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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



Jif 



THE WESTERN 

RAJPUTANA STATES 



THE WESTERN 

RAJPUTANA STATES 

A MEDICO-TOPOGRAPHICAL AND 
GENERAL ACCOUNT OF 

MARWAR 

SIROHI 

JAISALMIR 



BY 

LIEUT.-COLONEL ARCHIBALD ADAMS 

I.M.S., M.D., M.Ch., F.R.I.P.H., F.R.C.S.I. 
Administrative Medical Officer in Rajputana 



W/ TH ILL US TRA TIONS 



JUNIOR ARMY ^ NAVY STORES, Limited 

YORK HOUSE, REGENT STREET 

LONDON, S.W. 

1899 



Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson Sf Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



7^ 

HI 



Lf?^ 



PREFACE 

Having been officially directed to write a Medico-Topo- 
graphical Account of the Western Rajputana States, I 
have endeavoured to lighten it for general readers by a 
brief history of the rulers of the country, and a reference 
to some of the customs and modes of thought of an 
interesting people, among whom I have worked for 
eighteen years. 

Particular attention has been given to the fauna and 
flora of the country ; also to the legends and superstitions 
of the people. 

My best thanks are due to the Marwar Darbar for 
publishing the work, and to the gentlemen who have 
kindly assisted me in its preparation. 



JODHPORE, 

^rd August 1899. 



<^' 



CONTENTS 



Introductory ......... 

I. ]\rARWAR OR JODHPORE StATB, GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP 

THE Country ...... 

SiROHi, General Description of the Country 

Jatsalmir, General Description of the Country 

Mount Abu, General Description of 

Sands, Salt, Fossils, and Lime 

Short History of Marwar 

Short History of Sirohi 

Short History of Jaisalmir . 

List of Residents, Western Rajputana States 

Capital Town of Marwar (Jodhpore), Short Descrip 

TION OF ....... , 

Capital Town op Sirohi, Short Description of 

Capital Town of Jaisalmir, Short Description op 

Religions, Superstitions, and Omens 

Marwari Proverbs . 

Sights worth Seeing 

Recreation .... 

Imperial Service Troops . 

Mints and Currencies in the Western Rajputana 
States .... 
II. Public Instruction . 

Water Supply' .... 

Drainage ..... 

Lighting ..... 

Roads, Railways, and Tramways 

Slaughter-Houses 
III. Division of States into Parganas 

Principal Fairs 

History op Famines 

Disposal of the Dead 



PAGK 

I 

3 
13 
21 

30 
40 
42 
61 
69 
74 

75 
86 
87 

91 
96 
98 

107 
109 

III 
114 
117 
124 

125 
126 
129 
130 
^37 
143 
154 



Vlll 



CONTENTS 



IV. Markets and Food 

Food Grains 

Game 

Big Game . 

Feathered Game 

Fishes 

Domestic Animals of the Western Rajputana States 
V. Preservation of Health ...... 

Birth-Rate in Jodhpore, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir 

Diseases ......... 

Medical Diseases ....... 

Surgical Diseases ....... 

Sickness and Mortality ...... 

Epidemics ......... 

Medical Aid 

Residency Surgeons, Western Rajputana States . 

Vaccination ........ 

Sanitation ........ 

Dispensary Towns in Jodhpore, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir 

Jails in Jodhpore, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir 

Insanity in Jodhpore, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir 

Meteorology 
VI. Birds 

Insects 

Locusts 

Lac . 

Lepidoptera 

Forests and Flora 

Ferns and Flowers 

Vegetable Gardening 

Fruit 

The Village and Villager 

Books of Reference 
Glossary .... 
Index .... 



PAGE 

156 

160 

163 

i68 

177 

185 
189 
196 
202 
207 
210 
240 
248 

251 
254 
265 
266 
277 
283 
301 

307 
310 

352 
373 
375 
388 

391 

397 
423 
426 

427 
429 

446 

447 
449 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



His Highness Maharaja Sardar Singh of Jodhpore Frontispiece 
His Highness Maharaja Jaswant Singh, G.C.S.I., 

OF Jodhpore ....... to face page i 

GiRDiKOTB Market and Fort, Jodhpore . . „ 3 

Temples, Jodhpore ...... „ 4 

City Tanks and Fort, Jodhpore .... „ 11 

His Highness the Maharao Kesri Singh of Sirohi, 

K.C.S.I „ 13 

His Highness the Maharawal of Jaisalmir . „ 21 
Part of Palace, End op Fort, and Eiding-Camels, 

Jaisalmir ....... „ 22 

Dewan's House, Jaisalmir ..... ,, 24 

Dewan Council and State Servants, Jaisalmir . „ 27 

Riding-Camel and Street Boys of Jaisalmir . „ 28 

Villagers, Jaisalmir ...... „ 28 

Lake, Mount Abu (showing Toad Rock) , . „ 30 

Mount Abu — General View ..... ,, 32 

Church, Mount Abu „ 34 

Jain Temple, Mount Abu ,, 37 

Stone Carving in Jain Temple, Mount Abu — 

Ceiling ........ „ 38 

His Highness Maharaja Takhat Singh op 

Jodhpore ....... ,, 51 

Sirohi Palace ....... „ 61 

City Gate, Jodhpore, with Water-Carrier's Bul- 
lock AND Carrying-Camel .... ,, 75 

Temples and Dhanmandi, Jodhpore ... „ 77 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Temple, Jodhpore City 
Fort, Jodhpore 
Palace, Jodhpore . 
Street, Jaisalmir . 
Fort, Jaisalmir 
Temples, Jaisalmir 
Fort and City, Jodhpore 
Temples, Jodhpore City 
Maharaja Ajit Singh's Monument or Chattri 
Mandore ...... 

Jubilee Offices and Courts, Jodhpore 

Palace, Jaisalmir 

Colonel Maharaj Sir Pratap Singh, G. C.S.I. 
Hbwson Hospital, Jodhpore (see ^?. 260) 
Officers, Imperial Service Cavalry 
Balsamand Lake, Jodhpore .... 
Jodhpore City 
Street, Jodhpore City 



Sambhbr, Chiloe, Black 

Pig-sticking — The Kill 

Pig-sticking — The Bag, 

Temple, Jaisalmir . 

Big Game — Tiger, Bear 

Teal 

Grouse . 

Partridge 

Jungle Fowl . 

Bustard, Houbara, and 

Snipe 



Quail 

Pochards 

Ducks and Cranes 

Fish from Banas, Abu 

Marwari Horse 

Sanchong Milch Cow 

Elephant Saddled for an Ordinary Occasion 



Buck, and Red Buck 



Jodhpore 



Panther, and Crocodile 



Florican . 



Road 



to face 


page 


79 






81 
85 






86 
88 


J> 




90 






98 
100 



105 

106 
109 
no 
no 
117 
124 

156 
163 
164 
164 
166 
168 
177 
177 
178 
178 
180 
180 
182 
182 
184 
184 
189 
190 
190 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



XI 



Jaswant Women's Hospital and Temple, Jodhpore 
Palace and Chattris ..... 

Mosque, Nagore ...... 

Dispensary, Temples, and Mosque, Merta . 
Garden, House, and Temple .... 

Old Palace, Jodhpore City .... 

Butterflies, Abu ...... 

Locust {Acridum succinctum) .... 

Jain Temples, Mount Abu .... 

Mount Abu, with Lake and Barracks, Kbsidency 
AND other Houses ..... 

Lake and Dispensary, Mount Abu 

Maharawal, Sardars and Attendants, Jaisalmir 

Temple ........ 

The Nautch Musicians and Dancing-Girls, Jaisal 

MIR ........ 

Jain Temple, Mount Abu .... 
Garden, House, and Temple, Jaisalmir 
Dewan's Carriage, Jaisalmir 
Jaisalmir Country ..... 

Nomadic Aborigines ..... 

Group 

Monuments of Border Fight between Villagers 
Monuments or Chattris .... 



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THE WESTERN 

RAJPUTANA STATES 



INTRODUCTORY 

The Western Rajpiitana States comprise Marwar, Sirohi, 
and Jaisalmir ; their respective position and area are as 
follows : — 

Marwar, or, as it is sometimes called, after its capital, 
Jodhpore, is the largest in extent of the Rajputana States. It 
is bounded on the north by Bikanir ; on the north-east by the 
Shaikhawati district of Jeypore ; on the east by Jeypore and 
Kishengarh; on the south-east by Meywar and Ajmere-Mer- 
wara ; on the south by Sirohi and Palanpur ; on the west by 
the Rann of Kutch and the Thar and Parkar districts of 
Sindh; and on the north-west by the State of Jaisalmir. It 
lies between latitude 24° 36' and 27° 42' N., and longitude 
70° 6' and 75° 34' E. Its greatest length north-east and south- 
west is about 290 miles, and its maximum breadth 131 miles. 
It contains an area of 35,061 square miles. The population 
in 1891 was 2,528,178. 

Sirohi lies between latitude 24° 22' and 25° 16' N., and 
between longitude 72° 22' and 73° 18' E. Its area is 1964 
square miles. It is bounded on the north by Marwar ; on the 
east by Meywar ; on the south by Palanpur, Edar, and Danta ; 
and on the west by Marwar. The population in 1891 was 
190,836. 

A 



2 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Jaisalmir lies between latitude 26° 5' and 28° 23' N., and 
between longitude 62° 29' and 77° 15' E. It measures 173 
miles in greatest length by 1 3 6 miles in greatest breadtb, and 
has an area of 16,062 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Bahawalpur ; on the east by Bikanir and Marwar ; on 
the south by Marwar and Sindh ; and on the west by Khairpur 
and Sindh. Its population in 1891 was 1 15,701. 




o 



MARWAR OR JODHPORE STATE 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY 

Physical Aspects. — The most marked feature in the physical 
aspect of Marwar is the River Luni, which flows in a south- 
westerly direction through the State, losing itself finally in the 
marshy ground at the head of the Rann of Kutch. In heavy 
floods it overflows its banks in the Mallani districts ; the local 
name of this overflow is rel, and fine crops of wheat and barley 
are produced on the saturated soil. Such floods, however, are 
only occasional, and they make a wonderful change in the 
aspect of the country in the wheat season. The Luni attains 
its greatest breadth in the Sanchore and Mallani districts. 
Its water is, as a rule, saline or brackish ; but when it filters 
into the wells, some twenty or thirty yards away from the banks 
of the river, it is comparatively sweet and drinkable. 

The most important lake in Marwar is the famous salt lake 
of Sambhar, on the borders of Jodhpore and Jeypore. Three 
other considerable salt depressions exist in Marwar, viz., one in 
the N.E. at Didwana, one S.W. of Jodhpore at Pachbhadra, 
and one at Bhatki in the Sanchore district, near the Rann of 
Kutch and termination of the Luni river, which covers an area 
of forty or fifty miles in the rainy season, and the bed of which, 
when dry, yields good crops of wheat and gram. There are 
small depressions of less importance at Sargot, Kuchawan, 
Phalodi, Pohkaran, and Bilara, from which salt is easily 
procured. 

Geology. — The geological characteristics of the country 
are rather complex. The south-eastern boundary, viz., that 



4 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

portion of Merwara and the Aravalli range within the frontier 
of the State, consists principally of metamorphic or transition 
rocks, rising precipitously from the plains, and in some in- 
stances attaining an elevation of 3000 feet. These rocks are 
chiefly gneiss, hornblende, quartz, and mica-slate, with, in the 
higher ranges, bands of basalt and porphyry, and occasionally 
granite. Passing from the Aravallis to the west, the surface is 
sandy, with a substratum of gneiss, hornblende, quartz, and 
mica-slate, which here and there rise up through the sand, in 
some instances to a height of 800 to 1000 feet. The aspect 
of the country, therefore, as far as the Luni river, which 
divides the State into two unequal parts, is that of a sandy 
plain, dotted with bold and picturesque conical hills or mers, 
chief of which are those at Nadolai, Sojat, Bhadrajun, Jalore, 
Jasole, and Sanderao. Immediately around these hills the 
ground is hard and stony, but gradually passes into sand, 
which becomes more heavy as the eastern and northern 
districts are approached. After crossing the Luni, or at about 
one-thii'd of the breadth of the State, these conical hills are 
less numerous, and sandstone appears, but the metamorphic 
rocks continue to occur until the range is passed on which 
Jodhpore, the capital city, is situated. The country to the 
north of Jodhpore city is one vast sandy plain or thai, broken 
by sandhills or tehds, which, commencing in Marwar, stretch 
north into Bikanir, and west and south into Jaisalmir and 
Sindh. In the Mallani district these tcbds sometimes rise to 
300 or 400 feet, and this part of the country resembles an 
imdulating sea of sand. In the rainy season most of the tebds 
get fahly covered with grass and crops of hajra. Water is 
exceedingly scarce throughout the thai or sandy desert, and is 
often from 200 to 300 feet below the surface. Cases occa- 
sionally occur when it is nearer the surface, and it is sometimes 
even at a greater depth. 

Minerals. — This part of the country is rich in salt, which is 



MARWAR OR JODHPORE STATE 5 

obtained in large quantities, chiefly from the natural salt lakes 
of Sambhar and Didwana, but also from artificial pits at 
Pachbhadra, and from depressions at Phalodi, Pohkaran, 
Bhatki, and many other places. The salt jhils of Sargot and 
Kuchawan possess unknown capabilities for salt manufacture, 
and Bilara is abundant in salt, although it is not now manu- 
factured at these places. 

The method of obtaining the salt at Sambhar, Didwana, 
and Phalodi is very simple, viz., by evaporation after the rainy 
season. The process at Pachbhadra is as follows : — Oblong 
pits of various sizes are dug, a supply of brine percolates 
through the pit bed, and when that has become sufficiently 
concentrated, so as to show signs of crystallisation around the 
pit edge, branches of a thorny shrub, called morali, a species 
of mimosa, are sunk in it. On these branches salt crystals 
form and continue to grow for two, or sometimes three years 
At the end of that period the salt crop is extracted, usually 
in this way : men enter the pit, and with an iron chisel, 
wedge-shaped, and having a handle five feet long, they cut 
through the thorny branches, and break up the salt which is 
caked on the bottom. By shaking the branches the crystals are 
detached. The salt thus broken up is drawn to the sides by a 
broad iron hoe, and is removed in baskets to the top of the pit. 

Marble exists in abundance at Makrana, about twelve 
miles from Sambhar Lake, and also in smaller masses near 
Ghanerao, on the south-east border. Sandstone as well as 
gypsum (khadi) is found in abundance in many parganas. 

Multani mitti, or fuller's earth, is found in considerable 
quantities at Kapuri ; it is used by natives of all castes for 
washing the hair. The earth is taken for sale to Umarkote in 
Sindh, to Jodhpore, and Bikanir. It sells on the spot at about 
two annas a bullock-load. 

Poimlation. — The population of Marwar comprises the 
usual elements of the general Hindu community — the military 



6 WESTERN RAJFUTANA STATES 

(mainly represented by tlie Rajputs, who are the lords of the 
soil), the industrial, mercantile, sacerdotal, and servile classes. 
The Marwaris are naturally enterprising and industrious, and 
are well known all over India as a singularly business-like set 
of men. The Rajputs are a specially manly and chivalrous 
class of people, who still retain the noble instincts and high 
ambitions of India's ancient aristocracy. The Charans, a 
sacred race, hold large religious grants of land. The Bhats 
are by profession genealogists, but are also engaged in trade. 
The Minas, Baoris, and Bhils are the chief predatory classes, 
but are now being settled down to agriculture. 

Belonging to the Charan caste is the Darbar poet lam-eate, 
whose office is hereditary. He also keeps the records and 
compiles the history of each reigning chief. The present 
occupant, Kavi Raj Mm-ar Dan, grandson of the great Banke 
Das, has given much assistance in determining some doubtful 
historical points. 

In the sandy portion of Jodhpore and throughout Mallani 
the houses are mostly beehive-shaped huts, with the excep- 
tion of the Thakar's and trader's residences, which, in small 
villages, are generally of bricks or mud, with a tiled or thatch 
roof. The village huts are generally enclosed within a strong 
fence. In advanced parganas the middle-classes dwell in 
houses constructed of mud, with thatch roofs, while those of 
Mahajans (traders) are frequently built of stone and mortar. 
In many villages, however, the Thakar's house is a handsome, 
well-constructed residence. The lower classes are generally 
temperate, laborious, and economical ; their dress is of the 
most simple kind ; as a rule, they partake of two meals a day, 
consisting of bread, vegetables, curds, and milk. Their houses 
usually contain nothing but a few cooking utensils and sleeping 
cots ; carpets and rugs are rarely used, the people sitting on 
the bare ground. The majority of the cultivators are Jats, 
Sirvis, Bishnois, Patels, Rajputs, and Mahomedans of the 



MARWAR OR JODHPORE STATE 



country, also Kaim Khanis, who enjoy grants of land, and 
were originally Rajputs, but forcibly converted to Islam during 
the Mahomedan rule. 

The total population of Marwar, as enumerated in 1891, 
amounted to 2,528,178. The agricultural class is the pre- 
dominating element, being nearly 60 per cent, of the total 
population. The area of the State is 35,061 square miles, and 
the relative density of population per square mile is 72.1. 
Excluding Sambhar, which belongs in part to Jeypore, and the 
details of which are not known, the number of occupied houses 
is 504,1 15, and that of villages and towns together 4225 ; the 
average number of persons per house is 5.02, and per village 
5.36. Of the total population 89.4 per cent, are rural and 
10.61 per cent, urban. Many of the cultivators live in their 
fields in dhanis or small villages of three or four houses. 

By religions, the proportions per cent, are — 



Hindus 

Mahomedans 

Jains 

Aryas 

Christians 

PArsis 

Sikhs 



86.27 
7.07 
6.64 

.005 
.002 
.001 



There were 534 male and 302 female insanes, and 5195 
males and 7505 females returned as blind at last census. 
This blindness is greatly due to dust and glare, which aggra- 
vate outbreaks of ophthalmia and increase the tendency to 
glaucoma. 

Of the total population, it was found at last census that — 

977,803 belonged to the agricultural classes. 

602,907 belonged to the professional classes. 

100,032 were commercial. 

725,032 were artisans and village menials. 

73,492 were vagrants, minor artisans, and performers. 

38,681 were miscellaneous. 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The five most numerous castes in Marwar are — 



Jats . 

Rajputs 

Brahmins 

Mahajans 

Bhambi 



315,443, mostly cultivators. 

244,563, mostl}'^ landowners or soldiers. 

211,396, mostly priests, beggars, and officials. 

232,351, mostly traders. 

183.082, coarse cloth makers. 



Agriculture, — The principal rain crops are millets and pulses, 
hajra, jowar, moth, and til. In the fertile portion of the State 
bordering the Luni, wheat and barley are produced in large 
quantities, also in Godwar, Sojat, Jaitaran, and Marothe, which 
are among the most fertile parganas of Marwar. Cotton is 
largely produced. Tobacco and sugar-cane are also grown on 
a small scale. 

The soils of Jodhpore have been classified under the follow- 
ing heads : — Baikal, the most prevalent, is a light sand, having 
little or no earthy admixture, and only fit for the production 
of hajra, moth, til, sesamum, water-melons, and other cucurbi- 
taceous plants ; chikney, a clayey fat black earth, producing 
chiefly wheat ; pili, a yellow sandy clay, adapted for barley, 
tobacco, onions, and vegetables ; safedi, a soil of siliceous nature, 
only productive after heavy rains ; khari, alkaline earth, poison- 
ous to all vegetation. In the sandy parts of the State the rain 
sinks into the soil, so that a very small rainfall suffices for crops. 
Irrigation works have of late years been extensively carried 
out in various parts of the State. The chief of these is the 
Jaswant Sagar lake in Bilara pargana, constructed by Mr, 
Home. Its depth is 5 4 feet at the main bund, and it irrigates 
an area of 10,000 acres, on which are fifteen villages, by means 
of canals. Its circumference, when full, would be about twenty- 
one miles. It has raised the level and sweetened the water of 
wells on the banks of the river Luni for about a hundred 
miles below it. The bunds that the Darbar has constructed 
are in themselves wholly dependent on rains, as they are mere 
embankments against the rain streams, and are not fed by any 



MARWAR OR JODHPORE STATE 9 

perennial river. The average rainfall is only 14 inches, which 
is just sufficient to produce a crop in the monsoon season, 
kharif being, therefore, the chief mainstay of the country. 
Although there are tanks at many villages, few of them hold 
water throughout the year, but many of them supply deep 
wells, dug in the deepest part, from which the village gets 
its water. 

Industries. — The chief articles manufactured in the country 
are brass utensils, iron vessels and tools, marble vessels, 
gold and silver ornaments, felt rugs, camel saddles, shoes, coarse 
cotton and woollen fabrics for ordinary clothing, embroidered 
shawls, called dawnies, blankets, turbans, dyed and printed 
cloth, a,nd jamdanis. 

Some of the outlying and backward parganas of Mallani, 
Sanchore, Shergarh, Sheo, and Sankra are dependent for then* 
industrial supplies on the more advanced parganas of Bali, 
Nagore, Merta, Jodhpore, and Didwana. Blankets and coarse 
cotton cloths are made in every district for ordinary wear. 

Exports and Imports- — The principal exports are salt, from 
which a large portion of the revenue of the State is derived, 
horned cattle, sheep, goats, horses, camels, cotton, wool, dyed 
cloth, hides, pomegranates, marble, marble manufactures, and 
grinding-sLones. Much of the prosperity of Marwar is due 
to the young Banias (dealers), born in the country, who, on 
attaining manhood, go all over India, and even beyond its 
borders, to engage in trade. These traders keep up connection 
with their villages in Marwar, and return from time to time 
in search of health, to marry their families, and to rest when 
they have accumulated wealth. Many of them keep up fine 
houses, and leave theu' families m their villages in Marwar, 
while they go great distances in search of gain ; and this benefits 
the State enormously, as much money earned abroad is sent 
into the country. The bulk of the imports is paid for from 
this money made abroad by MarAvaris engaged m outside trade. 



10 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The chief imports are gur (unrefined sugar) and hhdnd (re- 
fined sugar), rice, and opium. From Bombay come English 
piece-goods, silver and copper ; from Gujerat spices, dates, gum 
arable, borax, cocoa-nuts, silk, sandal-wood, and dyes. Trade 
is carried on chiefly by Marwari Banias in the markets at 
Jodhpore city, Pali, Merta, Parbatsar, Nagore, Didwana, Pach- 
bhadra, Phalodi, Jalore, Pipar, and Balotra, the principal to^vns 
of the Jodhpore State. 

Climate. — The climate is at all seasons dry, due to the posi- 
tion of the State, the geological nature of its soil, and the 
absence of forest. The Aravalli range separates the State fi'om 
the more fertile districts of Oodeypore. The country is beyond 
the range of the full force of the south-west monsoon from the 
Arabian Sea, and it is also remote from the influence of the 
south-east monsoon from the Bay of Bengal. The clouds from 
the south-west, before arriving over Jodhpore, must float above 
extensive arid treeless districts, such as the sandy tracts of 
Northern Gujerat, Kutch, the Rann, and the desert districts of 
Umarkote and Parkar, and they are consequently very high, 
and generally carried away beyond Marwar by a strong mon- 
soon breeze. This results in a very small rainfall, which, taking 
the centre of the country, Jodhpore, for observation, does not 
often exceed the average of 14 inches. In 1893 the rainfall 
was unusually heavy, gauging over 29.72 inches at Jodhpore 
city. The Luni river, except during the monsoon, contains 
only scanty pools of water, and its tributaries are dry during 
the greater part of the year. The sandy soil, the brackish 
water found nearly everywhere, and the prevalence of the saline 
efflorescence, known as reh, are the principal reasons why there 
is so little of either wild jungle growth or of cultivated ground. 
Thus all conditions unite in producing that extraordinary dry- 
ness characteristic of Marwar. The next most striking pecu- 
liarity of the climate is the extreme variation of temperature 
which occurs during the cold season between night and day. 



MARWAR OR JODHPORE STATE 11 

This depends in a great degree on the dryness of the atmosphere : 
the heat given off by the earth at night passes freely through 
dry an-, whereas it is absorbed and retained by the damp par- 
ticles of a moist atmosphere. Thus it happens that on the 
sandy soil of Jodhpore, while the nights may be sufficiently 
cold for ice to form, the days are often marked by a tempera- 
ture of 90° F. in the shade of a tent. Similarly, although hot 
winds prevail with great violence in the months of April, May, 
and June, the nights are generally fairly cool. 

During the winter months, from the middle of November 
to the middle of March, the climate of Jodhpore is cold and 
bracing, and well- suited for Europeans ; at this time European 
children thrive well, and regain much of then- complexion and 
vigour. The hot months are fairly healthy, but the heat 
becomes so intense, on account of the sandstone hills, that it 
is very trying, especially to European children, who should be 
taken away by the end of March at latest. The intensely hot 
wind which then blows over the desert throughout the day, 
and sometimes during part of the night, is extremely severe on 
the constitution. When, however, the sandstone hills become 
well cooled down by the monsoon rains, and the blowing sands 
steadied by moisture and sprouting vegetation, the climate is 
often pleasant towards the end of July, throughout August 
and September; but a second hot weather is not infrequent 
in October, and the first half of November is often un- 
pleasantly hot. 

Medical Aspects. — The prevailing diseases are malarial fevers, 
especially in the autumn, when the extremes of temperature 
are first experienced and the ground is rapidly drying after 
the rains. Skin affections are also very common, probably 
owing to bad water and indifferent food, among the lower 
classes, and partly from their dirty habits, due to some extent 
to scarcity of water. Dyspeptic diseases prevail, probably 
from the excessive use of hajra as food. Guinea-worm and 



12 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

mycetoma are endemic. Of epidemics, small-pox was formerly 
common, but has been considerably subdued by vaccination. 
Cholera, however, is comparatively rare, especially in the 
western part of the State. Bronchitis and pneumonia are often 
prevalent in the cold months, on account of the extremes of 
temperature which exist, and the insufficient clothing of the 
people. Syphilis and leprosy are met with, though not very 
prevalent diseases, 

"Bubonic plague" raged severely in Pali in 1836-37: 
indeed, it has for this reason acquired the name in Europe of 
" the Pali or Indian plague." But it was probably imported 
from China in silk, then extensively dyed at Pali. 

Since 1896 cases of bubonic plague have from time to 
time been imported into Marwar and Sirohi, but the disease 
has fortunately not spread in the former State, and the out- 
break in the latter only lasted from November 1897 till April 
1898, as the infected villages were promptly vacated and the 
people induced to co-operate in stamping out the disease by 
hygienic measures. 



SIROHI 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY 

Configuration. — The country is much intersected and broken 
up by hills and rocky ranges, which completely cover certain 
tracts. Its main feature is the almost isolated mountain of 
Abu, lying off the Aravallis, near the southern border, about 
twenty miles in length at the base, and separated by a narrow 
pass from a connecting range of lower hills, which runs in a 
north-easterly dh-ection, up to within a short distance of the 
cantonment of Erinpura, on the northern border of the State, 
thus dividing the territory into two not very unequal portions. 
The western half being comparatively open and level, is more 
thickly populated and better cultivated. Both portions on each 
side of these ranges of hills are intersected by numerous water 
channels, which run with considerable force and volume 
during the height of the rainy season, but are dry for the 
greater portion of the year. The whole country, too, is dotted 
over with low rocky hills, for the most part covered with dense 
jungle, consisting principally of the smaller cUidu tree {Ano- 
geissus pendida), Mr tree {Zizzyphus jujuha), a species of euphor- 
bia {Phyllanthus emblica), babul (Acacia arabica), and other 
mimosse. The somewhat elevated plain west of the northern 
point of Abu, and the low range of hills crossing the eastern 
valley at Pindwara, and nearly in line with the town of Sirohi, 
form two lines of watersheds, from which the streams run 
north-west and south-west to join the Luni and the western 
Banas respectively. The Aravallis form a clear wall on the east, 
and the lower slopes of the range are covered with dense jungle. 



14 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Viewed from the top of Abu, the country shows wide 
tracts of low woodland, broken here and there by patches of 
cultivation. 

Siib-surface Water. — The sub-surface water in this State is, 
for the most part, good, and is rarely brackish, but the depth 
at which water stands in the wells varies considerably. In 
the north-eastern portion of the State, adjoining Marwar, water 
is found only at a considerable depth (90 to 100 feet, and 
more), and is generally brackish. There are also but few 
wells here, and irrigation is not much practised ; so that 
the cultivators are greatly dependent on a heavy rainfall for 
raising crops. In the Khuni pargana, to the north-west, the 
wells are of rather less depth (70 to 90 feet). In the eastern 
parganas, between Abu and the Aravalli range, along the 
course of the Bands, and in the southern parganas, the water 
is of good quality, and is much nearer the surface, varying 
from 60 to 15 feet. To the southward the wells, as a rule, 
are of even less depth. In the western parganas bordering 
Marwar, the wells are again of considerable depth (60 to 70 
feet). At the town of Sirohi itself, and in its neighbourhood, 
water is sometimes scarce in the hot season, and it then dete- 
riorates in quality. The depth of the wells varies from 60 
to 100 feet. 

Climate. — The climate of Shohi is, on the whole, dry and 
healthy, and there is a general freedom from epidemic diseases, 
both in the hills and plains. The climate of the high hills is 
cool, even in the hot months, and there is much cold wind 
and frosty weather in January and February. Even in the 
plains the heat is never so intense as in the North- Western 
Provinces and the Punjab. But, on the other hand, the cold 
season is of much shorter duration, and less bracing than in 
the Upper Provinces, except on the high lands. 

Although the climate of Sirohi is good, the hot months in 
the plains are severe on Europeans, and especially on European 



SIROHI 15 

children, who should be taken away at that season, if possible. 
The temperature during the rains is better suited to them, and 
if they do not get malarial fever, which is then somewhat 
prevalent, they generally thrive fairly, and the cold weather, 
which is pleasant although not bracing, enables them to re- 
cover their vigour and complexion to some extent. 

Rainfall. — In the southern and eastern parganas there is 
generally a fair amount of rain, but over the rest of the district 
the rainfall is more often scant than otherwise. This is to be 
accounted for by Abu and the Aravalli mountains drawing to 
themselves the greater portion of the clouds as they are driven 
up from the sea-coast by the south-west monsoon. For in- 
stance, on Abu the average rainfall is about 64 inches, whereas 
at Erinpura, fifty miles distant to the north, there is only an 
average of about 20 inches. The prevailing wind is south- 
westerly in hot weather and rains, and from the north-east in 
the cold season. 

Medical Aspects. — As regards diseases, malarial fevers are 
the most prevalent ; dysentery and diarrhoea are met with, 
especially at the close of the rains and in the early part of 
the cold season. The jungle tracts round the base of Abu 
are specially malarious, but there is no known fever of an 
intense type answering the jungle fever of the Terai. Other 
prevalent diseases are pneumonia, mostly of a malarial type, 
rheumatism, guinea-worm, and small-pox, which is now being 
much mitigated by efficient vaccination. Epidemics of small- 
pox were formerly of very common occurrence, both at the 
capital and throughout the State. Cholera epidemics occur 
from time to time, and are frequent around the base of 
Mount Abu, the germs being often imported by pilgrims. 
Epidemic cholera has never been known on Mount Abu, and 
there is only one imported case on record on the hill. 

Droughts and Floods. — The Shohi district often suffers from 
droughts, more or less severe. The years 1746, 1785, 18 12, 



16 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

and 1833 are recorded as having been years of famine, and 
there was the late great famine of 1868—69, during which the 
whole of Rajputana suffered very severely. It can scarcely 
be said that there are ever floods in this district, but there 
are occasional seasons of extraordinarily heavy rainfall (such 
was that of 1875), when the rivers and mountain streams over- 
flow, more or less flooding any low-lying lands, carrying away 
Persian wheels near the banks of streams, and causing- con- 
siderable damage to the rain crops. The wheat and barley 
crops are occasionally damaged by frost, or by a black fungus 
called giro, which is apt to come on if cloudy weather prevails 
in the spring, when the crops are in ear. Locusts caused 
much damage to the rain crops in 1869, but they visit this 
State much less frequently than the deserts of Marwar and 
Jaisalmir. 

Rivers. — The only important river in Sirohi is the Western 
Bands, which rises near Saimar in the Aravallis, and pursuing 
its course over the western declivities of the range, flows by 
Pindwara and along the eastern base of Abu, in a south- 
westerly direction. After flowing to the south-east for some 
distance, it resumes its south-westerly course, and then, passing 
the site of the once celebrated city of Chandravati, it finally 
passes the cantonment of Deesa, and loses itself in the sand at 
the head of the Rann of Kutch. Within Sirohi limits the 
stream is not perennial, as it usually ceases to flow about the 
beginning of the hot season, leaving pools of water here and 
there. The bed of the stream is sandy and rocky, and the 
banks are never high. This river, like all mountain streams, 
is subject to occasional flushes during the rains, but these 
rapidly subside, leaving the stream fordable. Near Manpm-, a 
little north of Chandravati, the Banas is joined by a small 
tributary called the Batrisa, 

There are several streams in Sirohi State which contain 
water for many months, and, after a heavy rainy season, con- 



SIROHI 17 

tinue to flow nearly the whole year. Among these may be 
mentioned the Jawai, which rises in the Aravallis, and even- 
tually joins the Luni ; the two Siikris, which take the western 
drainage of the Sirohi range and flow north-west to the Luni ; 
the Sukli or Kaleri, Nadi, and the Thara Awdra, near Madar, 
which turns south-east and joins the Bands. 

Lakes. — There are some fine bunds in Sirohi State, but 
none of the tanks hold much water after the monsoon ends, 
except the lake at Mount Abu. 

Minerals. — The general character of the geological forma- 
tion of the Aravalli range within Sirohi is primitive granite, 
with a general dip to the east, on massive compact blue slate, 
the latter rarely appearing much above the surface. Variegated 
quartz and a variety of schistose slate of varied hue are found 
in abundance in the internal valleys, and rocks of gneiss and 
syenite appear at intervals. The hilly tract known as Bhakar 
is made up of primitive and metamorphic rocks, schist, and 
limestone. Mica is found in large quantities near Gudh and 
Dildar. The celebrated Jain temples at Dilwara on Mount 
Abu are said to have been built with marble quarried from the 
mines at Jariwao, on the south-eastern frontier of the State. 

The chief components of the numerous hilly ranges of this 
district consist of granite, quartz, clinkstone, and a kind of 
rotten slate. Limestone is also found in various parts of the 
district, one of the principal quarries being at Kasibal, near 
Sirohi. 

Abu is mainly composed of greyish, large-grained granite, 
which often contains distinct veins of quartz, trap, greenstone, 
gneiss, and schist. Fragments of mica and a hard crystalline 
limestone are met with in different parts of the mountain. 
Fine specimens of rock-crystal are also occasionally found. 
The compact blue slate stone is principally used for flooring 
and roofing, as it is strong and durable. The Abu granite is 
much used for building purposes. 

B 



18 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

There are two marble mines on the hill, one in the lands 
of Achalgarh, named Vansvalla, the other at Utraj. Copper, 
silver, iron, sulphur, arsenic, antimony, and lead are found in 
small quantities in various parts of the State. 

Afjricultiire, — There are the two usual crops in Sirohi, viz., 
the spring crops or rabi, and the rain crops or kharif. The 
principal unali or rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram, and 
sarson. The principal rain crops are Indian-corn, which is 
largely grown, mong, moth, urad, hulath, gudr, cotton, til, 
jowar, and lajra. Crops are irrigated by means of the Persian 
vfheel, called aratli in Sirohi. The principal kinds of soil, as 
distinguished by the Sirohi cultivators, are — 

(i) Singam, the soil just outside the village, which is light 
and rich, being manured by cattle and sheep. 

(2) Mdr or mattial, a rather stiff, good soil, in which wheat, 
barley, and cotton are grown. 

(3) Bhiiwr, a rather light-brown earth, good for the rain 
crops. 

(4) Rdi, nearly pure sand. 

(5) Khdri, land impregnated with salts, in which nothing 
will grow. 

Exforts and Invports. — The principal exports of Sirohi are 
cattle, sheep, ghee, til or sesamum seed, honey, samber horns, 
sword-blades, spears and knives, also drugs, viz., aoida and 
lahera or myrabolams, dkrooi, nissot, lirami, acacia, and other 
gums. 

The principal imports are grain, rice, sugar, dal, spices, 
cocoa-nuts, tobacco, dates, English piece-goods, country cloths, 
silk stuffs, iron, copper, and ivory. The imports are chiefly 
from the Bombay side. Salt is obtained from Pachbhadra in 
Mar war, and opium from Malwa. 

Population. — The population of Sirohi consists chiefly of 
Hindus, Jains, and Mussalmans, the latter bearing a very small 
proportion to the whole. Brahmins and religious mendicants 



SIROHI 19 

are numerous, and they were much fostered by Ummed Singh. 
Banias and Mahajans form a very numerous class, and they are 
mostly followers of the Jain religion. There are Rajputs of many 
clans, but the ruling family belongs to the Deoras, who are also 
the most numerous. Grasias, Minas, and Bhils, taken together, 
form a great portion of the inhabitants, of which Grasias are 
principally confined to the hilly tract in the south-east corner 
of the State. The Grasias were formerly great plunderers, but 
have now settled down to agriculture, and seldom give trouble. 
They are said to be the descendants of Rajputs married to 
Biiil women. Bhils and Minas are the principal criminal 
classes of this State. They are always troublesome, having a 
hereditary taste for strong drink, plundering, and cattle-lifting. 
They are naturally idle and thriftless, and have consequently 
never settled down to agriculture, as they dislike the steady, 
hard work of irrigating fields ; but they cultivate rain crops, as 
this entails but little labour. Speaking generally, the Minas 
may be said to occupy the north, and the Bhils the west part 
of Shohi. 

There are no very wealthy classes in Sirohi. The Jagir- 
dars are mostly poor, and generally in debt ; but among the 
Mahajans and traders there are some rich men. The culti- 
vators are all poor, and, as a rule, completely in the hands of 
the money-lenders (Bohras). The better class of inhabitants 
live in houses built of burnt bricks and mud, with tiled roofs. 
The cultivators live in mud huts, the roofs being generally 
tiled. The Bhils and Minas live in beehive huts, made of 
stakes and mud, and thatched. In villages located at the foot 
of hills, the huts of these classes are so situated as to allow 
of a ready escape to the hills in cases of emergency. In the 
hills the Grasias, who are the principal inhabitants, live in 
scattered hamlets. 

Wheat and lajra form the chief articles of food of the 
hotter classes ; barley, maize, lajra, hulath, &c., that of the poor. 



20 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



The inliabitants of Sirohi generally go abroad armed, and 
the Bhils and Minus still carry bows and arrows, the latter 
caste having, in addition, a formidable dagger called katdr. 

The total population of Sirohi, as enumerated in 1891, 
amounted to 190,836. The area of the State is 1964 square 
miles, and the relative density of population per square mile is 
97.2. The number of occupied houses is 42,317, and that of 
villages and towns together 369. The average number of 
persons per house is 4.42, and per village 457. Of the total 
population 95.4 per cent, are rural and 4.6 urban. 

As regards religions and religious sects, 163,626 are re- 
turned as Hindus (which sect is the most numerous). 18,513 
as Jains, and 5183 as Mahomedans. 

The five most numerous castes in Sirohi are as follows: — 



Mahajans 


19,008 


ChaiuArs 


17,500 


Rajputs 


16,577 


Bhils .... 


16,238 


Brahmins 


13,031 



Of the total population it was found at last census that 

63,217 belonged to the agricultural class. 
19,149 belonged to the professional class. 
19,534 were commercial. 
45,950 were artisans and village menials. 
35,287 were vagrants^ minor artisans, and performers. 
4,839 were miscellaneous. 

There were 50 male and 35 female insanes, 446 males and 
7 1 6 females returned as blind at last census. There were only 
47 lepers, of whom 35 were males and 12 females. 



JAISALMIR 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY 

ConfigiLration. — The country is mostly a sandy desert, but 
there are many rocky plateaus and elevated ridges, with alluvial 
valleys between. The country around Jaisalmir is very stony, 
being a continuation of the hills of Balmer, in Mallani. These 
extend about forty miles north of the city, with a breadth of 
ten or twelve miles. Fossils are found on this stony plateau ; 
they are ammonites, belemnites, and terebratulse, embedded in 
the limestone rock, which forms the greater part of the plateau 
on which the Jaisalmir city and fort stand. Tlie plateau ex- 
tends for a considerable distance around the city. These fossils 
are also sometimes found embedded in a dark ferrugfinous 
matrix of sandstone, and this variety is most common near 
Lodorva. Due east from Jaisalmir there is also a rocky ground, 
indicated by stony hills, appearing at intervals in the sand, as 
far as Pohkaran and Phalodi, in Marwar. Near the city the 
ground is very stony, with comparatively little sand and no 
alluvial soil. Low ridges of limestone and sandstone rock, 
many miles in length, rise up through the sand and form long 
valleys, w^iich are fertile when rain falls, and in which grass 
is to be found nearly every year. In many places sandstone 
hills project above the surrounding country; these are often 
ferruginous and destitute of vegetation. The general aspect 
of the country, in many parts, is an interminable sea of sand- 
hills, of all shapes and sizes, mingled in inextricable confusion, 
some rising 150 feet above the general level of the country. 
Those in the western portion of the country are covered with 



22 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

pliog (Calligonum pohjgonoides), Idnd, and khejra (Frosojns spici- 
gera) bushes ; in the eastern, with large tufts of long grass. 
The Avestern portion of the country, around and to the south 
of Shahgarh, is one of the most desolate tracts that can well 
be seen. In the ordinary desert, the sandhills are clothed to 
a certain extent with shrubs and coarse grass, and, around the 
villages, these afford pasture to the flocks and herds. But in 
this part there are large extents of shifting sands, locally termed 
" dhrian." These vary in size from two to three miles across 
to ten or twelve. On them there is no trace of vegetation, 
and their surface is ever changing, as the Avind heaps the sand 
into hills or scoops it into deep hollows. They are very diffi- 
cult to cross, the path shifting daily. The inhabitants say that 
they are travelling slowly northwards. They swallow up and 
occupy a large portion of the country, depriving the inhabi- 
tants of much of their wretched pasture-ground, and causing 
them to be poorer, and to have a harder struggle for life than 
the rest of their fellow-subjects. The people subsist chiefly on 
milk, with a little hajra, which they obtain from Sindh in ex- 
change for sheep. The stony sections of the country are two : 
one would be comprised within a line drawn from Vinjorai, on 
the southern frontier, through the villages of Khaba, Kathori, 
and Mohangarh, to the border village of Chanu, north-Avest by 
north of Pohkaran, in Mar war ; the second section Avould be 
betAveen the MarAvar frontier to the south-east, and a line draAvn 
from the above-mentioned village of Chanu, in a north-eastern 
direction, through Nokh, to the border of the Bikanir State. 
The Avest of the State is a vast expanse of sand in innumerable 
Avaves, covered Avith a very scanty vegetation, and it is very 
thinly populated. A country could hardly present a more 
desolate appearance ; the villages are feAv and far apart, and 
consist generally of some circular huts collected round a well 
of brackish water. Towards Tanot and the Avestern portion of 
the country there is little of any cultivation. In the east, 




^ 



JAISALMIR 23 

near the large villages of Nokh, Bikampur, and Barsalpur, there 
are many fields in the valleys formed by the sandhills, where, 
when the season is favourable, the inhabitants grow jowar and 
hajra. In several places there is a kind of sandstone and in- 
ferior limestone, which comes to the surface in the valleys. 
All over the country water is scarce, and generally brackish. 
The wells are very deep ; one measured at the village of Choria, 
thirty-two miles south-east of the capital, was 490 feet deep. 
Most of the villages have small ponds, in which the rain-water 
collects, in a good season sufiicient to last for seven or eight 
mouths; but, as a rule, owing to the scanty rainfall, the supply 
fails in from four to six months. The villages have then to 
obtain their water from long distances (sixteen to eighteen 
miles). The poorer classes, who cannot afford to get their 
water from a distance, drink the brackish water (a well or 
two of which every village possesses), mixed with a little 
'•' dalii " (curds), the acidity of which in a measure counteracts 
the brackishness of the water. The average depth of wells is 
said to be about 250 feet. In the north-eastern portion of 
the country, each village has its " tankas" or circular holes 
in the ground, lined with fine polished chunam, in which 
water collects during the rains, and is kept for use when 
the other supply fails. 

Scarcity of Water. — The rainfall is very scanty indeed, and 
water is very scarce, except at a few favoured localities. In 
the sandy desert water can generally be obtained if wells are 
dug ; but in some portions of the stony desert, especially in 
the north-eastern corner of the State, it is so far below the 
surface that the springs cannot be tapped by wells, and the 
nature of the surface soil is such that it is extremely difficult 
to prevent drainage water, collected in tanks, from being 
absorbed by the soil. For instance, between the villages of 
Bap and Chanu, a distance of nearly forty miles, there is but one 
village at which water can be obtained during the hot season, 



24 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

and during years of drought even the tank of that locaHty 
dries up, and the whole track is deserted. The excavation 
of a well was attempted in this part of the State ; it was dug 
to a depth of nearly 500 feet without tapping the springs, 
and was at last abandoned in despair when a stratum of 
sand was reached. It may be imagined that, in such a country, 
salinity of soil would be rare, and, in fact, tracts of salt are 
only met with at the two oases, where depressions occur, and 
water is near the surface. 

Soils. — Almost the whole of the soil of Jaisalmir may be 
described as sandy. It is favourable to some grains, notably 
to hajra, of which good crops are sometimes grown. The 
capital of Jaisalmir is built on a hill, which furnishes a lime- 
stone more valuable than even the red sandstone of Marwar ; 
it is of a dull yellow colour, takes a fah polish, and is good for 
lithograph blocks. There is another variety of yellow lime- 
stone, with large quantities of an iron substance, like red 
ochre, blended with it, produced at Habur, a few miles from 
Jaisalmir, and there are extensive pits of a yellow unctuous 
clay, resembling Fuller's earth or Multani mitti, which is largely 
exported, and used as soap for washing the hair. 

Minerals. — Yellow marble of excellent quality, easily pol- 
ished and carved, is met with at Jaisalmir. The plateau on 
which the capital stands is principally composed of this j^ellow 
marble ; it is very extensive, and from it most of the building- 
stone used for carving and roofing is now taken. This stone 
is also largely exported. In Khuiala pargana, at Habur village, 
thirty miles from Jaisalmir city, a marble is obtainable which 
is considered sacred, and is used in flooring temples. Sand- 
stone of good quality is obtainable from the plateau, also 
from Bhadasar and many other places in the State. The 
Bhadasar sandstone is hard, and used for making grinding- 
stones. Carbonate of lime, in the form of Jcankor, is common 
throughout the country, although deeply embedded in sand in 



JAISALMIR 25 

many places. Sulphate of lime is met with twelve miles from 
the city. It is probable that coal is to be found in Bap 
district, and that the seam recently discovered in Bikanir runs 
into Jaisalmir. There is also iron, and lignite in some places, 
in small quantities. There are four quarries of Fuller's earth 
in Jaisalmir, viz., at Mandhu, Nedi, Ramgarh, and Mandai, 
from which exports take place. 

Salt of fair quality is found in abundance in four parganas, 
viz., Jaisalmir, Dewa, Nokh, and Bap on the Phalodi border. 
It is, however, manufactured at Kanode only, and is not ex- 
ported, as the Marwar salt is of superior quality, more easily 
manufactured, and conveniently located for exportation. 

Climate and Rainfall. — The climate of Jaisalmir is essen- 
tially dry, bracing, and healthy, akin to that of the north-west 
of Marwar. As regards temperature, the heat is greatest in the 
months of May and June, when hot winds prevail with much 
violence. The temperature generally ranges between 64° and 
1 15° F. As soon as rain falls, the weather becomes cool and 
pleasant ; the coldest times are from the middle of December 
to the middle of February, when the thermometer falls very 
low, with a good deal of frost and ice. In January the ther- 
mometer always reads below freezing-point during the night. 

During the few cold months the climate of Jaisalmir is 
both bracing and invigorating, and ideal for Europeans. The 
sky is then clear, the thermometer low, and the air crisp and 
stimulating ; consequently unusual exertions can be made 
without fatigue, and sound sleep enjoyed throughout the 
night. The hot weather is very prolonged, and the heat very 
intense and trying to the constitution of Europeans. Then 
there are years when the rainfall is so light that it is insuffi- 
cient to cool the country much, even for a short time. How- 
ever, when the rainfall is good, there are two or three months 
of pleasant weather during the monsoon season. 

The rainfall was very scanty in 1898, viz., 3 inches 



26 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

87 cents. The monsoon consisted of a few days of light 
showers, which barely wet the ground, and put very little into 
the tank. The average rainfall for the twelve years ending 
1898 was 7.34 inches, and this includes an unusual rainfall, 
namely, that of 1893, in which 15.24 inches were registered. 

General Character of the, People. — Notwithstanding the many 
difficulties of existence in this barren country, the Jaisalmir 
people always seem bright and happy ; even scarcity of water 
and food in bad years does not seem sufficient to depress 
their buoyant spirits. They are naturally hardy and healthy, 
take life easy, and labour very little. The soil is so unproduc- 
tive and the seasons so capricious, that they can never rely on 
their sowings being followed by a harvest ; so they depend more 
on their flocks and herds to supply them with the necessities 
of life than on agriculture. 

General Character of the Country and the Soil. — The country 
shows signs of a greater population than there is at present, 
and there are many deserted villages to be seen throughout the 
districts, with substantially built stone houses, some of which 
exhibit considerable carvino- and ornamentation. These villasfes 
were occupied by Palliwal Brahmins, who left the country 
about a hundred years ago on account of the oppression of 
Salem Singh, the then minister. Many of the houses would 
now require very little repairs to make them habitable, so sub- 
stantially were they built in the prosperous age of the country. 
These Brahmins were excellent cultivators, and it is said that 
all the long valleys between the stony ridges and sandhills 
were then cultivated, and that the country teemed with wheat 
and other grains grown by them. They made dams across 
these valleys to prevent the rain from running off, and in this 
Avay improved the fertility of these depressions, locally called 
" khdrins." Some of these khdrins are still cultivated, but 
many of them only produce grass, and the dams have mostly 
disappeared from want of care. Some of them are now being 



JAISALMIR 27 

repaired, but there is no population to restore to the Jaisalmir 
State its original prosperity, and the monsoon is supposed, 
by many of the inhabitants, also to be less favourable to this 
than formerly. 

Medical Asi^eds. — Epidemics are of rare occurrence. People 
suffer chiefly from mild malarial fever, pneumonia, and bron- 
chitis, on account of scanty clothing ; skin diseases, guinea- 
worm, and small-pox. There is a saying that " neither mud, 
mosquitoes, nor malaria is to be found in these regions," and 
malarial fevers are neither so common nor so severe as in other 
parts of India. Small-pox, the great scourge of the juvenile 
population, is being mitigated by vaccination, and the germs 
of cholera and plague have never yet been able to survive the 
hardships of the desert ; so these diseases are still unknown in 
Jaisalmir. 

Elvers and Lakes. — There are no perennial streams in 
Jaisalmir, but two small rivers, one called the Ldthi-ka-Nadi, 
flow through the State during the monsoon rains. The former 
L'ises in low ground belonging to the villages of Kotri, Gohira, 
and Latabana, and after flowing a distance of twenty-eight 
miles, spreads over a large space of flat ground, and forms a 
lake called the Bhuj Jhil. In years of exceptionally heavy 
rainfall this river often deviates from its usual course, and 
forms a rinn or salt lake, extending to a distance of fourteen 
or fifteen miles beyond Bhuj. 

The Lathi-ka-Niidi flows in from Marwar, divides itself into 
two branches, which again unite about eight miles to the east 
of Lathi, and takes a western course for about twenty-four 
miles, where it forms a lake near the village of Mohangarh, 
which sometimes covers an area of twenty or thirty miles. 
These lakes become rapidly reduced by leakage and evaporation 
after the rains, and Avheat is then grown over the greater part 
of the depressions ; but there is sufficient rainfall for this only 
once in ten or twenty years. 



28 AVESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Agriculture. — Rain crops, such as hajra, moth, til, &c., are 
chiefly grown. The soil being light and sandy, good crops of 
hajra are produced after a very slight fall of rain. Crops of 
wheat and barley are rare, but they are grown in favourable 
seasons in the depressions around tanks, and in other valleys 
locally known as " kharins." 

In the sandy parts of Jaisalmir the rain sinks into the soil, 
and does not flow off the surface, so that a very small rainfall 
sufiices for good crops of hajra and moth. The produce of the 
country, in a favourable season, is more than sufficient for the 
immediate wants of the people, and hoards are then made ; but 
storage is unfortunately difficult, as the burnt earthen vessels, 
necessary to keep the grain in good condition for a length of 
time, have to be brought from long distances. The ka7'hi or 
hajra stalks, which make excellent food for cattle, are little 
heeded in good years, when rich grass is plentiful, and little of 
either kai^hi or grass is cut and stacked to stand against bad 
seasons. Consequently many of the advantages of a bumper 
year are lost by the careless habits of the people. 

When wheat or grain is grown, the Darbar's share from the 
cultivators is from a fourth to a sixth, and of the rain crops, 
such as hajra, moth, til, &c., from a seventh to an eleventh of 
the produce. These heavy dues in kind have anything but a 
stimulating eftect on agriculture in a country so subject to the 
caprices of the monsoon. Consequently the people rely greatly 
on their herds and flocks for maintenance, and many of them 
on a few months' labour every year with the Zemindars, who 
cultivate the fertile banks of the Indus. 

Population. — The total population of Jaisalmir, as enume- 
rated in 1 891, was 1 15,701, with a densit}^ of 7.2 per square 
mile, as compared with 108,143, with a density of G.y, in 
1 88 1. The area of the State is 16,062 square miles. Of 
the total population, 9 1 per cent, are rural and 9 per cent, 
urban. 




Riding-camel and Street Boys of Jaisalmir. 




\'illiigcrs, Jaisalmir. 



To face piige 28. 



JAISALMIR 29 

The most numerous castes in Jaisalmir are : — 

Rajputs ....... 28,329 

Bhambis 7,555 

Chaindrs ....... 7)976 

Mahdjans ....... 6,762 

The folio whig clans of Rajputs are represented in Jaisal- 
mir : — Bhati, to which the ruling family of the country belongs ; 
Rathore, Kachawah, Chohan, and Sliishodia. The different 
kinds of Brahmins are Pushkarnd, Srimali, Joshi, and Palliwal. 
The last-mentioned caste were much more numerous before the 
time of Dewan Salem Singh, under whose tyranny they suffered 
much, and many of them left the State on that account ; they 
were good cultivators, and Jaisalmir has sustained a great loss 
in them. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF 
MOUNT ABU 

Mount Abu is a detached hill of the Aravalli range, somewhat 
south-east of the centre of the Sirohi State; it is separated from 
this range by a valley about fifteen miles wide ; it is principally 
solid granite, in many places well covered with soil, and well 
wooded, especially its valleys and watered slopes. The shape 
of the mountain is long and narrow, being about fourteen miles 
in length by two to four miles in breadth on the top. The base 
is about twenty miles in length by eight miles in breadth at its 
widest part. The direction of the hill is from south-west to 
north-east. Its principal peak, Guru Sikhar, towards the 
north end, is the highest in Rajputana, being 5653 feet above 
the level of the sea. The station of Mount Abu is about 4000 
feet above sea-level ; it is built on an irregular plateau, sur- 
rounded by several projecting peaks and elevated ridges, topped 
by huge boulders, some of which present very fanciful shapes. 
Among these are the " Nun " and " Toad " rocks, which present, 
on a very large scale, a remarkable resemblance to a nun and 
a toad. The Nun rock was struck by lightning in 1890, and 
a piece of stone, resembling a long straight nose, detached. 
There is still, however, much resemblance to a nun in the 
stone taken tout ensemble. 

Uria, another considerable plateau, is about five miles from 
Abu station; it is 500 feet higher than Abu, and lies below 
the main peak of Guru Sikhar, and somewhat south of that 
elevation. This plateau is surrounded by low ridges. It con- 

30 



MOUNT ABU 31 

tains three small tanks, wliicli hold water a great part of the 
year, and has some good wells close to the villages on it. It 
is cooler than Abu, and would be a good site for a sanitarium 
if sufficient water could be assured. 

Lakes and Tanks. — The Nakhi Talao or Abu Lake is 
situated close to the station, on the west side of the bazaar ; 
it is about half a mile long by a quarter of a mile broad. It is 
very shallow on the east side towards the bazaar, but is twenty 
to thirty feet deep towards the dam on the west. Although 
this lake has, according to the local legend, been excavated by 
the nails of saints (whence its name), there is little doubt of 
its being of volcanic origin ; but it has been considerably 
deepened and enlarged by a dam on the Anadra side. It is 
most picturesquely situated between high hills with projecting 
peaks. The slopes and ravines adjacent are well wooded, 
especially on the south and west, and there are several rocky 
islands in the lake, which add greatly to the picturesque 
beauty of the scene. Some of them are partially covered 
with bushes and grass. There is an overflow from the lake 
for a considerable time after the monsoon season, but this 
generally ceases before the end of the hot weather, and the 
water level sinks considerably below the top of the bund before 
the rains set in to again replenish it. 

The water of the Abu Lake is not potable, and even the 
wells in its vicinity, at certain seasons when it is low, or when 
the decay of vegetable matter around its edges is at its height, 
smell heavily, are full of organic matter, and unpleasant to 
the taste, which is not the case with most of the station wells 
at a distance. This lake is held sacred by Hindus, who per- 
form pilgrimages by walking round it, by drinking from it, and 
by washing ill it. Occasionally individuals weary of life, from 
some incurable disease or from some other cause, resort to it 
for suicide, in the hope of immediate transportation to a better 
land, where they would be free from their malady. 



32 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

A large tank is being completed by the Sirolii Darbar 
above tbe Dilwara temples, about a mile and a half from Abu, 
which will hold about 50,000,000 gallons of water. This will 
be collected from high ground, and be of much superior quality 
to that of the lake. It is proposed to distribute this water to 
the station by pipes, and it is hoped it will completely remedy 
the scarcity which takes place every year during the crowded 
season, when the best wells become low, and restrictions have 
to be put on the quantity drawn from them. 

During the monsoon season the edges of the lake are sur- 
rounded by green grass and weeds, and there is very little 
marshy ground even in the wettest weather. Nevertheless, 
the houses in its vicinity are more malarious than in other 
parts of the station, and boating on it, or walking too fre- 
quently by its edges, after the rains have stopped, has been 
considered sufficient to account for severe attacks of malarial 
fever. During: the hot weather, when the water level of the 
lake has generally fallen considerably, and when its shores are 
dry and free from rank vegetation, the same unhealthiness does 
not seem to exist, and the roads and paths about it are then 
very favoured resorts for those in search of fresh air and exercise. 

Climate and Rainfall. — The climate of Abu, for the greater 
portion of the year, is very agreeable and healthy. The seasons 
do not dift'er in time from those usually experienced in the 
plains, except that the temperature is always 10 to 20 degrees 
lower. 

During the hot season, which commences about the middle 
of April, the midday temperature is at times unpleasantly 
high, especially after seasons of insufficient rainfall, when it 
sometimes rises to 96° or 97° F, in the shade, and on one or 
two occasions it reached 100° F. ; which is, however, very 
unusual. The thermometer seldom exceeds 90° or 94° in the 
hottest days, and owing to the dryness and lightness of the 
atmosphere, and to the absence of hot winds, the heat at this 




"^ 



MOUNT ABU 33 

period of the year is not generally trying to the constitution 
of Europeans. Punkhas are seldom used, the doors of houses 
are kept open, and the constant south-west breeze, which 
crosses the desert as a hot wind, becomes cool by the rapid 
expansion of the ah as it ascends the hill, and this moderates 
the temperature, which would otherwise doubtless be in- 
tense on the rocky surface of Abu in summer. The nights 
and mornings are almost invariably cool, fresh, and invigo- 
rating. 

During the rainy season the temperature is always pleasant, 
but the air is then damp, and fires are required in the houses 
to keep them dry. During December, January, and February, 
frosty nights are frequent, and a cold north-east wind gene- 
rally blows over the hill at that season. From the middle of 
October to the end of November there is sometimes a good 
deal of malarial fever, especially among the natives, who are 
badly housed and badly clothed. Years of light rainfall are, 
as in the plains, less feverish than years of a heavy monsoon. 
It is my experience that a heavy downpour of rain at the 
beginning of the monsoon, which washes the hill thoroughly 
before everything becomes welded to the sm-face by the rapid 
growth of vegetation which takes place after the soil becomes 
moistened, lessens the fever of the season ; the early appear- 
ance of frost has also a good effect in this direction. 

Hardly any season passes without cases of enteric fever 
among the Europeans in Abu, and it is not uncommon among 
the natives, especially children. Soldiers, convalescent from the 
disease, come up the hill in early spring and carry the germs 
of enteric into the sanitarium and station. 

It is supposed that the temperature on Abu has increased 
since the hill was first occupied as a sanitarium, owing to the 
reckless way in which many of the peaks have been cleared of 
timber, and the consequent drying up of several springs and 
streams at an early time of the year. Forest regulations have 

C 



34 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

been in force for the last five years, and the destruction of the 
best timber is now prevented. 

The time at which the rains set in varies ; they usually 
commence, with thunderstorms, about the middle of June, and 
there are generally passing showers in the last week of May. 

The rainy season, as in all hill stations, is rendered some- 
what unpleasant by the prevalence of fog and drizzle, and the 
intense moisture of the atmosphere. But the temperatm-e is 
cool and pleasant, and there is none of the stifling damp heat 
of the plains ; the climate, too, is healthy at this season. The 
rainfall is generally heavy, but not excessive, and varies greatly 
from year to year. The average during the last twelve years 
has been 66.28 inches, but there have been years of unusual 
rainfall, such as 1862, in which 123, and 1893, in which 130 
inches were registered; again, in 1868, 31, and in 1898, 36 
inches only were recorded. In 1893, 201 inches were regis- 
tered at the Railway School, where the rainfall is generally 
much greater than in the station. However, only 46 inches 
were registered there during 1898. The average fall of June 
is about 8 inches, of July about 25 inches, of August about 20 
inches, and of September about i o inches. The monsoon rains 
usually cease, as they begin, with thunderstorms, about the 
middle of September, after which, for a few weeks, an occasional 
shower falls, and there are generally a few heavy showers during 
the cold weather about Christmas. 

A short interval of warmer weather follows the monsoon, 
and during the period of the drying-up of the rains there is a 
good deal of malarial fever, especially among the natives ; but 
the disease is not often of a very severe type. From the 
middle of October to the middle of November is generally the 
most unhealthy time of the year. 

Duringf the cold season, from December to March, the 
climate is very healthy and bracing, and fires are required in 
the houses ; but the cold is not excessive, as the temperature 




, iHnm r-nm iBMimmmo mmmmmr. 



Church, Mount Abu. 



To face fa^e 34. 



MOUNT ABU 35 

seldom falls below 40°, and the average is 60°. Hoar-frost 
often covers the ground, sometimes remaining in the shade till 
nearly noon, and then ice forms on any still water. On the 
whole, Abu may be considered as possessing a very good climate, 
combined with the advantage of beautiful scenery. European 
children located on Mount Abu keep in good health at all 
seasons. They maintain their vigour and retain much of their 
bright complexion. 

Sanitation. — The sanitary arrangements of Mount Abu are 
well directed by the Magistrate, advised by the Local Municipal 
Committee and the Residency Surgeon, Western Rajputana 
States. Much attention is given to drainage, conservancy, and 
the prevention of over-crowding, to which there is a great 
tendency in the hot weather. 

The town of Kerari, at Abu Road, has recently been well 
drained by the Sirohi Darbar, and great attention is now given 
to conservancy there. 

Water Supply. — Considering the hilly nature of the surface 
on the summit of Abu, perennial springs of water are singularly 
few and small. This is doubtless owing to the generally im- 
pervious nature of the rock preventing deep percolation. But, 
for the same reason, water can be got in almost every valley, 
within twenty or thirty feet of the surface, by sinking wells 
through the clay. Many of the basins retaining these collec- 
tions of water are small and shallow, so that the supply is soon 
exhausted, and towards the end of the dry season the wells in 
them cease to yield much ; those situated lowest in the valleys 
nearest the deepest part of the basin lasting longest, and always 
giving the most. The water in all these wells, although un- 
certain as to quantity, is of good quality. 

UartJiquakes. — Earthquakes are very frequent at Abu at 
uncertain intervals. The shocks are generally very slight, 
and have an undulatory motion, but are accompanied with 
much rumbling noise. From information derived from local 



36 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

sages, tliere appears to have been a severe shock in Sambat, 
1881 or 1882 (a.d. 1825 or 1826), which caused damage to 
houses, and cracked some of the arches of the Dilwara temples; 
also a somewhat severe earthquake in 1849 or 1850. Again, 
in 1875 there was a considerable shock, accompanied by a 
very loud and alarming noise. This shock was felt at Jodh- 
pore, about 150 miles away. From these instances it would 
seem that the more severe shocks occur at intervals of about 
twenty-five years. The great earthquake of June 1897, which 
did so much damage in Calcutta, Assam, and other parts of 
India, was hardly perceptible in Abu. No year passes without 
earthquakes of some sort on Mount Abu, but they are gene- 
rally nothing more than a slight underground rumbling. The 
legend is that holy Abu rests on the horns of a great bull, and 
that when he is displeased by the sins of the people, he shakes 
his head, thereby producing an earthquake. The importation 
of beef is said to be always followed by an earthquake. Beef 
is forbidden on the hill by treaty, but is sometimes smuggled 
in by cooks. 

Epidemics. — It is remarkable that Abu, notwithstanding 
the great flow of pilgrims, is unusually free from epidemic 
disease. Cholera is almost unknown on the hill, only one 
imported case having been seen there within the memory of 
the oldest inhabitant. Plague found its way to the foot of 
the hill, but fortunately it was intercepted there. Small-pox 
alone, of this group, makes occasional ravages among the 
aborigines, who manage to evade vaccination. Typhoid fever 
is frequently seen, both among Europeans and natives, and 
this is only what might be expected, as many of the young 
soldiers are barely convalescent from the disease when they 
are sent up the hill for change. 

Civil and Military Station. — Abu is the head-quarters of 
the Local Government of Rajputana, and the principal sani- 
tarium for the British troops of the Bombay command. The 



MOUNT ABU 37 

Lawrence School for soldiers' children, and Railway School for 
children of Railway employes and others, are located on the 
hill. Abu is also the summer head-quarters of the Western 
Rajputana States Residency, and several of the chiefs of 
Rajputana reside on the hill durmg the hot months. Abu 
sanitarium includes barracks for about 150 troops, quarters 
for women and children, and a station hospital; also houses 
and quarters for ten or twelve officers. Invalid and con- 
valescent soldiers come up the hill early in March, and many 
of them get permission to return to their regiments in the 
plains in July, as they dislike the damp of the monsoon 
season; others only go down at the beginning of the cold 
weather, or in time to catch the home transports. 

Population. — The population varies very much, according 
to the season of the year. From the middle of March to the 
middle of July the season is at its height. There are some- 
times about 400 to 500 Europeans on the hill — officers, their 
families, soldiers, and children — and the native population is 
at this time greatly increased by the influx of servants, trades- 
people, and workpeople. During the rains the population 
diminishes, but it again increases towards the end of Sep- 
tember, when the second season begins. From November to 
March the population is at its lowest ; even the bazaar is then 
somewhat deserted; and the school children take their holi- 
days about Christmas, so this further depletes the winter 
population. 

There are several small villages on Abu inhabited by 
Rajputs, Bhils, Brahmins, and Banias; the latter are princi- 
pally residents of the Abu bazaar, where they are mostly 
connected with the supply trade of the hill. 

Temples and Shrines. — There are many temples and shrines 
on Moimt Abu, and these attract a continuous stream of 
pilgrims from various parts of India. The Jain temples at 
Dilwara — a small village outside the Abu station — are the 



38 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

most celebrated. They are about 700 years old, and two of 
tbem have beautifully carved ceilings and columns. They 
are visited by many hundreds of Jains annually, and Abu is 
one of the four principal places of pilgrimage of this sect. 
Gau Mukh, Guru Sikhar, Achalgarh, Achleswar, and the shrine 
of Adhar Devi are all regularly frequented by batches of pil- 
grims, which come and go throughout the year. 

Roads. — There is now a good metalled road from Abu 
Road Station to Mount Abu, 17 miles in length, and on the 
other side of the hill there is a zigzag path connecting the 
station with the old Ahmedabad-Ajmere highway. There is a 
good road from Abu to Uria, which passes the Dilwara temples. 
All these roads have been much improved during recent years. 
There are also made paths to all the important shrines and 
objects of interest on Mount Abu. 

Recreation. — There are a good polo ground, racket, tennis, 
and badminton courts, a cricket ground, a racecourse, and a 
golf links on the hills. Visitors to Mount Abu are much 
indebted to the local chief, and to some of the other liberal 
chiefs of Rajputana, who have contributed largely to the funds 
from which these pleasure grounds have been made out of 
hard and rugged upheavals, that almost defied dynamite. 

Fairs. — There are no fairs of any importance held on 
Abu, but great bands of pilgrims, called " Sangs " — mostly 
Jains and Vishnus from parts of India — frequent the hill. 
On these occasions the Dilwara and other Jain temples on 
Abu benefit largely from the pilgrims' donations, and, owing to 
the sanctity of the hill and the number of shrines and temples 
on it, pilgrims are always coming and going ; but a special 
pilgrimage, called " Singat," occurs every twelfth year, when 
thousands of people throng the hill. A pilgrim-tax is levied 
by the Darbar of Sirohi on Mahajans, Sunars, and Kalals of all 
districts who come from places outside Sirohi. 

Medical Institutions. — There is a hospital for the Rajputana 



MOUNT ABU 39 

Agency Staff and the Agent Governor-General's escort, and a 
charitable dispensary for the poor, on Mount Abu ; and there 
is a second charitable dispensary at Abu Road Station. The 
charitable institutions are partly supported by private subscrip- 
tions, collected by the Residency Surgeon, Western Rajputana 
States, from residents and visitors on Mount Abu during the 
season. Government gives medicines and hospital assistants 
free, and the Sirohi Darbar provides the dispensary house at 
Abu Road free of rent. 

In 1897, 31 in-patients and 4632 out-patients were treated 
in the Abu Charitable Dispensary, and 10 major and 134 
minor operations performed in it. 

In the Abu Road Dispensary, 71 in-patients and 16,999 
out-patients were treated, and 48 major and 619 minor opera- 
tions performed in 1897, 

As the population of Abu and Abu Road bazaars is princi- 
pally engaged in the food supply of Mount Abu, most of the 
attendance at these institutions is in the summer months, 
there being fewer people resident in the cold weather. 



SANDS, SALT, FOSSILS, AND LIME 

There is no doubt in tlie minds of scientific men regarding 
the sands of Jaisalmir, tliat they must have been left there by 
the rolHng ocean, of which there are still many well-marked 
indications imprinted on the country. Moreover, sea-shells, 
fossil terebratula, and other fossilised marine invertebrata, can 
be readily picked out of the sandstone rocks or collected 
from the ground, which sets the question beyond dispute. 
It is, however, different with Marwar, and there are but few 
traces of the sea, which could not have come much beyond the 
mouth of the Luni, before it is lost in the Rann of Kutch. 
Mr. T. La Touche, of the Geological Survey, is of opinion that 
the sands of Marwar have been mostly blown up from Kathi- 
awar, by the steady south-west wind, during countless ages, and 
that this has been supplemented by grains of sand worn off 
the rocks by the same prevailing wind. The sands of Marwar 
contain fossils of extinct foraminifera, which are found in 
abundance in the sands of Kathiawar, and the grains of this 
sand are sharper and have less rounded ends than those of sea- 
sand, which become blunted by being rolled together. The 
calcified protozoa, or fossil foraminifera, account for the abun- 
dance of carbonate of lime in the form of kankar, which is 
found in the subsoil of Marwar. The monsoon rains dissolve 
out the lime of these minute shells ; it filters through the 
sand in solution, and as evaporation takes place in the dry 
season, the lime is deposited below, and kankar is thus formed. 
When sandhills grow to a certain height, their bases become 
stationary, but their tops are blown forward from time to time 



SANDS, SALT, FOSSILS AND LIME 41 

and re-formed by the sand brouglit up from behind ; this con- 
tinues indefinitely. 

The salt, manufactured at Pachbhadra and other places, 
by digging pits in the sand and allowing crystallisation to take 
place under evaporation, is dissolved out and washed down 
from the hills during the monsoon season. The solution per- 
colates slowdy through the sands, and by evaporation during 
the dry season the chloride of sodium is eventually deposited 
in the soil, where it remains until it is collected in the 
above way. 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 

THE EARLIER RAJPUT PERIOD 

The ruling family of Marwar are Rathores, of the Surajwansh 
or Sun family, and claim their descent from Kush, the second 
son of Rama, the celebrated king of Ajodhya. The word 
" Rathore " is said to be derived from " Rashtwar," which means 
" blessed of Rashtar Sena," the falcon of the world, which was 
the insignia adopted by Mansa Devi, the family goddess of the 
rulers of Marwar. 

Kanauj is said to have been conquered by Nenpal of the 
Rathore clan in 470 A.D. He was succeeded by Bharat, who 
had thirteen sons, from whom sprang many branches of the 
Rathore clan. They ruled here for seven hundred years, and 
formed one of the four great Rajput kingdoms among whom 
India was divided at the time of the first Mahomedan invasion. 
Kanauj was situated on the Kali Nadi. In its prosperous days 
it was a very large town, having a circumference of thirty 
miles. Jai Chand, the last king of Kanauj, picked a bitter 
quarrel with Prithvi Raj Chohan, his cousin, and the last of 
the Hindu kings of Delhi. He called on Shahabuddin Ghori 
for help, with whose aid the Delhi king was defeated, taken 
prisoner, and eventually killed. The Mahomedan conqueror 
then led his army against the city of Kanauj and besieged its 
fortress. Jai Chand and his men fought very bravely, but 
were severely defeated ; and thus both the great Hindu king- 
doms of Delhi and Kanauj were brought to ruin in 1 1 9 3 a.d. 

Siaji and Saitramji, the two grandsons of Jai Chand, 
roamed about as outlaws against the Mahomedan rule for 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 43 

eighteen years, till at last, in 1 2 1 1 , they left their mother- 
country with only two hundred followers, and proceeded on 
a pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Dwarka, Avhere they slew 
Ldkha Phulani, a notorious robber. Saitramji was killed, but 
Siaji continued his march into Marwar, and conquered Mehwo 
and other districts, till he reached Pali, then held by Palliwal 
Brahmins, who were constantly harassed by Mairs and Minas. 
Against them the Brahmins sought the assistance of the 
brave Siaji, who, with his followers, succeeded in putting to 
the sword a larg-e number of the Mair and Mina freebooters. 
On the entreaties of these Brahmins, Siaji agreed to settle 
among them as their protector. Shortly after, at the instance 
of a Solankhi Avife, he destroyed these Brahmin Jagirdars and 
became master of Pali. From that date he assumed the title 
of Rao, and made Pali the principal seat of his government. 
His son and successor, Asthanji, conquered the land of Kher 
from the Gohil Rajputs, while Sonig, the younger brother of 
Asthanji, took Edar. 

Chonda, tenth in descent from Siaji, and successor to Rao 
Beeramji, conquered Mandore from Parihar Rajputs in 1395 ; 
the seat of the Rathore Government was then transferred 
from Pali to Mandore. He then conquered Nagore, and took 
Nandole and many other places ; the time of Rao Chonda 
may, therefore, be reckoned the actual conquest of Marwar. 

In 1409 A.D. Rao Chonda was succeeded by his son, Rao 
Rirmal, a giant in size and strength, according to local history 
and legends. He seized Ajmere, and restored it to Meywar, 
and he was also the first to enforce the equality of weights 
and measures throughout his dominions. He was slain while 
attempting to seize the throne of Meywar. 

Rao Jodha, the eldest surviving son of Rao Rirmal, suc- 
ceeded his father. He conquered Sojat in 1455, and laid the 
foundation of the city of Jodhpore (in 1459 ^-D.), which he 
made his capital. He had fourteen sons. By this time the 



44 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Rathores had conquered in three centuries more than 70,000 
square miles of land. They were exceedingly prolific, and 
already numbered 50,000 cavaliers, descendants of one father. 
Three chiefs alone, Jodhd, his father and grandfather, produced 
fifty-two sons. 

Rao Jodhd was succeeded by his eldest son, Sdtal, who 
shortly after lost his life, in 1492, in a fight with the Pathans, 
who had carried off 140 maidens from a fair then being held 
at Pipsir. 

Dooda, the fourth son of Rao Jodhd, established himself 
on the plains of Merta, while Bikd, the sixth son of Jodha, 
founded Bikanir. 

After Rao Sdtal came Rao Suja, the second son of Rao 
Jodha. He occupied the gaddi of MarwAr for twenty-seven 
years. 

Rao Sujd's son, Baghji, died during his father's lifetime, 
and the succession therefore devolved upon Sujd's grandson, 
Gangd. It was during his reign that the Rathores fought 
under the standard of Meywar, led by Rana Sangd against the 
Mogul emperor, Babar, in the fatal field of Biana, in 1528, 
in which the Rao's grandson, Rai Mai, and many other brave 
Rajputs, lost their lives. 

Rao Gcingd, dying in 1531 or 1532, was succeeded by 
Maldeo, during whose reign Marwar attained to its zenith of 
power, territory, and independence. He greatly extended his 
dominions by conquests from neighbouring States, and before 
his death ruled thirty-eight districts. When Humdyun was 
driven from the throne of Delhi by Sher Shah, he sought the 
protection of Maldeo, but in vain. Humayun was then forced 
to cross the desert of Sindh, and his son Akbar was born 
at Umarkote at that time. Soon after Sher Shah marched 
against Maldeo with an army of 80,000 men, and succeeded 
in defeating him ; but the Rathores fought so desperately that 
at the end Sher Shah is said to have exclaimed that he had 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 45 

nearly lost the empire of Hindustan for a handful of hajra, in 
allusion to the poverty of the country he had unwisely invaded. 
In I 5 6 1 , Akbar, in revenge for Maldeo's inhospitable treatment 
of his father, invaded Marwar, and took Merta and the im- 
portant fortress of Nagore, both of which places were then 
conferred on the chief of Bikanir. At the close of his life the 
old Rao had to stand a siege in his capital, and was obliged to 
yield homage, and pay it in the person of his son, Udai Singh. 

Chandarsen, though a younger son, succeeded his father, 
Maldeo ; but, in the third year of his reign, Akbar captured 
Jodhpore, and held it till 1583, when it was restored to Udai 
Sino-h, the Emperor's favourite. 

Udai Singh ruled from 1583 to 1594. He was the first 
chief of Marwar who received the title of Raja from Akbar. 
The Emperor not only restored to Udai Singh all the posses- 
sions, excepting Ajmere, that he had wrested from Maldeo, but 
several rich districts in Malwa. Udai Singh ruled with a 
strong hand, and chastised the feudal lords who had espoused 
the cause of his brother Chandarsen. He was very unpopular 
with the Charans, as he confiscated some of their villages ; he 
had seventeen sons and the same number of daughters. 

Raja Sur Singh, who succeeded his father in i 594, attained 
to high honour with Akbar, for whom he conquered Gujerat 
and the Deccan. For his services he held five fiefs in Gujerat 
and one in the Deccan, in addition to his native dominions of 
Marwar, and he had also the title of Sawai Raja conferred on 
him by the Emperor. 

Raja Gaj Singh succeeded his father, Sur Singh, in 16 19, 
and ruled till 1638, He was made viceroy of the Deccan, and 
served with distinction in the wars of the empire. When 
Prince Khurram rebelled, he marched with the Emperor 
Jahangir to put down the rebellion. In 1638 a serious rising 
broke out in Gujerat, and Gaj Singh was sent to suppress it. 
In his endeavour to put down the rebels Gaj Singh lost his- 



46 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

life. He had two sons, Amar Singh and Jaswant Singh, of 
whom the elder was disinherited and declared incompetent to 
occupy the throne of Marwar. 

After the death of Gaj Singh, the succession devolved upon 
the second son, Jaswant Singh, who ruled for forty-two years, 
from 1638 to 1678. Local chronicles describe him as a sove- 
reign unsurpassed in all princely virtues by his predecessors 
and contemporaries. During his long reign ignorance and 
darkness were dispelled from Maroo land, while learning and arts 
made great progress under his encouragement and patronage. 
He served in the war of Gondwana, where he led a force of 
twenty-two contingents under Aurangzeb. However, during the 
first twenty years of his service he played a comparatively sub- 
ordinate part in the government of the empire until the illness 
of the Emperor Shahjehan in 1658, when Dara, as regent, 
appointed him Viceroy of Malwa. It was at this juncture 
that the civil war of succession broke out among the sons of 
Shahjehan, and Jaswant Singh was sent to oppose Aurangzeb 
near Ujjain. He could have easily crushed him, but, over- 
confident of the capabilities of his army, he gave him time to 
join with his brother Murad, so that he might have the glory 
of conquering two princes m one day. He was, however, over- 
sanguine, and failed in the task he had unwisely undertaken. 
Maharaja Jaswant Singh hated the Mahomedans, and Aurang- 
zeb most of all ; so his whole life was spent in an attempt to 
ruin the Moguls, he cared not whether by force or fraud. 
With this object in view, he joined Aurangzeb against his 
brother Suja, and when the battle began he turned upon 
Aurangzeb's army, cut it to pieces, plundered the imperial 
camp, and succeeded in bringing much spoil to Jodhpore. He 
then joined Dara against Aurangzeb, but the Emperor offered 
Jaswant Singh the viceroyalty of the Deccan, which he accepted. 
When he reached the Deccan, he planned the death of the 
king's lieutenant, and then stirred up Prince Muazzam to rebel 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 47 

against Aurangzeb. When another Viceroy was sent there, 
he had to fly for his life, and was pursued by the prince and 
Jaswant Singh beyond the border. In order to get rid of this 
powerful foe, whom he could not subdue openly, the Emperor 
pretended friendship with Jaswant Singh, and appointed him 
to the viceroyalty of Kabul ; but he had his son and heir, 
Prithi Singh, murdered at Delhi as soon as the father was out 
of the way. The legend is that the boy was enveloped in a poi- 
sonous robe, from which he absorbed the noxious drug and died. 
The cold climate of Afghanistan killed Jaswant Singh's two 
remaining sons ; the veteran Rathore warrior then died of grief 
in a foreign land, and his chhattri is still preserved at Jamrood. 
After the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, his wife, who 
was with him, was in her seventh month of pregnancy ; she 
made up her mind to become Sati, but was forcibly prevented 
by one of the late Raja's clansmen. On their return journey 
to Jodhpore, she gave birth to a posthumous son at Lahore, 
who afterwards ruled as Ajit Singh. When the infant prince 
was a few months old, the guardians resumed their journey 
to their native country via Delhi ; but Aurangzeb commanded 
that the infant should be surrendered to his custody, in the 
hope of being able to destroy him. However, the Rajputs in 
charge became suspicious of the Emperor's intentions, and, 
without delivering their infant chief into his hands, they 
managed to escape beyond Delhi, after a severe battle, during 
which the infant prince was saved by being concealed in a 
basket, such as that carried by snake-charmers. Gokal Das 
Khichi, in the garb of a snake-charmer, carried the infant 
prince off, and intrusted him to Prohit Jagguji, whose Dhani 
was at Kalindri, in Sirohi, in which place he protected the 
young prince for seven years, after which he was taken away 
and concealed in the Siwana hills known as " Chhappan-ka- 
Pahdr." Here he was visited from time to time by his clans- 
men, who continued to harass the Mahomedans located in the 



48 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

country. After the battle at Delhi, Aurangzeb invaded Marwar, 
took and plundered Jodhpore. He also sacked all the large 
towns, destroyed the Hindu temples, and commanded that all 
Rathores should be forcibly converted to Mahomedanism, with 
the result that the Rajputs combined against him, and in the 
wars which ensued Aurangzeb gained little, either in honour 
or power. The chief leader of the Rathores, and the most 
faithful adherent to the infant Maharaja Ajit Singh during the 
critical time of his minority, was Durga Dass, a very valiant 
Rajput, who sacrificed everything in the service of his lord. 
Colonel Tod, in his annals, informs us that it was with rare 
fortitude, patience, valour, and devotion that such a handful 
of Rathores could hold their own for so long a time against 
such a powerful monarch as Aurangzeb. In 1 680-81 he suf- 
fered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Rathores, who 
supported his fourth son, Akbar, in his rebellion against his 
father. Years of anarchy then followed in Marwar, and the 
Rathores were much subdued, in consequence of the occupation 
of their capital by Mahomedans, when Ajit Singh, at the age 
of twenty-one, in 1 70 1 a.d. put himself at the head of a large 
body of the clan, and marched on Jodhpore city, from which 
he expelled Aurangzeb's governor and killed hundreds of his 
garrison. The city was again taken by Bahadur Shah in 1708, 
and held till 17 10, when it was restored to Ajit Singh by Shah 
Alam. Maharaja Ajit Singh was, however, not even at this 
period allowed to rest at his capital undisturbed. It was in- 
vested by the Sayyads, who carried off his son, Abhai Singh, as a 
hostage, but they were finally defeated by the Maharaja and 
compelled to retire from Jodhpore. Maharaja Ajit Singh was 
much mixed up in the intrigues of the Imperial Court ; he 
was as brave as he was wise, and eventually came into great 
favour with the Emperor. He is said to have made and un- 
made seven successive Emperors of Delhi before he died at 
Jodhpore in 1724, leaving behind him five sons. 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 49 

Abhai Singh succeeded to the gaddi and ruled for twenty- 
five years ; he was a great athlete, the best swordsman in 
Rajwara, and he was given Nagore and Edar by the Emperor. 
He rendered great service to Mohammad Shah in subduina* 
Sherbaland Khan, the rebel of Ahmedabad. After this he 
returned to Jodhpore with the spoils of Gujerat, which 
materially helped him in strengthening his forts and garrisons. 
He also, with the aid of his brother, Bakhat Singh, gained 
a great victory over Jai Singh, the chief of Amber. 

Maharaja Abhai Singh died in 1750, and was succeeded 
by his son, Ram Singh. Many battles were fought between 
Ram Singh and his uncle Bakhat Singh for the gaddi of 
Marwar; but at last the latter conquered and was made 
Maharaja, although Ram Singh had the help of the Mahrattas 
to sustain his claims. Maharaja Bakhat Singh was a chief 
of great personal prowess and a great leader ; his extraordinary 
exploits are still recounted by Charans, and he is assigned 
a very high place among the rulers of the Rathore clan, both 
on account of his strict justice during the long period he 
governed Nagore, and also for his warlike achievements. 

Bakhat Singh was succeeded by his son, Bijai Singh, who 
ruled with much difficulty, at first on account of a combination 
made against him by Ram Singh and Jai-appa Scindia. The 
united forces defeated his army at Merta, compelled him to 
cede Ajmere to the Mahrattas, and to pay a triennial tribute 
for the murder of Jai-appa Scindia, which afterwards took 
place in Marwar. Ram Singh died in exile in 1773; after 
this Marwar was free from war for a considerable time, 
although much harassed by Mahratta freebooters. The Raj- 
put States were, about that time, much irritated on account of 
frequent raids by Mahrattas; consequently Meywar, Marwar, 
and Jeypore joined armies and gained a victory over Scindia 
and De Boyne outside the town of Merta, from which place 
and from Ajmere they were driven out with great loss. 

D 



50 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

However, Scindia soon rallied liis army, recaptured Ajmere, 
and imposed a fine of sixty lakhs on the Rajputs. Bijai 
Singh was a vegetarian and also strictly forbade the use of 
liquor and other intoxicants; he died in 1794, leaving a 
reputation for great piety behind. 

At the time of Bijai Singh's death, his grandson, Bhim 
Singh, was at Jaisalmir ; he galloped to Jodhpore and seized 
the vacant gaddi, the rightful heir to which was Zalim Singh, 
the eldest surviving son of Maharaja Bijai Singh. Bhim 
Singh, being afraid of the rightful heir and of other pre- 
tenders, slew or drove into exile all who could lay any claim 
to the throne. Man Singh, who took refuge within the 
walls of Jalore fort, however, evaded his tyranny, although 
Maharaja Bhim Singh made several unsuccessful attacks on 
the stronghold, and endeavoured in vain to seize the person 
of Man Singh. Maharaja Bhim Singh died in 1804, and 
it is remarkable that there was no famine or scarcity during 
his time — a period of ten years. 

Maharaja Man Singh succeeded Bhim Singh to the gaddi 
in 1804, and ruled nearly forty years, although discord and 
confusion prevailed during his time. The leading nobles of 
Jodhpore produced a posthumous son of Maharaja Bhim 
Singh, and, with the aid of Jeypore, nearly succeeded in 
wresting the State from Man Singh, who, however, with the 
help of Amir Khan, defeated his enemies. The nobles then 
left the country and took refuge at the courts of MeyAvar, 
Jeypore, Bundi, Kotah, and Bikanir, where they intrigued 
against and occasionally organised attacks on Marwar. Maha- 
raja Man Singh early refused to take any part in State affairs, 
and nominated his eldest son, Chatar Singh, as his regent. 
In 18 1 8, at the commencement of the Pindari war, a treaty 
of alliance was concluded between the British Government 
and the chief of Marwar, Chatar Singh died suddenly, 
whereupon his father resumed the administration. Internal 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 51 

dissensions and misrule, however, continued ; the Naths con- 
trolled the affairs of the State and held the Maharaja as a 
mere puppet in theu- power till 1839, when the British 
Government had to interfere, in order to save the State from 
being Avholly made over to them. A British force under 
Colonel Sutherland held Jodhpore for five months, till order 
was restored. 

Maharaja Man Singh, the last descendant of Abhai Singh, 
died without heirs, and Maharaja Takhat Singh of Ahmednagar 
was adopted and put on the throne in 1843. Owing to con- 
stant disputes between the Darbar and the Thakars, the affairs 
of Marwar remained in an unsatisfactory state for a time. 
Maharaja Takhat Singh was, however, a loyal chief, and did 
good service in the mutiny of 1857, when many European 
ladies found a safe asylum in his fort at Jodhpore, and during 
which troublesome period he did his utmost to assist the 
Government. He was famous for his hospitality and the 
excellence of his wine. 

Maharaja Takhat Singh died in 1873, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Maharaja Jaswant Singh, G.C.S.I., who was 
born at Ahmednagar in 1837, before his father was adopted 
into Marwar ; he succeeded to the gacldi of Jodhpore in 1873, 
and died in October 1895. He was a typical Rajput chief, 
dignified, courteous, genial, and generous in a high degree ; he 
was a keen sportsman, very fond of horses, a great patron of 
the turf, and any broken-down jockey or needy racing man, 
who came to Jodhpore in his time, could rely on his sym- 
pathy and assistance. Although a strict Hindu, he was very 
broad-minded in ecclesiastical matters, and held that all re- 
ligions were good and deserving of support. He was very 
charitable, and many who had met with misfortune existed 
on his bounty. Under Maharaja Jaswant Singh's rule much 
progress was made in administration in Marwar ; the law 
courts were reformed, boundary and revenue settlements 



52 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

made, outlawry and dacoity put down, and a good water supply 
provided for the capital. In his time many new tanks were 
made and old ones improved throughout the State ; the rail- 
way was constructed, and the roads around Jodhpore metalled. 
Inland customs were regulated, and transit duties abolished. 
The two regiments of Imperial Service Cavalry, the State's 
quota to the defence of the empire, were recruited and trained, 
and are now well mounted, thoroughly equipped, and able to 
take then' place in the field against any enemy to British 
supremacy in India. Arboriculture and forestry received par- 
ticular attention, and the trees planted under the immediate 
supervision of His Highness have done much to improve the 
surroundings of Jodhpore city, and to steady the sand that 
formerly drifted as in the open desert, but which is now covered 
with trees and grass, and is fairly stable at all seasons of the 
year. Nearly all the hospitals adorning the capital and the 
dispensaries, which confer so much benefit on the sick poor 
of the out-districts, were established during the lifetime of 
Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Vaccination was made general 
throughout the country, and sanitation received consideration 
and made considerable progress during his time. Education 
was particularly fostered, and many schools were established, 
the pupils of which are largely employed in the railway and 
other departments of the State. Scholarships for Marwar 
boys were given at some of the Indian universities, and two 
medical studentships for female students were founded in the 
Agra medical school by the Maharaja, who was always pleased 
to advance any cause likely to benefit his own subjects or the 
people of India generally. 

Maharaja Jaswant Singh was born outside Marwar, and 
this gave rise to a dispute on the death of Maharaja Takhat 
Singh. Maharaj Zorawar Singh, the second brother of His 
Highness, and the first-born of Maharaja Takhat Singh in 
Marwar, claimed to succeed his father, but his claim was not 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 53 

recognised by the British Government, nor upheld by the 

Sardars of the State ; so the pretender accepted the inevitable 

and settled down under the rightful heir's rule, giving no 

further trouble during the rest of his lifetime, 
o 

For many years before the death of Maharaja Sir Jaswant 
Singh, Colonel Maharaj Dhu-aj Sir Pratap Singh, G.C.S.I,, 
carried on the government of the State ; but the chief was ever 
ready with good advice when it was needed, and he had abso- 
lute confidence in the loyalty of his younger brother. Conse- 
quently good government was established out of comparative 
anarchy, and marked progress took the place of a tendency 
to decay. 

Maharaja Jaswant Singh's influence was great among the 
ruling chiefs of Rajputana, and he did much to improve the 
relations between the different States ; his judgment was con- 
sidered sound, and he was often consulted by his contemporary 
rulers, both within and beyond the borders of Rajputana. His 
loyalty to his suzerain was, under all circumstances, staunch 
and unflinchinsf, and this had a good effect on the malcontents 
and restless in many parts of India. 

Maharaja Jaswant Singh had his salute increased to twenty- 
one guns, as a personal distinction ; he received the G.C.S.I. 
from the Queen-Empress, and the outlying and once turbulent 
district of Mallani was restored to Marwar, on account of the 
strong and sound government established during his lifetime. 

His Highness Maharaja Sardar Singh succeeded his father, 
Sir Jaswant Singh, on the 24th of October 1895, and was 
invested with full powers on the i8th of February 1898. He 
is now in his twentieth year, and promises to have many of 
the sterling and generous qualities of his distinguished father. 
He is an excellent horseman, a good polo-player, and has 
already shown considerable ability in dealing with the adminis- 
tration of his State. 



54 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Principal Events of His Highness the Mahaeaja 
Jaswant Singh's Reign. 

March 1873 . — His Highness succeeded to tlie gaddi. 

2^rd December 1875. — His Highness visited His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales at Calcutta ; he was then invited 
to attend the Grand Chapter of the Star of India, and deco- 
rated with the G.C.S.I. by His Royal Highness on behalf of 
Her Majesty. 

1877. — His Highness attended the imperial assemblage at 
Delhi, and had his salute increased from seventeen to twenty- 
one guns (ist January). — The chiefs of Jodhpore and Oodey- 
pore interchanged visits at Delhi, although these houses had 
long been at variance before this. 

1877-78. — Marwar suffered from scarcity of grain and a 
grass famine of unusual severity. 

2yth January 1878. — A son and heir was born, who shortly 
afterwards died. 

1878—79. — Maharaj Pratap Singh was appointed minister, 
and he accompanied Sir Neville Chamberlain on his mission to 
Kabul, for which he was subsequently created a C.S.I. His 
Highness's loyalty was evinced by his readiness to place his 
troops at the disposal of Government, both on the occasion of 
the Malta expedition and the Afghan war. 

1880. — Major P. W. Powlett took over political charge of 
the Western Rajputana States (2nd January), and, with Maharaj 
Pratap Singh, commenced the reforms which have done so 
much to establish good government in Marwar. — A son and 
heir (the present Maharaja) was born (iith February) to His 
Highness, who set a good example in having his infant, the 
Maharaj Kunwar, vaccinated, in spite of much opposition from 
within the palace. 

1 88 1. — The Jodhpore Railway was commenced (i6th Feb- 
ruary). — Captain W. Loch was appointed boundary settlement 
officer, and afterwards took charge of the revenue and customs. 

1881-82. — The combined political charge of the three 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 55 

Western Rajputana States was denominated the Residency. — A 
complete reform of customs duties introduced into Marwar by 
Mr. Hewson. 

1882. — Mr. Home was appointed manager of the Jodhpore 
Railway (17th April), and shortly after took charge of the 
whole Public Works Department of the State. 

1883. — The head-quarters of the Resident were moved 
from Erinpura to Jodhpore. — Lala Hardyal Singh was appointed 
to Jodhpore (August). 

1884. — A Municipal Committee was formed with the Resi- 
dency Surgeon as president (July). — His Highness proceeded 
to Calcutta on a visit to His Excellency the Marquis of Ripon, 
and to welcome the Earl of Dutferin, the new Viceroy (Novem- 
ber). — The Khalsa villages were made over to Captain Loch for 
summary settlement and management. 

1884-85. — The powers of Jaghdars, within their respective 
jagirs, to try civil and criminal cases were defined. 

1885 . — His Highness proceeded to Oodeypore on a con- 
dolence visit after the death of Maharana Sajjan Singh 
(January). — His Excellency the Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, visited 
Jodhpore (i6th November). 

1885-86. — The old postal arrangements were abolished, and 
the imperial system introduced at all pargana headquarters. 

1886. — The Maharaja paid a visit to His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Connaught at Poona (September). — K.C.S.I. was 
conferred on Maharaj Pratap Singh. 

1887. — The Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign was celebrated 
with brilliant display (i6th February), and his Highness gave 
Rs. 111,000 to the Imperial Institute. The Luni-Pachbhadra 
extension of the Jodhpore Railway was opened for traffic 
(23rd March). — Maharaj Sir Pratap Singh sailed for England 
(ist April), to represent His Highness the Maharaja at the 
Jubilee of the Queen-Empress. He was made an honorary 
Lieutenant-Colonel in the British army, and an A.D.C. to His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. — Maharaj Sir Pratap 
Singh returned from England (August). 

1887-88. — Under the presidency of Maharaj Sir Pratap 



56 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Singh a Council, consisting of eight members, with Pandit 
Sukhdeo Prashad as its judicial secretary, was appointed, — Two 
new dispensaries, one at Jalore and the other at Merta, opened. 

1888. — His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore visited Jodh- 
pore (3rd February). — His Highness opened the Hewson General 
Hospital in person ( i 5 th February). — His Highness made an 
offer to Government of ten lakhs of rupees for frontier defence. 

1888-89. — -^ Forest Department was established. 

1889-90. — Four of the principal Jagirdars, viz., Pohkaran, 
Ku chaw an, Asope, and Nimaj, were admitted to the Jodhpore 
Council. — Balsamand tank and canal completed. 

1890. — His Royal Highness Prince Albert Victor visited 
Jodhpore (February). — The Darbar completely abolished transit 
duties (April). — His Excellency Lord Lansdowne visited Jodh- 
pore (November). 

1 89 1. — His Imperial Highness the Cesarewitch of Russia 
visited Jodhpore (January). — The sister of His Highness the 
Maharaja of Jodhpore was married to the Maharao of Bundi 
(February). — The Grand Dukes Alexis and Sergius of Russia 
visited Jodhpore (April). — ^His Highness the Gaikwar of Baroda 
visited Jodhpore (2 ist August). — The civil administration of the 
district of Mallani was made over to the Darbar (August). 

1 891—92. — An elaborate system of supervision for the con- 
trol of Minas, Baoris, Kolis, Bhils, and Bagris was established, 
the import duty on rice from Sindh abolished, a new Resi- 
dency completed and the old one at Sursagar abandoned, the 
nobles' school at Jodhpore converted into a preparatory school 
for the Mayo College. — For the first time for generations. His 
Highness the Maharaja of Bikanir visited Jodhpore. 

1892. — Pandit Sheonarain, the private secretary to His 
Highness, died (8th February), and was succeeded by his son, 
Pandit Dina Nath. — The marriage of His Highness the Maha- 
raja's son and heir took place with the sister of His Highness 
Maharao of Bundi (20tli February), and on this occasion ten 
ruling chiefs visited Jodhpore. 

1892-93. — The boundary settlement was finished. — The 
Maharana of Oodeypore, the Maharao of Kotah, the Maharaja 



SHORT HISTORY OF MARWAR 57 

of Kolapore, and His Imperial Highness the Archduke Franz 
Ferdinand of Austria visited Jodhpore. — His Highness the 
Maharaja of Jodhpore paid a visit to Bikanir, and a condolence 
visit to Ulwar after the death of the chief there. 

August 1893. — The Jaswant College was affiliated to the 
Allahabad University in Arts, up to the Intermediate Standard. 

1893-94. — The Bigori system of revenue settlement was 
successfully introduced. 

I 894. — The new jail was completed and occupied (March). 
— The Maharaj Kunwar was appointed secretary to the 
Musahib Ala on the death of Munshi Hardyal Singh (July). 

1894-95. — The chiefs of Bikanir, Kotah, Bundi, Ulwar, 
Jaisalmir, and Narsingarh visited Jodhpore. 

I ith October 1 895. — His Highness the Maharaja Sir Jaswant 
Singh, G.C.S.I., died at the age of fifty-seven. His Highness 
ascended the gaddi in 1873, and had, therefore, ruled over 
Marwar more than twenty-two years. 

2^th October 1895. — The late Maharaja was succeeded by 
his only son, His Highness Maharaja Sardar Singh, who was then 
in his seventeenth year. 

