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Full text of "The western gazetteer; or, emigrant's directory, containing a geographical description of the western states and territories, viz. the states of Kentucky, Indiana, Louisiana, Ohio, Tennessee and Mississippi: and the territories of Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Michigan, and North-Western"

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JVorthem District of J^era-Tork, cs. 

BE it remembered, that on the ninth day of Jane, in the forty-first year of the Itf- 
^ependence of the United States of America, S. R. Brown and H. C. Southwick, of 
the said District, have deposited in this Office, the title of a Book, Ibe right whereof 
they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit : " The AVestern Gazetteer ; 
or Emigrant's Directory. Containing a Geographical Description of the Western 
States and Territories, viz. the states of Kentucky, Indiana, Louisiana, Ohio, Ten- 
nessee, and Mississippi ; and the Territories of Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Michi- 
gan, and North-Western. With an Appendix, containing sketches of some of the 
Westers Counties of New- York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia ; a description of the 
Great Northern Lakes ; Indian Annuities, and Directions to Emigrants. By Samuel 
R. Brown." In conformity to the act of the Congrf«s of the United States, entitled, 
"An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts 
and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein 
mentioned.'* RICHARD R. LANSING, 

Clerk of the JVorthern District of New ■ Yofk. 



Alabama vWex 
Cahaba . 

(Census . 

China briar 
Choctaw river 

American Bottom 




Birds . 


Cabokia . 

Extent of navigable 

Honey Loctist 

Illinois river 

— tributaries of 

Indians . 


— tributaries of 

Anderson's river 
Blue river 
Chemm river 
Clai'k county 
Climate . 

Corydon . 

Dearborn county 
Deche river 
Double otttlets 
Extent of navigable 
Franklin county 

Gibson county 
Harmony . 
Harrison county 
Indian creek 

Cqnecah river 
Coosa river 
Counties . 
Creek Indians 
Dogwood tract 
Bscarabia river 
Indian cessions 

9, 16 



Kaskaskia town of 27 

Lakes . . 21 

jL-ands, prices, titles of 33 

Manufactures . . 32 

Marie river . 20 

. Military bounty lands 32 

IiVliuei-als . . 26 

Natural curiosities 29 
Navigation, internal and 

I frontier . . 34 

Oak (shingle) . 24 

Pawpaw . . 26 

Pleiii river 

13, 246 

Animals, domestic 

Antiquities . • 

Aspect, &c. 



Bank capital • ♦ 

Big Sandy 

Character . 

Coumiet •> 


Covington . 

Creeks below Eig Saiidy 

Cumbtrland river 


Dansville • : 

Extent of navigable waters 


Friinkliu county « 



38 Indians . . 71 

56, 69 '■ — claims of . 80 

43 Jackson county . 64 

38 JefFerstjii) county . 61 

Jeffersonville . 63 

51 Kaihtippeeamunk 72 

76 Kennomic . 42,76 

Knox . « 65 

62 Lakes . . 43 

Lawrenceburgh . 5? 

Letters of an U. S. officer 45 

of Mr. Buck 47 

Loughery's creel^ . 38 

Maiison . . 62 

M/jierals . . 80 

Natural wells <, 53 

New Lexington • 61 

New Purchase • 43 

Orange • • 64 

Ohio, fells of , 77 

Perry couuty • 71 

Petite ( little) v'vet . 40 

Petoka river . 39 

Pom:ne river • 40, 352 

Population • 51 1 


. Georgetown 
Grt eu rivcr 
Rendtrion „ 
Henry county 
Kentucky river 
l^cviiiKtoa . 
Lis. king 

Lig lining, severe efleL-tst 
Louisville • 

MaysvUle . 

Natural curiosities 
Newj)ort . 

Pari* i 

Population . 


waters 73 


Muscog^es I I 




Pea river . . 


Population . 


Settlements . 


Soil, Surface, Timber 


Prairie da Roehers . 


Population . 


— — ^— future 


Products . 


Rivers, running east into 

the Wabash 






Shawanee town 


Soil and Surface 


St. Phillippe 




WilkiasoHville . 


Portages, view of . 




Prairies . . 




Public lanJs , 


Reed- eane 


Rising sun . 


Rocky river 




Salisbury . . 


St. J[oseph's of Miami 


of Lake Michigan 


St. Marie 


Switzerland . 


Tanner's week 


Tipp canoe 


Teirehaut^ . 


Wabash . .38 


overfl'iws Its bs^tiks 


Wliittwater . 


White river . . 






Vincennes . . 


Populat'on iatio of inci;'ease 89 


Port William 








Range . , 



Htd river 






Rus LllsvJUe 








of 97 










Spe tila io:i 



TraHe water 

















Alluml soil ', 




Red river 






bottoms of 


Atchafalaga, atmosphere 

fertility of 




salubrity of . 












Beagts, birds 






Black river 


Laurel magnolia 


Saline . 






Sara bayou 










New-Orleans . 


Soil, surface 




Pearl river . 116 


Spanish beard 




Pine trees -, . 


Sugar cane 




Plaquemines river 


Thompson's cret 

k 118 

Extent of nav. waters 







J 23 





Hammock land 











Ceded lauds 










Swan creek 




Hull's Gen. letter 




Extent of nav. waters 




Wild fowl 








Rivers ^ 
Rocky niountain 






sheep 202 

Bear, great brown 


Lead mines 



» 185 

Belle Fontaine 




Soil, surface 


Boone's settlement 

J 92 

Mississippi, banks of 


St. Genevieve . 


Bounty lands 


Missouri, banks of 


St. Charles 


Brown, letter of 


Tributaries . . 


St. Louis 






St. Peters river 


Cape Girardeau 


Natural chronometer 


Tributaries of the Mis- 

Flourissant , 


New Bourbon . 


sissippi from the west 



New Madrid , 


above the Missouri, 181 

Hot springs , 


Prairie dogs 


Wild horses 







Crumb, Mr. letter of 


MuFcle Shoals 




Demarcation line 






Extent of nav. waters 






Gulf coast, view of 










Cotton, product of 


M'GufBn's letter 


St. Stephen's 




Mobile 119, 





Antiquities , 2C(j 
Copper mines 256 
Carver's Purchsse 266 
Dubuque's mines 256 
Extent of navigable wa- 
ters . 264 
Fish . . 255 

Polle Avoine 261 

Fox river . 259 

Green Bay . 249 

Indians . 265 
Ontanagon river 255, 257 
Prairie des Chiens 263 

Rivers . 24t; 


Rivers entering Lake Mi- 
chigan . 149 

running into Lake 

Superior . 250 

into the Mississip- 
pi from this Ter. 

Soil, Surface 253 

Adams county 
Antiquities, 281, 
Ashtabula co. 
Athens co. 
Beluiout CO. 
Butler CO. 
CliaHipaign co. 

308, 312 

' 308 

Columbiana co. 
Coslior.ton co. 
Daike co. 
Delaware co. 
Fairfield co. 
Fayette co. 
Franklin co.- 
Gallia co. 
Guernsey co. 
Hauiiltou CO, 
Hanisoii co. 

321 1 Highland co. 
314 I Huron 


Licking co, 
Medina co. 
Miami co. 
Monroe co. 
Montgomery co. 
Muskingum co, 
Picl<away co. 





In the following sketches of Western America, the several 
states and territories described, are arranged alphabetically ; 
but for the reader's convenience, and for the purpose of pre- 
serving continuity to the description of any particular state 
or territory, when ccmrffenced, the disposition of the articles 
is geographical. The immense extent of country embraced 
in the plan of the work, has in many instances prevented mi- 
rnteuess of description, even where personal knowledge was 
most perfect. The field was rich, ample — unbounded ; but 
the circumscribed limits of a single volume, permitted only a 
glance at the infinity of interesting objects, which presented 
themselves at every step ; for instance, more than one hundred 
great rivers of the west, the greater part of which I have dis- 
posed of in a single paragraph, or by merely naming them, 
would afford ample rriaterials for a volume of much interest. 

In preparing this work for the press, it has been the writer's 
principal aim to make it a useful, correct and faithful guide 
to enterprising farmers, and mechanics, of the Atlantic states, 
who may wish to establish themselves in any of the transmon- 
fane territories. 

Business and curiosity has made the writer acquainted with 
a large proportion of the Western Country, and many parts 
never before particularly described. Where personal know- 
ledge was wantingj he has availed himself of the correspond- 
ence of many of the most intelligent gentlemen resident in 
the west. 

The chief objects embraced are, Boundaries, Latitude and 
Aspect of the Country, l^oil. Climate, Diseases, Vegetable, 
Mineral and Animal Productions, Rivers, Lakes, Swamps, Pra- 
iries, Portages, Roads, Counties, Settlements and Villages ; 
Population, Character and Customs of the Inhabitants, Indians, 
Antiquities, Military Posts, Situation and Price of Lands, 
Price Current, Trade, Extent of Navigable Waters, Expen- 
ces of travelling, Directions to Emigrants, &c. &c. 

The vast region of which I have attempted to sketch the 
most prominent features, is bounded north by the great Lakes, 
Erie, Huron, and Superior, and the chain of waters between 
the Grand Portage and the Lake of the Woods ; west by the 


Bocky Mountains ; south by the Gulf of Mexico, and east by 
the Alleghany Mountains — comprizing almost one thousand 
millions of acres ; watered by several hundred rivers : and 
containing an extent of upwards 50,000 miles of internal ship 
and boat navigation. The '^Western Country," has, there- 
fore, the outlines of an immense empire. The mind wants 
new powers of comprehension to form an adequate conception 
of its extent. It has 2000 miles of Lake^ 1000 of Crulf, and 
100,000 of River coast ; in short the whole country is one 
continued net-work of rivers, interlocking with each other, 
and intersecting the country in every direction. By incur- 
ring an expence of less than 50,000 dollars, it i? believed by 
good judges, that a sloop navigation might be opened between 
Buffalo and the Fond du Lac, a distance of nearly 1800 miles, 
the only interruption at present being the rapids of St, Ma- 
rie, between lakes Huron and Superior. The Ohio by one of 
its branches, (French creek) approaches with a boatable navi- 
gation to within seven miles of lake Erie ; by the Conne wan- 
go, to within nine ; by the Muskingum, to the very source of 
the Cayahoga. The Scioto interweaves its branches with 
the Sandusky, between which there is a practicable portage of 
eight miles. The Wabash mingles its waters occasionally with 
those of the Miami-of-the-lakes ; so do those of the Illinois 
with those of Lake Michigan, between which. Nature has 
herself scooped out a canal. Well might Lefebvre Desnou- 
ettes exclaim, on beholding boats arrive at St. Louis, from 
Jake Michigan, without meeting with a portage : " What a won- 
derful rivery commimicaiing with the sea by its mouth and 
ate source /'* 


Is situated between 30 and 35 degrees of north latitude. 
Its boundaries as established by law on the 3d of March, 
1817, are as follows: Beginning at the point where the line 
of the thirty-first degree of north latitude intersects the Per- 
dido river, thence east to the western boundary line of the 
state of Georgia, thence along said line to the southern boun- 
dary line to the state of Tennessee, thence west along said 
boundary line to the Tennessee river, thence up the same to 
the mouth of Bear creek, thence by a direct line to the north 
west corner of Washington county, thence due south to the 
Gulf of Mexico, thence eastwardly, including all the islands 
within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido i iver, and 
thence up the same to the beginning.'' It has the new state 
(formed from the western part of the Mississippi territory) on 
the west ; Tennessee north ; Georgia and the remnant of West 
Florida, east, and the gulf of Mexico and West Florida south. 
These boundaries comprise about one half of the late Missis- 
sippi territory, which contained about 93,480 square miles, 
©r 59,827,200 acres. 


The main rivers of this territory run south and fall into 
the gulf of Mexico. The Alabama is the most considerable. 

It takes its rise in the Cherokee nation, near the boundary 
line betwfeen the states of Georgia and Tennessee, and ijot 
far from the 33th degree of north latitude, and proceeding in 
a southwestwardly direction, unites with the Tombigbee, nine 
mi^Bs above the 31st degree of north latitude, and forms with 


it, the river Mobile. The juDction of the two rivers is aboilt 
forty-five miles from the head of Mobile Bay, aed the river is 
navigable thus far, and indeed several miles further, for any 
vesi^el which can come up the bay. From the junction to 
Fort Claiborne, [says Judge Touhnin,] the distance is about 
sixty miles, and the river is navigable thus far, at the lowest 
time, for any vessel which will not draw more than six feet of 
water. The distance from thence to the month of the Ca- 
hawba, on the western side of the Alabama^ is estimated at 
one hundred and fifty miles, and the river affords to this place 
four or five feet depth of water. From the mouth of the Ca- 
liawba to the forks of the Coose and Tallapoose, it is said 
to be 160 miles, though some do not estimate the dis- 
tance so great, and the navigation is still good except at 
two ripples, in which however there is a plenty of water, and 
they pass over them with boats. Tn this part of the river it 
is three feet deep in the shallowest places. 

The river here loses its name : the eastern branch being 
called the Tallapoose, which, except near the mouth, runs 
through the territory still belonging to the Creeks — whilst the 
western branch of the Alabama is called the Coose. The 
Tallapoose is boatable to the great falls, thirty or forty miles 
above the fork. About eight miles by water, though not three 
iu a straight line, above the junction of the Coose and Talla- 
poose, the two rivers approach very near to each other; and 
it is in this point of land that Fort Jackson stands. 

From thence to the falls of Coose, the distance is seven or 
eight miles ; and here the navigation of the Coose may, in the 
present state of things, be considered as terminating. There 
is a continuation of rocky shoals to Fort Williams, a distance 
of fifty miles ; a circumstance the more to be regretted, as the 
navigation is not materially obstructed above, and can be pur- 
sued up the Coose to one of its head streams called the Coii' 
nesangah, which is about forty-six feet wide, and from the 
boatable part of which to the boatable part of the Amoy it is 
but eight or ten miles over a firm, level country. The A moy 


ii about sixty feet wide, and is a branch of the Hiwasseej 
which discharges itself into the Tennessee about eight miles 
below Knoxville. The distance from Fort Williams to Fort 
Strother, at the Ten-Islands, where the Cherokee line strikes 
the Coosa river, is nearly sixty miles by land, but considera- 
bly more by water. From thence to the portage, or highest 
point of navigation on the Connesaugah, it is probably 120 or 
130 miles by land. 

As to the great falls between Fort Williams and Fort 
Jackson ; it is the opinion of some that they might be render-^ 
ed navigable, with no very great difficulty. There is water 
enough; but the shoals are very numerous. Indeed, boats 
loaded with provisions for the troops, did descend the river, 
and pass them during the late Creek war; but the hazard 
was very considerable, and some of them were destroyed. 

As to the time it takes to navigate the Alabama, it may be 
stated, that to go from Mobile to Fort Jackson, a distance of 
about 420 miles, it will take from a mouth to six weeks, ac- 
cording to the state of the river. A barge with five hands, 
and carrying 12.5 barrels, has gone from Mobile to Fort Jack- 
son in 30 days : but it was reckoned a remarkable good trip. 
The business however is new, and experience will probably 
lead to expedition. 

The Coosa, under the names of Connesaugah, Estenrsury, 
Hightour, &c. runs probably about 150 miles, estimating the 
distance by land, through the Cherokee territory, in the north- 
western corner of the state of Georgia. 

The country between the Mobile and the Catahouchy, i3 
about 180 miles wide, and watered by the Perd'cdo river,^ 
which forms the boundary between the Alabama territory 
and the remnant of West Florida ; it runs parallel to the 
Mobile, and fails into Perdido bay. The streams are the 
Conecah and Escambia, whose waters unite and j9ow into 
Pensacola bay ; the Conecah is navigableupwarcsof 100 miles, 
and is lined by forests of valuable timber. Beyond the Es- 
cambia is Yeliowwater river, which falls into the bay of Pen- 



sacola. Choctaw and Pea rivers still further cast, fall int# 
the bay of St. Roses. These streams are all navigable from 
30 to 100 miles; the country which they drain is mostly of 
a sandy soil, and pine timber. 

The Catabouchy is a noble river, affording a navigation of 
409 miles ; heads in the S. E. comer of Georgia, pursues a 
S. W. course 390 miles until it strikes the boundary line be- 
tween Georgia and the Alabama territory, when itself be- 
comes the division line to the limits of West Florida, a dist- 
ance of 120 miles. 


The northern parts of this territory are broken ; near the 
Tennessee Hne, towards the S. E. corner, it may be said to 
be mountainous. The middle is hilly, with here and there 
tracts of level prairie land. Along the Florida IJire is a strip 
of country 50 or 60 miles wide, covered with the short and 
Fong leaved pine, cypress and loblolly, so closely resembling 
the country between Pearl river and the Mobile, as to render 
ia description of the one applicable to the other. Such are 
its general aspects. The soil between the Mobile and the 
Catahouchy, bordering West Florida is better than that on 
the east side of Flint river ; between the Conecah and the 
Catahoucliy, the land is broken and waving; the ridge divid- 
ing^their waters has high fiats of light sandy land, well set 
with willow leafed hickory, and iron ore in places ; all the 
streams have cane on their margins, and are frtquenlly orna- 
menled with the sour orange tree ; the country heaUhy, and 
affording a fine range for cattle, hogs and horses. The pine 
f!;4s Ii.rve the wire gr.iss and saw palmetto : the soil of the 
rraving land, sliSTand red loam, with stone on the ridges ; the 
pine land pretty good for corn. Between tlie Mobile and the 
Perdldo, (he f?oil is thin, timber pine, loblolly bsy, cypress. 
The head waters of Escaiiibia and Conecah embrace large 
quantities of fine cottoa and sugar laiids, and orange groyes. 


Along tbe T^nsaw pine and cypress forests, of a heavy 
growth; canehrakes along the river ; and sometimes cypress 
swamps. The Alabama is margined with cane swamps ; these 
at intervals with pine fiats of good soil, suitable for sugar, cot- 
ton and corn. The swamps at the confluence with the Tom- 
foigbee, and for some distance below are subject to periodical 
inundations, for which reason the inhabitants never fence their 
improvements. Above they are very wide, intersected with 
slashes and crooked drains, and much iafested with musque- 
toes. The land bordering on the swamps is a poor stiff clay, 
for one mile back ; the growth pine and underbrush ; back of 
this, broken pine barren ; cypress ponds and canebrakes oa 
the branches. Fifty miles from the union cf the Alabama with 
Tumbigbee, the high broken lands commence, extending for 
60 miles upwards ; timber^ oak, hickory, poplars and yery 
large cedars. 

The best part of the terntorv is to be foand between the 
Alabaasa and Tombi^bee ; the Bl-^ck Warrior, and Bear creek, 
have some fine bottoms 5 and those of the Tallapoosa frona 
Tookabatchee to its confluence with the Coosa, about thirty 
miles, are excellent ; the broken land terminates on its right 
bank, the good land spreads out on the left. Proceeding to- 
wards the dividing ridge between the Alabama waters and 
those of the Conecah, we pass over an extensive (ract of rich 
land, the timber large, and cane abundant, liberally watered 
by creeks ; this tract is thirty miles long Including the plains, 
and twenty wide. The plains are wavina;, hill and dale, and 
appear divided into fields, interspersed or bounded with 
clumps of woodland ; soil lead colored or dark chy, very rich 
and Covered with weeds and tall grass. Below the plains, 
soil stiff, very red in places, and gravelly.- surface broken for 
thirty miles, then pine barren. At the sources of Limestone 
creek, there is an exceilent body of land ciilled the " Dog 
wood ;" the growth oak, chesnut, pop'ar, pine, and dogwood. 
This vein of land, is 20 miles in length, and 8 broad; the 
dogwood is very thick set, and tall ths wlitile finely vralered,- 


Sixty miles above the confluence of Coosa and Tallapoosa, 
there is a high waving country, settled by the Creek Indians, 
who live generally on rich flats of oak, hickory, poplar, walnut 
and mulberry — the springs are fine ; cane on the creeks, and 
reed on branches ; the surrounding crountry broken and 
gravelly. Most kinds of game are scarce throughout the terri» 
tory. Stone coal abounds on the Cahaba, Black Warrior, &c. 
The late Col. Hawkins long resident in the Creek nation, 
pourtrays the surface and soil of this country in these words : 

The country lying between Coosa, Tallapoosa, and Cha- 
tahouchee, above their falls, is broken — the soil stiflf, with 
coarse gravel, and in some places stone. The trees post oak, 
wh'te and black oak, pine, hickory and chesnut — all of them 
small — the whole well watered, and the rivers and creeks have 
j'ocky beds, clad in many places with moss, greatly relished 
by cattle, horses and deer, and are margined with cane and 
reeds, and narrow strips or coves of rich flats. On the Coo- 
sa, sixty miles above its junction with I'allapoosa, there is 
limestone, and it is to be found ip several places from thence 
to E-tow-wohand its western branches. 

The country above the falls of Ocmulgee and Flint riv- 
ers is low and broken, as that of the other rivers. These 
have their sources above each other, on the left side of Cha- 
tabouchee, in open flat land, the soil stifi*, the trees post and 
black oak, and small. 

The land is generally rich, well watered, and lies well, as 
a waving country, for cultivation ; the growth of timber, oak, 
hickory, and the short leaf pine, pea vine on the hill sides and 
in the bottoms, and a late (or autumnal) broad leaf grass on 
the richest land — the whole a very desirable country. Be- 
low the falls of these two rivers the land is broken or waving, 
the streams are some of them margined with oak woods, and 
all of them with cane or reed. The uplands of Ocmulgee 
are pine forest ; the swamp wide and rich; the whole fine for 
stock. On its right bank, below the old IJchee path, there 
is some light pine barren, with some light Palmeto grass. 


Flint river has also below its falls some rich swamp for 
not more than 20 miles ; its left bank is then poor, with pine 
flats and ponds, down within fifteen miles of its confluence 
with Chatahouchee. These fifteen miles are waving, with 
some good oak land in small veins. On its right bank there 
are several large creeks which rise out of the ridge dividing 
the waters of Flint and Chatahouchee. Some of them mar- 
gined with oak woods and cane, and all the branches for seven- 
ty miles below the falls have reeds ; from thence down there 
are bay-galls, dwarf evergreens, and cypress ponds, with some 
live oak. Between these rivers there is good post and black 
oak land, strewed over with iron ore, and the ridge dividing 
their waters has a vein extending itself in the direction of the 
ridge. Within twenty-five miles of the confluence of the 
rivers the live oak is to be seen near all the ponds ; here are 
limestone sinks ; the land is good in veins, in the flats and on 
the margins of the rivers. The trees of every description 
small — the range a fine one for cattle. 

The extensive body of land between Flint river and O- 
ke-fau-nocau, Altaraaha and the eastern boundary of the 
Creek claims, is pine land, with cypress ponds and bay-galls. 
The small streams are margined with dwarf evergreens ; the 
uplands have yellow pine, with dwarf, saw palmeto and wire 
grass ; the bluffs on St. lilas are some part of them sandy pine 
barren ; the remainder a compact, stiff", yellowish sand or 
clay, with large swamps ; the growth loblolly bay, gum and 
small evergreens ; the whole of those swamps are bogs. In 
the rainy season, which commences after midsummer, the 
ponds fill, and then the country is, a greater part of it, covered 
with water ; and in the dry season it is difficult to obtain wa* 
terin any direction for many miles. 

The bees abound in the Okefaunocau and other swamps 

eastward of Flint river ; the whortleberry is to be found io 

swamps and on the poorest land bordering on the cypress 

ponds, when the woods are not burnt for a year or more ; the 

latter are on dwarf bushes, grow large, and in great abundance. 


The d#rarf saw-palmetto, when the woods are not burnt, ia 
like manner, bears a cluster of berries on a single stone, which 
are eaten by bear, deer, turkeys and Indians. The berries 
half an inch in diaaseter, covered with a black skin, and hare 
a hard seed : they are agreeable to the taste, sweet accompa- 
nied with bitter, and when fully ripe they burst, and the beeiS 
extract much honey from them. The China briar is in the 
flat, rich, sandy margin of streams. The Indians dig the 
roots, pound them in a mortar, and suspend them in coarse 
cloth, pour water on them, and wash them : the sediment which 
passes through with the water is left to subside ; the water ia 
then poured off, and the sediment is baked into cakes, or 
made into grnel sweetened with honey. This briar is called 
Coonte, and the bread of it Coontetucallga, and is an impor- 
tant article of food among the hunters. In the old beaver 
ponds, and in thick boggy places, they have the bog potatoe^ 
a small root used as food in years of scarcity. 

The Okefaunocau is the source of St. Marys and Lit lie 
St. Johns, called by the Indians ^au-wau-he. It is sorae- 
times pronoimced Ecunfinocan, from Ecunau earth, and fi<^ 
cocau quivering; the flrst is the most common among the 
Creeks — it is from Ocka, a Choctaw word for fire and water ; 
Ocau, quivering. This is a very extensive swamp, and much 
of it a bog ; so much so, that a little motion will make the mud 
and water quiver io a great distance; hence the name is given. 

Ho-elh-le-poie Tus-tun-ug-go Thlucco, an Indian who re- 
sided in it many years, says, " that Little St. Johns may be 
ascended far into the swamp, but that it is not practicable io 
go far up the St. Marys, as it loses itself in the swamp ; that 
there is one ridge on the west side of St. Johns, and three 
on the east ; the growth pine, live and while oak — 'the soil 
good ; the lakes abound in fish and alligators ; on the ridges, 
and in the swanip!=!, there were a great many bear, deer, and 
and tigers — he lived on the ridge west of St. Johns, aiid was, 
wilh his famiiy, very healthy ; beasts of prey destroyed most 
of his cattle and horses ; he could wr.llv rouau the swamp ia 
five days." 



The Indian claims are now extinguished to about three 
fourths of the territory. By Jackson's treaty, the Coose ri- 
ver Was made the boundary line between the lands of the 
L'nUed States and Creeks, from the Ten Islands on the Coo- 
sa river, to Wetumke, or the great Falls near Fort Jackson. 
FsomWetumke, the line runs across eastwardly about lU 
miles, then southwardly across the Tallapoose to the mouth 
©f Ofuskee, and np the Ofuskee ten miles, and thence S. 49. 
16. E. 67 miles to the month of Sumuchichoba, on the Chat- 
tahouchee, 46 miles above the 3lst degree of north latitude, 
or the boundary line between the Alabama territory and West 
Florida, and from the mouth of Sumuchichoba, due east 
through the state of Georgia to the Altamaha, two miles east 
of Goose Creek. The whole of the Creek country, west and 
south of the Alabama and the line above mentioned, was ce- 
ded to the United States by the treaty with general Jackson- 
That part of the cession which falls within the Alabama 
territory, amounts probably to about 1 7,000 square miles. 


The settlements extend here from Mobile point to Fort 
Jackson on the Coosa. On the Alabama the country is pret- 
ty well settled near the river, 25 miles above Fort Jackson. 
There are also settlements on the Conecah, Cahaba, and 
Black Warrior. The country is very thinly settled below Sf, 
Stephens. But it is now rapidly settling between the Al- 
abama and- Tombic:;bee. 

There are several new towns laid off; the village o^Slale- 
hj is situated at the mouth of Tensaw, o:i the east side of the 
Mobile bay. Its site is high, commanding and pleasant. Its 
fountains of fresh spring water, are pure, cool, numerous and 
«opious. A good road can be found along the dividijig ridge 



separating the branches of Conecah and Escambia from those 
of the Alabama ; and the distance from Mobile to Fort Clai- 
borne, by this route is 30 miles shorter, than by that of St. 
Stevens. The main road from Georgia to New-Orleans will 
probably strike Mobile bay at this point. The borders of the 
Conecah are fast settling, especially by the poorer class of 
people, and stock owners ; it being better calculated for men 
of small capital than the Alabama T he rapidity of the set- 
tlement of Madison county is probably without a parallel 
in the history of the union. The census of 1816 gave the 
following result : 









































Total, 22,794 10,493 33,287 

This population is scattered, in lines, over an immense 
extent of territory. It is rapidly augmenting by emigrants 
from Georgia, the Carolina?, and from Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. A writer well acquainted with the country, predicts 
that five years will not elapse before the population of this 
territory will exceed 60,000 free white inhabitants, the num- 
ber which gives a right to admission into the union, as an inde- 
pendent state. 

The Creeks or Muscogees, are the only Indians inhabiting 
the territory, and reside chiefly on the waters of Alabama and 
Catahouchy, in about thirty towns ; they are brave, raise stock, 
and cultivate the soil, and although greatly reduced by war 
and famine, ia 1813-14, theirnumber at (his moment exceeds 
20,000 souls. 


THE boundaries of the Illinois territory are defined b^ 
law : — the Ohio washes its soathern border, extending from 
Ihe mouth of the Wabash to its junction with the MisBissippi^ 
a distance of 160 miles ; the Mississippi constitutes the west- 
ern boundary from the mouth of the Ohio to the Rockj Hills, 
in north latitute 41 50, a distances meaauringthe meanderings 
of that river, of m9re than 609 miles ; a line due east from the 
Rocky Hills (not yet run) divides it from the North Western 
Territory ; the Wabash separates it from Indiana, from its 
mouth to within 16 miles of E^ort Harrison, where the division 
line leaves the river, running north until it intersects the 
northern boundary line in N* lat. 41 30. The length of thfe 
ten-itory in a direct line from north to south is 34'? miles^— its 
taiean breadth 206. Its southern extremity is in 36 57 N. 
lat. It contains 52,000 square miles, or 33,280,000 acre*. 
The form of this extensive country is that of an imperfect 
triangle-^its base being the northern boundary of the territo- 
ry, or the parallel of the southern extremity of lake Michi- 
gan ; and the Mississippi its bypothenuse. 

The present population is estimated at 20,000 souls ; 
all whites. It increases, it is supposed, in the ratio of thirty 
per cent, annually, which is accelleratlng. Slavery is not 
admitted. The inhabitants principally reside on the Wabash 
below Vincennes, on the Mississippi, Ohio and Easkaskia. 
No state or territory in North America can boast of su- 
perior facilities of internal navigation. Nearly 1000 milei, 



or, in other words, two-thirds of its frontier is washed b^* 
the Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi. The placid Illinois tra- 
verses this territory in a southwestern direction^ nearly 40O 
miles. This noble river is formed by tlie junction of the 
rivers Theakaki and Flein in N. lat. 41 48. Unlike the other 
great rivers of the western country, its current is mild and 
unbroken by rapids, meandering at leisure through one of the 
finest countries iu the world. It enters the Mississippi about 
200 miles above its confluence with the Ohio and 18 above the 
mouth of the Misouri, in 38 42 N. ht Is upwards of 40O 
yards wide at its mouth, bearing from the Mississippi N. 75 
deg. west. The tributaries of this river entering from the 
north or right bank, are, 1. The Mine, 70 miles long, falls in- 
to the Illinois about 75 miles from its mouth. 2. The Sa- 
gaifiond, a crooked river, enters the HSnois 130 miles from 
the Mississippi. It is 100 yards wide at its entrance, and 
navigable 150 miles for small craft — general course south east, 
3. Demi Q,uain, enters 28 miles above the mouth of the Sa- 
ganaond ; its course nearly south east, and is said to be na- 
vigable 120 miles. On the northern bank of this river is an 
extensive morass called Demi Q,uain Swamp. 4. Seseme 
Q,uain is the next river entering from the north west, 30" 
miles above the mouth of Demi Quain ; 60 yards wide and 
boatabl^ 60 miles. The land on its banks is represented to? 
be of superior excellence. 5. La Marche, a little river from the 
north — navigable but a short distance. 6. Fox river comes 
in nearly equi-distant between the Illinois lake and the junc- 
tion of the Flein and Theakaki rivers, is 130 yards wide — 
heads near the sources of SSockyriver (of the Mississippi,) and 
pursues a north eastern course for the first 50 miles, as though 
making an effort to get into lake Michigan, approaches to 
v/itbin two mi7es of Flein river ; it then takes a southern di- 
rection and is navigable ISO miles, 7* Flein, or jK^ic^a/?oo 
river, interlocks in a singular manner, with the Chicago, run- 
ning into lake Michigan ; sixty miles from its head it expands 
and forms lake Depage, five miles beiow which it joins the 


Tiieakakl from the north east. These streams united, are to 
the Illinois what the Allegany and Monon'gahela, are to the 
Ohio — they water parts of Indiana and the N., W. Territory, 
The rivers of the left branch of the Illinois fall in in the 
following <5rderl 1. The Macopih, a small river, 25 yards 
widcj 20 miles from the Mississippi ; boatahle 9 miles to the 
hills. 2. The Little Michilllmacklnac, 200 miles from the ^ 
Mississippi; navigable 90 miles j comes from the S. E. It 
interweaf^es its branches with the Kaskaskia — has several^ 
cbinsiderablie forks.' 3. Crow Meadow river ;^ heads in the 
Knob^i near the head waters of the Vermillion (of the Wa- 
basTh)-— its course is N. W. — is but 20 yards wide at its ' 
mouth, and navigable about 15 miles. 4i Vermillion rivers 
from the S. E.-r-30 yards wide ; rocky and unnavrgable, fails 
into the niihois 1 60 miles from the Mississippi, near the S. E> 
end' of the' Little Rocks, 5. Rainy Island river, from the- 
S. E. narrow atid navigable but a few miles. 

*^ The banks of the llliddis are generally high. The bed of 
^e river b^irig si white isairble, or clay, or sand, the waters 
are remarkably clear. It abounds with beautiful islands, dne 
of which is teninileslfmg; afld'adjoining or near to it, are 
maby coal minds, ^It ponds, and^mall lakes. It passes 
through one lak^,' two hundred arid ten miles from its mouthy 
which is twenty "niires in length, and three or four milesriii 
breadth, called Mnois lake."* 

The Kaskaskia is the next river in mBgnitude. It heads 
in the extensive prairie^ smtthbf lake Michigan-'its course is 
nearly north. Tl enters the Mississippi 100 miles above llie 
mouth of the Ohio, and 84 below the Illinois, and is naviga^- 
ble 1 30 miles. Its tributaries from the west and north-west 
are ' Water-Cress arid' Lalande Creeks — those entering from 
the east are Biirid River, Bighill creek, Beaver, Xellowcreekj 
and Copper mine creek. 

* Alale Officer of vlje U. S. Army. 



A respectable correspondent, residing on the Kaskaskiaf^ 
gives the following interesting sketch, under date of January 

*'The Kaskaskia river waters the finest country I have ever 
seen — it is neither flat nor mountainous, but maintains a hap- 
py undulating medium between the extremes — it is suited to 
the growth of Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, hemp, to» 
bacco, &c. &c. The climate is too cold for cotton, as a sta- 
ple, or for sugar. On the streams of this river there are alrea- 
dy built, and now building a great number of mills — it is navi- 
gable at least 150 miles on a straight line — it is generally con- 
ceded that the permanent seat of government for the state, 
trill be fixed on this river, near a direct line from the mouth 
of Missouri to Vincennes, in the state of Indiana. The in- 
habitants residing on this river and its waters, may not be as 
polished as some ; but I will say, without fear of contradiction, 
that no people have a more abundant stock of hospitality, mo- 
rality, and religion. On the bank of this river, a few milei 
above its mouth, is situated the town of Kaskaskia, the prC"- 
sent seat of government. Here is a fine harbor for boats. 

" The great American bottom of the Mississippi begins at 
the mouth of the Kaskaskia river, extending nearly, to the 
mouth of the Illinois river, supposed to contain six hundred 
square miles, ^i^o land can be more fertile — Some of it haa 
been in cultivation one hundred and twenty years, and still no 
deterioration has yet manifested itself — it is unquestionably 
the Delta of America, Great numbers of cattle are bought 
in that country for the Philadelphia and Baltimore markets— it 
is undoubtedly a very fine stock country." 

Au Vase river empties into the Mississippi 55 miles above 
the mouth of the Ohio; itis boatable 60 miles, through a fine 
prairie country. It drains a district 70 by 25 miles. The 
little river Marie waters a district between the Au Vase and 
and Kaskaskia. Wood river is the principal stream betwee* 
th« mouths pf the Kagkaskia and IHinelr, 


Rocky rlrer waters the north-west corner of the territory. 
It heads in the hilla west of the south end of lake Michigan, 
and is 300 yards wide at its entrance into the Mississippi — it 
bears from the Mississippi almost due east — about three miles 
up this river is an old Indian town, belonging to the Sac na- 
tion. Sand Bay river discharges itself into the Mississippi 
between the mouths of Rocky and Illinois rivers. 

The streams falling into the Ohio, from this territory, beloir 
the mouth of the Wabash, are few and inconsiderable in size. 
The Saline is the first — it empties its waters 26 miles below 
the mouth of the Wabash. It is 150 yards wide at its mouth 
— navigable for keels and batteaux for 30 miles. The famous 
U. S. Salt- Works, are upon this stream, 20 miles up by the 
windings of the river, but not more than ten in a direct line. 
Sandy creek between this and fort Massac ; and Cash river, 
15 miles below Wilkinsonville, are the only ones deserving 
mention, though there are others sufl^ciently large to afford 
mill seats. 

In addition to the rivers and rivulets already described, the 
eastern part of the territory is watered by several respectable 
rivers running into the Wabash. 1. Little Wabash river, 
from the north-west — 60 yards wide. 2. Fox river, which 
interlocks with eastern branches of the Kaskaskia — enters the 
Wabash about 50 miles below Vincennes. 3. The Embar- 
ras, or river of Embarasment, enters the Wabash a little 
below VincenneS'^course south-east, 4. Mascontin, from 
the north-west, 50 yards wide. 5. St. Germain, from the 
west; a mere rivulet. 6. Tortue, from the west, a crooked, 
long river. The three last mentioned rivers enter the Wa- 
bash, in the order named, between Vincennes and fort Har- 
rison. 7. Brouette. 8. Duchat. 9, Erabliere. 10. 
Rejoicing. These rivers all head in the IlKnois territory, 
and enter the Wabash, between fort Harrison and Tippeca- 
noe. The last is 100 yards wide at its mouth. 

There are many small lakes in this territory. Pevefa! of 
the rivers have their sourc«s in them. They abound 


mlth wild fowl and fish. On the left bank of the Illinoky 
40 miles from its mouth, are a chain of small lakes communi- 
cating by narrow channels, With each other ; onebf theoi dis- 
charges into the Illinios. The prairies bordering these lakes 
constitute the Peorias* wintering ground, Illinois and De- 
|jage lakes are merely expansions of the Illinois and Plefa 
rivers. Demiquain lake is situated on the right bank of the' 
Illinois, above the mouth of the river of the slme name^t 'is 
of a circular form ; six miles across ; arid empties its waters! 
into the Illinois. There are also several smalliakes in the A^ ' 
lu.erican Bottom, such as Marrodizuai five miles' lon^, tweni 
ty two miles below the mouth of Wood rirer — ^Bond Take 3 
miles further down ; their outlets discharge into the Mississi|i= 
|)i. On their margins are delightful plantations. ' - - 


There are six distinct kinds of land in Illinois. 1. Bottoms, 
bearing honey locust, pecan, black walnut, beach, sugar maple, 
buckeye, pawpaw, &c. This land is of the first quality, and 
may be said to be ripe alluvion, and is found in greater or less 
quantities, ofli all the rivers before enumerated. It is called 
the first bottomi Iii» almost invariably covered with a pret- 
ty heavy growth of the foregoing trees, grape vines, &c. and 
in autumn the air of these bottoms is agreeably impregnated 
with an aromatic smell, caused no doubt by the fruit and leaves 
©f the black walnut. Tliis land is inexhaustible in fecundity; 
as is proved by its present fertility, where it has been annu- 
ally cultivated without manure, for more than a century.. It 
"Varies in width from 50 rods to two miles and upwards. 2. 
The newly formed or nnripe alluvion ; this kind of land is al- 
ways found at the mouths and confluences of rivers.; it pro- 
duces sycamore, cotton wood, water maple, water ash, elm 
willow oak, willow. Sec. and is covered in autumn, with a lux- 
uriant growth of weeds. These bottoms are subject to inun- 
dations, the banks being several feet below high water mark. 


fO^here are many thousand acres of tWs land^ at the mouth of 
, the Walljashi ;and at ike confluence of the Miss issippi. Woe 
be to the settler, .who locates himself upon this deleterious 
soil. 3*. Dry prairie, bordering aU the rivers, lies immediate- 
ly in the rear of the bottoms; from .30 to ]00 feet higher; 
and from one to ten miles wide, a dry rich soil^and most hap- 
pily adapted to the -purposes of cultivation, as it bears 
drought and rain with equal suecesg* These prairies are 
destitute of trees, unless where they are crossed by streams 
and occasional islands of wood land. The praiiies of the Illi- 
nois river are the most extensive of any east of the Mississip- 
pi, and have alone been estimated at 1,200,000 acres. This 
soil is some places black, in others of the colour of iron rusi 
interspersed with a light white sand. In point of product- 
iveness ^ it is not inferior to the first rate river bottoms, and ira 
some respects superior. 4. Wet prairie, which are found 
remote from streams^ or at their sources, the soil is generally 
cold and barren, abounding with swamps, ponds, and covered 
with a tall coarse grass. 5. Timbered land, moderately hilly, 
well watered, and of a rich soil. 6. Hills, of a sterile soil an J 
destitute of timber, or covered with stinted oaks and pines. 

Between the mouths of the Wabash and the Ohio, the 
tight bank of the Ohio, in many places presents the rugged ap" 
pearance of bold projecting rocks. The banks of the Kas- 
kaskia and Illinois in some places present a sublime and 
picturesque scenery. Several of their tributary streams 
have excavated for themselves deep and frightful gulfs, par- 
ticularly, those of the first named river, the banks of which 
near the junction of Big hill creek, present a perpendicular 
front of 140 feet high, of solid limestone. The north west- 
ern part of the territory is a hilly, broken country, in which 
most of the rivers emptying into the Wabash from the north, 
have their heads.' A great patt of the territory is open prai- 
rie, some of which are of such vast extent that the sun ap- 
parently rises and sets within their widely extended borders, 

" The large tract of country through which the Illinois rt- 


▼er and its branches meander, is said not to be exceeded iU 
beautj, levelness, richness^ and fertility of soil, by any tract 
©f land, of equal extent, in the United States. From the Illi- 
nois to the Wabash, excepting some little distance from the 
rivers, is almost one continued prairie, or natural meadow, itt= 
termixed with groves, or copses of wood^ and some swamps 
and small lakes. These beautiful, and to the eye of the be- 
holder, unlimited fields, are covered with a luxuriant growth 
«f grass, and other vegetable productions ." 

Travellers describe the scenery skirting the Illinois as beau- 
tiful beyond description. There is a constant succession of 
prairies, stretching in many places, from the rivef farther 
than the eye can reach, and elegant groves of wood land. 
The trees are represented as peculiarly handsome ; having 
their branches overspread with rich covering of the vine* 
Neverthsless, it is the empire of solitude, for the cheering 
voice of civilized men is seldom heard on this delightful 

According to the late General Pike> the east shore of the 
Mississippi, from the mouth of the Missouri to that of the Illi- 
nots (20 miles) is bordered by hills from 80 to 100 feet high-; 
above, they are of gentle ascent, alternately presenting beau- 
tiful cedar clifts and distant ridges. The bottoms afford 
many eligible situations for settlementSi Above and below 
the mouth of Rocky river are beautiful prairies. 


The oak family may be said to be the prevailing forest 
tree of Illinois. There are four species of white oak; two 
of chesnut oak, mountain and Illinois ; three of willow oak, 
upland, swamp, and shinghf so called from its being an ex- 
cellent material for shingles, and which is used for that pur- 
pose by the inhabitants. It is found on all the rivers of the 
teiritory. Its height is from 40 to 50 feet — grey bark, 
straight branches, large, sessile, dark green leaves, a little 
downy uuderiieath ; spherical acorns. Black jack, black oak^ 


STramp oak, scarlet oak, so called from its scarlet colored 
leaves in autumn; grows to the height of 80 feet, useful for 
rails. The honey locust is found in all the swails, bottoms, 
and rich hills of the west, from the lakes to the latitude of 
Natchez. It invariably rejects a poor soil ; grows to the 
height of 40 ,or 60 feet, dividing into many branches, which 
together with the trunk, are armed with long, sharp, pithy 
spines of the size of goose quills, from five to ten inches in 
length, and frequently so thick as to prevent the ascent of a 
squirrel. The branches are garnished with winged leaves, 
composed of ten or more pair of small lobes, sitting close to 
the midrib, of a lucid green colour. The fiowei s come ciit 
from the sides of the young branches, in form of katkins, of 
an herbaceous colour, and are succeeded by crooked, com- 
pressed pods, from nine or ten to sixteen or eighteen inches 
in length, and about an inch and a half or two inches in 
breadth, of which near one half is filled with a sweet pulp, 
the other containing many seeds in separate cells. The pods, 
from the sweetness of their pulp, are used to brew in beer, 
and afford for hogs and many other animals a nutritious and 
abundant food. I have myself been in situations, when I was 
obliged to resort to them as a substitute for something better, 
and always found them to allay hunger, and renew jelmost ex- 
hausted i^trength. 1 he black walnut is found on the bottoms 
and rich hills — it often rises to the height of 70 feet ; large 
trunk, dark, furrowed bark; winged leaves, which emit an 
aromatic flavor when bruised; fruit round and nearly as Jarg© 
as a peach. The wood is light and durable. Butternut is a 
companion of the black walnut. Besides all the species of 
hickory found in the northern states, the pecan or Illinois nut 
grows plentifully in the rich swails and bottoms ; the nuts are 
smiill and thin shelled. The banks of the IW'mok are the fa- 
vorite soil of the mulberry, and of the plum. Sugar maple, 
blue and white oak, black locust, elm, baasTrcod, beach, buck- 
eye, hackberry, cofTee-nut (ree, and sycamore, are found in 
their congenial soils, throughout the tervitory. V/hite pine 



IB found on the head branches of the Illinois. Spice woodj 
Sassafras, black and white haws, crab apple, wild cherry, cu= 
cumber, and pawpaw, are common to the best soils. The last 
yields a fruit of the size of a cucumber, of a yellow colour-^" 
rn taste resembling the pine apple. They grow in clusters 
of three, four, and five, in the crotches of a soft straight and 
beautiful shrub from 10 to 25 feet high — it is rarely found on 
the hills however rich their soil. The forests and banks of the 
stream^ abound with grape Vines, of which there are several 
spvcies ; some valuable. The herbage of the woods varies 
little from that of ICentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. 

Copper and lead are found in several parts of the territory. 
I am not infor£ded as to the existence of iron ore. Travellers 
speak of an nlkim kill a consideraWe distance up Mine rivei^j 
and of another hill, producing ttje fleche or arrow stone. The 
French while in possession of the country, procured mill- 
stones above the Illinois lake. Coal is found upon the banks 
of the Au Vase or JVIuddy river, and Illinois 50 miles abovie 
Peoria lake; the latter mine extends for half a liiile along 
the right bank of the river. A little below the coal mines 
are two salt ponds one hundred yards in circumference, and 
several feet in depth ; the water is stagnant, and of a yellowish 
colour. The French inhabitants and Indians make good salt 
from them. Between two and three hundred thousand bush- 
els of salt are annually made at the U. S. Saline, 26 miles b6- 
low the mouth of the Wabash. These works supply the 
settlements of Indiana and Illinois. The salt is sold at the 
woiks at from fifty to seventy-five cents a bushel. Gorern- 
menl have leased the works to Messrs. Wilkins and Morrison, 
of Lexington. Beds of white clay are found on the rivers 
Illinois and Tortue. The prevailing stoiie is lime. 


There are several old French villages on both banks of the 
lllinoi , which are antique in appearance, inhabited by a peO' 
pie inured to the habits of savage life. 


Cahokia — Is situated on a snoall stream, about one mile 
«ast of the Mississippi, nearly opposite to St. Louis. It con- 
tains about 160 houses, mostly French, who were its founders. 
^'Thistown, although apparently of considerable elevation, is 
still a damp and disagreeable situation, owing to its being too 
level to permit the rains to run off very easily." It former- 
ly enjoyed a considerable share of the fur trade. At present 
Ihe inhabitants confine their attention chiefly to agriculture, 
but not with much spirit. There is a post-oflSce and a chapel 
for the Roman Catholic worship j and is the seat of justice for 
St. Clair county. 

St. Philippe — In the American bottona, 45 miles below Ca^ 
hokia, a pleasant old French village. 

Prairie du Kochers— Twenty miles below St. Phillippe, 
contains from sixty to seventy French families; the street? 
are narrow — there is a catholic chapel. The country be- 
low and above is a continued prairie of the richest soil. 

JETosfcasfcia— rSitqated on the right shore of the river of 
the same name, eleven miles from its mouth, and six from the 
Mississippi, in a direct line. It is at present the seat of the 
territorial governqient and chief town of Randolph county — 
contains 160 houses, scattered oyer an extensive plain ; some 
of them are of stone. Almost every house has a spacious 
picketed garden in its rear. The houses have a clumsy ap- 
pearance ; it is 150 miles south-west of Vincenues, and 90O 
from the city of Washington, The inhabitants are more 
than half French ; they raise large stocks of horned cattle, 
horses, swine, poultry, i^c. There is a post office, a land office 
for the sale of the public lands, and a printing office, from 
which is issued a weekly newspaper entitled the "/<7mo«s 
Herald.^' This place was settled upwards pf 100 years, ago, 
by the French of Lower Canajila. The surroundiiig lands 
are in a good slate of cultivation. 

The villages on the Ohio, below the Wabash are, 

Shawannccioivn, above (he mouth of the Saijne, containing 
§0 or 40 log buildings ; the inhabitants live hy lije profits qf 


the salt trade. The growth of the town has been greatly re- 
tarded in consequence of the United States having reserved 
to themselves the property of the scite of this place, the salt 
licks, as well as the intermediate tract between this and Saline 
river, 9 miles distant. It is a place of great resort for boats, 
•and in time will no doubt become a place of consequence, as 
the lands in its vicinity are of a good quality. Here formerly 
stood an Indian village of the Shawannos nation. 

Wilkinsonvilh- — About half way between fort Massac and 
the mouth of the Ohio, stands upon a beautiful savanna of 100 
acres, 60 or 70 feet above the river. It is a place of little or 
Eo trade at present, and has sensibly declined since it lost the 
governmental patronage of a garrison. It has a fine eddy for 

There are several other small villages, such as Belle Fon- 
taine, L'Aigle, Edwardsville, &c. A new village is about to 
be laid oul at the mouth of Cash. There are two roads lead- 
ing through the Ohio to Kaskaskia. The first leaves the Ohio 
at Robin's ferry, 17 miles below the Saline ; distance to Kas- 
kaskia, 1 35 miles. The other leaves the river at Lusk's ferry, 
15 miles above the mouth of Cumberland. This is the short- 
est route by 15 or 20 miles. A post route passes from 
Vincennes to Kaskaskia, about 150 miles long — travellers are 
obliged to camp out two or three nights. Government have 
leased out a number of lots upon these roads ; and receive 
the rents in repairs of a given distance of road. There is a 
tolerable road between the moulh of Au Vase and Wood 
river, passing through Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rochers, St. Phi- 
lippe, and Cahokia. Most of the settlements are connected 
by prscticuble roads, at least for packers and travellers on 
horseback. The bulk of the population is settled upon the 
Mississippi, Ksskaskia and its branches. There are a few- 
detached settlements on the Wabash, and some of the streams 
entering the west bank ; and detached ones on the Ohio. 
Those on the Illinois are sjinall, insulated, and sometimes 50 
miles apart. The Ainci icaii and Turky hill settlements, be- 


tween the Illinois aud Wood riverSj are flourishing ; the in- 
habitants are mostly from Kentucky and the southern states, 


The " Cave in Rock," nineteen miles below Saline, has 
been often visited and described by travellers. The en- 
trance into this cave is of a semi-circular form, twenty feet 
above the ordinary level of the river, in a perpendicular rock, 
thirty feet high. A few yards from the mouth you enter a 
spacious room, sixty paces in length, and nearly as wide. 
Near the centre of the roof is an aperture resembling the fun- 
nel of a chimney, which, according to Ash, the British trav- 
eller, leads to an npper room, "not unlike a Gothic Cathe- 
dral." At one end of this vault, our traveller found an open- 
ing, which served as a descent to another vault, of very great 
depth, as he judged, since "a stone cast in, whose reverbra- 
tion was not returned for the space of several seconds.'' Our 
adventurer, who is always full of the marvellous, found the 
remains of several human skeletons, in this "drear abode;'' 
while searching for others, he got bewildered, and was unable 
to find the place of his descent. He fired his pistol, as a sig-* 
nal of distress — its effect was " terrific" — its report " tre- 
mendous.'' "No thunder could exceed the explosion, no» 
echo return so strong a voice I""^ Mason's gang of robbers 
made this cave their principal rendezvous, in 1 97, where 
they frequently plundered or murdered the crews of boats 
descnding the Ohio. 

The Battery Rocks, so called from their resemblance to a 
range of forts and batteries, are noticed by travellers, as a na^ 
turai curiosity. They are nothing more than the perpendi- 
cular bank of the river, seven miles above the Cave in Rock. 
The Devil's Oven is situated upon an elevated rocky point, 

See Ash's Travtls, psgc 234. 


projecting into the Mississippi, fifteen miles below the raoutl^ 
of Au Vase. It has a clotse resemblance to an oven. On the 
large prairies are frequently found sink-holes, some of which 
are 150 feet across, circular at the top, gradually narrowing 
to the bottom, and frequently so steep as to make the descent 
dlfEcult. At the bottom, the traveller finds a handsome sub« 
terranean brook, in which he can conveniently allay his thirst. 
These sinks have, doubtless, been formed by the waters' un- 
dermining the earth, the weight of which produces successive 

Ancient fortifications and mounds, similar to those found in 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, are also met with in Illinois. 
Four miles above the Prairie du Rochers, are the ruins effort 
Chartres, built by the French, at the expence of one hundred 
thousand dollars. At the period of its construction, it was 
one quarter of a mile from the river, but at present is nearly 
undermined by the Mississippi. Fort Massac, 45 miles above 
the mouth of the Ohio, built by the French about the middle 
of the last century, and occupied by the Americans for many 
years after the close of the revolutionary war; is at present 


The bufFaloe, which formerly roamed at will, and in vast 
numbers, through the immense prairies of Illinois, have lately 
disappeared, preferring the more distant plains of the Mis- 
souri. Deer, elk, bear, wolves, foxes, oposum, and raccoon, 
remain in considerable numbers. The inhabitants of a fine 
breed of horses from the Spanish stock. Their cattle have 
a lively and sleek appearance. Hogs are easily raised. 

"VViid turkies abound in the hilly districts. Quails are 
plenty — pheasants, scarce. Geese and ducks frequent the 
ponds, bkes, and rivers ; particularly the head branches of 
tlie Illinois, and sinall lakes towards lake Michigan, whither 
they arc ixltracted in prodigious numbers, in quesM; of the wild 


jrice, which furnishes an abundant and favorite aliment. Buz- 
zards, pigeons, black birds, paroquets, and several species of 
hawks, abound in the same numbers, as in other parts of the 
Westerb country. 

Most lands of fish which are found in the Missssippi and 
the great northern lakes, frequent the rivers of this territory. 
IBturgeon are found in Peoria or Illinois lake. 

The only venomous serpents, are the common andpmirte 
rattlesnakes, and copper-heads* ^ 


The Sacs or Saukiesj inhabit the country bordering oS 
Sand Bay and Rocky Rivers— they have three villages. A 
jpart of this tribe reside on the west side of the Mississippi. 
Pike gives the total number of souls at 2850. Four miles 
feelowSand Bay, the U. S. had an agricultural establishments 
tinder the direction of a Mr. Ewing. It did not succeed^ 
because these Indians hold labor ia the greatest contempt* 
The Kaskaskias, Cohokias and Peorias, are remnants of forrai- 
dable tribes. They have been nearly annihilated in their 
wars with the Saukies and Foxes, originally provoked by 
the assassination of the Saiikie chief Pontiac. They are re- 
duced to 250 warriors — reside principally between the Kas- 
taskia and Illinois. The Delawares and Shawanese have 
a summer residence four miles below Au Vase river. The 
Piankashaws and Mascontliis mostly inhabit the Mascontin, 
Tortue and Rejoicing branches of the Wabash ; their total 
number of souls about 600. 


Com is at present the staple — no country produces finer. 
The traveller often meets with cornfields containing from 100 
to 1000 acres, these are cultivated in common by the people 
of a whole Village, or a settlement. By this method the inhab- 


itants obviate the expense o^ division fences, where it wouldl 
be necessary to haul timber several miies to the centre of a 
vast prairie. Cotton is raised lor domestic use. There is no 
doubt, that ultimately, considerable quantities will be pro- 
duced for exportation. Tobacco grows to great perfection. 
Wheat does well, when properly mar/aged, except on the bot-> 
toms where the soil is too rich. Flax, hemp, onts, frish and 
sweet potatoes do as well as in Kentucky. Notwithstanding 
the abundance of wild grapes to be found in the forests, it is 
very doubtful, 1 think, whether the French inhabitants ever 
made 80 hogsheads of good wine, in any single year. The 
successful expenment at Vevay, in Indiana, warrants the be- 
lief that vineyards, at no remote period, will embellish the 
jhllls of the southern half of this territory. 


These are all of the domestic kind. la 1810, according to 

the MiU'shall's returns, there were, 

Spinning- Wheels, . . , . . 630 

Looms, 460 

Cloth produced, (yards) .... 90,039 

Value, (dollars) . . . 54,028 

Tanneries, ...... 9 

Value of Leather dressed, . . . 7,750 

Distilleries, 19 

Produced (gallons) 10,200 . . . 7,500 
Flour, 6440 barrels — value, , . 32,'200 

Mrtple Sugar, 15,600 lbs. — value, . . 1,980 
The population has nearly doubled since that period, and 

the manufactures have advanced in a correspond iug ratio. 


The lands in this territory appropriated to reward the valor 
•f our soldiers, during; the late war, amount to 3,500,000 


acres. This tract lies on the nortii bank of the Illinois, neat 
its juiiction with th< Mississippi. H has oerer been particu- 
larly describedo Mr. Tiffin, commissioner of the genera! 
land office, declares it to be of the first quality. A genile- 
man, high in office in that territory, writes—^" I have nevep 
been on the north side of the Illinois river, but my informa- 
tion authorises me to say, that it is a very good country.'' 
Another correspondent writes — "This tract is of good quali- 
ty, and desirable to settlers — it is inferior to none of the pub- 
He lands of the United States." The U. S. are now engag- 
ed in surveying them. They are watered by several respec- 
table streams, and are advantageously situated, either for the 
lake or Orleans trade, having the Mississippi west ; Illinois 
south ; Mine river east, and lands belonging to the Sac and 
Fox Indians, north. The growth of vegetation is so luxuriant 
that the surveyors can make no progress in summer. 


The public lands have rarely sold for more than $5 per 
acre, at auction. Those sold at Edwardsville in October^ 
1816, averaged ^4. Private sales at the land office, are fixed 
by law, at $'2 per acre. The old French locations command 
various prices from ^1 to 50. Titles derived from the Unit- 
ed States' government are always valid ; dnd those from indi- 
viduals rarely false. 

There are upwards of sixteen millions of acres befongfeg 
to the United States, obtained at different cessions from the 
Indians, aod consequently a wide field open for purchase and 

The kinds belonging to the aboriginal proprietors lie princi- 
pally between the Wabash and the Illinois, north of the head 
©f the Kaskaskia. They have large reservations north of 
the Illinois, upon Rocky river, Sagamond, Sec. The Unit- 
ed States have obtained a cession olsix miles square at the 
oast end of Peoria lake, north of the Illinois river. 



The territorial population being at this moment 20,000 
souls, and the ratio of increase 30 per cent, per annum, it will 
reqip-e ten years to give Illinois the necessaiy qualification 
for being admitted into the Union. It is capable of sustain- 
, idg S denser population than New York, and contains nearly 
as many acres. Compai-ativeiy speaking, there are no waste 
lands. It would, therefore, allowing twenty souls to the 
square mile, conveniently sustain a population of 1,000,000, 
But on the ratio of 54 to a square mile, which was that of 
Connecticut, at the census of 1810, it would contain, in time, 


Nature has been peculiarly bountiful to Illinois, for not on- 
ly has she blessed this favored region with a temperate cli- 
mate, and highly productive soil, but has prepared conveni- 
ent channels of communication, for the transportation of pio- 
ducts to market, and to facilitate settlement and internal in- 
tercourse. The Illinois, which hitherto has been little navi- 
gated, except by the North- West Company's boats, must 
in a few years become the theatre of an active commerce. 
American enterprize will force its way thither. The tide of 
navigation, like water, will overspread the fine vallies of Illi- 
nois, Mine and Uemi-Q,uain. A trifling espence, comparitive- 
ly to the importance of the undertaking, will unite the Illinois 
to the Chicago in all seasons of the year. Then the lead of 
of I^Jissouri, and the cotton of Ternessee will find their way 
to Detroit and Buffalo. The following roTigh estimate, which 
does rot exceed the actual distance, will enable uninformed 
readers to form a pretty correct idea of the extent oi frontier 


and internal navigation, for boats, which the future state of 
Illinois will enjoy. 


Wabash, 240 miles. 

Ohio, 164 

Mississippi, 620 

Total 1024 


Illinois, navigable ....... 320 miles. 

Tributaries from the N. W 550 

Ditlo, from the S. E • 200 

Kaskaskia, and branches, ..... 300 

Ti'ibntariea of the Wabash, .... 500 
Minor rivers, such as An Vase, Marie, 

Cash, &c 200 

Internal 2070 
Frontier 1024 

Total 3094 

The tllstanee by water, from the mouth of the Illinois to 
New Oflenns, is 1 174 miles, and to Buffalo,_ through the lakes, 


IS bounded west bj the Wabash river, from its mouth t<^ 
40 miles above Vincennes, and thence by a meridian line t© 
the parallel of the south end of lake Michigan, (supposed t© 
be in N. lat. 41, 50.) which divides it from Illinois territory". 
Its northern limit is the above parallel, which separates it 
from the Michigan territory. A meridian line running from 
the mouth of the Big Miami, until it intersects the aforesaid 
parallel of the south end of lake Michigan, divides it from the 
state of Ohio, on the east. The Ohio river forms its southera 
boundary. Length, from north to south, 284 miles ; breadth, 
from east to west, 155 miles — contain* 39,000 square miles, 
©r 24,960,000 acres. Its form would be that of a paralellQ;=' 
gram, were the course of the Ohio due west. 


The Ohio washes the southern border of Indiana, from 
the mouth of the Big Miaau, to that of the Wabash, a dis- 
tan«'e, measuring its windings, of 472 miles — all the streams 
vhich intersect this extensive line of coast, are comparitively 
■hort; forthe southern fork of White river, having its source 
within a few miles of the Ohio boundary line, runs nearly par- 
allel with Ohio, at the distance of from forty to sixty miles. 
The principal of these enter the Ohio in the order named : 

Tanner's Creek — Two miles below Lawrenceburgh, thirty 
miles long ; thirty yards wide at its mouth — heads in the 
Flat woods to the south of Brookville . 

liou^h&ry's Creek — Fifty yards wide at its mouth, and forty • 
jmiles loBg, is the next stream worthy of mention, below the 
pg Mia*i, from which it is distant eleven miles; 


Indian Creek — Sometimes called Indian Kentucky, an^ 
%y the Swiss Venoge, ?fter a small river in the Pays de 
Vaud (Switzerland) constitutes the southern limit of the 
Swiss settlement, eight miles l^elow the raoulh of Kentucky 
river. It rises in the hills ne»r the south fork of White Ri- 
ver, 45 miles north east of Vevay. 

Wyandot creek, heads in the range of hil's eiftending '"n a 
transveree direction, from near the mou'h of Blue river, to the 
Mnddy fork of Whiie river, and falls into the Ohio about 
equidistant from the falls and Blue river. 

Big Blue Eiver, heads still further north ; but near the 
south fork of White river. After running fifty miles south- 
west, it inclines to ihe east of south, and enters the Ohio 32 
miles below the mouth of Salt river, fiom the south. Its 
name indicates the colour of its water, which is of a clear 
folueish cast ; but in quality pure and healthful 

Little Blue River empties into the Ohio 13 miles below the 
mouth of Big Blue River — it is about torty yards wide at its 
mouth — its course is from north east to south west. Tea 
miles below is Sinking creek, fifty yards wide at its mouth. 

Andersoii's river, sixty miles farther down, is the most con- 
siderable stream between Blue river and the Wabash. Be-* 
low this, are Pegion and Beaver creeks. In addition to the 
preceding creeks and rivers, a large number of respectable 
creeks and runs also enter the Ohio, at different points be- 
tween the Miami and the Wabash, so that that part of In- 
diana, lying between White river and the Ohio, may be pro- 
nounced well waiered. It is the character of most of the 
foregoing streams, to possess a brisk current and pure water; 
the consequence is, an abundance of convenient mill seats, 
and 3 salubrious and healthful climate. 

The Wabash waters the central and western part<s of the 
state. The main branch of this fine river, heads two miles 
cast of old fort St. Mary's, and intersects the portage road 
between Loramie creek and the river St. Mary's, in Darke 
©ounty, Ohio. There are three other branches, all winding 

emigrant's directory. 39 

through a rich and extensive country. The first, caltec) Little 
riJ^c?, heads seven oti lies south of fori Wayne, and enters the 
V/abasb, about eighty miles below the St. Mary's portage. 
The second 5s the Massasinway, wliicb heads in Darte rotm- 
ty, Ohio, about half way between fort^ Greei!viII« and Re- 
covery, and unites witli the others, 5 miles below the mouth 
of Little river. The third is Eel river, which issues from 
several lakes and ponds, eighteen miles west of fort Wayne; 
it enters the Wabash, eight miles below the mouth of the 
Massissinway. From the entrance of Eel river, the general 
course of the Wabash is about ten degrees south of west, to 
the mouth o^ Rejoicing river, (85 miles) whei-e it takes a 
southein direction, to the mouth of Rocky river (forty miles) 
' — here it inclines to the west, to the mouth of the Mascoiitin, 
(thirty-six miles) — where it pursues a soutl? eastern course, 
to Vincennes, (fifty miles) — from this town to the Ohio, its 
general course is south, (ore hundred miles.) It is three hun- 
dred yards w-de at its mouth, and enters the Ohio at right' 
angle;?. Its length, from its mouth to its extreme source, ex- 
ceeds Pve hundred mi'es. It is navigable for keel boats, 
about four hundred miles, to Ouitanon, where there are 
rapids. From this village small boats can go to within sis 
miles of St. Mi^ry's river ; ten of fo' t Wpyne ; and eight 
of the St. Joseplis of the Miami-of-the-lakes. Its current 
is generall} gentle above Vii^cennes — below this town there 
are several rapids; but not of suiScient magnitude to prevent 
boats from a^jcending. The principal rapids are belweea 
Deche and White rivers, ten miles below Vincennes. 

The tributary waters, which enter from the left bank of 
the Wabash, and which are called rivers, are: 

1. The Peloka, fiom the northeast, cosnes in twenty 
miles below Yincennes ; ?l heads a few miles south east cf 
the Muddy fork of Wliitc rivci', with which it runs parallel, at 
the distance often or twelve miles. It is about seventy-five 
miles in length; and meanders through extensive rich l;©t- 


2. White River enters four miles above the Petoka, and 
sixteen below Vincennes. This is an important river, as it 
reaches nearly across the state in a diagonal direction, wifer- 
ing a vast body of rich land — thirty-five miles from its mouth 
there is a junction of the two principal forks — the north or 
Drift-wood Branch, interlocks with the north fork of White- 
VJater, and with the branches of Stillwater, a tributary of the 
Big Miami. The south or Muddy fork heads between the 
branches of the west fork of Whitewater. The country 
between the two main forks of Whiteriver is watered by the 
Teakettle branch, which unites with the north fork, twenty 
miles above the junction of the two principal forks. 

3. Deche river, unites with the Wabash, about half way be- 
tween Vincennes and the mouth of Whiterivei- — it comes 
from the north east — -is a crooked, short stream, but re- 
©eives several creeks. 

4. Little rit)er, called by the French Le Petite Reviere, 
winds its devious course, from the north east, among wide 
spreading bottoms, and enters its estuary a little above Vin- 
cennes. Between this river and the Wabash lies an alluvion 
ef several thousand acres, uniformly bottom, of exhaustles* 

5. The St. Marie, from north east, enters eighteen mile» 
above Vincennes, and is about fifty miles long. 

6. Rocky river, sixty miles further up, comes in from the 
east, and interweaves its branches v/ith those of the Main 
fork of White river. It is one hundred yards wide at its? 
mouth, and has several Is^rge forks. 

7. Petite, or Little river, is the only river entering from the' 
left, for seventy miles above Rocky liver. It comes from 
the south east, and heads near the sources of Rocky iriver. 

8. Pomme rivev coines in from the south east — forty miles 
higher up, and twenty miles below the mouth of M?.ssissin- 
way. It rises near the Ohio boundary, a little to the north 
of the head branches of Whitewater. Besid.*s the rivers 
sJbovQ euumerated; which water the left bunk of the Wabash, 

Emigrant's directory. 41 

lliere are an immense number of creeks and runs, affording, in 
most places a sufficient supply of water. Bml there are pret- 
ty extensive districts between the Little and Rocky rivers, 
where water cannot be readily procured. 

The right or north west bank of the Wabash, receives a 
greater number of rivers than the left. Crossing this noble 
stream, at the mouth of Pomme riven, and descending upon 
its right shore, the first considerable water that obstructs our 
progress, is Richard^s creek, from the north Avest — ten miles 
below. Ten miles farther enters Rock river, from the north 
west — its banks are high, and the conntry around it broken. 

Eight miles farther down, is the Tippacanoe, rendered fa- 
mous by the battle upon its banks, between the Americans 
atid Indians, in Nov. 1811. This river heads about thirty 
miles to the West of fort Wayne. Several of its branches 
issue from lakes, swamps, and ponds, some of which have 
double outlets, running into the St. Josephs of the Miami-of» 
ihe-lakes. Upon this stream, and on the Wabash, above and 
below its junction, are Indian villages, and extensive fields. 
Two Indian roads leave these towns for the northern lak»s — 
one ascends the right bank of the Wabash, to Oultanan and 
fort Wayne; the other ascends the Tippacanoe, and crosses 
the head branches of the Illinois, to the St. Josephs of lake 

From the mouth of Tippacanoe, we successively pass 
Pine, and Redwood creeks; Rejo'cing, oi- Vermillion Jaune, 
Little Vermi'llon, Erabliere, Duchat, and Brouette rivers, at 
the distance of fiom ten to fifteen miles from each other, and 
ail coming from the west or north west ; mostly small, and 
having their heads in the Illinois territory. 

Jl hilenmler, rises near the eastern boundary line, twelve 
miles v/est of fort Gcfeenville, and nearly parallel with tlii.-i 
line, at the distance of from six to teu miles, ar^d watering in 
its progress, twenty-two townships, in Wayne, Franklin, and 
Dearborn counties. At Brookvilie, thirty miles fiom its en- 
Irance into tlie I\Iiami, it ret'eives the West fork, wiilch LeadR 


in the Flat woods, thirtj miles west of that village, and lntei> 
locks with the branches of White river. This beautiful little 
river waters nearly one million of acres of fine land, and owes 
its name to the unusual transparency of its water. A fish or 
a pebble can be seen at the depth of twenty feet. It is suffi- 
ciently cool for drinking dining summer. The inhabitants 
contend that bodies floating on its surface are less buoyant 
than those on any other river; and endeavored to dissuade me 
from bathing in it. I nevertheless, swam several times across 
the stream, where it was one hundred yards wide ; and, al- 
though an experienced swimmer, was not a little fatigued by 
the exercise. But I ascribed the effect to the coldness rather 
than to any extraordinary weakness in the water. 

One of the eastern branches of this river, heads six miles 
east of the state line, in the state of Ohio ; and Greenville 
creek, a tributary of the Stillwater fork of the Big Miamiy 
heads about the same distance within the state of Indiana. 

The north eastern part of the state is watered by the St. 
Josephs of the Miami-of-the-lakes, and its tributaries—this 
liver heads about sixty miles to the north west of foit 
Wayne, and forms a junction with the St. Mary's, just above 
this post. Panther's creek, from the south, is its largest fork. 
Its remote branches interlot:k with those of the rivers Raisin, 
Black, St. Josephs of lake Michigan, an^ Eel river. 

That part of the state bordering on the Michigan territory^ 
is liberally watered by the head branches of the river Raisin, 
(of lake Eric;) the numerous forks of Black river, (of lake 
Michigan ;) and the St. Josephs of lake Michigan — the latter" 
heads near, and interlocks with the branches of Eel riveij 
and pursues a serpentine course, seventy miles, through the 
northern part of Indiana. 

The rivers Chemin, Big and Lit lie Kennomic, all of which 
fall into lake Michigan ; the Theakaki, Kickapoo, and a part 
of the chief branch of the Illinois, ail wind through the north 
western section of the state; and all, except the last, are en- 
tirely witl.inits boundaries; the three first run f'om south t* 


north ; the latter south and south west. Besides, the coun- 
tiy is chequered by numerous creeks. The Vermillion of 
jthe Illinois rises in Indiana, near the sources of Tippacanoe. 

The northern half of the state is a country of lakes — 38 
of which, from two to ten miles in length, are delineated 
on the latest maps ; but the actual number probably exceeds 
one hundred — many of these, however, are mere ponds, less 
than one mile in length. Some have ino distinct outlets / 
one running into the northern lakes ; the other into the Mis- 

The phenomenon of waters with double outlets, is not un- 
(Eonmion. The great Ganges, the greater Burrumpooter, and 
the great river of Ava, *all rise and issue from (he same foun- 
tain — so do the Rhine and the Rhone ; the Suir, the I^ ore, 
and the Barrov/, in Ireland, spring from the same well — and 
after traversing a vast range of country, in three opposite di- 
rections, re-unite and form one basin, in Waterford Harbor ; 
there are two rivers in the Isthmus of Panama, whose head 
waters are not farther apart than the Ouisconsin and Fox river; 
one stretches into the southern ocean ; the other into the 
Mexican sea. 

The greater part of these lakes, are situated between the 
head waters of the two St. Josephs, Black river, Ruisin, Tip? 
pacauoe, and Eel rivers. 


A range of hills, called the knobs, extends from the falls of 
the Ohio, to the Wabash, nearly in a south western direction, 
which, in n^any places, produces a bi oken and uneven sur- 
face. IN^rlh of these hills, lie the Flat woods, seventy miles 
wide and reaching nearly to the Ouitanan country. Border- 
ing all the principal streams, except the Ohio, there are strips 
of bottom and prairie laud; both together are from three to 
six miles in width. Between the Wabash and lake Michigan, 
the country is mostly champaign, abounding -Jtenistely, witli 
"Woed lands, prairies, lakesj and fiv.'uiups. 


A range of hills run parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth 
of the Big Miami, to Blue river, alternately approaching to 
withit! a few rods, and receding to the distance of two miles ; 
but broken at short intervals by numerous creeks. Imme- 
diately below Blue river, the hills disappear, and the horizon 
presents nothing to view but an. immense tract of level landj 
covered vvith a heavy growth of timber. 

Th:it pa'-t of the state lying west of the Ohio boundary 
line, north of the head branches of White rtver, east and 
south of the Wabash, has been described by the conductors- 
of expeditions Rgainst the Indians, as a "country containing 
much scood land; but intersected at the distance of four or 
isixTniles, with long, narrow swamps, boggy and mirey, the 
soil of which is a stiff blue clay." 

North of the Wabash, between Tippacanoe and Ouitanan, 
the banks of the streams are high, abrupt, and broken — and 
the land well timbered, except on the prairies. 

Between the Plein and Theakaki, the country is fiat, wet, 
and swampy, interspersed with prairies of an inferior quality 
of soil. 

In going from the Ohio to the Wabash, say from Clark's 
vilie or Mad son to VIncennes, you ascend from two to three 
hundred feet before you find yourself at the top of the last 
bank of the Ohio. You have then before you a strip of coun- 
try, twenty miles wide, tolerably level, except where gullied 
by the actions of streams. This brings you at the foot of 
the " Knobs,''^ which are at least 500 feet higher than the land 
jt\ your rear ; after this you pass no very tedious hills, until you 
find yourself within three miles of Yincennes. In travelling 
from this place to the Ohio, you are not sensfble o( ascending 
to the height at which you find yourself, on the summit of 
the " Knohs^-^ from which you have a boundless prospect to 
the east. You can distinclJy trace, with the eye, at the dis- 
t;:nce of twenty miles, the deep, serpenlire vale of the Ohiq, 
and the positions of New-Ler.ington, (orydott, and I-ouis- 
ville, in Kentucky. 



There are two kinds of thiese meadows — the river and up- 
land prairies : the first are found upon the margina of rivers, 
and are bottoms destitute of timber; most of Ihrse exhibit 
vestiges of former cultivation. The last are plains, from 
thirty to one hundred feet higher than the aJluvi?! bottoms; 
and are far more numerous and extensive ; but are indeter- 
minate in size and figure — since some are not larger than a 
common field, while others expand beyond the reach of the 
eye, or the limits of the horizon. They are usually bounded 
by groves of lofty forest trees ; and not unfrequently adorned 
with" islands," or copses of small trees, affording an agreeable 
shade for man and beast. In spring and summer they are 
covered with a luxuriant growth of grass, and fragrant flowers, 
from six to eight feet high, through which it is very fatiguing 
to force one's way with any degree of celerity. The soil 
of these plains is often as deep and as fertile as the best bot- 
toms. The prairies bordering the Wabash, are particularly 
rich — wells have been sunk in theim, where the vegetable soil 
was iwenty-trvo feet deep, under which was a stratum of fine 
white sand, containing horizontal line?, plainly indicating to 
the geologist, the gradual subsidence of water. Yet the or- 
dinary depth is from two to five feet. 

The 8;everal expeditions against the Indians, during the late 
war, enabted many of our officers, to become extensively ac- 
quainted with the geography of the Indiana and Michigan 

An officer, who conducted several expeditions against the 
Indians, and wIio#as at the Putawatomie vilLnges, on the St. 
Joseph's of lake Michigan, writes to me as follows: 

" The couutry [between fort Wayne and the St. Joseph's 
of lake Michigan,] in every direction, is beautiful, presenting 
a fine prospect; There are no hills to be seen ; a champaign 
rouctry, the greater pnrt prairie, afiording inexbLiuslible graz- 


ing, and presenting the most defightful natural meadows, and 
the grass cared would be almost equal to our hay; there are 
also, vast forests of vahiable timber, and the soil exceedingly- 
rich. The rivers have their sources in swamps, and some- 
times from delightful inland lakes. It is not unfrequent to see 
two opposite streams supplied by the same water or lake, one 
running into the waters of the Mississippi, and the other into, 
the northern lakes. Neither China nor Holland ever had . 
audi natural advantages for inland water communications." 

Another officer, who had opportunities of seeing and explor- 
ing the country between the Wabash and lake Michigan, de- 
scribes it as a country, "admirably calculated for the conveni- 
ence of inland navigation. The sources of the river* are in- 
variably in swamps or lakes, and the country around them 
perfectly level. A trifling expence would open a navigable 
communication between Eel river, and a branch of the Little 
♦St. Joseph's; the two St. Joseph's; the Raisin of lake Erie, 
and the Lenoir (Black river) of lake Michigan. Small lakes 
are discovered in every part of this extensive and romantic 
country. We found them covered with ducks, and other 
water fowls. For the diversion of fishing, we had no leisure ; 
consequently, I am not able to inform you whether they 
abound with fish, but presume they do, as many of their out-: 
lets empty into the tributaries of the great lakes. 

"The country around the head branches of Eel river. Pan- 
ther's creek, and St. Joseph's, (of the Miami) is generally 
low and swampy ; and too wet foi cultivation. But even in 
that quarter, there are many beautiful situations. The tim- 
ber is oak, hickory, black walnut, beach, sugaji- maple, elm, 
and honey locust. The wood lands line the water courses ; 
but branch out frequently into the prairie# 

"The immeuse prairies on the south bank of the St. Jo- 
aephs, (of lake ]\licbigan) afforded us many rich, beautiful, and 
picturesque views. . They are from one to ten miles wide; 
mid of unequal lengths. They are as level as lafees; and in 
point of feriillty, nottrjfcrior to the lands around Lexiii^ton, 


Ken. or the best bottoms of the Ohio. Vie crossed two, 
whose southern limits were not descernable to the naked eye ; 
they were doubtless capacious enough to form two or th»ee 
townships each; and perfectly dry, being at least one hun- 
dred feet above the river bottoms. These natural meadows 
sre covered with a tail grass ; and are separated by strips of 
woods, containing oak, maple, locust, lyn, poplar, plum, ash, 
and crab-apple. Jn these wood lands, we generally meet with 
creeks, runs, or springs; hut never in the open prairies, un- 
less in wet and rainy seasons, when the waters form tempora- 
ry sluggish brooks, wherever there is sufBcient descent for the 

" The St. Josephs [of lake Michigan] is a charming river, 
and navigable to within a short distance of the river of the 
same name. Its current is brisk, and at the upper villages, 
one hundred yards wide. The Indians have cleared large 
fields upon its banks : several Canadian French families re- 
side with them. Their manners and habits of life are semi- 

" All the rivers in the interior of Indiana and Michi- 
gan, have spacious bottoms, and they uniformly wander 
from the line of their courses, so that in making fifty miles 
progress, in a direct line, they water one hundred miles of 
territory by their sinuosities. By these frequent bende, the 
length of river coast, and the quantity of bottom land is near- 
ly doubled, which amply compensates for extra toil and ex- 
pence of navigation.'' 

?»Ir. D. Buck, of Auburn, (N. Y-) who assisted in the sur- 
vey of twenty-two townships, six miles square each, writes lo 
his correspondent as follows : 

I have seen a 'great deal of excellent land ; the prairies 
on the Wabash in the vicinity of fort Harrison, pxcced every 
thing for richness of soil and beauty of sitnation, I ever he- 
held. The prairies are from ore to five miles wide, border- 
ing on the river, and from one to twelve in lenghth ; the; 
streams wlwch run into the "VV abash, divide one prairie fraaa 


another ; on these streams are strips of woods from half a 
mile to £ mile wide, the timber of which is excellent ; the soil 
of the prairi«s is a black yegetable mould, intermixed witb 
fine sand, and sometimes gravel. In choosing a situatioTi for 
a farm, it is important so to locate a tract, as to have half 
prairie and half wood land ; by which means you will have a 
plantati(i>n cleared to your hand. 

The new purchase contains one hundred and twenty town-= 
ships, 01' 2,765,040 acres. The lands sell very high in the 
neighborhood of fort Harrison, for it is the most delightful 
siiuaiion for a town on the Wabash — the soil is the richest of 
any in the state. This will undoubtedly become the seat of a 
neWcounty, and that at no remote period. The fort is garri- 
soned by one hundred and fifty riPiemen, of the regular army^ 
under the command of Major Morgan. There are six fami- 
lies living in log cabins, near the fort, who improve congress 
lands. They have been here five years. Wherever they 
have cultivated the ground, it produces abundantly. Besides 
tliese, there are several Indian traders — Great numbers of In- 
dians resort hitherto sell their peltries. The tribes who fre- 
quent Ibis place and reside On the Wabash, are the Kickapoos 
Miamis, Putawatomies, Shawanoese, Weaws, and Delawares. 
They encamp in the woods convenient to water, where they 
biiild wigwams. We came across a great many while survey- 
ing in the wilderness — they appeared friendly, and offered us 
lioney and venison. Our business has principally been near 
the Iridian boundary line, sixty miles from any white seltle- 
ntents. The woods abound with deer, bears, wolves, and 
wild turkies. About three-eighths of the land we surveyed 
is excellent for most kinds of produce; the remainder is good 
for grazing, but too hilly, flat, or wet, for grain. 

