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Full text of "A western awakening to Islam"

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NEWMARK 

FRANCISCO. CALIF. 




i 



Dr. Leo Nevmiark 




A IVestern Awakening 



to Islam. 



BY 



LORD ftEADLEY 



GREAT ALLAH, Lord, our God, our King, 
Who knowest what for us is best, 

We praise Thy Name, and loudly sing 
The fusion of the East and West. 



"For Christ was an Eastern 

\ 

ILontion : 
J. S. PHILLIPS, 99 SHOE LANE, E.G. 



J 



IVf 









CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

THE BROTHERS IN ISLAM ... ... ... ... 5 

PREFATORY NOTE ... ... ... ... ... 7 

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ... 11 

CHAPTER 

I. The Peace of Islam 15 

II. Woman's Position in Islam.. . ... ... 88 

III. The Most Beautiful Gift of God 48 

IV. Wilful Misrepresentations 59 

V. Self-Control 78 

VI. Fear 82 

VII. Law and Order 88 

VIII. The Making of Converts 114 

IX. The Muslims' Lord's Prayer 121 

X. Praise and Thanksgiving ... ... ... 182 

XI. The Continuation of God's Blessings ... 189 



M262150 



THE BEOTHEES IN ISLAM. 



IT had been said we could not meet, 

Or join in prayers for further grace 
Together reach Thy mercy seat 

Or mingle praise in the same place. 
O Heavenly Father, Thou hast shown 

To us, Thy loving faithful sons, 
How brotherhood has quickly grown 

Insep'rable while time still runs. 
In all the ages of the past, 

In all the future years to come, - 
Thy Name alone can bind us fast, 

Whilst we can say, " Thy Will be done. 
Great Allah, Lord, our God, our King, 

Who knowest what for us is best , 
We praise Thy Name and loudly sing 

The fusion of the East and West. 

El Farooq, 

January 5, 1914. 



PREFATORY NOTE, 



MANY years ago Mr. Arthur James Balfour, in one 
of his famous speeches, made use of the aphorism, 
" There is but one counsellor worse than panic, and 
that counsellor is despair. ' ' It struck me very much 
at the time and, in reference to the matter contained 
in the following pages and the animadversions which 
are sure to follow my openly expressed convictions 
with regard to the Muslim religion, I would say 
there is but one companion worse than disbelief, 
and that companion is fear. The fear of consequences 
holds many a man to the open profession of beliefs 
he has no real confidence in. We all like to secure 
what is best, the best food, best dwelling, best sur- 
roundings, and the best friends; but how many of 
us take any thought about the best religion? Most 
of us are quite content with that which has been 
handed dow T n to us, and from a purely selfish point 
of view, perhaps we are right, as it saves so much 
'bother," and we keep steadily on in the path so 
well worn by our ancestors, refusing to even look at 
or enquire into any other beliefs. 

By a strange coincidence the very morning on 
which I wrote the above I read an account of Lord 
Haldane's capital address to the Edinburgh students, 
November 14th, 1913. Speaking of reverses, great 
and small , he is reported to have said that there was 



only one way of providing against the depressions 
which they brought in their train, and that was by 
acquiring the large outlook. The undergraduate 
might find Himself ' ' ploughed " in an examination , 
or in debt or in love, or he might suffer from the 
depression which was deepest when it arose from 
no external cause. ' If he would escape from the 
consequent sense of despair he must visualise his 
feelings and set them in relief by seeking and search- 
ing out their grounds. They must aim at the largest 
and widest view of life, and devote their highest 
energies to attaining it. To some it would come in 
the form of Christianity ; to others in that of some 
other high religion, it might be, originating in the 
East. To others it would come in the shape of 
philosophy. To yet others art would bring the 
embodiment of the truth that the ideal and the real, 
the infinite and the finite did not really exist apart, 
but were different aspects of a single reality." Speak- 
ing of the religious outlook, Lord Haldane said we 
<; now sought God not without but within. The 
hindrances to spiritual life to-day were moral rather 
than intellectual. They arose from a lessened readi- 
ness to accept authority of any kind." 

Now, I humbly submit that it is impossible for 
any man to attain to a large and wide view of life- 
life in its greater sense if he is closely bound round 
by the thongs of dogmatic teaching and is dependent 
for his very salvation on baptisms and other sacer- 
dotal ministrations. 

Having been brought up as a Protestant, and hav- 
ing lived for a great many years in a Roman Catholic 



country, I have had excellent opportunities of observ- 
ing two forms of Christianity, as followed by two of 
the most important sects in the Christian Church. I 
have also lived in the East, and am obliged to con- 
fess that there is far less bitterness and far more 
charity to be found amongst the Muslims than 
amongst the Christians in the British Isles. The 
Muslims, for example, are far more tolerant and 
well disposed towards every branch of the Christian 
Church than the branches of that Church are to- 
wards one another. Sad, but true. 

I venture to say that if a committee of really able 
Englishmen say, of the type of the late Lord Salis- 
bury, the late Lord Beaconsfield, Mr. Balfour, Lord 
Haldane, Sir Rufus Isaacs, etc., etc. were ap- 
pointed to consider the merits of the world's 
religions, they would be unanimous in selecting 
Islam, which appeals to the reason as well as to 
that natural longing of the heart and soul to be in 
touch with the Creator. 

We must not lose sight of the fact that our loyal 
fellow subjects, the Muslims, outnumber all the 
other religious bodies in the Empire : His Majesty 
the Emperor of India has no more faithful supporters 
than the followers of Islam. 

The thought now occurs to me that very possibly 
Lord Haldane, in the speech above alluded to, may 
have had the Muslim religion in his mind when 
he spoke of " some other high religion." But I may 
be mistaken. 

I make no apology for compiling the few chapters 
which appear between the covers of this book, nor 



10 

am I in the least afraid of the accusations of apos- 
tasy I shall have to face. I do not believe, and never 
have believe,!, it essential to my salvation to believe 
in the Divinity of Christ, the doctrine of the Trinity, 
or the Sacraments supposed by the " Church " to be 
' generally necessary to salvation." I do believe in 
the Divine messages God has sent to us by His chosen 
ones. 



INTRODUCTION, 



BY way of introducing the following pages to my 
readers, I feel I cannot do better than re-print 
in extenso a short article, from my pen, which 
appeared in one of the London weeklies in Novem- 
ber, 1913 : 

In several newspapers notices have appeared com- 
menting on my religious belief, and it is highly 
gratifying to me to find that so far all criticism has 
been of a most kindly nature. It is not to be expected 
that any decided step can be taken out of the beaten 
track of every-day custom without attracting atten- 
tion. 

I am very glad that such is the case. I am fond of 
my profession, and certain forms of athletics and 
sport have ever been my hobbies, but there has never 
been any desire for notoriety or publicity on my 
part ; but in this case , if my action is the means of 
making people tolerant and broad-minded , I am quite 
prepared to put up with every kind of ridicule and 
abuse. 

The other day a letter reached me from a devout 
Christian, informing rne that the Mohamedan re- 
ligion was one of sensuality, and that the Prophet 
had a great many wives ! What an idea of Islam 1 
But it is the idea in the mind of ninety-nine out of 
one hundred Britishers, who will not take the trouble 
to inquire into the plain facts as to the religious be- 
liefs of over 100 million of their fellow subjects. The 
Holy Prophet of Arabia \vas particularly self- 
restrained and chaste. He was true to his one wife 



12 

Khadijah, who was fifteen years older than himself. 
She was the first to believe in the Divine messages. 
After her death he married Ayesha. He also married 
a great many of the widows of those of his adherents 
who had fallen in battle, not because he had the 
slightest desire for them, but in order to provide 
them with a home and give them a position they 
could not otherwise enjoy. This was quite in keep- 
ing with his unselfish and noble life. He gave away 
so much of his worldly belongings that he hardly 
ever had quite enough to live on. 

We Britishers are wont to pride ourselves on our 
love for fair play and justice, yet what can be more 
unfair than condemning, as so many of us do, the 
Mahomedan faith without first attempting to find 
out even so much as an outline of its tenets or the 
meaning of the word Islam? 

It is possible that some of my friends may imagine 
that I have been influenced by Mahometans ; but 
this is not the case, for my present convictions are 
solely the outcome of many years of thought. My 
actual conversations with educated Muslims on the 
subject of religion only commenced a few weeks ago, 
and need I say that I am overjoyed to find that all 
my theories and conclusions are entirely in accord 
with Islam? Even my friend Khwaja Kamal-ul- 
Din has never tried to influence me in the slightest 
degree. He has been a veritable living concordance, 
and has patiently explained and translated portions 
of the Koran which did not appear quite clear to me, 
and in this respect he showed the true spirit of the 
Muslim missionary, which is never to force or even 
persuade. Conversion, according to the Koran, 
should come out of free choice and spontaneous judg- 
ment, and never be attained by means of compul- 
sion. Jesus meant the same thing when He said to 
His disciples : ' ' And whosoever shall not receive you 



13 

nor hear you, when ye depart thence. , . ." (St. 
Mark vi., -2). 

I have known very many instances of zealous Pro- 
testants who have " thought it their duty to visit 
Roman Catholic homes in order to make " converts ' 
of the inmates. Such irritating and unneighbourly 
conduct is, of course, very obnoxious, and has in- 
variably led to much ill-feeling stirring up strife and 
tending to bring religion into contempt. I am sorry 
to think that Christian missionaries have also tried 
these methods with their Muslim brethren, though 
why they should try to convert those who are already 
better Christians than they are themselves I am at a 
loss to conceive. I say * better Christians " ad- 
visedly, because the charity, tolerance and broad- 
mindedness in the Muslim faith come nearer to what 
Christ himself taught than do the somewhat nar- 
row tenets of the various Christian Churches. 

To take one example the Athanasian Creed, 
which treats of the Trinity in a very confusing man- 
ner. In this Creed, which is very important and 
deals conclusively with one of the fundamental tenets 
of the " Churches," it is laid down most clearly that 
it represents the Catholic faith, and that if we do not 
believe it we shall perish everlastingly. Then we are 
told that we must, thus think of the Trinity if we 
want to be saved in other words, that a God we in 
one breath hail as merciful and almighty in the next 
breath we accuse of injustice and cruelty which we 
would not attribute to the most bloodthirsty human 
tyrant. As if God, Who is before all and above all, 
would be in any way influenced by what a poor 
mortal " thinks of the Trinity." 

Here is another instance of want of charity. I 
received a letter it was apropos of my leaning to- 
wards Islam in which the writer told me that if I 
did not believe in the Divinity of Christ I could not 



H 

be saved. The question of the Divinity of Christ never 
seemed to me nearly so important as that other ques- 
tion, Did He give God's messages to mankind? 
Now, if I had any doubt about this latter point it 
would worry me a great deal, but, thank God, I have 
no doubt, and I hope that my faith in Christ and 
His inspired teachings is as firm as that of any other 
Muslim or Christian. As I have often said before, 
Islam and Christianity as taught by Christ Himself, 
are sister religions, only held apart by dogmas and 
technicalities which might very well be dispensed 
with . 

In the present day men are prone to become 
atheists when asked to subscribe to dogmatic and in- 
tolerant beliefs, and there is doubtless a craving for 
a religion appealing to the intelligence as well as to 
the sentiments. Who ever heard of a Muslim turn- 
ing atheist? There may have been cases, but I very 
much doubt it. 

There are thousands of men and women, too, I 
believe who are at heart Muslims, but convention, 
fear of adverse comments, and a desire to avoid any 
worry or change, conspire to keep them from openly 
admitting the fact. 1 have taken the step, though I 
am quite aware that many friends and relations now 
look upon me as a lost soul and past praying for. 
And yet I am just the same in my beliefs as I was 
twenty years ago ; it is the outspoken utterance 
which has lost me their good opinion. 

Having briefly given some of my reasons for adopt- 
ing the teachings of Islam, and having explained 
that I consider myself by that very act a far better 
Christian than I was before, I can only hope that 
others will follow the example which I honestly be- 
lieve is a good one which will bring happiness to 
anyone looking upon the step as one in advance 
rather than one in any way hostile to true Chris- 
tianity. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE PEACE OF ISLAM. 

IF we fail to recognize that God can suspend or alter 
any of the Laws He has established we cannot be- 
lieve in His omnipotence, and we must at once place 
all the miraculous happenings we have read of in 
the Bible under the heading of Fairy Tales. Walk- 
ing on the water, raising the dead, giving sight to 
the blind, feeding a multitude with a few loaves and 
fishes, and many other equally supernatural events, 
firmly believed in by all good Christians, could not 
have taken place but for a suspension of the ordinary 
laws of Nature. When the children of Israel passed 
dry-shod on the sea bed, when Moses performed 
other miracles, when Christ) followed with His 
miracles, and when Mahomet was miraculously car- 
ried to Heaven, and when other wonders were per- 
formed, the Hand of God was there in each and 
every case directing and guiding. If He wished, He 
could stay the movements of the earth and all the 
planets round the sun, and that without any of the 
disasters learned men assure us would ensue on the 
slightest checking of the annual or diurnal move- 
ments. 

Of the universal law of gravitation it has been 
truly said : 

' That very law which moulds a tear and bids it 
trickle from its source 

' That law maintains the Earth a sphere, and guides 
the planets in their course." 



i6 

But as God made all the solar system and estab- 
lished the law, so He can arrange matter and the 
laws governing that matter in such a way that no 
disastrous results follow on any new arrangements 
He may select. 

There is a story told of a very devout old lady 
a most earnest and zealous Christian whose feel- 
ings had been very much harrowed by a clergyman's 
description of the sufferings of Christ and His fol- 
lowers exclaiming, " Ah, well, it's a long time ago ; 
let us hope it is not true." This is just the point. 
For many hundreds of years there have been no 
miracles, and men's minds have become used to 
ordinary ' very-day happenings, but if suddenly a 
Divine Message were revealed they would be so 
much surprised and upset that they would refuse to 
give any credit to the manifestations, and would 
probably try to make away with the medium as an 
uncanny and dangerous person. 

In this fast moving age religion is looked upon as 
rather a bore, and men are either atheists or blind 
followers of dogmatic lines of thought which their 
reason rebels against, but which they outwardly 
profess because they think it looks well and they 
find it pays. One of the best men I ever knew 
an excellent husband and father assured me he was 
an atheist, and that he looked forward to nothing 
but annihilation. Yet he was perfectly happy, and 
nothing I could advance had the slightest effect in 
making him change his terrible belief. Another 
man I heard of took religion in quite a cheerful 
spirit. He was very rich, and a friend once remon- 
strated with him on his rather free mode of life, 
and asked him if he ever thought of the future state, 
and what would become of his soul in the next 
world. He replied, " Not I. Why should I worry 
about such things? I pay my doctor so much a year 



17 

to attend to my physical health, and the priest gets 
about 600 a year for looking after my spiritual 
wants. Why should I bother my head? ' This 
man, too, \vas quite happy in his own way, and had 
reconciled himself to the payment of a certain 
annual sum, for which he was relieved of 
all "bother." 

So much has been written, thought, and spoken 
for ages past on the all-absorbing and all-important 
subject of religion, that it may well be that there is 
nothing fresh to be advanced from any human 
quarter. That there is good in all religions must be 
admitted, as also that some forms are better than 
others. 

If it were only possible to get a sound ;< non- 
professional " opinion in the selection of our religion 
it would be a grand step in the right direction. If 
we go to the priests or monks, or others, who make 
it their business to supply a particular kind of article 
of which they approve, we cannot get much assist- 
ance because the various tenets or dogmas are so 
diametrically opposed to one another. 

Take the Christian Church alone we shall have 
such bewilderingly different directions to Heaven 
from the Church of England, the Church of Rome, 
and the Nonconformists, that \ve shall gain nothing 
at all. What we want is the assistance of some 
outside and unbiassed onlooker who has had oppor- 
tunities for contemplation, and who has nothing 
whatever to gain by an openly expressed and honest 
opinion. 

What we really want is a religion which will 
recognise and support the laws of the country. In 
these days the law is constantly brought into ridi- 
cule : there is abroad an unhealthy and maudlin 
sympathy with nearly every form of wrong-doing 



i8 

and crime. A just sentence has but to be pro- 
nounced and it will call forth shrieks from the 
sentimentalists for remission or reprieve. Let there 
be full justice in religion ; as it is, the backbone of 
the country is being softened by this soppy senti- 
mentalism, which is not by any means humane or 
likely to improve the character of the nation. 
' Mercy but murders, pardoning those that kill," 
applies to all this sympathy with wrong-doing, and 
though we may feel the deepest sorrow for the 
criminal whose bringing up and miserable environ- 
ment have led up to the trouble , we must punish in 
order to deter others and prevent repetitions. It is 
often the most cruel action to ' ' turn the other 
cheek" cruel because it encourages the evil-doer 
in his course of crime, and other members of society 
suffer through our misplaced kindness. Unless I 
am much mistaken the milk-and-water justice we 
often see dispensed in the present day in this 
country is responsible for half the evils we so bitterly 
complain of. It would be far better to go back to 
the old "Lex talionis " than go on as we are now 
doing. 

We cannot quite look upon Christ as a Law-giver. 
He presented to the world gentle and beautiful pre- 
cepts, but the Devil, as he walks abroad to-day, will 
not be put down by soft answers and turnings of the 
other cheek : nothing short of the strongest 
measures should be used with all emissaries of the 
evil one. Moses was a law-giver, and Mahomet 
was a law-giver, and we now need something of the 
firmness and absolute justice of the Holy Prophet 
stern but altogether free from the savagery of Old 
Testament vengeance. Successions of party Gov- 
ernments, playing for power rather than to the good 
of the nation, have brought us to such a pass that 
we cannot even look after and keep in order our 



19 

own women folk ! A truly shocking state of affairs 
for descendants of the Vikings and citizens of the 
grandest Empire the world has ever seen. 

The laws we have are good enough if they were 
only enforced. Truckling to vice only leads to fur- 
ther vice. We don't want any return to the methods 
of torture or of any form of cruelty, nor would we 
shed one drop of blood to enforce our views on 
religion or politics, but we should like to see the 
laws obeyed and justice meted out to all. I firmly 
believe that if the teachings of Mahomet through 
the Koran were carefully followed there would be 
far less difficulty in governing the country, and it 
would not be very strange either, since more than 
half His Majesty's subjects in his vast Empire are 
Mahomedans. The age has altogether passed when 
it will be sought to establish any religion by force 
of arms and, even if they had the pow r er to do so, 
I am certain that the Muslims w r ho are all loyally 
inclined would never attempt to establish Islam by 
any violent methods. Sedition and rebellion are 
absolutely forbidden by the Koran. " Let there be 
no violence in religion " is one of the maxims of the 
Muslim faith. 

To secure attention and fair hearing is all the 
Mahomedans want; and I feel certain that, if the 
people of England fully grasped what Islam really 
means common sense, and the natural desire we 
all possess to have appeals made to' our reasoning 
side, as well as to our feelings would help to put 
away the shameful misunderstandings which 
at present exist. Europeans very commonly look 
upon Mahomedanism as barbarism when they 
learn all that Mahomet did to mitigate the savagery 
and barbarism he met with in Arabia they w r ill alter 
those opinions. It is the Christian missionaries who 
have spared no pains to misinterpret the Muslim 



20 

faith : this is greatly to their discredit, though accord- 
ing to their lights they may mean well, and it has 
often occurred to me that if they would talk a little 
less about salvation and a little more about the im- 
portance of veracity, they would meet with more 
favour and be more respected. What a contrast is 
there between this wilful suppressio rcri and the 
manner in which the Muslim missionary approaches 
his work ! 

The Governments of this country have often been 
sadly harassed by having to accede to the demands of 
religious bodies. The Church of England, the 
Eoman Catholic Church, the Nonconformists, and 
many others, all have to be considered, for they 
all have power, and all want more. 

There is, as far as one can see, no class in the 
Mahomedan religion or Church which bids for the 
temporal power. The grandeur of Islam is un- 
influenced by any such sordid considerations. Every 
true follower of the Holy Prophet looks to a reward 
which is as far above mere mundane advantages and 
riches as the light of the sun is above that of the 
ignis fatitus. There are no popes, no bishops, and 
no ministers requiring large endowments and emolu- 
ments, for God Himself is the Head of this Church 
of the Spirit. History tells us of Christian Churches 
making heavy bids for the temporal power, and wo 
can point to the sale of indulgences and the not 
always impartial distribution of fat livings to show 
how terribly matters which should only be con- 
nected with the highest aspirations of the soul have 
been mixed up with sordid considerations of purely 
worldly profit. It is not going too far to say that the 
vast majority of so-called Christians regard 

'religion" as a good, respectable, Sunday institu- 
tion,- which offers exceptional opportunities for show- 
ing off their best clothes and talking about their 



21 

neighbours. This curious religion is also going to- 
take them to some heaven the position in that 
heaven depending in many cases on the amount 
paid, just as certain coins admit to the boxes and 
stalls, and others to the pit and gallery of a theatre. 
Much of the religion of the West is the outcome of 
the superstitions of mediaeval times a relic, indeed,, 
of the Dark Ages, and not much in sympathy with 
the teachings of Moses or Christ. In those cloudy 
and troublesome times say between the third and 
fifth centuries and later when Europe was the vast 
arena over which hordes of wild and warlike races 
vied with each other and spread terror and desola- 
tion on all sides, the great rulers of States, like the 
warlike barons or lords in England, were often men 
more conspicuous for their prowess with sword or 
battle-axe, wielded in defence of their estates, their 
hearths and homes, than they were for any book 
learning and culture. In order to keep things going 
at home they had to employ clerks or clerics, who 
were able, by means of their superior learning, to 
maintain a sort of stewardship over the establish- 
ments, to keep records of current events, &c., &c. 
These clerics in time became necessary adjuncts to 
large establishments, and exercised great power, and 
had great influence. Opportunities then often 
occurred for increasing this influence by using the 
mysteries of the unknown as a fulcrum against 
which to place those astonishingly long levers dread 
of hell and terrors of future punishment. Skilful 
handling of these terrors produced in the minds of 
the credulous a feeling not far removed from panic, 
which was, however, soothed and smoothed down by 
the assurance that, on embracing a certain form of 
religion and swallowing some craftily evolved 
dogmas, salvation might be gained. But it was 
somehow contrived that absolute security as regards 



22 

a safe and high place in the next world could not be 
obtained unless by very handsome gifts to 'the 
Church," and these gifts took the form of large 
grants of land, palaces, cathedrals, and rich endow- 
ments. Here \ve saw the birth of sacerdotalism, and 
the determined bids for temporal authority have 
been very noticeable ever since, and right up to the 
present date. The advent of Mahomet, some six 
hundred years after Christ, exposed the unreality of 
all such ideas as atonements, priestly interventions, 
supplications to the saints, and those other cumber- 
some and involved methods of approaching the 
Almighty. However grand the Mosaic laws, how- 
ever beautiful the gentle and forgiving precepts of 
the Holy Prophet of Nazareth, it must be admitted 
that the Mahomedan teaching contained the most 
sublime message, over-riding by its very simplicity 
all obstacles in the way of the believer on his path to 
God. 

In Chapter IX. of the Koran lines occur which 
leave no doubt as to their meaning and applicability 
to all who are under sacerdotal domination and insist 
on taking human beings for their guides. 

' They take their priests and their monks for their 
lords, besides God, and Christ the son of Mary,* 
although they are commanded to worship one God 
only : there is no God but He ; far be that from Him 
which they associate with Him." . . . . ( true 
believers, verily many of the priests and monks 
devour the substance of men in vanity, and obstruct 
the way of God." [The italic is the writer's.] 

The religion of Christ is not quite the religion of 
St. Paul, w r ho seems to have added to it and altered 

* Jesus said to the young man who asked what he could do 
to inherit eternal life: "Why callest thou me good? There is 
none good but one, that is God." 



23 

it very considerably, arid various authorities have 
interpreted these later teachings . and varied them 
from time to time. There is, in fact, not much 
uniformity in so-called Christianity, but we find in 
Islam that which should satisfy the longings of the 
created to be at one with and return to the Creator 
-the ever present and omnipotent protector of all 
creatures. According to Islam there is only one 
God we may worship and follow. He is before all, 
above all, and no other, however holy and pure, 
may be named in the same breath. Indeed, "it is 
surprising that human beings with brains and in- 
telligence should have been so foolish as to allow 
dogmas and the tricks of sacerdotalism to obscure 
their view of Heaven and their Almighty Father, 
Who is always approachable by each one of His 
creatures, whether human or saintly (i.e.. Divinely 
inspired). The key to heaven is always there, and 
can be turned by the humblest or most miserable 
human being without any help from prophet, priest, 
or king. It is like the blessed air we breathe, free 
to all God's creatures, and those who try to make 
mankind think otherwise are probably guided by 
interested motives, e.g., salaries and stipends, which 
keep professions going, or some other worldly advan- 
tages, "t 

My chief object is not so much to attack any par- 
ticular branch of the Christian religion as to point 
out the beauty and simplicity of the Muslim faith, 
which, in the writer's humble opinion, is free from 
the objections so apparent in many other religions. 
Granting, for the sake of argument, that Islam is 
free from sacerdotalism with its attendant dogmas 
and greed for power, we must concede that the 



t "Thoughts for the Future." By A. W. (Walter Scott Pub- 
lishing Co. 3 Ltd., Felling-on-Tyne, Durham.) 