1895-96. — The Jaswant Sagar tank, costing about nine 
lakhs of rupees, was completed. — The chiefs of Oodeypore, 
Jeypore, Bikanir, Kotah, Bundi, Kishengarh, Dholepore, Jais- 
almir, Patiala, Rutlam, and Sailana paid condolence visits to 
Jodhpore. 

1896. — Her Excellency Lady Elgin opened the Jaswant 
Hospital for Women, founded in memory of the late Maharaja, 
Sir Jaswant Singh (24th November). — His Excellency the 
Viceroy, Lord Elgin, opened the new Rajput school at Mandore 
(25th November). 

1896-97. — The revenue settlement was completed. — A 
B.A. class was established in the Jaswant CoUesfe. 

o 

1897. — Maji Panwarji, the mother of His Highness the 
Maharaja, died (ist February). — A new dispensary at Bhatki 
was opened (ist February). — Lieutenant -Colonel Maharaj 
Dhiraj Sir Pratap Singh proceeded to England (29th April) 
to represent the Jodhpore Imperial State Cavalry on the 



58 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

occasion of the Jubilee celebration in London. He was in- 
vested by Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, Empress of 
India, with the insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the 
Order of the Star of India, and had also the degree of LL.D. 
conferred on him by Cambridge University. 

On both occasions of his visits to England, Sir Pratap 
Singh was highly gratified with the kindness he received from 
the Queen-Empress, and everybody there. He considers Her 
Majesty a most wonderful woman, and well worthy of her very 
exalted position, apart from right of birth. Her capacity for 
work and ceremonial, her dignity and authority, her kindness 
and consideration have quite overcome him, and made him 
give up all his early prejudices against women as being unfit 
for rule and command. The city guilds, the banks, the 
manufacturing centres, the shipping, the navy, the public 
schools and universities, all brought home to him the great- 
ness of the country. However, on his first visit, he was utterly 
surprised and astonished at the poverty of " the East-end " 
community ; he had never previously realised that there were 
poor in England. He thought Englishmen were made up of 
two classes, the " Sahibs " and " Chhota Sahibs," the latter being 
" Mr. Atkins " and " the Jockey Log," both of whom he had 
always seen in comfortable circumstances here. He attributed 
the poverty of East London to the want of fields to till, and it 
never occurred to him that any Britisher should have a natural 
aversion for work. He thought that it would be good, both 
for Marwar and England, if the Great Unemployed were drafted 
from "the East-end" into Marwar, and settled as cultivators here. 
" There is land and to spare for the whole of them under His 
Highness the Maharaja of Jodhpore, and why should they not 
have it ? " The desert would no doubt soon smile with abun- 
dant harvests, and commodious and comfortable homesteads 
would rapidly replace the present beehive huts, when in the 
hands of an industrious, honest, and thrifty English population. 
The question of providing for the congested slums would then 
be satisfactorily and finally settled, with advantage both to 
India and England. We do not think the gentle Brahmin 



SHORT HISTORY OF SIROHI 

The present reigning family of Sirohi are Deora Kajputs, a 
brancli of the Chohdn Rajputs, and are said to be immediately 
descended from one Deoraj, the son of Manji or Siirang, a 
descendant of Prithvi Raj , the Chohdn king of Delhi. 

Very little is known of the early history of Shohi State. 
From the records it appears that the original inhabitants were 
Bhils. Following the Bhils, the Gehlots were the first Rajputs 
to settle in Sirohi. They were shortly succeeded by the Pra- 
mars, who had their capital at Chandravati, on the banks of 
the Bands, a few miles to the south-east of Abu, and ruled 
south to the Narbada, and west to Umarkote and Sindh. The 
ruins of that once magnificent city are still to be found, buried 
in a dense and desolate iuncrle. The Pramars were succeeded 
by the Chohans, who, about a.d. i i 5 2, established themselves 
along the western border of Sirohi, where Sohi Rao, the 
Chohan leader, took Bhinmal and Sanchore. Sohi Rao was the 
son of the famous Lakhamsi, Raja of Nadole in Marwar. The 
Chohans appear to have gradually established themselves in 
theu' newly acquired territory ; and Rao Geynhu, the sixth in 
succession from Sohi Rao, the grandfather of Deoraj, the founder 
of the Sirohi house, built the fort of Jalore, which has since 
fallen to the Rathores, and is now in Marwar territory, a short 
distance from the north-west border of Sirohi. 

We now come to the birth of Deoraj, the first of the Deora 
clan of Rajputs, who may be considered as the founder of the 
Sirohi house. Nothing particular is recorded in regard to 
Deoraj, but his son Agarsen is said to have taken Chandravati 

61 



62 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

from the Pramars in a.d. 1302. The latter had constructed 
extensive fortifications on Mount Abu, and rendered it an 
impregnable stronghold, in order to gain possession of which 
the Deora Chohans had to resort to treachery, A proposal 
was sent to the Pramars that they should bring twelve of their 
daughters to be married into the Chohan tribe, and thus estab- 
lish a friendship between them. The proposal was accepted, 
and the twelve girls, daughters of this clan, were accompanied 
down the hill by nearly all the Pramars, when they were set 
upon and slaughtered by the Deoras, who followed the few 
survivors back to Abu, and gained possession of the place. 
The people styled Lok, who still inhabit Abu, are descended 
from the Pramars who survived, and on account of this evil 
act on the part of the Chohans, they never allow their daughters 
to go down to the plains to be married. 

In 1405 Rao Sobhaji built the town of Sirohi, situated in 
a bay of the hills near the site of the present capital. He was 
succeeded by his son Rao Sains Mai, who, in a.d. 1425, built a 
new city on the slope of the hills, which was also called Sirohi, 
and is the present capital of the State, During the reign of 
Sains Mai, Rana Kumbhaji of Chittor, with the permission of 
the second son of Sains Mai, took refuge on Mount Abu from 
the Delhi emperor's army. When the danger was past, the 
Rana refused to leave, whereupon Deraji, the eldest son of 
Sains Mai, marched to Abu with a force and expelled the 
Rana and his men from the hill. In consequence of this 
affau', the Rao swore that no Raja should ever be allowed to 
ascend Abu. The oath was kept till 1836, when, at the inter- 
vention of Colonel Spiers, the then political agent of Sirohi, 
the Maharana of Oodeypore, was permitted to proceed to Abu 
on a pilgrimage, and since then many chiefs of Rajputana have 
visited Abu. 

The chiefs of Marwar repeatedly attacked Sirohi, but the 
natural defences of the country, and the inherent heroism of 



SHORT HISTORY OF SIROHI 63 

its valiant defenders, baffled their attempts for a long time. 
Sirohi was the maternal home of Rao Maldeo of Marwar, who 
invaded it with a large army, came out successfully, and left a 
garrison there. 

In 1565 Rao Sultan Singh came to the gaddi of Sirohi. 
He ruled fifty-one years and fought fifty-two battles. 

In 1572 an imperial army, under the command of Mir 
Mahmud Khan, marched against Sirohi, but without any great 
results. Akbar then came down in person to Sirohi, to assume 
command of the army. The Rajputs fought very bravely, 
and the Rao did not then acknowledge the supremacy of the 
Mogul Emperor. 

Raja Sur Singh of Marwar next invaded Sirohi at the 
head of a large army on behalf of the Emperor. He 
plundered the country, but could not conquer it. Sub- 
sequently, Kunpawat Mukand Dass, a vassal of Marwar, was 
intrusted with the command of a large imperial army and 
ordered to march against Sirohi. The Rathore commander 
succeeded in capturing the Rao while asleep in one of the 
mountain retreats of his country, Mukand Dass first took 
the Rao to Jodhpore and thence to Delhi, Before he was 
admitted to the Emperor's presence, the Rao was asked to 
observe the etiquette of the court ; but he replied that his 
life, and not his honour, was in the Emperor's hands, and 
that he would never bow his head even at the peril of his 
life. The Emperor was much pleased with his undaunted 
bravery. Rao Sultan Singh was a valiant and reckless prince. 
The hostilities between the Sirohi and Marwar princes grew 
more bitter day by day, till at last the Rao was compelled to 
sue for peace by offering the hand of his daughter in marriage 
to Maharaja Abhai Singh, 

At the beginning of the present century, in the time of 
Rao Udai Bhan, Sirohi suffered much from wars with Marwar 
and the maraudings of the wild Minas, The State became 



64 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

too weak to protect its subjects, and was nigh being dis- 
membered, as many of the Thakars threw off their allegiance. 
It was under these circumstances that, in 1817, Rao Sheo 
Singh sought the protection of the British Government. A 
long inquiry was made by Captain Tod, then Political Agent, 
Western Rajputana States, and in September 1823 a treaty 
was concluded between Sheo Singh, regent of Sirohi, and the 
British Government. In 1843, by consent of the Rao of 
Sirohi, Government established a sanitarium on Mount Abu. 
In 1854 affau's had become so alarming that, at the urgent 
request of the Rao, the British Government had to advance 
a loan of two lakhs, and take over the administration for 
eleven years. This was rendered necessary by the bad 
condition to which the State was reduced owing to the 
constant rebellions of the Thakars, and the raids of Bhils, 
Minas, and other freebooters, who found a secure refuge in 
the hills and forests of the country. 

In 1 861, in consequence of the incapacity of Sheo Singh, 
the general control of affairs was made over to his second 
son, Ummed Singh, the old Rao retaining the dignities and 
honours of office till his death on the 8th of December 1862. 
Rao Sheo Singh had a long reign of forty-four years. He did 
good service during the Mutiny of 1857, in consideration of 
which his tribute, previously fixed at 15,000 Bhilari rupees, 
was reduced by one-half. 

His Highness the Rao Ummed Singh was, on the ist 
September 1865, under the sanction of the Government of 
India, invested with full authority throughout his State. 
Being priest-ridden, easy-going, and intensely conservative, 
the Rao soon let his State drift into debt and difficulties. 
In other respects the late Rao was a kind and well-meaning 
ruler, free from vices and peculiarly happy in his domestic 
relations. The principal events of his time were : the great 
famine of 1868-69; the outlawry of Nathu Singh; and the 



SHORT HISTORY OF SIROHI 65 

frequent incursions of the Bhils and Minas from the Marwar 
border. 

The famine of 1868-69 killed 75 per cent, of the cattle. 
Numbers of people also perished, although relief works were 
kept up by the Darbar at Erinpura, Abu, and Anadra. Grain 
rose to 4h seers per rupee, and in 1869 the distress was 
increased by a visitation of locusts. 

The outlawry of Nathu Singh proved a great misfortune to 
the State. All the measures taken for his apprehension failed, 
and during his time freebooting Bhils and Minas made con- 
stant incursions into the Sirohi State, plundering in his name, 
and terrifying the peaceable inhabitants. At one time, the 
main road through Sirohi to Ahmedabad was so unsafe for 
travellers and merchandise, on account of these robbers and 
outlaws, that traffic on it practically ceased. Finally, Colonel 
Carnell was vested with special powers, and, with the aid of 
the Erinpura force, reduced the whole country to a condition 
of peace and order. Nathu Singh died at a village in Marwar 
near the Sirohi border towards the end of 1870. His son, 
Bharat Singh, with the remaining members of the band, con- 
tinued in outlawry till the middle of 1 8 7 1 , when they were 
called in and re-settled. 

The late Rao Ummed Singh died at Sirohi on the i6th 
of September 1875. He had only one Rani and two children ; 
one, a daughter, and the other a son, the present Maharao, 
Kesri Singh, who succeeded his father. 

The present chief of Sirohi, Maharao Kesri Singh, K.C.S.I., 
succeeded his father, Rao Ummed Singh, and was invested 
with full ruling powers on the 24th of November 1875. He 
had the title of Maharao conferred on him by the Queen- 
Empress in 1889, and was made a K. C.S.I, in 1895 for his 
good services to his State. 

His Highness Maharao Kesri Singh, K.C.S.I., has done 
much to improve the condition of the Sirohi State, Good 

E 



66 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

government lias been established out of comparative anarchy ; 
regular courts of justice have been formed. With Colonel 
Powlett's assistance, the Bhils and Minas were settled down 
some years ago. Boundaries have been demarcated, and much 
waste land has since been brought under cultivation. A jail 
has been built on modern hygienic principles; hospitals have 
been founded, and vaccination has progressed. 

Pkincipal Events of His Highness the Maharao 
Kesri Singh's Reign. 

3fay 1876. — His Highness the Rao was married to a 
daughter of the Rana of Danta. 

1877. — The assumption of the title of Empress of India 
by Her Majesty was proclaimed in full Darbar at Sirohi, 
before a large assembly, and the day was observed as a general 
holiday by all classes. — The Rao started on a pilgrimage, taking 
with him his late father's ashes (June). He visited Benares 
and other holy cities, and then went on to Calcutta, which 
made a good impression on the young chief. 

1877-78. — A grain as well as grass famine occurred. 

1 6th February 1887. — The Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign 
was celebrated in the capital of Sirohi, and contributions made 
to the Imperial Institute and Countess of Dufferin's Fund. 

1887-88. — Owing to the increase of revenue and general 
prosperity of the State, the Darbar was able to grant to the 
Abu mimicipality an annual sum of Rs.3000, thereby relieving 
the British Government of its grant in aid. — The bridge over 
the Bands river was commenced, and the road leading over it 
from the railway station towards Abu metalled. 

1888—89. — Two sons were born to His Highness the 
Maharao of Sirohi ; one of whom died, and the other is his 
heir-apparent. 

1889. — The Agent to the Governor-General held a Darbar 
at Sirohi for the purpose of presenting the chief with the sanad 
of the hereditary title of Maharao, conferred by the Queen- 
Empress (March). — The bridge over the Banas river, near Abu 



SHORT HISTORY OF SIROHI 67 

Road railway station, was completed at a cost of Rs. 100,995, 
subscribed by the principal cbiefs of Rajputana. 

1890. — On his way to Bombay, His Royal Highness 
Prince Albert Victor Avas the guest at Abu Road of His 
Highness the Maharao of Sirohi. — His Excellency the Viceroy, 
Lord Lansdowne, was the guest of His Highness the Maharao 
of Sirohi, and visited Mount Abu (November). 

1890-91. — Forest conservancy was started in the Sirohi 
State, in the immediate neighbourhood of Abu. 

March 1891. — The Agent to the Governor-General visited 
Sirohi, and laid the first stone of a new jail. 

March 1892. — An influential body of Minas assembled at 
Sheoganj, near Erinpura, to enter into an agreement to give 
up raiding and settle down to agriculture. Rules were also 
then made for the curtailment of marriage expenses, and the 
settlement of disputes among the tribes. 

1892-93. — The new jail was completed and occupied. — 
Another son born to His Highness the Maharao of Sirohi. 

1893-94. — The notorious dacoit, Kalia Rabari, was cap- 
tured. — A new dispensary opened by the Darbar at Sheoganj. 

1894-95. — A Forest ofiicer was appointed. — The registra- 
tion of vital statistics commenced. 

I st January I 8 9 5 . — His Highness the Maharao of Sirohi 
was created a K.C.S.I. 

1895—96. — The Sirohi-Me3^var border line was settled. 

1897, — The Diamond Jubilee of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty the Queen-Empress of India was celebrated (22nd 
June). — Sir Robert Crosthwaite visited Sirohi, and formally 
opened the new Crosthwaite Hospital (December), the founda- 
tion-stone of which had been laid by him in the previous 
December. — The revenue for this year was consderably in 
excess of that for 1896, viz., Rs. 421,587 against Rs.382,325. 
A new dispensary building was constructed at Sheoganj. — The 
staff of vaccinators increased, and the State divided into 
vaccination circles. 

His Highness Kesri Singh, K.C.S.I., the Maharao of Sirohi, 
is entitled to a salute of fifteen guns. 



68 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE RULING FAMILY. 

Takhat Singh. 

Jagat Singh. 

Bairi Sal. 



Udai Bhan. Sheo Singh. 

L 

I i , 

Umed Singh. Three others. 

Kesri Singh 
(the present IMaharao). 



SHORT HISTORY OF JAISALMIR 

The ruling family of Jaisalmir are Yadu Bhati Rajputs, 
descended from Yadu or Jadu, whose progenitor was Bud ha, 
the founder of the Chandarwansh or Lunar race, and whose 
power was paramount in India at a very remote period of 
the world's history. 

According to the chronicles of Hindustan, Prayaj and 
Mathura (Allahabad and Muttra) were the ancient capitals of 
the Chandarwanshi kings at the time they ruled the greater 
part of India. Shri Krishna, the deified leader of the Yadus, 
was the forty-sixth in descent from Yadu, and ruled at the 
famous city of Dwarka. On his death the tribe became 
broken up. Two of his sons proceeded beyond the Indus 
and settled there. Some time after this, one of their de- 
scendants, Gaj, twelfth in descent from Shri Krishna, founded 
the town of Gajni (Ghazni) in Afghanistan, and called it after 
himself. Gaj was defeated and killed in a battle with the 
kinsf of Khorasan. The tribe was then driven southward 
into the Punjab, where Saliwahan, eighty-eighth in descent 
from Shri Krishna and son of Gaj sen, built Saliwahanpur 
close to Lahore, and conquered the whole country around. 
The grandson of Saliwahan, named Bhati, ninetieth in descent 
from Shri Krishna, was a great warrior, and conquered many 
of the neighbouring princes. From him the patronymic was 
changed and the tribe was thenceforth called by his name. 
Shortly after this Mahmud of Ghazni made one of his great 
expeditions into India against the Bhatis, and again they were 
driven southward. Crossing the Satlaj, they found refuge in 



70 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

the great Indian desert adjacent to Jaisalmir, wliicli for 900 
years has been then- home. 

The early history of the Jadu Bhati race shows that they 
are undoubtedly a very ancient family. 

The Bhatis, subsequent to their entry into the desert tract, 
were engaged in constant struggles with the neighbouring 
tribes, whom they gradually overcame. The capitals of their 
desert kingdom were successively Tanot, Deorawal, Lodorva, 
and Jaisalmir. The fortress of Tanot was built by Rao 
Keharji, who named it after his son Tanuji, and fixed the 
capital there. 

TAvelve years after the birth of Deoraj, which occurred in 
the year a.d. 836, his father and 1300 of his kinsmen 
were treacherously massacred by the Barahas, a neighbour- 
ing tribe, during a marriage festival. Deoraj escaped. He 
founded Deorawal in a.d. 853, and afterwards headed an army 
of his clansmen which captured Lodorva, the principal town 
of the Lodra Rajputs, which he made his capital. Deoraj 
took the title of Rawal, and established the Bhatis in the 
desert; so he is counted the real founder of the Jaisalmir 
family. He is said to have died at the very advanced age of 
a hundred and thirty-eight. 

The Bhatis gradually extended then* possessions south- 
wards, and many of them became freebooters, a character 
they have sustained up to the present. In i i 5 6, Jaisaldeo, 
the sixth in descent from Deoraj, founded the fort and city 
of Jaisalmir, at a distance of eight miles from Lodorva, as the 
site was more easily fortified. The princes who followed 
Jaisaldeo were warlike, and constantly engaged in battles and 
raids. So the Emperor Alaudin on two occasions, in 1 2 94 
and shortly afterwards, despatched against them an imperial 
army, which captm-ed and sacked the fort and city of Jaisal- 
mir, and for some time it remained completely deserted. In 
the sixteenth century the Bhatis formed an alliance with the 



SHORT HISTORY OF JAISALMIR 71 

Amirs of Sindh against the Rathores of Marwar, and gave the 
latter much trouble. 

The tAventy-fifth prince in descent from Jaisaldeo was 
Rawal Sabal Singh, who was the first Jaisalmir prince to 
acknowledge the supremacy of the Delhi Emperor, Shah 
Jehan. During his reign the territories of Jaisalmir extended 
to the banks of the Satlaj in the north, to the borders of the 
Indus in the west, to the outskirts of Marwar in the south, and 
to the boundaries of Marwar and Bikanir in the east. The 
Thakar of Pohkaran, now the chief noble of Marwar, was then 
under the Jaisalmir raj. 

Sabal Singh was succeeded by his son Amar Singh in 
1 66 1, a wise and a valiant prince, who defeated an army sent 
against him by Anup Singh of Bikanir. 

After the death of Amar Singh, Jaswant Singh was placed 
on the gaddi in 1703. He was neither wise nor valiant, and 
during his reign the Rathores wrested many districts from 
Jaisalmir. 

After the death of Jaswant Singh, his brothers and son, 
Akhai Singh, contested the gaddi, which was won by Akhai 
Singh in 1722. He was, however, a weak ruler, and so lost a 
great portion of his dominions before his death. 

Akhai Singh died in 1762, and was succeeded by Mul- 
raj , who ruled till 1820. During his lifetime the State was 
left in the hands of Salem Singh, his Dewan, who devastated 
the country by his cruelty and barbarity. He drove out the 
Palliwal Brahmins, who were famous cultivators, and whose 
well-built villages still stand deserted, to mark an era of pros- 
perity in the Jaisalmir State which can hardly ever be again 
attained. In 18 18, Jaisalmir acknowledged the supremacy of 
British power, and on the 12 th December of that year con- 
cluded a treaty therewith, by which the gaddi was secured to 
the heirs of Mulraj. Jaisalmir was the last State in Rajputana 
to receive the protection of the British Government. 



72 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Rawal Mulraj died in 1820, and was succeeded by liis 
grandson Gaj Singh, who, Hke his predecessor, was a mere tool 
in the hands of his minister, Salem Singh, till the latter died 
in 1824 of poison, administered by his own wife. 

During the Sindh war of 1838-39, Rawal Gaj Singh 
supplied camels to the British for transport, and was rewarded 
by the restoration to him of Shahgarh, Garsia, and Gatuda, 
which had been wrested from Jaisalmir by Amir Ali Murad of 
Sindh. 

Rawal Gaj Singh died in 1846, and was succeeded by an 
adopted chief, Ranjit Singh, the son of Thakar Kesri Singh, a 
member of the reigning house. In 1862 a sanad was granted 
by the Supreme Government, which authorised the chiefs of 
Jaisalmir to adopt in the absence of male offspring. 

Ranjit Singh died in 1864, and was succeeded by his 
younger brother, Maharawal Bairi Sal, who died in 1891 
without issue. The present chief of Jaisalmir, Maharawal 
Saliwahan, is only thirteen years of age. He was adopted 
by the Maharani from the house of the Lathi Thakar, a 
near relation of the late Maharawal. He is a promising boy, 
and is now resident in the Mayo College, where he has the 
advantages of high education and thorough training, which 
were not possible for any of his predecessors. 

Chief Events of His Highness Maharawal Bairi 
Sal's Reign. 

1864. — Maharawal Bairi Sal succeeded his brother, Maha- 
rawal Ranjit Singh, in his sixteenth year, having been adopted 
by the Dowager-Queen. 

1868-69. — The great famine of 1868-69 affected Jai- 
salmir, but in a less degree than more densely-populated coun- 
tries. Many of the men were engaged with their camels in 
importing grain from Sindh to Marwar, and in this way tided 
over a bad time. 



SHORT, HISTORY OF JAISALMIR 73 

December 1873.— His Highness the Maharawal was married 
to a daughter of the Rawal of Doongarpore. 

1887. — A Darbar was held by the Maharawal in honour 
of the assumption by Her Majesty the Queen of the title of 
Empress of India. Everything was done by His Highness to 
show his appreciation of the occasion, and the day was ob- 
served as a holiday in the distant capital of the Bhatis. 

1877-78. — Like Marwar, Jaisalmir suffered from deficient 
rainfall and famine. 

1889-90. — During the cold weather of this year 141 miles 
of the Marwar-Jaisalmir border were demarcated. 

1890. — Dewan Jag Jewan Rai Bahadur, who has done 
much to improve the Jaisalmir State, was brought from Kutch 
Bhuj, and appointed Dewan by the late Maharawal, which office 
he still holds. 

loth March 1 891. — His Highness the Maharawal Bairi Sal 
died, and Maharawal Saliwahan, a boy of five, son of Thakar 
Khushal Singh of Lathi, was adopted, and recognised by 
Government as his successor. 

1892. — A dispensary was established. 

1894. — The young Maharawal and his brother Dan Singh 
joined the Mayo College, Ajmere. 

The Maharawal of Jaisalmir enj oys full civil and criminal 
powers, and is entitled to a salute of fifteen guns. 

The family deity of the rulers of Jaisalmir is Swanjiji. 
Swanj was an invincible spear, belonging to Jura Sandh, king 
of Maghaddesh or Behar. Kalka Devi obtained the spear 
from him, and wielded it to help the Jadus or Jadons, who 
thenceforth worshipped her under the above-mentioned title. 

Genealogical Tree of the Bhati Ruling Family. 

Deoraj, Mudhji, Wachuji, Dusaji, Bijaya Raj, Bhojdeo, 
Jaisaldeo (a.d. i i 56), Saliwahan (11 68), Bijalji (i 190), Kelanji 
(1191), Chachakdeoji (1208), Karanji (1243), Lakhansenji 
(1271), Punpalji (1275), Jetsiji (1276), Mool Raj (1293), 
Dudaji (1300), Garhsiji (13 17), Keharji (1335), Lakhmanji 



74 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



(1395), Bersiji (1440), Chachakji (1450), Devi Das (1457), 
Jet Singh (1479), Lunkaran (1530), Maldeoji (15 51), Hairajji 
(1562), Blaimji (1578), Kalyan Dass (1624), Manohar Dass 
(1634), Ram Chandra (1648), Sabal Singh (165 1), Amar 
Singh (1661), Jaswant Singh (1703), Budh Singh (1708), 
Akhai Singh (1723), and Mool Raj (1762), Gaj Singh (1820), 
Ranjit Singh (1846), Bairi Sal (1864), Sahwahan (1891) (the 
present Maharawal). 

The Marwar Agency was first estabhshed by Government 
in 1840. The Sirohi Agency was first estabhshed in 1823, 
and Jaisalmir was placed in charge of the Political Agent, 
Jodhpore, in 1869. In February 1880, the combined political 
charge of Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir was denominated the 
Political Agency, Western States, Rajputana, and afterwards 
Political Residency, Western Rajputana States. 



List of Residents, Western Rajputana States 



No. 

I 


Name. 


From 


To 


Remarks. 


Major P. W. Powlett 


3rd Jan. 1880 


24th Aug. 18S0 




2 


Major A. R. T. M'Rae 


25th Aug. 1880 


I St Nov. 1880 


Temporary 


3 


Lieut. -Col. W. Tweedie 


2nd Nov. 1880 


14th Dec. 1881 


Officiating 


4 


Lieut. -Col. P. W. Powlett 


15th Dec. 1 88 1 


24th Sept. 1884 




5 


Lieut. -Col. C. A. Baylay 


25th Sept. 1884 


24th Dec. 1884 


Officiating 


6 


Lieut. -Col. P. W. Powlett 


25th Dec. 1884 


4th April 1886 




7 


Lieut.-Col. H. P. Peacock 


5th April 1 886 


loth Dec. 1886 


Officiating 


8 


Colonel P. W. Powlett 


nth Dec. 1886 


19th Aug. 1889 




9 


Major W. Loch 


20th Aug. 1889 


19th Nov. 1889 


Temporary 


10 


Col. P. W. Powlett, C.S.I. 


20th Nov. 1889 


9th April 1S92 




II 


Lieut.-Col. H. B. Abbott 


loth April 1892 


3rd May 1893 




12 


Lt.-Col. W. H. C. Wyllie, CLE. 


4th May 1893 


2nd Nov. 1893 


Officiating 


13 


Lieut.-Col. H. B. Abbott 


3rd Nov. 1S93 


2 1st Mar. 1895 




14 


Lieut.-Col. J. H. Newill 


22nd Mar. 1895 


26th June 1895 


Officiating 


15 


A. H. T. Martindale, Esq., C.S. 


27th June 1895 


27th Oct. 1895 


Officiating 


16 


Lieut.-Col. H. B. Abbott 


2Sth Oct. 1895 


17th Dec. 1S95 




17 


Lieut.-Col. A. Adams, I.M.S. 


iSth Dec. 1895 


17th Jan. 1896 


Temporary 


18 


Col. H. B. Abbott 


1 8th Jan. 1896 


13th April i8cj7 




19 


A. H. T. Martindale, Esq., C.S. 


14th April 1897 


1 6th Mar. 1898 




20 


Major T. C. Pears 


17th Mar. 1898 


24th April i8q8 


Temporary 


21 


Lt.-Col. C. E. Yate, C.S.L.C.M.G. 


25th April 1898 


nth Dec. 1898 


Officiating 


22 


Lt.-Col. W. H. C. Wyllie, CLE. 


1 2th Dec. 1898 


nth April 1S99 




23 


Lt.-Col. C E. Yate, CS.L, CM.G. 


1 2th April 1899 


Present time 


Officiating 




^ 

t? 



o 



o 



CAPITALS OF STATES 

JODHPORE. 

JoDHPOEE, the capital city of Marwar or Jodhpore State, 
lies in latitude 26° 17' N. and longitude 73° 4' E. It has 
an area of about two square miles within its walls, and is 
distant west from Calcutta 1 1 2 8 miles ; south-west from Delhi 
358 miles. It was founded in a.d. 1459 by Rao Jodha, and 
since that date it has been the seat of the Government of 
Marwar. It is situated on the south-eastern slope of a small 
broken range of hills about twenty miles in length, running 
north-east and south-west, chiefly of red sandstone. The peak 
or rock on which the fort is built is sandstone, with an acid 
lava formation underneath, which projects to the surface in a 
few places ; on the northern side it has cones of porphyry and 
volcanic masses of various descriptions, placed in juxtaposition 
to the sandstone, and it rises to the height of about four 
hundred feet. The layers of sandstone rock are usually 
parallel with the horizon, and they generally rise abruptly out 
of the sand below, but they are sometimes visibly supported by 
trap or metamorphic rock. In some places porphyritic trap 
is ranged in stairs, and has apparently been thrown up at a 
later date than the sandstone, without having materially 
damaged the stratification of the latter, 

The city lies close below the fort, and surrounds it on all 
sides, except the north. It rests on an irregular sloping 
ground, continuous above with the base of the rock on which 
the fort stands, the higher part of the site being solid stone, 
the lower deep sand. The north side of the base of the fort 



76 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

rock being wholly occupied by a rugged neck too much broken 
to afford good building ground, is therefore without any popu- 
lation or houses, excepting six or seven temples and a few 
'Chhattris. There are four bunds or dams on that side, the chief 
of which are Dev Kund and Bhawani Kund. The surrounding 
wall of the city is massive and strong, generally composed of 
large blocks of cut stone cemented together with lime. It is 
24,600 feet long, 3 to 9 feet thick, and 15 to 30 feet high, 
strengthened in many places by towers, buttresses, and ram- 
parts for artillery, supporting a complete line of battlements, 
and having loopholes, barbicans, and bartisans for defensive 
operations. This wall is much higher, thicker, and stronger 
nearer the city gates on the low ground than on the high 
rocky ridges, which are in some places scarped and steep, and 
naturally well suited for defence. There are about a hundred 
towers and seven gates in this wall. Each gate bears the name 
of the place to which it leads, viz., Mertia, Sojatia, Jalori, 
Siwanchi, Chandpole, and Nagori. The seventh gate has been 
built up for many years, having never been much used, as it has 
always been considered a weakness in the defences of the city. 

The first or the main gate, situated in the east of the city, 
is Mertia. It is built of huge blocks of cut stone, cemented 
together, flanked by massive towers, and surmounted by defen- 
sive battlements. It has chambers for guards, and a protecting 
wall running from one side across the front to protect it from 
artillery and rushes on it from without. Its height is about 
3 5 feet. It has a dome on the top, and a door of considerable 
strength, iron-clad, studded with strong pointed spikes of iron, 
to protect it against elephant-ramming in time of war. The 
city is extending outside this gate, and there is now a con- 
siderable suburb in this direction with shops and temples, and 
the Jubilee offices are not far distant. 

The Sojatia, which is hardly a less important gate, is very 
similar to the Mertia in construction, but it is a little stronger 



CAPITALS OF STATES 7T 

and higher, and has three dome-like chambers on its top 
instead of one. It is situated in the south side of the city, 
and the suburb beyond it is now increasing with great rapidity, 
so that it Avill shortly be well within city limits. The road 
leading from this gate passes the Jaswant College, Darbar High 
School, jail, ice and soda-water factories. 

The Jalori gate, situated in the south wall, is similar in 
shape, but less massive than those already described. It is in 
the direction of the railway station, and has a rapidly growing 
suburb without, principally private houses of important officials. 
There are several free Sarais in this direction, and also the 
Diik bungalow. 

The Siwanchi gate, looking south-west from the city, is 
smaller, though somewhat similar to those already mentioned, 
and it has no important suburb or road leading from it. The 
chief Hindu cremation ground — " Bhandelao " — is outside thi& 
gate, and there are some artistic monuments adjacent to it. 

The Chandpole gate (Chanel = moon, and Pole = gate), 
which is so named on account of the new moon being visible 
in that direction, looks south-west from the city. It is similar 
in shape although smaller in size than the other main gates.. 
It is situated on the high ground under the fort, and has now 
an extensive suburb beyond it, with shops, temples, a public 
bath, and private houses. The principal temples are Ramesh- 
war, Mahadeo-ka-Mandar, built by the first Maharaja, Jaswant 
Singh, and dedicated to Rameshwar Mahadeo or Shiva; Panchwa 
Maji-ka-Mandar ; and lastly two old temples of Barwasan and 
Jiwan Mata, chiefly attended by Kayasths. Near this gate is 
an excellent square well — Suraj Kund — which contains sweet 
water throughout the year. It is surrounded by subterranean 
rooms, known as " Hamams," built by Maharaja Sur Singh as 
cool retreats for the hot months. 

In the northern side of the city wall, at its eastern angle, 
is located the Nagori gate, which resembles the other main. 



78 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

gates in all its details. There are several temples and gardens 
outside, and Mahamandar, the town of the Naths, is adjacent. 

Close to this gate is the seventh entrance to the city, which 
was closed by Maharaja Abhai Singh in order to strengthen 
the city against attack. There is a large cremation ground, 
called Kaga, for Rao Rajas and Sardars, the chhattris of which 
now form a Leper Asylum ; there are also Shitla Mata's temple, 
a garden noted for its pomegranates, a sacred kund, and a well 
of good water. The thickest part of the city wall, close to this 
gate, is said to have been built by Maharaja Abhai Singh, and 
the rest of the wall completed by his younger brother, Maha- 
raja Bakhat Singh, within six or seven months. A strong 
tower near this gate, and the walls and towers at the Nagori 
gate, show the marks of cannon-balls left by the besieging 
armies of Jeypore and Bikanir, who, with Amir Khan and 
some of the forces of other Rajas, marched on Jodhpore to 
support Dhonkal Singh, posthumous son of Maharaja Bhim 
Singh, against Maharaja Man Singh, then on the gaddi. During 
this siege the Bikanir force gained access to, and mounted a 
gun on, the Singhoria-Jd-BhaJcri (a small hill within the city 
wall, on the north side, opposite the fort), which was then 
within their range, and the marks of their shot are still visible 
on the base of the rock and the door of the small gate of 
the fort known as " Khandi " or " Lakhna " Pole. However, a 
skilled Marwara gunner levelled his gun on to that of the 
enemy and smashed it to pieces, at the same time killing the 
gunner engaged in loading. This fortunate circumstance was 
soon followed by further success on the part of the defending 
army. Amir Khan changed over to their side, and the com- 
bined forces of Jeypore and Bikanir were soon driven off 
with considerable loss and great ignominy. 

It is evident, from the configuration of the streets and 
open spaces, that little attention has been given to laying out 
the city, and that it has been built up bit by bit without any 



CAPITALS OF STATES 79 

regard to proper thoroughfares. The streets are therefore 
narrow and irreguhir, and, in many quarters, blocked at one 
end; wheel traffic is consequently difficult in most of them, 
and impossible in some. 

The main street, locally known as " Ooba Bazaar," runs 
almost due east and west through the city from the Mertia 
gate. The most important shops are found here, viz., those 
of perfumers, grocers, Pansaris, cloth-sellers, Halwais, Patwas, 
shroffs, Kaseras, betel and fresh fruit sellers, hardware goods, 
shoe-shops, &c. ; there are also town residences of many im- 
portant officials and others ; several important temples, viz., 
Kunjbihariji, Bageliji, and Tija Maji-ka-Mandars, and a very 
old Darga of Khjis-ka-Pir. 

" Ada Bazaar," another important street, runs from the 
Jalori gate across " Ooba Bazaar " to Ranisar and Padamsar 
tanks, on the west side of the fort. There are numerous shops, 
temples, an unfinished mosque, and many fine private houses 
along this route. The post-office, Jaswant hospital for women, 
the girls' school, first branch dispensary, mint, and DhAnmandi 
can be entered from this street. 

Near Chawriji-ka-Mandar, a temple built by Maji Chawriji, 
another fairly wide street crosses the main bazaar, and leads 
from the Sojatia gate to the fort. Several fine private houses 
with well-carved fronts may be seen along this route. 

The above-described principal streets have numerous small 
streets and lanes opening into them, many of which are very 
narrow and dark, and all are unpaved, except at places where 
they pass over high rocky grounds. These lanes in turn branch 
into others still smaller, thus forming a sort of network 
throughout the whole city. As most of the thoroughfares 
are deeply embedded in sand, wheel traffic is not much in use 
within city limits. Consequently the people ride horses and 
camels, and bullock-draught is in general use for both carriage 
people and goods. 



80 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The population of the city, as enumerated in 1891, was 
61,849, of which 3^y7^^ were males and 30,143 females; and 
that of the suburbs 18,646. The population is increasing 
rapidly, especially in the suburbs, as already referred to. 
Within the city wall the Hindus numbered 42,990, Mahome- 
dans 13,676, Jains 5040, and all others 143. The Oswals 
are the wealthiest citizens, but some other Mahajans, also 
Brahmins and Kayasths, are well to do. There are several 
villages and hamlets around the city, which are chiefly occupied 
by Malis and low-caste people. 

Mahamandar is a small town of the Nathji Maharaj, the 
descendant of the spiritual guide of Maharaja Man Singh ; it 
contained 577 houses and 2547 souls in 1891 ; it is the 
largest suburb of Jodhpore, and is situated less than half a 
mile outside the Nagori gate in the north-east direction. It 
is fortified, being enclosed by a thin stone wall, a mile and a 
quarter in circumference, supported by bastions, and set out 
with battlements and loopholes for defence. The area is an 
irregular quadrangle, having a gateway in each of its four 
sides. There is a well within, that has never been known to 
become exhausted, and the water of which is celebrated for its 
sweetness. The Mahamandar, or " the great temple," contains 
two beautifully carved palaces, one where the Nathji resides, 
and the other reserved for the spirit of his great ancestor, with 
a magnificent bed laid out in the principal state chamber, 
which is said to be regularly used by the celestial. 

The city of Jodhpore is on the Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway, 
which is connected with the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at 
Marwar junction and Kuchawan road. The railway station of 
Jodhpore is within a few hundred yards of the city wall, and 
it is very conveniently placed for trajffic through the Jalori and 
Sojatia gates. 

The Jodhpore fort attracts the eye from afar, standing out 
in great magnificence on an isolated rock, about 400 feet above 



CAPITALS OF STATES 81 

the sandy plains on the east and south. From the top of the 
palace a good view of the broken range of hills on the west 
and north, from which the fort rock is detached, can be 
obtained. The city lies around the base of the rock on three 
sides, in the form of a horse-shoe, and adds to the picturesque 
view which may be had from the palace within the fort. The 
peak on which the fort is built is scarped on all sides, except 
at the north-east corner, where it is approached by a metalled 
road. The surrounding wall, which is from 20 to 120 feet 
high, and from 12 to 70 feet thick, encloses an oblong space 
about 500 yards in length by 250 in breadth at its widest 
pa,rt. This enclosure is almost completely covered by build- 
ings, viz., palaces, barracks, and magazines. It has two main 
entrances, one at the north-east corner leading in from the 
road, the other at the south-west extremity leading up from 
the city, and between these are other gates and inner walls for 
purposes of defence. The top of the outer walls on the east 
and south-east sides has been formed into a wide rampart for 
working artillery, and on the other sides the walls are sur- 
mounted by a complete chain of battlements, with towers here 
and there to support heavy guns. The palace displays much 
stone-carving in its arches, windows, balustrades, and balconies, 
many of which are both elegant and beautiful in design and 
finish. The masonry is very solid and substantial throughout, 
the walls of both the fort and palace being of heavy cut stone, 
well cemented, and sometimes pinned together with iron spikes. 
To give additional strength to the outer walls, they are in 
many places strongly buttressed, and the masonry spiked to 
the rock on which it rests. The fort was built by Rao Jodha, 
the founder of Jodhpore city, in a.d. 1459, and a man — Rajia 
Bhambi — was interred alive in its foundations, to invoke good 
fortune on its defenders and to ensure its impregnability. 
Rajia's family had some land — Raj bagh — bestowed on them, 
and they were for ever exempted Irom pressed labour by the 

F 



82 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

chief, in consideration of tlie sacrifice of their ancestor. Rao 
Maldeo added much to the fort, and Maharaja Abhai Singh 
still further strengthened it ; indeed, most of the chiefs since 
Jodha have done something to enlarge or renew some part 
of it. The drainage and sanitation have during recent years 
been much improved ; a force-pump has also been put up by 
Mr. Home, which raises water from the Ranisar to the top of 
the palace, and saves the attendants infinite toil in carrying 
the required supply from below. 

There are eight gates, but only two of them communicate 
directly with the outside, viz., Fateh Pole, the entrance from 
the city, and Jey Pole, the entrance from the main road. 

Fateh Pole, or Gate of Victory. — This gate was built by 
Maharaja Ajit Singh, in commemoration of his victory over 
the Moguls in 1707, when, on the death of Aurangzeb, the 
Rathores expelled many of the Mahomedans from Jodhpore, 
and killed many more. At this time, Mulkihs and other 
Mahomedans holding office, having assumed the garb of 
" Sadhus," left the country in disguise, and Hindus who had 
been forcibly converted to Mahomedanism returned to their 
original faith. The gate is approached by a road leading up 
from one of the main streets of the city, which runs to the 
Jalore gate in the south wall. 

Amriti Pole. — This gate was built by Rao Maldeo to in- 
crease the space within the fort. 

Jodhaji-ka-Phalsa. — This gate was the extreme limit of Rao 
Jodha's fort. Sardars have to alight here from their horses 
or chairs before entering the fort proper, the Maharaja 
alone remaining mounted in a procession passing through 
this gate. 

Loha Pole. — The front portion of this gate was built by 
Rao Maldeo, but the gate was not completed till the time of 
Maharaja Bijai Singh. Munitions of war are kept within this 
gate, and on its pillars are to be seen the handmarks of many 



CAPITALS OF STATES 83 

" Satis." " Satis " ceased after the time of Maharaja Man Singh, 
on whose funeral pyre six of his widow ladies became sati, and 
were cremated with him. This gate has recently been much 
strengthened and enlarged. 

Suraj Pole, now called " Mardani Dori," was built by Maha- 
raja Sur Singh. 

Jey Pole. — This gate was built by Maharaja Man Singh in 
commemoration of his victory over the Jeypore army, whose 
attack on the fort in a.d. 1809 was repulsed with great loss. 
The door of this gate was brought from Ahmedabad, during 
his reign, by the Thakar of Nimaj, from whom Maharaja 
Man Sinofh obtained it. 

Lakhna or Khandi Pole is a small gate lying close to the 
Amriti Pole ; it was built by Rao Maldeo, and bears marks of 
the siege of 1 809. 

Gopal Pole. — It was built by Kiladar Oor Gopal Dass, 
Thakar of Karno, in the reign of Rao Maldeo. 

The fort contains the following palaces, viz. — 

Moti Mahal, the most important palace, built by Maharaja 
Sur Singh, but completed by Maharaja Takhat Singh ; it is 
handsomely decorated with fresco portraits of the ruling 
family, Hindu plays, and pictures of Hindu deities ; its ceiling 
and pillars are beautifully gilded. 

Idiahg ah -ka- Mahal has been set apart as the sleeping 
apartment of the chief; it was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh, 
and some additions and alterations made to it by Maharaja 
Takhat Singh. 

Phool Mahal was built by Maharaja Abhai Singh, but 
alterations have since been made ; it has many artistic decora- 
tions on its walls and ceiling, among which are Dassera and 
hunting scenes. 

Fateh Mahal was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh to signa- 
lise the retreat of the Mogul army from Jodhpore ; the State 
jewellery is now kept in this apartment. 



84 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Taklmt Bilas was built by Maliaraja Takhat Singh, as its 
name implies. 

Daulat Khana, the abode of wealth, was built by Maha- 
raja Ajit Singh; its ceiling is supported by a number of short 
massive columns, arranged in parallel rows about 1 2 feet apart. 

Chowkelao Mahal was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh, and 
additions have since been made. 

Silch Khana. — The armoury, in which many old arms are 
kept, some of which have been taken in battle, and others from 
time to time presented by the Paramount Power to the chiefs 
of Jodhpore. A new Sileh Khana is now under construction. 

Kanivar-iJade-ka- Mahal was built by Maharaja Takhat 
Singh for his eldest son, the late Maharaja Jaswant Singh. 

Ajit Bilas was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh as a place 
of residence, but it was afterwards turned into the temple of 
Murli Manoharji by Maharaja Bijai Singh. 

In the Sahha Mandap Choh, near the entrance to the 
" Flower Palace," the marble chair called " Singar Choki " is 
located on a marble platform. This " Choki " is used for the 
Raj " tilah " ceremony on the accession of a new chief. The 
ceremony corresponds to the coronation. During this cere- 
mony the new ruler is seated on this marble chair, which is 
elevated on a marble platform, while the Bagri Thakar puts 
a " tika " or mark of blood or ochre on his forehead, and 
binds on the sword of office. The new chief then receives 
the congratulations of his friends and the " nazars " of his 
subjects. The office of applying the ''tika" and investing 
the chiefs of Marwar with the sword of office is hereditary, 
and the ceremony can only be performed by the House of 
Bagri. This hereditary office dates from the time of Rao 
Suja of Marwar, and was brought about as follows : — On the 
occasion of the death of Rao Suja there was a dispute among 
the Sardars as to which of his grandsons should succeed, and 
one party found it necessary to hasten the installation ; but 



CAPITALS OF STATES 85 

no "roli" was available to make the required red mark on 
the forehead. However, the Bagri Thakar, with great presence 
of mind, cut his thumb and applied it bleeding to the fore- 
head of the younger prince and then handed him his sword, 
thereby establishing his candidate in power, to the discomfiture 
of the elder brother and his party. It is believed that the 
Bagri Thakar took the side of the younger prince on this 
occasion, and hastened the " Bajtilak " ceremony as an act of 
revenge on the mother of the elder prince. On a previous 
occasion this Thakar with his followers, much fatigued and 
hungry, arrived at the palace at night to inquire after Rao 
Suja's health. He asked for food, when the lady above 
referred to replied haughtily that she was not an innkeeper 
to supply food at that hour ; whereas the mother of the 
younger prince treated the weary travellers hospitably, and 
afterwards received an ample reward in the succession of her 
son. The Bagri Thakar holds a large jagir, which he formally 
gives up on the death of one chief, to be returned to him 
on the accession of a successor as a reward for the efficient 
discharge of this ceremony. 

The largest and most powerful guns in the fort are 
KilJccda and Shimbhubdn, brought from Ahmedabad in 1 7 3 1 
by Maharaja Abhai Singh when he was sent there by the 
Mogul Emperor to suppress the rebellion of Sherbaland, Subadar 
of Gujerat. 

The fort is supplied with water from Rani Sdgar, a tank 
constructed by Rani Hadiji of Rao Jodha for the use of the 
city, but Rao Maldeo had it enclosed within the fort. The 
water is lifted to the top of the fort from this tank by a 
steam force-pump erected a few years ago, and distributed 
over the buildings by pipes. There are two wells within the 
fort, one called Patalia, near " Jharna," the depth of which is 
said to be about 450 feet, and another m Chowkelao, which 
is believed to be even deeper. 



86 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

There is a small fortress called Fatehgarhi situated about 
five hundred paces west of Siwanchi gate, and another named 
Takhatgarh on Machia Bhakar, built by Maharaja Takhat 
Singh. There are many forts throughout the State, the 
principal ones being at Jalore, Nagore, Phalodi, Sojat, and 
Merta. 

SmOHI. 

The capital, Sirohi, situated at the western base of the 
range of hills north of Abu, is twenty-three miles distant from 
Erinpura, 171 from Ajmere, and contains about 8000 inhabi- 
tants. It is naturally well drained and healthy, although hot 
at certain seasons on account of its being under the hill and 
having the breezes shut out thereby ; it has a good and 
abundant water supply from both wells and tanks. There 
is no great trade in Sirohi ; the manufacture of sword-blades 
and knives is the speciality of the place. There are fifteen 
Jain and four Hindu temples in the town, none of which call 
for special comment. They are not much resorted to by 
pilgrims, so they are only of interest from their age and good 
state of preservation, as they are said to be between five and 
seven hundred years old. A new temple is now under con- 
struction by Her Highness the Maharani. The palace of His 
Highness the Maharao is substantially built, and has been 
greatly enlarged during recent years ; it is picturesquely situ- 
ated on the hillside overlooking the town, to which it adds 
considerable grandeur. About two miles from Sirohi towards 
Erinpura is the shrine of Sarneshwar, the tutelary deity of the 
chiefs of the State, located on the slope of the same range of 
hills as the capital. The temple is built at the site of a 
Tiund or fountain, said to be efficacious in cutaneous diseases, 
but resorted to for cure principally by local people, as it has 
now no wide reputation for healing. There is no architecture 
worthy of note in the temple, which probably dates from the 




■^ 



CAPITALS OF STATES 87 

foundation of Sirohi, some five liundred years ago. The temple 
is dedicated to Shiva and contains the usual phallic emblem. 
The entrance is guarded by two stone elephants, and outside 
there is a large trident about 1 2 feet high, said to be com- 
posed of seven metals. The place is surrounded by a fortified 
wall, built by one of the Mussalman kings of Mandu, Avho is 
said to have been cured of a leprous disease called " horh " 
by bathing in the fountain. On the plain below the temple 
are the cenotaphs of the former chiefs of Sirohi, none of which 
display anything extraordinary in architectural beauty. 



JAISALMIR. 

The capital city of Jaisalmir, founded by Rao Jai Sal 
in A.D. 1 1 56, lies between lat. 26° 56', long. 70° 58', and 
contains about 3400 houses, with a population of about 13,000 
souls. It has a substantially-built stone wall around it, about 
three miles long, 10 to 15 feet high, and 5 to 7 feet thick, 
supported by bastions and corner towers, and includes the 
fort, which occupies a hill on the south-west side. There are 
two main entrances to the city of Jaisalmir, viz., the Amarsagar 
gate, leading from the west, and the Garrisar gate, leading from 
the east. These gates are strongly built of blocks of cut stone, 
cemented together with lime and arched overhead ; they have 
recesses for a guard on either side, and a metalled and paved 
road passes through them from one end of the city to the 
other, which is the main street of the city. This street is 
fairly wide at most parts, and near the custom-house it opens 
out into an irregular space which is the principal market of 
Jaisalmir. At this spot there is some little appearance of 
traflic, as well as in one or two contiguous streets, but there 
is little of the bustle of a large city in any part of it, except 
perhaps about the time of lamp-lighting, or again at those 
times when the women of the city stream out by hundreds 



88 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

to fill their pitchers, morning and evening, with the water 
of a large tank called Garrisar. The main street passes the 
entrance to the fort, and many of the secondary streets open 
into it in an irregular way. The other streets of the city are 
mostly narrow and dusty passages between rows of houses, 
and they are narrowest where some of the finest houses stand, 
the well-to-do having been able to encroach on them when 
they rebuilt and improved their houses. Two gates of less 
importance than those mentioned, viz., Kishenghat-ka-Pole 
and Malka Pole, look towards the east and north, and are 
away from the main thoroughfare. 

The houses are all substantially built of stone and mortar, 
and flat-roofed. Most of them have beautifully carved fronts, 
to which the yellow marble of the hills in and around Jaisalmir 
lends itself, as it is easily chiselled when first quarried, and be- 
comes harder on exposure. Some of the houses of the Seths 
have such beautifully carved fronts, that it is at first sight diffi- 
cult to realise that the work is in stone. Nearly every house 
of any importance in the city has a carved balcony, balustrade, 
or latticed window, and ornamented porches and columns sup- 
porting ornamented projections of stone are very common. 
The house of the notorious Dewan Salem Singh, who devas- 
tated the country nearly a hundred years ago with his extor- 
tion and cruelty, is magnificently carved, and towers above the 
rest of the city ; it is a very grand edifice of six storeys of cut 
stone, with cupolas and much ornamentation, especially on the 
top storey. Nath Mai, the late Dewan, during his time of 
office, built himself a fine house, on the front of which much 
beautiful carving is displayed. The late Maharawal, Bairi Sal, 
built a new palace and erected a carved edifice on it in the form 
of a watch-tower, which displays some of the finest workman- 
ship of Jaisalmir in stone. A new house for the present 
Maharawal is approaching completion ; it is built of the yellow 
marble of the place, having its windows and chhaUris hand- 



CAPITALS OF STATES 89 

somely carved and of beautiful design ; when completed, it will 
add to the architectural beauty of the place. Around the city 
are many fine houses and chhaUris of the same yellow stone, 
minutely worked into a great variety of designs. 

The streets and roads in and around the city have recently 
been greatly improved, and the water supply has been much 
increased by enlarging and deepening the tanks, which should 
now, when properly filled, contain a two years' supply. In the 
fort there are some good wells, which are said never to fail, 
although their water deteriorates somewhat after consecutive 
years of little or no rain. 

The fort stands on a hill which overlooks the town from 
the south. This hill runs almost from south to north. It is 
about 250 feet above the surrounding country, and about 500 
yards long by 2 5 o wide at its greatest diameter. It is entirely 
covered by buildings and defences, and the base is surrounded 
by a buttress wall of solid blocks of stone, partly embedded in 
earth, about fifteen feet high, and above which the hill projects 
and supports the ramparts, which form a double line of de- 
fence. The bastions are in the form of half towers, surmounted 
by high turrets and joined by short thick walls; the towers, 
turrets, and joining walls support battlements, those of the 
towers being continued along the joining walls and forming a 
complete chain of defence, about thirty feet above the hill. 
The turrets, which form the second line of defence, are about 
fifteen feet above the towers on which they are supported. 
The fort is approached by one entrance on the town side, which 
has four gates, viz., Akhai Pole, Ganesh Pole or Suraj Pole, 
Bhuta Pole, and Hawa Pole. 

The first gate, or Akhai Pole, encloses a small irregular 
space in front of the main entrance to the citadel. It was 
built long after the fort, and is merely a strong corbelled arch 
(with recesses for a guard), in which no artistic beauty or 
grandeur is displayed. 



90 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The Suraj or Ganesh Pole is the main entrance to the fort. 
It is a massive corbel of solid blocks and beams of stone, 
pinned and cemented together, with guardhouses on either 
side and on the top. Fine towers command the approach to it. 

The Bhuta Pole is a fine massive entrance, built of large 
blocks of stone, and surmounted by a building which displays 
much carving and artistic beauty. 

The Hawa Pole is a massive gateway, surmounted by the 
palace, the lattices and porches of which are handsomely carved 
and designed. 

There are four Vishnu and eight beautifully carved Jain 
temples within the fort. They greatly resemble those at 
Mount Abu, but the columns and figures are of yellow instead 
of white marble. The carved pillars, arches, and figures are 
very elaborate, and many of the designs are very tasteful, and 
so varied that they baffle description. The Jaisalmir stone 
lends itself to this kind of sculpture, and the stone-carvers, 
even of the present day, are celebrated for their finished and 
handsome work. The prospect from the rampart is not attrac- 
tive. The foreground presents a succession of sterile rock- 
bound ridges, barely clad with a few stunted bushes ; whilst 
on the horizon the low undulations seem to mark the com- 
mencement of the still more arid desert and sandhills. 

The fort also contains about 700 houses of Brahmins 
within its precincts, and derives its water supply from three 
or four sweet wells. 

Lodorva, ten miles north-west from Jaisalmir, was for a 
time the capital city of the Bhatis, but it is now in ruins. 
There is, however, an ancient Jain temple still standing. 

Tanot, founded in a.d. 73 i by Rao Keharji, was the first seat 
of power of the Jadu Rajputs on their settlement in the desert. 

The principal forts in the State are those of Kishengarh, 
Ghotaru, Bikampur, and Nochna; whilst those of Baisalpur, 
Deora, Lathi, and Shahgarh are of less note. 




'^^ 
^ 



RELIGIONS, SUPERSTITIONS, AND 
OMENS 

The Hindus of these States are much given to observances 
dictated by Brahmins ; they are essentially a religious people, 
and very tolerant of other sects, giving freely to the support of 
their own temples and caste institutions, and having no desire 
to make converts. Even Mahomedans brought up here have 
lost much of their fanaticism by contact with the tolerant 
Hindus of the country, and they observe some of the Hindu 
customs, attend some of the Hindu fairs, and join regularly in 
the Dassera procession. 

Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti (corresponding with Jupiter, 
Mars, and Bellona) are the principal deities of the Rajputs, and 
many of the other Hindus of these States. Most of the in- 
numerable Hindu deities receive some attention, besides many 
local saints who are worshipped on certain occasions, such as 
Ramdeo, Mallinath, and Pabu. 

The Kaimkhanis, a numerous sect of Rajput origin, who 
were forcibly converted to Mahomedanism during the Mogul 
Empire, still retain many of their Rajput customs and Hindu 
observances, which they combine with Mahomedanism. 

Hindus of these States give much in charity, and ascetics 
are liberally supported. Some of them beg in towns and 
villages, others reside in monasteries, caves, and places of 
seclusion, where they are fed by the women and children. 
These ascetics are very numerous, and their maintenance must 
be a great tax on the people ; besides, most of the Srimali and 
many other Brahmins live on charity. There are hundreds 



92 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

of Brahmins in Jodhpore city, well clotlied, well fed, and 
possessing much jewellery and money, who have no other 
means of livelihood than begging. Charans have much free 
land, and get great support from the landed aristocracy, in 
praise of whom they compile histories and make odes. Even 
the lowest caste beggar is rarely turned away from the door 
without a dole. The liberality to beggars of the dealing 
classes, who are unusually hard in their mercantile trans- 
actions, is very striking. 

Most of the Sadhus or ascetics, who reside in the secluded 
corners of the hills about Jodhpore and throughout these 
States, lay claims to superior knowledge of the occult in 
medicine, astronom}^, prophecy, &c. They all profess great 
piety and self-denial. Many of them can perform great feats 
of endurance, some never requiring to sleep in the recumbent 
position, others being able to withstand all weathers without 
clothes, lie on sharp points, perform long journeys without 
food or water, and a few, though endowed with speech, never 
making use of the faculty, but communicating by signs. 
Most of them claim some power over evil spirits, and to be 
able to bring about a change in destin}'^ by intercession with 
the gods for those whom they may consider worthy of it. 
Some of the people have much faith in these ascetics, and 
consult them on all important occasions ; they also obtain 
remedies for disease from them, and invoke their blessings on 
their children, themselves, and their property. In some of the 
monasteries the ascetics sing at certain times, when the people 
attend and make offerings ; other inferior ascetics sing at the 
doors of the houses, in the to\vns and villages, where they wait 
the dole of flour or grain by which they fill their bags. The curse 
of the ascetic is much dreaded, while his blessing is much courted. 

The superstitions of the people are numerous and deeply 
rooted ; they take many of their omens for good or bad luck 
from birds, beasts, and dreams. 



RELIGIONS, SUPERSTITIONS, AND OMENS 93 

It is considered unlucky to meet a stingy man in the 
early morning, and there are many individuals of this class 
whose names would not be mentioned by villagers before 
breakfast, lest misfortune or ill-luck should follow. Many of 
the people believe that the evil eye is very powerful to do 
injury to those on whom it is fixed, and that evil spirits can he 
swallowed accidentally while yawning. However, snapping the 
fingers prevents this misfortune, and retainers of great men, 
who have no other duties to perform, justify their being kept 
in employment by performing the finger-snapping, when their 
master yawns in his fits of ennui. 

The stiras or crane is considered a bird of good omen 
when met with on the left, flapping its wings. The brown dove 
is considered a very ominous bird, and if it breed in the house, 
it is unlucky for the owner. If the young dove sit on a 
person's head, the person will die within six months, and any 
object occupied by it for the first time will also be destroyed 
within that period. The cooing of the white dove is auspi- 
cious. The black robin, which builds its nest of twigs, grass, 
&c., can indicate famine by a predominance of grass over other 
materials in the nest ; if its nest be high, the hdjra will be 
long, if near the ground, short. The peacock, passing the 
traveller on the left, is a good omen. The blue jay is a bird 
of very good omen, if seen when starting on any business or 
project. The owl is generally a bird of bad omen, and it 
brings death and calamity to the house on which it sits. The 
partridge, calling on the right, when proceeding on any project, 
indicates success ; and on the left when returning, it is an 
assurance of the continuation of good luck. The " Roopa 
rail " is regarded as a bird of good omen ; if seen flying with 
food in its mouth on the left, while going on any project, and 
on the right when returning, success is assured. When about 
to undertake a journey, if the kite scream on the left, success 
is assured. The small owl screaming on the right indicates 



94 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

success ; on tlie left, disaster. The tree-magpie is the lucky 
bird of Shikaris, and if it appear, sport is certain. 

The monkey crossing the path from right to left is 
auspicious, and the same is believed of the deer ; but if they 
cross from the opposite direction, they indicate failure. The 
howling of the jackal on the left is a good omen. The hedge- 
hog on the left is indicative of good. A cat crossing the path 
from any direction indicates disaster, unless the name of Raja 
Ramchandar is invoked. A dog flapping his ears is a bad 
omen, but the fox and hare crossing from left to right are 
good. The bellowing of a bull and the braying of an ass on 
the left are good. The wolf and hysena crossing from left to 
right are very unlucky. 

To see a cart loaded with grain, or fire in the hand, is 
inauspicious for commencing a journey. A female gardener, 
with a basket of green vegetables on her head, is a good omen. 
The arrival of a guest on Akhatij is considered a very good 
omen. It is very unlucky to meet a goldsmith, unless the 
chest be beaten at the first sight. To meet a funeral without 
mourners is auspicious, but a cart full of corn and a ghara full 
of ghee, flour, or fuel are inauspicious. To meet a woman with 
a ghara of water is a good omen, also a woman with her child 
on her arm, unless she be a widow ; but to meet a woman with 
dishevelled hair is unlucky. A Brahmin, with tilak on his 
forehead, and a Rajput with a sword on his shoulder, are very 
good omens. A widow is always inauspicious, but women who 
are ornamented and have husbands are auspicious to meet. 
Sneezing before undertaking any project is unlucky, but a 
sneezing person behind is lucky. Three men going on the 
same errand together cannot have success. 

Dreaming of camel-riding is inauspicious and a laughing 
dream is unlucky, while weeping in dreams is a good omen. 
Dreaming of gold, copper, and iron is inauspicious, but of 
silver and sweetmeats auspicious ; however, eating the latter 



RELIGIONS, SUPERSTITIONS, AND OMENS 95 

in dreams indicates misfortune. Dreaming of a beautifully 
dressed woman is very auspicious, but if she appear to sing, it 
denotes misfortune. Dreams of fl3ning in the sky and of 
elephants are indications of prosperity ; but to dream of 
snake-bite, fire, or water is bad. 



MARWARI PROVERBS 

1 . Ani cliuka bisa ho = A moment once lost is lost for ever, 

2. Aj aman ne kal taman = To-day me, to-morrow thee. 

3. Ap aprai ghar men sara Thdkar hai = Every one is 
lord in his own house. 

4. Utawla so bawla = A rash man is no better than a 
mad man. 

5. Ek bar thagayan sains budh awe = Once cheated, ever 
watchful. 

6. Ochhi ojri men bat nahin pachai = A little pot is soon hot. 

7. Kunbar kunbari sun bas nahin awai jarai gadheri ra 
kan khainchai = Since the potter dare not pull his wife's 
ear he pulls the donkey's. 

8. And hero tanduro Ramdeoji bajawai = God guides the 
blind. 

9. Andhan men kano Rao = A one-eyed man is a chief 
among the blind. 

10. Karola so pawola ne bavola so lunola = You will be 
done to as you will do, and as you will sow so you will reap. 

1 1. Kal sun howai jiko bal sun nahin howai = Tact pre- 
vails where strength fails. 

12. Kai batawan sun kar batawano batto howai = Deeds 
are better than words. 

13. Kothai howai jiko hotai ai rawai = What is in the 
mind will be on the lips. 

14. Khad khinai jinai kuo tayar = One who digs a pit for 
others finds a trap ready for himself. 

1 5 . Gugaryan ra gothia ne khay pi ne uthya = When 
money is lacking friends will be packing. 



MARWARI PROVERBS 97 

1 6. Ghar men liowai nana to bind parnijai kana = A bride 
will not object to marry a one-eyed man so long as he is rich. 

17 Chuttar nai samjawno soro ne miirakh nai marno soro 
= A nod for the wise, a rod for a fool. 

I 8. Chhotai mundai moti bat = Small mouth, big talk. 

19. Thotho chino bajai gano = An empty vessel makes 
much noise. 

20. Dupti dekhnai pag pasaro = Cut your coat according 
to your cloth. 

2 1 . Pet papi hai = The stomach teaches all arts. 

22. Bina man-ka pawna ghee ghalun kai tel = Uninvited 
guests seldom meet welcome. 

23. Jin-ri lathi unri bhens = The man with the stick can 
make the buffalo leave his way (might is right). 

24. Sanch nai kadai ne lagai anch = Truth seeks no hiding 
corner. 

Couplets 

1. Bajrika sogra mothan ki dar 
Akre ki jhonpri phogan ki bar 

Dekhi Raja Man Singh teri Marwar = 
" Bread of hajra flour and dal of moth, huts of akra with 
fences of fog, Raja Man Singh, such is your Marwar." 

2. Hitmen chitmen hathmen khatmen matmen khot 
Dilmen darsawai daya pap liyan sir pot = 

"His (the Bania's, the dealer's) friendship, his mind, his 
dealings, his bonds, his principles, are all full of deceit. He 
pretends to be merciful, but is a great sinner." 

3 . Pahle pet ne pache Seth 
Pahle Raj ne pache Biaj = 

" From a ryot's earning he means first to provide his 
own livelihood and then the claims of the Bohra (lender), but 
he finds the Raj demand is first to be met, and then the 
interest." 

G 



SIGHTS WORTH SEEING 

The Fort. — In the city the central and first object of 
interest is the fort, which has ah-eady been fully described. 

Besides the fort there are many other objects of interest 
within the city, viz., old temples, palaces, and buUdings, with 
handsomely carved sandstone fronts, some of which will now 
be particularised. The following are the principal ones : — 

Gangshamji-ka-Mandar, the chief temple in the city, was 
built by Maharaja Bijai Singh, but the idol of Shamji placed 
in it was brought here by Kao Ganga from Sirohi on the occa- 
sion of his marriage there with Rani Deoriji. He placed it in 
an old temple (built by himself), which is now known as Ghun- 
shamji-ka-Mandar or Panchdevria-ka-Mandar. Maharaja Bijai 
Singh removed this idol to his own temple, which in this way 
came to be called, after Rao Ganga, " Gangshamji-ka-Mandar." 

Kunjbihariji-ka-Mandar, the best carved and finest temple 
in Jodhpore, was built by Gulabrajji (of Maharaja Bijai Singh's 
time), who also built the Gulab Sagar tank, the Girdikote, and 
Mailabtigh, which is now the Hewson Hospital. 

Temples of Balkrishnji, Dauji, Mahaprabhuji, and Madan 
Mohanji are of Maharaja Bijai Singh's period. These temples 
belong to the Ballabhcharaya sect, the chief devotee of which 
was the Maharaja himself. 

Tiji Maji-ka-Mandar was built by Maji Tija Bhitianiji, 
widow of Maharaja Man Singh. 

Two fine temples, known as Bagheliji-ka-Mandars, were 
built by the Bagheli Ranis. 

There are two very old temples, one dedicated to Chawandd 



SIGHTS WORTH SEEING 99 

Mataji and the other to Juwdla Mukhiji, situated close to each 
other, on the south-west extremity of the rock on which the 
fort is built. The Chawandd Mata or Devi, a female deity, is 
worshipped by the rulers of Marwar, and a bufifalo is annually 
sacrificed at this temple on the Dassera festival, and also goats 
on other important occasions. In a.d. 1857, on Nagpanchmi 
fair, after midnight, lightning struck the fort magazines, which 
lie some feet below this temple, near Chiriya Nathji-ka-Paglya 
under the fort rock on its west side, and caused an explosion 
which blew up the roof of Chawanda Mata-ka-Mandar, and did 
great damage to life and property. 

Cbirianathji was a famous ascetic, who lived before the 
foundation of the city and fort of Jodhpore, in a small cave of 
this rock, which was then known as " Chiria Bhakar." The 
place is still known as " Chirianathji-ka-Paglya," meaning foot- 
prints engraved on a marble slab. Before Rao Jodha changed 
his capital, he examined several hills around Mandore, and at 
one time intended to lay the foundation of the fort on the 
Masuria-ka-Bhakar, which is well situated and high. The 
famous ascetic, however, advised him to build where the fort 
now stands, and assured him that it would be impregnable. 
While acting on his advice, Rao Jodha thought it proper to 
remove the ascetic to some other place ; so he sent his men to 
do so ; whereupon the ascetic collected his dhooni (lighted 
sticks), placed them in his cloth, which they did not burn, and 
went away cursing and declaiming that "no water would be 
procurable in the country." When Rao Jodha was informed 
of the ascetic's miracle and curse, he followed him to Palasni, 
a distance of eighteen miles, where he had the curse reduced 
to " a severe drought on the land every third year," which is 
held by many to account for the diminished rainfall of Marwar 
up to the present time. 

Jawalaji, literally " huge fire," is a form of Devi or Mata, 
chiefly worshipped by the Kayasth community. 



100 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Achleshwar Mahadeo-ka-Mandar is one of the oldest 
temples, dedicated to Achleshwar Mahadeo, a form of Shiva. 
In its compound there is a large Baori, built by Rao Ganga. 

Nij Mandar, overlooking Gulab Sagar, Udai Mandar, and 
Maha Mandar, all of which were built during the reign of 
Maharaja Man Singh, are the principal temples belonging to 
Naths. 

Rama-nund-Kote, overlooking Fateh Sagar, contains temples- 
and a garden of the late Dewan, 

There are two chief palaces in the city, viz., Taleti-ka- 
Mahal, built by Maharaja Sur Sing, and Raj Mahal. The 
latter, built by Maharaja Takhat Singh, overlooks Gulab Sagar, 
and was his favourite residence within the city. 

The largest Haweli in the city contains above two hundred 
rooms, many of which have handsomely carved ceilings, bal- 
conies, and columns ; it belongs to Byas Bheron Das, the 
court Guru, and it stands at the junction of the streets 
leading to the Sur Sagar and Padam Sagar. 

Mandore, named after Mandu Rishi, is the ancient capital 
of the Rathores. It was taken by Rao Chonda about 
A.D. 1395 from the Parihar Rajputs of the Eenda clan. It 
is about five miles north of Jodhpore city. Most of the old 
city has crumbled away, but there are still some occupied 
houses in good repair, and the principal burning-ground is 
surrounded by many fine Dewals to mark the place. Most of 
the fort wall is level with the ground, but there remains still 
in good preservation an old gateway the arch of which has 
recently been repaired. A nice garden has recently been laid 
out, and an old palace turned into the Rajput Elgin school, 
A streamlet named " Nagadari," across which a dam has 
recently been erected for bathing purposes, flows close to the 
site of the old capital. 

Visitors to Mandore will view with interest the grand 
specimens of sculptural art in the " Hall of Heroes," of which 



SIGHTS WORTH SEEING 101 

a. very brief account is given below. These figures have been 
carved in sandstone and covered with polished marble 
plaster : — 

( 1 ) Chdwandaji — Goddess of the ruling family. 

(2) Bhaisa surji — A Hindu goddess famous in war. 

(3) Gusainji — A high priest, still represented at Chopasni, 
where he has a temple, village, and free lands. No animal 
life is allowed to be taken in Chopasni, and meat is not eaten 
in the village. The Gusainji is said to bathe in cold water 
twelve to twenty-four times a day ; and his daughters are not 
allowed to leave the family after marriage, the sons-in-law 
being provided for by the Gusainji. I was asked to see an 
aged and moribund Gosainji of Chopasni, but I was only 
allowed to look at him across a wall, and was told not to feel 
his pulse or examine him, and that he was so holy that he 
could not take anything prescribed, nor could he even apply 
medicines locally. I therefore left, stating my regret at being 
unable to work miracles, and the patient died unrelieved after 
a short time. 

(4) Mdllindthji — The founder of the house of Mallani, in 
whose honour the Mallani fair is annually held, continues to 
be worshipped as a saint by his descendants and other Hindus 
of the country. There is a local legend that he did not die, 
but departed from this world on horseback, and that his wife 
Rupa was also taken up to heaven from her carriage, while on 
her way to commit sati after her husband's disappearance. 

( 5 ) Pahuji — A Rathore hero whose memory is still held in 
great esteem on account of his having brought the camel into 
general use ; he was also a great protector of cows. 

(6) Bamdeoji — A distinguished Rajput hero and a truthful 
man, who is said never to have told a lie ; he took samadi 
(interred himself alive) in a.d. 1458, and still has worship 
done to his memory. 

(7) Herluji — A favourite of Rao Jodhaji, and a saint. 



102 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

(8) Gogaji — A very charitable man. When Feroz Shah 
invaded his town in a.d. 1296, he fought gallantly and was 
killed on the field of battle. 

(9) Mehaji — A warrior of local repute, of whom the 
Charans still chant. 

(10) Brahmaji — Brahma. 

(11) Surajji — The sun. 

(12) Ram Chandarji — Rama. 

(13) Kanaiyaji — Krishna. 

(14) Mahadeoji — Shiva. 

(15) Nathji — Jalandhar Nathji, an ascetic, one of whose 
successors was Deonath, the founder of Mahamandar and an 
absolute pope in the reign of Maharaja Man Singh, who would 
have made over the entu-e State to him if he had not been 
prevented from doing so. In the Mahamandar palace there is 
still a sacred bed to which the spirit of the great departed 
Nathji is said to retm^n regularly to take rest. The present 
representative of the Nathji of Mahamandar has a considerable 
income from villages and lands, but both his temporal and 
spiritual authority have steadily waned from the time of 
Maharaja Man Singh, until they are now of no consequence. 

The cenotaphs to the memory of the former rulers of the 
country are also objects of great interest to visitors. The 
principal ones are : — 

(a.) Rao Maldeo-ka-Dewal — This Dewal is near the Baori 
in the south of the burning-ground. Rao Maldeoji died in 
A.D. 1562, and his monument was erected by Mota Raja Udai 
Singh in a.d. i 5 9 i . 

(&.) Mota- Raj a- Udai Singh-ka- Dewal was built by Raja Sur 
Singh in a.d. 161 i. The Mota Raja died in a.d. i 594. 

(c.) Sawai Raja Sur Singh-ka- Dewal was built by Raja Gaj 
Singh in a.d, 1622. Sawai Raja Sur Singh died in a.d. 16 19. 

{d.) Raja Gaj Singk-ka-Dewal was built by Maharaja Jaswant 
Singh I. in 1649. Raja Gaj Singh died in a.d. 1638. 



SIGHTS WORTH SEEING 103 

(e.) Maharaja Jasivarit Singhji-ka-Dewal. — Maharaja Jaswant 
Singhji died at Jamrood in Peshdwar in a.d. 1678. Maharaja 
Jaswant Singhji was a great soldier, and fought for Shah Jehan 
in the Deccan. On his return from the Deccan he was given 
the title of Maharaja in 1653, and, although Aurangzeb dis- 
trusted and disliked him, he was so powerful in his time that 
he was made Subadar of Gujerat and sent again to the Deccan, 
and afterwards to Kabul to fight. He finally died at Jamrood 
in A.D. 1678, having lost his three sons: one at Delhi from 
poison, administered at court, and two at Kabul from the 
severity of the climate. The cenotaph to his memory was 
erected by Maharaja Ajit Singh in a.d. 1720. 

(/.) Maharaja Ajit Singh-ha-Deival was commenced by 
Maharaja Abhai Singh but was not completed during his 
reign; it was finished by Maharaja Bhim Singh in a.d. 1797. 
This is the most imposing of all the Dewals ; it possesses 
much boldness of design, as well as great architectural grace 
and beauty. Maharaja Ajit Singh died in a.d. 1724. 

{g.) Maharaja Takhat Singh-ka-Tharra. — This monument 
was built by the late Maharaja Jaswant Singh, G.C.S.I., in 
A.D. 1875. Maharaja Takhat Singh died in a.d. 1873, and 
the chhattri will be completed by his grandson, the present 
Maharaja. 

(h.) The late Maharaja Jaswant Singhji was cremated at 
Deokund, near the fort, instead of at Mandore; the place is 
more convenient and the site is better for monuments, on 
account of its elevation and proximity to the fort and city. 
Maharaja Jaswant Singh died on the i ith of October 1895. 

Kailana. — A tank in the hills and the Shikarkhana of 
Jodhpore. Pig abound here, but on account of the rough 
sandstone hills which surround the tank, they readily escape 
from their pursuers and multiply to replenish the plains 
below, where they wander in search of food, and give the 
hunter frequent opportunities for good sport. The bund of 



104 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

this tank has lately been raised, and its depth is now 64 feet. 
There is an old palace on a bund which is now often sub- 
merged, and a garden with fine trees adjacent. This is one 
of the principal reservoirs outside Jodhpore. 

Sursagar. — It lies to the west of the city, about a mile 
from the Chand Pole gate. The British Residency was for- 
merly located here. The tank has not held water for many 
years, since the sandstone rock on which the bund rests was 
fissured by an earthquake. The old Residency and Residency 
Surgeon's house were originally built by Maharaja Sur Singh 
as his special palace. There are gardens with some fine 
trees and pleasure grounds attached to these buildings, which 
are now used as a Sardar school. 

Balsamancl (" the child of the sea ") owes its name to Parihar 
Balak Rao, who had it constructed in a.d. i i 59, and is a fine 
artificial lake about three miles from the city, on the way to 
Mandore. Maharaja Sur Singh enlarged the first bund of 
this tank and built a palace on it, which has since been 
enlarged. During the reign of the late Maharaja, Mr. 
Home raised the dam 1 5 feet, giving the tank a capacity 
of 56,000,000 of cubic feet; it is nearly 40 feet deep, and 
supplies the city with water through a canal running into the 
Gulab Sagar and Fateh Sagar tanks. The railway and the 
bungalows in that direction are also suj^plied with water from 
this tank. 

About two and a half miles west of the city is an old 
garden attached to a small tank called Akherajji-ka- Talao, 
which was built by Singhi Akheraj, one of the chief State 
officials in the reign of Maharaja Man Singh ; this garden is 
resorted to by city people on holidays. 

Jodh23ore Abu, a hill known as Bara Bhakar, the highest 
peak of the sandstone range adjacent to Jodhpore, where the 
Darbar has built two fine bungalows, and from which there 
is a commanding view of the country, is approached from 




f5 



SIGHTS WORTH SEEING 105 

two directions by a semicircular metalled road, which passes 
through picturesque valleys laid out as gardens, and stocked 
with fruit and other trees. Several small tanks can be seen 
in the monsoon season from this elevation, and many watered 
nooks in depressions in the hills are always visible, with 
temples, gardens, and trees cultivated for their shade by the 
numerous ascetics, who live in secluded corners and subsist 
on the charity of the city. 

Bijolai, a small tank not far from Jodhpore Abu, was one 
of the favourite residences of Maharaja Takhat Singh, who 
built a palace there, where the natural scenery is picturesque. 

The Rdikabagh and the palace of the late Maharaja, with 
its hundreds of stables, are very interesting. The Public 
Offices, built by Mr. Home in 1886-90 from Colonel Jacob's 
design, are very handsome, and beautifully finished in every 
detail of workmanship. The Maharaja's new palace, lighted 
by electricity, the Residency, and other official bungalows, 
designed and constructed by Mr. Home, are all fine buildings 
and add considerably to the appearance of the suburbs of 
Jodhpore. The Cavalry lines, the Sir Pratap School, the Post- 
Office, the Railway employes lines, the Dak bungalow, the 
Railway Station, and many of the private houses in the suburbs 
are good specimens of the solid work which is now being done 
in Jodhpore. Adjacent to the Dak bungalow is a handsome 
Serai which adds to the appearance of that quarter, and the 
cost of which has been defrayed by the Dowager Maharani 
Jarechiji. The numerous new aqueducts, leading from all 
directions towards the capital, are specially interesting to 
those long resident in the desert who are able to thoroughly 
appreciate a good water supply. 

In and around Jodhpore there are many other temples 
and houses on which are displayed much architectural beauty 
and artistic design in general structure and the finish of then- 
arches, doors, and balconies. The sandstone on which the 



106 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

city rests is easily quarried and carved into stately columns 
and beautiful facades. This has been taken advantage of by 
builders from the earliest period in the history of this capital 
of the desert, and the effect has been excellent. 

Jaisalmir is well worth a visit to those who do not fear 
the discomforts of desert travelling ; and the sights most worth 
seeing in and about the city are the fine stone carved palaces 
and houses ; the fort, and the beautifully carved temples within 
it, some of which rival those of Mount Abu ; Bari, where the 
handsome chhattris of chiefs stand, Maharawal Gaj Singh's 
and the late Maharawal Bairi Sal's being the finest ; Amar 
Sagar and Mool Sagar, where there are gardens and palaces. 

The capital of Sirohi is picturesquely situated in the hills, 
and the palace, which commands the town, is fine and hand- 
some; some of the tomples are worth seeing, as they are of 
great antiquity. 



RECREATION 

JoDHPORE. — In Marwar horse exercise is taken by almost 
eveiy one who can afford to keep a horse, and the Rathore is 
an accompHshed horseman, whether born in the palace or in 
the village. He, like the Arab of the desert, loves his horse, 
and will stint himself to feed his steed. Polo is much played 
at the capital, where there are several good polo-grounds, made 
at considerable cost, regardless of the floating sands. There 
are also six or seven racecourses around Jodhpore city, and 
these are in daily use to keep both horses and riders in 
condition. 

Cricket is also in much favour, and schoolboys can be 
seen practising in various places on the sand ; there is a 
cricket-ground at the palace, and His Highness the Maharaja 
Sardar Singh is a proficient at this game, as at polo. Rackets, 
football, tennis, billiards, and golf are all played at Jodhpore. 

Most of the Rathores are keen on guns and field-sports, 
when they can afford to shoot and hunt. They all take 
readily to games, whether of the East or West, and this makes 
them particularly companionable and friendly. 

The ordinary Indian outdoor games are much played 
by the boys and young men throughout the country, viz., 
"Mardari," " Miyan-ki-ghori," " Kabdi," " Thia Dari," "Jel 
Dari," " Sota Dari," " Kundalo Dari," "Bheron Doto," "Dota 
Dari " (English game of hockey), " Dhunna," and " Guli Danda." 

SiROHi. — Cricket is played at the Sirohi capital, and His 
Highness the Maharao Kesri Singh, K.C.S.I., is fond of his gun. 
Many of the upper classes in Sirohi State are keen horsemen, 

107 



108 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

and horse exercises are in great favour throughout the country. 
Indian outdoor games are keenly contested, both at the capital 
of Su'ohi and throughout the State, viz., " Bathal Kundd," 
"Ankh Chhipdni," " Lattu-ka-Khel," " Miyan-Kighori," " Guli 
Danda," '• Kabdi," and " Tangri-ka-Khel." 

Jaisalmir. — The camel is the most favoured animal in 
Jaisalmir, on account of its endurance. It is ridden for pleasure 
as well as to accomplish journeys, and camel-racing is often 
resorted to as a pastime by the people of the country. His 
Highness the Maharawal and his brother, who are now at the 
Mayo College, Ajmere, have been taught cricket and polo, and 
these games will no doubt be introduced into the far desert 
very shortly, to supplement the ordinary games of the country, 
which are at present played with considerable zest. 




Colonel Maharaj Sir Pratap Singh, G. C.S.I. 

Imperial Si-ii'ice Cavalry Uniform. 



To face page 109, 



IMPERIAL SERVICE TROOPS 



( 1 ) These troops, whicli consist of two regiments of cavalry,, 
are locally known as the Sardar Risala, and were commenced 
to be raised in 1889. 

(2) The progress has been steady throughout. One regi- 
ment was at first raised, then the Jodha and Kaimkhani squad- 
rons of the second regiment, and finally the two regiments, 
each consisting of 600 sowars, were completed. 

(3) In both regiments there are — 



Squadron officers 
Eisaldars . 
Jamadars . 
Kote DafFadars 
Daffadars . 
Sowars 



Total 



8 
16 
16 
16 
96 
1058 



(4) The division of squadrons is by clans. 



Clans. 


Squadrons of 
1st Regiment. 


Squadrons of 
2nd Regiment. 


Jodhas 1 

Khichis 

Mertias 1 

Gogades ^ ..... 
Kaimkhaiiis 


1st. 
4th. 
2nd. 
3rd. 


I St. 
4th. 
yd. 

I St. 

2nd. 



They are all inhabitants of Marwar. 

(5) Out of a total of 1200 horses, 779 are Arabs, 98- 



Rathores. 
109 



110 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Walers, and 322 country-bred, whicli give a percentage of 64.93 
Arabs, 8.22 Walers, 26.84 country-bred, and .01 Englisb bred. 
(6) The lines consist of small rooms with verandahs, and 
the horses stand picketed in front of each man's quarters. 

The pay of officers, non-commissioned officers, and men is 
as follows : — 

Squadron officers, Rs.250 per month. 
Risaldars, Rs.8o, 90, 100, and 125. 
Jamadars, Rs.70, 65, and 60. 
Kote Daffadars, Rs.44. 
Daffadars, Rs.37. 
Sowars, RS.30S. 

Trumpeters, sowars, and farriers are given an allowance of 
Rs,5 extra. 
The men of this corps are all recruited locally ; they are 
mostly hardy Rajputs of the desert, fond of horses, and accus- 
tomed to ride from boyhood ; they stand privation well, are 
light, active, and ideal horse-soldiers. 

An assistant-surgeon and a Rajput hospital assistant have 
medical charge of the corps under the Residency Surgeon. 

Maharaj Dhiraj Colonel Sir Pratap Singh, A.D.C., G. C.S.I., 
commandant of the corps, served on the staff of General 
Lockhart in the late campaign, and had with him some of the 
officers and men, of whom all, except two, returned in good 
health. 

The officers and men stationed at Rawulpindi also returned 
in good health, and only lost one man during thek absence of 
five months. The hospital for the Imperial Service Corps is 
well located, and built on the approved standard plan for 
native troops ; it is well equipped and well looked after. 




Hcwson Hospital, Jodhpore {see page 260). 





f* c^-iLJlJj 






A 




sH^-^ 



Officers, Imperial Service Cavalry. 7 face page 110. 



MINTS AND CURRENCIES IN THE 
WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Marwar. — There are seven mints in Marwar, viz., at Jodh- 
pore, Pali, Nagore, Sojat, Jalore, Merta, and Kuchawan ; but 
only those at Jodhpore, Pali, Nagore, and Kuchawan are now 
working. 

Gold is only coined at the Jodhpore city mint. Mohrs, 
half mohrs, and quarter mohrs are coined, and largely used of 
late years as coat-buttons by the well-to-do. They are rarely 
met with beyond Marwar limits. The weight of a full Jodh- 
pore gold mohr is 169.9 grains troy, and it is made of pure 
gold. 

The silver coins of the State are the rupee, half rupee, and 
quarter rupee pieces. The weight of the original Bijeshahi 
rupee, which was struck about a.d. 1761, and which bears the 
name of Shah Alum, is 176.4 grains troy, of which 6.5 grains 
is alloy. In 1858 Maharaja Takhat Singh substituted the 
name of Her Majesty the Queen for that of Shah Alum, Since 
then the inscription has more than once undergone changes, 
still bearing the name of the Queen-Empress. Hitherto the 
Bijeshahi rupee has been equal to, or of more value than, the 
British or Kaldar rupee ; but since the closing of the Indian 
mints, about iio Bijeshahi rupees are required to exchange 
for 100 Kaldar rupees. 

There are numerous marks on the Jodhpore coins, placed 
by Darogas in charge of mints, or by other State officials ; but 
the special marks of the State are the " Jhar " or the " Turra " 
of seven or nine branches, and the " Khanda," or the sword. 



112 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The original copper coin of the State was the Bijeshahi, 
which was also called " Dhabbushahi," on account of its great 
weight. Maharaja Bhim Singh increased its weight, and called 
it Bhimshahi, after his own name. The weight was again 
reduced to its original standard, viz., from 320 to 310 grains. 
The copper coin is now known here as Dhabbushahi, and 
about fifty-six are equal to Rs. i Bijeshahi. 

The Ku chaw an mint coins no gold or copper. The silver 
coins struck there are called " Ektisundas." They weigh about 
168 grains, and are worth 10 or 12 annas Bijeshahi. 

Jaisalmir. — The Jaisalmir mint was established in a.d. 
1756 by Maharawal Akhe Singh, after whose name the coins 
are called " Akheshahi." The old Akheshahi rupee weighed 
168.75 grains, and contained only 4.22 grains of alloy; but 
the present Akheshahi rupee weighs only 162^ grains, and is 
worth about i 5 annas Bijeshahi. 

SiROHi. — There is no mint in Sirohi, where the Jodhpore 
copper coin known as Dhabbushahi, and the Kaldar and 
Bhilari (Meywar) silver coins are current. 

Kaldar rupees are current everywhere, also British copper 
coins and koris are in use in the bazaars. 

4 koris or shells make i ganda. 

2^ gands ,, I damri. 

2 damris ,, i chhadam. 

2 chhadams ,, i adhela. 

2 adhelas ,, i paisa (Dhabbu). 

3^ paisa ,, I anna. 

16 annas ,, i rupee (Bijeshahi). 

Table of Weight. 



3^ paisa make 


I chattack. 


2 chattacks „ 


I adp4o. 


2 adpaos ,, 


I pAo. 


2 paos ,, 


I dd-seer. 



MINTS AND CURRENCIES 

make i seer.^ 



2 ad-seers 

5 seers 
lo seers 
20 seers 
30 seers 
40 seers 



I panchheri. 
I pAo-man. 
I dd-man. 
I pun-man. 
I man. 



Land Measure. 

20 Biswansis make i Biswa. 
20 Biswas ,, I Bigha. 



113 



^ The Jodhpore seer weighs over two pounds, viz., 100 tolas or Kaldar rupees, 
while the British seer weighs only 80 tolas or two pounds. 



H 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

JoDHPORE. — Under the management of Pandit Suraj Pra- 
kash, M.A., this Department has recently been much improved, 
and Mar war boys are beginning to be able to take high places 
at the University examinations. 

The following are the educational institutions in Marwar : — 

Jaswant College, Jodhpore. 

Darbar High School, Jodhpore. 

Girls' School, Jodhpore. 

The Sanskrit School. 

The Hindi Pathshala. 

Eight Anglo -Vernacular District Schools. 

Twenty Vernacular District Schools. 

The Survey Class, Jodhpore. 

The Telegraph Training Class, Jodhpore, 
The Jaswant College was established in 1893 as a memorial 
to His Highness the late Maharaja Jaswant Singh, G.C.S.I. The 
course of instruction in the college was raised to the B.A. 
standard and the college staff strengthened in 1896. 

The Darbar High School was opened in 1869, and is the 
oldest English educational institution in the State ; the course 
is up to the entrance standard. Since its establishment many 
boys have successfully passed the entrance examinations of the 
Calcutta and Allahabad Universities from it. Most of them 
are now in Raj service, in the railway and other departments. 

The Girls' School was established in 1886, and it has 
already done much to improve female education, especially 
among Brahmins, whose children attend in considerable numbers. 

114 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 115 

The Sanskrit School was established in 1886. The num- 
ber of scholars in regular attendance is not large, but it is use- 
ful to those who appreciate this classical language, principally 
Brahmins. 

The Hindi Branch School is largely attended by boys of 
different castes, but Mahajans and Brahmins predominate. 

The Pargana Schools are eight Anglo-vernacular and 
twenty primary vernacular ; most of them have a considerable 
attendance of Brahmins and Banias. 

The Survey Class is attached to the Jaswant College, and 
certificates are granted for proficiency after two years' study 
and examination. 

The Telegraph Training Class was opened in 1891 in the 
Darbar High School, to prepare boys for telegraph work on the 
railway. 

The Noble School was established in 1886, with a view to 
give instruction to Rajput nobles, among whom education was 
then very backward. The scheme has had considerable success. 

The Elgin Rajput School was established in 1896, for poor 
Rajputs unable to give their sons a primary education. The 
boys now educated at this school are intended as recruits for 
the Imperial Service Troops ; they are mostly from small 
villages where no course of instruction, even in elementary 
subjects, could be obtained. The Darbar contributes Rs. 5 0,000 
annually to support these schools. Besides these State educa- 
tional institutions, there are many private vernacular schools 
in the city of Jodhpore and in large towns, principally sup- 
ported by the trading classes for the use of their children. 

The Oswals support the Sardar School, the Kayasths main- 
tain the Sir Pratap School, the Arya Samaj has its own school, 
Brahmins and Mahs have also some schools of their own. 

SiROHi. — Education is making fair progress in Sirohi. There 
is a school at the capital, maintained by the Darbar, in which 
Enghsh, Urdu, and Hindi are taught. There are also Darbar 



116 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES . 

schools at two of the principal towns, viz., Madar and Rohera, 
and in many villages Hindi schools are kept up. 

Jaisalmir. — During recent years education has made con- 
siderable progress at the Jaisalmir capital, where two schools 
are supported by the Darbar, viz., one Anglo -vernacular and 
another Hindi. In the larger towns throughout the State, 
Hindi schools are kept up by private subscription. 



WATER SUPPLY 

JoDHPORE. — Up to the year 1870 the inhabitants of Jodh- 
pore obtained their water supply from wells and the neighbour- 
ing hills, from which it was run off into the city and stored in 
tanks. There were several of these reservoirs, but some being 
then imperfect and out of repair, only two could be relied on, 
viz., the " Gulab Sagar " and the " Fateh Sagar," and even 
these were not annually filled. Moreover, when the rainfall 
was sufficient to fill them, they only afforded a year's supply to 
half the city. Jodhpore did not then possess sufficient water 
storage space for twelve months' provision, and thus the inhabi- 
tants were compelled to go long distances to the wells, mostly 
outside the city walls, for the quantity necessary for their 
requirements. The water in the tanks having become ex- 
hausted, the wells adjacent soon ceased to give a sufficiency to 
the crowds who swarmed to them, often fighting fiercely in 
their endeavours to help themselves to a '' ghara" of water. 
The consequence was, that the women had to suffer much toil 
and hardship in bringing water from great distances, or they 
had to pay exorbitantly for it to the " hhishtis" who brought 
it in on camels or bullocks for sale. The wells here are very 
deep, and most of them are more or less brackish, often con- 
taining an appreciable amount of salt ; indeed, some are so 
briny as to be quite unpotable, except by those inured to salt 
water. 

By 1874 some improvement had taken place, but the 
water supply of Jodhpore had always been deficient, both 
because of the want of space for storage, and also on account of 

117 



118 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

the small annual rainfall. To remedy this, some important 
works had then been undertaken. Hitherto, much of the 
available water had been lost from bad collecting arrangements, 
and there had seldom been nearly enough run into the tanks 
to suffice for twelve months' consumption. 

In January 1875 the tank water had already failed, so 
that until the next monsoon the people of the city had to 
fetch their water from wells outside the walls, and sometimes 
from great distances. The Darbar was put to a considerable 
monthly expenditure in raising the water, as the wells are very 
deep. One large tank, the " Baiji-ka-Talao," situated near the 
Jalore gate, was completed during this year, but it leaked 
greatly from want of a lime floor. For years this large 
reservoir was left in this inriperfect condition, although a 
plentiful supply of water was brought into it from the hills 
south-west of Jodhpore by a masonry aqueduct. The flooring- 
was afterwards improved at a considerable cost, and it has 
since been useful for the water supply of that side of the city. 

Another large work of the same kind was commenced by 
Maharaja Bakhat Singh, but never completed, viz., the " Bak- 
hat Sagar " tank, which lies to the south-west of the city. The 
bund is of large extent, and has a considerable catchment from 
the hills on the west and south-west of Jodhpore city, but 
water does not remain in it long after the rains have ceased ; it, 
however, keeps the wells in the neighbourhood at a higher level. 

By 1889 the water supply had been improved in quality, 
and more attention has since been given to the preservation of 
its purity. 

In 1890 the water supply was greatly increased by new 
canals, and further efforts were made to protect the reservoirs 
from pollution by preventing animals from entering them. 

The water supply of Jodhpore at present is mainly derived 
from two tanks in the city, the " Gulab Sagar " and the " Fateh 
Sagar," mostly excavated from solid rock, now holding each 



WATER SUPPLY 



119 



about 1 0,000,000 cubic feet. This supply can meet the demand 
of the city for about fifteen months. Besides these, there are 
other tanks of smaller size, viz., the " Ranisar," the " Padamsar," 
the Baiji-ka-Talao, referred to above, and the " Pratap Sagar," 
constructed by Colonel Sir Pratap Singh to the memory of 
his wife ; and also two bathing tanks, viz., the " Phulerao " and 
" Gangelao." The Gulab Sagar is an old work, and was made by 
" pardayat " Guldbrajji (aheady referred to) of Maharaja Bijai 
Singh. The Fateh Sagar was built by Maharaja Bhim Singh, 
and named after his father. Fateh Singh. The Gulab, Fateh, 
and Pratap Sagars are supplied by a canal, which runs round 
the base of the adjacent hills for a distance of three miles to 
the " Balsamand." This canal was made in the years 1883 to 
1885, and was originally intended to fill the tanks from the 
Balsamand ; but it has been found that the water caught from 
the intervening hills is generally sufficient for a year's supply, 
and the Balsamand has only been indented on once or twice 
during recent years. 

The Balsamand water, however, is run through a filter, and 
supplied in pipes to the Raikabagh, the Cavalry Lines, Jail, 
Railway Station, Residency, and the bungalows of the other 
Europeans. This tank holds, when full, about 56,000,000 
cubic feet, and has a catchment area of six square miles of 
rock surface. 

The following is the analysis of the Balsamand water :- — 





tec 


c 
2 c 




c ce 


.2§ 


s 




M 3 




■c to 




11 


•ati c 




n^ 


5p. 


o'S 


(a S 


kt 


3 C 

^ 




^ 





^& 


*• tc 


^g. 


<C 


A. Where it leaves the lake 


16.8 


I. 12 


5.6 


3-5 


•16 


.14 


B. Where it enters the filter 


16.8 


1.26 


5.6 


3-5 


nil 


.16 


C. After leaving the filter . 


16.8 


1.26 


5-6 


3-5 


•02 


.16 


D. From the Jail pipe . 


18.2 


1.82 


5.6 


2.8 


•20 


.22 



120 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Another tank, " Kailana," has lately been much enlarged. 
It is about five miles from the city, with which it is connected 
by a canal. This canal delivers water to the Baiji-ka-Talao, 
the Chhitar tank, the Shekhawatji-ka-Talao, and the Raika- 
bagh, and ends in the Ratanada tank, from whence the water 
is conveyed in pipes to the Maharaja's, Sir Pratap Singh's, and 
other bungalows, Kailana tank originally had a catchment 
area of about two square miles, mostly rock surface, but this has 
been lately increased by feeder canals to about six square miles, 
and the tank is capable of holding about 80,000,000 cubic feet. 

A scheme is now under consideration for raising the water 
of both Kailana and Balsamand to the foot of the Paota hill, 
where it is to be filtered and then pumped up to a service 
reservoir on the top of the hill, and distributed through pipes 
all over the city. 

Outside city limits there are several other tanks which 
supplement the ordinary water supply, viz., Takhat Sagar, 
Lai Sagar, Guran-ka-Talao, Nazarji-ka-Talao, and Akherajji-ka- 
Talao, the last of which has been referred to elsewhere. 

Amongst the many wells within and around the city, there 
are only a few which contain sweet water ; of these the follow- 
ing may be mentioned as the best, viz., the Raikabagh well, 
the Kaofd well, the Jeta-bera, the Dheron-ka-bera, and Bakhat 
Sasrar-ki-beri. Next to these come two wells at Ramanund 
Kote, two in Kuchawan Thakar's Haweli, Nauchokia-ka-bera, 
a well in the compound of the Kotwali, Jia-beri, and Shakkar- 
beri in Rani Sar, three or four wells in Sursagar, Joshiji-ko- 
Kuo in Goondi-ka-Mohalla, Mutan-ko-Kuo, Kharbooza-beri, 
the Nathji's well at Udai Mandar, Taparia-ka-bera, Badi-beri 
and Taparia-ki-beri in Gangelao tank, Sukhanund-ka-bera, 
Dewan Sardar Mai's wells in his Bagh, two wells in Raj 
Bagichi, and two in Nazarbagh, Ram Mohulla-ka-bera, a new 
well near Baiji-ka-Talao, a well in Kunj Bihariji-Ka- Mandar, 
and Munshi Shubh Lai's new well in Dhanmandi. 



WATER SUPPLY 121 

There are about eighty Masjids, most of which have wells 
within their enclosures, used by Mahomedans. 

