfari); old, ancient, antique | 
<jyl jll* archeologist; Sj^I 4aJ {luga) dead 

J 1 atir egoistic, selfish 

»j I atora selfishness, egoism 

jrul cUIt favored, preferred (x:* by s.o.), 
in favor (x* with s.o.); select, exquisite, 
noble; see also alphabetically 

SjIjI a^ra remainder, remnant; faint 
trace, vestige 

Sj-L ma^tara, ma'tura pi. _/■!. ma'oHr* 
exploit, feat, glorious deed 

j«y ta'ixr action, effect, influence, im- 
pression (j, Ja on); effectiveness, efficacy; 
induction {phys,) 

^5^t Ui*t%T\ produced by induction, in- 
ductive, inductional, induced {pkye.) 

jliji iiar preference; altruism; predilec- 
tion; love, affection 

^u ta'a^T being influenced; agitation, 
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity; 
(pi. 'dt) feeling, sensation, perception | ^_^ 
yldl easily impressed, impressible, s^i- 

(jy*t ia'aOurii ^^ytdl ^j1\ (madhab) 
the impressionistic movement 

mj^It ta'aituriya impressionism 

jl^:!u-l iai*tdr arrogation of a monop- 
oly; monopohzation ; presumption, pre- 
Bumptuousness ; exclusive power 

jjjL ma*tur transmitted, handed down | 

j^L. J^ {qaul) and JjjjL. iff {kalima) 

j-J^ mu'aUir affecting, acting upon; 
effective; impressive; moving, touching, 
pathetic; (pi. -at) influencing factor, in- 


'_/«jl look up alphabetically 

*Ju\ tdfiya pi. oLjI cUdfin triret, tripod (in 
ancient times: any one of the three stones 
supporting a cooking pot near the fire) | 
jl^V^ '<ii^ that which rounds out a number, 
caps, puts the lid on, the crowning 

J^l atala i to consolidate, strengthen n to 
become rich V to be consolidated, be 
strengthened; to become rich 

J^i atl pL J_yi uiul (ooU.; n. un. •, pi, 
ataldi) tamarisk {hot.) 

JJl alii and ^^JA mii'aflai deep-rooted; 
of noble origin, highborn 

jtI aiima a (Um, cUam, rU ma'tam) to sin, err, 
slip V to eschew sin, shun eril; to restrain 
O.B., hold back 

rl itm pi. ^\j\ atom sin, ofTense. misdeed, 

rf*l« TJia'bim pi. r L* ma'diivi^ sin, offense, 

misdeed, crime 
^\j ta'}im sin^ offense, misdeed, crime 
rl ^im pi. Ifl atama and -^1 o^tm pi. 

*U I v^md'* sinful, criminal, wicked, evil; 


■U 1 itmid antimony 

j^Jl atlr ether 

UajI cUind Athens 

L^i atyubiya Ethiopia 

J^M atyubi Ethiopian; (pi. -un) an 
Ethiopian | '*^,j^^^ i^l Ethiopia 

^1 a;Ya u i (^*»-l a/ij) to burn, blaze, flame 
(fire) II to light, kindle, start (a a fire) 
V = I 

^U-l .1* md' ujaj bitter, salty water 

^L*-l ajjdj burning, blazing, hot 

Tu>-L> muta^ajjij burning, blazing, flam- 

i-j-1 ajabiya horologium {Copt.-Chr.) 

\fj^\ ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense, 
remtmerate (* b.o.) II to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (a ; (with naf' 
aahC) to hire o.s. out IV to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (* ; to rent, 
hire, lease, hold under a lease (a, 
take a lease (a on); to hire, engage, take 
on (• 8.0. ), engage the services (• of s.o.) 
X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease 
(*, take a lease (a on)^to charter (* 
a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (• s.o.), 
engage the services (• of s.o.) 

^ I ajr pi. j_^ I ujiir wages, pay, 
honorarium, recompense, emolument, re- 
muneration; price, rate, fee | jJlJ\ j^^I 
u. as-sajar fares 

S^^l ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate, 
fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage | 
■^-T^' ''jr-^ postage; JiJl S^l u. an-Tiaql 
transport charges, freight(age), carriage, 

_P»- 1 ajir pi . *\j>^\ ujard'^ hireling ;, laborer, day laborer; employee 

»_7v^l ajira working woman, factory 
girl, female laborer; woman employee 

jy^'b ta'jir letting, leasing, hiring out, 
lotting on lease ; lease | IjUV 'j j^t^' P Jj^ 
(i'dra) Lend-Lease Act 

jLf 1 ijdr pi, -at rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease | jU-^U for 
rent, to let 

•jL*-l ijdra pi. -dt rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease 

jIjnII-'I iStxjdT rent, lease, tenure 

j_^L. ma'juT paid, salaried, on the 
payroll, gainfully employed; employee; 
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed 

j»^j* mu'ajjir pi. -un landlord, lessor 

^I::-* mueta^jir leaseholder, lessee, 
tenant; employer 


^T ajurr (n. un. •) baked brick 

^!>l see .> 

ijU-ljjf-l see »_^ 

^L;-! ijjd^ pear 

J*-l ajila a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger 
11 to delay, postpone, put off, defer, ad- 
journ (Jl A till) V to be postponed, 
be deferred, be adjourned (Jl till, to) 
X to request postponement (a of; 
to ae^k to delay {^ s,th.) 

J»-l ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all 
means ! 

Ji^^ li-ajli or J»-l J* min ajU becauae 
of, on account of. for the sake of; for | 
jl J^'V in order that, that, so that; 
la» Jj-I J* therefore, for that reason, on 
this account 

J»-l ajal pi. (Jl*-T ajal appointed time, 
date, deadline; inatant of death; respite, 
delay | J*-'i/lj on credit (com.); J*-*:/ 1 jv-J 
short-term, short-time; short-lived; Jl 

^ . j^ J*-l {gairi musamman) for an 

indefinite period, sine die, until further 

J-»-l: ta'jll delay, postponement, ad- 
journment, deferment, respite; appoint- 
ment of a time or date 

J»-T djil delayed, protracted; deferred; 
later, future (as opposed to ^^tLp) | ^U 
rsU-T j\ 'ajilan au u/tfan, *L-T j\ ^U-U j 
sooner or later, now or later on; J*-^' J 
J»-^lj now and in the future 

4l>-^l al-djUa the life to come, the 

Jj»-J* mu'ajjai delayed, late, post- 
poned, deferred; fixed in time, deadlined 

ii^J ajama, coll, j^l ajam pi. -o(, j^I ujum, 
Aj^I djdm thicket, jungle, forest; reeds, 

i*>l ajamiya malaria | ij^.VW *^^ 
ha'w^ai al-a. anopheles 

^T djin brackish (water) 

»XLt^\ ajanda notebook 

7'\ ahha u (ahh) to Cough 

J^\ II to make into one, unite, unify (* 
VIII JU^I iitahada see J^j 

a»- 1 ahad, f . ^a»- 1 ihdd one ; somebody, 
someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in neg- 
ative sentences and questions); J^'i\ 
the One (God); Sunday | j^o*-! ahaduhum 
every one of them; -u-V^ i*_h ^^^''^ al-a. 
Sunday; ^JmJ! a»1 a. as-sa'af Palm 
Sunday; S_,-ajJI -U-l a. al'*an^ara Whit- 
sunday; iJiji*^! ^U-T dhdd al-iduf a few 
thousand (2 — 9000; aa distinguished from 
J>J^\ ol^ and J»_^JM oLl.) 

(jU«>1 oAodt dominical, Sunday (adj.) 
4jiA>-1 a^^iya unity, oneness 
^U-^l al-dftdd the units (math.) 
^^1 a/tiTta a (oAan) to bate ( Js a.o.) 

i^l ihna pi. j^l lAan old feud, deep- 
rooted hatred 

>^_^T see ^jl 

^1 see _^l 

C-«^1 see j^\ 

JU-I ajada u (o^) to take {j>. a from or 
out of); to take (a along; to get, 
receive, obtain (j^ > 8,th. from); to take 
up, seize (a,); to grab (l^ s.o,,> 
take hold of (<-•'); to perceive, notice 
(a S.O., said of the eye) ; to gather, under- 
stand, infer, deduce (j^ a from), 
read (a between the lines (j* of); 
to grip, captivate, thrill, spellbind (v 
B.O.); to take up, acquire, make one's 
own (<-4, e.g., a method); to keep, 
adhere (v ^)> observe, take over, adopt, 
embrace, follow, copy, imitate {^; 
to accept (v a-th.); to take, lead (Jl <^ 
B.o. to); to admonish, urge, drive (i-^ • 

a.o. to do; to enjoin, impose (i_> • 
on B.o.; to take away (m Jc from 
a.o. fl-th.), strip, deprive {* J« s.o. of), 
cut off, bar (* J* s.o. from); to reproach, 
blame (* J* s.o. for) ; to hold against 
s.o. (Jp) that... {o\), fix the blame j(J« 
on S.O., jl for the fact that); to obligate 
(i_* J* a.o. to); to learn (J* or jt- from 
S.O., *, acquire knowledge (J* or j* 
from s.o.), 4:j^ i*ll J*-! ('ilm) to study 
under s.o.; to begin, start (j or -^ with or, with foil, imperf.; to do, prepare, set out, be about (j or i_> 
to do I *::-*l J^l {ukbaUihu) to make 
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; 
O'ib -U-U X^\ {ma'kad) to adopt the same 
course as s.o. else, follow s.o.'s example; 
iJu-l« a:^ X^\ to seize s.o., take possession 
of a.o. {a sensation, or the like); »\j^ A-^l 
(majmhu) to take its course; <JLf J^\ 
(majliaahu) to take one's 8eat> ait down; 
•jJw i*-l (hidrahu) to be on one's guard; 
,^_J-Ij «I^I {huand) to be friendly, be 
nice to a.o. ; 6_^LjC^ i^l {bi-kdtirihi) to show 
o.s. complaisant toward a.o., try to 
please s.o. ; 4J-U »X^\ {bi-danbihi) to 
punish 6,0. for his offense; aAj -U-I {raya* 
hu) to ask s.o.'s opinion, consult a.o.; 
4-L ^^J\ Xi-\ {ukida r-ra'yu) the matter 
waa put to a vote; >— ''-r"'j. "^^ {bi-aebahi) 
to embrace, adopt, e.g., v^'h -^^ 
'^.jf^^ *jUii-l {haddra) to adopt Euro- 
pean culture; *-tlJLj aX^i-l {Sidda) to deal 
with 3.0. severely, give a.o, a rough 
time; <&ij^ 4_L J^l to obstruct s.o.'s 
way,, hinder s.o. from moving on; ei*:-! 
^U J* to shoulder, take upon 
O.S.; J a-uJi X^\ Cudda) to prepare, set 
out, get ready to do; Ij-ffr -t-U JU-l 
('ahdan) to put a.o. under an obligation, 
impose a commitment on s.o.; J* X^\ 
lj& (i>»-) ukida 'aid (hlni) girratin to be 
taken by surprise, be caught unawares; 
iLUlL JUl {muqdbala) to repay like for 
like; l--jI*JI X-^-L. »^^ which cap- 

tivates the heart, a fascinating, thrilling 
thing; ^\ L"A>-I (mafaru) we got caught 
in the rain; a^r-»^ -i*-' (bi-nd^iriki) to 
help S.O., stand by a.o., take care of s.o., 
look after a.o.; -— iJ J>-i {nafasahu) to 
draw breath; *--Lij1 j_1* i.^1 to take s.o.'s 
b reath away ; r>JI tX^ I (fiaum) sleep 
overwhelmed him; oXj j^l (bi-yadihi) 
to help S.O., stand by s.o. II to lay under 
a spell, enchant, bewitch (» a.o.) Ill to 
censure, blame {i-j, Je a b.o. for; to 
punish (i_*, J* 11 s.o. for); to hold 
(Jc) against s.o. (b), resent (J* a in 
8.0.) I ! li-J^'jj V W tu'dhidnl pardon me! 
forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII litl 
ittakada to take {«; to take on, 
assume (a; to take up, occupy (a; to pass, adopt (a e.g., a resolution); 
to take, single out, have in mind (aa, >• 
s.o. or as); to make use (a of, 
use (*; to imitate, affect (a e.g., 
B.o.'s manner of speaking); to make 
(jj A out of 9.0. or | ':^^ X^\ 
(Saklan) to take on a form or shape; 
[jij* OjcI (mauqifan) to take an attitude, 
assume a position; i-j'i^JI jo'-cJI ijtl to 
take the necessary measures; Iji^ J^\ 
{qardran) to pass or adopt a resolution; 
;a^jj-l ^1^1 -ii^l to take up new po- 
sitions (troops) 

4^1 akd acceptance, reception; seizure; 
taking out, taking away, removal, etc. | 
ij\j\ Jj^l a. ar-ray voting, vote; ijj X^\ 
[wa-radd) discussion, debate, dispute, 
argument; bj Vj li*=-l J^^ V '^^ (yaqhalu) 
an indisputable matter; »llatj 'x^\ (uw- 
'a^d') give-and-take; traffic, trade; deal- 
ings, relations (esp. business, commer- 
cial); discussion, debate; fight, battle 

Ixi-S ukda spell, charm 

JLa 1 aktd prisoner of war 

•ijsil akida booty, spoils 

iU- \ akkdd captivating, fascinating, 

Ju>l* ma'kad pi. JU-U ■madkid* pUc« 
from which one takes, Bource; 
O wall socket, outlet {el.); adoption^ 
borrowing, loan ; manner of actings mode 
of procedure, approach; pi. i»-U source 
references, bibliography (in books); rep- 
rehensible points,, faults, flaws, defects,, 
ahortcomings | ^^)l\ Xji-\i\ the simplest, 
eapsiest approach; i^til wjy easy to 
handle or to use; see also akada (middle 
of paragraph) 

;a«:-1j- mu'dkada- objection, exception; 
cenfiure, blame { ! «I*:-lj« '^ {mu' dkadata) 
pardon me! no oflFense, I hope! 

j_j>-l. ma'kad taken, seized; taken by 
surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; 
taken (w with), fascinated (*-* by); 
-J J^L. in force, valid 

oij^L ma'kuddt receipts, takings, 
returns {com.) 

;-l II to delay, put ofiF, defer, poatpone, 
adjourn {»; to hinder, impede, 
obstruct, hold up (a s.o., a, slow 
down, retard (j; to draw out, 
delay (j*. * beyond its appointed 
time); to put back (*, » s.o.,, shelve 
(«; to set back (a a watch, a clock); 
to suspend, discharge, disnniss, remove 
(a s.o. from an office) V to be late; to be 
delayed, fall or lag behind (j<^>, tarry, 
linger, hesitate; to default {jt on), be 
behindhand, be in arrears ( jp with), be 
behind (^y in); to hesitate (jt with); to 
be suapended (from service), be dis- 
charged, be dismissed | ^ liJii 4*j ^^ ^ 
ijl after that, he did not hesitate long 
before he ..,, presently, he ... 

_^T akir pi. -wn, -at, _^ljl avfdkir' last, 
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, 
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); 
^.■Vl and :>"Sl the hereafter ] ;>^! jUl 
the abode in the hereafter, the ever- 
lasting abode; «^T Jl t^ dkiriki and 

BO forth, et cetera; _^V' j»-' dkira l~ 
amri eventually, finally, in the end, after 
all; ^4jl _^T dkira d-dahri forever; _^T 
oUjll a. az-zamdn time at which the 
Day of Judgment is to be expected, the 
end of the world; (^T jt to the last, 
down to the grass roots, entirely, com- 
pletely, e.g., ij»-\ jt jAi {dummira) to 
be completely destroyed, be wiped off 
the map; •_^T j* from behind, from the 
rear; ji-\ J L. endless, infinite; _^T j 
>-^l after all, last of all; _^l >ljl 
a. (U-aaKr the end of the month, the last 
ten days of the month ; I^T ^j^j I j^ \ 
last but not least 

lj^'^\ al- dkira the hereafter 

^T ojtar*, f. tij*-l ukrd, pi. comm. _^l 
ukar* (and dj_fi^'\ dkarun or oLjj>-1 
ukraydt respectively) another, one more, 
_^Vl the other ( ^j^\ *^ (TKorratan) 
once more; ^^,^^1 ^*, ^V _j» he also, 
she also, he in turn, she in turn, ^"^l L;l 
I also; j^^^l cJS" o\ {in iana() other- 
wise; _^T Jl jT ^ from time to time; 
fj_/~\ Jl ii-. jy (Sana) from year to 
year; tSj-^^j *t* Cr-/. (/^") once in a 
while, from time to time; tSj^^ — ^j' 

sometimes, at 

{dwinaian) sometime 
times — at times 

^jj^-Vl al-ukra the hereafter 

^jjj>- 1 ufcrowi of or relating to the life 
to come Of the hereafter 

^1 akit last; latest; rearmost; the 
BeccHid of two; ^j^^ eventually, finally, 
in the end, after all, at last; recently, 
lately, the other day; j^'H\ — JjV^ the 
former — the latter | Ij*-" ^ri^j 'j^' 
last but not least 

jU*L. mi'kdr palm which retains its 
fruit into the winter 

js»-y ta'kir delay, deferment, post- 
ponement; obstruction, retardation; put- 
ting back, temporary shelving 



^t tadkkuT delay, lag, retardation; 
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slownesa, 
tardiness; backwardness, underdevelop- 
ment (of a country) 

j»-j* mu'akkar rear part, t ail , end ; 
atern (of a ship) ; remainder, balance (of 
a sum, to bo paid later); Ijji-J* mu'akko' 
ran recently, lately, the other day; at 
last, finally, eventually 

9ji^^ mu'akkara rear, rear guard (of an 
army); rear positions or hne9 {tnii-}', 
stern (of a ship) 

_^L. muta'akkir delayed, belated, late; 
occurring later (jc than); behind, behind- 
hand, in arrears; backward, underdevel- 
oped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter; 
jj_^LH the later, or modern, authors, 
writers, or the like ( as opposed to Oy Ji:i I ) ; 
i^l>-Ldl arrears, balance of a aura re- 
maining due after previous payment | 
S^ld! jljiJi (buldan) the underdevel- 
oped countries 

^jA2J-\ ukfubup octopus 

_^l III to fraternize, asBOciate as brothers 
(o with fi.o.) V to act or show o.a. as a 
brother or friend VI to fraternize, asso- 
ciate aa brothera 

^1 ak pi. S_^l iktva, d^j>-\ iktvan 
brother; fellow man, neighbor; friend; 
pi. jlj^l specif., brethren or members of 
an order; Ol_j»-'^l religioua brotherhood 
of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, 
established by Ibn Sa'ud in 1910 | ^y^-l ii 
my dear friend! *m j>-\ aku tiqa trust- 
worthy, reliable; jJti ^1 brother through 
both father and mother, broth er-german 

^U- 1 ukt pi. Cj \j^ I akaivdt sister ; 
{gram.) cognate; counterpart | 1^1 the 
other (of two), ita mate, its counterpart 
(after a fern, noun) 

jj»- kuwai^ httle brother 

iijai-l akavn brotherly, fraternal 

4j_^l akawiya brotherhood (as a re- 
ligioua association) 

»L^I ikd', lj»-\ uknwa brotherhood, 
brotherliness, fraternity 

l>jL»-l ikawa fraternization, fraternity, 

^t ta'dkin fraternization 


akur barn, stable 

jl adda u % to befall, afflict (» s.o.) 

it jjl amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible 

e-iil aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well- 
mannered, cultured, urbane, have refined 
tastes; — adaba i (adb) to invite (to a 
party or banquet, o s.o.), entertain 
{i 8.0.) I ojU i_j:>I (ma'diifta) to arrange a 
banquet, give a formal dinner II to 
refine, educate (* a.o.) ; to discipline, 
punish, chastise (« a.o.) IV to invite as a 
gueat (• a.o.) V to receive a fine education ; 
to be well-bred, well-educated, cultured, 
have refined tastes; to show o,s, polite, 
courteous, civil, urbane; to educate o.s., 
refine one's tastes (^ by, through); to let 
o.s. be guided ((_> by) | 4jjI) ^jIJ {bi- 
adabihi) to follow s.o.'s moral example 

,_j3l adab pi. ^liT dddb culture, re- 
finement; good breeding, good manners, 
social graces, decorum, decency, pro- 
priety, seemliness; humanity, humane- 
ness; the humanities; belles-lettres 1 C-aj 
^j':^! toilet, water closet; ^iVl JiJ and 
^i'^\ f-j£. ill-mannered, ill-bred, impolite, 
uncivil; l/UI v^"^' {'dmmi) popular 
literature; t_JiV' JLj»-j literati, men of 
letters; ^_jb^l 4-J5' hulliyat at-d. (= fa- 
culte des lettrea) college of arts; ^IjT 
rules, rules of conduct, e.g., i]jLJ\ ^IjT 
rules of decorum, etiquette; tjlj^l de- 
cency, morala 

Jjl adabi moral, ethic(al); Uterary | 
iJ>\ (--j^lj moral obligation; IjjUj LjjI 



adabiyan tea-mdddtyan morally and phys- 
ically; v.-*"^^ <A.JjiJI [faUafa) ethics, moral 

^Lijl adabiy^ literature, belles-lettres 

djlicjl adabJfdna pi. -di toUet, water 

,^^il adib pi (Lijl udabd'^ cultured, 
refined, educated ; well-bred, well-manner- 
ed, civil, urbane; a man of culture and 
refined tastea; man of letters, writer, 

l^jl adiba authoress, writer 

ijiL ma'duba pi. '-jjL. ma'ddib^ ban- 
quet, formal dinner 

o^.-^^ to' di6 education; discipline; pun- 
ishment, chastisement; disciplinary pun- 
ishment I i—jjtJl ^J^ majiis at-t. dis- 
ciplinary board 

^il; td'dibi disciplinary; punitive, re- 
taliatory I i^.ili ij^ {qa4iya) discipli- 
nary action 

wJjt ia'addub good breeding, good 
manners, civility, politenesa, courteous- 
ness, tact 

^i\ adib host 

w-jI* mu'addib pi. -un educator; 
teacher in a Koranic school {Tun,); — 
mu'addab well-bred^ well- mannered, civil, 

lji\ vdnt scrotal hernia 

ijjjl adima' Edime, Adrianople (city in 
NW Turkey) 

.iLlljjjVl {Ft. adriatigui) at'odriyatlk and 
.iLrljjaVl ^ bahr al-a. the Adriatio Sea 

Y^i adama i (adm) to take some additional 
food (* with the bread), enrich (a the 
bread) 'with some extra food or condi- 

l*lj1 iddm anything eaten with bread; 
shortening, fatty ingredient 

^^^1, ^^1 adam, adama skla 

r^l ad\m skin; surface; tanned skin, 
leather | ^j'V' r*' <». al-ar4- the surface 
of the earth 

i*bl adddm tanner 

*pjT adam^ Adam | ^^"^ C/} human being 

iji\ ddami human ; hu mane ; poor, 
inferior, meager; (pi. -un, aa\j\ avfddim^) 
human being 

^jT ddamiya humaneness, humanity; 

l\i\ ad4h pi. c^ljjl adawal tool; instrument; 

I utensil, implement, device, appliance ; 

I apparatus ; {gram. ) particle | S^ ' » ' ■> ' 
a, al-hukm machinery of government; 
-_ju_,*jl flij! definite article (grom.); Slil 
oi-ij (tanftdiya) executive agency; pi. 
materials, equipment, gear, i^n^r* oIjjI 
{harbiya) war material; Ll^L:*-! olj^l 
{ihtiydfiya) stand-by equipment (teckn.); 
iJ^ oljjl {manzillya) household uten- 
sils, household effects 

UjjVI al-addn (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr {Isr.) 

^i\ II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, 
channel (a, a or lj s.o.,, Jl to), see 
that s.o. or (a, * or lj) gets to {J(); 
to bring about, cause, effect, produce 
(Jl; to lead, contribute, be condu- 
cive (Jl to a result); to amount, come 
practically (Jl to); to tend (Jl to), aim 
(Jl at); to carry out, execute, discharge 
(*,); to perform (a a ritual, etc.); 
to do (vr'j wdjibahu one's duty); to 
fulfill (ii-Uj a function, iil—j a mission); 
to accomplish (oj^^U a task); to take 
(l:^ an oath; LjUjuI an examination); 
to render (Ia.x>- kidmatan a service, 6 or 
Jl to s.o.; A e.g., a meaning, a musical 
composition, etc.) | j»:sLJl jjI {saldm) 
to greet, salute V to load, be conducive, 
contribute (Jl to results); to be carried 
out, be performed, be accomplished; to 



aniTe ( Jl at), be lead (Jl to) X to demand* 
claim (a • irom b.o. s.tli.) 

.1^1 ad&* pi. -at (as verbal noun of II} 
rendering (of a serTice); pursuit, per- 
formance, execution, discharge (of a 
duty), realization, effectuation, accom- 
plishment (of a tasik) ; Tendition, reading 
(e.g., of a mtisical composition); fulfill- 
ment; payment | •IjVi j^»^ kuan al-a. 
good rendition (of a work of art, of a 
musical composition) 

ijit ta'diya rendering (of a service); 
pursuit, performance, execution, dis- 
charge (of a duty), realization, effectua- 
tion; accomplishment (of a task); ful- 
fillment; payment 

1^2^ mu'addan assignment, task, func- 
tion ; sense, meaning, signification, import, 
underlying idea 

j1 t^ 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and) 
then; £]1j ji id daka (also written £llji) 
then, at that time, at the same time, in 
doing ao; 2. (oonj.; temp, and cans.) as, 
when; since, as, the more so as, because; 
ilii jl t^ anna since, as, in view of the fact 
that; for, because 

^Ijl ida 1. (introducing a nominal clause 
the subject of which may he expressed 
by i-j with foil, genit.) and then, and 
all of a sudden; (with noun in nomina- 
tive case or with i_j) there was , 

and all of a sudden there was . . . ; 
2. (conj.) when; if, whenever; whether, if 
(introducing indirect questions); L. Ijl 
when, whenever; Ijl VI (i^) unless, if 
not; except when 

^Ijl (oil) idan then, therefore, in that case, 
hence, consequently 

jiiT oior" March (month; Syr.^ Leb., Jord., 

'jji a^iTta a to listen (Jl to s.o.); to allow, 
permit (j J s.o.; to hear, learn 

(t_^ of, be informed (u^ about) II to 
call (uj to), esp. to call to prayer (J-^A-Jli) ; 
to crow (rooster) IV to announce, make 
known (t-j, uj • to a.o., inform, 
notify (* S.O.); to call to prayer; to call 
upon s.o. («), urge,, admonish, exhort 
(• s.o.) to do (i^); to herald (^ or *,); to foreshadow {^,); to be on 
the verge (jl of doing | Jc^^ZJli jjT 
(JljjJL) {zawal} to show signs of the 
imminent downfall (end) ; oLaijIj JJJI o jT 
{lailu bi-ntipdf) it was close to midnight 
V to herald, announce (cj X to ask 
permission (j to do, rarely lj); 
to ask permission to enter (J« s.o.'s 
house), have o.s. announced (J* to s.o.); 
to take leave (^>* of s.o.), say good-by 

Ojl idn permission, authorization; OJli 
^1 if God choose, tied willing; (pi. Ojjl 
udun, olijjl vdundt) (postal) order | ojl 
.bjJl pi. JjjJl oLjjjl postal money order; 
<i>jJI uJl do. 

ujl u^un, u^n f., pi. jljT dddn ear; 
handle (of a cup) | J.-._^l ji*jl ^V^' 
{witspd) middle-ear infection, otitis media 

(jljl o^n call to prayer 

ojl udaina little ear; ear lobe 

4JJU Tfia^daTia, 'tJJlj, mi'dana pi. oJL 
ma'ddin^ minaret 

d\XA Iddn declaration, proclamation, 
announcement (•^ of | A^\t lilAil 
kiuJi-l indicating that the conversation 
is (was) ended 

UjJU Tna*^un authorized; slave with 
limited legal rights {lal. Law); = bj:^^ 
^ji {Sar'%) official authorized by the cadi 
to perform civil marriages {lal. Law) 

LjjjU Tna'dunlya leave, furlough {mil. 
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.) 

ji_j» mu'addin muezzin, announcer of 
the hour of prayer 



di\ idan see *ljt 

^1 a^tya a to suffer damage, be harmed 
IT to harm, hurt, wrong (e b.c); to mo- 
leBt, annoy, irritate, trouble (b s.o.) | V 
jjjj Id yu*di innocuous, harmless, inoffen- 
sive V to suffer damage, be wronged; to 
feel offended, b© hurt 

^jl adant »ljl a^ak, 4jjl adiya damage, 
harm; injury; trouble, annoyance, griev- 
ance, wrong, offense, insult 

4j1ji iddya damage, harm, harmful- 
ness, noxiousness 

Jjjl idd' harm, damage, prejudice; 
offense, hurt; grievance, nuisance 

i^ mu'^in hurtful, harmful, injuri- 
ous, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying, 
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting, 
offensive, in&ulting 

Jjljl aratiqi and ^i^^j\ pi. iiJljl ardtiqa 
B. heretic (Chr.) 

t/ljT drdmi Aramaean; Aramaic 

•_jjl ariba a {arah) to be skillful, proficient 
(«-j in; — araba t to tighten (a 
a knot) ni to try to outwit {» s. o.) 

i^j\ arab pi. i^\Jl drab wish (j for), 
desire, need (J of; purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

i^j\ irb pi. ^\Jl drdb limb | Ljl Ljl *i_^ 
{mazzaqahu) to tear to pieces or to 

ijjl irba skill, resourcefulness, clever- 
ness, smartness 

Ajjl urba pi. <-jj\ urab knot, bow 

t^jl arib skillful, resourceful, clever, 

wijL ma*rab pi. wj'^ ma'drifi* wish, 
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

J->ji arbll^ Erbil {the ancient Arbela, city 
in N Iraq) 

ijj\jjj\ artutvdzi artesian (well) 

^\t>j\ Tl to sow dissension (,>j between, among) 

^^j\ irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of 

^yS'iJJJ^ iiTtuduksi orthodox; S^Xi^jVl 
the Orthodox Church 

^_^JjjjVl fjj>'^ ar-rum al-urtvduks the 
Greek Orthodox Church 

j^j I arija a {araj, ^_ j I arij) to be fragrant T do . 
^jl araj fragrance, sweet smell 
rj arij fragrant, sweet -smelling 
^,jl arij fragrance, sweet smell 

M>-ji II taarjaha to rock, swing 

•u-jli* muiaarjih fluctuating 

j^ijp-jVl al-arjantin Argentina 

ijl_^jl urjuiodn purple 

til_^jl urjuivdnl purple (-colored) 

jj>-j\ popular spelling {eg.) of jj>-»^ *ara- 
goz (q-v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy 

i-jl II to date {m a letter, and the like, ij 
with a date); to write the history of (a) 

^jlJ ia'rik dating (of a letter, etc.); 
tdrlk pi. 'f_j\y tawdrlk^ date; time; his- 
tory; chronicle, annals | SU-l j^j\S 
Aa^dA biography; curriculum vitae; ^,jLJ 
^Lc- Cdmm) world history; AjbJI 'L-Ip the 

ijj^jLi tdriki historic(al) 

i-jj* mu'arrik pi. -un historiographer, 
historian, chronicler, annalist; — mu* 
'arrak dated 

J--j:.jl arkabil archipelago 

^y-jl {dgx<^v) pi- iJ^ljl ardkina archon, pi. 
notables (Chr.-Copt.) 


^ijl irdabb (now usually pronounced ardabb) 
pi. ^jljl atodib^ ardeb, a dry measure 
(£?ff.; = 1981) 
ijjjl irdabba cesspool 

Ojj'Vl al-urdunn Jordan (river and country) 

ijiji urdunni Jordanian | *JjjV' <^lUil 
4^U>I al-mamlaka al-u. al-kaSimiya the 
Haahemite Kingdom of Jordan (official 

jljjjl (Fr. ardoiae) arduwdz slate 

>Jjl ar2 (n. un, 3) cedar 

'Jji aruzz rice 

^jl arojsa i (ara) to till the land 

^jl irris and aris peasant^ farmer 
^\j2:i^j\ aristvqrdfi aristocratic; aristocrat 

*Ja ^jJc^j I aristuqrdtiya aristocracy 

_^k-jl arisen Aristotle 

^jl arS indemnity, amercement, fine, pen- 
alty; blood money (for the shedding of 
blood; Ish Law) 

^ji-jl (^jl (Gr. dgjjieniCTxoraoc) archbishop 

ijj J~ij I (Ft . archiduc) archduke, ojJ_i j I 

^j\ ard f., pi. ^'ji arddin, Oj^J aradun 
earth ; land, country, region, area ; terrain, 
ground, soil [ ,Ja-JI ^jV {sufld) the 
nether world; i^Jiil jj^jV' (muqaddasa) 
the Holy Land, Palestine 

j_jj;jl ar^i terrestrial, of the earth; 
soil", land- (in compounds); situated on 
or near the ground, ground (adj.); earth- 
ly; underground, subterranean 

^j^ i^j^ o^'C'i SauH artichoke 

^jl arad (coll.; n. un. 3) termite; 

^«tfjl ardlya pi. -at floor; ground 
false , e.g., of a printed fabric , of a 

painting) ; ground floor, first floor (tun.) ; 
storage, warehouse charges 

rjj^J ar^urum^ Erzunim (city in NE 

il»j1 (also il»j^l) ur^a pi. i»_jl ura/ (-l*jj') 
battalion (formerly, Eg.', mil.) 

ULjl artaqa pi. -a( heresy (CAr.) 

jujU see juj 

^ji^jl ur^n pi. ^jpljl atdgin^ organ (mus. 

J_^ji urgul, argul a wind instrument (re- 
lated to the clarinet, consisting of two 
pipes of unequal length) 

jj! ariqa a to find no sleep 11 to make 
sleepless (e s.o.), prevent s.o. (•) from 

jjl araq sleeplessness, insomnia 

iSujI arlka pi. liLMjl ora'tA" couch, sofa; 

iLSj! argila pi. J^TijI ardgiP [syr.) water 
pipe, narghile 

ijAJjI irlandi Irish. 

*l»jl arama i to bite 

l»jl urram molar teeth | ^^jVl Jj*- 
(^rrft^a) to gnash one's teeth, (in anger) 

i*jjl aruma^ uruma root, origin; stump 
of a tree 

/l. rnVram root (of a tooth) 

^l»ljT amm (— >Tjl pi. of ^j rt'm) white 

j-jVl al-arman the Armenians 

^^ji arwiani Armenian (adj. and n.) 

LL-jI armeniyd Armenia 

irjUjV' al-arndwut the AJbaniana 
j_^jl]jl arndivuti Albanian 


k_Jjl arnab f., pi- ^0' f^^anib^ hare; rabbit | 
t^o::* L^jl (Atfufi) guinea pig 

4jj\ amaha female hare, doe | iJjl 
iJJ'^l a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, 
muzzle (of an animal) 

^j\ (Turk, omek) umik pi. iLi'jl ardnik^ 
pattern, model; form, blank 

Lijjl urubbd Europe 

ijjj\ urubbi European (adj. and n.) 
i^jjl ary honey 
*jjTdn Aryan 

4j jT driya Aryanism 

Ujl arihd Jericho 

jl azza u i (Jr jl azlz) to simmer; to hum, 
buzz; to whiz;, hiea; to fizzle; to wheeze 

yji azlz hum(ming), huzz(ing); whiz- 
zing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets) 

*^j1 azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water) 

1^1 J^4 mi'zdb pi, i_-j J L« ma^dzib^ and 
»_jI>-» mizab pi. u-jj'rr* maydztb^ drain; 
gutter, eaves trough 

'(_jjl izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man 

liJujVl al-uzbak the Uzbeks 

jjl azara i {azr) to surround (* II to 
clothe (ft s.o. with an jiji izdr q.v.}; 
to cover, wrap up (» a.o., *; to 
strengthen, brace (b s.o., a Ill to 
help ( » s.o. ) ; to support, back up, 
strengthen (» s.o.) V and VIII to put on 
an izdT {see below), wrap o.s. in an 
izdr VI to help each other; to rally, 
unite, join forces 

jjl air strength | »jj' -Li Sadda azrahu 
or ojjl ^ -Li (mirt azrihi) to help, support, 
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; Sadd^i az* 
nthu to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, 

jljl izdr m. and f., pi. jj\ uzur loin- 
cloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, 

jjU mi'zar pi. jjU Trui'dzir- apron; 
wrapper, covering, cover 

Sjjlj^ viu'dzara support, aid, assist- 
ance, backing 

jjU UCdziir mutual assistance 

i_jjl azija a {axaf, JjjJI uzuf) to come, ap- 
proach, draw near (a time) 

jjl azaqa i {azq) to be narrow V do. 

jju ma'siq pi. oj L* m^i'dziq^ narrow 
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle- 
neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical 
eituation^ also rj*^ jjU (A«nj) 

Jjl azal pi. JljT dzdl eternity (without 
beginning), sempiternity 

Jjl azali eternal, sempiternal 

iJjl azaliya sempiternity, eternity 

(.Jl V to be or become critical, come to a 
head (situation, relations) 

i*jl aznta pi. azamdt emergency; crisis | 
ijjljj <.jl {wizdriya) cabinet crisis 

^jl; ta'azzumi iJU-l plj /. al-hdla critical 
development, aggravation of the situation 

*jju ma'zuTii victim of a crisis 

^;*-jl izmir* Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea^ 
port in W Turkey) 

^L*jl izmil pi. Js-'j' azdmiP chisel 

C^jj\ (Engl.) azSl azote, nitrogen 

(Jjjl azdtl nitrogenous 

jji III to be opposite (*), face (o s.o., 

•I J I izd'a (prep.) opposite, face to face 
with, facing; in front of; in the face of 
(e.g., of a situation); as compared with; 
»ljli bi-izd'i opposite, face to face with. 

facing; in front of; .Ijl J» 'ali ua'i 
in the face of (e.g., of a situation) 

i^T as myrtle 

•^T pi. -o( ace (playing card) 

':\ II to found, establiah, set up (», 
lay the foundation (» for) V to be founded, 
bo eatablinhed, be set up 

^1 uM foundation, basis; exponent 
of a power {math.) 

^Ul aade pi. ^j— I ««« foundation 
(also, of a building), fundament, ground- 
work, ground, basis; keynote, tonic 
(mm.) I ^L.1 J. (with foU. genit.) on 
the basis of, on the strength of, on 
account of, according to; j. J ^x'-' ^ 
i,^\ {aaasa, fihiut) completely unfound- 
ed (news, rumor) 

^Ul Moai fundamental, basic; ele- 
mentary ; essential ; principal, chief, main | 

L-l _,* ihajar) cornerstone, foundation 

oL^L-l asasiy&t fundamentals, prin- 

^_rt-^ <<»'"« founding, foundation, estab- 
lishment, setting up, institution ; ground- 
ing, laying of the substructure {arch.); 
pi. -at facilities, utilities; institutions 

^.i-U la'siti founding; foundational, 
fundamental | ^j-t-t ^j^ (majlit) con- 
stituent assembly 

_^^ mu'a^sis founder 

i—..^ mu'assasa pi. -at foundation, 
establishment; firm (com.); institution; 

oL-^l al-oiban, al-iaban the Spaniards 

jL-l ubdni Spanish; (pi. -in) Spaniard 

f-\.^\ igbanak spinach 

LJL.-I isbdniyd Spain 

j-li_l itbidaj and r'-'rr'' "f>'<^i white lead, 

jjj^l (It. spirito) itbirto alcohol 

it- J -I ubaltia epaulet 

c— I see 'c— 

5^L-I Utdtiki static (eJ.) 

^l::^) (Fr. itajie) w(i!<i stadium 

i\::Ji it»ldd pi. SilUl atatiia master; teacher; 
professor (academic title); form of ad- 
dress to intellectuals (lawyers, journal- 
ists, officials, writers and poets); ledger 
(com.) I ^"Jl Jli-':JI (u'zam) Grand Mas- 
ter (of a lodge); jf^\ ili-VI title of 
the Rector of Al Aihar University; ill- 1 
^/ (iio-Ji; Eg.) and ^_f^, ili-l (Syr.) 
full professor; ^_^ :jI; ili-l (Syr.) asso- 
ciate professor; fji^ j^ Jl^' (mulafarrig; 
Eg.) part-time professor (holding an 
office outside the university) ; JeL^ 'i^\ 
(m-uii'id) assistant professor (Eg.; Syr.); 
J\j jL-l (Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; 
Jii-I J : i'Ul > (jadal) they are masters of 

Za}AzJ lulSdlya mastership; professor- 
ship, professorate 

^jj\z^\ UtanbiP Istanbul, Constantinople 
J^l::..! istatUlfUi of Istanbul 

lli-'Sl al-Ssildmi, u\::^'^\ al-aaldna, alialana 
Constantinople, Istanbul 

Jj^i.^\ iatabraq brocade 

j^Jlj^l istrOtiji strategic 

J Ij^l ualurSli Australian 

Ulj^l uiturSliyd Australia 

^jUI ularlini sterling j JJ^I v^ pound 
sterling; JJjl-VI ilk- minfaqat al-i. ster- 
ling area 

<j>^l (It. stoppa) tow, oakum; ootton waste 

jlij:^\ (li. -Engl, studio) witidiyOpLoU^j^l 
istudiyShdt studio; atelier 

(^.^♦O-'' i^tokholm Stockholm 

LJ>i-I (Engl.) istSniyd Estonia 

C-jJUL-I istiydtit steatite, soapatone {min.) 

j7_^l look up alphabetically 

a--l X to display the courage of a lion (J* 

A-^l asad pi. a-l usud, usd, j^l utud, 
iL-T d»dd lion; Loo (astron.) | ^Vl ^Ij 
leontiaslB (Tried.) 

ij-t oaara * (twr) to bind, fetter, shackle, 
chain (. s.o.); to capture, take prisoner 
(« B.C.) ; to captivate, fascinate, hold 
spellbound (. s.o.), absorb, arrest (a the 
attention) X to surrender, give o.s. up 
as prisoner 

y-l asr (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
ture; captivity | _^Vl S-U £iddai al-a, 
vigor, energy 

•_^l ujra pi. j-l uaar, -at family; dy- 
nasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; — asirra 
Bee J- j^ 

»j^\ bi-asriki entirely, completely, al- 
together, ^^\j lj»U all of them came, 
they came one and all 

jUl tsar (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
tivity; captivation, enthrallment | Jj 
«jL^' J to be subjected to, fall into 
the clutches of 

_^-l aair pi. •I_^! Tisard'^, ^_^1 asrd, 
^^jUl asard prisoner, captive, prisoner of 

lj^\ aaira pi. -di female prisoner, slave 

jJ\ aair winning, captivating, fasci- 
nating; captor 

j_j-.U ma'suT captivated, fascinated, en- 
thralled {u-» by) 


aairra se« j 

'•J^L" look up alphabetically 

J^'l^l iarSW Israel | JJl^l yj^ banu i. 
the Israelites; JJI_^I iSji daulat i. the 
State of Israel 

JJfj-l iara'ili laraeUtish; Israelite; 
Israeli (adj. and n.); oLLJl^l Judaic* 

Jjl_^l isrdlil' Israfil, the angel who will 
sound the trumpet on the Day of Res- 

Vv-' iwrui lead (metal) 

JjJlL^I infoTiial' Istanbul, Constantinople 

JJ.-I isfabl pi. -a( stable, bam 

»i«-l (It. iloppa) uafiibba tow, oakum 

vVjk-l aaiurldb astrolabe 

,^J»-I iataqit pi. -SI element 

iJl_^l usjuwatia pi. -at column (arch.); 
cylinder {math.; of an engine); phono- 
graph record; — pi. ^LUI aji/in" high- 
ranking, prominent personalities; stars, 
celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g., of 
art: ^yiJl |>1.UI a. al-jann) 

jl_jL-l uB^uwanl cylindric(al) 

SjjU-l iHjura pi. jJ.LI aaSfii^ legend, fable, 
tale, myth, saga 

<Sjj^^ uaiuri fabulous, mythical, leg- 

J_^l ustvl pi. j^UI cuafiP fleet; squadron 

D Ji-I usjd (coUoq. for ib-l) pi. ol^L-l 
ujfaimf master; foreman, overseer; also 
form of address to those in lower callings, 
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc. 

JiJ asifa a (asaf) to regret (J» or J, 
feel sorry ( J» for), be sad (J. about) V do. 



JtJ< asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret \ 
!,U-I Ij ua aaafihl oh, what a pity! 
it's too bad! Jt^-ii lij uw-y» W-oso/i 
(or only Jt^-H) unfortunately; Jt-'i^ ^ 
and JiJ JS^ 6i-iuHJ (MO^n do. 

^Ji_l ojt/ and oju-l mi/ regretful, sorry, 
sad, grieved, distressed 
^jjc taaamif regret 
^^T aeif regretful, sorry, sad | t^fj 
Ju-T jii (soira oji^n) I left him without 
regret,! was only too glad to leave him 
iis J)j-L ma'su/ 'alaihi mourned 
(esp. of a dead person, = the late la- 

Ji^y ma'iif distressing, sad, regret- 

JjJ^ mula'tuaif sad, sorry, regretful; 
t^i-t* sorry! 

j-liLL.! ufdndk and ^U-1 ts/dnafc spinach I 
jjj j-ULi-l (rumi) garden orach (Atri- 
plei hortensis, bol.) 

,: I '• . 1 (w/aU asphalt 

jJjUI m/oti), «/'»»7 sponge 

—u-l w/anjT spongy; porous 

jlxj-l isfindan maple (W.) 

r.lij-1 is/iid; white lead, ceruse 

,>_i-l iafm pi. u;iUI Ma/in* wedge 

LyJJi itqarbitU J'y.jJ^^ J'y (""""ud) 
scurvy (tned.) 

Jti-I iwj«/ pi. USUI Mogt/o, ^Ul ttsajt/' 
bishop I iiiU"i(l jJj archbishop 
li-1 U3qufi episcopal 
i_ii.( tuqutiya episcopate, bishopric 
j^ , '. J iHjumri, wgumri mackerel (zoo!.) 

Jj.-! iaqil an Oriental variety of sea onion 

j;5^l (Engl.) isketi sketch 

IaJ::SU.I wito(Ja«dd Scotland 

j i-l-C ^I Ukotlandi Scottish, Scotch 

yS^I Mitila pi. iXUl tuikW seaport, commer- 
cial center {in the East) 

UC-I iskamla stool, footstool 

;;j_jiSL.1 iskandaruna' Iskendcron (formerly 
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey) 

i,_,x5L-'JI al-islcandanya Alexandria (city in 
N Egypt) 

LiU;x5L.I iskandlndfiyS Scandinavia 
y,\ II to sharpen, point, taper (» 
J^l MoJ (coU.) rush {hot.) 
U-l ojoJo pi. -at thorn, spike, prong; 
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of 
the tongue 

V-NI ^jji-'' al-huruj al-asaliya the 
letters j, ^ and ^ 

J^l oaii smooth | J--I Ji^ (fcadd) emooth 

«JUI tudla eliptic, oval form 
Lj* mu^oMol pointed, tapered 

J_>^-iL.I (variant of J_>Jli-l) ialdmbuli of 

a-LJ "^Ll ialanda Iceland 
J see 'r- 

j^lr- 1 <umanj-!int sky-blue, azure, cerulean 
•jT"! ojmara Asmara (capital of Eritrea) 
c-ix^l asmarU, ismai)t cement 
Jlc-1 MmoTUJ cement (adj.) 

A-l Mana t u and asino o to become brackish 

j^T a«ft brackish 

(y,\ and (5-1) L-l mo « (oro, Ul tuan) to 
nurse, treat {» a wound); to make peace 
(j^, between, among); — j^l iwij/a (^\, 



Ul man) to be sad, grieved, diatresaed 
II to console, comfort (• s.o.); to ntirae 
(< a patient) III to share (one's wordly 
posBessions, . with s.o,), be charitable 
(• to B,o.)i to assist, support (.s.o.); to 
console, comfort (. s.o.); to treat, cure 
(», medically) V to be consoled, 
find solace VI to share the worldly 
possessions; to assist one another, give 
mutual assistance 

j^l <uan grief, sorrow, distress 

!j-l VMoa, iam example, model, pat- 
tern I ^ ijj. uiwatan bi following the 
model or pattern of, along the lines of; 
in the same manner as, just as, like 

JUL ma'sSh pi. |_^L ma'aain tragedy, 

V-t la'tiya consolation, comfort 

:U|^ mvwdsih (for mu'StOh) consola- 
tion; charity, beneficence 

jlj-l incvr, utwar pi. jjUl osdiotr*, JjjUl 
Mawira bracelet, bangle 

jlj^l aswati' Aswan (city in 8 Egypt) 

r>-i aaUj Sweden 

yrj-"^ o*"/! Swedish 

^j.! see jm\ 

L-T iiiya Asia | ^^a-JI L-T (fugrS) Asia 

ifj—T atiyatn Asiatic, Asian (adj. and 

ij-l tuyiif Asyttt (city in central Egypt) 

i—il V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley 
(a crowd) 

VJ.\ uiSba pi. ^.JLil o*I't6» mixed, 
motley crowd 

\Lfi\ ilbSliya' Seville (city in SW Spain) 

jwl iibln pi. jijUl see ,>J 

,i\ ofara u (afr) to saw (,; — i to 
file, sharpen with a file (, U to 
mark, indicate, state, enter, record (*; to grant a visa; to provide with 
a visa (J» 

yii aiat liveliness, high spirits, em- 
berance; wildnese; insolence, imperti- 

^1 oKt lively, sprightly, in high spirito, 
exuberant; wUd; insolent, impertinent, 

jlil. mi'iar pi. jj.\^ mawdStr* saw 

j;^t la'Str issuance of an official 
endorsement; official endorsement; visa 

!jr>itj" la'Mra pi. -at visa | jj_,^ jjjt 
(. murur or jU^I ijj.h transit visa ' 

^> mu'aiiir indicator, needle (of a 
measuring instrument) 

^> nu'aSSar jagged, serrated; mark- 
ed, designated (>j by, with) 

^\ iild pi. JiLil aiafin awl, punch 

jliil uindn potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; 

41.^1 uSna moss 

jji\ aMr Assyria 

iSjji\ oJfflrj Assyrian (adj. and n.) 

tr*?^! <VM pi. 4j*^l u#iv flowerpot 

-U.I II to close, shut (a door, etc.) 

j~'i ifr pi. jU„T Sfar covenant, compact, 
contract; load, encumbrance, burden;sin; 
pi. jl^T bonds, ties 

'.r'T Sfira pi. _^\ji atoSfit' bond, tie 
(fig., e.g., .Vjll ^Ijl o. aJ-woW bonds 
of friendship); obligation, commitment 

JJfc»l »rfo4J pi. .^U Bteble, bam 

JL»i^l iftahan' Isfahan (city in W central 



firmly rooted; to be firmly established; 
to be of noble origin H to found (., 
give (.) a firm foundation, eatablish 
the foundation or origin of (») V to be 
or become finnly rooted, deep-rooted, 
ingrained; to take root, be or become 
firmly establiflhed; to derive one's origin 
(^ from) X to uproot, root out, extir- 
pate, exterminate, annihilate (» 
to remove (» an organ by a aurgioal 
operation) | ^U >L,1 Li-'l"^^) ^ 
eradicate, eliminate radioaUy 

J^l ofl pi. Jj--! "(rili root; trunk (of 
a tree); origin, source; cause, reason; 
descent, lineage, stock {eap., one of a 
noble character) ; foundation, fundament, 
basis; the original (e.g.. of a book); — 
pi. ,ij^\ ut^ principles, fundamentals, 
rudiments, elements (e.g.. of a science); 
rules; basic rules, principles, axioms; 
real estate, landed property; assets (/».): 
_ tiL.1 ojiJon originaUy, primarily; 
(with neg.) by no means, not at all, not 
in the least | >V1 j originaUy. at first; 
«iJI J_^l «. <U-fiqh the 4 foundations 
of Islamic jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, 
Sunna, «iydJ (analogy) and ijma' (con- 
sensus); .jr^j J^l »»«*« ""i "*™- 
ties; UpU- J^I (m«<MV<') double- 
entry bookkeeping; J^'bll o_-(»««*'') 
properly, in conformity with regulations 

^1 afll original, primary, primal, 
initial: genuine, authentic, pure; basic, 
fundamental, principal, chief, main | ^1 
^Vl (.taman) cost price; U-''^' '^WA-' 
(jihat) the cardinal points (of the com- 
pass); j>^l i-i» C*^) cardinal number; 
L»l jjit ('«4<") regular member 

J.j_,l u^B in accordance with the 
rules, conforming to prevailing prin- 
ciples; traditional, usual; legist 

J^l ofU pi. .^A-l ttOaW' of P""*' 
nobio origin; original, authentic, genuine; 

pure; proper, actual; firm, solid; sound, 
reasonable, sensible; of strong, unswerv- 
ing character-, steadfast; deep-rooted; 
native, indigenous | Jr^-VI J-^l the 
Mtual reason; Jj^ ^^ "f ^'""'d. 
unerring judgment , 

J_,l ofit pi. JUT ifH, j;Ul a^iP 
time before sunset, late afternoon 

;JUl ofSla firmness, steadfastness, 
strength of character; nobility of descent, 
purity of origin; a^Slakm immediately, 
directly, personaUy | Jj\ ilUl a. ar-ra'y 
clarity and firmness of judgment; ju- 
diciousness ■,<-iicfi-JL.^l. spontaneously, 
of one's own accord, in one's own name, 
personaUy, privately (as opposed to 

.^ ^ iUl); '^i^j ^"^' «»«'"'«'» •"■ 

niyabalan directly and indirectly 
;l_,t: ta'fOa pedigree, genealogy 
J^L' ta'offul deep-rootedness 
JUa-l ieti'tal extirpation, extermina- 
tion, (radical) elimination; removal by 

J^lu muta'atfa deep-rooted, deep- 
seated; chronic (illness) 
J^l afSf the moaning bray of a camel 
>>l afara i M (af) and H bo bend, curve 

jU,l t(«r pi- -«. >' '^"'' f"'""" '''"°' 
of eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop 
(of a barrel, etc.) 

-.jltl ^dra rim, felly (of a wheel) 
jjU.1 itari framelike, hoop-shaped 

i^Jf\ see jijJ* 

yi>l ufruguBa a variety of pigeon 

OjjUl ofrfin = Ojjlu 

.Si^-:H^\, jiai-VI ol-oftoniii, oJ-a<!on*t3 the 

JUi^l a(i<in<i?i end jU:>a.l <x<Unft At- 

^1 ath^ satinj (pi, ^Itl aiali^) atlas, 
volume of geograpMcal maps 
cj-ll»l affewf Atlantio 

j 0:^1 ilaanlin, ifeintin wormwood, ab- 
sinthe (Artemisia absinthium; bot.) 

the Atlantic Pact 
|-jH afim sea turtle 

lil Offo, liTd^S pi. ol>l o^a:^ ttga, jo^d, 

master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain 

JoiVI of-vrfy, «,UVI oi-ojariga the Greeks 

Ji>l vriys Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.) 

ltJ'-'I agiutua August (month) 

cJI V to gramble, mutter in complaint (a- 

|-il «# dirt (in the ears or under the 
nails), earwai, cerumen 

jl uff interj. eipreseing anger or dis- 


I afaf displeasure; grumbling, grum- 

^t ta'affuf displeasure; grumbling, 

^>V( al-i/mn,- the Franks, the Europeans | 
^jiVI i-Ju Europe 

Jf-ji^ ifranji European 

^ji\ Urana French; w>VI the French 
language; Jj_JyVI the French 

>yi ifHz pi. >jUI a/Srfe! frieze; edge; curb- 
sidewalk I a^l ;,j\ i, al-mahatta plat- 
form (of a railroad station); Ju'U. I _> il 
molding (arch.) 

^.>l «/n-?o f. and U^l i/rtyiyfi, now uauaUy 
pronounced afriqiya t. Africa | LiyI 
iJIciJI (Samaliya) North Africa 

Jijil t/rtyf, now usually pronounced 
a/risi- African; (pi. -i„, y^ljl „/5„,pj ^„ 

C/_jiT d/irm bravo! well done! 

J;-iil </fm pi. ^Jljl o/oi.-n" litany (Chr.) 
oUiVI ai.a/^„-„ the Afghans; Afghanistan 
JU_;Uil ajgdnialan Afghanistan 
JUil o/^onj Afghan (adj. and n.) 

Jil «/3, «/«? pl. jUT a/ay horizon; range 
of vision, field of vision; pl. distant 
lands, faraway countries, remote regions- 
provinces, interior of the country (as 
distinguished from the capital) | JljT 
i>jVI o. al-ari the remotest parts of the 
earth; J5UI JUT a. al-biUd the outlying 
portions of the country; JU^I ilit iud. 
did al-d. foreigners, travelers 
J>l m/jS horizontal 

j'ljT afaji coming from a distant 
country or region 

Jlil affdg wandering, roving, roaming; 
tramp, vagabond 

.Oil afaka i (afk) and ajiJca a {ifi, afk, afah, 
4yl «/fiA) tolie, teU a lie 

^iil ilk and -^l ajika pl. iUlil a/d'ii" 
lie, untruth, falsehood 

iJlil a^rU liar, lying 
Jil «/oto « ,■ (Jyl u/fiZ) to go down, set (stars) 

Jjil a/-ia setting (of stajs) 

J»l afil transitory, passing 

0>54il aftStun' Plato 

J^il o/an stupidity 

0;«l a/fn and oyL ma'jUn stupid, 
foolish, fatuous; fool 

j^l a/andi pl. -fya gentleman (when refer- 
ring to non-Europeans wearing Western 
clothes and the tarboosh); (after the 
name) a title of respect {eg.); [.kS\ afan- 
dim/ Sir! (eg.) afandim? (I beg your) 
pardon? What did you say? 



JB-JI (It. nwoeato) owjiaM advocate, lawyer, 
attorney | J'^l j^S^-^' representative of 
the attorney general (= Fr. ^vocat 

o>l afyUn opium | o^-^l c^J '^ "'-"• 

SI U530 pi. -"( oka, a weight, in Eg. = 

1.248 kg, in Syr. = 1-282 kg 

cJj- see C^j 

ol>l uqhuvan pi. ^lil o?^*!/ "^^^y 
■^iUjSl aqrabSdin composite medicament | ^ 
' ^iljJ'JI '«m a!-"- pharmaceutics, phar- 

J^jlJ\ aqrabadini pharmacBUtic{al) 

JJI aqit cottage cheese 
o^jl iqlid look up alphabetically 
Jl aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt, 
adjust II taaqUma to acclimatise (o.9.> 

j;( ijis™ pi. p)lil aqdllm" cUmate; area, 
region; province, district ; administrative 
district [Eg.; = ^i^.-^): f^^"^^ '=<'™*'-y' 
provinces (as distinguished from the 


^1 iqtimi cUmatic; regional, local; 
territorial | i^^i^ '^^ CmiyS*) t^™" 
torial waters 

Aiji igiid pi. -iJlil aqalld^ key 

i_l:l igBiM- Euclid 
.^1 ugniim pi. |^U' '^S»™' hypostasis 
divine person within the Trinity (Chr.) 
constitutive element 
Z_^\ (Gr. eUm) iquna icon (CAr.) 
U^jJLjI uqyiniLsiya Oceania 
jjlfl aJtiodi Akkadian 
l_! jfl alcadlmtya academy 
_,_^l oZrfottr October 

jTI II to assure {m J s-o. of, Ol that); to give 
assurance (» J to s.o. of); to confirm 
(., B view) V to be or become, 
convinced, convince o.s. (^ of,); to 
reaesure o.s., make sure (^ of; to 
be sure (>yof); to be urgent, imperative, 

xTL- ta'kld pi. -at assurance; confirma- 
tion; emphasis; -i/Ul^ most certainly! 
of course 1 

uTl- ta'aklcud assurance, reassurance 
jS\ am certain, sure; firm (resolve); 
definite (desire); urgent, imperative 
(need); \jS\ ahldan certainly! surely! 
oSj, mn-akhad certain, definite, sure; 
I confirmed 

j ^L. muta'akkid convinced {j. of) 

! 1/1 akara i (oJfcr) to plow, till, cultivate (> 
the land) 
jri akkir pi. -Tm. s/l '^kura plowman 

;/l «tm pi- /I "te-- b^U (fo' Pl^S^S' 
UjTI e/tsemo eczema {med.) 
S\ iwil iwi"a« •*« X-rays 
IjlL-TI extra 
j^;^l otsiien oxygen 

j_r I atsttdo to oxidize, cause to rust II to'oiv 
aoAa. to oadize, rust, become rusty 

jL_ri uijid pi. VS"' ofc*'''*' """i^ 
jjji^l Oxford 
Ij.,^ \ oksiien oxygen 

_^_ri ikalr elixir 

J^ I oituff see ^jT 

y\akalau {akl, /i- >M"J:»f) to eat (. ; 
to eat up, consume, swallow, devour, 
destroy (*; to eat, gnaw (» at). 



eat away, corrode, erode {t; to 
spend unlawfully (m, enrich o.a.. 
feather one's nest (* with) | j,j]\ J^ Jfj 
V^j (dahru, Sariba.) to be old and worn 
out, be timewom; L^l jTl (riha) to take 
usurious interest; JcS3l JJ>- ^1 ^ Lj 
ya'lamu min aina tu'kalu l.katif he' 
knows how to tackle the matter properly; 
.jU- .JTI ijilduhu) his skin itched; j jTl 
J^ [fohn] to eat off a plate; *i> JTl 
(hagqahu) to encroach upon s.o.'s rights 
11 and IV to give s.o. (.) (,) to eat. 
feed (» . 8.0. Ill to eat, dine (. with 
S.O.) V to be devoured, be consumed; to 
be eaten away, corrode, undergo oor- 
rosion; to become old, worn, timewom, 
full of cracks; to be destroyed by cor- 
rosion VI = V 

i?l oW food; meal, repast; fodder 
feed I JfVI «> gur/at al-a. dining room; 
(eg.) j^\ jri a. al-bahr land washed 
away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed 
to ^1 j.^) ^*^ 

JS"! ukd, ulsl food; fruit | <lS'i JT to 
bear fruit 

iJS'l atla pi. ataldt meal, repast; — 
ukla bite, morsel 

OJiri ulcdl prurigo, itch eruption 
(med,) J 

Jr I akkal, JJ-I am. JjT I am vora- 
cious, gluttonous; hearty eater, gour- 
mand, glutton 

JTL ma'kal pi. JTL ma'dtiP food, 

JS't ta-oife,Z wear; corrosion; erosion 

iXL- ta'dhil wear; corrosion; erosion 

JKo'l i'iikal erosion (geol.) 

JfTdkil eater 

iS'Tdkila gangrenous sore 

JjS'L ma' km eatable, edible; pi. c VjTl. 

food, foodstuffs, eatables, edibles 
J» l> mit'akil table companion 
JfL muto'aiM and JTIL muta-flitf 

corroded; eroded; worn, timewom; full 

of cracks; rusty, rust-eaten 

ij-Jj;-o I iWCrilj clergy (CTr.) 

VjjJfl •Wirilsijm clerioaliam 
jjjJS"! lifiritf cleric{ai) 
;fe^' •iSnJif clinical 

a-l akama pi. -a. ^n .'tern, fi ukum. 
r' ' «*«m (coll. f\ akam) hill; reef- 
heap, pUe [ U,l,j I, -^vl .\,j (^rffa) 
something's fishy! there is more to it 
than meets the eye 

Jl m pact, oOFenant; blood relationship, 

'1/1 a-ld and 1,1 «-md see I a 

'VI aio see 'jjl 

order that ... not, so as not to 

'VI m (= V ul fnid) unless, if not; except, 
save; (after negation;) only, but, not 
until I jl VI i«a anna except that ..„ 
yet, however, nerertheless (also intro- 
ducing main clauses); lil VI Ula ijd 
unless, if not; except when; Vlj wa-im 
(and if not =) otherwise, or else; jj,j VI 
ilia wa-huwa (with a preceding negation) 
unless he ..., except that he ...; ^ Lj 
ul VI uxi-md hiya ilia an (with following 
verb in perf) it was not long until ...; 
presently, forthwith: J- ■■■ d\ •^\ j,l,j 
«a-mo- hiya iM an ... haUd no sooner 
had he ... than ..., e.g., ^ jl VI ^ U 
J«» J^ (hamma) he had no sooner made 
hia plan than he carried it out 

5^VI aiojM Alaska 

ijVI aldy and ^jVTdtej, pi. .at regiment 



^cJl alaba u i {alb) to gather, join forces, 
rally II to incite (Jp » s.o. against) V to 
rally, band together, plot, conspire (J* 

^^Vi JlrT P^^^ al-aib the Alps 

jUVl al-albdn the Albanians 
LjUI albdniyd Albania 

f\ abbreviation of *^T J[ ild dkirihi and 
BO on, etc. 

^JJl alladl, f. Jjl allati, pi. m. j^JJl alladina 
f. J^l alidtif ij\j\i\ allawailf J^I aiia'i 
(relative pronoun) he who, that which; 
who, which, that [ Jllj UdJl j^ ta'cb 
l-lutayyd wa-llati after lengthy dis- 
cussions, after much ado 

^l_^! {Fr. Alsace) alzda^ Alsace (region of 
NE France) 

^1 II to belittle, disparage (J* s.o.) 

^iJaJl alf pi. J»_jJi uluf, Js^J dldf thousand; 
millennium [ liJjj JjJ\ {mu'aUaja) or 
i^^ J*"^' thousands and thousands; 
OjJ Vl ol^^ 'a^ardt al-u. tens of thou- 
sands; Jj^Vl oLl. mi'ai af-u. hundreds 
of thousands 

JJI a^/t: JJI A^ {'id) millennial cele- 
bration, millenary 

^iJj! alif name of the letter i | 4Jlj J[ uJl j* 
from beginning to end, from A to Z; 

ofLj <Jii\ i^jM {wa-yd'ahu) he knows it 
from A to Z; .L ^1 ABC 

^^1 alifa a (alf) to be acquainted, familiar, 
conversant (a with; to be on 
intimate terms (a with s.o.); to he or get 
accustomed, used, habituated {a to); to 
like (a, be fond of (a); to become 
tame II to accustom, habituate (a » 3.0, 
to; to tame, domesticate (* an 
animal); to form (a e.g., a committee, 
a government); to unite, join, combine, 
put together (^>j different things); to 

compile, compose, write (a a book) V to 
be composed, be made up, consist (j* 
of); to be united, be combined VI to be 
attuned to each other, be in tune, be 
in harmony; to harmonize (•- with) 
VIII to be united, be linked, be connected ; 
to be on familiar, intimate terms (i^ 
with); to form a coalition {pol.); to fit, 
suit (--, go well, agree, harmonize 
C*. with); to be well-ordered, neat, tidy 
X to seek the intimacy, court the friend- 
ship (a of 8.0.) 

i_JiJI ilf pi. o^yl ulldf intimate; close 
friend, intimate, confidant; lover 

ijiJ! ulfa familiarity, intimacy; friend- 
ship, love, aff'ection; union, concord, 
harmony, congeniality 

tJiJl alif familiar, intimate; tame, do- 
mesticated (animal); friendly, amicable, 
genial; {pi. uJu"^! ald'if^) intimate, close 
friend, associate, companion 

o_jJI aluf familiar, intimate; tame, 
domesticated (animal) ; attached, devoted, 

i_jJU md'laf object of familiarity 

>JtJ\j ialij formation (e.g., of a govern- 
ment); union, junction, combination (^>j 
of separate things); literary work; com- 
position, compilation, writing (of a book, 
of an article); {pi. ,^Ij tadllf^, i_JJl^) 
work, book, publication 

i_jiJlj ta*dluf harmony; familiarity, 
intimacy, mutual affection ; comradeship, 

o'^'l i'tildf concord, harmony; agree- 
ment (^ with); union; coalition, entente 


j"^M i'tildf I coalition- (in com- 
pounds) I Li'^l::!! »j'jj coalition cabinet 

OjJU ma'luf familiar, accustomed; 
usual, customary; custom, usage 



J t. fnu'dUif pi. -Hn author, writer; — 
mu'allal composed, ooneisting, made up 
(^ of)i written, compiled; (pi, -at) book, 
publication; see also ^^1 oj/ 

jIL muta'alil harmonious 

jil alaqa i {aJq) to shine, radiate, flash, 
glitter, glisten V and VIII do. 
jll olo^ brightness, brilliance 

liVI aiJa? bright, shining, brilliant, ra- 
diant; guttering, flashing, sparkling 

jjlj ta'aUitq glow, radiance, effulgence 

jJL muta'alliq bright, shining, bril 
Uant, radiant 

jjJXil eUHrBni electronic | jjjSI Jie {'ajl) 
electronic computer 

'11 alima a (alam) to be in pain, feel pain; 
to suffer (lj from II and IV to 
cause pain or suffering (a to s.o.), pain, 
ache, hurt (> s.o.) V = I; to complain 

Jl aUtm pi. i-VT dldm pain, ache, 
suffering, agony | iJL-iJ ^"i/T {nafadniya) 
mental agony; ^V'Sl J^j^-' "**"' <^-°- 
Passion Week {Chr.) 

Jl oJttn aching, sore; sad, grievous, 
painful, excruciating ; hurting 

Jb kt'altum sensation of pain, pain, 

(Ij. mn'lim aching, painful; sad, griev- 
ous, distressing 

ik. muta'aUim aching, painful; in 
pain, suffering, deeply afflicted ; tormented 

•(.VI ild-ma see Jl 

^U.1 almas [al sometimes interpreted as 
deflnite article) diamond 

iliU^I al-alman the Germans 

jtLI alvtdnf German; (pi. -«n, dU.1 aU 
mdn) a German 

LJlil aivmniyd Germany 

«JlLI almaniya German character or 
characteristioa, Germanity 

«ll II to deify (• s.o.), make a god of s.o. (•) 
V to become a deity, a godhead; to deify 

<ll, aVI ildh pi. UT aliha god, deity, 

4 VI ilaha pi. -at goddess 

^1, |j»Vl ildhi divine, of God; theo- 
logical; lIjLiVVI at-iUihiySt theological, 
spiritual concerns | oL»VVI ]*■ 'iljn aUi. 

i\ allak Allah, God (as the One and 
Only) I ^j3 ^ li-Udhi darruka exclamation 
of admiration and praise, see jj 

^1 aUShumma God! | VI ^1 (iV&) 
unless, were it not that, except that, or 
at best (after a negative statement); 
til jU) (ida) at least if or when; if only; 
jj jUI (na'am) by God, yes! most 

ijk_jll idiihiya divine power, divinity 

i^b la'lth deification, apotheosis 

«|T Slih (pagan) god 

UT Siha pi. -at goddess 

^T dlihi divine 

jTi. nuta'allih divine, heavenly 

Oyt'jUl etc., see o_y>V 

1(^1) VI o!d « to neglect or fail to do, not to 
do (j, desist, refrain (j from I j \J^ jJl V (jahdan) he will go 
to any length, he spares no effort, goes 
out of his way for IT to swear | J» JT 
ul ' *■ he promised himself that he . . . 

r^l Ud' oath 
yT (Ft. hallo) heUo! 
U._^l oJiminyd and |«j^j)l alUminyom alu. 



*JI ild (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far aa; 
till, untU; jl Jl (conj.) until | »j^T Jl 
(dkirihi) and bo forth, et cetera; ijlj Jl 
beaidea, moreover, furthermore, in ad- 
dition to that; Ji Jl till tomorrow! 
#l-iJLll Jl {liqd') good-by! pVi ildma 
(— U Jl) up to where? how far? ^^ Jl 
till when? how long? ^^ aLII {'anni) 
get away from me ! away with you ! 
dili w-^U Jl (jdnibid.) beaidea, moreover, 
in addition to that; jl Jl L-U moreover, 
furthermore; JJlJ j^ Jl {gairid') ^nd the 
like; <Jl l>j and the like, et cetera; 
(^1) <Jl ^j (wa-man) and other people 
like that; diJl (addressing the reader) 
now here you have ...; here is (are) ...; 
following is (are) ..., e.g., U ^jUJl Jlj 
in the following, the reader will find 
what...; *Jj*)l Jl Jl.;** V-A-'^ {uslub 
'ibrdni) a Btyle of Hebrew approximating 
Arabic; iilj Jl Vj 1-i* Jl V neither this 
way nor that way, belonging to neither 
group; tlLII _y'i\ it*8 up to you, the 
decifiion is yours 

■►*^T did* (pi. of Jl ilan) benefits, bless- 

'4JI alya, ilya pi. alaydt fat tail (of a sheep) ; 

:jlJl iliyd4a Iliad 

>j.l am or? (introducing the second member 
of an alternative question) 

'iol ama pi. tU! tma', Cj\j*\ amaivdt bond- 
maid, slave girl 

*^i amma u {amm) to go, betake o.s., repair 
(> to a place), go to see (• a.o.}; — (1<UI 
imdma) to lead the way, lead by one's 
example (• s.o.); to lead (» a.o.) in prayer; 
— (i-j-l umuma) to be or become a 
mother II to nationalize (* V to 
go, betake o.s., repair (* to a place), go 
to see (• a.o<) VIII to follow the example 
(k^ of a.o.) 

^1 umm pi. oL^^I ummahcU mother; 
source, origin; basis, foundation; original, 
original version (of a book); the gist, 
essence of ; pi. oL^^I matrix 
iiyp*) 1 ^' A u. al-hihr cuttlefish, squid; 
j~X\ A u. al-kasan {magr.) nightingale; 
J^^l ^1 u. al-kulul river mussel {tool.); 
jL-jj a\ u. durmdn Omdurman (city in 
central Sudan, opposite Khartoum); a\ 
ij-l^l u. ar-ra's skull, brain; cerebral 
membrane, meninges; i>^jlj ^jl A u. 
arba' uw-drta'in centipede; U?' A «. 
Samla[ta) this world, the worldly pleas- 
ures; ^Jl ^Lj bi-u. ^l-'ain or *:-* A* with 
one's own eyes; oT_^l ^1 and o^IjS^I *-! the 
first aura of the Koran; (j^^l ^1 u. al-qurd 
Mecca; i-jL:^! A also: the original text 
of the Book from which Koranic revela- 
tion derives; the uncontested portions 
of the Koran; ^j^ A u. al-wa}an capital, 
metropolia; w.>i^l iJl^l^l the most im- 
portant events ; u>j_^l i^L^*! matrix ((y^.); 
JjLJ.1 olf^l the main problems; i^l^l 
JjLoiJl the principal virtues 

^i umma pi. ^\ umam nation, people; 
generation | x^^ l^\ Mohammed's com- 
munity, the Mohammedans; \x>^\ /^\ 
{■m.uitahid<i) the United Nations 

cfl ummi maternal, motherly; illiterate 
uneducated; (pi. -un) an illiterate 

l^S ummiya ignorance; illiteracy; see 
also under 'ijy\ 

^\ umami international 

'a*jA umuma motherhood ; motherli - 
nesa, maternity 

^L.1 amdma (prep.) in front of; in the 
presence of | a\^'^\ Jl {amdmi) to the 
front, forward, onward, ahead; jS^ i 
ji V^ *AA {iUd an) he had no other 
alternative but to ...; ^U) ,_iij (waqafa) 
to oppose, resist, stop, check 

t/UI amdmi front, fore-, anterior, for- 
ward, foremoet ] a^UI aLu (nu^) outpost 


^Ul imam pL *£ I a'imma imB.m, 
prayer leader; leader; master; plumb 

oUt imdma imamah, function or office 
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading 
position; precedence 

^u iamim pi. -dt nationalization 

'Ul a-m.d &ee I a 

'Ul ammd (with foil. Ji fa) as to, as for, as 
fa* as ... is concerned; but; yet, how- 
ever, on the other hand | Am UI (ba'du) 
(a formular phrase Unking introduction 
and actual subject of a book or letter, 
approz. :) now then . . ., now to our 
topic: ... 

'L»l immd if; L.lj — L.I be it — or^ either — 
or {alao j\ — Ul) 

jj^\jut\ imboTdtur emperor 

iSj^^j^'^ »mfrara(un imperiaUat(ic) 
ij^jUl^^l imbardturiya empire, im- 
perium ; imperialism 

J^^\ ajnbir pi. ^L*l amdbir* ampere {el.) 

^J--*l imbiq = J-Ajl 

C—l amt crookedness, curvedness, curvation, 
curvature; weakness 

-ul UTnad pi, jUT amdd end, terminus, 
extremity; period, stretch or span of 
time* time; distance f j»mj a*\ Ii« for a 
long time (past); A.V' j^ short-dated; 
of short duration, short-lived; short- 

j*\ amafxt u (amr) to order, command, bid, 
instruct (• s.o. t_j to do, commission, 
charge, entrust (• s.o. l_> with or to 
do; — amara, amura %■ (»jL.t 
imdra) to become an emir II to invest 
with authority, make an emir (• s.o., 
J* over) III to ask s.o.'s (#) advice, 
consult (» s.o.) V to come to power; to 

set o.a. up as lord and master; to behave 
like an emir; to assume an imperious 
attitude; to be imperious, domineering 
VI to take counsel, deliberate together, 
confer, consult with each other; to plot, 
conspire ( j* against) VIH to deliberate, 
take counsel (i_> about); to conspire, plot, 
hatch a plot (l-» against s.o.) | tjjj j^\ 
to carry out s.o.'s orders 

j-l amr 1, p]. j^\j\ awdmir^ order, 
command, instruction (l^ to do; 
ordinance, decree ; power, authority ; 
(gram.) imperative | JL* ^1 {'dlin) royal 
decree (formerly, Eg.); J» ^1 {'ally) 
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly. 
Tun.); Lijjii ^I ordinance having the 
force of law {Tun.); ^^l^ ^Vl {loan- 
nahy) pi. ^\^\j j^j^\ (lit: command 
and interdiction, i.e.) sovereign power; 
full power(8), supreme authority; -U j^: _^1 
(delivery) order {com.)-, £j_^l ^ at your 
disposal, at your service, — 2, pi. j_^l 
umur matter, affair, concern, business | 
ajIj j»\ (accomplished) fact; <Jijj*j ^\ 
common knowledge; j^Vl Jjl j at first, 
in the beginning; L ^^V {amrin) for 
some reason or other; dJijS" ^Vl ,j-Jl 
i8n*t it BO? dll-ir ^Vlj L.I (ammd wa-l- 
amru) things being as they are, there wiU, 
no doubt^ ...; j-1 ^ j^ ^ {min anrin) 
whatever may happen; however things 
may be; ^_r»l j>j _>* he has two pos- 
sibilities {or alternatives); l^aJ! _^'^\ which 
(introducing a relative clause the ante- 
cedent of which is another clause); ^^ 
t_^\ qudiya amruku it's all over with him; 
in the latter and similar phrases, »^\ is a 
frequent paraphrase of "he" 

j^\ immar simple-minded, stupid 

S^l imra power, influence, authority, 
command | «J^I c~^ under his command 

SjL.1 amdra pi. -diy JU amd'ir^ sign, 
token, indication, symptom, mark, char- 


«jUI imdra position or rank of an 
emir; princely bearing or mumera; prin- 
cipality, emirate; authority, power | SjUl 
^^1 ». al-bahr ofBoe or juriadiotion of an 
admiral, admiralty; jL^ J*-^ oljUl (». 
s, *umdn) Truoial Oman 

j^^\ am^r pi. »l^l umard** commander; 
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling 
house; tribal chief | l^'VI j^\ (<z^y) com- 
mander of a regiment (formerly. Eg.; 
approz. : colonel ; aa a naval rank, 
approz.: captain); ►l^'^l j-^\ approx.: 
major general {Tun.); jl»Jl j^\ {Eg. 
1039] approz.: admiral, jUJi -l^! j^ 
{Eg. 1930) approz.: fleet admiral; j^\ 
jt^\ a. al-bahr admiral (when referring to 
a non-Arab officer of this rank; Eg. 1939 
approz.: vice-admiral); jS'^l jihjl j^\ 
or J^VI jl^i j^\ fleet admiral (when 
referring to a non-Arab officer of this 
rank); •Ijill jwl a. cU-Uto^ (/r., since 
1933) brigadier; <^\ »\ji jul a. I. al- 
'asaa commandant of the Bey*s palace 
guard (formerly. Tun.); i>:-*Jli j^\ a. al~ 
mu'minin Commander of the Faithful, 

ij^\ amira pi. -at princess 

ijj^\ amxri (and D ^^J^* mirt) gov- 
emment(al), state-owned, state, public | 
jj^-l ij^jl (awl) government land (iSyr.); 
4jij^Vl ^Jaii government press 

jUI ammdr constantly urging » always 
demanding (i^ to do; inciting, in- 
stigating I *^\j SjU"^! ^^^>i:}\ {nafa, eu') 
the baser self (of man) that incites to evil 

jj^t ta*mur soul, mind, spirit; peri- 
cardium {anat.) | jj-tJl lyLpI pericar- 
ditis {med.) 

:^lj- mu'dmara pi, -at deliberation, 
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy 

jAj ia'ammur imperiousness, domi- 
neeringness ; imperious depori^ment, over- 
bearing manners 

^T; ta'dmur joint consultation, counael, 
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy 

jUij'i »*/t7n^r deliberation, counsel, con- 
ference; plot, conspiracy 

JjLlL-l igtVTndra (frequently written 
•jLj^I) form, blank 

jj amir commander; lord, master; 
orderer, purchaser, customer, client | 
^Ut ^"^1 absolute master, vested with 
unlimited authority 

j^L ma'mur commissioned, charged; 
commissioner; civil offloer, o£Gcial, esp., 
one in executive capacity; the head of 
a marhaz and qtam {Eg,) | ,,^^1 jj^t* 
commissioner of police; ^-j^Udil jj^t* 
{tafiisa) receiver (in bankruptcy; ;ur.); 
'Sjk\ jj^U m, al-haraka traffic manager 
(railroad); Li^l jj^L m. at-ta^ya re- 
ceiver {in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.) 

Ajj^L mcCmurlya pi. -ai order, in- 
struction; errand; task, assignment, mis- 
sion; commission; commissioner's office, 
administrative branch of a government 
agency, e.g., ^JlUi ^jj^l* {qa^^'lya) 
judicial commission charged with juris- 
diction in outlying communities {Eg.) 

bjj^ muia*dmirun conspirators, plot- 

cjjxJm mu'tamirun conspirators, plot- 
ters; members of a congress, convention, 
or conference, conferees 

jjj- mu'tamar pi. -of conference; con- 
vention, congress | *J.^I ^J^ m. of- 
^k peace conference 

i}jj II ta'amraka to become Americanized, 
adopt the American way of life, imitate 
the Americans 

£j^b ia'amruk Americanization 

^j-ijM^ aTJiarillia amaiyllis (bot.) 

IS^^i amrika (formerly, also llj^l) America] 
oj^-l l^j^l {janvbiya) South America 



Ju^l amriki American; (pi. -u») an 


ul^^*^ I al-amrikdn the Americans 
Jl^^i amfikani American; (pi. -un) 

an American 

,^1 amsu (but ace. l«*l amsan) the day 
past, yesterday; the immediate past, 
recent time; — amsi (adv.) yesterday; 
recently, lately, not long ago ] ^;— VIj 
bi-l-aTnai yesterday; not long ago; ,^^1 
Jj*^! amsi l-avnval two days ago, the 
day before yesterday 

4«N«I umeiya pi. -atf ^Ul amasiy eve- 

l»bJL.>l am^irdSm Amaterdam 

j-±^\ amS%T the sixth month of the Coptic 

A«l tfnma' and 4mI imma'a characterless 
person; opportunist, timeserver 

J*1 amakt u [a-nMl) to hope (a or w for), 
entertain hopes (« or i.^ of) II to hope; 
to expect (^ A of s.o.); to raise 
hopes (• in s.o.)* hold out hopes {» for 
B.o.)» give (• s.o.) reason to hope or 
expect I Iju^ dill {kairan) to let s.o. hope 
for the beat V to look attentively (a, j 
at), regard, contemplate (*, j; 
to meditate; to consider^ think over, 
ponder (*, j, reflect {a, j on) 

J>l amal pi. JUT dToSl hope, expec- 
tation (J of, also ^) I wJlT J*l 
fallacious hope 

J«U ma^Titcd pi. J^L 'ma*ainil^ hope 

Jalj ta^ammvl pi. -at consideration; 
contemplation; pi. O^Ij meditations 

J.T amil hopeful 

J.J. mw'ammiZ hopeful 

JjrfU ma'm-tU hoped for, expected 

Jail* miUa'ammil contemplative, med> 
itative, reflective; pensive, wistful, musing 

^1 amwia u {ZUl amdna) to be faithful, re- 
liable, trustworthy; — am\na a {amn, uUl 
aman) to be safe, feel safe [^ or *from) 
U to reassure (» s.o.), set s.o.'s (•) mind 
at rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard, 
guarantee, wcurant, bear out, oonflrm, 
corroborate (J*, a ; to insure 
{^_J-\ J-J against fire); to entrust (a to 
8.0. , J*,); to say "amen" (J* to 
IV to believe (w in) VIII to trust (* s.o.), 
have confldence, have faith (« in); to 
entrust (J* * s.o, with, to s.o. 
X — VIH; to ask for protection, for 
a promise of security, for indemnity 

(. S.O.) 

j-»l amn safety; peace, security, pro- 
tection I ^Ul j*"^! ('dmm) public safe- 
ty; j*'^! jUj the police 

uUi aman security, safety; peace; 
shelter, protection; clemency, quarter 
(n»7.); safeguarding, assurance of pro- 
tection; indemnity, immunity from pun- 
ishment I auI ij\^\ J (a valedictory phrase) 
in God's protection! 

^>*l amln pi. .L^l unond'^ reliable, 
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, hon- 
est; safe, secure; authorized representa- 
tive or agent ; trustee ; guarantor ( J* of ) ; 
chief, head; superintendent, curator, 
custodian, guardian, keeper ; chamber- 
lain; master of a guild (Tun.); {mil.) 
approx. : quartermaster-sergeant (Eg. 
193S) I Jj-^t >_*Vi (avnml) Lord Chamber- 
lain (formerly, at the Eg. Court); j>S' 
#L.Vl approx.: Chief Master of Ceremo- 
nies (ibid.); ojjil ^*l a. al-makzan ware- 
house superintendent; stock clerk; ij^A 
ilj.jl ju. a, Hrr ad-d&ula and j~J\ ^-1 
a. cu-sirr permanent secretary of state 
(Syr.); JjO^I ^^l a. as-^unduq and 
Jul i>-l treasurer; cashier; at^UII ^*\ 
mayor (esp. Ir.); *lp Jk»\ ('omm) sec- 
retary general; (_-i:^l jt^i a. al-maktab 
(formerly) a subaltern rank in the Eg. 
navy (1939) 



^J dvtin amen I 

4jUI amdna reliability, truatwoitbiness ; 
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; in- 
tegrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good 
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; 
(pi. -at) deposited in trust, a de- 
posit, trust, charge; secretaiiat | ajI*I 
jjOi^l a. a^-^Tiduq treasury department ; 
4^U 4JUI Cdmma) secretariat general; 
oliUVI oj^ makzan al-a. baggage check- 

j^U Tno'Tnan place of aafety, safe place 

^*\S ta'min securing, protection; assur- 
ance ; safeguarding ; reassurance ; ensuring ; 
guaranty, warranty; security, surety; in- 
surance I j^lrt-' (>-*^ (ijtiTnd'i) social 
security; Jjyi-I -L^ j*-u (t^idda) fire in- 
surance; «LJ-1 J* J^h (haydh) life insur- 

o\j\ Imdn faith, belief {w in) 

OUJl i'timdn trust, confidence; credit 

uUtl-'l islxman trust, confidence 

jji dmin peaceful 

OjAa ma'mun reliable, trustworthy 

4-U j-J* mu^amman *alaihi insured 

^j* mu'min believing, faithful; be- 

jxj^ mu'iaman entrusted (J* with) ; 
confidant; sequestrator (jur.) 

^j^^ omnibua omnibus, bus 

^ijj*\ amawi of or like a bondmaid or hand- 

^iSj*^ umatui Ommiad (adj.) 

4^1 jLi banu umayya the Ommiads 
L^\ amibd amoebae 
i]\j<J amirdl admiral 
K'jwl, dS'j\^\ amerikd, amerilca America 
iJljw! amirdliya admiralty 

ijl an (conj.) that; — in 1. (conj.) if; o\j 
tua-in although, even though, even if; 
o\j — o\ be it — or (be it); VI illd 
(= V oi) look up alphabetically 2. (par- 
ticle) not, esp. in the phrase Vi j^ Oi 
in huwa illd (f. Vi ^y ol) it is nothing but, 
it is no more than 

-jl anTia (conj.) that; aJI Le^ bi-md annahu 
since he (it), because he (it); ^1 J« 'aid 
annahu while he (it), whereas he (it); 
introducing a main clause : however, 
yet; <jl liil^j that is to say, namely, to 
wit; — inna (intensifying particle in- 
troducing a nominal clause) verily, 
truly (in moat cases not translated in 

Let irniamd but, but then; yet, how- 
ever; rather, on the contrary 

'jl anna i {j<j\ anxn, uIjIj ta*ndn) to groan, 
moan (j>. at) 

aJI anna pi. -at moan, groan | c^UTj i:J^\ 
wails and laments 

^jl anln plaintive sound, wail; groan, 

'Ji and I 

(JLil andni egotiatie; egoi9tio(al), self- 

iLJUl andklya egoism, selfishness 

Jj^UVI al-anddul Anatolia 

^UlJl andnda pineapple 

._Jl II to blame, censure, reprehend, up- 
braid (« B.O.) 

i_^U ia'mb blame, censure, rebuke 

Ul (pronounced amba) Abba, a high ecclesi- 
astic title of the Coptic Church, preceding 
the names of metropoUtans, bishops, 
patriarchs, and sainte (< AP^d) 

jUI anbdr pi. j-ljl oTidtiH, jv[j\ anabir^ ware- 
house, storehouse, storeroom 



jiljl (Turk, onbafi) onbaai a mil. rank; cor- 
poral (formerly, £(/.); tj^V JsO approi.: 
private first class (Eg.) 

i^_^l, <jj-jl see t^ 

(3^1 irtfeig alembic 

*iJl anta, f. anit thou, you {2nd pers. sing.); 
pL m. p\ antum, f. ^jl antumia you 
(2nd pers. pi. and polite form of address); 
dual ^1 antumd both of you 

l^lJl anta-dd it's you! 
oUoSwwl antikkdna museum 

iSw^l anlika pi. -at {eg,) old, old-fashioned, 

jj*Jgl aniimun antimony 

liJl anuta u (iJ Jl «?i.iyct) to be or become fem- 
inine, womanly, womanish, effeminate 
n to make feminine; to effeminate, make 
effeminate; to put into the feminine forni 
(gram.) V to become feminine (also gtam.) 

^^1 untd pL \t>\j\ irtdty ijVjI anatd fem- 
inine; female; a female (of animals); 
oLiJ^/l al-untaydn the testicles 

,j_^i iiTitawi womanly, female, women's 
(in compounds) ; effeminate, womanish 

^jj I unuta femininity, womanliness 

w^u tanll the feminine, feminine form 

iJJ- rmCariTiai [gram.) feminine (adj.) 
L^^^j^l anirobolojiyd anthropology 
^Ljil injds {ayr.) pear 
IJlLf I (It. Inghilterra) ingilterd England 
jrtLf "^ I aUirigiliz the English 

i^>l*;l ing-dizi English; Englishman 
J_j<: I i-ajil pi. J_;-- Li I andjil^ gospel 

J-*^l injlll evangelical; evangelist 

ijLfl injiliya evangeUcal creed 

^AJ*^! al-andalua Spain 

L_^j4ji iiidunisiyd Indonesia 

^1 aniaa a and anusa u {uns) to be com- 
panionable, sociable^ nice, friendly, ge- 
nial; 4j ^_^! to like a.o.'s company, like to 
be together with s.o. ; to be or get on 
intimate terms (i_j or Jl with a.o.) ; 
to be used, accustomed, habituated (Jl 
to) ; to perceive, notice, find (* a quality, 
j, ^ in a.o.); to sense, feel, make out, 
recognize (*, j in, at) | *ii-L^ (j-il 
[li-hadltihi] to hke to listen to s.o. II to 
put at ease ; to tame III to be friendly, nice 
(ft to a.o.); to entertain, amuse (» s.o.) 
IV to keep s.o. {«) company; to en- 
tertain, delight, amuse (e a.o.); to per- 
ceive, discern, make out (with the eyes; 
A; to sense (a; to find, see, 
notice, observe, e.g., oLiSJl lui j_^The saw 
that he was duly qualified, that he was a 
capable man V to become incarnate (Son 
of God) X to be sociable, companionable; 
to get on familiar terms, become inti- 
mate; to become tame; to be friendly, 
nice, kind (o to a.o.); to accommodate O-s., 
accustom o.s., settle down; to be familiar, 
familiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (<>^ or Jf 
with); to inform o.s,, gather information 
(<_j about) ; to take into consideration, 
take into account, bring into play (^, draw upon (oj); to listen 
(J to, heed (oj an opinion) 

^jjl una sociability; intimacy, famiH- 
arity, friendly atmosphere 

^1 unsi: ^J^\ l-^aT [ka'b) talus, inner 
anklebone (anat.) 

^1 ins (coll.) man, mankind, human 

^1 insl human; human being 

^^U nds (coll.) and ^\j\ unds people 

C^jx-Lj -ttdsut mankind, humanity 


^Ul andaiy (pi.) people^ human beings, 

,^^1 anis close, intimate; close friend; 
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, cour- 

jLJi inadn man, human being | OLJl 
^*JI ». al-'ain pupil {of the eye) 

^LJl insdiia woman 

ijLJl iitsdni human ; humane ; human!' 
tarian. philanthropist 

aJLjI iTUsansj^a humanity, humaneness; 
politeness, civility; manidnd, the human 

LJlj* mu'dnasa intimacy, familiarity, 
friendliness, geniality, cordiality; socia- 
bility; conviviality 

,_^Lj1 %nds exhilaration; friendliness, 
geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordi- 
ality; sociability 

^u ta'annus incarnation {Chr.} 

,j-LjJI i'Hnd3 social life, sociability 

i-jTanwapl. -5/, ^Ijl awdni^ young 
lady, miss 

^^U md'nus familiar, accustomed 

^II^ musta'nis tame 

jiji (Engl.) inJinch 

<>-jjlj! (It. acciuga) onAuga (eg.) anchovy 

S-TUail anjdkiya^ Antioch (ancient city in 
Syria; now Antakya, in S Turkey) 

^^Jiu\ onfSlojl ontologic(al) {philoe.) 

tj»jl anifa a (anaf) to disdain, acom (j^, 
Ol to do; to reject haughtily 
(* X to resume, renew, recommence 
(a; ijur.) to appeal {a a sentence) 

(Jul anf pi. jUT dndlf »j>! uti-w/ nose; 
spur (of a mountain); pride j <ajI Jj 
ragma anfiht in defiance of him, to spite 
him; <ijl ^^^ (anfahu) to humiliate s.o.. 

put a.o/s nose out of joint; tJiJVl VL- 
stuck-up, haughty, proud 

^1 anfi nasal 

<AJ I anafa piide ; rejection ; disdain 
(^ of 

lJ^I anii/ proud, haughty, etuck-up, 
supercilious, disdainful 

jLlZ-'l isti'ndj fresh start, recom- 
mencement, renewal, resumption, re- 
opening (also, of a legal case); appeal 
ijur.) j ULll-'l ^a> {qaddama) to appeal, 
make an appeal {jur.) 

jLj^I isti'ndfi of appeal, appellate; 
UiLj;!L-l iati^ndjiyan by appeal 

,JaJr\ dnif preceding, above | ^iJl JajT 
(dikr) preceding, above, above-mention- 
ed; LiiT dnifan previously, above, in the 

tu^jA mu*tanaf primordial, virginal 
state; beginning 

^jiji (Ft. Anvera) anvers Antwerp (city in 
N Belgium) 

Ijrjliil influioanzd influenza, grippe 

jjl aniqa a to be neat^ trim, smart, spruce, 
comely, pretty; to be happy {i_> about), 
be delighted {i_> by) IV to please {» s,o.) | 
•^1 ^Jj (iat'u) he likes the thing 
V to apply 0,9, eagerly and meticulously 
((3 to); to be meticulous, fastidious, 
finical; to be chic, elegant 

iiLiI andqa 

Jjl antq neat, trim, spruce, comely, 
pretty; elegant, chic 

J_jj I anuq Egyptian vulture (Neophron 
percnopterua) | J_jJVl ,j-ij ^ ^^ a'azz^ 
tnin haidi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs 
of a vulture, i.e.) approx,: scarcer than 
hens' teeth (proverbially for rare) 

jjlj ta'annuq elegance 


Jiy» mu'iiiq, ^p_y muniq pretty, come- 
ly^ winBome, nice, pleasing 

Jill* muta'anniq cMc, elegant 

•^i anqara Ankara 

i_^.JJijl anqalis eel 

^T anuk lead (metal) 

i^jLiSCjl inkiSdri pi. -iya Janizary 

Ij^JS^I, JjlISCjl (It. Inghilierra) ingilterd, in* 
gilUra England 

djm^^j!^)} I al-anglosaksun the Anglo -Saxonfl 

4J_^4-^^i^ "^ I ahanglosaksumya Anglo- 

_)^JSj'^I al-mgliz the Engliah 

^^J^iSjl inglizt English; Englishman 

j_pj.JSCj I ankalis eel 

pU"^! al-andm and pU"^1 (coll.) mankind, the 
human race 

^j_^'l unmiidaj model, pattern; type, ex- 
ample; sample, specimen 

j_^l anamun anemone (6{>^) 

*JI and i to mature, become ripe; to draw 
near, approach, come (esp. time) | ul <I Jl 
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative 
statements: uIj l\ a-lam ya'ni? isn't it 
about time ...t V to act slowly, proceed 
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient 
X to take one*s time, hesitate (j in, 
with) ; to wait 

Ji anan pi. #UT and' (span of) time, 
period j JJJl (LiT j [h-ili) all night long; 
jLfJl i_j(^lj JJI *UT dna'a l-laili tva- 
a^rdfa n-nahar by day and by night 

;UI anah deliberatenesa ; perseverance, 
patience [ SUV Jjt ^ul al-a, long-suffer- 
ing, great patience ; SUV Ji_>^ long-auffer- 
ing (adj.) 

•Ul ind* pi. ^T dniya, o\j\ awdnin 
vessel, container, receptacle | |*ULJI 4jT 
a. a^-ta'dm table utensils, dishes; mess kit 

ou ta^annin slowness, deliberateness 

oil* muia'annin slow, unhurried, de- 

^Jl anna (interrog. part.) where ... from? 
why is it that...? whyT where? (place 
and direction); how? wherever; how- 
ever [ . . . "^ I 4I jlj {alia) and why shouldn't 

Uj— Ajl anisun, o^—iiT aniseed 

L*Jl anlmiyd anemia | O <iir>- ^-mj' perni- 
cious anemia (med.) 

sT dki! UT dhan! (interj.) oh! 

i_-fti II to prepare, make ready, equip (J a, » 
8.O., for) T to be ready, be pre- 
pared; to prepare o.s., get ready; to 
equip 0,8., be equipped (J for) 

!L*1 ubba pi, i_^l uhah preparation, 
preparedness, readiness, alertness; equip- 
ment, outfit, gear | <-j^I S_aI u. al-harb 
miUtary equipment; J^*-^! i^*' J* ready 
to set out; jla«i_i'^l LaI Jt fully prepared; 
on the alert {miL) ; 42^\ I>.l to make one's 
preparations, get ready 

u^Ui ihdb skin, hide 

i_..»U kiahhub preparedness, readiness; 
(pi. -d^) preparation 

u^lu wula'akhib ready, prepared 

JaI ahala u i (J^l ukvl) to take a wife, get 
married; — aMla a to be on familiar 
terms (lj with); — pass, uhila to be in- 
habited, be populated (region, place) 
II to make fit or suited, to fit, qualify 
(J A, « S.O., for); to make possible 
(a J for s.o., enable (a J a.o. to do,). make accessible {> J to a.o.; 
to welcome ((-j s.o.) Y to be or become 
fit, suited, quali£ed (J for,); to 



take a wife; to marry, get m&rried X to 
deserve, merit (a B.tli.)» be worthy {* of) 

J>l ahl pi. -iint JUI ahalin relatives, 
folks, family; kin, kinsfollc; vdie; (with 
foil, genit.) people, members, followers, 
adherents, possessore, etc.; inhabitants; 
deserving, worthy (J of; fit, suited, 
qualified (J for); pi. 0^1*^1, JUIII the 
natives, the native population | z^\ J*l 
a. al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) 
of the family; the Prophet's family; 
j\Xi\ J*t the people living in the house; 
41^1 J*l a. al-hirfa people of the trade; 
<JlU-I J*I a, aZ-^i2/ people pledged by oath, 
members of a sworn confederacy; J*l 
ijJ^\ a. al-Jfibra people of experience, 
experts; ^\- ' H J*i a. tU'Safsafa Soph- 
ists; c-Jl J»l a.aa-aumia the adherents 
of the Sunna, the Sunnis; ^_^lj j-d1 J*l 
a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the resident pop- 
ulation and the nomads; **Uj]! J*! a. 
al-ivajaha people of rank and high social 
standing; *)^j ':^\ dhlan wa-sahlan wel- 
come! ii) lnUl ahlan bika welcome to 
yout J4-J J*l Ljjii J ^ he is a welcome 
guest in our house 

^1 ahli domestic, family (adj.); na- 
tive, resident; indigenous; home, na- 
tional I ^1 dJjJ national bonk (Eg.) ; i~^j>^ 
iJ*! {harb) civil war; LU! tS^ (mahkama) 
indigenous court (Eg.); ^"^M *UdJtJl {qa4d*) 
jurisdiction of indigenous courts; T-b>Vl 
J*V' {intdj) domestic production; ijuij 
J*l {u«^/) family wakf 

aJ^\ ahliya aptitude, fitness, suitable- 
ness, competence; qualification | aJaV' 
3J_yUII the civil rights; <i>Vl J-T le- 
gally competent; ^J^V' ^ Ap legally incom- 
petent, under tutelage 

J*T dhil and J^u ma^kul inhabited, 
populated (region, place) 

O'^J^ mu^ahhilSi qualifi cations , abil- 
ities, aptitudes 

J^l:* muia'ahhil married 

JaIu*.- musta'hil worthy, deserving, mer- 
iting; entitled 

^IJjbl iklilaj myrobalan, emblio (fruit of 
Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot,)i ellipse 


i_j)JLUI iklilaji elliptic(al} 

j\ au or; (with foil, subj.) unless, except 

i(*_.'jl) *J\ aba u {avb, *jj\ auba, -^ii} iyab) 
to return ; t^ <^T to catch , contract , 
suffer, incur, be in for, be left 
with, got one's share of 

Vj' J^ u-» ™*" J'^* avhin from all 
sides or directions; *-^j-^j <-^j\ JT j- 
{wa-^aubin) do. 

*ij\ auba return 

k^lji iydb return | LLij LU^ dahahan 
wa-iyahan there and back; back and 
forth, up and down 

k_jU md^&) place to which one returns; 
(used as verbal noun:) return [ t-^I»j *_j^i 
coming and going 

^k_jT look up alphabetically 

\jj\ and \jj\ (It. opera) Spvrd opera; 
opera house 

C-jy jl (Ft.) apwet operetta 

Ojl (Fr. Qout) August (month; magr.) 

^j^Jij\ (Fr. autobus) otobls autobus, bus 

ijl_^>jl (Fr.) otogrdf pi. -at autograph 

i-UI_fi_jJjl otuqr&fi autocratic 

JljLyjl (Ft.) otomdtiki automatic 

Jjj-_jjji (Fr.) otombil automobile 

Jjjl (Fr.) otel pi. -at hotel 

rj\ auj highest point, acme, pinnacle; cul- 
mination, climax; apogee (aatran.); peak 
(fig. ; of power, of fame) 


^T dh albumen, eggwhite 
O i>'-f ^hrin albumin 

(jjl) jT dda u {aud) to bend, flex, curve, 
crook (a; to burden, oppress, weigh 
down {a S.O.); — ij\ atuida a [awad) to 
bend; to be bent V to bend; to bow 

ojl auda burden, load 

jjl awad: *jjL ^\j to provide for s.o.'a 
needs, stand by a.o. in time of need; 
9ij\ ^Ijl (atvadah-ii) do,; to support s.o., fur- 
nish s.o. with the means of subsiatence 

j\j\ uwar heat, blaze; thirst 

Ijjji urubbd Europe 

tjjj\ urubbi European 

JJ'jj\ uruSalim* Jerusalem 

'^jj^ (= -^jO u'^a pl- -^J^ ^^^ battalion 
(formerly. Eg.; mil,) 

^jly^jjl urugutedt/ Uruguay 

IJLSjjl (It.) orkestrd orchestra 

•lLjjj\ (Turk, onuh) umlk pi, iJLjIjI oroniit* 
sample, specimen; model, pattern; form, 

Ujjjl urwtfto, Ktjjj^ Europe 

lijjjl urubbi European 

iS^j»^jjj^ uruguivdif Uruguay 

jj\ II (eg.) to ridicule (J* b.o.), make fun of 
s.o. (» 

j_jl iwazz (coll.; n. un.) goose, geese 

^jA da myrtle; see also alphabetically 

yijt-jl uaturdliyd Australia 

U JL-jl (It.) avstriyd Austria 

^j\ Oslo 

J*-j1 us^d see ^^^1 

'<J'j\ v^lya pi, jjiljl awoMn prayer, oration 

iiT a/a pi. -di harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, 
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemio 

ojj- ma'iif stricken by an epidemio 

Jjjiji (Engl.) ovirSl overalls 

^(ijl) iT ago u to bring a.o. (J*) bad luck, 
cause discomfort or hardship (J* to) 
II to burden (» s.o.) with unpleas- 
ant, troublesome or difficult 

"iJji See ill 

'CjULjI uwaiqdt (dimin. of (Jjlijl) short times; 
good times 

u-^'t^j'' }j'y^J^ oqiyanus, oqiydnus ocean 

SJjl uqiya pi. -at ounce, a weight of varying 
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; 
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g) 

jjjJIS^I (Ft. occasion) okazyon clearing sale, 
special sale 

Ljl_^l ukrdniyd Ukraine 

jKf;^^j\ (Ft. oxygene) oksizen oxygen 

(Jjl) JT aJa u {aul, jL jna'dl) to return, re- 
vert (Jl to); to go back, be attributed, be 
attributable (Jf to), spring, derive (Jl 
from) ; to lead, conduce, tend ( Jl to), 
result eventually (Jl in); to come or go 
eventually (Jl to a.o.), pass into the 
hands of (Jl) | Jl ^"^l JT the long and 
the short of it was that . . . ; Jl JjLLil 4> jT 
(ma^fu) he eventually got to the point 
where ... II to interpret, explain (* 

JT dl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; 
companions, partisans, people; mirage, 
fata morgana 

^T dla pL -at instrument, utensil; tool; 
apparatus; device, implement, appliance; 
machine | ^^J-l Cj'^I a. al-hisa sensory 
organs; ijjLJt l}\ (bukdriya) steam engine; 
jL\ ijT a. al-jarr tractor; i^-i^*- aJT {/a* 
hannamlya) infernal machine; ^^^j^ *JT 
{harhiya) instrument of war; »iL^,?^l «JT 



motor, engine; <^W ^T calcuUtizig ma- 
chine; iTLL! ill a. al-hiydka power loom; 
iLLJ-'l *JT aewing machine; ^jjilj ^Tradio; 
i*ilj HJT hoisting machine, crano, derrick; 
pump; j-^ 'II 4JT and c^^.^ ^JT {mnxiJ^ 
kitia) heater; jj^\ iJT (photographic) 
camera; 4eLUI jJT printing press; J»aI1 ill 
a. al-gasl washing machine; ^j-i^ *il 
incubator; J Lii-V I ijT receiver, receiving 
set (Tadio)\ '^_^ik> ijT {mu^ttira) distilling 
apparatus, still; ^liSOl iJT and LJS' <i T 
typewriter; jl^iiJl t^ <lT d. Za'6 oZ-^imdr 
slot machine; <Jl^^ ilT (munt^^) mu- 
sical instrument; ^-ai^l ill alarm; siren; 
horn {of an automobile); »lx* liT {^amma*) 
(fig.) tool, creature, puppet 

jT all meohaQic(al); mechanized; mo- 
torized; instrumental; organic | jT .^1^ 
{mihrai) motor plow; iJ VI Cil_^l (quwaX) 
motorized troops; aS\ *5^ [karahi) a> 
mechanical movement 

ijT ullya mechanics 

JVT dlaii pi. LjVT dldtiya {eg.) mu- 
sician; singer 

Jjl awtvaP,i. Jjl uld, pi. m. -un, J^ljl 
awd'il^ first; foremost, most important, 
principal^ chiefs main ; first part, be- 
ginning; (with def. article also) earlier, 
previous, former; see also under Jj | 
JjV' ul— JVi {insdn) primitive man; i.-i-U 
Jjl physician-in-chief; JjIj*^', o^jVl the 
forebears, forefathers, ancestors; Jlljl 
j^\ a. aS-Sahr the first ten days of a 
month, beginning of a month; 3^^ JjV 
li-awivali marratin or JjVi e_^ for the 
first time; *Jjl ^^, *L*ljl ^y since its be- 
ginnings, from the very beginning; ^ 
»jj^T Jl Jjl [dkirihl) from beginning 
to end, from A to Z; ^Vl Jjl awwala 
l-amri at first, in the beginning; JjV^ 
JjVLi each tinw the first available; U Jjl 
{awwaJa) the moment when, just when; 
at the very outset of; 6ji\ j- jS^\ 
(akiara) more than before 

Vji avrwalan first, firstly, in the first 
place; at first, in the beginning | JjL Vjl 
and Vjl* Vjl by and by, gradually, one 
after the other, one by one; ljv»-lj Vjl 
and l/*-ij *ij\ {dkiran) first and last, alto- 
getber^ simply and solely, merely 

Jjl awuHili prime, primary, primordial, 
original, initiai, first; elemental, funda- 
mental, basic, principal, chief, main ; 
elementary; primitive, pristine, primevalj 
SJjl 4mjJU (madrasa) elementary school, 
grade school; iJjl jIj^ {mawddd) raw 
materials; Jji i-lt {'adad) prime number; 
Vj' 'jy^ {jdtuTa) pro forma invoice 

iUjI awwaliya pi. -at fundamental 
truth, axiom; primary constituent, es- 
sential component, element; precedence; 

Jjl ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pi. JTLI ayd*iP 

iJLiI iydla pi. -dt province; regency 

iljJLI ailula title deed {jur,) 

J L* ma'dl end ; outcome, final issue, 
upshot ; result, consequence | JU- 1 j 
J ml Jj at present and in the future 

Jjjt ta*wil pi. -dl interpretation, 

»Vjl uld'i, didji, iJjVjl uld'ika these; those, 
pi. of the demonstr. pron. Ij and jJIi 

^^jl olimbi Olympic 1 4_LjV I v'-^ "^ ' *'^® Olym- 
pic games 

jL_ijl olimbiydd Olympiad 

^jl ulu (pi. of jj) owners, possessors, people 
(with foU.genit. : of) ] j-^I ^jl u. l-amr 
rulers, powerful leaders; jUJIj JJ-1 _jJjI 
u. l-hall wa-l-'aqd (lit.: masters of solv- 
ing and binding) do.; oLiJI jJjl «. i-.fa'w 
the responsible people 

*[»ljl uwdm thirst 

=^jl ohm (el) 



^_,^jl omniWH omnibus, bus 

•OT in time; j^l al-Sna now | jT j and 
•>»-lj iJ^ j ** *'*' same time, simultane* 
ously; >-T Jl jT j>. (otaro) from time to 
time; j»-Tj jT ^j L. (wm-aioro) and 
jT Xu ijT sometimes, at times, DOW and 
then, once in a while; UTi UT gradually, 
by and by, little by little; lijTj — UT 
(dwinatan) sometimes — - sometimes, at 
times — at times; o^\ JJ qabla l-Sna 
before, previously, formerly; ij^ li-l-dna 
and j^l J.- haltd l-ana until now, hith- 
erto, so far; Ci^i Xu ba'da l-Sna from 
now or, henceforth, in the future; ^ 
IjcLai ij^l mt'n cU-Sita /a-fid'idan do. 

iljT onu'tdin that day, at that time, 

iJIJijT Sna^dlca that day, at that time, 

Oj\ aun calmness, serenity, gentleness 

jljl awdn pi. i'jT awina time | JJ 
4Jljl prematurely; «;ljl j &t the right 
time, timely, seasonably, <Jljl j^ J *' 
the wrong time, untimely, uoaeasooably; 
iij"^' !>'. ^™ *'™^ *° time; iJjVI ij;; 
ii>-^ Ij (ttira) and ii_^l iu ;jjT {awinatan, 
ukra) at times, sometimes; j_^lj — iijT 
sometimes — sometimes, at times — at 
times; jlj'^l •Zi\i (/dto) it is too late; 
jlj'il jT (oBo) the time has come, it is 
time (J for, to do 

' jljjl look up alphabetically 

j^Ljjl onbaH corporal, see (^LJl 

(.jl) .T SAo u and II to moan, sigh V to 
moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (J 
over), exclaim "ah!" 

tj\ awwah (interj.) oh! 

<T dAt, UT ahan, iljl uuwoAi oh! 

<*T aha pi. -04 sigh, moan; pi. ^UT 
sighs of admiration; rapturous exclama- 

■jb (a'auwruA moaning, sighing; admir- 
ing exclamation; plaintive sound, wail 

^jl am! « to seek refuge, seek shelter ( Jl at a 
place); to go (Jl to bed); to betake o.s., 
repair (Jl to a place); to shelter, house, 
put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as 
a guest (*, a e.o., II to shelter, 
lodge, put up, accommodate, receive as 
a guest <• s.o.) IT to seek shelter (Jl at 
a place), to retuv (Jl to a place); to 
betake o.s., repair (Jl to a place); to 
shelter, house, put up, lodge, accommo- 
date (a a.o.) 

•t^l iwa accommodation, lodging, hous- 
ing, sheltering 

jjLi ma'unn pi. jL ma'Swin place 
of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting 
place; dwelling, habitation | JJ (jjU 
(laUi) shelter for the night; doss house 

jjjT ^1 tJn aim pi. j^ il/b 6oJid< a. 

K^aya, coll. jT ay, pi. -Si sign, token, mark; 
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, 
exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (j of, 
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse. 
Si- 1 jS'jJI JT (op o^-diJr) the verses of 
the Koran; passage (in a book), utter- 
ance, saying, word; ilj (with foil, genit.) 
moat solemn assurances (of love, of 

'jl oy that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit 

'jl t yes (with foU. ii\j yes, indeed! yes, by 

•jl oyy, f. iJ ajja (with foU. genit. or fiuifiz) 
whicht what? what kind off whoever, 
whosoever ; any, every, no matter what . . . ; 
(with neg.) no; Lcl dyywnd whatever^ 
whatsoever | c-J'S' ii\, olT IjI ajjon hSna, 
ayyatan kdnat whoever he (or she) is, no 
matter who he (or she) is; oK" ^ i^l oyyu 
man kana whoever it may be, whosoever; 
JU- jl J» {<tyy* liSlin) in any case, at any 


rate, at all eventa, by all means; O^lj ^^l 
ayyu wdhidxn any one; OLt ^fl UU <l u! 
inTia lahii SaTian ayya &an\n it is of the 
greatest importance (lit.: it is of im- 
portance, and of what importance!); i-jfc! 
._^L^I Ul 4j u'jiba hihi ayyamd i'jdbin 
how much he admired him! he admired 
>iim greatly; JL»I Lei *_L JJl aqhala 
'alaihi ayyamd iqbdlin he showed the 
greatest interest in it 

IjI iyyd with rominal suffii to express the 
accuaative [ ol iIIj' take care not to ..., 
be careful not to ...; j- illjl, j ilL I beware 
of ...! iJljIj (dial, wayyak), tlAj {wayydh) 
with you, with him 

jU see 'j-l 

j^\ II to back, support (> s.o., a a claim, an 
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate, 
endorse ( * news, a j udgment, etc.) 
V — pass, of II 

j_iIj ta'yli corroboration, confirmation, 
endorsement, backing, support 

j^'TJJ-^} (Fr. hydrogene) idrozen hydrogen 

ULj^jj-uI iLi {guT\bula) hydrogen bomb 

lyi air pi. jjil uyur penis 

2jU ayydr^ May (5yr., Left., Jr., Jord.) 

o\j\ ifdn Iran, Persia 

ij\j\ irdni Iranian, Persian; (pi. -un) 
a Persian, an Iranian 

\sl\j\ irlanid Ireland 

(^jjj-l irlandi Irish; (pi. -un) Irishman 

jLj-l (Engl) iriydl aerial, antenna 

^>1 izis Isis 

^1 ayisa o (^LJ *ya*) to despair (j^ of 

j_^ljf iyaa despair 

i-^^,.ijl (Fr. icharpe) sash 

(c*^') u^^ *^ ' to return, revert (Jl to; to become (Jl 

U^l ai4^n also, too, as well, likewise, 
equally ; again ; in addition, besides, 

Uliiil f^diiyd Italy 

jQijI ll&ll Itahan; (pi. 'Un) an Italian 

ijjjul (Gr. ct)C(hv) Iqwna and Vj^' vjuniya 
pi. 'dt icon (CAr.) 

iLI oii; (coll.; n. un. ;) thicket, jungle 

^Jjl and ilLI see Jj' 

'J>_l oi/ui^ September {5yr., Leb., Jr., 

'iJ^jLl ailula title deed (?wr.) 

(jfl) j»T dma t: 4;;;rJJ t> f^ {saujaiiht) to lose 
one's wife, become or be a widower^ c-»l 
L^jJ j^ (zaujihd) to lose one's husband, 
become or be a widow 

ic I aiTfta, j*_^l -u-yun and j*" t ta- 
'ayyum widowhood 

r\ ayyim pi. f\j\ aj/o^im', i^IjI aydmd 
widower, widow 


I attwim^ see 


Lei ayyumd see *t^l ayy 

^(l>') *J^ "^^i^ * to oomo, approach, draw 
near (time) | o^j^^ 61 (a«Mn) the time 
has come: ol *J OT it*8 time for him 

«jT see Ujl 

^\ aijia where? (— at or to what 
place?) \ ^\ ^ min aina where ... from? 
^\ Jl where? (= to what plauo?) ^ j^ j-J 
how far we still are from ..., worlds 
separate us from ... (fig-); il'i i> '-^ if} 
what is this compared with that! 



^Vl al-ainu the where; apace (phiUM.) 

\^J ainamd wherever 

oLI ayydna when? (conj.) when 

2^1 II to ionize (* V to be ionized (el.) 

(jjji iyOn pi. -at ion 

Jkj\s ta'yln ionizfttion 

^U* mutaayyin ionized 

4jl Ihif Iha^ %hin (interj.) well! now then! all 

Ifl ayyuhd, with fern, also 1^1 ayyaiuha 
(vocative particle) ,,,\ 

t_j_jjl ayyub^ Job 

iij^j/il al-ayyilbiyun the AyubiteR 
1 aiwam^ Be© , 


2jtjjl twan pi, -di recess-like Bitting room 
with a raised floor, usually opening on 
the main room or courtyard through an 
arcade; estrade 

*i_j abbreviation of c-jL chapter 

^i-j bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); 
with (indicating connection, association, 
attendance); with, through, by means 
of (designating instrumentality or agency, 
also with pass. = by); for (= at the 
price of); by {— to the amount of); by 
(introducing an oath) | JJL bi-l-lail at 
(by) night, jL^U hi-n-nahUr during the 
daytime, by day; J^ 'i/Lr' Samdlan 
bi-Sarqin northeast; c-uuj L^J fa-bihd 
wa-ni'mai in that case it*s all right ; 
ijl ij ,j*jJ it is not my intention to ...; 
iJI jj li* hddd bi-ddka now we are even, we 
are quits; icL-j ^l^tJJ {jnajVihi) an hour 
before his arrival; l-. "with" frequently 
givea causative meaning to a verb, e.g., 
^^ ^j^ (lit.: to rise with, i.e.) to 
boost, further, promote; Jl 4j *Li 
to cause s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; 
for its use as copula after negations, etc., 
see grammar; "iAj bi-ld without; jl Ic 
bi-md anna in view of the fact that; 
since, as, inasmuch aa, because; 4J Lc 
bi-md jihi including 

•L bd* name of the letter t-> 

Llj ftodapl. ol^L bdbawdt, oijljb pope; papa, 
father, daddy 

jIjjL bdbatvi, (^jLjIj papal 
4j^_lj bahavnya papacy 

^Ll| ba'ba'a to say "papa" (child) 

^Jj bu'bu' root, source, origin; core, heart. 
Inmost part ; pupU of the eye, also 

JjL babit^ Babel, Babylon 
JjL bdbiU Babylonian 

4jLj bdbih the second month of the Coptic 

^^ji^j bdbuj pi. p^^^ji bawdbij^ slipper 

jjAj bdbur pi. -di, _Aii>. bawdbir* (= j_^lj) 
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer 

fji}j bdbunaj camomile {boL) 

''- 'I; bdtista batiste 

j^ji_y{j bdtdldjl pathologic (al) 

U»-^_^lj baidlojiyd pathology 

6U^jLj bddinjdn and oLafij baidinjdn (coll.; 
n. un. 3) pi. -at eggplant, aubergine 



^jL bar pi. -at bar; taproom 
^jIj ba'ara a to dig a well 

Jj bi'r f., pi. jLT o6ar, j\^j bi'dr well» 

Sjjj bu'ra pi. jjj ftu'ar center, seat 
(fig.); site; pit; abyss 

Oj-t1jlj (Fr. parachute) bdrdSut parachute 

^jI^IjIj bdToguwdy Paraguay 

lSjjjLj see ijj{j 

4-fjLi (Ft.) barlceh parquet, parquetry floor 

*LjjIj see ^j 

3jlj bara pi. -at para (coin) 

jjjL hdrud saltpeter; gunpowder 

SjjjIj bdruda pi. Jij'_jj hawdrid^ rifle, 

^jIj iarta* Paris 

^ff-ij\j bdriai Parisian 

JU 6az pi. jl>j bizdrt'&nd jL 6a*z pi. J^Jj 
6u'«2, »j' j^ ii'zon falcon 

jljL hdzdr pi. -di bazaar 

cJjLi bdzalt bos&lt 

OjjjjLi bdzuband bracelet 

^ji hausa u {^_y L 6a's) to be strong, brave, 
intrepid; — ^^jJo baHaa a {^}i bu'a) to 
be miserable, wretched VI to feign 
misery or distress Vllt to be sad, worried, 

J»-jJi ^jAj bi'sa r-rajulu what an evil 

^L ba's strength, fortitude, caurage, 
intrepidity (as verbaJ noun of ^Ji 
ba'usa); harm, hurt, injury, impairment, 
detriment, wrong | ^Ul UjXI courageous, 
brave, intrepid; <j ^L V [ba'aa) there 
ie no objection to it; unobjectionable; 
not bad, rather important, considerable, 

^■S-' 4" cT*^ *^ <^'^ (kammiydt) consider- 
able quantities; ^L V {ba*sa) never 
mind! it doesn't matter! it*s all right! 
'^' (_r H "^ ^* doesn't matter that . . . ; 
?^L ,j\ ayyu ba'sin? what does it 
matter? what of it? j^ ^L ^JU ^^^ 
(6o'aun) he will be none the worse for ... ; 
liLip ^L V (ba'sa) it won't do you any 
harm! don't worry 1 don't be afraid 

^jJj oUj baridtu bi's calamities, ad- 
versities, misfot^unes 

^Ji 6u'a, »l-»u ba*9d'^, (J'jM bu'iU 
and ^^Jj bu'sd pi. ^JjI a6*u« misery, 
wretchedness, suffering, distress 

i_^-jJLj fca'tj pi. *L-ji bu'asd'^ miserable, 

(_^L bd'i$ miserable, wretched 
J-L-lj (Ft.) basiBl pastel 
J^lj iotsif bacilli 
^L fcdi senior, chief (in compounds) 

^jI^Lj 6d5'5'3uni and ^jU^Li approi. : 
master sergeant (formra-ty. Eg.) 

-SCtf? Ij 6o5Aafclm physiclan-in-chief 

(_^__^Lj baSfayyia a naval rank, approi. ; 
petty officer 3rd clasa [Eg.) 

i_jt$wlj bdSkdtib chief clerk 
Jjir'Li bdSmufti chief mufti (Tun.) 
j_,iLir'Li bdSmufattii chief inspector 
^-'•j-r^; bdimithandia chief engineer 
LiL fcdia pi, '^''ji'j bdiatvdt (oljLiL) pasha 

J^U 6aiag, 60^15 pi. i>5l^ bawdSiq' sparrow 

j^Ul o^6d5J^*'(f the Bashkirs 

^ri5Ctlj see J^^i* 

^[i (Engl.) bd§ pi. -d* bufl, autobus 

ojLt\j bafun concrete, b6t0n 



4p1j bdga celluloid; tortoise shell 

Oli-ryi al-bdkistdn Pakistan 

JLl^Ij bdkiatdni Pakistani (adj. and n.) 

^Jlj bdl whale (zool.) 

*li\j bdla pi. -at bundle, bale 

^\j halts pi. oIjULj baUowat, ^:Aj baldii 
overcoat; paletot 

yij (It. hallo) ball, dance 

OyL bdlun balloon 

jUUI jj>~ juzur al-bdlitfdr the Balearic Ib- 

<Jl (Ft.) bdleh baUet 

L»1j and 4^L bdmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus 
esculentus L., hot, a popular Tegetable in 

Olj see Oji 

iJlj^jiL i-lU Sdaa bdnoramiya {= Fr. A;mn 
panoramique) cinemascope 8Cteen 

Zjjt bd'ana the tenth month of the Coptic 

(jljfcdy, f.ijlj bdya pi. -d( formerly, in Tunisia, 
a title aftor the names of the members 
of the Bey's family 

jUl jb ddr al-hdy (formerly) the Tuni- 
sian government 

j%i habr pi. j^ bubur tiger 

»IjLj habffd'* (and babbagd'^) pi. oI^Llj babgd' 
wot parrot 

C^ baXta u % {bait) to cut off, sever [x; 
to complete, finish, achieve, accomplish, 
cany out (*}; to fix, settle, de- 
termine (* decide (*, j on II to adjudge, adjudicate, award 
(a VII to be cut off; to be finished, 
be done; to be decided j ^Vl C-wl 4* 


<M it's all over between him and 

them, they are through with each other 

Cj bait settlement, decision; Lj baUan 
definitely, once and for all 

o bf^ia pi. -al adjudication, award ; final 
decision; 4iJI al-baltaia and lii battatan 
definitely, positively, decidedly, eap. with 
negations: absolutely not, definitely not 

^, haiti definite, definitive 

ILL battiya, biiiiya pi. ijUj batatiy 
barrel; tub 

IJli batdtan decidedly, definitely, pos- 
itively, categorically, unquestionably, ab- 

hiu^ tabtlt adjudication, award 

iIjLj halt definite, definitive | Cj\j m^ 
{man') categorical interdiction 

^Jj batara u (batr) to cut off, sever (a; 
to amputate (a; to mutilate, render 
fragmentarily (a a text) VII to be out 
off, be severed, be amputated 

j^ batr cutting off, severance, sepa- 
ration; amputation 

Jj\ ablar' curtailed, docked, clipped, 
trimmed ; imperfect, defective, incom- 
plete; without offspring 

jIj battdr cutting, sharp 

J\j bdtir cutting, sharp 

jji~' mabtiir broken, abrupt, un- 
connected; fragmentary, incomplete 

',!ji bitrd'*, batrd'^ Petra (ancient city of 
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in 
SW Jordan) 

ilji batrak patriarch 

Jjjv batrul, hitrol petroleum 

•ijl ahta'~ an assonant intensifier of ^\ 
ajma'^ all, altogether, whole, entire 

-Jlj bdW strong; full, whole, entire 


ifjjj II to cut off (a 

ijij batala i u (batl) and II to cut off, sever 
(*; to moke final, close, settle. 
make conclusive, clinch (a Y to 
retire from the world and devote one*8 
life to God (^i Jl); to be pious^ chaste 
and aelf-denying; to live in chastity 
YII to be cut off, be curtailed, be docked 

J^^ batul virgin; JjiJl the Virgin Mary 

Ji>j batull virginal 

iJ^^ batiiliya virginity 

Jiaj:* mutabattil an ascetic, a recluse; a 
pious, godly man 

'V>^, baiuld birch tree 

tlj batta u (bait) to spread, unroll, unfold 
(a, e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse 
(a; to disseminate, propagate, 
spread (a, e.g., a spirit, an ideology, 
a doctrine); to sprinkle (a a on); to 
let s.o. («, also J) in on (a, esp. on a 
secret) ; to broadcast, transmit by radio | 
Oj^\ 1^ to peer around; ^UIVl ti^ to 
plant, or lay, mines lY to let (» s.o.) in 
on a secret (a) YII to be spread; to be 

fci-j batt spreading, dissemination, prop- 
agation; grief, sorrow 

ju batara i {batira a) and Y to break out with 
pimples or pustules (skin) 

JO bcUr pi. jjtj butur {n. un. S^ baira 
pi. batardt) pimples, pustules 

jv batir, J^i; batir pustulate, pimpled 

jij bataqa i u (with _^1 an-nahra) to open 
flood gates so that the river will overflow 
its banks YII to break forth, burst out, 
well out, pour out, gush out; to emanate, 
proceed, spring (j- or jc from) 

JLlul inbitaq outpouring, effusion, out- 
pour, outburst; emanation 

M^ bajiha a (bajah) to rejoice (l-j at) Y to 
vaunt, ffaunt (l-j, boast, brag (l-j of) 

n»JI tabajjuh bragging, braggery 

n>.ju mutabajjih braggart 

a^JC bajdUy bujda root, source, heart, es> 
sence, basis | j^'^\ IajC the heart of the 
matter, the actual state of affairs, th& 
true facts; If-^ ij} j* (^^^ bujdatihd) h^ 
knows the job from the ground up, he is- 
the right man for it 

jfi-\ abjar' obese, corpulent 

^j^ bajasa u i {bajs) and II to open & 
passage {for the water), cause {the water) 
to flow Y and YII to flow freely, pour 
forth copiously, gush out 

,j-)t bajs, ^J^ bajU flowing freely^ 

Mje. baja'^ (n. un. s) pelican 

JjC II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with 
deference (* s.o.), show respect (• to 
9.0.); to give precedence (Jp a or * to 
s.o. or s-th. over) Y to be honored, be 
revered, be venerated 

Jrf: bajal syphilis (tr.) 

J-»wj tabjil veneration, reverence; def- 
erence, respect 

J»»^ mvhajjcd revered, respected; ven- 

jm bajama i {bajm, fy^^ bujum) to be 
speechless, dumfounded 

^ II to clinch (a a nail) 

<^ bahha a {bahh, ^ bahah, r^ buhuh, 
^[^ bahdh, '**-j^ biihuha, a>-[^ bahaha) 
to be or become hoarse, be raucous, 
husky, harsh (voice) II and lY to make 
hoarse (» s.o.) 

4^ biihka hoarseness 

^1 abakh^ hoarse 

ry*^ TTUibhuh hoarse 



M^ II tabahbahi to be prosperous, live in 
easy drcumBtances; to enjoy cs., have 
a good time 

rj^, ioAduA gay, merry 

^^^ bnhbuha middle; life of ease 
and comfort, prosperity, affluence | j 
j^ c>-_^ amidst 

M;>w mvhahbah well-to-do, prosperous; 
enjoying an easy, comfortable life 

C^ baht pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, 
also j^Vl 0-J=; 1=*: bahian merely, solely, 
purely, exclusively, nothing but . . . 

j^ buhtttr stocky, pudgy, thickset 

isS^ buhtuTi stocky, pudgy, thickset 

^^ bahata a (baht) to look, search (a or 
^ for, seek (a or ^; to do 
research; to investigate, examine, study, 
explore {* or ^, less frequently 
with J or J*), look into <* or ^); to 
discuss (* a subject, a question) III to 
discuss (* with s.o., j a question) VI to 
have a discussion, discuss together; to 
confer, have a talk (m with s.o., j 

w^ baht jd. ^j^^ btthUt, oljj^, iUil 
abhdt search {^ for), quest {^ of); 
examination, study ; research; investi- 
gation, exploration; discussion; treatise; 
(pi. iUil) study, scientific reprat (J on) 

it/W- bahhdi pi. -un scholar, research 

4j'l^ bahhdia eminent scholar 
ui-^pw mabhat pi. *L»-U« mabdhit^ sub- 
ject, theme, field of investigation or dis- 
cussion, object of research; reaeM-ch, 
study, examination; investigation 

4l^ L« mubdhata pi. -at negotiatitm, 
parley, conference, talk, discussion 

i.*-lj bdhit pi, -un and iUi buhhdt 
scholar, research worker; examiner, in- 

j^ bahtara to disperse, scatter (*; 
to waste, squander, dissipate (a 
II tabaJUara pass, of I 

ij^ bahtara waste, dissipation 

j^»^ mubahiir squanderer, wastrel, 

^j*^ bahira a to be startled, be bewildered 
(with fright) 

"j*: II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do. ; 
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, 
set sail, sail, depart (ship); to go down- 
stream, be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) 
V to penetrate deeply, delve (j into); 
to study thoroughly (j a subject) X =V 

J*: bahr pi. jU bihdr, jj^ buhur, jUl 
abhdr, _^l abhur sea; large river; a 
noble, or great, man (whose magnanim- 
ity cs* knowledge is comparable to the 
vastness of the sea); meter (poei.) | j 
^ in the course of, during, t>iL. _^ j 
(saTiatain) in the course of two years, 
within two years; ]x^jd\ ^J^y^ j*^l 
{ahya4, mviawassii) the Mediterranean 
{sometimes shortened to ,j-iLj'^i >-J')f 
jJJJI j^ b. al-balfiq the Baltic Sea; 
^-.-jiJ-l j^ b. al-janub the South Seaa; 
y-Vi j^\ the Eed Sea (also |._;U]1 _^ 
b, al-guhum); jjJ-'l j^ b, al-kazar the 
Caspian Sea (also J U-S^l j^^)'' rjj^ ^ 
h,<u--riw\. the Mediterranean; ^jJ^\ j»mA\ 
(aswad) the Black Sea; oUlU)l j^^ b. 
az-zulutnat the Atlantic; i^^i j^ b, lu^ 
and c-ll j»»Jl (mayyit) the Dead Sea; 
JsJ' _^ («?-) the Nile 

^j*»JI al-bahrain the Bahrein la- 

Jl^ hahrdni of the Bahrein Islands; 
aJjUiJI ai-bahdrifia the inhabitants of the 
Bahrein Islands 

jjtfi hahri sea (adj.), marine; maritime; 
nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.) 
northern, bakrlya (with foil, genit.) north 



of; (pi. -un, *) sailor, seaman, mariner | 
ytL ^j^ approx.: seaman apprentice 
(£9.); \y^ w>]^l (^uwat) the naTal 
forces; 4j^ oULi (na&a^O Qiarine flora, 
water plants 

4j_^ hoiyTlyfL navy 

*^ boAm pond, pool 

jL^ fcoAAar pi. -lin, ijU- fta^Adra sea- 
man, mariner, sailor; pi. ajl^ crew (of a 
ship, of an airplane) 

»j^ huhaira pi. -at, J[^ fioAd'tH lake; 
{tun.) vegetable garden, truck garden 

d\j^ bvhran crisis (of an illness); cli- 
max, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy) 

j»Ji tabahhur deep penetration, delv- 
ing (j into a subject), thorough study 

_f>i^ mutab(thhir thoroughly familiar 
(j with); profound, erudite, searching, 

jj^ baJtlaqa; 4. 
gaze (j at) 

jJ^ ('ainaiki) to stare, 

^t- f' ^'*- ^^ excellent! well done! bravo! 

^^. bakka u (bakk) to snore; to spout, 
spurt, squirt {m; to sprinkle, splatter 
(«_> M with) 

4p:-l>^ bakkdka nozzle 

^^^ {eg.) bukkeka squirt, syringe 

"ii-m^ mibakka nozzle 

C^ bakt luck; a kind of lottery | ,zJmJ\ JJi> 
unlucky; cS^\ *j>^ bad luck 

c^^ baklt lucky, fortunate 

o>^^ mabkat lucky, fortunate 

Jj^ II Uxbaktara to strut, prance 

^ II to vaporize, evaporate (a; to 
fumigate {*}; to disinfect (*; 
to perfume with incense, expose to aro- 

matic smoke (a V tb evaporate 
(water); to volatilize, turn into smoke or 
haze; to perfume o.a., or b© perfumed. 
with incense 

jlii bitkdr pi. -di, Zj^\ aikira vapor, 
fume; steam 

{^jU^ bukan steam (adj.), steam-driven 

jj^ bakur incense; irankincense | jjj^ 
fljt b. maryam cyclamen ijbot.) 

jjcl abkar^ suffering from halitosis 

Sjiw mibkara pi. _r-'-r* fnabdkir^ (also 
-at) censer; thurible; fumigator 

j^imJ iabkir fumigation 

j^«J tabakkur evaporation, vaporiza- 

lj^^_ bdkira pi. j^^ji bawdkir* steamer, 

»j^_yi buwaikira small steamboat 

,jJ^ bakasa a {baks) to decrease, diminish, 
reduce {*; to lessen (e.g., 4uJi 
qimatahu the value of; to disregard, 
neglect, fail to heed (a 

^jJ^ baks too little, too low ; very low 

,_^lj bakis small, little, triflinf^, un- 

,jiiiJ6 bakSU pi. ^^^^ bakdSW tip, gratuity 

mj^ baka'a a {bak') with 4«aj: to kill o.b. 
(with grief, anger, rage) 

^1 ahkaq^, f. •Lijc bakqd'^ one-eyed 

JjC bakila a {bakal)^ bakula it {bukl) to be 
niggardly, be stingy (i_> with, ^ or 
J* with regard to s.o.), scrimp (^je, J* 
S.O., i_j for), stint (i_j in, j^- or Jp a.o.), 
withhold (^, J* from s.o., t_> VI to 
give reluctantly, grudgingly (^, J* to 
8,0., V fi-tb.) 

Jjt bukl avarice, cupidity, greed 



JJe bajfll pi. .^ bt^li'' ararioiiMU, 
greedy; niiB«r, skiofliut 

«Uw mabjfala caiue of avorioe, that 
which arouaes ararloe or greed 

jui ftufcnuf pi. ^yUc bajcani^ kerchief, veil 
(to cover the he&d) 

jj iotiia u (tiuij) to diatribnte, spiead, 
disperM 11 to divide, diatribute, spread, 
scatter, disperse (*; to remove, 
eliminate («; to waste, squander, 
iritter away, dissipate (* V pass, 
of 11; X to be independent, proceed 
independently {<^ in, e.g., in one's opinion, 
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, head- 
strong); to possess alone, monopolize 
(«->; to take possession (^ of s.o.), 
seize, grip, overwhelm, overcome (v s.o.; 
said of a feeling, of an impulse); to dis- 
pose arbitrarily, highhandedly {>-> of; to rule despotically, tyrannically, 
autocratically (^ over) 

Ja budd way out, escape | j$^ ^ Ijl 
ijl ^ A( (biiddun) if it is inevitable 
that...; Aj "i (budia) definitely, cer- 
tainly, inevitably, without fail; by all 
means ; j.i Oj "^ it is necessary, inescapable, 
unavoidable, inevitable, c^ <l Oj "^ he 
simply must do it, he oan*t get around it; 
■o JT ^ min kuUi buddin in any case, at 
any rate 

JjM abddidf (pi.) scattered 

jjiJ labdid scattering, dispersal, dis- 
persion; removal, elimination; waste, 

i\xS^\ istibddd arbitrariness, high- 
handedness; despotism; autocracy; ab- 

j^l-Ll^l ittibdadf arbitrary, highhand- 
ed, autocratic, despotic; C^L^I-^I iHib^ 
dddlyat arbitrary acts 

J-Ut mvixiddid scatterer, disperser; 
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift 

■> / !■■ muatabidd arbitrary, highhanded^ 
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; auto- 
crat, tyrant, despot | 4j1^ ■'^~„- (bi-m** 
yM) opinionated, obstinate, headstrong 

'■h bada'a a (•Ai bad') to begin, start {^ or 
J with, A; • with s.o.; with 
foil, imperf. : to do or doing 
respectively); to set in, begin, start, 
arise, spring up, crop up II to put (a, J« before else), give preced- 
ence or priority (» to, J» over else) III to begin, start (<_>, > 
with regard to s.o.), make the first step, 
take the initiative or lead («_> in, * 
toward s.o.), e.g., f^ilSlO •tjl* (fcriom) to 
accost s.o., speak £rst to s.o. IV to do or 
produce first (i>, bring out (i 
new) I -Lm Uj ^.Lj L, 771a yubdCu wa-md 
yv,*idu he can't think of a blessed thing 
to say; o^mj ^o-j he says or does every- 
thing conceivable YIII to begin, start 
(^ with 

iAj bad" beginning, start | lUJI ij, from 
the (very) beginning; Ujuj l:ij> <Li ('aw 
dan wa-6a^an) or aj .u Jp d ijt. ('tiudahu 'aid 
baSihi) or >4j Jl \ijK (iZd bacCin) he did 
it all over again, he began anew 

• i-u bad'at 4L.U badVa, ajIoj biddya 
beginning, stf^rt | ^Vi 4jl.b j in the be- 
ginning, at first 

1*\Ai bads a beginning, start; first step, 
first instance | tii atljj badi'aSa bait in 
right at the outset, at the very be- 

(JIAj buda^i primitive 

l.i_, mabda' pi. ^iL. mabiidi'' be- 
ginning, start, starting point; basis, foun- 
dation; principle; invention; pi. prin- 
ciples, convictions (of a person); ideology; 
rudimente, fundamental concepts, ele- 
ments I ^jLil i.^ hutub oZ-m. elementary 



(JV Tnabda'% original, initial; funda- 
mental, basic; LjJ-* mabda'iyan origi- 
nally; in principle 

•loijl ibtidd* beginning, start; novitiate 
(CAr.) I J* *\^zj\ ibtidaan min from, 
beginning ..., as of (with foil, date) 

Jloijl ibtidd'i initial; preparatory, ele- 
mentary, primary; of first instance ijur.); 
original, primitive [ v'-^' '^^S^ (mah-- 
kama) court of first instance; jI-lijVI Ji*Jl 
elementary education; v'*^^ l^jXt {macU 
rasa) lower grades of a high school, 
approx.: junior high school (as dis- 
tinguished from ljji\j); V'-^,' "W-^ (^(^' 
hdda) approz.r junior high school grad- 
uation certificate 

[$i\j badi' beginning, starting | j-iVi U^^. 
bddi'a l-amr and jm^\ J^jIj j in the begin- 
ning, at first; J{j\ ^jU j right away, 
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly; 
*M Lf^ *iS^^. badi* a dl bad*in above all, 
first of all, in the first place, primarily; 
»_^i Li-sLJl al-badi'u dikruhu (the person 
or thing) mentioned at the outset, the 
first- mentioned 

^-^^ mvhiadi* beginning ; beginner; 
novice (CAr,) 

IJjL^ mubtada* beginning, start; {gram,) 
subject of a nominal clause 

^j^ badara u to come unexpectedly, by sur- 
prise; to escape (j- s.o, ; e.g., words in 
excitement) III to come to a.o.'s (») 
mind, occur to s.o. (0) all of a sudden, 
strike s.o. (idea, notion); to embark, 
enter (Jl upon or set out (J( to do without delay; to rush, hurry (Jl 
to 8.O., to a place); to hurry up {^j with, Jl j-ilj with foil, verbal noun: 
to do promptly, without delay, 
hasten to do; to fall upon s.o (») 
with (1^), accoat, asaail, suTpriae (1-^ • 
s.o. with; e.g., iLJU- p'!)'^ »j.>l> to 
finap rudely at s.o.); to react, respond (Jl 

to 1 JpjJl jljf I Jl jilj {injdzi l-wa'd) 
to set out to fulfill a promise VI jjLJ 
j^JUi Jl [dihn) to suggest itself strongly, 
be obvious; to appear at first glance as if 
(61); 61 j^S Jl jjLj {dihni) it occurred 
to me all of a sudden that . . . ; ^^iJI Jf jjLJ 
{fahm) to be immediately understood 
VIII to hurry, rush, hasten (a to); to get 
ahead of s.o. (»), anticipate, forestall 
(• B.o.) I "i^Jli UjOIjI before she could say 
a word he exclaimed . . . 

jOj hadr pi. jjJj budur full moon 

IjXi badra pi. badarat, jlx biddf huge 
amount of money (formerly = 10,000 
dirhams) j Jlj^Vl -^b-k enormous sume 
of money 

j\Xi baddri hurry! quick! 