24 

government of a nation or empire would go on more 
smoothly if such a peaceful religion were universally 
adopted. It seems impossible even to imagine the 
government of, say, the British Empire under such 
conditions, though 'tis "a consummation devoutly 
to be wished/' 

It is indeed, a much to be deplored fact that 
'religion' 1 has been responsible for more bitter- 
ness, cruelty, and shedding of blood than any other 
cause we know of. Is it possible, then, that a 
religion can be found which can ever bring all man- 
kind to be unanimous in the simple worship of the 
One God w T ho is above all and before all? Imagine 
for a moment if everyone in the British Empire be- 
came a true Mahomedan in heart and spirit an 
Utopian idea, indeed ! Government w r ould be much 
easier, because men would be actuated by true 
religion and there w T ould be no Church parties to con- 
sider, no dissenters to conciliate, and no heavy bills 
to pay the tolls on the path to heaven. There is 
some simplicity in religion as taught by Moses, 
Christ, and Mahomet, but the confusion which has 
been brought about by others who have tried to im- 
prove on God's Holy Revelations is inextricable and 
hopelessly bewildering to the single minded and 
earnest inquirer for truth. 

One form of religion incited the Crusades, in which 
our ancestors sacrificed tens of thousands of human 
lives for w r hat? An unseemly quarrel over a 
sepulchre in wiiich it is believed Christ laid for a 
short time. Was it worth while? Another form 
of religion taught us to burn alive and otherwise tor- 
ture those who did not agree with us on quite minor 
points of religion. Was it w r orth while ? Another very 
common form is that of those wliose intolerance is so 
great that they consign all their fellow-creatures to 
everlasting perdition if they will not sw r allow certain 



25 

dogmatic ideas. Is it worth while? Is it desirable 
to show a want of charity which must be hateful to 
the God of Mercy, and which either Christ or 
Mahomet would condemn in no measured terms? 
General Gordon said : " I do not see the sect 
of Pharisees among the Mussulmans. What- 
ever they may think they never assume, as our 
Pharisees do, that A and B are doomed to be burned ; 
and you never see the unamiable features which are 
shown by our Pharisees." Gordon had lived long 
amongst the Mahomedans in the East and the beau- 
ties of Islamic teachings had not escaped his notice, 
and there seems to be no doubt that in writing the 
above he truly felt that there was more real Chris- 
tian charity in Islam than there was at home. In 
much the same spirit, he wrote : ' No comfort is 
equal to that which he has who has God for his 
stay, who believes not in words but in facts, that all 
things are ordained to happen and must happen. He 
who has this belief has already died, and is free 
from the annoyance of this life." 

In reply to the above it will probably be advanced 
that Eastern ideas do not blend with Western ideas, 
and there can be no " fusion," so to speak, and that 
to attempt to govern the nations of the West whilst 
an Eastern religion was recognised and influenced 
men's minds and actions would be quite incongruous 
and out of the question . Well, in reply, tfhe writer 
wishes to point out that for nearly two thousand 
years every country in Europe has been governed 
under the religions of the East i.e., Jewish and 
Christian. 

The spirit of Islam soars far above petty jealousies 
and the racial distractions of East and West, and if 
Eastern Christianity led by the great Prophet of 
Nazareth has gone so far towards enlightening man- 
kind, there seems to be no valid reason why the 



26 

more extended and simpler Islamic faith expounded 
by the great Prophet of Arabia should not continue 
the good work. There is a great similarity between 
the characters of the leaders as anyone will find out 
on inquiring into Mahomet's life. Also a study of 
the Koran will reveal the fact that there is nothing 
antagonistic to previous revelations Mahomet's 
instructions, as laid down in the book, completely 
back up the Bible teachings, extending them to suit 
the requirements of the time. On the principle that 
it is unfair to condemn a man unheard, so it is un- 
fair to do what 99 out of every 100 Christians do 
i.e., condemn the Mahomedan faith without even 
finding out the meaning of the word Islam. The 
Jaisser faire principle is often applied by those who 
do not want to be enlightened ; being enlightened 
means being worried, and they would rather remain 
in darkness than stretch out a hand to open the door 
letting in light. " What I've got is good enough for 
me, I don't want to look at anything else," they say 
in effect, thus refusing to make an effort to advance 
even in the knowledge of God and His messages to 
mankind. 

For years past one of my chief thoughts has been 
how can the Muslim faith be " Westernised " so as 
to bring it into practical touch with the nations of 
Europe? Or, in other words, How can we Westerns 
apply ourselves so as to gain a better comprehension 
of what Islam really means ? Then followed a second 
thought : How is it that we do not complain about 
the nationality of Christ , Who we must believe was 
a swarthy Asiatic? His mother, the Virgin Mary, 
was an Asiatic, and Moses and nearly all the in- 
spired Prophets were Easterns. The Holy Prophet 
Mahomet was, like the others, an Eastern, and was 
given his instructions from on high : the Holy Koran 
contains the Word of God like the Bible and other 



27 

inspired works, and confirms the Bible and previous 
revelations. The Koran gives additional teachings, 
emphasising the importance of those teachings, and 
above all insists on the abandonment of all that 
savours of idolatry; the SPIRIT of the revelation 
being that no other name should be even mentioned 
along with the holy name of Allah our All-Mighty 
Father the All-Seeing, the All-Merciful. 

" Then Mahomet, Thy chosen son,* 

Inspired by fire Divine, 
Laid down the law, the greatest one, 
Which must for ever shine. 

That Thou alone most merciful, 

Our Father dear dost reign, 
And that we must all time throughout 

From other gods refrain. 

No other must approach to Thee , 

How T ever great and pure, 
No savour of idolatry 

Can Thy dear heart endure. 

Thy ways are not our ways, God, 

Tho' near Thy mercy seat 
Are many souls of purity 

Thy loving eye to greet." 

The spirit of praise is the essence of the Muslim 
creed the main supplication is for Divine direction 
and guidance. Though my gratitude for God's 
favours and loving'care has been profound from my 



* The word son is not here used as the Christians use it 
when alluding to Christ. Mahomet claimed Divine inspiration, 
but never claimed Divinity. He was a man and, as such, a son 
of God God's creation. 



28 

earliest youth, I cannot help observing that withio 
the past few years, since the pure and convincing 
faith of the Muslims has become a reality in my 
heart and mind, I have found happiness and security 
never approached before. Freedom from the weird 
dogmas of the various branches of Christian 
Churches came to me like a breath of pure sea air, 
and on realizing the simplicity, as well as the illum- 
inating splendour, of Islam, I was as a man emerg- 
ing from a cloudy tunnel into the light of day. 

1 'For Moses, Christ, and Mahomet 

Did each Thy love proclaim, 
And we must not their words forget, 
Or judge them not the same : 

For though their words have twisted been 

By those who Thee profess. 
Their revelations can be seen 

In simple blessedness. 

Of human birth they all proclaim, 

In happy language clear. 
Thy one eternal glorious name, 

Which is to us so dear. 

Contention should not rise between 

The followers of these, 
The greatest prophets ever seen 

Who lived but Thee to please. 

They gave in all humility 

Thy messages of love, 9 
That all mankind might clearly see, 

Nor from Thy precepts rove.'* 

The above quoted simple lines were written many 
years ago by one who was always at heart a follower 



2 9 

of Mahomet, though at the time of writing he was 
almost entirely ignorant of the main features of 
Islam. 

Having definitely decided that no comfort could 
possibly be obtained from dogmatic teaching, the 
thought came to me that God certainly watches and 
controls every desire and every action. He has 
always done so, no doubt, but the teaching gleaned 
from the pages of the Koran have enabled rne to 
grasp that wonderfully comforting thought in a way 
previously impossible. If every move in life is 
directed by the Almighty there may be true comfort 
for those who are not only sore let and hindered in 
running the race of life, but are heavily weighed 
down by sorrow for their many foolish and evil 
actions. All such may have hope that God will 
in His infinite wisdom and goodness use them as 
an example for others, showing them what to avoid. 
It is a rather terrible thought, but the true believer 
will face any trial, any disgrace, or any degradation 
in God's service. His ways are not our ways. The 
spirit of Islam points to salvation for the unfortu- 
nate, the unhappy, and the wicked when there 
appears repentance, and obedience, and resignation, 
and desire to assist our fellow-creatures to the 
greatest possible extent. Even through the greatest 
suffering we should feel happy in having been 
allowed to be the instruments to carry out Divine 
instfuctions. 

Bigotry and fanaticism have wrought havoc in the 
contending Christian Churches, but this cannot be 
said of Mahomedanism, which is an united 
church, save only for some minor disputes as to the 
descendants of Mahomet. How much better, then, 
would it be if we in the West made up our minds to 
abandon the complicated forms of religion at present 
obtaining, and to adopt Islam? 



30 

Some years ago the rulers of a very enlightened 
nation in the Far East had serious doubts as to 
whether their form of religion was the right one or 
not, so they appointed certain wise men to examine 
all the leading religions of the world and report 
thereon. The wise men deliberated and came to the 
conclusion that their own religion was as good as 
any of the others, and they therefore declined to 
advise any changes. Following up this idea I firmly 
believe that if all the best intellects of Europe could 
be brought into play in a search for a religion which 
should be based on worldly reason or common sense, 
no less than on the inspired writings of Divinely 
inspired prophets, the unanimous selection would be 
in favour of Islam, the simplicity and grandeur of 
which is quite without question. Is it not a bless- 
ing to be very grateful for to have the chance of 
embracing a religion w r hich appeals to the reason as 
w r ell as to the heart and nrward longings of man- 
kind, and is at the same time free from sacerdo- 
talism and other complications? 

There are those at present living on this earth, 
both in the East and in the West, to whom revela- 
tions establishing the truth of Islamic teaching have 
been made in the clearest manner, and it is possible 
that the time may not be far distant when God will 
allow these revelations to be made clear to all His 
children on earth ; but this is a matter for Divine 
guidance, for no man knows the appointed time of 
God. 

In an age of scepticism like the present, if one of 
the divinely inspired Prophets were to now re-appear 
in the person of any ordinary individual and repeat 
the statements or utter truths at all similar to those 
he uttered when on earth hundreds of years ago, he 
would be immediately regarded as insane, and be 
either imprisoned or placed in an asylum. 



The many ' ' Churches ' : of Christianity are so 
much at variance one with the other, and their 
* ' Divines ' ' have made such an inextricable 
tangle of Christian teaching, and the dogmas are so 
hopelessly bewildering, that the clear reasoning 
mind and open ingenuous heart of man both crave 
for a religion which is tangible and convincing, as 
well as simple. 

" The dogmas of the Christian Church I care 
not w r hether Roman Catholic or Protestant have 
repelled me ever since earliest childhood, and I do not 
know whether my boyish distrust of the Creed as 
laid down by St. Athanasius was less strong than is 
my contempt to-day for the man who lays down the 
law from a pulpit and consigns millions of his fellow- 
men to everlasting perdition because they do not 
agree with him. It has always seemed to me very 
remarkable that educated gentlemen should be 
found who, in order to get into the Church, will 
cheerfully subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles and 
that horrible Creed, well knowing in their hearts 
that they do not and cannot believe one half they 
put theirnames to. After forty years of thought and 
prayerful effort to arrive at a correct view, the dom- 
inant idea in my mind is that the whole fabric of so- 
called religion is of man and not of God. I must 
also confess that visits to the East have filled me 
with a very deep respect for the simple faith of the 
Mahomedans, who really do worship God all the 
time, and not only on Sunday, like so many 
Christians." 

The above extract from a little book entitled 
" Thoughts for the Future "* probably finds an echo 



* "Thoughts for the Future." By " A. W." (Walter Scott 
Publishing Co., Felling-on-Tyne, Durham, 1913.) 



32 

in the more inward feelings of many who consider 
the question of religion and the future state. 

Islam is the religion of grand simplicity ; it satis- 
fies the noblest longings of the soul, and in no w r ay 
contravenes the teachings of Moses or Christ. 



CHAPTER II. 
WOMAN'S POSITION IN ISLAM. 

I HAVE pleasure in now reproducing a very able 
letter from Her Highness the Begum of Bhopal, 
which appeared in the January issue of - the 
"Islamic Be view." This letter was written by 
Her Highness to Miss de Selincourt, Head Mistress 
of Girls' High School, Allahabad : 

'DEAR MADAM, I have to thank you for your 
kind letter of August 20, and the papers you have 
enclosed with it. I have studied these papers with 
great interest. We certainly owe a heavy debt of 
gratitude to all those able and noble-spirited ladies 
of Europe who are so enthusiastically working for 
the schemes which have the amelioration of the con- 
dition of their Eastern sisters for their object. I 
sincerely wish that these highly-commendable efforts 
will be crowned with unqualified success, which they 
so richly deserve. I am sorry that my engrossment 
with the affairs of State did not allow of my writing 
to you fully by the last mail. After a careful perusal 
of the papers I have received from you , I now ven- 
ture to send you rny thoughts on this subject in the 
hope that you would kindly lay them before the 
members of the committee for their consideration. 

' Before I proceed to express an opinion on this 
subject, I should like to tell you and other promoters 
of the scheme that the views which Miss Bichard- 
on has expressed about the status of women in Islam 
are not at all based on a sound and thorough know- 
ledge of our religion and society. Mahomedanism 
seems to her on principle to create and conserve a 



34 

deeper degradation for women and therefore for 
society than any other great religious system, and 
she does not wonder that many of Mahomedan 
women grow to be 'deceitful, malicious, degraded, 
wicked.' I cannot but think that such a wholesale 
condemnation of Muslim women is most unjustifi- 
able. I am by religion a Mahomedan, and am 
rather w r ell acquainted with the principles of my 
faith ; and I know that Islam has laid down no pre- 
cept, no formula, 110 obligation which could render 
the position of the tender sex in any way deroga- 
tory. On the contrary, the Mahomedan religion has 
accorded a just and fair position to women to which 
they are in every way entitled. Islam not only 
lifted up womankind from the depths of degradation 
to which it had sunk in pre-Islamic days, but it also 
granted women a distinct legal status to which no 
religion in the world can afford a parallel. Islam 
disallowed the cruel treatment meted out to women 
before the advent of the Great Prophet, who en- 
joined his followers to treat the female sex with 
respect. And does not the Koran say, ' Woman is 
the ornament of man, and man that of woman'? 
The Prophet's teaching established perfect equality 
of the sexes, and I can say without the slightest 
fear of contradiction that Islam has laid down the 
best possible rules for the intellectual and social 
advancement of women. It enjoins the highest con- 
sideration and respect for women, and I wish the 
women of Europe knew Arabic and could study the 
Koran at first hand a study that would dispel many 
misunderstandings. Mahomedan writers and un- 
biassed European scholars have discussed this ques- 
tion very ably, and a perusal of their writings is 
bound to lead one to the conclusion that Islam has 
done for women what no other religion has done. 
As a matter of fact, all the incorrect accusations 



35 

against our religion that have obtained currency are 
due to colossal ignorance of the teachings of the Holy 
Prophet (hallowed be his name!). The history of 
Islam is full of innumerable instances of the high 
culture and refinement to which Mahomedan women, 
attained under no other encouragement than that of 
their holy faith. These women are well-versed in 
law, theology, and fine arts, and have left behind 
them such noble records of acts of righteousness and 
bravery as are not to be found in the history of 
every other nation. They read impressive sermons 
from the pulpit ; they gave lectures on theology in 
the college halls ; in the politics of the country they 
played a prominent part ; and without resorting to- 
the tactics of militant suffragettes they influenced 
the administration and the public policy of the 
country for good by words of sound advice. On the 
field of battle Muslim women have nursed the sick 
and the wounded, have encouraged soldiers to up- 
hold their nation's honour, and you may be aware 
that they have gallantly fought in many an action 
side by side with men. 

' Such were the qualities which the Muslim women 
developed shortly after the appearance of him who 
is not yet fully known to our Western sisters. We 
are all exceedingly grateful to you for your sincere 
sympathy for us, but we also beg of you not to 
prescribe remedies for the present circumstances of 
deterioration and decay while you have not yet 
studied the ethics of our religion, and are even 
ignorant of the fundamental principles of our faith. 
It may be that Muslim women have in some places 
sunk to the IOW T depths described by Miss Richard- 
son, but it is the majority that counts, and it is the 
real religion which will eventually prove our salva- 
tion, and not the kind of religion that is probably 
followed in some quarters known to Miss Richard- 



36 

son. The bad habits which, according to Miss 
Richardson, some Muslim women have acquired, are 
the result of national degeneration and decay. When 
a nation is on the downward path deterioration is 
bound to set in in some quarters, and the injunctions 
of religion are apt to be neglected. But it is the 
real religion that has Divine recommendation and 
powerful force for all real Mussalmans. I cannot do 
better than request my Western sisters to study the 
Koran itself the fountain-head of our faith and 
the writings of eminent Mussalman writers on this 
lubject. 

" Chivalry, to the best of my knowledge, came to 
Europe from the East, and every writer on the his- 
tory of the Middle Ages has said so. That our 
Western sisters should now think of the Oriental 
idea of womanhood so contemptuously is to me 
nothing but a bitter irony of fate. 

' ' I now turn to the real object of my addressing this 
letter to you. While considering over the question 
of female education in India, we should first of all 
take stock of the efforts that have hitherto been made 
in this connection. We should remember that the 
duty of promoting the progress of education has 
always been performed efficiently and well by the 
Government of this country. The Government has 
established universities at all important centres ; 
but it is men who have chiefly benefited by these 
universities, while women have remained in the 
background. Under the Mahomedan rulers of India 
the girls of good families were educated privately 
under the care of the elderly ladies of the household, 
and this arrangement had very good results and 
suited those times. The times have changed, and 
now the girls need to be educated in very large num- 
bers. The question of female education has now be- 
come one of very great importance, and earnest and 



37 

systematic endeavours will have to be made to estab- 
lish an extensive system in India for this purpose. 
To my mind a slavish imitation of Western institu- 
tions would not be conducive to our best interests. 
In Oriental countries the education of women should 
be conducted on a different principle to that of the 
West, for here the parda system imposes certain 
limitations. 

' To attain to the best ideal of education in this 
respect, the first and foremost thing is to prescribe a 
good course of study, while suitable text books should 
be compiled in Indian languages. Training colleges 
should be opened in central places where women 
teachers would be trained. Scholarships should be 
given for this purpose, and women of respectable 
families encouraged to qualify themselves for this 
profession. In my opinion, the system of examina- 
tions as followed in Indian universities will not have 
the happiest of results in the case of girl students. 
The girls' schools that I have established in Bhopal 
are doing good work, and there is never any diffi- 
culty in getting girls of good families to attend the 
schools regularly. A girls' school is working very 
satisfactorily at Aligarh also, and there are many 
more girls' schools and colleges in India where parda 
arrangements are made and suitable education given. 
The most important thing is to keep parda require- 
ments in view, and I hope that our Western sisters 
will not lose sight of this great necessity. 

"Believe me, dear Madam, that I am second to 
none in my keenness for the progress of education in 
India, and whatever help I can render in this con- 
nection will always be cheerfully given. 

' Wishing you every success in the great task that 
you have set yourself. Believe me, yours sincerely, 

" (Signed) SULTAN JAHAN OF BHOPAL." 



38 

No right-minded person reading this excellent 
letter will fail to recognise Her Highness 's strength 
of character and power of expressing her meaning 
clearly and emphatically, and every true-hearted 
man and woman will wish her success in her noble 
efforts to improve the position and education of her 
own sex in India. 

In England, through the misrepresentations of 
those whose education should teach them at least to 
be truthful and accurate, the position of Mahome- 
dan women is looked upon as degraded in this world, 
and hopeless as far as the next world is concerned. 
I have lived a long time in the East, and number 
among my friends many Mahomedans for whom I 
have a great affection and respect, and never heard 
of a Mahomedan ill-treating his wife. There may 
be such cases among the very low classes, but I have 
never come across them myself. The true Muslim 
regards his women folk as sacred, and he spares no 
pains to make them happy and comfortable. Some 
years ago I wrote the following lines in praise of a 
really good woman, and I am sure that most Mus- 
lims will agree with the sentiment when they think 
of their mothers and their wives : 

A GOOD WOMAN. 

Sweet offering of our Maker's care, 
To crown my life thou didst appear 
And give me joy untold : 

A ray divine 

Of sweet sunshine 
Turned all life's dross to gold. 

To fill an aching void thou gav'st 
A treasured promise and thou mad'st 
My soul to dance with joy : 



39 



In thy dear eyes 
A glad surprise 
Shone pure, without alloy. 



From sad thoughts of a chequered past 
We'll turn for ever, and at last 
Open the sacred page 
Where, written there, 
The promise fair 
Stands true from age to age. 

Thus happy in our children, love, 
We'll ever look to God above 
And bless His Holy Name : 
No thoughts of fears, 
No trace of tears, 
Shall mar our happiness. 

Dear Father, from Thy children now, 
Accept the noblest human vow 
That they will work for Thee : 
Thy love adore, 
Thy gifts explore, 
Through all eternity. 

The whole teaching of the Koran is opposed to 
idolatry in any shape or form, and therefore men are 
admonished not to marry idolatresses or allow their 
daughters to marry idolaters. There is so much 
idolatry in certain of the Churches at the present 
time, and it would be well if the teachings of our 
Holy Prophet (blessed be his memory !) were more 
widely disseminated. We Mahomedans are guided 
and helped through life by our Book the Holy 
Koran : 

1 ' Mankind was but one people ; and God sent 

prophets to announce glad tidings and to warn ; 

and He sent down with them the Book of 



40 

Truth, that it might decide the disputes of men ; 
and none disputed but those to whom the Book 
had been given, after the clear tokens had 
reached them being full of mutual jealousy. 
And God guided those who believed to the truth 
of that about which, by His permission, they 
had disputed ; for God guideth whom He 
pleaseth into the straight path." 

Wherever women are alluded to in the Koran the 
greatest respect and reverence is enjoined love for 
the mother being almost taken for granted, and 
kindness and affectionate care of the wife being 
insisted upon with the strongest emphasis. 

The following passages occur in that chapter of 
the Koran entitled "Women" : 

' ' men ! fear your Lord , who hath created 
you of one man (nafs, soul) and of him created 
his wife, and from these twain hath spread 
abroad so many men and women. And fear ye 
God, in whose name ye ask mutual favours, and 
reverence the wombs that bare you. Verily is 
God watching over you ! ' 

' ' Give women their dowry freely ; but if of 
themselves they give up ought thereof to you, 
then enjoy it as convenient and profitable : and 
entrust not to the incapable the substance which 
God hath placed with you for their support ; but 
maintain them therewith, and clothe them, and 
speak to them with kindly speech." 

' Men are superior to women on account of 
the qualities with which God hath gifted the 
one above the other, and on account of the out- 
lay they make from their substance for them. 
Virtuous women are obedient, careful, during 
the husband's absence, because God hath of 
them been careful." 



41 

" And if a wife fear ill-usage or aversion on 
the part of her husband, then shall it be no 
fault in them if they can agree with mutual 
agreement, for agreement is best. Men's souls 
are prone to avarice ; but if ye act kindly and 
fear God, then verily, your actions are not un- 
noticed by God ! ' 

" Among my followers, the best of men are 
they who are best and kindest to their women." 

" Woman is sovereign in the house of her 
husband." 

' The world is full of objects of joy and de- 
light, and the best source of delight is a pious 
and chaste woman." 

" And one of His signs is that He has created 
wives for you of your own species, that you may 
be comforted with them, and has put love and 
tenderness between you." 

1 ' Paradise lies at the feet of thy mother. The 
rights of women are sacred ; see that women 
are maintained in the rights attributed to them. 
Do not prevent your women from coming to 
Mosque. The best of you before God and His 
creation are those who are best in their own 
family and best to their wives. A virtuous wife 
is man's best treasure. Fear God in regard to 
the treatment of your wives, they are your 
helpers. You have taken them on the security 
of God and made them lawful by the words of 
God." 