The lands on White river are well watered with springs 
snd brooks. You can hardly find a quarter section without 
vater; the coiailry in this quarter is, in many places, hilly 
and bioken, and in some parts &tony. Limestone is most 
j)i"cdoM))ni:i:t ; Uil there are quarries of fi'ee stone. Although 


the country is well watered, good mill seats are scarce. There 
«an be a sufficiency of small mills for the accommodation of 
the inhabitants. Steam mills, without doubt, will be in opera» 
tion aa soon as the country is sufficiently settled for the pur- 
pose of flouring for exportation. 

" There are some excellent tracts of land in Indiana and Il- 
linois — corn is raised pretty easy ; and stock with little atten- 
tion, and in some places with little or no fodder. This coun- 
try is full of prairies ; some of which are excellent land. The 
limber around them consists principally oak, of which the 
mhabitants make most of their rails, and sometimes draw them 
three miles. These prairies are destitute of water ; but it can 
be obtained by digging twenty or thirty feet. Wheat grows 
stout ; but the grain is not so plump as it is in the state of 
New York." • 

" It is difficult building in Knox county, and always will be^ 
on account of the scarcity of mil! seats. Horse mills are com- 
jcnon ; the miller takes one eighth part of the grain for toll ; cus- 
tomers finding their own horses." 

He further states, that the two branches of Whiterivef 
are navigable with boats in high water for the di§tance of 1 30 
miles ; that coal mines are numerous near the Wabash. Iroii 
ore is found on Whiteriver. That wheat yields the inhab- 
itants, who are neat farmers, 68 lbs. a bushel, and never gets 
winter-killed or smutty ; the only difficulty they experience 
in its culture is, that the land in many places is too rich until 
it has been improved. Apple trees bear every year. Peaches 
some years do exceedingly well ; so do. cherries, currents, 
and most kinds of fruit. Wheat is 75 cents a bushel ; fiour 
^3 a hundred — delivered at Fort Harrison four; corn 25 
cents a bushel — pork ^4— beef ^4 ; butter and cheese from 
1^ 1-2 to 25 ceiUs; honey 50 cents per gallon. Maple su- 
gar 25 cents. European goods exorbitantly high. 

Reptiles and venomous serpents are not numerous. A 
few rattle snakes and some copperheads comprise all that are 



The banks of the Wabash are in many places, subject t©* 
be overflowed in high water. When the Ohio is at full 
height its waters set back and inundate the bottoms of the 
Wabash to the distance of four or five miles. 

Mr. Buck, who descended this river in March, 181 6, say Sy 
"I came down the river at the highest stage of water; the 
banks were complete!}' overflowed ahndst all the way. The 
prairies extending to the river appeared like small seas ;. and in 
many places, it was with difficulty that we could keep our boat 
from running into the woods. The distance from Fort Har- 
rison to Vincenues by water, is 120 miles ^ by land only 65. 
Below the fort the river is very crooked to its mouth ;above^ 
as far as the Indian title is extinguished, it is quite strait in a 
north and south direction. The breadth of the river (at Vin^ 
cennes) is from 40 to 70 rods. It overflows its banks every 
spring, except at a few places where there are handsome si- 
lual ions for towns. It inundates a considerable extent of 
country opposite Vincennes. The floods do not last long;, 
nor are they dangerous, if people will use a little precaution in 
removing their stock and swine. 

*' The winters are mild, compared with those of the north- 
ern states. By all accounts, last winter was uncommonly 
severe for this country. There were three or four weeks of 
freezing weather, during which the snow was from six to nine 
inches deep. The Wabash was frozen over so that it was 
crossed in many places upon the ice with safety. I think 
that autumnal frosts are earlier here than in the western coun- 
ties of New \ork ; but the weather is very fine till Christmas ;, 
then changeable until about the middle of February, when 
winter breaks up, and spring soon commences. Peaches are 
in blossom by the first of March, and by the lOlh of April, 
the forests are " clad in green." The flowering shrubs and- 
trees are in full bloom some days before the leaves get their 
growth, which gives the woods a very beautiful appearance.'* 
" Salt, at and above Vincennes is two dolhu'S a bushelj, 
though considerable quantities are made at the U. S..- Saline 



50 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, in the Illinois ter- 
ritory, where it is sold for one dollar a bushel. The chief 
supply comes from the salt works on the Great Kenhaway. — = 
There have bean salt wells sunk, (by boring) near the Ohio, 
to the depth of 500 feet, where the water is said to be very 
strong. There are likewise salt springs on the Indian landSj 
not far from the northern boundary of the new purchase." 


Population of Indiana in Novtinber, 1815. 
Counties. No. of inhabitants^ 

Wayne, . . . . . » . 6,290 

Franklin, 7,970 

Dearborn, . . . . , . 4,426 

Jefferson, ... ... 4^093 

Washington, ...... 6,606 

Harrison, . . . . . .6,769 

Gibson, . . . . « . . 5,330 

Knox, . 6,800 

Switzerland, ..... . 3,500 

Clark, 7,000 

Posey, . . . . ... 3,000 

Perry, 3,000 

Warwick, ...... 3,000 




Is bounded east by the state of Ohio, south by the Ohio 
river, west by Switzerland county, and north by Franklin 
county. It is well watered by Tanner's Hougelane's and 
Loughery's creeks, Whitewater and the head branchea of 
Indian Kentucky. The south part of this county is broken ; 
4he north end level, being in the Flat Woods. The Ohio 


bottoms are low but fertile. The timber in the middle and 
northern parts is oak, hickory, poplar, and sugar maple. 

Larvrencebiirgh — Stands on the bank of the Ohio, two 
miles below the mouth of the Big Miami. It has not flourish- 
ed for several years past, owing, principally to its being sub- 
ject to inundation, when the Ohio is high. A new town call- 
ed Edinburgh, half a mile from the river, on a more elevated 
situation promises to eclipse it. ♦ 

Rising-Sun — la delightfully situated on the second bank of 
the Ohio, with a gradual descent to the river. It contains 
thirty or forty houses, and is half way between Vevay and 
Lawrenceburgh. It has a post office, and a floating mill an- 
chored abreast of the town. It has had a very rapid growth, 
^nd will probably beconae a place of considerable trade. 


Has the state of Ohio on the east. Dearborn county south 
and Indian lands west and north. It is one of the best coun- 
ties in the state, and was established about four years ago. — 
It is principally watered by Whitewater and its branches, 
upon which there is some of the best bottom lands in the 
western country and has been the centre of an ancient popu- 
lation, as is proved by the great number of mounds and forti- 
fications, to be seen on the bottoms and hills. There are no 
prairie* in this county. Both sides of Whitewater, from its 
mouth, to Brookville, are tolerably well settled. Here are 
some of the finest farms to be met with in the western coun- 
try. A number of mills have been erected. The upland i& 
pretty level, and the principal timber white oak, hickory and 
black walnut. The oak trees are remarkably tall and hand- 
some ; and well suited either for rails, staves, or square timber. 
The soil is free from stones, and easily cleared and ploughed ; 
producing fine crops of wheat and corn. In July last, I saw 
several corn-fields, which in the preceding March, were in a 
state of nature with the trees and brushwood all growing. 


Yet the corn looked as flourishmg as it did upon the bottoms. 
In the woods, on the bottoms of Wliitewater, I discovered 
several natural wells, formed in a most singular manner. 
They were from ten to fifteen feet deep, substantially curbed, 
being nothing more nor less than parts of the upright trunks 
of the largest sycamores, which had been hollowed out by the 
hand of time. To explain : When these trees were in their 
infancy, their roots spread near the surface of the ground ; but 
in the course of time, successive inundations and the annual 
decay of a luxuriant vegetation, have formed a stratum of the 
richest soil, from ten to fifteen feet deep, over the roots of 
these venerable trees. At length these vegetable Mathusa- 
lems die, and are prostrated by the winds of heaven, and 
where once stood a tree of giant growth, now yawns a well 
p cooped out by nature's hand. 

Genseng grows in the bottoms to a perfection and size, I 
never before witnessed; and so thick, where the hogs have 
rot thinned it, that one could dig a bushel in a very short 
time. Upon the spurs of the hills, and the poorest soil, is 
found the wild columbo root, and is easily procured in any 
quantity. There are two villages in this county — Brookville 
and Harrison. 

Brookville — Is pleasantly situated in the forks of White- 
water, thirty miles north of Lawrenceburgh and the Ohio 
river; twenty miles south of Salisbury — about forty-two 
north west of Cincinnati, and twenty-five from Hamilton, 
" It was laid out in the year 1811; but no iraprevements 
were made until the succeeding year, and then but partially ; 
I owing to the unsettled state of the frontiers, and its vicinity 
to the Indian boundary, being not more than fifteen miles. 
The late war completely checked the emigration to the coun- 
try, and consequently the town ceased to improve. At the 
close of the war, there was not more than ten or twelve dwell- 
ing houses in the place ; but since that period, its rapid ac- 
cession of wealth and population has been unexampled in the 
western country* 


" There are now in the town upwards of eighty buildings, 
€xckisive of shops, stables, and out houses, the greater number 
of which were built during the last season. The buildings 
are generally frame, and a great part of them handsomely 
painted. There are within the precincts of the town, one 
grist mill and two saw mills, two fulling mills, three carding 
machines, one printing office,^ one silversmith, two saddlers, 
two cabinet makers, one hatter, two taylors, four boot and 
shoemakers, two tanners and curriers, one chairraaker, one 
cooper, five taverns and seven stores. There are also a jail, 
a market house, and a handsome brick court house nearly 

" The ground on which the town stands, is composed of a 
rich and sandy loam, covering a thin stratum of clay, under- 
neath which is a great body of gravel and pebbles — conse- 
quently the streets are but seldom muddy, and continue so 
but for a short time. The public square and a great part of 
the town stands on a beautiful level, that is elevated between 
seventy and eighty feet above the level of the river: and, in 
short, the situation of the town, the cleanlines of the streets, 
the purity of the waters, and the aspect of the country around, 
all combine to render it one of tbe most healthy and agreeable 
situations in the western country. 

" There are, perhaps, few places that possess equal ad- 
vantages, or that present a more flattering prospect of future 
wealth aud importance than this. As a situation for manu- 
factories, it is unequalled ; the two branches of Whitewater 
affording a continued succession of the best sites for the erec- 
tion of water works, from their junction almost to their sources, 
and many valuable situations may be found below the town, 
©n the main river. 

* At ihis press Is published a respe-'taWe and well conducted weekly 
Journa', entitled " The Plain Dealer," edited by B F. Mobris, Esq to 
whrse pen and the politeness of N D, Gallioit, Post Master, I am in- 
debted tor tbe above interesting and correct account of Brookville, and 
whicJi I have preferred to my own. 


** The country watered by this stream is inferior to none. 
Abng the river and all its tributary streamSj are extensive and 
fertile bottoms, bounded by hills of various heights ; and im- 
mediately from the top of these, commences a level and rich 
country, timbered with poplar, walnut, beech, sugar tree^ oaky 
ash, hickory, elm, buckeye, &c. and a variety of shrubs and 
underbrush. The soil of this land is peculiarly adapted t© 
the culture of small grain, and for grazing. The last harvest 
produced several crops of wheat, in the neighborhood of this 
place that weighed from sixty-five to sixty-eight pounds per 
bushel ; and the best crops of grass I have ever seen, are pro= 
duced without the aid of manure. Corn, oats, rye, fiax, hempy 
sweet and Irish potatoes, &c. &c. are produced in abund- 

"During the last season, 1816, many successful experiments 
were made in rearing tobacco, and the soil has been pronounc- 
ed by good judges, to be as congenial to its growth, as the 
best lands in the state of Virginia, Kentucky, or the Caroli- 
Has. As an evidence of the fertility of the country, corn and 
eats are selling at twenty-five, rye at forty, and wheat a sev" 
enty-five cents per bushel, beef at three and a half, and. pork 
at four cents per pound. The country is well supplied with 
good water, from a great number of springs,, and water may 
also be obtained in almost any place by digging to a moderate 

" Another source from which this town must eventually de- 
rive great importance, is the ea^f and small expence witfe 
which the navigation of Whitewater, from the junction of the 
forks, can be so far improved as to carry out into the Ohio, 
all articles that may be raised for exportation. 

" To the north and north west of this place, is an extensive 
and fertile country, that is fast growing into importance ; and 
in wealth and population, will soon be inferior to but fvw dis- 
tricts on the waters of the Ohio ; and, owing to the geographi- 
cal situation of the country, all the intercourse of the inhab- 
itants with the Ohio river, must be through this place" 


I was at Brookville in July last, on business, and was high- 
ly pleased with the amenity of its situation, and the industry, 
intelligence, and healthful appearance of the inhabitants.—^ 
The road from thence to Harrison, was very fine. 

Harrison.— Thh Village is situated on the north side of 
Whitewater, eight miles from its mouth, eighteen nerth east 
of Brookville, and in the centre of a large tract of some of the 
best land in the state. More than one half of the village 
stands on the Ohio side of the state line. There are about 
thirty-five houses, mostly new. A considerable number of 
the inhabitants are from the state of New York. Mr. Look- 
er, from Saratoga county, Mr. Crane, from Schenectady, and 
Mr. Allen, the post master, from New Jersey, own the sur- 
rounding lands. They have all very fine and valuable farms, 
worth from forty to sixty dollars an acre. The settlement 
was commenced about sixteen years ago. The bottoms are 
here from one to two miles wide ; the soil remarkably deep 
and rich, and the woods free from brushwood. The tiees are 
of a moderate growth, but straight and thrifty. The traces 
of ancient population cover the earth in every directioua 
On the bottoms are a great number of mounds, very unequal 
in point of age and size. The small ones are from two to four 
feet above the surface, and the growth of timber upon thein 
small, not being over one hundred years old :, while the 
others are from ten to thirty feet high, and frequently contaia 
trees of the largest diameters. Besides, the bones found ia 
the small ones will bear removal, and exposure to the air^ 
while those in the large ones are rarely capable of sustaining 
their own weight; and are often found in a decomposed or 
powdered state. There is a large mound in Mr. Allen's fields 
about twenty feet high, sixty feet in diameter at the base^ 
which contains a greater proportion of bones, than any one 
I ever before examined, as almost every shovel full of dirt 
would contain several fragments of a human skeleton. When 
on Whitewater, I obtained the assistance of several of the 
inhabitants, for the purpose of making a thorough exarainalioa 


at the Internal structure of tliese monuments of the ancient 
populousness of the «ountry. We examined from fifteen to 
twenty. In some, whose height were from ten to fifteen feet, 
we could not find more than four or five skeletons. In onCf 
not the least appearance of a human bone was to be found* 
Others were so fuU of bones, as to warrant the belief, that 
they originally contained at least one hundred dead bodies; 
children of diflferent ages, and the full grown, appeared to 
have been piled together promiscuously. We found several 
scull, leg and thigh bones, Which plainly indicated, that theit^ 
possessors were men of gigantic stature. The scull of one 
skeleton was one fourth of an inch thick ] and the teeth re- 
markably even, sound and handsome, all firmly planted. The 
fore teeth were very deep, and not so wide as those of the 
generality of white people. Indeed, there seemed a great de* 
gree of regularity in the form of the teeth, in all the mounds. 
In the progress of our researches, we obtained ample testimo- 
ny, that these masses of earth were formed by a savage peo- 
ple. Yet, doubtless possessing a greater degree of civiliza- 
tion than the present race of Indians. We dlscot'ered a 
^iece of glass weighing five ounces, resembling the bottom of a 
tumbler, but concave; several sfowe /i.re5, with grooves near 
their heads to receive a withe, which unquestionably served 
as helves ; arrows formed from flint, almost exactly similar to 
those in use among the present Indians; several pieces of 
earthen ware ; some appeared to be parts of vessels holding 
six or eight gallons ; others Were obviously frrgnienls of jugs 
jars, and cups ; some Were plain, while others were curiously 
ornamented with figures of birds and beasts, drawn while the 
clay or material of which they were made was soft and before 
the process of glazing was performed. The s^lasier^s art ap- 
pears to have been well understood by the pollers who manu- 
factured this aboriginal crockery. The smaller vessels were 
madeof pounded or pulverized muscle shells, mixed with an 
earthen or flitity substance, and the large ones of clay and 
sand. There was no appearance of iron: oue of tlje sculls was 



found pierced by an arrow, wbich was still sticking in it, drir- 
en about halfway through before its force was spent. It was 
about six inches long. The subjects of this mound were 
doubtless killed in battle, and hastily buried. In digging to 
the bottom of them we invariably came to a stratum of ashes,, 
from six inches to two feet thick, which rests on the original 
earth. These asb^s, contain coals, fragments of brands, and 
pieces of calcined bones. From the quantity of ashes and 
bones, and the appearance of the earth underneath, it is evi- 
dent that large fires must have been kept burning for several 
days previous to commencing the mound, and that a consid- 
erable number, of human victims must liave been sacrificed, 
by burning, on the spot ! Prisoners of Avar were no doubt 
selected for this horrid purpose. Perhaps the custom of the 
age rendered it a signal honor, for the chieftains and most act- 
ive warriors to be interred, by way of triumph, on the ashes 
of their enemies, whom they had vanquished in war. If this 
Was not the case, the mystery can only be solved by suppos- 
ing that the fanaticism of the priests and prophets excited 
thfiir besotted followers to voluntary self-devotion. The soil 
of the mounds is always different from that of the immediate- 
ly surrounding earth — being uniformly of a soft vegetable 
mould or loam, and containing no stones or other hard sub- 
stances, to "press upon the dead and disturb their repose." 

Almost every building lot in Harrison village contains a 
small mound; and some as many as three. On the neighbor- 
ing hills, north east of the town, are a number of the remains 
of stone bouses. They were covered with soil, brush, and 
fill! grown trees. We cleared away the earth, roots and rub- 
bish from one of them, and found it to have been anciently oc- 
cupied as a d^selling. It was about twelve feet square ; the 
walls had fallen nearly to the foundation. They appeared to 
have been built of rough slcnes, like our stone walls. Not 
the lesst trace of any iron toe's having been en)p]oyed ta 
smooth the face of them, could be perceived. At one end 
of the building, we cume to a icguiar hearth, containing ashefr 


and coals ; before* which we found the bones of eight persons 
of different ages, from a small child to the heads of the family. 
The positions of their skeletons clearly indicated, that their 
deaths were sudden and simultaneous. They Avere probably 
asleep, with (heir feet towards the fire, when destroyed by an 
jBDemj, an earthquake, or pestilence, 


This county is bounded on the east by the state of Ohio, on 
the south by the county of Franklin, on the west and r^orth 
by Indian lands. It is watered by the north fork of White- 
."water, the head brooks of the north fork of Whiteriver, 
sources of Rocky river, JIassissinway, and main branch of 
the Wabash. It is very extensive, of a level surface, well 
timbered, contains fine lands, and has been settled ten years. 
Its products are, Indian com, wheat, rye, oats, and tobacco. 

Salisbury/ — Lies thirty miles north of Bi'ookville; contains 
about thirty five houses, two" stores and two taverns. It is at 
present the seat of justice for Wayne county ; but Centre- 
ville, a new village, being more central, threatens to become 
its competitor for that privilege. 


Is bounded west by Jefferson, south by the Ohio river, 
north in part by Indian lands, and east by Dearborn county. 
Its surface is, in some places, broken by the Ohio and Silver 
creek hills, which, however, are of a pretty good soil. It is 
watered by Venoge and Plum creeks, and several small runs ; 
«ome running into the Ohio, and others into Whiteriver. 

New Swifcerland—'lhe settlement of New Switzerland 
was commenced by a few emigrants, from the Pays de Vaud, 
in the spring of IGOa. It extends from about three quarters 
of a mile above the mouth of Plum creek, down the liver to 
-the moulh of Indian creek, novr called Vcn<ige ; a distance of 


about four miles and a half, fronting the river, and originally 
extended back far enough to cover 3,700 acres of land ; about 
half of which was purchased under a law in favor of J. J. Du- 
four, and his associates, upon a credit of twelve years. Sub- 
sequent purchases have been made on the usual terms, ex- 
cepting an extension of credit, in order to encourage the cul- 
tivation of the vine. There has been a gradual accession of 
numbers to this interesting colony. As early as 1810, they 
had eight acres of vineyard, from which they made 2,400 
gallons of wine, which, in its crude state, was thought by good 
judges, to be superior to the claret of Bordeaux. A part of 
this wine was made out of the Madeira grape. They have 
now greatly augmented the quantity of their vineyard grounds, 
which, when bearing, present to the eye of the observer the 
most interesting agricultural prospect, perhaps, ever witness- 
ed in the United Slates. "The principal proprietors of the 
vineyards, are the Messrs . Dufours, Be.ttens, Morerod, Sie- 
benthal. Mr. J. J. Dufour arrived from Switzerland in Sep- 
tember last, with a large number of emigrants. The Swiss 
speak the French language in its purity ; and are a temperate, 
industrious and polished people, fond of music and dancing, 
and warmly attached to the United States, They are rapid- 
ly extending their vineyards ;x. they also cultivate Indian 
corn, wheat, potatoes, hemp, flax, and other articles necessary 
lo farmers— but in quantities barely sufficient for domestic 
use. Some of their women manufacture straw hats. They 
are made quite different from the common straw bonnets, by 
tying the straws together, instead of plaiting and sewing the 
plaits. They are sold in great numbers in the neighboring 
settlements, and in the Mississippi and Indiana territories. 

Vevay — Half a mile above the upper vineyards, was laid- 
out in 1813, but was a forest in 1814, till the firstof Febru- 
ary, when the first house was built. During the same year 
forty four others, fouj- stores, and two taverns were erected, 
«Dd the village selected as a suitable place for the seat of jus^ 
tice for Swilzerluud county. There are at present eighty- 


four dwelling houses, besides thirty four mechanics' shops, of 
different professions. The court house, jail, and school 
house are of brick. A brick market house and church are 
building. It has eight stores, three taverns, two lawyers, two 
physicians, and a printing office printing a weekly newspaper, 
called the Indiana Register. There is a library of 300 vol- 
umes ; and a literary Society in which are several persons (£ 
genius, science, and literature. 

This delightful village is situated on the second bank of 
the Ohio, twenty-five feet above high water mark, and is 
nearly equidistant from Cincinnati, Ciexington, and Louis- 
ville, or forty five miles from each. The view of the Ohiq 
is extensive, being eight miles. The country in the rear is 
broken but fertile. The climate is mild, and the sweet pota- 
toe is cultivated with Success. Cotton would doubtless d© 
well. There are several roads which diverge from the settle- 
ment. Three mails arrive weekly, 


Is bounded on the east by Switzerland county, on th& 
south by the river Ohio, on the west by the county of Clark^ 
on the north by Indian lands. It contains a great proportion 
of excellent land. It is watered by several small creeks run- 
ning into the Ohio, and by the Mescatitak, a branch of the 
south fork of Whiteriver, which heads within five miles of the 
Ohio river. 

New Lexington. — This flourishing town is famous for hav- 
ing produced the pretended monied institution, called " The 
Lexington Indiana Manufacturing Company," which has ex- 
ploded. It is situated iu a rich settlement, sixteen miles 
nearly west of Madison, and five miles east of the Knobs ; 
and contains about forty houses, some of them handsome, 
brick and frame, and others built with hewn logs, in the true 
western style. There is a post-office, and printing establish- 
ment, in which is printed the " fVe&kni Eogk.''^ The siu- 


face of the surrounding country for several miles, is sufficient- 
ly Tolling to give the water of the creeks and runs a brisk 
motion. The stones towards the Ohio are calcareous : to the 
west and north west, clayey slate. The soil is very product- 
ive. In the vicinity of this place, the enterprising General 
M'Farland has, with astonishing perseverance, dug to the 
depth of nearly five hundred feet, in quest of salt water. 
His exertions have been crowned with success, inasmuch as 
the water exceeds in strength any ialt water in the western 
country, and affords from three to four bushels of salt, to the 
hundred gallons of watA". 

Madison. — This is the seat of justice for the eounty, and 
is situated on the upper bank of the Ohio, thirty miles below 
Vevay, contains sixty or seventy houses^ mostly small and 
new. The banking institution, called the "Farmer*.' and 
Blechanics' Bank," is established here» 


Is bounded east by Jefferson county, south by the Ohio 
river, west by the counties of Harrison and Washington, 
north by the county of Jackson and Indian lands. It is wa- 
tered by several creeks running into the Ohio, such as Silver 
creek, Cane run, &c. and several brooks falling into the Mes- 
catitak branch of the south fork of Whiteriver. Its surface 
is considerably broken in the central parts of the county. 
Hickory and oak are the prevailing timber. It is thought 
that tliis country contains many valuable minerals; some 
have been discovered ; copperas is found in the high banks of 
Silver creek, about tv^o miles from its mouth. A medicinal 
spring, near Jeffersonvilie, has been much frequented — its wa- 
ters are strongly impregnated with sulphur and iron. The 
reed cane grows on the flats. 

Charleston — The seat of justiceTor Clark county, is situat- 
«d in the centre of a rich and thriving settlement, thirty-two 
Biilea south of west from Madison, two miles from the Ohi« 


fiver, and fourteen from the falls. This village, like many 
others iti the western countrj, has sprung up suddenly by 
the magical! influence of American enterprize, excited ioto ac- 
tion by a concurrence of favorable circumstances. 

Jeffcrsonvilh — Stands on the bank of the Ohio, nearly op- 
posite Louisville, and a little above the falls. It contains 
about one hundred and thirty houses, brick, frame and hewn 
logs. The bank of the river is high, which affords a fine view 
of Louisville, the falls, and the opposite hills. Just below 
the town is a fine eddy for boats. A post-office, and a land- 
office, for the sale of the United States' lands, are establishedj 
and it promises to become a place of wealth, elegance and ex- 
tensive business. The most eligible boat channel is on the In-, 
diana side of the Ohio. 

Clarksville — Lies at the lower end of the falls; and, al- 
though commenced as early as 1T83, does not contain above, 
forty houses, most of them old and decayed. It has a safe 
capacious harbor for boats. 

New Alban;y — A short distance below Clarksville, has been 
puffed throughout the Union ; but has not yet realized th« 
anticipations of the proprietors. 


Is bounded east by Clark county, south by the Ohio, v/est 
b}^ the new county of Perry, and north by Y/ashington. Its 
principal stream is Blue river, which is navigable for boat* 
about forty miles. Gen. Harrison owns a large tract of land 
upon this liver, and has erected a grist and saw mil!, about 
eight miles from its mouth, on a durable spring brook, running 
into it. On both banks of this river are large quantities of 
oak and locust timber. Gen. H. had it iu contemplation, 
shortly before the coumienceraent of the late war, to establish 
a ship yard at its mouth, where there is a convenient situation 
for building and launching vessels. 

Conjclon — l^he seat of justice for Hanison coiaityj is situ- 



ated twenty-five miles nearly west from Jeffeiisonvllle, an^ 
ten miles from the Ohio river. It was commenced in 1809,' 
and is the seat of government for the state. The selection of 
this place by the legislature, as the seat of government for the 
period of eight years, has excited great dissatisfaction in other 
parts of the state. It has rapidly encreased since the meet- 
ing of the state convention, in July, 1816. The Indiaim. 
Gaselte is printed in this village* 


County is bounded on the east by Clark county, on the 
south by the county of Harrison, on the west by the county 
of Orange, and on the north by the county of Jackson. It is 
watered by the south fork of Whiteriver— is moderately hilly> 
and was established in 1814. 

Salem — Is the only village deserving notice ; and Is situat* 
«ed thirty-four miles north of Corydon, and twenty-five near-' 
ly west from Jeflfersonville, on the Vlncennes road. 


Lies west of Clark and Jefferson counties, north of Wash- 
inglon, east of Orange, and south of the Indian country. It 
is watered by Whiteriver and its tributary creeks, and was 
set off in 1815. Bronmstown is the seat of justice \ and is 
nituatedtwenty-five miles east of north from Salem. 


County is bounded by the counties of Washington and 
Jackson o . the east ; by Harrison and Perry on the south j 
by the county of Knox on the west; and by Indian lands on 
the north. It has a rich soil, and is well watered by White- 
tiver^and Petoka. A gentleman, who surveyed several town* 
ihlps in the county, declares it to be equal in point of fertility 


'ofsoll, and excellence of water, to any county in the state. 
** The surface is agreeably undulating. The timber on the 
hills consist of black walnut, oak, hickory, ash, sugar maple ; 
on the low grounds, basswood, pawpaw, honey locust, buckeye 
and spicewood; besides, grape vines, and a variety of shrubso 
We occasionally met with rattlesnakes and copperheads oa 
the uplands, but never in the bottoms. The most common 
game are deer and bear. There is a coal-mine a little below 
the forks of Whiteriver ; besides, we met with frequent signs 
of minerals ; and the needle often refiised to settle. The 
bottoms of Whiteriver are nearly as wide as those of the Wa- 
bash, and contain evidence of having been formerly inhabited 
by Indians, as the remains of their cabins and eorn-hllls are 
yet visible. The new village of Paoli is the county seat. It 
is forty miles nearly east of Vinc^nnes; and thirty north of 
west from Salem." 


This county is bounded by Orange on the east ; by the 
county of Gibson on the south ; by the Wabash river on the 
west ; and by Indian lands on the north. This is the oldest 
and most populous county in the state. It is Watered by the 
Deche, Whiteriver, Wabash, Littleriver, St. Marie, Bus- 
seron, Raccoon and Ambush creeks. It has upwards of 
200,000 acres of the best prairie and bottom land, and in 
rapidly encreasing in inhabitants and improvements. 

Fmcennes,— The seat of justice for Knox county, istands 
on the east bank of the Wabash, one hundred miles from its 
junction with the Ohio, in a direct line, but nearly two hun- 
dred by the courses of the riVer; and one hundred and twen- 
ty west of the falls of Ohio. It contains about one hundred 
houses, most of which are small and scattering ; gome have a 
neat and handsome aspect, while others are built in an un- 
couth manner, having a frame skeleton filled up with mud 
and stick walls, similar to some of the old Geraian houses on 



the Hudson and Mohawk rivers. The best buildings! are a 
brick tavern, jail, and academy. The latter, which is an honor 
to the state, stands in the public square, and is underthe direc" 
tion of the Rev. Mr. Scott, a presbjterian minister, a gentle- 
man of letters; yet, hitherto, his pupils have not been numer- 
ous. He teaches the ancient languages, mathematics, &C. 
The meeting house, a plain bnilding, stands on the prairie*^ one 
mile fiom the town. The plan of the town is handsomely 
designed; the streets are wide and cross each other at right 
angles. Almost every house has a garden in its rear, with 
high, substantial picket fences to prevent the thefts of the In- 
dians. General HarTison is one of the principal proprietors 
of the soil. I'he common field near the'town contains near- 
ly 5000 acres, of excellent prairie soil, which has been culti- 
vated for more than half a century, and yet retains its pris- 
tine fertility. The United States have a land office for the 
disposal of the public lands ; and formerly kept a small garri- 
son, in a little stockade near the bank of the river,''for the pro- 
tection of the inhabitants. The Governor of the territory 
resided, and the territorial legislature convened here. The 
place has possessed many political advantages. " The bank 
of Vincennes'' enjoys a good character, and its paper has al- 
ready attained an extensive circulation. It has recently be- 
come a state bank. There is also a printing office, which is- 
sues a paper, called the " Western Swn,'' edited by Mr. E. 
Stout. This village was settled nearly one hundred years 
ago, by the French, who mostly came from Lower Canada. 
Burled in the centre of an immense wilderne^, unprotected, 
and without intercourse with the civilized world, these colo- 
nists gradually approximated to the savage state. Many of 
the males intermarried with the Indians, whose amity was 
by these ties secured and strengthened, and their numbers 
amounted to three hundred persons. 

" During the revolutionary war, their remole situation ex- 
empted tliem from all its evils, till, in 1782, they were visited 
by a detachment from Kentucky, Mho plundered and insulted 


them, and killed or drove off the cattle which formed their 
chief wealth. 

" The peace of 1783, gave them to the United States, un- 
der whose benign government they began to breathe again; 
but unluckily an Indian war commenced in 1788, and siding 
with the whites, as, duty and discretion enjoined, they were 
annoyed by the savages, whose animosity was embittered by 
the remembrance of their ancient friendship and alliance. 
Their cattle were killed, their village closely beset, and, for 
several years, they could not carry the plough or hoe a mus- 
ket shot from their huts. 

" Military service was added to their other hardships ; but, 
in 1792, the compassion of the federal government gave four 
hundred acres of land to every one who paid the capitation, 
and one hundred more to every one who served in the militia. 
This domain, so ample to a diligent husbandman, was of little 
value to the hunting Frenchmen, who soon bartered away their 
invaluable ground for about 30 cents an acre, which was paid 
to them in goods, on which an exorbitant profit was charged. 
This land was of the best quality; it sold, as early as 1796, 
at two dollars an a©re, and t may venture to say is now worth 
at least ten. Thus, for the most part, reduced again to their 
garden«, or the little homestead which was indispensable to 
their subsistence, they had nothing to live on but their fruit, 
potatoes, maize, and now an then a little game; and, on this 
fare, no wonder they became as lean as Arabs. 

" Their ignorance, indeed, was profound. Nobody ever 
opened a school among them, till it was done by the abbe R. 
a polite, well educated, and liberal minded missionary, banish- 
ed hither by the French revolution. Out of nine of the 
French, scarcely six could read or write, whereas nine-t-enths 
of the Americans, or emigrants from the east, could do both. 
Their dialect is by no means, as I had been previously as- 
sured, a vulgar or provincial brogue, but pretty good 
French, intermixed with many military terms and phrases, 
all the settlements having been originally made by sol- 


diers. The primitive stock of Canada was the regiment 
of Carignon."* 

The country around Vincennes in every direction, being 
well adapted to settlements and cultivation, what is there to 
prevent this place from equalling, in a very few years, in 
numbers, wealth, and refinement, the fine towns of Lexington, 
Louisville and Cincinnati ? Building lots in Vincennes sell 
at from fifty to one thousand dollars a lot. There are two 
roads leading to the Ohio ; one to fort Harrison ; one to 
Princeton ; and one to Kaskaskia. 

A new village has been laid out at Terre Haute, three 
miles below fort Harrison. This situation,, for beauty of 
prospect, is exceeded by none in the state. 


Congress lands, after the auction sales are closed, sell inva° 
riably for ^2 an acre. For a quarter section, ^80 are to be 
paid down — the same sum in two years; and the remainder 
in annual payments, without interest, if punctually made. 
Those who pay in advance, are entitled to a discount of eight 
per cent. 

Harrison's Purchase, containing upwards of 3,000,000 
acres, lying between Whiteriver, the Wabash, and Rocky ri- 
ver, was opened for sale at auction, at JefFersonville, in Sept. 
last, and altho' the Canadian volunteers had previously select- 
ed their donation lots, numerous tracts were sold at from ^4 
to ^30 an acre. A fractional section on the Wabash, below 
fort Harrison, sold for ^32 18, and several others from $20 to 
^30. Speculators from all ^ua^te^s attended the sales. 

The Canadian volunteers deserved the munificence of the 
United States, for they freely shed their blood under our 
banners, upon the Niagara frontier, under the intrepid Wil- 

* See Volney's View of the Soil and Climate pF the United States, 
pages 334 and 335. 



«ocks, Delapierre, and Markle. But unfortunately the cup of 
generosity was upset before it reached their mouths. We 
gave them the choice of the best lands in the United States, 
merely to enrich the Mammon of speculation. Most of these 
brave men have blindly or necessitously parted with their 
lands for a song. 


On the hills, two miles east of the town, are three large 
mounds ; and otheis are frequently met with on the prairie* 
and upland, from Wbiteriver to the head of the Wabash. 
They are in every respect similar to those in Franklin coun-. 
ty, already described. 

The French have a tradition, that an exterminating battle 
was fought in the beginning of the last century, on the 
ground where fort Harrison now stands, between the Indians 
living on the Mississippi, and those of the Wabash. The 
bone of contention was the lands lying between those rivers, 
which both parties claimed. There were about 1 000 war- 
riors on each side. The condition of the fight was, that the 
victors should possess the lands in dispute. The grandeur 
«f the prize was peculiarly calculated to inflame the ardor of 
savage minds. The contest commenced about sunrise. 
Both parties fought desperately. The Wabash warriors 
came off conquerors, having seven men left alive at sunset, 
and their adversaries but Jive, The mounds are still to b« 
ieen where it is said the slain were buried. 


•This county is bounded by the counties of Warwick and 
Orange on the east, the county of Posey on the south, the 
Wabash river on the west, and the county of Knox on the 
north. It is watered by several creeks and runs, falling into 
the Petoka and Wabash. About one half of this county haa 


a fertile and highly favorable soil ; and the greater part of the 
other half would be pronounced good, in any of the Atlantic 

Princeton — Is the county seat ; it lies thirty-five miles 
Bearly south of Vincennes. It has a post-office ; and has 
tad a rapid growth, considering the newness of the surround- 
iag settlements. 

Harmony. — This village is situated on the Wabash, half a 
day's ride below Princeton, and is settled by the HarmonistSf 
from Butler county, Pennsylvania. They are under the di- 
rection of the Rev. George Rapp ; and hold their property 
in community. They have a very extensive establishment 
for the manufacturing of wool. Their Merino cloth is not 
surpassed by any in America. They also cultivate the vine ; 
and are distinguished for their temperance, industry and skill 
IB many of the mechanical professions. 


Is situated «outh of Gibson, bounded on the east by the 
•ounty of Warwick, on the south and west by the Ohio and 
Wabash rivers. It contains rich and extensive prairies; but 
the banks of the Wabash are in many places subject to inun- 
dation, both from its own floods, and those of the Ohio, which 
aets up the Wabash several miles. 


This county is situated east of the county of Posey, 
bounded on the east by the county of Perry, on the south by 
the Ohio river, on the west by the county of Posey, and on 
the north by the counties of Orange and Knox. It is a level 
and rich connly, watered by several large creeks running into 
the Ohio, sucli a» Beaver, Pigeon, &c. It is nevertheless but 
indifferently watered, owing to the early drying up of the 
itreams. The prairies are numerous, but mostly inferior, ia 


point of soil, to those bordering the Wabash. The prevail^ 
ing timber being oak, the range for hogs is excellent. 


Is bounded east by Harrison, north by Orange and Wash- 
ington, west by Warwick, and south by the Ohio river. It 
is watered by the little rirer Anderson, and by creeks and 
runs falling into the Ohio* It was established in 1615. 


These consist of Mascontins, Piankashaws, Kickapoos, 
Delawares, Miamis, ShaWanoese, W^eeaws, Ouitauans, Eel- 
tivers, Hurons, and Pottawattamies. 

The Mascontins and Piankashans reside on the rivera 
falling into the right bank of the Wabash, between Vincennes 
and Tippacance. Their numbers are given at 1000 souls, 
Hutchins afSrms that they, together with the KickapooS;, 
could raise 1 000 warriors. 

The Kickapoos reside on the west side of the Wabaslj, 
above Tippacance, and ©n the head waters of the Illinois, 
They have several large villages, and can raise 400 warriors- 

The Dddrvares reside on the head waters of Whitcriver, 
in a village surrounded by large open prairies. I have no 
data for stating their numbers with accuracy ; they are not 

The Miamis inhabit the upper Wabash, Massissinway, 
Miami-of-the-lakes, and Little St. Josephs -^mostly within one 
or two day's travel of fort W^ayne. General Harrison burnt 
four of their towns at the forks of the W abash, in September, 
1813. They are the proprietors of excellent lands, and culti- 
vate large quantities of Indian corn. They are reduced to 
iabout 1100 souls. 

The Shawanase live on and near the banks of Tippacance, 
Ponce Passu creek, and the \Vauash river. They were for- 


merly a very formidable and warlike tribe ; but hare been re* 
duced by their frequent wars, to about 400 warriors. The/ 
have fine lands, and raise an abundance of com* Their coun- 
try was invaded by General Wilkinson, in 1791, who de-^ 
stroyed their principal town, near the mouth of Tippacance^ 
called Kathtippecamunk. " It contained one hundred and 
twenty houses, eighty of which were shingle roofed. The 
best houses belonged to the French traders. The gardens 
and improvements around were delightful. There was a tav- 
ern, with cellars, bar, public and private rooms ; and the 
whole marked no small degree of order and civilization/' Not 
far from the ruins of this town stands the celebrated Prophet's 
town, destroyed by General Harrison, in NoV. 1811, but 
since rebuilt. Above Tippacanoe is the old French post of 
Ouitanan, situated on the north side of the Wabash, in th6 
centre of the Indian country. This place is as old as Vin- 
cennes. Several half civilized French inhabitants reside here 
as well as at L' Anguille, on Eelriver. They raise corn, and 
trade with the Indians. 

The Hurons reside in a small village, ten or fifteen miles 
south east of Ouitanan. There are only ten or twelve fanii= 
lies of them. The Eelrivers and Weeaws are bands of the 
Miamis ; and reside on the Wabash and Eelriver. They 
can collect about 1 00 warriors. 

A part of the Winnehagoes occupy a village on Ponce 
Passu creek, seven miles east of the Prophet's town, which 
contains from forty-five to fifty houses, several of which are 
fifty feet long; others reside on the branches of Plein and Fox 
rivers, and frequent Chicago. 

The Potkwatlamies are the most numerous tribe in the 
state. They reside on Uie Elkhart branch of the St. Jo-^ 
sephs, where they have five villages, one of which is situated 
in an immense prairie, sixty miles west of fort W^ayne. The 
course of this branch is north west. The balance of thia 
tribe live on the St. Josephs, Chicago, Keniiomic, alsd Thea- 
kaki I ivcrs. 



The best proof of the excellence of the land on the Upper 
Wabash, is the circiimslance of its being the scene of a numer- 
©U8 hi<iian population. These sagacious children of nature 
are good judges of land, indeed, they are rarely, if ever, 
fouiid on a barren soil^ 


The Ohio river washes the southern boundary } 


of Indiana, for the distance of . . i 


Wabash, navigable 


Whiteriver, dnd its forks. 


Petoka, . . 


Bineriver, . . . . 


Whitewater, ..... 


Kocky i^iver, . . . . 


Panne, . , » . . 


Massissinway .... 


Eel. and Ijittle rivers, .... 


Western Tributaries of the Wabash, 


St. Jos. phs of Miiimi and Panther's Creek, 


Elkhart and part of St. Josephs of L. Mich. 


Great and Little Kennoniic, . . . . 


Chemin River, ..... 


Chicago and Kickapco, . . . . 


Theakaki, and paits of Fox, Plein, and Illinois, 


Southern coast of Lake Michigan, 



Total 2487 
The foregoing estimate does not embrace streams boatable 
less than thirty miles ; besides, several of those named are 
navigable for canoes and small boats many miles further than 
the given distances annexed. 

The distance from Chicago, to New Orleans, by water, is 
1680 miles — to Buffalo, about 800. The surplus products of 
three fourths of the state will find their way to the New Or: 
leans market- 



A!l the streams in the northern parts of the slate, which 
empty into the Wabash and Illinois, have their branches in* 
terwoven with many of the rivers running into lakes Erie 
and Michigan. Indeed, as bef&re observed, they not unfre- 
qiienlly issue from the same marsh, prairie, pond, or lake. 
There are upwards of twenty portages near the Michigan fron- 
tier, only two of which have hitherto been used by the whites. 
The first of these is between the St. Marys and the Littleri- 
ver branch of the Wabash, arid is nine miles long. The road 
which is good in dry seasons, leaves the St. Marys near Fort 
Wayne, where teams are kept for the transportation of boats 
and merchandize. It was by this route that the French, while 
in possession of Canada, passed from the lakes to their posts 
on the Wabash. From the levelness of the intervening coun- 
try, a canal could be easily opened, uniting the two streams. 
The second is the short portage between the Chicago and the 
Kickapoo branch of the Iliinoig, rendered important by the 
inundations, which at certain seasons cover the intermediate 
prairie, from which the two opposite streams flow. By this 
means nature has herself opened a navigable communication 
between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi ; and it is a fact, 
however difficult it may be of belief to many, that boats not 
unfrequently pass from liake Michigan into the Illinois, and 
in some instances without berrig su!>jected to the necessity of 
having their lading taken out. I have never been on this 
portage, and tliercfore cannot speak from personal knowledge, 
yet the fact has leached me through so many authentic chan- 
nels, that I have no doubt of its truth. Gen. P. B. Porter, 
whose geographical knowledge of the countries bordering the 
lakes, is excelled by f hat of no gentlenian in the western coun- 
try, has given his corroborat've testimony in his speech on 
internal navigation, delivered on the floor of congress in 1810. 
liieutenant Hnnsifton of the United Stoles' army, a meritori- 
ous officer, whose services have not been adequately requit- 


ed, informed a friend of mine living at Detroit, that he had 
passed with a laden boat, and met with no obstructions on 
the portage, except from the grass, through which, however, 
the men easily forced the boat. But, in order to multiply- 
proof and remove evqjy doubt, I consulted the Hon. N. Pope, 
the Territorial Delegate in congress from Illinois, who in an- 
swer to my enquiries stated, that " at high water boats pass out 
of Lake Michigan into the Illinois river, and so vice versa, 
without landing. A canal uniting them is deemed practicable 
at a small expense,'' &c. When on the upper lakes, I fre« 
quently met with voyageurs who had assisted in navigating 
boats across this portage, 

't'his morass is not the only one possessing two distinct out- 
lets, I have myself witnessed this phenomenon in several in- 
stances ;but never where there was water sufficient to float a 
laden boat. Let us hear what the justly celebrated Volney, 
says on this interesting subject. 

" During the vernal floods, the north branch of the Great 
Miami mixes its waters with the southern branch of the Mi' 
ami of the Lake. The carrying place, or portage, of a league, 
which separates their heads, disappears beneath the flood, 
and we can pass in canoes from the Ohio to Lake Erie, as I 
myself witnessed in 1796. 

" At Loremier's Fort, or store, an eastern branch of (he Wa- 
bash serves as a simple canal to connect the two Miarais ; and 
the same Wabash, by a northern branch, communicates, above 
Fort Wayne, in the time of inundation, with the Miami of 
Lake Erie. 

" In the winter of 1792-3, two hfr^is (peroguesj were de- 
tached from Detroit, by a mercantile ho«s6, from whom I re- 
ceived the information, which passed, without interruption, 
from the Huron river,* which enters Lake Erie, into Grand 
River, which falls into Lake Michigan, by means of the rise 
at the heads of the two streams. 

* The river Huron mentioned by Voliie)'., enters Lal^e Erie six miles IjpIo' 
Maldeiu There are two other river* of tiiis name; one. taVs into LaJse ilii 
twelve miles below Sandusky bay, uud the other ioto Lake :ol. Clair, 


" The Muskingum, which flows into the Ohio, communis 
cates, at its sources, through some small lakes, with the Cay- 
ahoga, belonging to Lake Erie.'' 

There is a portage of four miles between the St. Joseph's 
of Lake Michigan, and the Theakaki; of two milts between 
the Theakaki and the Great Kennomic ; of half a mile be- 
tween the Great and Little Kennomic ; of four miles between 
the Chemin and Little Kennomic; and of three miles beiween 
the west fork of Chicago and Plein ; besides numerous ones 
between the head branches of the two St. Josephs ; Black, 
Raisin and Eel rivers, which vary in length according to the 
dryness or moisture of the season. There is a short port- 
age between the St. Marys andjhe main branch of the VVa- 
bash, over which, in times of inundation the Indians pass .with 
their light perogues. • 

In the great peninsula in Upper Canada, formed by Ihe 
Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Simcoe, itc. there are immense 
swamps from which the waters flow off almost impeiceptibSy 
in opposite directions. Through these swamps canoes ran 
pass from the Chippewa ereek into the Grand river, and (rciii 
Lake Simcoe to Nautausawaga, runniiig into Lake Huron, 


Chicago is a small river, which forks sixteen miles from the 
lake, into the east and west branches. Sloops of foity tons 
burthen can enter its harbor. Six miles from the lake its cur- 
rent becomes brisk, and continues so as far as the portage. 
Fort Dearborn, fanioi'» for the muitler of its garrison in Sep- 
tember 1815, by the Pottawattamies, stood upon its left bank 
near the lake shore. The Indians have relinquished to the 
United States a tract of land six miles square, nt the mouth 
of this river. The fort has been lately re-occupied. 

The Great Kennomic. — This rivtr lises twenty or thirty 
miles S. of lake Michigan, and running a N. W. course ap- 
proaches within two or three miie^ cf that lake. Thence 


winding to the S. W. and north, it forms a curviture nearly 
Si'milar to the end of the lake, and p^irallel with it, keeping at the 
distance of 8 or 9 miles. It thence turns suddenly to the S. E.- 
}il. and N, E. in a contrary but parrellel direction to its for- 
mer course, and empties into the lake 30 miles east of Chicago. 
Jt expands behind the sand hills near its mouth, and forms a 
spacious buy. It affords to the Indians an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of fish, and an ample range for fowjing and trapping. It«i 
^anks are low, and its current gentle. 

Population. — I have recently received several letters from 
gentlemen residing in Indiana, which concur in stating thajt 
the population has doubled since May IB 15. In other word^, 
it now amounts to 128,000 souls, a rapidity of increase alto- 
gether unprecedented. 

Price of Improved Lands. — Farms containing a log house 
and fifteen or twenty acres, sell as high as eight or ten dol- 
lars ; in some instances the necessities or rambling disposi- 
tions of the inhabitants induce them to dispose of their plan* 
tations at a trifiing advance upon the original price. 

Falls of the Ohio. — An improvement of the navigation of 
the falls is about to be attempted by a canal round the rapids. 
The legislature have incorporated a company with a capital of 
^1,000,000. When this enterprize is accomplished, ship 
building will probably re-commerce with vigor. It was the 
difficulties encountered in getting vessels over these rapids, 
which chiefly contributed to discourage this important busi- 
ness above the falls. 

The Wabash. — The rapids at Ouitanan are impassable for 
. bouts ; but the navigation is so good between Vincennes and 
,this place, that Gen. Hopkins in his expedition to Tippecanoe 
in 1313, conveyed his baggage and stores in large keels, of 
thirty tons burthen. General Harrison in his expedition 
against the Prophet, was accompanied in his march through 
the wilderness by a caravan of nuffgons ! They were ena- 
bled to proceed with tolerable speed by keeping in the prairies 
tc the west of the woodlands buideringthe Wabash. 


Washington County. — In addition to the streams mentioned 
in page 66, is watered by Blueriver, which rises in the east- 
ern part of the county, and pursuing a S. E. course, passeat 
through Harrison county twelve miles south-west of Cory^ 

Climate. — From the latitude of Ouitanan, (40 20) to the 
feorders of the Ohio, the climate of Indiana may be pronoun- 
ced mild. North of the head branches of the Wabash, the 
north and north-west winds are formidable enemies to human 
comfort, and the winters severe and rigorous; though snow 
is rarely known to fall so deep as it does in the northern coun* 
ties of New- York. The southern shore of Lake Michigan, 
and the vast prairies in the direction of the Wabash have 
little to protect them from the rage of the brumal winds. 

The Reed Cane. — This plant grows south of the ridge of 
liiUs extending from the falls of the Ohio to those of the Wa- 
bash above the mouth of Whiteriver. It is sometimes found 
SB far north as the mouth of the Big Miami. Cotton, the 
viBes of Bpain, the silk worm, and the sweet potatoe will flour- 
ish wherever the reed cane grows, except, thfr first, which 
does not grow to perfection beyond 31 degrees of north lati- 
tade» Rice and Indigo, I think would do well between Blue- 
river and the Wabash, though I have never seen either culti- 
vated, or heard that the inhabitants have yet made the trial. 1 
have seen these plants growing lunuriantly in Overton coun- 
ty, Tennessee, which is a high broken country, near the Ken- 
tucky boundary line, in latitude S6 35. The mouth of the 
Wabash is in 37 50. 

The state will doubtless produce cotton sufficient for its 
tmn consuivjption. It is already raised in considerable quan- 
tities at Vincenaes, Princeton, Harmony, and in the settle- 
wients beloiv the mouth of Anderson. The W~abash v/ill at 
no very reiriOtc r-cj-iod, serve as a canal to supply v.ilh cot- 
ton, a pari of Ji!- market on the northern lakes. 

Game. — 'Ylw. forests of Indiana ate abundantly stocked 
\s lib game. Ci: oat numbers of deer are aiuiually destroyed 


hy the inhabitants. In travelling seven miles through the 
woods of Dearborn county, 1 counted two bears, three deer, 
and upwards of one hundred turkies ; more than half of the 
-latter, however, were young ones, just beginning to fly. I 
will here relate an adventure which may serve to throw some 
light on the natural history of the deer. In the course of the 
<3ay, I missed my way and wandered several miles in the wil- 
■derness, in my endeavors to regain the path I started a fawn, 
which I soon caught, in consequence of its becoming entang- 
led in the herbage. It bleated and appeared greatly fright- 
ened. Conceiving myself to be near a settlement and unwil- 
ling to destroy it, I resolved to carry it to the first house ; 
but after travelling half a mile its dam made her appearance, 
and seemed by her piteous demonstrations, plainly to reproach 
me for my cruelty ; upon which I gave the fawn its liberty. 
But I was not a little surprised, to find it so much attached to 
me during our transient acquaintance, that it absolutely refus- 
ed to leave me. I pushed it from me and pursued my 
course ; but soon found it at my heels, apparently as docile 
as a pet lamb ; and was compelled to frighten it before it 
would turn from me. Relating this fact to some old hunters, 
they assured me that such is the docility of fawns, that- 
they can be as efTectuaily tamed in an hour, as a year. Deer, 
it is said, are the mortal enemies of rattlesnakes ; and often 
kill them designedly by jumping on them. They can scent 
them at considerable distance ; and when pursued by dq^ 
will avoid those which may happen to lie in their way, by sud- 
denly inclining to the right or left. It is also reported that the 
turkey buzzard has the power of killing the rattlesnake by 
its intolerable stench — which it most powerfully emits by a 
violent fluttering in the air a little above the snake's head- 
Farmers are greatly annoyed by the smaller animals, «ucli 
as squirrels, moles and mice ; for nature is as prolific in animal 
as vegetable production?. The mole is particularly troiible- 
«ome to corn-fiflds v.hile tiie seed is conting up, and injnriou* 
to meadows, as it bores the earth in every directioa. 


Minerals.— ''The surface of Indiana is too champaign to be 
rich In mines of gold or silver. It is, nevertheless, stated that 
ti silver mine has been discovered near Ouitanan. Iron ore 
18 found in many counties, probably in sufficient quantities for 
domestic use. Chalybeate springs are plentiful. The water 
between Whiteriver and New Lexington is in some places im- 
pregnated with copperas to such a degree, that linen washed 
in it turns black ; and a few of the inhabitants have been in- 
duced to abandon their habitations in consequence of the sup- 
jposed unwholesomeness of their wells. 

Indian Claims. — Near two-thirds of this state belongs to 
the Indians. Their title is extinguished in the eastern part, 
from Fort Wayne to the river Ohio, on an average of about ■ 
twenty-five miles wide, on the margin of the Ohio and up the 
Wabash and western line to a point N. W. of Fort Harrison, 
and from thence eastwardly to the eastern purchase, about j 
thirty-five miles from the Ohio. Notwithstanding the great- 
er extent of soil purchased from the Indians in the west, a 
meridian equidistant from the eastern and western boundary 
would pretty fairly divide the population ; but the western 
section will populate fastest, owing to the extent of recently 
purchased lands. 


Is bounded north by the Ohio nVer, westbj the Mississip- 
pi, sowth by Tennessee, and east by Virgin ja« 2ts length 
from east to west is 328 miles ; breadth from north to south 
183 miles. Its area is 40,110 square miles, or 25-,670,000 
acres. Its soutliern boundary is in 38 30 — ai»d lis northern 
extremity, (which is in the north bend of the Ohio) 39 10 
N. latitude, 


The bottoms of the Kentucky side of the Ohio, from its 
mouth to that of Big Sandy, will average one mile in width. 
The timber is beech, sugar maple, sycamore, cotton wood, 
hackberry, pawpaw, and honey locust. These bottoms are 
in some places subject to periodical inundation, but are ne- 
vertheless susceptible of cultivation ; alxjut one sixth part of 
this land is cleared. 

Parallel to the Ohio, and in the rear of the bottoms, lies a 
strip of country from five to twenty miles wide, and as long as 
the state, which is cut into deep valHes and high hills, by the 
numerous creeks and runs entering the Ohio, 'ihis soil, 
however, is rich and the greater part capable of improvement. 
Between this strip. Big Sandy and Green rivers, and the 
eastern counties, lies the garden of the state, if not of the 
world. It is about 150 miles long, and from 50 to 100 miles 
wide, and con^prises the counties of Mason, Fleming, Mont- 
gomery, Clarke, Bourbon, Fayette, Scott, JEarrison, Franklin, 
Woodford, JMercer, Jesseinine, Madison, Garrard, Logan, Ca' 
iiey, Lincola, Washington, Green. 


82 westehn gazetteer ; on, 

This extensive tract is jfitersected by Little Sandy, Lick- 
ing, Kentucky, and Salt rivers, and their numerous forks. 
This district has the happiest surface ; gradually rising and 
descending alternately. There are no swamps, and the hills 
are of such easy ascent, that the fields show to the best possi- 
ble advantage. 

The angles of assent are from eight to twenty-four degrees j 
the rallies are very narrow, and what is quite singular, inferior 
in point of fertility to the uplands. The soil, is black and fri- 
able, generally, but sometimes of a deep vermillion hue, or of 
the color of strong ashes. These lands produce black walnut, 
black cherry, honey locust, buckeye, pawpaw, sugar tree, 
mulberry, elm, ash, cotton wood, white thorn, with a grape 
vine encircling almost every fourth tree. The depth of the 
soil is always the greatest on the summits of the ridges and 
hills, varying from one to twenty feet. There is little or no 
under wood ; bi;t its place was supplied, when the country 
was first settled by the whites, by the reed cane, which cover- 
ed all the rich lands. In the woods the earth is not incum™ 
bcred with the rubbish of fallen timber, nor the trunks of 
partially decayed trees, as is the case in the northern states.. 
Tlie trees are small and sti-ait, and do not in many places 
average more than twenty to an acre, except near the princi- 
pal streams, where the prevailing timlier is oak, and the soil 
hard and sterile to the distance of two or three miles. This 
part of the stale is not so well watered as the hilly strip near 
the Ohio and the broken country near the Vii'ginia boundary 
line, yet almost r vt ly farm is blessed with a durable spring. 

The coujUies bordering the Virginia and Tennessee fron- 
tiers, situated in the eastern ard south-eastern parts of the 
state, are broken by the spurs nnd lateral branches of the Al- 
legany and Cumberland mountains. Besides, It is in these 
sections of the state that the Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, 
and Cumherlaiid rivers have I'lcir sources. Tlie small streams 
are nuuicrons ; and have gullied the earth into ^h'.y\i l.ilis^ 
long crooked ridges, deep glens, dark hollows, ?ind Oightful 


giilfs. The hills are covered with oak, chesiiut, hickory, gum, 
and poplar, and the vallies with beech, sugar maple, elm, pop- 
lar, black walnut and hackbeny. In the bottoms of the gulfs, 
or '^ coves''^ as the inhabitants call them, the trees are thick- 
ly planted, and grow to a most extraordinary size, particularly 
the poplars, which frequently measure eight feet in diameter, 
and of immense height. It is in these unfrequented recess- 
es that solitude may be said to hold her court ; for the light of 
heaven is not able to penetiate the eternal gloom which reigns 
beneath the impervious foliage. What a scene for Scott ! His 
description of the woods of Soignies is strikingly appropriat* 
to the coves and gulfs of Kentucky and Tecnessee, 

" Thy woods, dark Soignies, holds us now, 
Wlieie the tall bfteciies' glossy bough. 

For many a leagiip around, 
With birch and darksome oak betweeo, 
Spreads deep and far a pathless screen. 

Of taugled forest ground.'' 

The areas of these gulfs are from one to fifty acres, perfect- 
ly level at the bottom, and covered, when in a state of nature, 
with a thick growth of cane, they have gaps or outlets oh 
one side through which flows the brook created by the mu 
merous springs issuing from the base of the almost surrounding 
hills. The water of these springs is excellent and durable ; 
the sides of the hills, when not ^o steep for {he plough, 
yield fine crops of corn, potatoes, &c. The soit is exceedingly 
rich, and the inhabitants often locate themselves iu these 
peaceful retreats. They afford a pleasant riSiJence in win- 
ter, but are too confined and sultry in the summer. 

Between the Rolling fork of Salt river and Green river, in 
Nelson county principally, is a tract of coontry, about forty 
miles square, mostly biirren, interspersed with plains and 
strips of good lands, whiiJi are advantageous, situations for 
raising cattle, as the neighboring barrens, as \l\osr are impro- 
perly called, are covered with grass, and afford good pastnraget 
Smali tracts of similar land arc found upon Great and Lillle 


Barren rivers. But the country between Green and Cum- 
berland rivers is emphatically called " the harrtns" by the 
inhabitants living north of Green river and tlie Knobs of Pu- 
laski county ; not because the soil is unproductive, but be- 
cause the timber is uniformly oak, chesnut, hickory, gum, 
lyn, poplar and cucumber. The " oak" or " knob'' district, 
rocludes the counties of Pulaski, Wayne, Eocky Castle, 
Knox, Cumberland, Warren, Barren, Livingston and Chris- 

In ] 800, the Legislature of Kentucky m-ade a gratuitous 
gpanl of this extensive tract to actual settlers. Every actual 
settler was entitled to a lot of four hundred acres. At the 
lime, this land was considered of little value ; but time and set- 
tlement has given it a reputation. It proves to be excellent 
grain land ; and hogs and cattle are easily raised. In conse- 
quence of the great size of the lots, and the destitution «f wa- 
ter in many places, the range cannot be destroyed, as has 
been the case in the oZf/ or northern settlements. There are 
no meadows or pastures to be seen in this quarter.; all the 
domestic animals run in the woods. These lands will yield 
from forty to fifty bushels of Indian corn ; fifteen bushels of 
rye, twenty of wheat, and thirty of oats, an acre ; besides, 
tobacco does well in the swails an«l flats, which are sometimes 
very fertile; cotton and indigo will do tolerably well. The 
gardens produce onions, cabbage, sweet and Irish potatoes. 
The bottoms of Cumberland, where it runs on the Kentucky 
side of the boundary line, are very productive, not so subject 
to inundation, nor so wide as those of the Ohio. The soil is a 
giavelly clay or loam of a Vermillion color, except in the pop- 
lar timbered lands, where it is a deep, ash colored mould, 
rich, durable, and capable of producing one hundred bushels 
of corn an acre. The inhabitants make use of this soil for the 
culture of tobacco, of which they raised great quantities last 
season. I s^rcely passed a plantation, which had not a to- 
bacco field ; Im which purpose they had uniformly cleared a 
piece of nm' ground. The country merchants were offering 



from twelve to fifteen dollars a hundred in advance. The^ 
chesnut trees are remarkably tall and handsome ; and the in- 
habitants mostly nse thiis timber for rails and shingles* 


The Ohio vrashes its northern margin for the space of 838 
miles, and the Mississippi its western limit 74 miles. Most 
of the rivers have a northeni direction and empty their waters- 
into the Ohio. 

The Big Scmdt/, rises in the Allegany mountains near the 
heads of Clinch and Cumberland, and forms the eastern 
boundary of the state for nearly 200 miles ; it is 200 yards 
wide at its month, and branches into the north-east and south 
forks forty miles from its entrance into the Ohfo. The south 
fork receives a great number of large creeks, among which are 
Shelby, Bear, Turkey, Bartle's, Paint and Blane'^ all of 
which run east or north-east. It is navigable to the Ouascioto 

Between the mouths of Big Sandy and Licking, the fol- 
lowing creeks and rivulets enter the Ohio; they are from 
twenty to seventy miks long, and from fifty to twelve yards 
wide at their mouths. 

Little Sandy, (Below 

Big Sandf/.J 


Tigers creek, 




. 19 

Salt Lick creek. 

. 14 


. 18 

Crooked creek, 

. 13 

Cabin creek, . 

. 2 

Brooke creek, . 

. 6 

Limestone, (small) 

. 3 

Bracken, . 

T.- I..' .- 1 1- '- 

it ^ It 1 

. 22 

Licking river heads in the south-east corner of the state, 
pear the sources of Cumberland river, pursues a nqfth- 


trestern course and falls into the Ohio, at Newport, directly 
©pposlte Cincinnati. In high water It swells to a respectable 
size, but in long droughts nearly disappears beneath the 
limestone rocks, which constitute its bed. 

The Kentucky rises in the mountains in the S. E. corner of 
the state, and interlocks with the head waters of Licking and 
Cumberland. It runs a N. W. course, and falls into the Ohio, 
at Port William, 77 miles abore Louisville. It is 150 yards 
wide at its mouth, and has a boatable navigation 150 miles. 
It receives the north and south forks which are considerable 
streams, which enter the main branch about two miles apart ia 
Madison county. These forks rise in the hills near Cumber- 
land river and run nearly north. Dicks, a small river which 
rises in Iiincoln county, and by running N. N. W. falls into 
the left bank of the Kentucky below the mouth of Hickman. 
It is about fifty miles long and fifty yards wide at its mouth ; 
its current is very rapid, and its course confined by precipices 
of limestone and white marble, and in some places nearly 300 
feet high. Elkhorn, which has two forks, the N. and S. 
the first heads near Lexington, and the second near George- 
town. These branches water Scott and Fayette counties, 
and are well calculated for driving hydraulic machinery. 
This river enters the Kentucky eight miles below Frankfort, 
and is fifty yards wide at its mouth. Eagle creek rises ia \ 
Harrison county, and runs N. W. and empties into the Ken- j 
tucky fifty miles above its mouth. 

Salt v'ixci rises iu Mercer county — has three branches all 
issuing from the same county, and enters the Ohio 20 miles 
below Louisville. It is 150 yards wide at its mouth, and. 
navigable 150 rail«s. It waters Jefferson, Greenup, Wash- 
iiigtou and Mercer counties. 

Green river has its sources in Lincoln county. It por- 
pues a western course, and enters the Ohio, 200 miles below ■ 
Louieville, and 50 miles above the mouth of Cumberland. It s 
is 200 yards wide at its mouth, and navigable for boats nearly f 
2<)(kmilea — ^Jt receives m il« progress a great nurai)er of tribu» 


tary streams, the principal of which is Gi-eet Barren river, 
which also divides into numeroas forks, heading near the 
Cumberland and Tennessee. Its course is N. E. Little Bar- 
ren river heads in BuHett county, and enters the right bank of 
Green river, 50 miles below the mouth of Great Barren. Rough 
river rises from the S. E. enters Green river 30 miles above 
its entrance into the Ohio ; and Panther's creek comes ia 
from the S. E. 26 miles from the Ohio. 

Tradenafer river heads in the bend of Cumberland river, in 
Christian county, and running a N. W. course falls into the 
Ohio, 200 miles below the mouth of Green river, or about equi- 
distant from the mouths of Green and Cumberland. It is about 
70 yards wide at its mouth and 80 miles long. 

Cumberland river rises near the south fork of Big Sandy, 
in the S. E. corner of the sfeate ; 80 miles below its head, it 
passes the Tennessee boundary line, and runs about 40 miles 
in that state, and then re-enters Kentucky, but by a curviture 
of 50 miles separates Wayne county from Pulaski ; it then 
turns to the S. W. advances into the state of Tennessee. Af- 
ter meandering about 200 miles through that country, turns 
to the N. W. passes by Nashville into Kentucky, and unitesB 
with the Ohio in a W. direction, 1113 miles below Pittsburg. 
It is 300 yards wide at its mouth, and is navigable in large 
vessels to Nashville, where it is about 190 yards wide, and 
continues that breadth upwards of 200 miles. It is naviga- 
ble more than 300 miles above Nashville in boats of 15 tons 
burthen. At Nashville it is 20 feet deep, from November to 
June, but frequently in freshes it is 40, 50, and sometiiues 60 
feet deep, overflowing a great part of the low grounds. From 
June to November, it is nsi!;\]!y 10 and 12 feet deep. The 
current is very gentle ffom Nashville to the Ohio, about 200 
miles, affording an easy navigation. 

Bed river heads in Cuuiberlaod county, and vr-mz ^, W. 
course into Cumberlaijd river. This stream is 00 yards wide 
and 50 miles long. 

Tennessee river runs about 75 miles iii Kcnliic^ry, before it 
enters the Ohio. 



KasJdnampas river waters the western end of the stated- 
it heads near the Tennessee and runs a vrestern course, en- 
tering the Mississippi, about hslf way between the mouth of 
the Ohio and New Madrid. 




Chief Towns. 




































































Port William 











9,18 6 



















Chief Town?. 




Elizabeth Town 





', 37 























Russelv'ille ' 

" 532 







Danvilie - 
























Pulaski ' 


Pendleton ■ 











J 4,837 

Shelby/ ille 
















■ Yersailles 

48 S 



In 1790 the population, was 73,377; In 1800—220,960; 

•n iSl! — 406,5il. — It therefore appears that the population 

from 1790 to 1800 eiicreosed sit the rate of aboi^if eleven poi" 

cnt; from 1800 to IP. 10, at the rate of about six per cent; 

arid doubled itself in about eleven years, Sir.ce ISIO it has 



probably Increased nt the rate of three percent, aud wlilagaia^ 
double ir! about tweuiy years. But Mr. Niles, editor of the 
Weekly Register, says, that it is estimated on ascertained 
fsrts and reasonable data that the present popuktion of Ken- 
tucky is about 527,000— viz. 420,000 free white, and 107,000 
slaves, which gives an increase of 125 per cent, in five years. 


These are not so numerous as in the northern states ; yet 
€vpry county has its seat of justice. I shall only notice such 
as I have seen. 

Mnyville stands on the bank of the Ohio, just below Hhic- 
stone creek, 500 miles below Pittsburgh, and 66 above Cin- 
cinnati. Its site though pleasant is confine '^ as the botfonion 
which it stands is not n^ore than 50 rods wide, and the hills 
in its rear rise abruptly to the height of 450 feet. It con- 
tains about 400 houses ; there are three streets running par- 
allel with the river and four cross ones, besides lanes and 
alleys. There is a glass factory and a printing office. It is 
a brisk place, being the principal river port for the nor'h- 
east half of the state, as Louisville is for the south-west. Boats 
and Waggons are continually arriving and departing ; and great 
numbers of emi^^rants cross at this place for Ohio and India- 
na. The taverns are well kept, and charges reasonable. The 
great road from Lexington to Chi'lcothe, crosses the Ohio at 
]\iaysvillej Several vessels have been built above the town, 
where the bottom expands to the width of a mile. 

WasJi'mglon is situated in a rich settlement, about three 
miles south-west of jMaysvilie — It hos three parallel streets, 
but the buildings are not thick ; many of them, however, are 
,ln!ge and handsome. There is a brick jail, a stuue church 
for Scotch Pre^byteiians, and a Baptist meeting house; ao 
academy, postofBce, prir.iing ofiice, five taverrs, and several 
stores. Several new buildings w^re going up in ?«Iay last, 
and what is deserving of meiitioji, I saw several waggons la- 


<3f,n with boards sawed in Allegany county in the state of NeWs- 
York, and rafted down the Allegany and Ohio rivers, as far as 
Limestone. These boards are sometimes carried in waggons 
as far as Paris and Lexington. 

Paris — The capital of Bourbon county, is situated upon 
a handsome ridgfi on the right bank of Stoner fork of Licking, 
at the mouth of Houston creek. There are two merchant 
flowering mills, and several carding machines, two churches, 
and a printing oiSce, besides a large number of well finished 
stores, mechanic shops, &c. The greater part of the build- 
ings are brick, and as large as any in the state. It is twenty 
miles east of Lexington, sixty-five S. S. E. of Newport, and 
in N. lat. 38, 14. The lurrour.iiing country is rich and de- 
lightful—anil the road from thence to Lexirgton leads through 
a district surpassing in beauty, if possible, the brilliant descrip- 
tion of Imlay. 

Lexington. I had occasion to visit this place in the sum- 
jnerof 1797; it then contained about 50 houses, partly 
frame, and hewn logs, with the chimneys out side ; the sur- 
rounding country was then new ; a village lot could have been 
purchased for ^30^ and a good farm in its vicinity for %5 an 
acre. The best farmers lived in log Cabins, and wore hunting 
«hirts and leggings. In May last, (1816) business again call- 
ed me to Lexington. But how changed the scene ! Every 
thing had assumed a new appearance. The beautiful vale of 
Town Fork, which in 1797, I saw variegated wtth cornfields, 
meadows, and trees, had in my absence been covered with 
stiitely and elegant buildings — ^in short, a large and beautiful 
town had arisen by the creative gcniup of the west. The log 
cabins had disappeared, and in their places stj^jd cos#y brick 
mansions, well painted and enclosed by fine yards, bespeak- 
ing the taste and wealth of their possessors. The leathern p.^Ji- 
taloons, the huuting shirts and leggings Viad been discarded, for 
the dress and manners of the inhabitants had entirely changed. 
The sceneryaroundLex,i''gton, almost equals that of the elys"? 
ifjm of the ancients. Philadelphia, with ail its surroundino;^ 


beauties scarcely equals it. The surface resembles tbe ge% 
€e swell of the ocean, when the agitations of a storm have 
Bendy si;b:;ided. The roads are very fine and "wide. Tfee 
grazing parks hare a peculiar neatness; tlie charming 
groves, the small, sqrmre and beaotif:;! meadows, and above 
a!i, the wide spj-e.^ding forests of corn v/avlngin grandeur and 
luxvvirvf'Ce.. and perfuming the air with its fragrance, combine 
to render a summer's view of Lexington inexpressibly rich, 

- novel, grand and picturesque. The site of the town is in a 
'{'' ' ivit the dec'ivities are so gentle that some travellerSj ,_ 
roi L^<::rapislous}y accnrate, have described it asap/airt. Town 
Fork creek waters the central parts of the town ; it is narroWj, ^. 
and in severe droughts nearly dry. The main street, v.'hicli 
is one mile and a quarter long, runs parallel with the creek on 
the north side. There ai'e three other streets running paral= 
Sel with the main street. These are intersected at short in- 
tervals by cross streets; ail of which are wide and mostlj 
paved. Main street presents to the traveller as much wealth,, 
and more beauty than can be found in most of the atlaatic 
cities. It is about 80 feet wide, level, compactly built, wel,5 

^ paved, and Iiaving foot ways, twelve feet wide on each side. 
1 was surprised to see at every step, finely painted bnck 
stores, three stories high, and well filled with costly and fan- 
ciful merchandize. Near the centre of the town is the pubis:; 
square, lined on every side with large substui.tJal b!-ick hoiises, 
stores, hotels, &c. In this square slsnds the market house, 
which is of brick, and well furnished on Weunesdaj^s anir 
»?aturdays ; but occasionally the scene of a barbarous prac- 
tice ; foyt is here that incorrigible or delinquent negroes are 
flogged wnifiertHfuliy. 1 saw this punishment inflicted on two 
of these wretches. Their screams soon collected a nuaier- 
0!^s crowd — I could not help saying to myself, " These crie^ 
are tbe,|;nell of Kentucky libertj." I had not leisure to 
cr:rt:;t the buildings, and found no person capable of giving the 
requisite information. This iownappears as large and populous 
as Cincinnati, which contaiised in 1816,, lOOOliouscs and 600§) 


souls. The public buildings, consist of sevefal churcbes, be- 
Joiiging to meilsodists, presbyterians, baptists, seceders, epis- 
copalians, and Roman ct:tholics. The court bouse is a three 
story brick building, with a cupola rising from the middle of a 
square roof, and contains a bell and a town clock. The Ma- 
sanoic Ball and the Bank, are fine brick buildings. There is 
•a public library, and a university called Transylvania, liber- 
J'y endov, cd, the terms of tuilion are ^200 per annum. There 
is a female aqgdemy, where the following branches are tangbt, 
viz. reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, correspondence, 
elocution', rhetoric, geography, astrononiy, ancient and mod- 
ern history, chronology, mythology, music, drawing, embroid- 
ery, Sec TTse taverns and boarding houses are neat and well 
furnished. IVihon''s hotel is excelled by none in Arnericuj 
for ext.ensivfness, style and good living. The streets are of- 
ten thronged with well dressed people. A prodigious quaa- 
tiiy of European goods are retailed to ihe crowd of cnsto£H-= 
ers, who resort here from the neighboring aettleoaents. There 
are two bookstores, and three pjioting offices, from which 
are issued as many weekly papeis, viz : the Reporter, and 
Kentucky Gazette, both republican, anil the Monitor, federal, 
and the only one of tbat political cast in the state. I^he ia= 
habitants are as polished, and i regret to add, as iusurioas 

: those of Boston, NewTYoik or Baltimore ; and their assera- 

ies and parties are conducted with as mueh ease and grace, 
in the oldest towns of the union. The manufactories are 
r.ctensive, and promise a continued growth of the town. There 
are four nail fa ctojies, which manufacture seventy toris of 
nails yearly — two copper and tin manufaCt'ories — several jew- 
ellers and silversmiths, ten sadler shops, five cabinet shops, 
and three painters, seven tailor sliops, ah umbrella manufacto- 
ry, twelve blacksmiths, two gunsmith shops, several tobacco- 

ts, nve chair makers, thsee dyers, six hatters, sixteem 
shoemakers, two slocking v;eavers; besidas tanneries, brew&- 
fies, distiileiies, cooperies, brickyards, carding machines, 

:. The rope walks are on a large scale, and its raanufac- 


tures of hemp in 18H,,were valued at ;^500,000. There 
are several cotton and woolen manufactories — three steam 
grist mills, and two steam paper mills. The Lexington wool- 
en manufactor}'^, erected by Messrs. Prentis's & Co. and Mr. 
Sanders large cotton manufactory are built on the Town 
Fork, about a mile south-west of the town. '1 hey went into 
operation in June last. Mr, Sanders employed about 150 
bands ; the articles manufactured, consist of cotton yarns, 
sheeting, shirting, bedticking, counterpanes, table cloths, 
chambrays, cassinets, sattinets, woolen cords, &c. The wool- 
en manufactory also employed 150 hands — it manufactures, 
broadcloths, cassimeres, blankets, and flannels. It has a 
steam paper mill coniiected with it, which produces paper of 
a fine quality. The other paper mill rivals any establishment 
of the kind in the United States. 

There are between fifty and sixty villas, or handsome 
country residences in the vicinity of Lexington, and that of 
Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives, may 
be pronounced one of the most delightful. It is situated 
about one mile east of the town, on an agreeable rise, and is 
nearly surrounded with poplar and locust groves. 

. The inhabitants of Lexington have a healthful and spright- 
ly appearance ; there are several families from the New- 
England states, who have resided here for a number of years, 
and enjoyed good health- 
There is nothing in the manners or morals of the people 
•f Lexington, to justify the shameful calumnies of the British 
liireling. Ash. " The inhabitants (he says) shew demonstra- 
tions of civilization ; but at particular times, on Sundays and 
fiaarket days, they give a loose to their dispositions, and ex- 
hibit many traits that should exclusively belong to untutored 
savages. Their churches have never been finished, and 
they have all the glass struck out by boys in the day, and 
the inside by rogues and prostitutes who frequent them at 

Land is &g dear aroand Lexington as it is in the oldest 


settlement on the seaboard, wliole farms have sold for $100 
an acre ; and small parcels for a far greater sum ; town lots 
are exorbit-ustly high. 

The cattle, horses and sheep are very fine. Great num- 
bers of cattle are bought bj the drovers for (he Bahimore and 
Philadelphia maikets. A first rate yoke of cattle can be pur- 
chased for fifty dollars ; and a horse worth one hundred dol- 
lars in NeR'-Yorkj could be bought for seventy dollars. P.o- 
visions are cheap, and abundant Mechanics charges are 
high. A tailor will charge you from five to ten dollars for 
making a coal! Board ,^2,50 a week for laborers. Most of 
the mechanics are in prosperous circumstances.' 

Georgetawn, the capltol of Scott county, is situated oa 
Royal Spring, which empties its waters into North Elkhorn, 
nearly a mile from the town. It has several manufactory es- 
tablishments, a court house, baptist meeting house, printing 
ofSce, post office, and a rope walk. It is fourteen miles north 
of Lexington, and on the head of a flourishing settlement. 

Harrodsbiirght a post-town of Mercer county, is pleasantly 
situated on both sides of Salt river, \vhich is here a handsome 
rivulet, of good water, and affording a liberal supply for sevaral 
mills. This village is ten miles N. by W. of Dansville, and 
contains 76 houses, some of them of good size and appear- 
ance ; it has a meeting house and post oface ; the country 
in its vicinity, is neither so rich nor so level, as around Dans- 

Dansvilhy the capital of Mercer county, is sitnated on the 
S. W. side of Dicks river, which is here a mere biook. 40 
miles S. by W. of Frankfort, and 33 S. S. W. of Lexing- 
ton. It has 200 houses, a court house, jail, presbyteritiii 
church, post office, and a printing office j in which is publish- 
ed a newspaper called the *' Light House.'" The surround- 
ing country is rich and closely settled. There are several 
mills, factories, and an extensive rope walk. 

Stanford, the chief town of Lincoln county, ia situated on 
a fertde and handsome pk^in, ten miles S. S. E. of Dansvilk ; 


rr has about 200 bouses, a stone court- house and jail, post 
ofSce, and a rope walk. There 'are five pfeotations in its 
Keigbborhood, abcnnding with good' spring!?, which constitute 
the sources of GrecJi river. 

Si(mrnerset—ThQ seat of justice for Pulaski county, stands 
«n the side of a hillin a rich undulating country, twelve S- S, 
E. of Stanford. — It contains about -0 houses, brick, framedj 
and hewn logs; it has a post office, ihree taverns, six stores, 
three blacksmith shops, and a grist mill. Six n^iles beyond 
Suroraerset on the Monticello road, the aspect, saii and tim- 
^ber of the country, changes instantly :'for yon pass almost at 
9. single step, from the deep, black, rich soil, covered with 
hoiiey iocust, ?ugar mapie, bnckey<%&c. info the oa.^j or knob 
region, where the soft vegetable mould, the accacia, grape 
vine, and rich pastures disappear, and you tread on a firrae, 
soil, and make your way iJirongha lofSy oak and chesnut fov 
est. The ascent from the rich lands to the summn of the 
linohs, is several hundred feet. 

Monticello — the chief town of Wayne county, stands on ?= 
dry ridge, about half way between Cumberland river and 
the Tennessee boundary line. It has about 50 inelegair-^ 
hewn leg dF/eUing bourses, a rude court house, and a place fct 
public rorship, three tavarns, four stores, three blacksmith 
shops. The country for several miles to the south, is broken^ 
and abounds with streams and saltpetre caves. The water.; 
are remarkably pure and wholesome. A lead mine was di:— 
covered in the mountains about tv/elve miles south of ]\Ioritr 
cello, in April last. This discovery wafmade by a maier' 
TviUhy SiS the inhabitants informed me. The proprietors, are 
confident of making their fortunes ;they fisve already expend- 
ed a considera|)lc sum in excavating the rock through which' 
the veih leads. My curiosity lead me to visit the spot, aiid 
procure a specimen of the ore, wh'ch was very fine, bat the 
rein was only a yard wide and six inches deep. Impioved 
land is selling near the Tennessee bouridajy line, fpr ten, fif- 
teen and twenty dollars an acre, according to quality. 


