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Full text of "The W.G.N. : a handbook of newspaper administration, editorial, advertising, production, circulation, minutely depicting, in word and picture, "how it’s done" / by the world’s greatest newspaper."

1/1 B RARY 

OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 




Return this book on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 



University of Illinois Library 



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31WTTW2 



JAN 8 965 J % 



OCT 



15 1983 

L 18 1983 



DEC 9 1987 



071999 







L161— H41 






LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILUNOl' 



Q&W-G'N 



A handbook oFnew* 
G/ paper administration, 
-editorial, advertising, 
productioacirculation, 
-minutely depicting, 
in word and picture, 
"how it's done" by 
the worlds greatest 
newspaper -**•*• 



<gf> 



Wished ijTkChkfrThbm 

in commemoration of its 

Setent) fifth Birthday — * ~ 



Copyright 1922 
The Tribune Company 



Contents 



Page 

THE W. G. N 7 

THE PAST 

History of The Chicago Tribune JT 

From Foundation to Fire (i 847-1 871) I4 

From The Fire to The Fair ( 1 871-1893) 4 o 

From The Fair to The World War (1893-1914) « 

The World War and After (191 4-1 922) 80 

THE PRESENT 

Editorial Division !2f 

Local News 134 

Departments 139 

National News 143 

Foreign News 145 

Makeup of News . 153 

Art and Photographic Department 160 

L| Features . 163 

' Selling News, Features and Pictures . . ... . . . 167 

Morgue and Library 168 

Editorials 170 

Advertising Division 177 

Want Advertising 179 

Classified Display 189 

Display Advertising 190 

Local Advertising 191 

National Advertising 193 

Production Division 

Chicago Tribune Pulp Wood Forests 205 

Turning Trees into Paper 219 

Composing Room 227 

Etching .Room 237 

Sterotyping 242 

v Electrotyping 245 

J Press Room 246 

\> Rotogravure and Coloroto 256 

N Electrical Department 267 

Circulation Division 272 

v Auditing and Comptrolling Division 282 

^Building Department 284 

Purchasing Department 291 

J? The Medill Council 294 

List of Illustrations 

f Page Page 

•Joseph Medill Frontispiece Headlines on Fall of Fort Sumter . . 24 

Tribune Offices 1849 8 Headlines on Surrender of Lee ... 26 

,Alfred Cowles, William Bross, Headlines on Assassination of Lincoln . 28 

Horace White 19 _ . T . , . •. • 

John Locke Scripps, Charles H. Ray . 20 Utter from Lincoln subscribing to 
-Tribune ad of 1860 22 The Tribune 30 



List of Illustrations— Continued 



Page 
Headlines on Burial of Lincoln . . .31 
Courthouse before The Fire .... 37 
Headlines on Chicago Fire .... 38 
Horse Power for Presses in the Forties . 39 
Waterworks before The Fire ... 40 
Scenes during Chicago Fire .... 41 
Chicago in 1865 and in 1870 . . . 42 
Headlines on Beecher-Tilton Case . . 43 
Headlines on New Testament Scoop . 45 
Headlines on Assassination of Garfield . 46 
Headlines on Haymarket Riots ... 47 
Headlines on Swing Heresy Case . . 48 
Tribune Buildings before and after Fire . 51 
World's Columbian Exposition, 

"The Fair" 52 

Headlines on Battle of Manilla Bay . . 57 
Corner of Madison and Dearborn Streets 

in 1860 . . 61 

Two Compositors with Century of 

Tribune Service 61 

Robert W. Patterson ...... 62 

Tribune Building 71 

Land Show— 1912 72 

Library in Tribune Plant .... 72 

Investors Guide 78 

Headlines on Outbreak of World War . 79 
Headlines of February 1, 1917 ... 81 
Headlines of February 4, 1917 ... 82 
Headlines of April 6, 1917 . . . . 83 
European Edition of The Tribune . . 90 
How European Edition is Quoted . . 92 
Daily News, New York's Picture 

Newspaper 100 

Cross-Section View of Tribune Plant . 102 
Advertisement of Cheer Check Contest . 1 10 
Airplane Views of Tribune Plant . . 114 
Offer of $100,000 Prize to Architects . 120 
Laying Cornerstone of Tribune Plant . 123 

Tribune Plant . 124 

Heads used in The Tribune .... 129 
Weekly Contest for Best Head . . . 130 
Floor Plan— Fifth Floor Tribune Plant . 134 
Floor Plan — Tribune Local Room . . 135 
How News Moves from source to printers 136 
Wireless Operator in Tribune Plant . 147 
Crowd Receiving Election Returns . 147 
London Office of The Tribune . . . 148 
Tribune's European Territory . . . 150 
Expense account in rubles . . . .152 

Makeup Dummy 159 

Photographic Assignment Sheet . . . 162 
Tribune "Sunday" Room .... 165 
Where Tribune News is Bought and Sold 166 
Editorial Page of The Tribune . . . 172 

Tribune Local Room 173 

Tribune Linotypes 173 

Special Auto for Photographers . . . 174 
Tribune Offices in Rome and Berlin . .175 

Tribune Want Ad Store 176 

Advertising Charts 178 

Advertising Charts 181 

Want Ad Phone Room 185 

Want Ad Credit Records 185 

Want Ad Solicitors Records . . . .186 



Page 
Tribune School and Travel Bureau . . 1 86 
Tribune Advertisement of Lyon & Healy 

in 1864 ......... 192 

Chicago Market Pictured in Charts . . 194 
Clothing Advertising Statistics . . . 197 
Advertising Lineage Chart 1906-1921 . 198 
The Co-operator, Retailers Trade Paper 200 
Advertising Advertising in 1982 . . . 201 
Conference Room for Advertisers . . 203 
Copy and Art Service for 

Tribune Advertisers 203 

Tribune Spruce Forest 204 

Map — Tribune Timber Lands and 

Paper Mill . . 206 

Tribune's Timber Lands at Baie 

des Cedres . 209 

Submarine Chaser Dispatch Boat . . 210 

Logjams 215 

Diagram and Photos of Paper-Making 

Machine 216 

Million Dollar Log Pile 218 

Grinding Logs into Pulp 223 

Screening Impurities from Wood Pulp . 224 
Couch and Press Rolls of Paper Machine 224 
Composing Room Layout .... 228 
"Making up" The Tribune .... 229 

Linotype Operator 229 

Camera and Acid Bath in Etching Room 230 

Steam Tables 247 

"Plating-up" a Press 247 

Printing Presses and Newsprint Reels . 248 
Diagram of Progress of Papers through 

Press • • . • ..... 250 

Cutting and Folding Mechanism of Press 253 
Electrical Control Switchboard . . . 253 
Automatic Conveyor from Press to 

Mailing Room 254 

Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Statement to Federal Government . 255 

Methods of Printing 257 

Diagram of Coloroto Press .... 262 
Coloroto Cylinder being Etched . . . 263 
Coloroto Cylinder being Resurfaced . 263 
Coloroto Magazine Presses .... 264 
Tribune Baseball Champions . . . 269 
Stereotype Casting Machine . . . 269 
Mailing Room in Tribune Plant . . 270 

Circulation Chart, 1912 T 1922 . . .273 
Dot Map of Tribune Circulation 

Outside of Chicago 274 

Sketch of Mailing Machine .... 275 

Floor Plan of Mailing Room ..... .278 

Dot Map of Tribune Circulation in 

Chicago 279 

Trucks Receiving Papers 281 

Steel Steamers "Chicago Tribune" and 

"New York News" 287 

Tribune Schooners at Quebec and 

Shelter Bay 288 

Tribune Building at Madison and 

Dearborn Streets 290 

Rotogravure Studio and Press Room . 293 
TheTrib — Employees House Organ . 300 



The W.G.N. 



THREE hundred and sixty-five mornings each 
year The Chicago Tribune is delivered to 
hundreds of thousands of readers. Without 
apparent effort it appears afresh each morning telling 
what the world has been doing during the preceding 
twenty-four hours — illustrating the report with 
photographs and drawings — enlivening it with car- 
toons — offering features both entertaining and 
instructive. 

Each day's Tribune contains far more words 
than the average book — involves greater problems 
of typography and make-up — and must be distributed 
to hundreds of readers in thousands of towns and 
cities before its ink is quite dry. 

This book is designed to picture the machinery 
which makes possible such a spectacular accomplish- 
ment — steam, steel, timber, electricity, brawn, 
brains, skilled hands — all closely co-ordinated and 
driven every minute toward the daily rebirth of 
The Chicago Tribune. Preceding this analysis of 
The Tribune as it is today is a historical sketch. 



1849 




THE PAST 

A brief history of the World's Greatest Newspaper; 
its influence in the political \ social and economic develop- 
ment of Chicago and the Central West, 



History of The Chicago Tribune 

THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE made its appearance 
on June 10, 1847. The office was a single room 
in a building at Lake and La Salle streets, southwest 
corner. The first edition, four hundred copies, was pulled 
on a Washington hand press, worked by one of the editors. 

"... but with every stroke of the lever was anneal- 
ing the substructure upon which was erected the power 
and influence that has not alone decided the fate of this 
city, but of the nation. From The Tribune, that had 
such an humble origin, have been uttered dicta that 
have controlled the destinies of parties and individuals 
of prominence in the country, and infused the people 
with that patriotism which bore such glorious results in 
the internecine contests." 

So speaks an historian of some thirty-five years ago, 
when the Civil War was still a part of the lives of the men 
of that time, and the most important national issue the 
United States had known. It is a little difficult for the 
reader today to visualize the men and events of the past 
century; we are accustomed to regard the newspaper as a 
business institution, short lived as are the great businesses 
of our day in point of their past. We are accustomed to 
think of big newspapers, and The Tribune, as current as 
the linotype, the giant presses, and the mechanical wonders 
that make them possible. It is our habit to identify them 
as things of Today; almost never do we regard them as a 
part of history. Consider this item : that some six decades 
ago, The Tribune was as much of a living voice as Lincoln ! 
Today, Lincoln " belongs to the ages." This morning, The 
Tribune appears less than twelve hours old. The story of 
The World's Greatest Newspaper is in part the story of 
our country, interwoven with the lives of men and events 
that determined our present state. And it is a great, an 
inspiring story, that shows the sources of strength and 
greatness which this Greatest Newspaper derives from its 
historic past. 

11 



Links Modern West with Pioneers 

The Chicago Tribune was a creature of destiny, as 
much a product of the times it lived and the events it 
helped to shape, as was the Civil War. Essentially is it a 
part of Chicago, and the Middle West. From a tiny ham- 
let settled on a swamp has grown the fourth city of the 
world ; an unsettled wilderness has become the most active, 
productive part of this nation. And The Tribune, whose 
growth and fortunes are indissolubly linked with these, 
shared their peaks and depressions, their progresses and 
retrogressions, their glories and their disasters. 

You — addressing you as a mature man or woman now 
doing the day's work of the world — and your father, and 
grandfather, and great-grandfather, and The Tribune have 
gone through four major wars together — the Mexican, the 
Civil, the Spanish-American, and the World War; through 
nineteen presidential campaigns, eight of which may be 
said to have been big with the destiny of the people ; through 
a fire that reduced the city to ruins — but not to ruin; 
through an international exposition that established a 
tradition of vastness and beauty which, in some of its 
aspects, the world in three decades has not surpassed; 
through strikes that disorganized the affairs of a nation, 
and through more violent social and racial disturbances 
that put panic into the public mind everywhere; through 
processes of upbuilding and tearing down and rebuilding 
that changed the face of nature over leagues of coastline 
and prairie and that have given to the most humbly placed 
man in the community comforts and opportunities, material 
and spiritual, that could not be enjoyed by the richest when 
great-grandfather and grandfather and The Tribune began 
working together for father and for us. 

Persons who so long have worked together in matters 
so crucial — for the matters were naught less than the build- 
ing of a world-city in a new world — ought to know each 
other pretty thoroughly. They do. 

The beginning and the end of each third of The Tribune's 
three-quarter century synchronize roughly, but still aptly 

12 



To Fire, To Fair, To War, To Today 

enough, with three distinct epochs in Chicago's develop- 
ment. The first quarter century began when, within a 
period of four years (1843 -1847), the population of the city 
had risen from 6,000 to 16,000. That growth was con- 
sidered phenomenal, though the years following '47 were 
to make it seem slow. This first epoch ended in 1871, with 
the great fire. It comprised twenty-four years. It was 
the epoch of great-grandfather and grandfather and the 
time of their hardest work. 

From the fire to the fair was the second epoch. It com- 
prised twenty-two years. It was the era flamboyant of 
Chicago — of bewildering growth, of great riches quickly 
acquired, of boisterousness, of vulgarity, and of vision. It 
was father's epoch. 

And so is this one his — his and ours. Say that the 
opening of the world war put an everlasting landmark into 
it, it may be described as comprising twenty-one years 
by 1914. 

Now, as The Tribune starts toward the century mark 
we are eight years along in the bewildering epoch which 
historians of the future may designate as "The Great War 
and After. " 



13 



From Foundation to Fire 

1847-1871 

THE TRIBUNE was started at a time and in 
situations that were both strategic. 
City after city was falling before Generals Scott 
and Taylor and the Mexican War, fraught, as fourteen years 
were to prove, with the peril of another war, was drawing to 
a close ; Salt Lake City was being founded by the Mormons ; 
King William IV. of Prussia, that kindly, ineffectual cry baby, 
convoked a parliament at Berlin; the Roman Catholic 
hierarchy was established in England; that magnificent 
vocality, Daniel O'Connell, came to a rather pusillanimous 
end in Genoa; Queen Victoria had been ten years on the 
throne ; Sir John Franklin perished in the region of eternal 
ice, and "Jane Eyre," the authorship of which was the 
current mystery of the English-speaking world, was pub- 
lished. And the rumblings of '48 were worrying Europe. 

The population of Chicago was then 16,000. Our 
country comprised twenty-nine states, with a population 
of less than 20,000,000. James K. Polk was President of 
the United States — our last Democrat president of southern 
birth for sixty-four years, a fact large with significance. 
Abraham Lincoln was 38 years old and Joseph Medill, still 
practicing in Coshocton, O., what law there was to practice 
and picking up in a flirtatious sort of way the rudiments 
of the printer's trade and the editor's craft, was 24. The 
opening of his Chicago career was eight years distant. 

Capital was centered in the East. Boston and New 
York controlled the trade of the nation. The westward 
trend was a slow seepage that spent itself in the prairies, 
lacking the great impetus that the discovery of gold was to 
give in '49. Illinois' first railroad had just been planned 
in '46, and the project was meeting with the greatest dis- 
couragement. The stagecoach companies, vast monopolies 

14 



Galena and St. Louis our Rivals 

of travel and hostelries, interested in stores and horses were 
fighting it bitterly. So little did Chicago think of the 
railroad that the total subscriptions of Chicago merchants 
were only twenty thousand dollars. The farmers were 
opposed to the railroads, and wanted plank roads to haul 
their grain to town to market. The Illinois and Michigan 
canal, destined to link Chicago with Mississippi River 
trade, was still unfinished after eleven years of effort and 
discouraging work. 

St. Louis was the commercial city of the central west, a 
promising metropolis born and thriving on Mississippi 
River trade. Galena was the Illinois commercial "big" 
city; it and Kaskaskia had been considered rivals of St. 
Louis, until Kaskaskia, with its ten thousand inhabitants, 
had been wiped out in the Spring floods of 1844. The 
destruction of Kaskaskia helped Galena and Cairo ; Chicago 
was not thought of as a potential big city. The state 
government, even, gave its business to Galena and the East. 

Picture, then, this frontier town in 1847. Built on 
marshland, two feet above the lake level, its streets were 
always muddy, and some nothing more than bogs. 

Water was pumped through bored logs. Sewerage was 
limited, insanitary, and primitive; three planks fastened 
together to form triangular drain pipes, set six inches to a 
foot below the street surfaces. The first school building 
was only two years old. Trade was nearly all retail. There 
had been a terrific boom some years before, from 1833 to 
1836, which sent Chicago real estate sky high, and flooded 
the town with a temporary prosperity. The panic of '37 
left it in a terrible depression. Business men and merchants 
were forced to go back to the land to raise food to keep alive. 
So much selfishness and unfair dealing, both in business 
and politics, were in evidence during the boom years that 
people were suspicious of any public movements for a long 
time after. By '47, the effects of the panic had pretty well 
worn off, and Chicago was building again, more slowly and 
sanely, but giving little promise of being a wonder city. 

15 



First Newspaper in Chicago — 1833 

The two decades following were to be the most active 
and the most fearsome in our history, when sudden growth 
was faced with as sudden dissolution, when accomplishment 
and disaster ran side by side. 

* * * 

Chicago had been a fertile field for newspapers, since 
the inception of its first, in 1833. But the exigencies of 
pioneer country, the constant change and not infrequent 
disaster were too much for the journals of the day. Pre- 
vious to the appearance of The Chicago Daily Tribune, 
some seven daily and weekly newspapers had been started. 
Of these, two were contemporary. 

Newspaper history began in Chicago with the advent of 
The Chicago Democrat, a weekly founded by John Calhoun 
in 1833, and later brought to a position of considerable 
influence by w Long John " Wentworth, a famous mayor of 
Chicago. The Democrat became a daily in 1840, and was 
issued in the morning. In 1846, the issue was changed to 
evening. "Long John" Wentworth kept it going until 
the time that tried men's souls in 1861. Then he sold out 
in a mood of war panic and the property was merged with 
The Tribune. Through The Democrat, therefore, The 
Tribune may trace its ancestry back to the first newspaper 
published in Chicago. 

Subsequent to The Democrat came The Chicago Amer- 
ican, a weekly in 1835, issued as a daily in 1839; and dis- 
continued in 1842; The Chicago Express, a daily afternoon 
paper, began on October 24, 1842, and discontinued two 
years later; The Chicago Daily Journal, which grew out of 
the remnants of The Express, and with various changes in 
ownership, continues up to the present ; The Chicago Repub- 
lican, a weekly, started in December, 1842, and dropped 
after six months ; The Chicago Daily News, also short lived, 
appeared from late in 1845 till January 6, 1846; The Chi- 
cago Commercial Advertiser began as a weekly on Febru- 
ary 3, 1847, later appearing daily, tri-weekly, and weekly 
until its expiration in 1853. There were also a number of 

16 



Enter The Tribune — June 10, 1847 

journals and magazines, devoted to various interests, but 
none of these survived for long. 

* * * 

With this none too encouraging background, The Chi- 
cago Tribune was started. Joseph K. C. Forrest, James J. 
Kelly and John E. Wheeler were its originators. 

As for The Tribune's personal appearance in 1847, the 
liveliest paper in town liked it. That was the Journal. 
Our sole surviving contemporary of those days looked 
us over on the morning of June 10, and in the afternoon 
printed its opinion, which was detailed, admonitory, and 
instinct with neighborliness. A few lines of its comment 
follow: 

Chicago Daily Tribune — A large and well-printed sheet with 
the above title was laid on our table this morning. 

Our neighbors have launched their bark upon the stormy sea of 
editorial life, proposing to observe a strict impartiality. We wish 
them every success in their enterprise and firmly trust they will shun 
the rocks upon which so many gallant vessels have been wrecked. 

The mechanical execution of The Tribune is beautiful and reflects 
great credit upon the art. 

The chronicle of the first few years, however, is little 
more than record of the changes of ownership — indicating 
that journalism of that day was a precarious profession 
and not the substantial business the newspaper is today. 
Our early owners were more our projectors than our 
founders. They did not stick to the ship or the shop. 
They had other irons in the fire. 

1 Before The Tribune was a month old, James J. Kelly 
had withdrawn to devote himself to the more lucrative 
pursuit of leather merchant. His share was bought by 
Thomas A. Stewart, who assumed the editorship. Mr. 
Stewart was shortly thrust into the prominence incumbent 
upon his position. In an editorial, he suggested that the 
government vessel stationed at Chicago might make itself 
useful by helping two merchant vessels into the harbor. 
The Commandant, Captain Bigelow, resented the sugges- 
tion and straightway challenged the editor to a duel. 
Stewart published the challenge as an item of news. The 

17 



Medill Buys Share in Tribune — 1855 

duel was never fought. The doughty captain abdicated 
and thereafter helped belated vessels make the harbor. 

In the same year, The Tribune bought the plant and 
equipment of The Gem of The Prairie, which it continued 
to issue weekly. In 1848, the second change in ownership 
occurred. Mr. Forrest retired, selling his third interest to 
John L. Scripps. 

The following year was notable for two incidents. On 
May 22, 1849, a fire destroyed The Tribune office and pub- 
lication was suspended for two days. On December 6 y The 
Tribune installed telegraphic news service, the first paper 
in the west to get news by wire. This was a startling 
innovation. News from the east was commonly a month 
or two old before it reached Chicago papers. The presi- 
dential message, eagerly awaited every four years, was 
considered well dispatched if its text reached Chicago by 
mail or courier within a month after its publication at 
Washington. The determination to get the news first, for 
which The Tribune has always been noted, was manifest 
even in that early day. 

On February 20, 1849, a weekly Tribune was also 
begun. The Gem of The Prairie was merged with this 
weekly edition in '52. In '51, a syndicate of Whig poli- 
ticians purchased the share of Scripps, who founded an- 
other paper, The Democratic Press, in 1852, in company 
with William Bross. 

General William Duane Wilson, representing the syn- 
dicate, was installed as editor. An evening issue of the 
paper was also begun, but was shortly discontinued. On 
June 18, 1855, Joseph Medill secured a third interest, andX 
Dr. Charles H. Ray a fourth interest, the firm name be- 
coming Wright, Medill & Co. 

It was eight years after The Tribune was founded that 
Joseph Medill became a guiding force in it. He was then 
32 years old. He remained a guiding force for forty-four 
years, but to the end he had young colleagues. When his 
grandsons took up their work as guiders of The Tribune 

18 



Of the stock of The Tribune Company, 52 per cent is owned by 

THE ESTATE OF JOSEPH MeDILL. PRACTICALLY ALL THE REMAINDER IS 
OWNED BY DESCENDANTS OF MeDILl's THREE ASSOCIATES, PICTURED ON 

THIS PAGE. 





Alfred Cowles 
Served as treasurer and business 
manager of The Tribune during 
the sixties, seventies, and eighties. 
His son is now a director of The 
Tribune Company. 



William Bross 
A staunch abolitionist, was 
lieutenant governor of Illinois from 
1865 to 1809. His grandson, Henry 
D. Lloyd, is now a director of The 
Tribune Company. 




Horace White 

Was editor of The Tribune in the sixties and 



early seventies. 



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"linininintniOinininininininininininininininininininininininininininininir 



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JUJIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UHJIL 




John Locke Scripps 

was editor of The Tribune in the forties and fifties. He was 
appointed postmaster of Chicago by Lincoln in 1861. His 
cousin, James Edmund Scripps, who started his newspaper 
career on The Chicago Tribune in the fifties, later founded The 
Detroit News and assisted in initiating the "Scripps string of 
newspapers" which now numbers twenty-nine. 




Dr. Charles H. Ray, 
who joined with Joseph Medill in the purchase of an interest 
in The Tribune in 1855. 



nininininininininininininininininininininininininininininininiriininininir 



Medill had Founded and Sold Cleveland Leader 

they were not so old as he was when he came out of the 
Western Reserve to do his big work in the world. The 
point of the allusion is that this newspaper, like the city 
of its birth, has ever had the spirit of youth in it. It is 
today what it is because it has marched with the genera- 
tions; because it has grown with a community whose 
growth is one of the phenomena of human annals. ) For 
seventy-five years it has been a going concern; for sixty- 
seven years its tradition has been definite and vital because 
the ideal that sustained the founder of its greatness has 
been the inspiration of those to whom the wheeling years 
brought his tasks. 

Joseph Medill was a curious combination of austerity 
and aplomb. He was not showy, but he was sternly per- 
vasive. He seems never to have cared for, nor to have 
won, popularity of a flamboyant kind. But he was uni- 
versally trusted, for his sense of duty permitted him no 
evasions. He had a certain sangfroid and he was capable 
of making and executing large decisions. To them he 
adhered. His idol, if he had one, was humane common 
sense. That is why he loved Franklin and why he was 
loved by Lincoln. Beneath his formal exterior was a sense 
of humor. Reverting once to the years of the late forties 
when he was teaching school in Ohio, he told how he had 
had to whip one of the boys who had been a leader in driv- 
ing from the district Media's predecessor in the master's 
chair. "After that fight," he said, "all the boys were my 
friends" — a pause — "and," he added, with his sparse smile, 
"as for the girls, I married one of them." 

He came to Chicago in 1855 from Cleveland, where he 
had successfully established the Leader, which still exists. 
His purpose was the purpose of thousands of energetic 
young Americans of those days — to "look over the new 
field." Here he met Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, who 
brought to him a letter of introduction from Horace Greeley, 
who urged Medill to join Ray in starting a newspaper in 
Chicago. They acted upon the plea by buying into The 

21 



&$ CHICAG 




Bttvunt 



A DAILY, TRI-WEEKLY AND WEEKLY JOURNAL 

1IETOTED TO 

News. Commerce, Politics, Agriculture, Science and Literature. 



EDITED AND n-BLISHEO AT CIIKMUO »f Tlllt 



PRESS <fc TRIBUNE COMPANY. 



J. L. W:'Rin>>, WILLIAM IJKOSS. C. II. KAY, 1. MKUILL, A. COWLES, 
Editofsf n-Mrl T*roj>ri«tors. 

FURNISHED TO SUBSCRIBERS AT THE FOLLOWING RATES : 



DAILY, - - in advance, by Mail, .... $7.00 per annum. 

TRI-WEEKLY, * * .... 4.00 " 

WEEKLY, single subscribers, in advance, - - 1.50 " 

" two copies, " ... 2.60 M 

•• four copies, " ... 5.00 ♦• 

" five copies, " ... e.00 " 

" ten copies, *■ ... 10.00 - 

" twenty copies, (and 1 to getter up of club,) 20.00 " 

The CiiKiAfJO Press? k Tribune is designed to be a full and fair exponent of the GREAT 
NORTH-WEST. To that end it keeps constantly in the field a large and efficient corps of 
assistant editor.*, reporters, and correspondents, who are engaged in procuring, systematizing 
and collating all manner of information respecting every locality embraced in the North-Wesr 
fern States and Territories. Articles of this description appear in every issue of our papery 
and have already made for it a reputation in this respect second to no other paper in the whole 
country. 

In price and size of sheet, amount and freshness of intelligence, variety mid value of 
.information, fullness and accuracy of Commercial matter, and in whatever else goes to make 
xip a first-class Newspaper, we challenge comparison with any other journal East or West. 

In Politics, the Press k Tridixk is on the side of FREE LABOR. As an exponent of the 
North-Weet, which has been made great through free labor,- it could not successfully fulfil its 
mission, were it to remain neutral on so vital a question. 

Parties abroad, who may desire to advertise in a paper, having a general circulation 
throughout the North- West, will find the Press & Tribo'K the best possible medium of com- 
munication. 

Its circulation is larerex thaniiliatof anv other paper West of the seaboard cities 



In 1858 The Tribune absorbed The Chicago Democratic Press 
and for two years thereafter was known as The Press and 
Tribune. The above is a reproduction of one side of an adver- 
tisement sent out at that time. The other side asks for job 
printing. The job printing department was in charge of 
William H. Rand, superintendent, and Andrew J. McNally, 
assistant. 



22 



Advance Begins under New Regime 

Tribune. Medill had sold his interest in the Cleveland 
Leader to Edwin Cowles, but Edwin's brother, Alfred, came 
to Chicago with Medill. For a year he served the new 
firm of Ray & Medill as bookkeeper and then he, too, bought 
into the property. In 1858, The Tribune absorbed the 
Democratic Press, and that brought into the firm Deacon 
William Bross, a grand old Cromwellian of the early days 
of Chicago Presbyterianism, and John Locke Scripps, who 
stayed with us between two and three years, becoming in 
1 861 the Lincoln-appointed postmaster of Chicago. For 
two years the paper was known as The Press and Tribune, 
but then reverted to The Chicago Tribune. Dr. Ray sold 
out in 1863, and Mr. Medill became editor-in-chief. 

Thus with Medill, Cowles, and Bross was founded the 
original "Tribune family," which, growing later to include 
Horace White, survives through direct descendants as a 
Tribune family to this day. 

Among all these colleagues of his, Medill seems to have 
been the driver — the man who, though he was all jour- 
nalist, was also practical printer. In a word, he was no 
empiric, though he was not afraid of experiments. To the 
last detail of newspaper making he knew what he wanted to 
do and how to do it. Through his initiative a steam press 
was installed and the first copper faced type ever used by 
an Illinois newspaper was bought. He had an abiding dis- 
taste for the "other irons in the fire," and that was, and is, 
good for this newspaper. "Alas," the great Hippolyte 
Taine once said, "there are writers who were born to write 
newspaper articles and who write only books." Joseph 
Medill was not that kind of a journalist. His product was 
not indifferent books but great journalism. He believed 
that to prepare, to inspire, and daily to assemble excellent 
newspaper articles was a grand work which demanded all 
of skill and fortitude that good minds and honest hearts 
possessed. 

Thus The Tribune got its real start with a growing 
town and an honest man who was also a man of vision. 

23 



Had Faith in Great Future for Chicago 

Because he was visioned he believed in the town. He be- 
lieved with the acute English publicist, Frederic Harrison, 
that "the manifest destiny of Chicago is to be the heart 
of the American Continent," but he said that forty-six 
years before the memorable night at the Union League 
club, where Frederic Harrison said it. 

Medill bought into the nearly By TE LEGRAP H< 

bankrupt Tribune on June 18, .„„ ™ *tt„*«,« 
\j , • i , , THE ATTACK ON SUXTER 
1855. He took active hold on 

Saturday, July 21. The property tflE SURRENDER! 

made money in its first month mmM ^ mmm 
under the new regime. 

to EFFECT OF THE NEWS IN 

Chicago had leaped from a W ashingt on. 

population of 16,000 in '47 to mHm +*** m+m* 

80,000 in '55. It was a big year PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S PBO- 

in the world, lhe Exposition 

Universelle was on in rans ; so was 

, ^ . 1 1 T» • AOTION OF TH« 8TATB3. 

the Crimean war, and the Russians 

. rot. 1 THE PBIVAniHG KXCITBJtEST. 

were getting out of bebastopol; - — - 

the Bessemer process was being Tnfllllfl g Wa r news, 

patented; Thackeray's "The xhb v bwy l»test. 

Newcomes'' and Tennyson's From 7he C hka S o Tribune, 

" Maud " were published ; Frank- April IS, 1861 

lin Pierce was President of the 

United States, and The Tribune neither liked nor trusted 

him — thought him too slick and devious and used to call 

him "Frank Pierce." 

We (The Tribune) then, as now, were ever admonitory, 
but not portentously so, for there was humor in us, and that 
saving infusion of common sense which Joseph Medill 
thought so important an attribute of a newspaper that he 
put some words about it in his last will and testament. We 
struck out at every abuse, whether it was cruelty to a black 
man or cruelty to a horse, and when we could we nailed it 
to the wall with names and dates attached. There was 
the case of "a Mrs. Wheeler. " She tried to commit suicide 
on Monday night, June 29, 1857, by drowning herself in the 

24 



Local Reporting of the Fifties 

lake at the foot of Ohio street. On the Thursday following 
we printed this: 

ATTEMPTED SUICIDE— We learn that on last Monday night 
a Mrs. Wheeler attempted to commit suicide by drowning herself in 
the lake at the foot of Ohio street. She was rescued by Robert Donnelly. 
The woman stated that she had been married about a month, and that 
her husband abused her so much she was induced to commit suicide. 

The husband told Donnelly he was "d d sorry he did not let her 

drown." 

There was a sequel. It came eighteen days after the 

attempt, and we said : 

A BRUTE — James Wheeler was yesterday fined $5 for abusing 
his wife. Mrs. Wheeler is the woman who has twice attempted to 
commit suicide, once by throwing herself into the lake and again by 
taking laudanum. Both those attempts resulted from injuries inflicted 
upon her by her husband. A few months' experience in breaking stones 
in the bridewell would do this Wheeler a "power of good," and he 
ought to have been sent there. 

So lately as a few weeks ago in a lecture at Medill School 
of Journalism of Northwestern university, Dr. Charles M. 
Sheldon, author of "In His Steps," said that was the way 
it should be. " Put your editorial protest against a wicked 
deed, " said he, " in with your record of it — not in a detached 
editorial six pages distant. " 

The same day that we told James Wheeler what would 
do him "a power of good" we also had a word on the case 
of John Connor: 

SERVED HIM RIGHT— A brutal fellow named John Connor 
was fined $5 in the police court yesterday for abusing his horse. There 
is scarcely despical [sic] or cowardly crime than the abuse of domestic 
animals, nor one which should meet with a more prompt punishment. 

Thus we tried cases and imposed sentence in our news 
columns. 'Tis considered highly indecorous now to do so. 

The outstanding community problems of six decades 
ago were identical with ours today. They were Crime 
Wave and High Cost. 

On January 28, 1857, the crime situation seemed rather a 
cause for optimism than consternation, considering that we 
were a city of nearly 100,000 extremely lively and adven- 
turous souls, for on that date we printed this : 

IN JAIL — There are but twenty-two prisoners confined in the 
County Jail. 

25 



Crises Frequent Then as Now 



NEWSBYTEUEIUPH. 
THE END. 

THE OLD FLAG 
VINDICATED. 



LEE MB HI; 
AMY SFRRENDERED 



But two days later hope was dashed to pieces. The 
sacred hen-roosts had been invaded. We were bitter about 
it and recommended legislation: 

ROBBING HEN-ROOSTS— During the present week a number 
of hen-roosts on West Madison street have been depopulated by thieves. 
We would suggest the propriety of adding a chapter to the new city 
Charter for the especial protection of everybody's hen-roosts. 

Matters soon assumed the aspect of a crisis and we 
laconically "razzed" the police: 

WHERE DO THE POLICE BURROW?— 
We learn from a reliable source that during the 
past week some one hundred robes have been 
stolen from sleighs left standing in the streets. 
Are the police asleep? 

In less than six months the crisis 
burst right in the town's face, and The 
Tribune set up a lusty shout for Pinker- 
ton — firm still flourishing. Things were 
coming to "a terrible pass" and this 
drove us to italics. The "burglarious 
depredations" — excitement did not con- 
strict our vocabulary — included the use 
of chloroform, as now: 

WHAT SHALL BE DONE?— Things are 
coming to a terrible pass in this city. Chicago 
seems to be delivered over into the keeping of 
thieves and house breakers. The police force, 
which our citizens are sustaining, at a cost of 
two thousand dollars per week, have proven to 
be utterly useless, to protect the dwellings of the 
people from burglarious depredations. They are 
good for nothing outside of the open view, rough 
work, of picking up drunkards, suppressing dog- 
gery brawls, and carrying away articles found on 
the sidewalk at night, while the thieves are oper- 
ating upon the domiciles of our citizens. 

Now, what shall be done? No man's house 
is safe. Every night a large number of dwellings 

are entered by burglars and robbed. Sometimes the inmates are shot, 
other times drugged or chloroformed in their beds, and others again are 
forced into silence by revolvers pointed at their heads, while their 
clothing and drawers are rifled of their contents before their eyes. . . . 
We verily believe that, if Bradley and Pinkerton were employed as "de- 
tectives," that within a week afterwards burglaries would cease and 
pocket-picking become infrequent. 

In short, Managing Editor Medill, coming from sedate 

26 



The Official Correspond- 
ence between Gens. 
Grant and Lee, 

Tbe.Oflken and Meo to be Pa- 
wled aid Go Home Until 
Exchanged. 

ill Ann Artillery and Hmi- 
fionsof tor MM! 

Gen. Grant 

Officers to Retain Siae 

Arms, II orses and 
Baggage. 

Sehna, Ala., Reported 

Burned by Union 

Cavalry. 

Inter froa Mobile— Ihe City 
being Sradnallj forested. 

Interesting from Sichmoud 

—Tho Contents of Tron* 

holm's letter- Bo oh. 



From The Chicago 

Tribune 

April 10, 1865 ■ 



Cost of Living a Vital Issue 

Cleveland, found that he had cast his lot with a lively town, 
and he was ever for keeping the peace in it — even at the 
cost of a fight. 

High cost it seems not only followed but preceded the 
civil war. Trusty old Pro Bono Publico, whose grandchild 
is Voice of the People, came forward emphatically during 
Buchanan's administration with his protests, and The 
Tribune sustained them. 

Pro Bono said: 

THE COST OF MARKETS AND HOW TO SECURE CHEAPER 
PRICES — It costs more to live in Chicago than in any other western 
city. Rents are frightful, and growing more terrible each year. Market- 
ing keeps pace with the rents and is outstripping them. It is not the 
wholesale prices nor the sum paid to the producer that is increasing, 
but rather the retail — the huckster's price. We have seen barrels and 
boxes of poultry held for bigger prices until decomposition destroyed 
them. 

There is only one effectual remedy for the present state of things 
and that is to establish protection unions, or people's grocery stores, 
one in each division of the city, where good fresh marketing of all kinds 
shall be sold at cost. A million dollars a year could be saved to Chicago 
people if this plan was fully carried out. Pro Bono Publico. 

And we said there was something to do besides "sitting 
down and trading corner lots with each other." The 
Medill recipe of "following the line of common sense in all 
things " was being vigorously applied to the mind of a some- 
what flighty community. 

This was in a semi-news, semi-editorial article : 

CHEAP LIVING AND INDUSTRIAL PROSPERITY— If Chi- 
cago ever attains the greatness for which we all look so confidently, it 
will be because her manufacturing, as well as commercial advantages, 
are properly developed. Some men talk as if we had only to sit down 
and trade corner lots with each other to grow immensely rich, like the 
two boys who swapped jackets all day, each making money at every 
trade. Others are sanguine enough to believe that commerce alone 
will expand the limits of our goodly city till she fills the ample dimen- 
sions staked out for her by the land dealers. 

[But manufactories were not developing rapidly enough. 

Therefore] : 

These retarding causes are mainly high rents, and famine prices in 
provisions; and if these continue there is little prospect that two dollars 
a day will tempt skillful artisans to Chicago, where one dollar a day 
has to go for rent of a decent shelter for himself and family, and only 
the strictest economy enables him to procure the other necessaries of life 
with what remains. . . . The cost of living must come down, or Chicago 

27 



Gossipy Days before the Civil War 



can never become the great manufacturing place for which it is, in every 
other respect, so admirably adapted. Rents will come down when 
capital enough is invested in building to supply the demand. . . . When 
we speculate less and produce more; when the industrial arts vie with 
the commerce. . . . Then may we indeed talk largely of the future of 
Chicago. 

The two decades from our birth year to the period of 
the six years after the civil war and before the fire were 
neighborly days in the town and in our office. There was 
intense solicitude for the city and deep pride in the achieve- 
ments and honors of its citizens. 
One morning in kindly old times we 
led our news columns with this: 

DOCTOR OF DIVINITY— Hamilton 
college, New York, has conferred the degree 
of doctor of divinity upon Rev. R. W. Pat- 
terson, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church in this city. 

That clergyman was the father 
of the R. W. Patterson who years 
afterwards was to become the paper's 
editor-in-chief. 

When, as he put it, "items were 

dull," young Editor Medill, fresh 

from the less hectic Cleveland, did 

not worry. He simply said : 

CORRESPONDENTS— We surrender 
pretty much all our local space to corre- 
spondents. Items were "dull" yesterday, 
with a downward tendency, and we fill up 
with communications as a substitute. 

In fact, in those days, before the 
civil war put a premium on prompti- 
tude in news presentation, The 
Tribune, like all its local contem- 
poraries, serenely scissored and 

pasted from the New York papers, and was very grateful 
when McNally, the newsdealer, or his rival Burke, got the 
latest New York papers to it early in the evening so that 
there was plenty of time to chop them up for next morn- 
ing's issue. It was wonderful time when McNally or Burke, 

28 



POSTSCRIPT. 

4 CT CLOCK A. M. 

TERRIBLE ffiWI 

President Lincoln Assassi- 
nated at Ford's Theater. 

AKBElOESPERAfO SHOOTS 

HIM THROUGH THE HEAD, 

AID ESCAPES- 

Secretary Seward and Major 

Fred Seward Stabbed by 

Another Desperado. . 

THEIR WOUNDS IRE PRO 

NOrXCEO ROT FATAL 

Full Details of the Ter- 
rible Affair. 

UNDOUBTED PLAN TO 

MUBDER SEOBETABY 

STANTON. 

Very Latest-The President is 
Dying. 

(BpMSal Dtipatch to th» Chlcafo Tritme.] 
Wlra»TOM, 'Z^rtl 14. isefc 

From The Chicago 
Tribune, April 15, 1865 



Medill, Ray and Bross Fight Slavery 

here, delivered the papers at The Tribune office forty hours 
after they had left the presses in New York. Today it is 
done in half the time, but we thought McNally and Burke 
were wonders, and we used to fire their souls with ambition 
by putting their records into the paper. For example, 
this appeared on a Thursday: 

McNALLY had the New York papers of Tuesday at 6 o'clock last 
evening. He also has the Ladies' Journal for July. 

And this on a Wednesday: 

QUICK TIME — McNally and Burke tread close upon each other's 
heels. Mc brought us Monday's New York papers last evening about 
5 o'clock and Burke followed in, three minutes thereafter, with his arms 
full of the same. Go it, 63 Clark street! 

And this on the next day: 

BURKE AHEAD— At 5 o'clock precisely Burke left on our table 
the New York papers of Tuesday, and in a few minutes thereafter we 
had the same favor from McNally. Go it, Mc! 

* * * 

As the war drew nearer the tone of the paper changes. 
The quaintness that was almost rusticity begins to disap- 
pear. Questions that were to tear the republic asunder 
were becoming very pressing and the editors and your 
grandfathers had more important things to think about 
than current facetiae or the local case of drunk and dis- 
orderly. In these years we see passing of The Tribune as 
town gossip and local mentor. It is becoming the public 
intelligencer and a voice of the nation. Medill had equip- 
ped himself to act a great part in the supreme crisis. In 
Cleveland, in 1853 and 1854, he had done history making 
pioneer work in organizing the forces which were to con- 
stitute the Republican party, and to that party he had 
given its name. In the columns of The Tribune the fight 
which he and Dr. Ray and William Bross waged against 
slavery was early, constant, and pitiless. They defined the 
issue in long editorials and they fired the soul of the North 
with brief burning paragraphs, of which this is a specimen: 

MORE OF THE BEAUTIES— About two weeks ago a Negro 
belonging to Logan Harper in Carthage, Miss., arose in the night and 
killed his wife, by chopping off her head, after which he hung himself 
to a tree near the house. The reason for this horrible deed was that 

29 



Lincoln Subscribes for Tribune 

&flUsK*y/L£*0 fc^o /y. /¥?? 

A*j s&f 'SFi m oh~ £% <yU*n^**> & 4r*jsCA~*i*j 
of fires *sV ** &*-e*£>tT <r-f* pK**>*~ * + --** % As-£L^£, J> 

y%&i*cfUJ 

Lincoln's first subscription to The Tribune was paid in cash 
to "Joseph Medill. Shortly after the latter had injected his 
personality into the paper, Lincoln walked into the office, said 
that he had not liked The Tribune in the past because it smacked 
of" Knownothingism" but he had noticed a decided change for 
the better recently. Therefore, he had decided to quit borrowing 
it and to subscribe for a copy of his own. The above letter reads: 

Press & Tribune Co. s P rin e ficid. June 15. iss9 

Gentlemen: Herewith is a little draft to pay for your 
Daily another year from today. I suppose I shall take the 
Press & Tribune so long as it, and I both live, unless I 
become unable to pay for it. In its devotion to our cause 
always, and to me personally, last year, I owe it a debt of 
gratitude, which I fear I shall never be able to pay. 

Yours very truly, 

A. Line oh. 



30 



Tribune Prints Lincoln's Speeches in Full 



his wife, a beautiful quadroon, was obliged to submit to the sensual 
caprices of her master. 

This is another of the beauties of the Southern Democratic Amal- 
gamation party. 

In this fight no quarter was given or asked. The lan- 
guage was bitter, the blows terrible. President Buchanan 
got a taste of both : 

THE CURTAIN LIFTED — The President's message was delivered 
yesterday. . . . Mr. Buchanan boldly espouses the cause of fire eaters 
of Carolina and the highwaymen of Kansas. He flings the gauntlet 
in the face of the North, spits upon the land that 
bore him and upon seventy years of his own life, 
takes his party in the Free States by the throat 
and leaps with it into the ditch. Poor old man! 
that you should bring your gray hairs so low! 
Lies so portentous that they darken civilization, 
smite the humanity and blaspheme the Christi- 
anity of all ages! At least you might have spared 
the place of Washington this last humiliation. . . . 
Millions of freemen inspired by the common 
truth and stung by the general degradation shall 
rise to stay this giant and overmastering wrong. 

But simultaneously with the tearing 
away of the props of slavery, which many 
cautious men still considered props of 
union, went constructive work, and Ab- 
raham Lincoln was The Tribune's choice 
as the man to carry the work into the na- 
tion's councils. Steadily, on a big scale, 
and shrewdly The Tribune built up a 
body of opinion which in three years was 
to effect the nomination of Lincoln for 
the presidency. Here is a specimen of 
that valiant and candid propaganda, and 
it should be added that we were the first 
to print Lincoln's speeches in full: 

MR. LINCOLN'S SPEECH— Elsewhere in today's paper, we 
publish entire the speech made by Hon. A. Lincoln at Springfield, in 
answer to the late effort of Senator Douglas. Our readers will give it 
the attentive perusal demanded by the importance of the subjects of 
which it treats, and the great reputation of the speaker. They will 
find it a calm, lucid, and convincing refutation of the assumed facts 
and the false logic contained in the senator's harangue. In it Mr. 
Lincoln has evidently spent more labor to be plain and clear than to 

31 



NEWS BY TELEGRAPH 
TIIE LAST OF EARTH. 

Closing Obsequies to 
the Honored Dead. 

ABBAHAM LINCOLN 
IN HIS TOMB. 

Elttto wailo (Uoeps with 

A BEFITTING AND MOURN. 

FUL CEREMONY. 

Tlie Eslogj *f C: -k"p Slopsea. 

The Elation «f two U. 8. Sen. 
tors from Tennessee. 

Jeff Paris and- Leallag Rebels 

to be Indicted wild 

tie - Assassin*. 

EtBI.'T tHSrUW METTOM OF 
THE itf MM UIE1TES. 

Cifi Thompson BtarenihreS. 



BSBTJCTIOH OP TKB A8XT 

AMD HAVY. 



COT. AlKEI 10T ARKESTEP. 



pros upmnc FitLg. 

tw) l»«rts«*lara*r du r « M»l c. 



(?P«U1 Dtipitcfc la a. Cktaro TMtaM.) 

From The Chicago 

Tribune 

May 5th, 1865 



Propose Lincoln for Presidency 

be ornate and oratorical. That he has succeeded, we are sure our 
readers will admit. 

We cannot neglect the opportunity to thank him for his vindication 
of the language and intent of the Declaration of Independence, now so 
frequently assailed by the politicians of the Pro-Slavery party. The 
part of the speech devoted to that vindication is in Mr. Lincoln's 
happiest vein; and if we knew him only by that we could not fail to 
declare that he is a clear headed, sound hearted, and eminently just man. 

The Republican party, organized in February, '56, 

thus found its leader. At the state convention, May, '56, 

Lincoln made the "lost speech" that made him a national 

figure. Joseph Medill, present at the convention as a 

delegate, and also representing his paper, said : 

"I took down a few paragraphs of Lincoln's speech 
for the first ten minutes, but I became so absorbed in 
his magnificent oratory that I forgot myself and ceased 
to take notes, but joined in the clapping and cheering 
and stamping to the end. I was not scooped, however, 
for all the newspaper men present had been equally carried 
away by the excitement and had made no report." 

Illinois elected a Republican governor. Lincoln was 
spoken of as Douglas' successor in the Senate. The year 
'57 brought the panic and the whole country lay prostrate 
under intolerable economic conditions that were not to be 
changed until the political atmosphere cleared. In '58 
came the famous Lincoln-Douglas debate that left Douglas 
broken and spoiled of power. The editors of Illinois met 
in the office of The Chicago Tribune and decided on the 
railsplitter as a candidate for the Presidency. 

On February 16, i860, we came out with the celebrated 
two-thirds of a column editorial leader placing Lincoln 
before the people for the nomination. 

In the great cause of the nomination Mr. Medill was 
active inside the office and out. Ten days after the nom- 
inating editorial found him behind the scenes in Washing- 
ton and to The Tribune he sent back this report : 

READ, REPUBLICANS, READ! 

Our Mr. Medill, who is in Washington, as the correspondent of 
The Press and Tribune, writes in a private note as follows: 

"Washington, Feb. 26, 1860. 

"From the reports sent here by the Douglas men, some of our 
folks begin to fear that through disaffection among the Republicans 

32 



Tribune Word Picture of Lincoln 

the bogus Democrats will carry Chicago. The idea gives them cold 
chills. Senator Wilson says that the loss of Chicago at this crisis will 
endanger Connecticut, and do much to insure the nomination of Douglas 
at Charleston. At least thirty members of congress from other states 
have spoken to me about it. They say that for the cause and the great 
campaign the city must be saved. 

"Wade, senator from Ohio, told me that the loss of Chicago would 
be the worst blow that the Republican party could now receive. He 
says he is ready to go there and stump every ward to save it. This is 
the general feeling. A national convention is soon coming off, and 
great things are expected of Chicago. She is the pet Republican city 
of the Union — the point from which radiate opinions which more or 
less influence six states. The city must be saved." 

We ask our friends who are hanging back to put that letter in their 
pipes and smoke it. In the face of such direct and explicit testimony 
as to the vital importance of the contest, no man need hesitate what 
to do. Boys, up and at 'em. 

"The boys" did "up and at 'em," for in three months 
came Lincoln's triumphant nomination, and with it a Trib- 
une "close-up" of the candidate which for justness and viv- 
idness is not excelled by many a Lincoln study of far later 
and calmer times and far greater pretensions. Phrases 
from it are reprinted here: 

Stands six feet and four inches in his stockings. 

In walking his gait, though firm, is never brisk. He steps slowly and 
deliberately, almost always with his head inclined forward and his hands 
clasped behind his back. 

In dress by no means precise. Always clean, he is never fashionable; 
he is careless, but not slovenly. 

In manner remarkably cordial, and, at the same time, simple. 
His politeness always sincere but never elaborate and oppressive. A 
warm shake of the hand and a warmer smile of recognition are his 
methods of greeting his friends. 

Head sits well on his shoulders, but beyond that it defies description. 
It nearer resembles that of Clay than that of Webster, but is unlike 
either. 

In his personal habits simple as a child. Loves a good dinner and 
eats with the appetite which goes with a great brain, but his food is 
plain and nutritious. Never drinks intoxicating liquors of any sort, 
not even a glass of wine. Not addicted to tobacco in any of its shapes. 
Never was accused of a licentious act in all his life. Never uses profane 
language. 

A friend says that once, when in a towering rage in consequence of 
the efforts of certain parties to perpetrate a fraud on the state, he was 
heard to say, "They shan't do it, d n 'em," but beyond an expres- 
sion of this kind his bitterest feelings never carried. 

Never gambles. Particularly cautious about incurring pecuniary 
obligations. We presume he owes no man a dollar. Never speculates. 
A regular attendant upon religious worship, and, though not a com- 

33 



War Creates Demand for News 

municant, is a pew holder and liberal supporter of the Presbyterian 
church in Springfield to which Mrs. Lincoln belongs. 

A scrupulous teller of the truth — too exact in his notions to suit the 
atmosphere of Washington as it now is. 

If Mr. Lincoln is elected president ... he will not be able to make 
as polite a bow as Frank Pierce. 

* * * 

The war burst. Sumter fell. On April 15, 1861, The 
Tribune printed its call to battle. It was a hundred per 
cent appeal — nay, command, and to this day it makes the 
pulse beat high: 

EVERY MAN'S DUTY— READ! 

Lenity and forbearance have only nursed the Viper into life — the 
war has begun.. It may not be the present duty of each one of us to 
enlist and march to the sound of a bugle and drum, but there is a duty, 
not less important, which is in the power of every man and woman in 
Chicago, and in the North, to perform — it is to be loyal in heart 
and word to the cause of the United States. From this hour let no 
Northern man or woman tolerate in his or her presence the utterance 
of one word of treason. Let expressed rebuke and contempt rest on 
every man weak enough to be anywhere else in this crisis than on the 
side of the country against treason — of Lincoln and Scott against Davis 
and Twiggs — of God against Baal. We say to the Tories and lick- 
spittles in this community, a patient and reluctant, but at last an out- 
raged and maddened, people will no longer endure your hissing. You 
must keep your venom sealed or go down! There is a republic! The 
gates of Janus are open; the storm is on us. Let the cry be, THE 
SWORD OF THE LORD AND OF GIDEON! 

* * * 

The Tribune's course throughout the civil war may be 
said to have made it a great property, both in a material 
and a moral sense. It was energetic in the covering of 
events and it was passionately loyal. But even in the heat 
of conflict it could be decent. In the course of an appeal 
for comforts for the sick rebel prisoners herded in Camp 
Douglas, The Tribune said : 

These men will be our countrymen again. The memory of this 
conflict will be effaced. 

As hundreds of thousands of men went to war, the 
home folks experienced a new deep craving for news from 
beyond the horizon — news complete, authentic, recent — 
such as only metropolitan papers could supply. By striv- 
ing wholeheartedly to satisfy this craving The Tribune 

34 



War Correspondents Score Scoops 



won a place in the hearts of the great foundation stock of 
the Middle West which has never been shaken. 

Telegraph news suddenly became of the utmost impor- 
tance. The Tribune had its correspondents all over the 
field of action, and gave the best possible news service. 
George P. Upton, then for many years after on The Tribune 
staff, scooped the other papers in the country by his story 
of the capture of Island No. 10, and later scored other 
scoops. In 1864, The Tribune exposed a plot to free the 
Confederate prisoners in Camp Douglas and prevented its 
accomplishment. 

At all times, The Tribune advocated aggressive prose- 
cution of the war, and never wavered in the often question- 
able assumption that the Union 
would triumph. It took the lead 
in many important reforms. When 
Fremont's abilities were doubted, 
The Tribune sent Joseph Medill to 
ascertain the facts. Likewise, when 
General Grant was charged with 
drunkenness and incompetence, Mr. 
Medill went to the front to inves- 
tigate. It was also due to his efforts 
that the governors of Wisconsin and 
Minnesota called special sessions to 
grant soldiers in the field a vote in 
the second Lincoln election. 

The Tribune became the head- 
quarters of Union men. Nightly 
bulletins were posted for large and 
enthusiastic crowds. Dr. Ray or 
Mr. Bross spoke when word of im- 
portant victories came. Dr. Ray 
was the hail-fellow-well-met of our family, and on the night 
when the news of the fall of Fort Donelson was received 
in Chicago he read the dispatch to an immense throng 
and then said, "Friends, 'Deacon' Bross authorized me to 

35 



NEWSBYTELE6RAPH. 

FULL DETAILS OF THE GREAT 
GRIME. 

Secretary Seward still 
Lives. 

PEECARIOUS CONDITION OF 
FREDERICK SEWARD. 

The Order for the As- 
sembling of the Vir- 

giniaLegislatuio 
Rescinded. 

RIOT IN SAN FRANCISCO 

BOOTH AND HIS ACCOMPl ICES. 

Booth's Mistress Attempts 
to Commit Sucicide. 

Arrest of some of the Supposed 

Assassins. 

launrtHon if tin New Prnddont- 
Andrtw JohuKD takes the Oath mt 
-inioe-ui. Unub In Fall. 

_ War Pim uiw i, I 

WumoTOB, April lft— 8 y. m. f 

From The Chicago Tribune 
April 17, 1865 



Circulation of 40,000 Attained 

say that any man who goes to bed sober tonight is a 
traitor to the government." The deacon's consternation, 
considering his Cromwellian standards, may be imagined. 

The Tribune of that day, as now, had its enemies. 
Federal troops had to be called to guard the building in 
June, '63, when the copperheads threatened to destroy the 
paper. In any event, then as now, it was characteristic of 
the paper that it never did anything half-heartedly. It 
backed a project to the utmost, or fought it to a finish. 

The war years brought prestige and prosperity to The 
Tribune. Its circulation increased from 18,000 to 40,000, 
and the publishers made money despite the generally ad- 
verse business conditions. In 1861, The Tribune was 
incorporated by a charter issued by the Illinois legislature. 

* * * 

In '65, John Locke Scripps, who had been serving as 
postmaster since '6i, sold his interest to Horace White, 
who assumed the editorship. White was editor-in-chief of 
The Tribune from 1866 until 1874, during part of which 
period Mr. Medill gave much of his time to the proceed- 
ings of the Illinois constitutional convention of 1869 and 
to his duties as mayor of Chicago immediately after the 
great fire. William Bross was also out of active touch 
with The Tribune, serving as lieutenant - governor of 
Illinois from 1865 to 1869. 