These passages in the Holy Koran are sufficient to 
show how utterly mistaken are those who make 
reckless and false statements concerning the posi- 
tion of women in the Muslim world. 

The limits of this small book will not permit me 
to reproduce more than a small percentage of the 

4 



42 

precious gems from the sayings of the Holy Prophet 
Mahomet, but I cannot refrain from here quoting a 
few of these sayings in the hope that their perusal 
will give, to those who have not before heard them, 
a fair idea of the beautiful and noble character of the 
Divinely inspired man whose memory we bless and 
revere. 

ON HUMANITY. 

1. He from whom the greatest good cometh to His 
creature is the most favoured of God. 

2. The best of men is he from whom good 
accrue th to humanity. 

3. All God's creatures are His family ; and he is 
the most beloved of God who trieth to do most good 
to God's creatures. 

4. Whoever is kind to His creatures, God is kind 
to him ; therefore, be kind to man on earth, whether 
good or bad ; and 

TO BE KIND TO BAD 

is to withhold him from badness, so that those who 
are in Heaven may be kind to you. 

5. He who helpeth his fellow creature in the hour 
of need, and he who helpeth the oppressed, him will 
God help in the Day of Travail. 

6. What are 

MOST EXCELLENT ACTIONS'? 

To gladden the heart of a human being ; to feed the 
hungry ; to help the afflicted ; to lighten the sorrow 
of the sorrowful ; and to remove the wrongs of the 
injured. 

RESPECT GEEY HAIRS. 

1. To every young person who honoureth the old 
on account of their age, may God appoint those who 
shall honour him in his years. 



43 

2. HE IS *OT OF US 

who is not affectionate to his little ones, and doth 
not respect the reputation of the old ; and he is not 
of us who doth not order that which is good, and 
prohibit that which is bad. 

TO EARN AN HONEST LIVING IS 
RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

1. Those who earn an honest living are the beloved 
of God. 

2. God is gracious to him that earneth his living 
by his own labour, and not by begging. 

3. Whoso is able and fit, and doth not work for 
himself or for others, God is not gracious to him. 

4. He who neither worketh for himself nor for 
others will not receive the reward of God. 

5. Pray to God morning and evening, and employ 
the day in your avocation. 

ON LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE. 

1. He dieth not who giveth life to learning. 

2. Whoso honoureth the learned honoureth me. 

3. Learn to know thyself, O Ali. 

4. Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave. 

5. Philosophy is the stray camel of the faithful 
(Muslim) ; take hold of it wherever ye come across it. 

6. The calamity of knowledge is forgetfulness ; 
and to lose knowledge is this, to speak of it to the 
unworthy. 

Who are the learned? Those who practise what 
they know. 

7. One learned man is harder on the devi] than a 
thousand ignorant worshippers. 

8. The desire of knowledge is a divine command- 
ment for every Muslim. 



44 

9. That person who shall pursue the path of know- 
ledge, God will direct him to the path of paradise. 

10. He who knoweth his own self knoweth God. 

11. Acquire knowledge. It enableth its possessor 
to distinguish right from wrong, it lighteth the way 
to heaven ; it is our friend in the desert, our society 
in solitude, our companion when friendless; it 
guideth us to happiness ; it sustaineth us in misery ; 
it is an ornament amongst friends, and an armour 
against enemies. 

12. The knowledge from which no benefit is 
derived is like a treasure from which no charity is 
bestowed in the way of the Lord. 

KNOWLEDGE LEAVING THE WORLD. 

The Messenger of God repeated something of 
strife and said, " It will appear at the time of know- 
ledge leaving the world." I said, " O Messenger of 
God, how will knowledge go from the world since 
we read the Quran, and teach it to our children, and 
our children to theirs, and so on till the last day? ' 
Then Lord Mohammad said. "O Zaid, I supposed 
you the most learned man of Medinah. Do the Jews 
and Christians who read the Bible and the Erangel 
act on them ? 

WISH NOT FOR DEATH 

any one of you neither the doer of good works, for 
peradventure, he may increase them by an increase 
of life ; nor the offender, for perhaps he may obtain 
the forgiveness of God by repentance. Wish not nor 
supplicate for death before its time cometh, for 
verily, when you die, hope is out and the ambition 
for reward; and verily, the increase of a believer's 
life increaseth his good works. 



45 

The Mahomedans have the advantage of the so- 
called Christians, for the idea of a heaven without 
women is unthinkable to them. They know that as 
God has provided this most precious gift on earth, so 
He will continue to provide that priceless gift in 
heaven. After all, it seems but reasonable that a 
man should be more happy living for ever in para- 
dise with his dear wife than sitting for ever on 
a cloud in the company of uncharitable per- 
sons of more than questionable morals and 
intolerant religious convictions and fanatical 
dogmas. Having myself passed much of my 
early life in an atmosphere of somewhat constricted 
Christianity, I have always felt that in the Mahome- 
dan religion might be found charity and simplicity, 
and freedom from the dogmatic tenets of the 
Romanists and Protestants. Subsequent visits to the 
East and study of the Holy Koran have confirmed 
me in this opinion. As regards the rewards after 
this life, it must be admitted that the majority of 
Christian teachers hold out the hope of a rather 
dreary and untangible set of future enjoyments. Xot 
so the Mahomedan faith, which tells us of pleasures 
we can understand, which appeal to our intelligence 
and the senses given us by God. 

What pleasure is equal to that which we enjoy 
when in the company of the greatest and most 
wonderful gift of God ? Can any moments of earthly 
joy be compared with those we are given when mind 
and soul and body are joined in gratitude to the 
Most Merciful for sending us our most cherished 
possession Woman ? 

' Of all the gifts God's mercy sends 
To man, there's none that ever lends 
A millionth part of the great good 
Of pure and noble womanhood.* 1 



4 6 

\Ve are told to believe that our Father in heaven 
will reward us with great pleasures in the world to 
come ; we know that our greatest and purest 
pleasures in this world have been connected with 
women our mothers and our wives so that it 
seems reasonable to believe that the heavenly plea- 
sures will follow on, in intensified form, those with 
which we are already acquainted, and which ice 
acknowledge are the most wonderful we can 
experience in the flesh. It is not sensuality, as some 
unworthy traducers endeavour to make out, but a 
grateful acknowledgment and acceptance by truly 
devout minds, souls and bodies, of exquisite joys, 
which in our future state will develop, in ways known 
only to God, into those still greater delights which 
pass man's understanding. 

Very many Christian writings discourage the 
toiler after truth by their persistent denial of man's 
right to enjoy himself, either in this world or the 
next. Nearly all the most pleasant things of the 
world are spoken of as sinful, whereas the reverse 
should be the case, since it is surely sinful to neglect 
or refuse to enjoy that which God's mercy has pro- 
vided for our delectation. If our faculties and per- 
ception remain at all the same after that change 
which we, in our ignorance, often call ' death." 
we shall reasonably look for an extension in glorified 
form of joys we already know something about. 

The unknown is shrouded in obscurity, and we see 
through a glass very darkly at present. It would 
appear that instead of clearing up mysteries, the 
dogmas of the Christian churches have greatly com- 
plicated matters, and helped to block up the path 
towards intelligent belief. It may be difficult for 
our limited intelligences to form any but the vaguest 
idea of the infinite power of the All-Mighty, the 
All-Merciful, the All-Being, but the true Spirit of 



47 

Islam enables men to approach their Maker without 
any mediation or intervention, since the followers of 
the Holy Prophet Mahomet do everything in the 
name of the Most Merciful God, who is ever ready 
in every place to hearken to His children's voices. 

1 ' Oh that men would praise the Lord for His 
goodness, and for His wonderful works to the 
children of men ! ' -Psalms cvii. 8, 15, 21, 31. 

" The world and all things in it are valuable, 
but the most valuable thing in the world is a 
virtuous woman." Sayings of Holy Prophet 
Mahomet. 

When prostrate at Thy feet I fall, 

Fresh wisdom to acquire, 
All Thy past favours I recall : 

Nor do I now r desire 
To ask from Thee what Thou must know- 

In Thy omniscient mind, 
Is really best for us below 

And infinitely kind. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE MOST BEAUTIFUL GIFT OF GOD. 

AEE WESTERN WOMEN LACKING IN 
DELICACY? 

PLAIN SPEAKING seems to be one of the charac- 
teristics of the present day. There are no * 4 closed 
books " for girls, even of fifteen or sixteen years of 
age. They simply know everything there is to know, 
and therefore they have nothing to find out. They 
will talk about maternity and what to do with the 
baby in the embryonic and the teething stage, and 
give you their opinion on the Malthusian principles 
and the proper way to stamp out contagious diseases 
in the Army. I have met many such women ; for 
the most part they are unmarried, and their ages 
range from the earliest maidenhood to that advanced 
and highly experienced spinsterhood which is capable 
of advising the most matronly mother exactly what 
to do with the baby before and after birth. All such 
maiden ladies claim a very wide knowledge of sex 
relationship, and if you suggest that some of their 
statements are perhaps just a little bit advanced or 
not to put too fine a point on it indelicate, they 
do not hesitate to dub you ''Early Victorian." 
Sometimes it has occurred to me, as a plain 
Englishman with sons who will some day have to be 
provided with wives, that a little return to that 
Early Victorian modesty would not be amiss. One 
likes and admires the healthy, active girl, who plays 
tennis and golf, and can pull at an oar, but I confess 
I should not like to see my daughter-in-law with her 



49 

nether limbs tightly encased in diaphanous material 
and the tout ensemble reminding one of a Greek 
goddess in difficulties or a Columbine in a harle- 
quinade. 1 love modesty in a woman and, though it 
is the fashion to laugh at the Easterns for keeping 
their women veiled and secluded from the vulgar 
gaze, I think they are to be admired for wishing to 
shield and protect what they hold so sacred. Fortu- 
nately, the great majority of our countrywomen can 
be trusted to decently conceal all that modesty re- 
quires to be concealed. Some of the modern costumes 
for women are, to my mind, far worse and more sug- 
gestive than absolute nudity. There is, of course, 
nothing actually wicked in walking about without 
any clothes on I think myself that it is more wicked 
to walk about with clothes cut in such a way as to 
excite undesirable thoughts in the mind of the 
young man in the street. There is nothing wicked 
in Nature : it is the way we put things and look at 
things. The other day I was travelling in the 
Underground Eailway, and found myself sitting 
opposite to a young lady whose apparel caught my 
attention. This particular young woman was not 
very pretty in the face, but her other attractions 
were, I am bound to say, almost irresistible. She 
had on a very fine silk and affectionately clinging 
drapery, which was of the slit-up-one-side variety. 
Her nether limbs were most exquisitely moulded, 
and were encased in the finest black silk stockings, 
through which the delicate pink skin showed up 
with much effect. Her shoes were of a pattern and 
shape once seen never to be forgotten, and, as she 
crossed her legs (pardon the use of the word) I saw 
a dainty watch on a dainty garter. If the spirit 
of mischief, which sometimes makes me rathor 
a nuisance to my friends, had animated me at 
that moment * ' psychological moment" is, I be- 



So 

lieve, the correct term I should have leaned for- 
ward and asked her to let me look at the time. 
There were two or three other men in the compart- 
ment, and they gave me quizzical glances. I knew 
what was passing in their heads, and they knew 
what was passing in mine. It was something like 
this : ' Well, I never did see better shaped limbs ; 
but I'm glad she's not my daughter/' I must be 
excused for giving an account of this apparently 
insignificant incident, as it opens up the path to a 
short article I wrote some time ago, in answer to 
certain strong-minded ladies who had got it into 
their heads that man, vile man, is the author of all 
the disasters and woes which beset suffering female 
humanity. I now give the article exactly as I wrote 
it, word for word, and I have not even altered the 
heading to suit the character of this book ! Since 
those ladies who attacked " man " with such vitriolic 
warmth did not hesitate to speak quite freely of sub- 
jects which are usually left for the physician's or sur- 
geon's consulting rooms, I must make some apology 
for allusions to facts the mention of which is neces- 
sary to prove my contentions. 

THE REVOLT OF WOMAN, 
COMMONLY CALLED THE "WOMEN'S MOVEMENT." 

In treating of sex questions it seems to me that 
physical conformation is not sufficiently considered. 
The form of a man is such that he is constantly 
being reminded of possibilities in a way which is not 
apparent in the case of a woman. Boys are thus 
early tempted, but girls are not. Then, again, in 
early life nature will not allow a young man to be 
a bachelor in the same sense that a girl is a maiden, 
for the simple but always overlooked reason that 
he has been denied the natural outlet or relief 



Si 

afforded to a woman at certain definite periods, and 
without any effort whatever on her part. In other 
words. Nature favours a woman with relief which a 
man cannot properly and decently obtain without 
the assistance of womankind. This assistance the 
Creator intended man to have and, if we fail to pro- 
vide him with that which alone can preserve his self- 
respect and manliness, we may in time do 
incalculable damage by forcing him in the direction 
of various forms of vice infinitely degrading and 
demoralizing, and fatal to the very strength of the 
nation to which he belongs. Another point is that 
every man who marries a woman who is not a widow 
expects the girl to be a maiden, but how many 
women, who know anything at all, expect the man 
to be a virgin in the sense of never having touched 
another woman? The importance of chastity in one 
case is so very much greater than in the other. Fear 
keeps women "honest," and rightly, too, for are 
they not to be the means of continuing their hus- 
band's name in their children? 

Two unmarried ladies told me not long ago that 
they knew everything, and that I could not enlighten 
them on any sex question or sex problem. I felt 
sorry, because I knew that, as ladies of mature 
years, they should not have spoken so if they wished 
to retain their characters for respectability. In these 
days, and especially since the appearance of certain 
articles in the " Suffragette/' it seems necessary to 
call a spade a very decided spade, so I will proceed 
to explain one or two points which seem to have been 
lost sight of by those ladies who would make out 
that men are monsters of iniquity, and that all the 
trouble in the world comes through the male sex. 

The modern female between girlhood and woman- 
hood the strange hobble-skirted little creature 
sometimes called a " Flapper/' who pretends to 



52 

know everything, does really know far too much, is 
prepared to go anywhere, and do anything. What is 
she? Is she the product of man's wickedness or the 
too go-ahead times? She is a hardened creature, 
incapable of blushing and, though clad in the 
scantiest and most transparent attire, feels no sense 
of shame. She shows her shapely leg plenty of it 
and her one or two garments fit so tightly that 
there is very little left to the imagination. Of 
course, there is really nothing to be ashamed of in 
the human form divine, but it certainly comes as 
rather a shock or startler to some men to observe 
how much of her the modern young woman permits 
him to see and think about. Our British climate is 
against an absolute discarding of all clothing, but 
there are not wanting indications that, before many 
more years have rolled by, ladies with pretty figures 
will be content with painting or dyeing their skins 
with harmonious and tasteful designs though they 
may wear bangles on wrists and ankles, and possibly 
a watch below, or above the knee. Then we shall 
have returned to some extent to the ways of the 
ancient Britons. Possibly this would be all right. 
There is nothing at all disgraceful in anything 
in Nature. What I am trying to show is that the 
female is ever trying to captivate and fascinate the 
male ; she is disappointed if she fails to attract him : 
Nature tells her that she has that within her which 
should attract him, and she knows by instinct that 
he may be caught by the thousand and one blandish- 
ments which she can bring to bear on his suscepti- 
bilities. 

In Isaiah iii., verse 16, we read : " Moreover the 
Lord saith, Because the daughters of Zion are 
haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and 
wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, and 
making a tinkling with their feet : therefore the 



53 

Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of 
the daughters of Zion, &c." 

The worst of quoting from the Old Testament is 
that people nearly always say, "Oh, that was the 
old dispensation it does not apply to the present 
day." But even the New Testament, relating to 
the new dispensation, is not always well received by 
the most religious and devout persons of the Chris- 
tian persuasion. The other day a friend of mine 
called the attention of a Suffragette lady to St. Paul's 
admonitions to women, their duties to their hus- 
bands, &c., &c. The strong-minded lady at once 
retorted, "Oh, that is not Christianity. St. Paul 
wrote a lot of rubbish about women, and did not 
know w 7 hat he was talking about." The point was 
not pressed, but it must occur to any impartial per- 
son that, if St. Paul wrote "rubbish" about such 
an extremely important matter as sex relationship 
and duty, very possibly the rest of his teaching was, 
if not worthless, at least open to criticism and doubt. 
Biit it is not the poor little "flapper' who is 
alone to blame; indeed, she is but a small drop in 
the bucket ; nor is it the poor, unfortunate girl who 
sells her person in order that she may keep body and 
soul together ; it is the unscrupulous woman of 
Society who does so much harm. With her it is 
pure wickedness which makes her unfaithful to her 
husband and leads her to ruin the careers of young 
men who would otherwise marry and lead good lives. 
What is usually called prostitution is , of course , very 
dreadful when carried out by poor women to keep 
themselves alive, or support their orphan families, 
but it is not a thousandth part as bad as that prosti- 
tution w r hich is taking place in those ranks where it 
is not at all necessary to life, and where it' is rice 
pure and simple. 

Most right thinking men like to see women happy 



54 

and enjoying themselves, and would not withhold 
from them any innocent pleasures, such as smoking, 
which soothes their nerves ; but there are others who 
would selfishly withhold the fragrant weed from 
their sisters whilst indulging in its use themselves. 
We all know r that women are, especially at certain 
times, very nervous and irritable, and the use of 
tobacco is just what they require to steady them and 
ease their sufferings. The present waiter would deny 
no legitimate pleasure to women : all the most exqui- 
site pleasures of life are associated with what? our 
mothers and our wives. Why do young men work 
so hard at their professions? Is it not, in nine cases 
out of ten, that they may earn enough to make a 
little home in which to shelter and cherish some 
particular girl they love? Is not the "ruling pas- 
sion " at the bottom of every real man's existence? 
Are there any pleasures to compare with those men 
derive from God's most beautiful and precious gift? 
The passion between the sexes is so intense that, in 
desire for relief and satisfaction, it comes next to 
hunger and thirst. Why make a mystery of it, for 
it rules the whole world ! The fair sex is quite 
aware of it, and wide awake to possibilities. Ninety - 
nine women out of a hundred love to be admired 
and run after by men it is their nature just as it 
is the nature of the little hen sparrow to try to secure 
the attention of the little cock sparrow 7 . Xo right- 
minded man objects to this, but it so often happens 
that the lady, having angled for and caught the 
gentleman, turns round and abuses him for kissing 
or otherwise falling in with her requirements. 
Respect for women is one thing, but giving in to 
inconsistencies is quite another. There is nothing 
a. woman so much resents as neglect or indifference. 
A very smartly dressed woman, walking down a 
fashionable street, would rather submit to the in- 



55 

dignity of being kissed against her will, than to the 
humiliation of not being noticed at all. Lately, the 
outrageous fashions of transparent hobbles and split 
skirts worn by many so-called ladies reveal not 
only the persons but also the want of delicacy of the 
wearers. The writer of these lines is not easily 
shocked, but has often felt shame and disgust at the 
open exhibition of feminine charms which are sup- 
posed to be kept, if not concealed altogether, at 
least covered up from the inspection of the "man 
in the street." Much of our modern literature is 
simply disgusting, the clothing of our women is 
lacking in the first principles of modesty, and even a 
return to the Early Victorian simplicity would be a 
relief to those who rightly regard woman as the most 
sacred treasure and most exquisite gift of God to 
man. 

When a woman gives herself to a man in mar- 
riage she sinks her identity, as it were, in her hus- 
band ; she changes her name to his name, and be- 
comes part of him. He renders himself responsible 
for her maintenance, and the offspring take his 
name, and he is responsible for their bringing up 
and maintenance. If chastity and faithfulness are 
admirable in the man, they are absolutely essential 
in the woman, since one single departure from the 
path of virtue on her part may possibly mean not 
only indelible disgrace to an honoured name, but the 
cruel unfairness of forcing on the husband the bring- 
ing up of another man's child. So that there can be 
no comparison between the importance of chastity in 
the male and female. I would say that it should be 
the aim and object of every man to so order and 
direct his desires that they should be centered on 
one woman only. It should be repellent to his 
nature to think of other women except in the way of 
kindly wishes and friendliness. 



56 

Now, I trust that my readers will see from the 
above that I have endeavoured to handle a somewhat 
delicate and difficult task in an honest manner, and 
without unduly offending susceptibilities. I am 
actuated by a desire to see an improvement in the 
conduct of women generally. As an old friend of 
mine used to say, "People are apt to forget that 
what applies to old Adam applies also to old 
Madam," and those high-spirited ladies who would 
wish to lay all the blame for the misfortunes of their 
sex at the door of " man " must remember that their 
responsibilities are great, and that every time they 
forget modesty they run a chance of leading astray 
their brothers in human temptation. 

Next to my absolute and unbounded confidence in 
God and love to obey Him comes my love for certain 
of my fellow-creatures, and it always seems difficult 
to know whether parents or children occupy the 
second place. I think the children come next, be- 
cause of their youth and inexperience, which render 
our loving care most necessary. Then, I think, come 
those women whose love and patient devotion enable 
men to overcome difficulties and troubles which 
would otherwise overwhelm them. A good woman's 
influence often moulds a man's character and sends 
him off on the right path from which he might stray 
were it not for her sympathy and help. 

" Soul of my soul, heart of my heart. 

Love of my love's intensity, 
Apart from thee life seems no life, 
But a void of vast immensity. 

' To see thy face, to hear thy voice, 

To touch thy hand, or breathe thy air, 
Are pleasures which are greater far 
Than all earth's beauties rich and rare. 



57 

" This love is not an earthly love, 

Its source is far in Heaven above ; 
In ages past we met before, 

And now our love is more and more. 

1 ' Intensified by miseries here , 

Washed by many a crystal tear ; 
Purified by sufferings rare, 
Until it shines so passing fair 

' That even angels can but own 

That love may every sin atone. 
No dross our loving bosoms hold, 

For naught remains but purest gold." 

A heaven without the people I love so much 
would not be a heaven to please me. I firmly be- 
lieve that in the next stage of existence all our 
greatest pleasures and delights on earth will be inten- 
sified a hundredfold, and that all those who have 
loved God in this world, and have accepted with true 
gratitude His exquisite gifts, and obeyed His laws, 
will be rewarded by an extension of the delights of 
life which " pass man's understanding." But I do 
not think these pleasures will come to the low- 
minded and brutish men who debase the sweetest 
thing on earth , or to those women who wickedly take 
advantage of the weaknesses and baser desires of 
mankind. It is only the spiritual minded who can 
ever hope to fully realize the intense delights of the 
spirit life. At first it seemed strange to me to find 
that natural desires should lead me to think seriously 
of the higher life. Noic I can reason it out, after all 
these years of thought, and no doubt the process of 
reasoning in my brain has been something after this 
fashion. 'God has given me intense pleasure in 
the contemplation of His most exquisite gift it is 

5 



58 

too wonderful, it is so beautiful and sweet that I 
cannot find words to express my gratitude therefore 
how great and how merciful is God, and how can I 
ever hope to thank Him sufficiently for such a beauti- 
ful gift?" 

Here was born in my mind and heart that grati- 
tude to the Almighty which might never have come 
into existence had mere food, drink, and sleep been 
the only blessings for which to return thanks. So 
that, in my own case at least, my very highest and 
sincerest aspirations towards the better life and to- 
wards God Himself, are really the outcome of what 
so many I think they are mistaken call human 
passions and human weaknesses. 



CHAPTER IV. 
WILFUL MISREPRESENTATIONS. 

* 

"This above all, to thine own self be true; 
And it must follow, as the night the day, 
Thou canst not then be false to any man." 

Shakespeare. 

IN January of the present year an unusually mis- 
leading article on the subject of apostasy appeared 
in the Daily Mail, and, later, on, East and West, 
with the result that the following article appeared 
in the columns of the latter organ : 

1 ' After having been a Muslim by conviction 
for twenty years, Lord Headley has recently 
announced this fact to the world. We could 
wish that during these twenty years he had 
studied the teaching and practice of Mohame- 
dans more carefully than he has done. He 
would not then have said : ' It is the intolerance 
of those professing the Christian religion which 
more than anything else is responsible for my 
secession. You never hear Mahomedans speak 
concerning those of other religions as you hear 
Christians talk of one another. They may feel 
very sorry that other persons do not hold the 
Mahometan faith, but they don't condemn them 
to everlasting damnation because of a differing 
belief.' The Daily Mail, which contained the 
announcement of the conversion of Lord Head- 
ley, contained in its next issue a letter from a 
lecturer in Arabic in London , in which he wrote 
a propos of the suggested intolerance of Chris- 
tians : ' If a Moslem in any really Moslem land 



6o 

were to do as Lord Headley has done, and 
announce his conversion to Christianity, his life 
would not be worth a day's purchase, and his 
death would be justified by the express teaching 
of the Koran. Such is Moslem toleration ; con- 
verts are only allowed to live w r here the strong 
arm of Christian Justice can protect them.' In 
reply to Lord Headley 's statement that Islam 
does not condemn to the torment of hell those 
who fail to acknowledge Mohammad, we may 
quote the words of the Koran (Sura 4, v. 59). 
' Those who disbelieve our signs we will burn 
them with fire : as often as their skins are 
roasted we will give them new skins.' This is 
one of many similar statements contained in the 
Koran." 