SjjL* mubddara undertaking, enter- 

SjjIj bddira pi. ji\ji bav>ddir* herald, 
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first in- 
dication, sign; unfore&een act; etirring, 
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); blunder, mis- 
take; ji\ji stirrings, impulses | ju^ aj^L 
b. Jcairin a good, or generous, impulse 

'jXj baidar pi. j^L bayadir^ threshing 

(•jj-4 fl-nd ^JJ-^. (Turk, bodrum) badrum, bad* 
run pi. 'dl basement 

pjj bada'a a {bad') to introduce, originate, 
start, do for the first time («, be the 
first to do (a); to devise, contrive, 
invent (* II to accuse of heresy 
(a S.O.) IV = I; to create {a,); to 
achieve unique, excellent results (j in); 
to be amazing, outstanding (j in 
VIII to invent, contrive, devise, think 
up (* X to regard as novel, as 
unprecedented (a 

9li bad' innovation, novelty; creation | 
iji^j Ujj ba^an wa-'audan repeatedly 



9-jj bid' pi. p-l-ul abdd' innovator; new, 
original; unprecedented, novel | f-Oj V 
la bid'a no wonderj jt pJj "^ 2a bid'a an 
no wonder that . . . ; ^ ^-Jj else than; 
unlike, different from 

^p-ij bid'a pi, p'-b buJa'' innovation. 
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pi. 
creations (of fashion, of art) | 9aJ\ ^\ 
ahl aUb. heretics 

^Jj badi', f-Jj bud* unprecedraifced, 
marvelous, wonderful, amazing, admira- 
ble, singular, unique; creator | ^jJI U 
'ilm aW>. the art or science of meta- 
phors and (in general) of good style 

iujj badi'a pi. -iljj badd*i'* an aston- 
ifihing, amazing thing, a marvel, a woiider; 
original creation 

jjpj^ badtl rhetorical 

F'-bl abda'^ more amazing, more ex- 
ceptional; of even greater originality 

(■l-bl ibdd* creation, faehiociug, shap- 
ing; a marvelous, unique achievement; 
uniqueness, singularity, originality; crea- 
tive ability 

0(^'-M' tfitWi romantic (lit.) 

0<^\jl}\ &)dd'itfa romanticism (lit.) 

f-o-* mitbdi' producing, creating; crea- 
tive; creator; exceptional, unique, out- 
standing (in an achievement, eap. of 
an arti&t) 

yj^ mvhiadi' innovator; creator; her- 

3<^, look up alphabetically 

Jjj badala u to replace (i-> m by), 
exchange (l^ a for) II to change, 
alter (a * to), convert (* m 
into); to substitute (a for, uj or 
^, exchange, give in exchanf^ 
(a, »_j or j^ for); to change (* 
Ill to exchange (a « with s.o. lY to 
replace (ly a by), exchange (i^ a 

for else); to compensate (a l^ * 
9.0. for with else), give s.o. (•), (a) in exchange for {^) V to change; 
to be exchanged VI to exchange (a, 
also wtffds, views, greetings) X to ex- 
change, receive in exchange, trade, barter 
(u A and A 4J for); to replace (a 
^ and A 1^ by), substitute {lj m and 
A <-j for else) 

J-b badal pi. JIjjI abddl substitute, 
alternate, replacement; equivalent, com- 
pensation, setoff; reimbursement, rec- 
ompense, allowance; price, rate; (graTn.) 
appositiotial substantive standing for an- 
other substantive | ol^l Jjj b,al-jirdya 
allowance for food; OjjLJI J.Ij b. a#- 
safaripa travel allowance; iiijl-Vl Jjj 
aubscription rate; J/i-JI J-U expense 
account, expense allowance 

Jjj badala (prep.) instead of, m place 
of, in lien of 

jr> V->J badalan min in place of, in- 
stead of, in lieu of 

<|jj bodla pi. badalat, Jjj bidai swA 
(of clothes); costume | |*^l ^Jju b. ah 
hammdm bathing suit; l^j liJa {ras^ 
mlya) uniform; iJiJu^ ij^u (tairifatiya) 
full-dress unifbrm 

cJ Jj badaliya compensation, smart 

lJIjj badala (prep.) instead of, L. JIjj 
(conj,) instead of (being, doing, etc.) 

Jjjj badil pi. ^V-Ij budaW^ substitute, 
alternate (^y or ^ for); stand-in, double 
{(heat.); (f. :) serving as a replacement or 
substitute | iL^U IjjJu (mafraza) reserve 
detachment (miL) 

Jiuj badddi grocer; moneychanger 

dJijj badddla culvert; pipeline; tele* 
phone exchange, central 

Q JjL* TRobadiJ^ see Jjj 

Jj.iJ iabdxl change, alteration 



iljL- mvhadala pi. -at exchange | oV^L. 
ijjljf [tijdrXya) commercial exchange, 
trade relations 

JIjjI ihddl exchange, interchange, re- 
placement {u_j by), substitution (^ of); 
change; phonetic change 

(JaJ tabaddul change, shift, turn; 
transformation ; transmutation, conver- 

(JiLj tabddul (mutual) exchange | 
^':A-J1 JiLj f. as-ealdm exchange of greet- 
ings; J»1_>J-'t JiU thought tranfiference, 

Jlo-I-l iatibddl exchange, replacement, 

d-L^ mtibdil: otJl^^VI J-l^* 
wdTidt automatic record changer 

JjLi* mutahadal mutual, reciprocal 

li-ii haduva u and badana u to be fat, corpu- 

j-b badan pi. aloji abdatif lJJjI abdun 
body, trunk, torso 

t^Jj badani bodily, corporal, physical, 

iil-b baddiui corpulence, obesity 

^Jj badin pi. ajj bvdun stout, cor- 
pulent, fat, obese 

iJjjj buduna corpulence, obesity 

(jjtj bddin pi. oJj 6t«in stout, corpulent, 
fat, obese 

s.4j hadaha a to come, descend suddenly {• 
upon 8.0.), befall unexpectedly (* s.o.); 
to surprise (s s.o.) with (l^) III to 
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (^ » 
before s.o. with VIII to extem- 
porize, improvise, do offhand, on the 
spur of the moment (* 

i»lJi baddha spontaneity, spontaneous 
occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way, 
naturalness, matter-of-factness ; 4« I JU badd* 

hatan and UloJU aU by itself, spontane- 

i^-Jj badifia sudden or unex- 
pected ; improvisation ; impulse, inspi- 
ration, spontaneous intuition; intuitive 
understanding or insight, empathy, in- 
stinctive grasp, perceptive faculty [ J* 
If-oJI all by itself, spontaneously; off- 
hand; l^jJl j^\*- quick-witted, quick at 
repartee; l^l^ i^jj presence of mind 

j_j.j-Jj badihl and ^Jj badahi intuitive; 
self-evident; a priori (adj.) 

ij^^Jj badlhi^a pi. -at an axiom, a fun- 
damental or self-evident truth; truism^ 
commonplace, platitude 

*j|jj badd*ih^ fundamental or self- 
evident truths 

(jjj) \dj badd u to appear, show, become 
evident, clear, plain or manifest, come 
to light; to be obvious; to seem good, 
acceptable, proper {J to s.o.) Ill to show, 
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare 
openly | Sjl^JU i^jL {"addwa) to show 
open hostility IV to disclose, reveal, mani- 
fest, show, display, evince (*; to 
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light, 
make visible (a; to express, utter, 
voice (a [ j aAj ^£Ju^\ {ra'yahu) 
to express one's opinion about; <J.j ^^JjI 
(ragbatan) to express a wish or desire 
V = I; to Live in the desert VI to pose as 
a Bedouin 

jXi badw desert; nomads. Bedouins 

tjj4j badawi Bedouin, nomadic; rural 
(as distinguished from i^ban); a Bed- 

<Ij<Xj badawlya pi. -at Bedouin woman. 
Bedouin girl 

otoj baddh pi. oljUj badawdi whim, 
caprice; ill-humor 

lj\Xi baddwa and biddiva desert life. 
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 



t\Xj baidd'* desert, ateppe, wilderness, 

^\Xt\ ibdd' expression, manifestation, 

jL badin apparent, evident, obvious, 
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pi. 
l\ij buddh Bedouins 

4j3L{ bddiya desert, semidesert, steppe; 
Pleasantry; {pi. ^^jt bawddin) nomads, 

4j1aj b^ya = 3»Iuj 

ij baiia n (ba4d) to get the better of (i), 
beat, swpass (< s.o.) 

Xi bad^ and jU badd slovenly, untidy, 
shabby, fiHby, squalid 

S^ljj &a^^ slovenliness, untidiness, 
shabbiness, dl^tinesB, filth 

IAj bada'a a to revile, abuse (Jr s.o.), rail 
(J« at B.O.); — ^ij badi*a a, jAj fro^u^d u 
to be obscene, bawdy 

•^Jij baif disgusting, loathsome, nause- 
ous, foul, dirty, obsoene, bawdy, ribald 

•ll> bads' and :>IJj badSa obscenity, 
ribaldry, foulness (of language) ; disgust, 
loathing, aversion, contempt 

^ii badaka a to be haughty, proud 

^Xt badak luxury, pomp, splendor; 
haughtiness, pride 

rj>\j bsdik pi. ^>\y_ bawSdik' high, 
lofty; proud, haughty 

jXi badara it l.badr) to sow, disseminate (*, seed, also fig. = to spread) 11 to 
waste, squander, dissipate (* 

jIj badr pi. jjij budur, jlij biddr 
seeds, seed; seedling; pi. jjii pips, pits, 
stones (of fruit) 

ijXi baira (n. un.) a seed, a grain ; pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ 
cell (of a development, and the like) 

jVii bi4ar seedtime 

yiJ tab4ir waste, squandering, dissi- 

jXf mvbad4ir squanderer, wastrel, 

i3JL> look up alphabetically 

J^ badala i u (badl) to give or spend firecly, 
generously (a; to sacrifice (*; 
to expend (a; to offer, grant (* | 
•J4»- ^l^ii ijahdahu) to take pains; t^ii 
I j_^ do. ; aOcL.^ JT Jaj {kutia muad'adatin) 
to grant every assistance; ^^1 J-^ to 
make efforts; J u.\U\ JIi to obey s.o., 
defer to s.o.; JU JT JIj (huUa ffdlin) and 
J;^ J ijj4>.jjlj Jlill Ji to spare no 
effort, go to any length, give everything, 
pay any price for or in order to; JL 
<ir-j >U [ma'a imihihl) to sacrifice one's 
honor; (Olii ,jp or) 0^ jjj <— i Ji to 
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; <a«-j Jaj (wud'aA-A) 
to do one's utmost, do one's best T to 
fritter away one's fortune, be over- 
generous; to prostitute o.s. (woman); to 
display common, vulgar manners YllI to 
wear out in common service, make trite, 
vulgar, commonplace, to hackney (*; to abuse (j>; to express o.s. 
in a vulgar manner, use vulgar language ; 
^.Ju JJbt to degrade O.8., demean o.e., 
sacrifice one's dignity 

tli> btt4l giving, spending; sacrifice, 
surrender, abandonment; expenditure; 
offering, granting ba4l(i suit (of clothes) 

i}Ju. mibjal pi. J^L, mabd^iP slipper; 
pi. JjL, casual clothing worn around 
home I <J^L* J o'M so-and-so in his 
private life 

tlljbl ibti^ triteness, commonness, 
commonplaceness; banality; debasement, 

JjL MjiJ spender 



Jo-i. mutabaddil vulgar, common 

Joi^ mubtadal trite, hackneyed, baDal* 
common, vulgar; everyday, common- 
place (adj.) 

*_r barra (Ist pers. perf. barirtu, barartu) a i 
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; 
to be kind (• or ^ to s.o.); to be chari- 
table, beneficent, do good (<y to s.o.); to 
obey (• 6,0,, esp, God); to treat with 
reverence, to honor (*^ or • the parents); 
to be honest, truthful; to he true, valid 
(sworn statement); to keep («-j a promise, 
an oath) II to warrant, justify, vindicate; 
to acquit, absolve, exonerate, exculpate, 
clear {a, » e.o,, | »_j <#»-_> jy {wajhahu) 
to justify 0.8. by IV to carry out, fulfill 
(a, a promise, an oath) V to justify 
o.s. ; to be justified 

J birr reverence, piety; righteousness, 
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness; 
charitable gift 

J barr and jL bdrr pi. j\j\ abrdr and 
Ijj harara reverent, dutiful (u* toward), 
devoted (t_j to); pious, godly, upright, 
righteous; kind 

i_^ mabarra pi. -at and jL* mabdrr^ 
good deed, act of charity, benefaction; 
philanthropic organization; charitable 
institution, home or hospital set up with 
private funds 

^jC (ofinr justification, vindication 

jL bdrr reverent, faithful and devoted; 
see also under j barr above 

jjj^ nto-brur (accepted into the grace 
of the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a 
deceased person) 

j_A« mubarrir pi. -at justification; 
excuse | iJ j>* "^ (mubarrira) unjusti- 

*/ barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, 
mainland; open country; \j barran out. 

outside I \j^j Ij- barran toa-bahran by 
land and sea 

iSj barri terrestrial, land (adj.); wild 
(of plants and animals) j aJL. 4j^ *j^ 
{aayydra, md'iya) amphibious vehicle 

ijj. barriya pi. t^jl^ bardrly open 
country; steppe, desert; see also ^\j 

ij\j barrdni outside, outer, exterior, 
external; foreign, alien 

^j burr wheat 

M_r bara'a a {*j bar') to create (*, said 
'of God) 

»j bar' creation 

*jj bariya pi. -at, Lly bardya creatioik 
(= that which is created); creature; see 
also V 

[f jUl al-bdrV the Creator (God) 

^^_r hari*a a {a»\j bard'a) to be or become 
free, be cleared {^ from, esp. from guilt, 
blame, etc., Jl toward s.o.); to recover 
{^ from an illness) II to free, clear, 
acquit, absolve, exculpate (» s.o,, j* from 
suspicion, blame, guilt) | ^J\ i^U \j 
{sdkata r-rajul) he acquitted the man 
IV to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate 
(* S.O.); to cause to recover, cure, heal 
(a 8.0.) I O.J \j\ {dimmaiahu) to clear 
s.o. or 0.8. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or 
o.s. V to clear o.s. (^ from suspicion, 
from a charge), free o.s. (^y from respon- 
sibility, etc.), rid o.s. {;y of); to declare 
0.8. innocent, wash one's handa [^ of); 
to be acquitted X to restore to health, 
cure, heal (* s.o.); to free o.a. (j- from), 
rid 0.9. ((>. of) 

*j bur' and »jj buru' convalescence, 

*iSJ iari* pi. *Ijj'1 abriyd'^, .ly burd', 
bird' free, exempt {^y from), devoid 
(ij- of) ; guiltless, innocent ; guileless, 
harmless; healthy, sound 



»\j bard* free, exempt (^ from) | 4:^^ 
Cf *^J idimmaCuAS) he is innocent of .. . 

U\j bara'a being free; disavowal, with- 
drawal; innocence, guiltlessness; naivete, 
guileleasnesa, artlessness; (pi. -at) license, 
diploma, patent | f'J^I *»^j patent on 
an invention; •Liinil «>ly exequatur {& 
written authorization of a consular officer, 
issued by the government to which he 
is accredited); <4Jjl l»\j b. cU-tiqa {Tun.) 
credentials (dipL); l*\j J^ harmless; 
without guilt, innocent 

4JJU iabrVa freeing, exemption; acquit- 
tal, absolution, discharge, exoneration 

«ljL. mu£iara*a mubarat, divorce by 
mutual consent of husband and wife, 
either of them waiving all claims by way 
of compensation {Id. Law) 

t\j\ ibra' acquittal, absolution, release; 
release of a debtor from his liabilities, 
remisaion of debt (Isl. Law) 

>tr^::*«t ietibra': J^l »l^;^:Lrfl ist. al-hamal 
the ceremony of selecting and purifying 
the Host before Mass {Copt.-Chr.) 

iS^j^^ji baraguwdy Paraguay 

JjjljJI al-b9rdzil Brazil 

ijj^\j (Ft. braiserie) brOaeri beer parlor, 

fSj Prague 

Ci\i\j (Ft. paravent) baravdn folding screen 

L^ty b^rahmd Brahma 

4ij birba and tjj birbd pi. ij\j bar&i 
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins 
dating back to ancient Egypt (e^.) ; 
labyrinth, ma£e 

f-j barhak pi. ^Jj- bar&ik* water pipe, 
drain, culvert, sewer pipe 

_^j barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large 
crowd], jabber, mutter, prattle 

^J^ll al-barbar the Berbers 

i^jj barbari Berber (adj.); barbaric, 
uncivilized; — (ph 'ij\j bardbira) a 
Berber; a barbarian 

^ij J CiarCiariya barbar(ian]ism, barbar- 
ity, savagery, cruelty 

y jO mviabarbir barbaric, uncivilized 

^J~^JJ' look up alphabetically 

^^,J barbii (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an 
enema, etc.) 

iijy barbafa to splash, paddle, dabble (in 

ijjij (It. barbone) barbUni, also j^y red 
mullet (MuUus barbatus; sooU) 

ij-^,J barbU barbel (zool.) 
JLuV burtugdl Portugal 

jUJj' bvrtugdli Portuguese 

JUj'_r burtuqalt jU^y bvrtuqdn orange 

jUby burtuqdli,ij[juj Aufftu/dn-i orange, 
orange- colored 

^j burtun pi. j>\j baratin* claw, talon 

*p-_r V to display, show, play up her charms 
(woman); to adorn herself, make herself 
pretty (woman) 

'r-r. ^"n P^' KJJ buHij, r\j\ ahrdj tower; 
castle; sign of the zodiac \ A^^ r_J ^' 
al-hamdm pigeon house, dovecot; wy 
•Ql b. al-miydh water bower 

'^rjU bdrija pi. rJ^j* bawdrif warship, 
battleship; barge 

^^U^l v-^ la'b ai-birjds a kind of equestrian 
contest, joust, tournament 

'ij-Ai^jJl al-birjia Jupiter {astron.) 

Jj^j- barjal pi. J*-ly Aaro;tP compass, (pair 
of) dividers 



4>/ bur7uma pi. ^\j barSjim* knuckle, 
finger joint 

^j- bariha a (^ly hardh) to leave {» or j^ a 
plaoe, JE for), depart (* from, Jl on 
one's way to); with neg.: to conbinue 
to be (= Jlj) I J ^y U he is atUl in ...; 
Lifr ^y U (ganfyon) he is still rich; ^j 
•Ui>'l (^o*) the matter haa come out, 
has beoome generally known; -yj \^i. 
to come and go II to beset, harass, 
trouble, molest (l^ s.o.) Ill to leave 
(a a place, Jf for), depart (* from, J1 on 
one's way to) 

w-\j barah departure; cessation, atop; 
a wide, empty tract of land, vast expanse, 
raatness ; ^^j bardhan openly and 
plainly, patently 

^jL' tabdnh* agonies, torments (e.g., 
of longing, of paasimi) 

««-jL* mubdraha departure 

•'jU bdrih (showing the left side, i.e.) 
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as 
opposed to ^U); r^jUl al-bariha yester- 

4f-jU1 al'barihaUi yesterday | •^jU\ ^LJJl 
{lailcUa) last night; '*^j\J\ Jjl awtoala 
I'b. the day before yesterday, two days 


miibarrih violent, intense, ex- 

cruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains) 

*i ^j-^ mvbarrah bihi stricken, affUcbed, 

^^y barada u to be or become cold; to cool, 
cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to cool, 
chill {>,); to soothe, alleviate (a 
pain); — baruda » to be or beconw cold 
II to make cold (a; to refrigerate 
(*; to cool, chil! (*, also fig.); 
to soothe, alleviate (* pain) V to refresh 
o.a., cool o.a. off; to be soothed, be 
alleviated VIII to become cold, cool off 

J J- bard coldness, chilliness^ coolness; 
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh 

jy barad hail, lij barada (n. un.) 

jjy barud collyrium 

ijj burud coldness, coolness, chilliness; 
emotional coldness, frigidity 

•^jj buTuda coldness, coolness, chil- 
liness ; emotional coldness, frigidity | 
p-OI lijj 6, <id-dam cold-bloodedness 

*jij bardlya ague, feverish chill; see 
also below 

•li^ buradS* ague, feverish chill 

Sjly batrdda cold-storage plant; re- 
frigerator, icebox 

Ojju tabr^ coolings chilling; cold 
storage, refrigeration; alloviation, mit- 
igation ( -iijcli jL^j^ jahdz at-t. cold- 
storage plant, refrigerator; -^ycll u^ 
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room 

jjU bdrid cold; cool, chilly; easy; 
weak; stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce, 
blockhead | ojUl vj^' ib^^b) the cold 
war; SjjIj *•_::* an easy prey; jjIj jt** 
('atj) an easy life; ojIj '*J^ (hujja) a weak 
argument; ijlt kJ {tibg) light, mild to- 

ij^^ mubarrid cooling, refreshing; pi. 
-at refreshments (beverages, etc.] 

^j^ mubarrad cooled, chilled 
'j/ barada u to file (a a piece of metal, etc.) 
i\j barrad fitter (of machinery) 
*jly birdda fitter's trade or work 
ii\j burdda iron filings 
ij\^ mibrad pi. jjL. mabdrid^ file, rasp 

■iy burd pi. ilj-l abrdd garment 

Ijj- burda Mohammed's outer garment 
otjy burddya curtain, drape 



^ij IT to wud bj mail, to mail (a a letter) 

Jjy iarUpoct, iiiai]|;j_^l JjjJI (jbwirf) 
air mail 

ifJj^ ioridl postal ; messenger, courier; 

'ijjlj look up alphabetically 

'^i^J bardi, burdl papyrus (bet.) 

iiij bardiya pi. -at papyrus | il.lj jjjl it 
't/m o<-6, papyrology 

Jl^y barddq pi. Jjiij- baradig^ jug, pitcher 

r<>j^li h^ Ia'6 aj-6. bridge (game) 

^.ly bardaka to polish, burnish (* 

n *Aij = *tj^ 

J'y^j bardaqUI (= ^^jjj_,j) marjoram 

•jjjy {Fr. bordure} bardHra curbstone, curb 

«eij; bar^'a pi. j^^ilj. Jara^*"' saddle, pack- 
saddle (for donkeys and camels) 

fj^'i^j bard4i'i maker of donkey sad- 
dles, saddler 

Oj'ij^ bir^aun pi. ^i\j barS^in' vork horse, 
jade, nag 

^J y baraza u to come out, show, appear, come 
into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude, 
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to 
surpass, excel (Js s.o.) 11 to cause to 
come out, bring out, expose, show, set 
off, accentuate («; to excel, surpass 
(j J» S.O. in), stand out (j for), dis- 
tinguish o.B. (j by) III to meet in 
combat or duel (■ s.o.); to compete in a 
contest (■ with s.o.) lY to cause to come 
out, bring out, expose, make manifest 
(* ; to publish, bring out (* a book, 
etc.); to present, show (* e.g., an identity 
card) V to evaouato the bowels VI to vie, 

Jjj; buT&z prominence, projection, 

j\j^ bir&i excrement, feces; competi- 
tion, contest, mstoh (in sports) ; duel 

*yj; bvraixa (biriza; eg.) ton-piaater 

jj I abnu' more marked, more distinc- 
tive; more prominent 

!JjL* mubHraaa competition, contest, 
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing 

j\j\ ibrHi bringing out, displaying, 
setting off, accentuation; production; 

JjL bdriz protruding, projecting, sa- 
lient; raised, embossed, in rehef; marked, 
distinct, conspicuous; prominent (per- 

jj^ mubarriz surposaihg (Jp s.o.), 
superior (J* to s.o.); winner, victor (in 

JjL. muidriz competitor, contender; 
combatant, fighter; fencer 

'jy, (Fr. priM) brix pi. -at (plug) socket, wall 
plug, outlet {4yr.); :>j. bariza pi. j'\j 
barSiz* do. (eg.) 

'j_j} look up alphabetically 

*o\jj baraxdn trumpet 

^jj barzaje pi. ylj- barSzik^ interval, gap, 
break, partition, bar, obstruction; isth- 

Jjjj. burziiq sidewalk 

^aU^ birsdm pleurisy 

'f-i-r} look up alphabetically 

'f^j birtim clover, specif., berseem, Egyp- 
tian clover (Trifollum alexandrinum L.; 

'ijij. buri p\, jil^l abrSi mat 

^j.! abraP spotted, speckled 



•<_ly I look up alphabetically 

juiy hiriit: juij; ,jkj (f>o»#) soft-boiled 

iJjLSy barSilOna Barcelona (seaport in NE 

^_r barlama to stare, gaze (Jl at; to 
rivet (> 

ir'y barSama riveting 

f\ij buridm and jLSj. (n. un. •) pi. -SI 
wafer; Host (Chr.) 

*Aiij buridma rivet 

^Li_r burSdmji riveter 

i-)-j^y durJamjlyo riveting 

'^y ftar^a a (Iiara;) to be a leper 

^j burp wall gecko (Tarentola mau- 

ritanica, zool.) 
^j barof leprosy 
^j^j I abrof' leprous; leper | ^j^j} |»L" 

admm a. wall gecko 

'Loy Aur^a stock exchange 

ji^ ionnJo u (o'Jj; it*™^) to germinate, 
sprout (plant) 

Jjty 6ar^U2; ^ij*^' J^J b. al-bakriya ioie- 
caatle, crew quarters (on a merchant 

•ty barla'a {liX'j barfa'a) to gallop 

Jl>^ bar(ala (»U»y iarfoJa) to bribe (• s.o.) 
II iabarfala to take bribes, be venal 
JJ.j; birfil pi. JJ.1^ iwroiiP bribe 

'■Vj barfaTna to rave, talk irrationally 

f^j burtOm, bartim trunk of an 

'olSj bartaman pi. -Si {tyr., eg.) tall earthen 
or glass vessel (for preserves, oil, etc.) 

fj ban' a a to surpass, excel (• s.o.); (also 
bam'a u) to distinguish o.b., be skillful, 

proficient V to contribute, give, donate 
(i^; to undertake (voluntarily, lj, volunteer (i^ for), be prepared, 
willing (>^ to do; to be ready, be 
on hand (i^ with) 

\^\j &:zra'aakill, proficiency; efficiency, 
capability, capacity 

ifjy bmu'a superior skill, outstanding 

fjC iabarru' pi. -Si gift, donation; 

f-jU bdri' skilled, skillful, proficient, 
capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding 
(work of art) 

^j bar'ama to bud, burgeon, sprout 

fj bur'tim pi. f\j hard'im* and ry-j_ 
bur'um pi. ^Ij. barSlm' bud, burgeon; 
blossom, flower 

■Lijij burgil pl.i-ily iard^tf'fiea;pl. i^lj; 
(iyr.) small silver coins | j«JI •tijij b. 
ai-bahr shrimp {zool.) 

^j bargai (coll.; n. un. :) gnat(s), midge(s) 

Jiy burgiU cooked, parched and crushed 
wheat, served together with other food 
(«ff-. 'yr) 

J. J (Turk. J-jy, bur^M) burgi pi. jtlj. 
baragi screw 

jij birfir pi. ji\j bardjii^ purple 

tij J look up alphabetically 

'J^ baraqa u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash | 
•IpJI cjj (nima'u) there was Ughtoiag 
IT = I; to emit bolts of lightning 
(cloud); to flash up, light up; to brighten 
(face) ; to cable, wire, telegraph ( Jl to) 

Sj barq pi. 3jj burvq lightning; flash 
of lightning; telegraph | l-1»- 3j (fcuZioi) 
lightning without a downpour, used fig., 
e.g., of s.o. given to making promises 
without ever living up to them 



^SJ barql telegraphic, telegraph- (in 

"kJj harqiya pi. -at telegram, wire, 

Jij-^ hanq pj. jjlj. baraiq^ glitter, 
shine, gloss, luster | Jam Jjj- jj {ma'* 
dinX) lustered, coated with metallic 

ijl^ hurdq Alborak, name of the 
creature on which Mohammed made his 
ascension to the seven heavens (r'.f*-) 

Jl_,- barrdq shining, lugtrous, spar- 
kling, flashing, -glittering, twinkling 

J>. mahraq glitter, flash | ?<-—*)' 3j^ J 
/* m. i$-9ubh with the first rays of the 
morning sun 

(jjU bdriq: J*VI JjIj h. al-amal 
glimpse of hope 

iijL bdriqa pi. Jjl^ batodrig^ gleam, 

ij^r-. mitbriqi t^JlT 3jv teletype 

''iSjJl al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya) 

^Jj J.I look up olphabeticftUy 

*(3j.\i-l look up alphabetically 

I L.*^/ barqasa (iiiy barqnSa) to variegate, 

paint or daub with many colors (*; to embellish (a; 4iji one's 
speech) II tabargaSa reflex, and pass, of 1 

i^tij- birqis finch 

iiij- barqaM colorful medley, variety, 


J^j^ mubarqaJi colorful, variegated, 
many- colored 

pij barqa'a to veil, drape (*, • s.o., 
II tabarqa'a to put on a veil, veil o.s. 

^j* burqu' pi. -jl^ bardqi'^ veil (worn 
by women; long, leaving the eyes exposed) 

ijjjj- barquq (coll.; n. un. I) plum 

^i]j baraka u to kneel down II and IV to 
make (a the camel) kneel down II to 
invoke a blessing (J* or j on, J 
on 8.0.) Ill to bless (j or • a.o., also J 
or Jp), invoke a blessing on; to give 
one's blessing (a to, sanction 
(* V to be blessed (ij by); to enjoy 
{lj, find pleasure, delight (y in); 
to ask 8.0. 'b {»_j) blessing VI to be blessed, 
be praised; . . . lljLj tabaraka . . . God 
bless ... I X to be ] 

iTj- birka pi. ilj birak pond, small 
lake; puddle, pool | 4»-LJI ST/ 6. as- 
sibdha swimming pool 

ifj. baraka pi. -at blessing, benediction | 
o _/Jl iU qilht al-b. misfortune, bad luck 

ilj-l ahrai^ more blessed 

liL^ tabrik pi. -at good wish; blessing, 

iljU muhdrak blessed, fortunate, lucky 
^'^.j^j bardrlk^ {mor.) barracks 
jO birkdr compass, (pair of) dividers 
jfy bitrkSn pi. Cr^lj bardkin^ volcano 

JlTy burkdni volcanic 

oMj barlamdn parliament 

jLi^ barlamdni parliamentary 

4JL1^ barlamdniya parliamentarianism 

Jifj- (It. brillante) briUanti brilliant, dia- 

^Ij barlin Berlin 

^y barima a {baram) to be or become 
weary, tired (tj of), be fed up, te bored 
(oi with), find annoying, wearisome (t-j V to feel annoyed (lj by), be dia- 
pleaaed (lj with); to be fed up (ij with), 
be sick and tired («-j of, also j«); to be 
impatient, discontented, dissatisfied; to 
grieve, be pained 


fj barim weary, tired (i_j of), dis- 
gusted (i_> at, with) ; dissatisfied, dis- 

Aj^ tabarrum wearineas, boredom, dis- 
gust; discontent, diaaatisfaction; uneasi- 
nesa, discomfort, annoyance 

Aj<Lt muiabarrim cross, peevish, vesedj 

^^j barama u [harm) to twist, twine (* a 
rope); to shape (* round and long; 
to roli up (a the sleeves); to settle, 
establish, confirm (* IV to twist, 
twine (a a rope); to settle, eatablish, 
confirm (a; to conclude (a a pact); 
to confirm (a a judicial judgment); to 
ratify (a a treaty, a bill) VII to be aet- 
tled» be established, be confirmed; to be 
twisted, be twined 

iAj barrdma pi. -at drilling machine 

fj barim rope; string, cord, twine 

<t J barrima pi. -at drill, borer, gimlet, 
auger, bit; O corkscrew 

O *i:^ J" barrimlya spirochete 

|i.lyl ibrdm settlement, establishment; 
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.); 
ratification | pi^Vj ^j^i^l <^ mahkamat 
an-naq^ wa-l-i. Court of Cassation {Eg.) 

(jj^ Tty^brum: O rjjw *^^ {silk) wire 
rope, cable 

Aj^^ mubram firm, strong; irrevocable, 
definitely established; confirmed, rati- 
fied I ^j^^ «U^ {gada) inescapable fate; 
Xtj\> »jj^ irrevocably 

'<.y burpia pi, A J buram, Aj birdm earthen- 
ware pot 

L*j' buriTid Burma 

(jLi_r barmd'l amphibious | i-ILy ijLj {dab" 
baba) amphibious tank (mil.) 

O V'-*-'' bi^Tmd'iya amphibian 

c-ijL.j' (Engl.) barmdnant permanent wave | 
jjUl J* cuijL.^ cold wave (in hak) 

J^j- barmaq pi. J-I_r bardmiq^ baluster; 
spike (of a wheel) 

oLf.j' barattihdt the seventh month of the 
Coptic calendar 

^ljSo,*_r Birmingham 

flj^y barmuda the eighth month of the Coptic 

J_._/- barmil pi. J^lj- bardmil^ barrel; keg, 
cask; tun 

Zjj bamiya pi. Jij- bardnly clay vessel 

fXlj barnamaj pi. *\j bardmif program, 
plan, schedule; roster, list, index; cur- 

sijf-j burunjuk gauze, crepe 

^^j-jj bumus pi. ij-Jij' bardnis^ (also ^j-'jjj 
bamus, burniia pi. ^J-^'^J bardnla^) bur- 
noose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble 
(of Coptic priests) | ^\L\ ^j b, al- 
hammdm bathrobe 

(^'_/ bardnial pi. -lya maker of bur- 

'^1>ll JL». jibdl al-bardnis the Pyrenees 

^^y brins prince 

4„i-Jy briTisesa princess 

Jaj^ II tabarnafa to wear a hat 

ikJy bumaita pL -at, iaJ'y bardnif' 
(European) hat {men's and women's); 
lamp shade 

iij- burha pi. burahdt, ^j burah a while, a 
time; short time; instant, moment; 
4Ay burhatan a little while | 0^1*^; -Uj 
(after two moments =) in a short time 

n >j barliam {syr.) = Aj* marham 

jJ^j barahman pi. UaI^- bardhima Brahman 


4^^ barahmiya BrahmaniBm 

j»/ ierharui to prove, demonstrate {^^t- or 


ijl»j| burhdn pi. 0**'y iordAtn" proof 

4>y barhana prOTing, demonstration 

•jy barwa waste, scrap 

J!U_J|j; broloakmti Protestant; (pi. -tin) a 

Lub-jjji brototlantlya Protestantism 

j^jj (It. proUtto) brolotUI protest (of a bill 
of exchange) 

lijiyjj brolokOl protocol 

Oyjj brStOn proton 

^l>»jj| brogrSm program 

yrJJ buruji pi. -iyo trumpeter, bugler 

Jjj- barwaxa to frame 

J'jj; ftonttiz, &»rwdz pi. yj\j bardunz* 

W'J^, (I^- Pruaaia) bw&aiyd Prussia 
j-jy 6uru«f Prussian 

«jj; and <fj_r (It. prova) brSva, brBfa pi. .dt 
test, experiment; proof sheet; rehearsal 

jjj, (5*0 brom bronze 

tSjjj, bronzi bronze, bronzy j ^ '-I1 
tfyjjJ' ('<>#'■) the Bronze Age 

'(jj; iana t (6ary) to trim, shape (*, nib 
(* a pen), sharpen (* a pencil) ; to scratch 
off, scrape off (*; to exhaust, tire 
out, wear out, emaciate^ enervate {t s.o.), 
sap the strength of (•) III to vie, com- 
pete (« with S.O.), try to outstrip (• s.o.) 
TI to vie, compete, contend, be rivals; 
to meet in a conteet, try each other's 
strength (esp. in games and sports) VII to 
be trimmed, be nibbed, be sharpened; 
to defy, oppose (J s.o.); to undertake, 

take in hand (J, set out to do 
(J), enter, embark (J upon); to break 
forth {jA irom); to get going; to break 
out, let fly, explode (with words, esp. 
in anger or excitement) 

jj| baran dust, earth 

li\j barrSya, ^iUVi iij; i. al-aqlim 
pencil sharpener 

i\j^ mibrSh pocketknife 

• ijL> muidnKA pi. CjL jL> mvbUniyai con- 
test, tournament, match (in games and 
Bport«); competition, rivalry 

riyaha give the bow to him who knows 
how to shape it, i.e., always ask an 

jL:« muiab&rin participant in a con- 
test, contestant, contender; competitor, 

*Jjy see A J and 'j 

UUajy barifdniyS, birifaniyi Britain, LiUiJ^ 
^jjijl (-u^md) Great Britain 

JILjj' bariiani, birifanl British; Bri- 

'> boioa u (batz) to take away, steal, wrest, 
snatch (* • &om s.o., rob, strip 
(a * s.o. of; to defeat, beat, out- 
strip, excel (a S.O.], triumph, be vic- 
torious (■ over) Till to take away, st«al, 
pilfer (*; to take away, snatch 
(» money, Ja from s.o.); to rob, fleece 
(• 8.0.) j ^Ul Jt^i Jul to liil money out 
of people's pockets, relieve people of 
their money 

Jljvl ibtizdz theft, robbery; fleecing, 
robbing (of s.o.) 

*> baaa u to bud, burgeon 

> buzz, bizz pi, Jl> biiaz, j\j\ abtiz 
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast); 
teat, female breast 



"> bazz pi. jjj buzuz linen; cloth, drygooda 

•> bizza clothing, clothee* attire; uni- 
form I '*^j "iy {raamiya) uniform 

}\y bazzdz draper, cloth merchant 

*j\y hiidia cloth trade 
jji^ bazbUs pi. yJy bazdbiz^ nozzle, spout 
jj baxara » (bazr) to sow 

j_> bizr pi. jjj buzUr 8eed{8); pi. j\y\ 
abzdr and y J U I abazir^ epioe 

fjy ^izra {n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, 
pit, atone (of fruit); germ 

jlj- ftozzar Beedsman 

ajj buzaira pi. -at spore (bot.) 

f-y bazaga u to break forth, come out; to 
dawn (day) ; to rise (sun) 

fy> buzug appearance, emergence; 
rise (of the sun) 

Jy baxaqa u {bazq) to spit 

J\y buzaq spit, spittle, saliva 

<*i> bazzdqa snail; cobra 

4* ju mibzaqa pi. iijL« ma&dztiT' spittoon, 

^i}y bazala u (bazl) to split (a; to pierce 
(h> make a hole (m in); to tap, 
broach (*; a cask); to puncture, 
tap (o 8.0.; med.); to clear, filter (a a 

J J- bazl puncture, tapping, paracenteeis 

i}\y buxdl bung (of a cask) 
Jjw mibzal pi. JjL« Ttiabdzil^ spile, 
Bpigot, tap; cock, faucet 

'<)> (It. pMef/>) biziUa and Vj' green peas 
/■>! tftzim pi. /"jUl abdzlm' buckle, clasp 
Cij^y bizmut bismuth 
Jgjy bizanft Byzantine 

Jlj bdzin pi. «\y biadh, j\ji batodz-iiif oi>j 
bizdn falcon 

^ boii and iLj 2>(M5a pi. ^Lj bisds cat 

Lj 6a4a*a a (-^ Aoj') to treat amicably 
(i^ B.O.); to be intimatej be on familiar 
termB {^^ with) 

LjIjLj beadrabiyA Bessarabia 

^L^ baebaSt 4^l«.j basbdm {eg.) mace {bot.); 
{magr.) fennel 

^^^ bo^iZAi {eg.) pastry made of 
flouTj melted butter, sugar and oil 

^JJLj (Fr.) baatiliya paatilles, lozenges 

3jluj bustdn pi. Jt^Ih ^(^'^n* garden 

JIl^ &us£am gardener; garden (adj.); 

AiJ^ baatana gardening, horticulture 

* jji-j (Fr. 'pision) biai&n, (jT^j (Engl.) bistan 
pi. (^/l-j basaiin^ piston 

'Jyu.j (It. baatone) baatunt spades (suit of 
playing cards) 

4>^ baaka Easter; Passion Week {Chr.) 

j_j baaara v. (jj^, buaur) to scowl, frown; — 
baaara u [boar) and VIII to begin too 
early (a with), take premature action, 
be rash (a in 

J— J buar (n. un. 3) pi. jL_j 6wdf unripe 

j_^U bdaur pi. j^'_>j fcou'daJr' hemor- 

it^ basafa -u (b(M/) to spread, spread out 
(a; to level, flatten (a; to 
enlarge, expand (a; to stretch out, 
extend (a; to unfold, unroll (a ; 
to grant, offer, present (a; to sub- 
mit, state, set forth, expound, explain 
(a, J or Je to S.O.); to flog (« b.o.; 
Nejd); to please, delight (a e.o.) | U,-; 
4^ljj {dird'aihi) to spread one's arms; 


J 54tL-li Oj i*^ {yada l-musd'ada) to ex- 
tend a helping hand to s.o.; »-ij\l\ U- , ^ 
to lay the table; — ba&uta u {itLj ba* 
edfa) to be simple, openhearted, frani, 
candid II to spread, spread out, extend, 
expand (a; to level, flatten (a; to simplify, make simple {t 
in to Bet forth, state, expound, explain; 
to be sincere (i_j a with s.o. about or in, confess frankly (._j « to a.o. 
T to be spread, be unrolled, be spread 
out, be extended; to speak at great 
length (j about), enlarge (j on), treat 
exhaustively, expound in detail (j a 
theme); to be friendly, communicative, 
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be 
completely at ease j ilj-ii-l J L. -■? to 
talk freely, without formality VII to 
spread, extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, 
be delighted, be or become happy 

ii«j basf extension, spreading, un- 
rolling, unfolding ; presentation, state- 
ment, explanation, exposition; cheering, 
delighting, delectation; amusement; (Eg.) 
numerator (of a fraction) | JJl i*_j 6. 
aX-yad avarice, greed, cupidity 

^k^j bdip^i extension, extent, expanse; 
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abili- 
ties; excess, abundance; (pi. -di) state- 
ment, exposition, presentation; — (pi. 
J0I-J biac^) landing (of a staircase); ee- 
trade, dais, platform [eg,) 

^L-j bisai pi. -dif, ^k.^! o^/a, ia»j 
busni^ carpet, rug | <f-J\ ^Lj b. ar-rdhma 
winding sheet, shroud; iJL^ {^j or) r^ 
<L.y^\ J«L— J J« {mas'aUUant bakt) to raise a 
question, bring a question on the carpet, 
also 4.1jbli J»l— J J« {b, il-mundqaSa) for dis- 
cussion; 4-J U iL-Jl fj^ to bring the mat- 
ter to an end, settle it once and. for all 

i*-j baaif pi. .LL_j bnea^'^ simple; 
plain, uncomplicated; alight, little, mod- 
est, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; ia«Jl 
name of a poetical meter; pL »lk^ 

simple souls, ingenuous people | j> iJl Ja^-j 
6. aUyadain (pi. J»-j buavf) generous, 

iia--*Jl ai'bampi the earth, the world 

J*j'L-j basd'if^ elements; simple rem- 
edies, medicinal plants; basic facts 

4ULj batsafa simplicity, plainness 

O ^.j—i^ ubaiita pi. ii*-L)l abdsit^ rim, 
felly (of a wheel) 

Jt*jl absa^^ simpler; wider, more ex- 

Ja-— u tabslt simplification 

irU-wi inbiadf (n. vie. 3) extensity, ex- 
tenaiveneas, extension; expansion, ex- 
panse; joy, delight, happiness, gaiety, 

•tL^L <Lap *adaia ioji^ extensor {aruU.) 

JiTj— A* mabsiit extended, outstretched; 
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; 
detailed, elaborate (book) ; cheerful, 
happy* gay; feeling well, in good health; 
{tun.) well-to-do 

i*- ; ' * munhasit extending, spreading; 
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface 

l*J»«j (Turk.) baaturma a kind of jerked, 
salted meat {eg.) 

j>a-AJl al-b%ajur the Bosporus 

J«j basaqa u (i5>-j b'usuq) to be high, tall, 
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass {0 or 
J* s-o.) 
^Ij baaiq high, tall, lofty, towering 
J— y mubsiq high, tall, lofty, towering 
cJX-j (Fr. bicycldie) biakilet^ ba^kilet bicycle 
Cj^^) (It. biacotto) baskiit biscuit 
Cj^^L^ baskavnt biscuit 

^J-^ baatda u (iJl— j basdla) to be brave, 
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to 
be reckless, defy death 


<Jl_i batila courage, intrepidity 
JL^I MibtiU death defiance 
J^L bOta pi. -^ iiMoW", j>-lji haws' 
siP brave, fearlees, intrepid 

J ;- ■ mtuto&AtI death-defying, heroio 

*<i_j &ut2Ia peaa 

—J btuama i {batm), V and VIII to smile 
l_j baama pi. baaamdl smile 
«U_i boMam smiling 
— u ntoin'Tn pi. ^ L* mabMim' mouth; 
mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes, 

•Llil itiisim and (n. vie.) iJ—xi} pi. 
•at smile 

J 1 ' basmdla to utter the invocation 
^J\ ^J\ ^1 <-> "In the name of God, 
the Benificent, the Merciful" 

'I- * baemaia utterance of the above 
invocation; the invocation itself 

*u^ bumina kitty 

j^J^L-i ftiM^i psychologic! al) 

^Jj balia a (baii, <.iULi baiaia) to display a 

friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile; 

to be friendly (J to s.o.), give s.o. (J) 

a smile 

J;^ baiui, J^Jti baiSai smiling, 

friendly, cheerful 

LtlJL) baiaia smile; happy mien 

^Ij 6oW smiling, happy ; friendly, kind 

,: •; buH (Ktjd, Bohr., It.) a kind of cloak, 
= oLf 'aha*a 

^■*t hiMa (ef .) woolen cloak worn by 
Egyptian peasants 

*-lj baiara i, baSira a to rejoice, be delighted, 
be happy {^ at II to announce 
(as good news; t^ * to s.o.; to 
bring news (i^ • to s.o. of ; to spread. 

propagate, preach («-/; a religion, 
a doctrine) | i^ t—ij ji> (naJMhi) to 
indulge in the happy hope that .., IV to 
rejoice (at good news) X to rejoice, 
be delighted, be happy (>^ at, esp. 
at good news], welcome (^; to 
take as a good omen {<j 1 1 j^ *i j^^\ 
{kairan) to regard as auspicious 

jli biir joy 

j±j buir glad tidings 

^jLi buira glad tidings, good news 

IjLij biiSra pi. -Si, J\±) baiS'ir* good 
news, glad tidings; annunciation, proph- 
ecy; gospel; JllL> good omens, propitious 
signs I ijLtJI V 'iial-b. the Annunciation, 
the Day of Our Lady (Chr.) 

j»ij baifr pi. "Ij-lj buiarff' bringer of 
glad tidings, messenger, herald, har- 
binger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist 

j^Lm iabSir announcement (of glad 
tidings); preaching of the Gospel; evan- 
gelization, missionary activity 

i_jj»iu tabSiri missionary 

jJU tabSlfr* foretokens, prognostics, 
omens, first signs or indications, heralds 
(fig.); beginnings, dawn | j^^ -C^V '* 
al-jajr the first shimmer of aurora, the 
first glimpse of dawn 

jtxM mvbaMir pi. -un announcer, mes- 
senger (of glad tidings) ; evangelist (CKr.); 
preacher; missionary (CAr.) 

^*-- - mustahSir happy, cheerful 

'jl3 baSara u to peel (*; to scrape off, 
shave off, scratch off (»; to grate, 
shred {* Ill to touch (<, 
be in direct contact (a with; to 
have sexual intercourse (. with s.o.); 
to attend, apply o.s. (» or ^ to, 
take up, take in hand, pursue, practice, 
carry out (*, a job, a task, et<9.) 


^ baSar man, human being; men, 

(j^ bajari human; human being; 
epidermal, skin (adj.) | ^^^ v^.^ der- 

•^ baSara outer skin, epidermia, ou- 
bicle; akin; complexion 

4j^Jj baSariya mankind, human race 

•jJa* mibSara pi. ^^ L. mabdSir* soraper, 

•^L* m-ubdiara pursuit, practice; di- 
reot» physical cause {Isl. Law); mubd* 
iaraian immediately, directly 


mahSur : 



shredded cheese 

^L. mubdHr pi. -iin direct, immediate ; 
practitioner, pursuer, operator; director; 
O manager {Eg.)i court usher (Syr,); 
{ma.) approx. : staff sergeant {Eg. 1939) | 
^L* j^ indirect; s^L* oLL^I {ifSbdt) 
direct hits 

^j^ baSarSJ flamingo 

*1j haiVa a (IaUj baSd'a) to be ugly, loath- 
some II to make ugly, disfigure^ distort 
(*; to disparage, run down {a 
X to regard aa ugly, find ugly or re- 
pugnant (a 

>JLj baSi' ugly; offenaire, disgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

yLi bai^ ugly; offenaire, diaguating, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

4»ltj bai^a ugliness 

aIjI abSa'* uglier; more repulsive 
^^li look up alphabetically 
■*iij (eg.; Turk, ba^ka; invar.) different 
jXLi Tm to lie, prevaricate 

ilLlj bamk liar 

iILlXjI ibtiidk lie, deceit, trickery 

ij^Slij baikur pi. j^TLLj baidkir* poker, fire 

'j;£JL) baikir pi. ji^TLtj 6aioHr> towel 

<LLi (It.) biSiUa pi. -oj bacillus 

JJ &ajt7na a (boj^am) to feel nauseated, be 
disgusted {j* by, be fed up (^ 
with) IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust 

(. 8.0.) 

^ baSam surfeit, satiety, loathing, 

jUJL} baSTtidr {tun.) lacework, trimmings 

ij^LL) baidmirl (tun.) laceworker, lace- 

J*ij baSmaq slipper (worn by fuqahd' and 

h±i baina {magr.) sorgl^um, millet 

i^pULj baAina the ninth month of the Coptic 

<i^i.1j bahiuqa pi. jJ\Jii feoidnig' kerchief 
tied under the chin {pal.) 

ijwij baSnin lotus 

,jM ba§?a i {ba^, o'.-*l ba^^) to glow, 
sparkle, glitter, shine; ' — {eg.) u to look 
<^ ba^fia embers 

tj^ ; -^ &a^t^ glow, shine; glimpse, ray 
(e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining 

^Loj ba^fidf lustrous, shining; {eg.) 
spy, detective 

^;^ 6a^jK^u (<^ib^ 6a^da^) to wag {<Sh 
bi-4anab%hi its tail); {eg.) to ogle, make 
sheep's eyes, cast amorous glances 

*i*.^ baska see ^^--; 

^^^ bo^ra u, &cuira a (bo^ar) to look, see; to 
realize, understand, comprehend, grasp 
(<y II to make (* s.o.) see, under- 
stand or realize (a or <_.>, make 
(• s.o.) aware (* or ^ of; to en- 


lighten (a * or ty * s.o. on or as to,); 
to tell, inform (* • or l^ • b.o. about) 
IV to see (*, • 8.O.,; to make out, 
behold, perceive, discern, notice (*, • 
a.o.,, set eyes on (*, «), catch sight 
of (*, •); to recognize (*, • s,o.,; to 
reflect (i^ on), ponder {^ T to 
look (* at), regard (*; to reflect 
(j on, ponder (j X to 
have the faculty of visual perception, 
be able to see; to be endowed with 
reason, be rational, reasonable, in- 
telligent; to reflect (j on, ponder 
( j 

j^ bofar pi. jL^I ah0r vision, eye- 
eight; glance, look; insight; eighty dia- 
cemment, perception | j^^Jl j^ short- 
sighted, myopic; ^^aJl ^ lamh al-b. 
glance of the eye; jr.*Jl ^f, _p^l -i j, 
^1 ^ Ciji (duna), ^\ j^ ^> Jil j 
{agaUa) in the twinkling of an eye, in 
a moment, in a flash, instantly; (^.i* J« 
j^\ (mada) within sight; <^ j^ 4 he 
is knowledgeable in^ he is familiar with 

tSj^ ba^ri optic(al), visual, ocular 

oUj^ ba^ySt optics 

ijLst bof&ra perception, discernment; 
perspicacity, acuteneas of the mind, 
sharp- wittedness 

>M»3 6aj»r pi. »\j^ bufard** endowed 
with eyesight; acutely aware (<^ of), 
having insight (<yinto); possessing knowl' 
edge or understanding ( i_j of), dis- 
cerning, discriminating, versed^ knowl- 
edgeable, proficient (v ^)f acquainted 
(<_^ with 

•/UA3 hofiira pi. Jl^ ba^ir* (keen) 
insight, penetration^ discernment, under- 
standing, (power of) mental perception, 
mental vision | «.rwi3 ^ deliberately, 
knowingly; ^ •jwo J* jlT to have 
insight into, be informed about; '*j^\ -UU discerning, clear-sighted. 

perspicacious, sharp-witted; ij-^^\ i\Ju 
nafS4 al.-b. sharp discernment, perspioao* 

_^l ab^r* more discerning 

*y^ i€tb^ra enlightenment; instmc- 
tion, information 

^^^ taba$9ur reflection, consideration; 
penetration, clear-sightedness, perspicao- 

•^^li bdfira pi. j^^j> baw^i* eye 
-•^,^1 al-bafra Basra (port in S Iraq) 
J^ ba^aqa u to spit ( J«- on s.o.) 

4jLrfU ba^qa (n. vie.) expectoration; 
(expectorated) apit, spittle, saliva 

JLi> bu^aq spit, spittle, saliva 

'' ,^ - mibpaqa spittoon, cuspidor 

J.rfu ba^ (coll.; n. un. •) omon(B); bulb(8) | 
jU)l J.rfu fc. al-fa*r sea onion (Soilla vema) 

J«Aj bofali bulbous 

4L«Aj bufaUa pi. -df, j^lIII ^L-^ 
b. aS-Sa'r bulb of the hair {anat.) 

^ bafama u {ba^m) to print, imprint (a; to stamp (a; to make, or 
leave, an imprint (* on) 

<m^ bapma pi. bofamdt imprint, im- 
pression I ^\ <^^ h. al-Jfotm stamp im- 
print, stamp; ^,L»Vi <^^ fingerprint 

Ij^ bofwa embers 

jJl> ba44 tender-skinned 

•^ ba^a'a a (baf) to out, slash or slit open 
(*; to out up, carve up, dissect, 
anatomize ( ^.th.); to amputate i^urg.) 
II to cut up, carve up, dissect, anato- 
mize III to sleep {U with a woman) 
IT to invest capital (*) profitably in a 
commercial enterprise T pass, of 11; to 
trade; to shop, make purchases X to 



Myii ha4* amputation 

*-ij t^T (commonly, with genit. pi. 
of f. nouna, 4jtJu with genit. pi. of m. 
nouns ; in classical Arabic a^ with both 
genders) some, a few, several 

*»^ bi(fa pi, ^^ bi^^x^ piece (of 
meat); meat; Bee abo bvf above 

<^ bud' vulva 

4«Lub bida'a pi. ajUu bo^'i'^ goods, 
merchandise, wares, commodities; that 
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to 
show, with which he is endowed (also 
attributes, qualities) | iA^\ jUJ freight 
train; itLij ^ .Xp L ^^1 he said 
what he had intended to say 

AnOn^ mibfia* pi. ^*>L* mabw^i'^ dissect- 
ing knife, scalpel 

f-IUjI iinia!' mandate for the manage- 
ment of afTairs {lal. Law)\ partnership 
in a limited company, capital investment 

M^^ mubii' pi. •un limited partner 

^JLI*** mu8tab4i' manager, managing 
agent {lal. Law) 

Jftj ba^ (n. un. •) duck; ^Lj ba4fa leather 
flaak I JUI ;Lj calf (of the leg) 

jLi batu'a u (»1lj b%4\ vlU b\^\ StLUj 
fro/d'a] to be alow; to be slowgoing, 
slow-footed} slow-paced; to tarry, linger, 
wait, hesitate II to retard, slow down, 
delay, hold up (ij Jc s.o. in IV to 
slow down, decelerate, retard, delay, hold 
up (a; to he slow, go or drive 
slowly, slow down ; to be late {^ for, 
in meeting s.o.), keep s.o. (^) waiting 
V to be Blow, tardy {j in) VI to be alow, 
leisurely, unhurried; to go, drive, act or 
proceed slowly, leisurely; to he slow- 
going, slow-footed, slow-paced; to slow 
down X to find slow (*, « s.o.,; to 
have to wait a long time (■ for s.o.), 
be kept waiting (• by s.o.) 

•Jftj bvi* slowness, tardiness | *^ 
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly 

*Jmi bail' pi. .lU 6t/d' slow, unhurried; 
slowgoing, fllow-footed, slow-paced; tar- 
dy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual, 
imperceptible | O J-aj^' •^^. b. at-taraddud 
of low frequency {el.) 

iLil 06^'* slower | ^jj ^1^ ^ lUI 
(flfufo6» nuh) tardier than Noah's raven, 
i.e., slower than a ten years* itch (pro- 
verbially of s.o. who is very tardy) 

*Uiijl ibfd' slowing down, retardation, 
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarry- 
ing, delay; slowness | ^U^l Ojj without 

JLIJ iabd^u* slowness; slowing down, 

ijjUaj baftdriya pi. -dt battery {el. and mil) 

l]»llaj bafdfd, UfLlaj bafdfa sweet potato, yam 

^LJaj bafatia potatoes 

vlLj see jLi 

li^ bafbala (^LJ^ bafbaia) to quack (duck) 

^ bafaha a {bafh) to prostrate, lay low, 
fell, throw to the ground, throw down 
(*, * B.O., V and VII to be pr<»- 
trated, be laid low; to lie prostrate, 
sprawl, stretch out; to extend, stretch; 
to lie 

^1 ab^* flat, level; (pi. ^U abd^ 
fih^) haain-fihaped valley, wide bed of a 

*UL b<4hd'' pi. ^IUj bi^, ctjULj 
ba4hdwSt basin-shaped vaJley; plain, 
level Land, flatland, open country; {tun.) 
public square 

o«sU b<4iha pi. ^lii) bat^Cih* wide bed 
of a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow 
and broad body of water 

mUj^ muiiAafih prostrate; flat, level; 
level land, plain 



mJoj bi^fik, batflk (n. tin. •) melon, water- 
melon; bafftJc hub (of a wheel; ayr.) 

oJd_. mab}aka melon patch 

^^ bafira a (bapar) to be wild, wanton, 
recktesa; lo be proud, vain; to be dis- 
contented (a with; to disregard 
(a IV to make reckl&ss 

_^ bafar wantonnesa, cockiness, arro- 
gance, hubris, pride, vanity 

S_^U abd^ira (pi.) bona vlvants, play- 
boys, epicures 

'»\JaJ\ ai-bafra* Petra (ancient city of Edom- 
ites and Nabataeans; ruins now in SW 

j.^ batrak pi. j-jLLj bafarik^ roe (of fish) 

^^^ bufrus Peter 

JJ:_^j bafraSil and J^Jtt 6afrftJtft stole [Chr.) 

Ji_^ bifriq pi. ;;jUu bafdr-iqa, JijlU 6a#3ng" 
patrician; Bomaean general; pengum 

ii_^ bafrak, s*X>J»y bafrik, ilj- J^^ bafriyark 
pi. ^1L> bafarika Patriarch (a& an eccle- 
siastic title, Chr.) 

A-T^ bafrakiyat <Sj ^^ ba^riyarkiya 
patriarchate [Chr.) 

^jiLj bafaSa i u (batS) to attack with violence; 
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (i_j or j) ; 
to knock out (e 8.0.); to hit, str^ee (u>, land with a thud (1^ on) 

,_;llij bats strength, power, force, 
violence ; cou rage, valor, bravery ; op- 
pression, tyranny 

'<i^_ batSa impact 

iUUij bi^dqa pi. -at, jTLLj batd'iq^ slip (of 
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket; la- 
bel I •jljjil 4*Uxi calling card; 4—^ mki 
(hk^ya) and --Jj^i iiUiJ identity card; 
4^*IXJI j|^l dHJai b. al-7nawddd al-gi^'lya. 

^_j*iJI iilU food ration card; IOjULI mJILj 
b. al-mu'dyada greeting card 

'JLj ba}ala u [bufl, »j>lLj bv^ldn) to be or 
become null, void, invalid, false, un- 
tenable, vain, futile, worthJees; to be 
abolished, fall Into disuse, become 
obsolete; to cease, stop, be discontinued; 
to be inactive, be oat of work II to 
thwart, foil* frustrate, make ineffective, 
counteract, neutralize, nullify, invalidate 
(*; to abolish, cancel, annul, 
suppress (* IV = II; to talk idly, 
jH-attle; to paralyze, immobiliae, hold 
down, pin down (« the opponent) 

JLj bull nullity; useleamesa, futility, 
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth 

4JUaj bitala and ba^dla idleness, in- 
activity; free time, time off, holidays, 
vacations; unemployment 

jUad baf}dl pi. -nn idle. Inactive; un- 
employed, out of WOT-k 

6*^ 6u^2dn nullity; Qsetessnesa, futi^y, 
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity 

JlWi ibfal thwarting, frustration, in- 
validation; ruin, destruction; abolition, 

Jtlj fid/if nugatory, vain, futile; false, 
untrue ; absurd , groundleas, baseless i 
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, 
lie, falsehood; J^UL and ^b bdiiktn 
falsely; futilely, in vain; pi. J-UU abSfU^ 
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle 
talk, prattle 

Jia-. mubfil prattler, windbag; liar 

Jia~. mubtal nugatory, futile, vain 

Jlaj:^ mutabattil unemplt^ed 

^Jloj bafula u (ULkj batdla, iJjkj butvia) to be 
brave, be heroic, be a hero 

JU bafal pi. JU»)I abfdl brave, heroic; 
hero; champion, pioneer; hero, protag- 
onist (of a nairative, etc.), lead, star 



^of a play); champion (athUt.) \ iUi J1>j 
b. aU'dlam world champion 

'*1L» bctfala heroine (of a Darrative), 
female lead, etar (of a pla^); woman 
champion {aihlet.) 

aJLUj hafdla bravery, valor, heroism 

<)^ bufiila bravery, valor, heroism; 
leading role, starring role (theater, film); 
championship (aihlei.) | <J.UII 4J_^1 
('dlamiya) and J Ull 4)^ b. al-'dlam 
world championship {athki.); *^j^^ jj^ 
the part or role of the hero, leading role 

<J l^ ba^isa Ptolemies 

Jai bvfm, bufum terebinth (bot.) 

^^ bafana v- [bt^n, j^ butUn) to be 
hidden, concealed, to hide; — bapuna u 
(dJlLj ba4d7ia) to be paunchy II to line 
(a a garment, 1^ a with); to cover 
the inside (<-j a of with), hang, face, 
fill (^ A with) IV to hide, conceal, 
harbor (a Y to be lined, have a 
lining (garment); to penetrate, delve 
(a into), become absorbed, engrossed 
(a in) X to penetrate, delve (a into), 
become absorbed, engrossed (a in); to 
try to fathom (a; to fathom (a, get to the bottom of (a); to have 
profound knowledge (* of, know 
thoroughly, know inside out (a 

^ bapn pi. il}^ bv^un, jiijt ctbfun 
belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior, 
inside, inner portion; depth ] pXali j^ 
b, al-gadam sole of the foot; ijSi\ ^, b. 
al-kaff palm of the hand; j^Jl ^j and 
OjUJ\ ^j^j Toq^ al-b. belly dance; jU j 
(&a/ni) in, within, in the midst of; Ufla; j 
inside, within, in; l4^lj Uki CjxIj {waladai 
she gave birth only once; j^ U*; (U- 
xahrin) upside down 

^^ ha^nl ventral, abdominal 

jU baiin paunchy 

<Jaj &t/Tta gluttony; overeating, in- 

OLlo h^an pi. IcLjI abfina girth (of a 

^Uoj bipaiia pL ^ILj bafd'in* inside, 
inner side ; lining (of a garment) ; retinue, 
suite, entourage | <jL^ ^^ among, amidst; 

^L> ba4in pi. ol^ bifdn and olk^ 
mibfdn paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout; 

^L> bviain ventricle (of the heart; 

L;ILj ba^fdniya pi. -dt^ ^i»U«i bafdfin^ 
cover; blanket; quilt 

jLfL bdiin pi. ^\jt baivd^in^ inner, 
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden, 
secret; ^ilvUI coastal plain of E Oman; 
l^li bdfinan inwardly, secretly | eJtSCll ^'o 
b. al-kaff palm of the hand; |*^i j^li b. 
al'qadam sole of the foot; j*'i\ jUU J 
at bottom, after all, really; ^'^l ^\ji the 
factors, circumstances or reasons at the 
bottom of; ^j'^\ u^'_>i *• <^l-^^4 
the secret depths of the earth 

^U haiini internal | JLU ^^ {■mara4) 
internal disease; ^LJI k^l {tibb) internal 

ILj^UI aVbdpiniya name of a school of 
thought in Islam, characterized by 
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the 
revealed texts 

iJ^Im mabfun affected with a gastric or 
intestinal ailment 

j^ m-ubaitan lined; filled (^ with) 
»^^ II {tun.) to fuU (a 

jU>U (Span, hatdn) bdfdn fulling mill 
4j»L> bdfiya pi. lrl_^ bawdfin pitcher, jug 
jdj baz:fa u to spout, gush out, well out 
jki bazr pi. jjloj buxvr clitoris {anat.) 


Mu bu'bu' pi. ajUj ba'abi'* bugaboo, bogey 

1^ ba'ata a {ba't) to send, send out, dispatob 
(Jl 1^ or *, • 8.0. or to); to forward 
(Jl 1^ or ji to); to delegate {<j or • 
Jl s.o. to) ; to emit (i^ or a ; to evoke, 
arouse, call forth, awaken (m; to 
stir up, provoke, bring on (t; to 
revive, resuscitate (*; to resumot 
(• S.O., O^l ^ from death); to inoite, 
induce (J» to, instigate (J*]; 
to cause (Jr; e.g., aatonishment) | 
J*ji^\ fj* *J\ iIm (hazzat al-]fauf) to 
scare the wits out of s.o. ; lI '^ ' rjj *^ 
(ruAa l-kayah) to breathe life into 
or 8.O., revive VII to be sent out, 
be emitted, be dispatched, be delegated; 
to be triggered, be caused, be provoked; 
to be resurrected (o^l ^ from death); 
to originate (j< in), come (^ from), be 
caused (^ by); to emanate (fragrance); 
to arise, spring, proceed, develop (^ 
from), grow out of {^); to set out to do (with foil, imperf.) Till to send, 
dispatch (» s.o.) 

ttM ba't sending out, emission, dis- 
patching, delegation, etc.; resurrection; 
pi. <l^j»i bv'v4 delegations, deputations [ 
u««JI h-fj*- hizb al-b. approz. ; Renaissance 
Party, a political party with strong 
socialist tendencies; ^.^Jl mj Day of 
Resurrection (&om the dead] 

Uw ba'ta pi. ba'atdt delegation, deputa- 
tion, mission; expedition; student ex- 
change; group of exchange students; 
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise [ 4iju 
4j_,^-# {'askariya) military mission; ^ 
4«^U^j diplomatic mission; ^jy I 4^ (ojo* 
riya) archaeological expedition; l^\ ^j^j 
ra'is al-b. chief of mission (dipt.) 

^jtU bffCt Easter (Ghr.) 

si^ _ ^ mob'at sending, forwarding, dis- 
patch; emission; awakening, arousal; 
— (pi. li^L. mab^it') cause; factor 

i!jU b^if pi. •l.'l^ bavi'iC incentive, 
inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, 

>tjjt^ mab'ai dispatched, delegated; 
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy 
(in the Ottoman Empire) 

>^ ■ / ■» munba'at source, point of origin 

jvu ba'jara (5j««; ba'lara) to scatter, strew 
around, fling about (a; to disarrange, 
throw into disorder (« ; to squander, 
waste, dissipate (j> II laba'jara pass. 

jsM mvba'^r scattered, widespread 

luj ha'aja a (ba'j) to slit open (» the belly); 
to groove, dent, notch (> TU to 
have indentations or notches; to be 
bruised, dented, bumpy; to get battered 

noJ.^ munba'ij notched, indented 

Am ba'uda u {bu*d) to be distant, far away, 
far ofT; to keep away, keep one's distance 
(^ from] ; to go far beyond (^), exceed 
by far (^ ; to be remote, improbable, 
unlikely | .je « Xo he kept him away 
from; jl Xu V it is not unlikely that ... 
II to remove (• s.o.]; to banish, exile, 
expatriate (< s.o.) Ill to cause a sep- 
aration {^i between] | u^ t>j -uL 
•^1 ijvjj to prevent s.o. from attaining; 4jU»-l j\t Jipli (ajfdnihl) to stare 
wide-eyed IV to reinove (»; to 
take away (t ; to eliminate (t, 
do away with (a); to send away, HiRmiaa 
(• S.O.); to expatriate, banish, exile (• 
B.O.); to exclude, make unlikely, improb- 
able, impossible (a]; to go or move 
far away; to go very far (j in or with VI to be separated, lie apart, lie 
at some distance from one another; 
to separate, part company, become es- 
tranged; to move away, go away, with- 
draw, depart {^ from); to keep away, 
keep one's distance (jp from) ; to quit, 
leave, avoid (jt ; to follow in regular 

intervals VIII to move or go away; to 
keep away, withdraw (^ from) ; to quit, 
leave, avoid (^; to leave out of 
consideration, disregard {^ X to 
single out, set aside (*}; to think 
remote, farfetched (a; to regard as 
unlikely (>; to disqualify (» s.o.) 

Jaj bu'd remoteness, farness; (pi. jUjI 
ab'dd) distance; dimension; interval 
{mus.) I Jaj Jp and -IaJI Jp in the distance. 
far off; jU 41. Xu Ja at a distance of 100 
meters; Xu ^ and Jjo j.. from a distance, 
from afar; iLul iJ^j jj three-dimensional; 
jU>V' 1^'^ qiyde cU-a. linear measure; 
<^\ Xu b. al-himma high aspirations, 
loftiness of purpose; ^UlJl Jm h. aS-Uqqa 
wide interval, wide gap; c-i-^W Xu i. 
ajS-jStt renown, fame, celebrity; C»jm^\ Xu 
A. ofi'^aut do.; ^^1 Xu 6. an-ruizar far- 
sightedness, foresight; J Iom &u'(JaB It 
away with ...I 

Xu 6a'(^ then, thereupon; afterwards, 
later, after that, in the following; still, 
yet I 4a> ^ afterwards, later; a*. Ll see 
^L*l; j^A^ Xu >k he is only a small boy, 
be is still young; Am oU ^ (ya'tt) he 
hasn't come yet 

J*j 6a'(^ (prep.) after; in addition to, 
beside ; aside from | . . . *»^ Xu (ktttu 
nihi) aside from the fact that he is ... ; 
iSii Xu afterwards, after that, later 
(on); besides, mcnreover; iJlj Jju besides, 
moreover; jl Xu ba'da an (conj.) after; 
Si Jaj (id), L Xu and U Om ^ (&a'{ft) do.; 
^ ^Xu L ^ {aafahun) the height of 

x'Xj ba'da'idin then, thereafter, there- 
upon, after that, afterwards 

x^, ba'id pi. »ixw bu'ada^, Xu iu'wf 
jljju &u'ian, jU) bi'tui distant, far away 
fer (j* from); remote, outlying, out-of- 
the-way; far-reaching, extensive; far- 
fetched, improbable, unlikely; unusual 
strange, odd, queer; incompatible, in' 

consistent (jt with) | Xju j.* from afar, 
from a distance; x^ -i^ x^ ['ahd) a long 
time ago; ^ V' -i^. b. al-atar of far-reach- 
ing consequence; ^jliil x«j remote in 
time, going way back in history, ancient; 
jLlJl -Uu b. as4a*w high-minded, bold; 
4HII Xju 6. aS-Siqqa far apart; j^l Xju 
6. cU-gauT deep; unfathomable; fjjl\ o^, 
6. al-madd long-distance, long-range; 
extensive, far-reaching; ^^1 Xju b. an- 
nazar farsighted; farseeing; JL-il -L-_«-j 
6. al-manal hardly attainable, hard to 
get at; Ixaj ,_^j to go far away, go to 
distant lands ; x«j Jl JLi to look off into 
the distance 

j-<o bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon 

Xwl ah'cu^ pi. jM abd'^id* farther, 
remoter, more distant; more extensive; 
leas likely, more improbable; pi. OpUI 
ofca'wi' vffly distant relatives | Xo/jl J^l 
(Sarq) the Far East; XuVI the absent one 
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who 
is being criticized or blamed for; 
also when referring to the 1st and 2nd 

4jjljul ah'ddlya pi. -at country estate 

XmJ iab'id banishment 

^lu bi'dd distance 

e4pLi mubd'ada sowing of dissension, 
estrangement, alienation 

jUjI ib'Sd removal, separation, isola- 
tion; elimination; expatriation, banish- 
ment, deportation 

U^Lj tahd'vd interdistance ; mutual es- 

•^ mWad deported; deportee 

OpIju mufa£d''u2 separate | s4«Ijl> oij^ j 
ifatardi) in wide intervals; *lj\Ji j 
^J\ jj aOtLx* (zaman) at infrequent inter- 
vals, from time to time 

mu3tab'ad improbable, unlikely 



\f»i ba'r, ba'ar droppings, dung (of ammale) 

■_;s*j ba'ir pi. IjmA ab'ira, oij** bu'rdn, j^LI 
abd'ir^, ^ jl*j ba'driti' ouuel 

Jjm ba*zaq<i (•v^ fta^zo^a) to acatter, difi- 
sipate, squander, waste (* 

J^^ mvba'ziq squanderer, spendthrift, 

^jJm II to divide into parts or portions (* V to be divided, be divisible 

^jiu ba'4 part, portion; one; aome, a 
few; a Uttle of, some of | »^a1I ,j^ b. 
al-'viamd' one (or some) of the acholara; 
^j^ jy j-io Ljuj (ra/a'no) we have 
exalted some of them above the others; 
J*-*;/! fjM»^\ — t^**Jl some — some, a few — 
others; Lmm f^.M one another, each 
other, mutually, reciprocally; ^j^ j 4-i«j 
one in the other, within one another; 
.^1 ^jMi ba'^ S-Sai' to some extent, 
somewhat, a Uttle, rather; UJUll ^j^ <UL. 
{ba'4a l-m.) he res^zLbled him somewhat, 
to aome extent; j_y ^jii^^j Uj» x« {gam) 
for th-e last hundred years and more 

^jju ba'iUjl (n. un. i) gnats, mosquitoes 

,j.i-Ajj tab'i4 division, jmrtition, por- 

^^jj bu'kuka club, society 

J-o 6a'I the god Baal; land or plants thriv- 
ing on natural water supply; — (pi. 
JjAj bu'ul, *ijto bu'aia) lord; husband 

U«^ ba'ta wife 

Ja> ball unirrigated (land, plants) 

c! M « ; ba'k^akk^ Baalb&k (ancient HeIiop< 
olis, village in E Lebanon) 

C-AJ bagata a (bagt, *^ bagta) to come un- 
expectedly, descend unawares (4 upon 
8.0.) Ill do.; to Burprise (• s.o.) VII to be 
taben by surprise; to be taken aback, 
he aghast, be ncMiplused 

iUi bagta surprising event, surprise; 
bagtatan, cm Jc 'aid bagtatin all of a 
sudden, suddenly, surprisingly 

iriL. mvhagata sudden arrival, aur- 
prifling incident or event, surprise; sudden 
attack, raid 

•^Lij bugdl pi. uliw bigtdn small birds 

a^Lu sed l^[f-j/ 

■5-Uj II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's 
weight around, be fresh (properly, to 
behave like one from BagMad) 

^Ijaj bagddd' Baghdad 

t^jlxu bagdddl pi, -un, SjjLo bagSdida 
a native of Baghdad 

i,jtij bagaSa at »\^\ c^ {aam&'u) there wob 
a light shower 

<1m bag^a light rain abowcu- 

'iiUu (eg.) bugdSa etuffed pastry nmde of 
flour, eggs and butter 

^JaA) bagida a, bagiu^a o (bug^y I^Uj bagata) 
to be hated, hateful, odious 11 to make 
(a S.O.) hateful (Jl to s.o.) Ill to loathe, 
detest, hate (» s.o.) IV to loathe, detest, 
hate (• 8.0.) VI to hate each other 

,j^ bug^f I^Hj bigda and ^Um bagtjid'^ 
hatred, hate 

^JHi^ bagid hateful, odious (J( to 8.0.), 
loathsome, abominable 

^J^l^ labdgud mutual hatred 

^J^J^ Tiu^gw} detested, hateful, odious 

,j^*^ mvhgi(j, pi. ~un hater; — mvh' 
gad detested, hateful, odious 

Jii bagl pi. JL« bigal, JUol abgdl mulo; 

iLw hagia pi. bagaldt female mule | JUj 

lJ^aL^\ b, al-qai%iora the piers <rfthe bridge 

JU> baggdl pL -un mule driver, muleteer 


Ju iagd t (>U> b%igff} to wek, desire, covet, 
seek to attain (*, wish for 
(t); — (bogy) to -wrong, treat unjustly 
(J» 8.O.); to oppress (J» s.o.), oommit 
outrage {^ upon); to whore, fornicate 
VII jJLu it is desirable, necessary; it is 
proper, appropriate, seemly; it ought to 
be, should be; with J: it behooves him, 
with *At: he must, he should, he ought 
to Vm to seek, desire (*, aspire 
(« to, strive (* for) 

It bogy in&ingement, outrage, injus- 
tice, wrong 

Jj bagiy pi. LUj bagdyd whore, pros- 

iJJ bugya object of desire; wish, de- 
sire; bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, 
for the purpose of 

•Ui bigS prostitution 

•Ui bugt wish(ing), desire, endeavor, 

ij viabgan pi. j_Lt nuAdgin brothel 

f L> mabaiin coveted things, desiderata, 
wishes, desires 

•Uijl ibtig^ desire, wish; ibtigSa (prep.) 
for the purpose of 

f\i hdgin pi. JUj bvSah desiring, oov- 
eting, striving; committing outrages, 
oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant 

^ja^ mubiagan aspired goal; aspiration, 
desire, endeavor, effort 

oil bafia oalioo, Indian cotton cloth 

i.l_-i; bittik beefsteak 

>jj baqq (n. un. !) bedbug, chinch | jJI Jj*? 
elm {b<4.) 

*ji baqqa u (&a^) to give off in abundance 
JUj baggS/l garrulous, loquacious ; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

jjti baqba^ (^V''. baqbaga) to gurgle, bubble, 
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle 


^Lju &a^6dg garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

4jjij baqbUqa blister (of the skin) 

iUJu buqfa pi. -Jj bugaj bundle, pack, pack- 

^j.Uj baqdunit, baqdHtuu parsley 

jki baqara u to split open, lip open, cut open 
(» IV do. 

jii baqar (colt.) bovines, cattle; n. un. 
Ijlt baqara pi. -at cow 

jyb baqari bovine, cattle-, cow- (in 

j\ju bagqdr pi. • cowhand, cowboy 

ijJu baqt box, boxwood (bot.) 

"^ '• buqoumdt ruak, zwieback; biscuit 

"*"; bitqSa Yenwnite copper coin 

y.'"; baqHl pi. ^^\jt'. baqdSii' present of 
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh 

•Ju II to spot, stain, smudge (> V to 
become stained, get smudged; to be 
spotted, stained 

AjJu buf'a pi. Mu buqa'f f^\ju biqa' 
spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, spot', 
site; plot, patch, lot 

Mjul abqa'* spotted, speckled 
Uilj bSqi'a pi. Jl^ bateSqi'' sly dog, 
shrewd fellow 

Jij baqala u (baql) to sprout (plant) 

JIj baql (coll.; n. un. I) pi. Jji buqUl, 
JUil abgdl herbs, potherbs, greens, her- 
baceous plants; specif., legumes | <l . . a «ll 
1 Is I I the Leguminosae ; a^jUl •^ijijl hya- 
cinth bean (Solichos lablab L.); UJiJI 
,\jui.\ {hamqa') purslane (bot,); UZII 
1->JII {^hiAiya) garden orach (bci.); 
JuUlU:! :iii celandine (fto(.); illll 'Jju 
b. al-malik common fumitory {bot.) 



jLb baqqdl pi. -un, ^Jliu baqqdla green- 
grocer; grocer 

<IUi biqala the grocery buainess 

•j'^lu baqldwQi ij'>^, ft kind of Turkifib de- 
light, paatry made of puff paste with 
honey and almonds or piatachioa 

li baqqam brazilwood 

Ji baqiya a (•Uu baqd*) to remain, stay, 
continue to be (J«- in a state or con- 
dition); to keep up, maintain (J« a state 
or condition); to be left behind, be left 
over; to last, continue, go on; (with foil, 
imperf. or part.) to continue to do, 
keep doing ; to become | Sil* ^J^ } 
{yahqa fiflan) he is no longer a child II to 
leave, leave over, leave behind (* 
IV to make (• a.o.) stay; to retain^ 
leave unchanged, leave as it is, preserve^ 
maintain, keep up (»; to leave, 
leave over, leave behind {*, ■ a.o.); 
to leave untouched, save, spare (J» s.o.^, e.g., s.o.'s life) Y to remain, stay, 
continue to be ( J» in a state or condition); 
to be left, be left over X to make stay, 
ask to stay, hold back, detain (* s.o.); 
to spare, save, protect (• s.o., *; to 
preserve (*; to retain, keep (*; to store, put away (« 

4~u baqiya pi. IjUj haqayd remainder, 
rest; remnant, residue | Jj-Jt 4JL h, 
ad-duwal the remaining countries, the 
rest of the countries; ^JUI ^JlJI iji}dq\ya) 
the last remnant 

•Uj haqd' remaining, staying, lingering, 
abiding; continuation, continuance, du- 
ration; survival, continuation of ex- 
istence after life; immortality, eternal 
life; existence; permanence | vLUI j\i 
the hereafter 

^\ abqd more lasting, more durable, 
more permanent; better preserving; con- 
ducive to longer wear,^ better protecting 

*Uu i ibqd' continuation, retention ; main- 
tenance, conservation, preservation |»lul 
*J^ cJlT U J« ^Jli^i maintenance of the 
status quo 

#LLJu>i wtt&^d' continuation, retention; 
maintenance, conservation, preservation 

Jlj bdqin staying; remaining; left; 
remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing, 
permanent, unending; surviving; living 
on; everlasting, eternal (God) [ il^LtUi 
oULJI the good works 

Jju mutabaqqin residue, renmant, re- 
mainder, rest 

lib be (Eg. pronunciation) pi. i^[^ bakaivdl, 
•^^jf bahawSt bey (title of courtesy; cf. 

ij^So bekawiya rank of a bey 

*Jo bakV pi. ttsj bihd' having or giving 
little, sparing (e.g., of words) 

J^..•l^ bikdsm b^Gosaine, snipe (zcxd.) 

Lj^t^ (Fr. baccalauTitU) bahdl5riyd baooa- 
laureate, bachelor's degree 

fj^jijj^^, hakdUhiyiu bachelor (aca- 
demic degree) 

^LSo (Turk, binboffi) bimbdSi, bilAdS* major 
(mil; formerly, Eg.) 

C^ II to censure, blame (• s.o.) 

C'Si^ tabklt blame, reproach | C'-^^ 
ju^\ remorse 

iSj''^^, bakteri bacterial, caused by bacteria 
IjjcSCi baktSTiyd bacteria 

j^ bakara u to set out early in the morning, 
get up early; to come early (Jl to), be 
early (Jl at) II do.; j jSit and <~j _^ 
with foil, verbal noun: to do early, 
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be 
ahead of s.o. (•), anticipate, forestall 
(. s.o.) IV = I; vm to be the first to 
take (a, be the first to embark (* 



on; to deflower (U a girl); to in- 
vent (a B.tb.); to create, originate, start 

__^ hahr pi. ^\ ahkuT, ol_^. huhrcai 
young camel 

^^ bikr-pL jSii\ ahhar firat-bcvii, ddest ; 
firstling; unpreceifented, novel, new; 
virgin; virginal 

iS^, hikri first*boni, first 

'*j^^ bihrlya primogenituie 

ijS^^ bahra and bakara pL _^ bakaVj 
•at reel; pulley <mecA.); spool, coil; winch, 
windlass \ a_^ U^ kaif b. tKread 

•_^ lakra: .^jI 3_^^ Jp 'oZa feajfcraii aA»- 
Aifn^ _pj 1 »_^ jp and ^t^/^ Jt all 
without exception, all of them, all to- 
gether; V_;^ u* -0*W-' ^^_7*- '*^ crowd 
went forth as one man 

•jS^ bttkra pL jSo buitor early morning ; 
frm&ra^n esxly in the morning; to- 
morrow; on the fcdiowing day, next day 

j6^_ baiir coming early; e&rfy. pre- 
mature; precoeioiis 

jj5^ bakuT and j^\t bahSr coming 
early; early, premature; preeoctous 

jjS^ bnkiir earliness, prematureneaa, 
premature aErival [ :ij«Jl j tSJ,^ ftnAJ} 
my early return 

•jl^ bakara virginity 

IjSii bakkdra pulley (mech,) \ »j^. 
'*Sjm {murdkhaha.) set of pulleys. Mock 
and tackle 

SjjSj fruJhiro ind ajjjSo bvMr^ya pri- 

Sj^Ij fraJturo pi. j^^jt ftowd/w^ first- 
lings ; first resutta, first fruits ; beginning, 
rise, dawn ; {with foil, genit. ) initial, 
early, first; pi. jS'\jt first signs or indi- 
cations; initial symptoms; heralds, hair* 
bingers (fig.) | ^TljiJl •j_>fLj early fruit; 
*JI>I Jj^U jlT the first thing he did 

_^_ I ahkoj^ rising earlier 

jl^^ mibkar precocious 

jl^l ibtikdr pi. -of novelty, inno* 
vation; creation; invention; origination, 
&st production; initiative; creativity, 
originality; pi. i:i.iljtx::jl specif^, creations 
of fashion, fasAiion designs 

^Ij bdkir early; premature; l^b bd* 
hiran in the morning; early (adv.) | 
^Ui r-L^l j (iSofioA) early in the morn- 
ing; ^\a (ii tai tomorrow 

l^\i bakira fd. ^'^ bawdkir* first- 
lijigB, first produce, early fruits, early 
vegetables; pi. first indications or symp- 
toms, heralds, b^rbingen 

^i^ mubakliT doing early; early; 1^^ 
mabai^ran early in t^ morning, eu-ly 

_^^ mubiakir creator; creative; inven- 
tor; — mvbiakar newly created, novel, 
new, CHigli^; (pL -at) creation, specif.^ 
fashion creation, invention | _^^ v^ 
{taub) original design, model, dress crea- 

r-jSy b(tkraj ^. rj^. bakdrip kettle, coffee 

J^ II to buckle, buckle up, button up 
(a; to fold, cross (* the arms) 

^ISni bukla pL jSo bukal, -at buckle 

a'!)^, (It. baceald) bahiidh codfish 

o'Jt-ij^. bakalSriyw bachelor (academic de- 

C bahima a to be dumb; — bakuma u 
to be silent, hold one's toogoe IV to 
&Llen<» (• 9.O.] V to become silent; to be- 
come diumb 

5^ bahim dumbness 

f,\ ahkam*, i. .liL bakmcC^, pi. ^ 
&Uibn dumb 


Cj\j^^ and 4jj^ see <iij 

Jj baica i (•Kj hukd*, Jj ftuftan) to cry, weep 
{J* over); to bemoan, lament, bewail 
(a 9.0.), mourn (• for) II and IV to make 
{» s.o.) cry X to move (a s.o.) to tears, 
mai£e (« s.o.) cry 

• Kj hakkd* given to weeping fre- 
quently, tearful, lachrymose 

^5^' UU- hd^i\ al-mabkd the Wailing 
Wall (in JeruBalem) 

1-5'Lj hdkiya pi. iSIjj bawdkin wailing- 
woman, hired mourner; {eg.) arch, arcade 

i!L; bahin pi. SKvj bukdh weepings cry- 
ing; weeper, wailer, mourner 

iJL. mubkin, mubakkin causing tears, 
tearful; sad, lam.entable, deplorable 

jpSC bikin Peking 

*Jj bal (a-Iso with foil, j wa-) nay, — rather. . . ; 
(and) even; but, however, yet 

■Jj balla u {ball) to moisten, wet, make wet 
(,« 8.0.); — balla i to recover (j^j^ ^ 
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make 
wet (*, 4 s.o.) IV to recover ((j-ir* t> 
from an illness) V and VIII to be mois- 
tened, be wetted; to become wet 

Jj ball moistening, wetting; moisture 

Jj bill recovery, convalescence, re- 

*L billa moisture, humidity | i\j U 
aL ^>yi md zdda i'\lna billatan what 
made things even worse . . . 

iJL balal moisture, humidity; moist- 
ness, dampness, wetness 

JJL balil a moist, cool wind 

ILL balila (eg.) dish made of stewed 
maize and sugar 

J"^! ibldl recovery, convalescence, re- 

JLj taballid moistness, d&mpneas, hu- 

J^ viablul, JL- mubaUal, Jx^ mw6* 
tall moist, damp, wet 

3J> biUi (from Ft. bille): J. ^J' (kurai) 
ball bearing 

■:)*j see ^^ 

j^j"^, (IrJ^* bldtln, pldttn platinum 

r'A; (IV. plage) bldi beach 

'^j^':h balagrd pellagra 

rrj'::^ baldraj stork 

iLL-:A; (Ft. j)ioj(ijue) 6Id*(iJfc plastic 

1*'>^ see iiL 

i]':)Lj (Engl, pl-ug) spark plug (ir.) 

JtAj, iJ'il; see ^2r^ 

L-Ij balbata to gurgle 

^JJj bdibala to disquiet, make uneasy or 
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble, 
confuse {» s.o., * II tabalbala to fee! 
uneasy, be anxious; to be or become con- 
fused, get all mixed up 

aLL balbala pi. Jj"3^. baldbiP anxiety, 
uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle, 
jumble, chaos 

JLLj balbdl anxiety, uneasiness, concern 

^^ baldbiP anxieties, apprehensions 

JXJ tabalbul muddle, confusion | 
i:-JVi J^Lj t. al-aUina confusion of tongues 
(at the tower of Babel) 

^JJj bulbul pi. Jj-^ baldbiP nightingale 

^ balaja u (r-j^. bii.luj) to shine; to dawn 
(morning, aurora) ; — balija a (balaj) to 
be happy, be glad (i-j about), be de- 
lighted (■— > at) IV to shine (sun) V and 
VII = balaja 



^J ablaf gay, serene, bright, clear, 
fair, nice, beautiful 

j3^\ r^' inbildj at-fajr daybreak 
t^;^ beljikd Belgium 

JIjJj beljikt Belgian (adj. and n.) 

tJj balah (coll.; n. un. «) dates (bot.) 

jL haluda u i»:>':h haldda) to be stupid, idiot- 
ic, duU-witted 11 to acclimatize, ha- 
bituate (a, to a country or region) 
T pass, of II; to become stupid, besotted, 
lapse into a abate of idiocy; to show o.s. 
from the stupid side VI bo feign stupidity 

■Uj balad m. and f., pt. j:Aj biidd 
country; town, city; place, community, 
village; J'jb country; oIjL bviddn coun- 
tries I (jtJ-l i:^ 6. al-habaS Ethiopia; 
j>.^l i^ b. a^-s%n China; AXAI i^iO b, al- 
hind India 

>^ balda town, city; place, commu- 
nity, village; rural community ; township 

^Jii) baladi native, indigenous, home 
(as opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow) 
cibizen, compatriot, countryman; a na- 
tive; communal, municipal | ,^jJj ^jJjC. 
(majlia) city council, local council 

«j-lL baladiyO' pi. -at township, com- 
munity, rural community; ward, dis- 
trict (of a city) ; municipality, municipal 
council, local aubhority 

■lJj balid and -lijl ailcuP stupid, dolt- 
ish,, dull-wibted, idiotic 

o'>t baldda stupidity, silliness 

jL; tabaUvd idiocy, dullness, obtuse- 
nes8, apathy 

•ii^ TTvutaballid besotted, dull, stupid 
j%Lt look up alphabetically 

fj^} pi. <-JLjI look up alphabetically 

oLij balasdn balsam, balm; balsam tree; 
black elder {bot.) 

_1j baUam pi. ^^Aj baldsim^ balsam, balm 
^J>^, balaaml balsamic, balmy 

i-'nMi baUafa to Bolshevize 11 iabaliafa to 
be Bolshevized 

lAtXt baliafa Bolshevization 

J^ buUifl pi. ijJ'':)^^ baldSifa Bol- 
sheviat(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist 

<JitL buUijlya Bolshevism 

iJjJLLj halaiiin heron {zooL) 

*,_^aLj bala^a u {bal^) and II to extort, wring 
forcibly (j^ « from s.o.; to black- 
mail (• fi.O,) 

,_^aLj bal^ extortion, blackmail; for^ 
cible imposition of taxes 

^^:)(i balla^ pi. ,jaJ'-:h baldli?^ (eg.) earthen- 
ware jar 

^JaJj II to pave (*, with flagstones or 

i»':^ bald} pavement, tiled floor; floor 
tiles; palace; pi, ^UjI aiUfa floor tiles | 
^S^l ^^\ (malaki) the royal court; jlo.- 
i)>^l kiddd al-b. court mourning 

i^::^ bald^ floor tile; flagstone, slab- 
stone; paving stone 

JlJLj tablif paving, tile-laying 

iaL* mitballap paved, tiled 

^^jL balluf oak; acorn 

^^Uj balpa pi. -dtj Lb bulap ax 

iji^Uj balfajl pi. -iya engineer, sapper, 
pioneer {mil.); gangster; procurer, pan- 
derer, pimp; sponger, hanger-on, parasite 

*^LL balafa balata gum 

yjj {Ft. paletot) balfS pi. -at, J.'il baldti 
paletot, overcoat 

'ijilj bulfi bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish 
of the Nile 



jJslJl al^baUlq the Battio countries | ^ 
jJJJI bahr al-b. the Baltio Sea 

*t^ Ij bdluza hand press; (6(7.) a kind of cream 
made of cornstarch^ lemon juice and 
honey, or the like 

Jj bala*a and bcUVa a {bal') to Bwallo-w, 
swallow up (*; to gulp down (a; to put up (* with* swallow, 
stomach, brook (* | 4ijj aL {riqahU) 
ht.: to swallow one's saliva, i.e., to catch 
one's breath, take a little rest, have a 
break; to restrain o.s., hold back (said 
of one in a rage) II and IV to make {» s.o.) 
swallow (a I ujj 4*Jj (Tlqahd) to 
grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I 

4JL bal'a large bite, big gulp 

^"^h balld'a, l^jL baUu'a pi. -al, ^':>^ 
baldli'^ sink, drain 

Atj^it bdla'a pi. ~dt, ^^jt bawdlV^ sewer, 
sink, drain 

jli btd'um pi. ^"iU bald'im^ and pjjiL 6ui^ 
'um pi. rf"^ bald'im* pharynx (anat.); 
>jjlL gullet, esophagus {ariat) 

^iL balaga u (j-jL bulug) to reach (• s.o., *, get (>, * to), arrive (a at); to come, 
amount (a to), be worth (a so and so 
much); to come to s.o.'s (•) ears; to 
attain puberty (boy); to ripen, mature 
(fruit, or the like); to come of age; to 
exhaust, wear out (^ s.o.); to act (^ 
upon s.o.), have its effect (^ on), affect 
(j* 8.0.); to go far (j, ^ in, 
attain a high degree ( j, ^ of | ^ 
Jj Ai to make 5.0. or get to or arrive 
at, lead or take s.o. or to, get s.o. or to the point where, ol fji\ 4j aIj 
(tarann-uJi.) he began to reel so violently 
that...; xLl iL- j^'^\ iL {mablaga l-jidd) 
the matter became serious; JjJl J^^^l A^ 
b, ^-sailu z-zuhd the matter reached a cli- 
max, things came to a head; JL>^J1 ^ aL^ 
[mablaga r-rijdl) to be sexually mature, 

attain manhood, come of age; tJj>\ Ju 
{ahiddahu) to attain full maturity, come 
of age ; to reach its climax ; UL* »^^\ j iL^ 
(•^ji)l Ja or) {mablagan) to attain a high 
degree of ; U-ll li* Jlj^S^-i; C-iij ir-^ 
{hiria, ((iitrayd/i, mablaga) when I had 
come to this point in my reminiscences; 
U^ JT 4:^ Uj {kuUa mablagin) to work 
havoo on s.o.; »l^ ^ {muntah&ku) to 
reach its climax, come to a head II to 
make (» s.o.) reach or attain (a; 
to take, bring (Jl a to s.o.), see 
that (a) gets (Jl to); to convey, 
transmit, impart, communicate, report 
(a • to S.O.; to inform, notify 
(a * s.o. of, tell, let know (a • s.o. 
about); to report (je about), give an 
account of (jp); to inform (^ against 
S.O.), report, denounce {^ s.o.) | *JL-j ilu 
to fulfill a mission; i/":^ *ilj baUi^hvr aa* 
Idmi give him my best regards! Ill to 
exaggerate (j in; to overdo, do 
too long (j; to go to greatest 
lengths, do one's utmost (j in) IV to 
make (a, « s.o., reach or attain 
(Jl; to make (a amount (Jl to), 
raise (a an amount, a salary, Jl to); to 
inform, notify (u^ or j;» • e.o. of, 
tell, let know (1^ or ^ • s.o. about) ; to 
announce, state, disclose (a; to 
inform {^ against s.o.), report, denounc« . 
(jfr s.o.) I i-* ^j-tl_tJ' ^} to report 
to the police V to content 0.8., be content 
(i_j with); to eke out an existence; to 
still one*s hunger (k^ with), eat (l^ : 
to be delivered, be transmitted 

UJj "^ Ur* aam'an la balgan! may it be 
heard but not fulfilled, i.e., God forbid! 
(used at the mention of unpleasant) 

4*L bulga and f^^ baldg sufficiency, 
competency, adequacy (see also 'iiL be- 

'^^j baldg pL ~dt communication, in- 
formation, message, report; announce- 
ment, proclamation; communique; state- 



mentjDOtification (of the police) | ju^l 9^^ 

iJj balig pi. .UL bulagd'^ eloquent; in- 
ten&e, laeting, deep, profound (e.g., &d 
impression); eerioua, grave {e.g., an in- 

9^jL bulug reaching, attainment, arriTal 
(at); maturity, legal majority 

4^'>0 baldga eloquence; art of good 
style, art of composition; lit^ature ] 
*i':K^\ ]« 'Urn al-b, rhetoric 

■LI ablag^ intenser^ deeper, more loat- 
ing; more serious, graver 

■1^ mahlag pi. «JL« mabali^ amount. 
Bum of money; extent, scope, range; 
(see also examples under iL I) | ^\ ii-* 
[iaml) nominal par; <p:»jli AJLii {muda'a) 
the deposits (at a bank); J_y iL» ,>^ 
-^' t> {li-yatabayyana, qauli^ jidd) in 
order to find, out to what extent my 
words were meant seriously 

iJj tahllg pi. -at conveyance^ trwis- 
miasion, delivery (Jl to a.o.); information 
{^ about); report, notification (^ of); 
cO'miuunication, announcement, notice [ 
i^l ^IjS" credentials 

<JL* Tmtbdlaga pi. -di exaggeration 

i^\ ibldg conveyance, transmission 

mJIi balig extensive, far-reaching; con- 
siderable; serious (wound), deep, pro- 
found, violent, vehement (feelings), 
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally 

•L.4 mubaUig bearer (of news), messen- 
ger; informer, denouncer; detective 

'ijjj bulga, balga pi. -at, bulag slipper of 
yellow leather 

IjjUL bulgdriyd, Bulgaria 

t^jUL bulgdri Bulgarian (adj. and n.) 

jJL balgam phlegm; {p\. 2'% baldgim^) ex- 
pectoration, sputum 

fj^, bal^mi phlegmatic; phlegmy, 

J»L baiafa t {balj) to blufif II do. 

iJlLj balf^ *At balfa bluff 

jLI ablaq^ piebald 

,j.a^ bilgis* Muslim name of the Queen of 


jllUI al-balqdn the Balkans 
JUtJL balqdni Balkan 

>JL balqa* and ^»iL balqa'a pi. *J':Aj bal4gi'^ 

^ see ii^L 

iJ^SX balkdn balcony 

^-L balam anchovy 

^Jj balam pi. >>':>bl abldm sailing barge {ir.) 

^ Jj IV to be silent, hold one's tongue 

O'>0 balldn bathhouse attendant; name of a 
plant growing neaj* stagnant waters 

^jSi ballana female bathhouse attend- 
ant; lady's maid 

4«jLL balansiya^ Valencia (region and city 
in E Spain) 

JkL pi. 0*J'^ 'o**'' ^P alphabetically 

A} baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded 
VI to feign foolishness, pretend to be 
stupid X to deem {* s.o.) stupid or 

Aj balah and ^a^L baldha stupidity, 
foohshness, simple-mindedness; idiocy, 
imbecility | «_^^ <^'>^> (TnufcaA/:tra) demen- 
tia praecox 

*[} balha let alone, not to speak of, 
not to mention 

4jjl ablah^ stupid, doltish, dull-witted; 



L-jl^Jj bilhareiyd bilharziasis, achUtosomiasw 

42^jj biilahniya abundance, vealth, variety 
(of earthly poesessions) 

i|jl_^, see u[^_ 

' D 0>iAi bulhdn pi, O;**:?'^ baldhln^ {= J^AI _jji ; 
eg.) sphinx 

{jL and Jj) ^L 6aid u {balw^ ►^^ 6aid*) to 
teat, try, put to the test (* b.q., m; 
to know from loDg experience (a; 
to afflict (• B.O.); — Jj baliya a (Jj fiiian, 
t^_ bald*) to be or become old, worn, 
shabby (clothee); to dwindle away, van- 
ish; to deteriorate, decline, become de- 
crepit; to disintegrate (a corpse), decay, 
rot, spoil III to care, be concerned {tj 
or A, * about), be mindful (^ or a, * 
of a.o., of; to pay attention (l^ or 
A to), mind, heed, take into consideration, 
take into account (l^ or a; to take 
notice {^ of) | JUI U ma ubdli, JLl V 
I don't care! I don't mind! it's all 
right with me! JLj "^ (as a relat. clause) 
uncoDcemed, heedless, careless, reckless 
IV to try, test, put to the teat (* a.o.); 
to make experienced, harden, inure (• 
S.O.; said of trials, experiences); to work 
havoc (a on; to wear out (a | 
li-^ •'jL Jjl {bald'an hasanan) to stand 
the test; to prove o.s. brave (in war) 
VIII to try, tempt, put to the teat (» a.o.) ; 
to afflict (v • &o. with), visit (^j • on 
a.o.; pass, ubtuliya to become or be 
afflicted (l-> with, by), suffer (l^ from) 

Jj bilan decline, deterioration; decay, 
putrefaction, decomposition; worn con- 
dition; wear; shabbiness 

Jj batiy worn, old, shabby, thread- 
bare; decrepit, dilapidated, decaying, 
decomposed, rotten 

<lt baliya pi. Ij')>j baidyd trial, tribula- 
tion, visitation, affliction, distress, mis- 
fortune, calamity 

»*i^ bald* trial, tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distreaa, misfortune; scourge, 
plague; creditable performance, bravery, 
gallantry, heroic action | ^y„*- »"jtj (ha* 
«in) favor, blessing, grace (of God); good 

(Sjii halwd trial; tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distresa, misfortune, calamity; 
necessity, need | *i ti_jlJI c> (ammai) it 
has become a general necessity 

;Vt-. mvbalah consideration, regard, 
heed, attention | S'^UV Id-mvbdldh in- 
difference, unconcoKn, carelessnees 

•'>b|l Q>tild^ trial, tribulation, affliction, 

JL bdlin old, worn, worn out; shabby, 
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit, 
dilapidated; decayed, rotten; obsolete, 

JL. myhdlin observant, heedful, mind- 
ful ((_j of) I t_j jL* J* heedless of 

J::-, mubialan (less correctly Jn-- mub=^ 
talin) afflicted (t-. with, by), auffeting 
(l^ from) 

jjL II tabalwara to cryataliz-e; to be crys- 
talized; to be covered with crystals 

jjL baUur, billaur pi. -at crystal; crys- 
tal gl&aa, flint glasa, glass | Q ^^J^ jjL 
{sakrV) rock crystal, transparent quartz 

oj^ billaura (n. un.) pi. -at cryatal; 
crystal glass, flint glass, glass ; tube 
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a de- 
tector; radio); (syr., pronounced ballcra) 
negative (phot.) 

tfjjL ballurt, hiUaurl crystalline; crys- 
tal (adj.) 

*iJj^. ballHriyay billauriya pi. -at lense 

j_jL. tnubalwar: 'j^^Lj *5'I^ candled 



jji, :jjjj (Fr. blouM) balii, bAiaa pi. SI 

il^. (Turk. beWt) hiiui pi. -it company 
(mtJ.i Eg.) I O^l ilJk 6. oinl» (mfl.) 
approx. : quartermaster sergeant (former, 
ly, Eg.) 

j^ taUHn balloon 

'Jj bam yee, yee indeed, certainly, rarely 

'Jj baiiya eto., aee _>L 

^ULLi (It. paglittccio) jxUyatSS down, buffoon 

jij\Ai (It. bigliardo) bilyardB billiards 

■■_ ;t; bilMli plisa^, pleating 

>jjj 6aIA» pi. >l^, boiditn* pallium, liturgical 
vestment of a bishop worn over the 
ohasuble {Chr.); monk's robe (Copt.-CAr.) 

•ijjJi batgibi pi. Ju -sli balSytn* (U.S.) billion, 
(O.B.) milliard J (U.S.) trillion, (O.B.) 

r bamm lowest string of a musical instru- 

f-Li bumbag, vLc 6umM^ bow tie 

(fLc bombiy Bombay 

l^L look up alphabetically 

'^ T ^ tabannH to adopt as son (• s.o.); 
to adopt, embrace (» 

^ I ibn pi. •LI oin^, Ciyj banCn son; 
descendant, scion; offspring, eon (of a 
nation or people) U^T ^ I pi. ^jT jij (son of 
Adam) man, human being; ^^jT jrl ibn 
iwa jackal; .tUI ^\ ibn al-balad local 
inhabitant, native; A'iJ\ »\it\ natives, 
native population; v.^' i>^ ^ al-harb 
warrior, soldier; warlike, bellicoae; ^1 
J^l wayfarer, wanderer; <i- c^-i- ^1 
60 years old; «»U ^ I ibn td'atiki tem- 
poral, transient, passing; ^JL^ ^1 »&a 
fuBnhi his own son; ^^ ^1 ibn 'ira 
weasel; •|^i ^L yj banii mS aa-tamd' 

the Arabs; >Juj> ^ Beni Suef (city ia 
Egypt, S of Cairo) 

ol ibna and jju fttnt pi. oLj Aondt 
daughter; c^ girl | Jl 4:jl i. al-'amm 
(female) cousin; periphrastically for wife: 
^ ijl your wife; jS^I ii 6. nJ-JiJr 
pi. jKtVI >l<tj thought, idea; ^jlll oL 
i. oj-ar^ insects and worms; ^_ >1iLj 
6. fc»'« calamities, afflictions; ^.Jl oLi 
i. ttd-dahr do. ; uJtll ou 6. ai-Safa word ; 
jX^I ob 6. at-fadr worries, fears, 
anxieties; Oljjj <1>1^ b. warddna earth- 
worms, rainworms 

^ buruzt^ my little son 
Ijjj bunuua sonship, filiation 
jjij baTiaun filial 

jj Id^nnin adoption (also fig., e.g.. 
of ideas, principles, etc.) 

'jr bunn coffee beans, coffee 


^^ bunni coffee-colored, brown 

'jb ftandn finger tips | jb-> aJs jUj (yu' 
iortt) lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, 
i.e., he is a famous man; tlLLi fjV Ijl and 
lau'a banSnika I am at youi disposal, I 
am at your service 

;jjil:j banSdSra {tgr.; from It. pomodoro) 

^jUj bandri^ Banaras or Benares (the Holy 
City of the Hindus, in M India) 

i\Jj I 


jiu binU napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 
20 francs) 

p4 II to dope, narooticize (with banj; • s.o.); 
to anesthetize (• a.o.) 

^ banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger; 
bot.); an anesthetic, a narcotic 

tjUJI oJ-banjai the Punjab (region, NW 
Indian subcontinent) 



^>.ii banjar red beet {eg.) 

Xj band pi. :>^, bunud article, clause* para- 
graph (of a law, contract, etc.); banner; 
large body of troops 

^j-j bandar pi. jjbj handdir^ seaport; com- 
mercial center ; district capital (Eg.) ; jibj 
flee also under S^-Uj below | ,j>t* j-^^ h. 
'ahbds Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran] 

^'»jjXj look up alphabetically 

3 -Uj bunduq (coll. ; n. un. S) pi. Jdbj banddiq^ 
hazelnut(B), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; 
UXj hazelnut, filbert; bullet 
J -Lj hunduqi Venetian sequin 

aJ -Cj hunduqiya pi. Jdbj &and(i-tg^ 
rifle, gun ] J.j \SXjb. roM shotgun 

iJjiJl al~bunduqiya Venice 

iJli-L) hund-uqam pi. -fin, 4^bj band* 
diqa a Venitian 

(3j -Lj bunduq pi. Jj^Lj banadig* bastard 

*jj4ij banaddra {syr.; from It. j?om.«i(?ro) 

(_fjjXj jj-l aATnar' fcoTiaddri tomato-red 

Jj4:j (Fr. pendule) bandul pendulum 

*jXj (Span. feoTuiera) bandera pi. jjLj band' 
dir^ pennon, flag, banner 

j^ bannur (— j_^_ ftaUur) glass 

^>j banzahlr bezoar, bezoar atone 

^j>j banzln, benzin gasoline, benzine 

^jjj (Engl.) pence 

J^LJj benisilin penicOlin 

**«ij (Fr. peneie) bansSh pansy (bot.) 

j^«Ju baniiydn pi. -at boardinghou&e ; board- 
ing school 

^^-*ij bin^r f., pi. j-*Ij bandsir^ ring finger 

iu 6-ufi/ pi. jtf^ 2)unu^ point (stock market) 

j_^ikj banfalun (from It. ^Ttfa^t) pi. -Af 
trousers, pants 

^jUuj hangazl Bengasi (city in NE Iiib3''a, 
capital of Cyrenaica) 

jUiJl al-bangal Bengal (region, NE Indian 

^_jL) banafaaj (coll.; n. un. o) violet [hoi.) 

^_^h>-i:j banafsaji violetlike, violetish; 
violet (adj.) | j^-^ic ;H 3j* or ^j>>->*:.ll *\jj 

j^jlij 6on/ai, banafS amethyst (m-in.) 

4J0 binaqa and ^IJu franuj'a gore, gusset (of 
a shirt or garment) 

^jiij bunk root, core, heart, best part | ^iSut 
j^\ b. al-umr the prime of life, the beat 

'liiit bank pi. 4>^! bunuk bank, banking 
house I tJuLllI jJjj credit bankj ^>dl tfJjia 
deposit bank; >*ali .iJjj b. ad-dam blood 
bank; Jjoll ^1 (dauli) the World Bank 

^dk^ mubannak stranded 

*iU:«. tii;^ mwA^nna* mubannak shrewd, 
sly, astute 

ul«y5oj (Engl.) banhrUit banknote 

ii^ and ^^j^j see ^^ 

jljij (Fr. baignoire) banwdr baignoire, theater 
box of the lowest tier 

^Jj band t (*bj bind^^ uLu &un^an} and Till 
to build, erect, construct, set up (a}; 
to build, establish, rest (J* * on); 
to consummate the marriage (Lf and L^Jp 
with a woman); pass, buniya, vhtuniya 
to be based, be built, rest ( J« on) | "S Jj 
J* {kalimatan) to give a word an in- 
declinable ending in (a certain vowel or a 
vowelleae consonant; gram.) V see ^^ 

*\Li bind' building, consbnicbion, erection, 
setting up; structure (also, e.g., of an 



organism), setup, make-up; (pi. 4jjl 
abniya) builtling, stnictuie, edifice | *^Ui 
*liJl i'ddat al-b. reconfitruction ; ^J-l -UJl 
{hurt) Freemasonry; J* .Uj bind'an 'aid 
according to, in accordance with, on the 
baais of, by virtue of, on the strength of; 
i-U J» *'lx> accordingly, thus 

ijbj 6t7ia*t constructional, building 
(used attributively) J architectural; struc- 

i-ii binya, bunya pi. ^ &tnan, bvman 
atructure, setup, make-up; binya build, 
frame, physique, physical constitution j 
iJj! iJfi^*Jf of delicate constitution; py^ 
i-iJI and iJjl -i-> of sound constitution, 
healthy; iJJI j^ qawiy al-b. husky, 

•Uj bannd' pi. -un b uilder ; mason ; 
constructive | j^ »L; (hurr) Freemason 

JjLj bindya pi. -at building, structure, 

jLJu bunydn building, construction, 
erection, setting upj building, structure, 
edifice; physique, stature 

^^ mabnan pi. jL. mabdnin building, 
construction, erection, setting up; build- 
ing, structure, edifice; form; foundation, 
fundament, basis | ^\j J[j\ {ra'y) con- 
tent and form 

^j tabannin see ^^ 

oil bdnin pi. sLj bundh builder 

^ mabniy built, set up, erected; 
founded, based, resting (Jp on); fiied, 
established; indechnable; ending in- 
declinably (J* in; gram.) 

^J^, (Engl.) penny 

jJu (It. bagno) hanyo bath, bathtub 

iluf bahita a, bahuta u and pasa. buhita {hahi) 
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered, 
startled, perplexed, flabbergasted, speech* 

Less ; — bahiUt to be or become pale, fade 
(color) ; — bahata a to astoniah, amaze, be- 
wilder, startle, stagger, flabbergast {* a.o.) ; 
(oLl^^ buhtan) to slander, defame (• a.o.) 
Ill to come or descend uneipectedly (» 
upons.o.); to startle, stagger, flabbergast 
(a s.o.) lY to surprise, astonish, amaze (» 
a.o.) VII = I 

C^ huht and olif. buhtan slander, false 
accusation; lie, untruth 

i^- bahia perplexity, amazement, be- 
wilderment, stupefaction 

li^Lj bdhit pale, pallid, faded (color); 
perplexed, aghast 

Cjj^ mabhiU perplexed, astonished, 
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast 

«^ bahija a to be glad, be happy (^j about), 
be delighted {<^ at); — bahuja u to be 
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden, 
delight, make happy {. a.o.) VIII to bo 
glad, be happy {^^ about), be delighted 

Xp-il^ hahja splendor, magnificence, beau- 
ty, resplendence; joy, delight | jL^"^! i»^ 
delight of the eyes, welcome sight 

«.f- bahijf j^ bahij magnificent, splen- 
did, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful 

4#kY~* mabhaja a moment of happiness 
and joy 

^L> mabdhif joys, delights; pleasures, 
amusements, diversions; splendid things; 
splendor, pomp, magnificence 

r-L^J t&f-iftdj joy, rejoicing, delight (w at) 

rif^ midthij pleasant, charming, delight- 

»|UfL« mtifiCoAtj happy, glad, delighted 

(J.Lf bahdala to insult (« s.o.); to treat con- 
temptuously, meanly (* e.o.); to expose 
(• 8.0.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock 
{* of s.o.) II tabahdala pass, of I 


liXf bahdala insult^ affront, abuse, out- 
rage; meanness; trittmew, insipidity 

Jj^ mubahdal maltreated, oppressed, 

j^ bahara a {bahr) and IV to glitter, sbine; to 
dazzle, overwhelm (* fi.o., a s.o.'s eyes) | 
jU«j*^l j^ •ji a dazzling, overwhelming 
thing; — pasB. bukira to be out of breath, 
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be 
smitten with blindness; to ,be out of 
breath YIII to flaunt, parade, show off, 
present in a dazz.ling light (l^ 

j^ bahr deception, dazzlement (lj by) 

^ff buhr difficult respiration, labored 

l^^ bakra (n. vie.) being dazzled, dazzle- 

l^ buhra middle, center | . . . ijr J 

^^^1 abhar^ more brilliant, more magnif- 

_^l abhar^ aorta {anat.) 

jLf bahdr pi. -di spice 

jLfji ibtikdT dazzling display, show (-_j 

^L bakir dazzling, brilliant, splendid 

j_^.f^ tndbhur breathless, out of breath, 

■rj^ bahraja {^j^ bahraja) to adorn, deck 
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive 
brightness (a to); to glamorize (a; 
to reject as false (» a witness); to fake, 
counterfeit {* II tabahraja to 
adorn o.s., spruce o.a. up, dreas up; to be 

^j^bakraj false, spurioua, fake, sham, 
worthless, bad; counterfeit money; tinsel, 
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff 

'<rjrr_ bahraja empty show, hollow pomp 

jU-j-f bahrajdn tinsel, frippery 

rjt^ mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy» 
ornate, ostentatious ; trashy, rubbishy, 
cheap, inartistic 

>^ bahriz [eg.) a soup 

idUf bahaza a (bahz) to oppress, weigh down 
(• S.O.; a load, work), weigh heavily (• 
on 8.0.) IV do. 

Jk*L bdhiz heavy, oppressive^ trying; 
excessive, exorbitant, enormous; ex- 
pensive, costly 

j^- bahaq a kind of lichen (boL); herpetic 
eruption, tetter; vitiligo alba, a mild 
form of leprosy (med.) 

J^ bahala a {bahl) to curse (« a.o.) Y and VI 
to curse one another VIII to supplicate, 
pray humbly (to God) 

^\f^ abkal savin (Juniperus sabina; 

cJL^I tbtihdl supplication, prayer 

Ja \j bdhil pi. J^ buhl, buhhal free, 

iJ_^ buhlul, baklul pi. JJLj- bahdlil^ buffoon, 
jester, clown, fool 

jl_^ bahlawdn pi. -at, -iya acrobat, tumbler, 
equilibrist, ropedancer, tightrope walker 

jl_^ bahlaivdnl acrobatic | C'lT^ 
4jl^^ {haralcdl) acrobatics; antics, capers 
of a tumbler; jl^jlf >j'^ {^ayardn) aerial 
acrobatics, stunt flying 


IV to make obscure, dubious, unintel- 
ligible (* V and X to be obscure, 
ambiguous, unintelligible {J* to s.o.) 

i.^ bahma lamb, sheep 

^ bakim pi. -^ buhum jet-black 

"k*^ bahima pi. r Lj- bahd ' irr\} beast, 
animal, quadruped; pi. liTestock, cattle* 
(large) domestic animals 


^j^^ &aA{m{ anim&l, bestial, brutish 

*^*^ baMmijfa brutiahnesa, bestiality, 

l>Lf-l ibhdm obscurity; vagueness, am- 

|-Lf-I ibhdm pi. Jklt abShlm* thumb; 
big toe 

>Ij bdhim big toe 

^ mubham obscure, dark, cryptic, 
doubtful, vague, ambiguous | ^ 34» 
{*adad) abstraot number (math.); O u—mII 
^1 Cofob) the vagus (anat.); ^\ ^^\ 
{ism} the demonstrative pronoun {gram.) 

^(jr) '-r: ^oAd u, bahuwa u and ^ baAi^ a 
(*L^ boA^T) to be beautiful III to vie, 
compete (l^ • with s.o. in; to pride 
0.8. (l-. on), be proud (^ of), boart (^ ofi 
1-^ • to e.o. of 8,th.) TI to compete with 
one another; to be proud {^ of), pride 
o.s. (u« on) 

j^ bahw pi. *Lf.l abhd* hall; parlor, 
drawing room, reception hall 

^yf bahly beautiful, magnificent, splen- 
did; brilliant, radiant, shining 

plf bahd' beauty, magnificence, splen- 
dor; brilliancy 

Jlf. boAift Bahai (adj.); (pi. -Hn) an 
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai 

^1 abhd more splendid, more bril- 

:ULi mvbdhdh and *Lj tabdhin pride, 
vainglory, boastfulness 



i^jj) •Li M*a u to come again, return; to 
oome back (u> with, bring back, 
yield, bring in (i^ &.th.)|^^*L p\j or Jlilli 
{JfaibOf fajhl) to fail II to provide ao- 
conmiodations (J and • for s.o., * at a 
place), put up (J or ■ s.o., * at) | Lil^ 1^ 
(mahdnan) to take a place, settle down. 

live or stay at a plaw IV to provide 
accommodations (* for s.o., a at a plaoe); 
to settle down, reside, live (i^ at a place) 
V to settle down (« at a place), occupy 
(IjS^ markaxan a plaoe), hold (UlJu ma* 
qdman a position) | Ut^ !^* (mahdnan) 
to gain ground, become generally ao' 
cepted; ^j^Ji \jJ ('ari) to ascend the 
throne; £i-l 1^ {hukm) to oome to 
power, take over power 

^lx> bi'a pi. -di (usually pronounced 
bai'a) pi. -dt residence, domicile, seat; 
situation; surroundings, environment, 
milieu; home, habitat 

ULm mabd'a place to which comes; 
abode, dwelling, habitation 

»jj tabawipu* : ^jJl *jJ t. al-'ari acces- 
sion to the throne 

-jji II to divide into chapters or sections {*; to arrange in groups, arrange 
systematically, class, classify (a 

^Li bdb pi. ^\jt} abtmb, oLj bibdn 
door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; 
chapter, section, column, rubric; group, 
olass, category; field, domain (fig.) ] >^U\ 
JUI the Sublime Forte ; ^Jcl\ ^l 
b. al-mandab Bab el Mandeb (strait 
between SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); 
vUf^' J*" QOU'i imminent; l-V^-U- IjU *i:a 
to open up a new way, a new possibility; 
<.^Ij ^ fuiiha bdbv ... was (were) begun, under way; t^l <^\j J^ (qajala) 
to put an end to, terminate, close; J-AJfe]l i-jIj ^ (b. it-fa4l) as a favor; 
ijjt i_jlj ^ (auld) with all the more 
reason, the more so; ^\J\ Ija j about 
this matter, about this; ji 'ijjjjS\ >^\j ^y 
(b. i4-4*^nira) it is necessaiy that . . . ; ^ 
'*jJ^\ •-.'L ^ \h> (b. ia-fiudfa) that's no 
coincidence; i^li j^ jlT or wiU j Jf^^a 
(witb foil, genit.) to belong to, fall under; 
*^\> J 'k.j* unique of its kind; ^1 i^L J»^ 
to pursue one's livelihood, earn one's 



4i\j bSba pi. -d< kind, sort, olase, category 
h-il^ hawwob pi. -vn doorman, gate- 
•Aji hiiodba of£ce of gatekeeper 
"^Aji hawwaha pi. -at (large) gate, por- 
tal { S^^ull *i\j> h. al-qantara lock gate 
....jjj tabwib diriflioQ into chapters, 
BectioDing, classifioation, Bysteniatio ar- 
rangement, grouping 

^j^ mijbatewai arranged in groupe, 
classed, classified 

^j> bdblin poplin 

*U{ji (Fr. bobine) bobina spools reel 

C-jji buwaii see Cm 

UlJ^, ^^\jji (It. pcdoMa) butded, biUds potash 

4Xj/^ buiaqa (usually pronounoed bautaqd) 
crucible, melting pot [ oU^I *ajj j 
{zamdn) in the melting pot of time 

4^^ (Ft. bougie) bu^ih pi. -di spark plug 

{rji) 7^, b^M u {bauh) to become known, 
be revealed, be dirulged, leak out (secret) ; 
to reveal, disclose, divulge (* or i_j, 
a secret; Jl and J to s.o.) IV to disclose, 
reveal (a or t^, J to s.o.]; to release, 
abandon, moke public property* declare 
ownerless (a; to permit, allow^ 
leave (*, J to s.o.); to justify, war- 
rant (a X to reveal (*; to 
regard as public property, as ownerleea, 
as fair game; to deem permissible, lawful 
(a; to hurt (*^j^ hurmataku a.o.^s 
honor); to take possession (a of), ap- 
propriate, take as booty (a; to 
seize, confiscate (a | tui r'^' (<^ 
moAu) to proscribe, outlaw s.o. 

W.J1 bauh divulgence, diaoloeure (of a 
secret) ; confession 

^ji bah wide, open apace; courtyard; 

U'Li bdha pi. -dt wide, open space; 
open place, sqnare, plaza; courtyard; 

4^ Li I ibdha divulgence, disclosure (of 
a secret); permission, authorization; li- 

^lil ibdhi licentious, unrestrained, un- 
inhibited; anarchist; freethinker 

4^Lil ibdhiya freethinking^ libertinism; 

4^LL«I iatibaha appropriation, capture, 
seizure; spoliation, confiscation 

*>Li mubdh permitted, allowed, permis- 
sible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate; open 
to everyone^ permitted for all, free; 
ownerless {lal. Law); indifferent (said 
of actions for which neither reward nor 
punishment is to be expected, but which 
ore permissible, pi. ol^-L. indifferent, 
permissible actions, Ul. Law) 

iryi) r'^ bdka u to abate, subside, let up, 
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade, 
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to 
spoil (a 

*-1^ buiodk evaporation, exhalation, 
vapor» steam 

fij^ tdbwiki h^Ji j^j^ t- an-nukta the 
spoiling of the point of a story 

D j^\j bdyik spoiled, bad; vapid, in- 
sipid,, stale (also, e.g., of a joke) 

bl^jU-^ bukdrest Bucharest 

•jj^ (Fr. povdre) budra powder 

'4ijj budaqa pi. J^l^ bawddi^ crucible, melt- 
ing pot 

Ij^ b-udd Buddha 

^^^ bu^i Buddhistic; Buddhist 

'<i^jt budxya Buddhism 

{jjt) jt hdra u (frour, j\y bawdr) to perish; to 
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be 



futile, unauccessful, unprofitable, lead 
to nothing (work); to be uiualable, be 
dead stock (merchandise) | cJJ\ Ojb 
{bint) the girl could not get a husband 
II to let lie fallow (a land); to make un- 
profitable, useless (a IT to destroy 

jji bUr uncultiTated, fallow \jj/ ^jl 
{ar4), pi. jji u-rljl {ara^in) fallow land, 

j\ji bawdr perdition, ruin. | j\jJ\ jIj 

J\j bd'ir unoultirated, fallow (land) 

(i'j>. ^''^nt {eg,) a vegetable stew 

j^f^ jji bur ta'id Fort Said (seaport in NE 

jlj^ jji hUr niddn Port Sud&n (seaport in 
NE Sudan) 

jSo j^^ buriurilcu Puerto Rico 

i^\i-jjjji burtugdl Portugal 

*^Jji ^ur^fi pi- -^ stock exchange 

j|j» Jji bur fu'dd Fort Fuad (seaport in KE 
Egypt, opposite Fort Said) 

3jji bauraq boiaz 

Uj^ frurmd Bunna 

^iSJji {T^^- boru) ini^ trumpet, bugle 

^jjji huruji pi. -iya trumpeter, 

*iJJJi ^'^ (P'- iSJ^ji &tt"^") striped mullet 
(Mugil cephalus; 200I.) 

*^_jji (Ft.) burth pur^e 

^jjt II to pout, Bulk, look glum, sullen 

jji buz pt. jl^l abw&z muzizle, snout 
ly jZ tabwiza sullen mien 
Jj^ mubaivwiz sullen, glum 

*jji buz, :j^ buza ice cream 

':j^ baza a beerlike beverage 

*j\j bdz pi. jl^l afru-dz, ui>j bizdit falcon 


bus bus 

*(^jj) ^1j bOsa u {baus) to kiss (• s.o.) 

L>jj bausa, busa kiss 

ji^jj (It. busto) buai'ii corset 

Ak'^, «L-^ (It. poata) biM^, buaia post, mail 

jjA^jJ\ (U-buBJUr the Bosporus 

ii^ji) ltV ^^^ ^ (&au^) to be boisterous, 
shout, roar (crowd) II do. 

jiji bauS pi. ^\jj\ avbdS (for ^^ji\) 
mob, rabble 

^^ji bufi (coll.; n. un. !) reed 

I^^, b^^ pi. -tU inch 

'^_^^ buf pi. ^1j{l ofrw^^ linen or silk fabric 

*L^ji (It. buasola) bofila compass 

iSfji bufa crucible, melting pot 

^ji buxa a beerlike beverage 

ip^ 6fi* metatarsal bone {anat.) lf>S3l '-J_rt "^ 
pjjl ^ he wouldn't know his knee from 
his elbow (proverbially, of & stupid per- 

'f-Li bff pi. f-l^l o&wo' the span of the out- 
spread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4 
4ira' mi'Tnariya = 3 m | f- Ui Jj jlf mighty, 
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable; 
generous, liberal; 9'lJl jl^ powerless, 
helpless , impotent , weak , incapable ; 
niggardly, stingy; F'UI jj^ impotence, 
weakness; incapability {^ of); p'Uli 
P'ljillj with might and main 

^^ji II to surprise 

^Ai\j bdga celluloid; tortoise shell 

ajUjj hugada and <m«U^ bilga4a potash, lye 



j{ejt bUgdz pi. >« i^ bawa^' stiait(s} ; harbw | 
Jjj>ja)l JU^ the Dardanelles 

*Jjt {Ft, bttffei) b^fih buffet; bar; sideboard 

j^ II to blow the trumpet 

3j{ bHq pi. -dt, 3\ji\ abwaq trumpet, 
bugle ^ fAufare; horn (of an automobile, 
of ft gramophone); acouBtio eignaling 
doTice; mega^rfione; mouthpiece, apokes- 
man; duplicity, treachery^ betrayal | 3jt 
C>j^\ b. af-fiaui OTji^^J^ jji loudspeaker 
{radio); Q ^j J^ {rahiml) oviduct. 
Fallopian tube {anai.) 

j\ji bawwSq trumpeter, bugler 

ul haqa bundle; bunch of flowers, 
nosegay, bouquet 

UjL bd'H^pl. ^'I_^, haw&'i^ misfortune, 

Jlf^ h€qSl^ SJl#|j buqdla pi. J^'^ bavjoqiP 
vessel without handles, mug 

jj_^i-5ji bok99ford patrol wagon, paddy wag- 
on, Block Maria 

t_jl^--G{ (^i^l-) bokB9kdf box calf 

^(JyJ JL bdla u {bavl) and Y to make water, 
urinate lY to be diuretic X to cause to 

ijji batU pi. t}\ji\ abwal urine | ^^^ 
i£_^LJ\ JjJ\ mara4 al-b. as-ntkkari diabetes 

J,^ bauU uric, urinary, urinous | ^LJ.1 
U^l the urinary passages; *Jj^\ ij^'j^"^' 
diseases of the kidney and urinary bladder ; 
J^ ^*_j {tasammum) uremia (med.) 

<Lf hUat O V:^*^ ^ {dhinlya) al- 
buminuria; O *d>-* *^ {damamya) hem- 
aturia {med.) 

ii\ji bawwdia public lavatory 

Tij^ mainoala pi. JjL« mabavnP urinal; 
a diuretic; — mtfrwoZa chamber pot; toilet, 
water closet 

(}\jJ^\ iatibwdl: Q ajS\ Jl^JL.1 tat. ad- 
dam uremia {med.) 

'JIj bdl state, condition; heart, mind; notice, 
regard, attention ] Jb jj significant, no- 
table, considerable, important, serious, 
grave; JUI f\ji far&Q al-b. leisure; t^ji^L^ 
Jul anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried; 
JUI Jj_}^ long-suffering, patient; ... ^Jb L 
(with verb) why is it that he (it) ...T 
why ...T iJllj U how about you? what do 
you thinkT aJL "A*^ ^ala hahthu his mind 
is at rest, he haa no worries; 4Lt Ja*- it 
occurred to him, it came to his mind; 
(J) Jl *Jli <J«., jJI) Ja*l {a*fS, alqa, ja'ala) 
to turn one's mind to, give one's atten- 
tion to, pay attention to, take into ac- 
count, be mindful of, bear in mind, heed; Vb J^ jIj f lam ffulqi li-qaull 
bdUtn he didn't pay any attention to 
what I said; VL ^^ J^ V (yaqUlu) no 
less significant than this 

*J^ bul postage stamp 

^Jlj bal whale (zool.) 

*4JLj look up sJphabetically 

n i^jt hvXad (= JVji) steel 

'*^j{ see <-^ji, 

Siji buldc^ a district of Cairo 

txlji bClanda Poland 

^jjjj belandi Polish; (pi. -Hn) Pole 

jiji bdld polo 

Ijy^j (It. Polonia) biUiiniya Poland 
jj^ji buluni Polish; Pole 

^u-^Ji (^- pf>ii^) bulis police | «.jli^l tj-^ji 
vice squad; jL^I ,^^1 (^ind't) criminal 
police; Jji-I ^^-J^' {harbi) military po- 
lice; jj-Jl tr^_>Jl {airrl) secret police; 
jjjA ij~t}ji traffic police 

*T^ji *i^JJ fiwdya bulisiya detective 



'<-^j> and i-iiJ)> (Ft. pdiee) bvlim, bOlifa 
pi. j-«-l!>J bawSlif', ^j-l^j-t bawSlit' 
Mitifiisate of inauiance, policy | *—Jj{ 
j>^l b. aS-iahn bill of Iikding 

UJjl bOllfiyS Bolivia 

JJji buU/l BoliTian 

O^j-il '^i dff tU-baulind uremia 

fjj bum {coU.; n. im. ■) pi. ^\jj\ abwdm owl 

^Ojt baun» bun interral^ distaaoe; difierence 

*Lilj (coll.; n. iin. •) ben tree (Moringa; bot.) 
hoise-radialL tree (Uoringa oleifera; bol.) 
Egyptian vUlow (Saliz aegyptiaca L. 

lyj^tj-^y. Bnenoa Aires 

liji (Engl.) bOnl pi. Jl^ bawOni pony 

■b bdh coitus; sexual potency; sexuality 

l_^jj (Engl.) bSMmiya Bohemia 

^j^ji bf\tm.i Bohemian (adj. and n.) 
''r^j> bShimiya Bohemianism, Bo- 

hemian life 

'^ijjt ha* Una the tenth month of the Coptic 

\jy (Turk, boya) bSya paint; shoe polish 

ijt-X' Jr^-Jt (**•) lioys* house painter, 
painter; shoeshine, bootblack 

4^ bayya = 4jb look np alphabetically 

"iiu see fji 

SjLj biyada infantry (Eg.) 

^jLj biyadi infantryman, foot soldier 

jLj, iJLj, jiij bfySn, biySna, biyHnB pi. oULj 
biydndt piano 

^LjM bib pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a 
reservoir or tank)' 

■4^ biba (Western) smoking pipe 

(^) C'li bdta i (ca^ mabu) to pass or 
spend the night; to stay OTemight; to 
become; to be (J in a situation); with 
foil, imperf. : to get into a situation, get 
to the point where; to continue to do, 
go on or keep doing, stick to 
II to brood (by night; t about; to 
contrive, hatch (* an evil plan, ^ against 
S.O.), plot (J against s.o.); to put up for 
the night (• 8.0.) | ,_i^l j ti^j {faff; eg.) 
to flunk, fail promotion (pupil) IT to put 
up for the night (• s.o.} 

Ou bait pi. Oj-j buyut, olj^ buyiUSt 
house, building; tent (of nomads); room; 
apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; 
case, box, covering, sheath; pi. ^Uj^ 
large, respectable houses ; respectable fam- 
ilies; (pi. oLjI abyai) verse | l_ry\ Cm 
b, al-ibra (navigator's) compass; c^JI J>l 
aM al-b. family, specif., the family of the 
Prophet; ^l^>^i J>) people from good, 
respectable families; ^jLf '^^jsi (tija* 
riya) commercial houses; ^l^i c.ijl {ha* 
rdm) the Kaaba; i^jU-'l ^Ljj b. al-kald' and 
k-j^Vt Coj toilet, water closet; 
• lull Coj origin or seat of the disease; 
Jjj tiM (ri/i) country house; »>_,rtall Cm 
and ,l _ ,j l i l t .1^^ (the essential, principal 
verse of the kasida, i.e.) the quintessence; 
the gist, the essentials, the hit of; that stands out from the rest, the 
right thing ; J- c-a baitalahm' Bethlehem ; 
dHUl c.xJI the ruling house; Jill i^_ treas- 
ure house; flso, treasury, exchequer (lal. 
Law); (Tun.) administration of vacant 
Uuslim estates 

J^ baiti domestic, private, home, of the 
house, house- (in compounds); domes- 
ticated (animals); homemade 

c-jjj butvait pi. 'dt small house; small 


CiLt bayydt pi. -un and 4jLi bayyata 
boarder (student); (pi, -un) pupil of a 
boarding school {iun.) 



ijyj iayyfit stale, old 

c^j^ rwJiM overnight stop, overnight 
stay; shelter for the night 

ilJL hSit stale, old; (eg.) not promoted, 
'-j^' j (^#) in school 

c^ muiayytt plotter, schemer, intri- 

Ul>^ bijimd and *>1>~j bijSma pajoma 

^(J^) jli bffifa » to perish, die, pass away, 
become extinct IV to destroy, extermi- 
nate, extirpate (*, * s.c, 

jl Ju baida anna although, whereas; 
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet, how- 
ever, but, ... though 

Axj baida^' pi. Xj bid, CjIjI-u iat> 
dawat desert, steppe, wilderness 

IjIjI tiada annihilation, extermination, 
eradication, extirpation 

.JL bS'id passing, transitory, temporal ; 
past, bygone 

x_. mubld destructive, annibilative ; 
(pi. -&t) means of extermination | olj— • 
ij^ir- (haiani/n) inseotioides 

';^Uj look up alphabetically 

jj^ baidar pi. jjLj baj/Sdir' threshing floor 

Jj^ baidaq (and JXj) pi. jiLi baySdiq' 
pawn (in chess) 

jUJ^ see jlji-'iL alphabetically 

'□ 'jlji bayyara pi. -St (pal.) irrigation 
wheel; plantation 

*lju, i^ (It. ftirro) ftifd, btrabeer | IjJl ^^^«^ 
ma^na' al-b. brewery 

jju bairaq pi. jjUj baydriif flag, banner, 

jljiju ftatrs^iidr color-bearer, standard- 

4jj«JI JU- (Ft. Pyriniu) jibSl tU-birineh the 

^jj« ierfi Peru 

'j-Oi (^- *»'«•«) M'* pl- -«* office, bureau 

i^j^ iatruC Beirut (capital of Lebanon) 

ijijv bairvti pl. 4J;I^ bawarita, *tjLi 
baydrifa a native or inhabitant of Beirut 

J'^j'J-V i'rxS'of* bureaucratic 

4j>l_^jju iirugrf^iya bureaucracy; red 

UUi>j btjEan^iya Byzantium 

^Jy itsanft Byzantine 

^y-u biadn bison 

(<j^.) LT^k ^dda i to lay eggs (also «); to stay, 
settle down, be or become resident (v at 
a place) | r^j oSiii ^L (wa-jarraka) to 
be bom and grow up in a place; to 
establish itself and spread (plague) II to 
make white, paint white, whitewash, 
whiten (*; to bleach, blanch (t, textiles, laundry, rice, etc.) ; to tin, 
tinplate (a; to make a fair copy (* 
of I 44r-j ^^^ {uxtjhahU) to make 
s.o. appear blameless, in a favorable 
light, to whitewash, exculpate, vindi- 
cate, justify s.o., play s.o. up, make much 
of s.o. ; to honor a.o., show honor to 8.0.; 
<4»-j ^1 ^ji^^ may God make him happy! 
aijL^ ^ ^;ii V this doesn't show him in 
a favorable light T pass, of II; tX to be 
or become white 

u^. baid pl. ^_^ bvywf eggs 

i^_ baifa (n. un.) pl. -St egg; testicle; 
helmet; main part, substance, essence | 
,ilj jjl iui-> b. ad-dih (the egg of a rooster 
i.e.) an impossible or extraordinary 
thing ; oUI <^_ b. al-balad a man held 
in high esteem in his community; 4-^ J 
jL^I (6. m-noAJr) in bn»d daylight; 
i-<..JI <.^ b, at-foij the hottest part 
of the summer; ^^Vl <^, the territory 
or pale of Islam; jJi\ <.u js t^'^^> if 

jUj)l 4^ {b. id-din, b. il-tvafan) defense 
of the faith, of the country; j^l Iju 
b, al-kidr a, woman secluded from the 
outside world, a chaste* respectable 

tffi~t baidi, fj^.Jt^^ baidawi and ^jLjL^_ 
baiddwi egg-ahaped, oviform, oval, ovate 

i^_.kj buyaida and ^-^_^, buwaida pi. 
•dt small egg, ovule; OYuoi 

^Lt bayad white, whiteness; white- 
wash; — (pi. -dt) barren, desolate, un- 
cultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank 
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma 
(med.); linen, pi. C^LiLj linen goods, 
linens; {syr.) milk, butter, and eggs | 
^jaJI (j-il^ b. al-baid white of egg, al- 
bumen; ^;;^*jl jj^Lj b, al-'ain the white of 
the eye; jL^l ^Ij b. an-naMr daylight, 
(ace.) by day, during the daytime; ^Lj 
JJ i^j^j *^ji baydda yaumiht wa-sawdda 
lailikx by day and by night; 4]^^i s^W 
b. al-wajh fine character, good reputation ; 
^Lj ■iir' samak b, a Nile fish {eg.); J* 
jj>Lj blank, free from writing, printing 
or marks, uninscribed ; ((JAj j I or) |j-J 
^LJl {labisa, irtadd) to dress in white 

uK^ bayil^ pi, ,>ri &uy«<f, bid (egg-) 

,_;dLj1 abywP, f. «L<Lj baicld'', pL ,j^ 
bi4 white; bright; clean, shiny, polished; 
blameless, noble, sincere (character) ; 
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pi. oLiJI 
al-biddn the white race; t^f-i;j"l/l white of 
egg, albumen | »Li-> ^j\ {ard) barren, 
uncultivated land, wasteland; »Ua^ tjjj 
[taura) peaceful, bloodless revolution; 
,j^y^ ^\ {kaif) first light of dawn; 
^jajVI i->-DI (dahab) platinum; ^"iLJlj 
,j^/il with cold steel; 'L«^, oL«^ {sahi' 
fatuku) his reputation is good; he has 
noble deeds to his credit, he has a noble 
character; •ULj »Ji^ (suhuf) nohle, glo- 
rious deeds; *L^ *ij^^ {ukduba) white 
lie, fih; *Ui^ ^J {laila) a sleepless night, 

a night spent awake; ^j^.*^! o^l {maut) 
natural death; *LiLi x {yad) beneficent 
band, benefaction 

.j^tL^ Ttiabid, mibya4 ovary (anai.) 

