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Full text of "What we hear in music; a course of study in music history and appreciation, for use in the home, music clubs, conservatories, high schools, normal schools, colleges and universities .."

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



WHAT WE HEAR 
IN MUSIC 

A Course of Study in 
Music History and Appreciation 

for use in 

THE HOME 

Music Clubs, Conservatories, High Schools, 
Normal Schools, Colleges and Universities 

I. Learning to Listen: National 

Music 
II. The History of Music 

III. The Orchestra : The Develop- 

ment of Instrumental Music 

IV. The Opera and Oratorio 



ANNE SHAW FAULKNER 

Each Part is divided into thirty lessons with illustrations 

for each lesson, to be given with the 

Victrola and Victor Records 

Educational Department 

Victor Talking Machine Company 

Camden, New Jersey 



Copyright 1913, 1916, 1917, 1921 by 

VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COMPANY 

Camden. New Jersey, U. S. A. 



Fourth Revised Edition 



Music 
Library 



Table of Contents 



Page 

Foreword 5 

Introduction 7 

Part I Learning to Listen: National Music 12 

Part II The History of Music 62 

Part III The Orchestra : The Development of Instrumental Music . 140 

Part IV The Opera and Oratorio 200 

Analyses of Records 259 

Bibliography 386 

Pronunciations 392 

Index of Choruses Suggested 396 

Index of Cantatas Suggested 400 

Numerical List of Records Grouped According to Parts 401 

Numerical List of Records Used in Entire Book 403 

Alphabetical Index of Records 405 



1487238 







LOWELL MASON (1792-1872) 

Father of School Music 



Foreword 



IN this course of study it has been the earnest desire of the author 
and the publishers to contribute a well-organized plan for the 
study of music in a broadly cultural style, looking toward giving 
a working knowledge of the literature of music, rather than a theo- 
retical study of the form and grammar of the subject. 

The study of high school music must be arranged to attract, hold 
and EDUCATE every boy and girl, regardless of whether they can 
sing or not, and should furnish opportunity, material and instruction 
that will enable them to become, not professional musicians, but music 
lovers and appreciative, intelligent listeners, knowing the world's 
music just as they know its history, prose, poetry and art. 

Heretofore, the ideals of high school pupils in music have been 
virtually limited to the music they themselves could produce, thus 
restricting their observation to a very narrow field. 

Music, when properly taught, stands for as much mental develop- 
ment and general culture as any other subject in the curriculum and 
should receive the same credits toward graduation from the local 
school, and as entrance requirements in the colleges and universities. 

Colleges, private schools and universities have found it impos- 
sible, save in small special classes, to use music in any broadly edu- 
cational way. 

Individuals and clubs desiring to know music from a cultural 
standpoint, particularly if remote from the larger musical centers, 
have found it well nigh impossible to gain any adequate knowledge 
of the world 's music because of lack of opportunity to HEAR enough 
of the really great music interpreted by great artists with reasonably 
frequent repetition. 

To-day the trend of music study is strongly toward appreci- 
ation rather than theory. It is impossible, however, to study appreci- 
ation or interpretation without REAL MUSIC to interpret and 
appreciate. 

Now the Victrola, with its wonderful list of Victor Records, which 
is regularly augmented each month, makes it possible to present the 

5 



Foreword 

whole subject in a vital form, bringing within the hearing of every 
student the real music to be studied. This course presents a careful 
selection of the choicest records for definite study in consecutive 
lessons, classified, analyzed, and set in chronological order and histori- 
cal significance, starting at a given point, progressing systematically, 
and arriving at a legitimate conclusion. 

This course is not intended to take the place of the regular 
chorus work, nor to minimize or displace the necessary study in sight 
reading, intervals, chromatics, music forms, etc., but to be superim- 
posed upon the broad basis of such foundational work. 

It is hoped that these lessons may furnish the means to produce 
a Nation-wide love and understanding of GOOD MUSIC. 

FKANCES ELLIOTT CLARK. 



What We Hear in Music 



Introduction 

I. The Aim of the Course. 

This course of study in the history and appreciation of music 
has been prepared for use in high schools, normal schools, colleges, 
universities and schools of music, home, ^ dub, or individual study. 
It will serve as a thorough and analytical yguide to the study of the 
literature of music, [through the wealth and variety of the musical , f 
illustrations offered by the Victor Records. 

In arranging this work/ for educational, purposes the idea /has 
been to develop in each individual or studeni a^comprehensive appre- 
ciation of the greatest in the art, jcombined withfa^ogical history of 
the growth of music.) It is the author's hope that this book, with the 
.use of the Victrola, will bring about this appreciationJand with it an 
increased enjoyment and wider understanding of the oeauty and the 
message of music.^ '^This can come only through an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the greatest compositions in musical literature) For, "in I 
the case of the best music, (familiarity breeds ever-growing admiration,"]^ ' 
and, as/Theodore Thomasiiiost truly said, r' Popular music is, after all, 
only familiar music. J 

It has been said that (^' the capacity to listen properly to music 
is better proof of musical appreciation than ability to sing or to play 
on an instrument."* It is just as necessary to train our ears as our 
fingers, and this may be accomplished only through repeated hearings 
of the greatest musical compositions. Music presents no visible form 
to the eye, therefore it must be re-created anew each time its message 
is revealed. \ Through the medium of the Victor Records one can now 
repeatedly re-create musical literature until the message of music can 
be understood by everyone. 

In the presentation of this work it is necessary to remember 
that the fundamental power of music is to give pleasure and enjoy- 
ment. Over-technical analysis may reduce a poem, a work of liter- , 
ature. a painting or a musical composition to such a mass of detail, 
little of which is comprehended or understood, that the beauty of the 

* From "How to Listen to Music," H. E. Krehbiel. 



W hat We Hear in Music Introduction 




ANGEL WITH LUTE 



work as a whole is hopelessly lost. Music 
is an art which must be considered as an 
important factor in the history of the 
world's civilization. Kemembering Lord 
Lytton's epigram, "The Nine Muses are 
one family," let us try to correlate our 
study of music with the study of history 
and the development of civilization, as it is 
expressed in the other arts. 

II. Development. 

A course in the appreciation and under- 
standing of any art must necessarily in- 
volve a study of the fundamental principles 
of that art. There are certain principles 
which are basic in all arts. \Architecture, sculpture, painting, poetry, 
and music all reflect nationality and express through characteristic 
idiom the thought of the creator and his age. 

^ Architecture emphasizes nationality ; sculpture, form ; while in 
painting, color as a medium of expression is more noticeable than 
the other principles. The very nature of poetry is the expression 
in words of beautiful thought in rhythmical form. Music embodies 
all of these principles: nationality, form, and an endless variety of 
expression or thought content, thereby becoming the greatest of all 
the arts.) 

C By 'Nationality in music is meant the peculiar character which 
indicates life in certain localities or among certain peoples, as expressed 
in the folk song or folk dance, by the use of characteristic rhythms 
and scale formations. 

( Form or pattern in music is the definite order in which musical 
iddas or phrases are presented. In form are embodied the rules or 
technique of the construction of a composition. Form is the plan by 
which the musical architect creates the foundation and framework for 
his structure. 

/ The poetic element of expression in music is endless in its variety 
and embodies thought and emotion. 

r Descriptive music is the imitation of various sounds of nature or 
certain activities of life; the telling of a story by means of tone, or 
painting of a mental picture which is suggested by the composer's 
designated title. Instrumental music of this class is termed ' ' Program 
Music." Color in music is the endless variety of light and shade in 



What We Hear in Music Introduction 



tonal relations. It is particularly applicable to orchestral composi- 
tions.* 

The development of musical composition rests on the foundation 
of Nationality, which was manifested during the period of the early 
folk dance, and developed into those definite instrumental forms used 
at the time of Bach. During the same period, the simple folk song 
shows in its development a marked tendency toward that later school of 
music, which not only follows formal construction, but also gives a 
wonderfully clear and beautiful idea of the purity of tone. 

These forms reached their perfection with the great composer 
Beethoven, wiio has been designated as the "culmination of the 
Classical School and the beginning of the Romantic School." After 
Beethoven's day there was apparent a decided tendency toward the 
expression of pure beauty of tone, also a growing use of the idea that 
all music should tell a definite story, or express a poetic idea. When 
the composers of the Classical Period had written descriptive music, 
their one idea was to have their story conform absolutely to the formal 
patterns of the period. With the rise of the 
Romantic School, however, melodic expression was 
to be no longer subservient to formal outline. Yet 
as Robert Schumann so wisely advised, "He who 
would create in free forms must first have mastered 
the old forms existent for all time. " It is interest- 
ing to note that it was largely through the influence 
of Bach, many of whose manuscripts were now 
heard for the first time, that the composers of this 
period were enabled to keep descriptive music 
within the bounds of music's true realm. 

During the development of form, of poetic 
expression, and of descriptive music, the influence 
of folk music has been apparent. This strong 
national feeling has given rise, in the modern epoch, 
to the development of the great schools of Russia, 
Scandinavia and Bohemia, which to-day rank with 
the Italian, French and German schools. 

It is the object of Part I to train the ears to 
distinguish between the fundamental principles of 
music, and the differences in their expression, through the medium of 
voices and instruments; also, to lay the foundation for all future 
study by a thorough consideration of nationality. 

* There have been many theories regarding color in music. Haydn and several other 
musicians believed that certain instruments represented color, and many scientists have worked 
on this theory of the relation of tone and color. 




ANGEL WITH TAM- 
BOURINE 



What We Hear in Music Introduction 

In Part II the historic development of music from ancient times 
to the present will be considered, tracing the rise of the great schools 
of music, studying the lives of the greatest composers in their relation 
to the development of the world 's music. 

Part III specializes in the instruments of the orchestra and the 
development of instrumental forms, from the folk dance to the sym- 
phonic poem. Each instrument will be studied separately, then in 
various combinations leading to the modcirn symphony orchestra. 

Part IV presents a thorough and detailed study of the historical 
development of the opera and oratorio. 

III. Suggestions for Study. 

The Victor Records chosen for each lesson 

THE MATERIAL are especially adapted to illustrate certain defi- 
nite points which are suggested in the context 

of that particular lesson. As one record will frequently illustrate 
another point in a lesson to follow, many of these records will be used 
several times. 

Do not try to grasp all the points of each individual composi- 
tion at the first hearing. Records have purposely been selected which 
will illustrate many different principles. 

Note books should be provided in which outlines of the lessons 
should be kept, and these books should be frequently examined and 
marked. Preface each lesson presented with a short review of the 
lessons which preceded it, in order that students may have a clear con- 
ception of the inter-relation of ideas and events. 

Always play the selection used for illustration entirely through 
first; then play in fragments, with analyses and discussion, as desired; 
replay again in entirety, having in mind all points brought out. 

After a record has been played, write on the board the principle 
which the class has agreed is the most strongly illustrated by that 
selection. If a composition bears a title, allow the class to express 
their opinion as to its meaning before the analysis has been given them. 
Do not give the name of the interpreting artist or organization until 
the class has decided what voices or instruments have been heard; 
then replay the record. 

Analysis of every composition used for illustration, 
ANALYSIS classified as to composers, will be found on pages 259 
to 386. The analyses of the numbers on each program 
should be read and notes taken of the salient points. 

10 



What We Hear in Music Introduction 

Students should read as many books on music 

BIBLIOGRAPHY as possible to enhance the meaning of these neces- 
sarily brief lessons. For that purpose a short 
bibliography is provided, and books marked with "**" are especially 
recommended for practical use in libraries. 

Following each lesson a list of choruses is sug- 

CHORUSES gested for class work. These have been fitted into 

the thought of the lesson so as to furnish additional 

material for illustration ; also to correlate closely the regular choral 

work of the schools with the work of this course. 



11 



Part I 

Learning to Listen 

NATIONAL MUSIC 

Preface 

It is the purpose of Part I to assist the student to distinguish 
between the fundamental principles of music through the media of 
voices and instruments. 

As the later development of all forms of music rests on nationality, 
the folk music of all lands will be carefully considered. 

Part I is divided into thirty lessons, as follows: 

I. The Fundamental Principles Illustrated in Instrumental 

Music. 
II. The Fundamental Principles Illustrated in Vocal Music. 

III. The Elements of Music. 

IV. The Tone Quality of Women 's Voices. 
V. The Tone Quality of Men's Voices. 

VI. The Combination of Women's and Men's Voices. 
VII. Instrumental Combinations. 
VIII. The Simple Elements of Form in Music. 
IX. Imitation in Music. 
X. Poetic Thought Expressed in Music. 
XI. Descriptive Music. 
XII. The Subdivision of the Fundamental Principles. 

XIII. The Classification of National Music. 

XIV. The Similarities in National Music. 
XV. The Differences in National Music. 

XVI. Italy. 

XVII. Spain. XXIV. Norway. 

XVIII. France. XXV. Sweden. 

XIX. Germany. XXVI. Ireland. 

XX. Bohemia. XXVII. Wales. 

XXI. Hungary. XXVIII. Scotland. 

XXII. Russia XXIX. England. 

XXIII. Poland. XXX. America. 

12 



Learning To Listen 

Part I 

Lesson I 
The Fundamental Principles Illustrated in Instrumental Music 

Music is frequently called ' ' The Universal Language ' ' because it 
is the first and most natural expression of human thought and emotion 
for all the races of the world, no matter what their native tongues may 
be. Although this fact is recognized, there are really but few people 
who understand the true meaning and significance of the language of 
music. Unfortunately, many have the idea that it is impossible to learn 
to listen to music unless one possesses a foundation of technical training 
in the art. While such a training does naturally add to the enjoyment 
of the listener, a lack of such training does not need to bar the lover 
of music from learning to understand the message which music conveys. 

Practically all of the deepest feelings of man 's heart and life have 
been expressed in music through the employment of the three elements, 
rhythm, melody and harmony, which are the component parts of all 
musical composition. 

There are but four fundamental principles of life which are ex- 
pressed in all art. They are most easily recognized when listening 
to music. These principles are : 

Nationality. The characteristic melodies and rhythms found in 
different localities. 

Form. All music conforms to a definite pattern, or form, which 
is made by the recurring use of contrasting melodies. The simple 
forms most easily recognized are those used in songs, marches and 
dances (waltz, minuet, gavotte, etc.). More complex forms are those 
used in sonatas, quartettes, overtures and symphonies. 

Poetic Thought. xV tonal expression of ideality; although com- 
positions of this type often have titles, they are not descriptive com- 
positions in the true sense of the word, but express rather a state of 
feeling often known as mood or atmosphere. 

Descriptive Music. A story told in tone, sometimes through the 
medium of rhythmic, or tonal, imitation of animate or inanimate 
things, often through the use of national musical idioms. This, type 
of music always has a title and follows a definite program. The in- 
strumental music of this class is designated as "program music." 

While all compositions possess form, and the majority reflect 
nationality, some one of the four principles of music is particularly 
noticeable in every composition. The following have been chosen to 
illustrate the four principles in instrumental music. 

13 



Learning To Listen 

Nationality: 

64842 La Gitana (Arabo-Spanish Gypsy Song) Kreisler 

Form: 

74627 Blue Danube Waltz (Strauss) Philadelphia Orchestra 

Poetic Thought: 

45096 Melody in F (Rubinstein) Kindler 

Program Music: 

35381 Danse Macabre (Saint-Saens) Vessella's Band 

CHORUSES 

Scots Wha' Hae' Old Scotch (Burns) Nationality 
Now the Day is Over (Barnby) Poetic Thought 
The Minuet (Mozart) Form 
The Minstrel Boy Old Irish Descriptive 

Lesson II 
The Fundamental Principles Illustrated in Vocal Music 

The corner-stone on which all secular music rests is the folk song. 
A study of the folk music of the different nations shows most clearly 
that even in the simple forms of the folk song the four principles of 
music are clearly distinguishable. Although form is always present 
in every musical composition, it is more easily recognized in the folk 
dance song, which belongs to every nation. Even in primitive music, 
the poetic element is easily distinguishable, while the descriptive song 
has always been popular among all races of the world. The four 
elements of music have naturally been developed by composers until 
to-day, in both song literature as well as in opera, countless illus- 
trations of music 's four principles are to be found. 

It is but natural that the addition of words to music greatly en- 
hances the message of poetic thought, for no medium is more beauti- 
ful for the expression of melody than the human voice. 

A definite title for an instrumental composition always suggests 
a program. In vocal descriptive music, this program is given through 
the medium of a text sung by the singer, while the instrumental 
accompaniment also materially aids in the recital. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

p orm . Folk Music All National 

88355 Tarantella Napolitana (Italian) Caruso 

Poetic Thought: 

87566 Cradle Song (Swedish) Gluck-Zimbalist 

Descriptive: 
64117 Minstrel Boy (Irish) McCormack 

14 



Learning To Listen 

Art Songs 

Form: 

64811 Vous dansez Marquise (Lernaire) Garrison 

Nationality: 

18431 By the Waters of Minnetonka (Lieurance) Watahwaso 

Descriptive: 

35476 Danny Deever (Damrosch) Werrenrath 

Opera 

Form: 

74512 Waltz Song " Romeo and Juliet " (Gounod) Galli-Curci 

Nationality: 

88085 Habanera" Carmen" (Bizet) Calve 

Poetic Thought: 

88127 Celeste Aida" A'ida" (Verdi) Caruso 

Descriptive: 

92065 Toreador Song "Carmen" (Bizet} Ruffo 

CHORUSES 

Onward, Christian Soldiers (March) 
Believe Me, if All Those Endearing Young Charms (Moore). (Irish Air "My 

Lodging is on the Cold Ground") 

The Old Oaken Bucket (Woodworth). (Air " Araby's Daughter") 
We'll Touch the Strings to Music ("Mandolinata" Paladilhe) 



Lesson III 

The Elements of Music - 

The three component parts of music are: rhythm, melody and 
harmony, and every musical composition possesses all three of these 
elements. 

Rhythm is the systematic grouping of sounds in metric units; in 
one sense the rhythm is the metre of music and bears the same relation 
to measure that metre in poetry does to quantity. No matter how 
originally the rhythmic units may be divided, rhythm would be 
exceedingly tiresome if the same tone were to be constantly reiterated ; 
therefore, it is necessary for a succession of musical tones to be heard, 
although they are always governed by rhythm. Such a succession of 
tones is called melody or tune. Melody is heard in one voice or in- 
strument; when several are heard simultaneously the effect is called 
harmony. 

Harmony is the term also applied to the science of arranging 
tones that are sounded together, so that they make a combination which 
is pleasing to the ear. It is, therefore, readily understood that it is 

15 



Learning To Listen 

practically impossible for rhythm, melody and harmony to be dis- 
sociated, although it is often noticeable when listening to music, that 
one element may overshadow the other. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

17635 Navajo Indian Songs O'Hara 

18418 By the Weeping Waters (Lieurance) Watahwaso 

1 7fifi^ [Good News (Old Negro Spiritual) Tuskegee Singers 

{Live a-Humble (Old Negro Spiritual) Tuskegee Singers 

The first illustrations chosen are all from American folk music, 
and are examples of music 's elements expressed in vocal music. 

First. A group of Navajo Indian songs, in which different primi- 
tive rhythms can be easily distinguished. 

Second. A setting of an Indian song, in which the characteristic 
melody has been retained. 

Third. Two Negro Spirituals, in which the harmonic element 
overshadows both rhythm and melody. 

The instrumental illustrations chosen are the four numbers from 
the "Peer Gynt Suite No. 1," by Grieg. 



35470 Ae> p eath } Victor Concert Orchestra 

18042 {f^Hail 7the Mountain King} Vict r Concert Orchestra 

In "Morning" the repetition of a short melodic phrase makes 
melody the most apparent element in this beautiful tone picture, which 
reflects poetic thought. 

"Ase's Death" also expresses a poetic thought, but through the 
accented use of the element of h&rmwiy^ 

"Anitra's Dance" illustrates nationality through its persistent 
rhythm. 

"In the Hall of the Mountain King" is also an example of rhythm, 
although it is here used as a descriptive rather than a national ex- 
pression. 

CHORUSES 

In Old Madrid (Trotere) Aloha-oe (Hawaiian) 

Swing Low Sweet Chariot (Spiritual) 

Lesson IV 
The Tone Quality of ~W omen's Voices 

All music presents a definite thought or idea, whatever medium 
is used for its presentation. It is necessary next to learn to dis- 
tinguish the tone quality of the voices and instruments which interpret 
music. The first consideration will be tone quality of women's voices. 

16 



Learning To Listen 



The soprano is the highest human voice, ranging from of to a", 
sometimes c'" to f" or g'". This voice also varies more than any 
other, so sopranos are classified as lyric, coloratura and dramatic 
sopranos. The lyric soprano is best used for the expression of simple 

melodic beauty. The col- 
oratura soprano must be 
technically equipped to 
ornament (or color) all 
melodies, with varied runs, 
rapid trills and cadenzas, 
each syllable having more 
than two notes. This voice 
was most used by the early 
opera composers. The dra- 
matic soprano primarily 
declaims the text, and 
brings out the dramatic 
force of the story. This 
voice is especially used by 
modern opera composers 
since Wagner, and by song 
writers since Schubert. 

The mezzo-soprano is 
the voice between the high 
soprano and contralto 
voices. The dramatic qual- 
ity of soprano lies generally 
in this voice. 

The contralto is the 
deepest-toned woman ' s 
voice, its average compass being f to e", sometimes to f" or g". In 
mediaeval days the highest voice in men was designated as alto (mean- 
ing high), and to distinguish the woman's voice from the man's, the 
term contra-alto (against the high) was used. To-day the terms 
contralto and alto are used interchangeably. The contralto has the 
greatest range of the human voice, and is best suited to denote tender- 
ness, sadness or religious feeling. 

In a duet between soprano and contralto, the most perfect blend- 
ing of the voices is possible when a limited range is employed. In a 
trio, the mezzo voice helps to blend the high soprano with the alto, 
while in a quartet, we find the parts usually written for two sopranos, 
mezzo-soprano and deep alto. 

17 




Learning To Listen 

In women's choruses the same division of parts is generally used. 
The division of the women's chorus into eight voices produces a re- 
markable tonal combination. 

Students should first listen for the different tone qualities of the 
voices, then, for the principles involved in each selection. 



ILLUSTKATIONS 

SOPRANOS 
Bell Song "Lakme" (Delibes) (Coloratura) 



74510 
88150 
87002 



Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon (Scotch) (Lyric) 
Ho-yo-to-ho (Briinnhilde' s Battle Cry) "The Valkyrie 1 ' 
(Wagner) (Dramatic) 



Galli-Curci 
Melba 



MEZZO-SOPRANO 
Habanera ' ' Carmen ' ' (Bizet) 



88085 

88288 

89008 

55055 Sweet the Angelus is Ringing 

17624 



CONTRALTO 
Air "Oh, Rest in the Lord" (Mendelssohn) 

DUET 
Duet of the Flowers "Madame Butterfly" (Puccini) 

PART SONG 



CHORUS 

Spring Flowers From " Samson et Dalila" 
(Saint-Saens) 



Gadski 
Calve 
Homer 

Farrar-Homer 
Marsh-Baker-Women's Chorus 

Women's Chorus 



CHOEUSES 



Home, Sweet Home (Payne -Bishop) 

Ben Bolt (Thomas Dunn English) 

Barcarolle (Brahms) 

Welcome, Sweet Springtime ( Rubinstein 's Melody in F) 



Lesson V 
The Tone Quality of Men's Voices 

The tenor voice is the highest male voice. In mediaeval days the 
Latin name "teneo," "I hold," was given to the high voice singing 
the melody. The range is from c to a', sometimes b|/ to b#' and c". 
The strong, full dramatic tenor is called tenor robusto, as distinguished 
from the light, liquid quality of the lyric tenor. 

The baritone is the intermediate voice between the tenor and bass 
and corresponds to the mezzo-soprano voice in women. Its range is 

18 



Learning To Listen 



from a to f. Mozart was the first to realize the possibilities of this 
voice. Since Beethoven's day it has been a favorite medium with all 
composers. No voice is so capable of dramatic possibilities in the 

expression of pathos, sarcasm or humor, 
as the baritone. One of the greatest roles 
for baritone is that of "Elijah" in Men- 
delssohn's Oratorio. In this work the 
compass of the voice is from c in the bass 
staff to f above. 

The bass is the deepest male voice. 
In Russia, where no instruments are used 
in the church services, bass voices are 
found with tones as low as the second f 
below the bass staff. The customary range 
is from f to d' or e|/. The higher or more 
flexible bass voice is designated as basso 
cantante, while the heavier deep bass is 
known as basso profundo. 

It is natural that music of a florid 
character should be entrusted to the higher 
voices; brilliant and dramatic arias are 
best interpreted by the middle voices ; the 
deep voices are heard to the greatest advantage in beautiful sustained 
melodies. 

All that has been observed regarding the combination of women 's 
voices is equally true when applied to the voices of men. There is an 
added virility and strength when men's voices are heard in combina- 
tion, which is much greater than that heard in the solo male voice. 




THE SINGING BOYS 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

88127 Celeste Aida "Aida" (Verdi} (Tenor} 
92065 Toreador Song "Carmen" (Bizet) (Baritone) 
85119 Drum Major's Air (Thomas} (Bass) 

DUET 

89075 We Swear by Heaven and Earth "Otello" (Verdi) 
95206 Trio Duel Scene' ' Faust ' ' (Gounod} 
/ Anvil Chorus "II Trovatore" (Verdi} 



17563 



{Pilgrims' Chorus "Tannhduser" (Wagner} 

CHORUSES 

Love's Old Sweet Song (Molloy) 

Out on the Deep (Frederic N. Lb'hr) 

Wi' a Hundred Pipers an A' (Old Scotch) 

19 



Caruso 

Ruffo 

Plan$on 



Caruso-Ruffo 

Caruso-Scotti-Journet 

Victor Male Chorus 

Victor Male Chorus 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson VI 
The Combination of Women's and Men's Voices 

The combination of voices produces a far different character of 
tone than that of the solo voice. The duet for two voices, the trio 
for three, and the quartet for four, must be distinguished from the part 
song. In the part song, the upper voice is of the greatest importance, 
for the other voices are used as an accompaniment to the first voice and 
to provide the harmonic foundation. In the duet, trio and quartet, all 
the voices are of equal importance. 

In all music of this character, great care must be taken to pro- 
duce a good ensemble, by which is meant the perfect blending of tone, 
plus the unity of expression. It is said that a good ensemble is much 
more difficult to obtain with singers, than with instrumentalists, for 
the latter seem more willing to subserve themselves, than does the 
average singer. ''The realization of fine ensemble, whether vocal or 
instrumental, seems to involve complete unselfishness on the part of 
all performers," says one authority. 

The most perfect vocal combination is possible when the parts 
are assigned to the voices of women and men. The balance of color 
is more beautiful in this combination, for the contrast between the 
quality of the voices is more strongly felt and the entire gamut of 
vocal range is then distinguishable. 

The earliest development of folk song began with the home sing- 
ing by the family, then by the community singing.* One of the 
strongest factors in the establishment of the Reformed Church at the 
time of Martin Luther was the congregational singing which was 
then introduced, and from which the chorus was later evolved. Choral 
writing developed through the polyphonic treatment of the early com- 
posers to the broad, massive writings of Handel and Bach, which have 
never been excelled. Operatic composers use the chorus also with 
excellent dramatic effect. It has been rightly said that the rapid 
musical development in America is due largely to the old singing 
schools, chorus organizations, the great choral festivals held through- 
out the land, and the excellent choral training given in the public 
schools. 

Schumann advised all young musicians to ''sing diligently in 
choirs, especially in the middle voices, for this will make you musical." 



* The "Community Sings," which were held all over America during war days, taught 
the masses of the American public the pleasures of singing together. In many communi- 
ties these "Sings" have developed into definite choral organizations. 

20 



Learning To Listen 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

35494 Bridal Chorus "Lohengrin" Victor Opera Chorus 

35576 The Heavens Resound (Beethoven) Victor Oratorio Chorus 

(Gloria from "Twelfth Mass" (Mozart) Victor Oratorio Chorus 

{Hallelujah Chorus "Messiah" (Handel) Victor Oratorio Chorus 



Lesson VII 
Instrumental Combinations 

There are many different combinations of instruments, the largest 
being the symphony orchestra and the brass band. In the symphony 
orchestra, the instruments are grouped into four choirs: the "strings" 
(violins, violas, violoncellos and contra-basses) ; the "wood-winds" 
(flutes, oboes, English horn, clarinets, bassoons and occasionally the 
French horn) ; the "brasses" (trumpets, French horns, trombones and 
tuba) ; and the "battery" (tympani, drums, triangle, bells and other 
instruments of percussion). The stringed instruments predominate 
in the symphony orchestra. (See Part III.) 

The brass band is composed of three choirs: "wood-winds" 
(clarinets are principally used), "brasses" and "battery." The brass 
instruments predominate in the brass band. 

The brass band has become a valuable addition to musical organi- 
zations in the past fifty years. Every regiment in Europe boasts of 
its brass band, which plays daily programs of classical music. In 
America the great brass band concerts have helped to make great music 
popular.* 

The term "chamber music" is applied to smaller groupings of 
instruments, playing in a room, or small concert hall. The most 
important combinations are the trio and the string quartet. The 
former is generally composed of violin, 'cello and piano (or harp) ; 
the latter comprises two violins, viola and violoncello, the voices being 
similar in character to the mixed quartet : 
1st violin soprano. 
2d violin contralto, 
viola tenor, 
violoncello baritone or bass. 

Five instruments are classified as "quintette," a wood-wind in- 
strument or the piano being added to the regular quartet. Six in- 
struments are designated as "sextette," seven as "septette," etc. 

* During the World War the bands of America received a tremendous impetus through 
the thorough and unusual training given by John Philip Sousa and others in all the camps 
of the country. Many returned soldiers arid sailors, who played in bands during the war, 
have started such organizations in their own towns to-day. 

21 



Learning To Listen 

Combinations of wind instruments follow the same order as that 
of the strings, but are rarely heard. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

17fiOO P^" 16 Brook (Boisdefre) (Violin, 'Cello and Piano) Tollefsen Trio 

{Serenade (Drigo) (Violin, 'Cello and Harp) Florentine Quartet 

74575 Andante Cantabile (Tschaikowsky) Elman String Quartet 

74580 Molly on the Shore (Grainger) Flonzaley String Quartet 

74631 Largo " New World Symphony" (Dvorak) Philadelphia Orchestra 

35265 Triumphal March "A'ida" (Verdi) Vessella's Band 

.CHORUSES 

March of Victory "A'ida" (Verdi) La Paloma (Yradier) 

Spring Song (Mendelssohn) 



Lesson VIII 
The Simple Elements of Form in Music 

Like every art, music follows a definite form or pattern.* Just 
as in architecture the simplest form, based on the square, develops into 
the great Gothic cathedral, in which the multiplicity of detail'is worked 
out into one marvelous whole, solin music the simplest forms by repeti- 
tion, imitation, contrast and varying of tonality and rhythm, develop 
into the most complex of the great contrapuntal forms, which will be 
studied in Part III. 

Form in music is a synonym for pattern, or design. The simplest 
elements of musical form are those which are based on the early folk 
song and dance, and it is those which will be considered in this 
lesson. 