During his activities as editor-in-chief Mr. White gave 
The Tribune a free trade tendency, which did not make 
Mr. Medill happy, although he was no high protectionist. 
In any case, in 1874, after a tour of Europe, he took full 
charge of the paper. Mr. White later performed distin- 
guished service as editor of the New York Evening Post. 

Another notable event of 1865 was the establishment of 
a Western Associated Press, a forerunner of the "A. P." of 
today. Mr. Medill called a meeting of Western editors, 
held in Louisville, to effect this association. 

It was in '69, that The Tribune moved from 51 Clark 
Street, where it had been published for many years. A new 

36 



Burned Out but Unbeaten 



building, four stories high, of Joliet marble, had been built 
on the site of the present Tribune building at Dearborn 
and Madison Streets. The building was valued at #225,000, 
and was highly thought of as an architectural accomplish- 
ment in its day. The paper was published here until the 
great fire of October 8 and 9, 1871. 

* * # 

Because of its rapid growth, building in Chicago had 
been haphazard and careless. The Tribune, in an editorial, 

September 10, 1871, called 
attention to walls "a hun- 
dred feet high and but a 
single brick in thickness/' . . 
"There are miles of such fire 
traps . . looking substantial, 
but all sham and shingles. " 
The fire virtually cleaned 
out the city. The Tribune 
building, spared once, was 
caught in the conflagration 

The Courthouse and an issue P ut to press the 

second night, Monday, Octo- 
ber 9, while fire surrounded the building and McVicker's 
Theater next door began to burn. 

A few hours later another office was opened at 15 Canal 

Street. Editors, reporters, and pressmen gathered here and 

went to work on the story of the fire. On Wednesday, 

October 1 1, a half sheet paper was issued with a five column 

story of the fire and the following famous "Cheer Up" 

editorial : 

CHEER UP 

In the midst of a calamity without parallel in the world's history, 
looking upon the ashes of thirty years' accumulation, the people of this 
once beautiful city have resolved that 

CHICAGO SHALL RISE AGAIN 

With woe on every hand, with death in many strange places, with 
two or three hundred millions of our hard-earned property swept away 

37 




From First Issue after the Fire 



in a few hours, the hearts of our men and women are still brave, and they 
look into the future with undaunted hearts. As there has never been 
such a calamity, so has there never been such cheerful fortitude in the 
face of desolation and ruin. 



FIRE! 

Destruction of 
Chicago ! 

MOOAcrM of Build- 
ins* Dettroyed. 

let 
a it Ms, teis. w*t 



Thanks to the blessed charity of the good people 
of the United States, we shall not suffer from hunger 
or nakedness in this trying time. Hundreds of train- 
loads of provisions are coming forward to us with all 
speed from every quarter, from Maine to Omaha. 
Some have already arrived — more will reach us be- 
fore these words are printed. Three-fourths of our 
inhabited area is still saved. The water supply will 
be speedily renewed. Steam fire engines from a 
dozen neighboring cities have already arrived, and 
more are on their way. It seems impossible that 
any further progress should be made by the flames, 
or that any new fire should break out that would 
not be instantly extinguished. 

Already contracts have been made for re- 
building some of the burned blocks, and the clear- 
ing away of the debris will begin today, if the heat 
is so far subdued that the charred material can be 
handled. Field, Leiter & Co. and John V. Farwell & 
Co. will recommence business today. The money 
and securities in all the banks are safe. The rail- 
roads are working with all their energies to bring us 
out of our affliction. The three hundred millions of 
capital invested in these roads is bound to see us 
through. They have been built with special refer- 
ence to a great commercial mart of this place, and 
they cannot fail to sustain us. 

Chicago Must Rise Again. 

We do not belittle the calamity that has be- 
fallen us. The world has probably never seen the 
like of it — certainly not since Moscow burned. But 
the forces of nature, no less than the forces of rea- 
son, require that the exchanges of a great region 
should be conducted here. Ten, twenty years may 
be required to reconstruct our fair city, but the capi- 
tal to rebuild it fireproof will be forthcoming. The 
losses we have suffered must be borne; but the place, 
the time, and the men are here, to commence at the 
bottom and work up again; not at the bottom, 
neither, for we have credit in every land, and the 
experience of one upbuilding of Chicago to help us. 
Let us all cheer up, save what is yet left, and we shall 
come out right. The Christian world is coming to 
our relief. The worst is already over. In a few days more all the 
dangers will be past, and we can resume the battle of life with 
Christian faith and Western grit. Let us all cheer up! 

The extent of the disaster was terrific. Nobody was 



id bat lisinKi 
!ljclsS«pHi2J. 

Oyer a Hundred Dead 
Bodies Recovered 
froa ths Debris. 

'J 

TtmtflMs if Cites 

Mail Bane. M 

Fed « CMuf, 

Eighteen Thousand 
Euildings De- 
stroyed. 

Incendiaries and 

Ruffians Shot and 

Hanged by 

Citizens. 

riUiitotyFiie, Siffca- 

tin. ut Crushed by 

Milne Walls. 

Refill Arriving from 
Other Citiss 

Hourly. 

Organization of a 

Local Belief 

Committee. 



ft Br rasa m« Ms. 



OrV. ul n**rf< npr, flaw.. 
■ktidnS ill ik Dm*™ H» 
oa. VaT> Iteaa, ni .» it. 

in (kank. n i-u» 



From The Chi- 
cago Tribune, 
Oct. 11, 1871 



38 



In New Building One Year After Fire 

spared. But the spirit of the men of the time did not 
falter, nor shrink from the truly vast burden of recon- 
struction. The case of The Tribune was typical. To get 
paper for the first post-fire issue, the business manager had 
to borrow sixty-four dollars from personal friends to pay for 
it. Forty-eight hours before, The Tribune's credit would 
have been good for more than a hundred thousand dollars. 
The next day, October 12, the paper came out with a 
full sheet. Revenue began to come in from advertisements 
inserted by sufferers who were seeking lost families and 
friends. A little later, work was begun on a new building 
on the site of the old. On the night of October 9, 1872, 
just one year later, The Tribune was published from its old 
location, but in a new building. Thus swiftly is the first 
epoch in the history of the community and The Tribune 
put behind and the second begins. 




How power for the presses was 
secured in the Forties 



39 



From the Fire to the Fair 

1871-1893 

FOLLOWING the Great Fire are twenty years of 
rather prosaic history for The Tribune — and for 
Chicago. The effects of the Civil War, as well as 
of The Fire, were still a depressing influence. It was a 
period of rebuilding, readjustment and swift, uncouth 
growth as corn and wheat spread in tidal waves over the 
prairies which had known but buffalo grass for centuries. 

To scan for decade after decade the yellow pages of 
newspaper files is a stimulating experience, one that proves 
the reverse of many things that men are wont to take so 
completely for granted that they make them the basis of 
endless shibboleths and catch phrases. The principal of 
them rings the changes on "the degeneracy of the press." 
The community and newspaper story put together from 
the files of The Tribune and certain of its contemporaries 

is a seventy-five year study 
in and vindication of opti- 
mism. It shows that the 
type of newspaper now con- 
sidered reckless and sensa- 
tional was, at a time still 
well within the memory of 
men now living, not only 
reckless and sensational but 
villainous and vindictive to 
the point of outraging de- 
cency. The type of news- 
paper now supposed to be 
identified with ''the interests" and to be sustained by 
them was then susceptible to the blandishments of a 
free supper at the new hotel. The type of newspaper 
now described as conservative was then reactionary to the 
point of pitilessness. 

40 




The Waterworks 



LtiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U' U 'U'U'UHJiUiUlLl 




As the Fire approached the Marine hospital near the mouth 
of the river. 



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HEre§|P| - v 



Panic stricken throngs fleeing across Rush Street Bridge from 
the Fire. 



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'Good Old Days" not so Good 



Let him who thinks that newspaper reports of such a 
case as the current Stillman-Beauvais scandal exceed the 
bounds of decorum turn to the file of 1874. He will dis- 
cover in the reports of the Beecher-Tilton scandal a gusto 
and a particularity in the presentation of squalid details 
which will convince him that the treatment in our time is 
all for the better; wholly in the direction of that legitimate 
reticence which, while it does not pander 
to pruriency, does not, by silence, make 
evil easier for the evildoer. 

The files show how all the material 
and mechanical changes of newspaper 
making since its early days in Chicago 
have been emphatically to the advantage 
of the newspaper reader. By means of 
three line digests of every important 
article and by means of terse, coherent, 
explicit, and unelaborated headlines his 
time is saved, and, by the use of larger 
type in heads and in the body of the 
paper, his eyes are comforted instead of 
tortured. The whole paper is more 
readily assimilated. 

Pictorial development has been so 
pronounced in late years and is still going 
forward at a pace so extraordinary that 
it makes a history so new and so special 
that it cannot be linked up with what lay 
critics of the press like to call the "golden 
days of Greeley." This picture making 
and the copious — indeed for some prop- 
erties downright ruinous — use of the 

cable have been the most striking features of journalistic 

history in the last decade. 

The articles you read now are shorter than those father 
and grandfather read, but their number and variety are 
far greater. The rule now, whether invariably observed or 

43 



BEECHER-TILTON. 

Un. Elizabeth Cadj Stanton's 
Views of " The Gicat 

Social Earth- 
quake." 

•TV Tne Sotiat C«it Host Be 

tin Same for Both 

Sties.'' 

"The Orowninj Perfidy" ot 
<• the Great Preacher." 

•Jfa. TiTton 0oo» Forth "to Vindi- 
cate the Mas She Lores," 

f h\ ir.tr latins > Iwtlsll «f Bat, 

" tuts Bir Jiiai like • Kilh- 

ati Fltwr." 

Bcrcktrl Pssiiiea maintained for Dim 

■I * Tkres Pswsrfal Bcllg- 

lons Rings." 

Diniomecy end Hypocrisy trrHIgh 

Places." 

"lbs lmporsib£ity of Steering Justice 

for any Oae when Koaey Can 

as 0ml ActfBst Him." 



Is Tfkicb Sns Ciararterln* Her Husband. 

«. " Goo< and Nofcie, aid 

Boat Fare." 

And ApaaJta of Him ae Zndariag- 
"Crual Furaacutiona." 

>••"•> t~w Sin. BUMS cur 

W. uko *jiti.Gil..rut *• ttunk JusUkab:., Ub- 
MtJ ia pinna; u» f.llaanat; private letter, ra- 
teat]/ rtMiToo, to ta. public. The BmcJmt- 



raaj coaUibut. to 1 

WU aa pealie auaaUao. lanital. W. caa 
Sbonfar* caiweiMt.oaalT wttlibold Mr..;* 
toa'a very aula and t-jterMtlttg loiter feoib 



From The Chicago 

Tribune, 

Oct. 1, 1874 



Newspapers Today Better than in Past 

not, is "tell it as briefly as possible." The rule so lately 
as the early '90s seemed to be "spin it out," and — what 
with the lead for the whole story and the subsections of 
the story — "tell it at least thrice." 

Nor is it solely in these material aspects of news presen- 
tation that there has been change so emphatic that it attains 
the importance of solid reform. In the things of the intel- 
lect and of the spirit the emphasis is firmer and more intelli- 
gent. News articles are not only less windy but vastly 
less vituperation and partisanship get into them. In truth 
vehemence and partisanship appear once to have been 
encouraged; they now are vigorously discouraged. 

Editorials today are at once more humane and less 
facetious. They cover a wider range of topics and are 
written in better English, but with less vigor only if violence 
and name calling are synonymous with vigor. Our fore- 
bears in this profession probably would consider them 
deficient in a quality dear to their hearts. It was "raci- 
ness." It covered, while it caused, a multitude of sins of 
taste and manners. 

The epitome of two outstanding contrasts between the 
newspaper of the mid-nineteenth century and long there- 
after and the newspaper of today can be briefly given: 
There was more individuality — of a quaint and rustic 
kind — and less taste. And the news element today is, to 
use the largest word, an infinitely greater factor. 

That vehement individuality was the expression of 
enormous vitality. Some of the manifestations of it were 
more interesting than to be imitated. If a rival publicist 
did not agree with you he was "an ancient liar" or "an old 
lunatic." Neither age nor ailments protected a man. 
Mature men, men of parts and men of reading, who were 
guiding the destinies of a community and of the imperial 
realm of the middle west, said, and said in print, things that 
today would not be forgiven a cub reporter. 

But, after all, the lesson learned from the days of file 
scanning was the big lesson, as vital today as ever it was, 

44 



An Extraordinary Tribune Scoop 

of the survival of the men and the properties that had the 
clearest ideals of personal and civic probity. 

On Sunday, May 21, 1887, The Tribune astonished its 
readers with one of the greatest scoops of history — nothing 

less than the entire revised edition 

J H of the New Testament. Samuel 

NEW TESTAMENT Medill, Joseph's brother, who as 

managing editor engineered it, in- 

OFOUBIABDABDBAYIOR troduced fc tQ his readers a§ fol . 

JESUS CHRIST, lows . 

translated out of the 6REEK1 "The Tribune presents to 63,000 

^a.T^MMki.ftioi. purchasers and 200,000 readers this 

u-pw»«wnktk.BMtA«>u»* morning, in addition to a regular issue of 

AuthorWf* u>4 Railed <=" . . » . . . 

A.B.1MU twenty pages, the revised edition oi the 

New Testament entire. The whole work, 

ranttttoK chioaoo uedtd without the omission of a single chapter 

loxiEWssT. or verse, is contained in sixteen pages of 

the size usually issued from this office. 

ctb cmcMio MUBOTni PBMas. There are journals which would find 

a publication of this kind a considerable 

^ a ^ m Z!!Z?£££ m * mC ~' undertaking. But The Tribune's typo- 

r mZ~?1?ZZ!Z!Zt graphical and mechanical resources are 

OEOROr W. DAT. aterOcr». VT F 

Mmunt.Mmnt .tm. such that it can issue any volume of or- 

dinary size at a day's notice. The public 

From The Chicago Tribune may De interested to know that the first 

May 21, laol type of the New Testament as it appears 

in our columns today was set at ten 

o'clock yesterday morning and the last page made up in stereotype at 

ten o'clock last night. The job was completed, therefore, in precisely 

twelve hours. Ninety-two compositors were employed in setting type 

and five in correcting errors noticed by the proofreaders. 

Meanwhile twenty additional pages of advertising and reading 
matter were set up, corrected, put in form, and stereotyped: so that we 
are enabled to issue this morning thirty-six pages, not one line of which 
had been put in type at ten o'clock yesterday morning. 

The Tribune is not inclined to boast of its present achievement. 
It believes in doing thoroughly what it undertakes to do at all. Hence 
it has not undertaken to give mangled extracts from a few books of 
the New Testament, but to print the revision in such shape that no 
reader of The Tribune need ever buy a copy of it unless he feels disposed 
to do so for special reasons. 

This journal was the first to announce the publication of the New 
Testament. It may have imitators. It expects them. But it can 
have none who will be any more than feeble copies of the original. It 
is accustomed to having its ideas plagiarized by journalistic sharks that 
follow in its wake and pick up its leavings. But it intends always to 
lead the way and be the first in introducing novelties to the people of 
this community. 

45 



Claim Superiority for our Advertising 



ASSIGNATION, 

James A. Garfield Falls Be- 
fore the Assasin'a 
Bullet 

The Oeed Committed by a 

Madman Named Charles 

J. Cuiteau. 

Half-Past Nino O'clock of Sat- 
urday the Baleful 
Moment 



The President, Arm-ln-Arm with 
Secretary Blaine, Was En- 
tor lug s Depot. 



From ai Ambueosde the Maniac 

Find Two Balls into the 

President. 



Elsewhere on the same page : 

The fraudulent newspaper on Wells street printed a week ago a 
bogus "cable dispatch" purporting to contain the principal changes in 
the Old and New Testaments made by the Committee on Revision. Its 
shallow trick was immediately exposed by the 
American revisors so far as the Old Testament 
was concerned by the simple statement that 
its revision was barely begun. Its forgeries in 
case of the New Testament are now proved by 
indubitable evidence. A comparison of its 
fraudulent version with the true version 
printed this morning shows that the former is 
false in nearly every particular. 

That was our whack at Story and 
his shifty Times. 

A month later in the same year a 
circulation war was on and The Tribune 
went after The Times again : 

Advertisers are not fooled. There is no 
shrewder set of men in the world. They would 
not continue to invest their money as liberally 
as they do in The Tribune space if they were 
not satisfied that they got abundant returns 
for it. And they do get such returns. Every- 
body who has tried it knows that they do. 
Seeing is believing, and trying is the best way 
to find out the truth in this matter. . . . 
What can possibly ail that venerable lunatic 
if not a consciousness of the inferiority of his 
own newspaper in any respect to The Tribune? 
. . . The facts and figures are in the local 
columns. They are mathematical evidence 
that The Tribune is as much superior to The 
Times in its city circulation as it is in its ad- 
vertising, or its news, or its sense of decency, or 
its common sense. 



One Took Effjpct frrthe Eaek 

and the Other la 

the Arab 



Journey of a Brave Little Woman «j 
from Long Branch to 

Washington. 



Magnificent Oourrge and Ooed 
Cheer of the Chief Ex- 
ecutive. 



A Constant Tocaln -Of Deetll 

Sounded Vp to About 9- 

at Night 



A ThsaWal ffstte* Llttau to Better 
lews After that Bap;y 

CARFIELl). 
jtn-r e. is*ti. . 



• <•>»• •our.taoianeiltou 



AT TH E DE POT. 
«rst accouht. 

Wamikotos. O. C Jolr S-W «. K.-Oe«. 



From The Chicago 

Tribune 

July 3, 1881 



Look in, now, on the lads long 
gone, on the feverish nights of early 
November, 1884, when the Cleveland- 
Blaine result still was hanging fire and 
the whole country's nerves were snap- 
ping. Here it is the morning of Nov. 
6 and still no decision on the election of two days before! 
Evidently our nerves were getting a wire edge, too, and we 

46 



Tribune Begins Fight Against Anarchism 

tartly informed a waiting world of subscribers that "inside 
information" was put in this paper, not kept out of it: 

In the rush and press of these busy and exciting hours we have no 
time to answer their telegrams, and this must serve for a general reply 
and apology for apparent neglect. 

We can only say that all the news we have or can get is printed in 
The Tribune and that we have no inside information that does not 
appear in its columns. ... It would have taken one man's entire 
time to answer one-half of the inquiries received yesterday afternoon. 

* * * 

No event of this period took stronger hold upon men's 
imaginations than the Haymarket riots and the ensuing 
murder trials. On May 4, 1886, a platoon of police was 

bombed when about to disperse 

A HELLIHH DEED. an anarchist meeting in Hay- 

A dynamite bomb thrown into a market Square, Chicago. Seven 

CllOWD OP POLICESLEN. - . 

policemen were killed. Leaders 

It Explodes and Coven the Street with 

D . e 1,? d T. t . l,Bt * d J? mc ,> e T A JT m of the anarchist movement in 

of Bullets Follow*— The Police Return 

ZZZZ^ZSTrZSl Chicago were tried for murder 

Street Station— A Sight of Terror. • . J •, f . ♦!• * 

A dynamite bomb thrown Into a squad of aS lnStlgatOTS Ol tne Crime, 

ZTZZZS^IZZ though no attempt was made to 

Injuring nearly fifty men. The following- U a pTOVC tUat tUey WCTC pTCSCnt Or 

-partial list ot the dead and wounded police- i i i it 

£n: even that they knew who made 

JOSEPH DEAGAN. Wett Lake 8treet Station; 1 » . 1 . 1_ 1 1 T*l_ 

tell d«ad in froat of the Detpialne. street Station. Or WHO tmCW tliC DOITlt). 1 ftey 

'ttt'lhearaia of Detective John McDonald. Be bad ~ 

..««,.„, ..uiuyto wa.a from th. .c.n. of *. j^ p re ached assassination and 
From The Chicago Tribune. revolution and the policemen 
May 5, 1886 na d been killed by some one in- 

fluenced by that preaching. On 
this basis they were convicted and sentenced — four to 
death, three to imprisonment. The Tribune vigorously 
upheld the justice of these convictions and criticised the 
action of Governor John P. Altgeld (first democratic gover- 
nor of Illinois in forty years) when, on July 26, 1893, he 
pardoned those still in prison. 

The scandalously high protective Republican platform 
of 1888 (General Benjamin Harrison's campaign) was 
forced upon the party despite The Tribune's vigorous 
declaration that the Mississippi valley was not enamored 
of excessive protection any longer, and it imparted its scorn 

47 



Activities of the Eighties 

of the document in rhymes that traveled far and still are 
quoted in the histories (see Paxson: "Recent History of 
the United States, " p. 140) : 

Protection, in a nutshell, means 

A right for certain classes; 
A little law that intervenes 

To help them rob the masses. 
The rich may put their prices high; 
The poor shall be compelled to buy. 

This period also saw the rise and fall of the Parnell- 
Gladstone movement for Irish Home Rule. Medill had 
been born in New Brunswick of Presbyterian parents from 
the north of Ireland, but was a consistent supporter of the 

various Home Rule bills. A great 
prof, swino. deal of space was devoted to Irish 

Annua Meeting of the Chicago neWS in The Tribune. 

Chicago is famous the world 

Mt %SPaLST ** over for having reversed the flow 
_, -. r~nT,.v.™ of its river, forcing a stream to 

Prot Swing b Accused of Sabellian- ° 

tsm, cmuruaisiD, Etc drain Lake Michigan after it had 

ho Eaa used unwarranted emptied into the lake for eons. In 

Language About , . • . inp! rj* .» 

peneiope. this achievement, Ihe lnbune 

h. k».m^*« «. wmr had no sma11 P art ' lt stood con " 
pri ce collar cha pei. sistently for the Drainage Canal 

He hu Rejected Three Great project, and in 1889, Joseph Medill 

Presbyterian Tenets. r J f t i 1 

went to Springfield and exerted his 

The Whole Hatter Be&rred to a Cob. i • n i 

■**»• personal influence to the utmost to 

itwinBeportThukoBiing. see that the necessary legislation 

was passed. He did not live to 

From The Chicago Tribune . i • c .1 • 

April 14 1874 see tne completion ol this gigan- 

tic public improvement, nor to see 
his grandson elected president of the canal board. 

Alfred Cowles, one of the factors of The Tribune's up- 
building, died in 1889 and his colleague, "Governor" or 
"Deacon" Bross, as he was better known, stood too long 
with head uncovered at Mr. Cowles' funeral, and con- 
tracted an illness that led to his death within a month. 

* * * 
48 



Chicago Captures the World's Fair 

There had always been a bond of comradeship among 
the men who made The Tribune and on January i, 1890, 
the management sought to strengthen this sentiment by 
inviting all employes to a "family dinner." These dinners 
were held each year until 1908 when the force had grown so 
large that they became impractical. The following year 
The Tribune presented each employe with a gold piece in 
lieu of the dinner, and from this has developed the present 
generous system of annual bonuses. These bonuses are 
figured on a scale of percentages of the salary received 
during the year just ended. The lower salaries and the 
longer terms of service receive the highest percentages and 
vice versa. The Tribune's first pension system was in- 
augurated in 191 1. The present day program of pensions, 
insurance, etc., is chronicled in a subsequent chapter en- 
titled "Medill Council." 

* * * 

That Chicago had fully recovered from the terrible 
blows of War and Fire was evidenced when America talked 
of celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the landing 
of Columbus. Up rose Chicago with indomitable business 
pluck and audacity to claim the Fair. New York wanted 
it. St. Louis cried for it. Washington was in a mood to 
bleed and die for it. Chicago business men, with charac- 
teristic spunk, fell to and raised $10,000,000, an argument 
neither New York nor Washington could match. 

A wonder of wonders, that fair, in and of itself. The 
flat, prosaic plain enclosed within the borders of Jackson 
park had become a scenic paradise, with its lovely lagoons, 
its wooded island, its masterpieces of landscape architecture. 
Palaces of consummate beauty had risen majestic. Never 
before had buildings at once so vast, so exquisite, and so 
numerous grouped themselves in a superbly harmonious 
composition, nor, has there since been anything anywhere 
to rival the total effect of grandeur, stateliness, and monu- 
mental splendor. 

There is a strong temptation, always, to overestimate 
the educational value of a world's fair. Just because the 

49 



Fair opens New Epoch for Chicago 

turnstiles at Jackson park registered admissions aggregating 
27,530,460 it hardly follows that visitors carried home 
accurate information anything like commensurate with 
those figures. On th6 other hand, it is as easy to under- 
state a world's fair's cultural influence. At Chicago it was 
tremendous. Multitudes enjoyed their first delicious ac- 
quaintance with painting, with sculpture, and with superb 
monumental architecture. No one thing that ever hap- 
pened in America tended more directly — indeed no one 
thing that ever happened in America tended half so directly 
— toward the evolution of a public for great art. 

Joseph Medill appreciated fully the great possibilities 
of the fair. He was one of the original stockholders and a 
director. He saw to it that The Tribune led in the presen- 
tation of its beauties and glories. A special bureau was 
maintained in the Administration Building from which 
Tribune reporters covered all activities and telegraphed 
full reports to the paper, where all w Fair" news was handled 
by a special copy desk. 



50 



[JIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UII 




In 1869 The Tribune occupied the above building — erected for 
it at a cost of $225,000. In 187 1 the issues of October 9 and 10 
were missed when the building was engulfed in the great con- 
flagration. On the first anniversary of the Fire we moved into 
the $250,000 structure shown below. 




JIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'IJ'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'CJ'U'U'U'UIL 




The Court of Honor, looking east from balcony of the Ad- 
ministration Building. This was one of the most inspiring 
views afforded by the World's Fair. At the left of the picture 
is the Manufactures Buildings with Agricultural Hall on the 
right. 




View from the roof -promenade of the Manufactures Building. 
In the foreground is the Wooded Island^ with the Japanese 
Building at its northern end. Fronting the Lagoon on the left 
is the Woman s Building; further to the right is the Illinois 
Buildings with its lofty dome surmounted by a flagstaff which 
marked the highest elevation on the grounds; while at the extreme 
right is one of the circular wings of the Fisheries Building. In 
the background of the picture stretches the Chicago of '<?J. 



From the Fair to the World War 

1893-1914 

FOLLOWING the fair came crop failures, hard times, 
Coxey's "Army," and the industrial warfare known 
as the "Debs" or "Pullman" strike, which flared up 
in Chicago and radiated to every part of the United States. 

The Tribune, while fiercely opposed to Debs as the legiti- 
mate successor of the anarchists and the representative of 
violence was, nevertheless, keenly critical of the attitude 
of George M. Pullman who refused to make any conciliatory 
move. The Tribune warmly supported President Cleve- 
land when he sent Federal troops to Chicago and it de- 
nounced the inactivity of Governor Altgeld. 

An incident at this period shows how the new order in 
journalism was coming into its own on The Tribune, coin- 
cident with a new epoch in civic affairs. Mr. Medill one 
day ordered the city editor to preface every mention of 
Mr. Debs' name with the word " Dictator. " So the follow- 
ing morning The Tribune was liberally sprinkled with 
references to "Dictator" Debs. R. W. Patterson, general 
manager, demanded an explanation of the city editor, 
stating that the day had passed for permeating the news 
columns with editorial comments. The next day the paper 
appeared without the word "Dictator" and Mr. Medill 
called the unfortunate city editor on the carpet to know 
why his orders had not been obeyed. He was referred to 
Mr. Patterson and finally yielded to him. 

From that time on, practically the entire burden of 
Tribune management rested on Patterson's shoulders and 
The Tribune progressed surprisingly, while its competitors 
slipped backward. The Times, once The Tribune's most 
formidable rival, merged with The Herald as The Times- 
Herald, and later this new paper was absorbed by The 
Record and the name became Record-Herald. 

53 



Tribune Turns Light on Gas Graft 

In 1892, The Tribune had installed new presses, the 
first of their kind ever built, capable of producing four-page 
to twenty-four-page papers at the rate of 72,000 eight-page 
papers per hour. The Sunday paper was now beginning 
to develop and in it Mr. Patterson took particular interest. 
On November 6, 1887, a twenty-eight-page Sunday paper 
was gotten out in four parts, inaugurating this method of 
dividing the Sunday issue. On September 14, 1890, a 
record was set with a forty-page Sunday paper. 

In 1895, The Tribune startled the newspaper world by 

reducing its price to one cent daily. Before the Civil War 

the price had been three cents, raised to five cents in 1864, 

reduced to three cents in 1886, and reduced to two cents 

in 1888. It was found impossible to maintain the one cent 

price, however, and after the Spanish War, the price again 

became two cents. In 1910 another attempt was made 

to sell the paper for one cent, but the European War again 

raised production costs so that the two cent price was made 

necessary. 

* * * 

When the Cosmopolitan Electric Company 50-year 
grab and the Ogden Gas ordinance were simultaneously 
introduced in the council on February 25, 1895, there 
arose a great cry of graft and boodle. The Tribune led 
in unsparing denunciation of these "monuments of corrup- 
tion." "Two more infamous aldermanic jobs" is the title 
of an editorial demanding the legislature then in session 
to take from the idiots and boodlers the power to grant 
franchises and give away the city's rights. 

"Birds of a Feather Flock Together"— "Anti Boodle" 
— "Let Us Have an Absolute Veto," "Stands by the Boodle 
Gang — Mayor Approves Ogden Gas and Amends Cos- 
mopolitan." 

As a result of the campaign against these measures the 
mayor who signed them, John P. Hopkins, was unwilling 
to risk a stand for reelection five weeks later. And his 
candidate was defeated. And as a second result of The 

54 



Traction Boodlers Denounce "Newspaper Trust" 

Tribune's tireless campaign against the boodle aldermen 
the honest forces of the community laid the basis of the 
organization of the Municipal Voters' League, which was 
instrumental in cleaning up the council and putting gray 
wolves in the minority. 

The Tribune fought aggressively in the interest of the 
public against the infamous Humphrey and Allen bills 
which would have turned the streets of the city over to 
the Yerkes car line system for a half century. 

Early in the spring of 1897, John Humphrey, on behalf 
of Yerkes, introduced his twin bills in the legislature. 
These took from the city council all power over traction 
franchises. The late Edward C. Curtis, who has been 
named in the conspiracy charged against the present gov- 
ernor, Len Small, was at that time speaker of the House. 
At the crisis of one of the fights Curtis became ill and left 
Springfield with a substitute speaker in the chair of the 
House and it was rumored Curtis was afflicted with a 
"gumboil." Hence the sobriquet of the day, "Gumboil 
Curtis." 

A terrific battle was waged against the measures by 
The Tribune, which was seconded by such men as Mayor 
Harrison, John H. Hamline, John M. Harlan, Frank J. 
Loesch, Edwin Burritt Smith and the Civic Federation. 
The measures came to a vote on May 12, 1897, and were de- 
feated by a 4 to 1 vote. 

On the night of his defeat and denunciation as the most 
audacious boodler in the country, Yerkes used some now 
familiar language: "The newspaper trust has done every- 
thing to demoralize the people and to injure Chicago. 
The most brazen and glaring untruths, etc., etc. News- 
paper trust ! Newspaper trust !" 

But Yerkes was not so easily licked. He went back 
to Springfield with new but similar measures, which were 
finally rounded out as the Allen bill, which gave the city 
council power to grant fifty-year franchises. The same 
energetic fight was put up against the Allen bill, but on 

55 



Tribune for Gold Against "16 to 1" 

June 9 of the same year (1897) it became a law. Gov. 
Tanner signed it after Yerkes had said to him, "The news- 
papers do not express the sentiment of the people of 
Chicago." 

This odious Allen law, denounced day by day by The 
Tribune as a boodle measure bought by bribery- — a swindle 
and a robbery of the people — did not long survive. In the 
subsequent session of the legislature it was repealed and 
in the intervening months the temper of the people, en- 
lightened by the upright press, was such as to deter any 
possible action by the city council. And the council during 
that time was improving, being lifted out of the shame of 
Ogden Gas days, a period of purging in which The Tribune 
was continually alert and aggressive. 

In 1895 Raymond Patterson, The Tribune's famous 
Washington correspondent, secured a notable scoop on the 
decision of the United States Supreme court knocking out 
the income tax. 

R. W. Patterson had been distinctively and almost 
exclusively a newspaper man, but in 1896 he went to the 
republican national convention and was very influential 
in having the "Gold Plank" inserted in the republican 
platform. Needless to say, The Tribune took an exceed- 
ingly prominent place among American newspapers in 
bringing about the election and the re-election of William 

McKinley. 

* * * 

The Spanish American War was marked by one spec- 
tacular Tribune achievement — the great scoop on May 7, 
1898, which enabled The Tribune to telephone to President 
McKinley and to the Secretary of the Navy and the Secre- 
tary of War in Washington the fact that on May 1, Dewey 
had defeated the Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay. When 
war broke out, Edward W. Harden, a Chicago newspaper 
man, was in the Orient. The Tribune and The New York 
World arranged with him by cable to accompany Dewey's 
Fleet. After the victory, the cables having been cut by 

56 



Scoop on Battle of Manila Bay 

Dewey, there ensued a week of waiting. The world knew 
that Dewey should have attacked Manila, but there was 
no way of receiving word until Harden reached Hong Kong 
and filed his story to The New York World and The Chicago 
Tribune. It reached New York too late for any regular 
edition of the World, but arrived in Chicago before the 
" final" had gone to press. Earlier Tribune editions were 
recalled from railway stations and replaced with new ones 
containing the big news. 

Only one Illinois regiment reached Cuba, so there was 
comparatively little news of fighting from Tribune staff 
correspondents, but there were powerful stories dealing 
with the scandalous conditions at Chattanooga, Tampa, 
and Montauk Point. In fact, the campaign for military 
preparedness, which was then inaugurated has never been 
allowed to lag. The Tribune has endeavored to keep con- 
stantly before its readers the terrible consequences visited 
upon the volunteer soldier by failure to prepare for war in 
times of peace. 



Wfa (ftfrifago $miu STrifattm 






•ATPtoAT, UT T, mill Will I 'I 



POPE MOVES FOR PEACE. 



ntwiBU. roa thf wn« tu Mff with ase*ca. 



• CWraVMOTHW » 



8EETW 
SFMI*8 8« 

WW !■ Mkrtl to ft 
ftf»Y«*n*«l.*f 
M <« Ik torn 
■ *M. KM 

TIGHT UI KWS OCtTI. 



«*"■ EXTRA 530 »" 



DIRECT NEWS FROM DEWEY! 
NO AMERICAN SHIP LOST! 
NOT ONE AMERICAN KILLED! 
ONLY SIX AMERICANS INJURED! 
ELEVEN SPANISH SHIPS SUNK! 
300 SPANIARDS ARE KILLED! 
400 SPANIARDS INJURED! 



ON flOM* th* L'ntir* Sltrt lUgthip Olympl*. 

Ms*ll*. I.vion Ul,n4. Phltipfinr*. 

(SPfCt-l CAHLC 

(BY E. W. HARDEN OF CHICAGO.' 



Monf konf. I>w 



From The Chicago Tribune of May 7, 1898 



57 



Little Labor Trouble in Tribune History 

The Tribune had its first strike at a critical point in the 
war. On Friday, July i, 1898, the stereotypers' union, 
having refused arbitration, called a strike on all Chicago 
newspapers. No paper was issued until July 6. In the 
meantime, the Spanish fleet was destroyed at Santiago and 
the French liner La Bourgogne sunk off Nova Scotia with a 
loss of 553 lives. Newspapers from Joliet, Milwaukee, and 
other cities poured into Chicago and sold for as much as 
half a dollar a copy. 

The only other strike in Tribune history was one which 
affected all Chicago papers in 191 2. It grew Out of trouble 
between the pressmen and the publishers of W. R. Hearst's 
Chicago newspapers. It involved the pressmen, stereo- 
typers, drivers, and newsboys, but did not prevent the 
publication and distribution of The Tribune. 

Trouble between The Tribune and its employes is a 
decidedly abnormal event. There has never been a strike 
among Tribune compositors. The stability of the organi- 
zation is evidenced by the following tabulation showing the 
length of continuous service of employes as of January I, 
1922: 

Less 5 10 25 35 45 

Than to to to to to 

Department 5 10 25 35 45 55 56 

Years Years Years Years Years Years Years Total 

Advertising, Classified . 117 8 5 1 131 

Advertising, Display. . . 98 12 11 1 122 

Auditing 157 24 10 1 192 

Building. 90 8 26 124 

Circulation 196 45 16 1 258 

Composing 57 39 63 20 7 3 1 190 

Editorial 149 25 32 1 207 

Electrotype . . . 4 1 5 

Etching 44 18 7 1 70 

European 5 1 6 

Executive 5 5 14 2 1 27 

General 82 8 5 95 

Press 92 49 7 2 150 

Rec. & Warehouse ... . 19 1 1 21 

Stereotype 28 2 9 1 40 

Total 1143 245 207 29 10 3 1 1638 

58 



Modern Skyscraper Built for Tribune 

The Spanish War caused a wave of interest in world 
affairs and The Tribune established staff correspondents in 
London, Paris, Rome, Berlin and Vienna. These foreign 
bureaus were not continued, however, and from the open- 
ing of the twentieth century, until the World War, The 
Tribune's journalistic achievements were chiefly in local 
and national news, though it recorded a scoop in the fall 
of Poj*-AfTrrur to the Japane se^, 

Joseph Medill died March 16, 1899, at San Antonio, 
Texas. His last words were "What is the news?" During 
the last several years of his life he had participated very 
little in the active management of The Tribune. 



The increasing circulation and advertising under the 
regime of R. W. Patterson made it imperative that The 
Tribune secure new and better quarters. It was deter- 
mined to erect a splendid skyscraper, and a number of 
sites were under consideration. The corner of Dearborn 
and Madison Streets, which had been occupied by The 
Tribune for thirty years, was not seriously considered be- 
cause of the rule which provided that school board prop- 
erty would be leased only subject to revaluation every five 
years. There was a movement on foot, however, to do 
away with this policy, since practically all school property 
was covered with dilapidated shacks, it being economically 
impossible for lessees to spend money on adequate im- 
provements. As a result The Tribune was offered a ninety- 
nine year lease if it would agree to improve its corner with 
a two million dollar building, which would revert to the 
school board at the end of the lease. 

This subject is taken up more in detail in a later chapter 
of this book, headed "Building Department.'' Three 
successive school boards ratified The Tribune lease and the 
modern seventeen-story structure which now stands at 
Madison and Dearborn is the result. It was occupied by 
The Tribune in 1902 with the expectation that the new 
machinery and the great structure would be ample for 

59 



Origin of "Sane Fourth" Movement 

Tribune requirements until the end of the lease. It was 
outgrown in twenty years. 

In 1899 The Tribune began its crusade for a Sane 
Fourth — a crusade which was successful after twenty years 
of consistent hammering. As a result thousands of chil- 
dren are saved from death or mutilation every year. 
Collier's Weekly tells the story of the inception of this 
campaign as follows: 

On the Fourth of July, 1899, Managing Editor Keeley of The 
Tribune was at the bedside of his small daughter, who was on the verge 
of death. The air about his home was filled with the din of that bar- 
barous demonstration which as a matter of unquestioned fact we had 
come to associate with the demonstration of patriotism. Keeley hover- 
ing over his little child, anxious to the point of frenzy, thought this 
noise was pushing her out of the world. Late in the afternoon in the 
midst of his distraction he called up The Tribune office to speak to his 
secretary, but there was so much of the clatter of celebration at both 
ends of the line that for a time neither could hear the other. An idea 
came to Keeley: "Get reports from thirty cities on the number of 
killed and injured by this blankety-blank foolery," he said, "and let's 
see what it looks like." 

Ten minutes later he called up again and dictated the exact form 
of the message to be sent, and added: "Make it a hundred cities, get 
the figures in shape, and we will print them." 

The next morning on the front page of The Tribune there was a 
column devoted to the Fourth of July horror. On the following morn- 
ing, with more data at hand, the results were elaborated in three terrible 
columns. This was the beginning of The Tribune's campaign for a 
sane Fourth. At first, papers and people jeered, but year after year 
The Tribune continued to tabulate the ghastly results until the battle 

was won. 

* * * 

The terrible disaster of the Iroquois Fire stunned Chicago 
on December 30, 1903. The manner in which this great 
story was handled by The Tribune is familiar to students 
of American newspaper history. On the day following the 
fire the entire first page of The Tribune contained nothing 
except the names of 571 dead and missing. Before sunrise 
that same morning twenty members of The Tribune staff 
had been sent out with lists of names to secure photographs, 
and on New Years' morning, The Tribune printed several 
times as many pictures of victims of the disaster as the 
other Chicago papers combined. 

60 



rwn»i 



■ 

■ 
■ 

■ 

3 

■ 

■ 
=1 

B 

a 




This mudhole is the corner of Madison and Dearborn Streets 
as it looked in i860. At the farther corner of Pos toff ice Alley 
is the book store of John R. Walsh. 

(Plioto by courtesy of John M. Smyth) 




T. E. Sullivan, 56 years on The Tribune, and T. B. Catlin, 
48 years on The Tribune, hold the longest service records among 
Tribune employes. Both are compositors. 



JIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIUIU'U'U'U'U^U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'L. 




Robert W. Patterson 
Mr. Patterson succeeded his father-in-law, Joseph Medill, 
in control of The Tribune. His funeral in igio was one of 
the most impressive events of the time because, dying within 
a few hours of his mother, the service for them both was held in 
the same church on the same day. That was the Second 
Presbyterian church, of which Mr. Patterson s father had long 
been minister. R. W. Patterson s characteristics were justly 
appraised by the Illinois State Journal in its notice of his death. 
"He realized," said that paper, "that changes come slowly, 
that reforms cannot be effected in a day, that patience is a req- 
uisite to the accomplishment of any important fact. Better 
still, he appreciated the saving grace of good nature in the 
crusader. He seldom lost his temper, and defeat never ruffled 
him." He was born in Chicago in 1850. 



Enterprise — Aggressiveness Mark Tribune Progress 

Following the Iroquois Fire The Tribune pressed for the 
prosecution of those responsible and organized The Tribune 
Committee of Safety composed of leading engineers and 
architects. This Committee formulated specific demands 
for a reform in Chicago's building code; demands which 
were incorporated in city ordinances and which have un- 
doubtedly prevented many disasters during the intervening 
years. 

On the morning of December 18, 1905, The Tribune 
scored a scoop on the failure of the banks of John R. Walsh. 
One consequence of these failures was the discontinuance 
of Walsh's newspaper, The Chronicle, which suspended 
publication May 31, 1907. 

In 1906 The Tribune played an even more spectacular 
part in giving the world news in connection with a bank 
failure. Managing Editor James Keeley trailed the ab- 
sconding bank president, Paul O. Stensland, to his hiding 
place in Morocco and induced him to return voluntarily 
to Chicago. During the same year it printed the corre- 
spondence between Roosevelt and the Storers which caused 
an international sensation. 

Throughout the administration of Mayor Edward F. 
Dunne The Tribune vigorously opposed his program for 
the municipal ownership and operation of the street car 
system, and criticized the management of school affairs. 
As a result suit was begun to invalidate the lease of the 
property on which The Tribune Building stands. Three 
courts decided on every point in favor of The Tribune. 

* * * 

Nonpartisanship in the handling of news had developed / 
to such a point on The Tribune that this avowedly repub- > ' 
lican newspaper issued a series of special editions in Denver ] 
throughout the democratic national convention of 1908. J 

A full staff of editors, reporters, artists, photographers, 
and telegraphers was taken west in a private car. The 
Rocky Mountain News loaned its mechanical facilities, and 
also assisted in securing distribution. Leased wires sup- 

63 



Tribune Holds First National Land Show 

plied The Tribune in Denver with all news of Chicago and 
the Central West and also supplied The Tribune in Chicago 
with complete reports of the convention. 

A year later, when an imposing expedition of business 
men and legislators headed by President Taft journeyed 
down the Missouri and Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, 
The Tribune published its famous "Deep Waterways 
Editions" at St. Louis, Memphis, Natchez and New Orleans. 
The St. Louis Star, the Memphis Commercial Appeal, the 
Natchez Democrat, the New Orleans Item, and the New 
Orleans Times-Picayune gave generous assistance. Again, 
in 1921, a special edition of The Tribune was printed on 
the presses of The Commercial Appeal and distributed on 
the train carrying the investment bankers of the country 
to their national convention in New Orleans. 

* * * 

Irrigation and scientific agriculture had at this period 
developed a new wave of colonization throughout the 
United States. Public interest in undeveloped sections 
and in agricultural opportunities was great. Chicago, as 
the railroad center of the nation, was the focus of coloni- 
zation activity in which The Tribune naturally became a 
leader. At a dinner in February, 1909, attended by men 
influential in land development, it was suggested that a 
great land exposition be held in Chicago the succeeding fall. 
The Tribune offered to start this exposition, guaranteeing 
its financial responsibility by a contribution of $25,000. 
In the first prospectus sent out it was stated: "The rail- 
road and land interests in Chicago have initiated a move- 
ment to hold an exposition in Chicago for the exploitation 
of our country's undeveloped land resources and have 
arranged with The Chicago Tribune, as a non-competing 
interest, to assume financial and executive responsibility." 

A Land Show was held in the Coliseum during November 
and December. It was generously supported by railways, 
state departments of agriculture, chambers of commerce, 
and similar organizations in sections seeking settlers. It 

64 



Surrenders Show — then Recovers It 

attracted tremendous crowds, not only from Chicago, but 
from the entire Central West. Nevertheless the deficit 
which The Tribune was obliged to pay amounted to more 
than #40,000. 

The following year The Chicago Tribune, feeling unable 
to assume such a great burden again, turned the Land Show 
over to some Chicago business men who felt that they could 
run it in a manner satisfactory to exhibitors and to the 
public, and still make a profit. A successful Land Show was 
held in the winter of 1910 under their auspices and a small 
profit was made. 

They undertook to repeat the show in 191 1, but intro- 
duced a new element by offering free lots with every paid 
admission. 

Each person attending the show was presented with 
a coupon giving him the right to a lot on payment of approxi- 
mately three dollars for abstract, and recording fees. More 
than 40,000 of those attending the Land Show paid this 
money to the promoters of the show and were given re- 
ceipts, and promised deeds and abstracts at some future 
time. The land in Michigan, which the Land Show pro- 
moters proposed to subdivide into building lots, was 
inaccessible and covered with snow, so that the surveying 
and platting of it was extremely difficult. 

Those who had paid their money became exceedingly 
impatient as months went by and no deeds were received. 
Although The Tribune had had no control over the 191 o 
or 191 1 land shows, the institution was popularly known 
as "The Tribune Land Show/' and great numbers of 
protesting lot owners began calling on The Tribune for 
their deeds. Exhibitors had also been exceedingly indignant 
at the lot scheme and their denunciation of the 191 1 Land 
Show in every part of the United States was distasteful and 
injurious to The Tribune. 

An arrangement was made, therefore, by which the Land 
Show was transferred back to The Tribune and its recent 
owners were put under bond to deliver the lots that had 

65 



Inauguration of Good Fellow Movement 

been promised. The Tribune, having given birth to this 
unique exposition, was anxious to restore it in the esteem 
and respect of exhibitors and the public. The Tribune 
formed a corporation known as the United States Land 
Show, which held shows in the Coliseum in the winters of 
1912 and 1913. In each instance there was a substantial 
deficit paid by The Tribune. At the 191 3 Land Show a large 
number of Ojibway Indians were brought to Chicago and 
presented the Hiawatha Legend in pantomime. Exhibitors 
included the United States Government, the University of 
Illinois, the Canadian Government, Province of British 
Columbia, Province of Alberta, State of New York, State 
of Oregon, State of Alabama, State of Ohio, State of West 
Virginia, State of Mississippi, and the Great Northern, 
Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk 
Railroads. 

During these years The Tribune also conducted in the 
Sunday paper a "Forward to the Land Bureau" which 
answered many thousands of inquiries concerning agricul- 
tural conditions in various sections. 

In December, 1909, The Tribune received a letter from 
one of its readers, who asked that his letter be printed in 
The Tribune without disclosing his identity. The original 
Good Fellow is still anonymous, but his letter initiated a 
movement which makes many thousands of children of the 
poor happy each Christmas. The famous Good Fellow 
letter as it appeared in The Tribune of December 10, 1909, 
follows : 
To the Good Fellows of Chicago: 

Last Christmas and New Years' eve you and I went out for a 
good time and spent from $10 to $200. Last Christmas morning 
over 5,000 children awoke to an empty stocking — the bitter pain 
of disappointment that Santa Claus had forgotten them. Perhaps it 
wasn't our fault. We had provided for our own; we had also reflected 
in a passing way on those less fortunate than our own, but they seemed 
far off and we didn't know where to find them. Perhaps in the hundred 
and one things we had to do some of us didn't think of that heart sor- 
row of the child over the empty stocking. 

Now, old man, here's a chance. I have tried it for the last five 
years and ask you to consider it. Just send your name and address to 

66 



Many New Departments of Service 

The Tribune — address Santa Claus — state about how many children 
you are willing to protect against grief over that empty stocking, inclose 
a two-cent stamp and you will be furnished with the names, addresses, 
sex, and age of that many children. It is then up to you, you do the 
rest. Select your own present, spend 50 cents or $50, and send or take 
your gifts to those children on Christmas eve. You pay not a cent more 
than you want to pay — every cent goes just where you want it to go. 
You gain neither notoriety nor advertising; you deal with no organiza- 
tion; no record will be kept; your letter will be returned to you with its 
answer. The whole plan is just as anonymous as old Santa Claus him- 
self. 

This is not a newspaper scheme. The Tribune was asked to aid 
in reaching the good fellows by publishing this suggestion and to receive 
your communication in order that you may be assured of good faith 
and to preserve the anonymous character of this work. The identity 
of the writer of this appeal will not be disclosed. He assumes the 
responsibility of finding the children and sending you their names and 
guarantees that whatever you bestow will be deserved. 

Neither you nor I get anything out of this, except the feeling that 
you have saved some child from sorrow on Christmas morning. If that 
is not enough for you then you have wasted time in reading this — it 
is not intended for you, but for the good fellows of Chicago. 

Perhaps a twenty-five cent doll or a ten cent tin toy wouldn't 
mean much to the children you know, but to the child who would find 
them in the otherwise empty stocking they mean much — the difference 
between utter disappointment and the joy that Santa Claus did not 
forget them. Here is where you and I get in. The charitable organi- 
zations attend to the bread and meat; the clothes; the necessaries; 
you and the rest of the good fellows furnish the toys, the nuts, the 
candies; the child's real Christmas. 

GOOD FELLOW. 

A corps of clerks are kept busy during the six weeks 
preceding Christmas each year distributing to Chicago 
Good Fellows the names of poor children whose cases have 
been checked by Chicago charitable organizations. If any 
names remain untaken on Christmas Eve, their owners are 
supplied with toys and Christmas cheer by The Tribune. 
Newspapers in other cities have taken up the Good Fellow 
idea until it is quite impossible to estimate the amount of 
happiness generated as a result of the publication of the 
above letter in The Tribune. 

* * * 

At this period The Tribune developed with amazing 
rapidity and success a series of novel departments of serv- 
ice. Dr. Wm. A. Evans, who had made a splendid 
record as Health Commissioner of Chicago, was employed 

67 



R. W. Patterson Succeeded by Grandsons of Medill 

to conduct a daily department under the heading "How to 
Keep Well." The Marquis of Queensbury was brought 
from England to write on sports. Laura Jean Libby inau- 
gurated a department dealing with affairs of the heart, and 
Lillian Russell told women how to be more beautiful. A 
department, known as "Friend of the People," offered to 
intervene with local officials in behalf of the private citizen. 
These Tribune departments have been widely imitated by 
other publishers and the idea that a newspaper should not 
only distribute news, guide public opinion, and offer enter- 
tainment, but should also render definite personal service 
is now well established. 

In 1909 The Tribune began using the sub-title "World's 
Greatest Newspaper" occasionally in its advertising. It was 
later registered in Washington as a trade mark and on 
August 29, 191 1, it began appearing as at present on the 

first page of The Tribune. 

* * * 

Early in 1910 R. W. Patterson died. He had been 
president of The Tribune Company and editor-in-chief 
since the death of Joseph Medill. For some time prior 
to his death he had been in poor health and a grandson of 
Joseph Medill, Medill McCormick, now United States 
Senator from Illinois, had been in charge as publisher. 
Shortly after the death of Mr. Patterson, Medill McCormick 
was forced to abandon his connection with The Tribune 
because of illness, and he has never since participated in 
its management. His brother, R. R. McCormick, had 
been made treasurer of The Tribune Company in 1909 and 
his cousin, J. M. Patterson, had been made secretary of 
The Tribune Company the same year. In 1914 they 
assumed complete control as editors and publishers. 

* * * 

Shortly after the death of R. W. Patterson and the 
retirement of Medill McCormick, a young man, named 
Charles White, who had been a member of the Illinois 
Legislature, visited The Tribune for the purpose of selling 

68 



Tribune Scoop Opens Lorimer Case 

a story of corruption in the election of William Lorimer, 
and other legislative acts. 

Tribune reporters were hastily rushed to various points 
in Illinois in order to check up as far as possible on the 
charges which he made. All the information which could 
be secured seemed to corroborate them, so his story was 
purchased and published in The Tribune — the famous 
Lorimer and "jack-pot'' story. After an unprecedented 
deadlock, which persisted through the first months of 1909, 
William Lorimer, Congressman and Republican boss from 
Chicago, had been elected to the United States Senate from 
Illinois by a most extraordinary combination of Republicans 
and Democrats. White, a Democrat, related in detail how 
he and other Democratic legislators had been promised 
money for their votes. 

Part of the money was due the legislators as their share 
of the "jack-pot" created by contributions from various 
interests for which bills were killed or passed, and part of 
it was in direct payment for Democratic votes for a 
Republican Senator. 

Investigations were immediately begun by grand juries 
in Cook and Sangamon Counties. Mike Link and J. C. 
Beckemeyer, two of the Democratic legislators, accused 
by White as members of the group paid off at the same time 
he was, confessed to the Cook County Grand Jury. 

States Attorney Edmund Burke, in Springfield con- 
ducting an independent investigation, unearthed many 
corroborative facts. By representatives of office furniture 
concerns, he was told that certain state senators had 
extorted bribes as a condition precedent to the purchase of 
furniture for the Senate Chamber. He developed the fact 
that even small fishermen along the Illinois River had been 
forced to contribute to the "jack-pot" in order to prevent 
the passage of legislation which would have injured their 
business. Senator Holstlaw, a Democrat, a banker at 
Iuka, Illinois, and a pillar in his church, confessed that he 
had been paid for his vote for Lorimer and had gone to the 

69 



Lorimer Issue Fought for Years 

notorious West Madison Street saloon of a fellow senator 
to receive the cash. 

States Attorneys J. E. W. Wayman of Cook County 
and Edmund Burke of Sangamon County prosecuted the 
resulting indictments with energy, but every case was lost. 
The reason was not long concealed. Two Chicago jurymen 
accused an attorney for one of the defendants of failing to 
pay them the amounts promised for their votes as jury- 
men for acquittal. Cases for jury bribing succeeded those 
for legislative bribing, but without convictions. 

The charges against Lorimer were brought up in the 
United State Senate and after an investigation the Senate 
decided in his favor. 

The Lorimer case originated as a piece of startling news 
submitted to The Tribune for publication and daringly 
published. As the case developed so many additional facts 
The Tribune undertook to fight for the prosecution of the 
guilty and the unseating of Senator Lorimer with all pos- 
sible vigor. Editorials and cartoons aroused not only 
Chicago and Illinois, but the entire United States. 
Whether or not Lorimer's election had been bought became 
a national issue. The close of 1910 found The Tribune 
apparently beaten and Lorimer vindicated all along the 
line. 

But the fight was not over. When the Illinois legislature 
convened in January, 191 1, The Tribune proposed that it 
investigate the manner in which the preceding legislature 
had elected a United States Senator. H. H. Kohlsaat in his 
Record-Herald printed the charge that a fund of $100,000 
had been instrumental in securing Lorimer's election. The 
State Senate appointed a committee in charge of Senator 
Helm, of Metropolis, which began seeking evidence along a 
new line. It endeavored to find out where the money came 
from with which the corrupt legislators had been paid. 

Clarence Funk, general manager of the International 
Harvester Company, testified before this committee that 
a Chicago multimillionaire had asked him to contribute to 

70 




North front of The Tribune Building at Madison and Dear- 
born Streets — erected in 1902. The greatest Want Ad Store in 
the world still occupies the corner on the main floor ; but the 
press rooms in the basement were outgrown in 1920. 



J'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIV. 




United States Land Show, held in the Coliseum under 
Tribune auspices in the winter of 1912. 




Library in Tribune Plant. 



