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^V^ E S T E R 3S"
FOR THE INFORMATIOX AND GUIDANCE OF EMPLOYES
OF THIS COMPANY ONLY, AND NOT INTENDED AS
AN ADVERTISEMENT, NOR FOR THE INFORM
ATION OF THE PUBLIC, THE COMPANY
RESERVING THE RIGHT TO CHANGE
THEM AT THEIR PLEASURE.
Notice.— Employes receiving this book, are ^required to carefully
study and preserve it; and when leaviiig^.the Company's service,
to pass it over to their successors. ■ ' *
These rules supersede and take the p]a<5& of all rules and orders
heretofore made or issued that conflict therewith.
SAN FORI) & HAYWABD, PRINTERS, BINDERS AND LITaOGRAPHERS.
J. H. Wade, Cleveland, 0.
Hiram Sibley, Rochester, N. Y.
Isaac Butts, "
H. R. Selden, "
0. H. Palmee, •'
B. R. McAlpine, "
Geo. H. Mumford, "
D. A. Watson, "
John Butterfield, Utica, N. Y.
Alfred Gaither, Cincinnati, 0.
T. T. EoKERT, New York.
R. S. Burrows, Albion, N. Y.
Ezra .Cornell, Ithaca, N. Y.
Anson Stager, Cleveland, 0.
N. Green, Louisville, Ky.
Wm. Orton, New York.
P. MoD. "Collins, "
Cambridge Livingston, N. Y.
Wilson G. Hunt, New York.
E. S. Sanford, "
D. N. Barney, "
OFF I c Ens.
J. H. WADE,
0. H. PALMER,
W. H. ABEL,
T. HART ROCHESTER,
MARSHALL LEFFERTS, -
ANSON STAGER, Cleveland, 0., Gen'l Sup't Central Division.
T. T. ECKERT, New York, - " " Eastern
JOHN VAN HORNE, Memphis, Tenn. " " Southern "
J. C. HINCIIMAN, Sup'T Metropolitan District, New York.
WM. HUNTER, - Sup't of Supply Department.
GEO. H. SMITH, - " of Check and Free Message Dep't.
Secretary and Treasurer.
- Assistant Secretary.
Engineer, New York.
G. W. BALCH,
T. B. A. DAVID,
S. B. GIFFORD,
E. P. WRIGHT,
D. H. FITCH,
GEO. T. WILLIAMS,
JOHN F. WALLICK,
R. C. CLOWRY,
R. C. RANKIN,
L. G. TILLOTSON,
A. G. DAVIS,
ts of Central Division,
Syracuse, N. Y. "
Cleveland, 0., '*
Franklin, Pa., *'
Cincinnati, 0., "
St. Louis, ^'
Siip't Erie Railway
Sup't Baltimore and Ohio
District Sivp^ts of Eastern Division.
J. G. SMITH,
J. S. BEDLOW,
G. W. GATES,
C. F. WObD,
G. B. PRESCOTT,
W. H. HEISS,
W. 0. LEWIS,
Halifax, N. S.,
White River Junction,
Sup't 1st District.
" 2d "
" 4th "
" 6th "
" 7th ''
" 8th "
District Suj^ts of Southern Division,
J. R. DOWELL,
J. W. KATES,-
J. A. BRENNER,
C. G. MERIWETHER,
GEORGE W. TRABUE,
L. C. BAKER,
W. L. DAVIS,
D. P. SHEPHERD,
Richmond, Va., Sup't 1st District.
Memphis, Tenn., '
Little Rock, Ark.,
SUPERINTENDENTS AND MANAGERS
It AIL WAY TELEGRAFH LINES
WITHIN THE CENTRAL DIVISION.
Alleghany Valley R R.Tel. Line,
Buffalo & Erie " " "
Cleve. & Pittsburg " " "
Clere., Pains.& A. " '' "
Cleveland & Toledo " " "
Chicago & Milwau. " " **
Chic. & Gt. East'n " "
Cleve.,Col. & Cin. " " "
Central Ohio " " "
Cin.,W. &Zane8. " " "
Cin., Ham. & Day. " " "
Dayton & Michigan " " "
Dayton & Western " " "
Detroit & Milwau. " " "■
Del. & Hudson Canal Co's Lines,
Erie Railway Telegraph Lines,
Erie & Pittsburg, " "
Grand Trunk R. R. " "
Harlem R. R. " "
Hudson River R. R. Lines,
Indiana Central " "
Indianap's & Cincin'ti " "
Jeffersonville R. R, Tel. Line,
Lafayette &Ind'Jis R.R.Tel.Line,
Lit. Miami & Col. & X. " "
L.&F.andF. &L.R.R " "
Louisv'le, N.Alb.&Chi. " "
Mich. Sou'rn&Nor.Ind.R.R. '•
Michigan Central " "
New York Central " "
Ohio & Mississippi R R. Tel. "
Oil Creek " " "
Penn. Central " " "
Pitts., Columbus &Cin'ti R. R ,
Pitts., Ft. Wayne&Chi.R.R. "
Pacific R. R. of Missouri,
San., Mans, & New'k Tel. Line,
Sand., Dayton & Cin. " "
Toledo, Wabash&Wes'n " "
Terre Haute&Richm'd R. R. "
Terre Haute, Alton & St. L. "
Thos. B. A. David, Pittsburg,Pa.
John Desmond, Buffalo, N. Y.
John Thomas, Wellsville, 0.
T. G. Golden, Cleveland,
Henry W. Stager, Cleveland, 0.
Robert C. Rankin, Chicago, III.
John P- Tenny, Richmond, Ind.
T. J. Higgins, Cleveland, 0.
R. W. Jones, Zanesville, 0.
Geo. T. Williams, Cincinnati, 0.
Geo, M. Lane, Dayton, O.
(( U U ((
C. S. Rogers, Richmond, Ind.
Angus Fox, Detroit, Mich.
Chas. Peterson, Honesdale, Pa.
L, G. Tillotson, New York.
D. H. Fitch, Linesville, Pa.
H. P. Dwight, Toronto, C. W.
G. W. Balch, Buffalo, N. Y.
n u (< a
Jno. F. Wallick, Indianap's Ind.
W. W. Smith, Cincinnati, 0.
Wm. Atwater, Jeffersonv'le, Ind.
Jno. F. Wallick, Indianap's, Ind.
T. D. Gibbons, Xenia, 0.
W. L. Biggert, Louisville, Ky.
J.C.Showerman, New Alb'y,Ind.
Wm. Kline, Jr., Toledo. 0.
