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Full text of "Westinghouse turbo-alternators"

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B M S3D M5b 



GIFT OF 
Arthur E. Mono aster 




ircular WM No. 506 



Westinghouse Turbo- 





EAST PITTSBUR.G.F'A. 



E", 







Westinghouse Turbo- 

cy 




DURING the 17 years that have 
elapsed since the American 
rights for the manufacture of 
the Parsons steam turbine were 
acquired and the Westinghouse Ma- 
chine Company and the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company 
jointly commenced the building of 
turbo-generators there has been a 
complete revolution in the design of 
electric power plants. The superior 
economy of the turbo-generator unit, 
not only in steam consumption, but in 
first cost, attendance and in mainten- 
ance as well, and the reduction it has 
effected in general plant investment, in 

real estate, buildings, and foundations, has practically eliminated the large 
slow-moving reciprocating engine-driven sets from the serious consideration of 
the modern power plant engineer and designer. 

A 10,000-kilowatt turbo-generator set readily fits into the space required 
by a reciprocating engine-driven set of one-third the capacity, and its cost does 
not exceed the average price paid for such a reciprocating engine-driven set. 
To provide for extensions in metropolitan plants, in congested districts, where 




726303 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 

the cost of real estate is unusually high, it is now considered justifiable to 
discard reciprocating engine and generator equipment of the most efficient 
,and, serviceable character and to replace it with turbine-driven apparatus. 



The Steam Turbine 



The'gefiefai idea' of a steam turbine engine is almost as old as history 
itself. But it lay dormant for many centuries, because there was no machinery 
of sufficiently high speed to be suitable for driving with this type of motor. 
Inventive genius requires a definite stimulus, and in the case of the steam 
turbine the stimulus was undoubtedly furnished by the introduction and 
rapid development of alternating-current electrical machinery another of the 
many examples of Westinghouse pioneering that has so completely justified 
itself that the bitterness of the opposition it encountered is almost forgotten. 
The American people as a nation are much more conservative than is generally 
believed; they are inclined to regard innovations rather skeptically until 
their worth is established. However, when the utility of any device of a 
mechanical nature is once recognized, it is adopted in no half-hearted war 
and its application and further development are carried out on a scale of 
unprecedented magnitude. 

When, in 1895, the Parsons steam turbine was first introduced into this 
country, it was not received with much enthusiasm. It was practically five 
years before it was accorded any general public approval, and it would doubt- 
less have been considerably longer in obtaining recognition, had it not been 
that one of the allied Westinghouse interests The Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company had the courage to install a plant of four 400-kilowatt units. This 
plant, which is still in operation, was watched with the utmost interest by 
leading engineers and soon demonstrated the reliability, economy, and general 
attractiveness of the steam turbine as a prime mover for direct connection 
to alternating-current generators. From that time on the growth in public 
favor of the Westinghouse Parsons turbo-generator units has been phenomen- 
ally rapid and extensive. 

While the Westinghouse Machine Company commenced its turbine work 
under the American patents of the Honorable Charles A. Parsons, which it 
purchased outright, it has been no mere copyist, but has from the first worked 
along original and progressive lines. For example, it first demonstrated the 
practicability of single-cylinder units of large powers. In 1901, it built and 
installed for the Hartford Electric Light & Power Company, Hartford, Conn., 
a turbine of 2000 kilowatts capacity in one cylinder. Up to that time no single- 
cylinder turbine of larger than 500 kilowatts capacity had been built, and even 
with separate high and low-pressure cylinders, 1000 kilowatts was then the 
record size. Notwithstanding predictions of failure, this machine broke down 
the barriers of ultra-conservatism, and established the confidence that has made 
possible the mammoth engines that are in common use today. It has made 
the Company willing to assume the responsibility for the still larger units that 
are in contemplation. 

The combination impulse and reaction turbine, and the double-flow 
design, which makes it possible to build turbines of larger capacities and 
higher rotative speeds than would otherwise be possible, are both instances 



Westinghonse Turbo- A Iternators 




Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 

of Westinghouse progress! veness and originality. This Company also intro- 
duced the governor-controlled by-pass for automatically taking care of over- 
loads. 

Reaction vs. Impulse Turbines 

The elementary principles of the steam turbine are now so generally 
known, and there is so much literature on the subject available, that any 
extended theoretical discussion would be superfluous. Broadly speaking, steam 
turbines are of two general classes; those employing the reaction principle 
and those employing the impulse principle. 

In the reaction turbine, approximately one-half of the expansion in any 
one stage takes place in the stationary blades, imparting to the steam a 
velocity substantially equal to that of the moving blades, so that it enters 
them without impact. The remainder of the expansion takes place in the 
moving blades, the spaces between which gradually grow smaller from the 
inlet to the exit side of the turbine forming a ring of moving nozzles. The 
velocity imparted to the steam by reason of the expansion occurring in the 
moving blades, produces a reactive effort on these blades which turns the 
rotor of the turbine. This effect is very similar to that produced by water 
issuing from an ordinary hose nozzle. 

In turbines of the impulse type the complete expansion for any one stage 
takes place in the stationary blades or nozzles, and the steam is delivered to 
the moving blades with a velocity somewhat more than double that of the 
blades. The passages between the moving blades are of uniform or even 
slightly increasing cross section from inlet to outlet. The moving blades 
check and reverse the velocity of the steam current and the reluctance of the 
steam current to having its direction and velocity altered gives rise to a force 
against the blades which sets the rotor in motion. 

Each of these two general classes of turbines has its partisans, and doubt- 
less always will have. In Westinghouse later practice a combination of the 
two principles is utilized in such a way that all the advantages of both are 
obtained with none of the disadvantages of either. 

The use of a single-impulse element for the first stage of the expansion 
is desirable, inasmuch as it replaces without any appreciable sacrifice of economy, 
a considerable number of rows of reaction blading in the least efficient part of 
a reaction turbine, and makes possible a shorter and consequently stiff er rotor. 
For the intermediate and low-pressure sections, in which the volume of the 
steam is sufficient to require reasonably long blades moving at considerable 
velocities, an extended experience confirms the belief that reaction blading 
has a decided economic advantage. 

The all-impulse type necessitates a rotor built up of discs mounted on a 
shaft of small diameter, in order that the circumferential clearance between 
the shaft and the diaphragms separating the pressure chambers may be as 
small as possible, so that the considerable pressure drops between adjacent 
stages will not cause too much leakage. 

In the reaction type the pressure drops between adjacent stages are very 
much smaller, and the body of the rotor may be built up in the form of a hollow 
drum. The drum construction is much stiffer than the shaft and disc design, 
and, it is believed much safer. When a disc is heated it develops internal 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 2 A 10,000-Kva., 11,000-Volt, Three-Phase, 60-Cycle, 1800 R.P.M. Unit at the Plant of the 
City Electric Company, San Francisco 




Fig. 3 Three 5500-Kva. and Two 8000-Kva., 11,000-Volt, Three-Phase, 25-Cycle, 750 R.P.M. 
Units and Two 3000-Kva., 11,000-Volt, Three-Phase, 60-Cycle, 1200 R.P.M. Units. 
Generating Station of the Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Railroad 
Company, Long Island City, New York 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

strains that are impossible of calculation, and which are liable to start cracks 
in the metal, resulting in many instances in complete rupture. On the other 
hand, in a rotor made up of a comparatively thin cylindrical drum of con- 
siderable diameter, and rings of large bore, no such strains are encountered. 
Again, the drum construction of rotor makes the turbine very much more 
accessible for examination and repairs. In most of the later designs of West- 
inghouse turbines, the upper half of the cylinder can be lifted without inter- 
fering with the governor, steam chest, or pipe connections. With the special 
lifting gear furnished with each turbine as a part of the tool equipment, the 
rotor is removed in a very short time. 

A comparison of the actual operations of dismantling a Westinghouse 
turbine and a multi-stage impulse turbine of any standard design whatsoever, 
will demonstrate the superiority of the former as regards general accessibility 
in the most forcible and convincing manner. In the Westinghouse combina- 
tion impulse and reaction turbines, only one impulse element is used so that 
no interstage packing is required, and consequently the drum and ring con- 
struction of the rotor can be maintained. 

Variations in Design 

The development of high-speed alternating-current generators of large 
capacities, has made it desirable to make certain radical departures from the 



By-pass Sfeam 
Inlet- Inlet. 