Tribune Secures Presidential Primary 

a fund for paying the expenses of Lorimer's election. 
Other evidence of the same nature was developed by the 
Helm committee as the result of which the case was re- 
opened by the United States Senate. And, after going 
into the new evidence, a vote was taken and Lorimer's seat 
was declared vacant. 

The Tribune has been highly praised and bitterly 
blamed for its tactics in the Lorimer case. The vehemence 
with which it fought on after Lorimer had secured his 
"vindication" aroused the enmity of Lorimer's innumerable 
friends. These friends have sought to blame The Tribune 
for the failure of Lorimer's bank, but it has been clearly 
shown by trials in the criminal courts that this failure was 
due to corrupt banking and not to Tribune publicity. 

To The Tribune, Lorimer was a symbol of a vicious 
political system which it had always fought and which it is 
still fighting. Lorimer has long ceased to be a factor, but 
the fight against all that he represented still goes on. At the 
time the Lorimer case was at its height a faction of Repub- 
licans, of which he had been boss, organized what was 
known as the Lincoln League to fight their battles. Promi- 
nent in this League were Len Small, now Governor of 
Illinois; Wm. Hale Thompson, now Mayor of Chicago; 
and Fred Lundin, boss of the "Thompson" Republicans. 
Against these men The Tribune is still fighting the war for 
clean government of which the Lorimer case was one spec- 
tacular battle. 

* * * 

Always enthusiastically for Roosevelt, The Tribune was 
insistent that he should run for President in 191 2. Early 
in that year, when Roosevelt was consistently refusing to 
oppose Taft, The Tribune undertook to secure a direct 
primary in Illinois which would prove conclusively that the 
people were still eager for "T. R." 

There was no law providing for a presidential primary 
in Illinois and the legislature was not scheduled to meet 
until January, 191 3. The Tribune urged Governor Deneen 

73 



Amazing Advertising Growth Begins 

to call the legislature in special session. Deneen refused. 
Time grew short. The Tribune hammered away, arousing 
public sentiment. 

At last the governor promised that he would call the 
legislature if, within a specified brief interval, The Tribune 
secured definite pledges from a two-thirds majority of the 
senate and house to vote for the desired legislation. 

The Tribune undertook the task with enthusiasm and 
determination. At 3 o'clock on the morning of the last 
day it had two less than the required number of men, but 
the "final" edition that morning carried the full list of 
pledged legislators. The law was passed. The primary 
was held. Roosevelt won decisively over Taft. 

Then began the fight for progressive principles, and 
later for Roosevelt, although it never supported the Prog- 
ressive Party. The Tribune has been steadfastly Republican, 
but it considered Roosevelt a better Republican under any 
label than Aldrich with the party organization in his 
pocket, and it never felt bound to support corrupt local 
machines simply because their candidates were listed under 

the Republican circle. 

* * * 

Up to this time advertising has figured little in Tribune 
history. The Tribune's substantial circulation among the 
best classes of Chicago and the Central West attracted a 
considerable volume of advertising. The Tribune had 
always been free to be independent in its utterances be- 
cause it was a profitable commercial institution. 

In 1905 there were only seven employees in the adver- 
tising department. Then a more intensive solicitation of 
Want Ads was begun. New uses and new users for this 
type of advertising were discovered and developed. A 
similar process was undertaken as to display advertising 
and in 1910 The Tribune printed, not only more adver- 
tising than appeared in any other Chicago newspaper, but 
more than appeared in any other newspaper in the six 
largest cities of the United States. 

74 



Advertising Advertising Booms Circulation 

Now came a conception of the economic value of ad- 
vertising — its already great and potentially tremendous 
importance to readers. 

In the winter of I9ii-i9i2a determined effort was being 
made by large financial interests to revive the rather de- 
crepit Record-Herald, successor to The Herald, The Record 
and The Times. Money was being spent like water to 
secure circulation. Clocks, arm chairs, sets of dishes, etc., 
were being given as premiums, and Record-Herald circu- 
lation was soaring. 

The Tribune had offered premiums in the past to secure 
circulation, but in this emergency they were discarded — 
and have never been used since. Instead, an entirely novel 
idea was worked out. This idea was to secure circulation 
and checkmate the plans of The Record-Herald by advertis- 
ing Tribune advertising. 

A splendid campaign was prepared and run not only 
in The Tribune, but also in three leading evening news- 
papers. The plan was to advertise the advertising in The 
Tribune and thereby make it still more productive to the 
advertiser and more serviceable to the reader. Within six 
weeks an increase of 20,000 in Sunday circulation was 
credited to this advertising. 

Hundreds of thousands of readers had their attention 
focused on one division of Tribune advertising after another 
— shoes, bonds, flowers, hats, etc. Volume of advertising 
soared even faster than circulation and The Record-Herald 
was definitely and finally distanced. 

* * * 

The immediate success of its local advertising encour- 
aged The Tribune to launch a campaign in other cities 
seeking advertising from manufacturers. Copy telling of 
the power of The Tribune in its market — The Chicago 
Territory — was run in newspapers in sixteen major cities. 
A direct mail campaign supplemented the newspaper adver- 
tising both locally and nationally. 

75 



Merchandising of Advertising Developed 

As a result of becoming an extensive buyer as well as 
seller of advertising, The Tribune during 191 2 gained 1,600 
columns over 191 1, and was the only Chicago paper that 
did score a gain in advertising. 

Development of advertising solicitation was pushed 
vigorously. A copy and art department was started to 
assist local advertisers and a merchandising service depart- 
ment began the organization of assistance to manufacturers. 
The work of this department is told in detail in the chapter 
on the Advertising Division, page 193. By advancing and 
living up to the theory that retailers should be persuaded 
to stock any product before it is advertised, not forced to 
stock it by means of advertising, The Tribune has done 
much to take the "blue sky" out of advertising. 

Hundreds of newspapers have studied what The Tribune 
has done in this field, and have been assisted by The 
Tribune in developing similar departments for themselves. 
The Tribune has been a large factor in showing the business 
world how to "merchandise" advertising systematically 

and profitably. 

* * * 

More care in the censorship of advertising had gone 
hand in hand with its increase in volume. In three striking 
instances The Tribune felt it necessary, not only to bar a 
class of advertisers from its columns, but also to expose 
them. Crusades, ultimately of national import, were 
launched against loan sharks, "men's specialist" medical 
quacks, and clairvoyants. 

To crush the loan sharks, The Tribune enlisted the 
assistance of eighty Chicago attorneys who volunteered to 
give their services free in fighting the usurers. Victims 
were invited to submit their cases to The Tribune, where 
the facts were analyzed and recorded. Each one was then 
assigned to a competent lawyer. Daniel P. Trude, now a 
judge, headed the group of lawyers and donated practically 
all of his time to the work for more than a year. 

Judge Landis, long known as a foe of the extortioners, 
presided in the bankruptcy court and was a tower of strength 

76 



Ad-Censorship Leads to War on Quacks 

to the campaign. One notorious shark committed suicide. 
A number decamped for other cities. Disbarment pro- 
ceedings were begun against a lawyer loan shark. Interest 
payments running up to several hundred per cent were 
revealed as quite common. Hundreds of unfortunates 
were released from the jaws of the sharks. Names of victims 
were not used in The Tribune. 

News of the battles aroused such public sentiment that 
the legislature was led to pass remedial laws, and eventually 
the other Chicago papers even found it advisable to elimi- 
nate loan shark advertising. 

After routing the loan sharks The Tribune turned its 
attention to a group of medical sharks, whose extravagant 
claims and bearded faces crowded the columns of other 
papers. 

Reporters, carefully examined and found physically 
sound, were sent to call on these "men's specialists." 
Almost invariably the "specialist" at a glance discovered 
all the symptoms of venereal disease and sought to terrify 
his patient into the payment of fat fees. 

The Tribune's stories resulted in the elimination of this 
sort of fake advertising from Chicago newspapers, and 
many of the "quack docs" left the city. The series of 
stories was reprinted in book form by the American Medical 
Association and given wide circulation. 

The Tribune's exposures of clairvoyants led to criminal 
prosecutions in which it was shown that payments of graft 
to police and of newspaper advertising bills were their chief 
expenses. 

The Tribune's financial censorship was made more and 
more stringent and extended to Want Ads as well as to 
Display Advertising. A complete code of rules governing 
the admissibility of financial advertising was printed, the 
first code of its kind ever issued. 

When the Illinois legislature passed a "Blue Sky" law 
many concerns which had been barred from The Tribune 
qualified under it and then hastened to The Tribune with 

77 



Competition Intensified but Tribune Wins 



their ads, confident that they would now be permitted to 
buy space. To their surprise they found The Tribune far 
more strict than the state "Blue Sky" commission. Unless 
they met Tribune requirements for the protection of inves- 
tors, their money was refused. 

The Tribune went 
beyond this and estab- 
lished a department 
known as the Invest- 
ors' Guide, which by 
letter and through the 
columns of The Trib- 
une has replied to more 
than one hundred thou- 
sand specific inquiries 
concerning the char- 
acter of investments. 



JE i^a^Tribttnelnvesto^Guide 
IMP; 

le up! 




* * * 



In 191 1, The Tribune had won its battle with the 
Record-Herald and that paper had declined steadily. In 
1 914, however, it was combined with the Inter-Ocean under 
the name Chicago Herald. It had the backing of big local 
advertisers and of some of Chicago's greatest fortunes. The 
new paper set out to compete vigorously for advertising 
and circulation. 

Net results may be summarized in the following tabu- 
lation of Chicago Tribune circulation and advertising: 

1914 1921 

Advertising (columns) .. . 43,503 76,703 

March Statements 
1914 1922 

Daily Circulation 261,278 499,725 

Sunday Circulation 406,556 827,028 

Considering the increases in rates necessitated by the 
war, this means that aftersixty-seven years of steady pro- 
gress, The Tribune doubled its circulation and advertising 
receipts during the past eight years. The Herald, after 

78 



33,200 

Gain 

238,447 
420,472 



1914 to 1922 Show Swiftest Growth 

four years of struggle, was absorbed by Hearst's Chicago 
Examiner in 191 8, and the name of the latter paper changed 
to The Herald and Examiner. 

Such amazing growth as The Tribune has made during 
the past eight crowded years is analyzed only with diffi- 
culty by one so close to it, but it cannot be passed over if 
we are to give any true conception of what The Chicago 
Tribune is. 



FINAL WAR EXTRA 



NAVAL BATTLE IMPENDS; BRITISH SHIP SUNK 

NOLANDATWAR 

RTIAL LAW IN ANTWERP; GERMANS EXPELLED 

LONDON, AUG.. 5, 5 A. M— A British mine laying ship has been sunk by a German fleet The 
British torpedo boat destroyer Pathfinder was pursued by the fleet but escaped. 

ANTWERP, Aug. 5.— Serious anti-German rioting occurred today. A mob sacked the German cafes 
md tore the escutcheon from the German consulate. The police being unable to check the disorders, the 
military governor placed the city under martial law and ordered the expulsion of all German residents. 




TIAKCE HURLS ) 
DEFIANCE AT 
GERMAN ALLIES 



III 1111 >ll UK. 



CKEAT NAVAL BATTLE AT HAND; 
RUMORS OF CUSBLtC FLEET! 



'TO ARMS!' IS KAISER GETS GREAT BRITAIN ACTS 
BELGIAN CRY; ONE BILLION | WK EN KAISER DEFIES 

fund voted! forward B El8IAMpRALITY;tlIIS 



<^*.*.<— »■»»■■ <* 



<i'iw tudj ti Ftit:"~~~ —"-•'•- tecrtis $40,000,009 ParUmcRt Pissb tit, london, a„,. 4 (r. c «~j im r. n,| f T 4 . " f^ ZZZ tS\Z, BTm 
Anj Cea^try Mick F^ff . ti hit Ciim (1 Ftntti Fori to SSSlSSffSSiSm*^ ""\ ~£^7££ ■%£££$ 
Saeports Kaiser. «rr7~;~?~i: totia. Pay Eiieasrs. ^^ ^ "jv;'i5i~,;crio~,«.—l SSSSSS " r T^r^llT !L 



'REKERTaiSSTMIu-; 









;" Mobilize Our Commercial Power. 












79 



The World War and After 

1914-1922 

DURING the months which immediately preceded 
the opening of the World War in 19 14, The 
Tribune laid a foundation for new records in 
circulation and advertising. The first step was to capitalize 
the soaring motion picture craze for Tribune benefit. This 
was done in three ways. 

First, The Tribune originated the idea of printing a 
daily directory of motion picture theaters and their attrac- 
tions. Advertising men said it couldn't be done, that a 
neighborhood theater could not afford to pay Tribune 
rates to print its program when only a few thousand out of 
The Tribune's hundreds of thousands of readers are pros- 
pective patrons. It was stiff pioneering work for the 
advertising department, but the Motion Picture Directory 
is now a solidly established feature of The Tribune. It is 
a service highly valued by readers. It is profitable to 
advertisers. It brings in more revenue to The Tribune 
than all other forms of amusement advertising combined. 
The marvelous development of the motion picture 
industry is in turn greatly indebted to the large advertising 
which it used while the older forms of amusement stood 
conservatively inert. 

Second, The Tribune originated the idea of printing 
a serial story in conjunction with its picturization in the 
movies. The Adventures of Kathlyn was the first serial 
thus filmed. It was advertised extensively and sent the 
circulation of The Sunday Tribune swiftly upward. 

Third, when the World War dwarfed everything else 
on earth The Tribune not only covered it with staff corre- 
spondents, but sent its own motion picture photographer 
to the front in Belgium, in Germany, in Poland and in 
Russia. These "War Movies of The Chicago Tribune " 

80 



BB ®fr* ®fe^M..,S'a|ii? dJtfbwttfl^ 



•4WMk 



lllMMT, mnmr* 



"SINK ALL SHIPS"— KAISER 

«wne shuts j^j^mLJPRESSViEiiis DRAWS DEADLINE ABOUT EUROPE; [iujsfacwg 

SJf'H^fflSKS BARS VESSELS OF NEUTRALS; ™"™k 

jyiLSHiPSJyvg^ i grave tone; ^ aLL OWEQ ONE BO AT WEEKLY* il1 J?" 

NwW ari Mfit^j"~rr£~FJlil5 : 'i!; SimHoHltL»tStii»— ™«.;» fri . Jw ^u, ■*«« /„ ,,-cm^, >,« »^< „,*, „ <«»«. .* .. .». mm* Wibs* Mir fofat Tin* 

Vbms BaiM M zzz.z-z-^zr.z WuH Hsm hsiwts L,„ w ,,„,„ »,, „,»,;„, _„„,». „■ **».,., ,, ,». M _«, J Mada n He NcK m 

I>rtti9£ tnSM. .ZZT-Zizzzzz to Yds Btnstortf. ,,u F J^i*^^.'^^^rz^XL^^Tj;i^«,^'V.^™,'^,l''.T;« ".Trl^TX; SbsoCisi. 




Here m the first of a striking series of three pages which review 
our entry into the War. On February I, 19/7, Germany 
announced unrestricted submarine warfare. The Kaiser did 
not know it, but that edict was summoning three million 
American soldiers to France. 



81 



t ruTj-w tuxi 

tHr sir 



]Otye Qlljxjra^tf ^uujDr^g OtfxJfome 



FINAL 
v* I EDITION 



htJ^v-; 1 ! »£;.«, 



U. S. STRIPS FOR WAR 

AMERICAN STEAMER SUNK— GERMAN SHIPS SEIZED 












-/ AMD MY SOMS 


1© 


SERVE AMERICA" 

Pi.Jtu Aid lo W.'.o- 
5..1, 1. «... .« 
Army DivtMton. 


1 •~^C?!i-T*" 1 


»« ■ ****»-^^ ."'-i'J 


pa » v . a 


~v^™.ZT;nn." 


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§§£§11: 


* * * 


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HANG OUT 
THE FLAG! 

tu Flat Bug Ii 0»i I 

GIT oiti 


MfeSi 




P" , 



AO05EV£ir5j*r5, TIE fiEIMAI CBIS:$ tl A IITSHELL 



' Still May Bt Avoided 






Three d*m later, February 4, 19 17, The Tribune felt that all 
possibility of peace had vanished and launched its stirring 
crusade for preparedness. Every energy and resource of The 
Tribune from that instant was concentrated on a swift, decisive 
victory. 



82 



ggW* <tyfesm$&u g^^jM 



VOLUME I-XXVL— HO- 



tAk.. FUDAY. APKU. C niT.-TWJUtTY-st: 



HOUSE FOR WAR 



VOTE IS 
373 TO 50 




It was more than two months later that war was declared. 
The Tribune's policy was well expressed in this "Resolution" 
which it printed in the form of a full page advertisement: 

Whether in undeterred pursuit and exposure of enemies within: 

In devoted watchfulness over the welfare of our fighting forces: 

In determined insistence upon efficiency instead of bureaucracy and 
upon vigorous progress as opposed to unnecessary delay: 

In ready praise or fearless criticism of those in authority deserving of 
either, 

Let us test each thought, each word, each act for its sincerity and help- 
fulness toward 

The Will To Win This War. 
83 



Tribune Militantly American Throughout War 

were shown to vast audiences in all the large cities of the 
United States as well as in Chicago. 

As circulation began to soar The Tribune took unprece- 
dented measures for safeguarding its supply of raw 
materials. The story of its paper mill and timber lands is 

told in subsequent chapters of this book. 

* * * 

The Tribune's stand throughout these stormy years was 
militantly American. We fought desperately for pre- 
paredness, and urged that American rights be vigorously 
and fearlessly upheld, whether against German submarines 
or Mexican bandits. 

In 1916 we published a serial story entitled "1917," 
which pictured vividly the dangers of unpreparedness. 
It showed, with military accuracy, how the victor in the 
European War could overrun the United States. It was 
hung on the thread of personal adventure and love, but 
great care was taken that all military statements should 
be correct. It was a strong influence for preparedness 
and caused an enormous increase in Tribune circulation. 

When on February 1, 19 17, Germany proclaimed unre- 
stricted submarine warfare, we recognized that war was 
inevitable and exerted every ounce of strength to insure 
swift and decisive victory. 

When war was declared two months later, The Tribune 
was already driving ahead with full force. It supported 
conscription, food, and fuel conservation, and the sending 
of a great army to France. 

Its editors and publishers were in the vanguard of that 
army. During the absence of the editors in military service, 

William H. Field was in charge of The Tribune. 

* * * 

" Morale" was a word that came into wide use during 
the war. The morale of military forces and of civilian 
populations vastly concerned those responsible for the 
success of our armies. The Tribune had, of course, been 
functioning steadily in maintaining the morale of the home 
folks, but realizing the terrible homesickness of American 

84 



Unique Newspaper Printed in Paris 

doughboys in a foreign country, The Tribune, at the sug- 
gestion of Joseph Pierson, one of the editorial staff, deter- 
mined to act in a unique manner to upbuild the morale of 
our overseas troops. 

With this purpose, The Tribune began the publication 
of an English daily newspaper in Paris, known as the Army 
Edition of The Chicago Tribune. The first number was 
issued July 4, 1917, the very day that the first American 
troops marched through the streets of the French Capitol. 
At great expense and in the face of almost overwhelming 
obstacles this novel newspaper was printed and distributed. 

Since it was published mainly to give the boys up-to- 
the-minute news from home, cable tolls were tremendous. 
Censorship, both French and American, complicated edi- 
torial problems. Since the type had to be set by men who 
understood no word of English, mechanical difficulties were 
multiplied. Since it had to be delivered each day through 
a war-torn country to scattered, shifting groups of soldiers 
whose locations were kept secret by censorship regulations, 
circulation problems hitherto unheard of were presented. 
Bundles were delivered to front line trenches by aeroplanes. 
French newsboys sold Chicago Tribunes wherever American 
troops were quartered. Soon the Y. M. C. A., Knights of 
Columbus, Salvation Army, and Jewish Welfare Board 
were enlisted in distributing Tribunes to the units they 
served. 

William Slavens McNutt, in Collier's Weekly of July 
6, 191 8, relates the following experience at the front: 

I went back up the trench and talked with the men there again. 

"Anything much doing lately?" I asked after a while. 

"Pretty quiet. We put over a good raid night before last, though. 
Got some prisoners." 

"That so? Tell me about it." 

"It's all in the paper here. Hey, Jim." 

"Yes?" 

"Hey, listen: Bring up that paper with the piece in it about the 
raid here the other night, will you?" 

A soldier came up and handed me a daily paper. I was at the 
front. I sat there on a fire step in a front-line trench with that Paris 
edition of a daily paper on my knees and read — mind you, I read — the 
account of the raid that had started from the American wire from within 
a short distance of where I sat. 

85 



"Army Edition" becomes "European Edition" 

I read it, and looking over my shoulder, eagerly reading it with me, 
line for line, stood men whose clothes were in tatters, torn by the 
wire as they had gone across on the raid we were all reading about. 

So popular did the Army Edition of The Tribune become 
that notwithstanding all its hardships it eventually made 
money. When it was started a pledge had been made that 
any profits derived from it would be devoted to army 
charities. On November 30, 191 8, a balance was struck 
and it was found that profits amounting to 106,902.87 francs 
had been made. A check for this amount was forwarded 



Personal. 

AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 
OFFICE Or THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 

Prance. January 27, 1919. 



Mr. M. P. Murphy, Manager, 

The Chicago Tribune, Paris. 

My dear. Mr. Murphy 

I received your letter of January 10th, on- 
closing the check to my order for 106'. 902. 87 
francs, which represent the profits of the Army 
Edition of the Chicago Tribune to the end of 
November, the month in which the armistice was 
signed, to be used for such purposes, connected 
with the men of the Expeditionary Forces, as I 
may deem wise. 

I cannot hope to express to yqu adequately 
the thanks. of the American Expeditionary Forces 
for this. You have rendered a signal service 
to us all in the publication of your newspaper 
and in your consistently generous and helpful 
attitude to officers and men in this war. Now 
you have placed us still. further" in your debt 
by your, generosity. 

It requires some study on my part before 
deciding how this fund may best be used in ac- 
cordance with your desires. I will communi- 
cate further with you when I have reached a de- 
cision. 

Again I wish to extend to you my hearty 
personal thanks for your generosity. 



Sincerely yours. 



eoAJL^-** 



86 



European Edition Secures Peace Treaty 



to General Pershing who replied thanking The Tribune 
for its services. 

The name of the paper was then changed to The Euro- 
pean Edition of The Chicago Tribune and it has been pub- 
lished as a militant exponent of Americanism in Europe. 
Interest in it has steadily grown on the part of thousands of 
American tourists and business men in Europe. It is 
quoted regularly by hundreds of newspapers in every part 
of Europe. 

During the negotiation of the Peace Treaty it played 
a highly important part, a fact testified to by members 
of the American delegation to Versailles. It secured the 
famous Peace Treaty scoop of 1919. 

The following 268 men left The Tribune to serve in the 
World War. They were guaranteed re-employment on 
their return: 



Abrams, Solomon, Private, S. A. P. Reconnaissa's 

Airey, Dennis D., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 

Anderson, Fred P., Quartermaster 2nd Class, U. S. 
N. A. C. 

Arrles, Leonard R., Private, Base Hospital 
No. 13. Died. 

Beatty, Gilbert A., Student Officer, S. A. T. C. 

Beatty, John P., Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Bell, Harry, Private, 122nd Field Artillery. 

Benedict, R. E., Private, U. S. Marines. 

Benham, Clyde S., Corporal, U. S. A. S. C. 

Benson, Harry C, Sergeant, 111th Ord. Depot. 

Berglund, Edwin G., Private, 103rd Infantry. 

Bierma, Albert, Private, 342nd Infantry. 

Bjornson, Olaf, Lds. 4th Class, Unit K, West U. S. 
Naval Base. 

Black, Stanley, Musician 2nd Class, U. S. N. Naval 
Air Base. 

Blake, Robert J., Corporal, 149th Field Artillery. 

Blend, Wilton R., Lieutenant (J- G.), U. S. N. R. F. 

Blossom, Malcolm H., Storekeeper 3rd Class, U. S. 
N. R. F. 

Bober, Edward, Electrician 2nd Class, U. S. S. 
Culgoa . 

Boley, Wilson N., Driver, Auto Con's S. S. U. 646. 

Bowers, Ashley, Private, 161st D. B. 

Brado, William, Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. S. Com- 
modore. 

Brander, John, Private, 344th Infantry. 

Brewer, Frank M., Second Lieutenant, F. A. R. C. 

Brinkerhoff, Geo. H., Private, U. S. A. A. S. 

Buckley, Charles J., Lieutenant, A. S. R. 
C. Killed. 

Burgee, Henry V., Sergeant, 122nd Field Artillery. 

Burke, Hubert H., Student Officer, A. R. O. T. S. 

Burke, Joseph H., Private, Ambulance Co. No. 47. 

Burke, Thomas A., Seaman 1st Class, U. S. S. Lake 
Elizabeth. 

Burket, Sanford L., Jr., Private, 21st Infantry. 

Burns, Edward H., Jr., Sergeant, Co. 8, 2nd Exten- 
sion Camp. 

Burritt, Richard C, Private, 122nd Field Artillery. 

Campbell, Harold R., Private, U. S. A. A. C. 

Carr, Willard C, Sergeant, 122nd Field Artillery. 

Chase, Al., Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Christopher, Joseph P., Private, Chemical Warfare 
Service. 

Classen, Edward F., Student, U. S. N. R. F. 

Cleary, William J., Corporal, Co. E, 5th Regiment. 



Cloud, Holman R., First Lieutenant, Par. B. C. M. 
Cochrane, Thos. J., First Lieutenant, 122nd Field 

Artillery. 
Cooper, James W., Sergeant, U. S. A. M. P. 
Coughlin, Eugene J., Apprentice Seaman, Armed 

Guard Det., U. S. N. R. F. 
Covington, Euclid M., Second Lieutenant, U. S. 

A. A. C. 
Cratin, John E., Corporal, 49th Infantry. 
Crawford, Neal D., Private, U. S. M. R. C. 
Darling, Roy L., Private, 344th Infantry. 
Daunis, Dominick, Private, 161st D. B. 
Davis; Theodore, Ensign, U. S. N. R. F. 
Dean, Franklin A., Major, 29th Field Artillery. 
Dearborn, Allen B., Private, 149th Field Artillery. 
DeCaluwe, Philip, Seaman, U. S. S. North Dakota. 
Delhanty, Lawrence, Private, Quartermaster Corps. 
Donahey, William A., Private, 472nd Engineers. 
Dorsey, George C, First Lieutenant, A. S. R. C. 
Duffey, Charles W., First Lieutenant, 122nd Field 

Artillery. 
Duryea, Leo, Private, 7th Casualty Co. 
Engel, Jacob, Private, Co. 39th Ammunition Train. 
Erickson, Henry O., Private, Co. 16 — Group 667. 
Erickson, Morris, Sergeant, 53rd Engineers. 
Farrell, William E., Seaman, U. S. S. Wyoming. 
Flagler, Elmer E., Sergeant, U. S. S. C. 
Flanagan, C. Larkin, First Lieutenant,318th Infantry. 
Flanagan, William I., Sergeant, Prov. Hdqrs. De- 
tachment. 
Flannery, George, Engineer 1st Class, U. S. N. R. F. 
Fletcher, Francis B., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 
Fry, Earl R., Private, U. S. A. A. S. 
Garonke, Walter, Mechanic, U. S. A. A. C. 
Gates, Carroll N., Private, U. S. N. A. S. 

Killed. 
Gerhardt, Frank P., Second Lieutenant, 122nd Field 

Artillery. 
Gilbert, John, Driver, 344th Infantry. 
Glasscock, C. B., Private, M. C. O. T. S. 
Goad, John M., First Lieutenant, R. F. C. 

Killed. 
Goddard, Paul, Private, 35th Infantry. 
Goldberg, Bernard, Private, 163rd D. B. 
Goldberg, Jack, Blacksmith, U. S. S. Delaware. 
Gray, Harold L., Candidate, C. O. T. C. 
Green, Eben, Corporal, 123rd M. G. B. 
Greene. Merton W., Student, U. S. N. R. F. 
Griebahn, Walter, Private, 149th Field Artillery. 



87 



Tribune Roll of Honor — 1917-1918 — (Cont.) 



Gross, Joseph, Private, 149th Field Artillery. 

Haeger, Francis L., Captain, 27th M. G. B., Co. A. 

Hampson, Phillip F., Sergeant, U. S. Medical Dept. 

Hart, Kenney P., Clerk, 33rd Division. 

Haskett, Harry, Private, 311th Engineers. 

Heaney, Francis C, Second Lieutenant, U. S. A. A. C. 

Henderson, John C, Second Lieutenant, U. S. N. A. C. 

Herbeck, John, Private, 161st D. B. 

Hess, Elmer, Private, 5th Anti Aircraft M. G. B. 

Hessey, J. J. E., Sergeant, B. A. C. 

Hilgartner, Dan'l E., Jr., Private, Co. E, Sth Regt. L. S. 

Hinman, Albert G., Corporal, 159th D. B. 

Hinman, George W., Jr., Captain, 143rd Infantry. 

Hirsclificld, Jerome, Sergeant, U. S. A. A. C. 

Hogarth, Cecil S., Corporal, 149th Field Artillery. 

Holden, Albon W., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 

Holla ha n, Robert E., Second Lieutenant, U. S. A. A. C. 

Hough, Joseph M., Private, Base Hospital No. 11. 

Houlihan, Thomas A., Lds. Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Houser, Alfred C, Candidate, C. O. T. C. 

Howard, William, Seaman, U. S. Navy. 

Hunt, Charles R., Sergeant, F. A. R. D. 

Hunter, Kent A., Captain, 122nd Field Artillery. 

Hutchinson, Herbert, Student, U. S. N. S. C. 

Hyatt, Garth B., Sergeant, 313th F. S. Bt'n. 

Hyde, Earl W., First M. Mate, U. S. N. A. C. 

Jacobsen, Veder, Private, 27th Infantry. 

Jenkins, E. M., Private, U. S. A. A. C. 

Johns, J. Franklin, Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 

Jones, Rees D., Corporal, U. S. S. R. C. 

Kane, Robert M., Fireman, U. S. S. Florida. 

Karles, Charles, Private, B. H. No. 60. 

Kasbeer, John H., Ensign, U. S. N. R. F. 

Keir, Floyd E., Private, U. S. A. Medical Corp. 

Kiley, Gerald, Private, U. S. A. A. S. 

King, Alexander, Corporal. 602nd Engineers. 

King, David E., Student, U. S. N. A. C. 

King, Harry J., Private, U. S. A. 

Kirk, Wallace F., Captain, 14th Field Artillery. 

Kloud, Edward, Private, U. S. A. M. C. 

Kohtz, Arthur R., Corporal, Motor Transport Corps. 

Krah, Carl A., First Lieutenant, 18th Field Artillery. 

Krum, Morrow H., Cadet, U. S. A. A. C. 

LaChat, Frank H. G., Private, 602nd Engineers. 

Lambert, Max S., Sergeant, U, S. A. A. S. 

Lando, Abraham, Private, U. S. A. A. C. 

Larson, Charles, Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Larson, Edward L., Private, 161st D. B. 

Lax, Max, Private, 335th Infantry. Died. 

Leabeater, John E., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. A. C. 

Lehrbas, Lloyd A., Second Lieutenant, U. S. A. A. C. 

Lenz, Carl K., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 

Lewis, Elmer M., Private, 341st Infantry. 

Lingle, Alfred, Chief B'T'N'M'E, U. S. N. R. F. 

Lippert, Thomas P., Private, U. S. F. A. 

Loper, Walter A., Candidate, F. A. C. O. T. C. 

Loucks, Ralph B., Sergeant, M. T. Base 7. 

Lundberg, Oscar G., Sergeant, U. S. S. C. 

MacArthur, Charles, Private, 149th Field Artillery. 

Mackenberg, Jack, Private, Q. M. C. 

Mackenzie, Herbert M., Private, 1 18th Field Artillery. 

Maclean, Gordon A., Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. S. 
Wyoming. 

Magner, James J., Seaman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Maloney, J. Loy, First Lieutenant, 94th Aero Squad- 
ron, A. S. U. S. A. 

Martin, Daniel B., Corporal, 122nd Field Artillery 

Martin, Ralph W., Private, Base Hospital No. 13. 

Mather, Orion A., First Lieutenant, 342nd Infantry. 

Meader, Amos K., Student, F. A. O. T. C. 

Medary, George C., Second Lieutenant, U. S. M. C. 

Meier, Harry C, Lds. for Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F 

Miesse, Richard, First Lieutenant, U. S. M. C. 

Mohr, Lee J., Corporal, U. S. Medical Corp. 

Monahan, C. P., Student, U. S. N. R. F. 

Morrell, Rufus E., Sergeant, Ord. Train Corps. 

Morrison, Donald C, Corporal, 108th Am. Train. 

McCarthy, Edward, Sergeant, 8th Field Artillery. 

McCarthy, Joseph, Private, 58th Pioneer Infantry. 

McCormick, Robert R., Major, 5th Field Artillery, 
Colonel, 61st Field Artillery. 

McCracken, Davis K., Jr., Private, Co. D, Regt. 37. 

McGivena, Leo E., Cadet, U. S. A. A. C. 

McGlone, Felix, Private, B. E. F. Killed. 

McQuirk, Chas. J., Student, U. S. N. A. C. 

McKenna, Andrew, Private, U. S. E. 

McNamara, Paul H., Private, 344th Infantry. 



Mugruer, Norman H., Lds. for Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 
Murray, Frank H., Second Lieutenant, 18th Field 

Artillery. 
Nelson, Paul E., Private, S. A. T. C. 
Nessinger, Frank A., Corporal, 4th Prov. Regt. 
Neuenfeld, William H., Private, U. S. S. C. 
Nichols, Donald E.. Sergeant, Hospital Unit No. 14. 
Novak, Anthony, Gun's Mate, U. S. S. Benham. 
Olson, Hilmer C, Private, 321st Infantry. 
Olson, Hobart, Private, Hospital Unit No. 14. 
O'Malley, Austin, Chief BT'N'M'E, U. S. N. R. F. 
Onderdonk, John A., Second Lieutenant, 149th Field 

Artillery. 
O'Neill, Edwin S., Private, Heavy Tank Service. 
Orban, Paul, Private, 5th Pioneer Infantry. 
Palmer, Jack G., Sergeant, Co. D, 5th Battery 
Parker, Gilman M., Chief Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 
Parrish, Russell L., Private, U. S. Hospital No. 12. 
Partice, Daniel, Private, 47th Infantry. 
Patterson, Harold A., Sergeant, 55th Infantry. 
Patterson, Joseph M., Captain, 149th Field Artillery. 
Pelz, Wenzel A.. Private, 122nd Field Artillery. 
Persons, Ralph IL, Private, U. S. S. C. 
Pe'terson, Elmer S., Private, 124th Field Artillery. 
Peterson, John M., Quartermaster 2nd Class, U. S. 

N. R. F. 
Phelps, Norman J., Student, U. S. S. N. A. C. 
Pohl, Joseph, Fireman 2nd Class, U. S. S. Texas. 
Pollock, Bert Bernard, Apprentice, U. S. N. R. F. 
Powers, William J., Private, Eng. Rep. Troop. 
Price, Garrett, Lds. for Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 
Prindeville, Redmond I., Radio Electrician, U. S. S. 

Houston. 
Pruitt, F. T., Student, U. S. N. R. F. 
Purtell, John V., Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. 
Quigley, John, Private, Royal Canadian Dragoons. 
Rapalee, Ernest W., Private, Hospital Unit No. 14. 
Read, Thomas A., Chief B'T'N'M'E, U. S. N. R. F. 
Rebscher, Frank G., Private, 117th Machine Gun 

Battery 
Reilly, Henry J., Colonel, 149th Field Artillery. 
Renner, J. Conrad, Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 
Kistine, Richard II., Second Lieutenant, 
U. S. A. A. C. Killed. 
Rose, Sol, Private, 149th Field Artillery. 
Ryan, Quinn A., Sergeant, S. A. T. C. 
Saladin, John, Apprentice Seaman.Naval Base No. 17. 
Sargeant, Charles F., Private, 149th Field Artillery 
Sato, William, Chief Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 
Sauck, Oscar, Electrician, U. S. N. R. F. 
Schmidt, Fred, Private, 344th Infantry. 
Schmidt, George, Private, 332nd Field Artillery. 
Schmitt, Leslie D., Cadet, U. S. A. A. C. 
Schroeder, Herbert C, Seaman 2nd Class, U. S. 

N. R. F. 
Schulz, Rudolph G., Sergeant, 108th F. S. B. 
Schwarz, Charles, Private, Co. 15, Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo. 
Seiffe, Ralph, Yeoman 2nd Class, U. S. N. R. F. 
Seivert, Emil, Radio Operator, U. S. N. R. F. 
Shahbazian, Harry A., Private, 124th Infantry. 
Shanley, John, Private, 27th Infantry. 
Sharkey, Anthony F., Bandsman, 57th Infantry. 
Shaw, C. E., Candidate, F. A. C. O. T. S. 
Sherwood, Harold B., Captain, 416th S. C. Bwy's 

Btn. 
Sherwood, Merrill F., Corporal, Q. M. Corps. 
Sisley, Raymond, Sergeant, Art School Det. 
Smith, Chas. R., Private, 37th Infantry. 
Smith, Frank M., Lieutenant, 165th Infantry. 
Sommers, Ralph, Ensign, U. S. N. R. F. 
Steffans, Chas. W., Private, Base Hospital. 
Stevens, Arthur A., Private, U. S. Marines. 
Stiemert, Richard A., Sergeant, C. M. G. T. C. 
Stolz, Leon, Private, 36th Engineers. 
Stone, Frank M., Corporal, Ordnance Dept. 
Stoops, Herbert M., Second Lieutenant, U. S. F. A. 
Stuehler, Arthur, Private, 122nd Field Artillery. 
Swartz, Richard T., Corporal, 603rd Engineers. 
Sweet, Melville S., Private, U. S. Marines. 
Sweet, Oney Fred, Private, 333rd B. T. S. 
Taylor, Lorane E., Lieutenant, U. S. A. A. C. 
Thomas, Edwin B., Second Lieutenant, 333rd F. A 
Tilley, Carl A., Private, 106th Engineers. 
Tipton, John F., Private, 33rd P. O. D. Co. 
Tobin, William, Private, 22nd Prov. Ret. Co. 



88 



Tribune News Beats in Europe 

Trego, Stuart D., Sergeant Major, U. S. Coast Webster, Ronald F., Major, C. O. T. S. 

Artillery. * Weigle, Edward F., First Lieutenant, U. S. S. C. 

Trude, Sam'l H., Jr., Lds. M'H'M'E, Co. O, ISth Weston, John H., Private, U. S. Marines. 

Regt., U. S. N. A. C. Weymouth, Daniel George, First Lieutenant, Base 

Umbright, John M., Private, 58th Pioneer Infantry. Hospital. 

Van Horn, Archie M., Second Lieutenant, 129th White, Charles H., First Sergeant, Signal Corps, 

Infantry. 42nd Division. 

Versailles, Oliver, Private, 132nd Infantry. Wieckers, Charles H., Private, 471st Engineers, Sub. 

Victor, John Claude, Corporal, 130th Regt., 33rd Dept. 

Division. Wieckers, William H., Corporal, U. S. A. A. C. 

Vorda, William, Yeoman 3rd Class, U. S. N. R. F. Wiers, George S., Corporal, Co. T. S. 

Waldron.Jfay C, Ensign, U. S. N. R. F. Willett, Robert L., First Sergeant, Base Hospital 

Wallace, Edwin, Private, Machine Gun Btn. No. 114. 

Walsh, William E., Private, 108th Am. Train. Williams, Orva G., Jr., Sergeant, Base Hospital 

Ward, Joseph E., Student, U. S. S. Panama. No. 14. 

Warren, Garrett, Machinist 2nd Class, U. S. S. Wirth, Orville L., Seaman, U. S. S. Hudson. 

North Carolina. Woodman, Henry, Second Lieutenant, 30th F. A. 

Wassell, Elmer j., Student, U. S. N. R. F. T. B. 

Watson, Mark S., Captain, Intelligence Section Zahringer, Eugene W., Second Lieutenant, 341st 

Weaver, Hamilton, Private, U. S. F. A. Infantry. 

The Tribune has promoted a movement for the planting 
of memorial trees along American highways, commemorat- 
ing every soldier who died in the World War. 

* * * 

With the signing of the armistice The Tribune redoubled 
its efforts to cover international news adequately. Dis- 
appearance of battle lines and censorships opened the way 
to newspaper enterprise. Floyd Gibbons, Tribune war 
correspondent, and other stars were organized into a 
Foreign News Service of extraordinary power. 

Gibbons achieved a spectacular scoop when he landed 
on the Irish coast after being torpedoed with the great liner 
Laconia in February, 191 7. He was on. hand when the 
first American soldiers set foot in Europe and kept pace 
with them until one of his eyes was shot out at Chateau 
Thierry. He was decorated by both French and American 
governments for his service. Under his direction The 
Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service has scored a notable 
series of scoops. 

Frederick Smith, of The Tribune staff, making the 
journey by aeroplane, was the first American newspaper 
man in Berlin after the armistice. Frazier Hunt, another 
Tribune man, gave the world its first authentic, first-hand 
account of the Allied expedition to Archangel and later 
sent the first stories from Petrograd and Moscow after the 
Soviets seized Russia. 

A spectacular scoop, which attracted the attention of 
the entire world, had its inception in Paris and its climax 

89 



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Reproduction of The European Edition of The Chicago 
Tribune, published in Paris by an American staff and read 
throughout Europe. The size of the European edition of The 
Chicago Tribune is iy x 2^% inches over all. 



90 



Foretells Collapse of Victorious Armies 



THE TWILIGHT OF THE KINGS 



church end kneel before God and prey I 



Heidelberg etuoenti 



in Washington when The Chicago Tribune presented to the 
United States Senate a copy of the Peace Treaty which the 
Senate had sought in vain to secure from President Wilson. 
The Treaty had not been stolen, but had been given to 
the European Edition of The Tribune by a representative 
of one of the Powers participating in the Peace Conference 
and desirous of publicity. 

Another extraordinary scoop was achieved by Gen- 
eral Henry J. Reilly, of the United States Army and of 
The Tribune staff. General Reilly was sent to Poland at 

the time that the Bolshevik troops 
were threatening to break through 
this barrier state and descend upon 
the rest of Europe. The Russian 
hordes had apparently overwhelmed 
Polish resistance and were within a 
few miles of Warsaw. All the great 
newspapers of the world had corre- 
spondents on the scene. All the 
great nations had their military ob- 
servers. The prophecy from every 
one of these newspapers and from 
every capitol in Europe was that 
Warsaw was inevitably doomed. 

In the face of practically unani- 
mous contradiction, General 
Reilly, whose military rank had ob- 
tained his entree to the French 
General Staff, cabled a masterly 
analysis of the situation to The 
Tribune in which he stated posi- 
tively and without qualification that 
Warsaw would not fall; that the 
Bolshevik forces had spent their strength; that the Polish 
Army, notwithstanding its terrible retreat, was intact and 
undefeated; and that within a few days, instead of War- 
saw in Russian hands, the Russians would be fleeing from 



and caught by maaked i 

Baleburs ahall blow Un bead off a baker from if* 

Lotn. 

" Qo to cfcoroh and prey tor help "—that the hell 
•hat! W bettor to innocent Ardennea than U to la 

tnnoceot Korao than In equally Innocent Poses. 

And the plottatlo csar commende Ma aubjeeta to Qod 
that tbay n»ay here etrength of arm tn a quarrel 
they do not understand; that they may Inflict mora 
•afftrtnra tUtfK tbay ere required to eadure and tba^ 
name of Romanoff be ~ 



of llapebur*, that Ita terrlto: 
tba tarritortoo of Uobenaolt 
of Hapabwrn- leev 

Tba ptothnlo emperor of Am 
facta to Qod. to aeak dtrtna esalatnnce to eruah tba 
paaaanta of Serbia, dragged from the wheat field 
when It wee ready for the ecythe and flran te the 
eortbe themeelTee, 

Thla la. are think, the lest eaJl of monarchy npen 
CtetnJty when Asmodeus walka tn armor. Tba kings 
worship Baal and sell It OoA. but out of the a&crtOoe 
will come, we think, a resolution firmly tabes to have 
no mare wheat gna wers and gTOwera of com, makers 
of wine, minora and fianere, artlemae and traders, 
aallora and atorekeepere offered Op with prayer to the 
Almighty la * feudal alaug hter. armed against aaeb 
ether without hate and without eneee they know, or. 
If they knew, would aire a penny which way it waa 
determined. 

Thla te the twilight of tba king*. Western £urope 
ef the people may be caught in thla debacle, but never 
again, Eaetern Kuxnpe of the king* wtll be remade 
and -the name of dtod ahall not gtre frees to a 
hundred aqua re tnllee of broken bodies. 

It airiniiy entara here it eomea with a aword to oe- 
i;v»r the people from the sword. 

It to tba twilight *t the Unci. The rapahlle 



The above prophetic 
editorial appeared in 
The Tribune of Aug- 
ust 2, 1914. 



91 



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^ number of clippings from foreign papers are reproduced herewith, which show 
how widely the European Edition of The Chicago Tribune is quoted. Its state- 
ments are reprinted in hundreds of European journals every week. 

92 



Four Men Race to Russia 

Poland. Then step by step he saw his prophecy fulfilled 
and cabled to The Tribune the swift Polish triumphs. 

When Fiume in the hands of D'Annunzio fascinated an 
amazed world, Thomas Ryan, of The Tribune Foreign 
News Service, was on the spot. His vigorous stories of 
what was happening in the city so enraged the revolution- 
ists that a clique of Fascisti broke into his room with the 
avowed intention of killing him, and his life was saved only 
by the presence of an American Army officer. 

When the Soviets, driven by the starvation of millions 
of peasants, sought aid of the United States, The Chicago 
Tribune cabled to four of its correspondents and ordered 
each one to go to the famine zone as quickly as possible. 
It was considered that if any one of them reached the spot 
the effort would have been worth while. One man started 
from China across Siberia to enter Russia from the east; 
another sought to get in from the north; a third from the 
west ; and a fourth from the south. Two of them succeeded : 
Floyd Gibbons, who went in from the west as a correspondent 
officially credited and recognized by the Soviet Govern- 
ment, and Larry Rue, who traveled from Syria, where he 
had been covering the operations against the Turks. Rue 
had no passports and was absolutely on his own. From 
Constantinople he crossed the Black Sea and the Republics 
of the Caucasus Mountains to the Caspian Sea; then up 
the Volga River to the very heart of the famine swept 
country. The Tribune's eye-witness stories of the famine 
were the first to reach America. 

John Clayton, another Tribune correspondent who 
succeeded in entering Russia, secured such uncensored 
stories that he has been condemned to death by the 
Soviets. 

Charles Dailey, The Tribune man who had been ordered 
to the Russian famine from China, was turned back when 
half way across Siberia. Later he gave to the world 
the first eye-witness account of the terrible Chinese famine 

93 



England Meets Ireland in Tribune Office 

of 1 92 1. His stories brought to China millions of dollars 
worth of food. 

In Peru, in Brazil, in Mexico, in Chile, staff correspond- 
ents of The Chicago Tribune have recorded great news 
beats during the past few years. Papers in South America 
have purchased from The Chicago Tribune the right to 
reprint exclusive Tribune news of South America; likewise 
newspapers in Europe have purchased from The Chicago 
Tribune the right to reprint its exclusive stories gathered 
in Europe. 

One of the most important works of The Tribune Foreign 
News Service did not result in any notable scoop, but was 
of service to three nations: England, Ireland, and the 
United States. John Steele, correspondent of The Tribune 
in London, by reason of the confidence placed in him by the 
Sinn Fein leaders, as well as by Downing Street, was able 
to bring the English and the Irish together in informal 
conferences which preceded and made possible the nego- 
tiations of the Peace Treaty. Steele made repeated trips 
to and from Ireland to facilitate the conferences and often 
the representatives of Ireland and England met in The 
Chicago Tribune's London office. 

* * * 

While scoring international scoops abroad The Tribune 
was exceedingly active at home. 

When Henry Ford kicked over the lantern of history 
and offered himself, in 1916, as a new Moses to lead this 
people into a world of better opportunities and established 
peace, he found his way blocked by The Chicago Tribune, 
his authority questioned, his Americanism challenged. He 
did not get beyond that obstacle. It may be accepted as 
an historical fact that the summer of 1919 found Henry 
Ford's influence as a national educator destroyed. 

Henry Ford instituted a suit for libel against The 
Tribune, claiming one million dollars' damages, because he 
was called an "ignorant idealist" and an "anarchistic 
enemy" of his country. The Tribune accepted this oppor- 

94 



Ford's Limitations Exposed by Tribune 

tunity to present Ftrdism to the world. Mr. Ford found 
himself on trial. 

Stripped of his "experts," forced from behind his wall 
of advisers and secretaries, taken away from his millions 
and presented as a man and a thinker, Henry Ford brought 
about his own downfall as a leader through the revelation 
of his peculiar unfitness to lead, the confession of his own 
bleak, dark ignorance of the things of which he preached. 
He was finally "acquitted'' as an "anarchist." He became 
convinced on the witness stand that he was an "ignorant 
idealist." Instead of the million dollars in damages that he 
asked for, the jury gave him a verdict of six cents, plus six 
cents costs, twelve cents in all. 

The Tribune fought Henry Ford as it fought the 
Copperheads in the Civil War. It was the fact of his mil- 
lions and his assumed leadership of the pacifists of 1916 
that brought him into this conflict. It was all impersonal. 
The Tribune went into this attack and spent hundreds of 
thousands of dollars because its editors looked upon Henry 
Ford as a menace to American unity and true American 
ideals. That will remain as the sole, undisputed motive in 
the case. All of Mr. Ford's efforts to show a "greedy, 
financial motive" failed. 

Mr. Ford remains untouched in his reputation as a man 
of great inventive genius, as a business organizer, as a 
rightful factory king, and in the purity of his private life. 
The Tribune did not attack his character as a man. It 
dealt solely with him as a public force, as a mistaken, 
groping idealist who wished to proclaim the millennium 
at hand when the country rested over a powder mine; 
as a hasty, prejudiced thinker who sought to bring about 
a condition of things that would leave America as helpless 
as China. It was clear thinking against muddled think- 
ing, experience against willful ignorance. The Tribune 
forced the whole Ford philosophy into the limelight de- 
spite efforts of the attorneys for Mr. Ford to escape this 
issue. That was the history of the trial. 

95 



Tribune Praised Ford as Industrialist 

Words and the definition of words formed the meat of 
the case. In his new crusade for imp eparedness Mr. Ford 
had attacked several opponents by shouting murderer and 
criminal at them. Mr. Ford had set aside a trifle of #1,000,- 
ooo to burn the phrase "war is murder" into the conscious- 
ness of the American people. But when he read in The 
Tribune one morning an editorial characterization of him 
as an "anarchist," he was hurt and shocked. And that was 
what the trial was all about. 

When Mr. Ford instituted his "profit sharing" scheme 

in 1914, The Tribune accepted it at its face value and said 

editorially : 

"The action of the Ford Motor Company offers a striking illustra- 
tion of the new business conscience in action and is the more likely to 
be heeded, since it is not the act of visionaries and propagandists, but 
of exceptionally able and successful business men." 

When Mr. Ford ordered his employes to make their 

homes more comfortable and to maintain an American 

standard of living, The Tribune said : 

"The Ford plan of treating the worker is humane, American and 
modern." 

On August 7, 1915, The Tribune said of Henry Ford: 

"Mr. Ford should be a cheering exhibit to those who are sweeping 
the country for present day genius that compares with the railroad 
builders or the consolidators of a steel industry. He is giving the world 
the day's lesson." 

Inside his factory, taking care of his employes, The 

Tribune respected Mr. Ford. When he stepped outside 

this sphere and began to advise the warring nations of 

Europe and the people of America The Tribune said he was 

a "voice from the dark." 

It was the call for the mobilization of the national guard, 
issued June 18, 1916, which precipitated the clash between 
these two forces. The purpose of this call was to prevent 
further aggression from Mexico upon the territory of the 
United States and the proper protection of that frontier. 
American soldiers had been trapped and massacred at 
Carrizal. It was reported that General Obregon had planned 
to invade Texas. Troops began gathering on that Sunday 

96 






Denounced His Policy on National Defence 

afternoon in armories in Detroit, Mr. Ford's home city, and 
in Chicago, bound for the mobilization camps. The country- 
was aroused and war with Mexico appeared imminent. 

Henry Ford did not take this situation seriously. He 
said it looked like a political play. He said he thought the 
"interests" were stirring things up in Mexico. He did not 
see any danger ahead. He had discouraged men from 
enlisting in the guard. He did not believe that President 
Wilson was sincere in this step, or consistent. He was 
violently opposed to any increase in the efficiency of the 
guard. It was all ''militarism" to him, all steps toward 
"organized murder." 

On the morning of June 22, a story headed "Flivver 
Patriotism", appeared in The Tribune, and a corresponding 
story in another paper. The Tribune's story had been 
received from its Detroit correspondent. This corre- 
spondent had received his information from Frank L. 
Klingensmith, vice president and general manager of the 
Ford Company. It read as follows: 

"FLIVVER PATRIOTISM" 

"Ford employes who volunteered to bear arms for the United 
States will lose their jobs. While most employers have guaranteed 
not only to give patriotic workmen their old places when they return 
from fighting their country's battles, but have promised to pay their 
salaries while they are in service, Henry Ford's workmen will not have 
a job when they return, much less will they receive pay while fighting 
for their country. Ford's superintendents refuse to say if there are 
any guardsmen employed in the plant, but it is known that some 
seventy-five men of the militia are Ford employes. No provision will 
be made by Ford for their wives and families." 

The next morning The Tribune carried this editorial: 

"HENRY FORD IS AN ANARCHIST" 

"Inquiry at the Henry Ford offices in Detroit discloses the fact that 
employes of Ford who are members of or recruits in the National Guard 
will lose their places. No provision will be made for any one dependent 
upon them. Their wages will stop, their families may get along in any 
fashion possible; their positions will be filled, and if they come back 
safely and apply for their jobs again they will be on the same footing 
as any other applicants. This is the rule for Ford employes everywhere. 

"Information was refused as to the number of American soldiers 
unfortunate enough to have Henry Ford as an employer at this time, 

97 



Ford Sues for Million Dollars 

but at the Detroit recruiting station it was said that about seventy-five 
men will pay this price for their services to their country. 

"Mr. Ford thus proves that he does not believe in service to the 
nation in the fashion a soldier must serve it. If his factory were on 
the southern and not on the northern border we presume he would feel 
the same way. 

"We do not know precisely what he would do if a Villa band decided 
that the Ford strong boxes were worth opening and that it would be 
pleasant to see the Ford factories burn. It is evident that it is possible 
for a millionaire just south of the Canadian border to be indifferent to 
what happens just north of the Mexican border. 

"If Ford allows this rule of his shops to stand he will reveal himself 
not merely as an ignorant idealist but as an anarchistic enemy of the 
nation which protects him in his wealth. 

"A man so ignorant as Henry Ford may not understand the funda- 
mentals of the government under which he lives. That government is 
permitted to take Henry Ford himself and command his services as a 
soldier if necessary. It can tax his money for war purposes and will. 
It can compel him to devote himself to national purposes. The reason 
it did not take the person of Henry Ford years ago and put it in uniform 
is, first, that it has not had the common sense to make its theoretical 
universal service practical, and second, because there have been young 
men to volunteer for the service which has protected Henry Ford, for 
which service he now penalizes them. 

"He takes the men who stand between him and service and punishes 
them for the service which protects him. The man is so incapable of 
thought that he cannot see the ignominy of his own performance. 

"The proper place for so deluded a human being is a region where 
no government exists except such as he furnishes, where no protection 
is afforded except such as he affords, where nothing stands between him 
and the rules of life except such defenses as he puts there. 

"Such a place, we think, might be found anywhere in the state of 
Chihuahua, Mexico. Anywhere in Mexico would be a good location 
for the Ford factories. " 

The following day Henry Ford issued a denial of the 
original news story, stating that the thirty-seven members 
of the militia among his thirty-three thousand employes 
would be re-employed "without prejudice" upon their 
return from service. The Tribune printed this statement. 
Ten weeks later Ford filed suit in the United States District 
Court in Chicago, making the editorial quoted above the 
basis of his claim for one million dollars' damages. The 
case came up before Judge Landis, but on July 14, 1917, a 
new suit of the same nature was filed in the state court of 
Michigan and the one pending before Judge Landis was 
dismissed. 

The trial and the case lasted for ninety-eight days at 

98 



Ford's Experts Praise Tribune Advertising 

Mt. Clemens, between May and August, 1919. It is con- 
sidered by lawyers as the first big, modern vindication of 
the "right of comment." The instructions of Judge James G. 
Tucker to the jury are recognized as a summary of 
modern law on this subject. 