Music's three elements, rhythm, melody and harmony, all enter 
prominently into the development of musical form. 

The governing element of music is melody, and musical form is 
but balanced groups of short melodies, phrases, or musical ideas. 

The smallest musical unit of melody is called the motive,^ which 
varies greatly in length, but is usually two measures long. Let us take, 
however, as our example, a well-known song : here, the simple motive 
is only one measure. This is balanced by another one measure motive. 
Such a division is called a phrase. 

* In all form in every art there are many deviations. It sometimes seems that form 
only exists so that the individual may overstep its boundaries. This is particularly true 
in the formal construction of poetry and music. 

t The term "motive" may also be used to designate the "subject" of a composition in 
sonata form (see page 267) ; or as Wagner used it in his "leit motif," where it becomes the 
characteristic melody associated with the action of the drama (see page 223). 

22 



Learning To Listen 

The combination of phrases gives us sentences or periods. The 
first phrase is known as the antecedent phrase; the second phrase, as 
the subsequent phrase. Generally the antecedent phrase does not end 
on the tonic, and therefore it sounds incomplete ; we call such an end- 
ing half cadence; the subsequent phrase bringing the sentence to its 
completion ends with a full or complete cadence on the tonic. 

The same idea is found in sentence building in grammar. Take 
the sentence, "The man is attempting to frame a picture." The 
subject (first motive) is "the man." "Is attempting" is the predi- 
cate (second motive). The statement "The man is attempting" is in- 
complete (corresponding to the antecedent phrase ending in a half 
cadence) and demands a phrase to complete its meaning. "To frame" 
and "a picture" (two additional motives) are here added as the ex- 
planation, making a complete sentence (period). To build a para- 
graph (divisions of the composition) more sentences must be added. 

The structure of almost all musical periods is symmetrical: two 
phrases are balanced by two, three by three, four by four, etc. ; how- 
ever, this is not always the case; sometimes four and three, two and 
three, four and five, or other combinations are found grouped together, 
just as in poetry the lines are not always balanced in exactly the same 
number of feet. 

The simplest elementary musical form is that in which one theme 
or melody is contrasted with another, after which the first melody is 
repeated. The earliest folk songs were expressed in this form, which 
is known as the simple primary song form, and which is designated 
as A-B-A. (In this formula A stands for the first melody, and B 
for the contrasting melody. ) In many of the early folk songs the first 
theme is repeated and the pattern becomes A-A-B-A. Here the second 
phrase B-A balances the first phrase A-A (the same number of meas- 
ures in each half), hence it is known as binary or two-part primary 
form. This is the most popular pattern to be noted in folk songs ; 
almost all of the best -known folk and familiar songs follow this model. 

Often a composer lengthens each of the three divisions (A-B-A) 
so that each division has the same number of measures, and the term 
three-part primary, or ternary form is given to the composition. Occa- 
sionally the first theme is prefaced by a short introduction, while the 
third (a. repetition of the first) is followed by a short coda, or addi- 
tional phrase, which brings the song or dance to a more finished end- 
ing. This ternary form is frequently expanded so that each division 
of the A-B-A pattern becomes a simple song form. This form occurs 
in many of the old dances, such as the minuet, gavotte, polonaise, etc., 
in which appear the principal song form (A), a subordinate song 

23 



Learning To Listen 

form, or trio, in another key (B), and a restatement of the principal 
song form ( A) . "When the counter dance began, it was played by three 
instruments, hence the name "trio" was given to this alternating 
melody. 

In some of the folk songs, the melody was sung by one group, the 
second group beginning this melody as the first group began the second 
melody. A third or fourth division followed each other also. This is 
known as the singing of "rounds." There also developed a dance- 
form known as the Roundel or circle formation for as many as will. 
Probably from both of these early customs developed the Rondo, a 
musical form or pattern which also became a popular form of verse.* 
The Rondo is so named because of the frequent recurrence of the origi- 
nal theme, which must also end the composition. This rondo form 
existed in three patterns, but the most popular was that which is 
designated as A-B-A-C-A. First theme (A), contrasting theme (B). 
first theme repeated (A), another contrasting theme (C). return to 
original theme (A). From these simple folk songs and dances were 
developed all the more complicated forms which were evolved during 
the development of music. 



64292 Chanson Louis XIII and Pavane (Couperin-Kreisler) Kreisler 

16474 Amaryllis (Old French Rondo) Victor Orchestra 

64663 Santa Lucia (Italian Folk Song) De Gogorza 

74100 All Through the Night (Welsh Folk Song) Williams 

1 om n (Sellenaer's Round (Old English) \ T7 - . , , ., ., D , 

18010 {Gathering Peascods (Old English)} Vlctor MiKte * Band 

iTieo (I See You (Swedish) \ T/ . . HT-J-, T -> . 

17158 \Dance of Greeting (Danish)} Vlctor Mlhtar y Band 

CHORUSES 

All Through the- Night (Welsh) Amaryllis (Ghys) 

Drink To Me Only With Thine Eyes Boat to Cross the Ferry 

Jutlandish Dance Song 



* A perfect example of rondo in verse is to be noted in this little poem by Bunner: 

A f"A pitcher of mignonette 
\In a tenement's highest casement, 

B Queer sort of a flower pot, yet 
A That pitcher of mignonette, 

p/Is a garden in Heaven set, 
\To the little sick child in the basement, 

, /The pitcher of mignonette 
\In a tenement's highest casement." 

24 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson IX 
Imitation in Music 

The earliest examples of musical tone were the attempts to 
imitate the voices of nature. The first instruments were made with 
the means which Nature herself provided. The uncouth savage beat 
his rhythmic war song on the hollow tree trunk, which was sometimes 
covered with skins ; the horns of beasts produced the first trumpet 
calls; the reeds provided the pipes of Pan and the simple shepherd 
pipe of ancient days, while the earliest stringed instrument, the lyre, 
was fashioned from an empty tortoise shell.* 

The simple bird song has no definite form, for the governing 
power of rhythm is absent ; yet rhythm is an ever-present factor in 
all nature. The bird on the wing moves with a rhythmic precision, 
just as the wind moves the trees and grasses in endless motion. f 
The combination of rhythm, melody and harmony into definite forms 
is man-made ; and the introduction of the voices of nature in music 
must be classified as imitation. Listen first to the natural bird voice, 
then to its imitation by a whistler, by a flute and by the human voice. 
Note also how the flute and voice imitate each other in the last 
selection. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 



057 {fSJ 1l I N ^'"^ ak Birds in Mary of Karl Reick 



55049 Songs of Our Native Birds Kellogg 

(Spring Voices (Strauss) Gialdini 

{Birds of the Forest Gavotte (Adolf s) Gialdini 

88318 Thou Brilliant Bird (" Pearl of Brazil") (David) (With Flute 

Obbligato) Tetrazzini 

Since the beginnings of music the use of rhythm to depict imita- 
tive effects has been popular with all composers. This is noticed in folk 
songs, as well as in the work of the greatest composers; but it is 
particularly effective in instrumental music. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

64076 The Bee (Schubert) Powell 

74183 Will-o'-the-Wisp (Sauret) Powell 

64921 Spinning Song (Mendelssohn) Rachmaninoff 

74659 The Fountain (Ravel) Cortot 

45170 Poupee Valsante (Waltzing Doll) (Poldini) Herbert's Orchestra 

CHORUSES 

Skylark for Thy Wing (Sinert) Away With Melancholy (Mozart) 

The Bells of Aberdovey (Old Welsh) 

* Recall the Greek myths of Pan, Apollo and Marsyas. 

t In the "Pastoral Symphony," Beethoven repeats the opening phrase many times in 
order to emphasize the repetition of Nature's voices. 

25 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson X 
Poetic Thought Expressed in Music 

Of the four principles of music the one designated as "Poetic 
Thought ' ' is the most difficult to classify definitely. 

When musical expression is subtly linked with poetic feeling or 
emotion, a great part of its meaning must of necessity be left to the 
individual mood of the listener. 

The chief charm in listening to music lies in the poetic thoughts 
which its message awakens, and although the listener may be aided 
by the definite title which the composer has given the composition, 
very frequently the same feelings would have awakened in his heart 
had the composition borne no title whatever. 

The three elements of music are each individually accented in 
any composition which is descriptive. Naturally the rhythmic element 
is largely used in the imitative type of expression, which is usually 
classified as program music. In the expression of poetic thought, 
melody and harmony are the two elements to be especially stressed. 

The distinction between poetic thought and program music is 
difficult to define. Many authorities classify all music bearing a title 
as program music. There is, however, a vast difference between the 
lovely melodic tone-picture w 7 hich MacDowell calls " To a Wild Rose, ' ' 
and the clever little episode by the same composer entitled "Of a 
Tailor and a Bear." 

There is much music of the type known as "absolute music" 
(music following a definite formal pattern and bearing no defining 
title) , which may be designated as one type of poetic thought because of 
the mental picture which it awakens in the mind of the listener. There- 
fore, in the selections chosen for illustration, examples are given of 
both types of poetic thought. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

55105 Air D Major Suite (Bach) Herbert's Orchestra 

74583 On Wings of Song (Mendelssohn) Heifetz 

88014 Elegie (Massenet) Eames 

35580 Andante con moto " Fifth Symphony" (Beethoven) Victor Orchestra 

74119 Crossing the Bar (Willeby) Williams 

55094 Liebestraum (Liszt) Victor Herbert's Orchestra 

CHORUSES 

Lullaby "Erminie" (Jakobowski) Last Night (Kjerulf) 

Knowest Thou the Land "Mignon" (Thomas) 

26 



Learning To Listen 





Lesson XI 
Descriptive Music - 

The line of demarcation between poetic thought and descriptive 
music is often confusing. Yet in the strictest sense, descriptive music 
must convey more to the hearer than merely a poetic tone-picture. 
Descriptive music may be classified as of two types : 

1. Music bearing a title, but leaving the story to the imagination 
of the hearer. Imitative rhythmic effects are often employed in order 
to help convey the composer 's meaning. 

2. Music bearing a title and following a definite program, which 
the hearer must know in advance in order to understand properly the 
message of the composer. The principle of nationality is frequently 
used by the composer, as well as are imitative rhythmic and character- 
istic instrumental effects. 

Descriptive music of these types is found both in vocal and in- 
strumental music. When used by instrumental composers the term 
"program music" is always given to this type of musical expression. 

While descriptive or program music has been employed largely 
by the composers of the modern school, there are examples of this 
type of expression in musical literature dating back to the earliest 
days of the instrumental school. Since the middle of the nineteenth 
century descriptive music has been the most popular of the four 
principles to be used by the great composers. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

35625 Overture "Midsummer Night's Dream" (Mendelssohn} Victor Orchestra 

18598 Of a Tailor and a Bear (MacDowell) Victor Orchestra 

74570 Ronde des Lutins (Dance of the Goblins') (Bazzini} Heifetz 

74510 Bell Song" Lakme" (Delibes) Galli-Curci 

35476 Danny Deever (Damrosch) Werrenrath 

64919 Le Coucou (Daquiri) Rachmaninoff 

74659 The Fountain (Ravel) Cortot 

74556 Two Grenadiers (Schumann) Whitehitt 

74593 Festival at Bagdad "Scheherazade" (Rimsky-Korsakow) 



The Minstrel Boy (Irish) 
Father of Victory (French) 



Philadelphia Orchestra 
CHORUSES 

Whoopee Ti Yi Yo (Cowboy Song) 

27 



Learning To Listen 



Lesson XII 
The Subdivisions of the Fundamental Principles 

Music, by means of the fundamental principles, is the best medium 
for the expression of the deepest feelings of man 's heart and life. 

Martial spirit 64693 La Marseillaise (de Lisle) Alda 
Loyalty courage 18627 Speed the Republic 

Victor Military Band 
Tributes to heroism 64117 Minstrel Boy (Irish) 

McCormack 
Love of native land 18627 America the Beautiful 

Victor Military Band 



Nationality 



Form 



Patriotism 



Characteristic 
Customs 



Song 



Dance 



Dances of the folk 17328 Shepherd's Hey (Sharp) 

Victor Orchestra 
Wedding and festival music 35159 Swedish Wedding 

March (Soderman) Pryor's Band 

Occupations of the people 17962 Tinker's Dance 

(Denmark) Victor Military Band 

("74100 All Through the Night (Welsh) Williams 

\64663 Santa Lucia (Italian) de Gogorza 

Waltz 64076 Minute Waltz (Chopin) Powell 

Minuet 16474 Minuet (Paderewski) Victor Orchestra 
Polonaise 64028 Polonaise (Vieuxtemps) Powell 

Gavotte, etc. 64132 Gavotte (Bach) Kreisler 

Rondo -16474 Amaryllis (Old French) Victor Orchestra 

March 35247 Pomp and Circumstance (Elgar) Pryor's Band 



(The development of form will be discussed in detail in Part III.) 



Poetic thought 



Descriptive music 



Religious feeling 18627 Onward, Christian Soldiers 

Victor Military Band 
Joy 74512 Juliet's Waltz Song "Romeo and Juliet" 

(Gounod) Galli-Curci 

Grief 35470 Death of Ase"Peer Gynt Suite" 

(Grieg) Victor Concert Orchestra 

Tranquillity 88617 Largo "Xerxes" (Handel) Caruso 
Nature 17600 At the Brook (Boisdeffre) Tollef sen Trio 
Love 18627 Stars of the Summer Night 

Victor Military Band 
Ecstasy 35075 Unfold Ye Portals (Gounod's 

"Redemption") Trinity Choir 

(Description 35381 Danse Macabre Vessella's Band 
Umitation 64076 The Bee (Schubert) Powell 

j Narration of events 92065 Toreador Song" Carmen ' ' 
[ (Bizet) Ruffo with Chorus 



CHOEUSES 



America, or Star-Spangled Banner 
The Lord is My Shepherd 
The Lass of Richmond Hill 



The Pigtail 

Plowing Song (Chadwick) 

Fisherman's Song (Parker) 



28 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson XIII 
The Classification of National Music 

Nationality was the first of the fundamental principles expressed 
in music, therefore the study of national music will be considered in 
detail for the remainder of this course. 

National music may be classified under five headings : 

THE FOLK DANCE SONG Composer unknown. 

The old folk dance, first sung by the dancers, later played by the 
instruments, develops into the definite dance forms. 

THE FOLK SONG Composer unknown. 

The traditional or legendary folk song in either the binary or 
ternary form, from which the earliest song form developed. 

COMPOSED FOLK SONG Composer known. 

A national folk song reflecting poetic feeling, the theme, in poetry 
and music, inspired by folk traditions. In its later development the 
national folk song frequently becomes descriptive. 

PATRIOTIC SONG Composer generally known. 

A national song which reflects the spirit of the people and their 
love for home and country. It may be either a folk song or a com- 
posed song. It is often inspired by historical events. The music 
generally reflects the style and period of the event or the composer. 

NATIONAL COMPOSITION Composer known. 

The use of national dances, legends and history has developed 
the great national schools of music of the present time. Many of the 
composers of national music wrote descriptive music as being the most 
typical form in which to express the ideals of their native land. 
Some composers have written their conception, or imitation, of the 
music of countries other than their own. National composition, while 
it reflects the characteristics of folk music, must be distinguished from 
the folk dance and folk song, which have grown up through the 
centuries as a part of the daily life of the people. 

Folk Dance Song: ILLUSTEATIONS 

17331 Highland Schottische (Weel May the Keel Row} Victor Band 

Traditional or Legendary Folk Song: B 1 Of lW ' 

74100 All Through the Night (Welsh) ^^ , ^^ CUw ^ Williams 

* Barbara Allen 

Composed Folk Song: 

74442 Old Black Joe (Foster) Gluck 

Patriotic Song: 

64586 Marche Lorraine (Ganne) Journet 

National Composition: 

55105 Marche Slave (Tschaikowsky) Herbert's Orchestra 

* In preparation. 

29 



Learning To Listen 



CHOEUSES 



Barbara Allen (Old English) 

Yankee Doodle (Dance Song) 

Old Kentucky Home (Composed Folk 

Song) 
Stars and Stripes Forever (National 

Composition) 



All Through the Night 
Auld Lang Syne (Folk Song) 
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean 

(Patriotic) 
Old Dog Tray 



Lesson XIV 
The Similarities in National Music 

In studying the peculiarities of nationality in music, there are 
certain musical characteristics which are common to all countries. 
Frequently only a slight change in the music gives an entirely different 
effect. 

The customs, and later, the arts of various nations were often 
influenced by climatic conditions, as well as by racial and govern- 
mental forces. 




ROUGET DE L'lSLE's FIKST SINGING OF THE MARSEILLAISE 



Geographical conditions also influence folk music. The songs of 
the sea are very different from those of the plains ; while the dances and 
songs of the lowlands are the opposite from those found in the moun- 
tains. Yet all the folk music found on the sea or the plains, the desert 
or the mountains, throughout the world bears a certain resemblance. 

The rhythmic melody which characterizes the boat song is the same 
whether it be sung on the Bay of "Naples or on the North Sea ; while 

30 



Learning To Listen 

the Alpine yodel call is found among the mountaineers of Norway, 
as well as in Switzerland, and the monotonous strains of the desert 
melody are identical among all dwellers in waste places. 

In certain primitive instincts, all races have points of similarity 
which are easily recognizable in the music of all nations and all times. 
The song of a mother to her child is practically the same in every 
country. There may be rhythmic and melodic differences, but the 
swing of the lullaby is in each instance of pre-eminent importance. 

The tragic note of the death march is also recognized even before 
the hearer discriminates as to its particular locality. 

Love is a universal language, and a love song is not easily dis- 
guised even by the employment of characteristic national instruments. 

Patriotism is another universal element. The stirring battle 
hymn, or march of any land, arouses an ardor in the heart of every 
hearer which is absolutely free from any national feeling. 

Religion, tranquillity, joy and humor are also elements which 
are expressed by all nations with but slight change in the musical 
methods employed. 

There are similarities of race to be noticed in many folk songs. 
Many nations, for example, have a "dove" song;* while a striking 
characteristic of all Slavic countries is the syncopated rhythm. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Lullabies: 

87566 Swedish Cradle Song Gluck-Zimbalist 

64491 Indian Lullaby (Lieurance) Gulp 

Love Songs: 

74236 Kathleen Mavourneen McCormack 

88083 Maria, Mari Scotti 

Patriotic: 

17712 La Sambre et Meuse Victor Band 

68052 March Rakoczy Sousa's Band 

Dove Songs: 

88480 La Paloma (Yradier) Bori 

64277 The Dove (Tuscan Folk Song) Gluck 

64764 The Dove (Welsh) Williams 

Mountain Songs: 

64714 Norwegian Echo Song (Thrane) Garrison 

88311 Suriss Echo Song (Eckert) Tetrazzini 

Boat Songs: 

88560 Santa Lucia (Neapolitan) Caruso 

65147 Song of the Volga Boatman (Russian) Janpolski 

* The legend of the dove is found also among the American Indians and the American 
Negroes. 

31 



Learning To Listen 



CHOKUSES 



Lullaby (Schubert) 

O Hush Thee, My Baby (Scotch) 

Eobin Adair 



Keller's American Hymn 
The Marseillaise 
La Brabamjonne 



Lesson XV 
The Differences in National Music 

National music may represent patriotism by means of battle 
hymns, tributes to war-like deeds and heroes, and pride of native land. 
It may depict the characteristic customs of a people in the dances which 

often are sung and 

danced during the 
work as well as the 
play time of the 
folk. Frequently, 
it is found that the 
most popular of 
these dances are 
descriptive of the 
occupations and 
festivities of the 
people. 

( Music springs 
directly from the 

RUSSIAN PEASANT DANCE daily JJfg Q f ^ 

folk, and it will be easily understood that there is naturally as great 
a difference between the music of the peoples of various lands as is 
found in their language, customs, dress and daily habits. 

It must also be remembered that there are great racial differences 
in the peoples of Europe. The love of poetry, romance and gaiety 
of the Latin races is in direct contrast to the stolid, plodding nature 
of the Teutons, or the fearless freedom of the Slavs, yet one can see 
points of similarity among the races which have settled in different 
lands. Changes have developed also in the language, dress, customs 
and arts of these races. The Russian people are very different from 
the Bohemians and Hungarians, yet all came originally from the 
Slavic race. Many of the changes were caused by geographic con- 
ditions. 

For example, in northeastern Russia the folk stories and music 
are very much bolder and freer in character, than those found in the 
southwestern provinces of that vast land. In Norway, differences in 

32 




Learning To Listen 

arts and customs are as noticeable as the differences in the physical 
aspect of the country. 

Neighboring countries exert a great influence on the customs, art, 
and music of the folk. For example, Switzerland has the most loyal, 
devoted patriots to be found in any land. Yet, her provinces speak 
the language of their neighbors. German, French and Italian customs, 
stories and music prevail throughout this tiny country. Political 
changes in Europe have made these neighboring influences even more 
apparent. Poland and Bohemia are the best examples of this. 

In all national music there are four features which are easily 
apparent : 

1. The use of different scales and modes. 

2. The constant mingling of major and minor with a decided 
preference towards the latter. 

3. Rhythmic variety. 

4. Characteristic instruments used by the different nations. 
These are easily observable as the basic factors of national music 

in all lands and times. In the study of the national music of to-day, 
they are most easily recognized in those schools which were outside 
the regular course of European development. In Italy, France, Ger- 
many and England these national traits were long ago practically 
assimilated by the great schools of music, for which these countries 
are famous; while in Poland, Bohemia and Scandinavia, certain 
primitive, and in Russia even, Oriental ideas* have been retained in 
the music of the folk. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

17fil1 [White Dog Song (2) Grass Dance Glacier Park Indians 

{Medicine Song Glacier Park Indians 

1SKY7 I Aloha oe (Farewell to Thee) Hawaiian Quintette 

[Kuu Home (Native Plantation Song) Hawaiian Quintette 

700S4 jMolodka (Russian) Balalaika Orchestra 

[Sun in the Sky, Stop Shining Balalaika Orchestra 

171 An f Battle of Killiecrankie Sutcliffe Troupe 

u [Will Ye No Come Back Again (Scotch) Sutcliffe Troupe 

CHORUSES 

Bosnian Shepherd's Song Wearing of the Green 

The Dannebrog (Denmark) Scots Wha' Hae' 

Indian Song, "Aha, Hiaha" (Dakota Tribe) 



* While a few of the principles of Oriental music have been found in the music of the 
European folk, it must be acknowledged that the music of China, Japan, India and Arabia 
has remained absolutely untouched by Western civilization. 

A course on music of Oriental lands would be exceedingly instructive, but as the 
influence of this music is not easily recognized, except by the analytical music student, it 
has not been included. 

33 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson XVI 

Italy * 

\ The Italian folk song has been almost entirely assimilated by the 
great Italian schools of music, which have existed in Italy since the 
rise of Christianity. Song is the natural expression of the Italian 
heart, and is usually the appeal of the lover to his fair mistress. In 
Venice and Naples, the two principal seaports of Italy, this love of 
song has been more apparent than in those cities which have been asso- 
ciated with the progress of Church and State. The boatmen and fisher- 




ITALIAN TARANTELLA 



men have their own songs, which are still sung on the Bay of Naples 
and the Canals of Venice. The folk song has been employed in Italian 
opera since the beginning of that form in 1600. Therefore, it does 
not seem to have so strong an individuality as the folk music in other 
countries of to-day. In truth the "folk" music sung by the gondoliers 
of Venice and the serenaders throughout Italy is only the most popular 
music from the great Italian operas. Italy is a living example of the 
truth that "popular music is familiar music." 

Italy has always led the world in all forms of art,f yet each of her 
cities was distinct in its method of expression. The greatest individual- 

* In arranging the order of these lessons we have put Italy first, treating the countries as 
they have become identified with European civilization. 

t Recall the wonderful galleries in Florence, Rome, Venice and Milan ; and, if possible, 
show reproductions of the well-known paintings. 

34 



Learning To Listen 

ity was to be found in the city of Florence, which led the world with her 
free mode of government, as well as her free individual expression in all 
forms of art. j In the search for a reconstructed Greek drama a group 
of Florentine noblemen gave to the world the first music drama (see 
Lesson VI, Part II, and Lesson II, Part IV). In Rome, the dignity 
of the Church has 
always been felt in 
all branches of 
art; thus all Ro- 
man folk music re- 
flects a type of 
religious feeling. 
From Naples and 
Venice came the 
songs of the sea, 
and music reflect- 
ing the more simple 
life of the folk. 
The Venetian 
school was the first 

to make use of stringed instruments, and in Venetian painting many 
representations of the instruments used by the folk are seen. 

The various kingdoms of Italy were united under one flag in 1871 
by the bravery of the great Garibaldi, general for King Victor 
Emmanuel. The present Italian school is no longer divided by the 
sub-titles of the various principalities. 




THE TARANTELLA NEAPOLITAN DANCE 



ILLUSTKATIONS 

1C1SP (Royal March of Italy (Patriotic) Pryor's Band 

{Garibaldi Hymn (Patriotic) Sousa's Band 

88355 Tarantella Napolitana (Pepoli-Rossini) (Dance Song) Caruso 

64277 The Dove (Folk Song of Tuscany) Gluck 

88083 Maria, Mari (Composed Folk Song) -t- I^K. / Scotti 

35270 Intermezzo (" The Jewels of the Madonna") (Wolf-Ferrari) 

(National Composition) Victor Orchestra 

87243 Sole Mio (di Capua) Caruso 



Garibaldi Hymn 
T^ Santa Lucia 
-L Merry Life (Denza) 



CHOEUSES 

Barcarolle (Neapolitan) 
Italian Hymn (Giardini) 
O Sole Mio 



35 



Learning To Listen 



Spain 

The modern school of music in both Spain and Portugal is of recent 
origin, yet in both of these countries there are innumerable musicians, 
who although uneducated in the science of their art, still sing and play 
the folk music of past generations. Spanish literature is rich in 
romance and poetry; the history of Spain tells of the intercourse 
of the Spaniards with the Moors and other Oriental peoples, as w r ell 
as of the later exchange of thought with their European neighbors.* 
All branches of art in Spain reflect this Moorish influence, but it is most 

noticeable in Spanish architecture. 
The famous Alhambra, which is 
Spain 's greatest monument, shows 
unmistakably the influence of the 
Moors. 

It is through the gateway of 
Spain that much of the Oriental 
art, poetry and music, which was 
the inspiration of the Trouba- 
dours, entered into Europe, t 
Although many schools of music 
were established during the medi- 
aeval days, it is curious to note 
that Spanish music has had little 
distinctly modern development 
until the present decade. The 
overtowering greatness of the 
schools of Italy and France have 
called some musicians from Spain 
who have been identified with 
these schools, but her own source 
of melodic wealth and legendary 
lore is rich in inspiration for 
Spanish composers. 
No country of Europe is so completely mediceval in character 
as the Spain of to-day. She is only just beginning to realize her 
own importance politically. Her literature and art are being culti- 
vated, as is also her music. Doubtless, before the end of the century, 
a great National School of music will be found in Spain. Many 

* One has but to recall the legends of the Holy Grail, which tell us that Montsalvat was 
located in the Pyrenees, on the peak now occupied by the monastery of Montserrat. 
t The Troubadours also brought back many instruments from the Far East. 

30 




A.NDALVSIAN DANCE 



Learning To Listen 



European masters have sought inspiration from Spanish sources,* 
but as yet Spain has provided few great modern composers who can 
compare with those of the other European countries. 

There are different groups of Spanish songs, divided according 
to the geographical and national character of the country. The most 
beautiful folk songs are found in Andalusia (Southern Spain), while 
the majority of the dance songs are to be found in Galicia. 

The guitar is the most 
popular instrument. Many 
of the folk songs of Spain 
and Portugal are now 
found in South America, 
Cuba, Mexico and Southern 
California. 

One of the most char- 
acteristic dance songs of 
Spain owes its origin to the 
Spanish settlers in the new 
world. This is the Haban- 
era, which takes its name 
from Havana, the city of its 
origin, \vhere it was known 
as a " Creole Country 
Dance." 

One of the most characteristic forms of Spanish folk song is the 
Alborada, or morning serenade, sung by the Troubadours to their fair 
ladies. This form was popular in France known as the Aubade, and 
is also to be found in Parts of Italy, t 




COURT OF THE LIONS, ALHAMBRA. (NOTE THE MOORISH 
INFLUENCE IN THE ARCHITECTURE) 



ILLUSTKATIONS 

64842 La Gitana (Gypsy Song of Eighteenth Century) 

64042 Linda Mia (Spanish Folk Song) 

87217 Clavelitos (Valverde) 

64834 La Spagnola (Dole-di Chiara) 

64556 Spanish Dance (Granados) 

64482 El Celoso (Alvarez) 

CHOEUSES 



Kreisler 

de Gogorza 

Bori 

Zanelli 

Kreisler 

de Gogorza 



All That's Good and Great (Spanish) 
La Paloma 



Fading, Still Fading (Portuguese) 

Spanish National Song 

The Daisies (Catalan Folk Song) 

* A great many of the Spanish folk dances were incorporated by the classic composers 
into the form known as Partita or Suite. (See Lesson XXIII, Part III.) 

tA remarkable poetic example of the morning song is "Hark! Hark the Lark" from 
Shakespeare's "Cymbeline." 

37 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson XVIII 
France 

Many of the French folk songs belong to the period of the Jong- 
leurs and Troubadors (from 1100), (Lesson IV, Part II). How- 
ever, the Celt who inhabited early Gaul possessed a definite musical 
science. In 440, Salvian, the historian, records that a characteristic 
of his countrymen was "the habit of drowning care and sorrow in 
song. ' '* In the old Gallic law, among the articles listed for exemption 
from seizure by creditors were ' ' all musical instruments. ' ' 




OLD FRENCH MINUET 

With the coming of Christianity, the influence of the chant is 
to be noted. Later, the Teutons added a martial note when their 
armies inhabited parts of Gaul. Charlemagne ordered that the Gre- 
gorian chants should be taught in all the schools of his empire. From 
his time until the present day France has ever occupied an important 
position in the world of music. f 

The influence of the instruments and the music of the Far East, 
brought into France by the Crusaders, left a definite impression on 

* The modern Celts also show this same peculiarity. 

t Recall that with the founding of the Sorbonne, a chair of music was considered of 
equal rank with that of the other sciences. 

38 



Learning To Listen 

French folk music. In the "fair land of Provence," this spirit of 
romance and poetry colors all the folk songs of the region. Although 
as a general rule they are joyous, a tinge of melancholy is often noticed 
in these simple airs. The most popular forms found in Provence are 
the pastourelle, aubade, serenade and romance. When the Papal See 
was removed to France, Avignon was chosen as the home for the Pope. 

In the provinces on the German border the songs resemble closely 
those of the Teuton expression. In Brittany the purest form of the 
old French folk song is now to be found, and the singing of rounds 
is still popular. It is said that the best versions of the old French 
songs are to be found in French Canada. 

France possessed a remarkable early contrapuntal school (see 
Lesson V, Part II). 

The singing games of the French children are reflected in the 
dances, which have always been so popular in France. These simple 
dances of the common people were soon copied by the nobility, and 
were later chiefly associated with court life. These dances were intro- 
duced into the opera and became the ballet of the seventeenth century. 
The ballet has ever since remained one of the most popular forms in 
France. 