There are above thirty Baoris or Jhalras in and around the 
city, some sweet, others brackish, viz., Tanwarji-ka-Jhalra in 
Maki-ana Mohalla, which is about 1 7 5 years old, with a never- 
failing supply of water, used for bathing, except in times of 
great drought, when its water is drunk as a necessity. 

Tapi Baori, situated in a very old part of the city, is rec- 
tangular in shape, about 200 feet long and 40 feet broad, 
with steps leading into it for about 80 feet, below which the 
depth of the water is another 80 or a 100 feet. It was built 
about 350 years ago by By as Nathoji, in memory of his father, 
Tapoji. It has six Poles or gates, resting on six successive 
platforms, equally distant, each about 25 feet by 18 feet, 
and supported on pillars and pointed arches ; the first two 
having only one storey, and the third, fourth, fifth, and last, 
two, three, four, and five storeys respectively. The roofs of the 
last five Poles are connected by balconies wide enough for a 
person to walk round ; there is much stone carving displayed 
on the interior of the roofs and pillars, and there is consider- 
able grandeur in the construction of the whole, which is a 
series of pointed arches and flat roofs, resting on pillars and 
rising to a great height. The water of this Baori is chiefly 
used by Pushkarna Brahmins for bathing after funerals. 

Nimla Kua, one of the oldest and smallest wells here, was 
built long before the foundation of the city. Such is the local 
importance of Tapi Baori and Nimlo Kua, that the following 
Marwari saying is attached to them, viz., " Tapi baori and 
Nimlo Kuo, nahin dekhio jiko jeewatohi muo" — "A person 
who has not seen Tapi Baori and Nimlo Kuo, is dead though 
alive." 

Chand Baori, a very old well, opposite Jeta Bera, was built 
by the Chohans, and is only used in times of drought for 
drinkinof. 



122 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Some other wells, very important in times of drought, are : 
a Baori of sweet water in Golka Mohalla ; Pancholi Kesri 
Singhi-ka-Jhalra, outside Mertia Darwaza-ki-Bari ; Nawlakha 
Jhalra, adjacent to Kesri Singhji-ka-Jhalra ; Tiwariji-ka-Jhalra, 
outside Chand Pole ; Jalechiji-ka- Jhalra, adjacent to Tiwariji- 
ka-Jhalra ; Bhandari Rughnath-ki-Baori and Suraj Kund, near 
Chand Pole ; Panchwa Maji-ki-Baori, opposite Vidya Sal ; 
Anaran-ki-Baori, in Vidya Sal ; Sugandan-ki-Baori, in Joshian- 
ki-Bagichi, opposite Vidya Sal ; Sri Malan-ki-Baori, near Vidya 
Sal ; a Baori in Miyan-ka-bagh, not far from Vidya Sal ; Dhay- 
ki-Baori, opposite the old temple of Barwasan Mata ; Nainsi-ki- 
Baori, in Nainsi-ka-bagh, adjacent to Dhay-ki-Baori ; a Baori 
at Maharaj Fateh Singh's Raoti ; Mahamandar-ka-Jhalra, in 
Mahamandar, outside Nagori gate, and a large Jhalra near the 
garden of Sursagar. Since the new water supply from outside 
has been provided, the above wells are not so much used by 
the people. 

SiROHi. — The water supply of Sirohi city is derived from 
tanks and wells. The tanks are: — (i) Bara Talao, south-west 
of the city; (2) Lakherao tank, built by Rao Lakha Singh; 
and (3) the Abbott Sagar, named after Colonel H. B. Abbott, 
Resident, W.R.S., and built by the present Maharao, Sir 
Kesri Singh. It is proposed to distribute water from this 
tank by pipes throughout the city, which will be a great 
improvement on the well-water now in use. 

There are twenty wells within the city, of which sixteen 
contain sweet and four brackish water, besides twelve haoris 
around the city, all of which contain sweet water. The depth 
of the wells varies from 60 to 100 feet. 

Jaisalmir. — The capital of Jaisalmir derives its water 
supply chiefly from a fine large tank known as Garrisar, 300 
yards south-east of the city, and said to have been constructed 
upwards of 500 years ago by Rawal Garsee. There are several 
other tanks, viz., Gulab Sagar, Dedansar, Eshar Lai's Talao, 



WATER SUPPLY 

Malka Talao, Sudasar, &c. ; but owing to the very light rainfall 
of Jaisalmir, water is rarely found in them after the monsoon 
season, and then often only in very small quantities. 

There are three wells of sweet water within the fort of 
Jaisalmir, of which Jeslu is the best, and its water has never 
been known to fail. Outside the fort there are six wells from 
which good water can generally be obtained at all seasons ; the 
best of these is behind the jail, and was built by Rani Rana- 
watji of Maharawal Gaj Singh about sixty years ago. The wells 
vary in depth from 156 to 350 feet. 



DRAINAGE 

JoDHPORE. — There is but little artificial drainage in Jodhpore 
city, the elevated site of which lends itself admirably to natural 
flushing. When heavy rain falls, the water running down from 
the sloping grounds below the fort forms a rapid torrent, which 
rushes through the main streets, sweeping away in its current 
the impurities which have, during the dry season, accumulated 
in the sandy soil of the streets and lanes, and carr5dng them 
into a watercourse on the east side of the city, and ultimately 
away into the open country south-east of Ratanada. Little 
attention is given to drainage throughout the country, but the 
towns and villages are generally on high ground, and are 
drained by natural watercourses, which have been formed 
during ages by the rapid escape of rain from the house-tops. 

SiROHi. — The city of Sirohi, situated on the slope of a hill, 
already described, is naturally well drained. The street lead- 
ing to the palace has good masonry drains, and the lowest part 
of the town is drained by a natural watercourse, which is 
flushed during the monsoon season or when a heavy shower 
falls. The refuse is in this way from time to time carried off 
to a distance from the city ; the streets are also washed in the 
same way. 

Jaisalmir, — The site of the Jaisalmir city is high, and 
the natural drainage is therefore good. The main street, 
leading through the city, has good masonry drains. When 
rain falls in sufficient quantities, the city is washed and the 
streets flushed ; but this is not a regular occurrence, as in 
some seasons the rainfall is very scanty. 



LIGHTING 

Except on special occasions, there are no street lights in 
any of the cities or towns of these States. On great occasions 
lighting of the streets is done by rows of small cups contain- 
ing oil and lighted wicks along the ledges and roofs ; this is 
very effective at a distance, but it dirties the building and is 
offensive in smell. Kerosene oil lamps are rapidly supplanting 
the oil cup and wick-light in private houses, and this is very 
desirable from a sanitary point of view, as smoke is not given 
off from the former, while the smoke of the latter poisons the 
atmosphere and destroys the appearance of the houses. The 
palace at Jodhpore is well lighted with electricity; and the 
night trains from Jodhpore now have electric lights, which 
work satisfactorily, and which are a great improvement on 
the ordinary oil lamps still in use on less advanced lines of 
railway. 



125 



ROADS, RAILWAYS, AND TRAMWAYS 

There are a few paved roads within the walls of Jodhpore 
city, mostly leading up the hills, and there is a fine metalled 
road from the Nagore gate to the fort, and thence to join the 
Sursagar road. An excellent road completely encircles the 
city, which has branches leading to the different palaces and 
chief ofiicial bungalows. Branches from this road also run to 
Mandore, the old capital of Marwar, to Balsamand and Kailana, 
the principal tanks for water storage outside the city, to the 
Cavalry Lines, to the chief gardens outside the city, and many 
other places of less importance. 

The railway station, the public offices, the college and 
schools are all adjacent to the principal metalled roads. 



Statement of Roads Constructed and Maintained hy the 
Jodhpore State during 1897-98. 



Locality. 


Length in Miles on 31st March 1898. 


Unmetalled. 


Metalled. 


1 . About Jodhpore . 

2. About Pali . 

3. About Jaswantpura 

4. Sendra to Erinpura 

Total 


2.50 


42.65 

.50 

9.00 

96.00 


2.50 


148.15 



The Jodhpore Railway was commenced early in 1 8 8 1 , and 
in the beginning of 1885 it was completed up to Jodhpore 
city, at a cost of Rs. 1,103,642. The construction was carried 



ROADS, RAILWAYS, AND TRAMWAYS 127 

on from the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Marwar Junction, 
which is sixty-four miles distant from Jodhpore city, and 
there was considerable delay in completing the last twenty 
miles up to the capital on account of the prejudices which 
then existed against railways. 

The construction of the Luni-Puchbhadra branch, sixty 
miles in length, was commenced in 1885 ^^<i opened for traffic 
on the 23rd March 1887, at a cost of Rs, 1,090,153. This 
branch was constructed mainly for the salt traffic from the 
Pachbhadra saltworks, but it has been of great advantage to 
the people of both Marwar and Jaisalmir for the import of 
grain in years of scarcity. 

The extension of the Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway, 167 
miles long (123I in Marwar and 43^^ in Bikanir territory), 
was commenced in 1889, and opened from Jodhpore to 
Bikanir on the 9th December 1891. The sums spent on 
the Marwar section of the line amounted to Rs.2,466,896 ; 
the Bikanir section, to Rs.88 1,220. Total, Rs.3, 348,1 16. 

The Merta-Kuchawan section was started in August 1891. 
and the line was opened on the 13 th March 1893. The total 
expenditure on it amounted to Rs. 1,503,4 17. This branch 
joins the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at the Sambhar Lake, and 
considerably shortens the journey to Jeypore, Agra, and Delhi. 

At the close of the year 1897-98 the length of the 
Jodlipore-Bikanir Railway was 364 miles, and it is now being 
extended both in the direction of Sindh and the Punjab. It 
is doing much to improve the condition of the country, and its 
effects on prices during years of short harvests have been very 
beneficial to the people, while the large profits produced have 
materially added to the State treasury. 

In 1896 a light tramway (two feet gauge) was laid down 
from the Jodhpore station through the city, which has proved 
a great convenience to the public, and which has greatly 
reduced the cost of carriage of grain and other commodities. 



128 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The passenger cars of this tramway meet the trains regularly, 
and are mostly well filled with travellers. 

A conservancy tramway for Jodhpore has recently been 
completed ; it is over five miles in length, and serves for the 
transport of all the city refuse to a suitable distance, 

SiROHi. — There is a short metalled road, about a mile in 
length, which runs through the Sirohi city to the palace ; 
another road from Baofar to the Abbott Sagar. The Ahmedabad- 
Ajmere road passes through the State from Erinpura to the 
foot of Abu on the west side. 

The Rajputana-Malwa Railway runs from the north-east 
in a south-westerly direction through the Sirohi State, and the 
capital is about fourteen miles west of Pindwara, the nearest 
station on the line. 

Jaisalmir. — Jaisalmir may be described as a country 
without roads or railways, although a short metalled road 
has recently been made from the Maharawal's new bungalow 
through the city, passing the Garrisar tank. Tracks have also 
been lined out in three directions to the Marwar border, to 
guide the traveller to the far desert capital. 



SLAUGHTER-HOUSES 

There are no regular slaughter-houses m these States. Some 
of the butchers reside in particular streets of the cities, and 
others outside. Flesh is sold by the butchers outside the city, 
and also in a few places within the city walls. Goats and 
sheep are, however, generally slaughtered outside, although 
some of the Thakars and others kill them in their " nohrds " 
for their own use. 



129 



DIVISION OF STATES INTO PARGANAS 

Marwar. — The Marwar State is divided, for administrative 
purposes, into twenty-four parganas, each presided over by a 
Hakim. The parganas themselves are grouped together in six 
circles, each under a superintendent. 

The northern parganas are three in number, and vary 
greatly in character, Nagore being sandy with brackish water, 
while Merta and Bilara have a clayey soil and much sweet 
water. 

1. Nagore, with an area of 2608 square miles and a popu- 
lation of 252,257, is located in the north of the State. Its 
soil is sandy, and its chief crops lajra, jowar, and til. 

2. Merta, a fertile pargana south of Nagore, has an area of 
16 16 square miles and a population of 205,704. Its soil is 
sandy with a clay admixture ; its chief crops are hajra, wheat, 
cotton, guar, and til. 

3. Bilara, south-west of Merta, has an area of 792 square 
miles and a population of 84,95 2. Its soil is a sandy clay, which 
is very fertile and gives good crops of wheat and barley. 

The north-east parganas are five in number, and Parbatsar 
is the most fertile of these, the others being dry and sandy 
with brackish wells. 

4. Marothe, south-east of Didwana, has an area of 500 
square miles and a population of 56,806. The soil is sandy, 
and hajra, jowar, moth, wheat, and barley are grown in it. 

5. Nawa, south of Marothe, has an area of 300 square 
miles and a population of 31,538. The soil is sandy, and the 
chief crops are hajra and barley. 



DIVISION OF STATES INTO PARGANAS 131 

6. Sambhar, south of Nawa, a share of which belongs to 
Jeypore, has an area of 798^ square miles and a population of 
8310. The soil is sandy, and the chief crops hajra and barley. 

7. Didwana, east of Nagore, has an area of 11 36 square 
miles and a population of 54,272. The soil is sandy, and the 
chief crop hajra. Most of the well water is brackish in this 
pargana. 

8. Parbatsar, south of Didwana, has an area of 840 square 
miles and a population of 104,962. The soil is sandy, and the 
chief crops hajra and barley, with some wheat, til, and gram. 

The three eastern parganas are fertile wheat-producing 
lands. 

9. Pali, south-west of Bilara, has an area of 1024 square 
miles and a population of 58,463. The soil is sandy clay, and 
the chief crops wheat, cotton, hajra, til, and joivar. 

10. Bali, south of Pali, has an area of 1544 square miles 
and a population of 2 1 2,479. The soil is clayey, and the chief 
crops wheat, cotton, hajra, gram, til, and maize. 

11. Sojat, east of Pali, has an area of 1172 square miles 
and a population of 141,782. The soil is light clay, and the 
chief crops wheat, cotton, hajra^ til, maize, and gram. 

12. Jaitaran, east of Bilara, has an area of 960 square 
miles and a population of 87,635. The soil is clayey; the 
chief crops are wheat, cotton, hajra, til, maize, and kirana. 

The southern parganas are four in number, and contain 
much rocky and hill land, in some parts fairly wooded. 

13. Sanchore, south of Mallani, with an area of 1776 square 
miles and a population of 95,890. The soil is sandy, and the 
chief crops hajra and wheat. 

1 4. Jalore, Avest of Bali, with an area of 1552 square miles 
and a population of 170,428, has a sandy soil, on which hajra, 
wheat, and til are grown. 

15. Jaswantpura, east of Sanchore, has an area of 1360 
square miles, much of which is hill country and wooded ravines 



132 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Its soil is sandy clay, and its chief crops lajra, wheat, til, and 
maize. 

1 6. Siwana, north-west of Jalore, is intersected by a range 
of barren hills. Its area is 760 square miles, and its popula- 
tion 64,747. Its soil is sandy in the low lands and rocky in 
the high lands ; its chief crops are hajra and wheat. 

The western parganas are three in number, and they are 
studded with sandhills, many of which shift from time to time. 

17. Mallani, north of Sanchore, has an area of 5760 square 
miles and a population of 221,184. The soil is sandy, and the 
chief crops are hajra, moth, and til. 

18. Sheo, north-west of Mallani, has an area of 2400 
square miles and a population of 30,291. Its soil is sandy; 
chief crop hajra. 

1 9. Pachbhadra, east of Mallani, has an area of 8 5 6 square 
miles and a population of 52,904. The soil is very sandy; 
the chief crops are hajra. and moth in most parts. The subsoil 
water is saturated with salt. 

The north-western parganas are four in number, and there 
is much floating sand throughout this part of the country. 

20. Jodhpore, north-east of Pachbhadra, has an area of 
2896 square miles and a population of 327,267. The soil is 
sandy, with plateaus of bare rock and occasional projecting 
ridges of sandstone ; the chief crops are hajra, wheat, barley, til, 
and cotton. 

21. Shergarh, west of Jodhpore, has an area of 1456 
square miles and a population of 70,919. The soil is sandy ; 
chief crop hajra. 

22. Sankra, west of Shergarh, has an area of 1264 square 
miles and a population of 10,074. The soil is sandy; chief 
crops hajra and moth. 

23. Phalodi, west of Nagore, has an area of 2624 square 
miles and a population of 71,803. The soil is very sandy; 
chief crop hajra. 



DIVISION OF STATES INTO PARGANAS 133 

The parganas are artificial divisions, and are changed from 
time to time for convenience of administration. Bali has been 
quite recently divided into two parganas, viz., Bali and Desuri ; 
the latter includes a considerable portion of the Aravalli range 
of hills and forest country. 

As regards the distribution of Jagir or alienated, and 
Khalsa or fiscal villages, the former are more numerous to- 
wards the borders, and the latter towards the centre of the 
State. Grants of land were generally given on the border, 
where administration was more difficult to carry on than to- 
wards the centre, which was more directly under the eye of 
authority, and more easily kept in order. 

The State of Sirohi is divided into thirteen parganas or 
Tehsils, as follows : — 

1 . Pindwara, north of Rohera, chief town Pindwara ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, karang, maka, kuri, larti, 
jowar, and cotton. 

2. Khuni, north of Pindwara, chief town Panchalia; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, karang, maka, hajra, til, barti, 
jowar, and cotton. 

3. Sheoganj, north of Khuni and adjacent to Erinpura can- 
tonment, chief town Sheoganj ; chief products wheat, barley, 
oil seeds, karang, maka, hajra, til, harti, joioar, and cotton. 

4. Jhora Khdral, west of Khuni, chief town Barloot ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, karang, maka, ktiri, barti, 
jowar, cotton, and gram. 

5. Magra, south of Jhora Kharal, chief town Kalindri ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, karang, maka, bajra, til, kuri, 
barti, Qn.di jowar. 

6. Pamera, south of Magra, chief town Pamera ; chief pro- 
ducts wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka, bajra, and jovjar. 

7. Anadra, south of Pamera, chief town Anandra ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka, bajra, jowar. 



134 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

8. Mandar, south of Anadra, chief town Mandar ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka^ hajra, joivar, and kuri. 

9. Santhpore, south-east of Anadra, chief town Santhpore ; 
chief products wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka, jowar, and gram, 

10. Bhakar, east of Santhpore, chief town Shad Khejda ; 
chief products wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka, joivar, and gram. 

I I . Rohera, north of Bhakar, chief town Rohera ; chief 
products wheat, barley, oil seeds, maka, said jowar. 

1 2. Abu, east of Anadra, chief town Abu Station ; chief 
products, wheat, barley, maka, and potatoes. 

13. Kerari, north of Santhpore, chief town Kerari (Abu 
Road) ; wheat, gram, and maka are the chief products. 

The State of Jaisalmir is divided into eighteen parganas, 
each under a Hakim, as follows : — 

1. Nagar Ganta or Jaisalmir. This pargana is stony or 
hard desert, and its chief town, Jaisalmir, is the capital of the 
State, in the centre of which it is situated. 

2. Devi Kote, north-east of Jaisalmir, is stony, with sand- 
hills here and there. There is a large temple of Devi in the 
town, which is the headquarters of the Hakim, but this was 
devastated by Dewan Salem Singh above a hundred years ago. 

3. Fatehgarh or Vinjoria, south-west of Devi Kote, is a hard 
desert; its headquarters are a small village of 445 souls. 

4. Lakha, south-west of Fatehgarh, is a hard and sandy 
desert, containing some sandhills locally known as tihas ; its 
headquarters are Lakha. 

5. Miajlar, west of Lakha, is sandy, with many tihas; its 
headquarters, Miajlar, is a village of 8 i 8 souls. 

6. Sam Khaba, north of Miajlar, was once thickly popu- 
lated, but it is now almost deserted. There is a very large 
kharin or " bunded " valley at Khaba, where water remains for 
three or four months, and in which wheat is grown ; its head- 
quarters are at Sam, a very small village of 267 souls only. 



DIVISION OF STATES INTO PARGANAS 135 

7. Shahgarh, north-west of Sam Khaba, is high tiha hmd ; 
water is sweet, and found within 60 feet of the surface, but 
the floating sand prevents cultivation. The chief village of 
the Hakumat contains 150 houses, occupied mostly by 
Mahomedans. 

8. Ghotaru, north of Shahgarh, is a small sandy pargana 
with large tihas ; the population of the headquarters is Maho- 
medan. It has a fine fort, which was restored to Jaisalmir by 
the Supreme Government after the Sindh war. 

9. Kharo Khuiala, north of Sam Khaba, is hard desert, 
with some Hbas and watered valleys. The headquarters, Khui- 
ala, contain about i 5 o houses. 

I o. Ramgarh, east of Kharo Khuiala, is hard desert, with 
kharins between the stony ridges, where wheat is produced. 
There is a temple of Vishnu in the fort, the headquarters of 
the Hakim. 

11. Tanot, north of Ramgarh. being mostly tiba land, 
there is very little cultivation. The headquarters, Tanot, 
situated eighty miles from Jaisalmir, was the old capital of the 
Bhatis in the eighth century. 

12. Kishengarh, north of Tanot, is tiba land. It formerly 
belonged to Bahawalpore, then called Deangarh. The head- 
quarters, a village of the same name, contain about a hundred 
houses, mostly built of bricks. There is little bajra grown. 

13. Barawah Buili, east of Ramgarh, is a hard and sandy 
desert. Its headquarters is Buili, a small village containing 
4 1 1 souls. 

14. Dewa, south-east of Ramgarh, is composed of hard 
ridges, with kharins between, some of which are salt-produc- 
ing. Its headquarters, Dewa, is a very small village, containing 
228 souls, and has a small fort. The Darbar stud is located 
there. 

15. Mohangarh, east of Dewa, is partly sandy and partly 
stony desert. It produces baj7'a and grass. 



136 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

1 6. Nochna, east of Moliangarh, is sandy desert with many 
tibas. Its headquarters, a village of the same name, contain 
225 houses and a small fort. 

17. Nokh, east of Nochna, has about 200 houses in the 
headquarters village. Sweet water is found near the surface. 
Vegetables, some wheat, and much lajra are produced in this 
pargana. 

1 8. Bap, south-west of Nokh, is mostly stony desert. There 
are some tanks, kharins, and one large salt runn in this par- 
gana. Wheat is extensively grown in the kharins. 



PRINCIPAL FAIRS 

JoDHPORE. — The chief fairs are held in Jodhpore city, at 
Girdikote, Dhanmandi, Gulab Sagar, and Chand Pole, at diffe- 
rent seasons of the year. The Gangore and Tij festivals are 
celebrated in the city with great show and display of holiday 
costume. 

On each Monday of the month of Sdwan (about July) there 
is a fair held at Mandore, which is largely attended by men, 
women, and children gaily dressed. Feasting and music, in 
picnic form, are the principal features of these occasions ; but 
these fairs are held for the worship of Baijnathji (a form of 
Shiva). The worshippers go out on Sunday evening, and re- 
main awake the whole night reciting hymns in praise of the 
deity, which is called " Jagaran." Early on Monday morning, 
after the worship of Mahadeo, they return to Mandore, and 
are met there by many others, who come out of the city solely 
on account of the fair. 

The Mandalnath fair is held on Chait bud 13th, about six 
miles from the city of Jodhpore, for the worship of Mandal- 
nath Mahadeo, another form of Shiva. 

A great fair is held at Barli, eight miles from the city, on 
Bhadwa sud 1 3 th, to worship a deity called Barli-ka-Bheronji. 

At Kaga, about a quarter of a mile from the Nagori gate, 
a fair is held in the month of Chait in honour of Sitla Mata, 
the protectress of children, to which women chiefly resort 
for worship. 

At Ratanada, about a mile from the Mertia gate, a fair is held 
on Bhadwa sud 4th, in honour of Ganesh, the god of Avisdom. 

137 



138 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

At Masuria-ka-Bhakar a fair is held on Bhadwa sud 2iid 
in honour of Ramdeoji, The place is about a mile to the 
south of the city, and the pilgrims rendezvous there before 
forming a procession to the shrine at Ramdeora, near Poh- 
karan. 

There are many other fairs held in different parganas of 
the State, the principal of which are as follows : — 

The Balotra or Tilwara fair is held at the end of March, in 
honour of Mallinath, the progenitor of the Mallani Sardars. 
People from Mar war and other parts of Rajputana, Gujerat, 
and Scindh congregate in great numbers for purposes of trade, 
pleasure, and worship. Horses, bullocks, camels, hides, tanned 
leather, brass and tin utensils, and wearing apparel have a large 
sale there. The principal object of adoration is the shrine of 
Mallinath. All sellers of animals or goods are expected to 
make a small offering of either money or food at the temple, 
and the general cry of all the Hindus throughout the fair is 
" Jai Mallinathji." 

At Mundwa, ten miles from Nagore, a fair is held in the 
months of December and January ; it is largely attended by 
30,000 or 40,000 travellers from a distance, as well as by 
local people. It was instituted by Maharaja Bakhat Singh in 
honour of Shri Krishna, under the name of Girdhari. Bullocks 
are sold in large numbers at this fair, and it brings in a good 
annual income to the State treasury. 

The Parbatsar fair is held in the month of Bhadon 
(August), in honour of Tejaji, who is credited with the jDower 
of curing snake-bite. It lasts for ten days, and is a great 
cattle fair, well attended by Jats and Punjabi buyers. 

The Ram Deora fair is held in the month of Bhadon 
(August), and is largely attended by pilgrims from Marwar, 
Meywar, Bikanir, Central India, Jaisalmn, and other places. 
It is held in honour of Ram Deo, and the waters of the pool 
or tank there are said to possess great healing properties, and 



PRINCIPAL FAIRS 139 

even to open the eyes of the bUnd. The income of this fair 
goes to the local priests and the Thakar of Pohkaran. 

The Bilara fair is held in March, and lasts for one day- 
only ; the people congregate near a spring of water about four 
miles from the village of Bilara, and the legend is that Raja 
Bal was in the habit of giving great feasts at this spot. The 
deity, Ganga, appeared to him once in a dream, and told him 
that if he shot an arrow into this spring she would appear 
there, and that the water of the spring would in future 
become as sacred as that of the holy Ganges itself. Bal 
obeyed her order, and the water of this spring has ever since 
been held sacred, especially by the poorer classes, and the place 
is called Bdhn Ganga, from hahn, an arrow. 

The Barkana fair is held in Godwar, at a Jain temple 1 200 
years old, in the month of Pos (December). People from the 
adjacent countries of Meywar and Sirohi, as well as the local 
inhabitants, attend this fair, which lasts for two days. 

A fair is held in the end of February or beginning of 
March at the temple of Gorakhnath, on the top of a hill called 
Goramber (a corruption of the word Gorakhnath), four miles 
from the village of Saran, in Sojat. 

Sirohi. — At the religious gatherings in Sirohi no trade is 
carried on except at the Bamanwdji Jain temple, where a large 
fair is held in March, and where a considerable trade is carried 
on in cloths, ivory articles, opium, cotton, cocoanuts, and 
sugar. This fair is well attended by people from Sirohi and 
neighbouring States ; it is of old standing, and lasts for seven 
days. 

At Phalodi, in the Magra pargana, a fair takes place in the 
month of August for the worship of Baijnathji, a form of 
Shiva. Over a thousand people are said to attend this fair, 
which is wholly religious. 

There is a fair held in September for the worship of 
Mahadeo at the shrine of Sarneshwar, about two miles from 



140 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

the city of Sirohi. Sarneshwar is the " Isht Devata " of the 
Sii'ohi chiefs ; the temples are on the hillside, above the 
burning-ground of the ruling family. 

A fair is held on Bhadwa sud 9th in honour of Kalka 
Devi, and another in honour of Matar Mata on Chait bud 
14th, at the Sirohi city. 

Religious fairs are also held at Bamanwaji, at Gungoopia, 
Mahadeo's temple in Khuni, at Karori Dhaj's shrine near 
Anadra, and at Rakhikesh on the other side of Abu. 

Jaisalmir, — There are two principal religious fairs held in 
Jaisalmir ; one of these is celebrated on the last day of the 
month of Baisakh, or April, at Bramkunka, about ten miles 
from the city of Jaisalmir. The fair lasts for two days. The 
other fair is held in honour of Goga (a saint famous for his 
charity and bravery in the thirteenth century) at the same 
place, in August or September of each year. Both of the 
fairs are largely attended. Other fairs, of less note, are also 
held, but no trade of importance is carried on at them. 

Besides the special fairs held in each of the three Western 
Rajputana States, the following principal festivals are observed 
throughout Rajputana : — 

The Ncmratri is held in honour of the Hindu goddess 
Devi or Mata in the month of Chait. " Chait Sudi " 9th 
is the anniversary of Rama's birth. On this day horses, 
elephants, and all the implements of war are worshipped by 
the Rajputs. 

The Dasscra is held in Asoj (October), in commemoration 
of the victory of Rama, king of Ajodhya, over Rawan, king of 
Lanka (Ceylon) ; the " tenth of Asoj " is consequently deemed 
by the Rajput a fortunate day for enterprise or engaging 
in war. 

The Dewali or Festival of Lamps is held on the i 5 th of 
Katik (October), and is one of the most brilliant festivals of 
the season. On this occasion all cities, towns, and villages are 



PRINCIPAL FAIRS 141 

illuminated by the inhabitants, and during the night the 
wealthy worship silver coins in honour of Lakshmi, the goddess 
of loealth, to whom the day is consecrated. 

The Holi is held on the last day of the month of Phagan 
(March), and named after Holica, sister of Hirnakush, the great 
atheist, who tried in many ways to destroy his son, Pehlad, for 
believing in God, but invariably failed. Finally, Hirnakush 
instigated Holica to carry his son into flames, in the hope that 
he might be consumed. However, Pehldd escaped, while Holica 
was burned, although she had hitherto been able to bathe in 
fire without injury. 

The Sil Satami festival is held on Chait badi sdtam, or 7th 
of the month Chait, in honour of the goddess Sitla, the protec- 
tress of children, and there is a great concourse of females to 
her shrine, with their offerings, on the occasion. 

The G-angore is held in the month of Chait ; it is one of 
the most picturesque gatherings of the season, both sexes 
appearing in their holiday costumes on the occasion. Gouri 
or Gour is one of the names of Pdrvati, wife of the great god 
Mahadeo or Ishwara, who attends with her during this festival. 
Every wealthy family possesses these images, and Gouri is 
represented as the goddess of abundance. The female mem- 
bers of each family are particularly interested in this festival ; 
they give much attention to the dressing of the idols, and 
through Gouri invoke blessings on their husbands for several 
days before the images are carried in procession to a lake or 
tank, where they are treated to change of scene and music 
before they are divested of their rich robes and jewels, which 
are then laid up in store for another occasion. 

The Tij is celebrated on Scvwan hadi Tij, or the " 3rd " of 
Sawan. The occasion is sacred to the mountain goddess 
Farvati, being the day on which, after long separation, she was 
reunited to Shiva. She accordingly declared it holy, and pro- 
claimed that whoever invoked her on that date should receive 



142 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

whatever they desired. The Tij is accordingly held in particu- 
lar reverence by women. 

The Akhd-Tij is observed in the month of Baisakh, after 
the reaping of the wheat crop, when new grain is eaten by the 
whole Hindu community. 

The Rakhi festival is held in August, when all the Hin- 
dus have rakhis (bracelets) fastened on their wrists by the 
Brahmins, and make the latter presents in return. Sisters 
also fasten bracelets on to their brothers' wrists, or on the 
wrists of others with whom they wish to make a standing 
friendship, and who can afterwards act as their protectors. 

The Salgireh, or birthday of the chief, is also an occasion 
of much display and rejoicing. 

On all great occasions Darbars are held by the chiefs, and 
nazars presented by their subjects. 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 

There is no regularly recorded account of the famines which 
have visited the Western Rajputana States from time to time 
during the present or previous centuries. Of the three 
Western Rajputana States, Jodhpore and Jaisalmir are liable 
to frequent famines or years of scarcity, on account of their 
extensive sandy tracts, and their position with regard to the 
monsoon currents, the extreme ends only of which they 
receive. Sirohi is more within the rainy zone, and its densely 
wooded hills generally attract a fair share of the monsoon 
clouds. 

Marwar or Jodhpore is subject to partial periodical failures 
of grass or grain crops, but a failure of both in the same year 
is fortunately uncommon. 

The year 1 8 1 3 was a most calamitous one for Marwar. 
The grain crops completely failed, food stuffs sold at three 
seers per rupee, in many places they could not be purchased 
at any price, and numbers of Marwaris died of starvation. 
Fortunately, there was some grass, and the herds were gene- 
rally saved. Sirohi and Jaisalmir both suffered from famine 
and high prices in this year, although less severely than 
Marwar. 

The official year 1868-69 is still remembered as a most 
terrible one for Marwar, as well as for many other parts of 
India. General Brooke has written to the following effect 
regarding the famine in Marwar : — 

The rainy season of 1868 commenced early in June. 
The first falls were succeeded by a long break, during which 



144 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

the grass and seeds sprouted and then withered away ; fields 
were again ploughed and seed sown. A second fall of rain 
in the early part of July caused the crops to attain a height 
of several inches, and the grass to appear again above ground, 
but not sufficiently high to be grazed by cattle. No other 
showers suceeeded ; a strong, cool, south-westerly wind blew 
steadily day and night, which carried no moisture with it to 
fertilise the ground. Week after week of the same weather 
passed. The stunted crops made futile efforts to form heads 
of seed, and the g^rass became thinner and thinner, till the 
fierce October sun burnt up altogether what remained, leaving 
Marwar an arid and withered expanse. It will be observed 
that this year Marwar suffered both from grass and grain 
famine. People had long been accustomed to emigrate to 
Malwa, but it did not offer the same relief as it did in 
former years. 

Two mighty streams of human beings and cattle poured 
from the south-eastern portions of the country, of which the 
greatest crossed the Aravalli Mountains at the Desuri Pass. 
They found some grass in Meywar, but a large portion passed 
on to the jungle below Rutlam, and the remainder to Malwa, 
those arriving first securing the best pastures. The poor 
people who arrived in Malwa late had to pass on, and were 
reduced to the last extremity of distress. The second great 
stream of emigrants passed via Palanpur into Gujerat, and 
some towards Radhanpur. They, too, were doomed to bitter 
disappointment. The great floods which devastated Gujerat 
in August left nothing but a desert for the Marwar herds. 
They were driven farther, dying of starvation at each stage, 
till a few only reached the jungles east of Baroda. Here 
difference of climate and forage killed off large numbers, and 
those who went towards Radhanpur had met the same fate. 
Measures were adopted to supply Marwar with food from 
Sindh. The Marwar Darbar abolished the import duties on 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 



145 



grain in Marwar, and the Thakars of Mallani consented to 
the abolition of their charges on grain. Food was given at 
various places in Jodhporc, Pali, &c., by wealthy inhabitants 
and by religious communities. Rani Jarechiji distributed daily 
seven maunds of cooked food, besides double handfuls of 
grain, after nightfall, to the numerous class who were in too 
respectable a position to beg. From four hundred to five 
hundred people were daily employed on a road, constructed 
from the Agency to the Jalore gate of the city. 

The rati at one time promised well. Light rain fell in 
January and again in February, and recovered what before 
was yellow and sickly; but, later in the season, stormy, 
cloudy weather came on which blighted the growing wheat, 
and an expected lo-anna was reduced to a 6i-anna crop. 

The increase of distress during the famine is shown by the 
ruling prices of wheat in the Jodhpore bazaar, commencing from 
July 1868, when famine was not anticipated. The lowest price 
quoted during the period of scarcity was 3f seers per rupee. 



Price of Wheat at Jodhpore during the Famine of 
1868 ajul 1869. 





British 




British 




Seers per 




Seers per 




Kupee. 




Rupee. 


1 868. 


Srs. Chs. 


1869. 


Srs. Chs. 


July . . . 


14 8 


July . . . 


5 


August 


12 


August 


4 12 


September 


8 12 


September 


4 9 


October . 


6 10 


October . 


5 10 


November 


6 


November 


5 10 


December 


6 12 


December 


6 


1869. 




1870. 




January . 


6 10 


January . 


6 8 


February . 


6 8 


February . 


6 8 


March. 


6 8 


March 


6 12 


April 


6 


April 


7 


May 


5 8 


ist May . 


8 8 


June 


5 8 







K 



146 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Thousands of Marwar emigrants died in the countries to 
which they had gone, and innumerable herds of cattle perished. 
It is estimated that Marwar alone suffered a loss of 373,000 
souls and 200,000 head of cattle during this terrible famine. 

The rainfall in this year was also exceedingly scanty in 
SmoHi, On Abu it was only 30 inches, or less than half of 
that of the previous year ; whilst in other parts of the State it 
did not exceed one quarter the average. The hharif crops, 
consequently, generally failed. The rabi crop for some time 
promised well, but during March most unseasonable weather 
set in, and heavy rain and blight so damaged the ripening 
crops, that the out-turn was only about six annas in the rupee. 
Owing to the failure of the crops, wheat, which in July had 
been selling at 30 lbs. per rupee on Abu, and 34 lbs. in the 
plains below, had by the middle of September risen to 14 and 
16 lbs., and soon afterwards to 12 and 14 lbs. respectively. 
Early in November His Highness the Rao issued a proclamation 
remitting the dues on grain, and interdicting all obstruction to 
or interference in its free export and import. 

Amongst the lower castes, viz., Grasias, Minas, and Bhils, 
the famine had pressed very heavily. For some months after 
the rains they earned a livelihood by collecting grass and 
fodder for cattle, and used to increase their precarious meals 
by adding thereto a large proportion of the bark of the khejra 
tree, or the barbed seed of the gohroo, ground to a fine flour. 
The carcasses of dead cattle, which perished in numbers, were 
also eagerly devoured by these people. Numbers flocked to 
Abu and Anadra for employment. To provide work, a relief 
fund was raised by the European residents of Abu and Deesa, 
to which the Rao contributed Rs. 100 per mensem. The Rao 
further devoted a sum of Rs. 5 000 for the purpose of deepening 
the city tank at the capital, as a relief work. In addition to 
these measures, His Highness made remissions throughout the 
country generally, on the rights ordinarily payable to the State 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 147 

by its subjects. The mortality in cattle, owing to the want of 
fodder, was more than one-half of the whole, or about 7 5 per cent. 

Sirohi depended on Gujerat for its supply of grain, and 
immense quantities were imported from Ahmedabad, Puttun, 
and Sidhpore ; but prices were very high. In the middle of 
July 1869 wheat was selling at 4 seers 13^ chittacks, and 
lajra at 5 seers 5 chittacks per rupee, and at the end of 
September wheat was at 4 seers 6 J chittacks, and hajra at 4 
seers yh chittacks. 

Jaisalmir. — The great famine of 1868—69 affected Jaisal- 
mir severely, nevertheless in a mild degree when compared 
with Marwar. Grain was procurable in Sindh, and it was im- 
ported across the Jaisalmir desert to Marwar, giving employ- 
ment to men and camels. In this manner some of the needy 
were able to obtain a livelihood, while many others migrated 
to Sindh, where they found employment in the irrigated fields 
and canals adjacent to the Indus. 

1877-78. 

JoDHPORE. — The rainfall for 1877-78 was 4^ inches only, 
as compared with 23.65 of the previous year. The rain 
crop, which provides the staple food of the country, was only 
4 annas in a rupee ; while the spring crop fared still worse, 
and throughout the State not more than one-fifth of the normal 
produce was secured. The difficulties thus caused were aggra- 
vated by an unusually severe grass famine, which induced some 
80,000 persons with 200,000 head of cattle to emigrate to- 
wards Gujerat and Malwa. Of these, about 60,000 men and 
1 20,000 cattle returned. The long journey both ways had 
told upon the health of the emigrants, and many of them died 
on the road. The Darbar arranged for the relief of some of 
these sufferers, and despatched two high officials with money 
to purchase food for them. The loss to the State occasioned 



148 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



by the bad season was estimated at ten lakhs of rupees. An. 
abstract of the prices of food grains prevailing during the 
year 1878-79 is given below: — 





Wheat. 


Jowar. 


Bajra. 


1878. 


Srs. Clis. 


Srs. Chs. 


Srs. Chs. 


April 


10 14 


16 12 


14 8 


May 






10 14 


16 12 


14 8 


June 






7 3 


8 7 


7 15 


July 






7 13 


10 10 


9 4 


August . 






7 6 


II 14 


10 


Seiatember 






7 13 


12 7 


10 


October . 






7 9 


II II 


10 


Kovember 




7 10 


II 14 


10 10 


December 






7 II 


II 14 


II 6 


1879. 








January . 


7 8 


II 14 


II 4 


February . 


7 2 


II 5 


9 13 


March 


7 13 


10 


10 7 



SiROHi. — Owing to the scanty rainfall, the kJiarif crops 
were totally destroyed, but the rcibi crops were not so bad. 
It rained oidy 8.45 inches, and was 16 inches less than the 
previous year. The stock of grain stored in the country was 
calculated to be sufficient to last for eighteen months. There 
was, therefore, no apprehension of a total failure of food 
supply. The main wealth of the people consists in their 
flocks and herds. The partial dearth of fodder, therefore^ 
was the cause of much anxiety to the State. From the firsts 
when a scarcity and consequent distress was anticipated, the 
Rao was ready to organise measures to help the people, and 
orders were issued to all the Tehsildars to be ready to collect 
grain and to find employment for such as would need it. 

The prices of food grains prevailing during the famine 

were : — 

Wheat . . . . 8| seers 

Barley . . . . 12 ,, 

Bajra .... 9 „ 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 149 

The rainfall on Abu and the surrounding hills was scanty. 
In place of the usual average of 65 inches, there fell this 
year 16.65 inches only. Grass, which hitherto in the worst 
years of famine was to be found in considerable quantity on 
these hills, was this year exceedingly scarce. 

The scanty rainfall affected Jaisalmir in a minor degree, 
but the stores of grain and grass in the country proved 
sufficient for requirements, and there was no unusual emi- 
gration. 

1891-92. 

JoDHPORE. — The official year 1891-92 was again one of 
considerable scarcity, and many of the people had insufficient 
stocks of grain in store. 

The rainfall of this year was untimely and very partial, 
only 8.76 inches having been registered; so the result was 
failure of crops and grass throughout a great part of Marwar. 
The scarcity was most severe in the Western Parganas of 
Phalodi, Shergarh, Pachbhadra, Siwana, Mallani, and Sanchore. 
Portions of Sanchore, Mallani, and Phalodi, as also the Western 
Parganas of Sheo and Sankra, which are very liable to famine, 
were, on this occasion, saved by the fitful rainfall of the year. 
The most favoured Parganas were Sambhar, Nawa, Marothe, 
and parts of Didwana and Parbatsar. The prices of wheat and 
barley rose considerably, while the rise in the price of hajra 
was slight, and this was solely due to the railway, by which 
millet was largely imported to meet the requirements of the 
people; 1,662,584 maunds more were carried by rail than in 
the previous year. Grass, too, was imported by rail in large 
quantities, and sold at the capital at 24 seers a rupee. 

199,600 persons emigrated from Marwar, of which 126,478 
returned; 661,906 cattle were driven away from the country, 
of which 384,527 were brought back. Many of the emigrants 
died of cholera, which was then prevalent. 



150 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Relief works were started at many places throughout the 
State and Iis.gg6,2yo spent on them. The Darbar also distri- 
buted gratuitous relief to the infirm by means of poor-houses 
at the capital and district headquarters, and medical aid was 
provided for the sick at the works. 23,505 persons received 
gratuitous relief at a cost of Rs. 2 8,064. Private charity was 
largely given, both at Jodhpore and throughout the State. 

Jaisalmir. — Owing to the very light rainfall of the year, 
viz., 4I inches, little crops were reaped, and scarcity was 
general throughout the State. Prices of wheat, hajra, and 
jowar rose considerably. Grass was fairly plentiful, so many 
of the cattle remained in the country. Grain was largely 
imported from Sindh and by the railway. Nevertheless 
11,725 people, with some of their herds, migrated to Sindh, 
of which 231 5 did not return to Jaisalmir. 



Table Shoiving Prices of Grain during the Famine. 





Wheat. 


Bajra. 


Jowar. 


1892. 


Srs. Chs. 


Srs. Chs. 


Srs. Chs, 


February 
March 






8 
8 


9 
9 2 


ID 8 
10 9 


April 

May 

June 






8 
8 
8 


9 42 
9 4 
9 


10 II 

10 10 

11 iih 


July 

August 






8 ID 

8 9 


9 4 
II 2 


10 14 
12 4 



Relief works were opened by the Darbar, but most of 
the people were disinclined to labour, as they are not accus- 
tomed to steady hard work. Rs. 5 4,6 5 9 were spent on them, 
and gratuitous relief was also given, both by the Darbar and 
some of the rich traders. 

SiROHi. — The people of this State had to contend to some 
extent with increased prices during this year, but they did not 
sufter from actual famine at any time. 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 151 

1896-97. 

From June 1896 to August 1897 scarcity prevailed in 
Jaisalmir and parts of Marwar, but Sirohi did not suffer, except 
from high prices consequent on the unusual export of grain 
to Bikanir and other places where the crops had failed. 

JoDHPORE. — In 1896 the rainfall of Marwar was very- 
little below the average. It fell unseasonably for crops in 
several parganas, and little was produced in the north and 
east of the State ; grass was also very bad in many parts of 
Marwar, and there was considerable migration and driving off 
of cattle in search of pasture. It was estimated that 17,660 
persons migrated to Malwa, of whom 12,467 returned after 
the distress was over, and that 101,289 head of cattle were 
driven away from the country on account of the grass failure. 
Only five parganas were affected, and in the southern and 
western districts of the State the hajra crops were so good 
and abundant that an unusual export of millet to Bikanir 
and other famine-stricken provinces took place. 

Relief works were opened in all the affected parganas, which 
cost the Darbar Rs. 165,883, and gratuitous relief to the extent 
of Rs. 18,491 was also given to those unable to work. Besides, 
there was much private relief given by the well-to-do. 

No special famine hospitals were opened in Marwar, but 
the hospital assistants in the affected parganas took charge of 
the sick and attended to sanitation on the relief works. 

Jaisalmir. — In 1896 only 3.63 inches of rain were regis- 
tered at Jaisalmir. Consequently hardly any crops in the 
State came to maturity, and the people had to rely greatly on 
imported grain to supplement their stores left over from the 
previous year's harvest, which had not been very abundant. 
Many of the people migrated to Sindh with their herds and 
flocks, although relief works had been opened at the capital 
and in several other places throughout the State. The Darbar 
spent Rs.86,000 on relief works, and Rs.10,812 on gratuitous 



152 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



relief to those unable to work. Medical relief was also pro- 
vided. 25,143 persons emigrated, and of these 13,155 returned. 
The prices of the principal food grains in Marwar and 
Jaisalmir from August 1896 to September 1897, obtainable 
per rupee, are given below : — 



Marwar. 


Jaisalmir. 




Wheat. 


Bajra 




Wheat. 


Bajra. 


1896. 


Srs. 


Chs. 


Srs. 


Chs. 


1896. 


Srs. 


Chs. 


Srs. Chs. 


August . 


10 


II 


12 


13 


August . 


10 





10 8 


September 




9 


13 


10 


15 


September 




ID 





10 S 


October . 




8 


8 


8 


12 


October . 




7 


15 


9 4 


November 




6 


14 


8 


7 


November 




7 


3 


8 12 


December 




6 


14 


8 


12 


December 




7 





8 12 


1897. 










1897. 








January . 


7 


6 


9 


10 


January . 


7 


3 


8 6 


February 






8 


2 


10 





February . 




7 


2 


8 9 


March 






8 


2 


10 





March 




7 


I 


9 3 


April 






8 


10 


10 





April 




6 


4 


8 4 


May 






8 


12 


10 





May . 




7 


2 


8 7 


June 






8 


12 


10 





June 




7 


12 


8 5 


July. 






8 


12 


9 


5 


July. 




7 


9 


8 4 


August 






7 


13 


8 


4 


August . 




7 


II 


8 10 


September 




7 


8 


8 


9h 


September 




6 


14 


9 13 



1898 

The monsoon of 1898 was again capricious, and the 
rainfall registered in these States was little more than half 
the average. Consequently, most of the crops failed through- 
out, and there was little grass in either Marwar or Sirohi. 

In Jaisalmir only about 3I inches of rain were registered. 
Nevertheless, it fell so opportunely, that there was a fair crop of 
grass, but it was not sufficient to bring much of the hajra into ear. 

As soon as the monsoon failure was certain, grain was 
imported by rail in large quantities from the abundant stocks 
over in adjacent provinces, where the previous harvest had 
been imusually good. Consequently, the prices of food stuffs 
have ranged low throughout the year. Many of the cattle 
have, however, had to be driven away to Sindh and Malwa in 
search of pasture. 



HISTORY OF FAMINES 153 

General Remarks on Famines in the Western 
Rajputana States. 

Famines in the thinly populated districts of Western 
Rajputana are not so severe on the inhabitants, although much 
more frequent than in the congested areas of Bengal, Madras, 
and Bombay. Many of the people have hoards of grain laid 
up against the ever-recurring bad seasons, and many of the 
poor people, during years of scarcity, manage to subsist al- 
most altogether on roots and seeds of grass found in the 
desert. Failure of crops and grass is so frequent in the 
western desert, that the people are semi-nomadic in their 
habits. When the monsoon fails, they leave their homes, 
with their herds and flocks, to find pasture before the animals 
become too impoverished to make the long journeys into 
Kotah, Malwa, and Sindh, which they have frequently to do 
on account of the capriciousness of the rainfull. Also, like 
the harvest-men of the West of Ireland, many of the labouring 
classes in these parts migrate annually in search of work to 
the rich valleys of the Indus and the opium fields of Kotah 
and Malwa. In this way they tide over frequent bad seasons, 
and accumulate money for their marriages and funeral feasts, 
as well as for their tobacco, opium, and wine — creature comforts 
which the poor could not obtain in their own desert villages, 
where employment is uncertain and labour badly remunerated. 

Money advances for the purchase of food in bad seasons 
are made by the Marwari money-lenders to their own country- 
men without much security ; and the Jodhpore - Bikanir 
Railway will soon be able to place grain within easy reach of 
almost every one. Consequently, failure of the monsoon is 
being divested of some of the severity which attended it before 
the introduction of railways. 



DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD 

Most of tlie Hindus of these States dispose of tlie dead by 
cremation; burning-grounds, with artistic chliattris erected to 
the memory of the great departed, may be seen adjacent to 
any city or large town. Some of the deiocds on the cremation- 
grounds of the ruUng families are very handsome edifices. 
Many of the burning-grounds are in the beds of dry rivers or 
streams, so that the ashes may be carried away to the sacred 
river by the floods in the monsoon season, when the relations 
cannot afford to convey them to the Ganges. A few Hindus, 
such as Sannyasis, Gusains, Kabirpanthis, Bishnois, and Naths, 
are buried, also Hindu children who die before they leave their 
mother's breasts. Bhils, Sansis, Jogis, Sweepers, Dheds, and 
other low castes bury their dead. 

There are sixteen principal cremation-grounds without the 
walls of the city of Jodhpore where Hindus are cremated. 
Certain influential Oswals are cremated in their own gardens 
outside Chand Pole, and chliattris erected over the burning- 
grounds to their memories. The late Maharaja Jaswant Singh 
and his three widows — Maji Panwarji, Maji Deoriji, and Maji 
Shekhawatji — were, however, cremated within the city at 
Deokund, on a bare rock near the fort, and this is now to be 
the cremation-ground of the ruling family of Jodhpore. Satis 
continued to take place up to the death of Maharaja Man 
Singh, but the custom has now quite gone out, although many 
of the people complained that it was not allowed when Maharaja 
Takhat Singh died. 

Besides the site of the chliattris of the ruling family adjacent 



DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD 155 

to the temples of Sarneshwar Mahadeo, about two miles from 
Sirohi, there are three other principal cremation-grounds, and 
these are all at a short distance from the city. 

There are two principal cremation-grounds adjacent to the 
city of Jaisalmir, and the ruling family is cremated about five 
miles distant, where there are some beautiful chhattris erected. 
The chhattri of Maharawal Bairi Sal has recently been completed, 
and it is a very handsome structure in early Hindu style. 

All Mahomedans bury theu- dead, and they generally have 
their cemeteries adjacent to tanks, which is insanitary, and 
frequently gives rise to unhealthiness in towns. 

There are nine or ten principal Mahomedan burial-grounds 
at Jodhpore without the city walls, of which all except two — 
Paota and Malikshaji-ka-Takia — are in use. 

Not far from Bhandelao, the chief cremation-ground of 
Hindus of all castes already referred to, is situated the only 
Parsi burial-ground adjacent to Jodhpore. 

There is only one Mahomedan burial-ground at Sirohi city. 

There are three Mahomedan burial-grounds in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jaisalmir city, but there is nothing noteworthy 
to remark regarding them, except that two of them are near 
tanks, and are therefore a source of danger to the public health 
when the water is required for use. 

There are two European cemeteries at Jodhpore; one of these 
has only one grave in it, and the other only a very few, mostly of 
Eurasian children. There are some Europeans buried at Balmer 
in Mallani, and some Frenchmen of Scindia's army at Merta. 

In Sirohi State there are three important Christian ceme- 
teries, viz., one at Mount Abu, one at Erinpura, and one at 
Abu Koad. There is an European grave, well kept, at Kalindri 
village, and two or three at other railway stations. 

There is no European cemetery in Jaisalmir State. 

There is a Tower of Silence for the exposure of Parsee 
dead at Abu Road. 



MARKETS AND FOOD 

JoDHPORE. — The principal grain market of Jodhpore is 
■Girdikote, which, is located in the centre of the city, and near 
the Gulab Sagar tank. It is a large enclosure in the form of 
a square, having storerooms and verandahs on all sides ; its 
enclosing wall and the buildings that surround it are of stone, 
and there is a fine open space in the middle. It has two main 
entrances, one leading^ to the Gulab Saofar, the other to the 
main bazaar. Besides grain, fresh vegetables (both imported 
and locally grown), fruit, and other things are exposed for sale 
in this market. The principal market for vegetables, fresh 
fruits, and flowers is, however, Dhan-mandi, the original grain 
market of the city (dlian, grain, and mancli, a place for its 
sale). Here various wares, such as shoes, " Chundris," and 
" Ornis," are always exposed in the evening, to attract the eye 
of the purchaser, when the market is frequented and purchases 
generally made. This market is in the form of an irregular 
quadrangle, enclosed with buildings of various kinds, temples, 
hospitals, and private houses. It can be approached from the 
main bazaar, and also from two other directions. Local fairs 
are held in both these markets at certain seasons, when they 
are thronged with brightly dressed people of both sexes, and 
present a very gay appearance. 

As the principal citizens are Hindus, there is no meat 
market within the city walls ; meat is, however, procurable 
from the butchers at their houses. 

There are grain markets in all the large towns, and grain 
dealers in every village of importance. Grain is largely im- 




^ 






MARKETS AND FOOD 15T 

ported by rail and road in years of scarcity, and there is a great 
export of both hajra and wheat in years of plenty. There are 
great hoards of grain throughout the country, and much of this 
is buried in the ground against famine. 

Bajra and moth are the staple food stuffs of the poorer 
classes, and wheat of the well-to-do. Barley, grain, maize, and 
joivar are largely consumed by the people, and rice is found in 
the markets in all the principal towns, although it is not grown 
in Marwar, nor is it in general use as an article of diet. The 
various grains have their season, hajva being considered whole- 
some at one time of the year, moth at another. 

Animal food is not in general use, although most of the 
Rajputs and some of the other Hindus are meat-eaters when 
they can afford it. The flesh of the goat and wild pig is highly 
esteemed by Rajputs, while mutton and fowl are considered 
inferior, both in flavour and nutriment. The cow being sacred, 
beef is wholly forbidden. 

Vegetables are always scarce on account of the lightness of 
the soil and the scarcity of water ; radishes and onions are the 
principal vegetables of the people, and the latter are largely 
imported as well as grown. In the western desert the leaves 
and seeds of the kheji-a tree {Proso'pis sjncigera) are largely 
used as vegetable food. 

Chillies are the principal condiment of the country; they 
are extensively grown and also imported. 

Salt is found in abundance everywhere. 

During years of scarcity, many of the people in the desert 
subsist on roots and seeds of grass, supplemented by locusts 
when they visit the country. Meal made from " Bhurat " grass 
seed {Cenchrus catharticus) is not unlike hajra meal ; but great 
labour is entailed in separating this grass seed from its horny 
case : it is said that a man has to Avork hard for a whole day 
to obtain sufficient meal for three days' food. When locusts 
make their appearance, which they frequently do, they are 



158 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

caught in great numbers by throwing sheets and blankets 
over them when they are huddled together during the cold of 
the early morning ; they are carried off in bags on camels and 
used fresh, or, when abundant, salted up in tiers in the corners 
of the huts, for future use. They are said to be both whole- 
some and palatable when so preserved, and the consumers fatten 
on the diet. 

Fruit is not largely grown, but oranges, pomegranates, guavas, 
and " Bor " {Zizyphus jujuha) are grown where water is plentiful. 

Water-melons are largely cultivated in the sands, where 
they grow to an enormous size. The pulp is eaten fresh, and 
the seeds are dried, ground, and mixed with flour for food. 
There is a large import of fruit into some of the towns. 

Mango pickle is much in use as an antiscorbutic. 

Tobacco is in general use, and it is both grown and largely 
imported. 

Liquor is largely consumed throughout Marwar by many 
of the Avell-to-do, and opium is in general use, both as an 
occasional beverage and as a daily stimulant. 

SiROHi. — There are many grain-dealers and markets in 
the Sirohi capital and in the principal towns, but most of the 
people grow then* own supplies. Wheat, barley, gram, mong, 
joivar, and maize are more in use in this State as food stuffs 
than hajra and moth, although the latter are grown and con- 
sumed in some parts of the country. Vegetables and fruit 
are more plentiful than in Marwar and Jaisalmir ; melons are 
largely grown in the beds of streams and rivers, and country 
vegetables are to be found in most villages, while cabbages, 
carrots, and other English vegetables are at certain seasons to 
be had in many places. Fresh animal food is only in general 
use among some of the well-to-do. Bhils, Bhambis, and other 
low castes eat all animals that die, and many of the Bhils 
hunt to obtain animal food. The greater part of the popula- 
tion is vegetarian. Tobacco is grown and also imported ; it 



MARKETS AND FOOD 159 



is in general use throughout the country. Many of the 
people, especially Rajputs, Minas, and Bhils, consume liquor 
freely, and opium is much used both as a beverage on great 
occasions and by habitues of the drug. Hemp is used only 
by a few, and it is cultivated to some extent for both local 
consumption and export. 

Jaisalmir. — There is a market in the city of Jaisalmir, 
and in all the principal villages a few dealers in grain, who 
supply the people during times of famine, when food stuffs 
have to be imported. Under favourable monsoon conditions, 
most of the people grow their own food. 

Bajra is the principal food stuff produced, but wheat, 
joivar, and mong are grown in good seasons ; milk enters 
largely into the diet of the people. Radishes and chillies 
are grown in a few favourable spots, but the hhejra tree 
{Frosopis spicigera) is the principal source of vegetables in 
many parts of the country. Water-melons are grown in 
some parts of the sandy desert. There are a few lunes and 
oranges grown near the capital, and in a few other places 
Avhere water is procurable ; but fruit is little known in the 
country. Sugar is largely imported, and opium is much 
used, both as an occasional beverage and by habitues of the 
drug. There is not much wine consumed in the country, but 
it is much relished by many of the people when they can 
get it, and used regularly by a few who can afford it. Salt 
is found in several places throughout the country, but it is 
not manufactured on a large scale ; most of that used is im- 
ported from Marwar, where it is of superior quality. Tobacco 
is in general use, but it has mostly to be imported, as there is 
no part of the country where it can be grown as a paying crop. 

As in the desert parts of Marwar during times of scarcity, 
many of the people subsist on the roots and seeds of grass, 
and locusts are much prized as an article of diet, both in the 
fresh and preserved state. 



160 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 










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To face page 163. 



GAME 

The game of these States is intimately comiected with the 
food-supply. The Rajputs are keen sportsmen, and shoot and 
hunt the game of the country both for sport and for the table. 
Game is much prized by them, on account of its flavour, as 
well as on account of the strengthening and nutrient qualities 
assigned to it beyond other animal food. Flesh, especially 
that of game-birds and antelope, is added to the ingredients 
from which superior country wine is distilled, and it is 
believed to give body to the distillate, and to counteract 
the evil effects of the ardent spirit, so that it can be consumed 
in larger quantities with less detriment to health than other 
alcoholic drinks, although it is generally much stronger and 
not often carefully mellowed by keeping, as is done in the case 
of the superior wines of the West. 

The Indian wild boar {Sus indicus) stands first among the 
game of these States, as the pig-sticking of Jodhpore is far- 
famed. Wild pig are not only found in great numbers in the 
low hills adjacent to Jodhpore, where they are carefully 
preserved, but they abound in many other parts of Marwar, 
especially in the low ranges of the Aravallis and the grass 
lands of Godwar and Jalore, where they are protected by the 
ruggedness of the country and the natural cover afforded by 
the low scrub jungle in uncultivated regions. Wild pig are 
found in a few places in Jaisalmir, and they are numerous in 
most of the low hills of Sirohi, Although the wild boar in this 
Arid country does not attain the same proportions to which he 
grows in the sugar-cane fields of the Deccan, yet large animals 

103 



164 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

are common in the preserves, and they are noble for sport, 
being fast in their own ground, and, when overtaken, fighting 
till the last breath. Boars, measuring 36 inches at the 
shoulder, are not uncommon here, and they occasionally run 
to a couple or three inches more. No year passes here without 
a number of accidents in the pig-sticking field to both men and 
horses, and the wounds are often severe, as the boars charge 
with great courage, frequently overturning both horse and 
rider, and following up with a most determined attack upon 
the horseman who has been unseated. I have seen a boar in 
the preserves at Jodhpore unseat two excellent horsemen, one 
after the other, and then cut the horse of a third in the 
quarter behind the saddle, after which the game animal 
rushed on to a number of spears pointed at him, and died 
charging. On another occasion a rider engaged in spearing a 
pig was attacked from behind by a second boar of the same 
sounder, and dragged from his saddle, badly cut and torn. 
Indeed, the wild boar of these parts will at certain seasons 
attack a horseman as soon as they see him approaching, and 
the old animals will often charge their pursuers before they 
are touched with the spear. I once shot a tiger in the Sirohi 
preserves which had been badly wounded by a wild boar ; and 
the latter is almost the only animal in the jungle that will not 
slink from his path to avoid a tiger. Spearing the wild boar 
is a very favourite sport with good horsemen, and the Rathore 
is a particularly keen and accomplished pig-sticker. The sport 
is attended with more danger than fox-htmting, both hands 
and head are more occupied in self-preservation and attack, 
the excitement of the chase is more intense although sooner 
over, and greater dash is required. Consequently, many 
hunting men who have done much in both fields of sport 
place pig-sticking in front of fox-hunting. There are, hoAvever, 
on the other hand, keen sportsmen who prefer a day with the 
hounds, but the associations would probably account for this. 




Pig-Sticking — The Kil 




Pig-sticking — The Bag, Jodhpore. To fcice page 164. 



GAME 165 

Pig-sticking is a most healthful recreation. It gives a horse- 
man a good seat, a keen eye, a ready hand, and a clear head. 
I therefore prescribe an occasional morning with the wild pig 
for the overworked administrator to ward off dyspepsia, as 
well as to the soldier officer to keep him in health and 
condition and ready for the actual practice of his profession. 
The flesh of the wild boar is much prized by all Eajputs as 
an article of diet, and, when roasted in their way, it is very 
palatable and nourishing, and the hams cured and cooked in 
Europe fashion are of excellent flavour. The fat is much used 
by Baids and Hakims in the treatment of disease, and the 
teeth are worn by children to keep off the evil eye. 

Four varieties of antelope are found in these States, viz., 
the Indian antelope or black buck (Antilope hezoartica) ; the 
Indian gazelle or Chikara {Antiloiie arahica) ; the four-horned 
antelope or Bekra {Antilope qiiadricornis) ; and the nilgai {Anti- 
lope tragocamelus). The black antelope is found in abundance 
in Marwar and Sirohi, between Abu and Sendra, west of the 
Aravallis. It extends south into the parganas of Jalore and 
Siwana, west into Pohkaran and Phalodi, and north into Merta, 
Nawa, Nagore, and Didwana. It is found in Bap and some 
adjacent parganas of Jaisalmir, but it does not frequent the 
western and north-western deserts of Marwar and Jaisalmir. 
Black buck grow to a good size in these States, although their 
horns are not so long as in Ulwar, Bhurtpore, and Dholpore, 
rarely exceeding 24 inches. Black buck afford good sport to 
the rifleman. They are shy and difficult of approach, conse- 
quently they require stalking, and cannot be obtained without 
labour. The flesh of the black buck is highly prized by 
Kajputs. The horns are used for handles for knives, and the 
skins as foot-mats. 

Ked buck, Indian gazelle or Chikara, are abundant through- 
out the Western States of Rajputana, except in the highest 
hills, and although they are smaller in the sandy and hard 



166 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

desert than in the fertile plains below the Aravalli range, 
there is but one species. The horns rarely measure over 
1 3 inches. Red buck are much more easily approached than 
the black variety, and they are hunted with dogs as well 
as shot. The flesh is more finely flavoured than that of the 
black buck, and the saddle is particularly tender and well- 
flavoured when properly kept. 

The four-horned antelope or Bekra is met with on Abu, in 
the Aravalli range, and in some of the detached hills in Marwar 
and Sirohi. It is not of much importance from a sportsman's 
point of view, and its flesh is less finely flavoured than that 
of the other species. 

The nilgai is found in several of the northern and eastern 
parganas of Marwar. It is rarely seen in Sirohi or Jaisalmir. 
It is not very attractive to the sportsman, and the villagers look 
upon it as a sort of cow, and would resent its being shot. The 
hide of the nilgai makes excellent soft leather, and its marrow- 
bones are a great delicacy. 

Two varieties of deer are met with in the Aravalli range, 
Abu, and other hills of Sirohi and Marwar, viz., Samber (Cervus 
hippelaphus), and Chital {Cervus axis). 

The samber is met with in considerable numbers on Mount 
Abu, the Neemuch and Jaswantpura hills, in the Aravalli range, 
at Kuchawan, and in some other places in Marwar and Sirohi. 
The animal is well grown in these hills, and has often horns 
approaching a record. Major Hutton Dawson, of Kotra, has a 
pair of samber horns the measurements of which are near the 
published record ; the animal was shot in the low hills near 
Kotra. The flesh is considered good by the people of the 
country, the marrow-bones are excellent, and the skin is much 
prized for sword-belts, boots, and leggings. 

The chital, or spotted deer, is found in the south of 
Sirohi, and close to the Aravallis in Marwar, but not often 
in great numbers. It is not found in Jaisalmir. It is a well- 



GAME 167 

grown animal in these States, and shot for its flesh, skin, and 
horns, as well as for the sport it affords. Deer horns are 
used medicinally in the treatment of pleurisy. The skins of 
all varieties of deer are highly appreciated by Sadhus as mats, 
and by others for making belts and slippers. 

The common Indian hare (Lcpus ruficaudatus) is distributed 
throughout these States, and met with in great numbers along 
the foot of the Aravalli range, and adjacent to the low hills, as 
well as in most other parts of Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir. 
Hares are hunted with village dogs, and mobbed by the vil- 
lagers of some parts, but they are generally shot by Kajputs, 
who prize their flesh for the table. Jugged Indian hare is 
very palatable. Lepus nigricollis, another variety of Indian 
hare, is very rarely met with in the Western Rajputana States. 
Hares' blood is used medicinally, especially for children's 
diseases. 

The porcupine {Hystrix cristata indica) is met with in great 
numbers adjacent to hills and tanks. It is killed and eaten by 
some of the people, but is generally destroyed on account of 
its depredations in vegetable gardens. Its fat is used medici- 
nally in rheumatic and other affections, and its quills are in 
use as pen-holders and boring instruments. 

The hedgehog {Erinaceus collaris) is common. It is smaller 
than the English hedgehog, but the same in appearance and 
habits. It feeds on small animals and vegetables, and some- 
times does injury to young vegetables and flowers. It is eaten 
by some low castes. Hedgehogs' fat is used medicinally in 
joint affections and lumbago. 



BIG GAME 

A BRIEF account of the animals, mostly known as big game, 
which diminish the food of man, and others which are injurious 
to man and domestic animals, will be appropriate here. I 
shall begin with those which delight the sportsman, even 
more than the game shot to supplement the delicacies of the 
table. 

The lion {Felis leo) has now become extinct in these States, 
no specimen having been shot in either Marwar or Sirohi for 
nearly thirty years. In 1872 the Bhil Shikari of Mr. T. 
W. Miles brought in the skin of a full-grown Asiatic lioness 
which he had shot on the Anadra side of Mount Abu, and 
about the same year Colonel Hayland bagged four of the 
species near Jaswantpura, in Marwar. These were the last 
lions seen over the Kutch border of Marwar, and the Abu 
lioness was the last met with in Sirohi territory. They seem 
to have been more easily shot than tigers, as they returned 
more boldly to their " kills," thus becoming an easy prey to 
the Bhil Shikari who sat up for them. 

The tiger {Felis tigris) is still to be found in many parts of 
Marwar and Sirohi, although he is yearly becoming scarcer, and 
must shortly follow the fate of the lion, and cease to belong to 
the fauna of these jungles. Tigers have not been known in 
Jaisalmir during recent years, and there is hardly any place in 
the State where they could find cover enough to exist, even if 
preserved. Tigers in Marwar and Sirohi are now mostly con- 
fined to the Jalore, Jaswantpura, Nimuch, and Abu hills. 
There are, however, still a few in the Aravalli range, and in 




Big Game — Tiger, Bear, Panther, and Crocodile. To face page if 



BIG GAME 169 

the lower hills of Sirohi ; but these could now be easily counted, 
and are hardly allowed sufficient rest by the Shikaris to breed. 
The tigers of these parts are generally well grown, and they 
give good sport, sometimes charging before they are wounded. 
The largest I have shot, and indeed the biggest I have seen, 
measured 9 feet gh inches, as it lay before the skin was taken 
off. The tigers here live principally on the game of the jungle, 
which is plentiful in their beats, but they also carry off 
many of the cattle from the large herds grazing on the 
hills. They even sometimes kill camels, horses, and other 
domestic animals which wander a little way from villages. 
Tigers' fat is considered a potent remedy in the treatment 
of rheumatism and joint affections, and the skin is highly 
prized as a mat by all classes. 

The panther (Felis jjardus), of which there are undoubtedly 
two varieties in these States, viz., the large long-headed and 
the small round-headed. They are both still fairly plentiful 
in the hills of Marwar and Sirohi, and panthers are even 
met with occasionally in a few places in Jaisalmir. The large 
panther is destructive to sheep, goats, and cattle, and will 
sometimes kill ponies and camels, while the smaller variety 
confines itself chiefly to sheep and goats. The latter is occa- 
sionally an accomplished dog-siealer, being able to carry off 
fox-terriers, almost from their masters' feet, when taken out 
for a walk at Abu. Sometimes the larger variety takes to 
dogs also, and will make the boldest and most determined 
attacks on well-nourished Europe dogs, as well as lie in wait 
for the village dog outside the door. Both varieties of 
panther exercise much greater cunning than the tiger in 
evading the sportsman, and are always a much less certain 
find, even when they have killed and eaten well. Consequently 
they will exist long after the tiger has been added to the 
extinct genera of felidas. Panther skins are much sought 
after by Sadhus, for use as praying carpets. 



170 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

I have not seen or heard of the hunting leopard {Felis 
jnhata) in the wild state, in these jungles. "When met with, 
domesticated for hunting, it has invariably been brought from 
beyond our border. 

There are at least four varieties of wild cats met with in 
these States, viz., the marbled tiger-cat {Felis marmorata), the 
leopard-cat (Felis hengalensis), the common jungle-cat {Felis 
chaus), and the common tree-cat {Paradoxurus musanga). 
These cats do much harm to small game and poultry, and 
should be destroyed when opportunity offers. 

The red lynx {Felis caracal), the hysena {Hycena striata), 
two varieties of mungoos {Herpestes malaccensis and rubiginosus), 
the wolf {Canis lupus), the jackal {Canis aureus), the wild dog 
{Ciion rutilans), and the desert fox (Vulpes hucopus), are all 
fairly numerous in these States. Hysenas are found in the low 
hills and ravines here, where they do much harm to the flocks 
and young of the herds. Wolves are abundant in the 
Western desert, and are much dreaded by the people. They 
hunt in packs, and carry off sheep, goats, calves, and even 
young children from the fields. Jackals abound everywhere, 
and do much harm to game, poultry, and young animals. 
Wild dogs are only occasionally met with in these forests ; 
but when they appear they commit great ravages among deer 
and other animals, soon leaving the country without horned 
game. Both jackals and wild dogs hunt in packs, and the 
latter are very ravenous beasts. The desert fox is found 
everywhere in the deserts of these States, where it lives on 
rats, eggs, and young birds. It cannot be hunted successfully 
here, as the dogs get foot-sore and become unable to run, 
on account of the spiked grass-seed which covers the sandy 
desert in years of good rainfall. Camel men are always 
anxious to get foxes and jackals, which they boil and give to 
their camels to increase their pace and power of endurance. 

The Indian black bear {Ursus lahiatus) is found in the 



BIG GAME 171 

Aravalli range and throughout the low hills of Sirohi, Jas- 
wantpura, Jalore, and sometimes in the Siwana hills of Marwar, 
The black bear of Sirohi and the hilly parts of Marwar gene- 
rally resorts to a cave in the daytime, only coming abroad 
from evening till morning, for food and water. It is conse- 
quently difficult to bag by beating the ravines and hills, and 
will therefore survive for a considerable period longer. This 
bear is well grown, and I have seen some specimens equal to 
those met with in the Deccan, where then' food is more easily 
obtained. Bears feed principally on fruit and honey, and there 
is a good supply of the latter to be had in the Aravallis and 
other hills of these States. Bears' fat has a reputation as a 
curative remedy in rheumatism, and the skin is used as a mat. 

The Indian badger {Mellivora indica) is rarely seen in these 
States, but the Indian otter {Lutra nair) is common, and may 
at times be seen about most large tanks, where it lives prin- 
cipally on fish. The sldn of the Indian otter is not valuable, 
as the fur is coarse and wanting in the gloss of that of animals 
of the same species resident in cold climates. 

The Indian Shikari or sportsman runs considerable risk in 
his conflicts with the big game of the country, and often when 
wounds inflicted on man by wild animals are not at first mortal, 
they rapidly take on a poisonous character and frequently end 
fatally. This is due to inoculation with saliva and to blood 
poisoning. Even the claws of the felidse sometimes produce 
poison wounds. Most of the accidents connected with big 
game shooting occur after the animal has been wounded, and 
when it is in a high state of anger, which increases the poison- 
ous character of the saliva and enhances the danger of wounds 
made by the teeth. That the saliva of animals increases in 
virulence, as a provision of nature for self-preservation, has been 
well established ; and that mothers can, under conditions of 
great irritation, secrete a poisonous milk injurious to their off- 
spring, is also well known. The late Maharaja of Jodhpore, 



172 AVESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

who was a great Shikari and a keen observer, told me that he 
had noticed that the bites inflicted by old tigers and panthers 
were always more likely to be followed by blood poisoning than 
those of younger animals. This could be accounted for by the 
fact that the old ones would no doubt generally be in a greater 
rage when wounded than the young animals, and consequently 
be secreting a more virulent saliva to use against their enemies. 
Of such importance is the early cleansing and disinfection 
of wounds made by wild animals that no Shikari should be in 
pursuit of big game without having some antiseptic convenient, 
and carbolic acid is the safest and most easily applied. Deep 
wounds made by the teeth should be at once attended to, and 
they should be immediately mopped out with strong carbolic 
acid on a piece of cotton attached to a bit of clean wood for a 
handle, which can be made anywhere. The cavities should 
then be washed, or, better still, syringed out with carbolic 
lotion, of the strength of one part of the acid to fifteen of clean, 
and, if possible, boiled water, after which iodoform dressing 
should be applied, if it be available. Should, unfortunately, 
no medicines be procurable, the wounds must be thoroughly 
washed, the limb placed in an easy position, and the nearest 
medical aid obtained. HgemorAage is sometimes troublesome, 
but it can generally be controlled by elevating the limb and 
keeping the patient in the recumbent position. The applica- 
tion of ice, very cold water, hot water, and the pressure of a 
pad of clean cotton, fixed by a clean handkerchief, which would 
always be available, may sometimes be necessary. The shock 
is often very great, and stimulants are occasionally craved for ; 
liquor should, however, be given with great caution, especially 
in the hot weather, when big game shooting is done, and when 
most of the accidents occur. Whisky and brandy should be 
well diluted with water, and, when required, given in small 
quantities, frequently repeated, rather than in large draughts at 
longer intervals. The greatest care should be taken to prevent 



BIG GAME 173 

contamination of the wounds by flies or dirty clothes, and the 
water used for washinsc should be boiled and then cooled, 
when possible. 

The common striped squirrel (Sciurus palmaritm) is very 
common everywhere, and has almost become a domestic animal. 
Other varieties of this family are very rare in these States. 

There are five varieties of rats and mice commonly found 
here, viz., the desert jerboa rat (Gerhillus erythrourus), the brown 
rat (3ftis decumanus), the white-bellied house rat (3Ius nivei- 
venter), the bandicoot rat (Mus giganteus), and the common 
Indian mouse {Mus urhanus). The jerboa overruns the desert, 
and digs up the ground in all directions, making granaries in 
the sand against scarcity. The ordinary brown rat is found in 
and about houses. A large variety of brown rat, the antelope 
rat, occasionally overruns this part of the country, sometimes 
destroying most of the crops, when green, by eating the roots ; 
at other seasons, when the crops are in ear, devouring most of 
the heads of grain. These migratory rats come in numbers in 
occasional years, and then disappear from the country com- 
pletely (like locusts) when they have devastated the crops. 

The common musk shrew (Sorex cmrulescens), known as the 
musk rat, is frequently met with in houses at Mount Abu, and 
it is also fairly common in the plains of these States. 

There are several varieties of bats met with, both in the 
hills and plains, the best known of which are the following : — 
The large fox bat {Pteropus medius), or the flying- fox ; the 
small fox bat {Pteropus pyrivorus) ; the vampire bat {Megaderma 
lyra) ; the coromandel bat {Scotophilus coromandelianus) ; the 
Indian horse-shoe bat {Hipposideros speoris) : and the tailed 
bat {RMnop)oma hardivickii). The fat of the flying-fox is used 
as a medicine in joint affections, and the flesh is sometimes 
given to camels to increase their pace. 

The Indian scaly ant-eater {Manis pentadadyld) is met with 
both in the desert and at the bases of the lower hills, where it 



174 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

makes holes in the ground, and rarely comes abroad in the 
daytime. It feeds chiefly on white ants {termites). Its skin 
is much prized for making small drum-heads. 

There are two varieties of crocodile (Crocodilus indicus) 
met with, a large and a small. Both are numerous in large 
tanks, where they live on fish and animals which come down 
to the water to drink, man occasionally becoming a victim 
to their voracity. 

There are several varieties of lizard {Lacerta) met with, 
and the chameleon is found in the forests of Mount Abu 
and some of the other hills. The small brown lizard is a 
most useful creature in the house, preying upon moths, mos- 
quitoes, and house flies. None of the ordinary lizards have 
a poisonous bite ; nevertheless, their Avounds often suppurate 
and are troublesome to heal. Although it has been estab- 
lished that no lizard has anything resembling a poison gland 
or hollow fang for injecting virus, and that even the Relio- 
derma horrida of South America, the most poisonous lizard, 
is only so by virtue of the vhulence of its saliva, there is a 
firm belief among the people that a species of lizard, known 
as the Biscohra, exists, and that not only is its bite deadly, 
but its breath is fatal to man and animals on which it is 
blown. This fabled lizard still occupies the place here which 
the cockatrice {Basilisciis mitratis) held among the ancients, 
although it is not reproduced in any abnormal way like its 
prototype. 

Two varieties of frog (Rana ijahLstris and piinens) are met 
with. They add greatly to the food-supplies of the snake 
tribe, and are a danger in attracting the latter when they 
come into our bathrooms in search of moisture. 

There are four species of poisonous snake very common 
in these States, two of which belong to Colubridse, viz., the 
cobra {Naia tripudians), and the " Krait " {Bungarus coeruleus) ; 
iind two to Viperidse, viz., the echis {Bchis carinata), and 



BIG GAME 175 

daboia (Dahoia russellii). Several varieties of trimcri also 
exist, but not in such numbers. The python is found in the 
hills and occasionally in the plains below ; also the rock snake, 
which resembles a large cobra without the hood, and which 
is non-poisonous. 

In the desert, snakes live principally on the jerboa rat, 
and some of them keep so much underground in rat-holes, 
that they become pale and look like a new species. 

Mount Abu has many snakes, but the hill is so favoured 
that feAv of them are poisonous. Some devotees believe that 
the patron saint of the holy mountain, like St. Patrick in the 
Emerald Isle, enticed the venomous reptiles into a hollow cave 
and sealed them up permanently, or, that he expelled them 
from the hill so that they should not be a trouble to the 
many pilgrims who frequent the place. However, a cobra 
has occasionally been seen, and the echis is sometimes met 
with, in the monsoon season; both these snakes are much 
rarer in Abu than in the country below, and there is un- 
doubtedly something uncongenial to them on the hill. 

The mortality from snake-bite is considerable in these 
States, and, till quite recently, we had nothing in the way 
of a curative remedy that could be relied upon, when a full 
dose of cobra or viper poison had been injected and absorbed 
into the circulation. Professor Eraser of Edinburgh, after 
long research in this direction, has, however, discovered that 
immunity can be conferred on animals by injecting gradually 
increasing doses of snake poison into their tissues. They can 
be thus trained to withstand many times the lethal dose of 
the venom, and the serum of these animals, when injected 
into the blood of non-immune animals, protects the latter 
against snake poisoning. Dr. Calmette of the Pasteur Insti- 
tute has also worked in this direction, and produced a serum 
from the blood of horses rendered immune by injections of 
the non-coagulable proteids of cobra venom, which is curative. 



176 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

This antivenine is now being used as a prophylactic against 
snake poisoning, and promises well. Antivenine can be had 
in India without difficulty, and can be injected with an ordi- 
nary hypodermic syringe. The remedy should, if possible, 
be injected into a vein, as it acts more quickly than when 
injected into the subcutaneous tissues, and immediate action 
is of great importance in dealing with snake-bite. 

When a person has been bitten by a snake a tight ligature 
should immediately be placed above the punctures made by 
the fangs, and a second ligature at a convenient distance above 
the first to stop the circulation in the limb and prevent ab- 
sorption of the poison. The punctures should be freely incised 
and the blood pressed out of them with the fingers, while a 
stream of slightly tepid water is poured on the part to en- 
courage bleeding and to wash out the poison. The patient 
should be kept quiet in a well-ventilated room, and stimulants 
given to support the strength until medical aid can be procured. 
When a soft part has been bitten, it should be cut out as 
soon as possible, as much of the venom may be removed with 
the portion of flesh, and some may be washed out by the 
bleeding which ensues. 

There are two varieties of scorpion {Scorpio fuhus and 
fuscus), and one common centipede {Scolopcndra communis), 
commonly seen here. The best remedy for relieving the j)ain 
of scorpion sting is a poultice of powdered ipecacuanha 
saturated with chloroform. The seat of pain should be well 
washed with chloroform while the poultice is being prepared. 
Ipecacuanha wine, alcohol, opium, cocaine, honey, indigo, 
ammonia, and sether also relieve the pain to some extent. 




'^ 



■^r^B0^ 



Teal. 




Grouse. 



To face page 177. 



FEATHERED GAME 

There are but few game-birds which remain in these 
States throughout the year, both on account of the scarcity 
of water and the heat of summer ; however, the winter visitants 
are varied and very numerous, and good small game shooting 
is always to be had in normal years during the cold months. 

The great Indian bustard {Ewpodotis edwardsi) may be 
considered indigenous, as it is found at all seasons when grass 
is abundant ; it would appear to quit the country altogether 
only for a time in years of grass scarcity, or absolute famine. 
It is met with in great numbers in various parts of the desert, 
in good seasons, and its flesh is finely flavoured throughout 
the cold months, but it is tough and often coarse flavoured 
if shot at other times of the year. The feathers of the neck 
and back of this bird are very valuable for fishing, 

There are two indigenous species of sand-grouse met with 
throughout these States, viz., common sand-grouse {Pterodes 
exustus), and painted sand-grouse {Pterodes fasciatus). They 
are common both in the sandy and stony deserts of Marwar 
and Jaisalmir, and are found along the foot of the Aravalli 
range, close to the base of Mount Abu, and all the other hills 
of Marwar and Sirohi. The common grouse can be found in 
numbers in the cultivated fields, while the painted grouse 
frequents low stony hills. Both varieties afford good sport, 
and are well flavoured when hung for a time before being 
cooked. 

Three varieties of partridge are indigenous, viz., grey par- 
tridge {Ortygornis ponticeriana), painted partridge (Francolinus 

1" M 



178 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

pidus), and black partridge {Francolinus vulgaris). Grrey 
partridge are found everywhere throughout these States, and 
they are even plentiful in most parts of the desert. They are 
also found in abundance in Godwar, and parts of Sirohi in the 
scrub jungle, where they give much better sport than in bare 
ground where they run. Painted partridge are found in 
numbers throughout the grass lands of Sirohi and Marwar, 
along the foot of the Aravallis. They aftbrd excellent sport, 
and are gamy and well-flavoured when properly hung. Black 
partridge are not met with in great numbers, but there are a 
few places in Marwar where they can generally be found, viz., 
in the Bhinmal, Jaswantpura, and Khajwana districts. 

A few varieties of bush quail are indigenous, and frequent 
the grass lands and scrub jungle under the Aravallis, Abu, and 
other hills. They are also found throughout the year along the 
beds and banks of rivers, viz., jungle bush quail {Perdicula 
cambayensis)^ rock bush quail {Perdicula asiatica), painted bush 
quail {Microperdix erythrorhy^icha), and Indian button quail 
(Turnix joudera). None of these varieties afford much sport, 
nor are they of much use for the table when shot. 

Three varieties of jungle fowl are met with in the Abu and 
Aravalli hills, and they are indigenous, viz., grey jungle fowl 
(Galhis sonneratii), painted spur fowl (Galloperdix lunulosus), and 
red jungle fowl (Gallus ferruginetis). Grey jungle fowl are 
numerous in the low hills around Abu and the base of the 
Aravalli range, wherever water is abundant. They are very 
Avary birds, and difficult to shoot. They can, however, be 
readily seen late in the afternoon at most of the jungle pools 
of water about the low hills, when they come down to drink. 
Spur fowl are common all over Abu, the Aravalli range, and 
other hills of Sirohi and Marwar, and they are less shy than 
jungle fowl ; however, on account of their size and their habit 
of calling, when they run about the dense jungle in the morn- 
ings and evenings, they can often be more easily heard than 




Partridge. 




Juiiiilc Fowl. 



To face pa^'c- 17S. 



FEATHERED GAME 179 

seen. Red jungle fowl are much more rare than the above 
varieties. They frequent the low hills around Abu and along 
the Aravalli range, and are generally seen in thick jungle near 
water. The flesh of both jungle and spur fowl is dry, and re- 
quires hanging. They do not give good sport, as they are diffi- 
cult to flush from the thick undergrowth, into which they run 
at the first appearance of danger. The hackles of some of the 
jungle cocks are very brilliant, and are useful for fishing. 

The large grey or spotted-bill duck {Anas jJoscilorhyncka) 
is indigenous ; but, as most of the tanks of these States fre- 
quently dry up completely for some months of the year, there 
are times when a specimen could not be procured. This duck, 
however, reappears early in the rains, and remains throughout 
the cold weather. 

The nukhta or combed duck (Sarcidiornis melanonotus) is 
an indigenous species, but hardly ever remains in these States 
during the hot weather, although at certain seasons it is abund- 
ant. The flesh of this indigenous duck is inferior to that of 
most of the winter visitants. 

Both varieties of whistling teal, viz., Dendrocygna fulva and 
Dendrocygna javanica, are met with, but only during the cold 
weather; they must therefore be considered winter visitants 
here, as they nest in the Deccan and in other parts of India. 
Even in the cold weather they are not often met with in great 
numbers in these States, and they rarely come in the rains 
like the other indigenous varieties, viz., Anas poecilorhyncha and 
Sarcidiornis melanonotus. 

Throughout the cold weather, in seasons of ample rainfall, 
when the tanks and marshes of these States become well re- 
plenished, exotic duck and teal are found in abundance in 
many parts of the country. Besides two or three varieties of 
geese, and three or four varieties of snipe, also bittern, rails, 
plovers, and godwits are commonly met wdth. 

The following are the winter visitants commonly seen on 



180 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

tanks and marshes, viz., the gad wall or smaller grey duck 
(Chaulelasmus streperus), the shoveller (Spatula clypeata), the 
ruddy sheldrake or Brahminy duck (Casarca mtila), the pin- 
tail {Dafila acuta)^ the mallard {Anas hoschas), the sheldrake 
{Tadorna vulpanser), the pink-headed duck {Rhodonessa caryo- 
pJiyllacea), the white-winged wood duck {Anas leucoptera), the 
pochard or dun-bird {Fuligula feri7ia), the red-crested pochard 
{Fuliyula rufina), the white-eyed pochard {Fidigula nyroca), 
the tufted pochard {Fidigula cristata), the scaup {Fuligida 
marila), the smew {Mergellus alhellus), the goosander {Mergus 
merganser), the golden eye or garrot {Clangula glancium), the 
common teal {Querquedida crecca), the garganey or blue-winged 
teal {Querquedida circia), the cotton teal {Nettapus coromandeli- 
anus), the baikal or clucking teal {Querquedula formosa), the 
crested teal (Qtierqucdtda falcata), the marbled teal {Querquedula 
angustirostris), the wigeon {Mareca penclopc), the barred-headed 
goose (Anser indicus), the grey-lag goose {Anser cinereus), the 
bean goose {Anser segetum), the common or fan- tailed snipe 
{Gallinago ccelestis), the jack snipe (Gallvnago gallimda), the 
painted snipe {Rhynchma capensis), the bittern {Botaurus stellaris), 
the snipe-billed god wit {Pseudoscolopax semipalmatus), the yellow- 
shank {Totanus did)ius), the red-shank {Totanus calidris), the 
black-tailed godwit {Limosa cegocrphala), the Indian water-rail 
{Rallus indicus), the purple coot {Porphyrio pioliocephahis), the 
blue-breasted rail {Hypotcenidia striata), the white-brown crake 
{Porzana cinerea), and the blue- breasted crake (Porzana baillonii). 
Gadwall, pintail, and mallard are the best of the winter 
visitants among the duck met with ; they give good sport, and 
their flesh is delicately flavoured. The first-named variety is 
met with in great numbers on all the larger tanks, in normal 
years, throughout the cold months. Pintail are mostly plenti- 
ful also, but mallard only appear in great numbers occasionally, 
on particular waters, where long reeds are abundant as cover ; 
there are, however, usually some to be seen on the larger tanks. 




Bustard, Houbara, and Florican. 




,//' ~ 










.?*' '^^ 












Snipe. 



7'(? /?r^ /rt^t- 303. 



FEATHERED GAME 181 

Shovellers, ruddy sheldrake, and pochards are always abundant, 
and they afford good sport ; but they are not so good for the 
table as the already mentioned varieties. Pink -headed duck, 
belted sheldrake, white-winged duck, and smew are less com- 
mon than the above varieties ; the last is, however, occasionally 
seen in great numbers, when it visits this part of the country. 
The common and blue-winged teals are found in large numbers 
on nearly every tank of considerable size ; the former is met 
with on nearly every pool and marsh, it is so abundant during 
the cold months. Marbled, clucking, crested, and cotton teal 
are not so numerous, even in good years ; and, in some seasons, 
they do not make their appearance in these States. Teal are 
nearly always found in good condition for the table, and they 
afford exceptionally good sport, as they do not readily quit 
their habitats. Consequently, they give the sportsman frequent 
opportunities to shoot, even when there is not much cover or 
a great expanse of water ; whereas large duck leave as soon 
as they are distiu-bed, under such circumstances. 

The common fantail and jack snipe may be shot in con- 
siderable numbers in normal years in many marshes and tanks 
of Marwar and Sirohi; but snipe can hardly be said to visit 
Jaisalmn except an occasional stray one, as there is little 
suitable ground for them, even in years of a heavy monsoon. 
The edges of the few tanks in that State are usually dry and 
without grass or other suitable cover before the cold weather 
sets in. Painted snipe are fairly common in Marwar and Sirohi. 
Both fantail and jack snipe are generally found in good con- 
dition on the tanks of these States, and, early in the year, they 
afford good sport when there are reeds and grass adjacent to 
the water. However, later in the season, when the water 
recedes from the vegetation, the snipe sit on the bare ground 
and have to be stalked. The sport is then less enticing, and 
the bag generally small. Snipe come in here early in October, 
and leave again about the end of February ; most of our 



182 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

winter visitants observe the samo months for coming and 
going. 

There are three varieties of imperial sand-grouse {Gutta) 
found in the deserts of Marwar and Jaisalmir ; they extend 
into the fertile lands east of the Luni river, and are met with 
in a few places in Sirohi State, although not in such great 
numbers. They are the black-breasted imperial sand-grouse 
(Pterodes ai'enarius), the spotted imperial sand-grouse (Pterodes 
senegallus), and the painted imperial sand-grouse {Pterodes 
alchata). The black-breasted grouse is found between Novem- 
ber and March in enormous flocks in many places in Jaisalmir 
and Marwar. They may be seen in long lines of some thousands 
flying towards water in the early morning, and towards their 
feeding grounds in the fields in the afternoon. They rest 
during the day in the grass-covered valleys, and, during the 
hottest hours, they take the shady side of a bush. They are fine, 
handsome, gamy birds, flying very hard, and requiring a lot 
of shot to take them down. They give the best sport when 
coming to water, but they are very difiicult to approach in the 
open plain. They carry off so much shot and go such a distance 
when disturbed that it is not easy to make a bag by following 
them up. The spotted and painted imperial grouse are both 
met with in considerable numbers in Jaisalmir during the cold 
months. They drink some hours later, and are more easily 
shot coming to water ; while, at other times, they are more 
difficult to approach than the first variety, and they fly very high 
when passing overhead. They are both handsome varieties, 
but much smaller and less gamy in appearance than the black- 
breasted. These imperial grouse are the best-flavoured game- 
birds met with in India when properly hung, and they are 
much shot by Rajputs and other sportsmen. 

The Indian Houbara bustard {Houhara Macqueenii) is met 
with in great numbers during the cold months in the deserts 
of Marwar and Jaisalmir, where it feeds principally on the 




Quai 





Ht^' 





P:J^ 












Pochards. 



To Jace page )S2. 



FEATHERED GAME 183 

fruit of the small her tree. It is much prized on account 
of its size, and of the delicate gamy flavour of its flesh, and the 
Rajput sportsman spends his leisure hours in pursuit of it 
when it is in here. The feathers of this species, although 
bright on both neck and back, are of little use for fly-fishing. 

The grey quail {Coturnix communis) is sometimes found in 
enormous numbers throughout the deserts of Marwar and 
Jaisalmir, and is fairly abundant every cold weather in parts 
of Sirohi and Godwar. It is generally fat and fit for the table 
in these States, and it always gives excellent sport. The rain 
quail {Cohirnix coromandelica) makes its appearance in greater 
or less numbers in the grass lands of Marwar and Sirohi every 
rains, and sometimes stays throughout the cold weather. It 
is also found in Jaisalmir, but never in great numbers. This 
species is less shot and netted than the grey quail. However, 
it receives some attention both from the sportsman and poacher, 
and it is generally found in good condition for the table. 

Both florican, viz., Sypheotides aiirita and Syj)heotides henga- 
lensis, are seen in the grass lands of these States during the 
monsoon season ; but they disappear before the cold weather 
has set in. The smaller bird is the more common, and it 
migrates from here to the Deccan at the end of the rains. 
Florican feed on the Cantharides beetle (Cantharis vesicatoria), 
therefore the breast only should be eaten, as the other parts 
sometimes produce great irritation of the urinary system. 

Two varieties of crane are met with as winter visitants, 
viz., the demoiselle {AntJiropoides virgo) and common crane 
{Grus communis). The former abounds in many parts of these 
States, where food is plentiful, from September till March, and 
the latter is not uncommon. Both varieties are easily ap- 
proached, and may be shot in numbers with a little trouble. 
They are fine large birds, fairly tender, and sometimes of good 
flavour when properly hung. The demoiselle crane is superior 
to the common variety. 



184 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Two varieties of starling are winter visitants in these States, 
viz., Sturnus vidf/aris and Sturnus indicus. Both varieties are 
well flavoured, but they do not attract the sportsman when 
other game is plentiful. 

There are several varieties of plover which spend the winter 
here in normal years ; the ox-eyed and the courier {Cursorius 
coromandelicus) being the most frequently seen. These birds 
are not worth shooting when anything else can be got. They 
are much inferior to both the golden and grey plovers of 
America and Europe, which are sometimes winter visitants 
here. 

The Sarus crane {Grus antigone) is sometimes given with 
game-birds, but it is much protected by the people here, and 
should not be shot. It is a permanent resident, and although 
destructive to crops, the people do not grudge what it eats, as 
it is considered a bird of good omen. 




Ducks and Cranes. 




Fish from Banas, Abu Road. 



To face page 184. 



FISHES 

In tliis dry country, remote from the sea, where the rivers 
cease to Aoav with the cessation of the monsoon, and where 
few of the tanks can withstand evaporation in an ordinary 
season, and most of which are almost empty for nine months 
of the year, the fishes, which constitute part of the fauna, add 
so little to the food of the people that they might almost 
be left out of an account of this sort. However, at Bilara, 
on the Luni river, in Marwar, and along the Banas river, in 
Sirohi, fish can be caught in considerable numbers, and there 
are some tanks in these States where fishernien occasionally 
add to their daily meals by means of their line or net. 
Moreover, from a scientific point of view, it is necessary to 
mention the varieties met with. The principal fishes of these 
States are as follows : — 

Lanchi {Bagarius yarrellii), a species of Siluridce, known to 
fishermen as the " fresh-water shark," is common in some of 
the tanks and rivers of these States. It is a scaleless, am- 
phibious fish, of a silvery grey hue, having, in addition to its 
gills, a large air-breathing apparatus (the " air " or " swim " 
bladder being greatly developed), which enables it to live out 
of water ; mouth wide, with many teeth, long nasal, and shorter 
maxillary barbs, which enable it to feel its way about in the mud ; 
body short, tail long. It is very voracious, destroying other fish, 
and it will take any bait or spoon ; but it does not give good 
sport, as it will not fight after it has had the first run of the 
line. It grows to many feet in length. The people appreciate 
it as food, and an oil is made from it, which is used medicinally. 

185 



186 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Sawal or murl {OpMocephalus marulius) is found in tanks 
and rivers, especially in stagnant pools of rivers, as it likes 
the mud, and works under banks; head elongated, with 
sixteen rows of scales between snout and dorsal fin ; back 
greenish brown, with cloudy bands ; dorsal, anal, and caudal 
fins spotted. The murl runs to a large size, even in small 
waters ; it is voracious, and will take spoon or almost any bait ; 
it plays well, and is good for the table. There are at least 
two varieties of this species, which can live long in the mud 
of rivers that dry up in the hot weather. 

Singhi {Pseudeutroinus sykesii of Siluridcc), a smaller species 
of scaleless fish than Lanchi, is met with in tanks and river 
pools of these States. It has only one long pair of barbs, 
the nasal pair being rudimentary ; it grows to about six or 
eight inches in length, and has two bands of teeth ; caudal 
fin-forked, lower lobe slightly the longer. This variety takes 
almost any kind of bait, is easily landed, and the people con- 
sider it good food, although it is bony. 

Giri {Barilius modesties) is a dark brown backed fish, with 
scales, found in both tanks and streams. It grows to about 
eight or ten inches in length, takes bait readily, and gives 
good sport, but is full of small bones, and not of much use 
for the table ; the people, however, appreciate it. 

Mahseer {Barhus tor), the head of the carp family {Cypri- 
nidce) is met with in the Western Bands, near Abu Road ; but 
it does not run to a large size there. Mr. ffolliott-Powell, 
an authority on fishing, informs me that he has not seen 
them of any great weight from this river. The fishermen 
at Bilara describe a fish, occasionally met with, which must 
be a mahseer, and it is very probable they are in the Jas- 
wantsagar Lake and other parts of the Luni river. This 
handsome " salmon of India " is too well known to require 
further description here. 

Derai (Barilius harila) and other small species of Cyprinidce 



FISHES 187 

are met with in the Banas river, in the Luni river at Bilara, 
and other waters of these States. Some of these httle carp 
run to half a pound or more, and as they take fly and bait 
well, they give good sport ; but they are full of small bones, 
and of little use for the table in consequence. 

Eels are not often seen, but one or two varieties of 
Murccnidce are known to fishermen in these States. 

Rohu (Zabeo rohita) and other varieties of this species, 
which belong to Cyprinidce, are found at Bilara, and in other 
tanks, rivers, and pools of these States. It is a very compact, 
thickly built, and handsome fish, running up to many pounds 
in weight ; mouth small, lips thick with a small fold, teeth 
pharyngeal ; dorsal fin about midway between snout and caudal 
fin, latter forked ; colour, brown along the back, becoming- 
silvery on sides, gills reddish, scales large. Mr. C la Touche, 
who has often seen rohu of 25 lbs. caught, informs me that 
this fish is difiicult to hook, and that it will suck at the bait 
for ten or fifteen minutes, requiring much practice to know 
when to strike for it, which must be done with great smartness 
and 'vigour. The usual bait for this fish is dough or worms. 
It plays well, giving excellent sport, and is generally well 
flavoured and good for the table. 