An interesting minor phase of the case was the testimony 
of advertising experts called by Mr. Ford to prove that 
The Tribune, although published in Chicago, had a tremen- 
dous influence with the leading citizens of Michigan and 
other surrounding states. 

Charles A. Brownell, advertising manager for Mr. Ford, 
testified in part as follows: 

Q. Has the Ford Motor Company, during your connection as 
advertising manager, used The Chicago Tribune as an advertising 
medium of its product? 

A. We never put out a campaign of newspaper advertising that 
did not include The Chicago Tribune. 

Q. In selecting The Tribune as one of the newspapers in which 
advertising of the Ford Company should be placed, what did you have 
in mind? 

A. The leading newspaper in the city of Chicago with a large 
circulation and an influential circulation; as well as a large circulation 
in the territory in which we have a number of live, progressive agents: 
states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Michigan, 
especially the northern section of Michigan, which is not reached by 
the Detroit metropolitan papers, or in a large volume by the Grand 
Rapids papers. 

That territory is literally covered with the Chicago papers, particu- 
larly The Chicago Tribune — that is, the element we wish to reach. 

Q. Are you able to state the relative position of The Chicago 
Tribune as an advertising medium of automobiles in the territory you 
previously named, as compared with other Chicago newspapers? 

A. I considered it by far the best. 

Mr. E. LeRoy Pelletier, called in as advertising expert 
by Mr. Ford, made the following statements under oath : 

Q. Does The Tribune circulate in the surrounding territory? 

A. O, yes, for some distance, probably covers 14 states. 

Q. Is that circulation in through that district of The Tribune of 
value to advertisers of automobiles? 

A. O, yes, so much so that the factory always pays half of it, 
because of its broad distribution. We consider it in a sense the National 
media, that is to say, it is one of a few that we consider sufficient to 
cover nationally. 

Q. Has Mr. Benham ever discussed circulation matters with you? 

A. O, yes. We figure it covers twelve to fifteen states, to some 
extent. Of course, you get farther away from Chicago the influence 

99 



DAILY JH NEWS |f§| 



Vol. 3. No. 312. 



I York. Saturday, Junp 24, 



MINE WAR SPURS U. S. ACTION 




HER- KIND.— A girl's pho- 



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WHO ELSE WOULD OBJECT?— Just because hi objected to this bathing suit. Helen BOY'S KIDNAPING— Joseph Vaccayo (right. 
Armstrong (above), cafe dancer, says Marerhal Tissot, retired French officer, broke oil with Detective Brennan) was accused yesterday in kio> 
their engagement. She aays she now will «eek {50.000 heart balm naping of Angelo Cuspini. eleven. 297 Avenue A 




Reproduction of first page of the Daily News, New York's 
Picture Newspaper, founded by The Chicago Tribune in June, 
1919, and which already has the second largest morning daily 
circulation in America. The largest is that of the Chicago 
Tribune. The size of The Daily News is uyZ x i§}4 inches 
over all. 



100 



Tribune Founds Paper in New York 

is less. I should say, taking Grand Rapids as a sample, it is probably 
more influential than the Detroit papers. 
Q. Why do you say that? 

A. Because of the class of people who take it. A very excellent 
class of people buy it, and a considerable percentage of a class of solid 
business men, to whom we sell automobiles in all those places. 

* * * 

On June 26, 19 19, The Tribune began publication of a 
tabloid, pictorial, morning newspaper in New York. In 
less than three years this paper, The Daily News, New 
York's Picture Newspaper, has attained more than half a 
million circulation. Thus, The Chicago Tribune and its 
New York offspring have the two largest morning weekday 
circulations in America. Pride is also taken in the fact that 
The New York News was making money one year and three 
months after its foundation. 

* * * 
Nineteen-nineteen saw swiftly increasing circulation and 

advertising. A new rotogravure press was built and put 
in operation. A new million dollar unit was purchased 
and installed in our paper mill. Half a block of ground on 
Michigan Boulevard, just north of the Chicago River, was 
bought and construction of a model manufacturing Plant 
was begun. For the benefit of employes The Tribune 
organized The Medill Council and established the insur- 
ance, sick benefit, and pension systems described in the 
chapter on that subject in this book. 

* * * 

On October 14, 1920, The Tribune, whose radio nom de 
plume then was 9ZN, received directly from Bordeaux, 
France, a news dispatch by wireless. This was the first 
dispatch received by any paper in the world from a foreign 
nation by direct wireless transmission. 

During almost three months The Tribune received by 
direct wireless transmission from Bordeaux all of its dis- 
patches from Continental Europe, an average of about 
3,000 words daily. Each dispatch came to The Tribune 
from four to six hours more quickly than the same dis- 

101 



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<t fag.-jrft.il wujmgCT 



102 



Tribune Moves into New Plant 

patches would have come had they been filed either by cable 
or by the Marconi wireless system. Each dispatch was 
brought into The Tribune Plant at least thirty per cent 
more cheaply than if it had come through other channels. 

The wireless sifts hours into minutes. This is of vital 
importance and The Tribune's demonstration of dreams 
come true has started things with a vengeance. The fact 
that The Tribune had found a way to save hours meant 
very little to the great communications corporations. But 
when these corporations realized that in its quest for effi- 
ciency a newspaper known to be an extensive patron of the 
cables and the telegraphs also had found a way to save 
money — that wouldn't do at all. 

So, when the great Lafayette station at Bordeaux, 
erected by the United States and operated during the war 
by the United States, passed into the hands of the French 
government, a working agreement was entered into between 
France and the Radio Corporation of America which pro- 
vided that all dispatches sent to America must be handled 
in America by the Radio Corporation and the land telegraph 
companies with which it is bound by other agreements. 
Furthermore, American law forbade the navy to compete 
with private enterprise by assisting in the transmission of 
press dispatches. Therefore, The Tribune's wireless receiv- 
ing station has been suspended. 

* * * 

On December 12, 1920, at the busiest time of the year, 
and between a Sunday morning edition of 760,000 and a 
Monday morning edition of 450,000, The Tribune installed 
itself in its new Plant without missing a deadline or a mail 
car. One hundred telephone lines and 275 extensions 
were transferred without disturbing service. Fifty-seven 
linotypes, nine steam tables weighing seven and one-half 
tons each, furniture, hundreds of filing cases, all moved 
in orderly procession from Madison and Dearborn Streets 
and started functioning in their new home. As much work 
as possible had been done in advance, but an enormous 

103 



"1921 Will Reward Fighters" 

job of moving had to be completed within twenty hours. 
The mechanical excellence of this new Plant as described 
in subsequent chapters of this book has practically made 
other newspaper plants out of date. 

At about this same time The Tribune furnished funds 
for founding the Medill School of Journalism of North- 
western University and has since aided in establishing this 
vigorous young institution. 

* * * 

During the latter part of 1920 The Great Depression, 
from which we are only now beginning to emerge, descended 
upon the United States. The threat of hard times suc- 
ceeded swiftly to boom times and easy money. Business 
men were terrified by such an abrupt change of conditions. 
The "cancellation evil" was a paramount topic of conver- 
sation. Wholesale retrenchment was resorted to by many; 
unemployment grew rapidly; and panic was in the air. 

It was amid these circumstances that The Chicago 
Tribune confronted the problem of its program for 1921. 
The Tribune management informed the advertising divi- 
sion that there would be no retrenchment on the part of 
The Tribune; that The Tribune's faith in the soundness 
of this country was unshaken; that we would meet ad- 
verse conditions by fighting harder for business than ever 
before; and that we would endeavor, by extensive adver- 
tising, to induce others to follow our lead. A convention 
of the advertising force was called in December, 1920. 
This program was announced to them and the slogan was 
adopted, "1921 Will Reward FIGHTERS." 

This slogan was then hammered into the business men 
of the United States by a series of full page advertisements 
in The Tribune and in other metropolitan newspapers, and 
in trade papers. 

Thousands of letters poured in upon The Tribune from 
American business men expressing appreciation for the 
stimulating influence which this thought radiated. 

To prove that the slogan was the expression of a vital 

104 



Tribune puts New Spirit in Business 

truth and not a mere juggling of words, The Tribune 
offered ten prizes of #100 each for true stories of successful 
1921 Fighting Salesmanship. 

The response was instant — and national in its scope. 
From a large number of excellent letters ten were selected, 
printed in Chicago Tribune ads, and later collected in a 
booklet. More than forty thousand booklets and hangers 
were distributed. The slogan was adopted by sales organ- 
izations everywhere, quoted, reprinted. 

But some hard-boiled pessimists still discounted the 

truth of The Tribune's slogan — "1921 Will Reward 

FIGHTERS/' They admitted that an individual salesman 

might make a sale now and then in the face of "conditions," 

but they would add : 

"Business is rotten in my line. No one is doing anything. The 
public is not buying. You can't fight general conditions. Sales and 
advertising efforts merely waste money trying to do the impossible." 

So The Chicago Tribune set out to see whether these 
gloomy statements were true, or whether organizations 
were being rewarded for fighting in 1921, as well as indi- 
viduals. 

Four lines were selected in which all the croakers claim- 
ed that business was terribly depressed : Groceries, Cloth- 
ing, Autos, Musical Instruments. 

The largest users of Tribune space in each of these lines 
were then called upon and asked how their 1921 business 
compared with the big records made during the correspond- 
ing period of 1920. 

Without exception, these unterrified fighters were doing 
the biggest business in their history. Some of their com- 
petitors had "quit" and left the field largely uncontested. 
Total business available might be less than last year, but 
they had increased their proportion of the total. Other 
lines of business were investigated and it seemed that there 
was ample business in every line to keep the FIGHTERS 
busy. 

The slogan was changed to "1921 Is Rewarding FIGHT- 
ERS" and on this topic Tribune advertisements were pre- 

105 



Greatest Circulation Stunt in History 

senting the successes achieved by various big organizations. 
Some of the best examples could not be used because the 
record-smashing firms feared that publicity would stir up 
their competitors to imitative activity. 

These advertisements were run in The Tribune, in several 
other metropolitan newspapers, and in trade papers. 

By this campaign of the advertising division of The 
Tribune, conducted in paid space, The Tribune achieved 
something new in American journalism. It influenced the 
thought of the entire business community of the United 
States in a constructive manner and largely assisted in 
averting a threatened panic. 

As for The Tribune, its advertising revenue in 1921, the 
year of depression and hard struggle for business, was the 

largest in its history. 

* * * 

Between November 25 and December 4, 1921, The 
Tribune conducted the most astounding circulation stunt 
in newspaper history. In those eight days The Tribune, 
starting with the largest morning circulation in America 
and the largest Sunday circulation in Chicago, increased 
its city and suburban circulation by more than 250,000 
daily and 200,000 Sunday. 

Yet the increase in the number of Tribunes sold was 
insignificant compared with the effect which The Tribune's 
"Cheer Check" distribution had on three million people. 

It wasn't a Tribune idea in the first place. Mr. Hearst's 
newspapers throughout the country were putting on lotteries 
to stimulate circulation. They were disguised as philan- 
thropy. In Chicago, the Herald & Examiner early in 
November, 192 1, began distributing free of charge millions 
of "Smile" coupons. Envelopes full of them were stuffed into 
every citizen's mail box. Piles of them were available at 
lunch rooms, cigar stores, groceries, etc. Each day the 
Herald & Examiner printed a list of numbers of "Smile" 
coupons which were awarded prizes, redeemable at the 
Herald & Examiner office. It was the theory that since 

106 



Tribune Cheer Checks take Chicago by Storm 

practically every person in Chicago had been presented with 
coupons they would buy the Herald & Examiner every day 
to see if one of their numbers had won a prize. 

A different local politician was pictured each morning in 
the act of drawing that day's winning numbers. Even Mayor 
Thompson and Governor Small participated thus in a 
newspaper's circulation lottery. Of course it was not called 
a "lottery" but was camouflaged as Christmas charity. 
The lottery increased the Herald & Examiner's circulation, 
but not in any sensational manner. 

The Tribune, having won circulation leadership by years 
of hard fighting, was not inclined to permit this lottery 
scheme to imperil its supremacy. Two courses seemed 
open: complaint to the federal authorities, or a direct 
counter attack. The latter was adopted. 

It was decided to run a lottery that would make the 
Hearst affair look like penny ante compared with Monte 
Carlo and to run it frankly and openly as a circulation 
getting lottery — not as philanthropy. It was determined to 
operate in such a loud, plain manner that the viciousness 
of obtaining circulation by such methods would be apparent. 
Such a policy would compel the authorities to stop both 
lotteries. 

On November 25, The Tribune announced in a double 
page spread that distribution of its Cheer Checks would 
begin that day, Friday; that a public drawing would be 
held Saturday; and that on Sunday 679 prize winning 
numbers would be awarded $17,000.00, the "first slice of a 
$200,000.00 melon." 

No one connected with the stunt anticipated such 
astounding results. Cheer Checks took Chicago by storm. 
Two of the largest railway printing houses in the world 
worked twenty-four hours a day printing them and when 
the contest ended ten days later they had not caught up 
with the demand. More than twenty-five million Cheer 
Checks, each bearing four numbers, were printed and 
distributed during those ten days. 

107 



Tribune Burlesques its own Project 

Banks asked for Cheer Checks to give to their deposi- 
tors. Sunday schools distributed them. The largest indus- 
trial concerns asked The Tribune for allotments for their 
employes. Attempts to pass them out from trucks in the 
Loop led to riots. Canvassers hired to take them from 
door to door preferred to keep the checks or sell them, 
rather than receive their pay. 

If one retail store in a neighborhood had Tribune Cheer 
Checks and others didn't, it might as well close up. As a 
result thousands of retailers came to The Tribune Plant 
and stood in line in the winter rain to get allotments of 
Cheer Checks. 

Chicago's rich as well as Chicago's poor were collecting 
Cheer Checks and speculating on the possibility of collect- 
ing the possible maximum of #20,000.00 in prizes in one day. 

It is doubtful if any event in the history of Chicago ever 
created such universal feverish interest and maintained it 
for ten days. 

The strain on The Tribune organization was tremendous. 
Not only was circulation almost instantaneously increased 
by 200,000 or 250,000 copies, but all stories, pictures or ads 
referring to the lottery were eliminated from all except city 
editions, necessitating unprecedented replating. Thus a 
great increase in routine work came with the novel tasks of 
distributing Cheer Checks, holding drawings, and making 
payments. 

A news story in The Tribune each day burlesqued the 
whole affair. These stories were signed by "Senor Tirador 
del Toro, World's Best Known Spanish Athlete," or by 
"Miss Fortuna, the Goddess of Something for Nothing," 
or by Bock Y. Panatela, or by Manuel G. Perfecto, famous 
Colorado Maduro formerly of Honduras and Havana. 
The open drawings of numbers from a great glass box and 
a gold fish bowl were held in different parts of the city and 
attracted great crowds. "Big Steve" Cusack, a noted 
baseball umpire in full regalia, acted as announcer. Draw- 
ings were made by a different team each day, for instance, 

108 



Circulation Up Quarter Million in Week 

"Lady Luck" and "Queenie Midnight," two street sweepers, 
two Chinese, two chorus girls, etc. 

Each day the full page advertisement in The Tribune 
carried an editorial statement of which the following is 
typical : 

DID WE FALL OR WERE WE PUSHED? 

The Tribune enters upon its mammoth distribution of cash by lot 
with strangely mingled emotions. We frankly admit that when our 
morning contemporary inaugurated this scheme for selling more papers, 
we looked upon it with disfavor, not to say distaste. Having built 
our own circulation upon the merits of our newspaper, we felt some- 
how that the innovation was unethical. 

But the judiciary and the officials elected to administer and to 
enforce our laws co-operated so wholeheartedly in the promotion of 
this remunerative charity that our scruples seemed actually prudish — 
a relic of days when skirts trailed below the ankles, and "penny ante" 
was a mortal sin. 

Furthermore, it seemed a shame that an institution which had 
flourished in such expansive magnificence, even in the piffling banana 
republics, should receive such niggardly treatment in this rich metrop- 
olis. As the dominant newspaper of this community, long supreme 
both in circulation and in advertising, we were obviously confronted 
with the duty of seeing that three million people were no longer in- 
sulted by being urged to scramble for a share in $500 a day. 

The publication of numbers all jumbled up so that holders of 
tickets could determine only with the greatest difficulty whether or 
not they had won, was another point not in keeping with the best 
traditions of this ancient institution, nor with the dignity and fair 
name of our city. 

Having been "pushed" by these factors we "fell" — or rather we 
"plunged." The reception which the citizens of Chicago have given 
to our offer of $200,000.00 and yesterday's split of $17,000.00 is indeed 
gratifying. We are also pleased to announce that our contemporary 
has seen the light (to some extent) and is now "offering" more money. 

We must confess that it is difficult to feel so keenly the scruples 
of past weeks now that circulation is rising in such astounding waves. 
We could have easily sold a million Tribunes yesterday, and we have 
hardly begun. It seems too good to be true. Such profitable phi- 
lanthropy. 

Notwithstanding The Tribune's plain speaking there 
was practically no criticism of the contest. The public, 
high and low, simply clamored for Cheer Checks. The cash 
paid out to 2,373 winners in eight days amounted to 
$53,950.00. 

Other publishers, however, appealed to Postmaster 
General Hays and to District Attorney Clyne. Both 

109 



When Tribune Quits Excitement Subsides 



papers were asked to stop and agreed to do so. The 
Tribune did stop on December 4, 1921. The Herald & 
Examiner stopped the particular stunt which had been 
complained of, but on December 5, announced continued 
free daily distribution of cash prizes to street car transfer 
numbers, telephone numbers, and automobile license num- 
bers. It caused no more commotion than had its original 
lottery before The Tribune "sat in the game with a stack of 
blue chips/* When The Tribune stopped the show was over" 



rmatco p^t_t »j»u » » . mictmt, cucpnna s. wt 




CIMA 






SHOWEROFGOU* 



Here Are the Prizes 
To Be Drawn Today 

Morganbilt D. Rochy-For J wouldn't 
sneeze at holding a Cheer Chech now 

Regular Prizes: 

First numberdrawn.... $5,000.00 $5,000.00 

Second number drawn. 2.500 00 2300.00 

Third number drawn.. 1,000X0 1.000 00 

Next 2-EACH... 500.00 1.000.00 

Next 4-KACH. ....... 250.00 i.000.00 

Next 10-EACH .„..=. 10000 1,000.00 

Next 20-EACH..v.-„ SO00 1.000.00 

Next 60-EACH..^^., 2500 1.500.00 

Next 200-EACH. ....... 10 00 2,000.00 

Next 1,000-KACH.,™™. 5.00 5.000X0 

Special Prizes: 

"Keno"— To holder of a Cheer 
Check, bearing any two winning 
numbers drawn the same day. . .$10,000.00 

•Big Dick"-To holder of the 
highest winning number drawn 
(exclusive of series number) . . 2,000.00 

"Little Joe"— To holder of the 
lowest winning number drawn 
(exclusive of series number) . . ... 2X00.00 



More Than 130O Ca»h Prize* 
Total Money $35,000 



Some Joy Ride 



No other newspaper in America. < 
■uch swift and tremendous < 
thai of The Tribune during tfi 



week. WesoW 



: in aanuement rather than boasting, 
surety appreciate merit. We took the 
ition-BUtldinc scheme which our morn- 



with only fair results— but improved it and AD- 
VERTISED .t. Public appreciation wa? so over- 
whelming that within a few days we had smashed 
all records in the history of newspaper publishing in 

Our first winning numbers were printed last Sunday. 
Tomorrow will be the second Sunday and our largest 



192 Winners in yesterday's PUBLIC 

drawing for a $6,000.00 slice 

of the $200,000.00 melon 

$1,000.00 

$500.00 



$100.00 



$250.00 

F4— ism 

Z1I—M3M 
$St.M 



S10.00 



If any Two of the Above Humbert Are on Oat 

Check the Holder Will Receive $10,000.00 It 

Addition to the Two Regular Prlztt 



Special $500.00 Prizes 

M Dick) (LitiU J») 



Why The Chicago Tribune 
is known as 

"The Worlds' Greatest Newspaper" 



Last Day to Cash These 
Prize Winning Numbers 



!ss B aS £3. tS ibs, 



Order Sunday's Tribune Now 




no 



Mayor Thompson Sues for Libel 

Mayor William Hale Thompson, placed in office by the 
most powerful political machine Chicago has ever known, 
resented The Tribune's stories presenting to the world in 
unvarnished terms his hostility to America's war effort. 
He has filed the following libel suits against The Tribune: 
Date Damages Asked 

September 7, 1917 $ 500,000.00 

June 22, 1918 250,000.00 

August 1, 1918 100,000.00 

August 31, 1918. 500,000.00 

Total #1,350,000.00 

The first of these suits went on trial before Judge 
Francis Wilson in May, 1922. Mayor Thompson was 
placed on the witness stand by The Tribune and testified 
— that in his opinion blunders of the Wilson administra- 
tion rather than German aggression caused the War. 
— that during the War he opposed sending an army to 
Europe. 
. — that he opposed sending foodstuffs to Europe. 
— that he opposed conscription. 
— that he issued no proclamations to aid Liberty Bond 

or Red Cross drives. 
— that he said farewell to none of the Illinois regiments 

leaving for service. 
— that he never addressed the soldiers at Camp Grant or 

at Fort Sheridan. 
It is the contention of The Tribune that the mayor's 
attitude toward the War thus admitted by him shows how 
justifiable were The Tribune stories which he claims injured 
him in the sum of #1,350,000.00. 

Two jurors in the case became ill. The Tribune offered 
to go ahead with ten jurors, but the Mayor insisted on his 

right to a "mistrial." 

* * * 

Patriotism is not the only issue between Mayor Thomp- 
son and The Tribune. The present administration of 

111 



Tribune Charges $4,000,000 Fraud — Sues 

municipal affairs has been marked by scandals in the police 
department, school board, and board of local improvements. 

In the latter case, such amazingly barefaced methods 
were adopted for looting the public treasury that The 
Tribune called upon the courts to halt them. For work as 
real estate experts within twelve months, five members of 
the city hall machine were paid almost three million dollars 
(#3,000,000.00) and were about to be paid more than one 
million dollars (#1,000,000.00) additional when The Tribune 
intervened. 

The Tribune Company, as a taxpayer, filed suit on 
April 19, 192 1, against Mayor Thompson, M. J. Faherty, 
president of the board of local improvements, George F. 
Harding, city comptroller, Frank H. Mesce and Austin J. 
Lynch. The suit seeks to force the return to the City of 
Chicago of #1,065,000.00 paid to Mesce and Lynch for 
services rendered by them within one year in appraising 
property for condemnation. An injunction to prevent the 
payment of an additional million dollars to these same two 
experts is also sought. 

The defendants demurred to the bill, and after argument 
Judge Charles M. Foell sustained The Tribune in a decision 
which sets a precedent of vast importance to the people of 
Illinois. He held that restitution could be enforced, not 
only against any person obtaining public moneys by fraud, 
but also against every official who knowingly participated 
in the transaction. 

On June 24, 1921, The Tribune Company filed a suit 
similar to the above in subject matter and with the same 
defendant officials. But three new "experts" are named: 
Edward C. Waller, Jr., Ernest H. Lyons, and Arthur S. 
Merrigold. 

The Tribune charges that the one million seven hundred 
thousand dollars (#1,700,000.00) paid to these men for 
"experting" within one year was fraudulently obtained. 
It demands that they and the officials who conspired with 
them to obtain it be compelled to return the money to the 

112 



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FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR. DON'T WASTE IT 



USE LESS WHEAT 
SAVE ON SUGAR 

B HELP WIN WAlP 




During the War The Tribune maintained an enormous bill- 
board at the north end of Michigan Boulevard. It was used 
for patriotic subjects as shown above. 



U , U , U , U , U , U , U l U»U , U'U , U , U'U , U , UiUlUIUiU , U , U l U l U , U l U , UiU'U , U , U , U , U , U , U'l_ 




These photos show The Tribune Plant from the south 
{above) and from the north {below). The ruled white space 
marks the site on which the new Tribune Monument will 
stand. Architects have been offered $ioopoo.oo in prizes 
for a suitable design. The low building north of The Plant is 
a Tribune garage. 




Ten Million Dollar Libel Suit 

City of Chicago. Injunction is also sought to prevent the 
payment of additional fees amounting to $270,000.00. 

Both the above suits are awaiting trial. 

* * * 

In a desperate effort to stop The Tribune's exposures of 
incompetence and corruption in municipal affairs, the 
Thompson administration caused a libel suit to be brought 
in the name of the City of Chicago against The Tribune 
demanding damages in the sum of ten million dollars 
($10,000,000.00). This is the largest amount ever asked in a 
libel suit, and it is the first time in American history that 
any agency of government has attempted to sue for libel. 
Probably no more dangerous attack has ever been made on 
freedom of the press and free speech. 

The politicians' claim was that The Tribune's allegations 
of incompetency and corruption had injured the credit of 
the city — lowering the rate at which its bonds could be sold 
and increasing the cost of supplies. 

The Tribune demurred, maintaining that the articles 
complained of were not libelous and that in any case to 
maintain the action would violate the freedom of the press 
guaranteed by both state and national constitutions. 

On December 12, 1921, Judge Harry M. Fisher, of the 

Circuit Court of Cook County, handed down a notable 

decision sustaining the stand of The Tribune. Comments 

of the press on this case and Judge Fisher's opinion have 

been printed by The Tribune for distribution to those 

interested. Judge Fisher's summary of the points involved 

was, in part, as follows: 

The press has become the eyes and ears of the world, and, to a 
great extent, its voice. It is the substance which puts humanity in 
contact with all its parts. It is the spokesman of the weak and the 
appeal of the suffering. It tears us away from our selfishness and 
moves us to acts of kindness and charity. It is the advocate constantly 
pleading before the bar of public opinion. It holds up for review the 
acts of our officials and of those men in high places who have it in their 
power to advance peace or endanger it. It is the force which mirrors 
public sentiment. Trade and commerce depend upon it. Authors, 
artists, musicians, scholars and inventors command a hearing through 
its columns. In politics it is our universal forum. But for it the acts 

115 



Newspapers Check on Official Corruption 

of public benefactors would go unnoticed, impostors would continue 
undismayed, and public office would be the rich reward of the unscrupu- 
lous demagogue. Knowledge of public matters would be hidden in the 
bosoms of those who make politics their personal business for gain or 
glorification. While not always unselfish, yet in every national crisis 
we find it constant and loyal, rendering service of inestimable value. 
Observe the role it played in our recent national emergency. It was 
the advance agent of our treasury, and the rear guard of our army. It 
set us to work upon the minute and told us when our several tasks were 
done. It informed every soldier when and where to report for duty 
and gave him his instructions with reference to it. It kept us in touch 
with our men in the field and carried messages of cheer and encourage- 
ment. It built up our spirits, aroused our determination and finally 
had the honor of heralding in every household the joyous news of 
victory and peace. 

It is only natural that the rendering of such service should result 
in corresponding power; and power without the abuse of it is unfor- 
tunately rarely found. The press is no exception. Economic interests 
often lead a great portion of the press to serve the commercial elements 
of the community, upon which it largely depends, to the detriment of 
the public. But, fortunately, while the good the press is capable of 
rendering, if unafraid, is without limit, the harm it can do has its own 
limitations. The press is dependent for its success, for its very exist- 
ence, almost, upon public confidence. It must cater to public senti- 
ment even as it labors to build it up. It cannot long indulge in false- 
hoods without suffering the loss of that confidence from which alone 
comes its power, its prestige and its reward. 

On the other hand, the harm which would certainly result to the 
community from an officialdom unrestrained by fear of publicity is 
incalculable. 

Plaintiff's counsel's own argument shows where the law which he 
contends for, if it were the law, would lead us to. 

"Everything," he says, "which affects the city in its finance or 
in its property must be treated by law the same as if it were spoken of 
or done against a private corporation. If a libel would result in an 
increase of one cent on the cost of pencils, the city could maintain an 
action." 

It is difficult to imagine a case of adverse criticism of a municipality 
which could not be shown to have affected it or its property in some 
remote way. Moreover, if plaintiff's position is sound, does it not 
logically follow that criticism directed against the responsible officials 
of the city, which would result injuriously to the municipality, would 
give rise to a like cause of action on behalf of the city? 

To say that a city is an unsafe place to live in because of the cor- 
ruption or the inefficiency of the police department is almost certain 
to keep away prospective residents whose payment of taxes would 
otherwise enhance the city treasury. To say that the mayor of a city 
has no regard for contractual obligations would unquestionably keep 
men from bidding and contracting with the city on the same basis 
that they would if they were certain that they will have no trouble in 
enforcing the city's obligations. To charge that bribe money must 
be paid in order to obtain a contract from the city would result in keep- 

116 



Freedom of Press Imperiled by Suit 

ing responsible bidders away and increase the bids of those who would 
offer it. To charge that political favorites are preferred in the letting 
of contracts will keep away many more bidders than would a charge 
of insolvency. For, as a matter of fact, a municipality cannot be 
insolvent, in the sense in which that word is ordinarily used. At any 
rate a contractor desiring the work could easily ascertain how and 
when the money will be forthcoming to pay the obligations of the con- 
tract, but when favoritism governs the granting of contracts he knows, 
if he is not of the favored few, how useless it is to bid for work. In 
short, almost anything unfavorable that could be said of the govern- 
ment or its office holders is likely to affect the municipality financially 
just as injuriously as the articles charged to have been published by 
the defendant. It is too evident to permit of doubt that, balancing 
good against good, the mischief which would flow from an application 
of the rule which would permit the city to sue as a private person would 
overwhelmingly outweigh the benefit which could possibly come from 
it. 

Stripped of all the elaborate argument, in the confusion of which 
the question for decision might look difficult, the fact remains that, if 
this action is maintainable, then public officials have in their power one 
of the most effective instruments with which to intimidate the press 
and to silence their enemies. It is a weapon to be held over the head 
of every one who dares print or speak unfavorably of the men in power. 

There are men who, in the interest of public service, would not be 
terrified by criminal prosecution and imprisonment. They would keep 
up the struggle against a corrupt government even from the cell, 
if the instrument for conveying their thought would remain intact. 
But the recovery of heavy damages, in a civil action, or even the neces- 
sity of continually defending against such attempted recovery would 
destroy the instrument itself, the newspaper. Especially would this 
be true in smaller communities where the newspapers have not large 
means. The cost of the defense alone would be sufficient to impoverish 
them. In civil actions, unlike criminal prosecutions, the jury is not 
the judge of the law, and a friendly judge (and such a thing was found 
not impossible at least so far as the history of prosecution for libel is 
concerned) would have the right to instruct the jury to find the defend- 
ant guilty, or, if a verdict unfavorable to the plaintiff were returned, 
to set it aside, and order a new trial, and continue granting new trials 
until a favorable verdict were obtained. 

While good reason exists for denying a publisher the right to print 
that which he cannot prove against an individual, and recklessly to 
pry into his personal affairs, defaming his character and reputation, 
simply because of his public position, no reason exists for restraining 
the publication against a municipality or other governmental agency 
of such facts, which, as Judge Taft puts it, is well that the public should 
know, even if it lies hidden from judicial investigation. There are other 
differences to be found between an action by a municipality and an 
action by an official whose personal character and integrity are attacked. 
In the one, the prosecution is at the public expense, in the other, at the 
personal expense of the plaintiff. Aside from the costs involved, there 
is much which would cause an individual to forbear action. The 
honest official seldom fears criticism. He answers argument by argu- 

117 



"Our Country — Right or Wrong" 

ment, and only, in extreme cases, resorts to law. The dishonest official 
is often restrained by the fear of laying his character open to a searching 
judicial inquiry; but if he can hide his own infirmities by labeling his 
action in the name of a municipality, the number of suits would be gov- 
erned only by political expediency. 

This action is not in harmony with the genius, spirit and objects 
of our institutions. It does not belong to our day. It fits in rather 
with the genius of the rulers who conceived law not in the purity of love 
for justice, but in the lustful passion for undisturbed power. It will, 
therefore, be unnecessary to consider the other questions involved, and 
since I find that the demurrer ought to be sustained not merely because 
of any defect in the pleading but because no cause of action exists, 
nothing can be gained by amendment. The demurrer will, therefore, 
be sustained. 

Appeal was taken from the above decision and is now 
pending in the higher court. 

* * * 

The Tribune carries every day at the "masthead" of its 
editorial page this slogan: 



"Our Country! In her intercourse with foreign 
nations may she always be in the right; but our 
country, right or wrong." — Stephen Decatur. 



On April 21, 1922, The Tribune printed a letter from 
one of its readers protesting against the reiteration in peace 
times of a "chauvinistic" sentiment excusable only as a 
war measure. On the same page The Tribune replied in 
the following characteristic editorial: 

SHE'S UP TO STAY 

In the Voice of the People, across the page in this issue, is printed 
a letter . . . protesting against the continued use of the sentiment of 
Stephen Decatur at the head of the editorial department of The Tribune. 

Mr. Fry's letter and others of similar protest received from time 
to time are sufficient reason and good reason for keeping the sentiment 
nailed to the flagstaff for the next hundred years. So far as the present 
management of The Tribune is concerned it's there to stay. 

This nation has been described by contemptuous Europeans as a 
mongrel. It has been tested to the hilt by the admixtures which have 
come to find new fortunes here. If it were not substantially sound it 
could not have stood the test. It has. 

Nationality is a precious thing. It is a powerful spirituality. It 
ennobles. It is also material. It represents a protective community 

118 



Tribune Everlastingly American 

of interests. Right and wrong are not black and white. An egotistic 
man can say, and does say, that he knows which is right and which is 
wrong. He is a cricket in a fence corner. 

It is altogether possible that the foreign policy of an American 
government would distress the consciences of a great many citizens. 
Some think that Haiti is a reproach to us now. They think that brutal 
marines are imposing upon a cultured and defenseless land. The 
Tribune thinks that a land of savagery with a fringe of superficial 
literacy has been brought into a semi-ordered state and that it is the 
duty of the United States to make it at least semi-ordered. 

New Englanders and others in the north thought the war with 
Mexico was bad. What is bad? Is it bad that Texas is not Chihuahua 
or Sonora? Vallandigham thought the war with the South was bad. 
Is it bad that human beings are not being sold down the river in the 
United States? 

Debs thought the war with Germany was bad. Is it bad that the 
German fleet is not protecting the landing of German divisions in 
Central American and South American ports and driving the United 
States, lone and unprepared, to a war with the greatest military power 
of Europe? Who shall say policies are good or bad? The government 
through its ordered methods or the midge of a citizen who without 
responsibility comes to conclusions satisfactory to his egotism? 

The structure of a nation does not permit these individual judg- 
ments in emergency, and particularly the structure of the United States 
does not. Americans have permitted the man from Cork, the man 
from Berlin, the man from Teheran, the man from Kief, the man from 
Naples, the man from Stockholm, the man from Glasgow, the man 
from Lisbon, from Tangiers, from the Congo, from Mesopotamia, from 
Armenia and from Siberia, from Kent and from Saxony, from Tuscany 
and from Brittany, from Quebec and from Coahuila, from Araby and 
Abyssinia to come here without restriction until recent years and 
acquire citizenship easily. 

Its danger is that in its dealings with other lands it will disintegrate. 
It was frankly said not long ago that the principal, the only, duty of 
the Italian ambassador in the United States was to direct the influence 
of Italians voting in the United States in the interests of Italy. Italians 
here are urged by their government to nationalize in the United States 
and help Italy by their votes as American citizens. This is true of 
other nationalities in spirit if not in form. These alien blocs in the 
United States tend to break down American purpose conceived purely 
for American well being. 

The United States is regarded as the soft shell crab of nations. It 
is supposed to be easy to fry. We admit that government mistakes 
might try the conscience of a citizen, but where will he take his indi- 
vidual judgment when the organized policy of his nation has committed 
him in a dispute with another nation? 

Will he admit that he may in clear conscience be with the other 
nation ? Then how does he expect to keep America, with her diverging 
elements, an integrated nation? Or does he not care, being in some 
high altitude of egotism, whether he is a citizen of a nation or an 
individual in a riot? Possibly he would prefer to be a citizen if he 

119 




*1< 



Tribune is 75 Years Young 

considered nothing more spiritual than his investments and real estate 
holdings. 

Our flag is up to stay. When the American nation makes its 
decisions in foreign relations we hope that the decisions are justifiable, 
but if another nation challenges them, and if force is to be the issue, 
then we are for the United States, right or wrong. 

In commemoration of its seventy-fifth anniversary, 
The Tribune 

— offers #100,000.00 in 
prizes for designs for 
a new building to be 
erected between its 
present Plant and 
Michigan Boulevard. 

— awards to Paul Cross 
Chapman a prize of 
$5,000.00 for mural 
paintings to be placed 
upon the walls of its 
news room. 

— announces the in- 
vention of a Color- 
Rotogravure press 
and its weekly use in 
printing a beautiful 
— new magazine sec- 
tion for The Sunday Tribune. 

— publishes this book. 

And, as this book goes to press, The Tribune is fighting 
tremendously important battles for free speech, and better 
government, not only in its columns but in the courts. 
Libel suits aggregating $11,350,000.00 are pending against 
it, and its suits to save Chicago more than four million 
dollars in "expert" fees await trial. Tribune circulation and 
advertising are at the highest points. Assuredly, The 
Chicago Tribune is 75 years YOUNG. 



IN PRIZES TO ARCHITECTS 

Seventy-five yean old today. The 
Tribune seeks surpassing beauty 
In new home on Michigan Boulevard 



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The World'j Cjreatgjt s«irjf»p«t 



SEVENTY. FIVE 



YEARS 



TODAY 



120 



THE PRESENT 

The business of publishing a newspaper- 
Editorial, Advertising, Circulation, 
Production, 



121 




122 



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Laying corner stone of 
Plant at St. Clair street 
and Austin avenue, 
June 7, 1920. Co- 
Editors and Publishers 
of The Tribune speak- 
ing—Col. R. R. Mc- 
Cormick at right — 
Capt. J. M. Patterson 
below. 





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Editorial Division 

TRULY great newspaper must be, first 
of all, a newspaper, because it is for news, 
first, that readers want a paper. 

The appetite for news is instinctive, an- 
other evidence of the gregarious nature of 
man ; we not only like to live together but 
we want to know the fortunes of our fellows. This appetite 
is deep seated, old as the race. The courier never lacked 
refreshment or a place by the fire ; the intelligence he bore 
made his welcome. The "oyez, oyez ,, of the crier opened 
shutters at midnight in the mediaeval towns. Today, in 
isolated places, the beat of hoofs, the sound of a strange 
motor, the sight of a sail, quickens the pulses; there 
may be news coming. 

The craving of news is logical, understandable. The 
material world of each of us, the world in which we live and 
work and play, is a little place, limited by necessity. But 
the world of the mind and soul is infinite, and in this inner 
personal world, each man is his own Columbus. We read 
avidly of countries we shall never see, people we shall never 
know, events that will never touch us ; of crime and heroism, 
accomplishment and disaster, vice and virtue — all to mag- 
nify and complete and furnish this inner world, wherein we 
go to escape the monotony, the limitations, the ennui of 
our own existence. We find in news a spiritual and emo- 
tional satisfaction. 

Moreover, news is a constructive force. We increase our 
knowledge, amplify our experience, and improve ourselves by 
the news we read. The shopgirl wants to read of marriages, 
of the work of men, of children, of new hats, because mar- 
riage and men and babies and hats are all part of her life to 
be. The man in the street is interested in rumors of wars; 
he has been in one and is concerned about taking part in 
another. He follows politics, because politics influence his 

125 



Tribune Energies Ever Focused on News 

future. He reacts to every story. Prices go down; his 
money will buy more. Employment is scarce; he may lose 
his job. New bond issues pay high interest; he ought to 
save. And so on. Not a day passes but the outlook, the 
personal plan and selfish program of all of us is influenced, 
determined, or modified by news. 

Indeed, the successful conduct of business, of social life 
and government, would be impossible today without news. 
The influence of news is collective as well as individual. 
War threatens in certain parts of the world; a government 
breaks off or cements certain foreign relations. There is a 
crime wave in Boston ; the local chief of police can look for 
one here. A strike in the coal mines; manufacturers con- 
serve coal. A cold wave is coming; department stores 
prepare for a rush on blankets and overcoats. Nine hun- 
dred thousand bushels of wheat are dumped on the Chicago 
exchange; prices fall, trade languishes, panic threatens, 
farmers protest, the government is disturbed. But tomor- 
row's newspaper tells the story of a clerical mistake in a 
brokerage house, and the anxiety of millions is dissipated. 

With these considerations, it is obvious why The Chicago 

Tribune, and all big newspapers, go to such lengths of 

effort and expense to secure news. News is the newspaper' s 

most important commodity. 

* * * 

The Tribune from its inception has always been noted 
for news. Pioneer in utilizing the telegraph, sponsor of 
the Western Associated Press, time and time again the first 
paper to discover and release important intelligence, this 
greatest paper has been untiring in its effort to encompass 
the daily grist of the world. The Tribune was the first 
newspaper in Chicago to receive news by telegraph and the 
first newspaper in the world to receive international news 
by wireless. Neither expense, nor effort, nor when neces- 
sary, time, is spared to get the news. This spirit always 
prevails in the whole editorial division of the paper; and 
as the need brings forth the men, this policy has always 
been instrumental in bringing to The Tribune the best 

126 



Individuality of Expression Encouraged 

ability in every editorial field. And, not the least reason 
for The Tribune's success is its human policy toward the 
people who find and write its news. 

Reporters like to work on The Tribune, for the obvious 
reason that it is pre-eminently the best paper; the associa- 
tion is in itself significant of merit and ability. Aside from 
this fact, which affects the whole personnel of the paper as 
well as the newsgathering end, there are more specific 
reasons which determine the newswriter's choice. 

In the first place, barring only the limitations of time and 
space, a reporter is, perhaps, under less restriction on The 
Tribune than on any other paper. The requirements are 
only that his copy be: first, news; second, interesting. Be- 
yond these, everything lies with himself. No office style, 
no hard and fast rules or methods of treatment, need be 
conformed with. Under such conditions, The Tribune 
newswriter is enabled to make the fullest possible use of his 
personal resources. If he sees a human interest in a news 
item, his story may be humorous, or pathetic, or moving as 
he can make it. The elements that make literature cannot 
spoil news, but rather improve it. As a consequence, the 
pages of The Tribune reflect life — fully and comprehen- 
sively. In the daily schedule, now and then is to be found 
a piece of writing that might be called classic — chuckles and 
tears and passages of vividness and power. 

This freedom of expression is the best incentive to abil- 
ity. It keeps the contents of the paper, and the staff, live. 
It is a perpetual invitation to do the best work. Homer 
would have liked to work on The Tribune; no blue pencil 
would have blurred the onamata-poeia of his lines. So 
would Horace, with his whimsicalities ; Herodotus, with his 
wealth of incident. So would Balzac, Addison, Samuel 
Johnson, Dickens, Hardy, Kipling, and Mark Twain. 
Because in writing Tribune news each of these would have 
opportunity to exercise his exceptional abilities. 

The Tribune's policy, in many other respects, assists the 
reporter. The paper not only professes to be independent 

127 



Business Office Seeks no Special Favors 

and non-partisan, but is. Just so the story be news, and 
true, The Tribune prints it, though it shake the portals of 
the state or pillars of society. A notable example of this 
independence is the incident of the peace treaty; when in 
1919 a Tribune reporter secured a copy of the withheld 
treaty, The Tribune printed it, because The Tribune 
believed that the right of the people of the United States to 
know the substance of the treaty came ahead of the possible 
diplomatic advantages that lay in keeping it secret. 

Furthermore, the business office is without influence in 
the reporter's realm. Advertising is sold strictly on a 
business basis with no editorial bonus. Dramatic, literary, 
automobile and movie editors write their comment and 
criticism with certainty that they may express their con- 
victions with absolute freedom. The Tribune has held 
steadfastly to this policy in the face of attempts to penalize 
it by heavy withdrawals of advertising. Tribune writers 
are often admired for their "fearless" criticisms. The 
"fearlessness" was The Tribune's. It paid the bill in loss 
of revenue, while the writer's salary went on as usual. 

The reporter on The Tribune feels, and is, secure. Harsh, 
"quick firing" methods in vogue on some papers have never 
prevailed on The Tribune. A Tribune reporter is not 
looked upon as a bird of passage. Thirty-two members of 
the editorial department have been on The Tribune more 
than ten years. The Tribune not only attracts, but holds, 
ability. 

The following extracts from an address by the city 
editor of The Tribune to the students of the Medill School 
of Journalism shows the attitude of this department of 
The Tribune toward its work: 

"News is a record of action. 

"If you will examine this definition in all its facets, I 
think that some day you may come to some understanding 
of the business of newspapers. You must become competent 
to set down a record and you must become competent to 
judge of what is an action fit to be recorded. A great many 

128 



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Framed #«<i /;#»£• on a post in the Local Room where all 
copyreaders can see it is the above collection of Tribune heads. ' 
When the city editor or telegraph editor passes a story to a 
copyreader, he marks it" 8 hed" or" 2 hed," etc. If the copy- 
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Prizes are offered each week for the best heads written by 
Tribune copyreaders. During the week each man clips the 
heads of which he is most proud and posts them on the bulletin 
board shown above. At the end of the week the managing 
editor looks over the entries and makes the awards as shown. 



Newspaper Must Thrill with Eternal Youth 

times you will be tempted to record something which you 
really believe ought to be the truth. But what ought to be 
the truth and what is the truth provokes a discussion that 
is likely to give you a great deal of concern. It is this very 
salubrious difference in values that will bring you acrid 
letters from our ancient friend vox pop ; and often cause you 
to decide that after all the best way to conduct a newspaper 
is with a sawed-off shotgun. 

"The newspaper business is a game of eternal youth. It 
wants snap and action. It reflects the growing world, not 
the middle-aged, sagging, comfortable world that has re- 
tired on a competence, or the decayed, woeful world that is 
standing on a street corner begging for alms. 

"The moment you regard the human race as a finished 
product you have quit newspapering and you are making 
your will. The newspaper is unlike almost any other busi- 
ness and yet nothing is quite so symbolic of the changing 
world. Each newspaper day is a complete cycle. Each 
twenty-four hours tells its story, banks the fire in the fur- 
nace, winds the clock and goes to bed. Nothing is so old, 
so stale, so tasteless to the newspaper man as yesterday's 
newspaper. We keep the newspapers of yesterday in a 
place called the morgue. You need no Arabian imagina- 
tion to tell you why it is called the morgue. 

"The news room lives for today. It is this eternal youth 
of the newspaper that makes the dangerous rainbow of 
color and atmosphere. You often are likely to hear such 
esthetic locutions as the "urge" and the "fascination of the 
life they lead/' the "thrill" and "excitement." If you are 
given to thinking of these things, forget them. They are for 
romantic laymen. You cannot be the scenery and the 
audience, too. 

"If this school can erase the notion that newspapers exist 
for dreamy, poetic minds whose sole product is to be only 
frothy little imaginings uttered without direction or restraint, 
it will have done a master's work. Even among those whom 
we consider experienced workers we constantly are meeting 

131 \ 



Success Demands Disciplined Organization 

with those who fondly conceive it to be their parts to turn 
out 'light, chatty stuff/ T cannot work on assignments,' 
they will say, 'I must go and pick up little stories here and 
there. I must write just as I feel. My copy can't be 
corrected. I always do my own correcting and my stories 
must run as I write them.' 

"Stop it. It isn't being done. The newspaper business 
is a serious affair. It deals intimately every day with the 
serious concerns of millions of people. Don't get the idea 
that it is conducted by a collection of irresponsibles who go 
charging about without mode or reason to publish, at a 
prodigious cost, inconsequential and childlike utterances. 
Every person on a newspaper has a direct mission and pur- 
pose. Everyone is under direction. There are no sacred 
cattle with divine license to ignore authority. Every act 
on a newspaper is done by delegated authority. 

"On a newspaper one of the most hopeless types of prima 
donna is the one that is completely intolerant of prima 
donnas. He is the one who constantly asserts he views his 
field with a broad, even distribution of light but never fails 
to complain bitterly because his last paragraph was left out. 

"The prima donna is one who will not understand that a 
newspaper is bounded by steel hoops — literally, not just 
speculatively. It is surprising what little elasticity there is 
in the metal page of type. And yet the prima donna will 
weep bitter tears, resign, curse the editor and classify him 
among the most unspeakable of blundering upstarts because 
the sacred brain child of the prima donna has been trimmed 
to fit. 

"A real star is one who fully understands that it is not his 
one little contribution that boxes the compass and puts man- 
kind at its ease, but that it is the complete newspaper, care- 
fully designed, each item of world news, of industry, econom- 
ics, domesticity, politics, science, health, crime — everything 
in proportion, that stamps the dependable and trustworthy 
journal. It is the easiest thing in the world for a newspaper 
to devote itself to the shocks, the horrors and atrocities of 

132 



Patient Labor by Trained Brains 

life. A newspaper man need have only a spoonful of brains 
to dip his journal in blood and wave it before a morbid mob. 
He is just as sure to attract attention as if he ran naked down 
the middle of State Street. But it does require knowledge 
and a steady hand to inquire into the complexities of advanc- 
ing civilization. 

' ' In order that this may be kept so, there has grown up 
the things we call system, efficiency. Stories are not printed 
without investigation. Even in the face of investigation 
there are mistakes. But that is because human judgment 
errs. Hardly any two persons can see the same event alike. 
That is why the newspaper requires trained minds with a 
capacity for patient inquiry and sound decision. You may 
not write what you think. You must write what you find. 

" Often I have thought about that pleasant delusion of 
the laymen: 'How thrilling and exciting it all must be.' 
The most exciting moment I can think of is when, at the 
deadline — the instant of going to press — a copyreader is 
trying to summarize a two-column story into a headline of 
l 2>Vi letters when his mind seems mechanically determined 
upon 14 letters. That half letter is holding up a whole com- 
posing-room, a mob of sweating, impatient stereotypers, a 
battalion of inky pressmen, a wagon train of circulation 
drivers and a half million readers. The torment that passes 
in that copyreader's brain is all the nerve-racking strain of a 
lifetime crystallized into the moment. And yet those who 
seek to view from the sidelines the mad clamor of the news- 
room will find their sole recompense in a lone individual 
sitting quietly and thoughtfully at a desk. 

"The excitement and thrill is not in the savage rush of 
reporters and yelling of editors. Your newspaper is the 
result of patient, constructive effort. It has been prepared 
by mental concentration. Men do not concentrate in a 
cyclone. That silent, thoughtful copyreader is the personi- 
fied prototype of the excitement you read about. " 



133 



Local News 




.ERHAPS the best idea of how local news 
is obtained will be gained by enumerating 
the sources of such news. 

The City News Bureau is a news-gather- 
ing organization jointly maintained by the 
daily papers of Chicago. By this co-opera- 
tive effort the newspapers avoid duplication of effort in 
covering routine sources of local news. The City News 
Bureau has its reporters stationed all over Chicago and 
suburbs. They are at police stations, City Hall, County 
Building, Courts, Federal Building, Board of Education, 
Hotels, etc. All is grist that comes to their mill, everything 
that is news or that might be news. They phone their 
stories to the main office of the Bureau at freauent intervals, 
not attempting to write finished productions, but sending in 
briefly, accurately, promptly, every possible facJ. 

The story is taken at the main office by a typist with a 
telephone receiver strapped to his head. Instead of ordinary 
paper his machine contains a stencil, on which he writes one 




r£LE6fi]APH ROOMS 



LOCAL 
ROOM 



' \DS\ R>\ R O^M~ r 
DARK ALLEY /\ 



PHOTO ROOM 




Fifth Floor of Chicago Tribune Plant 
134 



City News Bureau Bulletins Local Events 



or two sentences to a sheet. As fast as he finishes them the 
sheets are run through a duplicating machine and shot by 
pneumatic tube to every newspaper office. 

These News Bureau bulletins are instantly scanned by 
the man "on the desk." On receipt of the first " flash" he 
may rush every reporter he can reach to cover the big story 
it implies, or he may wait until all the News Bureau bulletins 
are in and then decide that it is worth turning over to a 
reporter for check-up, or he may discard it as valueless, or 
he may turn the sheaf of bulletins over to a "re-write man" 




Local Room on Fifth Floor of Tribune Plant 

135 



LOCAL 




How news passes from its sources to The Tribune's com- 
posing room. 



136 



City Desk is Never Vacant 

to be organized into a story. The volume of raw material 
for news stories turned out each day by the City News 
Bureau is enormous. 

A number of Tribune reporters are assigned to regular 
" beats" — City Hall, County Building, Federal Building — 
duplicating to a certain extent the work of the Bureau, but 
concentrating their efforts on the biggest events only. At 
night when ''dead lines" make minutes precious, and when 
crimes and fifes might be inadequately covered if hurriedly 
filtered through the Bureau, a "night police reporter" is 
kept out at a key police station on each side of the city. 

Of course there are many other sources of news. " Tips " 
flow in to the "city desk" from friends of The Tribune or 
of the staff, from policemen, officials, politicians, lawyers, 
hotel clerks, press agents, club women, business men, etc. 

* * * 

Someone is "on the city desk" every minute of the 
twenty-four hours every day in the year, ready to receive 
news and to concentrate the entire resources of The Tribune 
on covering it if necessary. 

Although the day never ends, it may be said to begin 
at 8 in the morning. At that hour the dog watch is relieved 
by the first day man on the desk. He finds the place clean. 
There is no litter on the floor, nor any accumulation of 
files or rubbish on the desks. It is like the beginning of the 
first day. His watch is usually a quiet one, though there are 
many telephone calls, events of the day to be noted for 
reference, and on occasion a robbery or a railway accident, 
to cover which reporters and photographers must be called 
and dispatched to the scene. 

At 10 o'clock the assistant city editor comes on and 
remains until 6 or later. Being in superior authority he is 
"on the desk" and so remains until about 5 o'clock when 
the city editor takes charge. The first duty of the assistant 
city editor is to make up the assignment book. This is a 
large folio volume, allowing two pages to each day and space 
for some two hundred entries. Some of these, those regular- 

137 



Innumerable Sources of Local News 

ly recurring, are printed but most of them are entered in 
writing each day. The information for this list comes from 
various sources. Yesterday's assignments and news clip- 
pings from the day's papers furnish some. The future box 
contains announcements of coming events. The City Press 
news always has something that must be followed up. The 
comparative news scrap book shows, in parallel columns, 
how the various events are treated in the morning news- 
papers. And the telephone and mail are bringing in facts 
or notices of coming events. From all these and every other 
available source is compiled a complete prognosis of the 
day. These usually range in number from 65 to 100. Oppo- 
site each event is set the name of the reporter who is to 
cover it. Sometimes a man is given two or more assign- 
ments for a day. At others any number of men up to a 
dozen may be assigned to a single event, with one of them 
in direction of all. 

After the assignments are given out, the daily routine 
continues. There is a continual trickle of copy from the 
City News Bureau. And all the while the telephone, the 
mail and the telegraph are bringing in additional matter 
requiring attention. 

Between 11 and 1 o'clock there is a perceptible increase 
in the activity of the place. The society, religious, financial 
and real estate editors come in. These usually finish their 
work and turn it in to the city editor by 6 o'clock. The 
reporters also come, except those who, like the police report- 
ers, have regular assignments and do not appear until the 
day's work is done. They first get their mail, then look at 
the assignment book and get further information when 
necessary, and go about the work in hand. Those having 
afternoon assignments are expected to complete them and 
turn in their copy by 6 o'clock to relieve the congestion 
of the later hours, and also to be ready for evening assign- 
ments. 



138 



Departments 



A SSOCIATED with the local staff are various editors 
J \ who cover particular fields of news requiring 
A. JL specialized attention. 

The political writers, for instance, devote their entire 
attention to this field. The political editor's strength lies 
as much in what he knows and in who he knows as in what 
he writes. Other staff men specialize in economics and 
sociology. 



* * * 



The Religious Editor is always a clergyman. He also 
conducts "The Bank of Kindness" which receives and 
distributes contributions for various worthy charitable 
cases brought to public attention by the news columns — 
relief for the family of a policeman or fireman killed in the 
performance of his duty, funds for free ice and vacations 
for the children of the poor, Chinese or Russian famine 

relief, etc. 

* * * 

The Society Editor is always a woman and has a woman 
assistant. On occasions such as the opera she increases her 
staff by recruiting other feminine members of the editorial 
department. She has correspondents in New York, London, 
Paris, Palm Beach, etc., and keeps close check on the activi- 
ties of Chicago's haut monde. An enormous amount of 
news is mailed or brought in person by the public to this 
department, and the lists of engagements, weddings, and 
social events fill columns in The Tribune every Sunday. 
The affairs of Chicago's many women's clubs are followed 

by a special Club Editor. 