M.D.Woodford, Kalamazoo Mich.
A. L, Dick, Syracuse, N. Y.
Chas. W. Temple, Vincen's, Ind.
P. H. Dwyer, Corry, Pa.
r Jesse W, Grouse, Phila.
I A. R. Kieffer, Harrisburgh.
j W. McCormick, Altoona.
[John Suter, Pittsburg.
Jas. B. McMullen, Steubenv'e 0.
0. H. Booth, Mansfield, 0.
K. McKenzie, St. Louis.
James Lytle, Newark, 0.
A, C. Frey, Sandusky, 0.
W. A. Beach, Toledo, 0.
Jno. E. Simpson, Indian'lis,Ind.
B. F. Wellover, Terre Haute.
To the Officers, Managers, Operators, etc.,
of the Western Unioti Telegraph Company.
The following Rules and Instructions are necessary'-
to insure uniformity in all departments of the business
of the Company, and to obviate the evils that threaten
to seriously impair the business of the Company, and
the reputation of those in its service.
The attention of those who have had the benefit of
time and experience in the details of the Company's
business, is requested to the importance of strictly
adhering to these Rules, and they are expected to urge
upon the inexperienced employes, by example, as well
as hy precept, an habitual and careful observance of the
If any of these Rules seem to operate against the
interest of the Company, you will report your opinion
to the Secretary by letter, with the facts upon which it
1. A competent person to receive
messages from the public must be in attendance
at 7 o'clock A. M., from March first imtil No-
vember first, and as early as 7J o'clock dur-
ing the winter months.
2. Messages for transmission must
be written upon printed blank No. 2, under the
conditions upon which this Company transmit
all messages. If a case should occur in which
this would be impossible, the Receiver will
apply some paste to one of said blanks, and
require the person presenting the
message to attach the same permanently to the
face of said blank, so as to leave the printed head-
ing in full view and immediately above the mes-
sage. The Receiver should not himself at-
tach the message to the printed blank, except as
stated below, but the person Offering the
message should do it. if, however, a person
presenting a message not wi'itten on blank No. 2
should refuse to attach it to the blank, after the
Receiver has applied the paste, he will offer to do
it for the customer, with his assent — saying to him
at the time, " I will do it for you, sir, if you wish,"
or w^ords of similar import ; and the Receiver will
then make his private mark on it, so tliat at any
time thereafter he can testify that he did it at the
request of the customer.
In case a party doing considerable business with
the Company objects to complying with this rule,
for the reason that he is in the habit of writing his
messages at his place of business, and sending them
to the office, or for the reason that it is troublesome
and annoying, the Receiver may, in such cases,
take one of the ISTo. 2 blanks and write under the con-
ditions the following, viz : " It is understood and
agreed that all messages hereafter taken from me by
the Western Union Telegraph Company, are to
be received and transmitted by said Company
subject to the above agreement and conditions, the
same as if each message was written thereunder
and subscribed by me." This, signed by the part}^,
and being properly dated, w^ill be sent by the
Manager or Receiver to the Secretary at New
York, retaining a copy of the same for reference.
It is confidently expected that by treating all
customers in a conciliatory and gentlemanly man-
ner, each Receiver and Manager will be able, by-
pursuing substantially tbe course above indicated,
to obviate all objections tbat may be made to this
rule, and induce a universal compliance tberewith.
This rule is as liberal as a reasonable protection
to the rights of the Company will permit, and im-
plicit obedience thereto is enjoined.
3. Whenever messages which have
come over the line of any other Telegraph Com-
pany, are offered by such Company for transmis-
sion, the person presenting the message must be
required to paste it, or write it on one of the No.
2 blanks of this Company, under the printed con-
ditions, and sign his name for the Company he rep-
resents, under the line " Send the following mes-
sage subject to above terms, which are agreed to!''^
4. And whenever messages which have
come over the line of any other Telegraph Com-
pany, are offered at points on this line not indicated
by the tariff book or published tariffs of this Com-
pany, as the proper place for such business to reach
this Company's lines, or whenever messages are re-
ceived by mail at any office to be forwarded by
telegraph — or in case a person having received a
message requests the same to be forwarded to any
other office, in all such cases require pre-payment ;
and in estimating the amount to be paid, include,
as a part of the • message, the IlEnie Of the
place where it originated, and the
date, as the same appears on the message. Trans-
mit such message in the same form as received ;
then after the signature add, in a short form, the
name of your office, date at which you receive it,
and sufficient to indicate by what line, or in what
manner the message comes to you.
That there may be uniformity in practice, the
following examples are given to be observed :
If a message in the following form, viz :
^^ Buffalo, Oct. 10th, 1865.
John Brown, Geneva, N. Y. —
Meet me here next Monday, at 10 o'clock in the
forenoon. H. Smith."
should pass over the line of another Telegraph
Company from Buffalo to Rochester, and at that
place be offered at our office for transmission to
Geneva, the message would be received on the
terms mentioned above, and transmitted in the
following form :
''Buffalo, Oct. 10th, 1865.
John Brown, Geneva, N. Y. —
Meet me here next Monda}^ at 10 o'clock in the
forenoon, H. Smith."
18 Rh 64 pd (By other line to Rochester, Oct. 10th.)
Thus adding in and charging for, as a part of the
message, the seven words and figures, " Buffalo,
Oct, 10th, 1865," And in such case, the operator
at Geneva, when writing the message for delivery,
would not put the Rochester date at the top, as is
the usual practice, but write it as received, at the
bottom, immediately following the signature, as in
the above example.
If a message in the following form, viz :
• " Medina, Ohio, Oct. 21st, 1865.
George Smith, Mansion House, Buffalo —
Your wife very ill — come at once.
is received by mail at Cleveland, with a request to
forward the same by telegraph to Buffalo, the mes-
sage would be transmitted on the terms mentioned
above, and in the following form, viz :
"Medina, Ohio, Oct. 21st, 1865.
George Smith, Mansion House, Buffalo —
Your wife very ill — come at once.
16 H 105 pd (By mail to Cleveland, Oct. 22d.)
Thus adding in and charging for as a part of the
message the nine words and figures, ^^ Medina,
Ohio, Oct. 21, 1865." The operator at Buffalo in
copying the message for delivery, would put the
Cleveland date following the signature, just as re-
ceived, as in the above example.
If a message in tlie following form, viz :
"Buffalo, Oct. 8ih, 1865.
Robert Rankin, Cleveland.
Go to Milwaukee and await orders.
is received bj any other person, by telegraph or
by mail at Cleveland, and a request is made to
have the same forwarded by telegraph to another
destination, under the above mentioned conditions,
the message would be transmitted in the following
"Buffalo, Oct. 8th, 1865.