Chilwa (Aspidoparia morar) and many other varieties of 
Cyprinidce are met with in the rivers and streams of these 
States ; they are readily recognised by their silvery scales and 
flat sides ; they give good sport, and are good for the table ; 
they vary in size from an inch and a half to six or seven 
inches in length. 

Natara {Mugil corsida), a species of grey mullet, sometimes 
seen in the waters of these States, can be easily recognised by 
their swimming in batches, with their eyes just above the 
water, which makes them look like tadpoles. They are dull 
brown above, lightish silvery green below, with dorsal and 
caudal fins grey. I have not seen them more than eight or 



188 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

ten inclies in length here, but have got them larger in the 
Chambal river at Kotah. They do not take bait, but, being 
very good for the table, they are worth shooting, which can 
be easily done on account of their swimming so close to the 
surface of the water. 

The Indian trout (Barilius hola) has not, so far as I can 
ascertain, been found in the Western Bands within the limits 
of Rajputana, although it is common in the Eastern Bands, 
near Deoli ; nor is there any species resembling it met with in 
the Luni or any of the other rivers or streams of the Western 
Rajputana States. 

There are three well-known fishes in the Abu Lake, viz., 
pathal, giri, and singhi, but they are all bony and useless for 
the table ; some of the people, however, appreciate them. 
They take bait readily at certain times, especially during the 
monsoon season, when they are more easily caught. Giri and 
singhi have been before referred to. Pathra {Notopterus hapirat), 
a species of ChqMidce, is a somewhat oval-shaped fish, with the 
ventral fin extending almost from the throat to the caudal fin, 
with which it is continuous. It has a small mouth, and takes 
worm or fly, but does not give much sport, and it is so full of 
small bones that it has to be pounded in a mortar before it 
can be eaten. 

There are several species of Crustacea found in these States, 
the most important of which are crabs; of these there are 
three varieties, one found on dry land, the others about streams 
and tanks. Crabs are abundant in the streams and tanks on 
Mount Abu, where they are eaten by some people, and said to 
be well flavoured. 




"<, 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS OF 
THE WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Of domestic animals, the horse {Equus caballus, var. Marwarii) 
stands first with Rajputs, and the man who cannot ride a 
horse in these States is looked upon as an inferior person. 
Horses are extensively bred in Marwar, and the breed is cele- 
brated for hardiness, beauty, and ease of pace. Marwari 
horses grow to a good height, and although they are light 
boned, they will carry heavy weights. Like the camel of the 
desert, they can cover long distances without food or winter. 
The Rathore is so attached to the equine species that he will 
often stint himself to feed his horse, which is housed under 
the same roof, and which, like the Arab's steed, is considered 
a member of the family from his birth. A smaller horse than 
the Marwari is bred in Jaisalmir ; this animal is also hand- 
some and hardy, but horses are not in such general use in 
that State, where camels are found more serviceable. In Sirohi 
the Marwari horse is in high favour and general use. Waler 
horses are imported into these States, principally for driving, 
but they are also ridden at the capitals, and played at polo in 
Jodhpore. Arab horses are used as chargers, troopers, polo 
ponies, and pig-stickers, and they are sometimes driven. They 
stand the climate better than the colonial breeds, and the hard 
grass of the country agrees with them. There are generally a 
few English horses and ponies in Jodhpore racing and polo 
stables, and mixed breeds are to be found in the studs ; but 
the latter are mostly inferior to pure country bred, and they 
are much less hardy. 

189 



190 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The wild ass (Uquus onager) has sometimes wandered up into 
the western deserts of Marwar and Jaisalmir, but it is now rarely 
if ever seen in these regions. The domesticated descendant 
of this species, the small Indian ass, is in general use as a 
beast of burden, and although sometimes fairly cared for by 
the Odes and Kumars, it is generally overworked and under- 
fed. The milk of the ass is used medicinally by some of the 
Baids ; it is said to be efficacious in the treatment of plague, 
and was much used in the epidemic of 1836-37. Mules are 
used to some extent as baggagers with the cavalry, and are 
considered superior to ponies for this work. 

Cattle {Bovinvs indicus domest.) are extensively bred through- 
out the western and north-western deserts of Marwar and 
Jaisalmir, where many of the people depend mainly on their 
herds for subsistence. In the hilly tracts of Sirohi also, cattle- 
breeding on a large scale is carried on, and nearly every 
villager of any substance in these States has a cow or two. 
Although tuberculosis is not so likely to be communicated to 
man by the milk of the Indian desert cow, which lives in the 
open air, as by the city animal of cold countries subjected to 
an artificial existence, it is, however, a prudent precaution to 
boil all milk before it is brought to the table, as this is the 
easiest way of sterilising it, and making it absolutely free from 
viable orerms. When done on a clear tire in a well-covered 
vessel, the flavour of the milk is but little changed. Many of 
the village cows, buffaloes, and even some of the town-bred 
goats, are not altogether clean feeders, and milk may in this 
way become the medium for transmitting disease from them 
to milk consumers. Moreover, contaminations added after the 
milk has been drawn can be rendered innocuous by being 
brought to the boiling-point. There is always a danger of 
impurities of different sorts finding their way into milk in 
India, even when much care is bestowed upon the dairy. 
' Dahi," or curd, an article of diet much in use among the 




Sanshoni; Milch Cow. 




Elephant saddled for an ordinary occasion. To face page 190. 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS 191 

people of the country, is at times dangerous, as the cholera 
microbe flourishes in this preparation, and it could easily 
become contaminated by flies, water, and other contacts. A 
little common salt should always be added to milk before 
it is drunk, as this prevents its being formed into a hard 
indigestible ball by the gastric juice, and rendered difficult of 
assimilation. The cattle of Sanchore, Jalore, Mallani, and 
Nagore are far famed for their size and beauty. The large 
herds are never housed, but are allowed to roam over the 
extensive uncultivated tracts, where they obtain their own food 
in normal seasons, and in years of famine they are driven away 
to the Aravallis, Malwa, or Gujerat in search of pasture. Much 
ghee is made from the milk of these great desert herds, and 
exported both by road and rail. The young bullocks come 
to the markets in great droves, and are sold for agricultural 
purposes as well as for driving in country carriages. Some of 
the bulls are very large ; they have massive horns and humps, 
and still retain much of the magnificent appearance of their 
wild progenitor. Bos gaur. — Buffaloes are more domesticated 
than the large herds of cattle. They generally graze about 
the village tanks, and are housed or kept in enclosures at 
night. The male buffalo has lost nuich of the grandeur of his 
ancestor. Bubalus ami domest. — Domestic buffaloes are kept 
principally for milk and butter, but some of them are used for 
carriage and draught. Neither cow nor buffalo flesh is eaten 
in these States, except by a few of the low caste people, who 
feed on those which die naturally. The offence of cow-killing 
is very severely punished, and some Hindus consider it quite 
as bad as homicide. Maharaj Sir Pratap Singh has frequently 
explained to me that the cow has become sacred to the Hindu 
only by virtue of its usefulness. The cow provides milk and 
butter ; the bullock ploughs the ground, treads out the corn, 
draws the water, and is yoked equally to the pleasure carriage 
and dray cart. Without the bullock the Indian cultivator 



192 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

could hardly exist, and lie has advantages over the camel in 
heing hardier in the rainy season, and more easily adapted to 
agriculture. 

Goats and sheep (Capris and Ovis indices domest.) are bred 
on a large scale throughout these States ; the former supply 
the great bulk of the animal food of the country, and goats' 
milk is in general use as an article of diet, especially in the 
desert. Sheep are kept principally for their wool, so far as 
internal use goes, but they are largely exported from Marwar 
and Jaisalmir, and, although a small breed, they fatten well, 
and their mutton is second to none in Europe or Asia when 
they are well fed. 

The Indian camel (Camekcs dromedarius) is among the most 
useful of the domestic animals of these States, and without it 
the inhabitants of the northern and western deserts of Jaisalmir 
and Marwar would have to undergo much hardship and often 
absolute privation. The camel of the desert ploughs and 
harrows the ground, brings home the harvests, and is used as 
a carrier of wood and water. It is ridden both for pleasure 
and to accomplish long journeys, and it is sometimes driven. 
Camels' milk is used both as an article of diet and as a medi- 
cine. When it dies its skin is made into bottles for ghee and 
oil. The Jaisalmir camels are far famed for then- easy paces, 
speed and hardiness, and they can go hundreds of miles without 
food or water, subsisting for days on a little unrefined sugar 
and sulphate of alum, which are carried in their saddle-bags 
when on long journeys. The best Jaisalmir camels are smaller 
and finer in the head and neck than the ordinary breeds of 
tliis country. The Marwar camels are larger and stronger 
animals than those of Jaisalmir ; they are often very swift, 
easy paced, and fine-looking, but horses attract so much of the 
Rathore's attention that less care is bestowed on camel-breed- 
ing than in Jaisalmir. Some of the best camels of these States 
will cover a hundred miles in a night, without difiiculty, when 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS 193 

a dacoity has been committed, or when some other emergency 
demands pace. Camelus hacirianus, although sometimes seen 
here, is not bred in the country. 

The elephant {Elephas indicus) is kept up for State pro- 
cessions and for shooting expeditions ; he is an expensive 
luxury in these States, where suitable green food is rarely 
available, and where bread and unrefined sugar have to be 
provided for his support. 

The dog (Canis familiaris) is scarcely a domestic animal ; 
he belongs, as a rule, to the town more than to any one of its 
inhabitants, and is fed, as deserving of charity rather than as 
a member of the household, after which he is driven into the 
street like any other beggar. There are numbers of dogs in 
every village of these States, but they are rarely made use of 
by the cattlemen or shepherds. They are a source of danger 
to the public health, as they often suffer from rabies and are 
generally mangy and diseased. Europe dogs, of every breed, 
are imported from time to time, and kept at the palaces. 
They do not stand the climate well, as they contract malarial 
fever by sleeping on the sand. They also suffer from liver 
disease, and distemper is common among them. Greyhounds 
are in use for hunting antelope and jackals, but they soon get 
foot-sore on account of the thorns and barbed grass of the 
sandy plains. 

The cat {Felis domcst.) has hardly been domesticated, as 
it is rarely made a pet of. Cats wander about the roofs of the 
houses and subsist on rats, mice, and scraps such as they can 
steal ; they are tolerated in some houses to keep down vermin. 

Swine (Sics scrofa indicus domest.) are only occasionally kept 
by the low-caste people who reside outside the villages of 
these States. They are degenerate animals and very dirty 
feeders. Their flesh is often impregnated with tapeworm 
cysts and trichinae, which make it dangerous as an article 
of diet, even when cooked. 

N 



194 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The black-faced lungur {Presbytis illiger) has become 
almost domestic. He goes about roofs of houses and gardens, 
is protected and fed by the people, allowed to help himself 
to grain, fruit, and vegetables, and to do much mischief in 
gardens. These lungiirs are very numerous in many parts 
of the Western Rajputana States, and there is a legend that 
they took up arms and rendered great service to Rama, 
Raja of Ajodhya, in the war that ensued between him and 
Rawan, Raja of Lunka, or Ceylon, when the latter carried 
off Sita, the wife of the former, to Ceylon. The red-faced 
monkey {Inuus rhesus) is not common in this part of the 
country. These monkeys also behaved staunchly to their 
leader Hanuman, and followed him when the latter supported 
Rama against Rawan, rendering much assistance in the cap- 
ture of Ceylon and the restoration of Sita to her husband. 

Poultry are not extensively bred in this part of the country, 
although a few fowls, ducks, and sometimes geese may be seen 
about the large towns, and the guinea fowl {Numida mcleagris) 
thrives well. The Rajput does not relish eggs or fowls, although 
he appreciates feathered game as an article of diet. 

The peacock {Pavo cristatus) and the blue rock pigeon 
{Colmnba intermedia) are held sacred by the Hindus here, on 
account of their beauty. They are tamer than some of the 
ordinary domestic animals. Peacocks and pigeons are fed and 
protected, consequently they are found in great numbers every- 
where throughout the country where there are trees or other 
suitable shade. Peacocks are considered birds of good omen, 
and their tail feathers are much prized by Sadhus and temple 
keepers. The long tail feathers of the peacock are collected 
and laid up in bundles in houses, to protect the inmates and 
domestic animals against the evil eye. They are applied to 
sprained and otherwise injured limbs, both of men and animals, 
to effect cures, and there is none of the Western superstition 
of ill-luck attached to them in this country. The chief noble 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS 195 

of Marwar has the privilege of a seat in the back of the 
Maharaja's " howda," on occasions of great State processions, 
where he waves the peacock " chhaori " over the head of His 
Highness to keep off flies. This " chhaori " consists of a 
bundle of long feathers of the peacock's tail, set in a gold 
embroidered handle, and the office attached to its use is of 
great dignity in the State. 

The game-cock (Gallus bat.) is bred for fighting, and bets 
are freely made on their pugilistic encounters. 

The grey partridge {Ortygornis ponticcriana) and the grey 
quail {Coturnix communis) are also domesticated for fighting, 
and both money and temper frequently lost on their combats. 



PRESERVATION OF HEALTH 

In a climate like that of these States, where the annual ranofes 
of temperature approach extremes, and where the diurnal and 
nocturnal maximum and minimum vary between summer heat 
and freezing-point, it is obvious that many precautions are 
necessary for the preservation of health, especially of Euro- 
peans resident in the country. The ordinary inhabitants 
resort to opium, when exposed, to lessen the sting of extreme 
cold. They also shut out the air from their dwellings during 
cold nights, and cover up their heads with their clothes or 
blankets, so that the breathing of fresh air is impossible ; con- 
sequently they come under the soporific effects of carbonic 
acid in the blood, and this dulls their sensations and keeps 
them from feeling the cold as they otherwise would. 

Throughout the hot weather the body and head should be 
kept as cool as possible, and light clothing worn, which should 
be loose at the neck to prevent pressure on the great vessels 
which supply and return the blood from the brain. At other 
seasons, when the temperature falls rapidly after sunset, warmer 
clothes should be put on to prevent sudden suppression of per- 
spiration or chill ; after exercise, too, the body temperature 
should be kept up by additional clothes, and a warm bath 
taken as soon as possible. Rapid suppression of perspiration, 
even in the hot weather, drives the blood from the surface, 
produces congestion of the internal organs, and perverts secre- 
tions by suddenly throwing work on internal glands Avhich 
should be carried on by the cutaneous surface. It is sometimes 
necessary, in the hot weather, to reduce the very high tempera- 

196 



PRESERVATION OF HEALTH 197 

ture of the hot wind by passing it through damp " tattis." It 
is then well to guard against chills, fever, and even rheumatism, 
which are frequently induced by the damp air of " tattis." The 
cooling apparatus should be removed every evening to allow of 
the proper ventilation of the room, which should not be used 
as a sleeping-apartment when this can be avoided. Sleeping out 
of doors during the hot dry months is healthy, but the body 
should be covered to prevent too rapid evaporation, chill, and 
a sensation of fatigue which is sometimes experienced after 
sleeping in the wind. 

When the rains set in sleeping out of doors should be dis- 
continued and an airy room occupied upstairs if possible, as 
being much out of doors after sunset during the damp season, 
when malaria is active, is often followed by attacks of fever, 
bowel complaints, and even liver affections. Elevation above 
the OTOund is a safesfuard agfainst malaria, and all Indian houses 
should have upper stories for sleeping in. Light flannel cloth- 
ing is the best at this season, as flannel absorbs the moisture 
of the air, protects the surface of the body, and prevents sup- 
pression of perspiration. 

When the cold weather sets in great precautions against chill 
are necessary, as the skin is then still relaxed after the intense 
summer heat and damp of the rains ; it therefore requires pro- 
tection against the sudden change of temperature which takes 
place at sunset. Warm under-clothes should at this time be 
worn, even when they give rise to a little discomfort at certain 
hot times of the day. When the feet and legs have been wet 
by wading in marshes after game, or when clothes have become 
drenched by rain, a hot bath should be taken, and a change 
into warm things made as soon as possible. A dose of quinine 
on such occasions is a wise precaution against fever, liver and 
bowel complaints, which are liable to follow such exposure in 
warm countries. 

Residents in the hills should guard against chills at all 



198 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

seasons, by always wearing Avarmer clothes than they are 
accustomed to in the plains below. Failure to do this is often 
the excitant of bowel, liver, and other complaints common at 
high altitudes. 

The protection of the head and spine from the sun's rays 
is of great importance, and the temperate, who attend to 
these points, can undergo much exposure during the hottest 
weather without loss of health or energy. The sun-hat 
should be light, and wide enough to protect the ears, eyes, 
and back of the neck ; the spine should be protected by a 
pad attached to the outside of the hot weather jacket, as this 
shifts with motion and allows of ventilation and evaporation. 
The service helmet is not sufficient protection for the hot 
weather, and it could be much improved without detriment to 
smartness. Glasses are sometimes necessary, when exposed to 
glare ; they should be of neutral tint, and should never be re- 
moved until they can be taken off indoors. Retinitis and 
other eye affections are not infrequent from taking off glasses 
in the glare, as this allows of a great rush of light through 
the dilated pupil, which is injurious to the internal structures 
of the eye. 

Few can stand cold water bathinsj after long residence in 
hot countries, and fever is not an uncommon sequence of a 
cold bath under such circumstances. It is therefore advisable 
to bathe in warm water, and a light shower-bath or douche of 
cold water afterwards is grateful and bracing; but it should 
not be prolonged, and the skin should be well dried after this 
to restore the blood to the surface. Many people in this 
country can indulge in a swimming bath, who could not stand 
an ordinary cold tub ; the exercise of swimming being suffi- 
cient to prevent any lowering of the system or chilling of 
the body. 

There are often difficulties in obtaining proper food supplies 
in this part of the country, where there are few tanks or 



PRESERVATION OF HEALTH 199 

rivers to supply fish, and where vegetables are not often 
plentiful on account of the dryness of the soil. Beef is 
prohibited by treaty, so there is often want of variety on this 
account. Excellent mutton and good poultry can be had, if 
a little trouble be taken in feeding. Imported fruit is not 
difficult to obtain to supplement the local products, which are 
neither very abundant nor very good. 

The meat of hot countries is less nutritious, and more 
difficult to digest than that of the West. Consequently there 
is often a craving for more food than is necessary, and new 
arrivals frequently suffer from over-eating in trying to satisfy 
this sensation. Food should be plain and well cooked. Meat 
should be fresh and thoroughly done to the centre of the 
joint to prevent risk from impurities, such as poisonous 
ptomains and ova of parasites not uncommon in hot coun- 
tries. Tinned provisions should be carefully examined and 
removed from the tins as soon as they have been opened. 
It is a wise precaution to recook tinned foods, and they should 
not be eaten if they be discoloured, or if they show any 
signs of decomposition. Dangerous symptoms and even fatal 
consequences have frequently followed the consumption of bad 
tinned fish, meat, and even fruit. Sardines rapidly spoil when 
they have been opened, or when they have not been properly 
covered with oil in the tin, and tinned shell-fish are often bad. 
Meals should be regular, frequent, and light, as overloading of 
the stomach tends to produce liver affections and indigestion. 
During the hot weather the meals should be farinaceous, as 
less meat is then required than when it is cold and bracing, 
and when much exercise is usually being taken. Fruit 
should be eaten in the morning in preference to the evening, 
and fresh vegetables should form part of the principal meals. 
Very hot curries should be avoided, also over-spiced dishes. 
Well-made curries are, however, both palatable and easily 
digested ; but they should not be too freely indulged in, as 



200 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

they weaken the powers of digestion when in too common 
use. 

Wines should be taken guardedly, as they undoubtedly 
tend to produce liver affections and degeneration of tissues, 
when consumed freely in warm climates ; those that can be 
well diluted with soda-water or drinking water are least harm- 
ful and most easily assimilated. Beer and heavy wines can 
only be digested when exercise is being taken, and weak 
whisky, diluted with soda-water, or claret mixed with water, 
are the best drinks for those who require stimulants in this 
country. All drinking water should be boiled and jBltered 
through a candle filter, which restores the air driven off by 
heat, and makes it pleasant to the taste. Even when filtering 
cannot be carried out, boiling should never be neglected, as it 
rids water of much of its inorganic impurities, and renders 
the germs of disease innoculous. Tea and coffee are whole- 
some drinks, but they should be carefully made and never too 
strong. 

A moderate indulgence in tobacco is practically harmless, 
even in tropical countries, and it is so agreeable and soothing 
to many people that it should not be interdicted. The 
excessive use of the plant slows the heart's action, gives 
rise to dyspepsia, and general poisoning of the system, which 
is often accompanied by impaired vision, sleeplessness, and 
a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. These grave 
symptoms only disappear when smoking is wholly abandoned, 
or greatly diminished. 

In this country regular exercise is essential to health, but 
it should not be carried to exhaustion, especially in those who 
are not robust, as fatigue under relaxing conditions of climate 
leads to lowered vitality and predisposes to disease, malarial 
and other evil influences being ever ready to take advantage 
of weakened powers of resistance. Horse exercise is the best 
form, and polo is the best of games to maintain health and 



PRESERVATION OF HEALTH 201 

vigour. However, all open-air games and field-sports are 
health-giving, as they combine excitement with fresh air and 
exercise, and these are the essentials for a good digestion, sound 
sleep, and health in hot countries, where there is a tendency to 
inactivity and lethargy, and where the liver requires frequent 
shaking up to enable it to perform its functions satisfactorily. 

In warm countries, where sound sleep is not always possible 
at night on account of the heat, a short siesta is health-giving, 
and often necessary, especially for early risers. Ample sleep 
stays wear and tear of the system and is conducive to good 
health and longevity, but it should never be indulged in 
immediately after a full meal (to which there is a tendency in 
tropical climates), as this is a frequent cause of indigestion and 
liver affections. 

Over work has to be guarded against, especially office work, 
which is yearly on the increase. As this necessitates sedentary 
habits within doors, it is likely to be detrimental to health if it 
be allowed to interfere with necessary exercise in the fresh air. 

Change of scene and air has always a good effect on the 
constitution, and it is often very marked in this country, 
especially in low fevers which occasionally resist all other 
treatment. Even a change from one room to another has 
sometimes a wonderful effect on a sick person, and a change 
to another house or locality frequently acts in a striking 
manner. When the health begins to suffer from long resi- 
dence a change to Europe should be taken at once : unfortu- 
nate results from postponement in departure when change is 
necessary to recovery, are too often seen. For Europeans long 
resident in the Tropics a sea voyage is the best change, as it 
works out of their systems the poison of malaria, which is at 
the bottom of most bodily ailments in this country. 



BIRTH-RATE 

JoDHPORE. — Registration of births and. deaths was commenced 
on the 1st January 1894 for the city of Jodhpore, and it is 
still difficult to get the requisite information from the people ; 
they are so reticent regarding their domestic occurrences, 
especially in the case of female births. Indeed, it is difficult 
to make the residents of this capital of the desert understand 
that anything more than idle curiosity actuates the official 
whose duty it is to record such occurrences ; and that the 
father and head of a house should have to report a family 
misfortune, such as the birth of a daughter, which brings the 
derision of his own household upon him and excites the jests 
of passers by, is still beyond the comprehension of these people. 
Under such circumstances, time and education must be relied 
upon to overcome the opposition which now besets the regis- 
tration of vital statistics. 

Rural registration is still under consideration, and, it is 
hoped, a move in this direction will shortly be made. 

The following system of registration is observed : — The 
Registrar receives reports of births and deaths from the gate- 
keepers of the city, and also from the city Dais, and submits 
them daily to the Residency Surgeon's office, where monthly 
and annual returns are compiled. 

It will be observed from the accompanying table that 
the bhths in the last half of the year far exceed those in the 
first, and this corresponds with observations made in other 
places. The Jodhpore Table for January, however, is some- 
what of an exception, as the births registered in that month 

202 



BIRTH-RATE 



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C3 




























































O 


































fv 


,_( 


IN 


O 


^ 


O 


CI 


lO 


ON 


U-) 


-*• 


CO 










CO 


CO 


^ 


^ 


Tf 


CO 


" 




H 




" 








t-s 


^ 


rj- 


NO 


ON 


„ 


o 


ON 


M 


IN 


tN 


O 


co 






00 


CO 


VO 


^ 


^ 


tN 


00 


CI 


CI 


ON 


00 


00 


00 

On 


fe 
























































s 






























8 


'T 


\o 


O 


CI 


H 


ON 


tN 


H 


M 


CO 


11- 


tN 










i-t 


M 


•^ 






















■d- 


en 


CI 


CI 


VO 


CO 


tN 


„ 


00 


O 


NO 


CI 


rh 








lO 


vO 


■"I- 


CO 


ri- 


lO 


t^ 


C^ 








VO 


























M 
































00 


























































e 


t 


CA 


t^ 


" 


N 


O 


00 


NO 


LO 


CO 


'~' 


CI 








N 


ON 


*o 


ON 


O 


00 


CO 


o 


rt- 


ON 


CO 


VO 











ON 


LO 


■* 


lO 


Tt- 


tN 






tN 


On 


On 






















M 


M 








ON 


lO 






























03 




























00 

r-1 


























1 


8 


(N 


^ 


ON 


M 


o 


CI 


CO 


CO 


H 


tN 


NO 


VO 












^ 




"^ 




















O 


ON 


^ 


tN 


CO 


CO 


CO 


C) 


o 


NO 


VO 


VO 


CO 






O 


•>*■ 


ui 




00 


IN 


tN 


w 


NO 


lO 


U-) 


N 


lO 






H 














H 


M 


H 


H 


H 


N 


00 

iH 




























M 
































t^ 


CI 


M 


NO 


00 


ON 


C\ 


LO 


M 


o 


CO 


^ 










*"* 


H 






















Months. 


3 

a 

►-5 


5 


3 


«1 




2 

3 
1-5 


3 

1-5 


3 


s 

-CI 

a 

"S. 


o 
O 


^.1 
01 

a 

a) 
> 
o 


a ^ 

o 



S04. WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

have generally been high, and the same circumstance has been 
observed in Bikanir. A study of the last column of the table 
shows that conception is most frequent during the cold months, 
and least during May, June, July, August, September, and 
October, which may be considered the season of greatest heat 
and also of after malarial influences. 

SiROHi. — Nearly the same system of registration of births 
and deaths is followed in Sirohi as in the other Western Raj- 
putana States; it was commenced in 1894, both for the capital 
and for rural circles, and although regular returns are furnished, 
they are not yet accurate. However, in course of time better 
results are expected. In the following table of birth returns 
for Sirohi city there is one feature more or less constant for 
the whole period under consideration, viz., that the births in 
the last six months of the year generally exceed those in 
the first six months, excepting January, which stands high as 
regards birth-rate, and this clearly points out that conception 
more frequently takes place during the cold months. 

Jaisalmir. — Nearly the same system for recording births 
and deaths is followed in Jaisalmir city and State as that in 
Jodhpore and Sirohi. 

As in the tables of Jodhpore and Sirohi, so in the Jaisalmir 
returns (p. 206), it mil be observed that the births in the last 
half of the year generally exceed those in the first, with this 
difference only, that the month of June is an exception and 
stands higfh as regards birth-rate. 

The same table also tends to prove that conception takes 
place more frequently during the cold months than during 
other seasons of the year. 



BIRTH-RATE 



205 



00 



o 

H 

o\ 

oo 



o 
>^ 

H 

I— I 

o 



o 

(—1 

O 
f» 

m 
Eh 

w 

I— ( 



5 


rfj 








e 


HWCO-^lOvOtNOOOsOHW 

H H H 




sa 
o 
S3 
P. 
<o 
« 

o 
O 


.a 








e 


M H H 


— 


0) 

< 


.i 


cot-»goooocot^ot^tN 

rOvOOOOOOfOVOOMD^ 

CO lo •>!• en (N o vd CO (N co" co" t^ 


e 


COOOONOCNC^vONHThHlO 








.a 


mt^W O\VO0000 lOOO '^•VO CO 


H 




B 






00 
rH 


.ci 


•^^0 O I-l cntN'O ■^M 1000>0 




e 


COvOOWOlCOUlHHtNNTh 




1896. 


■d 


rj-M uICOhOO t^iOC; 0) COIN 

H H 




e 


ooMtNChDcou-iooaMTj- 




00 

I-l 


.o 


t>.0\lOlOO C»5U1VO lOt^u^O 


ON 


e 


H H M 




t 

00 

IH 


■O 


: : : : :«'-iuivoHO\Ht^ 

M H I-l 




8 


: : : : : t^ ^o lo ro -i- ci ^ 
















1 




^ ^ .■ ■ ■ ■ • ^- 1 s 1 1 1 





206 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



ON 
CO 



o 

H 

-^ 
0\ 
oo 



o 

Pi 

H 
1— I 

O 



1-3 

< 

CO 
I— I 

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12; 

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w 

















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^ 


>, 




>> 






0) 




t4 

s 


ria 


S 

> 

o 


1 
<1 


a 




OP 

o 

o 


s 

<I1 

O 
ft 




s 

s 


g 




< 


fa 

02 








M 


M 


CO 


Tl- 


in 


NO 


NO 


CO 


On 


o 


M 


01 


























H 


H 


'^ 








t- 




u 




>> 


















a 
P. 


rO 





s 

O 


02 


o 
o 

o 








2 


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s 


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o 

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ft 




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o 




























































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o 


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01 


























t-i 


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" 








in 


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to 




0) 


01 


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CO 


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cj 






























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> 






























■< 


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CO 


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01 


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M 


M 








w 






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M 


01 


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On 












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f 


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VO 


VO 


CO 


r^ 


in 


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n 


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CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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01 


01 


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CO 
CO 


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r-l 






























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t_^ 


"1 


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rj- 


tx 


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N 


N 


o 


H 


lO 








M 
















M 












NT) 


N 


-^ 


CO 


00 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


t^ 


lO 


_^ 


CO 


iri 






CO 


CO 


CO 


PI 


01 


01 


01 


01 


M 


01 


CO 


CO 


CO 


1 
00 




























































e 


M 


"1 


N 


H 


VO 


NO 


VO 


Cv 


CI 


O 


01 


•* 












M 










" 


" 














• 
















" 








a 
o 




a 
a 

•-s 


a 






i 
S 


1> 

s 

•-5 




3 


S 
S 

02 


X> 

S 

o 


01 

s 

1 


3 

o 


o 



DISEASES 

The following tables of reference are given : — Mortality tables 
of Jodhpore, Sirobi, and Jaisalmir cities, from 1894 to 1897. 
Statements sbowing strength, admissions, deatbs, &c., in jails. 
Returns of patients treated in the hospitals and dispensaries. 



Mortality Table, Jodlipore City, from 1894 to 1897. 



Years. 


Cholera. ^?)i^' Fever, 
pox. 


Bowel 
Com- 
plaints. 


Snake- 
bites. 


Injuries. 


All 
others. 


Total. 


1894 . . . 

1895 . . . 

1896 . . . 

1897 . . 


1 
I 

'.'.'. 88 
12 


1590 

1 106 

852 

778 


73 
23 
28 

"3 


I 


20 
19 
17 
25 


300 
208 
191 
103 


1985 

1356 

II76 

931 


Total loi 4326 


137 


I 


81 ! 802 

j 


5448 


Mortality Table, Sirohi City, from 1894 to 1897. 


Years. 


Cholera. ^"^^^J Fever. 


Bowel 
Com- 
plaints. 


Snake- 
bites. 


Injuries. 


All 
others. 


Total. 


1894 . . . 

1895 . . . 

1896 . . . 

1897 . . . 




3 
18 


82 2 

107 1 I 

78 17 

52 \ 5 




I 

I 


6 

5 
12 

27 


90 

113 
III 
103 


Total . . 




21 


319 25 




2 


5° 


417 



207 



208 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Mortality Table, Jaisalmir City, from 1894 to 1897. 



Years. 


Cholera. 


Small- 
pox. 


Fever. 


Bowel 
Com- 
plaints. 


^^^: |i-i--. 


ot^ek Total. 


1894 . . . 

1895 . . . 

1896 . . . 

1897 . . . 




6 

46 


153 

180 

161 

82 


51 
56 
67 

23 


- i 'I 
1 16 

I ! 13 

..■ 1 23 


117 

lOI 

103 

78 


342 
353 
391 
206 


Total . . 


... j 52 


576 


197 


I 67 


399 


1292 



Mortality from all Diseases in Jodlipore City, for each Month, 
from 1894 to 1897, 



Months. 








Deaths. 
















Total 




Percent- 




1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


of Four 
Years. 


Mean. 


Total 
Mortality. 


January , . 


132 


131 


133 


65 


461 


115-25 


8.46 


February . , 


151 


72 


108 


72 


403 


100.75 


7.40 


March . . . 


153 


104 


103 


64 


424 


106.00 


7.78 


April . . . 


175 


107 


75 


67 


424 


106.00 


7.78 


May . . . 


153 


80 


97 


72 


402 


100.50 


7.38 


June . . . 


95 


61 


83 


75 


314 


78.50 


5.76 


July . . . 


III 


46 


73 


40 


270 


67.50 


4.96 


August . . 


235 


94 


98 


65 


492 


123.00 


9-03 


September 


235 


195 


137 


118 


685 


171.25 


12.57 


October . . 


245 


107 


116 


123 


591 


147.75 


10.85 


November 


185 


184 


85 


108 


562 


140.50 


10.32 


December . . 


"5 


175 


68 


62 


420 


105.00 


7.71 


Total . . 


1985 


1356 


1 1 76 


931 


5448 


1362.00 


100.00 



o 



I.— RETURN OF PATIENTS TREATED AT THE HEWSON HOSPITAL, JODHPORE, from 1890 to 18 



I. 


2. 
































3. 






























4. 


„. 


UoDtlu. 


Gknebal DiHEASEa. 




- 


1 1 a 




i 


i 
1 

1 


1 

1 


1 


1 


J 


1 
1 

1 


i 


i 
1 


, 


Jl 


if 


i 

1 

i 


1 

1 

J 


1 

1 


= 1 

ii 
if 


1 


31 

ii 


i 
J 


1 


1 

3 

i 


1 


i i 


, 


1 


6 
1 


11 

r 

1 


1 

If 

1 


tl 

ii 


1 


1 

5 


l! 


1 
1 


1 

i 


^ 


,. 


J..U.^ . . . 


. .. 


U3 


,.<2. 


60 


94 


■14 


8 


18 


201 


376 




19 


98 


27s 


294 


383 


21 




79 


fk>5 


70 


251 


" 


605 


160 I 39 




■04 


3 


64 


42 


.58 


352 


.,216 




2. 


261 


22 


7,946 


J 


Ftbraiuy 






-„ 1 ,., 


l.S 


982 

988 


S6 
64 


69 


86 


'S 


29 


■SS 


467 


,' 


29 


104 


303 


259 


404 


39 


,j 


■IS 


407 


8s 


182 


46 


579 
806 


100, 74 


J 


89 


' 


83 
90 


43 


207 
28. 


322 


',.Z 




10 




45 


6.944 


4. 


April. . 








147 


778 


86 


72 


111 


■■ 


106 


181 


443 




19 


■51 


301 


343 


40s 


40 


■7 




333 


87 


327 


57 


856 


■33 ; 56 




8s 


... 


89 


38 


223 


340 


1,066 


200 


18 


362 


78 


7,647 


!■ 


M.y . . 








30 .36 


752 


69 


69 


143 


■s 


174 


w 


S29 




27 


163 


341 


306 


463 


45 


13 


63 


287 


104 


36S 


61 


844 


127 I 76 




64 


... 


■23 


94 


354 


324 


■.172 


57 


14 


276 


90 


7,920 


i. 


j™, . . 








735! "3 


691 




83 


108 


21 


loS 


142 


,60 






ISO 


317 


24S 


S14 






38 


13! 


93 


382 


45 


7.5 


93 6, 


■ 67 


... 


81 


77 


429 


240 


,,040 


56 


IS 


310 


101 


7,940 


7. 


J% . . 








S90| "7 


1,060 


121 


79 


84 


,6 


86 


■S8 


473 




14 


150 


2S0 


345 


601 


30 


IS 


27 


251 


164 


354 


41 




9,' 46 


... 


58 


... 1 47 


49 


470 


408 


1,12. 


60 


■3 


360 


95 


8.797 


8. 


Angurt . 








6| 3S7 


3,182 


103 


7i 


89 


24 


70 


171 


SOI 




16 


131 


33( 


560 


681 


19 




37 


371 


3ii 


346 


44 


838 


96 


51 


1 


57 


... 


83 


41 


462 


5^3 


I.4S3 


39 


16 


316 


57 


■■.475 


» 










199 387 


6,208 


6S 


70 


74 


10 


62 


21s 


48S 




IS 


■S7 


32« 


SSI 


60s 


27 




21 


355 


229 


338 


38 


933 


■95 


58 




80 




72 


48 


4.6 


503 


■,3^2 


40 


25 


388 


66 


■4.497 


la 


Ociob., . 








115 259 


7.314 


ss 


63 


76 


■7 


38 


206 


474 




■ S 


ISi 


3"» 


375 


528 


50 


13 


20 


592 


117 


287 


49 


929 


240 


SO 




50 ■ 


S3 


43 


3»4 


374 


1,203 


39 


28 


203 


58 


14.729 


I,. 


Ko.™l»r 






'59 


4.863 


45 


6! 


62 


20 


30 


201 


407 




14 


106 


33S 


296 


399 


56 




40 


692 


101 


278 


75 


781 


265 


66 




53! 4 


42 


46 


278 


344 


99° 


40 


20 


200 


24 


■ >,409 


.1 


T.U1 






- 1 ■ ■« 


2.831 


" 


65 


79 


* 


'J 


.94 


337 




' 


" 


31S 


290 


382 


■3 




43 


716 


87 


282 


S3 


641 


244 


34 




69 
84^ 


4 


T 


53 


225 


385 


.,0,2 


36 


24 


260 


.4 


9.154 




3 1.685 2.269 


31.271 


882 


872 


1,130 


195 


7SS ' 


2,143 


5,374 


67 


2>S 


■.S98 


3.746 


4.209 


S.796 


392 


123 


639 


5.242 


1,568 


3,711 


625 


9.234 


1,872 


663 


3 


15 


898 


628 


3,907 


4,507 


■4.354 


567 


225 


3.356 


666 


■■6,253 




J..™.-,, . 


0.00 ! 1.45 ! 1.9S 


26.90 


0.76 


0.7S 


0^7 


0.17 


a65 


1.84 


4.62 


0.06 1 18 


_!f. 


1^ 


3.62 


4« 


_^ 


°-" 


o-SS 


^ 


_^ 


3.19 


0.54 


7.94 


■.62 O.S7 


o.«. 


a72 1 0.0. 


.77 


■^54 


3-36 


3.88 


■2.3s 


0.49 


.„ 


2.S9 


0.57 


99.99 



3 



II.— RETURN OF PATIENTS TREATED IN THE CENTRAL JAIL, JODHPORE, from 1890 to 1897 



I. a. 






























3 


































4. 

— 1 


- »«.. 


0^™.D„^^ 
























OAL DiaKA9». 












f:i:i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


i 

1 


1 
1 


, 


1 


i 

j! 


i 

1 


1 


1 
1 


hi 

Jl 


! II 


1 


1 


1 
1 


J, 
jl 


1 
1 

i 


jl 

it 


J 


1 
II 


1!" 


If 


it 
I 


i 

5 


1 

\ 
1 


H 
=1 
% 


f 


i 


1 


,. j.™„ . . . 


.-. ' ... ' 43 


93 


9 


6 4 




2 








7 


> 


'S 


3 


1 


1 


27 72 


50 


5 




=6 


2 












■s 




.6 


■ 




■6 




475 


,. Mra.,y . . 


... 1 ... , 34 


!7 


1 


7 2 








14 






8 






2 






26 ' 63 


38 


' 




=5 




10 










10 










8 




3«9 


3, M..ch . . . 


... ... 1 4) 


75 


3 


5 ' » 






11 


.3 






4 






a 






35 48 


46 






3= 




"4 










" 












■ 


413 


,, April . . . 






39 


7<1 


7 


5 3 






17 


33 




2 


15 




6 


2 






11 1 34 


5= 






30 




■■ 










16 














430 


S. M., 




I 1 ... 


2» 


54 


2 


5 ' 4 




4 


15 


"5 






23 


■3 


■3 


4 


1 




8 1 20 


58 


" 




39 


3 


8 


... 








20 






■ 








4m 


6. .1™ . . . 




... ! IS 


37 


S9 




6 ' 3 




s 




16 


2 




24 




14 


■ 






7 24 


59 






33 




3 










19 




23 


I 






' 


4!0 


7. July . . . 




13 


n 


112 








I 


14 


19 


1 




24 




15 








13 j 42 


114 


29 


3 


32 




■ 










.0 




33 


■ 


3 




■ 


OjO 


8. Au^t . . 






■34 


176 




1 ! 




2 


14 


12 


... 




25 




32 








7 I " 


99 


41 


3 


22 


2 


4 






2 




13 




38 


2 




10 




68, 


9. 8«pt«ii>lMr . 






no 


!33 




5 , I 






■9 


IS 


1 




I« 




.6 








9 1 45 


127 


■9 




23 




1 








' 


18 


15 


10 










712 


10. MAa . . 






74 


■75 


3 


2 1 1 






17 


1. 




I 


■ 5 




15 


1 






■ 1 


42 


91 




3 


20 














.7 




6 


a 


2 






546 [ 








48 


108 


21 


5 


... 






■7 


8 


i 




2 




IS 


4 


3 




22 


44 


52 






28 














7 




12 




2 






443 


,...„.. 




1 
... 1 .. 


46 


„4 


' 


3 


S 




■ 


20 


20 






10 




7 


4 


' 


* 


44 


'I 


3' 




» 


16 




' 








' 


" 




.0 


» 








420 


. 


^ 


7.. 


1.352 


68 


56 


3. 


28 


.5 


189 


„, 


,0 


3 


.73 


7, 


159 


2i 


8 




220 


483 


8>3 


'73 


.5 


326 


25 


S3 




77 






169 


77 


■95 




8 


.■0 


,3 


5.947 


PacDUg. . 


0.01 


M7 


11.96 


-.73 


...4 


»94 


'" 


0.47 


0.25 


3.18 


3.=. 


..17 


0.0s 


=■" 


,„ 


2.67 


0.42 


0.13 


0.08 


3.70 


8,2 


.3.84 


2.,, 


0.2s 


5.48 


0,,2 


0.89 




1.29 


, 0.2, 


0.49 


2.84 


1.29 


3.2S 






,.ss 


0.22 


99.97 



idO 



^^ 



III.— RETURN OF PATIENTS TREATED AT PALI, NAGPORE, MERTA, JALORE, BILARA, POHKARAN, JASOLE, DIDWANA TOWN. 
JODHPORE (FIRST BRANCH AND SECOND BRANCH) DISPENSARIES, from 1890 to 1897 



1. 


2. 


































a. 




































4. 




»-"'■'■«»-• 
























»OAL D.SK48K. 










































i 


. 








. 




,- 




i 


H 






i s.- 


i 


1^ 1 


1 




fl< 


h 


= 


1 
































s 










i- 






























38 


















. 




J 


i 


? 


I 


1 


1 








1 




ft 


1-" 


1 


\ 


1 


ii 


1 


I 


g 


i 


1 || 


§ 


«L 


II 


1 


If 





II 


fl 


Ii 


i 


1 

i 










1 


i 


1 


1 




1 


i 


i 


a 


1 


i 


3' 




1 


1 


1 


1^ 


1 


1- 


1 


1 


i i^ 


1 


11 'i 


1 


il 


r 




1 1 




1 


1 


1 






J..u.„ , . 






39= 


4.ii» 


=63 


>39 


340 


44 


■ ■2 


363 


..220 


33 


32 


272 


862 


.,805 {.,9,4 


.■9 


54 


559 


.,7.. 


524 


454 


■'4 2, 


074 


329 


.78 8 1 176 




■ ■9 


434 


756 2,383 5,391 


„ 


95 


81. 


96 


28.464 




K.br,.,, . 




,, 




334 


a,739 
3.067 




.39 


274 


S8 


■67 


263 


987 


" 


^ 


236 

366 


692 
873 


.,763, .,544 
2,765 1 .,760 


89 
87 


40 


4'3 


'Zt, 


548 


575 


87 . 
98 2 


872 
3SO 


■73 

.86 


,85 ,j 1 Is^ 




100 


373 
380 


78S 2 


687 1 4.878 
02. 1 5.4.7 


64 
87 


87 
89 


641 
897 


239 


23,010 


!■ 


Apnl . . 
M., . . . 






460 


363 


1790 


J67 


■ 70 


333 
313 


S4 


353 


306 


..238 


26 


" 


346 
362 


825 

833 


2,862' ,,798 

2,125 ■,9»4 


.09 


30 


328 
287 


985 
844 


324 


636 


89 2 


578 


.91 


236 6 


!0S 




1.5 


479 


9^5 ■ 


80. 
879 


4.78. 
4,.58 


107 


.23 


76s 


498 
538 


26,968 

2*420 


S. 


im . . . 






r.009 


326 


.,969 


"S 


.62 


291 


43 


408 


302 


i,'8. 


27 


21 


340 


773 


.,7.3 2,120 


89 


45 


224 


703 


539 


687 


96 2 


458 


'89 


276 9 


.9. 




.22 


St* 


■,243 ■ 


966 


4,264 


,3, 


75 


92. 


664 


26,347 


7. 


Jul, . . 






388 


S73 


W! 


!iO 


152 


289 


65 


356 


292 


■,'77 


28 


■9 


3'2 


8'3 


2,57. 2,55s 


67 


24 


■8. 


704 


802 


83s 




522 


'75 


28. .1 


.99 


II 


.14 


5.^ 


■ ,456 2 


343 


4,570 


... 


100 


905 


631 


29.0,0 


«• 


Augufl . 






m 


906 VI9 


214 


143 


279 


55 


284 


269 


','5' 


" 


■8 




838 


4,0.9 2,68, 


9. 


34 


225 


782 


■,067 


767 




49S 


■99 


339 


5 


204 


.1 


124 


432 


1,086 1 2 


S72 


5,3.9 


96 


83 


925 


429 


33,820 


9. 


September . 






=75 


9"3 W372 


203 


148 


2SS 


55 


■89 


261 


■ .097 


■4 


20 


329 


803 


3,368 2,2,3 


85 




204 


770 


903 


647 


■03 1 2 


453 


234 


252 


4 


■79 




120 


434 


858|2 


486 


4,633 


■04 


87 


763 


39s 


36.346 


10. 


October . . 




... «, 


6i3 '5,417 
496 n.M 


■93 

,98 


■03 


2,6 


59 


"5 


307 


1,036 


20 


'' 


347 


80s 


2,.o3; ',76s 

.,588 1 1,687 


.37 




36s 


.,20s 


588 


6.9 
569 




20^ 


401 


196 

184 


„ 


■43 


.0 


.00 


383 
342 


959} 2 
829 2 


078 


4,117 


79 


95 


789 
685 


329 

1S8 


38,648 

32,985 


"■ 


D«.»l« . 




„ ( ... 


404 1 «,896 


"' 


■23 


267 


3' 


88 


35' 


',09. 


" 


T8 


=53 


746 


■,693' ..673 


107 


33 


461 


',6'8 


573 




96 2 


062 


350 


196 


8 


■59 




■■4 


373 


753 2, 


.59 


4,364 


98 


71 


67S 


■13 


28,766 




T.t.l . 




37 [2.35. 


6,263 Ws!0 


2,799 


■,657 


3.433 


633 


2,656 


3.723 


13,489 


267 


243 


3,760 


9,633 


28,375 j23,857 




427 


3,950 


.3,184 


7,772 


7,539 


■ ,22I ,28 


205 


3,006 


2,67. 


99 


2,.74 




.,34. 


5,072 


11,095 25,863 


55,680 


.,157 


1,06. 


9,698 


4,224 


358,525 




PerceDtage . 


0.0, , 0.66 


..7S ' .,: 


0,78 


0.46 


0,96 


°" 


J!l 


,.04^ 


3-76 


^ 


^ 


'05 


J.69 


"'l'1 


..34 


0.,2 


'"■ 


3.7. 


^ 


2.10 


t.34 


87 


0.84 


074 


^ 


^ 


0.02 


^ 




3.09 j 7 


2, 


15.53 


0-32 


.30 


2,70 


...8 


99.99 



3 



DISEASES 



209 



Mortality from all Diseases in Sirohi City, for each Month, 
from 1894 to 1897.* 









Deaths. 


Months. 










Total 




Percent- 




1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


of Foui' 
Years. 


Mean. 


Total 
ilortality. 


January . . 




16 


7 


5 


28 


9-33 


6.72 


February 








14 


6 


17 


37 


12.33 


8.87 


March . 








18 


9 


6 


33 


11.00 


7.91 


April , 








6 


2 


5 


13 


4.33 


3.12 


May . 








6 


14 


10 


30 


10.00 


7.20 


June . 






5 


5 


5 


8 


23 


5-75 


5-52 


July . 






7 


5 


II 


5 


28 


7.00 


6.71 


August 






9 


8 


II 


7 


35 


8.75 


8.39 


September 




9 


6 


15 


14 


44 


11.00 


10.55 


October . 




26 


13 


8 


10 


57 


14.25 


13.67 


November 




18 


6 


9 


8 


41 


10.25 


9.83 


December 




16 


10 


14 


8 


48 


12.00 


11.51 


Total . . 


90 


"3 


III 


103 


417 


104.25 


100.00 



* The vital statistics commenced in Sirohi State from xst June 1894. 



Mortality from all Diseases in Jaisalmir City, for each Month, 
from 1894 to 1897. 









Deaths. 


Months. 










Total 




Percent- 




1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


of Four 
Years. 


Mean. 


Total 
Mortality. 


January . . 


30 


27 


82 


16 


155 


38.75 


12.00 


February 






41 


29 


33 


18 


121 


30.25 


9-37 


March . 






71 


40 


45 


19 


175 


43-75 


13-54 


April . 






41 


32 


57 


23 


153 


38.25 


11.84 


May 






30 


23 


33 


16 


102 


25.50 


7.89 


June . 






10 


34 


24 


17 


85 


21.25 


6.58 


July 






15 


59 


21 


12 


107 


26.75 


8.28 


August 






20 


20 


25 


15 


80 


20.00 


6.19 


September 




12 


20 


22 


13 


67 


16.75 


5.19 


October . 




17 


17 


13 


15 


62 


15-50 


480 


November 




31 


22 


18 


13 


84 


21.00 


6.50 


December 




24 


30 


18 


29 


lOI 


25-25 


7.82 


Total . . 


342 


353 


391 


206 


1292 


323.00 


100.00 



MEDICAL DISEASES 

These diseases will be considered in the order given in the 
preceding tables. 

Small-pox. — Before the introduction of vaccination into 
these States, small-pox epidemics were frequent and widely 
spread, and the mortality among children was then, un- 
doubtedly, enormous. Marks of the disease, contracted in 
childhood, are still visible on nearly every adult in the 
country, and many of them suffer from lost or impaired 
vision, due to this dire malady. A reference to the article 
headed "Vaccination," and the tables given there, should 
be made. When vaccination was first started it met with 
much opposition from the people, and the limited number 
of vaccinators, available for carrying out the protection, was 
a further diflSculty. It was not till 1889-90 that a full stafi 
of vaccinators was entertained in Marwar; the work done 
since has been excellent, and most of the juvenile popu- 
lation has been once vaccinated. In the twelve years 
1887-98, 866,960 children have been vaccinated in the 
Jodhpore State. The mortality from small-pox in Jodhpore 
city, during the four years 1894-97, has been 10 1 out of 
a total of 5448, or a percentage of 1.85 of the total deaths. 
The most fatal months are usually April and May; next 
come March and June, and very few cases, i.e. only one and 
two, have been recorded in February and July, respectively. 
The remaining six months, viz. the first and the last five 
months, have had no deaths registered during the period 
under review. The greatest number of deaths occurring in 

any one year was in 1896, viz., 88; in 1897 there were 12 : 

210 



MEDICAL DISEASES 



211 



in 1894, one; and in 1895 there were no deaths from this 
disease. The statistics available for this table extend over 
only a very few years, and consequently it is difficult to 
give much information on the subject, as memory has to be 
greatly relied upon. Registration is still imperfect, and little 
is known in the hospitals and dispensaries regarding these 
outbreaks, as the people are averse to treatment for this 
disease, which they consider a visitation of the deity called 
"Sitla Mata." They rely on certain religious ceremonies, 
and the fate of the individual attacked, to effect recovery. 
The sufferer is placed in a dark room, air is excluded by 
thick curtains, and prayers are regularly attended to. Should 
the child recover, it is taken to Mata's shrine and thanks- 
giving offerings are made. The mortality among young 
children from small-pox under this system is always very 
great, and much blindness and impaired vision ensue. The 
virulence of the disease has, fortunately, been much reduced 
during recent years by vaccination. 

Cholera. — The following mortality tables for the Jodhpore 
State are available only from 1889 to 1897, and for Sirohi 
from 1890 to 1897, both years inclusive. The mortality for 
the city of Jodhpore is given from 1891 to 1897, and for the 
Sirohi city from 1893 to 1897, inclusive. 

Mortality Table, Cholera, of Jodhpore State, from 1889 to 1897. 



Months. 


1889 1890 1 1891 


1892 1893 1894] 1895 


1896 J1897 


Total. Average. 


.January 

Februai 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

Septem 

October 

Noveml 

Decemb 


y • ■ 

)er 

)er 
er. . 


203 
17 


I 


19 
2 

^55 

257 

128 

25 

... 


145 

1744 

4849 

1040 

19 

55 


i 
i 


2 
181 

I 

■83 


119 
554 
859 
765 

13 
I 

16 
... 


5 

7 
16 

7 


4 
269 

2,319 
5,891 
2,171 

323 
191 

41 
88 

I 


0.44 

29.89 

257.67 

654-56 

241.22 

35-89 
21.22 

4-56 
9.78 
0.1 1 


Total . . 


220 


I 586 


7852 


3 1 2 1 272 2327 


35 ".298 


1255-33 



212 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Mortality Table, Cholerc 


(, of Sirohi State, from 


1890 


to 1897. 


Months. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


Average 


January . . 
























February 






















... 




March 






... 














... 




April . . 


















. . 


... 




May . . 




... 












17 




17 


2.13 


June . . 








10 


51 




10 


37 




108 


13-50 


July . . 




84 


8 


S 












97 


12.12 


August . 




12 


I 


7 






7 






27 


3-38 


September 








10 












10 


I.2S 


October . 








S 














5 


0.62 


November 


























December 
























Total . . 


96 


9 


37 


51 




17 


54 




264 


33- 00 



Mortality Table, Cholera, of Jodlipore City, from 1891 to 1897. 



Months. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


Mean. 


Order. 


January 

February 

March 

April . 

May . 

June . 

July . 

August 

Septembe 

October 

Novembe 

Decembei 


r 

r 




44 


19 
266 

243 

3 

90 

... 


I 






• 
• 


• 
■ 


[ 










19 
266 

243 

3 

90 

44 

I 
I 


2.71 

38.00 

34-71 

0.43 

12.86 

6.29 

0.14 

0.14 


I 
2 
3 
4 
8 
12 
II 

7 

10 

9 
5 
6 


Total . . 


44 621 I 


I 




667 95.28 





Mortality Table, Cholera, of Sirohi City, from 1893 to 1897. 



Months. 


1893. 


1894. 1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. ' Mean. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May . 

June. 

July . 

August 

Septemb 

October 

Novemb 

Decembt 


r 

er 

3r 
jr 












2 




. 


■ 














2 






Total .... 


2 


... 






... ^ 



MEDICAL DISEASES 213 

The total number of deaths recorded from cholera in 
Marwar during the nine years 1 889-1 897, as shown in the 
first of the above tables, was 1 1,298, and in the city of Jodh- 
pore, during the seven years 1891-97, d^y. The total number 
of deaths recorded from cholera in the Sirohi State during 
the eight years 1890-97 was 264, as shown in the second 
table, and only two cases occurred in the capital during the 
period 1893—97. 

For Marwar the years 1890, 1893, and 1894 may be con- 
sidered as non-cholera years, as only one, three, and two deaths 
occurred from this disease respectively during those years. In 
the city no cases occurred in three out of seven years, and 
there was only one death in 1893 and one in 1895 ; so these 
years may also be said to be non-cholera. The only very bad 
season was that commencing in May 1892, and ending in 
September of the same year. The months of greatest mor- 
tality in the State were June, May, July, August, and April, 
and in the city June stands first for mortality, July coming 
next. The statistics for the districts cannot be considered very 
reliable, but those of the city give a fair idea of the mortality 
from cholera. In the Sirohi State 1894 and 1897 were non- 
cholera years, and the city escaped almost completely during 
the period given in the table. 

There is no official record of cholera in these States before 
1872. In April of that year cholera is said to have commenced 
at Chandawal, on the main road between Pali and Ajmere, and 
to have spread considerably throughout the country, though 
the total cases and deaths which occurred are not recorded. 

In 1 875— 76 a few cases of cholera were reported in Marwar 
and Sirohi, but the outbreaks do not appear to have been 
severe. Cases occurred in June 1875 and in August 1876. 
One imported case occurred at Mount Abu, the only case of 
cholera known on that hill. 

In 1878 cholera broke out in Jodhpore city on the 



214 WESTERN RAJFUTANA STATES 

29th August, and 827 deatlis were reported up to the 4tli of 
October of the same year. 

In 1883 there was an outbreak of cholera at Abu Road, 
in Sirohi State ; it began among the carrying cooHes on the 
29th of June, and continued till the 30th of August of the 
same year. There were 102 cases and 51 deaths reported, 
but the disease does not appear to have spread much through 
the surrounding country. 

In 1884 cholera broke out in Pali, in Mar war, on the 
5th of July, and 438 cases, with 134 deaths, were reported. 
The town of Pali was then in a very filthy condition. The 
disease extended to Sojat and other towns on this occasion, 
and continued till the 25 th of September. It was, however, 
of a mild type, except at the beginning, in Pali town. 

In 1885 cholera was carried up from Central India by 
the Ramdeora pilgrims, and it broke out in a virulent form 
at Ramdeora and Pohkaran, places about ninety miles north- 
west of Jodhpore city. As soon as the disease became 
established at the fair, the pilgrims bolted in the Jodhpore 
direction. The year was one of short rainfall in the western 
desert, and the Ramdeora tank was very low when the fair 
commenced. Water was scarce all along the route taken by 
the pilgrims, and they perished in numbers, of thirst and 
cholera, as they were driven from the wells and villages by 
the people. Some of the pilgrims found their way into the 
Sursagar village, near Jodhpore, and infected the Residency 
wells adjacent. The Resident's escort and office establish- 
ment were attacked, as well as many people in this village ; 
two men of the escort died of acute cholera, and the rest 
were sent out at once to a well two miles off, after which 
no other cases occurred among them, although the disease 
continued long in Sursagar village, and spread to the city, 
where many people fell victims to its virulence. This epi- 
demic lasted from the 1 6th of September till the 9th October, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 215 

but only 518 cases with 398 deaths were reported from 
Jodhpore city and suburbs ; however, I am satisfied that this 
was far below the actual numbers who became victims to 
the disease in and around the city, and the village mortality 
must have been very great, although few reports of it were 
received. 

In November 1886 cholera was carried into Jodhpore 
city and a few villages by pilgrims from Pushkar fair, but it 
did not assume epidemic proportions ; 1 8 cases with 3 deaths 
were recorded in the city, and 1 5 cases with 6 deaths in 
villages. 

In 1887 there was an epidemic of cholera which began 
in Marwar on the 29th July, and which would appear to 
have extended into this country, both from the Sirohi and 
Jeypore directions. During July of that year 52 cases and 
2 5 deaths were reported from Sirohi ; from Jodhpore city 
547 cases and 203 deaths were reported, and from the 
districts 3632 cases and 19S9 deaths. The infected area 
extended over a great part of the State, and the disease 
was specially virulent among the Srimali Brahmins of Jodh- 
pore city, who were then notorious for their opposition to 
all sanitary measures. The outbreak used to lull and then 
increase with light showers which fell during August and 
September of that year. 

In 1888 cholera was prevalent in some villages of Marwar 
and Sirohi during July and September. It did not appear 
in Jodhpore city, but 11 36 cases and 703 deaths were re- 
ported from villages in Mallani, and that direction of Marwar. 
There were 22 cases with 5 deaths in the Sirohi city, and 
47 cases with 14 deaths in adjacent villages of that State. 

In 1889 there were 745 cases and 220 deaths from 
cholera reported in Marwar, most of which occurred in 
Sanchore pargana in the south-west ; but there were also a 
few cases at Sambhar, near the north-east corner of the State. 



216 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

In 1890 only one cholera case (fatal) was reported in 
Mar war, but there were 131 cases and 96 deaths from the 
disease in Sirohi State between the end of June and the end 
of August. Eight villages of this State were attacked, but 
the capital escaped. 

In 1 89 1 cholera appeared in the Nagore, Pali, Merta, 
Pachbhadra, Bilara, Nawa, and Jodhpore parganas of Marwar, 
between the 3rd of May and the end of October. During 
this time 906 cases with 586 deaths were reported from 
villages, and 125 cases and 44 deaths from the Jodhpore 
city. The disease appeared at Chanwan on the Jodhpore- 
Bikanir Railway, where it had not been known for many 
years ; it was of a virulent type, 6 5 deaths having occurred 
out of 75 attacked. The first case occurred in a Sadhu, back 
from a pilgrimage to Hardwar. Five of the station employes 
were attacked, and they all died. In May and August of this 
year 95 cases and 9 deaths occurred in Sirohi. 

In 1892 a severe epidemic of cholera occurred in Marwar, 
between the 3rd of April and the end of September ; between 
these dates 13,532 cases with 7852 deaths were reported from 
out towns and villages, and 1586 cases and 621 deaths from 
Jodhpore city. The disease first began at Sambhar, and spread 
to 424 towns and villages in the State. Between the 8th of 
June and i8th of September three villages of Sirohi and Abu 
Road Station had 8 1 cases and 3 7 deaths. 

In 1893 there was an outbreak of cholera in Sirohi State, 
between the 4th of June and the 3rd of July. In six villages 
of this State 1 1 5 cases and 5 i deaths occurred, and besides 
there were 8 cases and 2 deaths in Sirohi city. Three cases 
and 3 deaths were reported in Marwar during this year ; 
one of these occurred in Jodhpore city, but no epidemic 
followed. 

In 1 894 only two cases of cholera were reported in Marwar, 
and these were both fatal. They occurred in March in Sheo, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 217 

a pargana in tlie western deserts, and they were most probably 
not cholera but poisoning by unwholesome food. 

In 1895 cholera appeared in both Marwar and Sirohi dur- 
ing the early part of the cold weather. It was supposed to 
have been imported into Marwar by camel-men who came from 
Berar. Three cases and one death occurred in Jodhpore city, 
and 404 cases with 272 deaths in the western districts. There 
were 60 cases reported from five villages of Sirohi, with 17 
fatalities in the same year. 

In 1896 cholera appeared in epidemic form at Nawa, on the 
Sambhar lake, on the 6th of April ; it extended into sixteen 
parganas, and attacked 1 1 5 villages. Between the above date 
and the end of October 3931 cases and 2327 deaths were 
reported. The disease was imported from Bikanir by some 
coolies who had come in search of employment to the Sambhar 
lake, where extensive works were then being carried out. It 
soon spread to the town, from which many people bolted, panic- 
stricken, and in this way hastened the spread of the epidemic. 
In the same year there were 116 cases and 54 deaths from 
cholera reported from five villages of Sirohi State between the 
8th of May and the 25th of June, 

In 1897 there were 123 cases with 35 deaths from 
cholera reported from the famine-stricken districts of Marwar. 
They probably originated from unwholesome food, as during 
years of scarcity the poorer classes are compelled to use 
much old grain which has been long buried in the ground, 
till a year of scarcity makes it saleable to those who can- 
not aflford to pay the enhanced prices which new grain then 
commands. 

No case of cholera was reported in these States in 1898. 
The year was one of fairly abundant food, on account of the 
great importations of grain which took place from adjacent 
provinces, where it was very plentiful. Water was very scarce 
towards the end of the year. Most of the crops failed, or were 



218 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

very light, and tlie grass famine, which now exists, was being 
felt before the end of the year. 

Influenza has, during recent years, been very frequently 
met with in epidemic form, and, unlike the other diseases 
of this class, one attack does not confer immunity against a 
recurrence. Consequently some susceptible people suffer every 
time an outbreak appears, and become much reduced in health 
thereby. Lung complications are frequent, bronchitis being 
common, and pneumonia occasionally seen. The old and 
enfeebled suffer most severely, and many of them are carried 
off by this disease. Great depression and debility characterise 
the attacks, and a troublesome cough often remains long after 
the other symptoms of the disease have disappeared. 

Dysentery. — There were 1 6, i 5 5 cases of dysentery treated 
in the hospitals and dispensaries of the Western Rajputana 
States, including those of jails, during the period of eight 
years, 1890-97, of which 12,489 were in Marwar, 16 19 in 
Sirohi, 852 in Jaisalmir, and 1195 in Abu and Abu Road. 
The disease is not a very common one in these States, nor is it 
often seen of a very severe type, being generally sub-acute in 
the first stage. It is frequently brought on by the use of bad 
grain and unwholesome fruits, but impure water is undoubtedly 
the most important factor in its production ; exposure to damp 
and chill in the rains and cold weather also sometimes brings 
on the disease. Of 2269 cases treated in the Hewson Hospital, 
327 were seen in August, 387 in September, and 259 in 
October. It is always most prevalent in the damp season of 
the year, and it is frequently connected with and aggravated 
by malarial fever. 

Malarial Fevers. — In a dry climate like that of these States, 
with few rivers, tanks, and marshes, also with the sub-soil water 
at a great distance from the surface during most of the year, 
and where mosquitoes are not very plentiful, malarial fevers 
and their complications are essentially less common than in 



MEDICAL DISEASES 219 

many other parts of India. These affections are, however, 
even here the common aihiients of the people, and hardly any 
one escapes an annual attack of fever, while many suffer fre- 
quently. Some always present the visible signs of malarial 
cachexia (the result of the malarial plasmodium in their blood), 
viz., great ansemia, lassitude, emaciation, and enlargement of 
the spleen. The cases seen at the hospitals and dispensaries 
are not a tithe of those attacked ; most of the people are so 
accustomed to suffer from malarial fever that they think little 
more of it than of a cold, and they have their own domestic 
remedies on which they rely ; while others are too apathetic 
to seek relief, looking upon the disease as a visitation of the 
Deity which must be endured, and taking to their bed till it 
has worked itself out, or in extreme cases ended fatally. Many 
of the villagers of these parts think that a sharp attack of 
malarial fever clears the system, and leaves them lighter and 
better for the rest of the year, just as an annual drastic bleed- 
ing was at one time considered salutary in the West. 

Some of the better classes are, however, taking to the use 
of quinine, which they now accept as a potent remedy against 
malarial fevers, and it is hoped the sale of the drug at post- 
offices will facilitate theh obtaining it when required. The 
attendance at the hospitals and dispensaries further demon- 
strates that relief from these diseases is being sought by many. 
In the Marwar hospitals and dispensaries during the eight 
years' period, 1 23,837 cases were treated for these affections, out 
of a total of 592,834. It is further well known that the hos- 
pital assistants and practitioners are much more called in for 
the treatment of fevers than formerly, and that their instruc- 
tions for the relief of the disease are also better carried out. 
Cases of malarial fevers are met with at all times of the year, 
but the period of maximum prevalence is from August to 
November, October being generally the most feverish month 
here. Of 68,520 cases of malarial fever treated in the ten 



220 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

principal dispensaries of Marwar during the eight years' period, 
15,417 were seen in October; and of 31,271 cases treated in 
the Hewson Hospital, Jodhpore city, during the same period, 
7314 were also in October. In Mount Abu and the hill 
country malarial fevers generally set in a little later, the end 
of October and November being the most feverish time, and 
the prevalence sometimes continues into December. Of a total 
of 8453 cases treated during three years in Abu and Abu Road 
charitable dispensaries, 1521 were m October, 1305 in Novem- 
ber, and 1005 in December. 

The period of greatest exemption from fever is March to 
July, the hottest months having the fewest cases of malarial 
fever, and June being generally the month of greatest exemp- 
tion from the disease. As soon as the rains set in, whether in 
the hills or plains, fever begins to increase, and runs steadily 
up to the maximum in October. 

The delta and districts of the Luni river are the most 
feverish parts of Marwar, and in years of heavy rainfall, when 
this river overflows its banks, the prevalence of fever is so 
great, and it continues so long into the cold weather, that 
I have frequently seen the entire population suffering more 
or less from its effects, and hardly able to sow the wheat, 
although very little more than scattering the seed over the 
vast area fertilised by the silt carried down in the monsoon 
floods was required from the husbandman to produce an 
excellent crop. The most malarious parts of Sirohi are the 
villages at the base of the hills in the densely wooded 
country, and the inhabitants of some of these villages seem 
to have deteriorated in physique on account of fever. The 
degenerating effects of this disease may also be readily ob- 
served, if the well-grown and vigorous inhabitants of the high, 
barren lands of Mallani and Jaisalmir, who have to struggle 
for food, be compared with the dwellers in the low-lying 
delta of the Luni, where wheat is abundant and always cheap, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 221 

but where, nevertheless, the physique is generally poor and 
the temperament phlegmatic. 

The researches of Major R. Ross, I. M.S., have demonstrated 
that some species of mosquito harbour the malarial parasite 
during a part of its existence, and that they are potent factors 
in the distribution of malarial poison and in the communi- 
cation of malarial fevers to man and animals liable to these 
diseases. This has been accepted by Laveran, the discoverer 
of the malarial plasmodium, and the experiments made by 
Ross have been confirmed by Grassi and other scientific 
authorities on the continent of Europe and here. Moreover, 
it is in accordance with the ways of nature for the mosquito 
to make use of the malarial plasmodium as an irritant to 
bring the blood it wants to the surface. A bad biting by 
mosquitoes has long been known to produce malarial fever 
in new arrivals in the country. It must, therefore, now be 
accepted that the Indian spotted-winged mosquito, and some 
other varieties, can implant malarial virus in the system, and 
that this is one if not the only source from which malarial 
fevers are derived. The stagnant pools and water-logged 
locaHties in which these mosquitoes are bred have long been 
recognised as the great malarial producing places. However, 
dense forests and overgrown tracts, where there is much 
decayed vegetation and where the sun and air cannot gain 
access to the soil, have always been known to be very feverish 
districts, and the thorough ventilation and exposure of the 
soil to sunlight dissipate the malaria of such places, as if 
the decaying vegetation were necessary for its production. 
Further, many of the people of this country believe that 
they take in the malarial poison with impure drinking water, 
and they will even fix the source and refer to the draught 
of water which brought on the attack. I have known of 
malarial fever contracted at sea, three miles from the coast 
of Africa, where mosquitoes could not reach, and where it 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

was supposed to be due to direct infection from the many 
sufferers on board the hospital ship there. A disease so 
widely distributed over the globe, and so prevalent in many 
places, is not unlikely to have several ways of gaining access 
into the system, and its germs may have an independent 
existence in vegetable matter and in water, where the mosquito 
may play a further part in its distribution when it returns 
to the water to leave its larvse and die there. However, 
although the subject has not yet been worked out sufficiently 
to satisfy all the observations of experienced clinicians, the 
researches of Ross have thrown a new light on malaria, 
which it is hoped will lead to the complete solution of the 
problem at no very distant date. 

The Europeans here and most of the well-to-do of the 
country live under better hygienic conditions than the poor, 
and in consequence suffer less from malarial fevers. Experience 
has shown that much can be done to lessen the prevalence 
and reduce the severity of these diseases, even among the 
poorer classes of the country. Habitations should be located 
on high, dry sites, the sub-soil water thoroughly drained off, 
and stagnant pools must never be allowed near dwellings. A 
supply of pure drinking water is of the greatest importance, 
and this is too often overlooked by villagers. Dense under- 
growth requires to be regularly cut away from the vicinity of 
villages to allow the sun and air to gain free access to the 
soil ; the lower branches of trees should also be removed, so as 
to admit of thorough ventilation and sunning of the ground 
under them. Houses ought to be built on well-raised plinths, 
and the floors should be of wood, lime, or stone instead of clay 
when practicable. High roofs are essential for pure air, and 
they ought to be absolutely waterproof. Ventilation must be 
thorough, and windows to admit plenty of air and sunlight 
are essential. Marsh miasma should be shut off from villages 
hy growing belts of trees on any available land between, and 



MEDICAL DISEASES 223 

ventilation at night made from the opposite side of the dwell- 
ing. Sleeping on beds or " charpais," instead of on the groimd, 
is a safeguard against fever; and those who have to spend 
their nights out of doors watching their crops, should have 
raised " machdns " or resting-places to keep them above the 
malaria. Upstair rooms should be occupied when possible 
during the fever season, and chills should be avoided by the 
wearing of proper clothes, and by keeping within doors after 
sunset during the unhealthy months, as malarial fevers are 
more readily contracted out of doors than within at the time 
of year when the poison is active. Attention to diet and 
avoidance of over fatigue are wise precautions during the 
fever season, as anything which lowers the system tends to 
give the germs of disease an advantage over the provisions of 
nature for the removal of noxious matter from the blood. 

Those liable to fever will derive much benefit from the use 
of a prophylactic during the unhealthy months, such as quinine 
or arsenic, and a dose of quinine is a useful precaution when 
great exposure to night air or damp has to be undergone. 
The people of the country rely greatly on infusions of the 
leaves and shoots of " nim " {Melia indica), and many of them 
take this beverage every morning during the fever season, with 
much benefit to their health, and it is both prophylactic and 
curative in malarial fevers. Decoctions of ginger, black pepper, 
and "nimgiloe" are other remedies, with a high reputation 
throughout the country for prevention and cure of malarial 
fevers. Many of the people have much faith in tea to ward 
off or cut short attacks of fever, and opium is much relied 
on to prevent and cure these diseases. Although quinine is 
undoubtedly the first remedy against malarial diseases, many 
of the people of this country compare it unfavourably with 
their own remedies, and say that it increases their headache, 
gives them constipation, a dry skin, and palpitation. It 
should, therefore, be prescribed with remedies which counteract 



224 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

these sensations in order to make it popular. Antifebrin, 
plienacetin, and remedies of this class are becoming popular 
in many of the towns as fever remedies ; and although they 
are less curative, they bring about perspiration and a feeling 
of ease, which makes them grateful to the fever patient. They 
should, however, be taken with caution, as they are lowering, 
and sometimes give rise to alarming sjnnptoms. 

Venereal Diseases. — These diseases are fairly common among 
the people of these States ; but a very severe type of syphilis is 
only occasionally met with, and this is often due to the abuse 
of mercury, which is prescribed to excess by ignorant and 
unqualified practitioners in the form of " Ras Kaphur " (Hy- 
drargyri perchloridum). Gonorrhoea is very common, as might 
be anticipated from the customs of the country. Early treat- 
ment is generally resorted to, and when this is not successful 
at home many people seek advice at the hospitals and from 
practitioners. Primary and secondary syphilis are common 
diseases, both at the hospitals and in private practice. They 
are mostly treated by mercury in the early stage ; not un- 
frequently, however, this drug is given to excess, with detriment 
to the patient. Tertiary syphilis is met with, and the hereditary 
form is also sometimes seen ; the latter gives rise to a consider- 
able mortality among infants. In the period of eight years, 
5747 cases of gonorrhoea, 4351 of primary and 3558 of 
secondary syphilis were treated in Marwar hospitals and 
dispensaries. 

Scurvy. — In eight years there were only 195 cases of 
scurvy treated in the Hewson Hospital, and only 1 1 8 3 in all 
the hospitals and dispensaries of Marwar. It cannot therefore 
be considered a very prevalent disease in this part of the 
country. My experience is, that it is only met with among 
the underfed and poorer classes, and that it is hardly seen in 
years of plenty. Although vegetables are never very plentiful 
in these States, where water is mostly scarce, the people in 



MEDICAL DISEASES 225 

some way manage to get radishes, leeks, mint, wild leaves and 
roots during certain seasons of the year, which they eat raw, 
and which are in this condition strongly anti-scorbutic. Limes, 
tamarinds, and preserved mangoes are in common use, and 
these do much to make up for the scarcity of fresh vegetables. 

Worms. — Guinea- worm is very common all over this part 
of the country, and many of the contracted limbs and stiff 
joints seen are due to the irritation set up by this parasite, 
which finds its way into the body through the use of foul tank 
water. Thread-worms are common in children, but round and 
tape- worms are only occasionally seen. Guinea-worm is readily 
extracted by some of the dressers and compounders at the 
hospitals, and by village specialists in this branch; but the 
operation must be undertaken before the blister forms at the 
point of exit. 

Debility and Anaemia. — Malaria is responsible for much of 
the debility and anaemia met with. Want of sufficient nutritious 
food, dyspepsia, bad teeth, and old age may also be mentioned, 
and uterine diseases not unfrequently also bring this condition 
about. Great mental depression is often seen among some of 
the sufferers from these affections. Mental worry, heavy 
pecuniary losses, family misfortunes, the death of a near and 
dear relation, and shock bring about a listless and debilitated 
condition, which in some people of this country runs on to a 
fatal termination, as if the individual no longer desired life. 
Debility is also sometimes induced by parsimonious habits, the 
individual being too fond of saving to spend sufficient on his 
diet. I have known cases of this sort in a regiment, where a 
portion of the sepoy's monthly pay had to be given to the 
" Bania" who provided the proper amount of food, which 
would have been wasted if the men had not eaten it. This 
remedy has generally had the desired eftect of getting such 
men into proper condition and health. 

Bheumatic Affections. — Chronic rheumatic affections, both of 

p 



226 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

joints and muscles, are common in tlie cold weather and rains, 
but acute rheumatism is of rare occurrence. It is incumbent 
on Brahmins and strict Hindus to bathe in cold water in the 
early morning; consequently they leave their warm houses 
and go to the nearest well, where they pour cold water over 
their bodies, and dry themselves in the cold wind, after which 
they wash their loui-cloths and reapply them in the damp 
state. This drives the blood from the surface, and perverts 
secretion, so an attack of lumbago or a joint affection often 
follows, especially in the old and feeble. Some of the poorer 
classes, who have no change of clothes, sit in the wind to dry 
themselves after they have become drenched by a shower, and 
this is another frequent cause of rheumatism. Camel-men, 
who carry across the desert, are exposed to great ranges of 
temperature, the day being always hot, the night intensely 
cold; they are generally under-clothed, and therefore suffer 
much from rheumatism. The actual cautery is still sometimes 
resorted to by the people for the cure of some of these severe 
rheumatic ailments ; but oil-rubbing is generally relied upon 
as an external remedy, and opium is taken, both for cure and 
prevention. 

Tuhercular Diseases. — There have been 573 cases of tuber- 
cular disease treated in all the Marwar hospitals and dispen- 
saries during the period of eight years; 166 in Sirohi during 
the same period ; 3 3 in Abu and Abu Road in three years ; 
and only 3 in Jaisalmir in five years. The disease is 
not common in these States, and what is seen is mostly 
among females who live greatly within doors. Milk is rarely a 
vehicle for the communication of tuberculosis to man in this 
country, as cows live mostly in the open, and are not subjected 
to infection, like the house-fed dahy animals of Western 
cities. 

Leprosy. — There is a leper-home at Kaga (already referred 
to), outside Jodhpore, where most of the lepers of the surround- 



MEDICAL DISEASES 227 

ing country congregate and are fed by the people. The disease 
is not common in these States, and only 215 cases have been 
seen in the Hewson Hospital during the eight years' period. 
There is no reason to believe that the disease is on the increase, 
so far as can be ascertained from the leper-home here, although 
this was at one time feared, and the statistics given by the 
Administrative Medical Officer in Rajputana for 1897 show a 
decrease for the whole province. Cases of leucoderma are 
sometimes seen, and treatment is sought on account of the 
disfigurement produced by the disease, more than on account 
of any other inconvenience it gives rise to. 

All other General Diseases. — Epidemics of measles, typhoid 
fever, and chicken-pox are of occasional occurrence, and I am 
of opinion that most of the children of this country get over 
typhoid in their childhood. Enteric fever is sometimes diffi- 
cult to diagnose in Orientals ; but I have seen numbers of 
undoubted cases, and most of them in young people. Diph- 
theria is very rare in these States, but hydrophobia is seen from 
time to time, both from dog and jackal bite. Typhus fever is 
unknown, and erysipelas is extremely rare ; but epidemics of 
influenza have become common during recent years, and it 
runs the same course as in the West. Whooping-cough 
appears in epidemic form, but it receives little notice from 
parents, and is never very severe. 

Diseases of the Nervous System. — Neuralgia is very common 
in the anajmic, especially women, and it is often of malarial 
origin. The hemicranial variety is most frequently seen, but 
facial, sciatic, and other varieties are not uncommon. Epilepsy 
is seen from time to time, also shaking palsy. Partial paraly- 
sis is frequently met with, consequent on apoplexy, syphilis, 
and other lesions due to disease or injury. Muscular atrophy 
and locomotor ataxy are not common, and chorea is compara- 
tively rare in the children of these States. 

Diseases of the Eye, Ear, and Nose. — These diseases con- 



228 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

tribute largely to the dispensary returns, but as they sometimes 
require surgical aid, they will be shown under that heading. 

Diseases of the Circulatory System. — Diseases of the heart 
and blood-vessels are very rare as compared with what is seen 
in the West. Rheumatic fever is uncommon here, and the 
placid temperament and temperate habits of the Oriental save 
his circulatory system much strain ; consequently aneurism is 
hardly ever met with, and even varicose veins are not very 
common. Functional diseases of the heart are met with in 
the anremic, especially among women who have been reduced 
in health by prolonged lactation and want of fresh air. 

Diseases of the Limgs and llespiratory System. — There were 
5881 cases treated in the Hewson Hospital during the eight 
years' period under this heading. There is an infectious form 
of pneumonia sometimes prevalent in the cold weather, and 
the disease is often complicated with, and consequent on, severe 
malarial poisoning; the pneumococcus and malarial plasmodium 
being undoubtedly able to accommodate themselves in the same 
system and with great detriment to the patient ; consequently 
this compound disease is often fatal. Supporting and stimu- 
lating treatment combined with good nursing are required 
for these pneumonias ; but both religious prejudices and caste 
customs get much in the way in this country. Most of the 
people refuse to take milk when suffering from lung affections, 
and many Hindus are strict vegetarians ; so, when they are ill, 
they subsist on gruels and millet waters with little or no 
sustenance in them, and nothing to support the system against 
an exhausting fever. Alcohol is forbidden to most Hindus 
and all good Mahomedans, and even medicinal tinctures and 
fluid medicines are refused. These people are generally nursed^ 
even in hospitals, by their relations, as they object to the 
hospital servants, who have to be general, and are employed ta 
take care of some of the lower castes. It will therefore be 
understood that nursing is still in a primitive condition here, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 229 

and that the patients must often suffer from want of skill in 
their nurses, however attached to them their relations may be, 
and no matter how much devoted to the duty which devolves 
upon them in consequence of an illness in their own family. 

The want of skilled nursing among the people is not less 
felt in dealinsr with cases of enteric, and this disease is also 
rendered unnecessarily fatal by caste and religious prejudices, 
which make proper dieting and treatment an impossibility. 
Many of those suffering from enteric are fed solely on millet 
water for a time, and then put on coarse bread long before they 
are able to digest solid food, often with a result that is anything 
but satisfactory. Live flies are given as an aid to diagnosis, 
and to assist in driving the disease from the system ; this 
treatment often produces a severe retching which is not readily 
recovered from, and which lowers the patient to an alarming 
extent, in most instances when support is needed. 

Acute bronchitis is sometimes met with as a complication 
of influenza, and the chronic variety of the disease is common 
enough in the cold weather among the old and feeble. 
Asthma is not an uncommon complaint in this part of the 
country, and the dry air impregnated with fine sand often adds 
to the sufferer's distress. Pleurisy of an uncomphcated kind 
is rare. 

Disorders of the Digestive System. 

Diarrhoea is common during the monsoon season both in 
children and the advanced in years, and it is not unfrequently 
fatal. Damp clothes, chills, and perversion of the normal 
secretions, unripe and unwholesome fruits which come into 
the bazaars at that season, bad grain and impure water, are all 
potent causes of this malady, and both the severity and fatality 
of this disease are enhanced by malaria, which is ever ready to 
work evil in the system reduced below par, no matter what 
the first cause of this may be. 



230 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Dyspepsia is a common ailment of the poor, because they 
are irregularly and also underfed ; and of some of the well-to-do 
because they are overfed, and then- diet too rich and too highly 
spiced. Women suffer greatly from this affection on account 
of being so much indoors and from want of exercise. 

Diseases of the Liver. — Congestion of the liver is not un- 
common, especially in those addicted to alcohol and very hot 
curries ; it is also seen with malarial poisoning. Hepatitis is 
met with in the same classes, but it rarely runs on to suppura- 
tion, and I have only seen three cases of abscess of the liver at 
the native hospitals, two of which recovered after operation. 

Diseases of the Spleen. — Enlarged spleen is common in all 
the malarial districts, even in children. It may be found hard 
or soft, and sometimes it is enormously enlarged and compli- 
cated with ascites. It only yields satisfactorily to treatment 
when the patient can be removed in the early stage from the 
malarial influences. Splenectomy has not been tried, and the 
people of these parts would not submit to it under any circum- 
stance. 

Diseases of the Lymphatic System. — Enlarged lymphatics are 
not common; they are sometimes removed, and sometimes 
reduced by local applications. 

Goitre. — This disease is uncommon ; only three cases have 
been seen in the Hewson Hospital in eight years, and I have 
seen only two others outside. 

Plague. — Plague broke out in Pali about the middle of 
July 1836, and extended from there to Jodhpore city, Sojat, 
Kherwa, and many other towns of Marwar, also to Sakola and 
two or three other villages of Meywar. 

Pali, where the disease broke out first with great virulence, 
is on the main road between Ahmedabad and Ajmere. The 
town is built on a stiff clay soil, the drainage is bad, and at 
certain seasons, when the tanks are full, it is water-logged. 
The tanks during the monsoon season are filled from a river 



MEDICAL DISEASES 231 

which has a dam about three miles above the town to divert 
the water, and the site of the town is considerably lower than 
that of the dam. The principal streets of Pali are fairly wide, 
but the side streets are all narrow. The houses are substan- 
tially built, mostly of burnt bricks, and the principal inhabi- 
tants are well to do, as there has always been a prosperous 
trade carried on in cloth-stamping and dyeing. At this 
period the population of Pali is supposed to have been about 
25,000 souls, although it is now under 18,000, and trade has 
considerably diminished in it during recent years. 

Plague was supposed to have been imported in silks from 
China, or brought to Pali from Southern Gujerat by a large 
party who had been with Zorawar Mai Seth on a pilgrimage 
to that part of the country, and who halted for some days in 
Pali on their return. The disease broke out in Pali shortly 
after the departure of this party from the town, but it has not 
been established that the party had the disease among them, 
nor even that plague was then present in any part of India. 
The disease first broke out among the cloth-stampers, and it 
was reasonably supposed by some that it might have been 
introduced through the imported silk cloths. Most of the 
materials imported to be stamped were from England, but silks 
were imported from China and abroad, and all importations 
were vid Bombay. The disease rapidly spread from the cloth- 
stampers to all other classes and castes, but Malis, Chamars, 
and Telis are said to have suffered less than Mahajans and 
Brahmins — the former lived more in the open. 

The epidemic was at first fatal to nearly all attacked, and 
fifty or sixty a day died in this town. Wood for burning- 
corpses became so scarce and expensive on account of the 
enormous mortality that cocoa-nuts and ghee were used for 
this purpose. 

As soon as the disease became well established the people 
got panic-stricken, and fled from Pali to Sojat, Jodhpore, 



232 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Kherwa, Chandawal, and other towns, where they communi- 
cated it to the inhabitants. Many of the people left their 
property behind, they were so terrified. When Assistant- 
Surgeon Maclean, of the Merwara battalion, then stationed at 
Beawar, visited Pali, about the second week in October 1836, 
there were not more than a thousand people in the town. 

The disease continued to work great havoc among this 
reduced population, and only died out about the end of October, 
when the town was almost deserted. 

Sojat was early attacked. It was then a town of 15,000 
or 20,000 inhabitants. It is on the main road, twenty miles 
from Pali, and many of the refugees from Pali settled in it. 
Dr. Maclean visited Sojat, and found that the Pali refugees 
had started the disease there, and that the deaths were from 
twenty to forty a day. 

In Jodhpore city the disease broke out with great virulence 
a short time after some Pali people had settled there. The 
population was then about 50,000. The people are said to 
have died at the rate of sixty to ninety a day, and about 600 
or 700 had perished before the middle of October 1836. 
There was an abatement in the disease for a short time, 
although it does not appear to have ceased during the cold 
weather, and it only finally disappeared at the beginning 
of the hot season of 1837. Lung complications were more 
general, and spitting of blood was a more common symptom 
of the disease in Jodhpore than in Pali, while buboes were less 
common in the former than in the latter outbreak. The epi- 
demic in Jodhpore was attributed by some to a strong south 
wind, and the recrudescence is said to have been brought 
about by a return of this wind. 

The disease prevailed in many villages of Marwar from 
October 1836 till March 1837. It was introduced into 
Sakola in Meywar by an astrologer, who went from Pali and 
put up in the house of a Brahmin of that town. The Brahmin, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 233 

his wife, and otlaers died in tlie house after the death of the 
astrologer. The disease spread and nearly depopulated the 
town. Kankroli, another village of Meywar, suffered severely, 
but there is no record of plague having got into Oodeypore 
city, nor did it reach Ajmere, although the Pushkar fair and 
dargah were both held during the time it was prevalent in 
Marwar. 

Dr. Maclean, who visited both Sojat and Pali during the 
epidemic, satisfied himself that the disease was plague ; the 
attack generally came on suddenly, with rigours, headache, 
pain in the back and loins, and sometimes nausea ; the skin 
became hot and dry, the pulse quick and soft, frequently 
running up to 150; the tongue was coated, often brown ; 
vomiting uncommon, but sometimes painful retching; the 
abdomen was generally hard, and there was no diarrhoea ; the 
eyes became suffused, and the countenance heavy and anxious 
early in the disease ; buboes formed in the groin, armpits, or 
neck on the first or second day of the fever ; and pneumonia, 
with distressing cough, rusty sputum, and dyspnoea was a 
common complication. Coma generally set in before death, 
which often occurred on the third day of the disease. If the 
patient got over the third day there was a chance of recovery, 
and large suppurating buboes were considered favourable. The 
buboes were most common in the groin, and they were more 
general in the Pali than in the Jodhpore outbreak, in which 
pneumonia was a very frequent complication, consequent on 
the lower temperature at the season when the outbreak occurred 
in Jodhpore. 

Many precautions were taken against the spread of the 
disease towards Ajmere. Quarantine posts were established, 
and both people and goods were stopped on the border 
between Ajmere and MarAvar. The Maharaja of Jodhpore was 
asked to prevent his people from attending the Pushkar fair, 
and also to keep healthy villagers from communicating with 



234 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

infected, and many of the people protected their own villages 
by not allowing refugees from plague-stricken places into 
them. It was remarkable that many of the small villages 
around Pali and other infected towns escaped, and this was 
believed to have been due to refugees not having gone into 
them, and to the small communities having agreed to keep 
away from plague-stricken towns. Money was received by 
many people from the infected in cups of vinegar to prevent 
contagion. 

Quarantine posts were established on the Bombay roads, 
and traffic was greatly interfered with on all sides of Marwar, 
though not completely stopped. Fumigation was resorted to 
at some posts, but does not appear to have effectually carried 
out. Goods traffic was even more dreaded as a means of dis- 
seminating the disease than people. So articles were fre- 
quently burnt, and the ashes, both of these and of corpses, 
were ordered to be deeply buried, as the virus was believed to 
remain potent even after burning, and to be spread by the 
ashes being blown about. 

Dogs and cats were supposed to carry the poison from 
house to house, and also rats, which died in numbers during 
the epidemic. 

There was little done in the way of treatment ; once lung 
complications appeared, the case was considered hopeless, and 
both vaids and hakims fled from the infected places, and 
declared they knew nothing of the new and terrible disease, 
nor of its treatment. 

Infusions of nim {Melia indica) leaves, infusion of onions, 
and the urine of the ass, were given internally ; poultices of 
nim leaves, onions, and red pepper {Ca2)sicicm fastigiatum) were 
applied to buboes ; bleeding from the arm and leeches to the 
buboes were resorted to, but without effect. Escarotics were 
applied to the buboes, with no better results than the other 
remedies. The body was rubbed with oil or ghee, both as a 



MEDICAL DISEASES 255 

curative remedy and as a prevention against infection. The 
wearing of oilskin while in contact with people suffering from 
the disease was believed to be a useful precaution. Dr. 
Maclean was of opinion that there was no danger of infection 
in the open air, and that the people contracted the disease in 
the badly ventilated houses, which had become saturated with 
the poison. European methods of treatment were unknown in 
Marwar at that time. 

The Pali iplsLgue, (/hanth-ki-mandagi ov ghanth-hi-jvMr, which 
destroyed the rats in great numbers, and carried off thousands 
of the inhabitants, is still remembered by some old people 
in Marwar, and it was undoubtedly the same disease which 
recently prevailed in Bombay and other adjacent parts of the 
country. 

During the months of October, November, December 1896, 
and January 1897 thousands of people fled from Bombay and 
other places in that direction to Marwar, Bikanir, Sirohi, Jai- 
salmir, and Ajmere, in order to escape from plague. Sixteen 
deaths from plague and suspected plague were reported, viz., 
four at Abu Road, two at Jawalia, three at Marwar Junction, one 
at Beawar, two at Ajmere, one at Phalera, two at Jeypore, and 
one at Nadbai, near Bhurtpore. An undoubted case of plague 
recovered in the segregation camp at Bandikui; the subject was 
a sepoy of the 13 th Bombay Infantry, who was taken from the 
train en route from Deesa to Bhurtpore on leave. The disease 
was then prevalent in Palanpur, and in some other villages 
near Deesa. Four recoveries from undoubted plague occurred 
in the camps at Abu Road and Marwar Junction, and many 
suspected cases, taken from trains, recovered in the different 
plague camps on the line of railway throughout Rajputana. 

Segregation camps were established at all the important 
stations along the lines of railway which run through Rajputana, 
and great vigilance was exercised, both by the medical officers 
on special plague duty at Ajmere and Bandikui, and by the 



236 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

medical subordinates in charge of the other camps, to keep 
people suffering from plague from travelling. This undoubtedly 
did much to prevent the spread of the disease. The Marwar 
and some other Darbars issued orders to their officials to keep 
refugees from infected areas in quarantine outside the towns 
for ten days after their arrival, and although this was not 
invariably carried out, it roused the people to a sense of danger 
and to assist in the protection of their houses, producing a 
good effect generally. The season was greatly against the 
spread of plague in Rajputana. The monsoon rains were over 
early, the winter rains were unusually light, and the country 
was in consequence exceedingly dry; the hot weather also 
began earlier, and the heat was more intense than usual; so 
all these conditions were unfavourable for the multiplication of 
the plague germ and the spread of plague among the people. 

Whenever a suspicious death occurred among the Bombay 
refugees in Marwar, the house in which it took place was 
evacuated, and disinfected or burnt down. The occupants 
were put into quarantine outside the town for a period of ten 
days. Reports on the health of the to-\vnspeople were made 
during this time, so that any outbreak could have been dealt 
with early. 

During the epidemic in Palanpur, on the Rajputana border, 
many people fled to Abu Road, Marwar Junction, Ajmere, and 
Jeypore. They were kept in the quarantine camps at these 
places for a time, and then sent back to their districts without 
being allowed into the towns. 

The Sirohi villagers were warned against communicating 
with Palanpur and the infected villages in that district, and a 
guard was placed on the main road leading from Palanpur 
into the Sirohi State to prevent intercourse. 

The pilgrim traffic between Mount Abu and Abu Road was 
completely stopped, and quarantine of ten days was imposed 
on people coming to Abu from infected districts : this measure 



MEDICAL DISEASES 237 

eifectually prevented the overcrowding which always takes place 
in the Abu bazaar during the hot weather, and no doubt saved 
the place from an invasion when plague was epidemic in 
Palanpur, two stations from Abu Road on the main line. 



1897-99. 

The Rajputana border has been extensively exposed 
throughout the Bombay epidemic to plague infection on 
account of its position. Moreover, the enterprising character 
of the Marwari takes him all over India to enoaae in trade : 
and although these traders spend most of their lives abroad, 
they keep up houses and family connections in their original 
towns and villages in Rajputana. Consequently, when plague 
broke out in Bombay and the Deccan, then- return in thousands 
was only what we anticipated, and extensive observation camps 
had to be arranged all along the lines of rail and road, as well 
as outside the cities, towns, and villages throughout the province, 
to ensure their thorough disinfection and prevent their carry- 
ing the germs of the disease into their homes, either in their 
persons or clothes. 

Occasional deaths from plague occurred among the refugees. 
There were thirty cases and twenty-two deaths among Bombay 
passengers, taken from the train and segregated along the lines 
of railway. 

In the middle of November 1897 a wealthy Seth found 
his way into the village of Teuri in Sirohi State, and died there 
of plague. His funeral ceremony was well attended, and it was 
very soon followed by an outbreak of indigenous plague in this 
and three other villages adjacent. The villages were early 
vacated and disinfected, and the outbreak seemed to stop after 
this ; but the weather was extremely cold at the time, and the 
people could not be kept out of their houses ; so other cases 
soon occurred after reoccupation. At the same time Poena 



238 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

refugees were attacked in the town of Kalindri, which had a 
population of over 4000 inhabitants, and was only two miles 
distant from one of the villages early infected. 

Plague was at first confined to Poona refugees and their 
families and connections, but it afterwards spread to others in 
the towns, and even to some of those residinsr at their wells 
some distance away. 

As soon as the recrudescence took place the towns were 
all again promptly vacated and the people kept out in camps. 
The encampments were widely scattered over the fields. The 
huts were burned, and the sites changed when cases occurred 
in them. Those exposed to infection were freely disinfected, 
and the sick and their attendants were carefully segregated. 
Nevertheless cases continued to occur till the hot weather had 
well set in. 

Between November 1897 and the 25th April 1898, there 
were 166 indigenous cases and 143 deaths in five villages of 
Sirohi State. 

The disease was of the pneumonic type, and very rapidly 
fatal at first ; but afterwards glandular swellings were common, 
and some recoveries took place. 

Little was attempted in the way of treatment, as the people 
were imbued with a strong belief that the authorities wished 
to poison all those attacked, to prevent the spread of the epi- 
demic, and some of them even considered the doctor's touch 
fatal. 

There was no recrudescence of plague in the Sirohi villages 
after April 1898, but during the cold weather of 1898 and 
1899, fourteen cases, of which thirteen proved fatal, were im- 
ported into Marwar and Sirohi from the infected area on the 
Bombay side. They were segregated as soon as they arrived, 
consequently the disease did not spread. 

During the outbreak of plague in Sirohi, Captain J. W. 
Grant, I.M.S., lived alone in the infected area for many months, 



MEDICAL DISEASES 239 

and the suppression of the epidemic was mainly due to his 
untiring zeal and management of the people. 

Hill Diarrhcea is occasionally met with on Mount Abu in 
epidemic form. It is often the result of chill due to damp, or 
the neglect of warm clothing in new arrivals from the heated 
plains, also sometimes to a relaxed condition of constitution 
and perverted action of the liver. New arrivals at hill stations 
should guard against the sudden suppression of perspiration, 
which invariably • takes place if warmer clothing than they 
have been in the habit of wearing below be not adopted until 
acclimatisation has been accomplished. Sleeping out of doors 
has also to be avoided by those new to the hills, on account of 
both this ailment and a rheumatic condition brought on by 
night exposure. Hill diarrhoea generally yields to antiseptic 
remedies, and a return to the plains or the seaside is only 
occasionally necessary. At the request of the editor of the 
" Indian Medical Kecord " I published a detailed account of 
this disease in the January number of that Journal for 1895. 



SURGICAL DISEASES 

Before proceeding with surgical diseases, I may point out that 
there were only three out-dispensaries in Marwar up to the 
year 1888, after which new dispensaries were opened from 
time to time, and there are now twenty- two of these institu- 
tions. 

During eight years, from 1891 to 1898, there were 
54,828 operations performed in the hospitals and dispensaries 
of Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir, with sixty-seven deaths from 
all causes, including deaths from incurable diseases. 

Of the total operations performed, 2 1 9 were lithotomies, 
with 22 deaths, or 10 per cent., and eighty-two litho- 
lapaxies with five deaths, or 6 per cent. Lateral lithotomy 
has generally been performed ; the supra-pubic operation has 
only been done when the stone has been unusually large. 
There has been a low mortality, both from lithotomy and 
litholapaxy, although many of the people of these States put 
off the operation unusually long, and make other difficulties 
against recovery. Mothers will sometimes carry their children 
off from the hospital to a long distance after the operation 
has been done, and some of the men will wander about the 
town in the night after litholapaxy. Recently, when I had 
performed litholapaxy very satisfactorily in an old man, an 
habitue of hemp and opium, the patient left the hospital 
stealthily in the night, broke his thigh by a fall, and sat out 
in the cold till morning. There were ten deaths after ampu- 
tation of limbs ; of these, three followed thigh, and seven, leg, 
shoulder, arm, forearm, and foot amputations, in cases where 

240 



SURGICAL DISEASES 241 

there had been great injury and shock. Two deaths followed 
removal of the foetus from the uterus, on account of septic 
poisoning, and eleven followed tapping of the abdomen for 
dropsy ; these deaths were all due to disease rather than to 
operation. Tapping the bladder has been twice fatal, but the 
patients were both moribund on admission. 