* * * 

Sports are handled by a highly specialized department 
affiliated with Local. It comprises seven or eight men, each 
of whom is expert in one or more branches of sport — foot- 
ball, golf, pugilism, etc. Three men follow baseball almost 

139 



Sports and Real Estate both Important 

exclusively. There was a time when reports of professional 
baseball practically dominated the sporting pages except 
for a brief period when football ruled. Professional baseball 
is still of great importance, but The Tribune has taken the 
lead among American newspapers in giving proper recogni- 
tion to the many other sports in which millions of citizens 
are not only interested, but in which they actually par- 
ticipate. 

Special attention is given to high school and college 
sports, to fraternal society, business institution, municipal 
playground, and semi-professional sports. Among the 
sports regularly covered by the sporting department of 
The Tribune are track and field, skating, roque, polo, 
swimming, chess, checkers, bridge, skat, yachting, bowling, 
billiards, soccer, lacrosse, racing, trap-shooting, hunting, 
fishing, fly-casting, wrestling, handball, tennis. 

The Sporting Department has its own staff of corre- 
spondents in other cities and at colleges and universities. 
A large volume of news is sent in to this department by the 
public. * * * 

The Real Estate Editor has his own column every day 
and fills a page each Sunday with news of important leases, 
changes in ownership, building construction, real estate 
mortgages and bond issues. The Tribune pays an annual 
fee to the Cook County Recorder of Deeds for the privilege 
of copying his records each day. Other news is volunteered 
by brokers, agents, contractors, and architects. This 
department is closely followed by business men and prop- 
erty owners because of the large and swift effect which 
transfers of title or projected improvements may have on 
property values. Material submitted is therefore carefully 
checked and edited. The influence of this department is 
decidedly constructive, and aids whenever possible the 
extensive program for municipal development known as 
The Chicago Plan. * * * 

The Financial Editor, an assistant and a New York 
correspondent record the daily pulse of the financial and 

140 



Specialists Write of Markets and Movies 

industrial world. Interest and exchange rates, bank clear- 
ings, stock sales and prices, dividends, bond issues, etc., 
must be reported promptly and with absolute accuracy. 
Although exceedingly condensed and printed with abbrevia- 
tions that make some of it almost unintelligible to the 
uninitiated, the news occupies one or two pages every day. 
The world of finance is always clouded with rumors, some 
casual or circumstantial, others deliberate propaganda. 
Consequently financial newsgathering is a delicate opera- 
tion. The Tribune strives to eliminate the gossip and 

rumors and to print only facts. 

* * * 

Market Editors report the news and quotations of the 
Board of Trade, the Stock Yards, and South Water Street. 
This news, together with current prices for metals, cotton, 
sugar, oils, dry goods, and other raw materials, fills one or 
two pages each day. The Board of Trade is the world's 
most important grain market, the Stock Yards constitute 
vastly the greatest market for cattle, hogs and sheep, and 
South Water Street probably buys and sells more butter, 
eggs, vegetables and fruits than any similar area on earth. 
The Tribune also prints each day the quotations of markets 
in other cities, stocks in Boston and Philadelphia, grain in 
Omaha and St. Paul-Minneapolis, cattle in Kansas City, etc. 

Practically all the bankers, manufacturers, and big 
business men throughout the Central West read The 
Chicago Tribune every day as an essential part of their 
business day because of this detailed, up-to-the-minute 
picture of national and local market conditions. 

* * * 

But the tired business man and his wife and his daughter 
and his son and his father and his mother and his remote 
relatives and humblest employes are interested in knowing 
how to spend the evening most entertainingly. For their 
guidance, the Literary Editor, the Dramatic Editor and the 
Motion Picture Editor criticize current offerings in their 
respective fields. Motion pictures are reviewed every day 
and theatrical productions as often as new ones are pre- 

141 



Tribune Apologizes Daily for Errors 

sented in Chicago. Both receive large treatment in The 
Sunday Tribune with the addition of a weekly report from 
The Tribune's dramatic correspondent in New York. 
Books are treated on Sunday only. There is an extensive 
review of one worth-while book by the Literary Editor, a 
column of comment and gossip by his assistant, and reviews 
of books on varied subjects by specialists. 

* * * 

An interesting and distinctive department originated by 
The Tribune is known as the Beg- Your- Pardon Department. 
Each day, if necessary, apologies for and corrections of 
errors in the news report are made under the above head- 
ing. News passes through many hands before it appears in 
type, and in the pressure of securing, printing and distribut- 
ing upwards of one hundred thousand words of it each night, 
mistakes are inevitable. Every week, therefore, The 
Tribune prints an advertisement on its first page acknowl- 
edging its fallibility and urging readers to report any errors 
they may discover to the Beg- Your- Pardon Department. 




Tribune. Local Room 
142 



National News 



NEWS of the nation comes to The Tribune from 
the Associated Press, from the United News 
Service, from The Tribune's own news bureaus 
in New York and Washington, and from hundreds of 
correspondents in other towns and cities. 

The Associated Press is a world-wide organization for 
gathering news and distributing it to newspapers. It is a 
co-operative institution financed by the newspapers which 
hold "charter memberships" in it. The number of mem- 
berships in each city is limited, and an "A. P. charter" is 
often very valuable. An entire newspaper with its plant is 
sometimes purchased in order to secure a charter. 

The United News is a similar service. The Tribune uses 
both in order to get all possible news, to get it as quickly as 
possible, and to get every angle on each piece of news. The 
"United" occasionally gets an "exclusive" story which does 
not come to the notice of the A. P. correspondents, and vice 
versa ; and one service may secure a story hours in advance 
of the other. The employment of these two great news- 
gathering organizations ensures the best of all the news 
extant. The Tribune is by no means dependent upon these 
services. Its own correspondents frequently * scoop " both 
of them. 

The Tribune's New York news bureau, situated in the 
New York Times Building, serves as source of New York 
City, Eastern, and some foreign news, all of which is trans- 
mitted by The Tribune's special leased wires. This bureau 
has access to all the news of The New York Times and of the 
New York News, The Tribune's own paper in New York. 

The Washington news bureau covers national politics, 
governmental and diplomatic affairs. The Tribune's Wash- 
ington staff consists of three correspondents and a number of 
assistants, reporters who keep track of the activities of the 
various departments and legations. From this staff The 

143 



Hundreds of Correspondents 

Tribune obtains its national political news, for which the 
paper has always been noted. A Washington correspondent 
must be more than a reporter; the job requires a close stu- 
dent of affairs, somewhat of a diplomat and politician. 
Men prominent in public life have been graduated from this 
bureau. 

The other correspondents, excluding the Foreign News 
Service, literally run into hundreds. The Tribune has at 
least one in every large city and sizable town, usually a 
staffman on a local paper. These correspondents send a 
"flash" — a schedule of stories available — by wire and the 
telegraph editor wires back his order. The query, for in- 
stance, may run : 

WABASH WRECK, 6 KILLED— 600; TAFT SPEECH 
DEDICATION CO. BLDG.— 400; 
MAYORALITY ELECTION— 500 

The figures indicate the number of words in the story. 
The telegraph editor wires back: Wreck 300, Taft 200, 
signifying that he will buy three hundred words on the 
wreck, two hundred on Mr. Taft's speech, and nothing on 
the mayoralty election. These correspondents are also 
called upon when further detail or verification is required 
on important A. P. stories. They are paid fixed rates per 
column. 




144 



Foreign News 




[N foreign lands The Tribune maintains 
thirty-six correspondents. Many of these 
are salaried men, while some, known as 
casual correspondents, receive liberal pay- 
ment scaled with regard for the character 
and quality of their production rather than 
quantity. While on assignment away from their established 
headquarters, all correspondents are reimbursed for their 
traveling and living expenses. 

In the more important posts correspondents have sec- 
retaries and assistants and, in some cases, correspondents 
appoint representatives here and there in the territory for 
which they are responsible to insure adequate covering of the 
field. Large offices are maintained in Paris, London, Berlin, 
Rome, Peking, Manila and Dublin, and in each of these 
bureaus several correspondents make their headquarters. 
Upon orders from the European director, or from the home 
office, these correspondents rush from place to place by 
trains, autos, and, frequently, by airplanes, wherever 
news is breaking. Their stories are telephoned or tele- 
graphed to their individual headquarters and then are 
relayed to Chicago via cable or wireless as speedily as 
possible. Wherever news is to be found in the world, 
there also may be found a Tribune man or a Tribune 
connection. Tientsin is the clearing point for Tribune 
news from China and Siberia, and Tokio for Japan, with 
Manila sometimes as a relay station. Sydney, Australia, 
looks after the antipodes and Buenos Aires has watchful 
eyes upon South America. 

The Tribune being an American newspaper it is deemed 
best that Europe and the rest of the world be covered in an 
American way, so, with very few exceptions, The Tribune's 
foreign staff is made up of men who made good in the home 
office. They are instructed to cover the news impartially, 

145 



Foreign Dispatches Transmitted in "Cablese" 

that is to present both sides of every argument, and to sub- 
merge their personal opinions. 

Code books are seldom used in the foreign news service, 
but there are other short outs which are taken full advan- 
tage of. The definite and indefinite articles are never 
cabled and conjunctions and prepositions are included only 
when absolutely necessary. 

There was a time when a correspondent was permitted 
to coin almost any sort of a word containing up to ten let- 
ters or he could save many words by use of prefixes and 
suffixes. But now a ruling has been made that prohibits 
combinations unless the combinations appear in an Amer- 
ican dictionary. Cable dispatches are read carefully by 
an agent of the Company and where the rule has been 
broken extra words are charged for. 

Nevertheless, many words included in the press dis- 
patches nowadays must puzzle the operators somewhat, 
for correspondents searching for shortcuts in the diction- 
ary soon build up strange vocabularies. The language 
which the correspondents employ in their dispatches is 
called "Cablese." Thus exlondon and londonward are 
cabled instead of from London and to London and only 
one word is charged for by the cable company. 

Despite the great care with which wireless, cable and 
telegraph operators perform their functions, it is seldom 
that a dispatch comes through letter perfect. In the case 
of wireless this is due to a great extent to static interference. 
In cabling from Paris to Chicago, for example, the dispatch 
must be transmitted over three separate lines; Paris to the 
cable station, over the cable and from the American cable 
station to the addressee by land telegraph. Thus mistakes 
causing garbled words find three open doors to enter. 

* * * 

At the end of every night's work the last duty of the 
cable editor is to send a cable to each of the bureau points 
which includes three things — a transmission report show- 
ing the time each dispatch was received in The Tribune 

146 



J'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U' 



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Wireless operator in Tribune Plant receiving dispatch 
direct from Bordeaux, France. 




Flashlight photograph of crowd receiving election returns in 
front of Tribune offices at Madison and Dearborn Streets. 



I»U , U , U , U , U , U , U'UIU , U , U"U'U'U I U , UIU»UIUIU , U , U , U , U , U , U , U'U'U , U'U , U , U , U»U«1- 




London offices of The Tribune at 125 Pall Mall, S. JV., 1. 
In these offices John Steele, Chicago Tribune correspondent, 
brought together representatives of the British Government 
and of the Dail Errain in conferences which led to those in 
which Lloyd George and Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins 
worked out the Irish Free State Treaty. Since the establish- 
ment of The Irish Free State The Tribune also has offices in 
Dublin. 



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Cable Editor Keeps Detailed Records 

office; a report showing how each important foreign story 
was played by The Tribune that night, and any criticism or 
praise deemed necessary; and instructions, if any, for the 
following day's work. 

The first word of a correspondent's dispatch is always 
the dateline of the story; the second word is the name of the 
writer. The last word is the name of the filer of the dis- 
patch and just preceding this name is a figure of five digits. 
This shows the cable editor the date and time of filing at 
the cost of one word, numbers of five digits being counted 
as one word by the cable companies. In cabling to corre- 
spondents the cable editor refers to any specific story by 
using this number. 

For instance, he might cable a correspondent : 

"Your 21 1 J 4 scooped America 21220 killed editorial 
stop 21235 Tribune." 

The first two digits indicate the day of the month ; the 
next two the hour of the day from one to twenty-four, and 
the last digit that portion of the hour divided into sixths in 
which the dispatch was sent. So when the cable reads 
21 174 it refers to a story filed by the correspondent April 21 
in the afternoon between 5 140 and 5 150 o'clock. Ciphers 
are used to fill out the full five digits so between 9 and 9:10 
o'clock on the morning of the seventh of the month would 
be 07090. 

The cable editor also keeps each night a careful schedule 
of each dispatch received. This schedule when completed 
shows of each story the city from which it came; the name of 
the author; the subject of the story; the time filed; the time 
received; the method of transmission, wireless, cable or mail; 
the number of words contained in the original dispatch ; the 
number of words appearing in the paper, and the disposition 
of the story showing what page and column and under what 
style of headlines the story was carried, or, if the story was 
killed or held over, the reason for such procedure. 

Every ten days there are prepared by the Cable Desk 
from these schedules similar records of the production of 

149 




The Tribune's European Territory 

December 31, 1920 

Each dot on this map indicates a point at which the European Edition of The 
Chicago Tribune is sold and read regularly. Beyond this, the European 
Edition circulates in America, Arabia, India, Madeira and Persia. 



150 



Maps Illustrate Stories from Abroad 

each principal correspondent to be sent by mail. The cor- 
respondents on receipt of these records are enabled to con- 
sult their files of The Tribune and learn just what has been 
the fruit of their endeavors, and why. 

Another means of keeping the men abroad in close touch 
with the home office and The Chicago Tribune viewpoint is 
the careful preparation by the Cable Desk of a circular let- 
ter each week. These letters go to all hands abroad. They 
give in some detail the domestic news of the past week and 
the probable focus of interest for American newspaper 
readers for the next few weeks. They also record the ac- 
complishments of the foreign staff; describe conditions in 
the home office, and include any general instructions or 
orders that may be in order. 

All the cable or wireless copy is skeletonized, most of it 
so closely as to require virtual re-writing, and all must be 
filled in, that is translated from Cablese to newspaper 
English, punctuated, paragraphed and sub-headed. Then 
headlines must be written. When this has been done and 
the brief foreign news summary has been written, the copy 
is taken to the night editor who reserves space for it in the 
paper. Then it goes to the compositors. 

* * * 

Two by-products of The Chicago Tribune Foreign News 
Service are maps and photographs, and all correspondents 
are always desired to think in pictures and maps on all their 
assignments. Pictures of all noteworthy events abroad that 
possess distinct American interest are secured by the corre- 
spondents and mailed immediately to Chicago. 

The maps on foreign affairs are prepared by The Trib- 
une's cartographer, from information supplied by the cable 
editor. Occasionally, as in the case of recent earthquakes 
in Argentina and Chile and of the great Chinese famine 
where areas were affected which no existing map would 
indicate, the correspondents cabled minute details for draw- 
ing maps in The Tribune office. These cables which gave 
a starting point by latitude and longitude and then traced 

151 



Much News Received via Wireless 

the area by means of compass bearings to other definite 
positions until the starting point was returned to, would 
seem hopeless to many persons, but the cartographer reveled 
in them and The Tribune scored map scoops because of his 
ability and the initiative of the correspondents, who, by 
the way, scooped the world with their stories also. 

For some months in 1920 and 1921 The Tribune received 
its European dispatches by wireless from Bordeaux to The 
Tribune Plant. Since governmental restrictions and com- 
mercial red tape forced the abandonment of this service a 
new arrangement has been made for the receipt of news by 
wireless. 

The Tribune and a group of other papers have organized 
a co-operative wireless station at Halifax, which now 
handles the bulk of the wireless press traffic of the world, 
particularly on the Atlantic. This station works from six 
to nine hours daily with the new British postofBce trans- 
mitter at Leafield, near Oxford, in England. This station 
also has the record of handling in actual practice, the fastest 
sending of press in the world, receiving forty-two words a 
minute over a considerable period in the actual reception of 
press dispatches. This speed is about twice that attained 
by the usual cable. 



The Chicago Tribune Foreign New* Service, 420, Rue Saint-Honori, Paris. 
Expense account of Correspondent IAERY SUE 



stationed fl/,..C0H31AKTI|K!i , S,5, covering operations in TORXBY ASP SOOTH RUSSIA 



5 CHIMSA TRCM SEPT 1, Sept 20 ftuoles 



Pood (average 70,000 rubles dally Including ent. 
Boon expenses, tips, sheets, 10,000 moles dally 
Carriages average 15,000 dally 
Incidentals, laundry, eta. 

%\ - 25,000 rubles. 2,055,900 - $82.23 

Total 
Paid out in dollars 



1.470.CXX 
210, OCX 
315, (XX 
60.9CK 



2,055,90< 

$82.23 



152 



Makeup of News 

TO make certain of getting the paper out on time it 
has been found necessary to act according to plan. 
The whole procedure for the editorial assembling 
of the news of the day or night must be mapped out. The 
telegraph and cable editors prepare a schedule of the news 
in hand or in prospect for the whole night. The city editor 
does the same with the local news. The advertising depart- 
ment prepares a schedule of advertisements to be inserted 
for the foreman of the composing room, where the adver- 
tisements are set up in type and assembled. 

The news schedules are simply lists of stories made up 
of items something like this: "Russia, 50," meaning a story 
about Russian affairs 50 per cent of a column in length. 
An allotment of several columns will be made on the schedule 
for filler — short items of interest used just as the name im- 
plies as filler in the newspaper. Only the display head 
stories are designated by slug or guide lines — in plain 
English by name — so that they may be assembled and placed 
in the paper with greater facility. 

The makeup editor copies these schedules on a larger 
schedule blank of his own. He also lists on his schedule 
the cuts or engravings to be made from pictures which are 
to illustrate the paper. He adds up the total space for 
telegraph, cable, city news, markets, pictures, and so forth. 
He finds out from the foreman of the printers what the 
advertisements total. Assume that this total is 180 col- 
umns. The foreman and night editor confer and decide 
that a 32-page paper will give sufficient room for the news. 
A 32-page paper of 8 columns to the page makes 256 col- 
umns and after subtracting the 180 columns of advertising, 
it is found that 76 columns remain for reading matter and 
pictures. 

Adding up the news schedules and the space alloted for 
sports, markets, editorials and other departments reveals 

153 



Editors Allot Space to Each Story 

the fact that more than 80 columns are scheduled. Here 
the managing editor takes a hand and goes over the night 
editor's schedule to reduce it to the necessary 76 columns. 
He has the city, telegraph and cable editors outline their 
stories, decides what each is worth in space and orders it 
cut down or expanded as his judgment dictates. 

He may decide that "Russia, 50" is not worth a display 
heading, but can be used to best advantage, if at all, as a 
short item. On the other hand he may rule that his sub- 
ordinate editor has erred or underestimated a big piece of 
news of vital interest in world affairs. In which case it is 
entirely likely that he will order Russia expanded to two 
columns and some other stories cut down to make up for 
the expansion. 

There may be so much general news that ought to be 
printed that the managing editor will decide to cut down 
the space ordinarily given sports and markets and the heads 
of these departments will be instructed to shorten their 
stories, or the reverse might be true and general news have 
to be trimmed to provide space for extraordinary market 
or sport news. 

The necessity of all this planning is quite apparent at 
press time when the news is being fitted into the paper. 
Often a story will not fit in the particular position where the 
makeup editor has placed it, and then it must be given 
another position, or it must be cut in type or more room 
provided somehow by leaving out other news or by shifting 
of advertisements. 

In spite of all planning it nearly always happens that a 
great deal of news is omitted for lack of space, but if sched- 
ules had not been prepared and there had been no planning 
it is fair to assume that more stories would be left out, that 
careful selection of the best news would be difficult and 
often impossible, that the composing room would be a bed- 
lam with editors and printers lost in a chaos of type. 
Theoretically this careful planning and preparation leads to 
the selection and printing of the cream of the news. 

154 



Character of News Varies with Editions 

News stories do not go into the paper hit or miss. The 
makeup editor is supplied with "dummies" of the pages 
after the advertising has been placed. The dummy pages 
are part of the plan to avoid confusion, to make sure that 
there is a place for everything worth while in the paper 
and to guide the printer who makes up the page. 

In the first edition it is the aim not only to give the 
readers the best news available, but also to give them the 
particular news of most interest to them. It follows that 
the first edition carries news of particular interest to rural 
readers — news of general interest, farm news if there is any, 
news of local interest to Wisconsin and other nearby states, 
because that edition goes to those states. 

If the Wisconsin news be of interest to Wisconsin readers 
only, the routine proceedings of that state's legislature for 
instance, it will not survive in the later edition. In the 
argot of the profession it is "killed." But if it is something 
that will interest or amuse, or if the Wisconsin legislature 
is considering a matter of great importance, it will be kept 
alive and printed in the later editions. It might be only a 
frivolous item about a proposal of some legislator to tax all 
bachelors. Then it may be found on the first page of the 
city edition. 

The aim is to print constructive news, informative news, 
news with a lesson in it and something with a smile or a 
tear in it, something that will stir the emotions. News- 
papers are frequently accused of printing too much frivolous 
and inconsequential matter, but what does not appeal to 
one person will probably interest another, and judicious 
variety secures and holds many readers. 

* * * 

Variety is one of the important things to consider in 
making up Page One. The first page is the paper's show 
window. The best and most thrilling or important news 
which gets the biggest display will be put normally in the 
right hand column, or what is called the "turn" column 
position. That means that if it is more than a column in 

155 



Every Page made Interesting 

length the reader will turn to page two to complete his 
reading of the account. 

There is method to this, of course. The idea is that 
the reader has been lured to the interior of the paper where 
he will find other news and advertisements to interest him. 
Page One also carries the local weather report and a cartoon. 
Page Three is made attractive with a large picture and the 
next best news to that on page one, and so on all through 
the paper. Right hand pages get the best news and cuts 
because these pages strike the eye of the reader first. 

Similarly most stories continued or jumped from page 
one go on left hand pages because the reader can be led 
there, and he doesn't need any leading to the right hand 
pages. 

Markets, sports, the detailed weather report and want 
advertising are usually placed in the second section. These 
are departments that it is advisable to give regular, fixed 
positions, and in addition the persons interested will hunt 
them up in the back of the paper as readily as they would 
in a forward position. 

After the turn story for page one is chosen, the problem 
of selecting the other news for display arises. Sometimes 
there is so much news worthy of page one that it is hard 
to make a selection. At other times it is difficult to find 
variety. In The Tribune it is customary to put the best 
Washington news — the most important story relating to 
national progress or welfare — in the first column of the 
first page. The other columns get various stories of interest 
which may be of wars, education, crime, scandal, discovery 
or whatnot, with a due regard always to avoid improper or 
excessive featuring of crime and scandal. An attempt is 
always made to get at least one story on page one of par- 
ticular interest to women. 

Making up the paper constantly develops the problem 
of the worth of individual stories as to space and display. 
"What can you tell it in ?" is the question of the editorial 
executive. "A column ,, or "a thousand words" or "500 

156 



Copy Must Flow Steadily to Printers 

words'* may be the reply, and more often than not the 
verdict is: "Too much; write it in 200 words." Or the 
editor, out of the wealth of his experience might know 
that the story could not be told properly in the space 
designated and order a column and a half written. 

News values are relative. What may be a big story at 
one time will attract little attention in or out of the office 
at another. Almost any happening is dwarfed on the 
night of a national election and the report that would other- 
wise be featured on page one will find a place on an obscure 

back page. 

* * * 

Every move in the mechanical processes of printing a 
newspaper must be done on schedule and the supervisor of 
that schedule, the "train despatcher," so to speak, is the 
Night Editor, or Make-Up Editor. It is his duty to see 
that every edition goes to press on time, and that various 
departments are so supplied with work as to operate most 
efficiently. 

Copy passes through his hands and it is possible for him 
to regulate the flow to the printers. When there is more 
copy than the printers can put into type before press time 
it is his duty to weed it out, to select the best or essential 
stories and hold back the less important or pass it on to the 
composing room copycutter with some such marking as "Set 
when clear," which means that when the copycutter's hook 
or spike is clear of what the printers call "takes" he can have 
this matter set up so that there will be no slack time in the 
printers' period of production. 

Perhaps the printers are out of copy and then the night 
editor tries to get some from the telegraph and city editor. 
The aim is to keep the flow steady, sometimes accentuating 
and sometimes retarding, sometimes marking a story "rush" 
or "put ahead." If all the matter printed in a newspaper 
were dumped on the printers two hours before press time it 
could not be set except by maintaining an extraordinarily 
large force who would work but two hours a day. 

157 



Every Move Conforms to Rigid Schedule 

It is the make-up editor's duty also to see that the pages 
of type when made up go to the stereotypers, who cast them 
into plates for the pressmen, in a steady stream. "Pages 
must not be bunched!" is the order. The reason for this is 
the same as for the regulation of copy. If too much work 
is dumped onto the stereotypers and pressmen at one time 
they will be swamped, and the printing of the newspaper 
will be delayed. 

The Tribune has nine steamtables, which with the 
molding machines turn out the matrices of the printed 
pages from which the leaden plates are cast, from which 
in turn the paper is actually printed. Each steamtable 
will accommodate one page of type which must stay under 
the steamtable for seven minutes before the matrix is suffi- 
ciently dry to retain its form and hold the imprint of the 
page of type. 

If the paper has thirty-two pages and the pages were 
handled in batches of nine at intervals of seven minutes 
there would be three full batches of nine and one small one 
of five in twenty-eight minutes. But they cannot be han- 
dled in quite that way. There are two molding machines 
and each page must go through the molding machine to 
get an impression; in addition each matrix requires a little 
work after it comes out from the steamtable and before it 
goes to the casting room. 

The casters must have three or four minutes to make 
each curved plate for the press and they must produce sev- 
eral casts of the same page for the different presses. So 
the stereotypers must have one or two pages at a time over 
a period of about an hour. And to do this the whole news- 
paper organization must work on a schedule and some of 
the reporters must produce early copy. 

A certain train leaves at say n o'clock at night for 
Springfield. The next train leaves at 4 in the morning, 
but that is too late to get The Chicago Tribune to Spring- 
field in time to catch the people going to work. Conse- 
quently to get your paper into the Springfield area the last 

158 



Late News Necessitates Replating 

page must leave the composing room where the type is set 
at 10 o'clock. That is called the "deadline" for the com- 
posing room. The editorial room has its "deadline" for 
the edition, which is half an hour earlier. 

Sending the last page away at 10 o'clock will give the 
stereotypers time to cast the plates, the pressmen to print 
the paper, the mailing room time to prepare the bundles 
and the circulation department time to haul the bundles 
to the railroad station. A great many trains must be 
caught on narrow margins of time and five minutes or even 
one minute delay by a reporter may result in his story being 
left out of the paper. 

The purveying of news is not confined to regular edi- 
tions. It is the practice of all newspapers when they get 
an important piece of news to break in on the regular run 
of the press with what is known as a "replate." While the 
presses continue to hum a change is made on page one and 
such pages as may be necessary or desirable, the new news 
is inserted in place of something of lesser importance, the 
new plates of the remade pages are cast and then the presses 
are shut down, the new plates put on and the presses begin 
to whir again within a few minutes with some new tale of 
import to the world inserted among the diverse items on the 
printed pages. «*,«*!«,.<*,*«. 






Iro 






u 



Crv 



***»•>« ^#*u» 



Dummy Page Showing Stories to Run 
159 



Art and Photographic 
Department 

THE art department of The Chicago Tribune con- 
sists of a group of specialists, comprising political 
cartoonists, "comic" artists, illustrators, fashion 
artists, lettering experts, cartographers, photograph 
retouchers and "layout" men. It is seldom that a specialist 
in one of these lines is expert in another. This is true 
largely because of the three reproductive processes which 
succeeded each other in the history of news illustration. 

The first of these, the wood cut, was brought to its 
highest point of effectiveness during the Civil War, by the 
first noted American cartoonist, Thomas Nast. This medi- 
um, which involved the artist's carving his drawing directly 
upon the block, was a tedious and difficult one and illus- 
trated papers were few, but Nast's stirring cartoons — 
appeals for the preservation of the Union — were of such 
widespread popularity as to evoke the constant admiration 
of Lincoln himself, and to create an increased demand for 
graphic portrayal of events of the day. 

Came the chalk plate, differing in consistency alone, 
from the wood cut. This somewhat more facile repro- 
ductive medium brought to the fore the daily newspaper 
assignment artist. 

In the 'eighties, the photo engraving process was in- 
vented, liberating the artist from the mechanical labor of 
etching his own plates, and in time enlarging the field of 
journalistic art, to include what is now the cartographer, 
the fashion artist and the "letter man." 

Then with the improvement of the process, making 
possible the reproduction of half tones (a development of 
twenty-five years ago), the assignment artist was succeeded 
by the staff photographer, whose work necessitated the 

160 



Holds Records for Number of Illustrations 

co-operation of the photo retoucher and the decorative 
expert, known as the " layout " man. 

The newspaper art department is — in common with 
the news room — a training school. Some of the foremost 
cartoonists, painters, and illustrators of the day received 
their earliest and most valuable education in a news- 
paper's art room, and many of these were trained in the 
rudiments of their profession in the art department of 
The Chicago Tribune. 

This newspaper, unlike most of its metropolitan con- 
temporaries, combines in one group, the illustrators who 
illuminate its Sunday magazine and the men engaged in 
the humbler though equally important task of handling 
the photographs, maps, etc., which appear in its daily 
news sheets. This affords an incalculable inspirational 
advantage to the artist, and makes for a centralization of 
control valuable to the paper itself, for by this means the 
widely diversified talents of the department may be con- 
centrated unreservedly toward any end prescribed by the 
requirements of the paper as a whole. 

The Chicago Tribune prints, daily and Sunday a greater 
number of photographs than any other newspaper in the 
United States. To accomplish this task, it employs the 
largest newspaper art staff. Its Sunday magazine utilizes 
the talents of three illustrators on the staff, and as many 
more not directly connected with the paper. In addition 
to these, its fashion experts — in Paris and New York — 
engage the services of artists in both cities. Also, there are 
two fashion artists employed on the staff. 

The Tribune's photographic staff has a personnel of 
fifteen. They cover an average of twenty-five assignments 
a day, seven days a week. To prepare their photographs and 
those from other sources for publication, the art department 
maintains a staff of two retouchers and six "layout" men. 

Since the Serajevo incident in 19 14, the Tribune has 
made a practice of printing a map each day illustrating, 

161 



Photo Assignments Carefully Scheduled 

topographically, an outstanding feature of the daily news, 
and one artist specializes in this work. 

In all, The Tribune employs from 35 to 40 artists, 
cartoonists and photographers, who turn out approxi- 
mately one hundred drawings and five hundred photographs 
each week. 



Uay 



ASSIGNMENT SHEET 

HOItHJ 

1m 



stagg 

Bowling 

Arena 



Hooster 



Genblars 



Hartal 



Clyne 



Sribe 



Doris 



otspoemoM 



Thera la plo stoat frea 
r ea t erday at Stagg Field at 
I a ■ today. 

At -Senslngera Wabash bowlii* 

i Al» at 2;20'for group * T 

liidivldwnl plot of Birk- 

( olas woman bowling taaa. 

Ask for Ut»« Sohroodor who 

will furnish info for foto \. 

i ho is oapt or angr of tin feaw 

This efyemoon at Ulohlgan 
( lty for plo of new arena 
whloh la being built for 
the 460,000 parse lightweight 
qhampionship this mummer. Auk 
for Ot Whitenan overseer 
construction work at the 
which is about 5 blooks 
from Michigan Central ?* 
station. Take taxi iron th< 
station to arena. 

too K Jaaes at 4915 HaYensJwood 
ivanue, fone -avanawood 6685 
las roostar that parforjis, 
aounts kids bed a roats his 
>ut in morn, danoes dooa 
> very thing. 

Shoriff'e wen are to smash 
1 f iling devises taken in 

raid in Uioero so o tine 
i. go. See Otto Owenioh 

Catherine --artal, deserteh 
by husband, trios suiolde. 
: s taken to itossevant hospital 
l lives at 669 II Dearborn 

Investigation of Clyne a 
< ffico starts. 

Francis J I'nhoney in O'Don^ell 
jury fixing case, it to 
aopoar before Judge Caverlfc 
is contempt hearing this mo(rn 

Doris Hutchinson— Frank H 
Katteneroth lore affair in 
court. She is suing hia 
k tows rengeanoe. 



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He: lea 



Fi»k 



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(10) 



(10) 



( It) 



At«oU 



H< lien 



tight 



This is a facsimile of an assignment sheet used in the sys- 
tematic search for photographs to illustrate The Daily Tribune. 
News assignments are similarly laid out in advance and 
closely checked. 

162 



Features 



("GROUPED under the comprehensive title "Features," 
-w> are varied departments of service, instruction and 
J entertainment. Many of them are handled in what 
is known as the "Sunday Room" under the "Sunday 
Editor," although this has become somewhat of a misnomer. 

There was a time when the difference in size between 
the Daily and the Sunday paper was made up of more 
advertising, lurid stories of crime and scandal sensation- 
ally illustrated, long articles on travel, history, etc., pro- 
duced largely with paste pot and shears. A few people 
turned out a large volume of space-filling material, and 
standards prevailed below those that would be permitted 
in any other department of the paper. 

Several years ago The Tribune decided that both 
readers and advertisers were entitled to better treatment 
in the Sunday paper. At about the same time The Trib- 
une was inaugurating its policy of rendering service to 
readers — a policy which has been widely imitated and has 
had an enormous influence upon American journalism. 
These two developments have gone hand in hand. The 
departments of service, instruction and entertainment take 
the place formerly occupied by yellow trash in the Sunday 
paper, but are carried, usually in smaller space, in the 
week-day papers also. The Sunday Tribune contains in 
expanded form practically every department of The 
Daily Tribune. The only new features are the color and 
rotogravure sections. 

Several factors contribute to making The Sunday Trib- 
une what it is. It has a larger circulation than The Daily 
Tribune because it appears on a day when more people have 
leisure for reading. It can contain a much larger volume 
of news and features and advertising and still be thoroughly 
read because people have more leisure for reading. It can 
contain such attractions as color and rotogravure because 

163 



"Features" include Humor-Service-Fiction 

it comes out only once a week. These presses must run so 
much more slowly than the news presses that it takes a full 
week to run off the color and rotogravure sections of The 

Sunday Tribune. 

* * * 

The Tribune's departments of service include: How to 
Keep Well, T. he Friend of the People, 7 he Legal Friend of 
the People, The Friend of the Insured, The Friend of the 
Soldier, The Investors Guide, Patterns by Clotilde, The 
Tribune Cook Book, Beauty Answers, Farm and Garden, 
Advice to the Lovelorn, Woods and Waters, Sally Joy 
Brown's Helping Hand, The Home Harmonious, Automo- 
bile Routes, Fashion's Blue Book, Embroidery Patterns. 

These departments receive hundreds of thousands of 
letters from Tribune readers every year. Each department 
is conducted by the best expert obtainable with all the 
secretarial assistance necessary to answer conscientiously 
every letter received. The letters and answers of most 
general interest are printed, usually accompanied by an 
informative article. A chapter might easily be written on 
each one of several of these departments. 

* * * 

Humor has become an essential in the modern American 
newspaper, so the staff of The Tribune includes nine car- 
toonists and two " column conductors. " The work of one 
cartoonist is bought from an eastern syndicate. The "col- 
umn conductor" is an exceedingly interesting development 
of modern journalism, critic, poet, stimulating witty contri- 
butions from a wide following. Bert Leston Taylor, who 
inaugurated The Tribune's Line-o-Type, and Hugh E. 
Keough, who inaugurated The Tribune's "Wake of the 
News," were unquestionably deans of their peculiar pro- 
fession. The "Line-o-Type" is more than a Tribune de- 
partment. It is a Chicago institution. "The Wake of the 
News " is a powerful and unique influence for high standards, 
sanity, and sportsmanship in athletics. 

* * * 

Fiction has long been used by newspapers, but until 

164 



Women Writers for Women Readers 

The Tribune began buying and printing its Blue Ribbon 
Fiction, it fell in one of two categories: (i) Cheap, second- 
rate fiction, not salable to the better magazines or book 
publishers, or (2) reprints of fiction previously published 
in magazines or in book form. 

The Tribune's Blue Ribbon Fiction consists of short 
stories and serials by authors of the highest reputation, pur- 
chased by The Tribune in competition with the leading 
periodicals. Edward J. O'Brien, who compiles an annual 
analysis of American short stories, ranked The Tribune, 
during 1921, ahead of several leading magazines in the 
proportion of short stories published having literary excel- 
lence. Two novels are always in course of publication in 
The Tribune, in serial form, one in the daily paper and the 
other in the Sunday paper. Blue Ribbon Short Stories 
appear only in the The Sunday Tribune. 

In developing feature departments for women great 
care has been taken to make them strictly authentic and 
reliable. Practically all the staff employed in such depart- 
ments are women. The results have been of very great 
importance from the standpoint of circulation and of adver- 
tising. The Tribune, both daily and Sunday, is read closely 
by women, and consequently carries a large volume of 
advertising directed to women. This, in turn, tends to win 
more women readers so that an extraordinary balance has 
been achieved, and The Tribune is able to "pay out" on 
advertising directed either to men or to women. 




Tribune " Sunday Room 
165 




The map above indicates the more important of the points 
from which news is gathered and sent, by cable or wireless, 
to The Chicago Tribune. 




Hundreds of newspapers in other cities buy Chicago Tribune 
features. You can read ■■* The Gumps" in San Francisco as 
well as in New York. The map above indicates the extent to 
which news, features, cartoons, pictures, etc., are distributed. 
166 



Selling News, Features 
and Pictures 

OTHER newspapers pay hundreds of thousands of 
dollars each year to The Chicago Tribune for the 
right to reproduce material orginated by The 
Tribune staff. The sale of this material is handled by The 
Chicago Tribune Newspapers Syndicate and by The Pacific 
and Atlantic Photos Service with offices in New York and 
Chicago. The Syndicate sells news and features; the 
Photos Service sells pictures. 

Twenty-seven American newspapers maintain more than 
twelve thousand miles of leased wire leading from their 
plants to that of The Tribune. These papers are buying 
Tribune news reports although they already have the 
services of general news bureaus such as the Associated 
Press, United Press, etc. 

Many other newspapers, which do not receive a full 
report over leased wire each night, buy Tribune news 
regularly, receiving it over commercial wires and paying 
space rates and telegraph tolls for it. 

Tribune news has been sold, not only to papers in the 
United States, but also to papers in Cuba, Peru, Argentina, 
France, Greece, and Germany. Hundreds of European 
papers clip stories regularly from the European Edition of 
The Chicago Tribune. It is not uncommon for European 
papers to learn of events in their own capitals from the 
reports of The Chicago Tribune correspondents there. 

More than two hundred American papers buy Chicago 
Tribune cartoons, and other features. These are sent to 
them by mail in matrix form sufficiently in advance to 
permit publication simultaneously with The Tribune. 

Photographs are sold both in the form of prints and 

matrices. They are secured by the photographic staffs of 

The Tribune and the Daily News, New York's Picture 

Newspaper, and also by The Tribune's large foreign news 

service. 

167 



Morgue and Library 

THE reference room, commonly known as the 
"morgue," while one of the most important adjuncts 
of the newspaper, is one of the departments least 
known to the public. But it is the "morgue" that enables 
a paper to print a photograph and biography of an impor- 
tant man the news of whose death is received just before 
the paper goes to press. 

The Tribune's morgue is a storehouse of information. It 
contains biographies, information and photographs of prac- 
tically every person of note in the world. It has photographs 
and matter on all big cities and besides contains clippings on 
a host of topics of general interest. 

Every time a person is photographed by a Tribune 
camera man the plate is filed against the time when the 
subject may run away with an heir or heiress or become 
involved in a story of general interest. Likewise any time 
anyone's name appears in a Chicago newspaper it is filed 
ready to be referred to at a moment's notice. Zinc engrav- 
ings also are filed and indexed for use when the time is too 
short to make new ones. 

The Tribune's morgue contains about 1,500,000 clip- 
pings, 300,000 photographs and 30,000 engravings. While 
most of the morgue's material dates back only twenty-two 
years, certain clippings have reached a ripe old age — for 
instance the stories describing the activities of the Jesse 
James bandits are still in their envelope. 

Besides serving Tribune people the morgue is an ency- 
clopedia for many thousand Chicagoans who settle their 
arguments or prepare their theses on material obtained 
from the reference room. From fifty to a hundred telephone 
calls from persons seeking enlightenment on some point or 
other are answered every day. Many inquiries by mail 
are also turned over to the morgue, and the people in charge 
seldom fail to supply the desired information. 

168 



Everybody Asks Tribune about Everything 

Buried away in their envelopes in the steel filing cases 
in the reference room are stories of pathos, greed, heroism, 
tragedy, and so on, ready to add to the lustre of a name or 
to expose the unworthy. 

* * * 

The Tribune has a well equipped library of about 3,500 
volumes, especially chosen for the use of critics, editorial, 
and other special writers. The subjects range from statis- 
tics to travel, with the greater part being on social science, 
political economy and kindred subjects. 

Government documents of all kinds are ready for instant 
reference and statistical works are numerous. There are 
numerous works on naval and military science. Editorials 
demand accuracy and authority and there are few subjects 
on which Tribune writers cannot get some light in their 
own library. There are a half dozen encyclopedias, numer- 
ous English dictionaries, foreign language dictionaries, 
guides to various countries and histories. In the library, 
as well as in the reference room, are found articles from 
leading papers and magazines on general topics such as 
the tariff, housing, state police, waterways and subjects 
which the reader finds on the editorial page. 

The files of The Tribune are stored in a separate room 
adjoining the book shelves and these volumes are almost 
priceless as works of Chicago history. 

As in the morgue thousands of miscellaneous inquiries 
from readers are answered by the librarian. 




169 



Editorials 



EVERY morning, after allowing time to assimilate the 
news of the day an editorial conference is held in 
The Tribune office. It is attended by the editorial 
writers, the chief cartoonist, and either or both of the editors 
and publishers. This conference is to discuss and deter- 
mine on subjects to be treated in the next issue of the 
paper. 

The general lines of Tribune editorial policy have been 
reduced to a specific program and printed repeatedly on 
The Tribune editorial page. Conspicuous in the "mast- 
head," or routine matter at the upper left hand corner of 
the editorial page this sentence always appears: 

Our Country! In her intercourse with foreign nations 
may she always be in the right; but our country, right or 
wrong. — Stephen Decatur. 

The Tribune program, enumerating the most important 
things for which the paper stands, is divided into two parts ; 
for Chicago, and for the Central West. They are as follows : 

The Tribune's Platform for Chicago 

i — Build the Subway Now. 
2 — Abolish "Pittsburgh Plus." 
3 — Stop Reckless Driving. 

The Tribune's Program for Middle West Development 

i — A Square Deal in Congress for the Middle West. 

2 — Open the Great Lakes to the Atlantic. 

j — Finish the Lakes-to-the-Gulf Waterway without Delay. 

4 — Develop a Practical Highway System. 

5 — Regrow our Vanished Forests. 

Other problems, of course, are met as they arise; but 
the above policies are kept constantly in mind, and public 
opinion on them formed and crystalized by consistent 
editorial hammering, year in and year out. 

170 



Editorial Policy Fearless and Creative 

In 192 1 Greenville Talbot of Atlanta, Georgia, wrote 
to editors of twelve American newspapers asking each for a 
list of the twelve American newspapers which, in his opin- 
ion, had the best editorial pages. According to the results, 
as printed in Editor & Publisher, The Chicago Tribune tied 
for first with The New York Times and The Springfield 
Republican, each being named nine times out of a possible 
twelve. No other Chicago paper was named more than 

once. 

* * * 

The Chicago Tribune won national fame more than 60 
years ago by its vigorous championship of the Union, by 
sponsoring the new-born Republican Party, by proposing 
Abraham Lincoln for President and by attacking slavery. 

The Tribune has always been noted for the strength 
of its editorial convictions, and for fearlessness and 
ability in expressing them. Tribune editorials have been a 
powerful influence in forcing through important reforms 
and constructive improvements. 

Among the great movements fostered by Chicago Tri- 
bune editorials are the following: 

Fireproof Chicago (Joseph Medill was elected Mayor 
of Chicago on this platform) — The Drainage Canal — The 
World's Fair — Lincoln Park and the Boulevard System — 
The Sane Fourth — Small Parks — Track Elevation — Electri- 
fication of Railroads — Boulevard Link — Good Roads — 
Municipal Pier — Forest Preserve — New Union Station — 

National Civil Service. 

* * * 

The Tribune is amazingly free about printing criticisms 
of itself. When political speakers denounce The Tribune 
their remarks are printed verbatim. Letters differing 
violently with Tribune editorial policy are found every 
week in the Voice of the People column on the editorial 
page. Bert Leston Taylor in his Line-o-Type differed 
frequently and freely from opinions officially expressed as 
The Tribune's in the adjoining editorial columns. When 

171 



Tribune Prints Charges of its Critics 

Oswald Garrison Villard printed an extensive attack in 
The Nation on the thesis that The Tribune's editorial policy 
makes it "the world's worst newspaper," The Tribune 
immediately reprinted it in full. 

Those antagonistic to Tribune policies are regularly 
and freely given space in "The Voice of the People" — a 
department which occupies a column on the editorial page. 

In short, The Chicago Tribune has a definite editorial 
policy, fights for it aggressively, but presents opposing 
opinions to its readers in confidence that truth, right and 
justice will prevail. 













| FKIETO OF THE PEOPLE ||*~" 







172 



IJIUHJ'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U 




Stories written and edited in the Local Room {above) are 
swiftly set in type by the linotype operators on the floor below. 
This photo shows only a part of The Tribune's battery of lin- 
otype machines. 




J'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'I- 



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When a Tribune photographer arrives at the scene of action 
and finds crowds obstructing his view, he no longer is compelled 
to climb a tree or a light post. With the tower car pictured 
above he is sure of a good chance for pictures. The chauffeur 
operates the disappearing tower by pushing a button. After 
the pictures are taken, the button is pushed again and the 
tower disappears and the car once more looks like an innocent 
pie wagon. The body of the car was built in The Tribune 
wagon shop. The picture was taken at a Tribune skating 
tournament in Garfield Park. 



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Reading room connected with Tribune offices in Rome. These 
offices are on the main floor of the Excelsior Hotel on the Pincian 
Hill. 




Chicago Tribune office at i Unter den Linden, Berlin. 



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Want Ad post office, where more than three million letters from Tribune 
readers are received each year and distributed to users of Tribune Want Ads. 

At left, section of the main 
counter in The Tribune's big 
Want Ad Store at Madison 
and Dearborn Streets. 



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Service Bureau for femi- 
nine users of Want Ads. 



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Advertising Division 

ANY newspaper with the large circulation of The Chi- 
cago Tribune could have a large volume of advertis- 
ing with practically no effort. Furthermore, this 
advertising would sell itself at such rates as to be profitable 
both to the advertiser and to the newspaper. Therefore, it 
should be interesting to consider why The Chicago Tribune 
maintains the largest advertising sales force of any news- 
paper in the world and spends enormous sums advertising 
for advertising. 

There is little to be said of the advertising history 
of The Tribune during its first sixty years of life. The 
volume and character of its circulation necessarily won 
it recognition as an unusually good advertising medium, but 
that was all. During the past fifteen years, however, the 
advertising department of The Tribune has excelled quite 
as distinctively as has the news division. 

Tribune advertising men do not look upon the commo- 
dity they sell as a mere by-product, but as a utility of vast 
public service, a powerful influence in elevating standards 
of living, and a vitally important factor in reducing the 
cost of distributing merchandise. Because they have ap- 
proached their problems from this angle, and with a deter- 
mination to make The Chicago Tribune worthy of the title 
"world's greatest advertising medium," the advertising 
branches are entitled to considerable space in this book. 
They will be considered under three heads: Want Adver- 
tising, Local Advertising, National Advertising. 



177 




Division of Advertising among Chicago Newspapers, 1921 




Division of Tribune Advertising Space, 1921 




Division of Tribune Display Advertising, 1921 
178 




Want Advertising 

'ANT advertising is the oldest and simplest 
form of advertising. It is the only form of 
advertising written and placed and checked 
by the masses. It is a public utility similar 
to the telephone. Like the telephone, it 
must approximate universal use to be of 
maximum value. A telephone system that reached only 
a few families, or that was open only on certain days would 
be of slight value. Each telephone subscriber is interested 
in having as many other subscribers as possible and in 
having continuous service. Similarly, each want advertiser 
profits from all the other want advertisers whose offerings 
surround his and compete with it, because it is the con- 
veniently classified grouping of many offerings which 
attracts reader-buyers. 

Want ads constitute a unique addition to the markets 
of the world. Probably no other means ever brought buyer 
and seller together so efficiently. The cost of selling and 
distributing merchandise through the usual channels of 
trade ranges from 25% to 50%, yet #10. worth of want 
advertising may sell a $500 piano or a #2,000 automobile, 
or a #20,000 home. No phase of the modern newspaper is 
more essentially romantic, more amazing, than the service 
of the want ad. A few lines of agate type buried among 
thousands of other lines of agate type, bring together em- 
ployer and employe, or landlord and tenant, or buyer 
and seller, drawing each to the other out of the chaotic 
millions of the metropolis. 

To make the want ad columns most servicable to the 
greatest possible number of people, classifications must be 
rigidly adhered to, it must be easy to find any and every 
ad, and the small ad must not be overshadowed by large 
ones. Therefore, The Tribune maintains the most elabo- 
rate and minute system for censoring and classifying the 

179 



Want Ad Salesmen Cover Entire City 

hundreds of thousands of want ads which it prints each 
year. Therefore, no amount of money can buy bold face 
type or ads more than one column wide in the want ad 
section. 

The Tribune sells Want advertising to the public through 
seven channels, using in the process an organization of 
more than 200 employes — by far the largest organization 
of its kind in existence. These seven channels are: 

Want Ad Store in Tribune Building. 

Drug Store Agencies throughout Chicago. 

"Cash** Solicitors throughout Chicago. 

"Contract" Solicitors throughout Chicago. 

Staff of girls using telephones. 

Correspondence department. 

Display advertising in Chicago Tribune. 

The Want Ad Store at Madison and Dearborn streets 
includes a big post office for handling replies to "box num- 
ber" ads and a special department for women advertisers 
in addition to the equipment for receiving want ads. The 
special women's section with comfortable desks and with 
want ad saleswomen in attendance, was inaugurated several 
years ago and has always been generously patronized. A 
refrigerating system keeps this model Want Ad Store sup- 
plied with cooled, washed dried air in summer. The use of 
druggists as agents for the receipt of want ads is declining 
with the increasing use of the telephone. 

Each section of Chicago is covered by two salesmen of 
Tribune want ads. One man handles the transient or 
spasmodic advertiser and attempts to secure cash advance 
payment for every order he takes. This is desirable to 
avoid the detail involved in billing and collecting so many 
small accounts. The other man specializes in securing and 
handling the business of want advertisers who contract to 
use at least three lines of want advertising every day for 
a year. As an inducement they are given a discount in rate. 
The chief users of want ad contracts are real estate dealers, 
automobile dealers who must dispose of the used cars they 

180 



Want Ads Sold over the Phone 

have taken in trade, hotels offering rooms to transients, 
large storage warehouses which always have furniture for 
sale, and big corporations which are steady users of the 
"Help Wanted" columns. 

Reception and solicitation of want ads by telephone is 
largely a development of The Chicago Tribune. A staff 
of fifty or more intelligent, carefully trained girls are em- 
ployed in this work. Anyone who subscribes to telephone 



Tribune Prints More Want Advertising 
Than All Other Chicago- Papers Combined 

Leads in Want Ads of Every Type— Employment, Real Estate, Automobiles, Business 



The tabulation and charts below tell an extraordinary 
story of the domination of a great market by a great 
newspaper. Want advertising constitutes a perpetual 
referendum of the people of a community on the ad- 
vertising value of their newspapers. 



Flatt to Rent 




The significance of these tacts is beat appreciated when one coo* 
aiders that want advertisers make up more than 80% of all news- 
paper advertisers, and that want advertisers are very dose ob- 
servers of results. Only that newsi 
the best retui 



y that newspaper which is found to bring 
s the bulk of U» pontic'* patronage. 



Situation^ Wanted 




BZL? WASTED 



The Tribunes advertising: appeal covers all kinds and dasses of 
people. Note that it printed more help wanted advertising than 
Its competitors combined. It is the preferred medium for reaching 
the working class. Employers God that The Tribune brings the 
bditr kind of employees. 




The Tribune reaches the people who spend and invest money. 
In real estate, automobiles, household goods, business chances, 
and in many other classifications of want ads. The Tribune printed 
more than all competitois combined. 




The Tribune's dominance in every main classification 
of want ads shows that the Chicago public prefers to 
use Tribune advertising as a means of fulfilling all 
its wants. It is also noteworthy that The Tribune's 
average want ad rate per line is higher than that of 
any other Chicago newspaper. The public prefers 
to pay more only when it knows it gets more for its 
money. 



"THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE DOMINATES THE CHICAGO TERRITORY" 



A page from The Book of Facts 
181 



Tribune Advertises its Want Ads 

service in Chicago or surburbs may place want advertising 
with The Tribune by phone and have it charged to him. 
The extent to which the public has been induced to avail 
itself of this privilege and the volume of business handled 
by the telephone ad-takers is indicated by the fact that there 
are always on The Tribune's books from 40^000 to 70,000 
of these small want ad accounts. 

The correspondence department handles the consider- 
able volume of want ads received by mail from all over the 
world. There are advertising agencies engaged almost ex- 
clusively in the business of placing want advertising. 

* * * 
Of prime importance in promoting the use of Tribune 
want ads is the use of Tribune display advertising. This 
is used in three ways : 

— to induce people to read the want ads 
— to induce people to place want ads in The Tribune 
—to educate users in the efficient use of want ads 
Notwithstanding their obvious utility, the want ad 
columns must be continually "sold" to the public. Num- 
erous classifications must be built up and interest in them 
sustained. Multitudes must be constantly reminded of the 
advantages they may derive from placing want ads or from 
scrutinizing the want ad columns. Upwards of #50,000 a 
year is spent by The Tribune for this promotional pub- 
licity. 

The education of want ad users to a more efficient use 
of space is the latest phase of this work. The occasional 
use of want ads is as common to hundreds of thousands of 
people as the daily use of the telephone or the street car. 
Sometimes this casual attitude results in a want adver- 
tiser's taking too much for granted and his expenditure 
goes awry. 

The Tribune Want Ad Section is great in that it brings 
millions of people to a common basis of communication 
possible by no other means at such insignificant expense. 
Beyond making it easy to insert a want ad, classifying it 

182 



"The More You Tell the Quicker You Sell" 

for the reader's convenience, and carrying it into several 
hundred thousand homes, offices, and factories The Tribune 
cannot go. Offers vary as the individual; differences in 
requirements are manifold; the Want Ad Section is a most 
illogical place for the bromide, but this the want adver- 
tiser sometimes forgets. His confident sang froid is tribute 
to The Tribune's power to produce, but it hurts a most 
important factor in determining the success of his want ad — 
the wording. Tribune representatives help, whenever pos- 
sible, with the phrasing of a want ad, but by far the greater 
number are written by the advertiser unassisted. 

In every issue there are want ads that disappoint the 
advertiser — the end sought for is not attained, even though 
the offer behind the want ad, the market, and the price 
asked seem to justify a quick transaction. 

It is not to be supposed from this, however, that 
Tribune want ads, in the aggregate, do not produce. Over 
three million replies are distributed annually at The Tribune 
Want Ad Post Office in response to "box number" want 
ads alone. Tribune Help Wanted columns overshadow all 
employment agencies combined. In Automobiles, Real Es- 
tate, Business Chances — millions of dollars change hands 
after an issue of The Sunday Tribune Want Ad Section. 
The percentage of want ads which have not contributed to 
this response is slight, but the Tribune decided to reduce 
it still further. 

Therefore, at the beginning of the 1922 season, The 
Tribune inaugurated a campaign, epitomized in the maxim, 
"The more you tell, the quicker you sell." Large display ads 
were run, advising greater care in the phrasing of a want 
ad. Printed outlines containing fundamental features to 
be remembered in using the various classifications, were 
posted in the Want Ad Store to help the advertiser as he 
was preparing his want ad. Monthly bulletins were mailed 
to advertisers urging the application of the new idea. 

The response to this was tremendous. Examples by the 
hundreds soon proved that there had been a real need for 

183 



Post Office for Replies to Want Ads 

this corrective measure. These examples were used in ad- 
vertisements to illustrate the principle to other advertisers. 
Upon reflection it will be seen that only a really great 
newspaper — one without peer — could foster such a plan — 
could devote effort and expense to helping its Want Ad- 
vertisers secure better results from their advertising — effort 
that could as easily be devoted to the exploitation of its 

own columns as against those of other newspapers. 

* * * 

Less than one-fourth of Uncle Sam's post-offices distrib- 
ute as much mail as does the want ad post-office of The 
Tribune. Only 10% of Trbune advertising is signed with 
a " box number, M and this is necessarily the least productive 
advertising because people prefer to know with whom they 
are dealing. Nevertheless, during the year 1921, The 
Tribune received and distributed 3,852,016 replies to "box 
number" ads. 