Wayne county is the most healthy part of the state. Dis= 
teases and physicians are almost imkuowa to the inhabitants; 
but as a drawback on this blessirif!;, they iVeqcaatly exp-eri- 
CMce the most tremendous thunder storms. In travelling 
from Limestone to Cumberland river, l scarcely snv a single 
tree which had been struck by lightning. But immediately 
on entering this county, I discovered frecjuent Instances of the 
lightning's rage ; and soon had an opportunity of beholding it 
exerting all its power on the forest which covers Poplar nioiu> 
tain. The storm overtook me several miles from any house, 
and upon the summit of the mountain. The claps came 121 
quick succession and were distinguished f!>r uncomnion vivid- 
ness of the lightning, and terrific severity of the thun- 
der. There was but very hi tie rain, and not the least ap- 
pearance of wind. Several trees were struck within a short 
distance of the covert I had selected. A large chesnnt tree 
was literally shivered into splinters, and scattered to the dis* 
tance of several rods, in every direction. The fragments 
exactly resembled the strips of a basket-maker. 

Franhforl, the metropolis of the state, and chief town of 
Franklin county, stands on the east bank of Kentucky river, 
sixty miles above its entrance into the Ohio. The site of 
the town is a semicircular, alluvial plain, two hundred feet low* 
er than the table in its rear. The r^ver which is here about 
100 yards wide, with bold limesione banks, foritis ahr.ndsome 
curve and waters the southern and western parts of the town. 
1 he bottoms on both side of the river are very broad, but 
subject to inundation. Ft>r several years after the settleint ' is 
were commenced, the inhabitants were iilicted with bili us 
complaints. But the low situations have been diained, asid 
they now enjo} good liealth. Tlie town is but litlle inf.aiur 
to Lexington in the size and number of ii-? houses ; but is ?fei- 
ther so pleasant, nor so rich in its smrouiiding scenery. The 
public buildings are, the state hou^e, peniteutiary, two church- 
es, coml house, jail, misrket house, &c. The first is of rough 
marble, eighty-six feet front by fifiy-four dee|;— ii is a pareh 


lelogram, with a cupola rising fiom the centre of a square 
roof. Tlie public ofSces are on tht. first floor, the hail of the 
rej-resentatives on the seeoud, and senate chamber on the 
third. The court house is of brick — it is large and conven- 
ient, and in every respect worthy of the metropolis of Ken- 
tucky. The penitentiary covers one acre ; the walls are of 
stone, the work shopa occupy the front. The labor of the 
convicts and articles manufactured, aftfr paying for the raw 
materials, considerably exceed in value the annual appropria° 
tions of the state. It contains from 70 to 100 convicts. 

There are several valuable rope walks, two bagging manu- 
factories, powder mills, a grist and saw mill (below the town) 
tobacco warehouse, two book stores and three printing offi- 
ces, in which are printed the Palladium, the Argus and the 
Pulse. This town is in 38, 14, north latitude and 24 
miles N. W. of Lexington. Several large brigs have been 
built here and sent to New-Orleans. The public inns are 
commodious, and conducied in the best manner. 

Franklin county is bounded west by Shelby, north-west 
by Henry, north by Gallatin, east by Scott and Woodfordj 
and south by Mercer, it is a rich county, but not so popu- 
lous as Fayette, Scott, or Woodford. It has no poor land 
except narrow strips along the banks of Kentucky river. It 
is watered by Kentucky and Elkhorn rivers. It abounds with 
excellent marble, freestone ; and sand suitable for the manu- 
facture of g]?ss, which is found in the river. There is a sub- 
stantial chainlbridge across the Kentucky at Frankfort. 

Versailles — the seat of .Justice for Woodford county, is sit- 
uated on a creek running into the Kentucky river. It con- 
tains about 100 houses, mostly large, of brick and stone. It i? 
thirteen miles S. W. by S. of Lexington. Its inhabitants 
are di>htinguisl<ed for their politeness and hospitality. Wood- 
ford county is rich and populous ; bounded N. by Scott, E. 
fey Fayette, S. E. by Jessamine, S. W. by Mercer, and N, 
W. Ity Franklin. 

The public were last summer aniused with a descrlptioK 


Qf a wonderful cave, said to have been discovered in ihis 
county. I piade particular enquiries respecting caves and 
caverns, but heard nothing of any corresponding in grandeur 
and dimensions, with the one described in our newspapers of 
August 1 816. 

khAhyville — the principal town of Shelby county, stands 
on Brashan's cr^ik, twelve ratles above it* junction with Salt 
liver. It has a court house, meeting house, post ofSce, 
pri.fling office. It is about twenty miles south-west of Frank- 
icr; — Shelby county is bounded north by Henry, west by 
Euilitt, east by Franklin, and south by Nelson. It is fertile, 
and copiously watered by several creeks runnhig into Salt 

Cynthiana — The seat of justice for Harrison county, is a 
flourishing town, s(ands on the north-east bank of the South 
Fork of Licking, 20 miles on a strait line nbove its junction 
with Main Licking. It contains about 100 houaes, of brick, 
stone, frame, and hewn logs ; it has a brick court and mar-f 
ket house*, stone jail, an academy endowed by the legislature 
with 6000 acres of land. There are ten grist and saw mills, 
within three miles of the town. The town is situated un a 
large and handsome bottom, in a heaithiul, rich settlement. U 
is 04 miles N. E. of Frankfort, and 26 N. by E. from Lexing- 
ton. The rond from Frankfort to Augusta passes through Cyn- 
thiana. Harrison is bounded north by Pendleton, south by 
Scott, west by Franklin, and east by Bracken. Its surface is 
in many places brokei? — it is very well watered by the South 
Fork of I-icking, Eagle creek, ird its lead branches. 

♦iiUgusta, the seat of justice of BnH'kenconi'ty, stands on 
the bank of the Ohio, on a spacious and pleasant bottom, 22, 
miles below Maysville. The margin of the river is beauti- 
fully ornamented with a double row cf locust tree«, and the 
streets and yards are also well slisded hy locust iwid pop-; 
lars. It Was court week, and the day very hot and subry, 
when I arrived here fiom Cincinnati, and proceeded by iand; 
to W asbin^ton. Slavery never appeared n;ore odious to lae 


than on that day. The neighboring fields were filled w ith ne- 
groes, bear headed, toiling beneath the rays of a scorching 
sun, and covered with sweat and dust, while the well dressed 
whites, satin groupes beneath refreshing shades, engaged 
in reading newspapers, and beguiling the hours in the vivaci- 
ty of coloqnial intercourse. This town has a particular air 
of neatness; but its trade is not very extensive. I omitted 
counting the buildings, or making any topographical notes. 
There is probably about 75 houses, a court house and meet- 
ing house. The flats above the town are more than one mile 
wide. Bracken creek enters the Ohio about half a mile above 
the village. This creek branches about a mile and a half 
from the river ; and affords water for several grist mills. 
Bracken county is considerably broken, but it may be rank- 
ed among the rich counties. 

Newport, the seat of justice for Campbell county, is situa- 
ted immediately above the mouth of Licking, and directly 
opposite Cincinnati ; its site is a rich, elevated and beauti- 
ful alluvial plain, commanding a fine prospect of Covington, 
Cincinnati, the opposite hills, and both up and down the Ohio 
river. It is healthy and affords good well water at the depth 
of 40 feet, it has enjoyed considerable political advantages, 
being the point of rendezvous for most of the m.ilitary expedi- 
tions from Kentucky against the British and Indians. The 
United States have erected an arsenal immediately above 
the confluence of the Licking with the Ohio ; and make this 
place a point of debarkation for such troops as are sent down 
the river. Notwithstanding its early settlement and fine si- 
tuation, it has not flourished until within the last two years — ■ 
It begins to assume the appearance of a handsome town. 
There are several fine brick houses — it has a court house, 
(building) a jail, market house, an academy (not yet in opera- 
tion) endowed by the legislature of Kentucky with 6000 acres 
of land ; arrangements were made last season for the erection 
of a brick school house, and the orgapization of a school on 
the Lancastrian plan; there is a baptist and a methodist congre- 


gation, but no permaneHt meeting houses-— a post office, ho 
printing off.ce, but a fine vac?,!icj for such an establish- 

The arsenal " consists of a capacious, oblong, two story 
armory of brick; a fire-proof, conical magazine, for gunpow- 
der ; asto'ie house for the keener, and wooden barracks siifl5- 
C'eiit for the reception of two or three regiments of men, the 
whole inclosed wilh a stockade.'' 

The proprietor of this town is Gen, James Taylor, who 
corruiH.iiced building and laying out lots in 1791, and convey- 
ed two acres to the county as a site for the pnblic building??. 
His title is indisputable, and his terms and policy liberal. He 
has introduced the culture of the vine; and his vineyard 
greatly enibellisFies the place. 

Covington is a new town finely situated on the bank of the 
Ohio, immediately below Newport on the opposite side of 
Licking — the plain on which it stands is extensive and simi- 
lar in soil and elevation, to the site of Newport. The propri- 
etors are Messrs. Gano's and T. D. Carneal. " It is so plan- 
ned and surveyed, as to make the streets appear to be a con- 
tinuation of those of Cincinnati. Each block of lots has the 
advantage of two 16 feet alleys.'' They have made libera! 
donations for the erection of public buildings. This town is 
to be connected with Newport by a bridge across Licking — 
ray, some are so sanguine as to talk of a bridge across the 
Ohio, thereby connecting at a future period, "the three cities." 
The great road to the Miami and' Whitewater settlements, 
from the interior of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and the 
Carolinas, passes through this place. 

If the lover of the sublime and beautiful of nature, wishes 
to contemplate a ravishing panorama, let him embark at Co- 
lumbia, on a fine summer's day, and suffer his boat to glide at 
leisure until be passes the mouth of Licking. His eye will 
fix itself alternately on the broad, placid " belle riviere,''^ roll- 
ing in grandeur, (he extensive valley of the Ohio, clad in the 
rich luxuriance of its summer vestments, equalling in beauty, 


the fabled vale of Terape, the hills, rising majesticaily froiii J 
the bottoms, like two immense amphilheatres, the Sne planta-? 
tions, the vast assemblage of boats, the siSes and buildings of 
Cincinnati, Newport and Covington — he will be charmed, and 
forcibly struck with the tout ensemble of so many interesting 
objects, and the slriking proximity of three flourishing towns. 
Campbell county is generally hilly, being broken by Licking 
river, and several creeks — the soil, however, is tolerably good, 
and the growth of timber very heavy. The woods abound 
"with vast quantities of genseng, and there are large tracts of 
land to be sold, on reasonable terms ; they are well watered, 
and in a healthy part of the state. 

" In the bed of Licking within a mile of its mouth, when 
the river is low, several copious Teins of chalybeate water 
burst out, and have occasionally been resorted to, by the citi- 
zens. In addition to the carbonate of iron, they contain the 
different salts common in the spring water of this region. 
They seem to be formed in the alluvial grounds which skirt 
the river, and may be mentioned as specimens of a numerous 
class of chalybeate springs, with which the alluvial for matioi^ 

Newport and Covington will enjoy a large share of the in-; 
terior trade of Kentucky ; as Licking river, in high water, is 
navigable for more than one hundred miles, for boats carrying 
two hundred barrels of flour. 

Port William, the chief town of Gallatin county, stands on 
the right shore of Kentucky, just above its embouchure. It 
contains about fifty houses, many of which are of brick — but 
although pleasantly situated at the mouth of a navigable river, 
ihe outlet of a fine country, it has not flourished. 

Newcastle, the seat of justice for Henry county, is situated 
in a populous district, 18 miles nearly south ot Westport. 
It contains about 70 houses, principally of hewn logs. The 
court house is :i large convenient brick building, two stories 
high and about forty feet square. 

Westport, is situated in Henry county, on a high bluff neap 


the bank of the Ohio, 48 miles below the tnouth of Kentuc- 
ky river, and 17 above Louisville. It has about 25 houses. 
The county of Tf?nry was establiahed in 1799; it is bound- 
ed north by the Ohio liver, west by Jefferson, south by Shel- 
by, and east by Kentucky river. It i« about thirty miles 
square, and obtained its name from the celebrated Patrick 
Hetiry of Virginia. It is watered by the Little Kentucky, 
which has a snfficiency of water for mills the greater part of 
the year — Drennon's, Harrod's, Flatt, Six mile and Corn 
creeks, upon all of which are a number of grist and saw mills. 
A considerable part of this county is broken by the Ohio, Lit- 
tle and Great Kentucky rivers. The soil is favorable to the 
growth of corn, rye, o;Us, wheat, tobacco, hemp, sweet and 
Irish potatoes. Each family may easily raise cotton enough 
for its own use. The hills afford a plentiful supply of oak 
timber suitable for ship building, and the county is rich in fos- 
sil productions. There is a salt lick on Drennon's creek, 25 
miles from the Ohio, at which salt has occasionally been made, 
and it is believed by manj'^, that by proper management the 
whole state could be supplied with that necessary article frons 
these works alone. Lead ore is found near the lick ; and 
about three miles higher up the creek is a medicinal springs 
much frequented by the inhabitants in summer. The grass 
fed beef of this county is said to possess a superior flavor, ow- 
ing chiefly, it is supposed, to the many sulphurous licks on 
almost every little water course. The tobacco crop for ex- 
portation in favorable seasons has exceeded 300 hogshead*. 

IjOtiiffville — Thechief townof JeffeT-son county, stands oi* 
an inclined plain, about one quarter of a mile above the Fails 
of Ohio. The three principal streets ran parallel with the ri- 
ver, and the view of the rapids, the opposite shore, Jefferson- 
ville, Clarksville, and Silver Creek hills, is very fine. For 
several years succeeding the first settlement of the town, the 
inhabitants were annually visited by agues and bilious fevers, 
but latterly, these disorders have in a measure disappeared. 
Louisville is at preseut in a slate of rapid growth and im- 


provement and nearly equals Cincinnati and Lexington ill 
size and beauty. It has many public buildings, several rope* 
walks, manufactories— two printing oSces, bookstore, &c. It 
is 706 miles, by the windings of the Ohio, below Pittsburgh, 
40 VV. of Frankfort, and 481 abo\'e the mouth of the Ohio ; 
in north lat. 38 15. Beargrass creek enters the river at the 
upper end of the town and affords a good harbor for boats. 
Building lots are high ; more houses were bnilt last sammer, 
than during any season since the town was commenced. The 
boards, plank and shingles used, are nsostly brought in rafts 
from the mills of Allegany county, in the state of New York. 
The building? extend from the mouth of Beargrass down the 
Ohio to opposite the lower end of Corn Island, a distance of 
upwards one mile; boats can lie wilh perfect safety at anV 
point of the sh.)re, from the mouth of the creek to the middle 
of the island, the river being deep, with little or no current ir! 
the bend of the river abreast the town. The eminence on 
which the town stands is seventy feet in height, and gently 
descends to a narrow plain along the bank of the river — it is 
along this plain that the contemplated canal, on the Kentucky 
side of the rapids, is propo&ed to be cut ; it is to commence a 
little below the mouth of Beargrass creek, and diri;charge itself 
below Shlppingport, a distance of one mile and three quarters 
and twenty-eight perches. The legislature of Kentucky have 
incorporated a company for opening this canal. Mr. L. Bald- 
win, an able engineer was employed in the winter of 18 i 6, to 
survey the ground ; he bored through the various strata along 
the route, and estimated the expence of a permanent canal 
for keels or other vessels of 30 tons at $ 240,000. It is said that 
ft canal, sufficiently capacious for a vessel of 400 tons burthen, 
could be opened by digging to the average depth of 20 feet 
on 6 inches —the soil is generally a stiff clay, upon a bed of 
limestone rock, which no where rises more than three feet and 
{I half above the floor of the canal. It is the opinion of many 
that the completion of tl^e proT^osed canal, on a scale large 
fiiou'ih to admit vessels of 3 or 400 tons burthen, would mate- 


sially check tlie future growth of Louisville ; but I can see no 
just reaso-T for concurring in this beiief — the caiiftl will aug- 
meBt rather than diminish the already extensive business of 
this town-; and the principal pillars of her prosperity is found 
in the great fertile district between Kentucky and SaltriverSi 
Jefferson county is bounded north and west by the Ohio, east 
hy Bullitt rind south by Nelson. It is one of the ni«st popu- 
lous coiMities in the state, of a rich soil and watered by creeks 
runnirg into the Ohio and Salt rivers. 

Shippingport — Is situated at the foot of the rapids, and 
about two miles below the mouth of Bcargrass. Boats, wh'ch 
^ass the rapids through the Kentucky channel generally stop 
here. Mr. Berthoud has a convenient shipyard and Mr. Ter- 
rasson one of the finest ropewalks in the United States, being 
twelve hundred and fifty feet long. A little above the harbot 
is a mill turned by the Ohio, by means of a race. 

Russellsvillcy the chief town of Logan coi^nty, Is nearly 
equidistant from Green and Cumberland rivers, or 35 miles 
from both. Red riyer approaches it within 15 miles on the 
south, and Muddy river a branch of Green, on the north, with- 
in 25 miles. Each of those rivers are navigable in freshes foi? 
large boats into Green and Cumb riand rivers. This town 
contains upwards of 15C- houses— it has a court house, college, 
a branch of the Kentucky bank, meeting-house, two printing 
presses, &c. It is 180 miles S. W. of Frankfort, and 85 S. 
of Louisville. Logan county i?- bounded N. by Ohio county^ 
N. W. by Muhlenburgh, W. by Christian, E. by Warren^ 
and S. by Tennessee. On the south it is watered by the ailx* 
iliary streams of Red river, and north by those that fall into 
Green river. There are a great number of grist and saw mills 
in this county and fine sites for the erection of water-works. 
There are several salt licks in the vicinity of Russeilsville. 
To the north of this town the land is covered with a very hea- 
vy timber — to the south, barrens, oropenprairiecountry: this 
strip is about 15 miles wide and extends from east to west 90 
miles. These prairies are rich, finely watered, and adoraed 



with islels or intenected by groves of timber sufficient to- mam- 
tain an immense popwlation. A vinejard has been planted 
Iro miles frorr. Russells villa, by a society organized for that 
purpose. Ci^tton is raisetl for exporiation, and v/lieat for 
domestic use. , u 

Eair(U'orv?i,—The ^^nital of Nel-on county, is situated on- 
the east s"de or iieech Fv-iiv, one of llie priDcipal braneJies of 
Si-lit river, it coi'.tains nearly 200 houses, a stone courthouse 
and jaV', church, market lioase, &c. It is 35 miles south of 
Frankfort— -aHii in north lat. 33 49. Nelson county is bound- 
ed north by Rndby, nofth west by Buiiltt, west by Bardin, 
cast by Mercer, soufi? east by Lincoln a)id south by Greene, 
This county va watered by the head waters of ^alt and Green 
r5v?:rs. It contains gome good and much poor land- 

He'uli:rso7i — the county town of Henderson county, stands 
on the red bank of the Olilo, 75 miles below Louisville. The 
houses are prmcipally built of lo^s, and its appearance is dull, 
but it enjoys a considerable share of the Orleans trade ; five 
luHulred hogsheads of tobacco have been shipped at thi* 
piace in a single year. Henderson county is bounded north 
by the Ohio, east by Green and Muddy rivers, which sepa- 
rate it from Ohio and Muhlenburgh counties, west by Trade-^ 
water river which divides it ftom Livingston count;', '-.nd west 
by Christian. Tlie staple of this county is tobacco ; but 
coiionis raised in considerable quantities. 

VangeviUe, — A lofr c'!?/, at the mouth of Salt Ijick Creek, 
86 miles above May svilie, has fifteen or twenty old log houses, 
sithuted near the margin of the Ohio, on low ground, subject 
to frequent inundation. The water of this Saline is not ve- 
ry strong — yielding only ou'^ busi^el of salt fjom 309 gallons 
of water. The iiihabitants have had as many as 200 kettles m 
operation. It is thon?:ht that if the wells were sunk to a pro- 
per depth, water of a superior quality might be procured m 
abundtiMco. Yet owing to the chodpness of the Kanhaway 
salt, am! the pn^ximitj; oftho>if^ v/orkc, it will probably be ma- 
ny years before the trwi will be made. 



The Ohio navigable on the northern frontier, . 500 
Blississippi, ....... 75 

Tennessee, . . . . . . .100 

Cumberland and its branches, . , . .700 
Trade water, ...... .60 

Green river and forks, . . ♦ . .350 
S-xlt river, • , . . . . . . 150 

Kentucky, . . . . . , « 210 

Licking, . . . . . . . .100 

Big Sandy, . , » . . . .60 

Total, 2325 


Ancient fortifications and mounds are found in Kentucky, 
and in almost every county. 'I he only wupk of ihis kind 
which Ihave particularly examined, is situated on the secoiid 
bottom of the Ohio, nearly opposite the month of the Big 
Scioto river. It is evidently the remain^ ot a military pc;i- 
sition of great strength. It is about half a mile from the riv- 
er. The walls, which are of earth, are yet standing; a?-d 
enclose, as nearly as I could ascertain by pacing, fourteen 
acres of ground. It is of a square forw. The cfficicus liand 
of civilized man has not yet marred the woods which 
these venerable ruins ; nor has any curious antiqiusry muliiat- 
ed the walls, by digging in quest of hidden tveasure. Time 
appears to have been their only enemy ; and he seems in this 
instance, not to have manifested bis usual rage for oblitera- 
tion. The walls are in many places sixteen feet high, and no 
where less than eight ; they are about Ihii ty feet wide at the 
hd'", and wid€ enough ou the top to adaiit a hur^je team au4 


waggon. There are seven gateways, three on the west, tw© . 
®n the east, and two on the north; they are all about 20 feet 
wide ; from the north west angle the ruins of a covered way,^ 
extend to a creek which runs on the west side of the fort, 
at the distance of 280 yards — the covering has fallen in, and 
large trees are growing in the ditch, but the course can be dis- 
tinctly traced, and no one in the least acquahiled with milita- 
ry affairs, can hesitate for a moment to pronounce it the re- 
Wjins of a covered way. From the west side of the fort are 
two parallel walls, thirty feet apa?^, reaching to the creek, 
which is there 220 yards distant. These walls are as wide 
and as high as the walls of the fort ; they sppear to have been 
carried to the bank of the creek, where they abrnptly termi- 
nate. There is no appearance of a head work beyond the 
creek, to protect the water carriers ; but this defect was 
probably supplied by strong pic.^ff?. Another creek or run, 
approaches within 150 yards on the east side of the fort, an(J 
two parallel walls run from the fort to ibis stream, which also 
is li :;t defended by a head work. Thus the garrison of this 
ancieiit fortitication had three avenues through which they 
conld safely procure water. There are two large mounds a 
few rods south of the fort. The tknber growing in and around 
these works, consists of white oak, hickory, sugar maple and 
beech ; m.Any of the trees are very largf , and these perhaps, 
the third generation since the construction of the fort. 

Travellers assert that several hundred mummies were dis- 
covered «ear Lexington in a cave, but which have been whol- 
ly despoiled by the first settlers. Dr. Cutler, who has accu- 
rately examined the trees on some old forts near the mouth of 
Kentucky river, thinks from their appearances that they are 
the second growth, and the fortifications " must have been 
built upwards of one thousand years. One fact is also clear ; 
they must have been the efforts of a people acquainted witJi 
some science, and capable of infinite labor ; and it is difficult 
to conceive how they could be constructed without the use of 
iron tools and the instruments we are compelled to employ ia 


works of much less magnitude and character. At a small dis- 
tance from each fort there stands a mound of earth thrown up 
in the manner of a pyramid." 


The reed cane, an evergreen, which in the first settlement 
©f the state covered the country on al! the ric'i lands from 
Big Sandy to the Tennessee (t^nthr, and which constitute 
the principal food for horses and cattle in winter, has of late 
years almost entirely disappeared. But a still more valuable 
surceedanum has spruBg up in its stead, so that the woods 
and commons in the best counties afford a rich and luxuriant 
pasturage. This is a short, nutritious grass called " nimble 
will,'' which has completely overspread wi(li astoniching ce- 
lerity, olmost every spot of waste or uncuUivated ground. 
The inhabitants aSirm that the range is now better for horses 
and cattle, than it was when the country was in a state of 


The horse, " noble and generous,*' is the favorite animal of 
the Kentuckians, by whom he is pampered with unceasing at-« 
tention. Every person of wealth has from ten to thirty of 
good size aad condition ; and upon which he lavishes his corn 
with a wasteful profusion. A common work horse is worth 
^50, and a genteel saddle horse ^100. Cattle are raised in 
jreat numbers in every part of the state ; large droves are 
annually bought up for the new Territories, and for the and 
atlantic markets — oxen are very little used on the farm ; 
and are mostly reared for the drovers. A large sized ok can 
be purchased for 25 dollars ; and a cow for ten and twelve 
•lullars. Sheep hav« multiplied greatly since the M^in9 


maiiia of 1 810. Hogs are raiserl with great ease, aud In vast 
ntimbers, on the oak and cliesnut lands< in the southern coun- 
ties, i have myself seen severiJ farmerB, who owned be? 
Iween two and ihree hundred. 


The farm yards swarm with domestic fowls, and bens hy and 
ait in winter as well as in spring and sjsmnier; they crn be 
raultiplied to ahnost any number and with a triaiiig expeuce. 
The quail is the most common of the feathered tribe — they i 
are to be seen at every step, singly and in flocks. Wild tur- ■• 
kies are still numerous in the unsettlsd parts. The robin of 
the northern states is almost a stranger in Kentrcky and Ten- 
nessee. Bear, deer, wolves and foxes are numerous in the 
eastern and southern counties. Rabits and grey squirrels are .< 
very pientiful in the settlements. 



These are numerous and are to be found in almost everyl 
county in the state — they chiefly consist of caves, sinks, andl 
precipices — Many of the most remarkable caves hitherto dis- 
covered, have been minutely described in our newspapers and 
geographical publications ; they are a source of neverending 
wealth to their owners. The earth which they contain is sa 
stiondy impregnated witli nitre that the inhabitants often ob- 
tain from 100 lbs. of it:, -50 lbs. of saltpetre; and if returned 
to the caves after leaching, it will in a few years regain its 
original strength. The richest counties in this article of 
commerce are Barren, R{^ckc?,slle, Montgomery, Knox, Estle, 
Warren, Cumberland, and V/ayne ; the last has produced 
from 50, to 70,000 lbs. a year. The returns of 1810 for 
the state gave 201 ,907 lb.j. But during the war the quantiiy ) 


fef saltpetre made exceeded 400,000 lbs. a year; and the 

amount of gunpowder manufactured for the last five years, 

tvill average 300,000 ibs. annually. 

The precipices formed by the Kentucky are in many 

•places avvfully S'lbiime— presenting perpendicular banks of 

/SCO feet, solid limestone, surmounted with a steep and diiB- 

CiiU ascent forir times as high. It is by desc^'^nding, this river 
fn^m the month of Hickman Creek, to Port Wiiliaxn, that one 
IS enabled to form somethuig like an adequate idea of the depth 
and extent of the immense calcareous rock upon which rests 
the soil of Kentucky. To the geologist, these stupendous 
p.les exhibit a most interesting spectacle of contemplation ; 
for it is here that nature has kiJ bare the very bowels of the 

Tixe banks of numberlmd river are les'^ pr°C!pifo;is, but 
its bed is equrdiy depressed below the surface of the surround- 
ing country. Tlie descent from the hills to the bottoms is 
abrupt, and the ti-aveller ''ees with wonder alternate strata of 
limestone rock and earth, both from one to ten feet thick. I 
counted at Coffee's ferry, in Wayne county, as I descended 
the hi!!, sixteen dislinct layers of this rock, the aggregate 
thickness of which was 435 sect ; and Ihe intermediate earth 
ivas collectively much thicker. Surprising as it may seem, 
the lower strata of earth contained pebbles ^r\d cylindrical 
stones, smoothed by the action of water. I leave it to philo- 
sophy, to explain Aoft' they came there, or rather what con- 
vulsion or revolution of nature has buned them beneath such 
an accnraulation of sand and lime stone 11 hpy have appar- 
ently been entombed by the progressive growth of the earth, 


The monster spemlatlan, h.\3 fixed his cr^j^sr ^rasp on 
some of the best tracts of land, to the great injury of the 
state, and with flagrant irjusticc to the poor. 1 must ccafess 


I felt indignant, when, after passing an extensive and fertile 
tract of beautiful land, of many thousand acres, and surround- 
ed by rich and flourisbL'ig settieznents, I enquired the cause 
why it was not settled, and received fer answer, that it be- 
longed to a rich gentleman in Virginia, or to some o<^ber opu* 
lent, non-resident land-jobber, who would not sell it for less 
than ^, 30 dollars an acre. One often meets with these waste 
tr?xts in Kentucky, and the western counties of Virginia ; and 
the evil is felt in Ohio, Pennsylvania; and New York, to the 
disgrace of our legislation, which grants every facility to the 
rich, without consulting the interests of the poor. 


The Bank of Kentucky the only one in the state is estab* 
lished at Frankfort, with branches at Washington, Paris, Lex* 
ingion, Dansviile, Russellsville, Bairdstown, and Louisville. 
Its capital stock is - ^ 2,07>,750 10 

Debts due, - - 4,087,740 87 

Deposits in cash, - 1,864,326 11 

Notes in circulation, - 1,877,557 83 

Cash on hand, - 1,233,148 64 

The notes of this bank are In excellent credit, but bills from 
the neighboring states, particularly those of Ohio, have a free 
and extensive circulation. 

There are no data by which to determine the annual amount 
of manufactures. The returns of 1810 gave $ 6,182,010— 
since which they have probably doubled. They consist of 
cloths and stuffs, bagging for cotton a<b hemp, iron, castings, 
nails, earthenware, glass, leather, cordage, paper, distilled spi- 
rits, oil, salt, saltpetre, gunpowder, and maple sugar. There 
are about 60 rope walks, 7 paper mills, 5 furnaces, upwards 
of 20 powder mills. Between 2 and 300 bushels of salt are 
yearly made at the different licks. Almost every plantation 
has a sugar camp. The sap is sweeter than that produced 


from the sugar trees in the northern states ; besides, the qnai- 
titj is actually greater from trees of Ihe same diameter. Tne 
maple of Kentucky is a short, thrifty-looking tree, »7ith nu- 
merous limbs and branches. The quantify of mup^e .'ig?r 
annually produced in the state, is supposed to exceed two 
millions of pounds. « 


In the new settlementsj the inhabitants uniformly live in 
log cabins, the logs being laid up round or hewn, according to 
the taste or convenience of the builder. In the old settle- 
ments of the rich comities, log houses have nearly disappear- 
ed, and stone, brick, or frame houses of good size and appear- 
ance have arisen in their places ; the first are most in vogue, 
but no matter what the material, the chimney is sure to be 
placed out doors. 


It is almost superfluous to say that the Kentuckians are gen« 
erally brave, patriotic, and hospitable. Their courage and 
love of country have been evinced in the raaishcs of Louisi- 
ana, in the vrilds of Indiana, on the borders of Canada, and 
by the alacrity with which S0,000 volunteers, repaired to re* 
mote scenes of danger, during the late war. The godlike vir- 
tue of hospitality h still aherished by all classes, as well by 
those living on public roads, as by those resident in retired 
situ.itiops, and the stranger of decent deportment, is sure to 
find a cordial welcome at the firesides of pr;v?te dwellings. 
To reverse the picture, the rich ho'd labor in contempt, and 
frequently make the possession of sluves a criterio;i of merit ; 
that is, mo:;t furincrs, would make a marked distinction be- 
tween two young gentlemenj one posiaessing slaves, the other 



not, but equal inpointof property, personal accompIJslimeRtg, 
and moral endowment, who should pay their addresses to his 
daughter ; the suit of the slaveholder would be favorably re- 
ceived, while that of his rival would be disdainfully rejected. 

The clim5\te of Kentucky, judging from the appeararce of 
the inhabitants, must be higbljf favorable to the growth of the 
human species : they are well formed — have fine complexions, 
and teeth very little liable to decay. Their dispositions 
may be pronounced cheerful, and suicides are much less fre- 
quent than in the northern states. Coffee is a favorite bev- 
erage, liusury begins to show herself on their tables, and in 
the?r best rooms. 

Baptists, Metliodists, Presbyterians and Seceders, are Vae 
prevailing sects ; they manifest a spirit of harmony and libe- 
rality towards each other ; and whatever iftay have been said 
to the contrary, it is a solemn truth, that religion is no where 
more respected, than in Kentucky. I last summer traversed 
the whole state ; and I bad previously at two different periods 
passed from itia southern to its northern frontiers ; and from 
my own observation can speak with confidence. In many 
places the inhabitants are not satisfied to attend divine wor- 
ship on Sundays oaly, but meet in conference three times a 
week. In May 1816, five miles north of Harrodsburgh, I saw 
the greatest religioiJS assemblage I ever witnessed. Our 
camp meetings in New- York bear no comparisou to it in point 
of / >jnbers. The day was favourable ; the minister stood 
on a scaFoiding erected for the occasion, in the centre of a 
hf.Tidsorce woods f^-ee from brush or loas, the hearers to the 
iiu'ii- sr, asl jridged, of at least 10,000, stood in concentric 
circles around the orator. The lusraber of horses and car- 
riagei; waa absolutely incredible ; and I do not enlarge, when 
i say that they literally covered twenty acres of ground. 

The Reverend Elijah Parish, whose book can be found In 
nv>:tofour schools, is very incorrect znu unjust, when he 
s?r-^, "A Iaru;e piiHon of the people are poor, and in a low 
§tate of society ; idleness and dissipation haviijg been very 


prevalent, the frontier inhabitants commonly build a hut of 
logs, clear two or three acres for corn, depend on the woods 
for the pasture of one or two cows and to fatten a number of 
swine ; the gun furnishes them with most of their meat. When 
the range, as they call it, is eaten up by the cattle, and the 
game scarce, like wild Arabs, they load their pack horses, 
take their families, cows, and swine, and seek a new settle- 
ment in the bosom of the forest.'* 


Kentucky remained unnoticed by the whites until 1766, 
" when John Finley, an Indian trader, travelled through it, 
and on his return to Nort'a-Carolina, represented to Colonel 
Boon, the beauty, and fertility of the country. In 17G9, 
they, in company with some others, agreed to travel there, 
and explore it more fully ; but were unfortunately plundered, 
killed, and dispersed, except Colonel Boon, who remained a 
solitary inhabitant of the wilderness, until 1771, when he re- 
turned to his family on Yadkin riv«ir. In 1773 he finally re- 
solved to take out his family, but was prevented on the way 
by the hostility of the Indians, until 1775, when he and his 
family, with 5 other families, that were joined . by 40 men 
from Powejil's valley, arrived on the banks of Kentucky river, 
and erected a fort, which they named Boonsborough ; and so 
rapid has been the population since, that it was erected into 
an independent state by an act of Congress, Dae- 6th, 1790^. 
and taken ii?to the union two years after." 


IS situated between 29 afid 33 N. latitude, and h bounded 
north and west bj the Missouri Tenritory, south by the 
Gulf of Mexico, and east hy the Mississippi Territory, 
Its boundaries are thus defined by law ; " Beginning at the 
mouth of-the river Sabine ; thence by line, to be drawn along 
the middle of said river, including all islands to the thirty-se- 
cond degree of latitude ; thence due north, to the northern- 
most part of the thirty-third degree of north latitude ; thence 
along the said parallel of latitude, to the river Mississippi ; 
thence down the said river to the river Iberville, and from 
thence along the middle of the said river and lakes Maurepas 
and Ponchartrain, to the gulph of Mexico; thence bounded 
by the said gulph to the place of beginning, including all isl- 
ands within three leagues of the coast." By a subsequent 
law of congress, that part of West Florida, lying between the 
rivers Mississippi, Iberville and Pearl, and the 31st degree 
of north latitude, containing about 6,000,400 acres, has been 
annexed to Louisiana. 


The rivers of this state empty themselves into the gulf of 
Mexico, the Mississippi and lake Ponchartrain. 

Pearl river heads in the Choctaw country, near lat. 33 N. 
and pursues a S. W. course for 60 miles, thence east 150 
miles until it falls into lake Borgne, a little to the east of lake 
Ponchartrain. — It is said to be navigable 150 miles — it has 7 
feet water at its entrance, but deepens at the distance of tv/o 
miles from the lake ; but the navigation is at present obstruct- 
ed by logs and drift wood. — It flows through a fertile district, 
and separates Louisiana from the Mississippi teiritory. 


Chefuncii^ a small river, having its source near the parallel 
•f 31 N. falls into lake Ponchartrain at Madisonville ; it 
is boatable thirty miles : the PongivafiOy another small river 
runs nearly parellel rilh the Chefuncti, and enters the lake 
about ten miles fnrther west. The bayous Castain, Lacombe, 
and Boucfouca are also tributaries of this Lake. 
- Amite river, heads in the Misssissippi territory, a little 
north of !at. 31, and runs south into the river Iberville. — Jt is 
naviggble for boats and canoes nearly to its head. The road 
from IVIadisonviiie to Natchez crosses its head branches : the 
Ticfah, '35 miles long, heads to the east of the Amite, and 
runs south into lake Maurepas. 

Iberville river, is properly one of the decharges of the Mis- 
sissippi ; it leaves the Mississippi 20 miles below Baton 
Rouge, and runs east into lake Maurepas. It is only about 
three mouths in a year that it is navigable, and then by vessels 
drawing less than three feet water; and is perfectly dry dur- 
ing the remainder of the year, from the Mississippi to the 
entrance of the Amite, a distance of twenty miles. 

The Mississippi waters the eastern frontier of Louisiana, 
from lat. 33 to 31, where it enters the state through which it 
-passes, by various channels, into the gulf of Mexico. The 
distance from lat. 31 to the Balise or mouth of the main 
branch of this river, is 354 miles. 

The Bayous which leave the Mississippi and fall into the 
gulf of Mexico to the west of the Balize, are : 

Bc'7/cu Aichafalai/a, leaves the river three miles below the 
Bionlh of Red river, and enters the gulf near Vermillion bay. 
It is large, but rendered unnavigable by an immense floating 
bridge, or raft across it, formed by the gradual accumulation 
of driftwood. It is many leagues in length, and so firm and 
compact in some places, that cattle and horses are driven 
over it. It is the opinion of some travellers, that this bayou 
was anciently the ^nly passage of the Mississippi to the sea ; 
but Schultz has suggested a more probable hypothesis, which 
is, that it was formerly a continuation of Red river. The 


water which descends this channel passes under the bridge, 
and in many places may be seen whirling through small holes 
and crevices, and at last rushes forth with considerable vio- 
lence. In times of inundation small boats can pass the bridge 
by keeping on the flats. Large boats drawn into the vor- 
tex of this Bayou, find it diificult to regain the Mississippi. 

Bayou Placqueirnine, leaves the Mississippi eight miles be- 
low the outlet of the Iberville on the opposite shore, and com- 
municates with the gulf, through Freshwater bay, Atchafa- 
laya and La Fourche ; it is about 70 yards wide, and navi- 
gable for boats. 

Bayou ha Fourche, leaves the Mississippi thirty-two mile« 
below Bayou Placquermine, and communicates with the gulf 
by two mouths a short distance to the west of lake Wachas. 
In the old French maps this stream is called La Riveire des 
Catamaches. It is navigable at certain seasons for vessels of 
sixty tons burthen. 

In addition to the above, numerous short bayous, canals and 
passes, leave the main branch of the Mississippi, between 
the outlet of La Fourche and the Balize. 

Bayou Sara and Thompson's Crtek, water the Feliciana 
district, between Baton Rouge and fort Adams. They are 
about forty miles long, and sixty yards wide at their mouths — 
they run parallel with each other and enter the Mississippi 
twelve miles apart ; the first a little above point Coupee, and 
the last seven miles below. 

The small rivers, Teche, Vermillion, Mermanto, and Cal- 
casu, water the Attacap as Siud Opelousas countries, and fall 
into the gulf between Atchafalaya and the mouth of the Sabine, 
The Sabine (QrtnBi the boundary between Louisiana and the 
Spanish province of Texas— enters the gulf 250 miles west 
©f the Balize, and is navigable 280 miles. About 35 miles 
from its mouth and a little above the Sabine lake it receives 
the river Natrhes. 

Red river rises in Mexico, near lie sources of Rio del Norte, 
and meanders in a soulh-eastera direction from the north-west 


eorner of the state to tlie Mississippi, which it en'ers in W^ 
lat. 31, 5, aui] where it is 400 yards wide. Its waters are 
brackish, of aredish color, tinged by the red soil of its banks 
high up the river. It is navigable 1500 miles, and although 
never departing but a few miles from the line of its general 
course, is nevertheless crooked. The banks are overflowed 
in spring to a great extent, and in some places to the depth 
of ten or fifteen feet. The Rapide 135 miles from its mouth 
is impassible in dry seasons with loaded boats. This rapid is 
occasioned by a ledge of soft rock, which crosses the river. 
This rock is soft, and of the consistence of pipe clay ^ so that 
the obstructions could be easily removed. 

Its boitoras, or rather prairies, are wide and rick Thirty 
^miles from its raoiith it receives Black river, a large and navi- 
gable stream w^hich winds 200 miles through the state, nearly 
equidistant between the Mississippi and Red river. This 
river branches 50 miles from its mouth into the Barchelet and 
Washita forks. The north fork of Red river is a considera- 
ble str?am,^ and joins the main branch about one hundred 
miiss above the entrance of Black river. 

The Dacheet and Saline are the most remarkable branches 
of Red river proper. The first waters a great range of rich 
soil, which forms the north-west angle of Louisiana. The 
Saline is a vahiabie salt flat, from vihich any quantity of that 
mineral could be produced, that the population of the state 
could require. 

About three hundred miles above Natchitoches, the navi- 
gation of this river is totally obstructed by rafts 
of driftwood, at intervals, for seventeen leagues, and so exact- 
ly do these bridges resemble the common bottoms, in soil, 
brushtvood, and trees, that the traveller conld cross them, un- 
conscious of their existence. Towards its head its current 
narrows to the width of a small creek, in consequence of the 
rocks and precipices, which prevent its expansion. 

Black river is large and winding — its course is nearly psrel- 
lelwith the Misiissippi, at the distance of about 40 miles; 



the name of Black river, at tlie distance of 60 miles is chang- 
ed, and is then called the Washita river ; here its course 
bends to the westward. The Washita receives the Tensaw 
from the east, and the Occatohoola from the west at the same 
place. In 1799, the fish of Black river perishe/l in conse- 
qnence of the stagnation of its waters, caused by an inundation 
of the Mississippi. 


The chain of lakes which wash the eastern side of the island 
®f New-Orleans, consist of l^Jaurepas, Ponchartrain, and 
Borgne. Lake diaurepas lies about 20 miles Tiorth of New- 
Orleans, and is twelve miles long and eight i^ide. It receives 
and discharges the river Amite and the iUtie r rrr of Ticfah, 
nine miles further east is lake Ponchartrain, which lies imme- 
diately behind the city of New- Orleans. It is about a5 miles 
long and 25 wide, and generally from ten to fifteen feet 

This lake receives the little rivers Pongipaho and Che- 
functi, as well as the bayous Castain, Lacombe, and Eoucfou- 
ca. Lake Borgne lies still further eaff, but by a deep bay ap- 
proaches to within a few miles of the Mis issippi, with which 
it communicates by means of a bayou and Vilere's canal. It 
was by this route that the British approached to the banks of 
the Mississippi in the winter of 1814. The margins of all 
these lakes are in most places low and marshey. Lake Wa- 
chas lies to the west of the Mississippi, and 22 riles from 
New-Orleans. It is 23 miles long and sis miles wide, and 
communicates with the gulf by several outlets. Co/faswlake 
lies near the mouth of the river of the same name, and is 35 \ 
miles in circumference, 40 miles below Natchitoches is lake 
Occasse ; and near this town are two large lakes, one a mile, 
and the other six miles distant. One of these lakes is 30 and 
the other 50 miles in circurarerence — they communicate with 
Ptcd river by means of bayous. When tlie river is li'gh the 


ImigHant's directory. iii 

Wter flows back into the lakes. " The immense number of 
fowl which abound in these lakes, during the winter, almost ex- 
teeds el-edibility. The air is darkened with the ht^e flights^ 
efipecially near the close of the day ; and the ear almost stun- 
ned with the noise thej make. One man may kill many hun- 
dreds in an afternoon. The hunter takes his station on a 
convenient spot, and loads and fires as fast as possible, with- 
out taking particular <iim, ilntil he finds he has killed a suffi- 
cient number to load his horses. These fowl are swan, 
geese, branti, and several species of ducks, tn the summer, 
several kinds of fish are said to be equally plenty. The In- 
dians, in taking fish, frequently make use only of the bow and 
arrow. With this instrument an Indian will often load his 
horse in a very short time. The fish consist principally of 
the cat, pike, buffalo, sucker^ and white and black perch, and 
are generally of a very large size." 

Lake Noiz lies ten miles above Natchitoches, and is 50 miles 
in circumferencei It discharges its waters into the bayoii 
Rigula de Bondieu^ a tributary of Red river, which comes 
in three miles above Natchitoches. AH the salt used by the 
inhabitants of the Red river settlements, is made near lake 
Noiz. The water is so highly impregnated with salt as to 
require very Httle boiling. The conveyance of the salt td 
market is easy, as the outlet of the lake is navigable for boata 
most of the year. Eight miles further up, is Spanish lake,, 
also about 50 miles in circumference, which rises and falls 
with the river. Above this, at the distance of twenty leagues 
is Lake Blstimau, sixty miles long, extending parallel with 
the river, at the distance of from three to fifteen miles. TI»'« 
lake is situated Opposite of the driftwood raft, and has 
double outlets, called the Bayou Channd, and the Ba- 
you Dacheet. It receives numerous tributary streams. 

Sabine lake is twenty-five miles long and twelve wide — it 
receives and discharges the river of the same name ; and lies 
about twelve miles from the gulf. Cattahoola lake near the 
mouth of Washita, is a pleasant body of water, 40 miles ii* 
circumference. Barataria lake lies west of the Bajize. 



Louisiana is 300 miles in length, from east to west, and 
240 miles broad from north to south, having an area of 41,000 
square miles, or 26,240,000 acres. Its surface is champaign 
from the gulf of Mexico, to Baton Rouge, and Red, river, 
which includes a vast alluvial tract extending from lake Borgne 
id the Sabinei 250 ini'es Icr.g, and from 70 to 140 miles 
wide. This extensive district is intersected by numerous 
rivers, bayous^ creeks, lagoons and lakes, dividing the coun- 
try into a great hfimber of islands, very unequal in size and 
figure. The island of New-Orleanij ibrmed by the Iberville 
and lakes ori the east, and the Mississippi oh the west, is 150 
in length, and those formed hy the bayous La Fouche, Plac- 
quemine, and Atchafalaya, are very large. The country 
about the Balize for 30 miles, is one continued swamp, desti- 
tute of trees, and covered with a coarse species of reeds four 
or five feet high. Nothing can be more dreary than the 
prospect from a ship's m'ast head while passing this immense 
Sabornoeian waste, where the eye gains no relief, but ranges 
over a boundless horizon of pestilential marsh. 

The soil gradually becomes Srmer as we asc-end the streams ; 
all of which have narrow strips of rich tillable Jand, from half 
a mile to a mile and a half wide ; but these bottoms uniformly 
incline from the Mississippi and its bayous ; eonsequently^ 
where they overflow their banks the waters recede to the 
low grounds in the rear of the bottoms, where they either 
^stagnate and thereby perpetuate the empire of swamps, or 
form for themselves distinct channels to the gulf — hence the 
origin of the numerous bayous. This country, therefore, in- 
stead of having dividing ridges between the streams, has a 
surface considerably depressed beloW the level of the river 
banks, to receive the superabundant waters. 

The country between the Mississippi, Iberville and Pearl 
rivers, and N. lat 31, is an important part of the state j tli© 


f otithern half of this extensmi district is a level, fine country ^ 
yet highly productive, for cotton, sugar, rice, corn and indi- 
go. The banks of all the streams are low, and the current of 
the water sluggish ; and good springs are scarce ; but from 
Baton Rouge to Pinckney^ilie, about 50 miles in a direct line, 
the country presents an undulating surface, and covered with 
a heavy growth of timber, consisting of white, red and yellow 
oak, hickory, black walnut, sassafras, magnolia and poplar. 
The district of Feliciana is considered by many as^ the. 
garden of Louisiana. Planters residing on Bayou Sara and 
Thompson's creek, and in the rear of Eaton Rouge, are very 
rich — some of them have as many as 600 acres of land in 8^. 
state of cultivation. The cotlcn raised here is of Sjiperior 
quality; and the culture of the sugar cane has been introduc- 
ed. The hiils, in a state of nature, are covered by thickets 
of reed cane, of the most luxuriant grpwth. A New-England 
farmer can hardly form an adequate idea of the wealth of these 

Their plantations consist of from three hundred to one, 
thousand acres ; and some of the most opulent frequently have, 
3OO acres of cotton in one field. They all have slaves, and 
some as many as 300. The soil is of the richest kind, simi- 
lar in quality aud appearance to the best lands of Kentucky, 
but the hilly parts are more liable to be washed and gullied 
by heavy rains. Between Thompson's creek and Baton 
Rouge there is a rich savanna six miles long and one wide, 
bordered alternanlely by woods and plantations. All the 
creeks which enter the Mississippi above Baton Rouge are, 
liable to be suddenly swelled to the size of rivers during 
heavy showers. The tract of country between the old de- 
markation line and Thompson's creek, is watered by bayou. 
Sara, and its tributary streams. 

At the distance of 20 miles from Baton Rouge to the eastj 
the fine lands commence, and forming a barrier between the 
white settlements and the Choctaw nation, extend to Pear! 
live^. These lands are the most healthful for settlements oC 


Siny in Louisiana. They have a pretty undulating surface i 
and although the soil is light and sandy, is highly product' 

Bartram's description of the soil of an island at the mouth 
of Pearl river, will answer for a considerable district border- 
ing the Iberville, lakes Maurepas, Ponchartrain and Borgne^ 
and Pearl river. 

" The interior and by far the greatest part of the island, 
consists of high land ; the soil to appearance a heap of sea 
sand in some places, with an admixture of sea shells, this soil, 
notwithstanding its sandy and sterile appearance, when di- 
vested of its natural vegetative attire, has, from what cause I 
know not, a continual resource of fertility within itself; the 
surface of (he earth, after being cleared of its original veget- 
able productions, exposed a few seasons to the sun, wine 
and triturations of agriculture, appears scarcely any thing but 
heaps of white sand, yet it produces corn, indigo, batatas, 
beans, peas, cotton, tobacco, and almost every sort of escu- 
lent vegetable, in a degree of luxuriancy very surprising ant 
unexpected, year after year, incessantly, without any addi-- 
tion of artificial manure or compost ; there is, indeed a foun- 
dation of strong adhesive clay, consisting of strata of various 
colours, which I discovered by examining a well, lately dug in 
Mr. Rumsey^ yard ; but its lying at a great depth under ; 
the surface, the roots of small shrubs and herbage, cannot 
reach near to it, or receive any benefit unless we may sup- 
pose, that ascending fumes or exhalations, from this bed of 
clay, may have a vivific, nutritrive quality, and be receivec 
by the fibres of the roots, or being condensed in the atmos- 
phere by nocturnal chills, fall with dews upon the leaves and 
twigs of these pbnts, and there absorbed, become nutritive op 
exhilerating to them,'' 

As an instance of the salubrity of the atmosphere on thia 
island, Mr, Bartrara observes, "The French gentleman 
(proprietor of the plantation) was near eighty years old, hia 
to' almost white with age, yet hs appeared a^itive, stfOBg-; 


an(3 muscular, and his mother who was present, was one hun- 
dred and five years old, active and cheerful, her eyes seemed 
as brisk and sparkling as youth, but of a diminutive size, not 
half the stature and weight of her son ; it was now above fif- 
ty years since she came into America from old France.'' 

The northern coasts of the lakes Maurepas, Ponchartrain 
and Borgne, are generally dry and healthful ; the land east and 
westof Madisonvilie, along the borders of the lakes is a sandy 
plain, extending in some places twenty miles from their shores, 
and nearly as level as the ocean, which appears to have reced- 
ed from it. The bottoms of these lakes are even and sandy, 
and appear to be a continuation of the great inclined plane be- 
tween the Mississippi and Pearl rivers. The southern banks 
are low and marshy. Madisonvilie is handsomely situated on 
the right bank of the Chefuncti, two miles above its entrance 
into lake Ponchartrain, and about 26 miles south east of New 
Orleans. This place has not yet attained much importance in 
point of wealth and population, but is unquestionably destin- 
ed to become a great commercial city. It is favorably situ- 
ated for the coasting and West India trades, having about two 
days sail in going out, and about two weeks in coming in, the 
advantage of New Oileans. It lies more convenient for the 
neeeesary supplies and materials for repairing and building 
vessels, and such are the local advantages of this place, that 
government have fixed on the site of a navy yard near the 
mouth of the Chefuncti, where the keel of a light frigate was 
laid down in 1812, intended for the defence of the lakes. It 
is believed to be a more healthful situation, and less infected 
with musquetoes, than New Orleans. The wild lands are 
finely timbered with pine, live oak, cypress, magnolia, plum, 
gum, bay, Cottonwood, ash» willow, and occasionally impervi- 
ous cane brakes. These cane brakes are sometimes improper- 
ly called swamps, but the reed cane is never found on wet, 
marshy ground, always grows in a rich, deep, dry soil. The 
pine timber is remarkably tall and strait, with trunks ff om 70 
to 80 feet high before comiDg to the limbs. The pine of Lou- 


isiana and Florida, is more sappy and yields more turpentine 
than the pine of the north ; and a considerable part of the 
inhabitants gain a livelihood by making tar and pitch, which 
they sell at New-Orleans. The vast forests of pine between 
lake Ponchartrain and the Choctaw territory, will furnish an 
inexhaustible supply of these articles for a cpntury to come. 
The beach of the lakes are lined with a species of muscle 
shells, called by the French des coquilleSf from which lime of 
the best quality is produced. The fish of the lakes and riv- 
ers, and the ^anie of the forests, is plentiful but inferior in 
c[uality. The soil is found to be highly favorable to corn, 
cotton, sugar, indigo, rice, sweet potatoes, pumkins, plums, 
cherries, figs, peaches, grape vines, and most kinds of garden 
vegetables. Sugar plantations are becomiug numerous ; and 
the settlements extending. The country labove Madison- 
ville, is peculiarly adapted to the rearing of hogs and cattle -^ 
for they neither require salt, nor attention in winter ; and no, 
where in the United States are they raised in greater nume 
bers than in the district under review ; the reed cane, and 
the grass of the prairies constitute their principal food. The 
most natural grass of this country is of a very harsh nature, 
and the cattle not at all fond of it. it is known by the name 
of wire grass, and they only eat it while young. For the 
procuring it young, or renewing this kind of pasture, the 
woods are frequently fired, and at different seasons, in order 
to have a succession of young grass, but the savannas that 
are interspersed in this kind of land furnish a more plenti- 
ful and more proper food for the cattle. 

" Some high pine hills are so covered with two or three 
varieties of the oak, as to make an underwood to the lofty 
pines; and a species of dwarf chesnut grows here ; another 
species, of a larger growth, is also found in the lower parts, 
particularly in the edges of the bay or cypress galls. 

" The sandy and most sterile soil, in wet seasons, bears 
many things far beyond expectation, and is very useful for 
the cultivation of peach and mulberry orchards. This land 


flight also be rendered useful for many other purposes ; but 
either the people do not choose to go out of the old beaten 
track, or content themselves with looking elsewhere for new 
land, improveable with less cost. The method of meliorating 
It, is certainly obvious to the meanest capacity, as it every 
tvhere, at a greater or less depth, covers a stiflf marly kind of 
clay, which I am certain, was it properly mixed with the 
land, would render it fertile ; and this might be done with lit- 
tle expence, the clay lying in some places, within half a foot 
of the surface : in most places it is found at the depth of 
three, four, or Sve feet, consequently not very bard to come 
at. This land is also frequently found rocky, with an iron 
stone, especially near where the pines are found growing in 
a gravelly tract, which is frequently the case. 

" The hammock land, so called from its appearing in tufla 
among the lofty pines : some small spots of this kind, if seen 
at a distance, have a very romantic appearance. The large 
parcels of it often divide swamps, creeks, or rivers from the 
pine land ; this is indeed its most common situation. The 
whole of the uplands, remote from the sea in the northern 
parts, is this kind of land : its soil is various, in some places a 
Sand of divers colours ; but the hammock soil is a mixture of 
clay and a blackish sand, and in some spots a kind of ocbpe. 
jDn every kind of this land lies a stratum of black mould, 
made by decayed leaves, Stc. of the wood and other plants 
growing upon it. The salts contained in this stratum render 
it very fruitful, and, when cleared, this is the best, nay, the 
only fit land, for the production of indigo, potatoes, and pulse ; 
the first crops, by means of the manure abovementioned, gen- 
ifirally are very plentiful ; but the salts being soon evaporated, 
if the soil over which it lay should prove to be sand, it is not 
better than pine land ; the other sort bears many years 
planting : its natural produce ia so various in this climate, 
that the complete description of all would be more work 
than one man's life-time would be sufficient for.'* 

Pearl river, like the Mississippi, has its baTous, aad enters 


kke Borgne through various channels. The swamps skirtirif 
this river for eight or ten miles from its mouths, are too subject 
to inundation to admit of extensive settlements, until protect" 
ed by levees, when the banks of its channels will no doubt ; 
present flourishing sugar and cotton plantations. The lowest i 
grounds are covered with a heavy growth of cypress trees. 
In the rear of the cypress groves are found strips of the rich- 
est land, rendered almost impassable by the reed cane, which 
is much thicker on the ground than our best nurseries, of all 
sizes, from half an inch to two inches in diameter, and from 
six to thirty-five feet in height. It is thought that this river 
might be rendered navigable for sloops, by the removal of the] 
rafts of driftwood, as high up as the ford-, near Ellicott's lihcj 
which crosses the river about 75 miles from its mouths ; this 
ford in dry summers is little more than ancle deep. At this 
point the country has assumed an uneven surface, which it 
maintains, with the exception of a few savannas, to the Mis^ 
aissippi. The savannas are in this country of two very dif- 
ferent kinds : the one is to be found in the pine lands, and 
notwithstanding the black appearance of the soil, they are as 
much white sand as the higher lands around them. True it 
is, that clay is very often much nearer to their surface than in 
the higher pine lands ; they are a kind of sinks or drains ta 
those of higher lands, and their low situation only prevents 
the growth of pines in them. In Wet weather, the roads lead- 
ing through them are almost impassable. On account of 
their producing some species of grass, of a better kind than 
the wire grass, they are very often styled meadows ; and I 
believe, if they could be improved by draining them, without 
taking away all their moisture, very useful grass might be rais- 
ed in them ; but on draining them completely, they prove to 
be as arrant a sand as any in this coiititry. These savannas' 
often have spots in them more low than common, and filled 
with water: they are overgrown with different species of the 
Crataegus, or hawthorn, as also very often a species of shrub 
much resembling the laurus iu appearance, but as I never 


h&d an opportunity of seeing it in blossom, 1 cannot describe 
it, so SB to ascertain the genus to which it belongs. In its 
fruit it is widely different from any of the laurel kind, that 
have fallen under my inspection; it is a bacca, with several 
cells, full of an agreeable acid, like the common lime from the 
West Indies ; it is of the size of a large pigeon's egg, but more 
oblong. The other savannas differ very widely from these ; 
they consist of a high ground, often with small gentle rising* 
in them. There is generally a rivulet at one end, and of- 
ten at both ends of them. The soil is here very fertile ; and 
in some I have sjen fossil shells in great numbers, in others 
ilint, in others again some chalk and marl. It is remarkable, 
that the cattle are very fond of the grasses growing here. In 
these savannas, if a well or pond is dug, the water has a very 
strong nitrous taste." * 

The banks of the Boguechltto, a respectable tributary of 
Pearl river, and which heads near the sources of Tongipaho, 
are in many places bordered by rich and extensive prair'eSj 
which afford an inexhaustible pasturage to vast droves of cat- 
tle belonging to the White settlers and to the Choctaw Indians. 
These prairies are remarkable chiefly for the immense num- 
ber of strawberries, which they produce, of superior size and 

The great valley of the Wa'jhila, is nearly in the form of a 
semi-elipsiSj and extends far beyond the northern confines of 
the state, with an average width of 50 miles. This river 
winds above 300 miles through an alluvial region, and together 
with its numerous bayous, lakes, and tributary streams, che- 
quers 6,000,000 of acres, into a net-work of natural canals, af- 
fording in the aggregate more than 1500 miles of easy inter- 
nal navigation. Between the Washita and the Mississippi 
the little rivers Ox, Bricklayers, and Providence, meander 
at the distance of five, ten, and fifteen miles from each other, 
and parellel with the Washita. The country is alluvial and 
flat, from Red river to the beautiful lake Occatahoola the 

* Beruard Romani, 



water sluggish and the currents of the streams less than m€ 
mile an hour. The floods of the Mississippi have been known 
to cause a regurgitation of the Washita's current above one 
hundred miles. Above lake Occatahoola the waters have a 
brisker motion, and it is there that the high land and perma-* 
rent strata of soil commence. Above the alluvial tract the 
timber is chiefly pine and oak, the soil sandy or clayey, and 
the rocks principally slate ; some of it alluminous, but none 
fit for covering houses ; there is a kind of argillaceous compo* 
sition, resembling oil-stone or turkey-stone, but too brittle foF 
flints; and a kind of sandy aggregate, which seemed as if it 
might be employed for grindstones. Mineralized and car- 
bonated wood is found in several places. There are no cer- 
tain indications of fossil coal. 

The plains of the Washita, like those of the Mississippi;^ 
hare a slight inclination from the river ; and the inundations 
of the Mississippi have been known to approach to within a 
short distance of the Washita, threatening to break through 
its banks ; this, however, is not a common occurrence. Some 
writers have represented the country between the Mississip 
pi and the Washita to be one entire cypress swamp ; but 
late discoveries prove that there exists large tracts of fine cot- 
ton and sugar lands between those rivers j especially above 
Bayou Barchelet. 

Th© garden of the Washita bottoms includes Bostrop's 
grant, twelve leagues square, lying on the bayous Siard, Ber- 
fthelerai^, and the Washita. This grant was made by th© 
Spanish governor general, the baron Carondelet, on condition* 
that Bastrop's colony should confine themselves to the culti- 
vation af wheat ; and that he should erect several grist mills 
upon the bayous. This tract is mostly high prairie, inter- 
spersed with woodland ; the soil is exceedingly rich and the 
country delightful ; yet the inhabitants are mostly poor and 
iiidoleut, and frequently intrude on the public lands. 

The wealth which annually floats out of Red river to New- 
Orleans market, is absolutely incredible— even at this eajlj 


period of the settlements, when it may be said that the capa- 
city of the country to produce is but imperfectly understood ; 
when not the tenth part of its natural resources are put in re- 
quisition by the hand of industry ; and when a great propor- 
tion of the inhabitants are poor and all are comparatively in- 
dolent, yet the trade of this river is already astonishing. 
About six miles from its mouth is a bayou leading from Long 
lake ; this lake is three miles wide and fourteen long. 

Red river pursues a very serpentine course. The coun- 
try at short intervals on both sides from its mouth to the 
Missouri boundary, is interspersed with lakes, a part of which 
have been described ; but the total number of them exceeds 
forty. They all communicate with the river by bayous, and 
rise and fall with it ; these lakes, bayous and tributary rivers 
and creeks, canal the country in every direction and greatly 
facilitate the transportation of goods, produce, lumber, &c. 
The bottoms are from one to ten miles wide ; very rich in 
soil and productions. The timber of the bottoms is willow, 
cotton-wood, honey locust, pawpaw, and buckeye ; on the 
rich uplands, elm, cucumber, ash, hickory, mulberry, blacks 
walnut, where the grape vine greatly abounds ; upon the se- 
cond rate or sandy uplands, white, pitch and yellow pines, 
and most kinds of oak. The settlements extend from the 
mouth of the river, generally on both sides, as far as the great 
jam of driftwood, a distance of nearly two hundred miles. 
These settlements are distinguished by the names of Baker's 
Station, Avoyelles, Holmes' Station, Rapide, GilJard's Sta- 
tion, Cane river, Natchitoches, and Bayou Pierre. Above 
Baker's Station is a prafrie nearly forty miles in circumfer- 
ence. It is entirely destitute of trees or shrubs, but produces 
an excellent grass for fattening cattle. The beef is said to 
be of a fine quality ; and hogs find in the roots and nuts an 
abundant food. The inhabitants are settled in the outer 
skirts, on the border of the woods. The inhabitants are 
Spanish, Irish, Frencli, and Americans. A few miles above 
4h!s praii'ie, the land becomes moderatejy hilly. The piae 


woods are here between thirty and forty miles wide, exteading 
to the great prairies of Opelousas. Holmes' station is 40 
miles above Baker's. The land produces sugar, cnttor, ctrn 
and tobacco in perfection. On the south side of the river is 
a large body of rich land reaching to OpeSousas, which is wa- 
tered and drained by two large bayous called Bayou Robert 
gind Bayou Au Boeuf. '1 heir waters are very clear, and 
take their rise in the high pine hills between Red river and 
the Sabine. These afford a safe communication with the 
gulf of Mexico, for an extensive range of country. It is be- 
lieved that this body of land which is about forty miles sqtiare, 
for richness of soil, growth of timber, eseellence of water, sa- 
lubrity of climate, extent and convenience of naviga- 
tion, is not excelled by any tract of land in Louisiana. From 
Holmes* Station to the Bayou Raplde is thirty miles. The 
lands on this bayou are nearly of the same quality with that 
on the Bayous Robert and Au Ba3uf These lands feed vast 
herds of stock. This Bayou has two mouths, which entey 
Hed river about twenty miles apart, forming a ciirvitnre 
somewhat in the shape of a half-moon. A large creek of 
|)ure waterenters the stream upon which are several sawmills, 
and groves of pine timber. Boats cannot pass round thiti 
curviture on account of obstructions formed by rafts of drift- 
wood, but can ascend from the lower part more than half 
the distance. On both sides of the lower mouth of this bay- 
ou, are situated the richest part of the Raplde settlement. 
Few countries exhibit more beauty or greater indications of 
wealth. The plantations are in a high state of cultivation, 
the soil rich, and the cotton raised here is of the best quality 
in the state. The sugar cane flourishes. The cotton and 
tobacco are very good, as are all kinds of vegetables. 'J'be 
orange and figtrees grow luxuriantly ; to complete tliese bless- 
ing;^, the climate is healthful and the inhabitants in a manner ex- 
empted from the diseases usually mcident to warm climates. 
This country furnishes immense quanlities of lumber for the 
New-Orleans and We?t India markets ; and is capable of 


•ontlnumg the supply for ages. From the Raplde to the In- 
dian villages is about 24 miles ; the bend is fine and suscepti- 
ble of every kind of cultivation the whole distance. These 
villages are situ£\ted on both sides of the river in a very pro- 
ductive soil. Just above the Indian towns, the rich and popu- 
lous settlement of Gillard's station, commences. Six miles 
higher up is the Baluxa Indian village, where the river di» 
vides into two branches forming an island of fifty miles in 
length, and three or four in breadth, very fertile. The east 
stream is called Rigide de Bon Dieu ; on the left hand is the 
boat channel to Natchitoches. On this branch for forty 
miles, there are thick settlements, rich lands, and the inhabi- 
tants wealthy. This is called the River Cane settlement. 

A little above this settlement, the river divides into three 
channels, and forms the Brevel islands, the largest of which 
is thirty miles long and three or four wide. The central di- 
vision is lined with settlements and is the boat channel j the 
western channel, called Fausse Riviere, is navigable but is 
uninhabited, owing to the lowness of the banks. This chan- 
rel passes through lake IjOccnsse, above which the three 
channels separate, where is situated the town of Natchito- 
ches, and fort Claiborne, which stands on a hill elevated about 
thirty feet above the banks of the river. This town contains 
about 100 houses; it was originally settled by the French. 
The land has here a handsome swelling surface, yielding a 
rich and spontaneous pasturage to prodigious herds of cattle, 
and droves of horses, which give beauty and animation to the 
prospect, and croud the earth in every direction. Cattle caa 
be purchased for six dollars a head ; horses, for fifteen or 
twenty dollars. Swine run wild and are raised with little or 
no expence, in immense numbers. The planters commence 
their cultivat on about the first of March. During the growth 
of vegetation they have sufficient rains to keep the earth 
moist, but in September and October, severe droughts are 
experienced. Although the dews are very heavy and pow. 
crful, yet the sun's rays lick up this raqisture before it de- 


acends to the roots, and only gives it time to cool the wither- 
ing stalk. The dews are known to fall so profusely as to be. 
seen running in little streams on the ground. 

From Natchitoches a road leads to the Sabine, Nacogdo- 
ches and San Antonio. The Bayou Bon Dieu enters the 
river about three miles above this town. Another bayou 
communicates with Bon Dieu and lake Noiz ; above this lake 
the river continues in one channel, passing through the fine 
Bettlement of Grand Ecorce, seven miles long ; at the uppei* 
€nd of which coraes into the river a bayou or decharge of 
Spanish lake. The river again divides a short distance above 
this lake ; after which, the course of the west branch is 
westerly for nearly 80 miles, when it turns to the eastward 
and communicates with the right branch, forming an island 
100 miles long, ahd thirty wide. Boats cannot ascend by the 
west branch in consequence of collections of driftwood, which 
choak up its current, in several places. The French settle- 
ment of Bayou Pierre extends nearly the whole length of this 
branch ; the land is of the best quality, and the inhabitant* 
possess large herds of cattle, and are good livers. The face 
of this part of the country is agreeably hilly ; and the water 
very good. On the main or eastern branch, are several set- 
tlements. The land on this branch is very rich ; but much 
cut up by bayous, lakes and islands. 

The bottoms are several miles wide. The plantationi 
reach up to the commencement of the driftwood bridges.- — 
Bayou Clianno, leading into lake Besteneau, affords a pretty 
good navigation ; and by passing through the lake and bayou 
Dacheet, boatmen gain several miles, as the meanders of the 
river are very tedious. The medium depth of this lake, is 
from fifteen to twenty feet, and never less than twelve, though 
the remains of cypress trees of all sizes, now dead, most of 
them with their tops broken off, are yet standing in the lake. 
From bayou Dacheet to the mountains, the river is free of 
obstructions. Eighty miles above Dacheet, is the Caddo In- 
dian towns. The lauds for this distance, are high, rich bot- 


loQiB, widely extended from the river. Twenty miles be- 
low these towns, the river changes its direction, and turns to 
the west. 

The great range of pine forests that occupy the space frooi 
the prairies of Opelousas to the Red river, wind along the Sa- 
bine. The general surface of this region rises gradually froi^ 
prairies into hills ; the principal range of which pursues near- 
ly the same course as the Sabine, at the distance of twenty 
or twenty-five miles from the river, and divide the waters 
that Sow into it from those that flow into the Red river and 
Calcasu. Along the creeks, through this tract of country, 
ure found spots of productive soil. Pine and oak are the pre- 
railing timber on such situations, and pasturage is abundant 
during the months of spring and summer ; but want of wa- 
ter during the dry seasons is the greatest defect of that coun<« 
try. The Prairie grand Chevreuil begins between the overs* 
flown lands of the Atchafalaya and the Teche rivers, on the 
west of the former, following the direction of the Teche, 
nearly north — sometimes north west, terminates eight miles 
east of Opelousas. Most of the prairie is extremely rich, par- 
ticularly on the borders of the Teche. The timber consists 
of several species of hickory, sycamore, sweet gum, black oak, 
Killow oak, American elm, magnolia, sassafras, &c. with some 
live oak below lat. 30 1 5. The soil is a rich, friable, black 
loam, from a foot to 18 inches deep — and the climate, though 
the place be surrounded with swamps and lagoons, is mild 
and healthful. 

The country between the Mermentaa and Atchafalaya, ex? 
tending 115 miles along the gulf, and about 90 north, is call- 
ed the Attacapas. Within this there is a great prairie, bear- 
ing the same naiae. Considerable tracts are subject to inunda- 
dation, but many parts possess the highest degree of fertiis*' 

North and east of this lies the great Opelousas prairie, ex- 
tending to the Sabine, and forming the south west corner of 
the state. It has several larje prairies, such as the Opelousaf 


prairie — on the north of that the Grand prairie, the praifid 
Mamen, prairie Calcasu, and the Sabine prairie. The first , 
of these contains upwards of 1,120,000 acres. Rich soil, and 
good timber aie found along the southern and eastern parts of 
this district; but the rest is wild and the most of it barrenjv 
occupied only by great herds of cattle and buffaloe. 


These are embankments formed oii the margin of the Mis» 
sissippi ; and those of its bayous, to prevent their currents 
oversowing the plantations during the periodical floods. The 
principal levee commences at the head of the island of New- 
Orleans, and extends to Fort Placqueraines, a distance of 130 
miles. It is in some places . Hned with two rows of orange 

" The levee is commonly constructed m the following man- 
ner, and is indeed but a trifling work, considering the impor- 
tance of its object : — At a distance, seldom exceeding thirty 
or forty yards from the natural bank, a mound of earth is rais- 
ed about five feet high, and twelve at the base, with a suflS- 
cient width at the top for a foot path ; in general, resembling 
very much the embankments on the Delaware, erected to 
keep out the tide from the marshes on its borders. The size 
varies considerably ; in some places, particularly on the points, 
where the land is higher, and against which the current of 
the rirer strikes with less violence, the levees are very tri- 
fling ; but in bends, where the current acts with greater force, 
it is found necessary to oppose a more considerable mound ; 
on some of the bends, where the force of the current is very 
great, the embankment is a work of considerable consequence. 
The levee of M'Carty's, a few miles above New-Orleans, is 
almost fifteen feet high, by thirty at the base, and six feet at 
the top ; this is the most considerable on the river, excepting 
that immediately in front of the citj'. As there is no stone 
to be had, the only material is a soft clay, with cypress staves 

:E^.IIGRANT's directory. 137 

placed on the outside, that is, next the river, and the whole 
covered with earth and sodded. On the inside a ditch is 
made, for the purpose of receiving and carrying off the wa- 
ter, which weeps through the embankment in the season of 
the floods. The road Hes between the ditch and fences, and 
is crossed at intervals of half a mile, by drains from the 
ditch just mentioned, and covered like the sewers of a city; 
these drains pass through the fields, and carry the water to 
the swamps. A vast quantity of water is continually oozing 
through the porous embankments, and in many places gush- 
es through holes made by crawfish, which often increase so 
rapidly as to cause a breach in the levee. It requires sever- 
al years for the levee to become perfectly solid and firm ; pre- 
vious to this, it is liable to be injured by rains. • The em- 
bankment runs in a very irregular line ; in many places it 
changes its direction every twenty or thirty yards, for its 
zig-zag course is not only suited to the sinuosities of the riv- 
er, but also to its smaller indentations, for being too slight a 
work to compel the river to hold a regular course, it is oblig- 
ed to yield to its caprices : and as the river encroaches or re- 
cedes, another levee is constructed nearer the river or be- 
hind the first ; from which circumstance, there are in many 
places what are called double-levees. A person standing in- 
side of the levee, during the flood, seems to be considerably 
below the surface of the water, or as some have expressed 
it, " the water appears to roll over his head." There is, 
however, something of a deception in this ; for there are in 
few places more than two or three feet of water against the 
levee, as the ground between it and the river is much higher 
than on the inside; this may be accounted for, from the 
quantity of sediment there deposited, and the circumstance 
of the road having been worn down by constant use. What 
is considered a good levee, may in most places be made for 
five hundred to a thousand dollars per mile ; but in many it 
would cost several thousands. Every individual is required 
to keep up the levee in front of his own land, and before the 



season of high water it is inspected bj commissioners appoult^ 
ed for the purpose, in each parish, and if found insufficient 
it is made at his expense. But this is hy no means adequate 
to ensure safety ; for during the continuance of the floods 
the levees demand the most vigilant attention ; they must be 
continually watched, and all hands are often drawn from the 
fields to guard them for whole days and nights. The action 
of the current discovers defective parts, before unobserved ; 
here earth must be added and slabs placed, to prevent it 
from crumbling in ; and often, after the rains, which prevail 
at this season, it becomes spongy and lose in its texture, and 
the holes made by crawfish at this time are particularly to 
be dreaded, it not unfrequently happens, that from the 
want of sti^ength, or from the negligence of some individual, 
both he and his neighbors are ruined.* 


A crevasse is a breach formed in the levee by the waters 
of the river in time of inundation. Tho one which broke 
through the levee, six miles above New-Orleans, on the 7th 
of May, 1816, was 140 yards broad, and received a volume 
of water six feet deep. A crevasse, says Mr. Breckenridge, 
" rushes from the river with indescribable impetuosity, with 
a noise like the roaring of a cataract, 'boiling and foaming, and 
tearing every thing before it. To one who has not seen this 
country it is almost impossible to convey any idea of the ter- 
rors excited by a crevasse, or breaking of the levee. Like 
the breaking out of fire in a town where no one knows when 
his own dwelling may be assailed, it excites universal con- 
sternation ; every employment is abandoned for miles above 
and below, and all hasten to the spot, where every exertion 
is made day and night to stop the breach, which is sometimes 
snccessfnl, but more frequently, the hostile element is suifer- 
ed to t i-'.e its course. The consequences are, the destruc- 

* See Breckenridge'ii Views of Louisiana, 


tlon of the crop, the buildings, and sometimes the land itself 
is much injured where the current rushed over, carrying 
away the soil, or leaving numerous logs and trees drawn into 
the vortex as they floated dowu the river ; these must be 
destroyed before the land can again be cultivated. The ef- 
fects of a breach of the levee are even more desolating than 
those of fire. 

The first view which the traveller has of the levee on de- 
scending the Mississippi, is at Point Coupee, 172 miles above 
New-Orleans by the courses of the river. It is here that the 
country assumes anew aspect ; and it is here that the navi- 
gator emerges from a gloomy wilderness, presenting detached 
settlements, at long and tedious intervals, into charming and 
finely cultivated plantations. 

Here the beauty of the Mississippi and prospect of the 
country exhibit a view so enchantingly delightful, as scarcely 
to admit of description. On the side of this elevated, artifi- 
cial bank, is a range of handsome, neatly built houses, appear- 
ing like one continued village, as far as the city of Orleans. 
They are one story, framed buildings, elevated on piles six or 
eight feet high, and well painted ; the paint generally white. 
The houses for slaves are mostly placed on straight lines and 
nicely white-washed. The perpetual verdure of numerous 
orange trees, intermixed with fig trees surrounding the houses, 
and phmted in groves and orchards near them, highly beau- 
fy the prospect ; while the grateful fragrance of constant blos- 
soms', and the successive progress to plentiful ripened fruit, 
charm the eye, and regale the senses. 

In the rear of Point Cupee, is the settlement of Fausse 
Riviere, bordering on the ancient bed of the river, which is 
now impassible for boats except in the highest floods. 

The high land terminates at Eaton Rouge in an elevated 
bluff, 30 or 40 feet above the greatest rise of the water in the 
river. And here commences the eastern embankment 
which is continued, like that on the western side, to Orleans ; 
and a range of houses, oiDamenled with orange and fig trees^ 


tbe same distance, perfectly similar to that on tbe opposite 
bank. Baton Rouge settlement extends about tbii ly miles 
on the river, and to a considerable distance back, in an eastern 

At a point a little below the Iberville, and sixteen miles 
below Baton Rouge, commences an uninterrupted series of 
plantations, which are continued, upwards of one hundred 
miles, to the city of Orleans. These plantations are all clear- 
ed in front, and under improvement. Some of them are 
planted with sugar cane, but the greater part with cotton. 
They are narrow at the bank, and extend back to the swc-i; p 
ground, which is incapable of cultivation ; the land no where 
admitting of more than one plantation deep. 

The settlements of Bayou la Fourche extend about 5Q 
miles on both sides of that stream, one plantatiou deep. From 
the outlet of this bayon, to the city of New- Orleans, the lan(| 
will admit of only one plantation deep, and is rarely capable 
of cultivation, more than one mile from the bank of the river. 
It then becomes low and swampy to the lakes and the sea. 
The swamps are immense, intersected by creeks and lakes ; 
but the swamps generally abound with large cypress trees. 
Great quantities of this timber is sawed by mills, erected on 
streams formed by cutting sluices through the Levee. These 
mills are worked with great rapidity nearly half the year. 

Concord settlement lies between Tensaw river and the 
Mississippi, opposite to Natchez, and contains about 400 
families. Contrary to the statements of most travellers, who 
bave pronounced this distiict an uninhabitable swamp, Mr. 
Darby affirms, that the wide space between the Washita and 
Mississippi, is either a cane brake along the water courses, 
or a hard, dry surface, when the flood has subsided, of course 
first rate corn, sugar or cotton land. 

Fifteen miles below the city of New Orleans, and at the 
head of the English bend, is a settlement, called Saint Ber- 
nardo, or Terre au Boeuf, containing two parishes. The in- 
habitants are nearly all Spaniards from the Canaries, who 


improve a narrow strip of land, principally for raising poultry 
and garden vegetables, for the market at New-Orleans. 


Is abayon, oror a narrow arm of the gulf of Mexico, west 
of the Balize. It communicates with the lakes which lie on 
the south-west side, and these with the lake of the same name, 
and which lies contiguous to the sea, where there is an island 
formed by the two arras, or decharges of this lake and the sea. 
Both ends of this island were fortified in 1811, by the pirates 
under M. La Fitte. This island is situated in N. iat. 29 ; 
and is remarkable for its health, strength as a military posi- 
tion, and the vast quantity of shell fish with which its waters 
abound. In time, this may become a place of weal h and im- 
portance, as by a late survey of the country in its rear, it is 
found that there is a district of half a million of acres, very 
fertile, and sufficiently high to constitute a healthful settle- 
ment, of the first rate sugar lands. Barrataria affords a safe 
and capacious harbor for light ships of war and merchant 
vessels. « 


The alluvial soil of Louisiana, independent of its intrinsic 
fecundity, finds in the annual floods a perpetual renewal of its 
strength, from the fertilizing slime and mud deposited by the 
overflowing current of the Mississippi. 

" The deterioration of the alluvial lands of the Mississippi 
is scarcely perceptible, even on fields which have been under 
cultivation 60 or 70 years, or more."* 

When the river, says Dr. Dunbar, by disruption, alters 
its course, and new accumulations of slime, sand and marl are 
laid upon this very compact earth, a false belief might be in- 

*Extractof a letter from Mr. Robertson, member of Congress from Louisiana, 
lotlie author, dated Feb. 10, 1817. 


duced that this solid soil is net the ofFspriog of the river, but 
the original parent earth coeval with the Mississippi itself, up- 
on which this great river afterwards deposited the rich spoils 
> <of the northern regions, borne down by its mighty tide. This 
compact soil I have found at the depth of from ten to thirty 
feet ; and in other situations no appearance is to be seen of 
any olher than the common soil formed of the mud of the 
river. The soil near the river is sandy, particularly that 
which has been lately formed. From a quarter to half a mile 
from the margin of the river the sand is less apparent, and . 
loses its name of" terre sablonneuse," acquiring that of " terre 
grasse,'' being the richest black marl, with a naoderate ad- 
mixture of sand. At greater distances, and frequently at 
some depth under the last mentioned soils, is found the above 
mentioned compact earth, called glaise (potter's earth) : it is 
Bo doubt eminently adapted to the use of the potter, though 
hitherto not much applied to thie manufacture of earthern 
ware. Upon all lauds long subject to culture, and defended 
from the inundation, although near to the margin, the appear- 
ance of sand is almost lost; but it is evident, from the friabil- 
ity of the soil, and the facility with which it is cultivated, th^t 
a large portion still remains intimately mixed with it ; whereas 
the terre grasse (unmixed or pure marl) yields with difficulty | 
to the plough : it exhibits proofs of the richest marl, a slight : 
shower causing it to crumble into powder after being turned '' 


Late experiments prove that the sugar cane can be success- 
fully cultivated in any part of Louisiana, except in the swampy 
or " unripe'' alluvial soils. 

Sugar lands yield from one to two hogsheads of a thousand 
weight and 50 gallons of rum, per acre; the value is about 
^100 a hogshead. 