Tumours} — Non-malignant tumours are common, but the 
people resort to all sorts of local applications and the actual 
cautery before they allow them to be removed. However, 
this is mostly done successfully when they subject themselves 
to the knife after they have failed with other applications. 
Mycetomatous tumours are very common, especially in Marwar. 
278 operations were performed for this disease in eight years, 
and both the dark and pale varieties are met with. Fatty 
tumours are also common, 172 having been removed during 
the eight years' period, besides 102 fibromatous, 49 sebaceous, 
44 cystic, and 4 adenoid. 

Abscesses. — During the eight years' period there have been 
opened 6486 abscesses of all kinds, 210 of which were in the 
thigh and three in the liver. Many of the people are very 
dilatory in having these affections treated ; however, our results 
have generally been very satisfactory. 

OiJcrations on the Eyeball and its A'pjjendages. — During the 
eight years' period there have been 1386 operations on the 
eyeball and its appendages, of which 1084 were extractions of 
the lens for cataract, 6 for staphyloma, 65 iridectomies for 
glaucoma, 13 for artificial pupil, i for solution of lens, 7 for 
hypopion, i for tattooing of cornea, i for laceration of opaque 
capsule, 31 for pterygium, 28 for lachrymal fistula, i for 
epiphora, 26 for trichiasis, 97 for entropion, 3 for new growths, 
3 for symblepharon, and 5 for granular lids. 

The important points in the extraction of the lens for 
cataract are to make a large iridectomy, and to remove the 

^ Figures for this part of the " Note " are only for Marwar. 

Q 



24.2 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

lens in its capsule if possible, always under the influence of 
cocaine. The escape of a httle vitreous does no harm, and the 
removal of the capsule ensures a clear eye and lessens the 
chance of inflammation. It is better to remove both lenses at 
the same time if they be ripe or nearly so, and the iridectomy 
should be done at the time of extraction. When one lens has 
been removed before the other, the eye is always irritable 
during the second operation and the lens much more difficult 
to extract ; moreover, the patient is always more sensitive and 
cocaine does not act so well. 

Operations on Head and Face. — The nose is sometimes cut 
off as a punishment for infidelity, and also for revenge. I 
have done lo rhinoplastic operations for restoration of the 
nose in the eight years' period. I never divide the pedicle, 
and this prevents atrophy of the flap and gives elevation to 
the organ at the base, materially improving the shape. 1 1 7 
foreign bodies, and 3 1 nasopharyngeal polypi have been re- 
moved, and 1 6 pluggings of the nares performed for epistaxis. 
Elevation of depressed pieces of bones of the skull have 
frequently been done ; one trephining performed, and portions 
of the jaws removed. The tongue has been partially ampu- 
tated; plastic operations for cleft palate performed, and the 
tonsils three times excised. 

Operations on Arteries.— lAgBXAne of arteries for disease is 
not common, and, as has already been explained, aneurism is 
very rarely met with. On seven occasions arteries have had 
to be tied after injuries from wild pig. Varicose veins are 
rare, and have only twice been operated on. 

Operations on Respiratory Organs. — Tracheotomy is very 
rarely necessary ; paracentesis of the thorax is uncommon, as 
there are few cases of pleurisy with effusion or empyema. 

Operations on the Digestive Organs. — 219 operations have 
been performed during the eight years' period, the principal of 
which were as folloAvs : — Operations for imperforate anus, 4 ; 



SURGICAL DISEASES 243 

removal of hsemorrlioids, 33 ; paracentesis of the abdomen, 105 ; 
removal of cancer from rectum, i ; radical cure for inguinal 
hernia, 1 8 ; and fistula in ano, 1 3. Reduction of hernia and of 
prolapsus of the rectum has been frequently done. Ascites is 
treated more frequently by sulphate of magnesia than by 
tapping, as the after effects are generally more satisfactory. 
The patient is made to fast for a day and also to abstain from 
fluid ; then two ounces of the drug are given, and this removes 
much of the fluid and generally relieves dyspncea. 

Hernia. — Hernia is frequently seen, inguinal being the most 
common, and cases of strangulation have occasionally been 
treated, both in the hospitals and outside. Taxis has generally 
been found sufficient for reduction, but the radical cure has 
been performed whenever the patient has allowed it. 

Operations on the Urinary Organs. — During the eight years' 
period 1053 operations have been performed on the urinary 
organs, of which 186 were lateral, i suprapubic, and 4 median 
lithotomies. 8 1 Htholapaxies have been done in the same 
time, mostly in the Hewson Hospital, and 30 urethral calculi 
have been removed. Perineal section, urethrotomy, and dilation 
of the m-ethra have been performed in 61 cases, and the 
bladder tapped through the rectum three times. Calculus in 
the bladder is fairly common in these States, especially in 
young boys of the poorer class, who are much exposed to cold 
and fed on millet. Litholapaxy is now performed in preference 
to lithotomy, unless the large size of the stone or the narrow- 
ness of the urethra contra-indicate it, in which case cutting is 
resorted to. Stricture is much rarer here than in the West, 
and its division from outside has been found to be the most 
satisfactory way of dealing with it, especially when it is hard or 
the urethra much constricted. 

Operations on the Male Generative Organs. — Phimosis and 
paraphimosis are common, and circumcision, either for elon- 
gated prepuce or disease, is often required. The radical cure 



244 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

of hydrocele is frequently needed. Amputation of the penis 
for cancer is occasionally required ; hypospadias and extro- 
version of the bladder are rare. During the eight years' 
period 271 operations were performed on these organs as 
follows: — Tapping of hydrocele with iodine injection, -"^y , 
and without injection, 5 ; operations for phimosis, 69, and for 
paraphimosis, 14; amputation of penis for cancer, 15 ; reduc- 
tion of protruded testes after injury, i; scarification of scro- 
tum and penis for oedema, associated with orchitis and balanitis 
(often caused by insect bite), 130. 

Operations on the Female Generative Organs. — Only one 
ovariotomy has been performed by me, and that successfully. 
Ovarian disease is rarely met with, and the people are averse 
to undergoing serious operations, attended with risk, which 
can be put off without immediate danger. 

Obstetric Operations. — These operations were as follows : — 
Delivery by forceps, 5 ; podalic version, 5 ; decapitation, 4 ; 
craniotomy, 2 ; and csesarean section, i. The local unquali- 
fied female practitioners have hitherto done most of this 
work, but some of it is now falling into the hands of the 
stafi' of the women's hospital at Jodhpore. Some of the local 
" Dais " are being trained in obstetrics. 

Operations on the Breast. — The breast has been eighteen 
times removed in part or whole for malignant disease, and 
mammary abscess and fistula have been frequently treated by 
operation. 

Operations on Bones and Joints. — During the eight years' 
period there have been 395 operations on bones, viz., setting 
compound and simple fractures, excision for caries and anchy- 
losed joints, and removal of sequestra from different bones. 
There were 456 reductions of dislocations performed, as 
follows: — Lower jaw, 160; clavicle, 6; shoulder-joint, 133; 
elbow-joint, 33; hip-joint, 20; knee-joint, 9; patella, 3; 
thumb, I ; ankle-joint, 6 ; and metacarpus, 7. Guinea-worm 



SURGICAL DISEASES 245 

gives rise to many of the stiff joints seen, for so long as 
some of these people are able to get about, they are averse to 
operation. 

Chloroform. — They dread the knife and anaesthetic very 
much, althouerh there has not been a death from chloroform 
in these States, and only three patients have shown alarming 
symptoms. These three cases occurred on cold mornings, when 
the patients were depressed by a low temperature ; and I believe 
the difference in temperature will account for the greater 
mortality from chloroform in cold countries when compared 
with hot. It is, therefore, of great moment to have the 
patient warm before chloroform is administered, and the 
operation room heated up to at least 75° F. Under a high 
temperature the patient's breathing soon becomes shallower 
and the chloroform expanded, consequently it is taken into 
the lungs slowly and in a diluted condition ; it is then regu- 
larly distributed throughout the system, and produces quiet 
sleep and anaesthesia instead of poisonous narcosis. 

Amimtations. — During the eight years' period 195 ampu- 
tations were performed (not including such amputations as 
those of the toes and fingers). The following are the causes 
which led to the operation : — Leg, for mycetoma, 9 2 ; thigh, 
for mycetoma, 5 ; hand, for mycetoma, i o ; foot, for myce- 
toma, 21; total for mycetoma, 128; arm, for injuries, 12; 
for gangrene, i ; for caries, 5 ; for cancer, i ; at shoulder- 
joint, for injury, i ; forearm, for injuries, 10; for necrosis, i ; 
at elbow-joint, for injury, i ; thigh, for injuries, 4 ; for 
gangrene, 7 ; leg, for necrosis, 2 ; for injuries, 12; for gan- 
grene, 3 ; through metatarsus, for injuries, 7. 

It will be observed that amputation for mycetoma is 
frequent, notwithstanding the fact that the fungating tumour 
is often excised in the early stage before amputation is 
necessary. 

Mycetoma is a disease of the sandy desert, common among 



246 WESTERN KAJPUTANA STATES 

people connected with cattle. It usually begins in the foot, 
rarely in the hand. I have, however, seen a few of the hand 
cases among water-carriers, as if it required moisture to enable 
it to attack the skin. Its existence outside the human system 
is unknown. The fungus begins in the skin as a speck 
enclosed in a bag, which grows to the size of a walnut, and 
eventually bursts, discharging a thin watery pus. Other cysts 
containing the fungus form close to the parent, to which they 
are connected only by their thick fibrous walls. The limb 
attacked becomes thickened and enlarged, and the muscles, 
bones, and fibrous tissues invaded and softened by numbers 
of these cysts, filled vnth a cauliflower-like fungus, mostly black, 
sometimes pale pink. The whole limb eventually becomes 
implicated, and the skin perforated with numerous openings, 
from which the fungus and watery pus are discharged. It 
readily passes through joints, and when it attacks a long bone 
will run rapidly up the medullary cavity and soften the whole 
bone after a short time. 

Operations on the Skin. — There were 4563 operations per- 
formed on the skin. Carbuncle is not infrequently seen and 
operated on. Skin-grafting is sometimes necessary after am- 
putation of the breast, or in cases of large intractable ulcer. 

Poisoning. — Opium-poisoning is occasionally seen, but the 
drug is in such common use that much of it can be taken 
without fatal results, and the people understand the use of 
some of the antidotes. Permanganate of potash has recently 
been tried as an antidote with success. Arsenic is the common 
poison used by criminals, and clhatura is usually adminis- 
tered by dacoits to enable them to plunder. Opium is given 
to most of the children of these States until they are over 
their early teething. The mothers have implicit faith in the 
drug, and accidents from excessive doses are not common. 

The custom of giving opium to children is of very early 
date among these people ; it was probably commenced to keep 



SURGICAL DISEASES 247 

them quiet while the mothers worked, and it does not seem to 
do them any harm, the habitues being generally well nourished 
and healthy in appearance. It is no doubt useful during the 
cutting of the early teeth. It is given up when the teething 
difficulties are over, and when the children can run about. 
Many of those accustomed to the drug in childhood never take 
to it again, except on great occasions, when hospitality is being 
dispensed, for which it is in general use. 

Skin Affections. — Skin diseases are very commonly seen in 
this country, where water for washing and bathing is often 
scarce, and these affections are very varied in character and 
class. There were 96,000 cases treated in these States in 
eight years, of which 82,559 were in Marwar, 4802 in Sirohi, 
7084 in Abu and Abu Road, and 1549 in Jaisalmir. The 
above figures only represent a small proportion of the ailments 
of this class throughout the States, as many of the people seek 
no relief from complaints which do not interfere with the daily 
round required to obtain their food. 

General and Local Injuries. — These are not of common 
occurrence. There are no steam-factories, and the trains are 
not run with great rapidity or frequency ; consequently colli- 
sions are unknown and railway accidents rare. Injuries from 
domestic or wild animals are occasionally seen. Children, and 
even adults, sometimes fall from upper storeys and into wells 
and sustain severe injuries, but such are not common, as the 
people of this country are cautious and easy-going. Carriages 
are not much in use, and they are not driven so fast as to 
cause frequent accidents. Accidents sometimes occur from 
powder and firearms, and at the Dewdli and Dassera festivals 
from fireworks and explosives. Free fights occasionally occur 
over border and other village disputes, when swords and sticks 
are used, sometimes resulting in serious injuries. 



SICKNESS AND MORTALITY 

In discussing the sickness and mortality of the different 
months of the year, the following tables have been used : — 

(i.) Returns of patients treated in hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. 

(2.) Mortality tables. 

(3.) Meteorological tables. 

Health of each Month. — As I have already shown, malarial 
fevers are the most common ailments of the people, and, 
although registration of vital statistics is of such recent date 
in these States that no satisfactory tables can be produced to 
prove this, it is well known that the death-rate from these 
fevers far exceeds that of any other disease, and that Sep- 
tember, October, and November are the months of highest 
mortality as well as highest admissions to hospital. In the 
Jodhpore Central Jail, during the eight years' period 1890-97, 
thirty-six deaths occurred from malarial fevers, and twenty-one 
of these were in the three months mentioned, viz., September, 
October, and November. 

January. — This month is the coldest of the year, and many 
of the poorer classes suffer much from insufficient clothing. 
In the Hewson Hospital (Jodhpore) returns, January stands 
seventh for admissions, and, in the table of vital statistics, 
fifth as regards mortality. It is sixth for rainfall, and there 
are generally showers some time during the month. It is, on 
the whole, a healthy month for those who are well fed and 
warmly clothed, but the poor suffer a good deal at this time 
from lung affections. 

248 



SICKNESS AND MORTALITY 249 

February. — This is the healthiest month, and stands twelfth 
in point of admissions, ninth in point of deaths, and tenth in 
point of rainfall ; it only rained on two occasions in this month 
in twelve years. Lung and respiratory diseases are always less 
prevalent in this month. 

March. — This month stands tenth for admissions, sixth for 
deaths, and twelfth for rain ; slight showers occurred only on 
two occasions during this month in twelve years. This is 
generally a fairly healthy month, but the extremes of day 
and night temperature are very great, and colds and coughs 
are often prevalent ; it stands highest for lung affections. 

Ajyril. — This is a healthy month, although the temperature 
is generally high throughout. It stands eleventh for admis- 
sions, seventh for deaths, and eleventh for rainfall ; two slight 
showers having been recorded in twelve years. There is little 
malarial fever in this month, but liver affections begin to be 
prevalent. 

Hay. — This is always a very hot month ; it stands ninth 
for admissions, tenth for deaths, and fifth for rainfall. Liver 
diseases are prevalent during this month, also dyspepsia, but 
malarial fevers are nearly at their lowest. 

June. — This is generally the hottest month ; it stands eighth 
for admissions, eleventh for deaths, and fourth for rainfall. 
Malarial fevers and dysentery are less prevalent during this 
month than at any other time of the year. 

Jidy. — This month stands sixth for admissions, twelfth for 
deaths, and second for rainfall. It is hot at the beginning, 
and the monsoon becomes general all over the country about 
the middle of the month. Malarial fever increases during this 
month, and diarrhoea is often prevalent. 

August. — This month stands third for admissions, fourth 
for deaths, and it is the month of highest rainfall. It is 
generally cool and pleasant ; but it is an unhealthy month 
throughout; malarial fevers then begin to be prevalent, and 



250 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

there is more diarrhoea than at any other season of the 
year. 

September. — This is also an unhealthy month. It is second 
for admissions, first for deaths, and third for rainfull. Malarial 
fevers are always prevalent, and there is much diarrhoea and a 
good deal of dysentery. 

October. — This month is always unhealthy ; it stands first 
for admissions, second for deaths, and seventh for rainfall. 
The day temperature rises, and the nights begin to get cool. 
It is the month of greatest prevalence of malarial fevers, and 
diseases of the respiratory system increase. 

November. — The early part of this month is unhealthy ; the 
days are then hot, the nights very cold, and the poor begin 
to suffer from want of warm clothing. It stands fourth for 
admissions, third for deaths, and eighth for rainfall. Malarial 
fevers become less prevalent, lung and respiratory diseases 
increase, and liver diseases, especially congestion, are common. 

December. — This is a cold and healthy month, but the poor 
suffer considerably on account of want of warm clothes and 
fuel. It stands fifth for admissions, eighth for deaths, and 
ninth for rainfall, even occasional showers being rare during 
this month. There is always a marked fall in malarial fevers 
in this month, and the young improve greatly in health and 
vigour. 



EPIDEMICS 253 

The western tracts of these States are subject to famines 
and frequent scarcities, which sometimes assist the spread of 
epidemic disease. When rehef works are started, a hospital 
assistant, from a neighbouring dispensary or from the reserve 
Hst, is placed in medical charge of the people on the works. 
He attends to the sanitation of the camps, and also to the 
sick among the workpeople. 



MEDICAL AID 

Befoee the introduction of European methods of treatment, 
the practice of medicine in these States was principally in the 
hands of four classes of medical men, viz. — 

I. Sadhs or Ascetics, who, by virtue of their great piety and 
abstinence, are believed to have obtained power over disease, 
and also over evil spirits, to which disease is often attributed in 
this part of India. These Sadhs or Ascetics use incantations, 
charms, and symbols. They impose restrictions of diet, as well 
as other strictures on pleasures and indulgences, and also many 
other rigid observances for the cure of disease. Besides, most 
of them claim a knowledge of occult remedies, principally 
vegetable products, but sometimes mineral, and even animal 
substances are prescribed by them. Many of these Sadhs 
seem to be careless of comforts and of worldly wealth, and to 
live up to their profession. There are not a few of them, 
however, who merely pretend rigid asceticism, and also practise 
much knavery for gain and admiration. 

II. Balds or Hindu physicians are the ordinary medical 
practitioners of these States, and many of them still enjoy large 
practices. They generally inherit their profession, and ancient 
medical books are often passed down from generation to 
generation among this class. 

III. Hakims or Mahomedan physicians are mostly of the 
Unani school, and the profession generally passes down from 
father to son. Some of these Unani Hakims have still a high 
reputation, especially those who have come from Delhi. Many 
of them travel about towns and villages to obtain a livelihood, 



MEDICAL AID 255 

while others hold practices in large towns, or are salaried by 
the Darbars or wealthy citizens. 

IV. Pansaris or Attars are prescribing chemists who know 
the appearance and properties of drugs, and prescribe to assist 
their sales of medicine. 

None of these practitioners are highly educated, and they 
know little of anatomy, and nothing of modern pathology. 
They often depend on the price of their drugs for fees, and 
consequently resort to deception in prescribing costly articles 
never compounded. They prescribe gold, silver, and pearls, 
and in this way extort money from their patients. 

These Vaids and Hakims are said to be so jealous of their 
remedies that they often fail to disclose them to their sons and 
successors before they die. In this way many potent cures are 
supposed to have been lost. 

Surgery has from ancient times been greatly in the hands 
of barbers, but Zurrahs or Mahomedan surgeons have had some 
practice in these States, and amputations were often performed 
by Rajput swordsmen, who could cut through a limb with one 
sweep. The stump of a limb so amputated was put into 
boiling oil to stop the hasmorrhage. This practice is now 
happily discontinued, but the barbers in remote places still 
open abscesses and set fractures in their own rude fashion, 
often with much detriment to the limb. The establishment of 
dispensaries has, however, done much to bring ignorant prac- 
titioners into disrepute. The barbers' setting of a fracture is 
now mostly looked upon as a temporary appliance to enable the 
patient to be conveyed in some comfort to the nearest dis- 
pensary, and many of the Hakims and Baids who held State 
appointments have disappeared before advancing medical 
science. 

There are still practitioners of surgery and medicine who 
flourish to some extent in these States, viz., the Sojat Sathias, 
who practise couching for cataract, as well as the treatment of 



256 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

diseases in general. These Marwar Satliias are Hindus of 
the Kdyasth caste, and have a great reputation throughout 
Rajputana and many other parts of India. They travel about, 
prescribe, and operate for cataract in the streets and lanes. 
To perform the operation of couching with their very rough 
instruments, an incision is made through the cornea at the 
sclerotic margin, and a blunt hook introduced to depress the 
lens. The patient sees at once, pays his fee, and is bandaged 
up. The result is sometimes good, but in a large percentage 
of cases the lens either returns to the centre of the pupil and 
obstructs vision again, or produces inflammation which com- 
pletely disorganises the eye. In these States the people are 
very conservative and adhere with great tenacity to their 
ancient institutions, and as the S;lthias have had some success, 
it has been difficult to supplant them. They are, however, 
yearly losing ground, and many people now resort to the 
hospitals for the cure of cataract, instead of intrusting them- 
selves to the Sojat Sdthias. I performed 746 cataract opera- 
tions during 1898, of which 96.34 per cent, were successful. 
It has, however, taken much time and trouble to get up a 
satisfactory eye department here, partly on account of the 
want of proper hospital accommodation and also on account 
of the conservativeness of the people, and their great faith in 
their ancient institutions. The following are some of the old 
remedies still in use in remote districts, and at one time 
ofeneral throus^hout these States. 

Abscess. — (a) Seed of Rohira {Tccoma undulata) one chattack, 
with half a pao of " ata," sugar and root of " Bordi," all to be 
mixed and plastered on the abscess. 

(&) To apply a red-hot iron on all sides of the abscess firmly. 

(c) A plaster of ashes with water and honey given by a 
priest of Hanumanji — a charmed poultice. 

Acidity. — («) Ajma Umbel {Carum carui) two tolas, and salt 
one chattack ; to be taken as powder with pure water. 



MEDICAL AID 257 

Apoplexy. — {a) " Kalimirach. " {Piper nigrum) two tolahs, 
" Malvi gul " (unrefined sugar) a pao, ghee half a pao ; to be 
mixed and taken thrice daily. 

(5) To apply a red-hot copper pice to the temple. 

Asthma. — {a) Gum {Acacia arabica) and honey, one tolah 
each, juice of "Akra" {Calotro2ns procera) quarter of a tolah, 
and fine " Pili earth ; " to be taken as pills thrice a day. 

{h) Decoction of the seed of " Andijhara " (Ficus virgata) to 
be boiled in a seer of water and taken thrice daily ; half a 
pao with three or four " Tulsi " {Dehregeasia bicolor) or betel 
leaves. 

(c) To apply the crust of a smoking " chillum " on both 
sides of the chest. 

(d) To frequent holy places, as Bhahuta Sidh, and to 
wear a silver anklet in the name of that saint till the shrine 
can be visited. 

Bite of Mad Bog. — {a) " Birami " {Pncraria tuherosa) root 
and " Saler " {Boswellia. thurifer) root, a pao each, with a pao 
of well-powdered " Moth " {Papilionacea motha), to be taken 
as pills thrice daily. 

(b) Red chillies {Capsicum fastigiatum) a pao, one tolah of 
camphor, and a pao sugar, to be mixed and taken thrice daily ; 
one chattack of the mixture at a time. 

(c) Cauterisation of the bitten part. 

Bite of Snakes. — {a) Alum, ghee, onion, half pao each, with 
half a seer of pure milk, to be taken at once. 

(h) Bhurat {Cenchrus catharticus), "Malwi tobacco" {Nico- 
tiana tabacum), white " Jal seeds " ( Vihirnum stellulatum), 
and sugar-candy, a chattack of each, to be taken thrice 
daily. 

(c) Wrapping the body in a cloth, and pouring cold water 
on it till the patient shivers. " Mesmerism " or " passes," 
and sucking the blood from the bitten part. Charms and 
munters. 

B 



258 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

(d) Pilgrimages to holy shrines as a prophylactic, such as 
the shrines of Ramdeoji, Mataji, Bhabuta Sidh ; also appl5dng 
ashes mixed with water from the sacred pot. 

Catarrh, Colds, and Bronchitis. — (a) Leaves of " Nim " 
(Melia indica), thorn of " Babul " (Acacia arahica), a pao of each 
to be boiled in a seer of water till it becomes one pao, and 
taken with a pao of " Gul " (brown sugar) at once. 

(b) Juice of " Akra" {Calotropis ^rocera) half a pao, and oil 
of turpentine two pao ; to be taken mixed, and also as an 
external application. 

(c) Worship of Hanumanji and Pabuji. 

Cholera. — {a) " Nim " (Melia indica) leaves, sugar-candy, 
ghee, half a pao each ; asafoetida, camphor, " Lassan " (Alium 
sativum), half a tolah each ; to be mixed well and taken as 
pills every two hours. 

(h) Hot " chillum " to be applied over the abdomen. 

(c) Worship at Ramdeoji, Mataji, Bhabuta Sidh, and at 
the same time to drink ashes with the sacred water. 

Diarrhoea. — (a) Powdered bark of " Kair tree " (Capparis 
aphylla) half a pao, to be taken with curd and garlic (Alium 
sativum), one chattack each. 

(h) To apply a hot " chillum " (coarse earthenware pipe) 
on the centre of the abdomen or " Navi " (navel). 

(c) Visits to holy places, viz., Ramdeoji, Bhomiaji, Karniji, 
Mallinathji, &c. 

Typhoid Fever (acute Motijara nihala). — (a) " Sanai " (Senna 
indica), sugar-candy, and " Dhana," a tolah each, to be taken at 
once; powdered gmgQx(Amomum zingiber), "Kalimirach" (Piper 
nigrum), cloves (Caryophyllus aromaticus), " Ajma " (Carum 
carui), " Hurr " (Myrobalans), and " Sambhar salt," one tolah 
of each, to be taken thrice daily ; juice of " Gular " (Ficus 
glomerata), one chattack, to be mixed and taken twice. 

(5) Blood of hare's liver, ten to twenty drops, to be taken 
with cotton-tree seeds (Bombax malabaricum), once daily ; egg 



MEDICAL AID 259 

of the " Batbur " (Fterocles exushcs), one to be taken once a day, 
and house-flies till they produce vomiting. 

(c) Worship, and drink sacred water with sacred ashes of 
Eamdeoji, Mataji, Pabuji, and Bhatianiji. 

Mts. — (a) " Kalimirach " {Piper nigrum), one tolah well 
powdered, with half a pao of the juice of " Thor " (Uujjhorbia 
royleana), to be taken as snuff. 

Convulsions. — {a) Opium {Pcqjaver somniferum) fomentations. 

Gravel.— (a) Worship of Ramdeoji only. 

Gonorrhcea. — (a) Milk and water to be mixed in equal 
parts and taken. 

(6) "Kewalia katha," "Elaychi chhoti," " Kapilo," " Sital 
mirach," " Ghora nisode," and alum, a tolah each, to be boiled in 
a seer of water and used as an injection. 

" Gvjrati " (Fnemnonia). — (a) Juice of " Akra " {Calotrojjls 
procera), " Bar "' (Ficus indica), " Kair " {Gapparis aphylla), a tolah 
each, with some pieces of castor (Kicinus communis) or " Bar " 
(Ficus indica) leaves, to be taken thrice daily. 

(b) Steel and powdered horn of " Samber," a pao each, to be 
boiled 1 08 times, and when it becomes gelatinous it should be 
eaten. 

(c) Worship of saints, such as Ramdeoji, Karniji, Bhatianiji, 
&c., &c. 

Itch. — Sulphur, Til oil, gunpowder, curd, calves' urine, 
given both internally and applied locally. 

Jaundice. — " Passes " (mesmerism), and frequent visits to 
Ramdeoji's shrine; also mercury in different forms. 

Bysmenorrlu&a. — (a) Three stalks of " Bajra," with half a tolah 
of the root of " Gurinda " {Frinsepict utilis), to be mixed and 
taken thrice daily. 

(&) It is treated with the water in which the clothes of a 
pure man have been washed. 

Leprosy. — (o) To worship the "Khejra" tree (Frosopis 
spicigera). 



260 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

(b) Mercury, strychnia, phosphorus, and cantharides are 
frequently prescribed, often to excess, and generally with detri- 
ment to the patient. 

JoDHPORE. — There are the following hospitals and dis- 
pensaries at Jodhpore, viz. : — 

Hewson Hospital. 

Jaswant Hospital for Women. 

Residency Hospital. 

Jail Hospital. 

Imperial Service Troops' Hospital. 

First and Second Branch Dispensaries. 

The Jodhpore Railway Dispensary, for the staff of the 
Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway. 

There is also a Mission Hospital, supported by the Scotch 
Presbyterian Mission Society. 

The Hewson Hospital has taken the place of the old main 
dispensary, which was the first dispensary established in Jodh- 
pore; the latter was opened in 1853, ^^^ '^^^ merely an 
Hospital Assistants' house, with a couple of small rooms for 
the sick, and a small surgery. The former was opened in 
February 1888, and has been considerably added to since 
then, a new wing and an operation-room having just been 
completed. This hospital can now accommodate eighty in- 
patients, and there is an out-patient department attached to it. 
Part of the building is old, and was at one time a town-house ; 
most of the old building is used for stores, compounding-room, 
office, and dispensary. Three double-storied blocks of build- 
ings have been added from time to time since the adaptation 
of the building for hospital purposes, and the enclosure has 
been laid out as a garden and pleasure-ground. The hospital 
has been named after Mr. Hewson of the I.C.S., who was for 
some time lent by Government to the State as guardian of 
His Highness the Maharaja. The building is convenient for 



MEDICAL AID 



261 



the townspeople, as it is in the centre of the city ; but it is 
otherwise for the Residency Surgeon, who has a ride of about 
six miles to and from his work there. In 1897 there were 
411 in-patients and 17,351 out-patients treated, and 1277 
operations performed, of which 141 were extractions of the 
lens for cataract, 1 5 litholapaxies, 1 5 lithotomies, and 5 
radical hernias. In 1898, after the opening of the new wing 
above referred to, 719 in-patients were treated and 1657 
operations performed, 692 of which were major; of the latter, 
5 00 were extractions of the lens for cataract, 3 8 litholapaxies, 
5 lithotomies, 2 radical hernias, and i ovariotomy. 

The number of cases treated at this hospital during the 
twelve years 1886-97 is shown in the following table, 
together with the number of operations, major and minor, 
performed in the same period. 



Table shoioing the Number of Cases Treated at the Hewson Hospital in 
the Twelve Years 1886-97, together with the Number of Operations 
Performed in the same Period. 



Year. 


Cases Treated. 


Operations. 


Out-Patients. 


In-Patients. 


Major. 


Minor. 


1886 


6,658 


95 


61 


375 


1887 












6,134 


74 


52 


446 


18S8 












7,132 


151 


77 


469 


18S9 












7,688 


155 


94 


605 


1890 












7,911 


133 


86 


748 


1891 












9,335 


162 


89 


1,443 


1892 












14,810 


168 


86 


871 


1893 












17,213 


246 


78 


1,013 


1894 












16,335 


313 


79 


1,009 


1895 












15,458 


307 


87 


907 


1896 












16,655 


402 


253 


998 


1897 


17,351 


411 


312 


965 


142,680 


2,617 


1-354 


9,849 






Tota 


1 






145,297 


11,203 



262 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The Jaswant Hospital for women was originally an old 
palace ; it is situated in the centre of the city, and has been 
adapted for a " purdah " hospital ; it can accommodate fifty 
in-patients, and there is an out-patient department. Miss 
Adams, M.D., is superintendent, and there is a qualified female 
hospital assistant in residence. This hospital was opened in 
November 1896, and has been named after the late Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh, G.C.S.L During 1897, 6054 out- and 229 
in-patients were treated, and 259 major and 368 minor opera- 
tions performed. 

The Residency Hospital is for the use of the Resident's 
staff and escort ; it is in charge of an hospital assistant, who 
marches with the Resident, and it is supported by Govern- 
ment. The hospital assistant in charge, while on tour, is 
encouraged to treat villagers, and to make himself useful to 
the people of the neighbourhood when they require his 
services. During the year 1897 there were 2616 out-patients 
treated in this hospital, and 4 major and 44 minor operations 
performed. 

The two branch disj)ensaries at Jodhpore are located at 
a considerable distance from each other and from the Hew- 
son Hospital. Out-door patients principally attend these dis- 
pensaries, and they are a great convenience to those of the 
public who reside too far from the main hospital. The first 
branch dispensary is situated in a populous part of the town, 
in one of the principal markets. During 1897 there were 
10,099 out-patients treated at this dispensary, and 800 minor 
operations performed in it. 

The second branch dispensary is located outside one of the 
city gates, on a main thoroughfare, and it is very convenient 
for the workpeople, who pass in great numbers in that direc- 
tion. In 1897 there were 146 indoor and 5829 outdoor 
patients treated at this dispensary, and 80 major and 831 minor 
operations performed. 



MEDICAL AID 



263 



There is a fine hospital for the Imperial Service Troops 
situated in the open plain, between the cavalry lines and the 
parade ground. It is in charge of an Assistant-Surgeon 
under the Residency Surgeon. 

The Jodhpore Railway Dispensary was opened on the 23 rd 
October 1896, and there were 2232 out-patients treated, and 
87 operations performed in it in 1897. 

The Mission Hospital in Jodhpore city was opened on 
14th July 1885. During the year 1897, 7294 new cases 
were treated, 109 of which were indoor patients; 1477 
operations were performed, of which 105 were major, and 
several of these were lithotomies. The Mission Surgeon and 
his assistants visit many people at their own houses in and 
about the city, and they sometimes go into the district, where 
they treat patients, the outwork being included with that 
done at headquarters. 

Annexed is a table showing attendance at the various 
Jodhpore hospitals up to the year 1897. 

Another table is also given to show cases treated, average 
daily attendance, and operations performed at the Marwar 
Dispensaries in the twelve years 1886-97. 



Table I. — Slioioing Attendance at the Jodhpore Hospitals up to the 

Year 1897. 



Hospital or Dispensary. 


Number of 
Years. 


In and Out 

Patients 
(New Cases). 


Kemarks. 


Main Dispensary, now \ 
Hewson Hospital . . \ 

First Branch 

Second Branch .... 
Central Jail 

Jaswant Female Hospital | 

Residency Hospital . . 


24 

24 

24 

24 

I year and 

l\ months. 

6 


216,022 

169,475 
59,951 
16,325 

1 6,651 j 

8,081 


Opened on Nov. 24, 

1896. 
Records only from 1892. 



264. 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Table II, — Showing Gases Treated, Average Daily Attendance, and 
0];)erations Performed at the Marioar Disjyensaries in the Tioelve 
Years 1886-97. 



Years. 



1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 

1893 
1894 

1895 
1896 
1897 



Total 



Number of 
Dispensaries. 



6 
6 
10 
10 
II 
13 
13 
14 
15 
15 
17 



Total 
Treated. 



23,257 
22,945 
33,898 
38,620 

42,585 
48,846 
66,072 
70,492 

71,939 

70,470 

84,093 

102,691 



Average Daily 
Attendance. 



675,908 



289.32 
280.17 
382.12 
415.60 
481.27 

509-33 
559.82 

635-43 
731.61 
685.06 
814.82 
969.85 



6754.40 



Operations. 


Major. 


Total. 


83 


1,784 


85 


1,752 


157 


2,630 


176 


2,866 


221 


3,139 


238 


4,403 


211 


3,890 


222 


4,166 


192 


4,373 


232 


4,705 


612 


5,975 


1,048 


7,627 


3,477 


47,310 



SiROHi. — The Sirohi dispensary was opened in the capital 
in February 1868, by an old Compounder who had long been 
employed in Abu. He was replaced by a qualified Hospital 
Assistant in 1883. In 1897, 187 in-patients and 5392 out- 
patients were treated, and 36 major and 433 minor operations 
performed in it. 

The Crosthwaite Hospital has now been completed and 
opened, to take the place of the Sirohi dispensary, and give 
the increased accommodation which has been long needed for 
in-patients. It is situated in a suitable open space between 
the Palace and the Residency bungalow. It is well planned, 
substantially built, and well ventilated ; it supplies to the 
people of Sirohi a long-felt want. It contains accommodation 
for twenty-four in-patients, and there is an out-patient depot 
attached. It has been named after Sir R. Crosthwaite, K.C.S.L, 
late Agent to the Governor-General for Rajputana. 



MEDICAL AID 



265 



Jaisalmir. — There is only one dispensary in the whole 
State, and it is located at the capital. It was opened on the 
13th April 1892, and a building has since been added, so 
there is now a good hospital in which much medical and 
surgical aid is given both to the people of the city and 
surrounding country. In 1897, 33 in-patients and 4618 out- 
patients were treated, and 25 major and 231 minor operations 
performed in it. 



List of Government Medical Officers of the Jodhpore Political 
Agency and Residency. 



Names of Oflacers. 


From 


To 


Assist.-Surgeon W. J. Moore .... 
Surgeon H. Eddowes (officiating) . . 
Assist.-Surgeon W. J. Moore .... 

Surgeon G. King . 

Assist.-Surgeon J. H. Newman . . . 
Assist.-Surg. T. H. Hendley (officiating) 
Assist.-Surgeon J. H. Newman . . . 
Surgeon J. M. Brereton (officiating) , . 

Surgeon J. H. Newman 

Surgeon-Major Spencer^ 

Surgeon A. Adams 

Brigade-Surg. Lt.-Col. ffrench-Mullen . 
Surgeon Lieut.-Colonel A. Adams . . 
Surg. Lieut.-Col. P. A. Weir (officiating) 
Lieut.-Colonel A. Adams, I. M.S. . . . 


May 6, 1862 
December 26, 1862 
February 22, 1862 
December 24, 1867 
April 14, 1S69 
February 20, 1872 
March 19, 1873 
October 19, 1877 
April 10, 1878 
May 10, 1S79 
April 10, 1881 
November 30, 1893 
March 29, 1S95 
May 16, 1896 
November 2, 1896 


September 5, 1862 
February 21, 1 863 
July 10, 1S67 
December 10, 1868 
August 27, 1S71 
March 18, 1 873 
March 15, 1877 
March 15, 1878 
September 15, 1878 
February 15, i88i 
October 29, 1893 
March 28, 1895 
May 2, 1896 
November i, 1896 
Present time 



^ Now Surgeon-General Spencer, C.B., P.M.O. Punjab Army, and Officiating 
Director-General, I.M.S. 



VACCINATION 

Marwar. — There is no record of vaccination in Marwar 
before 1 867, when three vaccinators were employed, who in that 
year performed 5043 vaccinations, of which 2992 or 59.33 per 
cent, were successful. There was no change made in the 
number of vaccinators till 1870, when H.H. the Maharaja 
Takhat Singh consented to an increase in the staff to nine and 
to the appointment of an inspecting vaccinator, on the recom- 
mendation of Dr. Moore. In 1873 these vaccinators per- 
formed 5519 vaccinations, 51.68 per cent, of which were 
successful; a very small percentage of success, and indica- 
tive of apathy on the part of the vaccinators, as well as of 
obstruction from the people. H.H. the present Maharaja was 
vaccinated when a child, and this gave a great impetus to 
the work among the upper classes. 

The vaccination staff was increased to eleven a few years 
later, and remained at that till 1885, when they were raised 
to 50 and regularly distributed over the country in circles set 
apart for each. During this year, vaccination mad^ a good 
start; 40,457 operations were performed, 97 per cent, of 
which were successful, and some re-vaccinations were done. 

The Thakars of Marwar were induced to keep their own 
vaccinators about this time, but the scheme did not work 
well, as the vaccinators were never paid until the Residency 
Surgeon made a visit of inspection to the Thakars' capital, 
when arrears were promptly liquidated. This system was 
abandoned on account of the difficulties it entailed in super- 
vision and in obtaining regular payment of the staff. The 



VACCINATION 267 

Thakars then agreed to contribute towards the maintenance 
of a staff of vaccinators according to their villages and lands, 
and a similar contribution was levied from other villages by 
the Darbar. In this way ample funds were provided for 
vaccination. 

In 1889-90, the whole system Avas re-organised, and 
Marwar re-divided into circles for vaccination and supervision. 
A Deputy-Superintendent of vaccination was appointed under 
the Residency Surgeon, and under him six Assistant-Superin- 
tendents, to take charofe of six vaccination districts into which 
the State had been divided for convenience of supervision. 
The vaccinators were increased to 84, to meet the further 
requirements of the State. A female Brahmin vaccinator was 
appointed to work among the close-purdah families, and to 
leave no objection possible on the part of the people against 
having the work carried out thoroughly. Sweeper-vaccinators 
were then appointed to work among the low castes, as people 
objected to sweepers being vaccinated by the ordinary staff. 
Brahmins were found the most successful vaccinators, as they 
could readily gain influence with the people ; so preference was 
always given to this caste when vacancies occurred, and nearly 
all the vaccinators in Marwar are now Brahmins. 

The female vaccinator has been found very useful, and 
she has been able to carry the work into the zenanas, where 
concealments would otherwise take place. Another female 
vaccinator has recently been employed to assist her, and they 
do much work which could not be done by the male staflf. 
Vaccination is now general throughout the country, and it has 
already done much to mitigate the ravages of small-pox, which 
have hitherto been so frequent and fatal to young life. More- 
over, most of the people have now come to recognise the great 
benefits conferred by vaccination, and there is hardly any 
opposition to it, even among the ignorant, except in a few Mina 
villages in wild districts. Many people call for regular attend- 



268 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



ance of the vaccinators at their villages. At present the 
vaccination staff in Marwar consists of: — i Deputy Superin- 
tendent, 7 Assistant Superintendents, 8 i vaccinators, of whom 
two are female and two sweeper vaccinators. They are all 
under the Residency Surgeon, who superintends much of the 
work, and without whose supervision the department would 
readily lapse into disorder and abuse, and probably soon be a 
disadvantage rather than a benefit to the people. It is impera- 
tive to have as much European supervision of vaccination as 
possible, until the people have become thoroughly accustomed 
to it, and abuses must be carefully guarded against. 

During the official year of 1897-98, 88,764 vaccinations 
were performed, of which 8 8 ,0 1 2 were successful, and of these 
10,093 were verified by the Residency Surgeon. 

The following are the tabular statements of vaccination seen 
and done in the State during the eleven years 1887—98 : — 



Statement (No. i) slwiving Vaccination Work Lisjjected hy the Superin- 
tendent [Residency Surgeon) from 1887 tij) to the end of Season 1898 
(315^ March). 



Years. 




Successful Cases. 


5^ 


Total 
Seen. 


Remarks. 


Three 

Good 

Marks. 


Two 
Good 
Marks. 


One 

Good 

Mark. 


Total. 


1S87 . . 
1888 . . 

18S9 . . 

1889-90 . 
1890-91 . 
1891-92 . 
1892-93 . 
1893-94 . 
1894-95 . 
1895-96 . 
1896-97 . 
1897-98 , 

Total . 


159 
209 

101 

192 
1S2 
119 

155 
20 

45 
535 
354 
501 


2,112 
2,238 

1,049 

3,561 
3,879 
2,717 

2.545 
612 

1,351 
12,601 

9,592 
8,017 


2,894 
2,886 

1,586 
2,700 
2,387 
1,483 
1,279 
227 
229 
3,506 
1,297 
1,434 


385 
648 

236 

555 
449 
303 
260 

74 

74 

978 

405 

458 


5.391 

5,772 

2,871 
6,Si6 
6,715 
4,503 
4,084 

913 

1,654 

17,085 

11,294 

9,909 


161 
181 

75 
192 
178 
88 
98 
24 

15 
260 
214 
184 


5,552 
5.953 
2,946 

7,008 
6,893 
4,591 
4,182 

937 
1,669 

17.345 
11,508 
10,093 


\From Jan. to 
/ Dec. 
jfJan., Feb., and 
\ March only. 

From 1st April 
'to 31st March. 


2,572 


50,274 


21,908 


4,825 


77,007 


1,670 


78,677 



VACCINATION 



269 



Statement (No. 2) shoiving Vaccmation Work Inspected hy the Native Super- 
intendents {No. varying from i to 1) from 1887 up to the end of Season 
1898 (316-^ March). 



Years. 


to . 


Successful Cases. 


9 jj 


Total 
Seen. 


Remarks. 


Three 


Two 


One 






Og 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Total. 


«« 








|zi 


Marks. 


Marks. 


Mark. 




l§o 






1887 . 


449 


4,640 


6,847 


662 


12,149 


355 


12,504 


\From January 
/ to December. 


1888 . 


604 


7,210 


7,681 


632 


15.523 


207 


15.730 


1889 . 


271 


3,661 


2,071 


239 


5.971 


85 


6,056 


f Jan., Feb., and 
\ March only. 


1889-90 


1,328 


22,291 


7,943 


1,527 


31,761 


1,005 


32,766 


N, 


I 890-9 I 


2.577 


43,100 


12,882 


3,168 


59,150 


1,464 


60,614 




1891-92 


2,637 


38,846 


11.365 


2,115 


52,326 


1,375 


53.701 




1892-93 


2,206 


27,370 


8,510 


1,911 


37.791 


1,480 


39,280 


From 1st April 
"to 31st March. 


1893-94 


2,669 


32,339 


9,429 


2,228 


43.996 


1,256 


45,252 


1894-95 


2,241 


30,034 


7.407 


1,651 


39.092 


933 


40,025 


1895-96 


2,976 


39,585 


6,021 


1,470 


47,076 


714 


47.790 




1S90-97 


2,552 


39,822 


5.394 


1,370 


46,586 


657 


47,243 




1897-98 
Total . 


3,601 


48,352 


6,942 


1,820 


57.114 


1.239 


58,353 




24,111 


337,250 


92,492 


18,793 


448,535 


10,779 


459.314 



Statement {No. 3) shoiving Total Numher Vaccinated in Marioar from 
1887 to the end of March 1898. 



Year. 


All "Vaccinations. 














Male. 


Female. 


Total. 




1887 . . . . 


32,224 


27,928 


60,152 


~\ From January to 


1888 . 






i 28,698 


26,063 


54,761 


J December. 


1889 . 






16,340 


14,567 


30,907 


/January, February, 
\ and March only. 


1889-90 






1 42,557 


37.963 


80,520 


% 


1890-91 






43.541 


39.204 


82,745 




1891-92 






44,569 


39.744 


84,313 




1892-93 
1893-94 






35,172 
41,690 


30,627 
36,261 


65,799 
77,951 


From 1st April to 


1894-95 






40,134 


35,619 


75.753 




1895-96 






46,629 


40,990 


87,619 




1896-97 






40,825 


36.581 


77,406 




1897-98 


47.573 


41,191 


88,764 




Tota 


1 




459.952 


406,738 


866,690 



270 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



It will be observed that during the eleven years under con- 
sideration the Residency Surgeon inspected y^,6yy cases, and 
of these, 77,007 were at the time of inspection successful, or 
a percentage of 97.88 of successful cases. During the same 
period, 459,314 cases were inspected by the Native Superin- 
tendents, of which 97.65 per cent, were successful cases. The 
third table has been given to show the amount of work done 
by the vaccinators in the State during the same period. Of 
this total of 866,690 cases, rather more than a half has been 
inspected by the seven Native Superintendents, and less than 
an eleventh by the Residency Surgeon. 

The cost of vaccination, for the above period, has been as 
nearly as possible 2 annas and 2.53 pies. 

The following tables of small-pox mortality in the Jodh- 
pore, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir cities, for the four years 1894-97, 
previous to which records are not available, are given : — 

Small-Pox Mortality, 1894-97, Jodlipore City. 



Months. 




1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


January .... 






... 


February 












I 


March . 












10 


April 












26 


May 












39 


June 












12 


July 














August . 














September 














October . 














November 














December 














Total . 


I 






88 



1897. 



Four 
Years. 



42 

12 
2 





Order of 


Mean. 


Month hi 




Mortality. 


0.25 


6 


3-25 


3 


7-75 


2 


10.50 


I 


3.00 


4 


0.50 


5 


25.25 





Registration of births and deaths in the Jodhpore State has 
only recently been commenced, so the mortality of Jodlipore 
city for a few years only has been given. However, it is well 
known that the thorough vaccination now established through- 
out the State has done much to mitigate the ravages of small- 
pox. 



VACCINATION 



271 



SiROHi. — One vaccinator lias been employed in the Sirohi 
State for about eighteen years, and a second for ten years. 
There has also been a vaccinator at Mount Abu, attached to 
the charitable dispensary there, during the last seventeen years. 
The Sirohi vaccinators have recently been increased to four, 
and the State divided into five vaccination circles, one of which 
is worked by the Abu vaccinator. This will ensure regular 
work and facilitate the inspections, which have mostly to be 
done by the Residency Surgeon, Western Rajputana States. 
Vaccination in and around Abu is also regularly superintended 
by him, and the work is more advanced in the hill villages 
than below, as the staff set apart for the duty in Shohi has not 
till very recently been able to carry it out thoroughly on 
account of the size and difficulty of the country. Much 
vaccination is now, however, being done, and the juvenile 
population will soon be as well protected as in Marwar. 

The following are tabular statements of vaccination seen 
and done in the State from 1887 to 1897-98: — 



Statement (No. i) slioiving Vaccination Worh inspected hy the Superin- 
tendent [Residency Surgeon) from 1887 uj) to the end of Season 1898 
(318^ March). 



Years. 


so - 

ci-i 


Successful Cases. 


B a 
5" 


Total 
Seen. 


Kemarks. 


Three 
Good 
Marks. 


Two 
Good 
Marks. 


One 
Good 
Mark. 


Total. 


1887 . . . 

1888 . . . 

1889 . . . 

1889-90 . . 
1890-91 . . 
1891-92 . . 
1892-93 . . 
1893-94 . . 
1894-95 1 • 
1S95-96 . . 
1896-97 . . 
1897-98 . . 

Total . . 


6 
10 

10 

8 
II 
5 
9 
I 

25 
14 
32 


51 

158 

267 

139 
266 

154 

139 

39 

600 

498 

1,201 


20 
61 

lOI 

77 

120 

62 

TOO 
23 

182 
158 

484 


3 
13 

35 
18 

30 

22 

28 

4 

36 

28 

122 


74 
232 

403 

234 
416 
238 
267 
66 

818 

684 

1,807 


5 
8 

7 
10 

7 

5 
10 

2 

17 
13 

24 


79 
240 

410 

244 
423 
243 
277 
68 

835 
697 

1,831 


\From Jan. to 
/ Dec. 
/Jan., Feb., and 
\ March only. 

Fromist April 
■to 31st March. 


131 


3,512 


1,388 


339 


5,239 


108 


5,347 



^ No inspection was made. 



272 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



The above table sbows that, during the ten years of inspec- 
tion, the Residency Surgeon inspected 5347 cases, of which 108 
were found unsuccessful, or 97.98 per cent, successful cases. 

The other table is attached to show the amount of work 
done by the vaccinators in the State. 

Table Shotving Total Number Vaccinated in Sirohi State from 1887 
to the end of March 1898. 



Year, 


All Vaccinations. 

! 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


1887 


1,304 


1,030 


2,334 


1888 . 








2,311 


1,9^3 


4,274 


1889 . 








1 1,029 


831 


1,860 


1889-90 








1 1,623 


i>355 


2,978 


1890-91 








2,004 


1,826 


3,830 


1891-92 








2,263 


1,883 


4,146 


1892-93 








2,089 


1,726 


3,815 


1893-94 








2,154 


1,776 


3,930 


1894-95 








2,094 


1,775 


3,869 


1895-96 








2,293 


1,93' 


4,224 


1896-97 








2,250 


1,901 


4,151 


1897-98 








1,812 


1,602 


3,414 


To 


tal . 




• 


23,226 


19,599 


42,825 



The cost per vaccination for the above period, taken to- 
gether, has been as nearly as possible i anna and 5.14 pies. 





Small-Pox Mortality, 


1894- 


97, Sirohi City. 




Months. 


1894. 


1896. 


1896. 


1897. 


Four TIT p„„ 
Years. *^ ^^" 


Order of 
Month in 
Mortality. 


January , 

February 
March . 
















2 

13 

2 


2 0.50 

13 3-25 
2 , 0.50 


2 

I 

3 


April 

May 

June 








::: 






I 


I 


I '• 0.25 
I ' 0.25 


5 
6 


July 

August . 
September 
October , 








1 




... 
... 






... 




November 
















... 






December 












2 




2 


0.50 


4 


Total 








I 
... J ... 


3 


18 


21 


5.25 



VACCINATION 



273 



Jaisalmir. — Vaccination was commenced in Jaisalmir in 
1890, and the children of the capital, as well as in some of the 
towns, are now well protected. It will, however, take much 
time to make it general in a country of over 16,000 square 
miles in area, with a semi-nomadic population, and little money 
to spare for such a purpose. 

Four vaccinators are now employed, under the Hospital 
Assistant as superintendent, and the Residency Surgeon, Western 
Rajputana States, supervises much of the work on the way to 
and from Jaisalmir city, when he makes his annual visit to 
that capital. 

The following are tabular statements of vaccmation seen 
and done in the State from the year 1890-91 to 1897-98. 

The first table shows that, during the seven years of 
inspection, the Residency Surgeon inspected 1597 cases, of 
which 28 were found unsuccessful, or 98.25 per cent, success- 
ful cases. 

The second table is given to show the amount of work 
done by the vaccinators in the State. 

Statement {No. i) showing Vaccination Work Inspected hy the Super- 
intendent {Residency Surgeon) from 1890-91 up to the end of 
Season 1898 {2,1st March). 



Year. 






Successful Cases 




1§ 

§02 


Total 
Seen 


Remarks. 


Three 


Two 


Que 








Good 


' Good 


Good 


Total. 


m M 








Marks. 


Marks. 


Mark. 




^6 




1890-91 . 


52 


8 


7 


67 


I 


1 From 1st April 


1891-92 . 


I 


26 


22 


6 


54 
31 


I 


1892-93 . 
1893-94 1 . 


3 


15 


12 


4 


4 


53 

35 


1 to 31st March. 


1894-95 • 
1895-96 . 


I 
9 


45 
245 


3 
69 


I 
17 


49 
331 


I 

6 


50 
337 




1896-97 . 


12 


171 


30 


9 


210 


4 


214 
838 

1.597 




1897-98 . 
Total . 


18 


644 


150 


33 


827 


i I 




46 


1,198 


294 


17 


1.569 


28 



^ No inspection was made. 



274 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement shoiving Total Number Vaccinated in Jaisalmir State from 
1890-91 to the end of March 1898. 



Year. 

1 


All Vaccinations. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 

175 1 


1890-91 .... 


88 


87 


1891-92 








125 


123 


248 ! 


1892-93 








1 353 


301 


654 


1893-94 








1 958 


864 


1,822 


1894-95 








: 1.775 


1,443 


3,218 


1895-96 








1,372 


1,048 


2,420 


1896-97 








671 


52« 


IJ99 


1897-98 








1 990 


767 


i>757 


Tota 


L 






f 6,332 


5.I6I 


ii>493 



The cost per vaccination for the above period, taken to- 
gether, has been as nearly as possible 2 annas and 2.08 pies. 



Small-Pox Mortality, 1894-97, Jaisalmir City. 



Months. 


1894. 1895. 


1896. 1897. 


Four 
Years. 


Mean. 


Order of 
Month in 
Blortality. 


January . 

Febriiary 
March 








4 

I 




•• 


I 


... 

5 
I 


1.25 

0.25 


... 
3 
5 


April 
May 
June 








I 




30 

12 
I 


30 

13 

I 


7.50 

3-25 
0.25 


I 
2 
6 


July . 

August . 








... 




2 


2 


0.50 


4 

... 


September 
October . 








'.'.'. 












November 




















December 








1 












Total 








6 


46 

i 


52 


13.00 





VACCINATION 275 



General Remarks on Vaccination. 

Arm-to-arm vaccination has been greatly practised in these 
States, but buft'alo lymph is now supplanting the old method, 
and the people like it better, as many of them have a strong 
objection to giving lymph from then* children to others. They 
think the taking away of lymph weakens the protection, and 
saps the strength of the infant to an injurious degree, and it 
sometimes makes the child cry, which appeals to parents and 
works against it. 

Arm-to-arm vaccination is, in my experience, when care- 
fully done, rarely followed by bad results. Specific disease is 
not readily communicated through lymph, and can never be 
communicated in this way when proper care is exercised. It 
gives a stronger vesicle and a better mark than buffalo lymph, 
especially when the latter is preserved in glycerine, and it still 
remains to be demonstrated that glycerine calf lymph affords 
equal protection from small-pox. 

The vaccination season commences at the end of September 
and ends at the beginning of April, as the hot weather and 
rains are not well suited for the work. In the hot months it 
is difficult to keep the lymph in the very dry, high temperature 
which prevails, and, in the rains, ulceration at the seat of 
vaccination often occurs; besides, flies irritate the children, 
and often carry the lymph to other parts of the body, and 
produce ulcers and inflammation wherever there is an abrasion. 
Lymph is kept up in some cool place during the hot weather 
and rains, so as to be available for the early season, but no 
attempt is made to push vaccination further at these times, 
on account of the unsatisfactory results above mentioned, 

Re-vaccination has not been much practised in these 
States, as the people are more opposed to it than to the 
primary protection. They have been long accustomed to 






276 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

inoculation, which no one would think of repeating, so they are 
unable to realise that a second vaccination could be called for, 
and it will take a long time to get them over this prejudice. 

Inspection of vaccination is carried out as much as possible 
during the cold season by both the Residency Surgeon and 
the other inspectors, and the people have quite got over the 
objection of showing their children when asked to, as most of 
them now recognise the good effects that vaccination has had 
on small-pox epidemics. 



SANITATION 

JoDHPORE. — A Conservancy system for Jodhpore city was 
attempted in 1875 under two Darogas, but it was not a 
success. It was again reorganised in 1882. However, the 
Residency head-quarters were then at Erinpura, and Httle was 
done till 1884, when an advance was made and a Municipal 
Committee appointed by Colonel Sir Pratap Singh, with the 
Residency Surgeon as President, to look after the public 
health and the cleaning of the city, to settle disputes, to 
prevent encroachments on the public streets and thoroughfares, 
and transact other municipal business. A Municipal Secretary 
was appointed, a grant of Rs. 1500 per mensem placed at the 
disposal of the Municipal Committee, and a staff of sweepers 
engaged ; rubbish carts were purchased, and latrines for males 
and females, as an experiment, erected. The system worked 
well, and was steadily extended. In 1885 carts for the 
conveyance of rubbish and filth were in daily use, and the 
city was then described as " now fairly clean." 

The Committee made the following bye-laws during the 
same year : — 

1. Respectable citizens to carry lights and go unmolested 
at night. 

2. Camels carrying stones for building purposes to be 
allowed to enter the city from 1 1 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

3. Shopkeepers to erect iron shades instead of the grass 
chhappars, as now in use, in front of their shops. 

4. Dundnees to have permission to remove the urine from 
their houses at night according to custom, provided they do 

277 



278 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

not create a nuisance or cause inconvenience in the neigh- 
bourliood. 

5. Adulterated sugar found in the possession of confec- 
tioners and traders to be confiscated and the owners fined. 

6. Large slabs and stones not to be allowed to remain on 
the public roads, and all building materials to be removed as 
soon as the buildings or repairs have been completed. 

7. Halwais having fires outside their shops to be compelled 
to remove the ashes, or to pay the Committee for having 
this done. 

By the end of the next year, six sets of latrines on an 
extensive scale had been opened. These were well kept and 
much appreciated by the people. The night-soil was regularly 
removed to fields some two miles away from the city, on both 
its east and west sides, and there trenched into the soil. Ten 
more latrines were opened in 1887, and the ten conservancy 
carts then in use reinforced by twenty more. In 1888 the 
sets of latrines rose to eighteen, and were used by all classes 
except Srimali Brahmins. In 1889 their number was raised 
to twenty ; and in this year the proposal to have a light 
railway for the more complete removal of refuse was taken 
into consideration. By the end of 1890 two new sets of 
latrines had been added to those abeady in use in the city ; 
the Fort had been cleaned, and its drainage put into a better 
sanitary condition. Ten new municipal carts were purchased, 
and the staff of sweepers made up to the present strength. 
The light railway has recently been completed ; it is working 
very satisfactorily, and has done away with the difiiculty, so 
long experienced, of obtaining buftalo carriage. It also allows 
of the night-soil and debris of the city being carried well 
beyond city limits. The Jodhpore cultivators will not make 
any use of night-soil, as they say it burns up the crops in this 
dry climate. The problem of its disposal has therefore been 
rendered somewhat difficult. It is proposed to use incinerators 



SANITATION 279 

to consume the rubbish, as soon as they can be provided, and 
this will effect a considerable saving in carriage. 

The Conservancy staff is now regularly paid, and the 
Municipal Committee, consisting of a secretary and twenty- 
three influential members, presided over by the Residency 
Surgeon, with the City Kotwal as vice-president, take con- 
siderable interest in sanitation. Consequently the progress, 
made during recent years in this direction, has been marked 
and steady. 

For purposes of conservancy, the city and suburbs are 
divided into four circles, and these into two subdivisions each. 
There are one Daroga, three Jamadars, twenty-four sweepers, 
and three buffaloes set apart for each circle. In addition to 
this, a special staff is also kept up for the palace, bungalows 
of officials, and other houses outside municipal limits ; and 
there is a gang of sweepers and Belddrs employed under a 
Daroga and Jamadar on the trenching grounds, which are 
about five miles from the city. Four Jamadars are employed 
specially to look after the private or " Birat " sweepers, and to 
punish them for any neglect or infringement of municipal 
rules. 

The principal bazaars and suburbs are daily cleaned by 
municipal sweepers ; the lanes, enclosures, and private latrines 
by " Birat " sweepers. The city sweepings are removed by 
both municipal and " Birat " sweepers to the nearest public 
latrines, and loaded into waggons to be taken off to the 
trenching grounds. Some of the sweepers use buffalo-car- 
riage, others carry the refuse in baskets, as the streets are in 
many places too narrow for carts. 

There are at present thirteen double sets of public latrines 
for males and females within municipal limits, with a total 
of 701 seats for males and 658 for females. Srimali Brahmins 
still hold that it is contrary to their religious views to use 
latrines ; so a place has been set apart by the Committee to 



280 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

which they generally resort for purposes of nature, and the 
ground is regularly cleaned. 

Notwithstanding the latrine accommodation provided in 
convenient localities throughout the city and suburbs, some 
of the people, especially the Pushkarna Brahmins, are still 
averse to using them. A careful watch has therefore to be 
kept over such people, to prevent the infringement of muni- 
cipal rules. 

The excreta from the public latrines is removed to the 
tramway collecting station in closed-up waggons drawn by 
buifaloes, and thence conveyed to the trenching ground by a 
steam-engine, when a train has been made up from these 
and the " Birat " sweepers' collections. 

The ■' Birat " arrangement is not so perfect nor so satis- 
factory as it ought to be ; but any other would be attended 
with great expense, which could not be borne by municipal 
funds. These " Birat " sweepers are paid very little in money 
for their labours by the owners or occupiers of houses. They 
mostly get refuse food from theh masters. Some of the well- 
to-do, however, pay a monthly salary and give old clothes in 
addition. At certain seasons all sweepers receive small money 
allowances. 

The tramway runs round the city walls in two directions, 
and emerges fi-om it on the south side. A short distance from 
the city wall, through which it passes, there is a changing 
station in an open space where the trains are made up. Buffalo 
draft is used up to this station, as it would endanger the safety 
of the people to take the engines inside the city. The trains 
are made up at the changing station twice a day, and taken 
off to a distance of nearly five miles, where the refuse is burnt 
and the night-soil trenched into the ground. On the return 
of the trains the waggons are taken back by buffaloes to 
sidings near the public latrines to be refilled. The waggons 
are taken out from the latrines in the early morning and late 



SANITATION 



281 



at night, so as not to disturb the citizens. On account of the 
scarcity of water for irrigation, and the prejudices of the 
people, no advantage has yet been taken of the trenching 
grounds for crops. 

In order to prevent rabies, the Municipahty take charge 
of stray dogs, which are fed by the townspeople at a place 
without the city, where they are confined and the sexes 
separated. 

The grant of Rs. 1 5 00 per mensem has recently been 
increased by the Darbar to Rs.2000, to meet the increasing 
sanitary requirements of the city of Jodhpore. 

The following are the chief items of expenditure : — 







Rs. 


T. 


Head office and Municipal Secretary 


140 


2. 


General cleanings .... 


577 


3* 


Public latrines ..... 


242 


4- 


Tramway and trenching grounds . 


317 


5- 


Preservation of city tanks 


40 


6. 


Suburbs ...... 


309 


7- 


Conservancy workshop .... 


50 


8. 


Englisb coal ..... 


50 


9- 


Repairing public latrines and making pans 


200 


10. 


Miscellaneous items .... 


75 




Total 


2000 



There is a Darbar grant of Rs. 1 00 per mensem given for the 
sanitation of Pali, an important town forty miles from Jodhpore 
on the Jodhpore- Bikanir Railway ; and this, augmented by 
subscriptions from the people, keeps up a staff of sweepers, 
carts, and animals for the conservancy of the town. Some 
of the well-to-do in other large towns in Marwar contribute 
towards the sanitation of their towns, but village sanitation 
is mostly backward. However, in most places greater atten- 
tion is now being given to the protection of drinking-water, 
and to many other sanitary precautions than hitherto ; and 



282 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

it is hoped that the spread of education among the people 
will have a good effect in this direction. 

The vaccination staff is trained in elementary sanitation, to 
advise the villagers (among whom their ordinary work lies) in 
the protection of the water supply, the prevention of epidemics, 
and other matters connected with public health. The Resi- 
dency Surgeon travels a good deal in the district, and points 
out to the officials and headmen sanitary defects which can be 
remedied. 

Sanitation in Sirohi and Jaisalmir is still in a very primi- 
tive state. Most of the people resort to the jungle for purposes 
of nature, and there is no well-organised sanitary staff, although 
cleaning-up is done in both capitals. The house-latrines are 
regularly cleaned by " Birat " sweepers, and the streets receive 
some attention on special occasions. However, the burst of the 
monsoon is too often relied upon to thoroughly clean the 
streets and lanes. In 1891—92 steps were taken to improve 
the sanitary arrangements at Sheoganj, on account of the 
proximit}' of the Erinpura cantonment, and this town is now 
fairly clean. The sanitary arrangements of Mount Abu and 
Abu Road are under well-organised departments, already 
referred to. 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 

JODHPORE STATE. 

Pali. 

Pali, the commercial capital of Marwar, is situated forty miles 
south-east of Jodhpore, on the main road between Ahmedabad 
and Ajmere ; it has long been the chief commercial mart of 
Western Rajputana. The principal trade carried on is that 
of dyeing woollen, silk, and cotton cloths. Cloth-stamping is 
carried on, and there is considerable work in ivory. The town 
is built of burnt bricks, no stone being readily procurable in 
the neighbourhood. It now contains about 20,000 inhabitants, 
but it had a much greater population at one time, and silk- 
dyeing was then largely carried on. It has acquired an unen- 
viable notoriety as the place of origin of the rat-fever or Indian 
plague of 1836 {vide "Note on Plague"). 

In the civil wars that formerly raged in Marwar, the pos- 
session of Pali, from the commercial character of its inhabitants, 
was of great importance, and at the desire of the trading 
classes a fortification was raised, which still exists, although in 
places broken down. As an emporium its reputation is of an 
ancient date, and politically it is connected with the establish- 
ment of the reigning family of Marwar. A community of 
Brahmins at one time held Pali in grant from the princes of 
Mandore, whence comes a numerous class termed Palliwal 
Brahmins, most of whom follow mercantile pursuits. It was 
at the beginning of the thirteenth century that Siaji, the 
founder of the Rathorc dynasty, and son to the Raja of Kanauj, 



284 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

passed Pali on his return to Dwarka from a pilgrimage to the 
Ganges, The Brahmins sent a deputation to ask him to relieve 
them from two great enemies to their repose, namely, the 
Minas of the Aravallis and the lions, which were then very 
numerous. Siaji relieved them from both, but the oppor- 
tunity to acquire land was too good to be lost, and on the 
festival of Holi he put the leading Brahmins to death and 
took possession of Pali. 

The climate is fairly good; the water supply good and 
abundant. Many of the people are very well-to-do, but 
malarial fevers are somewhat more prevalent than in the dry 
and sandy parts of Marwar. 

The Pali Dispensary was opened in February 1865. In 
1897, 21 in-patients and 7363 out-patients were treated, and 
447 operations performed in it. 

Jasole. 

Jasole is a town of about 4000 inhabitants, situated on 
the Luni river, two miles from Balotra Railway Station. Most 
of its people are engaged in agriculture. The town is 
naturally well drained, as part of it is located on the slope of a 
hill ; the subsoil is hard, and the water supply is good and 
abundant. Kher, the ancient capital of Mallani, was situated 
a short distance from the site now occupied by Jasole, and 
there are ruins of another once important town adjacent, viz., 
Nagar. Jasole rose as these towns decayed, and it now con- 
tains the descendants of some of the earliest Rathore settlers 
in this country. Rao Asthanji conquered this part of Mallani 
shortly after the Rathores settled at Pali, and occupied Kher 
and the adjacent country. Tilwara, where the great Mallani 
fair is annually held, is about ten miles from Jasole, up the 
Luni river. This fair lasts a fortnight, and great sales of 
bullocks, camels, and horses are effected at it. The water of 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 285 

the Luni is believed by many to become sweet during the time 
of the fair, for the convenience of the large gathering of 
people which takes place there to do honour to the memory of 
Mallinath, as well as for purposes of business and pleasure. 
The fair is held at the end of March, and then the bed of the 
Luni is dry, except in a few places where there are brackish 
pools. Abundance of good water can, however, be obtained at 
this season, by digging holes in the bed of the river at Til- 
wara, and during the fair each party has its own well within 
its camp — a very unusual convenience in Marwar ; conse- 
quently the legend of the sweetening of the water. Epi- 
demic disease very rarely breaks out at this fair, both on 
account of the good and abundant supply of water, and of the 
dryness of the surrounding country at the season when the 
fair is held. 

The Jasole Dispensary was opened in 1870; there were 
69 in-patients and 4839 out-patients treated in it in 1897, 
and 289 operations performed. Every year, during the time the 
Mallani fair is being held, a branch dispensary from Jasole is 
opened in Tilwara for the convenience of the people there 
assembled. 

Nagore. 

Nagore, situated on the Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway, about 
ninety miles due north of Jodhpore, is a large, walled, irregu- 
larly built city, formerly the capital of the northern portion of 
Marwar, and still containing the fort and palace of the former 
rulers. At least one quarter of the city is now in ruins, pre- 
senting a confused mass of fallen houses and of debris, such 
as one might expect to encounter in some city of the dead, 
but scarcely to be seen in a town containing some 20,000 
inhabitants. There are several handsomely carved sandstone 
houses, generally the property of merchants engaged in amass- 
ing wealth elsewhere. 



286 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Various sanguinary encounters have taken place at 
Nagore. Rao Chonda successfully attacked the Imperial 
garrison then located there, in the latter part of the fourteenth 
century. Again, in 1407 a.d., Rao Lakhman of Jaisahnh pre- 
tended to offer a daughter in marriage to Chonda, and went 
so far as to say, if he suspected aught unfair (there had long 
been a feud between the two families), he would, though con- 
trary to custom and his own dignity, send the Bhati princess to 
Nagore. The offer was accepted, and the wedding-party set 
out ; but the carriages supposed to convey the bride's corUge 
contained armed men. Chonda having come out to meet (as 
he thought) his bride, found out his inistake and commenced 
to retreat, but too late. The secreted men rushed out from 
their carriages, and Chonda was killed at the gate of Nagore. 
In A.D. I 561 Nagore was captured by Akbar, but was after- 
wards restored by him to the Rathores for services rendered 
by the chief. 

The manufacture of iron and brass pots and pans, locks, 
agricultural implements, camel-saddles, and many articles in 
domestic use, is still carried on in Nagore. There is a brisk 
export trade in these things. 

There is a good and fairly abundant water supply adjacent 
to the town. The climate is considered good, although the 
extremes of temperature are very great, the heat being 
intense in summer and frost common in winter. 

A dispensary was established at Nagore in July 1874; 
there were 80 in-patients and 5650 out-patients treated in it, 
and 305 operations performed in 1897. 

DiDWANA. 

The town of Didwana is the head-quarters of the Hakim 
of that district, and a great salt manufacturing centre. It is 
situated 140 miles north-east of Jodhpore, adjacent to a large 




Mosque, Xagore. 




Dispensaiy, Temples, and Mosque, Merta. I'o face page 2S6. 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 287 

salt lake, and is a large Availed town, said to contain about 
12,000 inhabitants. There are no manufactures of importance 
except salt, which is largely produced for export, and the 
people depend greatly on this industry for their livelihood, 
supplemented by agriculture. The town is surrounded by a 
substantial stone wall, and the houses are well built of stone 
and lime. There are several good wells of sweet water with- 
out the walls, and on the south-west side of the town, opposite 
the salt lake, there is a small fresh- water tank, which lasts 
eight or nine months of the year. The town has fairly good 
natural drainage ; it is healthy, and comparatively free from 
malarial fever. 

The town dispensary of Didwana was established on the 
I St of January 1884; 3 in-patients and 1608 out-patients 
were treated, and 73 operations performed in it in 1897. 
There has been a N.I.S.R. Department Dispensary at the salt 
settlement since April 1878, and the Hospital Assistant in 
charge works the town dispensary as a branch, his other duties 
being very light. This dispensary is of great advantage to the 
villagers of this remote district, and it is worked at little cost 
to the Marwar Darbar. 

Merta. 

Merta, a walled town of about 8000 inhabitants, is the 
capital of Eastern Marwar. It was founded by Rao Dooda, 
fourth son of Rao Jodha, and added to by Rao Maldeo, who 
reigned from a.d. 1532 to a.d. 1569, and built the fort, called, 
after him, " Mai Kot." Merta has been the scene of many a 
hard fight, and the country around is covered with stone 
pillars erected to the memory of the gallant who fell in battle. 
It was at Dangarwas, about two miles distant, that, in a.d. 
1790, the Mahrattas, under De Boigne, fought the Rathores. 
The great battle took place on the bund of a tank called 
Dangolai, and there is still to be seen a tomb erected to the 



288 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

memory of a Frenclaman, a captain of infantry, wounded in the 
service of Maharaja Scindia on the iith September 1790, 
who died of his wounds on the 1 8th of the same month, aged 
sixty-one. The inscription is in French, on a white marble 
slab, still in a good state of preservation. Water is plentiful 
at Merta, there being numerous tanks all round the city, and 
wells are in abundance for irrigating gardens and fields. 
Merta was at one time a great trade centre, and there are still 
many fine stone carved houses, now vacant, although in good 
preservation, which were formerly occupied by merchants 
whose descendants have settled in Ajmere. The chmate is 
somewhat malarious and unhealthy at certain seasons, especi- 
ally after the monsoon. The soil is rich and very productive, 
and the population, now considerably reduced, are mostly 
engaged in agriculture. Country cloths, blankets, woollen 
mats, earthenware toys and vessels are the principal manu- 
factm'es. There are a handsome mosque and some fine 
temples in the town ; the fort is still well preserved. 

The Merta dispensary was established on the i st of January 
1888. In 1897, 57 in-patients and 6859 out-patients were 
treated, and 328 operations performed in it. 

There is another dispensary at Merta Road (an important 
junction on the Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway) for railway em- 
ployes. It was opened on the ist of January 1897, in which 
year there were 1220 out-patients treated and 66 operations 
performed. The site of this settlement is very free from 
malaria and healthy, there being an abundant supply of good 
well-water available throughout the year. 

POHKARAN. 

The fort of this important town, the capital of the chief 
Thakar of Marwar, is said to have been constructed by 
Rao Maldeo, out of materials brought from Satelmir, an old 
town about two miles from Pohkaran, which he dismantled. 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 289 

Satelmir was built by Satal, the eldest son of Rao Jodha 
(after whom Jodhpore is named), on the top of a low ridge of 
hills. There is nothing left of the town now, except the 
ruins of an old Jain temple and a few old walls. Pohkaran 
is the chief town of the appanage of the premier baron or 
Thakar of Jodhpore, who holds the post of Pardhan to H.H. 
the Maharaja, which entitles him to hold the " morchhal " or 
peacock " chhaori " and to a seat in the " khawass " or behind the 
Maharaja on an elephant on all state occasions. All docu- 
ments, being grants of lands, villages, and substantial rank, 
granted by the Darbar, require the signature of this Thakar 
before they become absolute. His ancestors came from 
Bhinmal to Pohkaran in the time of Maharaja Abhai Singh, 
The present Thakar of Pohkaran was educated at the Mayo 
College, Ajmere. He is the only Thakar in Marwar who keeps 
up a dispensary, and his administration is advanced. The 
town is healthy ; the water supply good and abundant ; the 
population is about 10,000, a large proportion of whom is 
engaged in cultivation. 

The present Thakar of Pohkaran opened his dispensary 
on the 1st of January 1888; there were 4384 out-patients 
treated in it in 1897, and 327 operations performed. 

Jalore. 

Jalore, the chief town of the Southern Parganas of the 
Jodhpore State, is situated on the southern border of the vast 
sandy plain of Marwar, which stretches away for full 300 
miles — broken only occasionally by low ranges of rocky hills — 
to the Indus on the west and the Satlaj on the north. It is a 
place of importance, famous in former ages for the strength of 
its fort and the many long and gallant sieges it withstood, 
defying the Mogul and other invaders. It was built early in 
the Christian era by the Pramtira dynasty, then all-powerful 

T 



290 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

in Western India. Its walls, composed of huge masses of cut 
stone strongly cemented together by pure lime, remain in 
perfect preservation. The fort is about 800 yards in length 
and 400 in width. It crowns a rocky hill of an altitude of 
1200 feet above the surrounding plain, and commands the 
town, which hugs the northern slope of the hill, on which the 
fort stands out in great magnificence. The main entrance of 
the fort lies on the town face of the hill, and leads up a steep 
slippery stone roadway, passing three distinct lines of defence, 
all of considerable strength, and having mounted guns directed 
from the outer face of the fort. A single rampart wall, about 
20 feet in height, capable of supporting artillery, protects the 
fort on the side away from the entrance. This fort is amply 
supplied with sweet water from two excellent tanks within its 
walls. 

Jalore is eighty miles south of Jodhpore, on the banks of a 
small river, the Sokii. The original name of the town was 
Jallundar, and it was once the capital of the Chohan Rajas. 
The town, like the fort, is well supplied with water, and being 
situated on the slope of the hill, it is well drained except at 
one corner, below which it is damp and malarious. The 
population is about 10,000, engaged chiefly in agriculture and 
export of grain seeds, cotton, and wool. There are no manu- 
factures of importance, but country cloth, camel -saddles, 
some iron implements and domestic utensils are made in the 
town. 

The Jalore dispensary was opened on the ist of January 
1888. In 1897, 106 in-patients and 3160 out-patients were 
treated, and 308 operations performed in it. Vesical calculus 
is a common ailment in the district, which in other respects is 
generally healthy, and fairly free from inalarial fevers, except 
after the monsoon season. 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 291 

BiLARA. 

Bilara, a walled town, is situated about forty-five miles east 
of Jodhpore city, near Banganga river. It is the headquarters 
of the district, and also of the Dewan Sahib, the spiritual head 
of the Sirvi community. Here he has his palace and some of 
his gods, and the magnificence of his court, as well as the 
money he brings to the town, adds greatly to its importance. 
There are several depressions adjacent to Bilara, and there was 
formerly considerable trade in salt in this town ; but the 
manufacture has been stopped, so the 13,000 inhabitants are 
now mostly engaged in ordinary trade and agriculture. The 
soil is productive and water plentiful in the district, which 
produces wheat, cotton, and seeds in abundance. The Luni 
river has had a dam thrown across it (by Mr. Home) where it 
passes through low hills about four miles from Bilara, and this 
has produced one of the finest artificial lakes in Rajputana. 
The town of Bilara is low-lying and at times water-logged. 
There is much irrigation about, and in consequence malarial 
fevers and spleen diseases are common ; but the people are well 
fed and prosperous, which enables them to withstand the 
malarial influences. 

The Bilara dispensary was opened in March 1890; there 
were 78 in-patients and 4056 out-patients treated, and 270 
operations performed in it in 1897. 

Nawa. 

Nawa, the capital of the district and headquarters of the 
Hakim, is a walled town situated on the Sambhar lake. 140 
miles north-east of Jodhpore. It is intimately connected with 
the salt trade of Sambhar, and has a population of 5126, many 
of whom are traders and bankers. The town is badly drained, and 
at certain seasons of the year outlying portions of it are flooded 



292 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

with brackish water from the salt lake. There are some good 
wells in and about the town, and it is on the whole fairly 
healthy, probably owing to the salubrious breezes from 
Sambhar salt lake, There are no manufactures of any im- 
portance carried on in this town, and most of the people 
depend on the saltworks for a livelihood. This town has had 
a railway station for a long time, for the export of salt, which 
is large, and the Jodhpore-Bikanir Railway joins the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway outside the town. 

A dispensary was opened at Nawa in 1891 ; there were 47 
in-patients and 4791 out-patients treated in it in 1897, and 
246 operations were performed. 

Jaswantpura. 

Jaswantpura (formerly Lohiana) is a small town at the foot 
of the Lohiana hill, a detached portion of the Aravallis, west of 
Mount Abu, and rising to a height of nearly 4000 feet above 
sea-level. The site of the town is rocky and fairly drained, 
but the adjacent ravines and parts of the hill are densely 
wooded. There is a good and abundant water supply from 
wells fed by a small stream adjacent. Nevertheless the in- 
habitants, numbering about 4000, suffer a good deal from mala- 
rial fevers and spleen diseases, on account of the proximity 
of the town to the hill. Anaemia and malarial jaundice are not 
uncommon. The houses are mostly substantially built of 
bricks with tiled roofs, and as the town is new, it has wide 
streets regularly laid out, and better ventilation than some of 
the older villages. The old town was destroyed a few years 
ago on account of the predatory habits of the Thakar and his 
Bhil following. The new town built in its stead is situated a 
little farther away from the hill, to render escape from it 
difficult. The people of the district are principally a wild 
variety of Rajputs and hill Bhils. They have only lately taken 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 293 

to agriculture, and would still prefer to live by brigandage, as 
they have done for generations. 

They are a hardy race, fond of strong drink and drugs, 
and have no great need of a dispensary. This is, however, 
useful to the many settlers who have been attracted to the 
place since the establishment of law and order, and to the large 
police force quartered there in their interests. 

A dispensary was established in the town in November 
1 8 9 1 ; there were 3 9 in-patients and 3183 out-patients treated, 
and 256 operations performed in it in 1897. 

Balmer. 

Balmer, the present capital of Mallani and the head- 
quarters of the Hakim of the district, was founded by Bara 
Rao in the thirteenth century. It is a substantially built 
town on the side of a rocky hill, about sixty miles from Jasole, 
on the Pachbhadra-Umarkote Railway ; it contains about 6000 
souls, is well drained on account of its position on the hill, 
and very healthy. The Rathores, long settled here, are so 
prolific that some of the best families have divided and sub- 
divided their lands till many of the descendants of Mallinath 
now hold ancestral estates of little more than " three acres and 
a cow." The Balmer Rajputs are of fine physique and features, 
and are good horsemen. They are little given to excess in 
wine and opium, and they live a great deal in the open air, 
which has no doubt helped to keep them well grown and healthy. 

There are no manufactures of any importance carried on 
in Mallani. Cattle and horse breeding is the most profitable 
industry, except on the banks of the Luni river, where wheat 
is grown in abundance. 

A dispensary was opened on the 23rd of May 1893 ; there 
were 12 in-patients and 2529 out-patients treated, and 190 
operations performed in it in 1897. 



294 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The ruins of an ancient fort crown a hill above the town, 
which was of use as a refuge long ago. 

Phalodi. 

Phalodi, the headquarters of the Hakim of the district, 
is a large and flourishing town of about 1 2,000 inhabitants, 
situated eighty miles north and a little east of Jodhpore. 
This town at one time belonged to Jaisalmir, and afterwards 
to Bikanir, before it came into the hands of the Marwar Raj. 
It has a good water supply, is well drained and very healthy. 
Most of the houses are substantially built of stone and mortar, 
and some of them have beautifully carved sandstone fronts. 
There is' a fort of considerable strength, with well preserved 
battlements, in the centre of the town. It was built by Rao 
Hamira Nirawat, great-grandson of Rao Suja. There is a 
house still in the fort called by Hamira's name. The fort 
was added to by Rao Maldeo, who succeeded to the gaddi of 
Marwar in a.d. 1532, and it is now in good order, having been 
recently repaired. Many of the Banias of this town are very 
enterprising, and trade beyond the borders of India, bringing 
back much wealth to the town. Most of the women and 
children of Phalodi are unusually fair and good-looking. They 
dress well, and present a prosperous appearance. 

There is a salt marsh eight miles from Phalodi, where large 
quantities of salt were formerly manufactured and exported ; 
but the export trade has been discontinued, and little salt is 
now collected. 

There are no manufactures of importance carried on in 
this town, only a little work in camels' hair, wool, leather, and 
metal vessels. 

A dispensary was opened m Phalodi in September 1894, 
and before this there was a salt dispensary at the saltworks. 

In 1897 there were 24 in-patients and 4431 out-patients 
treated, and 395 operations performed in the town dispensary. 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 295 

Bali. 

Bali, a walled town, the capital of the Bali district in 
Godwar, is the headquarters of the Hakim, and is situated 
about eighty miles south-east of Jodhpore, near the Aravalli 
range of hills ; its population is about 6000. The district is 
very fertile, and many of the inhabitants are engaged in the 
cotton and grain trades. The town is fairly drained ; it has 
a good water supply, and is healthy. The houses are mostly 
substantial brick buildings with tiled roofs, and the people 
are generally well-to-do. There are line temples, beautifully 
carved, at the foot of the Aravalli range, not far from the 
town, to which many pilgrims resort. They are dedicated to 
Rampuri, and are almost unrivalled in carved figures. 

A dispensary was established in this town in March 1896. 
It has been well attended during the short time it has been 
opened, and promises to be of great service, both to the people 
of the town and the surrounding country. 

In I S97, 1 7 in-patients and 4 1 66 out-patients were treated, 
and 318 operations performed in it. 

Bhatki. 

Bhatki is a very small village near the Rann of Kutch, on 
the south-western border of Marwar ; the district is marshy 
and very malarious in many parts, as the Luni river overruns 
the country at this place during the monsoon. There are 
many salt marshes here, and formerly salt was exported from 
this part of the country; but this is now prohibited, and 
there is a salt revenue post here to prevent the manufacture 
of the article for export. 

A dispensary was opened at Bhatki for the use of the 
district in February 1897, and there has been a salt dis- 
pensary for the use of the people of the N.I.S.R. Department 



296 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

there for a long time. One hospital assistant takes charge 
of both, and gets a small local allowance from the Marwar 
Darbar in addition to his Government pay for medical charge 
of the salt department. 

In 1897 there were 160 in-patients and 397 out-patients 
treated, and 5 3 operations performed in the district dispensary. 
The population is too sparse to give a large attendance at 
the dispensary. 

SOJAT. 

Sojat is a walled town of about 13,000 inhabitants, forty- 
five miles south-east of Jodhpore, and six miles from the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway Station, loiown as Sojat Road. 
The surrounding country is productive, and there is consider- 
able trade in the town, which is healthy and naturally well 
drained. The houses are of stone and mortar, substantially 
built and well roofed. The handicrafts are the manufacture 
of saddles, swords, daggers, knives, scissors, and razors ; there 
is also trade in cotton, wool, grain, and drugs. The town is 
very old, and was once depopulated ; it suffered severely from 
plague in 1836, when it was infected by hundreds of refugees 
fi'om Pali after the outbreak of the Pali plague there. 

A dispensary was opened in this town in September 1897, 
and many people have already taken advantage of this, 
although the Sojat Raids, Hakims, and couchers are far famed 
for their great success in the healing art. These couchers 
travel all over Rajputana, Central India, Kathiawar, Sindh, 
and other parts, to perforin operations for cataract, with in- 
struments of the rudest manufacture. They operate in the 
lanes and streets under most adverse circumstances ; still they 
have some success in couching, although they destro}' numbers 
of eyes which might be saved under antiseptic precautions. 
Many of the people have absolute faith in their skill, and pay 
them considerable fees for performing operations which they 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 297 

could have properly done free of charge at the dispensaries > 
such is the force of habit and the disinclination to change 
among the people of this country. In 1897, 5 in-patients 
and 986 out-patients were treated, and 43 operations performed 
in the dispensary. 

Shergarh. 

Shergarh was long held in j'ajiri by Deorajot Rajputs, but 
it is now khalsa, and the headquarters of a Hakim. Its 
original name was Serra, called after a well sunk by Seroori, 
a maid-servant of one of these Rajputs. 

Shergarh is situated forty-six miles north-west of Jodhpore ; 
it contains 275 houses, of which 40 belong to Mahajans and 
150 to cultivators, principally Rajputs. 

There is a good well in the town, which is worked by 
bullocks ; it is about i 5 o feet deep. 

The soil is dry and sandy, and sandhills, known as " tibas," 
surround the town. 

There are two temples in the town, one of which has 
only recently been built, and the new dispensary recently 
opened is the most imposing feature of the place, as most of 
the people live in huts. 

Desuri. 

Desuri is a walled town situated about sixteen miles to 
the east of Bali in Godwar, at the foot of a hill of the same 
name. It was at a very early period in the possession of 
Baorecha Chohans, who were expelled by Solankhi Rajputs. 
The latter ultimately became the Jagirdars of the Rana of 
Meywar, and the ancient buildings, some of which still exist, 
are said to have been erected by these Solankhi Rajputs. 
This village was confiscated and made khalsa in Sambat, 
1927 (a.d. 1 871), previous to which it was held by the 
Thakar of Rupnagar. It is now the headquarters of a small 



298 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Hakumat which was lately established there, owing to the 
predatory habits of the Minas of the surrounding country. 

Its population is about 4000, consisting chiefly of Mahajans, 
Sirvis, Srimali Brahmins, Bhils, and Minas, mostly cultivators. 

The soil is rich clay, but it is hard and requires copious 
rains ; the well-water is sweet. 

The natural drainage of this town is fairly good and the 
people are generally healthy. 

A small river passes the town and feeds a number of wells 
used for irrigation. 

Desuri was the favourite Shikargah of the late Maharaja. 
It has a small fortress on a hill above the town, a garden, and 
a bungalow, sometimes occupied in the shooting season. 

A dispensary is shortly to be opened there. 



BRITISH INSTITUTIONS IN MARWAR STATE. 

Western Rajputana States Residency Hospital. 

It is the oldest institution, having been established in 1840. 
(For further particulars vide " Hospitals and Dispensaries at 
Jodhpore,") 

N.I.S.R. Pachbhadra Dispensary. 

Pachbhadra is a flourishing town on the Jodhpore-Bikanir 
Railway, about sixty miles south-west of Jodhpore city. Its 
population is about 8000, and there is considerable trade 
carried on in it on account of its proximity to the salt tract. 
A dispensary was opened at the salt station in January 1879, 
for the use of the officials and employes there, and arrange- 
ments have since been made to allow the hospital assistant in 
charge to treat any villagers who apply for medical aid. In 
1897 there were 1434 out-patients and 6y in-patients treated, 



DISPENSARY TOWNS IN STATES 299 

and 79 operations performed in it. There is a Government 
observatory at this station, in charge of the hospital assistant. 
It is one of the hottest stations in India. The fresh-water 
supply fails nearly every summer, and water has then to be 
carried by trains from a distance of ten or twelve miles. 

N.I.S.R. Bhatki Dispensary. 

The salt dispensary at Bhatki was opened on the ist of 
April 1 89 1. There were 55 indoor and 269 outdoor patients 
treated, and 7 operations performed in it in 1897^ (For further 
particulars vide, " Dispensary Towns in Marwar State.") 

N.I.S.R. DiDWANA Dispensary. 

The Didwana salt dispensary was opened on the ist of 
April 1878. There were 41 indoor and 582 outdoor patients 
treated, and 23 operations performed in it in 1 897. (For further 
particulars vide " Dispensary Towns in Marwar State.") 

SIROHI. 

Sheoganj. — Sheoganj (besides the capital) is the only dis- 
pensary town of the Sirohi State, and it is situated outside the 
Erinpura cantonments. It was founded by Sheo Singh in 
1854, and has a population of about 5000, There is con- 
siderable trade in this town on account of its proximity to 
Erinpura cantonment. The natural drainage of the town is fairly 
good, and there is a good and abundant supply of well-water. 
The houses are mostly brick built with tiled roofs ; the prin- 
cipal streets are wide, with rows of well-grown nim (Melia 
indica) trees running from end to end ; but there is no archi- 
tectural beauty in the town, the houses being mostly only 
substantial brick buildings of the plainest design. 



300 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

A dispensary was opened in Sheoganj in 1893, in sucli 
a house as could be obtained ; but a new dispensary building 
has now been completed which will give good accommodation 
for in-patients, and an improved out-patient department is also 
attached. In 1897, 1903 out-patients were treated and 82 
operations performed. Most of the important operations are 
performed in Erinpura cantonment by the medical officer and 
subordinates of the Erinpura Irregular Force. 



JAILS 

JoDHPORE. — Before 1874, prisoners at Jodhpore were ex- 
ceedingly badly accommodated. The jail was a part of the 
Kotwali, situated in the centre of the city, the space allowed 
to each prisoner being about enough to allow him to lie down. 
Little light or fresh air found admission into the reeking yard, 
in which generally over 300 men were huddled together, and 
there was no arrangement for washing, cooking, or conservancy. 
In fact, nothing more dreadful could be conceived, and the 
whole was an opprobrium to the State. In 1874 all this was 
completely remedied. The Political Agent brought the matter 
to the notice of His Highness the Maharaja, who at once 
agreed to the construction of a new prison, the necessity for 
which he saw. A large octagonal building, which had been 
erected for stables, was chosen, standing some 1000 yards 
outside the Sojat gate of the city. By running up partition- 
walls from the angles of the octagon to meet a central ring, 
wards were obtained, and a central tower and passage were 
constructed at the junction. Of the eight wards, seven were 
occupied, the other was fitted with a gate and porch for the 
entrance to the prison. Each division consisted of a large 
open yard with a series of deep sheds or roofed-in arcades in 
which the prisoners slept ; these dormitories were 118 feet long 
by 1 8| feet wide, and 9! feet high. Cook-houses and latrines were 
provided in the enclosures, and, later, a supply of water was 
procured from a well sunk outside the jail walls for drinking 
and washing purposes. In 1884 the refuse water from the 
jail was utilised for a garden at a short distance from the 

301 



302 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

prison, and from which some country vegetables were obtained 
for the prisoners. Bathing phitforms were built in each en- 
closure a short time afterwards, and the night-chain, which 
was run through the top ring of the fetters of each prisoner, 
tying the entire population of each dormitory together, was 
abolished in 1887. This was a marked advance in jail man- 
agement, and it was followed by the formation of a hospital 
and a separate ward for female prisoners. An experienced 
Daroga from Allahabad jail was retained, as the next step 
forward, to introduce discipline and industries amongst the 
convicts, who were now fed on regular rations at the expense 
of the Darbar, and some of whom were at first employed in 
making a new road round the city. Medical aid was afforded 
from the Second Branch Dispensary ; 457 jail patients were 
treated in the first year, the mortality being 65 per mille, 
which was an improvement on previous years. This adap- 
ted jail was in use as the State prison for about fifteen 
years, when it became so overcrowded and unhealthy that it 
had to be abandoned, and a new one built on modern hygienic 
principles, which now affords greater and better accommoda- 
tion. By 1892 barracks for a large new jail had been con- 
structed, but several subsidiary buildings were still required 
before they could be occupied. There had been overcroAvding 
throughout the year in the old jail; the death-rate was 62.46 
per 1 000. Dysentery, diarrhoea, and lung diseases were so pre- 
valent that it was imperative to get the prisoners out of it 
as soon as possible. The new jail was taken into occupation 
in March 1894, and the health of the prisoners soon showed 
improvement. It was described then by a local authority as 
one of the finest jails in Rajputana, well situated, Avell con- 
structed, and able to accommodate 1000 prisoners. The hos- 
pital was at that time still outside the main prison wall, but it 
is now included. Pipe water from Balsamand reservoir was 
laid on to all sections of the jail, and an improved jail garden 



JAILS 303 

was started. The result of the transfer to this jail, as well as 
of the improved water supply, was a material improvement in 
the health of the prisoners; the death-rate fell from 43.35 in 
1893 to 30.04 per mille in 1894. The provision of accom- 
modation for prisoners appeared to be ample when the jail 
was built. The jail population has, however, been rapidly- 
increasing; in 1894 it averaged 765.57 per diem; in 1895 it 
rose from 794.70 in January to 849.22 in December, averag- 
ing 814.10 for the year; and in 1896 the average daily 
strength in the first quarter was 858.38; in the second, 
934.04, and for the third quarter, 1013.44. Additional 
accommodation was then asked for to provide ( i ) a ward for 
under- trial prisoners; (2) a ward for female prisoners, with an 
hospital attached; (3) cook-rooms; and (4) store-rooms. In 
the meantime, the excessive population of the new jail was 
accommodated in the old jail. In 1897, the Jubilee, the 
birthday of the Queen Empress, and the birthday of His 
Highness the Maharaja had all been taken advantage of to 
reduce the jail population. Still it continues to be excessive, 
and more accommodation must now be provided. 

The Mallani prisoners were confined in a jail at Jasole till 
1895, when, on the recommendation of the Residency Surgeon, 
they were removed to the new jail at Jodhpore. This jail was 
badly planned, ill-ventilated, and incapable of accommodating 
more than half the prisoners usually confined in it. So 
its abolition has been an undoubted advantage to the prisoners 
of that district. 

A table is given showing average strength of prisoners, 
admissions into hospital, deaths, &c., for the thirteen years 
1885-97- 



304 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement of Strength, Admissions into Hospital, Deaths, Sfc, 
in Jodhpore Jail, from 1885-97. 




Carpets, darries, paper, blankets, towels, and cane chairs 
are made in the jail, and the Marwar printing-press and ice 
machine are worked by prisoners. 

The insanes, formerly confined in the jail, are now treated 
in a lunatic asylum set apart for themselves, and this is an 
advance of much importance. 

SiROHi. — The Su'ohi jail is a new building, constructed on 
modern hygienic principles, and capable of accommodating 
300 prisoners. It is located on a healthy site, well away from 
the town. It is well supplied with water, and has a good 
vegetable garden attached. 

A table is given showing average strength of prisoners, 
admissions into hospital, deaths, &c., for the thu'teen years 

1885-97- 

The Sirohi prisoners were formerly confined in an old and 
ill-ventilated stable under the fort, so the new jail is a marked 
improvement. 



JAILS 



305 



Statement of Strength, Admissions into Hospital, Deaths, ^c, 
in Sirohi Jail, from 1885-97. 



Years. 


Average 
Strength. 


Admis- 
sions into 
Hospital. 


Admis- 
sions per 
Mille of 
Strength. 


Average 
Daily 
Sick. 


Deaths. 


Deaths 
per Mille 

of 
Strength. 


Remarks. 


1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
! 1892 
1893 
1894 
189s 
1896 
1897 . 




47.55 

61.99 

63.62 

68.81 

77.68 

92.02 

93-36 

117.32 

127.50 

131-15 

124.57 

133-43 

102.5s 

1241.55 
95-50 


143 
192 
190 
167 
283 
356 
294 

213 
137 
154 
155 
126 

83 


3007.36 
3097.27 
2966.48 
2426.97 

3643-15 
3868.72 
3149.10 

1815-55 
1074.51 
1174.23 
1244.28 

944-32 
809.36 


6.49 

8.92 

7.42 

6.81 

12.39 

17.94 

II. 61 

8.61 

6.37 
8.40 
9.08 
8.10 
4-85 


4 

3 

4 

I 

4 
3 
6 
8 
8 


64.52 

38.61 
43-46 
10.71 
34.09 
23-53 
45-75 
64.22 
59.96 




Tota 
Aver 


age 


2493 
191.77 


29221.30 
2247.79 


116.99 
9.00 


41 
3-15 


384.85 
29.60 



Jaisalmir. — All tlie prisoners of the State are confined at 
the capital. The building occupied by the prisoners was not 
originally built for a prison, but it has been adapted from 
time to time, and is now fairly comfortable, well ventilated, 
and well kept. It is in the form of a quadrangle, with the 
dormitories along two sides ; there is a considerable open space 
between them and the fort wall, which forms another boundary. 
It is a great improvement on the cells in the basement of the 
fort which were formerly set apart for criminals. 

A table is given showing average strength of prisoners, 
admissions into hospital, deaths, &c., for the four years 1894-97. 

The insanes have been removed from this jail, and a 
lunatic asylum provided outside, which affords superior accom- 
modation for these helpless creatures. 



u 



306 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement of Strength, Admissions into Hospital, Deaths, Sfc, 
in Jaisalmir Jail, from 1894-97. 



' AveraM AdmiS- 
Years. ^ren^th ^»o»^ i'^*^" 
strength. 1 Hospital. 


Admis- 
sions per 

mile of 
Strength. 


Average 
Daily 
Sick. 


Deaths. 


Deaths 
per Mille 

of 
Strength. 


Remarks. 