*-^yj^ tabyida fair copy 

O (^'-^' ibyiddd leukemia {med.) 

^U bd'i4 pi. ,j^*'_H bawd*i4^ (egg-) 

,j^»4 mvbayyi4 pi. -un whitewasher; 
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of 
fair copy) 

i^M-* mubayyada fair copy 

ji«j baifara to practice veterinary science; 
to shoe (* a borse) 

jIUj baifdr pi. *^Lj baya^ira veteri- 
narian; farrier 

(j^^_ baifari veterinary | j;^;1bJI (-JaII 
(^*66) veterinary medicine; j;j1«j i_^ 

•__Ja-j baifara veterinary science; farriery 

^(«-j) ?-L bd'a t (fea*'", a^^- tnaii') to sell (*, • or J to 8.0., ^-> for a price) HI to 
make a contract (• with s.o.); to pay 
homage (• to s.o.); to acknowledge as 
sovereign or leader (* s.o.), pledge alle- 
giance (• to) IT to offer for sale (* 
VI to agree on the terms of a sale* con- 
clude a bargain VII to be sold, be for sale 
VIII to buy, purchase {j* m from 
s.o. and a » from s.o. | 4it ('lijl V 
**ri' Vj {abtd'u, abi'uhu) I don't trust him 

*_^ bai' pi. pj-j buyu', Cj{e.j~> buyudt 
sale I «Ji for sale; '*tj^ {^{cj~> or) fj^ 
ijabriya) forced sales, compulsory sale 
by auction; ^Li-U a^ {jumla) wholesale 
sale; jy-'li ^, {kiydr) optional sale {IsL 
Law); i-j-lj >>-^ ji-j (li-dkiri rdytbin) saJe 
to the highest bidder; Ic-JI »_j b. al-'ina 
credit operation {Isl. Law) 

4«o bai'a agreement, arrangement; 
business deal, commercial transaction. 



bargain; eale; purchase; homage | 4a-JI J^^ 
into the bargain 

f-L bayyd' salesman, merchant, dealer, 
commissioa agent, middleman 

«_^ mabV sale, pi. -di sales (esp. on 
the stock market) 

4«jL« mubdya'a pi. -at conclusion of 
contract; homage; pledge of allegiance; 

f-Ljyl ibtiyd' purchase 

jJLi fcd'i' pi. 4£.lj bd'a seller, vendor; 
dealer, merchant; salesman 

4a7Li bd'i'a saleswoman 

r^.^ ffx&bV and f-L. invbd' sold 

f-U^ mvbta buyer, purchaser 

^i**j hVa pi. -fl(, ^ 6tya' {Chr.) church; 

iLj 6e {cff-)» **3» ^^'fc pl- '^'.j^ bigawdt [syr.) 
bey {title of courtesy); cf. ■lit 

<i_^^ bekawxya rank of bey 

jl^ Aiitdr compass, {pair of) dividers 

j^L51j Bee ^^L5o 

45^ (Fr.) hllcek piqu6 (fabric) 

^Jri {Fr. 6»«e) bXl ball | J^ ,^^ ^""-si 6. ball 

^iLj bila aee J_jj 

jLJ-j ftaiiojan black elder {6o(.) 

L«jL^ bWiarsiyd bilharziasis, schisbosomia- 
sis (med.) 

*-Lj (Fr. biile) bilya. pl. -5/ little ball, marble 

Ob>j^_ blmdristdn hospital; lunatic asylum 

'(^>i) jb bdna i {jLj iwyan) to be or be- 
come plain, evident, come out, come to 
light; to be clear (J to s.o.); (^>lj fcotn, 
4J^jj hainuna) to part, bo separated 
(i> from) II to make clear, plain, visible. 

evident (*; to announoe {>; 
to state {#; to show, demonstrate 
(*; to explain, expound, elucidate 
(a, throw light (* on) III to part, 
go away (• from), leave (• s.o.); to differ, 
be different (a, • from), be unlike 
(a); to contradict (a, be contrary 
{a to); to conflict, be at variance, be 
inconsistent (a with IV to explain, 
expound, elucidate (J a to s.o.); 
to separate, sift, distinguish {j« a 
from); to be clear, plain, evident V to be 
or become clear, intelligible (J to s.o.); 
to turn out, prove in the end, appear, be- 
come evident; to follow {^ from), be 
explained {j» by); to be clearly dis- 
tinguished {j» from); to seek to ascertain 
(a, try to get at the facts (a of); 
to eye or examine critically, scrutinize 
(a, a s.o.,; to look, peer (a at); 
to see through (a), see clearly, 
perceive, notiee, discover, find out {a; 
to distinguish (j* a from) VI to 
differ , be different , be opposed , be 
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; 
to vary, differ, fluctuate ( ju between two 
amounts or limits) X to be or become 
clear, plain, evident; to see, know, per- 
ceive, notice (a; pass, ustubina to 
follow clearly, be clearly seen (j* from) 

^ bain separation, division; interval; 
difference | ^^ C^^i enmity, disunion, 
discord; ^1 j in the meantime, mean- 

Jo baina (prep.) or J^t \.t fl-md 6* 
between; among, amidst \ j — ^ either 
— or, partly — partly, e.g., ^ ^jiJl jS" 
J-XJL^j ijU-.!-™* {^dmiiin wa-mutakalli^ 
win) the crowd was divided among those 
who were silent and those who talked ; 
*i-k ilAi iyadaihi) in front of him, before 
him, in his presence; with him, on him, 
in hia possession, e.g., 4jJj ^ -^ V (au 
Idha) he hasn't got a weapon on him, he 
is unarmed; jJJj j>j ^J meanwhile, 


in the meAntime; ^^Ju ^j J^ ^ in 
my heart, at heart, inwardly; ^^^j'i ^ 
in his armB; -f^ j« min bainihim from 
among them^ from their midBt; jv ^ 
something between, a oross, a mixture, 
a combination; neither good nor bad, 
medium, tolerable; >j Oh 'ij^ something 
between, a cross, a mixture, a combina- 
tion; j-^ij C-Jj J^ {vo^r ijcar), jj^ 
ti_r-'j -j^ {/o/ra, ukrd) at times, from 
time to time 

jjuL. md-bain look up alphabetically 

bjj baind, \^^ baiTiamd (coaj.) while; 

jv bayyin clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; (pl*l:^_l abyind'*) eloquent 

jLj baydn pi. -at clearness, plainness, 
patency, obvlouaness; statement, dec- 
laration, announcement; manifestation; 
explanation, elucidation, illustration; in- 
formation, news; (official) report, (of' 
ficial) statement; enumeration, index, 
list; eloquence; oLJl the Koran; see 
also alphabetically | a1SL\ jLj correction 
(joum.); jLJl ^ ^^ (?flw*y) self-explana- 
tory, self-evident; jLJl 1* *Um al-b. 
rhetoric; jLJI J.* 'a^f al-b. explicative 
apposition (gram.) 

jLj baydnv explanatory, illustrative; 

4:^ bayyina pi. -at clear proof, indis- 
putable evidence; evidence {lal. Law); 
a document serving as evidence | <Lm 
l^Ji (zarflya) circumstantial evidence; 

o^j Jp as has been proved; (>• ^ J» olT 
to be fully aware of; to be well-informed, 
well-posted, up-to-date about 

^\ oiyan" clearer, more distinct, more 

oLw iibyan exposition, demonstration^ 
explanation, illustration 

,>uu tabyln and JjM ibana exposition,, 
demonstration, explanation, illustration 

jfLj tabdyun difference, unlikeness, dis- 
similarity, disparity 

^Lj tabdyunl different, diSenng, oon- 

;j\j bain clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; £nal, irrevocable (di- 
vorce ; Jal. Law) ; of great length | ^^li 
JjlaJi b. af-ful towering, of unusual 
height (person) 

ijlj bd'ina bride's dowry 
*jj-* mabyuTM distance 
y^ mxibin clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent | ^x^\ i-^b^t the Koran 

J.L14 mtUabdyin dissimilar, unlike, dif- 
ferential, differing, varying 

jLj, uLj look up alphabetically 



_^iiAi see _jiij 

4j bih ~ dL 

**iJ^ (Engl.) biyurSh pur^ 

"4jj_jj (Ft. pyorrhie) biy^ih pyorrhea (med.) 

^iZj abbreviation of o^ilj telephone 

'o la (particle introducing oaths) by, wilJ 
ta-Udhi by God! 

•U id* name of the letter O 

sl>^IJ idbvt pi. C^}j* tawdbit* box, case, 
chest, coffer; casket, co^n, sarcophagus | 


0^1 >l'ji}j t. al-'ahd ark of the covenant; 
•Lll fij '^y}^ '• *■*/* oi-fniydh Archime- 
deaii sorew j v'~'' '^ji ^ '* a^-^^*yi 
Bcoop wheel, Persian wheel 

S^lj tabiySkd tapioca 

btj ta'ta'a to Btammer (with fright) 

c:^' we j.^ 
ojj see Jij 
*jIj IV j^l jIjI (frapara) to atare (« or Jl at 

Kj[S 860 j^jJ 

*J1j (dza (= djUrp) £resh, tender, new 

iiU iate fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 
l)l^ ^ita (dual nom. iLU tdnika, genit., 
ace. «iLu7 (aintiba) 

rl>» rv^ tau'am, i. », pi. rl^ towo'tm^ 

^Ull at'tdmiz the Thames 

^Lj tdy {tun., alg.) tea | jr^\ ^fU black tea 

j^U tav^ and ^U tdyfr (Fr. tailleur) pi. -at 
ladies* tailored suit, tailleur 

i_J toMa i (tabb, 1^ to&a5, t-jLJ tabdb) to 
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be 
stabilized, be or become stable; to be 
settled, established, well-ordered, regular, 
normal; to progress well | j^VI aJ t_j:JL-l 
everything went well with him 

<! Lj tabban lahHf may evil befall him! 
may he perish t 

•-^Lrlrfi iatitbab normalcy, regularity, 
orderiinesa, order ; stability ; favorable 
course or development 

C^\ (U'iibt Tibet 

jy tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (a 

jS tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold 
nuggets; ore 

jLj tabdr ruin, destruction 

<ljv t^riya dandruff 

jjv tabriz^ Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital 
of Azerbaijan province) 

*J tabi'a a (tofta', -aU (o^a'a) to follow, suc- 
ceed (ft S.O., M, come after s.o. or, (a, ft); to trail, track (a, » s.o,,,), 
go after s.o. or (a, e); to walk be- 
hind B.o. (e); to pursue (a; to keep, 
adhere, stick (a to, observe (a ; 
to follow, take (a a road), enter upon 
(a a road or course); to comply (a with; to belong, pertain (a to); to be 
subordinate, be attached (« to s.o.), be 
under s.o.'a («) authority or command, be 
under s.o. (&) | ^jjJJI ^ {duruaa) to 
attend classes regularly III to follow (a, 
A S.O.,; also = to keep one's mind 
or eyes on, e.g., on a development); to 
agree, concur (• with s.o,, J* in, 
be in agreement or conformity (a, Ja 
with); to pursue, chase, follow up (» s.o., 
A; to continue (a; b^h-* aoiroAii 
on one'fl way), go on (a with or in) 
IV to cauae to succeed or follow (in time, 
rank, etc); to place (• s.o.) under s.o.'b 
(ft) authority or command, subordinate 
(d A to s.o. S.O., A A to V to 
follow (a, eap. &g. : a topic, a devel- 
opment,, the news, etc., = to watch, 
study); to pursue, traU, track (a, a a.o., ; to trace (a ; to be subordinate 
(a, ft to), be attached (• to b.o.) VI to 
follow in succession, be successive or 
consecutive, come or happen successively ; 
to form an uninterrupted sequence VIII to 
follow, succeed (• s.o., a, come 
after (a, •} ; to make (a be succeeded 
or followed (^ by else); to prosecute 
(* s.o,), take legal action (> against); to 
follow, obey, heed, observe, bear in 
mind (a; to pursue (a,); to 


examine, investigate, study (a; 
pass. vUvbi'a to have or find foUoTere, 
adherents ( Jc for^ e.g., for an idea) | 
<^l^ «jl (aiydaaian) to punue a policy; 
c-/ ^'1 {yaminahu} to keep (to the) 
right X to zoake (• s.o.) follow, oak (• s.o.) 
to follow; to seduce (• e.o.); to have as 
its consequence, engender, enteul (m; to subordinate to o.b., make 
subservient to o.b. {m 

^ taba' Buccesaion; subordinate nesa, 
dependency; folloving, follovers; sub- 
ordinate, subservient (J to; <uzilj 
auccessively, consecutively; J LJ iaba'an 
li according to, in accordance with, 
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in 
consequence of, as the result of; — 
(pi. F'lJi atbd') follower, companion, 
adherent, partisan; subject, national, 
citizen; appertaining, appurtenant, per- 
tinent, incident 



*ijM- {^vqvba) in- 

cidental punishment {jur.) 

AM tabVa pi. -at consequence; respon- 
sibility, responaihlenesa | J» 4*^:11 Jll (aiqd) 
to make s.o. or responsible 

A^ taby' pi. 9-Lj Ubd' following attach- 
ed, attending, adjunct; — (pi. kjLJ to 
b&*i'*) follower, adherent, partisan; aide, 
help, assistant, attendant, servant 

l^ taba'iya pi. -& subordination, 
subjection ; subordinateness, dependency; 
citizenship, nationality; v^b subse- 
quently, afterwards; consequently, hence, 
therefore, accordingly 

ULj tibd'an in succession, successively, 
consecutively, one after the other, one 
by one 

LuLl. mviaba'a following, pursuing, pur- 
suit, prosecution; continuation 

F'LJt itbd' {gram.) intensification by 
repeating a word with its initial con- 
sonant changed, such as Jcailr bailr 

juXj tatabbu' foDowing (eap. fig., of an 
argument, of a development, see V 
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession, 
course \ J^j\^\ ^^\ the course of history; 
*JAr- sl>\jJj (^adliya) legal action, pros- 

Ailij tatSbu' succession; relay {aihlet.); 
^liilU consecutively, successively, in 
Buccesaion; serially, in serialised form 

(•LjI ittibd* following; pursuit (e.g., of 
a pohcy); adherence (to), compliance 
(with), observance (of); J ULjI itti6d'afl. 
U according to, in accordance or conform- 
ity with, pursuant to, in observance of 

O ^V^ ittibd'i classical 

O 4^l-ji iUib^iya classicism 

•^U tdbi" pi. teJ tabd'a, f-LJ iubb^ fol- 
lowing, succeeding, subsequent; subsidi- 
ary, dependent; minor, secondary; sub- 
ordinate (J to s.o.), under s.o. (J); be- 
longing (J to); subject to s.o.'s (J) au- 
thority or competence; adherent (J to), 
following (J s.o. or; — (pi. 5-LjI 
atb^) adherent, follower, partisan; sub- 
ject, citizen, national; subordinate, serv- 
ant ; factotum ; (pi. A^^ji) appositi ve 
{gram,); appendix, addendum, supple- 
ment; O function [math.) \ 4^liil Jj^Jl 
{dutual) the satellite countries 

*»i\S tdbi^a pi. »»1jj tatvabi^* female 
attendant, woman servant; a female de- 
mon who accompanies women; appurte- 
nance, dependency; consequence, effect, 
result; responsibility; pi. m^\jj depend- 
encies, dependent territories; Q satellites 
ipol.), =3 ^}j^^ iJj->J' {duvxil) the satellite 

iLwU idbi'iya nationality, citizenship 

y^yi* Tfiatbu' followed, succeeded (<-> 
by) ; one to whom service or obedience is 
rendered, a leader, a principal (as distin- 
guished from a^U subordinate) 


•^Ui> miUalSbi' auoeeauve, oODMOUtive 

^ muUaba' obaerred, adhered to, 
complied with (e.g., ragubtion, oiutom); 
foUoved, traveled (rood, connie) 

u libg pi. j^ tvbS§ tobacco 

JJ tabdla i to consume, waste, make sick 
(• B.O.; said of love) n, in and Ji/ 
taubtda to apice, aeaaon (> a-th.) 

JjU Ubal, tSba pi. Jjly tav>SbiP oori- 
andeT {bet.]; gpioe, condiment, aeaaoning 

<l_^ taibSta (ayr., Id).) a kind of salad 
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion, 
lemon juice, spices, and oil 

Jj^ mUbul (love')sick, weak, ravaged, 

J^ mutaiioZ spiced, seasoned, flavored; 
(tyr., leb.) stuffed with a mixture of 
rice, chopped meat and various spices, 
e.g., J_i^ oLifiLi {bSimjan) atufied 

tjiS (Fr. tableau) iablBh pi. St a painting 

^ tibn straw 

JJ tibnl straw-colored, flaxen 

JL: labtdn straw vendor 

^Ls)l w>j.» (ittrfr ai-tabhdna the Milky 

0^ moiian pi. ^L, modlbtn' straw- 

E[^ iabiyOhd tapioca 

■j^l al-ta<ar and jHI ot-todSr the Tatars 
j^ talari Tatarian ; Tatar 

V-w talra (£rom ^"j) one after the other, 
Bueoeflsively, in succession 

iiizj iilik trigger 

Ifi tvlun tobacco 

ij*^ ieianua tetanus (med.) 

jf lajara u and Tin to trade, do business; 
to deal (j or V in Ill do. (> with 

ij\ji tijdm commerce; traffic, trade; 

jjlf HjSri oommercial, mercantile, 
trade, trading, business (used attributive- 
ly); commercialized | ifjL^' >i^ (bait) 
commercial house, business house; 4^,^.1 
«jjU>JI (AaraJn) trade, traffic; «j jU: iT^ 
ilirka) trading company; ^Ui JUj'l 
(ittifSq) trade agreement 

jif^^ mat jar pi. jt^\z* matdjir* business, 
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store, 

iSjiy:^ matjari commercial, trade, trad- 
ing, business (used attributively) 

jU:l ittijSr trade, business (lj in 

^,1^1; ISjir pi. j\jc tajjar, lijSr merchant, 
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman | 
iUi-j j-r^ t- al-jumla wholesale dealer; 
iljr^l jrlj (. al-lajn'a and ^^ILJil j--\j t. 
al-qifd'i retaUer 

"ij^^ 4»Laj bi^a tdjira salable, market- 
able merchandise 

•U tujSlia (prep.) in front of, opposite, face 
to face with, facing 

lIji lahta (prep.) under; below, beneath, 
underneath | !iyNjl .1.^ (tajrSM) on 
probation; in an experimental stats; 
j^^MT^ ,:.^ in preparation; iLU-l .i^ 
(At/z) in custody, under guard; .jljjl c^ 
{eadsd)f x>.lJl]I tz^ due, outstanding, 
unsettled, unpaid {com,); r-^' >^ 
under arms; ^^jj" c^ (tam'ihim) in 
their hearing, for them to hear; iu^Ji)l ^ 
(laawiya) outstanding, unpaid, unsettled 
(com.); Jt\ji\ c^ (*5/S) under the 
patronage or superintendence of; c^ 
jjaIJI subconscious; 4fj-jJ c^ {tafar* 
rufiki) at his disposal; ^1 c^ (tab') in 
press; Ol_^ t::^ ('unuiiSni) under the title 


of; LjLxI c^ {a'yunind) before our eyes; 
ljj^.lJ- in trunjng; Jji .iJ- {yad) 
in hand, at hand, available, handy; c^ 
•Jb in hi£ power; c^ ^ m»it tal^i from 
under, from beneath; under 

•1^ tahtu (adr.) below, beneath, 

JU^ loMant lower, under- (in com- 
pounds) I IJl:^ ^^ underwear 

ija^ IT to present (v • or * < b.o. with 

<i^ tvJifa pi. ijitf tvhaf gift, present; 
gem (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of 
virtu, objet d^art; work of art | L:i li^ 
{fanniya) unique work of art 

iJtMju mathaf pi, iJw-U^ matdhif mu- 
seum I »^l .Jm::^ »t. aJ-Jam' waxworks 

f idkka It to become sour, ferment (dough) 

^il^ takt pi. Cji^ fu^ bed, couch; bench; 
seat; sofa; chest, case, box, coffer, cab- 
inet; wardrobe; platform, dais; bond, 
orchestra | .dRI CJ^ t. al-muik throne; 
royal residence, capital; ISlJLI cJft (. 
cU-mamiaka capital (of a country) 

jijj cJc, o\j_^ tdktaruvjSnj taktara* 
wan mule-bome Utter 

"iii lakla board; desk; blackboard 

^^ tajflalia to rot, decay 

^ jc takima a to suffer from indigestion, feel 
sick from overeating lY to surfeit, satiate 
(• s.o,); to give (• S.O.) indigestion, make 
sick (• s.o.); to oventuff, cloy (a the 
stomach) Tin == I 

uc itJfanui, tukma pi. ji tukam, -at 
indigestion, dyspepsia 

/>^^»Ca natjpfim suffering from indigestion, 

*ji taff^ma i to &x the limits of (*), delimit, 
limit, confine, bound (a m to 
border (« on), be adjacent (* to 

j£ takm, tukm pi. pji^ tukum bound- 
ary, border, borderline, limit 

>-U> miitdkim neighboring, adjacent 

r'j4j tadrup, 4;^j4j tadruja pheasant 

J.X; tadmur', usually pronounced tudmtir' 
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a 
small village) 

iij^ tadmurit usually pronounced 
tudmwi anyone | tfj^-Lj ^ nobody, not 
a living soul 

'j"}j i^-l tarSblza) pi. -at table 

Uy-ly irakOmd trachoma (mei.) 

^\J (Fr. terrtuM) terSs terrace 

r\J, tf'^lj'' trUm, tramwiy tramway 

^J tariba a to be or become dusty, covered 
with dust II and IV to cover with dust 
or earth (• s.o., * Ill to be s.o-'s 
(■) mate or comrade, be of the same age 
(■ as s.o.) V to be dusty, be covered with 

t-»y tirb pi. 4->lyl airdb person of the 
same age, contemporaiy, mate, com- 
panion, comrade 

^J tarib dusty, dust-covered 

*ij turba pi., ^j turab dust; earth, 
dirt ; ground (also fig.) ; soil; grave, tomb ; 
graveyard, cemetery, burial ground 

jS turabi pi. -tya (e;.) gravedigger 

i^ly turab pi. iij\ airiba, C)\ij Hrbdn 
dust, earth, dirt; ground, soil 

jly turSbl dusty; dustlike, powdery; 
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray 

O *)!/ titfSba cement 

'<j J tariba pi. ^\Jtara'ib' chest, thorax 

Xt^ matraba poverty, misery, desti- 
tution; (pi. ^jU« matdrib^) dirt quany 

t.^Ju mvirib dusty, dust-covered 



^j iarbaea (™ ^j^) to bolt (* a door) 

^Ltj-" tirbds pi. ^j-Aily tardbia^, u^}J 
tardbi^ bolt, latch (of a door or window) 

J;*.duj'" tarbantin turpentine 

4>jj'" {€p.) tarabiza table 

^jj-* turbin pi. -dt turbine 

.ifly see ijj 

jy tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg,) 

j^J tarjama to translate (a s.tb. ^ irom 
one language J I to another); to interpret 
(*; to treat (a of by way of 
explanation, expound (^ s.tb.); to write a 
biography (iJ of s.o., alao •) 

4j~_j tarjama pi. j^\J iarajiw? trans- 
lation; interpretation; biography (also 
aLi-l '^J)i introduction, preface, fore- 
word (of a book) I v=*r— " '*';>" [sab'inlya) 
the Septuagint 

Cjb^y iurjuman pi. i*;!/ tarajima, 
^\j iardj%v\^ translator, interpreter 

^jCt mutarjim translator, interpreter; 

j«-jl!* mutarjam translated | Je ^J^ 
iiJI {film) synchronized (film) 

r-J iariha a {tarah) and V to grieve, be sad 
II and IV to grieve, distress (a s.o.) 

^J tarah pi. ^J\ atrdk grief, distress, 

jj^ tarzl pi. oJjT iarziya (eg.) tailor 

4j jy iarziya tailoring 

^^ly look up alphabetically 

t.^j» J II to provide with a shield or armor 

^j turs pi. jj^lyl atrda, ^J-JJ turns 
shield; disk of the sun; — tirs pi. turus 
cogwheel, gear | ^j^jj^\ JjX^^ ^iiduq at-t. 
gearbox, tranamiaaioji; ^jOi die' aamak 
at-iura turbot {zool.) 

^jM matraa, mitraa pi. j^jli. maidrie^ 
and ^ly* mitrds pi. ,j-ijli. mai&Ht^ bolt, 
door latch; rampart, buiwark, barricade; 
esp. pi. ,j-^^ barricades 

'*j\^j iarsdna, <jlj^y tarskdna arsenal; ship- 
yard, dockyard 

J^y (Ft. tricycle) tricycle 

'<i^J (It. terrazxino) taraaina balcony 

9 J tari'a a to be or become full (vessel) 
IV to fill (a^ esp. a vessel) 

4py iur'a pi, j^y tun% -dt canal; 
artificial waterway ) ^l^'VI ^c^y U <U-lrdd 
feeder, irrigation canal ; Cmj^^S Spy 
drainage canal {Eg.); *Ju_ji3>\ *cjS\ the 
Kesidence of the Sultan of Morocco 

^ji ^y i'^gy^t turffuUa turtledove 

sJ»y iarifa a to live in opulence, in luxury 
IV to efifeminate (• s.o.); to provide with 
opulent means^ surround with luxury 

(. B.O.) V ^ I 

Jyj taraf and liy turfa luxury, 
opulence, affluence; efifemination 

Jt/ iarif opulent, sumptuous, luxu- 

wjy* mutraf living in ease and luxury; 
sumptuous, luxurious; luxuriously adorn- 
ed, ornate, overdecorated (\j with) 

j^Liy tirfda [magr.) truffle {bat.) 

Jjy tarfala to strut 

*j*y tarqutva pi. Jly tardqin collarbone, 

clavicle (anat.) 

"^i^J taraka u (tarh) to let be, leave, relinquish, 
renounce, give up, forswear (a; to 
desist, reirain, abstain (m from; 
to leave, quit (* s.o., a a place); to leave 
out, omit, drop, neglect, pass over, 
skip (a; to leave (lS or Jl a to); 
to leave behind, leave, bequeath, make 
over (a, J to s.o.; as a legacy) | 



J*ij ^S'J to let 8.0. do a.tb.; JI UiSs< 6 J 
to leave one place for (another) ; o j j ^O" 
(/» ^immaftAi) to leave in s.o.'s core, 
leave to s.o.; 4JU.Jp *Sj to leave or 8.0. unchanged^ leave or 
8.0. alono; 4jLij *Sj [vxt-m^nahu) to 
leave s.o. alone, leave s.o. to his own 
devices III to leave (a s.o.); to leave alone 
{« a.o.); to leave off hostilities (* against 

i\J tark omission, neglect; relinquish- 
ment, abandonment; leaving, leaving be- 

aSV iariha pi. -Si (also tirka) heritage, 
legacy, bequest 

iSOy" tonka pi. jM\J tard*ik^ old maid, 

SS^li. mutaraJca truce 

iJjjl. matruk pi -di heritage, legacy 

"iiy" II to Turkify, Turkicize {. s.o.) X to 
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt 
Turkish manners and customs 

iJjiJi at-turk and iJlyVl aUatrdk the 

SJ turki Turkish; Turk; 4SJ}\ at-tur* 
kiya theTurkish language 

LSV turkiyd Turkey 

jJijo tatrik Turkification 

uli-Ty turkistdn^ Turkifltan 

uU5js)l at-turkumdn the Turkmen 

\i^J turumbS} (ayr.) pi. -ai (Western) drum; 
iL-y^ turumbefa (eg.) pi. -at do.; specif., 
bass drum 

jh^y" turumbalgi (eg.) drummer; 
bandsman {mil.) 

^j^j turmus, ^j*j turmus lupine (hot) 

j*j»j itrmwrniiT thermometer 

^ j turunj see r- y I , ^ y I 

»J tariha a to concern o.s. with trifles 

<»j-~ iurraha pi. -at sham, mockery, 
farce; lie, humbug, hoax 

olj/ (Ft. Troade) tirwdda Troy 

*^jj (Engl, troop) squad, platoon ; squadron | 
iSJ [j-* '-f'jJ' (flouari) cavalry squadron 

jmzx^jj == jJt^J see under Si^^J above 
JL y tirydq theriaca; antidote 
jSJy (Fr.) tricot 

i*-J (w*a (f. A-j («') nine 

_p!t£ <ji.~j tis'ata 'aSarUf i. *j^ ^^ iis'a 
'aSrata nineteen 

AW tus* pi. f-LJl atsd' one ninth, the 
ninth part 

djt^ tia'un ninety 

A^lill at-tdsi' the ninth 

J jV I j^ ^ fiirin' al-awwal October, ^ jij 
(jlill t. ai-tdni November (5j/r., Jr., Leb., 

iSliJ^^^ijLj thkoshvdkiyd Czechoslovakia 

J-JL; mi Chile 

OljU fi^ujon" Tetu&n (city in N Morocco) 

<J abbreviation of JLu, see ^ 

,^ ta'tia a (la' aij) to work hard, toil, slave, 
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become 
tired, weary {jm of IV to trouble, 
inconvenience (« s.o.); to irk, bother, 
weary, tire, fatigue (* s.o.) 

1..^ ta'ab pl.i^LJl at'db trouble, exertion, 
labor, toil, drudgery; burden, nuisance, 
inconvenience, discomfort, difficulty, 
hardship; tiredness, weariness, fatigue; 
pi. t_^lul fees, honorarium 

t^ ta'i6 and OLJ ta'hdn tired, weary, 



t^\z. maid'ib^ troubles, paiiu, efforts; 
dificomforta, iDCODTemencea, diiBcultiea, 
troubles; complainta, ailments, ills (at- 
tending diflease) ; hard^liipB, strains 

(_-«»i* mxU'ib troublesome, inconvenient, 
toilsome, laborious; burdensome, irk- 
some, annoying; wearisome, tiresome, 
tiring; tedious, dull, boring 

*.j.j^ mut'ab tired, weary 

^ ta'ta'a to stammer; to shake (* s.o.}; 
mi^\ iUa'ta'a to move, stir 

Jm ta'iiz* Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of 

^jM ia'aaa a, ia'iaa a to fall, perish; to 
become wretched, miserable; ta'asa and 
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin 
(. s.o.) 

^jM ta*8 and Z^\m ta'asa wretchedness, 

^jM ta'is and ^j^ ta'is pi. »L-aj 
tu'aad'^ wretched, miserable, unfortunate, 

fj'j*^ fnai'Hs pi. ^^-ieLi* mata'le^ wretch- 
ed, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy 

lJJ iaffa to spit II to say "phew" 

i_ju tuff dirt under the fingernails; 
*iJI Uj tuffan laka phew ! fie on you ! 
O iilij taffaja spittoon, cuspidor 

Laj iafelld, (liiS taffeta 

*-LiJ tuffdh (coll.; n. un. ;) apple(s) 

'SJu iujka pi. dim tufak (tr.) gun, rifle 

Jij lafala u % (taji) to spit 

Jjij lufi and jLij lufdl spit, spittle, saliva 
Jjj tajil ill-smelling, malodorous 
Uaiu mitjala spittoon, cuspidor 

*Jil tajiha a {tafah, ^^Li; tafdha, »ji^ (ufuh) to 
be little, paltry, insignificant; to be fiat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid 

4J0 tafah and $yu tufuh paltriness, 
triviality, insignificance 

4aUj tafdka paltriness, triviality, in- 
significance; flatness, vapidity, insipidity, 
tastelessness ; inanity, stupidity, siUiness 

4J6 tajih and oIj idjih little, paltry, 
trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless; 
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal 

<^i\j tdfiha pi. *i\ji tawdjih' worthless 
thing; triviality, trifle 

jjUJ see jj» 

y^ IV to perfect, bring to perfection (*; 
to master, know weU (a, e.g., a 
language), be proficient, skillful, well- 
versed (* in 

^ tiqn skillful, adroit 
<ILaj taqdna firmness, soUdity; per- 

yu\ alqan^ more perfect, more thorough 

uLaJI iiqdn perfection; thoroughness, 
exactitude, precision ; thorough skill, 
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of 
a special field, of a language) | '•h\^ J 
(jLil^/l to greatest perfection; of excellent 

y^ mutqan perfect; exact, precise 
JJ taqd i to fear (esp. God) VIII see jj 

JJ taqiif pi. .Lill atqiyd'^ God-fearing, 
godly, devout, pious 

Jjl atqd more pious 

Jj tuqan and jjiJ taqwd godliness, 
devoutness, piety 

^dX) takka u to trample down, trample under- 
foot, crush (a; to intoxicate (• sx}.; 

^4^ iikka pi. t^lfsj tikak waistband (in the 
upper seam of the trousers) 



*^ takka to tick (clock) 

*S^ tikka pi. -dt ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

'4^' look up alphabeticallj 

^j^ tukut pi. of Engl, tickei 

^JbS^ takiaka to trample down, trample 
underfoot (* 

'.iJbJJ iaktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling 

*d}^ takiaka to tick (clock) 

'SjiS^ ialdaka ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

*^l,"<: takiik tactics 

*Sj takiya pi. \j^ iakayd monastery (of a 
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum 
(for the invalided or needy) 

>j; tall pi. J:AI tildl, J^AJl ailal, J>- tulul 
hill, eleTation | ^-ojI JJ i. 06*6 Tel Aviv 
(city in W Israel) 

*J; tull tulle 

J:-^ Uildii^ hardships, troubles, adversities 

oJj ialid, aJU falid, j:^ fiUd inherited, time- 
honored, old (possession, property) 

i^_^^_ij tiliakub telescope 

jjj IV to stretch one's neck; to crane (a the 

*j]j ioTa pi. 9^3 tild' hill, hillside, 
mountainfiide ; (torrential) stream 

^ talV long, outstretched, extended; 
high, taU 

JiljiU tiligrdf, taligrdf pi. -at telegraph; 
telegram, wire, cable | J[ UljiU J-jl to 
send a wire to 

j}ji^ tiligrdfi, taligrdfi telegraphic 

ijjj talija a (iataf) to be annihilated, be 
destroyed; to be or become damaged or 

spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken^ 
go to pieces U to ruin (a; to wear 
out, " pniw h" (ft s.o.) IT to destroy, an- 
nihilate (a; to ruin, damage, spoil, 
break (a}; to waste (a 

■Jjj taJaf ruin, destruction; ruination, 
damage, injury, harm; loss; waste 

jUJj talfdn spoiled; useless, worthless, 
good- for - nothing 

tjalr. matlaft lilzj, mailafa pi. iJiJlu 
matdlip deaert 

o^ mitidj wastrel; ruinous, harmful, 

oiAjI itldl pi. -at annihilation, de- 
struction; damage, injury, harm 

.JJlJ tali} ruined, damaged, broken; 
spoiled, bad 

•Jtjh* maUuj and <_jli< miUlaf ruined, 
damaged, broken; spoiled, bad 

u_'il".- mutUf annihilator, destroyer; 
inj urer ; damaging, ru inous, harmful, 
injurious, noxious 

jil2 ialjasa to televise, transmit by television 

;jitL' talfaxa television 

4j_)iij 4cijl i^d'a tdlfatiya television 
broadcast, telecast 

O J^ilj tilfdz television set 
djiji^ (Fr. t^ivision) tilivisyOit television 
^yi\S taljana to telephone 

(JjaU iilifun and 0>LiJ iali/Un pi. -3t 

•Ui; see J 

Jjla tilka fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 

ii talam pi. f»:^i atldm (plow) furrow 

xJS talma4a to take on as, or have for, a 
pupil or apprentice (a s.o.); to be or 
become a pupil or apprentice (J of s.o.. 


also ^^), receive one^B schooling or 
training {^U, J from] II iaialma^a to be 
or become a pupil or apprentice (J or 
•Uj Jp of B.o.)t work as an apprentice 
(J or tOj J* under a.o.) 

:ljj talma4a sohool days, college 
years; apprenticeship; (time of) proba- 

jiLJil iilmad learning, erudition 

JLU; iil-nxid pi. VS^ talAml^t •i*'^ ^^^ 
mida pupil, student, apprentice; proba- 
tioner; trainee; disciple | tSj^^ -W^ (bafyri) 
approx.: chief warrant W-3 (naval rank; 
^ff-); iSj^ '*s^ (safari) approx.: chief 
warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.) 

Ix-Ja tUmida pi. '3t girl student 

-jl ,1" tUimaan* Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria) 

jijUl talmud Talmud 

4j taliha a (ialah) to be astonished, amazed, 
perplexed, at a loss 

4)Ij idlih and aIx* mutaUah at a loss, 
bewildered, perplexed | JJUll 4}\j t. al-''aql 
absent-minded, distracted 

(^) ■jU iald u (jjj tuluw) to follow, succeed; 
to ensue; — {*j^ tildwa) to read, read 
out loud (a, J» to B.O.); to recite 
(a VI to follow one another, be 

JS tilwa (prep.) after, upon | J<jl 
.^bS" j^ UlrTto send letter after letter 

»j^ tildwa reading; public reading; 
recital, recitation 

(Jlj idlin following, succeeding, sub- 
sequent, next; JUL bi-t-ldl\ then, later, 
subsequently; consequently, honce, there- 
fore, accordingly 

tibiA mutatdlin successive, consecutive 
Jj" taUi (fun.) tulle 
ijLJj iilibdti telepathy; telepathic 

^jJU tallU, tiUis pi. ^^ tdlali^ sack 

j^_^^jL1j (Fr. tUivision) tillvisydn television 

OjaJ^ pi. -at talifitn telephone 

jjA^ talifutii telephonic, telephone- 
(in compounds) 

^ tavnma • to be or become complete, com- 
pleted, finished, done; to be performed, 
be accomplished (J by s.o,); to come to 
an end, be or become terminated; to 
come about, be brought about, be 
eCTected, be achieved, come to pass, come 
off, happen, take place, be or become a 
fact; to be on hand, be there, present 
itself; to persist (J* in); to continue 
(J* or to do 11 and IV to 
complete, finish, wind up, conclude, 
terminate (a; to make complete, 
supplement, round out, fill up (a; 
to carry out, execute, perform, accom- 
plish, achieve (a X to be oomplete, 
completed, finished 

y>Lc' famam completeness, wholeness, 
entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire, 
complete, perfect; separate, independent; 
ULc tamdman completely, entirely, whol- 
ly, perfectly, fully, quite; precisely, 
exactly | Aj:'jJ^, {badr) and aIc' jJi {qamar) 
full moon; i-iUl ItLJl aLc' j at 6 o'clock 
sharp; iJS^I ^^ a]^ {ma'nd l-kalima) 
in the full sense of the word; a^U 
entirely, completely 

<,.,r tamlma pi. jfLe" iamd'im* amulet 
^\ atamm^ more complete, more perfect 

4^ taiimma completion; supplementa- 
tion ; supplement 

^^ iatmlm completion ; perfection ; 
consummation, execution, fulfillment, re- 
alization, effectuation, accomplishment 

a[x'\ itmdm completion; perfection; ter- 
mination, conclusion; consummation, ex- 
ecution, fulfillment, realization, effectu- 
ation, accomplishment 

^yi^l iatitmdm tenuinationt conclu- 

^\Stdmm complete, perfect, entire; con- 
summate; of full value, sterling, genuine 

ilLc' tumbiik Fetaian tobacco (esp. for the 

It' tamtama to 6t&mmBT, mumble, mutter; to 
recite under one's breath (v 

jjt' iamr (coll.j n. un. i, pi. tamardt, jjjc iu* 
mur) dates, esp. dried ones | ^au yT 
{Hindi) tamarind {hot.) 

^y (eff.tomorpi), ^jy\^j^,^j-^ 
pi. -ya male nurse, hospital attendant; 
\fry pl- '^' female nurse 

jjz look up alphabetically 

^t^ iiiMoh pi. p^\j UntM^}!? crocodile 

^iut' tamga stamp; stamp mark | •»/ 3jj 
ivaraq t. stamped paper 

^yi iv-mman rice 

Jj£ tammiu.* July {Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.) 

^y tunn tuna {zool.) 

'jr^j Hnnin pi. ^JlJ tananm* sea monster; 
Draco {aetron.); waterspout {meteor.); see 
also alphabetically 

\j)\j tdni' pi. flJ tunnd' resident 

ilLu iunbdk {pronounced tumbdk) and liLjJ 
tumhak Persian tobacco (esp. for the 

JLU tinbdl pi. J^.b' iandbiP short, of small 

j-^ (Ft. tiv^re) tambar pi. ^bJ ianabii^ 
stamp (mo^.) 

j-^ mviambar stamped {magr.) 

J-u (Turk. Umhel) tamhal pi. UjLj tandbila 

0* '.■>»■' T (IV. tungatene) tongsaten tungsten 

•Xj (It. tcTuia) tanda awning ; rop:Qng, sun roof 

j^ tannur pi. j^jU tartdnii^ a , kind of 
baking oren, a pit, usually clay-lined, 
for baking bread 

;j>J tannura {sijr., Z«i.) (lady's) skirt 

,jJJ tennis 

'dUj tanak tin plate 

^^y^ tanahji tinsmith, whitesmith 
4^ tanaka pi. -at tin container, can, 
pot; jerry can 

*,lXj\S tSnika see ilU alphabetically 

^JmJS tennis 

J<:J tannin tannin, tannic acid 

41^ tahiaha to stammer, stutter 

'lu^ itthma pi. J^ tuham accusation, charge; 
suspicion; insinuation 

'A^lf tihdma* Tihama, coastal plain along 
the southwestern and southern shores of 
the Arabian Peninsula 

ijj Uiiinean right away, at once, immediately; 
just (now), this very minute ) >:U li-t- 
iawwi at once, right away, also with pers. 
suffixes: i^jzi li-iavnoit Ij>^ li-tawwiha 
(I have, she has) just...; at once, pres- 
ently, immediately 

cJIjI (Fr. toiietie) tuwdiii toilette 

j»Tj5 see Js 

(vLh) V^ ^'^ ^ (*-rO^ tatib, *iy tauba, ,^\ia 
matdb) to repent, be penitent, do pen- 
ance; with ^: to turn from (sin), be 
converted from, renounce, forswear; (said of God) to restore to His 
grace, forgive (Jp s.o.) | *iii Jl ^\j to 
turn to God in repentance II to induce 
to repentance or penitence, make repent 
(» s.o.) X to call on s.o. («) to repent 

4JJJ tauba repentance, penitence, con- 
trition; penance 


wljj Umnodh doing ponance; repentant^ 
penitent, contrite; foigiTing, merciful 

i^lj ta'ti repentant, penitent, contrite 

yj*>.> tobogr^ya topography 

•Ojj <fi< mulberry tree; mulberry | ^j\ Oy 
(W) and ^y*j»l ijj (»/ro»jS) straw- 
Iwnyi j]^ oy (iaiiibi) and jJJI Cyj 
t. aJ-'iiZ{atg raapbeny 

'cjj! Hit the first month of the Coptic calendar 

lJj> tatiydi .Ljjj titii/a', \3y tSiiya zinc 

^_>; II to crown (» b.o.; alao fig. ^ * 

with) T to be crowned 

^Ij iaj pi. jImJ ff^'dn crown; miter (of 

a bishop) | iy^\ ^U (. (A'amvd capital 

(of a column or pilaster); J^SOI ,-1; (. al- 

iura calotte 
^,^ tuvxiij little crown, coronet 
^_j;2 taivAj crowning, coronation 

j^-jj USgo and xJ^jJ tBgdbmi (Eg. spelling) 
Togo (region in W Africa) 

(^y) ^^" we ^ 

ijG laratan once; aometimes, at times | 
•j^ — •jlj.'jjl' — SjU Ooaron), ifj».l — ;jl; 
(ui:ra) sometimes — sometimes, at times 
• — at other times 

i [iji taurdh Torah, Pentateuch ; Old Testament 

■':;jj'i ■'riJ> turpid, turbid torpedo (sub- 
marine missile) 

u^jjjj turbin pi. -at turbine 

ijjl loTta pi. -dt pie, tart 

( jy) JU fdgo u (taug, o\jj: iawagan) to long, 
yearn, wish (Jl for), hanker (Jl after), 
desire, crave, covet (Jl, strive 
(Jl for), aspu^ (Jl to) 

i3j* tauq, uliy tawaq&n longing, yearn- 
ing, craving, desire 

Jiy tawwSq longing, yearning, eager 
(Jl for), craving (Jl 

jJLj tSiq longing, yearning, eager (Jl 
for), craving (Jl 

t^\^\''fji ItSiaamamiya; eg .)\)titi\i<M»{mil,) 

6j> tiil tulle 

Jrj'J' we ^J 

by tun and ijy (ilna tuna [lool.) 

^y (Turk, tuof) tunj bronze 

^jJy (iinus*, <unM* Tunis 

^y Cuniri pi. -fin, l-i\y latoSniaa 
Tunisian (adj. and n.) 

i^y tUniya pi. Jly tau/ani alb of priests and 
deacons (Chr.) 

(ty) »U taha u and II = (ij) ,L' ta/ta i and II 

ity tuha daughter 
jJ\J (It. (eotro) tiyStrS theater 
D Jiuj tailal pi. JlLj see JiJ 
j^^Uu titdnii tetanus {med.) 

(^) ^^" <o*o « to be destined, be foreor- 
dained (by fate, by God; J to s.o.); to be 
granted, be given (J to s.o.) IV to destine, 
foreordain (» J to a.o.; to grant, 
afford, offer (» J s.o.; pass, uliha 
to be destined, be foreordained, be 
granted, be given (J to s.o.) | Jjjdl *J -Jl 
(uiiha) he met with success, he was 
successful; <^jii\ 4} _J| (/urjo) he was 
given the opportunity, he had the chance 

jLj tayydr pi. -at flow, stream, course, current, 
flood; fall (of a stream); movement, tend- 
ency, trend; draft (of air); (ei.) current | 
O j-iL- jLj (mubaiir) and j»:_ jLj 
{muatamirr) direct current; O vj^ J^ 
(mutandwib) and O jvU^ jLj (m«<o< 
gayyir) alternating current; O v'fi^ J^ 
(mutadab4ib) oscillating current {d.); 
O ^}j jLj (nditrf) pulsating current; 



high-frequency current; O ^'P' 'jW J^ 
((oft* at-laraddud) low-frequency cumnt; 
O -i+A.! JU jLj ('ai J-j'oM) high-ten- 
Bion current; O -Ifl-I 'J-'j J^ i^t*" 
al-jahd) low- tension current; O J'^ j^ 
{§6li) eelf-induoed current 

O jli« tnatdr (syr.) dynamo, generator 
•jS {Turk, feyze) tiia maternal aunt 
^ lai* pi. u-LlI atyai, ^jZ taySs billy goat 

^\ atyfu* foolish, crazy 

v_iji~i\jJ-\ oJ-AttWfnd(-«t/ailyotyphoid fever 

^j^ji^ tifHt typhus 

iiJ Kha tern, of the demonstrative pronoun 
' il\i dSka 

'JJ II (from Turk. Ul) to cable, wire, tele- 
graph {syr.) 

'JJ til hemp; linen 

'ilj tlla fiber, staple 

>(^) f\j tSma i (iaim) to become enslaved, 
enthralled by love; to enslave, make 
blindly subservient ( • b.o. ; through 
love) II to enslave, enthral (lore; • s.o.); 
to make blindly Bubaervient, drive out 
of his mind, infatuate (• s.o,; love) 

-1. muiayyam enslaved, enthralled (by 
love), infatuated 

'.L; laimff' Taima (oasis in NW Arabia) 

!>; (in (coll.; n. un. !) fig | Sj^ iIn (laulci) 
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficus- 
indica Haw.) 

liLu tainiha see iJlJ alphabetically 

(4J) sU idJia i to get lost, wander about, lose 
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander 
(thought*); to escape (j.. s.o.), shp (j. 
s.o.'s memory); to perish, be destroyed, 
be lost; to be perplexed, startled* as- 
tonished; to be haughty; to swagger, 
boast, brag ( J» to s.o.) | i.l_jj I t4»-j J» *JJ 
a smile flits over his face II to mislead, 
lead astray (• s.o.); to distract, divert 
(• s.o.); to confuse, confound, bewilder 
{. 6.0.) IV = U 

iJ tih desert, trackless wilderness; 
maze, labyrinth; haughtiness, prido 

•L; tayyah straying, stray, wandering; 

uLpI lo«Aa»' stroying, stray, wandering; 
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud, 

•Lpj taikd'' and 4*bt nuUaha a trackless, 
desolate region; 4*U« maze, labyrinth 

*JU (d'i* straying, stray, wandering, 
roving, errant; lost in thought, distracted, 
absent-miaded; lost, forlorn; infinite; 

i_J^ (Engl.) tulip 

i abbreviation of «JD second (time unit) 

Aj id' name of the letter ^ 

_JS lo'iba a {^^ (a'b) and VI to yawn 

#Ljj tu'aba' yawning, yawn; fatigue, 

jli ta'ara a (tar) to avenge the blood of 
(* or k-j), take blood revenge (a or l-j for 


a.o. killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. 
(lj B on a.o. for, also j* or J for) IV and 
VIII jlJI iita'ara to get one's revenge, 
be avenged 

jU ta*r pi. -at, jTjI at'dr, jLJT atdr re- 
venge, vengeance, blood revenge ; re* 
taliation, reprisal | •jU J»-\ or jlJlj i»-l 
to take revenge, avenge o.s.; jld! ;!jL* 
mubdrat at-t. return match (sporta) 

J^ td'ir avenger 

J^Jj ittlul and <IjJJj tu'lula pi. JJIj /a'£/iZ^ 

^^ ta*d scars 

kioj* tahata u (oLj /oiof, o^yJ tvbui) to stand 
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable, 
unshakable, firm, strong, stable; to hold 
out, hold one^s ground (i5 against s.o. or, be firm, remain firm (J toward s.o. 
or, withstand, resist, defy (J s.o. 
or; to be established, be proven 
(fact); to remain, stay {^ at a place); 
to maintain (Jp keep, stick, ad- 
here (J» to, abide or stand by 
(J«; e.g., by an agreement)^ to insist 
(J* on) I 44*- J j c^ (/» wajhihl) to 
hold one's own against s.o., assert o.s. 
against s.o. II to fasten, make fast, fix 
(a; to consolidate, strengthen (a; to stabilize {>; to confirm, 
corroborate, substantiate (a; to 
appoint permanently (• s.o.; to an office); 
to prove, establish (a, demonstrate, 
show {oti that); to prove guilty, con- 
vict (Jp a defendant); to confirm {Chr.) | 
Aj >^p«j 1^ (ba^arahu) to fix one's eyes on, 
gaze at; a^JUI C^ {gadamaihi) to gain 
a foothold IV to establish, determine 
(a; to assert as valid or authentic, 
affirm (a; to confirm, corroborate, 
substantiate ^a; to prove ( J« a 
to s.o. ; ij to B.O., cji that); to demon- 
strate, show ^A; to furnish compe- 
tent evidence (a for); to bear witness, 
attest (a to); to acknowledge (a 

e.g., a qualification, a quality, J in 8.0.), 
concede Q a to s.o.) ; to prove guilty, 
convict {J*, a defendant); to enter, re- 
cord, register, list (j a in a book« in 
a roster, etc.) j Jj^l j cwl (waraq) to 
put down in writing, get on 
paper; ,_;-ii-AJI ^laJl {Sak^a) to determine 
s.o.'s identity, identify s.o.; Cj^W c-ul 
{5ak^lyatahu) to identify o.s., prove one's 
identity V to ascertain, verify (j, 
Ja if), make sure (j of e.tb., J* if); 
to consider carefully {j e,th.), proceed 
with caution (^ in) X to show o.s. stead- 
fast, persevering; to seek to verify (a, try to make sure (a of), seek con- 
firmation of or reassurance with re- 
gard to (a); to ascertain, verify (a, 
make sure (a of; to find right, 
proven or true, see confirmed (a; 
to regard as authentic (a 

Cm tabt firm, fixed, established; stead- 
fast, unfiinching; brave 

Cuj tabai reliable, trustworthy, credible 
C^ lahat pi. kl* Lj I atbdt list, index, roster 

oLj tdbdt firmness; steadiness, con- 
stancy, permanence, stability; certainty, 
sureness; perseverance, persistence, en- 
durance; continuance, maintenance, re- 
tention (Jp of, adherence (Jp to) 

o^ t-ubvi constancy, immutability, 
steadiness; permanence, durability; cer- 
tainty, soreness j ^^^1 Cjj^ t- aS'Sahr 
the official determination of the be- 
ginning of a lunar month 

itjii atbat' more reliable, firmer, stead- 
ier, etc. 

uuJj UUbit consolidation, strengthening ; 
stabilization ; confirmation ; corrobora- 
tion, substantiation | c^j^I j-^ sirr at-t. 
the Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.) 

oLjI itbdt establishment; assertion; 
confirmation; affirmation, attestation; 
demonstration; proof, evidence; regis- 


tration, entering, Listmg, recoTding; doc- 
umentation, authentication, verification | 
oLiI oaL^ witness for the prosecution; 
oLjVI •i_-t''ib' oJ-t. hurden of proof (jur.) 

(jLil itbdti afiirmatiTe, confirmatory^ 
corroborative, positive 

C«ju tatabbut ascertainment; verifi' 
cation, examination, check; careful, cau- 
tious procedure, circumspection; inter- 
ment (of the remains of a saint; Chr.) 

c^\j tabit firm, fixed, established; sta- 
tionary^ immovable; steady, invariable, 
const&ntj stable; permanent, lasting, du- 
rable, enduring ; con firmed, proven ; a 
constant | j^^iU-! c-jU t. al-ja*s undis- 
mayed, fearless, staunch, steadfast; lUjLj 
>»_;Jl (. al-'azm firmly resolved, deter- 
mined; oU iJ^l and cjli Jl_^l im- 
movable property, real estate, realty; 
O «^"VI wjU t,al-itHjdh unidirectional, 
rectified (e^.) 

olj tabita pi. CjJjj tawabit^ fixed star 

CjjJ^ matbut established, confirmed; 
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven 

j>j tabara u to destroy, ruin (« a.o.); [jjJ tw 
bur) to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal 
and perseverance (J* to, persevere, 
persist (J* in) 

jj^ tubur ruin, destruction | ^_$i U 
Jjr^^J SiJ^^. (^^ or) ™«^ {da'd) bi-l-ieail 
wa-t-t. to wail, burst into loud laments 

SyUu mutdbara persistence, persever- 
ance, endurance; diligence, assiduity 

JiJ tabapa u and II to hold back, keep, pre- 
vent {^ fr B.o. from doing; to 
hinder, handicap ^ impede, slow down, 
set back (a, « s.o.,; to bring about 
the failure (* of, frustrate (* 

iiu tvbna pi, ^J tvban lap, fold of a garment 
(used as a receptacle) 

uL> tibdn = ai*j tvbna 

Jlu look up alphabetically 

/ tajja u to flow copiously 

^IjC tajjdj copiously flowing, streaming 

jsc takuna u to be or become thick, thicken ; 
to be firm, solid, compact IT to wear out, 
exhaust, weaken (« s.o.) | U^ OdI {darban) 
to wallop S.O., give s.o. a sound thrashing; 
j->jJI J j^l {'aduw) to massacre the 
enemy; ^l^Lj *^\ to weaken s.o. by 
inflicting wounds 

^ tikaiif 4Jljc takdnat Ijj^ tvkuna 
thickness^ density; consistency; compact- 

j\':^ takin pi. »Ljt tukana'^ thick; 

jji tody and tadan m. and f., pi. »lajl otid* 
female breast; udder 

J tarr abounding in water | uOJl j.* ij (dam') 
tear-wet, tear*blurred (eye) 

^j taraha i {Utrb) and II to blame, censure 
(• and Jp s.o.) 

c-jyu tairib blame, censure, reproof 

jj taHara (ij-j tartara) to chatter, 

j\jj tartar prattler, chatterbox; "jLiy 
tartara do. (fem.) 

'J- J tartara chatter, prattle 
ij tarada u to crumble and sop ( * bread) 

^JJ tartd a dish of sopped bread, meat 
and broth 

jjw mitrad bowl 

^J tarama i {tarm) to knock s.o.'s (•) tooth 
out; — tarima a (taram) to have a gap 
between two teeth 

f j_/ and i^j) ^j tariya a to become wealthy 
IT to become or be rich, wealthy (._-* or 
j>. through; to make rich, enrich 

(. B.O,) 


^y taran moist earth; ground, soil | 
Ijj^' i> tiJ^I (>' otTio /-(. mift iU-turayyd 
(prOTerbially of things of disproportionate 
value) what has the ground to do with 
the Pleiades ? a\j au I i_^ (jayyaba) 
approz.: may God rest him in peace 1 

ijj tariy pi. *ljyl atriyd'^ wealthy, 
rich I vj^' iSJ war profiteer, 
nouveau riche 

^\jj tariydi plantations 

Ijj tarwa and »\j tard* fortune, wealth, 
riches | •jj}\ J*1 afU at-t. the rich, the 
wealthy; «^jj Ijj {qaum\ya) national 
wealth; 4JL Ijj {mSxya) abundance of 
water, abundant supply of water (of a 

\jj iumyyd Pleiades; (also *ij) pi. 
oLj' turayydt chandelier 

j^ mtUrin wealthy, rich 

jLu tu'bSn pi. iJH^ ia*abin* snake | t\l\ uLu 
(. al-ma eel 

jLu tu'bani snaky, snakelike, serpen* 
tine; eely 

w^jti* mafiiiy pi. w^Ll. ma^d'ib^ drain 

itJLu iu'dla fox 

Ui^ ta'lab pi. iJLJ fa'oZ*" fox | ^J*!i\ »Ij 
alopecia (med.), loss of hair 

,-LJ ja'£aM foxy, foxlika 

iJ-j' ia'laba vixen ; O tetter (med,) 

jiJ tagr pi. j_^ Jw^r front tooth; mouth; 
port, harbor, inlet, bay; eeaport 

»ji^ tugra pi. jii tugar breach, crevasse, 
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity, 
hollow; narrow mountain trail 

^tu tagdm white, whiteness 

i\j tagim white (adj.) 
ijiS) \m tagd tt (»U? tu§d') to bleat (sheep) 

•Uu titgd^ bleating, bleat 

P-LJ tagin bleating | i-ilj Vj ijilj *l U 
(ro^iv^) he has absolutely nothing, he 
is deprived of all resources, prop.; he 
has neither a bleating (sheep) noi a 
braying (camel) 

^ iajar pi. JJu\ atfdr crupper (of the 

Jju tufl dregs, lees, sediment; residues 

jju III to associate (s with a.o.), frequent 
s.o/s («) company; to pursue, practice 

4Lu tafina pi. -dt, ^ tifan callus, 

*Ju\ look up alphabetically 

Ju taqaha u {iaqb) to bore, or drill, a hole 
(* in, pierce, puncture, perforate 
(* II do. II and IT to light, kindle 
(* T and VII to be pierced» be 
punctured, be perforated 

u-Jj' taqb piercing, boring, puncture, per- 
foration; (also tuqb pi. ^>aj tuqUb, wjUjI 
iUgab) hole, puncture, borehole, drill 

aJu tuqba pi. >-Ju f^^^ bole 

<yUj and <_jU±)I ijs- *iid ai-tiqdb match- 
stick; matches 

^jj^ tuqib keenness, acuteness (of the 


t_ ^*. mifqab pi. i_Jll* maidqib^ borer, 
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble, 
perforator; drilling machine 

^\Ju\ ilqSb kindling, lighting 

<_Jlj tdqib penetrating, piercing, sharp 
(mind, eyes) | _^l i_-ilj t. an-natar per- 
spicacity; sharp-eyed; _^J&\ l-jIj t. al- 
Jikr sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness; 
shrewd, sagacious, sharp-witted 

^[J\j tdqibdt borers {tod.) 


lJuj iaqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (• s.o.); — 
taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart, 
clever II to make straight, straighten 
(*]; to correct^ set right, straighten 
out {*,); to train, form, teach, edu- 
cate (• s.o.}; to arrest {* s.o.); to seize, 
confiscate (* Ill to fence (• with 
s>o.} V to be trained, be educated 

4fLlu taqdfa culture, refinement; eda- 
oation; (pi, -at) culture, civilization 

(^Uj taqSfi educational; intellectual; 
cultural I ^Uj J»J^ {mulhaq) cultural 

■_XJil7 tatqif cultivation of the mind; 
training, education; instruction 

u*li» mutdqafa fencing, art or sport of 
fencing, swordplay* ewordamanship 

ijisij taiaqquf culturednws, culture, »• 
finement, education 

< mufo^^/ educated ; trained; cul- 


Jjb iaqula u {tiql, ^JUu taqSla} to be heavy; 
with 1^; to load or burden,, make heavy; to be hard to bear (Jp for 
8.o.)t weigh heavily (Jp on), be burden- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive^ Jp to s.o.) ; 
to be heavy-handed, sluggish, doltish, 
dull-witted; to be too dull, too sluggish 
(^ for, to do, not to bother 
{^ about) II to make heavy, weight 
(>; to burden, encumber (J« e.o., 
M with, overburden (Jp a.o.), over- 
tax s.o.'s (Jp) atrengthy ask too much 
(Jp of s.o.); to trouble, inconvenience, 
bother (Jp e.o., i^ with, peater, 
molest (Jp s.o.) | ^LiE' JJu and ^U^ JIfi 
(kShUahU) to burden s.o. or; JaIT ^ 
i)\j^i\ to burden the budget IV to 
burden (*, * s.o.,; to oppress, dis- 
tress (• 8.O.), weigh heavily (* on); to be 
hard to bear (* for s.o.) | ^UlT JJbl 
{kdhilahu) see 11; TI to become or be 
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome 

(Jp to B.O.), trouble, oppress (Jp s.o.); 
to be sluggish, doltish, slow; to be in a 
bad mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find 
burdensome and turn away (^ from; not to bother (^ about); to be 
too dull, too sluggish (^ for, to do X to find heavy, hard, burdensome, 
troublesome (a, find annoying (*, 
• B.O., I 4II; J2£L«1 (fiUahu) to 
find s.o. unbearable, dislike s.o. 

^^ iiql pi. JUjM atqil weight; burden, 
load; gravity; heaviness | JLuVi ^j r^f 
al-a, weight lifting {<UhUl,)\ ^Ji\ ^fiii\ 
(nau'i) specifio gravity 

J^ iiqcd heaviness; aluggishnesa, dull- 

J^ paqal pi. Jlut aiqal load, baggage 

o'ljUdl ai-kiqaJdn the humans and the 

iljj taqla trouble, inconvenience, dis- 

'*]\ju iaqala he&vinMs; sluggishneaa, 
doltiahneas; dullness 

JJu taqil pi. »>Uu tuqaW*, jUj ^igdl 
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave, se- 
rious, important; burdensome, trouble- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive; unpleas- 
ant, disagreeable, distasteful (person) | 
^•Jl J^ t. ad - dam insufferable, un- 
pleasant, disagreeable (person); r}J\ JJu 
t. ar-riih doltish, dull (person) ; a bore ; 
JUII JJoj ^ af - fill disagreeable, in- 
aufTerable (person); ^^ilt J^ |. al-fahm 
alow of understanding, slow-witted ; J^ 
mJI j. aa-sam' hard of hearing; 4pIi^ 
^Ljtj {fiind'a) heavy industry; JJu tU 
heavy water (phya,) 

J^bl aiqcU^ heavier; more oppr^sive 

jUi> mi^dl pi. J^li* matdqit^ weight 
(also placed as an equipoise on the 
scales of a balance) ; mlskal, a weight (in 
Egypt =^ 24 Uj^ =" 4.68 g) | '»/> JUl. -m. 



iarra the weight of a dust epeck, i.e.^ a 
tiny amount; a Little bit; ^ JLIi* a little 
of, a little bit of 

^jtj iatqll weighting, burdening; mo- 

JiliJ iataqyl sluggishness, dullness 

JH« m-ulagqal and mutqal burdened, 
encumbered; overloaded; weighted (t-j 
with s.tb.); oppressed {^ by); heavy 

J!l±:< mutatSqU sluggish, dull; sullen, 

JSu takila a {takal) to lose a child (>), also: 
to bo bereaved of a loved one (») by 
death IV \xjij f'i\ JC'I atkala l-umma 
waladaha to bereave a mother of her son 

JSCj talcai state of one who has lost a 
friend or relative; mourning over the loss 
of a loved one 

jt^ ifMSnC) bereaved of a child 

jSi^ ktklS bereaved of a child (mother) 

llTlI tSkila pi. JS'ljj lawakU' bereaved 
of a child (mother) 

«iSj (ukna pi. jSo tulcan, -Si barracks (mil.) 

Ji (alia u (JU taUd) to tear down, destroy, 
overthrow, subvert (*, esp. Li_^ 
'arSan to topple a throne) VH to be 
subverted, overthrown (throne) 

ill tuUa pi. JL' tujoj troop, band, party, 
group (of people); military detachment 

lJu' talaba i (foB) to criticiie, run down (• 
s.o.) ; to slander, defame (• B.C.) 

<_Jj tdS) slander, defamation 

< It. nuUhba pi. ^ULi majajti' short- 
coming, defect, blemish, stain, disgrace 

,_Jlj tdlib slanderous, defamatory; 

diS II to triple, make threefold (a; to 
do three times (* 

iJi tuU pi. lii^l aildt one third; fujuj 
a sprawling, decorative calligraphio style 

li-^ talata (f. ij-ii lalBt) three; 'i-ii 
taldfan three times, thrice 

J'Ji talaii tertiary; Tertiary {guH.) \ 
J^l Jj L pre-Tertiary 

_ple ijit' talatala 'aiara, f. :^ iIj^ 
(a2a(a 'oirato thirteen 

dJlill at-taUt the third; liiC JoJifon 
thirdly; «iHj '/so of * second 

j_jjtAj talatun thirty 

•Ij^l at-talSiS and ilj^l pj yaunv 
at-t. Tuesday 

Ij'ii ivlat' and ,Ml. mating three at a 

J'^ fuldtt tripartite, consisting of three, 
(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three 
radicals; tri-; trio (mue.) \ bijjii J'^ {. 
z-zawayd triangular; CjUjjII j^ j. l-wa* 
Toqat trifoliate 

ijjlU (oiiy Trinity (CAr.); trinity, triad ; 
triplet 1 iijJliJl IjHj ToJirat of-*, pansy 

> _!'• tojitt doctrine of the Trinity; 
Trinity {Chr.) 

JA^ tcUlUi trigonometric(al) 

tlit* mutaUat tripled, triple, threefold; 
having three diaeritical dots (letter); 
triangular; (pi. -at) triangle (geom.) \ 
jljJ-Jl idill iljJI (rojw), iJill |WI Coiam) 
and iiill the tricolor; iU-1 iiill {hadd) 
acute-angled triangle; \i}jji\ iii. m. az- 
laiMya triangular; ;jJLi\ ijjl-Iil i^iill 
(mutojaun ff-dd^am) isosceles triangle; 
f-'^Li^l Lfjl-Iil .Mil.1 equilateral triangle; 
/LaII .iJuJ.) right-angled triangle 

olddl al-mutaOatdi and oUUI v^-^ 
AtsdCi al-m. trigonometry 

Jij taiaja u: *\S Cjh-Lj (sama'u) it snowed, 
was snowing; — talija a to be delighted. 



be gladdened (eoul, heart; v^ by) II to 
cool with ice (a; to freeze, turn into 
ioe {» IV •\fj\ i:u>Jll it snowed, was 
snoTing; to cool, moisten (* | ^1 
•j^u* (fodniAu) to delight, please, giatify 
s.o. T to become icy, turn into ice, 
congeal; to freeze 

^ UUj pi. rjut^vj snow; ice; artificial 
ioe I ^\ 4«4i nitdfat o^-j. snowflake 

^jJj taljl snovy, snow- (in compounds); 
icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds) 

ni? tali) icy 

r^ talidj pi. -un ice vendor 

4j>-':>^ tdtldja pi -dt iceberg, ice floe; 
refrigerator, icebox 

Xn^ nutlaja pi. ^ matdlij' icebox, 
refrigerator; cold-storage plant 

rj^ ma^uj snow-covered; iced, icy; 
cA>-J:t^ frozen food; iced beverages 

^lU muiaiiaj iced ; icy, ice-cold 

U fdoma i [jalm) to blunt, make jagged (>, break the edge of (*); to make a 
breach, gap or opening (* in a wall); to 
defile, suUy (a reputation, honor] ; — fa* 
lima a to be or become jagged, dull, blunt 
n to blunt (j> y to become blunt 
Vn to be defiled, be discredited (repu- 

f! Mm nick, notch; breach, opening, 
gap; crack, fissure, rift | wa^I Jj I. 
a^-^U defamation 

<Jj tulma pi. ij t^ilam = talm \ <Jj -u 
ladda Itdmatan to fill a gap; -u.' V tX 
(tutaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, 
an irreparable loss 

i\j talim dull, blunt 

^jL* maflum defiled, sullied (reputation, 

i:^ mtUajdUim blunted, blunt; crack- 
ing (voice) 

C iw l l ilLt mimtalim a^-^it of ill repute, 
of dubious reputation 

< famma there | < ^ min jamma hence, there- 
fore, for that reason 

< tvmma then, thereupon; further- 
more, moreover; and again, and once 
more (emphatically in repetition) \'itS r'ltS 
(JbiiU) no and a hundred times noJ < ^ 
ffli'n lumma then, thereupon 

u jammala (cj ) there ; there is | ^ 
*x there isn*t 

>U juTndm a grass | f\^\ JtJ* Jp (/a« 
raji t-t.) within easy reach, handy; JL. 
f]^\ cj^ Jp he made it readily under- 
standable, he presented it plausibly for all 

-ul look up alphabetically 

jjt (amara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit, 
benefit {t from) ; to exploit, utilize (^s.tb.); 
to invest profitably (j> money) 

jjr tamar pi. jU /t7,iar, jUI aimdr 
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit, 
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain 

iy tOTnara (n. un. of tamar) pi. -at 
fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit, 

j^ii-l ittifrndr exploitation (also pel.- 
earn.), utilization, profitable use 

jju mufmir fruitful, productive, prof- 
itable, lucrative 

j^JLj. muatatmir pi. -un exploiter (pel.- 
cam,); beneficiary 

Jr jamila a {(amal) to become drunk IV to 
make drunk, intoxicate (* s.o.) 

Jf tamal intoxication, drunkenness 

Uc tamala drunken fit, drunkenness 

Jf tamil intoxicated, drunk(en) 

«JU tumaja residue, remnant, dregs (of 
a liquid), heeltap (of wine); scum, foam, 


'j< II to Kppmae, useu, estimate (*> 
dstermine the price or value (* of ; 
to price (* | jJlj V U yutammanu 
inTaluable, ineetimablo, priceleoa 

ye taman pi. jLc \ aiming tu I o^ffltna 
price, coat; value | ^^Vl Jr^l (Mi) cost 
price; ^UVI jrJJI (<ud«i) par, nominal 

^I (amfn coetly, precious, valuable 

^'l ttlman' coatliar, more preoious, 
more valuable 

Juij tatmln estimation, appraisal, as- 
Bossment, valuation, rating 

O^JL. matmin object of value 

y^ mutammin estimator, appraiser | 
j^ j^ assessor 

y^ mu^mma% prized, valued, valu- 
able, precious 

yiA mujmm costly, preoious, valu- 

^JLm 7nu|man object of value 
'«JU* Jamdniya (f. uU .(antdmn) eight 

yit *J\j: /affldniyoto 'ojara, f. *ji* jLc 
yim&niya 'a&nUa eighteen 

^ iumn pi. oU I aim&n one-eighth 

Ux tumna pi. -St a dry measure (£;. = 
1/, j-o; = .258 1; PoJ. = ca. 2.28 1) 

jjJU iamtmim eighty 
j*bll (4-lamtn the eighth 
y^ mvfamntan eightfold; octagonal 
Kj {uniux pi. iju lunan fetlock 

tjXj iundv,'a, iunduwa pi. jU fanddtn breast 
(of the male] 

^ (and t (lany) to double, double up, fold, 
fold up, fold under (* ; to bend, flex 
(*; to turn away, dissuade, keep, 
prevent, divert (j» • s.o. from] | ub« Jj 

^ji ('tiuSiia farmiki) he galloped off 
11 to double, make double (a; to do 
twice, repeat (*; to pleat, plait 
(*; to form the dual (< of a word); 
to provide with two diacritical dots (* 
a letter) IV to commend, praise, laud, 
extol (J*, S.O.), speak appreciatively 
( j> of) I .bJI >U <Jc Jj'l ('Stira C-jand') 
to speak in the most laudatory terms of 
s.o. V to double, become double; to be 
doubled; to be repeated; to bend, fold; 
to be bent, be folded, be folded up or 
under; to walk with a swinging gait 
VII to bend, bend up, down or over, lean, 
incline, bow; to fold, be foldable, be 
folded back; to turn away (^ from), 
give up, renounce (j«; to turn, face 
(Jl toward); to apply o.a., turn (Jl to ; (with foil, imperf.) to set out, pre- 
pare (to do X to except, exclude 
(^ • or * s.tb. or s.o. from], make an 
exception (t, of 

^ lany bending; folding; turning 
away, dissuasion, keeping, prevention 

J (I'ny pi. tbjl atni' fold, pleat, plait, 
creaae (in cloth); bend, twist | Xu Lu 
Jj Hnyan ba'da jmyin from time to 

•bil o^nd'a (prep.) during; in the 
course of | •Ul j /t atni'i do.; j 
.UVI .J* j, •WVl iU; j, >iJlli .Ul in the 
meantime, during all this time, mean- 

<jj lanya pi. (anaydl fold, pleat, plait, 
creaae (in cloth) 

*J^ lanlya pi. LUj jandyd middle in- 
cisor; narrow pass; mountain trail | 
LUj j in, inside, among, between, fre- 
quently only a fuller, rhetorically more 
elegant expression for "in", e.g., \j\J j 
t—Ju in his heart, inwardly, ,_j:S^I L U j in 
the books; LbJ >j in, inside, among, be- 
tween; Lil;JJI f^^ lalUr at-t. one with 
high-flung aspirations 


»Uj tan/r oommendatioD, praise, eu- 
logy; appre<!iation 

>Uj /una*' and Ji. matnd two at a 

^_^ tanatri (Jualist 

Sj^ ianawiya dualism 

Jul (and'i laudatoiy, eulogistic 

JUj (und'i twofold, double, dual, bi- 
nary, bi-; biradioal {gram.); duet, duo 
(mij«.) I j[fil\ Jb' ilj* (mitAarrii J. I- 
mtfioflr) two-oyole engine 

O yU (UBd'Ijo dualism; duet, duo 

oUjI ^ndnt, f. jLJul ^nafdnt two 

^pie Lil ifnS 'aJSara, I. ijU UijI itruUd 
'aSrata twelve 

JCj)l\ fji^ yaum al-itnain and ij^^*!/! 

JtUI o^-tdni tha second; the next; Lilj 
i&niyaa and 4J^ tdniyatan secondly; foe 
the second time, once more, again | 
i>^'i Jli <- (nain the aecxmd of a pair, pen- 
dant, companion piece, matoh 

<JU fdniya pi. ijl> {auxintn second 
(time unit] 

lijjV tdnatii seoondaiy; minor | j_^l 
4jjj\i matters of secondary importance, 
TDJnor matters; \ji^ ^j.^ 'secondary 
school; isj^^ ro^ subletting 

l^ tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleat- 
ing; doubling, gemination; (^ram.) dual ; 
second seqael (e.g., of a collection of 
short stories); commendation, praise, 
eulogy I plJliVl V^ Deuteronomy 

>Uu'l iniinS' bending, flection; flexibil- 
ity, fotdability | >\:ii'ii JiU foldable, 

•iUjuI intinS^a pi. -St (n. vie.) bend, 
flexure, curve 

-l'*'-l iatitnd' exception, exclusion ] 
•Uill^li with the exception of, except; 
■!■'' -1 Oj-b without exception 

Jbit-I Mftlnd't exceptional; UliS-l 
Mittnd'Iyan as an exception | iJb:£.l Jt^l 
emergencies; Sjl'*,'-I 5, I*- (Jalea) etnef- 
gency session 

J±. ma|nsy folded; plaited, pleated; 

Ji> mu^nnan double, twofold; in tbe 
dual (gram.) 

J^;,.- mv<((i<n<in excepted, excluded 
(^ from) 

•jj fuwa see ,^jj 

^{^y) ^^l> l<^ 1^ to return, come back 
(also, e.g., a state or condition, Jl or J to 
8.0.) ; with ^i to return (J[ to s.o.) [ 
' '•'• Jl ^U to regain consciousness, come 
to; aXtj 4JI i-'U (rvijuAu) to recover 
one's senses II to reward (• a.o.; said of 
God) IV to repay, requite (< * with); 
to reward ( J» • s.o. for) X to seek reward 

^^ |aui pi. ^Lj iiyabt ^'>l civSb 
garment, diess; cloth, material ; (fig.) garb, 
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask; 
pi. o<Lj clothes, clothing, apparel | l^Lj 
ij^\ f. a»-tahra formal dress, evening 
clothes ; ii_^ v-<^ j in plain, homely form ; 
^Ltli ^IV of flawless character, irre- 

^1^ tatoab requital, recompense, re- 
ward (for good deeds) ; (Id. Law) merit, 
credit (arising from a pious deed) 

*ijH» nuUwaba requital, recompense, re- 
ward (bestowed by God for good deeds) 

.^\l* maiab and *^Ju maidba place to 
which one retums; meeting place; rendez- 
vous ; resort, refuge 

u\ij mafSba (with foil, genit.) place or 
time at which appears or recurs; 


maimer, mode, fashion; seo also pre- 
ceding entry { *Aii£ (with foil, genii.) like, 
as; tantamount to, equivalent to, having 
the same function as 

j\^ =^ i^*\jj (i_ 

VI) to yawn 

(j_^) jlj tdra u to stir, be stirred up, be a- 
roused, be excited ; to swirl up, rise (dust) ; 
to arise (question, problem; a difficulty, 
A^j j fi wajhihi before s-O.) ; to be trig- 
gered, be unleashed, break out; to revolt, 
rebel, rise (Jp against); to rage, storm | 
•yU jU {Id'iruhu) to 6y into a rage, be- 
. come furious, flare up IV to agitate, 
excite (• s.o., a; to stimulate (* 
S.O., A; to irritate (• s.o., a; 
to arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (a, 
e.g., feelings), cause, provoke, awaken 
(a a.tli.); to raise, pose, bring up (^Jt— « 
rruu'alatan a question, a problem) | jUI 
-jyij {td'irakthu) to infuriate s.o., excite 
8.0. X to excite, stir up, kindle (a, 
esp. passions); to rouse (a; to 
arouse, awaken (a, eap. feelings); 
to elicit, evoke (a wails, outcries, ^ 
from s.o.) ; to incite, set (J* * a.o. against) [ 
', Mf j\iZJ (^o^ofioAu) to infuriate s.o., 
make s.o. angry 

jji taur pi. d\ji tirdn bull, steer; Ox; 
Taurus {aatron.) \ jjill Jji <ijj^ Sdrabat 
dail at^L oxtail soup 

*jy taura excitement, agitation; out- 
break, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair, 
etc.) ; eruption (of a volcano); (pi. -at) up- 
heaval, uprising, insurrection, riot, rebel- 
lion, revolt, revolution | SJ^I ij^jl" {ahJiya) 
internal strife, civil war 

i^y tauri revolutionary (adj. and n.) 

iSjjy tauram revolutionary (adj. and 

o\jy tawaran agitation, excitation, 
flare-up, eruption, outbreak, outburst; 
dust whirl 

jbu malar incentive, stimulus, motive, 
spur, occasion, cause | JjJ-l jl±* m. cU- 
jadal and f I j^l jli* object of controvetsy, 
point of contention 

•J If I ifdra excitation, atiiring up, kin- 
dling ; agitation, incitement ; provocation, 
(a)rousing, awakening; irritation, stim- 

J\j ^'%r excited, agitated, raving, fu- 
rious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the 
idiomatic phrase *^ll jlT see above); (pi. 
jljj' tvuwdr) insurgent, rebel, revolution- 

lj\j iq^ira pi. J\y tawd*ir* tumult; ex- 
citement, agitation; fury, rage 

jd. muiir exciting; provocative; stimu- 
lative, irritative; excitant, irritant, stimU' 
lant; instigator; germ, agent; pi. tljlj^i. 


^jijji tdriyftm thorium {chem.) 

JjS VII to swarm, crowd, throng ( Jp aroTind 
s.o.); to come over s.o. (Ja) 

jy taiU and JmJI 4h ^ an-7U>hl swarm 
of bees 

>ijj /urn. (coll.; n. un. I) garlio 

^J^ tawa i {t\y tawa\ ^^jJ tuwiy, j^ mattmn) 
to stay, live (^j at a place); to settle 
down (>-j at a place); paas.tuwiya to 
be buried IV to stay, live; to lodge, put 
up as a guest (• s.o.) 

lijj tawiy guestroom 

Iji tuwa pi. i^jS tutoan signpost, road- 

j_^ matwan pi. jli* matdwin abode, 
habitation, dwelling; place of rest 

L-oj tayyib pi. -dt a deflowered but un- 
married woman, widow, divorce 

Jua^ taital pi. JILj tayatit^ a variety of wild 
goat (Capra JEiela) 



J^'U- jataliq = i}ii»- 

J»-J»- JV7V pi. '^yrV jo'oj''' l»fe*«t; prow, 
bow (of a ship) 

jU- ja'ara a (ja'r, j]^ f^*&f) to low, moo; 
to supplicate, pray fervently (Jl to God) 

jU- ja'r and j1^ 7V (Sr lowing, mooijig 
(of cattle) 

'jU- got pi. -at (Eg. spelling) gas 

^U- jaz jazz 

^jJV (Fr. j^azon, Eg. spelling) gSxOn lawn 

^U ja'aSa a {ja'i) to be agitated, be con- 
vulsed (with pain or fright) 

^U- ;a'j emotional agitation; heart, 
Boul I 4.tU- J«jj rabafa ja'SahU to remain 
calm, composed, wlf-po8sesMd;^U-l J^lj 
or ^U-l c^\i calm, composed, cool, self- 
possessed, undismayed; J^lj ^U with 
onswerving courage, unflinchingly 

<S'\^, tirV and «^U- iaklla jacket, coat 

i>jJl>- galUn gallon 

ttjjIU (Eg. spelling) gtdlri gallery {theat.) 

^U- jam pi. -Jt cup; drinking vessel; bowl 

'*SJ^ jimakiya pi. -Si, d^\jif jawSmilf 

tr^V j«»i«» pl- iri«'jr jawSmUf buffalo 
L'^U- jamHaa buffalo cow 

iJyV (pronounced iAmreg, from Turk, co- 
n^rt'^i; coll.; n. un. i&iarglyt) a variety 
of small green plum with several stones 

*U- jSh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory, 

•jU- jawa Java 

i(jU- ;dii;l Javanese; benzoin; (pl. -un) 
a Javanese 

jIajU. jdwaddr rye 

yiljjU- MiOT* sergeant = ^^j^, ^jiJ jLl 

'i-j>- jvbb pl. vW o^ixSi) vW j'^''^ ve\l, 
cistern; pit 

"Vr jvbba pl. i__j>- yu&ib, >.;>L>. jibdb, >-jL^ 
;ai(X'»&' jubbah, a long outer garment, 
open in front, with wide sleeves 

2^ jabA pl. u-l ayftuA, ^L>. jtimh, ^L^l 
ajbak beehive 

•jImp- jabfcdiui, jabakana powder magazine; 
ammunition; artillery depot 

j». jabara u {jabr, jj^ jutfir) to set (* broken 
bones); to restore, bring back to normal 
{t; to help back on his feet, help 
up (t S.O.; e.g., one fallen into poverty); 
to force, compel (J« • a.o. to do | 
•^U j»- (IpStiraM) to console, comfort, 
gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.) in a 
conciliatory or kindly manner II to set 
(> broken bones) III to treat with kind- 
ness, with friendliness (> s.o.), be nice 
(< to S.O.) IV to force, compel (J« • s.o. 
to do; to hold sway (J» over) 
V to show o.s. proud, haughty; to act 
strong, throw one's weight around; to 
show o.B. strong or powerful, demon- 
strate one^s strength or power; to be set 
(broken bones) | ^U ii\ yi (h'-intihi) 
God has demonstrated His power on 
your son, i.e.. He has taken him unto 
Himself Vll to be mended, repaired, 

ju>- jdbr setting (of broken bones) ; force, 
compulsion; coercion, duress; power. 


might; (predestined, inescapable) decree 
of fate; \_x*- jabran forcibly, by force ] 
j\i-l 1* 'Urn al-j. algebra; _^1 j^ ^ji yaum 
j. al-bahr a local holiday of Cairo (the 
day on which, in former times, the water 
of the Nile was channeled into the now- 
abandoned kalij, or City Canal, thus mark- 
ing the beginning of the irrigation season) 

^ J^«^ jabri algebraic ; compulsory, 
forced; — jabari an adherent of the doc- 
trine of predestination and the ineacap- 
ability of fate; fatalist 

<ij^ jabariya an Islamic school of 
thought teaching the inescapability of 
fate; fatalism 

jLp- jabbdr p3. 'Un, _rL^ jabdbir*, •yL^ 
jababira giant; colossus; tyrant, op- 
pressor ; almighty, omnipotent ( God) ; 
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; Orion 
{astron.) \ tjL}^\ jL»- j. al-kufwa striding 
powerfully, taking huge strides 

^jL*- jibdra {art of) bonesetting 

Ij^ jabira and ijL»- jibdra pi. JL^ 
jabd'ir* splint {aurg.) 

Cjjj^»- jabarQi omnipotence; power, 

might; tyranny 

*^.J^ jibriyd'* pride, haughtiness 

O j^ tajbiff aLLJI j<jf orthopedics 

jLj>-I ijbdr compulsion, coercion 

(J J W ' ijbdri forced, forcible, com- 
pulaory, obligatory | ^sj^jp-VI -^r^' oom- 
pulfiory recruitment; military conscrip- 

^U- jt^ir and juf mujabbir bonesetter 

jj^ majbur and jwf mujbar forced, 

Jjju^ jabra'iP, Jj,r»- jifiriP Gabriel 

^,j'jf:- II to plaster, coat, patch, or £x with 
plaster (a; to put in a cast, set in 
plaster {a 

(j-^ jifea gypsum; plaster of Paris 

<^L*- jabbd^a gypsum quarry; plaster 

*Lr-Jr jobas (coll. ; n. un. i ; ayr.) watermelon(B) 

^J^ jabala u i (ji^l) to mold, form, shape, 
fashion (a; to knead (*; to 
create (J« * a.o. with a natural disposi- 
tion or propensity for) ; pass. Jf J^ {jiibila) 
to be born for, be naturally disposed to, 
have a propensity for 

<Lj*- jibla, jibiUa pi. -at natural dis- 
position, nature, temper 

'J^ jabaligl. JLp- jibdlft}\^\ajbdlmovmt9>ixi; 
mountains, mountain range | hJ*^! JLr- 
j. al-aW the Alpa; ^bj"^' (Jl-r the Aurfee 
Mountains (in £ Algeria); X-l*- J^ ice- 
berg; l4> Jo^ j.slnd Mount Sinai; J^ 
JjU» Gibraltar; jLi J^ volcano 

J^ jabali mountainous, hilly; moun- 
tain (adj.); montane; (pi. -tin) highlander, 

iSj^Lfr gabaldwi (eg.) highlander, moun- 

4j "lA^ gabaldya pi. -di (eg.) grotto, oave 

^j^ jabuna u {jvbn, ^jL*' jabdna) to be a 
coward, be fearful; to be too much of 
a coward (jt to do, shrink (j* from II to cause to curdle (* milk); to 
make into cheese (*; to curdle; to 
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (* s.o.) 
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese 

,>*- jvbn and ^JL*- jabdna cowardice 

^i»> jubn and '<^ jvbna cheese 

ijL^ jabdn pi. rLd»- fuband'* coward; 

uL»- jabbdn cheese merchant 

J-^ jabin pi. ^*- jtibun, i-^-l ajbina, 
^»-1 ajbun forehead, brow; facade, front; 
^^^^ I lirr^ J* '^^'^ jabini 1 alone; Ja 
■^1 ^^ in the sky 


J;^ ji^ini frontal 

^^l ajban* more cowardly 

iuL»- jt^bdna pi. -at cemetery 

^^ tajbin cheeee making* processing 
into cheeae 

'4^ jabaha a to meet, face» confront (• b.o.) 
Ill to face, confront, oppose, defy (• a.o., 
A, show a bold front (* to); to face 
(a a problem, a difflculty) 

i^o- jabha pL .L*- jibdh, oLpi^ jabahSt 
forehead, brow; front, face, facade; front- 
line, battle front 

<f>\jt. m-ujdbaha facing, confrontation, 

f<jU- 4^ Bee <jlj«;^ 

^^ jabd i (<jL>- jibdya) to collect, raise, 
levy {» taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. 
(in prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect 
(a, > s.o.) 

<iL^ jibajfa raising, levying (of taxes) ; 
<pl. -at) tax, duty» impost 

JL>- j^a'i tax- (in compounds); fiscal 
^ majban pi. <^ljf TTUtj^in tax, impost 

L^U jabin pi. SLj*- jubih tax collector, 
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.) con- 
duotor {ir.) 

<^U- jabiya pi. ^^j^ jawdbin pool, basin 

■ jatd (abbreviation of ^\^1 

•-) cosine 

i*- 70^ u [jaU) ftnd VIII to tear out, uproot 
(a a tree, also fig.) 

4±»- 7t#»pl.b!^ 7'ui<i^j^l±»-1a)^l>ody; 
corpse, cadaver; carcass 

i_* -^ mujlaU uprooted (also fig.) 

Jj:*- jatl thick, dense (esp. hair) 

f}j£>- i%ilig pi' UJIl*- jatdliqa cathoUcos, pri- 
mate of the Armenian Church 

JU jatavia u i ijaim, |*y»- juium) to alight, 
sit, perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to 
fall or lie prone, lie face down; to beset, 
oppress (J* 

Ui»- jatma (n. vie] motionless sitting 
or lying 

^IV ju^m and ^>V jdtum nightDiare, 

j|^ jiUman pi. 'di body, mortal 

j\^ jutmdni bodily, physical, cor- 

[tU jStim pi. A- jtUtam squatting, 
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone 

(_^ ) b»- jatd u {jutwv) to kneel, rest on the 
knees; to bend the knee, genuflect; to 
fall on one^a knees 

^^ jtdHw kneeling position 

Ijf^ jv^vja rock pile, mound; sepulchral 
mound, tumulus 

Ji£ maj^Kkn hassock 

dj\jr jdtin kneeling ; JU-I Hercules 

j^^ jahada a {jahd, j_^ juhSd) to negate 
(a; to disclaim, disavow, disown, 
deny (a; to refuse, reject, repudiate 
(a}; to renounce, forswear, adjure 
(a a belief); to deny (a * s.o. his right) | 
<Li^ .xJr {jamllahu) to be ungrateful to s.o. 

^jahd denial; repudiation, disavowal, 
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (feZ.) 

j^ juhUd denial; evasion, dodging, 
shirking (of a moral obligation); ingrat- 
itude; repudiation, disavowal, rejection, 
disclaimer; unbelief (reJ.) 

O^U- jdhid denier; infidel, unbeliever 
y; VII to hide in its hole or den (animal) 

jf[ juhr pi. jL*l ajhdr, jj^_ juhur hole, 
den, lair, burrow (of animals) 


ijiJ- jM pi. ^^ L*r j'iAdi, j Ll*; jiUdn , 
^L*;l a^^ young donkey; (pi. ^/^j^ 
juAuJ) treetle, horse 

4i^ ToA/a young female donkey 

.f^ jahaza a {^j^^ juhu^) to bulge, pro- 
trude (eyeball) 

O^Jl if^ j'uAtlf oj-'ain ezophtbalmio 
goiter, abnormal protniaion of the eye- 

<Jl#; jahaja a (ioAy) to peel off, scrape off 
(a; to sweep away (*; to have 
a bias (*a for), side (*« with a.o.) IV to 
harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (*-* s.o.,; to ruin, destroy (t^ s.o.,; 
to wrong (i-* s.o.) 

J»L*I ijhii} injustice, wrong; bias, prej- 

)_Mf mujhii unjust, unfairj biased, 

Ji^ jahfal pi. JaL^ jahdfil^ multitude, le- 
gion, host, large army ; army corps 
(Syr.); eminent man 

^ jahim f. (also m.) fire» hellfire, hell 
^j*^, jahlml hellish, infernal 

j«- jakka {eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to 
boast, brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly 

iA.^ jakkdk boaster, braggart 

^J^ JotW pi. ijJ^ judvd, il^l ajddd grand- 
father; ancestor, forefather | J*Vl -li;! 
(a'ld) ancestor 

3^ jadda pi. -at grandmother 

^^ jadda i bo be new; to be a recent devel- 
opment, have happened lately, have 
recently become a fact; to be added, crop 
up or enter as a new factor (circum^ 
stances, costs); to appear for the first 
time (also, e.g., on the stage); to be or 
become aeriouSr grave; to be weighty. 

sJgnifioant, important; to take (j 
seriously; to strive earnestly (j. for), go 
out of one's way (j to do, make 
every effort (j in); to be serious, be in 
earnest (j about), mean business; to 
hurry ( j one's step) 11 to renew (*; 
to make anew, remake {*; to 
modernize (a; to restore, renovate, 
remodel, refit, recondition, refurbish (*; to be an. innova^-or, a reformer; 
to feature new or novel, produce new; to rejuvenate, regenerate, 
revive, freshen up (a; to renew, 
extend (> a permit) ; to begin anew, repeat 
(a, make a new start (a in,); to 
try again (^Iv- haz^u one's luck) lY to 
strive, endeavor, take pains; to apply 
o.s. earnestly and assiduously (j to), 
be bent, be intent (j on; to hurry 
(j one's step); to renew, make new (a V to become new, be renewed; to 
revive X. to be new, be added or enter as 
a new factor, come newly into existence; 
to make new, renew (a 

J»- jadd pi. ijJ»- judud good luck, good 

a»- jidd seriousness, earnestness; dil< 
igence, assiduity, eagerness; l-i»- jiddan 
very, much | Jjf- and x^ ^ earnestly, 
seriously; J^b .l»- jtddu 6dAtzin very high 
(price); Ji* Ju^ j. 'azimin very great; 
Jitfc^*^! J^ Ojilric {Jidda l-iktildf) they 
differ widely; J -ii-1 JL- J» ■Jtij («d^ 
l-j,) to apply o.s. with diligence to, take 
pains in, make every effort to 

iS-^ jiddl serioua; earnest; LjJ-»- 
jiddiyan in earnest, earnestly, seriously 

<j..b^ jiddiya earnestness; seriousness, 
gravity (of a situation) 

s-bj- Jidda newness, recency, novelty; 
modemnesa, modernity; O rebirth, ren- 

«-Uh- judda^ Jidda (seaport in W Saudi 
Arabia, on Red Sea) 


Jj4»- jadid pi. J4#- judud, jvdad new, 
recent; renewed; modem; novel, iih- 
precedented | (jljjjl-l at-jadfdan day and 
night; J{j>. ^ anew, again; (eg.) JjJ>- 
^ ^odtd lanf brand-new 

J,.! a/iuiiC more Mrioiu, more intent; 
newer, more recent 

JiiJuf tajdid renewal (also, e.g., of a 
permit); creation of g.tb. new, origina- 
tion; new presentation, new production 
(Iheat.); innovation; reorganization, re- 
form ; modernization ; renovation, restora- 
tion, remodeling, refitting, recondition- 
ing, refurbishing; rejuvenation, regenera- 
tion ; pi. -df innovations ; new ochievementa 

I'iif lafaddvd renewal, r^^ueration, 

^U- jSdd in earnest, earnest; serious 
(as opposed to comic, funny) 

ijL- jddda pi. -dt, 2!^ jauiSdd^ main 
street; street 

sjdjt majdud fortunate, luoky 

HA mujaddid renewer; innovator; re- 

iH- mujaddad renewed, extended; re- 
modeled, reconditioned, renovated, re- 
stored; rejuvenated, regenerated; new, 
recent, young 

•Uf mujidd painstaking, diligent, as- 

■! » ■ ' • mutlajidd new, recent; incipient 

i_>a>. jaduba u (ujj>- judSba) to be or 
become dry, arid (soil) IT to suffer from 
drought, poverty or dearth; to be barren, 
sterile; to come to nothing, go up in 
smoke, fall fiat, fizzle out; (<yr.) to 
explode in the barrel (shell ; mil.) 

vV i"^ drought, barrenness, sterility; 
sterile, barren 

l-jA>- jadib and t-j-wl ajdab', t. •Lij>- 
fadbd'* barren, sterile 

L^Jif mujdib barren, sterile; desolate, 
arid; unproductive, unprofitable 

ilijf^ jaibif pi. ilA^I ajdif grave, tomb 

J^4>- judjud pi. a»-lj^ fadajidf orjoket 

'jA,. jadura » (JjIa^ jaddra) to be fit, suit- 
able, proper, appropriate (i_j for s.o., for;ta befit, behoove (v s.o., a.tb.); to 
be worthy {^ of), deserve (^ | 
^J'i jj* (jfitruAfl) and jTaIIi jA»: it is 
worth mentioning 

jO^. jadr wall 

jr.>>- jadlr pi. -tin, •Ij.u- jttdariC' 
worthy, deserving (1.-1 of; becoming, 
befitting (i_i; proper, suited, suit- 
able, fit (^j for), appropriate (v-i to) | jJr- 
jfTDli {iiler) worth mentioning 

jji^l ajdat' worthier; more appro- 
priate; better suited, more suitable 

■jl.l1. jaddra worthiness; fitness, suit- 
ability, aptitude, qualification; appro- 

jlo- jiddr pi. j.i>. judur, uIjA^ judrin 

^jlx>- jidiri mural, wall (adj.) 
'jii- judira (pass.) and II to have smallpox 
jjO*- fudarl, jadari smallpox 
jjjjfi majdxir and j-la nujaddar in- 
fected with smallpox; pock-marked 

SjAif mujaddara dish mado of rice or 
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions 
and oil {tg., tyr.) 

•^Jij. jaia'a a (jad') to cut off, amputate 
[t, esp. some part of the body) 

iju*^! f'Oj^ bi-jad'i l-anf (prop., at the 
cost of having the nose cut off) at any 
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved 

fii^\ ajda'' mutilated (by having the 
nose, or the like, cut off) 


ffuTSn («j7.) young man, young fellow; he- 

^JiA^ II to curse, blaapheme (J» s.o., eep. 

^0*: ta^dxl Imprecation, blasphemy 

^Jia»- jadafa i and II to rov {m a boat) 

J>\jjt mijddf pi. iJuiiLf majadif oar 

M>br yotiato « i {jadl) to twist tight » tighten, 
stretch (* a rope); to braid, plait (*, 
the hair, etc.) 11 to braid, plait, (a 
Ill to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (* with 
8.O.); to argue, debate (• with b.o.); to 
dispute, contest (j VI to quarrel, 
have an argument; to carry on a dispute 

J^ jadal quarrel, argument; debate, 
dispute, discussion, controversy | ^y 
V-i»- fara4a jadalan to assume for the 
sake of argument, propose as a basis for 

J4j^ jacUUl cbntroTeisial; disputatious; 
a disputant 

Jl4>- jaddal and Jlojf mijddl disputa-^ 
tious, argumentative; mijdSl see also 

aIj-u- jadUa pi. JjI-l*- jada'iP braid, 
plait; tress 

Jlojf mijdal pi. Jj^lif najadil* flag- 
stone, ashlar ; see also above under 

JIaj^ jidal and ^^Lf mujddala pi. -at 
quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion, 
debate | J1Jtl-l JJu V {yaqbalu) incontest- 
able, indisputable; JIu*- V fa jiddla and 
JI.Lj>- ':Aj &i'&3 ;'. incontestably, indispu* 

JjOjf majd'iU tightly twisted; braided, 
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress 
of hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., 

JjLf mujddil disputant, opponent in 

'JjU»- jadioal pi. Jjf.t»- jaddwii^ creek, brook, 
little stream; column; list, roster; index; 
chart, table, schedule | (^'j.) *^j^ (dird' 
H) curriculum; *^jj^\ Jj<U- stock list, 
^j_^i Jj<U- rj^ ibdrija) not quoted 
(stock exchange); iJk>^l JjA*- agenda; 
working plan 

(jO*-) ia»- jadd u to give a present (J» to 
s.o.) IV to give as a present (c^ J« s.o., present (uj J^ s.o. with); to be of 
use, be useful, profitable | Luii j4».l 
{nafan) to be useful; dL-i*- "^ li* that 
won't help you, that will be of no use 
(to you); la* di^ j-i^ U do.; ^ jAjtf V 
(/ditfan) = ^ JJ^ ^ , see J^^* ^ ^^ bog 
for alms; to implore, beg (* • s.o. for, plead (m for 

»l4j^ jadd* advantage, gain (jp for s.o.) 

tSjJ^ j^^od gifl, present; advantage, 
benefit, gain | isj^ % {bi-ld) and >« J» 
^i»- (^airi) of no avail, useless, futile, in 

jij>-t ajdd more useful, more advanta- 

4^4*- 7cu2y pi. »l-u- 7t(ia\ jIj4i^ jidydn kid, 
young billy goat; Capricorn [a8tron.)\ the North Star 

I»- /odda u (;a^) to cut ofif, chp (> 

•jli»- jvddda pi. -d< slip of paper; pi. 
CjI jil*- small pieces, shreds, scraps, clip- 

i_ji>- jadaba t (jadb) to pull, draw (a; 
to attract (a; to pull out, draw out, 
whip out (a, draw (a a weapon, or 
the like); to appeal, prove attractive 
(* to 8.O.), attract, captivate, charm, 
allure (• s.o.), win (« s.o.) over (4JI to 
one's side) III to contend (« with s.o.) at 
pulling, tugging, etc. {m | JJ-I 4i jU- 


(habla) to yie with s.o.; (to be able) to 
compete with s.o., measure up to s.o., 
be Bk match for s.o,; ^^)^l *t'^\*- or oJU 
b^ or ti^oi-l tj»lj^l 4j^U- (atrdfa l-h.) 
he engaged him in oonTersatioD, involved 
him in a discussion; »ji^\ iJi\Jr\ 4tSlr- 
{air&fa l-ha^dra) to vie with s.o. in cul* 
tiire VI to puU back and forth (s s.o.); to 
contend (*, * for); to attract each other { 
li-joi-! cjlji»l l^jiL*! (o^ffl/o Z-A.)they were 
deep in conversation, they were talking 
together VII to be attracted; to be 
drawn, gravitate (Jl toward, to) VIII to 
attract (» s.o., a, ^1 to o.s.; also 
■magn.); to allure, entice (* s.o.); to win 
(• s.o.) over (4JI to one's side); to draw, 
inhale (a puffs from a cigarette, etc.) 

w^Ju- jadb attraction; gravitation; 
appeal, lure, enticement, captivation | 

IJj*. iai-l to wrest away, take away by 
force; ,^-i^l V^*' U*^^) ^^ appeal 

i_jlas*- ^o^^ofr attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching, en- 
gaging; charming, enticing, captiyating, 

L^^>-1 aj4ab* more attractive, more 

t.^la«:l inji4Sb attraction, inclination, 
proneness, tendency 


ijii4oh attraction; enticement. 

i_jjU- j64^ attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
winning, fetching, engaging; charming, 
enticing, captivating, gripping 

42j^lj»> ja^ibiya gravitation; attraction; 
attractiveness; charm, fascination; mag- 
netism (fig.); lure, enticement | O 4±j^U- 
JUI ;. (U4iql gravitational force; IjJU- 
^^„4';- (magnafisitfa) magnetism; 4^^U- 
,jjj- 1 J. al-jina sex appeal 

i-fjidf majiub attracted; possessed, 
maniacal, insane; (pi. i-.jj'^ 'maj&4^h'*) 

maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot [ J '7,,,. 
w-^SLj^I muataifd l-m. mental hospital 

i.^jU«i« muiajadib mutually attractive; 
belonging together, inseparable 

i-ji».j.^ munjadib attracted; inclined, 
tending (Jl to) 

jJU jadara u (jorfr) to uproot, tear out by the 
roots (* II do.; to extract the root 
(* of a number; math.); to take root 

jJU- ji^Tf jadr pi. jj^ judiir root (also 
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pi. jljj^l 
aj4dr) stub (of a receipt book, or the 
1^*) I iJV.J J-W (forfri'i) square root 


(^■U- jidri radical, root (adj.) 

^If tajdir evolution, root extraction 

^JU- jada' pi. d\e-X^ ju4'dn young man, young 
fellow (cf. □ f-Jj-- ffmia'); new, incipient | 
icJU- ^ji-\ Oil* {karbu,jada'atan) the war 
broke out again, started all over again; 
UJj^ ^"^1 jUl (l-amra) he reopened the 
whole affair, he reverted to the earlier 

9-jj»- ji4' pi. f;'^! oj'^'i l_j^ ju^a* 
stem, trunk; stump, tree stump; torso 

^JU- jid'l truncal 
J»jj^ II to row (a a boat) 

ij 1 V nij^f pi. *J«i jljf majad i/" 

JJU ja4*io a Ua4al) to be happy, gay, 
exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy, 
gladden, cheer (• s.o.) 

Jjj>- ji4l pi. Ji<i<r' a/^i ^jV /u^uI 
stump (of a tree) 

JjJU- jit4ail wooden post on which 
camels rub themselves 

JAi^ ja4(il gaiety, hilarity, exuberance, 


Ji- ja4il pi. j'i/Jr ja^ian gay, hilar- 
ious, cheerful, in high apirit^, exuheraat, 

o'i^ jadldn' gay, hilarious, cheerful, 
in high spirits, exuberant, happy 

•j^ jadama i <)a^in) to cut off, chop off 
(;«, esp. a part of the body); to 
remove, take out, excise (* e.g., the 
toiisilB, the appendix; surg.); pass. 
judima to be afflicted with leprosy 

^i- jiim pi- fjV /u^"'". f'V o;'^"" 

^\x>- jud&m leprosy 

4^1-u- juddma stubble 

>Ju-l ajdam^ pi. ijX^ jadmd mutilated 
{from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut 
off); leprous; leper 

(.jj^ majd-um leprous; leper 

j^Ju- judmur stump 

ijji>. ja4u>a, jidwa, juiwa pi. ts^ ji4<">, 
judon, •\Ja^ jidd' firebrand; burning log 

j^ jarra it (j'orr) to draw, puU (»; to 
drag, tug, haul (»; to tow (»; 
to trail (*; to drag along (. s.o., 
i; to draw (J» * on s.o.), 
bring (» down (J« upon s.o.); to 
load (Jl to), bring on, cause (Jl; to 
entail (* e.g., some evil, Jp for s.o.); 
(gram.) to pronounce the final consonant 
with t, put (a word) into the genitive | 
ij-jT- jT- (jariralan) to commit an outrage, 
a crime (J« against s.o.); Ij^ jr (7"!* 
dan) to be in shackles, go shackled; 
L^J Jl jUl jT- (qur^ihi) to secure advan- 
tages for O.S., feather one's nest; j^_ "!/ 
USii *iLJ (lisdnahfl bi-kali-nia) he won't 
let a word escape his lips IV to ruminate 
Vll passive of I ; to be driven; to be swept 
along, drift, float | .IjJI Jl yi\ (ward'i) 
to withdraw, fall back, give way VIII to 
ruminate | *.VT J^'i {SUimahu) to mull 
over one's grief 

j»- jarr pull{ing), drawing, draft; trac- 
tion; drag(ging), tugging, towage, haul- 
ing; bringing on, causing; genitive | 
ji^\ yjj^ hofi "i-f' (ff'O't.) preposition; 
I j^ Uj tia-halumma jamm and so forth 

• j^ jarra pi. jl^ jirdr (earthenwate) 

5 j»- jarra, jurra trail, track; rut {left 
by a wagon) | it •_,* bi-j. qalam with 
one stroke of the pen 

•jj- ;»rra cud (of a ruminant) 

^fj^ ^ mtn jatrd because of | ill_rt- >>• 
because of you, on your account, for 
your sake 

,\j^ J. mm jarrd'i because of, due to | 
ol •!_;>- Cr" because 

j\j>- jarrdr huge, tremendous (army) ; 
potter; (pi. -dt) tractor; tugboat, steam 
tug, towing launch 

jjjU jarm pi. j'jijr jawdrir' (ayr.) 
drawer (of a desk, etc.) 

SjjjU jdrura {kb.) rake (tool) 

-.jj^ jarira pi. J^jr jarffir' guilt; 
offense, outrage, crime | 'Jjt i>" "■*" 
jarirati because of, on account of 

;j| jj. jarrdra pi. -at a variety of scor- 
pion; tractor 

yi mijarr trace, tug (of a harness) 

Jjif majarra galaxy 

ojl_^l ingirartya (eg-) towage charges 
for watercrafb 

jjyi majrur drawn, dragged, towed, 
etc.; word governed by a preposition, 
word in the genitive form; (pi. j_J^ 
magortr") drain, sewer (eg.); jrjU sew- 
ers, sewage system (eg.) 

jU mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.) 

}j^ jaru'a u (:!_/r J"'""! "'jT 1"^°'") t" t**™' 
venture, risk, haiard (J», take the 
risk (J» of, ol of doing, have the 



courage (Jf for II to encourage 
(J» I 8.0. to T to dare, venture, 
risk, hazard (J« VIII to be renture- 
some, be daring ; to become bold, make 
bold <J» with S.O.); to venture (J» s.tb. 
or upon, have the audacity ( J» to 

'iij^ i"'^' pi' '^d^r' ajriyff' bold, 
courageaas (w, J» in,); fonrard, 
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool- 

l\jt^ jur'a and •»'_;»■ jard^a courage, 
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence 

jjif mujiari' bold, forward 
;r'>f (*^-) t<"'^ pl- ■<" gamge («S.) 
(■'jr f"'" Fain (eff-) 
i^l_^ granit granite (tg.) 

JJlj»- ^nznfjt granitic {eg.) 

'Vjr JO'i'o o (jarai) to be mangy; («ff.) to 
fade (color) II to test (* ; to try, try 
out, essay (*; to sample {»; 
to rehearse, practice (* ; to attempt 
(*; to put to the test, try, tempt 
(« B.C.) I J 4_ij t^jM- to try one's hand at; 
^IjVI ij>r (ayyama) to gather experience 

V^r jarab mange ; itch, scabies 

>-^j^ jarib mangy; acabby 

ijj^^l ajrab', f. .Lj^ jarba'', pi, ^j,- 
jurb and <JL_;»- jarMn' mangy; scabby 

t-jl^ jirSb pi. *J^I aj'rifta, t_j;>. jurub 
sack, bag, tr&veling bag; knapsack; 
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scab- 
bard (for the Bword) 

^1^ jurdb pi. -St stocking, sock 

vi>r 7<"^ <^ patch of arable land 

ijjjt lajjiba pi. ^j'jf lajaribf trial, test; 

tiyout; attempt; practice, rehearsal; 

BcientiHc test, experiment; probation; 

trial, tribulation ; temptation; experience. 

practice ; proof sheet, galley proof, also 
*z*^ *ij^ {matba'iya) 

'rij4 *";"* trial, te8t(ing); trial, trib- 
ulation; temptation 

^flji lajribi trial, test (adj.); ex- 
perimental; based on experience, em- 
pirical I yjij~Jl ,_piJI ^ {'ilm an-tiaft) 
experimental psychology 

O <:sy^ lajribiya empiricism (pAtbx.) 
ijj*: mujarrib experimental; tester; 

examiner; tempter 
^jit mujarrab tried, tested; proven or 

established by experience, time-tested, 

time-tried; experienced, practiced, Bea- 

soocd; man of experience 

*^jj^ look up alphabetically 

'•juj^ jarbaia = ~'jj^ 

jj»T /ur&uz pi. Jyl^ jarabiza impostor, 
confidence man, swindler 

'j.j^ jarftoza (also Ji^^-) deception, 

£\>i.rt- )<"■*«' (= £>iy) pl- (^}jT jarOif 
jerboa (tool.) 

*i-Cfj^ jarabartdfya (and IjJcJjj^-) knapsack, 

(Jj-r jurt^"!, t^jij-r VtiiUma pl, pJlj^r 
jar Slim' root; origin; germ; microbe, 
bacillus, bacteriam | /-jo^l i-^ tafU at-). 

^1^ look up alphabetically 

j>-j^ jarjara (''j>-j>- jarjam) to gargle; to 
jerk or pull back and forth; to trail, drag 
(*; to tow away (» | »]L>- j^j^ 
(Ifuiahu) to drag one's feet, ahuiBe along 
II lajarjara pass, and refl. of I 

•jTjr jarjara gargling; rumbling noise ; 
rumble, clatter (of a wagon) 

jT-jr J^n^' (l"ge. thick) beans 
J^jr jirjlr watercress {eg., tyr,) 


r>r jaraha a {jarh) to wound (• b.o.); to 
injure^ hurt (« s.o.; alao fig., the feelings) 
II to invalidate (* testimony), challenge, 
declare unreliable (* a witness), take 
formal exception («, a to) YIII to commit 
{a an outrage^ a crime) | c>LJl t-J-j^^ 
[Ktyyi'ai) to do evil things 

r^ /urA pi. »-1^ /»VaA, rJj^ 7«ruA, 
C-*U-j^ juruhait rl>r' <^JTdh wound, in- 
jury, lesion 

r'jT ?0'TflA P^* "'*'*■ surgeon | j-lj^ 
JbZ^I dental surgeon 

**■'>?■ JiroAa surgery 

^^jT ?t'"aA* surgical | v-'>r -^s^ 
('amoJiya) Surgical operation 

^j*- ;'ariA pi. ^^ j'orAd wounded, 
injured, hurt 

^>^ ia7Hh surgery; defamation, dis^ 


*-jU jSrih injuring; wounding, sting- 
ing, painful, hurting; rapacious (beast)^ 

4«.jU- j&rtha pi. j-j[_^ jawdriX* pred- 
atory animal or bird | j^LII ^j'j^ /. 
af-tair predatory birds 

rJ^jT jtno&Tih* limbs, extremitiee (of 
the body) | *^j\yr J^ ^th might and 
main, with all his strength 

^j jjf majruh pi. ^ J^ ma/driA" 
wounded, injured, hurt 

ijj»- jarada u [jard) to peel, pare (*; to 
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (a 
of; to denude^ divest, strips bare 
{m; {com.) to take stock; to make 
aa inventory (aj'L«JI of goods on hand) 
II to peel, pare (*; to remove the 
shell, peel, rind or husk (a of; to 
denude, divest, strips dispossess, deprive 
(^ A or a s.o. or of); to withhold 
(^ * from s.o.; to draw, unsheathe 
(tJt...JI the sword]; to unleash (^^ a 

against s.o.); to send, dispatch (* a 
military detachment, troops, 4^ or J» 
against s.o.); to free (^ a or • s.o. or from) ; to isolate (a ; to abstract 
(a; to divest (j« • s.o. of his citizen- 
ship, of a rank, of a vested right, etc.) | 
.-V—Jl i>* ••i>r ^ disarm s.o.; ^ *.Ju ^j^ 
to free o.s. from, rid o.a. of, give up 
T pass, of II; to strip o.s., rid o.s., get 
rid {j» or ^ of), free o.s. (^ or jf, from) ; 
to be free (^ or ^ from, J for a task); 
to devote o.s. exclusively {^^ to; to 
give up, renounce (j- or ^; to 
isolate o.s. ; to be absolute 

^jT- i^^^ bare, threadbare, shabby, 
worn; {com.) inventory; stocktaking 

j^ jarid without vegetation, barren, 
bleak, stark (landscape) 

j^l ajrad^, f. »Ii^ jard^'^ pi. i^*- 
jurd desolate, bleak, without vegetation; 
hairless, bald; threadbare, shabby, worn 
(garment); open, unprotected (border) 

jl^ jarad (ooU.; n. un. Z) locust(s) | 
jU>j i\jj^ (rahhdl) migratory looustfs); 
jM^\ jl^ ;'. al-bahr longouate, sea cray- 
fish; Ujljdi: bi-jaradihd in its entirety 

-bj»- jarld palm branches stripped of 
their leaves; jereed, a blunt javelin used 
in equestrian games 

•J^^ jarida pi. 4^1^ jar^itP (n. un. 
of -Xtja^) palm-leaf stalk; list, register, 
roster, index; newspaper { l^ji *^j^ 
(yaumiya) daily newspaper; *LJ.I -tJl^^ 
/. al-masd' the evening papers; *.^yX-I 
uLUI and iLTLjxJl ^Aj^I the newsreel 

tS>jj>-\ ajrudi {»yr.) beardless, hairless 

AjjC. mijrad pt. >j\jt. majdrid? scraper 

Jijyf tajrid peeling, paring; dia- 
robement, stripping; denudation; depri- 
vation; divestment; disarmament; dis- 
patching (of troops); freeing; isolation; 
abstraction | ^*^l ^ Jbjf disarmament 


« Jj ^ tajrida pi . -d/, Ojj \jC. tajdrid* 
military detachment, expeditionary foice 

^jif tajarrud freedom (a* or j* 
from); isolatedness, isolation; independ- 
ence, i mparti&lity ; abfiolutenesa ; ab- 
etractnesB, abstraction 

ijit mujarrad denuded, bare, naked; 
freed, free (^ or jt- from); pure, mere, 
nothing more than ; sole ; very^ absolute ; 
abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem 
of the verb {gram.) | (with foil, noun in 
genitive =^ mere, sheer, nothing but:) 
ji ij^ mujarradu lahvHn^ mere play, just 
fun; •iS^l ir'^k ^^^^ the naked ey&; 
L* iji^ bi-mujarradi md as soon as, at 
the very moraent when 

^Vr /"r(ja^ pi. tii^jr jarddil^ buoket, pail 

j_^ jurad pi. jlj_;*- jir^Hn, jur4an large 

jji_;*- j\r4aun pi. ^Jl>r jard4in^ large 

^ij-_;*- jaraea i {jara) to ring, toll, knell, 
(re)souiid II to make experienced, inure 
by severe trials, sorely try (• s.o. ; time, 
events); to compromiM, disgrace, dis- 
credit, expose, bring into disrepute (w 

^^jtr jurs, jira sound, tone 
^_fr J*™' pl- 1?*'.;*-' ojras bell 
*-^j^ jursa defamation, public expo- 
sure; scandal, disgrace 

*oU^ jiraaya. 

jiraiya pi. 'dt jersey, 

woolen sweater; ^^jt jersey cloth 

^jtm JQToia u ijari) to crush {m; to 
grate, bruise, grind (* 

^j^ i*^^^ ^ grating, scraping noise 

cri>^ jo^i^ crushed,, bruised, coarsely 
ground; crushed grain; grits 

^jj'-r jSriiia pi. ^JLjjI_^ j<iufdriP 
quern, hand mill (for grinding grain) 

^j_». pr%4a a {jara4): <^,j sj^j-^ C""" 
Tiqihi) he choked on his saliva, could not 
Bwallow his saliva (beoauae of excitement, 
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, 
in a state of great agitation, deeply 
moved; — jaro^ « (jo*^) to choke, 
suffocate {. s.o.) IV 4i,_j *^j^\ (cf, 1) 
to alarm s.o., fill s.o. with apprehension 

^_jr- jari^i ^,j^^ ^j^ >j^.A^ ^^ 
hdla l-j. duna l-qari^ (proverb ; lit. : 
choking prevented poetry, i.e.) in the 
face of death one does not think of 
rhyming (among other interpretations) 

f-jt^ jara'a a (jar') and jari'a a (;ara') to 
swallow, gulp, devour (a,); to pour 
down, toss down (a a drink) II to make 
(• s.o.) swallow (a; to gulp down 
V to drink (* VIM to swallow, gulp 
down {a 

**>r P^'o, jar'a pi. 9j^ jura\ -at gulp, 
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.) 

Jjj^ jarafa u (jarf) and VIII to sweep away 
(a; to wash, away (a; to 
shovel away (a ; to remove (a; 
to tear away, carry off (a ; to carry 
along (a or ■ s.o, or YII to be swept 
away, be carried away 

•j>r 7ur/, juruf pi. J»j>t ;«**/» «J^>f' 
ajrSf underout bank or shore ; cliff, 
steep stope^ precipice; bluff (along a river 
or coast) I ({•'Li*- t-^>r {jalldl) avalanche 

**'>r j<irTdfa pi. 'di, >Juj^j»r jardrif^ 
rake; harrow 

J»^ majraf pi. J»j1j* majdrip torrent, 
strong current 

ii^ mijrafa shovel, scoop; (atfr.) mat- 
tock ; trowel 

J»l^ mijrdf pi. »Ju jIj* majdrlp shovel, 

uiji*- jdrif torrential (stream, moun- 
tain creek); stormy, violent (emotions, 



,jSjP^ al'jarktM the Circaseiana 

^^Sfr jarkcui pi. i-Tl^^ jardkisa Cir- 
cassian (adj. and n.) 

Pji^ jarama t {jarm) to bone ( Jll dL-lahma 
the meat); — to commit an ofifense, a 
crime, an outrage ( Jp or Jl against a.o.), 
sin (J* or Jl against s.o.), injure, harm, 
wrong (Je or Jl b.o.) II to incriminate, 
charge with a crime (» a.o.; syr.) IV to 
comtait a crime, to sin ( Jp or Ji against 
8.O.), do wrong (Jp or Ji to s.o.), harm, 
wrong (J* or J! s.o.) VIII = IV 

|.^ garm pi. ^jjt^ gurum {eg.) long, 
flat-bottomed barge, lighter {navi.) 

I»_^ jirm pi. /-'.fT' «rom, |»_^ jurum 
body; mass, bulk, volume (of a body) | 
4S]J^\ |>|/rVl ifcUakiya) the celestial 

*jj^ jurm pL(»l^l ajrdm, ^jjt^ jurum 
offense^ crime, sin 

^j»^ V l^ jarama surely, certiainly, of 
CO one 

*•._;»- jarim hulking, bulky, huge, vo- 
luminous, of great size 

<f_^ jarima "pl. frljtm jard'iTn? crime; 
ofiFense; sin | (jjJi* or) ^^J^S' *'.j>' (Jtufcro, 
'uzmd) capital offense; f^j^r^ ^j^^ penal 

j-l_^l ijrdm crime; culpability, delin- 

ijl^l ijrami criminal 

^j_^ i. lahm majrum fillet (meat) 

<.jjf ii- Sana mujarrama an entire 

j»^ mujrim criminal; (pi. -un) a crim- 
inal; evildoer, culjirit, delinquent | j»^ 
J^[p recidivous criminal 

j^l^ jardmii^ and >*l_Hr jai'dmlz^ limbs, 
legs I •j^^j^ fr> ((lamTTia) be beat it, he 
made ofif 

jU^l al-jarmdn the Germanic tribes, the 

jl.j*7 jarmdnx Germanic, Teutonic 

^Oyr i^"* P^' '-'W ojVon (stone) basin; 
mortar; {eg.) threshing floor, bam | 
ajj^^^I Ojtm j. al-ma*mud\ya baptismal 

= jl_^ jirdn the front part of a earners neck | 
4jl_^ Vj-^ ^ become established, take 
root ; *J \j>- *-U JIl {alga, jirdnahu) to apply 
o.s. to and adjust to it, accustom 
o.s. to 

JL'_H- iumdl {eg. also gumal) pi. J-jl>r ^'"O" 
nii' {eg., gardnil*) journal, newspaper, 

*^'>r groTitt granite 

<i=^ lj»- granlti granitic 

jjt^ jarw {jirw, jurw) pL ^1 ajrin, ►l^^ jird*, 
•l_^l aj'ro', *jj*-' ajriya puppy, whelp, 
cub (of a dog or beast of prey) 

<^jjtr grdsa gross {= 12 dozen) 

ijj*r /'"■'* * {j^^y) to flow, stream (water); to 
run; to hurry, rush; to blow (wind); to 
take place, come to pass, happen, occur ; 
to be under way, be in progress, be going 
on (work); to befall (J s.o.), happen (J 
to); to be in circulation, circulate, bo 
current; to wend one's way (Jl to), 
head (J' for) ; to proceed (J* in accord- 
ance with); to follow (*«, yield, 
give way (^ to, e.g., to a desire); to 
entail {^j; (with »ljj) to run or 
be after, seek to get | *i i^jt^ 
■M w.jJ^ he had a talk with; i\jjt ^£Jt^ 
(majrdhu) to take the same course as, 
be analogous to, follow the same way as, 
proceed or act in the same manner aa; 
l»-iil iSji- »i^l *^ ijj^ {minhu i-Sai'u 
majra d-dam) it had become second 
natuie to him; jJVl Je iSj^ {alsun) 
to circulate, make the rounds (rumor); 



ul— ) JT J» ^^ to b« on eveiyona'B 
lips; *Jj Js ^y>- (ToiamtAt) to come to 
a.o.'» pen (e.g., » poem); ;Ul J» ^;_^ 
(jnf^) to follow a plan; J^Jl Ue (jjif L 
('affloiu) the way things are handled, 
what ueustotnaiy practice; J^l *t tSjT' 
to be in force, be valid, be commonly 
observed (law, custom); ^ oUI ^l>_^ 
to be customorj, be common practice, 
be a common phenomenon, bay a gained 
vogue; J* IjUL ^^ to do s.tb. custom- 
arily, be in the habit of doing; 
^jU iiloi Cj^ that was their habit 
U to cause to run | <ij ^^ (rtgnAu) to 
maJce a.o.'s mouth water III to ooncux, 
agree, be in agreement (t with s.o., J 
in; to keep pace, keep up (• with 
S.O.; also intellectually); to be able to 
follow (• B.O.); to go (along) (* with); to 
adapt O.S., adjust, conform (^ to), be 
goided (* by) IT to cause to flow, make 
flow (a; to oanse to run, set running 
(*, • 8.O.,; to make (> take 
place or happen, bring about (*; 
to cany out, execute, enforce, put into 
effect, apply (*, e.g., rules, regu- 
lations); to carry out, perform (* an 
action); to set going, set in motion (* a 
project), launch (t an undertaking); to 
channel (J» or J * to), beetow, 
settle (J» or J * ujmn s.o.); to 
impose, inflict (J« *, a penalty, on 
s.o.) I <)j<: ^j^\ (tajrtftotan) to carry 
out an experiment; LL4^ oLht' ^ '^^' 
duct an investigation; iiUI <l ^^^l ({'&• 
nalan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; ffji t\j>-\ 
(majra, with foil, genitive) to treat 
in the same manner as, put on 
equal footing with 

lijr J^'y course | J» L ji^ joryon 'oM 
in acconiance with, according to 

!i\j^ ^ mm jaraka and <iij\jr j, 
min jwiTika because of you, on your 
account, for your sake 

•'jr i<"TS runner, racer 

\\j,~ jirdya pi. St daily (food) ra- 
tions; pay, salary | tAj-^ Jm 'U giraya 
(<f.) coarse bread 
olj>r jaraySn flow, flux; course; stream 
ijjA majran pi. jU majorin water- 
course, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent or 
flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel; 
drain, sewer, pi. sewers, sewage system; 
power line {el.); current (eZ.); current (of 
a stream); guide rail (techn.); course (of 
events), progress, passage | JjJI ijjt m. 
l-batd urethra (ana(.); uJ^\ ^Lf m. !• 
tanaffiu respiratory tract (anat.); ^gjfi- 
i>\jH n. l-hau)3^ air stream, current of 
air, draft; t\jjt a>.i to take its course; 
see also ^fJl- I and IT 

Cj\jjm^L mdjaraydt, TndjariySt (pi. of 
^^JM^ L) (course of) events, happenings 

iljU mujdrah keeping up (with foil, 
genitive: with); conformity (with foil, 
genitive: with) | J :ljlf mujirSlan li 
in conformity with, in accordance with, 
according to 

•1^1 ijrdf pi. -dt performance (of an 
action); execution; enforcement; pi. 
measures, steps, proceedings | c.>l>l^l ii^l 
{ittajfa4a) to take measures; <J^li ol>l_/>-l 
(gdnfiniyo) legal steps, proceedings at law 

jU. jdrin flowing, streaming, running; 
circulating ; current, present | jjU.i j^\ 
(loAr) the current month 

4jjU. jdriya pi. •at, j\y^ jawdrin girl; 
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel 

■ jaaa u {jati) to out off, clip (> ; to 
shear, shear off (> ; esp. the wool of 

•j»- jizza pi. jjt^ ji*oZi J^yr y^^S^w* 
shorn wool, fleece, clip 

•Jljr- jutina pi. -at slip of paper; label, 
Jljr- jaadz pi. -iin shearer, woolshearer 
j^ mijass woolsheais 



tj>- jaxa'a a and Tin to be content, ooDtent 
O.8. (t^ with) II to divide, part, Mpuate, 
break up, cut up, partition (« •.th.) 
V to divide, break up, be or become di- 
vided; to be separated, be detaohed, be 
partitioned off; to be divisible, separable 
( jt. from) 

•j>- jiu* pi. >lj/>-l aj'zd* part, portion; 
constituent, component; fraction; divi- 
■ion; seotion; the 30th part of the Koran 
(= 2 hob) 

Jjr- jfa'i partial; minor, trivial, in- 
significant, unimportant; (;ur.) minor, 
petty; L!jr- jv^iyan partly; <^\^j^ 
juz'tySl details, particulars; trivialities; 
subordinate parts; divisions, sections 
(e.g., of a court of justice) | i^j^ i^j^ 
{mawSdd) petty cases (/ur.); Li_^ ^o>- 
(;unaA) summary delicts (;ur.); 4^ J*- Tl^ 
courts of summary justice; 4jy>- lAJ 
(niydba) parquet of a summary court; 
yj»- <Jjl» minor incident; JJji^ hj~^ 
{taawiya) part payment; u^LJ^Ij oLljiLI 
(leulBydt) the particular and general as- 
pects, the minor and the major issues 

ijj^ juiai^ pi. -at molecule 

Jlj^l ajxi'i pi. -fin pharmacist, drug- 

,_y>-ljr-l a;<£7t pi. -iya pharmacist, drug- 

4jij»-1 ajz^iya and 4JU.Ij»-l ajzdJpdita 
pi. -A pharmacy, drugstore 

4jjjf tajzVa division; partition; sep- 
aration; dissociation; breakdown (into 
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation | 
4jJ»uU Jjli divisible; '^j^^ ^li divisi- 
bility; ii'jj^l j^^ retailer, retail merchant 

objr- pad&n, jizdan pi. -at wallet; change 

ijj^ jazara u (jatr) to slaughter; to kill, 
butcher (a an animal); — t u (jazr) to 
sink, fall, drop, ebb (water) 

jj>- TOir slaughter; butchering; ebb 
(of the sea) 

■j^r io^'o blood sacrifice 

jjjj>- ;azicr pi. jj^ juzuT slaughter 

jlj/>- jiuidr pi. :, -fin butcher 

*jj^ jazira pi. y lj»- joad'ir*, jj»- ju- 
lur island | Sy^r ^-i ^A** /■ peninsula; 
•y^i Al Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopo- 
tamia; j^^\ Algeria; Algiers; ^yJI<y,j>- 
;. al-'artd) Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula; 
oljlU.°l yl>LI(jx!I><Ut)theCanaryIsUndB; 
'\j-ii^ I ij jfi iia4r6') Algeciras (seaport in 
SW Spain) 

iSjjT- Ttt^ri insular; (pi. -ml) islander 

tiJ\j^ jaiS'iri pi. -fin Algerian (adj. 
and n.); islander 

jjA majzir pi. jjl^ majStir* slaughter- 
house, abattoir; butchery 

•j^ maJTora pi. jj\jt- vtajdxir' butch- 
ery; massacre, carnage 

'jji- jaxar (coll. ; n. un. •) carrot(s) 

fjt^ jazi'a a (jam', ^j>- jiafi') to be or be- 
come anxious, worried, concerned; to 
be sad, unhappy (jt about); to feel 
regret (J» for s.o.), pity (J» s.o.); to 
mourn (J* for s.o.) V to break apart, 
break, snap 

f-J*- jaz* onyx 

fji^ jtu' axle; shaft {Uchn.) 

fj^ jcaa' anxiety, uneasiness, appre- 
hension, concern; anguish, fear; sadness 

f-j/a- ;'<ut' restless, impatient; anxious, 
worried, uneasy, apprehensive 

f-jj». jaiu' and fj\t^ jaii' restless; im- 
patient; anxious, worried, uneasy, ap- 

^j/t mv-jazza* marbled, veined; varie- 
gated, dappled 


Jij*- in to act at Tandom, blindly, india- 
orlminately, take a chance; to speculate 
(Jin.); to speak vaguely, in general terms; 
to risk, Btoke (<-j J ju^ •-JJ^- to 
riak one'& life; ^^ *t *~^j^ ^ plunge s.o. 
into (some adyenture) 

ijilj*- puSf purcbaae of a certain a- 
mount of thingr {lel. Law); Ulj*> juzo' 
fan at random, haphazardly 

Ujlf mujdxafa rasbneaa, reddeBsnesa, 
foolhardiness; risk, hazard; adventure, 

.jjlf mujazif raeh, reckless, foolhardy; 
adTenturous; Tenturesome 

ij_^ jazvia u to be considerable, abun- 
dant, plentiful IV .ILJl *) Jj,^l {'afS'a) 
to gire generously, openhandedly» lib- 
erally to 8.0. YIII to write shorthand 

J;»- jad and Jjj»- jazil pi. Jl;»- j*- 
zSl abundant, plentiful, ample, much; 
pure, lucid, eloquent (style) | J{j\ Jj»- 
of sound, unerring judgment; Ij5l^ «jSC^ 
VjJ*- ^akarahu htkran jazllan he thanked 
him profusely; "^^^ 1j^ many thanks! 

4J ji*- jid^ piece, slice 

4!lj»> jazSla profusion* abundance; 
(rAef.) purity (of style) 

J>af mujtazil stenographer 

'Jjj*' look up alphabetically 

'jVj*- jitddn ~ OljiJ*- 

>^j»- J€Kama i {jatm) to cut off, cut short, 
clip (>; to judge; to decide, eettle 
{m; to be positive (1^ about), be 
absolutely certain (t^ of; to assert 
authoritatively (uj; to make up 
one's mind, decide, resolve {J» to do; to impose, make incumbent ( J» a on S.O.); {gram.) to pronounce the 
final consonant (of a word) without a 
vowel; to put {m a verb) into the apoco- 
pate form or the imperative 

pj>> jazm cutting off, clipping; decision; 
resolution, resolve; apodictio judgment; 
{gram,) apocopate form ] ^ji-A ly:^ 'aldmat 
al-j. = jazma 

<*j^ jazma diacritical mark (°) indi- 
cating vovelleasness of a final consonant 

^jU- j^im decisive; peremptory, def- 
inite, definitive, final; firmly convinced, 
absolutely certain (i^ of; (pi. fj'j-- 
jaxvdzim^) governing the apocopate form 


^j^ majzum cut off, cut short, clipped; 
decided, settled; {gram.) vowelless (final 
consonant) ; in the apocopate form 

. f^^i^u munjazim {gram.) in the apoco- 
pate form 

'iuj*- jazma pi. -dt^ ^J*- jizam (pair of) shoes, 
(pair of) boot£ | -tLjv **J^ {bi-ribdt) laced 
boots; *fi\i 4>^ {lamTnd'a) patent-leather 

jjafj*- gazmagl (tg,) and Jl->- gizcmati 
{ig.), jazmati (ayr.) pi. -iya shoemaker 

i^jt^ jazd i (^Ij^ jazd') to requite, recompenee 
(• 8.0. , t.^ or J» for), repay (« to s.o., 
u> or J»; to reward (« s.o., t^ or 
J* for); to punish (• s.o., u* or J* for); 
to satisfy (• s.o.), give satisfaction (a to 
B.O.); to compensate, make up (^ a for with or by); to compensate, offset 
{^ I \j>*. Aiil iJIj*- (fcai'ron) may 
God bless you for it! jUi- *ij*- •[/*- {jazd'a 
sinimmdra) he returned to hJTn good 
for evil III to repay, requite (1.^ m 
with, t^ • 8.0. for), recompense (^ * ^-o* 
for); to reward (J^ or h^ * s.o. for); to 
punish ( J» or %^ • s.o. for) [ i.^ >ljl*- ikoi" 
ran) he invoked God's reward upon them 
IV to suffice (• s.o,), do for s.o. (*); to 
take the place, serve instead (^ of), re- 
place (j^ 

►Ij*- jazd' requital, repayment; rec- 
ompense, return; compensation, setoff; 


amends, reparation; punishment, pen- 
alty I jAi .l>- {naqdi) fine 

Jlj»- jaz^i penal 

oji» jizya pi. ij^ ;'tzan, »lj»- jitS' 
tax; tribute; head tax on free non- 
Muslims under Muslim rule 

4jjjf tajziya reward 

;ljLf mujatah requital, repayment; 

j__„^ ja9sa u (;(Ma, i-^ majcusa) to touch, 
fesl, handio (>; to palpate, examine 
by touch (> B.tb.); to test, sound, probe 
(*; to try to gain information 
(* about), try to find out (*; to 
spy out (» I <JLJ ,j.a' {nabdahS) to 
feel s.o.'s pulse, (fig.) .^1 ,_,iJ ^j^ to 
probe, sound out, try to find out 
V to try to gain information (a about), try 
to find out (a; to reconnoiter, scout, 
explore (•; to be a spy, engage in 
espionage; to spy, pry, snoop (J» on a.o.) | 
IjL^I 4J (^— ^ (akbdran) to gather in- 
formation for 8.0. , spy for s.o. Vlll to 
touch, feel, handle (1; to spy out 

j^ joM: ,jJ^\ j^ fariy al-j. delicate 
to the touch, having a tender surface, fresh 

^^-U- jdtit pi. u-i'^j-r jawinif spy 

^^U- jSatita woman spy 

^_^U- iaaiai of espionage, spy- (in 

i^jj^ jasunya spying, espionage 

< j^ jauKua spying, espionage 

^j^ majtua spot which one touches or 
feels; sense of touch | ,_p/l jLi- koHn 
al-m. coarse to the touch, having a rough 

^j^ mijaaa probe {med,) 

^j ic tajaaaus spying, espionage 

^L>- jSai' hard, rough, rugged 

j»- II to make corporeal, invest with a 
body, embody, incarnate (a, give 
concrete form (> to; to render or 
represent in corporeal form {a V to 
become corporeal, assume concrete form, 
materialize; to become incarnate [Chr.); 
to become three-dimensional 

JL.»- jaaad pi. il~^^ ajaad body | x^ 
J— /LI 'id al-j. and -uJ-l ,_^ Corpus Chiisti 
Day (Chr.) 

^a_*- jaaadl bodily, fleshly, carnal 

Lila_;>- juadinl bodily 

JL^ tajaaaud materialization; incar- 
nation {Chr.) 