It is confidently stated, that two young French gentle- 


men made in one season with 28 hands, 200 hogsheads of 
sugar — and the same letter states that an old man, assisted 
only by his two sons, carried 30 hogsheads to market, the 
produce of their own hands, in one season. 

The planters, in order to guard against the effect of aa 
early frost, regularly finish about the 15lh of October pull- 
ing up the canes intended for next year's planting. This is 
done by putting them into stacks f morasses) with all their 
leaves on, in such a manner as to expose the smallest possible 
quantity of the stalk to the weather. Early in the spring, 
those canes are laid along in plough furrows, the large end 
of one cane nearly touching the small end next to it, and the 
furrows distant from each other about three feet. The plant 
is cultivated as we cultivate the Indian corn, and with equal 
ease. The cutting and grinding are commenced whenever 
the seed canes are put up, and continue frequently till the 
latter end of December ; and long after the canes has been 
killed by the frost. 

A mill which grinds 300 gallons per hour and will deliver 
upwards of two tons of sugar per day, costs in workman- 
ship and materials 1000 dollars, besides the expense of a 
rough cover for it, 40 feet square. The cost of three pes- 
tles of sufficient size to keep pace with the mill, is 350 
dollars, and that of the mason work in bedding them and 
making the furnaces, is 250 dollars ; which with the price of 
30,000 bricks, a proportionable quantity of mortar, a rough 
building to cover the boilers, and six draft beasts to impel the 
machine, constitute the whole expenses of an establishment 
sufficient for the manufacture of 200 hogsheads of sugar. — 
It must, however be recollected, that the Lonislana hogs- 
heads contain a little more than 1000 cwt. 

" The cotton lands of Louisiana yield from 500 to 2000 
pounds weight of seed cotton per acre. A hand will cultivate 
ten acres."* Several of the planters assured me that the land 
from Pinckney ville to New Orleans will produce an average of 

* Mr. Robertson's Letter. 



200 lbs. in the seed from each acre. The profits of a good 
slave may be estimated at $240. 

Rice is cultivated with the greatest facility, as water is 
easily diverted froQi the rivers and bayous into the fields. 
The use of water on rice is more to suppress the growth of 
noxious weeds and grasSy which would otherwise stifle the 
grain, than for promoting the growth of the rice itself ; for 
none of the grasses can stand the water, but rice does, as 
long as it is not totally imniersed. Therefore it is, that after 
weeding, the planter, if he has it convenient, lets on water to 
about half the height of the grain. 

Table of profits resulting from the employment of fifty work- 
men on a farm in Louisiana, 


O T) C 


ft & 





= 2 




acres iii 
e suited 
li staple. 


! 50,000 lbs. 

S ,0^ per lb. 

,512 000. 


250 ■ 


700 bbls. 

6. per bbl. 




250 (".1 


60,000 lbs. 

.15 per lb. 
1. per lb. 
10. p.cwt. 






7,0(10 lbs. 





C0,000 lbs. 

5,375.1 107 


Note The whole extent of the state of Louisiana, after deductioe orte-filth 

fertile swamps, rivers, lakes, pine barrens and other irreclaimuble tracts, ex- 
lends over 23,480,320 acres. The oue-tenth of that quantity may be assumed 
for cotton. Indico, which deinands a richer soil, but sinrlar climate, is allowed 
another tenth. Tobacco cao be raised in all pnrts ol the stvUe, but the soil best 
suited for it is nearly the same as that required for sugar caue. [J\'iles.] 


The forests of Louisiana, Florida and a part of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory, are festooned in many places, with a grey- 
ish vegetable moss, called Spanish beard. It grows from 
the limbs and twigs of all trees in the southern regions, from 
north lat. 35 deg. down as far as 28 deg. and I believe every 
where within the tropics. Wherever it fixes itself, on a 
limb or branch, it spreads into short and intricate divarica- 


fions ; these in time collect sand and dust, wafted by the 
wind, and which, probably by the moisture of it absorbs, 
softens the bark and sappy part of the tree» about the roots 
of the plant, and renders it more fit for it to establish itself; 
and from this small beginning it increases, by sending down- 
wards and obliquely, on all sides, long pendant branches, 
which divide and subdivide themselves, ad infinitum^ It is 
common to find the spaces betwixt the limbs of large trees, 
almost occupied by this plant ; it also hangs waving in the 
wind like streamers, from the lower limbs to the length of 
fifteen or twenty feet, and of a bulk and weight more than 
several men together could carry; and in some places cart- 
loads of it are lying on the ground, torn off by the violence 
of the wind. Any part of the living plant torn off and 
t;aught in the limbs of a tree, will presently take root, grow, 
and increase in the same degree of perfection, as if it had 
sprung up from the seed. When fresh, cattle and deer will 
eat it in the winter season. 

The laurel magnolia is the beauty of the forest, and rises 
100 feet and often much higher; the trunk is perfectly erect, 
rising in the form of a beautiful column, and a head resembling 
an obtuse cone ; the flowers which are on the extremity of 
the branches are large, white and expanded like a rose ; and 
when fully expanded they are from six to nine inches in di- 
ameter ; and have a most delicious fragrance. 

The cypress of Louisiana and Florida, is a tree of the first 
magnitude and utility: often measuring from six to ten feet 
in diameter, and from 40 to 50 straight shaft. It occupies ma- 
ny parts of the swamps, frequently to the exclusion of any" 
other timber ; and is never found on high dry land. Axmea 
are sometimes obliged to erect scaffolds before they fall the 
tree ; in consequence of a number of conical excrescences ris- 
ing from its base to the height of eight or ten feet, called cy- 
press knees, and being hollow are used for beehives. The 
sugar maple is rarely seen south of N. lat. 31. Sassafraa, 
peraimon, holly, buckeye, mulberry, wild cherry, pawpaw, 



myrica inodora, (from the berries of which the green vras 
is made) chinquapin, chesnut, all the species of the oak family ; 
all the varieties of pine, red cedar, sweet and sour oranges, 
the latter are indigenous, hawthorn, ozier, plum, bois d'arc, 
is found on the Washita ; its bark dies a beautiful yellow. 
The China root and passion flower are abundant on the rich 
grounds. The sensitive briar is common to the poor and 
sandy lands. Several species of the beautiful plant, sar- 
acinia in the margins of swamps and wet grounds ; and three 
or four handsome species of the water dock ; poke, very large 
and luxuriant. Sumac, along the water courses, and in the 
swamps where the land is good, several species of well tasted 
grapes are found in great plenty. Many of the trees in the 
low grounds are loaded with a variety of vines, the most con- 
spicuous of which are the creeper, and ivy. The Mislefoe is 
very abundant and saucily attaches itself to almost every 
kind of tree, not excepting fruit trees. 


Most kinds of water fowl found in the northern lakes frequent 
the waters of Louisiana in winter. Those of the feathered 
tribe which may be considered as local, consist of the 
white pelican^ white eagle, swan, sandhill crane, great white 
owl, wild turkey, crested bittern, paroquet, prairie hen, tufted 
woodcock, ivory woodpecker, great bat, rice bird, red bird. 
The pelican is the largest, measuring from wing to wing seven 
feet. Its pouch or reservoir contains its food, and will hold six 
or eight quarts. The prairie hen is something larger than a 

Deer, bear, wolves and a species of the tyger, abound itt 
the hills and prairies. Buffaloe are found in the prairies to the 
west of OpelousaSf and north of Red river. The tyger re- 
sembles the spotted leopard of Africa. They have been 
frequently killed between Natchez and Baton Rouge. Wild 
horses are frequently seen in large droves between Red river 


and the Sabine ; and small game abound in all the upland 


The population according to the census of 1810, was 
76,556 ; but may now be safely estimated at 120,000 souls, of 
all colors. The following estimate was given in 1814 : 

Th s state is divided into three great natural sections, viz : 
the north-west, Red river and Washita section ; 21,649 sq. 
miles, and 12,700 inhabitants. The south-west, Opelousas 
aad Attacapas section, 12,100 square miles and 13,800 inhab- 
itants. South-east, New-Orleans and West Florida section, 
12,120 square miles, and 75,200 inhabitants. 


This city stands on the left bank of the Mississippi, 1 05 
miles fn m the gulf of Mexico. The city is regularly laid 
out ; the streets are generally forty feet wide and cross each 
other at right angles. The houses are principally brick on 
the streets near the river ; but on the back part of the town 
mostly wood. The population is at present 30,000 souls, 
which are rapidly increasing by accessions from all the states 
in the union, and from almost every kingdom of Europe. It 
it is above one mile and a half long, and half a mile deep. 
A great number of new buildings were erected last year, dis- 
tinguished for size and the improved style of the architecture. 
The public buildings consist of three banking houses, two 
handsome churches, custom house, town house, market house, 
arsenal, convent, jail, theatre, governor's palace, built by the 
Spanish government. These are all fine buildings. Th& 
place des armes is a beautiful green, which serves as a parade. 
IVIost of the houses in the suburbs have beautiful gardens 
ornamented with orange groves. The great cathedral church 
and town house are In the centre of the t(jivn, fronting the 


square.* There are five newspapers printed in this citr, two 
in French and English, viz : The Courier^ and Amides LoiSf 
(friend of the laws) and three in English, the Louisiana Ga- 
sette, the Orleans Gazette, and Price Current or Commercial 
Register, by Duhour^, The buildings have no cellars, ex- 
cept the vacancy formed between the ground and the lower 
floors ; which are raised five or six feet from the earth. The 
tornadoes to which the country is subject, will not admit of 
the houses being carried up several stories, like those of 
New- York and Philadelphia ; but they have terraces and 
walks on their tops a la mode Francoise. The market is 
plentifully furnished with the necessaries and luxuries of eve- 
ry clime. It is upon the levee fronting the city that the 
universe is to be seen in miniature. It is crowded with ves- 
sels from every part of the world ; and with boats from a 
thousand different places in the " upper country.'* Here 
in half an hour you can see, and speak to Frenchmen, Span- 
iards, Danes, Swedes, Germans, Englishmen, Portuguese, 
Hollanders, Mexicans, Kentuckians, Tennesseans, Okioni- 
ans, Pennsylvanians, New-Yorkers, New-Englandeis and a 
motley groupe of Indians, Quadroons, Africans, &c. Here 
are boats from Chatauque lake in New-York ; from La Boeuf, 
Connemeugh, Brownsville, in Pennsylvania; from the heads 
of Holston and Clinch ; Cumberland, Licking and Greea 
river, Muskingum, Scioto, Tuscarawa, Wabash, Kaskaskia, 
Missouri, Washita, Red river, Vermillion, Ponchartrain, 
Amite, and an hundred other rivers. 

* The chapel of the convent of the Ursu'inpntinsissmal', btitvery wat witliin, 
bei ng chiefly ralculated fbrthp aecrmmodAti OB of that gisurh^oi!. Public pervice 
is performed here reguUrly. The nuns are separated frim UiPHudience by a par- 
tition of lattice-work, through whicii they may baiely be dislii'gtii^t^* d Their 
■whole number at present does not amount to more than forty or fifty. A sumroer 
residence in New-Orleans must be extremely disagreeable, as even at this early 
eeagon I find it intolerably hot and sulrt-y. The evenings however are cool aod 
pleasant, and ag this city has no public gardens or promenade, the levee after buh- 
eet is crowded with company, who having been confined all tie day to th^ir houses, 
eeldom miss this favorable opportunity of hrfathin" a little fresh air. That unl'or- 
liinate clags of females, the inulattoea, who from their infancy are trained in the 
arts of love, are far fron being considered in tlie same huiiiilialiiig light with thnsa 
■white ladies to whom they are nearly allied in profession. Since casloin hns plant- 
ed an iosuroionntable barrier to their ever forming an honorable connexion witb 
■white men, necessity has compelled them ta resort to the practice »f forming t«s- 



The exports of Louisiana already exceed those of all the 
New-England states by more than ^1 50,000 a year. Be- 
tween 3 and 406 sea vessels arrive and depart annually. — 
Nine hundred and thirty-seven vessels of all denominations 
departed during the year 1816, from the Bayou St. John, a 
port of delivery in the district of Mississip,>i; the tonnage 
of these vessels is calculated at sixteen thousand ; they are 
chiefly employed in carrying the produce of that part of the 
Floridas belonging to the United States, consisting in barks, 
coals, cotton, corn, furs, hides ; pitch, planks, rosin, skins, 
tar, timber, turpentine, sand, shells, lime, &c. The re- 
ceipts of this city from the upper country is beyond con- 
ception. Five hundred and ninety-four flat bottomed boats 
and three hundred barges have arrived within the last 
year from the western states and territories, with the follow- 
ing articles of produce viz: — Apples 4253 bbis; bacon and 
hama 13000 cwt. bagging 2579 pieces; beef 2459 bbls. beer 
'439 do. butter 509 do. candles 358 boxes ; cheese 30 cwt. 
cider 646 bbls. corc'age 400 cwt, cordage bailing 4798 coi's ; 
corn 13775 er'shls; corn meal 1075 bbls. cotton 37371 
bales; flaxseed oil 85 bbls. flour97419do; ginseng 957 do; 
hay 356 bundles; hemp yarns 1095 reels; hid. s 5000 ; hogs 
500; horses 375; lead 5500 cwt. white lead 188 bbls. lin- 
ens, coarse 2500 pieces ; lard 2458 bbls. oats 40C5 bushels ; 
paper 750 reams; peltries 2450 packs ; pork 9725 bbls; po 

porary engagemen'^s with those whom they may fancy. Epff'^pfin nfsof this l-iiid 
are every day formed, lor a month or a year, or as mncli longer ;!s tlio;nri(t iiuiy 
be mutiial'y pleased. During any engagement of this k'.nd, it is in vain to solicit 
improper favors : thej are generally as strictly cf ntinent as the niarii:'jie cerenio- 
Dy toiild possibly make them. When the time is expired, or the Irver tone, tiiey 
accept of the next best offer that may be made to tiiem. TUh chiss of the society 
of this city is so generally esteemed, that no gentleman hesitates n moment io 
paying his compliments to those females belonging to it, whom he ma) meet with 
in the street or elsewhere. A far greater degree of distinction prevails among 
this class than even among the whites. Thpy who are so many dfigrees removed 
from the black that the connection is no longer visible in the fkin, consider them- 
eelves a.s the " best blooded ;" and so down to tiiose who nre < iily one degree su- 
perior to ibc blacks, whoaj tliey ail tjf^t with more coutemjit tkaa eve 'he w hitPi 



tatoes 3750 bushels ; powder, gun 294 bbls. saltpetre 175 
cwt. soap 1538 boxes; tallow 160 cwt tobacco 7282 hbds. 
do. manufactured 711 bbls. do. carrots 8200; whiskey 
320,000 gallons ; bear skins 2000. Besides a quantity of 
horned cattle, castings, grind stones, indigo, muskets, mer- 
chandize, paean nuts, peas, beans, &c. The schedule of 
the above produce is independent of what is furnished by 
liouisiana, consisting of cotton, corn, indigo, molasses, masts 
and spars, planks, gunpowder, rice, sugar, shingles, soap, 
taffia, tallow, timber, bees wax, &c. which are generally 
brought to market in planters crafts, or taken from off the 
plantation by foreign bound vessels. 

The quantity of sugar made on the'Mississippi alone. Is 
estimated by a late writer, at ten millions of pounds. Twen- 
ty thousand bales of cotton were exported in 1812. 

Perhaps there is no country in the globe where so much 
wealth is divided among so few individuals as in Louisiana. Tts 
resources are immense, while its population is comparatively 
small. The yearly income of many of the planters, amounts 
to 20,000 dollars : and it is said to be not uncommon to mark 
from one to three thousand calves in a season, and to have 
from ten to twenty thousand head of fine cattle. 


New-Orleans was fortified by the Spaniards more for the 
purpose of defending it against the inroads of the Mississippi, 
than the approaches of an enemy. It is unquestionably in- 
vulnerable to a naval attack ; as the late improvements at 
Fort St. Philip, at the English turn, will prevent the ascent of 
ships of war. Mr. Stoddard thinks that a fleet wholly unob- 
structed by land batterieis, would find it extremely diflScult 
to ascend against the rapidity of the current. 

About 12 miles below New-Orleans is a narrow extent of 
land, never overwhelmed, which runs towards the Lakes, 
jteachlDg about Iwenly miles ; this tongue of land is called the 


Terre au Boeuf, (ox land) about a mile in length, an(5 
divided in the centre by a creek, having swamps on each side. 
An enemy might land upon this tongue from lake Borgne, 
which approaches it on the north-east. The British army 
Mnder Packenham gained the Mississippi, through the swamps 
between Au Bceuf and bayou St. John,, near Velere'scanaF. 
South-west of the city is an other narrow elevated tongue of 
land. The road from the back of the city divides at two 
miles from it, and the one road proceeds northeastfy on a 
tongue of land about half a mile in width, known by the name 
of Cbantilly ; this terminates in marshes and swampB at the 
distance of twenty miles. The other road on the left wester- 
ly crosses St. John's creek over a draw-bridge, and intersects 
the river road about fifteen miles above the city. This St. 
John's creek heads in a swamp south-west of New-Orleans, 
and after meandering about six miles in a north by east direc- 
tion, falls into lake Ponchartrain. At the mouth of this bay- 
ou there is a fort which protects the city against the approach 
of an enemy. It was expected that the British in 1814 
would have attempted to gain the city by this route. The 
depth of water in it varies from three to nine feet, as the wa- 
ter may rise or fall by the winds, or by the waters of the lake. 
From the bar to the canal of Carondolet, are usually from 
nine to ten feet of water. This canal rises in a basin direct- 
ly behind the Charity Hospital of New-Orleans, and is large 
enough for several small vessels. It extends in a direct line 
about two miles to St. John's creek, and is about twenty feet 
wide. Several handsome country seats, a village, and orange 
groves adorn its banks. It has already been of great advan- 
tage to the inhabitants. Articles for transportation are con- 
veyed by Lake Ponchartrain to the mouth of the creek of 
St. John, and thence pass up the creek six miles and then 
pass through the canal to the walls of the city. It has been 
proposed to extend the canal to the Mississippi, and it has 
been contemplated to deepen the whole caaal for military and 
commercial purposes. 



The Indians oF Louisiana chiefly resii^e on the Reel river* 
Natchitoches tribe formerly numerous and much attached to 
the French, who highly respect these Indians, and a num- 
ber of decent French families at Natchitoches haVe a mix* 
ture of their blcod in them. This tribe anciently dwelt in ak 
large village near the site of the present town of Natchitoches. 
They have been reduced by war and small pox to about 30 
Bouls, and reside at present at lac de Muire, 25 miles above 
Natchitoches. The Boluxas from Pensacola live at the 
mouth of Rigulet de Bondieu. They are reduced to thirty 
warriors — are harmless and friendly. The Appalaches, con- 
sisting of 14 families reside on bayou Rapide. The AlibO' 
mies, consisting of 70 families reside at Opelousas and near 
the Caddo towns. The Conshatlas live on the Sabine, and! 
have about 400 souls. The Pacanas live on the Quelque- 
chose river, and consist of thirty warriors besides women 
and children. The Tunicas reside principally at Avoyelles ; 
and are reduced to 140 souls. The Pascagolas reside on 
Red river; have only 24 warriors. The Tensaivs live on 
Bayou au Bceuf ; and are equally reduced in numbers and spir- 
it. All the preceding tribes, except the Natchitoches, are 
emigraTts from West- Florida. The Chactoos inhabit the 
branches of Bayou au Bceuf and are the aborigines of the coun- 
try where they live. The Wachas are reduced to half a 
dozen s6uls and are servants in French families. The Choc- 
taws frequent the state, and have two or three fixed villages. 
The Opelousas, consist of about 150 souls, and reside near 
the church of the same name. The Honmas and Attacapas 
are united and amount to about 200 souls : the former were 
original proprietors of the soil of the island of New-Orleans. 
These Indians, as well as the Tunicas and Choctaws, are to be 
seen at all times, near the suburbs in groupes, men, women, 
and children, reeling under the iiifiuence of the bottle. 



The Mississippi proper, is navigable in Louisiana, . 712 
Iberville and the lakes east of New-Orleans, « . 250 

Amite river, 100 

Pongipaho, Chefuncti, and the bayous Castain, Lacorabe, 

and Baucofuca, ....... 300 

Pearl river and Boguechitto, . . . . 100 

Bayous Atchafalaya, Placquemine, La Fourche, and others 
leaving the Mississippi, ..... 300 

Red river (in Louisiana) ...... 450 

Bayous and lakes of Red river, 500 

Washita and its tributary lakes and rivers, . 1500 

Teche, Vermillion, Sabine, &c. . . . 559' 

Gulf coast, bays and lakes, . . . . lOOO 




TS situated between 41 50 and ^5 20 N. latitude, and 5 
12 and 8 16 W. longitude. Its boundaries, established by 
law in the winter of 1804-5, are a due N. line from the 
southern most point of Lake Michigan, thence S. E. by 
the diA'isional line which separates the British possessions in 
Upper Canada, passing through Lake Huron and St. Claipj 
to Lake Erie^ and south by a due E. and W. line, which di- 
vides it from the states of Ohio and Indiana. As this south-' 
em line has never been run, it is uncertain where it wonld 
intersect lake Erie. An observation of a Eriti&h traveller, 
makes the latitude of the southern extremity of lake Michi- 
gan^ a degree and a half south of Detroit, which would carry 
the line entirely south of take Erie. However, the mouth 
of the Miami-of-the lakes has been assumed as the line, untiJ 
an actual survey shall remove the arabiguily.f This territory 
is 256 miles long from north to south ; breadth from east to 
west 154 miles-^^contains 34,320 square miles^ 22,284,00^ 
acres. It is a large peninsula, of a triangnlar form, with its 
base resting upon Ohio and Indiana. 


'I'hese are numeroiis and mostly navigable for boats and 
Canoes, nearly to their heads. Those running into lake Michi- 
gan, are, 

1. The St. Josephs, which beads in Indiafia and inter- 
locks by its several branches, with Black river, St. Josephs 

+ It is not yff ascertained which lies furthest south, Green bay or late MIshi- *' 


©f Miami, Eelriver, and Tippecanoe. It enters the S. E. 
end of the lake — it is rapid and full of islands, but navigable 
150 miles, and is. 200 yards wide at its mouth. The Potta- 
wattimie Indians, who reside on the shore, catch prodigious 
quantities'of fishin its waters. It runs about forty miles in 
the Michigan Territory. On the north bank of this river 
standi the old fort St. Josephs, from which there is, a b,ridl^ 
road to Detroit. 

2. Slack river, called Le Noir, in the French maps, heads 
near the Miami-of-the-Iakes, in small lakes, interlocks with. 
the two St. Josephs, Raisin and Grand river, and enters the 
lake 14 miles north of the mouth of St. Josephs, with which 
it runs nearly parallel for seventy miles. The land on its 
hanks are said to be of an excellent quality. It is a fine nav- 
igable stream for boats; there are several Indira towns upon 
its head branches, 

3. Maramp, a short river, heads about 45 miles from the 
lake, runs west and empties into the lake about ten miles north 
ol" Black river, and forms a capacious bay at its mouth. 

4. Barbue, which falls into the lake a fev^ miles north of 
Maj-ame, is nearly similar in size, course and appearance. 

5. Raisin, a short river, having its source about 50 miles 
from the lake, discharges its waters into a bay 16 miles north 
of ^rbue. Great quantities of grapes are found on its banks,,, 
from which circumstance it derives its name. 

6. Grand river, the laigest tributary of lake Michigan 
heads in lakes and ponds in the S. E. corner of the territo- 
ry, interweaves its branches with those of Raisin, Biack riv- 
er, Mastigon and Saganaum, and falls into the lake about 20 
miles north of Raisin. This river is described as running 
through a country, consisting alternately of wood lands and 
prairies, abounding with most kinds of wild game, it is navi- 
gable for small craft to its source; in high water boats and 
perogues pass from lake Michigan into lake Eiie, through 
this and Huron rivers. The general course of this river is 
W. N. W. A canal connecting it wiLh the Saganauini, liiib 


ning into lake Huron, could be opened, it is reported, at a 
small expence. This canal is amon^ the number recommend- 
ed by judge Woodward, of Detroit, in his able report on the 
subject of internal navigation. 

7. The Masiignn has its sources in ponds and marshes, 
near the centre of the territory — its course is nearly west, 
and the bay into which it falls, Uqs 20 miles north of the 
mouth of Grand river. 

8, 9, 10. Whitey Rockt/^ and Beauviiis, all short rivers, 
runninga westerly course, and emptying themselves into the 
lake in the order named, at the distance of from ten to fifteen 
miles apart. 

1 1. Sf .Nicholas, 50 miles long, and 50 yards wide at its 
mouth, is the next stream worthy of notice, as we proceed 
northwardly ; it enters the lake about halfway between Mich- 
ilimackinac and St. Josephs. 

12. Marguerite, a handsome boatable river, interlocks 
with branches of Saganaum, St. Nicholas and Grand rivers. 
A voyageur in the service of the North West Company, who 
spent a winter hunting and trafficing on this stream, informs 
that the country is considerably broken and well timbered, a 
few miles from the lake. 

13. 14, 15. Monistic, Jnx Sables, Lasietle, anA Grand 
Terverse, small rivers, which enter the lake between Mar- 
guerite and the straits of Michilimackinac. 

The greater part of the rivers just described expand and 
form circular bays or small lakes, behind the sand hills near 
the lake. This effect is produced by the frequent conflicts 
between the currents of the rivers and the surf of the lake ; 
for the latter not only repels, as it were, the tributary streams 
but at the same time washes the sand of the shore into their 
mouths, causing the smaller ones to contract at their entrances 
into mere brooks. 

These basins are from two to three miles across, and are, 
at certain seasons literally covered with ducks, wild geese and 
»tlier water fowl, which resort here to harvest the foUe avoine. 


profusely sown by nature's hand. The pious and benevo- 
lent St. Pierre could have found in these bays materials for 
an eloquent chapter on the beneficence of the deity. 

The rivers which fall into lake Huron between Mickiliraack* 
inac and the straits of St. Clair, have a northern or north wes- 
tern direction. Chagahagun river enters the lake about 35 
miles east of Michiliinackiuac. 

2. Tkwidcr river, falls into the bay of the same name, 
about half way between Michilimackinac, and the outlet of 
lake Huron. 

3. Sand^ river runs into Saganaum bay. 

Sagancmm river, which is next in size to Grand river, Rnd 
with which it interlocks, heads near the centre of the terriiory. 
The land on this river is of a good quality, and sufficiently ex* 
tensive to form at some future day a rich and populous set- 
tlement. It enters the bay of the same name. The Chip' 
pewa Indians have several villages on this river ; and there 
are two salines running into it, which it is believed will be 
able, when properly worked, to supply the territory, if not 
all the settlements an the upper lakes. Sugir river and sever- 
al considerable creeks run into the Icke betweer. Sr.ganaum 
and the strait of St. Clair. At the upper end of this strait, 
on the American side stands fort Graliot, built by Capt. 
Gratiot in the summer of 1815. 

The straits of the St. Ciair are 26 miles long;. The land 
©n both sides is partly prairie interspersed with strips of lofty 
woodland, of oak, sugar, poplar, bhck walnut, hickory, honey 
locust, and white pine. Nature has here planted groves of 
white pine suitable for boards, shingles, arid masts ; and which 
is increased in value by the scarcity of this valuable wood, 
since it can be easily transported to distnt parts, destitute of so 
useful a material. In the strait are several valuable islands, 
and there is water sufficient for a 20 gun brig. 

The rivers and creeks running into St. Clair, from the 
American territory are, Belle river which heads near the 
Saganaum, and cntcis the lake nine macs below the strait. 


There are good situations for settlements, and some pitti 
groves upon this river. About fourteen miles further down 
the lake is the river Huron. On the banks of this stream is 
found some of the best land in the territory. Here is a con- 
siderable French settlement, which was commenced more 
than 20 years ago* 

A little above the mouth of this river, the Indians have a 
reservation three miles square, on which is Blachonee's vil- 
lage. The white settlements on this river are rapidly in- 
creasing by reason of numerous emigrants from Oxford 
and the settlements on the river Thames, in Upper Canada ; 
who are disgusted at the colonial administration of the British 
government. Several mills were erected last summer ; and 
the lands are rising in vakie. The bottoms of Huron, are 
wide and rich; the principal timber on the bottoms, is syca- 
more, hickory, elm, locust, poplar, maple ; on the upland, oak, 
ash, hickory ; there are considerable quantities of white 
pine. Below Huron at the distance of eight or ten miles is 
JSuttermilk creek upon which the land is susceptible of ad- 
mitting a pretty handsome settlement. Between this and 
Detroit is Tremblee, and another creek, the name of which I 
do not recollect. 

The strait of Detroit, connecting lake Erie and St. Clalpy 
is 24 miles long, and like the strait or river St. Clair, naviga- 
ble for large vessels and studded with islands ; it is about half 
a mile wide, with a current running nearly ^ree miles an hour. 
This strait receives the rivers Ro7(ge, Ecorce, Magvago and 
Sro'tvnstown creeks. The river Rouge heads about 40 miles 
aouthivest of Detroit, near the head branches of Huron ; it 
enters the strait five miles below Detroit, expands to the 
width of 600 yards at its mouth, forming a considerable bay, 
and is navigable to Couley's ship yard, five miles from its 
mouth, for vessels of 150 tons burthen; and it is navigable 
for canoes and light boats thirty-five miles. Ten or twelve 
miles from the strait commence wide and fertile black walnut 
sujd sycaaore bottoms. I have been 15 miles up this stream, 



artd was surprised to find so large a body of rich land, so cheap 
and so little cuUivated, within eight or ten miles of a town set- 
tled nearlj a century ago. The corn, wheat and potatoes 
raised on the banks of this river, yield as abundantly as the 
best soils of the state of Ohio. These lands belong to the 
United States, with the exception of two sections, one mile 
square each, at Seginsavin^s Indian village, on the river; 
and two sections at Tonquish's village ; and can be pui-chas- 
ed at two dollars an acre. The river Ecorce (Bark river) 
falls into the strait three miles below the mouth of Rouge^ 
and nearly resembles that river in the width of its mouth, 
slowness of current, and the great quantities of folle avoine 
growing in its waters. Maguaga creek comes into the strait 
opposite to Grosse isle, and about one mile below the village of 
the same name. Brownstown creek is crooked, deep, slug- 
gish, and winds through the Wyandot reservation and empties 
into the strait against Maiden, behind Bois Blanc island, 
I was told that neitheir of these four streams afforded mill 
seats. Between Brownstown village and the mouth of the 
Miami-of-the-lakes, we cross the following streams in the or- 
der named, viz: 

Huron river, called by some little Huron, enters the lake 
seven miles south of Maiden ; it heads in the vicinity of the 
principal source of Grand river, and between which and it, 
there is said to be a navigable communication for canoes, 
through a chain of ponds and marshes. Before reaching the 
open lake, it winds its way two or tlvree miles through a vast 
meadow o{ folle. avoine, in which the water is from five to sev- 
en feet deep ; and it is Mith much difSculty, that boalmea 
unacquainted with its entrance, mazy sinuosities, find its 
mouth, a harbor, fuel, and a resting place, when overtaken by 
night or menaced with a storm. 

Six miles goi;th of Huron, Swan creek or ri%'er Aux 
Cignes into the lake ; its banks near the Inke are low, but the 
meadow or prairie is sui^ceplible of cultivation ; a few wretch- 
ed French families are the only human beings that have bad 


the courage to brave disease and rattle snakes. Their wheM 
corn, pumpkins and gardens do well, indeed there is very 
little of the meadow but what noight be ploughed ; corn, flax, 
and hennp would do best ; the pond lilly, folle avoine and 
<}ther aquatic plait? almost cho-.k up the channel of the river. 
giving the wa^er an offensive and putrid smell ; it will ropd 
M) summer like molasses, jet the inhabitants make a free use 
cf it for cooking and drinking. Why it does not produces' 
almost instantaneous death 1 cannot conceive; their children 
near tl)e lake look miserably. This is by far the worst; 
looking stream tributary to lake Erie. The timbered land' 
here, approaches 'virhin a miie of the lake ; four miles from 
which this stream has a brisk current, and afford situation* 
favorable to the erection of- water machinery. The trees are 
lofty — the land high and arable. 

Three miles farther south is Rocky creek, dignified by the 
French, with the title ©f " la riviere aux Rochers.'* It has 
higher banks and a swifter current than any of the neighbor- 
ing streams, and furnishes sites for mills. The rocks found 
in its bed and oa its banks are calcareous. The Little river 
Atix SableSy (or Sandy creek) falls into the lake two miles S. 
of Rocky creek. The lake here forms a considerable bay, 
which receives the waters of these streams. A kw French 
femilies are settled on their banks. The soil of the upland 
bordering on these creeks, is sandy_o 

Seven miles south of Sandy creek following the road, but 
not half that distance by the lake coast, enters the river Rai- 
sin. It interlocks with the St. Joseph of Miami, and Black 
I'ivers, running into lake Michigan, and heads in swamps and) 
small lakes. Its general course is a little south of east. Fif- 
teen miles from its mouth it receives the river JStncon. The 
Raisin is about 45 yards wide and boatabl^ to within a fewf 
miles of a branch of Black river. There is an extensive 
prairie at its mouth, and several hundred acres of folle avoine. 
The settlements extend from within two miles cf the lake \6 
the mouth of the dyer Macon, a distance of 15 miles. The 


lots are surveyed in the French mode, being only three Paris- 
ian arpentsj wide on the river and extending back far enough 
to contain one hundred acres, more or less. This river 
owes its name to the vast quantities of grapes which are found 
on its banks. The inhabitants are mostly French, who raise 
wheat, corn, and potatoes, more than sufficient for their own 
I consumption. The soil proves to be rich and durable, and 
. the settlements have been blessed with unusual health. The 
bottoms are equal to those of the Miami ; but the soil of the 
. upland is in many places light and sandy. There are sev- 
. eral grist and saw-mills on the river. The country has been 
. settled about thirty years ; and the orchards already yield am 
abundance of apples. Cider and peach brandy are made 
for exportation. The French settlers, until very lately, 
did not set a proper value on their improvements ; but would 
, often dispose of them, for comparitively, a trifling sum.— 
From the river Raisin to the mouth of the Miami-of the-lakes 
is 18 miles. The first stream is Otter creek, or river Le 
Jjoutre, 4 miles from Raisin. It alfords several situations for 
mills, upon which there are already a number erected. Wa- 
vpoo creek flows into the lake about two miles north of Miami 
■J bay. Swan creek, which rises near the head of Otter creek, 
falls into the Miami-of-the-lakes or Maurice, four miles 
. from its mouth. This is a brisk stream, abounding with mill- 
; seats. The Miami will particularly be noticed in the descrip- 
tion of the state of Ohio. 


Michlliraackinac island is important in a military and politi- 
cal point of view, being the Gibraltar of the North West. 
It is of an eliptical form, about seven miles in circumference, 
rising gradually to the centre ; its figure suggested to the 
savage mind, its appropriate name, Michi Mackiiia,* (Great 

* The Indian trnditinn concerning the namf oftliis litth- harren island is curious. 
They say that A'lichapoiis, tht' chief of spirits, soj:'Ui'rn^(l 1 n^in l'.<it vicinit. . — 
Tbey believed thai a mountain on the b nder of tlie lake was the place of li's 



Turtle.) The greater part of the island is almost an impend 
trable thicket of underwood and small trees, which contribute 
materially to the defence of the garrison. Fort Holmes stands 
on a summit of the island several hundred feet above the lev- 
el of lake Huron, and is now one of the most formidable po- 
sitions, in the western country. The French were the first 
settlers ; and their descendants to the number of about 300 
reside near the garrison. Bfanitou island is situated near 
the eastern coast of lake Michigan, south of L^Arbre Cruche. 
It is six miles long and four wide. The Castor islands, arc 
a chain of islets extending from Grand Traverse bay nearly 
across the lake. They are low and sandy ; but afford a shel- 
ter for light boats in their passage to Green bay. Gyosse Isle 
already named is a valuable alluvion of several thousand acres, 
being five miles long, and from one to two wide. It divides 
the river Detroit into two channels, commencing two miles 
above Maiden. Bois Blanc (White Wood) island is situat- 
ed directly in front of Maiden, and at the distance of 200 
yards ; but south of the ship channel, which circumstance 
gives the United States an indubitable claim to its possession, 
although the English have In contempt of Mr. Jay's treaty 
kept military possession for the last fifteen years. The most 
considerable bays on the east side of lake Michigan, are those 
of Sable and Grand Traverse. The last is about t^Velve 
miles deep, and four or five broad. Those on the Hnron 
coast are Thunder and Sr^ganaum bays. The last is forty 
miles deep, and from eight to twelve wide. Miami bay, 
which resembles a lake, is situated at tl)e mouih of the river 
]V1iarai-o-the-lakes, and is about eighteen miles in cir- 
cnniference. The interior of the Michigan peninsula cou- 
trins a great number of small lakes and ponds, from half a 
mile to twelve miles in length — from which issue many of the 
rirers. The slrai- connecting lakes Huron and Michigan, i» 

abodi} : and they called it by ! is iianip. It was here, say they, that he first in- 
Sli noted in;in to iahrirate nets fort-kine; 6sh, aiTd wliere he has collected the jjreat- 
est'ty of thtse finny inhnbitdnis of the waters. On the island he left spir- 
its, ir.inied Fmalcina! OS, and from these aerial possessorSi it has received t lie a(»- 
pelldUouoC MiciiiiJtuackinac. [HtrhL] 


called Lac des Illinois ; is fifteen miles long, of an oval figure, 
and subject to a flux ^ind reflux. 


There are no mountains in this territory ; the interior is ta- 
ble land, having a western and northern inclination, inter- 
spersed with small lakes and marshes, from which issue the 
head branches of the rivers. Prairies exist, from the banks 
of the St. Josephs to lake St. Clair ; some are of an excel- 
lent soil ; others, sandj, wet and sterile. There are, never- 
theless, extensive forests, of lofty timber, consisting of oak, 
sugar maple, beach, ash, poplar, white and yellow pine, cu- 
cumber, buckeye, basswood, hickory, cedar, plum, crab ap- 
ple, cherry, black and honey locust. The last flourishes 
as far north as the margin of lake Huron — yet east of the Al- 
legany mountains, it is never found north of the Delaware, 
The botto'is, and high prairies are equal to those of Indiana, 
A considerable part of the coast of lake Michigan consists 
of a range of sand-hills, thrown up by the surf and "eddying 
winds.'' The timbered uplands are well adapted to the pro- 
duction of most kinds of grain ; and appear to bear a long se- 
ries of crops, as is the case with the ridge in the rear of Pe-- 


At a treaty held at Detroit in November, 1807, between 
Gen. Hull and the chiefs of the Pottawattamie, Ottawa, Wy- 
andot, and Chippawa tribes, all the lands within the following 
limits, except the reservatioij(|Hi2reafter described, were ced- 
ed to the United States, viz : " Beginning at the mouth of 
the Miami river of the lakes, and running thence up the mid- 
dle thereof, to the mouth of the great Au Glaize river ; thence 
running due north until it intersects a parallel of latitude, to 
he drawn from the outlet of lake Huron, which forms the 


river Sinclair ; thence running north-easi, the course that may 
be found, leading in a direct line, to White rock, in lake 
Huron ; thence due east, until it intersects the boundary line 
between the United States and Upper Canada, in said lake ; 
thence southwardly, following the said boundary line, down 
said lake, through river Sinclair, lake St. Clair, and the riv- 
er Detroit, into lake Erie, to a point due east of the afore- 
said Miami river, thence west to the place of beginning.'' 

Within these limits, the United States have about four mill- 
ions of acres at their disposal ; and the Indians the following 
reservations, viz : one tract of land six miles square, on the 
Miami, above Roche de Bcpnf, including Tendagaiiee^s vil- 
lage ; three miles square, (immediately above the United 
States' twelve miles square, ceded by the treaty of Green- 
ville;) four miles square at the mouihof the Miami, including 
Wmigau's and Mishkemau's villages ; three miles square 
near the junctions of the rivers Raisin and Macon; four sec- 
tions of one mile square, each on the river Rouge, including 
^eglnsavhi's and TonquislCs villages ; three miles square 
on lake St. Clair, above the river Huron, including Macho- 
nee^ s village ; considerable reservations at Blaguaga* and 
Brownstown ; besides six sections of one mile square each, 
to be located by the Indians, so as not to interfere with the 
claims of white settlers. 


There are two small villages of Ottawas near Miami bay, 
and another of the same nation near Koche de Bcevf, six miles 
above Fort Meigs. The Miamieshave four or five towns on 
the head branches of Black riflr. The Pottewattimies have 
an establishment on the river Macon, a little above the French 
settlement on the river Raisin. They have also two village^ 
on the river Rouge, and several on the St. Josephs, and one 

* TI)P fanions chief ^3/eer«A or TVall:-in the ivater, resides in this village. Al- 
though a savage destitute of science aud civilkation, he jnay be proDOuuced oae^ 
of " nature's nobles." 


oil the river Huron, about fifteen miles frona Brownstown. 
The Wyaiitiots reside at Brownstown and iYlaguaga ; the 
fiisl vill !ge contains twenty-five houses and the last nineteen. 
There is a Lirge Ottawa village on the river Huron, under 
the ferocious chief Makonee : * the Chippewas have villages 
on Sdganaum river ; and the Ottawas are also established at 
li'Arbre Creuch; the Indians of this vill ge raise large quan-. 
tities of corn ; and have made greater advances towards civili- 
zation, than any of their aboriginal neighbors ; they profess 
the Roman Catholic system of worship, and have a chapeJ 
and a missionary prie-st. The Indians of this territory biive 
been estimated at 3000 souls ; this number has doubtks* 
been considerably diminished by the battles which they 
fought, and the uncommon sufferings which they endured, 
during the late war. Their trade is very a aluable to 
their white neighbors ; they ah cultivate Indian corn, and 
some of them wheat, as well as most kind of garden vegeta^ 
bles and fruit — raise horses, cattle, hogs and poultry, but 
nevertheless derive a principal part of their subsistence from 
the waters and forests. 


The white settlements are chiefly on the strait of Detroit, 
the rivers Midmi, Raisin, Huron, and lake St. Clair; but 
extend from Fort Meigs to lake Huron, separated, however, 
at short intervals, by woods, or Indian re ervitions of from 
three to ten miles in extent. Where the French inhabitants 
are seated, the lots are narrow, houses thick ; only one plan- 
tation deep, always fronting the creeks, rivers, and lakes. 
Hitherto, this territory has not enjoyed the character to which 
its soil, climrte, and advantageous situation for trade, justly 
entitle it. Time, and the enterprising emigrants, who are 

* In 18Uo, this monster finding one of his trihf drunk, and asleep, a short dis- 
tance Detroit, deliberately cutoff his head, witli his tomaha k, and kick- 
ed it along the street for several rod?. The ciiise of hig displeasure was jpal-^try ; 
ie suspected the viL,tiin of his vengeance with haviug had an illicit connexion with 
one of bis numerous wives. 


now rapidly encreasing in numbers, will place its reputation 
in a proper point of view. Settleaients are now beginning 
on lakes Huron and Michigan, and proraise to become exten- 
sive and perraanent.| From the river Bouge to lake St. Clair, 
a distance of twelve miles, the country resembles the suburbs 
of a large town, the houses being no more than twenty rods 
distant from each other, and the greater part of the way much 

The United States' troops under the command of Gen. 
BI' Corah, were employed lasrsunimer in opening a road from 
the river Ecorce to the rapids of the Miami, a distance of 
sixty six miles. Upon this road may be found many eligible 
situations for farms and stands for taverns ; and no where 
north of the cotton and sugar climate, could agriculturalists 
find a finer field for enterprize, or a surer prospect of reward. 


This city stands on the western side of the strait, eighteen 
miles above Maiden, and six below the outlet of lake St, 
Clair. The buildings approach close to the river bank, 
which is from thirty to twenty feet high ; abrupt at the 
lower end of the town, but subsides into a gentle slope near 
the upper limits, where the plain on which it stands becomes 
about 500 yards wide. There are three streets, running par- 
allel with the river ; these are intersected by six cross 
streets, besides several lanes. The situation of the town is 
agreeable and romantic. The buildings are brick, stone. 

f CApt. Price, of the U. S. army, passed from Michilimaclinac to Detroit, 
by land, in March last, a distance of 450 miles. He coasted the shore of lake 
Huron on the ice, to Saganaum bay, anJ thence by land. Capt. P. describes 
the lands on the Saganaum, " of an excellent qnalitx', and most beautifuliy situat- 
ed ; tlie rivei bold and navicahle for 21 nnles, T\iih large prairies from 4 to 6 miles 
deep. From Sag.uiaum to Flint rivpi', 15 miles, a level country, lands excellent 
and well timbered : from thence to Piiiit river, a waving c^'Untry, not broken, 
nor iufih hills; from thence to the river Huron, 30 miles from Detroit, the face 
of the country and soil very much rfsemble that of the county of Cayuga, in JVew- 
York, prinoipaMy doathsd wi(h O.ik, a very open country, and no underwood, 
iiUert^peised wiih i^mall btauliful l.'kes abounding in fish of" a superior quality; 
fro- Huron .o Detroit generally a low flat country, susceptible of being drained! 
£Q(i cultivated, the soil deep and rich. 


frame, and in some instances, hewn logs ; but two lliirtls are 
frame ; some very fine and painted ; there are abont three 
hundred buildings of all descriptions, exclusive of the sub- 
urbs, or *' Cotes," extending above, as far as lake St. Clairj 
and below, as far as the river Rouge, which appear to be a 
continuation of the town. The principal streets are wide, 
and most of the houses have picketed gardens in the rear. 
The inhabitants are more than half French ; the balance 
consists of emi?;rants and adventurers from various parts of 
Europe and America. 

Before the great fire in 1808, the town was surrounded by 
a stockade, through which there were four gates ; two 
of them open to the wharves, the others to the land ; this de- 
fence was intended to repel the attacks of the Indians. Gen. 
Hull, while governor of the territory, planted a long line of 
pickets ; but the length of the Hue to be defended, and the 
interstices, which were left, render thera nearly useless.— 
Several wooden wharves project into the river ; the U. S» 
wharf is about 140 feet long, and a vessel of 400 tons bur- 
then can conveniently approach its head. The public build- 
ings consist of the council house, jail, and United States* 
store. The last is a fine brick building, situated near the 
water in the rear of the public wharf, 80 feet in length, 30 
feet wide, and three stories high. It was filled 'n November 
1813, with the trophies of the Thames. Lots arc ribifig ist 
value ; the French are now preparing to build an elegant 
Roman chapel, 150 by 50. Government are about commenc- 
ing the building of a state-ho'.!se, which is to be a Luge and 
handsome brick building. There are a number of stores 
which appear to have a brisk trade ; the owners know how (o 
extort an exorbitant price for their merchandize. The 
streets of Detroit are generrJly crowded with Indians of va- 
rious tribes, who collect here to sell iheir skins. You can 
hear them whooping and shouting in the streets the whole 
night. There is a kind of nifimery, a Roman chapel for de- 
votion and singing ; a wrclciivd printing ofSce in which re- 


Hiious French books are printed in a rude style. A news- 
paper, entitled the " Michigan Essay," was issued from this 
office by James M.. Miller, from Utica, in 1809, but the 
^proprietor w;^s obliged to relinquish the undertaking for want 
;of an adequate patronage. A new paper, however, will ap- 
pear in the course of the present year, which, will, no doubt, 
be permanent. Learning is at a low ebb ; yet there is a large . 
number of men of genius and education resident in the city. 
The French are dexterous watermen, and will navigate a 
small bark, in a rough sea with incredible skill. They have 
nothing like enterprize in business ; are very fond of music, I 
dancing, and smoaking. The women have generally live- 
ly and expressive countenances. The complexions of the 
lake- far'' ng men have approximated almost to the savage hue, 
" At Vincennes and Detroit," says Volney, " I met with faces 
thnt reminded me of Bedwins and Egyptian fellahs. In the hue 
of their skin, quality of hair, and many other circuntstances, 
they w^re alike. They likewise resemble in having a month 
shaped like a shark's, the sides lower than the front, the teeth 
small, regular, white, and very sharp, like the tyger's. Thisi^ 
form may perhaps arise from their cu!=tom of biting from a 
large piece when they eat, without the use of knives. This 
motion gives the muscles a form, which they at length retain^ 
and the solid parts are modified conformably to it.'' 

The fort stands on a 1' w ridge, in the rear of the town, at 
the distance of about two hundred yards. Fiom the summit 
of this ridge, the country gradually subsides to a low swampy 
plain from five to nine miles across, covered with thick 
groves of young timber. Bej^ond this plain, commences 
a surface motlerately hilly, and a soil more congenial to the 
growth of grain, and fruit, if not of grass. The inhabitants 
have to draw their wood a mile and a half, from the United 
Slates' lands, in the rear of the town. It sells in market for 
tl.rce dollars a cord ; almost every farm has an orchard; ap- 
ples, pears and peaches do well — several hundred barrels o| 
cider arc annually made, which sells at a high price. 



There Is no state or territory in North America, ^o bo'iin- 
tifiiUj supplied with fish, aquatic fowls, and wild game ; all 
the rivers from the Miami-of-the-lakes to the St. Josephs of 
lake Michigan, afford an inexhaustible supply of fish, to say 
nothing of the vast lakes, which wash 600 miles of its fron- 
tier. The trout of Michilimackinac have a superior relish ; 
and unlike most kinds of fish, never cloy the appetite by use ; 
they weigh from ten to seventy lbs. — -and are taken at all sea* 
sons. White fish are caught in prodigious numbers with 
seines, in the strait of Detroit aiid lake St. Clair; and there 
are situations, where a person, with a hook or a spear, may 
soon catch as many as he can carry. Sturgeon are com- 
mon to lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron and Michigan ; they are 
a size less than those of the Hudson, and are doubtless a dis- 
tinct species. 

Myriads of ducks arid wild geese frequent the riversj bays, 
atid lakes, and can be easily shot ; for their fears seem to be 
drowned in the constant din of vociferous quakings and in the 
incessant thunder of their wings. Wild turkies, quails, 
grouse, pigeons, hawks, are numerous ; the latter, are, per- 
haps, the most common land bird, the black bird excepted, 
which in autumn appear in swarms, and are injurious to corn 
and new sown wheat. 

Wild game is plentiful ; bears, wolves, elk^ deer, foxes, 
beaver, otter, muskrats, martin, raccoon, wildcats, rabbits, 
and squirrels are found in the forests. The beaver frequents 
the rivers running into lake Miehigan.f 

f To kill thfi beaver, the -Minters gr> severa] rtiiles up' the rivers before the ?t»- 
proach of night, and after the dusk comes on, suffer tlie canoe to drift geiiliy <)own 
the Current, withoui nnis^. The heaver, in this part c,f the evening, coine abroad 
to procure food, or mviteriais for repairing tlleii habltatiocrs ; and I's they are not 
alarmed hy the canoe, ihey often pass it within gun-shot The m: rt coirinBon way 
of tafcing them, is hy i)renking up their hoiisprf, whicli is done willi trenching-'.oois, 
during the winter, when tite ice is strong enough to allow of approaching them ; and 
whea^ also, the fur U in its in^Et va!u-^l)le slate. [Henry.] 




On the river Huron, thirty miles from Detroit, and about 
eight miles from lake St. Clair, are a number of small mounds, 
situated on a dry plain, or bluff near the river. Sixteen 
baskets full of human bones, of a remarkable size, were discov- 
ered in the earth while sinking a cellar on this plain, for the 
missionary. Near the mouth of this river, on the east bank, 
are ancient works representing a fortress, with walls of earth 
thrown up, similar to those of Indiana and Ohio. 

At Belle-Fontaine, or Spring- Wells, three miles below De- 
troit, are three small mounds, or tumuli, standing in a direct 
line, about ten rods apart. One of these having been open^ 
ed, bones, stone-axes, arrow-heads, &c. were found in abun- 
dance. About one fourth of a mile below these, are still to be 
seen the remains of an ancient fortification. A breastwork, 
in some places three or four feet high, encloses several acres 
©f firm ground, in the centre of an extensive marsh. 



Lake Michigan navigable 

, 260 

Lake Huron, 

. 250 

Lake St. Clair and Straits, . 


Detroit river. 


Lake Erie, 


Rivers rimning Into lake Erie, 

. 175 

Do. entering the straits of Detroit and St. Clair 


and lake. 

• ■ • 

. . 100 

Rivers emptying into Huron, 



Streams entering Michigan, 

. 700 














There is no data to determine with accuracy the present 
population; however, it probably exceeds 12,000 souls, ex- 
clusive of Indians. The census of 1 8 1 0, gave 4642 souls, dis- 
tributed as follows : 

Counties. Whites. 

Detroit, . . I 2114 

Erie, .... 1327 

Huron (of St. Clair) . 578 

Michilimackinac, * 599 

The diseases of this territory, are chiefly fevers, bilious 
and intermittents, agues, jaundice and dysentery ; the last is 
often fatal to children. Consumption is unfrequent. The 
fatal epidemic of the winter of 1813 traversed this territoiy 
like a destroying angel ; and swept off above 100 men, besides 

The climate of the eastern part of this territory is nearly 
similar to that of the western counties of New- York and Penn- 
sylvania ; towards the Indiana territory, milder ; but upon 
the coast of lake Huron, and even that of St. Clair, it is more 
severe ; and winter-like weather is felt at least two weeks ear- 
lier than at Detroit. Lake St. Clair is frozen over every 
year from December to February* Observations made by 
Gen. Wilkinson in 1797, sh&w that from August 4, to Sept. 
4, the thermometer in several places between St. CLtir and 
Michilimackinac, was never higher at noon than 70 degrees, 
and that in the morning and evening it often sunk to 46 de- 
grees. The northwest wind sweeps with great force across 
lakes Huron and Superior. I shall close the account of this 
territory with an extract of a letter from Gen. Hull to his cor- 
respondent in Auburn. 

"There is very little settlement on the west part of lake 
Huron, or on the east part of lake Michigan. While I was at 


Detroit, I made a treaty with the different nations of Indians, 
and purchased theif lands for the IT, S. from the Miami of 
lake Erie, nearly to Saganaum bay, including all the lands, 
between that distance on lake Erie, the river Detroit, lake St. 
Clair, the river St. Clair, and lake Huron ; and extending back 
to the westward about eighty miles. I believe the Indian 
title has not been extinguished to any other lands, within the 
territory of Michigan ; excepting some small tracts in different 

" Within this tract, are the rivera Miami, Raisin, Huron, 
Rouge, Huron of lake St.Claii', Trent, and some branches of 
the Saganaum river, besides many other smaller streams.—- 
There is supposed to be included v^ithin this tract, about seven 
millions of acres. The lands on all those rivers are fertile, 
and capable of abundant productions. The country is gen- 
erally level, and easy to be cultivated, W hile I was in De- 
troit, I sent in the fidl of the year, a number of oxen, cows,, 
and in company with others, amounting probably to 2 or 300, 
with one roan to take care of them, give them salt, Sec. on the 
upper branches of the river Rouge. In the spring when they 
returned, the pows had fine calves, and the whole were in ex- 
cellent order ; they looked better than those fed on hay. I 
consider that country, after it is cleared, a very healthy coun- 
try. My family were at Detroit eight years, and were more 
healthy than when they lived in this town, [Newtown,] which 
is thought to be as heallhy as any in Massachusetts. The 
climate is much milder, than in the same latitude in the Atlan= 
tic. We rarely have sleighing many days, excepting on the 
ice. I believe there is no part of the world where the soil is 
|)etter for wheat, and fruit of all kinds.'* 


IS Situated between 29 and 49 N. latitude, and 12 50 and 
36 W. longitude ; and is bounded north by Upper Canada, 
south by Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico, east by the 
North West and Illinois Territories, Indiana, Kentucky and 
'I'ennessee; west by Spanish possessions, linJian Territo- 
ries, &c. Its computed length from north to south is 1494 
qiileii — breadth 886 miles — iis area is about 985,250 square 
ijiiies, or 630,560,000 acres. 


Red river and the Washltay both wind several hundred 
miles through this territory ; the tributaries of the Washita, 
north of Louisiana, are Bayous Cerne, Cypress, Saline, and 
Hachios. The Hot Springs constitute its extreme sources. , 

The Arkansas, f after the Missouri and Mississippi, is the 
most considerable river of this territory. It takes its rise 
near the 41st degree of north latitude, with the Rio del 

t The Arkansas river, takinj!: its meanders agrepaWy to Lt. Wilkinson's sur- 
vey of tlie lower part, is 198] miles I'rom its enhance into the Mississippi to »he 
mountains, and trom thence to its source ]02 miles, making its total length 2,173 
miles, all of which maybe navigated with proper boats., construclec for the pur- 
pose ; except the 192 miles in the mountains. It has emptying into it, several 
small rivers nav gable for lOU miles and upwards Bo;its bound up the whole length 
of the navigation, sliould embark at its entrance, cu the Isto.' Ftbruaiy ; when 
they would huve the fresh quite to the mountains, and meet with no detention. — 
But if they should start later, they would find the river 1.^00 miles up nearly dry. 
It has one singularity, which struck me very forcibly at first view, but on reflection 
1 am induced to believe it is the same case with all the river? which run through a 
low, dry, and sandy soil in warm climates. This 1 observed to be the case with 
the Rio del Norte, viz : for the extent of 4 or 500 miles before yon arrive near 
the mountains, the bed of the rivei is extensive, and p perfect sandbar, which at 
certain seasons is dry ; at least the water is st-.uiding in ponds, not affording suffi- 
cient to procure a running course. When you come nearer the mountains, you find 
tl»e river contracted, a gravelly bottom, and a deep navigable stream. From these 
circumstances it is evident, tiiat the sandy soil imbibes all the waters which the 
four p« prpjpct from the mountains, and renders the rivei (in dry seasons) le;=s navi- 
^abk/.i;e hundred miiw / tbau 200 miles from its source. [^i*f-3 


Norte, and the Platte and Roche Juane of the Missouri, and 
the Colorado of Caliaforna, in an immense ridge of mountains 
which gave rise to the Red river of the Mississippi, and runs 
in a S. E. and N. W. direction across the province of New 
Spain. The Arkansas is about two thousand miles in length ; 
the .iavigation, however, cannot be said to be good ; the 
channel is wide and shallow, and is interrupted by a consid- 
erable number of rapids. Its principal tributaries, are, 

1. The Nagracka, from the N. W. upwards of 100 yards 
wide. 2. JSeskalonka, about 120 yards wide, shoal and nar- 
row at its mouth, but deepens and spreads above its outlet. 
3. Grand Saline^ or Newservketonga, from the north, which 
interlocks with the Kansas river ; about 50 miles from its 
mouth the prairie grass is encrusted with salt ; the Indiana 
collect it by scraping it off the prairie with a turkey's wing,* 
into a trenchcFji 4, Strong Saline 75 yards wide. 5. Ver- 
digriSj 100 yards wide, bears north-west. 6. Grand River, 
interlocks with the Osage 130 yards wide ; the two last enter 
Within a quarter of a mile of each other. Below the mouth 
of Grand river commence the rapids which continue for sev- 
eral hundred miles below, down the Arkansas. 7. Des Illi- 
nois, which enters from theN. E. side. 8. Canadian river, 
comes in from the S. W. ; the latter river is the main branch 
of the Arkansas, and, is equally as large. 9. Poitoe, a deep' 
Barrow stream, which puts in on the S. W. 10. River au 
Millieu, falls in from the N. E. 11. Bayou Marcallin ; be- 
sides numerous creeks, bayous and small rivers. 

White river, waters the country between the Arkansas, 
and the St. Francis~it is a noble stream, and occupies with 
its numerous tributaries, a vast extent of country. The 
Westernmost branch, or more properly White river, rises in 
the Black mountains, which separate it from the Arkansas ; the' 
Norihern and Eastern, take their waters from the vicinity of j 
the Osage, the Gasconade, the Maremeg and the western '| 
branch of the St. Francis. It enters the Mississippi, about 
twenty miles above the Arkansas ; thirty miles up, it commu- 


Bicates with that river, by a channel with a current setting 
alternately into the one stream, and into the other, as either 
happens to be the highest. By computation it is navigable 
eleven or twelve hundred miles, though it is exceedingly 
crooked. It is interrupted by no shoal or rapid ; its waters 
are pure and limpid, and its current never becomes low, evea 
in the dryest season. Four hundred miles from its mouth it 
receives Black river, its principal eastern branch ; it after- 
wards receives a number of others which are known by various 
names. Rapid, John, James and Red rivers, are each navi- 
gable from one to three hundred miles. Black, or Le Noip 
river, innavigable four or five hundred miles; receiving a 
number of tributary streams of considerable size. The Cur- 
rent, Elevenpoint and Spring rivers are principally spoken of, 
The last deserves a more particular description. It rises sud- 
denly from a number of springs, which uniting within a shor^ 
distance of the place from whence they issue, form a river 
two hundred and fifty yards in width, affording a navigation 
from thence, for laden batteaux to the Mississippi : contract- 
ing its width however, to fifty or sixty yards. This immense 
spring is full of the finest fish ; bass, perch and pike mingle 
here indiscriminately. In the winter, it is the resort of 
swarms of ducks, swans, and geese. It is about two hundred 
miles west of Cape Girardeau.* 

These rivers are all remarkable for the navigation which 
they afford ; most of them having sufficient water to carry a 
boat without any interruption, almost to their very sources. 
Springs, creeks, and rivulets are very abundant. Every 
otie who has traversed it agrees, that the country occupied 
by the waters of White river, perhaps two hundred and fifty 
miles square, is one of the finest for settlements in western 
America. It is interspersed with what are called knobs; 
hills or ridges, the summits are strewed with horn stone, but 
generally the land is of the first rate quality ; in most places 

• See Brpckenridge's Sketches of Louisiana, published at St. Louis ia 
^e autumn of 1811. 


finely wooded, and the prairies of small extent. The desfcrip^ 
tion of Kentucky, at first deemed romance, would be applica^ 
h\e to this country. 

The St. Francis, enters the Mississippi 75 miles above 
"White river, and affords a navigation of six hundred miles* 
Its western branch rises with the waters of White river, and 
its eastern one with Big river, a branch of the Mareraeg. 
It is very erroneously laid down on the common maps ; its 
general course must be at least sixty or seventy miles further 
east. After pursuing a course nearly south, and uniting with 
its western branch, it suddenly turns S. W. so as to corres- 
pond with the course of the Mississippi, and rnns nearly par^ 
allel with that river four hundred miles. The St. Francis is 
navigable from a point sixty miles west of St. Genevieve. 
Before it makes the sudden turn to the west, it is a beautifnl 
limpid stream, passing through a charming country ; but af- 
terwards encreased in size, and entering the low lands, flows 
with a slow and lazy current. It communicates with the 
lakes that lie to the east, between it and the M.ssissippi ; 
which are formed by rivulets flowing from the upland country, 
and the springs which lose themselves in the level commenc- 
ing at Cape Girardeau. On the south side it overflows its 
banks Considerably ; so that when high, a person may easily 
lose the channel, unless well acquainted with its course. The 
channel is, in many places, much impeded with driftwood. 
The north bank is less subject to inundation, and in many 
places produces quantities of cane. 

Between the St. Francis and the mouth of the Ohio there 
are no large streams ; two bayous leave the Mississippi and 
enter the St. Francis many miles from its mouth, forming 
several large islands. The Cheponsa river heads in a lake, 
and after running about seventy miles falls into the Mississip- 
pi ninety miles below the mouth of the Ohio. 

Between the mouth of the Ohio and that of the Missouri, 
we successively pass, the Tayawatia creek, Riviere de la 
Pomme, Obrazo, Amite and St. Lora rivers ; this is a hand- 



some stream ; Saline river or creek, on which is made great 
quantites of salt. Gabourie and Platine creeks, and the riv- 
er Maremeg. These streams, except the last, are necessa- 
rily short, by reason of the proximity of the SL FrancJg. 

The Maremeg river, enters the 3Iississippi about forty 
teiles below the Missouri. Although extremely crooked, it 
is a fine river, and n:iv!gable two hundred and fifty miles to 
its very source ; for like Spring river, it issues forth sudden- 
ly from a large fountain. This appears to be a circumstance 
not unusual with the rivers of this country. It rises near the 
waters of White river. The Maremeg is remarkable for 
the quantities of fish wHh which it abounds ; large quantities 
are caught and salted up.— The White fish is considered one 
of the best fish of the fresh water, and is found in abundance 
in this river. A considerable branch called the Negro fork 
Navigable forty or fifty miles with eanoes, rising near the 
Mine-a-Bnrton and the Big river ; a branch of this, has its 
source at a very short distance from the St. Francis, and in 
a circuitous course of forty miles almost includes the Mine-a- 
Burton. The Mdremeg has no considerable branches on the 
north, owing to its proximity to the waters of the Missouri 
on that side. 

The Missouri, is the largest branch of the Mississippi ; 
the sources of this river are sti 1 undiscovered, s t was n-Avi- 
gated by Captains Lewis and Clark 3090 miles, where it was 
inclosed by very lofty mountains. Its breadth is Var»otJs^ 
from 800 to 300 yards wide ; 1888 miles from its mouth it is 
627 yards wide ; at this distance from its mouthy it is larger* 
than the Illinois ; from its mouth to Fort 3Iandan in lat. 47 
21, a distance of upwards of 1600 miles, the navigation is 
good, the current deep and rapid, and the water muddy ; at its 
entrance into the Mississippi, in lat. 38, 45 ; it is 700 yards 
wide. In lat. 47 3, two thousand five hundred and seventy- 
five miles from its confluence with the Mississippi, are the 
grand rapids; these falls are eighteen miles long, and in that- 

distance descend 302 feet. The first great pitch u 98 feet, 



the second 19, the third 48, the fourth 26 ; smaller rapida 
make tip the balance of the descent. The rivers entering 
from the right bank of the Missouri, are, 

1. Bonhomme river flows into the Missouri about 70 miles 
above its mouth. This stream interlocks with branches of 
the Maremeg, waters a fine district of territory, has a north- 
ern direction, and is sbolit 100 yards wide at its mouth. 

2. Gasconade^ heads near the St. Francis^ runs north and en- 
ters the Mississippi about 40 miles above the Bonhomme. 

3. Osflg-e river, rises in the Black mountains, which separate 
its waters from those of the Arkansas. It is said to be navi- 
gable 600 miles ; but it does not aflford a good navigation, 
being full of shoals and ripples. It has a great number of 
tributary rivers, besides large creeks, among which are, 3Ja- 
ry''s river, heads near the Gasconade, runs N. W. and falls 
in twenty miles from the Missouri. Little Gravel, heads 
near the Missouri, and pursuing a S. E. course enters from 
the left bank, nearly J 00 miles above the mouth of the Osage- 
Great Gravel, from the south, interlocks with the St. Fran- 
cis, enters the Osage, east of Little Gravely but thirty-six 
miles above, and according to Pike, is 118 miles above the 
confluence of the Osage with the Missouri. The Pottoe, a 
small river. The Yungar, heads between White river' of 
the Mississippi, and the Grand Fork of the Osage, pursues a 
north-east course, and joins the Osage about 25 miles above 
Great Gravel river : the Indians call it Ne-hem-gan it derivei 
its name from the vast number of springs at its source ; it i* 
supposed to be nearly as extensive as the Osage river, navi-. 
gable for canoes 100 miles, and is celebrated for the abund- 
ance of bear, which are found on its branches. On it hunt 
the Chasseurs du Bois of Louisiana, Osage, and Creeks (or 
Muskogees) a wandering party of which have established 
themselves in this territory ; between whom and the French 
huntei"s, frequent skirmishes take place. Above this river are 
the Park, Cardinal, Buckeye, and Grand Fork from the south ; 
and Grand river, East Fork, and Vermillion from the S. W. 


ijittle Saltwater^ abounding with salines, is the next stream 
jBUtering the left bank of the Missouri. Mine river, heads 
between the great Osage and branches of the Kanzas, and is 
the largest flowing into the Missouri between the Osage and 
Kanzas. The main branch of the Mine river, called Salt 
Fork, is generally impregnated with salt as thoroughly as the 
«ea water, from June to November. A small creek runs into 
it, from fifteen to twenty feet wide, and from six to twelve 
inches deep formed entirely of salt springs, without its cur- 
rent encreasing or decreasing during the whole season. 
Blue water river, 80 yards wide. Kansas river, is large 
and navigable, heads near the sources of the Arkansas, is 230, 
yards wide at its mouth ; empties itself abeut 650 miles above 
the mouth of the Missouri. The Kanzas nation of Indians 
claim the lands bordering on this river and its extensive, 
branches; the country is rich but destituteof timber, except 
on the water courses ; grapes are found in abundance and the 
country back from the streams is almost one continued prai- 
rie, ladependence, 120 yards wide. Wolf river. Great 
r^'ejKchaw, 130 yards wide. Weeping river. P/a//e river 
is the next important stream ; it heads to the west of the 
Ar-ansas, winds several hundred miles through an open 
j-Tzuie country, and enters the Missouri 330 miles above the 

lansas. Its banks are much frequented by v^hite and red 
hunters. Quicam river 1026 miles from the mouth of the 
Missouri, 150 yards wide, not navigable, heads in the black 
mountains, and waters a broken country. Teton river falls 
into the Missouri 132 miles higher up ; it is small, and heads 
in the plains. While river, comes from the south, is 150 yards 
wide at its mouth, and navigable 100 miles. Chien, or Do^ 
river, is nearly half a mile wide according to the Indians, flows 
through a plain level country, for several hundred miles, 
mostly destitute of timber, but settled along the bottoms with 
Indians, towards its bead. Warrka. Balleaux river, on 
which are several Indian villages; it has several branches, H 

«hout 100 yards wide and a hilly broken country. lAiil^ 


Missouri, Llh into the Missouri 90 miles above Fort Man. 
cian ; it resembles its namesake, exactly in the color of its 
water, current and taste. Some of the tops of the hills here, 
are as \t hite as chrtlk. Yellow Stone, or Roche Jawjie, nearly 
haif a mile wide, rapid, rather shallow but not fordable ; the 
water clear, excepting when rain falls, and then it becomes 
irociediately thick from the earth which is washed into it 
from ihe barren hills. Many of these hills are so washed, 
and become so steep, that no animal ca?4 ascend them, except 
the cabree, and mountain ram. The bottoms are rich ; tim- 
ber mostly cotton- v/ood. The mouth of this river is 2? 8 miles 
above the Mandane villages; 186 above the little Missouri^ 
and 1888 miles from the mouth of the Missouri. Big Horn 
river, 300 yards wide, ha» several forks. Musdeshell river, 
empties itself 680 miles above Fort Mandan ; it is 110 yards 
wide — its moulh is in N. lat. 47 "24. The Missouri is here 
522 yards wide. Above the Musdeshell in lat. 47, 24 12, 
Captains Lewis and Clark, arrived at the Forks of two rivers ; 
doubts arose, which of these rivers was the Missouri. Par- 
ties ascended both branches about 50 miles ; the south branch 
was found to afford the best navigation, and was accordingly 
assumed as the true Missouri ; it is 872 yards broad ; and 
the other, which they named Marians river, 586 yards wide ■; 
both streams abound with fish. The south branch had for 
two or three days, the appearance of claret, but again assumed 
its usual muddy color. At the distance of 250 miles from 
the great falls, and in the rocky mountains, the Missouri di-^ 
vides into three nearly equal branches at the same point. 
The two largest branches are so nearly alike in magnitude, 
measuring sixty yards across, that captain Lewis did not 
conceive that either of them, could with propriety, retain the 
name of BTissouri, and tlierefore, called the north branch 
Jefferson, the west or middle branch Bladison, and the south 
branch Gallatin river. The confluence of these rivers is 
2848 miles from the mouth of the Mis^^oll^i, by the meander- 
ings of that river, and in lat. 45, 22 34. He ascended the 


Jfferson, or most northerly fork, 248 miles to the upper 
forks, where the navigalion become impracticable ; making 
the total d: jtauce froii- the mouth ol the Missouri, three thou- 
sand and nimh/ raih-s, 

Th. rivers which iiow into the Missouri from the left or 
noilhcC'i bank, beginoing at its mouth, are, Femmeosage, 
Cherette^ CtUr and Muj/ riveis, which enter between the 
mouths of the Bonhomme and the Osage : Cedar river, Great 
Manitou, Lili'e xVIuiitoci, Goodworman's river ; Chariton, 
Grand liver, Tyger r-vtn-. Little Platte, Soldier's river. Lit- 
tle Sioux rivers ; the last rises in lake Esprit fifteen miles from 
tlje river Moyen, and is sixty-four yards wide ; here com- 
mences tha Sioux country ; the next river of note is the big 
Sioux liver, which heads with the St. Peters and waters of 
lake Winnipique in a high wooded country ; about ninety 
miles hjglier up, the river Jacque falls in on the same side, and 
about 100 y?rds wide, this river heads with the waters of 
lake Winnipique, at no great distance east from this place; 
the head of the river Bloyen is in Pilican lake between th© 
Sioux rivers and the St. Peters ; above this, are Three rivers, 
Ball river, Chuss-cliu, Mc.ria, &c. 

The rivers entering the right bank of the Mississippi, above 
the mouth of the Missouri, are, 1. Bvffaloe river, comes 
from the north-west, 1 90 yards wide at its outlet ; it bears 
from the Mississippi S. 30 \V. 2. B ir river, about 20 yards 
wide. 8. Oahahah, or Salt river, bears from the Mississippi 
N. 75 W. and is upwards of 100 yards wide at its entrance, 
of a mild current ; about one day's sail up this river there 
are salt springs, at which salt has been made for several years 
past. 4. Jaustioni, 30 yards wide, bears from the Mississip- 
pi S. W. and constitutes the boundary line between the Uni- 
ted States and Sac nation on the west side of the Mississippi. 
5. Wyaconda, 100 yards broad at its junction with the Mis- 
sissippi ; bears from the latter nearly due west. 6. T)e 
Moyen river, very large. 200 yards wide, and seven or eight, 
hundred miles long; heads to the north-west of the Sioux 


branch of the Missouri ; its chief tributaries are, Rustaiid, 
Tetone, Buflfaloe, Point, Grand and Village rivers, all running^ 
in from the south and south-west, and north Fork. 7. Iowa 
river, 150 yards wide, bears from the Mississippi S. W. 
This river is navigable for batteaux near 300 miles, where it 
branches out into three forks, called the Turkey's foot. 
These forks shortly after lose themselves in Rice lakes. 
Thirty-six miles from its mouth it divides into two branches ; 
the right fork is called Red Cedar river, from the quantity of 
that wood on its banks. 8. Wabisisinekan, runs nearly 
parallel with Red Cedar Fork of the Iowa ; and has very lit- 
tle wood on its banks. 9. Great Macoketh, 10. Little Ma- 
£oketh : these rivers have no remarkable characteristics ; 
though it is said that lead mines exist on their banks. 12. 
Cat Fish nver. 12. TwrAf^ river, 100 yards wide, bears 
from the Mississippi about S. W. The Renard Indians who 
reside on this river supply Prairie des Chiens with corn. 13, 
Yellow river, bears from the Mississippi nearly due W- 1 4, 
Upper Iowa, about 100 yards wide, enters the Mississippi 
About 35 miles above Prairie des Chiens ; bears N. W. 15. 
Eacine, or Root river, bears due west, navigable for canoes 
60 miles. 16. 17. Le Claire^ and Embarras rivers, which 
join these waters just as they form a confluence with their 
grand estuary. 18. River of the Montaigne qui trompe 
dans VeaUf a small stream in the rear of the hill of that name. 
1 9. Riviere Au Bomf, 30 yards wide, bears -N. W. and falls 
into the lower end of lake Pepin. Cannon river, enters the 
Mississippi 40 miles above lake Pepin. St. Peters river 
which has several large large forks, the principal is the river 
Sauteaux; 15 miles up this river commence fine prairies 
and the Sioux villages. Great and Little Sac rivers, 
tlie first is two hundred yards wide ; and joins the Mis- 
sissippi a Utile above St. Anthony's Hills; about 45 miles 
higher up is Pine creek, where Lt Pike wintered in 1805; 
©n its margin are large groves of Red and W7iite pine ; in the 
^ear of these, prairies. Elk river : this stream affords 


i communicatloii with the river St. Peters ; they first ascend 
it to a small lake, cross it, th«n ascend a small stream to a 
large lake, from which they make a portage of four milea 
west, and fall into the Sauteaux river, which they descend 
into the St. Peters. River de Corbeau, about 375 mile* 
above the falls of St. Anthony, has a mild current, and emp«^ 
ties itself into the Mississippi by two channels. 

Lieut. Pike thought that the junction of these streams 
should be called the forks of the Mississippi, as it is of equal 
magnitude and heads not far from the same source. This 
fork affords the best and most approved communication with 
Red river, a trib«tary of Hudson bay, by ascending the De 
Corbeau 180 miles, to the river Aux Feuilles, running N. W. 
which must also be ascended 180 miles, where there is a por- 
tage of one mile into the Otter Tail Lake, which is a princi- 
pal source of Red river. The other branch of the river De 
Corbeau, bears S. W. and approximates with the St. Peters. 
The mouth of the De Corbeau is in lat. 45, 47, 50 N. Pine 
liver, bears N. 30 E. is eighty yards wide at its mouth, and 
communicates with Lac Le Sang Sue, or Leech lake, through 
a chain of lakes, ponds, Sec. by a short portage. Pike rifver, 
is the next stream entering from the west ; it bears nearly due 
north ; running at the distance of from twenty to forty miles 
from the Mississippi. Lake Winnepique river, bears north- 
west, rises near that lake ; Leech lake river, running out of 
Leech lake, one of the main sources of the Mississippi. 

The northern frontier of this immense territory is watered 
by streams flowing into Hudson bay. The principal of which 
constitute the head branches of Red river and the Pasqua- 
yah Assinnibion. 

At present, it is not known how far this teiritory extends 
westwardly beyond the Sabine, along the coast of the gulf of 
Mexico. The Spaniards contend that their province of 
Texas reaches to the Sabine. The rivers which water the 
disputed territory, are Rio Toyac flowing into Sabine lake, 
Rio Trinity, running into Galveston bay, Rio Brasses, Ri« 


Colorado, and Rio Guadaloiipe, ^ll emptying into the gulf^ 
the last at the distance of 170 miles from the Sabine. The 
country between the S tbme and Colorodo is in many p irta 
rich, and capable of producing sus^ar ano cotton to almost any 
amount, besides it is a very good stock country, agreeably va- 
riegated with prairies and forests of heavy timber. 


The country north of the Missouri abounds with lakes and 
ponds. Lake Despice form? the grand reservoir of the Little 
SiouXf and is seventy miles in circumference. West of the 
head branches of the Mississippi are Packagamau, remarkable 
for the wild rice which grows in its water. Ijake Winnii^iq<ie, 
of an oval form, thirty-six miles in circumference. Leech, and 
Otter Tail lakes. In the south along the vallies . f the Wa- 
shita, Arkansas, White river, St. Francis. Small lakes are 


The Masserne ridges, extend westwardly from near ' « 
Mississippi to the sources of the Red river, and give tc i 
country west of the Washita, a rugged surface, Tue Bia^k 
mountains run nearly parallel to the Missouri, from I lie i ead 
of the Kanzas. The rocky mountains form a formitli^ble nat* 
»ral boundary on the west and northwest. 


The country between the river Platter and Fort Jtlandag, 
on both sides of the Missouri contains a number of small lakes, 
many of which is said to be so much impregnated with salin« 
properties, of the nature of glauber salts, ?s to produce simi- 
lar effects. It is certain that the water of som • of i ' e smaller 
streams possess this quality. Sabine, Cha.j bcdtc, and Sul* 


phur springs are numerous ; particularly the first, wliich are 
Useful in many diseases. The Hot Springs^ at the head of 
the Washita, are a great natural curiosity ; they are six in 
number, issuing from the side of a hill, the body of which is 
silicious, partly flint, and partly free- stone ; the soil overflow* 
ed by the waters of the springs is incriistfed with a calca- 
reous matter. Their heat is too great for the hand to bear ; 
the highest temperature is about 150 deg. and is greatest in 
dry seasons. Meat has been boiled in them iii a shortet 
Space of time than could be accomplished by M culinary firei 
The water is soft and limpid, Witliout staell, and of ati agreea- 
ble taslc. It is drunk after it becomes cool, and USed for eve- 
ry other purpose in preference to the water of the cold springs 
IB the vicinity. The Indians have from time immeimorial re- 
Sorted to them on account of their medicinal virtues. The 
land around them is called by them the " Land of Peace ;'* 
for hostile tribes frequent the waters at the same time with 
perfect harmony. Dr. Hunter, who visited these springs, 
found a gree7i plant growing in the hot water, which seemed 
to be a species of the conferva ; but what is more remarkable, 
a small testaceous animal adhered to it and lived in a tempera- 
ture approaching the boiling heat. He beheld plants, shrubs 
and trees, and a species of wild cabbage, absolutely growing 
and appearing healthy, while their roots Were exposed to a 
heat of 130 degrees. He, and his companion, Mr. Dunbar, 
cooked the cabbage 5ind found it to be mild and good for 
food. These waters have effected surprising cures in chronic 
pains, paralysis, &c. Persons, who, by exposure to the vi- 
cissitudes of climate and season, have been restored by the 
use of these springs, from a state of entire inability of motion, 
to complete health and activity. A careful analysis of theses 
ifaters, by evaporation and precipitation, indicated the prcsj 
enceof a small portion of carbonic acifl, some of the mnrititef 
of soda, a small quantity of calcareous matter, and a scarcely 
perceptible portion of iron. Invalids in greit numbers fre- 
quent these springs ; they find relief not by drinking the wa-* 

A a 

m west£;]^n gazetteer; o% 

fer, but by exposure to the steam, which the springs constant' 
ly emit, and tvhich in very dry weather is too hot to be en- 
dured. Volcanic productions are found in the neighborhood 
of the springs. It is stated that severe explosions have been 
ieard and lata seen in the fissures caused by the irrupt,ion. 

The salines have uncommon strength ; and they are so 
abundant that almost every county^ and in some districts 
every township will forever have an inexhaustible supply of 
salt; particularly, south of the Missouri. One of the head 
branches of the Kanzas, (20 yards wide) which Lieut. Pike 
crossed on his route to the Arkansas, was so salt that the wa- 
ter sufficiently seasoned the soup of the meat, which his men 
boiled in it. In many places the earth was so strongly impreg- 
nated with nitre and saline qualities that the bare spots at noon 
day were covered with a thin layer of congealed salt. Lieut. 
Wilkinson found the wafer of the Grand Salin6 running into 
the Arkansas, so strong as to render unpalatable the corn 
which his party boiled in it. " Every day," they " passed 
strongly impregnated saHnesand perceived the shores of the 
river completely frosted with nitre." The grass of the 
prairies in the vicinity of the Grand Saline, resembles that 
of the salt marshes of the seaboard. Lt. Pike found rock 
salt in the banks of a stream west of the Arkansas. 