To refute the idea that true Moslems would murder 
a brother so foolish as to renounce the faith of Islam , 
I may quote one line which appears in the Holy 
Koran immediately after one of the most beautiful 
and impressive passages in the Book : ' Let there 
be no compulsion (no violence) in Religion." No 
true Moslem would have any feelings but of deepest 
pity and sorrow for a deserter from the fold pre- 
sided over and tended by our Gracious Shepherd and 
King. Myself, a true Moslem of nearly forty years' 
standing, I have children, all of whom will, I hope, 
follow me in the faith; but supposing, for the sake 
of argument, that one of them so far forgot himself 
as to change his religion , should I wish him ill ? No . 
I should be deeply grieved, but should not alter in 
my fatherly affection one iota. I should argue with 
him, and do my very best to show him the folly of 
deserting Islam, but if my arguments failed I should 
deal just as kindly with him as before. In the same 
way, if I were so erratic as to change to any other 
faith than Islam I know that all mv brethren in 



6 1 

Islam would consider that I had broken down 
mentally, and did not quite realise the folly of my 
action. Not for one moment would they think of 
murdering me. Of course, there are fanatics in all 
religions. How about the fanatics of the " Holy ' 
Inquisition ? How about the fanatics of the Middle 
Ages who tortured, maimed, and burned those who 
thought differently from themselves? Of course, if 
I, a Moslem, \vent into some wild parts I could name 
in Central Africa, and openly stated that I was 
about to change my religion, I should stand a very 
good chance of being cut down by some religious 
fanatic. Thank God, however, there is not much 
chance of any of us ever stepping from the light 
back into the darkness. We all know the value of 
being able to approach our Maker without any inter- 
vention of any kind , and our love for God , and desire 
to be directed by Him, are strong indeed. 

I remember once, after a particularly cruel act 
had been committed, there w y as a suggestion of deal- 
ing severely with the culprit, but the offence was so 
bad that nothing short of the death penalty would 
have met the case ; and then one , more wise than 
the others who were considering the case, said, 
'Leave him to God." 

There is nothing in the Koran sanctioning the 
assassination of a man for changing his religion. If 
any man, once having embraced the faith of Islam, 
should be so wicked and so foolish as to desert it, he 
must be dealt with in the Highest Court. We have 
no right to kill him, for that would be murder. All 
the Mahomedan law is founded on the Holy Koran, 
and in none of the pages of that Book are to be found 
any punishments prescribed for the apostates, except 
the suffering which they must undergo in the next 
life for dying in nnbehlief. All the punishments 
begin after death. If the apostate were to be 



62 

punished with death here the verses in the Koran 
would be differently warded. It is expressly stated 
that no guidance shall be given to the apostate, w r hose 
punishment shall take place in the future state not 
here. 

The learned Arabic scholar who wrote in the Daily 
Mail says : " Converts are only allowed to live where 
the strong arm of Christian justice can protect them. ' ' 
How many converts are there? How many desert 
Islam after experiencing its blessings? I should 
like the learned gentleman to furnish me with a list 
of converts from Islam to any other religion. 

From time to time I have come across the writings 
of Christian missionaries, usually in the form of 
small booklets, professing to give true particulars 
respecting the Mahomedan faith, and I am sorry to 
have to confess to a feeling of deep humiliation and 
shame at finding that any of my countrymen could 
stoop to duplicity and misrepresentation in order to 
advance their views on the subject of religion. It 
is that very religion which if it is worth anything 
at all should teach scrupulous fairness and love of 
truth. It is perfectly astounding to what lengths 
Christian religious fanatics, I can call them by no 
other name, will go when they have the chance. 
Look on the other side of the picture : is it not 
wonderfully indicative of the spirit of charity and 
tolerance inculcated by the Koran to notice the calm- 
ness with which the vast assembly of our Muslim 
brethren receive these unworthy attacks made upon 
them and their religion in the name of the gentle 
Jesus, one of their own Prophets? We do not. so 
far as I know, find violence and misrepresentations 
in Mahomedan works, for though there would be 
some excuse for strong language on the part of the 
Muslims, there would be no chance of their resort- 
ing to such false charges as seem to form their 



63 

opponents' chief weapon of attack. I have not given 
the names of the booklets above referred to, but 
they can be easily procured from the publishers who 
undertake that description of literature. 

I will now give some quotations from pamphlets 
written with the view of taking away the character 
of the Holy Prophet, and it will be seen by any 
fair-minded person that venom and vindictive abuse 
are the weapons used. There is no argument and 
no reference to historical facts nothing but a suc- 
cession of revolting statements, which the authors 
knew very well they could not substantiate. Here 
we have really shocking examples, and I feel that 
some apology is due to my readers for reproducing 
such unhealthy verbiage. My excuse is that the 
public ought to know how fanatical and fantastic 
are the attacks against the long-suffering Muslims, 
whose charity and patience and good taste will not 
allow them to retaliate in the same vulgar terms. 
Here are the passages above referred to, and I am 
told that they appeared in the " Noor Afshau," a 
Christian weekly in Ludiana , and I give the date 
and the page of its various publications, for easy 
reference : 

June 12, 1913, page 8. The revelations which 
came to Muhammad were brought by the devil. 

June 19, 1913, page 1. The Muhammadans are 
really donkeys, and their deeds are like the asses. 
Page 6. Muhammad was himself a lusty admirer 
of female beauty and amorous. 

August 8, 1913, page 6. The Mnsalmans have the 
ropes of Satan around their neck. 

September 25, page 10. All married women of 
Arabia are prostitutes. 

September 25, page 9. The wives of Muhammad 
are called mothers of the faithful , and therefore they 



64 

are shoes. With them they shall beat them on their 
head. . . . Muhammad was the introducer of 
immorality. 

October 24, 1913, page 14. It is the God of the 
Quran and Hadees (traditions of the Prophet 
Muhammad) who is thus creating men full of sin, 
who not only does not give them the right path, but, 
on the other hand, always misleads them. 

November 7, 1913, page 1:2. Their (Muslims) 
salvation is based on the earning of sins. To work 
good deeds has been held the means of deprivation 
to them. But sin has been ordained as the only aim 
of their natural life. 

December 18, page 9. In this page the writer says 
that Muhammad made a nation to always commit 
sins, and their signs are that their leaders speak 
deliberate falsehoods, commit murder, robbery, bur- 
glary, think adultery a glad tiding . . . ; every- 
body among them is accompanied with Satan, and 
they are all hellish. 

Also the following have been collected from 
various sources, and appeared in the April number 
of the " Islamic Eeview " : 

11 ISBAT-I-KAFFABA." 

By T. Howell, Pastor of English Church, Lahore. 

Printed at the Newal Kishore Steam Press, 

Lahore, 1913. 

PART I. 

Page 3, lines 11 and 12. Reproachfully address- 
ing the Mussalmans and Aryas, the writer says 
That because the leaders of you both were wicked 
criminals and frail minded. 

Page 10, line 3. Seed of crime which is called the 



65 

Satan's part every now and then sprang from 
Muhammad's mind. 

Page 20, line 9-10. Just out of his own desire or 
Satanic delusions, Muhammad praised the idols and 
used to prostrate before them. 

Page 20, line 15. He (Muhammad) did also fre- 
quently remain in subjection to Satan and sorcery. 

PAMPHLET NAMED " HAZBAT MUHAMMAD." 

Written by Eev. G. H. Eaoos, D.D. Published by 
Christian Literature Society for India. 

Page 6. There are many things which prove him 
a guilty criminal. 

Page 10. Greed and rage were strong evils in 
Muhammad. 

Page 14. He was a criminal. 

He was himself indigent of salvation. 

He can, in no way, be spared from the hell. 

He was himself a criminal and, like other delin- 
quents, was entitled to be thrown in the fire (hell). 

PAMPHLET " HAMAEA SHAFIK KAUN HAL" 

Written by Eev. J. H. Eaoos, D.D. Printed at 
Ludhiana Mission Press. 

Page 5. Muhammad himself a criminal and 
wanted the recommendation of a sinless. 

Page 6. Muhammad shall be in want of some 
intercessor and redeemer just like the ordinary 
criminals. 

PAMPHLET " DAFE-UL-BOHTAN." 

Written by Eev. Eauklin. Printed at the Mission 
Press, Allahabad. 

Page 69. We cannot but call Muhammad the 
same richman (which means the richman who 



66 

according to St. Luke was from Abraham's descent, 
lived a splendid life, and when died was thrown in 
hell). 

Page 87. The companions of Muhammad are de- 
picted as murderers, cruel oppressors, adulterers, 
deceivers, robbers, doers of every kind of evil deeds, 
&c. 

Page 154. (He was) a worldly man and follower 
of his lust, and such men often indulge in such 
things. Sornw for all such men because they have 
the same end and they shall be collectively thrown 
in the wrath of God i.e.. in the lake of fire and 
sulphur (the hell). 

PAMPHLET " SEEBAT-UL-MASIH WAL 

MUHAMMAD. " 
Written by Eev. Thakar Dass, American 

Mission. 

Page 6. Muhammad was in his person a sinful. 
He was practically delinquent. 

Page 14. The very shape of Muhammad like the 
Arabs shows him the greatest indulgent in sensuality 
and lover of women. 

Page 21. Muhammad was a devious and infernal 
man. 

Page 31. It seems that he was ensnared by 
Satan. 

Page 35. Readers ! be careful that you might not 
be taken over by Muhammad's fraud. 

PAMPHLET " ANDBOONA BIBLE." 

Page 70. The owner of the sign of this anti- 
Christ is originally the same old bloody serpent 
(Satan), yet when lie opens his mouth his very jaws 
show him personified in the histories of the Pope and 
the Prophet of Arabia. 



67 

Page 75. The religion of Muhammad and that of 
the Pope are the jaws of one serpent (Satan). 

PAMPHLET ''MUHAMMADI TWAEIKH 

IJMAL." 

By Eev. William, of Eewari. Printed at the 
Christian Mission Press, Eewari. 

Pages 1 to 7. Muhammad, the leader of robbers, 
dacoits, burglars, murderers, and deceivers. 

Page 8. Muhammad was a great sinner. 

Page 25. Notwithstanding Gabriel's endeavour- 
ing to remove the dusk of his (Muhammad's) heart 
by repeated washings, which was seed of crime or 
the spermatoza, or part of the Satan, it was never 
removed from him. Muhammad might have 
blackened his heart by frequently indulging in com- 
mitting crimes without controlling up his mind. 

Page 27. Muhammad was particularly arrested 
in the steam of hell , yet all this happened to him on 
account of his own crimes under which he laboured 
till his death. 

Page 31-32. The Muhammadan Moulvies (i.e., 
the learned theologians) committed crimes of adul- 
tery, robbery, and the like, they made these trans- 
gressions in compliance with the desires of Muham- 
mad under the veil of his motto Lailaha illallaho 
(which is the fundamental principle of Islamic mono- 
theistic belief and which means there is no God but 
One, the only One). 

Pages 31-32. Not only did these teachings create 
in abundance the Muhammadan prostitutes, but even 
the heaven, being full of " hoors " and " gilmans," 
became a regular " chakla." 

Page 49. Not only Muhammad's kalima encour- 
ages the criminal to commit crimes more boldlv, but 



68 

it also serv 7 es him as an anti-dyspepsia pill for diges- 
tion of crimes and plucks up their courage to indulge 
in the life of extreme criminality. The blessings of 
Muhammadan kalima are practically seen to over- 
crowd the " chakla ' and town 'bazaar' (i.e., 
places of public prostitution and whoredom). 

Page 55. The case of the God of Quran is just 
like the devastated town and the blind Raja. 

Page 62. In this page, Muhammadan God is 
satirically depicted as tyrant. 

PART III. 

Page 29. Cursed is he who does not believe in 
the atonement of Christ. 

Page 33. It is the God of Quran only who is 
bloody-thirsty and hungry. 

Page 39. Quran is the manufactured collection 
of Toret, Injil, the Jewish, Christian, Qureshic, and 
other inauthentic stories, the rituals of ignorance 
and unreliable traditions. 

Page 54. In this page the Holy Quran is repre- 
sented as the robbed property, full of thousands of 
blunders, fabricated stories and a sentiment of a 
compound stimulant for sensuality. 

" UMMAHAT-UL-MOMININ." 

Written by Ahmad Shah, Christian, R. P. Mission 

Press, Gujranwala. 

Page 1. Absolutely given up to debauchery, and 
murder is the important element in the life of 
Muhammad of Medina. 

Page 26. Treacherous and tyrannic jealousy . . 
was reserved for himself by Muhammad. 

Page 51. This connection cannot be named any- 
thing but mere debauchery. 



6 9 

Page 63. Prayer of this amorous old female 
flocker prophet was heard. 

Page 77. He robbed God and spoke lies. 

Page 85. His fire of lust was enkindled and 
patience was failed, and he did what he did. 

Page 112. Had he possessed shame, he should 
have drowned himself in a handful of water. 

Page 115. What lies were spoken and what tricks 
were played. 

Page 121. He was a debauch and lived in 
debauchery. 

TAFTEESH-UL-ISLAM. 
By Rev. Rogers. 

Page 56. All this is Muhammad's forgery and 
fabrication. 

Page 65. He was a sensualist, envious, selfish, 
and follower of his carnal passions. The Quran is 
his fabrication. 

Page 80. It is Muhammad's forgery and barking. 

Page 97. He is shown a wicked man by all his 
deeds, the great prejudice and treachery is found in 
him. Attended by an unfaithful and selfish mind. 
He inculcated love of murder. His beginning and 
end were terminated in the extreme indulgence in 
sensuality." 



One is really led to believe that the framers of the 
above calumnies cannot have been instructed in 
the first principles of their own faith, or they could 
not spread abroad statements known to themselves 
as scholars to be false. The teachings of the 
Holy Koran received practical demonstration in the 
life of Mahomet who, whether in times of suffering 
and persecution, or in times of worldly triumph and 



;o 

prosperity, displayed the noblest moral qualities 
which a human being could possibly possess. All 
the qualities of patience and steadfastness of pur- 
pose were show r n during that thirteen years of suffer- 
ing w^hich marked the early portion of his struggles 
in Mecca. He felt all through that trying time un- 
shaken trust in God, and performed all his duties 
w r ith dignity and zeal. He was persevering and 
fearless of his enemies because he knew 7 he was 
engaged in God's service, and that God would never 
desert him. This unflinching courage, w^hich was 
certainly one of the Prophet's most distinguishing 
traits, excited the admiration and respect of the 
unbelievers and those w 7 ho would wdllingly have 
killed him. It is, however, later on in his life and 
during the prosperous days at Medina that our feel- 
ings of admiration are perhaps more deeply aroused. 
When he had the pow r er of retaliation, and could 
have had his revenge, we find that he forgave his 
enemies. 

' His forgiveness of injuries, charity, courage, 
and other such morals, were so well displayed dur- 
ing this period that large numbers of the unbelievers 
became converts to Islam on seeing them. He freely 
forgave those who had persecuted and tortured him, 
gave shelter to those w^ho had expelled him from 
Mecca, enriched the poor among them, and forgave 
his bitterest foes w r hen their lives were completely 
at his mercy. The Divine morals thus displayed by 
the Holy Prophet convinced the Arabs that their 
possessor could not but be from God, and a truly 
righteous man. Their inveterate hatred was by 
these noble morals at once converted into fast 
friendship."* 



* "The Teachings of Islam." By Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. 
Luzac & Co., London. 



All the unworthy attempts to belittle the grand 
teachings of the Holy Prophet by direct and coarse 
abuse, as well as by specious arguments involving 
much " suppressio veri " and " suggestio falsi," have 
been advanced with the deliberate intention of mis- 
leading, and those who adopt such tactics should be 
reminded that if they are baptized Christians they 
should at least copy Christ in the matter of not tell- 
ing lies, wrhich were so abominable in the eyes of 
the great teacher of Nazareth. There are several 
kinds of lies the w r hite lie, w 7 hich does not so much 
matter since it does no harm, and is often told to 
shield a neighbour's reputation or help a friend ; 
then there is the malicious lie, which directly 
damages friends or neighbours ; but, of all lies, those 
told in the name of religion are the w r orst, for they 
bear the impress of trifling with the Almighty 
than w r hich there can hardly be a greater sin. 

In continuous chain of misrepresentation it is 
sought to show^ that the Mahomedan faith was 
responsible for the misdeeds and rapacity of wild 
and wandering tribes, w r hich happened to be nomin- 
ally Mahomedan. Just as reasonable would it be to 
blame Christ for the torturing and burning alive of 
Bishops and others in this happy land of ours, not so 
very many years ago. Surely it would never be held 
that the true Christian religion ever really sanc- 
tioned the fiendish atrocities of the Inquisition or 
the innumerable cruelties practised by Christians on 
each other, as w^ell as on Jews, Muslims, and others, 
who held different religious opinions. I do not 
think it can be shown that the Muslims have ever 
endeavoured to force their view r s and religious beliefs 
dowii people's throats by means of cruelty and tor- 
ture. If there be any such cases, then we can only 
say that the perpetrators of the atrocities could not 
have been true believers, and could not point to the 



72 

Holy Koran for sanction of their deeds. Mahomet 
was a law-giver and a warrior, and when he and 
his followers took the sword it was in self-defence ; 
they were never aggressive, and the Prophet him- 
self was invariably humane and merciful to his con- 
quered foes. In order to be able to form a correct 
opinion as to a man's qualities we must have seen 
him in misfortune and in prosperity. If he has 
always been in the hands of persecutors he has had 
no chances of doing much for either friends or 
enemies it is impossible to know for certain what 
he might have done. The highest moral qualities 
cannot be proved by mere meekness and submission : 
we must also see the self-control and forgiveness of 
the man who conquers his feelings of revenge, and 
even stretches forbearance to its extreme limits. It 
is tnie that forgiveness was not always extended to 
those foes of Islam who were implacable in their 
efforts for the extirpation of the Muslim faith and 
with revolting cruelty massacred innocent Muslims. 
Mercy of that kind would but have meant an exten- 
sion of the cruelties and further loss of life. 



CHAPTER V. 
SELF-CONTROL. 

IN early days it always seemed to me a moot point 
whether it is more noble to place oneself in a posi- 
tion entirely away from and free from temptation, 
or to mix freely in situations teeming with moral 
dangers, and then exercise all the time that courage 
which is always on the alert, and that strength of 
mind which enables a man to say " No." " I recog- 
nize God's mercy, and appreciate the blessed gifts He 
has sent all of which I use in moderation, so that 
I may be able to serve Him better." 

The man who, by heroic measures, removes him- 
self entirely from temptations, such as are to be 
found with the most seductive human pleasures, 
hardly shows that steady courage which says , "I 
love Thy beautiful gifts and enjoy them all with the 
senses Thou hast supplied me with, but I love Thee 
better than them all, and in the enjoyment of Thy 
blessings I will exercise that moderation which will 
redound to Thy honour and glory." Take the case 
of the man who absolutely shuts himself off from 
temptation such as the hermit, who lives in a 
cave on diet of herbs and spring water. He has 
possibly much inward gratification, and a feeling 
that he is better than the rest of mankind ; but is he 
useful to his fellow man? The very conditions he 
has imposed upon himself make him unable to set a 
good example of moderation, since there can be no 
moderation where there is no temptation. It may 
take a lifetime of struggle against the besetting 
sins; days, weeks, months, and years of prayers to 
God for guidance and help to overcome the 

6 



74 

apparently irrepressible inclinations may be neces- 
sary, but the Almighty and Merciful never fails those 
of His children who unceasingly seek His direction 
in times of trial and also in times of prosperity. 

The strength of a man's character is chiefly 
brought out by his trials and temptations, and his 
generous and noble qualities are shown to greatest 
perfection when, in the heyday of success and power, 
he has opportunities of showing mercy and forgive- 
ness. A soft heart is not the only thing to be de- 
sired by a good citizen and soldier of God. No one 
who has not experienced the vicissitudes of life seen 
poverty and affluence, misery and happiness, weak- 
ness and strength can presume to pose as an 
example to mankind. You cannot be a true teacher 
of patience unless you have passed through a time of 
irritation, pain, or worry, necessitating the exercise 
of patience. Affliction alone will bring out the 
highest qualities in a man who has the love of God 
in his heart. To such an afflicted mortal every 
reverse of fortune, every heavy blow possibly cut- 
ting him to the heart is looked upon by him as the 
chastening of the God of Mercy. The harder the 
blow the deeper the reverence and contrition of the 
true believer, .who thus knows that his Almighty 
and Omnipotent Protector is leading him in the 
straight path. He trusts in the infinite wisdom, in- 
finite love, and infinite compassion, of his only 
guide in this world. He know T s that his Creator is 
well aware that he hates and detests the devil and 
all his miserable devices, and that knowledge alone 
is sufficient to brace his energies for any struggle, 
however severe ; because he can rely upon God's 
help in any situation which may arise. The very 
thought of the Almighty, Glorious, and Merciful 
Presence of God, Whose Holy Name should not, I 
think, be ever mentioned in the same breath with 



5 



any other name, must give to the loving believer a 
confidence beyond human understanding. 

All the Holy Prophets, at various times charged 
with messages to mankind, have faithfully carried out 
God's instructions and, of all these Divine Messen- 
gers , there is not one who can be placed in a higher 
position than the Divinely inspired Mahomet (God's 
choicest blessings on his memory). Loss of self- 
control was shown on various occasions by Moses 
and Christ, whilst the terrible shortcomings of David 
would have been utterly impossible to the great 
Prophet of Arabia, whose chivalrous nature would 
have shrunk from any mean or despicable action. 

It will be understood that forgiveness can be only 
properly realized by one who has been practically 
helpless in the hands of enemies, so that he may 
appreciate the circumstances attendant on being at 
the mercy of others. Then he must also understand 
what it is to be a conqueror, and have the power of 
wreaking his vengeance on those enemies. No one 
can claim the quality of mercy who has never had 
anyone at his mercy, and there is no character in 
history which can be so safely held up for inspection 
and illustration of this particular quality as the Holy 
Prophet Mahomet. 

From being in most humble circumstances, and 
starting life as an orphan, but with God's protect- 
ing arms ever around him, he passed through the 
different stages of life allotted to him with beautiful 
resignation to God's Will. No mean or sordid action 
ever sullied his sweet character. No act of injustice 
was ever laid to His charge. The words of a 
favourite hymn come to my mind whenever I think 
of the struggles and conquests of Mahomet : 

' Fight the good fight with all thy might, 
God is thy strength, and God thy right ; 



7 6 

Lay hold on life, and it shall be 
Thy joy and crown eternally. 

"Kun the straight race through God's good 

grace, 

Lift up thine eyes, and seek His Face ; 
Life with its way before us lies, 
God is the path and God the prize. 

" Cast care aside, lean on thy Guide ; 
His boundless mercy will provide ; 
Trust, and thy trusting soul shall prove 
God is its life, and God its love. 

" Faint not nor fear, His arms are near, 
He changeth not, and thou art dear; 
Only believe, and thou shalt see 
That God is all in all to thee," 

In " Hymns Ancient and Modern " these particu- 
larly beautiful verses occur ; but with the name of 
Christ instead of God. Wherever " Christ " occurs 
I have substituted "God," so that I appeal to rny 
own conscience successfully, and do not hurt the 
feelings of those who composed the hymn , since they 
themselves say that Christ was God. 