Robert Rankin, Chicago —
Go to Milwaukee and await orders.
13 H 144 pd (Forwarded from Cleveland, Oct. 9th.)
Thus adding in and charging for as a part of the
message, the seven words and figures, Bvffalo^
Oct, 8, 1865." The operator at Chicago should
copy for delivery in the form transmitted as in ex-
It will be understood that the date following the
signature should conform to the time the message
was received at the office forwarding the same.
5. In all such cases of messages sent over
an indirect route and subjected to repetitions that
would have been avoided if put upon tlie direct
line in the first instance, you will fill up and mail
to the person sending the message, a notice in ac-
cordance with the form given upon the last page of
this book. Printed blanks for this purpose will be
furnished upon proper requisition.
6. It is important that these instructions
should be strictly observed, so that this Company
may receive a proper remuneration for the extra
labor occasioned by such irregular m.essages, and
be able to keep its accounts and checks correctly,
and also enable other parties interested to trace
messages in case of loss or mistake.
7. In messages containing amounts
or nnmberSj require the customer
in every instance to write the message in w^ords and
duplicate them in figures, but in such
cases the figures are nOt to be counted or charged
for. In such cases place the figures immediately
following the word or words they duplicate or rep-
[Example : — Bought five (5) horses for six hun-
dred (600) dollars. Sold four hundred (400)
bushels wheat at two (2) dollars forty-five (45)
8. All messages presented for trans-
mission should first be carefully read and every
letter clearly understood by the Receiver. The
address should be scrutinized, and if not deemed
sufficient, a more complete one requested, and any
thing likely to be misunderstood or liable to occa-
sion error in transmission mUSt be madO
perfectly plain before being passed into the
hands of the operator for transmission.
9. Whenever the address of a person
presenting a message is not well known, care should
be taken to obtain it, and the samiC should be noted
either in a book kept for that purpose, or upon the
message to be sent. As a proper precaution, this
should be done whether the message requires aii •
answer or not.
10. The time at which the message is re-
ceived for transmission, should in all cases be in-
dicated by the Beceiver conspicuously upon the
margin of the communication.
11. In counting the words, in all mes-
sages, the following rules will be observed :
Names of cities and places, when used
to designate such cities or places, will be counted
as one word; for example — New Orleans,
New York, West Troy.
Words connected by a hyphen, a.s
found in Webster's Dictionary, to be counted aS
one word. Examples — to-day, rail-road, head-
Names of persons and places, when
given to things, must be counted according to the
number of distinct words in each.
Examples: — names of Steamers — Isaac Newton,
two words ; Maid of the Mist, four words.
Names of Hotels — Burnet House, tWO WOrdS ;
United States Hotel, three WOrdS.
When there are prefixes to sur-
names, such as ^'Yan," "Mac" or "Mc," "Saint"
or "St," "0," ''De," as in Van Rensselaer, McGreg-
or, Saint Nicholas, O'Connor, De Witt, the whole
name is to be regarded as One WOrd.
12. No message must be telegraphed from
dictation, or otherwise than from legible copy,
which copy must be filed for future reference.
13. Every message telegraphed,
whether "frec,'^ "paid," or "collect," must
be checked at the end with the number of words
it contains. If "paid'* or "collect,*' the
amOUIlt must be stated in the check, with the
name or signal letter of the office where
paid or to be collected. Thus, on a message paid
in Buffalo, the check should be '' 10 Bu 50 pd,"
If to be collected, " Io'Bu 50 col."
14. If a part of the tariff is for
" other Lines/' the amount for '' this Line "
should be first stated, and then the amount for
" other Lines." Thus, on a message paid or collect
in Buff'alo " 10 Bu 50 and 25 pd,," or " 10 Bu 50
and 25 col."
15. Whenever more than one sig-
nature is attached to a message, count all initials
and names, except the last signature, as a part of
the body of the message.
16. Whenever a message is to he
dropped in the Post Oflace at its place of
destination, the Manager or Receiver will collect
the postage and add the amount to the regular tariff"
check. The office receiving the same for delivery
will be careful to affix the required postage
stamp before dropping it in the Post Office, and
take credit for the same in the monthly Report, as
** miscellaneous expenses," with other postages paid
during the month.
17. All large offices should keep a Blot-
ter, in which should be briefly entered, at the
time of receiving, every message received
18. No message on the business of
the person sending it must ever be
taken, unless pre-paid.
1 9. No message addressed to a tran-
sient person, or one absent from home, must
be sent " to collect," unless the amount of tariff
is guaranteed by a responsible party.
20. Nor must any other kind of mes-
sage whatever be taken to send " collect," unless
guaranteed by a responsible party, except the
same is known to be a reply to a message requiring
21. Whenever messages requiring
answers are offered by transient persons, it is
proper for the Receiver to request and secure pay
for the answer in advance, charging the
rate for a single message of ten words. In such
case the original message should be marked " 33,"
indicating that the answer of ten words has been
or will be paid for at the office originally sending.
22. Care must be taken in preserving
and filing away messages which have been trans-
mitted, in order to make reference thereto easy and
expeditious. Each day's business should
be kept separate — every message therein filed with
a number corresponding to its entry on the Regis-
ter Book, At the close of the month, each day's
business plainly marked, should be enclosed
together, and the same properly labelled. These
packages must be retained at least tWO years,
after which they will be disposed of as the Division
Superintendent may direct.
23. The Manager of an ofllee is held
accountable for, and is responsible to the Com-
pany for all property and supplies whatsoever
in or belonging to his office — for all money
received, and for all transactions involving the
payment of money, in the regular and legitimate
business of the office, except that at large offices,
where a cashier may be appointed by the
Company, he will be held responsible for
the money, and all money transactions. No
Manager or other office employe is author-
ized, but, on the contrary, is prohibited from
contracting any debtS Or obligations on ac-
count of this Company, except by direct autlior-
ity in writing of the General or District Su-
24. Managers ^re expected and required
to prevent loss and waste of stationery, office
supplies, line repair material, fuel, liglit, &c., and
to exercise the same care of office furniture and
other property in their charge, and the same rigid
economy in management as would be expected of a
prudent business man in conducting his private af-
fairs. Departure from this rule will be considered
sufficient cause for a change in the management of
25. Payment of salaries should be
made at the close of each month.
26. No responsibility will be as-
sumed by this Company for the delivery of
any message boyond the limits of ordin-
ary office delivery. Managers may, upon
receiving a deposit of money sufficient to cover all
expense, undertake to have messages delivered by
special messenger from any point at which this
Company have an office.