In the brilliant court life preceding the Revolution, music played 
an important part. The most popular songs of this period were imita- 
tions of the simple airs of the people, and are known as " Bergerettes. " 
At the time of the Revolution many songs of a national character 
came into being, among them the great "Marseillaise," which is re- 
garded as the most inspiring of patriotic songs. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
64202 Aubade Provenc.ale (Couperin) Kreisler 

Le Pont cP Avignon 

Ah! vous dirai-je Maman 

7O1PA jLe Bonne Aventure Gauthier 

b U'aidubontabac 

La Casquette du Pere Bugeaud 

La Mist' en I'Aire 

Savez-vous Planter les Choux 

Tempe Ton Pain, Marie 

La Mere Michel 
7216^ ^Malbrouck Gauthier 

Au Clair de la Lune 

II Pleut, II Pleut, Bergere 

Promenade en Bateau 

Fais Dodo, Colas 

64223 Bergere Legere (2} L 1 adieu du Matin Clement 

64403 Mignonette Gulp 

64586 Marche Lorraine (Ganne) Journet 

64557 Le Pere de la Victoire Journet 

39 



Learning To Listen 



CHOEUSES 



War Song of the Normans 

The Marseillaise 

Legend of the Bells, from ' ' Chimes of 

Normandy ' ' 

By the Moon's Pale Light 
Sleep Holy Child (Old French Noel) 



Arise to the Good and the True 

The Hunter and the Lion 

Here 's Good Wind (French Canadian) 

Marche Lorraine 

Father of Victory 

Marche Sambre et Meuse 



On the Bridge at Avigon 
The Bell Doth Toll 



ROUNDS" 

Early to Bed 



Lesson XIX 
Germany 

From the earliest times there has always been strong interest in 
music in Germany. 

Tacitus speaks of the Teuton army advancing to "the sound 
of battle hymns. ' ' The reforms of Charlemagne, in the church methods 
of employing the chants, doubtless restricted a free expression for a 
period. Yet, even at this time, every folk gathering was made festive 
by song and dance. With the establishment of the individual courts 
of the nobles, bands of musicians were always retained to furnish 
entertainment and dancing for the guests. 

The mediaeval legends were sung by the Minnesingers and Meister- 
singers (Lesson IV, Part II), while the folk dances were kept alive 
through the efforts of the town pipers. These dances were first 
collected in the early seventeenth century and under the name ' ' Par- 
tita" in Germany, and "Suite" in France, they reached the culmina- 
tion of development at the time of Johann Sebastian Bach in the 
eighteenth century. (See Lesson XXIV, Part III.) 




A PEASANT DANCE IN UPPER BAVARIA 

40 



Learning To Listen 



All the folk songs and dances of Germany have gradually been 
assimilated with the musical forms of the great composers. In parts 
of the country, old folk songs which represent all phases of nationality 
have become, as it were, polished by contact with the later great art 
forms. Many of the student songs 
and drinking songs were brought 
into the Church at the time of 
Luther, and, although they are folk 
songs set to religious words, they 
are still sung in all reformed 
churches throughout the world. 

The national hymn of Austria, 
"God Save Franz," is by Haydn, 
and is in character a German folk 
song. Included in the list of Ger- 
man patriotic songs is also the 
great hymn of Martin Luther, "A 
Mighty Fortress is Our God." 
This was the battle hymn of the 
Lutherans, and was sung by the 
armies of Gustavus Adolphus dur- 
ing the Thirty Years' War. It has 
since remained a favorite hymn. 

There is a strong point to be 
noticed in the German folks songs : 
the words and music are always in- 
, separable in character ; the drink- 
ing songs and student airs abound with jollity and good-fellowship; 
while the love songs reflect a true depth of emotion. All of Germany's 
legendary stories of the Rhine, all the folk lore of the Black Forest, are 
reflected in her folk songs. 




THE TOWN PIPER 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Thou Fittest My Heart) 



87536 Du, Du, Liegst mir im Herzen 

(Folk Song-arr. Berger) 
45066 Liebesfreud (Old Vienna Waltz-arr. Kreisler) 
88547 Die Lorelei (Silcher) 
16159 Ein' Feste Burg (Luther) (In English) 



Gluck-Reimers 

Harrison 

Schumann-Heink 

Trinity Choir 



CHORUSES 



Tannenbaum 
Holy Night 
The Vow 



How Can I Leave Thee? 
Canst Thou Count the Stars? 
Cuckoo, You Sing So Clear 



41 



Learning To Listen 

Lesson XX 
Bohemia 

The name * ' Bohemian ' ' has always been a synonym for the wan- 
dering musician. In no other country of Europe has the town piper 
retained his medieval privileges as he has in the smaller towns of 
Bohemia. In many ways, Bohemian music is similar to that of the 
other Slavic races, especially that of Poland. Both countries have 
assimilated much from their neighbor's music. With Germany on 
the one hand, and Austria on the other, much Bohemian music has 
been absorbed by the German school. Although Bohemia and Poland 
were both governed by foreign conquerors for so long no other nations 
have so completely retained their own individual language, customs and 
music. All the Slavonic people are partial to the dance and they have 
many dances in common which show but slight changes in character. 

When Christianity was introduced into Bohemia the Church 
authorities attempted to suppress the songs of the people, but their 
efforts were vain, for music is to the Bohemian a part of his daily life. 

Although the Bohemians are usually called Czechs, one must not 
forget that the Czechs were originally of Slavonic origin. Therefore 
there is much in the music of all the Slav nations which is similar. 

From the seventeenth century on, the influence of Germany, 
France and Italy swept into the courts of the Bohemian noblemen, 
yet the old village town pipers and chorus masters succeeded in keep- 
ing alive the songs and dances of the folk. 

During the period of the Reformation in Bohemia, and the wars 
of the Hussites, the religious fervor of the people was manifest in the 
sacred character of their music. It is interesting to note, that although 
Bohemia was almost entirely destroyed as a result of its partisanship 
in the cause of the Reformation, it is now a Catholic country. 

There was no definite Bohemian school of music until the last 
half of the nineteenth century (see Lesson XXIV, Part II). 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

74437 Slavonic Dance No. 2 (Dvorak) Kreisler 

87310 Home (Folk Song) Destinn 

87306 Last Tears (Folk Song) Destinn 

89116 Good Night (Folk Song) Destinn-Gilly 

87554 The Wedding (Folk Song) Destinn-Gilly 

74634 Allegro Moderato a la Polka (Smetana) Flonzaley Quartet 

CHOEUSES 

The Country Wedding Where is My Home ? 

Serenade (Bohemian Air) Oer Tatra 

Battle Hymn of the Hussites Hymn of the Slavs 

42 



Learning To Listen 



Lesson XXI 
Hungary 

Hungarian music is always as- 
sociated with Franz Liszt, for he 
was the first musician to employ 
the wonderful contrasts of rhythm 
and syncopation that go to make 
up the characteristics of Hun- 
garian music. In considering 
Hungarian folk music, it must be 
remembered that Hungary is the 
borderland between the West and 
the Orient, and consists of a pop- 
ulation made up of Magyars (the 
real Hungarian people), Gypsies, 
Germans, Jews, Slavs, Greeks, etc. 

The favorite Hungarian musi- 
cal scale is the normal minor, but 
with an augmented fourth, which 
produces a weird effect of "in- 
tensified minor." When this scale 
is employed, with the popular 
rhythmic and Oriental effects, 
there is an endless variety possi- 
ble. Liszt once said, "It seems 
as if every newly -discovered frag- 
ment contains some new form, some unexpected turn, some rhythmic 
interruption of a picturesque effect previously absolutely unknown." 

The Hungarian gypsies always adorn their melodies with curious 
runs, twists and turns. Almost every Hungarian village possesses its 
gypsy band, the favorite instruments being the violin and the cem- 
balom. The cembalom accents the rhythm, while the first violin leads 
in an improvisation of some well-known melody, the players follow- 
ing, guided by their own instinctive feeling for harmony. The air 
generally begins on the down beat, and is in duple time, in contrast 
with the triple time usually found in the other Slavic countries. No 
notes are ever used. 

Of the various Hungarian forms, the Czardas is the most pop- 
ular with the gypsies. It takes its name from the inn where it was 
first danced, and consists of two parts: a slow Lassen, which is gen- 
erally minor in tone, and of melancholy character, and a rapid Friska, 

43 




DANCING THE CZARDAS 



Learning To Listen 

which is a wild and impassioned dance. The Lassen is danced first, 
the Friska becoming more and more animated, until the dancers drop 
back to the Lassen for a rest. 

The gypsies of Hungary were undoubtedly the hirelings of the 
noble Magyars, and played the music of their masters. This accounts 
for the fact that the Hungarian gypsies show certain characteristics in 
their music which are not to be found elsewhere. 

Leland says that the Hungarian gypsy ' ' has a deeper, wider and 
more original feeling in his music that any of his European brothers. ' ' 
Liszt writes: "The Magyars have adopted the gypsies for their 
national musicians ; they have identified themselves with the proud and 
war-like enthusiasm, with the depressing sadness of the Hungarians, 
which they know so well how to imitate. ' ' 

ILLUSTBATIONS 

(Hungarian Dance No. 5 (Brahms) (Cembalom) Moskowitz 

[Hungarian Czardas (Cembalom) Moskowitz 

17462 Improvisation on Old Hungarian Airs Hungarian Gypsy Orchestra 

69072 Two Hungarian Folk Songs de Bartoky 

74303 Two Hungarian Dances (Brahms) Zimbalist 

74647 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (Liszt) Philadelphia Orchestra 

CHOEUSES 

Bosnian Shepherd's Song Far Above Us Sails the Heron 

Hungary's Treasure 



Lesson XXII 
Russia 

Rubinstein declared that "the folk songs of the Russians stand 
alone." Cesar Cui, another great Russian composer, says, "It is 
not too much to claim supremacy for Russia in the department of 
national melodies. The popular songs of my country demand an 
original harmonization and an entirely distinct method of modulation, 
for we seldom find a melody which can be treated entirely within the 
major or minor mode, for even if it extends over but a few bars, it 
passes from relative major to minor or vice versa. These changes, 
generally unexpected, are almost always of a striking emotional effect." 

The enormous size of Russia and the many points of difference 
between the various parts of the country, give an endless variety of 
local color to the Russian songs. The most original and interesting 
Russian songs have come from what is known as "Little Russia," the 

44 



Learning To Listen 

district of the Ukraine, bordering on Poland. Each event in the life 
of the Russian peasant from birth to death, his occupations, his oppres- 
sions and sorrows, his pleasures and his hopes, are all reflected in his 
music. The Russian folk songs have all the characteristics which were 
observed in Lesson XV, for the Russian religion, that of the Greek 
Church, has brought the Russian peasant closer than any of his neigh- 
bors to the oldest science of music.* The Jewish communities of Rus- 
sia have always closely adhered to the orthodox service, and many 




A RUSSIAN COSSACK DANCE 

Russian folk songs show the influence of the ancient system of the 
Hebrews, as well as that of the Greek Church. 

In the Russian churches, no instruments are allowed, so that the 
deepest basso voices in the world are found in Russia to-day. 

Under the constant oppression and the invasion of Asiatic enemies, 
it is but natural that the best songs of Russia are sad, and favor the 
minor mode. 

It is customary to divide the Russian folk songs into two classes : 

1. Melodic songs: these are in the major key, are of a lively char- 
acter, are sung in unison, and used to accompany dancing. 

* Recall the different races and sects in Russia; the Asiatic influences that have come 
into Europe through Russia. 

45 



Learning To Listen 

2. Harmonic songs : these are sung in harmony, slower tempo, and 
favor the minor keys. 

The Russian School of Music is considered in detail, Lesson 
XXIII, Part II. 

ILLUSTRATIONS* 

70034 JMolodka (Folk Dance) Balalaika Orchestra 

\Sun in the Sky, Stop Shining (Folk Dance) Balalaika Orchestra 

ft oi co (Kolebalnia (Folk Song) Janpolski 

6 \Vanka (Folk Song) ' Janpolski 

64727 Two Folk Songs of " Little Russia" (Arr. Zimbalist) Gluck 

6^147 {Mother Moscow Janpolski 

\Song of the Volga Boatman Janpolski 

17001 Kamarinskaia (Folk Dance) Victor Band 

CHORUSES 

The Red Sarafan (Lwolf) The Harvester (Old Russian) 

The Troika Song of Volga Boatmen (Old Russian) 



Lesson XXIII 
Poland 

The music of Poland is, to the modern mind, strongly associated 
with the music for the piano. Many of the great pianists, from Chopin 
to Paderewski, have been of Polish origin. Poland has also given to 
the world many great opera singers : among them being Marcella Sem- 
brich and the brothers Jean and Eduard DeReszke. It is not sur- 
prising to find that the early Polish music favored instrumental rather 
than vocal expression. While Russian melodies betray their vocal 
origin by their limited melodic compass, in Poland, there is a much 
greater freedom in the use of rhythm and melody than is found in 
Russia. The Poles are more susceptible to romance, and they are 
more passionate. Their songs are filled with a fire that, in the synco- 
pated notes, intricate rhythm and difficult melodic intervals, reveals 
the influence of instrumental expression. 

The music of the four great divisions of the Slavic race. Russian. 
Polish, Bohemian and Hungarian, possesses similar characteristics. 
While the Russians and Bohemians have many points in common in 
their use of melodic and harmonic songs, the Poles and Hungarians 
are more passionate and intense in their dances, and in the use of 
instrumental forms. 

The melancholy of the Russians is apparent also in the music of 

* Records G7800, 67819, 67806 are folk songs of "Little Russia." 

46 



Learning To Listen 

Poland, and tinges even the lively tunes. The Poles have been almost 
constantly the slaves of other nations.* and this resulted in the sad 
and mournful strains of their folk music. 

The national dances of Poland are the Mazurka and Polonaise, 
both of which Chopin immortalized.! 

Poland now has begun a new era of her existence. She has won 
her freedom as an independent country, and although the cost has 
been great, her people can once again freely sing their national 
anthem. "Poland's Not Yet Dead to Slavery." With the return of 
prosperity to Poland, it is safe to predict that this interesting nation 
will again assume an important place among the musical nations of 
the world. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

18002 Cracoviac (Cra Kow Dance) Polish Folk Dance Victor Military Band 

G4562 Polish Dance (Arr. Zimbalist) Zimbalist 
63460 Two Folk Songs 

(a) Krakowiak (Soprano Solo with Chorus} Ro'za Kiolbasa-Kwasigroch 

(b) Na Waivel, Na Wawel Chopin Male Quartet 
74535 Cracovienne Fantastique (Paderewski) Paderewski 

CHORUSES 

May Song Maiden's Wish (Spring Song) 

Polish National Song (Old Folk Song) God For Poland 
Polish Fatherland Song 



Lesson XXIV 

Norway J 

No folk music is more interesting than that found in Norway. 
The greatest Scandinavian expression in literature, art and music, 
has come from Norway. Thorwaldsen, Bjornson, Ibsen, Ole Bull, 
Grieg and Sinding are all names of which Norway is proud. The 
physical aspect of the country, its deep forests, sunny meadows, high 
mountains, and rugged seacoast, inspires a love for contrast in art, 
which makes the folk tales and music of this land most fascinating. 
The old mythical stories of the Volsung Sagas, telling of the Norse 
Gods, were first sung by the Bards, or Skalds, who wove musical 
themes around these epic legends. They used for accompaniment the 

* Recall Poland's history, her past splendor, the elegance and luxury of her Court life 
in olden days. Remember also the help given America, at the time of the Revolution, by 
Kosciusko, the great Polish patriot. 

t The revolution in Chopin's day influenced him greatly. (See Lesson XVII, Part II.) 
t Americans should be especially interested in the customs of Norway, because of the 
early discoveries made in America by the Norse sailors. 

47 



Learning To Listen 

Langeleik, a long box-like instrument, shaped like a harp, and also the 
old Hardanger fiddle, which was similar to the viola d 'amore of mediae- 
val Italy. 

The Norse songs are divided into two classes: one bold and 
vigorous, the other tender and plaintive. Many of these songs deal 
with simple events of life. Some are hunting songs, some are humor- 
ous, and others have a simple, direct, poetic appeal. 

The Norwegian folk song is most individual. In melodic contour, 
it possesses an erratic disregard for forms and conventions. The 
rhythms are suggestive of the active rough peasant, boisterously enjoy- 
ing the dance, or of the weird antics attributed to the curious elves and 
gnomes of the underworld. 

Although for many years joined to Sweden, Norway has always 
retained her own independence in art. Foreign art was never popular 
there as in Sweden and Denmark. 

Many excellent musicians from the North made their residence in 
Southern Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It 
was not until the nineteenth century that a National School was estab- 
lished in Norway: (See Lesson XXIII, Part II.) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

17160 Norwegian Mountain March (Folk Dance) Victor Military Band 

RSO.Q1 fHan Mass Aa'n Lasse (Folk Song) Hammer 

1 \Han Ole (Folk Song} Hammer 

RQAIC fAa, Ola, Ola (Folk Song) Aalrud-Tilliscli 

S \Astri! Mi Astri (Folk Song) Aalrud-Tillisch 

fi j-QOQ (Gamale Norge (Folk Song) Hammer 

y {To Norway, Mother of the Brave (Folk Song) Hammer 

16596 National Hymn of Norway (Sinding) Victor Orchestra 

CHORUSES 

National Hymn of Norway Last Night the Nightingale Woke Me 

Haakon's Cradle Song (Grieg) (Kjerulf) 

My Dear Old Mother (Grieg) Ebb and Flow (Folk Song) 

Old Norway (Gamale Norge) 

Lesson XXV 

Sweden 

Swedish music has many points of similarity with that of Nor- 
way, yet it is not as individual in character. "The Thirty Years' 
War" brought Sweden into contact with the customs and manners of 
other lands, and all her arts reflect this fact, although it is most 
strongly noticeable in her music. During the reign of Charles XII, 
a typical French court was maintained in Stockholm, which has 

48 



Learning To Listen 

ever since remained one of the cosmopolitan capitals of Europe. It 
is, therefore, but natural that Swedish music, even that sung by the 
folk, should have been influenced by foreign conditions. The folk 
dances have remained more truly characteristic of the Swedish nation 
than the songs. 

It is a well-known fact, that all folk songs have strong points 
of similarity, and that many legendary stories are the same in all 
lands. Therefore, the songs of all northern countries show a common 
relationship. The Swedish songs are less tragic and melancholy than 
the Norwegian folk songs, and while not as regular in rhythm as the 
Danish melodies, they reflect the influence of other European countries. 

The Swedish folk song is generally in a happy vein and in some 
the Tyrolean yodel is suggested. Sweden has been called ' ' the land of 




A SWEDISH FOLK DANCE 



singers." Jenny Lind and Christine Nillson are two names never to 
be forgotten in the annals of Scandinavian song. Some of the older 
songs were founded on the Gregorian chants, and it is also noticeable 
that many of the tunes begin on the unaccented beat. 

The lute, which was originally imported into Sweden from Italy, 
became one of the national instruments of the land, and many of the 
best Swedish folk songs are sung to its accompaniment. The lute is 
now an obsolete instrument, save in Sweden, where it is still in use.* 



* When it was necessary to record the Troubadour songs for the history course of this 
book, a Swedish lute player was secured to play the accompaniments on a very old instrument. 

49 



Learning To Listen 

From the other countries of Europe, the Swedish folk borrowed 
dances, the most popular dance in Sweden being the Polska, a frank 
copy of the Polish dance. 

The Swedish folk dances are mostly descriptive of the occupations 
of the people. 

The music of Denmark is more similar to that of Sweden than 
to that of Norway, yet it retains certain characteristics of its own. 

The rise of the Modern Swedish School of Music is carefully con- 
sidered in Lesson XXIV, Part II. 

ILLUSTEATIONS * 

16596 National Airs of Sweden Victor Orchestra 

64808 "When I Was Seventeen" (Swedish Folk Song) Garrison 

1 7084 jKluppdans Victor Band 

{Shoemakers' Dance Victor Band 

63429 Two Folk Songs with Lute Accompaniment Torkel Scholander 

35159 Swedish Wedding March (Soderman) Pry or' s Band 

16591 King Christian (Danish National Air) Victor Orchestra 

CHOEUSES 
National Air of Sweden (Charles John, The Horn (Old Swedish) 

Our Brave King) To Nature (Swedish Folk Song) 

Cradle Song (Favorite of Jenny Lind) Light of the World (Old Swedish) 
Vermeland (Swedish) King Christian (Danish) 

From the Depths of Swedish Hearts 

Lesson XXVI 
Ireland 

The music of Ireland is similar in many respects to that of Scot- 
land and Wales. Since there existed a very much earlier civilization 
in Ireland than in the other parts of Great Britain, many of the songs 
now claimed by Scotland and England were doubtless originally native 
to Ireland. 

Hecatarus, the Egyptian historian, writes of Ireland in 500 B. C. : 
' ' There is a city, whose citizens are most of them harpers ; who, playing 
upon the harp, chant sacred hymns to Apollo in the temple. ' ' 

Before the coming of St. Patrick to Ireland, 432 A. D., the Druids 
made use of music in their services, and had a system of musical nota- 
tion carved on their sacred stones. Cormac MacArt, the Head King 
of Ireland, 254-277 A. D., is recorded as having "a band of music to 
soften his pillow and solace him in time of relaxation. " 

In the fifth century, the Irish folk songs were classified as "folk 

* Among Swedish records issued are numbers 65798 and 67811, played by old Swedish 
violins. They are recommended for use in this lesson. 

50 



Learning To Listen 



songs, dances, war songs and religious songs." The earliest use of 
the diatonic scale is attributed to the Irish, who early evolved several 
definite musical forms. They were the first also to make use of coun- 
terpoint. From Ireland, Europe received her earliest teachers in music 
for the abbeys, while many of the Catholic hymns in the ritual of the 
church to-day were the inspiration of Irish scholars of the middle 
ages. The earliest form of the neumes was ascribed to these Irish 

monks. Their method of 
employing a drone bass 
was termed ' ' the cronan, ' ' 
which has been described 
as "a low murmuring 
accompaniment or chorus, 
which from the name, 
'cronan' must have been 
produced in the throat, 
like the purring of a cat. ' ' 
In the twelfth cen- 
tury, John of Salisbury 
comments on the famous 
Harp School of Ireland, 
which had then been in 
existence for several cen- 
turies. The contests of 
harpers dates from the 
sixth century, when these 
annual gatherings at 
"Tara's Hall" were first 
instituted.* During the 
thirteenth century many of the harpers visited Wales and Scotland. 
The early harpers followed the modes in use in the Christian 
Church chants, so that in many of the early Irish songs are found 
good examples of the modes brought into the Church service by 
Gregory. (See Lesson III, Part II.) 

During the wars of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth cen- 
turies, the art of music declined in Ireland, and many Irish melodies 
were rewritten in the English style. The majority of the Irish harpers 
were driven from Ireland during Cromwell's persecution, and the 
music of the Irish people was kept alive by the pipers and fiddlers. 




IRISH JIG NEW YEAR'S EVE IN IRELAND 



* These famous contests were immortalized in the song, "The Harp That Once Thro' 
Tara's Halls." The contests at Tara Castle were the inspiration of the later Minnesinger 
contests at the Wartburg Castle in Thuringia. 

51 



Learning To Listen 

As the Church frowned on music, the musician was no longer regarded 
as a man of honor, but became an outcast. 

Through the centuries of oppression and amid the constant striv- 
ing for independence, the Irish have ever retained their love for music, 
but their songs are a strange mixture of that mingling of joy and sor- 
row which is characteristic of the Celt. Even many of the rollicking 
drinking songs reflect an underlying strain of grief. The most popu- 
lar subjects for the Irish folk singer are love and sorrow. Many of 
the melodies of these songs are older than the words, and in the reset- 
ting often the tunes have been changed. Every occupation of the 
Irish people, from milking the cows to spinning, has its own individual 
tune, sometimes sung merely to describe it. 

The Irish used the bagpipes, in addition to the fiddle, as accom- 
paniments to their dances. The most popular Irish dance is the jig, 
which was named from a peculiar stringed instrument, somewhat 
resembling the violin. This was called the Geige the dance taking 
its name, just as the hornpipe did, from the instrument used to pro- 
vide the music for that dance. The lilt is the striking characteristic 
of these dances, which, for infectious gaiety, have never been equaled. 

The Irish people are inherently mystical and poetic, yet their 
sense of humor has won for them the hearts of the world. They 
reflect in their music the truth of the description of their race "the 
only people who always find the silver lining. ' ' 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

18727 Medley of Irish Jigs Kimmel 

64117 Minstrel Boy McCormack 

64720 Bendemeer's Stream (Moore) Julia Gulp 

64259 The Harp That Once Thro' Tom's Halls McCormack 
17897 Irish Tune from County Derry (Arr. Percy Grainger) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

17331 Irish Lilt (Irish Washerwoman) Victor Band 

CHOEUSES 

Molly Bawn Wearing of the Green 

Harp That Once Thro' Tara's Halls Low-Back 'd Car (Lover) 

Bendemeer's Stream Minstrel Boy 

Believe Me, If All Those Endearing The Last Eose of Summer 
Young Charms 

Lesson XXVII 
Wales 

There is absolute proof that there existed in Wales a very 
advanced musical culture, which dates back earlier than that of Scot- 
land or England. The bards were as distinctly native to Wales as 

52 



Learning. To Listen 

to Ireland and in early days were of great importance. The Welsh 
bards were the first story tellers, and by many authorities they are 
believed to have been the first wandering musicians. In the twelfth 
century, Prince Griffith, who had been educated in Ireland, introduced 
the Irish harp into Wales and many Irish harpers settled at his court. 
To this circumstance is due the fact that the lilt is noticeable in so 
many of the Welsh songs. 

In addition to the harp, the bards also used the crwth, which was 
a favorite instrument in all the north countries. (See Lesson XIX, 
Part III.) The crwth was a stringed instrument played with a bow, 
and was used entirely as an accompaniment to the song recited 
or sung by the bard. The crwth has been found throughout Scan- 
dinavia, Russia and Northern Germany. The hornpipe and bagpipe 
were also used in Wales. 

From 1200 to 1400, the Bards of Wales exerted a tremendous 
musical influence. Little of the music of that period remains, as 
Edward I, fearing that the minstrels instilled a dangerous patriotism 
among his subjects, made their profession unlawful. In the reign 
of Henry IV, Owen Glyndwe led a revolt of the minstrels, who for 
a short time regained some of their early privileges. However, min- 
strelsy soon declined, its place being taken by the popular eisteddfod 
or song festival of the people, at which contests between singers, instru- 
mentalists and choruses are arranged. Mention of these song contests 
was made by historians as early as the seventh century, but in the 
twelfth century the eisteddfod became of national importance. From 
that time until the present this custom has been maintained, and prac- 
tically every small town in Wales now has its eisteddfod. The Welsh 
who settled in America brought their music with them, and many of 
our best chorus concerts are given by the Welsh choirs. Annual 
eisteddfods are held in all the Welsh settlements in America. Every 
composition submitted is given a hearing, and old and young, rich and 
poor, join together in praise of song. 

A curious custom of ancient days in Wales is still retained; this 
is the "Pennillion Singing." The harper plays a well-known tune 
over several times, then each of the company in turn extemporizes 
words to fit this melody, the chorus singing "Tal la la" between each 
new stanza. 

Although the Welsh are known as a nation of singers, they sing 
the songs of bygone days. Most of the Welsh airs known to-day have 
been sung in England for so many years that they are frequently 
classified as English folk songs. 

53 



Learning To Listen 



ILLUSTKATIONS 
64764 The Dove 
74100 All Through the Night 
64141 Mentra Gwen (Venturesome Gwen) 
72812 Men of Harlech 



Williams 

Williams 

Williams 

Glyndwyr Male Choir 



CHOEUSES 

Men of Harlech Forth to the Battle 

The Sun Smiles in Beauty (Old Welsh All Through the Night 
Air, The Ash Grove) 



Lesson XXVIII 
Scotland 

Scotch national music has always been recognized as distinctly 
individual, because of an unusual charm in melody and rhythm. 

In their folk music is reflected that love of home and country, 

that sturdy inde- 
pendence, loyalty 
and pathos which 
have ever been 
characteristic of 
the Scot. 

As Gaelic is 
believed one of 
the earliest known 
languages, the 
Scots doubtless 
possessed a musical 
system of great an- 
tiquity. The bard 
was as important a 
part of Scotch life 
as in that of Ire- 
land or Wales. 

Many of the Scotch tunes are older than the words now sung 
to them, yet in these verses there is to be traced the entire history 
of the Scotch people. In addition to the lament, the love song, and 
those which reflect the customs of the folk, the Scotch commemorate 
in song every historical event. 

Scotch music was not generally known in England until the reign 
of Charles II. The half century after the Restoration was a busy one 




SCOTCH DANCE "THE REEL OF TULLOCH" 



54 



Learning To Listen 



for the Jacobite poets. The borderland ballads of this period belong 
equally to England and Scotland. "Jock o' Hazeldean," a song 
claimed by both Scotland and England, is an excellent example. 

Like all folk music, that of Scotland was more or less influenced 
by the instruments used by the people. The harp, crwth, fiddle and 
pipe were all popular instruments during mediaeval days, but the 
national Scotch instrument is still the bagpipe. The origin of this 
instrument is lost in antiquity. Although found in Asia, Africa 
and Europe, it reached its perfection in Scotland. To appreciate 
the charm of the bagpipe it must be heard out of doors. It is the 
use of this tonally restricted instrument which probably accounts for 
the fact that most of the Scotch melodies are based on the pentatonic 
or five-tone scale. 
The rhythmic 
peculiarity known 
as the " Scotch 
snap," in which 
the first tone has 
but one-fourth the 
duration of the 
second, is also due 
to this instrument. 

Many of the 
best - known Scot- 
tish songs are set- 
tings of the poems 
of Robert Burns. 
Scotland is also 
indebted to Sir 
Walter Scott, who 
gave in his novels 
and poems many excellent illustrations of the greatness of Scotch 
heroism. 

At the time of the Reformation music was frowned upon in the 
Scottish churches, and this prejudice has greatly retarded the musical 
progress of Scotland. The National use of Scotch melodies has been 
very popular in modern music, although there are but few composers 
from Scotland itself. Mendelssohn's "Scotch Symphony" is an ex- 
cellent illustration. Beethoven used many Scotch airs, and from his 
time to the present day the charm of Scottish music has been very 
strong. 

55 




THE SCOTCH SWORD DANCE 



Learning To Listen 



17001 Highland Fling 
64210 Loch Lomond 

(The Toils are Pitched 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Traditional) 



18674 



(Wilson) 

\They Bid Me Steep (Wilson) 
55052 Hail to the, Chief (Sanderson) 
1 RO.R1 I Jock o' Hazeldean 

1 \Scots, Wha' Hae' Wi' Wallace Bled 
(Scotch Medley March 



Victor Military Band 
Williams 
Littlefield 
Littlefield 

Victor Male Quartet 
Young 
Werrenrath 
Sutcliffe Troupe 



17140 j The Battle of Killiecrankie (2) Will Ye No Come Back Again 

Sutcliffe Troupe 
CHOEUSES 

My Heart's in the Highlands Wha '11 Be King But Charlie? 