A-if muJMiad embodied, oorporified 

1.J.-J miUajaaaid corporeal; incarnate 

^ jaaara u to span, cross, traverse (* ; 
(JjLj- jaadra, jj— »■ juaur) to venture, 
risk ( J» have the courage ( J» to do II to build a dam or dike; to em- 
bolden, encourage (* s.o., Ja to do 
VI to dare, venture, risk (J», have 
the audacity (J» to do; to be bold, 
forward, insolent, impudent (J> with 
s.o.) VIII to span, cross, traverse (t 

_,_»■ jiar pi. _,_o»l ajauT, j>-»- juaur 
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; 
— (pi. »jj-^ piaura) beam, girder; axle, 
axletree | iiy— =- ^r-^ imutaharrik) movable 
bridge; jL. ^-j^ (mu'aUaq) suspension 
bridge; <U j.^ pontoon bridge, floating 

jj.-mt^ jaaur bold, daring; forward, in- 
solent, impudent 

:jL-<- jaadra boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

^\jt tajSaur boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

^U>i. mutajonr bold, daring; forward, 
insolent, impudent 


^-*- jaauma u (4*1—*- jasdma) to be great, big, 
targe, bulky, huge, immense II to make 
corporeal, invest with a body (*, 
give (* shape or form; to materialize 
(a ; to cause to stand out, bring out 
(*; to enlarge, magnify (*; 
e.g., microecope); to make big, bulky, 
huge (*; to play up, exaggerate 
(a V to become corporeal, become 
embodied; to materialize; to assume a 
form, take shape, become tangible or con- 
crete; to be materialiKed; to become hig, 
large, huge, increase in volume, grow in size 

— i>- jiam pi. r'— r' ojMm, i>.>-r junm 
body (also O of an automobile); sub- 
stance, matter; mass; form, shape 

^J|^->■ jiaml bodily, physical; substan- 
tial, material 

«_». jasim pi. j*Lj» jisSn great, big, 
large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, 
immense ; stout, corpulent; weighty, most 
Bignificant, momentous, prodigious 

P^ jutaim pi. -A particle {fiyt.); 
corpuscle (biol.) 

— >-l ajum' more voluminous, larger; 
stouter, more corpulent 

«>l-i>. jatSma size, volume; stoutness, 

o^»*. jusm&n body, mass 

J^_jf pumSnt bodily, physical, cor- 
poral I J^^i vi^^' corporal punishment 

«^ iajfnm embodiment; relief; en- 
largement, magnification, magnifying 

—jt rmjatrnm bodily, corporeal; 
(fMtt.) body; three-dimensional; tangible, 
material, conci-ete; raised, relieflike, 
standing out in relief (e.g., U~j^ 'H^ 
relief map); relief; enlarged, magnified | 
-J. \t {film) three-dimensional (stereo- 
scopic) film, 3-D motion picture 

vWr jtunniniya' Gethsemane 

(j.-»-) l_>- jaad u to become hard, soUd 

,jl»- jtUia u (joij) to grind, crush, bruise, 
grate (* 

ll^ fuiSa hoarseness, huskine8S,nkucity 
(of the voice) 

^'l'»- joHi ground, grated, crushed 

^^ I aja£P, f. »Li>- jaSSa** hoarse, husky, 
raucous (voice) 

Ll>- II and V to belch, burp 

•Liip jtiid' and :ll>- jufa belch(ing), 

jKia- piiSr livestock 

Mj/ jaii'a a iiuM) and T to be covetous, 

ml^ jaia' greed, avidity, inordinate 

^^ jaH* greedy, covetous 

±^ jaJfima a {jahnf ^.l-t*- jaSajna) to take 
upon o.s. (a some hardship) 11 to make 
(i S.O.) suffer or undergo (*; to 
impose (* • on s.o. difficult), burden 
(* • s.o. with V to take upon o.s., 
suffer, undergo (<, e.g., hardships) 

^^Lr- {eg., of. ^^ liinf) sample, specimen; 

,j^>- II to plaster, whitewash (* 
irT 7W gypeum; plaster of Paris 

jL.^ II lajoflana to lounge, stretoh lazily, 

4>>- ji'a beer 

i_.M» II to corrugate (a 

ij^ ja'ba pi. v^ i*'^^ quiver: tube, 
pipe; gun barrel; Q cartridge pouch 
(.Syr.) I jL^I Vt- ?'• <M:Mr town gossip 


— ,**- ja'ja'a (^m^^u^ ja'ja'a) to clamor, roar, 
^hout; to clatter, clap; to bluftt«T, ex- 
plode in anger 

<ju><uu*- ja'ja'a hubbub, rumpua, clamor, 
roar; creak, clapping noise (of a mill 
wheel); bluBt«r 

^U.**- ja'ja' clamorous, bolBterouB, 
noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person 

4w»- ja'uda u (oj^ir- ju'-uda^ SaLm*. ja'dda) and 
V to become curly, frizzed, Idnky, curl 
{hftir); to bo wary; to be creased; to be 
wrinkled 11 to curl, frizz (a; the 
hair); to wave {m; the hair); to 
creaae, pleat, plait (a cloth); to wrinkle 
(m the skin) 

Ow- ja'd (or oJl Xu~ j. al-yad, .JiSOl x^^ 
j. al'kajf) stingy, niggardly, tightfiated 

:Jju>- ja'da curl, lock, ringlet 

t^a*»- j'a'iv and A<w-1 aj'atP curly 

i^J^M*- gd'edi (eg.) bum^ loafer, good- 

-l»Ij^ tajd'id' wrinkles, lines (of the face] 

otoAif iaja"tiddt wrinkles 

x*:f mitja"<wi curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creaMd; wrinkled 

>Ujr«i* muiaja"id curled, frizzed; wary; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled 

;iA»- ja'dana idle talk, goeaip [leh.) 

jt^ ja'ara a {ja'r) to drop its manure (animal) 

Ol_,**- j*\ abu ji'rdn* Bcarabaeus; dung 

jitu^ jamjar little river, creek 

Jw- ja'ala a (ja'l) to make (*; to put, 
place, lay (a; to create (a; 
to effect, bring about (*; to make 
(* A a rule, a principle, or the like, 
* • S.O., e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint 
(• • B.o. to an office, rank, or the like); 
to fix, set (a A a sum, a price, at); to 

think, deem, believe (<-> * or • * s.o. to 
be . . ., A A to be . . .), take (<-^ • or * * 
8.O. for, A A for); to represent (a, Ijj^ J as, or in the form of, 
else); to appoint, settle (J a for 
S.O., in B.o.'s favor); to give, grant,, 
concede (J a, an advantage, to s.o.), 
put s.o. (J) in the way of (a); to 
attribute (a J to s.o., maintain that (a) belongs to s.o. (J); to entrust 
(Jl A to a.o.); to put, get (* e.o., 
A, into a specific state or condition); 
(with foil, jmperf.) to begin to, set out to| 
Jmu 4lw>- to induce s.o. to do; to make 
s.o. do (in a narrative); <i>r aIw*. 
(bi-manzilati) to place B.o. on equal 
footing with; oJU Jjbu j *1m^ (Ji miiiand* 
wait yadihi) to bring or put within 
s.o.'s reach III to seek to bribe, try to 
win (cj * e.o. with 

J*<»- ju'l pi, JLw-l afH pay, wages; 
piece wages; reward, prize 

J*»- ju'H: J**. jLiJl (iUifSq) piece- 
work contract 

J*»- ju'al pi. o:)U». jVldn dung beetle; 

;JU^ ji^dla, ja'ala, ju'&Ut pi. JJU^ 
ja'd'iP pay, wages; allowance; reward, 
prize; bribe 

Lil>»>- jugrdjiyd and v'./^ ji^Tdfxya geog- 
raphy I 4.«,J> v'_r*r {P'^^'^y^^) physical 

ji^r^- jugrdfi geographical; geographer 

i_ij«- Jaffa (1st pers. perf. jafaflu) i (JiU*- 
jafdff i-J_>ji»- jufuf) to dry, become dry; 
to dry out II to dry, make dry (a s.tb.) 

^J^\Jb^^ jafdf dryneaa; desiccation; dry- 
ing up; dullness 

iJiU^ tijfdf pi. >J^\jf tajdfif protective 

tajfif drying; desiccation; de^ 
hydration; drainage 


ball-point pen 

tJkht mujaffaf dried, daaicoated, de- 
hydrated; oLiju£> dehydrated foods 

*IjL»- /u/d* useleBS, Ta,in, futile | (Uj^ t^j 
dahaba jufd'an to be in vain, be of no 
avail, pass ueeleaaly 

Cjt*- /i/f, cJt^ 6ijt (pronounced Hjt; eg.) 
pincers, tweezers; metal clamp | cu»- 
Olj^ /. Sarydn arterial clamps 

^jlLi*' (pronounced SijUH; eg.) filigree 

illlijb»- jiftlik farm, country estate; goram- 
ment land {Pal.) 

ji^ jaJT, jaX-\ it '^^ ai-7< divination, for- 

IjA^ jufra pi. jjLi- jufar pit, hole 

Ji»- jajala i u {jafit Jji*- jufvl) and IV to 
start, jump with fright; to shy (horse) 
II to start, rouse (, • s.o.); to scare 
away (s s.o.) 

Ji*- jajl and t^ji*:- jujvl fright, alarm; 


.liii^ {pronounced iiflik; eg.) = lihJ^ 
j^ jafn pi. J>i«r jufun, u\a^\ ajfdn eyelid 

4iji»- jafna pi. tlilo- jifdn, CjLji*- jafanSt 
bowl; giapsvine 

(^^) Lt*- ;a/<S u (ia/u7, *U*- jafS*) to be rough, 
coarse; to treat (• s.o^) roughly^ harshly; 
to turn away (» from), shun, avoid, flee 
(• s.o.) Ill to treat (* s.o.) roughly, 
rudely, harshly; to be cruel (* to s.o.); 
to be cross (• with s.o.); to elude, flee 
(• B.O.; slumber); to offend (a against 
good taste, one's sense of honor, or the 
like) VI to withdraw (^ from), shun, 
avoid (• B.O.); to loathe (jp b,o.,,), 
have an aversion ( jp to) ; to display rude 
manners, act the ruf^n 

jij>- jafw roughness, harshness 

Iji^ jajwa roughness; estrangement, 
alienation; disagreement, dissension, 

*Ll*- jajd* roughness, harshness; stern- 
ness; antipathy, aversion, distaste, loath' 
ing; estrangement, alienation 

J»-l ajfd refraining even more (J 
from), more averse (J to 

cJU- /o^n pi. SUj^ jufak harsh, rough, 
coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude 

cTU look up alphabetically 

jSCi^ III {ayr.) to tease (• b.o.) 

*J*- jaUa i (J^ jaial) to be great, lofty, 
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too 
great (jt for), be beyond (jc), be 
far above (jc) | j^\ ^ J*- ('an 
il-hofr) to be innumerable II to honor, 
dignify, exalt (• s.o.); to cover (a, 
esp. the ground, as snow, plants, etc,}; 
to envelop, wrap, drape, clothe ; to border, 
edge (a, y with) IV to honor, digni- 
fy, revere, venerate, esteem highly, exalt 
(• 8.O.); to deem too high, too exalted (j» 
for, consider far beyond (j») 
VI to deem o.s. far above (j«) X to 
be great, exalted, sublime 

J<^ jaU great, outstanding ; bulky 

J<^ j-uU major portion, bulk, majority, 
main part | ^ /uUuAfimoet of it; I*VI J^ 
;. al-umma the majority of the people; 
u U Ji^ its main contents; *j\ JUL U J*-j 
{jtiUu) that much, at least, can be said 

JL>- jalal important, significant, mo- 
mentous, weighty 

J*. jidUd pi. Jl*- jideU matter of great 
importanoa, momentous undertaking, 
great feat, exploit 

HU jtiUa, jilla droppings, dung (of 
animals) ; juUa pi. Ji*- julal (oannon) 
ball ; bomb 


aL^ juUa attire, clothing | *ijj^^ <^1 
(o^^S^I) {habrawii/af kahnutijifa) epis- 
copal (sacerdotal) vestmenta (Chr.) 

J_L- jalll pi. -riU-l ajill&'*f il*-l ajiUa, 
JTl^U- /a^*il' great, important, significant, 
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, 
sublime; revered, honorable, venerable; 
glorious, splendid 

J-iU jaidl loftiness, sublimity, august- 
nesa; splendor, glory 

tl -iJ^- jaWa loftiness, sublimity, august- 
nesa; majesty | ^I'tiU-l (<^L,«»} ^.v-l^ His 
(Her) Majesty, iHll iir^U ;'. al-malitc Hifl 
Majesty, the King 

Jj-l ajall* greater; more sublime; more 

iljfi majalla pi, -a( periodical; review, 
magazine | VLtr"' ^ (U0£>u''tya) weekly 
magazine; •t^^r^^ '^ (Sahriya) monthly 
publication; v i«»U. iL^ (Aid^sa) pro- 
fessional journal for . . . ; ^l^>-V' ^i^ 
lawbook, code; i>jl__^1 iLt do. 

U^' tajil^ and J:)U-I »;^ honor, 
distinction; esteem, deference, respect; 

'Jjj- juU rose 

t^tyi^ jtUdb, juU3.b rose water; julep 

t>j:)U- (Fr. g^.latine) ielSiln jelly 

4--':j'j^ (Fr. ylac^) glasih (eg.) kid leather 

^ J^ jalaba i u (jaib) to attract (a; to 
fetch, get, bring (>, J to s.o.); to im- 
port (jk goods); to bring about (a a state, 
condition) ; to bring (a harm, shame, etc., 
Jp upon 0,0,); to gain, win, obtain (a ; 
to earn {a,); (v.jLr j^^'^b) to scar 
over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; 
to be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain, 
acquire (a; = II; VII pass, of I 
VIII to procure, bring, fetch, get (a]; to draw (a on; to import (a 

goods) X to import (a goodfl); to fetch, 
summon, call in (» s.o.); to attract, draw 
(a, » s.o.,; to seek to attract or win 
(a, • B.O.,; to get, procure (a^ 

>_Jj>- jalb bringing, fetching; procure- 
ment; acquisition; importation, import; 
causation, bringing on, bringing about 

yJL»- jalab imported; foreign 

>_JL^ jalab and 4JU- jalaba clamor ; 
uproar, tumult, turmoil 

4JU- julba scar 

,_-J*- jalib imported, foreign; (pi. ^^ 
jaU>d, tUL- julabd'^) foreign slave 

^^■iU- jalldb attractive, captivating ; 
importer, trader; see also alphabetically [ 
a_jjl w.'':)U- slave trader 

^-j'dU- gallabiya {eg.) pi. -at, i^'^U- gold' 
llb"^ galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment, 
the common dress of the male population 
in Egypt 

^LU- see below under >— Jj-- 

i_Jj^ 1 ajlaf more attractive, more 

LLf majlaba pi. <_JLf majdlib* causa- 
tive factor, motive, reason, cause, oc- 

^"^U.::^! iatijldb procurement, acquisi- 
tion; importation, import; supply; at- 
traction I 4>:^LJ1 ^'lUi.-l promotion of 
tourist traffic 

eJU- jdlUi causative factor, motive, 
reason, cause, occasion 

2»_j'iU- julab, julldb rose water; julep 

'LU> )alabd jalap (bot.) 

,_ ^[•■- II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (l-> with), be 
clothed, be clad (l^ in a garment, also 

t^LL- jilbab pi. •--xj'dU- jalablb* garment, 
dresB, gown; woman's dress 



6LL>- pUvbbdn ohickling vetoh, gran py 
(Lathyrus nativiis} 

^ J>JL- jaljala to reverberate ; to resound, ring 
out; to rattle; to shake (a &.th,) 

J>Ji- jvljul pi. J>-'^ jalajiP (little) 
bell, sleigh bell; cowbell; jingle 

4JUJ»- jaljaia sound of a bell; load, 
shrill sound 

J»JLf mujdljU shrill, piercing; ring- 
ing, resounding, reverberant 

'«L>J>- jvljula, iL>Ji-l J^ jabalal-j. Golgotha 

'0:31^1*- juljvidnt jUjitdn aesamo 

—U j'aitAd a (jalalji) to be or become bald 

^1 ajUA', f. ,l«L- ioIM'*. pl- ^ /ui^ 
bald-headed, bald 

•Jr- jalajsa a and II to sharpen (*; to 
whet, hone (< a knife), strop (a a razor); 
to stretch, extend, roll out (* metal] 

aU- jalk grindstone, whetatoue, hone 

aL- jalada i (jald) to whip, flog, lash (< s.o.); 
— jalida a to be frozen, freeze; — jaluda 
u to be tough, hardy, undismayed, stead- 
fast, patient U to bind (* a book); (to 
oanae) to freeze (* ni to fight (• s.o.) 
IV to freeze; to be frozen, be covered 
with ioe V to take heart; to show o.s. 
tough, hardy, robust; to resign 0.8. to 
patience; to bear, suffer VI to engage in 
a sword fight 

■lL. jald flogging; — (pl. j:>UI ajldS) 
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy 

-lL. jUd pl. 3ji>- futad, j:);2ae2skin, 
hide; leather | otp^ jA>- (tuktiyan) 
morocoo; c-U 4L- {lamma') patent leather 

•4L- jUda skin, hide; pieoa of leather; 
raoa | UJjiL- ^I tfrn jUdatina our country- 
man, our fellow tribesman, pl. IJ4L- jij 
banu j. 

^jIj. jUdi dermal, cutaneous, skin 
(adj.) I <jaL- ^1^1 skin diseases 

•aJU- julaida pl. -St membrane, pel- 
licle; O film (pAo«.) 

■iL- jalad endurance; suffering ; pa- 
tience; firmament 

:iL. jalda lash, stroke with a whip 

aJL- jalid pl. aliL jiUadd'' staunch, 
steadfast; strong, sturdy 

aJU- jalid ice | aJU- J^ jabal j. iceberg; 
aJ^I ^ uLi (qit'a) ice floe 

{^■ul*- jalidl ioy, ice-covered, glacial, ice 
(adj.); snow-covered | i{-LU;i _^.««il ('o^) 
the Ice Age 

jt^U- /aliZ^ long-suffering, patient 

^:>U- jaOSd pl, -fin leather merchant; 
executioner, hangman 

l3^ jalSda and •.sjU- jiduda endurance, 

i^ijC mijlada whip, lash, scourge 

.dL^ (a;7ui freezing; bookbinding 

a:>U- j'tZdd fight, battle (against) 

-d^ lajallud endurance, patience 

Jilt mujaUid: u^l Jiif m. alktUub 

jJlA mujallad frozen, icy, toe-covered; 
bound (book); (pl. -Gt) volume (book) 

4jlf mujaJid pl. -iZn gladiator 

oLiji^ muiajaUid patient 

JjU- jillaw (coll.; n. un. ;) hazelnut; hazel 

^^JL^ jalaea i (^jlr- jiUiit) to sit down (J( 
with fi.o., at a table, etc., Jp on a chair); 
to sit (Jl with s.o., at a table, J« on a 
chair) | ^U,)l Jl ^^JL»- (raaadm) to sit for 
a painter III to sit (* with s.o., next to 
S.O., in s.o.'a company); to keep s.o. (•) 
company IV to ask to sit down, make sit 
down, seat (• s.o.) 

<.Jj>- jalsa pl. -Si seat (in an auditorium) ; 
session (of parliament, of a committee. 



of a court, et«.); party, gathermg, meet- 
ing I 4JU- -iut. 'aqada jtdaaian to conveae 
a aosaion; Ut iJL>- I'Smma) plenuy 

4_ir- jilsa manner of sitting 

,^.1^ jalit pi. (l-La- jubuS'* participant 
in a Bocial gatiiering; table oompanion; 
one vith whom one aita together; a ,ilp- 
the man who was at the party with him 

<-xL- jattsa lady companion; fern, of 

^jL- pUilt sitting; sitting down; 
accession to the throne; pi. of ^U- 
jSiia sitting 

^jjdt majlit pi. ^l* majalii' seat; 
session room, conference room; party, 
gathering, meeting; aoolal gathering; 
session, sitting; council meeting; council; 
concilium; collegium, college; board, 
committee, commission; administrative 
board; court, tribunal | *Jjt- j in a.o.'s 
presence, in s.o.'s company; k^^lJI ijjjt 
and ^_>\j ^jjjt diaciplinaiy board; ,^Jif 
j^.x<lj constituent assembly; JliT ^jAit 
regional court (trilnmal rigional; Tun.); 
iiVI ^j^Sa m. al-umma parliament (/r.); 
^Vl j^J* m. al-amn the Security 
Council; uxUI ,_pLf m. al-baladfya and 
joL ^JAlt {baiadi) local council, munic- 
ipal council; '^ji-\ ^j^ m. al-harb war 
council; ^^.^m- ^jJa {hasbi) probate court 
(for Muslims ; Ef.)i iJit- ^jjjf- (mulfldm) 
mixed court (eg.); f'li-OI ^j^jt defense 
council; tj\ii\ ^j^it m. al-idara ad- 
ministrative board, committee of manage- 
ment, directorate; board of directors (of 
a corporation or bank); uyjil ,^J^ m. 
ai-mtidiriya provincial council, provincial 
parliament (Eg.); iij^ll ^^Jif m. ad-daula 
Supreme Administrative Court (Eg.); 
^fjj ij-^ (™**) religions court, clerical 
court (of the Coptic Church); jjji uJut 
<lj.JI m. Uri d-daula council of state; 
jjrfl u-^ council of elders; senate {Eg.); 

Jjc (.r^ ('«<{{) court, tribunal {Syr.}; 
(ifjSl-s or) jjt ^J^Jt ('ur/i, 'atlarl) 
court-martial; VVI v<^ <r^ "*■ '*<^^ 
al-umam Council of the League of 
Nations ; f_y^\ ,^-lif the House of Com- 
mons; oLcVI ^J^ m. dl-a'ydn senate 
(It., Jord.); f^Ji'i\ ^jAit draft board, 
recruiting commission {mil.); ^fjji ^jjjt 
{qatmvi) local council; ;jjU>»I ,jJ^ 
(tgti^&ii) economic council; i/y ,_pLf 
(faumi) national assembly; 'dlJ ^ ^/ 
Ijjill ffi. qiyidat af-taura Supreme Rev- 
olutionary Tribunal {Eg.); jv53l ,jJ<t| 
and j^VI ^1 {akbar) the Grand 
Council (= Is Qmnd Goiueil; Tun.); 
j'jj^l ^^-Lf the House of Lords; ^^J* 
lyljjl m. an-nuwuidi lower house, cham- 
ber of deputies; ijLJ ^jSjt {niySn) par- 
liament; 4^1 i^pLf m. al-jiha approx.: 
provincial council (= eomeil de rlgion; 
Tun.); >ljijll ,_pLe m. al-umxarf cabinet, 
council of ministers 
4.JLf mujSloM social intercourse 

jJU- jSKi pi. ^;«jl»- jidil*, ij^'sU )uBa* 
sitting; pi. ^'>U participants in a social 

JiL. jdlafa i {jalf) to chafe, gall, abrade (* 
the skin); to shave (^Ijll ar-ra'aa the 

iUL- jul^a lump, clot | 'uj^i lUr- {da' 
mawiya) blood clot, thrombus 

(Jl1»- jilt pl- «J>^1 ayZa/ boorish, rude, un- 

JuU ^/n^ (41mI>- jalfafa) to calk (< a ship) 
j,il^ galfana {eg.) to galvanize 

cil>- galfana galvanization 

j,iiif mugalfan galvaniied 

Ji'Ar jalaqa: ujj ''i'i^ {qaramya) yokel, 

^ jalama i {jalm) to cUp, shear ofF (< 
^ jalam pl. ^^1 a^Uni sheaia 



J ,1- jA abu, galanM {eff.) a variety of crab 

X>1>- II tajttlmada to be petrifiad 

xXr jaimad pi. -u^ jatdmiiP and 
jjU>- jtdmSd pi. A^^ jaidmli' rook, 

jULk. ^uUandr pomegranate bloeaom 

(^ and ^) ^ ToU u to clean, polish (* ; to clear (t the view) ; to make clear> 
make plain» clarify, clear up (*, 
throT light on (*); to reveal, imveil, 
dJBcloae (*; to dislodge, oust, re- 
move (j« A or * s.o. or from); to 
shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.b. ( j in; to be or become clear, evident, 
manifest; to pull out, move out (jp of a 
place), go aTvay, depart {^Jf■ itom a 
place), leave, quit, evacuate ( jp a place) ; 
— J»- jaia i to polish, burnish (a 
II to reveal, disclose, bring to light (y, or 
»,); to show, represent (• s.o., a; IT to remove, dislodge, oust, 
drive away (a, • s.o., ; to evacuate 
{• s.o., ^ from); to move away, go away 
(j» from a place), leave (y- a place) 
T to become clear, evident, manifest; to 
reveal itself, be revealed; to appear, 
show, come to light, come out, manifest 
itself; to be manifested, be expressed, 
find expression VII to be clean or cleaned, 
be polished, be burnished; to be removed, 
be dislodged, be ousted; to move away 
(jt from a place), vacate, evacuate {y 
a place) ; to be dispelled, vanish, go away, 
pass (crisis, difl&culty, etc.); to dis- 
appear; to reveal itself, be revealed, be 
disclosed; to be unveiled (bride); to 
become manifest, manifest itself; to 
become clear or plain; to clear up and 
reveal {y; to lead, come (y to), 
end ( je in) ; to result ( je in) | <* J».:j Li 
^Vt the outcome of the matter, what 
will come of it VIII to reveal, disclose 
(a; to regard (a, look at 
(a) X to seek to clarify (a; to 

clarify, clear up (a, throw light 
(a on); to iiocover, unearth, bring to 
light, find out, discover, deteot (a 

'dU- ^ I ibn jald a famous, well-known 
man, a celebrity 

J>- jaliy clear, plain, evident, patent, 
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; LIa- jo* 
liyan obviously, evidently 

<Ja- jalii/a pi. l^ jdlAya sure thing, 
plain fact | ^Vl <^ jallyat al-amt the 
true state of the affair 

J»-l aj]d clearer, more obvious, more 

S^L- jihm unveiling (of the bride) | UJ 
•^LL-I lailat aUj. wedding night 

»^ jaid' clarification, elucidation; 
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness; 
departure, (e)migration (ja Irom); evac- 
uation (jt of an area; mil.)i ,'>U 
clearly, plainly 

uLU jalaydn vision, revelation, apoc- 
alypse (CAr.) 

Jlf majSlm (pi. of Jjf majlan) 

SJLf lajli!/a: <f>Vi «-L^ {Udhiya) divine 
revebtion; theophany (Chr.) 

Jif tajaUin revelation, manifestation; 
Transfiguration (of Christ) | J>^l x^ 'id 
at-t. Transfiguration Day (CAr.) 

r^b>-l ijtUd' contemplation 

^•jMiJ ielijtff clarification, elucidation 

iJU- jSliya pi. -3t, JI^a- jawalin colony 
(of foreigners); colony of emigrants 

^^\ al-vwjaUi the winner (in a race) 

Jwi, mutajaUin obvious, evident, mani- 
fest, patent 

oj^ galOn pi. -at gallon (eg.) 

j^ mugalimn galvanized (e^.) 

J«- j'uBo see "^Ja- 


^'ijl-r gilyotin guillotine (eg.) 


abbreviation of 



'*- jaimna i u (jamm) to gather; to collect 
one's th.Dughta, concentrate ; to rest II and 
V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to 
gather; to collect one's thoughts, con- 
centrate; to rest, relax, seek recreation 
{^ from); to be covered with luxuriant 
vegetation (ground) 

*■ jamm abundant, plentiful; much, 
a great deal of; many, numerous; mani- 
fold, multiple; crowd, group of people | 
j-Vl vr ?■ ^-f^f effective, efficacious; 
l>; L^ 4^1 {akabbahu kubban) to be more 
than fond of; l^ ^\j> numerous ad- 
vantages, ample benefits; _mp y^ large 
crowd, throng 

^Lii jamdm rest, relaxation, recreation, 
gathering of new strength 

^ majamm place where gathers 
or Sows together | 4«uj;>i->j ^!JI ti* ji 
(mustajma'-uhu) what this opinion a* 
mounts to 

^r^ iagmim (eff.) bobbed hairdo {of 

l*l(:^>:U'l istijmdm colleotedness ; con- 
centration; attentiveness, attentive rev- 
erence; rest, relaxation, recreation 

jLr, (jjLi*-. see j^jr* tfJ'r^ 

iSj^. (from It. gambero) gambar\, fSj*: ff^m- 
man {eg.) shrimp {zooL) 

*jO^, jamjama (i»j«u^ jamjama), ^':^\ ^^^ 
{Icalama) and II tajamjama to ari-iculate 
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.a. 
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumbl& 

■**»»>; jumjuma pi. ^r^. jo'tn^ji*)^' ekull, cra- 

m^ jumjumi cranial 

n,r jamaha a {jamky r\^^ jimdh, rj*'. jv* 
muh) to bolt (horse); to be refractory, 
unruly, recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be 
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her 
husband, run away from home (wife) 

^l> jimdh recalcitrance, defiance; will- 

^j^ jwniih recalcitruice, defiance; 

rJ*^ ^'antuA headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly, ungovernable 

aU- jamih headstrong, defiant* un- 
ruly; indomitab!a, nntamable 

^Jj^ jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, j^ 70* 
mud) to freeze; to congeal, hardns, 
stiffen, be or become hard or solid, solid- 
ify; to coagulate, clot (blood); to be 
rigid, inflexible (in one's thinking); to 
stagnate; to be apathetic, indolent, dull, 
indifferent | J» <.^ ojj; to be indifferent 
toward, put up with, acquiesce in; c>A> 
»-0 iyadiihu) to be niggardly, tightfisted 
II to freeze, froet, congeal (*&.th.); to so- 
lidify, coagulate, harden, stiffen (m; 
to curdle (*; to freeze (* assets) 
V to freeze, become frozen, turn into ice, 
freeze up, become icebound; to freeze to 
death; to congeal; to solidify; to harden, 
set (e.g., cement); to coagulate, clot 
(blood) VII to freeze up, become ice- 
bound; to freeze, become frozen, turn to 

Xt-_ jamd freezing; congelation, Bolidi- 
fication, coagulation | a/;i 4*-j^ darajat 
al-j. fi-eezing point 

a> jamad lee 

.aL»^ jamdd pi. -4< a solid; iuorgaoio 
body; mineral; inanimate body, inani- 
mate being; O neutffl' (gram.) 

:ij^ jumud frozen state; solid, com- 
pact state, compactness, solidity; rigor, 
rigidity, stiffness ; inorganio state ; harden- 


ing, induration; hardnesB, inflexibility; 
deadlock, Btandstill; inertia, inaction, 
inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity, 

ijyt jumSda solidity, hardness 

x^ iajmid solidification, hardening; 
consolidation; reinforcement (of a foun- 
dation) I Jt^Vl x^ t. al'amwdl freezing 
of assets 

Artjf iajammMd freezing; frost; conge- 
lation; solidification; coagulation 

:t\^\ injimad freezing up or over, 
icing up; ice formation 

^U- jamid hard, solid; stiff; rigid; 
motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.) 
defective; dry, dull (book, and the like); 
impervious to progress or innovation, 
ossified, ultraconservative; pi. A»'_>>- j'^' 
vidmicP inanimate things, inorganic mat- 
ter, minerals 

JUjyi* mutajammid frozen, icy; stiff, 
congealed; coagulated 

-Um^ munjdmid frozen, icy, ice (adj.); 
arctic | x,^! li^\ (muAIf) the Arctic 

*,^Lr; jurnddi name of the fifth and sixth 
months of the MasUro year (Jj'>/I jjL»; 
). I-fiW Jumada I and ijr-^\ ^Ijh ). l-ikira 
Jumada 11) 

>^ II to roast (j> meat) VIII to bum incense 

jf jcmr embers, live coal | J» oK" 
j^\ ^ jr-\ (o^mi) to be on tenter- 
hooka; to be in greatest suspense, be 
dying with curiosity 

3jj; jamra (n. un. of j>) live coal; 
firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling 
resentment; (pi. -dt) carbuncle (med.) | 
O l^'l 'j^l anthrax 

jLi7 jummar palm pith, palm core 
(edible tuber growing ait the upper end 
of tile pikbn trunk) 

'•j^ mijmara pi. _^Le majdmir' bra- 
zier; censer 

'iij*: see jj^, 

lljf: {eg.) gumruk pi. lijU; gamifik' customs; 
customhouse | ^.,^1 p-j rtum td-g, cus- 
toms duty, tariff 

Sjf. gvmmlA customs, tariff (used at- 
tributively) I Sj*-. ^1^1 (ittihad) customs 

i^j*^ mvgamrak duty paid 

jj- jummaiz (coll.; n. un. J) sycamore (Fi- 
cus sycomorus; bot,) 

^^y\'r 1<M^ »p alphabetically 

,Jj-_ jamala i u {jami) to unhair (* 
II to make love, caress, pet 

^ jama'a a (7am') to gather (a; to 
collect (a e.g., money); to unite, combine, 
bring together (ports into a whole); to 
put together, join (• things); to set, 
compose (» type; iyp.); to compile (» 
a book); to summarize, sum up (*]; 
to rally, round up (> people); to pile up, 
amass, accumulate (*; to assemble 
(a several persons); to convoke, con- 
vene, call (> a meeting); to add (* num- 
bers), add up (t a column); fjiram.) to 
make plural, pluralize (* a word); to 
unite, link, bring together (^j several 
things or persons); to combine (j — ^ 
e.g., both strength and courage) ; to con- 
tain, hold, comprise (* | vjljWl j^ 
r^\ (afrifa) to summarize, sum up ; 
to give a survey of; (^ icijjl ^ 
l^il^^kl {barfala) to be very efficient, do 
an excellent job, do superlatively good 
work ; Arlull Jr' >^ (Samla l-g.) to round 
up the herd; V^~^ ilc. v'^' p^. 
{falahetihS) the book contains, lists...; 
Ow Jp Cm j»-ijf (yuJTna'u) the plural 
of ioit is buyat H to pile up, amass, accu- 
mulate (* ; to rally, roundup (*, 
> B.Ot) ; to assemble (a the parts of a ma- 



chine] III to have sexual intercourse (U 
with a woman) IV to agree (J* on, to 
do; to be agreed (Jp on); to decide 
unanimously {Jt on), resolvo (J* to do . ) I jkjJ ^j^ ' {avtrahum) they 
came to terms, they made a joint de- 
cision V to gather; to assemble, congre- 
gate; to rally, band together, flock to< 
gather (people); to pile up; to accumu 
late; to gather into a mass, agglomerate 
to cluster; to coagulate VIII to be close 
together; to come together, meet, join 
to unite, combine (i_j with); to assemble, 
meet, convene ^an organization, a com' 
mittee. etc.); to be or get together, have 
a meeting, interview or confoTence, hold 
talks ((^, M^ with s.o,), meet {l-., m* a.o.); 
to concur (Jp in), agree, be agreed (Jp 
on X to gather, collect (>; 
also el^ quwdhu one^s strength, ejt^i 
afkdrahu one's thoughts); to summarize, 
sura up (*; to possess, combine 

rf: 7^^' gathering; collection; com- 
bination; connection, coupling, joining; 
accumulation; (arith.) addition; union, 
merger, aggregation, integration (Cri of); 
holding together (^j of divergent, sep- 
arate things); (pi. f-^ jumu) gathering, 
crowd, throng; gang, troop; (gram.) plu- 
ral I J-JiJl j»i^ union, integra- 
tion; _7^-.i^I ji> the broken (= internal) 
plural, JUJl aJ^I the regular (= external) 
plural; *>l —I ism al-j. collective noun 
{gram.); oJl *> j. al-yad fist 

j^ jum'f t-iSClI »j^ J. al-kajf^ aJl *#; j. 
al-yad fist, clenched hand | *jaj -^ with 
clenched fists 

i*j^ jum'a pi. »> juma'f -at week; Fri- 
day I W;l ^y_ yaum al-j. Friday ; p V'i' I ij^*: 
Passion Week; UJuJI lfJ-\ and 4*<^ 
o>l Good Friday [Chr.) 

L*> jam'lya pi. -at club, association, 
society; corporation, organization; as- 


sembly | /Vl I^ju^ League 
of Nations; *j_r*- V-*: {kairlya) chari- 
table organisation; ^Iaw^I <^^ j. 
al-ia'af approx. : civil ambulance serv- 
ice; i_*j^^ i^j«^ [taln'xya) legislative 
assembly; <^j^ ^r**: ('«*««*«■» ya) and 
4-U 4-»> {^dmma) general assembly; gen- 
eral meeting; plenum, plenary session; 
4jjlJ '*-^, {ia'dwunlya) cooperative 

A-> jamV (with foil, genitive) total; 
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g.,^LJl ^^ 
all men, all mankind; .^l all people, 
everybody; the public at large; Lw*7 jo 
mi'an in a body, altogether, one and all, 
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally 

*^l ajma'^ pi. -un, f. •U*; jam'd*', pi. 
a1^ juma'* entire, whole, all | jiUll 
*>l j^A-"^! {ajma'a) the entire Islamic 
world; tl**: jljJi (jam'a'a) the whole 
house; ^a^L hi-ajma'ikx in ita entirety, 
to its full extent, completely, altogether; 
A^ ^. ^Jj^ *1^ of them came 

j-Lj^ jumma aggregate; total, total 

O ^^.ji^ P^ -jamma kahrahd'% storage 

'vXf^ jamd'a pi. -at group (of people); 
band, gang, party, troop; community; 
squad (mihtary unit; Eg. 1939) | ^i/UL^- 
bl^lj jamd'dtin iva-afradan in groups and 

^U^ jamd'i collective (as opposed to 
jj^ jardi individual) 

-^ majma pi. **U. majdmi"^ place 
where two or more things meet, place or 
point of union, junction; meeting, con- 
gregation, convention, assembly; (also 
jj* »*j^ 7?t, 'ilmi) academy (scientific) ; 
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries); 
synod | ^jL »L*jf {baladi) provincial synod 
{ChT.); Joj^JTI «^ iihllTlki) clerical 
synod (of the Coptic Church); A*l>*r. J*-l 
i_^^^t to win or captivate the hearts; 



4-L» /wLn^, bi-m. 'ainaihi {to look at a.o.) 
with complete concentration, intently 

^-«t*jf wxjma'i academy member, aca- 

>u^ tajmi' assembly, assemblage (of 
the parts of machinery) 

f-Lr; jimd' sexual intercourse; 
comprising or involving another thing 
or a number of things | ^^\ f-U^ ^1 al- 
kamr j. al-itm wine involves sin, wine 
is the vesBel of sin 

9\jt:\ ijmd' agreement, unaoiniity (also 
(^]j\ fLi^l); unanimous resolution (Jp to 
do; (Isl. Law) consensus (of the 
authorities in a legal question; one of 
the four u^ui of Islamic Law) | f-L^'Vlj 

^y^L^l ijitia^i based on general agree- 
ment, unanimous; collective, universal 

>ujf tajammu' pi. 'dt coming together, 
meeting; gathering; troop concentration; 
crowd, throng, mob ; agglomeration; 
O agglutination {chem..-med.) 

f ^1 ijtimd' pi. -of meeting {^ with 
S.O.; of a corporate body; of parliament); 
get-together, gathering, assembly; re- 
union; rally; convention ; conjunction, 
constellation (aatron.); confluence (of 
rivers) ; life in a social group, community 
life, social life; J'I(>-Vl human society ] 
J^l 9 1^ \ ijtimd' af-turuq crossroads, 
intersection, junction; J-Ip^-Vl Ia 'ilm oi- 
ijL sociology ; f ^'i'l »^ sociologista 

j^lrt'l ijtimd'i community, group (uaed 
attributively); social; flocialiflt(ic) ; socio- 
logical I l-tlj::)--'^/! j^l ij\jj ministry 
for social affairs; <^1^'^l ^jlXl personal 
status; 4^1^ "^l <.il!l {kidrjia) social 
service, social work; 4^1^Vl tljLJLI 
{mu8dii)dh.) social equality; Z^^Vl ^t^l 
(kai'a) human society 

4^^i ijtimd'iya eociolism 

«^U- )dmi' comprehensive^ extensive, 
broad, general, universal; collector; oom- 
pUer (of a book); compositor, typesetter; 
(pi. /u1_^ jatodmi'^*) mosque [ uL>- x>_* 
{TTUujid) great, central moeque where the 
public prayer Is performed on Fridays 

lf^\i^ jdmi'a pi. -at league, union, asso- 
ciation ; community ; federation ; reli- 
gious community, communion; common- 
ness, community of interests or purpose; 
university | O 'Lij^' *^^ ?'• al-kahrabd' 
storage battery, accumulator; /V' **..U- 
/. al-umam League of Nations ; 4a>IX i 
V*^*^^ (isldmiya) Pan'Islamiam; 4^*1^1 
ij^t ('arofciyo) and *-jj*JI Jj-Ji iwU- 
(duival) the Arab League; l-jci IrwU- 
{Sa'biya) university extension, adutt edu- 
cation courses,, evening courses 

juU- ;a7nt'i academic, collegiate, uni- 
versity (adj.); university graduate 

pj-»jf majmu' collected, gathered; to- 
tality, whole; total, sum {arith,) | JijyLl 
ip^^l matter (typ.); _,liill ij^'jl tj*^ 
m, aro^t l-qu(r the total area of the 
country; aJ^ tj*^ m. pulihi its total 
length; ^^^^1 P>^l {'a^i) the nervous 

*t.j^ majmu'a pi. -dt, ^lif majdmV* 
collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps, 
etc., also of stories); compilation, list; 
group (also, e.g., of trees, of islands, 
etc.); series (e.g., of articles in a news- 
paper); O battery (eL); alliance, league, 
bloc (e.g., of states); collective, coUecti- 
vistio organization; aggregate; complex, 
block (of buildings); system; bulletin, 
periodical | 4.,-»;Jl lt.j^\ (Samsiya) the 
solar system; 4^U^ '^j*^ (^tna't^a) 

•*jt mujammi' collector (iechn.) ; Q stor- 
age battery, accumulator 

*_U .^jf mujma' 'alaihi (that which 
is) agreed upon, unanimous 



M.^ mxLJtama' pi. -^ gathering plaoGr 
place of assembly; meeting place, rendez- 
vous; aaaembly, gatliering^ meeting; so- 
ciety; human society; community, com- 
mune, collective 

i^i^ ^ iSJ^ look up alphabetically 

^J*: jamala u (jaml) to sum up, summarize 
(*; — jamula w {Jl>: jamdl) to b^ 
beautiful; to be handsome, pretty, come- 
ly, graceful; to be proper, suitable, appro- 
priate (lj for 8.O.). befit (i_j s.o.) II to 
make beautiful, beautify, embelliah, a- 
dom (a, a s.o., Ill to be polite, 
courteous, amiable (a to s.o.) IV to sum, 
total, add (a; to treat as a whole, 
mention collectively (a; to sum up, 
summarize (a; to act well, decently, 
be nice V to make o.a. pretty, adorn o.s. 
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one 

ILr^ jumla pi. J> jumal totality, sum, 
whole; group, troop, body; crowd; whole- 
sale; {gram.) sentence, clause; iii^ jum-* 
latan completely, wholly, on the whole, 
altogether, in general, at all | Sa^lj iLi^ 
jumlatan wahidatan all at once, at one 
swoop ; oLjlSil iLr; everything in ex- 
istence; AjUe"! iLr; ^ jlT he was one of his 
companions, he belonged to bis com- 
panions; JU L« tLt^ J Jlj (juTnlati) among 
other things, he said ...; J^l U-r-j 
l)I wa-jumlatu l-qauli antia or ii^j 
o\ _^Vl in short..., to sum up..., 
briefly stated . . . ; liM Jp in short, 
in a word; IlJ;U wholly, on the whole, al- 
together, in general, at all; by wholesale 
{com,)i 4ji*-i-J.I yr":/! -i*: /. al-ujra al-mus- 
iahigqa gross wagefl; 4Jl>1 jt^'C wholesaler, 
wholesale dealer; aI^I jf^^ si'r al-j. whole- 
sale price; i-fl *Lr-_ {ismiya) nominal 
clause; i-Ui iLr; (fi'Uya) verbal clause; <Lr; 
JjjLo:.! {ikbartya) or '<ij^ li*: {kahariya) 
declarative sentence (or clause) ; ^Lr-^ 
IJilil (tTiSaiya) exclamatory sentence; 

<JU- ILr^ (hdliya) circumstantial clause; 
*^j^ <L^ {Sarfiya) conditional clause; 
<^JuM Ui^ (mu'larvja) parenthetical clause 

Ji^l i^L.^ hiadb al-jummal (or jumal) 
use of the letters of the alphabet ac^ 
cording to their numerical value 

(Jl/^ jamdl beauty | O JLJ;' J^ '^^^ 
aUj. aesthetics 

J_i^ jamU beautiful, graceful, lovely, 
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act, 
favor, service, good turn ; courtesy | 
J-i;L Jslj^l, |J-i;l ii^;*- ma'rifat al-j. and 
J-^L jLij*. {'irfdn) gratitude; J-J;;! Jl^ 
nukrdn al-j. ingratitude; J_^,l ^fU un- 
grateful; "iLj^ J iki.- {haf.2a) to keep s.o. 
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. 
with gratitude 

J^l ajmal^ more beautiful 

J_»*: tajmil beautification, embaDish- 
ment; cosmetics 

iLLt mujdmala pi, -at (act of) courtesy; 
civility, amiability; flattery; ii-Lf mujd' 
malaian amicably, in a friendly way | 
iLLf SjLij ziydrat m. courtesy call; a*1_j* 
Cj^iUU^i etiquette 

ijl^l ijmal summation, summing up; 
summarization ;VL': I ijmdlan on the whole, 
in general, generaUy speaking, as a general 
principle | J^Jl liJU VL^I to sum up, I 
(would) say ...; *JL>i J in its entirety, 
as a whole; JU;'3/L and JL^VI J* in 
general, on the whole, altogether; **rji 
JU^VI bi-wajhi l-i. = VL^i 

Jl>l ijmdll comprehensive, summary, 
general, over-all, total, collective | yjZ 
iJL>l over-all report; <JI>:1 <-'^ (gardma) 
collective penalty; iJ*^' *j^ {Tiazra) gen- 
eral view 

J*j^ mujmil pi. -wn wholesaler, whole- 
sale dealer 

J*jt mujmal summary, r6sum6, syn- 
opsia, compendium ; general concept ; sum, 
total I J.«.^Ij by wholesale 



■J> jamal pi, Jl> jimdlt JL>I o/mol camel | 
j^l J> ;. of-ya&wi chameleoD 

jLf^ jammdl pi. -fin camel drirer 

jl> jumdn (coll.; zi. un. S) pearle 

j^^ jamhara to gather, collect (*, a B.tli., 
B.O.); to aagemble (» b.o.) II iajamhara 
to gather, flock together (crowd) 

*j4/: /amAara multitude, crowd, throng; 
the great mass, the populace 

JM''' 7«™Aur pi. jaLr^ jomflAir" multi- 
tude ; crowd, throng ; general public, 
public; j'^\M the massea, the people 

iSJji': jumhiin republican (adj. andn.) 

HJM*'. )<*fflA-firtyfl pi. -at republic | 
•jUmLI ^jjaJI ^j.>^I {'arabiya, miUtahida) 
the United Arab Republic; '*ijji^^ 
4JIIVI ;ijU:'^i (Jft^AotJiya] the Federal 
Republio of Germany; li»ly^ Jl ^_jjiJ^\ 
oLL'^l ((fimugrd^iya) the German Dem- 
ocratic Republic 

j^*3^ tajamhur gathering (of people); 

^ janna u (jann, u>j«- juniin) to cover, hide, 
oonceal, veil (a, Jp; to descend, 
fall, be or become dark (night); pass. 
junnai to be or become possessed, insane, 
mad, crazy | o^^^- ^ {junHnithu) to get 
madly excited, become frantic II to 
craze, make crazy, drive inaane, madden, 
enrage, infuriate (• s.o.) lY to cover, 
veil, hide, conceal (»; = II; V to 
go mad, become crazy X to be covered, 
veiled, concealed; to regard (• s.o.) as 
crazy, think (• s.o.) mad 

j»- jinn (ooll.) jinn, demons (invisible 
beings, either harmful or helpful, that 
interfere with the lives of mortals) 

^ jinni demonic; jinni, demon 

4jj»- jinnlya female demon 

«:*• janna pi, -d<, oL^ jindn garden; 
paradise | ^1 oU>> paradioe; uU-j jTL 

inhabitant of paradise, deceased person, 
one of blessed memory 

'^^j^ jttnaina pi. -d(, ^1-^ jand'in' little 
garden; garden 

^L«- jand'inl gardener 

<:j>- jinna possession, obsession; mania, 
madness, insanity 

<:»• junna pi. 0^ junan protection, 
shelter, shield 

jL*. jan^n pi. OLi*-! ajnan heart, soul 

ijU>- janndn gardener 

^jj^ janin pi. <:«-l ajinTia, ^>-\ ajnun 
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.) 

ij^ juniin possession, obsession; ma- 
nia, madness, insanity, dementia; foolish- 
ness, folly; frenzy, rage, fury; ecstasy, rap- 
ture I u>i OjJ^\ al-j. funun madness has 
many varieties, manifeats itself in many 

ij^^ jununi crazy, insane, mad; fran- 
tic, frenzied 

yf- mijann pt. ulf iTiajann' shield 

tilt majanna madness, insanity 

uU- jdnn jinn, demons 

jyj^ majnUn pi. O^iljf majanin* pos- 
sessed, obsessed; insane, mad; madman, 
maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked; crack- 
pot; foolish; fool 

L»- janoiba u to avert, ward off (« a from s.o. II to keep away, avert, ward ofT 
(a * &om s.o.}, keep s.o. (•) out of 
the way of (a), spare (a » s.o. Ill to 
be or walk by s.o.*s (*) side; to run 
alongside of (a), run parallel to (a), skirt, 
flank (a; to avoid (a V to 
avoid (», s.o.); to keep away (a, • 
from), steer clear, get out of the way 
(a, • of) YI and YIII = Y; YIII to be at 
the aide of (a), run side by side with (a), 
run alongside of (a), skirt, flank (a 


•.^ janb pi. ^j^ pmHi, v^' aptUb 
aide; janba (prep.) beaide, next to, near, 
St I t..> Jl Uj^ (iJao ^^ \^) aide by 
mdBii^im^ Ju (/aniotAt) inaide (it), within; 
ijLi- ^) U (iotna janbaihi) what it con- 
tains, oompriaes, its contents; w-:>- J» 
aside, apart; ^^\ Cj\i pleurisy 

vii>. jaiiba pi. /afloidt aide; region, 
area ] 'ILl*- j in it, within, inside; u* 
<;Lj>- Jo (^mnuAS) to oompriae, hold, 
contain; iiyJI oLj>- /. al-furja the 
whole room; 4ijJl oLj^ jo in (the middle 
of) the room; oLlI-I j^\J crammed, 
chock-full, brimful, filled to overflowing 
or bursting 

(j^ janbi lateral, aide (adj,) 

%.^ junub in a state of major ritual 
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not 
a kinaman | i-^l jLtl the neighbor not 
belonging to the family 

^Lj^ janah (title of 
Right Honorable; Cl 
you (polite form) 

4>Ljp- janaba major ritual impurity {lal. 

wiL^- ftt?idi {= ^fii-) i/Vi) pleurisy 

^_^ janib aouth; Lj>- januban south- 
ward, to the south 

U><r V^'^yii^ southern | Liu^! Oy^ 
South Africa 

t_JU- jinib pi. \^\_yr jftw&nih* aide; lat- 
eral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face 
{giom.)\ part, portion, partiEj amount; 
partial view, section (^ of a scene, pic- 
ture or panorama); quantity, amount; 
a certain number (j4 of), a few, aome | 
4jU- ^ on his part; ^ ^ t^U- ^ 
_^T i_J U- on the one hand — on the other 
hand; 4Jl>- Jl to him, to his address; 
at bia (its) side, next to him (it); 4JLf 
beside him (it), next to him (it); s^U- Jl 
and 1-^^ aide by aide with; in addition 
to; apart from, aside from; LJU imj to 

lapect) appioz.: 
Your Honor; 

put aside; LjU- wjj to leave 
aside, omit; <_Jl>- j in oompariaon 
with, as compared with, as against; re- 
garding, with regard to; ir'l.^r ijo L 
their hearts; jjl UU- janibd l-fam the 
comers of the mouth; ^ ^U- a con- 
siderable, or certain, degree of; a oon- 
eiderable amount of, a good deal of; 
^ J^J' ^U- a great deal of, a large por- 
tion of; ^ j^i_JU. Jft j* he is very . . . ; 
l>jSil ^yjli»»_jU- J»ijS'(fcirom)tobeverj 
generous; S^^l ^ Jis i_jU- J> (aAumn 
mlya) of great importance; ^'l*- Ji«l J« 
•j_^^'l ^ 'old a'xami janibin fntn al- 
hufura of utmost importance, of great- 
est signiiioance; ^'U JTj eTerywhere, on 
all sides; v^ ^ cr^^ (^/<>^i ;ani&aAfi) 
to show o.B. condeacending, affable or 
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair 
terms; aJU- ^1 amina jdnibaAU to be 
safe from s.o.; ^\^\ v'^ t^' ^ (u'irAu) 
I paid not the least attention to him; 
oU- (i.^U, i_j>;) iJiU. (jinibaim) to fear 
8.O., be afraid of s.o. ; t-j^-' •^ ™*''^ "^7- 
crown lands; if ^ I ^ [eff.)Bso, 
treasury; <^li-l |>J layytn oi-f. gentle; 
docile, tractable, compliant; wJU-l J^J Zin 
oj-;'. gentleness; ^^ji-} •-•^j roAb cU-j. 
roomy; spaoioua, unconfined; wJU-.t JJj 
friendly, amiable, gentle; t-JU-.t ^j^j* 
feared, dreaded; <-JU-j >_Je powerful, 
mighty, atrong; k--jU.J i^'izzataZ-/. power; 
k^U>,1 L-.;.|* nuiAiA al-j. dreaded, respected ; 
jljl ^\yr J about the houae, all over the 
house; often v'>r j = V 

^JU. jdnibi lateral, aide, by- (in com- 

^^\ a^noAi foreign, alien ; (pi. -vn, t.^U>l 
ajdnib') foreigner, alien | ^^fj^-^l .3*^1 the 
foreign countries, the outside world; tiji 
^\ji^'i\ firqat ai-ajSnib the Foreign Legion 

L>Lj>- ganndbiya pi. -at {eg.) curb; em- 
bankment, levee; aide channel, lateral 
(following a road or railroad tracks) ; by- 
pass (of a lock or aloice) 


1.^^ tajannvh avoidance 

t-^bii^l ijiin^ avoidance 

<Jjt mujanniba flank, wing (of an army) 

tf jCjj- see tSJ^, 

jLlt- junb&Zi jLr calisthenics; gymnastics; 

tiJLdf junb&a (tfjU':) cftlisthenic(al), 
gymnastic I 4jjLi; I •-^UIVl gymnasticex- 
ercises, physical exercises 

^j^ janaha a ir^ junu^) to incline, be in- 
clined, tend ((j or Jl to); to lean (J or Jl 
to or toward) ; to turn, go over ( Jl to), join 
( Jl, associate o,s. ( Jf with) ; to strand 
(Jc or Jl on a coast; ship); to diverge, 
deviate, depart {jt- from); to turn away 
{^ from), break (j» with) II to provide 
(* with wings, lend wings (* to,) 
IV to incline, be inclined, tend (J or Jl 
to) ; to lean (J or Jl to or toward) ; to turn 
(J or Jl to to strand (ship) 

mJj*- jinh side 

^ junk, jinh darkness, gloom | ^ j 
JJJl (;'. il-lail) in the dark of night, under 
cover of night; i^jSCll ^J'^^ Cri {jv^nhay 
il-kard) lit.: between the two halves of 
eiumber, i.e., at night when evedyone's 

4*^ junha pi. m^ junah misdemeanor 
(;vr., less than a felony, 4>b>-, and more 
than an infraction, iijaJ1J£>) 

^Ij^ jandh pi. **^\ ajniha, «u>-l ajnuh 
wing (of a bird, of an airplane, of a 
building, of an army); side; flank | j Ul 
*^\^ I am under his protection; ^-Uj- J» 
juVi over the ether, by radio; r>L>- J<- 
*fi-j^\ [j. is-sur'a) with winged haste 

^Ij- jundh misdemeanor (;ur.); sin ] 
61 4Jfi w\^ "^ ijundha) it won't be held 
against him if he ...; it won't do any 
harm if he ... 

fw*-! ajnah* more inclined (Jl to) 

^•ji^ janvh inclined (Jl to 

rj^ jun-uh inclination, leaning, bent, 
tendency (Jf to) 

^U jdnih side, flank, wing 

4^1*- janiha pi. /^|>>- jawdnih* lihi pi. 
also bosom, heart, soul | ^ 1^*- ^j in my 
bosom, at heart ; l«^l>r c^ji^ {fafarat) she 
became happily excited, she trembled 
with joy 

^A mujannak winged 

X*- II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (• 
B.O.; mil.); to mobilize (» an army, Jp 
against) V to be drafted, be conscripted, 
be enlisted (for military service) 

-U*- jund m. and f., pi. :i^ ;un&2, ^L^l 
aJTidd soldiers; army | ^^l XJ^ ;*. tU- 
JaUdff Salvation Army 

^ojj*- jundi pi. ij>- junud soldier, pri- 
vate I Jjl (^x:*- {aiowal) private first 
class (/r., Syr,); W...« jAJ^- {miutajidd) 
recruit (Jr., Syr.); J^^f^i cf-^' the Un- 
known Soldier 

4j a:#- jundiya military affairs ; the army, 
the mihtaiy; military service 

■Uijf tajnid draft, enlistment (mil.); 
recruitment; mobilization f (^jLi^VI -^^^^^^ 
(ijbdri) military conscription 

-U)f tajanniid military Service 

XjC mujannad recruit 
tjj\j^ ginddri standard-bearer, comet (Eg.) 
<-^Xjk- jundvb pi. v^^ jartddib* grasshopper 
}j-^ gandara {eg.) to mangle (* laundry] 

SjX>- gandara mangling (of laundry); 
press; O rotary press (typ.) 

'isJJijT ^^^ up alphftbetioally 

**jJ^ iandarma gendarmery 

u(;X*- iandarmi gendarme 

Jix*- gandufii {eg.) oysters 


Mxj>- janddla to throw to the ground, bring 
down, fell (* b.o.) 

Jx>- jandal pi. JjL>- janddiP stone; 
pi. JjI:»- cataract, waterfall {eg.) 

'JjXj>- guTidut (eg.) pi. JoL»- ganddiP gondola 

JljU. jendrdl, ginrdl (eg.) general (military 

Ir^ II to Bay the burial prayers, conduot the 
funeral service (• for the deceased; Chr.) 

SJL*- jindza, jandza pi. -St j-'L*- jand'iz- 
bier; funeral procession 

jbk- junndz pi. ^Jb*- jan&niz* requiem^ 
funeral rites, obsequies; funeral proces- 

Jri>*- janzabil {= ^}) ginger 

\iJ^ janzara {= jfj-J) ^ be or become 
covered with verdigris 

jl;^-. jinzdr {= jLfJ) verdigris 

V j^ ;mz»r (= j^rfj) pl.j-jU*- joJidzlr^ chain; 
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); 
a linear measure (= 5 qa^aha = 17. 7S m; 
also = 2Qm;Eg.) \ j'^ IjU. \drai j. track 
sprockfitf sprocket wheel 

j'Jjt mujamar track-laying (vehicle) 

^jJ^ II to make alike, make similar (a; 
to assimilate, naturalize (« s.o.); to class, 
classify, sort, categorize (a Ill to 
be akin, be related, similar (*, » to), be 
of the same kind or nature (t as s.o., 
> as, be like s.o. or (*, «), 
resemble (a s.o., * V to have o.s. 
naturalized, acquire the citizenship {^); 
to be naturalized VI to bo akin, related, 
of the same kind or nature, homogeneous 

^jJam jina pi. ^^Li*-I ajnda kind, sort, va- 
riety, species, class, genus; category; sex: 
(male, female); gender [gram.); race; na- 
tion I ,_;-ii.l —I ism al-j. {gram.) generio 
noun, collective noun of nonpersonal 
things (which form a D. un, in #); u-ij^l 

iSj^^ {baSari) the human race; luii^- »bl 
obnd' jinsind our fellow tribesmen; j^ 
ijS^} fS_r*-» he is Egyptian by natiopality ; 
^iiU! ,^1 the fair sei; ^\ ^\ the 
strong sex 

^g^ jinsi generic; sexual; racial 

^5-^-V Id'jinai asexual, sexless 

4— -ii^ jinHya pi. -at nationality, citizen* 

^j~i^ tajnii naturalization; paronoma- 
sia {rhei.) 

^bv' jinda (rhei.) assonance,, pun, paro- 

<.Jljf mujdnasa relatedness, kinship, 
affinity; siniilarity, likeness, resemblanoe 

^_jJje. tajannus acquisition of citizen- 
shif^, naturalization 

^li^ iajdnus homogeneity, homogen^ 
ousness; likeness, similarity, resemblance 

^Lf mujdnis similar, like, related; 

,_^Jjhj:. mutajannis naturalized 

^Uju muiajdnia akin, related, of the 
same kind or nature, homogeneous 

ULkj- (Ldft. Oentiana) gentian {eg.) 

^.-iij^ VI to deviate (^^ from); to incline, be 
inclined (Jl or J to 

't-flj.^^ look up alphabetically 

j^LL*- junfd^t t^-*c^ junfaifi sackcloth , 

.iLi^ junk pi. 4y^ juniih harp 

Iji-- janowd Genoa (seaport in NW Italy) 

j^N- ;ona v {jany) to pick, gather, harvest, 
reap ( a , also the fruits of one's work ) ; 
to pocket, rake in, collect (*,); to 
derive (* profit, ^ from); to secure, real- 
ize (> profits, an advantage); to incur 
(* evil, harm, punishment); to cause, pro- 


voke, bring about (a ; — (*i^- jtnd* 
ya) to commit a crime, an outrage ( J» on) ; 
to offend, sin (J^ against); to commit, 
perpetrate (ii^*-, LiJ ^nban a crime, an 
offense; J*, lesa frequently Jl, on or 
against); to inflict (a some evil, Jp on 
8.0.); to harm (Js a.o., V to in- 
criminate* accuse, charge with a crime 
(Jt B.C.), lay the blame (J* on e.o.). 
bl&me (Ja 8.0.) ; to act meanly VIII to 
gather, harvest (a 

^^ jany harvest; reaping (fig); — 
janan (coll.) fruits 

iili*- jindya pi. -at perpetration of a 
crime; felony {jur.; in the strictly legal 
sense, more than a misdemeanor, ^u^Jj^, 
and an infraction, <aJI^)i capital offense | 
oLli-.l *^ TTtahkamatal-j, criminal court 

Jli*- jind'i criminal | v^ *^ (ttuiA.- 
kama) criminal court; jLi- jyliJl crim- 
inal law, penal law 

j^ majnan pi. jLf majdnin that which 
LB picked or harvested, a crop; source 
of profit or advantage 

A;C tajannin incrimination, accusation 
(,U of 8,0.); mean way of acting, low, 
underhand dealings 

oU- jdnirt pi. *Lj*- jundk perpetrator (of 
a delict); delinquent, criminal 

*^ t^ TTsajmy 'alaihi harmed, in- 
jured; aggrieved party; victim of a crime 

i-j» (Fr. Qeneve) idnif Geneva 

^ (Engl, guinea) ginek, also gunaih pi. -at 
pound {eg.) | (JJ_a-I) tfj4*=l **Jr pound 
sterling, English pound; ^^j-*- V^T Egyp- 
tian pound (abbreviation: a^ 

^ jahhcid pi. ••lilfr jahdbida man endowed 
with a critical mind; great scholar; 
bright, brilliant, intelligent 

J^i- jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive* 
labor, take pains, put 0.8. out; to over- 
work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (• a.o.) 
Ill to endeavor, strive; to fight (J-j-- t> 
•^i for; to wage holy war against 
the infidels IV to Btrain, exert (a ; to 
tire, wear out, fatigue (• s.o.), give trouble 
(• to) I J '—AJ Vrl (na/«oAu) to go to 
great lengths, go out of one's way (j for 
or in; j »^ A^l {fikraku) to 
concentrate on, put one's mind to, a>pply 
0.8. to VIII to put o.B. out ((J for B.thOt 
work hard; (lal. Law) to formulate an 
independent judgment in a legal or the- 
ological question (based on the applica- 
tion of the 4 ufiil; as opposed to taqlid, 

J^*- jahd pi. :>,>4r 3"A*"i strain; exer- 
tion; endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, 
paina (j on behalf or for the sake of; O voltage, tension (el.) | tJ^*- J^j^ 
jahada jahdahu, also ••L|>- (l)jL»-) J/" to do 
(try) one's utmost, do (try) all in one's 
power, make every conceivable effort; 
.u^j*- J^ bi'jahdin jakidin with great 
difficulty, by dint of strenuous efforts; 
Xhp- J^*- Am after a lot of trouble Q •'■|>- 
JU i'dlin) high tension [el.) 

J^#- juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used 
preposition ally) to the limit of ... | J^*- 
oUaJl juhda i-fdqa aa far aa possible, as 
much aa possible; 4iiLL x^ j. tdgaiiki 
aa much as he can, to the limit of his 
abilities; aSI^I j^>- juhda imkdnihi do.; 
L J.|>- juhda md as much as, to the limits 
of what . . . ; i^>^j>- jufidi as far as I can 

-Lf)^ jahld see J^^ jahd 

jL^*. ;»Aad fight, battle; jihad, holy war 
(against the infidels, as a religious duty) 

^jL^*- jihMi fighting, military 

ajjt\jm mujdhada fight, battle 

jl^*-! tjAotf exertion;overeiertion, over- 



dLfZ>-l »;7t%£ui effort, exertion, ende&ror, 
pains, trouble; application, industry, dili- 
gence; (ifiZ. Law) independent judgment 
in a legal or theological question, based 
on the interpretation and application of 
the 4 u^lf as opposed to tog2uf, q.v. ; 
individual judgment 

ij^ majhud pi. -dt endeavor, effort, 
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltagd, 
tension (el.) \ oljt^^ Jjj to make every 
effort, go to greatest lengths 

.uLf mujdhid pi. -un fighter, freedom 
fighter; warrior; sergeant {Eg. 1939) 

Jl^ mujhid strenuous, exacting, try- 
ing, grueling; — mujhad overworked, ex- 

Ji^ mujtahid diligent, induatriouB; 
(pi. --un) mujtahid, a legist formulating 
independent decisions in legal or theo- 
logical matters, based on the interpre- 
tation and application of the four u^l, 
as opposed to mitq{Ulidf q.v. 

j^ jahara a {jahr, jL^*- jihdr) to be brought 
to light, come out, show, appear; — to de- 
clare publicly, announce (* or <^ ; to 
avow in public, proclaim (<^; to raise 
{ * the voice) ; — jahura u ( SjL^j*- jahara ) 
to be loud, be clearly audible (voice) 
III to declare or say openly, voice, utter, 
express frankly {*.j 

j^ jahr and jL^*- jihdr publicnesa, pub- 
licity, notoriety; \j^ jahran and ljLf»- 
jiharan publicly, in public 

•j4*- jdhratan openly, overtly, frankly, 

tij4*- /aArS notorious, well-known, public 

jv^ jaMr loud (voice, shout) 

j^>^\ ajhar^ day-blind 

j4*-i ajhar^ (elative) louder, more au- 

iSJji*- jahwari loud (voice) 

j^ mijhar loud-voiced. 

j^ mijhar pi. _^U majahir^ micro- 

^SJi^ mijhari microscopic (al) 

jl^jf mijhar loud-voiced; O loud- 

a^Lf mujahara frankness, candor (of 
one's words) 

J4*- jahaxa a to finish off ( Jf a wounded man) , 
deliver the coup de grace to (J*) II to 
make ready, prepare (a ; to arrange 
(a; to provide, supply (*; 
to equip, fit out, furnish, supply, pro- 
vide (v * or > or s.o. with) IT to 
finish off (Jp a wounded man), deliver 
the coup de gr&ce to (J«); to finish, ruin 
(J* B.o.) V to be equipped, furnished, 
supplied, provided; to equip o.a, ; to 
prepare o.s., get ready; to be ready, be 

Jl^»- jahdz (also pronounced jViaz) pi. 
•dt, ~»j^\ ajhiza equipment, appliances, 
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance, 
gadget; implement, appliance, utensil; 
installation, apparatus {ieckn.)\ system, 
apparatus {anat,) \ ^L.^ JL**- (Id-silH) 
wireless set, radio; ji^^j jLf»- radio (re- 
ceiving set); O J;fl~M.» Jl^*- {muataqbil), 
O JLiu-Vl Jlp-, O i'UJ'^! Jl^ receiver, 
receiving set {radio); *ji. jL^ {mvdV), 
O (JUjVI jLp- ;. al-irml transmitter 
{radio); (jjj^^iJj JL|»- television set; Jl^*- 
jjd-\ j. al-hafr drilling rig; oil derrick; Jl^*- 
ijjj-i {dauri) circulatory system {anat); 
4^jVI olJI>VI J::>-^ jLir or ^\J jLp- 
•^j*^i ^'^' (Aozzd^, ar(2£ya} seismograph ; 
j^ J l^*- {sirri) secret organization, under- 
ground organization; f^l^Vl jLp- sound 
locator; ^^^\ JUi-l {'a^abi) the nervous 
system; -uiil Jl^*- /. al-ha4tn digestive 

jrt^ tajhiz equipment, fumishment; 
preparation; phxl>\j\^ equipment, gear 


ti Jr^ tajhizl preparatory ; (of a Bohool) 
preparing for college 

^U- jdhiz ready, prepared; ready- 
made; equipped | ij^^*- (CjI^^^ or) L^l 
{albisa) ready-made clothes 

j^ mujahhaz equipped, provided, fur- 
nished, supplied {l_» with); armed (t_j with 
guns; of a ship, tank, etc.) 

^J^ IV to sob, break into sobe | »lSJLj i^i^*-! 
(bukd') to be on the verge of tears, 
struggle with fceara; to break into tears 

11^ jahSa (n. vie.) pi. -dl sob; out- 
burst of tears 

^L^i ijhdi outburst of tears 

^J^^ IV to l)ear young ones, Utter; to have 
a miscarriage (woman) { L^-^ c.-i^*-! 
(nafsahd) she induced an abortion 

,JA^>^ jihd miscarried fetuB 

ij^a:4>- jahx4 miscarried fetuB 

^l^v-l ijhad miscarriage, abortion; in- 
duced abortion 

J^*- jahila a {jahl, ill^^ jahdla) to be igno- 
rant; not to know {^ or a, how to 
do; to be irrational, foolish; to 
behave foolishly ( J» toward) VI to ignore 
{m; to refuse to hare anything to do 
(a with), shut one's eyes (* to), disregard 
(m a fact); to affect ignorance, pretend to 
know nothing X to consider ignorant or 
stupid (a s.o.) 

J,p- jahl and ^il^ jttJutla ignorance; 
folly, foolishness, stupidity | ^\^t^ ^ out 
of ignorance 

6j^ jahul ignorant; foolish^ stupid 

J^ majhal pi. JaIj^ majdhiP un- 
known region, unexplored territory | J*Ljf 
LJaj_^l unknown Africa 

J^ tajhil stultification 

JaL^ tajdhul ignoring, disregard{ing) 

J*U- jdhil pi. U«»- jahala, ,^ juhhal, 
jLfj-- juhhdl, '"^i^ juhald"^ not knowing 
(w how to do; ignorant, un- 
educated, illiterate; foolish; fool 

JaL>- jdhili pagan, of or pertaining to 
pre- Islamic times 

LUL^ jdkitiya state of ignorance; pre- 
Islamic paganism, pre-Islamio times 

\}j^ majhal unknown ; anonymous 
(also --V1 J>ff "t- (d'ism); pi- Jj^Ljf ma- 
jdhW^ unknown things | J>i^l ^^^^ 9^o^^ 
al-m, passive {gram.) 

^J^^^ majhuUya being unknown, un- 
known nature 

^ jahuma u (<*l^ jahama, y>4*- jithUnna) 
to frown, glower V to frown, scowl, 
glower; to regard with displeasure (a, * 
or J s.o. or, frown (a or J on); to 
eye gloomily, coolly, grimly (a, * or J 
s.o,,; to become sullen, gloomy (face) 

^ jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy 

•t|j>- jahdm clouds 

4*1(1^ jahama and <*^4tr jt^fi^^no grim 
look, sullen expression ; gloominess ; brood - 
ing silence 

1^ jahannam^ (L) hell 

jahannami hellish, infernal 

■ javnv pK»ljj-l ajwa\ »lj»- jiwd^ (pi. fre- 
quently with singular meaning) air; at- 
mosphere (also fig.) ; sky; weather; sphere, 
milieu, environment; 1^ jattnvan by oir; 
by telegraph, telegraphically | ji~} aj_^ 
air mail; ^loliLU tabaqdt al-j. air layers; 
Jku _^ J (mum^tr) in rainy weather 

(^y^ jawvn air, aerial, aero- (in com- 
pounds); airy, atm08ph6ric{a]) ; weather 
(used attributively), meteorologic(al) | 
(^jjLI JomJI {4agt) atmospheric pressure; 
«jyr i^Li;!' (pihaqdi) air layers; ,sj'r t-ij^' 
(uaiui) air fleet; Aty. •jU air raid; c*ljJUI 



Sj^I (quwSt) air force; *i>l-l S*-^! avia- 
tion; 4jj»- vU-' (mind*) airport; 4jj»- jL«jI 
meteorological observations; jj*- ^ {ha» 
jar) meteorite 

1,^ {eoUoq,) jawwd {pronounced gUwa 
in Eg.) in it, within; inside 

(i'jr javn^^^t jvwwdnl inner, inside, 

oi_^ guwdfa (eg.) ^ava (fruit); guava Bhrub 

S\jt^ {eg.) guw6l pi. -at sack 

j;lj>- (It. guarUi; eg.) gloves 

^<-jj»^ (Fr. jupe) skirt 

»(fcjj».) ljU- ;d6a u (;au6) to travel, wander 
(* through), traverse, roam, tour, ex- 
plore {x, e.g., foreign lands); to 
pierce, penetrate (a, cut through 
(*); to wander, cruiw (* about a place) 
III to answer (• fl.o., Jp, reply, 
respond (■ to a.o., Je to; to comply 
(a with), accede (* to) IT to answer (* or 
Jl S.O., Jft or Jo a question), reply, 
respond (• or J( to b.o., Je to; to 
comply (* with a request), accede, defer 
(a to); to hear (* s.o.), accede to the re- 
quest or wishes of (*); to fulfill, grant 
(a a wish); to consent, assent, agree 
(Jl to); to concur (Jl in) | *Jl JI ^\^\ 
(falabihi) to comply with s.o.'s request 
VI to reply to one another; to echo (*, v 
from); to ring out (voices) ; to be (mutu- 
ally) corresponding, harmonize; to be 
favorable, propitious (m to s.o. ; situation) 
YII to scatter, break up, pass over (clouds) ; 
to be dispelled, disappear, vanish (wor- 
ries) ; to fade (darkness) X vW^' ^ ^^^» 
answer (* a prayer), grant (a a request); 
to comply with the request of (J), ac- 
cedfl or defer to the wishes of (J); to 
react (J to); to respond (J to, <^ with), 
listen, pay attention (J to), show interest 
(J in); to meet, answer (v J s.o. with), 
reply (ij J to s.o. with or by doing ; 

to resound, reverberate, re-echo; to res- 
onate (l) or Jl to, be in resonance 
with iphys.); ™ i_j^>w«I istajwaba to 
interrogate, examine, question (« s.o.); to 
hear (* the defendant or witness); to 
interpellate (• s.o.; in parliament) 

uj^ javb traversing, touring, ex- 
ploration (of foreign oountrids) ; piercing, 

*iyr f<zu6a pi. -A, i-jj*- juwab opening, 
gap ; hole, pit 

v'>t- jfJfJ^ pi- ^jr' o/u'i^ answer, re- 
ply; octave (to a given tone; mus.); 
{eg.; pronounced gawdb -pL -at) letter, 
message | ^^t <-jI^^ /. aS-Sari main 
clause (conclusion) of a conditional seji- 
tenoe, apodoeis 

(-^'jf* iAwo&i answering (used attribu- 

i_jl^ jawwab traverser (of foreign coun- 
tries), traveler, explorer 

IjU-I ijdba answer(ing), reply(ing), re- 
sponse, respondence; compliance; fulfill- 
ment, granting (of a request); accession; 
consent, assent | JUW iU-t ijdbaian li- 
talabikum in compliance with your re- 
quest; in answer to your request 

i-jjbi^ lajdimib agreement, conformity; 

iuUi^^l istij^M hearing, answering (of a 
prayer); granting, fulfillment (of a re- 
quest); resonanoe; consonance {phya.) \ 
J 4jU-i^i istij^atan H in compliance with, 
in answer to, in deference to 

t^\jry:j^\ istijmdb pi. -at interrogation, 
questioning; hearing; interriew; inter- 
pellation (in parliament) 

iyjU.i4 mutajawib harmonious 

^^^.^jbiji—* mxtatajib hearing, answering, 
granting; reverberant, resonant, reso- 
nating; responsive, susceptible, impres- 



Ojr- (Engl.) jiit jute 

Iryr) r'r i^^ ^ '»<' '^ ^ annihilate, 
destroy, ruin; to flood, inundate (* the 
land) YlII do.; to carry away, sweep 
away (• ■.o., * a.tb.; storm); to put down, 
subdue, quell (a, e.g., a riot) 

*r-\jt-\ ijaha destruction, annihilation; 
crop damage; crop failure, bad haiTest 

^L>-l ijiijiah destruotion, annihilation; 
subdual, suppression 

^U> ja'ih crushing, devastating; dis- 

»*l»- jS'iia pi. ^I_>»- jatai'v^' calamity, 
disaster, ruin; epidemio; crop damage 

rj»- V'i pl. rl»r' tjiiwi broadcloth 

{Ayr) jU- jada u (aJ^*- j-uda) to be or become 
good, become better, improve; — (jud) 
to grant generously (l-j, be so gen- 
erous as to do (y with verbal 
noun); to be Uberal, openhanded (i_j with, ^ toward s.o.), bestow liberally 
(lj, J« upon s.o.), grant, give lav- 
ishly (^ of, J» to S.O.), shower 
(ij J» s.o. with); to donate (i^ a sum of 
money, etc.) | 4.>^ a^- to sacrifice o.s.; 
to give up the ghost; >*AiL aL^ c^jU- {'au 
ndhu bi-d-dam') tears welled from his 
eyes; *|^l i^jU- (heavens granted rain) 
it rained II to do well {m; to make 
better, improve, better, ameliorate (*; to recite (the Koran; cf. ■iiyt) 
IV to do well, do eicellently (»; to 
master (a, be skilled, proficient 
(a in), be an expert (a at), be conversant 
(a uith an art or field of knowledge); to 
accomplish or say good, excellent things; 
to achieve excellent results; to be ex- 
cellent, outstanding, distinguish o.s. (e.g., 
as a poet) | iii jU-l (lugatan) to master a 
language;_>jLJI J»iJi;JI jUI ('oz/o) to play 
the piano well X to think (a good 
or excellent, approve of (a); to consider 
(a suitable for or appropriate to (J) 

iyr jud openhandedness, liberality, 

j^ jaud heavy rains 

:.>U. see under 'jr- 

:^j>- jada goodness, excellence 

J^ jayyid pi. jL^ jiySd good, perfect, 
faultless; outstanding, excellent, first- 
rate; good (as an examination grade) ; Ij^ 
jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly j 
I.U- u^ ijiddan) very good (also as an 
examination grade) 

jj>-l ajuxuP better 

■^'-*^ i^^^ood pi. ilyr\ ajwdd, jjU-1 aj&f 
wid?, .bjU-l ajawidf, jy>- jvd openhanded, 
liberal, generous, magrumimous; jawSd 
pi. jL>- jiySd, jL>-I ajyad, .tJjL>-l ajSwid' 
race horse, racer; charger | .>l,>>-^i ^i 
noble man 

•ijj^ tajwid art of reciting the Korani 
Koran reading (in accordance with estab- 
lished rules of pronunciation and into- 

■L< mujid adept, efficient, proficient 

jljj>- jauddr see jljjU- (alphabetically) 

Ujr) jl»- jam « (j'our) to deviate, stray {jc- 
from); to commit an outrage (J> on), 
bear down (J» upon), wrong, persecute, 
oppress, tyrannize (Jc s.o.); to encroach, 
make inroads ( Ja on another's territory) 
III to be the neighbor of s.o. (•), live 
next door to (*); to be adjacent, be next 
(a to, adjoin (a; to be in the 
immediate vicinity of (•, a), be close to 
(•, a); to border (a on) IV to grant 
asytum or a sanctuary (< to s.o.); to 
protect (• B.O., jp, from), take (• s.o.) 
under one's wing; to stand by s.o. (a), 
aid (a s.o.) VI to be neighbors; to be 
adjacent; to have a common border 
X to seek protection, seek refuge (lj with 
8.0. , J. from, appeal for aid (• to 
s.o., ^ against 



jjr- jaur injuBticcj oppienion, tyr- 
anny ; outrage 

^U- jir pi. jljw- jlrSn neighbor; refu- 
gee; protigd, ob&rge 

SjU- j&ra pi. -St neighboren 

•j^ jxra neighborhood 

tjyr j^'^^ pl* J^ juwar pit, hole 

lijj,- see alphabetically 

j\j^ jiunr neighborhood, proximity; 
jlj«- in the neighborhood of, in the vicin- 
ity of, near, oloae to 

IjjU mujiuara neighborhood, proxim- 

_rU- jd'ir pi. Sj^ jawarat SjU. jdra 
unjust, unfair; tyrannical, despotic; ty- 
rant, oppressor, despot 

jjU mujdmr neighboring, adjacent; 
near, close by; (pi. -fin) student (esp. of 
Al Azhar University; living in the vicin- 
ity of the Mosque) 

j'dt mujir protector 

jjUtij mutajdwir having a common 
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous 

VJJ^ jawab pi. <^j\j^ jawdrib' stocking; 

L^j^*. jarjiya Georgia (republic of the 

Vjjr /"'■' damask rose (Rosa d&mascena, 
2wt.); crimson 

'tSJjT (Engl.) juri jury 

'{Jjr) JW- )'''<' « (J'jr /"HooJ, jL* majSi) to 
pass, come, travel (* through); to pass 
(m an examination, a test); to be allowed, 
permitted, permissible; to be possible, 
conceivable; to work, succeed («JU vrith 
S.O.; deceit, artifice) [ ^L^l 4jp «^Jl>- 
i.hila) the trick worked with him, ho 
fell for the trick 11 to permit, aUow 

(»; to approve {* of), sanction, 
warrant, authorize (* Ill to pass (* or by, go or walk past, 
(»); to go beyond (*), overstep, 
cross, leave behind (>, also, e.g., 
j-J' a" lT"'^! JjV ('ttmr) he is past 
thirty; to exceed, surpass (*; to 
pass over (j»), disregard (^, 
pay no attention (j» to); to let (je 
go unpunished; to give up, forgo, re- 
linquish (jc IT to traverse, cross 
{m, Jl on the way to); to permit, 
allow (a J to s.o.; to authorize 
{k J s.o. to do, also * •); to Uoense 
(>; to approve, confirm, endorse 
(* a decision, a judgment); to approve 
(* of, sanction (* V to toler- 
ate, sufier, bear VI to pass (* or 
by, go or walk past (*); to 
go beyond (>), overstep, cross, leave 
behind (*; to exceed, surpass (*, also J»); to go too far, overstep 
all bounds, encroach, make inroads; to 
pass over {jt), disregard (je, 
pay no attention (jc to); to give up, 
forgo, relinquish (>; to refrain {jf 
from) YIII to pass, run, go (* through], 
cut across (*); to cross (> a border, a 
street, a mountain range); to traverse 
(> a country or sea); to cover (* a dis- 
tance); to pass (* through the mind; 
said of ideas, thoughts); to go (a through 
hard times or a crisis); to surmount, 
overcome (a a crisis) X to deem per- 
missible (a; to ask permission 

jj-r jauz pi. jlj»- 1 ajtoSz heart, center 
(of a desert, of a large area, etc.) | jl^^l j 
amid, in the middle of, in; •U^l Jl^l j 
(fa4d') in space 

Jlj»- jawiz permissibility, admissibility ; 
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official) 
permit, Ucense, authorization; possibil- 
ity, conceivability ; passing (of an exam- 
ination) I >JI j\j^ j. os-ja/or (pi. -SI) 
(traveling) passport 



jLf majaz OTOSsing; passage; corridor 
{pol.-geogr.); metsphor, figurative expres- 
doD {rhet.) | Ijljf majSian, jUI J^ J> 
figUTfttirely, metaphorically 

tjjU majiltt figurative, metaphorical 

•JU-I ijaia pi. -a< permiseion, authori- 
Kation; approval; license; = Fr. lieenee 
as an academic degree; permit; vaca- 
tion, leave (of absence) | j^ I SjU-l t. al- 
kapr grant of patent, issue of letters 
patent; patent; ij «'i IjUl (;imfull2/a) 
exequatur of a consul (dipl.); 2_>^ ■JW-' 
{mufotfjyo) sick leave; i-'J-*'''' '^'JV'S'I 
{madratiya) school vacation; !jUVtj i-JU 
on leave, on vacation 

•JjLf mu^'Stnua and JjU^ tajdvruz 
crossing; exceeding; overdraft, overdraw- 
ing (of on account); disregard (jt for); 
relinquishment (jc of 

JL:.-! ijiiySz traversing, crossing; pas- 
sage; transit; covering (of a distance); 
passing (of an examination) ; surmounting 
(of difficulties) 

y U- jSit penmtted, lawful, legal; con- 
ceivable, thinkable 

• yU ja'iza pl.>'lj«r jawSii' prize, re- 
ward, premium | IL-Iji !>'l»- (dirSAya) 
stipend, scholarship 

jLf mvjai licensed; licentiate (as an 
academic title, ^ Fr. licencii; e.g., j jLf 
pLII licencii is aeiences) 

•q Jj^ — -jj II to give in marriage 

OjjA {€yr,i pronounced m^Haez, <C 
jrjj. mmvMi) wind instrument with a 
double pipe, corresponding to the Egyp- 
tian zummdra) 

".ljy..l al-jaiita' Gemini {aatran.) 

*J ♦»- jauz (coll.; d. xm. !, pi. -at) walnut [ 
tjJJI J_^ j. ai-(ib nutmeg; ►Jl jji«. J. ol- 
gaf nux vomica; JiAl Jj^ J. oJ-Mnd, Jj». 

(jj;> (Undi) coconut; jj)! J_^ j. alqasa 
cocoon, chrysalis of the silkworm 

*J>r 0^3^ (^O narghile 
iSJj^ 7'au:i nut (used attributively and 
in compounds); nut-brown, hazel 

'jU- look up alphabetically 

<ijjr V^vxai pi. Jjljr ^au^^iP young pigeon 

(^j»-) (j-U ;'o«» u to peer around, pry 
around, look around (J^ kiiala in); 
to search, investigate, explore (* 
VIII to search, investigate, explore (a 

^jr- jaumq pi. J-lj»- jawaivf palace; man- 
or, villa 

4Uj_,»- gaieita pi- J«3l>r gawS'if' (ey.) dowel, 

(e>_j;^) c-U. jd'a u to be hungry; to starve 
II to cause (* s.o.) to starve, starve out, 
famish (> s.o.) IV do. 

^jf^ ju' hunger, starvation | U^ ^liU 
to starve to death 

jUj». ;au'3n*, f. ^j^ jau'd'i pi. 9\^ 
jiy^ hungry, starved, famished 

u\a majSa pi. -at famine 

JU- jffi' pi. f-Lrt- pya't f^ juwwa' 
hungry, starved, famished 

^iy^ tajvj^ starving out 

UU-I ija'a starving out 

J>_)«- II to make hollow, hollow out (»> 

Jf_j>. jauf pi. i-Jl.^1 ajwaf hollow, cav- 
ity; depression; interior, inside, center, 
heart; belly, abdomen; north (,magr.) \ 
Uijir j inside, in the interior of, in the 
middle of; JJJl J»jr j (). il-lail) or Jij^ 
JJJI (jauta) in the middle of the night 

jiu>. jaufi inner, interior, inside; 
subterranean, underground, subsurface 
(of geological strata); northern (magr.) | 
ijji^ bL* ground water 



Oj*-l ajwaf^, f. »Uj». jaufd*', pi. J»j»;- 
jii/ hollow; empty; vain, futile, inane, 
pointlesB, senselese 

^Juy^ tajwif pi. ^ jijf- tajdwiP hollow, 

tJjji^ mujawwaf hollowed out, hollow 

J^ jaiiq^ pi. Jl_^1 ajwaq and U^i-- ;auga 
pi. -at troop, group; theatrical troupe, 
operatic company ; choir {miu.); orchestra, 
band (also ^Ju^ja *iy:-) | Jj^} j-^ vrvu* 
dxT al-j. conductor, bandleader, choir 
leader; <J>jil\ 4*^ j.aS-iaraj Legion of 

■(Jj»-) JU- jala u {javl^ 4i_^ jatUa, Jl_^ taj' 
tudl, oVj*- jawaldn) to roam, rove, wander 
about; to move freely, be at home (j in 
a field of learning), occupy o.b. (j with); 
to be circulated, go the rounds; to pass 
(j, ._-» through the mind) | aJij- JIj^ 
to preoccupy s.o., engross s.o.'s attention; 
[f^^) «_^U- J Jy^ U what he is pre- 
occupied with, what is on his mind; 
4Ju» (J JM jJI J U- ((iam'' , 'ainaiki ) his 
eyes swam in tears; j eOi cJl^ (ycufuAu) 
he laid hia hands on, he committed de< 
falcationa of IV to circulate, pass a- 
round (a | j ^tjl JL-1 (ra'yo) 
to weigh thoroughly, ponder; 
_^l JL»-I (nazara) to let one^s eyes wander 
about; to look around V to roam, rove, 
wander about, move around; to patrol, 
go the rounds; to cruise; to tour, travel 
from place to place, travel about 

y_j»- jaula pi. -at circuit, round; patrol; 
excursion, outing; tour; (round) trip; 
voyage, run (of a steamer); (round-trip) 
flight (of an airplane) ; round (in sports) 

J l_j»- jaivwdl wandering, migrant, itiner- 
ant, roving; cruising; traveling; ambu- 
lant; traveler, tourist; see also alpha- 
betically I Jl_j*- |»lj rdmin jawtedl ph 3l*j 
4)l_^ rumdh jawwdla rifleman {mil. ; 


^^j^ j^*'t'i^>dla one given to roaming 
or traveling; wanderer, wayfarer; O ™0" 
torcycle; cruiser 

Jl^ tajwdl migration, wandering, rov- 
ing, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism 

^"^j^r jawaldn migration, wandering, 
roving, traveling; nomadic liie, nomadisml 
^i d^j>r J- oX-yod embezzlement, defal- 

jLf majdl pi. -at room, apace (J for; field, domain, sphere; scope, ex- 
tent; reach; range; elbowroom, &ee scope; 
play, clearance; field [magn.) { "^Lf i^J U 
jXiJl {Sakh) to admit of no doubt; V 
u ^^fjJJ JL^ {majdlat ta'n) (it is) in- 
contestable; jLs^l la» (3 in this con- 
nection; l>fcj,.J ^Ul Jbil 9.»j (amdmahu) 
to give s.o. a free hand, wide scope of 
action; iSj^ J'jf {b^yawi) lebensraum; 
J^l jLf m. al-'amal field of activity; 
^j-ik'J..* jLf (TTiagna^lsi) magnetic field; 
Jl^l ii-L^ ii(jc2a^a^Tn. field intensity (mo^.) 

ijjif- tajawuml roaming, roving, wan- 
dering, migration; going out, moving 
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour; 
traveling | J_^^i ^ man' at-t. ourfew 

JjU- *jL hd'i'jd'il pi. j^L^ *^\j peddler, 

i}j*-^ mutajawwil wandering, migrant, 
roaming, roving, itinerant ; ambulant ; 
traveling; traveler | i}j>^ J^ traveling 
salesman; JjWL< fU (bay yd') peddler, 
hawker; J_^?h,;u ,j-^ (gisatj) itinerant 

'Jl_^ look up alphabetically 

•-^>r 9olf golf {eg,) 

j*U- look up alphabetically 

^j*- 7^" P^ »^Ij*"' ajwdn gulf, inlet, bay 

*^j^, "^j^t *^jT (I^* ffonn^Ua) gonelia pi. 'dt 
(woman's) skirt (eg.) 



aU. look up alphabetically 

j*j^ II iajauhara to become subatance 

j^yr ifl^iAar pi. ^[^ jawaMi^ intrinsic, 
esseotial nature, esBeuce; content, sub- 
stance (as opposed to form; pKilos.)\ 
matter, substance; atom; jewels %era.', 
p]. jewelry | j»>l-lj cJij^I (201/) the spuri- 
ous and the genuine 

'»j^yr /flwAfl'fl jewel, gem 

iSj'^yr jtiuhari substantial; intrinsioj 
essential, inherent; fundamental, main, 
chief, principal; material; jeweler 

^yrJ*J^ jatiharji jeweler 
C>lj»jf mugauharSt (eg.) jewelry, trin- 
kets; jewels, gems 

^tSj>- jd'wiya a {jawan) to be passionately 
atirred by love or grief 

iSyr j^tifon ardent love, passion 

^iSj^ look up alphabetically 

jljj_j*- = jl->j^- look up alphabetically 

(•^) •U. jd*a •^yi yajVu (*j^ maji) to come 
(», A to); to get {* to), reach. (* a place); 
to arrive; to bring {^; i-> • to b.o.; to bring forth, produce (<->; 
to Bet forth (i_-t; to do, perform; 
to commit, perpetrate (a; to occur, 
be mentioned, be said (J iu an article, 
document or book); (with foil, imperf,) 
to be about or set out to do | j fljr 
jl ^lj»'i/l »-4^ the newspaper "Al Ahram" 
reports that ...; jl ^jIj jm *\»- a report 
&om Paris says that ...; 4jfLJ O^U 
J UjUu {mv4abiqatan) its results coincided 
with ... 

Al^ ji'a, jai'a coming, arrival | *i^ 
t-«Uj>j (dahab) coming and going, <_^S 
IjUjj a:l*- to pace the floor, walk up and 

*^ map* coming, arrival, advent 
CjLJljLi al-jd'iydt the things to come 

*^-*2»- jaib pi. vjsT j^y^^ breast, boeom, 
heart; sine {math.); hole, hollow, cavity, 
excavation; pocket; purse | ^1X1 >-.^l 
{kds^) the privy purse; *.^\ ^\J tamdm 
cU-j., >|^l y^ cosine (math,); u«J-t 4aU 
pocket watch; *^>^} iJdj^«a> pocket money; 
4UJVI •r'jA-^ {anfiya) the naaal sinuses 
(anat.); <«jUiLi vL9-ir /•oZ-mugaimma pock- 
ets of resistance (mil.) 

^J^ jaibi pocket (adj.) 

*V=^ 3*P» "rrrT j*^ *"*1 VTr h^ aayyant 
j. jeep 

w^ (ir.) 6lt a colorful cotton fabric, chintz 

^A^ j\d pi. i»L^I ajydd, >y^ juyud neck 

*-Ui^ jay y id see :>^ 

'jL»-, jL»-I see j1_>»- jawad 

V*- jairi surely, truly, verily 

*j\M^ jir lime 

i^j^ jiri calcareous, lime (adj.) 

jL>*- jayydr unslaked lime 

^^Wr jayydra limekiln 
*jru^ II to endorse {fin.) 

jj*- (It. giro) endorsement {fin^) 

Ij^ g%2a Giia (city in N Egypt); a brand of 
Egyptian cotton 

(u^) u^^- i^^ * (J*-^ jayaidn) to be ex- 
cited, be agitated; to rage, storm; to 
boil, simmer II to levy troops, mobilize 
an army X to raise, mobilize (a an army, 
also, e.g., IjUiJl an^ran followers) 

^jiA*- jaiS pi. ^J^J^ juyui army, troops, 
armed forces | Jt^^Vl ^J^ occupation 
forces; j^L::»-l ^^-^ army reserve; ,jii*- 
Jajlj- {murdbif) territorial army; ,jijj^ 
iU;'i/l^ Salvation Army; ^J^ 
•ULI al-masd* dusk, evening twilight 


^U- jayydS agitated, impassioned; ex- 
cited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably 
excited, happily stimulated 

uL1jj»- jayasan excitement, agitation; 

{^^ ) J» U- jdfa i, II and V to be putrid, stint 
(decaying cadaver) 

U-s^ j'lja pi. iji^ jiyaf, iJ»L»-l (^jyaj 
corpse, cadaver 

^5^ ^'it Czech 

J^ jil pi. JLj^I ajyal people, nation, tribe; 
generation; century; epoch, era 

iS)*^ (It* Q^^f-i) jtldti ice cream 

*j^- jxm name of the letter -- 

t>»- {Fr. ^atne) corselet, sheath corset (eg.) 

^'_?Orr jiyogrdjiyd geography | UI_^_^A-1 

i.^^1 (fcaiarjya) anthropogeography 
\jj3j^ jiyojiziyd geophysics 

d^lj^j^ jiyofiziyd'i geophysical | LJI 

AJ\jyjjJ-\ (sana) the geophysical year 

Jij^j^ jiyofiziqi geophysical 
L^jij^ jiyoldjiyd geology 

^jtJjtt- jiyoloji geologic{al) 

*U- hd' name of the letter r- 

^UU hak&m rabbi | ^V' |»U-U-I the chief 

JjJ»- see J>>- 

(j/U- A-ami Hamitic 

jU- and ^U- see i>*- 

'<J\*- {pronounced hamba) pi. i-J[j>- hatvdnib^ 
(formerly Tun.) hamba, palace gendarme 
of the Bey of Tunis 

iI^U- see j:^^ 

^._-»- habba i [hubb) to love, like II to evoke 
(Jl in B.o.) love or a liking ((►, a for fl,th. 
or a.o.), make (J( a.o.) love or like 
(», A or 9.0.) ; to endear (Jl a 
to S.O.), make (* dear, lovable, 
attractive (Jl for b.o.), make {* 
palatable, acceptable { Jl to s.o.); to urge 
(Jl A on 6.0,), suggest (Jl a 
to 8.0.) IV (e^ hvbb, i-^ mahabba) to love, 
like (a, a 8.O.,; to wish, want, 
or like, to do (6l ) | jl ,_-;^l 

uhibbu an 1 should like to ... ; 6 1 4J ,_j«-l 
to like about a.o. that he ... ; ij j-X\ L__*i V 
(haira) he doesn't want him to be hap- 
py, he grudges him everything V to 
show love, reveal one's affections (Jl 
to 9.0. ); to endear o.s. ( Jl to s.o.), 
make o.s. popular, ingratiate 0,3, (Jf 
with s.o.); to court, woo (Ji a woman) 
VI to love one another X to like (a; 
to deem (a a,th.) desirable, recommend- 
able; to prefer (Jt a to else) 

e;-j«- hubb love; affection, attachment [ 
oIjJI ,_-»- ft. ad-rfa/ self-love, amour-propre; 
^^jUii-VI .— ^ curiosity, inquisitiveneas; 
^J:'J\\ ._-j^ h. al-imtan patriotism; J L*- 
{hnhban) out of love or affection for, out 
of friendship for ; j U- in the desire to . . . 

,j»- hubhl friendly, amicable, loving; 
L**- hubblyan in an amicable manner, 
amicably; by fair means {jur.) 

L_^ hibb pi. l-jLj-I ahidb darling, dear, 
dearest (one) 

i_jLo- habob aim, goal, end 


^^-i^ habib pi. .U-l alfiibla'', V"' 
ahiiba, v^>-' O'!'^''^ beloved, sweetheart, 
lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear 
(Jl to S.O.); popular; v'^'i'' the beloved 
onea, the dear ones 

Ij;^ hahiba pi. i_jL»- haba'ib* sweet- 
heart, darling, beloved woman 

i^^\ ahabb' dearer, more desirable, 
preferable (Jl to s.o.) 

lij- habbada (with foil, nominative) 
how nice, how lovely is . . .! how good, 
excellent, perfect is . . .! | jJ li^ how 
nice it would be if . , .; J«i jJ JU-I 'V- 
h. Ihaiu lau fa'ala it would be nice, or 
he would do well, if he did it; JU-I \Xf- ii 
(fMu) that's juat wonderful! 

V^ mahabba love; affection, attach, 
ment | jl>jJI *^ m. al-vxitan patriotism 

i^^ tafyibbvb courtship, wooing 

^1^ tahSbub mutual love, concord, 

t_j^ TjuUibub beloved; dear; lovable, 
desirable; popular; favorite; beloved one, 
lover; (pi. ^^\^ maftabU)') gold piece, 
sequin (in Ottoman times; eff.) 

iij^ 7iui]fbiQba sweetheart, darling, 
beloved woman 

t_^ nvhabbab agreeable, pleasant, 
desirable, lovable, dear (Jl to s.o.); nice, 

L_* mvhSA pi. -iin loving; lover; 
fancier, amateur, fan; friend | ^Ul \^ 
philanthropic(al], affable; JrjJI U^ our 
dear friend; jS^\ j^ friends of arche- 
ology; iSii ^ (li-datihi) egoist 

^Ua£i mvtafMb loving one another, 

,.^ ^r - muttafyibb (re)cominendable, d»- 
sirsble (said of aots whose neglect is not 
punished by God, but whose perfonnanoe 
is rewarded ; lil. Law) ; well-liked, popular 

'>_^ II to produce seed, go to seed (plant); to 
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become 
granulated; to granulate (* IT to 
produce seed 

«_^ habb (coll.; n. un. I) grains; seed; 
— pi. ^j:^ hubab grain, cereals, com; 
Beed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets; 
pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules, 
pimples I >>ll ^^^ cbufa (Cyperus es- 
culentus L. ; boU); AJull w>- h. al-faqad 
chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus L.; bot.); 
iijil\ o->- croton seeds (seeds of Croton 
tiglium; bot.); {magr.) cherries; JL4Ji i^.*- 
1i. al-haX and (jl^^") 0L4JI v^ />. al-h&n 
cardamom (Amomum cardamomum L.; 
dot.); ^UJI L_^ ly. al-gam&m hail, hail- 

\»- habba (n. un.; see also ^.^ habb) 
pi. 'dt grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill, 
pastille; berry; pustule, pimple; trivial- 
ity, trifle; a square measure (Eg.; = 
S8.31S m') : pi. i^U- beads (of the rosary) | 
_r*i «^ A. ia'ir a linear measure (Sg.; = 
0.20Gcm); <^ i^ (huiwa) aniseed; i^ 
>\iy (^uciil'') black caraway (Nigella 
sativaL.; &oC.); JUJI oL>- grains of sand; 
jjl l^ h. aJ-'a»n eyeball; pupil (of the 
eye); t^-Ltll «^ h. al-qalb dearest one, 
beloved, darling 

1 ^— habab blister 

u^ htiiaiba pi. -Ot little grain, small 
kernel; small pimple or pustule 

,f-r- hviaibl granular, granulated | 

,^_|.l Ju,J\ (ranuii) trachoma (mtd.) 

y.f-^ })abhab (coll.) watermelon (^i;.) 
'^•Xf. ^uM^ti firefly, glowworm 

Ir II to approve, think well (> of, 
commend (<; to applaud, acclaim, 
: (• 8.O., a i-th.) 

JL^ (ojiK^ appiovU; aodamation, ac- 
olaim, applause, nhwering 


w habara u {habr) to gladden, make happy, 
delight {* B.O.); — habira a {jj^ hitJmr) 
to be glftd, happy II to embellish, refine, 
make workmanlike (*8,th.); to compose 
(* in elegant style; to write, 
compose (* 

j^ fyibr ink | ^1 |*l umm al-h. squid, 
cuttlefish; 3jj J« j^ (waraq) mere ink 
on paper, of no efieot (e.g., an agreement, 
a treaty) 

j^ habr^ fyibr pi. jL*-! ahbdr a non- 
Muslim religious authority, learned man, 
scribe ; bishop ; rabbi ] J^*^ I jd. I the Pope ; 
j\^^\ jJL^ sifr al-a. Leviticus {Old Teat.) 

^jw habH pontifical | t^j^ ^Ia* 
{qvdd&a) pontifical mass {CKt.) 

ijjw- habnya office or dignity of a 
bishop, bifihoprio, pontificate 

*jv- haharat hibara pi. -Ht silken shawl 
or wrap (worn in public by ladies) 

jL>. hah&T, IjkibOr pi. -02 mark, trace 
(esp. of blows), welt, wale 

jj-»- hubuT joy 

(^jL#- /fcuASrd pi. oIjjL*- JyubOrayOt 
bustard {zocl.) 

jy^ yahi/ur bustard chick {zool.) 

Ij^ mihhara, maljbara pi. yL* ma» 
hOi}ir* inkwell 

j>- hahasa i {kaba) to obstruct, shut off, 
confine (a, • s.o., block, bar, hold 
back, check (* jc from; also tears, 
laughter, etc.); to withhold (a ^ from 
B.o.; to hold in custody, detain 
(» B.o. ); to apprehend, arrest, jail, 
imprison (• b.o.); to keep, keep back, 
put aside, put away (J* a for); to 
tie up, invest inalienably (> capital) | 
J* *-^ u"*^ (tw/MAii) to devote o.s. 
entirely to ... ; jc .ij ,j-^*- {yadahu) to 
take ( out from under s.o.'e power; 
kJJu\ 4-U ,j-a*- (anjdsahu) to make s.o. 

catch his breath, take s.o.'s breath 
away ; JjLtJI m ,j-^ hubisa ma'a S-iugl he 
was committed to prison under hard 
labor II to tie up inalienably (a funds, 
J« for, esp. for a pious purpose), make 
a religious bequest (a, for the benefit of 
J«) Til to be held back, be held up, 
atop, be interrupted, intermit ; to restrain 
O.S., hold back YIII to block, obstruct, 
bar, confine (a, « a.o,,; to detain, 
hold in custody (a, « s.o.,; to hold 
back, retain, auppreas (a, * s.o.,,); 
to be detained, held up; to be Impeded, 
held back; to falter, break, fail (roioe), 
stop (breath) 

ij-A*- habe (act of) holding or keeping 
back, obstruction, check, repression; 
blocking off, barring, con£jiement; dam- 
ming up, staving off; safekeeping, custo- 
dy, retention; imprisonment, arrest, de- 
tention, jailing; (pL tj^j^ hvhus) prison, 
jail I J-L=.-l ,j~i*- (ihtiydfi) detention 
(pending investigation); ^pljiJl ,j.xf~ {in- 
fir^i) solitary confinement; -b-U ,j-^ 
penal servitude 

ij-A^ hiba pi. f^V^I oAMtf dam, weir, 

,j,.^ hubSy hubus pi. ^j*\^\ ahbda (Tun., 
Alg., Mor. ^ toaqf) inalienable property 
the yield of which is devoted to pious 
purposes, religious bequest, (Fr. jur.) 
"habous" I ^U ,j-^ {'dmm) public haboofl. 

LT*^ U-^ 

(kd^) private habous; I 

■ olT 

Ja (= J* Liij olT) to be entirely depend- 
ent on . . . 

4— 1»- hubaa speech defect, impediment 
of speech 

^J-^^ habU blocked-off, shut-off, barred, 
confined, locked-up ; secluded ; bated 
(breath); choking (voice); (pi. «La»- hw 
baaH**) hermit 

^jmjkii- mahbaa, mahbia pi. ^L* ma' 
habia* place where is confined or 
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 


,j^ mihbaa device for shutting off or 
blocking off 

4.*m£ mahbasa hermitage 

^L^i inhib&a secluaion, coTifinement; 
stoppage^ interruption; ceasfttion 

^L:*-! ihiih^ retention, restraint; inhi- 
bition, impediment, obstruction, stop- 
page I J^l ^Li»-l ihtilda al'haul sup^ 
preasion of urine, ischuria 

^J^J^ mahims shut-off (from the out- 
side world), isolated, secluded, confined, 
locked'Up; imprisoned, captive; tied-up 
(funds); (pi. ^J^^ TnahabU^) prisoner, 
prison inmate, convict 

u-A^ muhahbii donor of a haboua (see 
,j«M> hube) 

*JU ,j^\ cl-ntuhahhai 'ahihi bene- 
ficiary of a habous (see ^j..m> hubs) 

^_,*u^i* munhabis secluded, shut-off 

^JU^\ al-habaS Abyssinia, Ethiopia; (pi. 
^L»-VI al-ahb^) the Abyasinians, Ethio- 

<1jX\ al-habaSa (and 4JLJ-I j':Aj) Abys- 
sinia, Ethiopia 

,_^ih*- kabaSi pi. ^l-»-l ahi&i Abyssin- 
ian, Ethiopian 

ia^ habata i (ia^-^ hubut) and habifa a to 
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong; 
to be futile, be of no avail, be lost TV to 
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat (a, 
J« A in S.O.; negotiations, efforts, 
an attempt, etc.) 

iiu*- habat scar of a wound, wale, wett 

Xhj^ hiibiit futility, failure 

JtL«~l ihbaf frustration, thwarting, foil- 

,^ habaq basil (bot); (eg.) a variety of 
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.) 

iiL»- habaka % u (habk) to weave well and tight 
(a; to braid, plait (*; to 

twist, twine, tighten (a; to knit 
(*; to devise, contrive (a a plan, 
a plot) 11 to twist, twine, tighten (* ; 
to fasten (> 

4SL>- habha fabric, tissue; texture, 

ilL»- hubuk: |»_>>^1 dL»- h. an-nujum 
the orbits of the celestial bodies 

ifLj- hibdka weaver's trade, weaving 

ii[^ mahbuJc tightly woven; tight, 
taut; sturdy, strong, robust, husky 

iiLiA muhtabik interwoven, intersecting 
ij*»- VIH to ensnare, catch in a snare (*, » 


J-*- habl pi. t3Lj- hibdl^ J-»-i ah^ul, 
J^^ hubiil, JL«-1 ahbal rope, cable, 
hawser; cord, string, thread; (pi. JU- 
hib&l) beam, ray (e.g., of the sun, of 
Light), jet (e.g., of water); vein; sinew, 
tendon ] Jjj^I J-»- jugular vein; ^^Jl JJ-I 
(surri) umbilical cord; cji^l JJ-I [Sauki) 
spine; ^^J^-u* JL*- (pautiya) vocal cords; 
:r/Lil j^ ivy {hot); •HI JL^ jets of 

water; ^J^' > Jr^' (j^^) J^' "'ff" 
(aflaqa) t-habla 'aid Ug&rib to let things 
go, slacken the reins, give a free hand, 
impose no restraint; JJ-I *li^l slackening 
of the reins, yielding; relenting; *-^J*~i\ 
^La- idtaraba habluhu to get into a state 
of disorder, of disorganization, of disinte- 
gration, get out of control ; ^^IJ I J* w-J 
(la*iba, hablain) to play a double game, 
work both sides of the street 

y^-»-l uhbula pi. JjU-1 ahdbil^ snare, 
net; rope with a noose; pi. J-jU-I tricks, 
wiles, artifices, stratagems (in order to 

4JL>- hihdla pi. Jj'Lj" habd'il' snare, net 

JiU kdbil: J.IJL JjUi i*li^l {iktalafa) 
everything became confused, got into 
a state of utter confusion; i^^^IjUj jv^U^ 
all together, all in a medley 


'J^ habila a (hahal) to be or become preg- 
nant, conceive n and IT to make preg- 
nant (U a woman) 

J^ habal conception; pregnancy 

J^ ^ubld pi. JLj. habdla and Z'Jl^ 
habldTia pregnant 

J^*- haban dropsy 

ulf^ (o\^\ e«^ hahb al-hAn) cardamom (Amo- 
mum cardamomum L.; bot.) 

ij^) Lr- habd u {habttf) to crawl, creep; to 
present (* ■ b.o. with* give, award 
(a • to B.o. Ill to be obliging (• to 
8.o.)» ahow one's good will (• toward s.o.); 
to favor (• B.o.); to side (* with s.o.). 
be partial (• to s.o.) ; to show respect, def- 
erence (• to s.o.) VIII to sit with one's legs 
drawn up and wrapped in one's garment 

Ij^ hibwa, ^uAttu, habwa gift, present 

flf- hib^' gift, present 

•Ll^ mu/hSMA obLigingneea, complai- 
sance, courtesy; favor(ing), favoritism, 

C-*^ hatta u {hatt) to rub off, scrape off, scratch 

off {m,) 

o- hitta pi. c-zp- kitat (eg.) piece, bit, 

Jm^ fyiua (prep.) until, till, up to, aa far 
as; (coQJ.; with perf.) until, so that; {with 
subj.) until, that, so that, in order that; — 
(particle) even, eventually even; and 
even; ^ J»- even if; (with preceding 
negation) not even, and be it only . . . 

oil*- l^utat scraps; morsels, crumbs 

iLiU: tahdU corrosion 
ai»> hatida a (hatad) to be of pure origin 

aii£ mahtid descent, origin, lineage 
IJf hitira small piece, bit, trifle 

jL:^ hitdr pi. j^^ hutur border, edge, 
fringe, surroundings, vicinity 

iJc:*- hatj pi. JijS^ huiuf death | ^ w^^ 
AilLi aJc^ (JI ^j*_j) yabhatu 'on (ytw'd il6) 
hatfihi bi-zilfUii he brings about his own 
destruction, digs his own grave; i_'i Tr- oU 
<iu\ TTidta hatfa anfihl he died a natural 

^ hatama i {hatm) to decree, make neces- 
sary, prescribe (J* a for s.o.), 
make (* a duty, a necesjity (J« for 
8.0.); to impose, enjoin (J* a upon 
s.o.) ; to decide, determine definitely 
(i^ II to decree, make necessary, 
prescribe ( J0 a, for s.o. ), make 
(a,) a duty, a necessity (J* for 8.0.) 
T to be necessary; to be s.o.'s (Jc) 
duty, be incumbent (Jc upon s.o.) 

^ hatm pi. j»j2»- hulum imposition, 
injunction; final decision, resolution, de- 
termination; ^^ hatman decidedly, defi- 
nitely, necessarily, inevitably 

fj*^^ hatmi decided, definite, final, 
conclusive, definitive, unalterable, irrev- 
ocable, inevitable 

4-.J:*- hatmiya decidedness, definite- 
ness, definitiveness, determinate neas, un- 
alterableness ; necessity 

<■*.•:»- V Id-hatmlya indeterminism {ph%- 

rf^ mahium imposed, enjoined, ob- 
ligatory ; determined, definitive, deter- 
minate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

lA muhcUtam imposed, enjoined, oblig- 
atory ; determined, definitive, determi- 
nate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

I>«i- mutahattim absolutely necessary; 
imperative (duty) 

li,.^ haUa u {hatt) to urge, incite, prompt, 
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke. 


impel (■ S.O., J« to do | tU*^ >t-»- 
(jfvlJUtu) to quicken one's pace, huiiy 
(Jl to a place); JiJ^ >^->- ilariga) to 
huiry, hasten; 4^Ji .^^ {qadamaihi) to 
qaicken one's pace^ break into a run 
Tin and X = I 

tS^ir^ liatit fast, rapid, quick 
O ^l^ hSaa hormone 
*J>- f»^* Hlttite (n. and adj.) 

4jU»- hiMla ingf, leee, sediment; scum 
(fig.); offal, discard, scraps | j^\ iJl^ 
silk combings 

(jV) \iM- {10(3 u (Adfw) to strew, scatter, 
spread, disperse (a 

M^ Aa;/o It to overcome, defeat (• s.o., 
with arguments, with evidence), confute 
(• B.O.); to convince (. s.o.); — (hajj) to 
make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform 
the hadj m to dispute, debate, argue, 
reason (• with s.o.) TI to argue against 
each other, carry on a dispute, to debato; 
to take counsel Vm to advance (<-< 
as- an argument, plea, excuse, or pretext; 
to allege in support or vindication, 
plead (v^; to vindicate, justify (J ; to protest, remonstrate (J« against), 
object, raise objections (J» to) 

w- hajj and if hijja pi. -it, pf 
hijaj pilgrimage; hadj, the official Muslim 
pilgrimage to Mecca | *^^ j^ 4^ ^^*7?a 
Zu'lhijjah, the last month of the Islamic 

*e lyujja pi. gt *"W aigumont; 
pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; 
document, writ, deed, record; authorita- 
tive source, competent authority [ 4m^ 
ul under the pretense that . . ., on the 
plea . . ., on the pretext of . . . 

^l^ hajdj pi. 41^1 ahijja circumorbital 
ring (ana(.) 

n^ mahajj destiiiation (of a joomsy) 

o^ mahajja pi. r 1^ mahijj' destination 
of a pilgrimage, object of pilgrimage, 
shrine; destination (of a journey); goal; 
road; way; procedure, method | Ok^ 
v_>l^l m. offawOb the Kight Way, the 
Straight Path; JjjJ-I i^^ railroad 

rip hijCtj argument, dispute, debate 

n>>^ tahajjvj argumentation, plead- 
ing, ofTering of a pretext, pretense, ex- 

rli^^' Mijaj pi. St argumentation; 
pretext, excuse, plea, pretense; protest, 
remonstrance (J> against), abjection, 
exception (J» to) 

rU- hajj pi. ^ hujj&j, gjC hajij 
pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific 
title of one who has performed the pil- 
grimage to Mecca 

^ hajaba ti (hajb) to veil, cover, screen, 
shelter, seclude ( &om); to hide, 
obscure (^ a from else, e.g., 
from sight); to eclipee, outshine, over- 
shadow (• S.O.); to make imperceptible, 
invisible (^ » to); to conceal (^ * from s.o.) ; to make or form a sepa- 
ration (^j — ilr* between — and) 
n to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from 
sight, keep in seclusion (U a woman); 
to disguise, mask (i^ * with) T to 
conceal o.b., hide (jt from), flee from 
sight, veil o.s. VII to veil o.s., conceal 
O.S.; to be covered up, become hidden, 
be obscured Tm to vanish, become 
invisible, disappear &om sight; to veil 
O.S., conceal O.B., hide; to become hidden, 
be concealed (^ from); to withdraw; 
to elude perception; to cease or interrupt 
publication (newspaper, periodical) 

i_Jt hajb seclusion; screening off; keep- 
ing away, keeping off 

<^\f hijah pi. i-jB l^ujvb, '<jc\ ah' 
jiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; wom- 
an's veil; screen, partition, folding 


screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm (also 

j»-U-l i-.fUJ-i; anat,); amulet 

*j}jc hijQba office of gatekeeper 

>_.fU.;:j>l ihtijdb conoealment, hidden- 
nees* seclusion; veiledness, Teiling, pur- 

L^^U hajib concealing, screening, 
protecting; (pi. i_j U>^ ;^u;Yifl&, Zj^^hajaba) 
doorman, gatek^per; chamberlain; order- 
ly {Syr., mil.); {pi. ■—»-]>*- hauf&jib^) eye- 
brow I *\ji\ i-^l^ h. al-hatoCt* airtight. 

^jay^ mahjub concealed, hidden, 


\fit hajara i* {hajr, Hijr, hujr, o\jt Ai;'rfln, 
hujrUn) to deny access (J» to s.o.); to 
stop] detain, hinder (J^ or • s.o.); to 
forbid, interdict ( J« ji to s.o.), pro- 
hibit (J» s.o.) from doing s.tb. {m); to 
place (J^s.o.) under guardianship, declare 
(J« s,o.) legally incompetent 

j^ JiaJT restriction, curb(ing}, check(ing), 
obstruction, impeding, limitation, cur- 
tailing (J« of s.tb.); barring, closing, 
debarment, preclusion; detention; block- 
ing, confinement, containment, suppres- 
sion (as a protective measure); interdic- 
tion, prohibition, ban; revocation, or 
hmitation, of s.o. 's ( J») legal competence | 
^ J? (fltAAi) quarantine 

^ hiJT forbidden, interdicted, pro- 
hibited; lap; (pi. jL^I oA^'dr, jji^ hujur, 
•jj^ hujiira) mare 

ij^ hujra pi. kufardt, jJt hujar room; 
cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber | 
jUiijVt Ij^ waiting room; |*_^l Ije h, 
an-na'um bedroom; L^^l V^' {fatld" 
hiya) chamber of agriculture 

j»^ mahjar pi. ^--L* mahdjir* military 
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon | 
^^ jM^ ivihfyi) quarantine, quaran- 
tine station 

j/^ mahjir, mihtjar, mahjar pi. j^\^ 
ma^jir* (— ^\ y^ m. al-'ain) eye 
socket; see also below 

juN^ tethjir interdiction^ prohibition, 
ban; see also below 

jj*^ mahjuT pi. ju^-l^ mdh^ir* (and 
sAa jj*>^) one placed under guardian- 
ship; minor; ward, charge 

'^ n to petrify, turn into stone (a; 
to make hard as stone (a Y to turn 
to stone, petrify, become petrified 

js liajar pi. jLfrl aJyj^r, »j\^hijQ,ra, jLfr 
hij^T stone ; weight (placed as an equipoiae 
on the scale of a balance) | ^L-'^l yfX\ 
{aa&m) the foundation atone, cornerstone, 
^U'ifl_;*J-l jwif [vxuf) laying of the cor- 
nerstone; J»^l J^ h. al-balOf flagstone, 
paving stone; 1^ j^ h, jahannam lunar 
cauAic, silver nitrate ; j^\ j^h.<t l-jir lime- 
stone; j^l j^^ °^ iJW^ y^ {summOqi) 
porphyry; j^V' ji^^ {aewad) the Black 
Stone (of the Kaaba); 4JjLl]t jJt hema- 
tite {min.); «juJl ^ h. al-'atra stum- 
bling block ; <iL-':^ail ^ philoaopber*s 
stone; O j*^^ J? A. al-qamar selenite; 
f._^j^ and Jij yt precious stone, gem; 
^^1 Ja *J» (tofc') lithograph; _/J7i- 1 itU^ 

iSjf hajari stony, atone ( adj . ) | 
(jr^r^J-l ^f^\ i'ajfr) the Stone Age; ^r^' 
^jj-l iSj»^^ the Neolithic period; ^^^1 
|f.jUl ifj*J'\ the Paleolithic period 

yt hajiT stony, petrified 

j\j^ hajj6r stone mason, stone cutter 

j^ mahjir pi. jf--\^ mahdjir* (stone) 

j^j^ tahjir petrification; atone quar 

ji^ tahajjur petrification 

^^>v.;u mutahajjif petrified 

jw»>u»* mustahjir petrified 


■J: hajttza u i (haji) to hold back, reatraln, 
hinder, prevent (^ » from); to 
keep away (^ », from); to block 
(off), close, bar; to isolate, insula te, con- 
fine, seclude; to make inaccessible; to 
set apart; to separate (J;j two things); 
to arrest, detain; to seize, sequester, 
impound ( Jt or », e.g., s.o.'s 
property, salary); to confiscate, safe- 
guard (*; to reserve (»; to 
make a reservation (* for a theater seat, 
a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.) Vlli to 
retain for o.e,, reserve to o.s. (a 

jiP hajz curbing, prevention, re- 
straint; seclusion, confinement, con- 
tainment, isolation, insulation, separa- 
tion; arrest, detention, seizure, confisca- 
tion, sequestration (J» of; reser- 
vation (of seats) ] ijji-\ Jf: h. al-hurriya 
deprivation of liberty, unlawful detention, 
duress (jur.);^ >:J-I JJI (a/^a) to confis- 

jL»il aUhijaz Hejaz, region in W 
Arabia, on the Red Sea coaat 

j^JljC hijdzi of or pertaining to Hejai; 
(pi. -un) an inhabitant of Hejaz 

^\^ hajiz and :j»-U- pi- >rV- ^'™' 
jii' obstacle, hindrance, impediment, 
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing 
wall; block, blockade, road block; fence, 
gate, railing, balustrade; hurdle; bar, 
barrier; barricade | J^r^' v*^' ^**' 
phragm (ano(.); O ^Ir"^' >r^ break- 
water; (ij^^J- 1) iJ^I >r-y-' (qumr-uqiya, 
gumrukiya) customs barriers; O '>j»r^ 
.^\j^\\ lightning rod 

0_>r^ ^>»1^ muwazzaf hajiz approx. : 

'ij^lai muhajafa singlestick fencing 
•J>\J^\ ihjdl = jL*^.l 

JjC hajala u i {hajl, jl* hajalan} to hop, 
leap; to skip, gambol 

Jt hajl, hijl pi. J>? hujul, Jltl aff 
jal anklet 

Jt hajal (coll.; n. un. !) pi- C>^ 
hijlan, Jjt hijld partridge; mountain 
partridge, mountain quail 

ii^ hajala pi. Jb^ hij&l curtained 
CAnopy, or alcove, for the bride | oUj 
JL^I raf'bat al-h. the ladies 

lU.^! 4^ lalai al-hajla hopscotch 
J*** mu/wj'/fl^ wearing anklets (woman); 
white-footed (horse); bright, brilliant, 
radiant; unique, singular, esp- in the 
phrase J-Ji J-\ {agarr') 

f^jc hajama u (/wjm) to cup (e s.o. ; med.) 
IV to recoil, shrink, flinch (^ from); 
to desist, abstain, refrain {jt from), 
forbear [^ ; to withdraw, retreat 

f^ Jtajm pi. ^jf^ hujum, ^\J^\ ahjdm 
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon) [ 
l,».i-l _fS bulky, sizable, massive 

(•Uc hajjam cupper 

<,\jc hijama cupping, scarification, art 
of cupping 

*>.^ viihjam, Lj>*^ mihjama pi. *Jr^ 
mahdjim' cupping glass 

>Utl ihjdm desistance, abstention; re- 
straint, aloofness, reserve 

j^ hajana i (hajn) to bend, curve, crook 
(a VIII to snatch up, grab (», 
take hold (> of 

^1 ahjan^ curved, crooked, bent 

jr^A mihjan pi. ^Ui maMjin' staff or 
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook 

{jf) \j^ <; l? haji hihi kairan to think 
well of 8.0., have a good opinion of s.o. 
Ill to propose a riddle (t to s.o.); to 
speak in riddles, be enigmatic 

IjF, je hijan pi. .Itl ahja' intellect, 
brains, understanding, discernment, acu- 
men, sagacity, wit, intelligence 


jC" hajiy appropriate, suitable, proper 

(^ for) 

jtl dhjd more appropriate, more 
suitable, more proper; more correct, 


L*^l -uhjlya pi. ^^'^ ahdjii/, ^U-l 
ahajirt riddle, puzzle, enigma 

*[^ hakdn 

U-L*- (look up alphabeti- 

}iadda u (hadd) to sharpen, hone (* a 
knife}; to delimit, delineate, demarcate, 
mark off, stake off (* land, ^ from); to 
set bounda (> to, limit, restrict, 
confine {* ; to impede, hinder, 
curb, check (j^ or a; — i i»-^*- 
hidda) to become furious, angry {J* at): — 
t u (il-i*- hidad) to wear mourning, 
mourn (J* the deceased) II to sharpen, 
hone (* a knife); to forge {*; syr.); 
to delimit, demarcate (* ; to 
set bounds (a to, circumscribe, 
mark off, delineate sharply; to limit, 
restrict, confine (j^ or a; to deter- 
mine, appoint, assign, schedule, laj' down, 
set down, establiah {*; to fix (* 
e.g., prices); to define {* | jA»- 
aj.^_ (ha^arahu) to dart sharp glances; 
to scrutinize (j, look sharply (j at Ill to oppose {*, « 8.O.,, 
act contrary (*, « to a.o., to,), 
contravene, counteract, violate (* 
ly to sharpen, make sharp (k j 
Jl jiiJI J^\ (nazar) to look sharply 
at, stare at; »j^ J^i (hamrahu) to 
dart sharp glances ; to scrutinize {^^, look sharply (j at; x>-\ 
»_,_*j ^ [bamrihi) to glance sharply; — to 
put on garments of mourning V to be 
delimited, be delineated, be bounded, be 
circumscribed; to be determined, be 
established, be set down, be scheduled, 
be fixed; to be defined, be definable 
VIII to be or become angry; to become 
infuriated, be furious (J* at), be ex- 

asperated (J* with); to be agitated, be 
upset, be in a atate of commotion 

jj- hadd pi. jjA»- hudud (cutting) edge 
(of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, 
brink, brira, verge; border {of a country), 
boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the 
utmost, extremity, termination, end, 
terminal point, terminus; a (certain) 
measure, extent, or degree (attained); 
(math.) member (of an equation), term 
(of a fraction, of a proportion); divine 
ordinance, divine statute; legal punish- 
ment {Isl. Law) I Ji- li-haddi or Jj- Ji 
until, till, up to, to the extent of, J^ Jl 
j^'l jj-, j^'l li-h.l-ana up to now, so far; 
U Jl^ Jl {haddin) to a certain degree, 
to a certain extent; j-^ Xf~ Jl, -L*j a»- Jl 
to a considerable extent or degree, 
considerably, eictensively ; J^ ^5! Jl 
iayyi haddin) bow far, to what degree or 
extent; J a*- "^ (ftarf^fa) boundless, infinite, 
unbounded, unlimited; J^ ■:>L; hi-ld haddin, 
jj. j^c. Ji im gairi haddin boundless, un- 
limited, without limits; .1^ i*- J* 'aid 
haddin sawain, ^j^ a>- Jt 'aUl h. aiwan 
in the same manner; equally, likewise; 
Jj- J* {haddi) according to, commensurate 
with; *Jii -Li- J fi haddi ddtihi and oli J^ 
in itself, as such; ^^\ -J- 1 {aid), ai-l 
ij-aj^'l i^^?^) the maximum; jiVl -J-l 
(adnd) the minimum; ^^yf- x>- {'umri) age 
limit; O'-'-*" J^ -^ haddain two-edged; 
jjA*- J {huiliidi) within, within the frame- 
work of; ejjA*- j_j.aJl iL {aq^d hudiidihi) 
to attain its highest degree; *il ^j-^ 
the bounds or restrictions that God has 
placed on man's freedom of action 

lx>- hidda sharpness, keenness; pitch 
(of a tone); djatinctivenesa, raarkednesfl; 
vehemence, violence, impetuosity; fury, 
rage, wrath, ire, anger; excitability, 
irascibility, passionateness 

fti*- hida see Jj-j 

jA^ had^id forbidden 


:t\im~ hiddd (act of) mouTning {^ over) | 
jloJ-l ^jltauial-A.garmente of mourning; 
iyjl jIa^ ^. dj-fcald; eourt mourning 

jjO*- /xuiid iron; pi. Ujiu*- Aoid'w^ 
iron parts (of a atniotur«) ; forgingSi hard- 
ware, ironware | pU- JjO^ crude iron, pig 
iron, iron ore; O ^j^ >^>^ {mufdwi') 
wrought iron; Jip OjAv (^/I) unprooesaed 
iron, pig iron; OjO^I j^ zahr al-h., JjA^ 
_;^l cast iron; -ijoi-l •Si^ rikkat al-^. 
railroad; ajU •ijJ^-ii ^x* ^^^ V^ 

jj-u- A<u{{d pi. i\i^ hidad, •\i^\ akid^ 
da'', :a>-I ahidda sharp (knife, eye, 
tongue, etc.), keen (mind) 

i^\ ajiodd' sharper, keener; more 
vehement, more violent 

ajjOp- hadlda pi. alla>- hadd'idf pieee of 
iron; object or tool made of iron { 
•tj_,i-\ :jj,a^ h. al-hart plowshare; :jj j1 I Jt 
{eg.) in financial straits, pinched for money 

^JjO*- ^dufi iron (adj.) | ^•Ij.w ^Sl' 
(tikka) railroad 

lijOi-l cd-hudaida Hodeida (seaport in 
W Yemen) 
i\\r- haddod ironsmith, blacksmith 
ol-ir hidSda smithcraft, art of smithing 

Jj4^ tahdid pi. 'Qt limitation, deUmi< 
tation; delineation, demarcation; re- 
striction, curb, confinement; determina- 
tion, fixation, appointment; definition | 
Jj-udl Jj> and .bA>dl t>-^ Jj> (wa;At 
(-(.) to be exact . . . , strictly speaking . . . 

.lU- hadd sharp (also, fig., of a glance), 
keen (mind); high-pitched (tone); vehe- 
ment, fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid; 
acute (illness) | ^l;II jU- h. al-miidj, 
Uall iU~ h. a(-lab' hot-blooded, hot- 
headed, hot-tempered, irascible; «jL>" *i/j 
(zdwijn) acute angle; jU.1 c« subacute 

jj-l^ mahdui bounded, bordered (^ 
by); circumscribed, confined; limited 
(= small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.); 

delimited, determinate, fixed, definite, 
definitive | ^t ijXf- m. al-ma'nd un- 
ambiguous; j^l jj-^ n, a4-<iaman 
of limited liability; (iJjlJLI) iijiA '■Sj^ 
(Krhn) limited company, aorporation 

i-i^ nuJiaddad sharpened, sharp ; deter- 
mined, fixed, appointed, destined (J for) ; 
strictly delimited, clearly defined 

-L^ muhtadd angry, furious, exasper- 

ilA>- AtiTa, pi. ]ip- hida', >l.w hidd", jTor 
T^id^dn kibe (zoo2.) 