1894 . . ' 46.33 156 

1895 . . 32.94 19s 

1896 . . 46.11 205 

1897 . . \ 41- 1 1 59 


3367-15 
5919-85 
4445.89 

1435-17 


7.40 
6.16 
8.08 
3-38 


3 


65.06 




Total . 166.49 1 615 

Average 41.62 \ 153.75 

1 1 


15168.06 
3792.01 


25.02 
6.25 


3 

0-75 


65.06 
16.26 



INSANES 



JoDHPORE. — The amount of insanity in Marwar is small ; 
insanes, according to the census of 1891, numbering only 836 
(534 males and 302 females), or .0003 of the entire popula- 
tion. Female lunatics are 36.12 per cent, of all lunatics in 
Marwar. The number of insanes in Paro^anas ranged from 
I in 870 in Bilara Pargana to i in 24,000 in the Jodhpore 
By castes insanes were found as follows : — 



Pargana, 



Jd,ts . 
Mahajans 
Brahmins 
Rajputs . 
Mussulmans 
Kumbars 
Sddhs . 
Bhils 
ChAkars . 
Chdrans . 
Other castes 



85 
83 
78 
76 
67 
49 
25 
25 
31 
16 



Males. 


Females 


49 


36 


52 


31 


50 


28 


55 


21 


45 


22 


33 


16 


20 


5 


17 


8 


18 


13 


9 


7 


186 


115 



The census disclosed no insanity among Gujars, Chhipas, 
and Khatis. The forms of insanity most frequently met with 
appear to be mania, melancholia, and dementia. Idiocy does 
not very frequently present itself. The predisposing causes of 
insanity are said to be mainly drugs and sexual excess, and 
probably also financial difficulties. 

As regards treatment, insanity being looked upon by the 
upper classes as detrimental to the family name and matri- 
monial prospects, their insanes are often kept quite secluded, 

307 



308 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



and, when necessary, under restraint ; but, on the whole, they 
are kindly treated. Among the lower classes the insanes are 
found chiefly amongst beggars, mendicants, and Sadhus, addicted 
to drugs, particularly hemp. If not a public nuisance, such 
persons are left alone to subsist on the charity of their friends 
or of the public, and are not ill treated ; but if they prove 
a nuisance, they are placed under restraint, and detained in 
quarters specially prepared for them in the old jail building. 
Part of this building has recently been changed, and adapted 
for a lunatic asylum, with male and female warders appointed 
to administer to the wants of the inmates. The expenses of 
these lunatics are defrayed by the State, and they are made as 
comfortable as possible. 

SiROHi. — There are but few insanes in Sirohi State, and for 
financial reasons dangerous lunatics have hitherto been con- 
fined in a separate compartment in the jail. A new lunatic 
asylum, with accommodation for male and female insanes, is now 
about to be built, and the jail will cease to be used for them. 
Harmless insanes are generally taken charge of by their rela- 
tions, but some are allowed to go about and depend on the 
charity of the people ; they are iiiostly kindly treated. 

The insanes, according to the census of 1891, number 
only 85 (50 males and 35 females), or .0004 of the entire 
population. 

By castes insanes were found as follows : — 



Mali . 

Thakar 

Mina . 

Grasia 

Brahmin 

Charan 

Bhdt . 

Mahajan 

Sonar 



Males. 
I 
4 

I 
I 
2 
I 
10 
3 



Females. 





INSANES 








Males. 


Females 


Lohar 


2 


I 


KhAti 






2 




Darzi . 








2 


Rabari 








2 


Teli . 






3 


2 


Kunibar 






5 


4 


Chamar 






I 


2 


Sil^wat 
Unspecified 






2 
12 


13 


mi 


Total 


p^ • 


5° 

1 1 


35 

r-1 i 



309 



Jaisalmir. — There are few insanes in this State, and they 
are generally taken charge of by their relations, or allowed to 
beg about the bazaars. A new building, with accommodation 
for both males and females, has now been completed, and 
insanes found wandering about the streets will, in future, be 
confined in it, and humanely treated. Insanes, according to 
the census of 1891, numbered only 44 in the whole State, 
(33 males and 11 females), or .0004 of the entire population. 
By castes insanes were found as follows : — 



Rajputs 
Brahmins . 

Mahajans 
Unspecified . 



Males. 

6 


Females 

2 


4 
2 


2 


21 


7 



Total 



33 



METEOROLOGY 

There are three meteorological observatories in these States, 
viz., one at Mount Abu, one at Pachbhadra, and one at Jodh- 
pore. The two former are maintained by the Government of 
India, the latter by the Jodhpore Durbar. 

The observatory at Jodhpore was established on the loth 
October 1896, and since that time regular observations have 
been recorded. It is situated in an open plain, 788 feet above 
sea-level, and is connected with the Jaswant College, 

The wind blows almost persistently fi'om north-east from 
the month of November to February, but is variable during the 
months of March and April ; while a regular south-west wind 
prevails, as a rule, from May to October. Most violent hot 
winds blow in the months of May and June. Dust and 
thunderstorms are frequent during May, June, and July. The 
highest wind velocity in the year 1897 in twenty-four hours 
was 296.8, while the lowest was 20.7 miles in the same 
time. 

The barometric pressure, since the establishment of the 
observatory, has ranged between 29.546 inches and 28.776 
inches. 

The hottest period is from the middle of May to the 
middle of June, and the coldest month is January. 

In 1897 rain fell in the months of June, July, August, 
September, and October, giving a total of 15.64 inches of rain 
for the year; while in 1898 it rained in the months of June, 
July, September, and December, giving only a total of 9.15 
inches. The country is very subject to a capricious rainfall. 

310 



METEOROLOGY 311 

All tlie Parganas of Marwar are now supplied with rain- 
gauges, and returns regularly submitted to the Secretariat 
Office of the Musahib Ala. 

In Jaisalmir State there are also rain-gauges in some 
Parganas, but the returns appear to have been very care- 
lessly kept. 

Weather records are kept at Erinpura, which is adjacent 
to Sirohi, and the rainfall recorded there may be taken for the 
Sirohi State. 

The following tables show daily readings of the maximum 
and minimum dry thermometers and the dry and wet bulbs 
from loth October 1896 to 30th November 1898 at Jodhpore. 
Daily readings of the solar and grass radiation thermometers 
from 14th October 1896 to the end of the year 1898 at 
Jodhpore. Daily readings of the barometric pressure from 
loth October 1896 to 30th November 1898 at Jodhpore. 

Seven tables showing the amount of rainfall registered in 
twenty-three Parganas of Marwar for the years 1891-97, and 
a table showing rainfall of Jodhpore city for the twelve years 
1887-98. 

Five tables showing the amount of rainfall registered in 
three Parganas of Jaisalmir for the years 1895—97, and two 
Parganas for 1894-97 — the only records available. 

Statements showing rainfall, barometer, mean temperature, 
and wind direction for the ten years 1889-98 at Mount Abu. 

A statement showing mean temperature and rainfall for 
the ten years 1888-97 at Erinpura. 

Statements showing rainfall of Sirohi and Jaisalmir cities 
for the seven years 1891-97. 



312 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement slwicing the Maximum and Minimum Temperature 



Oct. 1896. 



Nov. 1896. 



I 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 
»3 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 



Max. Min. j Max. 



Min. 



Dec. 18 



99.0 


70.9 


98.3 


64.4 


98.3 


65.0 


99.3 


68.9 


X00.9 


61. s 


99-9 


61.5 


100.4 


65-5 


98.5 


66.8 


98.9 


66.7 


97-9 


63-9 


99.6 


62.4 


97-3 


64.1 


97.0 


69.1 


97-7 


67.4 


97-5 


69.8 


98.2 


66.1 


99.1 


64.0 


99-3 


62.0 


98.5 


64.0 


96.7 


63-5 


95-4 


62.3 


94.0 


62.0 



92.4 

93-1 
91.4 
91.4 
93-8 

97-3 
98.1 
96.0 
94-7 
95-7 
96.8 
97.0 
97.1 
93-2 
93-2 
90.9 
90.9 
90.8 
91.9 
90.0 
79.0 
61.0 
63.0 
72.0 

75-5 
79.0 

83-9 
85.2 

85.1 
83.1 



Max. i Min. 



Jan. 1897. 



Feb. 1897. 



Max. Min 



65.6 
66.0 
60.0 

59-1 
59.8 

59-9 
64.2 
69.5 
68.0 

70.3 
68.5 

69.5 
67.9 

69-3 

65.0 

62.6 ' 

64.0 

64.6 

65.6 

65.4 

57.8 

58.0 

53-0 j 

55-6! 

56.0 

60.8 

58.1 

62.9 

60.0 

56.9 



79-5 
80.8 
82.9 
83-4 
83.1 
83-9 
S3. 1 
83.5 
85.8 
85.2 
85-9 
79-9 
80.8 
79.1 
78.9 
82.8 
80.5 
79.0 

79.4 
78.1 
76.9 

79-9 
79.1 
79-2 

73-9 
74.0 
74.0 
66.2 
73-8 
72.1 
69.9 



52.9 


47-5 


48.7 


54.6 


53-4 



56.0 
55-9 
57-3 
48.9 
49.2 
49.0 

50-4 
49.1 

53-1 
48.9 

48-5 
47.8 
49.6 

51-7 
50.8 

49-7 
50.7 
46.1 
53-9 
38.3 
47.0 

48.9 
52.5 
47-9 
42.9 
44.1 



70.3 
71.2 

72.9 
73-2 
74-8 
81.7 
81.9 
81.0 

85.9 
86.9 
87.8 
79-7 

77-7 
76.9 
60.6 
62.6 

59-9 
64.4 
76.9 
70.1 

71-5 
71.9 
74.2 
76.1 
81.5 

79-7 
79.0 
76.8 
76.9 
79.0 
81.S 



46.9 

47.2 
49-5 
51-7 

50.1 

47-4 
55-7 
58.7 
54-3 
52.0 

58.4 
47.6 
48.8 
53-5 
34-5 
39-1 
38.5 
46.5 
45- 1 
47.8 
50.0 
48. S 
48.9 
55-1 
49-5 
58.1 

47-9 
46.0 

48.9 
52.8 
53-0 



Max. i Min. 



March 1897. 



Max. Min 



79.6 
75-9 
77.7 
76.0 
76.9 
81. 1 
82.0 
76.9 
80.3 

79-9 
81.7 
80.5 

74-5 
76.1 
78.0 
79.8 
81.7 
80.0 
82.9 

85-5 
87.9 
91.8 
91.7 
91.9 

75-1 
76.8 
81.0 
82.9 



52.8 
53-4 
5'. 3 
54.0 

55-9 
50.4 
58.0 
54-0 
56.2 

56.5 
48.4 

45-1 
49-4 
52.0 

52.7 
48.2 

46.3 
56.2 
52.1 
48.8 
48.1 

49-9 
52.0 

59-5 
40-3 
49-9 
44-5 
47.6 



84.4 
84.9 
81.7 
88.8 
92.0 
88.9 

93-8 
91.4 
90.0 
84.1 
82.8 

83.5 
84.9 
92.7 
96.9 

97.8 
96.9 

94-7 
96.9 

97-3 
93-7 

87.7 
S6.4 

89.7 
71. 1 

95-5 
96.8 

91-5 
87.3 
92.3 
95-4 



METEOROLOGY 



313 



in Shade from loth October 1896 to ^otli September 1897. 



April 


1897. 


Hay 


1897. 


Max. 1 Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


95-3 


67.7 


105.8 


71.0 


95-3 


66.2 


109.7 


75.0 


96.6 


64.6 


III. 4 


80.2 


97.1 


69.8 


II3.0 


79.0 


97.0 


73-2 


IIO.O 


78.5 


90.7 


66.4 


105.8 


76.2 


93-9 


61. 1 


102.4 


79-1 


97.8 


59-5 


103.0 


76.5 


102.2 


65.8 


107.5 


73-4 


I03-3 


65-3 


109.9 


79.0 


104.8 


70.0 


109.6 


82.1 


102.9 


73-8 


109.6 


82. 8 


103. 1 


64-5 


III. 4 


83.5 


106.6 


69.8 


109.8 


83.1 


106.8 


76.3 


III. 4 


83.3 


109.9 


76.5 


"3-4 


83-4 


III. 2 


75-5 


111.5 


83.2 


III. I 


77-9 


112. 7 


81.8 


109.4 


77.0 


106.6 


82.1 


108. 1 


76.5 


106.9 


83.8 


95-9 


63.2 


106.5 


82.1 


100.8 


70.0 


108.9 


81.5 


99-9 


76.9 


107. 1 


80.8 


98.3 


69.1 


109.9 


80.2 


98. 8 


77.1 


107.6 


81.2 


103.0 


77.8 


108.2 


85.8 


103.S 


73-5 


112.4 


87.5 


98.2 


70.6 


114.0 


90.5 


99.8 


74-4 


114.2 


86.7 


102.0 


70.1 


III. 9 


81. 1 




... 


1 10. 5 


85.2 



June 1897. 



Max. 



Min. 



July 1897. Aug. 1897. 



Sept. 1897. 



Max. Min. Max. Min. 



106.6 
109.0 
106.0 
105.9 
105.5 

III. 2 

iiS-o 

I18.3 

"9-3 
120.9 
III. 9 
109. 1 
111.9 
107.4 
104.0 
104.2 
99.8 
107.3 
1 10.7 
1 10. 1 
109. 1 
108.2 

I05-5 
103.0 
104.0 

lOI.I 

103.2 
104. 1 
102.2 
102.2 



79-5 


102.9 


84.9 


103. 1 


80.8 


102.5 


77-9 


101.2 


85.0 


1 00.0 


85.9 


101.8 


83.7 


105. 1 


88.7 


106.0 


88.9 


108. 1 


91.7 


IIO.O 


85-7 


104.7 


83.6 


94-4 


85.2 


91-3 


84.1 


90.8 


83.5 


90.1 


77-5 


94-5 


79.4 


96.3 


88.2 


98.7 


85.0 


89.7 


85.7 


86.8 


85.8 


93-5 


85.6 


95-5 


82.5 


93-3 


81.8 


86.9 


81.6 


97-9 


84.1 


94- 


83.8 


91-5 


80.6 


98.0 


79.6 


98.9 


79-7 


101.9 




100.3 



80.9 
81.6 

81.3 



98-3 
96.9 

97.8 



81.8 99.7 

85.0 j 100.2 



85-5 

86.1 
86.1 

84.9 
83.2 
80.1 
78.7 

77-9 
78.1 
78.8 
79.1 
79.1 
82.6 
79-5 
77-5 
80.0 
81.2 
79.8 

77-9 
81.6 

79-5 
78.2 

81.7 
81.8 
82.0 
80.7 



I 97.6 

! lOI.O 

'■ 95-3 

100.7 

86.7 

91-5 
91. 1 

93-9 
95-6 
84.0 
91.0 

93-0 
80.2 

85-5 
89.9 
85.2 
83.1 
85.0 
90.0 
91.7 
95-0 
95-6 
97.1 
97.6 
96.0 
95.8 



Max. 



80.7 
81.8 

81.5 
79-7 
79-9 
84.0 
77.8 
82.9 
79.6 
79-7 
78.3 
78.9 
80.5 
81.2 

77-9 
79.0 

78.7 
76.0 
76.1 

74.2 
76.6 
76.8 

74-9 
76.1 
76.0 
81.0 
80.5 
77.8 
79-9 
78.9 



94-7 
94.0 
91.0 
91.6 
91.8 
91. 1 

92.3 
95.0 

95-9 

97-4 

101.9 

1 00.0 

99-9 
86.7 
89.0 
87.2 

94-5 
93-0 
94-7 
96.5 
90.2 
94.2 

97-5 
98.4 
97.2 
94.8 
96.9 
94.1 
95-8 
95-8 



Min. 



79.0 
76.8 
75-9 
74-7 
76.0 

73-8 
75-6 
76.0 

74.2 
80.0 

79-4 
81.0 

75-8 
77-5 
77-4 
76.4 
75.0 
74.8 
77.8 
75-9 
75-3 
76.6 

75-4 
83.1 
80.9 
79.2 
79.2 
75.2 
75-9 
75-9 



314 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showmg the Maximum and Minimum Temperature 



1 


Oct. 1897. 


Nov. 1897. 


Dec. 1897. 


Jan. 1898. 


Feb. 1898. 


March 1898. 


April 1898. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




I 


95-9 


76.9 


93-6 


58.6 


85.2 


49.0 


77-9 


47-4 


88.8 


54. 


93-9 


57.7 


100.2 


65.8 




2 


95-6 


74.5 


93- 


62.8 


85.4 


49.2 


80.0 


47. 5 


83.9 


53.8 


87.0 


43.8 


100.8 


71.8 




3 


93-5 


77.0 ; 91.0 


65.0 


84.9 


49.0 


81.1 


56.2 


84.1 


55.2 


68.0 


40.9 


100.2 


68.8 




4 


99.2 


70.9 91.9 


58.1 


84.2 


49.6 


76.9 


44.2 


83.1 51-3 


72.0 


44.5 


99.2 


65.0 




5 


98.4 


72.2 


92.0 


57- 


83.0 


54-4 


68.8 


40.6 1 82.1 


48.1 


78.1 


51-4 


102.3 


67.8 




6 


97-9 


73-4 


90.4 


57-9 


83.0 


57.3 


70.1 


37.0 ' 82.0 


50.0 


83.2 


55-4 


103.5 


71.0 




7 


94.2 


72. 5 


91.0 


58.S 82.0 


54-8 


73-7 


37-9 I 82.3 


54.3 


89.5 


52.0 


100. 


73.0 




8 


94.0 


73-5 89.8 


58.2 1 84.8 


50.9 


77.0 


41.7 81.9 


56.8 


91.3 


62.8 


100. 


64.8 




9 


89-3 


70.0 


90.3 




83.7 


Si.i 


83-3 


47.3 81.3 


56.0 


95-3 


64.7 


100. 


62.6 




lO 


92.7 


70.8 


90.6 


53.8 


83.0 


58.5 


83-5 


50-7 


69.0 


52.9 


91.4 


63.0 


105.0 


71. 5 




II 


94- S 


67.9 


93- 


53-4 


82.7 


56.0 


86.1 


52.0 


66.8 


49.8 


87.6 


63.1 


107.0 


81.S 




12 


96.1 


66.2 93.5 


56.0 


82.0 


48.6 


85.1 


48.1 [ 68.1 


50-3 


91.1 


61.9 


108.3 


70.8 




13 


9S-6 


66.7 ; 93.1 


55-8 


73-5 


46.0 


84.9 


51-4 74.0 


Si.i 


94.8 


67.9 


108.7 


69.0 




14 


95-5 


67.2 91.8 




69.7 


43-0 


82.8 


50.0 77.1 


57- 


lOI.O 


62.8 


IIO.O 


83.1 




IS 


96.9 


67.2 


92- S 


56.7 


70.8 


37.0 


85.2 


54.9 ' 80.8 


60.7 


97.5 


67.1 


109.9 


79-4 




i6 


96.7 


64.2 


91. 1 


55-5 74.0 


39.5 


82.1 


49-1 75.0 

1 


59.3 


96.2 


63.0 


IIO.O 


79.4 




17 


96.2 


62.3 


91.0 


54.3 76.0 


46.8 


82.7 


i 
50.8 i 83.0 


58.0 


97-5 


65.1 


107.6 


73-4 




18 


95- 


58.9 


89.0 


53.0 


79-5 


47-3 83.2 


52.3 I 82.7 


57.1 


100. 1 


65.8 


107.4 


77.1 




19 


93-1 


57.8 


89.8 




81.5 


50.4 1 84.6 


48.9 ! 74.4 


52.4 


92.0 


61.6 


108.0 


74-4 




20 


94.0 


57-1 


87.9 


54.9 


83.0 


49.8 


35-2 


54-3 74.1 


43.8 


86.4 


68.8 


108.9 


72.7 




21 


93- S 


58.2 


85.1 


53.3 


85.0 


48.1 84.8 


53-7 j 81.8 


52. 5 


89.2 


53.0 


109.3 


79-3 




22 


93-7 


55-8 


89.0 


S3-0 


84.9 


1 

55.2 84.1 


58.6 83.0 


52.5 


89.1 


55.6 


108.0 


78.2 




23 


94-3 


53-6 


84.9 


53-5 


80.6 


51. 1 87.0 


53- 


78.0 


52.0 


96.0 


62.4 


107.7 


74.0 




24 


92.7 


55-2 


84.1 


52. 1 


81.7 


56.0 90.0 


58.9 


76.3 


48.6 


lOI.I 


64.0 


107.2 


84.0 




25 


92.8 


S3-0 


84.1 


54.4 


80.9 


52.9 


85.5 


55-0 


78.8 


55-6 


lOI.O 


69.0 


109.2 


87.5 




26 


9I-S 


56.1 


83.2 


54-5 


77.1 


51.2 


76.9 


45.8 


84.5 


53-3 


100.6 


63.9 


no. I 


80.7 




27 


91.0 


60.8 


83-9 


51.0 


77-9 


50-7 


79.0 


46.2 


86.4 


55.2 


I 99- 


65.7 


IIO.O 


79-8 




28 


92.2 


58. 5 


84.3 


53- 


77.9 


48.0 


86.1 


51.3 


92.6 


53-9 


1 

lOO.O 


68.0 


108.3 


82.8 




29 


93- 


57- 2 


83-2 54- 3 


79.4 


48.9 

1 


87.2 


52.5 






IOI.9 


69.0 


1 10. 1 


82.0 




30 


92.7 


59- 1 


83.1 47.0 


80.1 


54. 


89.9 


50.6 






103.6 


71.2 


109.8 


85.0 




31 


92.3 


58. 2 






80.3 


' 46.4 


90.0 


51.1 




1 ... 


t 

102.8 


68.1 









METEOROLOGY 



315 



in Shade from ist October 1897 to ^oth November 1898. 





May 1898. 


June 1898. 


July 1898. 


Aug. 1898. 


Sept. 1898. 


Oct. 1898. 


Nov. 1898. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




109.9 


81.7 


108.2 


81.8 


99-5 


82.8 


93.3 


78.2 


99-3 


75.0 97.0 


72.1 


96.9 


64.0 




108. 1 


75-6 


107.0 


1 81.4 


100. 


83.0 


95- 


78.0 


81.0 


74.9 99-1 


70.7 


97.0 


63.8 




109.8 


78.7 


109.4 


81.2 


99.0 


83.8 


96.0 


78.8 


89.9 


77.2 100. 1 

1 


69.0 


94.0 


51.0 




109.9 


76. 5 


IIO.O 


81.1 


103.0 


83.8 


96.7 


78.7 


94-7 


77.3 


1 

' 101.7 


68.8 


90.8 


61.0 




112.2 


76.4 


107.5 


81.8 


106.2 


79.0 


97-7 


77.9 


92.1 


78.0 


103.0 


68.0 


89.4 


63.4 




"3-3 


82.8 


106.7 


80.0 


99.8 


84.2 


95-8 


77.2 


93-2 


78.3 


102.3 


66.9 


85.0 


60.0 




113. 8 


77.2 


106.9 


80.2 


102.2 


82.0 


94.8 


76.1 


91.2 


75.3 


103.7 


69.4 


85.1 


54.6 




IIO.O 


77.0 


106.5 


80.1 


98.0 


76.0 


94.0 


78.2 


94-3 


76.1 1 104.2 


67.2 


83.2 


54-6 




102.2 


76-5 


106.0 


83.0 


94-3 


78.9 


90.7 


77-2 


97.5 


78.6 103. 1 


64.0 


84. 5 


58.0 




103.3 


77-5 


105.0 


86.5 


94.8 


81.2 


90.1 


76.1 


99-9 


80.8 


103.0 


64.2 


86.9 


63.0 




102.3 


76.1 


106.0 


88.1 


98.7 


79- S 


93-6 


76.1 


100.5 


79.6 


102.4 


64.9 


91.8 


62.9 




98.8 


'78.1 


III. 2 


85-5 


93-1 


79.0 


94.0 


76.0 


102.0 


76.9 


100. 1 


68.0 


93.0 


61.0 




98.8 


77- 


106.8 


85.0 


94.0 


79.8 


95-1 


73-9 


100.6 


74- 


99.2 


66.3 


93-1 


50.2 




99.2 


71.7 


107. 1 


85.0 


97-8 


81.0 


96.2 


73-9 


91.0 


75-4 


100. 1 


64.5 


93.0 


58.9 




99-7 


69.8 


106.3 


83.8 


lOI.I 


77.8 


96.7 


75-2 


92.3 


76.8 


101.8 


69.6 


93.3 


66.4 




101.5 


78.6 


106.5 


87.2 


95-7 


78.5 


96.0 


75-1 


89.0 


75-1 


lOI.I 


65.0 


93-2 


54-9 




101.3 


80.4 


109. 1 


84.9 


96. 5 


78.1 


96.8 


79.0 


94-7 


76.1 


98.8 


69.9 


92.6 


59-5 




100.7 


79.1 


IIO.O 


84.6 


96.2 


79.7 96.0 


78.1 


94-3 


74.0 


97.7 


68.5 


94.1 


66.0 




94-7 


71- S 


108.5 


83.6 


99.0 


76.0 98.4 


81.7 


94.1 


72.4 


98.1 


69-5 


91.8 


52-9 




98.8 


76-5 


106.7 


82.7 


76. s 


74.0 97.0 


77-S 


92.9 


69.2 


100. 1 


73-8 


88.2 


56- 1 




104.0 


82.4 


105.4 


81.7 


84.1 


76.2 92.3 


80.0 


90.3 


71.9 


100.2 


66.3 


90.2 


54-6 




108.0 


83.6 


104.8 


79.3 


92.3 


76.0 97.1 


80.4 


93.0 


72.0 


99.0 


62.2 


90.9 


54.5 




1 10. 5 


84-3 


100.8 


80.5 


93.5 


79.8 


95-5 


81.3 i 


94-4 

1 


72.0 


98.3 


63.0 


91.2 


61.0 




III. 5 


85.1 


99.6 


81.2 


94-5 


79-4 


97-9 


81.9 


95-8 1 


74-9 


97.9 


64.2 


90.8 


58.6 




112.5 


83.5 


100.8 


82.0 


98.0 


80.0 


97.2 


78.0 


98.3 


73-7 


97.3 


62.5 


89.6 


64-5 




III. 3 


84.4 


99.9 


81.4 


100.8 


82.9 


94.6 


77-9 


99-5 


76.3 


94.2 


60.1 


89.0 


58.7 




108.8 


80.0 


lOI.I 


84.1 ' 


103.6 


84.0 


91.9 


80.5 


99.6 


69.2 


93-2 


57.4 


89.8 ! 


52. 1 




107.8 


86.4 


102.0 


83.5 


101.2 ' 


82.5 


93.7 


76.5: 


98.8 i 

1 


72.4 


93.6 


58.0 


86.8 ' 


62.5 




109. 1 


87.0 


loi.s 




98.91 


80.8 


9S.X 


77.1 


97.8 


72.5 


94-9 


1 

57.9 


85.0 ' 


S3-0 




"3-4 


88.9 


99.0 


82.4 i 


! 

94-7 1 


77.0 


95-8 


77.0 


97.1 


69.0 


95-5 


59-3 


86.8 


52.8 




1 12. 8 


83.1 




... ! 


93-1 


78.7 


97.0 


80.0 






96.0 


57-9! 







316 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement shoicing Dry and Wet Bulbs at 8 a.m. Local 





Oct. 1896. 


Nov. 


1896. 


Dec. 1896. 


Jan. 1897. 


Feb. 1897. 


March 1897. 




i 
Dry Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. ! 


Dry. 


Wet. 




I 






73-5 


54.8 


56.4 


44-9 


52.S 45-8 


54-7 


49.2 


63.8 


59- 




2 






73-5 


52.8 


58.8 


47.0 


50.4 


44-7 


55-5 


49.0 ': 


60.0 


51.0 




3 






71.2 


52. 1 


58.9 


47.8 


50.8 


44-4 


56.0 


48.8 


60.5 


50.0 




4 


1 




72.6 


52-9 


61.8 


49-7 


54-1 


46.2 


57-3 


49.0 1 


67.0 


51.2 




5 






72.9 


54-1 


60.0 


48.9 


54-9 


45-1 


59-6 


49.0 


66.0 


Si-7 




6 




•• ! 


70.0 


56.1 


60.8 


47-9 


53-9 


46.7 


56.8 


48.1 


65.6 


49-7 




7 






70.9 


58.0 


59.8 48.1 


59-9 


49.8 


60.7 


51-7 


66.9 


55-8 




8 






74-3 


58.2 


61.6 


49-9 I 


60.8 


50.8 


57-0 


50.0 


69.8 62.9 




9 






75-8 


57.8 


57-3 


48. 5 


59.0 


50.8 


61. 1 


50-3 


67-5 


63.0 




lO 


79.8 6 


2.8 


76.6 


58.8 


58. 1 48. 1 


58.0 


49.0 


59- 


48.0 


64.8 


45-8 




II 


77.4 6 


4.0 


74.8 


58.0 


59.8 48.8 


61.5 


57.2 


58.8 


50.0 


634 


49.0 




12 


77.0 6 


4.9 


75.0 


59-9 


57-7 ; 47-8 


52.8 


49.0 


53-1 


43-7 


63.0 


47.8 




13 


79.9 6 


5-5 


73-1 


58.8 


57-8 i 47-0 


53-9 


48.9 


54.7 


47.0 


65-3 


48.8 




14 


75.0 6 


2.0 


73.9 


58.4 


57-0 j 45-2 


53-9 


52.0 


55-3 


47.0 


69.6 


511 




15 


74-8 S 


9.6 


71.8 


55-0 


55-1 


44-9 


39-9 


37-7 


57.0 


46.0 


69.8 


52.3 




i6 


78.2 6 


4.4 


69.1 


54.2 


58.0 


47.3 


41.7 


39-4 


58.8 


47.0 


71.0 


54-7 




17 


79.0 6 


3-9 


70-3 


55-2 


60.4 


45.8 


41-5 


37.8 


55-6 


44.8 


70.1 


57.0 




i8 


82.0 e 


)I.O 


70.4 


55-9 


57-7 


44-9 


49-5 


40.9 


61.0 


45-9 


72.4 


57-9 




19 


74.8 ! 


8.7 


70.5 


56.0 


54-8 


42.4 


52.0 


46.9 


62.7 


47-1 


75.2 


55-7 




20 


75-4 ^ 


>i-5 


67-5 


52-5 


54.8 


42.0 


50.8 


43-3 


58.0 


46.8 


75-5 


55-2 




21 


77-7 ( 


53-9 


57-6 


57-0 


53-7 


41.2 


52.0 


44.4 


62.8 


46.8 


71-5 


62.0 




22 


79.8 e 


57.5 


58.9 


57-7 


54.0 


42.1 


51.0 


42.0 


62. s 


47.2 


64.0 


50.0 




23 


77.8 ( 


>6.i 


61.0 


59-8 


55-0 


44.0 


52-3 


42.1 


62.2 


51.6 


71.4 


53-6 




24 


79.0 ( 


37.6 


61.9 


59.0 


55.8 


42.5 


57-5 


45-7 


62.0 


56.7 


71.0 


54- 




25 


77.9 ( 


56. 


61. 1 


56-9 


48.2 


39- 


55-8 


47.8 


51-5 


41.0 


73.9 


55-4 




26 


75-0 < 


32.7 


66.2 


58.8 


50.9 


39-9 


59- 


48.0 


54-8 


41.7 


77-7 


59-2 




27 


75-5 < 


5i.o 


66.1 


60.9 


52.0 


41.9 


50.1 


43-8 


56. 5 


43-7 


70.9 


59-0 




28 


78.9 ( 


54.1 


69.7 


65.0 


51-9 


50.7 


55-3 


46-3 


57-8 


44.1 


68.6 


61.0 




29 


76.3 


57.8 


65-5 


54-3 


53-7 


50.0 


54-9 


43- 


... 




67.3 


47.8 




3° 


76.0 


57-5 


60.1 


48.0 


45-5 


45- 


57.2 


44.8 




1 


71.9 


52.4 




31 


72.4 


54-5 


1 


1 


Sii 


46.1 

1 


57.0 


45.1 




! - 


76.6 


56.1 





METEOROLOGY 



31T 



Time, from loth October 1896 to ^oth September- 1897. 





April 


1897. 


May 1897. 


June 


1897. 


July 


1897. 


Aug. 


1897. 


Sept. 


1897. 


• 


Dry 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 
77-7 


Dry. 


Wet. 




78.0 


58.4 


91.7 


64.0 


88.2 


71.0 


85.2 


74-3 ! 


83-7 


80.9 


77.6 




77-5 ' 


56.0 


90.3 


62.8 


88.2 


69.4 


85.2 


75-4 


84.6 


77.1 


78.8 


73-8 




77.1 


56.0 


90.7 


66.0 


85. 


74-3 


83.3 


74.2 


83.8 


76.8 


77.2 


74.0 




78.1 


58.6 


88.1 


70.8 


85.0 


72.8 


84.0 


73-0 i 


84.5 


74.0 


78.0 


72.8 




74-4 


55-0 


84.7 


75-2 


92.7 


69.4 


86.1 


75-6; 


81.7 


74-9 


79.0 


73-0 i 




74-9 


59-0 


83.1 


70.0 


96.0 


67.2 


86.8 


75-7 1 


84.0 


76.7 


77.1 


72.6 




78.5 


58.2 


82.7 


74.7 


98.6 


67.9 


89.8 


76.8 


80.8 


78.0 


80.1 


74-4 




77.1 


55-9 


92.3 


64.8 


103.6 


67.8 


91.8 


77.0 


88.1 


80.0 


So. 8 


75-0 




82.8 


57-1 


89.1 


62.6 


103.9 


68.7 


86.9 


79.8 


80.6 


79.0 


81.0 


74-7 




81.8 


58.0 


86.3 


65.8 


93-6 


74.1 


87.1 


79-7 


80.3 


77.8 


85.7 


74-7 




81.8 


62.0 


85.9 


71.2 


87.9 


76.6 


85.1 


81.0 


79-7 


78.0 


86.2 


73-4 




83.8 


61.0 


88.4 


69.9 


86.4 


76.2 


80.0 


78.0 


81.8 


78.9 


88.0 


79.1 




81.8 


59-3 


88.1 


76.4 


87.8 


78.1 


79-9 


77.0 


82.3 


79-3 


78.0 


75-9 




83.1 


62.1 


87.9 


75-9 


87.8 


77.1 


78.7 


77.1 


82.2 


80.0 


79-5 


75-9 




85.8 


62.8 


89.2 


75.0 


86.2 


77.1 


82.6 


76.1 


80.8 


78.0 


80.1 


77.3 




87.7 


61.9 


88.2 


76.0 


82.8 


73-1 


81.7 


75-7 


80.0 


78.2 


80.0 


76.7 




93-1 


63.6 


89.7 


70.1 


87.7 


74.1 


83.8 


78.6 


78.3 


77.3 


78.7 


75-9 




87.7 


61.7 


87.7 


66.7 


94-3 


73.8 


84.6 


78.7 


76.7 


76.2 


80.3 


76.3 




85.1 


63-9 


84.5 


72.0 


86.8 


78.0 


83.8 


81.0 


80.0 


75-4 


82.8 


76.0 




81.3 


66.3 


86.2 


75.0 


87.9 


77.0 


79.1 


77-7 


78.1 


77.0 


So.o 


76.0 




77.0 


55.9 


86.2 


74-7 


87.6 


77.6 


84.5 


80.2 


75-4 


75-1 


81.3 


77.2 




84.0 


61.9 


84.8 


75.6 


88.0 


77.1 


82.6 


78.9 


77-5 


76.0 


83-3 


77.3 




80.7 


67.7 


84.8 


76.0 


86.1 


76.1 


82. 5 


80.4 


78.4 


75-2 


82.5 


77-7 




78.9 


67.2 


85.0 


76.0 


85. 


75-1 


81.7 


80.0 


78.7 


74.6 


85.1 


75-4 




85.1 


67.9 


84.0 


76.2 


84.6 


74-7 


84.1 


80.0 


79-5 


75-6 


86.1 


75-9 




84.0 


68.0 


91.8 


74-3 


86.7 


75- 1 


84,2 


78.8 


81.2 


75-7 


82.5 


77.0 




78.0 


65.0 


92.8 


76.1 


83-9 


74-9 


83.0 


78.0 


84.7 


78.8 


82.0 


77.0 




80.2 


60.9 


9S-0 


72.8 


84.1 


; 72.8 


86.3 


! 79-0 


87.4 


80.1 


80.0 


77.0 




81.7 


62.2 


i 94-5 


64.0 


83.9 


74- 


86.2 


79.0 


82.9 


78.4 


81. 1 


77.2 




86.2 


61.7 


! 89.1 
87.7 


70.6 
74-1 


84.0 

! 


1 73.7 

1 


86.0 
82.6 


78.3 
77-7 


82.9 
83.1 


77.1 
78.6 


80.9 


75-4 



318 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showing Dry and Wet Bulbs at 8 a.m. Local 



6 

n 


Oct. 1897. 


Nov. 1897. 


Dec. 1897. 


Jan. 1898. 


Feb. 1898. 


Mar. 1898. 


April 1898. 




Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


- Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


|wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




I 


83-3 


77-4 


70.9 


58.9 


58.6 


49.0 


53-0 


47.3 


61.0 


:55.6 

t 


66.1 


53-1 


76.2 


63.7 




2 


81. 1 


76.6 


68.7 


,59-2 


'58.S 


48.8 


53-8 


47.8 


59-5 


j 53.0 


46.9 


35-0 


79.0 


61.0 




3 


81.0 


76.9 


70.8 


65.8 


:56.9 


47-7 


59-2 


56.8 


62.1 


i 50.1 


47-1 


36.1 


77.7 


61.4 




4 


78.9 


73-7 


67.5 


55-7 


62.0 


52.0 


47.6 


38.8 


56.9 


j 47-9 


52.7 


40.0 


77-9 


59- 




5 


78.1 


70.1 


69.7 


55-7 


61.0 


52.0 


45-9 


38.7 


56.2 


|45-9 


57.8 


43-0 


78.9 


57.1 




6 


78.7 


72.8 


70.8 


58.0 


60.4 


50.1 


45-7 


37.6 


55-3 


44.0 


62.3 


46.2 


79.0 


61.9 




7 


80.0 


74-3 


67.7 


55- 


62.1 


51-2 


46.9 


37-3 


57-3 


49.2 


62.9 


48.2 


79.1 


57.6 




8 


76.4 


74-9 


70.9 


57- 


S6.8 


49-7 


48.3 


38.6 


59-4 


50.2 


65.6 


50.0 


76.2 


54-8 




9 


77.0 


72.7 


69.6 


57-3 


60.4 


52.4 


56.0 


43- 


56.8 


54-8 


69.2 


53-6 


78.8 


SS-8 




lO 


76.4 


69.1 


67.0 


56.2 


60.2 


52.0 


57.0 


44.1 


55-2 


54-8 


66.9 


55-7 


81.9 


57.9 




11 


77- 


68.7 


66.8 


56.0 


59-9 


52.8 


57-7 


45-2 


50.8 


50.8 


65.6 


52.1 


88.3 


66.6 




12 


77.0 


66.0 


69.9 


55- 1 


55-0 


51.0 


56.7 


45-6 


54-6 


52.3 


71.8 


51.8 


83.8 


59- 




13 


76.7 


66.0 


66.0 


54.8 


56.0 


45-1 


56.9 


46.6 


57- 


53-4 


75- 


55-1 


86.8 


61.3 




14 


78. s 


66.2 


65.1 


56.1 


48.9 


46.5 


57.0 


45-6 


59-1 


53-2 


70.8 


55-1 


91.7 


66.2 




15 


76.1 


65.2 


63.0 


54- 


45-4 


40.2 


59. 1 


47.0 


64.2 


59-9 


73-3 


56.6 


84.2 


63.0 




16 


75- 1 


61.9 


66. s 


55-0 


50.4 


42.5 


55-2 


45-7 


63-3 


63.1 


72.5 


59- 


87.0 


68.0 




17 


75-5 


58.6 


63-7 


53-2 


54-2 


43-0 


59-1 


47.2 


63.0 


61.8 


74.0 


57.1 


86.8 


62.9 




18 


75.6 


59-6 


63.8 


54- 


55-6 


44.0 


58.6 


46.9 


61.1 


52.1 


73-3 


57.8 


87.2 


63-7 




19 


71.S 


57-3 


63.0 


52.8 


57-5 


45-1 


56.1 


46.0 


55-5 


40.0 


66.9 


54-9 


86.8 


63.1 




20 


74-3 


56.9 


66.0 


S5-0 


58.0 


48.3 


62.7 


49.6 


51-2 


42.1 


70.8 


51-2 


86.2 


61.2 




21 


72.1 


SS-8 


64.0 


53-0 


56.1 


47.0 


60.8 


48.8 


61.1 


46.2 


63-7 


49.9 


86.8 


66.0 




22 


68.1 


53-3 


61.6 


50.8 


58.4 


50.0 


64.2 


51-0 


58.0 


45-7 


70.0 


52.4 


86.2 


66.2 




23 


66.2 


53- 


62.6 


51.6 


56.6 


46.8 


61.4 


51-6 


56-9 


44-7 


71.1 


54-8 


86.5 


65.0 




24 


66.9 


S4-0 


63.5 


51.0 


56.8 


48.0 


63.2 


53- 


54-9 


42.3 


74.2 


57-9 


90.1 


63.1 




25 


69.2 


55-7 


61.9 


50.2 


57-0 


47.0 


58.1 


54-1 


61.6 


45.4 


76.0 


61.0 


91.8 


62.3 




26 


69.1 


58.1 


60. s 


49.1 


54-0 


44.8 


50.4 


43-9 


62.6 


46.3 


71. 1 


55-9 


91.0 


62.7 




27 


7I-S 


62.7 


60.0 


48.9 


53-5 


43-9 


54-9 


45-2 


65-1 


48.7 


75-7 


57-7 


go.o 


60.8 




28 


70.2 


59-0 


61.0 


49.8 


53-6 


44-9 


57-8 


45-8 


65.1 


50.8 


81.0 


59-2 


91-3 \ 


60.8 




29 


70.0 


58.8 


62.9 


50.5 


57- 


48.3 


62.7 


48.2 






81.8 


60.1 


91.7 


63.8 




30 


68.8 


57-1 


57.8 


49.0 


58.5 


49.2 


57-1 


49.0 






78.6 


59-1 


91.4 


61.2 




31 


730 


59-7 






51-5 


46.5 


59-5 


51.3 






78.5 


58.7 


... 







METEOROLOGY 



319 



Time, from ist October 1897 to 2,0th November 1898. 





May 1898. 


June 1898. 


July 1898. 


Aug. 1898. 


Sept. 1898 


Oct 1898. 


Nov. 1898. 




Dry. 


Wet. 
64.2 


Dry. 


Wet. 
75-1 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diy. 


Wet 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet 




87.9 


85.2 


85.1 


75-6 


81.2 


76.8 


75-1 


74.6 


80.9 


66.8 


72.8 


55- 1 




84.9 


67.0 


85.5 


71-5 


85-4 


75-2 


80.1 


74.0 


76.8 


751 


80.3 


65.8 


70.0 


53-9 




89.2 


61.7 


87.4 


71.8 


86.1 


76-3 


81.3 


75- 


81.4 


76.9 


81.3 


68.7 


68.9 


52.7 




96.0 


63.6 


87-3 


74.6 


87.0 76.9 


80.5 


74.0 


82.7 


76.9 


80.2 


66.2 


66.7 


56.9 




94-3 


61.9 


85.0 


74.0 


80.2 


76.9 


80.0 


73-3 


79-5 


74.6 


84.1 


63-9 


68.0 


54- 




91.7 


65.0 


83.6 


76.0 


86.2 

1 


77-7 


80.3 


71.7 


81.6 


74-9 


78.4 


63-9 


65-7 


50.2 




87.4 


69.6 


83.6 


76.8 


85.6 


78.6 


79.2 


730 


80.7 


74.0 


81.0 


64.7 


64.7 


47-7 




82.0 


72.1 


843 


76.9 


80.3 ' 


75- 1 


79-5 


73- 


82.9 


75- 


79.6 


62.1 


63.3 


48. 8 




82.2 


73-1 


85-9 


76.1 


82.1 


76.8 


78.0' 


73- 


85.2 


74.8 


80.7 


63.2 


66.3 


50.1 




81. 1 


73-9 


88.6 


76.0 


85.0 


76.2 


79-7 


73- 


85.3 


75-8 


79-9 


62.4 


70.0 


53-6 




81.9 


72.2 


92.2 


78.1 


84.0 


75-9 


78.1 


72.9 


84.7 


76.0 


77-9 


61.4 


71.9 


56-9 




83.7 


73- 


90.1 


79.1 


82.8 


75.8 


79-5 


72.8 


81.4 


76.3 


80.2 


63.7 


72.1 


59.8 




81.9 


71-3 


89.2 


79-9 


83.6 


77.1 


79-3 


71.9 


77.1 


74-9 


77-9 


61.7 


67.1 


51.0 




81.8 


66.8 


87.9 


79-7 


82.7 


75-2 


79.8 


72.1 


79.6 


75.8 


75-8 


60.1 


68.3 


58.2 




79.8 


70.0 


88.6 


75-8 


81.8 


77.0 


80.8 


71.7 


79-8 


76.1 


79-3 


63.x 


73-9 


59.6 




83.0 


71.0 


89.0 


78.8 


80.8 


73-9 


79.2 


72.7 


78.6 


76.3 


74-3 


59- 1 


68.3 


51.8 




84.9 


72.1 


90.1 


78.1 


82.0 


72.8 


82.3 


74.2 


79.1 


74.6 


76.8 


64.9 


69.7 


54-7 




81.8 


72.6 


88.0 


79.0 


83.0 


75-3 


82.9 


73-9 


77-9 


72.6 


76.3 


70.6 


74-7 


58.8 




78.1 


70.8 


86.5 


77.2 


75-9 


75-4 


81.7 


72.0 


78.0 


72.0 


79-7 


61.2 


66.7 


51.7 




86.5 


69.9 


86.6 


76.1 


76.1 


74.8 


81.4 


72.7 


77-7 


70.7 


75.8 


56.8 


65.8 


50.2 




87.9 


73-5 


86.3 


74.0 


78.8 


76.7 


83-7 


73-6 


77 -S 


71. 1 


74.2 


57-7 


65.8 


50.8 




89-5 


73-1 


85.2 


73-3 


78.3 


75-1 


81.9 


71.9 


79.8 


70.0 


75- 


58.6 


63.6 


50.6 




89.8 


70.6 


i 85.8 


74.0 


81.S 


79.0 


83-7 


74.2 


78.2 


70.2 


74-5 


59-4 


67.7 


53-8 




89.9 


70.8 


84.1 


74.1 


85.2 


79-3 


82.7 


73-7 


78.1 


70.3 


77-9 


60.1 


68.3 


57.0 




go.o 


68.1 


83.2 


75- 


87.2 


80.7 


80. s 


74.1 


77.8 


67.9 


73-3 


54-7 


71-5 


S7.0 




88.4 


70.5 


84-5 


7S-0 


90.7 


81.4 


80.3 


74-3 


83-9 


67.1 


70.0 


:530 


68.2 


55.8 




87.9 


: 72.8 


87.2 


77.0 


87.9 


78.1 


82.7 


,74.0 


81. 1 


69.2 


71.2 


52-7 


61.3 


51.3 




89.2 


75-2 


85-9 


74-9 


87.8 


80.6 


i79-8 


72.9 


79.1 


' 68.8 


70.7 


1 
52.2 


65.8 


51.7 




93- 


70.6 


85-5 


75-0 


84-5 


81.0 


79.8 


72.8 


80.2 


73-2 


72.7 


:S3-2 


65.0 


48.9 




93-1 


66.9 


84.8 


74.6 


80.3 


76.7 


78.3 


72.3 


79- S 


63.2 


74.0 


56-3 


63-3 


49.2 




85-3 


76-5 






80.8 


76.7 


83.2 


j75-7 






73-0 


IS4-7 







320 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement sliowing the Solar Radiation and Gt-ass Radiation 
Thermometers for the Month of January. 



Date. 


1896. 1897. 


1898. 


Bemarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. Grass. 




I 




124.0 


3S-0 


II9.9 36.0 






2 




124.0 


36.5 


II9.4 37.1 






3 - i 




124.3 


39-7 


120.2 


50.0 






4 1 ■■• ' 




125.6 


43-0 


115. 


31-5 






5 




126.5 


38.9 


IIO.9 


26.5 






6 


... 


130.8 


35-3 


III. 8 


25-4 






7 


j 


135.5 


44.0 


II5.0 


23-5 






8 




138.2 


50-5 


II9-5 


20.8 






9 ••• 1 




134.8 


41.7 


123.5 


35-7 






lO 


1 


i 


136.3 


41.8 


124.0 


38-3 






II 


... ! 


... j 


1364 


47-8 


126.0 


37-9 






12 


... j 


... I 


129.8 


38-2 


125.0 


36.2 






13 






132-5 


36.4 


123.4 


37-9 






14 






136-5 


50.4 


122.7 40.3 






^5 






I17.1 


21.6 


124.9 ' 44-0 






i6 






119. 5 


29-4 


121. 5 35-5 






17 






II 7.0 


31.8 


122.9 1 38.0 






i8 


... 




121. 5 


40.5 


124.0 38.9 






19 






130.3 


33-5 


125-3 


35-3 






20 






124.8 


39-5 


126.0 


42.5 






21 






130.6 


43-6 


125.0 


41.9 






22 






125.8 


43-4 


124.0 


47-9 






23 






129.0 


41-5 


124.8 


44-3 






24 






133-0 


49-7 


128.5 


52.0 






25 






132-5 


38.0 


123.8 


49.0 






26 


... 




133.7 


54-2 


118.3 


33.4 






27 






133-2 


35-4 


121. 6 


35.2 






28 






131-0 


' 33-0 


126.9 


38.0 






29 






1350 


34-0 


1 18. 5 


40.6 






30 






136.0 


40.0 


131. 


39-9 


• 




31 

1 






137-0 


41-3 


129-5 


39-4 


. 





METEOROLOGY 



321 



Statement sliowing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometers for the Month of February. 



1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date 






TRpvyifll'lrc; 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


^VdlJdllVOa 


I 






139.0 


47-1 


129.0 


43-0 




2 






130-3 


46.0 


124.5 


43-1 




3 






131-7 


43-0 


125.0 


44-3 




4 






133-8 


46.5 


126.4 


40.9 




5 






134.8 


46.3 


123.5 


35-0 




6 






139-3 


38.0 


125.7 


35-8 




7 






139.0 


52.5 


125-3 


47-0 




S 






133-8 


46.8 


124.5 


53-2 




9 






138.7 


46.5 


122.0 


54-0 




lO 






135-8 


47.0 


105.6 


46.0 




II 






137-0 


37-3 


119.0 


44.2 




12 






139.2 


31-5 


1 10. 5 


43-0 




13 






133-7 


38.6 


120.0 


43-0 




14 






133-0 


44-8 


120.0 


48.9 




15 






136.0 


45-0 


126.0 


57-3 




i6 






138.0 


34-0 


1 19. 7 


53-7 




17 






139-3 


32.8 


123. 1 


46.6 




i8 






I39-0 


42.0 


122.2 


530 




19 






141. 


33-2 


117.4 


46.0 




20 






143-8 


34-2 


"7-5 


30.0 




21 






144-3 


35-0 


124.9 


39-3 




22 






147.4 


37-8 


127.3 


48.1 




23 






147.0 


44.0 


122.2 


44-2 




24 






146.0 


54-7 


122.3 


41-9 




25 






134-5 


35-8 


122.0 


49-0 




26 






136.8 


38.8 


129.4 


40.6 




27 






140.7 


31-4 


130.8 


43-7 




28 






144.2 


35-2 


135-3 


42.0 





WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of March. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 








Remarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. Grass. 


I 






141. 2 


46.6 


134-5 


46.0 




2 






139.0 


46.0 


128.9 


34-3 




3 






142.4 


43-4 


II2.3 


28.0 




4 






144.0 


47.8 


II9.0 


30.2 




5 






146.2 


42.0 


125.0 


30.0 




6 






147-8 


42.5 


129.4 


42-9 




7 






1 50. 1 


43-4 


I35-0 


41.2 




8 






145-9 


51-3 


135-3 


54-0 




9 






149.6 


56-9 


139.0 


57-3 




lO 






140.5 


40.2 


136.0 


59.2 




II 






145-2 


37-6 


135-7 


58.9 




12 






143.8 


35-3 


I35-0 


54.0 




13 






145.0 


38.0 


137.2 


58.4 




14 


1 


166.8 


44.0 


147.6 


53-0 




15 






162.6 


47.0 


144.0 


54-0 




i6 






162.0 


47-5 


143.0 


52.0 




17 






153-5 


59-6 


142.0 


55-0 




i8 






152.0 


54-2 


142.5 


55.0 




19 






153-^ 


64.0 


135.2 


56-5 




20 






156-9 


51.0 


134.0 


59-0 




21 






I53-0 


57-9 


136.0 


39-0 




22 






149.6 


45.0 


137.9 


45-5 




23 






149-3 


66.0 


139.0 


51-7 




24 






147-8 


52.0 


144.9 


55-0 




25 






149-5 


47.0 


145.2 


57-9 




26 






159.0 


61.0 


147.5 


52.2 




27 






152.9 


63.0 


144.7 


57-3 




28 






148.3 


61.0 


145.0 


54.2 




29 






146.0 


48.0 


147.2 


55-5 




3° 






154-9 


48.9 


147-8 


66.0 


... 


31 






157-8 


60.4 


145.0 


57.0 


1 



METEOROLOGY 



323 



Statement shoioing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometers for the Month of April. 



Date. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


Remarks. 




Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 






155-8 


55-9 


142.0 


57-8 




2 






156. 1 


55-1 


144.0 


65-1 




3 






157.4 


51-8 


145-4 


59-2 




4 






158-5 


63.0 


145.0 


54-0 




5 






160.8 


71.0 


147-5 


55-8 




6 






146.0 


53-0 


148.0 


66.1 




7 






150.8 


47-7 


144-5 


65.0 




8 






155-8 


45-2 


146.3 


56.3 




9 






159.6 


50.9 


145.9 


50.7 




lO 






162.0 


49.0 


148.7 


62.9 




II 




... 


161. 7 


57-9 


152.0 


72.0 




12 






161. 8 


58.0 


152-3 


60.1 




13 






161. 5 


52.2 


153-0 


57-3 




14 






164.2 


59-6 


151-9 


73.5 




15 






163.7 


64.7 


152-3 


71.7 




i6 






166.8 


64-3 


152.8 


70.0 




17 






169.8 


65.0 


152.4 


60.2 




i8 






169.8 


67.8 


152.8 


71.0 




19 






16S.2 


69-9 


153.1 


61.0 




20 






166.2 


66.8 


153-3 


61.2 




21 






156.0 


51-1 


154.1 


69.4 




22 






160.8 


59-4 


152.0 


71.8 




23 






163. 1 


69.9 


151. 5 


66.0 




24 






165-5 


61.6 


150.2 


71.3 




25 






162.7 


68.8 


152.8 


83.3 




26 






165.9 


71-3 


154.1 


73.8 




27 






155.0 


66.4 


156.0 


81.0 




28 






153. 1 


54-8 


158.0 


67.8 




29 






157.9 


60.4 


157.9 


78.4 




30 






160.4 


57.1 


165.8 


80.4 


, 



324 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometers for the Month of May. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




D&tt; 








Remarks. 




Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 




I 




163.8 60.0 1 


152-7 


79.0 


... 


2 




165. 1 j 62.1 


164.0 


66.4 




3 






165.3 70.0 [ 


153-8 


75-9 




4 






167.2 ; 73.6 


154.2 


65.0 




5 






166.8 i 68.0 ; 


159.0 


65-3 




6 






162.3 69.7 


159- 1 


79-9 




7 






158-5 


76.9 


158.8 


73-0 




8 






157-0 


64.1 


154-4 


75-5 




9 






165.4 1 60.7 


144.6 


75-8 




lO 






165-9 74-5 


149.5 


75-9 




II 






164.9 78.8 


147-8 


75-5 




12 






164.2 78.9 


143- 1 


77-2 




13 






166.2 j 


79.8 


147.0 


75-9 




14 






164.8 


79-7 


144.7 


63-7 




15 






166.4 


80.7 


144-3 


64.0 




i6 

t 






167. 1 


72.6 


149.9 


71.8 




17 






164.2 


78.9 


146.5 


74-2 




i8 




165.2 


76.2 


147-5 


73-0 




19 






161. 


79-5 


144.2 


66.5 




20 






162.8 


78.8 


143-7 


68.5 




21 






157-3 


78.8 


155-0 


78.2 




22 






163-5 


78.5 


155-8 


79-4 




23 






162.5 


78.3 


155.0 


75-5 




24 






164.9 


76.9 


155-5 


82.4 




25 


i 




164.5 


78.7 


156.0 


81.4 




26 


1 




163.2 


80.2 


153-8 


81.0 




27 


1 

i 




164. 1 


82.3 


153-5 


77.1 




28 


i ... 




168.8 


86.9 


152-7 


81.3 




29 


1 

, ... 




170.0 


79.1 


152-5 


84.7 




30 






168.0 


74-0 


158.4 


86.8 




! 3^ 






166.2 


82.0 


157.2 


82.7 





METEOROLOGY 



325 



Statement shoioinrj the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometers for the Month of June. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 










■RpTnnrlfc; 




Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


JI\'CUAal jxsi* 


I 




■■ 


161. 


69-9 


154-3 


80.2 




2 


... 






164.7 


77-8 


159-9 


78.8 




3 








161. 1 


72.0 


151-3 


82.8 




4 








159-2 


69.0 


152.5 


82.6 




5 








159.6 


75-0 


150-5 


81.3 




6 








173-2 


75-0 


149.4 


78.3 




7 








170.8 


73-4 


148.4 


78.4 




8 








174.0 


78.2 


149.0 


79-2 




9 








I75-0 


75-9 


148.9 


82.2 




lO 








177.0 


8S.0 


147.2 


78.9 




II 








163-3 


84-5 


147.4 


S7.0 




12 








162.0 


81.9 


158.2 


85.0 




13 








164.5 


84.7 


153-7 


79-5 




14 










82.5 


159.0 


83.8 


Not observed. 


15 








158.0 


82.5 


I53-I 


82.5 




16 








158.8 


73-2 


152.8 


87.0 




17 










71.8 


155-5 


84.1 


Not observed. 


18 








162.0 


80.8 


159-5 


84.0 




19 








167-5 


81.2 


152.5 


83.2 




20 








163-7 


83-9 


150.8 


82.0 




21 








161. 8 


84.8 


150-5 


80.8 




22 








161. 8 


84.9 


149.6 


79.2 




23 








156.0 


80.5 


144.8 


80.7 




24 










78.8 


144-0 


81.0 


Not observed. 


25 








159-6 


78.8 


144-3 


82.0 




26 








155-8 


83-3 


145.3 \ 80.0 




27 








157.1 


82.7 


144.6 82.1 




28 








158.4 


79.0 


145.0 


83-0 




29 








157-8 


77-3 


146.0 


80.6 




30 








156.8 


77.0 


150.8 


81.7 





326 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement slioioing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of Jidy. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 












Remarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 








158.2 


78.6 


150-5 


82.0 




2 










158.2 


78.7 


149.0 


82.3 




3 










156.9 


79-5 


150.3 


83.8 




4 










157-6 


79-2 


151. 2 


83-5 




5 








160.3 


80.3 


148.3 


75-7 




6 








158.0 


82.5 


152-5 


82.3 




7 


• 






165.4 


82.8 


156.3 


79-5 




8 








164.8 


80.6 


150.9 


75-0 




9 










168.0 


80.2 


147.0 


77.2 




lO 












80.0 


144.0 


80.5 


Not observed 


II 






__ 




169.2 


73-0 


146.5 


79-3 




12 










154-9 


77-4 


138-9 


79.0 




13 










149.9 


76.1 


137-6 


78.5 




14 










152.5 


76.8 


150-3 


81.0 




15 










147.6 


77.0 


153-4 


75-3 




16 










153-7 


77-3 


144. 1 


77-0 




17 










156.6 


75-6 


142.3 


76.8 




18 










157-5 


79-3 


146.5 


78.3 




19 










148.9 


75-7 


152.3 


75-6 




20 










143.2 


74-3 


107.5 


73-4 




21 








i 165.0 


77.0 


133-5 


73-9 




22 










161. 5 


78.1 


148.0 


74-5 




23 










154.0 


77-2 


148.3 


76.0 




24 










145-9 


73-1 


147-3 


76.3 




25 


_ 








157-8 


77.6 


148.2 


75-0 




26 










155-3 


75.6 


153-7 


77-3 




27 










153-2 


73-1 


149-3 


80.1 




28 










166.0 


77-1 


153-9 


78.3 




29 










164.7 


77.2 


156.7 


77-8 




30 










160.0 


80.0 


167.0 


75-0 




31 








161. 4 


79.1 


149. 1 


77-6 





METEOROLOGY 



327 



Statement showing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of August. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 












Remarks. 


Solar. Grass. 


Solar. 
l6i.o 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 






78.3 


148.0 


76.8 




2 








155-0 


79-9 


148.9 


76.9 




3 








I55-I 


80.0 


139-2 


77-3 




4 








I57-0 


78.0 


145-3 


77-7 




5 








155-7 


78.4 


144-5 


76.2 




6 








154-4 


81.9 


146.0 


74.8 




7 








159.6 


78.5 


142.0 


69.8 




8 








161. 


78.9 


143-8 


76.7 




9 








164.0 


76.5 


144.0 


77.0 




lO 










76.2 


144-3 


74-0 


Not observed 


11 








156.0 


76.9 


150.0 


74-9 




12 








160.8 


76.0 


143-9 


72.8 




13 








161. 8 


76.3 


144-5 


70.5 




14 








162.3 


77-9 


144-3 


71.9 




15 










74-2 


144.0 


71-3 


Not observed 


i6 








154.0 


76.0 


145.6 


71.0 




17 








167.8 


76.5 


143.8 


71-5 




i8 








83.6 


75-5 


144.0 


70.4 




19 








137-9 


73-4 


145-3 


80.0 




20 








155-8 


76.0 


150-5 


74-5 




21 








146.7 


73-3 


136.9 


76.2 




22 








136.4 


75-2 


143-8 


75-4 




23 










73-5 


147.9 


80.0 


Not observed 


24 








150.0 


70.8 


144.0 


80.5 




25 








153.0 


7.3-0 


148.0 


76.3 




26 








152.8 


71-3 


142.9 


77-5 




27 








154.2 


76.5 


144.0 


78.9 




28 








157-4 


78.3 


144.8 


74.0 




29 








157-3 


74-5 


143-5 


73-9 




3° 








158.9 


78.5 


143-9 


74-6 




31 


... 






160.0 


77.0 


144.8 


76.1 





328 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of September. 



Date. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


Remarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 


; 161.5 


78.5 


148.0 


76.0 




2 






151.8 


74-9 


134.5 


73-9 




3 






150.7 


73-5 


142.9 


73-0 




4 






154.8 


72.2 


144.0 


73-2 




5 






I53-0 


74.0 


144-3 


75-0 




6 






147.6 


70.7 


137.5 


73-6 




7 






147- 1 


70.2 


142.8 


68.5 




8 






155-6 


69.0 


140.3 


66.9 




9 






153-6 


67.8 


141.5 


70.5 




lO 






162.3 


76.0 


142.0 


73-4 




II 






162.0 


69.8 


143.0 


73.2 




12 






156.8 


77-9 


146.5 


73-9 




13 






160. 1 


73-8 


142.0 


70.9 




14 






142.0 


74-0 


137-8 


72.8 




IS 






147.8 


75-0 


145.0 


71.5 




i6 






137- 1 


73-0 


142.0 


72.6 




17 






154.0 


71.4 


140.0 


73-0 




i8 






1 54- 7 


72.0 


135-8 


68.0 




19 






155-0 


75-3 


145.0 


66.1 




20 






154.0 


72.0 


136.9 


60.0 




21 






149.2 


71.0 


134.8 


64.2 




22 






IS3-6 


72.0 


136.9 


639 




23 






151. 8 


69.0 


137.2 


62.0 




24 






154.0 


77.8 


137-8 


67.0 




25 






155-8 


75-5 


140.0 


65-1 




26 






156.3 


73-6 


146.5 


67.2 




27 






154.2 


74-9 


142.3 


60.0 




28 






151. 


69.0 


143-0 


64.0 




29 






149.2 


70.7 


141. 5 


63.2 




30 


1 


149.9 


72.2 


141.7 


60.4 





METEOROLOGY 



329 



Statement shoiving the Sular Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of October. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 














Remarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 




... 


156.9 


72.0 


143.6 


56.0 




2 






158.7 


68.8 


143-9 


62.3 




3 






147-3 


70.2 


143.0 


60.0 




4 






153-7 


62.6 


144.9 




Not observed. 


5 






151. 6 


62.9 


146.0 


55-9 




6 






149.8 


66.8 


143-8 


56.0 




7 






148.9 


67.1 


143-9 


56-5 




8 


... 




152.9 


68.3 


145-8 


55-6 




9 






141. 5 


63.0 


146.3 


52-9 




lO 






136.8 


62.3 


146.0 


51.0 




II 






143.0 


590 


145-1 


53-9 




12 






152.6 


56.0 


143.0 


56-2 




13 






148.0 


58.0 


142.0 


55-0 




14 


152.0 


49.9 


148.3 


57.9 


141. 8 


52-3 




15 


153-2 


51.2 


157.8 


57.9 


143-5 


60.0 




i6 


151.0 


57.0 


149-5 


55-6 


142.7 


53-8 




17 


150.2 


57.0 


149.0 


50.0 


139.0 


64.0 




i8 


151. 


56.0 


149.3 


45-5 


138.2 


60.3 




19 


150.7 


51.8 


148. 1 


45.6 


138.9 


5S-0 




20 


151. 


50.1 


148.2 


42.0 


140.7 


65.0 




21 


149.0 


54.0 


148.3 


43-9 


142.0 


54-2 




22 


151-7 


60.0 


147-5 


44.0 


140.3 


52.9 




23 


147. 1 


57.6 


147-3 


40.2 


140.8 


54.8 




24 


147.8 


61.8 1 


145.6 


43-2 


138.2 


53-0 




25 


1540 


56.4 


143.0 


42.0 


140. 1 


50.9 




26 


149.0 


54.0 


136.2 


54-5 


135-0 


45-3 




27 


150.0 


52.0 




48.9 


136.2 


42.8 


Not observed. 


28 1 


148.5 


54.4 i 




47.0 


136-5 


40,0 


Do. 


29 


146.3 


51.2 ' 


145.9 


47-1 


136-7 


44-0 




30 


144.2 


49-4 


152.5 


49.0 


I37-0 


45-9 




^' 


144.5 


48.0 1 


144.2 


48.2 


136.9 


48.3 





3S0 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement showing the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of November. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 












' 


Remarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. ' 


I 


144.0 


55-0 


145-7 


48.8 


138.0 


53-8 




2 


143-5 


58.6 


143.2 


53-7 


136.0 


55-2 




3 


142.8 


44-1 


142.0 


59-0 


135-9 


40.3 




4 


142.8 


44.4 


142.9 


47.8 


133-8 


44.2 




5 


144.0 


47.0 


142.7 


46.0 


129.0 


46.5 




6 


146.0 


46.6 


141. 6 


47.2 


127-5 


53-0 




7 


86.0 


50.7 


140.0 


45-2 


127.8 


44-5 




8 


142.2 


63.0 


140.3 


46.5 


125.0 


46.0 




9 


132.9 


58.0 


141-5 


44.9 


125.7 


45-0 




lO 


143-2 


61.6 


140.6 


43-3 


127.9 


57-8 




II 


113.0 


58.2 


138.4 


44.0 


132.0 ! 


54-5 




12 


144.0 


61.0 


143.0 


45-1 


130.8 


51-9 




13 


135-0 


56.8 


139.2 


48.0 


131-5 


38.9 




14 


142.5 


61.2 




45-3 


131-3 


50.0 


Not observed. 


15 


129.6 


51-3 


140.2 




132-5 


55-7 


Do. 


i6 


135-3 


50-9 


141-5 


45-0 


131-9 


44.0 




17 


80.8 


54-0 


141-7 


43-9 


132.8 


49-3 




i8 


134.0 


56.2 




39-8 


133-0 


53-5 


Not observed. 


19 


134.8 


55-3 


130-5 


40.0 


130.0 


39-0 




20 


79.0 


59-0 




43-7 


128.5 


40-3 


Not observed. 


21 


83-9 


54-1 




42.0 


131-9 


41.7 


Do. 


22 


62.0 


1 56-0 


... 


41. 1 


131-6 


43-5 


Do. 


23 


64.0 


44.0 




43-5 


128.8 


48.0 


Do. 


24 


83.0 


44-6 


1 126.5 


39-0 


128.5 


48-3 




25 


106.6 


43-1 


124.2 


41.0 


127.6 


57-1 




26 


71.0 


53-1 


124.9 


40.0 


127.8 


44.0 




27 


78.0 


47-3 


124.8 


38.2 


130.0 


41.8 




28 


133-4 


54-8 


123.0 


41.8 


126.5 


j 44-9 




29 


78.8 


49-1 


123.8 


41.0 


124-3 


j 40.5 




30 


99-6 


52.8 

1 


123.0 


36.0 


128.2 


39-4 





METEOROLOGY 



331 



Statement shoming the Solar Radiation and Grass Radiation 
Thermometer for the Month of December. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 




Date. 














Kemarks. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


Solar. 


Grass. 


I 


106.5 


43-4 


123.9 


38.1 


126.3 


42.1 




2 


127.0 


32.6 


126.7 


37-5 


126.8 


39-5 




3 




33-6 


126.5 


39-2 




40-3 


Not observed. 


4 




36.8 


123-5 


38-9 


124-5 


37-2 


Do. 


5 




36.2 


122.9 


42.7 


120.7 


40.9 


Do. 


6 




40.5 


123.8 


44-5 


105.0 


44.6 


Do. 


7 




39-1 


125.2 


45-8 


97-9 


52-3 


Do. 


8 




44-5 


124.5 


42.7 


76.8 


56.5 


Do. 


9 




36.7 


122.9 


42.0 


100.3 


54-0 


Do. 


lO 


... 


35-3 


121. 9 




115-4 


43-8 


Do. 


II 




35-7 


122.0 


45-4 


116. 2 


58.8 


Do. 


12 




35-7 


121. 9 


41.8 


1 10.9 


46.8 


Do. 


13 




34-8 


II4.2 


41.2 


117.2 


42.4 


Do. 


14 




39-3 


IIO.9 


33-5 


115.0 


33-8 


Do. 


15 




36.9 


114. 1 


27.0 


114.9 


31.0 


Do. 


t6 


... 


33-2 


116. 5 


26.0 


116.5 


30.8 


Do. 


17 




42.2 


I16.3 


30.0 


120.0 


37-6 


Do. 


i8 




33-6 


"9-5 


32.3 


122.4 


35-0 


Do. 


19 




37-3 


122.0 


36.1 


128.7 


47-5 


Do. 


20 


... 


37.5 


121. 2 


37-8 


117.8 


46.6 


Do. 


21 


131.I 


35-7 


124. 1 


35-6 


121. 


34-5 






22 


131-8 


37-9 


122.9 


47-4 


113.0 


38.9 






23 


130.2 


30.6 


121. 5 


36-3 


1 16.4 


42.0 






24 


130.7 


45-0 


122.6 


44-5 


1 14- 5 


44.8 






25 


127.8 


24.7 


121. 


41.0 


119.2 


46.0 






26 


127-5 


39-2 


117. 


43-2 


131-7 


37-4 






27 


127.9 


43-5 


118.5 


38.0 


1 16. 8 


36.0 






28 


1 10. 5 


43-8 


122.9 


36.5 


114.9 


36.8 






29 


122.7 


35-0 


1 19. 7 


38.0 


116. 1 


42-7 






30 


126. 1 


33-8 


"9-5 


41.0 


121. 


46.5 






31 


121. 


29.8 


119. 1 


36.5 


114.6 


32-6 







332 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement slioioing the Barometric Pressure at 8 a.m. Local 



Date. 


October 

1896. 


November 
1896. 


December 

1896. 


January 
1897. 


February 
1897. 


March 

1897. 




I 




29.376 


29.398 


29.504 


29.308 


29.236 




2 




29.396 


29.364 


29.446 


29.350 


29-450 




3 




29.382 


29.362 


29-494 


29. 360 


29.364 




4 




29.380 


29-374 


29.472 


29.330 


29.140 




5 




29-314 


29.408 


29.392 


29.320 


29.230 




6 




29.280 


29.460 


29.396 


29-336 


29.230 




7 




29-330 


29.468 


29.416 


29.368 


29.120 




8 




29-350 


29.436 


29-358 


29-370 


29. 106 




9 




29-334 


29.390 


29.326 


29.388 


29.170 




lO 


29.278 


29.332 


29-434 


29.266 


29.270 


29. 306 




11 


29.278 


29.320 


29-444 


29.270 


29.178 


29-336 




12 


29.316 


29.280 


29.426 


29.264 


29.280 


29. 290 




13 


29.320 


29.292 


29.470 


29. 240 


29-388 


29.290 




14 


29.324 


29.320 


29.464 


29.112 


29-330 


29.308 




15 


29.304 


29.316 


29.420 


29-336 


29.312 


29.316 




i6 


29.326 


29.320 


29.436 


29.420 


29.300 


29.312 




17 


29.308 


29-338 


29.392 


29.422 


29.346 


29.256 




i8 


29.328 


29-344 


29.330 


29.288 


29.278 


29.290 




19 


29.336 


29.378 


29.416 


29.332 


29.286 


29. 198 




20 


29-338 


29.320 


29.422 


29.426 


29.248 


29.110 




21 


29-334 


29.254 


29.416 


29.478 


29.296 


29. 104 




22 


29.320 


29.190 


29.404 


29-534 


29.320 


29. 128 




23 


29.316 


29-250 


29.372 


29.470 


29.208 


29. 198 




24 


29.346 


29.322 


29.368 


29-370 


29. 168 


29.266 




25 


29-394 


29-392 


29.478 


29.340 


29-354 


29.250 




26 


29.398 


29-324 


29.546 


29.368 


29-330 


29. 140 




27 


29.364 


29.316 


29.426 


29.340 


29.228 


29.050 




28 


29.360 


. 29.316 


29.284 


29-352 


29.190 


29.100 




29 


29-356 


29.456 


29.410 


29.284 




29.296 




30 


29-348 


29-494 


29.378 


29.280 




29.252 




31 


29.348 




29.440 


29.218 




29.164 





METEOROLOGY 



333 



Time, from lotli Octuher 1896 to 2,ot1i September 1897. 





April 
1897. 


May 

1897. 


June 

1897. 


July 

1897. 


August 
1897. 


September 

1897. 


Remarks. 




29.210 


29. 102 


29.050 


28.996 


28.852 


29.070 








29. 208 


29.100 


29.066 


29.068 


28.950 


29.004 








29.168 


29.096 


29.020 


29.020 


28.960 


29.044 






29.264 


29.036 


29.024 


28.938 


28.896 


29.004 






29.254 


29.014 


29.080 


28.934 


28.864 


29.006 1 






29. 306 


29.032 


29.072 


28.968 


28.860 


29. 140 ! 






29. 296 


29.044 


29.002 


28.948 


28.880 


29. 140 






29. 260 


29.116 


29. 000 


28.920 


28.888 


29.130 ! 






29. 192 


29. 140 


28.992 


28.832 


28.892 


29. 148 






29.174 


29.094 


29.110 


28.S64 


28.898 


29.128 








29. 260 


29. 100 


29.050 


28.804 


28.934 


29. 108 








29.254 


29.020 


28.930 


28.790 


28.946 


29.128 








29.246 


29.080 


28.820 


28.820 


28.914 


29.138 








29.200 


29.090 


28.866 


28.828 


28.896 


29.130 








29. 224 


29. 106 


28.880 


28.880 


28.924 


29.098 








29.244 


29.046 


28.900 


28.952 


28.540 


29.058 








29. 220 


29.004 


28.916 


28.934 


28.920 


29.070 








29. 198 


29.000 


28.916 


28.826 


28.940 


29. 144 








29. 200 


29.016 


28.870 


28.S50 


28.946 


29.128 








29.160 


29.040 


28.868 


28.906 


28.946 


29.160 


■ 






29.210 


29.034 


28.818 


28.936 


28.972 


29.160 j 






29. 204 


29.030 


28.776 


28.978 


28.940 


29. 1 70 






29.170 


29.048 


28.828 


28.990 


28.988 


29. 198 








29. 200 


29.070 


28.896 


28.976 


29.038 


29.208 








29.274 


29. 100 


28.916 


28.976 


29.012 


29.136 








29.156 


29. 144 


29. 006 


28.936 


29.010 


29.090 








29.232 


29.118 


29.026 


28.930 


29.048 


29.220 








29.328 


29.076 


29.000 


28.920 


29.028 


29.220 








29.210 


29.046 


28.990 


28.894 


29.040 


29. 200 








29.126 


29.050 
29.036 


28.936 


28.856 
28.808 


29.120 
29.130 


29.230 







334 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Statement slwioing the Barometric Pressure at 8 a.m. Local 



Date. 


October 

1897. 


November 
1897. 


December 
1897. 


January 
1898. 


February 

1898. 


March 

1898. 


April 
1898. 




I 


29.204 


29.366 


29.288 


28.388 


28.218 


29.212 


29.126 




2 


29.190 


29.240 


29.316 


29-378 


29.234 


29.294 


29. 200 




3 


29. 1 50 


29.280 


29.312 


29.260 


29.220 


29-454 


29.238 




4 


29. 126 


29.380 


29.332 


29.396 


29.110 


29.360 


29.204 




5 


29. 1 06 


29.400 


29.408 


29.468 


29.128 


29.340 


29.160 




6 


29.192 


29.384 


29.502 


29.450 


29.250 


29.310 


29.100 




7 


29. 204 


29-350 


29-434 


29.390 


29.260 


29.316 


29.244 




8 


29.182 


29.376 


29.368 


29-354 


29. 204 


29.270 


29. 250 




9 


29.234 


29.340 


29-356 


29.428 


29.090 


29.272 


29. 200 




lO 


29.276 


29.312 


29.390 


29.476 


29.020 


29-340 


29. 184 




II 


29.316 


29.262 


29.296 


29.472 


29.174 


29. 290 


29.128 




12 


29.270 


29.250 


29-384 


29-394 


29.314 


29.294 


29.150 




13 


29. 200 


29.238 


29-344 


29.360 


29.238 


29.270 


29.224 




14 


29.214 


29.284 


29.478 


29-354 


29.152 


29.254 


29.272 




15 


29.236 


29-344 


29.446 


29-376 


29. 198 


29. 220 


29. 204 




i6 


29.280 


29-334 


29.378 


29.400 


29.180 


29.242 


29.150 




17 


29.280 


29-354 


29.366 


29.406 


29.180 


29.240 


29.058 




i8 


29.276 


29.376 


29.388 


29-444 


29.110 


29.250 


29.090 




19 


29.266 


29.364 


29.422 


29.440 


29.160 


29.226 


29.150 




20 


29.324 


29.364 


29.436 


29.438 


29.086 


29.266 


29.170 




21 


29.318 


29-350 


29.392 


29.392 


29.144 


29.282 


29. 194 




22 


29.264 


29-352 


29.406 


29.372 


29. 290 


29.196 


29.112 




23 


29. 224 


29.382 


29.418 


29.380 


29-450 


29.256 


29.156 




24 


29. 206 


29.384 


29.460 


29.310 


29.352 


29.256 


29.192 




25 


29.210 


29.424 


29.474 


29.388 


29.320 


29.232 


29.136 




26 


29.276 


29.400 


29.442 


29.366 


29.312 


29.188 


29.070 




27 


29.384 


29.366 


29.382 


29.332 


29.310 


29.216 


29.090 




28 


29-356 


29.396 


29-378 


29.370 


29-314 


29.210 


29-134 




29 


29. 284 


29.368 


29.436 


29.410 




29.226 


29. 1 64 




30 


29.360 


29.290 


29.500 


29. 282 




29. 260 


29.138 




31 


29.392 




29.464 


29.200 




29. 206 







METEOROLOGY 



335 



Time, from ist Odoher 1897 to ;^ofh November 1898. 





May 

1898. 


June 

1898. 


July 

1898. 


August 
1898. 


September 
1898. 


October 

1898. 


November 

1898. 


Kemarks. 




29.076 


29. 090 


28.936 


28.900 


29.068 


29. 204 


29. 260 








29.000 


29.130 


28.936 


28.900 


29.082 


29.224 


29. 190 








29.006 


29.118 


28.932 


28.950 


29.094 


29.250 


29.202 








29.056 


28.990 


28.934 


28.926 


29.060 


29. 192 


29.278 








29.032 


28.964 


28.920 


28.890 


29.030 


29. 204 


29-364 








29.000 


28.950 


28.848 


28.870 


29.030 


29.204 


29.364 








29.020 


28.966 


28.830 


28.880 


29.040 


29.220 


29.384 








29.000 


28.978 


28. 900 


28.890 


29.080 


29.220 


29-354 








28.964 


28.948 


28.928 


28.922 


29.080 


29.266 


29.346 








29.010 


28.920 


28.8S4 


28.926 


29.070 


29.270 


29.340 








29.026 


28. 894 


28.908 


28.950 


29.040 


29.244 


29.316 








29.028 


28.896 


28.926 


28.940 


29.042 


29.230 


29.280 








29. 124 


28.938 


28.906 


28.940 


29.024 


29.170 


29.224 








29. 222 


28.840 


28.896 


28.980 


29.050 


29.214 


29. 204 








29. 206 


28.868 


28.960 


29.020 


29.040 


29.240 


29.296 








29.128 


28.850 


28.914 


29.042 


29.052 


29.224 


29.320 








29.070 


28.806 


28.856 


29.070 


29.090 


29.160 


29.304 








29.110 


28.840 


28.928 


29. 100 


29.136 


29.236 


29.324 








29.216 


28.876 


28.890 


29.082 


29.124 


29.324 


29.348 








29. 200 


28.900 


28.850 


29.056 


29. 104 


29.318 


29-352 








29.106 


28.886 


28.942 


29.076 


29. 166 


29.310 


29.318 








29. 108 


28.916 


28.910 


29.060 


29.174 


29.288 


29.250 








29.128 


28.870 


28.940 


29.040 


29. 184 


29.288 


29.224 








29.118 


28.936 


28.962 


29.054 


29.200 


29.310 


29.232 








29.088 


28.970 


28.940 


28.968 


29.240 


29.328 


29.322 








29.092 


29.062 


28.928 


28.984 


29.244 


29. 300 


29-356 








29.132 


29. 100 


28.894 


29. 100 


29. 180 


29-334 


29.404 








29.136 


28.982 


28.880 


29.090 


29.230 


29.312 


29.460 








29.072 


28.894 


28.890 


29.100 


29.240 


29.278 


29.446 








28.972 


28.966 


28.854 


29.070 


29.230 


29. 240 


29.460 








29.000 




28.888 


29.080 




29.246 






1 



336 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Rainfall of i2>gi 





i 






cS 


.i 


U 










a" 




Months. 


•a 


=3 


1 
'3 
.a 


c3 
73 


3 rt 

.a ^ 


.a 
.a 

a 


bo 


a 


"0* 


2 

c5 


2 

C3 


OS 




i-s 


Ph 


Pm 


s 


Pi 


02 


S5 


f^ 


t» 


s 


l-» 


!^ 












. 




















ri 




?; 


m 






00 










.a 


a 


.a 


a 


.a 


fl 


f. 


a 




a 




a 




a 


"o 


a 


.a 





.a 


a 




a 


J 


fl 




I— ( 


6 


a 





a 





a 










a 





a 





" 


u 


a 





a 





a 










Jan. . 




33 




17 




29 




26 




35 




97 




32 




37 








81 


... 






37 


Feb. . 












































«S 






March 




21 


... 


46 




10 




61 




28 




66 




,S7 




42 


I 


15 




25 




44 




29 


April . 






... 
















... 


4 




15 






















May . 




74 




54 




43 


I 


37 




97 




25 


2 


63 




















31 


! June , 






... 






9 




3.^ 








70 




18 




















I 


July . 




81 


9 


2S 


9 


7« 


3 


7 




15 


3 


«3 


3 


53 


4 


13 


9 


«3 


4 


9b 


2 


94 


I 


31 


Aug. . 




«5 




31 




7 


2 


93 




7b 


3 


79 


I 


23 




23 




8 


... 


19 




37 


2 


14 


Sept. . 




3S 


... 


34 




30 


I 


.S8 




4b 


2 


10 




52 




8b 


I 


20 




30 




30 


3 


24 


Oct. . 




4 












6 


... 






33 
























16 


Nov. . 


















































Dec. . 




... 














































Total 


8.33 


11.07 


11.06 


10.23 


9-97 


12.67 


913 


6.01 


12.26 


6.51 


4.90 


7.83 



Average for tuhole 



Rainfall of 1892 





i 






i 


.a . 












a 




Months. 


73 


3 
P4 




.a 

Ph 


'2 
P 


•2 t 


S 
GQ 



so 

a 


"3 

1^ 


I 


2 
n 


S 
•3 
1-5 






m 




m 




«; 








m 








m 








«• 




«• 




i 






n 




ji 


a 


JS 


a 


.a 


a 


,a 


"S 


.a 


a 


,a 


a 





a 


f> 


■^ 


•3 


a 




a 


f, 


a 


.a 


a 




a 





a 


6 


a 





" 





a 





a 





a 


u 


a 





a 


cS 


a 
I— 1 





s 





a 


6 


Jan. . 




27 




S2 




9 




53 




39 




83 




77 




13 




80 


I 


35 




35 




22 


Feb. . 












8 




8 








2 




5 






















March 


... 












































... 




April . 


















... 




























... 




May . 




93 


... 




I 


25 




27 


2 


I 




bo 




38 


2 


23 




20 




28 








63 


June . 




61 




50 


2 


63 


I 


64 


I 


3 


I 


69 


2 


19 




74 




68 




22 


I 


79 






July . 


4 


S4 


2 


62 


2 


88 


5 


b9 


3 


41 


10 


50 


5 


4 


5 


14 


5 


13 


7 


56 


5 


98 


7 


32 


Aug. . 


8 


14 


6 


74 


3 


33 


b 


5 


8 


bi 


12 


24 


3 


57 


5 


47 


7 


20 


9 


83 


9 


99 


II 


bo 


Sept. . 


4 


27 


7 


16 


2 




4 


35 


2 


15 


13 


98 


3 


72 


5 


90 


12 


41 


6 


18 


6 


lb 


8 


23 


Oct. . 
















38 
















... 






.^ 










17 


Nov. . 


















































Dec. . 

Total 




29 






I 


15 








38 




9 


I 


80 




24 


















19.05 


17-54 


13-41 


18 


99 


17 


-98 


39-95 17-52 


19-85 


26.42 


25.42 


24.27 


28.17 



Average for whole 



METEOROLOGY 



337 



for Marwar. 



20 j ... , 10 
...... 15 

32 II 62 
45—130 

52 ... !66 



93 



14.05 12.42 12.93 



State, 9.51 inches. 



14 



50 



16.17 



9.01 



9 76 
.. |6o 

••ji5 



10.51 



80 



90 



11.80 



5.01 



5.24 I 8.95 



2.76 





Months. 










H 




5-24 


Jan. 


1.6s 


Feb. 


5-73 


March. 


.29 


April. 1 


10.30 


May. 


2.38 


June. 


148.15 


July. 


22.14 


Aug. 


21.08 


Sept. 


•93 


Oct. 




Nov. 


•93 


Dec. 


218.82 


Total. 



for Marwar. 



© 


i 




, 


.q 


















j3 
1 


Cm 


S 


is 
p ft 


02 


a 


d 

33 


2 
.id 

3 


s 


p 


1-5 


1 


"3 
1 


Mouths. 


i 

-g 


g 



a 


s 





a 


"o 


1 



tn 
a> 

.a 


-2 
J 


1) 

.a 

a 


6 


1 


1 
6 


0) 


c 

IS 




"3 


13 



a 


+3 

s 


a 


a 








43 




81 


... 


55 
9 




24 




30 




37 




57 


;;• 


18 




53 




14 


... 
... 




10.37 
•32 


Jan. 
Feb. 
March. 




55 
62 




45 


I 






55 


I 


55 


2 


42 








80 








6S 


■jl 


25 


18.00 


April. 
May. 


I 




34 




54 


1 


U 


1 


31 




8 






I 


85 




9S 




53 






22.08 


June. 


10 


92 
16 

83 
30 


n 

8 


i; 


6 


12 


5 


30 


2 


45 


3 


35 


2 


96 


3 


8 


10 


23 


5 


31 


13 


20 


139.96 


July. 
Ausr. 




59 


15 


^7 


17 


19 


4 


b5 


4 


89 


8 


13 


3 


27 


8 


88 


P 


60 




2=; 


188.25 

146.26 

4.88 


y 


y 


8 


12 


07 
12 


lb 
2 


10 
50 


I 


40 


2 


48 
8 




35 


V 




10 


30 


4 


6 
43 


4 


48 
90 


Sept. 
Oct. 
















... , 


























... 1 






Nov. 




JJ, 




, 


... 30 




35I 




bS 


I 


5 




59 


I 


59 






16 






8.67 
538.79 


Dec. 

Total . 


34.81 

1 


28.44 


37.26 


43-43 


12 


34 


14.72 


12.60 1 


11.77 


30.89 


20.88 


23. 


08 



State, 23.43 inches. 



338 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 









































Rainfall of 1893 


Months. 


o3 
u 
o 




-3 





Is 




6 
u 



'2 




. 




Nawa. 




•a 










s 

OS 




c4 


m 


S 


































.n 




. 




































































•?, 


a 




B 


f, 


a 


^ 


a 


■f? 


fl 




■g 


■s 


s 


.d 


a 


-s 


a 


•S 


a 


■S 


fl 


-S 


a 






P 












^ 












OJ 













J" 








r" 






u 




U 


M 


u 


" 


u 









u 




U 


" 


u 









u 


HH 


U 







Jan. . 


I 


41^ 


... 






.30 


I 


49 




55 




83 




96 




46 


... 


10 ... 


76 






I 




Feb. . 


... 


17 


... 










52 




25 




54 




53 




18 




i6|... 


33 










March 




12 


... 






... 




64 








31 




64 










26 




45 






April . 


... 


6 








2 








II 










... 






... 1 ... 












May . 




90 


I 


1.3 




10 


I 


94 


I 


40 


2 


22 




93 




42 




24 I 


61 




57 






June . 


2 


4S 


4 


IS 


I 


30 


I 


67 


6 


36 


2 


34 


4 


II 


5 


19 


3 


(59 1 5 


37 


6 


33 


2 


II 


July . 


7 


.31 


2 


7 


6 


22 


5 


86 


12 


65 


10 


27 


4 


76 


6 


35 


5 


68; 5 


72 


6 


62 


6 


84 


Aug. . 


8 


20^ 


2 


76 


I 


47 


.S 


4 


5 


60 


6 


65 


4 


52 


2 


90 


2 


42 


6 


36 


5 


32 


6 


9 


Sept. . 


8 


.39 


4 


70 


I 




3 


99 


17 


51 


3 


«3 


2 


93 


10 


75 


I 


5 


4 


21 


2 


20 


I 


61 


Oct. . 


... 






24 
















2 








10 










... 








Nov. . 


I 


92 


2 


40 






I 


7 


I 


32 


I 


75 




90 


I 


40 




90 


2 


10 


2 


2 


I 


«3 


Dec. . 




25 








66 




28 








12 




25 


. 






... ! ... 




... 






5 


Total 


31-19 


17-45 


11.07 


23-50 


45-75 


28.88 


20.53 


27.75 


14.24 26.72 


23-51 


19-53 



.4i7era(7e for tvliole 







































Rainfall of 


[894 


Months. 


u 

p< 




-3 





if. 




t 


t 




c« 




c3 




'i 

t-3 


=3 

PL| 




-t3 
P 


"o-d 
0; 
Pm 


1 


bo 
03 


"3 


'S 


S 


;? 


1 














































. 
























































.£3 


a 


.s 


a 


•s 


a 




a 


M 


a 


.a 




.c 


a 


7^ 


■S 


rC 


a 




a 


.a 


a 


•s 




a 








a 




a 


.i" 










a 






















.." 










u 














HH 


u 






HH 












a 




u 







Jan. . 




28 




22 




70 




66 




86 




48 


I 


10 




10 




7 




34 








66 


Feb. . 




9 








10 




















10 


















March 




10 




43 




52 




35 


... 


25 




... 




27 










... 












April . 






... 










12 


... 


15 








5 


... 


5 






... 


15 










May . 


... 




... 






5 




28 






I 


75 




31 


I 








... 




... 








June . 


6 


86 


6 


42 




68 


2 


34 


4 


«3 


.3 


63 


3 


46 


2 


75 


6 


65 


7 


23 


6 


70 


2 


II 


July . 


5 


49 


9 


61 




25 


4 


24 


10 


30 


8 


2 


6 


81 


I 


18 


13 


35 


10 


57 


7 


7 


4 


66 


Aug. . 


I 


43 


4 


I 




92 


4 


69 


2 


90 


6 


13 


3 


20 


I 


80 




«3 


I 


85 


2 


52 


4 


43 


Sept. . 


I 


«3 


I 


54 




30 


I 


73 


2 


47 


2 


97 


I 


35 


I 


40 


3 


39 


I 


74 


4 


91 


3 


23 


Oct. . 








49 






... 


















25 








15 










Nov. . 


















































Dec. . 
Total 




47 




96 








88 




77 


3 


64 


I 


39 




6 




70 


I 


24 




64 


2 


53 


16.55 


23.68 


7-52 


15-29 


22.53 


26.62 


17.94 


8.69 


24 


■99 


23 


27 


21 


84 


17 


62 

1 



Average for whole 



METEOROLOGY 



339 



for 


Marwar. 












































o 


S 

1 


. 




1 
1 


a 

i 


6 


i 


C8 


2 

"3 


2 







Months. 




CU 


m 


i-= 


m 


CQ 


03 


03 


r^ 


1-3 


m 


H 


















»• 






. 


i 




m 




m 




^ 


m 






S 


m- 








^ 


a 


f, 





J4 


+j 




a 


J3 


a 




a 


.a 


a 


^ 


a 


13 


a 


J2 


a 




a 








a 


u 


a 





"^ 


u 








a 


Q 







a 


u 







a 





a 


S 


M 











I 


12 

52 


I 


5 

57 

... 




10 
80 

44 




40 




90 

25 




46 


... 


55 


I 


8 




40 
74 
61 




si 

10 




... 


13-524 
6.52 

3-57 
■44 


Jan. 
Feb. 
March 
April. 




2 


91 




76 


I 


48 




7 




74 


I 


97 




12 




10 


I 






32 






20.93 


May. 




I 


5 


2 


8 


10 


87 


9 


44 


3 


62 


I 


96 


2 


58 


4 


22 


3 


54 


3 


90 


5 


53 


93.86 


June. 




6 


i6 


4 


13 


7 


94 


14 


55 


8 


22 


5 


55 


7 


8b 




50 


7 


43 


10 


2 


7 


98 


160.69 


July. 




3 


38 


2 


72 


5 


33 


I 


15 


5 


76 


I 


5 


4 




3 


80 


5 


25 


I 


40 


I 


10 


92.274 


Aug. 




2 




... 


60 


5 


92 


23 


31 


5 


24 


7 


35 


I 


33 


I 


10 


3 




II 


95 


38 


96 


162.93 
•36 


Sept. 
Oct. 




2 


25 


_ 


21 


I 


83 
36 


3 


30 
50 




80 3 
45 - 


65 
10 




41 

... 




40 




45 


3 


17 
29 


2 




35-47 
4.92 


Nov. 
Dec. 




19-39 


12.12 


35-07 


52.72 


25.98 22.09 


16.85 


11.20 


22.42 


31.96 


55-57 


595-49 


Total. 



State, 25.89 inches. 



for 


Marwar. 














































i 




. 


_^- 




















^ 




.«- 


1% 


C3 
bo 


c3 

a 


d 



2 
a 


i 








.a 

a 


"is 


Months 




s 


& 


pq 


1-5 


00 


S 


^ 


^ 


s 


t-5 


& 


H 






























m 






If. 






^. 
































































.a 


a 




a 


.a 


a 


■s 


a 


•s 


a 


•s 


a 


•s 


a 




a 


ja 


a 


•^ 


a 


.a 


a 








a 





76 

37 


C 



... 


a 


<0 


20 


a 









14 
22 

... 


a 



37 


a 






23 
32 


a 

t-4 



33 

22 


fl 



22 


^ 





a 


6 
10 


6.93 

2.81 

•52 

3-98 


Jan. 

Feb. 

March. 

April. 

May. 




2 


35 


2 


62 


4 


49 


4 


59 


2 


89 


4 


90 


I 


96 




41 


2 


10 


2 


98 


4 


32 


87.27 


June. 




3 


98 


i 


30 


5 


18 


10 


92 


6 


33 


3 


50 


I 


34 


I 


70 


I 


84 


7 


8 


4 


10 


133.82 


July. 




6 


46 


3 


39 


I 


26 


I 


15 


3 


80 


I 


45 


3 


25 


.1 


12 




82 


4 


65 


I 


31 


65-37 


Aug. 




3 


57 


2 


60 


4 


49 


I 


70 
4 


I 


45 


I 


44 


I 


41 


2 


30 


I 


53 


I 


59 


6 


2 


54-96 

•93 


Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 




3 


22 


I 


65 




69 




26 






... 












I 


95 




29 






21.34 


Dec. 




20.71 


12.56 


16.31 


18.66 


14.83 


11.66 


8.51 


8.08 


8.46 


61.59 


15-85 


37S.76 


Total. 




^tat 


e, ] 


[6.4 


7 2 


nch 


es. 







































340 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Rainfall q/" 1895 





Jodhpore. 
Pali. 


1 


Didwana. 


r 


.a 
S 


'A 


1 


'o" 


Bilara. 

Jaitaran. 

Nawa. 




Months. 


! 
















.J 1 




1 


1 
1 1 








1 -2 


1 


1 




i 


1 -2 


J3 


-s' 


0) 


a 


i 

■a 


■2 ^ 


J2 1 

a a 


"a 




£ 


0|M 





s 

l-H 





a|S 












5 ;0 


a 





,s 





M 


6 5 


U M 



50 




Jan. . 




35 i ■•■ 






23 


I 53 




80 




67 


...63 




12 








9I... 


... 




Feb. . 












...! 7 


... 






6 


• •• 1 4 




... 


















Mar. . 




35 ••■ 


63 




20 


...84 




75 




35 


... 25 




20 








50 ... 


45 








April . 




1 








... 6 








57 


... 23 














36 








May . 




11 








20 


... ... 




1=; 




6 


... 21 




5 


















June . 




4 




3« 


I 


9 


... 60 


2 


32 


I 


27 


I «3 


2 


20 


I 


20 




45 - 


64 








July . 


4 


271 4 


17 




89 


5 63 


I 


30 


4 


«7 


I 20 


4 


33 


4 


5 


6 


6 4 


9 


3 


7 




Aug. . 


7 


26! 2 


23 


2 


3 


8 9Si 


5 


86 


8 


30 


7 65 


2 


73 


I 


40 


5 


55 2 


90 5 


b5 




Sept. . 




io[... 


32 














34 


... 29 












7 ••• 








Oct. . 




... ... 








... 1 ... 




S6 










... 
















Nov. . 


... 










... 1 ... 




























Dec. . 






... 






... ' 4 






10 ... 7 ••• 








...i^^ 




1: 




Total 


12.68 7-73 


4.64 


1775 11-74 


16.59 12.40 


963 


6.65 


12.72 1 8.44 1 9.22 





Average for tvhole 







































Rainfall of i 


896 




"j 1 . 


d 


ds ^' 




i 






A 







a 
.a 




13 




5 


S 

St 

s 


^0! 


1 

w. 


1 


1 
■3 

S 1 


'0 


S 


ce 


03 
!25 




Months. 




1 


















! 
1 i i 1 ■ .2 

"o a a 


1 1^ 


.a 


a 


CD 


to ' <I> 

^ i-S 


a 


1 


a 1 ■§ 


a 


1 


a 


1 


.2 

a 


1 


a 


1 


s 






5 5 S jS 


5 |o 


a 
1-1 





M 


a [s 





l-H 


® 1 a 

U : h-i 

1 


u 


a 


s 


s 





W 





a 







Jan. . 


... 1 




14 










4 




2 j ... 












... 




Feb. . 


... 4 ... 1 ... 








28 






6 




























Mar. . 










22 






2 




47 




... 




















April . 


































... 










May . 












14 






94 




II 










... 




... 






60 




June . 


3 i6[ 3 


98 




68 


I 


77 


6 


56 i 2 


60 


3 


96 


2 


43 


2 


72 


I 


33 


4 


3« 


2 


32 




July . 


5 20' 5 


59 


5 


51 


3 


72 


2 


75; 4 


74 


3 


64 


2 


43 


10 


26 


6 


36 


8 


93 


4 


49 




Aug. . 


4 99I 7 


96 


I 


40 


2 


42 


4 


10 


2 


40 




62 


5 


51 


5 


62 


2 


71 






1 


80 




Sept. . 












... 


26 






2 


95 




5 




















49 




Oct. . 














18 








20 




























Nov. . 


... 80' I 141 








70 




25 I 


17 




32 




45 




30 


I 


40 


I 


40 


I 


50 




Dec. . 


^'•^ 








26 




3 ■■• 


12 




12 




... 




10 








... 


^ 


25 




Total 

1 


14.26 19.10 


7.73 


9-95 


13.69 15.24 


9-31 


10.82 


19.00 


11.80 


14.71 


11.45 





Average for ivhole 



METEOROLOGY 



341 



for Marwar. 




State, 9.61 Indies. 



for 


Marwar. 










































<6 


i 




^ *■ 










£ 




! 