Annie Laurie The Campbells Are Coming 

Robin Adair Scots, Wha' Hae' Wi' Wallace Bled 

Flow Gently, Sweet Afton (Burns) Loch Lomond 

Auld Lang Syne Comin' Thro' the Eye 

Lesson XXIX 
England 

In a certain 
sense all the folk 
music of the 
British Isles be- 
longs to England, 
yet there is a vast 
difference in the 
music of Ireland, 
Wales and Scot- 
land, not only in 
distinction from 
each other, but also 
in contrast to that 
of England herself. 
The sacrificial 
chant of the early 
Druids is vividly 
described by 
Tacitus. The bois- 
terous gaiety of the 
Saxons is also re- 
marked. This 
characteristic has 
never entirely dis- 
appeared from 

OLD ENGLISH MAY FESTIVAL British HlUSiC. St. 

56 




Learning To Listen 



Augustine brought the Gregorian chant to Briton in 597, and on this 
foundation was built that remarkable school of counterpoint which 
flourished in England during mediaeval days. This was, in a certain 
sense, a handicap to free musical expression, as all music was written 
along certain formal lines of construction. A romantic color was given 
to the Saxon music by the Normans. Later the influence of France is 
very distinctly seen in the early dialogues with music, which were 
popular in Elizabethan days. All the instruments at that time were 
imported from either France of Italy, and the music is all reflective 
of the artificiality of Court life. 

Shakespeare makes constant mention of music in his works. Most 
of his verses w y ere written for music already in existence. Through- 
out his works it is 
felt that music 
played an impor- 
tant part in the 
Court life of the 
sixteenth century, 
during the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. 
(See Lesson 
XXIX, Part II.) 
The Reformation 
soon ended this 
period of joyous 
song. During the days of Cromwell two distinct types of music are 
found, the psalms of the Puritans being gloomy and disagreeable and 
in strong contrast to the dashing gaiety and the drinking songs of 
the Cavaliers. 

Among the common people song springs spontaneously from the 
heart, and w r hether it be in days of trial or warfare, or in days of peace 
and contentment, it will ultimately find expression. Many of the 
English folk airs have been copied from the Irish, Welsh and Scotch, 
but even in the dances and glees the sturdy simplicity of the English 
is ever noticeable. No nation possesses such simple yet dramatic 
ballads as those found in England. 

The national English songs are in the truest sense scarcely to be 
recognized as examples of patriotic music. "Rule Britannia" reflects 
the style of opera in Dr. Arne's day, the music being better suited as 
a setting to a dainty verse than to a hymn of valor. The songs which 
are designated as "Old English" are a product of the late seventeenth 
century. 

57 




CHARACTERS IN THE MORRIS DANCE 



Learning To Listen 



17087 



17724 



18010 

64100 
64398 
64320 
45114 
64928 
17897 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

May Pole Dance Bluff King Hal Victor Military Band 

When That I Was a Little Tiny Boy (" Twelfth Night") (Shakespeare- 
Fielding) (#) Hold Thy Peace ("Twelfth Night") (Unaccom- 
panied) Macdonough, Dixon and Werrenrath 

Come Unto These Yellow Sands ("The Tempest") (Shakespeare- 
Pur cell) (2) Greensleeves (Traditional) 
Harp and 'Cello) 

(Sellenger's Round (Old English Dance) 
{Gathering Peascods (Old English Dance) 

The Lass of Richmond Hill 

The Lass with the Delicate Air (Dr. Arne) 



(Baritone with Male Trio, 

Werrenrath, Dixon and Hooley 

Victor Military Band 

Victor Military Band 

Williams 

Gluck 



Have You Seen but a Whyte Lillie Grow (Ben Jonson) 

Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes 

John Peel 

Shepherd's Hey (Morris Dance) (Arr. Grainger) 

CHOEUSES 



Gluck 

Werrenrath 
de Gogorza 
Victor Concert Orchestra 



The Jolly Miller 

The Lass of Eichmond Hill (McNally) 

Come Unto These Yellow Hills 

God Save the King 

Eule Britannia (Dr. Arne) 

Listen Lordlings 



Boat to Cross Ferry 

Drink to Me Only 

Oh Dear, What Can the Matter 

Barbara Allen 

Little Bingo 



Lesson XXX 

America 




WHITE QUIVER TALKING TO THE WISE MEN OF THE 
TRIBE, GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, MONTANA 

58 



Much has been written 
in the past few years of 
the folk music of America. 
Many musicians believe 
the future of the Ameri- 
can School rests on the 
use of Indian melodies; 
while others argue that 
the songs of the American 
negroes are our national 
music. In the study of 
folk music it has been 
found that the influence 
of struggles and triumphs, 
of joys and sorrows, all 
leave their impression on 
the music and art of any 
people. 

For the first hundred 
years American music was 
almost entirely under the 



Learning To Listen 



influence of the Puritans. The Bay Psalm Book, which was published 
in 16-40, w r as a metrical arrangement of the psalms which were to be 
sung to certain old tunes found in the Ainsworth collection, which had 
previously been brought from Holland. The best known of these are 
"Old Hundred" and "Dundee." 

The Cavaliers who settled the Virginias and the Carolinas brought 
much of the music of England with them. This has been retained by 
those descendents of the Cavaliers who settled in the mountain 
districts, so that to-day the purest and best forms of the early English 
folk tunes are to be found in the Appalachian Mountains. 

Dances and songs of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 
Holland and France became popular in various settlements of America 
during the eighteenth century, but the constant wars gave little oppor- 
tunity for actual musical development. 

With the beginning of immigration, practically all of the folk 
music of the entire world has been brought into America.* 

America has been called "the great melting pot of the world," 
because here are found people 
from all the races of the world, 
yet the two races which are the 
most closely identified with early 
civilization in America are the 
Indians and the Negroes. In 
Louisiana are many French influ- 
ences, and the Spanish expression 
in southern California is unmis- 
takable in the architecture, art and 
music ; but neither of these has 
greatly influenced national art. As 
all music developed from primi- 
tive man, so the Indian chants and 
dances are of exceedingly great 
interest in the building of an 
American individual expression. 

In the study of the Indian songs can be definitely traced the com- 
ing of the white man. Among the Penobscots and the Delawares. the 
two tribes which came in closest contact with the Puritans and the 
Quakers, the use of hymn-like chants is very noticeable. Among the 
Huron tribe of Canada there are found many songs which show the 
distinct influence of the French missionaries; while the music of the 




BLACKFEET INDIANS, WITH NATIVE MUSICAL 
INSTRUMENTS 



* Some of this has already been assimilated, as for example: "Believe Me If All Those 
Endearing Young Charms," which has become "Fair Harvard;" and "Tannenbaum." which 
is "Maryland, My Maryland." "Malbrouck," or "We Won't Go Home Until Morning." 

59 



Learning To Listen 

Navajo, Zufii and Pueblo tribes reflects the influence of the early 
Spanish church fathers. 

The music of the Negroes is of three distinct types : the ' ' Spirit- 
uals, " or sacred songs, the "Work Songs" (the negroes sing a different 
type of song for every employment), and the Negro-Creole songs. 

Among the Negroes of the "Lower South" who lived in constant 
dread of being sold in slavery, the "Spirituals" are of a deeper and 
more truly religious fervor (like "Deep River," and "Nobody Knows 
de Trubble I've Seen"), than those "Spirituals" of the "Upper 
South, ' ' where the negroes lived on the same plantation for generations, 
and expressed themselves in the music of " I Want to be Ready, ' ' and 
"Good News." 

In the songs of the Negro-Creole are to be found many of the 
same characteristics that are noticed in the music of the White-Creole, 
and, it is of course but natural that the influence of both Spain and 
France is to be recognized in this music. The Habanera is an excellent 
example of the type of dance song used by the Negro-Creoles of Cuba. 
It takes its name from the city where it became most popular, Havana. 

The best type of composed folk songs derived from negro sources 
were written by two white men, Dan Emmett and Stephen Foster, 
who were so successful in copying the Negro expression that their 
works rank among the best composed folk songs possessed by any 
nation of the world. 

The patriotic songs that were written during the Civil War, as 
well as the ballads of that period, are all as good examples of the type 
of composed folk songs as those to be found in any land. 

One distinct type of musical expression which is exclusively Ameri- 
can is the cowboy song of the plains. The French-Canadian Voyageur 
Songs have also become a part of America's inheritance, because of 
their use in the northern logging camps. 

The greatest and best folk music of the whole world is to be found 
in America. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

18444 i Four Penobscot Tribal Songs 1 Watahwaso 

\Pa-pup-ooh (2) The Sacrifice (Lieurance} } 

1 A1 JBy the Weeping Waters (Lieurance} Watahwaso 

s \Aobah (Red Willow Pueblo) (2) Her Blanket (Navajo) Watahwaso 

1 9^7 1 Nobody Knows the Trouble I See Tuskegee Singers 

' \Roll, Jordan, Roll Tuskegee Singers 

1 44fi /' Want to be Ready (2) Get on Board Tuskegee Singers 

{Been a' Listenin' (2) Good Lord Tuskegee Singers 

/0W Folks at Home (2) Juanita Conway's Band 

\0ld Black Joe (2) Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground Conway's Band 

(Star-Spangled Banner Victor Military Band 

\Hail Columbia Victor Military Band 
Whoopee Ti Ti Yo 

* In preparation. 

60 



Learning To Listen 
CHOEUSES 

Dixie Land (Dan Emmett) Maryland, My Maryland (Randall) 

Marching Through Georgia (Work) Yankee Doodle 

Star-Spangled Banner (Francis Scott Hail Columbia (Hopkinson-Fyles) 
Key) 

All the above songs, and 

Massa Dear (Johnson) Eed, White and Blue (Shaw) 

Old Black Joe (Foster) Song of a Thousand Years (Work) 

Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming Reuben and Rachel 

(Foster) Seeing Nellie Home 

REVIEW AND EXAMINATIONS 

In giving an examination, several records should be played and 
pupils should write on paper names of compositions; composers, if 
any; nationality; by what voice, instrument or combination, illustra- 
tion was presented; and what principle of expression it represented. 

Note books should count for one-half of yearly standing. 



61 



PART II 

The History of Music 



Preface 

In taking up the history of music as a serious study, remember 
that the history of any art is a record of cultural development and 
should not be devoted to individual biography. Music is closely re- 
lated to the development of civilization, and the events of the world's 
history are definitely reflected in music's growth. 

In considering the history of civilization, music, although the old- 
est of the arts, is noticeable as the last to be developed seriously. A 
nation first becomes great through conquest ; it next assumes commer- 
cial, then political importance; then begins a development of its arts, 
of which architecture, sculpture and painting, "the visible arts," are 
first considered ; next comes literature and the drama ; and last of all, 
that art, which is the first expression of primitive man Music. 

Students should have access to several good works on the history 
of music, and should carefully study their notes made in the classroom. 
A strong point should be made of the correlation of musical develop- 
ment with contemporary historical events and literary epochs. 

It is suggested that short papers on the lives of the greatest 
composers be written, and that outside reading of individual biography 
be done before the lesson. Make frequent use of the public library. 

These lessons and the illustrated records should be made an 
integral part of the study of general history, literature and English 
composition.* 

Music history is divided into the following general periods: 

Ancient Music: To the Birth of Christ 

Development of the music of the Assyrians, Hebrews and Egyp- 
tians and the science of Greek music. 



* The thoughtful teacher or student will find delightful illustrations in these musical selec- 
tions of hitherto unrecognized inter-relations between music and the greatest works of litera- 
ture as, for instance, the literary study of the Bible (Hebrew chants, oratorios) ; mythology 
(Greek music, the Nibelungen King by Wagner) ; Shakespeare (the settings of the Shakespeare 
songs) ; Ivanhoe (the music of the Troubadours) ; numerous other selections of the English 
poets from Milton to Tennyson. In the study of French the old folk songs are of value, while 
clearly to understand Moliere, the court dances used at his time will be of great interest. The 
settings of Provost's "Manon Lescaut" and Murger's "La Vie de Boheme" will be an added 
inspiration to the student reading these works 

62 



The History of Music 

Early Church Schools: To the Sixteenth Century 
Schools of counterpoint and polyphony developed through the in- 
fluence of the Church. 

Secular Schools: From the Twelfth to the Seventeenth Century 

Secular music developed by the Troubadours, Jongleurs, Minne- 
singers and Meistersingers. 

Musical Renaissance: Seventeenth Century 

Rise of individual expression gave birth to the opera and oratorio 
in Italy. Their development in Italy, France, Germany and England 
in the seventeenth century. 

Classical School: Eighteenth Century 
Development of formal music from Bach to Beethoven. 

Romantic School: Early Nineteenth Century 

Rise of individuality ; giving expression in program music, virtu- 
osity and nationality, from Beethoven to Wagner. 

Modern Music: Late Nineteenth Century to Present Day 
Rise of the modern schools of national expression. Realism versus 
impressionism. 

Part II is divided into thirty lessons as follows: 

I. Music of the Ancients. 
II. Music of the Greeks. 

III. Music of the Early Church. 

IV. Secular Music in Mediaeval Days. 
V. Mediaeval Schools of Music. 

VI. Beginnings of the Opera. 
VII. Beginnings of the Oratorio. 
VIII. Handel. 
IX. Bach.^- 
X. Gluck. 
XI. Haydn. 
XII. Mozart. 

XIII. Beethoven. - 

XIV. Schubert. 
XV. Romanticism I. 

XVI. Romanticism II. 
XVII. Chopin and Liszt. 

XVIII. Opera of the Early Nineteenth Century. 
XIX. Wagner. 



The History of Music 

XX. The Influence of the Music Drama. 
XXI. Brahms. 
XXII. Russia. 

XXIII. Scandinavia. 

XXIV. Bohemia. 

XXV. Germany Austria. 
XXVI. France. 
XXVII. Italy Spain. 
XXVIII. England. 
XXIX. Early Music in America. 
XXX American II. 

CHORUSES 

The following choruses are suggested for use with the first six 
lessons, as they belong, in a general way, to the period discussed : 

RELIGIOUS 

Penitential Hymn (Ancient Hebrew) (Ascribed to King David) 
My Salvation's Tower (Hebrew Tune) (Sung at Feast of "Judas 
Maccabasus") 

To God on High (Ancient Church Tune) 
Evening Hymn of St. Ambrose (Piericini) 
Adoramus Te (Palestrina) 
Gloria Patri (Palestrina) 
Hear My Prayers (Palestrina) 
Chorale (Michael Praetorius, 1586-1610) 
Chorale (Johann Gruger, 1649) 

SECULAR 

War Song of the Normans (Ancient Tune) (Said to have been 
sung at the Battle of Hastings) 

Ballade of Jeanne d'Arc (Old French) 
The Butterfly (Old French) 
Amaryllis (Old French) 
Sumer is Icumen In 

Lesson I 
The Music of the Ancients 

The most authentic record of the music of the ancients is that 
which is depicted by the bas reliefs and wall paintings of the Assy- 
rians and Egyptians. Although the Hebrews were undoubtedly the 

G4 



The History of Music 



best musicians of ancient 
days, they left no visible 
record of their musical 
instruments, for, fulfilling 
the letter of the law, the 
children of Israel made no 
graven images. The de- 
scription to be found in 
the Bible was made during 
the reign of James I of 
England, when practically 
nothing was known of an- 
cient music, and the mu- 
sical instruments in use at 
his time were substituted 
for those of Israel. 

The Assyrians being a 
war-like race used instru- 
ments of percussion, and 
where wind instruments 
were employed, they were 




1. Trumpet. 

2. Drum. 



ASSYRIAN INSTRUMENTS 

3. Dulcimer. 

4. Lyres and Tambourines. 




ASSYRIAN INSTRUMENTS 



1. Lyre, 5 strings. 

2. Lyre, 10 strings 

3. Assyrian lyre. 



4. Assyrian lute. 

5. Double flute. 

05 



the military trumpets and 
drums. Their stringed in- 
struments, of which the 
dulcimer (the ancestor of 
our zither) was the most 
popular, were all made 
with metal strings and 
very often metal janglers, 
similar to those now on 
tambourines, were at- 
tached. All Assyrian 
music was high pitched and 
penetrating. In some bas 
reliefs the figures of the 
women are seen pinching 
their throats as if attempt- 
ing to produce a high 
shrill tone. 

The Egyptians had a 
definite science of music 
which antedates 3000 B. C. 
and was closely connected 



The History of Music 






with religion and astronomy. During the Golden Age, 1500-1200 
B. C., music was employed not only as a social diversion, but also as a 
feature of the religious service. Professionally trained dancers and 
singers formed schools of music where were also to be found large bands 
of instrumentalists and choruses. In many wall paintings there are 
representations of these large orchestras; they are always conducted 
by a leader, and a preponderance of stringed instruments is noticeable. 
The Egyptians used the lyre and the lute, but the national instrument 
was the harp,* which is found in all sizes, from those carried in the 
hand, to the immense temple harps of twenty-three strings. In days 
of battle, trumpets and drums were employed. The wind instruments, 
which were the most popular in Egypt, were the single and double 
pipes or flutes. These blended well with the stringed instruments. A 
typical Egyptian instrument which the Hebrews and Greeks both 
borrowed from their Nile neighbors was the sistra or sistrum, a horse- 
shoe-shaped bar of metal with a handle. When this was shaken in 



* It was while in captivity in Egypt that the Israelites learned the beauties of the harp, 
which they ad?pted as their national instrument. These small hand harps were those used by 
David. See also Psalms CXXXVII, 1-5, XXXIII, XLVII. 

66 



The History of Music 




HEBREW MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 1, SHOFAR; 2 A, 2 B, HASUR, THE HEBREW ZITHER; 
3, PSALTER; D, CYMBALS 

the hand the metal janglers fastened across it vibrated with a tingling 
rhythm, which was used to accompany the temple dances.* 

It was from the Egyptians that the Hebrews and Greeks obtained 
their knowledge of the science of music. The Hebrews also borrowed 
instruments from the Assyrians, as w r ell as the Egyptians, and with the 
well-known musical ability which has always been an attribute of the 
Hebrew race, it is not surprising that the Israelites had a direct 
influence on musical development. Large choirs of voices and instru- 
ments were used in the religious service of the Hebrews, and during 
the reign of King Solomon it is said that as many as 4,000 musicians 
were employed in the temple services. All religious music was chanted 
by the priests and answered by the choir in the form known in the 
Catholic Church to-day as antiphonal singing. f (See Lesson III, Part 
II.) The earliest instrument of the Hebrews was the Shofar, a 
trumpet made from a ram's horn, and still used in the orthodox tem- 
ples, to assemble the congregation on festival and holy days. These 



* The topli, a. Hebrew tambour with metal janglers. copied from the Egyptian sistra, is 
undoubtedly the instrument used by Miriam to accompany her song of triumph (Exodus XV, 
1). A toph was in the hands of Jephtha's daughter when she came forth to meet her father. 

t The Psalms of David were written to be sung in this antiphonal manner. They are still 
used in this way as "Responsive Readings" in the Protestant churches. 

67 



The History of Music 




EGYPTIAN DANCE 



horns were dupli- 
cated in brass for 
use in times of war. 
Strangely, w T e find 
no records of 
drums or percus- 
s i o n instruments 
being used by the 
Hebrews. Pipes 
and flutes were 
often combined 
with the lyre, with 
is frequently noted in 



Heifetz 
Cantor G. Sirola and Chorus 

Cantor G. Sirota and Chorus 

Braslau 

Braslau 

Powell 



the psaltery and with the harp, and the toph 

temple use. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

74568 Hebrew Melody 

177 ,r (Kawokores Rohe Adre (Like a Shepherd) 

1 ' ' 40 \Eil Molei Rachmim 

17771 (Birchos Kohanim (Benediction by the Priests) 

\Aw Horachmim 
74577 Eili, Eili 
74595 Yohrzsit (In Memoriam) 
74355 Kol Nidrei (arr. for Violin Bruch) 

Lesson II 
The Music of the Greeks 

The Greeks adopted their musical science from the Egyptians. 
The study of music was considered of extreme importance by them 
and the education of 
the Greek youth com- 
prised but two topics: 
music and athletics. 

It is customary to 
divide Greek music 
into three general 
periods : 

1. MYTHICAL AGE 
prior to 675 B. C. 
(As the Pythian 
Games founded 1000 
B. C. introduced musi- 
cal contests, the knowl- 
edge of Greek musical 




DESIGN FROM A GREEK VASE 



08 



The History of Music 




TERPSICHORE 

(Note example of primitive lyre) 



science supposedly starts from that 
date.) It was during this period that 
the mythical stories of the power of 
music, as illustrated by Hermes, Pan, 
Apollo, Marsyas, Orpheus and Am- 
phion, originated. Homer (950 B.C.) 
is credited with the heroic poetry which 
was recited by the bards to the accom- 
paniment of the lyre. 

2. CLASSICAL PERIOD 650-338 B.C. 
Macedonian Conquest. This period 
really culminated in the fifth century 
in Athens. The greatest names associ- 
ated with the music of this time were 
the musicians Terpander, Pythagoras, 
Arion ; the poets Aicaeus and Sappho ; 
and the Attic School of Drama. 

3. ALEXANDRIAN PERIOD 325 B.C. 

to the Christian Era. During these years the original thought in 
art gave w r ay to servile copying of the past great works. This was the 

period of Eoman music also, which, like 
the other forms of art, was but a bad 
imitation of that of Greece. 

The Greek scale was founded on the 
tetra-chord, meaning four tones. In dif- 
ferent localities of Greece the position of 
the half tone in the tetra-chord varied, 
thus there were several principal scales: 
Dorian. Phrygian, Lydian, Mixo-Ly- 
dian, Hypo-Dorian, Hypo-Phrygian and 
Hypo-Lydian.* 

The Greeks were especially partial 
to stringed instruments, the lyre and 
cithara being the most popular. The 
wind instruments were the auloe or long 
flute, the single and double flutes, and 
syrinx or Pan's pipes, a mouth organ of 
seven reeds bound together. They used 
but few percussion instruments, and these were small in size, being 
mostly tambourines, cymbals and the cistra. Trumpets and horns 

* From the combination of two of the Greek tetra-chords our major and minor scales were 
developed. 

09 




APOLLO 

(Note example of later form of lyre) 



The History of Music 



of brass were used occasion- 
ally and became very pop- 
ular in later Roman days. 
In the Greek theatre, 
the choruses and the danc- 
ers were of great impor- 
tance. Many of the prin- 
cipal actors sang their lines 
with an accompaniment on 
the lyre.* 

The method of notation 
employed by the Greeks was 
the use of letters above the 
words to indicate the pitch, 
but not the duration of the 
tone. In later days these 
were supplemented by a 
peculiar system of charac- 
ters, which were used to indicate where the breath should be taken 
and which were thus a slight suggestion as to the rhythmic accent. 
These characters were called neumes or neumae, the name being 
derived from the Greek word meaning breath.f 




MARBLE TABLET OF THE HYMN TO APOLLO 




A MODERN GREEK DANCE 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Hymn to Apollo (Found at Delphi, 1898) (Harp ace. by Emma Rons) Baker 

Greek Church Choir 
Greek Church Choir 
Dance Song of the Mountaineers 
Dance Song of the Mountaineers 

* Originally the actors were the leaders of the two antiphonal choruses. 
t Very few examples remain in existence of music written in the old neume system of the 
Greeks. See analysis of "Hymn to Apollo." 

70 



35279 
AQC11 (Kyrie Kekraxa 
1 \Kinonikon 

63535 ICleftopoula 
[Roumeliolica 



The History of Music 




:HURCII OF ST. 



Lesson III 
The Music of the Early Church 

During the early days of Christianity, music was classified as 

religious music and secular music. When bands of Christians 

met in the secret 

chambers of the Cata- 
combs, psalms were 

chanted as a part of 

the service, in the old 

antiphonal manner 

of the Hebrews. 

No instruments were 

used in these services. 

The early Church 

fathers felt that "a 

Christian maiden 

should not know the 

sound of a flute or 

lyre," as these instruments were always associated with the orgies at 

the courts of the emperors. It was, moreover, necessary to maintain 

strict secrecy as to these gatherings, and even the chants were sung in 

a low tone. With the establishment of the Greek Church, Greek 

methods w r ere also employed. 
From the stories of St. Cecilia, 
St. Augustine and others, one may 
realize the important part music 
played in the early religious 
enthusiasm. 

Secular songs and dances, as 
well as all instrumental music, 
became a part of the daily life of 
the people, but was entirely dis- 
tinct from religious music until 
the time of the Crusades. 

The important names of the 
Early Church school are: Am- 
brose (333-397), Bishop of Milan 
(394) collected the old chants 
then in use, for a definite form of 
Church service, and sent mission- 
aries to Northern Europe to teach 




POPE GREGORY DICTATING HIS ANTIPHONAL 



71 



The History of Music 



- poll UTI Ulm re<vni (diu-le- lobanncf 



(a.) In Old Neumes. 




(b.) In Gregorian Notation. 



the Ambrosian chant. Ambrose used four of the Greek modes known 

as Authentic. Little is known of his chant, save that it was metrical. 

Pope Gregory (540-604) destroyed the Ambrosian chant and 

established the Gregorian chant or Plain-Song now in use in the 

Roman Catholic Church. These 
chants were written in a large 
book called Antiphonal or Anti- 
phonarium, and a notation similar 
to the Greek Neumes was used. 
Gregory added to the four Au- 
thentic modes the four Plagal 
modes as well. He established 
schools for choristers* and gave a 
definite form to the Church service. 
Hucbald of Flanders (840- 
930) tried to establish harmony on 
the basis of scientific relationship 
of tone. He attempted reforms in 
notation and made use of parallel 
lines, to indicate tonal relationship, 
from which comes the present staff. 
Guido of Arezzof (995-1050) 
established the method of solfeggio, 
or singing by note, in use to-day, 
thus simplifying the teaching of 
music. 

Guido discovered that the 
favorite hymn to St. John the Baptist possessed a peculiar character- 
istic, the opening syllable of each line being one tone higher than that 
preceding it. Guido took these syllables to represent the seven tones 
of the scale: 

$Ut queant laxis. 
.Kesonare fibris. 
Mira, gestorum. 
.Famuli tuorum. 
Solve polluti. 
Labii reatum. 
Sancte Johannes. 



(c.) In Modern Notation. 

THREE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE HYMN TO 
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 



English Translation 

In order that Thy servants with 
loose (vocal) chords may sing again 
and again the wonders of Thy 
deeds, quash the indictment against 
our sinful lips, Saint John ! 



* Recall ths early schools of music which were found in the British Isles. It w;is from 
the Irish monasteries that the earliest teachers for the Gregorian chant were chosen. 

t Arezzo is a hill town in Italy between Home and Florence. Many recent discoveries in 
Etruscan art have been found here. 

t For euphony "ut" was later changed to "do" and the seventh tone of the scale became 
"si" or "ti." 

72 



The History of Music 




GUIDO D AREZZO 



Guido also used colored lines on 
which the neumes were written, and 
indicated by means of letters before 
each line, that all neumes on said line 
were of certain pitch. Those above and 
below were thus given a definite rela- 
tionship. The line letters he employed 
were C, G, and F. The modern clefs 
are simply transformations of these 
original letter forms. 

Franco of Cologne (thirteenth cen- 
tury) established a system of represent- 
ing rhythm by measure. He employed 
four kinds of notes, from brevis (the 

shortest) to maxima (the longest). He was 
the first theorist to distinguish between 
duple and triple time, and advocated the 
use of triple time as "the perfect measure" 
for church music. 

The three elements of music: rhythm, 
melody and harmony, Lesson III, Part 
I, were developed scientifically in the 
church school, in reversed order : harmony, 
melody and rhythm. The general spread 
of musical science throughout Europe is 
to be noted in the fact that the reforms 
starting with Italy spread to Flanders, 
thence returned to Italy and back to 
Cologne. 



& 




GUIDO OF AREZZO EXPLAINING HIS 
USE OF THE MONOCHORD TO THE 
BISHOP THEODALDUS 



ILLUSTRATIONS* 
61123 ExultateJusti 

71001 Kyrie Eleison (Gregorian High Mass) 
61108 Offertorio e Communione (Gregorian High Mass) 

[Hymn to St. John the Baptist (Diaconus) In Latin 

(In Latin) 



Sistine Choir 
Sistine Choir 
Sistine Choir 

Kline 
Werrcnrath 



* These examples of Gregorian chants present an excellent illustration of the antiphonal 
chant of the Roman Catholic Church. Compare with the Sirota and the Greek Church records. 

Tt Tnav Vp wpll to rpnlnv nnp nf pnpll. 



It may be well to replay one of each. 



73 



The History of Music 



EXAMPLES OF EARLY NOTATION 





FIRST PAGE OF THE GREGORIAN 
ANTIPHONAL 



SPECIMEN OF HUCBALD MANUSCRIPT 




(a.) 



mulnpfira 

""' -""""".-' vAJa^n^ 
diun ^'-" fMj ''-''-^-'" M --' -!-!!*?& 
firuwfrfiam ui 



/^-^ nr^nn-^/^^mf 



OLD MANUSCRIPTS 

ich, Tenth or Kleventh Century, 
ence, Twelfth Century, 
ch, Thirteenth Century. 




PAGE OF A THIRTEENTH CENTURY 
MANUSCRIPT IN THE LIBRARY OF 
THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTPELIER 



74 



The History of Music 




Lesson IV 
Secular Music in Medieval Days 

While the science of music was being developed under the direc- 
tion of the Church, the real spirit of music was in the hands of the 
common people. All that is best in music rises from the natural feel- 
ing of the folk, and this is just as true in 
the early development as it is in the later 
founding of the modern national schools. 
The early minstrels of the north were 
divided into two classes: the bard, who 
recounted deeds of chivalry; and the 
minstrel musician, who, in addition to his 
musical attainments, did tricks also, and 
frequently appeared as an actor in the 
early miracle and mystery plays. These 
men in France were known as jongleurs, 
or jugglers, in distinction to the trouba- 
dors, or French knights, who sang their 
lays to the fair court ladies. When the 
jongleurs settled in the cities these musi- 
cians formed guilds similar to those of the 
other trades, the earliest being the order of Jongleurs of St. Jullien in 
Paris, which held the right to produce all the music for that city and 
refused to allow any musician, not a member, to play there. This 
order was in existence until the reign of Louis XV. In England and 

Germany similar conditions were found, 
the town pipers of Germany existing 
in some places until the middle of the 
nineteenth century. 

It is noted in general history, 
that, as a result of the Crusades, 
there ensued a period known as "The 
Age of Chivalry" (twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries). To this period be- 
long the Troubadours of France, Italy, 
and Spain (called trouveres in North- 
ern France) and the minnesingers of 
Germany. These men returning from 
the Orient brought instruments, poetry 
and music from the Far East which 
THE JESTER was soon assimilated with their own. 