Mines of sal gem or Rock Salt exist towards the head 
branches of the Arkansas, and sometimes approach to the 
very surface of the earth. The Indians employ levers to 
break it up and loosen it, some is white and some of a reddish 
hue. Upon the soutli-western head branches of the Arkan- 
sas is another remarkable saline : 

" On the declivity of a small hill, there are five holes about 
a foot and an half in diameter, and two feet deep. They are 
always full of a very salt water, but never run over. Dip 
out as much as you please, there is no diminution ; the defi- 
ciency is instantl}'^ supplied . and about ten feet low*^ f^own 
the hill there issues a spring of pure and fresh water. — When 
*hese regions become peopled, the transportation of this roek- 


salt will be perfectly easy, by means of the Arkansas. Es- 
perience has proved it to be preferable to every other kind 
in curing provisions.'^ The intelligent Dr. Sibley says, that 
the "Grand Saline is situated about 280 miles south- 
west of Fort Osage, between two forks of a small branch of 
the Arkansas, one of which washes its southern extremity, 
iand the other, the principal oncg runs nearly parallel, witjiia 
9 mile of its opposite side. It is a hard level plain of a red- 
dish colored sand, and of an irregular or mixed figure ; its 
greatest length is from north-west to south east, and its cir- 
cumference full 30 miles— from the appearance of driftwood 
that is scattered over, it would seem that the whole plain is 
at times inundated by the overflowing of the streams that pass 
near it. This plain is entirely covered in dry hot weather, 
from two to six inches deep, with a crust of beautiful cleaa 
white salt, of a quality rather superior to the imported browij 
salt ; it bears a striking resemblance to a field of brilliant snow 
after a rain, with a light crust on its top. On a bright sunny 
morning the appearance of this natural curiosity is highly 
picturesque. It possesses the quality of looming or magnify- 
ing objects, and this in a very striking degree, making the 
Bmali billets of wood appear as formidable as trees. Numbers 
of buffaloes were on the plain. The Saline is environed by a 
strip of marshy prairie with a few scattering trees, mostly of 
cotton wood. Behind, there is a range of sand hills, some of 
which are perfectly naked, others thinly clothed with ver- 
dure, and dwarf pium bushes, not more than thirty inches ia 
height, from which we procured abundance of the most deli- 
cious plums I ever tasted. The distance to a navigable brancii 
pf the Arkansas is about 80 miles, the country tolerably level^ 
and the water courses easily passed.'' 


Lead is the most abundant mineral hitherto discovered in this 
territory. It is the opinion of a late traveller that the mhis,^ 


qn the river Maremeg and Gpuberle, are alone capable of sup* 
plying the whole world. About 1000 tons have been smelts 
«;d at the several furnaces annually, These mines are numer- 
ous, and estend over a large district of country, being fifty 
ipiles long and twenty-five broad. The most noted, are 
Mine Le burton, Mine la Motte, New Diggings, American 
^line, &c, The ore can be found in almost every directioo. 
The price of lead is from four to five dpUars a hundred, and 
shot nine dollars. Most of the mineral is so exceedingly 
rich, that 100 pounds of ore will produce fropj eighty to ninp« 
ty of pure lead.* Lead mines are said to exist on the waters 
qf the Washita and the St. Francis. Iron, tin, zinc^ copper, 
f alt-petre, aud fossil coal, ^re found in dbundanp?. 


There are extensivft alluvial tracts on all the rivers. This 
land, where it is not subject to inundation, is of the first qual- 
ity, and apparently experiences little or no deterioration from 
producing a long serieg of crops. Between the bayous of the 

* The mineral at Mine He Burton is gpnerally found in veiiw of almost every 
eize 'lom three fret in clrciunference and under, and from six to twelve feet beneath 
tlie 6iirfi»ce of the earth. Al the New Dipgings it is found from four to thirty feet 
under ground, where tbey are obliged to di jcontinue their worV on accouDt of the 
water coming in upon them. They I«ave no contrivance to draw it off, except • 
single butlief, suspended fn m an arm in a crochet, after the manner of most of 
our coufttrj' wells The workmen are ill provided with instruments, bavin^ no 
other tools than a pick-ax and ?hovel, with which they open a hole about six- or 
veveii feet deep, and tour or five in length apd breadth ; if tliey are successful they 
enlarge tlie hole, hut if not they abandon it and open another, either along side 
«f ihe forpaer, or in aa> other spot where their fancy may direct. I have no 
doubt tliat those grounds or mines which have apparently been exhaucited, or aban- 
doned on account of the water flowing in upon them, will eventually be found the 
richest discoveries yet made. I am of opinion, that in no instance liave they yet 
iiVen upon the main bed ot ore, wh'cb probably lies at such a dgpth as will re- 
quirr the sinking of a shaft to a considerable depth, to enable them to y^ork it.— 
Hitiierto they have been contenl<;d witli the smull spurs or veins which are found 
ne^r the surface of the earth When the mineral is collected for smelting, tliey 
build up in the woods a back wall witb two sides, aboiit sixteen feet in front, eight 
•wide, and six in height, with the floor a little inclining toward.s th? back, where 
8 few small hses are left for the lead as it melts to run into the moulds. Here 
they pile up wood and mineral in alternate layers, and gntling fire to the whole, 
the operation of tmeltjng is quickly pe? formed. Tiiereisbut oneregu'ar bnilt air- 
furnace throughotit this country, uhic'h is at the Mine le Bui ton. The expense 
cf such a building is so great, and ilie mineral bo plenty, that t!ic miiiers prefer an 
open furnace, which in all probability cannot cost tkem more than forty ot fifiy 
^oIIhis; wlrreas a proper ail furuace, like the oue just meotipoed, would cost 
tlieo 5 or 6000 dollars. , [ScAwft*.} 


^t Francis and the Louisiana boundary line, the Mississippi, 
St. Francis and Arkansas annually overflow considerable 
tracts, which in many places produces irreclaimable swamps. 

The country may be said to be fertile from the mouth of 
the Missouri, westwardly, as far as the Kanzas, and north- 
wardly, tip the Mississippi, as far as the Great Sac river. 
Beyond these limits the soil gradually deteriorates, until yxm 
fjeach the morasses of the north, and the sterile prairies and 
barren hiils of the west. 

Never having travelled in this territory, except from the 
Riouth of the Ohio to St. Genevieve, 1 shall chiefly confine 
myself to extracts from writers of well known authenticity. In 
t]be first place I will introduce the testimony of Mr. Browng 
the surveyor, who was employed by government, to run the 
Osage boundary line extending from the Missouri to the Ar» 

** The Boone's liick country no doubt is the richest consider- 
able budy of good land in the territory. 1 think it very sirni- 
lar to the good land of Kentucky, and as it has no bed of rock 
ts is in Kentucky it is perhaps superior. Between Boone's 
Jj'ick and the fort, the land south of the river is one extended 
prairie, except perhap a hundred sections or so of tolerable 
jood wood land, extending more or less, say twenty miles down 
the river from the fort, One or two creeks pass through this 
timber from the prairie, sufficient for small machinery or grist 
ipills. The prairie lies well and in general is scarcely inferior 
ip point of soil to the river bottom. The fort is in latitude 
thirty-nine degrees five minutes north, and stands on the brow 
of a bill with a rocky base and within a hundred yards of the 
river. It commands a full view of five miles east down the 
river and two miles north up. The square of two leagues re- 
■erved for the fort was so laid off as to have the fort near the 
Berth east corner ; about half this square is timbered land of 
good quality. 

^* Proceeding on the boundary line at seventy-six miles from 
the forti we crossed the Osage river, some three or four milei 


below the Osage village. Thus far the land is prairie altse^ 
gether, except some little spots and strips on the creeks, not" 
any where sufficient for a settlement. A great proportion of 
the land, so far, is of good quality and lies^ell. There is a 
very extensive bottom on the north side of the Osage river of 
the finest quality, and on the south side of secondary bottom. 
There rises on this plain, south of the river, some high mounds 
or insulated hills, near the Indian village, and about two milei 
west of the line ; I ascended them and am persuaded, that 
turning round I could survey 500 square miles, and nearly all 
©f the first quality ; timber and springs only are wanting to 
make this the finest part of the world I have yet seen : About 
a hundred and thirty miles took us to the timbered land ; we 
observed the land to be poorer as we approached it. About 
this we found the first running streams except the Osage river ; 
they ran west and were waters of the Grand river of the Ar- 
kansas. Having entered the timbered land we saw but little 
more prairie. At 200 miles we crossed the head water of 
the Buflfaloe fork of White river, it was inconsiderable and' 
jhardly ran. 

Two hundred fifty-four and a half miles took us to the Ar-"" 
kansas river, at a point some twenty miles below a stream oil' 
the other side called the Pottoe and near the mouth of a creek 
called Frog Bayou. It is a piece below the settlement which 
is above the Cherokee village. The woodland we passed 
through was oak timbered, poor, stony and perhaps should 
be called mountainous. There is but little exception to this 
remark. This high land separates the head waters of White 
river from those of Grand river. As to game we found plen- 
ty for use, though not so much as I expected ; I saw no buf- 
faloe until near the waters of White river. Having comple- 
ted the boundary line, which is about 140 miles due west' 
from the meridian run from the mouth of the Arkansas, we 
started down the river at some little distance off! The land 
is poor, stony, and broken, oak and pine timber, down to the 
fJherokee village, say sixty miles, east of the line. Aboyf ' 


ivfeniy miles further east to the mouth of the Quadrant, th® 
land is less broken and stony, though still rather poor. The 
river bottom is generally rich, I believe, though not very ex- 
tensive R-here 1 was and somewhat subject to inundation. — - 
From the Quadrant we came the usual way to St. Louis. On 
our return found the land generally poor, broken and stony, 
yet there is some very good bottom land on the tributary 
streams of White river and the St. Francis, and many spots 
tiight be selected fit for cultivation, though not enough to give 
a character to the country. Near the little village of St. Mi= 
chael, is some very good land, and some little further on the 
Way toward the Mines is a small settlement of very fine land. 
Lieut. Pike states that " the country round the Osage viU 
!ages, is one of the most beautiful the eye ever beheld. The 
three branches of the river, viz : the large east fork, the mid- 
dle one (up which he ascended,) and the northern one, all 
winding round and pass the villages, giving the advantages of 
Wood and water — and at the same time, the extensive prairies 
crowned with rich and luxuriant grass and flowers— gently dU 
I'^ersified by the rising swells, and sloping lawns—- preserting to 
the warm imagination the future seats of husbandry, the nu- 
merous herds'of domestic animals, which are no doubt destined 
to crown with joy those happy plains. From the Osage towns 
to the source of the Osage river, there is no difference in tho 
iippearance of the country, except that on the south and east, 
the view on the prairies becomes unbounded, and is only lim- 
ited by the imbecility of our sight. The waters of the White 
tiver and the Osage, are divided merely by a small ridge ii* 
the prairie, and the dry branches appear to interlock at their 
bead. From thence to the main branch of said river, the 
country appeared high and gravelly ridges of prairie land. — 
On the main While river is large timber and 6ne ground for 
cultivation." Lt. Pike found valuable bottom land on White 
river. But from the Verdigris to the Arkansas he passed 
over gravelly hills and a prairie country, in some places well 
Wutered, but deficient ia timber, except for a limited nuaiber 


of inhabitants for a few years. He frequently met with sa- 
lines, spa.springs and iron ore. All the country, between thfc 
forks of Kanzas river, a distance of 160 miles, may be called 
prairie, notwithstanding the borders of wood land which orna- 
ment the banks of those streams, but are no more than a line 
traced on a sheet of paper, when compared to the immense 
tract of meadow country. As he approached the A rkansaSj 
the country appeared low and swampy for the space of fifteen 
or twenty miles. From thence, about half way to the moun< 
tains, is a continued succession of low prairie hills, badly w«= 
tered and nearly destitute of timber. 


"Boone's lick, now Howard county, begins at the mouth of 
the Great Osage river, and runs up said river to the Osage 
boundary line ; thence north with that line to the Missouri 5 
thence up the Missouri to a point opposite the Kanzas river; 
thence northward 140 miles; thence eastward to the main di- 
viding ridge of high ground between the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri rivers ; thence along said ridge to the head of the main 
fork of Cedar river; thence down this river to the JVIissonri, 
and down the Missouri to Osage river, or place of beginning : 
containing about 30,000 square miles ; one half of which is 
6rst rate land, and but little that is not fit for cultivation; 
three fifths are prairie. 

" The first settlement of this county was made in 1805, at 
Boone*8 lick, Mackay's saline, by I\Iaj, Nathan Boone, son of 
the celebrated Col. Daniel Boone, for the purpose of making 
salt, and has since been occupied for salt works. Farmers 
did not settle until the fall of 181 1, when about twenty set- 
tled Boone's lick bottom. This settlement increased slowly 
on account of the Indians, during the late war. Jn Novem- 
ber, 1815, the population amounted to 526 free white males, 
and it was formed into a separate county of the above boun- 
dary and uame. It now, [August 24tb,] contains ai>otit 1,©50 

emigrant's CIRECTOHY. 19^ 

free white males. A site is fixed upon for a town by the 
county commissioners, on the bank of the Missouri, in a very 
eligible situation. The lots will shortly be put in market. 

The face of the country is neither mountainous nor hilly^ 
yet a great part of it is uneven, or rolling ground. There is 
great uniformity throughout the county, and but little diversi^ 
ty of soil, stone, or timber. 

The river Missouri runs through the county. The other 
navigable streams are the Great Osage, Mine river, and Kan- 
zas from the south ; the Charlatan, Grand river, and Little 
Platte from the north, besides numerous small streams. 

Salt springs are found in abundance in some parts of this 
county. The main branch of the Mine river, called the Salt 
fork, is generally impregnated with salt as strongly as the sea 
water, from the month of June to November-i 

Minerals of various kinds are found here. Iron in abun- 
danccj lead, tin, copper, zinc, silver rare, sulphur, alum, cop- 
peras, saltpetre, &c. To the botanist this country will afford 
a rich harvest. It abounds in medicinal plantSj from among 
, which the aborigines select those capable of curing the most 
inveterate sj/philis^ The natives also cure the bite of the 
rattlesnake, and iheumatisms of long standing. They are 
also remarkable for their treatment of gun-shot wounds. The 
Great Osage Indians, or, as they call themselves, WassashsJiat 
are the most skilled in medicine. Agriculture is but little 
attended to, although the country is extremely fertile. One 
acre of land will produce 100 bushels of prime corn, fifty do. 
of wheat, sixty lbs. to the bushel, and 1000 lbs. of Carolina 
cotton in the seed. Hemp, fiax, and every art'cle of agricul- 
ture, except tobacco, in greater abundance than any county 
near the same latitude in the United States. Tobacco does 
not do well ; nor can any tirmer with us tell the reason. A 
public road is now opening from Potosi, the lead mines, in 
Washington county, to this settlement, and is already cut to 
the Osage river, which will greatly frjciiitale the intercourse 

with the Stales. The air in this climate is less liable to sud- 



c!en changes than the country more eastward. We seldomi 
have chilling cold, onfess the north-west winds break across 
the vast extent of prairies which lies between us and the north- 
ern regions 5 that wind, however, seldom continues longer than 
eight honrs. The spring season opens with heavy rains, which 
contiue, with short intervals, until the first of May, and from 
that month to the first of August there is but little rain ; 
weather hot, with frequent thunder and lightning. Diseases 
are but httle known in this agreeable climate ; those most fre- 
quent are remittent fevers. The greatest scourge is the in- 
fluenza. It is probable that diseases will be introduced with 
wealth and dissipation. 

The place selected for a town is nearly in the centre of 
the great body of rich land in this Territory, and is situated 
in about 08 deg. 43 min. north lat. It is 150 miles west of 
St. Louis, 158 from the mouth of the Missouri by land, and 
180 by water, from St. Churles 130, from Cote sans dessire 
60, from the Grand river* 24, from the Great Osage town 
100, the same distance from the nearest point on the Missis- 
sippi, and 1J30 from the town of Potosi, Washington county. 
The principal articles of trade are salt, live stock, beef, pork, 
beaver, tallow, beeswax, honey, peltries, saltpetre and grain. 
The ujhabitants ard composed of different religious persua- 
sions. The state of educHtion is very deplorable: yet the 
mass of our citizens are perhfips not as ignorant as the same 
class of men in the States. We are in the first stage of ouf 
political existence, and expect to emerge from our darkness 
and obscurity vtvy rapidly. f 

On the west bank of the JMississippi, there is a continued 
h'ne of seitiemenls except at ?hort ir tervals, of low bottoms, or 
barren hills, from, the nmuil of the J^iissouri to the confluence 

* Tlic mouth of the (riand rivfr will, at some future flny, hf the capital of the 
IVHiSK. uii cruiiii'}'. Ii is at llip cf-ntre 'ol ail t!.e QA Ihiids. ai.dis the mt'S! delight- 
ful f pi > in tlie we^lein teiriidj- Fr( m spot t" ibi- Missifsippi, at the near- 
est point, ii is only 28 leapnes across a di^lightful country, dry and c;-eii. 

f Extract of a letter from JobnG. Heath, Esq publisLtd ia the National Re- 


©f the Ohio ; there are also considerable settlements at New- 
Madrid, and below the St. Francis, extending to the mouth 
of the Arkansas. There are likewise, a few insulated settle- 
ments up the St. Francis, Arkansas, Whiteriver, and Wa- 


The banks of this immense river, are lined with mineral 
and vegetable riches. Fifteen miles above its entrance int© 
Ihe Mississippi, on the southern b ink, is a coal hill, called by 
the French, la Charbouiere. This hill is one solid mass of 
stone cocil, and is supposed to afTord an inexhaustible supply 
of that valuable species of fuel. The northern shore, as far up 
as the Gasconade, is generally a low, rich bottom, from one to 
two miles wide, coveren with ash, sycamore, pecan, black 
walnut, honey locust, &c. On the south hills, rivulets and a 
small number of small creeks, with a rich soil, fine timber, 
grape vin':'s, and a luxuriant growth ef cane, 

From the Giisconade to the entnmce of the Osage, the- 
south side of the river is hilly, but well timbered. Thus far 
the soil is well suited to the cultivation of the grain and agri- 
cultural products of the middle and western States. The 
limber is of various sorts, but the cotton-wood predominates 
on the made bottoms. "To give,'' says Mr. Soultrd, *' a 
precise idea of the incalculable riches scattered along the sides 
of the Missouri, would require unli/nited knowletige. '1 he 
Jow bottoms are covered wilh large trees, especially the pop- 
lar and cotton tree p, large enough for first r!>te canoes, the 
sugar maple, the red and black wa!nu!, so useful lo joiners ; 
the red and white elm, the tbree-thoined acacia, of wiiich 
impenetrable hedges can be made ; the osier, the red and 
black mulberry, the liraetree, the horse chesnul, all of which 
are very plentiful ; red and white oak, fit for vessels, and al5 
oiher sorts of timber, pine, and on the Rock}^ mountains, ce- 
iSar are common productions, I find it impossible to eiiurae' 


rate all the trees, which are yet unknown in other countries 5 
and with whose uses and quahties we are as yet unacquaint- 
ed. The smaller plants are still more numerous. The In- 
dians knov/ the virtues of many of them ; some are used to 
heal pounds, others to poison arrows, some again for dying 
colors, and they employ certain vegetable simples to cure 
radically and promptly the venereal disease. They conceal 
fir'om us, with great care, a plant which renders them for some 
instants insensible to the most vehement fire. I have seen 
them take hold of red hot irons and burning coals without suf- 
fering any inconvenience. 

"• 1 he lands in the neighborhood of the Missouri are excel- 
lent, and when cultivated are capable of yielding ai! the pro- 
ductions of the temperate climates, and even some of the hot 
ones ; such as wheat, maize, and every kind of grain ; com- 
mon and sweet potatoes ; h^mp, whicn seems to be an indi- 
genous vegetable ; even cotton succeeds here, though not so 
well as further south ; and the raising of it answers a good pur- 
pose for the families already settled on the river : for from 
a field of about two acres, they obtain a crop sufficient to 
clothe a fam/ily. The natural prairies are a great resource 
for them. These afford excellent pasture, and require but 
little labor to clear them. After one year's exertion, a man 
may enjoy his fields duly prepared for crops. Brick and 
potter's earths are very common,and the true Chinese Kaolin 
is reported, by good judges, to be here, that substance to 
which porcelain, owes its peculiar fineness. And there exist 
on the borders of this grand river, salt spriiigs enough to fur- 
nish salt for the country when it shall become inhabited, and 
a great deal to spare. 

" Saltpetre is found very abundantly in numberless caverns 
near the Missouri. The rocks are generally calcareous ; 
though there is one which is peculiar to this river. It is of a 
Islood-red colour, compact, yielding to a tool, hardening in the 
air, and receiving the nrntest polish. The natives make 
^teirpipes of it. The strata lwq so extensive that there is 


any quantity that may be wanted for other purposes. There 
are also quarries of marble ; but we know as yet little more 
than its colour, which is veined red. It is said (here is a body 
of gypsum ; and this would not be very difficult to explore '' 
Captain Lewis relates that he for several days saw burnt 
bills, furnishing large quantities of lava and pumice stones ; 
of the hst he observed several pieces floating on the Mis- 
souri as low as Milk river. 


The bottoms of the Mississippi afford suitable situations 
for settlement, from the mouth of the Missouri to the falls of 
St. Anthony, except at certain bluffs, where the soil is too 
barren to invite settlers. The alluvial bottoms are generally 
composed of a rich, sandy soil, yielding a pretty heavy 
growth of pecan, poplar, sugar-maple, honey-locust, ash, cot- 
ton-wood, black walnut, and cucumber. The prairies in ma- 
ny places approach close to the river ; they are sometimes 
visible through the skirts of the woods. Above the Wa- 
bisipinekan, the land bordering the river is three-fourths prai- 
rie, or rather " bold hills, which instead of running parallel 
with the river, form a continual succession of high, perpen- 
dicular cliffsi, and low vallies : the}^ appear to head on the riv- 
er, and to traverse the country in an angular direction. — ^ 
These hills and vallies give rise to sublime and romantic 
views. But this irregular scenery is sometimes interrupted 
by a v.ide extended plain, which biings to mind the verdant 
lawn of civilized life ; and would almost induce the traveller 
to imagine himself in the centre of a highly cultivated plan- 
tation. The timber above this, is chiyfdy ash, elm, cotton- 
wood, birch and sugar-maple. ''f 

Above the falls of St. Anthony the pine counSry commen« 
ces; this timber borders all the stream.s, except occasional 
tracts of sugar maple, basswood, beech, &c. 

+ See Pike's Journal, Appencli* ]Vo, 1, pngc- 50. 



Nature has been bountiful to her red children resident on 
the waters of the Missouri and IVUssi sippi. The bufFaloe 
abounds from the plains of Assiniiibion to the confines of 
Louisiana, and from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. 
Their hides and tallow, are important articles of the com- 
merce of the territory. Lieut. Pike, whose route was up 
the Osage river to the Great Osage village, from thence across 
the head streams of the Kanzas and Whiteriver to the Ar* 
kansas, and thence up that river to the Mexican Mountains, 
found no diflSculty in supplying himself and party with an 
abundance of meat, by laying the immense herds of buffliloes 
Under contribution. He affirms that he does not think it an 
exaggeration to say, that he saw 3000 buffaloes in one drove, 
and " the face of the earth appeared to be covered with 
them.'^^ll^j^GJieof his hunting excursions, a scene took place 
which "gave a hvely representation of an engagement ; the 
herd of buffaloes, being pursued by his horsemen, divided in^^ 
to separate bands, and covered the prairie with du^t, and first 
charged on the one side, and then to the other, as the pursuit 
of the horsemen impelled them ; the report and smoke from 
the guns, added to the pleasure of the scene, which in part 
compensated for our detention. The cow buffkloe was equal 
to any meat I ever saw, I will not attempt to describe the 
droves of animals we now saw on our route, [up the Arkan- 
aas to the Mexican Mountains ;] suffice it to say, that the 
face of the prairie was covered with them on each side of the 
river; their numbers exceeded imagination." 

" The borders of the Arkansas river may be termed the 
paradise (terrestrial) of our territories, for the wandering 
savages. Of all countries ever visited by the footsleps of 
civilized man, there never was one probably that produced 
game in greater abundance, and we know that the munners 
and morals of the erratic nations, are such (the reasons I leave 


to he given by the ontologists) as never to give them a niin^e- 
rou> population ; and \ believe that there are buffalo, elk, and 
deer sufficient on the banks of the Arkansas alone, if used 
without waste, to feed all the savages in the United States' 
territory one century." 

The Indians have several methods of taking the buffaloe ; 
they sometimes drive them down precipices ; whole droves, 
are often killed or dashed to pieces, by the violence of the 
fall ; they frequently attack them on horseback, with bows 
and arrows. This is a dangerous sport, as the assailants are 
sometimes vanquished, pursued, ard overtaken by these ani- 
mitls, rendered furious by the anguish of numerous wounds. 
The usual mode w ih the Sioux is to make a fence of st tkes, 
wattled with small branches. A small party is sent out to 
decoy the animals into the pound ; they are dressed in ox« 
skins, with the hair and horns, and by their gestures so com- 
pletely resemble the buffaloe that they are readily lured to 
destruction ; the decoyers bellow and paw the earth, gradu- 
ally letreating to the enclosure, which they enter, and are fol- 
lowed by the herd or drove, until the animals find themselves 
enclosed in a pound, which the utmost force cannot break 
down. At this moment the Fndians, won'en, children and 
dogs, rush from their hiding phces, and k\\ upon the rear of 
their unsuspecting prey, and commence the slauohter, some- 
times killing as manj as 100 at a time. The affrighted ani- 
mals make desperate efforts to escape, by retreating, or forcing 
the fence, but are deterred, by the fierce assaults of the dogs, 
a shower of arrows, and by the activity of the Indians on 
foot and on horseback, who to their discordant yells, iiispire 
additional terror, by the shaking of skins, beating of drums, 
and all the dread-exciting devices of which savage ingenuity 
is susceptible. 

The great brown bear of the Upper Missouri, is a terrible 
animal ; and the extreme difficulty with which they are killed 
render Ihfm a dangorons and formidable enemy to man. In 
an encounter v/ilh two of these beasts, above White or Blilk 


niver, Captain Lewis was pursued by one of them after being 
wounded, a considerable distance before he could reload hi* 
rifle, when a shot from the hunter who accorapanied him, 
biought him to the ground. Nothing but a shot through the 
brains will stop their career, and this is a very difficult opera- 
tion, on account of two large muscles which cover the side of 
the forehead, and the sharp projection of the centre of the 
frontal bone, which is also very thick. 

One of his men who was affilcted with biles, was suffered 
to walk on shore ; but late in the afternoon, he came running 
to the boats with loud cries, and every symptom of terror and 
distress ; for some time after we had taken him on board, he 
was so much out of breath as to be unable to describe the cause 
of his anxiety ; but he at length said that about a mile and 
a half below, he had shot a brown bear, which immediately 
turned and was in close pursuit of him : but the bear being 
badly wounded, could not overtake him. Captain Lewis 
with seven men, immediately went in search of him, and hav- 
ing found his track followed him by the blood for a mile, and 
found him concealed in some brushwood, and shot him with 
two balls through the skull. Though somewhat smaller than 
that killed a few days ago, he was a monstrous animal, and a 
most terrible enemy ; our man had shot him through the cen- 
tre of the lungs, yet he had pursued him furiously for half a 
mile, then returned more than twice that distance, and with 
his talons had prepared himself a bed in the earth two feet 
deep and five long, and was perfectly ahve when they found 
him, which was at least two hours after he had received the 

A few hours afterwards, the men in the hindmost canoes 
discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds, 
about three hundred paces from the river ; six of them, all 
good hunters immediately went to attack him, and conceal- 
ed themselves by a small eminence, came unperceived within 
forty paces of him; four of the hunters row fired, and each 
lodged a ball in his body, two of them directly through the 


lungs: the furious animal sprang up and ran open-mouthed 
upon them ; as he came near, the two hunters who had re- 
served their fire, gave him two wounds, one of which bfeaking 
his shoulder, retarded his motion for a moment ; but before 
they could reload, he was so near that they were obliged td 
run to the river, and before they reached it, he had almost 
overtaken them ; two jumped into the canoe, the other four 
se{)arated, and concealing themselves in the willows, fired ad 
fast as each could reload ; they struck him several times, but 
instead of weakening the monster, each shot seemed only t(j 
direct him towards the hunter, till at last he pursued two o( 
them so closely, that they thret?^ aside their guns and poucheSj 
and jumped down a perpendicular bank of twenty feet into the 
river; the bear sprang after them, and was within a few feet of 
the hindttiost, when one of the hunters on shore shot him in 
the head and finally killed him; they dragged him to the 
shore, and found that eight balls had passed through him ia 
different directions : the bear was old and the meat tough, soi 
that they took the skin only.f 

Wild horses are found in droves on the pi'airies, betweerl 
the Arkansas and Red river ; they are Very fleet and diffi- 
cult to be taken, and of various colors ; they are taken by ex» 
pert riders, on swift domesticated horses, who throw a noosef 
over their necks with inconceivable dexterity. J Deer, elkj 
bear, wolves, panthers and antelopes are numerous* Wolves 

t See Lewis and Clark's 'fravels, Vol. !,■ pages 214, 216. 

X The Spaniards of Texas are the most skilful jieople in thfe world, in pursuing 
and noosing the wild horse. They adopt the following method : — " They take a 
few fleet horses and proceed into the country where the wild horses are numerous. 
They then build a large strong enclosure, with a door which enters a smaller enclo- 
sure ; from the entrance of the larpe pen they project wings out into the prairie a, 
great distance, and then set up bushes, &c. to induce the horses, when pursued, 
to enter into these wings. After these preparations are made they keep a look out 
for a small drove, for, if they unfortunately sliould start too large a one, they ei- 
ther burst open the pen or fill it up with dead bodies, and the others run over 
them and escape; in which case the party are obliged to leave the place, as the 
stench arising from the putrid carcases would be insupportable ; and, in addition 
to this, the pen would not receive others. Should they, however, succeed in dri- 
ving away a few, say two or three hundred, they select the handsomest and young- 
est, noose them, and take them into the small enclosure, tiien turn out the re- 
mainder, after which, by starving;, preventing tliem taking any repose, and con- 
tinually keeping them in motion, they make them gentle by degrees, and finally 
break them to submit to the saddle and bridle.'' [Pike.! 



and panthers follow the buffaloe herds, and feast on the ealves* 
The grizzlj- or white bear, is found on the head branches 
of the Missouri, and is equally ferocious as the great brown 
bear, and often attacks the Indians. Cabree and moose are 
plentiful. Rocky Mountain Sheep are the most common an- 
imal. Their horns are a natural curiosity, shaped like those 
of the common sheep, but enormous in size, full of knobs and 
measuring three feet in length, five inches in diameter near 
the head, and weighing twenty pounds and upwards. This 
animi*! is taller than a deer, and has a larger body ; it is cov- 
ered with soft, dun-colored hair, except on the belly, which is 
white. Its legs and feet resemble those of the domestic 
sheep. It possesses uncommon agility, and climbs cliffs and 
steep mountains with such ease that no other animal can fol- 
low it. Its flesh is considered equal to that of a deer. — ■ 
Beaver abound from the Missouri throughout the Sioux coun- 
try, and in most parts of the territory. 

There are several species of wildcats. They are small, 
but very fierce, and often kill sheep and cabree, by leaping 
on their necks and eating away the sinews and arteries, until 
they fall, when they suck their blood. One species is very 
beautiful, being ornamented with black and white spots, on a 
bright yellow ground. The lynx, marten, muskrat and er- 
fnine, are common. 

The prairie dogs reside on the prairies south of the Mis- 
souri, in towns and villages, having an evident police establish- 
ed in their communities. The sites of these towns are gen- 
erally on the brow of a hill, near some creek or pond, in or- 
der to be convenient to water, and to be exempt from inunda- 
tion. Their residence is in burrows, which descend in a spi- 
ral form. Lieut. Pike caused 140 kettles of water to be 
poured into one of their holes, in order to drive out the occu- 
pant, but failed. They never travel more than half a mile 
from their homes, and readily associate with rattlesnakes. — 
They are of a dark brown color, except their bellies, which 
are red. They are something larger tliau a grey squiije?. 


and very fat — supposed to be granivoroua. Their villages 
lometiraes extend over two or three miles square, in which 
there must be innumerable hosts of them, as there is general- 
ly a burrow every ten steps. As you approach their towns, 
you are saluted on all sides by the cry of wishtonwish, utter- 
ed in a ishrill and piercing manner. See Pike's Journal, page 


The Indian title, by various treaties, has been extinguish- 
ed to about 70,000 square miles, or about 45,000,000 acres 
a tract of country as large as the states of Vermont, New- 
York and New Jersey. 

The line between the whites and the Indians begins three 
hundred miles up the Missouri river, at the mouth of the Kan- 
zas, in lat 39 deg. 5 minutes north, and runs north over a rich 
country, one hundred miles, to the head of the little river 
Platte, then east over naked sterile ridges one hundred and 
fifty miles and a half, to the des Moines, (river of the Monks) 
then down that river 16 miles to the Mississippi. South of 
the Missouri, the line begins at Prairie de Feu (fire prairie) 
thirty miles below the mouth of the Kanzas, and runs south 
254 miles down that river to Arkansas ; then down that riv- 
%T supposed 250 miles to the Mississippi. 


Belle- Fontaine is pleasantly situated on the south side of 
the Missouri, four miles above its mouth. The head quar- 
ters of the ninth military department, are established here. 
There is a palisade work, with quarters large enough for the 
reception of about 300 men. The barracks, officers' quar- 
ters, magazine, See. are built of logs. The garrison is situat- 
ed on the river bluffs, at the distance of about 450 yards 
ft'om the water. The inhabitants are chiefly French? 


Florissanty a flourishing French village, is situated on the 
?iorth side of the JMJssouri, about twelve miles aboTe Belle- 

St. Charles, is a handsome village, settled by the French, 
but at present containing many American families. It con- 
tains about 1 000 inhabitants. It is twenty-one miles from 
the mouth of the Missouri, and eighteen from St. Louis, by 
land— over an excellent road and through a rich country, prin- 
cipally prairie land. The main street of St. Charles, is on 
the first bank, the second on the top of the hill. On this 
street is situated a round wooden tower, formerly occupied 
by the Spaniards as a fort or guard house. 

The villages and settlements of Femme Qsage, Cherette, 
Bonhomme, Gasconade, and Cote sans Dessire, embellish the 
banks of the Missouri, above St. Charles. 

St. Louis, the largest town of the territory, and at present 
the seat of government, stands on a high bank, fifteen miles 
below the entrance of the Missouri, and in N. lat. 38, 39. — ■ 
The buildings are scattered along three parallel streets, ex- 
tending upwards of two miles along the river, and each ris- 
ing above the other, which gives to the tow^n a neat and ro- 
mantic appearance. Most of the houses are built of stone, 
and whitewashed on the outside. Almost every house has 
an extensive garden or park, around which high stone walls 
3re built. Some of the buildings are very large and costly, 
and surrounded with galleries. The population exceeds 3000 
souls. It has a bank, printing-office, post-office, and Roman 
chapel. It already enjoys a handsome trade, and from its 
local advantages, promises to become a rich and populous 
city. The country, around and west of St. Louis, is for fif- 
teen miles, one extended prairiej, of a very luxuriant soil and 
in a high state of cultivation. There is a ferry from thia 
town to the Illinois side of the Mississippi : from hence pass- 
es the main road to Kaskaskia. 

Carondelet, is a small French village, sis miles west of St* , 
|jouis, ifl the direction of the mines. 


Villepuche, a French village of sixty or seventy bouses, is 
situated on the margin of the Mississippi, nineteen miles be- 
low St. Louis, and just below the mouth of Bigolua creek. 

Hercidancum^ stands near the Mississippi. It is settled 
by Americans, and has a fine manufactory of shot ; the pro- 
prietor, Mr. Matlock, has a fall for the shot, of 200 feet per- 
pendicular. The lead mines are about forty-five miles due 
west from this place. 

St. Genevieve^ is situated on the second bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, about one mile from the river, and twenty-one miles 
below Herculaneum, in lat. 37 51, N. It was commenced 
about the year 1774, and is at present this principal depot for 
most of the mines on the waters of the Maremeg ; and the 
storehouse from whence are drawn the supplies of the miners. 
Its site is a handsome plain of about 100 acres ; the little riv- 
er Gouberie, the two branches of which form a junction be- 
tween the town and the river, water it on its upper and lower 
margins. In front of the town there is a fine bottom, extend- 
ing from the mouth of the Gouberie, eight or nine miles along 
the Mississippi, and the greater part of the distance three 
miles wide. The common field, enclosed and cultivated by 
the citizens, contains about 7000 acres. The surrounding; 
country is broken, but yields good crops. The town con- 
tains about 350 houses, an academy and eight or ten stores. 
A road runs from this town to the lead mines, and the great- 
er part of the inhabitants have an interest in, or are employed 
in some way, in the lead trade. 

New-Bourbon, Is situated oa a bluff, two miles lower down 
the river, and contains about seventy buildings. The in- 
habitants of both villages, are principally French, and a gay 
and hospitable people. 

Cape Girardeau, stands on an emincEce 20 miles above 
the mouth of the Ohio, and seventy-two below St. Genevieve ; 
it is settled by Germans and a few French. The country ta 
^he wefet of the village, is uneven, but of a good scilj for seY' 


eral miles. The bottoms are deep and capable of producing 
the greatest crops of corn, cotton and tobacco.* 

New-Madrid, is situated on a rich plain near the river bank, 
about seventy miles below the mouth of the Ohio. This 
place has been finely described, and appears to better advan- 
tage on paper, than when under a coup d'ail. The soil is 
very rich, producing cotton, indigo and corn ; but the back 
country for several miles is reported to be swampy and sickly. 
There is a creek entering the MiFiissippi just above the town, 
which affords a good harbor for boats, and a pleasant lake in 
its rear. The river is constantly making encroachn^ents up- 
on the banks in front of the place, 


The Knisteneaux, Chippewas, Sioux, Foxe«, Sacs, and 
lowas, reside between the Missouri and the British possess- 

The Knisteneaux chiefly reside in the British possessions 
north of lake Superior ; yet some bands have established 
themselves south of the boundary line, as determined by the 
treaty of Paris, and reside on streams running into Red river, 
[of Hudson bay, which heads south of the sources of the Mis- 
sissippi,] Moose river, Pasquayah, &c. They are of a mod- 
erate stature, well proportioned, and of great activity. Ex- 
amples of deformity are seldom to be seen among them. — 
Their complexion is of a copper color, and their hair black. 
• Their eyes are black, keen, and penetrating ; their counte- 
nance open and agreeable, and it is a principal object of their 
vanity to give every possible decoration to their persons. Of 
ail the nations which 1 have seen on this continent, says Mac- 

* Christian Sr hull::, an American, and an agreeable, writer, -who travelled m 
ihis country in 1308, counted the layers of the alluvial bottom, where a large part 
•f the bank iiatl newly broken off and fallen into the Mississippi. He found ibe 
whole height of the hank to be forty tliree feet and a half, and ascertained, with 
tolerable accuiacv, that the total number of the layers, was seven hundred ao^ 
Jiintfty-eiijht. The slrala were generally distinct and easily indicated, and from 
less than a quarter to tliree inches in thickness. lie iuprs from these data, tliat it 
kas taken at least WO annual iinmdatitns to raise the banl; to its present olcvatio^. 


kenzie, tbe Knisteneaux women are the most comely. Their 
figure is generally well proportioned, and the regularity of 
their features would be acknowledged by the more civilized 
people of Europe. Their complexion is not of so dark a tinge 
as is common to those savages who have less cleanly hab- 
its. It does not appear, that chastity is considered by thens 
as a virtue j or that fidelity is believed to be essential to the 
happiness of wedded life, for a temporary interchange of 
wives is not uncommon ; and the offer of their persons is con- 
aidered as a necessary part of the hospitality due to strangers^ 

A part of the Chippewa nation reside in this territory— 
they inhabit the head branches of the Mississippi, Leech, Ot- 
teptail, Winnipique and Red lakes, the river De Corbeau^ 
and Red river. They claim an immense extent of territory, 
and are a numerous nation. They speak a copious language, 
Tvhich is very difficult to be attained, and furnishes dialectf 
to the various emigrant tribes. They are not so warlike as 
their Sioux and Knisteneaux neighbors. They are sober, 
timorous, and vagrant, with a selfish disposition which ha^ 
sometimes created suspicions of their integrity. Their stat- 
ure has nothing remarkable in it ; but though they are seldom 
corpulent, they are sometimes robust. Their complexion ia 
swarthy; their features coarse, and their hair lank, but not 
always of a dingy black ; nor have they universally the pierc- 
ing eycj which generally animates the Indian countenance. — > 
The women have a more agreeable aspect than the men, but 
their gait is awkward, which proceeds from their being accus- 
tomed, nine months in the year, to travel on snow-shoes and 
drag sledges of a weight from 2 to 400 pounds. 

The Sioux, claim a tract of territory, equal in extent to 
some of the most powerful empires of Europe. Their boun- 
daries " commence at the Prairie des Chiens, and ascend the 
Mississippi on both aides, to the river De Corbeaii, up that 
river to its source ; from thence to the source of the St. Pe- 
. ters ; from thence to the Montaigne de la Prairie ; from thence 
to the Missouri, down that river to the Mahas, bearing theaee 


to the source of the river de Moyen ; and from thence to the 
place of beginning." They also claim a large territory south 
of the Missouri. The country east of the Mississippi from 
Rum river to the river De CorbeaUj is in dispute between 
them and the Chippewas, and has been the source of many a 
sharp encounter for 150 years past.'' These Indians are the 
dread of all the surrounding tribes t for they are unquestiona-^ 
bly the most warlike. 

Their best lands, and most populous villages^ are on the 
St. Peters. This nation are divided into 6 bands, viz. 1. Mi' 
noma Kaniong^ who extend from Prairie des Chiens to 
Prairie des Francois, thirty-five miles up the St. Peters.— 
This is a very warlike band, 2* The Tf^ashpetong, who 
inhabit the country from the Prairie des Francois to Roche 
Blanche on the St. Peters. S. SussetongS'—they extend 
from the Roche Blanche to lac le Grosse Roche, on the St» 
Peters. This band hunt on St. Peters and upper portions of 
Red river of lake Winnipie, which is a level, plain, fertile 
country, free of stones, and intersected with small lakes. It 
abounds with fur animals, the beaver, otter, and marten, which 
enables them to purchase more merchandise, in proportion to 
their number, than their neighbors. 4. Yanktons of the 
north inhabit a country which is almost one entire plain, des- 
titute of wood, but a good soil and well watered. 5. Yank- 
tons Ahnah are considered the best disposed Sioux, who 
rove on the banks of the Missouri. Their country is very 
fertile,, consisting of wood land prairie. 6. Tetons Boif 
Brule. 7. Tetons Okandandas. 8. Tetons Minnakineazzo, : 
9. Tetons Sahone are four bands which rove over a countr;i 
almost entirely level, where a tree is scarcely to be seen, ui 
less it be by water courses, or steep declivities of a sma! 
number of hills. It is from this country that the Missouri 
derives most of Its colouring matter ; the earth is strongly 
impregnated with glauber salts, alium, copperas, and sulphur, 
and when saturated with water, large bodies of the hills are 
precipitated into the river. Oa this account the T^aters of 


t?ie Missouri have a purgative effect on those who are not 
accustomed to use them. These four bands are the pirates 
of the Missouri, and considered the vilest miscreants of the 
savage race. 10. Wahpacootas band rove in the country W. 
of ^t. Peters, from a place called Hardwood to the mouth of 
the Yellow Medicine river : never stationary only when their 
traders are with them, which is not at any fixed time; a 
great portion of their tountry is open plains, and tolerably 

The Assinnibions, (Oslnipoilles,) are a revolted band of the 
Sioux ; they inhabit a prairie and champaign country, situat- 
ed between the Pasqiiayah or Sascatchiwine and the Rocky 
Mountains ; they live by the chase, and have very Uttle com- 
merce with the whites, and can miister now upwards of 1500 
warriors. Their lodges are tents formed of buffaloe hides. 

" The lowas reside on the rivers De Moyen and lows, in 
two villages. They hunt on the west side of the Mississippi, 
the river De Moyen, and westward to the Missouri ; their 
Wars and alliances are the same as the Sacs and Reynards ; 
tinder whose special protection they conceive themselves to 
be. They cultiv te some corn; but not so much in propor- 
t'on as the Sacs and Reynards. Their residence being oa 
the small streams in the rear of the Mississippi, out of the 
high road of commerce, renders them less civilized than those 

*' The Reynards (or Foxes) reside in three villages. The 
1st. on the W. side of the Mississippi, six miles above the 
rapids of the river De Roche. The 2d. about twelve miles 
in the rear of the lead mines, and the 3d. on Turkey river, 
half a league from its entrance. They are engaged in the 
*?me wars, and have the same alliances as the Sacs, with 
whom they must be considered as indissoluble in waf or peace. 
They hunt on both sides of the Mississippi from the river 
Iowa, (below the Prairie Des Chiens) to a river of that name: 
above said village. They raise a great quantity of cofij, 



beans, and melons ; the former of those articles in such qitati* 
tities, as to sell many hundred bushels per annum. ''"* 

The Sacs (or Saukies) and Reynards (or Foxes) clains 
the land from the mouth of the Jaustioni, on the W. side of 
the Mississippi, up to the upper Iowa river, above the Prai- 
rie des Chiens, and westwardly to the Missouri; but the 
limits of their respective claims are undefined. 

" The river St. Peters, or St. Pierre, according to Carver, 
flows through a most delightful country, abounding with all 
the necessaries of life, that grow spontaneously, and with a 
little cultivation it might be made to produce even the luxu- 
ries of life. Wild rice, (folle avoine) grows here in great abund- 
ance, and every part is filled with trees bending under their 
loads of fruits, such as pli| is, grapes, and apples; the mea- 
dows with hops^ and many sorts of vegetables ; whilst the 
ground is stored with useful roots^ with angelica, spikenard^ 
and ground-nuts as large as hens' eggs. At a little distance 
from the sides of the river are eminences, from which yoii 
have views that cannot be exceeded even by the most beauti- 
ful of those i have already described ; amidst these are de- 
lightful groves, and such amazing quantities of maples, that 
they would produce sugar sufficient for any number of inhabi- i 
tauts. * 

" A little way from the mouth of this river, on the north 
side of it, stands a hill, one part of which, that towards the 
IVIississippi, is composed entirely of white stone, of the same 
soft nature as that I have before described ; for such, indeed^ 
is all the stone in this country, Bnt what appears remarka- 
ble is, that the colour of it is as white as the driven snow. 
The outward part of it was crumbled by the wind and weather 
into heaps of sand, of which a beautiful composition might be 
made ; or, I am of opinion, that when properly treated the 
stone itself would grow harder by time, and have a very noble 
'eiTect in architecture, 

* See P.ue, Carver, ite. 


*' Near that branch which is termed the Marble River, is a 
mountain, from whence the Indians get a sort of red stone, 
out of which they hew the bowls of their pipes. In some of 
these parts is found a black hard clay, or rather stone, of 
which the Naudowessies (Sioux) make their family utensils. 
This country hkew:se abounds with a milk white clay, of 
which China ware might be made equal in goodness to the 
Asiatic ; and also with a blue clay that serves the Indians for 
paint ; with this last they contrive, by mixing it with the red 
stone powdered, to paint themselves of different colours." 

South of the Missouri are the following tribes, viz i The 
Gre?it and Little Osage tribes, who reside principally on the 
Osage river and the Arkansas ; they are next to the Sioux in 
point of population ; both bands can assemble a combined 
force of 2500 warriors. They are remarkably tcfil, large, and 
ferocious-^erect and well proportioned ; their complexion ia 
between an dive and a copper color ; their eyes dark brown, 
their noses large and acquiline ; they usually v/ear a dressed 
bufiTaloe skin over their shoulders. They are expert warrl^ 
ors, and generally engaged in war with the Sioux and western 
nations. Their chief villages are on the bank of the Osage 
river — the houses stand in two rows on a straight line, w.ith a 
wide street between them. 

The Kanzas reside on the river of that name about 240 miles 
from its mouth. They have a fine country,, rich in game and. 
vegetable productions. They hunt on the head branches of 
the Kanzas and Arkanzas, can muster 4GQ waniorSj. are simi- 
lar in form and manners to the Os^sge. 

The Pawnees reside on the Kanzas, Great Ninsmehaw, and 
Arkansas; they are divided into three bands, the Pawnee 
Loups, Pawnees proper, and Pawnee republicans; they can 
raise 2500 warriors; and trade with the Spaniards and Amer- 
icans: they are said to be friendly to white people, but the 
treatment which Pike's part/ received at their hands> was. 
such as to give no very favorable idea of their raoraliiy,. 
There are coloaies of Creeks, Cherokees, an*! Chocluivs scV 


tied on the Arkansas and Whiteriver, who are drawn thither 
by the facility with which game is hnnted. 

The Ottoes and Missoiiris, whose tribes are consolidated, 
live on the river Platte, 45 miles from its mouth, and are re- 
duced to about 650 souls. 

The Wetepahatos, live on the Padouca fork of Platte river, 
are agreeable and well disposed people. 

The Kiawas are neighbors to the Wetopahatos, and ar© 
two thousand strong, 

Th Kenenavish, or Cow Indians, live on the head branch* 
esof the Padouca, and have about 1500 souls. 

•j he Kites, frequently associate with the Kenenavish, and 
have about 550 souls. 

Tho Mahas, once a fbrm'dable nation, residing in villages 
on the west b;ink of the Missouri, 235 miles above the mouth 
of river Platte, but now a wandering, feeble tribe, reduced 
by war and the small pox, to about 650 souls. 

The Poncars have been reduced by the Sioux, from a res- 
pprt?ble nation to about 250 souls — they live on the river 
Poicrr, west of the Mif^souri. 

The Ricaras reside in fortified villages between the river 
Tetone and Mand;^n villages. They were once powerful ; 
ar.d are of Pawnee origin. 

The M ndans are described as a friendly and hospitable 
nation — they have been reduced by war and the Sioux, to 
about 1250 souls. Their towns are defended by a strong 
stockade, and are situated in the Great bend of the Missouri, 
35 miles above the Ricaras. 

The Ahwahawas, are a small nation, live three miles above 
the Mindans, whom they resemble in their persons and man- 
ners; they have about 5.5 warriors and 250 inhabitants. 

The Minetares, or Orosse Venfres, (big bellies.) They 
claim no lands except what they occupy. Their villages are 
on Knife river, five miles above the Mandan towr.s. There 
is a great scarcity of wood in the neighborhood of these towns, 
which induces them to leave their liomes iu cold seasons, anJ 


%eek a shelter on the bottoms of Roche Jaune and the IMis- 

The ChJens, or Dog Indians emigrated from the borders 
of Red river of Hudson bay, but now wander on the banks 
of Chien river. Their numbers are about 1 250 souls. 

The Katas, 350 strong, reside ou the north and south forfcis 
of CJjien river. 

The Nemausins are a small tribe inhabiting the south forks 
•f Chien river. 

The Datomes live on the head waters of Chien river, and 
have only 50 warriors. 

The Castahanas, are very strong, and roam in an open coun- 
try between the head waters of Roche Jaune (Yellow Stone) 
and Platte rivers, and raise great numbers of horses and mules, 
are friendly to whites, but maintain a defensive war with the 

The Quehatsas or Gens de Corbeau, (Crow Indians) are a 
peaeeful nation ; they live on both sides of Roche Jaune riv- 
er; and are divi<led into four band;?. 

Ihe Gens de Panse, (Paunch Indians) reside on the heads 
of Roche Jaune and B<ghor« rivers, tind can count 850 war- 

The Snake Indians inhabit the Rocky mountains, from the 
head wuteFS of the Mssouri to the sources of the Arkansas. 
They are an inofFenbive people, and greatly oppressed by 
their neighbors, 

The Aliatons, of the west, live south of the Snake Indians, 
pear the Spanish frontier ; they have very few arras ; but of- 
ten attack the Spaniards successfully, only with bows and 

The Tutseewas or Flat-heads, live on the west side of the 
Rocky Mountains ; little is known of their h'tbits and villages. 

South of the Arkansas, on the head branches of Redriver, 
»nd beyond the Sabine are the following nations, viz : 

The Caddoquics, a small, but martial tribe residing on Re4 
river of the Mississippi, 


The Yatasees live on the same river, below the Caddo 
towns ; the Spanish government claim jurisdiction over them. 

The Nandaquies live on the Sabine and Rio Toyac. 

The Adaize live on lake Macadon ; their language is so dif- 
ficult to understand, that no nation it is said, can speak tea 
words of it. 

The Aliche reside near Nacogdoches on E-io BrassQS. 

The Keychies inhabit the eastern shores of the Rio Trini- 
ty, near the road from Natchitoches to St. Antonio. 

The Tachies reside on a branch of the Sabine. 

The Nebadaches are settled on the same stream.- 

The Bedies live to the south of Nacogdoches. 

The Mayes live on the bay of the St. Bernard near the 
l)30uth of Guadaloupe river. They are at perpetual war with 
the Spaniards, but friendly to the French. 

The Carankouas, live on a peninsula in the bay of St. Ber=! 
nard ; they are epemies to the Spaniardsj byt kind to the 

The Tetaus or Comanches, a powerful vagrant tribe, roam 
at will over the immense prairie region, stretching from the 
head waters of the Arkansas to the Rio del Norte. They 
never reside at the same place but a few days ; the buifaioe 
is their principal food. They travel on horseback. 

The above nations, escept the last, which resides between 
Red river and the Rio Guadaloupe, inhabit a country abound- 
ing in deer and bufifaloe, aad wild horses. They cultivate 
the richest soil and are generally harmless and friendly ; they 
are reduced in numbers from thirty to two hundred warriors. 


yames of Tribes, 

Assiiiibions, ; 



. 1,250 

Total No. souh. 









. 8,835 





liames of Tribes. 

Warriors. Total No. sryuls. 














Osages, . . , , 




Kanzas, . , , . 

, 465 



Pawnees, , , 




OUoes, &c. 




Blahas, , . . 



Poncars, , . 



Hicaras, , . , 












Chiens, . . . 



Wetapahatoes and Kiawas, 






Kites, . . . .. 



Katas, . , . . 






Dotaraes, . ,, 









Gens de Panse, : 






Alliatans of the west, 






Yattasees, " . 









Aliche or Heiche^ 


' 25 










Bedies, > 

> . 









Corankouas, . . 550 2,500 

Tetaus or Comacches, . . 5,500 

Total, 30,920 103,025 


Two millions five hundred thousand acres of bounty lands 
are surveyed in the Missouri territory, bet^Feen latitude 35 
and 40 degrees north, and longitude 10 and 12 degrees west 
from the city of Washington. This tract is wateied by the 
Missouri, Gasconade, John's river, Gravel, Great Osage, &c.; 
and is chiefly of the first quality, prairie and woodland inter- 
spersed ; the timbered land is covered with tall canes, a sure 
indication of a warm and productive soil. These lands are 
capable of sustaining a numerous population ; and from their 
advantageous local situation, will rapidly enhance in value.* 


The Sioux country, on the Wabisipinekan, St. Peters, and 
Yellow river, abounds with ancient entrenchments, mounds, 
and fortifications. Similar works were discovered by Lewis 
and Clark, and by later travellers on the Missouri, Osage, 
Platte, &c. Six miles west of St. Louis, is a place called the 
" valley of bones," Where the ground is promiscuously strew- 
ed with human and animal bones ; some of the latter havc 
been discovered of an enormous size. 

* " The emigration to this country continues to an unparalleled extent. This i» 
yrobably the easiest unsettled country in tlie world to commence (arming in. The 
emigrant has only to locate himself on the edge of. a prairie, and he has tlie one 
half of his farm a heavy forest and the other half a fertile plain or meadow, cov- 
ered with a thick sward of fine grass : he has then only to fence in his ground and 
put in his crop. The country abounds with salines and salt works sufficient to suiv 
ply tlie inhabitants wijh good salt : a Tiavigation to almost every man's door, wliicli 
■will "ive him a market for all his surplus produce, and bring to him all the neces- 
sary articles of merchandise The soil and climate are favorable to the growth of 
Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, <:(iiton, t bacco, hemp, flax, and almost all k'nds 
of vegetables which grow in tiiR United States. Take the country for all in all, 
i believe tlie)e is uo section of tlie U. States has ever opened such a great and ad- 
vantageous lield for enterprise, either for the indu.-^trious laboiing nranorfor he 
tteddi, professisual character." 

[E:ttrad </ a ktter/rom Fort Osage, Feb. 28, 1817. 


Porrasd from the western part of the Mississippi Territo- 
ry, C^iot j/st named^J is bounded as follows i B.^gianing on 
the river Mississippi at the point where the southern bouida- 
ry line of the state of Tennessee strikes the same, therxe east 
along the said boimdary line to the Tennessee river, thence 
up the same to the mouth of Bear preek, thence by a direct 
line to the northwest corner of the county of W ishlngtoDj 
thence due south to the Gulf of Mexico, thence westwardij, 
inchidiug ail islands within six leagues of the shore, to the 
most eastern junction of Pearl river with lake Borgne, theocfr 
up said river to the thirty-first degree of north latitude, thence 
west along the said degree of latitude to the Mississippi river, 
thence up the same to the place of beginning. 

It is situated between 30 and 35 N. lat. and 8, and 14 W. 
longitude. Length from North to South, about 340 miles, 
breadih about 150, containing about 45,000 square miles, or 
30,000,000 acres. 


All the principal streams of this state have a southern di- 
rection, flowing into the ^Mississippi, the Tomoigbee, and Gulf 
of Mexico. 

The Mississippi winds along its western frontier, 572 miles. 
The streams which join it from the south in this distance are. 

The Yazoo river which Jieads neart-ie Tennessee bounda- 
ry line jn lat. ''j5. It has numerous head branches of exrel- 
kr,t water. Ii joins the Mississippi at right angle?, 1 12 miles 

* TUe coaveation will i)rohab!y adopt th^i ol " Mim'ssippi.'^ 



above Natchez. It is 280 yards w'lie at its mouth, of a gen* 
tie current, and navigable about 100 miles. It waters thai 
part of the state lying bet^veen the Tennessee boundary, 
the Mississippi gr>d the road leading from the Muscle shoals 
to Natchez. Big Black river enters the Mississippi about 
50 miles above Natchez, heads in the Chickasaw country, 
and is navigable about 70 miles in wet seasons. Bayou Pi- 
eFre flows into the Mississippi 40 miles above Natchez ; the 
next streams are Golc's creek, and Catharine's creek, eacli 
about 40 yards wide. Between Natchez and the line of de« 
rnarcation are Homochitto river, about 60 yards wide, heads 
south-east of Natchez near Pearl river, and is a handsome 
stream of pure water. Below this a few miles is Bufifaloe 
creek, about 40 yards wide ; these streams are not fordable 
except in seasons of drought. Proceeding to the east along 
the Louisiana or old West Florida boundary line, ran by An- 
drew Ellicott, we successively cross branches of bayou Sara, 
Thompson's creek, Amite, Ticfou, Pongipaho, Chefuncti, 
and Boguechitto, before we reach Pearl river ; all of which have 
been noticed in the description of the rivers of Louisiana, 
Pearl river, is the largest stream between the Mississippi and 
Mobile, and runs through the Choctaw territory. Between 
Pearl river and the Pascagola, is the Benasouah and several 
other small streams tributary to the bays of Bt. Louis and 
Eiioxi ; east of this bay the first river is the Pascagola a large 
and navigable river. It rises near lat. 33, and runs south 
parallel to the Tombigbee and Mobile 250 miles, expanding 
iie?r the gulf, into a broad bay, but too shoal at its entrance 
to admit vessels drauing more than four feet water ; above 
thia bay, there is a g;ood boat navigation 150 miles; twenty 
miles from the gulf it receives from the west the river Hatcha 
Leccha. Fiftfien miles north of the old Florida line, it re- 
ceives the Chicitasaka river, which heads near the head 
branches of Pearl river, and waters a part of the Choctaw 
territory. Chicka'^iaka receives from the west Chahol river, 
besides numerous creeks. Paisoaiiola receives from the 


jiortli-east Cedar, Pine Barren, and Red Bank creeks, Sec. 
B. tween the Pascagola and Mobile is the bayou Batrie. The 
Mobile river Is onljr 45 miles in length, deep, broad, and navi- 
gable for vessels of considerable burthen ; the bay of the 
•aiie Bame, however, which is 30 miles long, may be consid- 
ered as an extension of the Mobile, which gives 75 miles 
from the gulf cf Mexico to the confluence of the Tombigbee 
and Alabama, whose united waters form the Mobile river and 
bay. The only remaining river to be particularly noticed, is 
the Tombigbee, which wjll be probably found to run nearly 
on the line, or will be assumed as the boundary, between tjie 
newly erected state and the Alabama territory. This is a large 
navigable river rising in th« Cherokee country, within a few 
ir/iles of the Tennesseje river, a fiew miles below the Muscle 
Shoals, being 450 miles long, by its meanderings, from its 
source to its junction with the Alabama. 

The Tombigbee receives a great number of creeks and 
small rivers from the west ; such as Chickasaw creek, which 
enters five miles below Dog creek, flowing in four miles above 
fort ^toddert. Bassa Bagrie, enteriug near the confluence 
with the Tombigbee and the Alabama. Opalee river comes 
in about 40 miles above the mouth of Alabama; after which, 
among others, it receives Sendee, Nooxabba, ^oisy creek, 
Swaa creek, Salabamaby, and Black Warrior. 

Vessels drawing twelve feet water can ascend as far as Fort 
Stoddert, and frequently as far as St. Stevens, a little above 
which are rapids, but which in a good pitch of water, do not 
oppose many obstructions to boats. Six miles below the 
junction of the Tombigbee with the Alabama, the Mobile di- 
vides into two branches, the easternmost of which is called 
the river Tensaw ; this falls into the east side of Mobile bay, 
about nine miles below the town of Mobile. 

A subsequent division gives to each of these channels tw9 
mouths ; and whilst the mouths of the western channel are 
designated by the names of Mobile and Spanish river ; those 
of the eastern are called the Tecsaw and Appalachee rivers, 


Indeed the whol« of the eastern channel from its first serer* 
HDCe fran? tbe rest of the river is often designated by the name 
of the Tensaw river; bat certainly with no propriety, as it is 
iio dJstirct Tiver at all; but merely the eastern channel of 
the main Mobile river. These different channels are con- 
nected by intervening streams ; the most remarkable of which 
is called Lizarti's creek, and tinites the western channel with 
an offset from the eastern channel now called Mobile river, 
foiit formerly the bayou Matthieu. It is by the western chan- 
nel and Lizard's creek, and the bayou MatthicH or Middle 
river, thrt vessels usually ascend the Mobile, especially whea 
the wind is fr.vorable, as this route is more direct than the 
anain western channel. Lizard's creek is about twenty mileSs 
above the town of Mobile, and the distance through it from the 
western channel to the Middle river, is about three miles. 
After getting up the bay, over what is called the bar, there is 
no difficulty in ascending the Mobile by any of the channels. 
That which passes immediately by the town of Mobile, is not 
so deep as that at the mouth of the western channel, which is 
called Spanish river ; but vessels frequently go up Spanish 
river into the main western channel, and then drop down six 
or seven miles, to the town of Mobile. If you leave the bay, 
and proceed up Spanish river, and then continue up the main 
western channel to Fort Stoddert,you will generally findfrooi 
four to five fathoms of water in the middle of the river, and 
about twelve feet near the bank. The shallowest part of the 
river is near Simon^a bluff, where there is only 7 feet of wa- 
ter. The population fiomthe town of Mobile to the junction 
of the Mobile, or Tombigbee, with the Alabama, is very tri- 
fling indeed: and the lowness of the land adjacent to the riv- 
er for thirty miles above the town, with the indilFerent quali- 
ty of the high lands contigtioHS to it, forbid the expectation , 
of any rspld increase of population. The higli land approach- 
es the river at seven places in the space of loity miles, and 
at each of these places a family or two reolde. . The coun- 
try |)ehind is generally uninhabited. The dtitunces of th?' 


severni bkiffi or highlands near the river, are as folio h^t 
From Mobile to the Bayou St. Louis, four miles; thence to 
Dubroca's bluff, seventeen ; Chaste ng*s, or the old French 
fort, six; Slmonl bluff, six; Bazil Chastang's, three ; Cedat 
creek, two ,. Fort Stoddert, six ; total 44 miles. 

The entrance of Mobile bay is in N. lat. 30 15; the aver-> 
cr«ge width of the bay is about twelve miles. Opposite ita 
jnouth is Dauphin island extending from east to west about i 
seven miles. The coasters from Lake Ponchartrain and bay- 
ou St. John enter the bay through the strait between the 
west end of the island and the main land ; the water in this 
pass is very shoal, and is incapable of receiving vessels draw- 
ing more than five feet of water. Vessels from Pensacola, 
the West Indies and other places, enter the bay between 
Dauphin Island and Mobile Point, or the extremity of the 
main land on the eastern shore. Between Dauphin Island 
and Mobile Point, there are eighteen feet of water, and the 
channel is so near that you may throw a biscuit on shore. 
Proceeding up the bay, you find three fathoms of water for 
about ten miles. Then you have thirteen feet for about eight 
miles further, or to within nine or ten miles of Dog river, 
which is three leagues below the town of Mobile. From the 
place last mentioned below Dog river to the upper end of the 
bay, the depth of water is about twelve and a half, except at 
the shoal which extends across the bay, and is called the bar> 
over which you cannot calculate on more than eleven feet of 
water. From one end of the bay to the other, the water is 
very shallow for a considerable distance from the shore. The 
bay appears well adapted to vessels of about 150 tons bur- 
then; but the cotton and lumber, which will become th.^ sta- 
ple articles of the country, would render vessels of 300 tons 
more eligible. 

The Tennessee river forms the north eastern boundary of 
the state for about 50 miles: thus it will be seen by reference 
to the M.:p of the late Mississippi territory, that the new state 
is peninsuluted by the Siisijissippi, Gulf of Mexico, Mobile, 


Tombigbee and Tennessee rivers. The northern half of the 
state may be said to be well watered by pure and wholesome 
streams, more especially that part drained by the head creeks 
of the Natarchucky, [main branch of the Tombigbee] Black 
Warrior, [eastern branch of the Tombigbee,] and Yazoo riv- 
ers, which interlock at numerous points. The southern 
part of the state abounds with an abundance of navigable 
streams, but having sluggish currents, the water is neither 
so pure nor so wholesome. 


The distance from the mouth of Pearl river to the entrance 
of Mobile bay is about one hundred miles. The coast is in- 
dented with numerous bays and lined with a great number 
©f islands. The navigation from lake Borgne to Mobile is safe 
and easy for light vessels. The bay of St, Louis is 25 miles 
east of the mouth of Pearl river ; h about ten miles leng and 
four wide, timbered by a low country of pine forests, and cy- 
press swamps, except where the ground has been cleared by 
the few French inhabitants who have settled on its margin. 
Two miles east of the bay is Pass Christian ; the coast for 
a short space is high, commanding, and healthy, and is resort- 
ed to in autumn by many of the inhabitants of New-Orleans, 
who here find an airy and healthful situation during the sickly 
season. From Pass Christian to the bay of Biloxi, is 24 miles ; 
this bay is ten or twelve miles deep, but narrow ; a number of 
French are settled on its borders. Pascagola bay is the next 
harbor, but only for light vessels. It is about four miles 
across the several branches of the Pascagola, and the inter- 
veninp; marshes, intersected by bayous and cut-offs ; from 
thence to Mobile, a distance of 45 miles, the coast presents 
low, sandy banks, covered with pine forests, with very few 
settlements, to cheer the way and relieve the fatiguing same- 
aees of the prospect. 



In order to form a correct idea of the surface, soil and tita- 
her of this state, it would be necessary to travel from the 
fiionth of Pearl or Pascagola rivers, northwardly, to the Ten- 
nessee boundary line ; the first hundred miles would be through 
forests of the long leaved pine, interspersed with cypress 
■waraps, bay galls, and open prairies — ^the surface generally 
«hampaign ; but occasionally swelling into hills of moderate ele- 
vation, and receding into vast prairies, inundated marshes 
and pestilential swamps. A considerable proportion, of this 
part of the country is susceptible of successful cultivation* 
The soil is generally sandy — sometimes gravelly and clayey. 
It will, nevertheless, produce several kinds of fruit, plums, 
cherries, peaches, figs, sour oranges and grapes ; cotton, corn, 
indigo, sugar and garden vegetables. It has a subsoil of clay, 
from which it is supposed to derive its fertility. This sec- 
tion of the state so nearly resembles in soil, surface and tim- 
ber, that part of Louisiana, lying between lake Ponchartrain 
and the old West Florida line, that a reference to page 126, 
fc;c. will render further description unnecessary. 

Proceeding northwardly, through the Choctaw, Chickasaw 
and Cherokee territories, we perceive a gradual change of 
timber, improvement of soil, and elevation of surface, passing 
from a level, pine, sandy country, to forests of poplar, hickory, 
•ak, black walnut, sugar maple, buckeye, elm, hackberry, &c. 
— a soil of deep vegetable mould of surprising fertility ; and 
a surface agreeably undulating. 

In soil, the country bordering on the Tennessee frontier 
lesembles that of the best parts of Kentucky — in surface, 
Biore rolling and broken — in productions, more various and 
luxuriant. The country boi*!ering on the Tennessee river, 
for 100 miles above and below the Muscle Shoals, and for forty 
aailes north and south, I consider as the garden of North 
America, and unquestionably the Ipest adapted to longevity 


and human enjovEoent. Here is a soil happily congenial to 
corn, sweet potatoes, indigo, cotton, garden yegetables and 
fruit. Even wheat will yield a productive crop. But it is 
the excellence of the water, mildness and healthfulness of the 
climate, and proximity to the navigable waters of Tennessee 
and Tombsgbee, that render it the most desirable to new set- 
tlers of any of the states or territories, within the limits of the 

The long leaved pine prevails from the Gulf coast to the 
northern boundary of the Choctaw territory. This timber is 
tall, straight, and majestic, running frequently from sixty to 
eighty feet clear of a limb — some probably go as far as 100 
feet. The Choctaw and Chickasaw countries abound with 
rich prairies : the largest is on the road from the Choctaw to 
the Chickasaw nation — and is in length near forty miles over, 
from north to south, with a horizon, iu that direction, appar- 
ently/ as boundless as the ocean. 

Almost every foot of the land from the banks of the Yazoo, 
to the Mississippi on the west, and the Tennessee on the east 
is incomparably rich and beautiful, well watered and healthiul. 
A great proportion* of this tract, however, belongs to the 
Chickasaw Indians. The pine lands do not approach witbiii 
twenty or thirty miles of the Mississipp:, even as low *'own as 
Eiiicott's line, forty-five miles below iSatchez; in the iriteriar, 
between the Mississippi anJ Tombfgbee, it extends north to 
the Yellow Fork of Yazoo, in N. !at. 'IS 30. 

The soil of the ricbcsi i pJands is nearly of the color of ash-, 
cs — d;eep and capable of long series of crops without raanuie ; 
the rocks and stones ^re calcareous, intermixed with flint, sand- 
stone and slate. Cacebrakes cover the whole face of the 
country, wherever the soil is deep. Swamps are almost un-r 
known for onf; hundred miles south of Tennessee river. 

The cypress gaiis, which is the poorest species of land, 
contains veiiis of a very fine clay, tit for mapuiticlurhig; it is 
\'erj white, soft and tenacious, and free fronTi gritty particles. 
There is also a great variety c^nifrous and bituminous earths; 


fossils, marls, iron ore, lead, chalk, slate, free stone : amber- 
gris has been found on the covtst. Coal is found on the Tom- 
bigbee, Tennessee, Black Warrior, and several other streams. 
On the navigrible waters of the Chatahouchec, Conecah, 
Mobile, Tombigbee, Pearl, and Mississippi, are immense 
supplies of all kinds of timber suitable for ioreiga markets } 
white oak, live oak, pin», cypress, cedar, black walnut, locust, 
magnolia, hickory, of great size, and conveniently situated for 
hauling to the waters. Vast quantities of luiAber are ship- 
ped at Mobile. 


" The best lands produce cotton of a fine quality ; the ave- 
rage quantity of cotton raised on an acre of land in the f.iissis- 
iiippi Territory, has been estimated at one thousand pounds 
in the seed ; but I think one thousand two hundred may be 
safely calculated on in good seasons. 

I have before me several letters on the subject of the cli- 
mate and productions. Mr* Lattiroore, delegate to Congress, 
from the late Mississippi Territory, considers the climate as 
not unfavorable to northern constitutions; he admits that there 
are certain situations in the southern parts, which are rather 
sickly ; but speaks favorably as to the general healthfniness of 
the country. The following letter nfjameg M'Giiffin, Esq. 
a long and respectable inhabitant of St. Stephens, may, per- 
haps, represent the coimtry in a too favorable point of vie\r, 
if applied to the country south of the demarcation line ; but 
he certainly does not draw a picture too highly colored for 
the upper prirt of the state, say from the sources of the Y?c- 
zoo to the Tennessee. The letter was addressed to a gen- 
tlemen in Louisiana ; the reader will perceive that his obser- 
vations relate to the country on both sides of the Mobile. 

" I believe it [the Mobile country] to be the most agreea- 
ble climate I everexperienced south of my native state, (Penn- 
sylvania). The diseases are less violent and fewer in nuD>. 



ber, more easily removed by medicine than in any country 
north, or even west or south. In this country, we find the 
natives of almost every climate or country. And although 
they expose themselves to severe labor during every month 
of the year, an unusual portion of health is found universal. 
Notwithstanding the southern latitude, it is an universal re- 
mark, that the heat of summer is found less oppressive than 
In the middle stales. The constant prevalence of the sea 
breeze durin^he summer, from the Gulf of Mexico, together 
with the elevation of the surface of our country, satisfactorily 
accounts for this circumstance ; however extraordinary it may 
appear, we have neither the climate of the Mississippi, nor 
that of the Atlantic in the same parallel of latitude. 

The rapid improvement of the sheep of our country, and 
the perfection to which the apple and cherry are brought, 
completely fix the fact, however extraordinary. The Missis- 
sippi and Georgia, both refuse these products. 

" On the same plantation I have seen the apple, cherry, or- 
ange, fig, quince, Irish potatoe, wheat, rye, buck- wheat, flax, 
cotton and Aigar cane, grow well, nearly all of which excel. 
The productions of our country, that we find on the surface 
of the earth, merit an early attention. The lumber of our 
livers are a source of wealth sufficient to enrich the country, 
had we no other ; the groves of white oak are immense, imme- 
diately on the margin of our rivers, the lumber of which is 
highly prized in the foreign markets. The groves of red ce- 
dar are extensive, also live oak, a variety of pines, cypress, &c. 
calculated to execute commercial enlerprize. The cotton of 
our country was the first that was sold in the New-Orleans 
markf- last year, for the enormous sum oilhirlyjive dollars 
per hundred. 

It ought never to be forgotten that when our produce or 
lumber is on hand, it is at once at market. The ease with 
which stock of every description is raised, is alone a source 
of wealth, when attended to. The farmer may calculate for 
yeurs lo come on having no other trouble in raising his cattle, 


boss, sheep, Sec. than that of looking after. The mutton, 
veal and lamb of our country is certainly superior to any ani- 
mal food I ever tasted. The fowling of our rivers is not sur- 
passed by any country in the United States. The oysters 
and fish of the bay of Mobile have been much admired by the 
citizens of even New-York ; and, were I to point out a situa- 
tion best calculated to meet every source of advantages and 
furnihh the best access to enjoyment, I have no he^tation in 
glvii;gthe vicinity of St. Stephens and Fort Claiborne as af- 
fording it; lying in the high country, affording high and river 
bottom land of the first quality, within two days ride of the 
margin of the Ocean from JMobiie to Pensacola, over an excel- 
lent level road between these two places, are found situations 
capable of giving all the gratifications expected from a resi- 
dence in the vicinity of the Ocean ; amongst those the bay of 
Perdido has arrested ranch attention, and has been announced 
by many intelligent travellers and persons of taste, as one of 
the most desirable on any continent explored ; its scenery 
productions and uncommon salubrity of climate, has caused 
many to call it the Montpelier of America. The constant 
prevalence of the sea breeze,tempers the heat of summer so as 
to make these situations very desirable. The ease with which 
southern fruits are obtained at all seasons, the flavor of fish, 
oysters, crabs, and lobsters, would court the resi<{cnce of the 
most voluptuous epicures of our country. As to the valuable 
productions of our country brought to perfection by coraraou 
day laborers ; the profits are not to be surpassed by the agii- 
culturalists of any country. 

Another writer speaking of the Mobile district says: No 
country can have a more delightful climate. Though some 
particular places may be considered rather sickly, owing to 
local causes, yet generally speaking, it is a healthy country. 
If bilious complaints are more prevalent than in higher lati- 
tudes, still, consumptions, pleurisies, rheumatisms, asthmas, 
and the long catalogue of the di;^eases of cold climates, are 
rarely ever witnessed iu the Mi^f-issippi and Mobile country. 



Game is scarce; but deer, bear, wolves, tigers,* panthers, 
wild cats, foxes, ground hogs, and squirrels, are found in the^ 
forests skirting the Mississippi. There is a small animal cal- 
led the " salamander y^^ of the size and form of the common 
rat, the head and teeth like the squirrel, and the eje smalJ, 
like the mole. The hair is fine and of a fox color. It burrowa 
ID the ground, but horizontally. Where it enters the ground, 
it throws up a small hill about six Inches high and eighteen 
inches diameter. It is supposed lo live upon the bark of fiae 
yoots, and roams abroad only at nighJ in search of food and 
water, which :t sips from the dew on the grass ; it is extremely 
shy, and retreats to its hole on the smallest alarm, something 
like the Guinea pig. The jaws are very strong, the teeth 
sharp, and the bite very severe They are to be found near 
the gulf coast. The alligator inhabits the streams, south of 
lat. .32 ; they are destructire to hogs, dogs, and olher anlaiais, 
which venture into the water, or approach the margins of riv- 
ers, lakes and bayous. 

When full grwwu, the alligator is about 15 feet long; the 
scales upon the skin of the head and back are so hard ihat a 
rifle ball wjll scarcely penetrate them. The female scratches 
a hole in the sand or dry soil, where it is exposed to the heat 
of Ihe sun, where she deposits and covers her egg?;, which are 
Latched by its warn)th. '^\ hen the young is hatched it lakes 
care of, a?id provides for itself. The teeth of this animal are 
short, strong and irregular, and the jaws remarkably strong. 
Jf they once g:et hold of their prey, they never suffer it to, 

* Schiil'z relates that in fraversing <he streets of Natclies, lie noticed leopard 

ek'nf hann;ing; at the do' rs of spveral st'ires, which he concluded had been impf>it- 

ert ; Sill liappening to inenlion this ciicumstaiice to a number of gentlfmFO n'ssem 

hied at the hot^>l, wKo informed iiim, <hat tbey ivere animals killed in thecotmir/ 

— ine within tw6ive rail- s of the city, the skin of which me!i«iired fiv<> fept Illf^■e 

jiiches in length, and loui feet in breadtli. They appear in every lesi^eel like lliP 

l«<ipard of Ati'ica, except having a darker stripe along I he back '"i-oni tlx- hfad lo 

ilifc tail. T'ley are called the spotted li^f r in this c ninlry, and allhon^h p,<>' '"4* 

pigjotw, ^T t of late yeare they are frequently met with. 


escape : if large, it is carried into the water and drowned : if 
sinall, it is devoured on the shore. When a deer or grown 
hog is killed by them, it is suffered to float in the water until 
it becomes putrid, and is then eaten. They often bask on the 
shore or on logs, where they sleep. On the approach of rainy 
weather, they make a bellowing noise resembling the bull, or 
rather like snoring in sleep, which may be heard at the dist-^ 
ance of half a mile. They seldom leave the banks of rivers 
and deep ponds, from wh ch they retreat to the water on the 
approach of danger. When they are found at a distance 
from the water, they defend themselves to the last extremity ; 
and when wounded, they will hold a stick so fast between the 
teeth as to be carried by it a considerable distance : the j^-ws 
of the lion but little exceed those of the alligator in strength. 
In many instances, knots of lightwood of the size of a goose 
ega;, have bf;en found in the stomach ; whether to aid the pow- 
er of digestion, or for what other purposes, is not known. It 
disi^ppears in cold weather iu aulumn, and returns iu the 
sprJDg ; except in wariu days, when it rises and basks in ths 
sun beams. Jt is believed that they have no regular winter 
L.ibitatioa, but burrow into the mud at the bottom of lakes, 
ponds and still water, where there is a portion of warmth prO' 
duced by a mixture of mud and vegetable matter. 

The Murena Siren is troublesome to rice planters. Tt 
cuts holes through their dams in the night and lets off the 
water. The body is about t»fo feet long, and in its form re- 
sembles the eel. The skin is thin and tough, and covered 
with fiiie scales of a dark brown color, The mouth is sm ill 
and well furnished with sharp teeth. It has tsvo short legs 
which come out near the head ; each furnished with four toes 
and claws, which enables it to pass through mud and water 
with great facility. It has three gills on each side, and when 
Ihey are opened, res'enible ears. VV hen the male and female 
are separated, they make known their distresses by a noise not 
unlike the howling of a young puppy, from which it is proba- 
te they they have taken the vulgar name. They are said to 



live upon frogs, water lizards, and mud worms, and are remar- 
kable for the length of their intestines. 

The Gouffre is the resident of the pine barrens : it lives 
principally under ground, except when it wants food and wa- 
ter, and is said to live upon vegetables. The shell is about 
15 feet long, and 12 inches wide. It is remarkable for its 
strength, being able to move without much difficulty upon the 
ground, with a man standing upon its back. It digs a hole in 
the ground, the direction of which is a depressed angle of 
about thirty degrees and ten feet deep. In the feottom, a nest 
of young rattle-snakes is often found in the early part of thq 
summer. The gouiFre generally remains some time at the 
entrance of its cave, before it ventures abroad ; and on the 
appearance of danger retreats. It resembles the logger-head 
turtle, and brings forth its young in the same way. It shields 
itself from -danger by closing up its shell, and is rarely seea 
any distance from its den. 


The pine country, which is about one half of the state, will 
probably forever remain an excellent range for hogs, cattle and 
horses ; but in the northern or best part of the country, when 
thickly settled, enclosed pastures may become necessary. 
The cane gives milk and butter a fine flavor and uncommon 
richness. Horses, which feed on it do well, if salted frequent- 
ly — otherwise it is apt to scour them, especially, if not bred in 
the counti y ; besides the reed cane, the native or buffalo 
clover and the rye grass enrich the range. The rye grass, 
when full grown, is from two to three feet tall — the head and 
beard resemble the real rye : the native clover has a larger 
leaf, and grows more luxuriantly than the common white 
clover, which it closely resembles in evfery thing but size ; 
the leaves are about as hrge as a shilling piece, and the blos- 
som as large as that of red clover. 