We may regard the Holy Prophet of Arabia as a 
real character a real personality, who at every 
step was tried and weighed, but was never found 
wanting. As a great authority has said, we jieed a 
perfect model up to our needs in several walks of 
life, and the life of the Sacred Prophet eloquently 
promises it in itself. " The life of Mahomet is just 
like a mirror before us, where different characters of 
high-mindedness, generosity, bravery, patience, 
meekness, forgiveness, and other essential con- 
stituents of humanity reflect in most brilliant 
colours. Take any phase of morality, and you are 



77 

sure to find it illustrated in some incident in his 
eventful life. Jesus meekly bore the hardest 
hour of his life, and how noble of him to 
say while at the Cross: "Father, forgive them, 
for they know not what they do." The 
Sacred Prophet had to repeat the same thing 
on many a time, thoug'h with slight change, as his 
life was full of hard trials. For full thirteen years 
he remains subject to a long series of persecution of 
variegated nature. He is tortured physically and 
mentally ; but he is always prayerful for the welfare 
of his persecutor. He once went to Taif , a place at 
some distance from Mecca, and preached against 
idolatry. The idolators drove him out of the city. 
The rabble and the slaves followed, hooting and pelt- 
ing him with stones until the evening. Wounded 
and bleeding, footsore and weary, he betook himself 
to prayer. And the following words found utterance 
in a moment of deep distress :- 

' Lord, 1 make my complaint unto Thee. 
Out of my feebleness and the vanity of my 
wishes I am insignificant in the sight of men, 
Thou Most Merciful! Lord of the weak, Thou 
art my Lord. Forsake me not. Leave me not a 
prey to strangers nor to mine enemies. If Thou 
art not offended, I am safe. I seek refuge in the 
light of Thy countennce by which all darkness 
is dispelled and peace cometh in the near and 
hereafter. Solve Thou my difficulties as it 
pleaseth Thee. There is no power, no strength, 
save in Thee. Guide them to right path, as they 
do not know what they do." 

Noble words and worthy of the noble speaker. 
Conscious of the insignificance he has been reduced 
to, and yet such splendid reliance on God. 'If 
You are not offended, I am safe." How hopeful, 



78 

not the slightest tinge of despondency, no complaint, 
no doubt as to his being forsaken by God. " Solve 
Thou my difficulties as it pleaseth Thee," is another 
beautiful expression eloquent enough to enlighten a 
narrow-minded Church missionary who ignorantly 
harps on the uniqueness of "Thy will, and not 



mine.' 



A propagandist, however, fails to see one thing. 
He finds similarity of expression and loses his 
balance of mind. He has only one silly explanation 
to suggest. With him it is a sort of plagiarism ; 
and Mahomet, being after Jesus, must be condemned 
for his literary purloining. If this is the logic 
which he advances, so much the worse for him; he 
is the loser in the long run. The Jews have been 
able to trace almost all the expressions and teachings 
of Jesus to their own literature. Besides, many 
parables narrated in the New Testament existed in 
Bhuddist literature long before the advent of Christ. 
Is the whole Gospel record a theft? It is on such 
stupid reasoning that Sale had the audacity to call 
the Quran " a manifest forgery." But the explana- 
tion is not far to seek. All these prophets came 
from one God, they drank from one Divine foun- 
tain, and learnt one and the same lesson from one 
Great Teacher the Creator of the Universe and 
hence this similarity. They speak under Divine in- 
spiration, and their w r ords sometimes convey mean- 
ings which speak of future events in their life. To 
illustrate it we need only refer to the noble words 
spoken by Jesus, and compare them with the con- 
cluding portion of the prayer by the Prophet : 

' Forgive them, for they know not what they 
do." JESUS. 

' Guide them in the right path, for they know 
not what they do." MAHOMET. 



79 

Words suiting the circumstances of the speakers 
respectively, and coming events proved their truth. 
One had no chance of gaining that power over his 
enemies in his lifetime, which could enable him to 
show his magnanimity of soul in the form of for- 
giveness. He therefore implores God to do so. The 
other had to reach that climax, He had to forgive 
them himself. It was. so within the knowledge of 
God. Besides, the w 7 ords inspired on the lips of the 
Prophet are more comprehensive. They go further 
and include forgiveness in them. Forgiveness is 
only for the things past. Guidance to righteousness 
is for the past as well as for the future, because no 
one can tread the path of righteousness with his past 
sins unforgiven. So the Holy Prophet not only 
implores for the forgiveness of past deeds, but for 
their future righteousness as well. The words were 
prophetic, and proved to be so. Mahomet came to 
his full power. His oppressors came to him and 
received such kind treatment as was unparalleled. 
This led to their conversion and purity of life." 

As an example of the chivalrous and open-hearted 
conduct towards the unfortunate, or those enemies 
who fell into his hands, I must quote a short story 
which appeared in a recent number of the ' ' Islamic 
Eeview " relative to Mahomet's treatment of a cap- 
tive Christian lady who appeared, amongst other 
prisoners of war, before the Lord of Arabia. From 
this account we learn that his amazingly untiring 
zeal to stamp out idolatry from his country roused 
terrible opposition against the founder of Islam. No 
Arab tribe was without its idol , and to vindicate and 
protect the honour of their image-god every clan rose 
in war. This occurred when the Prophet was at 
Medina. In fact he had to pass here harder days 
than those at Mecca. Invaded on all sides by his 
enemies, he had everv now and then to take the 



8o 

field, or to send men to meet aggression. Sometimes 
victorious, sometimes defeated, every incident 
created an appropriate occasion for the noble Prophet 
to manifest different phases of his grand character. 
One has simply to digest and codify them and the 
world will find in them laws and rules of war more 
humane and appropriate than could ever be imagined 
by the promoters of the Hague Conference. Never 
a sword was drawn but as a last resort to defend 
human life. Islam may be slandered for the use of 
the sword in propagating religion , but even its most 
hostile critics have absolutely failed to lay their 
finger even on one instance where war resulted in 
individual or tribal conversion to Islam. These 
battles no doubt, in one way, proved useful in this 
direction. They caused the revelation of that 
nobility of character in Mahomet which won the 
hearts of his countrymen, and was more effectual 
in proselytization than any form of compul- 
sion. That noble treatment w T hich the defeated re- 
ceived at the hands of the Prophet worked wonders. 
Never a suppliant came but he got more than he 
deserved or desired. The following incident occurred 
after the defeat of the clan of Tay, which went a 
long w T ay to bring the whole tribe to Islam within a 
short time. Among the prisoners who came before 
the Prophet was a band of respectable Christian 
women, led by the daughter of a widely-famed 
Christian philanthropist , whose generosity even now 
is proverbial in the East, and who is known 
as Hatim, the generous. When the Lord of the 
Faithful came to know of her lineage, he showed her 
every respect. He addressed her courteously, and 
informed her that the generosity of her father called 
for the tender treatment of his daughter. " God 
loves those that are kind to His creatures." Islam, 
said the Prophet, aims at inculcating the higher 



8i 

virtues, and consequently it must recognize them 
wherever they exist. A world of joy and ecstasy 
dawned upon the lady when thus addressed cour- 
teously. She found the conqueror free from arro- 
gance, extremely kind and affable, w T ho immediately 
ordered her release. Emboldened by the saintly 
appearance and kind treatment of her liberator, her 
self-sacrificing spirit came to the rescue of her fellow- 
prisoners ; she refused to accept the favour if the 
women of her community, with whom she had 
shared captivity, should continue to be State pri- 
soners. The daughter was worthy her noble descent 
from Hatim, and her self-abnegation could not go 
unrewarded, especially at the hand of Mahomet, 
who always proved more than a match for the noble- 
ness shown by others. She felt transported with 
joy, and invoked a long prayer upon the head of her 
noble deliverer, who, at her intercession, liberated 
all her companions. The whole company was given 
leave very soon, and they were despatched to their 
town under a trustworthy escort. 

The lady, who went by the name of Safana, sent 
for her fugitive brother Uddi, and related the whole 
story to him and advised him to visit her benefactor, 
the Prophet. Uddi came to see Mahomet, and found 
him more than a worldly prince. He studied Islam, 
and found it a science of theology to all appearance. 
In it he found a succinct treatment of all spiritual 
problems which used to trouble him before. The 
book of Islam provided him with a host of illustra- 
tions for inductions and deductions, and furnished 
everything that had any bearing on the edification 
of the soul. He embraced Islam after some months, 
and with him his clan. 

Many such events enrich the life of the Prophet. 
He never tried to exercise his power to convert his 
prisoners, for he followed his instructions, "Let 
there be no compulsion (no violence) in Religion." 



CHAPTER VI. 
FEAE. 

You may run up and down the gamut of human fail- 
ings and find no single attribute which is responsible 
for so much sorrow and disaster. It would seem 
that in true Eeligion there is absolute necessity for 
fearlessness. Do not fear Man, or the Devil. All 
you have to fear is doing what you know God does 
not like. It seems to me, as a plain man and careful 
observer, that nearly all the so-called Christian 
religion is built up on the foundation of a purely 
imaginary idea that there is a very hot place waiting 
for you if you don't look at things in a particular 
way i.e., through the spectacles of those who have 
from time to time, and for motives best known to 
themselves, laid down certain laws as to rewards and 
punishments. If you do so-and-so, believe in me and 
my interpretations of Divine wishes, you will go to 
heaven ; but, if not, if you dare to think for yourself, 
you will fall into the hands of an angry God who 
will subject you to everlasting damnation. What 
a dreadful creed. God Almighty is thus credited 
with the failings of an insatiable monster ready to 
burn in hell-fire the creatures made in His image 
simply because they don't or cannot follow the dog- 
matic teachings of certain sects of the so-called 
Christian Church? I say "so-called' advisedly, 
because I do not consider that the Christianity of our 
dear Lord Jesus Christ is at all represented by the 
Church of Rome or the Protestant Church. Hun- 
dreds of years after Christ the dogmas and sacer- 



83 

dotal practices became flaringly prominent, and then 
the Great Prophet of Arabia was given his mission 
against idolatry. His mission had wonderful re- 
sults, and the Mahomedan faith in its simplicity 
and goodness spread from Persia to the Atlantic 
Ocean. Then some centuries later Martin Luther 
appeared, and endeavoured to sweep away the idola- 
tries for they are nothing less of the then so- 
called Christian Church. He partially succeeded in 
his mission, and the Eeformed Church no doubt was 
a great advance on the Romish Church ; but it did 
not go far enough, and to-day we find that, though 
the Prophet Mahomet from the South and Martin 
Luther from the North made such strenuous efforts 
to do away with Sacerdotalism, the evils remained, 
and they remain to this very day. 

I trust I may be excused for bringing in the fol- 
lowing lines, because they seem rather frivolous 
when we are on such an intensely serious subject, 
but perhaps they explain the situation fairly well. 
A certain man was walking along a street when he 
met a gentleman attired in black with a white cleri- 
cal collar and tie. He said to the clerical one, " Oh, 
can you tell me something about religion? ' " Oh 
yes, my friend, I can; verily you can only rightly 
believe in the truth of Hokey Pokey Whisky Bung. 
If you really believe this you wdll be saved." The 
inquirer after truth thanked his informant and said, 
' I don't feel quite sure about it ; it's good of you 
to tell me. I will think it over." He then walked 
on, and further down the street met another gentle- 
man attired in similar garments, and put the ques- 
tion to him, also mentioning the fact that he had 
heard that " Hokey Pokey Whisky Bung " was cer- 
tain to lead to the better land. The cleric number 
two held up his hands in horror and amazement, 
and said, " Oh, my poor friend, you are being led 



8 4 

in the path which leadeth to destruction if you follow 
H.P.W.B. ; it is altogether wrong, and probably, 
instigated by the Evil One : there is but one really 
safe path which you may tread to heaven, and that 
is Hikey Pikey Sikey Krikey. In this there is cer- 
tain salvation. I will tell you all about it if you will 
give me a good living, a comfortable income, and a 
bit of land on which to build a church. But, my 
dear Christian friend, if you don't believe in 
H.P.S.K., you will infallibly be burnt for ever in 
hell fire." The anxious one walked a little further 
on and met yet another man attired like the others 
in decent black with tie and collar, and asked him 
about the correct thing in beliefs ; but this one gave 
him such a pitiful account of sitting on clouds with 
harps and unpleasant companions that he said, in 
desperation, " Well, religious experts differ so much 
that, as a layman, I am utterly bewildered and know 
not what to believe." Now, though this may seem 
flippant, it is not really so, for I want to 
show that the religion which depends upon the 
devices and imaginings of man is a poor thing 
and not worth cultivating. What is a religion based 
on fear of punishment worth? Absolutely nothing. 
What a debasing thought it is to imagine that the God 
of Mercy is for ever looking out for a chance of 
punishing us. The love of God, the recognition of 
His infinite goodness and the fear of ever doing any- 
thing wrong or deceitful or mean ought to be 
enough. What do I care about hell fire or any 
other fire if God is with me? 

Whilst on the subject of "Fear," I must not omit 
to reprint a curious letter I received from a gentle- 
man whose ideas concerning the future must keep 
him in a continual state of terror it will be 
observed that he calls me a "guilty sinner," and 
the question of how a "sinner" can be anything 



but "guilty," or how a guilty person can be any- 
thing but a sinner, must be left for those ingenious 
persons who make a study of the solution of enigmas 
of the obviously simple class. There is a strong 
comic vein in my nature, and it is so strong at 
times that it leads to my annoying, whilst harm- 
lessly amusing, my friends; and, in the spirit of 
comedy, I cannot resist the temptation of publish- 
ing the following letter from a gentleman I do not 
know, but who appears to know me. 

"December 6, 1913. 
" To the Et. Hon. Baron Headley. 

" My Lord, I trust your lordship will par- 
don my writing to you, but seeing your name 
in the paper as one who has become a convert 
to Islamism, I have prayed about it, and feel 
compelled to draw your attention to the main 
fact of religion, and it is this : You and I and 
everyone are sinners God is Holy. Now, how 
can you, a guilty sinner, be happy and at home 
with a Holy God ? 

' Until this question is answered I do not see 
any reason or sense in entering into any other 
question other questions only divert the mind 
from the main issue. 

' If I can in any way help you to answ T er 
this question, so that you will know how you 
can be happy and at home with a Holy God, 
I shall only be too pleased. With many 
prayers, yours very sincerely, 

ARTHUR EGBERTS, M.D. 

'P.S. Kindly read through the Gospel of 
John at one sitting as you would any other 
book. Do this twelve times." 



86 

To this remarkable letter I sent the following 
reply : 

December 20, 1913. 

1 'Dear Sir, I have only just received your 
letter of the 6th inst., which was sent to the 
wrong address. 

" With regard to ' guilty sinners,' I must ask 
you to speak for yourself if you are one such 
unfortunate, and associate with others like 
yourself, pray allow me to inform you that I 
am not particularly guilty, and I don't like be- 
ing with ' guilty sinners ' at any time I avoid 
them carefully. 

"My faith in my dear and merciful Creator 
is so boundless that I hardly like to speak of it ; 
but I can assure you that I never take any step 
or perform the smallest duty of life without 
looking to God for aid and guidance. God is 
ever -with me Allah-o-Akbar and He knows 
that I try hard to do my duty to Him and to 
all my fellow-creatures. 

' I was not ' born in sin ' ; I am not a ' child 
of wrath,' and my father and mother did no sin 
in bringing me into the world. 

' I have often read all the Gospels, but can- 
not now promise even to please you to read 
the Gospel of St. John twelve times at one 
sitting, as I am a busy man. Faithfully yours, 

"HEADLBY." 
' To Arthur Eoberts, Esq., M.D." 

If Mr. Arthur Eoberts only knew how happy I 
feel since I have shaken off even the last pretence 
of idolatry and superstition he would himself long 
to embrace Islam and understand the happiness and 
blessedness of being at one with God. 



87 

I trust I am not transgressing any rules of pro- 
priety in reproducing these letters, which were, I 
take it, never intended to be private. Two more 
letters passed between us, and the correspondence 
then ceased. It is, of course, impossible to argue 
with a man unless there is a distinct understanding 
as to the premises and, since the fundamental ideas 
held by the gentleman whose letter appears above 
are quite different to my own , nothing could come of 
a continuance of the discussion between us. 

I believe that human beings are born sinless, but 
that, as time goes on, they are more or less led 
astray by their surroundings, and fall into all kinds 
of error and sin, from which nothing but the love 
of God can save them. 

Whenever the almighty power of God and His 
love for mankind have been truly revealed to a man 
his love for doing right comes before all other de- 
sires. Such a man will not be able to at once 
subdue all his failings and sins, but the taste for 
that which is perfect will gradually awake in him 
a dislike of all that is wrong and contrary to God's 
wishes. Throughout the whole of life the battle 
must go on, and even when Satan seems to prevail 
for a short season \ve must not be downhearted but 
still look to God for assistance. As time goes on the 
onslaughts of the Evil One become less effective till, 
in the end, they will be more easily resisted, but it 
will not do to neglect our prayers for guidance and 
strength from on High. 



CHAPTER VII. 
LAW AND OEDEE. 

IT is not so well known as it should be that the 
Muslim subjects of His Majesty are the most loyal 
-supporters of the Crown and Constitution. The 
chief reason for this is that we are forbidden by 
the Koran to take part in any rebellious or seditious 
movements, and I think I cannot do better than 
quote in extenso a very able lecture delivered by 
Khwaja Kamalud Din, in Lahore, about two years 
ago. The Khwaja's text was : 

" MUSLIM ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE 
POWERS THAT BE." 

Having discussed the uses of, and the principles 
underlying, the various Islamic institutions, the lec- 
turer drew the attention of the audience to the Friday 
prayer and the sermon delivered on the occasion. He 
declared the Friday prayer and sermon to be so im- 
portant an institution that if its significance was 
fully realised by a Muslim, and if the great lesson 
which it embodied was taken to heart by him, he 
would not only become a good citizen but also a 
most devoted subject of the government under which 
he was placed. The lecturer said 

Though the real significance of the Friday service 
is gradually being lost sight of, yet it is gratifying to 
note that our Mania wies have not forgotten the verse 
w r hich the Holy Prophet (may peace and the bless- 
ings of God be upon him) made a point of reciting 
every Friday in his sermon from the pulpit and 



8 9 

which is consequently recited to this day. The verse 
runs thus 




u 

"Verily God enjoineth justice, the doing of good, 
and the giving unto kindred ; and He forbiddeth 
immorality, wrong, and revolt." (xvi., 92.) 

In this verse the believers are commanded to do 
three things and to abstain from three things. They 
are bidden, firstly, to deal by one another 
with justice ; secondly, to show active kindness to 
others, and, thirdly, to love others as one loves those 
that are united to him by the close ties of blood. 
Corresponding to these three deeds of virtue, there 
are three acts from which he is bidden to refrain. 
He is to shun all obscene and immoral deeds ; he is 
not to infringe the rights of others or wrong them 
in any way. As in our dealings with one another, 
the best act is the bestowment of gifts upon our 
kindred, similarly the greatest evil which upsets the 
whole order of society is rising against the govern- 
ment of the country. 

My educated friends, both Muslims and non- 
Muslims, you must have read many books on ethics 
and civilization, and many learned and elaborate dis- 
quisitions on sociology. You will have also known 



90 

learned scholars discussing the ways by following 
which men can live in peace with one another. But 
I can assert with the surest certainty that you will 
not find any parallel to the concise and comprehen- 
sive way in which the Holy Quran has dealt with 
this question in a single short verse. And one can- 
not but admire the choice of this verse by the Holy 
Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon 
him) for recital during Friday service, so that it is 
now held as an indispensable part of the sermon that 
is delivered every Friday from the pulpit. If the 
whole world act upon this single verse, all troubles, 
immoralities and crimes will at once disappear. Con- 
sult the criminal and penal code of any country and 
you w T ill find that all the laws therein are classifiable 
under three heads. Firstly, there are the laws re- 
lating to morals that pertain to an individual per- 
sonally. The object of these laws is to check in- 
dividuals from committing such evil deeds as affect 
their own persons. Next come the laws which pro- 
tect the rights of the members of a society in their 
relation to one another. These rights pertain to 
person, life and property. But these laws can never 
be enforced unless there are other laws to protect 
the rights and honour of the enforcers of those laws, 
i.e., laws safeguarding the authority and prestige of 
the government of the day. You will find by refer- 
ence to the second part of the above verse that it 
deals with the very three matters to which the afore- 
said laws refer. The Holy Quran says, "He for- 
biddeth immorality, wrong, and revolt." The first 
thing forbidden is 




which signifies such evil deeds as pertain to the per- 
sonal morals of a man. The next thing forbidden is 



i.e., such acts as involve a wrong to our fellow 7 crea- 
tures. Lastly we are commanded not to resist the 
laws of the government which have been framed to 
protect the rights of the subject people. The word 



is a comprehensive term which not only includes the 
sense of the word sedition, but also applies to all 
those acts which are calculated to threaten the 
stability of a government established by law in a 
country. 

One of the methods followed by the Holy Quran 
is that, when it inculcates good deeds, it begins with 
lowest virtues and then it proceeds to inculcate higher 
and higher virtues by degrees. It follows the same 
course in forbidding evil deeds. Tt takes the lesser 
evils first and the greater evils afterwards. Thus an 
evil that is put last must be held as the greatest evil. 
It is this order that has been followed in the verse 
in question. The Holy Quran first mentions that 
evil the effect of which is limited to the doer him- 
self. Then it forbids the evil which affects other 
individuals of a society. Lastly comes the evil which 
upsets the peace and order of the whole country. 
This is the evil of rising in revolt against the govern- 
ment of the country. 

Such is the significance of the verse which is re- 
garded as an indispensable part of the service held 
every Friday. Can yon name any other book, re- 



92 

ligion or society which has established an institution 
that aims at enjoining upon its followers or members 
the necessity of not only being personally moral but 
also respecting the rights of others and of yielding 
implicit obedience to the laws of the government of 
the country ? Such an institution is found in Islam 
and in no other religion or society. A community 
the members of which are exhorted every seventh 
day to abstain from disobedience to the laws of the 
government, and to which sedition and dis- 
obedience to the government are represented 
as the greatest evil , does not stand in need 
of any popular leader to exhort it to be loyal and 
obedient to its rulers and to avoid the paths 
of sedition and disobedience. No lectures need be 
delivered and no mass meetings need be held to 
enumerate before its members the benefits of the 
government. Such a community may well dispense 
with the services of distinguished personages to dis- 
abuse their minds of seditious ideas. 

While the latter half of the said verse forbids evils 
which are calculated to disturb the peace of a society, 
the former half inculcates virtues the observance of 
which will make a society much better than even the 
ideal society depicted in More's Utopia. The Holy 
Quran says, " Verily God enjoineth justice, the 
doing of good, and the giving unto the kindred. " 
Here we are first of all required to be at least just, 
i.e., we must give every man at least his due and 
must return the kindness which others do to us. 
Justice requires us to faithfully repay our obligations 
to others. It must, however, be remembered that 
mere justice, which requires us to give to others just 
their due , cannot be classed with morals of the highest 
type. It, on the other hand, stands lowest in the 
scale of human morals. It is certainly inferior to 
ihsan or beneficence. The former requires us only 



93 

to return good for good while the latter includes all 
those acts of kindness which are performed gratui- 
tously. A beneficent being does good to others not 
to repay any good done to him ; he does so spon- 
taneously. But though the kindness done by a bene- 
factor is gratuitous, yet he naturally expects from the 
recipient of his favours at least a moral reward in the 
form of gratitude. He wishes the person whom he 
has done a good turn to feel thankful to him. He is 
liable to be displeased if the other party prove to be 
wanting in gratitude. Nay, he is even apt to remind 
him of his good offices. If a benefactor yields to such 
weakness, it does not matter much. But it is not 
praiseworthy, either. If in the case of justice we 
reciprocate the kindness of others, in the case of 
Ihsan (beneficence) also we wish for a reward though 
that reward be in the form of gratitude. But the 
Holy Quran requires us to rise above this. It wants 
us to banish from our minds all desire for reward or 
gratitude. It bids us to do good to others even if 
we have received no benefit from them, and even 
when there is no hope of our ever being benefited 
by them in the future. We are required to render 
a good turn even to one whom we know to be lack- 
ing in gratitude. We should show kindness to others 
for kindness 's own sake without expecting any re- 
ward or gratitude. And it is not impossible to do so. 
Do not the parents show such kindness to children ? 
Do not good men render truly magnanimous service 
to their parents and other members of their families ? 
It is for this reason that the Holy Quran describes 
this highest form of kindness as " the giving unto the 
kindred." It bids us not only to be just and benefi- 
cent to others but also to love others as one loves 
one's kinsmen. 

^ It should also be borne in mind that in the exer- 
cise of these noble virtues we are strictly prohibited 



94 

from making any distinction of creed or colour. The 
least of the virtues inculcated in the said verse is 
justice, and what God says of the lowest form of 
virtue is, according to the usage of the Holy 
Quran, more true of the higher forms. In 
connection with justice God says, " Let not ill-will 
against any people induce you to act unjustly ; act 
justly, next will this be to the fear of God. And fear 
ye God; verily God is apprised of what ye do." (v. 
11.) Here the Muslims are enjoined to deal justly 
even by those people that are inimical to them. No 
amount of enmity and discord is to bar us from deal- 
ing out justice to other people. 