CHURCH OF ST. JULLIEN, 
PARIS, 1330 




The History of Music 

The troubadours counted among their numbers Willam, Count of 
Poitiers (1080-1127); Kichard I of England, "The Lion Hearted" 
(1157-1199) ; Chatelain de Coucy (1157-1192) ; King Thibaut of 
Navarre (1201-1254) ; and Adam de la Halle (1240-1287). The latter, 
known as ''The Hunchback of Arras," was the most famous of the 
troubadours. To him is attributed the pastoral operetta "Robin 
and Marion," in which is to be found the germ of the comic opera 
of later days. The troubadours wrote in the simple style of the 
song, and accompanied their melody with stringed instruments. 
They frequently employed jongleurs to aid them in furthering their 

cause. When the later Crusades drew 
all the nobility to the East, the common 
people took up the development of 
music. 

The minnesingers (literally trans- 
lated "love singers") carried on the 
musical movement in Germany, and are 
contemporaneous with the greatest of 
the troubadours. They flourished dur- 
ing the period of Hohenstaufen su- 
premacy (twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies). They were not only musicians, 
but also the epic poets of the day, and 
the greatest German poetic versions of 
mediaeval legends are attributed to 
them. The greatest order of the minne- 
singers met in the Wartburg Castle in 
Eisenach, and included Hermann, the 
Landgrave of Tlmringia, Gottfried von 
Strassburg, Heinrich Tannhauser, Walther von der Vogelweide, Wolf- 
ram von Eschenbach. Their annual contest of song was immortalized 
by Wagner in ' ' Tannhauser. ' ' 

To Gottfried von Strassburg, literature is indebted for the great- 
est Teutonic version of the old Celtic legend of "Tristan and Isolde," 
while Wolfram von Eschenbach in his "Parsifal" and "Titurel," gave 
to the world the greatest mediaeval versions of the Holy Grail.* 

With the decline of feudal power in the fourteenth century, the 
burghers and artisans of the towns formed the guilds of meistersingers 
(mastersingers) which reached their culmination of power in the six- 




WALTHER VON DER VOGELWEIDE 



* Wagner obtained his inspiration for "Lohengrin" and "Parsifal" from Wolfram, while 
he follows the legend of "Tristan" as given by Gottfried. 



The History of Music 




NURNBERG, THE HOME OF THE MEISTERSINGERS 




TRIAL OF A CANDIDATE FOR THE MEISTERSINGER GUILD 




ST. CATHERINE'S CHURCH, NURNBERG, WHERE THE 

MEISTERSINGERS MET 
77 



The History of Music 




HANS SACHS 

(From the monument in Nuremberg) 



teenth century. Through the ef- 
forts of these guilds the art of music 
became a trade of as great impor- 
tance as any of the other various in- 
dustries. Starting in the Rhine 
country, the movement spread to 
Bavaria. The most famous order 
met in Nuremberg* and was domi- 
nated by the great genius, Hans 
Sachs (1494-1576), who was known 
as "a shoemaker and a poet, too." 
The meistersingers built their songs 
according to very strict rules. Their 
imagery was often weakened by their 
conventional method of composition, 
which was bound absolutely to the 
tablature or laws of the order. 



17725 



1 79QO 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

(Duke of Marlborough Macdonough-Dixon-Werrenrath 

I War Song of the Normans (2) Crusaders' Hymn Victor Male Chorus 

Nightingale Shall Sing (Troubadour) Werrenrath 

Werrenrath 



{Summertime (Minnesinger) 

(Merci clamant (de Coucy) (2) Pour mal terns, ni pour gelee 



17760 



Dixon 



I (Thibaut of Navarre) 

1 Robins m'aime ("Robin and Marion") (2) J'ai encor un id pate 
[ (" Robin and Marion") (Adam de la Halle) Dixon 

45083 Douce dame jolie (Mauchault) L'espoir que jai (Jannequin) Murphy 



Lesson V 
Medieval Schools of Music 

The rise of definite schools of music was the result of the general 
musical knowledge which w r as fast spreading among the common peo- 
ple. With the establishment of the University of Paris in 1100. a 
school of music was considered as necessary as a school of science, and 
there is absolute proof that such a school existed in England, because 
of the manuscript of a six-part canon called "Sumer is icumen in" 
(probable date 1225 to 1240). 

From France the movement spread to the Netherlands, then down 

* Wagner's one comic opera, "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg," tells of the customs of 
the most famous guild and its leader, Hans Sachs. 

78 



The History of Music 




ADRIAN WILLAERT 



to Italy, and gave rise to the birth of 

opera at the end of the Renaissance. 

The music of this period was origi- 
nally all written for choruses, and 

was composed in the strict antiphonic 

style of the Gregorian chant, later 

developing into the polyphonic, or 

many-voiced part writing. All music 

was composed on the strictest pattern 

of the contrapuntal development, the 

canon being the form most used as 

giving the greatest opportunity for 

the display of technical knowledge. 
This development began in the 

Gallo-Belgic School (1360-1460) and 

was brought to its culmination by the 

great school of the Netherlands (1425- 

1625). William Dufay (1400-1474), 

the greatest genius of the Gallo-Belgic 

School, was in reality the founder of its more important successor. 
The existence of the Netherland School is divided into four 

periods : 

First Period (1425-1512). 
Perfection of technical counter- 
point. Chief masters, Johannes 
Okeghem (1430-1513), and his 
pupils, Jacob Hobrecht (1430- 
1506), Antoine Brumel (1460- 
1520). Canonic writing was 
brought to its culmination during 
this period. 

Second Period (1455-1526). 
Attempts were made to acquire 
pure tonal beauty. The greatest 
master was Josquin des Pres ( 1450- 
1521), a pupil of Okeghem, who 
was the first musician having suffi- 
cient musical science at his com- 
mand to be able to write freely. 
Martin Luther was his friend and 
was doubtless influenced and aided 
by Josquin in his use of folk 




INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF 
CENTURY 



79 



The History of Music 




ORLANDO DI LASSUS 



melodies. Luther once said of him, "Josquin is a master of the 

notes; they have to do as he wills; other composers must do as the 

notes will." 

Johannes Tinctor (1446-1511) belongs to this period. He was 
the first of the Netherland masters to 
go to Italy. In 1455 Tinctor became 
Court Director for Ferdinand of Arragon 
at Naples, and is credited as being the 
founder of the Neapolitan School of bel 
canto. 

Third Period (1495-1572). Develop- 
ment of tone painting and secular music. 
The chief masters of this period carried 
the science of the north into Italy. The 
most important genius was Adrian 
"Willaert (1480-1562), who founded the 
instrumental school of Venice.* In 1527 
Willaert was appointed choir master 
of St. Mark's, Venice. Noting that there 

were two organs in the opposite choir lofts, Willaert determined 

to use them in the antiphonal manner. His pupils, Cyprian de 

Rore (1516-1565), the first to use 

chromatic harmony, and Andrea 

Gabrielli (1510-1586), the first to use 

instruments in the antiphonal manner, 

carried on Willaert 's ideas and made 

the school of Venice of supreme im- 
portance. 

Claude Goudimel (1502-1572), 

another pupil of Josquin, carried 

Netherland teachings into Italy and 

founded the great choral school of 

Borne, where Palestrina received his 

earliest teaching. Other composers 

of this period were Nicolas Gombert 

(1495-1570), Jakob Arcadelt (1514- 

1560), noted for his Madrigals, and 

Clement Jannequin (sixteenth cen- 
tury), who attempted to imitate the 




Cui chorus affurgitMularum &Muficjrot.i, 
HacMidiaclFrxtorMuficiu eft lade. 





MICHAEL PRAETORTUS 



* The development of the viol family (violin, viola, violoncello, contra base) is a direct re- 
sult of the intercourse between Venice and the Far East. The rebec of the East was combined 
with the crwth of Northern Europe and became the viol; this reached its perfection of develop- 
ment in the School of Cremona (established by Amati in 1520), which was especially prominent 
during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. (See Lesson XXI, Course HI.) 

80 



The History of Music 




SETHVS CALVISIUS 



sounds of nature. They wrote secular 
music almost exclusively and are the first 
composers of descriptive music. 

Fourth Period (1520-1625). Coun- 
terpoint becomes subservient to expres- 
sion. This period is dominated by 
Orlando di Lassus (1520-1594). who was 
known throughout Europe as ' ' The Prince 
of Musicians. ' ' He is said to have written 
over 2,500 compositions. A complete mas- 
ter of counterpoint, di Lassus wrote in 
all styles. Often his music is as stiff and 
conventional as Okeghem's; again it is 
filled with the most modern chromatic 
harmonies, yet it ever abounds in the highest and truest religious 
expression. 

Jan Peter Sweelinck (1540-1621) and Philip de Monte (1521- 
1603), both men of talent, were completely overshadowed by the 
greater genius of di Lassus. 

In Germany, Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615) and Michael Praetorius 
(1576-1621) played important parts in the development of contrapun- 
tal form. 

Contemporaneous with this period was Giovanni Pierliugi Sante. 
called Palestrina from his birthplace (1514-1594). Palestrina may 
be claimed as a direct descendant of the Netherland School, for 
he \vas an early pupil of Goudimel's famous school in Rome. With 

Palestrina, polyphonic religious music was 
brought to its culmination, and it may 
be rightly claimed that no church music 
since his day has reached the truly religious 
height of Palestrina 's Marcellus Masses. 
These works were written in 1563 at the 
request of Pope Pius IX. who wished to 
prove to the Council of Trent that music 
could be religious and popular at the 
same time. Palestrina and his followers, 
Nanini (1540-1607), Allegri (1584-1662), 
and Anerio (1560-1630) helped to give 
again to the Roman Catholic Church the 
purity and strength of the Gregorian type 




PALESTRINA 



81 



The History of Music 

of expression.* They also laid the foundations for the great chorus 
singing of the oratorios and operas of the next century. 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

35279 Sumer is icumen in (English Canon, 12th Century} 
, 77 qo (Mon coeur se recommande a vous (Orlando di Lassus) 
\Il bianco cigno (Arcadelt) 



45083 
71023 

17870 



L'espoir que fai (Jannequin) 
Filiae Jerusalem (Gabrielli) 



Victor Chorus 

Dixon 

Dixon 

Murphy 

Sistine Choir 



Joseph Mine (Old German Christmas Song) (Calvisius, composed 1587) 

Victor Mixed Chorus 



Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming 
(Praetorius, composed 1600) 



(2) To Us is Born Immanuel 



17^48 (Gloria Patri (Palestrind) (arr. Damrosch) 
\Popule Meus (Palestrina) (arr. Damrosch) 



Lyric Quartet 
Victor Chorus 
Victor Chorus 



Lesson VI 

The Beginnings of Opera 




RENZE, BARDI PALACE, WHERE THE 
"CAMERATA" MET 



In the development of secular 
music through the mediaeval period, 
the Mysteries and Miracle Plays 
were given with music. Occasion- 
ally pastoral plays were produced 
with music by the troubadours; 
yet no real development, combining 
the drama with music, took place 
until the seventeenth century. 
Through the efforts of a band of 
wealthy Florentine nobles the 
form of opera was given to the 
world. This group of men, known 
as the "Camerata," believing that 
the Greeks had recited their dra- 
matic lines to a musical accom- 
paniment, made several attempts 
to recreate this form. A short 
poetic work on the mythical story 
of "Dafne," built on this musical 
plan, was produced in 1597. Thus 



Pope Pius X returned to the use of the Gregorian style of the early contrapuntal schools. 

82 



The History of Music 



was given to the world monody, or single melody with the accompani- 
ment subordinated. In "Dafne" the "Camerata" presented the 
principles of the modern music drama, namely, that drama, music, 
and interpreter should be of equal importance. 

In 1600 the real movement began with the publishing of the 
score of "Euridice," a music drama by Peri and Rinuccini.* This 
work was produced for the marriage of Maria de Medici to Henry IV 
of France, and scores were sent all over Europe. From Florence the 
movement spread to the other schools of Italy, to France, Austria and 
Germany, f Its development in Italy is coincident with the rise of 
the three Italian Schools : Rome, Venice, and Naples. 

ROME. Development of choruses, particularly noticeable in the 
interest shown in oratorio. Carissimi (1640-1674). Greatest oratorio 
writer of Rome. 

VENICE. Instrumental development and marvelous stage equip- 
ment. Opera divided into Opera Seria and Opera Buffa. Monteverde 
(1567-1643) introduced violins into the orchestra. Cavalli (1600- 
1676) introduced the comic element into opera, Cesti (1620-1669), 
pupil of Carissimi, attempted to combine ideas of his master and 
Cavalli, and divided the opera into Opera Seria and Opera Buffa. 
Caldara (1678-1763), a prolific composer of operas, oratorios and 
masses. 

NAPLES. Vocal display becomes of 
greater importance than dramatic action. 
Stradella (1645-1681?); Alessandro Scar- 
latti (1659-1725), contemporary of Handel. 

FRANCE. The opera takes at once a 
popular place, due to the influence of 
Perrin and Lully, who held from the 
French government the exclusive rights to 
produce opera in France. Perrin (1620- 
1675), founder of French Opera; Lully 
(1633-1687), founder of Italian Opera in 
France; Rameau (1683-1764), contempo- 
rary of Handel. JEAN PHILIPPE RAMEAU 




* Collaborating with them was Caccini, another Florentine musician, who contributed many 
beautiful airs in Peri's "Eurydice." During the same year Caccini published his own setting 
of the same libretto. 

the 

and thus the development "of music in America, with the exception of a few hymns, was retarded 
for over a hundred years. Although distracted by many wars with the Indians, and dissen- 
sions with the mother countries of Europe, our colonists still contributed to the advancement of 
culture by the establishment of many schools and colleges. Of these, Harvard (1638), \\illiam 
and Mary (1692), and Yale (1700), are the most important. 

83 



The History of Music 

GERMANY. The Thirty Years' War made the expense of opera 
practically impossible, and there were but few works in this form 
written. These were in absolute imitation of the Italian and French 
works of the period. The remarkable growth of instrumental forms 
in Germany is a direct result of the bringing into the country of all 
the folk music of the various nations engaged in this struggle. 

ENGLAND. Chiefly influenced by the Italian type of Opera 
Seria. Henry Lawes (1595-1662), composed music for Masques and 
Interludes; Pelham Humphreys (1647-1674), founder of English 
Opera; Henry Purcell (1658-1695), greatest English composer. 

At the time of Handel, the Opera Seria had long been separated 
from the true music drama, and was in reality simply a string of 
recitatives and arias, sung by actors in costumes, and with elaborate 
stage settings, but as the individual vocal display was the only point 
which musicians seriously considered, there was practically no true 
dramatic action. 



74672 Gagliarda (Galliard) (Galilei} Toscanini-Orchestra 

55051 Funeste piaggie ("Euridice") (Peri) Werrenrath 

fNon piango e non sospiro ("Euridice") (Caccini) Werrenrath 

\Intorno all' idol mio (Cesti) Marsh 

Masque of Comus (Milton-Lawes) (1) From the Heavens Now I Fly 

(2) Sabrina Fair Dixon and Mixed Quartet 
' Masque of Comus (1) Sweet Echo (2) By the Rushy Fringed Bank 

(3) Back, Shepherds, Back! (Arranged by Sir F. Bridge) Kline-Dixon 
45092 " I Attempt from Love's Sickness to Fly" (Henry Purcell) Werrenrath 
64550 Passing By (Purcell) Gulp 
67201 Rigodon de Dardanus (Rarneau) L'Orchestre Symphonique 

CHOKUSES 

Antioch (Old Hymn) (Handel) 
Captive (Handel) From "Art Songs" 



Lesson VII 
The Beginnings of Oratorio 

The early oratorio is more closely related to the Miracle Plays 
than is the opera, yet the first oratorio, as such, grew out of a move- 
ment which took place in Rome and which was similar to that of the 
Florentine "Camerata. " St. Philip Neri (1515-1595), a pious priest 
of the Church of St. Maria in Vallicelli, made it his custom to invite 
the young people of the church to come one evening each week to 
his private oratory, and there they enacted scenes from the Bible. 

84 



The History of Music 









MUSICAL NOTATION OF THE OPENING SCENE OF THE FIRST ORATORIO (1600) 

Finding that the interest was greatly enhanced by music, the good 
St. Philip persuaded some of his friends, among them Palestrina and 
his followers in the Roman School, to help him by writing musical 
accompaniment for these short Biblical plays. Thus there came into 
being the "Society of Oratorians of Rome," their first complete work 
appearing in 1600. This was called "The 
Representation of the Soul and the Body," 
and was composed by Emilio Cavalieri 
(1550-1599), whose pupil Carissimi 
carried on his ideas, which fact spread 
through the other schools of Italy, and to 
France, Germany and England. 

In Germany these musical settings of 
sacred subjects were always used as a part 
of the Church service and were known as 
Church Cantatas and Passion Music, as 
well as by their Italian name of Oratorio. 

The most famous German composer 
of sacred music was Heinrieh Schiitz 
(1585-1672). Sent to Venice to study 
organ under Giovanni Gabrielli, he 
brought back to Germany many of the 
ideas of the Italian music masters. The 




HEINRICH SCHUTZ 



85 



The History of Music 



first German opera, a setting of Peri's "Dafne, " is credited to Schiitz, 
but it is as an oratorio composer that he holds first rank. In his 
"Resurrection" (1623), "Seven Last Words" (1645), and Sacred 
Symphony Motets (1629-1650) the treatment of his choruses is re- 
markable for brilliancy and grandeur. 

As the opera developed vocally and instrumentally, so in its 
turn did the oratorio, until, at the time of Handel, it ranked with the 
opera as the greatest vehicle of vocal expression in music. 



ILLUSTRATIONS * 

17703 JVittoria, mio core! (Carissimi) 
(Come Raggio di sol (Caldara) 
18173 The Seven Last Words of Christ ^Schutz) 



Werrenrath 
Werrenrath 
(Opening Chorus and Recitative) 

Victor Oratorio Chorus 
74131 Sound An Alarm (" Judas Maccabaeus") (Handel) Williams 

(And the Glory of the Lord (" The Messiah") (Handel) Victor Mixed Chorus 
35499 < Pastoral Symphony Victor Concert Orchestra (2) Glory to God 

\ ("The Messiah") (Handel) Victor Mixed Chorus 

Lesson VIII 
George Frederic Handel 

George Frederic Handel (1685-1759), although contemporaneous 
with the great Bach, belongs not only to the German School, but by 
reason of the circumstances of his artistic career is also identified with 

the Italian and English Schools. Coming 
early under the influence of Keiser and 
Mattheson, he was attracted by the Italian 
Opera and left Germany for a period of 
study in Italy. His brilliant musician- 
ship attracted universal attention and he 
was soon recalled to Hanover as Court 
Director. This position he deserted to di- 
rect Italian Opera in England, which 
caused him to fall into disfavor in Ger- 
many. The accession of the House of 
Hanover to the English throne placed 
Handel in an embarrassing position, but 
his remarkable genius in composing "The 
Water Music" for the new king, again won him recognition and he 
received a royal appointment which he held until his death. Handel 
wrote over forty operas in the style of the Opera Seria; they are 




GEORGE FREDERIC HANDEL 



* These illustrations have been chosen to show the similarity between the early opera and 
oratorio. Several records from "The Messiah" should also be given, if possible. 

86 



The History of Music 



practically obsolete to-day. "When he was fifty -three years old he gave 
up operatic composition and devoted his entire time to oratorio. His 
greatest works are "The Messiah," "Samson," "Saul," and "Judas 
Maccabceus. " A brilliant organist, Handel left but few compositions 
for the organ. Some short, clever fragments for the harpsichord bear 
witness to Handel's skill on that instrument. His use of the 
orchestra in his operas and oratorios shows power and great dramatic 
variety, yet he wrote but little purely instrumental music. 

Although the most popular composer of his time, Handel's works, 
with the exception of his oratorios, have but little influenced the music 
of later days. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
35678 Hallelujah Chorus "Messiah" 
74423 Oh Sleep! Why Dost Thou Leave Me "Semele" 
64841 Menuett (Handel) 
88617 Largo from "Xerxes" 

(Haste Thee Nymph " L' Allegro" 

(Come and Trip It " L' Allegro" 

(Let Me Wander Not Unseen "L' Allegro" 

(Hide Me From Day's Garish Eye ("II Pensieroso") 
1 6980 Dead March "Saul" 

CHORUSES 

See, the Conquering Hero Comes "Judas Maccabeus" (Handel) 

Come Unto Him "The Messiah" (Handel) 

Largo "Xerxes" (Handel) 



Victor Oratorio Chorus 

Gluck 

Kindler 

Caruso 

Dixon and Quartet 

Dixon and Quartet 

Green 

Green 

Pryor's Band 



Lesson IX 

Joliann Sebastian Each 

In the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Robert Schumann declared boldly: 
"To Joliann Sebastian Bach music owes 
as great a debt as does a religion to its 
founder." j'lt is true that the history of 
music actually begins with Bach, whose 
remarkable development of instrumental 
forms is the foundation on which all 
modern music really rests, j It has been 
said that if all the music since Bach's time 
should be lost to the world, it could be 
recreated from the Bach manuscripts. 

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 
is a direct musical descendant of the old 

87 




JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



The History of Music 




BACH'S BIRTHPLACE IN EISENACH 



German town pipers, 
and all his music reflects 
Protestant Germany. 
Bach's entire life was 
spent in his native land, 
which doubtless ac- 
counts for the fact that 
his only choral writings 
were in the forms used 
for the Church service. 
He laid the foundation 
or modern pianoforte 
technic with his remark- 
able work, "The Well- 
Tempered Clavichord. ' ' 
Bach's violin studies comprise about one-third of the modern violinist's 
repertoire; while his organ compositions are justly regarded as being 
the fundamental foundation on which modern organ playing is built. 
The last twenty-seven years of Bach's life were spent in 
Leipsic, where he was director of the St. Thomas Church and the 
famous choir school adjoining it. His cantatas, oratorios, and 
Passion music belong to this period, as do the greatest of his organ 
compositions. These works 
were written for the Church 
services and bear the in- 
scription, "To the glory of 
God alone." After these 
compositions had served 
their purpose, they were laid 
aside. Many of the greatest 
of the Bach manuscripts 
were rediscovered through 
the efforts of Felix Mendels- 
sohn and Robert Schumann. 
In instrumental forms Bach 
brought the fugue to its per- 
fection. He glorified the 
folk dances by his mar- 
velous treatment of them 
in the partita or suite, 
and laid the foundations _ THOMAS CHURCH LEIPSIC; WHERE BACH WAS CANTOR 

88 




The History of Music 



for the later de- 
velopment of the 
sonata.* 

Bach was the 
culmination of all 
the greatness of 
t h e contrapuntal 
schools of England, 
Frajice, Nether- 
lands and Italy 
(Lesson V, Part 
II), combined with 
the deep poetic 
insight into the 
true ideality of 
music. For this reason his works may be regarded as the embodi- 
ment of the science of music, yet they will always make a direct 
appeal to the human heart. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Ave Maria (Bach-Gounod) 

My Heart Ever Faithful (Bach) 
( D major suite (Bach) Overture 
\D major suite Bourree and Gigue 
(D major suite (Bach) A ir 
\D major suite (Bach) Gavotte 




MORXIXG PRAYERS IX THE HOUSE OF BACH 



89104 
88575 



McCormack-Kreisler 
Homer 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Victor Concert Orchestra 
Victor Concert Orchestra 
Victor Concert Orchestra 



CHORUSES 



Unto Thee I Will Sing (Bach) 
Song of the Pilgrim (Bach) 
Help Us, Lord (Bach) 



Song of Eest (Bach) 
Forget Me Not (Bach) 



Lesson X 

Gluck 

Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787) was the first great com- 
poser to interest himself in the reform and development of opera. 
All his education and operatic development took place in Italy and 
in Paris, and his name is always associated with the rise of French 
opera. 



* The forms used in Bach's day are fully described in Lesson XXV, Part III. If possi- 
ble these forms should be considered at this time. Students should prepare short papers on "A 
Comparative Study of Bach and Handel," who were born the same year. This should be done 
from a personal side, as well as from a study of their compositions, as it will in that way make 
a stronger appeal to each individual student. 

89 



The History of Music 




At the time of Gluck the form known as "Oratorio Opera"* held 
sway throughout Italy, Germany and England the French School 
being less influenced by its preposterous absurdities than any of the 
others. Definite interest in the drama W 7 as more 
apparent during the eighteenth century in 
France than in any other country, and this was 
largely responsible for the fact that it was there 
that the efforts of Gluck were made. 

Gluck, in his preface to his opera ' ' Alceste, ' ' 
declares, that "Simplicity and Truth are the sole 
principles of the beautiful in Art. ' ' Feeling that 
truth was handicapped by the superficialities of 
the day, Gluck declared boldly against the then 
existing form of opera, and laid down the princi- 
ples on which the modern music drama has since 
been built. (See Lesson V, Part IV.) He de- 
manded a libretto which should not only be good 
CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK poetr y ? but good drama as well, and he wrote 
music to conform to the plot and in the strictest sense to interpret the 
situations. The overture became in reality the true prelude or prepa- 
ration for the action which was to follow. The old rules regarding 
arias were laid aside, so that when the dramatic situation should call 
for a certain actor, that person should appear and sing his aria, with- 
out regard for the display of his powers of vocalization, but with sim- 
ple dramatic effect. 

Gluck 's ideas caused a small musical revolution in France; part 
of the Court sustaining the Italian form, which was ably championed 
by Piccini, the other declaring for Gluck, the reformer of French 
opera. Although Gluck founded no school, his influence is felt in 
the works of Mozart, Beethoven and von Weber, although it is not 
until the time of Richard Wagner that Gluck 's true greatness stands 
revealed. 

Gluck wrote thirty operas, of which "Alceste," "Orfeo," "Ar- 
mide, " "Iphigenie en Tauride, " "Iphigenie en Aulide" are the great- 
est and best known. These works are still given, both on account of 
their historical interest, as well as their true dramatic and musical 
worth. 



* Review briefly the beginnings of opera and the form of Handel. Chronologically Gluck 
follows Handel, though he was fully half a century in advance of his time. The difference be- 
tween the Courts of Vienna and Paris should be noted, the purely Italian influence of the late 
Renaissance that had crept into Vienna and the national spirit which was awakening in Paris. 
The greatest literary men of Paris in the late seventeenth century Moliere, Racine, Corneille, 
etc., should be recalled, in relation to the return of interest in the classical drama which still 
existed at this time. Note the use of the Ballet, a favorite form in French Opera. 

90 



The History of Music 

ILLUSTKATIONS 

18314 Musette "Armide" Victor Concert Orchestra 

88285 Che faro senza Euridice (I Have Lost My Euridice) ("Orfeoed 

Euridice " ) Homer 

17917 Menuett (Gluck) Reitz 

74567 Dance of the Happy Spirits "Orfeo" Philadelphia Orchestra 

CHOKUSES 

Lift Up Your Heads, O Ye Gates (Gluck) 
The Broken Ring (Gluck) 

Morning Praise ("Orfeo and Euridice") (Gluck) 
See What Grace ("Iphigenia in Aulis") (Gluck) 



Lesson XI 
Haydn 

Franz Josef Haydn* (1732-1809) is called the "Father of the 
Sonata." He may also be called the father of the string quartet 
and the symphony orchestra, for it was he who established the string 
quartet, and who divided the Symphony orchestra into four divisions, 
namely, strings, wood-winds, brasses and percussion instruments. 
Haydn established the definite form known 
as the ' ' Sonata Form, ' ' upon which all the 
first movements of sonatas, duets, trios, 
quartets, etc., concertos and symphonies 
since his day have been built. (See Lesson 
XXV, Part III.) 

Most of Haydn's early life was spent 
in Vienna, where he directed the music 
for Count Esterhazy at his famous castle 
just outside of the Austrian capital, which 
was modeled after the French palace at 
Versailles. It was while in the service of 
Esterhazy that Haydn developed his instru- 
mental forms and perfected the arrange- 
ment of the symphony orchestra. In his 
later years Haydn visited England, where he heard and became 
enthusiastic over Handel's works. Haydn was warmly received in 
England, where his works met with a universal success. On his return 
to Vienna he wrote several oratorios in the Handel style, of which 
"The Creation" (1798) and "The Seasons" (1801) are the most 
famous. (See Lesson IX, Part IV.) 







* Recall that Haydn and George Washington were born the same year, 1732. Altho 
Germany at this time fixes the forms for future development in music, America was doing a 
more important act for the world by establishing the form for future government of the peop 

91 



ugh 
far 
the people. 



The History of Music 

Haydn's style was clear and bright, sincere in spirit and genial 

in melody. Haydn was the teacher of both Mozart and Beethoven. 

A comparative historical table of the rulers of the latter half of 

the eighteenth century will be of interest in the study of this period. 

FRANCE : 

Louis XV, 1715-74. Seven Years' War, 1756-63. 

Louis XVI, 1774-92. 

Revolution, 1789-95. 

Napoleon, 1795. 

Napoleon made Emperor, 1804. 
AUSTRIA : 

Maria Teresa, 1740-80. 
GERMANY : 

Frederick the Great of Prussia, 1740-86. 
RUSSIA : 

Catharine II, 1762-96. 
ENGLAND : 

George III, 1760-1820. 
AMERICA : 

French and Indian War, 1754-1763. 

Revolutionary War, 1776-1783. 

Adoption of Constitution and the founding of the Republic. 

George Washington, 1732-1799. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

64538 Menuett (Haydn) Elman 

45092 My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair Marsh 

35243 Surprise Symphony Allegro di Mollo Andinte Victor Concert Orchestra 

35244 Surprise Symphony Menuetto Allegro MoUv Victor Concert Orchestra 

CHORUS 
O Worship the King (Haydn) 

Lesson XII 
Mozart 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was one of the most 
human and lovable of the great composers. The period in which he 
lived was one of romantic interest, and his early life as a musical 
prodigy before the principal courts of Europe reads like a fairy tale. 

At no time in the history of the world has the court life of 
Europe been so lavish as during the later half of the eighteenth 
century. One of the greatest prodigies the world has ever known, the 

92 



The History of Music 





STATUE OF THE YOUNG MOZART 



HOUSE IN SALZBURG WHERE MOZART 
WAS BORN 




NG BY NEPOMUK Of. LA CROCE III THE MOZART MUSEUM. SAL?BURG 
THE MOZART FAMILY 



The History of Music 

boy Mozart, and his sister Maria Anna, soon became the court favor- 
ites and traveled not only in Austria, but to France and Italy as well. 
It was but natural that the youthful genius should be influenced by 
these experiences. There is a delicacy and refinement in Mozart's 
musical expression which is not found in the works of his master, 
Haydn. 

From his seventh year until his death at the age of thirty-five, 
Mozart's genius poured forth a spontaneous stream of over a thousand 
melodious compositions, many of which were never published. Mozart 
wrote all forms and for all instruments, as well as many operas 
and oratorios. Of his forty-nine symphonies, the three greatest are 
E-flat, G-minor and C-major ("Jupiter"). These works w r ere all 
written in six weeks during the summer of 1788. 