Is to meet at the town of Washington on the first Monday 
©f July 1817, for the purpose of formieg a constitution and 
stale government ; the delegates are to be elected in the sev- 
eral counties, in the following proportion, viz : 











Wilkinson, , 



















The parallel of 35 deg. of north latitude, which is the di- 
viding line between the state of Tennessee, and this state, 
crosses the Mississippi, a little below the mouth of Wolf riv- 
er ; one mile below which is fort Pickering, where there was 
formerly a small garrison : there are about a dozen houses vthe 
bank, which is called the fourth Chickasaw BlafFs, is from 60 to 
100 feet high, sloping in places, but perpendicular at the 
points. The inhabitants raise corn and cotton, the soil is 
good, and this bluff from its elevated and airy situation, may 


become the site of a handsome town. The period of the es- 
istence of the future city must necessarily be remote, since 
the Chlckasaws, own the country immediately in the rear of 
the fort, and will not willingly dispose of the soil; as they have 
a considerable town within five miles of the river, in an eas- 
tern direction. This bluff has a front of ten miles on the riv- 
er, part in Tennessee, and part in the newly erected state. 
Between this and the mouth of the ITazoo, are only a few de- 
tached settlements ; the greater part of the way wilderness ; 
the view up this river is about five miles. The 34th deg. 
of latitude which crosses the Mississippi a few miles above 
White river, entering from the west, appears to be the bound- 
ary of the alligator region ; they are rarely seen north of the 
entrance of the Arkansas. The forests, the foliage and dra- 
pery of the trees, begin here to present a new and interesting 
aspect, and Nature attires herself in habiliments of richer 
hues — the articles of her toilette and wardrobe, here become 
more brilliant and diversified. The laurel magnolia, the pride 
of southern forests, the stately cypress, unkown to the middle 
states, raise their lofty heads, with proud preeminence above 
their humble neighbors. The cane and cotton greatly in- 
crease in size, and vegetation every where acknowledges the 
genial influence ef a milder sun, as well as the boundless 
fertility of the soil. The trees are curiously ornamented 
and festooned with the Spanish beard, waving to the winds, 
and the earth covered with impervious and wide-spreading 

Ten miles below the mouth of Yazoo river, are the Wal- 
nut hills : the situation is pleasant, the land high, waving and 
fertile. Here are fine cotton plantations, and the ruins of 
Fort M'Henry. Twenty-five miles below the Walnut hills, 
is the settlement of Palmyra, settled by New Englanders ; 
and twenty-seven miles b<;low this is Big Black river. There 
are several settlements on this river, extending forty miles 
up ; the inhabitants are subject to bilious complaints, owing 
ta the inundations caused bv the back current of the Missis- 

emigrant's directory. 233 

sippi setting up twenty miles. Two miles further down is the 
Grand Gulf, which excites great terror in the breasts of inex- 
perienced boatmen, but is little regarded by old navigators ; 
it is nothing more than a large eddy,^ntO Which, if a boat be 
drawn, it is very difficult to regain the current of the river. 
Ten miles below is the mouth of bayou Pierre ; the settle- 
ments bordering on this stream are rendered unhealthy by the 
Mississippi's damming up its waters in times of floods. The 
traveller here finds himself in the proper region of the paro- 
quets — indeed the woods appear alive with birds of various 
sorts. iPigeons at certain seasons are seen in darkening clouds ; 
and wild turkies in frequent flocksi Water fowls are numer- 
ous in winter. About thirty miles up this stream, by its wind- 
ings, is port Gibson, the chief town of Claiborne county ; it is 
a pretty thriving place, and contains about sixty houses ; it 
lias an academy under good regulation ; the country is hilly, 
with rich plantations. Two miles beloW the mouth of bayou 
Pierre, is Bruinsburg, a hamlet of four or five houses. Tlie 
next object worthy of the traveller's notice, is Cole's creek ; 
this is a handsome, transparent sandy bottomed stieam, except 
when disturbed by heavy rains, when it swells to a frightful 
torrent ; impassable, at titties for several days. Fifteen miles 
fjom the river it divides into the North and South Forks. 
Between these branches is the town of Greenville, the capital 
of Jefferson county. It is very handsomely situated on a dry 
sandy plain, on what is called the middle branch of Cole's 
€reek, and consists of one wide straight street, half a mile 
long, and intersected by two cross ones ; the number of build- 
ings is about 63 ; the surrounding country rich and Avel! cul- 
tivated ; roads bad, and travelling often interrupted by the 
swelling of the several branches of Cole's creek. It has a 
court house, church, post-office, several stores and tsverns. 
Water of a good quality is produced by digging about thirty 
feet. A few miles S. W. of Greenville is the little village of 
Uniontown, of half a dozen houses. A few miles further in 
the direction of Natchez, is the village of Suhersrtown, of in- 



teen or twenty houses. The country continues hilly, plan- 
tations large, and the produce chiefly cotton. Ten miles 
below Cole's creek, is Fairchild's creek, a handsome stream, 
aiibject to sudden swells, and heading near Washington. Ten 
miles iurther brings us to Natches^ which is situated on 
the east bank of the Mississippi, aboiit 300 miles above New- 
Orleans, iu lat, 31 33. The greater part of the town stands 
cii a blufl* upwards of 150 feet above the surface of the river; 
the intercourse between the hill and the bottom is carried 
on over a dug way, rendered tolerably easy by its length. 
The houses have an air of neatness though few are distinguish- 
ed for elegance or size. To enable the inhabitants to enjoy 
the evening air, almost every house has a piazza and balcony. 
There is a considerable inequality in the surface of the hill, 
which prevents handsome streets, and extensive views through 
the surrounding country. The soil is rich, and vegetation of 
most kinds attains to uncommon luxuriance ; the gardens are 
ornamented with orange trees, figs, plums, peaches, and grape 
vines. The number of houses is about 300 ; the inhabitants 
are distinguished for their wealth, luxury and hospitality; -, 
this remark is only applicable to the merchants and rich plan- • 
ters ; for there are great numbers of poor dissipated wretches ; ; 
of all nations, and of all colors. The greater part of the busi- | 
T'ess is transacted on the bottom, where there is a large eddy ' 
which enables boats to land with safety and convenience. 
Two weekly newspapers are published, and learning begins to 
receive attention. Cotton is the grand staple of the Natchez 
settlement ; the income of the first planters is princely ; from 
5^00 to 30,000 dollars per ajmum ; some have as many as 
300 acres in a single field, solely devoted to cotton ; they com- 
mence planting it about the middle of February ; corn is 
j)lnnted from March to July, according to the convenience of 
the cultivator. The sugar cane is sometimes planted as high 
up as Natchez, but not with the same success as is experien- 
ced at Baton Kouge. There is no doubt, however, but that 
it wl!! eventually succeed ; at least to a degree equal to the 


demand for home consumption. Labor is almost exclusively 
performed by slaves. A good negro, from 20 to 30 years 
of age, will command from 800 to 1200 dollars. A prime 
slave will attend about three acres of cotton, which will yield 
an annual nett profit of from 230 to 2G0 dollars ; the clear 
profit of the full grown male slaves will average about 200 
dollars, after deducting the expence of food and clothingp 
Sea vessels come up the Mississippi as far as Natchez ; but 
the voyage is tedious and of late years not often attempted. 
The market of Natchez is well supplied with fish ; most of the 
flour and grain is purchased from the Kentucky boats. The 
country for the space of 20 miles in the rear of this town i'a 
settled ; but not thickly, by reason of the extensiveness of 
the plantations, which generally contain from 400 to 1000, 
and upwards of acres. Natchez is much resorted to by the 
Choctaw Indians, whose possessions are within less than one 
day's ride to the east. Great numbers of squaws, boys and 
girls, are employed by the planters to assist in gathering the 
cotton crop. Land is very high in the settlements along the 
Mississippi from Yazoo river to the line of demarcation ; say 
from ^40 to 50 for whole farms. 

From Natchez to the old West Florida line the surface and 
scenery remains unchanged, excepting the sugar plantations, 
which begin to show themselves below the Hoincchitto. The 
first stream you pass, after leaving Natchez, is Catherine's 
creek, about 40 yards wide, and boatable several miles dur- 
ing high water. About 20 miles up this creek is situated the 
town of Washington, which contains about 150 houses; it is 
at present the seat of government, has a jail, court house, 
several stores, and taverns. One mile below Catherine's. 
creek, are the White CiilFi, compofeed of white clay, and 
strongly resembling Twcoty-seven miles fnrlher is 
the entrance of Homochitto, a beaaliful lill'e river 60 yards 
wide, having its branches interwoven witli tho?;-^ of the Amile. 
This river may at present be considered as the n<;riljer/i 
boundary of the sugar region, though it will probably arrive; 


to perfection as far north as the Arkansas. Most kinds of 
tropical fruits flourish here, such as the sweet orange, guinea 
corn, Indian kail, pomegranate, ginger, &c. The country is 
settled on both sides the Homochitto, nearly to the Choctaw 
boundary. Six miles belcw the Homochitto is Buffalo creek, 
a deep, still stream, about 40 yards wide and HO miles long. 
Two miles below this creek are Loftus Heights, about 150 feet 
above the level of the Mississippi ; Fort Adams is situated 
on this bluff, and is now going to decay. There is a small vil- 
lage of 20 houses near the fort ; but villages and towns do not 
appear to flourish in a country so exclusively devoted to the 
culture of sugar and cotton. Five miles below is the line of 
demarcation, run by Andrew Eilicott in 1796, as the boun- 
dary between the United States and West Florida, but at 
present the limit between the new stale and Louisiana, from 
the Mississippi to Pearl river ; it was cut out 40 feet wide, 
but is at present filled with brushwood and small trees. Pinck- 
neyville, a village of 30 or 40 Louses is situated about tea 
miles from the river, on a sloping plain in the centre of a rich 
settlement, and about one mile and a half from the line. The 
country is thinly settled along the line to the Amite, and in- j 
deed through to the Mobile. The town of Mobile stands, 
on the head of the bay and west of the river of the same 
name; in lat. 30 12 north; regularly laid out, of an oblong 
figure. In consequence of the ntarshes to the north-west of 
the town, the inhabitants are sometimes visited with fevers 
and agues. There are many fine brick houses ; the whole 
number of buildings are about three hundred ; there are about 
twenty stores. It has greatly improved since the beginning 
of 1816, — six new dry goods stores, one hardware store, and 
several lumber houses have been recently established ; in 
short, improvements of all kinds are going on with spirit, and 
its foreign trade fast increasing. The inhabitants principally 
consist of French, Spaniards, and Americans ; to'.raxds the 
lower end of the town stands Fort Charlotte, taken by GenJ 
IVilkijison in 1812 ; it is a regular built forties??, with comme' 


dioos barracks. The trade of Mobile is already considerable ; 
the chief articles of export are lumber, pitch and tar, fur, 
cotton, beef and pork, rice and corn. Ascending the Mobile 
the first place is St. Stephens, which stands on the west side 
of the Tombigbee, 80 miles above Mobile, and at the head of 
sloop navigation ; it contains about 250 houses, a printing- 
office, academy, and fifteen stores ; and is a thriving healthy 
place, advantageously situated for trade. The valley or rath- 
er alluvion of the Mobile, is from five to ten miles wide, and 
is cut into numerous islands by the several branches of the 
river and the bayous, leading from one channel lo ihe other; 
these islands are from five to thirty-five miles in length, and 
from one to five in width ; the soil is of the best quali'y, but 
subject to be overflowed in spring and fall ; they are best 
adapted to the growth of rice and indigo. The sugar lands 
are extensive, and are found equal, if not superior to 
those of the Mississippi. 

Eighty miles above St. Stephens is the entrance of the 
Black Warrior, a fine stream from the east ; this is the largest 
above the confluence of the Alabama — it holds out to adven- 
turers very superior advantages ; because it is destined to 
become the channel of communication, between the immense 
fertile country on both sides of the Tennessee river, and the 
several sea ports which will at no remote period embellish the 
bays of Mobile and Perdido. The fact appears clearly estab- 
lished, that goods can be brought from Europe, New- York, 
or even New-Orleans, to Huntsville in Tennessee, by way of 
the Mobile, Tombigbee and Black Warrior, in about half the 
time and for less risk and expence than by any other route, 
hitherto used or known. 

From Mobile to the falls of the Black Warrior, is about 
500 miles by water ; boats that do not draw more than three 
feet of water can ascend it thus far at all seasons ; and the port- 
age from the falls to the Tennessee river is about 40 miles. 

Mr. James O. Crumb, an enterprising merchant of Hunts- 
ville, I believe was the first to make the important discovery 


that European goods could reach the Tennessee river, froni 
Mobile in thirty days, when it would require 100 days by 
ascending the Mississippi, to arrive at the Muscle Shoals. 
An extract from Mr. Crumb's letter will explain the facility 
ivith which he executed his enterprize. 

" I left home about the first of September for Mobile, and 
on my way engaged with captain Bacon to take charge of my 
boat, &c. which I procured at Mobile, drawing about two 
feet water when loaded ; at St. Stephens the cargo was com- 
pleted of some articles that could not be purchased below. 
I accompanied the boat about eight miles, to see her safe over 
Megrois Shoals, a place said to be dangerous in passing over 
loaded boats ; there was at that time a flood in the river, and 
we had little or no difficulty in getting through. Captain Ba- 
con states that he was 20 days coming from Mobile to the 
falls of Blaek Warrior, including five or six days of delay. 
The impediments in the rivers are trifling to such a boat as 
mine, which is about 35 feet in length. The cargo consist- 
ing of brown and Havanna white sugars, coffee, rum, wine, 
oranges and a few dry goods, arrived at the falls in good or- 
der : two waggon loads of sugar, wine, cotlee and oranges I 
brought to Huntsville ; and it is remarkable that out of one 
thousand oranges not more than half a dozen spoiled. In 
eight days the waggons reached this place from the falls of 
Black Warrior, over a road three fifths of which is level and 
the balance not much broken ; not more than three hills of 
consequence are recollected, and a four horse team can easily 
draw two thousand weight up either of them. There has 
been very little labor bestowed in cutting cut the road, and 
i discovered that by turning it a little from its windings, it 
could greatly be improved ; the distance I suppose from 
Huntsville to the falls of the Black Warrior is about 120 
miles. It is evident the distance can be much shortened by 
straightening the road." 

From Thompson's creek, near Fort Deposit, to the highest 
navigable point of the Black Warrior is aboHt forty miles : 


the last stream at this point is between 40 and 50 yards wide, 
and not easily forded at a common pitch of water, and the 
current very gentle. There aie shoals below, for the dist- 
ance of about 30 miles, but it is not rough water for more than 
four miles, and there, boats have nodilHculty when there is a 
moderate swell in this river. A road could easily be m^ide 
along the portage, capable of admittstig waggons carrying 3000 
weight, as the intervening country is a fiim level vallej of ex- 
cellent white oak and poplar, land well watered and capable 
of sustaining a numerous population. It is thought that a ca- 
nal uniting the Tennessee and the Tombigbee conid be con- 
structed without meeting very formidable obstacles. 

Very important cessions were obtained from the Ghero- 
fcees, Chickasaws, and Choctaws, by the commissioners Jack- 
son, Meriwether, Coffee and Rhea, in September last ; the 
whole together, contain about 13,000 square miles, or 8,320,i 
000 acres, of land of the first quality, and delightfully situated 
on both banks of the Tennessee above and below the Muscle 
Shoals ; on Duck, Elk river, Buffalo, Beech, Caney and Bear 
creeks, Blackwarrior, Natarchucky, Tombigbee, Cahabp, &c. 
Thousands of adventurers in the soutbera states, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee, have their eyes upon this favorite tract ; the 
IMuscle Shoals may be considered as the focus of emigration, 
for two or three seasons, in the course of which, every lot wil! 
unquestionably be settled or at least purchased. 

There is at this moment a population of Hpwards of 15,000 
souls in iMadison county ; which six years ago was a howling 
wilderness. The new purchases will admit of at least sis new 
counties, as large, and fertile as Madison. 

The Muscle Sitoals are about 100 miles south of Nashville ; 
a town will, in the course of the present year, be laid oat near 
them ; there is a good blnfffor a town, and a large convenient 
spring, on the south side of the river, three miles below tha 
shoals ; and four miles below the shoals on the north side of 
the river there is a good bluff for a town, wiih a large good 
springs called Sweet Water 5 but which cf these places will 


have tlie most important town, may depend on circumstances 
that have not yet occurred. 

Madison county is about 20 miles square, and is reported 
to have *' produced ten thousand bales of cotton for market 
last year ; and if the report is true, that that county nearly 
doubled any county of its size in the United States, in the 
production of cotton, and if the late purchase in the Mississip- 
pi territory on both sides of the Tennessee, is six times as 
large as Madison county, and was in an equal state of cotton 
cultivation, then the produce of both together would be 
seventy thousand bales of cotton, which Is as much as is manu- 
factured at all the manufacturing establishments in the United 
States of America ; which quantity of cotton, with the other 
produce of that country, would support an extensive and brisk 
trade at a town or towns near the lower end of the Muscle 
Shoals, where there would be a double demand for cotton ; 
one for the upper country trade, for the settlements in the 
middle and upper parts of the Ohio country, as well as for the 
settlements on the upper Mississippi and Missouri j the other 
at New-Orleans for exportation." 

Mr. Crumb, whom I have quoted in a preceding page, and 
who is well acquainted with the country from Huntsville to 
Mobile, represents the cotton of the Tombigbee, Cahaba and 
Alabama to be of a most extraordinary size and luxuriance ; 
"I cannot describe the cotton fields unless I compare them 
to a neglected peach orchard with branches projecting from 
bottom to top, with a stem atiout the size of a man's wrist, 
from eight to ten, eleven and twelve feet high." The cotton 
of East Tennessee, not a degree and a half north of the shoals, 
rarely grows to more than four feet in height, with a feeble 
stem of about an inch diameter. 

The Muscle Shoals are about twenty miles in length, and 
three broad ; and full of islands. In low water they are se- 
riouT obstructions to the navigation of the river. The de- 
scetit is gra»'ual but rapid ; the various channels will affiird 
convergent siluatioiis for an aliiiost indefinite number of mills or 



other hydraulic establishments. A good beatable channel 
could be easily opened through the shoals, for a trifling ex- 
pence, considering the importance of the object. Boats of 
thirty tohs burthen, ascend and descend without risk, when 
there is a moderate swell in tlie river. ! 



Mississippi navigable, . 

. bVl 


. 250 

Yazoo and branches, 

. 270 

Big Black river, 

. • 


Homochitlo, Amite, &c. 


Pearl and branches, 

. . . • i 


Pascagola and do. 

• . • . • 


Bayous of bays St. Louis, 

Biloxi, Pines, &c. . 


Gulf coast, 

. • . « . 


Tombigbee and western branches, 




(of the Alabama Territory.) 

Tombigbee and eastern branches, ] 

Tensaw, Mobile, Fish river, &c. \ 

Alabama and branches, including , 

Cahaba, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Kio- J 

wee, &c. ' 

Perdido, Conecah, Escambia, Yel- 
iow-water, Choctaw and Pea 
rivers, and Gulf coast, 

Ch.Uahouchee and western branches, 










There is only three tribes resident in the western part of 
the late Mississippi Territory ; the Chickasaws, Cherokees 
and Choctaws. The Chickasaws have about 1800 warriors, 
an«i 4000 women and children — they own several millions of 
acres of excellent land, between 36 and 34 north lat. and the 
Tennessee and Blississippi rivers, besides four reservations 
from one to four miles square : these Indians have always been 
the warm friends of the United States, and distinguished for 
their hospitality. Some of the Chickasaw chiefs possess nu- 
merous negro slaves, and annually sell several hundred cattle 
and hogs. The Colbert tamily are the most opulent ; George 
Colbert is the proprietor of the ferry, where the road from 
Nashville to Natchez, crosses the Tenoessee river ; it is worth 
two thousand dollars a year ; his charge is fifty cents for a 
footman, and one dollar for a man and horse-^— the travel is al- 
ready great, as all the boatmen who descend the Mississippi 
tq New-Orleans, return by land through the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw nations, and cross at this ferry* Colbert has a fine 
tract of land four miles square ; and it is said that his bill 
against the United States for provisions, horses^ ferriage, &c. 
furnished during the war, to the Tennessee militia, was 75,000 
dollars. The Chickasaws reside in eight towns, and like 
their neighbors, are considerably civilized. 

The Cherokees are a powerful nation, having a population 
of 14,500 souls, and 4000 warriors. They still own an ex- 
tensive district, chiefly on the south side of the Tennessee 
river, to the east of the Chickasaw possessions, and extending 
from the head branches of the Tombigbee to above theHiwas- 
see east, and south as far as the Estenaury. The following 
extracts, from the pen of Return J. Meigs, sen. who has 
long resided in the nation as Indian agent, will best illustrate 
their character and present habits. 

" In the year 1809, 1 had a census taken of the number of 
the Cherokee nation, which amounted to 12,359. Thenum- 


ber of males and females were nearly equal — they have con- 
siderably increased singe that period, so that including a colo" 
ry of Cherokees that went to settle on the river Arkansas, 
their number is about 14,500 souls — those who exnlgrated 
to Arkansas, as well as those on their ancient grounds, 
have made considerable advances in acquiring the use- 
ful arts, particularly in the manufacture of cotton and woolen 
cloth. They raise the cotton, and the indigo for dying their 
yarn ; they are good weavers, and have at this time upwards 
of 500 looms : most of the looms are made by themselves ; 
they have more than 500 ploughs — this greatly increased the 
tillage of their lands ; they have large stocks of black cattle 
and horses, swine and some sheep ; they have domesticated 
poultry in plenty : and having now an abundance of the ne- 
cessaries of life, their population proportionably increases. 
By means of some schools, many of their young people read 
and write. A great part of the men have adopted our modes 
of dress ; and the females without exception dress in the hab- 
its of the white people. Some of them, who are wealthy, are 
richly dressed. They are remarkably clean and neat in their 
persons : this may be accounted for by their universal prac- 
tice of bathing in their numerous transparent streams of wa- 
ter which in almost every direction run through their country. 
Men, women and children practise bathing, which undoubted- 
ly contributes to their health. All can swim, and this is often 
of great convenience, as no river can impede their way in 
travelling. When the females bathe, they are never expos- 
ed : any improper conduct towards them would be held in de- 
testation by all. Si,nce I have been first in that nation, a 
young white raan solicited the hand of a young Cherokee wo- 
man. She refused his offer, and objected, as a principal rea- 
son, that he was not clean in his appearance, that he did 
not as the Cherokees do — bathe himself in the rivers. Ablu- 
tion with these people wa» for'nerly a religious rile. It is not 
now viewed by them in this light, but it is nearly allied to a 
moral virtue. 


*' I have not been an inattentive spectator in viewing these 
people in various situations; in their forests, in their houses, 
in their schools, and in their public councils. The projress 
of their children in their schools ha& been as great as that of 
any other children, in acquiring the knowledge of letters and 
of fignres. Nature has given them the finest forms ; and can 
we presume that God has withheld from them correspondent 
intellectual and mental powers of mind. No man who has 
had public business to transact with them, can have a doubt 
of the capacity of their minds. Their hospitality in their 
houses is every where acknowledged ; their bravery in the 
field is also acknowledged by those who acted with them iti 
the late war against the hostile Creeks. If a statuary should 
want models for the human figure, he will find the most per- 
fect amongst the southern fndian tribes south of the Ohio riv- 
er. About one half of the Cherokee nati n are of mixed 
blood by intermarriages with the white people. Many of 
these are as white as any of our citizens. There are some 
of the aboriginal Cherokees, who have never used any par- 
ticular care to guard their faces from the action of the sun 
who have good complexions. I have frequently attended at 
the schools for the instruction of the Indian children ; seen 
them by classes go through their exercises, On these occa- 
sions I have seen tears of joy steal down the cheeks ®f be- 
nevolent raec^-men who rejoice at the diffusion of knowledge 
amongst this leng-jost part of the human race. The Chero- 
kees universally believe in the being of God ; they call him 
the Great Spirit ; they mention him with reverence; with 
them, his attributes are power and goodness. They never 
profane the name of God in their own language. They have 
no series of words that they can combine to profane the name 
of God. 

"TheChoctaws are still more numerous than the Cherokees, 
their lands are situated between the Yazoo and Tombigbee, 
and the parallels 34 and 31 north. They reside on the 
Cbickasaka, Yazco, Pascagcla and Pearl rivers ; they /are 



friendly to wbite travellers for whose accoramodation, while 
sojourning in their nation, they hidve established a number 
of public inns, which for neatness, accommodations and mod- 
eration of charges, actually excel many white taverns in the 
northern states. A considerable part of their lan^s are pine 
timbered ; but much of it rich waving, hickory and poplar 
land. Some of them have krge farms, in a good state of 
culture, and many of them spend much of their time in agri- 
cultural improvements. Many years ago they had forty-three 
towns and villages, containing 4,041 warriors, and 12,123 
souls. Snoe that time they have no doubt considerably in- 
creased in numbers." 


The white population of the proposed state amounted in 
December, 1816, to 23,644 souls, distributed through the 
several counties as follows, viz : 





















Total, 23,644 20,547 44,208 

There are besides 191 free blacks, the greater part of 
^hom reside in Adams county. 


Is situated between 41 50, and 4» and 8 20 and 18 
SO west longitnde ; and bounded south by the parallel of the 
south end of lake Michigan, (in N. lat. 41, 50) which divides 
it from the Illinois Territory; west by the Mississippi river, 
which separates it from the Missouri Territory; north by 
the straits of St. Mary, lake Superior and a part of Upper 
Canada ; east by lakes Huron, Michigan, and Green bay.* 


The rivers of this territory have three different directions ; 
a part run northwardly into lake Superior : others westward- 
}y into the Mississippi ; some eastwardly into lake Michigan 
and the Illinois. 

The following streams water the eastern side of the territo- 
ry, and fall into the Illinois, lake Michigan, Green bay and 
lake Huron. 

Fox river which heads in the south-eastern corner of the 
territory, is noticed in page 22. 

Plein river, or Des Planes, enters the Illinois 55 miles south 
of the Chicago portage. According to Major Long, Topo- 
graphical Engineer in the IT. S. service, it is a " small stream 
rising in the low lands bordering upon the west side of lake 
Michigan, and has its general course in a south-westerly di- 
rection. The valley of this river has an average width of 
about one mile, and is terminated, on both sides, by regular 

• Should it hereafter be found that the south end of Green bay, is sitnated south 
of the southern extremity of lake Michigan, then, according to the boundarips of 
the Michigan Territory, as defined by law, that Territory will include the penin- 
sulas formed by parts of lakes Superior, Huron, and Michiean, Green and Noquft 
bays, and the river Maaistlque, over which the Michigan Territorial jurisdiction 
at preseut exteuds. 


banks, nearly parallel to each other, extending along the riv- 
er about thirtj nailes from the head of the Illinois. In ascend- 
ing this river, also, the banks or bluffs' gradually decrease in 
height, being, as before mentioned, about one hundred feet 
high at the mouth, and only twenty or twenty-five at the dis- 
tance of thirty miles higher up the river, where, instead of 
maintaining their parallel direction, they form nearly right an- 
gles with the course of the river — that on the right taking an 
easterly, and that on the left a north-westerly course ; but 
being gradually inflected from these courses, they form an 
extensive curve, encircling a large tract of flat prairie, in no 
part elevated more than twelve or fourteen feet above the 
common level of the water in this vicinity. The river 
throughout the above mentioned distance has four or five short 
rapids or ripples, that make their appearance only in times 
of very low water. In every other part it has the appear- 
ance ef being a chain of stagnant pools and small lakes, af!<)rd- 
ing a sufficient depth of water for boats of moderate draught. 

Ascending the Illinois about 70 miles further, we arrive at 
the mouth of the Depage ; this stream closely resembles the 
Plein in the height of its bluffs, width of its valley, soil and 
timber. It takes its rise a few miles west of the Plein, and 
has a course nearly parallel with it. 

" Chicago river,'' says Mr. Long, in his report to the act- 
ing Secretary of War, " is merely an arm of the lake dividing 
itself into two branches at the distance of one mile inland 
from its communication with the lake. The north branch 
extends along the westerly side of the lake about 30 miles, 
and receives some few tributaries. The south branch has 
an extent of only five or six miles, and receives no supplies 
except from the small lake of the prairie above described.-— 
The river and each of its branches, are of various widths, 
from fifteen to fifty yards, and for two or three miles inland, 
have a sufficient depth of water to admit vessels of almost 
any burthen. The entrance into Lake Michigan, however, 
which is eighty yards wide, is obstructed by a sand bar 


about seventy yards broad ; upon the highest parts of which 
the water is usually no more than two feet deep. The diffi- 
culty of removing this obstruction, would not be great. — 
Piers might be sunk on both sides of the entrance, and the 
saiid removed from between them. By this means, the river 
would be rendered a safe and commodious harbor for ship- 
ping : a convenience which is seldom to be met with on the 
shores of Lake Michigan. 

" The water course, which is already opened between the 
river Des Planes and Chicago river, needs but little more 
excavation to render it sufficiently capacious for all the pur- 
poses of a canal. It may be supplied with water at all times 
of the year, by constructing a dam of moderate height across 
the Des Phnes, which would give the water of that river a 
sufficient elevation to supply a canal extending from one river 
to the other. It would be necessary, also, to construct locks 
at the extremities of the canal; that communicating with 
Chicago river being calculated to elevate about six feet, and 
that communicating with the Des Planes about four feet. 

" To render the Des Planes and Illinois navigable for small 
boats and flats, requiring but a small draught of water, nothing 
more is necessary than the construction of sluices of a width 
sufficient to admit the boats t© pass through them. This may 
be effected by clearing away the loose stones from the bot- 
tom, and forming banks erected with stone, two or three feet 
high, on each side of the sluice. There are but few places, 
however, where works of this kind would be necessary : the 
extent of the whole probably would not exceed two miles. — 
Thus a water communication between the Illinois and Lake 
Michigan may be kept open at all times, sufficient to answer 
all the purposes for which a canal will be v/anted for many 
years to conae." 

Between Chicago and the entrance of Green Bay, the fol- 
lowing rivers empty into Lake Rlichigan from the west, in the 
order named, viz. Tanahan, Wakayah, Masquedon, Cedar, 
Roaring, Milwakee, Saukie, Skabayagan, Maurice, and 


Fourche. These streams have all an eastern course, running 
generally parallel with each other at the distance of from ten 
to twenty miles, and heading from thirty to sixty miles from 
the lake. Roaring river, so called from a " rumbling noise, 
like distant thunder, which is heard every two or three days 
during the warm season, occasioned, it is thought, by the vast 
quantities of copper, which attract the electric fluid to that 
place.''* The Indians, in consequence approach this river, 
with religious awe, as the residence of the Great Spirit. The 
banks of this river are high near its mouth, where the earth 
sppears to have been rent asunder by some great concussion. 
The Indians never eat the Ssh of this river, as they are of a 
poisonous nature, the water being strongly impregnated with 

Green bay Is about 120 miles In length, and from six to 
thirty wide, extending north and south parallel with lake 
Michigan, at tlie distance of from twenty to forty miles, ac- 
cording to the indentions and projectioiiij of their shores. — - 
It receives several rivers, the principal of which, are Fox 
river, which interlocks with the Ouisconsin, and falls into the 
south end of the bay. Twenty miles north of the mouth of 
Fox river is a small stream called Riviere Rouge. North of 
this are Gaspard, and Menomonie rivers : the lagt interlocks by 
a short portage with the Rufus branch of the Chsppawa, run- 
ning into the Mississippi at the lower end of lake Pepin. San- 
dy river falls into Noquet's bay, by which name the north end 
of Green bay is usually designated. 

Between the Detour, or entrance of the bay and Michili- 
mackinac, are the rivers Manistique aud Mino Cockien : the 
first falls into lake Michigan thirty miles north of the mouth 
of the bay ; it is a large river: it takes its rise from a large 
lake, and nearly co.iiumnicates with lake, Superior; its banks 
are high and sandy, and abound with pine timber. The Mi- 
no Cockien is also a large and deep streaaj, heads near lake 
Superior and flows iulo lake Michigan about thirty-five miles 

* Geu. Hull. 



south-west of Michilimaekinac. Between MicliUlmackinac 
and the strait of 8t. Mary, the rivers Boachitaouy and St» 
Ignace empty into lake Hnron. 

The strait or river St. Mary conneciing lakes Soperiofand 
Huron, is about fifty miles in length ; and is divided into sev- 
eral channels, which form a variety of islands. The largest 
of which is St. Josephs, 75 miles in circumference. Nibish 
island intervenes between St. Josephs and the western shore. 
Sugar island is long and narrow, bending towards the north in 
form of a crescent, and causing an enlargement of the waters 
between it and the continental coast. This is called lake 
George. Ships of great burthen can approach to the sault or 
rapides. The rivers Minaston, Miscoutinsaki and Great 
Bouchitaouy falls into this strait from the south ; the last in- 
terlocks with branches of the ]>Ianistique. 

That part of the territory stretching along the southern 
borders of lake Superior, is well Watered by about thirty riv- 
ers ; the principal of which, commencing at the east end of 
the lake, are Grande Marais, Corn, Dead, Carp, Great and 
Jjitlle Garlic, and Porcupine rivers, all of which fall iu 
east of the Great peninsula of Shagomigon, which projects in- 
to the lake upwards of sixty miles ; between this peninsula, 
(which is 370 miles west of Sault de Marie) and the Fond du 
Lac, are the rivers, Ontonagon, Fair^ Montreal, Bad, Burnt- 
wood, Goddard's, and Strawberry rivers. The river St. 
liouis, falls into West Bay, at Fond du Lac ; it is large, and 
navigable one hundred and fifly miles, and heads near the 
eastern head branches of the ]Mi*^sissippi. The North- West 
Company have several trading houses established at its mouth 
and on its banks towards its source. 

A prodigious number of streams pay their tribute to the 
Mississippi, from the eastj between its source and Rocky- 
river, which discharges its waters in the Iiruiois Territory. 

Ijc Croix and Deer river?, the extent of whose navigation 
is unknown, and whose branches are interwoven with those cf 
the St. Louis, enter the Mississippi below the forks of that 


Meadaw river) falls into the Mississippi three miles below 
the Falls of Packagamau, (in N, lat. 46 20) bears N. E. and 
is navigable for Indian canoes one hundred miles, winding 
through prairies, with pine and spruce swamps in their rear. 
Below this is Swan river, bears east from the Mississippi, 
and is navigable for canoes ninety miles, to Swan lake. 

Sandy Lake river, is forty miles below Swan river; it is 
large, but short, connecting the lake of the same name with 
the Mississippi by a strait only six miles in length. This 
lake is about twenty-five miles in circumference, and receives 
a number of small rivers, the most important of which is Sa-^ 
vanna river, which by a portage of about four miles, commu- 
nicates with the river St. Louis, emptying into Lake Superi* 
or at the Fond du Lac, and is the channel by which the N, 
W. Company convey their goods. 

Muddy river, twenty yards wide, falls into the Mississippi 
about twenty miles below Sandy lake outlet. The next 
stream is Red Cedar river, issuing from the lake of the same 
Dame, and is nearly equidistant between the river De Cor- 
beau from the west and Sandy Lake river. Between this 
and the Falls of St. Anthony, are Shrub-Oak, Lake, Clear, 
Elk, St. Francis, and Rum rivers, all emptying in from the 
east. Clear river is a beautiful little stream of about eighty 
yards in width, and heads in stamps and rice-lakes towards 
Lake Superior. Rum river is about fifty yards wide, and 
heads in Le Mille Lac, which is thirty-five miles south of 
Lower Red Cedar lake, ludian canoes ascend quite to the 
lake, around which is the best hunting ground for a space of 
several hundred miles. 

St. Croix river joins the Mississippi several miles below 
the falls of St. Anthony ; it is 80 yards wide at its moutbj, 
500 yards from which commences Lake St. Croix, two or 
three miles wide, and thirty-six long. This river communi- 
cates with Burnt- wood river, " by a portage of half a mile 
only, and in its whole extent has not one fall or rapid wor- 
thy of notice."t This, with the mildness of its cun eat aiid 

t Pike, 


its other advantages, render it by far the most preferable com^ 
munication which can be had with Lake Superior, from the 
waters of the Mississippi. 

Riviere de la Montaigne, and another stnall river, fall into 
the upper end of Lake Pepin. 

Chippeway, or Sauteaiix river, enters the Mississippi at 
the lower end of Lake Pepin. It is a deep, wide, majestic 
stream, interlocking with the Montreal, flowing into Lake Su- 
perior, and with the Menomonie running into Green Bay. — 
Its branches are numerous ; the most considerable of which 
are Rufus, Vermillion, and Copper rivers. It divides into 
the east and north branches about thirty miles from its con- 
fluence with the Mississippi. 

Between Lake Pepin and the Ouisconsin, the Buffaloe, 
Black, and Prairie Le Croix rivers, enter the Mississippi 
from the east and north-east. Black river is about two hund- 
red yards wide, heads near Fox river of Lake Michigan, and 
pursues a course nearly parallel with the Ouisconsin. 

The Ouisconsin joins the Mississippi at Prairie Des Chiens, 
where it is about half a mile wide. It heads east of the 
sources of Fox river, and is the grand channel of communi- 
cation betweeu Prairies Des Chiens and Michilimackinac. 

Rocky river takes its source near Green Bay of Lake Mi- 
chigan, more than 450 miles from its mouth, and is navigable 
upwards of 300 miles. It runs across the N. W. corner of 
the Illinois Territory, and enters the Mississippi two hund- 
red and ten miles below Prairie Des Chiens, and three hund- 
red and ninety above St. Louis. 

The interior of this Territory, is watered by innumerable 
small lakes and ponds, from which issue the head branches of 
all the principal rivers. These lakes generally abound with 
fqlle (ivoine, water fowls and fish- — each in such prodigious 
quantities, that the Indians are in a manner exempted from 
the contingence of famine. 



The alluvial bottoms ape as rich as those of Ohio and Mi- 
chigan, as is proved by the excellence of the corn crops at 
Green Bay, Prairie Des Chiens, and even on the banks of 
the Ontonagon, on the southern shore of Lake Superior. — 
The uplands and prairies south of the parallel of St. Antho- 
ny's falls, are generally good, interspersed, however, with 
tracts of wet land, rocky prairies, and shrub-oak ridges, and 
extensive strips of a light, sandy soil, only suitable for the 
culture of barley and the smaller grains. High, bald hills 
present themselves, in places, along the banks of Rocky riv- 
er and the Ouisconsin. 

Lieut. Pike, in ascending to the source of the Mississippi, 
found a gradual deterioration of soil and climate from the fails 
of St. Anthony, as he proceeded northwardly. The pine, 
or fir region, may be said to commence at the falls ; " but 
there are some exceptions, where you meet with small bot- 
toms of oak, ash, maple, and lynn :'' the woods, however, are 
full of elk, deer and buffaloe, as far up as the river De Cor- 
beau, (in lat. 45 50.) From thence to Pine river, the shores 
©f the Mississippi in general " presented a dreary prospect of 
high, barren knobs, covered with dead and fallen pine timber. 
To this there were some exceptions of ridges of yellow and 
pitch pine ; also some small bottoms of lynn, elm, oak, and 
ash. The adjacent country is (at least two- thirds) covered 
with small lakes, some of which are three miles in circumfer- 
ence. This renders the communication impassable in sum- 
mer, except with small bark canoes.*'f Above Pine river, 
he saw but few situations lit for cultivation, game scnrce, and 
the country a succession of pine and hemlock ridges, with 
here and there a prairie, and small bottoms of elm, beech and 
basswood. Finally, from Leech Lake, upwards, to the ex- 
treme sources of the Mississippi, " the whole face of the 


country tas the appearance of an impenetrable morass er 
boundless savanna." 

Within a circle of country, of less, perhaps, than fifty 
miles diameter, rise the sources of three immense rivers, viz. 
the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, and Red river of Hudson 
bay— all running in different directions, and discharging their 
waters into three distinct seas. This circumstance clearly 
proves this tract, wet and swampy as it is, to be the most 
elevated land on the continent of North America. The riv- 
er St. Louis of I^ake Superior, may be considered as the 
head branch of the St. Lawrence. 

The dividing ridges, between the Mississippi and Lake Su- 
perior, which in some maps are erroneously represented as 
mountains, are chiefly covered with forests of pine, spruce, 
and hemlock, giving to the country a cold and dreary aspect. 
Towards the shores of Lake Superior, the country improves 
infertility and appearance, and affords, in places, rich bottom 
and upland — whose forests, in time, will no doubt resound 
with the noise and bustle of a " Yankee^^ colony. 

From the Fond du Lac to Point Shagomigon, the banks 
of the lake are in general of strong clay, mixed with stones, 
which render the navigation irksome and dangerous. From 
this point, or rather peninsula, to the outlet of the lake, the 
shore is almost one continued straight Hue of sandy beach, in- 
terspersed with rocky preeipices of limestone, from twenty 
to an hundred feet high, without a single bay, and but few 
good harbors : timber, oak, sugar-maple, pine— uplands of a 
Bandy soil — bottoms rich. 

The country on the southern shore of the strait St. Marie, 
will admit of extensive settlements ; the easternmost channel, 
called Miscoutinsaki, has a rapid, well adapted for mill seats. 
The lands on the southern shore of the river of the 
same name, are excellent ; prairies on its margin, and at 
a short distance back are groves of sugar-maple, in which the 
Chippeway Indians have numerous sugar-camps. From the 
the Sault de St. Marie, to this river, is almost one continued 


The Nortli West Company's factory, is at the foot of the 
rapids on the British side of the strait. The whole establish- 
ment consists of store houses, a saw-mi!!, which supplies lum- 
ber for all their posts on Lake Superior, a batteau-yard, stock- 
ade and garden. Nine miles above^ at Pine Point, is a dock- 
yard for constructing vessels, where reside a ship-carpenter 
and several artificers. At the factory there is a canal, with a 
lock at its lower entrance, and a causeway for dragging up 
the batteaux and canoes, and a good road for the transporta- 
tion of merchandize. 


An abundance of white-fish, are at all times to be found 
on the rapids. Henry, who spent several winters at the 
Sault, subsisted almost wholly upon them. 

" The method of taking them is this : each canoe carries 
two men, one of whom steers with a paddle, and the other is 
provided with a pole, ten feet in length, and at the end of 
which is aflSxed a scoop-net. The steersman sets the canoe 
from the eddy of one rock to that of another ; while the fish- 
erman, in the prow, who sees, through the pellucid element, 
the prey of which he is in pursuit, dips his net, and some^ 
times brings up, at every succeeding dip, as many as it can 
contain. The fish are often crowded together in the water 
in great numbers ; and a skilful fisherman, in airtarnn, will take 
five hundred in two hours." He caught five hundred, with 
his own hands, in the course of a few days, weighing from 
four to six poundis, and of a very superior flavor. Fish of 
various species, but particularly white fish, crowd up to the 
foot of the rapids in such amazing shoals that many thou- 
sands of inhabitants could be supp'ifd throughout the year. 
In the river Ontonrigan, at the rapids, three leagues from the 
liake, where he wintered in 1 765, he afHrms that sturgeon are 
so abundant, that a month's subsistence for a regiment, couid 
have been taken in a few hours. IVith the assi>ituBce of his 


men, he soon caught two thousand trout and white-fish, the 
former averaging about fifty pounds each. 

The three great lakes, Superior, Huron, Michigan, and 
Green Bay, in short all their tributary rivers, afiord bound- 
less supplies of sturgeon, carp, trout, black bass, &c. 


Dubuque's lead-tnines, situated between the Ouisconsin 
and Rocky rivers, and approaching to within five or six miles 
of the Mississippi, are between twenty-seven atid twenty- 
eight leagues long, and from one to three broad. Mr. Du- 
buque's claim to these mineB is supposed to be spurious, in 
which case they become the property of the United States. 
At present they yield from 20 to 40,000 pounds of lead a 
year; and are deemed equally inexhaustible as those of the 
Mareraeg, near St. Genevieve. 

Very specious accounts have been published, respecting 
the abundance of copper ore, to be found in various parts of 
this Territory. Carver states, that he discovered several 
mines of virgin copper, on both sides of the St. Croix, which] 
was as pure as that found in any other country. This wri- 
ter was of the opinion that this mineral would become an in 
portant article of commerce ; " as the metal which costs no^ 
thing on the spot, and requires but little espence to get it oi 
board, could be conveyed in boats and ships to Quebec. 
The cheapness and ease with which any quantity of it maj 
be procured, will make up for the length of way that is ne-J 
cessary to transport it, before it reaches the sea coast ; am 
enable the proprietors to send it to foreign markets on as gooc 
terms as it can be exported from other countries." 

Alexander Henry, Esq. in speaking of the Ontonagon,! 
states, that he found that river " chiefly remarkable for thc| 
abundance of virgin copper, which is on its banks and in it»| 
neighborhood. The copper presented itself to the eye 
masses of various dimeiisioDS. The Indians showed him ond 


cf twenty pounds weight. They were used to manufacture 
this metal into spoons and bracelets for themselves. In the 
perfect state in which they found it, it required nothing but 
to be beat into shape.'' Upon a second visit to the mouth 
of that river, he .took the opportunity of going ten miles up 
its banks with Indian guides, where he discovered a mass of 
copper of the "weight, according to his estimate, of no less 
than five tons. Such was its malleable state that with an axe 
he was able to cut oflf a portion weighing an hundred pounds. 
On viewing the surrounding surface, he conjectured that the 
mass, at some period or other, had rolled from the side of a 
lofty hill which rises at its back. Upon the island of Nani- 
bojou, between Point Mamance and Michicopoten, upon the 
north-easbern coast, our adventurer found several pieces of 
virgin copper, of which many were remarkable for their form, 
— some resembling the leaves of vegetables, and others ani- 
mals. Their weight was from an ounce to three pounds. 

Capt. Norburg, a Russian gentleman, acquainted with met- 
als, and holding a commission in the British service, was em- 
ployed by a company of adventurers, to explore the borders 
of Lake Superior, in quest of copper-mines. He examined 
ttie coast of Nanibojou, and found several veins of copper 
and lead. He erected an air furntrce at Point aux Pins, and 
ascertained that the lead ore contained silver in the propor- 
tion of forty ounces to a ton ; but the copper-ore in very 
small proportion indeed. Near Point aux Iroquois on the 
south side of the lake, 15 miles from the Sault St. Marie, 
he discovered a shod of eight pounds weight — of a blue col- 
or and serai-transparent. This he carried to England, where 
it produced in the proportion of sixty pounds of silver to a 
hundred weight of ore. It was reposited in the British Mu- 

The agents of the Company, among whom were Henry 
and Norburg, repaired to the Ontonagon, where besides ths 
detached masses of copper, formerly mentioned, they saw 
much of the same metal bedded in stone. Tliey built a 



house, and commenced operations. In digging, they foun^ 
frequent masses of copper, some of which were of three 
pounds weight. A green colored water issued from the hilfj 
which tinged iron of a copper color.* 

Mackenzie observes, that he should not be surprised to 
hear of the Americana employing people to work the copper 
{nines. " Indeed," he adds, " it might be well worthy the 
attention of the British subjects to werk the mines on thfe 
iiorth coast, though they are not supposed to be so rich aS 
those on the soiith.'' 

Near the mouth of JRoaring riter, pieces of copper have 
been found, weighing from seven to twenty-five pounds : and 
on Middle Island, near the western coast of Lake Michigan, 
and not far distant from the above river, are found great quan- 
titles of pure copper.f 

If it really be triie that Copper ore exists on the shores of 
Lake Superior, to the extent stated by Carver, Henry, 
Macfeenzie, &c. the feet insures the future commercial con= 
sequence of this territory. I must confess that I was scep- 
tical until 1 consulted a highly valued correspondent, when 
the following answer in a manner dissipated my doubts : — • 
" The existence of the virgin copper is beyond doubt. My 
late friend, Gen. Pike, who was incapable of aught of frayd or 
inaincerliy, assured me he had been on the spot. Gen. Wil- 
kinson, not knowing of Pike's information, gave me the des- 
cription of the position^ and ev^ery particular, corresponding 
with Gen. Pike's account. I know that a company is about 
to be formed at this moment, [Novetnber 7, 1816,] the object 
of which, is to TDork these mines.*'' 

Iron ore, copperas, limestone and allum, are found along 
the shore of lakes Huron and Superior; and lead abounds on 
the Depage. 

* See Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Ternfonei, &f 
t Gen. Hull, to the Rev. Jedidiab Morse. 



As the route from MichiljmaekiDac to Prairie Des GhieHSj 
by way of Green Bay, Fox river, and the Ouiscoosin, i^ 
much frequented by American and British traders, and z^ it 
is yearly becoojing more important, I will devote a few pages 
to a description of the navigation, and the country through 
which it passes. The distance between Michilimackinap 
and the French siettlement is about 175 miles. The wester© 
coast of Lake Michigan, from MichiKmackinac to the en* 
trance of Green Bay, affords several good harbors, such aa 
the islands of St. Helens, Epoiivette, Mino Cockien river, 
Souchoir rock, and the Manistique. The entrance into 
Crreen Bay, will admit vessels of 200 tons burthen. The 
best harbors on the traverse of the bay, are the Petite De- 
troit, and isle JRoche ; the last inaccessible to all winds : Stur- 
geon Bay and the mouth of Rouge river — nevertheless, the 
voyage is dangerous in boisterous weather, as the coast is in 
several places lijied with rocks. The navigation of the bay 
is safe and easy, for large vessels, 

F'ox river falls into, its south western extremity. It is about 
400 yards wide, wit^ three fathoms water at its mouth, and 
navigable one h^udred and sixty miles, to the portage.--^ 
Half a mile fropi its mouth, commences a French settlement, 
extending the distance of five miles on both sides of the riv- 
er, occupied by forty French families, who emigrated from 
Canada and France in the year 1720. They have small 
farms, and raise corn, wheat^ peas, potatoes, horses, cows, 
hogs, &c. Before tiie late War, this settlement was well 
stocked with cattle and horses ; some of tlie inhabitants hav- 
ing from 140 to 150 head of cattle. By frequent intermar- 
riages with the Indians, and a long residence among them, 
nine-tenths of their women are of Indian origin. They are 
said to be modestly diffident, and preserve a tolerable share 
of the ease and courteouspess of" French poTtteness ; their 


costume very grotesque, wearing printed calico short- gownSj 
Stroud petticoats and mocasins. The inhabitants have been 
frequently oppressed by the Indians, particularly since the 
commencement of the late war. 

A fort, under the direction of Capt. Gratiot, is erected 
on the ruins of the old French fort Le Bay ; it is a stockade 
with strong pickets, a bastion at each angle, with a piece of 
artillery on each. It is situated about one mile from the 
mouth of the river, on the left bank, and commands it com- 
pletely. The country between the Fox and Menomonie riv- 
ers, is inviting to settlers : the soil is good, the climate much 
milder than at Michilimackinac, as the trees are clothed with 
verdure at least one month earlier. The sturgeon, trout, 
white-Gsh, and bass, of the bay, rivers and creeks, are equal 
in flavor and delicacy to any in America, and can be taken, 
with ease, in almost any quantity. The soil on both sides of 
Fox river, is very fine, and the wheat fields and gardens give 
it the appearance of a rich and fertile country. The tim- 
ber is oak, walnut, sugar-maple, poplar, elm, honey-locust, and 
pine. The shores of the bay and rivers, are agreeably diver- 
sified with prairies, islets of woodland, and thick forests. The 
inhabitants have always been remarkably healthy — and the 
U. S. soldiers in garrison, are even said to enjoy a better 
share of health than the troops at Michilimackinac. The 
banks of Fox river continue low for two or three miles up, 
when they gradually rise eighty or an hundred feet above the. 
water, from whence commence forests of oak, pine, hickory 
and maple. The shores of this river upwards, to Winneba- 
go lake, is said to be of the same nature ; to which cause, 
and the prevalence of the south-west wind in summer, may 
be attributed the healthiness of the country. There are 
several villages of Fols Avoines, Sauteaux and Pottawatta- 
mies, on the islands and shores of Green Bay ; a small Men- 
omonie village of fifteen houses, is established about a mile 
up Fox river, where a great number of Sauteaux and Ot- 
towas assemble in spring and fall. Nirx<i miles further up, is 


another Mcnomonxe or Fols Avoine village, and another at ■ 
the Kakalin portage. This portage is about one mile long, 
the ground even and rocky ; the fall about ten feet, which 
obstructs the navigation for nine miles, there being an almost 
continued rapid to the fall of Grand Kenomic, where there 
is a fall of five feet ; a little above this the river opens inta 
Winnebago or Puant lake, at the distance of thirty miles. — 
This lake is ten league? long, and from two to five wide.* At 
its entrance, is the first Winnebago village of ten or twelve 
lodges. About midway of the lake, is a Fols Avoine town 
of fifty or sixty warriors ; and near the head of the lake is 
another Winnebago village, of fifteen or twenty houses. At 
the south-west corner of the lake, the Crocodile river entera 
from the direction of Rocky river, with which it communi- 
cates with the interval of two or three portages. The land 
bordering on the lake, is very fertile, abounding with grapes, 
plums, and other fruits which grow spontaneously. The Win- 
nebagoes raise great quantities of corn, beans, pumpkins, 
squashes, &c. The lake swarms with fish, and ducks, geese» 
and teal. Fox river falls into the lake about twelve miles 
from the oiitlet of the lake, and is here 100 yards wide. Sis 
miles higher, is a small Winnebago village, and a lake about 
ten miles long ; about three miles above this lake, the river 
De Loup joins Fox river. The banks of the river are here 
diversified with woods and prairies ; " any quantities of hay 
may be made, and is as fine a country for raising stock as any 
in the same latitude through all America.''| From the riv- 
er De Loup to Lake Puckway, is about eighty miles ; here 
is another Winnebago village of eight or ten lodges. This 
lake is nine allies long. Twelve miles further up, is Lac du 
Boeiif, whioii is four leagues in length, and full o( folle avoine, 
and fowls in spring and autumn. Ten miles above Lac du 
Boeuf, the river forks into two nearly equal branches ; but is 
so choaked with wild rice, as to be almost impassable. Thirty 

* Carver says, fifteen miles long, and six wide. 
t Dickson. 



IBiljSS above the forks, is Lac Yaaeux, which is a perfect 
meadow of wild rice. From this lake to the porta^e^ is G£- 
teen miles ; the river becomes more and more serpentine^ 
and is so c|ioaked with wild rice, as almost to prevent the 
use of oars. At the portage, it is only five yards wide, ex* 
cept where it expands into ^mall lakes and rice ponds, and so 
fcrooked that in navigating it five miles, you only approximate 
the portage one quarter of a mile. The length of the port- 
age is two miles in ordinary seasons, but is much reduced by 
heavy rains ; and it is stated by Gen. Pike that loaded boats 
have passed over when the waters are high. " Near one 
half of the way between the rivers, is a morass, overgro«rn 
with a kind of long grass, the rest of it a plain^ with some few 
oak and pine trees growing thereon."f 

In wet seasons the portage road is very bad— the soil be- 
ing of a swampy natufe, there is for nearly half way a kin4 
of natural canal, which is sometimes used ; a canal between 
the two rivers could be easily ope&ed. The Foif and Ouis- 
CQUsin, rise from the same height;, in this manner. 


The ground, at the head of Fox river, is often inundated 
by the Ouisconsin, so as to form one great lake at the head 
of the two rivers. This portage is about 350 miles east of 
the Falls of St. Anthony. There are two or three French 
families established at the portage. Goods are transported 
for 33 cents per hundred weight — a canoe $5, and a boat ^8, 
paid in goods at an enormous profit. It is said that govern- 
ment have it in contemplation to establish a military post at 
or near the Portage, 

t Carver. 


The Ouisconain is about 100 yards wide at the portage, 
and flows witli a smooth but strong curreBt ; in a low stage 
of water, the navigation is obstructed with sand-bars. Its 
Water is remarkably transparent, and the bottom sandy : the 
distance from the Portage to Prairie Des Chiens, is about 
240 miles. Its banks are pleasant and fertile, skirted by high 
hills at the distance of ten or fifteen miles. The Saukies 
(or Sacs) and Ottigaumies formerly resided on its shores, in 
iseveral large and well built towns. The great Saukie village, 
about one day's travel below the Portage, contained^ in 1 767, 
ninety houses, each large enough for several families, built of 
hewn planks neatly jointed. The streets were regular and 
spacious, their fields and gardens well laid out, in w^hich were 
cultivated large quantities of Indian corn, beans, melons, 
squashes, &c. The lands near these towns are of the first 
quality ; the valley of the Ouisconsin is from two to ten miles 
in width, and covered in places with valuable groves of white 
pine. The hills or mountains cover an extensive tract, the 
soil of which is generally poor, and the timber a stinted growth 
of oak and hickory; stones mostly calcareous. Lead mines 
exist on the south side ; the most important one, is near the 
Detour de Pin. * 

The Foxand Ouisconsin rivers, is the route through which 
the traders of Michilimackinac convey their goods for the 
trade t)f the Mississippi, from St. Louis to the river De Cor- 
beau, as well as all the tributary streams between those limits. 

Prairie Des Cbiens, is situated on the east bank of the 
Ouisconsin, about a mile above its junction with the Missis- 
sippi. There are about sixty houses, principally in ttvo 
streets, (Front and First streets) though sottie are scattered 
along the bottoms for the distance of four or five miles ; the 
ordinary population amounts to about 400 souls, except in 
spring and autumn, when the assemblage of white traders 

* The mountains to the south of the Onisconain were exaoiincd by Carver, and 
found to abound in lead ore — and so plentiful was lead, in the great Saukie town, 
about forty miles below the povt;»«ej ihai h»» sa^ Hig? qi.antiliesof it lying 

the streets, 


doubles this number, besides several hundred Indians. The 
inhabitants are chiefly French ; a great part of whom have a 
mixture of Indian blood in their veins. The village is bound- 
ed by high, bald hills, the bottgm about one mile and a half 
wide. The United States have erected a strong fort here. 
The mouth of the Ouisconsin, is in lat. 43 28. ^ 


Coast of lake Michigan, . . . , 280 

East and west coast of Green bay, . . 235 

Coast of lake Huron, . . . . 60 

Strait of St. Mary, ..... 55 

Coast of lake Superior from its ) „ -.^ 

outlet to the Grand Portage, 3 
Plein and Depage, 200 

Chicago, Wakayah,Masquedon,"l . . 

Milwakie, Saukie, &c. all en- 1 

tering the lake between Chi- ^ . . 400 

cage and the mouth of Green l • . » 

bay, '^\ ' 

Fox river. Crocodile and De Loup, . . 250 

Menomenie, Rou^e, Gaspard, ^ , . 

and Sahidy running into > . , 350 

Green bay, ; ' 3 • 

Manistique and Mino Cockien, = . 150 

St. Ignace and Little Bouchitaouy, . c 120 

Great Bouchitaouy and Minaston, . . 140 
Rivers flowing into lake Superior, American side, 1500 

Mississippi, from the Red Ce- ^ . , . 

dar lake to the Illinois boun- > . . 1000 

dary, (in lat. 41 50.) 3 . . 

Tributaries of the Mississippi, ) ccq 

above the falls of St. Anthony, 5 

Chippewa, Buffalo, Ouisconsin, &c. . 1300 

Fart of Rocky river, and brunches . 570 

Iuteri(>r Lakes, . 150 

Total, 8,100 



llie Menomenles, (Fols Avoines) and the WinnebagoeS are 
the only nations who reside exclusively in this territory : the 
first have eight or ten villages, which are situated on the Me- 
nemouie river, (fifteen miles from Green bay ;) on Fox river 
near its mouth ; at the Kakalin and Grand Kenomic portages, 
on Winnebago lake, behind the But de Mort, and near Les 
Milies Lacs [Thousand Lakes.] This tribe is reduced to 
about 250 warriors ; they are brave and much respected by 
their neighbors, and are permitted by the Sioux and the Chip- 
pewas to hunt on the Mississippi and lake Superior. They 
are remarkably handsome, have fine eyes and an animated 
delivery ; their language has no resemblance to that of any of 
their neighbors, and is very difficult to be learned. Their 
temporary lodges, of which they have vast numbers, are in 
the form of an ellipsis, thirty or forty feet long and fifteen or 
sixteen wide, covered with rushes plaited into mats, and ca- 
pable of sheltering sixty people from the storm. 

The Winnebagoes or Puants of the French, reside on the 
Ouisconsin, Rocky river, Fox river and Green bay, and have 
nine villages, situated as follows : two on Green bay, one on 
an island in lake Michigan, two on Winnebago lake, one six 
miles above that lake, one on lake Puckway, one at the port- 
age of the Ouisconsin, and two on Rocky river* They can 
raise about 300 wariiors. 

The remnant of the Ottigauraies reside between the Ouis- 
consin and Rocky livers. The Chippewas or Sauleaux, in- 
habiting the southern shores of lake Superior, head branches 
of the Chippewa, and other strean-s running into the Missis 
sippi, are estimated at 1000 warriors. Parts of the Kicka- 
poo, Pottawattamie and Ottawa tribes reside in the eastern 
part of this territory near the shores of lake Michigan. The 
Sioux claiui a considerable tract of country on the cast j^i<ie 
of the Minsissippi, above Prairie ties CLieus 




A little below lake Pepin, on the east bank of the Missis« 
sj'ppi, are the remains of an ancient fortification ; the walls are 
about four feet high, extending nearly a mile, and sufficiently 
capacious to cover 5000 men ; its form is circular and its flanks 
reach to the river ; the angles are distinguishable and fashion- 
ed with perfect regularity : the plain is extensive and no ris- 
ing ground within cannon shot distance to command it.-— 
Mounds of considerable height are to be seen on the banks 
of the Menemonie and Gaspard rivers. 


The territory claimed by the heirs of the late Capt. Jona- 
than Carver, includes about 8,000,000 acres, and has the fo^ 
lowing boundaries, viz: "Beginning at the falls of St. Antho- ; 
ny on the east bank of the Mississippi, running southeast aa 
far as the south end of lake Pepin, where the Chippeway riv- 
er joins the Mississippi, and from thence eastward five days 
travel, accounting twenty English miles per day, and from 
thence north six days travel, accounting twenty English miles 
per day ; and from thence again to the falls of St. Anthony, 
on a direct straight line." 

This territory is watered by the Chippewa river and its i 
numerous branches, by the riviere de la Montaigne, and St.. ] 
Croix rivers, besides several smaller streams. Carver is the, 
only traveller, who has traversed the interior of this tract. — '■ 
The country adjoining the Chippewa river, as far up as the 
falls, which are about sixty miles from its mouth, is very level 
and almost without any timber; and on its banks lie fine 
meadows; — where, as our traveller informs us, larger droves 
of buffaloes and elks were feeding than he had observed in 
any other parts of his travels ; above the falls he found the 
country very uneven and rugged, and closely wooded with 


piue, beach, maple and birch. At the heads of the Chippe- 
wa and St. Croix rivers, he saw " exceeding fine sturgeon.'' 
^* The country around St. Anthony's Falls is extremely beau- 
tiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain where the eye finds 
no relief, but composed of many gentle ascents, which in the 
summer are covered with the finest verdure, and interspersed 
with little groves, that give a pleasing variety to the pros- 
pect. Towards the heads of the river St. Croix, rice grows 
in great plenty, and there is abundance of copper.'' 

Carver mentions that the northwest wind is much less pow- 
erful in the interior of this territory, than in the Atlantic 
gtates, and adduces as an argument in support of his position, 
the fact that the wild rice (oats) attains to perfection in this 
region, while it scarcely ripens in lake Erie, and is not found 
east of that lake. 

There is a cave of great magnitude on the eastern bank of 
the Mississippi, about thirty miles below the falls of St. An- 
thony, which was visited by Carver in his tour through the 
northwestern regions. The Indians term it Wd-kon-leebe, 
that is the Dwelling of the Great Spirit. " The entrance into 
it is about ten feet wide, the height of it five feet. The 
arch within is near fifteen feet high and about thirty feet 
broad. The bottom of it consists of fine clear sand. About 
twenty feet from the entrance begins a lake, the water of 
whieh is transparent, and extends to an unsearchable distance 
— for the darkness of the cave prevents all attempts to acquire 
a knowledge of it." A pebble thrown into this subterrane- 
an lake produces an "astonishing and horrible noise;'' Iiy 
dian hieroglyphics are visible on the walls. 


This productive and highly valuable aquatic plant (avena 
fatua) is found in all the lakes, rivers and bays of this territo- 
ry. The Fols Avolnes call it Menomev, and llviiig almost 
{entirely upon it, the Fveach gave them the name of FoI« 


Avoioes, or wild rice eaters. It grows in water of from four 
to seven feet depth ; but always rejects a hard sandy bottom. 
A meadow of wild rice strongly resembles an inundated cane= 
brake ; the plants extend from four to eight feet above the 
surface of the water — and are often so thick that they wholly 
prevent the progress of canoes and boats ; they are about the 
size of the red cane in Tennessee, full of joints, and of the 
color and texture of bullrushes ; the stalks above water and 
the branches, which bear the grain, resemble oats. The 
Indians in order to prevent the geese and ducks from devour* ^ 
ing the whole crop, sometimes run their canoes into the ! 
midst of it, while in the milky state, and tie the stalks just { 
below the heads, into large bunches, in which state it re- 
mains three or four weeks, until perfectly ripe. When the '■ 
heads become ripe, they pass through it with their canoes lin- ^ 
ed with blankets, and bending the stalks or branches over the 
sides, beat off the grain with sticks-^and such is the abun- 
dance of the harvest, that an expert Indian or squaw will soon 
fill a canoe. After it is gathered, it is dried and put into skins | 
for future use. It is singular that this plant has never been 
found south of the Illinois, nor east of Sandusky bay ; but is 
found north nearly to Hudson bay. The rivers and lakes of 
this territory alone, no doubt, annually produce several mill- 
jons of bushels ; and in time it may become an importaiit arti- 
cle of commerce and agricultiire. Some think that it might 
be successfully planted in the Atlantic rivers. The duck 
has become singularly expert in plucking her food from this 
plant ; being unable to reach the highest branches, she pi'esses 
her breast against the stalk and with a violent effort of her 
feet causes it to yield to her strength, which it readily does 
by reason of its slender fibrous roots — having forced the top 
of the stalk into the water, she keeps it under her body until 
she has finished her repast. It is equally nutritious and palat- 
able as the common rice. 



Is situated between 38 30 and 42 N. lat. and 3 32, and 7 
43 W. longitude ; bounded north by the divisional line be- 
tween the United States and Upper Canada (passing through 
the middle of Lake Erie) and Michigan Territory ; west by 
Indiana, from which it is separated by a meridian line running 
from the mouth of the Big Miami to the parallel of the 
southern end of Lake Michigan ; south and south-east by the 
river Ohio, which separates it from Kentucky and Virginia ; 
east by Pennsylvania, from which it is separated by a meridi- 
an line running from the mouth of Little Beaver creek to the 
northern boundary line of the United States in Lake Erie ; 
containing, according to Mr. Drake, an area of 40,000 square 
miles, or 25,000,000 of acres, including water. Its length, 
from north to south, is 228 miles — mean breadth, about 200. 


The rivers of this state, run north into Lake Erie, and 
south into the Ohio. 

The Ohio washes the south-eastern frontier of the state, 
for the distance of 509 miles. 

The Great Miami waters a large and interesting portion 
of the state. It is 200 yards wide at its mouth, rises between 
40 and 41 N. latitude, and interlocks with the Masslsslnway 
branches of the Wabash, the St. Marys andT Auglaize branches 
of the Miami-of-the-Lakes, and the Scioto. Its current is 
generally brisk, but unbroken by rapids. The wide and fer- 
tile valley through which it flows, is sometimes subject to par- 
tial inundation. Its chief tributaries on the west, are Lora- 


mie's creek, which empties into it 1 30 miles above its €m? 
botKhiire; Stillwater, entering it about 50 miles below, and 
Whitewater, which it receives within 7 miles of the Ohio. — 
The first of these is navigable for batteaux near 30 miles. On 
the east, Madriver is the only tributary deserving the name 
of river. It rises in the prairies north ef the Indian bound* 
ary line, as established by the treaty of Greenville, and a few 
miles east of Gen. Hull's road to Detroit. It is bounded by 
some of the finest lauds in the state ; has a brisk current, 
pure water, and afibrds numerous mill-seats. It joins the 
Big Miami a short distance above Dayton, and nearly oppo- 
site the mouth of Stillwater. About 100 miles from its mouth, 
are rapids, where the descent in a short distance i§ said to be 
200 feet.* 

The Little Miami heads south of the sources of Mad river, 
and west of those of Paint creek, a considerable branch of 
the Sciota ; from the east it receives the East Fork, Todd's 
Fork, and Caesar's and Massie's creeks ; it meanders through, 
an extensive valley, and abounds with valuable mill-seats. It 
enters the Ohio seven miles above Cincinnati, and in high 
water is 150 yards wide — its course is nearly parallel with 
the Big Miami, being no where more than twenty Eoiles dis- 
tant. The intervening country is watered by Mill creek, 
which empties into the Ohio, two miles below Cincinnati. 

Between the Little Miami and the Scioto, a distance of 
126 miles by the courses of the Ohio, are the following large 
creeks, from 20 to 50 yards wide and from 20 to 50 miles in 
length, viz. Big Indian, 14 miles above Cincinnati; White 
Oak, Straight, Eagle, Bullskin, Brush, and Turkey creeks ; 
the last is four miles below the Scioto. 

* The British hireling traveller, Ashe, has the following wonderful description 
of this liver, which by t1!e inagic powers of his pen, he causes io fiaru oxd uf lake 
Huron'.! *' Mad river is remarkable for the line quality of the water and the 
great purity of the stream. It received its name iu conaequence of its perpetual 
impetuosity, it being tlie only river in the Westeru country which does not subside 
in the rumtner and fall of the year. AH the other rivers owe their great periodi- 
cal vniiune to the effusion of ice and mountain mows, vhereas, the IVIad river 
isi^uesoatof lake Huron, which aftords it an equal supply without variation of 
*nrl. It alionndsi with fijb, and is so tiansparent, th^t they are driven ^yith great 
facility into nets and snares j and are besides, often speared.'' 


The (Scio/o joins the Ohio in N. lat. 38, 34, 28, heads near 
the sources of the Sandusky, between the navigable branches 
of which there is ashort and conveniet portage of only four 
miles. It is navigable for large keel boats to Columbus, near- 
ly 200 miles from its mouth, and for canoes almost to its head. 
Its principal branches are Paint creek, which enters from the 
West four miles below Chillicothe ; Darby's creek ; from 
the east Salt, Wahiut, Allum, and Whetstone forks. 

The 6rrea^ Hockhocking waters the country between the 
Scioto and the Muskingum— it enters the Ohio 150 miles 
above the Scioto, and is navigable to Athens, forty miles from 
its mouth for large keel boats. Six miles above Athens are 
rapids which prevent the ascent of boats. 

The Miiskingum heads near the sources of the Cayahoga 
of Lake Erie, and enters the Ohio immediately below Ma- 
rietta. It is 250 yards wide at its mouth, and navigable for 
large keels to the Three Legs, and from thence for small boats 
to within a few miles of the Cayahoga. It has several large 
branches, such as Licking, Tuscarawa, Whitewoman, and 
Watomika, which will be more particularly noticed here- 

Several large creeks water that part of the state lying be- 
tween the Muskingum and the Pennsylvania boundary line ; 
such as Will's creek, which falls into the Muskingum; 
Pawpaw, Little Muskingum, Wheeling, Capteena, Stoney, 
and Sunfish creeks, which fall into the Ohio. 

The following streams water the northern portion of the 
state, and pay their tribute to Lake Erie : 

The largest and most westerly stream, is the Bliami-of-the' 
Lakes, sometimes called the Maumee, or Maurice. It is 
formed by the junction of the St. Marys and Little St. Jo- 

This river is 105 miles in length, and is navigable for bat- 
leanx and perogues, throughout its whole extent, in all sea- 
sons, and for vessels of sixty tons burthen as far as the rapids 
Eearly opposite Fort Meij';^, eighteen miles from the lake.— 


These rapids oppose no very serious obstacles to the naviga- 
tion. The Wolf rapids are ten miles higher up. At thft 
several rapids, a portion of the stream could easily be divert- 
ed into races for the supply of water works. The rapids of 
the Miami, near the Fort, afford fine situations for fishing, as 
the river at certain seasons is alive mth fish of various sorts. 
They are often killed with sticks and stones, and caught with 
the hands. The course of this river is north-east ; its banks 
are regular — high, but not abrupt — sloping gradually to the 
water's edge, and covered with a beautiful luxuriant verdure* 
The channel of the river from the rapids, to within three 
miles of the bay, is composed of limestone rock, formed iij^ 
to regular strata by parallel fissures, which sink perpendicu- 
larly into the rock, and run transversely across the river. — 
The face of the bank, for ten or twelve feet above the water 
is also composed of solid rock, and from its appearance it is 
evident that the current has worn the channel many feet 
deeper than it was in former ages. 

The St. Josephs heads in Indiana, and is navigable about 
fifty miles. The St. Marys in wet seasons is navigable for 
perogues, to old Fort St. Marys, about 150 miles from its 
confluence with the St. Josephs, by the course of the river. 
It is very crooked, and the land in its margins generally of 
a good quality. Its head branches include three creeks which 
unite near B^ort St. Marys. The Auglaise heads ten or 
twelve miles northeast of the source of St. Marys, and after 
passing by Wappaukenata, Tawa town, and several other In- 
dian villages, falls into the Miami-of-the-lakes at Fort Win- 
chester, fifty miles below Fort Wayne. 

The Toussaint river, which enters the lake twenty miles 
east of the Miami* is little more than an arm of the lake 
winding through the prairies and forming a vast number of 
impassable sloughs ; its extreme head is not more than ten 
or twelve mibs from the the lake, although at its mouth it is 
100 yards wide; its current is lazy and choaked with wild- 
rice, pond lilies and grass. It is cov^ered at certain periods 
V. ilb geese and ducks, and abounds with otters and muskrats. 


Portage river is an inconsiderable stream, heading in flat 
swampy lands, two miles south of Hull's road from Urbanna 
to Fort Meigs. It is navigable almost to its head, as the cur- 
rent is sluggish and the water deep. It is 140 yards wide^ 
fer six or seven riiile^ from the lake, and affords a safe and ea- 
sy harbor for boats of two tons burthen. Great numbers of 
ducks and geese frequent its water in autumn. The land 
along its borders for several miles is rich and easily cleared. 

The Sandusky' has its source in the same plain with the 
|)rincipai branch of the Scioto river, and winding its course 
through ^ ricbj flat country, in a north-eastern directiooj 
passing the posts of Upper Sandusky, several Indian villages 
and Fort Stephenson, falls into the Bay of the same name, 
two miles east of the mouth of Portage, or Carrying river, 
across the neck, but forty-seven by the coast of the Great 
Peninsula formed by Portage river, Lake Erie, and Sandusky 
Bay. It receives in Its course several large creeks ; and is 
navigable almost to its head. Its banks for twelve or fifteerj 
miles up, are low, and lined with wet prairies. Pipe and 
Cold creeks, fall into the bay a few miles east of the Sandus- 
ky river. These streams water a fine tract of country, 
have brisk currents, pure water, and frequent sites for mills ; 
the last issues from a large, durable spring, with sufficient wa- 
ter to turn a grist-mill immediately at its source. 

The Huron falls into the lake eleven miles east of Sandus- 
ky bay. It is about fifty yards wide at its mouth, and navi- 
gable about eighteen miles, to the forks. It has numerous 
bead branchei^, which water a fertile and healthy district. 

Ten miles further east^ is the Vermillion, similar in courscj 
Bize, extent, and other general features, to the Huron. 

Black river empties into the lake twelve miles east of the 
Vermillion, which it closely resembles in its course and mag- 

Kocki/-Rivcr flows into the lake eighteen miles further east 
It is more rapid than any of the neighboring streams, has 
higher banks, and is considerably larger than the three Idst 

M m 


iiamed rivers. It has numerous forks, and waters a rich and 
thriving settlement. 

Seven miles east of Black fiver, is the Cayaho^a; the 
largest stream entering Lake Erie east of the Sandusky. 
Its course is south-east — current brisk, banks high and ro- 
mantic. It heads in a large swamp, in which also rise^ 
the Tuscarawa brauch of the Muskingum. 

Chagrin riVer runs nearly parallel with the Cayahoga, and 
enters the lake twenty miles east of Cleveland. It is about 
forty miles long, rapid^ abounding in mill-seats, and "subject 
to sudden swells. 

Ten miles east of the ChagHn, is Grand river, a fine bold 
stream, Ivhich rises near Warren, and interlocks with branch- 
es of the Chagrin, Cayahoga, and Tuscarawa. Its course is 
circuitous, current rapid, banks elevated, and dften precipit- 
ous, water pure and wholesome, and well calculated for hy- 
draulic uses. It is not navigable : there are several mill-dams 
across its stream-^one within half a mile of the lake. 

The Asktibula interlocks with the Big Beaver of the 
Ohio, and falls into Lake Erie 26 miles east of Grand river. 
Its banks are high, and its stream too brisk to admit of easy 
navigation ; course, north-west and north* 

The Conneaut enters the lake ten miles east of the Ashti- 
bula. It heads in the state of Ohio, near the eastern branch- 
es of the Ashtibula, and enters Ijake Erie in Pennsylvania, 
about two miles east of the boundary line between the two 
states. Its waters are remarkably clear and healthful. It is 
not navigable, but affords a great many fine mill-seats. 


That portioti of the state which lies between the Pennsyl- 
vania line and the Muskingum river, bordering on the Ohio 
river, and extending northwardly for the distance of fifty 
miles, has an uneven surface, rising in places info high hills 
ai:d faubsiijing into deep vallies; some of the in terminate iPt 


iBJevatcd peak?, and aflford prospects bounded only by the 
powers of vision. Yet most of these hills have a deep, rich 
soil, and are capable of being cultivated to their summits. 

The country flong the Ohio, from the Muskingum to \he 
Big Miami, continues broken ; but the hills gradually dimin- 
ish in size as we proceed westwardly. The bottoms of the 
Ohio are of very unequal width. The bases of some of the 
bills approach close to the river, while others recede to the 
distance of two and three miles. There are usually three 
bottoms rising one above the other, like the glacis of a fortifi- 
cation. The river bottoms bear a heavy growth of beech, 
sugar maple, buckeye, elm, honey locust, black walnut, hack- 
berry, sycamore, and ash, with an underwood of pawpaw, 
spicewood, dogwood, plum trees, crab apple, and grape vines. 
The hills are covered with oak, chesnut, hickory, sugar ma- 
ple, poplar, sassafras, black ash, and black locust. In (he 
western counties, and in the north-western and northern por- 
tions of the state, there h a leveller surface, and a moister 
soil, interspersed however with tracts of dry prairie, and for- 
ests of a sandy or gravelly soil. The north-western corner 
of the state, contains a considerable district of level, rich 
land, too wet and swampy to admit of healthy settlements : 
the soil is a black, loose, friable loam, or a vegetable mpuldj 
^atered by sluggish ,and dark colored streams. 


In describing this state by counties, T have preferred the 
geographical to the alphabetical order. I shall therefore com- 
hience with Hamilton, the ojdest settled county in the state: 
those counties which have not many wild or unsettled litnds 
to invite the attention of emigrants, will be briefly noticedj 


276 WES'i'fillN ^AZE'TTEER; OE, 


This county is situated in the south-Western comer of th© 
state ; has the Ohio river south, Clermont county east, Butler 
north, and Indiana west. It is about 30 miles long and 20 
wide, and is watered by the Ohio, Whitewater, Great and 
liittle Miami, Mill, Deer, iTaylor's and Dryfork creeks. It 
lias a hilly surface in the vicinity of the large streams ; ia 
other parts level or gently waving. The vallies are broad 
and rich, and generally cultivated. The price of unimproved 
lands, is from 10 to 25 dollars — cultivated farms near Gincin- 
iiati, from 30 to 70. Mills are numerous on Mill creek, and 
the Little Miami. There are few wild lands, and those 
of a second quality. This is the most populous county in 
the state. 

The traces of an ancient population, and strong militry 
positioDS;^ are found along the banks of the Miami, from its 
confluence with the Ohio to the Kmtts of Butler county. 

Cincinnati is the chief town, which from its present iraport-s 
ance and certainty of future grandeur, deserves a minute 
description. There are, besides, the villages of Columbia,, 
Newtown, Reading, IMontgomery, Springfield, Colerain, Har- 
rison, Crosby, and Cleves. 

Clncinnaii — At present the largest town in the State of 
Ohio, is situated on the north bank of the Ohio river, directly 
opposite the mouth of Licking, a considerable river of Ken- 
tucky, and in north latitude 39, 6, 30, west from Washington 
city 7, 24, 45. It is aearly under the meridians of Lexing- 
ton and Detroit ; and nearly parallel with St. Louis, Vincennes 
and Baltimore. Its distance (by land) from Pittsburgh is 300 
miles — by water 324 ; from Detroit 275 ; from Baltimore 400 ; 
Lexington 85, Chillicothe 84, Louisville 105, New-Orleans 
(by water) 1736. It is built upon two plains of unequal ele- 
vation; the first called the bottom, extends from the mouth of 
I?.ccr to that of Mill creek, with a medium width of 800 feet 


and about seventy feet above low water mark. The western 
or lower end of this bank is the lowest, and in the highest 
floods subject to inundation. The second is called the hilly 
about fifty feet higher than the first ; its medium width is one 
mile, bounded on the north by the adjoining hills. The 
streets most of them 66 feet wide, and intersect each other at 
right angles. There are no alleys nor diagonal streets. The 
blocks or squares are mostly divided into eight lots, 99 by 
198 feet. There are 81 out-lots, of four acres each. The 
streets which intersect the river, are nine in number, their 
teurse is north 44 deg. west. The first, or uppermost, call- 
ed Broadway, strikes the river about sixty feet below the 
steam grist-mill ; the names of the others are Sycamore, Mi- 
ami, Walnut, Vine, Race, Elm, Plum and Western streets* 
The names of the cross streets are Water street, Front, Sec- 
ond, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Northern. The towrt 
plat covers one entire and two fractional sections, and was ori- 
ginally surveyed by the patentee, John Cleeves Symmes, 
excepting the reservation around old Fort Washington, whicli 
BOW constitutes a part of the town. The number of public 
buildings and dwelling-houses, in July, 1815, was 1100 ; 
the population was at the same time estimated at 6000. I 
visited this town in June last, and from the number of houses 
then erecting, or about to be commenced, and the great infiiix 
of emigrants, the number of buildings are probably augment- 
ed to thirteen kitndred, and the inhabitants to eight thousands, 
About thirty of the houses are of stone, 300 of brick, and the 
remainder of wood. Most of them are handsomely paintedc, 
which gives to the town an air of neatness. The public 
buildings are spacious and elegant. The first court house 
was 42 by 54, and 84 feet high, but was unfortunately burnt 
down during the late war. The new court house is a stately 
ediSce, and stands near the intersection of Main and Court 
streets; and is 56 by 66, with fire proof apartments, for the 
different cownty offices. The Baptist church in Sixth street 
is a neat brick building, forty by fifty-five feet, finished with 


taste. The Presbyterian church is also of brick, 68 by 85 ; 
its aspect is low and heavy. The Methodist church is only 
one story high, but capacious. The Friends' meeting house 
b a temporary wooden building. The Lancastrian seminary, 
ill the rear of the Presbyterian church, is an extensive bricfc 
building of a novel construction; it is composed of two paral- 
lel wings, 88 feet deep, 30 wide, and 30 feet distant from each 
other, connected near the front by apartments for staircases, 
out of which arises a dome-capped peristyle, designed for an 
observatory. One wing of this edifice is designed for male 
and the other for female children. When coi;npleted, the 
whole building can receive 1100 scholars. In less than two 
weeks after the institution was opened upwards of 400 chil- 
dien werp admitted. It is a fact honorable to the liberality of 
the pe©ple of Cincinnati and its vicinity, that upwards of 
twelve thousand dollars were subscribed towards defraying 
the expencesof the building. There are three brick market 
houses ; the largest is upwards of 300 feet long. The Cin- 
einnati Manufacturing Company have extensive stores above 
the mouth of Mill creek ; the largest, an irregular building, is 
350 feet in length, and from two to four stories high. The 
Steam Mil!, finished in 1814, reflects honor upon the enter- 
prising genius of the west. It is literally founded upon a 
rock; for it rests upon a horizontal bed of limestone, upon 
the beach of the liver. In high water, it is completely insu- 
hied, and rises majestically from the bosom of the flood with 
the strength and firmness of a rock in the ocean. At its 
base, it is 62 by 87 feet ; its walls are here ten feet thick. 
The height of this stupendous pile is 110 feet; the number 
of stories, nine, two of which are above the eaves. To the 
height of forty feet, the walls are drawn in, and gradually 
diminish in thickness — above they are perpendicular. In its 
coastiuction, it swallowed up " 6620 perches of stone, 90,000, 
biick, 14,000 bushels of lime, and 81,200 cubic f^et of tim- 
ber. Iti weight is estimated at 15,655 tons.''^?^' This m\\\ 

'*' •Si.;*' PicUiffi of Clacinuatij page 138. 