.0 




wan 
ura. 

rgai 


s 


. i i 
° 1 -s 


C3 


£ 








i 












































C8 








•^ 


Ph 


n 


1-5 i 03 


OJ 


02 02 


!^ 


i-s 


X 
















1 








Total. 


Months. 






m 


m 










. n 




w 






d 




<» 


.• 


« 




<o 


5 




,a 




.a 




.a 




.a 


"S •* 


■^ 


,a 


■S i ■« 


■*^ 






,c 




^ 


*j 


.a 




































































































l-H 





" 


u 


t-t 





M M 


u 


'-' 


i M 










i-i 





HH 




M 




1 
1 




... 












, 










1 




... 1 ... 










.20 


Jan. 1 


























55 














•93 


Feb. ' 











































.71 March.! 
















... 














... 






... 










April. 1 






91 










... 














_ 






30 










4.00 May. 1 




2 


8"; 




72 


6 


6 


S 


53 I 


65 


3 


32 


I 


22 ... 


60 




94 


4 


62 


4 


10 


69.50 June, i 




3 


8 


4 


64 


8 


50 


3 


79 2 


18 


4 


74 


2 


4 2 


4 


4 


73 


4 


48 


6 


35 


no. 19 1 July. 1 




... 




4 


60 


S 


73 


7 


54 2 


34 


I 


33 




45,-- 


... 


2 


39 


4 


14 


b 




74.05 Aug. ! 




I 


66 

34 




77 

... 




56 




61 ... 


'.'.'. 

















... 


::: 






7-35 , Sept. 
.72 1 Oct. 




I 


50 
80 


I 


30 


I 


33 


2 


90 ... 
12 ... 


26 
5 


^ _ 


97 




15 ••■ 


... 


I 


14 


2 


10 
14 


I 


'.' 


22.86 Nov. 
2.36 Dec. 




II. 14 


14.03 


22.18 


20.49 6.48 


10.36 


4.41 2.64 


10.50 


15.48 


18.10 


292.87 Total, j 



State, 12.73 inches. 



342 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Rainfall of 1897 



Months. 



Jan. . 

Feb. . 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
Aug. . 
Sept. . 
Oct. . 
Nov. . 
Dec. . 



30 



15 
3 

92 
2 I 87 
6 37 
2 50 
I 64 



19 ... 



37 

9 II 

I 



13 



2 

7 99 

2 182 

I 

1:87 
•• 35 



IS 



II 
30 
39 

6 

1 

I 

5110 

S 
70 

9 






2 47 7 
8 '25 I 6 

I 1 17 3 



37 5 

41: 7 

I 

32 I 3 



571... |... 
32 6 10 1 



16 j 8 

1 
30 

37 



21! 5 

83! I 
25 — 



30 



Total 



14.80 



17.22 I 8.70 I 23.06 13.23 



14-59 



14.38 11.89 17.10 ■ 16.72 16.39 I II. 16 



Average for tchole 



METEOROLOGY 



343 



for Marwar. 











c« 




























3 






















J3 


^ 






■s 


C3 




* 






^ 




Months. 




2 


C3 

•e 


■^ 


& 
§ 











C3 

s 



"3 




3 







a 


Oi 


n 


■-5 


CO 1 OQ 


m 


CO 


« 


1-3 


00 


Eh 






s 








m 














■u 




(D 


m 


«■ 




trj 




?; 










•s 


c 




a 


.a 


a 


i 


a 




« 


"S 




c 





ei 


t; 


c 


-^ 


a 


■^ 


c 








a 


o 




0) 




a 








i> 



a 


5 


6 


a 





a 










S 





c 

















18 




2 




4 




23 






... 


16 












9 






1.72 
0.03 


Jan. 
Feb. 
















... 










... 




















0.27 


March. 






41 


_ 


63 




43 




2 

58 




70;... 


18 












20 

30 


I 


7 






1.69 
2.10 
8.48 


April. 
May. 
June. 




4 


IS 


4 


41 


14 


69 


II 


52 


4 


79 5 


2 


3 


SO 


2 




6 


S3 


6 


71 


6 


96 


137-77 


July. 




4 


27 


6 


8 


3 


91 


8 


92 


4 


12 5 


19 


2 


84 


4 


96 


3 


98 


12 


80 


3 


69 


139-33 


Aug. 




I 


70 


I 


82 


3 


17 


3 


58 




21 1 2 


7 




40 


I 


61 


I 


13 


3 


57 


3 


48 


43-50 


Sept. 








I 


15 




33 

... 


I 


83 












90 






2 


7 




79 




22 


10.66 


Oct. 

Nov. 


















... 










1 


... 


... 
















Dec. 




10-53 


14.27 


22.55 


26.49 


10.05 '' 12.46 


7.80 


8.57 


14.21 


25-03 


14-35 


345-55 


Total. 



State, 15.02 inches. 



344 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



00 
00 



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m 


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P 


H 



METEOROLOGY 



345 



Rainfall as Recorded at Ba}) for Four Years, 
from 1894 to 1897. 



Months. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. Total. 


Average. 


Remarks. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

Septembe 

October 

Novembe 

Decerabe 


r 
r 






0.22 

... ! ... 
0.31 

... ! 0.84 
3.68 ; 0.58 

2.13 4-35 
0.16 • ... 

'■■ i "■ 
0.02 


1-73 
2.54 
0.50 

0.04 


0.23 

0.32 

0.02 

2.27 
7.18 
0.98 


0.45 

0.31 
0.32 

2.59 

9.07 

14.16 

I.14 

0.06 


O.I I 

0.08 
0.08 

0.65 
2.27 

3-54 
0.28 

0.0 1 








Tota 


1 




5-99 i 6.30 


4.81 11.00 j 28.10 7.02 







Rainfall as Recorded at Devi Kote for Four Years, 
from 1894 to 1897. 



Months. 


- 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


Average. 


Kemarks. 


January . 




0.03 






0.03 


0.0 1 


• 




February 






















March 








0.50 






0.50 


0.12 






April 






... 






0.50 


0.50 


0.13 






May 








o-SS 






0-55 


0.14 






June 








0.55 


2.71 




3.26 


0.82 






July 






1.59 


1.32 


0.80 


1.30 


5.01 


125 






August . 






4.19 


0.15 


2.99 


2-95 


10.28 


2.57 






September 






1.61 






2.44 


4.05 


1. 01 






October . 










0.06 




0.06 


0.0 1 






November 






















December 








... 














Tota 


I 




7-39 


3.10 


6.56 


7.19 


24.24 


6.06 







346 



WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 



Monthly Statements of Rainfall, Barometer, Mean Temperature, and Wind 
Directio7i for the Ten Years 1889-98 at Mount Aim. 



u 





4 
1 


8 A.M. Baro- 
meter. 


4 

P S3 

la 


n _• 

.3 § 




.a" 

a 



3 

1 


2 

CO 

26.155 


a p. 

la 


Mean Wind 
Direction, 




Jan. 


0.07 


26.154 


60.7 


N. 29° W. 


r 


Jan. ; 


0.78 


60.9 


S. S2°W. 




Feb. 


0-59 


■131 


61.5 


N. 31° W. 


, 


Feb. , 


0.03 


.088 


63.1 


N. 73° W. 




Mar. 





.158 


70.9 


N. 27°W. [' 


Mar. 





.070 


73-5 


N. 36° W. 




April 





■053 


78.5 


N. 5o"W. 1 


April 





.077 


80.9 


N. 67° W. 




May 


4.87 


.019 


79-2 


N. 61° W. ! 


Jlay 


1.92 




76.1 


S. 76° w. 


d< 


June 


13-70 


25.860 


75-6 


s. 79° w. i. 


June 


4.14 


?25. 780 


75-9 


S. 59° W. 


00 


July 


9.11 


.826 


71.0 


S. 78° w. 


00 


July I 


19.64 


p 


71.1 


S. 48° w. 




Aug. 


29.92 


•854 


67.9 


S. 8s" W. 




Au?. 


38.22 


? 


68.3 


S. 79° W. 




Sept. 


0-43 


.996 


71-5 


S. 88° W. 


Sept. 


34-63 


5 


68.5 


N. 47° W. 




Oct. 





26.079 


71.0 


S. 83° W. 


Oct. 


0-59 




68.9 


N. 62° E. 




Nov. 





.142 


65-3 


N. 3i°W. 




Nov. 





? 


63-3 


N. 24° W. 




Dec. 





.183 


63-7 


N. 12° W. 


I 


Dec. 


0.18 


p 


59-6 


N. 62° W. 




Jan. 









? 


' . 


.Tan. 


0.37 


26.072 


54-3 


N. 14° W, 




Feb. 





26.137 


64.0 


N. 43° W. 




Feb. 


0.78 


.080 


52-5 


N. 4° W. 




Mar. 


0.17 


.044 


67-5 


N. 76° W. 




Mar. ^ 


0.40 


.083 


65-7 


N. 2°AV. 




April 


0.54 


.041 


77.1 


N. 8i°W. 




April 





.044 


77-6 


N. 62° W. 




May 





*2S-953 


t79-3 


N. 74° W. 




May 


2.03 


25-964 


75-7 


S. 78° W. 


s. 


June 


S-Si 


.829 


74.8 


S. 57°W. 


00 


June 


24.15 


.846 


74-4 


S. 64° \v. 


00 


July 


28.35 


.784 


67.9 


S. 63° w. 


July 


39-73 


.822 


67.1 


S. 61° \v. 




Aug. 


27.87 


.890 


65.8 


S. 61° w. 




Aug. 


8.47 


.885 


67-9 


S. 83°W. 




Sept. 


2.17 


•979 


69.4 


N. 79° W. 


i 


Sept. 


50-31 


.927 


66.7 


S. 62° W. 




Oct. 





27. 107 


71-3 


N. 37. W. 




Oct. 


0.76 


26.098 


68.1 


N. 49° E. 




Nov. 





.167 


66.2 


S. 73° E. 




Nov. 


3-30 


.168 


63-4 


N. 69° E. 




. Dec. 


0.02 


•145 


59-6 


S. 67° W. 




Dec. 





.190 


61.4 


N. 9° E. 




Jan. 


1.14 


26. 158 


57.6 


N. 22° W. 




Jan. 


a6o 


26. 120 


57-6 


S. 87°W. 




Feb. 





•14s 


57-4 


N. i3°W. 


i 


Feb. 





.123 


62.7 


S. 88° W. 




Mar. 


0.66 


.092 


63.0 


N. 31° W. 


1 


Mar. 


0.48 


.084 


67.9 


N. 77° W. 




April 





.075 


76.0 


S. 88° \T. 




April 


0.02 


.030 


77.1 


S. 72° w. 




May 


O.II 


.001 


79.0 


N. 87° W. 




May 


0.52 


25-979 


77-7 


S.57°W. 


M 


June 


1-52 


25.924 


77-4 


S.7o°W. 


-f 

00 


June 


II. 16 


.823 


73-1 


s. 48° ^y. 


00 


July 


26.00 


.807 


72.0 


S. 7i"W. 


July 


49.20 


.787 


67.7 


s. 49° w. 




Aug. 


10.31 


.890 


68.2 


S. 56° w. 




Aug. 


8.67 


.841 


66.3 


S. 5i°W. 




Sept. 


2.28 


•983 


69.9 


N. 80° W. 




Sept. 


8.25 


•959 


69.6 


N. 87° W. 




Oct. 


0.02 


26.143 


71.7 


N. 51° W. 




Oct. 


O.II 


26.072 


70.4 


N. 33°W. 




Nov. 





.289 


66.5 


N. 37° E. 




Nov. 





.191 


64.9 


N. i°E. 




Dec. 


1 

1 


.218 


62.2 


N. Q-W. 


' 


. Dec. 


0.84 


1 .146 


58.7 


S. 70° w. 








* Mean 


of 23 da 


ys. 




t M 


ean of 2 


I days. 







METEOROLOGY 



347 



Mo7iMi/ Statements of Rainfall, (^i\ (rontmtied) 





.a 

"S 
o 


'S 
K 


8 A.M. Baro- 
meter. 




Q 53 


Mean Wind 
Direction. 


a 
>< 


c 




3 

1 


8 A.M. Baro- 
meter. 


Mean Daily 
Temperature. 

Mean Wind 
Direction. 




Jan. 


O. lO 


26. 1 1 1 


56.1 


N. 30° E. 


t 


1 
' Jan. 


0.37 


26.118 


56.5 ;S. 8o°W. 




Feb. 


o 


.105 


61.9 


S. 8°E. 'l 1 


Feb. 





.081 


59. 8 N. 70° W. 




Mar. 


0.66 


.080 


68.7 In. 88° w. J 


i Mar. 





-054 


66.9 N. 89° W. 




April 


0.13 


.041 


77.2 ^S. 86°"W. 1 


April 


0.08 


.076 


76.4 S. 82°W. 




May 


O.OI 


25-994 


80.7 'S. 7i°W. ' 


■ May 





25-977 


82.1 


S.S9°W. 




June 


6.32 


-8S7 


75- 1 \ S. 39° AY. j ^ ^ 


June 


0.42 


.868 


79-2 


S. 58°W. 


00 - 


July 


17-93 


.850 


70.7 S. 42° W. 1 ^ 


July 


20.25 


.802 


72.4 


S. 28° W. 




Aug. 


24.56 


.849 


67. 1 ; S. 46° W. 


Aug. 


20.87 


.838 


69.8 


S. 48° w. 




Sept. 


O.S4 


26.015 


70.8 S. 73°W, 1 


Sep. 


13-30 


.981 


70.0 


S. 8° W. 




Oct. 


O.IO 


.100 


71.2 ' N. 79° E. I 


Oct. 


2.54 


26.099 


68.3 


N. 79° W. 




Nov. 





.189 


68.9 N. 88°W. 


:nov. 





•153 


65-1 


N. 6° E. 




Dec. 





.170 


60.1 N. 13° W. ! 


Dec. 





.178 


60.2 


N. 81° W. 


f 


Jan. 





26. 143 


60.7 N. 83°W. ; . 


Jan. 





26.180 


63-5 


N. 38°W. 




Feb. 





.114 


61.6 S. 84°W. 1 


i Feb. 


0.64 


.017 


59-4 


S. 79° W. 




Mar. 





.088 


70.3 iN. 79° W. 


Mar. 





-093 


70.1 


N. 88° W. 




April 





-034 


79.9 S. 89°W. 


April 





-035 


80.9 


N. 86° W. 




May 





.006 


80.1 S. 65°W. , 


May 


1. 01 


25.967 


79-4 


S. 72° W. 


oo - 

M 


June 
July 


12.69 
13-99 


25.829 
.822 


75- S 
70.2 


S.S4''W. 
S. 46° w. 


CO 


June 
July 


3.00 

19-45 


25.844 
7-95 


75-8 
70.2 


S. 46° W. 
S.48°W. 




Aug. 


23.19 


.876 


67.2 S. 5i°W. 




Aug. 


1-63 


.858 


67.6 


S.47°W. 




Sept. 


3-94 


26.015 


67.9 S. 37°W. 




Sept. 


6.25 


-965 


69.7 


S.55°W. 




Oct. 





.149 


73.2 


N. 87"W. 




Oct. 





26. 106 


74.0 


N. 21° E. 




Nov. 


2.71 


.128 


66.8 


N. 40° W. 




Nov. 





•131 


68.3 


N. 21° W. 


^ 


Dec. 

1 


0.43 


.181 


60.3 IN. i8°W, ■ I 

1 


Dec. 

1 


1-73 


•133 


59-2 


S. 7i°W. 



348 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



1^ 



00 
00 
00 



« 

^ 

8 

^ 



I 















■ajnjBiadniax 



i-i M en 



•9iiHBJ3dtn9x 
jCjiECI uBaH 






■9jn}BJadm9X 



•ajn^tijadoiax 
iCirea i"'9H 



■sjtUBjadraax 



O 00 w " 



•sjninjsduiax 



"TTSJtiii'a 



"ajiHiijadraax 

Xnt'fl UB3K 



M m CO M 



•aatUBjadmax 



•airnuisdiuax 



•ajnjBjadiaax 

illBQ UB9K 







vo 


>o 


0\ 


Tl- 


CO 


CJv 


CO 


'^ 


00 


M 


CO 




•eanjTUadraax 


tj^ 


ON 


vo 


VO 


lO 


VO 








CO 




►^ 


Xlj^a UBSH 1 


\o 






VO 




VO 


vo 


v^^ 


tN 


vo 


vg^ 



METEOROLOGY 



349 



Rainfall as Recorded at Sir oM for Seven Years, from 1891 to 1897. 























Months. 


1891. 


1892. 1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


rage. 


Remarks. 


Jan. . 


0.52 


0. 50 


0.32 




0.06 


0. II 


1. 51 


0.22 




Feb. . . 




0.59 








... 


0.59 


o.oS 




March . 


0.40 


0. 50 


0.12 


0.40 






1.42 


0.20 




April 




















May . . 


3-35 


0.50 : 0.40 










4.25 


0.61 




June . 


0.45 


0.40 13.23 


3-41 


3-35 


4-. 32 


0.30 


25.46 


3-64 




July . . 


14.44 


5.52 : 10.38 


15-77 


4-52 


5- .57 


7-«3 


64.03 


9.15 




Aug. . . 


1-34 


12.69 ! 3-29 


3-3° 


4-05 


9.69 


5-. 35 


39-71 


5-67 




Sept. . . 


0.62 


16.79 11-43 


1-97 


0-45 




6.28 


37-54 


5-.36 




Oct. . . 




0.20 




0.32 




0.74 


1 1.26 


0.18 




Nov. . 




2.9 






1. 21 




1 3-30 


0.47 




Dec. . . 
Total . 






0.65 




0.15 




0.80 


0.1 1 




21.24 


36.40 42.11 


25-54 


13.09 


21.00 


20.61 


1179-87 


25.69 





Rainfall as Recorded at Jaisalmir for Seven Y ears, from 1891 to 1897. 























Months. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


rage. , Remarks. 

i 


Jan. . . 


0.20 


0.96 


0.29 


1.32 


0.17 




0.15 


3-09 


1 
0.44 1 


Feb. . . 






0.44 


0.50 


0.02 






0.96 


0.14 i 




March . 


0.66 






0.12 


0.71 


0.03 




1.52 


0.22 




April 


0.62 












0.92 


1.54 


0.22 1 




May . . 


0.12 


0.33 


I.2S 




0. 19 






1.92 


0.27 




June . 




0.47 


2.07 


1.94 


0.84 


0.64 


0.18 


6.14 


0.88 




July . . 


2.45 


5.89 


7-53 


1.89 


0.42 


1.85 


2. II 


22.14 


3-i6 




Aug. . . 


0.41 


.3-16 


2.21 


5-30 


0.43 


I. II 


S.28 


17.90 


2.56 




Sept. 


0.7 


0.17 


1.27 


0.52 


0.23 




2.49 


4-75 


0.6S 




Oct. . . 






















Nov. . . 






0. 10 










0. 10 


O.OI 




Dec. . . 

j Total . 




0.16 


0.05 










0.21 


0.03 




4-53 


II. 14 


15.24 


11-59 


3-01 


3.63 


II. 13 


60.27 


8.61 





350 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

Rainfall as Recorded at Khabafor Three Years, from 1895 to 1897. 



Months. 




1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


Average. , Remarks. 


January . 










1 


February 


















March 








0.05 




0.05 


0.02 




April 










O.IO 


O.IO 


0.03 




May 






0.02 






0.02 


O.OI 




June 






O.I I 


0.76 




0.87 


0.29 




July 






1.27 


0.96 


2.19 


4.42 


1.47 




August . 






2.38 


1.22 


6.33 


9-93 


3-31 




September 










2.15 


2.15 


0.72 




October . 


















November 


















December 


















Tota 


1 




3-78 


2.99 


10.77 


17-54 


5-85 



Rainfall as Recorded at Ramgarli for Three Tears, from 1895 to 1897. 



Months. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October . 

November 

December 



1895. 



1896. 



1897. 



1.24 
0.37 
1-57 
0.67 



0.70 ' 

0.20 I 1.78 
... ' 3.90 
0.70 



Total. Average. | Remarks. 



0.03 



1.94 j 0.65 

2.3s t 0.78 

5.47 I 1.82 

1.37 I 0.46 



Total 



3.85 0.90 6.48 11.23 



•74 



Rainfall as Recorded at Deica for Three Years, from 1895 to 1897. 



Months. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Total. 


Average. 


Remarks. 


January . 






0.15 


0.15 


0.05 




February 
















... 


March . 










0.03 


0.03 


O.OI 


1 


April 










0.19 


0.19 


0.06 


1 


May 
















i 


June 






0.07 


0.50 


0.50 


1.07 


0.36 


I 


July 






0.80 


0.56 


1.84 


3.20 


1.07 




August . 






0.77 


0.07 


7.88 


8.72 


2.90 




September 










1. 16 


1. 16 


0.39 




October . 


















November 


















December 








... 










Tota 


I 




1.64 


I-I3 


11-75 


14-52 


4.84 



METEOROLOGY 351 

From the foregoing tables for Marwar it will be observed 
that there is a great difference throughout the year between 
the day and night temperatures. It is intensely hot during 
the day in the summer months, while the nights are generally 
fairly cool. During the winter months the weather is delight- 
fully cool and bracing. The climate is extremely dry. The 
average annual rainfall in Marwar for the seven years 1891-97 
was 16.09 inches, and, if 1893 be excluded, when the rainfall 
was abnormally heavy, the average would be 14.46. The 
heaviest rainfall was in 1893, viz., 25.89 inches; and the 
lightest in 1 8 9 1 , viz., 9. 5 i . Jas wantpura is the most favoured 
of the Parganas, having an average rainfall of 26.54. Tl^^ 
average in Bali, Sanchore, and Jalore is 22.47, 19-69, and 1 7.7 1 
respectively, while Sankra has an average of only 7.5 1 inches, 
the lightest rainfall recorded. The rainfall of Jodhpore city 
varies as much as that of the Parganas; 29.72 inches were 
registered in 1893, and only 6.96 in 1887. 



BIRDS 

The birds of these States have unusual advantages in both 
cHmate and food, and they are, consequently, very numerous 
and varied. During the cold weather there is mostly abundance 
of food and water in the desert, and birds of almost every sort 
flock to the fresh feeding-grounds, which have been compara- 
tively deserted by the feathered tribes throughout the hot 
months. Again, when water and food become scarce and the 
heat uncongenial to them, they repair to the adjacent hills, 
where they find plenty of fruit and a cool climate. Many of 
the small birds which nest on Mount Abu and the Aravallis 
would leave this part of the country during the summer if it 
were not for the superior climate of these hills. Mount Abu 
is favoured with many song-birds, and most of the summer 
visitants wear their best plumage Avhile on the hill, and nest 
there. The blackbird {Merula nigroinlcus) whistles regularly 
from early May till the end of the rains, and it is quite equal 
in song to Mei^ula musica of the old country. The cuckoo 
{Citculus micropterus), like Cuculus canorus of Europe, leaves the 
hatching and care of its offspring to a foster-mother, and, 
instead, devotes much time to call. This cuckoo calls con- 
tinually in Mount Abu from the end of May till August, and 
although a smaller bud than the home variety, its note is not 
less clear and distinct. Robins, wrens, and warblers innumer- 
able join in song at early dawn throughout these hills ; and 
honey- suckers, bee-eaters, spider-hunters, fly-catchers, bulbuls, 
finches, oriols, and tits, of the most brilliant and varied hues, 
throng the glens and shady nooks throughout the day, and 

352 



BIRDS 353 

many of them visit the gardens in the mornings and evenings 
in pursuit of food. Cinm/ris Asiatica, the small purple honey- 
sucker, is the commonest about gardens, but there are others 
of this species often seen. The classification laid down in 
Butler's Catalogue will be adhered to, as far as possible, for 
the ordinary birds, and his nomenclature will also be followed. 
The game birds, of which most are winter visitants, have been 
given in accordance with Hume and Marshall's nomenclatuie. 
In years of very light rainfall game birds are scarce, and other 
birds less plentiful also ; but when the tanks fill, waterfowl are 
abundant, and, when the grass is good, Imperial sand-grouse, 
crane, bustard, hobara, and the feathered tribes in general 
abound throughout the desert, as well as in the fertile parts of 
these States. 

RAPTOEES (Birds of Prey). 

Fam. VuLTURiD^ (Vultures). — Suh-Fam. Vulturin^ (True Vultures). 

Oto(jyps calvus : The Black Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Met with in these States in considerable 
numbers at times ; at other times they are rarely seen, as if they 
migrated when food supplies fail. 
Gyps palleseens : The Long-billed Brown Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Met with at Abu and along the Aravallis. 
Pseudogyps hengalensis : The White-backed Vulture. 

Permanent resident, though not very common. 

Suh-Fam. ]S^ovBB.o^mM (Scavengers). 

Neophron ginginianus : The White or Indian Scavenger Vulture. 
Permanent resident, seen at every village. 

Fam. Falconid^ (Falcons). — Suh-Fant. FalconiNvE (True Falcons). 

Falco peregrinus : The Peregrine Falcon. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Falco peregrinator : The Shaheen Falcon. 

Permanent resident, seen throughout the States. 
Falro Jugger : The Laggar Falcon. 

Permanent resident, common everywhere. 

Z 



354 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Buteo desertorum : The African Buzzard. 

Winter visitant. 
Falco szihbuteo : The European Hobby. 

Winter visitant, only occasionally seen. Sometimes used for 
sport — hawking. 
Astur pahmiharius : The Goshawk. 

Winter visitant, and sometimes trained for sport. 
Gerclmeis tinnuncuhis : The Kestrel. 

Cold weather visitant. Sometimes trained for shikar. 
Cerchneis Naumanni : The Lesser Kestrel. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Cerchneis amurensis : The Eastern Orange-legged Hobby or Kestrel. 

Cold weather visitant. 

Sub-Fam. Accipitrin^ (Hawks). 

Astur badius : The Shikra or Indian Sparrow-Hawk. 

Permanent resident in most parts of the region. It is met 
with throughout the country at all seasons, and is often trained 
for sport. 
Astur soloensis : The Sooloo Falcon. 

Winter visitant. Seen in Godwar in the cold weather. 
Accipiter nisus : The European Sparrow-Hawk. 

Cold weather visitant. Captured and trained for sport. 
Accipiter virgafus : The Besra Sparrow-Hawk. 

Permanent in the Aravallis ; it is trained for sport. 

Sub-Fain. AQUiLiNiE (Eagles). 

Aquila Vindhiana : The Indian Tawny Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Generally seen about the higher hills. 
Nisaetus fasciatus : Bonnelli's Eagle. 

Permanent resident. 
Limnaetus cirrhatiis : The Crested Hawk -Eagle. 

Permanent resident. 
Circaetus gallicus : The Common Serpent-Eagle. 

Probably a permanent resident in the hills. 
Spilornis melanotis : The Lesser or Southern Indian Harrier-Eagle. 

Permanent resident. 
Butasiur teesa : The White-eyed Buzzard. 

Permanent resident. 
Buteo Plumipes : The Harrier-Buzzard. Met with about the hills. 



BIRDS 355 



Suh-Fam. MiLviNJ:: (Kites). 

Haliastur indus : The Maroon-backed or Brahminy K^ite. 

Permanent resident. Seen throughout these States. 
Milvus govinda : The Common Pariah Kite. 

Permanent resident Seen at every village. 
Milvus melanotis : The Large Pariah Kite. 

Permanent resident. Lives about the hills in the hot months. 
Pernis ptilorliynclms : The Crested Honey- Buzzard. 

Permanent resident. 
Elanus roiruleris : The Black- winged Kite. 

Permanent resident, though rare in these States. 

Fam. Strigid.e (Owls). — Sidi-Fam. SiRiGiNiE (Owls). 

Strix javanica : The Indian Screech Owl. 

Permanent resident. Found about old buildings and hollow 
trees ; sits on the house-top and makes a noise at night. 
Strix Candida : The Grass Owl. 

Permanent resident near the hills. 

Suh-Fam. SYRNiiNiE (Hooting Owls). 

Syrnium indranee : The Brown Wood Owl. 

Met with in the Aravalli range and Abu hills. 
Buho coj-omandus : The Dusky Horned Owl. 

Permanent resident. 
Syrnium ocellatum : The Mottled Wood Owl. 

Permanent resident. This bird is of ill omen when it sits 
on or about the houses at night, repeating its doleful note. It 
lives in clumps of trees adjacent to towns, and visits gardens and 
compounds frequently in search of mice and rats. 

Suh-Fam. Bubonin^ (Eagle and Scops Owls). 

Bulio hengalensis : The Rock-horned Owl. 

Permanent resident. 
Ketupa ceylonensis : The Brown Fish Owl. 

Permanent resident, although rare in these States. 
ScojJS vialahariciis : The Malabar Scops Owl. 

Permanent resident. 



356 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Suh-Fam. Surniin/E (Diurnal or Twilight Owls). 

Carine hravia : The Spotted Owlet. 

Permanent resident. Common about old buildings in the 
desert. 
Ninox scutulata : The Brown Hawk-Owl. 

Permanent resident in the Aravallis. 
Glaucidmm malaharicum : The Malabar Owlet. 

Permanent resident. Met with in the high wooded lands. 

INSESSORES (Perching Birds). 
rn6e— FISSIROSTRES (Wide Gape ; usually feed on the wing). 

Fam. HiRUNDiNDi.E (Swallows, Martins, and Swifts). — Sub-Fa7n. 
HiRUNDixix^E (Swallows and Martins). 

Hiinindo rustica: The Common Swallow. 

Cold weather visitant, but very common then. 
Hirundo filifera : The Wire-tailed Swallow. 

Permanent resident, thought not very common. 
Hirundo erythropygia : The Red-rumped or Mosque SAvallow. 

Permanent resident. 
Hirundo flitvicola : The Indian Cliff Swallow. 

Permanent resident. Not common in these States. 
Cotyle sinensis : The Indian Sand Martin. 

Permanent resident, and very common in some parts near rivers 
and streaiaas. 
Ptyonoprogne concolor : The Dusky Crag Martin. 

Permanent resident and common. 
Ptyonoprogne rupestris: The Mountain Crag Martin. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Chelidon urhica : The English House Martin, 

Seasonal visitant. Sometimes seen in great numbers. 

Suh-Fam. CvPSELLiNiE (Swifts). 

Cypsellus ajfmis : The Common Indian Swift. 

Permanent resident, and seen in great numbers in many places. 
Cypsellus hatassiensis : The Palm Swift. 

Permanent resident. Met with in a few places only in Sirohi. 
Dendrochelidon coronata : The Indian Crested Swift. 

Permanent resident. 



BIRDS 357 



Fam. CAPRIMULGIDJ5 (Nightjars or Goat-suckers). — Suh-Fam. 
CAPRiMULGixiG (Nightjars). 

Caprimulgus indiacs : The Jungle Nightjar. 

Permanent resident throughout the hills and wooded parts of 
these States. 
Caprimulgus Kelaarti : The Nilgiri Nightjar. 

Seen throughout the wooded parts of these States. 
Caprimulgus atripe7inis : The Ghat Nightjar. 
Capriimdgus asiaticus : The Common Indian Nightjar. 

Permanent resident, and common where there are trees and 
bushes. 

Fam. TrogonidvE (Trogons). 

Harpades fasciatus : The Malabar Trogon. 

Permanent resident. Found only in the wooded regions. 

Fam. MEROPiDiE (Bee-eaters). 

Merops viridis : The Common Indian Bee-eater. 

Permanent resident. Seen on Mount Abu and about the lower 
hills. 
Merops sroinhoii : The Chestnut-headed Bee-eater. 
Seen in the hills. 

Fam. CoRACiAD^ (Rollers). 

Coracias indica : The Indian Roller. 

Met with in many places during the cold weather ; takes to the 
the hills and wooded regions in the hot season. A handsome bird, 
sometimes mistaken for the blue jay. 

Fam. Alcedinid^ (Kingfishers), 

Alcedo bengalensis : The Common Indian Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident. Met with at all tanks and streams, but 
common only in the cold weather and rains. 
Alcedo heavani : Beavan's Kingfisher. 

Rare. 
Ceryle rudis : The Pied Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident, and common in some parts at certain 
seasons, only when water is abundant. 



358 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Fam. BucBROTiDiE (Hornbills). 

Dichoceros ravafus : The Great Hornbill. 

Met with in the wooded parts only. 
TocTius griseus : The Jungle Grey Hornbill. 

Permanent resident. Seen in the Aravallis and Aim hills. 

Tnie— SCANSORES (Climbers). 
Fam. PsiTTACiu^ (Parrots). — Suh-Fam. PalsRorninse, (Parrakeets). 

Palasornis torquatus : The Rose-ringed Parroquet. 

Permanent resident in the hill country. 
Loriculus vernalis : The Indian Loriquet or Green Parrot. 

Resident in the hills in the hot weather all over the country ; 
in the cold, in flocks. 
Palseornis purjmreus : The Rose-headed Parroquet. 

Met with in the hills and wooded lands adjacent. 
Pals&ornis columhoides : The Blue-winged Parroquet. 

Met with in the hills mostly. 
Palseornis schisticeps : The Slaty-headed Parroquet. 

Met with in the hills here during the hot weather. 

Fam. P1CID.E (Woodpeckers). — Suh-Fam. Picinm (Typical Wood- 
peckers). 

PicMS mahrattensis : The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident in the wooded parts of these States. 

Suh-Fam. CAMPEPHiLiNyE (Woodpeckers). 

Chrrisocolaptes stridus : The Southern Large Golden-backed Woodpecker. 
Permanent resident in the well-wooded regions and hills. 

Suh-Fam.— ■G'E.Gi^i'SM. 

Gecinus striolaf.us : The Small Green AVoodpecker ; and Chrysophlegma 

chlorigaster : The Yellow Woodpecker, are also met with. 
Brachypternus pundicollis : The Lesser Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. 
Microptermis plixoceps : The Rufous Woodpecker. 

Permanent in the hills. 



BIRDS 359 



Fam. Megal^mid/E (Barbets). 

Megalai^na inornata : The Western Green Barbet. 

Common throughout the hills and ■wooded regions, and found 
in the Khejra belts of the desert in the cold weather. 
Megalaema viridis : The Small Green Barbet. 

Permanent resident. Mostly seen in the high lands in the 
summer ; common in Godwar. 
Xantholxma lis&macephala : The Crimson-breasted Barbet or Copper- 
smith. 

Permanent resident. 

Fam. CucDLiD^ (Cuckoos). — Suh-Fam. Cuculin.e (True Cuckoos). 

Cuculus mir-optenis : The Indian Cuckoo. 

This Cuckoo is common on Mount Abu and some of the adja- 
cent hills. It begins to call about the end of May and continues 
throughout the rains ; it lays its eggs in the nest of another bird, 
like Cuculus canorus, the English Cuckoo, which it resembles, 
although smaller. Its note is clear and distinct. 
Cacomantis jjosserimis : The Indian Plaintive Cuckoo. 

Found in the forests at certain seasons. 
Evdynamis honorata : The Indian Koel. 

Permanent resident in some districts, met with most frequently 
adjacent to the low hills. 

Suh-Fam. CsNTROPODiNiE (Coucals and Sirkeers). 

Centrococcyx rufipennU : The Common Coucal or Crow-Pheasant. 

Permanent resident. Met with about gardens and wooded 
lands adjacent to villages. 

Tnit'— TENUIROSTRES (Soft-billed Birds). 

Fam. ]S"ectarinid.e (Honey-Suckers and Spider-Hunters. 
Suh-Fam. NECTARININ.E. 

Arachnothera longirostra : The Little Spider-Hunter. 

Rare. Found in the wooded hills only. 
(Ethopyga vigorsi : The Violet-eared Red Honey-Sucker. 

Permanent resident. Seen in the hills and wooded places with 
the other varieties ; sometimes abundant about gardens in Abu. 



360 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Cinnyris zeylonka : Amethyst-rumped Honey-Sucker. 

Permanent resident. 
Cinnyris ininima : The Tiny Honey-Sucker. 

Permanent resident. 
Cinnyris asiatica : The Purple Honey-Sucker. 

Permanent resident. Common on Mount Abu about gardens ; 
may be seen going about flowers and thrusting its beak into them. 

Suh-Fam. Dic^iNiE (Flower-Peckers). 

Dicxum erythrorhynchum : The Small Flower- Pecker. 

Permanent resident. Mostly on or near the hills in the hot 
months. There are three or four varieties, and some of them are 
handsomely marked. 

Fani. IJpuPiDiE (Hoopoes). — Suh-Fam. Upupin^ (Hoopoes). 

Upupa ceylonensis : The Indian Hoopoe. 

Common in the south of India, and seen here. 
Upupa epops : The Eurojiean Hoopoe. 

Permanent resident. This well-known and pretty bird is found 
all over the country from September till April, when it disappears 
almost completely from these States, and is hardly seen in the hills 
till the cold weather begins. A few may remain in the hills, as I 
have seen them late in the year. 

rn/;e— DENTIROSTRES (with a tooth near the tip of the bill). 

Fam. Laniad^e (Shrikes or Butcher-Birds). — Sub-Fam. LANiANiE 
(True Shrikes). 

Lanius lahtora : The Indian Grey Shrike. 

Lanius erythronotus : The Indian Eufous-backed Shrike. 

Permanent resident in mo.^^t localities. Common everywhere. 
Lanius vittaius : The Bay -backed Shrike. 

Permanent resident in many localities. Common. 
Lanius isabellinus : The Desert Shrike. 

Common in many parts of these States. 

Suh-Fam. j\Ialaconotin.e (Wood Shrikes). 

Tephrodornis sylvicoJa : The Malabar Wood Shrike. 
Not common. 



BIRDS 361 

Teplirodornu pondicerianus : The Common Wood Shrike. 

Permanent resident. 
Hemipus picxitus : The Little Pied Shrike. 

Not common. 

Stch-Faiii. CAMPEPHAGiNiE (Cuckoo Shrikes and Minivets). 

Volvorivora syl-esi : The Black-headed Cnckoo Shrike. 

Not common. 
Perirrocohis Jiammeus : The Orange Mini vet. 

Permanent resident. Mostly seen about the low hills. 
Pericrocotus peregrinus : The Small Minivet. 

Permanent resident. Met with in numbers in Sirohi State. 
Ppricrocrotus erytliropygius : The White-bellied Minivet. 

Rare. 
Pericrocotus Solaris : The Yellow- throated Minivet. 

Sometimes seen. 

Sub-Fam. Dicrurin^e (Drongo Shrikes or King-crows). 

Bitcliamja atra : The Common Drongo Shrike or King-crow. 

Common in most parts of the country. 
Buchanga longicaudata : The Long-tailed Drongo. 

Permanent resident in the hills and wooded high lands. 
Buchanga ceerulescens : The White-bellied Drongo. 

Permanent resident in the Aravalli range. 
Chaptia cenea : The Bronzed Drongo. 

Permanent resident in the high, wooded lands. 
Dissemurus paradiseus : The Malabar Racket-tailed Drongo. 

Permanent resident. Found in the bamboo jungles and low 
hills. 
Chibia hottentotta : The Hair-crested Drongo. 

Seen in the hills. 

Fam. MusciCAPiDiE (Fly-catchers). — Suh-Fam. Myiagrin^ 
(Fly-catchers and Fantails). 

Muscipeta paradisi : The Paradise Fly -catcher. 

Met with in the hills and high wooded lands. 
Hypothymis azurea : The Black-naped Blue Fly-catcher. 

Met with in the high and wooded lands, and in the desert in 
cold weather. 



362 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Leiicocerca aureola : The White-browe J Fantail Fly-catcher. 

Rare. 
Leucocerca leucogaster : The White-spotted Fantail Fly-catcher. 

Permanent resident. 

Sub-Fam. Muscicapin^ (Fly-catchers, Redbreasts, Bluechats, &c. 

Alseonax latirostris : The Southern Brown Fly-catcher. 

Cold "weather visitant. 
Stoporala melanops : The Verditer Fly-catcher. 

Cold "weather visitant. 
Cyornis tickelli : Tickell's Blue Redbreast. 

Permanent resident in the forest districts and high lands. 
Cyornis rujicaudus : The Rufous-tailed Fly-catcher. 

Cold "weather visitant. Bare. 
Cyornis pallipes : The White-bellied Blue Fly-catcher. 

Probably only a cold weather visitant. Rare. 
Erythrosterna parva : The White-tailed Robin Fly-catcher, 

Cold weather visitant. 



Fa7n. Merulid^ (Thrushes). — Sub-Fam. MyioxHERiNiE (Ground 
Thrushes, Wrens, Hill Wrens, Shortwings, Whistling Thrushes, 
Water Ouzels, &c.). 

Myiophoneus horsjieldi : The Malabar Whistling Thrush. 

Permanent resident in the hills. 
Pitta hrachyura : The Indian Ground Thrush. 

Permanent resident in the hills, seasonal in the low lands and 
desert. 
Petrophila cinclorhynclia : The Blue-headed Chat- Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Geocichla cyanotis : The White-winged Ground Thrush. 

Permanent resident. 
Geocichla citrina : The Orange-headed Ground Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Merula nigropileus : The Black-capped Blackbird. The Abu Blackbird. 
Permanent resident in the hills. It begins to whistle in May 
and continues throughout the rains ; its note is very like that of the 
English Blackbird, Merula mvsica, and its appearance is also much 
the same. Although smaller, it has the yellow beak, flight, and 
appearance of the English song-bird. 



BIRDS 363 



Sub-Fam. Timalin.e (Babbling-Thrushes, Finch-Thrushes, Tit-Thrushes, 
Jay-Thrushes, Strike-Thrushes, Wren-Babblers, Scimitar-Babblers, 
Laughing-Thrushes, Bar- Wings, Sibias, Bush-Babblers, Eeed-Bab- 
blers, Marsh-Babblers, Grass-Babblers, and Keed-Birds). 

Pyctoris sinensis : The Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Met with throughout these States. 
Alcippe atriceps : The Black-headed Wren-Babbler. 

Common in many parts of these States. 
Dumetia hyphei-j/thra : The Rufous-bellied Babbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Dumetia albogularis : The White-throated Wren-Babbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Pomatorliinus liorsfieldi: The Southern Scimitar- Babbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Argyd malcolmi : The Large Grey Babbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Layardia sidn-ufa : The Rufous Babbler. 

Permanent in the hills. 



Fajn. Brachypodid^ (Short-legged Thrushes). — Sub-Fam. PrcNONOTiNiE 

(True Bulbuls). 

Hypsipetes ganeesa : The Ghat Black Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Found near the hills in the hot weather ; 
at other seasons more widely distributed. 
Criniger ictericus : The Yellow-browed Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. 
Turdi7ius Ahbotti : Abbott's Thrush- Babbler. 

Uncommon. 
Ixus luteolus : The White-browed Bush Bulbul, 

Permanent resident. 
Rubigula gularis : The Ruby-throated Bulbul. 

Common on Mount Abu and the higher hills in summer, met 
with in many places below during the cold season. 
BracJiypodius poiocephalus : The Grey-headed Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. 
Otocompsa fuseicaudata : The Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. 



364 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Suh-Fam. Phtlloknithin^ (Green Bulbuls). 

Phijllornis jerdoni : The Common Green Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. 
lora tiphi'a : The Black-headed Green Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. 



Suh-Fam. Oriolix^ (Orioles). 

Oriolus kundoo : The Indian Oriole. 

Permanent resident in many of the well-wooded plateaus, but 
not common ; occasionally seen away from the heavy forests. 
Oriolus indicus : The Black-naped Indian Oriole. 

Occasionally seen. 
Oriolus melanocephalus : The Bengal Black-headed Oriole. 

Rare. 



Fam. Sylviad^ (W3ixh\eY&).—Sidj-Fam. Saxicolin^ (Stonechats, 
Wheatears, Indian Robins, Bushchats, Rockchats, &c.). 

Copsychus saidaris : The INIagpie Piobin. 

Permanent resident throughout the country. 
Cercotrichas macrura : The Shama. 

Permanent resident. Seen in both hills and plains. 
Thwmiolna fvlicata : The Indian Black Robin. 

Permanent resident. Met with about houses and old ruins, 
where it builds. Omens are taken from this bird. If it build its 
nest high up, millet will be long ; if it use much grass for its nest, 
there will be a grass famine. 
Pratincola caj^rata : The White-winged Bushchat. 

Permanent resident. 
Pratincola indicus : The Indian Bushchat. 
Cold weather visitant. 

Suh-Fa7n. Ruticillin^ (Redstarts, Bluethroats, &c.). 

Ruticilla rufiventris : The Indian Redstart. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Larvivora sujoerciliaris : The Blue Woodchat. 

Cold weather visitant. Probably permanent in the hills. 



BIRDS 365 



Suh-Fam. DRYMOiciNiE (Wren- Warblers, Indian Tailor-Birds, 
Grass- Warblers, and Hill- Warblers). 

Orthotonus sutorius : The Indian Tailor-Bird. 

Permanent resident in most of the fertile districts. It suspends 
its carefully sewn nest to a branch and lines it witli some soft sub- 
stance such as wool or cotton. 
Prinia socialis : The Ashy Wren- Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Seen everywhere, but commoner in the 
hills than below during the hot months. 
Prinia gracilis : Franklin's Wren- Warbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Cistieola rursitans : The Rufous Grass- Warbler. 

Permanent resident. 
Drymoeca inornata : The Earth-brown Wren-Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Seen among the low bushes throughout 
the country. 
Drymoefa rnfescens : The Great Rufous Wren- Warbler, 

Probably a permanent resident in the well-wooded high lands. 

Suh-Fam. Phylloscopin.e (Tree-Warblers, &c.) 

Hypolais rama : Sykes's Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Phylloscopus magnirostris : The Large-billed Tree-Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Phylloscopus nitidus : The Bright Green Tree-Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Phylloscopus affinis : Tickell's Tree-Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Phylloscopus indicus : The Olivaceous Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Megidoides superciliosus : The Crowned Tree-Warbler. 

Cold weather resident. 

Suh-Fam. Sylviin^ (Grey Warblers, comprising Black-caps 
and White Throats). 

Sylvia jerdoni : The Black-capped Warbler. 
Cold Aveather visitant. 



S66 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



Suh-Fam. Motacillin^ (Wagtails, Pipits, Titlarks, &c.). 

Mofacilla maderasjmtensis : The Large Pied Wagtail. 

Common throughout the cold weather. 
Motacilla inrsonata : The Black -faced Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common. 
Motacilla dukhunensis : The Indian White-faced Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant, and seen in the rains. 
Budytes cinereocapilla : The Slaty -headed Yellow Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant, returns early. 
Budytes vielanocepliala : The Black-cap Field Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Budytes Jlava : The Grey-backed Yellow Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Zimonidromus i7idv:us : The Black-breasted Wagtail. 

Rare. 
Gorydalla rufida : The Indian Titlark. 

Permanent resident. Seen all over the desert. 

Fam. Ampelid^. — Suh-Fam. Leotrichin^ (Thrush-Tits, Hill Tits, 
Shrike-Tits, and Flower-Peckers). 

Zostero]}s imlpehrosa : The White-eyed Tit. 
Permanent resident. 

Suh-Fam. Paring (Tits or Titmice). 

Parus nipalensis : The Indian Grey Tit. 

Permanent resident. Seen near the hills in the hot weather ; 
throughout the desert in the cold. 
Machlolophus aplonotus : The Southern Yellow Tit. 
Permanent resident. 

Tn^e— CONIROSTRES (Thick-billed Birds). 

Fam. CoRViDiE (Crows, Magpies, &c.). — Suh-Fam. Corvine 
(Ravens, Crows, Rooks, Jackdaws). 

Gorvus macrorJiynchus : The Indian Bow-billed Corby or Carrion Crow. 

Permanent resident. Met with throughout the States, except 
in the wooded high lands. 
Gorvus splendevs : The Common Indian Grey-necked Crow. 

Permanent resident. Seen about all villages in numbers. 



BIRDS 367 

Corvus lawrencei : The Indian Raven. 

Met with about towns and houses, often in numbers, and 
known by its large size and hoarse note. 

Sub-Fam. DENDRocixTiNiE (Tree-Crows or Magpies). 

Dendrocitta rufa : The Common Indian Magpie. 

Permanent resident in the woods here. The Shikari is always 
pleased to see this bird, as it omens well for sport. 
Dcndrucitta Bayleyi: Bayley's Blue Tree-Magpie. 

Common in the hills here. 
Cissa diinensis : The Green or Blue Jay, well known everywhere on 
account of its handsome plumage. 

Common throughout these States in the cold weather ; per- 
manent in the hills in the hot weather. This is a bird of good 
omen, and the people dislike its being shot. 

Fam. Sturkid^ (Starlings, Mynas, &c.). — Sub-Fam. STURNiNiE 
(Starlings and Mynas). 

Acridotheres tristis : The Common Myna. 

Permanent resident and very abundant. 
An'idotJieres fuscus : The Dusky Myna. 

Permanent resident. Seen everywhere. 
Pastor roseus : The Rose-coloured Pastor or Jowari Bird. 

Cold weather visitant, when it may be seen in great numbers 
about the villages where grain is being winnowed. 

Fam. Fringillid^ (Finches) — Suh-Fam. Polcein^ (Weaver-Birds). 

Ploceus Javanensis : The Common Yellow Weaver-Bird. 

Permanent resident. It is common throughout the country, and 
its nest may be seen suspended from the Ivhejra tree in many 
places in the desert. 
Amadina punctulata : The Spotted Munia. 

Permanent resident in some districts. 
Amadina striata : The White-backed Munia. 

Permanent resident. 

Estrelda amandava : The Red Waxbill or Common Amidavad is met 

with throughout the cold weather in the desert, and believed to be 

a permanent resident in the hills. 

Estrelda formosa : The Green Waxbill, another species of Amidavad, is 

also common at times, and may be seen in great numbers together 



368 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

with the above variety. These birds roost in the Nim trees at 
Jodhpore, and at times, when food is abundant, they come in great 
numbers with Munias of various kinds, some of which are also 
very pretty little birds. 

Suh-Fam. PASSBRiNiE (Sparrows). 

Passer domestictis : The Indian House-Sparrow. 

Permanent resident. Met with in too great abundance through- 
out the desert and everywhere. 

Suh-Fam. Fringillin^ (Bullfinches, Rose-Finches, 
True Finches, &c.). 

Garpodacus erythrinus : The Common Rose-Finch. 

Cold weather visitant. Met with on Mount Abu in the hot 
weather when the mulberries are ripe, 

Suh-Fam. Alaudin^ (Larks, Bush-Larks, Finch-Larks, &c.). 

Mirafra eri/throptera : The Red-winged Bush Lark. 

Permanent resident. 
Ammomanes phcenicura : The Rufous-tailed Finch-Lark. 

Permanent resident. 
Pyrrhulauda grisea : The Black-bellied Finch-Lark. 

Permanent resident. 
Spizalauda deva : The Small Crown -crested Lark. 

Permanent resident throughout the desert. 
Spizalauda malaharica : The J^orthern Crown-crested Lark. 

Permanent resident throughout the unwooded parts of these 
States. 
Alauda gidgula: The Lidian Skylark. 

Permanent resident. Seen in all grass lands. 

GEMITORES (Pigeons). 

Fam. TreroniDyE (Fruit Pigeons). — Suh-Fam. TRERONiKJi 
(Green Pigeons). 

Crocopus chlorigaster : The Southern Green Pigeon. 

Permanent resident. These birds frequent fig trees of all 
sorts, and may often be found in large numbers on banyan trees. 
They are excellent eating, especially if their tough skins be 
removed before they are cooked. 



BIRDS 369 

Osmotreron malaharica .■ The Grey-fronted Green Pigeon. 

Is also met with, and sometimes in considerable numbers, when 
fruit is plentiful. 

Siih-Fam. Columbine (Rock Pigeons, Stock Pigeons, &c.). 

Columha intermedia : The Common Indian Blue-Rock Pigeon. 

Permanent resident, and common at every village throughout 
the desert where there is water and shade. 

Suh-Fam. Turturin^ (Turtle-Doves and Ringdoves). 

Turtur pidchratus : The Indian Turtle-Dove. 

Common everywhere. 
Turtur meena : The Rufous Turtle-Dove. 

Not common. 
Turtur suratensis : The Spotted Dove. 

Permanent resident in Abu and the hills, but not common in the 
desert, 
Turtur risorius : The Common Ringdove. 

Permanent resident. Very common in the hills and plains. 
Turtur senegalensis : The Little Brown Dove. 

Common everywhere on the high lands, and seen in great num- 
bers in the desert also. 

The principal game birds have been given in a separate chapter, so 
they will not be referred to here. 

GRALLATORES (Waders and Shore Birds). 

Trifte— LATITORES (Coots, Rails, &c.). 

Fam. RallidyE (Water-Hens, Coots, Rails, &c.). — Sid)-Fam. 
Gallinulin.e (Coots, Water-Cocks and Water-Hens). 

Gallinula cJdoropus : The Common Water-Hen 

Probably a permanent resident in some parts of the region. 

Fa7n. CuRSORiDiE (Courier Plovers). 

Cursorius coromandelicus : The Indian Courier Plover. 

Common everywhere except in the wooded high lands in the 
cold months. 

2 A 



370 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Cursorius gdllicus : The Cream Courier Plover. 
Common except in the hottest months. 
Charadrius fulvus : The Indian Golden Plover, ^gialitis asiatica and 

JEgialitis dtihia, the Ring Plover, and yEdiconemus scolopax, the 

Stone Plover, are met with as winter visitants. 

Suh-Fam. Yanellin^ (Lapwings). 

Chettusia gregaria : The Black-sided Lapwing, 

Winter visitant. 
Lobivanellus indicus : The Red-Wattled Lapwing, or " Did-you-do-it." 

Very common everywhere. 

Suh-Fam. Totanin^ (Sandpipers, Greenshanks, Redshanks, and Stilts), 
are met with throughout the cold weather, and Porphyrio jpolio- 
cephalus, the Purple Coot, is common. 

Erytlira phmiiicura : The White-breasted Water-Hen, 

2Vi6e— CULTIROSTRES (Storks, Herons and Ibises). 

Fam. CicoNiD^ (Storks). 

Leptoptilus argalus : The Adjutant or Gigantic Stork. 

Seasonal visitant. 
Ciconia nigra : The Black Stork. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Dissura episcopa : The White-necked Stork. 

Although a permanent resident in India, it is only met with 
here in the cold weather. 

Fa77i. Ardeidj: (Herons, Egrets, Bitterns, and Night-Herons). 

Ardea cinerea : The Common Blue Heron. 

Common in the cold months. 
Herodias torra : The Large Egret or Large White Heron. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Herodias intermedia : The Little White Heron. 

Only met with after the rains and in the cold weather. 
Ardeola grayi : The Poud Heron. 

Met with after the rains and throughout the cold weather. 
Botaurus stellaris : The Bittern. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in all overgrown marshes. 



BIRDS 371 

Fam. TANTALiDiE (Ibises, Shell and Pelican Ibises, Spoonbills, &c.). 
Stib-Fam. TantalinyE (Pelican Ibises). 

Tantalus leucocephalus : The Pelican Ibis. 
Cold weather visitant. 

Sub -Fam. Ibisin^ (Ibises). 

Ibis vielanocephala : The White Ibis. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Inocotis papillosus : The Warty -headed or Black Ibis. 

Cold weather visitant. 
Falcinellus igneus : The Glossy Ibis. 

Cold weather visitant. 

NATATORES (Feet more or less webbed; legs far back). 

Jn7;e— LAMELLIROSTRES (Flamingoes, Swans, Geese, and Ducks). 

Fam. Ph^enicopterid/E (Flamingoes). 

Phxnicopterus antiquorum. : The Flamingo. 

Cold weather visitant. Seen in great numbers on the Sambhar 
Lake. 

Tn6e— MERGITORES (Divers, Grebes, &c.). 

Fam. PoDiciPiD^ (Grebes). 

Podiceps minor : The Little Grebe or Dabchick. 

Permanent resident where the water lasts ; it is found in the 
Abu Lake (throughout the year), where it nests. 

j-n/je— VAGATORES (Comprising Petrels, Gulls, and Terns). 

Fam. Larid^ (Gulls and Terns). — Sub-Fam. Larin^e (Gulls). 

Lanes affinis : The Slaty Herring Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Seen about the Sambhar Lake at times. 
Sterna seena : The Large River Tern. 

A seasonal visitant. Seen at Sambhar occasionally. 
Steima melanogastra : The Black-bellied Tern. 

Seen occasionally. 



372 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 



Tribe — PISCATORES (Web-footed aquatic birds that perch on trees or rocks, 
and feed chiefly on fish). 

Fam. PELiCANiDiE (Pelicans). — Suh-Fam. Pi.OTiNiE (Snake-Birds). 

Plotus melanogaster : The Indian Snake-Bird. 

Common everywhere in the winter. Met with on Mount Abu 
in the lake in the summer. 



INSECTS 

Winged and crawling things are troublesome here, especially 
in tlie monsoon season, when they disturb rest, retard work, and 
worry in endless ways. Only a few of this numerous division 
of the animal kingfdom can be referred to here, and most 
of these are pests of man and domestic animals, 

CoLEOPTERA or BEETLES. — Of tliis Order Byrrhidm or pill- 
beetles are the best known. There are m^ny varieties of 
brown beetles met with, and the large black beetle is nearly 
allied to them. They are mostly harmless, except that they 
are troublesome in flying to the light at night. Their larvae 
are destructive, and eat up many things in domestic use. 
Rhynchophora (weevils) are the most destructive of all beetles, 
and there are many varieties of this species. They destroy grain, 
biscuits, fruit, vegetables, and timber by boring into and 
eating up these things. Coccinellidce (lady-birds and lady- 
cows) are of the Coleoptera order ; they are harmless, and some 
of them prettily coloured, but the larvse are very destructive 
and eat up woollen and silk materials, also skins and hair 
cushions. Packing in dried Nim leaves is the best remedy for 
these destroyers, and the articles should be well exposed to 
sunlight and air before they are shut up. 

Some of the Coleoptera have very brilliant elytra, which are 
used for decorating dresses, scarf pins, and other ornamentation. 
Lytta Vesicatoria (the blister-beetle or Spanish-fly) is a hand- 
some insect of this class, with green elytra. It is of great 
value in medicine, both as an internal remedy and an external 
application. It is very common in the grass here during the 



374 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

rains, and it may be seen at other seasons. Florican feed 
on this beetle during the monsoon season, and they are then 
undesirable for the table, as the eating of their flesh at this 
time is followed by great irritation of the urinary tract and 
painful symptoms. Elater noctilucus (the firefly) and Lampyris 
nodiluca (the glow-worm) are both met with here in the 
damper regions. They are nmch more luminous during the 
monsoon season than at other times of the year. 



LOCUSTS 

Order Orthoptera. — Suh-Order Saltatoria (Grasshoppers 
and Crickets). 

Acridum peregrinum. 

Locusts visit these States every four or five years and over- 
run the country, committing much havoc on crops and trees, 
and sometimes even denuding the sands of grass. They are 
not, however, indigenous in the tibas or sandhills of Mar- 
war and Jaisalmir, as supposed by Moore and Cotes. They 
generally die out in the second or third year after their arrival, 
and I have satisfied myself that the country is absolutely free 
from them at times, and that reinvasion of the country is due 
to new flights from outside. I am of opinion that locusts 
come from beyond the frontier, probably from the Baluchistan 
and Afghanistan hills, or from Africa; and I have, on one 
occasion, seen them on board a P. & O. steamer in the Red 
Sea. They may also sometimes leave the deseru after they 
have exhausted the food, and return again to deposit their 
eggs. I have seen them on one occasion come up by Abu 
from Ahmedabad in the cold weather; they deposited their 
eggs in many parts of Rajputana in the end of the following 
hot weather, and the young brood overran this part of the 
country in the rains. 

Locusts generally come into these States near the end of 
the hot weather, deposit their eggs as soon as rain falls, and 
then disappear. It is supposed they die after this, like butter- 
flies, but I have never seen them dead in large numbers, and 

375 



376 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

I have known them to fly away in good condition, having left 
then- eggs behind. They may, however, eat up the weakly 
ones as they begin to drop out of the flight, as the young 
larvae invariably turn on their disabled companions and devour 
them greedily. 

The female locusts deposit their eggs in holes in the sand 
about an inch deep, made with their ovipositors. The eggs 
are stuck -together by means of a mucous secretion in masses 
of fifty to a hundred ; the mouth of the hole is sealed with the 
same substance, and then covered over with sand, so as to 
protect the eggs from rain, and prevent their being eaten up 
by insects and bu'ds. The young larvse are hatched in about 
a fortnight or three weeks in Avarm weather ; but the eggs 
would somethnes appear to lie dormant when deposited at an 
untimely season, as young broods have sometimes been seen 
long after the winged insects had disappeared. The larvse are 
very small at first and black in colour. They moult frequently, 
taking on several new and enlarged coverings before they 
attain full size. It requires over a month for them to develop 
wmgs and take to flight. As soon as they emerge from the 
ground they eat enormously, and, when they have grown a 
little and developed their muscles, they begin to hop and 
move forward, devouring every leaf that is green on the sands, 
and leaving the country behind them barer than it is in the 
hot weather. It is rather startling to see these creatures in 
some of the gardens between the bare hills at Jodhpore. They 
crowd into the gardens over walls, ditches, and houses, like 
thousands of swarms of bees, and denude every bush and 
plant in a few hours. I have seen them in such numbers, 
when there was little green vegetation in the country, that one 
could not walk about without killing many of them, and as 
soon as they were disabled or dead, their companions rushed 
into my footprints and devoured them greedily. Indeed, they 
were so ravenous and numerous, that I often thought they 




Butterflies, Abu. 




Loeust [Acriditiu siicciihtuni). 'Jo faci' pagi 376. 



LOCUSTS 377 

could have eaten me up very quickly, if they had only known 
how to begin. They continue in this onward march of destruc- 
tion, always taking a route through the greenest parts of the 
country, till they have developed their Avings, when they take 
to flight, forming enormous clouds, sometimes obscm'ing the 
sun like an eclipse or huge dust-storm. They then attack 
trees and standing crops, breaking the branches of the former 
and denuding them of their leaves, and, when the hajra, jmvar, 
and maize are in ear, they hardly leave a single seed before 
they fly off in search of new pastures. They are, when fully 
grown, at first pinkish in colour, then they become yellowish, 
and finally brownish. They often wander about in the desert 
during the whole of the cold weather, resting on bushes in a 
semi-torpid condition during the night, and flying away to new 
ground during the day. In the second year they are generally 
active and lay eggs, but in the third they deteriorate in 
physique, and, in my opinion, do not produce eggs. They are 
then inactive, often hardly taking to wing, and when they rise 
only flying for a short distance. At this period they are 
diseased, and become the prey of birds and beasts, very soon 
after disappearing from the country completely. I saw the 
Acridum succinctum in the Deccan at Jalna in 1878, and I have 
no doubt that the variety met with in the desert here is dis-. 
tinct, viz., Acridum peregrinum, the locust of the Bible, which I 
once saw on board a P. & 0. steamer in the Red Sea. 

In the deserts of Marwar and Jaisalmu* locusts are at 
times much used as food ; they are relished by many of the 
people of these parts of the country, Mahomedans, Rajputs, 
and other castes. The saying is, that those fed on locusts 
daily grow visibly fatter and fatter. I have been through the 
desert in years when the great bulk of the population subsisted 
on locust and bread made from burnt grass-seed, and I found 
them well nourished. During the cold weather the locusts 
settle at night in the hor, hhair, and mimosa bushes, and they 



378 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

become semi-torpid with the cold, when they are easily caught 
in the early morning. The people throw blankets and clothes 
over them, and then push them into bags, or tie them up in 
bundles, and carry them ofP on camels to be eaten in the fresh 
state, or salted up in tiers in the huts for future use. They 
are boiled in salt water, curried, and cooked in other ways to 
suit tastes. Curry made from the fresh insect is not unpala- 
table to the hungry traveller. In years of scarcity the un- 
winged locusts are also eaten, but in years of plenty only the 
mature insect is used for the table, and even these are never 
so much in use when grain is abundant, although they are 
considered a delicacy when they first come in. 

The people of these States are generally averse to destroying 
life, and even flesh-eaters become, from associations, averse to 
killing more than is necessary ; consequently, little is done 
against invasions of locusts. The people have an idea that a 
locust year will always be one of abundant harvest, and that 
the little taken away by these insects will not be missed ; a 
year of flies is also always expected to be a year of abundant 
crops. With regard to locusts, the idea is sometimes falla- 
cious, as I have seen them take away the whole hajra crop just 
as the seeds were forming, leaving the stalks standing, but of 
little or no use for cattle, as they absorb so much nitre from 
the soil when thus early denuded of their millet that they are 
unwholesome as fodder. On the other hand, locusts are mostly 
abundant in years when the crops are good, and they some- 
times leave enough to give a bumper harvest. At times they 
only top-dress the hajra, so that it sprouts unusually when the 
rain falls seasonably, and produces many stalks, which, in due 
course, grow into fine beads of millet. The husbandman then 
reaps many hundredfold more than he otherwise would have 
obtained by his own industry. 

The population of the desert is sparse, and the number 
of locusts to be dealt with prodigious ; nevertheless, much 



LOCUSTS 379 

could be done to mitigate their ravages if the people had 
their hearts in the work of extermination and began it early. 
The eggs could be dug up and destroyed, and the larva3 could 
be entrenched, burnt, and beaten to death. However, many of 
the villagers would rather starve than take part in a campaign 
of destruction such as that recognised, and the most that they 
do is to drive the young larvte away from their fields, with 
brooms made of twigs, and shout at the Hying insects in the 
hope of making them alight in another's field instead of in 
theirs. 

Driving larva3 into trenches and burying them has been 
found useful; but this measure should be early adopted to 
meet with success, as the active hopping young locusts are 
difficult to deal with in this way. 

A cloth screen, from two to three feet high, made slip- 
pery at the top, with a bit of oil-cloth (as used in Cyprus), 
might be found a useful addition to the trenching system, to 
direct into and retain the larvae in the trenches. 

Driving the young into lines of burning straw was found 
efficacious in Madras, and beating with besoms of twigs was 
considered the best way of destroying them in Bombay. Bags 
with openings at the side have been successfully tried ; the 
young larvfe are driven into a bag eight or ten feet long by 
five or six wide, which is then twisted until they are killed. 

Poisoning with arsenic has been found successful in dealing 
with locusts in Aroentina, and it can be done with dilute 
solutions which would not be injurious to man or animals ; 
it is, therefore, not attended with any danger, and it is also 
inexpensive. The necessary mixture is made by heating four 
gallons of water to boiling-point, and then adding one pound 
of caustic soda to which one pound of arsenic is added. The 
mixture should be well stirred and boiled for a few minutes, 
care being taken not to inhale the fumes, which are poisonous. 
Half-a-gallon of this mixture should be added to four gallons 



380 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

of treacle and well mixed. Should treacle not be available, 
ten pounds of brown sugar mixed Avith four gallons of water 
will do instead. The dilute mixture should be thrown about 
the fields with a large whitewash brush, or hajra stalks could 
be dipped in it and then scattered for the locusts, which are 
attracted from considerable distances by the treacle. They eat 
the mixture with great avidity and die, and are eaten by their 
fellows, which die also ; and this goes on until they are exter- 
minated. The treacle mixture would have a strength of a 
little less than one grain of arsenic to the ounce of mixture, 
so it could not injure man or animals when scattered about 
the fields as directed above. 

Dr. Edington, of Cape Colony, has cultivated a fungus 
which is very destructive to locusts, and which grows rapidly 
in the dead bodies of the insects, so that if they be thrown 
about where locusts feed, the disease is rapidly disseminated 
and the flights destroyed. The natives collect the dead 
insects, keep theiii in heaps for four or five days, when the 
fungus has fully developed throughout their bodies ; they are 
then ground up and the meal mixed with sugar and water 
and placed on healthy locusts captured for the purpose, which 
are again set free to spread the disease among the flights 
throughout the country. The artificiall}^ cultivated fungus is 
distributed in tubes, and it is sufficient to break the tubes 
under shade and keep the place damp for the infection to 
spread to the flights of locusts about. The tubes are also 
broken in water and locusts dipped in the mixture, when they 
carry it away to their fellows, and thus spread the disease. 
This method is the most natural that has yet been adopted 
against locusts, and it should, if properly carried out, be suffi- 
cient to protect this country against them. 

I am indebted to Rao Bahadur Pandit Sukhdeo Pershad 
for the following account of the operations carried on against 
locusts in Marwar during 1898 : — 



LOCUSTS 381 

Last year particular attention Avas given to remedial 
measures, which consisted of dealing with (i) eggs, (2) larvse, 
(3) full-grown flying locusts. 

On the 29th July a flight of locusts passed over to Baru 
near Jodhpore. They alighted at 5 p.m., and flew aAvay after 
depositing eggs on the following morning. The area on which 
they rested during the night consisted of drifting sand and 
sandy ground with some grass roots and mimosa shrubs. 
The insects avoided the drifting sand and deposited their 
eggs in the stable ground. For purposes of observation the 
area containing the newly-laid eggs was divided into four 
sections. The first was ploughed deeply to prevent the 
hatching of the eggs, but without any very marked effect, 
although many of the eggs must have been injured and 
disturbed. Nevertheless, numbers of larvae came out of this 
portion of the ground in a healthy condition. The second 
division was allowed to remain undisturbed, and hatching on 
a complete scale took place in it. The eggs were dug up and 
destroyed from the third section ; however, this process proved 
very tedious and impossible for a large area. The fourth 
section was flooded with water without effect, as larvae came 
forth from it in great numbers. 

The larvae came out on the loth of August, and soon 
began to hop about, eating up the blades of grass then 
sprouting. In order to ascertain how they would be aff'ected 
by want of air, trenches, six, nine, and twelve inches deep, 
were dug and larvae buried in them. The trenches were 
opened twenty-four hours afterwards. With the exception 
of a few which had been injured and killed in the act of 
burying, they were all alive. This experiment was repeated, 
and it was found that about forty-eight hours elapsed before 
they died under this process. 

Deeper trenches were dug and larvae driven into them by 
the villagers. The trenches were half filled, and sand was 



382 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

then thrown on them to keep them down. Larvae were 
driven into heaps of dry thorns and bm*nt. Both these 
methods were effectual, and they could be readily carried 
out by the villagers. However, lack of co-operation on their 
part is the principal drawback to prosecuting this plan of 
extermination. 

A solution of one pound caustic soda and one pound 
arsenic m four gallons of water was prepared over fire. Haif- 
a-gallon of this liquid, mixed with four gallons of water and 
ten pounds of unrefined sugar {jaggree), was sprinkled over 
shrubs and grass in the affected area, in the hope that the 
locusts would eat it, die, and then be devoured by their 
fellows while any remained unpoisoned. This method suc- 
ceeded well in a cage in which captured locusts were confined, 
but it did not answer the pui-pose in the open plains, as 
the free insects were not much attracted by the sweetened 
poison, and theu' fellows did not wait to devour them after 
they did. 

Rectangular pieces of cloth, twelve inches by three inches, 
were held erect, with the lower edges touching the ground, 
and the locusts driven into them and killed by twisting the 
cloths. This system was fairly satisfactory, and as it requires 
only two men and a piece of cloth it is very easily worked. 

The locust-catcher, as used by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, was successfully tried ; but it was found that if the 
bullocks were yoked close to the bag they diverted the larvai 
from it, and to overcome this traces of twenty-five feet were 
necessary. This apparatus consists of a log of wood on 
wheels, drawn by bullocks, with twigs inserted into it to 
sweep the insects into a long bag attached in front of the log. 
When the bag fills it is taken off and the larvae destroyed. 

Fires were lighted at night to attract the young locusts, 
but this scheme was unsuccessful. 

Dr. Edington's fungus was obtained and cultivated. It 



LOCUSTS 383 

was put into water, and mature locusts captured and dipped 
into the solution, after which they were allowed their liberty ; 
but they died without following up the flight to which they 
were intended to carry the contagion. 

The natural enemies of locusts in this part of the country 
are very minute weevils, which perforate their eggs and re- 
move the fluid from the shells ; ants, which attack, disable, 
and devour larvae ; crows, kites, and other birds which subsist 
on them while they remain in the country, and follow them up 
for long distances. The adjutant {Lcptoptilus argala) is the most 
formidable enemy of these insect pests. These birds encircle 
flights and crawhng swarms of locusts, drive them together in 
huddled masses, and then devour them with great avidity. 
Damp is the natural enemy of the locust, and a damp season is 
always fatal to their existence in the desert, as it produces 
disease among them which soon exterminates the flights. 

Crryllidce (grasshoppers), Achetidw (crickets), and Blattidce 
(cockroaches), of which there are several varieties of each 
species, belong to this order. The two latter are very de- 
structive in Indian houses, and should be kept down with 
arsenic, which they readily eat if it be mixed with dough. 
They have a great dislike to Nim {Melia indica), and if the 
leaves of this tree be packed with clothes, they protect them 
against destruction by these troublesome domestic pests and 
their larvae. Mantis religiosa (the praying mantis) is a familiar 
insect of this order, which visits when the night-lights are up, 
and rids the bungalow of many winged intruders. 

Order Aphaniptera {Sarcopsylla 'penetrans or Pulex ;penetrans, 
the Chigre or Chigoe). 

The chigoe, vulgarly called "jigger," is a species of flea, 
which passes part of its existence on the ground like other 
fleas, but the female of which penetrates into the feet, gene- 



384 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

rally under the toe-nails, where, producing its eggs, it swells 
out to the size of a pea, and lives by suction from the tissues 
in which it is embedded. It is difficult to detect at first, but 
it must be completely dug out of the tissues when it is dis- 
covered, without breaking the egg sac, otherwise diffuse in- 
flammation follows. This insect is at present attracting much 
attention on account of the rapidity with which it is spreading, 
and the trouble which it is giving in Africa. It was intro- 
duced into Africa from the West Indies, and is rapidly over- 
running the whole continent. It has lately been seen in 
Bombay, in coolies returned from Africa, and it attacked some 
of the Bombay sepoys recently on service in Mombassa. Great 
precautions against its importation into India are necessary, as 
the climate would suit it, and it would certainly spread rapidly 
throughout the country if introduced, giving rise to much 
suffering both in man and animals. The Sarcoptes hominis or 
Acarus scdbiei (" itch mite ") is the only other insect which be- 
haves in the same way as the chigoe. However, it is more 
easily dealt with, and it does not spread rapidly under ordinary 
precautions and cleanliness. In this case, too, the female pene- 
trates under the skin, but she differs from the other in laying 
her esfgrs in the burrow she makes. 

A species of Pulicida3 {Pidex irritoMs or common flea) is 
found in many large towns in India ; but it sticks in the skin 
only till it has satisfied its hunger, and therefore is not formid- 
able. Most of this family feed and move on. They can be 
kept out of houses, even in the hills, with proper attention to 
ventilation, sunlight, and cleanliness. 

Order Hemiptera. 

This order is represented by one of the most undesirable 
of domestic pests — Aca7ithia lectidaria or Cimex lectularius 
(the bed-bug), for which Keating's powder is occasionally 



LOCUSTS 385 

necessary, especially in the hills, where it is difficult to keep 
under in the rains when sunlight is often wanting, as the 
houses are then shut up to keep out the damp. 

Coccus cacti (the cochineal insect) of this order may be 
seen during the monsoon season. It is used in medicine and 
the arts as a colouring agent. 

Associated with the Hemiptera are Pediculi (lice), a 
degraded and aberrant group, which formerly were classified as 
a distinct order, the Anoplura. They eschew cleanliness, and 
should not be known " in places sacred to neatness and repose." 

Order DiPTERA. 

The genus Culex of this order is formidably represented 
in mosquitoes, gnats, and sand-flies, of which there are many 
varieties here. The mosquito has always been a troublesome 
lodger ; but since Ross has placed on it the onus of harbouring 
the malarial plasmodium, and implanting fever poison in the 
human system, it has become a more dreaded foe, and greater 
interest has been added to the study of its life and habits. 

Siimdmm nocivum,, the sand-fly, is a worse biter in the 
desert than the mosquito, but its attacks are not followed by 
any serious consequences. The spotted-winged mosquitoes of 
this country and Anopheles clavigar of Italy are the dangerous 
varieties of the species. However, it is well to avoid being 
bitten by any of these blood-sucking enemies of mankind, 
especially in warm climates, where there is rarely any super- 
abundance of the vital fluid in the body. The use of mosquito 
curtains is therefore recommended as a protection both against 
fever and disturbed rest, especially for the young and unseasoned. 

Musca domestica (the house-fly), 3fusca voniitoria (the blue- 
bottle-fly), Hipp)6bosca equina (the horse-fly), GasteropMlus equi 
(the bot-fly). Oestrus ovis (the sheep-fly), and CEstrus hovis (the 
cattle-fly), are all of the Diptera order and common pests 
here. Bots, due to the eggs of Gasterophihcs equi, are common 

2 B 



386 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

in horses, and are best treated by the seeds of the Dhak tree 
{Butea frondosa), ground up and administered with the food. 
Good sanitation is the best remedy against house-flies, and 
carboHc acid or phenyle sprinkled about poisons some of them ; 
also mixtures of arsenic and sugar, and quassia and sugar, 
when fly-papers are not available. 

Order Hymenoptera. 

Apis indica. 

There are three well-known varieties of bee in these States. 
The most common, Ajns indica, resembles Apis mellifica of 
Europe, and is found in large colonies in trees, attached to 
rocks, and occasionally in holes in walls. A larger variety of 
bee, which frequents the hills away from dwellings, is darker 
in colour, and builds mostly in rocks, where it is diflScult to 
approach, both on account of its fierceness and the inaccessi- 
bility of the position it usually selects for its habitation. The 
third variety is very small, and found mostly in banyan trees 
at the foot of the hills, often close to villages. The large bee 
is by far the most fierce ; it will attack almost without provo- 
cation, and, once it is roused, follow up its victim for long 
distances, stinging fearlessly until it leaves its sting behind. 
The best way to avoid bees is to get into a green bush, when 
they quickly desist from their attack. All the varieties here 
store up honey in considerable quantities, and combs can be 
found in good condition in May and June, and also in October 
and November, The honey is, however, sometimes coarsely 
flavoured, especially that stored on rocks by the larger black 
bee. This honey is sometimes even said to be poisonous 
when collected from certain flowers. The best honey is found 
on branches of trees, and it is sometimes of very fine flavour. 
The Bhils take it away during the night, or by smoking 
out the hive with burning grass on a pole. Honey is 



LOCUSTS 387 

sometimes offered for sale at Abu, and it is exported from 
some villages adjacent to the hills. The smaller varieties of 
bee could be cultivated and improved; but they produce a 
good deal of honey without trouble, and the people here are 
satisfied with a little without labour. The large bee is too 
fierce for domestication. It has been found more profitable 
to import Italian bees than to domesticate any of the wild 
varieties of India, and no attempt has been made at bee- 
farming in these States. The Bhils, however, collect much of 
the honey both for sale and domestic use. and it is largely used 
in country medicine here. 

Many of the most disagreeable flying insects belong to the 
Hymenoptera order, such as Vespa indica (the Indian wasp), 
Vespa crahro (the hornet), Formica fidiginosa (the black ant), 
Formica sanguinea or rubra (the red ant), also varieties of 
Cijnipidce (gall-flies), Siricida3 (saw-flies), &c. 

Neuroptera. 
This order is well represented here, and the best known 
and most troublesome are the Termites or white ants. Perlidce 
(stone-flies and many water-flies useful for fishing), Libellulidce 
(dragon-flies, some of which are very handsome), belong to this 
order. White ants are so very destructive that they require 
to be kept down, and arsenic is the best remedy. It should be 
put under the plaster in houses where these troublesome pests 
come up through the floors and walls, as the drug is poisonous 
and irritating to the eyes and bronchi if inhaled with dust, 
which must occur if it be left on the surface. White ants will 
not attack the wood of the Nim tree (Melia ijidica) until it 
becomes very old and decayed, and wood saturated with salt- 
water, creosote or tar is also unpalatable to them. Kerosine 
oil keeps them back for a time, and it is also a good remedy 
against black ants {Formica fuliginosa), which sometimes invades 
Indian houses in the rains. 



LAC 

Coccus Lacca (the Lac Insect). 

Oi'der H^MOPTERA. — Sub-Order MoNOMERA. — Family CocciD^. 

(Scale Insects.) 

Throughout the Aravallis and fertile lands in the neighbour- 
hood of the hills of these States there are many trees which 
grow with sufficient vigour to support the lac insect (Coccus 
lacca). The intensity of the hot weather, the long dry season 
which follows the monsoon, and the frost, which is always 
considerable in December and January, are unfavourable to 
the cultivation of lac here, as the insects are sensitive to both 
intense cold and great heat, and they require some moisture 
in the an* to enable them to work vigorously. 

Two attempts have been made to introduce the lac insect 
into the forests of the Aravallis, but without success. How- 
ever, a third effort will shortly be made, as it is believed that, 
if once well established, it could surmount all difficulties and 
produce lac of good quality. 

The lac insect was obtained from Kewa and placed on 2 5 o 
Dhak trees — Bidea frondosa — in November 1895. About 2000 
twigs, received with incrustations on them, were made up into 
bundles of six or seven each, and fixed to the crowns of trees 
which appeared sufficiently vigorous to support the insect. 
This was done at the right time, viz., when the larvae were 
about to come out, and, by the end of a week, the young 
insects had all left the incrustations and fastened themselves 
on to the bark of twigs by means of their proboscides. The 

388 



LAC 389 

insects did not show much power of locomotion or desire to 
take up new fields ; they attached themselves to new twigs in 
contact with the old ones, and many of them were observed to 
perish in the struggle for existence on account of having re- 
mained too near home. Once they had fixed their suckers 
into the bark, they had to remain there permanently, and 
those which failed to obtain a good position perished from 
inanition. Before the larvse left the incrustations of their 
mothers they sucked up all the red colouring matter, leaving 
only a dessicated, colourless film behind. 

By the end of a month the surviving larvse had grown 
considerably, and their bodies had become distended. The 
three filaments, essential to the female for respiration, ex- 
cretion, and fecundation, had grown long, and lac incrustations 
began to be formed, so everything seemed to be doing well. 
Some of the shoots on which the insects were fixed were, hoAv- 
ever, killed by frost in December and January, and the insects 
perished with them. The hot weather of May and June dried 
up some of the incrustations, and reduced the stock still 
further. Then ants and monkeys devoured many more, 
leaving very little prospect of a reward for the labour be- 
stowed on the enterprise. The males of the survivors de- 
veloped wings, and new larvse appeared in July; but the crop 
was far from an abundant one. The insect found its way 
accidentally on to a pipal tree (Ficus religiosa), and larvae 
developed on it simultaneously with those of the other trees ; 
but some of them were brilliant red, while others were yellow, 
as if they were in a more advanced stage than those bred on 
other trees. A planting out on fresh trees of some of the 
larvte bred in Marwar was effected in July 1896, but they 
were mostly washed away by the heavy monsoon rains before 
they had become firmly fixed to the bark of the young shoots 
taken up by them, and what remained of them died during 
the frosty weather which ensued in December and January 



390 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

The experiments of both years failed, and although some of 
the imported larvae developed and produced lac, it was not in 
sufficient quantity to admit of twigs being rolled and the wax 
clarified to ascertain if it were of good quality. Both the 
seasons in which the experiments were made turned out 
unfavourable ; the winter frosts were unusually severe, and the 
monsoon set in untimely for the planting out of the home- 
cultivated larvte. 

The followmg are the trees that have been set apart for 
lac cultivation in Marwar, viz., Uhak {Butea frondosa), Ber 
{Zizyijhus jujuha), Babul {Acacia arahica), Sal (Shorea rohusta), 
Khejra (Prosopis spicigera), Bur (Ficus indica), Gular (Ficus 
fjlomerata), Khair {Acacia catechu), Karunda {Carissa carandas), 
Pangara {Erythriiut indica), and Am {Mangifcra indica). 

Besides the ordinary writing-table and office application 
of lac, it is largely used in these States for colouring wooden 
toys and other woodwork, also for making wrist and neck 
ornaments for women and for ornamenting idols. 



LEPIDOPTERA 

Rhopalocera or Butterflies, of which the following are the 
best known : — 



List of Butterfiies collected hy the Boys at the Railway School, 
Mount Abu. 



I. Royal Emperor. 


33- 


Charcoal Tij). 


2. Common Emperor. 


34- 


Asia Tip. 


3. Royal Tiger. 


35- 


Swallow Tail. 


4. Bengal Tiger. 


36. 


Glassy. 


5. Tortoise-shell Tiger. 


37- 


Cartridge. 


6. Tiger. 


38. 


Brown Cartridge. 


7. Peacock. 


39- 


Sailor. 


8. Two-tailed Peacock. 


40. 


Brown Sailor. 


9. Four-tailed Peacock. 


41. 


Tortoise-shell. 


10. Tibetian Peacock. 


42. 


Brown Tortoise-shell 


11. Rose Peacock. 


43- 


Cabbage. 


12. Mourning Peacock. 


44. 


Curry and Rice. 


13. Limey. 


45- 


Red Sky. 


14. Two-tailed Limey. 


46. 


Blue Sky. 


15. Four-tailed Limey. 


47. 


Tibetian. 


16. Wilkinson's. 


48. 


Bouncer. 


17. Eggie Wilkinson's. 


49. 


Olive. 


18. Eggie' s. 


50. 


Leopard. 


19. Gentleman's Fancy. 


51- 


Cheetah. 


20. Lady's Fancy. 


52. 


Pepper and Salt. 


21. White Orange Tip. 


53- 


1st Class Watcher. 


22. Yellow Orange Tip. 


54- 


2nd Class Watcher. 


23. Yellow. 


55- 


3rd Class Watcher. 


24. Zebra. 


56. 


Silver Leopard. 


25. Mangoe. 


57- 


Macaroni. 


26. Bluebell. 


58. 


Blotted Olive. 


27. Dumb-bell. 


59- 


Olive Leaf. 


28. Spotted Bell. 


60. 


Devil. 


29. Bare Back. 


61. 


Evening Leaf. 


30. Rocky. 


62. 


Map Butterfly. 


31. Scarlet Tip. 


63. 


Oak Leaf. 


32. Salmon Tip. 


64. 


Coff"ee. 



391 



392 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

List of Moths {Heterocera) collected hy the Boys at the Railway 
School, Mount Abu. 



I. 


Common Moth. 


7- 


Wall Moth. 


2. 


Atlas Moth. 


8. 


Ash Moth. 


3- 


Moon Moth and 


9- 


Charcoal Moth. 




Half-Moon Moth. 


lO. 


Bark Moth. 


4- 


Korunda Moth. 


II. 


Silkworm Moth. 


5- 


Death's Head. 


12. 


Brush-tailed Moth 


6. 


Cottage Moth. 







Bomhyx mori, the silkworm moth, is met with on Mount 
Abu and in some of the other hills, and it Avould be possible to 
cultivate it here. However, the dry season is so prolonged that 
it might not be a profitable enterprise. 



Arachnida. 

Spiders (Arachnida), like lizards, are great benefactors in the 
house, as they rid it of many noxious insects, such as flies, 
mosquitoes, and gnats. Spiders are considered lucky here, as 
in Europe, and the people of the country always protect them. 
The tarantula (Lycosa tarantida), a large species of spider found 
in Indian houses, is a useful insect for keeping down noxious 
vermin, and it will even attack and devour scorpions. It only 
bites when hurt, and its bite is not poisonous, so it should not 
be injured. 

Belonging to the same class, but very different in habits 
from spiders, with which they have little in common struc- 
turally except four pairs of legs, are the following parasites of 
the order Acarina or Monomerosomata : — Sarcojytes hominis or 
Acarus scabiei (the " itch " mite of man), Acarics communis (the 
dog-tick), Acams major (the cattle-tick), Acarus equus (the horse- 
tick), and Acarus ornothis (the fowl-tick). All are common 
here. Except Acarus scabiei (which requues special treat- 
ment), they are easily kept down by lime-washing, frequent 



LEPIDOPTERA 393 

renewing and burning of the floors of houses occupied by 
domestic animals. Kerosene oil, also, is a good application, 
and it should be rubbed into the woodwork of fowl-houses to 
destroy these pests. 

Helminthology. 

The parasites which inhabit the alimentary canal of man 
and the lower mammalia are not wanting here. Most of these 
obnoxious Entozoa find their way into the system through food 
and water, and several of them exist in meat in a larval or 
immature state. Some of them are encysted in a membranous 
or calcareous covering. This enables them to resist high tem- 
peratures, and to remain potent for evil after the cooking of 
the meat, in which they lie dormant till they have been 
liberated by the action of the gastric juice, when they begin a 
new period of activity. 

Cestoidea, or Tape-Worms. — There are three varieties of 
this species, viz., Tcenia solium, Tcenia mediocanellata, and 
Bothriocephcdus latus. The larvae of the first-named variety, 
Tcenia solium, is derived from pigs' flesh. The pig eats up the 
eggs with garbage; they are acted on by the gastric juice, 
which dissolves the capsule and liberates a minute proscolex, 
which bores its way into the blood-vessels of its host, and gets 
carried to a suitable nidus in the tissues. It develops further 
into the Cysticercus celhdosce or " measle " of pork, and remains 
encysted until it is liberated by digestion again, after which it 
grows into a tapeworm and remains a parasite in the intestines. 
The larva? of the second variety, Tcenia mediocanellata, is found 
in the flesh of the cow ; and of the third, Bothriocephahis latus, 
in fresh-water fish. Both these varieties go through much the 
same stages of existence as the Tcenia solium. 

Nematoda, or " Bound " and " Thread Worms." — There are 
four well-known varieties of these parasites, viz., Ascaris 
lumbricoides, Oxyuris vermicularis, Trichocephalus dispar, and 



394 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

Anchyolostomum duodenale. The life-history of these parasites 
is not so well known. The ova may, in some instances, be 
taken into the stomach in vegetable food or water, and in 
others there may be an alternative host for the first stage of 
development. 

Trichina spiralis. — This parasite develops in the ali- 
mentary canal after the ingestion of pigs' flesh containing 
the encysted embryos. A young brood is produced, and these 
larvae find their way through the circulation into the muscles,. 
Avhere they become encysted after they have injured much of 
the muscular fibre. 

Filaria sanguinis hominis. — This worm is found in the 
human blood and lymphatics, where it gives rise to a group of 
diseases resembling elephantiasis, not often seen here. The 
embryo of this nematode is found only in the blood-vessels of 
the skin during the night ; and it has, in consequence, been 
named Filaria nocturnis. This entozoon, like many of the 
others, requires an intermediate host, and Dr. Manson has 
demonstrated that the mosquito acts in this capacity, to 
facilitate the full development of the parasite. The mosquito 
draws up the Filarise with the blood it sucks, and enables it to 
return to the water, where it dies, thus acting as a temporary 
host during its lifetime, and providing for their further exist- 
ence by dying in the water, which is a suitable medium, after 
their liberation from the mosquito's body. 

Filaria onedinensis {Guinea-tvorm) is a common parasite in 
these States. The larva finds its way into the body through 
water, most probably drinking-water. The female develops 
to a considerable length in the areolar tissues of the body, 
mostly of the legs. She produces young, and then endeavours 
to gain an exit through the skin for her offspring, after which 
she dies if left in the body, producing much irritation and in- 
flammation of the tissues in which she is embedded. When 
free, the larvae seem to exist in water for a time. But it is 



LEPIDOPTERA 395 

believed that they have alternative hosts in fresh-water crusta- 
ceans ; and, like some of the other parasites of this class, they 
pass through one or more metamorphoses. 

Trematoda or " Flukes." — These parasites pass through a 
complicated metamorphosis, varying with the host they 
occupy and the conditions about them. They exist in various 
forms in water, mammals, birds, batrachians, fishes, and mol- 
lusks. They gain access to the system through food and 
water, and are capable of producing a diseased condition in 
man and domestic animals. Flukes infest sheep, and may be 
communicated to man from the flesh of these animals, espe- 
cially the liver and kidneys. Some authorities believe that 
they gain admission through bathing water. 

Vegetable Paeasites. 

Man and the lower animals are subject to attacks from 
vegetable parasites, often fungi of a very low type, which gene- 
rally destroy the hair follicles and epithelial scales for their own 
nutriment. There are three well-known varieties of fungus 
which produce ringworm and allied diseases, viz., Trichoiiihyton 
tonsurans, Microsporon fm'fitr and Achorion shonleinii. Baldness 
is produced by a fungus, too, but it has not been satisfactorily 
isolated ; and there are many other degenerations due to low 
vegetable formations in the tissues. Indeed, every disease is 
now reasonably believed to have its microbe, and even old age 
is supposed by some to be brought about by a special coccus 
or bacillus. Bacteria, cocci, spirilla, bacilli, and other microbes, 
which find their way into the blood and tissues of man and 
anunals, all belong to the vegetable kingdom. They observe 
the usual laws of Nature, and reproduce each after its kind. 
Thus cholera is caused by a distinct bacillus, bubonic plague 
by a cocco-bacillus, and tuberculosis by a microbe which is as 
different from the two former as the leeR is from grass 



396 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

and the snowdrop. No two of these vegetable micro- 
organisms act aHke in the blood and tissues ; consequently 
the diseases produced by them vary very much in character 
and acuteness. Many of the microbes of disease have an 
independent existence in aii* or water, and some can subsist 
on food stuffs, both animal and vegetable. When they gain 
admission into the tissues and blood, they mostly take on 
marked activity, multiply rapidly, and reduce the vitality of 
their host, at the same time producing a rise of temperature 
by their action. They assimilate from any suitable medium in 
which they can thrive, and produce ptomaines or poisons in 
return. When the soil becomes exhausted, they form spores or 
seed, and lie dormant or die if they cannot obtain access to 
new fields or suitable resting-places. Many of these microbes 
escape from their host through the excretions, and live under 
the same conditions in which they existed before they entered ; 
here they rest until a new opportunity for activity is offered to 
them by another suitable host, and this goes on ad infinitum. 

A study of the habits of parasites which infest man and 
animals will readily convince any one of the importance of a 
pure water supply and wholesome food. Meat that has been 
well cooked can hardly contain any larvae capable of producing 
disease, as a very high temperature is fatal to both animal and 
vegetable life. Attention must, however, be given to the feed- 
ing of cattle from which milk is taken, and the flesh of animals 
which feed on garbage should be avoided, as it might readily 
be the means of communicating disease to man. 



FORESTS AND FLORA 

The eastern and some of tlie southern Parganas of Marwar, in 
the du'ection of the Aravalli Range, Jaswantpura, and Jalore, 
are well wooded with natural forest, and many of the ravines 
leading down into the plains from the hills produce timber of 
fair scantling. The hills and ravines of Sirohi are generally 
well wooded and some of them in the neighbourhood of Abu 
and Neemuch produce fine timber ; while in the north and 
east of the State it is mostly undergrown. Jaisalmir and the 
north and north-west of Marwar, as well as Mallani and a large 
sandy tract of the south-west of the country towards the 
Rann of Kutch, produce nothing worthy of the name of forest, 
although belts of Kliejra (Frosopis spicigcra) are common 
throughout the sandy plains, and some of the more fertile 
valleys in the hard desert are well stocked with these trees. 
Cultivated topes of Nim {Melia indica) are also met with at 
a great many of the villages in the less fertile parts of the 
country. 

The following are the principal indigenous and cultivated 
trees, shrubs, and grasses found on and adjacent to the Ara- 
vallis and highlands of Marwar and Sirohi, including Mount 
Abu : — 



397 



398 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



TKEES AND SHRUBS. 



No. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Botanical Name. 


Natural Order. 


I 


Agia . . . 


Girardinia heterophylla. (Stinging 
nettle.) 


Urticaceaj. 


n 


Ajha . . . 


Orthosipbon tomentosus. (A com- 
mon herb.) 


Labiatse. 


3 


Ak . . . . 


Calotropis procera. (Common flower- 
ing shrub of the desert.) 


Asclepiadese. 


4 


Ak (big) . . 


C. gigantea. (Bush) 


Do. 


5 


Am. . . . 


Mangifera indica. (Tree) .... 


Anacardiacese. 


6 


Amaltds or 


Cassia fistula. (Tree with handsome 


Leguminosse. 




Karmala . 


yellow flowers.) 




7 


A m a r Bel 
(Deathless 
creeper). 

Amarti (ever- 


Cuscuta reflexa. (Leafless parasite) . 


Convolvulacese. 


8 


Celosia argentea. (A pink and white 


Amaranthacese. 




lasting). 


everlasting.) 




9 


Ambartiiri . 


iErides affine. (Orchid) 


Orchidaceee. 


lO 


Amrud . . 


Psidium pyriferum (Tree) .... 


Myrtaceaa. 


II 


Anar . . . 


Punica granatum. (Pomegranate 
bush.) 


Lythrariese. 


12 


Angir . . . 


Ficus palmata. (An edible fig) . . 


Urticaceae. 


13 


Angur . . . 


Vitis vinifera, (Vine-climber) . . 


Ampelidese. 


14 


Anjir . . . 


Ficus carica. (A small tree) . . . 


Urticacese. 


15 


Ankel or An- 

kol. 
Antera . . 


Alangium Lamarckii. (A small tree) 


Cornacese. 


16 


Capparis grandis. (A small tree) 


Capparidese. 


17 


A n w a 1 or 
Awal. 


Cassia auriculata. (Shrub) .... 


Leguminosse. 


18 


Aoula . . . 


Phyllanthus emblica. (A middle- 
sized tree.) 


Euphorbiacese. 


•19 


Arand . . . 


Ricinus communis. (Castor-oil plant) 


Do. 


20 


Areta . . . 


Sapindus trifoliatus. (Tree) . . . 


Sapindacese. 


21 


Arjia . . . 


Acacia eburnia. (Tree) 


Leguminosse. 


■22 


Arrlua . . 


Adhatoda Beddomei. (Shrub) . . 


Acanthacese. 


23 


Aru . . . 


Prunus persica. (Tree) 


Rosaceae. 


24 


Arusa . . . 


Adhatoda Vasica. (Shrub) 


Acanthacese. 


25 


Arwalia . . 


Pueraria Stracheyii. (Creeper) . . 


Leguminosse. 


26 


Babul . . . 


Acacia arabica. (Tree) 


Do. 


27 


Bahera . . 


Terminalia bellerica. (A fine tree) . 


Combretacese. 


28 


Banokra . . 


Hibiscus vitrifolius 


Malvaceae. 


29 


Bar. . . . 


Ficus bengalensis. (The well-known 
Indian Banyan.) 


Urticacese. 


.3° 


Barkar 


Genus not determined. (Ginger 


i Zingiberaceoe. 




Khanda. 


plant.) 


! 



FORESTS AND FLORA 



399 



Vernacular 

Name. 



Bama . . . 

Baus or Bans 
Bed ... 

Bharka Dodi 

Bharutia . . 
Bhendi . . 
Bhiri . . . 
Bhoi Rengni 

Bill, Bael, or 

Bilgir 
Biya . . . 

Bokna . , . 

Bor . . . 

Bhorli . . 

Cha . . . 
Chambeli or 

Ja. 

Champa . 

Charr . . 

Chir . . 

Ddntpara . 
Ddri . . 

Datura 
DhakorPalas 
Dhaman . 

Dhamani . 
Do. . 
Dhavi (Kan- 

tia). 
Dhaukra . . 
Dhaula bura 

Dholi musli . 
DudheH . . 

Enkra or Unt 

Kartalia. 
Eucalyptus . 



Botanical Name. 



Natural Order. 



(A medium-sized 



(The Bamboo) . 
(Weeping willow 



(A twining 



Cratgeva religiosa. 

tree.) 
Bambusa stricta. 
Salix babylonica. 

tree.) 
Marsdenia tenacissima. 

plant.) 
Triumfetta tomentosa. (A plant) 

Hibiscus tetraphyllus 

Urena lobata. (Herbaceous) . . . 
Solanum xanthocarpum. (A prickly 

plant.) 
^gle Marmelos. (A tree) .... 

Pterocarpus Marsupium. (A tree 

with shining pinnate leaves.) 
Commelyna (species unfixed). (A 

plant with bright blue flowers.) 
Zizyphus Jujuba. (The bair tree) . 

Garuga pinnata. (Tree) 

Camellia Thea. (Shrub — Tea plant) 
Jasminum rottlerianum and J. gran- 

diflorum. (Jessamine.) 
Michelia champaca. (A large tree) . 
Pongamia glabra. (A moderate-sized 

tree.) 
Pinus longifolia. (A large tree with 

symmetrical branches.) 
Casearia tomentosa. (A small tree) . 
Woodfordia floribunda. (A large 

shrub.) 
Datura fastuosa. (Thorn apple) . . 
Butea frondosa. (A tree) . . . . 
Grewia pilosa and G. tilsefolia. (A 

small tree.) 
Sida humilis. (A trailing herb) 
Waltheria indica. (A herb) . . . 
Anogeissus pendula. (A small grega- 
rious tree.) 
Anogeissus latifolia. (A large tree) . 
Buddleia Madagascarensis. (A large 

shrub.) 
Sub-order Cypripedese (?). (Orchid.) 
Holarrhena antidysenterica. (A 

small tree.) 
Argemone mexicana. (A common 

bright yellow flower.) 
Eucalyptus Globulus. (A lofty tree.) 



Capparide£B. 

Graminese. 
Salicineae. 

Asclepiadea;. 

Tiliacea3. 
Malvacea?. 

Do. 
Solanacese. 

Rutaceae. 

LeguminosaB. 

Commelyiieee. 

Rhamnese. 
Burseracese. 
Ternstrcemiaceae. 
OleacesB. 

Magnoliacea3. 
Leguminosse. 

Coniferse. 

Samydacese. 
Lythraieae. 

Solanaceae. 

Leguminosaj. 

Tiliacese. 

Malvaceae. 

Sterculiaceae. 

Combretacese. 

Do. 

Loganiaceae. 