In short, the three stages of virtue described in the 
verse in question are not restricted by any limita- 
tions, and the Muslims are required to practise them 
in their dealings with all people,. irrespective of caste 
or creed. We are called upon to follow T the injunc- 
tions embodied in the verse under discussion in our 
dealings with every man that comes in contact with 
us, be he a Muslim or a non-Muslim, a subordinate 
or an officer, a ruler or a subject. We owe certain 
duties to our rulers just as they owe certain duties to 
us, and we are bound to observe justice in discharg- 
ing our duties to them. If the rulers fulfil their duty 
to the subject people, justice demands that the latter 
also should acquit themselves of their obligations to 
them. We cannot individually protect our lives and 
property, and therefore it is necessary that 
there should be an organization for the accom- 
plishment of this object. Such an organization is 
called government, and the duty that the government 
ow^es to us is that it should frame and enforce proper 
laws for the protection of our property, our lives and 
our honour. Our duty to the government is that we 
should respect the laws so framed and pay the 
expenses which the government has to incur in the 



95 

discharge of its duties. The money so paid is called 
zakat, jizya, or tax. If we respect the laws of the 
government and pay the legal taxes, we are not lay- 
ing the government under any obligation. The gov- 
ernment made laws for us and protected our lives, 
property and honour. Thus it did us a good. We 
return this good by respecting the laws and paying 
the taxes, and, in doing so, we only obey the com- 
mandment, " Verily God enjoins justice." But have 
we done all that we were required to do ? The Holy 
Quran requires us not to stop here, but to do more 
than this. We should also practise Ihsan (benefi- 
cence) in our relations with the government. The 
mere paying of taxes or the observance of the laws is 
not the highest virtue. We should share the burden 
of our government, fly to its assistance when it is 
confronted by difficulties, create facilities for it, chas- 
tise its enemies, and volunteer our services when it 
has to undertake great expeditions. If we do this, 
we are practising Ihsan (beneficence) in relation to 
the government, for these are things that lie not on 
our heads as compulsory duties. 

As for the British Government, I shall be guilty of 
injustice if I do not point out here that while in the 
case of an average government, the services of the 
type mentioned above are not obligatory on the sub- 
ject people, the British Government can justly claim 
them as of right, for it is not satisfied with the bare 
performance of its duty to its subject races, but has 
laid them under a deep obligation by bestowing upon 
them numerous favours which they could not claim 
as their due. If you want to realize what the 
British Government has done for the people of India , 
just compare the condition of this country and the 
development of its resources under the British rule 
with its condition in the time of our former rulers. 
How its lands have been turned into fruitful fields 



9 6 

under the present administration. Think of the 
great facilities and the numerous means of comfort 
which the Government has provided for us. Con- 
sider education alone. How great facilities has it 
given the Indians to get themselves educated. The 
Government has been kind to us, and something 
must be done in return for this kindness. Our Holy 
Prophet (upon whom be peace and the blessings of 
God) said 




" The reward of kindness is naught but kindness." 

I have already said that the requirements of justice 
in relation to a government are that the subject 
people should respect its laws and pay the legal taxes. 
But our beneficence in relation to a government 
would be to take such steps as are conducive to its 
stability, to assist in the realization of its aims, to 
help it out of difficulties, and to stand by it in times 
of danger. Though as far as mere justice is con- 
cerned , we are not bound to provide all that a govern- 
ment may need ; yet in order to be Muhsin (benefi- 
cent) as the Holy Quran bids us to be, we must of our 
own accord supply all its needs. There is no denying 
the fact that under the present rule the Muslim com- 
munity has produced men who have acted benefi- 
cently towards the British Government. But as I 
pointed out before, beneficence, though higher than 
justice, is attended with a weakness, for the man 
who does another person some good naturally desires 
for gratitude from the beneficiary. Hence it is not at 
all surprising, nor very objectionable, if those who 
render the State some service should wish for a 
recognition of their service by the Government. It 



97 

is but natural for them to do so. The gratitude of 
the Government finds its expression in various forms. 
Titles, honours, estates, membership of councils, etc. ? 
are the various tokens by which the Government 
shows its recognition of the services rendered by its 
loyal and devoted subjects. I do not find fault with 
this, for a person naturally desires that his exertions 
in a good cause should meet with recognition. This 
desire also serves as a stimulus for the performance 
of many a noble and worthy deed. But the Holy 
Quran requires us to rise higher than this. We are 
not only to practise adl (justice) and Ihsan (benefi- 
cence) but also Ita-i-zil Qurba, i.e., showing that 
pure form of kindness which one shows to one's 
kinsmen. This is the highest form of good which is 
done without wishing for or expecting any kind of 
reward or recognition. When a mother, for instance, 
lavishes her tender care on her child, she does not do 
so out of any desire for reward or recognition. Hers 
is a natural love which flows out spontaneously. We 
will be practising this highest and most unselfish 
form of virtue in relation to the Government if we 
render it services even without its knowledge and 
without looking for any reward from it. Hence in 
order to be a Muslim in the truest sense of the word, 
we should render service to the Government even 
when it does not know it, and should banish from 
our minds all desire for requital, recognition or grati- 
tude. Our only consideration in serving the Govern- 
ment should be that as God has, out of His wisdom, 
placed us under it, and has entrusted to its care our 
properties, our lives and our honour, therefore it 
behoves us to take such measures as conduce to its 
stability and welfare, without caring to let the Gov- 
ernment know of them and without cherishing any 
desire for reward or recognition. This is the highest 
moral as far as our treatment of our fellow beings is 



9 8 

concerned, and it is not impossible to come up to 
this high ideal. If it had been impossible to prac- 
tise this virtue, it would not have been enjoined in 
the Holy Quran, which unlike other books gives only 
such directions as are practicable. I know of many 
illustrious personages whose behaviour towards the 
British Government has been marked not merely by 
adl (justice) and ihsan (beneficence) but also by the 
higher moral which the Holy Quran describes as 



i.e., that form of kindness which one shows 
to one's kinsmen. The most conspicuous example 
among them was the late Mirza Ghulam Ahmad 
the Promised Messiah. He, not in the troubled 
days of 1907, when many were loud in their 
expressions of loyalty, but so far back as the year 
1882, perceived through his superhuman discern- 
ment, that certain people of this country had 
seditious tendencies which manifested themselves in 
a visible form in the last few years. From that time 
to the last moments of his life he continued to enjoin 
upon his co-religionists sincere loyalty to the British 
Crown and to urge them to abstain from all seditious 
ideas and practices. He published a very large num- 
ber of books and pamphlets during this period, and 
in most, if not all, of his writings he laid great em- 
phasis on this point. These repeated and emphatic 
injunctions of his were regarded by some as mis- 
timed vigilance, and were ascribed by others to 
flattery, until at last, in the year 1905, there came 
into existence a state of things which opened the 
eyes of all Muslims, and then they all did those very 
things which they had hitherto been holding as flat- 



99 

tery. Some of them went so far as to do even such 
things as are not permitted by the law of Islam. For 
instance, at the death of King Edward VII., it was 
proposed to hold the service of Janaza, w^hich is 
allowed only for the Muslims. Whatever our sacred 
leader, the late Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, did in the 
interests of the British Government, he did not do 
out of any desire for reward. He asked for no titles 
from the Government. He sought no honour from 
it. He never went to any high official to make a 
display of the good services he was rendering to the 
Government, nor did he ever send any emissary to 
do that work for him. If he ever spoke of the ser- 
vice he had rendered to the Government, it was only 
in self-defence, i.e., to refute the charges w 7 hich 
were sometimes brought against him by his malicious 
opponents. He wrote some books in Arabic and 
Persian in wiiich he dwelt -upon the blessings of the 
British rule and declared Jehad against the British 
nation to be illegal. These books w r ere sent by him 
to Egypt, Turkey, Persia, and even Afghanistan. 
The service which he thus rendered to the British 
Government was of the class designated by the Holy 
Quran as 




i.e., that kind of good which one does to one's kins- 
men. This was a service which the Government 
never even dreamed of. 

The example of the revered founder of the Ahma- 
diyya movement makes it abundantly clear that it is 
quite possible for one to practise in relation to the 
Government that kind of goodness which the Holy 
Quran styles as kindness which one shows to one's 



IOO 

kindred. The Holy Quran bids us to do good to 
others without looking for any return from 
the party benefited. But we have fallen so 
short of the high ideal set before us in the 
above and other verses of the Holy Quran 
that we are always seeking for opportunities to bring 
our services to the notice of the Government. How- 
ever insignificant our service may be, we do not hesi- 
tate to represent it as a splendid piece of public ser- 
vice. We are so fond of display, that even when 
there is no real occasion for obliging the Govern- 
ment, we create fictitious ones. We have taken for 
granted that the Government is afraid of agitation 
and political unrest. Hence even if there is no real 
unrest or disaffection , when w r e bethink ourselves of 
laying the Government under an obligation, or have 
some private purpose to fulfil, all that we have to do 
is to go to a high official with the alarming report 
that a riot is about to occur in the city, or that a 
section of our community cherishes seditious ideas, 
that such and such association of ours has relations 
with a foreign Muslim ruler, say the Amir of Kabul, 
that the students of such and such college of ours 
advocate the policy of the Indian National Congress 
or that certain influential members of our community 
and these are men against whom we cherish a per- 
sonal grudge are intriguing with the members of 
a non-Muslim community who have unfortunately 
come under the suspicion of the Government on 
account of their seditious or revolutionary tenden- 
cies. Our object in making these fictitious reports is 
no other than to alarm the Government, and when 
we find that our trick has been successful, the next 
thing that we have to do is to take upon ourselves 
the responsibility of averting the imaginary danger. 
A few days after we inform the Government that the 
mischief has been nipped in the bud and that now 



101 

our community has returned to the original state. 
Generally we follow this course with two objects in 
view. Firstly we seek the ruin of our enemy whom 
we falsely accuse of being hostile to the Government, 
and secondly we try to pave our way for greater 
honours by laying the Government under an obliga- 
tion. By so doing we are guilty not only of decep- 
tion and falsehood, but also of a much graver offence, 
of which w r e are perhaps unconscious. We play the 
traitor to our community. We betray an innocent 
and loyal community whose loyalty is not based on 
worldly motives, but has its fountain-head in the 
teachings of its sacred book and in the precepts of 
its Holy Prophet. We try to gain our selfish ends 
at the sacrifice of our community. 

Friends, is it an imaginary tale that I am telling 
you, or is it based on facts? I wish it were all 
imaginary. God alone knows the secrets of 
the hearts, and to Him alone are known all hidden 
things. But if the information which I have been 
receiving from very reliable sources, since 1907, is 
correct, then it is clear that certain members of our 
community have often been acting the traitor. 

Call to your mind the time of 1907. That year I 
happened to go once to the railway station at mid- 
night. To my surprise I found the platform crowded 
with families of European gentlemen. They were 
walking up and down the platform, and it so 
appeared that they were waiting for some ill news 
and were ready to take train and go to a place of 
safety as soon as the news was received. You will 
remember the sight witnessed at Lahore on the day 
when Lala Lajpat Eai was deported. You remember 
the arrival of artillery and the parade of troops in 
the city, which showed that the Government feared 
a rising in the city or in the mofussil, and that it 
was taking precautionary steps to prevent it. 



102 

I often said to myself those clays, that even if it 
were that our Hindu brethren had become disloyal 
to the Government, though such a supposition was 
not consistent with facts, seeing that those who in- 
cited the audience in the Bharat Mata could be 
counted by tens, and those who were influenced by 
such harangues were not more than a few hundreds, 
while there must have been thousands of Hindus 
who had no sympathy with the malcontents ; but- 
even if it were conceded that the greater portion of 
Hindu community had turned against the Govern- 
ment, there w r as little ground for apprehension, when 
there was the loyal Muslim community to stand by 
their rulers in the time of danger. It was then 
quite inexplicable to me why European head clerks 
and other English gentlemen working in the Govern- 
ment offices kept revolvers in their desks and in- 
quired of Muslims w r hether they would keep aloof 
from the Hindus, if the latter rose against their 
European rulers. These are true facts. All this led 
one to suspect that both the Hindus and the Muslims 
were leagued against the Government. I thought 
much, but in 1907 I could not see any ground for 
such apprehensions. It might be because I have no 
great aptitude for politics. But if what I heard 
afterwards is correct, I hold that all these apprehen- 
sions and precautions were just and proper. I am 
told that certain gentlemen w r ho have made it their 
business to curry favour with the Government re- 
ported to the authorities that the Muslim community 
also had fallen a prey to the w 7 iles of the Hindus, and 
that both the communities were about to raise a 
standard of revolt against the Government. It was 
also hinted by the worthy informers that it was their 
prestige and influence which was holding back the 
Muslims from making a common cause with the 
Hindus, and that if their influence were withdrawn 



103 

their co-religionists would at once go over to their 
non-Muslim neighbours and would bring about a 
state of things which would endanger the very lives 
of the Anglo-Indians and their families. If whole 
familes of European gentlemen therefore hovered 
about the railway station at midnight to flee to a 
place of safety, it was a wise precaution under the 
circumstances, and if the threatened junction of 
Muslims with non-Muslims did not come to pass, this 
fortunate circumstance was perhaps ascribed to the 
influence exerted by the gentlemen who acted as 
informers. 

Ye thousands of men that are now assembled in 
this meeting and that are the residents of this great 
city ! T ask you w r hether any seditious spirit was to 
be found in you in 1907, and whether you were so 
disloyal and mean as to plot against the authorities? 
Had you forgotten the teachings of the Holy Quran 
with regard to obedience and loyalty? Had the verse 
recited to you from pulpit every Friday faded from 
your memory? If you were unable to practise the 
two higher forms of virtue in relation to the Govern- 
ment, viz., Ihsan (beneficence) and Ita-i-Zil Qurba 
(showing the kindness w r hich one does to one's kin- 
dred), could you not discharge even those duties to 
the Government which justice demanded? If you 
had become destitute of all virtue were you not at 
least warned against disloyalty, every Friday? You 
are Muslims, and no Muslim can be guilty of 
treachery. You. are a believer, and no believer can 
wish his rulers ill. You are the followers of the Holy 
Quran, and the Holy Quran enjoins obedience to 
authority upon its followers. God the Omniscient 
knows that my heart was wrung with anguish when 
T heard that the Muslim community was maliciously 
represented to the Government as harbouring 
seditious ideas. T heartilv wish that all that I had 



104 

heard (from trustworthy sources) should turn out to 
be untrue and unfounded. But if what I had heard 
is true, then it was certainly a very evil course which 
our friends adopted in order to creep into the good 
graces of the authorities or to bring about the ruin 
of their enemies. It was not betraying but killing 
the Muslim community. Now, if the authorities 
should discontinue the favours which they formerly 
bestowed on us on account of our being a backward 
community, and ask us to help ourselves as best we 
can, they will be quite justified in doing so, for we 
have been represented to them as a mean and 
despicable people that ill deserve any favour. 

God knows better how far the report says the 
truth. But if alarming reports concerning the threa- 
tened alliance of the Hindus and the Muslims 
were really made to the high officials, and if the 
reporters actually volunteered to exert their influence 
to avert the alleged danger, and then won the favour 
of the Government for nipping in the bud a con- 
spiracy that had no real existence, the facts must be 
well known to the authorities. Hence I deem it my 
bounden duty to respectfully inform them that if such 
reports were ever made they were false and slan- 
derous. I believe that a person who is disobedient 
to the authorities is not a Muslim. Millions of Mus- 
salmans were totally unaware of the doings of the 
year 1907. They never even dreamt of all that is 
said to have been imputed to them. It is easy to test 
the truth of my statement, and in this way. There 
is hardly any part of India which has been free from 
political agitation and intrigue during the past few 
years. Anarchism manifested itself in various forms. 
And all these parts had a large number of Mahome- 
dans. East Bengal, some parts of which have been 
the centres of political agitation, has more Mahome- 
dans than Hindus. The number of the Mussal- 



mans living in the various parts of India is not so 
small as to be subject to the influence of this in- 
dividual or that. They number 70 millions, of whom 
six millions and a half, I may say, do not know even 
the names of the personages who thus claim to be 
exerting their influence with the Muslin com- 
munity. Why is it, then, that never a Muslim was 
involved in any of the intrigues, riots, dacoities, 
thefts and outrages, that have been the order of the 
day during the past few years in every part of India? 
If "this was due to the influence of certain self-styled 
leaders, why is it that the influence of the Hindu 
leaders did not produce the same effect on their Hindu 
community? Are there no leaders among the 
Hindus, or have all of them become hostile to Gov- 
ernment? There must be thousands of distinguished 
personages in the Hindu community that regard the 
doings of their misguided brethren with horror, and 
must be exerting their influence with members 
of their community. HOW T was it, then, that the 
Mussalmans of India have taken no part in any of 
the proceedings against the British Government, 
and the only persons responsible for them w r as, un- 
fortunately, their non-Muslim brethren? Such has, 
unfortunately, been the case, but in my opinion, 
just as most of the respectable leaders of the Hindu 
community cannot be blamed for the misconduct of 
their brethren, similarly the leaders of the Mussal- 
man community cannot claim any credit for the non- 
participation of the Muslims in the political crimes 
and agitation. It is Islam, and its Holy Founder 
and, I may add, of the holy representatives of the 
Holy Prophet that have been appearing among the 
Muslims from time to time, that the credit is really 
due for the admirable attitude of the Muslim com- 
munity to their foreign rulers, and not to these self- 
stvled leaders. 



io6 

The Muslim community has, however, proved its 
loyalty on many trying occasions. But it is not the 
political leaders to whom thanks are due for this. 
It is the lessons of obedience to authority given by 
the Holy Founder of Islam (on whom be peace and 
the blessings of God) that lie at the bottom of the 
law-abiding character of the Muslim people. He was 
so great an advocate of obedience to authority that he 
said : 





' Listen and obey -even if a negro with a head 
covered with abscesses is put in authority over you." 

This saying of the Holy Prophet (may peace and 
the blessings of God be upon him) is given in the 
5a7ii7z Bukharce, a work of undisputed authority on 
tradition. 

Gentlemen, you are well aware that the negro has 
unfortunately been so long subjected to slavery that 
the words " negro " and " slave " have come to be 
regarded as practically synonymous. But the Holy 
Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon 
him), addressing a jealous people like the Arabs, 
who were strangers to submission to foreign yoke, 
said that even if chance placed them under a de- 
formed negro, they must bear to him implicit 
obedience. We are required to obey the authorities 
even in things that are disagreeable to us, though w r e 
are permitted to inform them respectfully of any 
errors that they may commit. Dear friends, have 



you ever pondered over the almost mechanical way 
in which a congregation of devout Muslims follow 
the Imam (the man who leads the prayers) in every 
one. of his movements and all of his postures? The 
congregation may include learned scholars, eminent 
theologians, men of wealth, and even a despotic 
ruler ; they have no choice but to obey the Imam in 
all his acts. It is not unoften that the Imam errs, 
but we, in spite of being aware of his error, are not 
allowed to swerve even a hair's breadth from the 
course he follows. We are permitted to apprise him 
of his error, but that is to be done in the most 
admirable manner. When he is going to make a 
mistake, we only say Subhan all alt (i.e., God is free 
from all defects). But if he, in spite of this warn- 
ing, follows his own course, we are required to obey 
him even though we know him to be in the wrong. 
Sometimes he does not know his mistake until he 
finishes the prayer, and we have to follow him in 
his mistaken course to the end. When he has ended 
his prayer, he is informed of his error, and when 
he has found out his mistake, he, together with the 
congregation, makes amends for it in the way pre- 
scribed. Herein there is an object lesson for the 
Muslims. Their conduct towards their Amir or ruler 
is to be modelled after their behaviour towards their 
Imam , or leader in prayers. And this practical lesson 
is given them not once or twice, but it is repeated 
five times every day. They are taught to obey their 
rulers in everything. If their rulers make any mis- 
take, they may bring it to their notice in the most 
respectful manner, but are not allowed to disobey 
them even when they are in the wrong. The man 
who is placed in authority over us may be of mean 
or high extraction, he is to be obeyed under all 
circumstances. Islam teaches us to give the authori- 
ties good council freely when they need it, and io 



loS 

respectfully point out any error which they may 
happen to commit. 

We cannot sufficiently praise the Holy Prophet 
(on whom be peace and the blessings of God) who 
during his life-time solved all those difficulties and 
problems that were to confront us from time to time. 
This has not been done by any other book or teacher. 
Nay, I do not see any religion before Islam which 
throws any light on the relations that ought to exist 
between the rulers and the ruled, when they belong 
to different nationalities. The reason of this seems 
to be that at the time when most of the other religions 
were born, the world had not seen times in which 
one people were governed by another. But by the 
time when Islam came into the world, this state of 
things had come into existence. Besides, it was to 
be the final religion of the world. No other book 
was to come after it to supplement its teachings. 
Hence, unlike all other religions, it offers the solu- 
tion of all the difficulties that were to arise in times 
to come. 

The Prophet himself passed the early years of his 
ministry under a crude form of tribal rule which was 
a source of trouble to him in many respects, but 
neither he nor his followers ever infringed any of the 
laws or orders of that government. He and his fol- 
lowers bore unbearable suffering and persecution, but 
it cannot be proved that he ever got up a secret plot 
against the then order of the society. When it was 
rendered impossible for his companions to live peace- 
fully at home he, instead of attempting to bring 
about the extirpation of the tyrants by secret con- 
spiracies, exhorted his followers to leave for a neigh- 
bouring Christian Government and to live as the sub- 
jects of a Christian king. During his latter days 
he organized a republic of a very high order, the 
meanest pattern of which can be met with in the 



109 

democratic Government of the United States of 
America. In short we, Muslims, have a perfect 
model in the life of the Prophet (may peace and the 
blessings of God be upon him) for living under every 
form of Government. I have just said that the 
Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be 
upon him) endured the persecution of the tribal mis- 
rule, and when he found the trouble too unendur- 
able for his companions, he sent away Usman witli 
seventeen men, who set such a sublime and high 
example of perfect obedience, true submission and 
noble citizenship, that being influenced thereby, in 
the course of time the entire dominion, including 
the ruler and the ruled, embraced the holy faith of 
Islam. This event teaches us a noble lesson of not 
only living in peace and order under an alien rule, 
but also of refraining from all secret plots and under- 
hand conspiracies in case the tyranny of the rule 
exceed all bounds and become absolutely unbearable. 
What is allowable under such circumstances is that 
we should bid farewell to the Government as the 
Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be 
upon him) enjoined his followers to do. Thus, my 
brethren in faith, if, God forbid, matters come to such 
a pass that you be unable to abide by the laws of the 
Government, for instance, if the Government should 
stand in your way of performing religious obliga- 
tions, or in any way interfere with your religious 
freedom, or place any obstacle in the peaceful pro- 
pagation of your faith, you have no right to rise, or 
hatch a secret plot, against it, but what is proper 
for you to do is to leave India for any other country. 
But so long as you live under a government, it is 
binding upon you, not as a matter of expediency or 
time-serving policy but as a religious duty, to abide 
by the government and the laws to the best of your 
ability and the utmost of your capacity. 



I 10 

Islam, your religion, has also forbidden you to 
have anything to do \vith such government or nation 
as may not be on good terms with your own govern- 
ment, no matter the government or nation be your 
co-religionists. For instance, if, God forbid, there 
break out a war between our rulers and the Amir of 
Afghanistan, it is entirely unlawful for a Muslim, 
according to the religious code of Islam, to make any 
overt or covert attempt to aid the Amir of Afghanis- 
tan so long as he enjoys the protection of this Govern-' 
mont. He, the Muslim, will be in duty bound to 
shed his blood for his own Government. This is 
what the Muslims have always done. In the last 
Afghanistan expedition Muslim hosts were also sent, 
and Muslim soldiers volunteered themselves to fight 
against the Afridis. Should, however, a Muslim be 
unable to bear such a war, and cannot do something 
against his own Government, his action in this direc- 
tion is looked upon by religion as nothng short of 
revolt. He should leave the country, and thus throw 
off the yoke of subjection. Then, and not till then, 
he may do what he pleases. These are the immut- 
able teachings of Islam which have the unmistak- 
able support of the Holy Writ and the words and 
deeds of the Prophet himself (may peace and the 
blessings of God be upon him). These noble teach- 
ings show beyond the least shadow of doubt that 
Islam lends no countenance to any sort of revolution 
or machination. You may get sick of your govern- 
ment. Islam does not take it ill. You may have 
reasonable grounds for so doing, but with all that 
Islam does not permit you to conspire under- 
handedly against your government. This is clear 
perfidy, however cruel the rule may be. You may 
openly quit the country to the knowledge of your 
rulers, and then do as you like. 