As a composer of opera Mozart still remains pre-eminent. (See 
Lesson VI, Part IV.) His dramatic works show great individual 
genius, but little regard for the previous reforms of Gluck. His arias 
have never been surpassed and his dramatic simplicity has rarely been 
equaled by succeeding composers. Mozart's greatest operas, "The 
Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni" and "The Magic Flute," are 
still popular favorites with singers and the public as well. Gifted 
with a marvelous spontaneous melody, Mozart's music, even in his 
strictest contrapuntal compositions, possesses a simplicity and na'ive 
grace which charms all hearers. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

3^482 {Symphony in G Minor Allegro molto Victor Concert Orchestra 

{Symphony in G Minor Andante Victor Concert Orchestra 

35489 Symphony in G Minor Menuetto (Mozart) Victor Concert Orchestra 

88194 Deh vieni alia fmestra (Open Thy Window) " Don Giovanni" Scotti 

88067 Voi che sapete "Marriage of Figaro" Melba 

89015 La ci darem la mano (Thy Little Hand) "Don Giovanni" Farrar-Scotti 

CHORUSES 

The Blacksmith (Mozart) Go, Forsake Me (Mozart) 

Father, Hear the Prayer We Offer The Minuet (Mozart) 
(Mozart) 

Lesson XIII 
A Beethoven 

\ Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) is the greatest personality 
in the history of music. His works marked the culmination of the 
Classical School of music and opened the doors to the Romantic School. 
It is difficult to study Beethoven, for his genius is colossal, his sub- 

94 



The History of Music 

limity so overwhelming that it compels one's awe and reverence as 
well as one's admiration. Every page of Beethoven's music is a page 
of his own personal heart history, and to comprehend his music one 
must study his biography and learn to know the trials, the hardships, 
the battles and the triumphs of this "Michael Angelo of Music." 

Beethoven's personal life history is one of the greatest tragedies 
ever written. His peculiar idiosyncrasies were chiefly due to his 
physical condition and are entirely overshadowed by the true greatness 
of the man, who through his work, w r as able to "grapple and triumph 
over the fate which would overcome. ' ' 

Beethoven's love of Nature, his reverence for God, his belief in 
the brotherhood of man, are all reflected in his music. Beethoven was 
an ardent Republican and a strong adherent of democracy. The age of 
Beethoven is a remarkable one in the history of civilization. "While 
Napoleon was reconstructing the government of Europe, the same 
revolutionary tendency was becoming evident in literature and music. 
This is first noticed in the works of Schiller and Goethe, and later 
finds expression in Beethoven's mighty symphonies. 

Beethoven wrote in all forms ; his greatest works are : 

SYMPHONIES ............. Nine for full orchestra. 

f Five for piano. 
CONCERTOS .............. 1 . ,. 

[ One for violin. 



OVERTURES.. . ^ Olives ' 

[ Mass in D. 

OPERA .................. "Fidelio." 

Leonore," No. 2. 
Leonore," No. 3. 



RATORIOS "Egmont 

' ' Coriolanus. ' ' 

!' ' Rasoumowsky. ' ' 
E flat. 
D and C. 

FOR PIANO 
'Pathetique." 
; Waldstein,"Op. 21. 



SONATAS . 



: Appassionata, " Op. 23, 

: Moonlight." 

'Kreutzer" for violin and piano. 



95 






The History of Music 





OUSE IN BONN WHERE BEETHO- 
VEN WAS BORN; NOW THE BEE- 
THOVEN MUSEUM 




BEETHOVEN MANUSCRIPT 



BEETHOVEN'S BIRTHPLACE FROM 
COURTYARD 



96 



The History of Music 

Beethoven's compositions may be divided into three periods: 

1792-1803. Influence of Haydn and Mozart, Op. 1 to Op. 
50 include First and Second Symphonies, first three Piano Con- 
certos, many Sonatas and shorter compositions. 

1803-1815. Rise of Beethoven 's individuality. The affliction 
of deafness increases. Greatest works of this period are opera 
"Fidelio," Symphonies "Eroica, No. 3"; No. 4; "Fate," or No. 
5 ; ' ' Pastoral, ' ' No. 6 ; Symphony in A, No. 7 ; Symphony in 
F-major, No. 8. 

1815-1827. Culmination. Beethoven now totally deaf. 
Mass in D. Symphony No. 9 with Choral setting of Schiller's 
/ "Ode to Joy." 

( Beethoven's works are still rightly regarded as the greatest models 
of instrumental form.* New orchestral effects, new methods of por- 
traying dramatic ideas, some changes in form, it is true, have come 
into music since his time, but nothing which has not been suggested 
in Beethoven's music. As Mendelssohn once said, "When Beethoven 
points the way who shall dare say ' thus far and no farther ? ' : 

ILLUSTBATIONS t 

35493 Overture "Egmont" Victor Concert Orchestra 

63794 God in Nature Van Eweyk 

35580 Andante Fifth Symphony Victor Concert Orchestra 

(The Heavens Resound (Beethoven) Victor Oratorio Chorus 

{Prisoners' Chorus "Fidelio" Victor Male Chorus 

CHOEUSES 

My Faithful Johnny (Scotch) (Beethoven) 

Come, O Creator (Beethoven) 

The Heavens Besound (Beethoven) 

The Larghetto (Beethoven) (Arr. Edgar Stillman Kelly) 

Fleecy Clouds (Minuet in G) 



Lesson XIV 

Schubert 

Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) was the one native composer 
of Vienna. He lived at the same period as Beethoven,? though he 
knew the latter but slightly. Schubert was the most pathetic, and at 
the same time the most unusual figure in music history. Possessed of a 

* For the study of Beethoven's orchestral works see Lesson XXVII, Part III. 
t Students should be familiar with the ?reat musicians living in Vienna at this time, who 
were contemporaries of Beethoven and Schubert. 

97 



The History of Music 




spontaneous gift of melody,* which has never been equaled, Schubert 
wrote his compositions as though directed by an invisible force and 
the greatest of his works he never heard produced. On the stone 
which marks his last resting place there is inscribed: "Music hath 
buried here a rich treasure, but still richer hopes." How great 
these "hopes" were was not realized until 1840, when Robert Schu- 
mann discovered in Ferdinand Schubert's 
home an old pile of manuscripts of Franz 
Schubert, which, at the time of the composer's 
death, had been valued at less than fifty 
dollars. Among these papers Schumann 
found all the compositions which are consid- 
ered Schubert's greatest works, including the 
"Unfinished Symphony," the Symphony in 
C Major, No. 10, and many others. 

Schubert wrote in all forms of music, 
leaving about 650 songs, part songs, masses, 
18 dramatic works, 24 piano sonatas, many 
overtures, 20 string quartets and 10 sym- 
phonies, besides a vast quantity of smaller 
compositions for piano and other instruments. 

Schubert's short piano compositions are full of melodic and har- 
monic charm, and in poetic content point the way towards the Roman- 
ticism of Mendelssohn and Schumann. Aside from the many beau- 
tiful instrumental compositions which Schubert gave the world, his 
chief contributions to musical literature were his marvelous songs 
which occupy a unique place in the development of music. During 
the eighteenth century the old folk song had been completely domi- 
nated by the Italian methods of singing ; although occasional glimpses 
of true folk feeling are found in some of the songs of Haydn, Mozart 
and Beethoven. Schubert, however, brought the German song to a 
state of perfection. He stands in the same relation to the development 
of song that Beethoven occupies toward the symphony. In Schubert 's 
songs the melody always fits the poetic thought of the words, and 
although predominant, it is generally augmented by the accompani- 
ment, which seems to form, as it were, an atmospheric setting for the 
words. The Schubert songs follow three general forms : 

1. FOLK MANNER SONGS a song in which the same melody is 
repeated for each verse. 



FRANZ PETER SCHUBERT 



* Many interesting stories of Schubert will aid the students in remembering his unique 
gift of spontaneity. Recall the anecdote to be found in all biographies of Schubert, which tells 
of his composition of "Hark, Hark, the Lark" and "Who is Sylvia?" 



The History of Music 





HOUSE WHERE SCHUBERT DIED, VIENNA 



CLUCK M02 




GRAVES OF MUSICIANS IN CENTRAL CEMETERY, VIENNA 



99 



The History of Music 



2. ART SONGS in which the melody reflects the words and senti- 
ments expressed are called ' ' through composed ' ' songs. 

3. ART BALLAD, or song which narrates a definite story. 

In his songs Schubert always kept a direct relationship between 
the words and the music. His dramatic sense was aided by his choice 
of poets: Shakespeare, Klopstock, Schiller, Goethe, Miiller and Mat- 
thieson being his favorites. 

There were a number of great composers who developed Schu- 
bert's form of the Art Ballad. The most important of these was Carl 
Loewe (1796-1869), whose ballads were always distinctly dramatic. 
Loewe elaborated his accompaniment so that it always was of great 
importance in the musical characterization. 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

35314 Unfinished Symphony (Schubert) 
17634 Who is Sylvia? (Words by Shakespeare) (Schubert) 
64093 Serenade (Schubert) 
88342 Erl King (Schubert) 
64218 Hark! Hark! the Lark 

(The Wanderer (Schubert) 

{The Watch (Loewe) 
64670 Ballet Music "Rosamunde" (Schubert) 



Victor Orchestra 

Werrcnrath 

Williams 

Schumann-Heink 

Williams 

van Eweyk 

van Eweyk 

Kreisler 



The Wild Rose (Schubert) 
Cradle Song (Schubert) 



CHOEUSES 

The Wanderer (Schubert) 
Who is Sylvia (Schubert) 



Lesson XV 
Romanticism I 

The middle of the nineteenth century 
is known as the "Romantic Period" of 
music history. It was but natural that the 
feeling for romance, so prevalent through- 
out Europe, and manifested in the other 
arts should make a marked impression on 
music. As the nature of music is but an 
expression of individuality, it was impos- 
sible for musical art to be restricted to the 
classical forms of the past. A marked 
tendency toward free expression is to be 
found from the beginning of the develop- 
ment of modern music. Although much of 
the music of the so-called ' ' Classic School ' ' 




CARL MARIA VON WEBER 



100 




The History of Music 

was decidedly Romantic in character, from 1830 to 1863 all composers 
were moved by this spirit, which thus gave a peculiar quality to the 
whole epoch. 

In music, as in art and literature, the terms "Classic" and 
"Romantic" mean little except in relation to each other. The aim of 
the classical master was to reflect ideal beauty in a form which should 
be impersonal in character; therefore, the 
masters of the classical school adapted all 
their thought and expression to a definite 
mould or form. The ideals of romantic art 
served to present individual thoughts, moods 
or dreams, which the composer would trans- 
fer to his audience either by the medium of 
the old classical forms which he adapted 
unhesitatingly to suit his needs, or by the 
creation of entirely new forms more or less 
similar to those used in the past. The 
fundamental principle of romanticism is in- 
dividuality, expressed through virtuosity, 

program music and nationality. FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY 

In Germany the change from the classic school to the romantic 
was less pronounced than in France, where individuality was for the 
first time given a free rein in every branch of the art. 1 Beethoven is 
the connecting link between the classic and romantic schools, but his 
contemporaries Schubert and von "Weber, both showed marked tend- 
ency toward romantic expression. Schubert in all his compositions 
reflected this feeling and by the creation of the song form opened up 
a new pathway to the romantic composer. 

Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826) gave to the German people 
their first national opera; for with "Der Freischiitz, " produced in 
1821, the world heard for the first time a great operatic work based on 
a German folk tale, told through the medium of German folk music, 
and sung by German singers in the German language.* "Euryanthe" 
(1823) and "Oberon," which was produced in England (1826), were 
never so successful as "Der Freischiitz." although both are remark- 
able examples of the increasing interest in romanticism. 

The two great masters of the German romantic school were Felix 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and Robert Schumann. Both were men of 
wealth and education, and by virtue of their intellectual achievements, 
were well fitted to carry on the work of the Romantic School. 

* Xo country can have a National School of Opera until opera is sung in the language of 
that country by native singers. 

101 



The History of Music 



Mendelssohn (1809-1847) was one of the most lovable personalities 
in music history. Possessed of a strong melodic gift, Mendelssohn was 
from his earliest childhood surrounded by the best of musical training ; 
and his work, although anticipating the romantic feeling, still reflects 
the technical science of his predecessors. Mendelssohn wrote in all 
forms, save that of the opera. His largest works were the oratorios 
"St. Paul" (1836), "Hymn of Praise" (1840), and "Elijah" pro- 
duced in Birmingham, England (1846). His symphonies, while follow- 
ing the classical models, are program music in that they are given 
definite titles, such as ' ' The Reformation, " " Scotch, " " Italian. ' ' The 
two latter works make use of national characteristics. Schumann and 
Mendelssohn both made use of the overture form as a vehicle for the 
expression of program music. They called their works in this form 
"Concert Overtures," and many of Mendelssohn's greatest works, in- 
cluding "The Fair Melusina," "The Hebrides," "Calm Sea and Pros- 
perous Voyage," were written in this pattern. In his piano com- 
positions Mendelssohn used the song form and the poetic thoughts he 
here expressed were designated as ' ' Songs Without Words. ' ' He also 
left two concertos for piano with orchestra, and the famous concerto 
for violin and orchestra ; many chamber compositions and works for 
the organ. Mendelssohn's chief popularity rests on the incidental 
music which he composed for Shakespeare's "A Midsummer-Night's 
Dream." This composition which he began when but a boy, reflects 
the grace, the elegance and the melodic charm of his genius, coupled 
with his mastery of the technique of composition. 

Robert Schumann (1810-1856) was a far more original genius 
than Mendelssohn, but as his early education was pursued with the 

intention of becoming a lawyer. Schumann 
did not have the advantage of a technical 
musical education. Yet his romantic imag- 
ination, poetic insight and independence, 
make his compositions of extreme impor- 
tance to the romantic period. Schumann 
wrote in all forms, even making some futile 
attempts at dramatic composition. There 
have remained of these efforts several excel- 
lent overtures to "Genoveva," "Faust" 
and "Manfred," which serve to show Schu- 
mann at his best. His four symphonies 
are full of melodic and harmonic charm, 
although the technicalities of form are 
often frankly ignored. He left many com- 




ROBERT SCHUMANN 



102 



The History of Music 



positions in the form of chamber music, as well as a number of 
choral works, but it is as a composer of songs and short piano works 
that Schumann deserves first rank. All of his piano compositions, 
including his famous concertos, were written for the talented young 
pianiste, Clara Wieck, who afterward became Madame Clara Schu- 
mann, his devoted wife. Schumann was chiefly responsible for the find- 
ing of the greatest Bach manuscripts, which had been forgotten since 
Bach's day. It was Schumann, also, who gave the world the greatest 
of Schubert's works. As the editor of "The New Journal of Music," 
the most famous musical paper of his- 
tory, Schumann introduced to the world 
the greatest works of Bach, Schubert, 
Mendelssohn, Berlioz, Chopin. Liszt, 
Wagner and Brahms. 

Robert Franz (1815-1892) is an- 
other composer whose songs belong to 
the romantic period. Franz carried out 
the ideas of description in his remark- 
able accompaniments, which are most 
beautiful compositions even when con- 
sidered apart from the words. Most of 
his songs are in the form of Schubert's 
"Art Song." 




CLARA SCHUMANN 



Other great German composers of this period were : 
LudwigSpohr (1784-1859) ; 
Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861) ; 
Ferdinand Heller (1811-1885) ; 
Robert Volkman (1815-1883) ; 
Carl Reinecke (1824-1911) ; 
Adolph Jensen (1837-1879) ; 
Franz Lachner (1804-1890) ; 
Joachim Raff (1822-1882). 



. _ (Spring Night (Schumann) 

J \Thou Art Like A Flower (Schumann) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
35625 Overture "Midsummer-Night's Dream" (Mendelssohn) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Miller 
Reimers 

74285 Spring Song (2) Prophet Bird de Pachmann 

64554 Moonlight (Schumann) Gulp 

64217 Return of Spring (Schumann) Williams 

74578 Scherzo Quartet in A Minor (Schumann) Flonzaley Quartet 

74556 Two Grenadiers (Schumann) Whitehill 

103 



The History of Music 



CHOEUSES 



My Jesus, As Thou Wilt (von Weber) 
Boat Song (von Weber) 
Farewell to the Forest (Mendelssohn) 
Over Hill, Over Dale (Mendelssohn) 
Wake, O Sweet Rose (Schumann) 



Highland Cradle Song (Schumann) 
The Winter Hath Not a Blossom 

(Reinecke) 
The Rose's Complaint (Franz) 



Lesson XVI 
Romanticism II 

The French romantic school carried all the points of romanticism 
to a much greater extreme than did the Germans, and as the Court 
of Louis Phillippe attracted all the literary and artistic genius 
of the day, so, too, musicians from other lands settled there and became 
identified with what is known as the "French Romantic School." 
Among these were Francois Chopin, of Poland; Franz Liszt, of 
Hungary; and Niccolo Paganini, of Italy, in the instrumental school; 
Cherubini, Spontini, Bellini and Donizetti, Italians; and Meyerbeer, 
a German, in the opera school. 

The unsettled political condition of France during the first half 
of the nineteenth century is reflected in the literature, art and music 
of this period. The French public demanded excitement ; only the 
most extravagant and spectacular appealed to their satiated imagina- 
tions. In literature, Balzac, Dumas, de 
Musset and Victor Hugo gratified this 
desire with their realistic school of writ- 
ing, and the music of the period followed 
the same manner of expression. This 
is noticeable both in the instrumental 
as w r ell as the operatic school. The 
greatest French master of this time was 
Hector Berlioz, who, as Schumann once 
said, "is the most uncompromising 
champion of program music." For 
over a century the French School had 
been identified exclusively with the 
opera, and there was practically no de- 
velopment of instrumental music in France* until the advent of 
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), whose peculiar personality is the most 
unique to be found in all music history. 

* During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries many of the French opera 
composers attempted purely instrumental compositions, several of these composers being remem- 
bered now more for their instrumental than their vocal works. Among them were Couperin, 
Daquin, Rameau, Monsigny, Gossec, Gretry. (See Lesson XXI, Part III.) 

104 




The History of Music 



Berlioz was possessed of an exhaustive knowledge of the tech- 
nical possibilities of the instruments of the orchestra, and his tone 
coloring and orchestral combinations were always extreme. He de- 
parts from all regular forms in the writing of his works, but gives 
always a picture in tone, painted with such amazing coloring that 
he stands unique among a school of musicians, known for their eccen- 
tric individual expression. Berlioz made use of a characteristic 
phrase or motive which he called "the fixed idea," and all his com- 
positions are worked out on this plan ; all have definite titles and tell 
their own individual stories. Berlioz wrote in all forms, but his most 
successful works were for orchestra, in the form of the "Dramatic" 
Symphony; of these, "Harold in Italy," "Romeo and Juliet" and 
"Episode in the Life of an Artist," are the best known. His most 
popular work is the dramatic cantata "Damnation of Faust," although 
the "Requiem Mass" and several operas, among them "Benvenuto Cel- 
lini" and "Les Troyens, " are still often given successfully in Europe. 

Berlioz has been frequently compared to Victor Hugo, for both 
delighted in expressing the grotesque, even the ugly, in their art. 
Yet, in spite of his idiosyncrasies, Berlioz must 
be regarded as the most important orchestral 
genius since Beethoven. 

Another remarkable personality identified 
with the French romantic school was Nicolo 
Paganini (1782-1840), an Italian violinist, who 
exerted a great influence during this period. 
Paganini was possessed of a dazzling genius for 
producing novel and sensational effects on his 
instrument. His compositions are the founda- 
tion of all modern violin technique and can 
be interpreted only by great virtuosi. Paga- 
nini 's triumphs as a spectacular violin virtuoso 
were repeated by Liszt on the piano, in the fol- 
lowing decade. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35241 Overture "Carnival Romain" (Berlioz) 
81034 Serenade Mephistopheles "Damnation of Faust'' 
74395 Dans les Bois (Paganini-Vogrich) 
74581 Moto Perpetuo (Paganini) 

(Rakoczy March "Damnation of Faust" (Berlioz] 

Symphony Orchestra of Paris 
35462 1 Minuet Will o' the Wisps "Damnation of Faust" (Berlioz) 

Symphony Orchestra of Paris 
CHORUS 
The Flight Into Egypt (Second Part of "The Childhood of Christ") (Berlioz) 

lor, 




NICOLO PAGANINI 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

(Berlioz) Planqon 

Elman 

Heifetz 



The History of Music 



Lesson XVII 
Chopin and Liszt 

Many of the masters of the Romantic School had made use of 
national characteristics in their music, but it was by Chopin and 
Liszt that the great message of individual national expression was 
first spoken. (See Lessons XXI and XXIII, Part I.) 

Chopin (1810-1849) was pre- 
eminently a Polish patriot and his 
music is ever reminiscent of the past 
glories of his native land; while, in 
his Hungarian Rhapsodies, Liszt 
opened the way for all future national 
expression in music. 

Both of these composers were 
identified with the French School dur- 
ing the rise of romanticism. Both 
attracted the attention of the musical 
world as the first virtuosi of the piano. 
Chopin, "the poet of the piano," was 
as great an innovation in the pianistic 
world as Liszt, whose dazzling spec- 
tacular virtuosity was the antithesis of 
Chopin 's more refined genius. 
It was Schumann who introduced Chopin to the world, with the 
words: "Hats off, gentlemen; a genius!" There has never been a 
greater charm exerted over the music of the world than that of 
Chopin, though, with the exception of a few beautiful songs, he wrote 
only for his own instrument, the piano.* The art of independent 
virtuosity took on new importance in his hands. To develop a more 
singing legato, Chopin made use of new rhythms which required a 
more flexible and freer use of the fingers. He adopted the tempo 
rubato ("robbed time"), the lengthening of one or several notes at 
the cost of others, which makes possible freer rhythmic treatment. 
His own poetic nature developed the infinite shadings between piano 
and forte and inspired his use of the cadenza, although this was 
always employed directly to emphasize the spirit of the composition. 
A new method of pedaling was demanded by his compositions. 




FREDERIC FRANCOIS CHOPIN 



* Chopin rarely combines other instruments with his own, the most noteworthy examples 
being the concertos in E-minor and F-major, with orchestra; sonata for piano and '-cello, Op. 
65; duet concertante for piano and 'cello, and trio for piano, violin and 'cello, Op. 8. 

106 



The History of Music 



Chopin's Etudes opened a new era in piano technique, particu- 
larly in the manner of extended fingering and bold progressions. 
As both a pianist and composer, Chopin exerted a rare influ- 
ence on modern music, for he gave not only the true poetic con- 
ception of tone, but also the possibility of combining national effects 
in music, by his use of the mazurkas, polonaises and waltzes of 
Poland. Although all of Chopin's music is poetic expression, verging 
toward program music, he gave no titles to his works and sought 
to make no suggestions to his hearers of the hidden beauty which 
each listener feels is lurking in the depths of his musical tone 
poems. 

Franz Liszt (1811-1886), of Hun- 
garian parentage, was trained as a pianist 
in Vienna and Paris, where his early life 
was spent. Later, Liszt became identified 
with the German School. He may well be 
regarded as the founder of the modern 
instrumental school. Liszt was not only 
the greatest of the bravura pianists, but 
his extraordinary personality, his generos- 
ity and remarkable teaching ability 
would have entitled him to first rank in 
music history had he never figured as a 
composer. As a pianist he established the 
plan of piano transcriptions of songs, 
operatic, and orchestral compositions. All 
his works for piano make use of brilliant 

technical effects, and every great pianist since his day has acknowl- 
edged his great genius as a technical virtuoso. Liszt's Hungarian 
Rhapsodies, built upon Hungarian folk dances, are among the most 
popular of his works. Liszt left many large works for chorus, his 
two oratorios, "St. Elizabeth" and "Christus, " being remarkable for 
their dramatic character. He wrote no operas. His greatest works 
are the two Symphonies with Choruses, "Faust" and "Dante's Divine 
Comedy," and the thirteen Symphonic Poems for Orchestra. Of the 
Symphonic Poems, "Les Preludes," "Tasso," "Orpheus" and "Ma- 
zeppa's Ride" are the best. In these works Liszt showed himself as a 
firm adherent to the school of program music, using titles, guiding 
themes, characteristic instrumentation and a new development of the 
sonata form, to make possible the telling of his marvelous stories in 
tone. 




FRANZ LISZT 



107 



The History of Music 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

35241 Polanaise Militaire (Chopin) 

(Prelude (Op. 28, No. 24) (Chopiri)\ 
\Etude (Op. 10, No. 5) (Chopin) } 

55094 Liebestraum (Liszt) 

88204 Lorelei (Liszt) 

74589 Caprice Poetic (Liszt) 

74647 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (Liszt) 



Vessella's Band 
de Pachmann 



Herbert's Orchestra 

Homer 

Cortot 

Philadelphia Orchestra 



CHORUSES 
Memorial March (Chopin) Thou Art Like a Flower (Liszt) 



Lesson XVIII 
Opera of the Early Nineteenth Century 

The keynote of the Romantic School, "individual expression," 
made itself manifest in the most striking manner in the purely instru- 
mental schools, yet at this time a great interest in opera developed 
also. Following "Der Freischiitz," which appeared in 1821, other 
composers who contributed to the German romantic opera were Ludwig 
Spohr (1784-1859) and Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861). 

The lighter form of opera, known in France as "Opera Comique." 
became very popular in Paris, where witty dialogue, sparkling music 
and piquant acting always received popular approval. The names to 
be remembered in France during this period are : 
Etienne Mehul (1763-1817), "Joseph," 
Francois Boieldieu (1775-1834), "La Dame Blanche," 
Daniel Auber (1782-1871), "Fra Diavalo," 

Louis Herold (1791-1833), "Zampa." 
Jacques Halevy ( 1799-1862 ) / ' La Juive. ' ' 
The French successor of the opera 
seria was the French grand opera. With 
the reconstruction of Paris after the 
Revolution, two national opera houses 
were built, one for the production of 
opera comique, the other for grand 
opera. To Paris at this time came many 
of the greatest composers of opera to join 
those Italians who had always main- 
tained there an Italian opera school. 

Luigi Cherubim (1760-1842) was 
from 1788 associated with the French 
School, and was for many years the 




LUIGI CHERUBINI 



108 



The History of Music 

Director of the Paris Conservatory. He followed Mozart rather than 
Gluck, but his extreme pedantic insistence on formal expression 
handicapped his best attempts. Cherubini 's greatest works are : 
' ' Lodoiska, " "Medee," "Les Deux Journees." Although they are 
tragic in character they are classed as opera comique because they 
contain spoken dialogue. 

Gasparo Spontini (1774-1851) treated historic and heroic subjects 
in a stilted, pompous manner. 

The dominant Italian influence at this time was that of Rossini 
(1792-1868), who brought many dramatic absurdities into the opera 
seria, but whose use of opera buffa in "The Barber of Seville" was 
masterful.* 

Rossini's "William Tell" belongs to the French grand opera 
school and was his greatest work in this style. 

Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848), who wrote in both opera comique 
and grand opera style; and Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835), who wrote 
only in the serious style, were followers of Rossini. 

It was, however, Meyerbeer who gave the French people that 
form of grand opera which in spectacular effects had never been 
equaled, and which caused him to become the idol of the Parisian 
public. Originally named Jakob Liebmann Beer, this great com- 
poser, who was known as Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864), held the 
opera stage in Europe until the advent of Richard Wagner. Meyer- 
beer was brilliantly gifted, but all his efforts were directed toward the 
superficial ideas of the stage, rather than toward its greatest ideals. 
He was the real founder of melodramatic opera, which has been so 
popular since his day. 

The greatest operas of this period are : 



Luigi Cherubim, 



"Lodoiska" (1791). 

"Medee" (1797). 

"Les Deux Journees" (1800), 

Opera Buffa. 
"Barber of Seville" (1816). 

Opera Seria. 
"Semiramide" (1823). 
"William Tell" (1829). 

Gasparo Spontini "La Vestale ' ' ( 1807 ) . 



Gioachino Rossini 



* Mention tVw use of the "Barber of Seville" story by Mozart in "Figaro," and the humor 
as there portrayed. 

109 



The History of Music 



Gaetano Donizetti 



Vincenzo Bellini 



"Elisir d'Amore" (1832). 
"Lucrezia Borgia" (1834). 
"Lucia di Lammermoor" (1835). 
"La Fille du Regiment" (1840). 
"Don Pasquale" (1843). 

"La Sonnambula" (1831). 
"Norma" (1831). 
"I Puritani" (1835). 

"Robert Le Diable" (1831). 

"Les Huguenots" (1836). 
Giacomo Meyerbeer.... ^ Prophete ,, (lg V 49) 

"L'Africaine" (1865). 

ILLUSTRATIONS * 

17815 Overture "William Tell" Parts I, 1 1 (Rossini) Victor Concert Orchestra 

55075 Guide Thou My Steps " Les Deux Journees" (Cherubini) Werrenrath 

88299 Mad Scene "Lucia di Lammermoor" (Donizetti) Tetrazzini 

88391 Largo al factotum " Barber of Seville" (Rossini) Ruffo 

74538 Ah! non credea mirarti (Could I Believe) (Bellini) Galli-Curci 

74275 Benediction of the Swords "Les Huguenots" (Meyerbeer) 

Journet, with Metropolitan Opera Chorus 

CHORUSES 

Like as a Father (Cherubini) (Canon in three voices) 
The Highlands (Boieldieu) 

List, the Trumpets' Thrilling Sound ("Huguenots") (Meyerbeer) 
O, Italia Beloved (Donizetti) 
Masaniello (Auber) 

Lesson XIX 
Wagner 

Richard Wagner (1813-1883) is regarded by many as "The Revo- 
lutionist of Opera," who demolished all old forms, and who recon- 
structed the music drama on principles entirely his own. In the 
strictest sense, this belief is not justified, for Wagner simply returned 
to the oldest version of the music drama. He found that the ideal 
of the "Camerata" in Florence had been to produce a work in which 
the music, drama and interpretation should be of equal importance. 



* Note the historical material used by Cherubini in "Les Deux Journees," Meyerbeer in 
"Les Huguenots," Donizetti in "Lucrezia Borgia," and Rossini in "William Tell," also the lit- 
erary significance of "Lucia di Lammermoor." 

110 



The History of Music 




RICHARD WAGNER 



In the writing of this 



Wagner studied the changes and abuses 
which Gluck had sought to correct, and 
found that the opera school of the nine- 
teenth century had fallen back into many of 
the old customs, with the result, that there 
was no longer a complete unity of the three 
fundamentals of opera. 

Wagner tells us in his autobiography that 
his early life was influenced by the dramas of 
Shakespeare, the symphonies of Beethoven, and 
the operas of von Weber. His first operas were 
constructed on the lines of the French grand 
opera. The first two were absolute failures, 
but with the production of "Rienzi" in 1842, 
Wagner was proclaimed the equal, if not the 
superior, of Bellini, Donizetti and Meyerbeer, 
work he had discovered the dramatic absurdities of the form, therefore 
in his next work, "The Flying Dutchman," he attempted his first 
important use of the "leit motif," or characteristic theme, for his 
different personages, and also used these themes, in anticipation of 
the advent of his characters, in a manner he later described as "the 
making the audience a part of the being." On his way to Dresden 
to conduct ' ' Rienzi, ' ' Wagner visited the Wartburg Castle,* and there 
he became familiar with the legendary stories which he used in all his 
later works. "Tannhauser" gives an actual description of the 
Minnesinger Knights, who inspired Wagner with the Teutonic versions 
of ' * The Ring of the Nibelungen, " " Lohengrin, " " Tristan and Isolde ' ' 

and "Parsifal." 