:1a,- hada'a pi. ,1-u. hidif double-bladed 

ijJr- hadAa a (hadab) to be convex, dome- 
shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be 
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly 
(J> or ,^ to s.o.], be solicitous (J« 
or ^ about s.o.), care (J« or uj for 
S.O.), take care (Jp or lj of s.o.) II to 
make convex, emboss, camber, vault, 
curve, crook, bend (a T and XU 
^jkj-u-l ihdaudaba to be crooked, vaulted, 
cambered, embossed, convex 

^A»- Ijtadab affection, fondness, love; 
kindliness; solicitude, care; (pi. ojIa^ 
J}iddb, t^la>-l aiddb) elevation of the 
ground | i^^j^j uaU. J^^ (ua-fauAin) or 
i-Oxj ,_>j^ JT ^ from all sides, &om all 
directions, from everywhere; ^j^ J^ J 
^■i^j everywhere, in every quarter, on all 

i^^jJ^ hadib curved, cambered, vaulted, 
convex; hunchbacked; kindly, &iendly 

4jA>> hadaba hunchback, hump; camber, 
vaulting, curvature 

V-^l ahdab', f. .U-i^ hadba'', pl.v^ 
hudb hunchbacked, humped; — (elative) 
kindlier, &iendlier 

i_>A^ muhaddah ambooed; cambered, 


A»- hadaia u (^^jj-U- hudut) to happen, occur, 
take place, come to pass; — haduta u 
{Z\-Xm^ had/Ua) to be new, recent; to be 
young II to tell, relate, report (* to s.o., 
■^ or A, J, ^ about); to &peak» 
talk (• to B.O., j» or j about, of) | 
aJj 4J.U- haddatahu qaibvku and c;4»- 
<«ju haddaiathu nafauhH his heart» 
his innermost feeling told him (i^; V '— ^' <i^-W {na/.saA-u) to talk 
0.8. into (, try to believe or 
see (as factual); to resolve, make up 
one's mind to do; u! <-JJ ^^^ 
he said to himself, told himself that . . . 
Ill to speak, talk (^ or j * to s.o. 
about; to discuss (^ or J « with 
8.0. converse {^ or j » with s.o. 
about); to negotiate, confer (s with s.o.); 
to address, accost (a s.o.); to call up (• 
B.O., by telephone) IV to bring forth, 
produce, create, originate (a; to 
found, establish (*; to bring about, 
cause, occasion, provoke, effect (a; to drop excrement | Ca>- lI'-u-I 
{hadaUin) to bring about; to cauw 
or do, esp., s,th, eril, do mis- 
chief V to speak, talk (Jl to s.o., ^, ly 
or J about or of, converse, chat 
( Jl or ju with s.o., jt, i_j or j about 
VI to talk with one another, converse, 
have a conversation X to renew (*; 
to buy new (a; to introduce, start, 
invent, originate, create (a; to 
find or deem (» s.o.) to be young 

^J^ hadat pt. .^Ij»-1 ahdAt a new, un- 
precedented thing, a novelty, iitnovation; 
event, incident, occurrence, happening; 
phenomenon; evil symptom; misdeed; 
misfortune; ritual impurity (IbI. Law); 
excrement, feces; (pi. i^1:u-l,ulja»- Aiu/fdn) 
young man, youth; >l)l>l*-l juveniles 

^^J^ hadit pi. 1j\^*- hid&t, «Ij^j^ hu* 
daUf* new, novel, recent, late; modem; 
lJba>- hadUan recently, lately | #lJi ^J^ 
h, al-bind' new-built, recently built; 

jJI <^A>- h. as-sinn young; o^l i^-U- h. 
al-'ahd of recent date, recent, new, young; 
i^ 0^1 it-i-u-, ^ x^ iLi^^ {h. *ahdin) 
having adopted or acquired ( recent- 
ly; not long accustom&d to (, inex- 
perienced at (, new at (, newly, 
e.g., SjVtiL J^\ ^J^ (hi-l-ivilAda) new- 
born, ^Ij^lj A^\ >t-i'i*- (bi-z-iaittlj) newXy 
wed; lijjtj 0^1 i^.i»> o^ he had not 
known Europe until recently 

*^J#- hadit pi. ijjU-l ahadit't jLJj*- hid* 
tAn speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; 
conversation, talk, discussion; interview; 
prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, nar- 
rative ; Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narra- 
tive relating deeda and utterances of the 
Prophet and hie Companions | ^.w 
4f 1^ h. lyur&fa fabulous story, silly talk ; 
^a« i^j^ (gW«i) Muslim tradition in 
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to 
j_jj <l^jXf- {nahawi) an ordinary Prophetic 
tradition; ,_;.^l ^-X>- h. an-na/a one 
talks o.B. into; premonition 

^j-u- hiidiii setting in (of a state or 
condition), occurrence, incidence (of a 
phenomenon); occurrence, incident, hap- 

4jl.u- hadSia newness, recency, novelty; 
youth, youthfulnees 

iija»-i dhdaf newer, more recent 

yioli (l)lj-U- hidUln (or kadaUln) ad-dakr 
misfortune, adpersities, reverses 

'jijX^\ uhduia pi. ^t-jjL>-l ahadiO speech; 
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter; 
fabling, fibbing; topic, subject of a con- 
versation ; gossip, rumor (about a person) | 
OjOv-Vi J— ^ huen al-u, praise (of s.o.); 
4jja»-Vi tj^ 8u' al-u. slander, defamation 

4jjL£ muhddata pi. -Qt discourse, con- 
versation, discussion, talk, parley 

^l-i^l ihdGt production, creation, in- 
vention, origination; causation, effectu- 


oL?l^l iMatiy&t (pi.) co-ordinfttee 
(math.) I ^iiyF- *ljL;iJ*-i {'cmtWiyft) ordi- 
nates; SJbl iLIIa»-l (ufqlya) abscissfta 

.ijli*.::-! ajtiiW(W inventioiit creation, 
production, origination 

,t^jU Wdii occurring, happening, taking 
place; new, recent; fresh; — (pi. yl^^]^ 
hauSdit^f also -*0 occurrence, incident, 
event, happening; episodei case {jur.}; 
accident, mishap | jjj ii^L*- a case of 
forgery; JjjU-I oISw mak&n al-h, site of 
action, scene of the crime^ locus delicti 

iJiU- hadiia pi. iji]^ fyauddifl occur- 
rence, event, happening ; plot (of a 
play) ; incident, episode; accident, mishap | 
jjji.\ -'iU- h. al-murur traffie accident 

iJ^ wiihaddit pi. -un speaker, talker; 
spokesman; conversation partner, inter- 
locutor ; relator, narrator ; a transmittep of 
Prophetic traditions, traditionary, repre- 
sentative of the scienceor study of Had ith 
(see above) ; O phonograph, gramophone 

iJ^ muhdat new, novel, recent, late; 
modern; upstart, nouveau riche; oy^\ 
the Modems 

^J^«i- mtdahaddit spokesman, speaker 

^^■■\ r . T .r.- mustahdat new, novel; — (pi. 
•di) novelty, innovation; recent invention, 
modern product; neologism 

r-i*- fyadaja i and II to stare, look sharply 
(m, * at 8.0., at s«th., often with "/-^w 
bi-bafarihi or a^ hi'iiazarihi) 

^j^ Ikidj pi. ^jJ^ ^uduj, ^ia»-l ahd&j 
load, burden, enoumbranoe 

^j^ jA abu hvdaij stork 

ViA*- ^id^ja pi. ^!i*- fyad&Hp camel 

jj*- /wAira, Jutdura u {hadr, ijl-u- /wrfflrc) 
to be thick; — hadora u i {hadr, jj^*- 
J.udtir) to bring down, lower {* 

to cause (a to descend; to drop 
(a; to shed (a tears); Ij-u- j4»- 
{hadran) to rattle ofif, express quickly 
(an utterance, a. thought) ; — (hadr) 
to come down, step down, descend; to 
glide down, swoop II to drop (*; 
to lower, incline, dip (* V to 
descend gradually; to glide down; to 
come down , descend ; to flow down 
(tears); to derive, stem, originate (jr* 
from) VII to come or go down, de- 
scend; to glide down, sink down; to be 
in decline, be on the downgrade, to 
decline, wane; to flow down (tears); to 
slope down, slant down, be inclined (ter- 
rain) ; to come ( Jl to a place), arrive ( Jl at) 

jj^ hadr rapid recitation of the Koran 
(a terminus technicus of tajwid) 

jjj». hadur slope, downgrade, declivity, 
declivitous terrain 

J^J■ tahaddur descent, slant, slope, 
inclination, incline, declivity 

jl.;^! inhid&r slant, dip, pitch, inclina- 
tion, descent, slope; declivity; fall (of a 
river); decline, waning; ruin, decay, de- 

ji[>- hddir thick 

ja>,^ mutahaddir descending, slanting, 
sloping downward 

jj>.:^ m-unhadir descending; lowered, 
dipped; slanting, sloping, declivitous 
(terrain); declining, waning, being on 
the downgrade, in a state of decadence or 
decline; run-down, aeedy, down-at-the- 
heela, down-and-out 

jj*w muT^dar pi. -Of depreflflion; slope, 
talus, incline, descent, declivity; fall 
(of a river) 

j^^ hadam i u (hads) to surmifle, guess, 
conjecture (* 

^J*- hads surmise, guess, conjecture; 
O intuition 



shuttle (wearing) 

n 4«l>u- h^ IAt<^ haddUfa {ayr.) flywheel 

'j-u- hadaqa i Ihadq) to Biurouud, encircle, 
encompaBs (^ s.o.,; (with -^J-io 
b%-'ainihi) to look, glance (« at b.o.) II to 
look» glance, gaza» stare (jr or j at, 
also I-.') I J jkJl (3<k»- (nasara) to fix 
one's glance on ... IV to surround, 
encircle, encompass, enclose . (ly s.o.,; to look, glance (J, Jf or i_j at) | 
J ^^kJl Ji«>l {nazara) to fix one's glance 
on . . . 

uOv- kadaqa pi. -<U, Ji«> hadaq^ Jli«> 
hidOq, Jli^t aA^/^ pupil (of the eye); 
pi. Jla«-I glances 

UjAp- Aadi^ pi. jlliv- had^'iq* garden | 
olji^i Uji«> h. al-hayawdndt zoological 
garden, zoo 

JIj^I ihdOq encirclement, encompass- 
ment (i_j of) 

3i< JLj^ jcatar muhdiq imminent danger 

'n i5-i*- II (= JJ*-) to make acid, sour, tart, 
or sharp (a 

n (jiU- hSdiq (= JiU-) sour, tart, acid, 
sharp (taste) 

Jj^ hadala i to flatten, level, even, roll 
(A; {hadl, J^i^ /luiiu/) to treat 
unjustly (J« B.o.) 

iJorf mi/wfa/a pi. JjU nwi^tSd*/" roller, 

l>A»- VIII to bum, glow, blaze; to bum up, 
be consumed by fire; to flare up, break 
out (fight); to be furious, burn with 
wrath (J* at, over), also LL* ^4=^1 

^lor*-! ihtiddn^ paroxysm 

^^lA muhiadim furious, infuriated, 

•i»- hida see -u- j 

^D h-^ hidwa horseshoe 

'(jO- and t^i-) la- hada u (hadw, »li- Wd', 
Ai<iA') to urge forward by singing (* 
camels) ; to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt. 
instigate, induce, move (i_j or « s.o., 
Jl to, to do; i^ l-U- to insti- 
gate; to sway, rock, roll (rider, 
camel); to swing along* rock along (in 
riding) I Jl 1^4^-1 ^^ lj#- their conversation 
led them to . , .; ^'IT^I 4JI ^4^ ^ji. 
{garadun tnhda) a goal much sought 
after or worth striving for V to compete, 
vie (• with s.o.); to challenge, pro- 
voke {*, » 9.0.,; to defy, oppose, 
resist, withstand (*, « s.o.,, stand 
up (j», » against s.o., against; 
to incite, stimulate, arouse, animate, 
sharpen (a; t*^i dak&'ahu s.o.'s 
intellect); to intend (a, to do, 
be bent (a on doing 

*\x^ ^lufd* animating singsong, chanting 
of the caravan leader 

»I-U- hadda' camel driver, cameleer 

a/i*-! uhduwat <ja^l uhdlya song of the 
camel drivers 

4^ tahaddin pL ^^j*^ tahaddiyHl 
challenge, provocation 

jU- h&din pi. aIov huddh caravan leader 
(who urges the camels forward by 
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader 

-U.1^ mutahaddin challenger, provoker 

^tS"^ b^diya a to remain, stay {^^ at a place), 
stick (v to a place) 

'./-^ ii^^ Bee ivl 

'□ ijlo— hid^ya, hidd&ya = 


jj*- hadira a (hidr, kadar) to be cautious, 
wary, to beware (^ or a, • of s.o., of, be on one's guard (j- or *, • 
against) II to warn, caution (^> * 
8,0, of or about), put (s s.o.) on his 
guard {^ against) III to watch out, be 



careful; bo be on one's guard (• againBt}, 
be wary (♦ of e.o.) V to beware, be wary 
{^ of) VIII = I 

ji»- Aft^r and hadar caution, watch- 
fulness, alertneiBB, warineas^ circumspec- 
tion; precaution | »jU^ i«^l (hadarahu) to 
be on one^s guard; jXp- J» 'ala hadaHn 
cautiously^ warily; on one's guard {^ 

ji»- hadir cautious, wary 

jl.U' had&Ti beware (jl of doing . . ., 
^ of! watch out (^ for)! be 
careful (^ of) I 

^,i^ iahdvr warning, cautioning (j* of, 

lji\^ fnu^Adara caution, precaution, 
precautionary moMure 

jj^ vuihdur that of which one should 
beware, against which one should guard; 
object of caution ; — (pi. -di) danger, peril ; 
trouble, difficulty, misfortune 

(Jil*- hadafa i (hadf) to shorten, clip, curtail 
(a or ju; to take away, 
cut off, clip off (j^ from, reduce (^, strike or cross (^ off; to cancel, strike out, 
delete, drop, leave out, omit, suppress 
(>; (gram.)^ to elide, apocopate, 
drop by aphaaresia; to deduct, subtract 
(#; to throw (<-^ • at s.o., 
pelt (•^ * s.o. with; to cast away, 
throw away, discard {-^ U to clip, 
trim (a; to give (m shape, 
to trim, clip, or cut {» Into proper 

tji4^ hadf shortening, curtailing, 
cutting off, trimming, etc.; canceling, 
cancellation, striking off, crossing off, 
deletion ; omission, dropping, suppres- 
sion; {gran,) elision, eUipsis, apocopation 

^li>. Jjia^fir*: t^ll^ ^X>.\ he took all of it, 
he took it lock, stock and barrel 

Ji«- hadiqa a, hadaqa i {hidq, <fllA^ hadSqa) 
to be skilled, skillful, well-verBed, proficient 
(a or J in, uiaeter (a ; — hadaqa 
u (lij-^ huduq) to turn sour (milk) 
V to feign skillfulnesa, proficiency, clever- 
ness or smartness 

jir- hidq and 4*1 i*- haddqa skill, dexter- 
ity, proficiency; smartness, cleverness, in- 
telligence; perspicacity, sagacity, acumen 

jjU- kUdiq pi. Jll*- huddSq skillful, 
skilled, proficient; well-versed, clever, 
smartj intelligent; sour 

jJa»- II taha^laqa to pretend to be clever 
or skillfull, feign skill or knowledge; to be 

UJJ^ hadlaqa skillfulnesa, dexterity 

(j4»-) IJu- hada u: 4j4»- lo^ {hadwafiu) to 
imitate s.o., take after s.o., follow 
s.o.'s example III to be opposite 
(a), face, parallel (a, run 
parallel (a to) VI to be opposite each 
other, be parallel VII i to imitate, copy 
{i^ or Ja B.O.,, also a, take 
or follow (i^ or J* s.o.,, also a as an example or model; to be 
shod; to wear (a as footgear 

jU»- hadwa (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with | J*Jlj J*Jl *Sj^ hadwaka n-na'ia 
hi-n-rm'l in a completely identical manner, 
to a T, like two peas in a pod 

*\X»- hidd,' pi. 4ji»- 1 ahdiya shoe ; 
sandal | ajO^VI ^L« shoemaker 

»li^ hidH*a (prep.) and •11^ bi- 
hidd'i opposite, face to face with 

*\\^ JyiddA' shoemaker, cobbler 

«1JL^ (J) J» 'aid ifi) muhdd&ti along, 
alongside of, parallel to 

•IJb^l ihiidii'' imitation, copying 

^iy- muhadin opposite, facing 

j»~ harra u i (Aarr, Sjl^ harHra) to be hot 
II to liberate (* s.o.); to free, set &ee, 


release (a s.o.]; to emancipate (• s.o.); 
to consecrate (« s.o.) to the service of 
God; to clarify^ clear up» make clear 
(*; to formulate precisely, phrase 
accurately, define exactly, pinpoint (a ; to revise {a a book) ; to edit, redact 
(a a book, a periodical); to write, pen, 
indite, compose, compile (a V to 
become free; to be freed, be liberated 
(^ from); to be emancipated Till to be 
kindled, be heated, flare up 

j»- harr heat, warmth 

j^ hurr pi. m. jly-1 ahrdr, pi. f. J\j»- 
hard'ir^ noble, free-bora; genuine {jewels, 
etc.), pure^ unadulterated; free; living 
in freedom; freeman; independent; free, 
unrestrained; liberal {pol.; jl^Vl the 
Liberals); frank, candid, open (J» toward 
S.O.); free, available, uninvested (money) | 
jJ-! ^_^L:>-Vl {\htiyd(i) free reserves, un- 
encumbered reserves; *IUj*- ^ m\n hurri 
malihi with his own cash, with funds at 
his disposal 

•^ harra pi. -dt stony area; volcanic 
country, lava field 

*ij^ ^"*T^ya pi- •'W freedom, liberty; 
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., 
poetic) I «aLJI ajj—'ibada freedom 
of worship; jiliil *i^j». freedom 
of thought; |*^^l *ij»- freedom 
of speech; {iiL»»^l or) ^^iijl '*ij»- h. an- 
naJk (a^-^hd/a) liberty of the press 

j^j»- harir silk; pi. J\j»-hara'\r^ ij\j^) 
silken wares, silks | ^;^ j-j*. {^akri) 
asbestos; ^Lu» ^j»- rayon 

(jj-^j^ hariri silken, silky, of silk 

tSy[f»- hard'iri silken, silk- (in com- 
pounds), of silk; silk weaver 

jl^ Twrrflf silk w^ver- 

■jif*- b^^^^Ora heat; warmth; fever heat, 
fever; temperature ; ardor, fervor (of 
emotion), posaion; eagerness, enthusiasm, 

zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity; 
burning (of the skin) 

tjj»- huraira pL -fli calorie 

isJ^jT- hardri thermal, thermic, thermo-, 
heat (used attributively); caloric | iA^^j 
*ij\j»- (wahda) calorie 

O *iJ^j»- hardriya pi, -at calorie 

Jjj^ Aarur f., pi. j \j»- hard'ir^ hot-wind 

o[p»- harrUn', f. ^f^ harrHy pi. j[^ 
Wrar, tf j[^ har6r{L thirsty; passionate, 
fervent, hot (fig.) | ^^j>- Ijj {lafra) a 
fervent sigh; ^;^ y^i hot tears 

J*- 1 aharr* hotter, warmer [ j*-l Je 

j-i-1 ^ (jamr) on pins and needles, on 

tenterhooks, in greatest suspense or 

O j^ miharr heating system, heating 

J j^ tahrir liberation; release; emanci- 
pation; record(ing), writing; editing, re- 
daction; editorship (of a newspaper, a 
periodical); (pi. -fll, j-jl^" tahaHi*) piece 
of writing, record, brief, document | 
_r^y^l ,j-jJy editor-in-chief; _rj»*Jl •jijl 
board of editors^ editorial staff 

iSJ,j^ ^h'^''^ liberational; emancipa- 
tional; liberal; recorded, in writing, 
written, in writing 

jL»- h&rr hot; warm; ardent, glowing, 
fervent, passionate 

jjjfi- malvr^f hot-tempered, hot-headed, 
fiery, passionate, furious 

jj^ mvharrir pi. -tin liberator, eman^ 
cipator ; writer, clerk ; editor (of a news- 
paper, of a periodical) 

jj^ muharrar oonsecrated to God; set 
down in writing, reoorded. in writing, 
written; booked; ph ol^^ bookings, 

j^»«L. mvtdfyarriT emancipated.; an 
advocate of emancipation 


fm. harila a {harab) to be furious, enraged, 
angry III to fight, combat (• a.o.), 
battle, wage war (. againat 9,0.) VI to 
fight (one another), he engaged in war 

^_j_^ harb f., pi. ^jj— hurub war, 
warfare; fight, combat, battle; enemy, 
enemies (Jt or J of a.o.) | lSx\ ^j>- 
(ahllya) civil war; <-J^ vy (?«f»*/'y°) 
press feud; \j^1~^'^ VJj^' (ialihiya) the 
Crusadea;,_^l ^>l ('uima) , '^Ul ^>l 
('alarmya), i.UI ■-iji-\ {'dmma) World 
War 1; UiU jt ^>l -i-iiT iaio/n( il- 
harbu 'an adgihd and JU Jt ^j^' »-^^ 
jamai il-h. 'aid aaqin war flared up, 
fierce fighting broke out 

^j^ harbl warlike, bellicose, bellig- 
erent, martial, war (adj.), military; (pi. 
■un) wanior, soldier, military man | ^jJI 
j_,i-l {bulla) military police 

Vj>- harba pi. vL;*" hirSb lance, spear; 
spearhead; bayonet, aidearm 

»\jj^ hirba pi. ti[^ hardiny chameleon 


,lj_^ Ij iDd harabah.' (exclamation of 
lament) alas! goodness no I oh my! 

ijlyS mihrab pi. i-ijl»'- mahdrit' a re- 
cess in a moaque indicating the direction 
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab 

4j jL^ muhdraba struggle, combat, fight, 
battle; warfare 

^\J^\ ihiirab mutual struggle 

^jUi nuharib warring, belligerent; 
warrior, combatant, fighter; corporal 
{Eg. 193D) 

Ojjjl..J.I al-mutahdribun the belliger- 
ents, the warring parties 

\^y jj.- harbuia pi. 
pastille, pill 


hardbiS' {lun.) 

.tj^ harata i u {hart) to plow (» the soil); 
to cultivate, till (» the ground) 

ij.. hart plowing, tilling, tillage, 
cultivation of the aoil; arable land, tilth; 
plantation, culture 

ioj^ hartn (n. un.) arable land, tilth 

ijlrf- hirdta cultivation of the soil, 
farming, agriculture 
,li[^ harrSt plowman 
dj\j^ mihrdt pi. djjl* mahdrlt' plow 

ijU hdril pi. ilj^ hurrat plowman | 
^j\i.\ y} aba Uh. lion 

rj^ harija a {haraj) to be close, tight, 
narrow; to be straitened, be confined, 
get into a strait, be cornered, be hard 
pressed; to be oppressed, be anguished 
(heart); to be forbidden (Jt to s.o.) 
II to narrow, tighten, straiten (a; 
to complicate (», make (» 
difficult; to forbid (J*, t to s.o.); 
to persist (j in IV to narrow, 
straiten, confine, cramp, hamper, im- 
pede, restrict (*; to complicate, 
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardize (» 
a situation, a.o.'a position) ; to embarrass 
(• S.O.); to coerce, constrain, press 
(Jl . s.o. to); to forbid (J* * to 
8.0.) V to refrain from sin or evUdoing; 
to abstain, refrain (j^ from), avoid 
{^; to be cornered, be forced to 
the wall; to become or be oppressed, 
anguished, distressed; to become critical, 
become complicated or difficult, be 
aggravated (situation), be jeopardized 
(a.o.'a poaition) | (v) i>" •-'■'-' ^J^ 
(^adrvhii) to feel depressed by, feel 
annoyed at; ^,-UJI *; ^j^ this made 
things difficult for people 

-_^ haraj closeness, tightness, narrow- 
ness; confinement, atraitnesa, constric- 
tion, crampedness; restriction, impedi- 
ment; oppression, distress, anguish; 
difficulty; critical situation; prohibition, 
interdiction; forbidden, inter- 
dicted, Bin I ^j^ V (haraja) there is no 



objection; tflip wj^ V nothing stands in 
your way, you are at liberty 

^j»~ haraj (coll.; n. un. i) pi, -di, ^1^ 
hiraj, ^!/^' ahrOrj thicket; dense forest; 
woodland, timberland 

r j^ harij narrow, close, tight, confined, 
straitened; oppressed, hard pressed, 
harassed; critical (situation, poaition) 

^j^l ahraj* narrower, closer, tighter, 
more straitened; more critical 

^\j^ harSg {eg.) auction 

o-l^ har^ja sorioueness, gravity, diffi- 
culty, oomplic&tedness (of a situation) 

^_j^ tahrij forestation, afforestation 

^j^ taharruj restraint, reserve, aloof- 
ness; timidity, diffidence, faint-hearted- 
ness; critical complication, gravity, diffi- 
culty (of a situation) 

oU-^ Muharti-jUt: jLf V •^^^rv** '"■■ '^^" 
aimdn binding, committing, or solemn, 

r^ muhrij disconcerting, embarroaa- 

r-yoJU mutaharrij: jJL^\ r-j*^"^ m.a^- 
^dr annoyed, vexed, anguished, op- 

j^ harida a (harad) to be annoyed^ dia- 
gruntled, angry, furious (J*> at, with) 

Aj[f- hdridf ^j^ hoTid and ol^j^ har* 
ddn annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious 

0jj,«- hirdaun pi, ^J|/»- harddin^ linard 

jjf- haraza u {harz) to keep, guard, protect, 
preserve [a, take care {a of); — 
hanaa u («j[y- har&a) to be strong 
be strongly fortified, be impregnable 
IV to keep, preserve, guard (a; to 
obtain, attain, achieve, win {a | 


'./-*J jj>- 

1 {na$ran} to win a 

victory; J^l ^.^ J^«-i {qa^aba 8-sabq) 
to oome through with flying colors, carry 

the day, score a great success V to be 
wary (^ of), be on one's guard (^ 
against) VIII to be wary (^ of), guard, 
be on one's guard (j* against), be careful, 
take heed^ take precautions 

jj^ hirx pi. j 1^1 ahrdz fortified place; 
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pi. 
JL^'f JJj*" l}ttrus) amulet 

jj^ hariz strongly fortified, guarded; 
inaccessible, impregnable 

j \j^ 1 ihrdz acquisition, acquirement, 
jbtainment, attainment^ achievement, 
winning, gaining 

jlj^l ihtirOs pi. -at caution, wariness, 
prudence, circumspection; reservation, 
reserve | jlJ^V J''^ ^th all reservation 

O «jjl*- hdriza fuse {el.) 

jj^ muhriz obtainer, acquirer, winner, 
gainer ; possessor, holder ( J« of .) 

j-^ harasa u {hara, o.lj^ hirOaa) to guard, 
watch, control (», *, s.o.}; to 
oversee, supervise, superintend (*, a, 
8.0.) ; to secure, protect, safeguard, pre- 
serve, keep (*, *, s.o.); to watch 
(J* over) V and VIII to beware, be wary 
I {jM of), guard, be on one's guard (j^ 

^j». haraa watch; guard, escort; body- 
guard I jLJI ^j^ji' 1 (sayyar) militia, 
"garde mobile" (Syr.) | Ji^l ^jw A. 
ai-Saraf honor guard; JJil ^^^1 (malaki) 
the royal guard (formerly Jr., Eg.); ,j^^ 
J^l {mrduki) (formerly) bodyguard of 
the Bey (Tun.); JUjl! ^jl\ {uxtfani) the 
National Guard 

l^\j^ }j^irdM guarding, watching, con- 
trol; watch, guard, guard duty; super- 
vision, superintendence ; guardianship, tu- 
telage, custody, care, protection; safe 
conduct, escort; administration; admin- 
istration of an estate (jur.) ; sequester | 
J>-ij-Jl i^^jm- coast guard 



^Ij^l ihtirds caution, wariness, pru- 
dence; (pL. -dt) precaution, precautionary 
measure | ^ Ulj^l for protection from 
or against 

^jU. hdria pi. 4mj». haram, ^\j^ 
hurrHs vigilant, watchful; watchman; 
sentry, sentinel, guard; OTerseer, super* 
visor, superintendent; administrator; 
guardian, custodian, keeper, protector, 
tutelary (in compounds) | j^J}\ ^^^jU. 
fy. at-tirka administrator of an estate; 
j^l^'l ^jU- keeper of the seal; l/A' u'-j'^ 
h. al-marmd goal keeper; JU* ^j^ (9^* 
(^fiH) sequestrator, receiver (in bankrupt- 
cy, in equity); ^jl»- iJtiU {maVak] guard- 
ian angel (OAr.) ; JJJl ^^j\»- h. al-lail night 

^jj^ mahriis guarded, safeguarded, 
secured; protected (by God; esp. used 
as an epithet after the names of cities) ; 
Oyj^\ the children^ the family 

^j^^ ntuhktris cautious, wary, careful 

^^ haraia i (harS) to scratch (a, • s.o., II to instigate, prodj incite, 
provoke, incense (» s.o.); to set (j*j 
people against each other), sow discord, 
dissension {j<t among) T to pick a 
quarrel, start a brawl (o> with s.o.), 
provoke (^ s.o.) 

^Jj»- hirij huri pi. ^jilj»-l ahrdi, ^J-jj^- 
fyarui forest, wood(B) 

^J>j»- kariS and ^j»-\ ahraP rough, 
coarse, scabrous 

roughness, coarseness, scabrousness 

tj-ij^ tahriS instigation, prodding, 
incitement, provocation, agitation, in- 


^j^ taharrui provocation, importu- 
nity, obtrusion, meddling, uncalled-for 

harSaj pi. 

harOHf* scales (of 


f_ffj^ hara^ i and hari^ a {hir^) to desire, 
want, covet (J»; to be intent, 
be bent (^ on); to strive (J* for), 
aspire (J* to) 

^_ffJ-■ fyir^ greed, avidity, cupidity, 
covetousnesa ; desire; aspiration, endeav- 
or, wish (J^ for); avarice | J* L»>»- in 
the desire for . . . , in the endeavor to ... ; 
r\jj^^ J*- ^j»- danger! (on warning 

^j^ harif pi. ^[^ hirO^, »U^ 
Aura^'* covetous, greedy, avid, eager 
(J* for); bent (Jp on), desirous (J* of) 

ahra^ more covetous, greedier 


^j*' II to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, 
incite, rouse, provoke (J* « s.o. to 
or to do; to instigate, abet, stir 
up, agitate (Jp • s.o. to or against); Q to 
induce {d.) 

,j^j^ toAri^ incitement, provocation; 
instigation, abetment, agitation (J» to); 
inflammatory propaganda (J* against 
s.o,); O induction [tL) | O J'i (j-»ij^ 
self-induction (ei.) 

^^^j^ Uihri^^ inciting, instigatlve, agi- 
tative, inflammatory; provocative 

^jl*- Mru( bad, wicked, dvil 

^jij^ muharri^ pi- -^^ inciter, baiter; 
instigator, abettor; demagogue, rabble 
rouser; agitator, provocator; Q inductor 

^j»-^ mv.taharr\4 O induced (e£.) 

i_j;»- II to slant, incline, make oblique (* ; to bend off, up, down or back, turn 
up, down or back, deflect (a; 
to distort, corrupt, twist, pervert, mis- 
construe, falsify (a | ja^*^ ^ -o^ 
i^an vnavdx'ihi) to distort the sense of 


jy, rob s.tli. of its true meaning V to 
turn off, branch off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress (^ irom); 
to avoid {^y.; to be or become 
bent off, distorted, corrupted, perverted 
VII to turn off, brancli off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress, turn aw&y 
ije. from); to slope down, slant, be in- 
clined {terrain); to turn (Jl to, toward); 
to be twisted, be distorted; to be oblique, 
slanting; to be cocked, rakish (headgear); 
with uj: to make appear oblique, 
slanted, or distorted; to be corrupted, 
perverted | j^ *j Ji/il to dissuade s.o. 
from; *i^lj- Jjj^l {mixdjuhu) to be indis- 
posed, be ill VIII to do (* profes- 
sionally, practice (^ as & profession; 
to strive for success 

*-Jj»~ harf pi. cjj*- hiraf (cutting) 
edge (of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge; 
border, edge, rim, brink, verge; — 
(pi. J»jj^ huruf, Jy-I a^ru/) letter; 
consonant; particle (gram,); type [iyp-) | 
tjj*- J* irresolute, wavering, on the fence ; 
L^j ^ 4UU)I alftizvJiubi-hurilliJid his words 
literally; lj^Ij or JU-l^Jl Js^Ij liberally, 
verbatim, to the letter; J*^ Li^ harfan 
bi-lyarfin literally, word for word; ajj 
Jj"^! Ji^Vlj (uwgga'a, uln) to initial (e.g., 
•J^Lw mu'ahadatan a treaty) ; oj^ I 
"h-ia^^l {abjadiya) the alphabetic letters, 
the alphabet; 3*j*if "-Jjj»- matter {typ.); 
i_«jLJl «_jj_^l {Samsiya) the sun letters 
(i.e,, sibilants, dentals, r, I, n to which the 
f of the article assimilates), Ijj^i iJ*;^! 
(qamariya) the moon letters (to which the 
I of the article does not assimilate); 
_^_1 t_Jj»- ^. al-jarr preposition (gram.); 
,j^^\ i_j^ h. al-kafd do.; ^j»ci\ ij»y> 
article (gram.); iJ»U*ll Ji^ h. al-'a^f co- 
ordinating conjunction (gram^); >-J^ 
^l^jc-'i/l interrogative particle (gram.); 
, *H i_J^ A. aUqasam particle introducing 
oaths (gTam.) 

jj*- harfi hteral 

(Jij^ hurf common garden pepper cress 
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.) 

ii^ hirfa pi. Ji^ hiraf profession, 
occupation, vocation, business, craft, 

lJbj j»- harif pi. •Li^ hurafd'^ customer, 
patron, client (tun.) 

(Ju j»- hirrif pungent, acrid (taste) ; 
<1j[Juj»~ spicy food, delicacies 

iil^ hardfa pungency, acridity (taste) 

(Ju^ tahrif pi. -fl< alteration^ change; 
distortion; perversion, corruption, esp. 
phonetic corruption of a word 

Js\j^\ inhiT&f pi. -Qt deviation, di- 
greaaion; obhqueness, obliquity, incli- 
nation, slant; declination {astron.); ail- 
ment, indisposition, also ^Ijil ,^[f^\ 

Ji\J^\ ihtir&f professional pursuit (of 
a trade, etc.) 

uJj* muharraf corrupted (word) 

^J>J3^^ munharif oblique ; slanted, slant- 
ing, sloping, inclined ; distorted, perverted, 
corrupted, twisted; deviating, divergent; 
trapezium (geom.) 

Jsji^ mu^rif one gainfully employed 
(uj in), person doing (c-j) profession- 
ally ; professional, a pro (sports) ; profes- 
sional (adj.), e.g., J»j^ (jU«* i^ihafi) pro- 
fessional journalist; chmber, careerist 

O Oj^ rnvhtaraf pi. -Qi studio, atelier 

jijf- haraqa \ {harq) to bum (a; to 
burn, hurt, sting, smart | *-ii j;*- 
(qalbahu), pi. ^^j^ i5y- (qulubahum) to 
vei, exasperate s.o.j — u (harq) to nib 
together (a II to burn (*; 
*jL^1 Jj»- (a&ndnahu) to gnash one's 
teeth IV to burn (»; to destroy by 
fire (a; to singe, scorch, parch 
(a; to scald (a; to kindle, 
ignite, set on fire (a | j *1J *** Jj»-1 
{fahmata lailihi) to spend the night doing 



(, bum the midnight oil over . . . 
V to burn, be aflame, bum up, take fire, 
be consumed by fire, be burned; to be 
consumed (by an emotion), pine away 
(a with), be pained (a by), eat one's 
heart out | l*ji 3j^ {iauqan) to be 
overcome with longing or nostalgia VIII to 
bum, be aflame, bum up» take fire, be 
oonaumed by fire, be burned 

j^ hirq burning, incineration, com- 
bustion; kindling, igniting, setting afire; 
arson, incendiarism; pi. 3jj^ huruq 

bums [mtd.) 

J^ ^raq fire, confiagration 

'iij^ hvrqa, harqa burning, incineration, 
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning 
(as a physical sensation); torture, tor- 
ment, agony, pain, ordeal 

jl.- hurHq, hurrOq tinder 

jl^ harr&q burning, aflame, afire; hot 

jj J*- hariq and -ii^ pi. jSj^ Aanll'tg* 
fire; conflagration 

O **!^ harr&qa torpedo 

o\jj^ haraqGn burning, stinging, smart- 
ing (as a painful sensation; e.g., of the 

O J^ mahraq pi. Jjl^ maAflrtg* focus 

JijU" tahariq* {Eg.) season of the 
Nile's lowest water level, hottest season 
uf the year 

Jl^l ihrdq burning, incineration, com- 

i3^ taharruq burning, combustion ; burn- 
ing desire (Jl for] 

i5l_;^l ihtirdq burning, combustion; fire, 
conflagration | O J^j^Vl i*> gvrfat al-i. 
combustion chamber (fecAn,); jlj^lfl JjlJ 
qObil al-i, combustible 

JjL- hAriq arsonist^ incendiary 

Ojj^ ffloArfl^bumed, charred, scorched, 
parched; reddish, bronze-colored; pi. 
olijj* mahrOqdt fuel 1 3jj^ j'i^ ifafekar) 
fired clay 

3j^ muhriq: «^ ii-J {qunbula) incen- 
diary bomb 

O i}j^ muhraq crematory 

iijfi muhraqa burnt sacrifice 

ijij^ harqada pi. iil^ harHqid* Adam's apple 

la,^ hargafa pi. ._iil^ hardqif* protruding 
part of the hipbone 

ij^ II to move, set in motion, drive, propel, 
operate (*; to march, move (• 
troops); to stir (a; to start, get 
started, get underway (a; to 
agitate, excite, stimulate (a; to 
incite, instigate, goad, prod, provoke, 
actuate, urge (J* * h.O- to do; to 
awaken, arouse, foment, stir up (a; 
to vowel, vowelize {gram, , a a consonant) | 
•jpLlL- 'JjP- {maia'irahU) to grip, excite, 
thrill 8.0. ; fc_iUJ><JI 'Jijp- to affect the feel- 
ings, be touching, moving, pathetic; V 
UTU ii^ («aJWnan) he doesn't budge, 
he doesn't bend his little finger, he 
remains immobile, apathetic; *:S'\^ i\f»- 
{adkinahu) to rouse s.o., put s.o. in 
a state of excitement, commotion or 
agitation T to move, be in motion, stir, 
budge ; to start moving, get moving ; 
to start out, get underway (traveler); 
to depart, lea?e (train); to put out, to 
sail (fleet); to be set in motion, be driven, 
be operated; to be agitated, be excited, 
be stimulated ; to be awakened, be roused, 
be fomented, be provoked, be caused 

ii^ harik lively, active, brisk, agile, 

'tfj^ haraka pi. -tU movement, motion ; 
commotion ; physical exercise ; etirring, 
impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy; 
action, undertaking, enterprise; military 



operation; continuation^ progreas; traf' 
fie (rail, shipping, street); movement (as 
a social phenomenon); vowel (gram.) \ 
*i\:Si^j aJK^ j {Mkandlihl) in all his 
doings; in every situation; jj^l ^0~ 
(through) tra-ffic; wi'l^i y^ shipping 
trafBo; mUJI '4^ exchange of goods; 
Jj^Vl 453*- turnover (com.); \j^\ ^S^i-i 
(niswiya) feminifit movement; ^S^^t <J>r^ 
nimble» lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit; 
^J^^l JJu slow in motion^ heavy-handed, 
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert, indo- 

O i51r*" b^^^ kinetic [phya.) 

il\j^ ^rAk movement, motion 

4/^ mahrak path, trajectory (of a 

iil^ mihrdk poker, fire iron 

Sij^ tafifiki dynamio 

6j^ taharruk p]. -<U movement, motion; 
forward motion ; start ; departure ; sailing 
(of a fleet) 

l)jU- hdrik withers 

6j^ muharrik mover, stirrer; rouBer, 
inoiter, fomenter, awakener, agent; insti- 
gator; — (pi. -dt) motive, springs, incen- 
tive, spur, motivating circumstance, cau- 
sative factor; motor, engine (techn.) 

!^j-^i* mutaharrik moving, movable, 
mobile ; pronounoed with following vowel, 
voweled, vowelized (consonant; gram.) \ 
^j-^^ jj^ {fuioar) movies, motion pic- 

itSy- harkaia (and (_,iS^ harkaia) to 8tir up, 
agitate, excite, thrill 

Pj^ haruma u, harima a to be forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted, unlawful, un- 
permitted (J*tOB.o.); — harama i {hirm, 
jU;*- J^trm&n) to deprive, bereave, dis- 
possess, divest (a • or jrf • s.o. of, 
take away, withdraw, withhold (* • or 

A jr* or j3 • from s.o., deny, refuse 
(a • or A ^ or jr* • to s.o.; to 
exclude, debar, preclude, cut off (a • or 
^ * s.o. from; to excommunicate 
(• B.O.; Chr.) II to declare (a 
sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable, or taboo, 
to taboo (a; to declare (a 
unlawful, not permissible, forbid, inter- 
dict, proscribe (a, Jp to s.o.); to 
render (» s.o.) immune or proof (^ 
against), immunize (^ • s.o. against) | 
<_jiJ J« <»j^ to deny o.b., abstain, 
refrain from IV to excommunicate 
(• B.O.; CHt.); to enter into the state 
of ritual consecration (esp., of a Mecca 
pilgrim; see ^|^l ihrAm) V to be for- 
bidden, interdicted, prohibited; to be 
holy, sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to 
honor, revere, venerate, esteem, respect 
(a, * S.O., I 4-iJ ^j^t to be self- 
respecting X to deem (a sacro- 
sanct, sacred, holy, inviolable; to deem 
( unlawful or unpermisaible 

^j^ hirm excommunicatioD (Chr.) 

m^ haram pi. ^\j»-\ a/inlm forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, 
sacred, sacrosanct; sacred, soared 
object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, 
sanctuary, sacred precinct; oU^I the 
two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina | 
J^j^i lUli itUif al-harama\i^ the third 
Holy Place, i.e., Jerusalem 

*Aj^ hurma pi. -Si, hurumHi, ^uramSt 
holiness, sacredneas, sanctity, sacro- 
sanctity, inviolability; reverence, venera- 
tion, esteem, deference, respect; that 
which is holy, sacred, sacrosanct, invio- 
lable, or taboo; — (pi. ^^ ^iuram) woman, 
lady; wife 

^\jf- hardm pi. py- hurum forbidden, 
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; 
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; 
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed [ j\ 
^\j». %bn ^. illegitimate son, bastard; 



f\ji-\ ^IjV' no man's land; neutral 
territory; f\jH o-^JI (bait) the Kaaba; 
Cl>l ^1 (iahr) the Holy Month 
Muhairam; f\ji-\ An,.\\ (matjid) the Holy 
Mosque in Mecca; ,^L1» Ajt- you mustn't 
do (say) that I f\ji-\i illicitly, illegally, un- 

^\j^ ^irAm pi. -d<, *'j^^ akrima a 
voolen blanket (woTn as a garment 
around head and body) 

fj^ harim pi. ^^ T^urum a sacred, 
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary, 
sacred precinct; harem; female members 
of the family, women; wife 

ijfj^ fuirimi women's (in compounds), 
for women 

^jj^ ^urum pi, -di excommunication 

ij)j^ ftariimt pi. -iya thief, robber, 

oLj^ hirman deprivation, bereave- 
ment, dispossession (of s.o., ^ of; 
debarment, exclusion, preclusion (^ 
from); excommunication (CAr.); priva- 
tion I t^ji\ jU,*- ^. al-iri exclusion 
from inheritance, disinheritance (Jsl. Latp) 

*_;* mihram pi. fj\^ mal^rim' 
forbidden, inviolable, taboo, sacroeanct, 
holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being 
in a degree of oonsangoinity precluding 
marriage {III. Law) 

\*jA mah^mma pL ajI^ mdh&nm* 

<j^ ttQ^m forbiddance, interdiction, 
prohibition, ban 

f\^\ ihrUm state of ritual oonsecration 
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the 
pilgrim, wearin^i two seamleas woolen or 
linen sheets, usually white, neither combs 
wa shaves, and obaerves sexual con- 
tinence); garments of the Mecca pilgrim 

plji-l iiftir&m pi. -it deference, respect, 
Ivgard, esteem, reverence ; honoring (e.g., 
of a privilege); pi. honors, respects, 

l"j J* mahrum deprived, bereaved, bereft 
(^ of); excluded, precluded, debarred 
(^ from) ; sufiering privation (as opposed 
^ iijjj')i excommunicated (Chr.) 

fjt- mvharram forbidden, interdicted; 
Muharram, name of the first Islamic 
month; Aji-\ p* n. al-harim honorific 
name of this month 

fj^ muhrim Mecca pilgrim who has 
entered the state of ritual consecration 
(see <ly»-l ihram) 

fj^ muhiaram honored, revered, vener- 
ated, esteemed, respected; (in the salu- 
tation of letters:) my dear . . .; vranrable, 
reverend; notable, remarkable, consider- 

i^jt- harmal African rue (Peganum harmala 
L.; bot.) 

•!■_,»■ ^rmala pi. J»5^ ^rSmtf a 
loose wrap worn over the shoulders 
(garment of the dervishes) 

iijp- harana, harund u (ilii^ Urdn, ^urdn) 
to be obstinate, stubborn, headstrong 

^Jj*" b^riin pi, OjT- hurun obstiDate, 
stubborn, refractory, reluctant, resistant 

UjjU- ^Oriin brazier 

•1^ harm burning; wrath, rage; acridity, 
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagree- 
able odor 

^fJ^ V to seek, pursue (*], strive (* 
for), aspire (• to) ; to examine, investigate 
(«; to inquire (j> or * into), make 
inquiries (j» or * about); to be intent 
(« on, take care (* of, 
attend (* to, also j), look (* after, also J); to see to it (jl that) 



tjji-lj bi-l-hard hardly, barely 

^JJ^ hariy pi. p\jj>^\ ahntfa** adequate, 
appropriate, suitable (u^ for), vorthy 
(v of I jTiJL iSj^ (4ihr) worth 
mentioning, considerable; Jj'UcIIj tSj^ 
credible, believ^able; jJ^Ij jI or to be 
exact, or rather 

j;^l ahri% more adequate, more proper, 
more appropriate | iS^*^\ j' or to tell 
the truth, or more explicitly, or put more 
exactly, or rather 

j^ Uxharriii pi. cA^j^ tdfyarriy&i 
inquiry; investigation | ^SJ^^ '^j-^ Surfat 
at-t. or iX;*>zJt *iJl^^ ma^lahat at-t. secret 

J»- hazxa u {hazz) bo notch^ nick, incise, indent 
(J make an incision, cut (j into U and VIII = I 

j»- hazz pi. jjj*- hutHz incision, notch, 
nick; the right time, the nick of time 

•>- hazza incision, notch, nick; time; 
the right time, the nick of time; predica- 
ment, plight 

J \)»- haz&t head scurf, ringworm ; tetter, 
eruption {med.) 

*;lj»- haxdza rancor, hatred, hate 

j^ mafyaa notch, nick | J^l w^' ^ 
find the right solution^ hit the nail on 
the head, hit the mark, strike home 

^jf- haxaba u {ha^) to befall (• s.o.), happen, 
occur {■ to B.o.> I j-Vl v>- **»o matter 
became serious JI to rally (» s.o.); to 
form or found a party III bo side, take 
aides (d with), be an adherent (• of s.o.) 
V to take sides; bo form a party, make 
common oause, join forces 

^J»- hizb pi. vlj**' ''AzdA group, troop, 
band, gang; party {'pol.)', the 60th part of 
the Koran | *il>-l ^y ^ he belongs to 
his clique, he is of the same breed 

i^jr- hizbi party (adjOt factional 

V^ ^»s&iya party aotivities; partisan- 
ship, partiality; factionalism 

j^jw- haiiabQn old h^ 
^j^ tahaziibb factiousness; factionalism 
•-^jU- hOzih : <yjl*- 4*j*~ haxabaha A. he 
met with a mishap 

•-^^^miZh* muloAazztb partial, biased; par- 

bj»- hazara i u {hazr, ijjfi mahxara) bo esti- 
mate, assess, appraise {m,); to make 
a rough estimate (a of, guess (* 

jj*- fyazr estimation, assessment, ap- 
praisal; conjecture, guess, aurmise 

hjj^ hazxura riddle, puzzle 

ijj^ majuara estimation, assessment, 
jtppraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

*ul^_>- haziiHn* June [Syr., Z<i., /r., Jord.) 

jli)*- htauqq&ni choleric 

*hj^ hazuqa, yijl*- hSzHqa hiccups 

^>- haxama i (hazm) to tie up, bundle, wrap 
up, pack, do up in a package or bundle 
(*; bo giriih {m an animal); to 
make fast, fasten, tie (* [ t^l ^j^ 
(amrahu) to take matters firmly in hand; 
— hazuma u {hazm, i-lj»- haxOma, <*jj-- 
huzHvia) to be resolute, firm, stouthearted, 
intrepid II to gird (. s-o.) V and VIII 
to be girded; to* gird o.s., put on a belt 
^>- fyazm packing, packaging, wrap- 
ping; determination, resoluteness, firm- 
ness, energy; judiciousness, discretion, 

i-j»- fyuxma pi. -j^ huzam wrapped 
up or tied up; bundle, fagot, fascine; 
beam of raya, radiation beam iphye,); 
bunch (of herba, etc^; sheaf; package, 

f\^ fyizAm pi. -at, aa)»-\ ahzima, >y- 
Jkvzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, 



wajstbaud (worn over the oallim to 
fatten it); eword belt | ^"ii |>!>- ^ 
al^amn safety belt 

tjr-\ ajuoffl' more resolute: more judi- 

{•jU- ^d»m pi. <t)t^ hazama and /^J»> 
^»m pi. iLj*- huzam/V' reaolute, energet- 
ic; judicious, difloreet, prudent 

0^ fuizana u to make sad, sadden, grieve 
(• 8.0.) ; — hazina a (Auzn, hazan) to be 
Bod, grieved (J or J> at or because 
of); to grieve^ mourn ( J« over) II and IT 
to make sad, sadden, grieve (• s. o.) 

ojf huxn pi. jljrl ahUin sadness, 
grief, sorrow, affliction 

jj>- ham pi. Oj^ ^ufun rough, rugged, 
hard ground 

Oj^ haiin sad, mournful, grieved 

^^^ haiin pi. .Uj». ^ii2and'*, ijlj». 
Atzdn, (J\jm- Jui2&na sad; mourning (for a 
deceased person); sorrowing, mournful, 
grieved | ''L>J^\ 4>^l {j^m'a) Good Friday 

01j>- Aasndn* very Bad, very grieved, 
worried; in moumiDg 

D i^j^ liazHyinl (^^^'^ hazO^ini) 
aadf mournful, melancholic; mouming- 
(in compounds), mortuary, funereal | 
Jjly- JM {qwnOi) cloth for mourning 

bji iahazzwi sadness; behavior of a 

OjJ^ malfi^n grieved, grief •strickeo, 
pained, sad, saddened 

jj^ muhiin grievous, saddening; sad; 
melancholic ; tragic; oUj^ mu^nAi griev- 
ous things I <Jj^ ^4^ '*^ (f^Wfl tamtUiya) 
and HJj^ *i}jj {riuAya) tragedy {ihtai.) 

^j.^ haua (1st pers. perf. haaaaiu) u {haa») 
to curry, currycoinb (a an animal) ; to feel, 

sense (*; — {ioMa (let pers. perf. 
haaa^v) », (let pers. perf. haaiHu) a to 
feel sorry, feel eympathy or compassion 
(J for), sympathize [J with). II to grope, 
feel IV to perceive, sense, experience (a 
or i^; to feel (a or ^>; 
to notice (a or ly; to hear (* a 
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice 
(• of 8.O.] T to grope, probe (a for, 
finger, handle, touch (a, run the 
hand (a over; to grope about, 
feel around; to seek information, make 
inquiries (j^ about) ; to sense, experience, 
perceive (a, v^; to feel {<^; 
to be affected, be deeply touched {%^ by 

^j.*' liasa sensation, perception, feeling, 

^J.^ IjMe sensory perception, sensation; 
feeling, sentiment; sense; voice; sound; 

,j-»- hiaal sensory; sensuous; percep- 
tible; palpable | O is^^ •-^aaK (madhab) 
sensationalism, sensualism 

oL.^ ^iart^ sensations 

^ i — JluiHa faint noise 

(^L-^ ^Mdff sensitive ; sensible; readily 
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure) 

l^aadsa sensory organ 

hasj&H aUergio | L^L 


allergic diseases, allergies (merf.) 

4^L.»> haaaOaiya sensitivity (alsotMAn.) ; 
sensibility; faculty of sensory perception; 
susceptibility; sensuality | ^LJ-I ^j^j* 
mara4 aj-ji. allergy (nutl.) 

<-A mi{ta«« ourrycomb 

^L..-l i)ft/l» pi. -at, ^j-i^^^ ahOaUf feel> 
feeling; sensation, sense (y-- of; 
perception (k^ of; sensitivity; pi. 
oUL^I feelings, sentimeDta | O lt'— ^' 
j^li sensitivity to light; O ^r'— ^"^^ -'i'^ 


highly sensitive; iijj^ ^^Lp-I (multarak) 
feeling of harmony, concord, unanimity; 
^L.»-V^ «li giUat al-i. insensitivity, dull- 
ness, obtusenosB 

O ^'l--V< u'lUI a(-ta'ifa al-iluAHya 
the impressionists 

L-L- h&ssa pi, ^1^ Aawdu* sensation; 
sense | ^j-^^ i^lA' ^^^ ^^* senses 

^j'^ maheu3 felt; sensed; perceptible, 
noticeable, palpable, tangible; appreci- 
able, considerable (e.g., loss); ^^-j r^' that 
which is perceptible through the senses; 
appearance, evidence; hl^Uj^l things 
perceptible through the senses 

..^ hamba u (A<ui, ^i-^ hiM), jL_>- hit' 
Mn, hu^n) to compute, reckon, calcu- 
late; to count; to charge, debit (J# m 
to S.O., to s.o.'s account); to credit (J a to B.O., tos.o.'s account) | ajL.*- , p. 

{hisObakC) to take or s.o. into 
account or into consideration, reckon 
with or s.o., count on or s.o.; 
J IjL.*- >_— r- (huOtan) do.; to attach 
importance to s.o. or; tJtS\ — 
J ^l->- (alfa) to have a thousand appre- 
hensions about, . .; — ffaMaai{ol—>-hU" 
Urn, <_« mahiaha, maf^tHa) to regard (• < 
s.o. as), consider, deem(ft«s.o. to be. . .); 
to think, believe, suppose, assume; to 
consider, regard (j. > s.o. as belonging 
to), count (j. • s.o. among); to gee 
(• J in s.o.; — f^ruba u {fya$ab, 
4jU.>- Jjuudba) to be of noble origin, be 
highborn; to be highly esteemed, be 
valued III to settle an account, get even 
(• with s.o.); to call (• s.o.) to account, 
ask (• 8.0.) for an accounting; to hold 
(• s. 0.) responsible, make (• s.o.) an- 
swerable I *-Ju ^ <.^\f to be careful, 
be on one's guard V to be oarefiil, be 
on one's guard; to take precautions; to 
seek to know, try to find out (t 
VI to settle a mutual account VIII to 
debit or credit; to take into account. 

take into consideration (^ or m; 
to reckon (^ or * with); (to anticipate 
a reward in the hereafter by adding a 
pious deed to one's account with God — 
such as resigning in God's will at the 
death of a relative; hence:) Uj ....Ji^l 
(uialadan) to give a son, be bereaved of 
a son; r^I ^I x^ ,,,.,i^I to sacriflce in anticipation of God's reward in 
the hereafter; to charge (J< * foi); 
to think, believe, suppose; to take (> > 
s.o. for or to be . . .); to be content, 
content o.s. (i-i with); to disapprove 
(J< * of in S.O.), take exception 
(J< * to in S.O.), reject (J> « i.tb. 
in S.O.); to call (J> s.o.) to account, 
ask (J# s.o.) for an accounting 

L-..-^ ^s& reckoning, computing, cal- 
culation; thinking, opinion, view; suifl- 
ciency | ^ji (<iL-* or) >fJL_>- hatbuka (it- 
hasbika) dirhamun one dirhani is enough 
foryou;(jl ><1_.«. it suffices to say that ...; 
you know enough when you hear that . . .; 
you need only . . . ; <jl U-i dl,. ^ {nvqni'an) 
it will be enough to convince you if . . .; 
\ji JS* iXn •il'r—J (ii-U#a MlihiiaTTan) 
but enough of all these negative aspectsi 
<■ I- fa-hoA and that's all, and no more, 
only (interchangeable with .Wii) 

j^_~ haM: ^^_^ ,j.Jf (majfit) pi. ^^l* 
j . i — guardianship court, probata court 

^^—t- hatab pi. ^I_>-1 ajuOi measure, 
extant, degree, quantity, Amount; value; 
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; 
noble descent; hituttba (prep.), >,_^ bi- 
hoMbi and uii p- ^ 'a2d fyaaabi according 
to, in accordance with, commensurate 
with, depending on 

!,_.>- hatabamd (conj.) according to 
as, depending on how ■ . . | 
- (ttalaqa) as chance will 

what . . . 
have it 

L..*- hiAa arithmetical problem, sum 


^..ii p. luuib pi. •l-^ l^iuaba'' reapeoted, 
esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn 

oL.*- huM>in oalouUtion, reckoning, 
accounting; computation | 6L-i>l j OlT 
to be taken into account, be taken into 
consideration; to be expected, be antic- 
ipated; u1 uL-i-l j jtT it waa expected 
that . . .; jl JV— »- I expect that . . . 

^L-»- hiaOb arithmetic, reclioning, cal- 
culus; computation; calculation, estima- 
tion, appraisal; accounting, settlement; 
consideration, oonsideratenesa ; caution ; — 
(pi. -M) bill, invoice; statement of oosta; 
(bank) account; pi. oLiL«- bookkeeping | 
^|JLi wL-#- h. al-jummal (al-juvuil) use of 
the alphabetic letters according to their 
numerical value; ^^LJ-I U 'tint al-h. 
arithmetic; J^li:)! i-'l-^ h. al-lafS^td 
differential calculus; J^K3I i-^L^ /i. at- 
tatamtd integral calculus; v^-' J ^^ 
he reckoned with it, he expected it, he 
was prepared for it; *i IjI—^ J' to take 
8.O. or into consideration; to reckon 
withB.o.; ^bl'l ^L.J-1 (M(dm{)and 
JV v''~^ (ntU'i) final statement of 
account, final accounting; t_,I..J-l Jl aUi 
(da'OAu) he called him to account; ^jj 
t^L^I yaum al-ff. the Day of Reckoning, 
Judgment Day; J Ul— » r\i\ to render 
account to 8.0. ; '^i-— "it without limit 
or bounds, to excess, to an unlimited ex- 
tent; ^L.^ _rk ^ blindly, without fore- 
thought, at random ; ij^ v^— ^ ^ s.o.*s 
credit, to 8.o.'a advantage; j'^ v^— ^ J' 
to 8.o.*B debit, at 8.0. ^b expense, to 8.0. 's 
disadvantage; t.^L.i-1 *j^ JJ taqiyasu*a l-^i. 
he got a raw deal, he was in for it ; •-'l-— 
jU- (jArin) current account; ^LiL.^ 
j*i^ i3j \' r h, ^ndvq at-t. Bavings-bank 
aooounts; iJ)>>- v'-^ blocked account; 
4^jj tl,LtL.*- double-entry bookkeeping; 
J^l •^[^\ (iarqi) the Julian calendar; 
J jii^ i^L-l I (^(irM) the Qiegorian calendar 
Jl_p- ftwAM arithmetical, mathematical, 

wU nuMnba pi. -A accounting; 
clearing (Mm.); bookkeeping; request for 
accounting; examination of conscience 
{iheol.) I i^l^l |>^ fimi at-m. accounting 
department, comptroller's office; clearing 

■ ■! '-I tUudi computation; calcula- 
tion, consideration, reflection; debiting; 
crediting; valuation; contentednesa, sat- 

^-.J.— hOiib counter, nckoner, arith- 
metician, calculator, computer 

^j_* mahtOb pi. -fin, w^l* mahotib' 
prot^^, pet, favorite; obedient, sub- 
servient (Jp to s.o.) 

«2j f^^ mahnibiya esteem enjoyed by 
8.O., position of distinction; patronage, 
favored position, favoritism 

^--'^ muhOtib, jr-r"^ muhOsibfi (C0.) 
accountant, bookkeeper ; comptroller, au- 

■_ "^ tnujhiasab that for which one 
can expect reward in the hereafter (e.g., 
suffering, loaa, etc.) 

,•■ huada u {hamd) to envy, grudge (• 8.0.. 
\t OT M, be envious (• of s.o., Jp 
or > because of VI to envy each 

.u>. ^atad envy 

-J — lyuQd pi. d..*- htuud envious 

.uU^ taJ}Ssud mutual envy 

.uU hOtid pi. jl-v husaOd, io-^ 
^tada envious; envier, grudger 

^ ^ ma/uiU envied; smitten by the 
evil eye 

^ fytuara « t ($cur) to pull away or off, 
remove (^ *, a cover, a veil, from); 
to unoover, lay bare, unveil (j»]; 
— ( j>-^ ^usur) to become dim (sight) ; — 
^aira a {^atar, i^.^ ^ra) to regret 
( J», be grieved, be pained ( J» by 

177,); to sigh (; — hasara i, 
hasira a {kaaaT) to become tired, fatigued 
II to fatigue, tire, weaken, sap {• s.o.}; 
to grieve, sadden (• fl.o.), cause pain or 
grief {* to 8.O.); to remove (* a cover, 
jt- from), lay bare, unveil (^ V to 
be distressed, be pained, be grieved (Jp 
by); to sigh (Jp over) VII to be pulled 
away or off, be removed (^ from); to 
be rolled up, be turned back (sleeve, j» 
from the arm); to disappear suddenly 
(jt from) 

j.^*' hasar fatigue, debility, weakness | 
^,.^1 j-»- h. al-ba^r nearsightednoss, 

j~^ haair grieved, sad; fatigued, lan- 
guid, weary, tired 

*j—^ hatra pi. haaariU grief, sorrow, 
pain, distress, affliction; sigh | \j,»»^ L. 
^ la-i-haarati alasl unfortunately! J^,_». L 
yA hasrati and aIJ,..*- \j wA haaratdh what 
a pity I too bod I 

_,r— >- hasir pi. jij— *- hasrA tired, weary, 
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye), 
nearsighted | ^««JI jw*- h. albafar near- 
sighted, myopio 

j^>*.^ hvtur nearsightedness, myopia 

ul^,— »■ }!Msr&n regretful, sorry, sad, 
distressed, grieved 

j-^ tahasaur sighing; regret 

^-U- h&air pi. ^-1^ hawdair* bared, 
denuded | ^,.-«JI y-L*- A. aUba^ar near- 
flighted, myopic; ^1^1 _^U- A. ar-ra's bare- 
headed, hatless 

^.*- haaak (coll.; n. un. •) thorns, spines; 
spikes, pricks; Bshlftnes; awns, beard 
(hot.); name of several prickly herbs, eep. 
of the genus Tribulus 

jL-»- hasaki thorny, prickly, spiny 

«- hasama i {Haam) to cut, sever, cut off 
(a; to finish, complete, terminate 

(* to decide (a a question); to 
settle (* an argument); to deduct, dis- 
count {a an amount from a sum of money) 
VII to be severed, be cut off; to be finished , 
be completed, be terminated ; to be 
settled (argument) 

^e-*- has-m finishing, completion, termi- 
nation; decision; settling, settlement (of 
an argument); discontinuance, shutdown, 
cloBuig down; deduction, discounting 
(of an amount) 

I»Uj- huadm sword, sword edge 

(•>-»■ husum fatal, trying, grueling (pi.; 
days, nights, also years) 

--U- hOaim decisive; final, peremp- 
tory, conclusive, definite, definitive 

j_»- haauTui u {huan) to be handsome, 
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to he 
expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, 
fitting; to be in a proper state, be in a 
desirable condition | ^_jj j_^ ji *n h. 
ladaika if you like it, if it seems all right 
to you ; 1 il^ j^ it is to your advantage 
that you . . .; you ought to . . .; j.^^ 
J •.slXkiU'l be was all willing to . . . II to 
beautify, embellish (a; to adorn, 
decorate (*; to improve, put into 
better form, ameliorate, better (a; 
to make a better presentation (a of; to present in a favorable light, 
depict as nice or desirable (J a to 
s.o.}; to sugar-coat, make more palatable 
(a unpleasant, disadvanta- 
geous) III to treat (» s.o.) with kindliness 

IV to do right, act well; to do (> 
well, expertly, nicely; to know (a how to 
do, be able (a to do; to 
master {a, have command (a of, be proficient (a in; a Ian* 
guage, an art, a handicraft, etc.), be 
oonversant (a with; to do good, be 
oharitable; to do favors, do good (Jf or 

V to B.O.), do (JI or tj B.o.) a good turn, 
be nice, friendly (JI or v to s.o.); to give 


alms, give charity (Jl to s.o.) | 41.^1 U 
md ahsanahu how good he is! how hand> 
some he is! ^-^-1 ahaanta well done! 
bravo! v'^'^' a-*"' {aljndniya) to master 
the German l«.nguage, know German well ; 
-^M.n"|l i>-*-l to aim well or accurately; 
'^jj^ lt-^^ (ffloiurafaAu) to give good 
advice ; w< jUI j~^ I {zanna ) to have a good 
opinion of .... judge favorably; 
dULju j-»-^ {mu* dmalatahU) to treat 8.o. 
well V to become nicer, more handsome, 
more beautiful; to improve, ameliorate, 
get better X to deem (* nice, etc., 
or good; to regard (a as riglxt, ad- 
visable or appropriate; to approve (a of, sanction, condone {h; to come 
to like, to appreciate (a, find pleas* 
ure (a in; also = IV: ^^-^.i-l 
u>U:Vl {ingillziya) to know Englisli well; 
pass, ustuhsina to be good, commendable, 

jf_»- husn beauty, handsomeness, pret- 
tineas, loveliness; excellence, superiority, 
perfection \ U-l j,^ li-h. il-hatz fortu- 
nately; !^jiJ\ j-mf- good manners, good 
behavior; good conduct; ii^LJIj jOI j,-*- 
{h. as-eair) an irreproacliable life; j-»- 
Jij^\ h. at-ta^nuf discretion, individual 
judgment; Jiii\ j.^ $. ofjann good 
opinion^ favorable judgment; _r^\ j-»- 
euphemism; (^1) <UaJb]1 j-»- h. al-qa^ 
{art'tiiya) good intention, good will, good 
faith; <-A.^ j-*~ ^- yu'v/ beauty spot, 
patch; j^l c^ aitt al-fyuan a kind of 
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L. ; bol.); 
deadly nightshade, belladonna 

j.^ hasan pi. jU^ hisdn beautiful, 
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, 
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite; 
L-»- hasanan well, splendidly, excellently, 
beautifully; uLi-1 the ladies; — high 

j^JL^I al-haaaniyun the Hasanides, 
the descendants «of Hasan, son of 'All 
snd Fatima 

j_».l ahaan* pi. ^^-.U-l ah&sin* better; 
nicer, lovelier, more beautiful; more 
excellent, more splendid, more admirable | 

he is better off than 
jj» JJLt {bi-Uati) in a 

they are; j-*-l 

friendly manner, amicably, with kindness 

•Li..«- haand'* pi. 61-^ hitdn (of a wom- 
an] beautiful, a beauty, a belle 

^;-J-l al-huana pi -St {(, of ^>-^'^! 
al-aJuan) the best outcome, the happy ead* 
ing; fair means, amicable manner | i^-i-li 
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly 
manner; ,^-^1 vlr'Vl {aam&') the 99 at- 
tributes of God 

4L-.»> haaana pi, -Oi good deed, bene* 
faction; charity, alms; pi. oli-«- advan- 
tages, merits 

o^,,,^ haasun pL j^JL.^ haadsin* gold- 

4:^,^ mahaaTM nice, good; 
advantage; pi. j^l^ mah&ain* beauties, 
charms, attractions, merits, advantages, 
good qualities 

J^*^ tahain beautification, embellish- 
ment; improvement, amelioration, better- 
ment; processing, refining, finishing; (pi. 
jwL^ tahdsin*) ornament, decoration | 
O J-jJl O'b-.^ t. an-naal eugenics 

<^\^ muhdaana friendly treatment, 
kindliness, amicability 

6L.V-I ikadn beneficence, charity, alms- 
giving, performance of good deeds 

j.^ tahasaun improvement, amelio- 
ration I ^j-.^\ J on the way to recovery 

oL.j»»"...i ialihs&n approval, consent; 
acclaim; discretion; application of dis- 
cretion in a legal decision [lal. Law) 

J, ^ muhaaain embellisher, beautifior, 
improver; pLoU—^ muhasainOt cosmetics 

^r^ muhsin beneficent, charitable 

ji.i-i" - muatahsan approved, commend- 
able; pleasant, agreeable 



(,f-^) L«- /ui«a u (Aa«ur), V and VIII to drink, 
sip (* 

j.^»~ hasw and .L^ fynaiX* soup* broth 

tj.m»- haawa pi. hamwHt a aip 

•^ii.^ ^UAin pi. huauwOt, hueawQl, IL^^^I 
aA«iya a Bip, small quantity of liquid; 
Boup, broth; bouillon 

,J^ haSSa u (haiS) to mow, out (a II to 
smoke hashish 

J.lU^ haHJi (coU.) pi. jSlJj^ haJSarU^ 
herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Can- 
nabis sativa L.; hot.), haflhish, cannabis; 
stillborn child j jIijoII ^/.^t^^ h. ad-din&r 

^..ii.i" hoHia (n. un.) herb 

^Li»- hai&U pi. -fin smoker or chewer 
of hashish, hashish addict 

^Ll*- huiaS, ULt>- huSaSa last breath, 
last spark of life 

j ^VV hoHSi {eg.) eap-gnen, reseda- 

JiA mihaii, U.^ mtfyaiia pi. J\A ma* 
ly&i^ sickle, scythe ; fire iron, poker 

<^ mihaSSa pi. -Qi (eg.) tool for 
weeding, weeder 

,_,l-i^ mahSaif iiU- ^/-i^ m.-kdna hash- 
ish den 

i-Lt^ mah&a&a pi. ^U maMSi^ 
hashish d^n 

Jjla. haSada i u (AoAf) to gather, concentrate, 
mass (« esp. troops), call up, mobiliie 
(> an army); to pile up, store up, occn- 
mulate (a, Jl at a place) II to amass, 
accumulate (*, mass, concentrate (• 
esp. troops) V and VIII to rally, come to- 
gether, assemble, gather, crowd together, 
throng together; to be concentrated, be 
massed (troops) ; to fall into line (troops) 

JJ^ haSd pi. .3fJL*- huiiid assembling, 
rallying; gathering, assembly, crowd. 

throng; concentration, massing (esp, of 
troops); mobilization, calling up (of an 

ai^ iahaSSud pL -St concentration (of 

i\±:^\ ihii&iXd pi, -m gathering, crowd; 
concentration (of troops) 

xtU- hd&id numerous (of an assembly), 
crowded (of a public demonstration) 
O :-i-tU hAMa battery (ei,) 

t»- haiara i u (haSr) to gather, assemble, 
rally (• people); to cram, crowd, pack, 
jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, 
stuff, tuck (ju or j * into) 

j-^1 r>i yawn* al-haSr the day of con- 
gregation (of the dead), the Day of Res- 

•^pt*- fyaSara pi. -Qi insect; pi. vermin, 
in^ct pests | ol^^l J* 'i7w> a^A. ento- 

j.j^i*- ha^ri insectile, insectival, inseot- 
(in compounds); entomologic(al) 

^ hairaja and II tahaSraja to rattle in 
the throat 

i*._pt*- hairaja rattling, rattle in the 

Lt»- y to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly 
tjil*- haiaj dates of inferior quality 
4ajU- haSafa glans (penis; anai.) 

.1^ haSaka t (haiJc) to cram^ }^^ squeeze, 
stuff (j A into) 

'*- haiama i {haSm) to shame, put to shame 
(* 8.0.) II and IV do. V and VIII to be 
ashamed to face s.o. (j^ or j^j; to be 
reticent, modest, shy, bashful, diffident 

»*- AaJam servants, retinue, entourage, 


<.Ji^hiSma shame, basbfulness, timid- 
ity, diffidence; modesty; decency, de- 



-i<- haSim pi. i]^ hviama'' modest, 
timid, buhful, shy, diiBdent 

^U mahalim' pubes, genitals 

Jii tahaiium and rUI>-l ilUiiam 
Bhame, shyness, modesty, reticence, de- 
cency, decorum 

Ji^ muhialim shy, bashful; modest, 
reticent, decent, decorous 

(jit-) Lij- hoM u (halw) to stuff, fill, dress 
(u> > with; esp. fowl, eto.); to fill 
in (» to load (* a firearm; >* with, 9.g., a camera); to fiil (a 
a tooth) ; to insert (* II to inter- 
polate (*; to insert (*; to 
provide {* with a margin; to hem 
(« a dress); to supply (t a book) with 
marginal notes or glosses III to except, 
exclude (^ • s.o. from) V to keep away, 
stand aloof, abstain (^ from), avoid, 
shun (^, beware (^ of), be on 
one's guard (,>. against) TI to keep away, 
abstain (jt or ^ from), beware (» or 
jt at ly of), avoid, shun {t at ^ or y, 

jt- haiw that with which is 
stuffed or filled; dressing, stuffing (of 
fowl, etc.); filling (of teeth); insertion; 
(gram.) parenthesis; interpolation 

!ji^ hatun pi. -at filling, stuffing 
(cushion, cookery, etc.); load (of a 
cartridge), charge (of a mine); panel, 
inlay, inserted piece (in paneling, in a door) 

tj^ haian pi. •Li>-I ojiM* bowels, 
intestines; interior, inside | 'l-^l J in 
the interior of, within, in 

^jV Jafan = Li>- haitm 

i^i^ hailya pi. -M, LLl>- ftoMya 
cushion, pillow; mattiess 

UU, u^U MM (with genit., ace. or J) 
except, save | ji j,SU, Ji LiU- God forbid ! 
ijl ,iii LiU far be it from you that you . . . ; 
Ji ^jiU, ^il J^ (hOia) = Ji UU, ill LiU 

l_i^ tahHya insertion; interpolation 

^(^ taliUin avoidance 

4^U hOHya pi. ^I>>- hauxijtit border; 
seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); 
marginal gloss; marginal notes; com- 
mentary on certain words and passages 
of a book, supercommentary ; footnote; 
postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, 
servants; dependents; pi. ^^^ critical 
apparatus | i-iU-l jJj and ^jil^A-l J^^j 
nice, polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, 
kindly, friendly; i-iU-1 iij nqqat al-h. 
nicenesB, amiability, graciousness 

jiJ: maltHiw filled, dressed; stuffed; 
loaded (firearm); pi. ol^ ntahHalU 
filled, or stuffed, dishes 

^^ mahHy filled, stuffed (esp. food); filled or stuffed 

^jmr- Ijuffo « to fall as a share (» to s.o.) 
Ill to share (. * with s.o.) IV to 
allot s.o. (•) his share 
^jM^ hu^ saffron 

4.^a*- hi^^ pi. ^j^'Mf' Jyif^ share, portion, 
allotment; share (fin.); contingent, quota; 
span of time; lesson, class period | 4-«^ 
f_J\ j A. ft r-rahh dividend (fin.); O *-«- 
,_pi-yi founders' share; O o"-^^ f^ 
quota system, apportionment; 4.^*- J 
:>>.j in a short lime 

fj»~m^ tofffi^ quota system, apportion- 

i^lt. mulfSfta allotment; sharing (with: 
B.O.), partaking, participation 

jLJLo- see ,fM— 

!..-..«*- ha^ba t u to cover or strew with 
pebbles or gravel (* ground); to macad- 
amiLS (> ground), metal (a a road); 
— ^fiba a and pass, hv^iba to have the 
measles II to cover or strew with pebbles 
or gravel (a ground); to macadamize 
(* ground), metal (a a road) 


■■ rm^ ha^ road metal, crushed rock, 

•L,d»- ha^*^ (coll.) pebbles; gravel 

l^^a^ ha^ba m&adles [mtd,) 

4^L>- h&giba atorm, hurricane 

^A»«-«^ 1yi^}}4i^a to be or become clear, plain, 
manifest; to come to light (truth) 

.,«>- ha^ada i u (ha^, jLu- ha^Hd, hi^Qd) to 
harvest, reap (a; to mow (a 
IV, VIII and X to be ripe 

x^of fya^d and ^Ua^ ^i^dd harvesting, 
reaping, harvest; aLm»- harvest time 

->;-*<- ha^, '-^r-'^ ha^da pi. OjLu- Aa^ 
^'I'd^ crop^ harvest yield | -C-d^-j <li 
everything without exception 

jLoj- ^^^Oc^ reaper; harvester^ mil}^d pi. 0.^1^ mahd^* sickle 

O »3Uu- ^^^d<2a and O ••Ua^ mj^' 
^ada mowing machine, mower | O •■iU*»- 
1-ljj (darr^a) combine 

-UtfL*- Ad^(£ reaper 

O a-UtfL^ /ul^da mowing machine, 

jj-ti^ ma/^(f harvested, reaped, mown 

x^o^ muA^t^ and .1 ^^-.^^ mustah^ ripe 

rf^ ka§ara i u (ha^r) to surround, encircle, 
encompass, ring (a; to enclose 
(a; to parenthesize (* a word); 
to blockade (a, & s.o.,; to besiege, 
beleaguer (*, • s.o.,; to detain, 
deter, restrain, contain, hold back (« s.o.); 
to limit, restrict (J * or t-* to); to 
condense, reduce in scope (a,); to 
narrow down, confine (j a to, also 
a suspicion to s.o.); to bring together, 
compile, arrange {j a under a 
rubric); to enter (j > in a list); to 
put together, set up, list, enumerate 
(a,); to comprise, contain, include^ 

involve (a; — ha^ira a (ha^r) to 
be in a fix, be in a dilemma III to en- 
circle, surround (a, * s.o.,; to 
shut off, seclude (a, • 6.o.t; to 
block (a,); to beleaguer, besiege 
(a, • s.o,,; to blockade (a^ • s.o..; to detain, deter, restrain (• s.o.) 
VII to be straitened, confined, narrowed 
in; to be or become restricted, limited 
(ijor J to); toKmit o.s. (^j or J to); to be 
condensed (j to), be concentrated ( j in); 
to be or become united (e.g., a-S^ c^ 
under s.o.'s rule); to be reducible (j to), 
be expressible ( j in terms of), consist ( j 

_pa«- ha^ encirclement, encompass- 
ment, enclosure^ corralling; parentheaiz' 
ing; blocking, blockading, beleaguering, 
siege; detention, determent; restraint, 
retention, containment, check; limita- 
tion, restriction, confinement; narrowing 
gathering, coDecting (of scattered) 
compilation; enumeration, listing, count 
ing, computing; centralization, concen 
tration; (tobacco) monopoly |^r^^&^^ot 
ly speaking; ^^l J.^^ Jp exhaustively 
(^j^l _pA^ h. at-iamwin rationing; l**:^ 
j^^ I 'al&mat al-^. paranthesea, brackets 
{fyp.); _rai-\ c^ j^x V (yadkulu) or 
^ j^M»- V (/u^a) boundless, infinite, im- 
measurable, innumerable; j^\ ijjjij ya* 
fuqu I'ha^a do.; O j~«J-l SjU-l ijOxat 
al'h. patent on an invention; j-*»- Sjljl 
iiLiJl, ^\ idarat h. at-tibg toa-i-tumbak 
Government Tobacco Monopoly {Syr.) 

j^m»- hv4T retention (of urine); consti- 

j^M^ fyi^ar dyslogia, inability to express 
o.s. effectively 

jA-a*- ha^lr pi. _,««- hu^r mat 

i_r-«*- Aofira pi. y U«*- /loffl'ir" mat 

jLft*- hi^r block, blockage, barrier; 
blockade; siege 


:^L£ mvlfOfara block, blockage, bar- 
rier; blockade; siege 

jL«<:l inAtfar restrictednese, limitation, 
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly 

j^-m*- malifCiT blocked, blockaded; 
beleaguered, besieged; limited, restricted, 
confined (j to); narrow 

■ — hifrim (coll. ; n. un. •) unripe and sour 

grapes (jyr.) 
, \ r- hafufa u (aiUa*- ha^fa) to have sound 

judgment, be judicious, discriminating 

, '•, r— fy^t^f endowed vith sound judg- 
ment, judicious, discriminating 

!_•■ ^- hafif endowed with sound 
judgment, judicious, discriminating 

HIm- ha^fa sound judgment, judi- 

J hafala u (Jj-m^ hufltl) to set in; to be 

there, be existent, extant; to arise, come 
about; to result, come out; to happen, 
occur, transpire, come to pass, take 
place; to happen, occut* (J to fl.o.), come 
(J upon 8.0.). befall, overtake (o s.o.) ; to 
originate, emanate, derive, stem (^ from), 
be caused, be produced ( j^ by) ; to attain, 
obtain, get, receive, achieve (J», 
win (Je s.o. or; to come into 
possession (J» of; to seek (J» a 
permit), apply (J» for a permit); to 
collect, recover (J» a debt), call in (J» 
funds); to receive, take in (Je 
II to cause (*)to happen or set in; 
to attain, obtain (*; to acquire 
(*,, also knowledge); to infer, deduce 
(»; to collect (t a fee, fare, etc.), 
levy ( M taxes, fees, etc.), call in (» money) ; 
to summarize, sum up (* V to 
result (j. fjrom), come out (sum); to be 
obtained, be attained; to be raised, be 
levied, be required, be demanded; to be 
taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds); 
to be collected (taxes); to procure for 
O.B., get (J»; to attain, receive. 

obtain (Jc; to auquiie (Jc; 
to collect (^ fees) X to procure for o.s., 
get (Jc; to attain, receive, obtain 
(J»; to acquire (Je 

Jy.a>- Auful setting in, occurrence, in- 
cidence, happening (of an event or pro- 
cess); obtainment, attainment (J« of; achievement (J» of; acqui- 
sition ( Js of 

a_«. hoftla pi. j)JU«»- hatH'iP rest, re. 
mainder; amount collected, proceeds, 
returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income, 

^j-, ''Lfjm- and 4i.^j>- look up alpha- 

;JUa»- lui^^la collection box, alms box 

J.^^ mah^al result, outcome, upshot, 

^~^ tahfH pi. -at attainment, obtain- 
ment, gain; acquisition (also of knowl- 
edge) ; learning, studying, scientific stud- 
ies; collection, raising, levy(ing), call- 
ing in (of funds, taxes) ; income, revenue, 
receipts, returns, proceeds; r^umd, sum- 
mary, gist (of a speech or opinion) ; j. 
Jli jl J-»U-I Ji-^ ™ summary, it may 
be said . . . 

^^.1. «*■ (aA^Iffi («ff.) = J-^ rnvhoffa 

J^U hSfil pi. J^lj^ Aoioa#»P setting in, 
occurring, taking place, happening; re- 
sult, outcome, sum, total, product (also 
math.); revenues, receipts, proceeds, 
gain; income, returns; crop, harvest; 
warehouse, storehouse, granary, depot, 
magasine; main content, purport, gist, 
essence, substance (of a speech); J-»U-I 
briefly, in short; pi, i.^L-1- produot(s), 
yield, produce, production (won.) 

Jj_^ maftfui pi. -at, Jr-** nwAa^rtP 
result, outcome, issue; yield, gain; 
product, produce; crop, harvest; pro- 


J_rf- muhaffil oollectoi; tax collector; 
caahler; (bus, streetcar) conductor 

J rt» » ' i mutaha^fil yield, revenue, pro- 
ceeds, receipts, returns (j^ from) 

.«*- ha^una u (oL^a- ha^na) to be inac- 
cessible, be well fortified; to be chute 
(woman) II to make inaccessible (*; 
to strengthen (* ; to fortify, entrench 
(<,); to immunize, make proof (i^ 
4idia against) IV to make inaccessible 
(*; to fortify, entrench (*; 
to be chaste, pure (woman); to remain 
chaste, be of unblemished reputation 
(woman) V to strengthen one's position, 
protect O.B.; to be fortified; to be secure, 
be protected 

,j~a^ h,ifn pi. Oj.^*- ^itfiin fortress, fort, 
castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, 
entrenchment; protection | JV» j.a»- Fly- 
ing Fortress 

horse; stallion | _^l oLu- h. al-bahtr 
hippopotamus; i^jli. l)I_«»- {bitkari) iron 
horse; oL«*- ijl juwat h., or jLd*- alone, 
horse power 

,j^-.u- hafin inaccessible, strong, forti- 
fied, firm, secun(d), protected; immune, 
proof, invulnerable (X.> qlidda against) | 
(j^-^' (>«^l (A*#») stronghold (fig.; e.g., 
of radicalism) 

^^..^i-l^l abU l-fyu^in fox 

ajU'i- hofSna strength, ruggedness, 
forbiddingness, impregnability, inaccessi- 
bility; Bhelter«dness, chastity (of a 
woman); invulnerability, inviolability; 
immunity (of deputies, diplomats; against 

J;wi^ tah^n pi. -di fortification, en- 
trenchment; strengthening, cementing, 
solidification; immunization 

oUtf^ltA^dAblamelessness, unblemished 
reputation, integrity (/«!. Law) 

Cf^»^ ta^ui^fun securing, safeguarding, 
protection, protectedness 

,y^ muhoffan fortified; entrenched; 
immune, proof (.i_« (fidda against) 

4i-«^ muh^na, muh^na sheltered, 
well- protected, chaste; of unblemished 
reputation (woman; lal. Law) 

j-^*- IV to count, enumerate (a; to 
calculate, compute (t ^ from); to 
debit, charge (J» * to s.o.'8 ac- 
count), hold (* Jc against s.o.) | "if 
^^Ja^ {yuh^) innumerable 

^yt— fuifan (coll.) pebbles, little stones 

• La«- ha^h, Ij.^^ hagwa pi. oL^^^ 
ha^ySt little stone; pebble; calculus, 
stone (mid,) \ "kiy vLm- {baidiya) cystic 
calculus; \j\ji^ ;Lu- (fafrSmya) gall- 
stone, biliary calculus 

oU jjiv ha^ lubdn, uULu- rosemstry 

tSj-t— ^fawi stony, pebbly, gravelly 

.l_.^l VAffl" pi. -a/ count, counting; 
enumeration; calculation, computation; 
statistics | jt^JI »l.^*-l i. aa-sukk&n census 

Jl.,a>-I t^'i statistic(al); (pt. -fin) 

*Jl^M^\ ih^'iya pi. -dC statistics 

j^i- hadda u {t^a(f4) and II to spur on, incite 
(• 8.O., J» to), goad, prod (• s.o., J» to 

,ji^ ha44 incitement, inducement, 
prodding, prompting, instigation 

ah,i44<i foot of a mountain; lowland; 
perigee (astron.); depth; state of decay | 
,jA;*^\ Jl J> to sink low (fig.); Jl aS^j 
^jk—ii-\ ((2ajtteAt2) to ruin completely, 
run into the ground 

r^*- lya^ara u [jji*- hv4&r) to be present (a 
at), be in the presence (« of s.o.); to 


attend (t ; to be present {* in s.o.'s 
mind), be readily recalled (• by B.o.)j to 
take part, participate (i— l^f majliaan 
in a meeting); to come, get (Jl or >, * 
to 8.O., to a place), arrive (Jl or * »t a 
place); to yisit (« a place), attend (» a 
public event), go (* to a performance, 
etc.); to appear (^Ul before a judge, etc., 
Jl in, at), show up (Jl in, at); to betake 
o.e.,go (Jl^ from... to); (!jL^ fiaifAn) 
to be settled, sedentary (in a civilized 
region, as opposed to nomadic existence) 
II to ready, make ready, prepare (*, also, e.g., a medicine = to com- 
pound), make, produce, manufacture 
(t; to study, prepare (* a lesson); 
to fetch, get, bring (• s.o., *, 
procure, supply (»; to settle (• 
B.O.), moke e.o. (•) sedentary; to idvihze 
(< S.O., * Ill to give a lecture, 
present in a lecture (• to s.o.); to 
lecture, give a course of lectures IT to 
fetch, get, bring (», • s.o.,, procure, 
supply (*; to take (< s.o., <, 
Jl to a place) [ i— v^' *° *'*™ *•'■''• 
with one, bring along V to prepare 
O.S., ready o.s., get ready (J for); to 
be ready, prepared; to become settled, 
be sedentary in a civilized region; to be 
civilized, be in a state of civilization; to 
become urhanized, become a town 
dweller Till to come (• to s.o.), be iu the 
presence (• of s.o.) ; to live in a civilized 
region; pass. uhtu4ira to die X to have (*) brought, to call, send (*, • for 
S.O., for, have s.o. (.) come; to 
Bummon (* s.o.); to fetch, procure, 
supply, get, bring (*; to conjure, 
call up, evoke (* a spirit); to visualize, 
envision, call to mind (a; to carry 
with O.S., bring along (*; to pre. 
pore (*, e.g., a medicinal preparation) 

^O*- hadar a civilized region with towns 
and villages and a settled population 
(as opposed to desert, steppe); settled 

population, town dwellers (as opposed to 

iij.i^ hafari settled, sedentary, res- 
ident, not nomadic, non-Bedouin, like 
uxbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller 

I^,.^ Ad^ra presence | iyi^ j in the 
presence of . ..; yj! v.iJ-' ('oKyo) His 
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of 
Tunis); ^j^^ a respectful form of ad- 
dress, esp. in letters; jjS'i\ 'j^^ cf. 
Fr. ilf OTuieur U iocteur 

jj-it- hm^Or presence; visit, partici- 
pation, attendance; (as one pi. of ^.^U.) 
those present | 'jj-i*; in his presence; 
<Ui.t jj^ap- ^. ahhafla attendance of the 
celebration ; ^iJI ^j~i^ A. a4-dihn presence 
of mind; j ■ -— "'^jj toaraqath. summons 

iiij~0»- hu^uri: X^jj.^*- #1^1 {ajyk&m) 
judgments delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties after oral proceedings 
(jur.); L jj.^ yliu^uri^n contradictorily 

SjU^ ha4^Ta civilization ; culture; set- 
tledness, sedentariness 

'■J- r~ huufira pi. J^Ut- lyti^'ir' a small 
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the 
smallest unit of boy scouta = patrol); 
section, squad (mil.; Syr.) 

_^a- mafyfar presence ; attendance, com- 
ing, appearance (of s.o.); assembly, meet- 
ing, gathering, convention; (pi. ^^ ww* 
h&fir*) minutes, official report, proc^- 
verbal, record of the factual findings | 
jjJ-l j~iA m, al-jard inventory list;^,^*.;, 
<^ bi-maJufarin minhu in s.o.*s presence 

jv-ifi talvfir preparing,readying, making 
ready; (pi. -Ht) preparation (J for; also 
e.g., for an examination); making, prepa- 
ration, cooking (of food, etc.), production, 

jj^^ tah<liri preparatory, prepara- 
tive I OvJ»J 3JJ^...i«dl ^^jl-ill {mu'aUimin) 


preparatory institutes for teachers, teach- 
ers' colleges {Eg.) 

ij^[^ muh34tiTa pi. -Qi lecture 

jUm^I ihddr procurement, supply, fetch- 
ing, bringing 

jrM^ ta}}a44ur civilized way of life 

j\jc^\ ihtuJJlr demise, death 

jU^>-::^i iatihfdr making, production, 
manufacture; preparation; summoning | 

tion of spirits, spiritism 

^U- Mtjlir pi. yJi^ hv44^r, jj»m»- 
Au^tZr present; attending; ^U>i the 
present (time); prepared (iS for); ready; 
<pl. ^L«*- hu44&r^ Kr*^ ha4ara) settled, 
sedentary, resident, village or town 
dweller, not nomadio | ^-iU-l j or C^J\ J 
j-iU-l at present, now; ^^Ji\ ^-il*- h. 
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; 
^U Oaj {rtaqd) cash, ready money 

•^l*- Ad^ira pL ^\f^ hawAdir* capi- 
tal city, metropolis; city (as a center 
of civilization) 

jjJ^^ mahdur possessed, haunted or 
inhabited by a jinni; demoniac 

^^^^ 7nvha44ir maker, producer, manu- 
facturer; dissector [med.) 

i\^ muA^^tr lecturer, speaker 

miLh4ir court usher 

• muUihatp^xT civilized 

mvhta^ar dying, in the throes 
of death, on the brink of death; a dying 
person; haunted or inhabited by a jinni; 

_P^— ::-^ mustahdar pi. -dl preparation 
{ehem., pJuzrm.) \ (jiji j^*.z^^ {dawA'i) 
medicinal preparation 

fy^ hadramaut^ Hadhramaut 

t/yU*- ha^famipj. |»jUi^ Afl^Mrim* man 
from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian (adj.) 

jp^^ ha^ana u {hcufn, ^U^ hu^na) to clasp 
in one's arms, embrace, hug (• g.o.); 
to nurse, bring up, raise (» a child); 
(A^n, jl^i,. ^i^n, 'lil^ hi^ana, 
0>««»- Itwji.un) to hatch, brood, incubate 
{* an egg; of a bird) VI to embrace one 
another, cling to one another, nestle 
against each other VIII to clasp in one's 
arms, embrace, hug (a, * s.o.,,); to 
harbor in one's bosom (* feeling); to 
hatch, concoct, contrive (a; to bring 
up, raise (• a child) 

,^P^ hi4n pi. OU^I ah4An breast, bosom 
(between the outstretched arms) ; armful, 
that which can be carried in one's arms | 
^^prfJ-U *1JI iqabiiahu) he received him with 
open arms; o'^^ir^^ ^j and jL^»-l j amid, 
among; with, in the presence of (s.o.); 
»\j»%^\ jL^I J {fohrd') in the heart 
(or folds) of the desert; I^jLw-I j<3 ^^3Xp^\ 
she took me in her arms 

4jL^k>- hujtdna, htufitna raising, bringing 
up, nursing (of a child); hatching (of 
^^ ^SE)* incubation | aJL^I jb children's 
home, day nursery, creche 

^^•^f- ha4*n embraced, hugged, resting 
in s.o.*8 arms 

j^^A mahtfan pL j^L^ mah3t}in* 
children's home, day nursery, creche 

oLa:*-! iht%4dn embrace, bug(ging), 

4i^l»- hSf^ina pi. ^j^ hawSdin^ nurse- 
maid, dry nurse 

jp^i^ muhtat^in embracing, hugging; 
tender, affectionate 

W hafta u (haft) to put, place, put down, 
set down (a; to take down (a a 
load, burden); to lower^ decrease, di- 
minish, reduce <a or j-; to de- 
preciate (oj-li ^ min qadrihi or 4i,«» ^j* min 
qitnatihi the value of | JL-^I ia*- 
{rih&ia) to halt, make a stop, dismount^ 
encamp (while traveling on horsehack, 


camelback, etc.); — u (half, yu- Auffif) 
to sink, descend, go down; to alight 
(bird); to land (airplane); to drop (price) 
II to put down, set down, take off, un- 
load (* a load) VII to sink, descend, go 
down; to decrease, diminish; to decline, 
decay, wane VIII to put down, set down, 
take down (i 

Ju- Aa;((act of) putting or setting down; 
depreciation, belittling, derogation, dis- 
paragement (^ of; reduction, 
diminution, decrease (^ of 

;iir- hiffa alleriation, relief, mitigation; 
abaaement, debasement, demotion, deg- 
radation (in rank, dignity, prestige); 
humiliation, insult, indignity 

Wl altaPlf lower 

tU^ hafita price reduction 

ia^ mahaU place at which, is 
put down or deposited; stopping place, 
stop; pause, fermata, hold, concluding 
strain, cadence {vivs.) | JU*^! Jo^ object 
of hope, that on which one's hopes are 
pinned; jUlJV' J^ ^K" to attract the 
glances, draw attention to o.s.; f'i^\ )•*■ 
m. aX-lcdHHm sense, or meaning, of one's 

;L^ mahaffa pi. -at stopping place, 
stop (also of public conveyances) ; station, 
post; railroad station; broadcasting sta- 
tion, radio station | jLJI Jjjj^ »lrf 
m. tahiuil at-tayydr transformer station; 
(151.^1) «liVl ili^ m. ttl-idffa (al-la- 
silkiya) broadcasting station, radio sta- 
tion; transmitter (station); <— uj '•i^ 
(ra'Uiya) (railroad) main station; O '^ 
liiljUVI m. al-iMrSt signal poet; O '^ 
JL.j'^l m. al-irtSl transmitter (station; 
radio); <^^,l jU«j:>U <U^ (li-l-arfSd al- 
javnviya) meteorological station, weather 
station; Jij^l Ui* m. af-farj (Eg.) pump 
station (for drainage) ; power plant ; O '^ 
JLi^.'il receiving station (rodio); O '"^ 
j-I^VI 'j^ ijSX-V {Id-silktya qafiral al- 

amwdj) short-wave transmitter station; 
•Li^^^l x^Ji 4U^ n.iaulid al-lcahrab^ and 
ULj^ JL< power plant 

JrlU^I tnAifdf decline, fall, decay, do- 
cadence; inferiority | iiLrfVI o"^-^' 
tA«d« alinh. sense of inferiority 

J>IU«:I tnAtfafi postclassical writer 

ia.^ munhatf low, base, low -level, low- 
grade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean, 
vile, vulgar; inferior 

1-^ halttba t to gather firewood | ^Jv 
A^ j (/i Joii»W) to support s.o., stand 
by B.O., back s.o. up VIII to gather 

,.J»- halab pi. v^'^' akfSb firewood 

(_jL1i»- haffSb wood gatherer; wood- 
cutter, lumberjack ; vendor of firewood 

■—J^ tahfib singlestick fencing (a 
popular game, esp. in rural areas; eg.) 

,_kU Aa/ti wood gatherer; woodcutter, 
lumberjack; vendor of firewood ] >--l>l£ 
JJ ka-hStibi lattin lit.: like one who 
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at 
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does 
not realise, or think about, what he is 

I — hafama i (Aa^m) to break, shatter, 
smash, wreck, demolish (* II = I; 
V to break, go to pieces; to be broken, 
be smashed, be shattered ; to crash (e.g., 
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked 
(ship) VII = V 

Liu- hifma pi. ^U- hifam particle, 
small piece, shred, bit, morsel; 

>Uw- h-ufdm debris, rubble; fragments, 
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck 
(of a ship) I L*^' r^^ ^- <x^-'i<'»y°> ^he 
ephemeral things of this world, the 
vanities of the world 

Ju- haflm smashed, shattered, wrecked 


^ lo/i^ini Bmashing, shattering, 
wreoking, breaking, demolition, destruc- 
tion, diuruption | Q ^>-U-.l Jki- '••_•- 
icebreaker (nmiX.) 

I>ii^ (o^iaffunt crumbling, disintegra- 
tion; ciaah (of an airplane); oollapee, 

•J>U ^I'ma: O -UJ-I Lkl>- icebreaker 

|Ji< fliu^fi'ffl craahing, th|indering, 
roaring (of an ezploeion, etc.) — muAaf* 
{am broken (language) 

«J«£ muAofftma: uJl ' ^■^ {talfiya) 
icebreaker (naut.) 

Ji^ bona o (Ao??) to be lucky, fortunate 

^^ Ifff pl- Jyli^ ^"fS? part, portion, 
ahare, aUotment; lot, fate, destiny; good 
luck, good fortune; affluence, wealth, 
fortune; prosperity; pleasure \ ^ ii,- ji 
endowed with; JiJ-l ^ U-hiuni i-J. 
and JiJ.1 ,;,_.- j. fortunately, luckily; 
Jii-I ;^ *u" ai-^. bad luck, misfortune; 
Ji^' "u- «>yy»' al-h. unlucky, unfortu- 
nate; Jii-I ty^ unfortunately; j.*. ^ 
Jir- luckily for mo, fortunately; ^ of 
ill Jl»- j>-«- he was lucky in that he . . .; 
lll»- Wi" >-»-l i^ he is no better o£f than 
she is 

JtJ»- ho'lH lucky, fortunate 

iijiA ffloAzfiz lucky, fortunate; con- 
tended), happy, glad 

jii». haxara u (Jo?r) to fence in, hedge in 
(»; to forbid (» J» to s.o., 
prohibit (t, Jp s.o, from doing 

Jif hazT forbiddance, interdiction, pro- 
hibition, ban; embargo 

jUi^ ^aSr, IfOfOr wall, partition, screen ; 
fence, palisade, railing 

SjJi^ hazira pl. j.'lli» Aozd'tr* enclo- 
sure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; 

compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, 
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, 
domain, realm (fig.) | ijii^ j (with foil, 
genit.) inside of, within; t^jii^ Jl t,i,^ 
(jaiabahii) to bring s.o. under one's in- 
fluence; olylUI J\li>. aircraft hangars; 
^uilt Sjnlu- A. al-qudt Paradise 

jjL* mahfUr interdicted, prohibited, 
forbidden (J» to s.o.); embargoed; pl. 
>^1;_>1^ forbidden things, restriotions 

(Ji- and Ji^) Ji^ haziya a (Jjli^ ^uzvn, 
hizwa) to enjoy the favor or good graces 
of s.o. (4U), be in a.o.'s (Xt) favor or 
good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain, 
gain, win {^ 

yli»- hufuxi, Atzun favored position, 
role of favorite; precedence; favor, grace; 
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit, 
standing, respect, esteem | x^ iji^ Jli 
(iS-^) to find favor with s.o. 

4ji»- hazxya pl. LUi*. hofdyd paramour, 
mistress, concubine 

<Ji^ ma^ij/a pl. -dt paramour, mis- 
tress, concubine 

i_i»- haffa u (haff) to surround (tj «, , s.o., with, also u and J^ s.o.,, 
enclose, encompass, border (i^, .t; 
to depilate (< a part of the body), unbair 
(* the skin); to trim, clip (a the beard); 
to chafe, rub off, abrade (ik | 
^J:^^ ". --^ lie is the object of ad- 
miring glances, he is the center of atten- 
tion, aL eyes are upon him; — t ( - -- 
bafil) to rustle II and VIII to surround, 
Wj^t v» *» • ■•^•», enclose, encom- 
pass, border (Jj,-, w, * 

JtLb- hifaf side 

* - ' « . «— hafif rustle, rustling 

Utf mihaffa (also Tiujhaffa) pl. -at litter, 
stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan 

J»U hiff: ol— >»- (JMtt*) plain bread 
(without anything to go with it; eg,) 


uU haffa pi. -d( enoloauje, edge, 
margin; brim of a vessel ; border, brink, 
verge; fringe, hem | i-;j|/^*I 4*^ J^ '<i2a 
h. U-iarab on the brink of ruin 

to- Aa/td pi. i\i—\ tthjSd, iii^ hafada 
grandson; descendant, ofTspring, scion 

:.Lip- haf'tda granddaughter 

u. hafara i (hajr) to dig (*; to drill 
(for oil); to excavate (archfol,); to carve 
(*; to engrave, etch [* metal) | 
JiL». jjt>- to dig trenches; »^ ji»- (A«/* 
ratan) to prepare a pitfall, prepare an 
ambush VII pass, of I; VIII to dig 

ji— hafr digging, earthwork, excava- 
tion (also archtol.)i unearthing; drilling 
(for oil); carving, inscribing (e.g., of 
letters); engraving, etching; graphic 
arte (etching, wood engraving); scurvy 
(*yr.) I jii'\ jLj*. jahdx al-h. oil rig; oil 

ijM- hvfra pi. >- Aa/or pit; hollow, 
cavity, excavation; hole 

•jji>- ttafriya digging, excavation; 
O gravure; pi. i^U^yt*- excavations 

jU». hajffar digger; engraver; driller; 
stone mason | j^JUl jU». gravedigger 

jJir- ftafir dug, dug out, excavated, 

ijJ»- hafira pi. yU*- hafa^ir* 
excavated or unearthed; pi. excavations 

jjiM-\ uA/flr pi. ^1^1 dhdfir* ex- 
cavated; foesil; pi. excavations (areheol.) 

ji^ mxhjar pi. jil^ malMfir^ spade 

jiU Mfir pi. J]y- hawdfir' hoof | jSj 
yli-l Je ^U-l to coincide, happen to 
correspond exactly; jili-l J« on the 
spot, right away, at once 

^^U hSfai ungular, ungulate 

•yl«. hdjlra original condition, be- 
ginning I ijHi~\ x^ on the spot, right 
away, at once; ij/l^ til m to revert 
to its original state or origin 

jji^ mahjwr dug ; inscribed, engraved : 

w. hafaza i (Ao/z) to pierce, stab (• s.o., v 
with the spear); to incite, instigate, urge, 
prompt, induce (J* or Jl • s.o. to 
V to prepare o.s., get ready, be ready, 
be about to do (J or Jl), set out to do (J or Jl); to get ready to jump, 
make a running start; to listen, pay 
attention VIIl to be about to do, 
be ready (J for) 

ji^ tahajfuz preparedness, readiness; 
vim, dash, verve, sweep, ^lan 

jiU hafiz pi. Jij^ hatmja' spur, drive 
( Jt to do, incentive (J» to), initiative 

_^ini> muiahaffiz ready, prepared (J for) 

ir- hafiza a (hifz) to preserve (*; to 
protect, guard, defend (• s.o.); to observe, 
bear in mind (», comply (» with, be mindful, be heedful (*of; 
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain, 
uphold (*; to hold, have in safe- 
keeping (*, take care (a of; 
to keep, put away, save, store (a ); 
to conserve, preserve (a; to retain 
in one's memory, remember, know by 
heart (*; to memorize, learn by 
heart, commit to memory (>, esp. 
the Koran); to reserve (a *-Jd for 
o.a.; to stay, discontinue^ suspend 
(jJiAidl a judicial investigatiota; jur.) | 
^1 «kil^ may God protect him I ij^lj -Ui^ 
to hold in care of general delivery 
(A; «^>JI j iiJ^ (v^/o?") "> 
care of general delivery, poste restante; 
^•\jy\ iiJL>- (im/d'a) to be loyal to s.o., 
keep faith with s.o. II to have s.o. (•) 
memorize (a Ill to preserve, keep 
up, maintain, uphold, sustain (Ja]; 



to supervise, control (Jp watch 
(J* over; to watch out {J* for), 
take caret be heedful* be mindful ( J« of), 
look (J« after), attend, pay attention 
(J* to); to keep, follow, obflerve, bear in 
mind (J*, comply (J* with), 
conform (J* to) ; to protect, guard, 
defend (* and J#, also ^ IV to 
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, offend 
(» 8.0.) V to keep up, maintain, preservfi 
(^ to observe, keep in mind 
(w> 8,th.), be mindful, be heedful, take 
care (w> of, be concerned (^ with); 
to be cautious, be wary, be on one's 
guard; to be reserved, aloof; to have 
reservations VHI to maintain, uphold 
(l^ or A, e.g., Jji^ one's rights); 
to keep up, maintain, retain {^ or a, e.g., a posture, a characteristic); 
to take care, take over custody (-_. of 
8.0. ), protect, guard (^ s.o.); to defend 
(against encroachment), hold, maintain 
(-_! a possession); to preserve, sustain, 
continue, keep up (^; to hold, 
possess (s^; to put away, hold, 
have in safekeeping {k^, take care 
(<^ of; to keep, retain («_^; 
cuLJ i^j>-l to keep for o.s., appro- 
priate, reserve for o.s. {*^ or a, 
take complete possession <a of) X to 
ask s.o. (k) to guard or protect (* or J»; to entrust (J» or * * to s.o., 
commit (J« or a) to the charge of 
s.o. {.) 

Jai*- hifz preservation; maintenance, 
sustentation, conservation, upholding ; 
protection, defense, guarding; custody, 
safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; 
observance, compliance (with); memoriz- 
ing, memorization; memory; (;ur.) dis- 
continuance, stay, suspension (of legal 
action, of a judicial investigation) | 
jIjVI iftjU' preservation of ancient mon- 
uments {Eg.); **,^\ JLu- h. a^-^hha 
hygiene, sanitation ; .LaJ- I J Uj police 

•iii*- hijza anger, indignation, resent- 
ment, rancor 

JiLi.- hifdt pi. -St dresfiing, ligature, 
bandage | ,j^-X-1 J^Li*- K ahha-i^ sanitary 

Ji^i*- liafiz attentive, heedful, mind- 
ful; preserving, keeping, guarding (J* 

ii^jU. haflza pi, Ji/Lo- haf&'iz^ grudge, 
resentment, rancor 

•\kJi^ mahfafa, mihjaza pi. -at, JiiL^ 
mahdjiz* folder, bag, satchel, briefcase 
dispatch case, portfolio; wallet, pocket- 

«1La^ mihjaza capsule 

' -1*:^^ iuhilz memorization drill, incul- 
cation (esp. of the Koran) 

iiLu> hijdz defense, protection, guard- 
ing (esp. of cherished, sacred things); 
preservation, maintenance (Jp of inter- 
ents); keeping, upholding (of loyalty), 
adherence (to a commitment) 

4j*ik- muhafaza guarding; safeguard- 
ing ; preserv ation ; protection, defense ; 
conservation, sustaining, upholding ,■ 
retention, maintenance (^^ of 
conaervativiam {pol.), conservative atti- 
tude; following, observance ( J» of, 
comphance (J» with, adherence 
(J* to); guarding (^> against misfortune), 
saving (^ from misadventure); garrison 
(mil,); (pi. -at) govemorate (one of five 
administrative divisions of Egypt, in 
addition to 1>1 mudiriyat)', office of the 
muhdfiz (head of a govemorate); prov- 
ince, any one of the larger administra- 
tive districts (Syr,) | .^-iJl J* ^iiUI 
self-preservation; 4j^l^l w^I. ma4hab 
aim. conservative movement, conserv- 
ativism, Toryism 

Jkju^ tahaffuz caution, wariness, re- 
straint, reticence, reserve, aloofness; — 


(pi. -ttt) precaution, precautionary 
measure; reservation, limiting condition, 
conditional stipulation, proviso | Ju*.:!! m 
with full reservation 

Jii^ lahaffvfi precautionary, pre- 
ventive I yii* olil_^l (ijro'ot) pre- 
cautionary measures; Jii^ ^^ (^Ij^) 
settlement before action, preventive 
settlement {jur.) 

ir\Ji:^^ ihtilat guarding, safeguarding; 
preservation ; retention, msuitenance, 
continuation, conservation, defense, pro- 
tection, vindication, sustaining, up- 
holding; keeping, holding, safekeeping, 
custody (i-t of 

iiiU Ad/tf keeper, guarder, guardian, 
custodian, caretaker; (pt. JiLi>- Imffif, 
Ulte- hajaia) one who knows the Koran 
by heart (formerly an honorific epitbst) 

4lifU- hdfiza memory; — (pi. Jktl^ 
AawdjSx') wallet, pocketbook: money 
order {Sg.) 

iijJt< mahfvz kept, held in safe- 
keeping, deposited, guarded, preserved; 
memorixed, committed to memory, etc.; 
oonserved, preserved (food); reserved; 
ensured, secured, safeguarded; — p). 
il>lk^ canned goods, conserves ; archives ; 
memorized materia], what s.o. knows 
by heart | iij^\ clk^l Jt the Egyp- 
tian Public Record Office; 'Jiyi*- ^'i/'l. 
conserves, canned goods; iU^ J^U-I »^. 
all rights reserved 

.Uil^ mu/ko/iz supervisory, controlling; 
observing ( J», complying ( J« with), 
etc.; conservative [pol.], OjUiL^I the 
Conservatives, the Tories; keeper, guard- 
er, guardian, custodian, caretaker, super- 
visor, superintendent; mayor; governor 
(Eg. : title of the chief officer of a gov- 
emorate; Syr.: chief officer of a prov- 
ince) ; director general, president (— Brit. 

> mviaJiaffif vigilant, alert, wary, 
cautious; reticent, reserved, aloof; staid, 

Ji«^',.. muaahfaz pi. -SI reserve (mil.) 

J;i» hafala i (^/l) to gather, assemble, 
ooDgregate; to flow copiously; to be 
replete, teem, superabound (^ with); 
to pay attention, attend, give one's 
mind (v-* or J to, concern o.s. 
(o> with), make much (u of), set great 
store (<j by) | *t Ji^ V (hafla) indiBerent, 
of no consequence II to adorn, decorate, 
ornament (^ m with) YIU to gather, 
rally, throng together; to celebrate (i^, S.O.); to ooncem o.s. (^ or J 
with), attend, pay attention, give one's 
mind (v^ or J to; to honor, wd- 
oome, leceive kindly (v b.o.) 

*Ji^ fall gathering, meeting, assem- 
bling; assembly, congregation, throng, 
crowd; performanoe, show, public event; 
celebration; feast, festival 

Ute- fajla pi. -U assembly, gathering, 
meeting, congregation; party; (social or 
public) event; show, performance (the- 
ater, cinema); concert; festivity, oere- 
mony, festival, festive event, celebra- 
tion I Ouidl UiU. conmiemoration, com- 
memorative ceremony for a deceased 
person; 4^*^! *Lki.\ (fiU) premiere; 
«iiU- 4Li»- numerous assembly; *i/»- ^ii*- 
(jfairiya) charity performance, charity 
event; jiJll iL^ h. ad-dajn funeral 
ceremony, obsequies; Lw^ Ui^ (dinijfa) 
religious ceremony. Divine Service; Ui^ 
>^L- and _,..' «Lw- h, Mmor evening party, 
soiree; aJ^Ix^ Ui^ motion-picture show; 
^Ij^l tUtp- tea party; ^j-jj\ ilir- h. 
al-'ur» wedding; JLcU'NI «i<^ (public) 
reception; *^^^ *Im^ concert 

J^i*- hafU eager, assiduous, diligent 

Ji^ mahfil pi. Jil^ nuASfiP assembly, 
congrogation, meeting, gathering; party; 


body, collective whole; circle, quarter | 
J_^L* Jjrf- Masonic lodge; ^^J^ J*'^' 
(i— -l-Jl) {rasmiya, siydstya) the official 
(political) circles or quarters 

Jlo-I ihtifdl pi. 'di celebration, cere- 
mony, featival, festivities 

JjU hajll pi. Jij- huffal, Jil^ liatadfil^ 
full {^ of), filled, replete {^ with); 
abundant, copious, lavish; much fre- 
quented, well attended (by visitors, 
participants, etc.), numerous (of attend- 
ance); solemn, ceremonial, festive 

iijl- hdfila pi. -dt, Jii^ hawdjiP 
O autobus 

^^jc^ muhtafU: Lj^Lt^' the participants 
in a festive event, the celebrators 

Jiitf miihtafal assembly place, gather- 
ing place ; party ; *j Ji:*: celebrated 

ji»- hafana ii to scoop up with both hands 
(*; to give a little (J to s.o.) 
<ii»- hafna pi. hajandt handful 

^{>to- and J*-) J*, hajlya a (SjU^ hafdwa) 
to receive kindly and hospitably, to 
welcome, receive with honors, honor (i_j 
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be 
afiFectionate {^ toward) VHI do,; to 
celebrate {ij an occasion, a festival) 

J- hajly welcoming, receiving kindly, 
greeting (v s,o,, 

•jLi^ hajdwa friendly reception, wel- 
coming, welcome, salutation ((_j of s.o.) 

*\Jii».\ ihU/d' reception, welcome, sal- 
utation (i_->of 8.0.); celebration, festivity 

^Jp~ hajiya a (.Li*- hajd*) to go barefoot; to 
have sore feet 

JiU- hdjin pi. sLi*- hu/dh barefoot(ed) 

i>- haqqa i u to be true, turn out to be true, 
be confirmed; to be right, correct; (also 
pass, huqqa) to be necessary, obhgatory, 
requisite, imperative (J* for s.o.), be 

incumbent (J* upon g.o.); to be ade- 
quate, Buitftble, fitting, appropriate (J* 
for fl.o.); to be due (J a.o.); *J ^ he 
is entitled to it, he has a right to it; ^l^ 
4-L he deserved it (punishment); — u 
to ascertain (a, make sure, be sure 
(* of; to recognize, identify (* 
s.o.) II to make (a) come true; to 
realize (*, e.g., a hope), cany out 
(a e.g., a wish), carry into effect, fulfill, 
put into action, consummate, effect, 
actualize (a; to implement (a e.g., 
an agreement); to produce, bring on, 
yield (a results); to determine, ascertain, 
find out, pinpoint, identify (a}; to 
prove (a) to be true, verify, establish, 
substantiate (*; to confirm, assert, 
aver* avouch, affirm (a; to be 
exact, painstaking, meticulous, careful 
(a in doing, e.g., ^^kJI ji*- (naiara) 
to look closely ; to study, examine, 
investigate, explore (a, look, in- 
quire (a into; to verify, check (* 
or J; to investigate (J; 
police); to make an official inquiry (a 
into, institute an investigation (a 
of or into; court; jur.}; to interrof^ate (»* 
8.0,), conduct a hearing {^ of b.o. ; jur.) 

III to contend for a right (« with s.o.), 
contest or litigate a right (» against s.o.) 

IV to tell the truth; to be right (j in; to enforce (a, e.g., a legal 
claim) V to prove true, turn out to he 
true, be confirmed, prove to be correct; 
to materialize, become a fact; to b© 
realized, be effected, come into effect; to 
be examined, be explored; to ascertain 
(a,, also ^), make sure, reaeaure 
O.S., gain proof, conviiice o.s., be convinc- 
ed, be sure, be certain (a of; to 
check, verify (a or j^; to be serious 
(i_j about X to be entitled, have a 
claim (a to; to claim (a, lay 
claim (a to); to deserve, merit (a, 
be worthy (a of); to require, demand, 


necessitate, make requisite (<; to 
fall due, become payable (sum of money), 
mature, become due (note) ; to be due (J 
s.o.) IjS'-ill J-' ; (iikra) worth mention- 
ing, noteworthy; ^J^ ^Jie J x ' - i V 
(rotfmu) not subject to ft fee, free of 

Jr- haqq truth; correctness, lightness; 
rightful possession, property; one's due; 
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, 
real; right, fair and reasonable; correct, 
sound, valid; jl-l an attribute of God; 
(pi. i3^ Atijug) right, title, cbim, legal 
claim (j to); J^ii-I law, jurisprudence, 
legal science ; U>- haqqan really, in reality, 
in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, 
in truth; justly, rightly, by rights | 
?iJli li-l is that (really) so? really? J<: 
justly, rightly, by rights; jJ-U truly, in 
reality, actually; properly, appropriately, 
in a suitable manner; J^ bi-haqqi and 
J>- J as to .... as for .. ., with respect to, 
concerning, regarding; j.- J» _>» he is 
in the right; iL* jJ-l you are right; jJ-l 
,iLl* you are wrong; iLlt ^^ _^ it is 
your duty; SLlt J»- li» you owe this to 
me; d-U l^jj- Uli^c ('tr/anun) in re- 
cognition of what he owed her; 4j»>- ^ 
he is entitled to it, it is his due; ^ of 
jl «i- he should have . . ., he ought to 
have...; j ji-t ^J he is entitled to ...; 
Jlij (Ji-lj (yu^di) one may say, it must be 
admitted, it's only fair to say, say what 
you will . . ., ... though (as a parentheti- 
cal phrase); »i^l J^ jj* (*«??<» 
Z-mo'H/o) to know exactly, know for 
certain, know very woU, also ^JJI i>- ^l* 
(fajja l-'Um) ; ^1 >- ^ fahima haqqa 
l-jdhm to understand precisely, com- 
prehend thoroughly, be fully aware; 
UJ.I :jU-II (aa'Sda) true happiness; 
iyi-\ yS' iuAJCynl oI-A. law school, 
faculty of law 

j». hiqq hollow, cavity; socket of a 
joint (anot.); also = *S»- Aujjo 

4ji»- hvqqa pi. JJU- Aufog, i^U>- hiqaq^ 
oU>-l aAfoj small box, case, pot or jar; 
receptacle, container; — (pi. -*, Ji- 
huqaq) a weight (Syr., Pal.) — «1 vqqa; 
U^L-I M^ = 1.280 kg (Ir.) 

J»-l ahaqq* worthier, more deserving 
[^ of; more entitled (y to 

jJu- haqtq pi. .U.-I oAigjo"' worthy, 
deserving (<-• of, fit, competent, 
qualified ; entitled (l^ to) 

UJu- /toglfa pi. ^U>- haqa^i^ truth, 
reality (also pKilos.); fact; the true state 
of affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; 
real meaning, true sense; haqtqatan 
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in 
fact, indeed, truly, in truth | 4:jiji^ ^ <j}j 
I saw its true nature, as it really is; 
j^'i\ IjiSi- J in reality, really, actually; 
uJ«- 4I ^ it does not really exist, it is 
not real 

Jj^ heufiqi real, true; actual; proper, 
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic; 

Jyu- lyvqu^ juristic(al) ; (pi. -<2n) 
jurist, jurisprudent, lawyer 

iJu-l cAagqiya legal claim, title, right 

Jli- haqqSrX correct, right, proper, 
sound, valid, legitimate, legal 

uUu- haqq&niya justice, law | Sj'Jj 
uUU.1 Ministry of Justice (formerly Eg.) 

Jjt^ tahefiq realization, actualization, 
effectuation, implementation; fulfillment 
(of a claim, of a wish, etc.) ; achievement, 
accomplishment, execution; ascertain- 
ment, determination, identification, veri- 
fication; substantiation; assertion, af- 
firmation, confirmation; pinpointing, 
precise determination; exactness, ac- 
curateness, precision; (= jkJI JJi^ (. 
an-mi4q) precise pronunciation; — (pi. 
■at) verification, check, checkup, in- 
vestigation; ofBoial or judicial inquiry. 


inquest | ul JJi>JI it is a matter of fact 
that ,.., it 16 certain that ...; j _.- , -l l Jc 
properly speaking, strictly speaking, 
actually; exactly, precisely; positively, 
definitely; J ^ aw^ 'J I Xa propckrly speaking, 
strictly speaking, actually; '_ .t- ^-' J I J'^ 
I. aj-iaifiya identification (of a person), 
proof of identity; 5_,iiJtII j '.J jjl^ 
Sahadat i. ai-iakffya identity card; 
K -»- ' •" Jr** ^ jofcwn I. ai-i. burea i of 
identification; v'-"' J.'^ (.. a4-i&tiya 
identification; J .l »« - . l l ^^li examining 
magistrate; ^IjjVI jj<: realization of 
profits (stock market) 

jli-l tAjSy: jj! liU..! iA^j^n h'-i- 
Aa?? (so) that truth may prevail 

(p^ idfyaqquq ascertainment, making 
sure; conviction, certainty, certitude; 
verification, check, checkup 

jiji"^! uUKqSn pi. -St worthiness, 
deservingness, merit; one's due or desert; 
maturity, payability, falling due (of a 
sum of money); re-olaiming or calling in 
of due, demand of a right; vindica- 
tion {Id. Law), replevin, detinue | ^ 
jUuc-1 deservedly, justly, by rights; 
jti"^! iJj4j undeservedly; 1JU.C-VI j^jU 
date of maturity (e.g., of a bond); 
JUJI JUUs-VI (Ivbn&ni) name of a 
Lebanese order 

3yi^ mahgHq worthy, deserving (ij, 
J of), fit, competent, qualifying (<_j, J 
for); wrong, at fault, on the wrong 

ji^ muhaqqiq investigator; inquirer; 
examining magistrate 

,ji< muhagqaq sure, certain, beyond 
doubt, unquestionable, indubitable; as- 
sured, established, accepted, recognized I 
^' i>^' O' '^ i^ certain that ..., it is a 
fact that . . . 

J^ muhiqq telling the truth, in the 
right, being right 

•*;• nnUahaqqiq convinced, sure, cer- 
tain, positive 

J— '- ' mv^iaKiqq entitled; claiming; 
beneficiaiy (of a wakf); deserving, 
worthy I jijii Ji«;:_ m. ad-daf due, 
payable (sum) 

-i- Vni to put into one's bag, to bag (* 

i^Sf huqb pi. vLi«-l a^jSb, >-<Ui>- kigOb 
long stretch of time, long period 

SJ*- hiqba pi. t-i»- hiqab long time, 
stretch of time; period, age | ilil-jil ^ iJir- 
^igbalan min az-tamdn for quite a time, 
for some time 

«-Ji*- fiaqab pi. ^Li^l a^qdb a kind of 
ornamental belt 

V^ ^ijdfr pi, wi^ huqub a kind of 
ornamental belt 

«_I^ ftagiba pi. i^'LL- hagifii> valise, 
suitcase, traveling bag; leather bag | " _i— 
*-^\*jiii diplomatic pouch; Ayi:i\ 4^Ji». 
portemonnaie, change purse; Jji <.Ji». ^. 
oj-yiui ladies' purse, handbag 

•- haqida a, haqada i (haqd, hiqd) to harbor 
feelings of hatred (J« against) IV to 
incite to hatred or resentment, embitter, 
envenom (> s.o.) V = I; TI to hate one 

X>»> kiqd pi. jU»-l ahqddf iji^ ftuqUd 
hatred, malice, spit«, resentment, rancor 

S.IJ.. haqida pi. jj'Li- liaqS'id' hatred, 
malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

ijiM- ^aqiid full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 

oil.- haqid full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malioious, malevolent, rancor- 
ous; pi. «Xto- haqada malevolent people 

^i»- ^aqara i (haqr) to despise, scorn, disdain 
(t S.O., A; to look down (t, • on), 
have a low opinion (*, • of); — Ifoqura u 


to be low, base, contemptible, despicable; 
to be despised, degraded, humiliated 
II to disparage, decry, depreciate (• b.o.), 
detract, derogate (• from s.o.) ; to degrade, 
debase, humble, humiliate; to regard 
with contempt, despise, scorn, disdain 
(• B.o., * VIII to despise, scorn, 
disdain (• s.o., * s.ih.), look down (>, • 
on) X to regard as contemptible or 
despicable, disdain, despise (• s.o., a, look down (», a on) 

jui^ haqir pi. ^\jjt^ Aiigora'' low, base, 
mean, vulgar, vile; little, small, paltry, 
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable ; 
despised; despicable, contemptible 

ji».l ahqar' lower, baser, more con- 

Jjli- haqara lownesfl, vulgarity, base- 
ness, vilcness, meanness; smallness, pal- 
triness, insignificance, poorness, wretched- 
ness, miserableness ; despicabiUty, con- 
temptibleness; ignominy, infamy 

j^ ialfiqir contempt, disdain, Bcom; 
degradation, hunoiliation, abasement 

jU::^l ihtiqar contempt, disdain, scorn | 
jLii-'VI i^, ■J' J^ {bi-'aini Uiht.) to 
regard fl.o, with contempt, look down 
one's nose at s.o. 

jj^ muhiaqar despised; contemptible, 

li»- kaql pi. J>M- huqul field (also fig. — 
domain); column | Jjj^l J>i"- oil fields; 
CjjII Ji»- h. az-zait, iiJI Ji^ A. on-no/f 
oil field; oil area; ^-^jU^Jl Jji^ experi- 
mental fields; JbjiT Ji- (kahrabSl) 
electric field 

Ji«- haqli field- (in compounds] 

ilSl* muhagdia sale of grain while still 
in growth, dealing in grain futures (/«!. 

ji». hagana i v, (haqn) to hold back, with- 
hold, keep back, detain, retain (<; 

to suppress, repress, restrain (»; to 
keep to o.s. ( jJI at-eirra the secret) ; to 
spare (<>J damahu b.o.'s blood or life); to 
give (• B.o.) an injection (m«J.) VIII to 
become congested ' (esp. blood); to suffer 
from strangury; to take an enema, a 
clyster; to be injected | *4«-j ji^l (■waj- 
huhu) his face was flushed, his face turned 

ji^ haqn retention, withholding; 
sparing ; injecting , injection ( med. ) ) 
^L>J LJU- haqruin U-dimd'thim in order 
to spare their blood; Jjjjll j jir- 
intravenous injection (med.) 

Kjr- huqna pi. Ja*^ hvqatt injection 
(inid.)i hypodermic; clyster; enema 

oi* niluiana pi. j#L^ mahaqin^ 
syringe (nud.) 

oLi:»-l iMiqan congestion 1 |"-JI jLi>-l 
ihi. ad-dam vascular congestion 

z^iitf muhiaqan reddened by blood 
congestion, flushed, red (face) 

J». haqw pi. •La»- hiqd't »U».1 ahqa' loin, 
groin I tiji^ J-Li iaddada hagwaihi to 
gird one's loins 

>AU haika a (hakk) to rub, chafe; to scrape; 
to scratch; to rub off, Bcrape off, scratch 
off, abrade (» | yJ-. j iU (fodrihl) 
it impressed him, affected liim, touched inside him IT to itch V to rub 0.8., 
scrape, chafe (v against); to pick a 
quarrel (v ^^^ »-o-) ^ ^ "^ ■"■ ""rape 
against each other VIH to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (v against); to be in con- 
tact, in touch (^ with) | "jX^ J iii;»-l 
Ipadrihi) it impressed him, affected him, 
touched inside him 

Ji^ haktc rubbing, chafing; friction; 

^Sii- hikha itching; scabies, itch [vud.] 

lUiL- hakkSk lapidary 



di^ mihakk touchstone; teat | J* c-m 
Jii:}\ d\^ tabala 'old m. in-Muar to 
stand a critical test 

aS^ tnihakka ourrycomb 

ill^ tahSkk (reciprocal) friction 

i)K:«.l ihtikdk pi. -Si (reciprocal) fric- 
tion; close touch or contact; friction 
(fig., = dissension, controversy) | j>» ^ 
iiSj:>-\ min gairi ht. frictionless 

dJ^ m-uhakiak chafed, worn away 

''S^ Aukka ((«»., = Aw/jo) pi. JJS^ hukak 
small box, case, pot or jar 

jS!^ VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, 
comer (* a commodity); to monopolize 
(* a commercial article); to have exclusive 
possession (« of, hold a monopoly 
(* over s.tb.) 

jS^ liikr, kukr and ^SU- 1 ij^\ ujrat aUh. 
ground rent, quitrent 

jS^ hakar, hukar hoarded 

•jS^ hukra hoarding (of goods); mo* 

«jjS t*- hdkura small vegetable garden 

jiSss^l i}tUkdr pi. -at cornering, buying 
up; monopoly; preferential position; 
supremacy, hegemony | jill ij\jt jBC;..! 
iht. I. ol-Iwnn coffee-trade monopoly; 
_^iJ\ jtxi*.! ihl.a^-sukkar sugar monopoly 

^^JSz»-\ ihtikSri rapacious, grasping, 

^ hakania u (huhn) to pass judgment, 
express an opinion {J*, j on, judge 
(J», Lj by, from); to decide, give a 
decision, pass a verdict, pass sentence 
(J» on); to sentence (J» s.o., lj to a 
penalty; said of the judge), impose, 
inflict (lj a penalty) on s.o. (J»); to 
pronounce a verdict or judgment, deliver 
judgment, rule (J in s.o.'s favor); to 
adjudicate, adjudge, award (i^ J to s.o.; to take (.j as a standard or 
norm; to have judicial power, have 
jurisdiction, have authority (J» and > 
over), govern, rule, dominate, control 
(J» or • S.O.); to order, command (<_.; to bridle, check, curb {., *, s.o.) I I'l-i.^'i/L <Jt ^ (hukimo, 
i'dam) he was sentenced to death; S^ 
clbU {bi-idSnatihi) to convict s.o., find 
s.o. guilty ()ur.); J.ljv f^ {bi-bard'atihi) 
to acquit s.o. (jur.) II to appoint {. s.o.) 
as ruler; to choose (• s.o.) as arbitrator, 
make (• s.o.) the judge (j over or in, j*j between) III to prosecute (* 
S.O.); to arraign, bring to trial, hale into 
court (b s.o.); to interrogate, hear (e s.o.) 
IV to make (* s.tb.) firm, strong, sturdy, 
solid; to fortify (»; to strengthen, 
consolidate (*; to do well, do 
expertly, master (< field, work), be 
proficient (» in) | .^1 ^1 (amrahu) to 
do thoroughly, carefully, properly; 
vUl Jii ^1 (go/ij l-bSb) to lock the 
door firmly; U ^1 (lugatan) to master 
a language V to have one's own way (j 
in), proceed (j with) at random, at will, 
handle (J arbitrarily; to pass 
arbitrary judgment ( j on) ; to make o.s. 
the judge ( J» of), pass judgment ( Jp on) ; 
to decide (lj on); to rule, reign, hold 
sway (J over); to dominate, control 
(J, be in control, be in command 
(j of) VI to bring one another before 
the judge (^U-l Jl); to appeal (Jl to) 
for a legal decision; to be interrogated, 
be heard (in court) VIII to have one's 
own way (j in), proceed (j with, in at will, at random, handle (j 
arbitrarily, judge arbitrarily; to rule, 
reign, hold sway (J», j over); to be in 
control, bo in possession (J» of); to 
appeal (Jl to) for a legal decision, seek 
a decision (Jl from), have s.o. (Jl) decide 
X to be strong, sturdy, solid, firm; to 
become stronger, be strengtnened, be 



consolidated; to take root, be or become 
deep-rooted, deep-seated, ingrained, in- 
veterate, marked, pronounced (feeling, 

<► hulcm pi. fK*.l ahkdm judgment, 
valuation, opinion; decision; (legal) 
judgment, verdict, sentence; condem- 
nation, conviction; administration of 
justice; jurisdiction; legal consequence 
of the facts of a ease (I»l. Law) ; regulation, 
rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; 
judiciousness, wisdom; judgeship; com- 
mand, authority, control, dominion, 
power; government, regime; pi. pl*.*-i 
statutes, by-lavs, regulations, rules, 
provisions, stipulations, principles, pre- 
cepts; IS^ huknan virtually; legally | 
<*i bi-huhni by virtue of, on the 
strength of, pursuant to; by force of; 
C. j as good as, all but, e.g., ^ j j» 
^a>ll (/{ hukmi l-'adam) it is as good as 
nothing, it is practically nonexistent; 
jjii.\ ft- j j<— •! a^xjha /I hulmi l-mw 
jorror it is all but decided; ^ j jS" 
,^| also: to be subject to; *C Je J>' 
to give in, yield to s.o,; •♦'jJi ^ J. «I- 
iiorS'a acquittal; iijj-1^ f^ (jK^urt) 
judgment delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties, after oral proeeed- 
ings ijur.); ^la»'Jlj fi-\ (t'lMin) death 
sentence; jU ^ (?»yoM) judgment by 
default (jtir.); Jlill ^1 (#Bt) self- 
determination, autonomy (po!.); ^1 
iSjj^J-\ (fufliAflrf) the republican form 
of government, the republican regime; 
jlUI fi-\ [mvllaq) the absolute, l.e., 
authoritarian, regime; jUI ^1 (ntjoM) 
the parliamentary regime, parliamen- 
tarianism; 5^1 U. lajnat al-^. board of 
examiners, review board; V-f^' f'^'^i 
Curfit/a) nuutial law; yiiji ptS^I (•'n' 
tiqUBj/a) provisional regulations (jur.); 
;^U>. pS^l {JfiUmiyay final regulations 
(jur.); IrfU pK^I (i*>)m) special reg- 
ulations; Sj' ;y- !fi (mn») every age 

has its own set of rules, must be judged 
by its own standards; *K*-l »jjj-iJi (W-tf- 
eiarura) necessity has its (own) rules, 
{approx.: necessity knows no law) 

iC>- Auibmi legal 

jlii>^ (eg.; pronounced At'fa'miiSr) com 
mandant; ohief of police 

IjjIjJ^ (eff.; pronounced lukimianya) 
commandant's office 

J^ haiam pi. ^K^r- hukkam arbitrator, 
arbiter; umpire, referee 

;SC Aifano pi. ^ Atiom wisdom; 
sagacity; philosophy; maxim; rationale, 
underlying reason | tS^ (with foil, genit.) 
on account of, because of 

iC^ hikmi gnomic, aphoristio, ex- 
pressing maxims | j^' j^ (*'<■) gnomic 

iS^ hakama pi. -St bit (of a horse's 

S^ haHm pi. .lii- AutoTno"' wise, 
judioious; wise man, sage; philosopher; 
physician, doctor 

^L^S^ haambiH senior physician, 
chief surgeon 

l.j$^ JuifiBia pi. -U government 

^^^ hvkiml of government, gov- 
ernmental; ofScial; state-owned, atate- 
oontroDed, of the state, state- (in com- 

S^l akkawf wiser 

'£*■ moAtomo pi. fU makilkimf 
court, tribunal | jLJi-'il *S^ ">. "J- 
utt'nd/ court of appeal, appellate court; 
LUt <S\^ (oUiyo) indigenous court (Bg.i 
jurisdiction limited to Egyptian na- 
tionals); Vljijl *5^*■ (ibtidSiya) court of 
first instance; 'tS V'^'h' *^ (taJJIyo) 
civil court with jurisdiction in cases of 
major importance, at the same time 
appellate instance of 4Jj*- ^1^ {Eg.)i 


Vjr «^ (jus'Iyo) in Eg., lowest court 
of both <lk\ ri* (approx. : district 
courts) and of l^^ TLc canonical 
courts (with jurisdiction in marital and 
family matters); summary court; iJi^ 
Ol;LJ.I m. (Ujindydi criminal court; fl^ 
''.■•' - 'i\ JljoVI (iaiffiya) courts dealing 
with vital statistics; iLLut 'Sj- (muk' 
lalifa) mixed court (with jurisdiction 
over residents of foreign nationality); 
'^^ *^ {iar'iya) canonical court 
(administering justice on the basis of the 
Sbaria), court dealing with family 
matters of Muslims; 4jj5^ aS^ {mar^ 
iazlya) county court, dealing with 
minor offenses, esp. misdemeanors (Eg.); 
jjbVl .Liill y^ m. al-gadd' al-iddri 
administrative court; [•l_rV'j , i'-H <S^ 
m. an-naq4 wa-l-ibrdnt Court of Cas- 
sation, the highest court of appeal in 
Egypt; >J'I iS^ Court of Cassation 
{Syr., Leb. = ^\_,y\j ^jiij 'JU in Eg.); 
^Ul oU-U tribunals 

^S^' tahkim appointment of an ar- 
bitrator; arbitration; arbitral decision, 
award; pi. c^]^ fortifioationa | ^fji 
JU-I starting from the present state of 
a court's findings (/»). Law); Ji^\ lL» 
hai'at ai-t. board of arbitration; jury, 
committee of judges, committee of 
umpires (in sports), committee of referees 
(in mil. maneuvers) ; \:-S^ <X (lajna) do. 

iil^ muhdkama judicial proceeding; 
trial, hearing (in court) ; legal prosecution 

plx»-l ihkdm perfection; accuracy, 
exactness, exactitude, precision; exact 
performance, precise execution | fU^^l; 
accurately, exactly, precisely; j ill; 
l-Bl-VI of highest perfection 

^ lahakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary 
powers or action; despotism; domination, 
dominion, rule, sway, power; control (ji 
of, over) 

u^ (oAaititumi arbitrary; despotic 


|"l^~^l ulihkim intensifioation, in- 
crease, strengthening; consolidation, sta- 
bilization ; fortification ; pi. oUSC>>:l^I for- 

^U- hdkim ruling, governing; decisive; 
— (pi. -iin, plx»- Aujtifcdm) ruler, sovereign; 
governor; judge | .j.[. ^U (6i-amriAJ) 
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; |.l» fL- 
{'dmm) governor general; SljUl fU h. 
almubdrih umpire, referee (atUtt.); fU- 
jJ--)! h. Of -full). (Syr.) justice of the peace; 
V-UI ^U h. an-Tilhiya (Tun.) district 

4^U- h/lkimiya domination, dominion, 
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature, 
jurisdiction (ir.) 

•4^ f-*^ fnoAiiim 'alat'At sentenced (lj 
to) I (.IjeV/l, ^ ^^\ (i'Mm) those 
sentenced to death; J-lilli <j£ iV^ 
(/oioZ) doomed to fail 

^ muhakkam pi, -fiit arbitrator, ar- 
biter; umpire, referee (j in, over) 

^ muhkam strengthened, reinforced; 
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfect, 
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow, 
hit); accurate, precise, exact | juJjl 5^ 
well-planned, well- contrived 

^ w ' ■ mtulahkam reinforced, fortified; 
strengthened, consolidated, strong; in- 
veterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted, in- 
grained (custom, trait, etc.);pl. olSC«i_. 
defenses, fortifications 

j'-i^, «jjl.iX»- see 5^ 

S^ hakd i (iBC- hikdya) to tell, relate (», report, give an account {t of); to 
speak, talk [ayr., Ub.); to imitate, copy 
(* ; to resemble (*, , s.o., Ill to 
imitate, copy (*, assimilate o.s. (» 
to); to be similar (* to), be like (*), 
resemble (*, be attuned, adjust- 
ed, adapted (* to), be in harmony 
(» with) 



ijjS^ hikai/a pi. -at atory, tale, nar- 
rative, account: (pram.) literal quotation 
(of the words of others) 

:iri^ mvliakah imitation; similarity, 
resemblance; harmony 

ill.- hakin narrator, storyteller ; phono- 
graph; O loudspeaker, radio 

Jjt mahlcii/ imitated, imitation (adj.> 

^L.*S^- Bee >»■ 

• V halUt u (Aafl) to untie (» a knot), unbind, 
unfasten, unravel, undo (*; to 
solve (i a problem, a puzzle); to de- 
cipher, decode (» to dissolve in 
water (*; chem.); to resolve (» 
into its components), analyze (»,); 
to melt (»; to decompose, dis- 
integrate (»; to disband, break up, 
dissolve (» an organization or party, 
parliament); to open, unpack (» a 
package, and the like); to loosen, relax 
(>; to release, set free, let go (», • B.o.) ; to clear, exonerate, exculpate 
( j. • s.o. from), absolve (• s.o., ^ from 
his sins ;C4r.); pass. Auilo to be free ; to be 
relaxed; — i u (J^.- hulii) to dismount, 
alight, stop, halt; to settle down, stay 
(ij at a place, also j and *; Jp with 
8.O., at s.o.'s house), come (for a visit, J» 
to); to take up residence (» in a place 
or country); to descend, come down; to 
descend (J» upon s.o.; wrath); to over- 
come, overwhelm (J» s.o.; sleep); to 
befall (^ and J» s.o.; punishment, 
suffering), occur, happen (ij to s.o.); to 
become incarnate (j in s.o.; God); to 
set in, arrive, begin (time, season); — » 
to pass into solution, dissolve; to fade 
(color); — i (hill) to be allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, lawful; to be due, 
payable (debt) | o-c j J- (manfih) to 
take over or hold an office; <V J»- 
(maM'<iAu) to be in the right place; 
j^ J* J-, '^1 J* y i'nahaUa) to take 
the place of s.o. or, replace, super- 

sede B.C. or, substitute for s.o. or; y* *Jj j cX- (goiirti) she held a 
place in his heart; *iA! j-^JJidl Jrf- J»- 
(mahalla t-taqiiri ladaihi) to enjoy s.o.'s 
high esteem; J^ •'>!" ^j-j^ i> J^ 
oU-i-VI (mm nulu»i l-qtirrS'i mahalla 
l-ulihsdn) to appeal to the readers, meet 
with the readers' approval II to dissolve, 
resolve (into its component parts), break 
up, decompose, anal]rze (»; to 
make a chemical analysis (a of ; to 
be dissolvent, act as a solvent (* on; 
med.); to discharge, absolve, clear, 
exonerate, exculpate (» s.o.) ; (*1* tahilla) 
to expiate an oath; to make permissible 
or lawful, legitimate, sanction, justify, 
warrant (>; to declare permissible 
or lawful, allow, permit (» IV to 
discharge, release, absolve, disengage (,> • 
s.o. &om); to declare (* lawful, 
legally permissible, permit, allow (»; to cause to set in or occur, bring 
about, produce, cause to take root, 
establish, stabilize (*; to cause (* to take or occupy the place (» of), 
shift, move, translocate (< *, e.g., a 
tribe, to a place); to settle (j.j » a- 
mong) 1^ <l*-l (malfaUahi) to cause s.o. 
or to take the place of s.o. or else, 
replace s.o. or by, substitute s.o. or for, take s.o. or as substitute 
for; lUI J* .^^l J^l (mahalla l-'inaya) 
to pay attention to, make one's 
concern ¥ to dissolve, melt, disintegrate ; 
to disengage cs., disassociate o.s., 
extricate O.8., free O.B. (o- from) Yll to 
be untied (knot); to be solved, be un- 
raveled (problem); to be dissolved, be 
broken up, be disbanded (also, of an 
organization, a party, etc.); to dissolve, 
melt; to become slack, limp, weak, loose, 
relaxed; to disintegrate; to melt away 
Till to settle down (» at a place); to 
occupy {mi!., * a territory); to assume, 
take over, occupy, hold, have (* a place. 



a rank, an office) | Jj'lJl utS^l J::»-l (al- 
makdna l-awwala) to occupy the foremost 
place; <dl>l Ji»-I {a'malahu) to take over 
s.o.'s functions X to regard (* as 
permissible or lawful, think that one 
may do (*); to regard as fair game, 
as easy prey, seize unlawfully, mis- 
appropriate, usurp (* 

J^ hall pi. L^*- hulul untying, un- 
fastening, undoing (of a knot); solution 
(of a problem, of a puzzle, etc.); un- 
riddling, unraveling, explanation; aolu- 
tion {chem.) ; dissolution, diabandment, 
breaking up (of an organization, etc.), 
abolition, cancellation, annulment; re- 
lease, freeing, liberation; decontrol, re- 
lease, unblocking (e.g., of a blocked 
sum); discharge, clearing, exoneration, 
exculpation; absolution [ChrJ) \ JJ5 Lli 
soluble, solvable; O ^^\ JJ-i (.(ai'/i) 
spectral analysis; J-a*il^ Ji I JaI ahl al-h. 
wa-l-'aqd or -lajjlj Ji-l JaI (rabf) influential 
people, those in power; «Jl*-j-j <L^ j 
{tarhdlihl) in all his doings, in everything 
he did 

Ja- hill: (^) oH» J»- j olT {hillin) he 
was free to ..., he was at liberty to ...; 
he had free disposal of . . . ; j^ J^ j jj 1 
you're free to . . ., you may readily . . . 

<U- halla pi. Ji*- hilal low copper 
vessel; cooking pot {ey.) 

ii*- hilla way station, stopping place, 
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution 
{Chr.); dispensation {Chr,) 

iU- hulla pi. JU- hulal clothing, dress, 
garb ; vestments (ecclesiastic; Chr.) ; (com- 
plete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit | 
S_rj *!>- (rasmiya) uniform; a_/^l ^ h. 
as-sahra formal dress 

J'iiU- haldl that which is allowed, 
permitted or permissible; allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, allowable, admis- 
sible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; 

lawful possession | J^^U- ^^l ihn h. legiti- 
mate son; respectable man, decent fellow 

J^ hulul stopping, putting up, 
staying; deecending, coming on, be- 
falling, overtaking; incarnation; setting 
in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a dead- 
line), beginning, dawn; aubatitution (for 

J-U. halil pi. »^\ akilla'^ husband 

iJLU- halila pi. JJ-^U halail^ wife 

J-L-l ihlll outer opening of the 
urethra; urethra {anai.) 

J^ mahall pi. -at, JL^ mahdll^ place, 
location, spot, site, locale, locality, 
center; (place of) residence; business; 
business house, firm, commercial house ; 
store, shop; object, cause (e.g., of dis- 
pute, admiration, etc.); gear (automo- 
bile)|JU J^ and^^l see J*- I and IV ; 
4^ {mahallahu) in his (its) place; *i^ J 
in his (its) place, in his (its) stead, 
instead of him; aI^ j olT to be in the 
right place; to be appropriate, ex- 
pedient, advisable; to be justified, 
warranted; ^1^ j^h j. improper, mis- 
placed, unsuitable, ill-suited; out of 
place; inappropriate, inexpedient, in- 
opportune; J^ JiiLrf sddafa mahallahu 
to be convenient, be most opportune; 
J J^ 1/ {mahalla) there is no room 
for . . . ; it is out of place, quite d6plac6; 
J**]! J^ m. al-'amal place of employ- 
ment; *jyi\ J*i m. al-iqdma (place of) 
residence, address; i^jlf J^ (tijari) 
business house, commercial house; 
ijUmiJlj ^.^j-^Jl otA^! {'umumiya, ti'^ 
jdrlya) public utilities and commercial 
houses ; Jil -.^1 ism al-m. firm ; 
oLjyij J< m. ruhundt pawnshop; Cj'>U- 
l^LJl m. as-siydha, travel agencies; 
cX^j* Jrf- m. Tnurattibdt refreshment 
parlor; _^l Jtf. m. al-lahw and Jit 
j_^">U.l m. al-maldht (pi. JUt) amuse- 
ment center; p-ljr' J* m. nizd' object 



of ooatroversy, controversial matter; 
<-f^ '^ ifjl 'j' 2a ard m. li-'ajabin I 
don't see any reason for amazement, 
there ia nothing to be astonished 
about; Jij J^ m. nazar deserving 
attention, a striking, remarkable thing 

J< mahalU local; native, indigenous; 
parochial; pi. v^l^^ local news, local 
page (of a newspaper) 

J^ makill due date ; date of delivery 

4!^ mahalla pi. -at way station, 
stopping place, atop, stopover, en- 
campment; camp; section, part, quar- 
ter (of a city) | fjj-SS\ 2^\ {kubrd) 
Mahalla el Kubra (city in K Egypt) 

JJ^" tahlil dissolution, resolution, 
breaking up, decomposition, specifica- 
tion, detailing, analyzation; (pi. JJl^ 
tafydlil') analysis (chem.) ; absolution 
(CAr.) I ji*^b in detail; J-U J*« 
ma*mal t. laboratory for chemical anal- 
yses; JIj_^ JJi*^" {kakrab&*i) electroly- 
sis; (JLjLJI) ^j-iJl^y*^l (nafsi) psycho- 

JJ^ tahlill analytic(al) 

Jl^ tahallul dissolution, breakup ; sep- 
aration, disengagement, dis association 

J ^ i inhildl dis s ol ution , breaku p , 
decomposition; disintegration; decay, 
putrefaction; slackening, exhanation, 
prostration, weakness, impotence 

6:3^\ iAfilaZ occupation (mil.) \ ^j:fr 
f}':h^'^\ occupation forces 

l1:>Ii»-I ihtildli occupying, occupation 
(used attributively); advocate of foreign 

J_^ mahim solved ; dissolved, 
resolved, broken up; loose; untied, 
unfastened, unfettered, free, at large; 
weakeued, prostrate, exhausted, lan- 
guid; solution (liquid; cAem.) IjaJJIJ^I^ 
m. ai-ia*T with loose, disheveled hair 

Jl^ muhalUl analyzer 

JjO* munhall solved; dissolved, re- 
solved, broken up; disbanded; lan- 
guid, prostrate, weak; permitted, al- 

<k^ ^,9±>r juyu& mukialla occupa- 
tion forces 

'iJjLp- see J^ 

'(.JU> halaba i u {kalb) to milk (a an 
animal) | «^^\ ^oJl tJU- Jjialaba d-dahra 
€tSfurahu he has seen good and bad 
days T to run, drip, trickle, ooze, seep, 
leak; to water, drool (mouth, with 
appetite) | alyVt a) i_Jm;J {aftvdh) 
making the mouth water, appetizing; 
^ J »^UII tjt^ {al-lu'dbu /• /ami) my 
mouth was watering VIII to milk {» 
an animal) X do.; to squeeze juice (a 

wJL- halb milking 

t.JU- halab milk 

4_i». halba pi. kalabdt race track; 
arena; danoe floor; race horses } ^J*- 
^J^J\ A. ar-raqf danoe floor; ^ *j\ 
:LlJ-t dJlI ^ he is not made for that, he 
doesn't belong there^ it is not in his 
line; ^ aJU- ^jU a master of, excelling 
or outstanding in 

4_i». huiba fenugreek (Trigonella 
foenum-graecum; bot.); tonic, prepared 
of yellowish grains, for women in 
childbed (e^., syr,) 

i_^JU- ^lib milk I i.^Jl*- oJ lahan h. 
cow*s milk (e^.) 

w^L- halub laotiferouB | vjU- •jJu 
{b<tqara) milk cow; w>U-) V^UI (md- 
Mya) dairy cattle 

t-j*^ hallab milker 

Ai^i^ halldba milkmaid, dairymaid; 
dairywoman; milk eow 



4_JjS maklab mahaleb (Prunus maha- 
leb; hot.) 