27. Branch offices, in any place, are re-
quired to report to the Manager of the main office
therein, and abide by all rules and regulations re-
specting the ordinary transaction of the business
of the main office— produce daily original copies
of all messages which have been sent — copies of
all messages received — and account to him daily
for all moneys taken in the transaction of business.
28. AH communications from Mana-
gers of offices, relating to the business of the Com-
pany, should be addressed to the District Superin-
281-. All messages to or from points on
the lines of Telegraph Companies with which
this Company exchanges business, must be ac
companied in their transmission by the name of
the office at which it leaves this line, or at which
it reaches this line.
For example— k message from Sprmghe.d,
111 may reach this line by the lines of the Illi-
nois & Missouri Telegraph Company at either
Chicago o-r St. Louis. If by way of Chicago,
the address should be transmitted thus : '' From
Springfield, III, via CUcagor If by way of St.
Louis, thus : " From Springfi-eld,- III, via St
Louis. ^"^ '-'
29. Persons employed in the Ope-
rating Department are expected to conform
to siicli rules and regulations respecting working
hours, meal times, etc., as may be deemed m^ost
conducive to tiie prompt transaction of
30. At oJOaces where more than one
operator is employed, meal Lours should be so
arranged as to have at loast OnO half the
force on hand during meal times, and
in no case must the offlce be left without
an operator in attendance during busi-
31. Absence from duty, without spe-
cial permission from the District Superintendent,
will not be tolerated.
32. At oflaces where a line repairer
is stationed, and trains leave at an early hour
between daylight and the usual hour for opening
the -office, an operator must be especially detailed
to test wires, and notify repairer, if necessary.
in order to place, lines in working order at tlie ear-
liest practicable moment.
33. The chief operator at all terminal
points, will be expected to test wires, and ascertain
tlie location of any interruption to tlie circuit, and
to give directions for making temporary repairs.—
Operators at intermediate offices will report to and
promptly obey any instructions from liim, and are
expected to use diligence in doing any tiling re-
quired to place Avires in working order in the
shortest possible space of time.
34. Care must be taken in the use
of wires upon which Rail Road busi-
ness has preference, not to hinder or delay
important Railroad communications. Operators
should make themselves conversant with signals
used upon different Railroad lines to indicate train
orders, or any other important communications,
and they must be respected accordingly. Strug-
gling for circuit is never admis>sible.
35. The Chief Operator will be held
strictly responsible for the good condition of the
main battery at all times. If practicable, it should
never be wholly taken down, but cleaned
and renewed by sections. Whenever it becomes
necessary to remove the main battery entirely from
the Hnes, offices must be notified ; and in case rail
road Hnes are worked by it, reference had to their
36. As a safeguard, the main battery
must be thoroughly examined immediately before
closing office for the night, to see that no interrup-
tion is hkely to occur from imperfectly soldered
connections or other cause.
37. It Will be the duty of the chief
operator, or his assistant, at all main, terminal
or repeating offices, to keep a daily record of all
difficulties, interruptions or incidents occurring in
the working of lines.
38. All messages must be transmitted as
they are received, NO abbreviations must
be used excepting in office communications. When
periods and other punctuatioii marks
are used, care must be taken to transmit them
precisely as contained in the original. A period
after the address, dividing the same from the body
of the message, must always be inserted. When
obscure or diflBcult words appear in messa-
ges, the transmission must be slow
and distinct, and if an error is likely to occur,
the obscure sentence or diflBLcult word
or words must be repeated after the
39. Operators will use extra cau-
tion in the transmission of proper
names. Write the names slowly,
and make double the usual space be-
tween the initals.
40. Words containing spaced let-
ters, like C. O. R. Z., &C., should be
transmitted with cautjon. Make such let-
ters plain, separate and distinct.
4 1 . Before opening the key, adj ust the
relay carefully, particularly in wet weather, to make
sure that some other office is not using the line.
42. Before commencing to send a
message to an office w^hich receives by register
paper, always make a few dots, to enable the re-
ceiving operator to adjust his instrument.
43. In working with inexperienced
operators, write slowly and plainly,
and be sure that the message is un-
derstood. A good operator will not be known
entirely by the swiftness with w^hich he dispatches
business, but to a great extent by tlie Care and
safeguard against error wiiich be practices.
44. Operators not perfectly com-
petent to do so, are warned against attempting
to receive messages by sound. A careful person
will always run the Register paper as a safeguard.
Never guess at a word ; better bave it repeated
many times tban make a mistake.
45. No message will be considered as bav-
ing been properly received, and no operator will
allow a message to pass tbrougb bis bands, with.-
out first counting the words, compar-
ing the check, and otherwise satisfy-
ing himself it is correct,
46. Whenever a message bas been
received, in wbicb an error is supposed to bave
occurred in tbe transmission — tbe number of words
not corresponding witb tbe cbeck, or otberwise —
tbe Manager or Chief Operator may, at bis discre-
tion, cause tbe message to be delivered to tbe party
addressed, witb a notation tbereon, stating tbat tbe
message is tbus delivered, subject to correction af-
terwards. In sucb cases a copy of tbe message
must be retained, and tbe utmost dispatcb used in
securing correction. When tbe delay iS Only
temporary, and not affecting tlie value of the
message, it will not be delivered until corrected.
47. Great care must be taken to avoid
the duplication of messages. In all cases of the
dehvery of the duplicate copy of a message, the
word *' Duplicate '' must be distinctly written
across the face.
48. Office messages relating to correction,
loss, or anything affecting the value of a message,
shall have preference over any other
business, and in no case must an of-
fice message be destroyed or wilfully
delayed in transmission. When office messages
are needlessly sent, or unnecessarily
worded, the same should be reported to the Su-
49. The transmission of messages
should include the number of the message and the
day of the month. The name of the place from
which the message originates, and its destination,
must be written out in full, whether pas-
sing through a repeating office or not.- The
name of the State must accompany the
name of place in the address, in all cases,
except the names of the leading commercial cities
of tlie United States, such as New York, Philadel-
phia, Boston, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and
50. Extraordinary care must be ex-
ercised in sending and receiving Repeated or
Insured Messages. The original message
should be plainly written, and the Operator
sending it must be certain that it is read COr-
rectly when transmitted. The Operator who
receives it, mUSt COpy it plainly, and
then repeat it back over the sanie circuit be-
fore doing any other business. If the message is
to be forwarded beyond the circuit on which it
originates, the Operator who receives the message,
(after being satisfied of its entire accuracy) will
himself transmit the message over
the next circuit, and will not be relieved
from the responsibiHty of such message till re-
peated back from the ofllce to which
he transmits it. a memorandum of the
time and the circumstances attending the receiving,
transmission, and repeating back, should be writ
ten upon the margin by the Operator, and prop-
erly filed for reference. This repetition is required
for the protection of the Company from loss or
error, and is not intended to be repeated back from
the place of destination to the point at which it
originates, for the information of the customer, ex-
cept in .cases of specially Insured Messages.