- Dummies 




Equilibrium Pipe 



Fig. 4 Section of a Parsons Type Single-Flow Turbine 

conventional Parsons design. The original Parsons design, and three West- 
inghouse variations thereof, are shown diagrammatically in Figs. 4, 6, 9 and 11. 
The Single-Flow Type Fig. 4 illustrates the original single-flow Parsons 
type. Steam is admitted at A to an annular chamber in the casing. From 
this point the steam passes alternately through rings of fixed and moving blades, 
of progressively increasing lengths, on the small diameter of the drum or rotor, 
expanding in volume as it passes through the successive rings of blades. When 
the volume of the steam has increased to the extent that the blades on this 
small diameter of drum and casing would have to be inconveniently long to 
provide passageway for it at a sufficiently moderate velocity, the diameters 
of the drum and casing are increased for the next stage of the expansion. The 
available area of the steam passage through the blades is a fairly constant 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 5 100,000 Kw. in One Room 
Kent Avenue Station of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 



Westinghonse Turbo-Alternators 

percentage of the product of the mean circumference of the blade ring multi- 
plied by the height of the blades. 

If the mean diameter of the blades in the second stage be increased to 
about 1.42 times that of those in the first stage, the area through each blade 
ring per inch of blade height will be 1.42 times that through the first stage 
rings. On account of the larger diameter, the mean speed of the blades will 
also be 1.42 times that of the blades in the first stage and consequently the 
velocity of the steam through the blades in the second stage may be 1.42 times 
that in the first stage. Now if the area through the second stage blades per 
inch of height and the velocity of the steam through the blades, are both 1.42 
times as great as in the first stage, then to pass the same volume of steam per 
second the blades in the second stage need be only one-half as high as those 
in the first stage. 

As the steam expands in the second stage, its volume will increase until 
the blade heights required again become excessive. The drum diameter is 



Reaction Element 



Exhaust 




- No2Zle Chamber 
--Impulse Wheel 



- - Dum my 



Fig. 6 Section of a Combination Impulse and Reaction Single-Flow Turbine 



again increased, and the blade heights on the enlarged diameter are reduced. 
Expansion proceeds along this third or low-pressure stage through progres- 
sively increasing blade rings until the pressure of the steam falls to that of the 
exhaust. 

Impulse and Reaction Single-Flow Type Fig. 6 illustrates a modifica- 
tion of the single-flow design in which the smallest barrel of reaction blading is 
replaced by an impulse wheel. Steam is admitted to the nozzle block A, is 
expanded in the nozzles and discharged against a portion of the periphery of 
the impulse wheel. The intermediate and low-pressure stages are identical 
with the corresponding stages in the design illustrated in Fig. 4. The sub- 
stitution of the impulse element for the high-pressure section of reaction 
blading has no influence one way or another on the efficiency. That is to say 
the efficiency of an impulse wheel is about the same at the least efficient section 
of reaction blading. This design is attractive, however, in that it shortens 
the machine materially, and gives a stiffer design of rotor. 

The entering steam is confined in the nozzle chamber until its pressure 
and temperature have beet, materially reduced by expanding through the 
nozzles. As the nozzle chamber is cast separately from the main cylinder, 
the temperature and pressure differences to which the cylinder is subjected 
are correspondingly lessened. However, probably on account of its small 

10 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 7 Two 500-Kva. and One 625-Kva., 600-Volt, Three-Phase, 60-Cycle, 3600 R.P.M. Units 
Pressed Steel Car Company, McKees Rocks, Pa. 




Fig. 8 An H80-Kva., Two-Phase, 440-Volt, 40-Cycle, Low-Pressure Turbo-Generator Unit, 
American Iron & Steel Company, Lebanon, Pa. 

11 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

diameter at the high-pressure section, the straight Parsons type has always 
shown itself to be adequate for all of the steam pressures and temperatures 
encountered in ordinary practice. The principle advantage of the high-pres- 
sure impulse element, is that without any sacrifice of economy, it shortens the 
rotor to such an extent as to make a double-flow design practicable. 

The Double-Flow Turbine The maximum economical capacity of a 
single-flow turbine is limited by the rotative speed. The economical velocity 
at which the steam may pass through the blades of the turbine depends on the 
velocity of the moving blades. The capacity of the turbine depends on the 
weight of the steam passed per unit of time, which in turn depends on the 
mean velocity and the height of the blades. For a given rotative speed, the 
mean diameter of blade ring practicable is limited by the allowable stresses 
due to centrifugal force, and there is a practical limit for the height of the 
blades. 

Now if we make the rotative speed only half as great, the maximum 
diameter of the rotor may be doubled and, without increasing the height of 



Reaction Element 



Impulse., Wheel 



Reaction Element 



Exhaust - -I-*- 




--Exhaust 



Fig. 9 Section of a Double-Flow Turbine 



the blades, the capacity of the turbine will be doubled. So with the single- 
flow steam turbine as well as with the single-crank reciprocating engine, there 
is a practical limiting economical capacity for any given speed. If this limit 
is reached with a single-crank reciprocating engine, we may produce a .unit 
of double the power at the same speed by coupling two single-crank engines 
to one shaft. We accomplished similar results by making a double-flow tur- 
bine which is in effect, as will be seen from Fig. 9, two single-flow turbines 
made up in a single rotor in a single casing with a common inlet and two exhausts. 
Steam enters the nozzle block A, acts on the impulse element, and then the 
current divides, one-half of the steam going through the reaction blading at 
the left of the impulse wheel ; the remainder passes over the top of the impulse 
wheel and through the impulse blading at the right. 

Semi-Double-Flow Type Fig. 11 is a modification in which the inter- 
mediate section of reaction blading is single-flow, and the low-pressure section 
only is double-flow. This would be analogous to a triple compound recipro- 
cating engine with one high-pressure, one intermediate pressure and two low- 
pressure cylinders a design not at all uncommon in very large engines in which 
the required dimensions of a single low-pressure cylinder would be prohibitive. 
Such turbines are useful for capacities greater than is desirable for a single-flow 
turbine, and which are still below the maximum possibilities of a double-flow 
turbine of the same speed. In such machines the best efficiency is secured by 

12 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 




tfS 



i I 

Kg 



a 

ll 
= 



a 



13 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

making the intermediate blading in a single section large enough to pass the 
entire quantity of steam. 

A "dummy" similar to those used on the single-flow Parsons type, shown 
at the left of the impulse wheel, compels all of the steam to pass through the 
single intermediate section of the reaction blading, and balances the end thrust 
due to this section. When the steam issues from the intermediate section, 
the current is divided, one-half passing directly to the adjacent low-pressure 
section, while the other half passes through the holes shown in the periphery 
of the hollow rotor and through the rotor itself, beyond the dummy ring, into 
the other low-pressure section at the left-hand end of the turbine. 

There are sound logical engineering reasons for the existence of these 
several types, viz., single-flow, double-flow, and semi-double-flow. The double- 
flow turbine is not offered as a design that is inherently superior to the single- 
flow design, but it is offered for use under conditions for which the single-flow 



Single Flow 
Reaction Element 

Reaction Element 



-- Impulse Wheel 
~" Dummy 
Reaction Element 



Exhaust - 




.-- Exhaust 



Nozzle Chamber 
Fig. 11 Section of a Semi-Double-Flow Turbine 

machine is unsuitable. Similarly, the semi-double-flow is recommended only 
for conditions which it can meet more satisfactorily than either of the other 
types. 

Special Turbines 

While this publication is devoted to a consideration of the steam turbine 
solely as a prime mover, taking steam at boiler pressure, and using all of its 
steam for producing mechanical energy, the turbine principle is nevertheless so 
flexible as to be capable of many special adaptations. Two of these, viz: 
low-pressure or exhaust turbines, and "bleeder" turbines are very important 
and interesting. 

Low-pressure turbines use exhaust steam from non-condensing engines 
and are valuable as an adjunct to existing plants for the purpose of increasing 
economy and capacity with a minimum outlay for new equipment. Examples 
of low-pressure turbine installations are shown in the illustrations on pages 
25 and 31. 

Bleeder turbines are for use in plants which are required to furnish, not 
only power, but also considerable and varying quantities of low-pressure steam 
for heating purposes. In these turbines a part of the steam after it has done 
work in the high-pressure stages may be diverted to the heating system, and 
the remainder expanded through the low-pressure blading and exhausted into 



14 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




15 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

the condenser. In this way none of the energy of the heating steam, due to 
the difference of pressure between the boiler and the heating system, is wasted. 
On the other hand if no steam is required for heating purposes, the' turbine 
operates just as efficiently as though the bleeder feature were absent. A 
general view of the bleeder turbine is shown in Fig. 30. The weighted valve 
on the top of the cylinder regulates the pressure and quantity of steam bled to 
the heating system. 