My friends, consider and do justice in the Name of 



1 1 1 

God ! A nation which has nothing in its hand but 
religion, a nation to whom that religion is the 
dearest concern, even dearer than life and honour, a 
nation which has clear and forcible injunctions from 
that very religion for the maintenance of loyalty and 
faithful attitude even towards a cruel ruler can such 
a nation be possibly accused of disloyalty ? 

The German and Italian clergy are attempting 
wholesale destruction of Islam by spreading a sup- 
posed terror under the name of Pan-Islamism. If 
Pan-Islamism is understood to mean that all Mus- 
lims living in different parts of the earth under dif- 
ferent non-Muslim governments are unanimously 
planning to overthrow the Christian empires, and 
thus to renew r afresh the glory of Islam, it is a false- 
hood w'hich has been made up by mischief -mongers. 
At least, the Muslims of India have clean hands 
about it. Whatever I have said, I have said on the 
basis of the Holy Book and the traditions. Is it 
not, therefore, sheer iniquity on my part to employ 
for the glory of Islam such means as are condemned 
by Islam itself? Religion is nothing but obedience 
to certain commandments, it is therefore obligatory 
on me as a follower of this religion to abide by, 
among other things, the order relating to unques- 
tioning submission to the Government and real 
enmity with the enemies of the Government. It is 
an odd inconsistency that in endeavouring to live in 
the service of my religion, I should wantonly allow 
myself to go against the express commandments of 
it. This crooked logic cannot be conceived by a 
Mahomedan brain, but possibly by the ingenious 
brain of a German or an Italian Padri. 

Consequently it must be said with all emphasis 
in the interests of truth that anybody who takes 
Pan-Islamism in the sense which some European 
Churchmen are giving it. is not a Muslim in the true 



112 

meaning of the term. But if Pan-lslamism means 
that a Muslim should wish that all the human souls 
living on earth may become Muslims, and accept 
the truth of the Arabian Prophet, then I shall be the 
first to be proud of my love for Pan-lslamism, and 
for this I am prepared to undergo all punishment , for 
love for Islam and dissemination of Islam has sunk 
into my blood. I don't wish for any Islamic gov- 
ernment nor desire any Islamic empire. What I do 
long for is this, that whoever be the ruler, the whole 
world may turn Muslim. When my ancestors under 
Usman were able by dint of noble example and force 
of unsullied character to convert a Christian ruler to 
Islam, there is no reason why I should not pray to 
God for a high degree of piety and godliness and 
righteousness coupled with perfect obedience and 
submission to the Government, so that the force of 
my and my brethren's electrifying example may win 
over for Islam, if not His Majesty King George, any 
of his descendants. May God prosper King George 
and his mighty empire. In short the significance 
which the European clergy put upon the term " Pan- 
lslamism ' is absolutely humbug for us Indians. 
There is no doubt that we raised a subscription for 
the Tripoli war and even approached the benign 
Government with a petition for interfering with a 
view to putting a stop to the war, for we Muslims 
felt great mental pain on account of the outrages 
and atrocities said to be perpetrated there by 
Italians. But is it, I ask, an unlawful deed? Cer- 
tainly not ! Even in England the brutalities of 
Italians were looked upon with contempt, even there 
the war is denounced, even there, like us, the Govern- 
ment was requested to interfere and put a stop to the 
war. If a subscription was opened for the aid of the 
martyrs and the wounded of the war, it was so done 
w T ith the permission of His Excellency the Viceroy. 



If meetings were held here to deliberate over the 
Persian problem, they were presided over by Lord 
Lamington there. I saw these events and then pon- 
dered over the international principles set forth in 
the works on the subject with a view to see if there 
was anything running counter to British neutral 
policy, but I could find nothing there to tamper wdth 
the British neutrality. We are perfectly aware that 
the policy of our Government is strictly neutral wdth 
regard to the Turko-Italian war. If we send an 
army from this place for the aid of either party, we 
w T ill surely be breaking the neutral policy of our 
rulers. But whatever has been done in this respect 
by the Indian Muslims does in no way clash with the 
avowed principles of neutrality. Even if, God for- 
bid, the Government happens to openly side with 
Italy and enter the lists against the Turks and Arabs, 
we shall first humbly beseech the Government to 
desist from such an intention. But if the Govern- 
ment be not able to hold back from its intention, it 
will even then be absolutely unlawful for Muslims to 
do against our Government even what w r e are now 
doing against Italy or Eussia. It will then be our 
bounden duty to continue loyal to the Government or 
to leave its protection and the country under it. 
There is no doubt that wherever there lives a Muslim, 
he is to us our brother, and we naturally sympathise 
with him in his woe. It is quite natural. If we 
say otherwise , it will be false and against the course 
of nature. But natural sympathy in w 7 oe does not 
mean that we should stray aw^ay from the path of 
submission. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
THE MAKING OF CONVEETS. 

"There must be no compulsion in Religion." Koran. 

IF we compare the methods adopted by the Muslims 
when advancing their religious opinions, with the 
systems obtaining amongst certain Christian propa- 
g'andists, we cannot fail to be struck by the marked 
difference shown the one breathing the spirit of 
love and toleration, and the other savouring more 
of compulsion and condemnation. The instructions 
given in the Koran are very simple, and lay down 
in the plainest possible language the duty of the 
Prophet and his disciples when preaching Islam. 
They are simply commanded to deliver God's mes- 
mage to mankind, and no blame is to be attached 
to them if the message is rejected. 

"The apostle has only to preach his message. 
And remind, prophet, thou art only to remind, 
thou art not an authority over them. 

" Say, O ye people, there has come to you the 
truth from your Lord, and he who is guided, his 
guidance is only for his soul ; and he who errs, errs 
only against it, and say I am not a guardian over it. 
But if they turn aside, we have not sent thee to 
them as a guardian, thou hast only thy message to 
preach. But say this is the truth from your Lord, 
so let him who will, believe, and let him w^ho will, 
disbelieve/' 

There is no ambiguity whatsoever in these lines 
from the Koran ; the missionary is not asked to be 
a proselytizer, he has only to preach the Word of 



God ; if conversion is to bless his efforts it must corne 
entirely by spontaneous judgment, and must not be 
attained by means of compulsion or persuasion. 
Christ gave much the same instructions to his dis- 
ciples when he said, " And whosoever shall not 
receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, 
shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony 
against them." 

We also have the following verse, still further 
guiding honest missionaries of every creed :- 

' ' Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom 
and godly warnings, and dispute with them in 
the kindest way/' -Koran (xvi. 26). 

Here we see three stages of preaching :- 

(1) Invitation to the religion of God with wisdom 
and caution. 

(2) Imparting sacred warnings. 

(3) The kindly and beneficent method of conduct- 
ing the arguments. 

If those we are endeavouring to lead towards 
Islam refuse to listen, we must not get angry or be 
offended, but merely invoke their witness that we 
have conveyed to them what we believe to be God's 
message, and that we are resigned to His Will. All 
true guidance must come from God, and we have 
done our duty if we have faithfully preached and 
endeavoured to explain His messages. In the Koran 
the Prophet is repeatedly reminded that he is but a 
"warner," and that no blame will be attached to 
him on account of the errors or obstinacy of his 
hearers. " Let him who will, believe, and let him 
who will, disbelieve." Verses such as this are of 
frequent occurrence in the Koran, and they certainly 
show that there is no truth in the constantly re- 
peated charge that the Koran incites its readers to 



propagate Islam by oppressive or violent measures. 
Indeed, it forbids the Holy Prophet to carry even 
persuasion too far; for he is told that, if the persons 
preached to pay no heed to his exhortation, he should 
leave them alone, as it was not his duty to compel 
anyone to accept Islam. Conversion must come 
spontaneously, and true religion can only be accepted 
with an open heart. "Whosoever God wishes to 
guide, He expands his heart to Islam." Conver- 
sions of this class can surely not be the result of 
compulsion. 

It will thus be seen that as far as proselytization 
goes the methods enjoined by the Koran are entirely 
of the peaceful and gentle order. Muslims have had, 
in days gone by, to protect themselves by force of 
arms, but they have never attempted to promul- 
gate Islamic teachings by means of the sword we 
cannot say as much for the Christians. 

When we come to consider the possibilities of 
establishing Islam as one of the religions of the 
West we are confronted by a very difficult problem, 
i.e., the harmonizing of Eastern customs which pre- 
vailed in Arabia over 1,300 years ago with modern 
Western usages. Concerning this, Sir Harry H. 
Johnston is reported to have written : 

* " If the Mahomedan Egyptians prefer to regard 
the Koran and the mediaeval elaboration of the Koran 
as the last word, the dominant and ultimate 
authority in law, science, sanitation, morals, and 
social economy, so Jong will Mahomedan teaching 
institutions be utterly futile in coping with the re- 
quirements of the twentieth century, and so long 
will Mahomedan peoples be unfitted to govern them- 
selves, and still less to govern more intelligent fellow- 
citizens of more enlightened faiths." 

* "The Comrade," Delhi, February 21, 1914. 



These expressions of opinion, coming from one 
whose great experience in Africa and the Near East 
entitles him to most respectful hearing and atten- 
tion, may not be lightly brushed aside. We cannot 
agree as to the existence of a ' more enlightened 
faith," since it seems impossible to conceive any 
creed more enlightened than that which does 
away with all idolatrous rites, relies entirely 
on the help and direction of the one and only 
God, and which teaches our duty to our neigh- 
hour, and beneficence to all our fellow creatures. 
The difficulties which seem to exist are chiefly those 
due to ceremonials. The actual spirit of Islam is> 
far above all these minor points, but it must not be 
forgotten that the true disciple of the Holy Prophet 
loves to follow to the letter, as far as worldly cir- 
cumstances will permit all the injunctions laid 
down so explicitly in the Koran. Hard and fast rulc& 
under one set of conditions may be fairly easy to 
obey, e.g.. Eastern conditions many centuries ago 
but they may be extremelydifficult to follow up in 
the West at the present day. We may appreciate 
the piety and zeal of the modern Muslim, but we 
must also consider the great hindrances there are to, 
say, a modern European business man, who is 
entirely in accord with Islamic teaching in the spirit 
and truth of our grand religion, who finds himself 
unable to conform rigidly to the letter of the law r of 
Islam. This is probably what Sir Harry Johnston 
means when he refers to the " mediaeval elaboration 
of the Koran." May God grant that all the obstacles 
may in time be removed, and that the East and 
West may worship in the same simplicity, and trust 
to the sole and supreme aid of the Great Creator and" 
Protector of all mankind. 

There are many good and sincere Mahomedans 
who hold that their belief in the Divine Unity of 



u8 

God, and their acceptance of the messages delivered 
to the world by the inspired Prophet, and 
their obedience to the commandments from on 
High, are sufficient to entitle them to be enrolled in 
the ranks of the Faithful. Their failure to 
conform to what may be called the minor conven- 
tions is not sufficient to exclude them from the great 
Brotherhood of Islam. The Unity of God, duty to 
neighbours, and belief in the Angels and Prophets 
of God, together with an acceptance of the Koran, 
as revealed to the Holy Prophet Mahomet, consti- 
tute the essentials of Islam : outward forms and 
ceremonies cannot be held as the Christians say 
their baptisms are to be generally necessary to sal- 
vation. I w r ould say that, in presenting Islam to 
Westerns, stress should only be laid on the vital 
points, and that the main injunctions of the Koran 
which is, of course, the Gospel of Islam should bo 
adhered to. We have seen from the above that a 
correct representation of the inspired Book should 
form the chief feature of Islamic preaching, and that 
particular care should be taken to do nothing to 
irritate or offend those we wish to win over. All is 
to be done in the kindest manner, and without 
giving cause for resentment or anger. 

How great is the difference between the method of 
propagating religion, as practised by the Muslims 
who follow the instructions of the Koran as above 
enumerated, and that aggressive and irritating 
system adopted by those who endeavour to dispense 
various brands of the Christian faith ! 

I can point to several cases within my own know- 
ledge of rigid and uncompromising Protestants 
making house-to-house visitations to Roman 
Catholics in a Roman Catholic country in the hope of 
making "converts." These possibly well-meaning 
T)ut excessively irritating people go about armed with 



tracts which they press their victims to accept and 
read. Such visits often upset whole households, 
causing bickerings and disputes between the other- 
wise happy and contented members of families. How 
strangely neglectful are these mistaken proselytizers 
of their duty towards neighbours, and that benefi- 
cence, which should be the distinguishing mark of 
Christ's followers ! The Eoman Catholics also carry 
on their work of conversion, but they are far more 
diplomatic and clever in their methods, and probably 
meet with greater success. 

Christians spend vast sums annually on Missions 
to " Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics ' the three 
latter terms being applied to Muslims and generally 
to all those who do not regard the Almighty exactly 
from their own standpoint and it would be instruc- 
tive to ascertain how much money is annually thrown 
away in attempts to force or persuade men of other 
faiths to change their religions. 

That the Medical Missions do admirable work, and 
that they are worthy of support, cannot for a moment 
be denied, and we should also respect those who en- 
deavour to give a religion to communities of savages 
who know not God at all, and worship only idols, 
or sticks and stones. It is when we come to find 
offers of worldly advantages or, in plainer language, 
bribes being advanced in order to tempt a change of 
religion, that we feel impressed with the hollowness 
of the system of proselytizing in lands where excel- 
lent forms of worship already exist. I have been 
told that the accounts of the Societies for the Con- 
version of Jews show that the cost per Jew convert 
is many thousands of pounds. Surely this money 
might be put to better uses? With respect to 
Mahomedan conversions, probably the cost is still 
higher, as there are very few Muslims of any educa- 
tion at all who would change their pure and simple 



120 

faith for any other. It is only the very poorest and 
lowest who can be induced to change , and they only 
take the step in order to better their worldly position. 
The missionary is paid to make converts : he is 
doing well in his profession if he secures many, and 
badly if he secures few ; but he should not stoop to 
unworthy methods and, above all, he should never 
wilfully misrepresent the religion of those he is 
endeavouring to lead into another path. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE MUSLIMS' LORD'S PRAYER. 

AT one time, before I had studied the Koran deeply, 
I used to wonder why the Christian Lord's Prayer 
did not appear in the Muslims' Sacred Book, since 
the beautiful prayer, Divinely inspired and given to 
the world by our Lord Jesus Christ, contains nothing 
but humble supplication to the Almighty. More 
mature consideration of the question pointed out the 
reason, and I give the following as the generally 
accepted form of the Muslim prayer which takes the 
place of the Christians' Lord's Prayer : 

" Praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures ; 
the Most Merciful ; the King of the Day of 
Judgment. Thee do we worship, and of Thee 
do we beg assistance ; direct us in the right way, 
in the way of those to whom Thou hast been 
gracious, not of those against whom Thou art 
incensed or of those who go astray." 

For the benefit of all those who wish to under- 
stand the full beauty and comprehensive strength of 
this prayer, I now give in full an article written bf 
my dear Brother in Islam, Khwaja Kamal ud Din, 
for he is, what I regret to say I am not, a brilliant 
Oriental scholar : 

THE MUSLIM LORD'S PRAYER.* 

All praises are due to Allah (God), who is 
(Rabbul-Aalameeri) the creator and sustainer of 

* Editorial Article, "Islamic Review," October, 1913. 

9 



122 

the whole universe ; who (Rahman \) confers on 
us bounties without our deserts and supplies 
things indispensable, creating them even before 
we feel their need ; iclio (Rdheem\) rewards our 
actions manifold; who requites the deeds, being 
the Lord of the day of reckoning. 

Thee, Lord, ice adore; Thee alone we 
ivorship, and from Thee alone we solicit help. 

Guide us, Lord, into the path which leads 
straight to Thee. 

Guide us to walk in the footsteps, and tread 
on the path of those persons upon whom have 
been Thy blessings and favours. 

Save us, God, from the ways of those who 
slight the right path after being shown it, and 
incur Thy wrath. 

Save us also, Lord, from the path of those 
who, fallen into errors, have gone astray and not 
reached Thee. 

Be it so, God. 

With these seven verses quoted above the Book 
of God opens. They are recited by Muslims several 
times daily in their five prayers. How ennobling 
and energising they are ; how invigorating each word 
and every verse ! What a splendid vista of hope is 
opened before our eyes ; what a spirit of independ- 
ence and freedom it infuses into our minds ; what a 
boundless progress and unlimited advancement it 
promises ; what a wise caution against anything 
which may incur the wrath of the Almighty, and 



t In all the English translations of the Quran the two words 
Rahman and Raheem have been translated "the most compas- 
sionate and merciful." It is a wrong rendering, and does not 
convey the real meaning. ED. 



123 

what an effective check against what may lead one 
astray ! 

Before the advent of Islam, the notion of the 
Deity entertained by man was somewhat hideous. 
Divine wrath, when once excited, could not subside 
but with human or animal gore, which was shed 
from time to time at the sacred altars in India, 
Greece and Eome. The patriarchs of the house of 
Jacob had often to raise their arms against those 
who had offended the God of Israel. Villages were 
burned and crops destroyed ; animals killed and 
property damaged; even children, women and men 
of age were not spared, and this all to appease the 
angered Jehovah. That special attribute of Divine 
mercy, which under Pauline teaching found its 
epiphany in the grace of the blood, could hardly, one 
may say, redeem and vindicate the Most High. One 
who condemns the whole race for the sin of one, 
one who cannot forgive sin without compensation, 
and one with whom good actions without particular 
faith carry no weight, is not a love-inspiring and 
lovable God. Such notions are not creditable to 
their originators, nor add a whit of glory to All- 
merciful God, and were never taught by Jesus 
Christ. They are incompatible with that boundless 
compassion and mercy which the Lord of the 
Universe showed in creating things before we 
came to existence, but so necessary to our 
existence, and hence in compensation of nothing. 
One who has been so merciful, and in reward 
of nothing, cannot His compassion in for- 
giving our sin be shown without atonement ? Man 
needed a very high notion of Divine blessings and of 
mercy, unconditional and unmerited, which notion 
could actuate him to obey unreservedly his Creator 
and Benefactor more out of love and gratitude than 
out of fear and avarice ; it should assure him of His 



I2 4 

unlimited blessings, which have already been con- 
ferred, and which further await his good actions; 
and the opening verses of the Quran came to supply 
it. The first three Divine attributes given in the 
text quoted above open our eyes to our Creator, our 
Nourisher and Sustainer the God of mercy, of love, 
of affection, of countless bounties, and of unlimited 
blessing who creates everything for our sustenance 
and development without our deserts and in com- 
pensation of nothing ; this is the idea which the word 
Rahman in the original conveys, and which has been 
wrongly translated "Most Compassionate' in all 
English translations of the Quran. He is Raheem 
who gives thousand and one rewards for every good 
action of man, leave alone that with Him actions 
are nothing w 7 hen unattended with certain dogmatic 
faith. The fourth attribute in the verse under dis- 
cussion is very instructive : M alike yaumiddeen, the 
Lord of the day of reckoning. He will reward every 
good deed, but He may or may not punish sinners. 
He is the Lord and not a slave, and therefore not 
bound under the hard and fast code of justice in 
forgiving sin against Him. 

These four attributes given in the opening verse 
of the Quran are not a chance glorification, but the 
verse was inspired to reveal the true character of all 
other attributes of God, and eradicate from the 
human mind all wrong notions which existed before. 
They created erroneous beliefs and formulated false 
enervating dogmas. Then comes the next verse as 
follows : 

!< THEE WE WOESHIP, O GOD, AND FROM THEE 
WE SOLICIT HELP." 

What a spirit of independence and freedom. We 
must not look to any individual for help. We must 
not approach others for favours. We must keep up 



125 

our pertinacity of character, and should not be sub- 
servient to any man, but to our God, because all 
other men are our equals. We have been given an 
equal chance with all others. The world and the 
bounties of God are also open to us. If other people 
have become superior to us in rank and status in 
any respect it is not a gift, but an acquisition and 
development of things within our reach also. What 
is accessible to them has not been sealed against us. 
The very idea of the unity of God which this verse 
inculcates leads to the idea of the equality of men. 
If the Quran creates such a strong belief in the unity 
of God and kills all polytheistic tendences in human 
mind, it is not because He is ' a jealous God.' Such 
an attribute we do not find in our sacred Book. Our 
God is too great for that. The idea of the unity of 
God serves another purpose. It creates an 
ennobling sense in us. It teaches that the w T hole 
universe is either equal or subservient to us. From 
time immemorial till now, man has adored the 
elements of Nature from fetishism to man-w 7 orship. 
This was an impediment to his progress in natural 
sciences and a check to his personal advancement. 
He needed elevation, and the idea of the unity of 
God came to his help. With one stride all his other 
deities became either his ministers or his equals. In 
the first case he tries to find ways to make 
the elements of Nature subservient to his needs, and 
this is the foundation of all his scientific discoveries. 
In the other, he aspires to emulate his objects of 
worship, and becomes regenerated. Muslims lost 
everything when this noble idea of the equality of 
men became weakened in them. One who demands 
from man an allegiance which destroys equality 
wishes to become our God, and a Muslim cannot 
give countenance to it. This one idea, call it unity 
of God or the equality of man, creates all healthy 



126 

and noble ideas of democracy, socialism, and univer- 
sal brotherhood. It alone can stand responsible to 
make our world a millennium. 

The next verse is very comprehensive and ener- 
gising. In it we invoke Divine guidance to learn the 

PATH OF THE BLESSED. 

We are longing to know the ways which may enable 
us to become recipients of the blessings of God. Can 
you imagine anything nobler and higher, anything 
more desirable and worthy of possession, than what 
the wide scope of the words ' Divine blessings ' 
does include? The verse opens to you anything and 
everything worth having. If we are taught by God 
Himself to approach Him with such a prayer, will 
He grudge us His favours if we tread the right path ? 
The very fact that this prayer is a Divine revelation 
shows His willingness to shower upon us all that 
one can imagine art, science, culture, civilisation, 
wealth, power, rule, piety, righteousness, and high 
spirituality, in short, everything enviable in the 
world. 

Thus our Lord's Prayer suggests to us the way 
which leads to our regeneration, and enables us to 
receive the Divine blessings. It informs us of those 
conditions which when present are sure to invite and 
utilise Divine help ; and the very first verse is lucid 
enough to enlighten us on this secret. 

God has created the whole universe for the evolu- 
tion of mankind. We invoke His mercy in helping 
us to accomplish this grand design. But we are 
taught to address Him as Rahman and Raheem. 
These attributes, as stated before, disclose two dis- 
tinct kinds of mercy : One reveals itself in creating 
things so necessary for our life and further progress, 
the other comes to make our actions fruitful. The 



127 

former creates things which we cannot create our- 
selves, but which are indispensable for us as 
material to work upon ; the latter crowns our exer- 
tions with ample success when the created material 
has been utilised. The function of the one ends 
where that of the other begins. They are correla- 
tive, no doubt, but the latter only follows human 
actions, and does not work unless man has himself 
worked out what he finds in the Nature created 
under the former kind of mercy. And does not the 
whole of Nature reveal these two Divine attributes so 
aptly put in the Muslim Lord's Prayer? The earth 
and everything in it, the atmosphere, the sun, the 
moon, the stars, and, in a word, every atom in 
Nature has been created by God to help us, to sus- 
tain us, and to serve us ; but they do not work to our 
advantage unless we make the first move. Let us 
apply to them, and they are at our service, and our 
exertion, insignificant as it may be, gets an unlimited 
reward. Take the case of a scientist : his business 
is not to create things ; his sole work is to combine 
or separate things already created. Everything 
existed before , but a move from him , and wonderful 
results are achieved ; even the single grain cannot be 
produced without the cumulative functions of the 
various ingredients of Nature, but they all remain in 
abeyance, and no sooner does a farmer go to his 
field than every atom begins to perform its respective 
function. This great lesson is brought before our 
mind several times daily w T hen we say our 
five prayers. We are reminded of God, Who is 
B ah man and Raheem. He is bountiful in creating 
the things so indispensable for our sustenance and 
progress, but His bounties are of no avail if we are 
inactive and do not use them. As Rahman He is 
equally merciful to all mankind, but as Raheem 
His mercies are confined to those who care to benefit 



128 

themselves by His mercies of the first kind. You 
wish to be the master of the world, God is ever will- 
ing to respond to your prayer : He will help you in 
this, your special demand; but bring special fruits, 
make special efforts first deserve and then desire is 
true everywhere. Ponder also over the order in 
which these two sentences have been put in our 
prayer : " Thee we worship, and from Thee we ask 
help. ' ' First ' ' worship ' ' and then ' ' help. ' ' Help 
comes only to those who worship first, and remem- 
ber that the word ' Ibadat,' which in the text stands 
to convey the idea of worship, also means to do our 
best to work out all the gifts of God. One who 
slights His bounties and does not apply himself to 
them properly has, under the teachings of Islam, 
hardly realized the true Quranic conception of wor- 
ship. To neglect things created is to insult their 
Creator. 