The box number quoted in any want ad is a combination 
of a number with a letter or with letters of the alphabet. 
The numbers used run from 1 to 600, corresponding to the 
600 separate pigeon holes or " boxes " in the Want Ad Post- 
office mail racks. The figures are preceded by one letter or 
by two letters. I, Q, U, V, W and Z are not used because 
experience has shown that they are most liable to be misread 
by those replying to the ads. R is also excepted. Want ad 
replies addressed to R. 512 Tribune might be interpreted 
to mean Room 512 of the Tribune Building. 

All other letters are used, both singly and in combination. 
For example, there is Ai, A2, 3, 4, etc., to A600, there is Bi, 
B2, likewise. There is ABi, 2, 3, etc., there is AC in same 
manner, there is BA, BB, BC, etc., in all numbers. The 
number of possible combinations of letters and figures 
enables the Purchasing Department to place in stock at one 
time a supply of printed box number tickets sufficient to 
last a year. Every order for a box number want ad is 
assigned a separate box number, and this number, once used, 
will not recur in Tribune want ad columns until a year later. 
Hence there is no chance of confusion through duplicates. 

184 



JiUiU'UiUiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UiU'U'U'UiU'U'UiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UiUiUl 




The Adtakers in the Telephone Room receive thousands of 
Want Ads in a day. Any telephone subscriber is entitled to 
insert Want Ads on credit if he has no past bill overdue. 




To determine whether the advertiser s record is good, each one 
is checked against these files in the Auditing Division. On 
each set of revolving leaves all delinquent advertisers are listed 
on cards in alphabetical order. 



• U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U^U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'l- 




Board in Want Ad Solicitors Assembly Room, on which daily 
and cumulative comparative records of salesmen are kept. 




A Corner of bureau maintained by the Advertising Division 
to give free information to the public concerning schools, and 
travel. 



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System Facilitates Mail Distribution 

The actual box number tickets are perforated forms with 
one gummed edge. The box number appears on both sides 
of the perforation. When a box number want ad order is 
received the gummed edge portion is detached along the 
perforation and stuck to the "copy." From it the compos- 
ing room sets the type for the box number address immedi- 
ately after the main body of the ad. The other portion of 
the ticket tells in addition to the box number that the bearer 
is entitled to want ad replies for that address for five days 
from date. This is given the advertiser for his use in claim- 
ing replies. When box number want ads are taken by phone 
the advertiser's call ticket is mailed. 

Notwithstanding the tremendous volume of mail handled 
by The World's Greatest Want Ad Postofrlce, a relatively 
small amount of floor space suffices for the work. The 
efficient handling of want ad mail has been brought about 
only by most careful study and planning. 

Behind the mail counter are six mail racks, end to end, 
each divided into ioo numbered pigeon holes or "boxes" as 
they are called. The mail is sorted into these boxes and 
remains there until the want advertiser calls for it, or until 
it is mailed to him, if he is an " out-of-towner. " These 
racks face the counter and above each rack is an electrically 
lighted marker reading i-ioo, 101-200, etc. The advertiser 
calling for mail notes the number on his box number ticket 
and naturally applies at that part of the mail counter near- 
est the mail rack containing his box. Each box contains all 
answers to that particular number, irrespective of what 
letters of the alphabet precede the number. For example, 
box number 546 may contain answers to B546, KF546 and 
YP546. It is unusual that more than eight separate "box 
numbers" occupy the same box at one time and it takes but 
a few seconds for a mail clerk to run through all replies in a 
box and select the answers belonging to any letter or letters 
of the alphabet. 

Whenever the replies to a particular box number exceed 
twenty, all replies excepting one are bound together and 

187 



Want Ads Outnumber Chicago Families 

placed on a special overhead shelf. The reply not bound is 
stamped "Pack," and left in the box. The mail clerk in 
securing mail for this box number observes the "pack 
stamp" on the single reply and secures the proper pack of 
answers from the special shelf. This procedure is of con- 
siderable value as a time saver. It is not at all unusual for a 
want advertiser to receive forty or fifty replies to a single 
want ad. If forty or fifty letters to PL 439 had to be run 
through whenever anyone called for G 439 or CL 439 a lot 
of time would be required and opportunity for error afforded. 

Special attention has been paid to the personnel of The 
Tribune Want Ad Post-office, to insure that only the most 
expert service is given. Eight mail men have had previous 
experience in governmental postal work before coming to 
The Tribune. For the total personnel of twelve men, there 
is an average of eleven years each as the period spent in 
postal work, either for the United States or for The Tribune. 

The majority of replies to box number want ads come 
by U. S. mail, but large numbers are dropped in the Receiv- 
ing Box at The Tribune Postofnce. A careful watch is kept 
over all answers. For example, The Tribune's rules pro- 
hibit circularizing. The trained eyes of mail specialists spot 
cases where general solicitations are being made to want 
advertisers. 

The tremendous investment value behind The Tribune 
want ad market is indicated by the fact that upwards of 
forty million dollars worth of property is offered for sale or 
exchange in Chicago Tribune want ads each week. About 
one hundred different makes of automobiles are offered on 
an average Sunday. The Tribune prints annually more 
than twice as many want ads as there are families in Chicago. 



188 



Classified Display 

GROUPED under the supervision of the Want Ad 
Manager are a number of advertising divisions 
intermediate between display and classified. They 
include: Amusements, Motion Picture Directory, Schools, 
Hotel and Travel advertising. In these divisions display 
type and illustrations are permitted, but all the ads, usually 
small, are grouped under one heading. 

The Tribune, in 1914, originated the idea of publishing 
a directory of the daily offerings of the motion picture 
theaters of the city. Advertising experts insisted that the 
outlying theaters could not possibly afford to pay Tribune 
rates because of the "waste circulation ". Experience has 
demonstrated that this type of advertising is profitable and 
economical to the theater owner — that it is the 5,000 fami- 
lies in the immediate vicinity of the theater who read The 
Tribune that count, together with the grouping of theaters 
in all sections to form a universally recognized amusement 
market place. 

Extensive public service is rendered by the advertising 
department in connection with the Resorts and Schools 
divisions. Catalogs and detailed information concerning 
hundreds of schools and colleges are kept on file by a School 
Bureau, which serves parents and prospective pupils without 
charge. Similarly, the Resort Bureau is equipped to furnish 
a vast amount of specific data to travelers. 



189 



Display Advertising 

DISPLAY Advertising serves far more people than 
Want Advertising, and does more for them, but it 
is not so obviously a public utility because it is 
bought by a comparatively small number of advertisers. 
Because of the enormous number of purchasers with whom 
they are able to communicate each morning, the great 
stores of Chicago's loop are able to gather and offer stocks 
of merchandise which make the treasures of the Arabian 
Nights insignificant by comparison. Because of the econo- 
mies in distribution which newspaper advertising makes 
possible, the citizen has the benefit of low prices as well as 
wide variety and high quality in his purchases. 

Display advertising is divided into that of stores, banks, 
real estate concerns, etc., all known as Local advertising, 
and that of products generally distributed and sold through 
many retail outlets, known as National advertising. National 
advertising is usually written and placed by advertising 
agencies which receive a commission of 15% from the pub- 
lications in which it is placed. Local advertising is usually 
received direct from the advertiser, and no commission is 
allowed to agents. Since Local advertising is not subject 
to agency discount, since the Local advertiser cannot receive 
his returns through a multiplicity of outlets, and since he is 
usually a substantial advertiser year after year, there is a 
differential between the rates charged to Local and to 
National advertisers. 



190 




Local Advertising 

LL newspapers find Local advertising their 
largest source of revenue, and Department 
Store advertising the largest subdivision 
of Local. Unfortunately, Department 
Store advertising is often a large source 
of revenue but a small source of profit, 
because newspapers have been forced to 
grant special discounts and rebates until they were actually 
selling huge blocks of their space at a loss. 

The Tribune long ago adopted a policy of selling its 
space on a basis of cost of production. The specialty shop 
using a few inches of space a week pays identically the same 
rate as the department store using several pages a week. 
Instead of seeking business by offering space at less than the 
cost of production (a single page ad in The Sunday Tribune 
involves the printing and distribution of several tons of 
paper) it has sought to make the space unquestionably 
worth the rates charged. 

This has been done by the consistent, liberal use of its 
own space to educate Tribune readers to the value to them 
of the advertising columns, and by the strict censorship of 
those columns. This policy of advertising advertising was 
begun in a large way in 191 1 with splendid results. The 
Tribune is confident that to a unique degree the advertising 
which it carries is read with intelligent interest and with 
confidence by able-to-buy people. 

In another way The Tribune seeks to make the Local 
Display advertising which it carries profitable to those who 
buy it. Since no agency commission is allowed on this line- 
age the smaller store often attempts to prepare its copy with 
inadequate facilities. For this type of advertiser The 
Tribune maintains a Copy Department with several com- 
mercial artists and expert copy-writers. No charge is made 
for the services of this department unless the art work pro- 

191 



Copy and Art for Local Advertisers 

duced for Tribune ads is used in other mediums, when it is 
billed at the usual commercial rates. 

The copy and art of this department occupy more than 
six thousand columns of Tribune space per year, assist many 
small advertisers to use the comparatively high priced 
Tribune space profitably, and aid materially in raising the 
standard of advertising in the paper. 




fetbtmt 



%*, NOVEMBER 4, 1864. 



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ROSS & FM 



Reproduction of Lyon & Healy s first advertisement in The 
Tribune, inserted November 4, 1864, by Patrick J. Healy 



192 




National Advertising 

OW profitably to use advertising to pro- 
mote the sale of products distributed 
through numerous retail outlets raises 
problems more difficult than those involved 
in Want or Local Display advertising. 
The response to the advertising filters 
back to the advertiser from thousands of 
retailers through scores or hundreds of jobbers and brokers. 
Widely different conditions produced widely different results 
in various districts. 

For many years National advertising was almost synony- 
mous with Magazine advertising, for periodicals had con- 
centrated their entire efforts on developing this form of 
publicity. Newspapers, on the other hand, paid slight 
attention to National advertising because it was so much 
less in volume than either Local or Want advertising, be- 
cause they had to pay an agency commission on it, and 
because they had to pay an additional commission to a 
" special representative M in New York or Chicago for solicit- 
ing the agency for the business. Each "special" usually 
represented a list of newspapers whereas the salesman of 
magazine space concentrated his efforts on one medium. 

Study of the situation convinced The Chicago Tribune 
that the newspaper and particularly the metropolitan 
newspaper of sectional distribution, is the best medium 
existent for National advertising. Acting on this convic- 
tion, The Tribune has led a movement which is revolution- 
izing the policies of agents and advertisers with respect to 
National advertising. And The Tribune has built up for 
soliciting and handling this type of business, an organization 
which is unique in the world of advertising and publishing. 
National advertising was once conducted on the theory 
of forcing the dealer to stock the product advertised by 
creating an overwhelming demand for it among his custom- 

193 



The Chicago Territory 

Zone 7— A Market Worth Fighting For 

Hiese graphs picture the relative standing of American markets. Taken as a whole they demonstrate con- 
clusively that the Chicago Territory— Zone 7— offers maximum buying power. Its central location also makes 
it the ideal starting point for the sales and advertising campaign which is to be conducted logically by zones. 




FOPULATION 



Tfaiaia particularly true of tke Chkafo 






WEALTH 

TIM wealth of the Chicago Territory 

fertile L 

tkvaiopsxat, tad it/atepe localk*. 




MOTOR VEHICLES 

_ urn tto For many year- Zoo* 7 beld second place in tbe TV fact that ibe CsiraM Terrilorr'a 

The farmer, of lUisoi*. by Ite NewTork^Ne* Jersey &»•. Nr 

aw) W«- to tbe Uteat CfMua Bureau fifuro 

jiiUioM of firat ia lb* value of il* Manufactured 

b from tbe it E K Weohk, PopuUlioe. C™ VaW. lac, 
Ta»-Payer». aid Motor Vehicle Refiatrati. 
TW proportion at u - *" 







Statistics On Which Graphs Are Based 



l—t 


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% 


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% 


Wealth 1SH 


% 


kg*. 


% 


Crop Value 


% 


Value of Mai- 
afacture* MM 

(OOP Chnitteo) 


% 


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% 


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% 


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"THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE DOMINATES THE CHICAGO TERRITORY" 



B-3 



A page from the BOOK of FACTS 




194 



Distribution Should Precede Advertising 

ers. The idea was that innumerable consumers would keep 
asking for it until thousands of retailers would in turn urge 
their jobbers to stock it, and so the merchandise would start 
flowing through the channels of trade. To achieve success 
by operating in this manner necessitated tremendous expen- 
ditures before any considerable results could be expected. 
Many a concern was forced to discontinue its advertising 
before the cycle was completed and as a result when the 
goods did reach the shelves of the retailer the consumer had 
forgotten his desire for them. The policy was then adopted 
of notifying the dealer of the advertising to be run and warn- 
ing him that he should stock up in advance. To impress 
them with the magnitude of the advertising to be done 
broadsides would be sent to dealers and jobbers listing the 
magazines to be used and totaling their circulation. But 
this system lent itself to grave abuses. The total circulation 
might be huge but an inadequate amount of advertising 
might be used in each publication. Furthermore, the dealer 
soon found that millions of circulation in the United States 
often meant an insignificant amount among his customers. 
Therefore The Tribune announced that the following 
policy would control all its solicitation of National adver- 
tising: 

" The Tribune considers it a waste of money to adver- 
tise a product distributed through the retail and jobbing 
trade, until that trade has been stocked with the product 
to take care of the consumer demand, when created." 

To live up to this policy, The Tribune has made an inten- 
sive study of its market, a study which must be kept con- 
stantly up to date; has made hundreds of investigations 
among dealers to learn the conditions surrounding the sale 
of various products ; has published a house organ monthly 
for eight years educating fifteen thousand retailers to the 
advantages of handling advertised products ; has developed 
five hundred lists of retailers, each in a certain line of busi- 
ness in a certain district, and maintained on addressograph 
plates in route order within each district; has analyzed 

195 



Hard Facts and System Help Sell Goods 

Tribune circulation in the most minute and elaborate man- 
ner, and made the resulting statistics available to adver- 
tisers in printed form; has drilled its force of advertising 
salesmen in the co-ordination of selling and advertising. 

When a manufacturer undertakes to introduce a new 
product in the Chicago market by means of Tribune adver- 
tising, a Tribune service man assists him in organizing his 
sales crew, drills them in the use of the advertising cam- 
paign to secure distribution among retailers and wholesalers, 
directs their efforts, and installs a system for recording and 
checking results. Each salesman is equipped with a port- 
folio containing proofs of the advertising and a letter from 
The Tribune informing the retailer just how much adver- 
tising has been contracted for on a non-cancelable basis. 
He is also given a pack of cards containing the names of the 
retailers he is to solicit arranged in route order. He is given 
a map of the district in which these retailers are located, 
and he is instructed in the number of families living in that 
district and the number of Chicago Tribunes sold there. 
Therefore, there is nothing vague or indefinite about his 
statements to the retailer concerning what the manufacturer 
will do to "move" the merchandise after the retailer has 
stocked it. He does not talk about The Tribune's total 
circulation of half or three quarters of a million, but of the 
few thousand in the retailer's immediate neighborhood, 
shows him exactly what advertising is to run, and often 
offers to list the name and address of the retailer in certain 
of the advertisements. 

As a result of this intensive, systematic handling of 
National advertising it is not uncommon to sell enough 
merchandise before the advertising starts to pay for the 
entire initial campaign, and when the advertising does run 
and people go to the stores and ask for the merchandise it is 
there waiting for them. 

Every man engaged in selling National advertising for 
The Tribune has been trained in all this service work, has 
made investigations among retailers in many lines, has 

196 



Zone System of Marketing 

participated in study of his market, has actively directed 
the operations of sales crews in securing distribution for 
goods in Chicago and The Chicago Territory. 

* * * 
The use of newspapers for National advertising also 
lends itself to merchandising by zones, a practice which is 
growing swiftly in favor because of its efficiency and econo- 
my. Manufacturers have found by sad experiences that 




Clothing 



AdrertUina Printed In 1MI* 



BrnM-EuaiocT. . 
VM. 



i*W3 

MI.TW 



Women as well as men, men as well as women, buy clothing in re- 
sponse to advertising of merchant and manufacturer in The 
Chicago Tribune. This page offers convincing evidence that The 
Tribune is read by all members of the family. 

Every clothing advertiser who used 10,000 lines or more in The 
Tribune during 1921 is listed below. Note that out of the 60 of 
them, 34 used more space in The Tribune than in all other Chicago 
papers combined — also that these 84 are divided almost evenly 
between advertisers to men and advertisers to women. 



Clothing Advertisers Who Ran 10,000 

Women'i 

•A**tBw 

Bortktt.W H.ftCo * 

•Benam'i, Im " 

•Bwrni'd't. Gooff* !.!.!...■!.!!.!"!!. 



Komk. ],. 8, ft Co 



Lines or More in Tribune During 1921 

i Clothing 

Tawnta Eiuina 
•CTW "37J11 

tijwo 'wit 



Pi«t Ahtogam J-rmxit 



ilmrttttilr , . 

M.ttk*-».F.N.,ftCo... . 
PtckftPM* 

'Rod* ffi Coco* Stop 

CWk*9u.t8fcop.: 



'A. SUrr B«M (tttdLy children'* ooloiaf > • 

'AobWmft Brotfccn 

BMwr.ia*. KiAcfcG* 

■C«piw: 1 Cuper 

'it. JoU F.. ft Sou Co 



MiU-bHI. lUrry 

VtwmAtV. H.tt« . 
NicoD. TU T. Jo» 



Wiboe. !). P.. ft Co 



Men'8 Clothing 






•■-.■-■■ 
M.«33 



VWnn ko.tiinc *»*• 



dtl« Shot C. 

Doti<U> 6bo* Co 
Fmu>. P. C ft Co 

HmmIY. 
•Morth. ft U.rtw 
MM*. I 

•NrtlWlo. Shop 



n.Ml 10.038 

ftfTC 



OTod.™» ft Ooldborg 

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!M«t 

«UM 


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7,t7t M.CM M*4 


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*r< ooWh«v t« Pi* 7V>»mu Man in «S Mktr paptn eomUfni. 






"THE CHICAGO 


TRIBUNE DOMINATES THE 


CHICAGO 


TERRITORY" 



J-4 



A page from the BOOK of FACTS 
197 




Advertising Lineage in Chicago Newspapers 
1906 — 1921 



Columns 


1 


I 


~ _. ~ ■_. <_. Ci Oi o; ci c; Ci c; 


85,000 
80,000 
75,000 




























































































70,000 
































65,000 
































60,000 
































55,000 
































50,000 




















) 