^ 



- ^^^ ^^^ji^j^rfta*"""*' 







Fig. 13 A Single-Flow Rotor 




Fig. 14 A Double-Flow Rotor 



Some Details of Construction 

Rotors Figs. 13, 14 and 15 illustrate respectively single-flow, double- 
flow, and semi-double-flow rotors. These rotors are built up of hollow 
steel shafts or drums, which are machined on the inside as well as on the out- 
side. The shaft sections are enlarged or flanged at one end and securely fixed 
in the drums. The drum diameter corresponds to the root diameter of the 
smallest rings of blading. The larger diameters of blading sections are mounted 
in groups on separate steel drums which are carefully balanced and pressed 
on the central drum. The "dummies" on the single-flow Parsons type, and 
on the Westinghouse semi-double-flow design are also made up- of separate 
steel rings pressed on the central drum so that if they should be injured by 
careless adjustments, they can be easily removed and replaced by new ones. 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 

The Westinghouse impulse blading is shown in detail in Fig. 16. It 
is made of extruded metal and is of generous section. The blades are sepa- 
rated by steel packing pieces, and blades and packing pieces are locked together 




Fig. 15 A Semi-Double-Flow Rotor 

by steel pins so arranged as to present the strongest possible resistance against 
shearing. The method of assembling the components is evident from the illus- 
tration. The grooves in the impulse wheel are somewhat wider than the 
blades, and have an overhanging shoulder on one side. 

The blades and packing pieces are notched oruone side, and when in place 
the notches engage with the overhanging shoulder on the one side of the ring 
groove. The other side of the ring groove is slightly undercut in dovetail 





Fig. 16 Westinghouse Impulse Blading 

fashion. When the blades and packing pieces are set in their grooves, the 
space between the blades and the dovetail side of the groove is filled in with 
a series of pairs of steel wedges. These wedges are beveled in both directions 
viz., lengthwise and crosswise, so that when set up in pairs they fit snugly 



17 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

against the side of the blades, and the undercut side of the ring groove, so 
that they cannot be loosened or thrown out by centrifugal force. 

The section of the blade at its root is cut away much less than any with other 
form of fastening, and consequently, it has greater strength to resist centrifugal 
strains. The wedges, while affording the utmost security as a means of locking 
the blades in place, can nevertheless be easily removed without special appli- 
ances, in case it should be necessary to replace or repair the blading. The 
impulse blades are shrouded to prevent the steam from spilling over the ends, 
as shown in Fig. 17, which is a view of a portion of a single-double flow 





Fig. 17 Portion of a Combination Impulse 
and Reaction Rotor 



Fig. 18 Guide Blade Section 



rotor showing a section of the finish impulse blading, and also a little of the 
reaction blading and the ' 'dummy' ' ring. 

There are two rows of blades on the single-impulse element, and the steam 
issuing from the first row is redirected onto the second row by a short section 
of stationary guide blades shown in Fig. 18. 

The reaction blading exhibits a marked improvement over older practice. 
It is made of phosphor-bronze, drawn to the proper section, heat treated and 
cut to length. The root ends are slightly "upset" in a "bulldozer" and a 
small hook or shoulder formed on one side as shown in Fig. 20. The grooves 
in the rotor and cylinder are of dovetail section, and have a small auxiliary 
groove of rectangular cross-section in the bottom. The steel packing pieces 
are beveled on the sides to fit snugly in the dovetail grooves and the shoulders 
formed on the lower ends of the blades project down into the auxiliary grooves, 
and hook under the packing pieces so that they could not be pulled out without 
actually shearing the metal. The slight thickening at the roots, caused by 



18 



Westinghouse Turbo- A Uernators 




19 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




TWO- 1250 KVA.,600 VOLT. 60 CYCLE, TURBINE GENERATOR UNITS. 
DARTMOUTH MFG. CORPORATION, NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 





THREE 2000 KVA., 6600 VOLT. 25 CYCLE,A.C. TURBINE GENERATOR UNITS. 
CON6PESSIONAL POWER PLANT, WASHINGTON, D.C. 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 





Z500 W*,t WOO KVA.,2 PHASE,440 VOLT, 60 CTOE, TURBINE 
6CNERATOR UNITS. B.F. GOODRICH COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO. 



JBBINE GENERATOR WOT. 
.KANSAS CITY. MO. 




750 W.,240 VOLT, 60 CYCLE, A.C JURBJNE GENERATOR UNIT. 
BROWN & SHARP MF6.CO. PROVIDENCE. R.I . 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 



the "upsetting" in forming the hook or shoulder, adds very greatly to the 
strength of the blades. 

With the largest sizes of reaction blading, double wedges are used- in one 

side of the blading groove, 
which are similar to those 
used for securing the im- 
pulse blades. The outer 
ends of the blades are tied 
together with the now well- 
known ' 'comma' ' lashing, 
The blades are punched 
with comma-shaped holes 
as shown in Fig. 23 and a 
wire of the same section is 
threaded through these 
holes. After the blades are 
straightened and gauged, 
the part of the lashing wire 
that in section corresponds 
to the tail of the comma, is curled over, forming a rigid separator, or distance 
piece between the blades. For the longest reaction blades, two lashings are 
used, one at the middle of the blade and one near the outer end. 

Cylinder In the cylinder design, care has been taken to eliminate inso- 




Packing Pieces 




Assembly 



Fig. 20 Reaction Blading 





Figs. 21 and 22 Two Views of Nozzle Chamber with Stationary Guide Blade Section Attached 

far as possible, all ribs, equalizing ports, and other features, which would result 
in an unnecessarily complicated and irregular casting that would be likely to 
be affected by strains resulting from temperature changes. Whenever dummy 
packings are used, as in the semi -flow Parsons type and in the semi-double- 



22 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

flow combination type, they are made up in removable rings as illustrated in 
Fig. 24. In the combination impulse and reaction turbines, the nozzle cham- 



Original 




Calked 




Blade Punched 



Blade Lashed 



Fig. 23 Westinghouse Comma Lashing 

bers are also independent castings. The nozzle chamber is illustrated in Figs. 
21 and 22. The root section of stationary guide blades between the first 
and second rows of impulse blades, is attached to the nozzle chamber. Figs. 
21 and 22 show respectively the 
front and rear views of the nozzle 
chamber with the guide blade sec- 
tion attached. There are two noz- 
zle chambers in each turbine, the 
primary and the secondary. The 
secondary comes into action only 
when the turbine is loaded above 
its normal or rated capacity. 

Spindle Gland Packing The 
various metallic and fibrous pack- 
ings which give excellent results 
both as to wear and tightness in a 
stuffing box for a reciprocating pis- 
ton rod, are not at all satisfactory 
when applied to a stuffing box on 
a shaft rotating several thousand 
times a minute. In general, the 
packing in a steam turbine is sub- 
jected to only a moderate pressure 
difference, i.e., the difference be- 
tween the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere, and the vacuum at the 
exhaust end of the turbine. Instead 
of preventing the escape of steam 
from the turbine, the office of the 

packing is to prevent air leaking into it; and as a properly designed turbine 
makes profitable use of the last fraction of an inch of vacuum attainable, it 
is particularly desirable that this packing should be tight. 

In the Westinghouse turbines, the spindle gland is packed by an annular 
ring of water, which is absolutely tight, and which does not cause any wearing 




Fig. 24 Dummy Packing 



23 



Westingkouse Turbo-Alternators 



of the shaft. A bronze casting like the runner of a small centrifugal pump 
(see Fig. 13) is pressed on the shaft, and rotates in an annular chamber 
surrounding the opening in the end of the turbine cylinder through which the 
shaft projects. Water is fed to this annular chamber, and under the action 
of centrifugal force, it builds up a fluid ring or wall between the bronze runner 
and the turbine casing, which effectually seals the opening, and which is strong 
enough to resist a pressure of more than 30 pounds per square inch. The 
grooved hubs on the bronze runner constitute an ordinary labyrinth packing 

that may be temporarily sealed with 
water or low-pressure steam while the 
turbine is being started, and before it 
has attained the speed required to 
make the centrifugal water packing 
effective. 

Governing Fig. 25 is a view of 
the governor, with the casing removed. 
It is driven from the main shaft 
through a worm gear, and is unusually 
powerful. The ball levers and the 
links connecting these levers to the 
governor sleeve, are all pivoted on hard 
chrome steel knife edges, which elim- 
inate frictional disturbances. The 
main spring surrounds the spindle 
and bears directly on the governor 
sleeve. A small auxiliary spring, with 
a manually or electrically-operated 
tension gear for making small speed 
adjustments while running, is con- 
nected to the governor linkage. It is 
used in synchronizing the alternators 
or in distributing the electrical load 
among them. 

In the smaller turbines, the gover- 
nor acts directly on the steam admis- 
sion valves, opening first the primary valve, and then, if necessary, the secondary 
valve, after the primary is fully open. In turbines of the single-flow Parsons 
type, the governor actuates two small valves controlling ports leading to steam 
relay cylinders which operate the admission valves. The little valve controlling 
the relay cylinder for the secondary valve has more lap than the other and 
consequently does not come into action until the primary valve has attained 
its maximum effective opening. Fig. 28 shows the general design of this 
type of valve gear. 