Again, consider the very words " from Thee we 
ask help." You do not ask God to do anything for 
you ; you solicit His help simply. In these w T ords of 
prayer you do admit that you have already begun to 
do your utmost ; you are doing what lies within your 
powers, and now you come to His door for His help. 
Thus 

f< GOD HELPS THOSE WHO HELP THEMSELVES," IS AN 
ISLAMIC IDEA. 

The next verse again confirms the same principle, 
and explains the nature of the help we invoke. 

GUIDE Us INTO THE PATH OF THE BLESSED. 

We invoke Divine guidance in adopting the right 
and straight path. Here again we declare our 
willingness to tread the path. We do not ask God 
to do something on our behalf. We are taught to 



I2 9 

express our willingness to traverse the course lead- 
ing to Divine blessings. To reach the goal, of 
course, there are various ways, crooked and straight, 
long as well as short. We solicit God to show us the 
straight way, which must be short as a matter of 
course. One who is not willing to make the move, 
one wlio loves idleness and hates work need not 
approach God and knock at His door. He is marked 
for destruction, as the door is opened to those only 
who, before knocking, have shown their readiness to 
work and ask guidance to regulate their exertions. 



Here is a 

GREAT MORAL LESSON FOR MUSLIMS 

as well as for others, in this prayer. It is in reality 
the secret of success in every human endeavour. This 
is the way to walk humbly with God and receive His 
blessings. The Muslims of the early days took this 
Divine hint. They began to exert themselves to 
their utmost, and could achieve within a score of 
years what others could not do within centuries. 
They received new r inspiration in every prayer. It 
renovated them and brought all their latent faculties 
into action; fresh life at every moment, and un- 
limited therefore was their reward. But the case 
with the present Muslims is quite different. Their 
ancestors enjoyed the blessings of God and left a 
splendid heritage to them. Its abundance blinded 
the coming progeny, who forgot to be keenly alive to 
the path which could bring them to those blessings. 
Our lip prayers invoked the path of the blessed, the 
path of our forefathers, the path carved by them 
under Divine guidance, but we neglected and 
slighted it. And now T what is our present attitude 
towards prayer? One wiio has neglected all the 



1 3 o 

good chances opened to him , one whose every energy 
has been sapped through idleness, one who hates 
work and is in complete subjection to lassitude and 
inertia, and has begun to reap the fruits of his abuse 
of life, he at once thinks of Divine favours and 
hastens to say his prayers. What a mockery ! What 
a shameless farce I We call our God " Rah-bul- 
Adlameen " the Creator of the universe ; of course, 
He has created everything for our benefit ; we call 
Him 'Rahman" decidedly He has shown special 
mercy in supplying us all the things necessary for 
our sustenance and growth, but they require hand- 
ling. But how can it befit our lips to address Him 
with the name of Eaheem, " one who has to reward 
our actions manifold," when we have done no action? 
How can we have the courage to say ' ' Thee we wor- 
ship and from Thee we ask help ' ' when there has 
been no exertion on our part? Where is the work, 
where are the actions in which we ask His help? 
Why call Him to guide us into the path of the 
blessed, if we have no mind to tread it? 

It is no prayer, it is mockery; and we should be 
prepared to suffer the consequences. Brother 
Muslims ! There is no delay in making amends. 
What was achieved by the early Muslims can pos- 
sibly be our acquisition. Knock at the door and i 
shall be opened. To knock is your action, and to 
open is the work of God ; but the move should come 
from you. Consider the whole trend of this prayer, 
how ennobling, inspiring and energising ! and yet a 
sort of blight has everywhere overtaken the race to 
which these electrifying words were first revealed. 

Instead of firmness of resolution and purpose, 
instead of strength of will and character, instead of 
height of aspiration and ideal, everywhere lassitude, 
enervation and degradation. Those to whom the 
secret how to reach the top of the ladder of civiliza- 



tion had been first revealed are going down, down to 
the bottom. But why, is there no remedy, no sal- 
vation, no strong embankment to face and divert 
this terrible inundation of inertia ? Though the self- 
assertive policy of the nations in Europe and the 
inhuman, wretched philosophy of the survival of the 
fittest, which has incited its believers to sap all the 
juice of life everywhere, and to adopt various means, 
active or passive, to enervate others, are chiefly 
responsible for demoralisation in the East ; yet the 
fault, as far as the Muslim nations are concerned, 
lies with themselves. They could have baffled all 
degenerative agencies if they had kept these Divine 
injunctions before their minds. 



I might, for the sake of brevity, have taken 
excerpts from this article, but, had I done so, it 
would not have been possible to do justice to the 
article or its accomplished writer. One point, pos- 
sibly of no especial moment since the Great 
Prophets of Nazareth and Arabia were so at one with 
God. and so faithfully delivered His messages to 
mankind is that the Christian Lord's Prayer asks 
for " daily bread," whilst the Muslim prayer merely 
begs for guidance in the right path. This might 
give rise to misconceptions. Of course, the " daily 
bread " refers not only to food but that spiritual sus- 
tenance which we can only obtain from God, our 
Comforter and Sustainer. 



CHAPTER X. 
PEAISE AND THANKSGIVING. 

PRAISE is the very essence of prayer. The fact of 
praising God shows the inward appreciation of God's 
already vouchsafed mercies, and is a clear indica- 
tion of the desire for a continuation or repetition 
of those mercies, and it thus becomes the most 
exalted form of prayer. It stipulates for nothing, 
mentions nothing, but leaves all to God who knows 
all our w r ants. This is the quintessence of the 
Muslim's faith. 

" When prostrate at Thy feet I fall, 

Fresh wisdom to acquire, 
All Thy past favours I recall : 

Nor do I now r desire 
To ask from Thee what Thou must know, 

In Thy omniscient mind, 
Is really best for us below 

And infinitely kind." 

There is always a touch of the sordid element in 
prayer when merely regarded as supplication for 
worldly treasure or advantage, and it has sometimes 
struck me that the writer of the Christian prayer 
in which occurs the line ' ' Who knowest our necessi- 
ties before we ask and our ignorance in asking/' 
was aware of this, otherwise he could not have used 
a word implying want of knowledge. The inference 
is that those who are sensible of God's infinite power 
will not be so ignorant as to ask Him for what He 
has already arranged to give them. Gratitude for 



133 

past favours can never be regarded as selfish or sordid 
or mean. 

Again, that "need of reminders' which is so 
observable in many Christian churches is altogether 
absent in the mosques where, save for verses from 
the Koran and the simple Crescent pure and sweet 
emblem of the birth of Life there is nothing to 
catch the eye or distract. There is no need of the 
praying wheel, the rosary, the music and the 
incense. No idols and no images. ; Thou shalt 
worship the Lord Thy God and Him only shalt Thou 
serve." It is the spirit of God alone which directs, 
and the true Muslim sees the evidences of his 
Father's power and love in every blade of grass, in 
every breath of air, and he is as happy when saying 
his prayers on the desert sands or mountain top as 
he would be in the most beautiful building made by 
man's hands. 

The following is the text of a prayer which I wrote 
for use at our services at the Lindsey Hall, and at 
the Mosque at Woking : 

(Especially written for all earnest followers 

of Islam.) 

The first portion of this prayer was read at our 
meeting at the Lindsey Hall on December 5th ; the 
concluding portion was offered up at the same place 
on December 12th. In the composition I have 
earnestly tried to bring out our desire for increased 
powers of toleration, forgiveness and endurance, and 
begged God's assistance in driving away all fear of 
consequences, because I am convinced that FEAR is 
at the bottom of nearly all the troubles of life. 

" With joy unspeakable I feel 

Thy presence ever near. 
I know that when to Thee I kneel 

There is no thought of fear. 



134 

' ' For love and fear can never dwell 

Within a human breast, 
Since love is strong and will expel 
All fear and bring sweet rest. 

" Not rest as understood down here 

By human minds and laws, 
But everlasting labour fair 

Which struggles in Thy cause. 

" Unselfish love brings glad rewards 
A million times more sweet 
Than any treasure earth affords, 
Or human beings meet."* 

There are many similar verses in the little book 
referred to ; it was written at times of very dreadful 
persecution and suffering, but I am thankful to say 
that my confidence in God's mercy never wavered 
for one moment, even in the times of direst distress, 
and I never felt fear on one single occasion. This is 
the prayer above referred to :- 

" O Almighty and Ever-present God, Thee alone 
do we look to. Thee alone do we adore and wor- 
ship ; accept our loving offerings of praise and thanks- 
giving, and increase our power of understanding Thy 
infinite wisdom, Thy infinite love and Thy infinite 
compassion. Thou art our Creator and Thou 
knowest that since we love Thee we also hate and 
loathe the devil and his miserable devices to take our 
thoughts from Thee. 

" Dear Father of Heaven and God of the Universe, 
make us beneficent towards all those of our fellow- 
creatures who may not think of Thee as we our- 
selves do : May we show a spirit of toleration and 

* "Thoughts for the Future." By "A. W." (Walter Scott 
Publishing Co., Felling-on-Tyne, Durham.) 



135 

may we beg of Thee to so direct the hearts of all our 
brethren in this world that they may appreciate our 
earnest desire to welcome them into that fold where 
the Shepherd, in Thy Almighty, Glorious, and Mer- 
ciful Presence, is ever to be found. 

" May we, God our Preserver and Comforter, 
endeavour to follow in the footsteps of Thy Holy 
Prophets, Moses, Christ, and Mahomet, and, from 
their teachings, may we learn humility and patience. 
We are now entering upon a new era in which we 
shall have to combat the demon of Atheism , born of 
intolerance and superstition, and the demon of 
idolatry and all that tends to obscure our view 7 of 
Thee, Blessed God our Father. 

' ' Give us courage to follow in the footsteps of 
Thy Prophet, the Divinely inspired Mahomet, 
whose memory, do Thou, God, keep fresh and 
green in our hearts. May we emulate his sincerity 
and charity, and may we try to be like him in our 
desire to do justice to all mankind. May we never 
forget what our Lord Jesus Christ said of the Phari- 
sees and Hypocrites, but, as Thou art All-Merciful, 
we implore Thee to forgive and change the hearts of 
those who are hostile to Islam, especially those who 
have wilfully misrepresented our Faith to the 
Western World. We pray for Thy Divine guidance 
to Thee alone do we look. Thou art our Leader and 
Guide, our Ever-present Councillor and Protector. 
Islam is our only watchword, and we feel safe in 
Thy Almighty Arms. 

'Dear Father, Thou art very near 
We feel Thy presence everywhere 
In darkest night, in brightest day, 

To show the path, direct the way. 

" El Farooq, 

" Friday, December 5, 1913." 



1 3 6 

" Almighty God, may it please Thee, in Thy 
infinite power and love, to remove from our hearts 
all those feelings of fear which may stand in the way 
of our obvious duty to Thee. Give us fortitude to 
endure without a qualm all adverse criticism, and 
may we ever look with leniency and toleration on 
those who have not yet quite understood our creed. 
Do Thou, Almighty and loving Protector, give cour- 
age to the waverers to openly confess the 
all-conquering powers of Islam, and may their in- 
creased self-respect be a portion of their reward. 
Praise be to Thee, God our Protector and 
Comforter. 

" AMEN. 

' El Farooq, 
" Friday, December 12, 1913." 

The above appeared in the January, 1914, num- 
ber of the "Islamic Review," and I also quote the 
following lines, which I wrote to illustrate 
the Brotherhood of Islam and Muslim Equality : 

Dear Father, 'twas Thy loving care 
Which did into our minds instil 

The love for all Thy creatures here 
And made us seek to do Thy will. 

When we our anthems raise to Thee, 
When foes around us press us sore, 

may we seek Thy face to see, 

And learn to love Thee more and more. 

Father, may we live in Thee, . 

Do Thou our loving hearts enshroud, 
We long Thy loveliness to see, 

When we have to Thy wishes bowed. 

'Tis not alone in open fight 
In which w 7 e prostrate fall to Thee, 



137 

But it is when we do the RIGHT 
The outcome of Thy Majesty. 

At certain times we fall before 

The mercy seat that Thou hast raised, 

And then we do Thy Name adore 

And seek to see Thee loved and praised. 

The King and beggar side by side 
Sing the glad song of gratitude, 

For Thou dost love them both the same 
And giv'st them Thy Beatitude. 

With Moses, Christ and Mahomet 
Who gave to us Thy message sweet, 

may our steps towards Thee be set 
And long Thy loving arms to greet. 

Some seven years ago, w T hen I was in very deep 
sorrow and distress, I wrote the following Hymn of 
Praise, and that portion in inverted commas, com- 
mencing " Blessed God ..." came into my head 
very suddenly, and I at once wrote it down in pencil 
on a scrap 'of paper. 

The deepest love for Thee and Thine 
Eefulgent in my heart will shine ; 
Thy slightest wish shall ever be 
My care throughout Eternity. 

Thou art my God, my Lord, my King ; 
Without Thee could not anything 

1 now enjoy be mine to-day, 

And I should not have lived to say 

" O Blessed God, Almighty King, 
Open Thy heart and let me in ; 
I know Thy grace. Thy -power, Thy love, 
Altho' Thou dwellest in Heaven above. 



10 



138 

" Thy glorious prophets, led by love ; 
Directly sent from Heaven above, 
Did strive to show that only one 
Great God above in Heaven shone. 

" With Moses, Christ, and Mahomet,*' 
may our steps towards Thee be set ; 
Of mortal birth , they all proclaim , 
Thy one eternal, glorious Name. 

' And when of life is known the source , 
Dark evil will have run its course ; 
No mysteries will then appear, 
For we shall be with God most dear. 

1 Death then no more shall touch with fears 
Our hearts, or from our eyes draw tears ; 
Great Allah, God our Lord and King, 
Will banish every thought of sin. 

"Jehovah, Father, we must now 
Eecord the noblest human vow : 
To struggle here as Michael strove 
Successfully in Heaven above." 

Our love for God is a thing apart, inexplicable to 
our finite human mind, and known only to the dear 
Father Who made us and gave us the power to 
praise Him unceasingly. 



* It is impossible to be a good Mahomedan without being 
good Christian. Why are they at war? 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE CONTINUATION OF GOD'S 

BLESSINGS. 

GR)d saith, verily My compassion overcometh My wrath. 

-The Holy Prophet. 

WERE it not for our physical sensations we should 
be unable to understand the meaning of pleasure or 
pain, and the very beauty of the word Paradise 
would be unintelligible to us. A spirit or soul never 
clothed in flesh conveys nothing whatever to our 
minds or hearts. All sensations of love for the 
wonderful beauties of Nature are connected with 
the life blood which unceasingly flow T s through our 
living frames. It is not possible to conceive any 
joys unconnected with bodily sensations. Take the 
case of kindly actions alone I mean unselfish acts 
by which one human being is able to give great 
pleasure to another or help another without any 
prospect of worldly reward for himself is it not a 
fact that every such act produces a thrill of physical 
joy or a light-heartedness which is beneficial to 
health and happiness? The question of why the 
spirits and souls should be clothed in flesh is not one 
for us to ask, we only know that it was God's will, 
and no human being can presume to inquire into 
such mysteries. 

Heavenly blessings, and those good things which 

'pass man's understanding," may not be identical 

with those pleasures we already know something 

about on this earth, but it is extremely unlikely that 

an entirely new set of conditions will be presented 



140 

when the transition time of passing from the earthly 
to the heavenly state takes place. We see continuity 
in all creation, and is it not, therefore, reasonable 
to suppose that in the future state we may experi- 
ence a further development, in intensified and 
glorified form, of those pleasures we already know 
something about? Why not? There is nothing 
wrong in enjoying the pleasures of life, or the 
Merciful and Compassionate God would not have 
given us senses which enable us to appreciate those 
pleasures. As the Holy Koran says : M Bear good 
tidings to those who believe and do good works 
that they shall inherit gardens beneath which rivers 
flow. So often as they are fed in that life with 
fruits they shall say : : These are the fruits which 
were given us formerly/ because they shall find the 
fruits of after-life resembling the fruits which were 
given them here." 

The fruits of Paradise may not indeed be the 
same as those we enjoy on earth, but they will be 
such as we can understand and appreciate in an 
intensified form, and this would not be the case if 
we had not received the previous instruction and 
experience. The remembrance of God and His 
Mercies will be an everlasting source of joy. and 
will enable the true believers to identify the fruits 
of Paradise with those of this world, and they will 
be able to say, " These are the fruits which were 
given us in the former life." 

The idea of continuity runs through the pages of 
the Koran. As Mirza Ghulam Ahmad said, in his 
remarkable work, " The Teachings of Islam," 
whatever good men enjoy spiritually in this life are 
really blessings not of this, but of the next life, and 
are <: ' granted to them as a specimen of the bliss 
that is in store for them in the next life in order to 
increase their yearning for it." 



141 

From this we may be led to infer that whether we 
regard the existence of mankind from the standpoint 
of this present world w r hich we know something 
about or from the hypothetical and more extended 
and wonderful platform of .the next world of which 
at present we know so little we cannot get away 
from the fact that we are ourselves. Each 
individual must have had a beginning, ordered by 
God Himself, and it w r ould seem that the identity 
of each must be the same whatever the environ- 
ment or however extended the different stages of 
existence. 

To the entirely unimaginative and stolid in- 
dividual, who regards with indifference all the plea- 
sures of this life, there can never come any very 1 
keen desire for an increase of those pleasures his 
blunted faculties will not allow him to experience 
delight in the beauties of Nature and wonders of the 
universe, so that his conception of Paradise is prob- 
ably very feeble. On the other hand, the sensitive 
and highly appreciative nature of one who gratefully 
accepts trie bounties and pleasures of life is probably 
energized and strengthened by looking forward to a 
Paradise where there is the enjoyment in greatly 
intensified form of those delights he has already 
experienced. 

It does seem strange that the teachings of the 
Western Churches have exerted so much influence 
for so many hundreds of years, when it is considered 
that such a needlessly insipid and unattractive future 
state is set forth in the doctrines advanced, which 
are held to be of vital importance. As a small boy 
my only dread of death was connected with a fear 
of being compelled to sit on a cloud for ever playing 
a harp. Exactly how the repellant idea got into 
my head I do not remember, but there it was, and 
it induced discomfort of mind. How much more 



142 

desirable would it have been had a beautiful flower 
and lovely view of earth and sky and sea been shown 
to me with the remark : " There, my boy, you see 
how pretty and sweet that flower is, and how 
splendid that view? Well, in Heaven there are 
flowers a hundred times more beautiful and sweet, 
and views a hundred times more magnificent." 
This would have given me something to look for- 
ward to and desire ; and even now the mere writing 
down of these words gives me comfort, as I feel 
they are so true. 

Why should it be wrong for human creatures whose 
experience of pleasures is . so far as they know for 
certain", confined to this present world's lessons and 
'attractions, to look forward to a continuation of 
such pleasures on a far grander scale? But here 
the sacerdotal element conies in and says , ' No ; 
all is vanity, the pleasures of this world are wicked, 
you must not enjoy them, and above all, you must 
not expect anything of the kind in the next world." 
When sacerdotalism holds the key the difficulties 
as regards Heaven are greatly increased. Why 
should not Western churches teach the rational doc- 
trine of a continuity of those blessings which man- 
kind already understand and believe in? Why make 
fresh obstacles by conjuring up complicated state- 
ments as to rewards and punishments attendant 
upon the belief or disbelief in certain dogmas ? Why 
not cultivate a simple faith in God, and trust in 
His power to intensify all our earthly pleasures in a 
spiritual existence ? Would such a course be in any 
way hostile to the teachings of our Lord Jesus 
Christ? I think not. 

' ' In every blade of grass I see 
Thy sacred , loving hand ; 
In every thought that comes to me 
Behold the promised Land." 



143 

In this verse, written many years ago. I recognize 
the spirit of continuity if we can see God's won- 
derful handiwork in this world we can surely also 
form some faint idea of His infinite power to mag- 
nify the favours He has already showered upon us 
in such lavish profusion. 



Eecently (May 21, 1914) ? "Heaven' was the 
subject of a sermon preached by Dean Inge in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. In the course of his remarks he 
is reported to have said that he ' ' did not believe 
there was ever a time when Christians thought less 
about Heaven. As soon as the clergy left the sub- 
jects of this world and began to talk about eternity, 
men's attention obviously flagged." . . . . 
' ' Many Christians tried to make Heaven a geo- 
graphical expression and to put eternity within the 
framework of time." The very rev. gentleman 
concluded his outspoken address by saying that the 
average man now thought for himself, and knew 
enough astronomy to feel the absurdity of placing 
Heaven either inside or outside the Solar System. 
Many of the clergy were themselves perplexed and 
said as little about Heaven as they decently could. 
It was better, he thought, that the clergy should 
admit that they ' ; do not know." than that there 
should be crude symbols given to the world as literal 
facts. 

It is not often we hear such broad-minded expres- 
sions from the clergy of the Protestant faith, and 
it w r ould be interesting to know r to what extent the 
worthy Dean's ideas are in sympathy with Islamic 
truths. He is evidently no supporter of the dog- 
matic teachings built upon the superstitions of the 
Dark Ages preferring the humble spirit of agnosti- 
cism which refuses to condemn whilst it cannot 



144 

support particular lines of human thought or con- 
duct. 

But we do not find one in a hundred Churchmen 
who will speak thus plainly because they are afraid 
to deviate from the beaten track, and thus incur the 
disapproval of 'the Church," their superiors, or 
their congregations. Worldly considerations come 
in, and the loss of a living or a curacy may be a most 
serious matter to many men with others depending 
upon them for support. Recently we have had sad 
examples of the attitude of certain Churchmen who 
have not hesitated to attack Islam and thus provoke 
the hostility of the peaceful and law-abiding 
Muslims. 

Speaking at the annual meeting of the Church 
Missionary Society in May of this year (1914), Dr. 
Whitehead, Anglican Bishop of Madras, gave it as 
his opinion that there was a movement amongst the 
outcastes of India, and that Christianity should be 
prepared for that mighty avalanche , when ' ' some 
fifty or sixty millions of people would be crowding 
and making their way into the Christian Church." 
On the same day Dr. Lefroy, Bishop of Calcutta, 
in the course of a very outspoken and uncompromis- 
ing address, declared that the problem of Mahome- 
dan evangelization had never received a tenth part 
of the attention its importance deserved, and that 
there could be no question of neutrality between the 
Cross and the Crescent, and that the fight must be 
fought out. " The only sound method of Christian 
defence against the onward march of Mahome- 
danism must be that of attack, the Church throwing 
itself heart and soul into the great cause, winning 
the Mahomedan world to allegiance to Christ." The 
Bishop thus throws down the gauntlet. 

All this seems indicative of a desire to' see carried 
into effect the wish expressed in the preface 



of the late Mr. Sales' translation of the Koran, viz., 
that the Protestants should reap the glory of 
exposing as spurious the Holy Book of the Muslims, 
and thus upset the Mohamedan religion ! Consider- 
ing how many points of similarity there are between 
Christianity and Mahomedanism , which are really 
sister religions, it seems little less than criminal to 
endeavour to stir up strife. Mahomet and Martin 
Luther both fought much the same fight, though 
at very different periods of the world's history, and 
they both fought against common enemies Idola- 
try, Dogma, and Sacerdotalism. 

Let us hope that wiser counsels may now prevail, 
and that every person in the British Empire will at 
least take the trouble to learn something about the 
Muslim creed, for this would certainly bring about 
a better feeling, and we shall no longer be classed 
with "infidels and heretics ' ! as the Protestant 
Prayer Book has it. It is humiliating to have to 
admit that there is such a display of uncalled for 
hostility on the part of the so-called Christians neces- 
sitating so much forbearance and forgiveness on the 
part of the Muslims. In these days of doubt and 
uncertainty, the Empire should encourage all its 
loyal subjects and discountenance any unfair attacks 
on Muslim subjects who are known to be well dis- 
posed and obedient to the laws of the land. 

THE END. 



LONDON : J. S. PHILLIPS, 99 SHOE LANE, B.C. 

II 



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