51. It will be observed, by reference to
printed conditions on blank No. 2, that a distinc-
tion is made between Repeated and Insured
Messages. In the transmission of the latter, all the
directions relating to the treatment of Repeated
Messages will be observed, and in addition thereto
further precautionary directions in relation to In-
sured Messages will be hereafter given.
52. Blank Policies, signed by the Super-
intendent, will be prepared and distributed to Man-
agers, to be used in case senders of messages may
wish them specially insured, (in addition to
repeating,) for an agreed amount of risk. Full
instructions on the subject of such special insurance
will accompany such poHcies. Until such policies
are distributed to offices, no person except the Su-
perintendent is authorized to make SUCh, Special
53. Whenever an insured or a "re-
peated" message in course of transmission,
is stopped at a repeating office, in consequence of
the interruption of a wire over which it must pass
to reach its destination, and the delay is Hkely to
be of long duration, the office from which it was
originally sent should be promptly notified
of the fact.
54. No Operator shall be deemed entitled
to work upon ono wiro or instrument
only, to the exclusion of others ; but will be ex-
pected to answer calls or send messages upon
any other instrument or wires, when
necessary and not engaged with other duties.
55. Profane, obscene, or other ungentle-
manly Innguage upon the part of operators, will
not be allowed upon the wires under any Clr-
CUmstanceS, nor in the offices of this Com-
56. Persons not directly connected
with the Operating Department, can-
not be allowed within the operating room. Ope-
rators should recognize the necessity of rigid en-
forcement of this rule, so far as not tO invitO
their friends inside the office ; and strict pri-
vacy of all messages must be observed,
57. Inasmuch as errors in messa-
ges are almost always made by the receiving ope-
rator, he will, as a rule, be held responsible for all
such errors. He will therefore see the necessity of
extreme care, and in all cases when he has any
doubt, use the means in his power to be
certain that he is correct.
58. When calling an ofllce, the office
calling will sign the office signal at short intervals.
59. When leaving the Ofllce tempor-
arily or for the night, the main line must be cut
off from the instruments. This, however, should
never be done without examining the switch or cut-
off, to make sure that circuit is complete through it.
60. The ground wire at intermediate
offices must never be used except in cases of breaks
in the wire, and then only long enough to enable
an office to do the business in hand, after which it
must be instantly removed, first notifying the end
61. The ground wire must never be used
as a protection against lightning. During heavy
storms, the main wires should be securely cut off
62. In order to relieve the wires of
tlio pressure of free business, and of any improper
use thereof, the messages of an UI10flB.Cial
ChdirECter, to and from employes of the Com-
pany, must be restricted to their OWD. Urgent
social messages, and in every case such mes-
sages shall be approved by the Manager
of the office from which it is sent. The copies
of such messages to be regularly filed with the free
63. The Official Correspondence
over the wires between Managers, Operators, and
other employes of the Company, must be limited
to matters of an urgent nature and that
will not bear the delay of the mail-
Use the mail for all matters that w^ill not suffer
by the delay.
64. Messages for Theatres, Shows,
Concerts and places of amusement of any kind,
will in no case be transmitted over the wires of this
Company without payment of the usual
65. Whenever the Manager of an
office has reason to suppose tJbat an individual
holding the franking privilege is niaking an
improper use thereof, bj transmitting busi-
ness messages for purpose of private speculation or
otherwise, it is his duty to notify his Superin-
tendent of the fact.
66. When any message entitled to
be transmitted free of charge is to be
sent, and the reason for being free is not well
known, it should be stated in w^ords following the
check. When this requirement is not observed, or
when the reason for being sent free is deemed in-
sufficient, the Receiver will be held re-
sponsible for the usual tariff charges on such
67. Thenumber of words contained in
a free message, will be stated by the Receiver at
the end of the message, and the number will in all
cases be transmitted by the operator.
68. At the end of the month, each
office will be required to make up a statement
showing the aggregate amount of free business
done, and the total number of free messages sent,
for any individual, Railroad, Transportation, Ex-
press, or other Company, which, with the originals
of all of such free messages sent during the
month, must be forwarded to the District Super-
intendent with the . regular Monthly Report. The
amount of tariff which would have been charge-
able had the message been paid for, and the reason
for sending such message free, must be endorsed
upon the margin of the message before being sent
to the Superintendent The package enclosing the
free messages must be plainly endorsed with the
name of the Office from which sent.
69. Repeating Of9.CeS will separate the
*'local"free from the "through" free, properly endorse
each package, and send all to the Superintendent.
The " local " messages will include only the local
messages sent ; the " through " will include all
free messages repeated at the OfSce.
70. Offices on Railroads upon which
there is a wire devoted exclusively to Railroad
business, are not required to send to the District
Superintendent messages upon Railroad business
between local points on said wire ; but messages
destined for points off that Road passing over any
other portion of the Telegraph Company's lines,
should be included ; or a copy thereof, if it is de-
sirable to retain the original for reference.
These rules will not apply to " Office Messages."
71. Managers are directed to see that
the free privilege authorized by any pass is strictly
confined to the perSOn and places named in
the pass, and that the pass lias not expired.
All passes hereafter issued will be limited as to the
territory to which they apply and to the time they
are to run. The pass is nOt transferable, nor
intended for use, except by the individual himself.
These rules do not apply to messages of
the President, Vice President, Secretary, General
Superintendent, District Superintendents, Auditor,
or to messages relating to the Supply Department.
DELIVERY OF MESSAGES.
72. A copy of the message to be delivered
must in all cases be retained in the office, except
when otherwise ordered by the District Superin-
73. All messages received for de-
livery should be carefully read, to ascertain if
an answer is required, and if requiring an
answer, diligent effort should be made tO
obtain it. The word " Answer " or " Reply "
must be plainly marked upon the En-
velope, and the Messenger be required to either
obtain the answer or return to the office a
sufficient reason in writing for not ob-
taining it. If no answer is returned, the Manager
or Delivery clerk will write the reason therefor in
the Delivery Register for future reference. * Mes-
sengers must in all cases be supplied with blanks
No. 2, on which answers can be written.