Governors for the larger turbines, particularly those of the combination 
impulse and reaction double, or single double-flow type, employ an oil-relay 
mechanism, illustrated in Fig. 29 for operating the steam valves. In these 
turbines the lubricating oil circulating pump, maintains a higher pressure than 
is required for the lubricating system. The governor controls a small relay 




Fig. 25 Turbine Governor 



24 



Westinghouse Turbo- A Iternators 




Fig. 26 A 937-Kva., Three-Phase, 600-VoIt, 60-Cycle Turbo-Generator Unit, Lorain 
Manufacturing Company, Pawtucket, R. I. 




Fig. 27 An 8000-Kva., Two-Phase, 60-Cycle Turbo- Genera tor Unit, Peoples Power 
Company, Moline, 111. 



25 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 




valve A , which admits pressure oil to, or exhausts it from the operating cylinder. 
When oil is admitted to the operating cylinder raising the piston, the 

lever C lifts the primary 
valve E. The lever D 
moves simultaneously with 
C, but on account of the 
slotted connection with the 
stem of the secondary valve 
F, the latter does not begin 
to lift until the primary 
valve is raised to the point 
at which its effective open- 
ing ceases to be increased 
by further upward travel. 
A common fault of most 
oil-relay governing systems 
is that they are sluggish in 

Fig. 28 ValvelGear With Steam Relay their action. In the West- 

inghouse designs, the oper- 
ating valve A is connected not only to the governor, but also to a vibrator, 
which gives it a slight but continuous reciprocating motion, while the gov- 
ernor controls its mean position. The effect of this is manifested in a slight 
pulsating throughout the entire relay system, which, so to speak, keeps it 
' 'alive' ' and ready to respond instantly to the smallest change in the position 
of the governor. The oil relay can be made sufficiently powerful to operate 
valves of any size, and it is also in effect a safety device in that any failure 
of the lubricating oil supply will automatically and immediately shut off the 
steam and stop the turbine. 

Safety Stop Governor Every Westinghouse turbine is fitted with a simple, 
reliable speed- 
limit governor, 
which is wholly 
independent of 
the main regu- 
lating governor 
and its driving 
gear. Whenever 
the turbine at 
tains the over- 
speed limit to 
which this safety- 
stop governor is 
adjusted, an au- 
tomatic stop 
valve is tripped, Fig ^^ Gear With ou Relay 

and the steam 

supply is shut off. When it is desired to shut the turbine down, the oper- 
ator, instead of closing the throttle by hand, can, by exerting a pull on the 
governor linkage, make the turbine speed up until the limit governor trips 




26 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 30 A 625-Kva., 600-Volt, 60-Cycle, Three-Phase Automatic Bleeder Turbo-Generator 
Unit, Lowell Bleacheries, Lowell, Mass. 




Fig. 31 A 300-Kva., 440-Volt, 60-Cycle, Three-Phase, Turbo -Genera tor Unit Installed In the 
Bernon Mills Plant, Georgiaville, R. I. 

27 



Westinghouse Turbo- A Iternators 

the automatic stop valve and in this way assure himself that the safety-stop 
mechanism is in condition to act with promptness and certainty in case its 
protection should be needed. 

Bearings In turbines running at speeds of more than 3000 revolutions 
per minute the spindle tends to rotate on its gravity axis instead of on its 
geometric or mechanical axis; of course, these two axes are made to coincide 
as exactiy as possible, but a difference so small as to be within the limit of error 
of the most refined methods of balancing, might set up disagreeable vibrations 
when the turbine is running at full speed. 

To compensate for this possible condition, the bearings on high-speed 

turbines are made up of several concentric tubes with slight clearance between 

them. The lubricating oil fills these clearances with a viscous film which forms 

an elastic cushion, and allows the spindle to find its true center of rotation. 

This nest of tubes is carried in a cast-iron sleeve which rests in a pedestal. 

In Fig. 32 the nest of tubes is shown 
at the left, and the supporting sleeve at 
the right. On the outside of the sup- 
porting sleeve are four steel blocks fitting 
in slots spaced 90 degrees apart and 
secured with screws. These blocks ex- 
tend above the outer circumference of 
the casting and are machined to form 
a section of the surface of a sphere. 
The pedestal has a corresponding spher- 
ical bore, so that the combination forms 

Fig. 32 Turbine Bearing a self-aligning ball and socket bearing. 

The steel blocks referred to above, 

are backed up with a few rolled-steel shims, the thickness of which are multi- 
ples of five one-thousandths of an inch. By transferring these shims from one 
side of the bearing to the other, the final adjustments for centering the spindle 
in its casing can be affected with the utmost nicety. 

In the larger and slower-running turbines, the so-called critical speed is 
never reached and consequently the concentric oil-cushioned tubes are not 
required. The bearings for these turbines are very like the supporting sleeve 
for the high-speed turbine bearings, except that they are babbitt-lined and 
made in halves. 

Lubrication A closed oiling system through which a continuous circulation 
is maintained by means of a pump geared to the main shaft of the turbine, 
keeps the turbine and generator bearings flooded with oil at a very moderate 
pressure. From the bearings, the oil drains through a strainer into a col- 
lecting reservoir, whence it is pumped through a cooler, and back to the bear- 
ings. No water-cooled bearings are used on Westinghouse turbo-generators. 
It is believed to be safer, more convenient, and more efficient to water-cool the 
oil in the course of its travel through the system. 

In the turbines in which the oil-relay governing system is employed, and 
a higher pressure is maintained by the pumps, the comparatively small quantity 
of oil required for operating the valve mechanism passes to the relay cylinder, 
whence it exhausts into the cooler. The remainder of the circulating oil dis- 

28 




Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 33 A 937-Kva., Three-Phase, 600-Volt, 60-Cycle Turbo-Generator Unit, Corr Manufacturing 

Company, East Taunton, Mass. 




Fig. 34 A 4000-Kva., Three-Phase, 2300-Volt, 60-Cycle Unit and- a 3500-Kva. Unit of the Same 
Characteristics, Narragansett Electric Lighting Company, Providence, R. I. 



29 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 



5:?? 



Water Rates- Lbs/KWHR. 
5500K.W WP Turbine 
74 th St. Station, N.Y 
Tested by H. G. Staff 
\-l907-ISOLbs, SB'Vacumn 
3- 19/0- 176 &s. ?S"?a'B Vtoc. 
2- B Corrected to HSLbs 8"Vac 
D-B" Corrected to ISOLbs. ?S" Vfcc 



charges directly into the cooler through a spring-loaded pressure-reducing valve, 
so that pressure in the main circulation is therefore the same, whether the oil- 
relay governing system is employed or not. 

Economy This is a matter that depends more on scientific proportions 
than on the general type of turbine. Published reports of tests, are apt to be 
misleading, unless one is especially skilled in interpreting the data obtained. 
Until the principles of turbine design become more extensively, and more 
exactly a matter of public information, the purchaser will have to rely more 
on the knowledge, experience, and integrity of the builder, than on any theo- 
retical discussion of the subject. The Westinghouse Machine Company has 
the most extensive steam-turbine testing plant in the world. It has conducted 
more actual tests of steam turbines than any other manufacturer, and its files 
of test records, constitute the most comprehensive collection of dependable 
information on turbine efficiencies in existence. 

Efficiency guarantees as to the performance of Westinghouse turbines 
are made with the expectation that they may have to be demonstrated, and 
not with the hope that they may never be questioned. Better guarantees 

may be offered, but in point of 
actual performance the only thing 
that really counts Westinghouse 
turbines are still distinctly in the 
lead. Those who are interested in 
examining in detail, arid analyzing 
efficiency tests, are referred to a 
series of trials on the 10,000-kilo- 
watt unit installed for the City 
Electric Company, San Francisco, 
Cal., shown in the illustration on 
page 5. These tests were con- 
ducted by the J. G. White Com- 
pany, and were reported in a paper presented by Mr. S. L. Napthaly, at the 
annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, at New York, 
in December, 1910. A reprint of this paper will be sent on request. 

Permanency of Efficiency Most important of all, however, is the question 
of the permanency of the efficiency. In this connection the diagram, Fig. 35, 
above is particularly interesting, in that it shows graphically the results of a 
test of a 5,500-kilowatt Westinghouse turbine at the 74th Street station of the 
Interboro Rapid Transit Company, New York City, in comparison with the 
results of a test of the same machine made three years earlier. These tests 
were made under the direction of Mr. H. G. Stott, Superintendent of Motive 
Power, and at the date of the last test the unit had been in service five years 
and two months, and its total output had been 168,614,075 kilowatt-hours, or 
70 per cent of the total number of hours multiplied by the rated capacity of 
the unit. The last test, far from indicating any deterioration in efficiency, 
shows even better results than the one made three years earlier. 