45,000 


















_^> 


/ 






























*■* 














40,000 




35,000 
































TRIBUNE 

30,000 
































NEW8 

25,000 

Herald 

20,000 

15,000 

- Examiner 

American 

Journal 

Post 

5,000 
































x 


















































*< 












^- 




















~~~" 





































































The 

Chicago 

Tribune 

76,703 Columns 



News 

58,338 Columns 



Herald-Examiner 
30,118 Columns 

American 

27,395 Columns 



Post 16,621 Columns 
Journal 

15,680 Columns 



The Tribune printed 789,405 columns during the sixteen 
year period, which is ioo°/ more than was printed by the next 
morning paper and 27% in excess of the leading evening paper. 



(Columns: 300 Agate Lines) 



Year 



1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 



Tribune 



32,604 
33,107 
33,656 
37,814 
39,345 
38,082 
39,739 
43,676 
43,502 
45,886 
54,974 
54,891 
51,888 
77,777 
85,753 
76,703 



Herald 



23,972 
21,406 
18,562 
21,120 
22,389 
24,480 
22,353 
19,298 
21,480 
22,944 
25,106 
23,680 
" 6,230 



Examiner 



12. 

19, 
16, 
21. 
23. 

24. 

23. 

24. 

23. 

21. 

25. 

23. 
122, 
t33, 
t34, 
J30, 



711.04 
735.10 
778.28 
522.60 
255.97 
661.52 
807.57 
608.35 
801 . 39 
608.13 
657.33 
331 . 45 
786.74 
885.13 
342.55 
118.97 



News 



29,253.45 
27,524.09 
27,355.49 
30,494.93 
31,924.32 
30,729.58 
29,225.08 
35,290.15 
35,834.01 
37,433.13 
42,030.29 
41,988.42 
40,139.47 
53,397.13 
67,989.27 
58,338.91 



American 



12,135.05 
9,119.53 
8,920.31 
10,583.09 
11,776.82 
12,455.28 
11,835.04 
14,574.90 
15,990.33 
14,939.37 
16,076.90 
14,678.60 
13,406.57 
22,887.86 
24,789.46 
27,395.88 



Journal 



11,116.66 
10,497.45 
10,908.08 
12,659.44 
13,906.32 
13,605.69 
14,261.08 
14,988.17 
14,208.82 
14,465.58 
15,350.51 
15,023.15 
14,234.28 
18,312.97 
18,008.66 
15,680.22 



Post 



7,426.41 

8,171.49 

7,038.40 

7,665.65 

8,170.77 

9,277.96 

9,364.53 

9,698.77 

9,312.64 

9,340.00 

11,501.59 

11,771.55 

10,835.94 

16,650.81 

19,529.24 

16,621.41 



*Herald discontinued publication May 2, 1918. 
JExaminer and Herald-Examiner combined. 

198 



fHerald-Examiner. 



Newspapers as Advertising Media 

the United States is too enormous to be considered as a 
merchandising unit. It must be broken up into u districts, " 
"territories," "zones," or "markets," each one a logical 
unit within which to concentrate intensive sales effort. 
When a business which has been doing National advertising 
in magazines is analyzed from this angle certain wasteful 
features at once become apparent. Advertising is being 
purchased in the same quantity in districts where no 
attempt is made to supply dealers as in other districts where 
sales possibilities are big and dealers are being solicited 
aggressively. Local peculiarities, climatic variations, cur- 
rent events cannot be taken advantage of in the advertising. 
The dealer cannot be shown definitely and clearly what the 
advertising is doing for him. 

* * * 

The handling of selling by zones or markets leads to the 
use of newspapers for National advertising, as the advertis- 
ing can thus be synchronized and co-ordinated with the 
selling. Each market can be given the precise amount of 
advertising pressure needed. Waste circulation is reduced 
to a minimum. The advertising is brought close to the 
dealer and to his customers. For everyone reads the news- 
papers. The average man reads his paper 365 days in 
ordinary years and 366 days in leap years. Each person 
sets aside a definite part of each day for newspaper reading, 
but this cannot be said of any other advertising medium. 

Newspaper advertising is, above all else, productive of 
favorable action as well as favorable thoughts. The news- 
paper's life is brief, but full of fire and power. Because it^is 
jammed full of timely news and timely advertising it 
commands immediate consideration. Magazines may be 
laid aside to be read when, if ever, leisure and inclination 
happen to coincide, but the call of the newspaper is as 
insistent as the call of breakfast, the call of business, the 
call of life. 

Metropolitan newspapers, published in the morning and 
on Sunday, are particularly well fitted to carry national 

199 



J (TrU. Man JUdmnO % 

luued MoetWy. Sine* February, 1914. by lb> Buaoui Surrey of H» Oueaajo Tribuoe 



CHICAGO, DECEMBER. 1921 



S Cents a Copy; 50 Cents a Year 



Tiny Store Has Big Trade In Small District 

Volume Is 15 
Times Greater 
Than at Start 



In i store not much larger than a 

5ood sized kitchen. Julius Daniels 
oes a business of $65,000 a year at 
4716 Dorchester avenue. The terri- 
tory be serves is as tiny and condensed 
as the store, tod the single horse that 
attends to the deliveries doesn't get 
enough exercise to work off its fat. 
East. and west his territory runs two 
blocks. It Is only four blocks north 
and south, a half mile long and less 
than a quarter of a mile wide 

Daniels Brothers, Max and Julius, 
have three grocery stores. In addi- 
tion to the Dorchester avenue place, 
they have stores at 208 East Forty- 
seventh street and at 402 East Sixty- 
first street. But the little Dorchester 
avenue store keeps ahead of the others 
in the volume of sales. 

Father Ov/nod Store 
The grocery business came natur- 
ally to the two Daniels boys. As far 
back as they can remember they played 
and worked around a grocery 



t Forty-third 
and Cottage Grove. The boys learned 
the business with their father, and, 19 
years ago, started out for themselves 
at Thirty-fifth street and Indiana 

The business was preuy small at 
first. It averaged about $1,000 a 
month, or $.£000 a year. Now the 



from $14,000 to $16,000 a month, or 
approximately $180,000 in a year. 

For a time the brothers had a big 
store at Forty-seventh and Calumet 
tlotng a business of $12,000 a month. 
Changing conditions in the grocery 
trade caused them to give it up, how- 



warehouse for the Daniels Brothers* 

Twenty -6 re F««t Squar* 
Of the present stores, the one on 
Sixty-first stret is the oldest. It was 
opened ten years ago. The Dorchester 
avenue store has been doing business 
(or seven years and the Forty-seventh 
street store for about two years. 

" We should like to get a bigger lo- 
cation,** said Julius Daniels, " but we 
haven't been able to. This store meas- 
ures about twenty-five feet square, and 
you can sec that no space is wasted. 

" The grocery business has under- 
gone a great change in the last few 
years. It is due to the chain stores. I 
■ lon't believe there are more than about 
wenty nigh-class grocery 



Mich an extent that our trade is 75 per 

" For a while we worried a little 
about the chains, but not any more 
We have found o*ir place, and I don't 

twy an> attention to the chains I 
seep every article for* which there is 
a ik-maml The people can get what 
ihry want here. They can't in the 
.haui Hum 1 entry all the adver- 
tis.-il product* ami the well -established 



S«wn* of the sei 
part of lite busm 
hut wr like people I 



■eli, and everything 



THE TWO CLERKS 




Call Chinese Egg 

Trade a Menace 

Poulfry raisers are urging higher 
duties on eggs than are provided for 
in the Fordney bill and claim that the 
Chinese egg trade is menacing the 
American industry They want a duty 
of eight cents a dozen. The bill pro- 
vides for six cents At present, eggs 
are on the free list 

The poultry men asked a duty of 24 
tents a pound on dried egg*. The bill 
provides for a duty of 15 cents a pound 
and is at present 10 cents a pound. 
They told the congressmen that the 
importation of dried eggs from China 
had driven practically all the American 
plants drying eggs out of business and 
said that nearly all bakery goods are 
made with Chinese dried eggs. 

Fly 5,000,000 Miles 
for Pound of Honey 

A pound oi honey seems pretty 

i all the work of the bee is 

According to an English 

r. one. pound of honey 



investigate 



of 62.- 

000 blossoms, and to gather it the bees 
make 2700.000 visits to the flowers, 
covering approximately 5.000.000 miles 
for every pound- 



German Mark Rains 

Border Retailers 

All of Germany's neighbors are being 
outfitted, particularly in /clothing, at 
the expense of German shopkeeper*. 
With the German mark selling at the 
rate of 300 for a dollar, the difference 
in prices in other countries is so enor- 
mous that all along the Dutch, Danish, 
Swiss and Belgian borders the people 
put on their old rags and worn out 
clothes and cross into Germany. 

They trade their own money for 
marks and outfit themselves from 
head to foot at a fraction of what it 
would cost in their own country The 
reaction is such that in Holland espe- 
cially, for miles from the border, the 
Dutch shoemakers, tailors and clothing 
stores are unable to sell anything at all. 

Orange Seeds Now 

Used As Necklace 



grapefruit seeds, 
orange in the class with the famous 
pig of the packers, no part of which is 
wasted but the "squeal." 

All the other parts of the fruit have 
a use — the pulp and juice for eating, 
the peel for candying or flavoring, and 
the white inner rind for pectin extract 
to help in the jellying of other fruits. 
: doubtless 



$40 a Month Is 
Fountain Cost 
of "Paying Last'' 



It ti.e *p*cr uira by your soda 
fountiin paying out? What do 
you do to increase the safes at 
your fountain* How do you let 
your friends know how sanitary 
your fountain service it? What 
it your gross profit and your net 
profit on that phase of your busi- 
ness? Do you use glass or paper 
cups, and what difference does it 
make in your profits? Thtse are 
a few questions that one expert 
has figured out for himself and 
has given the information to The 
Co-Operator for its readers. It is 
a downtown store and many of his 
problems are not your problems. 
But we hope you will Sod all he 
has to say interesting and much 
of it helpful.^ 



T> ONG before the druggist handled 
any other sidelines, he was dispens- 
ing sodas. The soda fountain seems 
just as much a part of his business as 
the prescription counter, but a lot of 
druggists are taking it too much for 
granted. If properly conducted it is 
one of the biggest money-making de- 
partments of the store. Oh the other 
hand, it may cost the druggist money. 
- Few men in .h- hmine.. have made 



h. ■ itudy of the fountain as 
A. R. Specht. vice president of the Owl 
Drug company. He finds that the net 
profit from the fountain is about twice 
as great as any other department of the 
store and that a considerable propor- 
ion of the store's business comes from 
the soda fountain. 

Turnover About ISO 

In this article the figures given arc 
for the Owl store at Madison and Clark 
streets. This fountain will average in 
the whiter about $8,500 a month, a^d 
its best month last summer was $12,000 
Every month a fountain inventory is 
taken. It averages about $650, and 
and never runs above $800. This sug- 
gests the enormous turnover. The 
stock turns from 12 to/,18 times a 
month, a turnover well over 150 a year 

The fountain is operated on a gross 
profit of approximately 55 per cent. 
The cost of operating is 34 per cent, 
leaving a net profit of 21 per cent. 

Mr. Specht believes that the Ow, 
policy of "trusting the public" pays 
The Owl store has one of the few large 
fountains where the customer eats or 
drinks first, and pays afterward. Such 
a policy in a store which handles 2.200 
persons a day— and that is the average 
for this fountain — means a consider- 
able loss from unpaid checks in the 
courw of * month. But the increased 
t only at the fountain but 
f.the store as well ' 
.... r . .„ „f a suit of cloth' 
month. Mr. Specht believes. 

"Walkout*" W*™ $19.80 

There is an extremely small group 
which does not pay, too. The Owl 
stores find that the public in general 
can well be trusted, and customers ap- 
preciate the convenience of. buving 
whatever they want, getting the check, 
and paying as they go out 

"At this time of the year." said Mr. 
Specht, "our loss runs only about fifty 
cents a day. For October, the 'walk- 
outs amounted to $19.80. In the sum- 
mer they will run as high as $30 or $40 

"The cheating u done largely by 
street urchins. They will come in and 



The Co-Operator is mailed free each month to ispoo retailers in 
Chicago and suburbs. It never contains editorial puffs for 
The Tribune or for Tribune advertisers. It is designed to 
render a genuine service to the retailers through whom products 
advertised in The Tribune must be sold to consumers. Its 
editorial matter is written for it by trained men, and builds an 
appreciation of advertised merchandise by interesting stories 
rather than by preaching. It carries paid advertising from 
reputable concerns. 

200 



Tribune Sways Buying in Wide Territory 



S!MWi?£nS PPLBJOWCAL^' 



RECEIVE DJ a, HUBS W* 



•^IWIwjfi 



advertising because their radiating circulation influences 
much more than the city of publication. Evening news- 
papers, being in the nature of bulletins, seldom secure 
widespread circulation and cannot exert maximum influence 
on such circulation as they have. 

The case of The Chicago Tribune shows that a morning 
and Sunday newspaper can be a powerful buying influence 
throughout a large area. The Tribune has more than 
300,000 circulation in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and 

Wisconsin, outside of 
Chicago and suburbs. 
An investigation was 
made during 1921 
among 6741 retailers 
and 241 jobbers located 
in these states, outside 
of Chicago, to deter- 
mine the extent to 
which they read The 
Tribune and the extent 
to which their custom- 
ers were influenced by 
Tribune advertising in 
the purchasing of mer- 
chandise. Retailers 
and jobbers in five lines 
were interviewed — 
groceries, drugs, hard- 
ware, electrical appli- 
ances, and auto acces- 
sories. The results 
showed that 65% of 



D^n. hubs annua is Ma* it ajt 



-&tosi& J is>s' 7?7-aa<i*z.+n. 



■ ?lt**st 1 f"-**' 



fbCe. *4m*st, Anfcfn^ftnfr l£*l£ 




cZi*j£t*~~s . gxj a™. a^^tyL. 



anafatV 



<-^2- io^i/^f-irS'i-eC 



-^ Jht**fH0f4U 













This page, reproduced from The Century 
Magazine, shows how we advertised our 
advertising thirty years ago. 



the retailers read The Tribune and 72% feel the effect of 
Tribune advertising on their sales. Of the jobbers, 81.4% 
read The Tribune and 73% recognize the influence of 
Tribune advertising in promoting the sale of merchandise 
they handle. 

201 



Advertising Pays For Itself 

Within a broad territory, therefore, The Tribune not 
only reaches more people than any magazine, but it un- 
questionably influences the purchases of its readers. 

The Chicago Tribune believes that one of its greatest 
public services is to be found in the work done to promote 
more economical distribution of merchandise by means of 
newspaper advertising. The question is often asked : "Who 
pays for advertising ?" The answer is that no one does. 
It pays for itself. Cost of distribution (cost of getting 
articles from the manufacturing plant to the retail counter) 
is from one-third to one-half of the retail price of most 
merchandise. Cost of advertising is seldom more than 
a twentieth of the retail price. Therefore it often works 
out about as follows: An article has cost fifty cents to 
make (including the manufacturer's profit) and fifty 
cents to distribute, and therefore sells for one dollar. 
Advertising is adopted at a cost of two cents to five cents 
per unit, and brings about such economies in distribution, 
such steady demand, and such volume production that it is 
possible to make the article for forty cents and to distribute 
it for thirty cents (including the advertising cost), making 
the retail price seventy cents instead of a dollar. The 
advertising appropriation may have been a million dollars, 

but it paid for itself. 

* * * 

The Chicago Tribune realizes that editorial and adver- 
tising departments should be kept entirely separate because 
each is equally important and entitled to independent 
consideration and development. The strength of The 
Tribune from an advertising standpoint, the fact that 
tremendous revenues are derived from the sale of adver- 
tising sheerly on its merit on a business basis, enables the 
editorial department to do great things and to be inde- 
pendent in the face of any opposition. All that the adver- 
tising department asks from the editorial department is 
adequate circulation among the right kind of people, and 
it is obvious that such circulation can be won and held only 
by fighting in season and out for the public welfare. 

202 



i» ii i u p u " u » u»yu"iJ«u * u"L ' U " i,»u t u»u » u»u»uiD » u i u » mu " U " u i 'u i u"iJ > u»u " u » u i u"q i 




Where four copy writers and nine artists assist Tribune local 
advertisers to make the presentation of their messages more 
effective. 




Conference Room in which the advertising and merchandis- 
ing problems of national advertisers are discussed and analyzed. 
The "rent" map of Chicago in the corner is 8 feet wide and 16 
feet long. 






.t^-v. 



'QlJtK, *. 



I-&inlc tkat I skaEivever «ee 
Au$vt lovely as a. 



iL iat frowst] 
_-ia sporting oa^e 

^jbw wW£bre and w 
Y Wul«ooiv be (jumps iru du 



* r 

a\Awlvoset>i(k 
bj Sidney Smiov. 






**A make to smile uid clzraRa' A? '3 
i genial people ox Ciucagct , ;j 

l macerate fer advertising^"- I 

A taw tka.t lift* Warms aanlha^xs i 
lb be made into paragraphs - ~ ~ - 



l,L - v ' «^M« 






Chicago Tribune Pulp Wood 

Forests 

N a wilderness on the north shore of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, far down toward 
Labrador, The Chicago Tribune is carry- 
ing out a great work of pioneering and 
development. The earliest French explor- 
ers sailed along these shores. During 
the intervening centuries migrations from 
Europe have swept past them to populate a continent 
with more than 120,000,000 people. But through all the 
years these virgin forests of the far northeast lay un- 
touched, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Arctic ice 
fields. 

A rocky shore without harbors, no settlements, high 
tides, a stormy gulf, long and severe winters, combined to 
make profitable timber operations almost impossible. In 
the face of these obstacles The Chicago Tribune purchased 
500 square miles of forests and undertook to develop its 
own supply of pulp wood. 

Dams have been built, flooded out and rebuilt; a power 
house was constructed, washed away and rebuilt; docks 
have been torn to pieces while under construction, but 
others have taken their places. Setbacks and discourage- 
ments have been many, but success has finally been achieved. 
Quebec, the quaint walled city where twentieth century 
America meets seventeenth century France, is a logical 
place at which to begin the story of the mechanical produc- 
tion of The Chicago Tribune. During September and 
October Tribune agents are busy in the harbor of Quebec 
chartering all the schooners they can lay hands on and 
loading them with supplies for the camps in The Tribune's 
timberlands far down in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, on a 
wild frontier east of the eastern edge of Maine. 

205 



Move Winter Supplies to Wilderness 



For five or six months hundreds of men and their families 
are frozen in while they chop the trees destined for Tribune 
newsprint. Everything these communities need to eat or 
wear or use must be gotten into the woods before snow and 
ice seal the gates between them and the world. So for 
months there are always schooners beating down the broad 
river and stormy gulf of Baie des Cedres and Shelter Bay, 
three hundred and four hundred miles respectively, north- 
east of Quebec. Sailors who speak no word of English, 
sailors whose ancestors explored and colonized New France 
hundreds of years ago, take this first step in the making of 
The Chicago Tribune. Arriving at their destination after 
several days' sailing, they anchor off the coast, and scows 
and barges are brought alongside to take the cargoes of 
baled hay, sacks of oats, barrels of flour, hogsheads of salt 
pork, kitchen stoves, clothing, and tools, up shallow or 
rocky harbors. 

Three distinct classes of French-Canadians are engaged 
in the production of Tribune pulp wood. The sailors whose 




O N T A R 



206 



Communities Frozen In for Winter 

schooners take in supplies, the hunters and fishers of the 
North Shore who build the docks and dams, run the saw 
mills, make the roads and drive the logs down the river, and 
the farmers of the South Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
who spend the long winters in the forests as wood-choppers. 

The peak of activity comes in the late fall between the 
harvest on the South Shore and the closing of navigation. 
The workers must be transported across the gulf and back 
in the virgin forests, must make clearings, build their 
houses and barns, and must have their five or six months' 
supply brought in to them by schooner, scow, carts, motor 
boats, sledges, canoes, and on the backs of men. 

By November the streams are frozen and snow covers 
the ground to a depth of three to seven feet. Navigation 
ceases until May. Occasionally mail comes in by sledge 
and dog teams from Quebec, four hundred miles up the 
river, but for the most part the community is isolated and 
settles down to its winter routine. Strange to say, the 
natives seem to look forward with pleasure and anticipation 
to their long winter. Swift rivers, dense woods and spongy 
muskeag swamps — impenetrable in the summer — now per- 
mit connection by skiis, snowshoes, and dog sledges. 
Rabbits, sable, beaver, and now and then a caribou may 
be shot. The terrible summer pests, black flies and mosqui- 
toes, are gone. The thermometer may drop forty degrees 
below zero, but the natives say one does not mind it because 
it is so dry. There is unlimited wood for roaring fires and 
plenty of blood-stimulating exercise. 

In The Tribune's two towns, Shelter Bay and Baie des 
Cedres, a dozen or more American executives and about 
225 French Canadian laborers settle down to work on the 
dams, docks, conveyors, flumes, storehouses, cabins, and 
above all the supervision of the wood cutting. Back in the 
woods, scattered over an area of hundreds of square miles, 
are the camps of the loggers, 500 men and 150 horses. 

The wood choppers all operate in units of three men and 
a horse. Each such unit is assigned a definite tract of land 

207 



Logs as Cut Sledged to River Banks 

to cut, usually a half mile wide running three miles back 
from the stream. Two men chop and saw. The third man 
and the horse haul the wood to the river. The women and 
children do the chores. 

Agents of the Canadian government are constantly on 
the ground to see that no tree below a certain size is cut; 
that no tree is cut more than eighteen inches above the 
ground, even though it stand in sixty inches of snow. They 
also check the total cut on which taxes must be paid. Cullers 
and scalers representing The Tribune also check each day 
the cut of each logger to determine what he is to be paid. 
In case of dispute, reference is made to the figures of the 
government agent, independently computed. The Trib- 
une's culler is very particular that no dead wood or anything 
other than clear spruce and balsam be included in the cut. 
Some birch and poplar is found in these forests but it is 
left standing. 

As each tree is cut it is trimmed clear of all branches 
and sawed to eight or twelve foot lengths. Three of these 
are chained together and hauled by the horse to the banks 
of the stream. 

The piles on the sloping banks are held in place only by 
a tree at either end and roll-ways are cleared between them 
and the river. When they are needed, two men with axes 
chop away the supporting trees and in a few minutes 
precipitate the great pile into the water. 

With spring thaws and the opening of navigation the 
wood choppers and their horses hurry across the gulf to the 
farms on the south shore. The camp executives then face 
the greatest problems of the year — getting the wood to 
salt water, sawing it and loading it on the steamers which 
take it to the Tribune's great paper mill at Thorold, 
Ontario, near Niagara Falls. 

Labor is an acute problem in the development of such 
great enterprises as those of The Tribune on the North 
Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In a stretch of coast 
line a thousand miles long, the largest village is Eskimo 

208 



IJIUIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UII 




Lake Opco at Baie des Cedres, in The Tribune's timber 
country — joo feet above Gulf and quarter of a mile back from 
shore. Its waters supply the conveyor which floats the logs 
from the sawmill to the docks a mile down the coast. 




Loggers on The Tribune 's timber lands on Franquelin River. 



IU , U , U'U'U , U , U , U'U , U'U , U , U , U , U , UIU"U<UIU , U'U , U'U , U , U , UIU I U , U 1 U , U , U , U»U'1- 




The Tribune's timber town of Baie des Cedres on the north 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 




Former submarine chaser, Mareuilendole, which travels ten 
thousand miles a season as Tribune dispatch boat in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 



Spring Floods Float Logs to Salt Water 

Point near the southern edge of Labrador. The vast 
stretches of the interior are unhabited except by scattered 
Indians and Eskimos. The few residents of this barren 
Northeastern frontier have been for generations hunters and 
fishers. Although unskilled and unsuited to the routine of 
industrial labor, they are the only workmen available for 
the building of docks, power houses, and the loading of 
boats. 

At Shelter Bay and Baie des Cedres they are boarded 
and housed at the expense of the company, buy whatever 
additional supplies they need at the company store at a 
small margin above cost, and make from #100 to $140 per 
month clear. 

The food is of very high quality, in great variety, well 
cooked and clean, although served in great log cook houses 
with rough hewn tables and benches, enamel cups and 
plates. Hundreds of steers, sheep and hogs are brought 
to the towns to be slaughtered during the winter, insuring 
a continuous supply of fresh meat. Few American families 
live better than do the laborers on The Tribune properties 
on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but each one 
longs for the distant cabin which his ancestors consecrated 
as home, and each one is restive under regular hours of 
routine labor. 

Driving logs down the river is a dashing picturesque 
phase of the work to which the men take more readily than 
to the other duties. In the first six miles of Rocky river 
above the Gulf are eight rapids and six waterfalls. Islands 
are plentiful. As a result the logs jam, dynamite must be 
used, and hardy lumber jacks risk their lives to sweep the 
last log from slippery rocks and boiling torrents. 

When the logs reach sea level they are caught by booms 
— logs chained end to end to reach across the stream. They 
are moved over to the sawmill by encircling as many as 
are needed and towing the whole loosely floating raft into 
a position from which men with long pikes push them one 
at a time on the jack ladder. The jack ladder is an endless 

211 



Logs Floated into Holds of Steamers 

chain arrangement which lifts the log from the water and 
carries it up to the sawmill. The sawmill is merely a shed 
with two great circular saws or "slashers. " The endless 
chains bring the log in at one side, press it against the saws, 
which cut each twelve-foot log into three four-foot logs, and 
throw the four-foot logs out the other side into a conveyor. 

As the logs leave the slashers they roll down a short 
incline into a flume full of swiftly running water. At 
Shelter Bay this water is pumped from the bay into the 
flume. At Baie des Cedres the water is secured from a 
beautiful lake 300 feet above the level of the Gulf and 
only a quarter of a mile inland from it. 

The flume at Shelter Bay floats the logs to the dock, 
where they are caught by spikes on an endless chain, 
carried up an incline to a platform, from which they are 
dropped into the holds of steamers. At Baie des Cedres the 
flume itself runs out on the dock far above the decks of the 
steamers so that logs are literally floated from the forests 
far in the interior right into the vessel's hold. When a 
great mass of logs has been shot into a hold, a gang go in 
and pack it compactly while the stream of logs is directed 
down another hatchway. Water that flows into the boat 
with the logs is pumped out. 

Making harbors which will be safe for the big lumber 
steamers has been an enormous task on the North Shore. 
It is usual for the rivers down which the logs must be floated 
to form enormous boulder strewn shoals at their mouths. 
To meet this situation at Baie des Cedres a flume has been 
built from the sawmill on the river more than a mile west, 
almost out in the Gulf along the steep shore to the first 
point where deep water made a dock practical. 

At Shelter Bay the mouth of the river is dotted with a 
dozen islands varying from square yards to a square mile 
in area. The island farthest out from the shore was selected 
for the dock as very deep water was to be found on its 
extreme end. In 1916 the first dock was built, only 
to be washed away. Then the war interrupted develop- 

212 



Electric Lighted Town on the Frontier 

ment work until 1919. In an attempt to rush construction 
work so that wood already cut could be loaded and shipped 
to the paper mill, a novel scheme was conceived. A short, 
stanch dock was constructed with the idea of continuing 
it by sinking a steamer off its end and filling it with rock. 
The steamer Eagan was bought and rushed to the scene. 
Her sides were built up high to receive rocks to be blasted 
from the unlimited supply on the island. Some difficulty 
was experienced in sinking the Eagan, which clung to life 
like an old warrior, but dynamite let the water in and she 
settled precisely in the desired position on a calm, sunny 
afternoon. Before sunrise the next morning a howling 
sou'easter was tearing her to pieces, and the taking out of 
pulp logs had to be postponed for another year. 

Since then enormous progress has been made. A power 
house has been built taking the place of an earlier one which 
was swept away by a spring flood. This power house utilizes 
only a fraction of the water available at the lowest of the 
six waterfalls, but it produces ample electricity for the 
light and power. 

Shelter Bay is in the wilderness but its houses have 
electric lights. The brilliant illumination permits 24 hours' 
work in loading vessels. Electrically driven compressors 
furnish compressed air. 

A church and school have been built, houses are replac- 
ing log cabins, a store and office building and warehouses 
have been erected. A doctor is a member of the staff. 
The Government requires that six fire-rangers be main- 
tained. A fleet of no small proportions floats on Shelter 
Bay. There is a dispatch boat, The Muriel, gasoline barges, 
gasoline scows, motor boats, row boats, canoes, and scows 
without power. Schooners are not unloaded at the main 
dock on the island because of the lack of connection with 
the mainland, and can only approach the river dock at high 
tide. Most of their cargoes, therefore, must be taken off 
on the barges and scows. 

213 



Tribune Operates Fleet of Boats 

A similar fleet is maintained at Baie des Cedres for the 
dock is more than a mile down the coast from the town, 
and high, rocky cliffs separate the two except for the flume 
which carries the logs. 

There is also the Mareuilendole express boat, formerly 
a submarine chaser. This craft is quite the wonder and 
talk of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Built in six steel com- 
partments it is practically unsinkable even though holes 
were torn in its hull. Three great gasoline engines develop 
650 horsepower and drive her at 12 to 20 miles an hour 
through any weather. Taking passengers to and from rail- 
road terminals at Matane and Rimouski, journeying back 
and forth between Baie des Cedres and Shelter Bay and 
performing other dispatch service around the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, the Mareuilendole travels upwards of 10,000 
miles each summer in Tribune service. She is electric 
lighted, steam heated, has running water, and can house 
26 people though only no feet long. 

The Tribune owns three lumber steamers which carry 
pulp wood from its timber land to Thorold — The Linden, 
The Chicago Tribune and The New York Daily News. 
The two last named are new steel steamers, specially built 
for pulp wood carrying and put in commission this year. 

Logs pour into a steamer for two or three days and 
nights before the decks are piled and the hull is drawing 
14 feet, the maximum depth permissible in the canals it 
must use going up past the rapids of the St. Lawrence. 
Montreal is reached in about two days' steaming from 
Shelter Bay but the dozens of canal locks make the shorter 
trip from there to Lake Ontario take at least as long again. 
At the west end of Lake Ontario the Welland Canal inter- 
poses a score more locks between the boat and its destina- 
tion, so that a week to ten days is necessary to deliver 600 
to 1,600 cords of pulp wood from the river at Shelter Bay 
to the pond at Thorold. 



214 




A log jam in the Franquelin River. 




Blowing up a log jam in Rocky River. 



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Ifoodpulp, after 
undergoing the 
processes of 
crushing and 
refining, is run 
through a set 
of Davis and 
Screens from 
which it flows 
in a thin stream 
onto the 



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Fourdrinier Wire, an 
endless, rocking cop- 
per wire belt running 
at a speed of 650 feet 
per minute. This 
belt is 202 inches 
wide and has 65 
wires to the inch. 
Through this screen, 
as well as by suction 
drains, superfluous 
water is removed; 
while the rocking 
motion weaves the 
pulp into a thin 
paper film 



This thin film 
runs thence 
between two 
cylinders, one 
of which is 
wool covered. 
This is known 
as the 

Couch Roll 
and presses 
the paper suf- 
ficiently dry 
to run un- 
supported to 



The first of Three Presses. 
These are composed of a series 
of rubber and wooden rolls 
through which run three sets 
of felt belts. On these felt 
blankets the paper film goes 
through the presses which re- 
move most of the remaining 
moisture. The last press roll 
is surfaced with gun-metal 
which hardens the paper and 
gives it a preliminary finish-. 



The paper is t 
completes the 
presses — carry 
cylinders, befo 




Dams and 
Screens 



Fourdrinier Wire 
and Suction Drains 



("ouch' First Press Second Prcs 
Roll 



Third Press 



Diagram of Paper Machine shown 




Where wood pulp is turned into Tribune newsprint. Wood 
pulp greatly diluted with water flows on a wire screen at the left 
of this picture. When it reaches the right end the water has 
been drained out, the fibres matted; it has become a sheet of wet 
paper— ready to pass through the series of rolls, blankets and 
driers, which finish the process. 



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i gh a battery of 32 .-.team-heated cylinders. This unit the Dryer, 
?:noving water from the paper. The felt belts, which — as in the 

ugh this machine, are run over a series of rolls beneath the drying 

ey come in contact with the damp paper. 



The Calender 
Stuck, a col- 
u m n of 8 
steel rolls re- 
ceives the 
paper from 
the dryer; it 
is hardened 
and finished 
then passes to 



The Reel 
oh which 
it is 
wound. 
It is later 
run off on 



The ffindtr 

where it is 
inspected 
and cut by 
Circular 

Knife to re- 
quired sizes 




Dryer 



Calender 
Stack 



Keel 



Winder 



■1 conversion of wood pulp into paper. 




This picture shows, from right to left, the long row of dryers, 
the calendering stack, the winder, and the rewinder of one of 
The Trihune's paper machines. 



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Logs lifted from the deck of a steamer are thrown into the 
pond at The Tribune's paper mill. They are floated across 
the pond and then built up into the huge storage pile. 



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One million dollar s worth of pulp logs piled at The Tribune's 
paper mill at Thorold. 



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Turning Trees Into Paper 

INTO The Tribune's great mill at Thorold, Ontario, go 
hundreds of thousands of electric horsepower from 
Niagara Falls, millions of gallons of water from Lake 
Erie, train loads of coal, steamers full of logs, cars of sulphur 
and limestone and clay — and out of the mill streams paper 
at the rate of 600 to 1,000 feet per minute from each of 
five machines. 

The sheet delivered from each machine is 162 to 201 
inches wide. This means that the product is the equivalent 
of more than 12,000 Chicago Tribune pages per minute, 
or a strip of paper 18 inches wide and 2,350 feet long every 
sixty seconds. 

The Tribune's paper mill is laid out roughly as follows: 

1 . Pond and yard for storage of wood, coal, sulphur and 
limestone — enormous piles of raw material. 

2. Group of buildings where logs are barked and ground 
and the wood pulp screened. 

3. Buildings where wood is chipped and chemically 
treated to produce sulphite pulp. 

4. Buildings where the ground wood pulp and the 
sulphite pulp mixed are converted into paper by five 
great paper machines. 

5. Buildings where wrapping paper is made and rolls 
are wrapped and loaded into freight cars. 

Unloading pulp wood from steamers and building it 
into a great storage pile is a spectacular sight. Logs in the 
steamer are piled in a strip of rope hammock. This is 
swung high and wide by a derrick, one end of the hammock 
is released just as the swing reaches its apex and the logs 
fly wide into the pond. From the opposite side of this 
pond the logs are pushed on a chain conveyor, which builds 
them into a pile of 30,000 to 40,000 cords, a young moun- 

219 



Logs Swiftly Ground to Pulp 

tain of pulp wood. The logs brought in by rail are^piled 
in smaller hills along the switch tracks. 

From the woodpiles the four-foot logs are drawn by 
chain conveyors to slashers which saw them into two-foot 
lengths. The stream then divides, those destined for 
mechanical or ground wood pulp going to the barking drums 
or tumblers, and those designed for chemical or sulphite 
pulp to the rossing machines. 

The barking drum is a huge revolving steel cylinder in 
which the logs and water churn around until friction with 
each other and with the sides of the drum strips off the bark. 
The logs are admitted at one end of the drum and worked 
out at the other. As they tumble out they are inspected 
and those not clean are sent back for another trip. 

Logs to be used in making sulphite have the bark re- 
moved by knives, a more thorough process and one which 
involves the loss of some of the wood. They are then 
chopped into chips about an eighth of an inch thick and a 
half inch square. Successive screens remove the larger 
shavings and sawdust and the chips are dumped into the 
digestors for chemical treatment described later. 

The logs from the barking drums go to a reservoir from 
which they are drawn into long narrow, shallow tanks, 
running between rows of wood-grinding machines. 

The log is ground to pulp merely by pressing its side 
against the rim of a huge grindstone. These stones, 54 
inches in diameter and 27 inches thick, whirl at 250 revolu- 
tions per minute inside steel casings. Three turrets project 
from each casing. The logs are piled in these turrets so 
that the bottom logs rest against the rim of the stone. The 
door of the turret is then closed and pneumatic pressure 
applied to the top of the pile of logs, forcing them against 
the whirling grindstone. Water flows over them all the 
time and pulp or "slush" as it is called, flows in a sluggish 
stream almost boiling hot from friction, out of the bottom 
of the machine. This slush contains resinous material in 
solution and slivers, both of which must be removed. The 

220 



Chips Boiled in Acid to Make Chemical Pulp 

slivers are taken out by mixing the pulp with much water 
and running it over screens which permit all the fine fibers 
to pass through with the water but reject the coarser ones. 
These screenings are used to make coarse, heavy wrapping 
paper. 

By running the pulp between two cylinders, the lower 
one made of fine copper screen, the water carrying the 
resinous matter is removed. Fresh water is then added to 
the pulp and it goes to the mixing tanks, where 75 per 
cent of mechanical pulp meets 25 per cent of chemical pulp. 

* * * 

Burning sulphur is the first process in the manufacture 
of sulphite pulp. The sulphur dioxide gas which results is 
first cooled and then admitted to the bottom of a tower 
filled with limestone. Water trickling down over the stone 
unites with the lime and the sulphur dioxide to form bi- 
sulphite of soda, a strong acid solution which is then stored 
for use in the digestors. 

The digestors are steel cylinders or boilers about the 
height of a three-story house, lined inside with brick to 
protect the steel from the action of the acid and to hold in 
the heat during the cooking process. There are two of 
these enormous digestors at The Tribune plant. 

A digestor is filled with chips and then as much bisulphite 
liquid as it will hold is added. The digestor is then sealed, 
live steam forced in and the mixture cooked under 80 
pounds steam pressure for eight hours. At the end of this 
time all resinous matter from the wood has been dissolved. 
A valve at the bottom of the digestor is opened and the 
80 pound pressure blows the whole mass out into a big vat 
where it is washed for hours before being sent through 
the same screening processes as the ground wood pulp. 

Chemical pulp is made up of finer, longer fibers and less 
resinous or ligneous material than mechanical pulp. The 
difference between them is indicated by the fact that a 
cord of wood makes 1,300 pounds of chemical, or 2300 
pounds of mechanical pulp (dry weight). The sulphite pulp 

221 



Pulp Converted to Paper in Instant 

gives the paper strength and flexibility, but the mechanical 
pulp is necessary to give it the porous or blotter-like char- 
acteristics which enable it to absorb the ink from cylinders 
on high speed presses. Paper made of nothing but sulphite 
could not be used for newspapers. Much newsprint con- 
tains only 20 to 22 per cent sulphite pulp but in The Tribune 
plant 25 to 30 per cent is used. 

* * * 

In the mixing tanks, mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, 
pulp secured from old copies of The Tribune and waste 
paper from the presses, white clay which acts as filler and 
smoother, bluing and alum, are all beaten up together. 
It is then passed through a Jordaning machine which tears 
the last possible sliver to pieces and mixes the whole 
thoroughly. ^ 

More water is added and the pulp is pumped into boxes 
the width of the paper machine. From them it overflows 
on the Fourdrinier wire screens, on which it is almost 
instantly converted into paper. 

The Fourdrinier screen is about 72 feet long and from 
162 to 201 inches wide. It is in the form of an endless belt 
so the distance traveled by the pulp in passing over it is 
about 36 feet and takes only a few seconds, since it is 
moving at the rate of 600 to 1000 feet per minute — being 
shaken sidewise at the same time. It has a mesh of 65 
wires to the inch, and through these meshes the water sinks 
as the pulp flows out on the screen. The jogging side 
motion of the screen tends to make the pulp fibres interlace 
as the water drains away and they settle on the wire. 

During the first instant that the pulp is on the screen, 
water drains through the holes by gravity. The next 
instant it passes over vacuum boxes which suck the water 
out more rapidly and mat the fibers more firmly. Within 
three seconds the milky liquid has been converted into a 
sheet of paper which passes off the end of the screen between 
two great rolls that squeeze out still more water. On leav- 
ing these rolls it is strong enough to make the jump un- 

222 



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Wood grinding machines in Tribune s paper mill. Inside 
each machine is a giant grindstone whirling at high speed. 
Logs are forced against each stone from these turrets. Logs 
are floated to the machines in tanks, which run from the left 
to the right of the above picture. 




Workman putting logs into a box-like opening in a turret of 
a grinding machine. When he closes the door a pneumatic 
piston will force the logs under tremendous pressure against 
the stone. Hot, white slush of ground wood is seen flowing out 
just behind the workman. 



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After splinters have been screened from the wood pulp it is 
forced between these two rolls. Water carrying away all solu- 
ble impurities flows through the lower, which is made of fine 
copper screen. 




An important point in the making of newsprint — the first jump 
of the new-made sheet from the wire screen, on which it changed 
from liquid to solid, to the felt blanket which assists in drying it. 



Few Yards from Paper Machines to Cars 

supported to another series of cylinders called press rolls, 
where it is further squeezed and dried by enormous wool 
blankets running in endless belts. From the press rolls it 
passes to a series of 32 drying cylinders filled with live 
steam and covered with blankets to absorb the moisture. 
Very delicate adjustment is necessary to keep all parts of 
the paper machine working at just the proper speed. The 
machines are each about 200 feet long and the paper must 
be kept at sufficient tension but not too much tension all 
the way through. Each section of the machine must run 
a little faster than the one behind it because as the paper 
dries it stretches. 

The final touch of the machine is given by steel calender 
rolls which polish the paper immediately before it is wound 
on long steel spindles. Before being shipped it must be 
rewound from these on cores, the edges being trimmed at 
the same time and the roll 162 to 201 inches wide cut into 
various lengths needed in the press room. 

These rolls are wrapped with extra heavy paper made 
on other machines from the pulp rejected as too coarse for 
newsprint. They are loaded in box cars, switched into the 
mill within a few yards of the end of the paper machines. 

The product of this mill supplies The Chicago Tribune 
and The Daily News of New York. 

* * * 

The transportation of raw materials to The Tribune's 
mill and of paper from the mill to the newspaper press 
rooms demands the specialized attention of a traffic depart- 
ment. Upwards of ten thousand car loads of freight are 
handled into and out of the mill each year. For 2,700 car 
loads of paper to come out of the mill, 6,000 car loads of 
wood and 1,500 car loads of coal must go in as well as great 
quantities of sulphur, limestone, wires, clay, and machinery. 

Strikes, blizzards, car shortages create problems for the 
Traffic Department to master. It also seeks to reduce loss 
or damage in transit to a minimum. The fifteen hundred 

225 



Transportation of Paper and Materials 

pound rolls of paper are particularly susceptible as they can 
rather easily be split. 

Every roll of paper is inspected as it is unloaded from 
the freight car. By means of a caliper ruler the depth of 
the cuts and tears in each roll is ascertained to the thirty- 
second of an inch. A table has been devised which shows 
the weight of the damaged paper for each fraction of an 
inch in depth the roll is cut or damaged. It is, therefore, 
possible to estimate the amount of damage in pounds at the 
time the paper is unloaded from the car. 

As a result of these investigations many improvements 
have been adopted in methods of preparing cars for loading 
and in loading them at the mill. In the past the greatest 
amount of damage has been found to be caused by water 
coming through leaky roofs of cars and also by the fact 
that paper has been loaded into cars which became in bad 
order in transit, necessitating the transfer of the paper to 
another car by railroad freight handlers who use no care in 
handling the heavy delicate rolls of paper. Inspection of 
cars and careful loading have practically eliminated these 
losses. 




226 




Composing Room 

N average of about 300 columns of type are 
set in the "Composing Room" of The 
Chicago Tribune each day. The "Com- 
posing Room" of The Tribune utilizes the 
entire fourth floor of The Plant. Probably 
no newspaper in the world has better 
facilities. Ample space, windows on all sides, modern 
equipment logically arranged, permit the production of a 
great volume of work of superior quality at high speed. 
The working force includes 54 hand compositors, 18 ad 
machine compositors, 36 news machine compositors, 
9 machinists, 25 proof readers, and 23 who follow the type 
from the time it is set until it is placed in the forms and 
sent to the stereotypers. 

The accompanying illustration shows the layout of the 
Composing Room. Note that the ads move toward the 
center of the room from the south and west sides while the 
news comes from the north side. The paper is made up 
in the center, and then the forms go to the steam tables at 
the east end. From there the matrices are dropped down 
a chute to the stereotype casting room on the first floor. 

The linotype machines are busy about sixteen hours a 
day with various kinds of copy. The day shift of printers 
set classified and .display advertisements and articles for 
the inside sections of the Sunday newspapers. In the after- 
noon the market tables and stories and the editorials begin 
to come to the machines, and in the evening and most of 
the night they are busy with news stories for the current 
issue, sandwiching in advertising and Sunday copy and 
news matter for later issues during the slack periods in 
the flow of news. A type-setting machine can produce, 
roughly, about ten columns of type in a work day. 

It may be of interest to follow through the operations of 
a typical day in The Tribune's Composing Room. 

227 



Thousands of Cuts On File 

Each morning the auditing department sends to the 
composing room a copy of The Tribune, upon which has 
been noted the disposition to be made of each advertisement 
appearing that day. With these sheets before them, two 
men go over the forms and remove those that are "dead," 
throwing the metal into a wheeled bin to be melted down 
for further use. About 99% of the type used in The Tribune 
is new type. 

Ads that are to appear on a later day are placed in 
galleys duly tagged. Those that are "alive" remain in the 
forms, the basis of the make up for the day. This opera- 
tion for the classified section of 40 to 200 columns is a 
matter of some time and requires great care. 

Not all of the metal used in display ads goes back at 
once to the melting pot. Many cuts and name plates are 
preserved for future use. The accumulation numbering many 
thousand is kept in a steel cut cabinet of more than 500 
pigeon holes, each allotted to an advertiser and labeled 
with his name. With the help of a catalogue these cuts may 
be found when needed, saving the cost of re-making. 

One might think that there would be no such pressure on 
the advertising compositors as on those in the "news room," 



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228 



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Editors and compositors" making-up" The Tribune. 




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A Tribune veteran at his linotype. 




The first step in making an engraving is shown above — pho- 
tographing the original. Below, the etcher has just taken the 
zinc plate out of the acid bath after a "bite." 




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How Ads are Set in Type 

but there is not much to choose. Ads come in at the "dead- 
line" just as the news does. Double-page department store 
ads are returned at the last moment so cut to pieces as 
to necessitate almost entire re-setting. And the "ad room'' 
must work with a great variety of types and sizes and 
"layouts" as compared with the straight-away composition 
of the news. Pressure in the "ad room" reaches its climax 
on Thursday and Friday nights when the first sections of 
the Sunday paper go to press in addition to the Daily 
issues. * * * 

Display advertisements are all those not set in 
uniform type, according to rule. Their setting calls for the 
exercise of skill and judgment. Copy comes in various 
conditions. For the most part the advertiser outlines in 
detail what is desired. Sometimes only the text is sub- 
mitted. Unless special directions are given, each compos- 
itor designs the ad he sets. 

Some ads come in as mats, prepared by the advertiser. 

These are of any size up to full page, and, after being 
scheduled by the ad foreman, go direct to the foundry for 
casting. The cast goes into the form and from it the page 
mat is then made. It is difficult to retain the clearness of the 
original through this process. Other ads come in as electro 
plates and these go first to the etching room, or the stereo- 
type room, to be mounted on metal. 

The ad being set, a proof is taken. This goes to the proof 
readers and comes back with corrections noted. Often 
many proofs are taken before the ad is finally approved. 
When finally approved the name, form and size in agate 
lines of each advertisement are entered upon the Display 
Ad Schedule. The ad in type then goes to the make up, 
where it lies ready to be placed in the form at the proper 
time. 

This process continues until the dead line, when the last 
ad is sent away, and the schedule shows a complete list 
by name, of the display ads for the day, together with the 
length and breadth of each and its total agate lines ; and at 

231 



Handling Daily Flood of Want Ads 

the bottom a total of display advertising for the day in 
columns, carried out to two decimals. 

The Tribune carries an average of 84 columns of classi- 
fied advertising daily. Of these an average of 48 columns 
are "standing/* that is, they run for a greater or less number 
of consecutive insertions and so are not set daily. An average 
of 36 columns are new and must be set each day. When 
the copy comes up from the business office, an increasing 
volume as the six-o'clock dead line approaches, it has been 
censored and approved, as all advertising must be. It is 
also classified. Unless some manifest error in classification 
appear, it stands. The small ads are set by operators on 
the linotype machines. Each operator carries his completed 
"take" to the "bank" and places it, without regard to 
classification, in one of the galleys set apart for that pur- 
pose. Proofs are then taken and when corrected, the type 
in galleys, goes to the tables near the make-up line. Here 
they are assorted according to the classification. The make- 
up tables are arranged in long lines just as when the news 
pages are made up later in the evening. 

From long experience, a fairly accurate estimate can be 
made of how much space will be required for classified ads 
each day. As the ads in type are classified, they are made 
up in pages, as we see them daily in The Tribune, having 
special regard to their arrangement according to size and 
classification. The dead line for classified advertising is 
six o'clock. By eight the last form is locked and turned 
over to the stereotypers. For at that time begins the news 
make-up for the first edition. It then follows the same 
course as the news forms, going first to the mat makers and 
then to the foundry. Having closed the forms, the accu- 
rate amount of the classified advertising is entered upon 

the schedule. 

* * * 

Display and classified schedules go to the foreman of the 
Composing Room, who then proceeds to make up the paper 
from an advertising standpoint. He makes a dummy for 

232 



Make-up of Ads Puzzling Problem 

each page of the next day's Tribune, showing the precise 
location, size and shape of every display advertisement on 
the schedule. At 7:30 these dummies go to the night 
editor, and with them as a basis he makes up the news. 

The daily problem of determining the position which 
each advertisement shall have in the paper is delicate and im- 
portant. As far as possible the requests of the advertisers 
are complied with, but The Tribune will not guarantee 
that any particular ad will appear on any particular page. 
Some of the pages most desired by advertisers have but 
a small amount of space available for advertising — finan- 
cial page containing New York Stock Exchange quotations, 
women's pages, sporting pages, page three, for instance. 
Only a fraction of the advertising requested for these pages 
can possible be placed on them. 

Furthermore, there are certain rules rigidly adhered to 
in the placing of advertisements on a page. The advertis- 
ing is always built up from the lower right hand corner in 
a symmetrical block. Deeper ads are always placed above 
the more shallow ones of the same width. This make-up, 
known as the "pyramid" style, originated in The Tribune's 
composing room, and is recognized as permitting most 
orderly display of news with best presentation of advertising. 

Beginning somewhat after 5 o'clock, news matter comes 
up to the composing room in various conditions and in 
varying volume. It has, however, one invariable quality. 
It is typewritten. No other is tolerated. In the argot of the 
local room each news item, whether an inch or a column, 
from editorial to market reports, is a "story." When a 
batch of copy comes up on the waiter, it is carried by the 
copy boy to the copy box on the copy cutter's desk. Here 
it is prepared for the compositor. 

If an item of news is short, the copy cutter marks upon 
it its classification, as "F" for Financial or "Wash" for Wash- 
ington and the number of its galley on the bank and hangs 
it on the copy hook. If it is long, he first cuts off the head 
and then cuts the body of it into sections of convenient 

233 



Copy Set in Many Small "Takes" 

lengths, called "takes." These are each marked by name 
and galley numbers. The sections are also given serial 
numbers for convenience in reassembling the copy and the 
type after it has been set. As he marks each story he also 
marks its number on a schedule upon which are printed the 
names of the classes of news, with one or more lines of 
space for each, so that if the last number in City is 103, he 
and all who handle either it or the type know that the next 
take in City news must be numbered 104. Frequently a 
story comes from the local room in sections, at long in- 
tervals. There is an agreed mark by which the copy reader 
indicates the end of a story. Until that mark appears at 
the bottom of a take, the composing room knows that more 
of that story is to follow. When the compositor finds that 
mark he sets a dash, which gives like notice to all who fol- 
low him in handling the type. 

A compositor does not pick his take. He takes the top 
ones on the hook. Having set a take, he brings the type 
to the bank and places it in its proper galley and in its 
proper order as indicated by its serial number, and identi- 
fies it by its number on a slip of paper attached to the type. 
Sixteen of a story called "Hewitt" may come to the bank 
before 15, but until they are all there in order with the 
dash at the end, the bank man does not move it. 

At the top of each galley is placed a stereotyped cast line 
of type called a "slug," showing the classification of news 
and the galley number, thus : 



22 WASH 22 



Each compositor has also his own numbered stereotyped 
slug which is always the same, thus : 



29 Twenty-Nine 29 



He places one of these slugs in his stick at the head of 
each of his takes. 

234 



Pull Many Proofs of Each Story 

He also sets by linotype, at the top of each take, a 
"guide line," bearing the name of the story and the number 
of the take, thus : 

MOSS ENRIGHT— 9, 8 and 2 

These three slugs all show in the proof, the first to aid in 
bringing back to the story its proper head, the second for 
the purpose of computing the number of ems set by each 
compositor and the third to identify the story to the make- 
up man. They are all removed before the type takes its 
place in the form. Occasionally one escapes, as when an 
editor finds "Add Holy Junk" in the midst of his church 
news, and then takes to the woods. 

With his take in type the compositor brings the corre- 
sponding copy, which he hangs upon a hook at the end of 
the bank. When a galley is full or a story complete, the 
bank man carries the galley and its copy to the proof press. 
Here the rollers are running rapidly over the stone. The 
boy deftly puts the galley in place and with great skill takes 
off ten proofs, which he hangs upon convenient hooks. 
Four of these are for the editors in the local room, four 
are for certain New York correspondents and news syndi- 
cates, one goes to the "dupe hook" for use in making up 
the pay sheets, and one, with its copy, to the proof readers. 

The head proof reader folds each proof in its own copy 
and lays it in a stack at his left. Here the proof readers 
come to get it, always taking that which lies on top. There 
is no picking and choosing. 

Reading proof is an exacting occupation. The reader 
must not only see to it that the proof "follows copy," but 
he must correct any transgression of the Rules of Composi- 
tion, or any other manifest errors even though they agree 
with copy. 

"Rules of Composition" is a closely printed sheet the 
size of a Tribune page which prescribes with an infinitude 
of detail the "style" to be used in setting Tribune news. 
Spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, the uses of italics and 
capitals, the fine points to be observed in the setting of 

235 



Type not Distributed but Melted After Use 

stock quotations and death notices, all are considered and 
most positive decisions laid down. 

The proof, corrected, goes to the "correction bank," 
the high table in the right background at which two men 
are standing, where it is laid upon its own galley of type. 
The man who set it corrects it. For this time he is not 
paid — a penalty for inaccuracy. As many proofs as are 
necessary are made until the galley is found correct. 

Linotype operators are paid for the amount of type they 
set, calculated by the 1,000 ems. An em is a square whose 
sides equal the height of a given type. The Tribune, except 
the first page, is set in minion without leads, and 1,000 
ems of this is about five inches long. 

The linotype operator writes on a keyboard similar to 
a typewriter. At each stroke a brass matrix of a letter, 
figure or punctuation mark drops into a groove. When 
there are enough in place to fill a line, molten metal is 
pumped against the matrices and the line-o-type results. 
As the operator is writing the next line the matrices of the 
line before are being automatically redistributed. A nota- 
ble feature of the linotype machines in The Tribune Com- 
posing Room is that the metal in each is heated by elec- 
tricity instead of by gas, which is commonly used. 

Type too large to be set on the linotype is usually set 
on the Ludlow Typograph. Large brass matrices are set 
by hand, and from them the headline is cast in one line, 
and the matrices re-distributed. This involves little sav- 
ing in time, if any, but a great saving in space and cleaner 
typography. An ordinary matrix cabinet two feet square 
will contain twenty fonts of matrices. 

Small type, rules, leads, etc. to be used in hand compo- 
sition are set on Monotype machines and after being used 
are melted down, never redistributed. 



236 



Etching Room 




EFORE photographs or drawings can be 
printed in a newspaper, they must be 
reproduced in metal — variously known as 
etchings, engravings, half-tones, zincs, 
cuts, or plates. These terms are practically 
interchangeable except that "half-tones" 
are of photographs or wash drawings, and not of line 
drawings. 

Many newspapers have this work done for them by 
outside concerns, but The Tribune has long maintained its 
own Etching Room on an elaborate scale. The Tribune not 
only does all its own work, but, because of its splendid 
facilities, and the speed which it achieves, it does a large 
volume of work for other publications, advertisers, agen- 
cies, etc. This work, charged for at usual commercial 
rates, produces a considerable revenue. 

The Tribune's Etching Room occupies the east end of 
the fifth floor of The Plant, adjoining the Local Room and 
the Art Department. Two shifts of men are employed, the 
day shift occupied mainly with work for the advertising 
department, and the night shift, kept busy by the news and 
feature departments. Big, airy, well-lighted rooms are 
filled with thoroughly modern equipment. A never-ending 
struggle is always in progress to make cuts which will 
print better on The Tribune's high speed presses. 

In photographs the gradations of color between the 
high lights and the shadows are termed half-tones and the 
plate of that name is so called because it reproduces those 
intermediate shades. A picture is composed wholly of light 
and shade, from complete black to white, and the interme- 
diates. 

In making a half-tone, the first step is to reproduce the 
picture by photography. The negative is taken in the usual 
way, but with three special features. The camera is a huge 

237 



Half Tone Negatives Made Through Screens 

one. The light is artificial. Two long glass tubes contain 
quicksilver. An electric current of such strength passes 
through them that the quicksilver is vaporized, producing 
an extremely strong light suitable for photography. These 
tubes are placed in reflectors, one of which from either side 
is turned upon the object to be photographed. 

But more important than all is the screen which is 
placed in the camera in front of the sensitive plate upon 
which the negative is taken. Without these screens the 
reproduction could not be effected. A screen is a glass 
plate across which parallel furrows are cut. These furrows 
are filled with an opaque pigment. The lines do not run 
parallel with the sides of the plate but diagonally at an 
angle of 45 degrees. Two of these plates, with their lines 
inside and at right angles to each other, are sealed together 
with transparent Canada balsam. The lines thus form a 
right-angled cross hatching and look like a wire fly screen. 
The lines and the spaces between are of the same width, 
so that each occupies half the surface of the plate. These 
screens are made with from 50 to 400 lines to the inch. The 
screen most used by newspapers has 65 lines, and the marks 
of the lines are plainly visible in the print. In the finest 
book work, with a screen of 400 lines, the marks can hardly 
be discerned under a strong magnifier. Screens are expen- 
sive and must be handled and cared for with utmost atten- 
tion. They must be kept clean and dry and protected 
against temperature and strain. Their manufacture is a 
matter of high nicety. 

The picture to be photographed is tacked upon a board 
and placed in an upright position opposite the lens of the 
camera in focus, and the mercury light on either side turned 
upon it. In this manner a negative is made on glass, 
through the screen. 

The negative is now developed in the dark room. A 
negative is a picture, an image, in reverse of the object pho- 
tographed, that is, it shows the white of the object as black, 
the black as white, and the intermediate shades, half-tones, 

238 



Film Transferred from One Plate to Another 

according to their degree of light or shadow. This happens 
because light turns the silver solution with which the plate 
is covered dark, the stronger the light the darker the silver 
becomes. So, while the many rays from the light part of 
the object are rapidly darkening the corresponding part of 
the plate, the few rays from the dark part are affecting it 
but little or not at all. 

The negative is first flowed (flooded) with a solution of 
sulphate of iron and acetic acid which brings out the image 
and then with a weak solution of cyanide of potassium, 
which "fixes" it. Next comes a flow of sulphate of 
copper and bromide of potassium which intensifies the 
image. After being washed in water, it is flowed with nitrate 
of silver. This blackens the shades. Then come successive 
treatments with iodine and cyanide of potassium to sharpen 
the contrasts. The plate is then covered with a solution of 
sodium sulphide which stains the shades still darker and 
dries into a film which gives protection to the negative. 

After being thoroughly dried in a hot box the negative is 
covered with a transparent rubber cement to strengthen the 
film and again dried and covered with plain (liquid) collo- 
dion to facilitate its transfer to another plate. Again it is 
dried and cut round with a tool, so as to mark out only the 
essential part of the negative, and placed in a bath of acetic 
acid, which frees the film from the glass plate without injur- 
ing any part of it. It is then placed in a water bath until 
wanted for the next process. 

The film is now an elastic sheet free from the glass plate. 
With utmost care, so as prevent distortion, it is lifted and 
transferred to a clean glass plate. If made by an ordi- 
nary camera, it is turned over. If it is from the prism 
camera, it is not turned. The object of this transfer is two- 
fold. It discards unnecessary parts of the negative, and 
retains only that part marked out on the original for print- 
ing in the paper. By this means even a single figure may 
be selected from a group. It also enables a number of 

239 



Image Photographed on Zinc 

smaller negatives to be collected on a single plate, for the 
sake of economy in the coming processes. 

When again dried it is ready for the printing — in the 
photographic, not the newspaper, sense. A thin and highly 
polished plate of pure zinc is cleaned with a lye solution and 
further polished with powdered pumice stone and charcoal. 
It is then sensitized with a solution of albumen and bichrom- 
ate of ammonia in water. The plate is next clamped in a 
frame and whirled rapidly over a gas heater and dried as it 
throws off the excess solution. This little machine is a 
Tribune invention. The operation was formerly performed 
by hand. The sensitized plate is now ready to record a 
photographic image. It is placed in a printing frame with 
the glass photographic negative pressed closely to it, and 
subjected to strong light of a naming arc for from one to 
four minutes. This reproduces the photograph on the zinc 
plate by hardening the albumen in the exposed parts, and 
it again becomes a negative, upon the zinc plate. 

The zinc plate is covered thoroughly and evenly with a 
special preparation of etcher's ink put on with a roller. 
This ink adheres closely to the parts of the negatives cov- 
ered by the print, and, when washed in water, is removed 
from the white portion. This leaves on the zinc plate a 
negative of the original picture with ink covering all the 
dots. 

The image shown upon a zinc plate, when it goes to 
the etchers, consists of just these black dots and the inter- 
vening white spaces. It is obvious that if the metal of the 
white spaces can be removed and that of the dots preserved, 
there will be a plate from which a picture of the object origi- 
nally photographed can be printed. 

The etchers accomplish this. The dots on the zinc 
plate, as has been stated, are covered with etcher's ink, the 
remainder of the plate is bare. The plate is first thor- 
oughly dried. It is then dusted with dragon's blood, a 
reddish powder made from the bark and gum of an East 
Indian tree, and is brushed over gently so as to remove the 

240 



Acid Etches Image into Zinc Plate 

dust from bare places and allow it to stick to the ink 
spots. 

The plate is then heated over a gas burner until the dust 
forms a granulated glaze protecting the spots. This is to 
protect the spots from the action of acid. The back of the 
plate is coated with asphaltum to give it like protection. 
The plate is now placed in a nitric acid bath. White por- 
celain pans contain the acid. They are rocked gently to 
and fro so that the acid washes over the plate and eats out 
the exposed portions, leaving the dots. This is the first 
"bite." When the plate is taken out the dots are quite 
perceptible to the eye and the touch as small cones. 

In eating away the metal between the dots the acid has 
exposed bare metal on the sides of the cone. They are 
quite like the shank of a collar button. If there are to be 
further acid baths, these bare sides of the cones, the tops 
of which are the spots, must be protected lest the acid eat 
away these supports. The plate is therefore again dusted four 
times with dragon's blood and brushed each time from a 
different angle so as to cover the supports of the dots with 
the dust. The plate is again heated so as to melt the dust 
and form a protective coating and the plate goes into the 
pan for a second bite. This process continues until the 
plate has been given four bites, and the metal between the 
dots has been eaten away to a sufficient depth to enable a 
press print to be taken of the dots only. These compose 
the half-tone picture as it appears in The Tribune. 

The plate is now cleaned with lye and flowed with a 
copper solution to darken the surfaces. It then goes to 
the "routers" so called because they use a "router bit" 
which cuts the metal. They remove all excess metal from 
the plate, which is then mounted on a metal base to type 
height, and trimmed and sent to take its place in the make- 
up. 



241 



Stereotyping 




FTER the page of type and cuts is complete 
and correct it must be reproduced in such a 
way that it can be used on several different 
presses at the same time and in cylindrical 
instead of flat form. A modern newspaper 
is not printed from type. It is the task of 
the stereotypers to make many semi-cylinders of metal 
reproducing the flat form of type — and to make them 
swiftly. This involves two steps: 

First, a matrix, or mat, is made by forcing a sort of 
moist blotting paper into every crevice of the type 
page under great pressure, and then baking it. 

Second, this paper fac-simile is bent into the form of 
a semi-cylinder and used as a mold for a metallic 
stereotype, also known as a cast. 

All care in setting type and making etchings and run- 
ning presses will amount to nothing if a matrix or cast is 
poorly made. 

Each mat is carefully built up of several layers of paper 
pasted together. 

Not so long ago mat making was a jealously guarded 
shop secret, for on it depends success. Now, the only 
secret is the composition of the paste. The mats are the 
size of a Tribune page, including the margin. They 
consist of seven sheets of pink and white paper of varying 
weights pasted together and kept moist until used. First 
a roll of 60 pound white paper (of somewhat closer texture 
than blotting paper) and a roll of 40 pound pink paper, 
are run through a machine which pastes them together. 
The resulting roll is run through again with a roll of 20 
pound pink. The operation is repeated with successive 
sheets until seven rolls have been absorbed into one. This 
is put in a humidor where it may be kept for a week; sheets 

242 



Matrix Finished in Ten Minutes 

the size of a Tribune page being torn off as needed and 
chilled in an ice box before being used. The Tribune 
requires more than a thousand mats a week. 

As each page of The Tribune is made up and the form 
locked, the page number is marked in chalk on the chase. 
Upon the stone the foreman has a block of paper called a 
time schedule ruled into squares equal in number to the 
pages of the edition. As a page form is wheeled out of the 
make-up line (they do not come in numerical order) its 
number is marked in the proper square showing that it has 
been received. It is trundled over and slid upon the steam 
table. It is then covered with a wet mat, with the tissue 
paper side next the type, and passed twice under the matrix 
roller at a pressure of 16,000 pounds. The mat has now 
become truly a matrix. It reproduces the page of type 
and all of the drawings, even down to the finest lines, but it 
is soft, wet. Upon it is now laid a coarse woolen blanket 
folded to six thicknesses and it is ready for the steam press. 
These presses, each the size of a Tribune page, are heated and 
are operated by steam at 100 pounds pressure so as, with 
the aid of powerful leverage to give a surface pressure on 
the mat of 60,000 pounds. As the form goes under the 
press the time, to the minute, is noted on the table in chalk. 
After the lapse of six minutes the mat comes out a hard, 
dry, crisp paper board, a page of The Tribune. 

The edges are sheared off and the mat is then "backed 
up." Strips of felt called "packing" are glued on the back 
of the mat at all points where large white areas are to ap- 
pear in the paper, and which otherwise might collapse 
under the pressure involved in casting. Expert workmen 
take only about one minute per mat for completing this 
process. The completed mat is then dropped down a 
chute to the foundry, four floors below, ten minutes after 
the form of type was received. 

In the foundry the mat is fitted into its place in one of 
the four big Autoplate machines. It is so bent that the 
resulting cast will fit precisely into its place on the 

243 



Cast Finished in Two Minutes 

cylinder of a press. In the machine is a tank containing 
16,000 pounds of molten metal, which is kept at a temper- 
ature of 650 degrees — 78% lead, 15% antimony, 7% tin. 
A force pump drives the liquid metal into a narrow space 
opposite the mat. Cold water circulates around the cast- 
ing box and solidifies the metal. In twenty seconds the 
cast is mechanically ejected from the machine and fresh 
metal is being pumped against the mat to make a new 
one. 

Although the mat is of paper it will answer for many casts. 
On an average 14 casts are made from each mat for the 
daily and 30 for the Sunday paper. So many plates are 
required because many presses are printing a given page at 
one time, and there must be two casts for each page for 
each press. 

The cast now moves over a machine which trims off 
the excess metal at the ends, planes it on the inside to 
"type height," bevels it to fit the clamps which will hold 
it on the press, and planes the rough edges. 

The plate, weighing 52 pounds, is placed on a roller 
conveyor which automatically carries it to the press where 
it is to be used, its page number marked on both its back 
and its face. A cast can be delivered in two minutes 
after a mat is received in the foundry. 




The Midnight Fires of the Stereotypers 
244 



Electrotyping 




N electrotyping shop is maintained to make 
the 48 color plates used each week in printing 
the Sunday comic section. 

The artists' drawings go to the etching 
room, where a separate zinc cut is made of 
each color to be reproduced. A "Ben Day" 
man goes over each negative, comparing it with the original 
drawing, and eliminating everything except one color. 

From the finished cut the electrotyping shop makes an 
impression in a wax mould. The wax bearing the imprint 
of the cut is dusted with plumbago or black lead, which is to 
act as a conductor of electricity. 

The mould is then attached to the negative pole of a 
battery in a tank containing acid sulphate of copper. 
Facing it in the tank is a plate of copper attached to the 
positive pole of a battery. An electric current decomposes 
the copper plate and causes free copper to be deposited in 
an even sheet on the wax mould. Action is quickened by 
blowing air up through the solution. 

When thick enough, the mould is removed and the wax 
separated from the copper shell by pouring hot water on it. 
The copper shell is wet with a soldering solution where the 
wax had been, a sheet of tin foil is laid on and fused and then 
molten metal is poured in, giving the copper shell a firm, 
solid backing. 

This plate is sawed, trimmed and curved to the arc of 
the printing cylinder. It is put in a nickel bath for a thin 
surfacing with nickel. Dead surfaces are routed out and it 
is then ready for the presses. 



245 



Press Room 



THE press room of The Chicago Tribune not only 
is a marvel to the thousands of visitors who want 
to know the mysteries of newspaper production 
and who are taken through The Tribune Plant to see 
the world's greatest newspaper in the process of making, 
but it is a model for the newspapers of the world and is 
built with possibilities for expansion to take care of a 
circulation of more than 2,000,000 Tribunes every day. 

The printing plant is built from the standpoint of fac- 
tory production. The ideal factory receives its raw mate- 
rial at as few entrances as possible, delivers it to the various 
departments, and finally the assembling room (in this case 
the mailing room) without any of the finished material 
having interfered with the progress of manufacturing. 
This has been done as far as possible in a newspaper way 
by The Tribune. 

Twenty-five units of the Goss unit type of high speed 
press are in use in the press room, which occupies the 
ground floor of the new Plant. Within a comparatively 
short time, thirty units will be in operation. It will be 
possible to run these thirty units as quadruples, sextuples, 
octuples, quintuples or as double-sextuples. Foundations 
are laid for another row, similar to the present, which will 
bring the number of units up to sixty. 

The machinery which prints The Tribune may be con- 
sidered in four divisions: the reels, the printing units, the 

folders, and the conveyors. 

* * * 

Rolls of newsprint are placed on the reels located in 
The Tribune basement immediately below the presses. 
The paper feeds from these reels to the presses on the floor 
above where it passes between the printing cylinders. The 
folders then do their part by cutting and folding the fin- 
ished product and delivering it to the conveyors. These, 

246 



JiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UiU'UiUtUlUiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'Uil. 




Row of steam tables for making matrices. Stereotyper is 
examining mat of type page which his companion is removing. 




Placing stereotype plates on the printing cylinders of a Tribune 
press. 






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From these reels newsprint feeds from the basement of The 
Tribune Plant up into the presses. As a roll is exhausted 
another takes its place without stopping the presses. 



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iinininininininininininininininininininininininininininininiriinininininir 



Paper Feeds from Basement up to Presses 

without the intervention of the human hand, carry the 
papers up through the ceiling of the press room and deliver 
them on tables in lots of fifty for distribution by the circula- 
tion department. 

The reels from which newsprint feeds to The Tribune 
presses are an extraordinarily important and novel feature 
of the whole process. The ordinary newspaper press must 
be stopped whenever a roll of paper is exhausted and remain 
idle until a new roll is in place. Furthermore, the new roll 
must often be lifted by pulleys high in the air to its place 
in the press. 

By means of these Tribune reels each new roll takes the 
place of the exhausted one without stopping the press and 
the rolls feed from the basement where they are stored — 
not from the top or the side of the press. This means an 
increase in press production of approximately fifteen per 
cent. 

There are twenty-five reels; one directly underneath 
each printing unit. Each reel holds three rolls of newsprint 
when the press starts operating in the evening. Only one 
of these reels is feeding up into the press at any one time. 

When this roll is almost exhausted the press is slowed 
down and the reel is very gradually revolved under electrical 
control to bring the side of the upper roll in contact with 
the sheet of paper feeding up from the almost exhausted 
lower reel. The paper of the new upper roll has been 
smeared with an extremely sticky glue which catches the 
sheet moving up into the press. Momentarily the paper 
runs double and a few papers are spoiled, but these are 
thrown out by a "fly boy" who stands at the folder, so that 
none of them reaches Tribune readers. As the new roll 
takes hold the old sheet of paper is cut and the reel revolved 
still further. This enables the old core to be taken out and 
a new roll to be put in its place. 

Placing the roll in the reel is done with a minimum of 
labor, as no long steel spindle need be put through the core. 
Small trucks running on rails bring the 1,500 pound rolls 

249 



Presses Unusually Flexible 



from their storage into position at the reel. Adjustable 
roller-bearing spindles, constituting a part of the reel, are 
inserted in each end of the core and then pressure on an 
electric button is all that is needed to bring it into position 

to feed the press. 

* * * 

A printing unit is composed of two plate and two blanket 
cylinders, and an inking arrangement for each plate cylinder. 
Each inking arrangement consists of one ink fountain, one 
small and one large ink 
cylinder, one fountain 
roller, four ink distributing 
rollers, and two form rollers. 