^as built under the direction of William Green, an ingenioug 
stonecutter. The model was furnished by George Evans, 
one of the proprietors: the building cost 120,000 dollars. — 
The machinery is on the plan of Oliver Evans, and driven 
by an engine of seventy horse power. When in complete 
operation, it will grind 700 barrels of flour a week. The 
Steam Saw-Mill, erected on the bank of the river below the 
town, is a wooden building, 36 by 70 feet, and three stories 
high. The engine, which possesses twenty horse power, 
drives four saws in separate gates : the product of the whole 
is about 800 feet an hour. The logs are chiefly brought in 
rafts to the mill, and hauled up the bank by power from the 
engine. There is a cotton and woollen factory, which car- 
ries 3,300 spindles for cotton, and about 400 woollen. Be- 
sides this, there are four cotton spinning establishments, 
which together contain about 1500 spindles. A woollen man- 
ufactory, calculated to yield sixty yards of broadcloth per 
day, went into operation in the winter of 1815. W^ool card- 
in and cloth dressing, are performed in several places. Ca- 
bles and cordage are produced for exportation, from two ex- 
tensive rope walks. White and red lead, free from alloy, is 
manufactured, sufficient for the supply of the whole state — 
the quantity is six tons per week. There are two glass fac- 
tories, which produce window glass hollow ware and white 
flint glass. A beautiful white sand, is found near the mouth 
of the Scioto. Clay, for crucibles, is brought from Dela- 
ware ; but might be procured in the state of Ohio. I have 
seen abed, in every particular corresponding with the Dela- 
ware clay ; white and tenacious, when moist, but perfectly 
impalpable, when dried and pulverized. A foundery for iron 
castings has been recently established. The mechanical arts, 
in all their various branches, are carried on to an extent and 
perfection scarcely credible, considering the yonthfulness of 
Cincinnati, and the surrounding settlements. Nor are the 
fine arts neglected. Painting and engraving are executed 
with elegance. The inhabitants have a taste for music. 


There are at present two weekly newspapers publi&Iied : tbe 
oldest paper is called the " Western Spy" and the other " Cm- 
cinnati Gazette, and Liherly Hall;''' each issue about 1500 
papers a week. Several respectable books have been printed. 
Spirits and cordial? are distilled for domestic use ; beer, por- 
ter and ale, are made in great quantities, and of good quality, 
as well for exportation as home consumption. Forty thou- 
sand bushels of barley were consumed last year. The ex- 
ports of Cincinnati, consist of flour, corn, beef, pork, butter, 
lard, bacon ; whiskey, peach brandy, beer and porter ; pot 
and pearl ashes ; cheese, soap, candles ; hats, hemp, spun yarn ; 
saddles; rifles; cherry and black ash boards ; staves and 
scantling; cabinet furniture and chairs. East-Indian and 
European goods, are imported from Baltimore and Philadel- 
phia, by the way of Pittsburgh. Lead is procured from St. 
Louis. Rum, sugar, molasses and some dry goods, are re* 
ceived in keels and steam boats from N. Orleans. Salt is 
easily obtained from the Kenhaway salt works. Coal, of which 
vast quantities are consumed, is brought down the Ohio from 
Pittsburgh and Wheeling, in fiat bottomed boats. White 
pine boards and shingles, are brought in rafts from Hamilton, 
on Alleghany ; and afford, by the abundance of the supply, 
great facilities to building. There are three banking compa- 
Tiies. " The Miami Elxporting Company,'' was incorporated 
in 1803, for forty years. Its capital is 450,000 dollars ; its 
paper is in excellent credit ; its dividends have for several 
years fluctuated between ten and fifteen per cent. " The 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank," was incorporated ia 
1813, for five years ; the capital prescribed by law, is two 
hundred thousand dollars. Its dividends have varied from 
8 to 14 per cent. The " Bank of Cincinnati'* is uncharter- 
ed. Its shares are fifty dollars. Eight thousand eight hund- 
red have been sold, to 345 persons. Its notes are in excel- 
lent credit, and its dividends good. 

The Cincinnati University, is a mere nominal institution. 
At present it languishes in embryo. The public library 


contains upwards of eight thousand vohimes, among which 
are many valuable works. The " School of Literature and 
the Arts," is principally composed of young men, and prom- 
ises to become the nurse of genius and taste. 

There is a land office for the sale of the U. S. lands. Nine 
mails arrive every week. 

Seven public roads efiter Cincinnati ; the Columbia road 
from the east ; the Lebanon road from the northeast, the 
Hamilton from the northwest, and the Dayton from the north, 
unite at the head of Main street. The North Bend -and 
Lawrenceburgh roads, enter the western side of the town. 
The Columbia road, leading up the valley of the Ohio upon 
a pleasant dry bottom, is the most used by parties of 

The price of town lots is high — and rents difficult to ob- 
tain. The lots in Main, First, and Second streets, are now 
selling for more than ^200 per foot, measuring on the front 
line. Those possessing less local advantages are sold from 50 
to 10. Out-lots and lands adjoining the town, bring from 500 
to 1000 dollars per acre. Farms below and above the 
creeks, and beyond the range of hills on the north, will sell 
for 50, 80, and 100 dollars an acre, according to quality and 
proximity to the town. 

Cincinnati has four market days every week — two in the 
morning, and two in the afternoon. Beef, mutton, pork, 
venison, poultry, and fish, are plentifully supplied. Native 
and cultivated fruits, can be easily procured. 

Several small vineyards have been planted in the vicinity 
of the town, which promise success. Grapes, either from 
Vevay or Newport, are often for sale in the markets during 
the proper season. 

The remains of ancient works within the precincts of the 
town, consisted of 

1. A circular embankment 800 feet in diameter, 80 
feet broad at the base, and from 3 to 6 feet high. It is« com- 
posed of loam. There is no appearance of a ditch on either 



side ; on the east side tliere is an opening 90 feet wide ; oii 
each side of this gateway, there is a broad elevation, or kind 
of parapet ; from one of these extends a very low wall to 
the distance of 500 feet, where it terminates in a mound. — 
Near the other parapet, are two shapeless and insulated eleva- 
tions about six feet high. 

2. Two circular earthen enclosures of greater extent, but 
so defaced by time that it was difiScult to trace them. One 
of these was on the bottoms, the other on the hill. 

J>. A circular bank of 69 feet diameter, formed by throw- 
ing up the earth from the inside. 

4. Two parallel convex banks, 760 feet long, and 46 feet 
asunder for two thirds the distance, when they converge to 
40, and are finally connected at each end. There appears a 
perfect mathematical exactitude in the construction of this 
figure. The direction of these walls, is nearly east and west. 
There is an opening to the south, SO feet wide. 

5. An excavation 50 feet in diameter, and 12 feet deep. — 
Curiosity has not prompted an examination of its contents, 
to ascertain whether it was designed for a well, a cellar, or a 
military defence. 

6. Four mounds of unequal dimensions. The largest is 
situated near the west end of the town, and is at present 27 
feet high. The late Gen. Wayne caused about 8 feet of its 
eummit to be cut off for the purpose of stationing a centinel 
thereon. Its figure is elliptical ; its circumference at the 
base, is 440 feet. From the depression of the earth's sur- 
face around its foot, it was no doubt formed by scooping up 
the soil — which was not the usual practice among the abori- 
gines. Five hundred feet from this, in a northern direction, 
there is another, ten feet high, of a circular figure, and nearly 
flat on the top. Northeast of this, is another, of less diame- 
ter and height. The last and most important, is situated at 
the intersection of Third and Main streets, and is eonnected 
ivith the circular embankment by the low bank before des- 
cribed. Its venerable antiquity has not been respected ; oR' 


ly a small part of it remains. When first discovered, it was 
120 feet long, 60 wide, 10 high, and of an oval form. The 
order of the strata, was gravel, pebbles, loam, soil.* 

Columbia, is situated on a handsome plain, near the banlf 
of the Ohio, a little below the mouth of Little Miami — it con^ 
tains thirty or forty houses, and is settled principally by farm- 
ters. Newtown, is situated on the Chiilicothe road, two 
miles east of the Little Miami. 3fentgomery, is eighteen 
north-west of Cincinnati, in the Lebanon road, and about 
equidistant between Mill creek and Little Miami. Redding,^ 
lies ten miles north of Cincinnati, near Mill creek. Springfield, 
lies on the Hamilton road, one mile south of Mill creek, and 
eleven miles north of Cincinnati. Cleves, is a very small 
village, situated near the intersection of the Lawrenceburgh 
and Brookville roads, two miles north of Gen. Harrison's 
sseat, at the north bend of the Ohio, and near the Miami 
river. Harrison, is situated on the left bank of White water, 
seven miles from the North Bend of the Ohio, It has been 
already described, (see page 120.) CoUrain, stands on the 
left bank of the Great Miami, about twenty miles from its 
mouth. Crosby, is situated directly opposite Colerain, on 

* The author of the " Picture of Ciacinaati," has given the following catalogue 
of articles takea from the above mou;id, at variuus times, viz: "1. A piece of 
jasper, rock chrysta!, granite and some other stone;:, cj lindical at their extremi- 
ties, and swelled in the middle, with an aiiuular groove near one end. 2* A cir- 
cular piece of caiinel coal, witli a iars^e opening in the centre, as if for an axis ; 
and a deep groove io the circuniference, suitable for a band. It has a number of 
small pei'foratious, disposed in four cquidietant lines, which run from the circum- 
ference towaids the centre. 3. A small article of the same shape, with eiglit 
lines of perforations, but composed of argillaceous earth, ^eil polished. 4. A 
bone, ornamented with several carved lines, supposed to be bieroglyphical. 5. A 
sculptural repreaentation of the head and beak of a rapacious bird, perhaps an ea- 
gle. 6. A mass of lead ore, (gnlaia) lumps of which have been found in some 
other tumuli. 7. A quantity o! isi^{!,ias^•, (mica membranacea) plates of which 
have been discovered in and about oUier mounds. 8. A small ovate piece of sheet 
copper with two perforations. 9. A larger oblong piece, of the same metal, wilii 
longitudinal jijrooves and ridffps. 10 A number of heads, or sections of small 
hollow cylinders, appai-eiitly of bone or shell. The teeth of a, carnivorous an- 
imal, preh-->b!y those of the bear. 12. Several large marine shells, beloufting 
perhaps lo tlie genus buccinuin ; cut in such a manner as to serve for domestic uten- 
sils, and nearly converted int(< the *-tale. of chalk. 14. Several copper articles, 
each consisting of two sets of cirL'ular concavo-convex plates; the interior one of 
each set connected with the other by a hollow axis, around which had been wound 
a tjuautity of lint : tlie whole i-ompa>sed with llie i.ones of a man's hand. 15. Hu- 
man bones. These were of <iiflerent sizes j somelimes enclosed in rude tofEna ( f 
I'loiie, but oftener lying blended willi the ^artli — geueraily surrounded bj a ^joi- 
•..on <ii iiches tiiid chuicoal." 


the right bank of the same river; all, except the first, new 
and flourishing villages. 


Lies north of Hamilton, south of Preble, east of Indiana^ 
and west of Warren, and is about 24 miles square. It is 
watered by the Big Miami, which passes diagonally through 
it from northeast to southwest, as also by several handsome 
creeks, such as Dryfork, running into Whitewater ; Indian 
creek, Four Mile creek, Seven Mile creek, Elk and Dick's 
creeks, running into the Big Miami. The soil of two-thirda 
of this county is fertile ; but there are tracts of poor land ia 
the southeast and northwest. 

Hamilton, the seat of justice, is situated 25 miles north? 
east of Cincinnati, on the east bank of the Miami. Its site 
is elevated and beautiful : it has about 75 buildings, princi- 
pally of wood ; a post-oflBce, and a printing-office issuing a , 
weekly newspaper entitled, the ^' Miami Intelligeticer" In 
1816, there were 2877 male inhabitants, over 21 years of age, 
in this county. 

Rossville, situated on the bank of the Miami opposite 
Hamilton, is a small place. 

Middletorvn, is situated on the east side of the Miami, two 
miles from the river, and twelve miles above Hamilton. 

Oxford, stands near the northern confines of the county, 
has few houses, but in time will probably become a respecta- 
ble town — as a college is to be established in it, according 
to the provisions of a law passed in 1810. This seminary is 
endowed with an entire township of land, which has been 
chiefly leased to settlers ; the leases extend to 99 years, re- 
newable for ever. 

Two miles below Hamilton, there is an extensive ancient 
fortification on the top of an elevated hill ; the walls are two 
or three feet high, and enclose 80 acres of land, hting high- 
est where the ground is most favorable to an atlauk. Three 


fourths of its circumference are bordered by deep vallies ; 
the remainder lies across a level ridge, and here the lines are 
triple.'*^ There are a few openings in the wall, one or two 
, piles of limestone, and a mound twenty feet in diameter at 
the base and seven feet high, near it. 


Is bounded south by Butler, east by Montgomery, north 
by Darke and west by Indiana. It is 24 miles long and 18 
wide, and is watered by the head branches of Four and Seven 
Mile creeks, Franklin creek, Bushy fork. Twin creet, and 
small branches of the north fork of White water, all aflfording 
excellent mill seats. The surface of this county is pretty 
level, soil rich and highly productive ; timber, poplar, ash, 
black walnut of great size, and some oak. 

Eaton, is the chief town ; it is situated near the site of old 
Fort St. Clair, on a beautiful plain, inclined to the south, and 
watered by Seven Mile creek. It has about 35 houses, stone 
jail, and post-office — and is distant from Cincinnati about sixty 
miles, in a northern direction. This county contains several 
valuable tracts of unsold United States' lands. 


Is bounded south by Preble, east by Miami county, north 
by Indian lands, and east by Indiana, being thirty miles 
long and twenty-four wide, and is watered by Panther, Green- 
ville and Stillwater creeks, and by the Mississinway ; sur- 
face level, soil rich, but wet in places ; barrens and and prai- 
ries abound in the north-western parts, timber principally 
oak ; but walnut, sugar maple, buckeye, &c. are common 
on the bottoms, and large tracts of vacant land, belonging to 
the United States. The sites of old Forts Jefferson, Recov- 
ery and Greenville, are in this county : the last has been fixed 

* See Picture of Cincinnati, page 210. 


on as the county seat ; but at present it is only a village of 
cabins : the population is now rapidly augmenting. 


Has Montgomery south, Champaign east, Indian lands 
Borth, and Darke on the west. It is about thirty miles in 
length, and twenty broad ; and is abundantly watered by the 
Big Miami, which divides it from north to south ; by the 
South- West, or Stillwater branch, Panther and Greenville 
creeks ; Loramie's creek, and Fawn, Lost, and Honey creeks ; 
the surface is level, soil moist and rich. 

Troi/ — the seat of justice for Miami county, stands on 
the west side of the Great Miami, twenty miles above Day- 
ton, and 72 north of Cincinnnati. It has a post-office and a 
public library. Its site is a handsome plain, which, howeverj, 
terminates in swamps, about one mile from the rear of the 

TFashington, eight miles above Troy, and situated on the 
same side of the river, on the site of an old Indian settlement. 
It has a post-office, and valuable mills and advantageous situa- 
tions for other hydraulic establishments. 

I am indebted to Jokn Johnston, Esq. Indian Agent, for 
the following interesting description of this county. 

Piqua-TowUf is a post town, situated on the west bank of 
the Miami river of Ohio, in the county of Miami ; and al- 
though not the seat of justice, is by far the place of the great- 
est notoriety and importance within the county. This is 
owing to the beauty of its situation, being the site of the old 
national town of the Shawancsse Indians, v/ho named it after 
one of their principal tribes, viz. the Piqua tribe. The falls 
in the river at the town, afford many sites for water works. — 
The Shawancese were routed and driven from this place, 
about the 1780, by the Kentuckians. It is 77 miles north 
from Cincinnati, about 80 miles west from Columbus, the per- 
manent seat of governnlent of the state, 125 miles south sf 


Fort Meigs at Miami bay of Lake Erie, 3 miles below the 
mouth of Loramie's creek, the principal navigable stream of 
the Miami, and which affords a navigation for keel boats, bat- 
teaux and perognes, within 12 miles of the St. Marys, which 
with the St. Josephs, forms the Miami of the Lake at Fort 
Wayne, and thence running a north course enters Lake 
Erie at Fort Meigs. Piqua town, is thirty miles by land from 
St. Marys, and the same distance from Wapaghkanetta, at 
th^head of navigation on the Auglaize river. Another prin- 
cipal branch of the Miami-of-the-Lakes, which enters it at 
Fort Defiance, fifty miles by land from Wapaghkanetta. The 
navigation of the Auglaize is not considered so safe as that of 
the St. Marys, but it is the shortest route of the two, by five 
or six days, to the lake. Both routes are much used by flat 
boats, keels and perogues, in tranporting the surplus produce 
of the country to the different military establishments on the 
lake. A canal to connect the waters of the Ohio, with those 
of the lake, between the heads of Loramie's creek, St. Mary's 
and the Auglaize, is quite practicable ; and is anticipated at 
no very distant period. It is probably no where else so prac- 
ticable within the limits of this state. Piqua has five mer- 
cantile stores, two ' taverns, a market house, cabinet maker, 
several house carpenters, two blacksmiths, two boot and shoe 
makers, two saddle and harness makers, two Windsor chair 
makers, two house painters, one tannery, a grist and two saw 
mills ; two practising physicians, and one apothecary shop ; 
two taylors, two hatters, a clock and watch maker, and one 
silversmith ; two wheel rights, one blue dyer, one carding ma- 
chine ; one Secedar meeting house in the town, and a Metho- 
dist meeting house in the vicinity ; an association for manufac 
luring and banking, with a capital of one hundred thousand 
dollars, was established in 1815. The Legislature not hav- 
ing thought proper to charter if, the association was dissolved. 
The country around Piqu?, is settled by emigrants, chiefly 
from Pennsylvania, New-Jersey and Kentucky ; they are an 
industrious, moral and religlotis people ; and many of them 


possessed of coDsideraWe wealth. Relig'iouB denomination? 
are Methodists, Presbyterians, Seceders, Baptists and New- 
lights. The country is healthy and fruitful, abounding with 
springs of the purest water. The lands generally of the first 
quality. Timber — the different kinds of ash, the oak, walnut, 
hickory, beech, maple and sugar tree; cherry, buckeye, 
honey locust, &c. 

All the unsold lands belong to the United States, and they 
are to be purchased at the land office in Cincinnati, at two 
dollars per acre ; one fourth of the purchase money to \)e 
paid down at the time of entry or purchase, one fourth in two 
years after, one fourth in three years, and one fourth in four 
years ; and at the expiration of the fifth year, if not paid out 
for in in full, the land reverts to the U. S. and is offered at 
public auction, and sold to the highest bidder. But such is 
the force of public opinion, that none is found hardy enough 
to come forward and bid against the original claimant. He, 
in almost every instance, is permitted to re-enter his land, and 
in this way ultimately redeems it. By the act of congress, 
there is in every township three sections, or 640 acres, re- 
Berved for future sales, and these are held at four dollars an 
acre. A whole section, a half or a quarter, may be purchas- 
ed ; but the government will not dispose of a lesser quantity 
than a quarter section, or 160 acres. When the land is paid 
for, patents issue from the Department of State, signed by 
the President, and returned to the land office, where the 
claimants will receive them, on paying the postage from the 
seat of government. These titles are of the best kind, en- 
tirely safe, and indisputable. In every township there is one 
section of public land set apart for the support of schools. 
No country can offer greater inducements to the industrious, 
entcrpisir.g emigrant, if we regard the soil, the climate, the 
low nrioe of lands, the goodness of the title, and certain pros- 
pect of a market for the surplus produce ; for the outlet ta 
the sea is both ways, viz. by the lakes and the Ohio. Im- 
pi'ovod ];inJ st.i's from 4 to 25 dollars an acre. 


As in all new countries, manufactures are in their infancji 
all the handicraft arts of the first necessity are in use. The 
farmers in a great degree manufacture their own clothing.— 
Sheep are found to answer well, and there are great num- 
bers for a new countrj; Half-blood and quarter MerinoeS 
are common. Great numbers of horned cattle and hogs, are 
raised and drove to market. The price of produce the pre- 
sent year [1817] is as follows: corn, 33 cents per bushel, 
wheat, 75 cents; buckwheat, 37 1-2 cents ; oats, 33 cents; 
pork, g4,50 per hundred; beef, $3,50; whiskey, 62 1-2 
cents per gallon ; a good milch cow, $15; a good working 
horse, $40; sheep, $3,50 each; butter, 12 1-2 cents pei* lb.; 
cheese, 12 1-2; flour for market, delivered at St. Marys and 
Wapaghkenetta, $6,50 per barrel. The prices of produce 
the present year are higher than usual, the last season being 
very unfavorable for crops of wheat, corn and grass. Corn 
is usually purchased here in the fall for 25 cents, buckwheat 
and oats the same, wheat 50 cents, pork and beef 2,50 to $3. 

In the county of Miami there are no slaves, and very few 
free blacks. Slavery in every shape is prohibited through- 
out the state ; and our laws interdict the residence of free 
blacks, unless under very special circumstances. There is 
not any prospect that the constitution of this state will ever 
be altered so as to allow of slavery. 

In the county of Miami there have been several new towns 
laid off: none are improved but Piqua and Troy. The lat- 
ter is the seat of justice, seven miles lower down on the same 
side of the Miami. Having been located in a low situation, 
contiguous to swamps and marshes, it has proved sickly, and 
uoes not offer ever to become a place of any importance. 

The average produce of lands in this county, is about as 
follows ; corn, 50 bushels to the acre ; wheat, 25 bushels ; 
oats, 20 bushels : hemp grows remaikably well, but there is 
Tittle raised. Crops of hay are very heavy, and the country 
is well adapted to grass cf all kinds, 



In the land district of Cincinnati, there remains yet to oe' 
sold^ about a million and a half of acres. These lands lie 
chiefly in the counties of ChampaigHj Miami, and Darke. 
These three counties extend northward to the Indian bound- 
ary. Persons purchasing, for prompt payment, reduces the 
price to $1 ^64 the acre. A discount of 8 per cent is allowed 
on all payments naade before they are due. The lands still 
occupied and owned by the Indians, within thp litnits of this 
state^ belong to the Wyandots, Shawanoese and Ottowas. — 
Several attempts have been made to extinguish their title by 
purchase, all of which have failed. The Wyandots are the 
most ancient inhabitants, and are considered the chief own- 
ers of the soil. It is probable, however, that in a few years, 
the extinguishment will be effected^ as the lands are becom- 
ing useless to the natives, for the want of game. Civilized 
habits are making some progress among these Indians. The 
society of Friends, are the chief agents in this work ; and, 
probably, from their correct habits, they are better qualified 
for the undertaking than any other. The government, with 
a commendable zeal for the preservation of the primitive in- 
habitants, afford every aid and encouragement on their part to 
prevent the unexampled destruction which has attended the na- 
tives of this continent, from the first arrival of the Europeans 
down to the present time. Many have advanced the idea, 
that the Indians could not be civilized. Nothing can be more 
erroneous. All histojy of ancient times, will contradict such 
a position. The government of the United States, have 
never lo?t sight of this object ; and have expended large sums 
of the public money, in attempts to introduce civilized life 
and such of the domestic arts as were suited to their condi- 
tion among their savage neighbors. These laudable attempts 
have, in a great measure, failed, from causes over which the 
government had no control. I allude more especially to the 
agency of foreign powers — to the British above all others — 
who, from their contiguity to our Indians, their influence 
over them, and their known enmity to the government and 


people iof tbe country, have, on all occasions, Warned the In- 
dians from receiving instruction from us ; have misrepresent- 
ed oiir views, by attributing them to selfish, corrupt, and idi^ 
Jiroper motives, and by encouraging the Indians in their thirst 
of War and bloodshed ; by Inculcating on their minds at all 
times that the Americans are their natural enemies, arid to 
hold no confidence with them. These causes, with others of 
minor character, have chiefly contributed to prevent the civ- 
ilizing the natives, and introducing the Gospel among them : 
and it is very questionable whether any better success wiH 
attend our endeavors in this way, so long as the British au- 
thorities in Canada pursue their late and present system of 
policy towards the Indians and people of the United States. 
And I think it clearly follows, that if the Indians are td* bfe 
civilized, it will be by the joint eflSirts of both natioiis ; arid 
if a union in sincerity, in such a good cause, could be effected, 
the result could not be doubted. The measures of the Bri- 
tish government, in relation to the Indians, is fast effecting 
their d estruction ; and with the knowledge of this fact, it is 
difficult to reconcile the conduct of a nation, who, wrih one 
hand are expending thousands in civilizing and christianizing 
the natives of one continent, while with the other they are 
pursuing measures here, that have for their object their des- 

There are many ancient fortifications in and about Piqua. 
The present race of Indians are entirely ignorant of tlie 
cause or time of their erection. Some of these forts are of 
great extent, and some of them so small that they do not en- 
close more than half an acre. The excavations are all from 
the inside, and the entrance into them from liie north. The 
ditches of some of them, are at this time 6 feet high above the 
surface of the surrounding grounds ; some of them are con- 
structed in masses of gravel and stone, where it would have 
been extremely difScisit if not altogether impracticable to 
jBrect them without the aid of iron tools. There is one oa my 
^rra, which encloses about 17 acres •, it is cf a circular farm, 


the walls all round in part built of stone. The stone for the 
purpose, have been carried from the river, about 600 yards 
distant. The trees on all these forts, are as large as those in 
the surrounding forests ; and hence the conjecture, that the 
forts are of not less than 400 years standing. I cannot find 
that any of thepi are tp be found due north of this county ; 
they can be traced south and southwest, to the Floridas. 

Emigrants approaching this country fiom New- York, or 
the states east of that, would save OQUch labpr and expence, 
to land at Fort Meigs or Lpwej: Sandusky ; from the former 
to proceed by water up the Miami-of-the-Lakes to Fort De- 
fiance or Fort Wayne, and ascend the Auglaize or St. Marys. 
If their destination was the new state of Indiana, from Fort 
"Wsijne they could pass a portage of 8 miles, haul their craft 
pv?r, and descend the Wabash to any given point below, 


Lies south of Miami, north of parts of Butler and Warren, 
east of Preble and west of Green. It is 24 miles long and 
22 wide. The Great Miami runs through it from north to 
south, near its western boundary. The Stillwater branch 
waters the northwest corner, for about fourteen miles, on a 
direct line ; Mad river winds five or six miles through the 
eastern side of the county, before entering the Miami, a little 
above Dayton. Besides these there are Franklin, Bear and 
Wolf creeks from the west, and Hole's creek from the east ; 
all entering the Great Miami. The surface is uneven, con- 
sisting of rich hills and narrow vallies, except on the large 
streams, where there are wide and valuable bottoms, particu- 
larly on Mad river. The upland is heavily timbered, and 
equal to any in the state. There yet remain valuable tracts 
of public lands to be entered. 

Dayton, is handsomely situated on the east bank of the 
Great Miami, a little below the confluence of the Mad river; 
antl StillTfater, and is at present the seat of jiistice.-=^. 


It was planned and surveyed under the direction of General 
Wilkinson, in 1796, whose title failed. The present proprie- 
tor is Daniel C. Cooper, who has given eight lots for county 
purposes, schools and churches. The public buildings are a 
court house, Methodist meeting house, Presbyterian church, 
academy and library ; a bank called the " Dayton Manufac- 
turing Company/,''' with a capital of ^100,000; a post-office, 
and a printing office, issuing a weekly newspaper, entitled the 
" Ohio Bepublican.'^ A bridge is about to be erected over 
the mouth of Mad river. There are about 130 dwelling houses, 
besides mechanics' shops — there are several grain and saw 
mills near the town, at the mouth of Mad river, and on Wolf 
creek. Dayton is the largest village between the Miamis, 
except Cincinnati. 

Near the mouth of Hole's creek, on a plain, are remains 
of ancient works, of great extent. One of the embank- 
ments incloses about 160 acres, and the walls are in some 
parts nearly 12 feet high, 


Is situated south of Montgomery and a part of Green, north 
of parts of Hamilton and Clermont, west of Clinton, and east 
of Butler. It is traversed by the Little Miami, from noj-th- 
west to southeast; together with the numerous tributary 
creeks and rivers ; the largest of which are Todd's and Caesar'^ 
creeks, running into the Little Miami from the east ; Turtle 
creek from the west, and Dick's and Clear creeks, flowing 
into the Great Miami. The surface of this county is happily 
waving, being no where too hilly to admit of convenient culti- 
vation, or so level as to become wet and marshy : its southern 
half has generally a thin soil, and oak timber ; its northern, 
is equal in fertility to any land in the state — timbered with 
poplar, sugar maple, black walnut, basswood, blue ash, &;c. 

Lebanon, the seat of justice, is situated nearly in the cen- 
tre of the county, on the post road, between Cincinnati ancj 


CbilUcothe, between two branches of Turtle creek, near tlieif 
junction. It is four miles east of the Little Miami, and thirty 
northeast of Cincinnati. Its situation is healthy. Excellent 
water is obtained, at the depth ©f 25 or 30 feet ; building ma- 
terials, clay, lime, stone and wood, abundant. It has a court 
louse, stone jail, Baptist and Methodist meeting houses, school 
iiouse, post-office, printing office, at which is printed a paper, 
called the *' Wistmi Spy^^ a public library ; a backing asso- 
ciation, called the ** Lebanon Miami Baiikhig Compcmy^"^ 
with a capital limited to 250^000 dollars ; besides several 
stores and mechanics' shops. 

Franklin, another handsome village of this county, stands 
on the east bank of the Great Miami, ten miles southwest of 
Lebanon, and 34 from Cincinnati. Timber and other build- 
ing materials, are plentiful^, and grist and saw mills are numer° 
ous in its vicinity. It has a post-office* and about 55 families. 

Waynesville, stands on the east bank of the Little Miami, 
ten miles northeast of Lebanon. It is inhabited and surround- 
ed principally by Friends or Quakers. It has a post-office, a 
brick meeting house, 80 by 40, brick school house, grist and 
saw mills convenient— situation healthy. 

Six miles from Lebanon, and above the mouth of Todd's 
Fork, are curious remains of aboriginal works. The form of 
one of the forts is trapezoidal ; the walls are of earth, and gen- 
erally eight or ten feet high ; but in one place where it crosses 
the brow of the elevated hill on which it stands, it is 18 feet 
high; the Little Miami lies to the west, and deep ravines on 
the north, southeast and south ; making it a position of great 
strength; it has numerous angles, retreating, and salient, and 
generally acute. It has 80 gateways. The area of the whole 
enclosure is nearly 100 acres. Two mounds are situated a 
few rods to the east, which are about nine feet high. They 
are not far apart and waHs extend from them in opposite di- 
rections to the adjoining ravines. Traces of several roads are 
yet visible : two of them are sixteen feet wide and eleyaterl 
about three feet like our turnpikes. 



Is bounded south by the Ohio river, east by Addflig and 
Highland counties, north by Clinton and Warren, and west 
by Hamilton. It is large and will probably be divided. It 
is watered on the west, by the Little Miami, which separates ' 
it for 12 or 15 miles from Hamilton ; by the East Fork of the 
Little Miami, Stone Lick, and O'Bannon's creeks ; on the 
south, by the Ohio river for the distance of forty miles, and 
by fifteen large creeks, emptying into the same river — the 
principal of which are Red Oak creek, which waters the north- 
east corner; Straight creek. White Oak creek, very large, 
heads in Highland county, Bullskin, Bear, Big Indian, Little 
Indian, Cross and Muddy creeks. Its southern parts along 
the Ohio are hilly ; the interior and northern parts level. — > 
The bottoms of the Ohio, in this country are wide, rich and 
heavily timbered. The prevailing timber on the uplands is oak, 

WilUamsburgh, the seat of justice, is situated on the north 
bank of the East Fork of the Little Miami, thirty miles east- 
north-east of Cincinnati, on the shortest road to Cfcillicothe. 
It is well supplied with water, for mills and domestic use. It 
has a stone court house, post-office and two printing offices, 
which issue two weekly newspapers, called the " Political 
Censor" and " Western American.''^ 

Milforcl, stands on the east bank of the Little Miami, ten 
miles from its mouth. In the vicinlly of this village are to be 
seen the remains of several ancient fortifications;* 

* The largest of these forts is situated on the top of the first hill abova the con- 
fiuence «f the East Fork with the Miami. It consists of a square enclosure, three 
sides of which have each a single opening, and the fourth tw&. Prom this side 
there is a semicircular projection, covering nearly as much gronad as the square it- 
self. It has three openings, at unequal distances. From the junction of these ' 
two figures on the west, there run two parallel banks, whicli terminate at a circu- ■ 
lar wall, from which two others are extended southwardly. These are divergent 
and between tham, near their termination, there are three banks connocted at the 
inner end. From the northeast corner of the figure first described, there are dis- 
cemabl« for two miles, in the same direction, appearances which indicate a road 
in former times. The ground at present is raised from one to two feet high. The 
width of this causeway appears to have varied from 20 to 30 feet On the opposite 
aide of the Miami river, above Kound-hoUom, there are similarworks of consii- 
jCrable extent. Fixture of Cindnni/i^, 


Neviliown, is situated on the bank of the Ohio, at thfe 
mouth of Bear creek. Stanton^ is situated at the mouth of 
Red Oak creek, near the northeastern corner of the county. 
Emigrants would find many advantageous situations for set- 
tlements in this county, particularly on the Ohio bottoms. 

Several nem villages are commenced on the margin of the 
Ohio, between Muddy and Eagle creeks. 


Is bounded south by Clermont and a part of Highland coun* 
ties ; east by parts of Highland and Fayette ; north by Green, 
and west by Warren. Ft is about 20 miles long and 15 wide, 
and is watered, principally, by branches of Paint creek, run- 
iiing into the Scioto, and Todd's Fork of the Little Miami. 
The surface of this county is generally level — in some parts 
marshy ; it contains much good land, the greater part in a 
state of nature. 

Wilmington, the only village deserving mention, is the 
seat of justice. It is nearly equidistant between Cincinnati 
and Chillicothe, or about 50 miles from each. 


Has Clinton south, Fayette and Madison east, Champaign 
and Montgomery west. It is about 24 miles square ; and is 
watered by the Little Miami, \shhh runs in a transverse di- 
rection through the county, from northwest to southeast ; 
Mad river waters the southwest corner. Caesar's and Mas* 
aie's creeks, tributaries of the Little Miami, from the easty 
water large porClous of the county. The western side of 
the county is watered by Sugar, and Big and Little Beaver 

The Great Falls of the Ijittle Miami, are in this county : 
in the course of a mile the river is precipitated from several 
successivs tables, which produces a vast number of fine mill- 


The vallles are wide, rich and productive ; the uplands 
generally of a second quality, with a proportion of oak bar- 

Xenia, the seat of justice, is situated nearly in the centre 
of the county, on Shawancese creefc. It is three miles east 
of the Little Miami, and 55 northeast of Cincinnati. It has 
St brick court house, an academy and church ; a poSt-office, 
and a printing-oflSce which emits a weekly paper, entitled the 
« Ohio Vehicle." The situation is healthy. 


Lies north of Gresn, west of Delaware, south of the Indian 
lands, and east of Miami county. The Great Miami meanders 
through its south-western corner ; many of its numerous trib- 
utary streams water its southern side. Madriver waters the 
interior parts, or rather traverses it from its north-western to 
its south-eastern corner. The East Fork of Madriver irri- 
gates an extensive portion of the county lying between Mad- 
river and Delaware county* In addition to these are King's 
and Nettle creeks, and numerous rivulets and runs. No 
county in the state possesses a greater number of durable 
streams, or finer situations for mills. Its name is a correct in- 
dex to its surface ; it has extensive alluvions or champaign 
tracts on the east side of Madriver : on the west side are rich 
heavy timbered lands ; barren and swampy prairies are to be 
found towards the eastern side. It is, however, a large and 
fertile county, and holds out great advantages to emigrants. 

Urbanna, the county seat, is situated on a large and fertile 
prairie, two miles east of Madriver. Two permanent brooks 
flow through it, and well water is easily obtained* The num- 
ber of dwelling houses is upwards of 100, chiefly of wood. It 
has a post-office, a printing office, in which is published a pa- 
per called the " Spirit of Liherff/,'''' and a banking company. 
Fevers and agues are annual vifitants. Timber, clay and 
quarries of sandy limestone are convenient. 



Springfield is situated eleven miles south of Urbanna, oK 
the south side of the East Fork of Madriver; on the south it 
has a copious and durable creek, with falls of 30 feet descent. 
A woollen manufactory has been erected at these falls. 

A few miles below Dayton, are mounds of great elevation. 
One, situated on a prairie, half a mile from the Franklin road, 
is said to be upwards of 100 feet in height, and 286 feet di- 
ameter at the base. The whole mound is covered with large 
forest trees. From its summit one has an extensive view of 
the circumjacent country. There is no appearance of the 
earth having been taken from the surrounding surface. 

Note. — The above described counties of Hamilton, But- 
ler, Preble, Darke, Miami, Montgomery, Warren, Clermont, 
Clinton, Green, and Champaign are all watered by the Great 
and Little Miamis ; and which embrace a district about 90 
miles in length, and 60 broad. This is usually called the 
"Miami Country." 


Has Madison and Pickaway south. Licking and Knox 
counties east, Indian lands north, and Champaign west. It 
is finely watered by the Scioto, the Whetstone Fork, Big- 
belly, Allum, and Walnut creeks ; all large streams, which 
traverse the county from north to south, parallel with each 
other, at the distance of from four to ten miles apart. Soil 
and surface, well adapted to all the purposes of cultivation. — 
Improved lands are highy owing to the facility with which 
produce is transported to market. The chief towns are 
Delaware, and Norton, on Whetstone, and New-Baltimore, 
on the Scioto — all new and thriving villages. 


Situated nearly in the centre of the state, has Pickaway 
south, parts of Fairfield and Licking east, Delaware north, 


and Madison west. It is finely watered by the Scioto, and' 
Whetstone rivers, Bigbelly creek and its two forks, Allum and 
Walnut creeks. The surface of this county is gently wav- 
ing, except along the vallies of the streams ; soil, similar to 
that of Delaware and Champaign, 

Columbus, the metropolis of the state, is situated on the 
east bank of the Scioto, on an elevated prairie, of several hun- 
jdred acres, and of a soil equal in durability to any in the world. 
The length of the town is one mile and forty rods, is parallel 
to the river having a straight line on the east ; the course of 
tjie streets is north 12 deg. 30 min. west, their width 87 feet, 
alternately intersected at every third lot, by an alley or a 
<;ross street, 37 and 33 feet wide, and 24 in number; Broad 
street, (120 feet wide) which commences at the river, where 
a bridge is about to be erected, and comipunicates at the east- 
ern extremity of the town with the main road leading to New- 
ark, Zanesville, and Pittsburgh. This road is several miles 
entirely straight and not far from mathematically level. Con- 
tiguous to Broad street op the north. High stf eet on the west, 
and State street on the south, is the Public square, includ- 
ing t^n acres, the most beautiful and central spot in the 
town ; on which is erected and nearly comjJeted, the state 
house, built of brick, of sufficient magnitude and considera- 
ble elegance ; and the state offices, all in one block, of one 
hundred feet in length. The Penitentiary is situated in the 
fiouthwest corner of the town. The whole number of build- 
ings is upwards of .300. Sqme are rude and temporary, but 
the greater part are elegant and commodious; nearly 200 of 
which are dwelling houses. There are about a dozen stores., 
sis taverns, a post-office, two printing-offices, and a number 
of mechanics' shops. There are two springs is,suing east of 
the town and discharging into the river ; one on the north and 
the other on the south, almost encircle the town. They are 
deemed capable of moving machinery sufficient for most man- 
zif.ictures or mills, a large part of the jesr. Situated, as this, 
tpv/n is, on a high airy plain, in the centre of large and ponu- 


lous settlements, enjoying a safe and convenient navigation, 
and possessing great political and local advantages, it cannot 
fail in time, to rival the first cities in the western country. It 
was commenced in 1813. The rise of lots has been rapid, 
almost without a parallel. Lots nearest the public square, 
have sold for 2000 dollars, and no where in the town, for less 
than 200. Boats of ten tons burthen can ascend to the town 
for six months in the year ; and in freshets vessels of 200 tons, 
could descend into the Ohio. There is an abundance of tim- 
ber, fit for ship building, in Fmnklin and Delaware counties. 

Franklinton, is situated on the west bank of the Scioto, 
opposite Columbus, and just below the Whetstone branch.— 
It contains about 70 houses— and has been, in a manner^ 
eclipsed by the metropolis. 

Worthington, whi^h is about equal in size to Franklinton, 
is a flourishing village, situated on the bank of Whetstone^ 
16 miles above Columbus= 


Has Ross south, Fairfield east, Franklin north, and parts 
of Madison and Fayette west ; the Scioto runs through this 
county. The other streams are Deer, and Darhy^s creek 
from the west, and Lower Walnut from the east, all large and 
emptying into the Scioto. The soil of this county is of the 
best quality. Pickaway plains which are about twelve miles 
Jong and three wide, is a prairie of inexhaustible fertility. 
Here are to be seen some of the fii^t agricultural prospects 
in the state. The bottoms of the Scioto are wide and of the 
first quality. The towns are Circleville, Bloomfield, Jeffer- 
son, Livingston and Westfall. 

Circleville, the seat of justice, is situated on the Pickaway 
bottom, about half a mile east of the Scioto. Its site is two 
mounds of earth, one circular, and the other square, containing 
about twenty acres. The first is enclosed by two circumval- 
latjons, whose perpendicular height is about fifteen feet above 


the adjoining ditch. In the centre of the town i$ a small va» 
cant circle. From this focus the streets diverge in regular 
radii, intersecting the walls at equal distances. The greater 
part of the buildings are within the external circle. It con- 
tains about 250 buildings, a post-office, court house of an octa- 
gonal form, and thirteen stores, &c. The growth of this town 
has been rapid — it owes its existence to the wealth of the 
surrounding plantations rather than to political causes or com- 
mercial adTantages, 


Has Fayette south, Franklin and Pickaway east, Dela- 
ware north, and Champaign and Green west. It is watered 
by the North Fork of Paint, and Darby's creek. The east- 
ern parts are broken, or moderately hilly ; especially the di- 
viding ridge between the waters of Paint and Little Miami. 
Towards the western parts, are prairies and barrens, but the 
greater part first rate land. It is pretty thickly settled, and 
has few unseated lands inviting to settlers. 

New-London is the chief town — it contains about one bund' 
red buildings. 


Has Highland and Scioto south, Koss and Pickaway eastj 
Madison north, and Green and Clinton west. It is watered 
by the North and West Forks of Paint creek, and head 
branches of Caesar's creek. In soil, surface, and general as* 
pects, it closely resembles Clinton, already described. Wash- 
ington is the chief town. 


Has Adams south, Pike east, Ross, Clinton and Fayette 
porth, and Clermont west. It is copiously watered by forks. 


of Bruah and Paint creeks, and by small creeks and brooks 
running into the East Fork of the Little Miami ; its surface 
IS generally hilly; free from stagnant waters or marshes, 
which insures health to the inhabitants. It is thinly settled, 
and offers many eligible situations to industrious emigrants. 

Mounds and old forts are to be seen in many parts of the 
county. On the head branches of the East Fork of the Lit- 
tle Miami, is an ancient wofk, different in figure to any hith> 
erto discovered. It consists of ^ square enclosure, with 
«« nine banks of long parapets united at one end, exhibiting 
very exactly the figure of a gridiron. In this fort most of 
the gateways are guarded by straight pr crescent-formed bat- 


Has the Ohio river south, Scioto county east, Highland 
county north and Clermont west. It is hilly and broken along 
the Ohio — ^is watered by Eagle, Brush and Isaac's creeks, 
and by waters of Paint and Little Miami. It has a hilly and 
broken surface, rich, deep soil,- heavy forests of oak, hickory, 
sugar-maple, black walnut, black elm and sycamore. Ak 
though a populous county, it has yet considerable bodies of 
unseated lands, belonging to individuals, mostly non-residents. 
There is an abundant supply of iron-ore, on Brush creek, up- 
on which Gen. M' Arthur and a Mr. James, erected a furnace 
last autumn. It has several villages. 

West UtiioUi the seat of justice, is situated on a branch of 
the East Fork of the Little Miami, on the road leading from 
Limestone, in Kentucky, to Chillicothe. It has about 100 
houses — a court house, jail, printing-oflSce and post-office, six 
stores, four inns, and a great number of mechanics. The sur- 
rounding country is rolling and perfectly healthy ; no instance 
of billiouB fever and ague has occurred ; springs and mill seats 
abundant. Wild lands worth from five to twenty dollars. 


Manchesttr, stands on the bank of the Ohio, near the lower 
end of Massie's island, 15 miles above Maysville; itisplea^ 
santlj situated, commands a view of the Ohio ; but appears 
stationary ; it has about 40 old houses. 
' AdamsvilU, is situated just below the mouth of Brush 
creek, and eight miles above Manchester^ which it resembles 
in appearance and size. Here are fine bottoms, which continue 
wide for twelve miles above and below the mouth of Brusk 

Bainbridge, is situated on a small branch of Paint creek 
on the Maysville road, 38 miles northeast of West Union, 
and 26 southwest of Chillicothe. It is surrounded by a well 
settled country — it has about 6fty houses — land in its vicinity 
worth 25 dollars an acre. About a mile to the northward of 
this village, are some of the best mills in the state, belonging 
to Gem Massie, who is besides the proprietor of Bainbridge. 
Wild lands around this town are too high to be advantageously 
purchased for farming. It belongs to the favorites o£Plutu8y 
who obtained it for a song, but now refuse to sell it, in parcels, 
unless at an exorbitant price. So much for the blindness of 


Situated on both sides of the river of the same name, has 
the Ohio river south, Gallia east, Ross and Pike north, and 
Adams'west. It Is watered by the Scioto and Ohio rivers, 
Little Scioto river, Turkey, Pine, Stout's, Twin's, and Scioto 

The bottoms of the Ohio and Scioto, in this county, are 
wide, and of the first quality. The hills near the Ohio are 
covered with white oak and hickory, and generally of a third 
quality, but suitable to pasturage and wheat. Many unseat- 
ed bottom tracts could be purchased for six, eight, or ten dol- 
lars, at a bargain. Turkey and Pine creeks abound with fine 
sites for mills, which are but partially improved. 


Porismouthy the seat of justice, stands on a peninsula 
formed by the confluence of the Scioto with the Ohio. Its 
site is pleasant, gently inclining to the south. It contains 
about 1 00 houses, niostly ncTr. 

Alexandria, is situated on the margin of the Ohio^ two 
miles below Portsmouth, and immediately below the Scioto. 
It was formerly the County seat, but was abandoned in con- 
sequence of an inundation caused by an extraordinary rise of 
the Ohio. The water rose four feet above the level of the 
plain on which it is built. I measured the bank of the Ohio 
at this place last June, and found it to be 70 feet above the 
surface of the water, which was then at an ordinary height. 
There are fifteen old buildings, and a tavern, well supported 
by the votaries of Bacchus'. Indolence and dissipation char- 
acterize the inhabitants. They have a constant supply of 
excellent fish. I saw a catfish, caught at the month of Scio- 
to, weighing 74 pounds. The bottoms for many miles above 
and below the mouth of Scioto, are from one to two miles in 
width, and as rich as can be desired. IMounds and walls are 
numerous ; a wall from four to seven feet high extends from 
the Great to the Little Scioto — a distance of 7 miles. 


Lies on both sides of the Scioto river— has Scioto county 
south, Ross east and north, and Highland west. It is wa* 
tered by the Scioto and its tributary creeks and brooks; 
the surface is considerably broken ; timber, oak, hickory and 
maple ; soil generally poor, except on the bottoms. 

Peepee, situated on the left bank of the Scioto, is the coun- 
ty seat. Blounds are numerous throughout the county, 


Is situated on both sides the Scioto, which divides it about 
equally. It has parts of Scioto and Pike counties south, 


Alliens and Gallia east, FairSeld and Pickaway norlb, and 
Fayette and Highland west ; and is watered by Paint creek 
on the west side of the Scioto ; Kenneconic and Salt creeks 
on the east. This is a rich healthy county. The inhabit- 
ants are mostly wealthy, and have elegant buildings, large 
and well improved farms ; the traveller on approaching a farm 
house is forcibly struck with the indications oipleubj, which 
are presented at every step ; such as immense fields of grain, 
large stacks of wheat, capacious corn cribs well filled even in 
summer ; uumerous herds of stock, cattle, horses, hogs, 
sheep, common and merino; yards swarming with ponlfry ; 
and should he have occasion to enter the hospitable mansion, 
fee will there find the same proofs of abundance and perfect 
independenee ; every thing is on the scale of external wealth ; 
a plenteous board, elegant and costly furniture, well dressed 
thildren and servants. In short, 

" A clean fire-side and a jorurt," 

and what is better, a friendly welcome, without any of those 
sour looks and sly watchings of the motion ofyour knife and 
fork, too often v.'itnessed in the north. The above remarks 
apply to all the rich counties of this state, as well as to those 
of Kentucky^ Tennessee and Louisiana. 

ChiUlcothe, the seat of justice, and formerly of the state 
government, is situated on the west bank of the Scioto, (66 
miles from its month) on a beautiful and exteitsive plain. It 
is laid out on a large scale, with a great number of out-lot5 
attached to it. The plan is regular; the streets cross each 
other at right angles, and every square is divided into four 
parts by lanes crossing each other also at right angles ; the 
streets are 6G feet wide, the alleys 16; the lots contain four 
acres each. It contains about ^00 buildings, and about 4000 
inhabitants. It has several stately pit'olic buihiings, four' 
eliurciies, several rope walks, about •dOdry good stores,. cot- 
ton and wooijen factory, besides breiverics, disliHcrie?, and 
tanneries. In short, it is a brisk ar.d elegant lown, in. (he 
centre of fertile, and populous settlements, and surruurKJi d by 


a great number of handsome and tasty country seats. Itliasl 
three printing-offices, two issuing weekly newspapers, the 
" Fredonian" and " Supporter,'^ and one for books ; a post- 
office and a land office for the disposal of the public lands.. 
Gentlemen of taste would find Chillicothe an agreeable resi- 

It has several other villages — the principal of which arc 
Amsterdam and Adelphi. 

The valiies of Paint and Scioto, and indeed many of the 
adjacent hills abound with the vestiges of an immense ancient 
population ; and perhaps, the curious antiquary, can no where 
in the western country find a richer field for his researches. 

Ten miles west of Chillicothe, on one of the elevated and 
steep ridges of Paint creek, are walls of stone, now in ruins, 
extending along the brow of the hill, for nearly a mile and a 
half, and enclosing upwards of 1 00 acres. It was formed of 
undressed freestone, and appears, from the quantity of stones, 
to have been twelve or fifteen feet high, and four or five thick ; 
many of the stones bear the marks of fire. The wall bears the 
appearance of having been shaken down by an earthquake. 
Mr. James Foster, of Chillicothe, who particularly examined 
it, says, that within the area there were about thirty furnaces 
— from some of which he took cinders that resembled in every 
way those formed in blacksmith's forges. From some of 
them he got pieces of burnt unwrought clay, that resembled 
pnmice stone, but are of a pale blue color. Those lying on 
the surface of the earth are covered with coats of rustT/ mail, 
which probably had lain there since the days of Lycurgus. 
The first is nearly circular, with ten passes or gateways pla- 
ced at regular distances, at one of which there is the ap- 
pearance of a well or spring, enclosed with a stone wail. 
Trees from three to five feet in diameter, which were obvi- 
ously preceded by a more gigantic growth, if we may judge 
from the long traces left by those that have mouldered into 
their native dust. No stones are to be found within one mile of 
thp walla. " At the botlon] of the hill, on the southwest side. 


are the ruins of the town, or rather citj/. The cellars and the 
stone foundations of the houses still remain. The streets are 
in regular squares. Near it there is a large mound perfectly lev- 
el to the top. It was from all appearances the residence of a 
warlike race." The surrounding country abounds with iron 
ore, and with excavations, which the inhabitants suppose to 
have been formerly made in search of that mineral. 1 have 
myself seen the ruins of several ancient stone buildings, in 
Ross and Pickaway counties ; one within a few miles of Chil- 
licothe, near the Maysville road, appeared, as measured by 
the eye, sixty feet long by thirty wide ; the stones were gen- 
erally large and ragged, without the least mark of the hammer, 
or any other iron tool. Six large beach and sugar maple trees 
were growing within the enclosure. A mound thirty feet 
high, and perfectly conical was standing on the site of Chilli- 
cothe, fer several years after the first white settlements. It 
!ias lately been levelled with the earth, to make room for a fine 
brick house; this want of respect for aboriginal antiquitiesy 
is too often evinced by the people of the west. On a high 
liiU, on the opposite side of the Scioto, is another mound of 
equal magnitude. There are probably several hundred simi= 
Jar ones in the counties of Athens, Ross, Picjcaway.. 


Has Ress south, Licking north, Muskingum east and Pick- 
away west; and is watered by branches of Licking and Wa- 
katomika creeks. It is rich and populous, and abounds wilh 
mills. . Surface level, soil generally black and deep. It is wa- 
tered by the two forks of Great Hockhocking. 

New-Lancaster, the seat of justice, stands on the main fork 
of Hockhocking, and contains about 200 houses. 


Has Fairfield county south, Muskingum and Coshocton 
east, Delaware and Franklin north, and Madison west ; and 


is watered by Licking river and its two forks ; Wakatomlka 
and Walnut creeks, all large and boatable. 

Wherever we find the traces of former population, as de- 
monstrated by the existence of mounds, fortifications, and 
ruins of buildings, we are sure to find land of an excellent 
quality. This county is full of antiquities.f 

Newark is a thriving little town situated in the forks of 
Licking, on the road between Zanesville and Columbus. 
Granville is also a considerable village. The surface, soil, 
timber and water of this county, is inviting to settlers. It 
tas had a rapid settlement ; and presents strong inducements 
to emigrants. 


Has Gallia south, Washington east, Washington and Fali^ 
field north and Ross west. It is watered by the Great Hock-? 
hocking, and its branches; by Raccoon, Federal, Shade, and 
Salt creeks, and an immense number of brooks. Compared 
to such counties as Ross, Franklin, Pickaway, and Licking, it 
may be said to be poor, in soil and improvements. The 
southern parts, adjoining Gallia county, consists of oak hills 
and deep narrow vallies. It is thinly inhabited ; in many 
places it is from four to twenty miles between houses ; but 

f Those in the vicinity of Newark " cover, or rather pass over in different di- 
rections, more than 1500 acres of ground, and appeared to have had an intended 
connection with, or approached to each other. The one niogt remarkable ("or size 
is circular, and is, by actual measurement, three fourths of a mile iu circumfer- 
ence. It has but one gateway or entrance, which is ten rods wide; the wall from 
the bottom of the ditch is from 18 to 35 feet. His highest near the entrance^ 
where eacli side terminates somewhat in the form of a bason. The one moat re- 
BiHikable of form, and mathematical regularity of parts, lies about thrfee fourths 
of a mile north of the one first mentioned. It is a regular octagon ; all the sides 
being, by actual measurement, equal; the walls or lines being about 3 feet high. 
At each angle, except one, is an opening or gateway, opposite to which, within, 
is a raised work of the same height ©f the wall ; a parallelogram whose length 
co^f'rs the entrance. From the out angle or opening, you pass between parallel 
waJlp, wliich are 10 rods apart, into another circular work, the wallssf which are 
about the same htigbt of the foregoing. The compass whei? set in the centre be- 
tween the parallel walls, and in direction with them, leads you directly to the only 
part wliere there has been a place for passing in and out of the circle ; and thij 
place affoids evidence of having been a covered way, with towers, or ground more 
rleva(«>d than the wall, on each side. The octagon and circle may contain -each 
from 20 to 30 acres and are Bear to ;wliere a priucipal brajicU of Linking river iJji- 
Fi'ars lo liave flowed. 


this is only true, as it respects the eastern portion. Game is 
abundant — such as bears, deer, foxes, raccoons, &c. Wild 
turkies are more numerous in this than in any other part of 
the state. The range is rich, and will probably continue so 
for many years to come. 

Mounds and embankments are to be seen in every part of 
the county. I opened several; but found nothing except 
stone axes, arrows, and bones ; at the bottoms there was uni- 
formly a stratum of ashes, coals, and brands, intermixed with 
fragments of calcined bones. 

Athens J is delightfully situated on the left bank of the great 
Hockhocking 87 miles above the junction of this river with 
the Ohio, and nearly in the centre of the College townsh ps 
granted by congress to the Ohio company for the endoni^ent 
of a University. The names of these townships are Athens 
and Alexander ; the last lies on the south side of the river ; 
ihey contain 46,080 acres. The lands are leased in small 
farms of from 100 to 150 acres, to applicants forever, upon 
terms never to be altered-^the rent of each tract being the 
interest of the apprised value of the land in a state of na- 

The town is laid out in a regular form — is elevated about 
100 feet above the bottoms. The soil is a dry rich loam 
well adapted for gardens. There are numerous springs of 
never failing excellent water, The total number of build- 
ings is 1 30. There is an academy in a very flourishing state 
under the instruction of an able teacher, in which are taught 
all the branches of a liberal education ; and a spacious new 
college is now building. The present revenue of the univer- 
sity is about 2500 dollars ; the education of youth is to be 

The greater part of the college lands are very fertile ; 
but some tracts are broken and of a thin soil. The settle- 
ments commenced in 1797, and the town and county of 
Athens have proved unusually healthy. Many of the settlers 
■are from New England, who affirmed that sickness had rare- 


}y visited their families. The Hockhocking is navigable 30 
miles above Athens for batteaux. The bottom lands are bet- 
ter and more extensive than those of the Muskingum. In 
front of the town they are more than one mile wide. There 
are fine quarries of free stone in the vicinity of the town. 
About two thirds of the village lots are leasedj and the resi- 
due fast settling. The uplands are timbered with white and 
black oak, hickory and chesnut ; occasionally interspersed 
with sugar- maple, ash and beech. The bottoms are covered' 
with buckeye, pawpaw, elm, black walnut, spice wood and 
Jboney locust. Fish in considerable quantities are taken 
from the rivers. Coal mines, chalybeate and sulphur springs, 
are so plenti&il that no tonwship is without several of each kind* 


Is bounded south and east by the Ohio river, Athens corni. 
Sy north, Ross and Scioto west, ft is watered by the Little 
Scioto, Symmes, Raccoon, Indian Guyandot, and Big Stone 
creeks. Like Athens, it is large and hilly, and thinly set- 
tled. It has much poor land, consisting of oak ridges, of a thin 
gravelly soil. These hills skirt the Ohio through the whole 
extent of Scioto, Gallia, Washington, and Belmont counties ; 
extending back 30 or 40 miles ; they become more elevated 
as we ascend the river ; nevertheless, the soil becomes better 
cast of the Muskingum ; and as high up as Steubenvilie, it 
may be said to be rich. The bottoms of the Ohio are wide. 
There are bodies of good land in the interior parts, on which 
the principal part of the timber is pitch pine, very lofty and 
«traight. This kind of land is much esteemed by the in- 
habitants ; the soil is sandy, mixed in places with loam and 
gravel ; but it produces corn, wheat, oats and potatoes, as 
abundantly as deeper soils. 

Galliopolis, is delightfully situated on tlie bank of the 
Ohio, three miles below the Great Kenhaway. The bottom 
&v which it is built, is elevated fourteen feet above the high- 


est rise of the river. The soil is a 1-ich, yellow clay, rcudered 
mellovf , like loam, by a proportion of fine sand. The streets 
are wide, and run in parallels with the river upwards of one 
mile and a quarter in length. The high lands in the rear of 
the town, approach within half a mile of the river. This 
lown was settled by a colony of 500 French, in 1790 ; but 
the present number of inhabitants is considerably short of 
that number. There are about sixty houses, a court house, 
church, and printing-oflSce. The inhabitants have beautiful 
gardens. They make good wine, from a species erf" native 
vines, which were found on the i^ands a short distance above 
the town, and which, since they have been domesticated, pro- 
duce grapes almost equal in size and flavor to the muscadine 
of France, 


Has the Ohio river south and east; Monroe, Guernsey and 
Muskingum counties north, Athens and a part of Fairfield 
west ; and is watered by the Muskingum river, which divides 
it into two nearly equal parts ; by Wolf, Duck and Pawpaw 
creeks, and by the Little Muskingum. It is broken, and 
has very little land of the first quality, except on the bottoms 
of the Ohio, Muskingum and along the large creeks. 

Marietta, is situated on the bank of the Ohio, immediately 
above the mouth of the Muskingum ; like most of the towns 
on this river, it is pleasant ; but its growth has not realized 
the sanguine anticipations of the proprietors. It has about 
fifty houses ; a post-office, printing-office, several stores and 
four excellent taverns ; a bank, chiu'ch ai.d steam-mil!. It is 
N. lat. 39, 34; and is about 146 miles south of Pittsburgh by 
land, or 172 by water. 

Vienna, is situated on the margin of the Ohio, seven miles 
below Marietta ; it contains about thirty houses. 

Belpre, stands on the bank of the Ohio, ttn miles below 
ViennfJ, abreast of Blannerhsssel's island. It was settled by 


ctnigrants from New-England, and contains about 30 housesi 
There is a rich settlement in its rear, chiefly on the Little 
Hockhocking, which enters the Ohio three miles below Bel- 
pre. The interior towns are Waterford, Salem and Adams. 
Ancient fortifications are numerous in this and the neighbor- 
ing counties.* 


Lies north of Washington, west of Guernsey, south of 
Coshocton, and east of Licking and Fairfield. It is watered 
by the Muskingum river, Coal, Brush, Jonathan, Licking, and 
Wakatoraika creeks from the west 5 and Will's and Salt 
creeks from the east. It is large and populous; the surface 
broken towards the south and east, but subsides into rich 
plains or wide vallies to the weat and north. 

* The largest souahe fort, by some called the torvn, contains forty acreg, en- 
compassed by a wall of earth from 6 to 10 I'eet high, and from 25 to 36 feet in 
breadth at the base. On each side are three openings, at equal distances, resem- 
bling 12 gatfcwpj-g. The entrances at the middle are the largest, particularly 
that fin the side next the Muskingum river. From this outlet are the remains of a 
COVERT WAY, formed of two parellal walls of earth, 231 feet distant from each 
other, measuring from centre to centre. The walls at the most elevated part 
on the inside are 21 feet in height, and 42 in breadth at the base, but on the out 
side average only 5 feet high. This forms a passage of about 360 feet in length, 
leading by a gradual descent to the low grounds, where it probably at the time of 
its construction reached the margin of the river. Its walls coraraence at CO feet 
from the ramparts of the fort, and increase in elevation as the way descends towards 
the river; and the bottom is crowned in the centre, in the manner of a well for- 
med turnpike road. Within the walls of the fort, at the northwest corner, is an 
oblong, elevated square, 188 feet long, 132 broad, and 9 feet high ; level on the 
summit, and nearly perpendicular at the sides. At the centre of each of the sides 
the earth is projected, forming gradual ascents to the top, equally regular, and about 
6 feet in width. Near the south wall is another elevated square, 150 feet by 120, 
and 8 feet high ; similar to the other, excepting that instead of an ascent to go up 
on the side next the wall, there is a hollow way 10 feet wide leading 20 feet towards 
the centre, and then rising with a gradual slope to the top. At the south- 
east corner is a third elevated square 108 by 54 feet with ascents at the ends ; 
but not so higii nor perfect as the two others. A little to the soutl)west of the 
centre of the foot is a circalar mound, about 30 feet in diameter and 5 in height ; 
near which are four small excavations at equal distances, and opposite 
pach other. At the southwest corner of the fort is a semicircular parapet, crowned 
with a mound, which guards the opening in the wall. Towards the southeast is a. 
Bmaller fort, containirg twenty acres, with a gateway in the centre of each sidf' 
and at each curner. These openings are defended with circular mounds. On th* 
outside of the smaller fort is a viound, in form of a sugar-loaf, of a magnitude and 
I'eight wliich strike the beholder with astonishment. Its base is a regular circi« 
1 15 fret in (lian!Pter ; and its perpendicular altitude is 30 feet. It is surrounded 
with a ditch 4 feet deep and 15 wide, and defended by a parapet 4 feet high, 
llirou!;h wliich is an opening or gateway towards the fort 20 feet wide. 

Tlit^re are other walls, mounds and excavations, less cops; icuou.'' and en^^ire, but 
exiiihilJDg equal proofs ot art ard dtr-ig:! Harrit's Tuj,"' 


t^anesvillej is situated on the left bank of the Muskingum, 
iiearly opposite Putnam and the mouth of Licking. It con- 
tains about 320 houses, generally small, but neat and well 
built. It has a conrt-house and jail, a toarket house, well 
supplied, a methodist meeting house, and a flint glass factory. 
There is a bank, land office, nail factory, book bindery, na= 
toerous mechanics' shops, 25 stores, a paper mill, and two 
printing offices^ in which are published the " Bluskingum 
Messenger" and " Zanesville Express."^' 

Opposite the town, the Muskingum falls six feet in the 
space of a few rods, and Licking river forms a cascade at its 
entrance. A canal is now opening around the Muskingum 
rapids, through the town, by an association called the " Zanes* 
ville Canal and Manufacturing Company," who intend to 
manufacture iron in all its various branches, cotton, wool, 
hemp, flax, paper, &c. 

Putnam, is situated on the right bank of the Muskingum, 
directly opposite Zanesville. It has about 70 houses, 7 storesp 
and a cotton factory. These two towns are connected by 
two bridges. The upper bridge is so constructed that one 
may cross Licking or the Muskingum from or to either side 
of Licking. The country around these places, in every di- 
rection, is settled, and generally well cultivated. Coal abounds 
in the hills, and is often found in sinking wells. Four miles 
lip Licking, is a forge and furnace, extensively carried oo 
hy Dillon & Son. 


Has Licking south, Coshocton east, Richland north and 
Delaware west. It is watered by the Whitewoman branch of 
the Muskingum, Owl creek, and branches of Licking and Sci- 
oto. It will rank among the most fertile counties of the state. 

Moimt Vernon, is the seat of justice ; it is new but rapidly 
increasing in size and improvements. The larger streams ar^ 
all boatable. 




Has IVIuskingum county south, Tuscarawa east, Wayne 
north, Licking and Knox west. It is watered by the Mus» 
kingum, Whitewoman and Tuscaratra, and numerous large 
tributary creeks. It deservedly ranks among the best coun- 
ties of the state. The bottoms of Whitewoman and Tusca- 
rawa are wide and highly productive. The uplands are gen- 
erally heavy timbered ; oak in places, with rich poplar a(nd 
black walnut lands interspersed. It abounds with free stone, 
coal and limestone.^ 

Coshocton, the seat of justice, is situated in the forks of 
the Muskingum, 40 miles north of Zanesville, and contains 
about 80 houses. 


Has Knox south, Wayne east, Huron and Medina north, 
and Indian lands west. It is watered by the head branches 
of the Huron, East Fork of the Sandusky, Clear Fork, a 
branch of the Muskingum, Muddy creek, &c. Its name re- 
presents the quality of its soil. It will rank with any county 
in the state in point of fertility. It is new and contains large 
bodies of rich unsettled lands. 

Mansfield and Green are the largest villages ; they are new 
but thriving. 


Has Guernsey south, Harrison east, Wayne and Stark 
north, and Coshocton west. It is watered by the Tusca- 
rawa, Stillwater, &c. 

New-Philadelphia, is the seat of justice ; it is situated on 
a beautiful plain of 3000 acres, in a large bend of the Tusca- 
rawa riv er. It is settled chiefly by Germans from Fennsy!- 


Vania, and contains about 140 houses. Coal, limestone, iron 
ore, and freestone, abound in the neighborhood. 

Schoenbrun, an Indian village, and GnadenhiiUen, a Ger- 
man village of 30 or 40 houses, are situated on the bank of 
the river, a fpw miles below New-Philadelphia. 


Is bounded south by Coshocton, east by Stark, north by 
Medina and part of Portage, and west by Richland. It was 
organized in the year 1808, and is 30 miles long by 29 broad, 
containing 870 square miles. It is divided into the following 
townships: Wooster, Springfield, Mohiccan, Boughman, 
East Union, Paint, Perry, Salt Creek, Prairie, Lake, Sugar 
Creek and Chester. The principal streams are Killbuck, 
running nearly a south course, and navigable up to Wooster, 
for boats of from 10 to 14 tons ; Apple creek, a tributary of 
Killbuck, a very good stream for mills; Sugar creek, near 
the southeast corner of the county, is likewise a good stream 
for mills ; Chippeway, in the N. E. and Mohiccan John creek, 
in the west side of the county, which is a very considerable 
stream in its different ramifications in this county, and in 
Richland. The Lake Fork and Jeroam'a Fork, are naviga- 
ble for boats of 10 or 12 tons, 18 miles above the south boun- 
dary of the county. The soil is generally excellent. The 
creek bottoms are extensive and very fertile, producing im- 
mense crops of corn, when properly cultivated.. The upland 
is very productive in wheat, rye, oats, corn, flax, &c. The 
timber on the upland is very tall, and generally composed of 
white and black oak, walnut, cherry, hickory and some few 
chesnuts : the prevailing timber on the bottoms and low lands 
is ash, elm, sycamore, sugar-maple and soft maple, together 
with some beach, interspersed with a variety of wild plums, 
crab apples, grape vines, buckeye, hazle, &c. The prices 
of land vary according to situation and natural and arliG.- 
cial advantages, being from three to i^ifty dollars an acre. 


The principal towns in this county are Wooster, Paintvilte 
and Jeroamsville. 

Wooster, the seat of justice for the county, commenced 
building in 1811, and now contains 60 dwelling houses, to- 
gether with seven stores, four taverns and a large and excel* 
lent brick banking house, for the German Bank of Wooster, 
a public land office, for the sale of the United States' lands, 
a public school house and a meeting house for the Baptist soci- 
ety. Many of the aforesaid buildings being built of brick, 
are large and elegant. In the town are 5 master carpenters, 
employing ten hands each, four blacksmith shops, two cabinet 
makers, two tan yards, one chair maker, one carriage maker, 
three taylors, three shoe makers, two hatter's shops and one 
brewery. There is likewise in this town one ordained clergy* 
man, of the Baptist persuasioa, one lawyer and two physicians. 
The road from Pittsburgh to Mansfield and Upper Sandusky, 
and likewise that from Erie to Columbus passes through 
this place. The road from Zanesville to Granger and Cleve- 
land passes through this town, as likewise might be added the 
road from the termination of the great Cumberland road 
northwesterly to Lower Sandusky, and thence to Perrysville, 
at the head of ship navigation, on the Miami of- the- Lake, and 
onward to Detroit. The population consists chiefly of emi^ 
grants from Pennsylvania, There are, however, some 
from the State of New- York, and the eastern states.—- 
The population amounts to about 6500.1 Its surplus pro- 
duce is consumed by the numerous emigrants, who are crowd- 
ing into the county. Ultimately its commerce will find its 
way to the shores of lake Erie, distant only 46 miles. 

Artificial mounds of considerable size are found in this coun» 
ty. A brick was found in 1816, in digging a cellar in Woos- 
ter, under the stump of a large oak tree, and about four feet 
below the surface of the earth. It was of the size and ap- 
pearance of a common brick. There were two others found 
in that cellar, that were less perfect in shape and consistence, 

j Letter from Wm. B, Raymond, Dec, 28, 18i7. 



Has Harrison and Tuscarawa south, Columbiana east, Port- 
age north, and Wayne west. The Tuscarawa branch of the 
Muskingum river runs from north to south entirely through 
the county, on the western side, and is navigable as high up 
as the county extends for keel boats of any burthen. Big 
Sandy, a large creek falls into the Tuscarawa near the south- 
ern boundary of the county. Nimishillen is a large creek 
which falls into Big Sandy on the north side, about four miles 
from its confluence with the Tuscarawa, and is one of the 
best mill streams in the state, with a sufficiency of water at 
all times of the year to drive waterworks of any description. 
Adjoining this creek, and about four miles from Canton are 
immense banks of iron ore of a superior quality. The build- 
ing of a furnace is now in contemplation. There are in the 
neighborhood of Canton, a number of excellent bridges ; the 
first of importance, is a toll bridge over the Tuscarawa river, 
about eight miles west of Canton, and one mile from Kendal, 
on the road from Canton to Wooster. It is 612 feet in length, 
erected on stone piers about 20 feet in height. The next in 
importance is over Nimishillen creek; one mile east of Canton, 
650 feet in length, built on wooden piles; besides a nimiber 
of others of less importance over the several branches of the 
Nimishillen creek. 

C«?iion, the seat of justice, is handsomely situated on an 
elevated plain, in the forks of Nimishillen creek. Its latitude 
has never been ascertained by actual observation, but being 
about eleven English miles south of the northern boundary of 
the county, may be correctly enough stated at 40 deg. 50 
min. north latitude, and four deg. 30 min. west longitude 
from Washington city; and is distant from Steubenvilie 50 
miles northwest ; from Pittsburgh 95 miles west, from Colum* 
bus 120 miles northeast. The first settlement in tliis county 
commenced in the spring of 1806, since which time the emi- 


gratlon has equalled, if not surpassed any thing ever witnessed 
in any part of the state. Agreeably to a census taken in the 
spring of 1815, the white male inhabitants over 21 years of 
age amounted to 1325, which being multiplied by 6, the 
probable number for every white male over 21 yeays of age, 
which is a moderate calculation, being mostly settled with 
young growing families, would give 7950 ; to which, add a 
probable increase for one year and eight months, say 1500, 
would give the present population at 9450. In the town of 
Canton, there are about eighty dwelling houses and upwards 
of 500 inhabitants. Also, nine mercantile stores, (besides 
six in other parts of the county) one cut nail factory, one 
wool carding machine, an oil mill, a fulling mill, four tanneries, 
four taverns, three boot and shoe makers, four tailors, two 
saddlers ; besides a number of carpenters and cabinet makers. 
About seven miles west of Canton, and adjoining the beauti- 
ful village of Kendal, is a woollen manufactory established by 
Thomas Koach, now in successful operation, on an extensive 
scale, and manufactures cloth of a superb quality.* 


Has parts of Washington and Monroe south, Bellraont and 
part of Harrison east, Tuscarawa north, and Muskingum 
west ; watered almost exclusively by Will's creek and its 
branches. Surface broken, soil generally second quality. 

Cambridge^ the chief town and seat of justice, is situated 
on the right bank of Will's creek, at the intersection of the 
road leading from Zanesville to Wheeling. It has about 
60 houses, three taverns, four stores, and a post-office. 
Will's creek has good mill seats, a little above this town. 


Has Washington south, the Ohio river east, Belmont north, 
and Guernsey west. It is watered by branches of Duck, 

* Lttter of John P. Coulter, of Canton, January, 1817, 


Pattpaw, Little Muskingum, Sunfish and Capteena creeks, 
all running into the Ohio. In surface, soil, timber and pro- 
ductions, it closely" resembles Belmont and Guernsey. 


Has Monroe south, the Ohio river east, Harrison north and 
Guernsey west. It is watered by Indian Wheeling, M'Ma- 
hon's and Capteena creeks. It is hilly and broken, excepting 
the bottoms of the Ohio. Timber — oak, hickory, sugar-ma- 
ple, &c. 

St. Clairsville, is situated on the road leading from Zanes- 
ville to Wheeling, 24 miles northeast of Cambridge ; and con- 
tains about 100 buildings. 


Has Belmont south, Jefferson east, parts of Columbia and 
Stark north and Tuscarawa west. It is watered by Stillwa- 
ter and other branches of the Tuscarawa, and creeks and 
brooks running into the Ohio. Its surface waving, and in 
most parts hilly. Timber — oak, chesnut, hickory, with some 
sugar-maple, cherry and black walnut. This county is set- 
tled chiefly by emigrants from Pennsylvania. It abounds 
with coal mines, free stone, lime stone and a fine while, soft, 
tenacious clay, fit for manufacturing purposes. 

Cadis, a small village of 20 houses, is situated on a hlH, 26 
aiiles west of Steubenviile, on the Zanesville road. It 
has four or five other villages, mostly new and small. 


Has a part of Belmont south, Ohio riyer east, Columbiana 
north, and Harrison west. It is watered by Indian Short, 
Indian, Willis' and Yellow creeks, all running into the Ohio. 
The surface of this county is broken ; but the soil is of an 


excellent quality, and capable of producing wheat, corn, ryej 
oats and flax. It is one of the oldest settled counties in the 
state. The principal towns are Steubenville and Mount- 

Skubenville, is delightfully situated on the first and second 
I banks of the Ohio, 72 miles by water below Pittsburgh, and 

20 above Wheeling. It is nearly as large as Pittsburgh, and 
promises to rival the first cities of the west ; it contains about 
400 houses, many of them elegant and costly. Its growth, 
for the last four years, has been uncommonly rapid. I passed 
it in 1805, and found it so small as scarcely to be preserved 
in recollection during an absence of eleven years. In ap- 
proaching this town in April 1816, by water, I was surprised 
to hear the music of its ponderous steam engines, several 
miles before I had a view of the town. It has about 40 mer- 
cantile stores, 6 taverns, post office, bookstore and printings 
office, at which is published the " Western Herald.^^ 

It has a fine woollen manufactory, the machinery of which 
is propelled by steam ; steam paper mill, producing paper of 
a superior quality ; and in quantities more than sufficient to 
supply ten of the surrounding counties. A steam grist 
mill; stone cotton factory, brewery, distillery, soap and 
candle factory. It is not long since lots in this village, 60 by 
180 feet, sold for 100 dollars each ; many of them now com- 
mand from 1 to 1 5,000 dollars each. 

3Ioimt Pleasant, twelve miles north of Steubenville, has 
about 150 houses, 7 stores, 3 taverns, 3 saddler's, 3 hatter's, 
4 blacksmith's, 4 weaver's, 6 boot and shoe maker's, 8 car- 
penter^s, 3 taylor's, 3 cabinet maker's, 1 baker's 1 apotheca- 
ry's, and 2 waggon maker's shops ; 2 tanneries ; 1 shop for 
making wool carding machines ; 1 with a machine for spin- 
ning thread (lom Jlax ; 1 nail factory ; 2 wool carding ma- 
chines. The public buildings are a meeting house belonging 
to the society of Friends, built of brick, two stories high, 92 
feet by 60 ; a brick school house, 46 Tiy 22 feet, and a brick 
market Iiouse, 32 by 16, Within the distance of six miles 


froin the town, are 9 merchant mills, 2 grist mills^ 12 saw 
mills, a paper mill with 2 vats, a woollen factory with 4 looms, 
and 2 fulling mills. 


Has Jefferson and the Ohio river souths Pennsylvania east, 
Trumbull and a part of Portage north, and Stark west. It 
is watered by Little Beaver and branches of Big Beaver riv- 
er. This county in surface, soil, extent and character of 
population, has a strong resemblance to Jefferson. It is rich 
in agricultural products, mills, coal mines, iron-ore and valua- 
ble timber. It contains about forty grist and saw mills ; se- 
veral extensive manufactories of cotton and woollen, a furnace 
and several forges. 

Fairfield, is the seat of justice. There are eight or ten 
other villages, nearly new. 

Nof E. — The counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne and 
Richland aXe bounded north by New Connecticut, or the 41st 
degree of latitude. On the south these counties are bounded 
by Jefferson, Harrison, Tuscarawa, Coshocton and Knox ; 
south of these and north of the Muskingum, are Belmont, 
Monroe, Guernsey and parts of Muskingum and Washington. 
— between the Muskingum and the eastern branches of the 
Miami, or more properly the Miami country, are Gallia, 
Athens, Fairfield, Licking, Franklin, Champaign, Pickaway, 
Ross, Pike, Scioto, Adams, Highland, Clinton, Fayette and 
Delaware. The counties situated north of lat. 41, are com- 
prised within the tracts usually lenued New Conncciknt^t 
and the Fire Lands, 


Is bounded by Lake Erie on the north, by Indian lands 
west, l)y the parallel of N. lat. 41, son!n, And I?y Prnnf-ylva- 


Ilia east. Its length is 120 miles, and average wicltb about 
45, and its area about 5349 square raileSj or 4,000,000 acres. 
It is divided into seven counties, viz. 


Is bounded by Lake Erie north, Geauga west, Trumbull 
south, and Pennsylvania east. It is watered by the Ashta- 
bula, and numerous creeks. 


Lies south of Ashtabula, north of Columbiana, west of 
Pennsylvania, and east of Portage county. It is watered by 
branches of the Big Beaver, running into the Ohio, and 
Grand river of the Lake, 


Lies north of Stark and Wayne, west of Trumbull, south 
of Geauga, and east of Bledina ; and is watered by branches 
of Ashtabula, Big Beaver, Tuscarawa, and Grand and Cha- 
grin rivers. 


Has Lake Erie north, Cayalioga county west, Portage 
south, and Ashtabula east ; and is watered by Grand and 
Chagrin rivers. 


Lies west of Geauga, south of Lake Erie, east of Huron, 
and nortli of Medina. It is watered by Cayahoga and 
Rocky rivers, besides numerous large creeks. 


Is bounded south by parts of Wayne and Richland, east 
by Po! ta2;e, north by Cayahoga, and West by Huron. It is 
watered by head branches of Cayahoga, Rocky and Black 
rivci?. and the extreme branches of the Mu::kir.<rnm. 



Is bounded south by Richland, pr the parallel of N. lat. 41 , 
and Indian lands ; east by BTedina and Cayahoga counties, 
north by Lake Erie, and west by Indian lands. It Js large 
enough, when properly settled, to form three addltiqnal coun- 
ties; and is watered by Black, Vermillion, and Huron rivers, 
Pipe and Cold creeks, and Sandusky and Portage rivers, 


The surface of this extensive tract, is neither hilly nor 
champaign ; but sufficiently undulating to give a quick mo- 
tion to the streams, and afford facilities in removing the tim- 
ber from the earth. All the large streams have gullied for 
themselves, deep narrow vallies. The Ashtabula and Grand 
rivers, flow four or five hundred feet below the surface of the 
bordering hills. The banks of the Chagrin, Cayahoga, and 
Rocky rivers, are less elevated ; and those of the streams 
west of the last named river, gradually diminish as we 
proceed westwardly ; for example, the banks of Pipe creek, 
Sandusky, and Portage, are comparatively low ; and the coun-- 
try west of Huron river, also, approaches to the champaigu 
character. The whole tract has a norlhern inclination. 

The timber of these tracts, consists of oak — white, black, 
red and yellow ; chesnut, elm — red, white and slippery; lin- 
den or bass wood, hickory, black walnut and beach ; maple, 
sugar and soft ; cucumber tree, ash — red, white, blue and 
black ; white pine, spruce, hemlock, larch, horse chesnut, 
sycamore, wild cherry, dogwood, honey locust, aspin, black 
poplar, birch — black and white; alder, witch hazel, spice wood, 
sassafras, crab apple, plum, red mulberry, service tree, horn- 
beam and cotton tree. 

The soil is loam, sandy in places, deep, black vegetable 
mould, clay and gravel. 

From the western limits of Pennsylvania to the mouth of 
Bocky river, is a strip of country, bordering on lake Erie, 


about three miles wide, generally of a sandy and gravelly soil, 
covered with two or three inches of black mould, and a 
growth of hickorj^, chesnut and oak, with some black walnut 
and butternut. This soil proves peculiarly congenial to the 
growth of wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley and fruit — but not so 
natural to grass, as the country immediately south, which has 
a moistei" and deeper soil ; and which is clothed with a heavy 
growth of sugar-maple, beach, tulip, cucumber and black wal- 
Dut. The beach and maple country, is preferred by many^ 
on account of its greater fertility, and the luxuriance of its 
pasturage and meadows. The plants and shrubs are such as 
pre common to the western counties of New York and Penn- 
sylvania, besides, several unknown to these states.* 


The order of the earth's strata is, 1 , A deep vegetable 
mould, except in places, near the lake ; loam or clay of great 
thickness ; in oak and chesnut land, reddish and friable ; in the 
beach and maple region, grey. 2. Gravel or sand, of une- 
qual depths, according to the elevation or depression of the sur- 
face ; wherever sand is found, it is Itratafied with water marks. 
I>. Ash-colored free-stone, compact slate, or blue clay. 4. 
Ciuicksand, where water is obtained, which is excellent un- 
der sand stone, and unpleasant under blue clay. 