Naturally, this record reflects the highest type of good management and 
intelligent supervision, but at the same time it is evidence that the Westing- 
house turbines possess the inherent qualities that make this sort of manage- 
ment and supervision worth while. 

30 




4000 5000 6000 

Load KW 



Fig. 35 Curves of Turbine Performance 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 

The Generator 

Although the principle of operation of the steam turbine and that of the 
reciprocating engine are decidedly unlike, the principle of operation of the 
high-speed turbine-driven generator does not differ from that of generators 
designed for being driven by other types of engines or by water-wheels. There 
are, therefore, with the turbine-driven generator, no new ideas for the operator, 
who is familiar with the older forms to acquire. That the proportions of such 
high-speed machines must be very different from those permissible in generators 
of much slower speeds is obvious. In the high-speed machines ' the rotor 




Fig. 36 Westinghouse Generator for Turbine Drive 

diameter is small and is of relatively greater length than in low-speed generators. 
Special ventilation is necessary. The high peripheral rotor speeds involve new 
ideas and ideals in material, design, and workmanship. 

Westinghouse turbo-generators have, from the time they were the pioneers 
in the field, formed a part of the most efficient turbine units operating in 
America. Their present development is the result of unremitting investiga- 
tions, exhaustive tests, the advantages of a splendid shop equipment and the 
efforts of superior engineering talent. 

Type From the first, Westinghouse turbo-units have been of the hori- 
zontal type. They are the result of a long and consistent development of 
this one type. That sound judgment was used in selecting this construction 
is evidenced by rapidly decreasing use of the vertical units. 

Armature Construction 

Frame and Core A pleasing appearance results from the use of a cast- 
iron frame having cast-iron end-bells bolted to each of its ends. The frame is 
of the box girder construction which provides the rigidity required to firmly 

31 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

hold the laminated core. It also provides passages through which the warm 
air is conducted away from the generator. 

Ventilation The turbo-generator gives a very large output from relatively 
little material in a small space. Therefore the losses in these generators that 
must be disposed of as heat are very large per unit area. This necessitates 
plenty of cooling air. Well designed, well located devices for effectively guiding 
its flow must be provided. No one design of air-circulating device will effi- 
ciently serve for turbo-generators of all sizes and speeds. The Westinghouse 
method is to affix a special blower (See Fig. 44) to the rotor. It creates a 
flow of air which is guided by enclosing end-bells (Fig. 37) through the fan- 



D 




Fig. 37 Generator with Half of End-Bell Removed 

shaped end turns of the armature coils (Fig. 40), thence into the interior of 
the machine. Most of it flows through the air-gap between the stator and the 
rotor. Because the laminations are very deep and the volume of air forced 
through is large, the ducts (Fig. 42) must be of just the right proportions 
and must be accurately located to insure, with economy of air and power, 
uniform temperatures. The warm air collects in the large annular spaces 
(Fig. 41) within the frame casting and is ejected downwardly. Very large 
generators are sometimes ventilated by a motor-driven fan. In very large 
stations the installation of such an auxiliary is justified because its blower is 
more efficient than that on a generator shaft. 

Winding Because of the small number of coils in a turbo machine as 
compared with that in a slow-speed generator of the same kilovoltampere 
rating, each turbo-generator armature coil carries an enormous amount of 
power on large loads, particularly at times of short-circuits of grounds on the 
external circuit. The "throw" of the coils is large, leaving a considerable 
part of the winding in the end turns unsupported by the armature core. For 
these reasons great stresses, which are dangerous if, effective means are not 

32 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 




Fig. 38 Two 625-Kva., Two-Phase, 450-Volt, 60-Cycle, Turbo-Generator Units, Sherwin 
Williams Company, Kensington, 111. 




Fig. 39 A 750-Kva.. Three-Phase, 2400-Volt, 60-Cycle, Low-Pressure Turbo-Generator JJnlt, 
Penn Mary Coal Company, Possum Glory, Pa. 



33 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

adopted to withstand them, may exist between the coils. An absolutely 
unique and perfectly secure form of armature winding has been invented for 
use in Westinghouse turbo-generators. 




Fig. 40 Armature with End-Bells Removed Showing Method of Bracing 





Fig." 41 Dovetail Grooves in Stator Casting Fig. 42 Laminations in Position in Stator Casting 

The copper conductors in the coils are of such cross-section that they can 
be made rigid and insulated satisfactorily. The manufacturer is more inter- 



34 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 



ested than any one else in seeing that none but the best insulation is used. It 
is his insurance. Then the end turns are given the fan-like (Fig. 43) form 
peculiar to Westinghouse turbo- 
generator armature coils. This con- 
struction affords thorough ventila- 
tion and with it the disposition of 
the coils is the very best for effective 
bracing (Fig. 40). 

Cord lashings are, except in the 
smallest frames, used only for hold- 
ing in the small spacing blocks be- 
tween the coils. They are not 
depended on to support the coils. 
Malleable iron braces, hard maple 
blocks, and brass or steel bolts with 
brass washers are used to withstand 
the mechanical stresses imposed on 
the armature coils by external short 
circuits. 

Field Construction 

Precedent has not influenced 
the Westinghouse Company to try 
to adapt one form of field structure 
construction for all capacities and 
speeds. The radial or parallel slot, 
the integral or separate shaft; and 

the semi-laminated or solid disc body form of construction is each used for 
rotors of the capacities and speeds for which it is best fitted. A record of 
entire freedom from any operating difficulty has been maintained for several 
years for fields built within that period. 

Insulation Every field is insulated solely with fire-proof materials mica 
and asbestos although guaranteed for the usual low-temperature rise. 




Fig. 43 Armature Partially Wound 




Fig. 44 A Two-Pole, Parallel Slot Field 

Radial Slot Construction Very small generators, have fields of the radial 
slot construction shown in Fig. 45. The rotor diameters are so small that 
the end turns of the winding can be effectively bound into place, such binding 
being necessary with a radial slot machine. The shaft and disc are a one- 
piece forging of steel. 



35 



Westinghouse Turbo-Alternators 

The parallel slot design of field construction, developed only by the 
Westinghouse Company, is best utilized in two-pole field generators up'to 




Fig. 45 A Two-Pole, Radial Slot Field 




Fig. 46 A Four-Pole, Parallel Slot Field 




Fig. 47 A Four-Pole, Radial Slot Field 

10,000-kilovoltampere capacity or thereabout. Fig. 49 shows parallel slot 
cylinders, wound and ready for assembly. The large holes near the circumfer- 
ence of the cylinder are for the accommodation of the bolts that hold the bronze 
end disks and stub shafts. In winding, the cylinders are mounted on a 
horizontal turn-table that rotates in a horizontal plane. The copper strap field 
coil winding is wound turn by turn under pressure and strip insulation is wound 
in between. When completed the turns are held rigidly in position with heavy 

36 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 

brass wedges. In Fig. 44 the rotor has been completed. A perfectly compact 
unit, almost indestructible and one in which the end turns are securely sup- 
ported, results. 

An end disc, made of bronze to prevent magnetic leakage, holds the stub 
shaft and is bolted to each end of the steel center. When the leads are attached 
to the collector rings the field is complete. No instance of operating trouble 




Fig. 48 A Two-Pole, Parallel Slot Field 



(either mechanical or electrical) with rotors of this type of construction has 

ever been reported to the Westinghouse Company. Hundreds are in service. 

Multipolar fields are illustrated in Figs. 46 and 47. Construction such 

as shown in Fig. 46 is entirely satisfactory except for the large sizes for which 




Fig. 49 Parallel Slot Field Cores 




Fig. 50 Armatures Under Construction 

it is difficult for the manufacturer to obtain castings promptly. It is unneces- 
sary to make special provision for end turns. The shaft is integral with the 
field center. 

For very large fields the radial slot construction is used. Through the 
use of this construction the use of large steel castings is avoided. Fig. 47 illus- 
trates a field of this type. 

37 



Westinghouse Turbo- Alternators 




S 

a a 

f u 

o 2 



a 


II 



38 



Westinghouse Turbo- A Iternators 




39 



The Westinghouse Machine Co, 



New York 
Atlanta 
Boston 
Chicago 
Cincinnati 
Cleveland - 
San Francisco 
Denver 
Pittsburgh - 
Philadelphia 
St. Louis 
City of Mexico 



General Offices and Works 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



SALES OFFICES 




Ijp Broadway 

ff 
^ - Candler Building 

201 Devonshire Street 
39 South La Salle Street 
1102 Traction Building 
1117 Swetland Building 
Hunt, Mirk & Co., 141 Second Street 
Gas and Electric Building 
- Westinghouse Building 
03 North American Building 
- Chemical Building 
era, Importadora y Contratista, S. A. 