^U- hdlib ureter 

*_■! » ■■ ': ■ - « mustahlab emulsion | ,_ , - !'-. ': .■ t 
J^i m. al'lauz almond milk 

*t--L^ halab^ Aleppo 

^IjcU- hiltlt, kaltU aaafetida (Ferula asaa- 
foetida; bot.) 

^ halaja % u (halj, ^.U kallj) to gin (a 

^i»- half ginning (of cotton) 

^-U halij ginning (of cotton); 
ginned (cotton) 

*)--'tA^ hildja cotton ginner'a work or 

^V— halldj cotton ginner 

^l^ mihlaj, *jJj- mihlaja pi. 1-L^ 
mahdlij^ cotton gin 

^X^ mahlaj pi. Ua mahilxf cotton 

^y^^ halhala to remove, drive away, shove 
away II tahalkala to atir from one's 
place; to move, stir, budge 

Ojji^ halazun snail; spiral 

lijjL- halazuna (n. uu.) snail; spiral 

ti^^^ halazuni spiral, helical, volute, 

ij'^ halisa a to remain, stay permanently 
(<-i at a place), stick (<-« to a place) 

,j-U hils pi. ^-iUl ahlds (with foil, 
genit.) one addicted or given to» 
one adhering to | j^\ ^^lUl a. 
al-lahw people given to pleasure and 
amusement, bons vivantti, playboys 

^^,-JU- AtZa pi. ^■:iU-l ahlds, ^J^J>*■ hulus 
saddle blanket 

^j-S*-\ ahlas'^, I. .L-L- hahd'^ bay, 
chestnut (horse) 

(Jii»- halaja i {halj, hilf) to swear (^U by 
God) I b-j (Jjj- [yamlnan) to take an 
oath 11 to make (• s.o.) swear; to put 
to oath, swear in (« s.o.); to adjure, 
entreat earnestly (» s.o.) Ill to enter 
into a confederation, into an alliance 
(o with S.O.), become an ally (» of s.o.) 
VI to commit one another by oath (J* 
to do, join in alliance; to ally, 
make an alliance (*. with) X to make 
(» s.o.) swear, exact an oath {» from 
s.o.) ; to adjure, entreat earnestly (a s.o.) 

^JA^ halj, hilf awearing, oath | ijai*- 
O^-r'l taking the oath 

iJ»L~ hilf aw orn alliance, confederacy, 
league; federation; (pi. Ji^iUl ahldf) 
ally I ts^^^-^ ijJj- {'aakarl) military 
alliance; J^^\ JJJ.! [aflantl] the 
Atlantic Pact 

<JaA»~ halif pi. .UU- hulafd'* con- 
federate; ally; allied | ►LiU-l the Allies 

ii-L- halifa pi, -at f. of i«j-U- 

Jji^jL- hallHf pi. JaJ':^ haldllj^ (magr,, 
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine 

»LlL- halfd' und Sii*- halfa {bot.) alfa, 

JjJ^ tahlxj awearing in | J»\ ^1 ci- 
lajnat at-t. the jury (in court) 

iiJl^ muhdlafa alliance 

tJJU^ tahdluf state of alliance; al- 
liance, treaty of alliance 

ijaljt muhallaj sworn, bound by oath; 
(pi. -un) juror (in court) 

,_4JU.i- muiahdlij interallied, allied 

ji^ halaqa i (halq) to shave (> the head, 
the face); to shave o£F (a the beard) 
II to circle in the air, hover; to fly, soar 
(bird; airplane; J* and 3y over or 
above; to round, make round, 
circular or ring-shaped (*,); to 



ring, surround, encircle (J* s.o., 
to clothe V to form a circle, ait in a 
circle; to gather in a circle (J* around 


jU- halq shaving, ehave; {pi. jji*- 
huluq, ijliWl ahldq) throat, gullet, 

JIj- halqi guttural, pharyngeal 

^^1,- halaq rings, earrings 

iiL- halqa, halaqa pi. ji»- halaq^ oLiU- 
kalaqat ring (also earring, etc.); link 
(of a chain); circle (also of people); 
group of students studying under a 
professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., 
at Al Azhar University); part of a 
sequence or series ; ringlet ; disk; decade ; 
market ] SLhJI iiL- h. an-najah life buoy, 
life preserver; JU^*^I iil>- h. at-itti^dl 
and J-^^l iiL^ b- al-wapl connecting 
link (O^j between; fig.); ^^^"11 *iLi-l the 
missing link, the intermediate form; 
»j^ j^ l^^U\ Uii-1 j Cumriki) in the 
sixth decade of his life» in his fifties; 
t]\i'^\ '<2L~ ash market; ^1 UL- h. 
al-qutn cotton market 

JiU halaqt annular, ring-shaped, 

J:>U hall&q pi. -un barber | ^ jtiU- 
{sikhi), Aj^m^\ 3':^ h. a8-8ihha barber- 

jj-U- hallq shaved, shaven, shorn 

o"5U- hildqa shaving, shave; barber's 
trade | ii'^U-l ojA^ sdbun al-h. shaving 
soap; ij^ll-! Oji'La barbershop; ^li 
U:AJ-I qd^at al-h. do.; O *»^' '^^ 
and O i*"!^' *J1 safety razor 

ji^ mihlag pi. jJU^ mahdliq^ straight 

jA^ iahliq flying, flight (of an air- 
craft ; Jfr and jy over a country) ; 
take-off (of an airplane) 

jJL»- ji min hdliq from above 

*^iU- hulqum pi. -i:iU. AaZajim''* throat, 
gullet I rj^U-' *^!; ™A-o( oi-A. a kind, of 
Bweet made of cornstarch, sugar, 
mastic and pistachios (e^.) 

dlU halika a [halak) to be pitch-black, 
deep-black XII jJI^l ihlaulaha do. 

jiU- halak intense blackness 

IJi^U, ^u2&a intense blackness 

ilL- AaZiJt pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

i^j\^ huluka gloominess, darkness; 

iJJU hdlik pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

L- halaTna u to dream {<^ or ^ of; jl j 
of being, becoming, doing, etc., in the 
future); to muse, reflect, meditate [*^ 
on; to attain puberty; — haluma 
u to be gentle, mild-tempered VIII to 
attain puberty 

i^ huln\. pi. /■■>^*-l ahldm dream; pi. 
irreality, utopia 

-*1»- hulmi dream- (in compounds), 
of or pertaining to dreams 

i»- Mum sexual maturity, puberty | 
U-l iJb to attain puberty 

V hilm pi. j*_^ hulum, j»:iU.I ahldm 
gentleness, clemency, mildness; for- 
bearance, indulgence; patience; in- 
sight, discernment, understanding, in- 
telligence, reason | |»'>U-'yi jU-* simple- 
minded people, simple souls 

U- halam (coll.; n. un. I) tick; mite; 
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female 

^Jj- kalaml parasitic; mammlUary, 
nip pie- shaped 

_U- halim pi. *\^ hulamd'^ mild, 
mild-tempered, gentle; patient 



^jl^ halum, fji\r- halum a kind of 
Egyptian cheese 

Jl*- hdlim p]. -fin dreamer 

ii^ muhtalim sexually mature, pu- 
beBcent, marriageable 

{j^ and J»-) haluwa u, haliya a, :)U- Aaia 
u (flj::^ halawa, d\j\^ hulwdn) to be 
aweet; to be pleasant, agreeable (J to 
B.o.) I »^l J :3^ he enjoyed the thing; 
jl 4^ ::A*- it pleased him that..., ho 
was delighted that . . . ; ^J _^ ]c^~»- 
{ha8abamd) at his discretion, as he 
pleases; — J»- hald i to adorn, grace; 
— J»- haliya a to be adorned (ij with) 
n to sweeten (a, e.g., a beverage 
with sugar); to adorn^ bedeck, embel- 
lishj attire, furnish, provide (j, « s.o.,, 4J with) V to adorn o.s., be 
adorned, decked out, embellished, 
graced, endowed, furnished, provided 
{<^ with) X to find sweet or pleasant, 
like (a, be delighted (a by) 

"tjU- halan sweetness, pleasantness 

ji*- hulw sweet; pleasant, nice, 
charming, delightful, pretty | ijJ^I Jl^- 
a gifted raconteur, amusing, entertain- 
ing; »j[i~\ Ziii\ (gudda) pancreas {anat.) 

J*- halyph J*- huliy piece of jewelry, 

<Aj- kilya pi. J»- hilarif hulan dec- 
oration, embellishment, finery; orna- 

<_5jL- halwd pi, (jj'jU- haldwd candy, 
confection, confectionery^ sweetmeats 

»l_4*- halwd'^ candy, confection, con- 
fectionery, sweetmeats 

oU^^ haltoaydt (and eg. halawlydt) 
sweets (in general); sweet pastry; 
candies, confectionery, sweetmeats 

»j'>U- haldwa sweetness; candies, 
confectionery, sweetmeats ; grace, grace- 

fulness, charm, refinement, wittiness, 
wit; present of money; ransom | 3j-A»- 
<P^Ar- (hummu^lya) a sweet made of 
roasted chick-peas; Vj^ aj'5'— (^o- 
hiniya) a sweet made of sesame-seed 
meal; ijjjl ij^iU- (lauziya) a sweet 
made of almonds 

o'^fL- hulwdn present of money, 
gratuity, tip 

ij \ji^ halwdni and j l_^ halwa i 
confectioner, candy dealer; pastry 
cook, fancy baker 

Js*-! L» md uhaila oh, how sweet 
is ..., a:>l>-1 L* oh, how sweet he is! 

4-1*:" tahliya decoration, embellish- 
ment, ornamentation 

J^ muhallan sweetened; decorated, 
embellished, adorned, ornamented (<-j 

*^ ham pi. #Lr-l ahmd' father-in-law; pi. 
relatives of the wife by marriage, in- 
laws of the wife 

lijt- hamdh pi. olj>- hamawdt mother- 
in-law; see also '^y- and ^^ 

'i#- huma see *j> 

"*- hamma u (hamm.) to heat, make hot 
(a; pass, humma to be feverish, 
have a fever | dJIJ J *- {humma) that 
was decreed to him, that is his lot, his 
destiny II to heat, make hot (a; 
to bathe, wash (a or » a.o. or IV to 
heat, make hot (a X to bathe, 
take a bath 

i#- hamma hot spring 

i#- humma blackness, swarthiness, 
dark coloration; fever 

J- humam {n. un. 5) charcoal; any- 
thing charred or carbonized; ashes, 
cinder; lava 

^ humma f., pi. oL>- humm,aydt 
fever, fever heat [ ajJjjLjJI ^^^l and 


•J-W ^\ {tillya) typhoid fever, 
typhus fever; jjJI y 4. d-diqq hectio 
fever; »i^l y h. r-rti' quartan fever; 
4.J-1J1 Jj.1 relapsing fever; .lyLJI jJ-\ 
or iij\jjLj\ jj-l (fo/ra", pafrHwlya) 
yellow fever; i-i)1 .y J. l-gitb tertian 
fever; i^i^jll jj-l (/oAmCyo) anthrax; 
i^_^l jj-l (jirmijlyo) scarlet fever; 
ijiill y A, hqali hayfever; i^-:iji\ jj-l 
(juJo'tyo) foot-and-mouth dise^iBe; jJ-l 
<S^\ iJil (muiiiyo, Jouilyo) cere- 
brospinal meningitis; 5<rj^' j^' 
(mutomavm'i/a) undulant fever, Malta 
fever, brucellosis; 5-.UJI jJ-l (nt/fl- 
siya) puerperal fever, childbed fever; 
O iriJ'' jJ-' (nojnoJflyo) spotted fever 

J*- Aumml feverish, febrile, fever- 
(in compounds) 

At- hamam (coll.; n. un. !) pi. -a(, 
f'Ci- Joma'im' dove, pigeon | Jr'j" f^ 
oarrier pigeon; f^-l jU bugloss, 
oxtongue (Anchusa officinalis; bci.) 

r\jf himdm (fate of) death 

|.Lr- hammim pi. -d* bath; swim- 
ming pool; spa, watering place | ^Lr- 
^j^ h. iamt sunbath; ij* oLLf 
(bahiiya) seaside resorts 

-I- hamlm pi. ^L^I ajtnnn4'' close 
friend; close, intimate; — hot water 

»l ahamm', f. 'L*- Aamni4"', pi. ^^ 
Aumm black 

/■ mihamm hot-water kettle, cal- 
dron, boUer 

Af^ iitihmim bathing, bath 

fj^ mahmtim feverish, having a 
fever; frantic, hectic 

At- hama'a a to clean out, dredge (* a well) 
V lyinui* i *lt- ham'a mud, mire, 

•*jf- hamta to be or become angry, 
furious, mad (J> at s.o.) 

*j- hami^ama (<•>«»- hamhama) to neigh, 
whinny (horse) 

X,nt- hamhama neigh(ing], whinny- 
ing, whinnies 

j^j- himhim oxtongue, bugloas (An- 
chusa officinalis; bot.) 

4f- hamida a (haind) to praise, commend, 
laud, extol (J« • s.o. for, t II to 
praise highly (• s.o.) 

Af- hamd commendation, praise, 
laudation [ 4U) o^l al-hamdii lilldh 
thank God! praise be to God! praised 
be the Lord! 

j^ hamid praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable; benign, harmless (dis- 

ijt- hamud praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable, praised 

Arl ahmad* more laudable, more 

iAi-'JI »«Jj.i)l ai-lari'a al-ahmadiya 
Mohammedan Law 

• J^ ma^mada pi. Jul^ mahdmid* 
commendable act; pi. Jul^ praises, 

ij»^ mahmud praised; commend- 
able, laudable, praiseworthy 

JU^ muhammad praised; commend- 
able, laudable 

j^J»* mihammadi pertaining or 
attributable to Mohammed 

J^i- hamdala to pronounce the formula 
Zi xj-l "Praise be to God I" 

iiif Ifamdala the formula !» -ul-l 
(see above) 

_^ II to redden, color or dye red (*; 
to roast (i; to fry (*; to 
brown (* flour in preparing a roux) 
IX to turn red, take on a reddish color, 
redden, blush 


j»- humar asphalt 

fjjt- humari aaphaltic^ aspKalt. tar, 

iy humra redness, red color(atioii), 
red; rouge {coam.); brick duat, briok 
rubble; erysipelas, St. Anthony's fire 

jLf- himar pi. >#■ hamlr; j> humur, 
\jt-\ ahmira donkey, ass | i_^J\ jLi- 
*. al-wahS and ^j jU (uwAfl) wild 
ass, onager; j^l ^ aamm al-h, oleander 
(Nerium oleander; hot.) 

!jLi- himira pi. JW- Aamd'tr* she- 
ass, female donkey 

jjT- AuBlur red, red oolor(ation), 

tjj- Aunutiru redstart (zool.) 

jLr. hamm&r pi. * donkey driver 

ji-\ oAmor', f. Ayt- Aomrfl'*, pi. jt- 
liumr red, red-colored, ruddy; rosy, 
pink I jt-'^\ o*, ji-^\ Oj:, infrared; 
jf'i\ _pjl the Red Sea; jf^\ ■ } Jl 
the Red Cross; jf'i\ Ojil (rnaui) 
violent death; ji-'i\ j;_^l (hawS) 
sexual intercourse; olj^VI ("the 
two red ones", i.e.) wine and meat; 
y Vlj J>-VI ("the black and the red", 
i.e.) all mankind; tUiJI jf\ lipstick 

'ly- >omra'« smut, rust (disease 
affecting cereals); .1^1 Alhambra, the 
Citadel of Granada 

JJ** yoAmur red; deer, roe, roe- 
buck; wild ass; hemoglobin [jihytiol.) 

j\ji-\ ikmirar reddening, bluah(ing), 
redness, red coloration; erythema 

J** muhammar roasted | Ij^ ;j-l»Uu 
(bafOfia) fried potatoes 

y- ^miaa i (hamz) to bite, or burn, the 
tongue (tMte) 

.^ hamiaa a to work with zeal, bs 
zealous, eager, ardent, be or become 
enthusiastic, get all worked up, get 
excited, be filled with fanatic enthu- 
siasm V = I; to be overzealous or 
overenthusiastio (j in; to 
advocate fervently (J, throw 
o.s. wholeheartedly behind (J) 

(j-*- hamis and ^i-*"' ahmas* un- 
flinching, staunch, steadfast, ardent, 
eager, zealous, stout, hearty; fiery, 
enthusiastic, full of enthusiasm 

^J^'J^' hamda and L-l#- hamdsa 
enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal, 

i^^ hamdsi enthusiastic, ardent, 
ffery, zealous, fanatic; stirring, rous- 
ing, thrilling, electrifying 

ij->^ lahammiu unflinohiug zeal, 
enthusiasm (J for), fanaticism 

el " " '' mulahammit enthusiastic, ar- 
dent, fiery, zealous, fanatio; an ardent 
follower, a fanatio adherent, a fanatio 

^Jit■ hamaia u to excite, irritate, infuriate, 
enrage (■ s.o.) 

Xij- hamia oatgut {mtd.) 
^^jMf II to roast; to fry, broil (* 

^j»*- lyimmif, himmof; (oolloq.) Aum- 
nuf (coll.; n. un. •) chick-pea 

'o"" Aim?' Horns (the ancient Emesa, 
city in central Syria) 

ijjtf Aamuffa u («-»>»■ humii4a) to be or 
become sour II to make sour, sour, 
acidify, acidulate (»; to develop 
(* a photographic plate, a film; phot.); 
to cause (* to oxidize 

,jir- }sam4 pi. ^\f'i ahmOi acid 
(cAen.) I Jjj |_yit- (batiif) urio acid 

ti^*- Jr iajar hanufl citrus trees 

i— i»- hanufiya pi. -Hi citrus fruit 


4^jr- humuda Bournese, acidity | 
L»^J-I -i)_v muwallid al-h, oxygen 

Ji\j- hummSd, ^jo^ hummaid sorrel 

^jk^ tahmid souring, acidification; 
development {phot.) 

^\j-\ iAmarf jocular language, joking 

_i^U- hdmid sour, acid; acidulous; 
(pi. ^y^^j>- hawdmii') acid (chem.) | 
_ijl ^^U h. al-jahm carbonic acid; 
'jj^i_^U- {kibrili) sulphuric acid 

Ji- Jiamiqa a and hamuqa u [hnmq, «!l<- 
hamiqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish, 
fatuous; to become angry or furious 
II and IV to regard (. so.) as a fool, 
consider (• s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic 
VI pretend to be stupid VII to become 
angry or furious X to consider (• s.o.) j 
dumb, stupid, idiotic 

J/- humq stupidity, silliness, fool- 
ishness, folly 

Hlf hamdqa stupidity, Billiness, fool- , 
ishness, folly; anger, wrath 

JL»- humdq, hamdq smallpox, variola 

^y-1 ahmaq', f. .Ijj- ham^a', pi. Ji~ 
}ium(u)q, J>- hamqa, jL»- haviaqa dumb, 
stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool, sim- 
pleton, imbecile 

o\li~ hamqdn dumb, stupid, silly, 
foolish; angry, furious 

Jj- Ixamala i (haml) to carry, bear (»; 
to lift, pick up (i in order to carry 
it), load up and take along {*; to 
hold (», in one's hand); to carry 
on or with one, take or bring along 
(»; to transport, carry, convey 
(»; to bring, take (Jl or J * 
to s.o.); to take upon o.s. (^ instead of 

or for B.O., » a burden), carry, assume 
(» the burden, ^ of s.o. else), relievo 
(» ^ s.o. from, take (• a burden, 
a grievance, etc.) from s.o. (j^^); to extend, 
show, evince, cherish, harbor (» a feel- 
ing, J toward s.o.); to become or be 
pregnant (>> by s.o.); to bear fruit 
(tree); to induce, cause, prompt, get 
(J* . s.o. to do, make s.o. (.) do (J»); to convert, bring around, win 
over (ti\j J» < s.o. to one's opinion), 
convince {«ilj J» • s.o. of one's opinion); 
to attack (J» s.o.), also y '■^ S^ 
{hamlalan) to launch or make an at- 
tack on; to know by heart (» a book); 
to relate, refer (J» * to), bring (» to bear (J» upon, link, 
coselate, bring into relation (*, J» 
with); to trace, trace back (Jp * 
to); to ascribe, attribute, impute (J» * to s.o.); to make (* a word) agree 
grammatically {J» with another) | Ji- 
4 oj J to feel annoyed, be in a mel- 
ancholy mood, feel blue; «-iJ J» J*- to 
pull o.s. together, brace o.s.; J»rf- Jt *1^ 
(mahmali) to take to mean..., 
interpret or construe in the sense 
of .... as if it were . . . ; «lw* j>i J» «U- to 
misinterpret, misconstrue; J^ <b- 
li-l (makmala l-jidd) to take 
seriously, take at face value II to 
have or make (. s.o.) carry or bear (*, load, burden, charge, task (», • 
s.o. or * with), impose (» . on 
8.0. V to bear, assume, take upon 
0.3. (*, e.g., oUiJI an-nafaqdt the 
expenses, VjJ-^' o'-™"''"''!''' the re- 
sponsibility); to bear up (» under), bear, 
stand, sustain, endure, tolerate, stomach 
(<; to undergo, suffer («; to 
be able to stand (. s.o.) or put up (< with 
B.o,); to set out, get on one's way; to 
depart VI to maltreat, treat unjustly 
(U 8.O.), be prejudiced, be biased, take 
sides (J» against a.o.); to struggle to 


one's feet, rise with great effort | Jx- J^L*^ 
<— oj (nafsihi) to brace o-s. ; to pull c.e. 
together, take heart, pluck up courage 
VIII to carry, bring (*}; to carry 
away,, take away, haul off, lug off {a; to suffer, undergo, bear, stand, 
endure, suatattx (*; to allow, permit, 
suffer, tolerate, brook, stomach (*, 
acquiesce (* in), put up, bear (• with; to hold (*, have capacity 
(* for); to imply that (a) is possible, 
permissible, or conceivable; J*::^ yahta^ 
milu and (pafls.) yuhtamalu (it is) bear- 
able, tolerable; (it is) conceivable, pos- 
sible, probable, likely 

J^ haml carrying, bearing; induce- 
ment, prompting, encouragement {of 
3,0., Jt to); delivery; transport, tranS' 
portation, conveyance; portage, carry^ 
ing charges; — (pi. jLi-l ahmdl, JL> 
himdl) foetus; pregnancy | J-J-l -.Oc 
'adam al-k. sterility (of a woman) 

J^ himl, haml pi. jLi- 1 ahmdl cargo, 
load, burden | ^ J^ haml kayy pay load, 
commercial load, live load; l- , -> Ajt~ 
{mayyit) dead load; dead weight (arch.); 
j;[p J^ (muwdzin) counterpoise, coun- 

Jj- hamal pi. Jri*- hwmldn^ Jlj- 1 
ahmdl lamb; (unconsecrated) Host {Chr.- 
Copt.)i Aries, Bam (a^tron.) 

iif- hamla pi. hamaldt attack (Jt on); 
offensive; campaign; military expedition; 
expeditionary force [ vj_jIj il> (ta'di'' 
hiya) punitive expedition; iiU*' ii*- 
i^ikdfiya) press campaign; iJLiSji-l U*- 
{isUMdflya) reconnaissance raid [mil,); 
5-Sljlk_. il^ motorized detachment (mi?.); 
i-jU.iji ii>- {intikdhiya) election campaign 

Jj^ hamali pi. -iya ambulant water 

J,^ hamll foundling; guarantor, war- 

Jt iL*- hamila 'aid a burden to, 
completely dependent upon 

J^ hamul long-suffering; gentle, mild- 

JU- hammdl pL -un, I porter, carrier 

UL> himdla work and trade of a 
porter or carrier 

iJL> kammdla (carrier) beam, girder, 
support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspend- 
ers I jJ-^ iJU- (sadr) brassiere 

^Jy- humula pi. -dt load capacity, 
load limit, capacity ; tonnage (of a 
vessel); portage* freightage, transport 
charges; (pi. Jj'Li^ hamd'il^) family (/r.) 

J*ji mahmal see J^ hamala; also 
.ai J*ji Jj^ IjU^ IaI (m. il-jidd) to take seriously 

J.«ji mahmil (colloq. mahmal) pi. J.«l* 
TnahdmiP camel-borne litter; mahmal, 
a richly decorated litter sent by Islamic 
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their 
independence, at the time of the hadj 

J-*^ tahmil burdening; encumbrance; 
imposition; loading, shipping, shipment 

ZL^ Uihtnlla pi. J^U" tahdmil^ aup- 
pofiitory (med.) 

J**^ tahammul taking over, assump- 
tion (of burdens); bearing, standing, suf- 
ferance, endurance; durability; strength, 
hardiness, sturdiness, solidity (of a ma- 

J-L*i tahdmul prejudice, bias, partiali- 
ty; intolerance 

J ]^ I ihiiTTidl bearing, standing, suf- 
fering, sufferance, toleration; probabihty, 
likelihood, potentiality | Ji^Vf t--w» 
{■sa'h) hard to bear, oppressive 

J*L»- hdmil pi. ii^ hamata porter' 
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc. ; 
of an order or decoration); holder (of 
an identification paper, of a diploma, of a 



certificate) ; holding deTice^ holder, 
clamp, fastener, hold, support {techn.); 
fighter (J» against); (pi. j<lj»- hawamil') 
pregnant | Ji^JI J- 1- courier; ^"ill Zt- 
h. al-aahum shareholdars ; i^-iUVI '•if- the 
puhlicists, the writers; ^1 f'iS^ ^\r- If, 
kcddm aUdh one vho knows the Koran 
by heart; J<U- jLj {iayySr) carrier 
current (d.); 4LU- Ci\i^^ (maujat) carrier 
waves (el.) 

4LU. ^mila pi. -di device for carry- 
ing, carrier | '^j»- ^^ map case; 4LU> 
<1jI^*U» a. fd'irdt aircraft carrier 

i}y*A makmiii carried^ borne; bear- 
able, tol«rable; load weight, service 
weight, cargo; tonnage (of a vessel); 
predicate, attribute (logic), *At 6y^ 
subject (logic) | 'iyS- iLi. (muJoA) 
motorized infantry (mfl.) ; lj». o^y^ i>Jr 
(/aumnn) airborne troops (mtl.) 

^^ muhammal loaded, laden, heavily 
charged, burdened (l-i with), encumbered 


^^:A muhlamal bearable, tolerable; 
probable, likely 

jb- hamlaqa (ul> hamlaqa) to stare, gaze 
(J or ij at) 

ii-if ^imaidyd Himalaya 

\y hami (oonstruot state of ^ *am) and :L»- 
hamdh see ^^ 

■(j#- and ^) ^ hamiya a to be or become 
hot; to glow (metal); to flaie up; to fly 
into a rage, become furious ( J« at) | ^ 
^j^ fierce fighting broke out II to 
make hot, heat (*; to heat to 
glowing (* metal); to fire up (* a stove); 
to kindle, inflame, stir up, excite (* ; 
to bathe (= '^ II) IT to make hot, heat 

J*- ^nuB heat \ J-JI ^ A. an-nS 
prickly beat, heat rash, lichen tropicus 

jf- humiiw heat 

Ir- huvui pi. -atf ^ human sting, 
stinger (of insects); prick, spine (of 

ji- hamly hot, glowing; heated, 

^ Jiummd see *^ 

^#- hamiya zeal, ardor, fervor; enthu- 
siasm, ardent zeal, fanaticism; violence, 
vehemence; passion, rage, fury; heat of 
excitement; temper, temperament | L^l 
L>^l (gaumiya) chauvinism 

Lt- humayyd heat; excitement, agita- 
tion; enthusiasm; fixe, passion, impet- 
uosity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine 

lj\r- hamdwa heat 

^*^ mahman fire chamber, furnace 
(of a stove, oven, etc.] 

,»U- Admin hot; heated, violent, fierce 
(e.g., a battle); glowing, passionate, 
fiezy; burning 

' J- hami i (j^my, Uj- ^imiya) to defend, 
guard (*, • S.O.,, o> against), protect, 
shelter, shield (^ *, • s.o., from); 
to deny (^^1 the patient) harmful 
food (»; = to put him on diet); to forbid 
(ol • s.o. to do Ill to defend {jm s.o. 
or, also, of a lawyer in court); to 
shield, protect, support (j^e s.o. or, 
take up the cause of (je), stand up for 
(jp) VI to keep away (* from), shun, 
avoid <* VIII to protect o.s. (., > 
from, from s.o.), defend o.s., cover 
o.s. (l^ with, seek protection, seek 
shelter or refuge (ij with s.o., also **; 
,;,.• from) 

^ fyiman protection; defense; sanc- 

tj- himya that wMoh is defended; 


^l^- himdya pi. -at protection, patron- 
age, sponsorship, auspices; protectorate 

SUU- muhdm^ defense (jur.); legal 
profession, practicing of law | iUl^l sL* 
fiai^at al-m. the bar 

»l^l thtimd* seeking cover, seeking 
protection; cover, shelter, protection 

pU- hdmin pi. SU- humdh protector, 
defender, guardian; patron { v^' ^J*^' 
{daula) protecting power (of a'protector- 

!L* l^ hdmiya pi. -at patroness , pro- 
tectress; garrison {mil.) 

^j^ mahmly protected (i-» by); being 
under a protectorate, having the status 
of a protectorate | X^ "!-■■ (mtn/ofa) 
protectorate (country) 

4^ mahmiya pi. -at protectorate 
(country; pol.) 

Ajt muh&min pi. OjAii- muhdmun 
defense counsel, counselor-at-law, lawyer, 
barrister, attorney (at law), advocate 

l^iA miihdmiya woman lawyer 

2^ muhtamin one who seeks pro- 
tection; prot^g6; being under a pro' 
tectorate, having the status of a pro- 

■SU-, ftLi^ hamdh Hama (city in W Syria) 

^ hanna t (O^i^ hanin) to long, yearn, 
hanker (Jl for), crave (Jf; — (I:*- 
haniia, Oli^ handn) to feel tenderness, 
afFecfcion, sympathy (Jp for a.o.); to 
sympathize, commiserate (Jc. with). 
feel compassion (J*, for) ; to pity ( J«. s.o.), 
have mercy (J* on) II to move, touch, 
fill with tenderness, soften, fill with 
compassion (^Jj qaU)aku s.o.'s heart); 
to blossom, flower, be in bloom (tree) 
V to feel sympathy, feel pity, feel compas- 
sion (J* for a.o.), commiserate (J* with 
s.oOf to be tender, affectionate 

41^ hanna sympathy ; commiseration, 
compassion, pity; favorable aspect, ad- 

oL*- handn sympathy, love, affection, 
tenderness; commiseration, compassion, 
pity; liJLJiij- handnaika have pity! have 
mercy ! 

4j\i^ hanana compassion, pity, com- 

^Ij- hanln longing, yearning, hanker- 
ing, nostalgia, craving, desire 

jy^ hanun affectionate, loving, soft- 
hearted, tenderhearted, compassionate, 
merciful; tender, soft, gentle, kind, 
moving, touching (voice) 

jL*- hanndn affectionate, loving, 
tender; compassionate, sympathetic 

jL^ tihndn attachment, devotion, 

^^ tahannun tenderness, affection, 

L»- II to dye red (a,, with henna) 

•L— hinna' henna (a reddish- orange 
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks 
of the henna plant) { tLi-l _y\ ahu l-h. 
robin (redbreast); »Li-l j/ (coiloq. tamr 
el-}f,inna) henna plant (Lawaonia inermis; 

<Jl>- look up alphabetically 

^^J^ hanbali Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to 
the ma4hcib of Ahmad ibn Hanbal ; 
puritanical, strict in religious matters; 
(pi. iiliLj- handbila) Hanbalite 

•^_y L»- , dty L»- see j^^.*- 

dJj- hanita a {hint) with -c-c j or 4L*-j : to 
break one's oath V to practice piety, 
perform works of devotion; to seek 
religious purification; to scorn sin, not 
yield to sin 

1^..:.*- hint pi. ^L^l ahndt perjury; sin 


,i»- hanjara pi, j*-l>- handjir* larynx, 

hunjur pi. .rr*^*" Ao?ia/iH larynx. 


J».j- hanjala to prance (horse); to caper, 
gambol H tahanjala to dance, caper, 
gambol, frisk 

^i:j- hindie pi. ^iL:— Aan4dt«' dark night 

J^Xj- handaquq {hot.) melilot, (yellow) 
Bweet clover (Melilotus) 

±1^ hanaS pi. ^j5b*-' akndS snake 

Sc*- II to embalm (• a corpse) ; to stuff (« a 


diai^ At7i/a wheat 

li*L»- A-tTi^fa embalming 

iiX^' tahannuf mummification 

iaL^ miihannaj mummified 

jjLJ-1 ijj^ 'arodai ai-Aan/fir victoria, light 
carriage designed for two paaaengera 

Ak^ hanml {coll.; n. un. •) coiocynth 
(Citnillua colocynthia; hot,) 

Jojj- hanafa i to turn or bend sideways 

iJui^ hanif pi. *IjL*- Auna/fi*' true 
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the 
false creeds surrounding him and pro- 
fesses the true religion; true {religion) | 
._•* 'L \ j.^\ (din) the True (i.e., Islamic) 
Religion, also "U^l iiJJ-l {samha') 

J>. hanafl pagan, heathen, idolater 
(CAr.); Hanafitic (see *;i^); {pi. -un) 

4_ii*- hanajxya paganism, heattendom 
{Chr.)\ Hanafitic madhab (an orthodox 
school of theology founded by Abu 
Hanifah) ; — (pi- -dt) faucet, tap ; 

ijjj-l al-hamflya the True (i.e., 
Islamic) Eeligion 

Jc*^! ahnaf* afHioted with a distortion 
of the foot 

j:>- haniqa a {haTutq) to be furious, mad, 
angry ; to be annoyed, exasperated, 
peeved, irritated (J* or j> at, by), be 
resentful (Jp or ^ of) IV to infuriate, 
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate 

(♦ B.O.) 

j::*- hanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger, 
exasperation, resentment, rancor 

^^ haniq furious, mad, angry; resent- 
ful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, exas- 
perated, peeved 

j^U- hdniq furious, mad, angry; 
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, 
exasperated, peeved | SLi-l J* ,^U- 
{haydh) weary of life, dispirited, dejected ; 
»L_iJl J* Jji*- (mad') misogynist 

JL< muhnaq infuriated, enraged; 
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated, 

L«- kanaka i u, 11 and IT to sophisticate, 
make experienced or worldly-wise through 
severe trials (said of fate, time, age) 

iii*- hanak pi. i]L*-l ahndk palate 

Ki:^ hanaln palatal 

llj- hunk, hink and iSc*- kunka world- 
ly experience, worldly wisdom gained 
through experience, sophistication 

iJL^ mvhannak experienced, worldly 
wise, sophisticated | di^ '^■^ ("^^ 
bannak) shrewd, smart, sharp 

^i^ and ^) Lf- hana u and ^^ hand t to 
bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline 
(J* or Jf toward s.o.); to f&el for s.o. 
(J*), sympathize (J* with s.o.), com- 
miserate, pity (Jp a.o.)» feel compassion, 
feel pity (Jp for s.o.); to bend, bow, 
flex, curve, crook (* IV to bend, 
bow, tilt, incline (a; e.g., *J\j 
ra*3ahu one's head); to sympathize (J* 



with B.o,)i feel compaesion, feel pity (Jp 
for s.o.)i commieerate, pity { Jp a.o.) YII to 
bend, curTe. twiat, turn; to be wind- 
ing, be tortuous, wind, meander (e.g., 
a road); totum,deTiate, digress (^ from); 
to bow (J to 8.O.); to lean, incline (Jj> or 
3ji over, Jl toward b.c, toward; to devote o.h. eagerly (J» to}; 
to contain, harbor (Jp | ^_^ d\ 
t>*-* J* J-Cj N (4tUll'i, 4*0^) I harbor no 
grudge, I feel no resentment 

y^ hanw bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twifiting, 

j:^ hinw pi. •1:^1 ahnd' bend, bow, 
turn, twist, curved line, curve, contour; 
pi. ribs I l^L>-l ^j in her bosom 

jL^ hunuw sympathy, oompassion, 
tenderness, affection 

^ hany bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting, 

IL:*- hanya bend, turn, curve 

4^ haniya pL Wc*- kattdyd arc; 
camber, curvature | tjX^ LL>- j in his 
bosom; *.J^ \j\l»- j in his heart, deep 
inside him 

^jjcr- htJMya curving, curvature, twist- 
ing, turning, bending 

Cj_^U- see below 

J^ mahnan pi. olrf- jnajidnin curva- 
ture, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve 

(■L*;' I inhind' bend, deflection, curvature ; 
curve; arc; inclination, tilt; bow, curtsy 

S»L*il inhind'a {n. vie.) bow, curtsy 

Jl^l al-hawdni the longest ribe; (fig.) 
breast, bosom | et^^j*' 'J-f bi-miVi h. 
(they shouted) at the top of their lungs, 
with all their might 

^^ mahniy bowed, inclined (head) ; 
bent, curved, crooked 

^;^^M munhanin bent, curved, crooked, 
twisted; inclined, bowed 

1^1^^ munhanan pi. i^Lim;^ munha» 
naydi bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; 
turn* twist, break, angle; curve (of a 
road, and math.); slope 

i^^l^ hdnut pi. C*u]^ hatodnifi store, shop; 
wineshop, tavern 

J^U- hdnvii pi. -iya {eg.) corpse 
washer; undertaker, mortician, grave- 

»l^ hawtvd'^ Eve 

•^jf V to abstain from ain; to lead a pious 
life; to refrain, abstain (j^ from 

*jj»- ^uba sin, offense, misdeed, out- 

*\jj»- haubd'^ soul 

C^jf- hut pi. oIl^ hitdn, C'\j»-\ ahwdt fish; 
whale; Piscea, Fishes (aatron.) | Cjj»- 
6|i~L> h, sulaimdn salmon 

^jf IV ahwaja to have need, stand in need, 
be in want (J( of, need, require, 
want (J(; to put (♦ s.o.) in need of 
(Jl), make necessary {Jl » for s.o., 
require (Jl ^ of s.o., compel, oblige 
(J[ * s.o. to); to impoverish, reduce to 
poverty (. s.o.) | Jl 4^j^\ L. {ahwajah<i) 
how much he stands in need of , , . ! how 
urgently he needs . . . ! VIII to have need, 
stand in need, be in want (Jl of; also J), 
need, want, require (Jl, s.o.) 

rj*' hauj need, want, lack, de- 
ficiency, destitution 

i»-L*- hdja pi. -at need (J( or .^ of); 
necessity, requirement, prerequisite; na- 
tural, bodily need ; pressing need, needi- 
ness, poverty, indigence, destitution; 
object of need or desire; desire, wish, 
request; necessary article, requisite; 
matter, concern, business, job, work; 
thing, object; — pi. t^j*- hawd'if needs. 



necesaities, neceasarieA; everyday objects, 
effects, belongings, possessions, stuff; 
olothes, clothing | (J) Jl i>-U j olT to 
stand in need, be in want of (, need, 
require ( (J) Jl '^l- V (hdjata) 
... is not neoeasary, not required, there 
is no need of...; <> J *^^ V 1 donH 
need it; u-l^l Xt if (or Then) necessary, 
if need be, in ease of need; 4*.^ j>^ J 
{Sairi hSjaiin) unnecessarily; S»-U.l «i L> 
the essentials; 4*>U.I J^ nuthaU al-h. the 
essential passage, the gist, the substance, 
the oiuz, the interesting part (of an 
exposition); o^-U^ o^ aadda hdjatoMi to 
meet 8.o.*s needs, provide for b.o.*8 
needs; ^ir- ,g^ qaii ^jalahu to fulfill 
s.o.'s wish; 4r-U-l ,gii to relieve nature 

C)L»-l^ hdjiydt everyday commodities, 
utensils, utilities, necessaries, necessities 

r^i aJ^waj* in greater need (Jl of; more 

^Lr*-! i^iySf want, need, requirement^ 
(pre)reqnisite, necessity; pi. -Si needs, 
necessities, necessaries 

^jl* ma^dtnj* (pi. of rj^ muA* 
wij) needy, poor, destitute people 

^l:^ mufttdj in need, in want (Jl of, requiring ( Jl; poor, destitute, 

ilr-jr- lyaijaia pi. Ji>-1>>- Aoun/tl* phial (chan.) 

(3^) jl^ hdda u {hand) to turn aside, turn 
away (jc from), turn ( jc off) II to turn 
off, take a turning 

»^j^ lyiuda turn, turning 

(jjr-) JV hS4a u (Aatid) to urge on, spur on 
(* animals) IT do. X 'ijr^\ xMahwaja to 
overwhelm, overcome, overpower (J* 
S.O.; esp. emotions), get the better of 
(Jp), gain mastery (Js over); to seize 
(Jc on), take possession (J> of), usurp 

^jj>- AS^i coachman, cabman, driver 
<<ij>- hniiya coachman's work or trade 

(jy) j\^ 1)&ra u to return (Jl to); to recede, 
decrease, diminish, be reduced (Jl to) 
II to change, altar, amend, transform, re- 
organi», remodel, modify (t or ^; 
to roll out (k dough); to make white, 
whiten (a; to bleach (a a fabric) 
in to talk, converse, have a converaation 
(• with S.O.); to discuss, debate, argue 
IT (with liljr- jawSha*) to answer, reply 
(with negations only) T to be altered, 
changed, amended, transformed, re- 
organized, remodeled, modified YI to 
cany on a discussion 

jjp- hawar white poplar (also pro. 
nounced haur); bark-tanned sheepskin, 
basil; marked contrast between the 
white of the cornea and the black of the 

•jU. h&ra pi. -St quarter, part, section 
(of a city); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, 
side street (with occasional pi. ^ij\j^ 
hawSri) I jlJI IjU- h. aa-aadd blind alley, 
dead-end street 

j_^l oAtrar*, f. ^jj^ AourS"', pL jjr- 
^Hr having eyes with a marked contrast 
of white and black, (also, said of the 
eye :) intensely white and deep-black 

ij\jr- hawwSra (hatuSfal) cretaceous 
rook; chalk 

^SJ]}»- l^wSri pi. -un disciple, apostle 
(of Jesus Christ) ; disciple, follower 

tSj]}^ huwujdrd cretaceous rock; chalk 

liijj*. Ikuriya pi. -dl, jj*- hur houri, 
viigin of paradise; nymph; (pi. -at) 
young locust ) »lil *ijj^ water nymph, 

o\jy haurdn' the Hauran, a moun- 
tainous plateau in SW Syria and N 



jjfi- mihvxtT pi. jjl^ mdhdteir^ rolling 
pin; pivot, core, heart, center; axis; 
axle, axletree 

j\^ mahar (coll.; n. un. I) oysters; 
ahelifi-sh., mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre 

oj\^ mahdra (n. un.) oyster; oyster 
shell, mussel; trowel 

J j^ tahwir alteration, change, trans- 
foi-mation, reorganization, reshufBe, re- 
modeling, modification 

_)]y hiwdrt&lk, conversation, dialogue; 
argument, dispute; text (of a play); 
script, scenario (of a motion picture) 

Sjjl^ mtthStoara talk, conversation, 
dialogue; argument, dispute 

jjld tahdvmr discussion 

ijj»- and >»-) JU- hSxa u {hauz, ijL*- hiydza) 
to possess, own, have (a; to gain, 
win, get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain 
(^, e.g., success, victory, etc.); to 
gain possession, gain control (a of, 
seize, monopolize (a; — haza x 
(>»- haiz) to drive on, urge on (* camels) 
V tahawwaza and tahayyaza to writhe, 
twist, coil; — tahayyaza to stay away, 
keep away, seclude o.s., isolate o.s. 
(^ from); to be disposed, incline, tend, 
lean (Jl toward); to join (Jl s.o. or; 
to side (J, Jl with), take sides (J, Jl in 
favor of) VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s., 
separate, segregate, disengage o.s., dis- 
sociate 0.8., stay away, keep away, retire, 
withdraw {^^ or j* from); to join (Jl 
6.0. or}; to unite (Jl with); to side 
(Jl or J with), take sides (Jl or J in favor 
of) VIII to possess, own, have (a; 
to take possession (a of; to keep, 
prevent, hinder (^y • s.o. from) 

jj»- hauz possession, holding, tenure; 
obtainment, attainment, acquisition; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy ; 
ijur,) tenancy; — (pi. jly-l ahwdt) 

enclosed area, enclosure; precinct(s), 
boundary, city limits 

jjj»- hauzi possessory, tenurial 

ljj»- hauza possession, holding, tenure; 
property; area, territory | 'CJj*- j or 
'■k 'Jj^ j /» ^' yodihl in his possession; 
_r-** hj^ u* t,^"^' *^® defense of Egyptian 

y^ hayyiz, haiz pi. jL^I ahydz scope, 
range, reach, extent, compass, confines, 
field, domain, realm ; sphere | >*- J J^-U V 
J^JLdl (yadkulu) it is not within the 
bounds of reason; J^^JULl >*- Jl Jy (to 
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to 
become a reality; jBv.V' >*- J /» h. il- 
imkdn within the realm of possibility, 
quite possible 

:jL>- kiyaza possession, holding, tenure; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy; 
acquisition of title, acquisition of the 
right of possession; obtainment, at- 
tainment, acquisition 

jj- iahayyuz partiality; prejudice, 

Jl^l tnAiyaz isolation, seclusion, re- 
tirement; partiality; prejudice, bias 

>*U- hd'iz posseesor, holder, tenant 

>»a« muiahayyiz partial, prejudiced, 

jUki* mtinh&z secluded, retired, with- 
drawn, removed (j£ from); an outsider, 
a stranger (^ to) 

ij'j^ Vllt (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver, 

^ii^j*-) 4/L»- hdSa u (hauS) to round up, drive 
into a trap (a game); to stop, check, 
prevent, hinder (a, stand in the 
way (a of); to hold back, stem, stave 
off (a II to gather, collect, amass, 
accumulate, pile up, hoard (a,); to 
save, put by (a money); to find (a 



J^_y- hav^ pi. ijil>*-l oAuJoa, jUa»- 
Ai5an enclosure^ encloBed area ; court- 


. hawQ^ mob, rabble, riffraff 

(^j^ hu^% wild; unu&ual, odd, queer, 

^U-l ^-^^-^l ?«6u al-'ha& Paflsion Week 

4L , rtl>- Aoia fiZfdA 

^j^ haw€i§ aquinting of the eyes (caused 
by constant exposure to glaring light) 

^j»~^ ahwc^,^ f. p'i^jf^ Aow^a'', pl- 
^JJ!»J^ ^w? having narrow, aquinting 


c^L»- kiydsa girth 

X^j^ haiisal, 'A^j^ hausala craw (of a bird) ; 
bladder; pelican [ijjl^l iL»y-I {Tnardriya) 
gall bladder, bile {anat.) 

Luu »^ kuwai^il blister, bleb, vesicle; 
water blister 

iL^j^ kuwaifila pi. -at blister, bleb, 

^j^ haw^ pi- u^'.>^' oAiydi, jj^L*- biya4f 
jU,L>- ^i^n basin; water basin; trough, 
tank, cifitem, reflervoir, container; basin 
of ft river or sea; pool; (in the Egyptian 
irrigation system) a patch of land sur- 
rounded by dikes, flooded by high water 
of the Nile; pond; iielvis {anat); (garden) 
bed ; dock ; pi. ^^ b^yad (sacred) 
ground, area, domain (to be protected), 
sanctum | J»U- ^_f»~ {jdjf) dry dock; 
#U- ^^-•>»- A. hammdm bathtub; ^\jt ^y~ 
('awnmm) floating dock; <-*L»- j* -jlj to 
assume the defense of s.o., make o.s. the 
champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.; i-jj 
Ij jJl jj-iL»- Jfr {4abba} to defend the faith; 
XjjJ~\j j-J^\ (j-»|^l coal and iron deposits 

O '^j^ huwaida renal pelvis {anat.) 

(i»j*-) i»U- hdta u [hat4, <U~«" ^H^t iULj- 
hiydfa) to guard, protect (*, • a.o.,, 
watch (a, • over s.o., over, have the 
custody (a, • of); to attend (* to), take 
care (* of), look afl«r (*); to sur- 
round, encircle, enclose, encompass (lj 
8.0. , II to build a wail (a around, wall in (a s-th.); to encircle, sur- 
round (a, close in from all aides (a 
on Ill to try to outwit, dupe, or 
outsmart ( » s.o.) ; to mislead, lead 
astray, seduce (• s.o.) IV to surround 
{^ B.0-,, also a, • s.o.,, l^ with); 
to encompass, enclose, embrace, comprise, 
contain (>-->, al&o a); to ring, encircle 
(>y 8.0. ,, also A, A s.o.,,, l^ with., close in from all aides (^ on); to 
know thoroughly, comprehend, grasp 
completely, understand fully {^, 
be familiar, be thoroughly acquainted 
(lj with) I Iji* o ^1>-I {'ilman) to know thoroughly, have comprehensive 
knowledge of; to take cognizance, 
take note of; ^ y* A»[p-\ he in- 
formed him of..., he let him know 
about ...; he brought... to his notice 
V to guard, protect (a, • s.o.,; to 
take precautions (a with regard to), 
attend (a to); to be careful, be cautious, 
be on one^s guard VIII to be careful, be 
cautious, watch out, be on one's guard; 
to take precautions, make provision (J 
for, so as to ensure...); to surround 
(ij S.O.,; to guard, protect, preserve 
(Jt L-t from), take care (lj of), 
attend (cj to), look after (l->), see to it 
(oL that) 

^k.^ hifa^ haifn, '*^j^ haufa cautious- 
ness, caution, provident care, prudence, 
circumspection | <^^ A^l {hifatahu) to 
be on one's guard, take precautions; ^ 
^Im- thoughtlessly, unthinkingly, inad- 

*1»Lj- hiydta guarding, custody, pro- 
tection, care 


■^ij^ tahwi^ encirclement 

4i>U»l ihdpa encirclement^ encompass- 
ment; comprehension, graap^ understand- 
ing, knowledge, cognizance {^ of> 
acquaintance, familiarity (i^ with) ; in- 
formation, communication 

i#^ tahawtvuf provision, care, at- 
tention, precaution, prudence; pi. -di 
precautionary measures, precautions 

^L:»-l ihtiyd^ caution, cautiousneae, 
prudence, circumspection, carefulness ; 
provision, care, attention, precaution, 
prevention; pi. -of precautionary meas- 
ures, precautions | J»Li»-Vl J^x-- J* as a 
precaution, out of precaution, to he on 
the safe aide 

ijUL=»-l »A(tya/t precautionary; prophy- 
lactic; preventive; replacement; spare- 
{in compounds) ; reserve- <in compounds) ; 
stand-by; reserve funds, capital reservee 
(Jin.); reserve {mil.) \ J>L:>-1 j--j*- (hobs) 
detention pending investigation; juliS 
IjULj^-I precautionary measures, pre- 
cautions; LtLj-l Cj\ji {qiiwdt) reserves 
(mil.); ^^Lj:.-' JU capital reserve, reserve 
fund; ^IXI .^UjjJi ^^L^l (crude-)oil re- 

Iaj\*- hd*ip pi. jlL^ hifdn, ^L^ hiydt, 
iJl^ hawa'it^ wall | Sr^\ J*jV A. al- 
mabkd Wailing Wall (in Jerusalem) ; 
-UU-I ^jc aj i'^j^ or) Jll alqd (^araba) 
hihi 'ur^a l-ha'it to make little of 
scorn, disdain, despise; to reject, discard, throw overboard; 
to ruin, thwart, foil 

isijja- hawif (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd 

,U;^ tnuhi} surrounding ( ^ e-th.) ; 
comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (l^ 
with); — (pi. -at) circumference, periph- 
ery ; extent, range, scope, compass, 
reach, domain, area; milieu, environ- 
ment, surroundings; ocean; pt. oUx^ 
surroundings, environment | ^^^LJiU'^i ^l^\ 

(a/Zan/i) the Atlantic Ocean; ^jLlI Ja*il 
(hadi') the Pacific Ocean 
J»L^ muhdf surrounded (ij by) 

J»^>c> mutahawwip cautious, prudent, 
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful 

uty hauf edge, rim, brim, brink; border, 
hem, fringe 

iiL*- hdfa pi. -di, ^]y~ hawdjin border, 
rim, brim, brink, verge; edge; fringe, 
hem I vi?*" C^-i within it, in it, therein 

{3j»-) jL*- kdqa u (hauq) to surround, 
enclose, infold, embrace (l-j a.o., 
II = I (J* S.O., 

^Jj^p- hauqala {^j>- hauqala) to pronounce 
the formula: auLi "^I IJi *^j J^^^ (see Jp- 

^'4jj»- kauqah pL J*!^ haivdqiP phial (cAem.), 
Florence flask 

(4t>-) iJ^ Aaiba u (hauk, lJL>- hiyak, '^S'i^ 
fyiydka) to weave (*; to interweave 
(*; to knit (a; to braid, plait 
(*; to contrive, devise, hatch, 
concoct (a; e.g., ruses, intrigues, 
pretexts), think up, fabricate, create (a in one^s imagination) 

aTL-- hiydka weaving; knitting; braid- 
ing, plaiting 

jJjL*- hd'ik pi. iS'L,- hdka weaver; — 
(mor.) an outer garment made of a long 
piece of white woolen material, covering 
body and head 

(Jp- and J->») ij\*- hdla u to change, undergo 
a change, be transformed; to shift, turn, 
posfl, grow (J[ into, also a), become 
(Jl a,th.); to deviate, depart (^ from, 
e.g., a commitment), dodge, evade, fail 
to meet (^; to elapse, paus, go by 
(time) ; — (if^it*- hailula) to prevent (Ojj; to intervene, interfere, interpose, 
come ((>j between) [J^c j^ JL*- {'ahd) to 
withdraw from a contract; O":^ ^i JL*- 



j*^^ ir-iJ to make inacceesible to 
B.O., impossible for a.o. ; to bar or obstruct 
fl.o.'s way to; to prevent a.o. from, deny s.o.; j\}j *— ij ,^j JL*- 
JLiiVl i^^f^) to resist compassion, deny 
o.s. any sympathy II haum>ala to change 
(Jl * or * A to else), transform, 
transmute, convert, turn, make (Jl m or 
* A into, else); to transplant 
(*; to transfer (*; to convert 
(a, mathematically); to switch, 
commutate {* current; el.); to convert, 
transform (a current; e^); to shunt (a a 
railroad car); to switch (a a railroad 
track); to remit, send, transmit (a, 
e.g., money by mail, Jl to a.o.); to pass 
on, hand on (Jl a to s.o.); to forward 
{Jl A to B.o. or to an address); to 
endorse (a a bill of exchange^ a promis- 
sory note); to direct, turn (a, also 
tjki nazraian a glance, Jl to or toward); 
to divert, distract, keep (^ a or • s.o. 
or from); to turn away, avert (sj-*j 
1^ ba^arahu one's eyes from); to turn 
off, switch off, disconnect (a current; el.) \ 
4fA)l \}ji- (daffa) to turn the helm, change 
the course III hdwala to try, attempt, 
endeavor (a, o\ to do, make 
an attempt, make an effort (ji to do; to seek to gain (a by artful 
means; to deceive by pretenses, make 
excuses, Iiedge, dodge lY to change (a a 
or Jl A to),, transform, transmute, 
turn, make (a a or Jl a into); to 
convert, translate (a a or J( a into); 
to transfer (a; to remit, send (a 
Jl or Jf' to s.o.]; to assign (a, » s.o.,, Jl or Ja to a.o.) ; to turn over, hand 
over, pass on ( Ja a or s s.o. or to) ; 
to forward (Ja a to); to refer (Jl • 
8.0. to); to cede, transfer (a a debt, J* 
to S.O.; jur.) | JU\ (Jl) Jp J:^I {uhila, 
ma'dS) and JtUdl Jl J-»-! {taqa'ud) he 
was pensioned off; Jl tlL^JI ci^l 
jL^ijj^^ the bill was protested ijin.) V to* 

havnvala to change, undergo a change ; 
to be changed (Jl to), be transformed, be 
transmuted, be converted (Jl into), 
become (J!, turn, grow (Jl into), 
transform (Jl — j- or |^ from — into), 
change, develop, evolve ( Jl — ^ from — 
to) ; to withdraw, go away, leave; to 
move (J( to a residence); to turn away 
(^ from), turn one's back {^ on); to 
deviate (^ from); to depart, digress, 
stray djijUl ^ from the way); to re- 
nounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim {jt; to proceed slyly or cunningly | 
iJu»- JT J^ to employ every conceivable 
trick; — tdhayyala, to employ artful 
means; to ponder ways and means (J 
to an end, in order to attain 
VI tahdwala to try, endeavor, take pains 
(Ja to do, strive (J* for); — 
idhdyala and VIII to employ artful 
means, resort to tricks, use stratagems 
(Ja against a.o.); to deceive, beguile> 
dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (Ja s.o.); 
to be out (Ja for or achieve (Ja by artful means, by tricks VIII to 
work or strive (on one's own re- 
sources), make efforts (on one's own) 
IX \}j9- 1 ihwaXIa to be cross-eyed, to 
squint X to change (Ji to, into), turn, 
be transformed, be converted (Jl into); 
to be transubstantiated {bread and 
wine, Jl into the body and blood of 
Chriflt; CAr.); to proceed, pass on, shift, 
switch (Jl to new or different); 
to be ImpoeaibLe (Ja for &.O.); to be 
inconceivable, absurd, preposterous 

JU- Afli m. and f, pL J 1^1 ahwdl 
condition, state; situation; position, 
status; circumstance; case; present, 
actuality (as opposed to future); circum- 
stantial expression or phrase {gram,)\ pi.: 
conditions, circumstances; matters, af- 
fairs, concerns; cases; hala (prep.) dur- 
ing; immediately upon, right after; just 
at; in case of..., in the event of .. ■; "VU- 


halan presently, immediatelyt at once* 
right away, without delay; now, actual- 
ly, at present | JU-I j and JU on the 
spot, at once, immediately; Jl*- JT J* 
(kulli hdlin) and JU- ^fi J* [ayyi A.) in 
any ca&e, at any rate, anyhow; J* J-j 
<JL>- iyahqd) it remains unchanged, just 
as it is; Jl_j»-VI ^y Jl*- J in some case or 
other, anyway, if occasion should arise, 
possibly; {with neg.) by no means, under 
no circumstances, not at all, in no way; 
JL>- J*, Jl;^ , JU- tfu bi-ayyi h. with neg. : 
by no means, not at all, in no way; 
J JU-I liJliT the same goes for ..., it is 
the same with . . ., it is also the case 
with...; J JU-I ^ 1^ as is the case 
with; uiJJl*- JaS" how are you? JU^. *^^ 
a thing in itself, a separate, independent 
thing; *j^' J[v-*^' (jawwiya) atmos- 
pheric conditions; 2 n^fM Jlj»-V' f^ 
(Sak^iya) courts dealing with vital 
statistics; '<_ m^ .Ml JI.^VI (pliij or) dy[i 
personal statute; JU-I i^--*-U* noun 
referent of a circumstantial phrase 
{gram>) ; J U- ^rf^ *o.^4 b- application, 
memorial, petition; JLA-I uLJ, *)l*- ul—J 
see jLJ 

liU- kdlamd (conj.) as soon a& 

*Jl*- hdla pi. -d( condition, state; sit- 
uation; (possible, actual) case; hdlata 
(prop.) during | jl iJU- hdlata on (conj.) 
whereas; -1 4* iJU-lj under these circum- 
stances, such being the case, things 
being as they are; UU j {hdlati) in (the) 
case of..., in the event of .. ., e.g., iJU- t> 
"LiLc- {giydbihi) in case of his absence, 
l\jj\ aJU- j {wafah) in case of death; j 
iJU-l »A* in this (that) case; ol iJU- li- 
hdJaii an in case that..,, in the event 
that...; Ijl U yU- J if ; J iJLLi ^ Its' as 
is the case with...; i-t^l *JL^ (tj/i- 
inaiya) marital status; '*tj^\ c/^\X-\ [jaw" 
wlya) atmospheric conditions; J^\ iJU- 
A. al-hatar stand-by, alert, state of 
alarm; 'i^\J\ iJli-l the status quo; 111*- 

^jl^jUi h. af-taivdri' state of emergency; 
,_,.jiJI iJU- j (talabhus) flagrante delicto 
ijur.); iJjll iJli-l (madaniya) civil status, 
legal status; UU-1 *j^ su' al-h. predic- 
ament, plight 

JU- hall present, current, actual, 
existing; momentary, instantaneous; UU- 
hdliyan at present, actually | aJ\^ »jj^ 
(jjura) snapshot (phQt.) 

LJU- hdliya actuality, topicality, time- 

Jj»- haul pi. Jl_j»-' ahwdl year; might, 
power I .aiL "^1 Sj* "^j J_v" "^ ^ haula 
wa-ld qilwata ilia bi-lldh there is no power 
and no strength save in God; 4J Jj^ V 
aL^ *ij {vxi-ld hllaia) he is completely 
powerless, he can do nothing, he is at 
the end of his resources 

Jj»- hiival change of place, change | 
V_v- Cc- j_jiiu V (yahtaguna) they don't 
want it otherwise, they ask for it 

Jj^ haula (prep.) around, about; 
circa, about, some, approximately, rough- 
ly (with following number); about (esp. 
in news headings, approx. = re, concern- 
ing) j <J_j»- J- {haulihi) (= ^_y»-) around 
him (or it), about him (or it); \^_y*- j- 
{haulaihimd) around the two of them, 
about them; from their vicinity, from 
their surroundings (dual) 

t}j>- haull periodic, temporary, interim ; 
one year old (animal), yearling; young 
animal; Iamb, wether 

O '^y,^ hauUydi yearbook, annals 
(= Fr. anruilea, as a scientific pubhcation) 

J-«- hail strength, force, power, vigor | 
iL«- Jc (standing) upright, erect; »y "^ 
lit*" "^J *J (qHuHita) completely helpless and 

iL*- hlla pi. j-»- hiyal, J~l'*"' ahdyil^ 
artifice, ruae, stratagem, maneuver, But- 
terfuge, wile, trick; device, shift; a 


means to accomplish an end; expedient, 
makeshift, dodge, way-out; legal strat- 
agem (for the purpose of in fraudem 
legia agere) | jJU-I U what's to be done? 
J J ^^ "^ ib^ii^^) I have no possibility 
to..-, I am in no position to ...; ja_i U 
<Lp- (6t-^f] £ can do nothing, I can get 
nowhere; VI <L^ -Jjf |1 iam yajid hilatan 
ilia he couldn't do anything except,.,, 
he had no other choice than . . . ; «iJ- 1 c^ I 
(a'yathu) he was at a loss, he was at the 
end of his wits 

J-»- hiyali cunning, crafty, wily, sly, 
tricky, foxy 

J^l ahyaP craftier, wilier 

J_^ havxil squinting, strabismus 

(}j^\ ahwaP, f. t^j^ hauid'*, pi. J_>*- 
Alii squinting, squint-eyed, cross-eyed, 

Jjj*. ^u'ui change, transformation, 
transmutation; prevention (Jjj of 

Jlj«- kiwai obstacle; partition, screen 

JL» hiyala (prep.) in view of..., with 
regard to ..., in the face of, opposite, in 
front of, before 

*i\j^ havf^ pl. -di assignment, cession 
(;«r.); bill of exchange, (promissory) 
note, check, draft | JjjJI ^Ijf-, \^ij il|j^ 
money order; ji^ ti\_f»~ A. MJar traveler's 

d^j^ AaiooZd (prep.) around, about; 
circa, approximately, roughly, about, 
some (with following number) 

4J^L»- hailula separation, interruption, 
disruption; prevention (Jja of 

JU V Id mahdla = ;jUt V (see 

4IU- mahaia roller, wheel (of a draw 


c^ ^l^ V (a mahdkUa minhu it is 
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; 

(also iJL^ V alone) moat certainly, pos- 
itively, absolutely, by all means 

^jlJ^ tahwil transformation, trans- 
mutation, conversion (Jl into 
change, alteration, modification; trans 
plantation; transposition, reversal, in 
version, translocation, dislocation, dis 
placement; transfer, assignment; conver- 
sion (e.g., of currency); conversion, trans- 
formation (of electric cuirent); O trans- 
fer (Jin.; also j>^\ Jj^ t. ad-dain) 
remittance (of money), transmittal, send 
ing, forwarding; bill of exchange, promis 
sory note, draft (com.); cheek; endorse- 
ment (com.); c.o.d., cash on delivery | 

liyai al-^umiat ajnabiya) convertibility of 

«ij^ tahwila ph Jj.jl^ tahdwil* branch, 
offshoot; siding, sidetrack (railroad); side 
canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch (railroad) 

dJjL^ muhdvxda pi. -St attempt, try; 
effort, endeavor; recourse to expedients, 
shifts, or dodges, dodging, hedging | 
aJL^ Jp ;JjU {hayatiM) attempt on s.o.'s 
life, murderous aaaaolt 

<Jl»-l ihiUa transfer, conveyance, as- 
signment; remittance; forwarding, re- 
ferring ( Jl or J» to a competent autbori- 
ty); transmission, transmittal; O transfer 
(J!it.); oeesion, assignment {lal. Law); 
absurdity | J» ^JU-'^L with reference to; 
^iU-VI ^li magistrate sitting at de- 
fendant's arraignment, trial judge; 'JL^-i 
o^Ul (» Jl (ma'dS) and -li^Lidl Jl ;JU( 
(taqa'ud) pensioning off 

J^' tahawwul change, transformation, 
transmutation ; abrupt change, sudden 
turn, reversal ; shift, transition ; departure, 
deviation, digression {je- from); re- 
nunciation (je- of) I J_p«:)l 4Ui; nuqfat 
ai-t, turning point 

Jj* UUtayyul use of tricks, trickery 


JjI^ tahdyul and JL::^! ihiiifal use of 
tricks, trickery; ourming, craft, subtlety, 
artfulness; malice, treachery, perfidy; 
deception, fraud 

JjI^ ta^ytiii and JL:>- 1 i^iyali 
fraudulent, e.g., Jl^l ^^1 iifl^) frau- 
dulent bankruptcy 

4JL««i-'l isiihdla change, transformation, 
transmutation, turn, shift, transition; 
transubstantiation (Chr.); un|K)8sibUity, 
inconceivability, absurdity, preposterous- 

JJU- hd'ii pi. JJl^ AflwfiSP obstacle, 
obstruction, impediment {Cjja on the 
way to, j — ^^i see Jl»- hdla I); 
barrier; partition* screen, folding screen; 
' — (pl" 4t** Auwuxxf) changeable, variable, 
frequently changing; feeble, languid, 
wan, pallid 

Jj^ mufyaiiwii pi. -d< converter, trans- 
former (el.)i endorser 

4lj^ muhavniHla switch (railroad) 

*J* J^ muhaufiffol *alaihi c.o.d., cash 
on delivery; <> J^ oolleoted on delivery 

J^ muhll transferor, assignor {Isl. 

JL^ mvhdl inconceivable, unthink- 
able, impossible, absurd, preposterous, 

J^»«i« mviahawwil changeable, variable, 
changing | ^J^^ull .atc-'^l {a'y&d) the 
movable feasts {Chr.) 

Jl;:^ muhtdl artful, ounuing, deceit- 
ful, treacherous, perfidious, fraudulent; 
swindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook, 
scoundrel; assignee {lal. Law) | 4Jl» Jli^ 
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee {lal. 

J..*.!-^ mvMahxl unpossible, absurd, 
preposterous; w*^,-' ■ impossible things, 
impossibilities, absurdities 

(rj— ) ^U- hdma v. (Aa»w, OL*^ liawaman) to 
circle, hover, glide (in the air; of a 
bird, also of an aircraft) ; to hover, swarm, 
buzz (4^ and J« around) | »x^ v-^l c^U 
(Subha, 4^ddahu) suspicion concentrated 
on him, he was suspected II to circle in 
the air; to hover in circles, to circle; to 
go around, revolve (thoughts and images, 
in one's bead or mind); to browse (J in 
a book) 

l*jm- hauma pi. -SI turmoil of battle, 
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, 
main body; (tun.) quarter, section (of 
a city) 

ijU- and 4jU> see J^a- 

Cj^U- see _yL»- 

i£j^ hawa t to gather, collect, unite {a; 
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold, 
enclose, comprise, include {m; to 
possess, own, have (>; to clasp 
(*, the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up) 
VIII to encompass, embrace, contain, 
hold, enclose, comprise, include (* or 
J«; to possess, own, have (* or J^ 

Zj^ hawiya convolution, coil, oorl, 
roll; pi. \i\j^ futwdyd intestines, bowels, 

4jl^ hatedya pL -at {eg.) wase, round 
pad to support a burden on the head or 
on the back 

jLp- hdinn pi. •[fw- huwdh snake charmer; 
juggler, conjurer, magician 

Ciljy:^ mtthtawaydt content(s) (of a 
book, of a receptacle) | ^j'ji^^ CjLjiS- the 
innermost thoughts, the secrets of the 

(;L»- haydh) to live; j»- hayya to live to 
], experience, witness (m, live 

J.1 L _ i- \ I .lit I 

j>- hayya to live to 
see, experience, witness (m, live 
(* through a time) | tiiUI ^ymJ U-yahya 


l-TmUilc long live the king! — ^ haj/iya 
L^ yahyd (iL*- hayi') to be ashamed (,y- 
of, becaiue of) 11 L^ hayyd to keep 
(• B.o.) olire, grant (• s.o.) a long life; to 
say to s.o. (•) : dl ilLr. may God preserve 
your life!; to greet, salute (< s.o.) IV Lp-I 
ahyi to lend life («, t to s.o., to], 
enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with 
life, call into being (a, give birth 
(* to); to revive, reanimate, revivify 
(a B,th.), give new life (* to); to put on, 
produce, stage, arrange (« e.g., a theat- 
rical performance, a celebration, and 
the like); to celebrate (a, also a 
festival) | ttjS'iJI L»-l (gikrd) to commem- 
orate (a deceased person), observe the 
anniversary (of s.o.'s death); JJI L>-l 
(tail) to burn the midnight oil, JJI L^l 
A*^ {fiaiStan) to spend the night in 
prayer; !,^l U>-l (aahraia) to perform 
in the evening (of an artist); U-l 
«LiA- (haftalan) to give a performance; 
to perform at a celebration (artist); 
JU <^':ti iijjil\ C-vl 4* qad ahyat U- 
firqata tatala ktySlin the theatrical troupe 
gave three evening performances X Lw:.<l 
itlahyd to spare s.o.'s (•) life, let live, 
keep alive (• s.o.); L>w>l uiahyd, ^^^ 
MtoAd to be ashamed (• to face s.o.; ^ 
of, beeause of; to become or 
feel embairassed (^ in front of s.o.), be 
embarrassed (^ by); to be bashful, shy, 

L^ ^yy pi- '''3*'' oky^ living, live, 
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, 
energetic, imbroken, undaunted, un- 
dismayed; living being, orgamsm; trihe, 
tribal oommunity; block of apartment 
houses; section, quarter (of a city) [ U 
•L».VI 'tint al-tthyS biology; ilUI ^ 
/i. al-'d]a7n houseleek tree (Sempervivum 
orboreum L.; bot.) 

come to prayer! 
4^ hayya pi. -of snake, serpent, viper 

O jL^t oAya'i biologic(al) ; (pi. -un) 
biologist I v*^' '^^^ (famiyS) bio- 

^ hayiy bashful, shy, diffident, modest 

<Lr- hayS' shame, diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness | »U-I JJi 
shameless, impudent; >Li.1 <li giliat oi-A. 
shamelessness, impudence 

at*. fiaySh pi. Cj\j-m~ hayawdt life; life- 
blood; liveliness, animation | --XiJ^ 'l^ 
h. ar-rif country life, rural life; <>Ui :LJ-I 
('amnui) public life; UJUI :LJ-I family 
life; ;LJ-I jji-» mtutawd Ih. living 
standard; O ilS\ L 'ilm ai-h. biology 

iij:^ hayawi lively, full of life, vital, 
vigorous; vital, essential to life 

<ij^ hayawiya vitality, vigor, vim 

Obj^ ]}ayawiyStt ^\jjjl S^Uk. i\j* 
{mawSdd ntu^ddda) antibiotics 

j\y^ iayawdn pi. -<U animal, beast; 
(coll.) animals, living creatures | Cj\j\j^ 
*^_Jj (tadyiya) mammals; i_^ Cj\j\j^ 
(mujtarra) ruminants; JiaIp o]^^ (/u/ai2t) 
parasite; d\^\ V 'ilm al-h. zoology 

d^j^ hayawdni animal (adj.); zoolog- 

4jlj^ hayawdniya be8tiality;animality, 
animal nature 

^^ Aiuwyym pi. -at minute animal, 

^1 ahyd livelier; more vigorous, 
more vital 

4_^ tahfya pi. -Si, LU' UiMyd greeting, 
salutation; salute; cheer (= wish that 
God may give s.o. long life) | •IjS'JJ X^ 
iahiyatan li-dikrdhu in order to keep his 
memory alive, in remembrance of him; 
4i^,SC-All v^l i'atkanya) militcuy salute 

•U^l ihyd* animation, enlivening; 
revival, revitolization, revivification; ar- 
ranging, staging, conducting, putting on. 


holding (of a celebration) | j^ili -L^l ♦. 
a4-dikrd commemoration (of a deceased 
person); isj'-'^ »L.-I {ihyd'an) (with foil, 
gen.) in commemoration of ... , in me- 
moriam ...; oi_^l »L»-1 i, a/-maud/ culti- 
vation of virgin land 

»L>«^:«'I iff lAj/a' shame ; diffidence, bash* 
fulness, timidity; shyness 

L^ muhayyan face, countenance 

4.*«;.,U ii»Jl as-aiti al-mustahiya sen- 
sitive plant (Mimosa pudica; hot.) 

l~f haitu (conj.) where (place and di- 
rection); wherever; since, as. due to the 
fact that; whereas; inasmuch aa | 
jl o-^ (anna) since, as, because, due to 
the fact that...; in that...; o^ ^t—*- 
wherever it be; in any case, at any rate; 
•t-:*- Jl ild haitu where (direction); to 
where . , ., to the place where . . . ; i-*- ^y^ 
min haitu from where, whence, where- 
fronj; where (place); whereas; (with 
foil, nominative) as to, as for, 
concerning, regarding, with respect 
to , in V ie w of, because of; j_- 
AJlUl i^:_^ min A. Utaqdjaiu with regard 
to education, as far as education is 
concerned; jj4j Vj jjij ,i_^ ^ {yadri 
wa-la yadri) whether he knows it or not, 
knowingly or without his knowledge; 
V ^i-r*- J- (with foil, imperf.) without 
(being, doing, etc.) ; j* .t.^ j. as such, in 
itself, jM Z,^ Jr- ^Wl ('(Worn) the world 
in itdelf, the world aa such; ji ^t _r- ^ 
{anna) inasmuch as; in view of the 
fact that; since, as, due to the fact 
that; tt^ bi-haitu inasmuch as; in 
such a manner that... ^ so as to...; so 
that...; such as...; (he found himself) 
at a point or degree where, e.g., j* ^iJlT 
i^J "^ *i--*i ;.ljJl {baT&*a, tard) = she 
was so naive that she couIdn''t see...; 
"i *i— *^ insofar aa ... not, provided 
that... not; jl i^ {anna) in such a 
manner that..., so as to..., so that... 

]^^ haitumd wherever, wheresoever 
(place); wherever, no matter where... 
(direction) | jiJl ]^ {iUafaga) any- 
where, wherever it was (or be), haphaz- 
ardly, at random 

iJLj- haifiya pi. -at standpoint; view- 
point, point of view, approach; aspect, 
respect, regard^ consideration; high social 
standing, social distinction, dignity; pi, 
also: considerations, legal reaeons on 
which the judgment is hased, opinion 
(/w-) I (•JjU') oLLi.1 jj'ji {dawu) or 
IJuJ-l LjLrfcl, i^ijLJLi-l LjL^I people of 
(high) social standing, prominent people, 
people of distinction; v'j=^' Vr^' i> 
(hayawdniya) from a zoological view- 

* OjJJ- 1 al-hUiyun the Hittites 

i-L*-) jL>- kdda i {haid, ij^ huyud, jlj-«» 
hayaddn, xJ- nahtd) to deviate, swerve, 
depart, desist (^ from); to leave, quit, 
give up, abandon, relinquish (^; 
^ *i jU- to dissuade or get s.o. away 
from...; to inclino, tend (Jl, j^ to, 
toward), shade, blend (Jl, ^ into) II to 
keep aside* put aside (* Ill to stay 
away, keep apart (a, • from s.o., from; to avoid, shun (*, « b.o., 
Tl) to depart, deviate, digress, swerve 
(jp from) 

J-»- haidy j Ij-*- hayadan deviation, 
digression, departure, swerving, turning 
aside, turning away 

•Oj- haida deviation, digression, swerv- 
ing, departure (from a course); neutrality; 
impartiality | '»x^ J* aside, apart, to 
one side 

JL* mdhid avoidance (jc of | 

<•* -L* V {mahida) it is unavoidable 

jL»- hiy&d neutrality {poi.) \ aLJ-I J» 
neutral; JJ^I ^ ,»U- (^a#) derailment 


^^L«> hiyddi neutral (jW.) 

•JjI^ miihdyader neutrality {pol.) 

jj\^ hd*id neutral {pd.) 

Ojl^ mvJiayid neutral {pol-) ; Oj<bl^l 
the neutrals ipd,) 

ajl*.::^ mvtahdyid neutral (pol.) 

iUiji*- haidardbad* Hydarabad 

{j^) jU- hdra (Ist pera. perf. hirtu) a (Sj^*- 
haira, jlj^*- hayardn) to become confused; 
to become or be helpless^ be at a loss, 
know nothing (j of, about); to waver, 
hesitate, be unable to choose (^>_>J — J^j 
between — and) | bj^I j jU (amn'Ai) to 
be confuaed^ baffled, bewildered, dis- 
mayed; to be at a loss, be at one's wit's 
end II to confuse, baffle, bewilder, non- 
plus, embarrass (• s.o.) V to become con- 
fused; to be or become dismayed, startled, 
baffled, perplexed { j by), be at a loss (j 
aa to); to waver (uncertainly) (jo 
between) | -j-l j j^ {amrihi) to be 
confused, baffled, bewildered, disconcert- 
ed, be at a loss, be at one's wit's end 

jv- hair fenced-in garden, enclosure f 
jl^l jv- h. ai-hayatvdn zoological 
garden, zoo 

ij^ haira confusion, perplexity, be- 
wilderment, embarrassment, helplessness | 
Ij^ J embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

oljw- ^fairdn^i f. iSJ^ haird, pi. (jjU*- 
haydrd, kuyard confused, perplexed, 
startled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled, 
nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken 
aback, stunned; embarrassed, at a loss, 
at one's wit's end; uncertain, helpless, 
sheepish (smile, etc.), confused, in< 
coherent (words, and the like) 

J^^ tahayyur confusion, perplexity, 
bewilderment, dismay; embarrassment, 

yU> hd'ir disconcerted, perplexed, 
startled, dismayed; embarrassed, help- 
less, at a loss, at one's wit's end ; baffled, 
bewildered, confused, uncertain {j. 
about); straying, astray | tj»\ J ^*U 
(amrihi) confused, baffled, bewildered, 
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

j^^ mvhayyar embarrassed, at a loss, 

j^»,i^ muiahayyir and jU^ muktdr 

Ojty*- see vj^ 

{fjM^) ^J^*'^ hd^a i {haif, '**m^ hai^t o^^ 
mdhlf) to flee, escape (j* or from 
B.€h.), run away (j* from), turn one's 
back (^ on) VII do. 

tjM^ haif, 'k,^^ haifa flight, escape 

^j^tj j-4»- J vj leaqa'a fi haifa bai^ 
to get into a bad fix, meet with 

l^L*- I 


^j.^^ mahlf flight, escape; place of 
refuge, retreat, sanctuary | ^j^^ 4:^1 U it 
is unavoidable; jl ^ fj^^J^ jj^ J they 
couldn't but..., they had no other 
alternative but to . . . 

(j-i-^) w-^U hd4ai t {hai^i ,j^ mahi4, 
^ \A ■mahd4 ) and Y to menstruate , 
have a monthly period 

,jM^ hauP (n. un. iJu.-) and ^l*- 
hiyS4 menstruation, monthly period 

^^U- hd^i4 (f*) and 4*ajU- menstru- 

;L^, 4UL»-, ol^^, .UL«- see j»^^ 

i{.ja.*_) JiU- hdfa i (haij) to deal unjustly 
(I* with s.o.), wrong, injure, harm (Jp 
s.o.); to reBtriot, limit, curtail, impair 
(J^, enoroaoh (J* upon) V to 

impair, injure, prejudice, violate {* or 
^y encroach, infringe (* or j- 

i~X*- haif wrong, injustice; harm, 
damage^ prejudice | 4_U iJti^^ what a 
pity! too bad! o Ja-^ V (haifa) it 
is not out of place, it is quite appro- 

21jL»- haifd Haifa (seaport in NW Israel) 

(J_»-) JU- hdqa i to surround, be&et from all 
sides (^j B.o.) ; to fall, descend, come 
(tj upon B.O., punishment), befall, over- 
take, grip, seize, overcome (t_j s.o.), 
happen, occur (<_j to); to penetrate, 
pierce (j the body; of a sword); to 
afifect, influence (j s.o., IV to 
Burround, beset from all sides (u s.o.); 
to bring down (* <_> upon b.o., cause (a) to descend {(_j upon s.o.) 

J-»- haiq consequence, effect (of a 
misdeed redounding upon the evildoej*) 

tiJL»- II to weave 

STL*- seeij^ 

di-j- haik = dL*U- ; see iJ^— 

ij-^ V, ;L^, j_,-l, jL^,:iJ^, etc., see J^^; 
J-j-l see jJU- 

*JjU- hdyil^ Hail (town and oasis in N 

(i>»-) ^^ hdna i to draw near, approach, 
come, arrive (time); to happen accidental- 
ly I c-j^l uU- the (right) time has come; 
now is the time; 61 <! jL^ the time has 
come for him to ...; l^*fii d\ ^ uU- Ul 
{a-md, an yafhamu) haven't they under- 
stood yet...?; iiLiiil J- ^iJU- {minni 
liijdia) I happened to turn around (Jl to), 
it just happened that my eyes fell on 
(Jl) II to get a time (<. for s.o.) IV to 
destroy, wipe out (» a.o.) V to watch, 
wait {* ibr a time or an opportunity) | 
<^jj^\ t>^' (furfiata) to wait for an op- 

portunity, bide one*8 time X j^>-i^S 
istahyaTia to wait for the right time 

jU- hdn bar; cabaret 

^U> kdrujt pi. -at bar, wineshop, wine 
tavern; pub, tavern, taproom 

^»- kain death, destruction 

^»- hin pi. o\^\ ahydn, J*.A^\ alidyin^ 
time; propitious time, good time, op- 
portunity; Aino (prep.) at the time of . . ., 
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when; 
as Boon as; b~f hinan for Bome time; 
once, one day; ljL»-i ahydnan occasional- 
ly, from time to time, sometimes | 
L^ — L«^ sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times; j^jU-VI j at times, 
sometimes, once in a while; ^^^, J 
(4>jU-Vl) iJL^-Vl /* ba'4* l-a. and ^j^ 
jL»-Vl ba'ija l-a. sometimes, occasionally, 
now and then, once in a while, from time 
to time, at times; uLj^VI c-itl J ft agiabi 
l-a. mostly, most of the time, in most 
cases; ^>- Jl for some time; meanwhile, 
for the time being; 41^ J then, at the 
time, in his (its) time; in due time, at 
the appointed time; ir^\ Ij dd l-kina 
just now, right now; J^^l jJi ^ from 
that time on, from then on; j>.i-l »iJJj Jl 
until that time, till then; i>»- j (with 
foil, verb) whereas; jl o<*- j and ul >»- J* 
{hint) at the same time when .... while; 
whereas, also without jl, e.g., j"^ Jt 
j>^Jr > 'aid kini hum yaz^umuna 
whereas they, on the other hand, claim ; 

i>f- Jl 0^_»- Cf'^JfJ J\*- Oi^'Ot*- -W ^:*-i 
^V ^>- J- {li-dkara) and ^T^ j^*- ^>J 
(wa~dkara) from time to time, now and 
then, once in a while 

iLL»- hina*idin at that time, then, 
that day 

iJlai-». hinaddka at that time, then, 
that day 

\(L>- hmamd (conj.) while; when, aa 

j|^^, i^,>f^ and Sjj 




*U- kd' name of the letter ^ 

j^U- kdtun pi. ir'i]^ kawdtin^ £ady, socially 
prominent woman | u_>jU^I tj*j zahrai 
al-h. little blue flower of the steppe («yr.] 

I»l>-L>- Aia^m (= |>1>-U-) rabbi 

^-.*jU- k&rafin and J~.*jl>- iflrojitTit (e^.) 

^jJ^ jtozfi^ pi. Jijl>»' kawdxiq* poat, stake, 
pole; dirty trick | jjjU- tJU that's tough 

jliU' hdqan pi. i>*l^ Jfawd^n^ overlord, 
ruler, sovereign* monarch, emperor 

S^ bdta earth- colored, khaki 

I»Up k&m raw, un worked, unprocessed; un- 
tanned; linen; calico; (pi. -at) raw 
material; inexperienced, green, untrain- 
ed, unskilled, artless, uncouth, boorish; 
pi. CjUU. raw materials | j*U- ^jl^ raw 
leather; a\>- ^j^ raw fibers ; ^U- lIj J (zaii) 
crude oil; f*U- j^ {sukkar) raw sugar; 
a\X\ jI^I {mawadd) the raw materials 

jU- A:dn pi. -ai hostel, caravansary; inn, 
pub, tavern | J^U-'I OU-'I (kalili) district 
of Cairo (center of art trade and market 
activity); ^J^Ji OU- Khan Yunis (town 
in Gaza sector] 

^U- kdTia pi. -di column (e.g., of a news- 
paper); square (e>g., on a chessboard) 

1^^ kabba u {kabbt i_^ kababt ^^ kabtb) 
to amble (animal); to trot (horse); to 
jog, saunter (person); to sink (j in 
sand); — u {kabb) to surge, heave, be 
rough (sea) V and VIII to amble (animal); 
to trot (horse) 

i.^^ kabab amble; trot 

<_^ kabb, kibb heaving, surging (of the 
sea), rough sea 

t--*- kabb impostor, swindler 

L>. Jcaba^a a and 11 to hide, conceal (a 
T to hide, conceal o.8.; to be hidden, be 
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to 
disappear; to be hidden, be concealed 

r.^ kab'f ffib' that which is hidden, 
a hidden thing 

*i^ kabi'a pi. IjLjL kabayd that which 
is hidden; a hidden, secret thing; a 
cache | j^j"^! liL>- k. l-ar4 that which 
is hidden in the earth; natural resources 

ijt- ma]cba* pi. 'ijlJ£ makdin'* hiding 
place; hide-out, refuge, haunt, retreat; 
cellar, shelter, air-raid shelter 

»L^ kihS pi. ii^l dkbi*a, i^l akbiya 
tent; husk, bull (of grain) 

tlAi- kabi'a^ iLjU^ jcdbiya pi. \j\j»- 
^tvSbi**t vl>^ kawabin large vessel, 
cask, jar 

oUJc mukabba'dt hidden, secret things ; 

*^^je. muktabV hidden, concealed 

c^ IV to be humble (Jl before God) 

<t^ kabufa u {Jcubt, oL^ kabSia) to be bad; 
to be wicked, evil, malicious, vicious, 
malignant VI to behave viciously, dis- 
play malice; to feel awkward, feel em- 

u^ kvbt badness, wickedness; ma- 
lignanoy (e.g., of a disease); malice, 
malevolence, viciousness 

.1^ ^ahai refuse, scum, dross, slag 


d.j.^ JpaMt pi. ^t^ hubut, *b^ kubaid'*, 
^L^\ alfbat, li^ Jcabaia bad. evil, wicked ; 
malicious, vicious, spiteful; noxioua, 
injurious, harmful; malignant (disease); 
offensive, repulsive, nauaeatiug, disgust- 
ing (odor) 

^^^\ akbap worse; more wicked 

liL^ kabafa badness, wickedness; mal- 
ice, malevolence, viciousness, malignancy 

i~ kabara u {ktibr, ij\^ kibra) to try, test 
(a; to experience (*; to have 
tried, have experienced, know by ex- 
perience (^,); to get to know thor- 
oughly, know well {m, • a.o.); — 
kabura u to know thoroughly (^ or a, be fully acquainted (t^ or * with 
s.thO II to notify* advise, apprise, in« 
form, tell (* s.o., t^ of or about) III to 
write (• to s.o.)> address (• s.o.)> turn, 
appeal (• to s.o.), contact (• s.o.) in 
writing; to negotiate, treat, parley (« 
with s.o.) IV to notify, inform, apprise, 
advise (l-i * s.o. of), let know, tell {<^ • 
s.o. about); to communicate^ report, 
relate (^^ * to s.o,, tell (^ » s.o. V to inquire (* of s.o.), ask (• s.o.) 
TI to inform one another, notify one 
another, keep one another informed; to 
correspond, write each other; to nego- 
tiate, treat, parley (m with s.o., j about) 
VIII to explore {a, search (a into), 
seek information (a about); to test, 
examine (« s.o., a; to try, put to 
the test (* S.O., a; to have tried, 
have experienced, know by experience 
(a; to know well (a X to 
inquire {jc a of s.o. about), ask (j^ • s.o. 

j^ kabar pi. jLa! akbdr news; in- 
formation, intelligence; report, com- 
munication, message; notification;rumor; 
story; matter, affaii; (gram,) predicate 
of a nominal clause; pi. annals [ j« JU 
•jL«^l to inquire of s.o. about s.o. else; 

o^ j^ J jlT or jlT jo^. J J*:-j (liabari 
kdna) to belong to the past, be pass^, be 
no longer existent 

*jyi- kibra, j«i- kubr experience; knowl- 

j|w^ kabir experienced, expert (t-* 
in); familiar, conversant, well-acquainted 
(i-^ with), cognizant (i-j of); >J^I the 
Knowing (one of the attributes of God] ; 
(pi. *i^ kubard*^) expert, specialist | 
^\j^\ j*^ tax expert, tax adviser 

j_^U- kdbur pi. yw|>»- kawdbir* peg; 
pin; wedge 

jJ^ maJ^r sense, intrinsic significance ; 
(pi. j\j^ maJpabir^) laboratory 

jLJC- mikbdr pi. ^IJ£ makdbir* test tube 

*^\jt mukdbara pi. -SI oorrespondenoe, 
(esp. written) information (in classified 
ftds: ^ vli^l please write to..., please 
contact . . .), notice, notification, com- 
munication I '<^fi-^ '^J■^ telephone call, 
telephone conversation; Vr:^^ V, i!f^ 
rijiya) long-distance call; <i^ ij\jf- 
(sirriya) secret communiqu6; O^yU^i i« 
qalam al-m. intelligence bureau; a^L^l 
[jjj..i»^ (A-u^urtyan) apply in person (in 
classified ads) 

jLj^I ikbdr notification, information, 
communication, note, message; report; 
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.) 

^jL^I ikbdri news-, information- (in 

j-lj^ takdbur negotiation; correspond- 

j\^\ iktibdr pi. -di exploration, study; 
examination; teat; test item (of an 
examination); trial, testing; (scientific) 
investigation, research, experiment; ex- 
perience, empirical knowledge; practical 
experience | 'ojj^ otjLj^l {tahrirlya) 
written examination items; J^^ J^^' 


(^2i] personal ezperienoe; jLjf-*^! J^^ J» 
ezperimantally ; jLj^*^! c^ on probation^ 
on trial; jl^*^! (J}i«- experimental fields 

jjLtj:-! iktibdri experimental; ezperi- 
enti&l; empirical 

4^jLif^1 iktibdriya empiriciflm 

jL^iLi^l igtif^T pi. -at inquiry | Sy'lj 
oljLMiA-'^i information bureau 

j<je- mukbir pi. -un reporter; detective 

jCA tnuktabar pi. -at laboratory 

jyi- kabaza i (Jfobz) to bake {m bread] VIII do. 

yj~ kvhz pi. jL»-l dkhdz bread 

*>»- kvbza loaf of bread 

jL>- kabbaz pi. -€n, «)L>- baker 

JL*:- Jcubbdz, jw:- fcuWois, ifjL*- Arafr- 
&aza mallow (&of.) 

•)L»- ^t&azo baker's trade* art of 

>jc nia$:6az, •>!& makbaza pi. jrljc 
makdbiz^ bakery 

,j^*^ kabapa i (kabp) to mix^ mingle, intermix 
(<^ A vlth) H to mix, mingle, inter- 
mix (*]; to muddle, jumble, confuse 
{m^ make a meaa {m of) 

ij'a^ JMbifi *»m^j^ kabi^a medley, 
mesa, mishmaab, hodgepodge; ^ '_ -=- a 
jellylike STreet 

^L»- kabbdf one who causes confusion, 
who messes things up; an irresponsible, 
light-minded person 

iu*^ kaba^ t (kabf) to beat, strike (a, 
against; to knock, rap (* oo^ i^Ul 
on the door) ; to stamp (^^j*^ 1 the ground ; 
of animals) | *\jlfi. 1^ J^ {kcbfa 
'aiwd'a) he acts haphazardly, he proceeds 
rashly or at random V to beat, strike, 
hit (. 8.0.) ; to bring down, fell, knock out, 
throw to the ground (* s.o.); to bump, 
hit (a against], collide (* with), stumble 

(a over); to be lost, wander about, stray; 
to grope about, fumble about; to strug- 
gle, resist; to clatter orer the ground, 
gallop (horse) VIII to bump (against) ; to 
struggle, resist; to grope about, fumble 
about; to be lost, wander around, stray; 
to stir, bustle 

4lu^ kabfa blow, stroke; rap, knock; 
noise, din, uproar 

i»L>- kubdf insanity, madness, mental 

J^ ]cabala u (kabl) to confound, confuse, 
mess up, complicate (a; to hinder, 
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (* 
B.O.); to befuddle (* s.o.), confuse b.o.'b 
(•) mind, rob (• s.o.) of his senses, make 
(• s.o.) crazy; — kabiia a (kabal^ JU:- 
Ifabdl) to get confused; to be or become 
mentally difiturbed, crazy, insane II to 
confound, confuse (a, a s.o.); to 
complicate, entangle, mess up, muddle, 
throw into disorder (a; to rob of 
his senses, drive insane (• s.o.) VIII to 
become muddled, disordered (mind) 

J^ hAl, kabai confusion; mental 
disorder, insanity 

J^ kabil mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

J^l akbaP mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JLzW-i iJftibdl mental disorder 

J^ makbiU mad, crazy, idiotic, 
imbecilio, mentally deranged, insane ; 
muddlehead, dolt, fool 

JJS' mukabbal confused, baffled, per- 
plexed, dismayed ; muddled, confused, 
mixed up 

i_^) U*- kabd u (kabw, ^ubuw) to go out, die 

LiL^ and fU^ pi. 4^1 see l^ 
uU- pi. vjy^ B^ ^ 


i^jUi^ kibydri caviar 

J^ ^aiara i {^air) to betray (• s,o.)t aot 
perfidiously, disloyally (» toward b.o.); 
to deceive, cheat, dupe (• s.o.) 

Jvi- lf<Ur disloyalty, breach of coofi- 
deuce, perfidy, treaoheiy, betrayal, de- 

j\:ji' kattdr traitor, disloyal person, 
cheat, swindler 

yU- ^ir treacherous, perfidious, die- 

J:*:- ^ataia i u {kaU^ 0':)c^ kaUtian) to dupe, 
gull, cheat, double-cross, deceive (• b,o.) 
Ill to deceive, cheat, dupe (• B.o,); to 
behave hypocritically Tin = I 

f^ kail and <lslj& muWala deception, 
trickery, double-dealing, duplicity, dup- 
ing, gulling 

JJlit mukdtU deceitful, crafty, wily, 

^ kaiama i (hUm, ^U*- kitdm) to seal, 
provide with a seal or signet (a]; to 
stamp. Impress with a stamp (a}; 
to seal off, close, make impervious or 
inaoceasible (a; also J« the hearts, 
said of God); to put one's seal (> on), 
conclude, terminate (a; to wind 
up, finisb, complete (a; to close, 
heal, cicatrize (wound) V to put on or 
wear a ring (u/) | u-aDIj ^ (d^^hab) to 
wear a golden ring YIII to oonclude, 
finish, terminate, wind up (a 

-^ katm sealing; — (pi. *U»:-I aktdm, 
^yJ~ kutum) seal, signet, seal imprint; 
stamp, stamp imprint; also = 4*i»- (see 
below) I a^jJl !»• poatmark, (postal) 
cancellation stamp; 2^\ ^ Sam' al-k. 
sealing wax 

KLJi- katma ph katamdt recital of the 
entire Koran, eap. on festive occasions 

(pU. katam, kdtim pi. rj^ katvdtim^ 
seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring; 

seal, signet; stamp | ^jj\ /U. k. az- 
zawdj wedding ring; Cf^^ f^ b- o**- 
nahiyin the Seal (i.e., the last) of the 
Prophets = Mohammed 

^L~U~ kdtdm pL «Ji^ katvSiim' seal 
ring, signet ring; ring 

pLj^ kitdm sealing wax; end, close, 
conclusion, termination | ^lii^l j at the 
end, at last, finally, eventually 

t/lii^ kitdmi final, conoluding | '<J^ 
1~»\zp- (kalima) concluding speech 

aIiz*:-! iktitdm end, close, conclusion, 

^U JMtima pi. r\y- kawatim*^ «J|y^ 
katffoiim* end, close, conclusion, termina- 
tion; epilogue (of a book); w|>»- final 

Jjt mukattam ringed, adorned with 
a ring or rings (hand) 

Jjuc muktatam end, close, conclusion, 

*J^ katana t {katn) to circumcise (• a boy) 
VIII pass. 

^3:- kain circumciAion 

^Jv- kaian pi. uIj^I aktan son-in-law; 

ohji- kiiduy '4j\ii. kitdna circumcision 

•ij^U. look up alphabetically 

j\^ ka^ra u and kaiira a to become solid, 
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or 
become viscous, sirupy; to clot, coagulate 
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to 
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate 
{a liquid); to curdle (a milk) V = I 

O 3j«:- kaira thrombosis [med.) 

jlJ^ kuidr dregs (of a liquid); scum 
of the earth, rifi'raff, mob 

yU*- kutdra dregs (of a liquid); sed- 
iment, lees 


^ tojagur coagulation | O ^i J j^ 
{mufck) oerebrol thromboais 

J\r- iStir thickened, inspusated, oon- 
deoaed; viacoua, ropy, aimpy; ciirdlcd, 
ooagulated, olotted; joghuit, curd 

Jjt muja^r thiokened, inspiseated, 
condensed; visoouB, ropy, sirupy ; curdled, 
ooagulated, olotted 

Jjt jfajila a {jpajal) to become embatrassed ; 
to be uhomed (^ of or to face s.o.), 
be abashed (,> by, feel embarrassed 
(,j> about or in front of s.o.) II and 
lY to shame (• s.o.) ; to embarrasB, abash, 
put to shame (■ s.o.) 

Jjt ^jal shame (j> at); bashfulnesa, 
dif&dence, timidity, shyness; abashment; 
disgrace, shame, ignominy | J»^ Lj 
{ta-l-k.) O disgrace! the shame of it! 

J^ kajii abashed, embarrassed; bash- 
ful, diffident, shy, timid; overgrown 
with luxuriant, profuse vegetation; long 
and flowing (garment) 

lijF tcajvl abashed, ashamed, shame- 
faced; shy, bashful, diiSdent, timid 

u^ kajlan' abashed, ashamed, 
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, tim- 
id; bewildered with shame, embarrassed 

Jjnji makjvl ashamed, shamefaced 

J»j£ mukjii arousing shame, shame- 
ful; shocking, disgraceful, ignominious | 
'thji\ >L^VI (a'ifS') the pudenda 

4^ jfodda u to furrow, plow {a the ground) 
T to be furrowed; to become wrinkled 

JU. ^add pi. JJ.U. hudid cheek; lateral 
portion, side [ a.1,^ ^c^ ^"ara kaddahu 
to put on a contemptuous mien 

.1,:. kadd and i.x>- kudda pi. ii>- Jcudad 
furrow, ridge, groove, rut 

jjV-l ufedad pi. JjjU.1 akadtd'' furrow, 
ridge, groove, rut; trench, excavation 

lidt- milfadda pi. jlic majpddd' cushion, 
piUow; seat cushion 

£4>:- huUj premature child 

-^lj^ Jfiddj abortion, miscarriage 

j-lit kadira a (kadar) to be numb, prickle, 
tingle (leg, arm) ; to be or become limp, 
benumbed, paralyzed; — kadara u to 
confine to women's quarters, keep in 
seclusion (U a girl) II to numb, benumb, 
stupefy (* B.O., A; to anesthetize, 
narcotize, put to sleep (a s.o., m; 
med.); to confine to women's quarters, 
keep in seclusion (U a girl) IT to make 
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of 
sensation, narcotize (• s.o., * V to 
be numbed, be atunned, be stupefied, 
be deprived of sensation; to come to 
rest, calm down 

J.U. kidr pi. jjiji- kudur, j\^ akddrt 
^jU.i akddir* curtain, drape; women's 
quarters of a tent; boudoir, private 
room (of a lady) 

j-U- kadar and Ij-^ kvdra numbness, 
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to 
sleep); daze, torpor, stupor 

j-W- kadir numb (limb); benumbed, 
torpid, dazed 

jjj^ takdlr anesthetization, narcotiza- 

jjU. l(5dir limp, languid; benumbed, 
torpid, dozed; hidden in bis den, lurk- 
ing (lion) 

ijiU- fcadira chrysalis (of a caterpillar; 

jjuf- mukaddir anesthetic, painkilling, 
tranquilizing; (pi. -at) an anesthetic; a 
narcotic, drug, dope 

jAiC mukaddar numb, torpid, in- 
sensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk 

Ijoit mukaddara girl kept in seclusion 
from the outside world 


^/J^ kadasa i (kadi) to scratch (* to 
maul, lacerate, tear to pieces (*; 
to violate (• the rules of decenoy, s.o.'s 
honor, and the like); to disturb (» the 
peace); to ruin, sully, run down (o»r' 
ffum'ataha s,o.'b reputation) II to scratch 
(*; to maul, lacerate, tear to 
pieces (*; to violate (» the rules 
of decency, a.o.'a honor, etc.); to ruin. 
Bully, run down (c»r' mra'atahu b.o.'s 

^ ii kadi pi. J^jjji- kudus, J.\ii.\ akddi 
scratch, scratch mark; graze, abrasion 

^J»- kada'a a to cheat (»b.o., jt out of; 
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (. b.o); 
pass, kvdi'a to be mistaken, be wrong 
(y- about) ; to fail to see clearly (y with 
regard to), get the wrong impression 
(jc of Ill to cheat, dupe, deceive, 
take in (> s.o.); to try to deceive or 
double-croSB (. s.o.) VII to let o.s. be 
deceived, be deceived, deluded, misled 
(ij by) ; to be mistaken, be wrong 

«eJ^ iitid'o pi. ^ji. kvda', -at de- 
ception, cheating, swindle 

v-i^ hida'a impostor, swindler, cheat, 

4pa*:-1 fjj^ aaurwd akda'ahu to crush 
fl.o.'s pride, humble s.o. 

i*j.W- jcadi'a pi. ajIj*. kadd'i*^ de- 
ception, deceit, betrayal, treachery, per- 
fidy, trickery, imposture 

^Ij^ kaddd' impostor, swindler, sharper, 
cheat, crook ; deceptive, delusive 

f'-^ji- ff^ida' fata morgana, mirage 

^.jl»-l akddi'' swindles, underhand 
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms, 
phantasms, delusions 

^arf mikda't mukda', makda' pi. f-jLjt 
makadi'^ small room, chamber, cabinet; 

^lo*- kidd' deception, deceit, swindle, 
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy, 
trickery, duplicity 

jtljA kidd'i deceitful, fraudulent; 
deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

j^ilje mukddi' swindler, impostor, cheat, 
sharper, crook 

Jo*. }fadila a to stiffen, become rigid; to 
become numb, torpid, limp 

j»4>. kadama i u (iia>. kidma) to serve, be at 
service, do service ; to have a job ; to work ; 
to wait (tons.o.); to serve (• s.o., *; 
to render a service (* to s.o., a to, 
stand up (. for s.o.) | ^jVI r-u- to till or 
cultivate the soil; ij^ ^\^jji~ 4^v- (At- 
damatin katiratan) he rendered him many 
services; o-ii ^^j ^u- [rikaba) to 
be at s.o.'s beck and call; ^L«. |>a>. 
j^ {ma0liha) to serve s.o.'s interests; 
jj-l,UJI ^j^ (qudddaa) to celebrate Mass 
(Chr.) II to employ, hire (• s.o.), en- 
gage the services (> of s.o.); to give 
work (• to 8.O.), provide work (• for) 
X to employ, hire, take on (. s.o., J for, engage the services (J . of s.o. for; to put in operation, operate (» 
e.g., a public utility); to employ, use 
(a, J for), make use, avail o.s. (* 
of, J for a purpose) 

j»a^ kadam servants, attendants 

*^JJ~ kidma pi. ^i^ kidam, -di a service 
(rendered); attendance, service; opera- 
tion; office, employment, occupation, 
job; work I ,^ l.iA j in the service of ; ^-i^ j at your service; UJiJ! i.j^ 
ikidmatan) in the interest of truth, for 
the sake of truth; i;_,SC_JI 4-4,1:1 ('aikariya) 
military service; i;jU-"^l l,Ji^\ {ijidriya) 
conscription, compulsory service; i-ai.'l 
*ij-" ("•rriyo) secret service (pol.); 
j^loill l^jji- k. al-quddda celebration of 
Mass {Chr.) 


^\j^ kadddm pi. * manservant^ servant, 
attendant; woman servant, female do- 
mestic servant, maid 

I«ia»- kaddma attendance, service; 
employmenbt occupation, office, job 

<4la>- kadddma pi. -at woman servant, 
female domestic servant, maid 

j^ai: takdim work, occupation or duty 
of an employment agent (|*JJ£ mukaddim 
see below) | fSi^\ i_j:S^ makiab at-t. labor 
office, employment bureau 

*Ijl;«:;^1 iatikddm (putting iato) oper- 
ation; use, utilization; employment, hir- 
ing (of an employee); service, occupation, 
position, job 

piU- kddim pi. a\j^ kudddm, <.a^ 
kadama domestic servant, help; man- 
servant; woman servant; employee; 
attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.) 

<4jLji- kddima woman servant; female 
domestic servant, maid; woman at- 

^^U- kddimltfa status of a servant 

pjOji makdum pi. -un, riljt maka* 
dim" master, employer 

<,jjj^ makdufna mistress, lady (of 
the house), woman employer 

ILajAJ^ makdumlya status of th.e 
master or employer 

j.AJi mukaddim pi . ■ w» employment 

. -i , V-- muatakdim pi. -un employer; -" 
mustakdam (colloq. musUikdim) pi. -un 
employee, official 

o-i*- 111 to befriend (. s.o.), make friends (. 
with a.o.); to associate socially (• with) 

oJ^ji- kidn pi. uIa»-I akddn (intimate) 
friend, companion, confidant 

'jX^ kadin (intimate) friend, com- 
panion, confidant 

jjO*- jcidiw, t^jj'^ kttdaivfi khedive 
ijji-^ kidiwi khedivial 

IJU- X to submit, subject o.s. 

^JUu—* mustakdi* submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

Jijji>- hi^mf pi. ^jl^ ka4dr%f* (spinning) 

Sjj^ Arudru/J twbinate, toplike 

jJU kadafa i {kaif) to hurl away (», ^ 

'liiJ. mikdafa sling, slingshot, catapult 

i}j»- kaiala u (kadi, oV^ ftirfWn) to leave, 
abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the 
lurch (• or jt s.o.); to stay behind; to 
disappoint; pass. X:u^t2a to fail, suffer a 
setback, meet with disappointment III to 
leave, abandon, forsake, desert^ leave 
in the lurch (« s.o.) VI to let up, flog. 
grow slack, languish, wane» decrease, 
fade, grow feeble VII to be left in the 
lurch; to be helpless; to be defeated; to 
meet with disappointment 
o'^X^ kidldn disappointment 

J^ljc takddui fatigue, languor, weak- 
ness, feebleness; relaxation, lesaening of 
tension; disagreement, dissent, disunion 

Jljjc'l inkiddl forsakenness, deserted- 
ness, abandonment; defeat 

Jdliu« mutakdiH languid, weak, ex- 
hausted, spent, effete 

jX^ X to submit, subject o.s. 

•IJli.::^! istikdd* subservience, submis- 
siveness, aervility 

A^-.-. mustakdi^ submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

_^ karra i-^ij j^ karir) to murmur, bubble, 
gurgle, purl (of running water) ; to 
ripple, trickle; to snore; — ib^^* jjj*- 



kurur) to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to 
the ground, prostrate o.s. | ^j^\ Jp ji- 
to fall to the ground; 4jJj j-.j ji~ {baina 
yadaihi) he prostrated himself befor© 
him; *^Ji c^ ^ {inhUi qadamaihi) h& 
fell at his feet 

jjif- karir purl, murnour, ripple {of 

*iSj^ fcari'a a {tj^ hir*) to evacuate th© 
bowels, defecate 

*j>- hur* and » |j>- hard* excrement, 

uUl^ hurdadn* Khurasan (province in 
NE Iran) 

't-yL karaba i {karb) to destroy^ wrecks 
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste 
(*; — karibc a (^1^ kardb) to 
be or become destroyed, ruined, waste^ 
go to ruin, fall apart, disintegrate II to 
devastate, lay waste, destroy, wreck, 
demolish, ruin, lay in ruins (a 
IV = II; V to be or become destroyed, 
ruined, waste, go to ruin, fall apart, dis- 

^j>^ karb destruction, devastation 

<^jP- kurb hole; eye of a needle; anus 

._.yi karib destroyed, demolished, 
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated, 
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruin- 
ed, out of order 

*ij»- kirba pi. vj^ kirc^ (site of) 
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure 

*ij»- karba, kurba irreligion, lawless- 

Aijt^ kurba pi. i^j>- kurab hole; eye 
of a needle ; anus 

Aij^ kariba (site of) ruins 

i_j!j> karab ruin, ruination; state of 
destruction or dilapidation; desolation; 
(pi. *jj»-i akribo) (site of) ruins 

'<i]j3^ kardba pi. -at, ^[;^ kard'ib^ dis- 
integrating structure, ruin, ruins 

jLtj*:- karbdn, kirbdn destroyed, wrecked, 
demolished, devastated, waste; ruined, 
broken, out of order 

•~^^y^ Utkrib p], -at devastation, de- 
struction, wrecking, demolition; sabotage 

^^j^ J^ 'amal iakrlbl act of sabotage 

t-»jU- kdrib annihilator, destroyer 

<^jie. mukarr^ pi. -un annihilator, 
destroyer; saboteur 

<^j^ mukrib annihilator, destroyer 

^i-j-jj*- Jwrrilft (coll.; n. un. ») carob, locust; 
carob bean, locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

Mjj^ karrUba pi. -at kharouba, & dry 

measure {Eg.; = V„ ^4* = .129 1) 

^^ karbaSa to scratch ; to scrawl, scribble 

J^jj,j^ karbui pi. ^/iily- kardbiP {9yr.) 

O C^lLijifi- mukarbaidi graf^ti 

Uij^ karbafa to throw into disorder, dis- 
arrange, confuse (a 

ijij*- karbaqa to perforate, riddle {*; 
to spoil, mar (a 
^JiJi^ karbaq hellebore {bot.) 

Cjjp- karata u {kart) to pierce, bore, perforate 
(m, make a hole {m in) 

Cjyi- kurty kart pi. oj^l akrdtt Cjjj>^ 
Jpirui hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye, 

C*ij^ jcirnt experienced, practiced^ 
skilled; guide 

c^j»- kartU rhinoceros 

rj^ karaja u {rfj^ kuruj) to go out, walk 
out; to come out {^ of), emerge ((>• 
from); to drive or ride out, go out (in a 
vehicle); to flow out, exude, effuse; to go 
away, depart, leave, retire; to protrude. 



project, stick out; to leave (j-; 
to dismoiint, alight, diaembark (j^ 
from), get out, step out (j^ of); to 
emanate, issue, arise, originate, result 
{^ from); to draw away, segregate, 
separate, secede, dissent {jt. from), dis- 
agree (jt with); to deviate, depart (je. 
from an arrangement, from a prin- 
ciple); to be an exception {je. to); to be 
outside a given subject {^y-), go beyond a 
topic {jf-), exceed {j* a topic); to be 
alien {^y to), be extraneous (ja from), 
not to belong (j» to), be not included 
ijs- in), have nothing to do with {jsr); 
jt- rj^ "^ it is limited to . . ., it is nothing 
but...; to go forth (into battle); to 
attack ^Jp a.o.,, rise, fight (J« 
against); to rebel, revolt (J« against); to 
violate, break, infringe (Jp a rule, a 
regulation); •_.> <lt ^j>- to come up 
to 8.0. with ..., confront b.o. with ...; to 
get out, bring out, take out {^^ s.o.); to 
turn out, ouat, dislodge {^ s.o.}; to lead 
away, dissuade (jc- •_.» b.o. from); to 
find out, discover (ty | ^'1 jt w^ 
(kaff) to be derailed, run off the track 
(train) II to move out, take out, dislodge 
(• B.C., >; to turn out, oust, expel, 
eviot, drive out (• s.o., a ; to remove, 
eliminate (• s.o., a; to exclude, 
except (a; to train (* s.o., ^ in a 
skill, and the like); to educate, bring up 
(• s.o.); to distill (*}; to pull out, 
extract (# a.tb.); to gather, deduce, infer 
(*; to explain, interpret, expound, 
elucidate (a IV to move out, take 
out, get out, bring out, dislodge {t s.o., 
A; to unload (a, disembark, 
detrain, etc. { s s.o. , e.g., troops) ; to 
turn out, oust {a s.o.); to emit, send out 
(a, e.g., electric waves); to stick 
out (a e.g., the tongue); to fish out (a from the pocket); to bring out into 
the open, make public (a; to 
remove, extract (a; to eliminate 

(a; to expel, evict, exile, expatriate 
(» s.o. , j^ from a country); to dismiss, 
fire, remove (s s.o., ^ from an office); 
<ijj ^>- ^ry*' {tarwatihi) to rob s.o. of 
his property, dispossess, expropriate s.o. ; 
to give off, sound, emit (a, e.g., 
a tone; said of a musical instrument); 
to set forth, state, express, utter, voice 
(a an opinion); to break (L^j rlhan 
wind); to educate, bring up {« s.o.); to 
train (» s.o.); to stage, produce (a a play; 
theat.); to bring out, make, shoot {^ijjj 
riwdyatan a film, said of a director); to 
except, exclude (a, ^ from); to 
pull out, extract (a; to select (a V to be educated; to be trained (J 
in a school, college, also j.*; J in a field); 
to graduate (J from a school, from a 
college, also j-) VI to part company, 
separate; to disengage, disassociate, 
withdraw from one another; to cede, 
assign, transfer, make over (J ^ to 
s.o.) X to get out, move out, remove (a, ^ from); to take out, draw (a, ^ from); to pull out, extract 
(a, ^ from); to mine, extract, 
recover ( a mineral resources) ; to win, 
gain, moke (a a product, ^ from); to 
copy, excerpt (a, ^ from a book or 
document) ; to derive, draw, deduce, 
figure out, compute {^ a from); to 
elicit (a, e.g., astonishment, j.- from 
8.O.); to find out, discover {a 

rj>^ karj expenditure, outlay, ex- 
pense(a), coats;land tax; appropriate 
or suitable, that which is s.o. 's due, 
which s.o. deserves^ which s.o. needs; 
(eg.) ration <food); (pi. oU-j^ kurujdt) 
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pi. lace; 
trimmings [ «il>^^ Iaa that's what you 
need, what you deserve; iiJLLi rj>- k. 
al'VUi&naqa one who deserves to be 

rji^ hurj pi. 1*-^ kiraja saddlebag, 



i^j^ karja pK karajdt exit, departure ; 
protruaion, protuberance, projection, sa- 
lient part; {eg.) funeral 

^[f»' kardj tax; kharaj, land tax (lal. 

^_fr]J*' Icardji of or pertaining to land 
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and 
cultivable area 

^\j^ kurdj (coll.; n. un. ;, -pi. -St) skin 
eruption; tumor, abBcesa 

rjj»- kuriij exit; egression, emergence ; 
departure; exodus; emigration; raid, 
foray, sortie (J« against), attack, as- 
aault (J* on) \ ^\ jn ^jj*^ (tf^tP) 
derailment (of a train) 

f^j*- kirrlj pi. -un graduate (of a 
school, college, or university) | Cz-^j^'^ j^'j^ 
w|_^l mu'taTfiar al-k. al-'arab Congress of 
Arab Graduates (a supra-national or- 
ganization of university graduates ad- 
vocating a unified Arab world) 

wjf- makraj pi. rj^ makdrip (place 
of) exit; way out (of a difficult situation), 
outlet^ escape, loophole, shift, dodge, 
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O cath- 
ode {el.) I J»j^' TTj^^ If- phonetics 

^__jjc takrij education^ training (in 
schools, colleges); raising, upbringing, 
rearing (of children); extraction; deriva- 
tion, deduction; interpretation, exegesis 

rr]j*-^ ikfd) taking out, moving out, 
removal; unloading, disembarkment. dc- 
trainment; emission; moving, carting 
away, hauling off; evacuation; publica- 
tion, publicizing, bringing before the 
public; extraction, removal; elimination; 
dismissal, removal (from an office); oust- 
ing, expulsion, eviction, expatriation, 
banishment (from a country); excretion 
{biol,)i finding out, discovery, figuring 
out; training, formation, education ; 
direction, production, staging (motion 
pictures, theater) | j-[^Vl JjJ {tatmlld) 

to have the, direction .(motion pictures, 
theater) ; . . . r- [^ I j- directed by . . . 
(motion picture) 

r-J^ takarmj graduation (from a 
school or college) 

rj Ijc takdruj separation , disaesocia- 
tion^ disengagement, (mutual) with- 

^\ji^:u^\ isiikrdj taking out, moving out, 
pulling out, removal; withdrawing; ex- 
traction, derivation, gaining (of in- 
dustrial products, etc.), mining, re- 
covery (of mineral resources) ; prepara- 
tion of an extract; excerpting, copying; 
deduction, inference ; solution (of a 

p-jU- kdri-j outer, outside, outward, 
exterior; external, foreign; outside, ex- 
terior (n,); foreign country or countries; 
quotient {arith.)i kdrija (prep.) outside, 
out of; U-jU^ kdrijan outside | j* W-j'^ 
outside of, apart from; rj^^ J abroad, 
in foreign countries ; outside ; r j LJ- 1 Jt 
abroad, to foreign countries; to the out- 
side, outward, out 

<j^jU-'l £1 Khdrga (to\%'n in central 
Egypt, in Kharga oasis) 

jH-jL*- kdriji outer, out- (in compounds), 
outside, outward, exterior, external; 
foreign; nonresident | o^jU- ajL» i^iydda) 
policlinic ; L»-j LA'' 1 Jj Ij j ministry of 
foreign (external) aflfairs, foreign min- 
istry ; (jTj'^ -^=*^ {tilmid) a student 
not living at a boarding school, a day 

Tj\}^ kawdri-p the Khawarij , Kha- 
rijitea (the oldest religious sect of Islam); 
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels 

^yi mukrij pi. -un (screen or stage) 

rjii- mukraj excerpt, extract (from 
a book); o'u*-j,i£ excretions {bioL) 



r-ji-i. mutakarrij pi. -un graduate 
( j or ^> of ft school or colkge) 

rji-^^-* muaktkraj pi. -at extrftot; 
excerpt {^ from), partial oopy (^> of) 

j^j^ karkara to snore 

^j^ karida a to be a virgin^ be untouched* 
innocent, chaste 

iJbji^ karida pi. all^ kard'id*, j^*- 
Xnirwf virgin ; unbared pearl 

'«^ kurda scrap metal, scrap iron; pi. 
otj.^ kurdawdt notiona, smallwares; 
small goods, smalls, miacellaneoua small 
articles; {eg. also) novelties, fancy goodfl 
for ladies 

j>-^ kurdaji dealer in miscellaneous 

Jj^ kurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot 

ij^jp- kardcU (coll.; n. un. •) mustard seeds; 

jj^ karaza i uto pierce, bore (* 

jj>^ karaz (coll. ; n. un. :) pearls 

Jjjt mikraz pi. Jjli maJsariz* awl; 

j\Jfi- mikraz awl; punch 

i^>- kariaa a (fcoroa) to be dumb, mute; to 
become silent, keep silent, hold one's 
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence, 
gag (. a.o.) 

^^ karas dumbness, muteness 

jj-j^l ajcTos^f f. •U^ karsd'*, pi. ^y^ 
kurs, ol-j>^ kuradn dumb, mute 

jL-;*:- kar^dn* dumb, mute 

*bL.j^ karasdn, aj L-/- karaadjia concrete 
(b6ton) I O **J— iiL-j*- {muaatiaha) 
armored (or reinforced) concrete 

JijJl^ kurHf (coll.; n. un. 1) pi. 
fcardit/" artichoke 


^jt^ kara^ u {kar^) to guess, estimate (*; to conjecture, surmise (a, 
form conjectures (* about); to tell an 
untruth, a fabehood, to lie V to fabricate 
lies (J^ against s.o.); to raise false 
accusations ( Jp against a.o.) 

^j^jtL JctTp, kurf pi. (1) Lyt kir^dn, 
kur0n earring 

^ly^ karrds pi, Un liar, slanderer, 

IfjM- ^rafa u t (karf) to pull off, strip (a 
leaves from a tree); to turn, lathe, shape 
with a lathe {* wood, metal); to exag- 
gerate, boast, brag, lie; — u {eg.) to cut 
into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice 
(a meat, carrots, etc.) II (e^^.) to cut into 
small pieces, mince, chop (m VII to 
be turned, be lathed, be shaped with a 
lathe; to join, enter (j, ilU j /» silk 
an organization, a community), af- 
filiate (j, •iiL J with an organization, 
a community); to penetrate (j or 
into) ; to plunge headlong ( j into), 
embark rashly (j upon); to labor, slave, 
toil I *BLJ1 j J^^jc'l {bukd') to break into 

^j^ karp pullingoff (of leaves); j>> 

jlxjjl ^j^ liii^ see Ujj; turning, turnery 

i*|^ Jjarrof pi. •Un turner, lather; 
braggart, bluffer, storyteller 

^\j^ kird^ tumor's trade, turnery, 
art of turning 

'^\j^ karrdfa skirt {ayr.) 

^Ljj*- karlta pi. ^[/- kard'if^^ J-^A 
kurut map, chart 

51^ mikrafa, makrafa pi. iyLit ma^ 
kdrif lathe 

Xk>j\^ kdrifa pi. -at map, chart 

^jjfi- makriit cone {maih.) ; conic 

^jjfi- makruii conic 



iJ^Jfj^ karfUS, <^j^ karfuia pi. ,j±Jpt^ 
kardiiS* cartridge; lead (of a pencil); 
cartouche (arch.) ; daybook 

jLi^ Jcarfdl oata 

l>jj»^ kurfum pi. ^{^ JparAplm* proboaois, 
truztk (of the elephant) ; hose 

T-tk;^' oZ-^f^um Khartoum (capital of 
the Sudanese Republic) 

,>i#l^ Jpara^in* a kind of earthworm 

J_U[^ ^rdjint wormlike, vermiform 

^^j^ kartif rhinoceros 

^jt^ kanCa u {kur', itl^ fcara'a) and kari'a 
a {kara') to droop, be or become alack, 
limp, flabby; to be or become languid, 
Boft, spineless^ yielding VII do. VIII to 
invent, devise, contrive (*; to 
create, originate (* 

9-j^ Jfori* and asj*- JparV soft, languid, 
yielding, spineleBS, devoid of energy, 

f-jj>- kinoa' castor*oil plant, palma 
Christi (Ricinus communis; bot) 

f lj«:.l iktird' pi. -at invention 

f J^ muktari' pi. -un inventor 

*• j^ miiktara' pi, -at invention 

Jiy^ karija a {karaj) to dote, be aenile and 
feeble-minded; to drivel, talk foolishly 

uy=- karaj feeble- mindedness, dotage, 
senility; childishneae (of an old man) 

\Jij»- karij and o^j»- karfdn feeble- 
minded, doting; childish; dotard 

tJujii- karif autumn, fall 

^jiJ^ karifi autumnal 

"-jjy^ karuf pi. J \jj^ kirdf, ii^*^ I 
afert'/a, OU,*:. Jpirfdn young sheep, lamb, 
yearling; wether 

^^ kurdfa pi. -at superstition; fable, 
fairy tale 

Jjy- kurdfi fabulous, fictitious, leg- 

lijk- makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle, m 

boah " 

>J*iJ^ takrif folly, delusion; foolish 
talk, drivel, twaddle, bosh, buncombe 

ijijk- mukarrif childish, foolish; (pi. 
-fifi) prattler, chatterbox, windbag; char- 
latan I 

jlj^ karfaSa to shuffle, mix (j» 

<tyj^ karfuSa pi. J^]j^ kardfiS* card 
of low value, discard (in card playing) < 

3j^ karaqa i u (karq) to tear, rend, tear 1 

apart (a; to make a hole (a in); to 
perforate, pierce, bore (a; to 
penetrate (a, break, pass (a through ; to traverse, cross, transit (a, 
a oountry); to violate, impair, infringe 
(a, encroach (a upon); to break | 

(a a vow, and the like), commit a breach 
of (a); to exceed the ordinary, be un- 
usual, extraordinary, unprecedented, un- j 
heard-of | •jUJl j^ to go beyond what 
is ordinary or customary IV to lurk, lie 
in wait V and VII to be torn, be rent, be 
pierced, be broken VIII to pierce (a % ; to cut, break, pass (a through, 
penetrate (a; to traverse, cross, 
transit (a, travel through (a); 
to exceed (a e.g., a limit), go beyond (a) I *ma\ ■ J^t (masdmi'ahii) to i 

shrill in a.o.'s ears 

3j»- karq tearing, rending, laceration; 
piercing, boring, perforation ; penetration ; 
disruption; breakthrough; traversion, 
crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pi. 
3jj^ kuriiq) bole, aperture, opening | 
j»LJ! ^'i\ 3jt^ k. al-amn al-'dmm violation 
of public security; oliUt 3j^ offense 
against common usage, violation of 
mores; ^1^1 Jp J^l ^1 {ittasa*a) the 
rent is beyond repair 



i3/^ ffurq and tjj^ Ipurqa awkwardness, 
olumsinees; stupidity | ^^tjl J Jji- (ro'y) 
'Stupidity; folly, madness; j jjj-'l j^ 
... 01 ijlpl it would b* v&ry unwise 
to ... 

UjT- jeirga pi. J^ kiroq tatter, shred; 
rag; scrap (of paper); polishing oloth; 
eraser (cloth) 

3ji-\ alfratf, f. Mji- karqcT', pi. j^ 
j/urq clumsy, awkward; Btupid; irregular; 
illegal, illicit, unlawful 

iiyt- maipraqa trickery, sleight of hand, 
legerdemain, hooiis-pocus, swindle 

ij\je- ma^iSirvf a kind of pastry (fun.) 

Jlj!>.l ilftirSq penetration; piercing, 
disruption; traversion, aroesing, transit 

jjU- iSriq and (I^LII or) IiUI <jjU- 
exceeding the oustomary, unusual, extra- 
ordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of; 
pi. ij]y- kawdri^ preternatural phe- 
nomena, miracles; that which tranaoends 
the oonceivahle or the rational | JjU- 
*m^\ supernatural; ol*jU«ii <3j[^ i- 
ai-mufddafSt miraculous ooinoidencea 

JjoC mu^ptaraq passage, passageway 

fjii- iarama i Qearm) and II to pierce (*, make a hole or holes (* in); to 
perforate (a Til to be pierced, be 
riddled, be torn; to b« deranged, un- 
settled, disorganized; to come to an 
end, run out, peter out, get lost VIU to 
destroy, annihilate (< s-o.); to carry 
off, carry away (• s.o., of death); to 
break (ur^i^l the ranks), pass through (a) 

Aj^ kann pi. pj_/- jcuriim gap, blank 
(e.g., in a roanuscript, or the like) 

fji- Ifurm hole | •j;'^' fj^ i- al-ibra 
eye of the needle 

'<.\jA j/arrdma drill, bit, auger, gimlet; 
punch, perforator 

Pj^\ akram^ having a perforated nasal 

jfji: takrim piercing, boring, drilling; 
perforation; punching; lacemaking, lace- 

u^' lakritna lace, lacework, open- 
work, filigree 

f]/^^ inkirdm state of unsettlement, 
disturbance, disorganization, derange- 
ment I Lijl^l J f]Ji\ (tauVbun) disturb- 
ance of equilibrium 

rjjA majftiiM defective, incomplete 
(e.g., a manuscript) 

fyt Tnujwram perforated; done in 
openwork, in fiUgree 

4^U^ Jfunndia pi. -at (tr.) harrow 

•^jiji- Ifumib oarob, locust; oarob bean, 
locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

Jj^ ffimig pi. Jj[/^ ffarani^ young hare, 

(jj^ kirva' castor-oil plant, palma Chrieti 
(Kioinos communis; hot.) 

^ Icaaa u to pierce, transfix (« s.o.); to 
stab (« S.O., L-> with) Till to pierce, 
transfix (• s.o., <-i with) 

^ kazz pi. jjj^ kuzuz silk, silk fabric 

^^ fcazara u to look askance (• at s.o.), give 
S.O. (•) a sidelong glance 

•jjJ-' I J* iahr al-iaiar the Caspian Sea 

jl;>». Jfaizurdn pi. jj\:^ kaySzir* cane, reed; 
rattan; bamboo 

4J \jj^*- kaizurdna cane, stick 
(J*, kam'a a (kaz') to cut, sever (* 
^tji- haa'bal idle talk, bosh 

'Lfjii- Jfuza'bdta pi. -at idle talk, bosh; 
joke, jest, hoax; fib, yam; cock and bull 



^^ji^ Jpazaf pottery, earthenware; poroelain, 
china; ceramics 

j^ kazafi (made of) porcelftin; 
porcelaneous, porcelain, china (adj.) 

lJ'>^ kazxdf dealer in chinaware; 

lj\)f- kiZfdfa potter's trade, pottery 

^ijj»^ kazaqa i to pierce, stab, traiufix {*, » 
8.O.,; to drive, ram {^jVl j " into the ground) ; to tear, rend, rip 
apart (> II to tear, rend, rip apart 
(jk V and VII pass of I and II 

Jyi kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a 

Jjj'ij^ kdzuq pi. ^^j]y- kauidziq* post, 
stake, pole; dirty trick | Jjjl>- li* that's 
tough luck! 

'lij^ look up alphabetically 

J>* fcazala % {kazl) to cut off, sever (a; 
to hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, 
keep (a 8.O., ijo from) VIII to cut off, cut 
short, end abruptly (a; to shorten, 
abridge, abbreviate (a; to stand 
alone (lj with an opinion) 

Jlj^l iktizdl abridgment, abbreviation; 
shorthand, stenography 

Jj^ muktazil stenographer 

^y- kazama i [kazm) to string, thread (a 
pearls) | *iJl ^yi- {anfahU) to pierce the 
nasal septum (of a camel) and insert the 
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o. 
subservient to one's will 

^1^ kizdm^ **l^ kizdma pi. rl^ ka* 
zd'im^ nose ring 

Lf]}*- kuzdmd lavender (bot.) 

oy- kazana u {kazn) to store, stock, Lay up, 
hoard, amass, accumulate; to keep 
secret, keep (a a secret) II and VIII to 
store, stock, lay up, warehouse (a; 
to store up, accumulate (a; to dam 

(a}; to put in safekeeping, keep (a 

oy- kaxn storing ; accumulation, 
hoarding, amassing ; storage, warehousing 

*S)p- kazna treasure house; safe, 
coffer, vault; wardrobe, looker; cup- 

iilj>. Jfixdna pi. -dt^ ^[^ haSin* 
treasure house; vault, coffer, safe; 
treasury, treasury department (of an 
official agency), any of&oe for tbe 
deposit and disbunement of funds; 
locker, wardrobe, closet; cupboard; li- 
brary I ^IjAJI '^\j^ k, ad-daula and 4^1^ 
Ulx {'dmma) public treasury, exchequer; 
mIiII Z\^ k. al-lalj ioebox, refrigerator; 
i..::^! 4([^ A;. al-ktUttb bookcase; library; 
"L^j.^*- 4il^ {hifu^ya) private library; 
^"sdl iil^ wardrobe, closet, locker 

ijj>. kazina pi. ^^I^ fcazd'in* treasure 
house; public treasury, exchequer; treas- 
ury, treasury department (of an official 
agency), any office for the deposit and 
disbursement of funds; cashier's offioe; 
vault, coffer, safe; cashboz, till (of a 
merchant) j^^U-'i ojl^l {kd^fa) (formerly) 
the Royal Privy Purse (Ir.); iJjJl Cjjti- 
k. ad-daula public treasury, exchequer; 
l-x^i) <:jy^, ■•u<«[; ijjij o^ cash register 

ijlyi> kazzdn pi. -dt, ^j[>*- kaxdzin* 
dam; reservoir; basin, sump, pool; 
storage tank (also for oil); — (pi. *wn) 
storehouseman, warehouseman 

ojjt- makzan pi. dj\jt makdzin* 
storeroom, storehouse; depoaitcoy; stock- 
room, storage room; depot, magazine, 
warehouse ; store, shop, departmcDt 
store; oy^\ al-maJfzan the Makhzan, 
the Moroccan government (formerly : 
governmental finance department; Mor,)\ 
ij jjl jjjfi m. adwiya drugstore ; jji 
jIju^VI m. al-i^ddr shipping room (com.); 
^^J^\ oyt m. oZ-'a/i trunk (of an auto- 



ijyfi- makzani being under gorernment 
control or administration, belonging to 
the gOTemment {Mot.) \ "^-jjfi- i^k^^ 
{amlak) govemment land {Mor.) 

Jjlit mdfcdzini pi. -lya native gendarme 

ujlit majpazin*'. Jj^I OjLJt m. af-fariq 
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut 

^/fjj^ makzanjl storehouaeman, ware- 

^tiij». kazanddr, kaznadar treasurer 

^^ iakzln storage, storing, ware- 
houflicg; storing up, accumulation; dam- 

ujU' kdsin pi. 4jyi- kaxana, u[;»- 
kuzzdn treasurer 

Ojjic makzun stored, stored up, 
deposited, warehoused; (pi. wU) stock, 
supply, stock in trade 

jj^ kaziya a {kizy, kazan) to be or become 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible; 
(<i]y- kazdya) to be ashamed (^ of); — 
fcazd i to disgrace, dishonor, discredit, 
put to shame (• s.o.); to shame, abash, 
embairass (• s.o.) lY to humiliate, de- 
grade, dishonor (» s.o.); to shame, put to 
shame (* s.o.) X to be ashamed 

(fyf> liizyt kazan shame, disgrace, 
ignominy | 1^^^ Ij ya la-Ukazd what a 
shame ! 

uljj*^ kasydn^t f- ^ij^ kazyd, pi. lilj»- 
^axdyd ashamed, shamefaced, abashed; 
shameful, disgraceful, scandalous, in- 
famous, base, mean, vile 

iljjfi makzdh pi. }\je- makazin a shame- 
ful thing, a disgrace; reason for shame; 
pl. shameful things, disgraceful acts, 

^yt- majcziy ashamed, shamefaced, 
abashed; embarrassed, confused; ji^l 
the Devil 

^ mukzin disgraceful, shameful, 
scandalous, infamous 

4jjj& mukziya pl. -di disgraceful act, 


*■ Jfoeaa (let pers. perf. kaaistu) a (L^ 
kiasat 4^1-*- kas&sa) to be mean, base, 
vile; to become less, decrease, diminish, 
depreciate, fall in value; — kaaaa u to 
lessen, reduce, diminish (* II to 
lessen, reduce, diminish (* 

^j^ kas8 lettuce (Lactuca sativa; 

kassa (n. un.) head of lettuce 

kasdsa meanness. 


X,^ kiaaa and <>' 
baseness, vileness 

^ ^'l-r- JcaeM pl. *L.*-i akissd'* mean, 
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible, 

4 I ,m- kaaisa pl. ^l-«=- kaa&'U^ mean 
tricky infamy 

U^ huord a (faw') to chase away (• s.o.); — 
\^ ]sae%*a a to be driven away, make 
off I C* *- kaei'ta beat it ! ecram ! dJi L^l 
ikaa' ilaika do. 

L^l a]f6a*^ baser, meaner, more des- 
picable; weaker 

'^U- Jfdai* spumed, rejected, outcast; 
low, base, vulgar, despicable, contempt- 
ible; disgraceful, shameful, scandalous, 
infamous; futile, vain (attempt); weak, 
feeble, languid 

^<^- -^ kastaka indisposition 

iL-jft mukastak indisposed, imwell, 

j.^ kasira a {kttar, jL^ ka^ar, »jL^ kasdra, 
b^j..**' kusran) to incur a loss, suffer 
damage; to lose, forfeit (>; to go 
astray, lose one*a way, get lost; to 
perish II to cause loss or damage (• to 
s.o.); to do harm (• to s.o.); to destroy. 



niin (» 8.0,); to corrupt, deprave (• s.o.) 
IT to cause & loss (• to s.o.); to shorten, 
cut, reduce (a X to grudge (Jp 
or j. 8.0. >, envy s.o. (J* or j) the 
possession of (a) 

_,-^ Jfuar loss, damage 

0|_;.-A j;u#dn lote, damage, forfeiture; 
decline, deterioration ; depravity, pro- 

SjL.*^ kaedra pi. yi—*:. kaa&'ii* loss, 
damage; pi. losses, casualties (^ in; 
mir) I SjLj;. L what a pity! too badl 

Ol^-*^ kasrdn {eg.) loser; aflfected by 
damage or loss 

^^U- tJair lost, hopeless; involving 
substantial losses; loeer; depraved, cor- 
rupted; profligate, disreputable person, 

j^ mukaaair causing damage, harm- 
ful, noxious, injurious, detrimental 

b^ kaiafa i {kasf, Ji^.^ tusuf) to sink, 
sink down, give way, cave in, disappear, 
go down ; to be eclipsed (moon) ; — % (kasf) 
to cause to sink, cause to give way | 
^j*^! 4j ^1 .,1, i- k.lldhubihit-aria God 
made him sink into the ground, God 
made the ground swallow him up 
VII to sink, sink down, go down 

%jA..ji- kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace, 
shame ; inferiority | U-»- |*U> sdma 
kasfan to humiliate, abase, degrade (• s.o.) 