With the aid of an ingenious 
device, all the inking rollers 
are set-off at once by the 
movement of a single lever. 
This prevents the composi- 
tion of which the rollers are 
made from becoming flat at 
the point of contact with 
the ink cylinder while the 
press is idle. At the side of 
each ink fountain is a set of 
keys similar to the tuning 
keys on a piano. By turn- 
ing these keys the pressman 

is enabled to adjust the flow of ink to the ink cylinders and 
rollers. The entire unit is driven by a vertical shaft con- 
necting to the main drive shaft. 

One of the principal features of The Tribune presses is 
their flexibility. Each press will print any size paper from 
eight to forty pages, and they can be tied up in such a way 
that no unit need be idle. The arrangement of the presses 
may be so adapted that no matter what the size of the paper, 
all the units are kept going. 

For the twenty-five units, there are twelve folders or 

250 




70,000 Tons of Paper Printed in 1921 

deliveries. That means that in twelve different places com- 
plete newspapers can come forth and flow up to the mailing 
room in the spring wire conveyors that carry the papers 
automatically from the presses. 

Regardless of the number of pages to be printed each 
press is driven at the rate of 300 revolutions per minute at 
the cylinders. This is equal to 600 Tribunes per minute. 
Each press has two full sets of stereotyped plates which 
prifit two complete Tribunes at every revolution of the 
cylinders. 

When the paper breaks, the loss is not serious if the 
paper does not wrap itself around the cylinder. Paper 
break detectors stop the presses automatically when the 
paper tears. Even a simple break means a loss of a couple 
of minutes on the run for the press. One characteristic 
week showed the number of breaks ranging from 25 to 57 
in the course of a night. 

In 1921 the presses turned 64,524 tons of newsprint into 
Tribunes. In addition to this, 3,111 tons of half-tone paper 
for the color section and 2,814 tons °f roto paper for the 
rotogravure section were consumed. In the future, with 
the adoption of the four-color rotogravure for the color 
section, considerably more roto paper will be used. 

* * * 

Each double folder has two folding and cutting cylinders 
and two deliveries. Above each set of folding and cutting 
cylinders is a former over which the web is led and de- 
livered to the folding cylinder. This operation gives the 
paper the fold at the center of the sheet from top to bottom. 
It is then delivered to the folding and cutting cylinders 
where the sheet is cut and the fold is made from side to 
side. This operation completes the paper and it is dropped 
from the folder into the delivery. Above each set of double 
folders there are two formers called "aerial formers." 
These formers deliver three or four sections, stuffed one 
inside the other; whereas the two lower formers can deliver 
the paper in only two sections as in the regular daily edi- 

251 



Conveyors a Fascinating Spectacle 



tion. At each delivery there is a device by which every 
fiftieth paper is offset from the other papers in order to 
enable the papers to be taken from the delivery in bundles 
of fifty each. Each folding cylinder is equipped with a 
counter which counts every paper printed. Another counter 
is installed on the fifty kick-out device and counts every 

fifty papers printed. 

* * * 

There is no more interesting spectacle in The Tribune 
Plant than the row of conveyors which carry the papers in 

a serpentine stream from the 
floor of the press room up 
through the ceiling into the 
mailing room. 

Each conveyor consists of 
spiral-wound, wire spring cables 
facing each other and running 
over pulleys. The pressure of 
these cables against each other 
holds the papers firmly between 
them and carries them swiftly 
upward. 

The Tribune has a greater 
press capacity than that pro- 
vided by The Plant, as several 
of the old. presses in the base- 
ment of The Tribune building 
are still in operation. They are 
used only in printing parts of 
the Sunday paper, but in case 
of necessity could be operated 
for the daily. Another black 
press at the Ontario street plant which is idle at present 
also can be used. 

Production figures for the last six months of 192 1 showed 
that the average run on all sizes of papers was 20,000 per 
hour for each press. That means 330 Tribunes a minute, 

252 




M'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUHJ'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UHJ' 




In the center is shown that part of the press which cuts and 
folds Tribunes — printing unit at left — conveyor at right. 



^ 4 «?4 ,4W* lAl/**- * «' 4 4V* 

••■•;• ms 



I 4 #44 ?H> » i 
-*• « 6 4V.4 *«* 



#* # 55r? #" # KJf #' #'• 32 



This is part of the big switchboard in The Tribune's press room. 
It is the nerve center of a system of amazing automatic control. 



•U^U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIUIU'U'U'U^U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIU'I- 



As. Stii' Qll.jl 

, 

K ■ 81 ■ 


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HI ■ 


iff ,- 




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This pictures the peculiar conveyor which takes the folded Tribunes from the 
foot of the presses up through the ceiling to the mailing room on the floor 
above. From there they are swiftly distributed throughout Chicago and to 
more than seven thousand other towns and cities. 



Could Print Million 40-Page Papers in Day 

or more than five a second, at each point of delivery on the 
big row of presses. 

The maximum capacity of the presses at The Plant for a 
32-page Tribune is 870,000. But to get this number of 
papers in a night, conditions would have to be perfect. 

The Sunday paper is limited only by the number of news 
and classified sections that may be printed on Saturday 
night, as the other parts are run off largely during the day. 
It is estimated that 630,000 city editions might be printed. 
At present the city and suburban circulation is a little less 
than 500,000. 

For a forty-page paper, the capacity for the presses at 
The Plant is 725,000, and the possible gain for the home and 
final editions with present deadlines is only 20,000 and 
22,000, respectively. The maximum capacity on all presses 
for a 40-page paper is 1,130,000. 

The presses at The Plant alone are capable of a maximum 
run of 1,215,000 for a 24-page paper. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC. REQUIRED 
.BV THETACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST Z4, J912 

Of -.THE" CHICAGO TRIBUNE published DAILY k 

..CHICAGO. ILLINOIS. ..^j....... .to April I.... 



11 CHICAGO. ILLINOIS...^.™ lot.. 

State of ILLINOre.TC(. 

County of « COOK - 



in and (or the Stare and County aforesaid, personally 

■ay* that he is one of the editor* of the Chicago Tribune and that 

the follow, n* i,. to the best of hi. knowledge and be'.el. a -rue narcm.ru ol the ownership, management 
(and >1 ■ daily paper, thra circulation), el-, -■■ <:■.- .,<..-, ,.-.. j V -,K . ,,,-,:, !..r the .U:t shown rn the abo'.e 
caption, required by the Xot of AtffM H I VI.'. embodied in section 443. Postal Lawa and Rejrulaiiona 

MHti« 
Edieora.... 
Managing Editor E S. Beck 



. S. E I 



7 So. Dearborn St.. Qua 
7 So. Dearborn St, Chk; 



.re (G,». 
>nd addrej 



THE TRIBUNE COMPANY 



Henry D Uoyd 

DnitMlltr) 

Wbl BroM Lloyd, Henry D. Uoyd 4ft* Job* Broe* Lloyd. Trti 



IIS East SSth St, New York. V. 

IIS East 5Sth St_ New York. K. 

. SO East SSth St, New York. N. 

JO North Dearborn St, Chicago. I 



two dfughiers. Elinor 



> Lloyd. Heury D. Lloyd, and Joba 
to Section 2 of the law. The Tril 



1 Thai the average number of copies or each issue of ihij publication, sold .or distributed, througn 

rSwMy tmJ^twSSA.. 1 ! ... 58 ST! -2S |««i*> JOoA ("Hue ir' 

. is required (to« daily pvbticaoont only > 

(Signed) Joaepfa M. «att*n»oo.. 

Sworn to and auhtcribed betor. me this first da* of April. 1922. 

(Seal) Signod. . Tho*. f " 



i 





Rotogravure and COLORoto 

A H E Chicago Tribune adopted Rotogravure 
as a factor in building and holding Sunday 
circulation. There was no expectation that 
sufficient advertising could be sold to make 
this section a profitable one. Rotogravure 
has unquestionably enlarged Tribune circu- 
lation, has made possible a better pictorial presentation of 
news events, and has increased advertising revenue by 
millions of dollars. 

Now, as The Tribune enters its seventy-fifth year, Roto- 
gravure is about to perform new services by making prac- 
tical the beautiful reproduction of color work by high-speed 
presses on newsprint. 

Color-Rotogravure is a Tribune invention, worked out 
by the men who have had charge of the Tribune Roto- 
gravure plant since it was inaugurated in April, 1915. 
For this new process The Tribune has invented the word 
"COLORoto." 

In describing the process of Rotogravure printing it 
should be first understood that it is inherently different 
from that by which the main body of The Tribune is 
printed. There are three distinct methods of "printing." 
There is "letter press" or "relief" printing — in which the 
impression on the paper is received from raised characters 
or plates. By this process the "black and white" sections 
of The Tribune are printed. Then there are the "surface" 
processes such as lithography and offset, wherein a flat 
surface is chemically prepared so that it will resist ink in 
some places and accept it in others. Then there are the 
intaglio processes; in which are included copperplate, steel 
and die engraving, photogravure, and Rotogravure. 

The intaglio process is different from letter press print- 
ing mainly in this: that instead of being raised above a 

256 



Illustrating the three general methods of "Printing" 




Intaglio Printing 



In this method the portions of the printing plate to re- 
ceive ink and transfer it to the paper are sunk BELOW 
the surface. This is the process by zvhich Rotogravure 
and Coloroto are produced. 




Relief Printing 



In "relief" or "letter press" printing, the surfaces to 
receive and transfer the ink are raised. This is the 
Process by which the main "black and white" sections 
of The Tribune are printed, as well as the bulk of all 
printing. 




Surface Printing 



In this process the surface of the printing plate is Hat 
all over. Some parts of the plate take up ink, while 
other parts, having been chemically treated to resist ink, 
do not. Lithography and offset printing come under this 
head. 

given depth as in letter press printing, the portions of the 
metal to receive ink and transfer it to the paper are sunk be- 
low the printing plate surface. The impression is obtained 
from a copper cylinder on which type matter and illustrations 
have been etched. The range of reproductive possibilities 

257 



Preparing Rotogravure Cylinder 

of Rotogravure are practically inexhaustible. Photographs, 
paintings, wash drawings, pen drawings, or combinations of 
media may be reproduced as well as type matter. 

The Rotogravure process may be split into two divisions 
— First, the preparation or etching of the copper cylinder; 
Second, the press run. The steps involved in etching the 
cylinder are : — the preparation of the negative and positive ; 
the printing of the positive on the gelatine transfer tissue; 
the transfer to the cylinder; the etching of the cylinder. 
A photographic negative is made, on which some retouch- 
ing is done, to bring out the "high lights. " From this, a 
positive is made, which is also retouched. The retouching 
on the negative where "black is white," brightens the high 
lights. The retouching on the positive deepens the shadows. 
Next, a piece of special carbon tissue is sensitized and placed 
directly next to the positive. A specially constructed frame 
is used in making "register" marks on the back of the tissue 
and correspondingly on the copper cylinder, so that they 
will fit when the tissue is transferred to the cylinder. The 
carbon tissue is then exposed to a mercury lamp. After 
the exposure of the positive is made on the carbon tissue, it 
is again exposed to light, this time under a screen. A spe- 
cial printing frame contains the screen, which is very sim- 
ilar to that used for making halftones, with the exception 
that the lines are much thinner, and, since the lines are 
made from a "positive," the lines are white and clear, 
instead of black or opaque. The proportion between the 
clear and the opaque lines is about one to four, while in the 
ordinary halftone screen the black and white spaces are 
almost equal. A "dummy" layout or rough approximation 
of the Rotogravure Section has been made, and the pic- 
tures and typematter are stripped to a large glass plate in 
accordance with this layout. The cylinder on which the 
etching is made consists of a steel core on which copper has 
been electrolytically deposited. The cylinder is ground and 
then carefully polished to present an even and perfectly 
smooth surface. Before the application of the gelatine 

258 



Copy Transferred to Copper Cylinder 

resist, all surface impurities are removed, and a solution is 
applied which makes the tissue adhere during the develop- 
ing and etching. 

The copper cylinder is placed in a trough-like structure. 
The exposed carbon tissue or resist is put into water and 
allowed to soak until the gelatine paper will unroll easily. 
It is then placed on the copper cylinder, care being taken 
that the marks on the carbon tissue correspond with the 
ones on the cylinder. Now the cylinder with the resist is 
soaked until the paper backing of the tissue is softened 
enough. It is then peeled off, leaving the gelatine on the 
cylinder. The transferred gelatine film is then developed 
by rotating the cylinder in a tank of hot water, after 
which it is cooled and dried. We now have a set of cylin- 
ders on which are the "printed'' pages of the Rotogravure 
Section. 

The edges of the subjects are next blocked out with 
asphalt varnish. Likewise all margins and other surfaces 
of the cylinder that are not to print, all blemishes, holes 
and light spots. Otherwise, the etching acid will affect any 
exposed parts, and any indentation — be it ever so slight — 
on the surface of the cylinder will fill with ink when print- 
ing and cause dark spots or streaks. 

When the cylinder is placed in the etching trough, and 
the etching fluid applied, the gelatine coating of the carbon 
tissue resists the action of the perchloride of iron — the etch- 
ing medium. The operator revolves the cylinder slowly, 
judging the progress of the etching by the discoloration of 
the copper. The etching is controlled by the time which is 
required to penetrate the resist in order to produce a dark 
color all over. 

Now let us examine closely the means by which the 
"picture" has been transferred to the cylinder and made 
printable. When the positive was printed on the gelatine 
transfer paper, the solubility of the gelatine, or the extent 
to which it will dissolve in water, is affected in proportion 
to the amount of light reaching it. Where the "high lights" 

259 



Ink Scraped from Raised Surfaces 

come, the positive admits more light, which tends to make 
the gelatine more firm — less soluble ; while in the areas occu- 
pied by the deeper shadows and blacks, less light is admit- 
ted, and this makes the gelatine more soluble. When the 
gelatine resist is developed and fixed on the cylinder, the 
gelatine is thick over the high lights, less thick over the 
middle tones, and thin over the shadows where the acid is 
to eat away the copper. Then, over all the area to accept 
ink, the screened lines, which you will remember were print- 
ed into the transfer, have preserved a net work of insoluble 
ridges protecting the copper. These, after etching, form the 
walls of tiny wells or cavities which carry the ink to the 
paper. These vary in depth, being shallow in the high lights 
and deeper in the shadows. The etching fluid, in attacking 
the metal, is resisted in proportion to the thickness of the 
gelatine coating, and so we have areas of infinitesimal cav- 
ities of varying depths. After etching, the cylinder is 
cleansed with a solution of hot water and potash. Some 
correction is possible; light spots which are not wanted 
may be removed or burnished out altogether, and dark 
spots filled in. 

The presses are the most expensive part of the equip- 
ment for the Rotogravure process, although the principle is 
simple. The engraved cylinder revolves in a veritable 
bath of ink. After turning a little farther, the surplus is 
wiped off clean by means of a steel knife — known as the 
"doctor blade," a thin, flexible knife of steel, which is 
drawn obliquely across the etched cylinder and which 
runs the full width of the copper cylinder, so that when 
the cylinder comes into contact with the paper its surface 
is scraped free from ink, except in the cavities, or wells. 
The ink is thinner and less "stringy" than that used in 
letterpress printing. 

The "doctor" not only shears the ink off the etched 
part of the cylinder (leaving the cavities full), but entirely 
removes it from the plain surfaces where the plate is not 
etched, thus leaving clean margins on the printed sheets. 

260 



New Color Process Developed by Tribune 

The paper passes between the etched surface and the 
impression cylinder and takes up the ink that has been 
retained in the little cavities or cups. Because of the vary- 
ing depths of these cups, the ink lies thinner or thicker in 
differing degrees in the high lights and shadows. To this 
stage of the process much of the beauty of Rotogravure is 
due: the ink spreads across the thin lines which retain no 
ink, and joins with the ink from neighboring cups, com- 
bining to make the resultant picture closely resemble an 
actual photograph. 

COLORoto 

THE development of Color in newspaper printing 
has been one marked by a ceaseless struggle against 
great difficulties. A newspaper, because of its cir- 
culation, must be printed on newsprint; and it must be 
printed swiftly. Coarse screen half-tone color plates, or 
Ben Day manipulation of color blocks, have long been 
resorted to in an effort to make colorful the illustrations in 
the Sunday magazine section. 

The union of Color and Rotogravure as developed by 
The Tribune is a most happy one. Color vivifies ; quickens; 
it is life to the eye ; its advantages have always been obvious 
and desirable. Rotogravure gives wonderfully soft but 
accurate reproduction through an inexhaustible range of 
media. The successful joining of Color and Rotogravure 
in one unprecedented process has at last subjugated the 
sinister entente of high speed presses and newsprint paper. 
COLORoto has made Color, in the true, genuine sense 
accessible to newspaper readers. 

The process of Four-Qolor Rotogravure is similar in 
principle to cw^-color Rotogravure, but the operation is 
more intricate and difficult. There are two classes of 
reproduction in Color-Rotogravure. In one, the "copy" 
to be reproduced is set before the camera, and color separa- 
tion screens are introduced between the camera and the 
copy. This stage of the process is similar to the four-color 

261 



Subject Photographed Through Color Screens 

half-tone process: An orange screen absorbs all but the 
blue portions of the copy; thus allowing the blue parts to 
react on the negative. A purple screen absorbs all but the 
yellow; a green screen allows only the red to pass. A 
negative is then made without the separation screens, to 
run in black and act as a "key." 

The foregoing method is the one used where oil or pastel 
is the medium. In the case of "line" drawings where the 
color is washed in "flat," one negative is made for the 
black "key," and the yellow, blue, and red negatives are 
made from this. This method presents no involved com- 
binations either or color or of tone, so it is not necessary 
to separate the primaries by complementary absorption. 
It can be readily seen that when these four colors are 
superimposed, one above the other, we shall have a repro- 
duction of the original, since all pigmental "color," in 
whatever tone or combination, is derived from the primaries 
— yellow, blue and red. 

In either case we now have a set of four negatives, one 
for the yellow, one for the red, one for the blue, and one 
for the black. Each of these is to be etched on a separate 
copper cylinder. 

Positives are made from the negatives, and both are 
retouched as in one-color Rotogravure. Each positive is 
printed on gelatine transfer tissue in conjunction with a 




<? 



HEATING DRUMS- 

O ) Xo 



ffOUEfiS/ 



& 



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r 



TENSION 
ROLLER* 



> V 



jfBLMK^K Sr / , r'dLUE i \ \V.fWBO 



x O V£ f PAPER* 
rj ~r~~ v ,v „ «,.««.- -,-/, —-. x/T JY£LLOV>\l f ..£&, 

CYLINOBRXJ ICYLINOERXf HCYi/NDfRU LI CYUNQEkJ \ Twf 

Ey -A Q f V fi 

..iiii. 



Diagram showing the passage of paper through the COLORoto press. 

262 



J«U , U , U'U , U , U , U l U<U , U , U , U l U'U , U , UiUlUlUiU , U , U l U , U l U l U , U'U , U'U'U l U'U , U»U , t 




Etching one of the copper cylinders which print COLORoto. 




After the COLORoto Magazine is printed, the copper cylin- 
ders are re-surfaced so that another set of pages may be etched. 
The cylinder was made by depositing copper on a steel core in 
an electrolytic bath. 



IIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIUIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U^U'U'U'U'U'I- 




The presses which print the COLORoto Magazine of The 
Sunday Tribune will not find duplication in the whole world. 
They were designed and built to Tribune specifications. 




Th e experimental press on which the COLORoto process was 
developed was exhibited at Chicago's Pageant of Progress. 
A miniature COLORoto Magazine was printed and distributed 
during the Pageant. 



Precise Handling Secures "Register" 

screen, and the gelatine tissue transferred to the cylinder. 
This is an extremely delicate operation. Unless each color 
"registers" with those above or beneath it, the effect of 
the picture when printed is destroyed. A printing frame 
was devised and patented by The Tribune to insure the 
transfer of each color to its cylinder to. within i-iooo inch 
of the other colors on their cylinders. When the cylinders 
are etched, we are ready to go to press. 

* * * 

The paper passes in a long sheet from the feed roll, 
where the color sections are printed in one continuous 
passage through the press. If the whole section is to be 
printed in four-Color Rotogravure, the paper passes first 
to the cylinder where it receives the yellow ink. Roto- 
gravure ink, being more volatile than inks used in relief 
printing, dries very rapidly, so by the time the paper has 
passed from the impression roller up through a heated 
compartment, it is dry enough to receive another impression. 
So it goes to the "red" cylinder, up through the heaters, 
comes down and goes to the "blue" cylinder, and finally to 
the "key" plate, which is ordinarily black. The paper is 
then delivered to an automatic device where it is cut and 
folded ready to be "stuffed" or inserted into The Sunday 
Tribune. 

The press is "flexible" in that almost any combination 
of four-color pages and one-color pages can be run. 

While the press is running on an average issue, there 
are 45 entire Color Sections in various stages of completion, 
counting that part of the paper receiving its first impression 
to the part being folded and cut. 

Fifteen shifts a week are used to get out the rotogravure 
sections. One shift is used for clean-up, so that there 
are 14 operating shifts. The production is approximately 
30,000 an hour, which means 420,000 papers per press, 
or 840,000 papers a week. It is possible to increase the 
number of shifts a week to bring up the capacity to approx- 
imately 1,200,000 a week. The capacity of the roto presses 
running a roto section of 40 pages with only one color is 

265 



Marks Advance in Newspaper Color Printing 

2,400,000 a week. The same capacity is available for a 
section of 20 pages of one-color and four pages of four-color 
rotogravure. 

Many difficulties have been surmounted in the Color- 
Rotogravure press room. Over a year ago an experimental 
press was built by The Tribune at a cost of many thousands 
of dollars. On it were conducted the experiments which 
showed that Color-Rotogravure could be successfully pro- 
duced. The Color-Rotogravure presses which now make 
the edition run are the only presses of their kind in the 
world. 

A patented variable speed roller keeps the tension of the 
paper even as it passes through the press. An ingenious 
device, similar to a nicrometer, was made to show to one 
one^thousandth of an inch whether or not each impression 
roller is running true to its proper align nent ; if it isn't, a 
"split-arm" device at each side of the roller may be adjusted 
so that it is quickly put to rights. It was necessary to 
grind the copper cylinders to within two one-thousandths 
of an inch, so special calipers were devised in order to make 
such accurate measurement. Patents have been applied 
for and are pending covering all these devices, basically 
necessary to the production of Color-Rotogravure. 

Representatives of The Tribune have gone to Europe 
to study color-photography, art work and inks for use in 
connection with this unique printing process. 

COLORoto is being used for the first time as this 
book goes to press, but it has already won favorable com- 
ment from printing experts, and improvement in every 
phase of our new and better form of color presentation will 
be sought constantly. 



266 



Electrical Department 

IN practically all its mechanical operations The Tribune 
utilizes electricity. It purchases upwards of 200,000 
kilowatt hours of current per month. This current is 
received from four different generating stations over ten 
separate feeder lines, any two of which will run the entire 
Tribune Plant. Continuous operation is thereby safe- 
guarded. Any trouble on any one of the feeder lines causes 
an instantaneous, automatic throw-out. 

This current lights 18,000 incandescent lamps and 
operates 642 motors in the three Tribune plants. Eight 
electricians are regularly employed. The most spectacular 
work done by electricity in the production of The Tribune 
is that at the presses with their extraordinary system of 
automatic electrical control. 

With The Tribune's control system, the slow motion 
speed and the acceleration from slow speed to a maximum 
of 36,000 papers per hour, are the same with a quad press as 
with a six-roll press or a sextuple. The equipment starts 
the quad press without a perceptible jerk or jar and it does 
the same with the double sextuple. The acceleration is 
smooth and even. There is every safety device possible to 
protect the employes and give them convenient and abso- 
lute push button control of the press from any position in 
which the pressmen happen to be working. 

Independent slow motion prevents the press jumping 
from slow motion to high speed while the plates are being 
put on and the press is being operated with the slow motion 
button. Protection is provided against grounded wires 
starting up the equipment and there is protection also 
against crossed wires doing damage. 

The Tribune's press units can be mechanically con- 
nected to folders on either side, depending upon the combi- 
nation required for the number of pages being printed for 
any particular issue. The Tribune equipment provides 

267 



Wonderful Electric Controls on Presses 

that, if necessary, two motors and controllers may be 
connected up to operate as a single unit from a double 
octuple press and that the controllers may be made to 
operate interchangeably with motors to which they are not 
normally connected. All of this is to provide for operation 
in case of any temporary disability of part of the equipment. 

The controllers are located on a balcony opposite the 
center of the row of presses. The motor wiring and control 
wiring is carried through conduits to various motors and 
press units, and the control wires terminate at each unit in 
a panel board which in turn is connected to a selector 
switch. The wiring for the control stations, on the printing 
units and on the reels in the basement is so connected to 
this selector switch that when it is in one position, it will 
operate with the folder east and if the selector switch is in 
the other position it will operate with the folder west. 
If in neutral position the unit is cut out. The controller 
end of this control wiring terminates in a selector switch, 
the position of which determines to which controller it is 
connected. 

When the position of the gearing determining the 
operation of the press units is changed the selector switch 
is changed correspondingly and the pressman does not have 
to worry as to how the push-button stations are connected. 

There are geared to the presses, seven double motor 
equipments — one corresponding to each folder. The wiring 
and gearing connected in each unit therefore is considered 
as if the folder were really the press and combinations made 

up referring to folders. 

* * * 

Everywhere electricity is found performing difficult 
tasks smoothly, noiselessly, instantaneously, as the 
mechanics merely push buttons. The stereotype casting 
machines operate electrically. So do the conveyors which 
carry the fifty-pound plates from the foundry to the presses. 
So do the belt conveyors which move hundreds of tons of 
papers back and forth through the mailing room each day. 

268 



• U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UiUlUIUiU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'l 




Champions of the inter-department baseball league are photo- 
graphed on roof of The Tribune Building with Col. McCormick, 
president of The Tribune Company. 




Freshly cast plate being ejected from machine in Tribune 
stereotype foundry. 



JIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIUIUIUIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'UIU'U'U'U'U'U'U'U'L. 




A belt conveyor throws bundles oj papers up on this platform. 
The workman notes the tag on each and pushes it down the 
proper chute into waiting wagon or truck. 




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A corner o/ the Mailing Room in The Tribune's Chicago 
Plant contrasted with the Mailing Room of its European Edi- 
tion in Paris. Ten thousand papers an hour can be addressed 
by each of the mailing machines shown. 



Electricity Serves in Many Ways 

Even the metal in the linotype machines is melted by 

electricity. 

* * * 

Pneumatic tubes, which carry to The Tribune Plant 
advertising from the business office at Madison and Dear- 
born Streets and news from the Associated Press and the 
City News Bureau offices at Clark and Randolph Streets 
are operated by electrically driven, forty-horse-power air 
compressors in The Plant. 

These tubes run by a rather circuitous route from 
the old Tribune Building to the Associated Press and 
City Press offices in the Ashland Block and thence to The 
Plant. There are three and a quarter miles of these 
pneumatic tubes and a carrier makes the round trip in 
five minutes. The tubes are operated by a unique system 
in which the carriers are pulled to The Plant by vacuum 

and shot away from it by compressed air. 

* * * 

Two electrically-driven pumps are depended upon for 
fire protection at The Plant. One expels the water at a 
pressure of 250 pounds to the square inch and the other at 
100 pounds to the square inch. An electrical, automatic 
control is so arranged that when any hose is opened the 
pressure drops to 80 pounds, which starts the low-pressure, 
automatic pump, forcing the pressure up to 100 pounds 
and keeping it there. These pumps take their current 
direct from the mains in the street and cannot be inter- 
fered with by any switchboard trouble in The Tribune 
Plant. * * * 

A ventilation system, operated by electricity, is main- 
tained at The Plant for the press room, the stereotype 
foundry, and the executive offices. Air is drawn from the 
big tunnel system far below the street level of Chicago's 
Loop. This keeps the temperature in The Tribune press 
room and stereotype foundry below 70 degrees on the hot- 
test days of summer. Another system at The Tribune 
Building, takes air from the street level, refrigerates it, 
washes it, drys it, and delivers it to the Want Ad Store. 

271 



Circulating Division 

FROM the press room printed, folded Tribunes flow 
in an apparently endless snake-like stream up the 
wire conveyors into the mailing room on the floor 
above. Here, the circulation department takes charge of the 
product of the editorial, advertising and mechanical divi- 
sions. The race against time, which distinguishes all 
newspaper operations now reaches a climax. Hundreds 
of tons of newsprint must be delivered within a few 
hours in half-pound packages to hundreds of thousands 
of widely scattered readers. 

The strain falls first on the mailing room, which takes 
the papers from the presses and delivers them not only to 
mail trains but also to express companies and to city cir- 
culators. 

The head of the mailing room has a job like that of a 
train dispatcher. He must keep a close check on deadlines, 
watch the volume in which papers are received from 
presses, and often split seconds in dispatching trucks and 
wagons to make trains. 

Tribune circulation is divided roughly into "City and 
Suburban" and "Country." The latter word does not mean 
rural, but applies to all circulation more than forty miles 
from Chicago. Thus Tribune circulation in Milwaukee and 
Peoria is "Country" circulation. "Country" circulation 
constitutes about one-third of The Tribune's total. 

"City and Suburban" circulation is, in turn, divided 
into that delivered to homes by "official carriers" and that 
sold on newsstands, in stores, hotels, etc., the former known 
as "home delivered" circulation and the latter as "street 
sales." 

"Country" circulation is divided into that sold to dealers 
and that sold to the subscriber direct and delivered by 
mail. The dealer sells some of his stock on newsstands, 

272 



Tribune Circulation Has Grown Steadily 



Circulation- — All Chicago Newspapers 
1912 to 1922 

tea?. 

_ Note the steady uj£ 
ward sweep of Chicago 
Tribune circulation. 
Aside from norma] sum- 
mer reactions the only 

!s~7 set back was in 1918 
when millions of citi- 

bf" zens were in uniform. 



Circulation of the 
Tribune has increased 
126% DaUy and 172% 
Sunday since 1912 as 
shown by government 
statements below. 




. ' I | J I \ 1 t .1. I . i .( f. 

lit i il 1 1 i ill si I.J/J !.)• J 
Circulation of Chicago Newspapers According to Government Statements 

















Ending 


Daily 


Sunday 


Duly 


Sunday 


News 


American 


Journal 


Post 


Sept SO, 1914 


220,500 


304,325 


204,289 


503,216 


' 214.931 


.231,806 


99,009 


61,852 


March SI, 1913 


245,119 


363,119 


214,828 


538,175 


' 840,550 


351,223 


118,159 


66,996 


Sept. SO, 1913 . 


253,212 


366,918 


240,366 


528,328 


343.693 


.342.410 


120,891 


58,555 


March SI, 19M 


. 261,278 


406,556 


223,814 


524,922 


362,628 


355,008 


120,520 


69.102 


Sept. SO, 1914 


803,316 


459,728 


199485 


508,881 


383,986 


863,071 


1S0.S76 


64,861 


Much SI, ISIS 


326,897 


534,848 


176488 


501JB77 


408,809 


351,343 


124,396 


63,243 


Sept SO, 1915 


■ 354,520 


558,396 


185,677 


511,8tO 


405.S7S 


878,941 


.124,524 


62,141 


March SI, 1916 


359,651 


585,934 


ne.wi 


B19,m 


426,082 


384,405 


123,755 


64,821 


Sept SO, 1916 


392,483 


619,023 


I9SJH 


516460 


431,189 


400,031 


122,447 


61,879 


March SI, 1917 


395,442 


645,612 


193MB 


495,946 


452,204 


392,279 


122,699 


65,842 


Sept SO, 1917 


•S81.675 


1614,418 


185,211 


443.678 


392,007 


326,998 


108,220 


66,477 


March SI, 1918 


867,798 


606,111 


157,338 


449.746 


377,063 


306.283 


110,641 


49,124 


sept SO, 1918. 


410,818 


{633,315 


5*60,777 


$633,680 


S7S,1K 


825,017 


112.6:8 


48,387 


March SI, 1919 


424,026 


693,895 


£89,09i 


596,851 


386,498 


330,216 


116.807 


61,023 


Sept SO, 1919 


424,588 


666,496 


311,831 


693,170 


377,769 


339,721 


116,932 


61,827 


March SI, 1920 


420,703 


732,606 


326,244 


667.11S 


390,450 


398,489 


117,588 


61.750 


Sept SO, 1920 


437,158 


711,254 


343,515 


625,838 


388,406 


364,769 


116,243 


52,981 


March SI, 1921 


460,739 


787,942 


335,331 


709,966 


412,304 


384,209 


116,829 


44,021 


Sept SO, 1921 


483,272 


801,881 


359,386 


738,788 


395,665 


395,427 


115,406 


42,646 


March 31, 1922 


499,725 


827,028 


396,871 


731,010 


397,584 


415,056 


117,483 


42,219 



•Daily papers railed from lc to fa fSunday papers raised from 5c to 8c outside of Chicago. 

JSunday P*fc* raised to 7c in Chicago, 10a outside Chicago. (Herald absorbed by Examiner May 2, 1918. 

Figure* la italics represent A. B. C. figures because publisher filed only 7 day average statement with government, pot separating 
daily from Sunday. • 



"THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE DOMINATES. THE CHICAGO TERRITORY" 




A page from the "BOOK of FACTS"— see "Government 
Statement" on Page 255 

through stores and hotels, and delivers another portion 
direct to the homes of a list of regular customers. 

Tribunes mailed to subscribers fall into two classes. 
Where there is only one subscriber in a town, the papers 
are sent through a machine which folds, addresses, and 
drops them into a mail bag. Another type of machine 
handles the papers going to towns where there are several 
Tribune mail subscribers. This machine prints the name 

273 



Papers Rapidly Addressed to Subscribers 



and address of a subscriber on each Tribune at the rate 
of 10,000 papers per hour. The stencils for each town are 
together and the last one makes a red mark on The Tribune 
in addition to the address. 

As the papers flow from the machine, a man seizes those 
between red marks, rolls them in a wrapper, and drops 
them into a mail bag at his side. The stencils have been 
arranged so that all towns on a given railway route are 
grouped together. At the end of each train separation 
that mail bag is closed and sent on its way to the train and 
another takes its place. On these bundles, commonly 
known as "club packages," the address on the outside copy 
serves as postoffice address for the entire bundle. 



* * * 



Tribunes destined for dealers outside Chicago are 
wrapped in bundles of 50 to 300. These bundles must 




■V»>. 







Each dot on this map represents fifty subscribers to The 
Sunday Tribune 

274 



Conveyors Move Papers Swiftly 

sometimes be dropped from express trains and, therefore, 
must be securely done up to protect against loss. Wrappers 
are prepared and addressed in the day time and laid out 
together with cords of the proper length, knotted at one 
end, ready for the midnight rush. All this work is done on 
tables under which belt conveyors move converging to the 
southwest corner of the mailing room. The conveyors are 
so made that they can be used for distribution of color 
supplements, and rotogravure supplements when they are 
delivered to the Tribune plant from the auxiliary color 
plant. This is made possible by a reversing motor equip- 
ment constructed especially for this purpose. 

Bundles and mail sacks are delivered by the conveyors 
to a platform from which several chutes lead to the waiting 
wagons and trucks in the court-yard. Each bundle or mail 
sack bears a bright colored tag, punched with varying 
numbers of holes. This tag tells the man on the platform 
the destination of the package at a glance without reading 
the detailed shipping instructions and address. He pushes 
it off the platform down the proper chute and it is soon on 
its way in a Tribune truck with an incredibly small amount 
of handling from the time the roll of newsprint left The 

Tribune's paper mill. 

* * * 

There is one phase of Tribune circulation, however, in 
which it has been found impractical to do away with con- 
siderable manual labor. This is in the assembling of the 
big Sunday edition. Comic, Fiction, and Rotogravure 




One of the mailing machines 
275 



Personnel of City Circulators Important 

sections are printed on separate presses in a building a half 
mile from the main Plant. The presses on which they are 
printed run more slowly than news presses, so they are 
being printed all through the week preceding the Sunday 
of publication. As printed they are sent to the mailing 
room of The Plant and there the Fiction and Rotogravure 
sections are stuffed into the Comic section. On Wednesday 
the printing of the black and white sections of The Sunday 
Tribune begins and these also must be stuffed with the 
Color and Rotogravure sections. All told, the complete 
City edition of The Sunday Tribune has been stuffed seven 
times before it leaves The Plant. Men engaged in this work 
become quite expert and average 2,000 papers per hour. 

* * * 

For the city delivery of The Tribune 68 wagons and 48 
motor trucks are employed. They consume 33,000 pounds 
of hay, 28,000 pounds of oats, and 12,000 gallons of gasoline 
every month. It has often been the practice for newspapers 
to contract with hauling companies for distributing service. 
The Tribune not only owns its own equipment, but manu- 
factures wagons, harnesses, builds truck bodies, and has an 
amazingly complete shop for repair service. 

An exceedingly important factor in securing and holding 
city circulation is the wagon or truck driver. In addition 
to being a delivery man, The Tribune driver is a collector 
and a salesman. All city circulation is collected for in 
advance, and upon two certain days of the week it is the 
driver's duty to take orders for the following week's supply, 
and to collect in advance for this supply, which serves as a 
standing order for the ensuing week. Of course a few extra 
copies are carried to arrange for any extra demand that the 
newsdealer may have. These are sold on the C. O. D. basis. 
It is necessary for the dealer to be especially careful in 
specifying his orders, because he cannot return unsold 
copies and get credit for them. 

As a delivery man, a driver need possess merely the same 
grade of intelligence that is required of a delivery man in 

276 



Large Garage and Stables Maintained 

any kind of merchandising business. As a collector, a trifle 
more tact and diplomacy are required. But it is as a 
salesman that the qualities of the efficient driver are most 
in demand. Young Johnny Jones operating a news stand at 
a certain corner, places an order for the ensuing week for 
one hundred copies of The Daily Tribune for each day. 
The driver who delivers to the district in which Jones' stand is 
located, knows that Jones can sell one hundred and twenty- 
five copies each day if he will stay at his stand a little later 
in the morning or come to it a little earlier. He knows that 
Jones is afraid of being "stuck" with papers which he can- 
not return. It is up to the driver to sell one hundred and 
twenty-five copies instead of one hundred copies a day to 
Jones, without intimidation or any other influence except 
what can be exerted by true salesmanship. Exactly at this 
point is determined the difference between a capable and 
an inefficient driver. 

In addition to the drivers, The Tribune employs a corps 
of inspectors, or division men. It is the duty of these men 
to watch the sale of newspapers in their respective divisions, 
and to determine whether or not the drivers are successful 
in selling as many copies of The Tribune as the public 
demands. These men must watch and verify the work of 
the drivers, adjust complaints and petty grievances and 
make sure that The Tribune is properly represented on 
the streets. * * * 

The garage in which The Tribune trucks are kept 
occupies the entire half block immediately adjoining The 
Tribune Plant on the north. Tribune trucks stand idle 
during most of the day, but when they work they are 
crowded to their utmost possibilities of performance. 
Everything possible is done to avoid delays because of 
break-downs. In the garage, ready for immediate installa- 
tion, is an entire new engine, thoroughly tested. There are 
rear axles, radiators, transmissions — in fact every part that 
could possibly be needed for any truck is in the stock room, 
properly tagged and numbered. 

277 



System for Delivering Tribunes to Homes 



The repair shop in the garage is prepared to undertake 
any kind of repair work on an instant's notice. Cylinders 
are ground and pistons are made. There is a charging 
board for recharging batteries, and a twenty-ton press for 
such work as pressing gears off rear axles. Tires are not 
only repaired but are rebuilt. 

When a Tribune truck has an accident the service car 
is rushed to the spot and if repairs cannot be made imme- 
diately, the service car delivers the papers and then returns 
to the stalled machine to fix it or to tow it to the garage. 

Sunday morning is the critical time for Tribune trucks ; 
since the larger size of the Sunday paper makes it necessary 
for them to carry far more than normal loads. To meet 
this peak a large number of trucks are regularly hired from 
firms which suspend their own operations over the week 
end. 

Careful cost figures are kept to ascertain the cost of 
maintaining each truck and the fleet as a whole. 



* * * 



The system of "Official Carriers" prevailing in Chicago 
has given rise to some peculiar problems. These carriers 
buy their newspapers at wholesale rates and sell them 
to individuals at retail, and to that extent they seem 




CONVC YOR 




CONVEVORS 
PRCSS f7O0/T5 I 



PD DSD D«D D 
D DhD □ 



AND ADOffeSStNti n MACHINES 



"' '" IZ _ CONVEYOR UriDCR _ TABLES 



a 



□ 



GALLEY ROOM 



w 



FPllOHT PASS. 
{ELSVATO* £L£IAj 



I53XT 



lavatory a 

iCCKEK K00M3 



Floor Plan of Mailing Room 
278 



Circulation Supremacy Won by System and Work 



How The Tribune Blankets Chicago 

These maps of Chicago and leading suburbs tell a 
remarkable story of the domination of .a great market 
by one great medium. The Sunday Tribune has 25% 
more circulation in Chicago and suburbs than the 
next Sunday paper, and 30% more than the leading 
evening paper. 

On the map to the left each dot represents 500 fam- 
ilies in the district or suburb in which it appears. On 
the map to the right each dot represents 500 Sunday 
Tribunes sold in the district or suburb in which it 
appears. In every sense of the word The Tribune 
"covers" Chicago. 



CIRCULATION 



POPULATION 




The 48 Chicago districts on 
this map are those into which 
this great city has been di- 
vided by The Tribune for 
merchandising purposes. The 
suburbs shown are Evanston, 
Oak Park, Forest Park, River 
Forest, Maywood, Cicero, 
Berwyn, Riverside, Brook- 
field and La Grange. 



A recent- investigation among Chicago 
grocers showed that 

80% read The Tribune 
80% read The News 
40% read The Herald & Examiner 
35% read The American 
8% read The Journal 
8% read The Post 
5% read Foreign Language 

papers only. , 

It is obvious that by usind all'the English 
papers combined only 15% would be 
reached who would not be reached by 
The Chicago Tribune alone. 



"THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE DOMINATES THE CHICAGO TERRITORY" 




A page from the " BOOK of FACTS' 

like ordinary merchants. Their business, however, has 
been largely built up for them by The Tribune. The 
Tribune has secured at its own expense the subscription 
orders which their "Official Carriers" fill. In cases where 
the subscriber is located some distance from ordinary routes 
or from transportation, as is often the case in outlying 
districts, The Tribune subsidizes the carrier to make 
daily delivery. That is to say: the subscriber gets his 

279 



Carriers Subsidized and Closely Checked 

paper every morning and the carrier gets his profit even 
though it costs The Tribune more to deliver the paper than 
it receives for it. More than thirty routes in sparsely 
settled neighborhoods must be thus subsidized at present. 
The Tribune has spent approximately five million dollars 
building up this carrier system. 

If a subscriber moves into another district The Tribune 
sends the new address to the new carrier; it also dispatches 
a verifier at least three mornings to see that the paper is 
delivered to the new address properly. When a carrier is 
sick The Tribune sees that the route is delivered. During 
the flu epidemic it handled 14 routes. 

If the carrier continuously does any of the following 
things, he cannot buy any more Tribunes : 

1. Place circulars in the papers. 

2. Give The Tribunes away. The advertising value of 
The Tribune is dependent on the fact that people 
are willing to pay for the privilege of reading it. 

3. Deliver in an improper manner or late. 

Nor will The Tribune sell as many papers to the carrier 
as he may wish to buy. Sometimes coupons in Tribune ads 
entitle the reader to a can of milk, or a cake of soap. The 
carrier is not allowed as many papers as he wishes of such 
issues. 

The subscriber looks to The Tribune to see that his 
paper is properly delivered rather than to the carrier who 
actually delivers it and whom he pays for the service. 
Since the delivery is made by an organization independ- 
ent of The Tribune, great care is necessary in handling 
these claims. Complaints of non-delivery of The Trib- 
une cost The Tribune five to fifty dollars to investi- 
gate. When such a complaint is received an investigator 
is assigned to station himself very early in the morning 
within sight of the residence at which the complaint has 
originated. He watches until he sees the newsboy either 
deliver the paper or fail to deliver it. If the newsboy does 
not deliver the paper, he places one on the subscriber's 

280 



Attention Paid to Subscribers' Complaints 

door-step and leaves to call on the carrier and secure an 
explanation and an adjustment. If the newsboy does 
deliver the paper, he watches until the subscriber has taken 
it in and then leaves. Each morning for ten mornings he 
repeats this performance until he is satisfied that the 
complaint was unjustified or until he has located the cause 
of it; which may be the theft of the paper by some other 
person, the delivery of the paper to a wrong address, ignor- 
ance or carelessness on the part of the news boy, etc. 




Trucks receive papers through chutes from mailing room 



281 



Auditing and Comptrolling 
Division 

EVERYTHING connected with finances, with the 
collection and disbursement of money for any Chi- 
cago Tribune department or for any subsidiary 
corporation (except the Daily News of New York) is 
centralized in one department which occupies the entire 
sixth floor of The Tribune Building at Madison and Dear- 
born Streets, and a number of scattered offices in addition. 
Sound business principles are rigidly insisted upon by 
this department and enforced throughout the organization. 
A large proportion of the money due for subscriptions and 
advertising is paid in advance, and the remainder is promptly 
collected. Out of the millions of dollars due The Tribune 
in 1 92 1, only two and four-tenths per cent remained out- 
standing sixty days after the close of the year. Similarly 
all bills against The Tribune are promptly audited and paid. 
A close check is kept upon the cost of manufacturing 
and distributing The Tribune and upon the cost of selling 
each kind of advertising, so that rates may always be main- 
tained in logical proportion to the cost of producing the 
advertising. 

An idea of the amount of detail which the auditing 
department must supervise is indicated by the fact that 
annually it renders more than 350,000 bills for advertising 
and circulation. 

The financial affairs of the following subsidiaries of The 
Tribune are supervised by its Auditing Division: 
Ontario Paper Company 
Ontario Transportation iff Pulp Company 
Franquelin Lumber & Pulp Wood Company 
Pacific iff Atlantic Photos, Inc. 
Tribune Building Corporation 
Tribune Company of France 

282 



Handling Tribune Finances Big Job 

The auditing division employs 259 people, divided as 

follows : 

General Clerks // 

Cashiers 5 

Mail Clerks 6 

Voucher Clerks 2 

Credits &? Collections 32 

Advertising Agency Accounts 2 

Checkers 23 

Display Adv. Bookkeepers 6 

Classified Adv. Bookkeepers 24 

Circulation Bookkeepers 13 

Adjusting Clerks 18 

Stenographers - Dictaphone 10 

File Clerks 

Press Room Clerks 5 

Pay Roll Clerks 6 

Subscription Clerks / 

Miscellaneous 20 

Traffic 6 

Benefit 3 

Paper Mill 27 

Timber Lands 10 

~259 

Closely allied with the Auditing Division are the order 
clerks of the Advertising Division. During 192 1 a 
statistical record was kept of each operation of these order 
clerks. It showed the amazing total of 793, 3 92 operations 
divided as follows: 

Telephone Want Ads 242,24.0 

Cash Want Ads 212,213 

Charge Want Ads 135,018 

Display Ads 56,161 

Proofs 37,779 

Drawings 31,506 

Matrices 9,594 

Telephone calls 37,613 

Messenger services 30,368 

It is obvious that the publication of 365 issues of a great 
newspaper and the distribution of hundreds of thousands 
of copies of each issue must necessarily involve some errors, 
but the Auditing Division of The Tribune works unceas- 
ingly to reduce these to a minimum. 

283 



Building Department 

THE Building Department "operates" the structures 
which house the various departments of the news- 
paper. This demands the services of one hundred 
and thirty-six employes, chiefly janitors, elevator men, 
scrubwomen, watchmen, etc. 

The buildings supervised by this department include: 

Tribune Building, Madison and Dearborn Streets. 

The Plant, Michigan Blvd. , Austin Ave. and St. Clair St. 

Garage, Michigan Blvd. and Ohio Street. 

Rotogravure and Color Press Bldg., East Ontario Street. 

All these properties are operated on a twenty-four hour 
basis. The service in the old Tribune Building at Madison 
and Dearborn Streets has been practically continuous for 
twenty years. During all that time there have been only 
two shut-downs of less than one hour's duration each. 

In addition to the Advertising, Auditing, and several 
smaller departments, The Tribune Building at Madison 
and Dearborn Streets houses more than one hundred 
tenants, and is considered one of the best office buildings 
in the Loop. 

This eighteen-story structure stands upon land owned 
by the Chicago public schools — a fact which has been the 
source of many storms for The Tribune. 

For twenty-five years it has been the practice of local 
politicians to divert attention from their own acts as ex- 
ploited in The Tribune by attacking "The Tribune Lease." 

They compare the ground rent which The Tribune pays 
to the Board of Education with that paid for similar prop- 
erties in the vicinity and herald the difference as the amount 
which The Tribune is "stealing from the school children." 

Secondly, they charge that The Tribune's lease was 
fraudulently obtained by the influence of A. S. Trude, once 
a member of the Board of Education, and at times attorney 
for The Tribune. 

284 



Building Goes to Schools at End of Lease 

These charges have been fully disproved in court and 
the lease has been held not only free from fraud, but decid- 
edly in the interest of the school children. The politicians 
make out their case by distorting certain facts and con- 
cealing others. 

For instance, they quote the rent which The Tribune 
pays, but they ignore the fact that at the expiration of the 
lease in 1995, the 18-story skyscraper, erected by The 
Tribune at an expense of #1,800,000, becomes the property 
of the Board of Education. This is equivalent to an addi- 
tional rental payment of #21,143 annually, which the critics 
exclude from their calculations. 

Much stress is laid upon the fact that a man who had 
served as attorney for The Tribune was on the Board of 
Education which made the lease, but they ignore the fact 
that the vote was 17 to 2 and that Mr. Trude asked to be 
excused from voting. They also ignore the fact that after 
two years of public discussion an altered Board of Educa- 
tion confirmed the lease by a vote of 16 to 4, and that after 
two additional years of discussion a third Board (Mr. Trude 
being no longer a member) confirmed and ratified the lease 
unanimously. 

In reliance upon this lease The Tribune then expended 
#1,800,000 in the erection of a building. In 1907, six years 
later, at the culmination of political differences with a local 
Democratic city administration, suit was brought to have 
the leases set aside. The case was heard by Master in 
Chancery Roswell E. Mason, a Democrat, who made a 
report on March 5, 19 10, sustaining every contention of 
The Tribune, affirming the validity of the leases and rec- 
ommending the dismissal of the suit. 

The school board filed exceptions to the report of the 
Master in Chancery. All points were fully argued and the 
evidence reviewed before the late Judge Charles M. Walker, 
also a Democrat. On July 13, 19 10, he handed down a 
decision vigorously upholding every finding of the Master. 
He stated emphatically that the lease was a beneficial one 

285 



Courts Hold Tribune Lease Fair and Valid 

from the standpoint of the school children and that it 
was not tainted with fraud. 

The school board then carried the case to the Supreme 
Court, which fully supported Judge Walker and Master in 
Chancery Mason in a lengthy and unanimous decision 
rendered on December, 1910. The facts were found to be 
as follows: 

The Tribune first occupied the corner of Madison and 
Dearborn Streets in 1867 under a lease which provided for 
reappraisal of the land every five years. All school lands 
were leased on this basis. 

Every five years the rent was raised, particularly heavy 
raises being imposed if the tenant attempted any improve- 
ments. In 1895, after five raises in rent, The Tribune 
decided to move to property where it could erect a modern 
building. The building at Madison and Dearborn Streets 
was terribly dilapidated, but it was out of the question to 
put money into a new building when at the end of any five- 
year period the ground rent might be raised to a prohibitive 
figure. 

All school lands were in the same condition — covered 
with disgraceful shacks. 

In 1895 there was not a single fireproof building in the 
block bounded by Madison, Dearborn, State and Monroe. 
The situation was investigated by a school board committee 
which found that the policy of the past 45 years had been 
wrong, that the increased rents obtainable by revaluations 
every five years were more than offset by the failure of 
tenants to improve the property — resulting in minimum 
revenue from taxes and depressed valuations. This com- 
mittee recommended that tenants be invited to submit 
propositions for long term leases and for the adequate im- 
provement of their property. 

Appraisers appointed by the school board, not by the 
tenants, valued the school lands and fixed the proper rentals. 
On the basis of these appraisals long term leases were entered 
into with The Tribune and other tenants as a result of which 

286 



J'U , U , U l U l U , U , U'UiU , U'U , U , U , U , LJ l UiUlU<UiU l LJ , U , U'UiU , U , U'U , U l U , U , U , U l U»U , l- 





These steel steamers were 
built by The Tribune to 
carry pulp logs from our 
timber lands to our paper 
mill. Special design gives 
them larger capacity than 
any other boats navigating 
the St. Lawrence and W el- 
land canals. 

Note the high crow's nest, 
an innovation which enables 
these boats to navigate while 
others are held up by fog 
The St. Lawrence has high 
banks between which low- 
lying jogs settle. From this 
crow's nest the banks can be 
seen above the fog and 
navigation continued. 

As evidenced by the display 
given the names of these 
steamers, The Tribune be- 
lieves in advertising — al- 
ways. 



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Unloading supplies from schooner in Rocky River at Shelter 
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Schooners in Quebec harbor loading with supplies for Tribune 
timber lands. 



Building Kept Constantly Up-to-Date 

The Tribune, First National Bank, Majestic, North Amer- 
ican and Chicago Savings Bank buildings were erected. 
The millions of dollars invested in these improvements im- 
mediately made all property in their vicinity more valuable 
— thus increasing revenues from other school property. 
The taxes paid on these big buildings also swelled school 
revenues. And in the case of The Tribune Building the 
$1,800,000 structure itself will go to the school fund at the 
end of the lease. In the case of the other buildings the 
Board of Education must buy the improvements when the 
leases expire. 

It must be remembered that a modern steel skyscraper 
such as The Tribune is not allowed to deteriorate, and when 
it is turned over to the school board sixty-five years from 
now it may well be expected to be worth more than the 
day it was built. It has already increased more than one- 
third in value. Experts estimated that it would cost 
more than $2,500,000 to reproduce The Tribune Building 
as it stands after 20 years of use. Large sums are con- 
stantly spent for maintenance. New electric wiring was 
recently put in, new marble, new elevators — the last 
named at an expense in excess of $100,000. Cathedrals, 
palaces and castles of Europe have endured for centuries 
with undiminished value, but engineers consider that the 
modern steel skyscraper properly maintained will prove the 
most enduring structure man has built. 

Telephone Switchboard 

The telephone switchboard of The Chicago Tribune 
"andles upwards of four million calls a year. It is an 
height position" board located on the fifth floor of The 
Tribune Building at Madison and Dearborn Streets. To 
keep the lines open twenty-four hours a day, fifteen opera- 
tors are required. 

From the switchboard one hundred trunk lines extend 
to all Tribune departments, both in the "old" building and 
in The Plant on North Michigan Boulevard. Twenty- 

289 



12,000 to 20,000 Phone Calls per Day 

three of the trunk lines are for outgoing calls only. The 
total number of inside telephones and extensions is 333. 

Exclusive of calls for baseball scores or other special 
occasions, incoming calls average 8,000 per day, outgoing 
calls 2,000 per day, and inter-department calls 2,000 per 
day — a total of 12,000. Baseball games, elections, explo- 
sions, etc., often raise these figures to a total of more than 
20,000 calls in one day. 

The Want Ad department is the largest user of telephone 
service within the organization. On Saturday, March 25, 
1922, the switchboard transferred 4,500 incoming calls to 
the Adtakers between 7:30 in the morning and 2:00 in the 
afternoon. 




The Tribune Bldg. at Madison and Dearborn Sts. 
290 



Purchasing Department 

THE Purchasing Department of The Chicago Tribune 
is called upon for a very broad range of services. 
It must buy a great variety of supplies for all 
departments and must in addition supervise the purchase 
and installation of new machinery. The nature of the 
newspaper business which demands the unfailing produc- 
tion and distribution of hundreds of thousands of copies 
every twenty-four hours makes it necessary that the Pur- 
chasing Department have all manner of materials and 
equipment arriving at The Plant as regularly as sunrise. 

The Purchasing Department has fifteen employees and 
buys more than a thousand different commodities each 
year, valued at approximately #1,400,000. This does not 
include newsprint or large equipment such as presses. Trib- 
une growth is indicated by the fact that in 19 14 the value 
of purchases was #226,000. 

Purchases are initiated by each department's filling out 
requisitions specifying all possible details concerning the 
article desired. In ordering equipment the Purchasing 
Department, wherever possible, asks regular Tribune adver- 
tisers to figure, but awards them the business only if their 
proposition equals that of other bidders. 

Purchase orders are written in triplicate; the original 
retained in the Purchasing Department as a record together 
with the original requisition and all other data concerning 
the order; one copy forwarded to the firm from whom the 
material is purchased ; and the other sent to the receiving 
clerk to check against the goods when received. After 
receipt of the goods, he returns his copy to the Purchasing 
Department. 

Invoices, as received, are recorded in a visible system 
book with removable cards; sent to the departments origi- 
nating the orders for okay, and then to the accounting 
department, which distributes the charges and pays them. 

291 



Research Conducted by Purchasing Department 

A large store of information on prices of merchandise 
is accumulated and kept constantly up-to-date. There is 
a visible card system of past orders showing firms, prices, 
special discounts, etc. ; and a systematically arranged cata- 
logue file made up of clippings from trade journals, circulars, 
lists of surplus and second-hand materials, etc. Drawings 
and blue-prints of all equipment in The Tribune Plant, 
records of test runs, analyses of materials, reports of inves- 
tigations — all combine to make the work of this depart- 
ment unusually efficient. 

* * * 

Many duties, which on some newspapers are assumed 
by a mechanical superintendent or an efficiency engineer, 
are taken care of on The Tribune by the Purchasing Depart- 
ment. Typical duties of this kind are regular inspections 
of all premises and recommendations arising therefrom; 
laboratory tests of ink, paper, oil, etc.; selling of waste 
paper, old equipment and dross; purchasing and instal- 
lation of new equipment; investigation of comparative 
mechanical systems and operation methods such as revised 
press layouts, power and heating plants; tests of various 
fuels; search for improvement in conveyors, tank systems, 
methods of handling paper; preservation of newspaper 

files ; etc. 

* * * 

One man employed in the Purchasing Department gives 
his full time to inspection and laboratory work on all print 
paper used by The Tribune. He has for his use special 
equipment for weighing, finding the moisture content and 
ascertaining the strength of all classes of paper. Daily 
reports are made comparing the physical qualities of The 
Tribune with the other Chicago papers. He also watches 
the handling of the roll paper from the time the cars are 
unloaded on the railroad siding. Charts are maintained 
which show daily and monthly figures on newsprint waste 
and which locate the operations in which waste was made. 

292 



Job Shop Kept Busy on Tribune Work 

A job printing shop, to handle Tribune work exclusively, 
is maintained as a part of the Purchasing Department. 
It has six regular employees but often adds to this 
number in emergencies. During the past twelve months 
it has handled more than two thousand jobs, including 
tags and labels for the Circulation Department, forms for 
all departments, booklets, color posters for the Circulation 
Department, form letters, advertising data sheets, and 
letterheads. 




293 



The Medill Council 

ORGANIZED originally as the Welfare Committee 
of The Tribune, the Medill Council, composed 
of Tribune employes, has undertaken and carried 
out various movements for welding the organization closer 
together, bettering working conditions, encouraging athletics, 
and investigating methods of bonus and insurance payments. 

When the Medill Council was organized in February, 
1919, its work was laid out along the following general lines : 

Health: The recommendation of sanitary and healthful 
measures, consideration (at present) of the advisability of 
adding to The Tribune organization a medical and a dental 
attendant. 

Environment: Consideration of safety devices in the 
mechanical departments, the establishment of rest, recre- 
ation, and exercise room, coffee and lunch rooms. 

Insurance: Death and accident insurance are now pro- 
vided for. Health insurance is being considered. 

Bonuses: A bonus had been given Tribune workers 
for several years. The Council investigated methods of 
bonus payments practiced in other institutions in order to 
secure the most equitable plan. 

Tribune Organizations: Classes for study, musical and 
dramatic organizations, teams, etc. 

One important innovation that was recommended by 
the Council and approved by the management was the 
granting of vacations to all Tribune men without reference 
to their union affiliations. The Medill Council's investiga- 
tion convinced its members that the men in the mechanical 
departments needed a rest in vacation time just as much as 
the men at desks, and it recommended to the management 
that a uniform vacation plan be put into effect throughout 
the Plant. On the committee's recommendation the plan 
was adopted by the Company. 

294 



Lunch Club for Girls on Tribune Roof 

In building the new Plant, every possible safety device 
in the mechanical departments was installed, so that the 
employes are protected in every way that modern invention 
has made possible. Serious accidents are extremely rare in 
The Tribune mechanical departments. 

A nurse and a dentist have been added to The Tribune 
staff for the benefit of employes. One of the big move- 
ments has been the advancement of athletics, and consid- 
erable attention has been paid to baseball and to bowling, 
with all expenses of both leagues paid by The Tribune. 

One of the early projects in view was the establishment 
of a refectory for Tribune women. It was to have been on 
the eighteenth floor of The Tribune building. This move- 
ment resulted in the establishment of the Etaoin Club on 
the roof of the building, in the quarters formerly used by 
the Overset Club. The club is managed entirely by the 
women employes, and nearly ioo girls are served luncheon 
daily in the beautiful dining room on the roof. Ail the 
equipment was provided by The Tribune Company, and 
the club is now maintained by the womtn of The Tribune 
on a self-supporting basis. 

In December, 1919, The Tribune completed its Em- 
ployes Benefit Plan and put into effect the following pro- 
visions for disability and insurance : 

Sickness Disability Benefits 

1. Classification. All employes of the Company shall 
be classified in four groups, formed according to length of 
time in the service of the Company, as follows : 

Class A — Those in the employ of the Company ten years or more. 
Class B — Those in the employ of the Company five years to ten years. 
Class C — Those in the employ of the Company one year to five years. 
Class D — Those in the employ of the Company less than one year. 

2. Payments. In the event of absence on account of 
sickness the Company will pay to employes in good standing 
at the time of their sickness : 

295 



Company Pays for $1,000 Insurance 

employe shall receive full pay, not including overtime, for 
the entire period of his total disability, with a maximum 
limit equal to the death benefit paid in the event of injury, 
without regard to length of service, except that no benefits 
paid under this plan shall be in excess of the difference 
between payments provided by the Employers' Liability 
Act in force in the state of Illinois and the employe's nor- 
mal full pay, not including overtime, for the period of dis- 
ability. 

13. In the event of partial disability, an employe, in 
order to receive the benefits provided by this plan, must 
place his services at the disposal of the Company for 
employment in such capacity as the Company may find 
most advantageous, at such time as the Company's Med- 
ical Investigator shall determine that he may return to 
work. 

14. The investigation of accident disability cases shall 
be handled in the manner indicated for sickness disability 
cases. 

Death Benefits 

15. Insurance. The Company will at its own expense 
insure the life of each Tribune Company employe upon the 
completion of five years' continuous service with the Com- 
pany for an amount equal to the salary or wages paid during 
the twelve months immediately prior to the ending of such 
five years' continuous service, with a fixed maximum 
amount in each case of One Thousand Dollars ($1,000). 

16. The insurance provided for in the paragraph 
immediately preceding is payable in addition to all bene- 
fits to which the employe is entitled under the Workmen's 
Compensation Act of this state, and also in addition to any 
insurance carried by the employe individually. 

Sections 17 to 26 provide with great particularity that 
a disabled employe must report his disability without 
delay; and that death or disability due to intoxication or 
any other of several causes named shall not confer any 
rights under the plan. 

298 



Pensions Entirely Financed by Company 

The pension plan is another movement for employe 
welfare. The pension fund is in charge of a board which 
consists of the president of the board of directors of The 
Tribune, one director, and a Tribune employe. This 
board is empowered to make rules for the efficient admin- 
istration of the pension fund and to control the payment 
of pension allowances. It may authorize the payment of 
a pension to any retired employe on the following basis : 

(a) All employes of this Company engaged in any 
capacity are eligible to pensions as hereinafter stated. 

(b) All employes who shall have reached the age of 55 
years and have been fifteen or more years in the service, 
may at the discretion of the Pension Board be retired from 
active service and become eligible to a pension. 

(c) All employes who have been twenty or more years 
in the service may, at their own request, be retired at the 
age of 60 on the first day of the calendar month following 
that in which they shall have attained said age, unless, at 
the discretion of the Pension Board, some later date be 
fixed for such retirement. Persons occupying executive 
positions are exempt from maximum age limit. 

(d) All employes who have been thirty years in the 
employ of the Company may, in case of disability, be 
retired upon a pension, irrespective of their age at the time 
of retirement. 

The amount of the pension is fixed as follows: For 
each year of active service an allowance of two per cent 
of the average annual pay during the ten years next 
preceding retirement. But no pension shall exceed #100 
per month, nor be less than $18 per month. 

Pensions are to be paid monthly and the Pension 
Board may, in its discretion, continue the payments for a 
limited time to the widows and orphans of pensioners. 

In addition to all the above, financed entirely by The 
Tribune Company, Tribune employes have two voluntary 
organizations of their own which are fostered by the man- 
agement. 

299 



Building and Loan Association Formed 

The Dearborn Mutual Benefit Association is an insur- 
ance and loan organization into which several hundred men 
and women pay weekly dues. It pays a death benefit of 
#500 on tne death of any member. A week before Christ- 
mas all funds are distributed to members and they usually 
find that their money has earned from 10% to 12%. At 
New Year's the association reorganizes for another 50 weeks. 

The Medill Building and Loan Association is being or- 
ganized in June, 1922, for the benefit of employes. 



The Trib 



READ WHAT PAUL WILLIAMS HAS TO 
SAY TO CONSTANTINOPLE REPORTERS 




The Trib is printed at Company expense and distributed 
free each month to all employes 



300 



Index 



Advertising Censorship 76, 77, 179, 191 

Advertising Charts 178, 181, 194, 197, 198 

Advertising Division 176 to 203 

Advertising Tribune Advertising. . . .46, 75, 76, 78, 

182, 183, 201 

Altgeld, Governor 47, 53 

Amusement Advertising 178, 189 

Anti Loan Shark Bureau 76, 77 

Architectural Contest for $100,000 Prize. .114, 120 

Art Department 160, 161, 162 

Art Service for Advertisers 191, 192, 203 

Associated Press 126, 143, 271 

Auditing & Comptrolling Division 282, 283 

Automobile Advertising 99, 100, 178 

Baie des Cedres 206, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215 

Beale, William G 255 

Beauty Advice 164 

Beck. E. S 255 

Beecher, Henry Ward 43 

"Beg Your Pardon" Department 142 

Berlin Office of Tribune 145, 175 

Blue Ribbon Fiction 165, 167 

Book of Facts 181, 194, 197, 273, 279, 303 

Book Reviews 141 

Bross, William 18, 19, 22, 23, 29. 35, 36, 48 

Building Management 284 to 290 

Burke, State's Attorney 69, 70 

"Cablese" 146 

Catlin, T. B 61 

Chapman, Paul Cross 120 

"Cheer Checks" 106 to 110 

Chemical Wood Pulp 221 

Chicago American 178, 181, 197, 198, 273 

Chicago Chronicle 63 

Chicago Daily News 178, 181, 197, 198, 273 

Chicago Fire 37, 38, 39 

Chicago, first newspapers 16 

Chicago Herald 78, 79 

Chicago Herald & Examiner 79, 106, 107, 110, 

178, 181, 197, 198, 273 

Chicago Inter-Ocean 78 

Chicago Journal 16, 17, 178, 181, 197, 198, 273 

Chicago Post 178. 181, 197, 198, 273 

Chicago Record 53, 75 

Chicago Record-Herald 53, 70, 75, 78 

Chicago Times 46, 53, 75 

City Circulation 272, 276 to 281 

Circulation 11, 22, 30, 36, 46, 75, 78, 84. 

106 to 110, 255, 269. 272 to 281 

Civil War 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 40 

Clairvoyants 76, 77 

Clayton, John 93 

Cleveland Leader 21 

Cleveland, President 53 

Clothing Advertising 178, 197 

Color Rotogravure (Coloroto) 120, 256 to 266 

Comics 245, 275, 276 

Composing Room 157, 173, 227, 236 

Conveyors from Presses 251 to 254, 274 

Conveyors in Mailing Room 268, 270, 275, 278 

Conveyors to Presses 268 

Cookery 164 

Co-Operator (Retailer's Paper) 200 

Copy Service for Advertisers 191, 192, 203 

Country Circulation 272, 274. 275 

Cowles, Alfred 19, 22, 23, 48 

Cowles, Alfred, II 255 

Coxey's "Army" 53 

Dailey, Charles 93 

Daily News of New York. .100, 101, 143, 225, 282 

"Dead Lines" 157, 159 

Death Benefits 298, 299 

Debs, Eugene V 53 

Decatur's Slogan 118 to 120, 170, 172 

Deep Waterways Editions 64 

Democratic Convention in Denver 63 

Deneen, Governor 73 

Department Store Advertising 178 

Dewey, Admiral ' 56, 57 

Display Advertising 190 to 203 

Drainage Canal 48 

Dramatic Criticism 141 

Dunne, Mayor 63, 285 



Editorials 25. 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 40, 44, 48, 54, 

73, 84, 91, 118, 119, 170, 171, 172 

Educational Advertising 186, 189 

Electrical Department 253, 267, 268, 271 

Electrotyping 245 

Etching Department 134, 160, 230, 237 to 

244, 258 to 265 
European Edition of The Tribune.. .84, 85, 86, 87, 

90, 92, 150 

Evans, Dr. Wm. A 67, 172 

"Experts' Fees" Suits 112 

Extras 159 

Farm & Garden 164 

Fashions 161, 164 

-^Features 163 to 165, 166, 167 

^Fiction., 165, 275, 276 

Field, William H 84 

Financial Advertising 77, 178, 233 

Financial News * 140, 233 

-Fire Protection 271 

Fisher, Judge H. M 115 to 118 

Folders 251 to 253 

Ford, Million Dollar Libel Suit 94 to 99 

Foreign News Service.. .89, 91, 93, 145 to 152, 166 

Fourdrinier Screen 216 ,222 

Franquelin Lumber & Pulp Wood Co 282 

Friend of the People 68, 172 

Funk, Clarence 70 

Furniture Advertising 178 

Garage 114, 276, 277, 278 

Garfield, President 46 

Gas Scandals 54, 56 

Gibbons, Floyd 89, 93 

Gold Standard 56 

Good Fellow Movement 66, 67 

Grant, General 35 

Greeley, Horace 21 

Groceries Advertising 1 78 

Half Tones 237, 238 

Harden, E. W 56, 57 

Harrison, President 47 

Haymarket Riots 47 

Headline Contest 130 

Heads Used by Tribune 129 

Health Advice 67, 164, 172 

Helm, State Senator 70 

Holstlaw, State Senator 69 

Hopkins, Mayor 54 

House Organ for Employes 300 

Howells, Abby White 255 

Humorous Columns 164 

Ink Fountains 250 

Insurance Advice 164 

Intaglio Printing 257 

Interior Decoration 164 

Investor's Guide 78, 164 

Ireland 48, 94, 148 

Iroquois Fire 60 

Job Printing Shop 291 

Keeley, James 60, 63 

Keough, Hugh E 164 

Kohlsaat, H. H 70 

Land Shows 64, 65, 66, 72 

Legal Advice 164 

Libby, Laura Jean 68 

Libel Suits 94 to 99, 111, 115 to 118, 120 

Library 168, 166 

Lincoln, President 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 171 

-. Line-o-type 164, 172 

"'/Linotype Machines 173, 227, 228, 229, 232, 236 

Lloyd, Demarest 255 

Lloyd, Henry D 255 

Lloyd, John Bross 255 

Lloyd, William Bross 255 

Local Advertising 190, 191, 192 

Local News Room 173 

London Office of Tribune 148 

Lorimer, William 68, 69 

Love 164 

Lyon & Healy 192 



301 



Index — Continued 



Mailing Machines 270, 275, 278 

Makeup of Ads 228, 229, 233 

Makeup of News 228. 229 

Market News 141, 156 

Mason, Master in Chancery 285 

Matrices 228,242, 243, 247 

McCormick, Medill 68 

McCormick, Robert R 48, 68, 88, 123, 269 

McKinley, President 56 

McNally, Andrew J 22 

Medill Council 101, 294 to 300 

Medill, Joseph— Frontispiece 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 

29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 48. 50, 53, 59, 171 

Medill, Samuel 45 

Medill School of Journalism 104 

Memorial Trees 89 

"Men's Specialist" Frauds 76, 77 

Merchandising Advertising 196, 200, 202, 203 

Monotype Machines 236 

Morgue 134, 168, 169 

Motion Picture News 141 

Motion Pictures and Advertising 80, 189 

Municipal Voters' League 55 

Mural Prize 120 

Nast, Thomas 160 

National Advertising 190, 193 to 203 

News, Foreign 145 to 152, 166 

News, Handling 136 

News in the Fifties 25, 28, 29 

News in the Seventies 43, 44 

News, Local 134 to 138 

News, Makeup 153 to 159 

News Maps 151, 161 

News, National 143, 144 

Newspaper Advertising 177, 199, 201, 202 

I News Policies 131, 132, 133 

Newsprint Consumption 25 1 

Newsprint Laboratory 292 

"1921 Will Reward FIGHTERS". . . .104, 105, 106 

Ontario Paper Company 282 

Ontario Transportation & Pulp Company 282 

Order Clerks of Advertising Dept 283 

Ownership of Tribune 19. 23, 255 

Pacific & Atlantic Photos, Inc 167, 282 

Paper Machine 216, 217, 222, 224, 225 

Paper Mill 84, 101, 216 to 226 

Patterns 164 

Patterson, Joseph Medill 68, 88, 123 

Patterson, Raymond 56 

Patterson, Robert W., Jr., 28, 53, 54, 56, 59, 62, 68 

Patterson, R. W., Sr 28 

Peace Treaty Scoop 87,91 

Pensions 299 

Pershing, General 86 

Photos 134, 151. 160, 161, 162, 167, 168, 174 

Pierson, Joseph 85 

Pneumatic Tubes 271 

Polish War Scoop 91 

Post Office for Want Advertisers 176, 184, 187, 188 

Presses 11, 54, 101, 246 to 268 

Price to Subscribers 54 

Proof Reading 235, 236 

Protection 36, 47, 48 

Publishers' Advertising 178 

Pulp Making 220, 221, 223 

Pulp Wood Pile 218 

Pulp Wood Resources of Tribune. . .84, 205 to 214 
Purchasing Department 291 to 293 

Queensbury, Marquis of 67 

Rand, William H 22 

Ray, Charles H 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 29, 35 

Real Estate News 140 

Reels for Newsprint Rolls 248, 249, 250 

Refrigeration 271 

Reilly. General H. J 91 

Religious News 139 

Roll of Honor 87, 88, 89 

Rome Office of Tribune 145, 175 

Roosevelt, Theodore 63, 73 

Rotogravure 101, 256 to 266, 275, 276 



Rue, Larry 93, 152 

Russell, Lillian 68 

Ryan, Thomas 93 

Sane Fourth Crusade 60 

School Board of Chicago 284 to 286 

Scripps, John L 18, 20, 22, 23, 36 

Shelter Bay 206, 211, 213, 215 

Sickness Beneiits 295 to 298 

Small, Governor 73 

Smith, Frederick ! '. ! ! 89 

Society News '139 

Soldier's Friend .164 

Spanish War 56, 57, 58 

Sporting News 134, 139. 156, 233 

Steamers co Carry Pulp Wood 214, 287 

Steam Tables 228, 242, 243, 247 

Steele, John 94, 148 

Stensland Bank Failure 63 

Sterotyping 158, 228, 242 to 244, 247, 269 

Strikes 58 

Submarine Chaser Dispatch Boat 210, 214 

Subscribers' Complaints 280, 281 

Sullivan, T. E 61 

Sunday Tribune 54, 134 

Syndicate Department 166, 167 

Taft, President 64. 73. 74 

Talbot, Greenville 171 

Taylor, Bert Leston 164, 171 

Telegraph, News by 18, 145 

Telephone Ad-takers 185 

Telephones 289, 290 

Ten Million Dollar Libel Suit 115 to 118 

Thomason, S. E 255 

Thompson, Mayor 73, 111, 115 to 118 

Thorold, Ontario 206, 219 

Traffic Department 225, 226 

Travel Advertising 178, 186, 189 

Tribune Advertising. .74, 75, 76, 99, 104, 105, 106 

to 110, 176 to 203, 231, 232. 233, 271, 283, 286 

Tribune and its Employes. .49, 58, 61, 101, 128,. . 

269, 294 to 300 

Tribune Building Corporation 282 

Tribune Buildings. .8, 18, 36, 37, 39, 59. 63, 71, 

101, 102, 103, 114, 284 to 290 
Tribune Circulation. .11, 22, 30, 36, 46, 75, 78, 84, 
106 to 110, 255, 269, 272 to 281 

Tribune Company of France 282 

Tribune Fires 18. 37. 38, 39 

Tribune, Foundation 17 

Tribune Scoops 35, 45, 63, 89, 91, 93 

Tribune Subsidiary Companies 282 

Trucks 276, 277. 278 

Trude, A. S 284. 285 

Trude, D. P 77 

Typograph 236 

United News Service 143 

Upton, George P 35 

Ventilation 271 

Villard, Oswald Garrison 172 

Wake-of-the-News 164 

Walker, Judge 285 

Walsh, John R 61. 63 

Want-Ad Store 176. 180 

Want Advertising 179 to 188. 290, 303 

Washington News Bureau 143, 156 

Wayman, State's Attorney 69 

White, Amelia Elizabeth 255 

White, Charles 68, 69 

White, Horace 19, 23, 36 

White, Martha Root 255 

Wireless, News by. 101, 103, 145, 146, 147, 152, 166 

Women Advertisers 176. 180 

Women Editors 165 

Women's Pages 233 

World's Columbian Exposition 49, 50, 52 

World's Greatest Newspaper 68 

World War 80 to 89, 113 

Yerkes Traction Scandals 55, 56 

Zone System of Marketing 194, 197, 199 



302