Circular W. M. 507 



November, 1912 



TheWestinghouse 



SMALL TURBINE-DRIVEN OUTFITS 




Pumps For All Purposes 



Generating Units 





fr^X I 



Centrifugal Blo\vers 



EAST PITTSBUR.G.RA. 







A Non-Condensing Turbine Driving the Air and Circulating 
Pumps of a Westinghouse Leblanc Condenser 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 

THAT turbines are by all means the most satisfactory 
form of drive for auxiliaries and small generating units, 
is generally conceded by all who have used them or 
have had opportunity to observe their performance. By every 
measure which the station owner or operator applies to his 
apparatus, they surpass reciprocating machinery, and just as 
the large turbine effected a complete change in main unit 
practice, so now this type of prime mover is becoming the 
standard for exciter, blower, or pump drive. 

Without enumerating the self-evident advantages of tur- 
bines for such service, this pamphlet deals in a general way 
with the product of The Westinghouse Machine Company in 
this field, including not alone the driving, but also the driven 
part of the unit. 




Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 

Centrifugal Pumps 

For fire or water service, irrigation, condensing, or general purposes, 
the centrifugal pump has almost unlimited application, and in a great 
majority of cases the turbine furnishes the desirable form of drive. This 
is particularly true of such pumps when used in and about power houses. 




The Westinghouse Machine Company is accordingly prepared to furnish 
centrifugal pumps in any capacity for power house work, including boiler- 
feed, hot-well, circulating and general service pumps. A brief descrip- 
tion of the types built, with general information as to capacity and 
size, follows. 

Boiler Feed Pumps 

As indicated by the sectional view opposite, the centrifugal boiler-feed 
pumps built by this Company are of the multi-stage, double-suction type. 
This construction has several decided advantages over the single-suction 
pumps, largely employed in the past. End thrust, a constant source of 
trouble, is practically eliminated, no balancing pistons being necessary. 
The double-suction pump may also be operated at higher speeds for equal 
capacity and efficiency, thus improving the economy of the driving 
turbine appreciably. Floor space requirements also favor this construc- 
tion. 

A particular feature of the design is the ease with which the machine 
may be inspected in all its parts. The casing and its heads are horizon- 
tally split, and the upper half can be lifted and the whirl chambers and 
runner shaft removed without disturbing any pipe connections. 

The use of large shaft diameters is made possible by the ample 
suction passages, insuring a rigid, smoothly operating unit. The bearings 
are ring-oiled, large reservoirs being provided to carry the oil. The 
glands are soft packed, the problem of evenly packing a revolving shaft 
being overcome by a simple but effective system which involves a mini- 
mum of wear on the shaft and very infrequent necessity of re-packing. 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




It is accurate to state that the pump here described represents the 
latest development in the building of centrifugal boiler-feed appara- 




tus, and that the features of its construction embody most fully the 
advantages of rotating over reciprocating pumps for this service. 

A list of standard sizes with closely approximate dimensions follows: 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



Boiler Feed Pumps 





INLET 



a 


1 

Head 
in Feet 


Pressure 
in Lbs. 
Per Sq. In. 


Stages 


Length 

(A) 
With Turbine 
Drive 


Width 
(B) 


Height 

(C) 


PIPE SIZES 


Inlet 
(1) 


Discharge 
(2) 


150 
to 
230 


192-460 

287-690 I 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 
4 


7' 11" 
8' 6" 
9' *0" 


2' 10" 


3' 4" 


5" 


4" 


225 
to 
350 


192-460 
287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 

4 


7' 11" 
8' 6" 
9' 0" 


2' 10" 


3' 4" 5" 


4" 


295 

to 
458 


192-460 
287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 

](i(i 100 


o 

3 
4 


8' 8" 
9' 5" 
10' 1" 


3' 5" 


4' 7" 6" 


5" 


371 
to 
570 


192-460 
287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 

4 


9' 0" 
9' 9" 
10' 3" 


3' 5" 


4' 7" 6" 


5" . 


450 
to 
700 


192-460 
287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 
4 


9' 6" 
10' 4" 
11' 1" 


3' 10" 


4' 11" 


8" 


6" 


590 

to 
920 


192-460 
287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 

3 
4 


10' 3" 
11' 1" 
11' 10" 


3' 10" 


4' 11" 


8" 


6" 


750 
to 
1160 


192-460 

287-690 
384-920 


83-200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 
4 


11' 2" 
12' 2" 
13' 3" 


4' 10" 6' 4" 10" 


8" 


840 192-460 
to 287-690 
1190 384-920 


S3 200 
125-300 
166-400 


2 
3 
4 


12' 2" 
13' 5" 
14' 8" 


6' 6" 


7' 10" 


12" 


10" 


1480 192-460 
to 287-690 
2300 384-920 


83-200 2 
125-300 3 
166-400 4 


12' 2" 

13' 5" 
14' 8" 


6' 6" 


7' 10" 


12" 


10" 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



Circulating and General Service Pumps 

In connection with jet and surface condenser work, this Company 
has built a large number of centrifugal pumps which are particularly 
adapted to low-head service. The runners are of the double-suction type, 
giving large ca- 
pacity for small 
diameter, which 
results in good 
efficiency at 
economical 
speeds. These 
pumps, one of 
which is shown 
by the photo- 
graph, may be 
driven by tur- 
bines, motors, or 
by belt. While 
primarily de- 
signed to handle 
water for con- 
densers, they 
are available for 
any moderate 

head service, and their high efficiency, the ease with which they may 
be inspected, and their rugged construction, make them generally desir- 
able. These pumps are built in a complete list of sizes given by the 
following table: 




DISCHARGE (1) 





Gals. 
Per Min. 


Head 
in Feet 


Length 
A 


Width 
B 


Height 
C 


Discharge 
Piping 


750- 1000 


20 to 30 


4' 5" 


3' 2" 


2' 10" 


6" 


1500- 2000 


20 to 30 


5' 6" 


3' 2" 


2' 10" 


10" 


2500- 3000 




6' 7" 


3' 2" 


2' 10" 


12" 


4000- 5000 


20 to 30 


4' 9" 


3' 5" 


3' 0" 


14" 


6000- 7500 


20 to 30 


6'0" 


3' 5" 


3' 0" 


16" 


8000-12000 


20 to 30 


7' 3" 


3' 5" 


3' 0" 


18" 


15000-20000 


20 to 30 


5' 9" 


4'0" 


3' 6" 


24" 


23000-28000 . 


20 to 30 


7' 2" 


4'0" 


3' 8" 


32" 


30000-37500 


20 to 30 


8' 7" 


4'0" 


3' 6" 


36" 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



High Efficiency Low-Head Pumps 
For Large Capacities 




One reason for the popularity of steam turbines for auxiliary drive 
is that the exhaust is uncontaminated by oil, and is therefore pure water 
for boiler feed. As, however, relatively high speeds should be used for 
good efficiency, they are sometimes unfitted for direct connection to 
pumps, particularly where the working head is small. An example 
of this condition is the centrifugal circulating pump for surface con- 
densers, where large volumes of water are to be handled against total 
heads seldom exceeding 30 feet. To overcome this inconsistency in 
speeds and at the same time retain high efficiency in both pump and 
turbine, this Company makes use of the Flexible Reduction Gear first 
employed in connecting turbines and direct-current generators. A 
circulating unit built on this plan, is shown above. 

The efficiency of the gear is approximately 97 per cent, and of the 
pump 70 to 75 per 
cent, with heads as 
low as 15 feet. Of 
course, the use of 
the gear permits 
of any turbine 
speed required for 
high efficiency. 
These outfits are 
built with one, two 
or three double- 
suction runners on 
a common shaft, 
depending upon the 
desired capacity. 
A sectional view of 
a two-runner pump 
is shown herewith. 




Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



If it is desired, motor drive may of course be employed instead of 
the turbine and gear. The following table gives closely approximate 
data on these pumps. 



I 




o 




Capacity 
Gal. Per Min. 


Head 


Speed 


Number LENGTH 


Width 
B 


Height 
C 


Discharge 
Piping 


ners A | P 


8000-13000 


10.0-25.0 


200-325 


1 16' 3" 


6' 3" 


7'0" 


6' 1" 


] 


8000-13000 


11.5-28.5 


200-325 


1 j 16' 5" 


6' 5" 


7' 2" 


6' 6" 


i 30" 


8000-13000 


12.8-32.0 


200-325 


1 i 16' 7" 


6' 7" 


7' 4" 


6' 11" 


] 


16000-26000 


10.0-25.0 


200-325 


2 19' 1" 


8' 7" 


7'0" 


6' 1" 


] 


16000-26000 11.5-28.5 


200-325 


2 19' 5" 


8' 11" 


7' 2" 


6' 6" 


i 36" 


16000-26000 


12 . 8-32 . 