74. A receipt must be obtained for
every message delivered, which must be carefully
kept for future reference. In case the person ad-
dressed cannot be found, the reason in writing
must be given by the Messenger, and the factS
investigated by the Manager of the office.—
The Messenger must in nO Case be allowed to
enter messages in the delivery book, nor to write
the reason for non-delivery upon the message itself;
this must be done by the Delivery Clerk.
V 5 Extraordinary pains must be taken
with Repeated or Insured Messages.—
Personal delivery should be made, if practicable.
Otherwise, to the Clerk or Agent of the party, if
at his place of business. If his place of business
be closed, then delivery may be made at his resi-
dence to the party, or to some member of his fam-
ily of mature age, unless he has directed otherwise,
as provided in next rule.
76, In order to facilitate the deliv-
ery of messages after business hours, business
men and others likely to have messages, should be
requested to name in writing the place
at which they wish messages deliv-
ered, other than at their place of business. (See
printed form No. 28, following these rules, which
should be preserved.) "Whenever messages cannot
be delivered, in addition to notifying the office
from which it was sent, notice should be sent
through the Post Office to the person addressed.
(see printed form No. 26, following these rules,)
but the message itself should be retained in the
office until the close of the month, when copies of
all undelivered messages, whether paid or collect,
will be made and sent to the District Superin-
tendent with monthly report.
77. Pre-paid Undelivered Messages
must be enclosed separately, having endorsed
upon each the reason for non-delivery,
and plainly marked " Dead Messages " upon the
wrapper, with the name of the place from which
sent, and retained at the office for reference, unleSS
78. Undelivered ''Collect'' Messages
will be enclosed with monthly report to the Super-
intendent as vouchers, endorsed with the reaSOn
79. Every Ofi3.Ce averaging more than
twenty-five received messages per day, is required
to keep a delivery Register Book, in addition to the
Messengers' Receipt Book. The former must con-
tain a record of every message received for de-
livery; the time received and sent out; the num-
ber ; the person addressed ; the name of Messen-
ger, and the fact whether an answer is
required or not. Blank books for this pur-
pose can be obtained from the District Superin-
tendent At smaller oflOLces, notations of
these facts must be made upon the copy of the
message retained in the office.
80. The success of the business, and
the credit of the Company largely depend upon
the promptness with which the busi-
ness is done, and no branch of it requires
greater energy, care and promptitude, than the
delivery of messages. Especial care and
watchfulness on the part of each Manager is re-
quired against delay in this respect.
81. For information in relation to Rates
of Tariff, and other matters not fully understood,
Office Managers will apply to their District Super-
82. A careful estimate of articles
required for the succeeding quarter
must be made with the report for the last month
in the quarter for which the office has been supplied,
and accompanying the same report, an inventory
of all the property of the office belonging to the
Telegraph Company, including office supplies.
83. Managers are prohibited from
purchasing stationery and other ordinary office
supplies. All such articles will be furnished from
the Supply Department, on requisition of Managers
sent to District Superintendents.
84. Supplies for branch oflices will
be drawn from the Main OflB.Ce in the same
place, and receipts taken for the same, which will
be returned as vouchers.
85. All instrumeiltS, relays, keys, switches
or parts of same not in use, and all refuse zinc and
copper from main or local batteries, and other prop-
erty not in use, must be reported to the District
Superintendent, quarterly, at the time of making
requisition for supplies, stating number, kind or
quantity of each. The Superintendent will then
direct what disposition shall be made of the same.
86. Transfer of any article belonging
to the Company must not be made from one office
to another, nor must any article be sold or disposed
of by any Manager, Operator, Repairer, or other
person, without specific directions from the Super-
87. It is indispensably necessary
that there should be uniformity in the mode of
making out Monthly Reports. The receipts and
expenditures must be carefully Classified,
and entered under the proper heads on the face of
88. The Tariff rate should be observed in
entering messages in the Register Book, and
not the amount stated in check when it variCS
from printed tariff.
89. At the end of each day, all messages
sent or received by Telegraph must be carefully
sorted, placing those sent to or received
from each office together, and then regis-
ter tbose for eacb ofiSce by themselves, in alpha-
betical order, and foot the amount of each
office by itself.
90. The amonnt paid or received at
the office keeping the Register, will be entered in
the column headed "Receipts." The same
sum will be entered in the column " Other
offices check this." The amount paid or to
be collected at other offices will be entered in
the columns " This officc chocks Other
91. Whenever a Telegraph Line not
belonging to this Company, has an office to which
a sum is paid for forwarding business, the same
must be entered in the column headed " Paid
other Lines." And when any sum is received
from such office for forwarding business, it must be
entered as "Received from other Lines."
92. At the foot of each day's busi-
ness in the Register, may be entered the sum
total "for this Line," and "for other
Lines " paid at the office keeping the Register.
93. As soon as the business of each
day is registered, the checks must be posted into
the Check Ledger. For instance, " Buffalo "
must enter under " AkrOU," against the day of
the month, the sums, if any, which Akron ought
to check Buffalo that day, and also what Buffalo
checks Akron; and so of all other offices with
which it has had any business that day.
94. In all places where there is a
Bank receiving deposits. Managers of offices
whose daily cash receipts exceed ten dollars, will,
unless otherwise directed, deposit in such Bank
daily, in their name, as " Office Manager of The
Western Union Telegraph Company,'* all the cash
on hand at the close of banking hours, giving
preference, in all cases, to National Banks, when
practicable. If the daily cash receipts are less than
ten dollars, then such deposits will be made as often
as the accumulated receipts amount to ten dollars.
It is expected that Managers will be able to make
arrangements with such deposit Bank to allow a
reasonable rate of interest on daily balances; or if
in some cases the deposits should not be sufficient
to justify a claim for interest, then to arrange with
such Bank to pay the balances, which are to be
remitted to the Treasurer, from time to time, in
New York exchange.