J>j^^ kuauf occultation (aa/rtm.); 
lunar eclipse 

^ kaiia % u {kaii) to enter {J 

^Li«^ kiSaS vermin, insects 

i*^ II to lignify, become woody or wood- 
like; to line, fac« or case with wood, to 
panel, wainscot {> V to lignify, 
become woody or woodlike; to become 
bard, stiff, Arm, rigid; to stiffen, freeze 
(e.g., with panic) 

L--l*^ kaSab pi. ujLI*:-! akSdb wood, 
lumber, timber |»Ly'^l l.m.a k. al-anbii/d' 
guaiacum wood, lignum vltae 

<J^ kcuSaba pi. -at, *-j[1^\ akSdb piece 
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, 
board | c-*II **i*. k. al-mayyit coffin; 
^y-il 5—^ b- oX-maarah stage {of a 
theater), ^^1 '*/*- J* on the "boards" 

^J^->- kaSabl wooden, woody, ligneous, 
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in 

t_jLl«i- kaSSdb pi. • lumber merchant 

•^^-^^ takSib paneling, wainscoting 

La^ iakiiba pi. -at, <^\j^ takaSib* 
barrack, wooden shed 

L--lit takaiMtb stiffness, rigor, rigidity ; 

k^JL^ai* mxtiakaSi-ib frozen, rigid; stiff, 

bard, firm 

,i^ij- kuit pi. .: 

- kuSui javelin 

*^U*1*:- kaSkdS (coll. ; n. un. I) pi. ,^j^\lJ~ 
ka&dkiS^ P<*PPy 

^JL^Lji- knJkaia to clank, clatter, rattle; to 

'* "i^^. N. kaikaia pi. -at noise; clank, 
clatter, rattle; nistfe, rustling; crash 

<t.i^^j- (= U,-iJtf ) rattle (toy) 

sj Ll^ kxt^ra leftover (of a meal) ; offal, 
refuse ; a discard, a worthless thing 

•J:^ koAa'a a {f'j^-^ kuSu') to be submissive, 
be humble; to bumble o.s.; to fade 
(voice) I •_,-«-) mjL^ (ba^arihi) to lower 
one's eyes II to humble, reduce to sub- 
mission (» s.o.) V to display humility; 
to be humble; to be moved, be touched 

f-j^-*- kuiu' submissiveneas, submis- 
sion, humility 

*iU- kdii' pi. 

kaia'a submissive, 


JiLiji. kiM/ rarious fruits, stewed and soaked 
in sirup or rose water, compote 

jSCi». Iptilc&T coarwly ground grain, grits 
Xij^iLJ- kaikariia scab, slough, scuif 
^1^ II to intozicat«, make drunk (• s.o.) 

flA kaJfm nose; mouth; vent, outlet 

*ji*J- kaiium pi. j^l^ kaylUfm' nose; 
gilla; aido pi. ^V^ noee 

ji*. AoJfuno « (Ij^tA Ifuluna) to be rough, 
coarse, crude; to be raw, uncut, un- 
polished II to roughen, coarsen, make 
crude (* Ill to be rude, uncivil, 
boorish (. to s.o.) V to display rough, 
rude, or coarse, manners; to be rough, 
uneven; to lead a rough life XU ji>i"^l 
ikiauiaiui to be rough, coarse, crude; to 
lead a rough life 

jlj. kaiin pi. iliLii^. kiiin rough, crude ; 
coarse (as opposed to ^Li nd^im)'^ rude, 
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life); 
hoarse, raucous (voice) | ^^1 J^ k. 
dl-JavM coarse to the touch, rough, un- 
even, wrinkled; jlUI jiJ- k. aljeidq 
uncouth, boorish; JyiiJI j^JU- ]f, tU-qiha 
thick-shelled; ^'1 ^^.l 0'™) ^^e 
strong sex . 

j!ji.\ akSan'. f. .biA kaJhiS; pi. j^ 
feuin rough, tough, harsh, rude, un* 

.Utfl <J-Aa*i<!' the vulgar, uneducated 

4^^i^ ]cuiCna roughness, coarseness; 
crudeness; rudeness 

^^ kaMya a (iaiy, itiji- iaiya) to fear, 
dread (• s.o., t, Jo for s.o. or, 
be afraid (> of) II to frighten, soaie, 
terrify, alarm (» s.o.) V = I; VUI to be 
embarrassed; to be ashamed 

4;^ yaiya fear, anxiety, apprehension | 
j> <~i^ Ipaiyaian min for fear of 

^^\ a/[id more timorous, more fearful; 
more to be feared, more frightening 

ul.'» Ja/yan', f. Lijt jfoiyd, pi. LLi»- 
kaSdyd timorous, timid, anxious, ap- 

^U. kdSin timorous, timid, anxious, 

u^ kaffa u to distinguish, favor (especially, 
before others), single out (. s.o.), bestow 
special honors (• upon s.o., in preference 
to others); to endow (^ • s.o. with), 
confer, bestow (^j • upon s.o.; to 
apportion, allot, assign, accord, give, 
dedicate, devote (.-« • to s.o., in 
preference to others) ; with 4«jLJ : to take 
possession (« of), demand (*; also 
J j: *, ^j^Aii- nafsahu); to be specifically 
associated (• with s.o.), be characteristic 
(. of 8.O.), be peculiar (. to); to apply 
in particular (* to), be especially valid 
(» for); to concern, regard (. s.o., >, 
have special relevance (» to), bear (» 
on) I 4ZiUju A0^^ (bi-'indyatihi) to devote 
one's attention to s.o., favor s.o. with 
one's attention; /"JU «-»i (bi-i-dikr) to 
make special mention of s.o. or; 

^ -^ 

(ajnx^^) I mention, among 

them, especially (with foil, ace); 'i l.u> 
^.aIc this does not concern me, this is 
none of my business II to specify, 
particularize, itemize (a; to spe- 
cialize (*, narrow, restrict (J a to); to designate, destine, set aside, 
earmark, single out (J * or . s.o. or 
for a purpose); to devote in particular, 
dedicate, assign (J », to); to allocate, 
allot, apportion (J * to); to ap- 
propriate (J * funds for); to reserve, 
hold, withhold (J » for); to tie 
down (^ • s.o. to a special field) V to 
specialize (J in, also lj or j, in a scientific 
field); to devote all one's attention 
(J to; to apply o.s. <J to), go in 
for (J); to be peculiar (tj to); to 


be ohoeeiit destined) earmarked (6 for) 
VIII to distinguiBh, favor (l^ a b.o. with), 
confer distinction (lj • upon fi.o. by); to 
devote, give, accord, afford («^ • to s.o., in preference to othen); to dedicate 
(cj • to 8.0., e.g.^ one's Bervicea); 
(with <.JJ) to take ezolusive posMseion 
(> of)» claim, demand (>, lay 
special claim (a to; alao <mJ6 *i ^JM^\ 
nafwhu); to be distinguished, be marked 
(<^ by); to possess alone, in distinction 
from oil others, have above others (uj, have the advantage over others 
{lj that); to be peculiar (<^ to); to 
concern, regard (lj, bear (u> on); to 
be pertinent, have relevance {lj to), 
have to do (*^ with); to be duly qualified, 
be competent, have jurisdiction {^^ in; 
e.g., an authority); to have as a special 
function or task {^^ 

^ja»- kapff lettuce (hot.) 

,jM^ ku^0 pi. ^La*. kifdf, ^L*«s.| 
akfidfy ^j^j"^*- kuf^ hut, shack, shanty, 

t^M^ ka99<^ jet of water 

^JA L**:- j:a^ interstice, interval , 
crevice, crack, gap 

i^Uitot ka^dfa crevice, crack, interval, 

<^<M.-f- ka^i^ pi. ,j^U«(^ ka^a'ip* 
special characteristic or quality, specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity 

La.-.ui*' kissi^n particularly, especially, 

^j^j-.»^ kupii^ specialness; L^j..^^ ha* 
pu^n especially, in particular, specifical- 
ly I ,j^j.^, o^j"^*- J *°*^ u<>-**- t> 
(with foil, genit.) as to, concerning, 
regarding, with respect to, ae regards; 
^Jf^^m^\ VXf and ^y^\ tiA j« in this 
connection, in this matter, in this 
respect, about this, concerning this; J# 
,j-y-J"'I and ^jj>yjti^\ 4j^j J* {vxijKi Uk.) 

especially, particularly, in particular, 


^^J..^i- kufutfi special; private, per- 

<^U««^ ha^d^ poverty, penury, priva- 
tion, destitution, want 

^j^»- \ aJfOfip* more special, more Bpeolfio | 
^jjt*-^\ J* especially; ,_^Vl j do. 

»Uwl1 akiffd'* intimate friends, con- 

jL^a^l ik^'i see 'i^t^ 

,jM^r^ tak^ specialization; specifica- 
tion, particularization, itemization; dea- 
ignatlon, destination (for a purpose); 
allotment, apportionment, allocation; 
reservation; (pi. -at) appropriation, fi- 
nancial allocation; credit | ^j^-^^'^ J* 
and (j^LpiO^I 4«-j Jp specifically 

^*,iiig taka^puf specialization (esp., in 
a scientific field) 

^ Lai^ \ ikiitSf pi. -d£ jurisdiction, 
competence; special province or domain, 
bailiwick (fig.); pi. prerogatives, privi- 
leges, monopolies; concessions {IiUem. 
Late); ,j^l.^^^)l\ {Cj\i} j'i duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; «/U 
^Ua:^'^! scope of competence, sphere of 
authority, jurisdiction, province, domain, 

^■^li^'-^^ ilptifia^i pi. -un specialist 

^U- kdfi§ special, particular; specific, 
peculiar ; relative, relevant, pertinent 
((.^ to), concerning (i.^; earmarked, 
designated, destined, set aside (<^ for); 
especially valid or true (*-> for), especially 
applicable (^ to), oharacteristic (e^ of); 
distinguished; private; exclusive, not 
public I 1^ *^\»- tJ>ij»r professional 
journal for...; *»UJ[j ^U^l Camm) the 
special and the general; high and low, 
all people ; ^U^ I k^-^l physician in 


<^U- Ifd^fa pi. j-'!^ t^wdffi* ercluaiv© 
property; private po6Ses8ion; specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity, cbaracterifitio, 
property, attribute; essence, intrinaio 
nature; leading personaJitiee, people of 
distinction, <#lJ^i the upper class, the 
educated; kd^fiotan and L^U bi-lc&ff^in 
especially, in particular | ^4— ^ji <#U- j 
/i Jp. anfusihim at the bottom of tbeir 
hearts, deep inside 

A^U- kStfiya pi. 'di, ^L»»- ka^&'ifi* 
specialty, particularity^ characteristic, 
peculiarity, property, special attribute, 
feature, trait, qualification; prerogative, 
privilege; jurisdiotion, competence 

*^j^ fcuwaiffa (dimin. of <^U- k&p^) 
one^s own business, private afifair | J«^>^ 
iSj*\ i-^_jA j he meddles in my private 


^j^ makfuf special 

^J^t^^ mujfa^pa^ chosen, set aside, ear- 
marked, designated, destined (J for); 
allotted, apportioned, allocated; — pi. 
■''I - ^'^ (financial) allocations; appropria- 
tions, credits; (daily) allowances; (food) 
rations | *JLi\ ol < a^ {i4dfiya) extra 
allowances; JM\ Cj\ m ai^ m. (U-malik civil 

j^z^ muhta^^ pertaining, pertinent, 
relevant, relative (^ to); duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; spe- 
cial; pi. oLaiit muhtoffiit competences | 
ILazj&l iIjLULI the competent authorities; 
^.rfiij^l J\jJi\ competent (or authoritative) 

,^^ Jpa^tAa i and hofiba a (kifb) to be 
fertile (soil) II to make fertile (a; 
to fructify, fertilize (* IV = I 

u-^o^ hifb fertility; abundance, plenty; 
superabundance, profusion 

t^-^uL kofib and L,^.jii- kofih fertile, 
productive, fat 

hj,^^ ^upQba fertility 

w^.^ ta^fU> fructification, fertilization 

^Uv^l ik^ fertility 

oL.^ mujfofi^ib&t fertilizers 

u—^ mu^^ fertile, productive, fat 

j^a»- ^a^ra a (ita^r) to become cold; to 
suffer from the cold III to clasp (* s.o.) 
around the waist, put one's arm around 
e.o.*B (•) waist Till to shorten, condense, 
abridge, epitomize (m; to sum- 
marize (a 

_,..«*:■ ^fir pi. jj-*^ ku^r hip, haunch, 

'»y^ mikfara pi. j-^^ ma^d^r* stick, 
baton, wand; mace, scepter 

jLfli^l iJftifidr shortening, condensation, 
abridgment, summarization, epitomiz- 
ing (of a statement); brevity | jL«:»>Vij 
and jL«:»>b briefly, in short, in a few 

y^:j^ muktofar shortened, condensed, 
abridged; hrief, short; concise, terse, 
succinct; (pi. -at) short excerpt, brief 
exposition, synopsis, outline, summary, 
abstract, epitome, compendium 

*^U- i&9ir<t pi, j<^!^ iMW&^ir* hip, 
haunch, waist | <i^U- j '^j^ {iauh<t) a 
thorn in bis side 

i_'j"^ JfOfiafa t ijcafif) to mend, repair, sew 
(> A shoe) haffa pi. iJiLw^ Jcifdf basket 
(made of palm leaves) 

<Lm^ kufla pi. f\.^^ ,lpufal, -dt tuft; bunch, 
cluster; lock, wisp (of hair) 

"' -- Jfopla pi. JU«^ kifdl quality, 
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait; 
(natural) dispositioD 

^.M^ ka^ma 1 to defeat (• an opponent) in 
argument; to deduct, subtract (a, 
j4 from); to discount (a a bill, a note^ 
III to argue, quarrel, dispute (• with s.o.* 


to bring legal action (* against s.o.), sue 
(• a.o<), litigate (* with); YI to quarrel, 
argue, have a fight; to go to law, carry 
on a lawBuit, litigate («_• with s.o.) 
VII to be deducted, be subtracted VIIl to 
quan-eU argue, have a fight 

t^m»' kapn pi. !»_>'.«*' ku$-&m, |»U«>-I 
al^m adversary, antagonist, opponent: 
opposing party (in a lawsuit) 

^^a^ kofm deduction; su.btraction ; 
rebate; discount; pi. ^j-^^ kufium 
liabilities (fin.) | ^,^'1 y^ ai'r al-k. 
discount rato, bank rate; c^VU^I f^^^ 
If. aj-kambiydldt bill discount 

t^^a»~ ka^m pi. »'\f^t:- ku^md'*^ o^.^*^ 
kufmdn adversary, antagonist, opponent 

*f^„m^ ^m^ma quarrel, argument, dis- 
pute, controversy, feud; lawsuit 

l»L^ Ifi^im quarrel, argument, dispute, 
controversy, feud; lawsuit 

f^^ mu^d^m adversary, opponent, 
opposing party <in a lawsuit); antagonist; 

■ ipipa*) to castrate) emaaou- 

Ute (« s.c) 

, ^fi'^ Ifo^y pi. OLm^ b^y^i^r 4..^»' ki^ya 
a castrate, eunuch 

iL.A»> kufiya pi. ^^Mi^ kufan testicle 
,j^ mak^iy castrated, emasculated | 
tf^ uv* (/««") gelding 
*jL**-\ ik^'i pi. -un specialist; expert (of 
a specialized field) 

^^ lca44a {ka44) to jolt, jog (*; to 
shake {*; to frighten, scare (• s.o.) 

ijri^ ^ UJtan ka44 buttermilk 

*^^»- lfa44<i ooncusaion, shock, jolt; 
fright, terror, fear 

•.^...iti- ka^aba \ (j^^) to dye, color, tinge (*; — ]fo4aha i and kaiiba a (vj-^ 
lpd4vh) to be or become green (plant) II to 

color, tinge (*; to dye (a 
Xll ^Jfy.MM\ i1c4a'v4oha to be or become 
green (plant) 

O «^— i»^ ka4h chlorophyll (ftioJ.) 

^'L^ kidah dye, dyestuff | O v'-^'^ 
I»a]I k. ad-dam hemoglobin {biol.) 

V^^ kitdvb green, greenness, green 

' kadib dyed 


iii *>■ ka4ka4a (<.Ai.U>- ^a4ico4^) to set in 
motion, upset, rock, shake (a 

<^i*^>- ]ca4ka4a concussion, shock, jolt 

m^ kat^ada t ika4d) to cut off, break off (* 
thorns) | *:^j^ au»^ (SaukatahU) to tame 
8.O., hold 8.0. in check, curb s.o.'s power 

i^ ipa4ira a {kcujUir) to be green II to make 
green, dye or color green (* | ^^.ji»- 
^jVl (ar4) to sow the land, till the earth 
IX to be or become green XII jJfj..M»~\ 
ik4au^ra = IX 

jj». ka4ir green, verdant; verdure, 
greenery; young green crop (of groin) 

j^\ iU-ka4ir, ai-k%4r a well-known 
legendary figure 

•j~^»^ hu4f^ gi^en, greenness, green 
color; — (pi. jJH- ku4ar) vegetation, 
verdure, greenery, greens ; meadow ; jJ*^ 

iSjJir^ i^v4^ri greengrocer 

JL^ ka4Sr green, greenness, green 
color; greens, herbs, potherbs 

,^-.kji~ ka^lr green 

{jLm^ kv4dra greens, herbs, potherbs 

^Ua»> kcujl4dr greengrocer 

^U^l ak4ar», f. J^-i^ katfrff*, pi. ^-i^ 
ieu^r green | jjUj, _,-i^Vl J* Jl {aid) to 
destroy everything, wreak havoc 

Jj^'t ai-ka4rd' "the Verdant" (epi- 
thet of Tunis) ; the sky 


Cj\j\j^»- ffa4rawdt Tegetabled; greens, 
heihBi potherbs 

t\j<^^\ al'jpu4^ird* Paradise 

O jj^ yalpi^r chlorophyll {bid.) 

•j-^ijfi- Tuajc^ara meadow, I&wn, turf, 
sod, greens, Terdant land 

.li\j^ muka44ardt vegetablea 

^j-^i*- hi^rim pi. pjL^ ^a^arim* abundant, 
oopioufi; well-wat«Ted, abounding in 
water; openbonded, generous, liberal, 

fj^^ muka^vm designation of suoh 
contemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of 
poets, whose life span bridges the time 
of paganism and that of Islam; an old 
man who has lived through several 
generations or historical epochs 

aU*^ ka^'a a (f>^ ku^^') to bow, defer, 
submit, yield, surrender (J to s.o., to> humble o.b. (J before], obey, 
follow (J s.o. or ; to be subject (J and 
Jl to a law, to a power, etc.}* be under 
B.o.*B (J or Jl) control n and IT to humble, 
subjugate, subdue, make tractable (• 
B.O.); to submit, subject, expose (J • or a or s.o. to , 

fj->i^ j:ru<Eu' submission, obedience, 
humility, subjection 

fj,MU^ ka4u' pi. aU*^ ku^u" submissive, 

^lU*:-! ihfS subjugation, subdual; 

wU' Jfd^i' pl> M»^ ku44^\ uLu^ 
^wfdn, kvj^dn submissive, humble; obe- 
dient, pliant, tractable; subject,, liable, 
prone (J to 

L«»> 1pa4iia, a to be or become moist II and 
IT to moisten, wet (* IX = I 

J-iu^ ka4il ttioist, wet; juicy, suc- 
culent; reireehing, gay, lighthearted 

-^A ]ea4ama i (laufm) to munch (a, 
with a full mouth), bite (a into 

^.^it- jcufamm vast (said of the sea); 
sea, ocean 

^ kaffa u (katf) to draw oi trace a line (J^ 
on}; to draw, trace, sketch, design {*; to write, pen (*; to carve, 
engrave, inscribe {m; to outline, 
mark, trace out, prescribe (a J for s.o. I (IpU) LW- J>>- ibattan, aafran) to 
draw a line; l-^I A>- {Saibu) his hair 
turned gray II to draw lines; to rule (a; to furrow, ridge (a; to mark 
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak (a; to pencil (a the eyebrows); to 
mark, designate, earmark, indicate (a; to demarcate, delimit, delineate, 
stake out, surrey {» land, real estate); 
to lay out, map out (a roads) VIII to 
trace out, mark, outline, prescribe (a a 
way); to mark, demarcate, delimit, stake 
out, delineate (a; to map out, plan, 
project (* e.g., the construction of a 
oity); to make, design, devise (a a plan); 
to plan (a, make plans (a for) 

Ju:- Jfoff pi. ifjL^ jtv^tV line; stroke; 
stripe, streak; (railroad) line, line of 
com muni cation ; telephone line; firontline 
{nil.); furrow, ridge; handwriting; writ- 
ing, script; calligraphy, penmanship | 
O (5^jl <U*- (ar^{) ground wire (radio) ; 
O ijaA-Vl ^'1 <w/*n*) cuneiform writing; 
V^VI JrjU^i {amdmiya) the foremost 
lines, battle lines (mil.); Jjl ^ (bdrit) 
relievo script; Jt^-^ -^ telephone line; 
*ijtr i>>^ ijaunoiya) airlines; Lf-bJ*- J>»- 
(hadidi) and -Uiii-I ^Si» ^ k- sOckat al' 
^adid railroad line, railroad track ; 
J \j J\ ^ k. aZ'Zaiodl meridian (aatron. ; = 
jL^I Ja^ J**- k. niff an-nahdr); O JJ-'I 
,^^1 {mismdri) cuneiform writing ; 
»I^Vl J»^ k. al-istiv)d' equator; J^l Jft>- 
k. af'Pul or J^ Ju^- (/lUt) circle of longitude, 
meridian (g^ogr.); ^^1 J*^ *• al-'ar^ or 


ifi^js- ^ i'ardi) parallel {of latitude) 
igeogr.); aU.1 -_4J ]a>- k.taqsim aUmiydh 
divide, watershed; yij_/45CJl Ijj6\ ii>- k. al- 
c;uwaa!'itaAra&a't^ power lines; a^LXI ^ 
meridian {geogr,); iJ.*l ^ ^_^ to derail, 
run off the rails (train); j5- ,. ^ J^ 
{muataqxm) straightaway, in a straight 
line; outright, out and out; Jai-'l J^ J* 
{pal al-k.) all along the line 

Jaj^ ku^ section, district, quarter (of a 

jjJui kaifl handwritten; linear; spear 

5k«^ ku^ia matter, affair; condition, 
state; office, function, position 

hIu^- kit^a, kuita pi. JaU^ kifat, kufap a 
piece of land acquired for the purpose of 
building ahouae; apiece of real estate, lot; 
district; map or plan of a piece of real 
estate, layout; plan, project, design, inten- 
tion; line of action, course, policy, rule, 
precept, guiding principle | J*Jl ^k^ 
k. al-'amal operation plan, work plan; 
i-'j^j* iJai-" Li-i» {^ibqan) according to 
schedule, as scheduled or planned 

i»lLA kap^i pi. -un penman, callig- 
rapher; — tracing lines, leaving a 
straight trace | ^IL*;- dl ■» {faSak) or 
itUa^ liu* tracer bullet, tracer (mil.) 

JaJiaC tak^it ruling, drawing of, or 
marking with, linea; lineation; designa- 
tion, marking, earmarking; surveying, 
survey (of land); planning; projecting, 
mapping out, laying out (of cities, of 
roads); plan, design 

Ja-iajfi j-j [raam) rough draft, first 
sketch, design 

]ajuifi- mak^ui handwritten; manuscript 

Vitf^jfi. maktuta pi. -at manuscript 

Jdiu£ mukappa} striped, streaked, ruled; 
furrowed; designated, marked, earmark- 
ed; planned, guided, controlled; (pi. -at) 
sketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a city) 

'^Ja»- kafi'a a (IL*:- kata') to be mistaken; to 
commit an error, make a mistake; to 
sin II to charge with an offense, in- 
criminate, declare guilty (• s.o.); to 1 
accuse (» s.o.) of an error or mistake; to 
fine (ft s.o.; tun.) IV to be mistaken, to 
err, commit an error, be at fault (j in); 
to be wrong (J about, in); to make a 
mistake (j in, with); to miss (» s.o., 
e.g., a shot; h the target); to escape (• 
a.o. or s.o.'s notice; a fact) | *Jti lit>-l ' 
(fa'luhu) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his 
expectations do not come true, are not 
fulfilled ; that 'a where he ia wrong, 
that's where he made a miBtake! stit^-l 
»^^l {Sai'u) (lit. : the thing escaped I 
him, missed him, i.e.) he lacked it; stW^l 
ij-i_^l he failed, was unsuccessful; lU»-( 
4jU-bi:i^1 ^^ he drew the wrong conclu 
sions; Cj^LJlII 0;j ^^' he confused the 
two things, he mifltook one thing for the 

*Ja>- kit* slip, lapse, fault, offense, sin 

Uw^ kafa and »Ua«^ kafd' error; mistake^ 
incorrectness ; offense, fault; kafa'an 1 

erroneously, by mistake | ... jl tkA^I /^ 
it is (would be) wrong to ...; \^\ •■'iL*! 
ialdh al'k. corrigenda, errata, list of 
corrections; Iki^l Jj qatl aJ-k. ao- ' 

cidental homicide {jur.) 

^JLiw:- kafi'<i pi. -at, LIL*:- ka4&yd mistake, 
blunder; slip, lapse; fault, offense; crime, 
sin ; fine (tun.) i 

^^U- kdfi' wrong, incorrect, er- 
roneous; mistaken, at fault; (pi. i\]a>. 
hutdk, actually, pi. of colloq. kafi), f. 
iiU kdfi'a pi. y»Jy^ kawdpi'^ sinner 

'^Jwt mukpi' mistaken, at fault, wrong; 
incorrect, wrong, erroneous 

.Jm^ kapaba u (UaA kuiba, ^IL»- kafSba) to 
deliver a public address, make a speech; 
to preach, deliver a sermon (^Ul J and 
^Ul an-ndaa to the people); — (fcaffc. 



lilt kifha) to propose (U to a girl; said 
of the man), ask for a girl's hand (U) in 
marriage (J on behalf of s.o.; said of the 
matchmaker); to give in marriage, 
betroth, affiance, engage (J» or J 4ij 
one's daughter to s.o.) | l*jj ^r*^ {wud' 
dahd) and Lri_^ ^^ (maiwwidotoAo) he 
courted her love III to address (• s.o.), 
speak, talk, direct one's words (. to s.o), 
turn (• to 9.O., orally or in writing) | U»U. 
jfjJJL to telephone s.o., call s.o. up; 
jSiLi <JiU (bi-l-kif) to address s.o. or 
an intimate firat-name basis Yl to talk 
to onb another; to converse, confer, have 
a talk, carry on a conversation; to write 
each other, correspond, carry on a cor- 
respondence VIII to seek a girl's (1») 
hand in marriage, ask for a girl's hand 

I-.:. fe,.to pi. vjl^ kafOh matter, af- 
fair, concern, buBiuess; situation, con- 
ditions, circumstances ; misadventure, 
mishap | iLi»»- L. what do you want? 
what's the trouble? what's the matter 
with you? J <Jui U what concern of his 
is...? what has he to do with...? U 
jjli l-j. what's it all about? 

s L.1. ]c%tba courtship; betrothal, en- 

'ciai- kufba pi. t--l"». kufab pubUo 
address; speech; lecture, discourse; ora- 
tion; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday 
sermon, khutbah | j-tia":/! Uui opening 

^jlW. kilab pi. at, VV-1 aktiba public 
address, speech; oration; letter, note, 
message | ^.^-^-J •-•\i^ welcoming address; 
^jjjl ijUut k. al-'arS speech from the 
throne; j».<c_. v^ (musta'jil) express 
letter, special-delivery letter; tAiJi »jlL»- 
t.tajdima letter of introduction; O'^ljU^ 
Jjjiil i-Jill oli (dot oJ-gtma al-mvgarrara) 
(= lettres avec valeur declarie) reg- 
istered, insured letters (eg.); ^lU-'l J_«i 
fafl al-k. (in letters:) conclusion of the 

formal greetings by the words -bo Ul 
amma ba'du; conclusion, termination, 
end; decision; unmistakable judgment; 
w.Uii-'! J-ai iLiij Jri we're through with 
one another once and for all 

ijlk»- kifdbi oratorical, rhetorical, 
speech-, lecturing (in compounds) 

^_L»- katib pi. •U.»- ktc^abS' (public) 
speaker; orator; lecturer; preacher, 
khatib; suitor (for the hand of a girl); 

4^Jv:. kafiba fianc6e 

li\it>- kafaba preaching, sermonizing, 

1jU.A kifdba rhetoric, oratory; speech, 
lecture, discourw 

lijitr- kuliba courtship; betrothal, 

Lklit^ mukStaba pi, -at address; pubUc 
address, speech; proclamation; con- 
versation, talk; conference, parley [Vilit 
^ jj It telephone conversation, telephone 

^\^ takdfub conversation; talk, dis- 
cussion ; (iDter}commumcation (also, e.g., 
telephonic, by radio, etc.) | ^U-jJl *ii 
Ivgat at-t. colloquial language 

^U kdUb pi. .U-^ kutabS', >^U^ 
kuffS) suitor; matchmaker 

U>U- ka(iba pi. u^lU>. ktiftdb woman 

li^^ makfiba fianc^ 
^\j. mii][3fab addressed, spoken to; 
[gram.) second person 

\- j}-~ ^ look up alphabetically 

jUi kafara i (L>[^ kataran) to swing, wave, 
brandish (w-; to shake, tremble, 
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swing- 
ing gait; to strut, parade haughtily; — 
i u (j.^ hit^r) to occur (J to s.o.), come 


■ aU-^ 

tos.o.'s {J) mind | aJU Jp^r-Vl J^ (6d/»W) 
the matter came to his mind, occurred to 
him, he recalled the matter (also ^lU j 
and JLi or Oj J*); ^UU *J ^^ he had 
an idea; JLj J^ J y\ {lam yakfir bi-balin) 
an unexpected matter, one wouldn*t 
dream of; — kafura u (SjjU*^ kufura) to 
be weighty; to be important, significant; 
to be grave, serious, momentous, danger- 
ous, perilous* riaky, hazardous III to 
risk) hazard, stake (u4, 4*a1> one's 
life); to incur the danger, run the risk 
(lj of), risk (lj; to bet, wager (• 
8.O., J* a stake) IV to notify, inform (» 
a.o.), let (a 8.0.) know (ij about; to 
warn, caution (* b.o.) V to walk with a 
lofty, proud gait; to stride, strut (with 
a swinging gait); to pendulate, oaciUate. 
vibrate YI to make a bet (J» againac a 

_^ ka(ar weightiness, momentousnees; 
importance, consequence^ significance ; 
seriousness, gravity; — (pi. -at, jLU^I 
aktdr) danger, peril, menace (J* to); 
riskiness, dangerousness ; risk; hazard; 
(pi. jlL^ ^t'^r) stake, bet, wager | J-U- 
jLi-*l of very great importance, momen- 
tous; ^^ j'i dangerous, perilous; ^^^ 
^^iji (mu'arra4) endangered, jeopardized; 
^^i^\ »j\J-\ iidrat cU-k. alarm signal 

Jmp:- kafir dangerous, perilous, risky, 
hazardous ; serious, grave, weighty, im- 
portant, significant 

a^W>- kaira pi. kafarat pompous walk, 
strut; swinging gait; idea, thought, 

jILa katfdr pendulum {phys.) 

j^ kafir pi. Jui- kuPr weighty, 
momentous ; important, significant ; grave, 
serious | jlill jvL»- of great importance 

oj_^Ui> kufura weight(iness) , importance, 
moment(ou8ness) ; consequence, signifi- 
cance; gravity, seriousness 

o\^afi~ kafaran swinging, oscillation, 

jU^\ akfar* more dangerous, riskier; 
weightier, of greater consequence; more 
serious, graver 

tJLi^ look up alphabetically 

^IJ£ makdtir^ dangers, perils 

iJAk. mukdfara pi. -at venture, risk, 

j[laj^\ ikfar notification, information; 

jtU kdiir pi. >l^ kawdpir* idea, 
thought, notion; mind; desire, inclina- 
tion, liking I iy»U. J»-V (li-ajli) for your 
sake; ^U JT j* m»n hiUi kafirin with 
aU one's heart, most gladly; ^U- *-t ^ 
'an pibati kdfirin gladly, with pleasure; 
of one's own free will, voluntarily; Je- 
iJ^U- as you like; •;Ulic JU-I to afford 
satisfaction to s.o., to comfort, reassure 
8,0.; ^y sjUU. J* JU-I to feel offended 
by, take offense at; •^U ^-l^ ?adda'a 
kdfirahu to trouble, bother fl.o. ; J^]y^^ ^x*^ 
itammana) to calm the excitement; ^ 
jl •^Lic (jnarra) the thought crossed his 
mind that ...; li^U-* L.1^1 (iifcrdman) for 
your sake, to please you ; J^ii^ \ *p^ eur'eU 
al-]^. presence of nund; Jm\X\ ^^^ quick- 

^lj& muka^ir one who risks, 
who takes a chance; daring, bold, 

Ju^ mukpir dangerous, perilous, risky, 

^Jtt>- kafrafa {eg.) to be delirious, to rave, 
talk irrationally 

4ijmpi- kafrafa delirium, raving 

^iL*:- kapifa a, kafafa i {kaff) to snatch, 
wrench or wrest away, seize, grab (a; to make off (a with; to 
abduct, kidnap (« s.o.); to dazzle (^^1 


a/-&a^ara tile eyes) V to cany away, 
sweep away (» s.o.) VI to snatch or seize 
(a from one another VII to be 
snatched away, be wrested away; to be 
carried away, be swept away Vlll to 
grab, seize, take forcibly (»; to 
enatcb, wreat, wrench (^ *, from 
B.O.); to abduct, kidnap (a s.o.); to run 
away, elope (U with a woman); to make 
off (» with; to dazzle (_^\ al- 
ba^ra the eyes) 

«-^^ b^fl grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping; Lilu:. kaffan 
rapidly, quickly 

uUi. hatfa pi. kafafdt (n. vie.) a 
snatching away, a grab; sudden stirring, 
Sash J JjJI ijLii- J {barq) instantly, in a 
trice, like a streak of lightning; <jit^ 
jj'^\ c^liL^ ^ an impulse, a sudden 
ijlL^ kafldf rapacious; robber 
jLU. hitfa) pi. ,JJ,U^ katifif' (iron) 
hook; fishhook; (coll.; n. un/l) swift, a 
variety of swallow 

,_i-Ui kaftif pl. ^iilLA iaiati)' iron 

iJiUa::<:-l liit/ii/ grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping 

J.Ia idfif pl, tilrj^ kawdfif raven- 
ous; rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, 
sudden; lightninglike; fleeting; short, 
brief | UUU. ^Ij^ ravenous wolves; hj^ 
iiUU. (fSra) snapshot; IJ^U. ^j». (harb) 

JIar- katila a (katal) to talk nonsense IV do. 
V to stmt, walk with a pompous gait; 
to walk with a proud, swinging gait 

JU;, kafal idle talk, prattle 

JW kafU garrulous, chattering, given 
to silly talk ; stupid, foolish 

Ju^ kafm nos«, snout, muzzle (of an animal); 
front part (nose and mouth) ; foremost or 

first part; important matter | <JJi: Jtl 
{afalla) approx. : to manifest its force, set 
in (e.g., of a disaster) 

^jjfi- kifmitkalmi {aoU.; n. un. i) marsh 
mallow (Althaea officinalis; hot.) 

/•Uaji- kifdm pi. Ju;. kufum noseband, 
halter (of a camel) 

(jl^) Qa^ kafd V, (katw) to step, pace, walk; 
to proceed, advance, progress | oi «la». Uv. 
iwlj [Ifafawatin) to take lorge strides, 
also fig. = to make extraordinary 
progress II and V to overstep, transgress 
(»; to cross (*, go or walk 
through (*); to ford (i a river); to 
leave its banks, overflow (river); to cross, 
traverse (j(»JI the seas); to omit, die- 
regard, ignore, pass by (• so.); to go 
beyond (»); to extend (Jl to); to 
exceed, transcend (»; to excel, 
surpa^, outstrip, outdo (a s.o.); to 
proceed, pass (» through, Jl to), 
leave (a) behind and turn to 
else (Jl); to disregard (>, • s.o., in 
order to turn one's attention to (Jl) | 
j»L,*^ I Jl 4j ^JoL^ (tid l-amami) to promote, 
advance VIII to step, pace, walk; to 
proceed, advance, progress 

ijh>- kafwa pl. kafawSt and kufwa pl. 
kufwat, IpifuwSt, Ju:- kvfan step, pace, 
stride I <Ui>i j jL (Jei^dhu) to walk, or 
follow, in s.o.'s footsteps; IJh^ l^ f^ 
taqaddama kufwatan fa-kvfwaUin to pro- 
ceed or advance step by step; l^A j^\ 
uf (>- (iuakada) to take a decisive step; 
'»^j oIJ^La Jpafwaian vxi-qafza hop, skip 
and jump {aiklei,) 

IXii- kaflya (= iLL:-) slip, lapse, trans- 
gression, fault, offense, sin 

ILLrf- kufdh pl. of 'J.U kSfi' amner 

Jiut- kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be 
slight, insignificant; to become lighter, 
decrease in weight, los« weight; to 
decrease in mtenjsity, grow lighter (color); 


to be nimble, agile, quick; to hasten, 
hurry, rush (Jt to) II to make lighter 
{m, reduce the weight of {*); to 
ease, lighten, relieve, soften (a j^ for 
a.o. difficult or oppresaive, also 
* J»; ,y», e.g., a.o.'s eituatioa); to 
lessen, decreaae, reduce, diminish (a or 
^^; to mitigate, alleviate, moderate, 
temper (* or ^; to thin, dilute 
(jh e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to pronounce 
(* a consonant) without iaSdld | db^ ^JaJi»■ 
kaffif 'ankal cheer up! be of good cheer! 
J^jiAj-. ^^ i_Jii_iLa^ b^ffi'f "^*™ sur'atikaf 

alow down! 


to soothe 

8.0. 's pains V to dress lightly; to dis- 
burden, relieve o.s. {of a burden); to 
rid O.B., free o.s. {^y of; to hurry 
away {j* from), leave (jt in a 
hurry X to deem (* light; to value 
Ughtly, disdain, scorn, despise (ij e.o. or, look down (ij upon), think noth- 
ing ((_j of), make light (i-j of), set little 
store (i-j by); not to take seriously (lj, attach no importance (i-j to); to 
carry away, transport {* s.o., e.g., joy) 

J^ AiujQT pi. J>Li^ ^»/"/. *->Li*^l ^bf^f 
shoe, slipper; — (pi. wJLi*^l akfdf) camel 
hoof; foot (of the ostrich); sole (of the 
foot) I 0;^*- J*: ^J raja'a bi-kuffai 
hunain to return with empty hands, 
without having achieved one's mission; 
to accomplish nothing , fail, be un- 

ii>- kijfa lightless (of weight); slight- 
ness, insignificance, triviality; sprightli- 
ness, buoyancy; agility, nimbleness; 
inconstancy, fickleness, flightiness, levity, 
frivolity | iT^l ii>. k. al-karaka, j 3i»- 
'tfjL I nimbleness, agility, quickness ; 
^Ji\ Iaj^ k. ad-dam amiability, charm; 
rjj^ '<j^ b- ar-ruh do. ; aJl ii*:- k. al-yad 
manual skill, dexterity, deftness 

Ji*:-! akafp lighter; lesser, slighter; 
weaker | l/j^^ iJ«^l (^' a4-4araTaxn the 
lesser of two evils 

tJ»Li>- kafaf, cJl^' j* ]iajar ahk. 
pumice, pumice stone 

jU*- kuffdn pumice, pumice stone 

*-*r*^ fai/i/ pi. JiLi*- kifdf, c^LU-1 
akfdf, »IU-I akiffd'» light (of weight); 
slight, little, trivial, insignificant; thin, 
scanty, sparse; nimble, agile, sprightly, 
lively; — ■_'fl,i^l name of a poetic meter j 
4^^i iJ^:^ k. al'haraka easily movable, 
very mobile; nimble, agile; ^jS\ tjui^ k. 
ad-dam amiable, charming; ^j_^l .J»jA»- k. 
ar-riik likable, charming, winning, ami- 
able; gay, in high spirits, cheerful; <~SeJ^ 
jyl k. az-zill likable, nice (person); Ja^-i*:- 
j\JtjU\ k. al-'dridain having a thin beard ; 
JjjJI i^^L^ k. al-'aql feeble-minded, dim- 
witted ; xJi LJt^ k, al-yad nimble- 
fingered, deft; iJt-a^ (jU weak tea 

ijLui*: takfif lightening, easing; les- 
sening, decrease, diminution; reduction; 
allaying, mitigation, alleviation, pal- 
liation, moderation; commutation (jur.); 
relief; thinning,dilution(e.g.,of aliquid) | 
^Jijiijdl C>jJ^ extenuating circumstances 

k^Lii*i--l istikfdj disdain, acorn, con- 
tempt ; levity, frivolity 

UuLfi- J^jjff zuruf mukaffifa extenuating 
circurastancee ijiir.) 

Jaiji- mukaffaj thin, diluted 

A*, kafata u (o^i»> kufiU) to become in^ 
audible, die down, die away (sound, 
voice); to become silent, become still 
III ^ j .rt;, ^•'^yj j.Jl>- {bi-kaldmiki, bi-faU' 
Hhl) to lower one's voice IV to silence, 
reduce to silence (• s.o.) VIII = I 

C-jAi^ kufiit fading {radio) 

ciU. kdfit dying away, dying down, 
becoming silent; inaudible; faint, dying, 
fading, trailing off {sound, voice); soft, 
subdued (light, color) 

^r-jijc muktajit soft, low, subdued 


ji»- Ifa/ara u (Aa/r. SjlU- kifdra) to watch (*, • 
B^o., or over s.o,, over, guard, 
protect (• s.o,, m ; — kafira a {kajar^ 
lj\J>' kafdrd) to be timid, shy, bashful 
II = I kafara V = I kafira 

jx*- hajr watching, watch, guard(ing) 

jjif- kafar guard detachment, guard; 
escort I J^l>-Ji ji»- coast guard (Eg.) 

jx»- kafar timidity, shyness, bashful- 
ness, di^dence 

jA*- kajir bashful, diffident, timid, shy, 
embarrassed, coy 

jj*^ jeafir pi. i.|jij:- kufard'^ watchman; 
protector, guardian ; guard, sentry, senti- 

ij\Jt»- kifdra watoh(ing), guard(ing), 
protection; guard duty 

jijft tnakfar pi, yljt maJcdfir* guard- 
house, guardroom; guard, control post | 
^Ir^l jJut- m. aS-Surfa police station 

lj>\ji- kdfira: J^^j^l 'jiU- k.aa-sawdhil 
coastguard cruiser (Eg.) 

jjjufi- makf^r under escort, escorted; 
covered, sheltered, protected 

^jjj!- kafasa u (kafa) to ridicule, soom (• 
B.O.), laughs mock (• at); to destroy, 
demolish, tear down (* a house) 

^i^ kafaS day blindness, hemeralopia 

JJt^ akfaP, f. »Lid4». Jpafid'^, pi. JJji- 
kufS day blind, hemeralopic ; weak- 
sighted, afflicted with defective vision 

^LLi kuffdS pi. t/iiLto^ kafdfiP bat 

u^LiA kafa4^ i ijcafd) to make lower (a; 
to lower, decrease, redu<», lessen, di- 
minish (a; to lower, drop (>, ^j^, also, e.g., the voice); {gram.) to 
pronounce the final consonant of a word 
with t; to put (* a word) in the genitive | 

J 4»-U»- ,jiJui- {janShahv.) to unbend toward 
s.o., show o.s. open-minded, responsive, 
accessible to; — kafu(jla u to be ceu^free, 
easy, comfortable (life) ; to sink, dip, drop, 
settle, subside ; to become low, drop to an 
undertone (voice) II to lower, decrease, 
reduce (a, price) | ,iU^ ^j^^ h^-W 
'alaika/ take it easy! .ii^U- jiJ^ fj^JLi- 
{ja*Saka) cool off! calm down! relax! 
IV 4j^ ,j^i«^l {^vtahv) he lowered his 
voice y and VII to sink, dip, drop, settle, 
subside; to be lowered, be reduced 
(price); to decrease, grow less; to be 

,jaJut- kaf4 lowering, lessening, decrease, 
diminution, reduction; subduing, lower- 
ing, muffling (of the voice); curtailment, 
limitation, restriction ; ease (of life) ; 
(gram.) pronunciation of the final con- 
sonant with i j 4.*JiJt ^j^Ji*- k: al-qima 
devaluation (of a currency); ^/i*!! ^r*^ 
k. aW^aii careifree, easy life ; tj^^ J j* 
,J^\ ^ he lives in ease and comfort; 
c^j^l u^^iA k, a^-MxU lowering of the 
voice ; ^j^^ ' "Jj^ b^^f tti-k. preposition 

kaf\4 low, soft, subdued (voice) 

talpft4 lowering, cutback, re- 
duction (esp. of prices); diminution, 
decrease, lessening, curtailment, restric- 
tion, limitation 

^Lu^l %nk%fd4 sinking, dropping, 
subsidence; lowering, reduction; lessen- 
ing, decrease, diminution, decrement; 
dropping of the water level, low water | 
j;^*- (^UjcI {ja%uw%) low-pressure area 

,j^JLfi- mukaffa4 lowered, reduced, low, 
moderate (price, rate) ; lower 

^_f,UAi^:^ munkafi4 low (altitude, fre- 
queikcy, price, etc.); soft, low, subdued. 

mufQed (voice) | 

I >ljVl the 

Netherlands; — munkafa^ pl> -di low 
ground; depression (geogr.) 


jiA kafaqa t u {Jcafq, o\JuLi- kajaqdn, ^_^jU- 
IfufHq) to Tibratej to tremble, shake; 
to beat, throb, palpitate (heart); to 
flutter, ware, stream (flag); to flap the 
winga, flutter (bird); to waver, flioJcer; — 
iiafq) to flash (lightning); to beat, whip 
(*; eggs, cream, etc.); to make the 
sound of footsteps (shoe) ; — (ci^ *«/'*?) 
to drop one^s head drowsily, nod off, doze 
off (iiiii Ji»- k. jfafqatan); — i {Sjir- 
![ufflq) to set, go down (celestial body) 
II to roughcast, plaster, stucco {t a wall) 
IT to flap the wings, flutter (bird); to set, 
go down (celestial body); to be unsuc- 
cessful, go wrong, fail, miscarry, come to 
nothing, be abortive; to fail, be un- 
successful (j in 

Ji^ j»/j throb(bing) palpitation; beat- 
ing, beat; footfall, footstep, tread (of a 
boot, of the foot) 

dXi^ Iflja pi. kafaqU (n. vie.) beat, 
throb; tap, rop, knock; ticking noise, 

uLur- jiafaqdn palpitation of the heart, 
heartbeat; throb(bing), beat(ing); flut- 
tering, flutter 

oLi>-jsaj9''a9 palpitant, throbbing (heart) ; 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag) 

O <iu>t mikiaqa whisk, eggbeater 

JLui-l ikjdq failure, flzzle, flop, fiasco 

jiU- Ijilfiq palpitant, throbbing (heart); 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag); 
^UuU:l al-kiji^n East and West; J>]^> 
al-Jfawijiq the cardinal points, the four 
quarters of the world 

JiU- Js^fiqt mortar, plaster, rough- 
cast; stucco 

a to be hidden, be concealed; to 
be unknown (a fact; J« to s.o.); to 
disappear, hide | jl J* "!/ it is well 
known that ...; as everybody knows .,., 

it is obvious that . . . ; iLlc j* "l/ you 
know very well . . ., you are well aware 
(of it); — kaja i to hide, conceal (>]; 
to keep secret (* IV to hide, conceal 
(»,); to afford (. s.o.) a place to hide, 
shelter, hide (• s.o.); to keep secret (*; to disguise, conceal (*, ^ 
or jt from s.o.) | <lt)^\ Jj^I to lower the 
voice, speak in an undertone T to hide, 
keep o.s. out of view; to disguise o.s. 
VIII to hide, keep o.s. out of view; to dis- 
appear, vanish; to be hidden, be un- 
known; to be lacking, be missing, be 
absent | j\iii')l\ ^ J^t to be hidden or 
disappear &om sight X to hide, keep o.s. 
out of view; to be hidden, be concealed; 
to be hidden firom s.o.'s (^) view, become 
invisible (j» to s.o.), disappear from 

J». js/ty hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible; mysterious | 
—"l/l J*, k. ol-um anonymous; O j!jj' 
'<^ (anwdr) indirect lighting 

\ii- j:u/ya<an, jcifr/alan secretly, clan- 
destinely, covertly; «:.« <fi^ without hie 

i^ kaftya pi. UJut- kafayd a secret, a 
secret affair 

•Li*. Jfafa' secrecy, hiddenness ) •UX^ I J 
secretly, clandestinely, covertly; ►Li*- "i/ 
jl J (i»/«'<») it is qnite evident, it is 
quite obvious that . . . 

»Li».l ikfd' hiding, secretion; conceal- 
ment; lowering of the voice 

iJuC iakaffin disguise 

>U:>:-I iJftild' disappearance 

JtU- kafin hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible 

LiU. k&jiya pi. C>\^ kawdjin a seciet; 
— pi. Jl^l al-kawdfi the coverts, the 
secondaries (of a bird*B wing) 

Jie makfly hidden, concealed 


iJ»i^-* mniakaffin disguised, in disguise 

*Ji^ muktajin hidden, concealed, clan- 
destine, covert, secret; disappearing, 

Jijc muktafan hiding plaoe, hide-out 

L)LiU> look up alphabetically 

Ji^ jfoUa u (kaU) to pierce, transfix (* 
II to turn sour; to make Bour> to sour, 
acidify (a; to pickle, marinate (a; to salt, cure with salt or in brine 
(a; to pick (* the teeth); to run the 
fingers (a through, part^ comb 
(a the hair, the beard, also with the 
fingers) III to treat (• b.o.) as a friend 
IV to ofifend (w against), infringe, trans- 
gress (^; to violate, break (^, e.g., a rule, a custom); to fail to 
fulfill, fail to meet (v an agreement); 
to forsake, desert, abandon (u* s.o. ,; to disturb, upset, harm, prejudice 
(u> V to be, lie or oome between (a; also in time), intervene (a 
between); to be located or situated, be 
Interposed, be placed (a between); to 
permeate, pervade, interpenetrate (a, mix, mingle, blend (a with) Till to 
be OT beoome defective; to be in dis- 
order, be faulty, deficient, imperfect; to 
become disordered; to be upset, be 
unbalanced; to be disturbed (order, 
system) | ^jji^\ cJ^\ the conditions 
are not fulfilled; *j}\y Ji»>l (tawdzumJt^) 
to lose one's balanoe, be oome unbalanced ; 
<Up J=»>1 ('aqlvhu) to be mentally deranged 

J*> ^aU vinegar 

JA km, t^ pt. JSAl aleUU friend, 
bosom friend 

JLa kaiai pi* J::^ kildl gap, interval, 
interetice; clefb, craok, rupture, fissure; 
a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance; 
defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw, 
defect, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, 
disorder; damage, injury,, harm (that sufTors or suffered) ; J:)U kildla 
during; between; through | Ji^;. J fi kalali 
and t^'J^ J /{ ^Idli during; in the 
course of, within, in a given period of; 
jjlj J'^U J meanwhile, in the meantime; 
J'iU ^ min kilSli across, through, right 
through the middle of; out of, from 
within; (to judge, reason, draw conclu- 
sions, etc.) by, on the basis of, on the 
strength of, (to recognize) from 

4l*> kalla need, want, lack; — (pi. 
cJ:iU ^ildl) property, attribute, pecu- 
liarity; characteriBtio ; natural disposition 

1<JU- kuUa pi. Ji«^ kuial friendship 

J:)U- kildl pi. <U-1 akUia boring or 
drilling implement ; peg, pin ; spit, 
skewer; (also 4J:i^, pt. -at) toothpick; 
see also Jl»- kalal 

JJU. ^lU pi. »:)Ul akiUd'*, o-^ hdldn 
friend, bosom friend; lover; JJX't Hebron 
(town in Jordanian Palestine) | ^i JJu:- 
epithet of Abraham 

4LU- ^ila pi. -at girl friend, woman 
friend; sweetheart, paramour 

J^'l pi umTna2-j:iTiiu2 river mussel (zoof.) 

t}^\ iiplSl pi. -dt breach, infraction, 
violation (of a law, of a treaty, and the 
like); offense (against), transgression, 
infringement (of); disturbance (of an 
order, of a system); impairment, injury, 
harm (to); average, damage by sea | 
V J:^^^! f-i* ^ {'adami l-i.) without 
prejudice to, without detriment to 

J':Ai*:-t i^ildl deficiency, defectiveness, 
imperfection; (a falling into) disrepair, 
deterioration; faultiness; disturbance (of 
a system, of a function, of the equilibrium, 
etc.); disorder, confusion 

Jijt mukallal pickled; salted; (pi. -at) 
pickles, pickled vegetables 

Jjt mukiU disgraceful, shameful | 
t^UVtj J^ immoral, indecent, improper 



K,J^ kalaba i u {JcaU>) to seize with the 
clftWB, clutch (*, pounce (* on); — u 
(aj*^ kildba) to cajole, coaz, wheedle 
(• S.O.); to inveigle, beguile* bewitch, 
enchant {» s.o., 4Ju. ^aglahU b.o.'s miad); 
to charm, fascinate, captivate (• s.o.) Ill to 
cajole, wheedle, coax, inveigle, beguile, 
bewitch, enchant (• s.o.) YIII to seize 
with the claws, clutch (*, pounce (* 
on); to cajole, inveigle, beguile, bewitch, 
enchant (* s.o.) 

^.Jl^ kiU) pi. •_j'^l akldb fingernail, 
claw, talon 

^.Jl^ ^j bargun kullabun and harqv. 
ktUUibin lightning without a downpour; 
a disappointing, disillusioning matter; 
«^i«^ and J J J* wi«^ delusion, illusion 

Jui. kullablz- ^ dLli ifaSak) blank 
cartridges (Syr.; mil.) 

c.j'^U- kalldb gripping, captivating, 
fascinating ; attractive, engaging, win- 
ning; tempting, enticing; fraudulent, 
deceitful; deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

Ai^ kildba engaging manners, at- 
tractiveness, charm 

i_JJ£ miklab'p]. i_JLJt maAaZtA' claw, talon 

^U kalib = w:>U kalidb 

^^,.A-U> II takalba^a [eg.) to clown 

,j-;^Ji»- kalbus pi. ^.-tj'jU- kaldbia*, <uu'>U- 
kaldbipa (eg.) clown, bufi^oon, harlequin 

«i*- kalaja * and III to be on b.o.'s (a) mind, 
trouble, preoccupy, prepossess (• s.o-, 
8.0. 'a mind; said of worries, doubts, etc.); 
to pervade, fill (> s.o.; said of a feeling) | 
iJi ^U- (qalbahu) to be uppermost in 
B.o.'s heart Y to be shaken, be convulsed, 
be rooked VIII to quiver, tremble, quake, 
shake ; to twitch ( eye, limb, body ) ; 
to animate, move, stir, inspire, fiU, 
pervade, posaeaa («, j the heart; said 
of a feeling) | l^ rr^^ (gaimnan) to be 
filled with Borrow, with grief (heart) 

o«U. kalja pi. kaiajdi emotion, senti- 
ment; scruple, qualm, misgiving 

^JU- kali} pi. ^1»- kuluj, uLJl^. tptUjdn 
bay, gulf; canal; ^J^^ name of Cairo's 
ancient city canal which was abandoned 
and leveled at the end of the 19th 
century | ^yJ^\ prLJ^' the Persian Gulf 

r*^ kildj misgiving, doubt, scruple, 

o-*::^! iktiidja (n. vie.) convulsion, jerk, 
twitch; tremor 

ii-U- kdlija pi. Uyi~ kawdlij* emotion, 
sentiment; scruple, qualm; idea 

J^J>- kalkala to shake, convulse, rock (> 
a«th.); to rarefy (*, e.g., air; chem.- 
phya.) II takalkaki to be shaken, be 
rocked; to come off, become disjointed, 
become detached; to become loose, work 
loose; to be or become rarefied [chem.- 

J;JL^ kalkal pi. jA->i^ kaUkil' anklet 

JUJ>. kalkal pi. ^-^ kaldkit^ anklet 

J^JJi: takalkul rarefication 

J^Jjc muJaUkdl and J^JU*!* mutaJfol^U 

aU kalada u {^jU- kuliid) to remain or last 
forever, be everlasting; to be immortal, 
deathless, undying; to abide forever (Jl 
or v-* in, with); to remain, stay (Jl or ^ 
or J at a place) | '^J\ Jl aU to rest, 
reiai; |»^l Ji jS»- to lie down to sleep 
II to make eternal or everlasting, per- 
petuate, eternalize (a, make im- 
mortal, immortalize (* s.o.); to make in- 
effaceable, unforgettable (*; a 
memory) ; to remain, stay, abide, linger 
(v at, in a place) ; to grow very old, enjoy 
a long life, be long-lived IV to eternize, 
immortalize, make immortal (» s.o., /^; to perpetuate (*; to remain, 
stay, abide, linger ( Jl or <_.* at, in a place) 



to be disposed, incline, lean, tend (Jl to) 
V to become eternal or immortal, 
perpetuate o.b.; to be or become long, 
lasting, perpetual 

.Ujf- kuld infinite duration, endleaa time, 
perpetuity, eternity | oli'l jIj Paradise, 
the hereafter 

^ kuld mole (zooh) 

ji>- kalad, pi. j^l aklad mind, heart, 
spirit, temper 

j^ kvJad infinite duration, endless 
time, perpetuity, eternity; eternal life, 
immortality; abiding, remaining, staying 

Jj^ taklld perpetuation, etemization, 

.klU- kalid everlasting, perpetual, eter- 
nal; immortal, deathless, undying; un- 
forgettable, glorious; pi. uJl^ kawalii' 
mountains { o1-l)U>'I J\}i-^ the Canary 

jUfi- muklid disposed, inclined, tend- 
ing (Jl to) 

^jJU- kalaea i (fcab) to steal («; to 
pilfer, filoh, swipe, purloin (* 
Ill _^l «_]U- (nazara) to glance furtively 
at s.o. YIII to steal, pilfer, filch, evipe 
(*; to get under false pretenses or 
by crooked means (t ; to embezzle, 
misappropriate {»; to spend secret- 
ly (* hours) I Jl Jj;l ,^1 (km) to 
sneak up on s.o.; (j) Jl jkJI ^j-^^ to 
glance furtively at s.o. 

i-Li- kulsatan by stealth, stealthily, 
surreptitiously, furtively 

^"iJ- kildai mulatto, bastard 

^jM'i:J-\ ilftiUt pi. -St embezzlement, 
misappropriation, defalcation 

^jJ^ muktalit embezzler, defalcator 

,jVL>- kdtafa u (^^^ kviit) to be pure, un- 
mixed, unadulterated; to belong (J to 
s.o.); to get, come (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); 

— {^j^-^ kaJdf) to be or become free, be 
freed, be liberated (j. from), be cleared, 
get rid (^ of); to be saved, be rescued, 
escape {j» from); to be redeemed, be 
delivered, attain salvation (Cfcr.); — ■ 
(coUcq.) to be finished, be done, be 
through, be over; to be all gone II to 
clear, purify, refine, purge, rectify (*; to clarify (* a situation); to 
liberate, free, save, rescue (* s.o., Jm 
from), rid (• s.o., j* of); to redeem, 
deliver (CTr.); to prepay the postage (J» 
on); to pay duty (^UiJl J* on merchan- 
dise), clear ( J> goods); to settle (* a bill); 
{colloq.) to finish (j> | ti^ ,jAi- (haq' 
qdhu) to restore one's right, secure one's 
due III to act vith integrity, with 
sincerity (• toward s.o.), treat (• s.o.) fair 
and square; to get even, become quits 
(.^with s.o.) IV to dedicate (> J to s.o.; to be Uyal (J to s.o,); to be 
devoted, be faithful (J to) | ^1 ^l ,jAj-\ 
(hubha) to love s.o. dearly; <ji ii ,j^\ 
i}i-U&hi iindhu) to worship God faith- 
fully and sincerely T to rid o.s. (^ of), 
free o.s. (^ from), get rid (^ of); to be 
freed, be delivered, be saved, be rescued, 
escape (,> from) YI to act with reciprocal 
integrity and sincerity; to be quits, be 
even X to extract (a, ^ from); to 
copy, excerpt (*, j. from); to 
abstract, take, gather, work out (•, 
as the quintessence, ^ of); to deduce, 
infer, derive (*, ^ from); to dis- 
cover, make out, find out (*; to 
select, choose (*; to demand 
payment of a sum (>) and get it (^ from 
a.o.) I J.I :jjli ^-l~- ■' to derive profit from, 
profit, benefit from; \ity c« jjI^t.*! (tm'*' 
dan) to exact a promise from s.o. 

^^ ]fdla9 liberation, deliverance, 
riddance; rescue, salvation (^ from); 
redemption (Chr.); payment, settlement, 
liquidation (of a bill); receipt; placenta, 



d.^^U- kuld^a pi. -at excerpt; extract, 
essence; quintessence, substance^ gist 
(of; abstract, r6aum6, summary, 
epitome; synopsis 1 i-IW* ^"^ {nihd'iya) 
summation (jur.); i-jjA*>UI ^'^'l {al- 
Idhutiya) the '^summa theologica" (of 
Thomas Aquinas); ^j^^ o>':^^ ('t/rii/a) 
perfume essence; a^":^ \j in short, briefly, 
in a word (introducing a summary of the 
basic ideas) 

kalif pi. fl^lA ktiifi^d'' pure, 
clear, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, 
faithful, loyal; loyal adherent 

^J^J^ kulu^ clearness, purity; sincerity, 
candor, frarUcness 

^:A>- kclld^ (magr.) tax collector 

^j^l^ makla? safe place; refuge, 
escape, rescue, salvation, deliverance 

tj^S^ taklia clearing, puri£.cation, 
refining, rectification; clarification; lib- 
eration, extrication, deliTerance, rescue, 
salvation; payment, settlement, liqui- 
dation; prepayment of postage (J* on); 
customs clearance, payment of duty 
(ajLaJI Jp on merchandise; also ,j^^ 

LJ L)£ mukdlasa pi. -at receipt 

^*)U.I ikld^ sincere devotion, loyal 
attachment, sincere afTection; sincerity, 
frankness, candor; loyalty, faithfulness, 
fidelity, allegiance (J to) 

jj^JI^ takallv^ freedom, liberationi re- 
lease, extrication, escape (j* from) 

i^'^UjU'I t9fi/:Zd^ extraction; excerption; 
derivation, deduction; selection; col- 
lecting (of a sum of money) 

i^Lj^ kdli^ pi. ,_^.ai*- feixUof clear; pure, 
unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, 
candid, true; fre«^ exempt (^ from) | 
\j>-'^^ ,j^L>- fc. al-ujra post-free; ij\ j^^L*:- 
k. ar-Todd prepaid, reply paid for (tele- 

gram); iljXJl ^ ^^ (gumrug) dutyfree; 

i-j_pill jj^lj^ tax-exempt 

^J^^ mukalii^ liberator; Savior, Re- 
deemer (Chr.) 

(tAt-) ^^A^ mukaUa^ ("alaihi) postage 

^J^\^ muklis devoted; sincere, frank, 
candid; loyal; faithful (J to s.o., to; purehearted, virtuous, righteous; 
,jrf»ijil (in letters) approx. : yours truly . . . , 
sincerely yours . . , 

^flly ' mustakla^ pi. -di extract, ex- 

\A»- kalafa % (kalf) to mix, mingle, com- 
mingle, blend (<-' a with]; to confuse, 
confound, thit up (^jy two thioga; j ^ ju with), mistake (j ^^ ^ for) 
II to mix, mingle, commingle, blend (* 
B,th.); to cause confusion III to mix, 
mingle, blend, merge, fuse (* with; to meddle (a in), interfere (a 
with); to mix, associate (* with s.o.); 
to have to do (• with s.o.) | *^^ iJI^ 
{nafsahu) to befall, attack s.o. (pain, 
etc.) ; 4Jtfi (j liij^ kulija fl 'aqUhi to be or 
become disordered in mind VIII to be 
mixed, mix, mingle, form a mixture or 
blend ; to consist of a heterogeneoufa 
mixture, be motley, pronuacuous; to 
associate, be on intimate terms (l> with) ; 
to be or become confused, get all mixed up 

IAj^ kaif mixing, bIending;combination; 
mingling, commingling (i_j with) ; con- 
fusing, confounding, mistaking, mix-up, 

LI>- kilp pi. ^':f<jf-\ akidf oomponent of 
a mixture; ingredient; pi. mixture, 
blend | jLJ*^! .t'l^i^i the four humors of 
the human body (blood, phlegm, yellow 

bile, and black bile); ^Ul 


common people, populace, rabble, riff- 
raff, mob; ^ 1I>- kilt ^iU, ^ nutl; 
motley, pell-mell, promiscuously 



4UU- Ifalla miituie, blend, medley 

aLJU- kulfa company; mixture 

it-iui- kaUSf and ;i:)U kallata pi. -at 
mixer, mixing machine 

i±Jji- kalil mixed, blended; motley, 
heterogeneous, promiscuous; mixture, 
blend {ja of); medley, hodgepodge; (pi. 
.\itii. hulafa^') associate, companion, 

iLiic takllt pt. -St insanity; delirium 

4Uli( mukSlata company, intercourse, 

1->L:>-I iktiU^ (process of) mixing, 
blending; mingling, commijigling; con- 
fusion; mental disorder; (social) inter- 
course, association, dealings (t-j with) 

iylje maHai pi. iiJlift malcaltt' mixture, 
blend; alloy 

iA'^ mukaUaf confused, disordered 

JJLjt mukolaf stricken, afflicted (v e.g., 
by a disease) 

iA:^ muklalit mixed | ;U:i!sl f\^\ the 
mixed oourts, see *S^; Jcii^ A^ coed- 

JU kala'a a (jfol') to take off, put off, sUp 
off (a a garment); to doff, takeoff {^^jij* 
one's tatbooeh); to extract, pull (* a 
tooth); to wrench, dislocate, luxate (* 
a joint) ; to depose, remove, dismiss, dis- 
charge (• &.O., J* from an office); to 
renounce, forgo, give up (a, with- 
draw (m from) ; to throw off, cast off (tjl-Ap 
'iddraha one's restraint, one's inhibi- 
tions); to refuse (ulUI obedience); to 
disown, repudiate (ol one's son); to 
divorce (U one's wife) in return for a 
compensation to be paid by her; to get 
through, have done (* with, be 
through, have gone through (*, 
e.g., a hard day); to impart (Je t 

to); to confer, bestow (Jc * upon 
B.O.), grant, award (J» * to s.o.) | 
^Lj' Aj!. {liySbahi) to undress; ja <a1>- 
J,j>i\ ('ari) to dethrone s.o. ; Uli tie- ^ 
{kU'atan) to bestow a robe of honor upon 
s.o,; J>- <-uJ J« 4j^ (Ao^^) to arrogate to 
o.s. the right of...; — kalu'a « (<*'>U- 
kaXa'a) to be dissolute, morally depraved 
IT to take away, remove, displace, dis- 
locate (*; to knock out of joint, 
take or break apart (*; pass. 
katti'a to fall to pieces, get out of joint 
III to divorce (U one's wife, in return for 
a compensation to be paid by her) V to 
go to pieces, fall apart, break; to become 
or be lusated, dislocated (joint); to take 
a vacation in the country (fun.) | j Ujc 
^\j^\ {SarSb) to be addicted to drinking, 
drink heavily VII to be displaced, be 
dislocated, be removed; to be divested, 
be deprived, be stripped (jn of, 
forfeit, lose (^>. | *J; jLcl (jaifruAu) 
he was completely taken aback, he was 
alarmed, startled 

Jv. Ifoi' slipping off, taking off (of 
clothes); deposition (e.g., of a ruler); 
dislocation, luxation | jl:..-'^! A>- ex- 
traction of teeth 

«!». Iful* khula, divorce at the instance 
of the wife, who must pay a compensa- 
tion (lel. Law) 

7A>- kil'a pi. a1>- kita' robe of honor 

fjji. IpalV pi. •\A^ kula'd'' deposed, 
dismissed, discharged (from an oiBce); 
repudiated, disowned; wanton, dissolute, 
dissipated, profligate, morally depraved 

f-^ kails' wild, unruly , wanton, 
shameless, impudent 

*^':t^ Jfold'a dissoluteness, dissipation, 
profligacy, wantonness, licentiousness, 
moral depravity; ((urt.) recreation in the 
country, summer vacation 

Jji. ^ula' fool, dolt, simpleton 


i jA^ 

^U. kSli': jiUI ^U- k. al-*%ddr un- 
restrained, .uninhibited, wanton; liber- 
tine, debauchee, rou6, rake 

f^j}j^ maklu' unrestrained, uninhibited, 
wanton; wild, unruly; recklesa, heedless, 
irresponsible; crazy, mad 

<jAii- kalafa v to be the successor (* of s.o.), 
succeed (« s.o.); to follow (• s.o.), come 
after s.o. {*); to take the place of s.o. 
(•), substitute (• for a.o.]; to replace (• 
B.O., M 6,th.); to lag behind s.o. (^^); to 
stay behind (^ ftft«r s.o,'a departure); 
to be detained, be held back, be kept 
away, stay away (^ from) II to appoint 
as successor (* s.o.); to leave behind, 
leave (*, • s.o.,; to have descend- 
ants, have offspring III to be contra- 
dictory, contrary, opposed (* to); to 
conflict, clash, be at variance (a with); 
to contradict (« s.o., a; to be 
different, differ, diverge (a from), be 
inconsistent, incompatible, not in keep- 
ing, not to harmonize (> with); to offend 
(a against a command, a rule), break, 
violate, disobey (a a command, a rule) 
IT to leave (* offspring, children); to 
compensate, requite, recompense (Jp 
8.O.; said of God); to break, fail to keep 
{aitj xva'dahu one^s promise), go back 
on one's word; to disappoint (»1>^I or- 
raja' a the hopes) V to stay behind; to 
lag or fall behind <^); to stay, stay on, 
remain; to fail to appear or show up; 
to play truant; to be absent; to stay 
away {^ from), not go (^ to), not 
attend [jt | #^^^^1 ^ Ja\J- {majV) 
to fail to come or arrive; Ji^l ^ ijiijt 
{'avda) not to return VI to disagree, 
differ, be at variance; to differ in opinion, 
be of a different mind VIII to differ, be 
different, vary {^ from); to be varied, 
varying, variable, various, diverse, dis- 
similar; to vary (^>u between); to dis- 
agree, differ in opinion, be at variance, 
argue, quarrel, dispute (J about); to 

come or go frequently (Jl to), frequent, 
patronize (Jl a place), visit frequently 
(Jl S.O.,, come and go (Jl at); to 
come, descend (Jp upon a.o.; said of 
afflictions), befall, overtake (Jp a.o.) 
X to appoint as successor or vicar (• a.o.) 

iJlU- kalf back, rear, rear part or 
pcntion; successors; j»//u and ijii^ ^ 
min kalfu (adv.) at the back, in the 
rear; kalfa (prep.) behind, after, in the 
rear of | L^il*- ^^ he ran after her; ^ 
JAj^ min kalji behind, in the rear of; ^ 
tjdJ^i from behind, from the rear; .JlU^I Jl 
to the rear, backward, back; r>^1 .JaL:- jr 
in the wake of; JiiX\ j in the rear; 
at the back, in the background 

Ji»- kalfi rear, hind, hinder, back 

,_il»- kilf pi. JiiA*-! akldf teat, nipple, 

CAp^ kulf dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference, contrast, variance, discrepancy 

•jAf- kalaj pi. Jl*)!*-! a]^ldl substitute; 
successor; descendant, offspring, scion 

Ul>- kilfa dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference ; that which follows and 
replaces it (e.g., second growth of plants, 
day and night, etc.) 

4jLU- kailfa pi. rUU- kulafa*^, Ju":^ 
kald'ip vicar, deputy; successor; caliph; 
(formerly) senior official of the native 
administration in Tunis, assigned to a 
Jjlj; (formerly) title of the ruler of 
Spanish Morocco 

;^jLU.'| 4ikll al-min^a al-kalifiya 
the Caliphate Zone (formerly, designation 
of Spanish Morocco) 

uiAa kildfa vicarship, deputy&hip ; 
succession ; caliphate, office or rule of 
a caliph; (formerly) administrative de- 
partment of a 4jL1>- (Tt£n.), see above 

J):>lj£ mikldf pi. JaJ lit makdlip 
province (Yemen) 



<J>r)U- kildf pi. -at difference, dUparity, 
diBfiimilarity; divergeQce, deviation; con- 
traet, contrariety, incongruity, contra- 
diction, conflict; difiagreement, difference 
of opinion (J* or J about); dispute, 
controversy; ]c%laja (prep.) beside, apart 
irom, aside from | ^i'^U- kilal'\^hu {= »>«) 
other, the like, ^'liU- others (than those 
mentioned), 4i:>U-j and the like (after an 
enumeration); J^'^ bi-kilafi beside, 
apart 'from, aside from; contrary to, as 
opposed to, imlike; J li'^U- kildf an U 
contrary to, against, in contradiction to; 
diij J>^ Jp unlilie that, contrary to 
that, on the contrary, on the other 

iX^ kildfi controversial, disputed 

Uilj£ mukdlafa pi. -at contrast, con- 
trariety; contradiction, inconsistency; 
contravention, infringement, violation; 
misdemeanor {jur. ; as distinguiehed from 
Um>- and ajU*-); fino (for a misdemeanor) 

tjijc" takalluf staying away, non- 
appearance, nonattendance, nonpresence, 
absence, truancy (also jj-iJ-l ^ »-JJL*^); 
staying behind, staying on; stopover 
(railroad); backwardness 

iktildf pi. 'St difference, dis- 
aimilarity, disparity; diversity, variety; 
variant, variation; difference of opinion, 
disagreement; controversy | Jc 'L^J\ 
aJjJI i_^lili iji^ib^-l {ra'iya^ dtniya) the 
subjects of every (=: irrespective of 
their) religious denomination; i_>:>^f J« 
_^lj»-l whichever party they may belong 
to; l^j'^jt-i-l J* ^]y}\ all the different 
fruits, fruits of every kind 

*ij^ maklufa pi, -at camel saddle 

tJjjC mukdUaf left, left behind; left 
over; pi. oUJji heritage, legacy, estate; 
scraps, leftovers 

tJJIj* mttkdlif divergent, varying, 
different; inconsistent, inconipatible, 

contradictory, contrasting, conflicting ; 
transgressor (of a command) 

mtUakaUif residual; left over; 
retarded, backward, underdeveloped 
(mentally, in growth, etc.); pi. -un one 
left behind; straggler; pi. oliU.1* herit- 
age, legacy, estate; leftovers; scraps, 
refuse, offal | S.aJi^T.. <>J\ {atriba) waste 
material, overburden, superstratum (in 
mining}; UUd.1 »L1I (miyah) waste water, 

ijibui muktalif different, varying, 
divergent ( j^ from) ; varied, various, 
diverse; having a different opinion, dis- 
agreeing (J or J* about) 

(4J«) 4J iJahJ^ muktalaf fihi Calaihi) 
controversial, disputed 

jU- kalaqa u (kalq) to create, make, originate 
(*; to shape, form, mold (a; 
— kaliqa a and ktdvqa u to be old, worn, 
shabby (garment); — haluqa u (4«':)U- 
kalaqa) to be fit, suitable, suited II to 
perfume (a lY to wear out (a, 
let (a become old and shabby 
y pass, of II; to be molded, be shaped (<-j 
by a model or pattern), change (<-^ with 
a model) ; to become angry VUI to 
invent, contrive, devise (a; to 
fabricate, concoct, think up (a; 
to attribute falsely {a Je to b.o. 

jU- kdlq creation; making; origination; which is created, a creation; crea- 
tures; people, man, mankind; physical 


jU- hulg, kuluq pi. 3':)^'^ <^b^^ innate 
peculiarity; natural disposition, charac- 
ter, temper, nature; — pi. J"!:^! aklaq 
character (of a person) ; morals ; morality | 
jli^l *j^ su' ol-k. ill nature; ^^1 [^ 
aayyi' al-k. ill-natured; jiX i J^ sahl al-k. 
complaisant, obliging; jU^I ^^^ 4^yyiq 
al-k. impatient, restless ; J'>U- V I ^ 
*\lm al-a. ethics; moral science, morals; 



JlA*^^^ yf ramuuf oi-a. nobility of 
character; J^'Vl rj^ noble manners, 
high, moral standards; Jri^'^l Ur^ hi.r\aX 
oX'a. vice squad 

JU- AruZ^ ethio(al), moral ] i-iL:- r\^ 
offenses against publia morals 

jiU- kalaq (m. and f.) pi. jUU> XruZgan, 
i3':^i-l a}^Sq shabby, threadbare, worn 

4ii>- ^ifgra pi. jU- ^i£a^ creation; innate 
peculiarity of character, natural diapo- 
aition, nature; constitution; physiogno- 
my; hQqaia.iv by nature 

Jl»> ^tl^i natural, native, congenital, 
innate, inborn, inbred 

UIa kaUtqa rag, tatter 

3'>U- kalaq share (of positive qualities, 
of religion) | J J*:^ V (Jcaldqa) disgrace- 
ful, ignominious, despicable; a worthless 
fellow, a good-for-nothing 

jj»- kaliq pi. •UU- hulaqa*^ fit, quali- 
fied, suitable, appropriate (t_^, J for, jl to do; apt (ul to do; 
in keeping with (xJ), adequate (*-j to), 
worthy (lj of) | o\ oyi^ j^ it is (would 
be) only fair that we ..., we should ..., 
we ought to ... ; jl jJ>- j> he is apt to . . ., 
it is only natural for him that he . . . ; 
\ljA o^ jl llf j^U- {mu'lirrmn) this is 
apt to be painful, it is only natural that 
this is painful; jli U«iJu ol '*Jt^^ «./~J '»J^ 
{t'uqni'and) no more than a quick glance 
i& apt to convince us that . . . 

Ji^iji^ kaluq of firm character, stead- 
fast, upright 

jIj^I oHtuf more adequate, more 
appropriate, more natural 

3'^ kallaq Creator, Maker (God) 

4JLU- kaliqa the creation, the universe 
created by God; nature; natural dispo- 
sition, trait, characteiistic ; creatureSt 

created beings; pi. jS^ kald'iq^ crea- 
tures, create beings 

j*^! akldqi moral; ethic(al); ethicist, 
moral philosopher | J-jU-l *_^ {jurm) 
offense against public morals; ^J-U^ 
^J^pU^l {folaafa) moral science, moral 
philosophy; ethics 

4j-:A»-l akld^^^a morality, moral practice 

JLIU- kulqani dealer in old clothes 

jJU- kaliq creative; Cre&tcn, Maker 

J^ makluq created; (pi. -at, jJlJt 
maJfdli^) creature, created being 

jhjfi- muktaliq inventor, fabricator (of 

jl=j^ muktalaq fabricated, trumped 
up, invented, fictitious; apocryphal; pi. 
-di lies, falsehoods, fabrications, fictions 

^ii>- kalqin pi. j-S-ji^ kaldqin^ caldron, boiler, 

'^i!U- kalanj heath, erica {boL) 

'jUJ^:- ktUungdn {eg.) (rhizome of) galingale 
(Polypodium CalaguaJa Kz.; hot.) 

(_^) "^ kald u {kuZuw, »:^ kald') to be 
empty, vacant; — {kuluw) to be free 
(j>. or jf- from) ; to be devoid {^> of, 
lack, want (^ be in need (j^ of); 
to be vacant (office) ; — (*^ kalwa) to be 
alone (<-', Jl, a* with s.o., Jl also: with 
or in; to isolate 0,9., seclude o.s.; 
to withdraw, retire (<Jjl.ui[ li^'mitddwala 
for deliberation; court, jury); to with- 
draw for spiritual communion, in order 
to take counsel (Jf with); to devote 0.8., 
apply O.S., give one's attention (J to; *j -^ to forsake, desert s.o., leave 
s.o. in the lurch; — to pass (* s.o.), go 
by a.o. (»); to pass, elapse, go by, be 
bygone, past, over (time) | _^1 *J ^ 
(jaww) to have free scope, have freedom 



of action; JU; ^ ^ V IjamOl) it is 
not without a certain beauty; ^ j^ V 
UL- (muM2(i(;(i) it is slightly exaggerated ; 
Sljli ^ ^ V it is not quite useless; 
J *' Jl "^ to be alone vith o.s.; to 
oommune with o.s., take counsel with 
o.s., search one's heart; Cj\y^ jtt. Oi* 
t^L:. ntufl^u 'airi mnaunltn ^oloi for the 
pa«t ten years II to vacate, evacuate 
(*; to leave, leave alone (• 9.0.); 
to release, let go (a s.o., a; to desist, 
abstain, refrain (j^ from), give up (^ I iJLu J>- (toMlaAii) to let s.o. off, 
let s.o. go, release s.o.; joj u^ j« Jji- 
»^l to give s.o. a fr«e hand in, let s.o. 
have his own way with or in, let s.o. 
alone with; to open the way for s.o. to; 
JjJLI li* ikj- Ja Ipdli 'anka h. I-muytUa 
desist from such desires! IT to empty, 
void, drain, deplete {^y a of); to 
vaoate, leave uninhabited or untenanted 
(* a place) ; to evacuate (* a city) | ^1 
iLu {xMlahli) to let s.o. off, let s.o. go, 
release s.o.; J J,;-!! J»-l to open the way 
for...; «•,!• J>.l {taralaku) to dismiss, 
discharge s.o., send s.o. away; to exoner- 
ate, exculpate, clear s.o.; J <*£" ^1 
(sam'oAu) to be all ears for..., listen 
intently to...; J^ L. j^jj O; J»-l to 
let s.o. say whatever he likes, let s.o. 
talk freely V to give up, relinquish, forgo, 
abandon (^ or ^, withdraw, 
resign (^ or ,>. from); to cede, leave, 
surrender (J jp to s.o.); to lay 
down (j» an office) VIII to reti«, with- 
draw, step aside, be alone (1^ or » with) 

jL. kilu> free (,> from), devoid (y of) 

jl^ kuiHw emptiness, vacuity; freedom 
(^ trom) 

1U Tpala and :sU. L. (with foU. ace. or 
genit.) except, save, with the exception 

t-iji- jcala' emptiness, vacuity; empty 
space, void, vacancy, vacuum; open 

country | >^l c^ or >^'l j under 
the open sky, outdoors, in the open air; 
•"^'l ilM bait al-lf. toilet, water closet 

*^ kalwa pi. Ifolawdt privacy, soli- 
tude; seclusion, isolation, retirement; 
place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, 
recess; secluded room; hermitage; re- 
ligious assembly hall of tbe Druses; 
booth, cabin | i)!*^ J* alone; in retire- 
ment, in seclusion; ^1^1 l^ Jp. al- 
hammdm bathhouse 

j_4>- koioin lonely, soUtary, secluded, 
isolated, outlying; located in the open 
country, rural, rustic, country | jji*- C« 
{bait) country house 

Ja jaUiy pi. .U*-l alfliyd'^ free {,>. from), 
void, devoid (j^ of) | JUI Jr- carefree, 
easygoing, happy-go-lucky 

<LJU. ^i^ pi. b"^ kaldya beehive; cell 
(iiol.) I O Jj"JI SjJ-l yA:l {al-iayauAya 
2- vte) protoplasm; U'^ jj> from within..., 
from inside . . ., out of . . . 

•^ mifeldh nosebag 

iJit lalfliya vacating, evacuation 

>'^l ilflS emptying, voiding, dreuning; 
clearing; vacating, evacuation | Ju^ t'^\ 
i, fdbllihi his release 

J«£ taJfoUin relinquishment, abandon- 
ment, surrender, renunciation, resigna- 
tion (^ of 

f'j£A\ iJUil^ privacy, solitude 

JU. ]fdlin empty, void; open, vacant 
(office, position); free, unrestrained, 
untrammeled, unencumbered; tnie {y 
from), devoid (y of) | in numerous 
compounds corresponding to Engl, •less 
or un-, e.g., :.l!UII ^ Jl>- useless, ^ JU- 
jlSC_JI {aukian} uninhabited, untenanted, 
unoooupied; ^Jii\ JU. ^i d-dain not 
bound by, without obligation to, free 
{^ from) ; JUI JU carefree, easygoing, 
happy-go-lucky; — (pi. Jl/- JiaviSlin) 


past, bygone (time) | UU^I OfjiJI the post 
centuries; J[>J-1 ^Ll^l j fi l-ayyami l- 
katodli in the day a paat 

>- kamma u (kamm) to sweep (a a room) ; — 
i u {kamm, ^ji- kumum) to exude a 
rotten, foul smell; to rot, putrify, decay 

J- kumm pi. a\J^\ akmam coop, 
chicken coop, brooder; poultry pen 

AJh- kamma putrid smell, stench 

>U- kamm stinking, rotten, putrid, 
foul-amelling; kdm look up alphabetically 

ji mukimm stinking, rotten, putrid, 

^j- kamija a {kamaj\ to spoil, rot, decay 

a>- kamada u i^ji- kumud) to go out, die 
(fire); to abate, subside, let up, calm 
down, cease, die down IV to extinguish, 
put out (a fire); to calm, appease, 
placate, soothe, lull, still, quiet (a; 
to suppress, quell (»; to subdue, 
soften, deaden, dull (»; to stifle, 
smother, kill (*; fig.) 

jj>- kumud extinction; decline, de- 
generation, deterioration; quietness, still- 
ness, tranquillity, calm ; immobility, 

i\j~\ ikmdd extinction, putting out; 
calming, soothing, placation, appease- 
ment, lulling, stilling; subduing, soften- 
ing, dulling; settlement; suppression, 
quelling (of a riot) 

-L.U- kdmid dying; abating, subsiding; 
calm, tranquU, still, quiet 

j>- katnara u (kamr) and II to cover, hide, 
conceal (m; to leaven, raise (> 
dough); to ferment (a, cause 
fermentation <* in) III to permeate, 
pervade (a, mix, blend (* with); 
to possess, seize, overcome (• b.o., e.g., 
an idea, a feeling) IV to leaven, raise (* 
dough) ; to ferment (*, cause 

fermentation (* in); to harbor, entertain 
(*; to bear a grudge, feel resent- 
ment (J against s.o.) V to ferment, be 
in a state of fermentation ; to rise (dough) ; 
to veil the head and face (woman) VI to 
conspire, plot, collude, scheme, intrigue 
(J* against) VIII to ferment, be in a 
state of fermentation; to rise (dough); 
to become ripe, ripen (also fig.: an idea 
in s.o.'s mind) 

y- kamr m, and f., pi. jji- kumur 
wine; pi. alcoholic beTerages, liquor 

iji- kamra wine 

iSjT- kamri golden brown, reddish 
brown, bronze- colored (actually, wine- 

hy- kamriya pi. -at wine poem, 
bacchanalian verse 

jl^- kimdr pi. »^i akmira, jT- kumur 
veil covering head and face of a woman 

jli^ kumdr aftereffect of intoxication, 

j^ kamir leavened (dough) ; ripe, 
mature, mellow; leaven; leavened bread 

Ij^ kamira pi. Jir- kamd'ir^ leaven; 
ferment; barm, yeast; enzyme (chem.); 
(fig.) starter, nucleus, basis {from which greater develops) 

jLf- kammdr wine merchant, keeper 
of a wineshop 

4)1^ kammdra wineshop, tavern 

j-j^ kimmir winebibber, drunkard, 
tippler, sot 

j^ takmir leavening, raising (of 
dough); fermenting, fermentation 

jl^i iktimdr (process of) fermentation 

jjJ^ makmur drunk, intoxicated, 

j*Ji mukiamir fermenting, fermented; 

^jj- II to quintuple, mate fivefold, multiply 

by fire (> e.tb.); to make pentAgonal 

(*; to divide into fire parts (a 


^jj- kitm^ pi. ^^\j-\ akmds one fifth | 

asdoQihl and ^!4-<V L-l.^1 "rV* ('*" 
QAJdAan) to rack one^s brain in search 
of a way out; to be at one's wit's end; bo 
scheme. Intrigue 

i-> kamsa (f. ^jS- hams) five 
jji* i_>* kamscUa 'aSara (f. S^^ic ^j-^ 
kamsa 'aSrata) fifteen 

Oj^ kamiiin fiity | Oi—^' -h^ '*^ 
ai-k. Whitsuntide, Pentecost; ,>.-J^l -u-1 
ahad al-k. Whitsunday ; ui"^' ' f ^' oy yd?rt 
al-kamdatn the period of about 50 days 
between Eaater and Whitsuntide; D u^-J- 
and j^lr- khamsin, a hot southerly wind 
in Egypt 

J__f* xsr 'id kamainl 50th anniver- 

,j^ kamls and ^j-^^l fji yaum al-k. 
Thursday | -uJ-J ,_ri> *■ aX-jaaad CorpuB 
Chriflti Day (CAf.); j-^l ^ri^ &• oi-M^ 
jl^Vl ,j-t*- fc. of-ftsrdr, and ^l ,j-t*- 
A. aJ-'aW Maundy Thuraday (CAr.) 

^li- kammaa pi. l—li- fcarMmwo 
(mo^.) sharecropper leceiving one fifth 
of the crop as wages 

^\^ kumdsi fivefold, quintuple; 
consisting of five consonants (gram.) \ 
\j\jj\ ^^\*^ (lawdya) pentagonal, five- 

4_J^ humaim {mor,, pronounced 
kmlaa) ornament in the shape of a hand 
(worn by women and children a^ a 
talisman against the evil eye] 

,_^IJ-'1 <A-kdmia the fifth 

^j.^ mukammas pentagonal, five- 
cornered; pentagon; fivefold, quintuple; 

O pentameter 

jjii- kamaSa % u (fcomi) and II to scratch (* 
e.g., the face, the skin, with the nails) 

jLi- kamS pi. ^J^Ji^• kumiii scratch, 
scratch mark, scar 

<i\j' kumdSa pi. -di scratch, scar 

^joi- katna^a u and kamipa a to be empty, 
hungry (stomach) 

^ji^lJ- kanif, j,LJI ^^^J- k. aUba^n, 
UJ-i ^JA:*• k. ai-haSd with an empty 
stomach, hungry 

^jJill ,j^\ akma^ cU-qadam pi. ^;A«U-> 
akdmi?^ hollow of the sole (of the foot) | 
pXiJI ^j^\ Jl ^l/il j- from head to toe 

*> kama'a a {kam'^ fji- kumu') to limp, 
walk with a limp 

Ji- kamala u 0ji- ktnniU) to be unknown, 
obscure, undistinguiflhed ; to be weak, 

J> kaml and "^ kamta nap, the 
rough, hairy surface of a fabric ; fibers 

Ji' kamil languid, sluggish, dull, 

Jj>- kurnUl obscurity; weakness, las- 
situde, languor, lethargy; indolence, slug- 
gishness, inactivity; apathy, indifferenoe ; 
sleepiness, drowsiness 

UJ- kamila pi. Jjli" kajnd'iP place 
with luxuriant tree growth ; thicket, 
brush, scrub 

J^U- kdmil unknown, obscure, un- 
distinguished, unimportant, minor ; weak, 
languid, sluggish 

J*it mukmdl velvet-like fabric, velvet 

J^ mukmali velvety | Jjft aU- (jUd) 
deerskin, buckskin 

A?- II to guess, conj ecture, surmise ; to 
make conjectures (a as to); to -•"'"''•' 
appraiae, estimate (* 



^J^ takmin appraisal, assessment, 
estimation; L-Jt^ takminan and ^*k- J* 
approximately, roughly 

^^j^ mukammin appraiser, assessor 

^j>- kanna i {j"-'-*- kanln) to speak nasally, 
nasalize; to twang, speak through the 

kj^ kunna nasal twang 
^1^ kanln twanging, nasal twang 
js^-l akann^, f. •U»- kanna ^ twanging, 
speaking through the nose 

^^ kunn (= j^ kumm) pi. jL»-l akndn coop, 
chicken coop, brooder 

ilJL*- kanita a to be soft, efiFeminate V to 
display effeminate manners, become or 
be effeminate 

.Ijji^ kanU oft, effeminate 

^^:^ kunld pi. ^l>b*- kindt, ijli>- kandtd 

4^ji*:- kunuta effeminacy 

»1^' UtiMnnut effeminacy 

it^ mukannat bisexual; effeminate; 
powerless, impotent, weak 

j»-,:ji- kanjar pi. j^-Lj:- kandjir^ dagger 

ji^:->^ kankana to nasalize, speak nasally; to 
twang, speak through the nose 

Jxj^ kandaqa to dig a ditch or trench (LjXj:-); 
to take up positions, prepare for battle 

Jii*^ kandaq pi. Jillj^- kanddiq^ ditch; 

vLfJ^ kunzuwdnlya megalomania 

i_>J^ kanzab Satan, Deril 

jj^ kinzlr pi. _rjhji- kanazlr^ swine, pig, 
tiog! i&J JJ^ [barrl) wild boar; _rjl*- 
scrofula, ecrofuloais {med.) 

'tj'J^ kinzira sow 

(SjJ^ kandziri scrofulous 

i^UJl al-kamids epithet of the Devil (proper- 
ly speaking, he who withdraws when the 
name of God is mentioned) 

,jJji~^ aknas^, f. »L 
kuns pugnosed 

1a»- kinSdr fern (bot.) 

kansd"^, pi. 

kinnait^ pi. ^_|AJbji kandnis^ piglet 

j-^:^ kijisir pi. _^L*- kand^ir^ little finger | 
Jp (_^lii.'l) ^r-aiA-'l JiJc to give top 
rating because of its excellence, put 
above everything ^ise 

jCji' kana'a a i9\j^ kunu') to yield, surrender, 
bow, stoop (J or J( to s.o.), humble o.e., 
cringe (J or Jl before s.o.) 

Ij^ kanu' submissive, servile^ meek, 
humble ; treacherous, perfidious, dis 

9\j^ kunu' Bubmiesiveness, meekness, 

ija:^ kanaf {eg.} twanging, nasal twang 

jii*- kanfara to snuffle, snort 

JCji- kunfus and »l kJ- kunfusd' pi. ^li>- 

kandjis^ dung beetle, scarab 

(^ kanaqa u [hinq) to choke (> s.o.); to 
suffocate, stiffe, smother, strangle, throttle, 
choke to death (» s.o.); to throttle down 
{techn.i t; to slow down, cut, check, 
suppress (a Ill to quarrel, have a 
fight (a with s.o.) TI to quarrel, dispute, 
have a fight (» with s.o.) VII pass, of I; 
VIII to be throttled, be suppressed; to 
be tight, constricted (throat); to bo 
strangled, be choked to death 

f^yji- kanq strangling, strangulation; 
throttling, suppreaaion | jl^Vl ,>j^ k. 
al-anvjdr dim-out 

xJl djc>- kanqat (kunqat) al-yad wrist 

3\l^ kundq suffocation; angina {med.}; 
kundq and Jjl U- kdnuq quinsy, diphtheria 


(med.); pi. i^J^ kawdniq^ and ^^|>>- 
kawdnlq^ do. 

JU»- kanndq choking, throttling, stran- 

j:.)£ majcnaq neck, throat | <X'Ji^c »JL>-I 
to grab B.o. by the throat, bear down on 
s.o. ; to have power over s.o, 

Jli^ Hndq strangling dord; neck, 
throat I Jc JUi^l J«h^ {dayyaqa) to 
tighten the grip around s.o.'b throat, 
tread on a.o.'a neck, oppress s.o., beset 
B.C. grievously; AjUf> JU-I bo grab s.o. by 
the throat 

,j\iii- kindq and "^ih^ kindqa quarrel^ 
fight, row 

Jl:::*-! ihtirMq suffocation, asphyxia- 
tion; conBtriction; asphyxia (med.) 

jjU- kdniq choking, strangling; suf- 
focating,, asphyxiating, sti£ing, smother- 
ing; throttling, throttle- (in compounds; 
techn.); (pi. Jl]^ kawdniq') choke coil, 
reactor {radio); gorge, ravine, canyon ] 
jJU- JU asphyxiating gas; t^-UI jpU- k. 
ad-di'b wolfsbane, monkshood, aconite 

Jyj£ makniiq strangled ; suffocated, 
stifled, smothered; suppressed, choking 
(voice, laughter, etc.); constricted; stran- 
gulated; throttled 

j:^ muktaniq crammed, jammed, 
crowded, chock-full (i_j with) 

(_^ and ^^) \:ji- hand u, ^ kaniya a {^^ 
kanan) to use obscene language IT to hit 
hard, aiflict grievously, wear down, ruin, 
destroy, crush (Js s.o.,; said of fate) 

^ kalian obscene language; 
indecent orobscene; prostitution; fornica- 

**-^^ kawdja pi. -a( sir, Mr. {title and form 
of address, esp., for Christians and 
Westerners, used with or without the 
name of the person so addressed) 

b\j^ kuvfdn, kiwdn pi. dj^\ akiei^na, ^jU-1 
akdvjin' table [ 41jjJI o\yi- k. az-zina 
dressing table 

**-j^ kOffa (eg.) teacher, schoolmaster 

r}»- n (eg.) to rot, decay, spoil 

ry- kauk (ooU.; n. un. i) peach (eg.); 
plum (syr.) 

*^j»- kauka pi. j-j»- kuwak sky- 
light, windowhke opening; wicket (of a 
canal lock, of a gate); (eg.) alley con- 
necting two streets 

djp- kuda pi. 'dt, '^j>- kuvxid helmet 

\jj^) jU- kdTa u (jl^ kwwdr) to low, moo 
(cattle) ; — jji- kawira a {jj»- kawar) and 
jU- kdra u to decline in force or vigor; to 
grow weak, spiritless, languid, to languish, 
flag; to dwindle, give out (strength) 

jjj^- kauT pi, jl^l akwdr^ tl)l_/-:- kirdn 
inlet, bay 

jj^ kawar weakness, fatigue, enerva- 
tion, languor, lassitude 

jl^ kuxD&r lowing, mooing 

jl^ kawwar weak, languid, strength- 

^^S■iJ^ ^"^ pJ- *l>!>*- kawdrina parson, curate, 
priest ; see also under j^ 

O^Jj*- kurue choir (of a church) 

fSjj»- kauzaqa to impale (s s.o.); to comer, 
drive into a comer, get into a bad fix 
{• 8.0.) 
JjjU- see j>- 

t^y- JjJ waraq kauSaq wrapping paper; 
blotting paper 

^,j^^ ku^ (coll.; n. un. •) palm leaves 

A.,ry~ icu^a (eg,) plaitwork of palm 
leaves (resembling that of Panama hats; 
used as a tarboosh lining) 

^ kiwd^ art of palm-leaf plaiting 



^^yj*' kawcL^ and ^j*-l aee ^j*' 

H^j^) ^^ bo4a u {tau4, ^^ fciyad) to 
wade (a into water); to plunge, dive, 
rush (a into}^ tackle courageoualy 
(a, embark boldly (a on)j to 
penetrate (a or J into), become absorbed, 
engrossed (a or j in); to go into a 
subject (j), taJc© up (j a subject), deft] 
(j with) I '^j»l\ ^^ {ma'raka) to rush 
into battle; v^' j^ c^'*" (fft^wra /-Aarfi) 
to enter the war 

,j-i^ Ajaiid plunge, rush (into); enter- 
ing, entry (into, e.g., into war, into 
negotiations) ; penetration ; search { j 
into) , examination, dificussion, treat- 
ment (j of a subject) 

i^LJt maka4a pi. -at, ^jLi- makawvp 

'^LJi see ^ 

{.J*^) ^U- Aid/a (1st pers. perf. Jctftu) a 
(Jpauf, iilji makdfa, ii-*^ ^*/^) to be 
frightened, scared; to be afraid (a, » or 
^ of), dread (a, a or ^ s.o. or]; to 
fear (a, • or j- s.o.,; Jp for s.o,, for; jl that) II and IV to frighten^ scare, 
alarm, fill with fear (» s.o.) V = I 

ijr^ kauf fear, dread {^ of); lij*- 
kaufan for fear {^ of), fearing (J* for) 

U-j^ klja fear, dread (j- of) 

\l>]y^ kawwdft iJAjy^ kawvnf faintheart- 
ed, fearful, timid, timorous; coward, 

J^j»~ I akwaf^ more timorous ; more 
dreadful, more to be feared 

iiLi makdja fear, dread 1 61 iilj^ {makd' 
jatan) for fear that ..,, afraid that... 

iJjLJt makdwij^ {pi. zu liLJt) fears, 
apprehensions, anxieties; horrors, dan- 
gers, perils 

doj^ takwij and liU-l tta/a intimida- 
tion, bullying, cowing, frightening, scar 

•^y^ takav>wuf fear, dread 

(JJIa kd*ii pi. ^jj^ kuvnoaf fearful, 
timid, timorous; scared, frightened, 
alarmed {j» by); afraid {^ of); anxious 
(J* about), apprehensive (Jt for) 

iji^ mdlpif feared, dreaded; danger- 
ous, perilous 

._j-^ mukif fear- inspiring, frightful, 
dreadful, terrible, horrible 

J'U- look up alphabetically 

ijj>- 11 to grant, accord, give, concede (a a to 
s.o., also A J; esp., the right, the 
power to do, bestow, confer (a * 
upon s.o., also a J), vest, endow 
(a 6.0. with, also a J) 

JU- kdl pi. Jj^i akivdl, JjJ»- A:u'u2, 
*Jj_J»- ku'ula (maternal) undo; — (pi. ii%*- 
klldn) mole, birthmark (on the face); 
O patch, beauty spot 

UU- kdla pi, -at (maternal) aunt 

<^j^ k(iwal chattels, property, esp., 
that consisting in livestock and slaves; 
servants; (eg.) dancer; effeminate person, 

i\j^ kaitli supervisor, overseer (of a 
plantation) ; gardener 

VjJ»- ku'ula relationship of the 
maternal uncle 

Jy^ mukawwal authorized (<^ to) 

^U- look up alphabetically 

^(j_j>-) oU. kdna u (feaun, <jL>. kiydTia) to 
be disloyal, faithless, false, treacherous, 
perfidious, act disloyally, treacherously, 
perfidiously (a toward s.o.); to betray 
(a 8 0.); to cheat, dupe, gull, hoodwink 
(ft a.o.), impose (a upon), deceive {<^jj 
one's wife); to fool, deceive, mislead 


(• 8.O. ; said, e.g., of the memory); to 
forsake, let down, desert (» s.o.); to fail 
(* s.o.; e.g., the voice, and the like); to 
faU to keep (* e.g., a promise), break (>.^e 
'aidan a contract) II to regard as or call 
faithleea, false, disloyal, treacherous, 
dishonest, unreliable (• s.o.); to distrust, 
mistrust (» s.o.) Y to impair, harm, hurt, 
prejudice (» VIIl to dupe, gull, 
cheat, deceive, double-eroas, betray (• 
s.o.) X by^^ istahvana to distrust, mis- 
trust (t s.o.) 

li\^ hiydna faithlessness, falseness, 
disloyalty, treachery, perfidy; breach of 
faith, betrayal; treason; deception, fool- 
ing I ^jUVI *J\^ b- al-amdva breach of 
faith; I— li» iiLJ. {'uima) high treason; 
j^l ^L?i- breach of promise 

jjj^ ka'un faithless, false, disloyal, 
traitorous, treacherous, perfidious; cin- 
reliable, tricky, deceptive 

ijl^ kawwait unreliable, faithless, 
disloyal, treacherous, perfidious; traitor 

JU. ka'in pi. j]j>- kuwwan, i^j^ 
kawana disloyal, faithless, false, un- 
reliable, traitorous, treacherous, per- 
fidious; traitor 

•jU- and '■uU- look up alphabetically 

'j\ji- look up alphabetically 

■^jji- kawa i {>\j>- kawd', ifji- kawan) to be 
empty, be hungry; — kawiya a (>\j>- 
kawd') to be empty, bare, dreaiy, 
desolate, waste 

,\ji- Ifawa' and jj>. kauxm emptiness 
(of the stomach), hunger 

jU. kawin empty, vacant; dreary, 
waste, desolate | <ijjt J» jl>- ('uruiiii) 
completely devastated; ^li>)' tSJ^ ^^ 
l-wifSd, (= t^liyi Jl^) ■with an empty 
pouch, empty-handed, without a catch 

■jjf- III to join (. s.o.), join the company of 
(.), accompany (. s.o.) 

^ji- kuwaiy little brother 

tyi- kuwa brotherliness, firatemity 
(= ljii-\ uiruwa) 

jLjft mukdwin brotherly, fraternal 

jLt kiyar (coll.; n. un. I) cucumber | jiii jLa 
k. iai^r (ej.) drumstick tree, purging 
cassia (Cassia fistula; bot,); *ii j\f~ k. 
qalSa (eg.) gherkins, pickles 

(,_^) i.^U. kdba i (4^ kaiba) to fail, mis- 
carry, be without success, be unsuccess- 
ful; to be frustrated, be dashed, be dis- 
appointed (hopes) ; to go wrong II and IT 
to cause to fail; to thwart, frustrate, 
foil, defeat (t; to disappoint, dash 
{tHj SmSlaka s.o.'s hopes) V = I 

«_»- kaiba failure, miscarriage, defeat, 
frustration; fizzle, flop; disappointment | 
'<^ Jj walad k., f. *^ >iJj bint k. {eg.) 
a good-for-nothing, a ne'er-do-well 

^U. kd'ib failing ; abortive, unsuccess- 
ful; disappointed 

{j^) jU- kdra i to choose, make one's choice; 
to prefer { Jt » to) II to make or let 
(» s.o.) choose (j^t between, j from), 
give (* s.o.) the alternative, option or 
choice (O-i between, j in); to prefer 
(J» * to) III to vie, compete (• with 
S.O.); to make or let (1 s.o.) choose, give 
(• s.o.) the choice, option or alternative 
V to choose, select, pick (*, • s.o., 
YIIl to choose, make one's choice; to 
choose, select, elect, pick (a, • s.o.,, 
fix upon s.o. or (*, •); to prefer 
(J. » to) I ... >Jj>- Jl il jUi-l (j»« 
wdriM) approx. : the Lord has taken . . . 
unto Himself X to seek or request what 
is good or best (*) for o.s. (» from s.o.); 
to consult an oracle, cast lots j j il jU.i-1 
to ask God for proper guidance in 

jui kair pi. jLi- kiydr, jLi-'i akyar 
good; excellent, outstanding, superior, 
admirable; better; best; — (pi. j_>=*- 


jruyur) good thing, blesaing; wealth, 
property; — good, benefit, interest, 
advantage; welfare; charity | ^Ul j^*- 
the best of all people; ^LJ1jL>-,^LIIjLaI 
the best people, the pick of the human 
race; ^iJL* ^ _^ he is better than you; 
ill j^A _^ it ifl better for you j jJ-1 Jf jJ^ I 
the very best; pUJi jj-*l {'dmm) the com- 
monweal, general welfare; ^Ull ^1 aJjj 
welfare atate; ^' for the benefit of; J^i^ 
u^\ li-Jc. anfusihim foT their own good; 
jJ^l Jl^l charitable deeds; J^il\ ^L^ 
fabdh al-k. and _/Xi» iL-L^ good morn- 
ing! ^'Lt t^'i {dakarahU) to retain a good 
impression of s.o.; to speak well of s.o. 

iSj^ h^tn charitable, beneficent, be- 
nevolent, philanthropic | *ij^ v^ (yam* 
'iya) charitable organization 

<i_J^»~ Ifairiya charity, charitableness, 
benevolence, beneficence 

J*- b^^yyir generous, liberal, openhand- 
ed, munificent; charitable, beneficent, 
benevolent; benign, gracious, kind 

V*- Jpaira pi. -3t good deed, good 
thing; pi; Cji>>^ resources, treasures (e.g., 
of the earth, of a coiintry), boons, bless- 

*j^ ^»m and kiyara the best, choice, 
prime, flower, pick, elite 

ti_r*- fnri gillyflower (hot.) 

j^\ akyar^, f. ^SJ^ itra, ^SJJ^ kiird, 
pi. j-U-l akdyiT^ better, superior 

jL>- kiydr choice; option, exercise of 
the power of choice {lal. Law)', refusal, 
right of withdrawal (/«(, Lavi)\ th& best, 
choice, prime, flower, pick, elite; see also 


{Jj^ ^tyari optional, facultative; 

jLi^l ikiiydr choice; election (also jx>I.; 
pi. -at); selection; preference (J« to); 
option; free will {philoa.); l;l~»-l iktiydran 

of one's own accord, spontaneously, 

jjL:*.! ijctiydri voluntary, facultative, 
elective (studies) 

jvi. mukayyar having the choice or 

jLiit muktdr free to choose, having the 
choice or option ( j in) , volunteering, 
Ijbi mvJcidran (adv.) voluntarily, spon- 
taneously, of one's own accord ; choice, se- 
lect, exquisite ; chosen, preferred, favorite ; 
a favorite; oljUJfi selection, selected writ- 
ings, anthology; (pi. j^ljt matdlir^) vil- 
lage chief, mayor of a village {Syr.^ Let., 

ob>jjU see j>- 

(uTi^) Lf^ ^^*** * iu^ hois, oL-i»- kayaadn) 
to break (i-> an agreement, a promise) 

^jMi- kaii sackcloth, sacking, canvaA 

<li^ kaiia piece of sackcloth; (pi. •di, 
^_,^»- kiyaS) sack; straw mattress, pallet; 
Bedouin tent 

pj f'-l^ see *i»- 

(JA-*:-) J«U. kdfa i {kaif) and II to sew, stitoh 

J«-A kai^ pi. J^^ Jcuyut, J^U^I akyaf, 
ollbj^ klfdn thread; twine, cord; paok^ 
thread, string; fiber | J«l iu^ k. amcU a 
spark of hope, a thread of hope 

^J^ kaifi threadlike; fibrous 

J»L>- kiyaf needle 

^L*:- A:iyd^ sewing ; needlework, tailor- 
ing, dressmaking | *^iS\ *iT sewing 

JvLa^ kayySi pi. -un taUor 

<l>Li:- kayydfa pi. -at dressmaker; seam- 

JiJ^ mikyaf needle 

.U'U- kd'ij tailor 



i(J^) JU kola a to imagine, fancy, think, 
believe, suppose (jl that); to oonaider, 
deem, think (• < e.o. to be .... * > 
to be ...), regani (•> s.o. as, ** s.tb. aa) 
II to make (Jl B.C.) believe (jl that), 
suggest (Jl to 8.O., t e.tb.)i give s.o. (Jl) 
the impression that {») | jl (<J) 4JI J,,^ 
[^yyi£a) he imagined, fancied^ thought 
that..., it seemed, it appeared to him 
that...; ilji L Je (Jfaygaiati ^^1 
being understood) as the heart dictates, 
i.e., as chance will have it, at random, 
unhesitatingly IT to be dubious, doubt- 
ful, uncertain, intricate V to imagine, 
fancy (*,); to present itself, reveal 
itself (J to s.o.'s mind), become the 
object of imagination, appear (= II 
kuyyxla; J to s.o.) | jX\ u J,* (iairo) 
to suspect good qualities in a.o., have 
an inkling of 8.o.*s good qualities, thinks 
well of s.o., have a good opinion of s.o. 
VI to pretend (cj J to s.o., that ...), 
act (J toward s.o., ^ as if); to feel self- 
important, be conceited; to behave in a 
pompous manner, swagger, strut about; 
to conceive eccentric ideas, get all kinds 
of fantastic notiona, have a bee in one's 
bonnet; to appear dimly, in shadowy 
outlines; to appear, show (Jc on), hover 
(J» about; e.g., a smile about s.o.'s 
lips), flit (J^ across, e.g., a shadow 
across s.o.'s face, etc.) VIII to feel aelf- 
important, be conceited; to behave in a 
pompous manner, swagger, strut about 

JU:- kaySl pi. IL^.! akyila disembodied 
spirit, ghost, specter; imagination; phan- 
tom, apparition; phantasm, fantasy, 
chimera, vision; shadow, trace, dim 
reflection | ,lii jLi- k. iakk slightest 
doubt; i\j»m^\ JL,^ k. of-pahrc^ scarecrow ; 
Jul tiift- k, af-fiU shadow play 

ill—,;. kaySla pi. -St ghost, spirit, 
specter; phantom; phantasm, fantasy, 

JL>^ iaySix imaginary, unreal; ideal, 
ideational, conceptual; Utopian 

J^l ajcyaP more conceited, haughtier, 

J^l a^yal pi. J^ HI, jiUI akayil' 
green woodpecker 

^•JiJ- Ryots'* {{.) conceit, conceitedneas, 
haughtiness, pride; .•^\ al-ffuyali'a 
haughtily, proudly 

ii^-r- iail^la conceit, conceitedneas, 
snobbery, arrogance, haughtiness 

<ij£ ma^Ua conceit, conceitedneas, 
snobbery, arrogance, haughtiness; (pi. 
Jjlit makayiP) indication, sign, symptom, 
characteristic; pi. JjlJ£ visions, mental 
images, imagery 

J_ji^ ia^yil play acting | J:,^' 0* /"'"' 
at-t, dramatic art 

JJ« takayyul pi. -St imagination, 
phantasy; delusion, hallucination, fancy, 
whim, fantastic notion 

JJc' iakayyull fantastic, fanciful, 

iJL:»-l i^fiyaZ pride; arrogance, haughti- 

iljt mukayyila imagination, phantasy 

Jjc mukil dubious, doubtful, uncer- 
tain, intricate, tangled, confused; confus- 
ing, bewildering 

Jliie muktSl conceited, haughty, ar- 

'J^ II to gallop (on horseback) 

Jji- Ifail (coll.) pi. Jjji. tfayul horses; 
horsepower, H.P. | JJ^I JL- horse rac- 
ing, horse race 

JL»- kayyai pi. :, -tin horseman, rider 

VUi- kayyala cavab? (Ir.; Eg. 1939) 

4)L>^ <ji^ sariya kayyala cavalry 
squadron (Eg. 1939) 


'JU- Bee Jy- 

^ ^ II bo pitch, one's tent, to camp ; to settle 
down; to stay, linger, rest, lie down, Ue 
(^ on, J or (^ &t & place}; (fig.) to reign 
(e.g., calm, silence, peace, etc.; j or i^ 
at, in), settle {^|fr over) V to pitch one'a 
tent; to camp 

<^ kaima pi. -at, A^ kiydm, ^ 
Jfiyam tent; tarpaulin; arbor, bower; 

^L»- kayydm tentmaker 

^jc muhayyam pi. -di camping ground, 
camp, encampment 

'^ kim natural disposition, nature, temper, 
character; inollaation, bent, tendency | 
<^ Af^l (eg.) to feel s.o.'s pulse, sound 
B.C. out 

"^U- look up alphabetically 

D V^ kayya pi. -at noose 

L-»U da'aba a (da'6, da'ah, i-jjJj du*yb) to 
persist, persevere, be indefatigable, un- 
tiring, tireless (j or J* in; to go 
in for {^), apply o.s., devote o.a. 
(J» to), practice eagerly ( J» 

i-jli da*h pi. L-iJjl a^vh habit 

i-jii da*6, da^ah and ^jJj rfu'tlb 
persistence, perseverance, tirelessness, 
indefatigability, assiduity, eagerness 

yJ^ da'ih and <_JU dSih addicted, 
devoted, persistent, assiduous, eager, 
indefatigable, untiring, tireless ( J» in) 

, L-jj»j da*vh untiring, tireless, indefati- 
gable, persevering, persistent 

i_j|jl ad'ab^ more persistent, more 

sjtj ddda governess, dry nurse, nurse 

^Ij dd§ pi. -at brand (made on cattle, etc.) 

JU eioi name of the letter j 

Ulj ddiiyd d&hlia(s) {bot.) 

Ub iama checkers | UlaJl o>-_^ lanhat ad-d. 

Aj\A\i see <ll^j 

^l.> (Fr. denklU) dantiUa l&oe 

ji 1^ ddnaqj ddniq pL jj Ijj ^wdni^' an ancient 
coin, = ^/g dirham; small coin; a square 
measure {Eg.; = 4 eahm = 29.17 m') 

iSjU'U danmark Denmark 

JjLt'Ia danmarkl Danish 

i^jjloil ad-ddnSh the Danube 

<j\i daya pi. -dt wet nurse; midwife 

<_/j (2a£6a » ((2a66, <.^j c2a!f{6] to creep, crawl 
(reptile); to proceed, advance, or move 
slowly; to go on all fours; to enter (j, come (j into); to steal, creep 
(4.^.^ J into 8.0. 's heart; of a feeling, e.g., 
doubt); to spread dj over, in, through), 
fill, pervade, invade (j ; to 
gain ground; to gain ascendancy (J 
in S.O.; of a condition, an idea, a sensa- 
tion); to stream in, rush in (of sensations, 
J upon B.o.) I SLi-l <_^j AJ ^^ {d. 
al-haydh) to gain vitality II to sharpen, 
point, taper (> 

u^j dvbb pi. i^Li^l adbdbf 4^j dibaba 
bear | ^^Vl i^aJl {a^gar) Little Bear, 
Ursa Minor (aatron.); j^TVl >-j-ii\ (aJcbar) 
Great Bear, Ursa Major {cutron,) 


j^ dubbl ursine 

hi dabba aand hill, mouud 

^.-Ai i dabib creeping, crawling ; in- 
filtration; influx, inflow, flow (e.g., of 
senfifttions, of life, of vigor) ; reptile 

i_jLjj dabbab creeping^crawUng, repent, 

4jLjj dabbdba pi. -at tank, armored car 

t_jA. madabb: *«** Jl J^J' ^-^ 0* 
(?7Miflo66tfc») from the lower Nile to its 

0)3 dabba pi. k-jlj3 daioabh* animal, 
beast; riding animal (horse, mule, don- 

Ljj^ duvnibba tiny animal, animalcule; 

^A. mudabbab pointed, tapered 

)f J II to embellish, decorate, adorn, ornament 
(a; to put in good style, formulate, 
compose, write down, put down in 

writing (> 

r-Lji dtbdj pi. ^Lji dababif Bilk 

i^Lj d{b£;a (n. un. of r^i^) brocade; 
introductory verses or lines, proem, 
preamble; face, visage; style, elegance 
of style; renown, repute, standing, 

^Jj tadblj embellishment, adornment, 
ornamentation; composition, writing (of 
a book) 

ol^i^ mudabbajdt embellifihrnents of 
Bpeecb, fine fl^gures of speech 

i_^Ajj dabdaba to tread, tap 

tjJu> dabdaba sound of footsteps, foot- 
fall . pitapat ; pattering or clattering 
noise; snapping, flapping noise 

4jjAj^ dabduba pi. ^^■>'^-3 dabadib* point, 
tip, tapered end 

'^j dabara u (j^j dubur) to turn one's 
back; to elapse, paae, go by (time) II to 
make arrangements, make plans (> for), 
prepare, plan, organize, design, frame, 
devise, concert, arrange, get up, bring 
about (*; to hatch (a a plot, etc.); 
to contrive, work up (* a ruse); to 
direct, conduct, manage, run, engineer, 
steer, marshal, regulate (*, be in 
charge (* of); to manage well, economize 
(«,) I ^U^ ji {kiffatan) to devise a 
plan; jj^UI j-.^ to conduct the course of 
business, be in charge IT to turn one's 
back (jp or J* on s.o.); to flee, run 
away; to escape, dodge; to slip away 
T to be prepared, planned, organized, 
managed; to reflect, ponder (j or * on); 
to consider, weigh, contemplate (j or 
*; to treat or handle with care, 
with circumspection {j. VI to 
face in opposite directions, stand back to 
back; to be contrary, opposite, opposed; 
to be inconsistent, incompatible X to 
turn the back (• on s.o.) 

ji dvbft dubur pi. jLjjI adbdr rump 
backside, buttocks, posteriors; rear part, 
rear, hindpart ; back ; last part, end, tail | 
ji J* behind, at the back, in the rear; 
from behind, from the rear; "j-i dj 
tuaUd dvburahU to turn one's back; to 
flee, run away 

^^^J do^rt trailing behind, belated, 

ijz dabra turn (of fate) 
jjiz <2a&ur west wind 
j»ji dabbUr pi. j^^j^ doAdfrir" hornet; 

joOj iadbir pi. -at planning, organiza- 
tion; direction, management, disposal, 
regulation; economy, eoonomization ; — 
(pi. jylu; taddbir*) measure, move, step | 
Jj^l _rjXi t. al-manxil housekeeping, 
household management; J>i- joJj (man* 
zilt) do.; ;<i*iyi jy}-^^, ^^ and juloJl iicl 



4.^*>Ui (ittakada) to take the necessary 

jU^I idbdr flight, retreat 

jXi tadabbur reflection^ meditation (j 
on), thinking (j about); consideration, 
contemplation (j of) 

y\Xi taddbur diflparity, diseimilarity, 

j\i dabir past, bygone (time); the 
ultimate* utmost, extremity, end; root | 
*^^\ j\:> aIij {ddbira i-Sai*) to eradicate, 
root out, suppress radically; 
j\jS\ ^^'^\j {amsi) sometime in the past; 
j\jS\ ,j-*ir t_-*3 (ifca-offwi d-ddbiri) to 
vanish into thin air, disappear without 
leaving a trace (actually: like yesterday 
gone by) 

yj^ 7nud<ibbir manager, director; ruler, 
disposer; leader; ringleader | JjSSl jX* 
schemer, intriguer, intrigant 

j<u mudbirz "iikSsj \jXt mitdbiran wa- 
muqbilan from the rear and from in front 

'ijLjj dubara {= -jUji) packthread, string, 
twine, cord, rope; thread 

^^j dibs sirup, molasses, treacle, esp. of 

*^_^j dabbua pi. ,_,rij'^-> dabdbX^ pin; safety 
pin I tf>JSCjl ^^J safety pin 

jjljj dahaJ^ junk, rubbish, trash; — dabi 
rubblestone, rubble; crushed rock (used 
as substratum in macadamizing) 

^j dahaga a \ u {dabg) to tan (a a hide) 

4frLj dibdga tanning, tanner's trade 

j-ljj dabbag tanner 

4AJ.U madhaga pi. aiJ-u maddbig^ tan- 

^i dahiqa a (dabaq) to stick, adhere (i_j to); 
to cleave, cling (»-< to) II to catch with 
birdlime (a a bird) 

jj^ dibq birdlime 

jjj dabiq sticky, gluey, limy 

di>i dabaka u (dabk) to stamp the feet; to 
dance the dabka (see below) 

<5^^ dabka {syr.) a group dance in 
which the dancers, lined up with locked 
arms or holding hands, stamp out the 
rhythm and sing 

<Lj dihla pi. Jji dibal ring 

r^i {Jt62^T7t and v>ij j dibldma pi. -dj diploma 

^L>^^ diblOmasl diplomatic; diplomat 
4»'U^j diblOmdalya diplomacy 

j-i daiara u [jyi dyiur) to fall into oblivion, 
be forgotten, become obsolete, anti- 
quated, extinct ; to be blotted out, 
wiped out, effaced, obliterated (track by 
the wind) II to cover, envelop (• a.o.); to 
destroy, annihilate (* V to wra-p j 

O.8. ( j in), cover o.a. (j with) VII to be | 

or become wiped out, blotted out, ef- 
faced, obhterated; to be old; to be for- 
gotten, have fallen into oblivion, be | 
obsolete VIII iddaiara to wrap o.s. {^ in), 
cover 0.9. (l-» with) 

j\ji ditar pi. j-j dutur blanket, cover m 

jyX» madluT past, bygone, ancient 


rJ dajja t {dajj, f^i dajxj) to walk slowly 

II ^:)LJIj 4>.«»j to arm s.o. to the teeth j 

^i dujj («yr.) thrush {zool.) 

4»- J dujja intense darkness , pitch- 

rW^ ^j^j (coll.) chickens; fowl (as a 
generic designation) 

4j>-U-^ dajdja (n- un.) hen; chicken | 
,_^1 y-V-^ ^' al-h<iba5 guinea fowl 

^:)LJIj ^-u mudajjaj bi-s-«ildh heavily 
armed, bristling with arms 


ji^i dajira a {dajar) to be embarrasfied, be at 
a loss 

jyti daijiir pi. j^Ui daySjlr' gloom, 
darkaeaa, dark 

tf jj*i daijiri dark, gloomy 

^Jj>-2 dajakt V to deceive, dupe, cheat, take in 
(J« B.O.); to be a swindler, a charlatan, 
a quack 11 to coat, smear (*; to 
gild (<; to deceive, dupe, cheat, 
take in ( J» b.o.), impose (J» on) 

^i dajl deceit, trickery, humbug, 

iJU-^ dajjal pi. -un, a]U-U-a dajdjila 
swindler, cheat, imposter; quack, charla- 
tan (fem. SJU^): Antichrist 

J^Oj tadjil imposture, humbug; char. 
lataniy, quackery 

«iL-i dijla* the Tigris river 

j^i dajana u (<2a;n, 0^.i dujun) to be dusky, 
murky, gloomy (day); — {dvjUn) to 
remain, stay; to get used, become ac- 
customed, become habituated; to become 
tame, be domesticated 11 to tame; to 
domesticate (* an animal) | j^ *• J-' *J;-i 
(U-!fidmat% j.) to put or s.o. to use 
for B.o., make or s.o. of service to 
B.o. Ill to flatter, cajole, coax, wheedle, 
try to win or entice by gentle courtesy 
(. B.o.) IV to be murky, gloomy, over- 
cast (day) ; to be dark (night) 

'c»-i dujna, dujunna darkness, gloomi- 
ness, gloom 

j^i\ adjan' dark 

j^\2 ddjin tame, tamed, domesticated 
(animal); dark, gloomy | l^li '^Li'j;'- 
{hayawdnat) domestio aniTnalR 

ji-lji iouwj'tn' poultry 

{jr>) W^ <*•?* » to be dark, gloomy, dusky; 
to overshadow, cover, veil, shroud, 
blanket (*, spread (* over) III to 

play the hypocrite, pose as a friend (• of 

s.o.); to cajole, flatter (• s.o.) 

j».> dujan gloom, darkness, duskiness 
^1 jrk-^ dayaji l-lail dark of night 
i\j'\ju muddjak hypocrisy; flattery, 

adulation, sycophancy 
w\i ddjin dark, gloomy 

rJi-i 11 tadahdaho to waddle 

^■i^i dahdah and ^^t-i doMoA dumpy, 
squat, stocky 

j-i dahara a (,dahr, j_y-i duhar) to drive 
away, chase away (■ B.o.); to dislodge, 
remove (• s.o.)j to defeat (» an army) 
Till to be driven away, be routed, be 
repelled, be thrown back; to be defeated 
(army) ; to go under, go to ruin, succumb, 
break down, collapse 

jU-.Ji indihir banishment, rejection; 
(pi. -51) defeat (mil.); nun, fall, break- 
down, collapse; catastrophe] <j^l jU-Jjl 
ind. al-kaitn end of the world 

jj»-J* madhur routed, repelled; ex- 
pelled, cast out; ostracized, banished 

r^i dtthraja to roll (* 11 tadahraja to 
roll, roll along; to roll down 

^..*-ij dahia pi. ,j-»^^j^ datvAhii whitlow, felon 

^i dahaia a (iahl) to insert, thrust in, 
shove in, foist in, smuggle in Vll to 
interfere, meddle; to mix 

jM^i dahaia a to be invalid, void, untenable 
(argument); to disprove, refute, inval- 
idate (* an argument) II and IV to dis- 
prove, refute, invalidate (a an argument) 

,ji>-' daiti refutation, disproof 
^j-i dvhii invalidity, sbakineas, 

weakness, refutability (of an argument 

or a claim) 
^^Ux. midKa^: ^'^■>^ iSj^' (da'wS) an 

invalid, unjustified claim 


(j^i) U-i dahd 1* {dahiv) to epread out, 
flatten, level, unroll 

O 4/--'- midhan pi. ^l 
roller, steamroller 

-U TJiaddhin 

j^i\ iddakara, ij^J^ rmtddakira see jii-'i 

,_^j dukas dolphin 

Ja^ dakala u {i}y^A dukul) to enter {a, less 
frequently J, also Jl, go, Btep, 
walk, move, come, get <*, j, J( into); to 
penetrate, pieroe (a, j, Jl; to take 
possession of s.o. (•). befall, seize {* 
S.O.; e.g., doubt); to take up (4^4«:. a 
post), start at a job; to enter s.o.'s (J*) 
room or house, drop in on s.o. { Jp), come 
to see s.o. (J*-); to call on s.o. (J*); to 
consummate the marriage, cohabit, sleep 
{<^ or Jf. with a woman); to come (J* 
over s.o.; e.g., joy); {gram,) to be added 
(J* to); to supervene, enter as a new 
factor, aspect, element, etc. (J« upon, be newly introduced (J* into; to make one's own* acquire {Jp; to join, enter (a or J e.g., a 
religious community) ; to participate, 
take part (a in); to set in, begin (time, 
event); to be included (j in; also ^ 
iimtM), fall, come {j, ^, c^ under), 
belong, pertain (j, j**, c^ to), bo 
within {j, ^, c^)i pass.: dukila 
to be sickly, diseased, abnormal ] J* J>.j 
Ji-u; j-tV I (ta'dllun) the matter has 
undergone modification; <»jX\ J>-j {kid* 
ma) to take up one's post, start at a job, 
report for work; <-<jAil J>.j (madrasa) 
to enter school; »LJ.l J*^j (mind') to 
enter the harbor, put in; ^jJ^^ J J»^-i 
to come to the point; {**-»- j) Ale- j JjI-j 
dukila /i 'aglihi {fi jismihi) to suffer from 
a mental (physical) disturbance II to 
make or let enter, bring in, let in (a, • 
s.o.,; to enter, insert, include (*,, j or A in) III to come over s.oi {«), 
befall, seize (a s.o.; e.g., doubt, suspicion, 
despair) IV to make or let enter, bring in. 

let in, admit, lead in, show in (• s.o.); to 
move, take, haul (J* or j a into); 
to incorporate, include, embody, insert 
(J or A A in); to cause to set in, 
bring about, produce, set off, trigger 
( J» A in); to introduce (a, e.g., 
an innovation, an improvement, J* in 
or on | i.^jAil ^^1 (madrasa) to 
send s.o. to school; J* IjwJ J^il to bring 
about a change in ... ; ^"^l-ijJ <i» t^-U-^l 
{udkilat) the matter was subjected to 
modifications V to meddle (j in), in- 
terfere (j in, with); to interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to invade (J, in- 
trude, obtrude (j on), disturb (j; 
to interlock, mesh, gear VI to meddle 
(j in, e.g., *JjJ^ J in s.o.'s affairs), butt 
in (ij.U-1 j on a conversation); to 
interfere (j in, with), interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to interlock, mesh, gear; to 
be superimposed; to intergrade, shade, 
blend (,j^m or ^_^_ j 4.^ one into the 
other) ; to come over s.o. (*), befall, strike, 
seize (« s.o.; e.g., doubt, grief) 

J>>^ dakl income; revenues, receipts, 
returns, takings (as opposed to wy^ 
karj); interference, intervention; doubt, 
misgiving | J>-uli i^j-* income tai; |_j-aJ 
V J*^-* j' *J (oyyu daHin) and J»:-i V 
i-j or J J {dakla) he should not meddle 
in . . ., he has nothing to do with . . ., it is 
none of his buaineiM 

J#-j daJeal disturbance, derangement, 
disorder, imbalance, or defect of the 
mind; defect, infirmity 

4l>-j dikla intrinsic nature, essence; 
inner self, innermost, heart, soul (of a 
person); secret intention | aiU-j ^Ij 
rdja'^a diklcUahu to commune with o.s., 
search one's soul 

4l>-j duklai 'Ai-^\ lU lailal ad-d. wed- 
ding night 

Ui^j dukkala a variety of warbler 



J^i daJnl inner, inwud, internal; 
inner self, heart, core; — (pi. »^i 
dvialS'') extraneous; foreign, alien; 
exotic; foreigner, alien, stranger; not 
genuine, false, spurious; newly added 
(J» to); novice; (new) convert; guest; 
prot^g^, charge, ward | *i^i <Jj (tea* 
lima), J^j Jiii {la/z) foreign word or 
expression; {syr.-pal.) dlL^i {dajfilak) 
please, if you please 

il^j dajfila pi. JIU-j dajfd'iP inner self, 
inmost being, intrinsic nature, eseence; 
heart, soul | 4_ij tLi-^ j inwardly, in- 
side, in his heart; li^jij J!U-j our inmost 
being; jj^'i^ JSl^^ the underlying nature 
of things, the factors at the bottom of 
thin^ ; 4jj_p JjU-a d. Su*iinihi his private 
affairs, (of a country, etc.) its internal 

{ijii-i dukil entry, entrance, admis- 
sion ; entering, ingress; beginning, setting 
in; penetration; intrusion, invasion; 
first coition in marriage {Isl. Law) | lijm-i 
^ji-^ d. al-karb entry into war 

ijj^i dukvKya octroi, city toll 

^x. madial pi. J>.Ia. madikif en- 
trance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom; 
entrance hall, lobby, foyer; mouth (of a 
port, of a canal); O anodo (eJ.); intro- 
duction (to a field of learning); behavior, 
conduct I i'LL-J Ja-^ (aayydrSt) drive- 
way; jyUII '4^[i-ii Jr-A. introduction to 
the study of law; J.tJ.1 j-r- hum al-m. 
good manners, good conduct 

'Ju^\x. mudakala interference, inter- 
vention; participation, interest (j in) 

JU-jl idkal leading in, showing in, 
bringing in, taking in, hauling in; in- 
volvement, implication; insertion, inter- 
polation, incorporation, inclusion; intro- 
duction (e.g., of a constitution; of an 
improvement, Jf on an apparatus, or 
the like) 

J,:-x' tadakJail entry, entrance; in- 
vasion; interferenoe (J with, in), inter- 
vention; intrusion, obtrusion | J>^.i::ll rit- 
'adam at-t. noninterference, noninter- 
vention (pol.) 

J»-ljj taddlffuX interference, interven- 
tion; interlock, meshing, gearing; super- 
imposition; intergradation; permeation, 
pervasion; O interference (phyt.) 

^\i ddkil belonging, pertaining ( j to), 
falling (j under), included (j in); inner, 
inward, inside, interior, internal; inside, 
interior (of; dikila (prep.) within, 
inside, in; ':^\i ddkUan inside (adv.) | 
J>-IJl ^ from within; &om the inside 

•Ub ddkih pi. Jr-lj.> dauxikiP interior, 
inside, inmost, hidden part; ^I^-IaJI the 
DaUila oasis (in central Egypt) 

^\i ddlfili inner, inward; internal; 
interior, inside; domestic, home, inland 
(as opposed to ^j^ l}inji external, 
foreign;}KiI.); indigenous, native; private; 
belonging to the house; \Ar-\i dH^lyan 
inside (adv.) | <iji-\> J-<'>kJ boarding stu- 
dents (as opposed to VrjU- day students) ; 
4jL*.tj ^j^ {Jiarb) civil war; ZLi-i^ *^j-X^ 
(madrasa) boarding school; 4JU.IJ ^^ 
underwear; LU.b 4*-^ inland navigation 

Llj^U iS^iUya interior | i'^\ iAi-\i the 
interior of the country, the inland; 
UjtUI Jjljj ministry of the interior; yjj 
4_U.1aJI minister of the interior 

{ijr-JiA madjful sickly, diseased, ab- 
normal; (mentally) disordered; of weak 
character, spineless; (pi. J^^-l-L* maddkij^) 
revenue, receipts, takings, returns 

J-j dakmata (*— »-j dafemaaa) to fool (Je 
s.o.) about one's real intentions, pull the 
wool over s.o.'s (J«] eyes; to cheat; to 
be sly, crafty, artful 

4_i-j dakmaaa deception, fooling, 
trickery; cunning, craft, slyness 



^j dakiTia a to be amoky; to taate or smell 
of smoke; — dakana a u to smoke, 
emit emoke (fire) II to fumigate, fume 
(a; to smoke, oure with smoke (a 
foodstuffs); to smoke (a a cigarette, 
tobacco, a pipe) IV to smoke, emit 
smoke (fire) V to be smoked, be cured 
with smoke ; to be fumigated 
jt^i dukn pearl millet, dukhn 
j^i dakan smoke, fume, vapor 

uU-i^ du^n (dukjfdn) pi. L^-^l adkina 
smoke, fume, vapor; tobacco 

Il^a dukna smoke color; a kind of 
incense (Calamus aromatious) 

O ^1^3 dakina cigarette 

^U-j dakdkini (eg., (un.) tobacconist 

o^A- madkana pi. jp*^l-u nwddktn* 
chimney, smokestack, fuonel 

Ju^aj tadlan fumigation ; smoking 
(e.g., of fish); (tobacco) smoking 

^iv-lj ddl^na pi. j»>Ijj dawikin* chim- 
ney, smokestack, funnel 
j^Xa mttdakkin smoker 

uL).bj look up alphabetically 

oXi^j daidan habit, practice 

f^^i III to pamper, spoil {* a child) 

J J darra % u {darr) to flow copiously; to 
stream, flow, well; to accrue {Jp to s.o.; 
profit, wealth); to be abundant, plentiful 
IV to cause to flow; to bestow lavishly, 
heap (Ji> A upon s.o.), shower, 
overwhelm (J» a with s.o.); to 
yield (a a profit, J/^ to s.o.) X to stream, 
flow; to be abundant; to cause or try to 
bring about the abundant flow of (a); to 
cause s.tb. (a) to yield in abundance; to 
be out for (a), seek to gain (a a 
profit), try to make (a a living) 

jj darr milk; achievement, accomplish- 
ment I cjj ^ li-tidhidamthu (literally: his 

achievement is due to God) how capable, 
how good, how excellent he is! 

j3 durr (coll.) pearls 

:j^ durra (n. un.) pi. -di, jj^ durar 
pearl; — a variety of parrot (Pstttacus 
Aiezandri L.) 

tjjj durri glittering, twinkling, bril' 
liant (star) 

»jj dirra, darra pi. jjj dirar teat; 

jl;^^ midrdr showering abundant rain 
(sky, cloud); spouting, pouting forth, 
welling out 

j\i darr flowing copiously; productive, 
rich, lucrative; profitable 

jX. mudirr: J^ jX» {bavl) diuretic(al), 
pi. J^l Cj\jJ^ diuretics; J^Jl jO- {'araq) 

Iji dara'a {dar') to reject (a; to avert, 
ward off (a, e.g., [^ ^afaran a 
danger, ^ from) VI idddra'a to contend 
iS for) 

fjj dar' repulsion, prevention, avert- 
ing; warding off, parrying 

'Cjji darVa pi. -of target 

ji y[ii darabazin railing, parapet, banisters, 

^Ijj Durres (It. Durazzo, seaport in W 

(jljj durraq (syr.) peach 

(j[jj ddrdmi dramatic 

i^jj dariba a {darab, hj^ duHn) to be ao- 
customed, be used (<-^ to), be practiced, 
trained, skilled (<-^ in) II to habituate, 
accustom (a, • s.o.,, j or *^ or Jp 
to); to practice, drill (• s.o., j, l^ or J^ 
in); to school, train, coach, tutor (* s.o., 
J, tj or Jp in) V to be accustomed, be 
used (Jp or j to); to be or become 



practiced, skilled, trained, drilled, school- 
ed (J» or j in); to train (aiUel.) 

i_jj3 darb pL *^jj» durib narrow 
mountain pass; path, trail, track; road; 
alley, lane | ISUII ^ji d. at-tabbdna the 
Milky Way 

4, j^durba habituation, habitude, habit; 
familiarity (with, eiperienoe; skill, 

IjjA dariba court of first instance 

wj j4J tadrib habituation, acouatonung; 
practice; diill; schooling, training, coach- 
ing, tutoring | j>l-«ll v-jj-'=" {'<"'»") 
military training 

ijjA- m%idarrib pi. -un instructor, drill 
instructor; trainer, coach (aihlet.); tamer 
(of wild animals) 

ujjA- mudarrab experienced ; practiced, 
skilled; trained; schooled 

i^>!;i darabatln and ,>>jJ darbazin railing, 
parapet, banisters, balustrade 

^^,ji darboM to bolt {» a door) 

^Uji dirbOa pi. tj^,[)i daribi^ bolt, 

'tSiji darabukka {eg.), dirbakha (tyr.) pi. -Si 
darabukka, a oonioal, one-headed hand 
drum, open at the small end 

^ji darbaka banging or rattling noise, 
din, uproar, turmoil 

pji daraja u (^j ji duruj) to go, walk, move 
proceed, advance (slowly); to approach 
gradually, step by step (Jl; to 
follow a course (J»), proceed along the 
lines of (J«), proceed in such and such 
a manner ( J«) ; to go away, leave, depart ; 
to outgrow (j< a nest, a habitation); to 
be past, bygone, over (time); to have 
passed away, be extinct; to circulate, be 
in circulation, be current, have currency; 
to grow up (child); — (darj) to roll up. 

roll together {»; to wrap, wind, 
twist ( J» > around) ; — darija a to 
rise or advance step by step | J« JijJl ^jj 
daraja l-'urfu *aid it has become the 
general practice to ... II to make (. s.o.) 
rise or advance by steps, promote (• 
s.o.) by degrees; to move or bring {t gradually closer (Jl to); to ap- 
proximate (Jl * to); to roll up, fold 
up (*; to circulate, put into circu- 
lation (*, give currency (* to, 
make {t the general practice; to 
divide into degrees, steps or grades, 
graduate, grade, gradate (*; to 
insert, include, enter ( j * in) III to 
go, keep up (> with, e.g., with the 
time, with a fashion) lY to insert, include, 
incorporate, embody (j * in); to 
enter, register (J *, e.g., in a List), 
book (* V to progress by steps, 
advance gradually; to proceed step by 
step (Jl to); to make progress (j in); to 
graduate, grade, be graded, graduated, 
gradated VII to be inserted, entered, 
incorporated, embodied, included (j 
in) ; to be classified ( j in, i.*' under) X to 
make (• 8.0.) advance or rise gradually, 
promote (■ s.o.) by degrees; to lead (• 
s.o.) gradually (Jl to), bring (• s.o.) 
around to (Jl, J); to bait, allure (• s.o.); 
to entice, tempt, lure into destruction 
(. 8.0.) 

^ji darj entry, entering, registering, 
registration, recording; a rolled or folded 
paper; roll, scroll | t-jU^l rjJ J in the 
book; f-jSii\ rji J /» it- il-hddm in the 
course of the talk 

r;ji durj pi. r-ljil adrSj drawer (of a 
table, desk, etc.); desk (e.g., for pupils in 

rji daraj pi. j-Liil adraj way, route, 
course; £ight of steps, stairs, staircase | 
ii>-1jjl •r.j raja'aadrdjaha (also <>-b^' i^) 
to retrace one's steps, go back the way 
one came; to go back, turn back; i^'i 



r^-J^ rL)-*' {adraja r-ritfah) to go the 
ways of the winds, i.e., to pass unnoticed, 
without leaving a trace; to end in smoke» 
come to nothing, be futile, be in vain 

y-jj daraja pi. -at step, stair; flight of 
steps, stairs, ataircaae; degree, step^ tone 
(of a acale; mus.); degree {math., geogr.; 
of temperature); grade, rate; degree^ 
order, rank; class (also, e.g., in trains, 
of a decoration); phase, state, stage (of a 
development); mark, grade (in school) | 
lj\j^\ l^ji d. al-karSra (degree of) 
temperature ; LLJI oL^j^l ('ulyd) the 
maximal temperatures; JaJI oU-j-Ol 
(sufld) the minimal temperatures; <^jj 
J^l d. af-ful degree of longitude (geogr.); 
(a^mL^) *^:Jji AjfjA {^ilmlya, jSmi'iya) 
academic degree; JI«II 4j*-jj d. al-'aql 
level of intelligence , IQ ; o U-j jjl Jj j report 
card (in school); JjVl l^j-J! (j) j* {Hid) 
first-rate, £ist-clasa; *^j^ j^ of superior 
quality, high-grade, high-class; jl "'^j-^ 
{li-darajaii) to the extent that...; to 
such an extent that ..., so much that .., 

^Ijj durrdj pi. £j|;3 dardrif francolin 
{lool.); see also alphabetically 

rj-^ tadntft *^j-i>j iadruja pheasant 

Jj^lji darrdja pi. -at bicycle [ ijlj h^\j> 

i7jJ.« madraj pi. rj'-*^ maddrij^ way 
tbat one follows or pursues; course, route; 
road, path; starting point, outset, rise, 
growth, birth, dawn, beginning{s) ; tar- 
mac, runway (of on airfield); {as also 
mudanaj) amphitheater; (amphitheater- 
ed) auditorium or lecture room; grand- 
stand, bleachers | ^j-u JL. since its 
beginnings; C\H rj>^ 'n. Tmi'atihi the 
place where he grew up; j_^! ^jlJ- j jL 
(m. ir-ruqly) to travel the road of 

^,jaj tadrij graduation; classification, 
categorization ; gradation | ^. j-dl J*. 