200-325 


2 19' 9" 


9' 3" 


7' 4" 


6' 11" 


i 


24000-39000 


10.0-25.0 


200-325 


3 22' 0" 


10' 11" 


7'0" 


6' 1" 


1 


24000-39000 


11.5-28.5 


200-325 


3 22' 6" 


11' 5" 


7' 2" 


6' 6" 


42" 


24000-39000 


12. 8-32. O 1 200-325 


3 23' 0" 


11' 11" 


7' 4" 


6' 11" 


J 




Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



Condensate and General Service Pumps 

In applying Westinghouse Leblanc Air Pumps to surface condensers 
it is often convenient to handle the condensate by a centrifugal pump 
mounted on the same shaft. 




These small centrifugal pumps are also arranged for separate motor 
or turbine drive. They are built with single-stage, double-suction run- 
ners, and the design is such that direct or alternating-current motor 
speeds are suitable. 

The total head in handling condensate averages about 60 feet. 
With slight modification, these pumps are therefore available for small and 
medium capacity general purposes against heads not exceeding 125 feet. 

A list of sizes with approximate dimensions, is given below. 





CAPACITY 


Speed Head 


Length 
A 


Width 
B 


Height 
C 


Discharge 
Piping 


Lbs. 
Per Hour 


Gals. 
Per Min. 


20000 


401 


! 1400-2000 


50-125 


36" 


34" 


24" 


3" 


30000 


601 




1400-2000 50-125 


36" 


34" 


24" 


3" 


50000 


lOOi 




1400-2000 50-125 


38" 


31" 


25" 


4" 


75000 


l.W 




1400-2000 50-125 


38" 


31" 


25" 


4" 


I 00000 


200 




1400-2000 
1400-2000 


50-125 


40" 


34" 


2(5" 


5" 


150000 


300 




50-125 


40" 


34" 


26" 


5" 


200000 


400 




1400-2000 


50-125 


40" 


35" 


2S" 


6" 


300000 


600 




1400-2000 


50-125 


42" 


35" 


28" 


6" 


400000 


800 


\ 1400-2000 50-125 


42" 35" 


28" 


8" 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



Small Capacity Centrifugal Blowers 

For Low and Intermediate Pressures 

The turbine or motor-driven blowers built by The Westinghouse 
Machine Company, are of the shallow vane centrifugal type. 

The machines are particularly suited to forced draft work, gas- 
blowing, or furnishing blast for cupolas. The distinctive characteristic 
of the blowers is their efficiency, which averages 60 per cent at rating. 















^ 












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It will further be noted on the accompanying curve, that the range of 
this efficiency is very great, extending from 60 to 150 per cent of the 
rated capacity of the blower. A third advantage, is the large allowable 
variation in capacity for a small change in discharge pressure, a desirable 

feature in nearly all installa- 
tions of blowing apparatus. 
A fourth desirable feature is 
the fact that for a given pres- 
sure there is only one value of 
the volume discharged. This 
is of great advantage when 
the blower is to be operated 
in conjunction with other 
blowing machinery, since 
there will be a stable division 
of load between the two or 
more machines operating, if 
they have this characteristic. 
An accompanying photo- 
graph shows a blower and 
driving turbine of our make. 
This apparatus is also avail- 
able for motor drive when 




Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



desired. The following table gives closely approximate data on the 
capacity and dimensions of these outfits. 




Double-Flow Two- Bearing Type 



Class 


Runner 
Diam. 


Speed 


Press. 


Capacity 


A 


B 


C 


DISCHARGE 
OPENING 


I 


II 


2A 


22^" 


2500 
4000 


2.4 
6.2 


11,000 
17,800 


3' 4" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


30" 


30" 


2A 


39" 


800 
1900 


2.2 
12.6 


22,100 
53,000 


3' 4" 


8' 2" 


8'0" 


36" 


36" 


3A 


39" 


800 
1600 


2.2 
8.9 


27,650 
55,200 


3' 9" 


8' 2" 


S'O" 


40" 


40" 


4A 


39" 


800 
1600 


2.2 
8.9 


33,200 ,, 9/ , 
66,000 


8' 2" 8' 0" 


50" 


50" 


2B 


22^" 


2f>00 
4000 


5.8 
15.0 


14,000 
22,400 


3' 4" 


4' 8" 4' 3" 


30" 


30" 


2B 


39" 


800 
1900 


5.3 
30.0 


28,400 ,, . 
68,000 


81 nil 
/ 


8' 0" 


36" 


36" 


3B 


39" 


800 
1600 


5.3 
21.3 


35,500 ,, q// 
70,800 


81 nil 
A 


S'O" 


40" 


40" 
50" 


4B 


39" 


800 
1600 


5.3 
21.3 


42,600 
85,000 


4' 2" 


8' 2" 


S'O" 


50" 


2C 


22^" 


2f)0() 
4000 


12.5 
32.0 


16,600 
36,800 


3' 4" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


30" 


30" 


2C 
3C 
4C 


39" 


800 

1000 


11.4 
65.0 


32,000 
76,000 


3' 4" 


81 nn 



S'O" 


36" 


36" 


39" 


800 

1(H)() 


11.4 
46.0 


40,000 
80,000 


3' 9" 


81 nil 
1 


S'O" 


40" 


40" 


39" 


800 
1600 


11.4 
46.0 


48,000 
96,000 


4' 2" 


S' 2" 


S'O" 


50" 


50" 


2D 


22^ 2 " 


2500 
4000 


17.3 

(4. r, 


22,000 
35,600 


3' 4" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


30" 


30" 


2D 


39" 


800 
1900 


16.0 
90.0 


40,000 
94,600 


3' 4" 


8' 2" 


S'O" 


36" 


36" 


3D 


39" 


800 
1600 


16.0 
64.0 


50,000 
100,000 


3' 9" 


8' 2" 


S'O" 


40" 


40" 


4D 


39" 


800 
1600 


16.0 
64.0 


60,000 
120,000 


4' 2" 


8' 2" 


S'O" 


50" 


50" 



10 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




Single-Flow Overhung Type 



Class 


Runner 
Diam. 


Speed 


Press. 
In. of 
Water 


Capacity 


Length 
A 


Width 
B 


Height 
C 


Discharge 
Opening 


I 


II 


1A 


22^" 


2500 
4000 


2.4 

6.2 


5,500 
8,900 


10" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


20" 


20" 


1A 


39" 


800 
1900 


2.2 
12.6 
~2.2 
8.9 


11,050 
26,500 


10" 


8' 2" 


8'0" 


26" 


26" 


2A 


39" 


800 
1600 


16,600 
33,000 


1' 8" 


8' 2" 


8'0" 


30" 


30" 


IB 


22K" 


2500 
4000 


5.8 
15.0 


7,000 
11,200 
14,200 
34,000 


10" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


20" 


20" 


IB 
2B 


39" 


800 
1900 


5.3 

30.0 


10" 


8' 2" 


8' 0" 


26" 


26" 


39" 


800 
1600 


5.3 
21.3 


21,300 
42,500 


1' 8" 


8' 2" 
4' 8" 


8'0" 


30" 30" 


1C 


22)4" 


2500 
4000 


12.5 
32.0 


8,300 
13,400 


10" 


4' 3" 


20" 


20" 


1C 


39" 


800 
1900 


11.4 
65.0 


16,000 
38,000 


10" 


O/ f)lt 

o A 


8'0" 


26" 


26" 


2C 


39" 


800 
1600 


11.4 
46.0 


24,000 
48,000 


1' 8" 


8' 2" 


8'0" 


30" 


30" 


ID 


22^" 


2500 
4000 


17.3 

44.5 


11,000 
17,800 


10" 


4' 8" 


4' 3" 


20" 


20" 


ID 


39" 


800 
1900 


16.0 
90.0 


20,000 
47,300 


10" 


8' 2" 


8'0" 


26" 


26" 


2D 


39" 


800 
1600 


16.0 
64.0 


30,000 
60,000 


1' 8" 


8' 2" 


8' 0" 


30" 


30" 



11 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




Generating Units 

As an auxiliary in large stations, where it is important to reduce 
attendance to a minimum, or as a main unit in smaller plants where 
reliability is highly essential, the small turbine generating unit is now 
generally accepted as the standard. The Westinghouse Machine Com- 
pany builds a very complete line of these units which are described below. 
The particular characteristic of the apparatus is its co-ordination of 
turbine and generator design. This most important factor in the success 
of such units is well exemplified in those built by this Company. 



Direct-Current Sets 

These units are built in sizes from 1 to 150 kilowatts for non-condens- 
ing service. 