95. A Montllly Report of the business
of the office must be made up by the Manager, at the
close of each month, and be forwarded to the Dis-
trict Superintendent not later than the third
day of the next succeeding month,
accompanied by vouchers for authorized expendi-
tures. Such Report will contain an Account Cur-
rent — a statement of any uncollected accounts,
with list of the debtors alphabetically arranged,
and the amount due from each, and a separate list
of the debts which accrued prior to the month re-
ported, and such other information as may be
required by the blank form of report which will be
furnished. Managers will also at the same time
forward a Monthly Check Report, showing in detail
the amount charged to their office by other offices,
and the amount charged' by them against other
96. All OjQ3.ce Balances due the Com-
pany are subject only to the order of the Treas-
urer, and the Manager will remit at the close of
each month, direct to the Treasurer, (unless oth-
erwise ordered) the entire receipts of the office for
such month, except such sums as may be expended
by order of the District Superintendent for fixed
salaries of office employes, and other strictly neces-
sary office expenses, such as office rent, light and
fuel, (See Rule No. 111.) No Other pay-
ments, advances or disbursements will be made
by Managers to any person, or for any purpose,
except by order of the Treasurer. No Balan-
ces will be allowed to remain unpaid after the
end of each month, but each months business must
be promptly closed up and settled by itself.
97. Remittances to the Treasurer
will in all cases (unless otherwise directed) be made
by Express, in Greenbacks or National Bank bills,
or by Mail, in Bank Draft on New York, payable
to the order of the Treasurer. When made by
Express, Managers will take receipts for the same,
and promptly inform the Treasurer by Mail, of
date and amount of remittance. An explana-
tory letter must be enclosed with cvcry
remittance, (whether by Express or Mail,) stating
on what account the remittance is made. When
money is sent by Express, the amount must in all
cases be plainly endorsed on the envel-
ope. Promptness in forwarding Reports to Dis-
trict Superintendents, and remittances to Treasurer,
is enjoined on all Managers. No person will be
retained in charge of an office who is remiss in
98. At the end of the month the
checks must be footed and entered in the Monthly
Report of Checks, against the name Of each
OflBLce, and the same sent to the Superintendent.
Thus, if according to Buffalo Report, Cleveland
should check Buffalo ^' For this Line, $40 ;** For
other Lines, |20"; and Cleveland checks Buffalo
the same, it may be presumed they are right
99. In addition to the Receipts for
Telegraphing, debit the office in the Monthly Re-
port with all money received during the month,
and state from whom received.'
100. No credit will be allowed in the
Monthly Report for any expenditure which has not
been actually paid.
101 . In expressing messages, be care-
ful to ascertain that the amount paid out does not
exceed the sum received therefor at the office from
which the message was sent.
102. All money received for ex-
pressing messages at other points, must be
shown separately on the face of the Monthly Re-
1 03. Whenever the balance of Month-
ly Report is in favor of an oflSce, bring forward
such balance in the succeeding report, at same
time debiting the amount received from the Treas-
urer in payment thereof.
104. Send a voucher for every expenditure,
numbered to correspond with its entry on the
Monthly Report sheet. Vouchers should in every
possible case be rendered upon the blank forms furn-
ished by this Company. Employes will be care-
ful to keep themselves supplied with the necessary
105. AH vouchers' must be made out in
a careful and explicit manner before payment,
so that each voucher shall clearly and fully explain
itself. Vouchers in pencil mark are absolutely pro-
106. Vouchers receipted by "his mark," must
be witnessed by some person other than the one
disbursing the money. Vouchers receipted "for,"
or by any person other than the one to whom the
account is due, shall be accompanied with the writ-
ten order of the person to whom the money is due,
showing authority of the person to receipt " for."
107. Vouchers bearing alterations
of figures or amounts will be rejected. The
amount covered by the receipt to any voucher
must be v^^ritten in such receipt in jrords, not fig-
108. Service vouchers must give the full name
of the person or party paid — must state the occu-
pation or kind of service rendered — the location or
place where the service was performed — must give
the dates f rom and tO, inclusive, for which ser-
vice is paid, and the rate per day or month. When
a payment is made for a part or fraction of a
month, the number of days also should be
given as well as the dates. Care should be ob-
served to date the payment of each voucher.'
Time for which service is rendered,
must be computed according to the actual number
of days in the month in which service is performed,
and parts or fractions of any month in proportion
to the whole number of days such month contains,
whether it be 28, 29, 30, or 31 days.
109. All employes of this Company, who
are authorized to disburse the funds of the Com-
pany, shall do so only in an ofiicial capacity, under
their ofiicial designation.
110. No person will be re-imbursed for money
paid out except the account for same shall be ac-
companied by sub- vouchers from the person or
party to whom the amount or amounts have act-
ually been paid.
111. Managers are specially prohibi-
ted from paying out any money for office furniture,
repairs, supplies, or for any other purpose, except
to pay fixed monthly salaries of employes, rent of
office, light and fuel, and the few small contingent
items of expense which may be absolutely neces-,
sary — and they must take receipts from every per-
son to whom they pay money, and return such re-
ceipts with their monthly reports as vouchers.
1^2. Send no counterfeit, uncurrent or
broken bank bills, and as little fractional
or postal currency as possible.
113. When called upon for expla-
nation of differences in receipts or check
errors, prompt attention must be given to them, and
be careful to observe the clear and explicit direc-
tions printed on the back of the Check Audit
Sheet. No ncgloct of this very impor-
tant matter will be tolerated, it is
only by a zealous and immediate attention that
discrepancies, (sometimes unavoidable), can be cor-
114. Whenever a Manager vacates
his oflBce during the month, he will settle his ac-
counts, and pay over to his successor all the funds
in his hands, and send report of such settlement
with the receipt of his successor for money paid
and property delivered to him.
115. If any repair or other extraordin-
ary expenditure is necessary in an oflfice, the Dis-
trict Superintendent must direct it in writing, giving
particular instructions on the subject, limiting the
cost; then, after the work is done, the Manager
will obtain a true account of the same, and forward
to the Superintendent for adjustment.
116. No charge for increase of salaries
will be allowed, unless accompanied by the authority
of the General Superintendent.
117. Whenever the Manager of an
0JB3.Ce obtains satisfactory evidence that a message
has failed, either in the transmission or delivery, or
by reason of an error arising from any fault of the
Company, the amount originally re-
ceived for transmission only may be
refunded, in which case a receipt will be taken for
the amount, which, together with the message and
an explanation of the fact, will be forwarded with
next Monthly Report.
118. No Manager or Operator is al-
lowed to adjudicate or pay claims for damages
arising from .the failure of, or error in transmission
of a message.