Orchidaceaj. 
Apocyneae. 

Papaveracese. 

Myrtaceae. 



400 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 




63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 
69 

70 

71 

72 

73 
74 
75 
76 

77 
78 

79 
80 
81 



83 
84 
85 
86 

87 



90 

91 
92 

93 
94 
95 
96 



Fards . . . 

Gantia . . 

Gani . . . 

Gatbor . . 

Gengria . . 
Ghiyor (large) 
Ghiy or (little) 

Ghor-bel . . 

Goi. . . . 

Gold-mohur . 



Golra . 
Gonda . 
Gondi . 
Gor jliar 
Grevellia 
Gugal . 
(iiilar . 
Haldua 
Han-Rhiyo 



Harsinghar 

or Dhari. 
IlattoorSatto 
Haria . . 
Honeri 
Ikarr . . 

Do. . . 
Do. . . 

Jabardanti 

Jal . . . 

Jal Nim . 

Do. 
Jaman . 

Jhil . . . 

Jojaru or Ja- 

jaru. 
Kachndr . . 



Tamarix articulata. (A tree) . . . 

Barleria cristata. (A low plant) . . 

Coix lachryma. (Job's tears — grass.) 

Zizyphus xylopyra. (Wild bair 
shrub.) 

Crotolaria sericea. (Plant) . . . . 

Nymphea alba. (White waterlily) . 

Lymnanthemum cristatuni. (A small 
white aquatic flower.) 

Pueraria tuberosa. (A common 
creeper on Abu.) 

Trema orien talis. (An evergreen 
tree.) 

Poinciana regia. (A splendid orna- 
mental tree.) 

OdinaWodier. (Tree) .... 

Cordia Myxa. (A small tree) . . 

Ehretia obtusifolia. (A small tree) 

Loranthus longiflorus. (A parasite) 

Grevellia robusta. (Tree) . . . 

Balsamodendron mukul. (Tree) . 

Ficus glomerata. (A fig) . . . 

Adina cordifolia. (Tree) . . . 

Loranthus longiflorus. (A large hand- 
some parasite.) 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis. (A small 
tree.) 

Jasminum Sambac. (A jasmine) . . 

Bidens pilosa 

Jasminum humile. (Yellow jasmine) 

^schynomene indica. (A tallish 
herb.) 

Smithia (?). (A small herb) . . . 

Cassia minosoides. (An erect herb) . 

Striga orobanchioides. (A small leaf- 
less plant.) 

Hiptage madablota. (A twining 
shrub.) 

Polygonum glabrum. (Persicaria) . . 

Polygonum 

Eugenia Jambolana. (A handsome 
tree). 

Limnophila gratioloides 
plant.) 

Crotolaria trifoliastrum, 
yellow flowering plant. 

Bauhinia racemosa. (The "geranium" 
tree.) 



(A small 
(A little 



Tamariscinese. 
Acanthacese. 
Graminese. 
Rhamnese. 

Leguminosese. 

Nymphacese. 

Gentianacese. 

Leguminosae. 

Urticacese. 

Leguminosee. 

Anacardiacese. 
Boragineoe. 

Do. 
Loranthaceee. 
Proteacese. 
Burseracese. 
Urticaceee. 
Rubiacese. 
Loranthacese. 

Oleace^e. 

Oleacese. 
Compositfe. 
Oleacese. 
Leguminosse. 

Do. 

Do. 

Scrophularineae. 

Malpighiacepe. 

Polygonaceae. 

Do. 
Myrtacese. 

Scrophularineaj. 

Leguminosae. 

Do. 



FORESTS AND FLORA 



401 



No. 


Vernacular 




Name. 


97 


Kadam or 




Kib. 


98 


Kalia . . . 


99 


Kait . . . 


100 


Kama . . . 


lOI 


Kamboi . . 


102 


Kampela . . 


103 


Kaner . . . 


104 


Kantela . . 


105 


Kanti . . . 


106 


Kanthal . . 


107 


Do. (small 




shrub). 


108 


Kara . . . 


109 


Kar j a or 




Karoj. 


no 


Karji . . . 


III 


Kareli . . . 


112 


Karmalti . . 


113 


Karunda . . 


114 


Katkaro or 




Katekaro. 


115 


Katumbo . . 


116 


Keim , . . 


117 


Kemla . . . 


118 


Kerna . . . 


119 


Khajur . . 


120 


Khair . . . 


121 


Kala dhau . 


122 


Khdtarli . , 


123 


Khatubo . . 


124 


Kliaroti . . 


125 


Kharaiyo or 




Kulu. 


126 


Khirni . . 


127 


Khejra . . 


128 


Karakshia or 




Taramsi. 


129 


Kodala . . 


130 


Kolai . . . 


131 


Konr . . . 


132 


Kowes . . . 




Anthocephalus Cadamba. (A large 

tree.) 
Albizzia odoratissima. (A large tree) 

Feronia elephantum 

Solanum nigrum. (A weed) . . . 
Phyllauthns reticulatus. (Shrub) . 
Mallotusphilippinensis. (A small tree) 
Nerium odorum. (Oleander) . . . 
Berberis aristata. (Shrub) .... 
Flacourtia Ramontchi. (Shrub) . . 
Artocarpus integrifolia. (The Jack 

Tree.) 
Kanthal acanthus (?) 

Strobilanthus callosus. (A shrub) . 
Ulmus integrifolia. (The Indian 

Elm.) 
Pongamia Glabra. (A small tree) 

Lorenthus longiflorus 

Cassia 

Carissa Carandas. (A large shrub) . 
Vogelia indica 

Vitis vinifera. V. latifolia. V. 
carnosa. (See Angur.) 

Nauclea parvifolia. (A large tree) . 

Anthocephalus Cadamba. (A large 
tree.) 

Wrightia tinctoria, (Shrub) . . 

Phoenix sylvestris. (Palm tree) . 

Acacia Catechu. (A small acacia) 

Anogeissus acuminata. (Tree) 

Oxalis corniculata. (Flower) . . 

Verbascum celsioides. (" ilullein ") 

Plectranthus rugosus. (A small 
under shrub.) 

Sterculia urens. (A tree with white 
bark.) 

Mimusops indica. (A large ever- 
green tree.) 

Prosopis spicigera. (A thorny tree) . 

Cpesalpinia sepiaria. (A thorny pin- 
nate tree.) 

Sterculia villosa. (A fine tree) . . 

Dichrostachys cinerea. (A small 
acacia-like tree.) 

Hamiltonia suaveolens. (Shrub) . . 

Mucuna pruriens. (Creeper) . . . 



Natural Order. 



Rubiacese. 

Leguminosse. 
Rutacese. 
Solanacese. 
Euphorbiacese. 

Do. 
Apocynese. 
Berberidene. 
Bixineoe. 
Urticacese, 

Acanthacese. 

Do. 

Urticaceee. 

Leguminosae. 

Loranthacese. 

Leguminosae. 

Apocynea). 

PlumbaginccB. 

Ampelidese. 

Rubiacese. 
Do. 

Ajjocyneaj. 

Palmaj. 

Leguminosae. 

Combretaceaj. 

Geraniacete, 

Scrophularineae, 

Labiata;. 

Sterculiacese. 

Sapotaceae. 

Leguminosae. 
Do. 

Sterculiacese. 
Leguminosae. 

Rubiaceae. 
Leguminosae. 



402 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



No. 



^33 

134 
135 



Vernacular 
Names. 



Kuja (Gulab) 

Kutri . . . 
Lilotri . . . 



1 36 Maha nimbu 

137 I Mai Kangni . 

138 ! Malla Singhi 
or Mar era 
Phalli. 

Matliari or 

Matawal. 
Mendul . . 



139 
140 



141 
142 

143 

144 

145 
146 

147 
148 

149 
150 
151 

152 

153 

154 
155 



Botanical Name. 



Natural Order. 



Mitha nimbu 

Mohwa . 

Mujal , . 
Mulari 

Mungia . 

Narangi . 

Negar . . 

Nila . . 

Nim . . 
Nimbu 
Padia . . 

Palki . . 
Pililioneri 
Pipal . . 
Plialudra . 



1 56 Do. 

157 Pherwana 



158 
159 

160 
161 

162 
163 

164 
165 
166 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Pomaria . . 
Poptia . . . 

Do. 

Poptia Marua 
Ratanjot . . 



Rosa involucrata and R. moschata. 

(White dog roses.) 
Acacia concinna. (A thorny shrub) . 
Evolvulus alsinoides. (A small 

creeping plant.) 
Citrus decumana. (Tree) .... 
Celastrus paniculatus and C. stylosa. 

(Creeper.) 
Helicteres Isora. (A large shrub) 



Sterculia colorata. (Tree) 



Rosacese. 

Leguminosse. 
Convoh'ulacese. 

Rutacese. 
Celastrineae. 

Sterculiacese. 



Do. 



Randia dumetorum. 

shrub. ) 

Citrus lumia. (Tree) 

Bassia latifolia. (A large tree) 
Casearia tomentosa. (A small tree) 
Vigna vexillata. (A pea) . . . 
Phaseolus mungo. (A plant) . . 
Citrus aurantium. (Tree) . . . 
Vitex negundo. (A small tree) . 
Hemigraphis ebracteolata. (A small 

plant.) 
Melia indica. (A common tree) . . 
Citrus acida. (Tree or shrub) . . 
Hamiltonia suaveolens. (Shrub) . . 

Ficus cordifolia. (Wild fig) . . . 

Senecio saxatilis. (Flowering plant) . 

Ficus religiosa. (A large plant) . . 

Erythrina arborescens. (The "Coral" 
tree.) 

Erythrina lithosperma. (Tree) . . 

Ipomea muricata. (A lilac convol- 
vulus.) 

I. hederacea. (A purple convolvulus) 

I. Wightii. (A purplish-jiink convol- 
vulus.) 

I. pes-tigridis. (A pink convolvulus) 

I. obscura? (A yellow convolvulus, 
purple at base.) 

Cassia Tora. (A tall plant) .... 

Nicandra physaloides. (Flowering 
plant.) 

Physalis minima. (Herb) .... 

Atylosia sericea. (A small plant) 

Jatropha curcas. (A small tree) . . 



(A small i Rubiaceae 



(See 



Rutaceae. 

Sapotaceae. 

Samydaceae. 

Leguminosse. 

Do. 
Rutaceai. 
Verbenace?e. 
Acanthacese. 

Meliacese. 
Rutacese. 
Rubiacese. 

Konr.) 
Urticacese. 
Compositee. 
Urticaceae. 
Leguminosse. 



Do. 
Colvolvulacese. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Leguminosae. 
Solanacese. 

Do. 
Leguminosse. 
Euphorbiacea% 



FORESTS AND FLORA 



403 



No. 


Vernacular 
Names. 


167 


Rengani . . 


168 


Rohira . . 


169 


Sagwan. . . 


170 


Sal ... . 


171 


Salaran . . 


172 


Salem Misri . 


173 


Sdler . . . 


174 


Sarw . . . 


175 


Sasarda . . 


176 


Sebla . . . 


177 


Seblia Kan- 




tal. 


178 


Seblia Kantal 


179 


Setut . . . 


180 


S e w a n or 




Hawan. 


181 


Shisham . . 


182 


Shole - ka - sa- 




per. 


183 


Sirgura . . 


184 


Siris . . . 


185 


Sirs - arro or 




UndaKanta 


186 


Sitaphal . . 


187 


Sitrawal . . 


188 


Tallo . . . 


189 


Tatta Kaoni . 


190 


Taowara . . 


191 


Taransi . . 


192 


Tebran . . 


193 


Tendu . . . 


194 


Umbia . . . 


195 


Umbro . . 


196 


Undphulla . 


197 


Unt Kantalia 


198 


Unda Kanta 


199 


Vangi or Deo- 




dri. 


200 


Vavan . . . 


201 


Vera . . . 



Botanical Name. 



Solanum indicum. (A prickly shrub) 
Tecoraa undulata. (A tree with bright 

flowers.) 
Tectona grandis. (A large tree) . . 
Sliorea robusta. (A lai'ge tree) . . 
Boswellia serrata. (A large tree) . . 

Ophrydete. (Orchid) 

Boswellia thurifera. (Tree) . . . 
Cupressus sempervirens. (A tall tree) 
Blepharis Boerhaavifolia. (A prickly 

herb.) 
Bombax malabaricum. (Cotton tii e) 
Barleria Prionitis. (A small shrubby 

plant.) 
Barleria cuspidata. (A prickly shrub) 
Morus nigra. (A middle-sized tree) . 
Gmelina arborea. (A handsome tree) 

Dalbergia latifolia. (A large gla- 
brous tree.) 
Millingtonia hortensis. (Tree) . . 

Moringa concanensis. (The horse- 
radish tree.) 
Albizzia lebbek. (Siris tree) . . . 
Achyranthus aspera. (Plant) . . . 

Anona squamosa. (Small tree) . . 

Plumbago Zeylanica. (Shrub) , . 

Cedrela Toona. (A tall tree) . . . 

Petalidum Barlerioides. (A shrubby 
plant.) 

Impatiens balsaminia. (A balsam 
jjlant). 

Csesalpinia sepiaria. (A large prickly 
climber.) 

Diospyros tomentosum. (Tree) . . 

Diospyros melanoxylon. (Tree) . . 

Saccopetalum tomentosum. (Around- 
fruited tree.) 

Ficus glomerata. (A fig.) (See Gular) 

Trichodesma indicum. (Plant) . . 

Argemone mexicana. (Flower) . . 

Achyranthes aspera. (Plant) . . . 

Lettsomia setosa. (Creeper) . . . 



Natural Order. 



Kydia calycina. (Tree) . . 
Salix tetrasperma. (Willow) 



Solanaceae. 
Bignoniacese. 

Verbenaceae. 

Dipterocarpese. 

Burseracese. 

Orchidacese. 

Burseracese. 

Coniferse. 

Acanthacese, 

Malvaceae. 
Acanthacese. 

Acanthacese. 

Urticacese. 

Verbenacese. 

Leguminosse. 

Bignoniacese. 

Moringese. 

Leguminosse. 
Amaranthacese. 

Anonaceae. 
Plumbaginese. 
Meliacese. 
Acanthacese. 

Geraniacese. 

Leguminosse. 

Ebenacese. 

Do. 
Anonaceae. 

Urticacese. 

Boragineoe. 

Papaveracese. 

Amaranthacese. 

Convolvulacese. 

Malvacese. 
Salicynese. 



4-04 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



GRASSES OF THE HILLS AND FERTILE LANDS. 



No. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Botanical Name. \ ^^^^l^^ 


I 

2 

3 

4 


Baru . 
Bhangta 
Clihenki . 
Dab or Kusha . 


Sorghum halepense 
Opluda aristola 
Paspalum kora 
Eragrostis cynosursides 








> 




q 


Dhaman 


Pennisetum cenchroides 










8 


6 

7 


Dob . 
Karar 


Cynodon dactylon . 
Iseilema laxum 










1 


8 


Khas . 


Khas oderiferus 










9 

lO 

II 


Liimp 
Lanpla 
Munj . 


Aiistida hystrix 
Aristida depressa . 
Saccharum sara 










O 


12 


Seran . 


Ischsemum laxum . 












13 


Surwala 


Heteropogon contortus 








J 





The following list includes the most important of the 
indigenous trees and shrubs met with in the sandy and hard 
deserts of Marwar and Jaisalmir. However, many of those 
given in the list of the fertile regions are found on the borders 
of the desert, and cultivated within desert limits : — 



No. 



Vernacular 
Name. 



Botanical Name. 



Ak or Akra 



Aranja 

Armajia. 
Arni . . 

Babul . . 
Bajar bel . 
Bakda . . 
Bamburi . 

Ber, Bor, 
Borti. 



Calotropis procera. (The Mudar 
shrub.) 
or I Acacia leucophloea. (Tree) .... 



Clerodendron phlomoides. (A large 
shrub.) 

Acacia arabica. (Tree) 

Cocculus villosus 

Mollugo hirta. (A plant) .... 

Euphorbia dracunculoides. (A much- 
branched shrubby plant.) 

Zizyphus nummularia and Z. vul- 
garis. (Low thorny shrubs.) 



Natural Order. 



Asclepiadese. 

Leguminosse. 

Verbenacese, 

Leguminosae. 
Menispermacese. 
Ficoideee. 
Euphorbiaceae. 

Rhamnese. 



FORESTS AND FLORA 



405 



[o. 


Vernacular 
Name. 

Bhu bambli . 


Botanical Name. 


Natural Order. 


9 


Acacia Jacquemonti. (A small bushy 

shrub.) 
Indigofera vulgaris. (A shrubby 

plant.) 
Acrua javanica. (A shrubby white 


Leguminosse. 


o 


Bisuui . . 


Do. 


I 


Bui. . . . 


Amaranthacea3. 






woolly plant.) 




2 


Chirpotan . 


Withania somnifera. (A tall shrubby 
plant.) 


Solanacese. 


3 


Dabi . . . 


Cadaba indica. (A shrub with small 
oval leaves.) 


Capparidese. 


4 


Damasha . . 


Barleria acanthoides. (An erect 
prickly plant.) 


Acanthacese. 


5 


Dhau . . . 


Anogeissus acuminata. (A small 
tree.) 


Combretacese. 


6 


Gangeran 


Grewia populifolia.. (Shrub) . . . 


Tiliacese. 


7 


Goila . . . 


Indigofera paucifolia. (A small 
shrub with woody br;inches.) 


Leguminos?e. 


8 


Gondi . . . 


Cordia rothii. (A*^ shrub) .... 


Boraginese. 


9 


Hajeru . . 


Mimosa rubicaulis. (A large, strag- 
gling, prickly shrub.) 


Leguminosne. 


o 


Hingota . . 


Balanites roxburghii. (A small tree) 


Simarubeffi. 


I 


Irali . . . 


Tamarindus indica. (A large tree) . 


Leguminosse. 


2 


Jab .... 


Salvadora persica and S. oleoides. 

(Trees.) 


Salvadoraceae. 


J 


Jawasa . . 


Alhagi maurorum. (A small thorny 
shrub.) 


Leguminosoe. 


4 


Kacbri . . 


Cucumis trigonus 


Cucurbitaceae. 


5 


Kair . . . 


Capparis aphylla. (A scrubby bush) 


Capparidese. 


6 


Kankera . . 


Gymnosporia montana. (A large 
shrub. ) 


Celastrinete. 


7 


Kankeran 


Celastrus senegalensis. (A tall shrub) 


Do. 


8 


Kerala . . 


Momordica charantia. (A creeper) . 


Cucurbitacese. 


9 


Khejra . . 


Prosopis spicigera. (A tree sometimes 
large.) 


Leguminospe. 


o 


Khimp . . 


Orthanthera viminea and Leptadenia 
spartium. (Shrub.) 


Asclepiadese. 


I 


Korna . . . 


Wrightia tinctoria. (Tree) .... 


Apocynea;. 


2 


Kumtia . . 


Acacia rupestris. (A small tree) . . 


Leguminosa3. 


3 


Kunrat . . 


Dichrostachys cinerea. (A rigid 
thorny slirub.) 


Do. 


4 


Lana . . . 


Haloxylon salicornicum. (A small 
shrub.) 


Chenopodiaceoe. 


5 


Lanka . . . 


Eujihorbia tiracalli. (A small tree) . 


Eujihorbiaceae. 


6 


Morali . . . 


Lycium europceum. (A thorny shrub) 


Solanaceae. 


7 


Nakchinkua . 


Corchorus antichorus 


Tiliacese. 


8 


Nagphani 


Opuntia dilleni. (The prickly pear) 


Cactese. 


9 


i- llUl 

Nim . . . 


Melia indica. (The Nee)n tree) . . 


Meliacea3. 



406 



WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 



No. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Botanical Name. 


Natural Order. 


40 

41 


Phog . . . 

Pilwan . . 


Calligonum polygonoides. (An almost 

leafless shrub.) 
Cocculus lepeba. (A large woody 


Polygonacese. 
Menisjjermaceie. 


42 


Eohira . . 


creeper.) 
Tecoma undulata. (A moderate-sized 
tree.) 


Bignoniacese. 


43 


Kohwaii . . 


Bergia odorata. (A woodv under- 


Elatinere. 


44 


Sanesra . . 


shrub.) 
Poinciana elata. (Tree) 


Leguminosse. 


45 
46 


Santra . . . 
Tastumba 


Santra Jaissalmiris. (Shrub) . . . 
Citrullus colocynthis. (A trailing 

plant.) 
Euphorbia royleana. (Shrub) . . . 
Euphorbia nivulia. (Shrub) . . . 


Capparidese. 
Cucurbitaceae. 


47 
48 


Tlior . . . 
Thor(Clihoti) 


Euphorbiacese. 
Do. 



GRASSES OF THE DESERT. 



No. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Botanical Name. 


Natural Order. 


I 
2 

3 

4 
5 


Bhurat or 

Burnt. 
Murath or 

Makra. 
Mothea . . 

Tantia or 

Sawan. 
Dhaman . . 


Cenchrus catharticus 

Chloris roxburghiana 

Mothea tuberosa 

Eleusine flagellifera 

Pennisetum conchroides 




Gramineoe. 



Much attention has, during recent years, been given to 
arboriculture in Jodhpore, and to the preservation and 
improvement of forests in the AravalHs, Mount Abu, and 
some of the other hills of Marwar and Sirohi. A small forest 
reserve has also been marked out in Jaisalmir. 

Nim {Melia indica), Bakain {Melia azedarach), Siris {Albizzia 
lebbeTc), Am {Mangifera indica), Jtiman {Eugenia Jamholana), 
Shisham {Dalbergia latifolia.), Sagwan {Tcdona grandis), Mohwa 



FORESTS AND FLORA 407 

(Bassia latifolia), Rohira {Tecoma undulata), and Manilla 
tamarind (Pithecolobium duke) have all been recently cultivated 
successfully in the sands at Jodhpore, where they grow rapidly, 
when watered durino- the hot months. Extensive belts of 
Khejra {Prosopis spicigera) spring up rapidly in the sandy 
valleys of the desert without any other assistance than pro- 
tection from camels, goats, and sheep. This tree should be 
fostered, as it is of the greatest service during years of scarcity, 
and if it were extensively protected, it might in time increase 
the rainfall throughout the dry zone, and settle the drifting 
sands, on which it has already had a good effect in the 
vicinity of Jodhpore. 

The trees, shrubs, and grasses of the Aravallis and Mount 
Abu, and the fertile lowlands and low hills of Marwar and 
Sirohi adjacent are too numerous to be particularised in a 
work of this kind ; so a description of only a few of the most 
important will be attempted, and the reader is referred to 
Miss Macadam's complete " Lists of Trees and Plants of Mount 
Abu, Marwar, and Jaisalmir " for further details. 

Am {Mangifera indica), the mango tree, is met with in the 
wild state on Mount Abu, where it is believed to have been 
introduced by pilgrims, who carried the fruit up and threw the 
stones about the rocks, Avhere they grew into trees. It is also 
cultivated at many villages in the plains below Abu, and the 
Aravalli Range. The Abu mango is small and has a strong 
flavour of turpentine, like the wild mango of Africa ; it is 
principally used for making Chatni preserve, or dried to form 
Amchore, an antiscorbutic of great repute, which is largely 
exported. 

Amaltas {Cassia fistula) is a moderate-sized tree, with 
beautiful racemes of yellow flowers, which come out in May and 
June, before its leaves. It looks like a laburnum in the 
distance ; it is found in the lower ranges of Abu and the 
Aravallis. Its wood is not valuable, but the long pods are 



408 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

exported, and their pulp also much used as a medicine 
throughout the country. 

Areta (Sajnndus irifoliatus), a tree with a two-lobed sapo- 
naceous fruit which is used as soap by the villagers ; this tree 
is met with in the Abu hills and the Aravalli Range. 

Anwal or Awal (Cassia auriculata), a shrub with yellow 
pea-like flowers, common in Godwar, parts of Sirohi and 
Jaswantpura ; it covers large tracts and gives shelter to small 
game of all sorts. The bark is largely used for tanning, and 
exported for the same purpose ; it is also used in the distilla- 
tion of country liquor. Anwal is said to be of Meywar, and 
Ak of Marwar, the former being the flower of the fertile 
lands below the Aravallis, the latter the pride of the sandy 
desert. 

Aoula {Phyllanthus emhlica), a fair-sized tree "with feathery 
leaves and a yellow berry fruit, the pulp of which is made into 
jam when the seeds have been removed. The fruit is used 
medicinally, both in the fresh and dried state. 

Arrlua (Adhatoda Beddomei), a shrub with white flowers, 
met with in the lower spurs of Abu and the Aravallis. Its 
leaves are used as poultices, and a decoction of them is taken 
internally in lung afi'ections. 

The Ambartari {brides affine) is a pretty little orchid which 
grows on the mango and jaman trees on Mount Abu. It 
comes out in the rains in great profusion ; the flowers are 
offered at the temples, and the crushed tubes used as an 
application in skin diseases. A larger species of a somewhat 
similar orchid, is met with in the lower Sirohi hills ; its 
flowers are bluish-white. 

Amrud {Psidium fyriferum and pomiferum) : both the 
white and red guava are largely cultivated in these States, 
and the fruit is met with in many of the bazaars throughout 
the country, as it is highly prized by the people. 

Anar (Funica Granatum), the pomegranate tree, is cultivated 



FORESTS AND FLORA 409 

for its fruit and flowers ; some of the fruit grown at Jodhpore 
is celebrated for fine quality and delicate flavour. The bark 
of this bush is used medicinally, and sliarhat is made from the 
fruit. 

Angir {Ficus 2?almafa), a wild edible fig, found on Mount 
Abu, and some other peaks of the Aravallis. 

Arand (Ricinus communis), the castor-oil plant, is cultivated 
in some places in Marwar and Sirohi, both for its shade and 
seeds, from which castor-oil is expressed for use in medicine 
and the arts. 

Aru {Primus persica), the peach tree, grows well on Mount 
Abu, and the fruit is of good quality when the tree is properly 
looked after and manured. 

Babul (Acacia arahica), a tree with straight, white thorns, 
mostly in pairs, having round yellow flowers which eventually 
produce small beans, is met with at at every village in the 
fertile country below Abu and the Aravallis, and at many of 
the wells and tanks in the western desert. The Babul is one 
of the most useful village trees ; the leaves, shoots, and pods 
provide fodder for the herds and flocks of the people, in the 
hot weather when pasture becomes exhausted ; the wood is 
used for domestic and agricultural purposes, and the baik for 
tanning and dyeing; the gum which exudes from the tree 
is exported and also used medicinally in various ways ; and 
the leaves are pounded up into a poultice, and applied in the 
treatment of ophthalmia, for which they are believed to be 
potent. 

Bahera (Terminalia hellerica), a fine tree of the Aravallis 
and Mount Abu ; its fruit is exported for dyeing and used 
medicinally. 

Bar or Banyan tree {Fictcs hengalensis) is met with in the 
east and south of Marwar, along the Aravallis, and it is 
common in the Sirohi State. The fruit of this tree attracts 
bears and green pigeons for the sportsman. It sometimes 



410 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

covers large areas, and one tree will afford shade for a con- 
siderable camp. 

Bans or Bans {Bamhusa stricta), Bamboo, is abundant in 
the Aravallis, Abu, and the other hills in Eastern Marwar and 
Sirohi ; it is much used for domestic purposes, and decoctions 
of its leaves are used for coughs and lungf affections. 

Bili, Bael, or Bilgir tree {^gle Marmdos) is met with about 
Anadra, the base of Mount Abu, and some of the lower 
Aravallis ; a few trees are found also on Abu, The leaves are 
offered at temples, and the fruit is in general use in the 
treatment of dysentery and bowel affections, in which it is 
an excellent remedy, especially in the fresh state. The pulp 
of the fruit should be boiled and the gelatinous material 
strained and sweetened. It is not unpleasant as a jelly or 
sharbat, and it keeps well in the jelly form, retaining its 
curative properties. It is exported to Europe for medicinal 
purposes. 

Bed (Salix hdbylonica). — This Willow is cultivated on Mount 
Abu to a small extent, and one or two wild species are met 
with in some places near streams in these States. 

Anjir {Ficus carica), the fig-tree, grows at Abu and in some 
other favoured places in these States, and the Abu fruit is of 
good quality. Wild figs are plentiful and large, both in Abu 
and the Aravallis. 

Cha {Camellia Tliea). — There is one tea plant on Mount 
Abu, in the compound of the railway bungalow. It is now 
about twenty-five years old ; it is still well grown and fresh, 
and the leaves have the characteristic odour of tea ; it seeds 
regularly, but no new plants have sprung up around it. It is 
believed that the long period of dry weather Avould prevent 
the successful cultivation of tea for the market on Mount 
Abu. 

Chambeli or Ja (Jasminum rottlerianum and J. grandi- 
jiorum). — Both varieties of Jasmine grow Avild in the ravines 



FORESTS AND FLORA 411 

of Abu and some other adjacent hills. The flowers of these 
varieties are offered at the temples, and the leaves are believed 
to be potent remedies for herpes of the lips and ulcers of the 
mouth and tongue. 

The Champa (Michelia chamjmca) is a large tree with 
highly-scented yellow flowers, wild, and often cultivated near 
temples on Mount Abu and in many other places throughout 
these States : the flowers are much used for garlands, and the 
wood is considered the best for the manufacture of string 
musical instruments. 

Chir (Pinus longifolia and Deodar ct). — A few of these trees 
have been imported from Europe and Simla and planted near 
the Residency, Mount Abu, where they have grown, but not to 
a very large size. 

The Dhak or Palas tree (Butca frondosa) is abundant in 
the lower ravines and valleys of the Aravallis, Abu, Jaswant- 
pura, Jalore, and other places in these States. Its beautiful 
bloom of red flowers lights up the country in March, and it 
looks well when its new leaves are out ; but at other seasons it 
is ugly and broken down in appearance. The seeds are given 
to animals as anthelmintic medicine, and the leaves are used for 
boils and swellings. The leaves are also used as j)lates for 
curries and other foods. 

Dhaman (Greivia -pilosa and G. tilicefolia). — Two varieties of 
this small tree are met with in the hills. The leaves are 
much in use for feeding cattle during the hot weather when 
fodder and grass are scarce ; milch cows do well on it. The 
fruit is eaten by the people, and the timber is valuable. 

Dhau (Anogeiss'us pendida) is the most common tree of the 
lower Aravallis and lower ridges of Abu ; it is also found in 
numbers on the top of the hills, but not so thickly studded 
together. A gum is collected from it which is used medicinally 
and also exported. The wood is largely used in agriculture 
and for domestic purposes. It has been tried for railway 



412 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

sleepers ; but it is so hard and brittle tbat it quickly spoils 
the boring instruments, and it cracks too readily to last when 
perforated with the iron pins necessary to fix the rails. 

Eucalyptus {Extcalyptus Globulus) has been imported from 
Australia, and a few trees have been grown at Abu. It re- 
quires watering, during the hot season, for some years. The 
leaves and the oil expressed from them are used medicinally 
for colds, coughs, and other complaints. 

Ghor bel {Pueraria tuhcrosa) is a species of wild vetch, 
common on Mount Abu and some of the other high peaks of 
the Aravallis ; it shoots out after the May showers and pro- 
duces a pea-like blossom in July. The young shoots and leaves 
are excellent food for horses ; the oldest and most lean quickly 
gain in condition on it, and it is so abundant in albumen that 
they can work, when fed on it, in a way they could not do on 
any other green food with which I am acquainted. 

Gonda (Cordia Myxa) is a middle-sized tree, with a berry- 
like fruit which is eaten, and used in clarifying sugar, after it 
has been dried ; the leaves are used as a poultice in colic and 
other abdominal and chest affections. 

Grapes, strawberries, and Cape gooseberries are grown on 
Mount Abu, and in a few other places in these States. The 
mushrooms of Mount Abu are of excellent quality, and 
sometimes very abundant after the first showers of the mon- 
soon have penetrated into the soil and moistened it. They 
disappear again after the heavy rains have well set in. The 
Abu mushroom is the small species, which is easily disting- 
uished from the poisonous cryptogamic fungi by its smell, 
light salmon-pink colour underneath, and the readiness with 
which the rind peels off. 

Gular {Ficus glonierata), a common species of wild fig, is 
met with throughout these hills ; its fruit attracts bears for the 
sportsman, and it is supposed to be the sycamore of the Bible. 

Jal {Hiptage madablota), a twining shrub with bright leaves, 



FORESTS AND FLORA 413 

collected in great quantities after the first showers of May, for 
feeding milch cows, which do well on them. 

Jaman {Eugenia Jamholana), a common tree with abundance 
of green foliage, met with in Abu near the lake, and in the 
damp ravines of the Aravallis. Its fruit makes fair jam, and 
it is eaten by the people. The wood is used for domestic 
purposes, and the shade is excellent in the hot weather. 

, Grevellia {Grevellia robusta) has been imported from Aus- 
tralia, and cultivated at Abu, and in a few other places 
in these States. It is a handsome tree, and grows well in 
the hills, if watered for a couple of years during the dry 
months. 

Kachnar {Bauhinia racemosa), the geranium tree, when in 
bloom, is one of the prettiest trees in Abu, and it is also found 
in some of the other hills. It blossoms in great luxuriance, in 
March and April ; both the flowers and pods are boiled and 
eaten by the people. 

Kara {Strobilanthus callosus), a shrub which covers Mount 
Abu with bloom once in seven or eight years, and which is 
found on some of the peaks of the Aravallis, but not in such 
profusion. This shrub has to accumulate much root-energy 
before it blooms ; consequently it does not flower every year. 
A few flowers are seen the year before the great bloom takes 
place, and a few shrubs are left to blossom the year after ; but 
most of them die down in the dry season after the great 
bloom. The people of the hill consider this occasional luxu- 
riance in flowers on Mount Abu a special omen from the saint 
of the hill, to indicate a season of prosperity, and as the shrub 
requires an abundant rainfall to bring it out, it is only seen in 
flower in years of plenty. 

Karunda {Carissa carandas) is a common green Abu bush, 
which produces a superior edible fruit at the beginning of the 
monsoon season : jam and jelly are sometimes made from this 
fruit, but they are not of first quality. The people are, how- 



414 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

ever, very fond of Karundas, and they are exported to the 
plains below, in great quantities, for village consumption. 

Khajur (Phcenix sylmstris), the wild date-palm, is common 
on Abu, and met with in some other places in the neighbour- 
hood. The fruit is eaten by the people, although it is mostly 
skin and stone ; the leaves are used to make mats and brooms, 
and the timber for roofing houses. The Persian date-palm 
has been imported and planted in these States, but it has not 
thriven well, on account of the dryness of the country. The 
Arabs say, "for the date to flourish, it must have its head in 
the sun and its feet in the water " ; but the former condition 
only is possible in these States. 

Kharaiyo or Kulu (Stercidia urens), one of the finest trees 
in the Aravallis and Lower Abu, when its large palmate leaves 
come out after the rains. A gum is obtained from it. 

Kodala (Stercidia villosa), a fine tree of Abu and the Ara- 
vallis, from the bark fibre of which ropes are made. 

Kowes (Miicuna 2Jr')mens), Cowich or Cusso, a creeper, from 
the pods of which the medicinal Cusso is obtained : a powerful 
anthelmintic and irritant of the skin, which will cause death 
if taken in an overdose. 

Kuja or Jungli Gulab {Rosa involucrata and R. mo'ychata). 
Two varieties of white dog-rose are found on Abu and some of 
the other hills adjacent ; the fruit is used medicinally, and the 
flowers are beautiful and well scented. 

Mai Kangni {Celastrus 2)tt'>i''ic7datus and C. stylosa). Two 
varieties of this creeping shrub are met with in the hills. 
The young shoots and leaves are collected to feed cattle in 
Abu, when fodder is scarce ; the seeds are taken as a tonic 
with sugar and ghee, and they are believed to make children 
thrive. 

Maha nimbu {Citrus decumana), the pumalo tree, grows at 
Erinpura, in Sirohi State, and produces a well-flavoured fruit. 
Pumalo is believed to be tonic and anti-febric. 



FORESTS AND FLORA 415 

Mohwa (Bassia latifolia), a fine, handsome tree found in 
many parts of Marwar and Sirohi, the flowers of which are 
eaten by the people and much used in the distillation of 
country liquor. The flowers fall at night, and bears are very 
fond of them, so they may often be seen in the early morning 
picking them up; they also climb the trees to obtain them. 
The timber of this tree is valuable, as well as the flowers. 

Narangi {Citrus aurantkwi), the orange tree, is cultivated 
in Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmir, both for flowers and fruit, 
and in some places local oranges of excellent flavour are met 
with. 

Nimbu {Citrus acida), the lime tree, is largely cultivated, 
and the fruit used as an antiscorbutic where vegetables are 
scarce. 

Phaludra {Erythrina litJiosperma and E. arhorescens), the coral 
tree. It blossoms in great profusion in March before its leaves 
come out, when it is very pretty and striking. There are two 
varieties of this tree — one spiked, the other not. 

Pipal {Ficus religiosa) is cultivated throughout the desert at 
Mahadeo's temples and holy places, and it is met with at every 
village in the fertile lands of Marwar and Sirohi, It is wor- 

o 

shipped generally by Hindu Avomen throughout these States, 
and where the soil is too arid for it to thrive Khejra is substi- 
tuted. Barren females are particular devotees of this tree, and 
when it fails to bring them offspring they often try the worship 
of the Bar. 

Sagwan {Tectona grandis), the teak tree, cultivated to a 
very limited extent. It does not stand the frosts of Mount 
Abu, but grows in the plains below. It is, however, often 
attacked by white ants. 

Salaran {Bosioellia serrata) is a large, handsome tree, with 
pinnate leaves; it produces a scented gum, and is valuable 
as timber. 

Sebla {Bomhax malaharicum), the cotton tree, is met with 



416 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

in Abu and the Aravallis ; it is a tall, handsome tree, with large 
leaves, which come out after the flowers in March. An infu- 
sion of the bark is used as a tonic. 

Setut {Moms nigra), the mulberry tree, is cultivated on 
Mount Abu, and produces abundant fruit ; it also thrives in 
gardens in other parts of these States. 

Shisham {Dalbergia latifolia) is cultivated at Jodhpore, and 
a few other places in these States ; it grows well in the sands, 
but requires watering for a few years. 

Sirgura {Moringa concanensis), the horse-radish, found in 
Abu and the Aravallis ; leaves doubly pinnate, flowers yellow, 
blossoms late in the season. 

Siris (Albizzia lehhek) is a common tree throughout the hills 
and fertile lands of Marwar and Sirohi. The outer wood is 
soft and of little value, while the inner wood is hard and 
black, and used for ornamental carving. An infusion of the 
bark is given to camels suff'ering from Sirra and other diseases. 
There are other varieties of Siris, wild and cultivated, in these 
States. Sitaphal (Anona squamosa), the custard apple tree, is 
cultivated in these States in some of the gardens, and the 
fruit is sometimes of good quality. 

T^bron (Diospf/ros tomentosum), a fairly common tree of the 
hills which produces ebony. 

Grasses of the Hills and Fertile Lands. 

Baru (Sorghum halepense) is a grass which is met with 
all over the cultivated lands and plateaus. It is a strong, 
coarse grass, good for cattle and horses either as pasture or 
hay. The seed is made into bread during years of scarcity, 
and the coarser stems are used as pens, 

Chhenki {Paspalum kora), a common coarse grass, good for 
pasture when young ; it is found in the lowlands. 

Dob {Cynodon dactylon), a fine grass, found in well- watered 



FORESTS AND FLORA 417 

lands ; good for pasture and fodder, and keeps as hay for 
years. 

Kuslia or Dab (Uragrostis cynosiLvsides is found everywhere. 

Khas {Khas oderiferus), a SAveet-scented grass, found near 
tanks, the roots of which are used for making Khas " tattis," 
fans, and pankhas. Delicate scent is also made from it. 

Karar {Iseilema laxum), a heavy, coarse grass, which grows 
on good soil, is used as pasture, fodder, and thatch for huts. 

Lamp or Monj (Aristida hystrix), a hard grass, met with in 
many parts of the country. Cattle eat it when other grass is 
scarce, and it is used for ropes, cots, and matting. 

Seran (Ischcemicm laxum), called moya, is found in the hills 
and plateaus ; it is hard, but animals eat it, and it is used for 
ropes like Lamp. 

Surwala {Hcteropogon contortus) is found in both hills and 
plains. Though hard, horses and cattle eat it, both in the 
green and dry state. 

Trees and Shrubs of the Desert. 

The Ak or Akra (Calotropis procera) is the flowering shrub 
of the desert ; it is in bloom for many months of the year, and 
its leaves are always green in the hottest weather ; nor is it 
without its uses for roofing dwellings, making cattle enclosures, 
and for firewood. The cotton-like substance which surrounds 
its seeds in their loculi is used for pillows and quilts, and the 
acrid juice of its green shoots is in common use as a medicine. 

Arunja or Armajia (Acacia leucophlcea) and some other 
varieties of acacia are common throughout the hard desert. 
They are generally undergrown, but they sometimes produce 
timber for agricultural implements and firewood. 

Ber, Borti, or Bor {Zizyphus Jujuha, Z. nummularia, and Z. 
vulgaris) are met with throughout these States ; the first 
variety often cultivated as a fruit tree, the others wild, and 

2 D 



418 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

the most important fodder and fruit shrubs of the country. 
Z. vulgaris is cut close to the ground, when the fruit and leaves 
are in their prime, and allowed to dry in the sun, then thrashed 
with sticks, when the leaves and fruit fall off, and form the 
staple fodder, especially when grass is scarce. Camels work 
well on it as food ; cattle, horses, goats, and sheep can sub- 
sist on it when there is no grass, as it flourishes in years of 
diminished rainfall, thus often saving the animals from star- 
vation. 

Bhu Bambli {Acacia Jacquemonti) produces a wood in the 
hard desert which is much prized b}^ goldsmiths for beating 
out Qold-leaf, on account of its hardness and smoothness. 
Kankera {Gymnosporia montana), found in a dwarf form in the 
sandstone hills, is used inedicinally. 

Hajeru {Mimosa rulicaulis) is found in the desert, where it 
augments the camel food. There are several other stunted 
varieties of mimoseas in these States which serve the same 
purpose, and which hardly grow large enough to make 
firewood. 

Hingota {Balanites roxhitrghii) and Khimp {Orthanthera 
viminia) are stunted shrubs of the desert, which help the camel 
to subsist in times of need. 

The Imli or Tamarind tree {Tamarindus indica) is cultivated 
in the desert, in watered nooks, and found in abundance in the 
fertile lands of Marwar and Sirohi, adjacent to the Aravalli 
Range, where it grows to a very large size. The pods are much 
used in culinary, the seeds in medicine, and the timber for 
domestic purposes. It is grown in the gardens and adjacent 
to tanks in many parts of the desert. 

Jhal and Chhoti 3h.dl{Salvadora i^ersica and S. o/eoic?cs) flourish 
throughout the sandy desert and extend into the stony tracts, 
wheie they may be seen almost denuded of their usually fine 
foliage, struggling to survive. The wood of these trees is of 
inferior quality, and greatly used for burning. Camels feed 



FORESTS AND FLORA 419 

on the leaves and shoots, especially in the salt tracts, where 
they are abundant, and their fruit is eaten by the people. 

Kankera {Gymnosporia montana) is met with in a stunted 
condition in the stony desert ; its leaves are used medicinally, 
and its wood made into rosary beads. 

Kair (Capparis aphylla), a very valuable tree in the desert, 
as it provides much food for camels and goats, and a timber 
which is greatly used in roofing houses and for agricultural 
purposes. The crimson flower of the Kair gives a brilliant 
appearance to parts of the sandy waste in March and April, 
but it is not otherwise handsome. The fruit is eaten by the 
people. 

The Khejra {Prosoins spicigera) is the most important tree of 
the desert. It grows from seed in the natural way, without 
planting or watering, and its roots sink so deeply into the sand 
and fissures of the rocks, that it withstands season after season 
of unusual drought, and it can blossom and produce its peas 
under the most adverse conditions of climate and season, when 
other plants and trees seem to wither away or stand still in a 
stock-like condition, without any signs of life. The Khejra is 
nearly everything to the inhabitants of the desert. Its leaves 
and shoots provide them with vegetables. They eat its peas 
as fruit, and give its branches and leaves to their camels, goats, 
and cattle, when all other pasture is dried up and useless. 
Its shade protects them from the noonday sun. Its wood is 
used for roofing their houses and made into carts, saddles, and 
agricultural implements, and what is useless for other purposes 
is used as firewood. The fresh bark is, in years of famine, 
stripped off and ground up with grain, to give the meagre meal 
a substantial bulk, and thereby to ward oft' the pangs of hunger 
for a longer period. This tree is well worthy of being held 
sacred by the Bishnois and other desert tribes. 

The Kumtia (Acacia rupestris) is a useful tree, and grows 
both in the sandy and stony deserts, without any protection. 



420 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

It produces much gum, and makes the best heads for polo 
sticks, as the wood is light and tough. 

Lana {Haloxylon salicornicum), found in Jaisalmir and in a 
few places on the Marwar border in that direction, is a small 
shrub with a greenish-white flower and a small round seed, 
which provides much food for camels in the hard desert, and 
on Avhich some of the people can subsist during times of 
scarcity. They make bread from the seeds, almost equal to 
bajra bread, and the young shoots are also cooked and eaten as 
vegetables. This shrub has so much root energy, and pene- 
trates so deeply into the sands, that it can bloom and seed even 
in years of the greatest drought. 

The Nim (Melia indica) is the tree that repays cultivation 
best in these States. It is always green, and can be pruned to 
feed camels on occasions of necessity. Its shade is excellent, 
as the leaves come out afresh at the beginning of the hot 
weather. The fruit is eaten, and the timber is of fine quality. 
It, however, requires watermg in the arid regions for a few 
years at first, and it cannot throw out thorns, as the Khejra 
does, for self-protection ; consequently, it requires to be fenced 
in for a time, till it grows beyond the reach of goats and 
camels. The " Nim " grows well on the sands which are 
saturated with brackish water, and it is the most common 
village tree along the banks of the Luni River. It is also 
cultivated at many of the village wells throughout the desert, 

Rohira {Tecoma undulata) grows well in many parts of both 
the sandy and stony deserts, and flowers in March and April, 
lighting up the sands with its variegated flowers, and adding 
greatly to the beauty of some of the villages. Its wood is 
used for domestic purposes. 

Phog {Colligomim ijolygonoides) is the desert shrub on which 
camels have to subsist during the greater part of the year. Its 
seed and young shoots are eaten by the people in 3'ears of 
scarcity. 



FORESTS AND FLORA 421 

Thor (Uuphorhia royleana and E. nivulia) are met with 
in many parts of the desert, where they are both wild and 
planted as fences. The juice of these shrubs is used in medi- 
cine by the people both as an internal and external remedy. 



Grasses of the Desert. 

Bhurat or Burat (Cenchrus catharticus) is the most important 
grass of the desert, as it has much root energy, sprouts early 
with very little rain, and its seed makes fair bread when 
ground. It is brought out by a few early showers which 
produce no crops, and it is often abundant in years of scarcity, 
when the poorer people subsist on it, and when it saves the 
herds and flocks from being driven away from the country in 
search of pasture. The seed of this grass is enclosed in a 
barbed capsule which is difficult to remove, and which adheres 
to the skin and clothes, producing great irritation. So difficult 
is the capsule to remove fi'om the seed that a hard-working 
man can only produce sufficient bread for four souls from this 
grass in a day, even when it is very plentiful ; however, the 
whole family turn out to work at it, and in this way save 
themselves from starvation. Horses accustomed to the grass 
thrive well on it, but animals unaccustomed to it have great 
difficulty in masticating the barbed spines, and Waler horses 
will often starve rather than eat it. 

Murath or Maki'a (Chloris roxburghiana) is the next in 
importance to bhurat of the desert grasses. It is good for 
fodder and pasture, and its seed is collected and eaten by the 
people in years of scarcity. 

Mothea (Mothea tiiberosa) is a grass with an edible root, 
which provides much food for the people. 

Tantia or Sawan grass {Eleusina iiagellifera) is general 
throughout the desert, and its seed is sometimes collected to 
supplement the food of man. It is a grass which is common 



422 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

throughout the desert, but is not relished, by horses or cattle, 
so it is left over till other grasses have become scarce. It 
affords good cover for quail. 

Dhaiiian {Pennisetum conchroides) is abundant in the sandy 
desert and fertile plateaus. It is considered the best food for 
milch cows, and horses also thrive on it. 



FERNS AND FLOWERS 

Twenty-nine different varieties of ferns have been found on 
Mount Abu by Watling. However, on account of the long dry 
season which follows the rains, and the winter frosts, most of 
them die down annually, and only begin to sprout again when 
the monsoon is approaching. A complete collection can only 
be made during the damp season, when they flourish luxuri- 
antly. The following are some of the best known ferns of the 
Aravallis and Mount Abu : — Bleclmuin orientate, Davallia inil- 
chra, Pteris quadriaurita, Asplenium trapeziforme, Pliyma- 
todes lejjidotum, Adiantuvi caudatum, Actiniopteris dichotoraa, 
Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Gheilanthes farinosa, CheilantJtes ara- 
vallensis, Cyathea spinulosa, Athyriiim jimbriaturti, Adiantum 
hispiduluTn, Aspjleniurti varians, NepJtrodiuon molle, and a 
variety of Poly podium quercifolium. 

The dryness of the climate and the distance of water from 
the surface render horticulture backward, as a necessity, in 
most parts of these States. A few hardy perennial creepers, 
flowering shrubs, some pots and beds of annuals, make up the 
flower-gardens, except in Mount Abu, where a good show of 
cultivated flowers is not difficult to produce at any season. 
Wild flowers are also abundant in the hills here, especially 
during the monsoon season, and many of the trees blossom 
luxuriantly. Violets, pansies, geraniums, dahlias, and sweet 
pea ; asters, balsams, marigolds, and nasturtiums ; mignonette, 
zinnias, dianthus, helianthus, periwinkles, flox and stock ; heho- 
trope, lilies, irides, roses, fuschias, and hibiscus of varied 
hues, bloom profusely in the Abu gardens, without much 



424 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

trouble to the gardener. There is hardly a flowering plant or 
shrub, except the most delicate, that will not grow here with 
proper care, and a little protection during the short periods of 
summer heat and winter frost. Most of the flowering creepers 
flourish on Mount Abu, and many of them thrive in the gardens 
below, when they are watered and cared for. The following 
creepers are common on Abu, viz., Passiflora cosmlia, passion 
flower, three varieties, mauve, red, and yellow ; Gelsemium, yel- 
low jasmine; Bignonia venusta ; Hi'ptage madahlota ; Bugain- 
villea sx)ectatilis ; Banisteria laurifolia ; Runborgia grandi- 
flora ; Antigonum leptopits ; Sandwich Island creeper ; Tecoma 
jasniinoides ; Ipomea purpura, common purple creeper ; Wis- 
taria linensis, found wild, and two varieties of honeysuckle; 
Lonicera periclymenum, English woodbine, and Lonicera sem- 
pervirens, American woodbine. 

Datura stramoniurn, a well-known Solanacese, grows wild 
on Abu and the Aravallis, and is cultivated below for its flowers, 
as well as its seeds and leaves, which are used medicinally in 
asthmatic and other spasmodic affections. The seeds of this 
plant are also used criminally as a poison for both man and 
animals, and the seeds and leaves are smoked with tobacco. 

Caladiums and Crotons can be cultivated at Abu ; but the 
long dry season is severe on them, and they require protection 
during the frost. 

Poinsettia, bright Acalypha, and other shrubs with brilliant 
foliage, grow well in Abu, and, with a little skill and labour, a 
combination of the beauties both of the greenhouse and the 
garden can soon be obtained out of doors on this hill. 

Garden-flowers grow wild on Abu, and wild flowers spring 
up everywhere in the rains. Some are very lovely, and there 
is much variety of shape and display of colours among them. 
The Abu orchid is very abundant and beautiful when it 
blossoms on the mango and other trees in the monsoon season. 
There is another orchid with a larger flower, of a pale blue and 



FERNS AND FLOWERS 425 

white colour, met with in the Lower Aravallis, towards Kotra. 
Three varieties of orchis, or ground orchid, are found on Abu, 
and also many varieties of flowering scrofula, boraginous and 
labiate plants, most of which bloom in the damp season. There 
are two varieties of wild dog-rose indigenous in this hill, and 
roses grow in great profusion wherever cuttings are put in, 
making excellent hedges and magnificent clumps, which become 
covered with bloom in early spring, and again in autumn. 
There are two varieties of oleander and two of jasmine (both 
wild on the hill) which have escaped from gardens or been 
carried up by pilgrims, like the mangoes, now wild. The 
geranium, dhak, dudeli, kerna, cassia, corral, and cotton trees 
blossom with great profusion, and the strobilanthus covers the 
hill with one blaze of bloom once in seven or eight years, after 
the monsoon. There are many other trees which add materially 
to the great natural beauty of Abu and the Aravallis by their 
beautiful flowers and foliage. 



VEGETABLES 

The kitchen -gardener is beset with the same difficulties 
here which have been mentioned in connection with flori- 
culture, viz., the dryness of the soil and light rainfall. At Abu, 
Sirohi, Erinpura, and Jodhpore, English vegetables are obtain- 
able during the cold months in abundance, and a very limited 
supply can be procured at other seasons of the year. Potatoes 
are grown for the market during the rains on Mount Abu, and 
during the cold weather in a few other places. They are gene- 
rally of fair quality, although not equal to the Himalayan tuber. 
Lettuces, turnips, carrots, cauliflowers, parsnips, cabbages, to- 
matoes, cucumbers, celery, spinage, two species of artichoke, 
peas and beans of several sorts, can be cultivated throughout 
the cold weather wherever there is fresh water, as the soil is 
generally suitable, and the climate of the plains sufficiently 
cool between October and April. Fresh vegetables might be 
obtained throughout the year under skilled gardening in the 
hills. Many of the country vegetables are useful in the kitchen, 
as they flourish in the plains when English plants wither away 
on account of the heat. Leeks, onions, and two varieties of 
radish are in common use, and they grow even when the water 
is brackish. Brinjols, bintaks or bengans, bhindis, vegetable 
marrow, sweet potatoes, yams, pumpkins, karelas, kunkoras, 
ramas, methi, chundlia, palka, and tindsi are the principal 
vegetables of the people, and they are all wholesome and fairly 
palatable. Excellent mushrooms are found on Mount Abu and 
some of the other hills. 



FRUIT 

The fruit-trees have been already given under iheir verna- 
cular and botanical names. Much of the fruit used is imported. 
Melons, mangoes, plantains, oranges, limes, pumaloes, and 
leechies are cultivated, and also imported into the capitals and 
many of the large towns. Pomegranates are grown in gardens 
in the plains wherever water can be obtained, and this fruit is 
highly prized throughout these States. Plums {Zizyphus Jujuha) 
are the most common fruit in the bazaars. Grapes and peaches 
grow on Mount Abu, and ripen in time if the vines and trees be 
properly attended to and manured. Strawberries can be groAvn 
on Abu, and some varieties of vine do well at Sirohi, Erinpura, 
and other places in the plains. The wild mango and karunda 
of Abu are in general use, and are sent to all villages near the 
hill. Water-melons are cultivated throughout the desert. They 
grow to an enormous size in many places, and are of very fine 
flavour; one is often sufficient to refresh both the desert 
traveller and his horse. 

Many of the people of the desert have to substitute wild 
leaves and pods for vegetables, and the plum of the common 
" bor" bush is their principal fruit. The fruit of the wild caper 
and of the " nim " are also eaten. 

A proper supply of vegetables or fruit is essential to health, 
and when both can be obtained they should be taken advantage 
of, to keep the blood in a pure state and lessen the liability to 
disease. The want of fresh vegetables and fruit in the daily 
meals leads to degeneration of the blood and tissues, and stunted 
growth in children. Besides, indigestion, scurvy, liver, and 

427 



428 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

bowel diseases are often brought on by a diet meagre in these 
essential constituents. Prisoners suffer much from insufficient 
fresh vegetables, and I have often seen sepoys in regiments in 
impaired health from neglect of this necessary ingredient of 
their rations. Many of the people in the desert suffer from 
scurvy in bad years, when they have to subsist on old grain, 
with little milk, and few of the fresh leaves which spring up in 
seasons of abundant rain, to supply the want of fresh vegetables. 
Kitchen-gardening should receive every possible encourage- 
ment, both as a useful art and a pleasant pastime, which admits 
of fresh air and exercise being taken, while energy is being 
turned to profitable account, and the brain of the head-worker 
rested. 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 

The village here is anything — other than the capital of the 
State : it is the literal translation of the word gaon which is 
applied to rural centres of considerable population. Many of 
these villages would be called towns in most places and cities in 
America. Villages are not laid out here in squares and straight 
lines of houses with wide streets between. They are generally 
clusters of houses with a big fence of hor thorns around 
them, from which the leaves have been thrashed for camel 
fodder. The streets are mostly narrow and crooked, ending in 
a central square with shops, which is the bazaar, or in the 
courtyard of some house. There is usually a main street passing 
through the village ; but if the traveller deviate from this, he 
may have difficulty in extricating himself from the network of 
narrow passages which make up the secondary streets of the 
village. The best houses are in the centre of the village, or 
on an elevation at the top of the town. The inferior houses 
form the outer circle, or they are lower down, and tail off in a 
straggling formation. The superior houses are solidly built of 
stone and lime, or bricks, and with stone or tiled roofs. The 
smaller houses, or huts, are of mud, or mud-plaster on wicker- 
work, with thatched roofs, often shaped like bee-hives. All 
houses have enclosures for domestic animals ; these are walled 
in with arched doorways at all the great houses, and merely 
fences of thorns in front of the inferior dwellings. 

Every village has its menial quarter for aboriginal Bhils 
sweepers, and others not entitled to reside within the great 
enclosure, and these outcasts protect themselves by a secondary 

429 



430 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

fence. Besides house enclosures, there are strongly fenced pens 
for camels, cattle, sheep and goats not wanted at the houses. 

The little village has merely a few central houses for Rajputs, 
Banias, and Brahmins, and a number of huts around them, with 
the usual thorn fence outside. 

The big village is a walled city, with arched gateways, loop- 
holes, battlements, and turrets for defence. The gates are 
strong and spiked to prevent battering with elephants. A 
broad street, with fine houses on either side, and intersected 
by numerous secondary streets, leads up to the owner's resi- 
dence, which is strongly fortified, and is in many instances a 
veritable castle. The modest Baron talks of this as "My 
Village " or " My Gaon," in contradistinction to the city or shahr, 
the capital of his chief. There are mounted guns here, 
but the sentry sits, instead of pacing up and down his beat 
in the usual military fashion. He is nevertheless watchful, 
and the gates are regularly barred at night against invaders. 

Without the walls, as at the ordinary village, there are huts 
for sweepers and other low castes, and the usual enclosures for 
stock. 

The temple, too, is often located in a grove of trees beyond 
village limits ; but there are other temples within all great 
villages, for the convenience of the pious and the protection 
of the place. Here the bells ring morning and eveniug, and 
worship is regularly attended to by the Brahmins in charge. 
Women can be seen carrying up the offerings of their houses 
set apart for the temple and the priests thereof. The villagers 
are a religious people, and they give freely to their temples and 
the Brahmins. 

Villages are of many sorts and sizes, and in some instances 
they are merely the head-quarters of numerous hamlets, in 
which case most of the agricultural population reside on their 
fields, in huts called dhanis, where they keep their cattle 
and belongings for convenience of pasture, and to be near 




Temple. 



To face page 430. 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 431 

their work. The land-owner, dealers, artisans, and others 
reside in the village, and the whole colony acknowledge them- 
selves of it, under one village name. These colonies are 
common in the less fertile tracts of Marwar. 

The Thakar-Sahib, or landlord, or Rajput, occupies the 
principal house at the top of the village, which generally 
overloolvs all the other dwellings, and is fortified. Big houses 
have more than one enclosure for horses, milk cows, fightinsr 
rams, an elephant or two, and dogs for the chase. The Rajput 
loves his horse, and treats him as one of the family. So the 
basements of big houses and even palaces are built for stables. 
The horses are within the enclosures, all around their master, 
and often, even in the innermost circle, set apart for the 
ladies of the Zenana. When the Rajput's wife questioned 
her husband's wisdom in feeding his horses on clariiied butter 
(ghee), and pointed out that the antelope, subsisting on green 
food, could far surpass them in speed and endurance, he 
replied, "Grudge not the ghee; the horses will be useful in 
the battlefield where swords clash." 

Banias, Brahmins, and other villagers are also attached to 
their animals, and keep their horses and cows in the front 
enclosures or even in the verandas of their houses. Nor 
does the camel-man outcaste his animals; so the camel is 
allowed to rest close to where his master sleeps. The Rabaris, 
or herdsmen and shepherds, cannot take their large herds 
and flocks into their houses ; so they make their beds in the 
enclosures, and sleep there to be near their stock, where they 
are fed by their wives and children. 

Every village has at least one well or tank, where brightly 
dressed women can be seen, morning and eveningf, streamino- 
to and fro, with metal and earthen water-vessels on their heads, 
and Avhere hundreds of cattle, camels, sheep, and goats await 
an opportunity to drink. 

Where the water-supply is good, the village is generally 



432 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

large and populous. But hills and positions of strategical 
advantage have, in early and troublous times, determined the 
sites of some of the fine fortified towns here, whereas, during 
later years of peace and prosperity, a fertile soil has been 
the making of many of the most flourishing agricultural 
villages. 

Rich villages improve their tanks and wells, store up a 
grain and fodder reserve against famine, protect and plant 
trees, set apart lands for hay and grazing during the hot 
months, and even do a little to improve sanitation. Such 
villages have much esprit and common interest ; whereas poor 
villages are wholly occupied in providing for immediate wants, 
and they are often found deserted in bad years, the population 
being semi-nomadic. 

The village has changed little during centuries, and the 
villager has hardly moved out of his old groove, although he 
has greatly benefited by long years of peace. Indeed, as the 
Irishman in the bog said of himself, so the villager is no 
upstart; he is where his father left him. Even now, with 
the Mayo College and other educational advantages for the 
upper classes, there will not be a rapid change in village Hfe, 
as the customs are congenial to the people, and suitable to 
their surroundings. 

The Thakar, or head of the village, is esteemed by all, 
regardless of his short-comings, if he live up to the traditions 
of his ancestors, borrow money, pay interest, keep up state, 
live and let live. He is " to the manor born," and he has 
all the privileges of a feudal lord. He can sit down with his 
retainers on occasions, without detriment to his position. He 
can be severe and exacting, and it is not resented, if only 
occasional. He is the privileged of all the village: his skill 
is extolled when he rides, fences, and shoots well, and the 
first place in the chase, as in everything else, is reserved for 
him without competition. His failings are excused; he is 




■^ 



^ 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 433 

flattered, petted, and enticed to the bottle and the naucli. 
The village would be very dull without these, its old institutions 
of dissipation; and it is not the fault of the Mayo College 
if some of the gilded youth of this part of the country, to 
whom a thorough training has been given in that excellent 
institution, have returned to their ancestral halls, and pursued 
pleasure after the manner of their fathers, rather than turned 
out exemplary squires. Employment is wanted, and the village 
would not approve of the Thakar taking over the control of 
his estate, and working like an office drudge: "he can pay a 
man for drudgery of that sort." There are now no boundary 
feuds with his neighbours, no intertribal wars, and, under the 
Pax Britannica, his chief's calls on him and his retainers for 
service have, of necessity, become few. So time drags heavily 
on the unoccupied of the village. 

The Thakar appears to advantage when he heads the pro- 
cession on the occasion of a grand festival like the Dassera. 
Mounted on his prancing and caparisoned steed, with "the 
curved mane and a flowing tail " common to well-bred Marwari 
horses, and closely followed by all his mounted retainers and 
the entire village, he leads forth, admired by all. His saddle 
is a work of art in variegated silk and embroidery, bespangled 
with gold and jewels. His sword is his father's, golden-hilted, 
velvet-cased, and "girded on" with a tinted samber-leather 
belt and ornamental buckle. On his turban and neck are 
displayed many heirlooms in gold and diamonds. The bright 
puggaris of the village men, mounted on adorned horses and 
camels, and the brilliant dresses of the women and children 
seated in country carts drawn by ornamented bullocks, make 
a magnificent spectacle. Charans or poets chant and women 
sing the praises of the Thakar and his ancestors. There are 
horns, pipes, cymbals, drums, and other instruments of music 
to add to the grandeur of the occasion ; and the whole pageant 

pleases the people, who, at the conclusion of the ceremonies, 

2 E 



434 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

return to their own houses well satisfied with their ancient 
customs and the chief of their village. 

The Thakar is generous and hospitable. When at home he 
distributes opium to all callers, and wine to his Rajput friends 
and others able to appreciate the beverage. He is not fond 
of going abroad; he lives with his retainers and people, who 
thoroughly appreciate him, and he does not enjoy mixing with 
the outside world, where he loses in status, and receives less 
attention than he is accustomed to. He is essentially polite on 
all occasions, and punctilious in ceremony : he will return calls 
in the most formal manner, attended by the largest possible 
retinue, as he delights in formality and following, and carries 
himself through functions with great dignity and composure. 

The Kamdar, or agent, is the principal official, and generalh' 
a Bania, who turns his tenure of office to profitable account and 
makes money. His harvest-time is during a minority, with the 
head dowager-lady of the family nominally in authority. 

Before the Thakar can speak, his female relations and 
domestics begin to negotiate for his marriage, and his principal 
wife must, if possible, be from a house greater or equal to his 
own. This is an important point in the eyes of the village, and 
to accomplish it is the only circumstance that could be allowed 
to stand in the way of an early marriage. No respectable man's 
son could be allowed to remain a bachelor beyond ten or fifteen 
years of age ; the village would not tolerate it, and they despise 
the bachelor. 

The villagers expect their Thakar to have many wives, and 
he can bestow favour on other Rajputs by marrying some of 
their daughters when they are in excess of requirements, and 
cannot be disposed of to others with advantage to their families. 
"I put favour on him," said the great man; "I married his 
female relations, and he should be deeply grateful to me for 
that concession." 

Rajputs do not see much of their mothers-in-law, nor indeed 



THE VILLAGE xVND VILLAGER 435 

of their fathers-in-law. It is not the custom for the son-in-law 
to visit much with his fathers-in-law, especially when they are 
of lower rank than himself. " I know him very well," said the 
Rajput; "I married a couple of his daughters, and went to his 
village for the ceremony when I was a boy, but I forget his 
name just now. He had a lot of girls, poor man ! but he is of 
very good family, and they had to be married off for him." 

The daughters and female relations of all well-regulated 
houses must be married early regardless of expense. An 
elderly spinster would be a positive disgrace to the village, and 
a maiden aunt would be too anomalous, and could only be 
accounted for by a curse on the house, or by some domestic 
skeleton of a grave and lasting character. 

The birth of a daughter is considered a family calamity, 
which has to be passed over in silence and borne with fortitude. 
" Don't be down-hearted," said the State Council to their 
friend, whom they met to condole with on the birth of a 
daughter ; " such misfortunes are in the hands of Providence, 
and man is helpless against them." The " father of a daughter" 
(Beti-ka-Bap) is a contemptuous epithet, and such a person 
is the despised of the village if he be poor, and the pitied if 
he be a great man. " Why do you call him the father of a 
daughter ? " said the great man. " Because he is a Beti-ka-Bap, 
and good for nothing too." " I also am only the father of 
■daughters." " But your honour is great. You must be ex- 
cused. The misfortune can't be helped. You can do as you 
please." 

In such a state of society, it will readily be understood 
that the unfortunate official whose duty it is to register births 
has a difficult task before him, and it is not strange that vital 
statistics are still far from accurate here. Indeed, the Thakar 
and the whole village resent such prying into their domestic 
occurrences, and they cannot understand the idle curiosity 
of a Government which expects them to report female births, 



436 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

that only bring the derision of passers-by on themselves and 
their village. There is no difficulty about a son. All the 
villagers appear much elated on the occasion of a male birth, 
except the father, who, although highly pleased, does not 
think it manly to show his delight, as it would be "like boast- 
ing in mortal things." " Let me see the baby," said the Rajput 
trooper to a European lady's " ayah." " Ah ! what a pity it 
wasn't a boy. We would all have had great rejoicings, and a 
grand treat too." 

All pure-bred Rajputs are privileged in the village. They 
are kinsmen, and called brothers of the Thakar-Sahib, and 
have traditions, no matter what their means or occupation. 
They are expected to marry into clans equal to their own : 
the escutcheon of the noble race must not be stained with 
inferior blood. Half-castes are despised and drop below in 
the village. 

From a fiscal point of view, the Banias, or dealers, are 
the most important class, and there are many of them in 
every large village, where they control the money market, 
export, import, and bank. They have a monopoly of trade 
and usury, possess much of the wealth of the country, and 
hold many of their fellow-villagers almost as bondsmen, on 
account of advances made in cash or seeds. The Bania 
possesses the business capacity of the hard-headed Scotchman, 
and he is as unrelenting and greedy as a Jew in all business 
transactions. The local sayings regarding him are, that "he 
resorts to sleight of hand when using his scales, to give light 
weight " ; " his debts are deceptive as a scarecrow," and " his 
cunning in capturing his victim equal to that of the deer-trapper." 
" He overvalues and exaggerates the weight of what he gives, 
and he undervalues and under-estimates the weight of what he 
receives, to the extent of 25 per cent, of the whole." " Thus 
he carries on cheating, aided by his parsimonious wife; and 
is no less a robber than the Baori, the notorious village thief." 




Garden, House, anei Temple, Jaisalmir 







^7*:^** 





^■^T 



Dewan's Carriage, Jaisalmir. To face page 436. 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 437 

The Bania is not infrequently hardly dealt with in return, 
and I have had to restore his nose, which had been cut off by 
his debtor, when he demanded his own with interest. More- 
over, notwithstanding his austerities in matters of business, 
even with his fellow-villagers, he is a most useful member of 
the community, and has many good qualities which should 
not be forgotten. He is the most enterprising of India's sons, 
and the mainstay of trade and commerce in the East. 

He quits his home in the desert at an early age, often 
penniless, but determined to make money, and he generally 
succeeds. He is steady in his habits, diligent, prudent, and 
reliable in business transactions with other business men. 
Consequently he is trusted, and has a good status in com- 
mercial circles. Although he will, at times, speculate to the 
extent of gambling in his haste to become rich, his caution 
is generally sufficient to avert ruin; and even when he loses 
heavily, he mostly manages to rally again, his thrift and 
tenacity of purpose are such marked features in his character. 

When the Bania has made his fortune and revisits his 
village, he is known as the Sethji, and he then begins to 
work for a good name. He often keeps up considerable state, 
feeds Brahmins largely, gives to the poor, feeds the village 
dogs, builds a temple, sinks a well, and establishes drinking 
stations for thirsty travellers and rests for weary carriers 
on the highroads. He also spends much on wedding and 
funeral feasts, and becomes more lenient with his debtors in 
the village. 

The security offered to the money-lender is not infrequently 
risky. However, the Bania advances both money and seed to 
his fellow-villagers in bad years, when they could not obtain 
succour from outside, thereby often saving them from starva- 
tion ; and although he expects ample returns for his mvest- 
ments, he does not always get them. He is undoubtedly a 
benefactor to the careless villager, who takes little thought 



438 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

for the future, and makes little or no provision against bad 
seasons. 

The Marwari Bania mostly keeps up his home in the desert, 
and he does much for the country. He returns to marry, adopt, 
and recruit his health, shattered by town life. Most of his 
visits are marked by some act of liberality. Much of the 
money made in trade throughout India by these thrifty 
people is sent into the desert, and thus this arid part of 
India is made to flourish by their enterprise and energy. 

When the young Bania marries, he often goes out into the 
world in quest of a fortune, leaving his bride behind till he can 
arrange to take her with him. This class has kept free from 
the pardah system of the Mahomedans, and on that account they 
have been relieved of the encumbrance of polygamy, which 
has so tied down the Rajputs. The men generally remarry 
only after the first wife's death, and widow-remarriage is strictly 
forbidden. 

Banias' wives carry the water required in the house, attend 
to all domestic duties, and assist their husbands in their busi- 
ness. Their children are educated up to a certain standard, 
and they show a wonderful aptitude for figures and accounts as 
soon as they can articulate, talent for business being hereditary 
with them. 

The whole village has interest in the crops and stock, and 
any one may cultivate, from the high Rajput to the outcaste 
aboriginal. Jats, Su'vis, Gujars, and Bishnois are, however, the 
best cultivators, and they devote themselves to agriculture. 
They give from a fifth to a half of the produce to their Thakar 
for the use of the land, and pay him other dues besides. They 
are honest, hard-working Hindus of good physique, who can live 
happily on little, so long as they are not worried by thieves or 
famines. Their wives and children take their food to the fields 
and assist them with their work. The cultivator asks but " a hut 
that does not leak, a good onunj cot, plenty of bajra bread," 




•«^ 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 439 

milk, and curd. His wife's wants are also few, viz., "to be married 
in her father's village," " have her husband's field in the west," 
so that the sun may be on her back while going in the morning 
and returning in the evening, in order to save her complexion ; 
and " the village tank convenient," so that she may not have 
to go far with the bullocks from the plough, to give them a 
drink. 

There are artisans in all villages of importance, viz. : khatis 
or carpenters, and lobars or blacksmiths, to make and mend 
the carts and ploughs ; mochis and chamars (shoemakers and 
tanners), kumars or potters, to make earthen vessels for domestic 
purposes and buckets for the Persian wheels which lift the 
water from the deep wells ; darzis or tailors are met with, but 
they are not much patronised by the ordinary people, who 
make their own clothes during their leisure when the harvest 
is saved. Rangrez or dyers are always in request for weddings, 
fairs, and festivals, when bright dresses are worn by the women, 
and coloured puggaris by the men. Weaving is done in most 
villages by the lower castes of Hindus, generally Bhambis, and 
the spinning is done by almost all classes of women. Malis or 
gardeners grow leeks and onions, and, where water is abundant, 
other vegetables for the village market ; but they generally stick 
to the large centres. Vegetable gardens are much neglected in 
most villages, to the detriment of health, and on this account 
land scurvy is not an infrequent disease. Sonars or goldsmiths 
are not wanting, except in small places, as the people are fond 
of ornaments, both real and imitation. There are rabaris and 
gawalas or herdsmen in all villages, and they take charge of the 
village herds and flocks, as a joint business, for which they 
receive a small remuneration from each house. 

Servants are mostly half-caste and hereditary ; but retainers 
are generally of pure birth. Servants exercise much authority in 
the domestic circle, and are more like helps than menials. The 
male domestic loves intrigue, ease, and plenty, with liquor and 



440 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

tobacco thrown in, and he could beg as much work as would 
satisfy him if his other wants were well supplied. The saying 
is that " the female attendant in her bloom expects admira- 
tion, and occasionally wine, but always absolute authority in the 
kitchen." She becomes satisfied with tobacco and snuff, and is 
more given to work as she advances in years and fades in 
appearance. 

Dhobis (washermen) and Bhishtis (water-carriers) are only 
found in the great houses. The ordinary people do their own 
washing and water-drawing. 

The menial or coolie classes of the village are mostly Nais 
or barbers, Bhambis, aboriginal Bhils, and sweepers. There 
are Grasias, Minas, and Bhils in considerable numbers in many 
of the villages near the Aravallis, and a few in other parts. 
Most of them now cultivate, but they would prefer to work at 
dacoity and rob Banias' wives en route to weddings with their 
best jewellery on. Kolis, Dheds, Bhambis, Chamars, Sansis, 
Baoris, Bagris, and sweepers are found about most important 
villages. They are considered menials, and reside outside the 
village enclosure. 

There are about seven per cent, of Mahomedans in Marwar 
villages, and a few of them own land. Many of them work in 
iron and cultivate. A considerable number are Sepoys and 
domestic servants. There are very few Mahomedans in Sirohi 
(only about three per cent, of the population), and they are 
mostly Bohras (Mahomedan dealers) and Sepoys. In Jaisal- 
mir about one-fourth of the entire population is Mahomedan. 
They are cultivators and Sepoys. The butchers in all states 
are Mahomedans. Coolies who manufacture salt are called 
"Kharwals," and there are many of them settled in the salt 
tracts. Dholis are the professional musicians of these estates 
and they are beggars as well. They are residents of large 
villages; but they wander about, and are employed for wed- 
dings and other ceremonies. Some Mahomedans also adopt 




Nomadic Aborigines. 




To face page 440. 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 441 

the profession of music, and perform on important occasions 
in the village, for money payments. 

The Brahmin is, by right, the head of the church, and the 
highest caste among the people. His proper charge is the 
temple and the idols, and his occupation begging. But he has 
multiplied to such an extent that his sons take office as officials, 
serve in the ranks of the army, in the office and shop, and they 
even cultivate and tend cattle in the village. They also trade, 
and often show business capacity and power of amassing wealth 
hardly second . to the Marwari Bania. Thousands of Brahmins 
in these estates live by begging, and save money from the pro- 
ceeds, with which they ornament their wives and daughters, 
and even become usurers. It is said that some Brahmins will 
beg at the house where they have put out money at interest, 
and " shame is not put on them." The Srimalis are the greatest 
beggars, and it does not demean them in the eyes of their 
neighbours to beg when they possess considerable wealth, or even 
when their wives and daughters have much jewellery and tine 
clothes. Many of the Pushkarna Brahmins here are officials, 
and they now live less by begging than by other employment. 

Brahmins are all privileged. They could not be hanged for 
murder till quite recently, and I have only known one instance 
in which execution was actually carried out. They are fed by 
the great on all big occasions, such as marriages, male births, 
and funeral feasts ; and some of them eat inordinately at such 
times. However, if they die from excess, honour is done to the 
host. To feed Brahmins is the duty of all pious Hindus, and 
it atones for many sins. When a Hindu crosses the sea, he 
becomes temporarily an out-caste thereby; but he can be re- 
stored to his brethren by liberally feeding Brahmins. To injure 
a Brahmin entails more than ordinary punishment, and his 
curse is dreaded, even by noble houses. It may blight the 
marriage prospects of the ladies of the family, or bring disease 
upon the people. 



442 WESTERN RAJPUT AN A STATES 

The birth of the first-born son is an occasion which demands 
the feeding of many Brahmins, and they take presents away 
when the proud parent is in a position to provide them. It is 
therefore natural that they should think poorly of " fathers of 
daughters," as the birth of a daughter admits of no feastings, 
and she is of no use in this way until her marriage. 

Brahmins are often fairly educated, even in remote villages. 
They sometimes study and apply astronomy and medicine, and 
they indulge in evil prophecy against those who depart from 
their dictates. They attribute failure of rain, famine, and 
pestilence, and even local calamities to the evildoings of the 
people, and the neglect of the proper observances laid down by 
the church. 

When in charge of temples, they officiate at marriages, 
attend funerals, select names for the children, act as astrologers 
and medical men, give forecasts of the seasons and times, and 
they get grants from the village for such offices. 

They are husbands of one wife, and they provide for their 
poor relations if these cannot be otherwise fed and clothed ; but 
they do not give charity to other castes. 

Charans or poets, who make odes and songs for the village 
magnate, live greatly on charity, free grants of land, and dues. 
They attend weddings and funeral feasts, and indulge in lam- 
poons when dissatisfied with their treatment. They, like the 
Brahmins, have also to be appeased by feasts and gifts, and they 
add to the many taxes on the landed aristocracy of the country. 

Education is still far behind in the village. Some of the 
Rajput boys get a rudimentary education from a Brahmin 
tutor at their own homes. Others are sent to school at the 
capital, where they read up to a higher standard, and a few 
of the wealthy families give their sons the advantage of a Mayo 
College training. From the Mayo College they are generally 
turned out with a good knowledge of English, and they are 
always proficient in outdoor games. The village Rajput boy 




Monuments of Border Fight between \'illagers. 




ii''li!'S'''2'r'i3^E^ 








Monimients or Chattris. 



To face page 442. 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 443 

is invariably very much smartened and improved by residence 
in that well-ordered institution, and he acquires regular habits, 
which should be of advantage to him during his whole lifetime. 

There is mostly a village school for Brahmins and Banias, 
where Hindi, arithmetic, and writing are taught, and these 
castes take some pains about the education of their boys. 

Some of the Mahomedans have their sons taught Urdu and 
Persian to enable them to read the Koran ; however, many of 
them are careless in regard to education. 

The other classes in the village generally show a great want 
of appreciation of education, unless in occasional instances, and 
female education is greatly neglected everywhere. 

The learned professions are not well represented in the 
village. Any one supposing himself to be in possession of an 
occult remedy practises medicine, and the temple Brahmin 
generally combines the treatment of disease by charms or in- 
cantations with his divine calling. There are bleeders, rubbers, 
herbalists, and sometimes an hereditary hakim or baid in most 
of the large villages. The barber, blacksmith, carpenter, or 
other handy man can set fractures after a fashion; but the 
treatment is often fatal to the limb. There are now fortunately 
dispensaries at nearly all the district head-quarters, where 
gratuitous medical aid can be obtained from qualified practi- 
tioners, and where proper appliances for setting fractures are 
kept in readiness. The people are beginning to seek relief 
regularly at these institutions. 

Sanitation is backward in the village, although a certain 
amount of cleaning is done by the sweepers, who reside in the 
out-caste quarter, and receive the refuse food and clothes and 
at times some money payments for their services. Villagers 
are careless about the common water-supply, and they allow 
the wells and tanks to be contaminated unnecessarily. They 
think little of the ventilation of their houses ; however, as they 
spend much of their time in the open air, sleep on the house- 



M4> WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

tops, in open verandas, and in tile fields, they are mostly 
healthy. But when an epidemic unluckily reaches the village, 
it claims many victims. 

Law is placed in the hands of the Thakar, but the exercise 
of it is generally left to his kamdar or manager ; however, there 
is an appeal to the state courts. Advocates are mostly villagers 
with natural loquacity, Avho take up the cases of their less for- 
ward neighbours for a consideration, and eventually gain a local 
reputation and a large practice if they have success. Qualified 
lawyers are still unknown to the villagers here; nevertheless, 
litigation is sometimes pursued to the last appeal, and the 
Queen-Empress is even petitioned when the Viceroy and other 
representatives fail to satisfy the importunaite Htigant. The 
people of these States are most persistent petitioners when they 
have an imaginary or real grievance, and many men of doubtful 
repute earn a good livelihood by petition-writing, and urging 
them on to the law courts. Even relations will often carry on 
litigation with each other till the family property has been 
wasted in law expenses, and the minor official is often accused 
by the villager. During the absence from home of two brothers 
their house was burned, probably accidentally, and considerable 
jewellery and property lost to the owners, who blamed the local 
officials for first plundering the house and then burning it, 
to divert suspicion from the burglars. Dissatisfied with the 
findings of the various courts in the case, the plaintiffs 
petitioned every authority up to the Viceroy, and finally sailed 
for England in the hope of having their wrongs redressed b}^ 
the Queen-Empress. At that time the permanent political 
officer was on leave, and they calculated on his assisting them 
to approach her Majesty. On landing in London, they in- 
quired for him of many, and asked to be directed to their 
Agent-sahib ; but were much astonished and disappointed to 
find a man of such high standing in their own country un- 
known in the world's capital, cither by his name or office. So 



THE VILLAGE AND VILLAGER 445 

they returned disheartened to their own homes, determined to 
bear the wrongs and losses they had sustained rather than 
remain in a benighted city hke London ! They said to their 
friends : Great London is a " Bari Andher Nagrmen bilkul achhi 
nahin Agent sahibre waste keyannen puchhio pin unanen 
koinahin janen." London they considered a most dark and 
backward city, and not at all a good place. Fancy ! they 
asked many people lor the Agent-sahib, and nobody knew 
him, nor could any one direct them to him ! 

Village life is extremely simple ; the occupations of the 
people are mostly outdoor and very healthy. Every member 
of the community falls into his place naturally, and there is 
not the same struggle for position and money which exists in 
large centres. Consequently, wear and tear of the system are 
at the minimum, and the average life is long. Besides, the 
villagers are more virtuous than their fellows in the crowded 
cities ; their diet is simpler, their habits more regular, and they 
are remote from most epidemics, except smallpox, which is 
now being greatly subdued by vaccination. Only a few indulge 
in alcohol, so, if famine can be averted, and their water-supply 
somewhat improved to prevent cholera outbreaks, these people 
of the desert will have considerably more than the usual period 
of longevity, and they will steadily increase in numbers. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

The following works have been referred to : — 

" Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan." Tod. 

" Rajputana Gazetteer." 

Gazetteers of INIarwar, Mallani, and Jaisalmir. 

Rajputana Administration Reports. 

"Gazetteer of the East India Company," &c. Thornton. 

"Hind Raj asthan. " Mehta. 

"Itihas Rajasthan (Hindi)." Ram Natli. 

Marwar Administration Reports. 

Famine Reports. 

" Guide to Jodhpore." 

*' A Brief Account of Jodhpore." Sukhdeo Prashdd. 

Murray's "Birds of India." 

Jerdon's " Birds of India." 

Jerdon's "Mammals of India." 

Butler's "Birds." Bombay. 

Day's "Fishes." India. 

"Wood's "Insects." 

"Forests Flora." Brandis. 

Miss Macadam's "Trees and Plants of Abu, Jodhpore, and 

Jaisalmir. " 
*' Indian Ferns." Baynes. 



446 



GLOSSARY 



Achalgarh, temple. 
Achleshtvar, temple. 
AJodhya, city. 

Baids, Hindoo physicians, 

Bajra, species of millet. 

Bcdmer, town. 

Balsamand, lake or tank. 

Bazaar, market. 

Bhambi, coolie caste or menial 

caste. 
Bhati, Rajpoot clan. 
Bhurtpore, state and its capital. 
Bund, dam. 

Chhattri, monument. 
Ghohan, Rajpoot clan. 
CJionda. 

Daroga, superintendent. 
Dassera, Hindoo festival. 
Deesa, cantonment. 
Deioan, prime minister. 
Dholjjore, state and its capital. 
Dwarka, city to which pilgrims 
resort. 

Gaddi, throne. 

Gail mukh, a natural spring with 

temple, where pilgrims bathe. 

The water flows through a 

marble fountain in the shape 

of a cow's head. 



GJiara, earthen vessel 
Ghee, clarified butter. 
Grasia, aboriginal tribe. 
Gujerat. 

Guru Sikhar, highest peak of 
Mount Abu. 

Hindu, native of India following 
the Hindoo religien. 

Ishivara, temple. 

JJialla, clan of Rajpoots. 
Jodhpore, city and state of Mar 

war. 
Joivar, millet, species of. 

Kanavj, ancient city. 

Kanode, 

Khuni, 

Klmrram, 

Kutch, 

Kerari, town. 

Kharif, crop. 

Kharins, fertile valleys. 

Khichi, Rajpoot clan. 

Kotah, city, 

Krishna, Hindoo deity. 

Mahomedans, sect 
Mallani, district. 
Marothe, town. 
Mogul, ex-Emperor of India. 



towns. 



447 



448 



WESTERN RAJPUT ANA STATES 



Mussalmans, sect. 
dans. 



See Mahome- 



Nadole, town. 
NdkM, Abu lake. 
Neeimicfi, cantonment. 
Noclma. 

Palanpur, town. 

Parihar. 

Parsi, sect. 

Pawar. 

Pohkaran, town. 

Poona, town and cantonment. 

Pramar, tribe of Rajpoots. 

Prithvi Raj, chief. 

Punjab. 

Eahi, crop. 

iJawre of Kutcli, delta of River 
Suni. 



Rinn or salt marsh. 
Rutlam, city and state. 

Sannyasis. 

Sardars, nobles, officers. 

Satlaj, river. 

Scindia, chief of Gwalior. 

Shishodia, clan of Rajpoots. 

Shri Krishna, deified hero. 

Sindh, province. 

Solanl-hi, tribe of Rajpoots, 

Srimali, caste of Brahmins. 

Suhadar, officer, 

Surajwansh, Sun race. 

Tanot, town and district. 
Tchsildar, civil district officer. 
ThaJiar, baron or landholder under 
the chief, 

Ulicar, state and city. 
Umarlcote, town. 
Ummed Singh, chief. 



INDEX 



Abbott Sagar, 122 
Abu Sanitarium, 371 
Agriculture in Jaisalmir, 28 

in Marwar, 8 

in Sirohi, 18 

Amputations, 245 
Anaemia and Debility, 225 
Animals, Domestic, 189 
Ant-eater, Scaly, 173 
Antelope, 165 
Arachnida, 392 
Arboriculture, 406 
Arteries, Operations on, 242 
Artisans, Village, 439 
Ass, 190 

B. 
Badger, 171 
Bali, Description of, 295 
Balmer, Description of, 293 
Balsamand, 104 
Bania, the Village, 436 
Baoris and JhAlras (Large Wells) in 

Jodhpore, 121 
Bats, Varieties of, 173 
Bear, Black, 170 
Bees, 386 

Bekra (Four-Horned Antelope), 166 
Bliatis of Jaisalmir, 69 
Bhatki, Description of, 295 



Big G-ame, 168 
Bilara, Description of, 291 
Birds, Wild, 352 
Birth-Rate of Jaisalmir, 204 

of Jodhpore, 202 

of Sirohi, 204 

Biscobra, 174 

Bittern, 179 

Black Buck, 165 

Boar, Wild, 163 

Bones and Joints, Operations on, 

244 
Brahmins, Village, 440 
Breast, Operations on, 244 
British Institutions in Marwar 

State, 298 
Buffaloes, 191 
Bustards, 177, 182 
Butterflies, 391 

C. 

Camels, 192 

Capital of Jaisalmir, 87 

of Jodhpore, 75 

of Sirohi, 86 

Cataract, Operations for, 241 

Cat, Domestic, 193 

Cats, Wild, 170 

Cattle, 190 
i Chiefs of Jaisalmir, 69 

I of Marwar, 42 

449 2 F 



450 



INDEX 



Chiefs of Sirohi, 6i 

Chigoe ("Jigger"), 383 
Chikara (Indian Gazelle), 165 
Chirianathji, the Ascetic who 
brought drought on Marwar, 

99 

Chital, 166 
Cholera, 213 

Circulatory Diseases, 228 
Climate of Abu, 32 

of Jaisalmir, 25 

of Marwar, 10 

of Sirohi, 14 

and Europeans, 197 

Cobras, 174 

Cochineal Insect, 385 

College, Mayo, Ajmere, 433 

Crane, Varieties of, 183 

Crocodiles, 174 

Crops and Soils (see Agriculture 

and Parganas) 
Crustacea, 188 
Currencies and Mints, 1 1 1 

D. 

Dead, Disposal of, 154 
Debility and Anaemia, 225 
Desuri, Description of, 297 
Dewan Salem Singh of Jaisalmir, 

71 
Diarrhoea, 229 

Didwana, Description of, 2S6 
Digestive Organs, Operations on, 

242 

System, Diseases of, 229 

Diptera, 385 
Diseases, 207 

■ General, 227 

Medical, 210 

Surgical, 240 



Dispensaries and Hospitals, Jodh- 
pore, 260 

in Jaisalmir, 265 

in Sirohi, 264 

Dispensary Towns, 283 
Dog, Domestic, 193 

Wild, 170 

Drainage, 124 

Droughts and Floods in Sirohi, 15 

Duck, 179 

Winter Visitants, 180 

Dysentery, 218 
Dyspepsia, 230 

E. 

Ear Diseases, 227 
Earthquakes in Abu, 35 
Elephant, 193 
Epidemics, 251 

in Abu, 36 

Events of Bairi Sal's Reign, 72 
of Jaswant Singh's Reign, 

54 

of Kesri Singh's Reign, 66 

Exports and Imports, Marwar, 9 

and Imports, Sirohi, 18 

Eyeball, Operations on, 241 
Eye Diseases, 227 

R 

Fairs, Principal, in Abu, 38 

■ in Jaisalmir, 140 

I in Marwar, 137 

in Sirohi, 139 

Famines, History of, 143 
Feathered Game, 177 
Ferns and Flowers, 423 
Filaria medinensis, 394 

sanguinis hominis, 394 

Fishes, 185 



INDEX 



451 



Flies, 385 

Floods and Droughts in Sirohi, 15 

Flora and Forests, 397 

Florican, 183 

Flowers and Ferns, 423 

Flukes, Liver, 395 

Food, Cooking of, &c., 199 

Food and Markets, 156 

Food-grains, Prices of, 160 

Forests and Flora, 397 

Fort of Jaisalmir, 89 

of Jodhpore, 80 

Fox, 170 
Frogs, 174 
Fruit, 427 
Fuller's Earth, 5 

G. 

Game, 163 

Big, 168 

Cock, 195 

Feathered, 177 

Gazelle, Indian, 165 

Geese, 179 

Genealogy of Jaisalmir Rulers, 73 

of Marwar Rulers, 60 

of Sirohi Rulers, 68 

General Diseases, 227 

Geology of Marwar, 3 

Goats, 192 

Goitre, 230 

Grains, Food, Prices of, 160 

Grant, J. W., Captain, I.M.S., 

238 
Grasses, Fertile Lands, List of, 

404 
Fertile Lands, Description 

of, 416 

Desert, List of, 406 

Desert, Description of, 421 



Grey Partridge, 195 
Guinea-Worm, 394, 225 
Gusainji, 10 1 

H. 

Hare, Indian, 167 

Head and Face, Operations on, 242 

Health, Preservation of, 196 

Hedgehog, 167 

Helminthology, 393 

Hemiptera, 384 

Hernia, 243 

Hewson Hospital, Jodhpore, 260 

Hill Diarrhoea, 239 

Home, Mr., 8, 82, 104, 105, 
291 

Horse, 189 

Hospitals and Dispensaries, Jodh- 
pore, 260 

Hyeena, 170 

Hymenoptera, 386 



Imperial Service Troops, 109 
Imports and Exports, Marwar, 10 

Sirohi, 18 

Industries in Marwar, 9 
Influenza, 218 

Injuries, Local and General, 247 
Insanes in Jaisalmir, 309 

in Jodhpore, 307 

in Sirohi, 308 

Insects, 373 
Itch Mite, 384 



Jackal, 170 

Jails in Jaisalmir, 305 

in Jodhpore, 301 

in Sirohi, 304 



452 



INDEX 



Jaisalmir, General Character of 
the Country and the Soil, 26 

General Description of, 2 1 

History of, 69 

Maharawal of, 72 

Jalore, Description of, 289 
Jasole, Description of, 284 
Jaswant College, 57, 59 

Hospital for Women, 262 

Jaswant Singh I., Maharaja, 46 

Singh II., Maharaja, 52 

Jaswantpura, Description of, 292 
Jodhpore City, Description of, 75 
Joints and Bones, Operations on, 

244 
Jungle Fowl, 178 

K. 
Kailana, 103 

Kamdar or Thakar's Agent, 434 
Kanauj, 42 
Kraits, 174 



Lac Insect, 388 
Lakes in Abu, 31 

in Jaisalmir, 27 

in Marwar, 3 

in Sirohi, 1 7 

Law, Village, 444 

Leopard Hunting, 170 

Leprosy, 226 

Lighting, 125 

Lion, 168 

Lithotomy and Litliolapaxy, 243 

Liver, Diseases of, 230 

Lizards, 174 

Loch, St., Colonel, 54 

Locusts, 375 

Lung Diseases, 228 



Luni River, 3 

Lymphatic System, Diseases of, 

230 
Lynx, 170 

M. 

Maharaja of Jodhpore, 54, 59 
Malaria, Prevention of, 221 
Malarial Fevers, 218 
Mallinathji, loi 
Mandore, Ancient Capital of the 

Rathores, 100 
Markets and Food in Jaisalmir, 159 

in Jodhpore, 156 

in Sirohi, 158 

Marwar, History of, 42 

General Description of, i 

Mayo College, Ajmere, 108, 433 
Meat, Cooking of, 199 
Medical Aid, 254 

Aspects of Jaisalmir, 27 

Aspects of Marwar, 1 1 

Aspects of Sirohi, 15 

Diseases, 210 

Institutions in Abu, 39 

Practitioners, Native, 254 

Remedies, Native, 256 

Merta, Description of, 287 
Meteorology, 310 
Microbes and Disease, 395 
Military Station, Abu, 36 
Milk, Boiling of, and Precautions, 

190, 191 
INIinerals in Jaisalmir, 24 

in Marwar, 4 

in Sirohi, 17 

Mints and Currencies, 1 1 1 
Mission Hospital, Jodhpore, 263 
Monkeys, 194 
Month, Health of each, 248 



INDEX 



453 



Morar, Dan Viavi Raj, 6 
Mortality and Sickness of each 

Month, 248 
Moths, 392 
Mount Abu, 30 
Multani Mitti, 5 
Mungoos, 170 
Mycetoma, 245 

N. 

Nagore, Description of, 285 
Nawa, Description of, 291 
Nervous Diseases, 227 
Neuroptera, 387 
Nilgai, 166 

0. 

Obstetric Operations, 244 
Omens, 91 
Otter, 171 



Pali, Description of, 283 

Plague, 230 

Panther, 169 

Parasites, Vegetable, 395 

Parganas of States, 130 

Partridge, 177 

Peacock, 194 

Phalodi, Description of, 294 

Physical Aspects of Marwar, 3 

Pigeon, Blue Rock, 194 

Plague, 230 

Plovers, 184 

Pohkaran, Description of, 288 

Poisoning, 246 

Population of Jaisalmir, 28 

of Marwar, 5 

of Sirohi, 18 



Porcupine, 167 

Poultry, 194 

Pratap Singh, Sir, G.C.S.I., 53, 

54, 55 
Proverbs, Marwari, 96 
Public Instruction in Jaisalmir, 116 

in Marwar, 114 

in Sirohi, 115 

Python, 175 



Q. 



Quail, 183 
Grey, 195 

R. 

Railway, Jodhpore-Bikanir, 126 
Rainfall of Abu, 32 

of Jaisalmir, 25 

of Marwar, 10 

of Sirohi, 15 

Rathores of Marwar, History of, 42 
Rats, Varieties of, 173 
Recreation, 107 

Abu, 38 

Religions, 91 

Remedies, Native Medical, 256 
Residents, List of, W.R.S., 74 
Residency Surgeons, List of, 

W.R.S., 265 
Respiratory Organs, Operations on, 

242 

System, Diseases of, 228 

Rheumatic Affections, 225 
Rivers in Jaisalmir, 27 

in Marwar, 3 

in Sirohi, 16 

Roads, Abu, 38 

Jaisalmir, 128 

Marwar, 126 

Sirohi, 128 



454 



INDEX 



Round Worms, 393 
Rulers of Jaisalmir, 69 

of Mar war, 42 

of Sirohi, 61 



S. 

Salt, Manufacture of, 4 
Samber, 166 
Sambhar Lake, 3 
Sand-Grouse, 177 

Imperial, 182 

Sands, 40 
Sanitation in Abu, 35 

in Jodhpore, 277 

in Sirohi and Jaisalmir, 

282 
Sardarsingh, Maharaja, 53, 59 
Scorpions, 176 
Scurvy, 224 
Sheep, 192 

Sheoganj, Description of, 299 
Shergarh, Description of, 297 
Shrubs and Trees, Fertile Lands, 

List of, 397 

Desert, List of, 404 

Siaji, 42 

Sickness and Mortality of each 

month, 248 
Sights worth Seeing, 98 
Sir Pratap Singh, G.C.S.L, 53, 

54, 55 

Impressions of England, 58 

Sirohi, General Description of, 13 

History of, 61 

Maharao of^ 65 

Skin Affections, 247 

Operations on, 246 

Slaughter-Houses, 129 
Smallpox, 210 



Snakes, 174 

Snake-bite, Treatment of, 175 

Snipe, 181 

Soils of Jaisalmir, 24 

Sojat, Description of, 296 

Spiders, 392 

Spleen, Diseases of, 230 

Squirrel, 173 

States, Divisions into Parganas, 

130 
Suhdeo Persad Pundit, R.B., 380 
Sumer Singh, Maharaj Kunwar, 

Birth of, 59 
Superstitions, 91 
Surgical Diseases, 240 
Sursagar, 104 
Swine, 193 

T. 

Tanks in Abu, 31 

in Jaisalmir, 122 

in Jodhpore, 118 

in Sirohi, 122 

Tape- Worms, 393 

Teal, 181 

Tebas, 4 

Tehsils of Sirohi, 133 

Temples and Shrines, Abu, 37 

in Jodhpore, 98 

Termites, 387 
Thakar-Sahib, 431 
Thread- worms, 393 
Tiger, 168 
Tramways, 127 

Trees and Shrubs, Fertile Lands, 
List of, 398 

Description of, 406 

Desert, List of, 404 

Desert, Description of, 417 

Trematoda, 395 



INDEX 



455 



Trichina spiralis, 394 
Tubercular Diseases, 226 
Tumours, 241 

U. 
Urinary Organs, Operations on, 
243 

V. 

Vaccination in Jaisalmir, 273 

in Marwar, 266 

in Sirohi, 271 

General Remarks on, 275 

Vegetable Parasites, 395 

Vegetables, 426 

Venereal Diseases, 224 

Village and Villager, Description 

of, 429 
Vipers, 174 



W. 

Water, Analysis of Balsamand, 
119 

Purity of, 396 

Scarcity of, in Jaisalmir, 23 

Water-Supjily of Abu, 35 

■ of Jaisalmir, 122 

of Jodhpore, 117 

of Sirohi, 122 

Wells in Jaisalmir, 123 

in Jodhpore, 120 

in Sirohi, 122 

White Ants, 387 
Wolf, 170 
Worms, 225 

Intestinal, 393 

Wounds by Wild Animals, 171 
Care of, 172 



THE END 



Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson 6^ Co. 
Edinburgh 6= London 



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