The 100 and 150-kilowatt machines are also built in the 




12 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 



condensing type. The standard voltage is 125, although from 75-kilo- 
watts up, 250-volt generators, either two or three-wire, are furnished 
if desired. 

A 25-kilowatt, 125-volt set and a 100-kilowatt, 250-volt set are 
shown by the cuts. Although somewhat different in detail, these 
machines are all of the same type. The turbine wheel is mounted on the 
generator shaft and overhangs one of the two self-aligning bearings. 
These are ring-oiled in the smallest machines, and in the larger, are 
flooded by a pump driven from the shaft. The operation of the units is, 
therefore, entirely automatic, a safety stop being provided which would 
shut the machine down if the governor became disabled. 

The following table gives closely approximate data on these units. 




Non-Condensing 















PIPE SIZES 


Capacity 


Speed 


Voltage 


Length 






(1) 


(2) 


1-kw. 


4000 125 


3' 1" 14" 


19" 


W 


1" 


10-kw. 


6000 


125 


5' 0" 


2' 0" 


2' 5" 


IK" 


3" 



25-kw. 


3500 


125 


5' 9" 


2' 8" 


3' 3" 


2K" 


4" 


50-kw. 


3000 


125 


7' 10" 


4' 6" 


4' 7" 


2^" 


6" 


75-kw. 


2750 


125 


8' 4" 


4' 6" 


4' 9" 


4" 


9" 


75-kw. 


2750 


250 


8' 4" 


4' 6" 


4' 9" 


4" 


9" 


100-kw. 


2400 


125 


9' 6" 


5' 1" 


5' 1" 


4" 


9" 


100-kw. 


2400 


250 


9' 6" 


5' 1" 


5' 1" 


4" 


9" 


150-kw. 


2200 


125 


11' 3" 


5' 1" 


5' 6" 


4" 


12" 


150-kw. 


2200 


250 


9' 7" : 5' 1" 


5' 6" 


4" 


12" 



Condensing 



100-kw. 
100-kw. 
150-kw. 
150-kw. 





2400 125 


11' 3" 


4' 11" ! 5' 7" 


3" 


14" 




2400 


250 


11' 3" 


4' 11" 5' 7" 


3" 


14" 




2200 


125 


14' 2" 


5' 1" 5' 9" 


3" 


14" 




2200 


250 


11' 6" 


5' 1" 5' 9" 


3" 


14" 



13 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 

Alternating Current 

The cut below shows a 100-kilowatt, 60-cycle, alternating-current 
turbo-generator set with a direct-connected exciter. The machine shown 
is designed for condensing service. A non-condensing unit is shown 
opposite. There is a small constructional difference between the two 




units. For non-condensing service, the turbine wheel is of the overhung 
type, as is the case in the direct-current units. The condensing units 
have three bearings, two outboard and one between the turbine and 
generator. The rotor of such a unit is shown below. As the steam 
volumes at vacuum pressures are considerably greater, it is also necessary 
to use larger casings and nozzles. In operating principle, the machines 
are the same, consisting of a single impulse wheel upon which the steam 
is directed several times in order to entirely absorb its velocity energy. 



Sixty cycles being practically invariably employed in America as 
the standard frequency for small units, these machines all operate at 
3600 r.p.m. They can be equipped with direct-connected exciters or not, 
as is desired. 



14 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




Capacity 


LENGTH 


Width 
(B) 


Height 
(C) 


PIPE SIZES 


Unit 
(A) 


Exciter 
(D) 


Steam 
(1) 


Exhaust 
(2) 



100-kw. 
150-kw. 
200-kw. 
300-kw. 



14' 1" 
14' 5" 
16' 8" 
17' 6" 



3'0" 
3'0" 
3' 2" 
3' 6" 



Non-Condensing 

4' 9" 
4' 9" 
5' 6" 
5' 6" 



4' 4" 
4' 4" 
5' 5" 
5' 5" 



4" 
4" 
5" 
5" 



10' 
10' 

18' 
18' 



Condensing 



100-kw. 


14' 8" 


3'0" 


4' 5" 


4' 6" 


3" 


14" 


150-kw. 


15' 0" 


3'0" 


4' 5" 


4' 6" 


3" 


14" 


200-kw. 


16' 8" 


3' 2" 


4' 6" 


4' 6" 


4" 


18" 


300-kw. 


17' 6" 


3' 6" 


4' 6" 


4' 8" 


4" 


18" 




15 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 

Small Turbine Construction 

The apparatus described on the various pages of this catalogue, 
although now available for motor drive, was originally to be driven by 
Westinghouse small turbines. In order to completely cover the power 
turbine field, this Company builds small turbines of the impulse type 

ranging in normal capacities 
from 10 to 500 horsepower, 
for any condition of speed, 
steam pressure, and vacuum 
or back pressure. 

The first consideration in 
the design of these machines 
has always been simplicity. 
The cut shows the active 
principle of the machines. 
In each case they consist of a 
single disc of boiler-plate steel, 
carrying on the periphery 
nickel-iron blades. Steam, 
after expansion in a suitable 
nozzle, passes through these 
blades, delivering to them 
part of its velocity energy. 
On leaving the blades it 
enters a reversing chamber 
which again redirects it onto 
the blades. This process is 
repeated as many times as 
necessary to make efficient 
use of the energy in the steam. 
This is diagrammatically 

shown by the figure below. Where it is necessary to handle large volumes 
of steam, as in the case of condensing operation, it is convenient to use 





STEAM INLET 



a wheel such as is shown opposite, which wheel is of the condensing 
type. In any event, however, the power of the turbine is developed 1 
on a single wheel, and all the complication of several wheels with 



16 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




diaphragms and trouble- 
some packing between 
them is eliminated. 

This simplicity of 
connstruction involves 
practically no sacrifice in 
efficiency of the machine, 
and is undoubtedly the 
prime factor in the suc- 
cess of turbine drive for 
auxiliary apparatus, since, 
as a rule, this is installed 
in more or less inaccessible 
places. The most satis- 
factory unit, assuming 
reasonable efficiency, will 
therefore be the one re- 
quiring the least atten- 
tion, which in turn is, of 
course, the one operating upon the simplest principle. 

The blades, which as noted before, are made of nickel iron, have 
roots which set in a groove turned in the edge of the disc, and steel pins 
are driven through and riveted into place, forming a particularly strong 
construction and one which is little subject to deterioration. 

The bearings are of the plain ring-oiled type, and ample reservoirs 
are provided so that filling is not frequently necessary. A sectional 

view shows the gen- 
eral details of con- 
struction. 

It will be noted 
that the governor is 
of the plain centrifu- 
gal type mounted on 
the turbine shaft, and 
is connected through 
a simple lever direct 
to the stem of the 
steam valve. In ad- 
dition to this, a safety 
device is applied to 
each turbine which 
will shut off the flow 
of steam whenever 
the speed exceeds a 
certain safe limit, irre- 
spective of the action 
of the governor. The 
operation of the tur- 
bine is, therefore, en- 
tirely automatic. 

The materials used 
in the construction of 




17 



Westinghouse Small Turbine Outfits 




these turbines are, of course of the highest quality, and they are built in 
the same shop with our large turbines. The workmanship is, therefore, 
beyond question. 

As to sizes and capacities, it is not possible to list these on account 
of the great number, but as stated above, The Westinghouse Machine 
Company is prepared to furnish power turbines of this type in any size 
up to 500 horsepower for any operating conditions. 




18 



\ 



\ 

The Westinghouse Machine Company 

V- Designers and Builders of 

Steam Turbines Stokers 

s A 

Steam Engines ~ ^Ga.s Producers 

Gas Engines Pumps 

Condensers Blowers 

r .- Turbo Compressors 



SALES OFFICES 



A 



New York ^W . 165 Broadway 

Chicago .' . . . .39 South La Salle Street 

Pittsburgh Westinghouse Building 

Philadelphia 1003 North American Building 

Boston 201 Devonshire Street 

Atlanta Candler Building 

Denver Gas & Electric Building 

Detroit 27 Woodward Avenue 

Cleveland 1117 Swetland Building 

Cincinnati 1102 Traction Building 

San Francisco Hunt Mirk & Co., 141 Second St. 

City of Mexico Cia Ingeniera, Importadora y Contratista, S. A. 

Havana, Cuba '. Galban & Company 

San Juan, Porto Rico Porto Rico Construction Co. 

Iquique, Chile , J. K. Robinson & Co. 

Toki'o, Japan Takata & Company 

Caracas, Venezuela H. I. Skilton 



GENERAL OFFICES, AND WORKS 

EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 



726303 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO 5O CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $I.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



MAY 16 1935 




ccf , o 1939 




Fto M ' 




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win 


1 






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DEC 75 1040 








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