1 ' Tannhauser ' ' was 
produced in 1845, but 
brought down such a 
storm of criticism that, 
when Wagner was forced 
to leave Germany, a politi- 
cal exile, he found him- 
self a musical outcast as 
well. Only one great 
genius, Franz Liszt, 
seemed to appreciate his 




WAGNER S GRAVE IN BAVREUTH 



* Recall tho Minnesingers and Meistersingrers of the early period of history. Also the sig- 
nificance of the Wartburg Castle, where the Minnesinsrers met. Remember that it was there 
Martin Luther was imprisoned, and there he wrote "Ein' Feste Burg." In the little town of 
Eisenach, Johann Sebastian Bach was born. 



Ill 



The History of Music 




WARTBURG CASTLE 



grin's motif is always 
given by the strings. 
Elsa's by the wood- 
winds, and King 
Henry 's by the brasses. 
With "Lohengrin," 
Wagner also used the 
overture as a prelude 
or vorspiel, to prepare 
his hearers for the 
action which was to 
follow; each act has its 
own prelude, and these 
are as important to the 
dramatic significance 



efforts, and to Liszt, at 
Weimar, Wagner sent his 
manuscript of ' ' Lohen- 
grin. " The production of 
' ' Lohengrin ' ' was the turn- 
ing point of Wagner's 
career. This work w r as pro- 
duced by Franz Liszt on 
August 28, 1850, for the 
centennial celebration of 
Goethe's birth at Weimar. 
To the little scholastic town 
all the greatest minds of 
Europe came to do homage 
to the great poet, and they 
heard for the first time the 
wonderful music drama of 
"Lohengrin." From that 
day Wagner was recog- 
nized as a genius by his 
adversaries as well as by 
his friends. 

In ' ' Lohengrin, ' ' Wag- 
ner not only used the ' ' leit 
motif," but he also made 
use of characteristic instru- 
mentation : thus, Lohen- 




112 



The History of Music 



as is the later action on the stage. Although "Lohengrin" became the 
most popular opera of the day, Wagner had no opportunity of hearing 
his work for many years, as he still was an exile in Switzerland. He 
had practically completed his entire "Ring of the Nibelungs," 
"Tristan and Isolde," "The Mastersingers, " and had made sketches 
for "Parsifal," when he was recalled to Munich by the young King 
Ludwig II of Bavaria. Ludwig placed wealth and power at Wagner's 
disposal and made possible the building of a playhouse in Bayreuth, 
where Wagner's works could be given an ideal performance. 



Early Operas. 



WAGNER'S WORKS 

ttr .. ,, f Only perform- 

Die Feen T 

, ~ T . ' , J ed now as curios- 

Das Liebes verbot. -^ 

"Rienzi," 1842, in style of French 
Grand Opera. 



Operas of Wagner's Transi- 
tional Period. . 



Music Drama 



' ' The Flying Dutchman, " 1843. ("Der 

Fliegende Hollander. ' ' ) 
"Tannhauser," 1845. 
"Lohengrin," 1850. 

' ' The Ring of the Niebelungs. " ("Der 
Ring der Nibelungen," 1876.) Con- 
sisting of four parts : 

"The Rhinegold," 1869. ("Das 

Rheingold.") 
"The Valkyrie," 1870. ("Die 

Walkiire.") 

"Siegfried," 1876. ("Siegfried.") 
"The Dusk of the Gods," 1876. 

("Die Gotterdammerung. ") 
"Tristan and Isolde," 1865. From le- 
gend of Gottfried von Strassburg, 
Minnesinger. 

"The Mastersingers of Nuremburg" 
("Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg"), 
1868. Wagner's one comic opera. A 
satire on his critics. 

"Parsifal," 1882. A Sacred Festival 
Opera on the Grail legend of Wolfram 
von Eschenbach, Minnesinger. 

113 



The History of Music 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35494 Spinning Song " Flying Dutchman" Victor Women's Chorus 

88154 Oh, Star of Eve "Tannhauser" de Gogorza 

74130 Lohengrin's Narrative "Lohengrin" Williams 

Herbert's Orchestra 



55041 

[Isolde's Love-Death " Tristan and Isolde" Herbert's Orchestra 

70080 Prize Song " The Master 'singers" Murphy 

74406 Amfortas' Prayer' ' Parsifal ' ' Whitehill 

I Ride of the Valkyries "The Valkyrie" Vessella's Band 

\Siegfried' s Funeral March" The Dusk of the Gods" Vessella's Band 

CHORUSES 

Spinning Chorus from "Flying Dutchman" (Wagner) 
Bridal Chorus from "Lohengrin" (Wagner) 
By Peaceful Hearth ("The Mastersingers") (Wagner) 
Song of the Rhine Nymphs ("Ring of Nibelungs") (Wagner) 



Lesson XX 
The Influence of the Music Drama 

Wagner's theory of the music drama returned to the fundamental 
principle that music, poetry and action should be inseparable. As 
Wagner wrote his own dramas and conceived his own stage effects, the 
music therefore became a more vital factor than in the works of 
his predecessors. The vocal parts do not conform to any absolute set 
rules regarding formal recitatives and arias, but remain ever a part 
of a complete dramatic effect. 

Wagner marks the culmination of the romantic school and the 
beginning of the modern school, for every great opera since his day 
clearly reflects the influence of the ' ' greatest musical personality since 
Beethoven. ' ' 

A striking example of this is the change found in Italy.* Of 
the Italian masters, Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) stands pre-eminent. 
His early works are all in the traditional style of the Italian opera, 
but in 1870, after the universal recognition of Wagner, Verdi employed 
many of the Wagnerian ideas, with the result that his most success- 
ful dramatic works were written after this period. To compare Verdi's 
"Aida" (1871), "Otello" (1887), and "Falstaff" (1893), with the 
dramatic absurdities of his earlier period, is to note how great was his 
gain in musical expression as well as dramatic thought. All Verdi's 
followers have declared that the influence of Wagner is strongly appar- 
ent in the modern Italian school. 



* See Lessons XVIII-XIX, Part IV. 

114 



The History of Music 

In France the change in the methods used by Gounod,* while not 
so radical as that noticeable in Verdi, is still apparent. Charles Gounod 
(1818-1893), in his early operas shows the direct influence of Meyer- 
beer and the French grand opera school. In "Faust" (1859) Gounod 
reached the zenith of his genius, and it is not strange that in this 
setting of the old Teutonic story, the influence of "Lohengrin" should 
be apparent. "Faust" remains the most universally popular opera 
of the French School. In 1869 Gounod's "Romeo and Juliette" was 
presented and won enthusiastic recognition. While much of the old 
school style has been retained by Gounod in the earlier portions of 
this work the Finale is remarkable for its simple dramatic force. 
Bizet (1838-1875), the composer of "Carmen," was a devoted adher- 
ent to Wagner's ideals as adapted to the French opera school, while 
the modern masters of the French school have all shown the direct 
influence of Wagner's "Music of the Future." 

In Germany the direct followers of Wagner in opera are Carl 
Goldmark (1830-1915), Engelbert Humperdinck (1854) and Richard 
Strauss (1864). 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

88328 Credo "Otello" (Verdi) Amato 

89028 Duet The Fatal Stone ("A'ida") (Verdi) Gadski-Caruso 

74512 Waltz Song "Romeo and Juliet" (Gounod) Galli-Curci 

95203 Prison Scene "Faust" (Gounod) Farrar-Caruso-Journet 

92065 Toreador Song "Carmen" (Bizet) Ruffo and Chorus 

CHOEUSES 

Triumphal March ("Ai'da") (Verdi) 
Polk Song ("Hansel and Gretel") (Ilumperdinck) 
Habanera ("Carmen") (Bizet) 

Lesson XXI 
Johannes Brahms 

Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) stands as the foremost composer 
of absolute music in the nineteenth century. In describing his method 
of composition, Huneker once said, "Brahms pours the new wine of 
the Romanticists into the old bottles of the Classicists." 

When but a young boy, Brahms was discovered by Joseph 
Joachim and Franz Liszt. They sent him to Robert Schumann, then 
considered the greatest critic in Europe. Schumann had long pre- 
dicted the advent of a genius who would return to the old forms, 

* See Lesson XXIII, Part IV. 

115 



The History of Music 



bringing the poetic quality of the modern school with him. He now 
proclaimed that this youth of nineteen was the one who would be the 

leader of the modern school. 

Brahms has often been 
ranked with Bach and Beethoven, 
for his compositions show a rare 
mastery of the technical difficul- 
ties of the art, combined with the 
love of poetic tonal expression 
which has been possessed by but 
few. Yet the true beauty and 
worth of the compositions of 
Brahms can only be appreciated 
by intimate acquaintance. To 
know fully the greatness of 
Brahms one must make an effort 
to study his compositions just as 
one must realize the symbolic 
depths of Robert Browning be- 
fore his true worth as a poet 
stands revealed. 

JOHANNES BRAHMS Since the beginning of ro- 

manticism the musical world looked first for music, which by its de- 
scriptive character, its amazing technical achievements, or its startling 
tonal combinations, would surprise and amaze. Before the advent of 
Brahms, men were prone to forget that the true tonal beauty of abso- 
lute music was as important in music's development as that of pro- 
gram music. 

One of our modern critics in comparing Brahms with Tschaikow- 
sky said: ' ' Tschaikowsky 's music sounds better than it is, while 
Brahms' music is better than it sounds." 

Brahms wrote no operas, but his beautiful songs, some as simple 
as the old folk song, others in the style of Schubert's art song, show 
his rare genius of vocal expression. His "German Requiem" is rightly 
regarded as one of the greatest choral works of the modern day. 
Brahms wrote many short compositions for piano, which reflect the 
style and poetic character of Schumann ; sonatas and chamber com- 
positions ; concertos for violin and piano with orchestra ; overtures 
for orchestra ; and, like his revered friend, Robert Schumann, four 
great symphonies. He contributed no new forms, but he did more for 
modern music by showing again to the world the beauty of music 
as an absolute art. 




11G 



The History of Music 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

toAAn {Lullaby (Brahms) 

^ \Litlle Dustman (Brahms') 

* Allegretto Third Symphony 

63794 My Sweetheart Has a Rosy Mouth 
64553 Ever Lighter is My Slumber 
45060 The Smith 
64752 Hungarian Dance No. 5 (Brahms) 



Littlefield 
Littlefield 

Van Eweyk 

Gulp 

Miller 

Philadelphia Orchestra 



Minnelied (Brahms) 
Lullaby (Brahms) 
Greeting (Brahms) 



CHORUSES 

The Sandman (Brahms) 
The Blacksmith (Brahms) 

Lesson XXII 
Russia 

The first Russian composer to recognize the possibilities offered 
by the music of his native land was Michael Glinka (1803-1857), who 
may be regarded as ' ' The Father of Russian Music. ' ' Liszt described 
Glinka as "The Prophet-Patriarch of Russia." A close student of 
folk music, Glinka felt that the Russian people were wondrously en- 
dowed with an individual musical speech, which he now attempted to 
show them was as worthy of their consideration as, the Italian and 
French music, in which they had so long 
delighted.f Glinka gave to the Russian 
people their first opera, "A Life for the 
Czar," which was produced in 1836. 

Anton Rubinstein (1830-1894) must, 
however, be considered as the "Founder of 
the Russian school," for although trained 
in the German romantic school, it was 
through the influence of Rubinstein that the 
national Russian schools of St. Petersburg 
and Moscow were established in 1861. Here 
music was taught to the Russian peasant as 
well as to the nobility, and by Russian 
teachers speaking the Russian language. $ 
Although he was a remarkable pianist, and a composer whose works, 
though graceful and charming, are outranked by his contemporaries, 
it is safe to say that Rubinstein's chief cause for fame in the future 

* In preparation. 

t The rise of Russian national expression in the nineteenth century has been felt in the 
works of Tolstoi, Gogol, and others in the literature and art of Russia. 

t Before the founding of the Russian National Conservatory, no music was taught in 
Russia except to the nobility, and then by French, Italian or German masters. Russia is now 
proud to honor many artists and musicians who have come from the common people. 

117 




MICHAEL GLINKA 



The History of Music 



will be the fact that he laid the foundation of the great Russian school, 
which has exerted such a tremendous influence on modern music. 

When the Russian school was originally established in 1861, many 
of the musicians connected with its work were men of other profes- 
sions; Cesar Cui (1835-1918) was a lawyer; Borodin (1839-1881), a 
physician ; Rimsky-Korsakoff (1844-1908) , a naval officer ; Moussorgsky 

(1839-1881), a government attache; 

Tschaikowsky (1840-1893), a lawyer. 
The influence of these masters built a 
remarkable school of music in Russia, 
where to-day the leading figures are : 
Glazounow (1865-1921) ; 
Arensky (1861-1906) ; 
Scriabine (1872-1916) ; 
Rachmaninoff (1873- ). 
Of the first group, the greatest 
genius was Peter II j itch Tschaikowsky, 
one of the most dominating personali- 
ties of the modern school. In his early 
life he was an enthusiast over Italian 
music, and he cherished throughout 
his life a deep love for Mozart's grace 
and elegance of expression. Of a 

morbid temperament, Tschaikowsky reflects in almost every compo- 
sition the deep, brooding sadness of the Russian heart. His use of 
the orchestra is brilliant and daring, and his combinations of tonal 
color are as barbaric as are many of the 
customs of his native land. He wrote in 
all forms, his symphonies and concertos 
being the most remarkable of his 
orchestral compositions. 

In his program music, Tschai- 
kowsky shows an amazing originality. 
He gives Russian national music 
worked out in polyphonic beauties, 
which make his compositions deserv- 
ing of their great popularity. His 
most popular orchestral works are 
the "Fifth Symphony," the "Man- 
fred Symphony," the "Pathetique 
Symphony," the "Overture 1812" and 
"Marche Slave." 





ALEXANDRE GLAZOUNOW 



118 



The History of Music 

Of the younger group of Russians the 
genius of Tschaikowsky has seemed to fall 
on Alexandre Glazounow (1865-1921), 
who wrote six symphonies and many ex- 
cellent shorter compositions of distinctly 
Russian character. 

Sergei Rachmaninoff has w r on fame 
not only as a pianist, but as a talented 
composer also. He is an outgrowth of 
the Moscow Conservatory and in all his 
compositions reflects Russian national 
characteristics. 

Anton Arensky (1861-1906) and 
Alexander Scriabine (1872-1916) are 
chiefly identified with pianistic development, although both wrote a 
number of excellent orchestral compositions. 

Sergei Prokofieff (1891) is one of the greatest modern composers 
from Russia. The brilliancy and amazing combinations of tone and 
instrumentation found in his works has dazzled the musical world. 

Igor Strawinsky (1882), a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakow, has carried 
the ultra-modern in melodic construction and instrumentation to the 
extreme. His ballets of "The Fire Bird," "The Nightingale" and 
"Petrouchka" are among the most remarkable compositions of the 
modern school. 




SERGEI RACHMAN^ 



55044 
64209 
35625 
45066 
87574 
74630 
74667 
55105 



ILLUSTRATIONS* 

Kamennoi-Ostrow (Rubinstein) Herbert's Orchestra 

Song of the Shepherd Lehl "Snow Maiden" (Rimsky-Korsakow) Gluck 

Prelude C Sharp Minor (Rachmaninoff) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Orientate (Kaleidoscope, Op. 50) (Cui) 
Cease Thy Singing, Maiden Fair (Rachmaninoff) 
Troika en Traineaux (Tschaikowsky) 
Interludium in Modo Antico (Glazounow) 
Marche Slave (Tschaikowsky) 



Harrison 

McCormack-Kreisler 

Rachmaninoff 

Flonzaley Quartette 

Herbert's Orchestra 



CHORUSES 



Melody in F (Rubinstein) 
Wanderers' Night Song (Rubinstein) 
The Angel (Rubinstein) 



A Night Picture (Cesar Cui) 
Grasses Green Are Growing (Cui) 
God of All Nature (Tschaikowsky) 



* Record 45133 gives two interesting choral numbers from Borodin's "Prince Igor. 1 
These should he heard if time permits. 

119 



The History of Music 




EDVARD HAGERUP GRIEG 



Lesson XXIII 

Scandinavia 

Scandinavian music is divided into four groups: 

DENMARK : 

Niels Gade (1817-1890). 
NORWAY : 

Ole Bull (1810-1880). 
Half dan Kjerulf (1815-1868). 
Edvard Grieg (1843-1907). 
Johann Svendsen (1840-1911). 
Christian Binding (1856- ). 
SWEDEN : 

August Sodermann (1832-1876). 
Emil Sjogren (1853- ). 
Tor Aulin (1866- ). 
FINLAND : 

Jan Sibelius (1865- ). 
The real founder of music in Scandinavia was Niels Gade, who 
was greatly influenced by Schumann and Mendelssohn, during his 
days of study and frequent travel in Germany. In style, his work 
resembles that of Mendelssohn, but always reflects the Scandinavian 
spirit, coupled with a highly poetic romanticism. He stands in the same 
relation to Scandinavian music as Rubinstein in the Russian School. 
Great interest in Scandinavian music was always aroused by 
the marvelous genius of Ole Bull, and the 
songs of Kjerulf. It was Ole Bull also who 
discovered the gifts of his younger country- 
man, Edvard Hagerup Grieg, who soon 
became the most important master of the 
Norwegian school. Grieg was especially 
successful in the smaller forms of instru- 
mental composition and in his songs ; 
although his orchestra suites, overtures, and 
concertos for both piano and violin, show 
remarkable understanding of the possibili- 
ties of the modern orchestra, Grieg also 
wrote three notable violin and piano 
sonatas, and several large compositions for 
chorus and orchestra. In all of his works, 
although the modern spirit is everywhere 




CHRISTIAN BINDING 



120 



The History of Music 



apparent, Grieg never fails to reflect the national flavor of the 
Norwegian folk song. 

Johann Svendsen was a more cosmopolitan musician than Grieg. 
His activities have been largely outside of his native Norway. Although 
his music is remarkable for its individuality and elaborate technic in 
orchestration, it is less national in character than Grieg's. 

The mantle of Grieg seems to rest on the talented genius, Chris- 
tian Sinding, who is at present the most interesting musical personage 
of Norway. Sinding has spent much 
time in Germany, and the influence of 
the German school is reflected in many 
of his songs and shorter works for 
pianoforte. "The Holy Mount," his 
one opera (1914), is not Norwegian 
in either story or music. In Sinding 's 
larger orchestral works the Scandi- 
navian character is, however, strongly 
apparent. 

In Sweden, the best-known na- 
tive composer is Emil Sjogren, whose 
work has been almost entirely con- 
fined to songs and to the smaller 
forms of instrumental composition. 

The most unique musical figure 
of the North to-day is Jan Sibelius, 
who has introduced in his wonderful tone poems for orchestra the 
music and legends of far-away Finland. Sibelius has undoubtedly 
been greatly influenced by the characteristics of the modern school 
in general, and the Scandinavian expression of Grieg in particular. 




JAN SIBELIUS 



55 108 



35437 
35505 



ILLUSTRATIONS* 

(Morning " Peer Gynt Suite ' ' (Grieg) 
\Ase's Death "Peer Gynt Suite" (Grieg) 

Solvejg's Song "Peer Gynt Suite" (Grieg) 
(Venetian Serenade (Svendsen) 
{The Tree (Nordraak) 

Valse Triste (Op. 44) (Sibelius) 

Finlandia (Sibelius) 



Peasant Wedding (Sodennann) 
The Poet's Tomb (Gade) 
In the Boat (Grieg) 
The Sun Upon the Lake is Low 
(Sibelius) 



Victor Concert Orchestra 
Victor Concert Orchestra 
Marsh 
Hammer 
Hammer 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Conway's Band 
CHORUSES 

In Autumn (Gade) 
Olav Trygvason (Grieg) 
Chalet Girls' Sunday (Ole Bull) 
A Cavalry Catch (Sibelius) 
Margaret's Cradle Song (Grieg) 



* Recall story of Ibsen's "Peer Gynt." Note the relationship of the Norwegian dramatists 
to the school of music. 

121 



The History of Music 



Lesson XXIV 
Bohemia 

Wagner once described Bohemia as "the land of harp players 
and street musicians. ' ' It has always been considered one of the most 
musical countries of Europe. In Prague, musicians have ever been 
assured of an appreciation of their art, which could be found nowhere 
else in Europe.* From the sixteenth century, town pipers and stroll- 
ing musicians have kept alive Bohemian folk music. However, due 
to the political misfortunes of Bohemia, no definite school of music 
was established there until the middle of the nineteenth century. 

The father of Bohemian music was Friedrich Smetana (1824- 
1884), who was a famous composer and pianist, a pupil of Franz Liszt. 
Smetana made his chief vehicle for instrumental expression Liszt's 
form of the symphonic poem. Smetana left a series of six symphonic 
poems entitled "My Fatherland"; each tells some phase of Bohemia's 
history, or represents, in tone, Bohemian feeling and patriotism. His 
opera, "Prodana Nevesta" ("The Bartered Bride"), is the first 
Bohemian opera which tells a Bohemian folk tale and employs 
throughout Bohemian folk music and dances. 

The greatest Bohemian composer was Antonin Dvorak (1841- 
1904) , who carried on the work begun by his master, Smetana. Dvorak 

wrote in all forms, but was consistent in 
the employment of characteristic folk 
idiom, which he used in all his music. He 
is the greatest master of the art of national 
expression in all musical history. Born of 
the people, Dvorak knew the folk material 
of his native land in its entirety, and in his 
compositions it is constantly employed. 
Dvorak does not bring in entire melodies, 
but chooses, as it were, the essence of char- 
acteristic changes of melody, rhythm and 
harmony, and welds these together with a 
master hand. He lived in America for 
several years and when he returned to 
Bohemia, gave the world his greatest 
work, the Fifth Symphony, which he called "From the New World." 
In this work he has made use of the characteristics to be found in 
American Negro melodies. 

* When "Don Giovanni" was produced, 1787, Mozart insisted that the premiere take place 
m^Praguo, for, as he said, "The Bohemians understand my art; they know how to do me jus 

122 




ANTONIN DVORAK 



The History of Music 

The greatest of Dvorak's works are his "Slavonic Dances," the 
Symphonic poems, and Five Symphonies for Orchestra; he also left 
some excellent compositions in the form of chamber music, and many 
songs and short instrumental compositions. His operas were never 
really successful, but his "Requiem Mass" and "Stabat Mater" rank 
high in modern choral compositions. 

Josef Suk and Zedenko Fibich are Bohemia's foremost composers 
to-day. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35148 Overture " The Bartered Bride" (Smetana) Pry or' s Band 

64213 Cradle Song "Hubicka" (Smetana) Gluck 

64563 Songs My Mother Taught Me (Dvorak) Kreisler 

74163 Humoresque (Dvorak) Elman 

88519 Lieblicher Mond "Rusalka" (Dvorak) Destinn 

74437 Slavonic Dance No. 2 (Dvorak) Kreisler 

74634 Allegro Moderato a la Polka (Quartet E Minor) (Smetana) Flonzaley Quartet 

74611 Lento (American Quartet) (Dvorak) Flonzaley Quartet 

CHOEUSES 

War Song of the Hussites (Old Bohemian) 
The Piper (Bohemian Folk Song) 
A Maiden Song (Old Bohemian) 
Darky Lullaby ("Humoresque," Dvorak) 



Lesson XXV 
Germany Austria 

The modern German School is divided into two classes: the 
followers of absolute music after the manner of Johannes Brahms; 
and the followers of the program music of Franz Liszt and of Richard 
Wagner. 

ABSOLUTE Music : PROGRAM OR DESCRIPTIVE Music : 

Joseph Rheinberger (1839-1901). Carl Goldmark (1830-1915). 
Anton Bruckner (1824-1896). Engelbert Humperdinck (1854- ). 

Max Bruch (1838-1920). Richard Strauss (1864- ). 

Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Felix Weingartner (1863- ). 

Max Schillings (1868- ). Hugo Wolf (1860-1902). Composer 

Georg Schumann (1866- ). of Songs. 

Max Reger (1873-1916). 

The most spectacular genius of the present day in Germany 
is Richard Strauss, who, although educated in the strictest of anti- 
Wagnerian schools, has adopted the methods of Wagner and Liszt. 

123 




MAX RECER 



The History of Music 

He has carried descriptive music, both 
in the instrumental and operatic school 
to the limit of sanity. There is seem- 
ingly nothing impossible for Strauss 
to attempt to describe in music. In his 
great tone poems he not only reflects 
moods and poetic thought, but is capable 
of attempting to portray every event, 
thought, or feeling, in tonal coloring. If 
the subject is repulsive or hideous, so is 
his music; if it be religious, poetic or 
sublime, this is reflected in his work. Even 
the trivial incidents of every-day life in 
the home are depicted in his "Symphonia 
Domestica." We are too close to Strauss 
to be able to appreciate his greatness, for 
his genius, even though it is often unworthily used, is always colossal. 
His songs are marvels of modern expression ; his operas of ' ' Salome, ' ' 
"Electra" and "Rose Cavalier" show him to be possessed of a 
knowledge of characterization which equals that of Wagner; his 
great symphonic tone poems for orchestra and his chamber music 
compositions are epoch-making works. 

A rare genius was Hugo Wolf (1860-1902), whose untimely death 
was most unfortunate for the cause of German music. Wolf com- 
posed, however, many of the greatest art 
songs which the world has ever known. 
Max Reger and Georg Schumann are 
considered the foremost composers of the 
instrumental school. 

Arnold Schoenberg has startled the 
musical world by his absolute disregard 
for all existing rules of harmonic and 
melodic progression. Whether his influ- 
ence will establish a school in the future, 
time alone can tell. 

An interesting form developed in 
Vienna during the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. This was the Operetta. 
(See Lesson XVI, Part IV.) From this 
developed the concert waltz which be- 
came recognized as a definite musical 
form. The great "Waltz King" family 




HUGO WOLF 



124 



The History of Music 



of Strauss* (Johann, Sr. ; Johann, Jr. ; Edvard, and Josef) became 
prominent for their waltzes and operettas. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Bridal Song "Rustic Wedding Symphony" (Goldmark) Victor Orchestra 

(Serenade "Rustic Wedding Symphony" (Goldmark) Victor Orchestra 

M or gen (Richard Strauss) Alda 

Kol Nidrei (Bruch) Powell 

Witch's Dance "Hansel and Gretel" (Humperdinck) Gluck-Homer 



64339 
74355 

87526 



74627 Blue Danube Waltz (Johann Strauss) 



CHORUSES 



Philadelphia Orchestra 



Brooklet in the Wood (Rheinberger) 
O Thou, My Native Land (Hugo Wolf) 
When Greeii Leaves Come (Bruch) 
The Ferns (Humperdinck) 
Good-Night (Reger) 



A Song of Summer (Max Bruch) 
Land of Light (Richard Strauss) 
True Happiness (Humperdinck) 
Night Thoughts (Reger) 



Lesson XXVI 
France 

Since the time of Berlioz, the French school has been identified 
with both the instrumental and operatic forms. 

The true founder of the modern French school w r as Cesar Franck 
(1822-1890), whose entire life was given to the cause of developing 
French instrumental music. Franck 
wrote many chamber compositions, 
works for the organ and piano, sym- 
phonies, symphonic poems, and many 
beautiful songs. His choral works rank 
very high, the greatest being "The 
Beatitudes," which is considered one 
of the finest oratorios since Mendels- 
sohn. Franck 's style of composition is 
based on the polyphonic forms of Bach, 
but all his music is filled with a mystic 
poetry, which makes his works imper- 
sonal and somewhat vague. 

The most prominent of Frank's pu- 
pils who have carried on his ideals are : CESAR FRANCK 

Vincent d'Indy (1851- ), a devoted follower of Franck, who 
has at the same time acknowledged his allegiance to Richard Wagner. 




The Vienna family are not related to Richard Strauss of Munich. 

125 



The History of Music 




CECILE CHAMINADE 



Alexis Chabrier (1842-1894). 
Ernest Chausson (1855-1899). 
Alfred Bruneau (1857- ). 
Cecile Chaminade (1861- ). 
The great organists of modern France 
are also followers of Franck. They are : 
Alexandre Guilmant (1837-1910). 
Theodore Dubois (1837- ). 
Charles Widor (1845- ). 
Gabriel Faure (1845- ). 
In the opera the greatest composers 
since Gounod are: 

Georges Bizet (1838-1875), who wrote 
' ' Carmen. ' ' 

Jules Massenet (1842-1912), a most 
prolific writer, whose "Manon, " "Thai's," 
"Werther" and "Jongleur de Notre 
Dame" are deservedly popular. 

Gustave Charpentier (1860- ), whose operas "Louise" and 
"Jullien" are distinctly French works. 

Alfred Bruneau (1857- ), a champion of realism in opera. 
The dean of the French school is Camille Saint-Saens (1835- ), 
who has written in all forms : compositions for the piano and organ ; 
chamber works; symphonies, concertos and sym- 
phonic poems for orchestras ; operas and oratorios. 
The most unique genius of recent years was 
Claude Debussy (1862-1918), whose rare combi- 
nations of instrumental effects are absolutely origi- 
nal in the w r orld of music.* An impressionist in 
tone, Debussy veils, as it were, all his forms, with a 
blending of tonal combinations as original as they 
are beautiful. Debussy returned to the old Greek 
science of the tonal relationship of the tetrachord. 
He is one of the greatest modern musical mys- 
teries. 

Debussy's followers, Maurice Ravel and Paul 
Dukas, are also worthy of mention for their 
unique tonal combinations. 

Xavier Leroux (1863) and Reynaldo Hahn (1874) are both 
chiefly known for their exquisite songs. 




CLAUDE DEBUSSY 



* The Modern School of Impressionism in France makes itself manifest in the literature 
and art of the day. This is the same idea which is reflected in Debussy's music. 

126 



The History of Music 



35437 
74399 
88556 
74588 
74659 
64750 
89090 
64935 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

Angelus, The " Scenes PiUoresques" (Massenet) 

Panis Angelicus (Oh Lord Most Holy) (Franck) 

La Procession (Franck) 

Waltz Etude (Saint-Saens) 

The Fountain (Ravel) 

L'Heure Exquise (Hahn) 

Le Nil (Leroux) 

Study from "Children's Corner" Doctor Gradus ad 

Parnassum (Debussy) 
A Beautiful Evening (Debussy) 
Espana Rapsodie (Chabrier) 

CHORUSES 



Victor Orchestra 

Alda 

Caruso 

Cortot 

Cortot 

Gluck 

Gluck-Zimbalist 

Rachmaninoff 

de Luca 

Philadelphia Orchestra 



Morning Song, "Samson et Dalila" 

(Saint-Saens) 

Praise Ye the Lord (Saint-Saens) 
The Vesper Hour (Cesar Franck) 
Elegie (Massenet) 
Hymn to Music (Franck) 



With Flowers of the Best (Massenet) 
The Cradles (Gabriel Faure) 
Eomance (Debussy) 
In His Little Cradle (Cesar Franck) 
Evening Star (V. d'Indy) 



Lesson XXVII 
Italy Spain 

The modern Italian school, although closely affiliated with the 
opera school of to-day, also shows a decided tendency towards a 
better appreciation of the other branches of musical art. There has 
been practically no instrumental music developed in Italy since the 
seventeenth century, but it is a pleasure to 
record that there now exists a definite sym- 
phonic school. This is dominated by Giovanni 
Sgambati, a pupil of Liszt and a follower of 
Wagner. He has many loyal adherents. 
Among the Italian instrumental composers 
are Giuseppe Martucci (1856), Ferruccio Bu- 
soni (1866), and Marco Bossi (1861). The 
latter has written many works for the organ, 
which are attracting attention equal with his 
oratorios and masses. 