The fossil productions of these counties, are of great im- 
portance to the inhabitants. Coal is found on the south and 
southeast parts of the Western Reserve, and near Lake Erie 

* Mr. Granger enumerates the following species, viz: leather wood, papaco, 
{"unnona triloba") many species of elder, liazel-ntit, sumac, nine-bark, red-bud, 
x-iid rose and eglantine, honeysuckle and woodbine, grapes, mealy tree, or guelder 
rose, buttonwood, raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, gooseberries, black cur- 
rents, whortleberries, ivy, mountain ivy, mountain laurel, bitter-sweet, prick 'y ash, 
May apple, wintergreen, rattle weed, sweet flag, pucroon or blood root, centaury, 
cucumber root, ladies' bedstraw, poke, winter cherry, Indian turnip or wake robin, 
gpotian, ginseng, Virginia snake root, Seneca snake root, black flower, wliite helle- 
iiore, Salomon's sea!, mint, cat njint, balm, pennyroyal, thorn apple, wild hops, la- 
<':an berry, cresses, pleuriRy root, wild ginger or coltsfoot, wild oats, [xizanja aqua- 
tic^j woimspcd, cardinal fl'iwer, partridje berry, miillen, deadly night shade, 
Ekunk cabbage, wafei- hemldck, ciruta, cranberry, strawberry, hoarhound, elecam- 
pane. May weed, arrow head, heubane, ground ivy, gold thraad, Columbo, A vena. 
Sftxl Inf^ian heinp, [Urtiea \Vbi*,Iowi^.'i 


on Rocky river. Alaibst every town has salt licks : when 
bored to the depth of 200 feet, they are said to be rich. — > 
Salt has been made in Trumbull county, without boring. Sul- 
phur, chalybeate, and aluminous springs, are numerous. 

Allum and copperas are found in the high slate banks of the 
large streams.f Iron-ore, bog and rock, is abundant, and 
proves to be good. Gypsum chrystalized and grey, is foimd 
on the Cayahogaand Sandusky rivers. Limestone is found 
in every county ; but is most abundant in Huron, on the prai- 
ries between Huron and Sandusky rivers. Mill-stones, grind- 
stones and whetstones, are made in several parts of the Re^ 

The road from Erie to Cleveland continues, the greater 
part of the way, on an alluvial ridge, of about the height and 
width of a well raised turnpike road. When closely examin- 
ed, one is ready to exclaim, " this was once the margin of 
lake Erie ; this mound has been raised by its waves." This 
natural turnpike consists jof sand, pebbles, and shells, similar 
to those on the beach of the lake. 


Warren, the seat of justice for Trumbull county, is the 
oldest village in the northern parts of Ohio. It is situated 
rear the Ma!honing branch of the Big Beaver. This country 
is the most populous of any in the Reserve ; and has several 
forges, and a furnace. Wild lands are worth from 5 to ^15 
an acre. Improved farms have been sold as high as $15, fjr 
an entire tract. 

Harpersjield, the seat of justice for Ashtabula, is situated 
on the road leading from Erie to Cleveland, some miles east 
of Ashtabula river. Here is an old settlement, extending 
along the road for several miles — and is chiefly remarkable for 
the abundance of the peach orchards, the most extensive of 

* Ralph Granger, Esq. of Warren, is the only vrriter, I believe, «ho has 
thrown much light on the geology of this country. •' Allum," he says, " is verv 
abundant. Almost aJ! the schistus would afibid it upon roagiing atid txposurt.''" 


any in the United States, and fine dairies. Austinsbur^kf 
is situated a few miles south of Ilarpersfield. There are nu^- 
merous mills on the Ashtabula. Pine timber is found, in lim- 
ited quantities, on the Ashtabula, Grand and Chagrin rivers. 
Pine boards are exported to Canada, from Grand river. 

Par/nsvilUj is situated on the left bank of Grand river, 
about one mile from the lake. It has about 40 houses-r— sev- 
eral mills and three stores ; it has a high, dry, sandy plain 
in its rear. 

Ravenna, the seat of justice for Portage, is situated in the 
centre of populous settlements ; in its neighborhood, is an 
abundance of iron ore, which is very rich — a ton and a half of 
ore jrields one ton of iron. 

Cleveland, is situated on the right bank of the Cayahoga, 
half a mile from lake Erie. Its site is dry, sandy and elevated 
200 feet above the level of the river and lake; neverlhelesSji 
bilious fevers and agues, have frequently afflicted the inhabi- 
tants. The cause is to be ascribed to the surf of the lake's 
choakirig up the river, and causing a stagnation of its waters, 
for three miles upwards. There are about forty houses : the 
view of the lake is charming. The soil for three or four 
miles east and south is sandy ; timber — oak and hickory. 

Hudson, is situated on the road leading from Cleveland ta 
Canton, near Tinker's creek, running into the Cayahoga. 

Medina and Huron are now receiving a great number of 
emigrants. The first is beautifully watered, has large bor-? 
ders of unimproved lands ; vast quantities of iron ore ; a fur- 
nace is now building ; as is also a great number of mills. The 
land between the Cayahoga and Rocky rivers, near the lake, 
is poor ; to the west of Rocky river the aspect and quality of 
the soil improves very much, until we approach Black river ; 
between which and Vermillion the soil is generally of a second 
quality, except on the lake shore, and generally too low to suit 
nice judges of farming land. Up Vermillion there is much 
poor white oak land, too wet to be healthy. I consider the 
mouth of Black and Vermillion rivers, to be unsuited to 


health. The banks of these streams are low, and in some 
places marshy for some distance upwards. From the Ver- 
million to Huron, the country continues of a rich soil, but too 
Tow, in many situations, to promise health. The bottoms 
of Huron have proved sickly for eight or ten miles up, after 
which the country is uncommonly healthy. Timber- — sugar- 
maple, beech, elm, eak, chesnut ; honey locust and buckeye, 
on the bottoms. So salubrious is the air, and so excellent 
the water above the forks, that it has already become prover- 
bial with the inliabitants, residing near the mouth of the river, 
to say, that " the people living above the forks have received 
leases of their lives.'' The prairies commence, within one 
mile of Huron, sis or seven miles from the lake, and extend to 
the Miami-of the-Lakes, interspersed with large and small 
bodies of wood land. The country between Huron and 
Sandusky, a few miles from the lake, has proved favorable to 
health, especially on Pipe arid Cold creeks. From Pipe creek 
to Croghansville is 34 miles, the first half of the way prairie, 
variegated with strips and islets of woodland, and small ponds; 
the last, timbered land, oak, hickory black walnut, basswood. 

Croghansville, is situated on the left or west bank of the 
Sandusky, near Fort Stephenson, eighteen miles from lake 
Erie. It contains about 30 houses. Fort Stephenson is sit- 
uated on the west bank of the Sandusky, at the distance of 
200 yards from the river, where the second banks are about 
50 feet high. Seven miles above the fort are the Seneca and 
Delaware Indian villages. The distance from this post to 
Fort Meigs, is forty miles ; the road passes through the Black 
Swamp, which is four miles wide. The country between 
this road and the great meadow is too flat for cultivation, 
though the soil is extremely rich. 

Venice, a new town, on the margin of Sandusky, is just 
commenced building. Since July, 1816, thirty lots have been 
sold ; one saw and one grist mill, are in operation within three 
fourths of a mile of its site, on Cold creek, a never faiiin!?; 
stream. A grist ml!!, with fonrrun of stones, apnpermili^ 
and other water macliinery, nrp about to he fivocApf}. 




The population at this moment is believed to amount t& 
about 450,000 souls. 

Enumeration of the while male inhabitants over 21 i/ears of 
age, niihin the State of Ohio, in the year 1816. 



Tiiscargwa, .... 776 

f Gallia, .... 132G 


. 589 






. 2047 




. 2413 


. 774 


. 1458 


. 273:i 


. 1067 




. 2877 




. 850 




. ISS-i 


. 1116 


. 133.0 




. 13M 


. 591 


. 1 61 


. 1566 

Geauga, » 

. 523 




. 2448 




. 759 




. 1153 




. 494 




. 639 




. 920 

Columbiana, . 



. . 792 


9 . 



. 953 




. 1615 
. 2083 






The following statement shews the number of Indians, of 

all ages and sexes, within the limits of the state of Ohio, in 


Wyandots, on Sandusky river and its w aters, ... 69J 

Sbawanoese, on the head of the Auglaize river, and on the upper 
watei's of the Miami of Ohio ; principal village, Wapaghkonetta, 
27 miles north of Pjqua, 840 

Delawares in Ohio, on the head waters of the Sandusky and Mus. 
kingum, - - Iv/ 

Sanecas, who reside between Upper and Lower Sandusky, at anJ. 
near Seneca Town, 450 

Senecas, Munseys and Delawares, on the head waters of the Mi- 
ami of Ohio, at and near Lewis' Town, 30 'isiles N. E. of Piqua, 434 

O'towas, wlio inhabit the so>uh shore of Lake Eric, about Miami 
Bay, nt;ar Fort Vfeigs, and on the Auj^laize rivur — numbers not 
8Uiioaary--iibout = - 450 

ToTAt, 3036 

'"■ Tiiib i, v. as rurni=Ltd by i. JoLiiston, E.-q. of Piqna. 


Is situated between 35 and 36 30 N. lat. bounded nortli 
by Kentucky, west by the Mississippi river, south by the 
New State [Mississippi] and Alabama Territory ; East by 
North Carolina. The rivers have all a western directioOj 
flowing into the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mississippi. — > 
The state is divided into East and West Tennessee, by the 
Cumberland mountains. East Tennessee is watered by the 
Holston, Notachucky, French Broad, Tellico, Richland, 
Clinch, Big Emery, and Hiwassee rivers, all head branches 
of the Tennessee. West Tennessee is watered by Cum- 
berland, Tennessee, Elk, Buffaloe, Duck, Swan, Wolf of 
Cumberland, Oby, Forked Deer, Obian, Hatchy, and Wolf 
of the Mississippi, 

The Tennessee is one of the largest rivers in the western 
country, being nearly as long and as broad as the Ohio, and 
navigable for lar^^e boats, 1100 miles. It enters the Ohio 13 
miles, below the mouth of Cumberland, and 57 above that of 
the Ohio. Several of its tributaries are also large navigable 
rivers, particularly Holston, NotJfchucky, French Broad, Tel- 
Uco, Hiwassee, Clinch and Duck ; all of which are from 
the south, except the two last. The surface and soil of this 
state west of the Cumberland mountains, is nearly similar to 
the southern counties of Kentucky, and the northern parts 
of Mississippi, and the Alabama Territory. The greater 
part of the country is broken, free from swamps, and remark- 
ably healthy. The fertile cotton lands produce forest trees 
of an extraordinary growth. Cane abounds in the vallies, 
and on the rich hills. Saltpetre, tobacco, cotton, hogs, and 
cattle, are the grand staples. There is a large body of rich 
l3Iid, belonging to the United States, between Duck m§f 



and the Musde Shoals, and south of the Tennessee rivefj 
below the Shoals, extending to the Mississippi, and down 
that river to the mouth of Wolf— containing about six mill- 
ions of acres. This part of the state affords fine situations 
for enterprizing emigrants. The water in many parts, is ex- 
cellent ; the bottoms of Duck and Buffalo rivers, are very 
valuable, free from stagnant waters, and bearing thick cane- 
brakes. There is a deficiency of water on the lime stone lands, 
in consequence of the fissures in the beds of the creeks, which 
causes the water to sink and form subterranean streams, which 
only show themselves in the bottoms of the coves and sinks. 
Yet the soil is of the best quality, and well adapted to the 
cotton culture. Iron ore, free stone, and caves, abounding 
with saltpetre is found in various parts of the new cession. 
By far the greater part of West Tennessee is admirably well 
watered. I have travelled extensively in this state, and nev- 
er saw 50 acres of swampy ground, unless at the confluence 
of some of the large rivers, where the newly formed alluvion 
had not acquired the consistence of terra firma. Fevers are 
almost unknown to the inhabitants, except on the bottoms of 
the Cumberland, Tennessee and Mississippi rivers. I know 
of no country where diseases are so rare, or where physicians 
have so little employ ; children, remarkably robust and heal- 
thy. The climate proves congenial, to northern constitutions. 
About half a dozen familes removed to this state, from the 
state of New-York, nearly 20 years ago. Residing in the 
same county from which they migrated, I have twice had 
occasion to visit them, in Overton county, near the junction 
of Oby and Wolf river^^. The unprecedented health and 
increase of Simeon Barber^s family, since their residence in 
Tennessee, deserves to be put on record. He left New- York 
with a wifd and eight children, five girls and three boys : his 
daughters are all married. The eldest has ten children, the 
second tai, the third elevm, the fourth ten and the fifth five; 
the eldest son, lea, the second seven, the third three; making 
a total of "ixTY SIX, all ferfedhf formed, and living in May, 
1§10. They have enjoyed almost imiuterrupted health.-^ 


Old Mr. Barber has six or seven great grand-children, which 
makes the increase from one family upwards of 70 souls* 
Not a single death occurred in the different branches of the 
femily, until two of the sons removed to Indiana, in 1816» 
when two of the children died of the whooping cough. Mr. 
Barber is now 77 years of age,^ and bis wife 74. I do not 
recollect having ever seen in the northern states, the heads of 
any single family, of so advanced an age, possessing so great 
a degree of activity, bodily and mental vigor, or of so young 
and healthful appearance. Mr. B. thinks nothing of walking 
fifteen or twenty miles; and labors occasionally in bis fields. 
None of the other families which accompanied him, have 
had the same rapid increase of numbers ; but they have en- 
joyed fine health, and all concur in representing the country 
as healthy beyond example. Indeed, from my own experi- 
ence and observation, 1 do not hesitate to pronounce the 
country between Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, as in- 
comparably the most healthy of any part of the western 
country, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Per- 
haps the country south of Tennessee river-— from the French 
Broad to the Mississippi, as far south as the junction of the 
Black Warrior and Tombigbee rivers — might with justice be 
included in the salubrious region. The southern half of 
the late Mississippi Territory, and Louisiana, are not generuU 
ly unfavorable to health, but locally so. The same remark 
also applies to OhiO;, Indiana, and the Blichigan, Illinois,. 
North- Western, and J^Iissouri Territories. 

The Cumberland Mountains run through the state from 
north to south, and spurs or lateral branches extend uest to 
the vicinity of Nashville. Their summits between Wolf riv- 
er (of CumberlaPid) and the Big Emery, are dreary and pre- 
cipitous, in places ; and bear frequent evidences of the ac- 
tion of water-— even on the highest peaks. As we approach 
the head branches of Wolf and Oby, the soil becomes deep 
and fertile, even on the knobs and ridges where the ascents 
ajid dechrities are so sleep as to rcA '.er it impracticable i* 


travel on horseback. Upon these hills, or rather small mottBh 
tains, are found tulip, beech, and sugar-maple trees of the 
largest dimensions ; little or no underwood, abundance of gii> 
seug and various other medicinal plants. Between the mouU' 
tains, are " coves^^ of ten, fifteen or twenty acres, similar to 
those in Wayne county, (Ken.) already described, with the 
best freestone water, and covered with the largest trees and 
canebrakes. No situation can be more lonesome and secluded 
than these gloomy retreats, when found at the distance of fif- 
ty or sixty miles from the residence of a human being. I 
once had occasion to pass, alone, from Clinch river to Nash- 
ville, a distance of nearly two hundred miles, across the 
mountains : the nature of the country, rendered it necessary 
to perform the route on foot. For the convenience of water,, 
I was obliged to encamp several nights in the?e abodes of de- 
solation and silence. In several instances, I was forcibly im^ 
pressed with the power of solitude. The; air— nay, all na^ 
ture, appeared at rest-^not a sound struck the ear ; the very 
Jeaves were as motionless as icicles. In this awful stillness, 
the wolf's dire howl would have been music to my ear. 

Cayes, of great depth and extent, are found throughout the 
state ; in the Cumberland Mountain, on the summit of an 
cltfvated peak, is one of unfathomable profundity — A stone 
t.hrown or dropt into its frightful orifice, returns no sound. I 
once drank at a subterranean brook, in Sullivan county, which 
was large enough to drive a mill, and as I juvlged at least 40(? 
feet beneath the surface of the earth.* 

* This cave is on the aummit of a high hill ; within a few rods of its mouth there 
is a crater, gulf, or sink, 400 feet deep,and about 300 yards wide at the top, gradu- 
ally narrowing towards the bottom like a funnel, but too steep to admit of voluniafif 
descent. The descent into the cave is easy — after which several spacious rooms arp 
passed — when we come to a narrow passage — through which one is obliged to creep, 
and use great caution to prevent the extinctioH of the torch, as there is a pretty 
strong current of air constantly setting towards the mouth of the cave ; beyond this 
passage at the distance of 20 paces commences a difficult descent of several hundrfctl 
feet which brings one will\ia hearing of the murmurs of the brook; still 70 paces 
distant — and to reach which, without a broken neck, the utmost care is necessary. 
The bottoms and stones of this brook are similar in every respect to common brooljs 
in niBunlainous countries. The water was cold and perfectly agreeable to the tast^. 
I WHS told by the person who acted as a guide, that we could see daii light by as- 
cending the stream a few rods, which 1 found to be the case. But the aperture 
whii-h admitted the light, prev<3fited our ingress to the crater, beinf; barely suffi- 
cient to enable us Co survey the huge and frightful maseea which projected from the 
SJdse, or lay ia chaotic piles at the bottom of the gnlf, 


Sketches of some of the Western Counties of Pemwjlmnia, 


Is situated on both sides of the Ohio river and Big Beaver creek, in the 
Western part of Pennsylvania ; it is bounded on the wf^st by Brook county 
of Virginia, and Columbiana county of the state of Ohio., by Mercer coun- 
ty on the north, Butler on the east, and Alleghany county on the south- 
east ; its length from north to south on the west side is about tkirty-six 
miles, in breadth eighteen miles ; divided int^. fifteen townsships, contain- 
ing in the year.lSlO, 12.^68 inhabitants; the number must be considera- 
bly increased since. The j'imate and situation may be considered very 
favorable to health ; the face of the country generally hilly, interspersed 
with tracts of excellent land, and others not so fertile, though suitable 
.for the production of good crops of well filled wheat; tlie bottom land 
produces corn in abundance. Unimproveil iand sells at four dollars, im- 
proved farms from sis to twelve dollars per acre ; the price of wheat pre- 
vious to the late war wa? fr.-<m sixty to sixty-seven cents per bushel ; it 
is now from gl to IS1»25; rye, from 75 cts- to gl ; barley, gl ; corn, 75 
cents • oatS: 7 1-2 cents ; beef, 5. an^? pork, from 6 to §7 per cwt. ; salt, 
from S6,30 tt gr,.''© per barrel of 250 ibt'. ret wt. The country is well 
situateu for commerce, having the Ohio river passing through the south- 
ern part of the county, and the Big Beaver creek, which is navigable for 
Durham boats (except the falls) to several miles above Warren, in Trum- 
bull count}', state of Ohio, intersecting the county from north to south, till 
jtejnpties into the Ohio river near Beaver-town. 

Jieaverto fn contains between 50 and 60 dwelling houses, an excel- 
lent brick court-house, a stone prison, a banking-house, a printing-office, 
and a new brick building for an academy. The road from Pittsburgh to 
petrtiit, and to places situate in the northeastern part of the state of Ohio 
passes this way. There are in this county two furnaces and one forge for 
making iron : one of the furnaces is at Bassingheim, on Conoquenessing, 
a creek putting into Big Beaver, on the east side ; the other furnace, and 
the forge, are at Brighton, on the falls of Big Beaver. Those falls are a 
continuation of rapids for more than two miles ; they are well calculated 
for giving motion to machinery, and susceptible of great improvement. In 
addition to the above, there are erected on them, 4 grist-mills, 4 saw-mills,' 
1 trip-hammer, 1 woollen manufactory, 1 oil-mill, and 1 cotton-spinning fac- 
tory : and tiiere yet remain unoccupied situations, and water sufficient 
for many more. The chief articles of export, are flour, porter, beer, cast 
and bar-iron, sent down the river ; those carried up to Pittsburgh, consist 
of grain, beef-cattle, beer, porter, pig-iron, castings, potash, linseed-oil. 
woollen cloth, cptton yarn, country linnen, &c. The county abounds with, 
iron-ore, stone coal, and limestone . There are several villages in the coun- 
ty ; in one of which, Greersburgh, about ten miles north of Beaver-town, 
is an academy, where the Languages are taught. It may be remarked, that 
all kinds of grain, common to the climate, are generally cultivated ia th^ 

* Letter of A. MeDdenLall, Esq, cf Beaver-town, March, 1 817. 



Is bounded south by Beaver, east by Venango, north by Crawford antS 
cast by the state of Ohio. It is watered by the Big Beaver, Pymahoningj, 
Shenango, Neshamoe and Sandy creeks. There is much good land in this 
county — a considerable part of it is beech and maple l^d ;. well watered 
and healthy. 


Is bounded east by Armstrong, north by Venango, west by Beaver and 
south by Alleghany. It is watered by Buffalo creek running into the Al- 
leghany, and by Gonnoquenessing and its various branches running into 
XJig Beaver. The timber is principally oak—soil light, but producing 
small grain and grass — surface moderately hilly. This county is chiefly 
veiaarkabk for being the residence of the liarmonists. 


This Society originated in the dutchy of Wurtetnburgh, about 30 year* 
ago, and emigrated from that country to the United States, in conaei^ 
quenceof the rigor and intolerance of the Lutheran church. George Rapp» 
the principal leader of the Society, and several followers, arrived in 
Philadelphia in 1803. They were the next year followed by the whole So- 
ciety, who embarked at Amsterdam, to the number of 160 families. — 
Happ purchased about 5709 acres of land, in this county. fn Februa- 
ry, 1805, a constitution was organized, whose principles were the same 
as the first Apostolic churdh, (See Acts IV. 32.) '* And the multitude of 
them that believed, were of one heart, and of one soul : neither said any 
of them, that ought, of the things which he possessed was his own ; but 
they had all things common." There is no such thing as mdividual proper- 
ty — every thing belongs to the Society— all labor is in common All th6 
produce and provisions, are deposited in a large brick store, and served 
out according to the wants of the different members. During the winter 
of 1805, they erected 18 log houses, 18 by 24 and a large barn. Ground 
to the amount of 150 acres, was cleared for corn, 40 for potatoes and 15 
for meadow. A grist and saw mill were erected, and a race way dug three 
fourths of a mile long. Thirty additional houses were built in the au- 
tumn of the same year. In 1806, 300 acres of land were cleared for corn, 
58 for meadow ; a public inn, several dv/elling houses, a framed barn, 100 
feet long, and an oil mill were erected. The next year, among other im- 
provements, 400 acres were cleared; a brick store house, saw mill and 
beer brewery were built. Every succeeding year has added to their 
wealth and buildings. They have now Several capacious brick and framed 
bSirns — a brick meeting bouse, ware house, fulling, dying, grist and hemp 
"^ills — carding machines, spinning jennies, distilleries, etc. The annu- 
al quantity of produce, consisting of wheat, rye, oats, barley and pota- 
toes, exceeds 40,000 bushels, besides 5000 lbs. of flax and hemp, 100 gal- 
lons of sweet oil, distilled from liie white poppy, and the product of 
twelve acres of vineyard. This truly economical people appropriate eve- 
ry foot of earth within the limits of their little republic, to some object 
at utility. Hills which are too steep for the plow or the drag, are plant- 
ed with the vine. Their vineyard is situated on the south side of a steep 
lull, and exhibits to the eye a succession of benches, rising one above 
the other, like the galleries of our churches — the front of each bench or 
flat being walled up with stones, to prevent the sliding or caving of the 
earth. They have about 3000 acres of ground cleared ; have a large stock 
cf cattle, and about 1000 sheep ; part of which are merino. Their clulh 
bis cbtained & higU reputaUon, Tiiere arc about, 100 mechaiucs, wh» 


■rork for the country as well as the society. The'number of comiBon la- 
borers amounts to about 700 men, who will readily dispose of a larfje job 
cf work — i 100 acre field is scarcely the Iab»r of a day. Nothing' can ex- 
ceed their industry. Idleness and intemperance are unknown among them- 
Food, clothing and physic, all are received from the public stores. Their 
costume is very plain ; the women dress with no motive of conquest.— 
AH are In uniform— & linsey or woollen jacket and petticoat, a close black 
cap, with a patch of cotton or wool on the crown, and tied under the 
chin, are their constant attire. The whole society attends divine worship 
on Sunday. The venerable Rapp fills the pulpit. Every thing, in short, 
proceeds v/ith the regularity of clock work. 

Their village is called Harmrmie, after the society. It is situated on 
the right bank of the Connoquenessing creek, which heads near the Alle- 
ghany jiver, and runs into the Big Beaver, about 50 miles above its en^ 
trftnce into the Ohio. Over this creek they have a bridge 220 feet long.— 
The creek affords many facilities for water machinery. The surrounding 
country is excellent for pasturage — but not of the first quality for grain. 
This interesting little colony have principally removed to the banks of 
the Wabash, below VIncennes, where they have commenced the culture 
of the Vine, and the manufacture of broad cloths from merino wool. 


Lies north of Butler, east of Mercer, south of Crawford and west of 
Armstror g. It is watered by Alleghany river, French, Sugar, Sandy, Oil, 
Mahoning and Toby's creeks. Soil light and gravelly, except on the 
bottoms ; timber, oak, chesnut, beech, sugar-maple and ash. It is thinly 
settled, abounding with desolate plantations, " where the fox looks out 
cf the window, and the tall grass waves to the wind." 

Franklin, the seat of justice, is situated partly on the right bank of 
French creek, and partly on the west side of the Alleghany river, at theii* 
confluence. It contains about 40 houses ; surrounding country poor and 
broken ; but healthy. Eleven miles northeast of Franklin, are the cele- 
brated oil springs, which rise from the bed of Oil creek, about one mile 
from its entrance into the Alleghany river. The supply of oil is inex= 
haustible ; one can collect a gallon in an hour or two. The place 
must have been much frequented in former times, as both banks of the 
creek abound with excavations, covering several acres, made no doubt by 
persons in search of the oil, 


Is about 50 miles square ; bounded east by "Warren, north by Erie, and 
west by Mercer and the Ohio state line ; south by Venango, It is finely 
watered by French creek, Cussawago, Little Conneaut, Pymahoning, Mud 
and Sugar creeks, and branches of Oil and Bi oken &traw creeks. Much 
of this country, west of French creek, is rich beech and maple land. — 
The southern part oak timbered * soil light and poor for grain, except 
rye ; grass grows well- The bottoms of French creek, between Meadville 
and Mud creek, are wide and rich ; timber, oak, black walnut, bass wood, 
some honey locust and sugar-maple. East of French creek, towards War- 
ren, the timber is pine, oak, hemlock, maple — soil poor, surface broken, 
and beautifully watered. A^ove Mid creek, the timber is beech, butter- 
nut, black walnut, sng^r-maple, elm, with very little underwood; soil 
black and deep, readily yielding to the foot, cnve>^d in places with net- 
tles, like the country near the dividing ridge, belween Colt's Station 
and Le Bceuf. There are already a considerable number of people from 
tfee e.'?stern states established In this (bounty, who are much pleased with 


the country. Wild land sells at from S3 to 10, according fo sitaationl 
Meadville, is situated on the east side of French creekj on an extensive 
plain or bottom, and contains#ibout 120 houses. Its growth has been slow, 
and the rise of property discouraging. Town lots in central situations, 
are remarkably low, not sbove four hundred dollars for the most eligible. 
They were sold at auction by the proprietor, Mr. Mead, at Pittsburgh, in 
Dec. 1797, at the average price of §40. It has several stores and tav- 
erns, an academy, a college in prospective, arsenal, jail, court-house, post- 
office, printing-office, at which is published a newspaper and magazine- 


Is bounded east by New-York, north by lake Erie, tvest by Ohio and 
south by Crawford, It is beautifully watered by fifteen or twenty hand"' 
some creeks, issuing from innumer«ble springs, and flowing into lake 
Erie ; the largest of which is Twenty Mile, Sisteen Mile, Four Mile, 
Elk, Walnut and Conneaut ; besides French creek flowing into the Allegha- 
ny ; Le Bocuf, Sugar and Miles' creeks — all running into French creek. 
This county is about 55 miles long, and has an average width of 30 
miles; it is partly formed from the triangular tract ceded by the United 
States to Pennsylvania, containing 202,187 acres, which extends from the 
WesternbouEdaryof New Yoik, along lake Erie 45 miles, being 18 miles 
wide at its base, and terminating in a point three miles east of the eastern 
limits of New-Connecticut. No section of the United States of equal ex- 
tent is better supplied with mill seats and facilities for the various kinds 
of hydraulic machinery ; but which, at present are little improved. How- 
ever, the spirit of improvement has commenced ; land has with5i the last 
four years nearly quadrupled in value ; and the settlements are fast ex- 
tending. From the New-York state line to that of the state of Ohio, near 
Conneaut, to the distance of three miles from the lake, the soil is a sandy 
loam, intermixed in places with gravel and covered with two or three in» 
ches of vegetable mould ; timber, chesnut, (very large) hickory, black 
walnut, oak, basswood, and some hemlock. This kind of land is much es- 
teemed by Pennsylvanians ; being highly favorable to grain and fruit ; and 
in a manner exempt from frost during the season of vegetation. This 
narrow strip is now selling at from eight to sixteen dollars an acre, by the 
farm. In 1813, few unimproved lots were valued at more than five dollars 
an acre ; and in 1798, the " Population Company" of Philadelphia, were 
making gratuitous grants of 200 acres to every actual settler, throughout 
the Triangle : three miles from the lake the country rises about 100 feet,and 
it is at the point of this elevation that the beech and maple country com- 
mences, and continues so with little variety of soil, timber and aspect, to 
the southern limits of the county. The timber consists of sugar maple, 
beech, tulip, (white wood) elm, bass wood, cucumber, white ash, butter- 
nut, interspersed with some hemlock — all large and lofty. Springs oi es:- 
cellent water are numerous. The soil is a deep grey loam, easily plough- 
ed — producing fine timothy and clover ; the inhabitants confine themselves 
to stock-raising and dairies ; the forests have very little underwood — one 
will frequently meet with bodies of land on which the chief timber is su- 
gar maple, say six or eight trees to an acre, with scarcely a single bush 
or shrub, but covered with a luxuriant and troublesome growth of nettles, 
the genuine Uitica Whitlowi five or six feet high, and almost impassable. 

Erie, stands on the margin cf a bay, formed by two peninsulas ; has an 
excellent harbor for light shipping, and contains about 100 houses. It 
has a court-house, jail, post-office, and a printing-office, from which is is- 
sued the " Genius of the Lakes" Its site is a plain, and the banks of the 
basin, or lakt-, is abuut 70 feet high, very steep. The largest peninsula, 
CPresqu^IsleJ is seven miles long, and from half a mile to a mile and a 
half broad. It is a perfect d«sert, or heap of sand, thrown up by the surf 


9f the lake, covered with ponds, cranbepry marshes, dwarf pines, and 
shrubby oaks. The little peninsula is not more than half a mile long ; & 
considerable stream of never failing water, large enough to drive a mill,, 
enters the lake at the east end of the town. Erie is 97 miles S. S. W of 
Buffalo, 136 nearly N. o£ Pittsburgh, and about 100 E. of Cleveland. Its 
trade is already considerable. The ship-yard is about two miles above 
the town. The oak timber for the U. S, ships of war, was cut near the 
spot J the masts were hauled several miles. A turnpike, across the port- 
age 16 miles long, extends from Eri^ to Le Bccuf creek. 

Waterford, Stands on the bank of Le BcEuf creek, sixteen miles south 
of Erie: it contains 15 or 20 houses, and is the point of embarkatioii foS? 
descending French creek into the Alleghany and Ohio. 


Is bonnded eftst and north by Cattaraugus and Chaiitauque eoiihtles, (N. 
Y.) west by Crawford, and south by Venango, is large enough when settled 
fot three or four counties of the usual size ; and is watered bv the Al« 
leghany and Connewango rivers, Brokpn-Straw, Great and Little Oil creeks, 
besides numerous other large streams, running into the Alleghany from 
the south. The northern half of this county, watered by the head bran- 
ches of Oil and Broken-Straw creeks and the Connewango, will admit of 
dense ^ettlemenis, as the land is uniformly good ; similar to the beech \ind 
maple lands of Erie county and the Holland Purchase in New-York ; and 
abounding with excellent springs, and meadows of nettles ; some small 
tracts of pine and hemlock ; but two thirds of the county is covered with 
ash, beech, sugar maple, and locust, with little underwood. The re- 
Inainder, although susceptible ai settlement and cultivation, fs chiefly val- 
uable for the almost exhaustless quantities of pine tifiaber, and coHvenient 
Hjill-seats, which are to be found in great numbers on all the streams, ex- 
cept Connewango, which is a deep languid stream from the New York 
state line to its junction with the Alleghany. Broken-Straw creek is about 
40 yards- wide, and joins the Alleghany 7 miles below the mouth of Con- 
newango ; it is brisk for the space of niHeteen miles from its mouth- 
where it forks and becomes gentle. There are about 20 saw-raills estab- 
lished on its banks, all actively employed in slitting the immense white 
pine forests growing along its borders. Oil creek, nearly equal in size^ 
also abounds in mills and pine timber. This creek enters the Alleghany 
about 40 miles below Broken Straw ? the intervening country, for the dis- 
tance of 20 miles froiii the Alleghany, is broken, of a light gravelly or 
clayey soil, stoney, and covered with pine, hemlock, beech, birch, and some 
isugar-maple. There are at present very few settlements, except along the 
banks of the above named streams ; and these depend on the lumber busi- 
ness, rather than the cultivation of the soil. The pines of the hills are 
uncommonly large, tall, and straight, suitable for shingles and masts. 

Warren, the seat of justice for the county, is situated on the right bank 
©f the Alleghany river at the eniraiice of the Connewango. Its site is a 
large dry plain, washed on the south and east by those rivers, and mar- 
gined m the rear by very high hills It contains about 25 houses and a 
sawmill. The Alleghany is here 150 vards Wide, and the Connewango 
300. The bottoms are narrow, but rich ; soil of the uplands loamy ; iim = 
b^r, near Warren, oak, chesnut and hickory. There is a safe and easy 
harbor or eddy abreast the town, at which almost all the boats and rafts, 
descending the Alleghany from Olean, or the Connewango, from Chaii- 
tauque laEe, stop to procure refreshments and relaxation. P.ovisions are 
usually scarce and exorbitttnJy high in price. Nothing but enterpriza is 
wanting to give this village a respectable appearance Hudexttnsive trade. 
Wild land . throughout the county. frc;ni ^3 to 8 an acre ; and improved 
farms at a very small advance, say from S:i to 12ar. acre. Deserted i,;ibi»» 


are frequently met with between Warren and Meadville. About 2 ttt'ilea 
northeast of Warren, is a small insulated spur of the Alleghany mountains, 
whose summit affords a boundless view of the surrounding country .-»- 
From this elevated point, one surveys a circle of territory of 80 miles di- 

" A scene so rude, so wild as this, 

Yet so sublime in barreness, 
Ne'er did my wand'ring footsteps prefiS, 

Where'er 1 happ'd to roam.'' 


Lies east of Butler and north of Alleghany— is very larpe and thinljf 
settled ; and watered by the Alleghany river, Toby's and Kiskiminitas 
creeks. It contains great quantities of iron ore, and extensive forests ; 
surface, almost mountainous ; soil, generally poor. 

Kittaning, the seat of justice, is a pleasant village of about fO houses, 
situated on the left bank of the Alleghany, 30 miles above Pittsburgh.— 
The bottoms are wide, and finely cultivated ; in the rear a coal hill rises 
to the height of 200 feet. It is here that the Alleghany, has become broad, 
deep and majestic — the prospect changes ; we lose sight of the high bar- 
ren hills, which constantly present themselves from Cornplanter's Village 
to Armstrong. 


Is bounded north by Butler, west by Beaver, south by Washington, east 
by Westmoreland. It is finely watered by the Alleghany, Monongahela, 
and Ohio rivers. It is watered west of the Alleghany and Ohiorivei's, by 
Seweekly, Pine, and Bull cret ks, all pure and wholesome streams. Pluna 
aud Sandy creeks, enter the Alleghany from the east ; and Chartier's 
creek, falling into the Ohio, about one mile below Pittsburgh. 

Pittsbiirgh. — This city is situated on the point of land formed by the 
junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, and at the head of the 
Ohio. It is a large and flourishing place, possessing a greater number and 
variety of manufacturing establishments, than any other inland town in 
America. It contains about 1000 houses ; bridges are about to be erected 
over the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers — It is in N. lat. 36 43 — 321 
miles west of Philadelphia, and 136 south of Lake Erie. The scenery of 
the surrounding hills, is enchanting. All the hills which border the 
town, are stored with a boundless supply of stone coal. The principal 
manufacturing establishments are, a steam grist-mill, steam engine facto- 
ry, slittingmill, to which is attached a nail factory, the first of the kind 
in America ; a cannon-foundery, air-furnace, cotton and woollen factories, 
two potieries, three breweries, &c. There are four printing-offices, and 
two bookstores. A comp!(.:te description of this interesting town, would 
fill a volume. 


Lies south of Alleghany county, and east of Brooke county in Virginia.- 
It is a rich, well cultivated, healihy, and undulating country, abounding 
in r.oftl-mincs, iron ore, and producing fine crops of grass and grain. 

IViiahiDgton is situated on a pleasant ridge, 26 miles southwest of Pitts- 
burph. It has about oOU houses, ccurthouse, jail, two churches, several 
valuable macuikctcrieG, a printing-oftice, and post-office. The U. S. Great 
Tmnj)ikeroad from 'Juraberland to the western couHtry, passes through 
thj!' place. 


Cann^nsiurgh, lies 14 miles S. W. of Pittsburgh ; altuated on the declivi- 
ty of i steep bill, having Chartler's creek at the bottom. ^ This village 
was commenced in 1797, by a Mr. Cannon. It now contains upwards of 
150 houses. It owes its prosperity, chiefiy to its cellege, which is be- 
coming respectable. The original building, designed for a college, has 
been suffered to go to decay. The new edifice, when completed, will be 
three stories — 180 feet in front ; the wings each, 70 in front and 40 In 
width— the centre 40 in front, by 60 back. " A combination of local ad= 
vantages— the state of religion and morals — the abundance and cheapness 
of provisions, in a fertile country — inexhaustible mines of coal at hand ; 
and tite quietness and salubrity of the village, combine in rendering this 
a most eligible seat for a literary institution. The benefits of such an in- 
stitution to the western country, growing as it is in wealth] population and 
refinement, are incalculable." 

Sketches of some of the Westerii Counties of Virginia. 


This county Is long and narrow ; bounded north and west by the Ohio 
river, south by Ohio county and east by Beaver county. Pa. It is watered 
by several streams, the largest of which is Harman's creek, which empties 
into the Ohio river one miie above Steubenville. It has extensive bot- 
toms along the Ohio. The uplands are rich, well watered, and producing 
fine crops of grain, grass, flax, hemp and peas; and well adapted tol^uit. 
There is an abundant supply of coal in the hills ; and emigrants in search 
of a pleasant and healthy residence* will find fine situations along the 
Ohio river, between Charleston and Wheeling. 

CharlestoHf is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Ohio, 6 miles 
below Steubenvjiie and 17 above Wheeling. It contains nearly 200 build- 
ings — ten or twelve stores, court house, jail, church, extensive pottery, 
printing effice and book store. Buffalo creek joins the Ohio at the south 
end of the town, on which are a number of valuable grist mills. This 
town is 50 miles southwest of Pittsburgh, by land ; by waterj 82. 


l3 bounded west by the Ohio river, north by Brooks, east by Green and 
Harrison, and south by Wood county — .watered by Grave and Fish creeks. 
This county, like Brooke, is hilJy ; has rich and exlensive bottoms, and 
large qaanlities of unsettled lands. 

The bottoms of Grave creek contain interesting Testige* of ancient 
population. On coming close to this mound, says the author of the Pitts- 
bur^jh Navigator, you are surprised at its mouiiiain-like appearance, and 
the diiikness occasioned by ths height of the trees on its summit over 
those on the plain below. Its perpendicular elevation is about 75 feet, ISO 
yards in circuraference aroun i its base, and 40 an iis fiit on the top. Jt 
appears to be a very regular circle, and forms in its rising an angia of about 
80 degrees. Tiie centre of its top is sunk in perhaps four feet, forming a 
basin of that depth and about eight or ten feet over. Its MUT'.m it bears 
an aged white oak of 4 feet in dla>neter, and its p;des are richiy ctad with 
a luxuriant growth of all the different kiods of trees of Hie i"', ard of 
the same size and ftppsarance, It staads in an estciisive plain, having- 


neither ditch nor rising ground near it, nor can It be discovered whet* 
the earth of which it is formed has been taken from. East of the big 
mound, there are several small ones in the open fields, and a number of 
fortifications, whose particular dimensions I did not take. 

Wheeling; stands on a high bank, peninsulated by the Ohio rirer and 
"Wheeling creek. The buildings are chie^y on one street, running paral- 
lel along the banks of the river, for three fourths of a mile. The towu 
contains a^o\it 200 ho\ises, 14 stores, court house, jail, church, 2 potte- 
ries for stone ware, nail factory, nfiarket house, rope walk and boat yard. 
"When the Great Cumberland road, which it is supposed vill intersect 
the Ohio at this place, is completed, "Wheeling must rapidly increase in 
size and commercial importance. ' 


A distant correspondent has communicated a sketch of this county, 
and pointed out the most eligible route for emigrants from "New Englandi 
\vhich is, to *• cross the North River at Newburgh, the Delaware at Eas- 
ter, the Susquehanna at Harrisburgh ; thence through Carlisle, Shippens- 
burgh, Chambersburgh, Green-Castle, Hancock, Cumberland, Western- 
Port ; thence over the Alleghany — cross Cheat river at Goff's ; thence to 
"Wm. Wamsley's and Daniel Barrett, Esq's upon the Buchanan river, or 
from Wamsley's to Beverly, formerly called Tygert's valley — having a 
brick court-house and jail, public offices, and several stores ; it is laid out 
in half-acre lots, upon three parallel streets. Building lots sell from 30 
to 100 dollars. Beverly is handsomely situated, between two branches of 
the valley river, and bids fair to become a place ©f considerable business; 
an association, called the New-England Company, owning large tracts of 
land upon the waters of Valley and Buchanan rivers, are now rapidly 
settling by New-England people. A large appropriation of land is made, 
by the Company for the permanent support of moral and religious instruc- 
tion. ' Schools and libraries are now opened in different parts of the coun- 
ty, having a missionary furnished by the Hampshire Missionary Society in 
Massachusetts. The Buchanan river, is one of the principal waters of 
the Monongahela, uniting with the Alleghany from the north at Pitts- 
burgh, form the Qhio. The soil of Randolph is deep and rich, producing 
to great perfection all species of crops that can grow in Neyr-England, 
and others which cannot grow north of Virginia. Fifty bushels of corn 
to the acre, is a moderate crop ; other grain in proportion. The usuaS 
price of wheat, is from four shillings to one dollar ; rye and corn, two 
shillings sixpence to three shillings. Mechanics are much wanted for the 
erection of mills, dwellings, 8cc. The face of the land is undulating and 
billy, furnishing excellent mill-seats. The water is pure, and the climate 
healthy. The summers are moderately cool, and winters very mild; bav« 
ing in spring and autumn, together, at least three months the advantage 
of New-England. The timber consists of oak, walnut, elm, sugar, ash, 
maple, basswood— priiicipally hard wood. The forssls furnish rich pas- 
tures for cattle, stone, coal and salt licks. Taxes are light. Several p!aa<. 
ters flatten and sell from 60 to 90 head of cattle annually, which are driv- 
en across the Alleghany to Richmond* Alexandria, Washington and BaUi- 
more, at the average distance of about 200 miles, and always command 
cash. Roads are opening in various directions, and a state-road is about to 
be laid from Staunton to the Ohio river, and expected to pass through the 
Company's land. The (littie kenhaway takes its rise and has beatable wa- 
ter upon the land, affording an easy communication with the Ohio river 
near Marietta, thence to New-Orleans, or up the Muskingum, with a few 
miles land carriage, may enter the Cayahoga river, Lake Erie, and thence 
the Canada markets — or by the projected canal of New York, may enter 
he North river. These lands, when more generally snuwn, will piobalilyi 
vt considered equal to any other in the maiket." 


Sketches of some of the Western Counties of Nerv-York, 

The six western counties of this state, viz. Genesee, Allegany, Niaga-i 
ra, Cattaraugus, and Chautauque, except the eastern parts of the two first, 
constitute the " Holland Pu chase," whi.»h contains about 4,000,000 of 
acres. This extensive tract is bounded east by a transit line running 
north from the Pennsylvania state line to Lake Ontario, being 97 and a 
half miles and eleven chains long; north by lake Ontario, west by the ri- 
ver Niagara, lake Erie and the Triangle of Presqu' Isle ; and south by 
Pennsylvania. It is about 100 miles in lene^th, with an average breadth 
of about 70 miles. The southern parts of this Purchase are watered by 
the Alleghany and its tributaries, Oswyhee, Oil, Isbau and Olean : Great 
Valley, and Jokki creeks ; Connewango river, and branches of Broken- 
Straw and French creeks. The waters flowing into Lake Ontario, are 
the Genesee river and Allen's creek ; into Niagara river, Tonawanda, 
Murderer's, Eleven-Mile, and EUicott's creeks » into Lake Erie, Buffalo, 
QuaquagagaDaun, (Sunfish) Cahnagatchie, Cattaraugus, Silver, Canada- 
way, and Chautauque creeks. This tract was purchased, in 1797, from 
the Seneca Indians, and the state of Massachusetts, by the late Robert 
Morris, of Philadelphia, for less than six cents an acre. It was surveyed 
into townships of six miles square, in 1799, under the direction of Joseph 
EUicott, Esq. The sale of lots commeisced in 1799, at from Sl|25 to 
S2,50 an acre ; the price of wild lands, at present, is from S4 to 12 : im- 
proved lands, from gig to 20. or upwards The dividing ridge between 
the waters of the Ohio and the lakes, f rms a zigzag course ; approach- 
ing to within 15 or 20 miles of the Alleghany, and to within a few miles of 
the lake alternately. For instance, the Genesee river, Buffalo, Cattarau- 
gus, and Chautauque creeks, head within a short distance of the Pennsyl- 
vania line ; and the east branch of Connewango, rises withir;_/?t>e miles of 
X<ake Erie ;the western branch, and Chautauque Lake, to within nine miles 
©f the same lake. The surface south of the dividing ridgg, is broken— in 
$ome places, near the Alleghany, mountainous ; to the north it gradually 
subsides, and becomes nearly level at and north of the road leading from 
Canandaigua to Buffalo. The soil is principally a deep grey loam , tim - 
ber, in most parts, beech, sugar -maple, basswood, aim, white ash, with 
some hemlock, butternut, and black cherry White-oak chesnut, and 
hickory, are found on the shore of Lake Ontario, on the banks of Tons- 
wanda and Genesee ; on the Cattaraugus, Canandaway, and Chautauque ; 
west of Chautauque creek, the shores of Lake Erie abound with beau i. 
tiful chesnut groves. A strip of rich, spring'y, beech and sugar m^ple 
lasd, abounding with meadows of the Uitica VVhitlowi, runs through the 
vhole extent of the Purchase fiom east to west, lying near the dividing 
ridfe to the north ; and, on an average, about 20 miles wide. 

The southeastern corner of the purchase, as well as that part of Alle- 
ghany county lying east of the transit line, is covered with extensive 
groves of some of the finest white pine timber in America ; and so advan. 
tageously situated, that the inhabitants can convey it at their option to the 
Ohio market by the Alleghany , to Baltimore bv the Tioga, Canisteo, 
Conhocton, and Susquehanna rivers ; by the Genesee river to Rr.chester, 
andCanadaj the white pine region extends from the Conhooton to the 
Connewango, or rather to Oil creek in Pennsylvania. The supply of this 
valuable building material is immense ; perhaps 500,000 acres — of ma- 
iestic, close set groves, of the first quality — free from crooks or knuts,-— 
Yet, when we consider the extent of the demand, and the over-action and 
•lavoc which will follow casual good markets, a few years, it is feared^ V/ill 
fie sufficient to level those extensive forests with the earth. 


Chautauque Lake, within twenty miles of the wesfem ex(reml(y of the 
tract, is 23 miles long, and from two to sis wide) extending north and 
south ; at the head of which is the pleasant village of Fredonia, which has a 
good boat and raft navigation to Pittsburgh and New-Orleans ; the portage 
from Fredonia t6 Lake Erie, is nine miles, over a good road. Chautauque 
creek,- which heads ten or fifteen miles southwest of Fredonia, and enters 
L%ke Erie at Portland, is remarkable for the immense depth of its bed, 
being four or five hundred feet below the surface of the country, and is u 
good stream for mills. East of Chautauque La^e, six or eight miles, are 
the three Casdaga Lakes, from one to five miles in circumference, and 
discharging their waters into the east branch of the Connewango river. 
A few miles east of these lakes, is the Great Bufiklo Swamp, nine miles 
long and three wide, obviously the ruins of an ancient lake. The Conne* 
wango meanders lazily through its whole extent, from north to south. It 
ia covered by brambles, flags, and alders, with a few islands of woodland. 
It is very miry — and in some places will tremble beneath one's feet for se- 
veral rods. The surrounding country, on all sides, except at the outlet, 
is high and fertile. The Seneca Indians call it C&h eh-ta--wa-na. 

Cattaraugus, called by the Indians Ca-ta-^ns-ka-henh, (slinking^banks) 
is an interesting stream, about 27 miles long, very crooked, having a brisk 
current, numerous mill-seats, high perpendicular slate banks in places, 
and wide rich bottoms for the first ten miles. 

The Indian tribes resident on tj^jis Purchase, consist of about 3500 Sen- 
ecas, 350 TuScaroras, 200 Or.ondagas, and To Cayugas. In the sale of the 
tract to Mr. Morris, they reserved two reservations on the Genesee river, 
&t Kenneadea, and Ononda, about six miles square each ; one 7 miles square 
on the Tonawanda, 7 miles from Batavia; one 4 miles square, belonging to 
the Tuscaroras near Lewiston ; one 10 miles square at the forks of Buffa- 
lo ; one 10 miles long and 4 wide on the Cattaraugus, commencing 4 miles 
from Lake Erie ; one 20 miles long and 1 wide, lying on both sides of the 
Alleghany river, commencing 20 miles below Hamilton on Alleghany, and 
being almost one continued forest of lofty pines, of great value ; and suf- 
ficient, if properly managed, to render the whole Seneca tribe rich. 

Buffalo, is delightfully situated near the northeastern margin of lake 
Erie, about two miles above its outlet, and on the great road, leading from 
Albany to Ohio. It is built on an inclined plain, elevated about 30 
feet above the surface of the lake. The situation affords a most beautiful 
prospect of the lake, Niagara river and the Canada shore. The surround- 
ing country is of a rich soil ; but the improvements are mostly new and 
not very extensive. Buffalo was laid out for a village about nine years ago, 
and was a place of considerable trade at the commencement of the late 
war. Bat in December, 1813, it Avas entirely destroyed by theBritishs 
since that tinae its growth has been rapidly increasing. It is now incor- 
porated, and contains a Bank, court house, jail, post-office, exchange- 
office, custom-house, 17 stores for groceries and dry goods; three drug- 
gist stores, two printing-offices and a book store ; a market house, brew- 
ery and bakery: three blacksmiths, three cabinet and chair shops ; a hat 
factory and hat ware house; one saddlery, one stone cutter; three tai- 
lor's shops ; one tinnery ; two silversmiths ; a Fire Company ; a public li- 
brary ; a Presbyterian Society, with an ordained minister and Moral So- 
ciety. Application has been made for an Insurance Company, and mea- 
sures have been taken for the improvement of the harbor. The whole 
number of buildings is nearly 200, and the number of inhabitants about 
1000. They are chiefly emigrants from different parts of this state, and 
from most of the eastern states. Many of the buildings are of brick, from 
two to three stories high, and maks a very handsome appearance. The 
court house ia of brick, 50 feet sq'iare, with a piazza in front, and when 
completed will be the best building in this part of the country. The 
principal streets run from north to south, from §5 to 100 feet wide ; these 


ate jntersacted by otbers of equal width. BufFalo creek enters tte lake a 
few rods west of the village. Five miles from the lake it divides into 
three branches, which water a fine body of land. Buffalo possesses natur- 
al advantages for trade equal if not superior, to any internal place in the 
United States ; having at present a ship navigation for 1000 miles west, 
through Jakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, and with little expcnce, in im- 
proving the navigation at the entrance into lake Superior, may be extended 
to a distance as much further to the west ; and a boat navigation may be 
easily opened from the south part of lake Michigan, to communicate with 
the Mississippi river. The navigation eastward, after passing the falls of 
Niagara, is continued, with but little interruption, to Montreal. 

The Holland Purchase also contains several other flourishing villages, 
such as Black Rock, at the outlet of Lake Erie, of about 30 houses ; Man' 
Chester, at the Falls of Niagara ; Lewiston, opposite Queenston ; Bata« 
via, the seat of justice for Genessee county ; 40 miles east of BufFalo, on 
the Tonawanda creek ; Warsaw, on Allen's creek, 18 miles south of Ba- 
tayia ; Hamilton, on Alleghany ; Pomfret on Canandeway, 10 miles west 
of Cataraugus i Fredonia, the seat of justice for Chautauque county. 

Brief Skelches of the Great Northern Lakes. 


Is about 200 miles long and TO wide, its water is deep, cold, and 
transparent. It receives from the south. Black, Oswego, and Genesee 
rivers ; besides several large creeks. Pumice stones have been found on 
its western shore : Volney thinks that its basin is the crater of an extin- 
guiAed volcano. The river Niagara, connecting the Lakes Ontario and 
Erie, is 36 miles long, about one mile wide, Very deep, and of a swift cur- 


Is about 300 miles long and 40 wide ; its tributaries from the south en- 
ter in this order, BuB'alo, Quaquagagahaun, Cattaraugus, Coonneaut, 
Ashtabula, Grand river, Cay&hoga, Rocky, Black, Vermillion, Huron, 
Sandusky, Portage, Toussaints, Miami, Raisin, Little Huron, Strait of 
Detroit. From the northern §hore it receives Barbue, Chenette, Grand, 
Loutre and Aux Cedars. The anchorage of this lake is bad, as the bot- 
tom in most parts, consists of smooth slate and limestone rocks. The 
best and only harbors for shipping on the southern shore, are Erie basin, 
Sandusky and Miami bays. The British have a safe harbor at Maiden. — 
A chain of islands extend from Sandusky bay to near Maiden ; the most 
important of which is Put-in-bay, where there is an excellent harbor for 
boats and shipping. 


Is situated about equidlstsnt between lakes Erie and Huron. Its form 
is nearly circular — its banks low and level. Its depth, except near the 
shore, is invariab.y fiventy-one feet. This I ascertained, when on board the 
Lady Prevost, Capt. Turner, in Oct. 1813. The severe «^ale« of ten or 
twelve days continuance, prevented this vesselfrom getting out of the 


lake. She was obliged frequently to change her moorings, and travetsedl 
the lake in every direction ; and the ignorance of Capt. T and the pilot, 
{rendered it necessary to take constant soundings, by which means it was 
discovered that the bottom of the lake was a perfect plain, composed of a 
deep stratum of white play, remarkably tenacious, and from which it re- 
quired great force to disengage the anchor. Nevertheless the water of 
the lake is transparent, when not disturbed by storms. The rivers which 
disemboigue into this lake are Ruskin, Thames, Bell, and Bear rivers^ 
which enter from the British, and Huron from the American side. Its 
islands are Isie Aux Peches, Thompson's Island, Hay island, Chenal Ecarte, 
and Horsen's Island. The British shore presents some beautiful settle- 
ments. The American coast is partially settled. The surrounding coun'» 
try is fertile and perfectly champaign, to the distance of 30 miles in every 
direction. From the centre of the lake in a clear day, one sees in the di- 
rection of lake Michigan, the elevated ridges of distant hills, which afford 
some relief to the «ye, from the immensity of the horizon. 


Ig about 1100 miles in circumference, of a triangular form—receiving 
from the northwest the tributaries of lake Superior, and from the south- 
east that of lake Michigan. It has two deep bays on its southern coast, 
Saganaum and Thunder bays ; to the east. Thunder and Matcbadash. A 
chain of Islands called the Manitoualin^ making a safe navigation for boats 
and canoes ; between this, the rivers from the east afe Natasawaga, San- 
dy and Des Francois, from lake Nippising ; from the north, Ocassalon, 
Mississaki, and Chaho ; its waters are deep transparent— and abound with 


Is about 300 miles long, and 70 wide ; a considerable part o^ its eastern 
coast consists of light sandhills. It receives about 40 rivers, most of 
which have already been described. Its southern extremity is supposed 
to be in 41 50 ]^f. latitude. Its bays and rivers afford valuable sturgeon 
fisheries. It lies entirely "within the United States territory. The is* 
lands of this lake are mostly situated towards its northern end. 


ts about 500 miles long, and 1500 in circumference. Its southern ex- 
tremity is in 46, 46, north latitude. 

" Lake Superior is the largest and most magnificent body of fresh water 
in the world ; it ia clear and pellucid, of great depth, and abounding in a 
great variety offish, which are the most excellent of their kind. Thera 
are trouts of three kinds, weighing from five to fifty pounds, sturgeon, 
pickerel, pike, red and white carp, black bass, herrings, &g. &c. and the 
Jast and best of all, the Ticamang, or white fish, which weighs from four 
to sixteen pounds, and is of a superior quality in these waters. Thic lake 
may be denominated the grand resorvoir of the river St. Lawrence, as no 
considerable rivers discharge themselves into it. The principal ones fire, 
the St. Louis, the Nipigon, the Pic, and the Michiplcoten. Indeed, the 
extent of country from which any of them flow, or take their course, in 
any direction, cannot admit of it,, in consequence of the ridge of land that 
separates them from the rivers that empty themselves into Hudson's bay, 
the gulf of Mexico, and the waters that fall into lake Michigan, which 
afterwards beome a p trt of the St. Lawrence. {^Mackenzie. '\ 




Copy of an estimate, furnished to the Senate in 1812, of the Public Lands 
unsold, on the 30th of Sept. 1811, in the state of Ohio, and in the Mi- 
chigan, Indiana, Illinois and Mississippi Territories. To ascertain the 
cjuantity since acquired from the Indians, the quantities sold in the res- 
pective territories, and the balance remaining unsold, will require niucb. 
time and labor. 


Stats of Ohio, ... fa ) 

Michigan Territory, . . fhj 

Indiana and Illinois south of parallel ot 
latitude passing by the southern ex- 
tremity of Laka Michigan, . CcJ 
Territory west of Lake Michigan and 
north of last mentioned parallcl,^f/J 
Mississippi Territory, . fej 


To whicli the 
Indian title 
as not been 



5 900.000 



54/500 000 


56,225 OOO 1 43.775 000 500,000.000 



60 000.000 

(a) Remaining unsold at tbe Land Offices of iVijiietla, Canton, 

St€ubenvi;le, Zanesville, Chillicothe and Cincinaati, 
Deduct part of Cinciunati in ludiana, 

Estimated part of cession of Ottowas, &c. 

(ft) After deducting 200,000 acres for private claims. 

(c) Remaining unsold at the Land Offices of JefFerdonville, Vincennes 

and part of Cincinnati S. W, of Fort Recovery, 
Add part of Cincinnati district in Indiana, . . . . 

Cessions ofKaskaskias in August 1803, and Piankashaws Dec. 1S05, 
- do. of Pottawattamies, Miamis, Weaws, &c. of 1309, . 
, do. of iSdcs and Foxes, of Nov. 1804. . . . . 

Deduct for private claims, 

(rf) Part of the cesdon of the Sacs and Foxes.. 

(e) Very uucertain, deducting 83,000 acres f^r private claims not 










- Note. — The public lands remaining unsold and UDceded, east of tlie Mississippi, 

amount to about 200,300,000 of acres. 


In Ohio about 12,300,000 

Indiana, .......... 20,000,000 

Michigan, ....*. ^6, 000,000 

Illinois, *. 30,000,000 

North- Western, . . . ' 68,000,000 

Mississippi and Alabama, 34,000,000 

Tennessee, 10,000,000 

Total, 200,300,000 
The public lands in Louisiana and the Missouri Territory, are supposed to amouo'; 
to 400,000,000 of acres ; one half of which may be con-jidtieil liuiiiliabilable. 

X X 

346 APPEr^DIX. 



At the treaty of Greenville, held August 3, 1795, the United States 
qbtained all the lands to which the Indian title had not been previously 
extinguished, lying eastwardly and southwardly of a line commencing at 
the mouth of the Cayahoga river, running up the same to the portage be- 
tween it and the Tuscarawa branch of the MuskinguHi; down this river to 
old Fort Lawrence; thence westwardly to the commencement of the port- 
age between Lorsimie's creek and the St. Mary's ; thence a westwardly 
course to Fort Recovery, on the Massissinway ; thence south-westerly so 
as to intersect the Ohio river at the confluence of Kentucky river. The 
following cessions were also obtained from the Indians at the same treaty : 

1. One piece of land six miles square, at the mouth of Loramie's creek ; 
2. Two miles square, at the head of St. Marys, near Girtytown ; 3. Six 
miles square, at the head of the navigable waters of the Auglaize river ; 

4. Six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaize and Miami rivers ; 

5. Six miles square, at the junction of the St. Marys and St. Josephs ; 6. 
Two miles square, at the head of the little river branch of t&e Wabash, 
8 miles southwest of Fort Wayne ; 7. Six miles squ^ire, at the Weaw town, 
(Ouitanon) on the Wabash ; 8. Twelve miles square, on the Miami near 
Fort Meigs ; 9. Six miles square, at the mouth of the Miami- of- the-Lakes ; 
10. Six miles square, on Sandusky Bay ; Two miles square, at Croghans- 
ville near Sandusky i-iver ; 12. A tract six miles wide, extending from 
the river Rouge to St. Clair ; 13. The island of Michilimackinac and 
the isle De Bciis Blanc 5 14. Six miles square, on the main 10 the north 
of the islana of Michilimackinac ; 15. Six miles square, at the mouth of 
Chicago river; 16. Twelve miles square, at the mouth of the Illinois ; 
17. Six miles square, at Peoria at ihe south end of Illinois lake. 

Annuities. In consideration by theae cessions, the United States agreed 
lo deliver goods to the following amount, viz : To the Wyandots, §1000; 
to the Delawares, giOOO; to the Shawanoeie, glOOO; to the Miamis, 
glOCO; to tbeOlttawas, gtOOO; to the Chippewas, §1000; to the Pot- 
tawattanRies, §1000; and to the Kickapoos, Weaws, Eik river, Pianka- 
shaws and Kickapoo tribes §500 each. 

In 1805, at treaty held at I'ort Industry, the United States obtained an 
extinction of luiiian claims as far west as a meridian line intersecting the 
southern shore of lake Erie, at a point 120 miles west of the western 
boundary line of Pennsylvania, or six miles west of Pipe creek, including 
the Firo Lands (now Huron ctunty. — Annuity, §1000, to the Wyandot, 
Mvnisee, Delaware and Seneca tribes. 

In 1807, Gen. Hull obtained a relinquishment of ths Indian title to the 
Ian s lying east of a line running due north, from the mouth of the Au= 
glaize to tlie parallel of the outlet of lake Huron, tlience northeast to the 
Whi'e rock, in that lake, esc pt eight or ten small reservations. For this 
cession the United States paid §10 000, shortly after the ratification of 
the treaty; i, e. §3,333 to the Ottowas ; §3,333 to the Chippewas; 
§1.656 to the Wyaniots ; §1,666 to the PoUawattomies, together with 
an annuity forever of §1000, to be appoitiontdon the above ratio among 
tlie aforesaid ttibes. 

By the treaty o!' Brovvnstown, (Nov. 1838) with the Wyandots, Chip- 
pewas, OLtawas and Pottawattamies, Gen. Hull obtained the cession of a 
strip of iHud, extending fcom Fort Meigs to the Fire Lands, about 70 
miics long, and one wide, for the purpose of a road and a line of settle- 

The extinction of liulian claims of the soulhern part of Indiana, has 
been cfFcctcd at various treaties. The annuities were 150 bushels of salt 


€o the Delawares and Shawancsse, &c. gSOO to the Delawares, (for 5 
years;) §200 to the Piankashaws, for 10 years ; goOO (permanently) to 
the Miamis ; §'350 to the Eel rivers ; §250 to the Weaws ; gSOO to the 
Pottewattamies, lor 5 years. 

^</rfJ/jo«o;— (Sept. 30, 1809)— ^500 to the Miamis. 500 to the Dela- 
wares, 250 to the Eslrivers, and 500 to the Pottawattamies ; besides h'iOQ 
paid down. 

In August, 18C3, Gen. Harrison obtained from the Kaskaskia and Ill't- 
nois Indians, a cession of all their lands in ihe Illinois TerritoPy, except- 
ing one reservation of 350 acres, near Kaskaskia, and another of 1280 
acres to be located at the option of the Indians. Annuity, for the same 
glOOO ; besides a donation oi S300 for the erection of a church ; S500 for 
miscellaneous purposes, and §100 annually for 7 years, towards the sup- 
port of a priest. This was tract about 206 miles long and ICO wide, extend- 
ing along the east bank of the Mississippi iiora iha mouth of the Illinois 
to that of the Ohio. 

In December 1805, the Plankishaws ceded all the lands lying between 
the Wabash and the Kaskaskia purchase above described, for which they 
receive a yearly annuity of §300. 

In Nov. 1804, the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States, all the 
lands within these boundaries : Beginning at a point on the Missouri op- 
posite the mouth of Gasconade river-, thence northwardly to the Jaustio- 
ni ; down that river (30 miles) to the Mississippi , thence up the Missis- 
sippi to the mouth of the Ouisconsin ; up that river 36 miles in a direct 
line; thence to Sakagan Lake; thence down Fox river of the Illinois ; — 
thence down the Illinois to the Mississippi and the point of beginning — ■ 
supposed to contain about 14,000,000 acres : for which they receive a per- 
manent annuity of §1000. 

In Nov. 1808, the Great and Little Osagej ceded all the lands lying east 
of a line, beginning at Fort Clark, on the Missouri, five miles abcve Fire 
Prairie, and running thence a due sou^h course to the river Ai'kansas, and 
down the same to ihe Mississippi ; for which they received 1000 doilara 
down, and a permanent annuity of 500 dollars. 

In Sept. 1S05, Gen. Z. M. Pike obtained from the Siou-s, 9 miles square 
at the mouth of the St Croix ; and two strips extending on both sides of 
the Mississippi, from the mouth of the St. Peters to the Falls of St. An- 
thony — containg altogether, 100,000 acres ; for which we paid 2000 dol- 

In August, 1816, the Pott&wp.ttamles and Ovtowas relinquished about 
6,000,000 acres of land at the routh end of Lake Michigan, lying on the 
Kenkakee, (Theakaki) Chicago, and Milwakee rivers ; tor which the Uni- 
ted States are to pay them a permanent annuity of 1000 dollars in goods, 
at first cost, without charge for transportation. 

In 1786 the Chickasaws ceded nH extensive district on the south side 
of Tennessee, below the Muscle-.Shoals — for which they received 20,CQ,iJ! 
dollars. By a late treaty, they have ceded lands north of Tenne.ssec, for 
which government paid tnem 4500 dollars, and an annuity of 12,0UQ for 
ten successive years. 

In 1805, the Cherokees ceded large tracts of lands, lying between 
Duck, 'i'ennessee and Clinch rivers, tor which they received 14 000 dol- 
lars, and an annuity of 3000. In 180G they ceded additional tracts, oa 
Duck and Elk rivers, for which the United States gave tiiem 10,000 dol- 
lars. In 1816 they relinquished large tracts ; for wuich the United States 
paid them 500 dollars, and an annuity of 600 dollars for 10 ycitrs. 

The Choctaws have relinquished lands, at different times, for which 
they have been paid 60,50O dollars — with an annuity of 3000 dollars m 
perpetuity, and 6000 for twenty su-:cessive years. 



GnEATrrEtD, fScipio, Cayuga Cou&fy, JV. T.J 6 mo. 2, ISlr- 

Thy question Whet^r a residence in Indiana ivill be favorable to the heaUk 
of Emigrants from higner latitudes? should be considered in two points of 
view, though in strictness, it might be confined to the effects of a warm- 
er climate on the constitutiion. 

I am aware of the difficulty of finding two places v/hich difier in notb« 
ing but in temperature ; where the a'mosphere is equally dry, pure, elas- 
tic, heavy, electrical, and equal at all times in its currents Without, 
such agreemen., comparisons must be imperfect; but from a general re- 
Tiew of the warmer parts of the ♦emperate zone, I know of no serif?? of 
facts which should determine that question in the negative. The most 
remarkable instances of longevity on record take their date from countries 
further south than the object of this fiqniry ; snd hough the limits of 
human life have been abridged since that day, I cannot discover why ws 
may not assign a full average of health to those parallels of latitude. 

Clark mentions in his travels in Greece, that an English sea captain had 
been long in search of a spot the most exempt from disease, where he 
unight pass the remnant of life ; and that after having visited various parts 
of the world with this object in view, he fixed on the Isle of Scio. That 
author adds, he was not disappointed ; the south point of this Island is in 
lat. 38 14, and making allowance for the difference of climate, we must 
pass far to the south of Indiana to find winters equally mild- 

I notice these instances because many of our citizens appear to have 
drawn their ideas of warm climates from the maritime paris of the south- 
ern states. But the formation and climate of that dis'rict is essentially 
different from those of the same parallels west of the mountains. Tiiere 
the distressing heats of the day are often protracted till towards mid- 
r.ight, and the degree is so extraordinary as to prevent the refreshment 
oi sleep, even to the native exhausted by fatigue. During this time of! 
the opposite side of the Alleghany, evening is attended by a refreshing 
coolness, and while I was in Indiana, though near mid summer, I passed 
no n'ght in which a blanket was not comfortable. 

This coolness at evening appears to be peculiar to the country North 
snd West of the Alleghany mountains. Cramer informs us that it extends 
southwardly to Mobile. Why should the climate of New-York be more 
healthy than that of Indiana ? It is a fact well known to many that in sum- 
mer we have weather as hot as in the West-Indies. This heal has been 
sufficient, to produce from our marshes every form of fever that has pre- 
vailed on our v/ester waters. The mortality attending dysentery in dif- 
ferent parts of this state appear to hiive been as great as in any cases of 
that malady to the south. Typhus has ravaged our most airy situations, 
and in the northern parts of our county, epidemics have been uncommon- 
ly fatal. Emigrants suffering from rheumat ism or consumption have much 
to hope from that climate, and I know of no disease in that country to 
balance this advantage. 

There are now living in Vincennes, four Frenchmen who were at the 
defeat oi General Braddock, who have livsd in that place between 50 and 
60 years. There are also two French women between 8U or 90 years old, 
jind one person of the name of Mills, lately diedagcd 115 years. These 
instances may show that tliere is nothing peculiarly destructive to humani 
life in that country, and it should be remembered that these have not 
been seVcttd f. om a large city, but a frontier town of small p^pviiation. 

I shall now pass to a more important view of the subject. T:\e ease and 
safety with which families can descend the Ohio, has made that river the 
g^ieat thoroughfare of emigration to the southwestern sla'es ; :uui the loss 


of health, and often of life, experienced by new comers, ought to be more 
frequently imputed to the injudicious manner of performing that naviga- 
tion, than to the unhealthiness a< tho;e countries. 

As the messenger is waitmg, my remarks must be brief, but I hope their 
importance will attract the notice of some of the thousands of our citizens 
who heedlessly press on to destruction. 

Descend ihe river in Autumn after the frosts have commenced, for by 
that time the offensive smel! from the sliores will have abated. Use no 
river water without filtering. This operation is esp-ditiously perfor^ 'id 
in a vessel like an upright churn with two bottoms. These ai"? 3 or 4 in- 
ches apart, and the upper, in which a number of small holes are bored, re- 
ceives in the centre, a tube, one inch in diameter, extending above the 
vessel and communicating with the cavity between the bottoms. After 
spreading a cloth, fill the uppjr part with well washed saiid, and le he 
water (from a vessel above) down through the tube. In a short time it 
will rise throu,^h the sand divested of its impurities or sediment in suffi' 
cient quantities for every culinary purpose. In a few days ihe appa-atus 
may need clensing ; as the filth will be chiefly below, a hole opened in 
the lower bottom will allow it to pass off. (See Melish's travels, vol I. 
page 158.) If the water has not an agreeable ijoolness, cider or strong 
beer should be mixed with it for drink, as the warmth, without such stim- 
ulus will relax the tone of the stomach, and predispose to disease 

Lay in plenty of good wholesome provisions. Travellers shjuld never 
change their diet for the worse. The fatigues of mind and body, m most 
cases, require that it should be for the better. To live e*- nomif^aUy is 
to live comfortably. Any additional expance in provisions would not go 
far in paying a Doctor's bill, without taking into view loss of time, and of 
comfort, or the ^xpences of nursing. 

Go not in a vessel with a bad roof. A crowded boat is an inconvenient 
place to dry wet clothes ; and the damage sustained in furniture would 
more than pay the expence of being comfortably sheltered, without con- 
sidering the probable loss of health. B?nding their boards over head, is 
not sufficient ; I have seen none of these roofs that would not admit a driv- 
ing shower ot rain. 

If spirituous liquors are taken, let the quantity be cautiously regulated. 
Every excess debilitates the system, and to think of escaping disease by 
keeping always *'/«47," is desperate folly. When fever attacks such sub- 
jerts it is commonly fatal. Some men who have travelled much, and who 
liave no moral or religious scruples to dissuade them, totally abstair. from 
spirits in unhealthy situations. Eating rich wholesome food, guards the 
stomach much better from infection, nor would I omit in the list of such 
articles, well cured ham and strong cofft^e. 

if the weather become warm, guard well against the smell of bilge wa- 
ter Bu' if you must descend in the spring, go early. Avoid all de'ay, 
and remember you are fleeing for your lives, I have seen the havoc, and I 
Relieved not till then. Nail boards over head to keep off the heat of the 
rool, tor sometimes it will remind you of an oven. 

On landing, you ought first to secure yourse'ves from the inclemency of 
the weather. Water from brooks should be filtered — but depend not on. 
these during summer. If springs are not convenient, dig wells; it is 
much cheaper to do this than to be sick. Mueh of the sickness of new 
countries proceeds from bad water. 

Let nothing tempt to fish ia warm weather immediately on cha* ging 
j'our climate. — The effluvia of the shores is poison. To get wet and lie 
out all night is little short of madness. But fresh fish are imwholiome, un- 
le.'is it be for a slight change of diet. We know of no country that has been 
heaith\ where the inhabitants live on fresh fish But if you must have 
them, buy them ; any price is cheaper than health. li you must fish, do it 
inith? day time, and be comfortably sheltered at night, be also cautious 
of using much fresh meat from the woods. 


If you feel indisposed, wait not till you are dotvn sich, but take medieine 
without delay. If the stomach be foui, which is the case at the com- 
mencement of all fevers, take an emetic and then brace up with bark. 
If this is too bad, take pearlash dissolved in water, half a gill, not too 
strong-, three times a day, faating. Whatever may be the oifending cause, 
(except the case be mechanical,) it will in some measure neutralize it, 
though there may be cases in which it will be insufficient. I have seen 
no medicine quicker in its operation, and on myself the most distressing 
symptoms were relieved in half an hour. Since that it has been tried 
with equal success by others. In dysentery it has been considered a spe- 
cyJc, and probably no medicine will better merit that character > for we 
know of no case of this disease where relief was not obtained by the use 
of it. It may be procured at Vincennes, and probably at Cmcinnati, but 
it is scarce and dear in the western country. 

Keep away from the fiats on the rivers, and let not the fertility of the 
soil, induce you to cultivate it, until you are naturalized to the climate ; 
or more properly recovered from all the fatigues attending emigration, 
for it is necessary that the mind should be composed as well as the body. 
Land of an inferior quality in a high, airy situation will yield greater real 

Lsl me caution the emigrant on one point more and I have done. The 
water in the Ohio countrj*, as in this, (which is only a continuation of it) 
is in many places strongly impregnated by lime. The effects of this on 
children just weaned, have often proved fatal by inducing diarrhcE, which 
soon exhausts the patient, and no medicine can give relief while the occa- 
sional cause ia not removed. This is easily done by refusing water, and 
giving cows' milk. If the disease is far advanced, paragonc may be ne- 
cessary to abate the irritability. I first discovered the benefit of this 
treatment on one of my children, who seemed wasting to a skeleton, »nd 
have witnessed much of its good effects since. 

I have sketched these in great haste. Many of these ideas will proba- 
bly soon appear in my Journal,* which I am now preparing for the press. 
Very respectfully, thy friend, 


S. E, Bhowjt, Auburn. 

Emigrants vho prefer the southern parts of Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee 
and Mississippi, and who remove from the northern parts of N. York, Ver- 
mont, Nev/-Uampshire, Province of Maine, &c. would do well to embark 
at Hamilton, on the Alleghany river, where they ought to arrive about the 
20th of March, in order to descend the river the first freshets. Boats are 
easily procured on the spot, of various sizes : the navigation of the Alle- 
ghany is easy and safe ; only two or three accidents have happened since 
the settlement of the country. Those who intend settling near the banks 
of the OaiOj or Mississippi would do well to descend on rafts of white 
pine boards, which if properly constructed, are as safe and mare conven- 
ient for a family, than a common boat. Boards of an exceileni quality 
can be purchased at Hamilton for 75 cents per 100 feet — if not wanted 
for building, by the emigrant, they will command a ready s-nle at all the 
villages and towns between Pittsburgh and Louisville. Provisions are 
scarce and extra vagantly high at Glean Point ; consequently travellers and 
families ought to lay in a slock in the rich and populous counties of Cay- 
uga and Giitai io. It would be ruinous for families to embark as late as 
the first of M»y. 

Mr. Thomas Tins recently visife J many parts of the weifern country, and surT5j"d it with 
the eye of .i pijiiosopher. His Journal, ^^Uith ii nchjjy jji^'pared lor the press, v.i<l no doubt, 
atfoid a rich geograpbical treat. 



The road from Geneva to Hamilton is good in winter, horrible ia April, 
tolerable in summer. The distance froai Hamilton to Pittsburgh, by wa- 
ter is 300 miles. 

Kilbuck's Eddy, 

Jamison's Indian town. 

Cold Spring (Indian village,) 

Sky Prairies (Indian Tavern,) 


Hoop's mills. 


Broken Straw, 

Oil creek, 


Sandy Creek, 

Scrub Grass, 

Montgomery Falls, 

Patterson's Falls, 

Toby's creek from the east. 

Catfish Falls, 

Redbank creek from the east, 

Mahoning creeks, 

Sloan's Ferry, 

Nicholson's Falls, 


Freeport, west side. 

Plum creek, 



















The distance from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Ohio, by water, is 1188 miles. 

Hamilton's island, (below Pittsburgfa,) 
Big Beaver creek, 
Willis's creek, 

Little Grave creek, 
• Little Muskingum river, 

Blannerhasset's island, 
Letart's rapids. 
Point Pleasant, 
Great Sandy, 
Little Sandy, 
Alexandria, . . 

Salt Lick creek, 
Great Miami, 
Kentucky river, 
Bale river, 
Green river. 






J 72 



352 appendix:. 

Wabash, -..-., 1032 

Saline, ...... 1052 

Cumberland river, - - - . -1118 

Tennessee, - - - - . . II31 

Fort Massac, -..-.. 1142 

Mouth of the Ohio river, .... H88 


Page 10 — From Flint river to the Georgia line, I do not recollect seeing any land 
whatever, fit for cultivation. It is low, flat, excessively poor, and badly watered, 
abounding in cypress ponds, bay galls and saw palmetto flatts, fit only for the present 
occupants, gonffres, salamanders and bull soakes.— Burnett, U. S.Com. 

Page 16 — From more recent information from Madison county, it appears that the 
present population exceeds 15,000 souls. Great numbers of intruders have establish- 
ed themselves on the public lands, on boih sides of the Tennessee river. Mr. Bar- 
aett, who was lately employed by government to survey a part of the new cessions, 
states that " where water was scarce, it was not uncommoa to see from four to eight 
families encamped at one spring.'' He supposes that 300 families of this description 
cultivated patches of corn last season, in a single valley south of Tennessee river, 
other parts were quite populous. Strife already prevails in some parts, as to the 
right of occupancy. The greater part are in destitute circumstances, having expended 
their all in reaching the premised land. 

Page 18 — The TAeafcoA:? is latterly written Kankakee; "it rises in a flat marshy 
country in the neighborhood of the St Josephs of the Lake, and runs a meandering 
ccurse westwardly, passing the soutbein extremity of lake Michigan at the distance 
of 20 or 30 miles from it. Near the head of this river is a small creek, putting into 
the St. Josephs, through which boats have sometimes passed, iu time of high water, 
from the St. Josephs to the Kenkak- e." 

Pag^- 23 — The paragraph describing the valley of the Illinois was extracted from 
the " Description of the Western Country," by an officer of the U. S. army. This 
writer appears to have drawn a too higlily colored picture of the bottoms of the Illi- 
nois. Major Long, topographical engineer, speaks less favorably of tbe country. 

" The valley of tbe Illinois varies in its width from 3 to 10 miles — is generally flat 
and marshy, and for the most part subject to inundations when the river has no more 
than a medial height. In some parts of it, however, praries and bottoms of consider- 
able extent are to be met with, elevated much above high water mark. In ascend.- 
ing the river the bluffs gradually decrease in height ; beiug about 150 feet high at the 
mouth, aad about 100 at the head of the river. Included in the bluffs are strata of 
lime stone, slate and coal, which occasionally make their appearance along the sur- 
face of the declivities. 

Page i3— Indiana — According to Gen. Harrison, " the finest country in all tbe 
western world is that which is bounded eastward!} by the counties of Wayne, Frank- 
lin, and part of Dearborn, Switze. land and Jefferson ; westward by the tract called 
the New Purchase ; and extending northwardly some small distance beyond the Wa- 
bash , this tract containing perliaps 10 millions o; acres, is principally the property of 
theMiamis; part of it of the Miamis and Delawares. It includes atl the head wa- 
ters of the White river; the branches of the Wabash which fall in from tbe south or 
S. east ; that part of it which the Delawares occupy is the finest indeed from their 
towns to the Wabash, and on the Wabasli is also good ; having the finest mill streams, 
and land of the first quality ; well timbered, and intermixed with small rich prairies. 
The streams are very small until you get pretty high up the Wabash ; as one branch 
of the White river runs parallel with, and so near to the Wabash, that the streams 
must necessarily be short. Tbe Kentucky miitia say, that m approaching Ouitanan, 
near White river, they passed through the.fiuest country thej- had ever seen j north 
of the Wabash, tbe land is not so good off the rivers. 

Page 40 — in describing Whiterivei; no notice was taken of the Eel river branch, 
which joins the North Fork from the west, about 20 miles above the entrance of the 
Teakettle Foi-k, and waters the eastern part of Harrison's Purchase There is an- 
other river of this name, entering the Wabash abrive Tippecanoe There is no such, 
river as •' Pomjne," tributary to the Wabash. On suiiie maps it is written '■'■ Dela 
Panse''^ — on others " Calemiit." There are thru streams running into the Wabash, 
called " Pstite,^^ or Little Rivtrs. 

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