119. When collection of charges «pon
any ^'Collect" Message cannot be made, the office
from which it was originally sent must be promptly
notified hy Telegraphy and a copy of the message
made and sent hy Mail to the Manager of the
Office, with the reason for being uncollectable en-
dorsed thereon. The Office returning a message
WILL IN NO CASE rcqucst that it be not checked ;
but the message must be entered upon the books
both at starting point and destination, precisely the
same as if collection had been made — credit for the
amount at the receiving office being taken in '' Ac-
count Current" in Monthly Report, with which the
message, or a copy, with reason for being uncol-
lectable, will be enclosed as a voucher. The date
upon which notice by telegraph was given to
the office from which sent, must be stated. The
Office receiving the notice will, if possible, collect
the amount from the sender of the messao-e: in
which case the amount collected should be entered
upon the debit side of " Account Current," as re-
ceived from ^'Guaranteed Messages," and the copy
of the message enclosed therewith. In case collec-
tion cannot he made of the sender, the message,
endorsed with the reason, should also be enclosed
with Monthly Report, but no account otherwise
will be made of it Uncollected press re-
ports will be treated in the same manner, except
that a copy of the report need not be forwarded to
the Manager of the office at which the report
120. If the message originated at
any point not on this Company's lines, the connect-
ing office, or the office at which it first reached
this Company's lines, as well as the office from which
it was originally sent, must be promptly notified by
Telegraph, in order that collection may be made
from "other lines." The copy by Mail in such
cases, will only be sent to the connecting or repeat-
121. When three or more messages
are returned from any Office as uncollectable
or three or more messages are accounted for as
" guaranteed," separate lists of each must be made,
showing the amounts for this and " other lines,"
and the messages as sub-vouchers attached thereto.
122. At offices where business is ex-
ChEnged with other lines, a separate Hst must
be made, showing the amount refunded by other
Companies, and upon what messages, and the
amounts thus received will be carried into Account
Current as " Refunded from Other Lines."
123. Each ojHce will check direct
with all other oflSces of this Company.
124. A copy of these rules must be
kept in the oflSce at all times, for the information
and guidance of employes of this Company only.
125. Persons not connected with the
business of the office, will not be allowed within
the office barriers.
126. Messages must be held sacred,
and the books, files and papers of the Company
must never be permitted to be examined by per-
sons not having proper authority to do so.
127. The printed blank forms of the
Company should be used only for the purpose for
which they are expressly designed. In no case,
and under no pretence whatsoever, will number
one blanks or number three envelopes
be given out to persons not entitled to them. No
excuse will be received for neglect of this require-
128. AH messages whatsoever—in-
cluding Press Reports, are strictly private and
confidential, and must be thus treated by em-
ployes of this Company. Information must
in no case be giveu to psrsons not clear-
ly entitled to receive it, concerning any
message passed or designed to pass over the wires
or through the offices of this Company.
129. The OJHce hours assigned to each
employe must be adhered to, and absence .from
duty within these hours will not be permitted, ex-
cept by authority of the Superintendent; and in
all cases deduction will be made for lost time.
130. Intermediate or Way Oflaces
will not close for the night without first ascertaining
from the nearest repeating office or offices, if there
is any business for them.
131. Managers and oflBLce employes
are prohibited from giving copies of sent messages,
or written statements relating thereto, to parties
claiming errors or delays. In all such cases, par-
ties claiming damages should be treated with cour-
tesy and furnished with such proper explanations
as will induce the withdrawal of the claim. If
still dissatisfied, they should be referred to the Dis-
trict Superintendent, This rule has been rendered
necessary by the injudicious and officious action of
some office Managers.
Geii^l Sup't Central Division.
THOS. T. ECKERT,
Gen I SupH Eastern Division.
JOHN VAN HORNE,
Gejcl Sup't Southern Division.
DIRECTIONS FOE PUTTING UP
AND RENEWING THE
Union laoawLl Battery.
There is miicli useless consimiption of material
by many offices, and the following directions will
be observed, more especially by those to whom the
care of a local battery is a new duty.
1. The jar having- been cleaned, set the copper
in the jar, spreading it as wide as the jar will admit.
Fill the pocket with pulverized vitriol, and h-ang on
the edge of the jar wdiere the copper is open.
Having filled the porous cup with soft or rain water
sufficiently full as not to overflow v>dien the zincs
are inserted, put the zinc into the porous cup,
having first placed the cup inside of the copper.
2. Pour soft water slowly through the vitriol
in the pocket, filling up with the pulverized
vitriol as it is reduced by the flow of water.
]Vo vitriol should he allotved to he
dropped into either the jar or
3. In making up the battery- for the first time,
it will aid action (which is never perfect until the
saturation of the porous cup,) by warming the water
before pouring on the vitriol. No salt or acid
should ever be used for this purpose.
The Local JBattery should be rencAved at
least once a week, and at an hour when it will not
interfere with the day's business.
Take the battery apart, cleaning the zincs well with
a brush, and scraping off accumulations, using no
acids or mercury in doing so. Be especially careful
that the connecting points are all well brightened.
Should the battery need renewing during the
week, take out the zincs, clean them, save one-third
of the fluid in the porous cups, and return to the
cup after cleaning, then fill up with soft water.
Clean also the porous cups.
The economy as well as the efficiency of this
battery depends on the proper use of vitriol. Two
pounds per cup per month is a full supply. Many
operators do not use more than half this quantity,
and have always good, efficient batteries.
There is also a variance in the number of cells
used. Where the connections and zincs are kept
dean, two cells are quite sufficient — some operators
use only one. With the cells furnished by the
Western Union Company, more than two cells
should never be used, and will not be furnished.
Twelve pounds of vitriol per quarter should always
prove a full supply. The strictest economy is
urged in the use of material, the cost of which is
now so enormous.
It must be remembered, also, that the copper of
the cells is constantly increasing in size by the ac-
tion of the battery, and that this copper is valuable,
and must be returned to the Company according to
directions given by the Superintendent of the Supply
Department. Coppers may be used years without
renewal, and orders for new^ ones should not be made
until the encrustation renders renewal desirable.
The local battery must always be made to stand
on a dry place, and no dampness allowed on the
space between the cells. The wires, also, should
be carefully insulated to prevent action except
through the whole circuit. Cai^e should be taken,
also, to open the local circuit at night, to prevent
Zincs need renewing about once a quarter. Por-
ous cups are good until broken, unless from want
of cleaning they become coated so as to be useless.
There is no necessity for ordering these every quar-
ter as some offices do.
The folloAving is the printed form referred to in
OFFICE OF THE
Western Union Telegraph Co.
A message signed by you and directed to
was forwarded from here at M.
This delay and repetition would have been avoided if
the message had been handed to the office of this Com-
pany at as the Company you
gave it to has no line to that place.
This oversight on the part of the public so often
results in'delay and mistakes by unnecessary re-writing,
that we have adopted this course for the protection of
The agents of this Company are instructed to take
no messages for points not reached by our lines, and
lines in connection with us, if there is a line that can
transmit them direct.