^.j-^1 (^> ^„J'^^ gradually, by and by, 
by degrees, by steps, step by step, more 
and more 

i^jA; tadrlji gradual, gradatory, pro- 
gressive; L*i_j-ij tadrijiyan gradually, by 
and by, by steps, by degrees, in stages 

^l;il idrdj insertion, interpolation, in- 
corporation; entry, registration, record- 
ing (j in a hst) 

jTj-iJ tadarruj gradual advance or 
progress; gradation, graduation | rj-^'^ 
gradually, by and by; JLiJjl ^jXi t 
irtiqd'ihi his gradual rise 

^ijOz-l istidrdj capability of gradually 
winning s.o. over, persuasiveness, art of 

^jli ddrij current, prevalent, wide- 
spread , popular, common , in vogue, 
circulating, in circulation | r-j'-^l r^' 
{ktUdm) and aj^jIaJI aJL {luga) the popular 
language, colloquial language 

^j4* mudarraj graded, graduated; — 
(pi. -at) open staircase, open-air stairs, 
fliers, stoop; grandstand, bleachers; 
amphitheater; (amphitheatered) audi- 
torium or lecture room 

^jJ- mvdraj inserted, interpolated, 
incorporated; entered, registered; con- 
tained, included (j, ij in), comprised 
(j. ^ by) 

ijj darida a {darad) to become toothless, 
lose one's teeth 

iji\ adrad^ toothless 

ij:)ji durdi sediment, dregs, lees 

,^,-jjjjj dardabU ugly old woman, hag 

Hjijj dardara roar, rush (of water) ; idle talk, 
prattle, chatter 

jljji darddr elm {hot) 

jjiji durdur eddy, whirlpool, vortex 

iijji dardaSa idle talk, prattle, chatter 



^jj daraza u to flew, stitch 

Jji darz pi. jjjJ duruz seam, hemj 

'if Jjj duri! pi. J jjj dtiriz Druse | J jjJJI J^" 
jabal ad-d. the Jebel ed Ihruz, the 
mountainous homeland of the Druses in 
S Syria 

^J^Ji daraaa. u {dara) to wipe out, blot out, 
obliterate, efface, extinguish (>; 
to thresh (* grain); to learn, study (», J» under s.o.), J« ^1 j^jJ ('tim) 
to study under (a teacher, a professor); 
— u (jjo ji danji) to be effaced, obliterat- 
ed, blotted out, extinguished II to teach; 
to instruct (• s.o., > in; Ill to 
study (• together with s.o.) VI to study 
(* carefully together VII to become 
or be wiped out, blotted out, effaced, 
obliterated, extinguished 

^jj data effacement, obliteration, 
extinction; — (pi. ^jji d^rua) study, 
studies; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); 
class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson 
(taught by experience, etc.) | js L-jjJ Jll 
(oljfl) to lecture on...; L-jjJ jt»l (a'tS) 
to give lessons; UjU ^/yj^ (monziBjKi) 
homework (of a pupil or student) 

^\ji dirda threshing (of grain) 

ijiji dirasa pi. -at studies; study | i-b^ 
aJU {'dliya) collegiate studies; *>j^^ i^]ji 
{tdnawiya) attendance of a secondary 
school, secondary education, high-school 
education; <li-jii i-l,j {mutaumaifa) 
secondary education, high-school edu- 
cation (Syr.) 

i_j> [)i diriai of or pertaining to study 
or studies; scholastic, school; inBtniction- 
al, educational, teaching, tuitional | p-j 
i_-[,j tuition fees; J— "L^ li" [aana) 
academic year; scholastic year, school 

^ji daria dried clover 

4.^jjJl JL^ 'ummdl ad'dariaa (eg.) 
railroad section gang, gandy dancers 

^[i^ darrda pi. -un (eager) student 

O ^'L^ darrSaa flail; threshing ma- 
chine I O *^\j^ •^U«*- (happdda) combine 
^\jjj dinjda mastiff 

L>jA> madraaa pi. ^jlj< madarie^ 
madrasah (a religious boarding school 
associated with a mosque); school | l^jJL^ 
iJljjul (ibtidd'iya) the lower grades of a 
secondary school, approx. ^ junior 
high school; '.Ijl i^j.1. (awwaliga) 
elementary school, grade school; I^jJl* 
<ijj^ (tdnavHya) secondary school, high 
school; 4ijl<^ i^j-U {lijdnya) commercial 
college or school; *^.j^ <^jA. {karbiya) 
military academy; a^Ij *^jJ^ (ddkUiya) 
boarding school; (LL) iJU <<j:U {'dliya, 
'ulyd) college; «jU^Ij OyJi\ i^jX, school 
of industrial arts, school of applied art 
and handicraft; JJ^^ l-jX, (iuiro) col- 
lege; uXiil L^joIl.! the old "school" 
{= intellectual or artistic movement) 

j^j-U madraai scholastic, school 

^jOl tadria teaching, instruction, 
tuition I ij-ij.>!i\ 'i^ lui'at at-t, teachiitg 
staff; faculty, professoriate (of an aca- 
demic institution) 

^jlj ddrit pi. ^jljJ dawaria' effaced, 
obliterated; old, dilapidated, crumbling | 
i^j\i iid tajaddada dirisiAu to rise 
from one's ashes 

^j*j.u mudarria pi. -iift teacher, in- 
structor; lecturer ) J*!—, a"-)-^ (miuS'td) 
assistant professor 

pjj II to arm; to armor, equip with armor 
(* V and VIII iddara'a to arm o.s., 
take up arms, put on armor 

f-jj itr' m. and f., pi. J^jji durff, J|j>l 
adru', f\ji\ airS coat of mail, hauberk; 
(suit of) plate armor; armor plate; 
armor; armature; (pi. f b^^ adrS) chemise 




*£-\jz darrd'a pi. -at armored cruiser 

«*l;j durrd'a pi. ^jIjj dardrV^ loose 
outer garment with sleeves, slit in front 

fjlj ddri* armored, armor-clad, iron- 

4tjlj ddrVa pi. Jot^J ^iauwri'^ armored 

pj^ mvdarra' armored; armadillo 
{zool.) I Xe-jX* »y (quxoa) tank corps ; 
ipj^ 3jL- (sayyora) armored car; JLiw* 
ilyij^ (mUifaA) armored infantry {mil.) 

*£-jX» mudarra'a pi. -at armored cruiser 
(_j,o (far/ side, flank, wing; protection 

»ijj darfa pi. <JjjJ rfira/ leaf (of a 
double door or "window) 

Jjjj darjil dolphin 

*ijjj daraqa (leather) shield 

O iJji daraq thyroid gland 

Jijj daraqi shield-shaped ; thyroid | 
iJjjJl fljjjl {gudda) thyroid gland 

'Jljj look up alphabetically 

'ilji II to last, continue, keep up (rains) 

III to reach, get, catch, overtake, out- 
distance, outrun (>, « S.O.,, catch 
up, como up (a, » with); to keep up, 
continue without interruption (* 

IV to attain, reach {a, arrive (a 
at); to get, catch, overtake (* b.o., m, catch up, come up (a, • with); to 
come suddenly, unexpectedly {t, upon 
3.o.)t overtake {a s.o.; death); to obtain 
(a; to grasp, comprehend (a; 
to perceive, discern, notice (*; to 
realize, understand (a, become 
aware, become conscious (a of; to 
mature, ripen (e.g., a fruit); to attain 
puberty, reach sexual maturity (boy) 

V --^l Jl jj-— iJI ^iS'jJO (iamSj magib) the 
sun prepared to set VI to reach and seize 

one another; to continue without inter- 
ruption, go on incessantly; to face, meet, 
obviate, take steps to prevent (a; 
to put in order, set right, correct (a, 
make amends (a for), provide compen- 
sation or indemnity (a for a loss, or the 
like) X to correct, rectify, emend (a; to set right, put in order, straight- 
en out (a; to make good, repair, 
redress (a a damage, a mistake, eto.), 
make up {a for); to supplement, supply 
(a that which is missing); to anticipate, 
forestall, obviate (a an event) 

iJji darah attainment, achievement, 
accomplishment ; overtaking, catching 
up; poUce; (pi. iJljil adrdk) bottom, 
lowest level 

i5ji darakl policeman 

i^ J daraka lowest lei.'el ; pi. -at 
descending steps (as opposed to oU-ji; 

cf. O^i oBj ij »Li-l i^U-jj darajdt al- 
haydh wa-d. al-maut) 

£jl;j darrdk much-accomplishing, ef- 
ficient, successful 

iJjI-U tnaddriJ^ mental faculties, men- 
tal powers, intelligence, intellectual ca- 
pacities, perception, discernment | iijl^il 
^j-^^ the five senses 

B'ljj dirdkan (adv.) constantly, in- 
ceasantly, without interruption 

i]\ji\ idrdk reaching, attainment, 
achievement, accomplishment; realiza- 
tion, perception, discernment, awareness, 
consciousness (iJIjjVI -ii* faqd al-i, un 
consciousness); comprehension, under 
standing, grasp; reason, intelligence 
sexual maturity, puberty; age of maturi 
ty I lIIjjVI ^ sinn al-i. age of dis 
cretion {hi. Law) 

iljJj tadarr-uk gradual decline 

iJlj-Li-'l istidrdk redress, reparation 
correction, emendation, rectification 



6jX» mudrik rational, reasonable, en- 
dowed with reason, intelligent; (sexually) 
mature, pubescent, at the age of puberty 

wiSjA* mudrahSi realizations; c<^;ni- 
tions; fixed notions, eQtablished concepts 

*iJji (Engl.) derrick, derrick crane 

l>jj darima a to fall out (teeth) n to clip, 
trim (a nails) 

Ojj dariiia a (daran) to be dirty, filthy 
IV do. V to Bufier from tuberculosis 

jji daran pi. o\ji\ adrdn dirt, filth; 
tubercles; tuberculosis | ^^yj Uji {ri'awi) 
pulmonary tuberculosis 

iJji darana (n. un.) pi. -at tubercle; 
small tumor, outgrowth, excrescence, 
tuberculc, nodule 

tjji darani tubercular, tuberculous 

OjXi tadarrun tuberculosis | ^^jjj OjXi 
{ri'aivi) and iT^I OjXm t. ar-rxa pulmonary 

i^Oj ladarrwni tuberculous 

OjJi* mutadarrin affected with tu- 
bercles, tuberculated 

ftjX. midrah pi. aji^* madarxh^ spokesman 

jtjj dirham pi. >ljj darohim^ dirhem, 
drachma {It, = coin of 50 ,j-ii); a weight 
{Eg. - V12 S''jl = ca. 3.12 g); ^L^ 
money, cash 

<^ tkf j-i duraihimdt (dimin . with a 
derogatory sense; approx.:) pennies 

'jji dinm pi. -at [eg.) protecting screen or 
wall; parapet 

^J'\JJi dirvMS mastiff 

^jij jji danvii pi. ^j\}> dardwiP dervish 

^^^Ji dard i (i}j3 dirdya) to know (i_j or a or of; to be aware, be cogni- 
zant (<_^ or A of); to ondeistand^ com- 
prehend (i_* or A I — j'^\ iiJ-4 W 

all of a sudden there was III to fiatter, 

treat with flattery or gentle courtesy, ca- 
jole, coax (a s.o.) ; to deceive^ fool, mislead 
(* B.O.); to dissemble; to conceal, hide, 
mask, disguise (a lY to let (* a.o.) 
know (i^ oT about,)} inform, 
notify, advise (<-* • a.o. of) | ... U iJljjl Lj 
{adrdka)y also ^ i}\ji\ Lj do you realize 
what ... is? you don't even know what . . . 
means! VI to hide, conceal o.s, 

Ajjji dirdya knowledge, cognizance, 

t^jjl adrd more knowledgeable, better 
informed, knowing better (i^ s.o.,, 
better acquainted (i-j with) 

tijjl V Id-adri a skeptic 

l\j\j^ muddrdh sociabiUty, affability, 

jlj ddrin knowing, aware, cognizant 
(v of 

^Lfj-^ midrant ejX. midra {= ^^i^ mirdan), 
dIjJU 7nidrdk pi. jlx. maddrin pole (eep. 
one for punting boats) 

JIjjJ dirydq (= 3^,J) theriaca; antidote 

Sij jj (It. dozziiia) dazzina dozen 

^j dassa u {doss) to put, get, slip, shove, 
thrust, insert (j a into); to bury 
(j A in the ground); to instill, 
infuse (j •_.>, a in); to administer 
surreptitiously (^1 as-aamma poison, J 
to 8.0.) ; to foist (j A into); to 
smuggle (J A into, ^ » s.o, among); 
to interpolate (>,); to intrigue, 
scheme, plot (Jc, J against s.o.) | ^j 
^UjJI to engage in secret machinations^ 
intrigue, aolieme II to put in« get in, slip in, 
shore in, thmst in, insert (a; to 
hide, conceal (a Y to engage (ae* 
cratly, J( in); to be hidden (j in) YII to 
slip (^ between or among, J into), 
creep, steal, sneak (^, among^ J into). 


infiltrate (j,); to ingratiate o.b., in- 
sinuate o.B. (j or Jl to S.O., into s.o.'s 
confidence); to be hidden 

i-j-'i dasi^a pi, ^_;JUi daid'i$^ intrigue, 
machination, scheme, plot | ^UuJl ^j 
daas ad-d. machinationB, intrigues, achem- 
ing, plotting (0^ against); plot, conspira- 

^L*i dassds pi. -un intrigant, intri- 
guer, schemer, plotter, conspirator; sand 
snake (Erj'X jaculus) 

'kT— 'i daat pi. Ciyi dusut place of honor, 
seat of honor; seat of office; eounoil | 
$il fci— 'J d. at'hukm (a ruler^s) throne 

'il— 'J diat pi. 0_pfj duBut kettle, boiler, cal- 
dron made of copper {eg., syr.) 

^h^i daata dozen; pack, packet, package 

j_ji*'i dustur pi. ^Uj dasdtir^ statute ; 
regulations ; by-laws ; (basic) constitu- 
tional law; constitution (pol.); — (eoUoq.) 
dastur permission 

(jj_j::*-j dusturl constitutional | pLkJl 
i£_)y^J^\ constitutional form of govern- 

hjjL^i dusturlya constitutionality [ 
'*ijj^ -iJl ^^ 'adam ad-d. unconstitu- 

^j daaara u {dasr) to push, shove, push oflf 

O y^'j ddsir propeller, airscrew 
ij^i daehara pL jTUj dasdkir^ village 
^i dasam fatness (of meat) ; fat, grease 

f^t daaim fat; fatty, greaffy, grimy, 
grubby; rich, abundant, substantial; 
meaty, pithy, full of thoughts (e.g., read* 
ing materia!) 

— il adaam*, f. #Icj Amttio'^, ph ^j 
dusm very fat; fatty, greasy, grimy, 
grubby; — richer, more substantial, 

^L-j daadma fattiness, greasiness, 
grim in e SB, grubbiness 

^^:s ditsuma fatness ; richness, sub- 

/•L-i disdm plug, stopper 

^i daiaam amaranth (bot.) 

j^i disembir, disambir December 

j^^ II to introduce, bring in {a,) V to 

be hidden, concealed; to penetrate (Jl 

^jii (Fr, douche) duS shower, douche 

^^^A daSii and ^JLa^j a kind of porridge 
made of crushed wheat and butter 

C-ij daSt junk, trash, rubbish, refuse 

J-^J II to hand over, present (a; to 
consecrate, dedicate, inaugurate (a 

^-S-G iadSin consecration, dedication, 
inauguration | i— j^l ^^Xi consecration 
of the church 

_^i V to belch, burp, eruct 

is-i da'a see 


f-j da" a to rebuff, turn down (contemp- 
tuously, 6 the poor, an orphan) 

i_-pj da'aha a (IjUj du'dba) to joke, jest, 
make fun (s with b.o.) Ill to play, toy 
(ft, A with, with a.o.); to joke, jeat, 
make fun (» with s.o.); to give (b a.o.) a 
good-natured slap or smack (i.^}; to 
flirt{U with a woman) ; to dally, philander, 
play around (U with a woman); to play 
(# about a.o.; e.g., waves); to stroke 
gently, caress, fondle (*]; to begufie, 
tempt, delude (e a.o.; said of hopes); to 
play (a a musical instrument) | jjLJi i_-*!j 
to play on the piano VI to make fun, 
have fun together, have a good time 

c_.*j da'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 


lAs-i du'dba pi. -at joking, jesting, fun- 
makiDg, fun; joke, jest 

i^Ud da"db jooose, playful, joUy, gay 

'<Ax^ mudd'aba pi. -St play^ fun- 
making, fun; joke* jest; pleasantry; dal- 
liance, flirtationt philandery 

<^\i dd'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 

v-tlx. mitdS'ib joking, jesting 

J^A di'bil frog spawn, frog's eggs 

J^x. miida'bal indisposed, out of 
sorts; round, ball-shaped 

^il ad'af, f. »l* J da'jd^^t pi- ^a du*j black- 
eyed; deep-black and large (eye) 

jti da'ira a (da'ar) to be immoral 

jf.A da'ar immorality, indecency 

jfii da'ir unchaste, lewd, licentious, dis- 
solute, obscene, bawdy, immoral, in- 

tfjlpA da'arat di'dra indecency, im- 
morality, licentiousness, debauchery | 
•jU>;li Cju bait ad-d. brothel 

^Ij dd'ir pi. jUj du"dr unchaste, 
lewd, licentious, dissolute, obscene, 
bawdy, indecent, immoral 

,^j da'aaa a ((ia'«) to tread underfoot, 
trample down, crush (a; to knock 
down, run over (» a.o.; automobile) 
VII pass, of I 

liUj da' aha a {da'k) to rub (a; to scrub, 
scour (*; to scrub on a washboard 
(a laundry); to crush, squash, mash (*; to crumple (a paper) 

xj da^ama a {da*m) and II to support, hold 
up (*; to prop, shore up, stay, 
buttress, underpin (>; to cement, 
consolidate, strengthen (a VIII ^jl 
idda'aTna to be supported; to rest, be 
baaed (J* on) 

!>j di'ma pi. >j di'am support, prop 

<*U.> di^ama pi. -of, f\t-A da'a'im* sup- 
port, prop, stay, shore; pier; buttress; 
pillar (esp. fig., e.g., S^LJi <Uj pillars of 

t*-ij tad^lm support, strengthening, 
reinforcement, consoUdation, underpin- 

{j^i and ^i) Ui da's u (.Ua du'd*} to call 
(• 8.0.) ; to summon (i^ or * s.o.), call or 
send for s.o. {i^ or •); to call up (• s.o., Jl, 
J for) ; to call upon s.o. (•), appeal to e.o. 
(«) for or to do (J, Jl), invite, 
urge (J, Jl * s.o. to do; to invite, 
ask to come (Jl s s.o^ to; e.g., to a ban- 
quet); to move, induce, prompt (J, J[ * 
s.o. to do, prevail (J, Jl * on s.o. 
to do; to call (<-j, a a s.o. by a 
name), name {<^, a a s.o. so and so), pass. : 
j-^ du'iya to be called, be named; to 
invoke (^1 God = to pray to); to wish 
(J 8.0.) well, bless (J s.o.; properly: to 
invoke God in favor of s.o,), invoke a 
blessing (u^) upon s.o. (J), pray (v for, J on behalf of s.o.), implore (t-' 6 
for s.o.; to curse ( Jp s.o.; properly: 
to invoke God against s.o.), call down 
evil, invoke evil {J* upon s.o.); to 
propagate, propagandize (<J, make 
propaganda, make publicity (<J for); to 
demand, require (Jl, call for (Jl); 
to call forth, bring about, cause, provoke, 
occasion (Jl, give rise (Jl to) | ^:i 
pj^'jiJ {du'iya) to be summoned, be 
called into session (parliament); Jl ^.a 
^"^LJl J^ du'iya ild hamli s-sildh to be 
called up for military service, be called to 
the colors; ,..j_^4j Jp^j (yud'd) a man 
called..., a man by the name of..,; 
_^l ij^ aJ Uj (iuli l-'umr) he wished 
Mm a long Ufe III to challenge (a s.o.); 
to pick a quarrel (b with); to proceed 
judicially (« against), prosecute (» s.o.) 
VI to challenge each other, call each 



other forth, or out, summon each other; to 
evoke one another (thoughta, reminlB* 
cenoes, sentiments); to be dilapidated, 
be tumble'down, threaten to fall {vails); 
to sink, subside, cave in,- to fall down, 
sink to the ground (person) ; to collapse, 
break down, decline, degenerate (fig,, 
of a cultural phenomenon); to flock 
together, rally VIII ^i\ idda'd to allege, 
claim, maintain (*, jt that); to 
lay claim (a to^, demand, claim 
(*; to make undue claims (* 
to, arrogate (to o.a.), assume 
unduly or presumptuously (*; to 
affect, feign, simulate, pretend, purport 
{i^; to testify (in court); to accuse 
(y or A Jp s.o. of), charge (i.^ or * Jp s.o. 
with), blame (»j or » J* s.o. for), hold (t^ or a) against s.o. ( J») X to call 
or send (« for s.o.), summon (* s.o.); to 
cite, summon for examination or trial 
(» s.o.; court, police); to recall (» s.o,, 
e.g., a diplomatic envoy); to call, ap- 
point (• s.o., e.g., a professor to a chair); 
to invoke (* s.o.); to invite, urge (Jt • 
s.o. to do, suggest (Jl * to s.o. or to do, call upon s.o. («) to 
do (Jl), appeal (Jl a to s.o. for 
or to do; to call for (a), require, 
demand, necessitate, make necessary or 
requisite (a 

Ijti da' too call; appeal; bidding, 
demand, request; call, convocation, sum- 
mons (Jl to), calling up, Bummoning; 
(ofiicial) summons, citation; invitation; 
claim, demand, plea; missionary activity, 
missionary work (also o_jt-Jl ^ naSr 
ad-d,), propaganda; — (pi. Cj]^j da'a* 
wdt) invocation, imploration, supplica- 
tion, prayer; good wish | oU-U* Cj\^i 
good wishes; jUh 3^3 {Sarr) imprecation, 
curse; o^jJl i_>-Ui» host 

tSjt'^ da*wa pi. (Sj^^ da'dwdt jUj 
da*dvnn allegation, pretension; claim; 
lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings 

{lal. Law) I ul (j_^*1j on the pretext 

^i da'iy pi. •Ltjl ad'iyd'' adopted 
son; bastard; braggart, bigmouth, show- 
off; pretender; swindler, impostor 

*\ei du'd* pl.^^^l ad'tyaoall; invocation 
of God, supplication, prayer; request, 
plea; good wish (J for s.o.); imprecation, 
curse ( Jp against s.o.) 

^i\ ad^d more conducive, more stim- 
ulating, of greater incentive (Jl, J to), 
causing or provoking to a greater extent 
(Jl, J 

»jUj da'dteat di'dtea pi. -dt propa- 
ganda ipol.) ; publicity ( Jl for) 

(^Uj da'divi, di'dwi propagandistic 

ZjUj di'dya propaganda (pol.) 

jUa di'd'i propagandistic 

:Ux> mad'dh determining factor, de- 
cisive motive or incentive, cause, oc- 

9\Xi iadd'in imminent collapse, impend- 
ing breakdown; mutual summoning | 
jLkll ^t.^ tadd'i l-ma'dni association of 

p-\e.;t\ iddi'd' pi. -dt claim; arrogation, 
undue assumption, presumption ; al- 
legation; pretension, pretense; accu- 
sation, charge; •U.>Vl the prosecution (in 
a court of justice) 

»Ua:L.«i istid'd* summons, summoning; 
recall, calling back; official summons, 

plj dd'^in pi. SUj du'dh one who invites, 
inviter; propagandist; host; motive, 
reason, cause | ^U "V {dd'iya) it is not 
necessary, there is no need, there La no 
cause (J for) 

2^ i J dd'iya one who calls for a .th. 
(Jl), invites to (Jl); propagandist 
(with foil, genit. or Jl: of, herald; 



(pi. f^ji dawa'in) motive, reason, cause, 
occasion; pi. f^jy requirementa, ezi^ 
genoies | i^j»- Lc:lj warmonger; 4^ o^ljjj 
U-dawS^in fihXlya for reaaona of health; 
iSjjj- L^'ji i> it gives me great pleaa- 
ure ... 

y-x^ mad'uto one invited, guest; call- 
ed, named, by the name of 

plui* muladd'in evoking one another, 
one leading to the other (reminiscences, 
thoughts); frail, shaky (conatitution); 
dilapidated, tumble-down; ready to fall, 
threatened with oollapse; declining, in 
a stage of decline, on the downgrade 

9Jl* mudda'in one who makes an al- 
legation or pretension, alleger, pretender; 
olsimer, claimant; plaintifT; prosecutor 
{jw.)i arrogant, presumptuous, bump- 
tious j ijj^\ ^^M ('umufflt) the public 
prosecutor; pU! ^4i1 (*dm-m) do, (Ifor.) 

^■U mvdda^an claimed; 4J« ^/'■^^ the 
defendant (;ur.); pl> oLp^ mudda^aydt 
claims, pretensions 

f' Ji«^ mustad'in applicant, petitioner 

^iii dagda§a to tickle (• s.o.); to crush; to 
ohew, mtUQch (a 

'jPi da§ara a (doffr, ^^^i^ dagrd) to attack ( Jn* 
B.oOi fall upon s.o. ( Jp) 
ji^i dagr attack, assault 
j^j da^S attack, assault 

*^jPj dugri {eg., syr.) direct, straight; 
straight ahead 

Ji^i IT LJjJI iI^jI adgaSat id-dunyS it 
became daik, twilight fell 

Jic^i dagaS darkness, dusk, twilight 
lijxj dagiia darkness, dusk 

^j^i dagifia a {dagofi) to be chock-full, on 
the point of bursting 

X^\i d&gi^ pi. ^J^\yi dawoQxf^ knee- 
pan, kneecap, patella 

Jf J dagal pi. JU.3I adgdl^ jU.a digal place 
with luxuriant tree growth; thicket, 
bush, jungle; — defectiveness, faultineas, 

J^^ dagil covered with dense under- 
growth (place); impenetrable; corrupted 

J«.u mvdgil covered with dense under- 
growth (place) ; false, perfidious, insidious 
(in character) 

>^ IV and VIII >jl iddagama to put (J * into), insert, incorporate, embody 
(j M in); {gram.) to contract (j a 
one letter into another), assimilate (j a to) YII to be incorporated, embodied, 
merged, amalgamated; to be assimilated, 

ijij daffa i {kJoJ^ dajif) to flap the wings 
(bird) II to hurry, rush 

oj daff pi. ijiy^ dufuf side; lateral 

K^i duff, doff pi. iJiy-A dufuf tambourine 

4^ daffa side ; leaf (of a double door or 
window); cover (of a book), jlzijjl the 
two covers of a book; rudder, helm | 
4*uJl JiS^ or 4«Jl jJ^ mitdir ad-d. steeis- 
man, hehneman ; -LoiJi iuj J« ^jmJ to take 
the helm, make o.s. the leader; 4iuJl Oj yad 
ad-d. tiller; ijji^ *»-Jl J* (eg.) all to- 
gether, one and all, all without exception 

4Jj difflya {eg,) loose woolen cloak 

'jj daJVa a and Ji^ dafu*a u to be warm; to 
feel warm II and lY to warm, heat (a V, Tin tiil iddafa'a and X to 
warm o.a. 

*Jn dif warmth, warmneas, heat 

*j3 dafi' and »jj dafV warm 

jit J da fan', f. ^\ii da fa warm 

rlij difa* heating 

U\ii dafd'a warmth, warnmess, heat 

a <i^i daffSya pi. -Si stove 



liXi midfa' and :l>-u midja'a pi. 'jlo^ 
nwio/i'* Btove, heating atove 

Ua; tejf/i'a heating, generation of heat 

J^i daftar pi. J\ji dafStir' booklet; notebook, 
copybook; daybook, journal; ledger 
(com.); roster, register, official register | 
jU^ Jti {hisdhi) account book; bank- 
book, pasebook; oUUa^l Ji> d. al-jfitabat 
letter file, letter book, folder, portfolio; 
^jy^\ j^i publication setting forth the 
terms of a purchase, the conditions of a 
lease, the stipulations of a contract, or 
the like; iJljUVI j^" subscription booklet; 
JjOi-uaJl Jiii d. o^-^ndu^ cashbook (com.) ; 
4>-LJ.I jjj cadastre, land register; jjj 
iL. jjl d. al-yaumiya diary, journal ; iii—i 
J[iii\ mask ad-d. bookkeeping 

■*;UjOJ dallarkana archives, public rec- 
ords office (Eg.) | hj\i^\ iJ>k-1ll lil^jji 
d. aUamldk al-'aqdriya land-registry office 

Ij^j dilteriya diphtheria 

jiz dafara to push, push back (» a.o.); — 
dajira a {iafar) to stink 

j»y dafar stench 

Jii dafir stinking, fetid 

^j dalasa to hide (> ; to push 

J J daja'a a (daj') to push; to push away, 
shove away, push back, drive back, repel, 
remove, dislodge, drive away (j» », » 
S.O., from); LjU- 4»»J (jdnihan) to 
push, shove, or elbow, s.o. aside; to rid 
( .< «: •£. 0.8., A of, get rid of; 
to get the better (», • of a.o., of, 
conquer, master control (• s.o., a; 
to fight (tj A with); to reject, 
repudiate (a; to rebut, refute, 
disprove (a; to propel, drive (a,); to move, cause, urge, impel, egg 
on, goad (• or ^^ s.o., Jl or J to do, 
induce, incite, force, compel, oblige (. 

or o> S.O., Jl or cl to), make s.o. (l-> or •) 
do ( Jl or J); to hand over, present, 
turn over {J or Jl a to s.o.); to pay 
(Lx tamanan a price, Jl or J to s.o.) | 
Jl alU:. fii {h4ahu) to wend one's way 
to III to resist, withstand (• s.o., a, 
offer resistance (a, • to); to contradict, 
oppose (• s.o., jc. so as to make him 
abstain from, dissuade (> s.o., jc 
from); to suppress (a; to defend 
(jf. S.O.,, uphold (jt.; to be 
entrusted with the defense (j» of, 
of S.O., also jUT.) Y to dash forward; to 
dart off, rush off; to pour forth, flow, 
stream', gush forth (water) ; to spring up, 
make itself felt (an idea, a social tend- 
ency, and the like) VI to shove or push 
one another; to push or shove one an- 
other away or aside; to push off, shove 
off (^ from); to issue in intermittent 
bursts, gush forth intermittently; to 
burst forth, rush out, sally (j» from); to 
be propelled, be driven forward; to 
storm forward VII to dart oft', rush off; 
to proceed rashly, blindly, without 
forethought; to be too impetuous, be 
too hotheaded; to plunge headlong (j 
into; to rush, dart, make (Jl at, pounce (Jl on; to rush off, 
hurry off, go quickly (Jl to; with foil, 
imperf.: to do; to give o.s. (J to 
s.o.); to burst forth, gush out, pour 
forth, spurt, spout, flow, run (i> Irom; 
water); to let o.s. be carried away or be 
overcome (,|jj by, e.g., *ji_H-^ *^jj 
Sahawdtihi by one's bodily appetites, 
tjjj^i .Ijj by one's feelings, U.-LJI »ljj by 
worldly things) ; to proceed, set out, begin 
(with foil, imperf.: to do X to try 
to ward off or stave off (a, i_> by) 

mii daj' pushing back, shoving aside; 
repulsion, driving away, driving off; dis- 
pelling; parrying, warding off, staving off; 
repulse, rejection, repudiation; rebuttal; 
handing over, turning in; paymffiit 



tAii daf'a (n. vie.) pi. dafa'St shove, 
push, thrust; impetus, impact, momen- 
tum, forceful impulae, driTe ; ejaculation ; 
payment; deposit; disbursement; pi, 
issues (stock market) 

LJj duf'a pi. dufu'at, du/a'St that 
which issues at any one time, a burst, a 
gush, a epurt, and the like; time, in- 
stance I i^j i^i (duf'atan) aU at one 
time, all at once, in one stroke, in one 
fell swoop; 4*iAll s-i* this time; olAJi c— 
six times; LjUi. oLoj Jt {mulajavAta) at 
different times 

^Lij dajfa' propelling, impelling, giv- 
ing impetus; O piston (iechn.) 

jUA« midja' pi. jla^ maddji'* gun, 
cannon | O Jjl' 'V^ (^'-^ {ba'idat al- 
limrmA) long-range guns; ^Mj ja. 
(raSSdS) machine gun; O <*^ v'-^ 
{(fakma) heavy artillery; JjLill fi\M 
olylU {mu^aida) or olj."lJJIi.jUll ^jbil 
{muqSwinm) anti-aircraft guns; JiD ^i. 
O ol_,*UJ jLI. ((uMK, mtu/add) three-bar- 
reled anti-aircraft gun {mil.); oj\* oa. m. 
haumn mortar; j^U\ ^x. ^_^ farb m. 
az-zuhr marking of eract noon by cannon 

^y*^ midja'i gun*, cannon-, artillery- 
(in compounds); artilleryman, gunner, 

V^A« midfa'iya artillery 
J^Uj difS protection; defense (^ of, of 8.O., also jur.) | >lj.ill it^tfajtad-d. 
line of defense; halfbacks (soccer); ^jjrf 
J^lj-iJI majlis ad-d. defense council; Ijljj 
^li-iJl ministry of defense, war ministry; 
,jyi Ji^lj-Jl (uu^nt) national defense; 
olj.'lUI jLHI j^liJI (m-uifadd) anti-aircraft 
defense; ^^i ^Uj legitimate self-defensa 
^Iji dt'/*'' defensive, protective 
ijl.u m-uddfa'a defense (^ of 
J^ljii I mdija' pi. -al rush(ing), plunging, 
plunge (j into); outburst, outbreak. 

eruption; ilan, dash, impetuosity, rash- 
ness, hotheadedness, fire, exuberance, 
effusiveness; self- abandon ; leliijl in- 
dijd'an spontaneously 

itliiil vndiji'a (n. vie.) sudden out- 
burst, outbreak (e.g., of wailing) 

|Olj ddji' repellent, expellant; driving, 
pushing, giving impetus, incentive, im- 
pellent, propelling, propulsive, etc.; re- 
peller; payer, e.g., yJI^I j^\i the tax- 
payers; (pi. ^1,i daviaji''') incentive, 
impulse, impetus, spur, motive; ^li 
(with foU. genit.) motivated by..., by 
reason of..., on the strength of... 
i^Uyjrf madfu'al payments 

> jjl-u miufSfi' defender [^ of s.o., of 

jij dafaqa u i (dalq) to pour out, pour 
forth (*; — a {dafq, j_pj duf-uq) to 
be shed; to flow, well out, spout, gush 
forth; to overflow (a with V to 
pour forth, spout forth, gush forth; to 
rush in ; to break forth, break out, burst 
out; to go off (shot); to plunge blindly 
(jr Jl into; to push (J» against); 
to crowd ( J» into) VII = V 

jij dafq pouring out, effusion 

U»j dufqa pi, dufuqdt, dujaqit, dujqm 
= ^> dv-l'a I ii^\j 'tiii (dulqaJan) — 
:a,-I, ;.»j; ^J\ Cj\jai d. ar-rih gusts; 
• ULl 1^ '-jii gush of water 

jUj daffSq bursting forth, darting 
out, rushing out 

jijj tadaffuq outpour, outflow, issue, 
effluence, efflux, effusion; influx, run, 
rush, imush, inpour; outbreak, outburst; 
impulsiveness; exuberance, effusiveness 

Jilj dafiq pi. jjljj dawofig' bursting 
forth, breaking out, erupting; gushing, 

(Ji-ii. muladafflq impulsive; exuberant, 



J*^ dijid oleander (Nerium oleander L.; bot) 

^j dafana i (dafn) to bury, inteTt inhume 
(» S.O.); to hide, conceal, keep secret (a 

j>^ dafn burial, interment, inhumation 

^ji dafin ^1. »Lij dufand'^ buried, 
interred; hidden, secret 

<^A daflna pi. ^\ii dafd'in^ hidden 
treasure, treaaure-trove 

^JL. madjan, Uj^ madfana pi. j»lj- 
maddfin^ burying place, burial ground, 

lAi^ see *Jj 

J^ do^^a t (uj digga) to be thin, fine, iragile, 
frail; to be little, email, tiny, minute; 
to he Bubtle, delicate; to be insignificant, 
unimportant, trifling, inconsiderable; to 
be too fine, too subtle {^ for perception); 

— u (daqq) to crush, bruise, bray (a; to grind, pulverize, powder (*; to pound {*, e.g., meat); to 
stnke (clock); to beat, throb (heart); to 
hammer, throb (engine); to knock, rap, 
bang (^Ul al-bdba on the door) ; to 
bump (iuU-L> ^j ra'sahu bi-l-haif one's 
head against the wall); to drive (> a 
nail); to ram in, drive in {constr. eng,); 
to beat, strum, play (J* a musical in- 
strument); to type (Jp on a typewriter); 

— to sound, resound, ring out (said of 
musical instmmenta) | ,_j-/i-l jj (jarasa) 
to ring the belj; j^\ ^_^ oj (;. al-kafar) 
to sound the alarm; Jp (^^1 Jj to call 
s.o. up, give 8.0. a ring; (_^^4"' ^^ (jarasu) 
the bell rang; 4tLJI cJi the clock struck 
II to triturate, pulverize, reduce to 
powder (*; to bo precise, exact, 
strict, meticulous, painstaking, proceed 
with utmost accuracy or care (j in ; to scrutinize, examine closely, 
determine exactly (*; to do (* carefully, with precision \ du^Jl jJi 

{baJUa) to investigate carefully; _^l jij 
{fiazara) to watch attentively or carefully, 
scrutinize, examine closely (j; Jij 
iii».^l (muldkazata) to observe closely 
III to deal scrupulously (a withs.o.) IV to 
make fine, make thin (* VII to be 
crushed, brayed, pounded ; to be broken [ 
o;la Jjji {'unquhu) he broke his neck 
X to be or become thin or fine 

3^ daqq crushing, bruising, braying, 
pounding ; pulverization, trituration ; 
grinding (down); beat(ing), throb(bing); 
bang(ing), knook(ing), rap(ping); tat- 
too(ing) I ^yjLl J.i d. al-jaras peal, riiig- 
ing, sound of a bell; uiU-i Ja d. al-hanak 
chatter, prattle 

jj diqq fine, thin; little, small, tiny, 
minute; dehcate, fragile, frail | 3^ j^ 
(Jajor) shrubbery, brush, scrub; j-iJi V- 
hummd, d-d. hectic fever 

4J.i dagqa {n. vie.) pi. *o£ bang, knock, 
rap; beat, throb; stroke, striking (of a 
clock) ; hammer, hammering sound; 
thumping, thump | ^ii\ Cj\j:, d. al-qatb 
heartbeats; (^^1 **i d, al-jaras peal, or 
ring, of a bell; telephone call, ring 

4j^ diqqa thinness; fineness; smallness, 
tininesH, minuteness; triviality, petti' 
ness, paltriness ; subtlety, subtleness, 
finesse; critical or precarious state, 
delicate situation; accuracy, exactness, 
exactitude, precision | 4Jjj exactly, aC' 
ourately, precisely, minutely, paine^ 
takingly, meticulously, sharply ; jj^l '4 
acuteness of feeling, sensitivity, sen- 
sitiveness, sensibility 

ijj ditqqa pi. jij dttqag fine dust; 

JIj.> duqag crushed, brayed, or pulver- 
ized, substance; powder; flour of lupine 

Jjj daqiq pi. JUj diqdg, ^jI adiqqa 
fine, thin; delicate, frail, fragile; little, 
small, tiny, puny, minute; subtle; 



paltry, petty, trifling, trivial; precise, ac- 
curate, exact; painstaking, scrupuloua, 
meticulous; inexorable, relentless, strict, 
rigorous; delicate (situation), critical, 
trying, serious, precarious; — flour, meal | 
k^LJ-l jJ^ keeping strict account, strict, 
relentless, inexorable; j_y^l jJi sensi- 
tive; ^:-JI JJJ d. a$-$an' finely worked, 
of delicate workmanship; ^^1 jJj i. 
an~nazaf clear-sighted, penetrating, dia- 
ceming, sensitive; jJj ji\ abu d. butter- 
fly; iiJail »La*Vl {a'dd') the genitals 

loJj daqlqa pi. ^Uj daqaiq^ particle; 
nicety; intricacy; detail, partiicular; 
minute (time unit) | jj»'^\ Jj'lij the nice- 
ties, intricacies, or secret implications of 

Jlii daqqaq grinder, crusher; flour 
merchant; frequently or constantly beat- 
ing, striking, etc.; player of an instru- 
ment I iJljj 4*U repeater (watch) 

4jIjj daqqdqa knocker, rapper {of a 

J^l adaqq^ flner; more delicate; smaller, 
tinier; more accurate, preciser; stricter 

Ja« midaqq beetle ; pounder, pestle ; 
{eg.) trail, footpath 

djj^ midaqqa ph iSi<u madaqq^ pound- 
er, peatle; beetle; clapper, tongue (of a 

jJoj iadq^ accuracy, preciaion, exact- 
ness, exactitude I ^^J-t^j exactly, precisely, 
accurately, minutely 

jja> mudaqqiq exacts accurate (scholar), 
thorough (investigator), painstaking, me- 
tieulous, strict, relentless 

Jix> mudaqqaq precise, exact (data) 

a^lj ddqira pi. _^l^j dawdqtr^ elay vessel 
{tun.}; — stipend for underprivileged 
students (fun.) 

I*^±i:> daqSum {eg.) rubblestone, crusbed 
rock; brickbats, gravel 

«j^ daqi'a a {daqa*) to grovel, cringe; to be 
miserable, wretched, humble, abject; to 
live in poverty IV do. ; to make miserable 
(a S.O.; poverty) 

f-LSjl idqd* mass poveriiy 
^Xi mudqi* miserable, wretched; de- 
grading, abasing (poveriiy) 

J«j daqal mast (of a ship); mainmast; (coll.; 
n. un. e) a brand of dates of good quality 

^ilo dakka u {dakk) to make flat, level or 
even, to smooth, level, ram, stamp, tamp 
{a earth, the ground, a road); to press 
down, weigh down ; to beat down ; to dev- 
astate, demolish, destroy, ruin (* 
II to mix, mingle (* YII to be 
crushed ; to "be leveled 

iJi dakk pi. iJ^j dukuk level ground; — 
devastation, demolition, destruction 

iS'j dakka pi. -at rubblestone, crushed 
rock; ballast 

iS'j dikka pi. di^j dikak bench 

jS'j dukkdn pi. (>5'S"j dakaHn^ bench; 
store, shop 

j_j*i&j dukkdnji storekeeper^ shop- 
keeper, retailer 

iia- midakk pi. -oi ramrod; O tamper 

=lJj II to provide (* trousers) with a waist- 
band {dikka or iikka) 

iTj dikka (= <S1j tikka) waistband (in 
the upper seam of trousers) 

iijj^lj^Ta diHalV'nya dictatorship 
^jy^> diktdturi dictatorial 

jjIiTj duHvrT pi. ij'^i dakdtira doctor [ 
^jii- \ j jyfi doctor of laws, LL-D. ; j>i"i 
I— Ul J (f*ifc) doctor of medicine, M.D. 
i\jj:S'i duktu,rdh doctorate, doctorship,. 
doctor's degree, fcitl* of doctor | Slj^iyiil 
o_^i ifaJcnya) koiwrary doctorate 


_^ iddakara see _p j 

jZiJ'i (It. decreio) dilcritd pi. ob jTj decree 

>^^il odifcan'. f. #Uri dajfcnd"" pi. ^i d«fcn 
blackish, dark (color) 

^b ddjfcin dark, dark-colored | y^>-^ 
^\:t dark green; ^\i jJua\ yellowiflh, of 
a dingy yellow, mud-colored 

'ulTi Bee 'iij 

Jj (iaZ2a u (iJV J daldla) to show, demonstrate, 
point out (Jc- • to B.o.; to lead, 
guide, direct, conduct {J( or J* » s.o. to), 
show 8.0. (•) the way (Jl or Je to); to 
show, indicate, mark (J«; to point 
(J* to, evince, indicate, denote, 
imply, bespeak, suggest (J^, be 
indicative, be suggestive (Ja of); to 
furnish evidence (J* for, prove 
(J»; — {iBt pers. perf. dalaUu) % 
(JVj daldl) to be coquettish, flirt, dally 
(of a woman; Jt with s.o.) II to prove 
(J*,, furnish the proof (J* for), 
confirm, cotYoborate (<-• J* with); 
to BeU or put up at auction, auction off 
(J*,; to pamper, coddle, spoil (* 
s.o.); to fondle, caress, pet (• a child) 
lY to make iree, take liberties ( Jc with 
S.O.); to pride o.s. (•--> on), be conceited 
(<-j of ) V to be coquettish, fiirt, dally (of 
a woman; J» with a.o.); to be coy, 
behave affectedly; to take liberties (J» 
with a.o.); to pamper, coddle {J* s.o.) 
X to ask to be shown (J«,); to seek 
information, inform o.s. (J« about); to 
obtain information; to be informed (J* 
about) ; to be guided (<_j by), act or proceed 
in accordance with (<^) ; to conclude , 
gather, infer (J*, ._-» or ^;^ from), 
draw conclusions (k-> or ^^ from, Jt with 
regard to), judge (J*, k-* or ^J- by) 

J A doll proper* dignified conduct; 
coquetry, flirtation 

*}i daUa pi. J'^i dildl pot with long 
curved spout and handle used for making 

coffee (among Syrian nomads and in 
some parts of Saudi Arabia) 

JVj fJUildt coquetry, coquettishness; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 

JJi dalxl pi, ^il adilla, Jj'Vj dcU&'H*, 
»V^I adilld*^ (the latter of persons) 
indication ( J# of) ; sign, token ; symptom ; 
proof, evidence (J« of); guide; tourist 
guide, cicerone; pilot (of a ship, of an 
airplane); guidebook, guide manual, 
handbook ; directory, telephone directory ; 
railroad guide, timetable; guide rail 
(techn.); roller path (in steel construc- 
tion) I J* JJaJl ^lil to fumiah the proof 
for, demonstrate, prove; j^^ JJj 
(zar/i) circumstantial evidence; *U^ JJj 
cogent proof, conclusive evidence 

JV> deUi4l auctioneer; broker, jobber, 
middleman, agent, commission mer- 
chant; hawker 

aJ*^.3 daldla pi. -at pointing; guidance; 
leading, leadership; indication (J* of); 
sign, token; sense, meaning 

*i')i:> dildia auction, public sale; 
business of a broker or middleman; 
brokerage commiBsion ; trade of a dealer, 
jobber or agent 

i^^ii dalldla middle woman, woman 

Jjl adaW proving more cogently (J*, more indicative or suggestive (J* 
o^) I li* lW^ i^^' {dalilin) the surest 
evidence of, the beat proof of 

JJj; tadlil reasoning, argumentation, 
demonstration; proving (J<- of), furnish- 
ing of proof or evidence (J* for); cor- 
roboration, substantiation, confirmation; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling; fondling, 
petting, caressing; pet form (of a name) | 
J-JxJl --I pet name; ^ ^ jZ aa & pet 
form of . . . 

JJoJ tadaUul coquetry, coquettishness; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 



JV'Ai-'i istidiai reasoning, argumenta- 
tion, demonstration; conclusion, infer- 
ence, deduction; proof, evidence ^Je of) 

*l\i ddUa familiarity, chumminess; 
liberty (that one takes with s.o.); 
audacity, boldness 

JjJoa madlijl proven; (pi. -at) mean- 
ing, sense | oUSUl Cj' m. alkalimSt 
lexical meanings 

JJ-U mudaUtU pampered, spoiled (child) 

ijx> mudill presumptuous, arrogant | 
4-jLj Jx, {bi-nafsihi) conceited, self- 

^^i dvib plane tree, sycamore {bot.) 

VVjJ pi. vJ!>^ '"<''' ^? alphabetically 

^i Nile Delta, Lower Egypt 

^i IV to set out at nightfall 

r)ii d^ah pi. ^i dulvh moisture-laden cloud 

tiJj daldala to set into a swinging motion, 
dangle II tadaldala to hang loosely, 

J.Jj dvidid and iijJJi duUul porcupine 

tjJi II to swindle, cheat; to counterfeit, 
forge, falaiiy (* Ill to deceive, 
de&aud (• s.o.), impose (> on) 

tj-^-ij tadtis deceit, fraud ; swindle 

(^•C tadiitn fraudulent 

^x, ttmdaOaa forged, counterfeit | 
t-iit ijfil oonnteifeit money; t^x- ^\ju 
forged leys 

^i iala'a a (doT) with <;LJ liaSnahU: to 
•tiok out one'* tongue; to loll, let the 
tongue hang out II to pamper, spoil (• 
a child); to caress, fondle, pet (a a.o.) 
IT u-iJI ^-h ,1^; {eg.) a nauseating, dis- 
gusting thing Vir to stick out, be stuck 

out, hang out, loll (tongue); to dart out, 
lick out, leap out, flare up (flame), break 
out (Are); to be pampered, spoiled 

jjj dal': ^Jl ^1 iam ad-d. pet name 

f-Vi dalla^ (coll.; n. un. •) watermelon 

ijUJj dilgdn clay 

Jtii dalafa i (dalf, Ji^j dulul, oUIj dala/Sn) 
to walk with short steps, toddle; to go 
or walk slowly, saunter, stroll (J.I to); 
to advance (Jc toward); to approach 
step by step (Jl s.o. or; to pene- 
trate, reach (Jl as far as); to grope (Jl 
for, of the hand); to leak, drip, trickle 

O ■-il'j ddlif f].Jtl\jj dawilif ricochet 

ijiiJj dvljln pi. jjJVj daldfin' dolphin 

jjjj dalaqa « to spill, pour out (« a liquid) 
VII to be spilled (liquid) 

jJlj dalaka u [dalk) to rub (»; to stroke 
(», pass the hand (* over; to 
knead (0~J' the dough); — « (ij^j 
duliik) to set, go down (sun) II to rub (j,, • s.o.), embrocate (<; to 
knead; to massage (* a.o.) 

^i daXk rubbing; grazing, brushing, 
touching, touch 

£]_^j daliik liniment 

fj_^j dvlulc, ^j—lll Slji d. ai-Sams 

,iiJaj tadlik embrocation; massage 

4£j-U mudnUika pi. -at masseuse 

<lj II to rob 9.0. (.) of his senses, drive (. s.o.) 
crazy (love) V to go out of one's mind, 
go crazy (with love) | i^ j c-ij; {hubbihi) 
she has fallen in love with him 

*iXt mvdallah madly in love 



Xi IV idtdhamraa to be dark, glcwmy ; to be 

Xi daOiam dork, gloomy i deep-bl&ck 
l>Uijl idlikmdm a deep black 
^Jkt mvdtahimm dark, gloomy; deep- 

jli II to let hang, dangle (*; to hang, 
flUBpend (*; to lower («; to 
drop, let down, let fall down (* 
lY = II; to cast down (* glances, Jl on 
e.o.) ; to let one's glance ('jUiJL bi-avzdrihi) 
sweep down; to eipr«u, utter, voice (^, e.g., <i\j bi-ra'yihl one's opinion) ; 
to deliver, make (^^^ a statement; 
pol.); to adduce, present, advance, offer 
(<>^ bi-Kujjatin an argument); to 
inform, notify, advise (lj Jl s.o. of), let 
(Jl s.o.) know (>^ about); to offer, 
present (l^ Jl to s.o.; to grant, give 
(J i^j4^ an interview to s.o.); to slander, 
defame, asperse (j s.o.) | pV-JI Cr-J. 'J' ci^il 
{datvxAS, dilS) or >'^a)l j a^-ij Jjl to make 
one's contribution (together with others), 
add one's touch, put in one's two bits^ 
worth V to hang down, be suspended, 
dangle (^ from); to be lowered, be let 
down; to be or become low; to sink, de- 
scend I i-yJi Jj: to threaten to fall down, 
be ready to fall 

^^ dalw usually f., pi. J^l adtint *'ii 
dHa', •'^.»l adld' leather bucket; bucket, 
pail; Aquariub (attron,) 

Aj^i daUdy0 pendant 

•Vil idla' delivery (of a statement); 
utterance , statement ; presentation ; grant- 

ijlj daliya pi. JIji dawalin water- 
wheel (for irrigation); trellia, espalier on 
which grapevines are trained; varix, 
varicose vein 

S-is^ mutadallin pendent, suspended, 
hanging, dangling; projecting, over- 
hanging, ready to fall down 

Ub look up alphabetically 

'•J dam pi. •Uj dimd' blood; •U.i homicide 

(?«r.) I 


d. al-akatoain 

dragon's blood (a dark-red, resinouB 
substance derived from the dragon tree, 
Dracaena draco) 

l/^ dami blood- (in compounds), 

iSj*^ damain blood- (in compounds), 
sanguine; sanguinary, bloody 

'^j damma u (damm) to coat, smear, besmear 
(oi * with); to paint, daub, color, 
dye, tinge, tint {^ m with) II to rub, 
embrocate, anoint (tj * with) 

^i damm ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyeetuff; rouge 

A»A dtmdm ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyestuff; rouge 

--J damxm pi. ^Ui dimam ugly; de- 
formed, misshapen | uU^I ^j d. al-kUqa 
ugly to look at, of repulsive appearance 

4^L.j damama ugliness; ugly appear- 
ance; abominableness, monstrosity 

aU-JI ad-dammdm Dammam (seaport 
in E Saudi Arabia, on the Persian Gulf) 

^^ damuUi u (oU^ damdia) to be gentle, 
mild (character) II to soften, mellow {* 

i..j damii pi. >lj[*i diTTtdti J:>U'i/l i^.j 
gentle, mild-teinpered 

tiUi damdia mildness, gentleness, 
tenderness (of character) 

jti damjija u (r-j-^ dumuj) to enter {^y, go or come into (j), be inserted, 
incorporated (j in) II to write short- 
hand IV to twist tightly, twine firmly 
(a; to enter, insert, include, in- 
corporate, embody (j a in); to 



introduce, interpolate, intercalate {j » in) ; to annex { j » to) VH to "be 
inserted, be incorporated (j in); to be 
annexed (j to); to merge (j with), be 
swallowed up, be absorbed (j by); to 
be fused, fuse, amalgamate 

-yj; iadmij shorthand, stenography 
*UaI idmaj insertion, incorporation, 
interpolation; indusion (j in); assim- 

.UajI indimij incorporation, insertion 
(J in); amalgamation, merger, merging 
(j with); absorption (j by); annexation 
(J to); fusion; assimilation 

*Xt mudmaj firm, compact 

*j;^ muniamij firm, compact, tight 

'<i\t-i damajdna (also ilUb) pi. -St demijohn, 


^x^i damdama to mutter, grumble, growl, 

<«^j damdama pi. -St growl, snarl; 
rambling noifle, rumble 

^j^j daiiutra u to pexiah, be ruined, be de- 
stroyed II to anzuhilate, destroy, ruin, 
demolish, wreck (> s.tK.) V to be de- 
stroyed, demolished, ruined, wrecked 
YII to be destroyed, be aimihilated 

jUj damdr ruin, destruotion 
j\*jj tadmir annihilation, destruction, 

jUXl indimdr utter defeat, rout, de- 
struction, annihilation 

\f>X» mvdammira pi. -<K destroyer 

*jj*» dammdr (eg,) a coarse calico-like 

(Sjj*^ dammUri [eg.) made of dammUr 
{see above) 

Kj^i damlra (eg.) flood season of the Nile 

*n iSj*J^ V Id dumari {= jij^-iJ V) nobody, 
no one, not a living soul 

^Jj tadmuT*, usually pronounced tvdmur. 
Palmyra (ancient city in Syria, now a 
small village) 

i^jAJj ladmuri, uauaUy pronounced 
tudmurit someone, somebody; c^^aJ V 
nobody, no one, not a living soul 

^j^i damasa u to hide, conceal, disguise {a}; to bury (^jVI j • s.o. in the 
ground) II do. 

^j^i dims {eg.) cinders, ashes 

O'L*,) dam&sa darkness 

^\*i\ cidmds (pi.) hovels, shanties, 

^J'^i dammus pi. ^j-fL-j dam&mia* 
cave, cavern 

^Uj daimaa^ dimdff, o'J^ ^ daimiis pi. 
,_^<^ljj daydml^ dungeon; vault 

^jj\i ddmia pitch-dark; dark, gloomy, 
^j^^ Jji /ui mudammaa stewed beans 

jl^A dimaS^, dimiSq* Damascus (capital of 

,^l^j> jnudamSaq damascened, dam- 
asked; {syr.) having adopted a sophis- 
ticated style of living (imitating that of 
Damascus), iLrbanized 

jwi dama'a a to water (eye) IV to cause to 
weep, evoke tears, make (the eyes) water 

«i dam' pi. fj^i dumu' tears 

AmJ dam'a (n.un.) tear, teardrop; 
(eg.) dim' a gravy 

^wj dam'i; '<^^i Ujj (qunbula) tear- 
gas bomb 

«M,3 dami'a and M^i damV ph jk»^ 
dam'df juUi damd'i'* readily inclined to 
weep, frequently weeping, tearful, lach- 
rymose (woman) 


9j^^ damu' and f-Uj dammd' watpering, 
watery, tearful (eyes) 

uX. madma' pi. *a\x» maddmi'^ lach- 
rymal canal 

^J^j damaga a to refute^ invalidate (a a 
falsehood, an error, a false accusation); 
to triumph (* over falsehood; said of 

f-Lj dimdg pi. *k»^\ admiga brain 

li^\i 4jC /tu7';a ddmiga cogent argu- 
ment; *i**\.i l^l^i {Safidda) irrefutable 

2^*i daTJiaga u {damg) to stamp, provide or 
mark with a stamp (*}; to hallmark 
(a gold and silver articles); to brand (* 
an animal) 

«j damg stamping | c-U^-iail i^j d. 
al-niasugat hallmarking of gold and 
silver articles 

^ji damga stamp; hallmark {on gold 
and silver articles) \ U-i ,}jj waraq d. 
stamped paper 

y^J^ madmHy stamped, bearing a 

i»l^j dimuqrdtl democratic; democrat 

Llsl^j dimugrdfiya democracy; demo- 
cratic attitude or conviction 

^j-jlm:> dimaqs raw silk 

^^Ji-i dvnaqai silken, silky 

ii_^-Li madmuk and iUx* -mudmah firm, tight, 

Jjj damala u {daml, j^A-i damalan) to 
fertilize, manure, dung (* the soil); — 
damila a (damal) to heal, heal up, scar 
over, cicatrize (wound) VII to heal, heal 
up, scar over, cicatrize (wound); to 
fester, suppurate (sore) 

J*i dummal (n. un. '») pi. JjL.j damd* 
miP, J:r-t--i damdmiP abscess, boil, sore, 

tumor, ulcer; furuncle; bubo, plague 
boil; inveterate evil 

J^^ j^lir fd*un dummall bubonio 

^i dumhij p\. ^i damdlij^ bracelet, bangle 

^j*i damana u {damn) to fertilize, manure, 
dung (a the soil) IV to give o.s. up, 
devote o.s., apply o.s. (J* or * to), go in 
for (Jc or *); to be addicted (J* e.g., to 

,j*^ dimn (coll.; n. un. ») pi. j-j diman 
fertilizer, manure, dung 

i-i dimna pi. ^>..i diman vestiges or 
remnants of a dwelling, ruins 

jLj daman fertilizer, manure, dung 

oltjl idmdn addiction; excess; mania; 
dipsomania j k::jl^fS_J.l uLjI ». al-muskirai 

j^A* mudmin addicted, given up (J* 
e.g., to wine); an addict (J* of) 

^uLj dumdn see ulyj 

jj^^-i damanhur^ Damanhur (city in N Egypt) 

(j^^ Bee ^|-i 

^t/J damiya a to bleed TI and IV to cause to 

j*lj ddmin bleeding, bloody, gory 

i^Xt mudamman, f. bLx* bloody; blood* 

2<>-i dumya pi. ^J:^ duman statue, statuette; 
image, effigy; dummy; doll 

irUi dirnydp Damietta (city in N Egypt) 

uj danna u {dann, ^ii danin) to buzz, hum 
(insect); to drone 

bi dann and jO j danin buzz(ing), 
hum(ming), droning, drone 

iji dann pi. jlJ.> dindn earthen wine jng 



Ijj dana'a a and Jjy danu'a u (i'^JJ dunu'a, 
»*\J2 dand'a) to be low, mean» base^ vile, 
contemptible, despicable 

nji dani' pi, 'LJil adniyd"^, »LjjI adna 
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, con- 
temptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor 

L)jl adna*^ lower, viler, meaner; more 
inferior, of poorer quality 

«>Li3 dand'a lowness, baaenesa, mean- 
ness, viienesa; inferiority 

"iLJi, ikj'j (Fr. dentelle) dantUla lace, lace- 

ij^^j dinjil (e^.) pi, J*-'^-^ danajiP axle, axle- 

4-»j-ijj (Turk, dondurma) danduTtna ice cream 

i-ijLij da?iddiSa common people^ people of no 

JAii dandana to buzz, hum; to drone; to 
hum softly, croon (a song); to murmur 

^-Ci dindi (eg.) turkey 

^Ljj pi. _^)Ljj look up alphabetically 

^i daniaa a (danaa) to be soiled, sullied, 
defiled, polluted II to stain, soil, dirty, 
befoul, sully, pollute, contaminate {*; to dishonor, disgrace f*; to 
desecrate (* V pass, of II 

^jJi danaa pi. u-Ijj' adnaa uncleanness, 
dirt, filth, squalor; stain, blemish, fault 

i_^i dania pi. ^U jl adiids, •LJi dumwa'* 
unclean, soiled, sullied, foul, polluted, 
defiled, stained 

,_^JJ tadnxa pollution, defilement, soil- 
ing, sullying, contamination; dishonor- 
ing, disgracing; desecration, profanation 

tjuj danija a {danaf) to be seriously ill 
IV do. 

ijijj danif pi. oLjjl adiid/ seriously ill 

^.3 danaf long illness; Q cachexia, 
marasmus (med.) 

>JiJA* mvdnijt mudnaf emaciated, 
haggard, weak 

jj\i look up alphabetically 

^iUj dunqvia Dongola (town in N Sudan, 
on the Nile) 

iJj-f'i danniark'^ Denmark 

{Js:t andijj) Ij.> dand u (^.3 cfunuw, djIJj dand* 
vxi) to be near, be close; to come or go 
near a.o. or (j* or Jl or J), approach 
(j-, Jl, J 9.O.,; to come close, get 
close (j-, Jl, J to), approximate {^, Jl, 
J ; to draw near, be imminent (time, 
event); j- 4j Uj to bring s.o. close to ...; 
— Jj> da%iya a (Uj danan, ij_Ui dandya) 
to be low, lowly; to be or become mean, 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible II to 
bring close (*, • s.o., j- to), bring, 
take or move {*, • s.o.) near ( j*), 
approximate (*, j* to); to apply 
0.8. ij. to, busy o.h, (j with, delve (j into); <-jiJ Jj (nafsaku) 
to lower 0.8. , abase o.s., humble o.s. Ill to 
approach {4 s.o., a come or get 
near s.o. or (*, *), come or get close 
(«, A to); to approximate (*; to 
measure up (*, • to) | JIji V .^ {yuj 
ddnd) an unequaled thing IV to be 
near, be close; to approach (^y or Jl or J 
8.0. or, come, go or draw near s.o. 
or (j-, Jl, J), come close, get close 
((>■> J'* i3 ^^)i ^o bring close (« s.o., *, j>. to), bring, take or move (« a.o., 
A near (^}, approximate (*, 
jj> to); to lower, drop (*, e.g., the 
veil) V to approach gradually (Jl 
or S.O.); to be debased, sink low, sink, 
decline; to lower o.s., abase o.s., humble 
o.s. VI to come near each other, get close 
to each other, approach one another; to 


be close together; to approach, approxi- 
mate (^ Till J^l iddani to be 
near, be close, come or draw near, ap- 
proach X to wish to be nearer or cloaer, 
try to oome nearer or doeer; to seek to 
fetch or bring closer (*, Jl to, to 
O.S.), reach out (* for, wish (<JI • 

jj J dunfiu) advent, approach ; proximity, 
nearness, imminence (of an event) 

^h daniy pi. 'U.!! adnijff' near, oloae; 
low, lowly; mean, base, vile, despicable, 
contemptible, inferior, infamous, deprav- 

lj> danlya pi. -St, L\j> daniyi a base 
quality or habit; disgraceful, in- 
Damy, vile action 

Ji\ adnd, i. LJj dunyd pi. m. 61^1 
addnin, byi\ ofinaufia, pi. f. Jj dunan 
nearer, closer; situated lower down, 
nether; lower, inferior; lowlier; smaller, 
of less significance; more appropriate, 
better suited, more suitable | jii\ jjii\ 
(Sarq) the Near East; J.3VI ^>l.l {mag' 
rib) Algeria; ijjj\ J^ ^ Jjl {habli 
al-vjar\d) very near or close, imminent; 
Oyi^\ V-)^'^' ^^^ closest relatives; ■li^l ^ 
•Lul Jl (aqfShu) from one end to the 
other; wholly, entirely, completely, ol- 
together; JsVi i^l {hadd) the minimum; 
.Uil hereinafter, below (in writings, doc- 
uments, etc.) e.g., »ljil iiyi^\ (muiooj" 
qi'in) those signed below, the under- 
signed; Jjl V (with foil, genit.) not the 
least, not a single, not one 

L'j dvnyi (f of JjI adnd) world; 
earth; this world (as opposed to 'y^); 
life in this world, worldly existence; 
worldly, temporal things or possessions; 
earthly things or concerns | LaII :Ll-l 
life in this world; LIJI j-l umm ad-d. 
Cairo; \»iji\j L'Jll plil aqdma d-d. wa- 
aq*adah& approx. : to kick up a dust, 
make a stir, move heaven and earth 

jjjj dunyawi, tfj^i dunyiwl worldly, 
mundane, secular; earthly, temporal, 
transitory, transient 

IjlJi danSwa nearness, closeness, prox- 
imity, propinquity; lowness, lowliness; 
meanness, baseness, vilonese 

ijlii dandyd lowness, lowliness; mean- 
ness, baseness, vileness 

oJl ladaimin sinking, decline; low 
level, nadir (fig.) | JSa"^! JJ^\ (aiUgf) 
the low level of morality, the moral 
6b dinin low; near, close 
ol-ti- mvladdnin close together 

j^i dahr pi. jjhi duAiir, jki\ luUtir time; 
long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eter- 
nity; fate, destiny | j»J)l ob ban/U 
ad-d. blows of fate, trials, afflictions, mis- 
fortune; j»ull JujLdU and j*JI t^jj^ 
vicissitudes of fate, changes of fortune; 
adversities, adverse circumstances; ^a 
j,_^|j|| dakra d-dShirin for all eternity, 
forever and ever; j>aJI _,».T Jl tU SJtri d~d. 
do.; 4ir ^Jll ... V (<ui-<iaAni IcvlUki) 
never in all one*s life 

^jn dahri an adherent of the doAriya, 
a materialistic, atheistic doctrine in 
Islam; atheist, freethinker 

jj^i dvhri very old, far advanced in 

^i dahasa a (= ^^-b) to trample under- 
foot, trample down, crush (<, 
tread (* on; to run over (> 

^^ dahiia a and pass. duhUa to be astonish- 
ed, amazed, surprised (^ or J at); to 
wonder, marvel (^ at); to be bafOed, 
startled, puuled, perplexed, taken aback 
(>i or i3 by) II and IT to astonish, amaze, 
surprise, baffle, puzzle, perplex, startle 
(. B.O.) VII = dahiia 



JtMi ddhaS perplexity, surprise, con- 
sternation, alarm, dismay 

Ji^i dahiS astonlBhed, amazed, sur- 
prised; baffled, puzzled, nonplused, per- 
plexed, startled, disconcerted, alarmed, 
upset; dazed, stunned 

<L*.:i ddhSa astonisKment, amazement, 
surprise, wonder; perplexity, consterna- 
tion, bafflement, bewilderment, dismay, 

^lft.lji indih&S astonishment, amaze- 
ment; perplexity, consternation, baffle- 
ment, bewilderment 

^J^x* mvdhiS astonishing, amazing, 
surprising, marvelous; pi. -at amazing 
things, marvels, wonders 

j_fij*-U madhus and ^J^X^ munddhii 
astonished, amazed, surprised ; perplexed, 
baffled, puzzled, nonplused, startled; 

ij*i ddhaq stocks (to hold the feet of an 
ofiFender by way of punishment) 

JUj dtAdg full (cup), brimful 

'oUa^ dihqdn, pi. <i\*i dahdqina, ^Haa 
dahaqln^ man of importance, one who 
plays an important role, leading person- 
ality; grandee (in ancient Persia) | jylUj 
^LJl d. aa-aiydaa the political leaders 

JJUj dahaka a {dahk) to crush; to mash (* 

jU^ II tadaMaza to stroll about, walk about 
(in a hall) 

>Uj difUiz pi. jrJUik dahallz^ anteroom, 
vestibule, lobby, foyer; corridor, hall- 
way I >UJI ^_! ibn ad^d, pi. jJIaoJI •bl 

^i dikli Delhi 

pjk.3 dahama a {dahm) and dahima a {dahain) 
to come or descend (* upon s.o.) suddenly; 
to aurprifle, take unawares, take by sur- 

prise (* S.O.), come unexpectedly (* to 
S.O.); to enter suddenly, raid, invade (a 11 to blacken (a Ill to befall, 
seize, grip, attack (« a.o.), come over s.o. 
(*; e.g., sickness, despair); to surprise, 
take unawares, catch ted-handed (« b.o.); 
to attack suddenly (» s.o.), fall upon s.o. 
(i), invade, raid (a e.g., a house); to 
overtake (» s.o.; fate), catch up with (o) 
IX to be black 

4>.i duhma blackness 

^jl adham^, f. »l>i dahmd'^, pi. aj 
duhm black, deep-black | *l^^ "i^l^ 
(ddhiya) disaster, catastrophe 

•L^ofl ad'dahmd' the masses, the com- 
mon people, the populace, also ^j-Ul *l^^ 

4ii*l-U mudahama police raid; house 

j»A« mudhamm very dark, pitch-dark 

^^ dahana u {dahn) to oil (», a, a.o., ^ 
with); to anoint (*, a, a.o., --j with); 
to grease, smear (», a, s.o., t-» with) ; 
to rub, embrocate (*, a, a.o., i^ 
with); to paint, daub (a; to varnish 
(a II do. Ill to treat with gentleness 
(♦ s,o.); to cajole, flatter (» s.o.), fawn (a 
on e.o.); to cheat, dupe, gull, take in, 
outsmart (o s.o.) V pass, of I 

j^j dahn oiling, greasing; painting, 

^^i duhn pi, oUil odMn, j^i duhun, 
'diy oLaj dihdn oil (edible, lubricating, 
for the skin) ; fat, grease 

J»j duhm oily, oil, oleic, oleo- (in 
compounds); fatty, greasy 

iIjLla^ dtthntydt fats, oils; fatty aub- 

*Uaj (ioAnd*^ desert 

d\jn dahhdn house painter, painter 

c^i dahlna pomade 



jUj diAoTi pi. -ai, ii*jl adhina cosmetic 
cream, cold cream, salve, ointment, 
unguent; consecrated oil, anointing oil; 
paint, varnish; hypocrisy, diBsimulation, 
deceit; — (without pi.) painting, daub- 
ing; whitewashing | 01*4 '*^jj {vyaraa) 
paints hop 

LlaIx. muddhana flattery, adulation, 
tiycophancy, fawning; hypocrisy, dis- 
simulation; deceit, trickery 

jilx. muddhin flatterer, adulator, syc- 
ophant; hypocrite 

jAX. mudhin oily; fatty, greasy 

j_^i dahvxira to hurl down (*; to tear 
down, topple, overthrow (* II ta* 
dahwara pass, of I; to fall, tumble; to 
slump, sink; to be dragged down, sink to 
the lowest level 

jj*jj tadahwuT fall, downfall; decline, 

Aji dahiya a (»Uj dahd') to be clever, smart, 
cunning, artful, wily; — dahd a to befall, 
overtake, hit, strike {» s.o.), come over 
s.o. (o; misfortune) U = dahd VI to 
pretend to be smart or cunning 

•L*j dahd' smartness, slyness, shrewd- 
ness, subtlety, cunning, craft 

jijl adhd smarter, shrewder; craftier, 
wilier; more skillful, subtler, more 
resourceful; worse, more calamitous 

fllj dakin pi. SUj duhdh smart, sly, 
shrewd, subtle, cunning, wily, artful ; 
resourceful person 

L^ii dahiya smart fellow, old fox, sly 

LaIj dahiya pi. aljj dawdhin calamity, 
disaster, catastrophe | »L»j M-*b {dakyd') 
and »l>i i-*l3 {dahmd') disaster, ca- 
tastrophe; i-*lj j ^-yj (fal-yadhah) let 
him go to hell! 

(#j:j) Jj da pi. »|jji adwd' disease, malady | 
._-i.^ll .ij d. ai-ta'lab alopecia, loss of the 
hair; O ^J^ *^^ ^- ar-raq^ St. Vitua's 
dance; O Jr*JI ''-^ ^- ol-jU elephantiasis; 
O iiiaJ-l »lj d. al-m\n\a^a shingles, herpes 
zoster {med.) 

• Ijj see (jjj 

t_jjj II to wear out, wear off (* 

Sjljji dubdra packthread, string, twine, cord, 
rope: thread 

•^j-i dubait a rhymed poem consisting of 
four hemistichs 

--ji VII to spread 

^ji dauh branching trees, branches 

i^jj dauha tall tree with many 
branches; family tree, genealogical table 

;^U ddha top (child's toy) 

irj^) r'-i '^b^ " {dauk) to conquer, subjugate 
(a a country); to resign o.s., humble o.s.; 
to be or become dizzy, have a feeling of 
dizziness ; to feel ill, be sick, feel nausea 
II to conquer, subjugate (* a, people); to 
make submissive, subdue, humble, hu- 
miliate, degrade (• s.o.); to make (• s.o.) 
dizzy; to molest, bother, trouble (• s.o.); 
to daze, stun (• s.o.) | *-1j ^jJ {rO'aahu) 
to make h.o.'s head go round, make s.o. 

4^jj dauka vertigo, dizziness; coma; 

^li dd'ik dizzy 

iiju; tadwik subjugation, conquest 

^jjj II to be or become worm-eaten 

:yj did (coll.; n. un. S) pi. ol-bj dlddn 
worm; maggot; larva; caterpillar | l^j^ 
J j^\ and jjl! 5.iji d, al-qazz silkworm; 
yjJiJl jjj d. al-qar', ^^ jjj {qar'i) ascarids ; 
^jj\\ ijj d. ol-qiTmiz cochineal; ^* ij^ 


d, al-miii cheese maggots; *x^\ iijJi\ 

t^ifi Audi wormlike, worm -shaped, 

JJ.U madvd^ mudawwid wormy, worm- 

'D Jj-u midwad = jji^ 

( J ji) jli (Mm V (daar, ijl, j3 daumrdn) to turn, 
revolve, rotate, move in a circle (J*, i_*, 
ii«- around or 8.0-), circle ( J», i_>, J^ or S.O.); to begin to turn or rotate; 
to circulate; to go round, spread, be 
current, make the rounds ^of rumors, 
etc.); to run, be in operation (of a ma- 
chine or engine); to start running, start 
up (engine); to walk or go about, run 
around; to roam, rove, move about, 
wander about, gad about; to make the 
rounds (Js among people), turn suc- 
cessively (J» to several people); to turn, 
turn one's face, wheel around; to veer, 
shifl, change its direction; to change, 
take a different turn, become different; 
to turn (Jc against s.o.); to have to do, 
deal (J;^ or J* with), treat ( Jj«- or J» of), 
refer (J,., or J» to), bear (J^ or J» on), 
concern (J^ or J« s-th.) ; to take place, 
be going on, be in progress, be under 
way; to be discussed, be talked about (ju 
among); to circulate, pass around (^ ; to lead, guide or show around (^ 
S.O.); to let roam, let wander (•jlkij, <JL»i 
bi-fuaarihi, bi-'ainaih{ one's eyes, one's 
glance, j over) | ji durt about 'face! 
(command; mil.); <J[j jlj (ra'ruhv) to be 
or become dizzy, giddy; ^jii\ ». jli 
Umat) to trim soil, adapt o.s. to the 
situation; ^ji.\ ^j i,jlj (rahS l-harb) 
war broke out; ^^1 UL-j Ojli Jll iljUll 
the battles that raged yesterday; ^ «•■ j\i 
(bi-Tutlaihi) it passed through his mind; 
>-l^'Jc jl.> (oJmn) to be much-discuased, 
be on eveiyone's lips; oiUlj .ly^t J» jlj 

^'^Vl (afwOh, amtat al-aqldm) to be 
current in both the spoken and written 
language, be in general use, be generally 
accepted (e.g., words); IjUl JTlj IjSj j\> 
(bilddan, a'yOdan) he had been around in 
the world and had seen a lot; (coUoq.) Ji 
»JIj {bdlahu) to pay attention (Jl, J» to), 
be careful (Jl, J. with); '.J\ji\ ^ Ojlj 
calamity overtook them n to turn in a 
circle, spin, whirl, rotate, revolve (^j, t; to turn, turn around {i->, *; 
to invert, reverse (v, »; to make 
round, to round (*; to circulate, 
pass around («; to set going, set in 
motion, start (*; to wind (* a 
watch, a clock); to look, search (J» for I <^lj jji (ra'«jAfi) to turn s.o.'s 
head, persuade s.o., bring s.o. round 
III to go or walk around (• with s.o.) ; to 
try to bring (, s.o.) round; to ensnare, 
inveigle (. s.o.); to try to ensnare (. s.o.); 
to try to deceive (• s.o.); to cheat, trick 
(J» or j6 . s.o. out of; to get 
away, escape, dodge, duck out IV to 
turn, revolve, rotate, spin, whirl (*; 
to turn around, turn (», ij, Jl oT, 
one's head toward); to direct (J» qr Jl », to, toward), aim ( J» or Jl * at); 
to circulate, pass around (»; to 
set in operation, set going, set in motion 
(t a machine, an apparatus); to start, 
start up (£lj^l al-rmiluirrik the motor); 
to play, play back (* e.g., UUU ii\j. 
tapes); to act upon (»), drive (>; to get under way (m a job, a 
project); to take up (1; to initiate 
(a; to divert, turn away (jc *, « 
8.O., from); to direct, conduct, steer, 
manage, head, run (>, be in charge 
(* of); to revolve in one's mind, think 
over, ponder (», ul that) | Jl t^-ji jljl 
(bi-wajhihi) to turn around to s.o., 
look back »t s.o.; *»t) jW (ra'mhv) to 
turn s.o.'s head, persuade s.o., bring 
s.o. round; Jj-i^l j iij.U-1 jljl to bring 


oonTeTBfttion around to A topic, broftoh or 
diBcuga a subject V to be or beconie round; 
to be circular X do.; to circle, rotate, 
revolve, spin, torn; to turn (Jl to), face 
(Jl 8.O.); to turn around; to turn one's 
head, look back; to circle (J^> 
walk around (J|«-) 

jb (Mr f., pi. jji dur, jljj diydr, v1<!jUj 
diydril, iji diyam house; building, 
Btrooture, edifice; habitation, dwelling, 
abode; residence, home; seat, side, 
locality; area, region; land, country (esp. 
pi. jUj, see below) | j\i'^\ jU museum (of 
antiquities); OjjJI jlj poet office ;.liJI jlj 
d. al-baqf the eternal abode, the here- 
after; yUl jUI (baqiya) do.; jl^Jl JiJi 
LSUI to pass away, die; >Li-)l J^^ 
(bai4a') Casablanca (seaport in W Mo- 
rocco) ; the White House (in Wash- 
ington); iJj^A Ji commercial house, 
business house; Vv'"' j''* ''• "'•J'"* *" 
zone, enemy territory (/»!. Lavi: non- 
Muslim countries); *-l>jll jlj seat of 
the chief executive of a country; j\i 
•jLJI d. aa-aa'Sda Constantinople; jli 
'■LI II d. at-aallma Constantinople (des- 
ignation before World War I); (•■AJI j'i 
d. at'Midm paradise, heaven; epithet 
of Baghdad; Sar es Salaam (seaport 
and capital of Tanganyika Territory); 
UjkJI jj3 cinemas, movie houses; jb 
Ji,j^\ d. ai-hirfa police station; jb 
;ic_Jl or UL^I jb arsenal; J~« jl.> 
(fini) cinnamon; Vy^' j\id. aS-4arb and 
:iOl jU d. M-tiUca mint (building); 
UljJI jUJI ('irasiso) Iraq; (i>Jl jlj 
name of a college in Cairo; •bill j\i d. 
at-fand' (as opposed to •UiJi jii see 
above) the temporal world, this world; 
•Lull J I J d. al-quiS court of justice, tribu- 
nal; ,.,:S~& jb d. ai-bitub public library; 
jfll jji d. dJ-IoAw amusement centers; 
night olnbs; J^Udl jb theater, playhouse; 
iilll jlj d. ol-mutt (royal) residence; 
i_r^l jIjaII (ffli^ya) Egypt; S^n^l jIj d. 

al-hijra Medina; fb'i/l jlj d. ol-aMm 
orplianage, orphans' home 

iji dim pi. -at halo (of the moon); 
circle; O (<J.) circuit; O 'iil* 

^jb ddri domestic, native 

ffjji diiri domestic (animal); jji.^ 
jjjj ('uj/Sr) and tj jji house sparrow 

jjj (tour pi. jljjl odtnir round (of a 
patrol; in sports); role, part (played by 
8.0. or; film role, stage role; 
periodic change, rotation, alternation; 
crop rotation; period; (one's) turn; 
phase, stage, step, degree, station ; epoch, 
age, era; fit, attack, paroxysm (of a 
disease); floor, story; musical compo- 
sition; number, single performance 
(within a program) | J-l-'j jjJ ("«• 
(osobul) vicious circle, drculus vitiosus; 
jLr JJ-> ("•**"«) fi^ round, finals 
(oMti.); ilxu'^l jji d. at-in'igSd session, 
terra (pari.); iiji\ jj-i)l (aumnJ) or jjj 
;yjl d. oi-bvfiUa leading role, starring 
role; jjM (•^» or \jji, ^ {la'iba) to play 
a part or role; u^jl jjJ (flr^f) ground 
floor, first floor; .j jj OS" it was his turn; 
tl j^l it is his turn; j jjJO (Ul) I for one,' 
(I) for my part, •jjJb (j») he in turn, (he) 
for his part; jjJl; alternately, by turns 
ijj} (tours pi. St turn, revolution, 
gyration, rotation; circulation; cycle; 
circuit; round, patrol; procession (Chr.); 
round trip; tour (in general, of an artist 
or performer); detour; period (O also 
el.); session (of parliament); course (of 
instruction) (»r., tyr.) \ ij-iH •jjJI <*>" 
maurfys) blood circulation; *iji-} li^^l 
(jaxouXya) air circulation; jl>>-l 'j>> 
Lyi (jjU:) d. v(»!/a» (toj'au^) ar-rulba 
officers* training course {mil,r Sffr.); 
V>l>-i iiJ^ (CTrTJifo) crop rotation; Sjjj 
^,u_ri; ((oM'ijo) legislative period; Sjji 
.<Jlin d. al-falak revolution of celestial 
bodies; U*^' 'J J' (tUt/d/iyo) flanking 
maneuver {mil.); 5JL Jjji (mdKi^) 



financial period, fiscal year; «U.I Sjjj d. 
ai-miydh lavatory (with running water), 
toilet, water closet 

ijjjj dauri patrolling, patrol- (in 
compounds); periodic, occurring at reg- 
ular stated times, recurring, inter- 
mittent; circulatory, cyclic, etc., &ee 
jjj and Jjjj; series (athlet.) \ tijjjjl JLji-l 
{jahdz) the circulatory system 

ijjjj daunya pi. -at patrol, round; 
patrol, reconnaissance squad | cAijji 
J>i. .*.>■-■■■ VI reconnaissance squads, patrols 

D *J jjlj ddwiriya = <,jjj daurtya 

jji dair pi. jbil adyar, ij^l adyira, 
*jjii duyura monastery, convent, cloister 

jy_i dain monastic, monasterial, clois- 

iji dim region, area, land, homeland 

j\ji duwdr, dawdr vertigo, dizziness, 
giddiness; seasickness 

J \ji daurwdr rapidly or constantly 
turning, whirling, spinning, rotating, 
circling, circulating; revolving, rotary, 
rotatory; whirlpool, eddy, vortei; itin- 
erant, ambulant, roving; (eg.) farm 
building, farm | jljj ^L revolving door; 
j'ji *jL peddler, hawker; j\j^ Jl>- JL**- 
(iahaz hair) rotary drilling rig; ^ -M l j l^j 
d, ai-Sams sunflower 
jLj dayydr mon£kstic, friar, monk 
(jlj-i dairdni monastic, friar, monk 
»)l)j dawwSra whirlpool, eddy, vortex; 
compass, pair of dividers (»yr.) | Ijljj 
O 'i^^' d. al-hawa* weather vane 
tijLj diydri domestic; native 
oLjjj davardn tum(ing), rotation, 
revolution, gyration; circulation, cir- 
cling, circuiting; round trip, tour 

jjjI adwar' (elative): jJVI J* jjjl 
{alsun) more talked about, more fre- 
quently expressed or discussed 

jl-u madSr pi. -dl orbit; circling, cir- 
cuiting, circuit, revolution; axis; pivot; 
(fig.) that upon which turns or 
depends, the central, cardinal, or crucial 
factor, the pivot; center; subject, topic, 
theme (of a conversation, of negotiations) ; 
scope, range, extent, sphere; tropic 
(geogr.); Q steering wheel | jLi,_JI jU 
m. as-aarafdn Tropic of Cancer, ^^-U-l Jj^ 
m. ol-jadyTropie of Capricorn; J* sjIa. of 
it (i.e., the dispute, or the like) was 
about..., it hinged on .. . ; ;;JI jU Jp 
{m. is-sana) throughout the year, all 
year round 

_/ ji; tadwir recitation of the Koran at 
medium speed (between lartll and >iadr; 
a technical term of Uijwld) 

Sjjla. mudduiara pi. -at cheating, 
humbug, trickery; outwitting; attempted 
evasion or circumvention, shift, dodge; 
persuasion, inveigling, ensnaring 

ijljl idSra turning; turning around or 
over, reverting, reversion, inversion; 
starting, setting in operation; operation; 
drive {Uchn.); direction, management; 
administration ; administrative agency, 
department, office, bureau ( ^•j\ Sjljl 
•'. al-amn the police; Lj,e Sjljl ('urfiya) 
military administration; IjbVI ^j^ su 
ai-i. mismanagement, maladministration; 
iiljVI jJ* ntajlia ai-i. board of directors, 
administrative board, committee of man- 
agement; JjIjVI jfj- markai al-i. ad- 
ministration center, headquarters 

j:jlj1 iddri administrative, depart- 
mental; administrative officer; manager 
{athlet.); Ljljl iddriyan through ad- 
ministrative channels, administratively, 

ejla^l isliddra roundness, rotundity, 

j\i dd'ir turning, revolving, spinning; 
circulating; current (e.g., expression), 
common; ambulant, itinerant; in prog- 



reas, under way; working, in operation; 
running (machine, engine); round 

V 1 J daira pi. J Ij^i dawd*ii^ circle 
(also math.); ring; circumference, perim- 
eter, periphery; sphere, scope, range, 
compass, extent, circuit; field, domain 
(fig.); official agency, department (eap. 
It., Syr., Lib.); office, bureau; depart- 
ment of a court of justice (Eg,, Tun.); 
farm, country estate {eg.); misfortune, 
calamity, affliction | . . . v b j within the 
framework of...; *J\^ i_j-^ JS^ J* 'aid 
iakli nifrfi d. semicircular; »J\jS\ <Laj nvq* 
tat ad-d. essential factor, pivot, crucial 
point, crui; O v^.^ '-/'^ (hihraba,*lya) 
electric circuit; O *j^ »J^i short 
circuit (eZ.); JjjUll •J\z encyclopedia; 
M^jS^l j-'l^i government circles, ^Ij-JI 
(^jjS^l.i^-'LJI) Ltf'_;Jl {raam.lya,8iyasi%ya, 
'askariya) official (poLtical, mUitary) 
circles or quarters (joum.); jrf»Lai»^"i' tjii 
jurisdiction (of an official agency, esp., 
of a court of justice); iJ-J1 Uj-'ljJl {aa' 
niya) civil list; i-ibiL-l tj\i (isitndfiya) 
appellate court {Eg.; jur.); «-jU«iJI tj\i 
{intikdbiya) electoral district; ^J^ Ojli 
j.'ljjjl to suffer adversities 

(jyli dd'trt circular, ring-shaped, an- 

J j-U mvdawwar round, circular 
_;.-U mudir head, chief, director; ad- 
ministrator; manager; intendant, su- 
perintendent; rector (of a university); 
mudir, chief officer of a mudiria, approx. 
= governor {Eg.); (pi. JjJ- mvdara^) 
administrative officer at the head of a 
county (Syr,, Leb., Ir.^ Saudi Ar.) \ y-U 
Jji-l m, al-jauq bandleader, conductor of 
an orchestra 

'»jXa mudira directress; administratress 

ajjAa mudlrlya direction; administra- 
tion; management; — (pi. -&t) mudiria, 
province {Eg.); approi.: main depart- 
ment of a ministry (It.) 

jjc^^ musiadlr round; circular | yj* 
'.j .\-.\ \ ;.Clil (mu'tamar oi-m.) round- 
table conference 

Jjji dauraq pi. jj'jj davoariq* (eg.) bulging 
vessel with a long, slender neck, carafe 

jjj^ dauzana to tune (a musical instrument); 
O to tune in (radio) 

jljji duzan and iJJjj dauxana tuning 
(of a musical instrument); ijjji O tun- 
ing (radic) 

o Jjj (It. dozzina) dSzina dozen 

(^jj) ^Ij ddsa u (daw, ^Ui diyda) to 
tread, step (* on); to tread (*; to 
tread down, trample down, trample 
underfoot, crush (a ; to threah 
(grain); to treat with disdain, humiliate 
(a S.O.); to run over (« a.o.; automobile) 
VII pass, of I 

^jj dau^ treading, trampling, tread, 

o.)j disa dense forest, jungle, thicket 
A^lj^ davwdsa pedal 
^|j^ Tnad&s shoe, sandal 

-.jA, madHa, ^^J^ mudas trodden , 
trampled down; crushed; run over 

L jlk-yj dusinfdriyd, {jjbl^js dysentery 

4-yyJ (Fr. dossier) doaye, ^-yj dSsS pi. -ai 
dossier, file 

i^jj (eg.) dawaS to irritate (e s.o.) or drive 
8.0. crazy by noise 

iijj dattSa (eg.) din, noise, clamor, up- 
roar, hubbub, hullabaloo 

8^jj (Fr. douc7^e) duS pi. -at shower, douche 
;iyj (It. dote) dOfa dowry 
i'j^ II to imprint a mark, to brand 
f-lj dag pi. -at brand (on cattle). 



(u>j'>) <J>ii ddfa u (daul) to mix, mingle 
(j * with); to add, admix (J * to) 

liji dUq duke 

«>>} diqa duchess 

Jjj dufi ducal 

vij' dCgiya dukedom, duchy 
llj^ II to chatter, prattle 

Oji dauka din, row, hubbub, tumult, 

Hiif^) Jli diUa u (;jjj daiifa) to change 
periodically, take turns, alternate, rotate; 
to change, turn (time, fortune) | Ujj cJlj 
jiAJb'VI the time of absolutism is over, 
belongs to the past; Vjj3\ <J cJU fortune 
has turned in his favor (•ulc against him) 
III to alternate, rotate <*, • s.o.,; 
to cause to succeed by turns or to follow 
one another (^UVI al-ajfyama the days; 
God); to alternate (jij between); to 
confer, talk (t with s.o., j about), 
discuss (j • with b.o. IT to give 
ascendancy, afford superiority, give the 
upper hand (^ . to s.o. over) ; to make 
victorious, let triumph (J> a s.o. over), 
grant victory {J» . to s.o. over); to 
replace (i^ » or ^ with), exchange, 
substitute (v * or ,> for | Jjjl 
v' (f< <> ,rV^' lir* ^^ U-banl I-'oUdn 
min banl umayyaia the rule passed from 
the Onunaiads to the Abbosides Tl to 
alternate, take turns (* with or in, 
e.g., in some work); to hand each other (*), pass {») alternately between 
themselves; to handle alternately (* 
diffeient things), take now this, now 
that; to exchange (,^^1 nr-ra'y views); 
to make frequent use (> of; to 
confer, have a discussion, take counsel, 
deliberate; to parley, negotiate; to 
circulate, be in circulation, be current, 
have currency | ($4iVI «Jjl4j ladawalatlm 
l-aidl it passed &om hand to hand, it 

made the rounds, it oircu]ated;^VI idjlo; 
(aZnin) it passed irom mouth to mouth, 
it was the talk of the town, it was on 
everybody's lips 

iljj davta pi. 4p duwal alternation, 
rotation, change; change of time, tun 
of fortune; dynasty; state, country; 
power, empire | iijJiS ^_*U title of the 
Prime Minister; i.jSii-\ ^j ilj^ daulai 
r. oi-J. His Excellency, the Prime 
Minister; ;jjjjl oU< /aidmat atU. title 
of the President of the Republic (Syr., 
Ltb.); UJI iljJi\ I'attya) name of the 
ancient Ottoman Empire; iSjSJ\ Jjoll 
(jJiJI or) ilnitra, 'uimd) the big powers; 
uJ^ Vji (muTitadaba) mandatory power 

iiji {dam., pronounced dile = SjTj 
rtthm) metal vessel with long curved 
handle used for making coffee 

^ dauli state (adj.); dutudf inter- 

!Jj.> dtaaanya intemationality; inter- 
nationalism; the International 

O'^.i duunUat petty states, small 

•iiJ\)i dauOlaiia alternately, by turns; 
successively, one by one, one after the 
other I ,<JU1^ Ia£>, (\m-haiaid) and so 
forth, and so on 

Jij-lj taduil internationalization 

ijjix. mvddtcala pi. -d( parley, ne- 
gotiation; deliberation, consultation; dis- 
cussion; imidduxilatan alternately, one 
aflet the other, one at a time 

ijflj; laddvnii alternation, rotation; 
droulation, currency; circulation of mon- 
ey I JjIjJLj alternately, by turns, one by 

uj'iii mulodduoJ current, circulating, 
in circulation; valid; common, in com- 
mon use, prevailing | JjIaxII ^^I (bf 
Um) the colloquial language 



i^VjJ dilab pi. u— 11;^ dawSlib' wheel; tin; 
geariiig» gears, wheels, mechanism, ma* 
chine, maobineiy; closet, looker, cabinet, 
cupboanl | i^^UI v^J^ wardrobe 

j*^ deldr pi. -at dollar 

'(fji) Ai dima u {daum, pljJ ciaudffl) to last, 
continue, go on; to persevere, persist | 
f\i Li flid ddma as long as; (the more so) 
since, inasmuch as, as, because; while 
he is . . ., when he is . . . ; L>- ^Ij L, (Jtayyan) 
as long as he is alive; tlLw c^y U {dumtu) 
so long as (or while) I am with you II to 
move in a circle, turn, spin, revolve, 
rotate, gyrate, circle; to turn, revolve, 
spin, twirl (* Ill to persevere, 
persist (J* in), apply o.s. diligently and 
steadily (J* to), pursue with diligence 
and perseverance (J«; to continue 
IV to cause to last or continue, perpetuate, 
make lasting, make permanent (* 
X to make {m last or continue; to 
continue, go on (* with 

pj3 daum continuance, permanence, 
duration; L.j.s davman constantly, at all 
times, ever, always; — doom palm {bot.) 

ii3 dina pi. ffj diyam, fyj, duyOfli 
continuous rain 

Aji dmeSm duration, continuance, 
permanence, perpetuity; uninterrupted 
succession; endurance, perseverance; 
abiding, stay (of s.o., j at a place); Uijj 
dawdman and f\jJi\ Ji> permanently, 
perpetually, at all times, ever, always | 
^Ijoll cJj, f\jji\ iZj\jj\ , A\jJi\ oUU working 
hours, offlca hours (/r., Syr.) 

l^jjci daimUna = f]ji 

it\}i duwwama top (child's toy); 
whirlpool, eddy, vortex 

l*j\it muddwama perseverance, endur- 
ance, persistence; continuance, duration; 

/rlj dd'im lasting, enduring; endless, 
eternal, perpetual, everlasting; perennial; 
continued, continuous, continual, inces- 
sant, unceasing, constant; permanent, 
standing, established; durable | ^XUI f\i 
_^lj d. at-laqaddum va-n-mimiw in a 
state of constant progress and growth 

Li'b dd'iman always | liil \J\i {aiadan) 
always and ever 

^^*lj dd^imi = ^li 
f\ju mvdim wine 

f ■• - mualadlm constant, continuous, 
continual, incessant, uninterrupted 

'jUjj dumSn rudder, helm 

jtLtji dumanji steersman, helmsman 

'jji II to record, write down, set down, put 
down in writing (*; to enter, list, 
register, book (*; to collect (* 
poems) I \irji Oji (hrfan) to stipulate 
a condition V to be recorded, be written 
down, be put down in writing 

o\jii div)Sn pi. ^jb^ dawivnn' ac- 
count books of the treasury (in the older 
Islamic administration) ; divan, collection 
of poems written by one author; govern- 
mental oiBce, administrative oiBce; chan- 
cellery, oifice, bureau, secretariat; coun- 
cil of state, cabinet ; council, consultative 
assembly, board of advisers, executive 
committee; government; court of justice, 
tribunal; hall; davenport, divan; (rail- 
way) compartment | ^ jb-JI *i) lugal ad-d. 
oillcial jargon, officialese; ,j 'r i -l l o\jii in- 
quisitional court; the Inquisition 

jl>.^ dlteiM administrative, adminis- 
trational, official ; an Ottoman style of cur- 
sive (used by the secretaries of the State 
Chancellery for treaties, diplomas, fir- 
mans, etc.) 

^jij ladwin recording, writing down; 
entry, listing, booking; registering, reg- 



ujXt mudawwana pi. -at record, note; 
entry; body of laws; pi. ^IIjLJjJL- writings, 
literature (on a given subject) 

*dji dun lowj lowly; bad, poor, inferior; 
meager, iiiadequate | jjjJL <LU {'dnui' 
lahU) he snubbed him 

dji duna (prep.) below, beneath, under 
(in rank, value, etc.); this side of, short of; 
before; without; more than; with the ei- 
clusion of, leaving ... aside, disregard- 
ing ...; and not by any means, but not | 
tiJl^ Oji (with foil, nominative) on the way 
to that, there is ,.., before accompliBhing 
that one must..., aIjlaJI Ir^ ^j Oj^ 
(karf al-qatad) before one can do that, 
one must strip the tragacanth. of its 
leaves, i.e., accomplish the impossible; 
jjjj, jfj fj* (duni) without; with the 
exclusion of, excluding; jl UjJj and 
jl j|3 ^ without (+ foil, gerund in 
Engl.); tl}jj:> dunaka (with foil, ace.) here 
you are! take...! watch out (> for)! 
beware (> of) I -ojj j> he is below him, 
he doean^t measure up to him; <jj^ iSC 
'<^\ {dhammlyaian) to be of less im- 
portance than...; rl J^ <jjj rl ^mun 
dunaku IcuUit iimin a Bin to end all sins; 
lj^pLmM^\ j«JI bji -» ^ojl {ainUt 'askariya) 
those below the age for military service; 
Jl ^ L* Ofj (nazarin) regardless of, ir- 
respective of; iJjLj L* oj^ with no benefit 
at all; completely useless; Ooa-j oI ^^tic 
Lf^j {takSd an yas'adna) she is afraid 
they will be happier than she is; <_:^i d^ 
Uju^ jjj {kultib, gairihd) those hooka and no 
others; iLJU Ojj diiJi ^ vr*'^ '^' (^^ 
ia'ajjib, fa4lika, '■ilmik^) I admire your 
virtue, but not your knowledge, or, I 
admire your virtue more than your 
knowledge; t^jSliJl^ jAJdi\ Ojj alyVl f 
(kamma, iadammur, Sakiod) he stopped 
their mouths to keep them from mutter- 
ing and complaining; Ojj ^j-**!! jlfiil 
^1,2^ U (^u^u, yaktamiluha) if the branch 
is not strong enough to carry him; 

4jli)l Jl jyj J^_| it was he, not they, 
who reached the goal; ujj Lf^^ c^ii\ 
{aSdhai bi-uxijhihd) she averted her face 
so that he could not see her; •^l Oji JU- 
to prevent; .|^1 jjj i^i^l iaSi"at 
hamrd') the infrared rays; Oji oLj^_4' 
0.;%Mxi]l (maujdt) ultra-short waves {radio) 

rji dunum a square measure (/r. = about 
2500 m»; Pal. ^ roughly, 900 m") 

^tSj^ dawd and II to sound, resound, ring out; 
to drone; to echo, reverberate III to treat 
(« a patient, a a disease) VI bo treat o.s. 
(with a medicine) ; to be cured 

^jj dawan pi. oljjl adivd' sickness, ill- 
nesa, disease, malady 

(fjj dawiy sound, noise, ring, clang, 
roar, thunder, drone; echo, reverberation 

t\ji dawdh {\3 *j}j^ dawdya) pi. jj3 
dutiAyt diwiy, <^^,j> dawaydt inkwell 

•Iji davd' pi. \j>\ ndwiya remedy, 
medicament, medication, medicine, drug 

Li\ji dawd't medicinal, medicative, 

•\i see »jj 

t\ji diwd' treatment, therapy {med.) 

l\j\ Ju> muddwdh treatment, therapy 

j\jS taddwin cure 

*(jj^ (Ft. douiUe) duy socket (of a light bulb) 

r-^IjA diyalOg (Eg. spelling) pi. -dt dialogue 

rLii suid y-LjA see fi 

i*_^i dayyui (D ^jii) cuckold; procurer, 
pimp; a variety of warbler (zool.) 

jjj^i see ^HT^ 

o^j^jSI ad-digOliyiin (Eg. spelling) the Gaul- 

,^Li3 see t^i 



uLiUjj daidabdn, da^-ubdn pi. -at, *ii\jj dayd* 
dxba guard, aentry; sentinel | i-^l^l Ob-uj 
ship's pilot 

u-bj see OiA 

ji* ffy-i* j'^i'j 'y-^' L*/."*> j'i-*) ij'j".-* *^ JJ-* 

^i dis diss (Ampelodesma tenax ; bot.) 

^j see ^3 

4— ji aee ^>> 

,_;-^,j see *^>ii 

j-^^^^> dMemJHf, ^iAimbir December 

siLj diit pi. 45Cj3 d{iba, iSjji duyuk, iJUjI luf j/dit 
cock, rooster | ,jiji-l iijJ d. ai-haba£ 
turkey, turkey cock; j>j iLi (rtlmi) do.; 
dhjll Ojj uuzn ad-d. bantamweight 

JL^oJl JLJI c*-«*'aJ od-dltt whoopmg 

j_j5^j (Fr. d&or) pi. -St dicor, stage deco- 

^Icj daim&a, diTJids, ^j^i daimua pi. ,_rx>ljj 
daydmle^ dungeon, vault 

*jiit fir X^j£ i see ^j^ 

J_i»^i dimufiqi demotic (writing) 

l»ly_^ J, ^\jA£i dimuqrdti democratic; dem- 

Ll»[;j_^^, l^\jju:^ dimvqrdilya pi. 'di 
democracy; democratic attitude or con- 

^{^^) ^^^ ddtia i to borrow, take up a loan; 

to be a debtor, be indebted; to owe {^j J 

B.o., also, e.g.. j^^^, *J oIj (Sukr) d. bi-4-Sukr to owe s.o. one's thanlu; 

4-j, e.g., fr^i-l-j bi-l-haydh one's 
Life, i3 to or s.o.}; to be indebted 
(<^ i3 to B.O. for); to be Bubjeot, subject 
o.B.^ bow, yield, (J to s.o. or, be 
under s.o.'s (J) power, owe allegiance 

(J to s.o.). obey (J fi.o.); to grant a loan, 
lend money {» to s.o.); to subject, 
subjugate (• a.o.); to requite, repay (• 
s.o.); bo condemn (« s.o.), pass judgment 
(* on s.o.) Ill to have a debt (• with s.o.)i 
be indebted (a to s.o.); to be the creditor 
(^ of s.o.), have a money claim {« on 
8.0.) I ^Jjji i— f- aLjc 4^iIj (bi-mabla^ 
kamaat q.) he had a claim of five piasters 
on him IV to lend money (« to s.o.); to 
sell on credit (« to s.o.); to convlot, find 
guilty, pronounce guilty (• e.o.) V to be 
indebted, have debts; to subject o-s. (J 
to) VI ^Ai W-'^' {f^*") to contract a 
mutual loan, borrow money from each 
other X to make or incur debts, take up 
a loan 

^j dain pi. Oji^ duyun debt; pecuni- 
ary obligation. Liability; obligation {lal. 
Law); claim {Isl. Ijaw)^ financial claim | 
;j'^\ji on credit; jiS^ t_o rabb ad-d. 
creditor; *->^' ^Ji^ ^- o^-AofA war debte; 
Oj*^ j'^ bonded, or funded, debt; ^i 
Jlif {mumtdz) preferred, or privileged, 
debt; -u-}.. ^i [muwahhad) consolidated 
debt; i^ik- ^ji {muflaq} debt not bound to 
the physical person of the debtor, but 
outliving him (Ul. Law); i5>i-< ^j._J 
(mustagriq) claims against an estate 
which exceed or equal the assete {lel. Law) 

Zj^j c^tnunajudgment;La8t Judgment 

OLoJl ad-dayydn the Judge (attribute 
of God) 

ijo.* TTiadina pi. ^Ix« madd^in*, u-U 
mudun town, city; *^-iJ-l Medina (city 
in W Saudi Arabia); see ox. 

ijljl iddna verdict of guilty; convic- 
tion I oIjU 5^1 jA^ padara l-hukmu 
bi-iddnatihi he was convicted 

iiloi-l istidana incurrence of debta 

Jij dd*in creditor 

djl-i^ madyun indebted, in debt; ob< 
ligated, under obligation 



•Jfij< maiyiMya indebtedneu, obli- 

^x. iMidfn o-wing; indebted, obligated, 
undJer obligation; debtor | j£^^ JJ^ 
(hilcr) owing gntitude, muoh obliged; 
J Li-U liIT to be indebted to ■.o., stand 
in >.o.'6 debt 

^it nuidin moneylender, oreditor 

01 A* tnuddn convicted, found guilty; 
guilty; judged, condemned 

"(j.j) oIj <M»a • to profem (^ » religion, a 
'conviction, etc.) | f-jUlflj olj to profeaa 
lalam; u'bUi ub (M-'dddltA{) to adhere to 
one's ouBtoms T to profeaa (v <k religion) 

^3 din pi. oljil (ulyiln religion, oieed, 
faith, belief | jj!i\ fji yawn ad-d. the 
Day of Judgment 

^i (ftnl religioua; spiritual | Jii'i ir- 
religious; O Jt-Jl |WI ('*''») scienoe of 

^j ({ayyi'n religious, pious, godly, 

•ilij iiyina pi. -d< religion; com- 
munion, confession, denomination, sect | 
«LJI yffLr founder of a religion 

OL.j dayydit pious, godly, devout, 

jrjj tudayyun piety, godliness, devout- 
ness, reUgiousnen, religiosity 

jji, mutadayyi% pious, godly, devout, 
iij j^, muladayyina religious community 

j\Lii dlndr pi. juljj (tandnir* dinar, a mone- 
tary unit {It., Jord.); pi. juUj money 

^bi dfnart diamonds (of a deck of 

^Uj^ Unimt dynamo, generator 

■l^\:ji dfnamU dynamite 

O ^^ dainam pi. <La daydnim* dynamo, 

vi see ^j 

Jl^i pi. jf j'ji and J\jii I 


Ij ii (demonstr. pron.) pi. 'Vfl vUCi this one, 
this; IJu H-^ by this, by this means, 
thereby; lol li-iS therefore; IjT l»-tfd so, 
thus, in this manner; so and so, so and 
so muoh; IJSC* hS-ta-ii so, thus, in this 
manner; serve* as intensifier after inter- 
rogative pronouns (roughly correspond- 
ing in English to such phrases aa: ... on 
earth, ...then, or the like): IJL what on 
earth T \M. why theuT why in heaven's 
name? — li y kuun fd, t. ji ^ hiya if 
that one; look at that one I why, that 
is. ifthatisn't...I;1Jii.U»«'<mo- 

(fd behold, it is I, here I am, pi. t'ij\ ^\m 
Ad no^nu vUfi; — uaed as an aoouaative 
in the construct state: master, owner, or 
poaaeesor of, with jj nominative (q.v.), 
^i as genitive; — ^Ij ijdfai, f. lit <di». 
ilL; Hfai, pi. jiS'ifi tdd'ifai this, this one; 
li\i i\ (itf) then, at that time; in thoae 
days; — dli jaUbt, f. ^JU tiUa, pi. iil^j\ 
vUiha that, that one ; Jih bi-ialibi by 
that, by that means, in that manner; 
dUi li-4alila therefore; iii Jm ba'da 
ilOika after that, upon that, thereafter, 
thereupon ; JJi >• ma'a iUita yet, still. 



nevertheleu, for sU that; ill dljj (smu) 
that ia (to say), namely, to wit; b") .liij 
(li-anna) and that it beoauae . . ., for the 
one raaaon that ,..; oIj dl^ (M-onwi) 
this is due to the fact that ...; JIJS* i»- 
ialika so, thus, in that mannvrj equally* 
likewise, in the same manner; — >ii 
iOUhtm, f. p: tUkum, pi. ^'Vjl uUTHnun 
that one; — li* Uid, i. 'i" U4M, i(JA 
A^C, pi. .^ MvlSi, dual m. JlA* 
k^iffdnt, f. oIjU MUni this, this one, see 
lit (alphabetioally) 

^U X to be wolflike, be fleioe or oniel like a 

>^j ifb pi. ^\li ii'Sb, Olijj ^tt'hSn 
dieb (Canis anthus), jaokal; wolf | 
_;j-VI ^Ji\ ^jij. marai ai-4. ai-a^nar 
name of a noncontagious skin disease 

«lji in'aba pt. ^Iji iawSU^ look, 
strand (of hair); tuft, wisp 

ijVi, Jlj and v'^ IM J^ 



Jl j ^ name of the letter t 

^'i jabba u to drive away, ohase away (>, • 
e.o„; to defend {y> s.o., 

^\i> ^uUb (ooU. ; n. on. !) pi. u jl aiibba, 
jlji iibbin fliee, fly j ^j\i v^J gadfly, 

ilii tfuMio pi. -« (n. un. of ijUi) fly j 
tip (of the sword, or the like) 

Z\ii ^uUdna, iibbSna fly; sight, bead 
(on a firearm) 

<il. mxiaiba fly whisk, fly swatter 

f'i ^abdha a (j^A) to kill (by slitting the 
throat); to slaughter, butcher; to mas- 
sacre; to murder, slay; to sacrifice, offer 
up, immolate (* an animal) II to kiU, 
slaughter, butcher, massacre, murder 

fi iabh slaughtering, slaughter 

^ j iihh sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice 

t^i 4ib^, ^itbha angina (me^.); diph- 
theria I «jj.uJI 4<^III (fodrlya) angina 
pectoris (mtd.); Q ij^JpiJl i^Ji\ (ju'adiya) 

^Uj iabbSk slaughtering, killing, mur- 
dering; slaughterer, butcher 

ui iahik slaughtered 

te^j iabXha pi. ^lii iabd^ih' slaughter 
animal; sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice; 
sacrifice, immolation; offering, oblation 

^,1, wa^iak pi. ^,lii maitbih' slaugh- 
terhouse; altar (CAr.) 

itfX, ma^balux massacre, slaughter, 
carnage, butchery 

^iij jabiaha to set into a swinging motion, 
awing, dangle (* II taiabiaba to 
swing, pendulate; to oscillate (el.); to 
be deflected (magnetic needle) ; to vibrate ; 
to fluctuate; to waver, vacillate, hesitate 

'liji iabiaba pi. -it pendulous motion, 
pendulation; oscillation (e{.); vibration 

i_jajjj ta4dbiiib pendulous motion, 
pendulation, swinging; oscillation (el.); 
deflection (of a magnetic needle) 

O ■-J^.^ muiabiib oscillator (tl.) 
•-lijif nnt^abiab fluctuating, variable; 
vacillating, wavering, hesitant, unsteady 

^.Liu mviaiabiih: vM-^ J^ (lavy^f) 
oscillating current (e/.) 

^i iabala, iahfUa u (iabl, J^j ivbul) to be 
wilted, to wilt, wither; to fade; to 
become dry, dry upj to waste away; to 
become dull, lose its luster (eye) 

J{j idbi mother-of-pearl, nacre 

\i\ii iubala wick 

Jjlj jdMpI. Jjj iubvl wilted, withered; 
dry, dried up; faded (color); languid, 
dull, lackluster, languishing (glance); 
feeble, weak, tired 



J»-j iahl pi. JU-jl a4haly Jp-j ^u^u2 resent- 
ment, r&ncor, hatred ; revengefulness^ 
TindictiveDesa; blood revenge 

j»-':i ^kara a to keep, preserve, store away, 
put away (*; to save, lay by {* VIII j^jl iddakara to keep, pre- 
serve, store away, put away (*; to 
store, Accumulate, gather, hoard, amasa 
{*; to lay by <*; to save (m, also strength, trouble, etc.) | j»-^\ 
J L»- {htihban) to harbor love for; ^Oj V 
I .L4*- (j-uhdan) he spares no effort 

j^i duhr pi. jU-jl adkdr stored 
away, put by, hoarded, or accumulated; 
stores, supplies; treasure 

Sj^i dakira pi. y Ui dakd'ir^ treasure; 
stores, supplies; proviaionfl, food; om- 
munition (mil.); (holy) relic 

jU-isi iddikdr storage; hoarding, amass- 
ing, accumulation; storing, gathering; 

j>-X* mudakkir pi. -fin assistant gunner, 
ammunition passer (mii., Syr,) 

j^X> mv4akifaT pi. -dt supply 

'»jii-lt mudda^ra pi. -ai (Syr.) storage 
battery, battery 

Kji ^ura see jjj 

^i iiarra u (rforr) to strew, scatter, spread 
(*; to sprinkle (lj m on | 
4-Lc J jL._^l jj {ar-ramdda fi *ainaihi) to 
throw dust in s.o.'s eyes; — u (jjji 
duruT) to rise, come up, rise resplendent 
over the horizon (sun) | Oji j j (^arnuAu) 
it began to show, it emerged 

ji darr strewing, scattering, sprinkling; 
(coU.) tiny particles, atoms, specks, 

ij'i darra (n, un.) pi. ^dt atom; tiny 
particle; speck, mote | Ijj Jlil. miiqdl d. 
the weight of a dust particle, a tiny 
amount; a little bit; IjS j\j>a* miqddr d. 

a tiny amount, a jot, an iota; iLsJI > jjj 
{Sakk) the least doubt 

^ji darri atomic | iiji iLi {qunbvia) 
atomic bomb; iSj'^\ .ULUJl {naSa^) and 
ijjj iJli» [\dqa) atomic energy 

jjjj dafur powder 

iSjjj^ ^rur* powdery, powdered, pul- 

»yji darira pi. j-'lji ^ra'ir' fragrant 
powder, cosmetic scented powder 

^sy^ durrl of or pertaining to the off- 
spring or progeny 

iijj durnya pi. -»/, ^^jljj iardriy 
progeny, descendants, children, offspring 

3jij ya^aru see (ji,) 

i_jjj ^riba a (^rab) to be sharp, cutting 
^jj ^ro6 diarrhea (nwrf.) 
«— 'jj darib pi. <--jji ^ur6 sharp, cutting | 
^jj ^^^ (jwfA) a malignant, incurable 

^ijj durrdh pi. ^j\j'a dardrih^ Spanish fly, 
blister beetle {200I.) 

^jj dara'a a (4ar') to measure (m; to 
take the measure or measurements {a 
of; to cover {a a distance); to cross, 
traverse (Aa country), travel through (a); 
to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in 
a word ((J for s.o., on behalf of s.o., xlc 
with s.o. else) V to use, employ, apply 
{*MjXi bi-^ri'a or <L.-^ bi-toasila a 
means, an expedient); to use aa a pre- 
text, as an excuse (i^; to use as a 
means (u>, Jl to an end) VII to 
proceed, advance; to intervene 

f-jj dar* power, ability, capability (i_j 
to do I t-» Uji JL* and c* JL* 
Ujj {4ar'an) not to be up to, be 
unable to do or accomplish; to be 
unable to stand or bear, be fed up 
with, be tired of, feel uneasy about, be 
oppressed by 



flji dird" f. and m., pi. Jyil a^m', 
OUj^ dur'an arm; forearm; conneoting 
rod; cubit, in Syria = .68 m | in Egypt: 
t^xl; J^lji (iralodJ) = .58 m, Jj^t-I J^bi 
(Mton*ia») = .665 m, :jlx* j^^lji (Ai«- 
ddza) — .656 m, ijjl^ f^ji {mi'vidH) = 
oa. .75 m, j;jj ,ijl,». J^lji (muraJJo') = 
.5625 m'; in Iraq: j^ ^j'i (halabi) = 
ca. .88 m, if jl.ii; ?■ b^ (iw^<Mdi) or ^jIli J^ljJ 
(imJaiS) == ca. .80 m, jjl^*. J^^lj J M« above 

^,ji darT stepping lively, -walking 
briskly; rapid, quick; torrential; rapidly 
spreading, sweeping (death) ; devastating; 

<,jjj dari'a pi. -Jb^ ^rSf medium, 
means, expedient; pretext, excuse 

Jiji daraja i (darj, ^ji danf, >jjjj iuruf, 
uliji ^ro/an) to flow, well forth (tears) ; 
to shed {» tears; said of the eye) II to 
exceed (J* an age) X to let flow, shed (a 


Jji daraqa i u {darq) to drop excrement 
(bird) IV do. 

t5ji darq droppings, excrement (of a 

(jji and ijji) bJ ^™ " (iarw) to disperse, 
scatter (*; to carry off, blow away 
(i dust; said of the wind); to winnow, 
fan (» grain); — ^fji dard i (dary) do. 
II do. IV = I; to throw down, throw off 
(», . a.o., I j-a)l if.ji\ iJjil (dam'a) 
the eye shed tears V to be winnowed, be 
fanned; to climb (» on), scale (»; to 
seek shade or shelter (^_> in, at, under); 
to take refuge (>-> with), flee (^j to) X to 
take refuge (v with), place o.a. under 
s.o.'a (kj) protection, flee (v to s.o.) 

Sji dura durra, a variety of sorghum | 
^yLt -ji (ep.) Indian com, maize (Zea 
mays L.); ^ji^ yi (?a/™') do. (Jj/r.); 
4j<:jc Iji (ej.) a variety of millet (Andro- 
pogon Sorghum Brot. var. Schwein- 

furthianus Kcke.); "Uij «ji {baiia') 
millet («yr.) 

jjj ^ran protection, shelter 

Sjji ^uruw, ^trun pi. ^sji ^uron sum- 
mit; top; peak; ciUmination, climax, 
acme, apex 

^^x* mt^rati and *b-^ midrah pi. jli* 
ma^rin winnow, winnowing fork 

jii da'ara a (ia'r) to frighten, scare, alarm, 
terrify (• s.o.); pass, du'ira to be frighten- 
ed (J by), get alarmed (J at); — da'ira 
a {da'ar) to be terrified, alarmed, dis- 
mayed IV to frighten, scare, alarm, 
terrify (. s.o.) V and VII to be frightened, 
become alarmed 
jt'i iu'r, fright, terror, alarm, panic 
jt'i ia'ar fnght, alarm, dismay, con- 

jUi du'df lethal, deadly, immediately 
killing (poison) | <jLpi Cj^ {maid) a 
sudden, immediate death 

jci ^'d^o o i^'q) to frighten (» s.o.) by 

jti ^'ina a (ia'an) and IV to submit, 
yield, give in (J to s.o.), obey (J s.o., an 
order, etc.); to concede voluntarily, 
grant willingly (k-» J to s.o. 

jUil irf'Sn submissivenesB, pliabUity, 
compliance, obedience 

jci. tnv^in submissive, pliable, trac- 
table, obedient 

jUi. mid'dn pliable, tractable, docile, 
obedient, obliging, compUant 

jii dafar pungent smell, stench 

/jjj daqan^ diqan pi. jlijl adq&n, uyi 4^iqu.n 
chin; — daqn f., pi. Ujii dwfin beard, 
whiskers | ji_t)l jii d. ai-Saik worm- 
wood, absinthe; rfUiV bj»- Iparru 
li-a^dnihim they prostrated themselves; 



o»'»l' J^ J—" j OLi* {^rtjo /I J-'amoJ) 
to be up to one's neck in work, be 
airamped by work (properly: to drown in 
work); <ji J» il> (iakiia) pi, ^Ji J» 
(<;., «yr.) to fool b.o., make fun of a.o., 
lead S.O. iut>und by the noM (i-> with ; to put on an act for a.o. ; <i j j iX^ 
to laugh in b.o.'b faoe 

jTj ^tthm u (iikr, jITj; Ui4kSr) to remember, 
bear in mind (*, think (* of); to 
keep in mind (*; to recall, recollect 
(»; — (rfttr) to speak, talk (> of, 
about); to name, mention, cite, quote 
(*; to state, designate, indicate 
(*; to give {h e.g., facts, data); to 
point, refer (* to ; to report, relate, 
tell (J > to g.o.) | ^Xi, r-iji taqad' 
dufflun yugiaru notable progress; V 
jTjj (^yugkaru) inconsiderable, not worth 
mentioning; {j^\j) jjt.^ .^Ti (Joir) to 
hare pleasant memories of s.o., hold 
B.o. in fond remembrance; to speak well 
of s.o. ; jii i^Tj iSarr) to have unpleasant 
memories of s.o.; to speak ill of s.o. 
II to remind (t_> » s.o. of, point out 
(^> • to s.o., call B.o.'s (•) attention 
(«-> to); to make (a a word) masouline 
{gmm.) Ill to parley, negotiate, confer, 
have a talk, take counsel (• with s.o.); 
to memoriie, conunit to menmry, learn, 
study (* one's assignment, one s lessons) | 
<nj^ ^'^ (d»HJ«Afi) to study one's 
lessons, do one's homework lY to remind 
(> • s.o. of, call (s to s.o.'s (•) 
mind Y to remember, bear in mind (», think (* of YI to remind 
each other (* of), revive each other's 
memory of (*) ; to confer (together), have 
a talk, take counsel YIU J'i\ Mahm 
= Y; X to remember, recall, keep in 
mind, know by heart (* 

^'i 4ikr recollection, remembrance, 
reminiscence, memory, ooauneKnoration; 
reputation, repute, renown; naming, 
stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation; 

report, account, narration, narrative; 
invocation of God, Tni^ntion of the Lord's 
name; (in Sufism) incessant repetition 
of certain words or formulas in praise of 
Ood, often accompanied by music and 
dancing | ^i Jc (with foil, genit.) apropos 
of, speaking of...; ^j ^j J«, speaking 
of that, incidentally, in that connection ; 
frfi-\ /'ill the Koran; jfjll ^U above- 
mentioned, afore-mentioned; _,rjll i^^ 
of blessed memory, deceased, late; Ai\ 
•jTjj (aiida) to celebrate, praise, com- 
mend S.O. or, speak in glowing 
terms of s.o. or; ^y, _,J'i J» Jlj L 
(jft'ibrtn min) he still remembered ..., 
he could still recall . . . 

jTi gaiar pi. jjfi ^uiCr, Ij jTi ittkSm, 
d\^i iuloHn male; (pi. jjS'i) penis 

•X'i iukra reputation, repute, renown 

lijTi iikra pi. w<lj_/'j iikraySI re- 
membrance, recollection, memory; pi. 
rominiaoencea, memoirs 

j«rs ialir steel 

jS'J; tagUr, tiilOr remembrance; 
reminder, memento; memory, oommem- 
oration; souvenir, keepaake; memorial 

All Saints' Day (<7»r.) 

tf jIT-ij la4Un, ti4Url serving to remind, 
helping the memory; memorial, commem- 

•^Tjj laikira reminder; memento 
a^jj laikira, mostly pronounced luj^ 
ham, pi. ^\^ ta^dtir* message, note 
slip, paper, permit, pass; oard; ticket] 
admission tioket | Juj i^il postcard 
i-j.i^\ ^[J\ -./a I. Ubat aiiaifiya 
identity card; vk!> V^^ •/^ '• ^oAJfr 
wa-iySb round-trip tioket; , -_ -j" l^i; 
(tg.) platform ticket; !i\Ji\ a/j; sub- 
scription tioket; <_k i^Tj; (fibbtga) 
medicsl prescription; jjjt i^'H permit, 
pass, hussei-passer; passport; ^jic^ iJ'X! 



iSyr.) identity card (= i-^ <il^ Ef.)i 
i^\i^'i\ ij"si t. al-intiieb ballot 

i^r-jTj; taikarji, jjTi" taihari ticket 
seller, ticket olerk; (streetoar) oonduotor 

j^jj ta4kir reminding (of b.o., ^ of, reminder, memento; feoundation, 
pollination (of female hloasoms; in 

SjTii* mvjdkara pi. •& negotiation, 
consultation, conference; deliberation (of 
a court; 3yr.); learning, memorizing, 
memorization; study 

jTX' Ia4akliur memoiy, remembrance, 

jlTAs,-! iati^hSr memorizing, memori- 
zation, committing to memory 

•^Tlj iSlcira memory 

j^i> maileOr mentioned; said, above- 
mentioned; celebrated | \jjS'Ju \lxi jC i 
lam yakun SaVan m. it was of no im- 
portance, it was nothing 

jTi. itm^akkaT masculine {gram.) 

ijTia muiahkira pi. •Si reminder; note; 
remark; notebook; memorandum, me^ 
morial, aide-memoire, (diplomatic) note; 
ordinance, decree; treatise, paper, report 
(of a learned society, = Fr. mimoires) ; 
pi. reminiscences, memoin | f[^'J\ i^SX 
m. al-ittihSm bill of indictment (;«r.); 
^JLLI i/'x. ffi. al-jaib writ of habeas 
corpus; <^Ui 1/4. {KfaMya) verbal 
note {dipl.) 

(jTj and S') Ifj iatd 14 {fulmu), iTi ^i»», 
.IT^ gakir) to blaze, flare up (fin); to 
exude a strong odor; — S' iakiya {>Ci 
4tM') to be sharp-witted, intelligent 
II and IV to cause to blaze, fan (* the 
fire); to kindle (* II to immolate an 
animal X = 4ak& 

•iTj ^ihr acumen, mental acuteness, 
intelligence, brightness; — jiuhs'* the sun 

J'j iaIAy pi. .\Si\ aikiyi'* intelligent, 
sharp-witted, clever, bright; redolent, 
fragrant; tasty, savory, delicious 

iS-> idOa i (iaU, ivU, ;JVJ iaUOa, 4IJ iOa, '^X. 
maialUj to be low, lowly, humble, 
despised, contemptible II to lower, debase, 
degrade, humiliate, humble (*, • s.o.,; to subject, break, subdue, conquer 
(• B.O.); to overcome, surmount (« dif- 
ficulties, obstacles) IT to lower, debase, 
degrade, humiliate, humble (*, • s.o.,; to subject, break, subdue, conquer 
(*, • S.O., V to lower o.s., humble 
O.S., cringe (Jl or J before s.o.); to be 
humble, obsequious X to think (• s.o.) 
low or despicable; to think little (• of), 
disesteem (< s.o.); to deride, flout, 
disparage, run down (• s.o.) 

Jj ^uJI lowness, lowliness, insignif- 
icance; ignominy, disgrace, shame, deg- 
radation, humiliation; humility, humble- 
ness, meekness, submissiveDefls 

4JJ ^tlZa lowness, baseness, vileneas, 
depravity; submissiveness, obsequious- 

JJj iaia pi. ,r:>\ adaS', ;ijl a4iUa 
low, lowly; despised, despicable, con- 
temptible; docile, tractable, pliable; 
humble, submissive, abject, servile; ob- 
sequious, cowering, cringing 

J)J j ialiil pi. Jl j juiuJ docile, tractable, 
gentie (animal); female riding camel 

4Ja> ma4<iUa humbleness, meekness, 
submissiveness; humiliation 

Jjj; laiia derogation, degradation, 
bemeaning; overcoming, conquering, sur- 
mounting (of difSeulties, of an obstacle, 
and the like) 

JVJl i^iSl degradation, debasement, 

JJJj ta4alM self-abasement 


JJUi ^uWuZ pi. JiVJ dalddil^ lowest, netlier- 
most part of; train,, hem (of a 
garment) | ^Ul J jV J the mob, the riffraff 

^il adlaf^, f. .UJi daW, pi. uiii iulf 
having a small and finely chiseled nose 

^j] J dalq tip, point; tip of the tongue 

JJJJl •JjjJ-' al-huriif a4-dulq, Jij^J-i 
iJJail and IJJjJJI jj^l (^uio^iyo) the 
liquids f, If n (pkon.) 

jjj doig, daZtg, jJi ^Zig eloquent, glib, 
facile (tongue) 

uV^ daldqa eloquence, glibness (of the 

<iJi^ eto., see ij 

^j ^mma u (a **", d^i^ madamma) to 
blame, find blameworthy, diflpraiae, 
criticize (* b.o.). find fault (o with s.o.) 
II to rebuke^ censure sharply (• s.o.) 

pj damm censure, dispraise, derogation, 

<*j dxmma pi. /J dimam protection, 
care, custody; covenant of protection, 
compact; responsibility, answerableness ; 
financial obligation, liability, debt; in- 
violability, security of life and property ; 
safeguard, guarantee, security; con- 
science I ?*«JJl> honestly? really? serious- 
ly? is*^ S *"*^ is*^ J* ^pon my word, 
truly; 4i*ij, 41* j j. in s.o.'s debt, indebted 
to s.o. ; 41- Jj U his debt; *:-j Jp under 
s.o.'s protection; at s.o.'s disposal; for 
the benefit of s.o. or, for s.o. or 
some purpose (allocation of funds); 
4i,i Ip J, she is financially dependent 
on him, he has to support her; i-JJl Ji.1 
ahi a4-d. the free non-Muslim subjects 
living in Muslim countries who, in return 
for paying the capital tax, enjoyed 
protection and safety; *.iJI j*Li» of pure 
conscience, upright, honest; 4i«i l_r 
{barra'a) to relieve one's conscience, 
meet one's obligation 

ij'i dimmi a zimmi, a free non-Muslim 
subject living in a Muslim country (see 
<>j dimma: t>^\ J»l) 

>U J dimdm pi. oSl adimma right, claim, 
title; protection, custody; security of 
life and property | JJl pUi i> /» d. al-lail 
under cover of darkness 

^j ^mim censured; blameworthy, 
objectionable, reprehensible; ugly, un- 
fairt nasty 

l^^.'y ^mima pi. rUJ ^md'im^ blame, 

ol« mat^mma pi. 'dt blame, censure 

P^l, madmum censured; blameworthy, 
objectionable, reprehensible 

J- j V to grumble, complain ( j- or Jc about) 

jU j ^iwaf sacred possession, cherished 
goods; honor 

j»j^ ta^ammur pi. -dt grumbling, 
complaint, grievance 

(j'ji damiya a (*U^ dama) to be in the throes 
of death 

•UJ daTn&' last remnant; last breath 
of life I SLi-l J- fUi {haydh) last breath of 

u-ij IV to do wrong, commit a sin, a crime, 
an offense ; to be guilty, be culpable X to 
find or declare <b s.o.) guilty of a sin, 
of a crime, of an offense 

L^i 4anb pi. "-rijjj rfunfli offense, sin, 
crime, misdeed 

t--j"i dant^ pi. w-Uil fl#nd6 tail; end; 
adherent (pof.), follower, henchman 

i_^' j danabi caudal, tail- (in compounds) ; 
appendaged, appendant, dependent 

^j 4'^naib petiole, leafstalk {boL) 

(_j1. mudannab comet 

t-Ji. mvdnib culpable, guilty; sinner; 
evildoer, dehnquent, criminal 



jij dahaha a (>-^U^ ddhab, i^X* ma4hah) to 
go (Jl to); to betake o,s., travel (Jl to); 
to go away, leave, depart; to disappear, 
vanish., decline, dwindle; to perish, die, 
be destroyed; with i_j : to parry 
off, take away, abduct, steal, 
sweep or 8.0. away, azmihilate, 
destroy or s.o. ; ^i' <> ^'^ to lead or 
conduct s.o. to, take s.o. along to; to 
think, believe (J(, hold the. view, 
be of the opinion {J! that); to escape (^ 
3.0. ; fig.), slip (jt. s.o.'s mind), ul c» i-^S 
to lose sight of the fact that .... forget 
that ...; to ignore, skip, omit (^; 
(with imperf.) to prepare to . . ., be about 
to . . . j *L>-j L--Ai to go back and forth, 
walk up and down; ^^ JjuI JI ^-aj 
(ab'ada) to go beyond.,, (iig.); i^-^ij L. 
■*i*>" J {naz'atihi) what foUowa along 
these linea; \>iL <-^<b j>\ {yu4habu) the 
idea of it! you can't mean it I ;j.u s^'a 
(sudan) to be futile, be in vain, be of no 
avail; AiJ^ rb-^' <~r^^ (adrdja r-riydh) to 
go the ways of the winds, i.e., to pass 
unnoticed, without leaving a trace; to 
end in smoke, come to nothing, be futile, 
be in vain ; j I JJI ,j^^ «_-* J (ka-a-msi 
d-ddbir) to vanish into thin air, disap- 
pear without leaving a trace (lit.: like 
yesterday gone by); aIL^ >_^j {bi-ba" 
hd'ihi) to take the glamor away from; 'U..i;j .^j (bi-nafsihi) to kill 
a.o. (joy, terror, etc.); .JLJt l-j-j (bi- 
kaydlihi) to let one's imagination wan- 
der (Jl to); 4~*x. i_^j {madhabahv.) to 
embrace a.o.'s madhab (see below) ; to 
follow s.o.'s teaching, make s.o.'s belief 
one's own, embrace s.o.'s ideas; to 
adopt a.o.'a policy, proceed exactly like 
a.o.; i_-*Jj (^ !_-* j (kuUa vmihahin) to do 
everything conceivable, leave no stone 
unturned, go to greatest lengths II to 
gild {> lY to cause to go away, 
make disappear, remove, eliminate (*; to take away (a, ^ from s.o.) 

t_-*j* II tamadhaba {deriv. of ._^i* 
madkab) to follow, adopt, embrace (i--> 
a teaching, a religion, etc.) 

k^j dahab (m. and f.) gold; gold piece, 
gold coia I O t,?^' ^■^ {t^^y<^) platinum 

^j dahabl golden, of gold; precious, 
excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, aaying, 
etc.) I i-»*j 4>T golden word, maxim, 

L^^ dahahlya pi. -dt dahabeah, a 
long light-draft houseboat, used on the 

i-^LbJ dahdh going; passing, passage, 
falling away, decrease, dwindling, loss, 
disappearance; leave, departure; trip, 
journey; outward-bound trip or journey 
(as opposed to .-jLI iydb return trip; 
railroad); opinion, view (jl Ji that) j 
LiIjIj liU^ {iyaban) there and back; back 
and forth, up and down; v^!^ v'*^ l^^ 
tadkarat d, iva-iydb round-trip ticket 

L_j^i duhVrb going | .-.-Uj ^_j*i coming 
and going; ^ji>'i>j il^*- J coming and 
going, in a state of Suctuation, having its 
ups and downs 

i__aJu madhab pi. (_jilJ^ maddhib^ going, 
leave, departure ; way out, escape ( jt 
from) ; manner followed, adopted pro- 
cedure or policy, road entered upon; 
opinion, view, belief; ideology; teaching, 
doctrine; movement, orientation, trend 
(also pol.); school; mazhab, oriihodox 
rite of jiqh [lal. Law); religious creed, 
faith, denomination [ O ^L,^' J v*-^* 
{haydh) his philosophy of life, his Welt- 
anschauung; (^jU.1 i_^aj,l [mddM) the 
materialistic ideology, the materialistic 
approach to life; liju LaJj i_ji3 to go 
very far, be very extensive 

^-u madhab^ denominational, con- 
fessional; sectarian 

L-jbi. madkabiya sectarianism 


<^\i ilhib: OfUl ^\i i. aJ-lau» faded, 
ooloiless, diacoloied 

4i vj**^ rnaiMib biA( and Jjuil ujj^x> 
m. al-'aql out of one's mind, demented 

w>>U Tnu^aJAabt nm4Itab gilded 

J*j ^oAala a (iahi, lijti iuhOt) to forget, 
oTerlook, omit, neglect, fail to heed (jt; — iakUa a (4>*j ^uAuI) to be 
perplexed, alarmed, dismayed, startled, 
surpiiaed, baffled; to be astonished, be 
amazed; to fiighten, soaie. tahe alarm, 
flinch ; to be absent-minded, be distracted ; 
to be or become distracted (jt from), 
forget, OTerlook, faU to heed, neglect 
(jc IV to baffle, startle, nonplus 
(• B.O.); to distract (^ • B.o. from), make 
(. s.o.) forget (jp VII = ^ila 

lijt'i ivlml perplexity, conateniation, 
bafflement, daze, stupor; confusion, be- 
wilderment, dismay, alarm, fright; sui- 
prise; amazement, astoniahment; absent- 
mindedness, distraction, distraotedneaa 

J*li isliil negligent, forgetful, obliv- 
ious, distracted, absent-minded; dazed, 
in a stupor 

lij^XM ma4IHIl pwplexed, startled, 
alarmed, dismayed, dazed, confused, 
baffled, bewildered; distracted, absent- 

J*.l> mu^tl startling, baffling, amaz- 

Jix.. tnuti^tl alarmed, dismayed, 
perplexed, startled, baffled; distracted, 

^'i ^lAn pi. o\*i\ a4idii mind; intellect 
^j iihnl mental, intellectual 
<^i iiknlya mentality 

jj ^Ht genlt. i^i ^{, aoo. Ij ^, f. CjIj 4^, 
pi. m. jjj tjaml, jij\ vlH, pi. f. c>\ji 

iavM (with foU. geuit.) possessor, owner, 
holder or master of, endowed or provided 
with, embodying or comprising | 
Jtt j'i in 'aql endowed with brains, 
bright. Intelligent; Jl> jj rich, wealthy; 
<«r jj i& tSfha healthy; oU jj in Sa'n 
important, significant; ijjji\ j'i i& U 
qurba relative, kin(Bman); <-jJ ^j ju> 
(zar'in) uncultivated (land); JJ ^j ,y, 
min dt ^lu than before; 4^Jij jj j» mm 
41 nafdihi of one's own accord, spon- 
taneously; 'jjj jawiAu his relatives, 
his kin, his folks; *ijmi,\j Zj^I jjj iawii 
Umatcadcla wa-l-ma'rifa friends and ac- 
quaintances; clfJjl jjj jawi S-lubuhSt 
dubious persons, people of ill repute; 
olill jj^ iavm S-ia'n important, in- 
fluential people; the competent pe^le 
(or authorities), those concerned with 
the matter; ^Vi jljl uJA l-amr rulers, 
leaders; oUlf Ji-I ^jl ulu l-hall mi-l-'aqi 
influential people, those in power 

Cj\'i iat pi. Cj\ji jauidt being, essence, 
nature; aelf; person, personality; the 
same, the selfsame; -self; ^1^1 people 
of rank, people of distinction, notables; 
Ulj jJIUm personally | o^l w<iS i. a(-hti» 
disagreement, dissension, disunion, dis- 
cord, enmity; friendship; dVi tf> 
al-janb pleurisy (med.); *2J\ olj 4* 
ar-ri'a pneumonia; j,lJI clj 4. af-fodr 
disease of the chest, pectoral ailment; 
jJI olj 4' al-yad wealth, affluence; dlj 
UjAjI 4- auAnd our possessions; ^1 oli 
4&ta Uyamini to the right, J^l Cj\> 
4ata i-iititiai to the left, jUaII olj jSIa 
l-yaaSri do.; <^ c>lj ^dla tnamitm once, 
one time, !^ Olj J /» A!tf niomrfin do.; 
fjt, CiVi tfSa yaumin one day, rji cA'i j 
/v 4^ yawmm do.; 4e olj j /t ^t 
^oiftn sometime in the future, before 
long;... olj j/{^t...(with foil, genit.) 
as to..., concerning..., with reference 
to . . ., le ; ol.ii li bi-4-4^ none other 
than of all thinga, ...of all 



people; penonttllf, in penon; w<I.ULi Ul 

I, of tU people none other than 

I ...; wiljlli i)Xi j in London, of kll 
pl»em;cj\Ji\j :jliJI (n'Sda) einentiiil hsp- 
pinew, happineei propeii *-ii >l<lj if 
naftOti, ^^-i>l olj if. an/usiiim hii mU, 
their aelveg, hia (their) very nature; 
uVi jtiu^ii, j» (he)himaelf; >^1 olj the 
■ame thing; •Li^l •I'li tlie ume thingi; 
lf\i iiJI («iiui) the nme year; iJl^U J«- 
4SUU by binuelf (itulf); in itwlf; a* 
■uch; for hie (it*) own aake; aIU j in 
itself; u\> .U- j /( l^aJdi 4- do.; ajlAi >^li 
aelf-exiatent, independent, Mlf-oontained, 
isolated; olJJli udl (/tja) ielf-oonfidenoe; 
oIaII v^ ^vbb tti-i. and oljjl v^ maliti)' 
bat a4-i- aelf-loTe, eelfiihnen, egoism; 
oliil J* i^'i\ self-oonfidenoe, leU- 
relianoe; 'jlij ^j^ self-evident, self- 
explanatoiy; <jlj 4^^^ munAqii iltuM 
■elf-oontradiotory; ol|j ^1 S» iaieit 
descended from a good family, highborn 

Jli iaa ovn, proper