In church music, the Italians of the last 
generation had sunk to a very low plane, 
being satisfied with trivial operatic melodies 
entirely unsuited to religious expression.* 
Pope Leo X greatly encouraged the right de- 
velopment of religious music by his edict that the Roman Catholic 
Church must return to the use of the Gregorian Chant. Don Lorenzo 
Perosi (1872), the director of the Papal Choir, has written many 




DON LORENZO PEROSI 



* Review the style of the church music in Italy before the birth of opera. Review Les- 
son XX Part II. 

127 



The History of Music 

masses in the style of Palestrina, yet with modern expression, which 
have proved that religious music should be regarded as apart from 
the operatic school. 

In opera, the most famous composers since Verdi are: 

Pietro Mascagni (1863), whose "Cavalleria Rusticana" has never 
been equaled in popularity by any of his later works. 

Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1858-1919), whose greatest work is "I 
Pagliacci. " 

Giacomo Puccini (1858) is the most famous composer of opera 
in Italy; his best works are "Manon Lescaut, " "La Boheme, " 
"Tosca," "Madame Butterfly" and "The Girl of the Golden West." 

Ermanno Wolf -Ferrari (1876), whose "The Secret of Suzanne," 
4 'The Curious Women" and "The Jewels of the Madonna" have 
already placed their composer high in the ranks of modern opera 
writers. (See Lesson XXII, Part IV.) 

A definite school of Spanish music has become recognized by the 
musical world only in recent years, but it has been in actual existence 
since the middle of the nineteenth century. The first great Spanish 
master was Pedro Albeniz (1795-1835), who was in his later life the 
head of the then newly-established Royal Conservatory of Madrid. 
Most of his compositions were songs and piano pieces. The greatest 
master of the modern Spanish school was Enrique Granados (1869- 
1916), whose remarkable Spanish opera "Goyescas" met with much 
success in Europe as well as in America. 

A form of one-act opera called the "Zarzuela" is an individual 
type of opera comique which is native to Spain, where it has existed 
since 1628. It is in this form that most of the best Spanish music is 
written. The best-kno\vn popular composers of "Zarzuelas" are: 
Alvarez, Chapi, Arrieta, Barrera, Caballero, Pagans and Valverdi. 
Other Spanish composers are : Antonio Noguerra, Amandeo Vives and 
Felipe Pedrell. 

ILLUSTEATIONS * 

88029 Prologue "I Pagliacci" (Leoncavallo) Scotti 

45186 Intermezzo " Cavalleria Rusticana" (Mascagni) Herbert's Orchestra 

35270 Intermezzo "Jewels of th" Madonna" (Wolf -Ferrari) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

89008 Duet of the Flowers (" Madame Butterfly") Farrar-Horner 

35574 Intermezzo "Goyescas" (Granados) McKee's Orchestra 

64846 Malaguena (Albeniz) Cortot 

64819 Seguidilla (Albeniz) Cortot 

64556 Spanish Dance (Granados) Kreisler 

* These selections have been chosen to show the instrumental development which is notice- 
able in the modern opera of the greatest of the present-day Italians. 

128 



The History of Music 

CHOEUSES 

Devotion, arranged from "Cavalleria Rusticana" (Mascagni) 
Bridal Chorus from "Cavalleria Rusticana" (Mascagni) 
Recitative and Prayer ("Otello") (Verdi) 
Stars of the Summer Night (Wolf -Ferrari) 



Lesson XXVIII 
England 

That there was a remarkable school of music in England as early 
as the thirteenth century is known definitely, for there is proof in the 
famous four-part canon, ' ' Sumer is Icumen in " ; but the free expres- 
sion of musical thought, which was 
born w r ith the opera in Florence, 
was seriously handicapped in Eng- 
land by the civil wars of the seven- 
teenth century and the attitude of 
the Puritans under Cromwell. 

The English dramatic form of 
the seventeenth century was known 
as the Masque, and the most promi- 
nent names of English composers 
who contributed to this form of 
music are: Henry Lawes (1595- 
1662), who wrote the music of Mil- 
ton's "Masque of Comus"; William 
Lawes (1582-1645), his brother; Pel- 
ham Humphrey (1647-1674), a pupil 
of Lully in France ; and Henry Pur- 
cell (1658-1695), the last great Eng- 
lish composer until our present day. 

At the time of Handel, an English "Singspiel," commonly 
known as the "Ballad Opera," made its appearance. It was an 
inferior form of opera buffa and really retarded the progress of serious 
operatic work. Yet several well-known English musicians are asso- 
ciated with this form; among them being Henry Carey (1685-1743), 
said to be the composer of "God Save the King"; and Thomas Arne 
(1710-1778), who wrote operas, oratorios and many songs. Some of 
his settings of Shakespeare are remarkable for their beauty.* Sir 

* Many of these Shakespeare settings were adaptations of the original airs used at the 
time of Shakespeare. (See Lesson XXIX, Part I.) Recall also the poems of Scott, Milton 
and Tennyson which have, been set to music. 

129 




SIR EDWARD ELGAR 



PROFESSOR GRAN- 
VILLE BANTOCK 



The History of Music 




SAMUEL COLERIDGE-TAYLOR 



Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855) was 
a popular composer of the ''Ballad 
Opera." 

The great personal popularity of 
Handel in England is noticed in the 
growth of organ playing and oratorio 
writing since his day. 

In the early nineteenth century Eng- 
land was influenced by the advent of 
Mendelssohn, who enjoyed great popular- 
ity there. Festivals were established in 
many cities at this time, and the writing 
of oratorios, part songs, cantatas and 
operas was encouraged. 
The greatest English composer of the early nineteenth century 
was Michael Balfe (1808-1870), an Irishman, who wrote some excellent 
operas and operettas, his most famous work being the "Bohemian 
Girl."* Costa (d. 1884), Julius Benedict (1804-1885), Tosti (1846- 
1912), Alberto Randegger (1832-1912) and Giro Pinsuti (1829-1888), 
although they lived and worked in England, were not English by either 
birth or education. 

The late nineteenth century has seen the advent of a number of 
talented English musicians, including Sir Arthur Sullivan (d. 1900), f 
Arthur Goring Thomas (1850-1892), Alexander Mackenzie (b. 1847), 
Charles Hubert Parry (b. 1848), Frederic Cowen (b. 1852), Charles 
Villiers Stanford (b. 1852), Edward 
German ( b. 1862 ) . Liza Lehmann 
(1862), Granville Bantock (1868) and 
Frederick Delius (1863). 

There are, however, but two great 
composers who may be considered unique 
in the late English school : Coleridge- 
Taylor and Edward Elgar. Samuel 
Coleridge-Taylor (1875-1912) was an 
English Negro whose development of 
Negro melodies has made a lasting im- 
pression. His best-known large work is 
his setting of "Hiawatha." Edward 
Elgar (b. 1857) now stands in the first 

* Although the story is based on a Bohemian subject the music is written in the senti- 
mental melodic style which was so popular during the middle of the nineteenth century, 
t See Lesson XVI, Part IV. 

130 




The History of Music 

rank of modern composers. He has already written several remarkable 
symphonies, concertos and instrumental compositions, while his choral 
works, ' ' Caractacus " and "The Dream of Gerontius" are regarded as 
the greatest oratorios which have been given the world since the time 
of Mendelssohn. 

Percy Aldridge Grainger, born at Melbourne, Australia (1882), 
is one of the younger school of English composers, who is devoting 
his attention to the development of early English folk music. Mr. 
Grainger has recently become an American citizen and has announced 
his intention of identifying himself with the American school. 

Cyril Scott (1879) is another young composer who is looking to 
national sources for inspiration. He has been, however, more influ- 
enced by the impressionism of modern France than any of his com- 
patriots, and is known in Europe as "the English Debussy." 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

17897 Shepherd's Hey (Grainger) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35530 Dances from Henry VIII Suite (Edward German) (1) Morris Dance 

(2) Shepherd's Dance Conway's Band 

Onawayf Awake, Beloved! ("Hiawatha's Wedding Feast") 

55059 (Coleridge-Taylor) Althouse 

Ah! Moon of My Delight ("In a Persian Garden") (Liza Lehmann) 

Althouse 

74580 Molly on the Shore (Grainger) Flonzaley Quartet 

64786 Viking Song (Coleridge-Taylor) de Gogorza 

64760 Capricieuse (Elgar) Heifetz 

64373 Salut d'amour (Elgar) Powell 

35247 Pomp and Circumstance March (Elgar) Pryor's Band 

CHORUSES 

Welcome to Spring (Purcell) 

Then You'll Remember Me, from "Bohemian Girl" (Balfe) 
I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls, from "Bohemian Girl" (Balfe) 
With Sheathed Sword, from "Damascus" (Costa) 
Zion, Awake (Costa) 
Lost Chord (Sullivan) 

My Love Dwelt in a Northern Land (Elgar) 
The Vikings (Faning) 
The Miller's Wooing (Failing) 
Blow, Gentle Gales (Sir Henry Bishop) 
Windlass Song (Elgar) 

181 



The History of Music 

Lesson XXIX 
Early Music in America 

Like every other great nation which has developed a national 
school of music, America has been obliged to wait until her position 
as a world power should become firmly established, for a national 
art develops only in a country which has been acknowledged to be a 
leader in the world politically and commercially. To-day this country 
stands before the world supreme in political and commercial impor- 
tance. It is, therefore, inevitable that America's school of music will 
begin a rapid development. 

America has been recognized for years by the greatest musicians 
in the world as providing the largest and best concert audiences. The 
American people have more musical instruments in their homes and 
have spent more money on musical education than any other race. 
Yet Americans have been trained for many generations to look toward 
Europe for their art and it is hard to bring them to a realization that 
the greatest art of Europe is now on American soil ; that the greatest 
musicians and teachers of music in the world now call America their 
home, and that if America cannot claim a past school of music, she 
certainly is developing the materials for a notable one in the near 
future. 

Like every great nation which has built a national school, America 
must look to the schools of the past to find a technical foundation 
upon which her national school shall be erected. A great school of 
music is founded upon the folk-lore of the people and its development 
is brought about by those of its native sons who, although they may 
have been trained in their science and theory of musical expression 
by foreign masters, are national in their method of expression. 

America has the richest folk legacy of any nation in the world. 
She possesses in the music of the American Indians and the American 
Negroes the best existing primitive sources of music in the world. 

Since the beginning of America's development by the white man, 
practically every nation in the world has poured its folk music into 
America, so that to-day no nation possesses such a diversity of musical 
folk material as that which is now fast rooted on American soil. 
While the Puritans who first came to our land were openly averse to 
all music save that of the chanting of hymn tunes, it must not be for- 
gotten that before the end of the seventeenth century many colonies 
from Scotland and the north of Ireland were found throughout New 
England and that these people all brought their folk music with them. 
The Dutch who colonized New York and the surrounding country 

132 



The History of Music 



came from that land where musical training dates back to the earliest 
and greatest schools of musical counterpoint (Netherland School 
See Lesson V, Part II). Virginia and Carolina were peopled by the 
Cavaliers, who brought with them the greatest and best of the music 
from Queen Elizabeth's Court, which was the center of the world's 
musical culture during the sixteenth century. Canada and Louisi- 
ana were settled by France, a nation known for musical taste and 
culture. The Spanish colonists through the south and southwest of 
America also brought much of their national music with them. 

It will be easily realized, therefore, that even in colonial days 
America was not without musical standards of her own and music 
was considered of much importance during the period immediately 

following the Revolutionary War. It is to 
this period that the first native composer of 
America belongs. This was Francis Hop- 
kinson, of Philadelphia (1737-1791), who 
was a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, one of the members of the con- 
vention which drafted the Constitution in 
1787 and the first judge of the Admiralty 
Court of Pennsylvania. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Washington, Benja- 
min Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and the 
other great men of the day. Hopkinson 
was, how r ever, not only a statesman, but a 
rare musician, a virtuoso on the organ and 
harpsichord, as well as a composer of great 
ability. His songs are worthy to rank with those of Haydn, who was 
his contemporary. Hopkinson 's son, Joseph, wrote the words to "Hail 
Columbia," a tune which had previously been played as a march for 
the inauguration of George Washington. The music to this "Presi- 
dent's March" was written by Philip Phile, of Philadelphia, who was 
a prominent musician of the day. 

The other tunes which were in popular usage during the days of 
the Revolution and the War of 1812 were all English tunes, which 
were sung to words written in America. Chief among these were: 
"Yankee Doodle," "God Save the King" ("God Save George Wash- 
ington," which in 1832 became "America") and "Star-Spangled 
Banner." The ever-beloved "Home, Sweet Home," words by John 
Howard Payne, appeared in 1823 as an air in "Clare," an opera by 
Bishop. It has remained in public favor ever since that day. 

One of the most important American musicians of the first half 

133 




FRANCIS HOPKINSON 



The History of Music 

of the nineteenth century was Dr. Lowell Mason (1792-1872), a 
writer of hymns, who was the first musician to realize the importance 
of introducing music into the public schools of America. Doctor 
Mason, having begun the work in 1836, was made supervisor of music 
of the Boston public schools in 1838, an act which has been called "the 
Magna Charta of musical education in America. " Ever since that day 
the development of music in America's public schools has been one of 
the most remarkable growths of music in the country. 

In the period just before the Civil War a type of ballad became 
very popular in America. One of the best songs of this time was 
"Ben Bolt," written by Nelson Kneass in 1848. But the most famous 
of America's ballad composers was Stephen Foster (1826-1864), whose 
songs are rightly regarded as the best composed folk songs in the 
entire literature of music. Besides his more famous plantation songs, 
"O Susanna," "Uncle Ned," "Old Folks at Home," "Massa's in 
de Cold, Cold Ground," "My Old Kentucky Home" and "Old Black 
Joe," the ballads of Foster are also very beautiful. Of these "Come 
Where My Love Lies Dreaming," "Hard Times Come No More," 
"Nelly Ely" and "Old Dog Tray'" are still worthy to be retained. 

The period of the Civil War brought out more truly great 
patriotic songs than have ever been developed by any nation. Of 
these the songs of Geeorge F. Root (1820-1895), especially "The 
Battle Cry of Freedom," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp" and "The Vacant 
Chair" hold first rank. "When Johnnie Comes Marching Home 
Again," by Patrick Gilmore, who wrote under the nom de plume, 
1 ' Louis Lambert " ; " Tenting To-night, ' ' by Walter Kitridge ; ' ' March- 
ing Through Georgia" and "The Song of a Thousand Years," by 
Henry Work; "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," words by Julia 
Ward Howe to an old air; and "Dixie," a plantation song by Dan 
Emmett, written in 1859, are all songs belonging to this period. 

The years following the Civil War until the early nineties brought 
forth a new epoch of sentimental ballads. "Stars of the Summer 
Night," a setting of Longfellow's verses by Alfred S. Pease (1838- 
1882) ; "Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep," by Mrs. Emma Willard 
(1787-1870); "The Old Oaken Bucket," by Samuel Woodworth 
(1785-1842), set to a well-known melody of the day; "Listen to the 
Mocking Bird," by Septimus Winner; "Silver Threads Among the 
Gold," by H. P. Danks; "When You and I Were Young, Maggie," by 
H. A. Butterfield; "The Little Brown Church in the Vale," by H. P. 
Pitts, all reflect the type of music which was then in vogue. 

Great choral societies were established in America soon after the 
Revolution. The most famous being the Handel and Haydn Society 

134 



The History of Music 

of Boston, which dates its constitution from 1815, its first concert 
being arranged to celebrate the signing of the Peace Treaty of Ghent. 
While singing schools, conventions and festivals all continued to be 
popular during the early forties, a new stimulus was given by the 
"Peace Jubilees," and great music festivals have flourished through- 
out America ever since the Civil War. 

The first school of music, the New England Conservatory, was 
founded in Boston in 1867, and in that same year the Cincinnati Con- 
servatory and the Chicago Musical College were established. Great 
schools for the study of music have developed throughout America 
ever since that day. 

The first orchestra in America was the Philharmonic Society of 
New York, which gave its first concert December 23, 1800, but no 
regular series of orchestra concerts was started until 1842, when the 
New York Philharmonic Orchestra came into existence. To one of 
its earliest conductors, Theodore Thomas, America owes all her early 
development in orchestral music, for unquestionably the influence of 
Thomas did more to develop a taste for good music in America than 
that of any other musician of his period. In America to-day are to 
l)e found the greatest orchestras of the world. All the largest cities, 
including Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Seattle, San Francisco and 
Los Angeles, possess organizations some of which outrank any to be 
found in the European capitals. 

The first opera to be produced in America in the early nineteenth 
century was sung in English by an American company, but its place 
was soon usurped by the Italian and French companies, which have 
since dominated. Theodore Thomas wisely foresaw the need of opera 
in English in America. Knowing that no great operatic school had 
ever been possible in other countries until opera had been given in 
the vernacular, Thomas hoped by the establishment of the American 
Opera Company in 1885 to stem the current of American favor; but 
his venture was a failure. While America possesses to-day two 
of the greatest opera companies of the world, the Metropolitan Opera 
Company of New York and the Chicago Opera Association, where 
ideal performances are given in foreign tongues, but insufficient effort 
is being made to give ideal performances of opera in the language of 
this country. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

88047 Home, Surd Home (Payne] Sembrich 

88283 Ben Bolt (Kneass) Farrar 

64729 Darling Nelly Gray (Hanby) Gluck 

64812 Juanita (Norton) de Gogorza 

64423 Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming (Foster] McCormack 

135 



The History of Music 

87303 Hard Times Come Again No More (Foster} Homer 

64638 Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground (Foster) Zimbalist 

17582 Battle Cry of Freedom (Root) Dixon 

17582 Song of a Thousand Years (Work) Dixon 

* Barbara Allen (Folk Song) 

Choruses from American composers are in such abundance in 
all school music books and in coda and octavo form that none need be 
specifically mentioned here. 

Lesson XXX 
America II 

The first "classical" composer of America was John Knowles 
Paine (1839-1906), "The Dean of the American School of Music," 
who was for many years the Director of Music at Harvard University, 
where many of the greatest of America's composers received their 
early training. From this school came George W. Chadwick (1854), 
the Director of the New England Conservatory of Music, who is con- 
sidered by many to be the most important of present-day American 
composers; Arthur Foote (1853), who has written much in the older 
classic forms; Frederick Converse (1871), now the head of the 
Composition Department of the New England Conservatory; Henry 
K. Pladley (1871), w y ho has written successfully in all forms; Arthur 
Whiting (1861); Louis Adolphe Coerne (1870), and John Alden 
Carpenter (1876). 

Dudley Buck (1839-1909) is the American composer of the early 
school w r ho is the best known throughout Europe. He exerted a great 
influence in America on organ and church choral composition. An- 
other of the earlier composers was Frederick Grant Gleason, whose 
compositions were prominently featured at the World's Fair in 
Chicago in 1893. Among the early pianists whose influence on 
American music was very great were William Mason, son of Lowell, 
Louis Moreau Gottschalk and William II. Sherwood, all of whom 
labored unceasingly for the American composer. These men left many 
excellent compositions, principally for the piano. 

Horatio Parker (1863-1920) was considered by many the greatest 
composer of America. He won his first laurels with "Hora Novis- 
sima," the best choral work as yet of the American school. Parker 
wrote in all forms and his compositions rank with the best of any 
modern composers. He was for forty years the Dean of Music at Yale 
University. The mantle of Parker has descended on his able assistant, 
David Stanley Smith (1877), who has won well-deserved recognition 
for his excellent compositions. 

* In preparation. 

136 



The History of Music 

The most individual composer which our country has produced 
was Edward MacDowell (1861-1908), who was the most original 
genius of the American school. MacDowell wrote in all forms with 
an individuality of expression quite as distinct as that of Chopin or 
Beethoven. Trained first by Mme. Carreno in New York City, in 
Europe at the Paris Conservatory and later in Germany with Raff. 
MacDowell's works always retained a true American expression. Mac- 
Dowell was one of the first great composers to realize the importance 
of the music of the American Indians and wrote a very beautiful 
"Indian Suite" for orchestra, which is considered one of his best 
compositions. His two piano concertos, piano sonatas and shorter 
piano compositions, as well as his many lovely songs, all place Mac- 
Dowell's name in the first rank of modern composers. For several 
years MacDowell was in charge of the Music Department at Colum- 
bia University. He did most of his composing in the little New 
England town of Peterborough, N. H., and at his desire a colony for 
American musicians has been established at this place, which is one of 
the most important aids for the development of America's musical 
talent. 

Another unique and individual composer is Edgar Stillman Kelly 
(1857), whose extensive experience has taken him to all parts of 
our great land a fact' which is remarkably portrayed in his com- 
positions. 

One of the most popular of America's composers was Ethelbert 
Nevin (1862-1901), whose songs and short instrumental compositions 
have met with increasing popularity. 

Another unique American is John Philip Sousa, who has revolu- 
tionized march music, and whose wonderful marches, full of American 
spirit, have found their way to every country in the w r orld. 

After the advent of the great Bohemian master, Antonin Dvorak, 
who came to America in 1893 and remained for several years, there 
came into existence a group of American composers who began to 
search for the foundation of the future national school of America 
among the folk songs of our land. Among these men w r ere Harvey 
Worthington Loomis, Arthur Farwell and Frederick R. Burton. 
Charles Wakefield Cadman and Thurlow Lieurance have both made 
American Indian music into modern compositions, while Harry Bur- 
leigh, Will Marion Cook, David Guion and William Arms Fisher have 
made negro music equally popular. 

An interesting personality among American composers was 
Reginald DeKoven (1859-1920), who won his first recognition with 
his opera "Robin Hood." 

137 



The History of Music 

Victor Herbert, although born in Ireland, is thoroughly identified 
with this country, and we are proud to call his excellent works 
American compositions. 

Charles Edward Loeffler, of Boston, is another foreign-born 
American. He has followed in the ultra-modern impressionistic school 
of the French Debussy. Other foreign composers who have recently 
announced their intention of making America their home are Ernest 
Block, of Switzerland, and Percy Grainger, of Australia. 

Frederick Stock is another Americanized foreigner, who is better 
known as a composer in Europe than in America, where he is chiefly 
famous as the Director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 

Frank Van der Stucken (1858) and Walter Damrosch (1864) 
are both well-known orchestra conductors who have also \von fame as 
composers. 

The greatest woman composer of America is Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, 
who is of pure American ancestry, and whose compositions are 
chiefly a product of American training. A native of Boston, Mrs. 
Beach is an outgrowth of the Paine School of Composition. A pianist 
herself, she has written much for her chosen instrument and also for 
the orchestra, while her delightful songs are found on many concert 
programs. 

Another Boston woman who has won fame as a musician is 
Margaret Ruthven Lang (1867). She has written many excellent 
songs and several larger works. Other American women who have 
won fame chiefly through the composition of songs are Mrs. Jessie 
L. Gaynor, whose charming songs for children opened up an entirely 
new field for the American composer; Mrs. Archibald Freer, a most 
prolific composer of songs and piano compositions, and Carrie Jacobs- 
Bond, whose charming songs have won a unique and well-deserved 
popularity. Mary Turner Salter, Kate Vannah, Harriet Ware, Mabel 
Daniels, Julia Rive King, Gertrude Ross, Theodora Sturkow-Ryder 
and Fay Foster all are well-known American composers of to-day. 

Other well-known composers of America are : Henry Holden 
Huss, Rubin Goldmark, Howard Brockway, Daniel Gregory Mason, 
Rossiter Cole, Adolph Weidig, Eric Delamarter, Felix Borowski, 
James H. Rogers, Wilson G. Smith, Clayton Johns, Ernest Kroeger, 
Alfred Robyn, Homer Norris, William Rogers Chapman, Frederick 
Field Bullard, Victor Harris, Homer Bartlett, Charles Gilbert Spross, 
Daniel Protheroe, Oley Speaks, Carl Busch, Adolph Foerster, Walter 
Kramer, Preston Ware Orem, Joseph Breil, Geoffry O'Hara, Harold 
Milligan, Harry Rowe Shelley, George Grant-Schaefer, Arthur Olaf 
Andersen, Arne Oldberg and Leo Sowerby. 

138 



The History of Music 

Among the greatest musical educators in the universities are : 
Bigelow, Amherst ; Charles A. Boyd, University of Pittsburgh ; Hugh 
Clarke, University of Pennsylvania; Samuel Cole and Louis Elson, 
New England Conservatory ; Hollis Dann, Cornell ; Frank Damrosch, 
Institute Musical Art, New York ; Charles Farnsworth, Columbia ; 
George C. Gow, Vassar College; Arthur Hallam, Skidmore School of 
Arts; Clarence G. Hamilton, Wellesley; W. C. Hammond, Mt. 
Holyoke ; J. J. Ilattstaedt, American Conservatory, Chicago ; Peter 
Lutkin, Northwestern University ; II. D. MacDougall, Wellesley ; 
Charles II. Mills, University of "Wisconsin ; Robert T. McCutchan, De 
Pauw University; Waldo Selden Pratt, Columbia; Sumner Salter, 
Williams; H. D. Sleeper, Smith; Albert A. Stanley, University of 
Michigan ; Edward Dickinson, Oberlin ; J. Lawrence Erb, University of 
Illinois. 

ILLUSTBATIONS 

35674 Festival Te Deum (Buck) Trinity Choir 

74118 The Lark Now Leaves Its Wat'ry Nest (Parker) de Gogorza 

oKcno (An Irish Folk Song (Foote) Littlefield 

\Ah, Love, But a Day (Beach) (2) Year's at the Spring (Beach) Littlefield 
XC107 Woodland Sketches (MacDowell) Herbert's Orchestra 

1 \TheRosary (Nevin) 

64470 Thy Beaming Eyes (MacDowell) Braslau 

45170 At Dawning (Cadman) Herbert's Orchestra 

18418 j^y ^ e Weeping Waters (Lieurance) Watahwaso 

\Aooah (2) Her Blanket Watahwaso 

64705 Little Firefly (Cadman) Powell 

64887 Greatest Miracle of All (Wardall-Guion) Braslau 

64736 Chant Negre (Kramer) Zimbalist 

1 r >47(\ l n ^ e R aa t Mandalay (Speaks) Wheeler 

(Danny Deever (Damrosch) Werrenrath 

16777 Stars and Stripes Forever (Sousa) Sousa's Band 



139 



PART III 

The Orchestra The Development 
of Instrumental Music 



Preface 

Part III is divided into a study of the orchestra and its instruments 
and the development of instrumental music.* 

The first portion of Part III has been planned to create a greater 
interest in and to promote a more general knowledge of the various 
instruments and their functions in the orchestra. The student orches- 
tras in high schools and colleges have already awakened an inter- 
est in the orchestral instruments, for it has become a recognized fact 
that every instrumental voice has its own important place in the 
organization. If possible each instrument should be practically demon- 
strated before the class. 

"The Development of Instrumental Music" should be used as a 
supplementary course to the "History of Music" and a careful review 
of chronological events should be studied each week. 
I. The Orchestra. Its Divisions. 
II. The String Choir. 

III. The Violin. 

IV. The Viola. 

V. The Violoncello. 
VI. The Double Bass. 
VII. The Harp. 

VIII. The Technical Mechanism of Wind Instruments. 
IX. The Wood-wind Choir. 
X. The Flute The Piccolo Flute. 
XI. The Oboe and English Horn. 
XII. The Clarinet. 

XIII. The Bassoon. 

XIV. The Brass Choir. 

XV. The Trumpet or Cornet. 
XVI. The French Horn. 
XVII. The Trombone: The Tuba. 
XVIII. The Percussion Instruments. 



* "Instruments of the Orchestra by Sight, Sound and Story," published by the Victor Com- 
pany, gives the pictures of every instrument in its natural colors. An accompanying hand- 
book gives a full description of the use of each instrument. 

140 



The Orchestra 

XIX. Early Folk Instruments. 
XX. The Development of the Violin Family. 
XXI. The Development of the Pianoforte. 
XXII. Early Instrumental Forms. 

XXIII. The Instrumental Forms at the Time of Bach. 

XXIV. The Sonata Form of Haydn. 

XXV. The Development of the String Quartet. 
XXVI. Beethoven 's Use of the Instruments. 
XXVII. The Influence of the Romantic School. 
XXVIII. The Influence of the Wagner Music Drama. 
XXIX. Modern Orchestral Music I. 
XXX. Modern Orchestral Music II. 

Choruses 

Since Part III deals with the orchestra and instrumental forms, 
it is obvious that choruses may not be definitely fitted into each les- 
son, as in the previous parts. Part III is designed to be par- 
ticularly helpful in stimulating interest in the student orchestras, 
which should be a part of the music activities of every high school. 
It is therefore suggested that for this year the choruses be largely 
those of more ambitious type, having orchestral accompaniments, 
so that the student orchestra may become an integral part of the 
Avork. The orchestration of these choruses and many others may be 
obtained from music publishers. It is also suggested that some com- 
plete work, cantata or operetta, be studied in this year. These all 
have orchestra accompaniments, and will form a splendid complement 
to the lessons in Part III. 

Almighty Lord Prayer from "Cavalleria Rusticana. " (Mas- 
cagni) 

A Merry Life (Denza) 

Ave Maria (Gounod). 

Baal, We Cry to Thee, "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) 

Blue Danube Waltz (Strauss) 

By Babylon's Wave (Gounod) 

Daybreak (Faning) 

Estudiantina (Lacome) 

Gloria from Twelfth Mass (Mozart) 

How Lovely Are the Messengers (Mendelssohn) 

In Old Madrid (Trotere) 

Jerusalem, "Gallia" (Gounod) 

My Love Dwelt in a Northern Land (Elgar) 

0, For the Wings of a Dove (Mendelssohn) 

141 



The Orchestra 

Italia Beloved (Donizetti) 

Thou Sublime Sweet Evening Star (Wagner) 

Sing, Smile, Slumber (Gounod) 

Soldiers' Chorus, "Faust" (Gounod) 

The Dove (La Paloma) (Yradier) 

The Vikings (Faning) 

Unfold Ye Portals, "Redemption" (Gounod) 

Waltz from "Faust" (Gounod) 

Wedding March from "Lohengrin" (Wagner) 

CANTATAS AND OPERETTAS SUGGESTED 

Building of the Ship (Lahee) 

Crusaders (Gade) 

Egyptian Princess (Vincent) 

Erl King's Daughter (Gade) 

Fair Ellen (Max Bruch) 

Gallia (Gounod) 

Hiawatha's Childhood (Bessie M. Whitely) 

Joan of Arc (Gade) 

King Rene's Daughter (Smart) 

Lady of Shalott, The (Tennyson-Bendall) 

Melusina (Hoffman) 

Mikado (Sullivan) 

Peace Pipe (Frederick Converse) 

Pinafore (Sullivan) 

Pirates of Penzance (Sullivan) 

Robin Hood (De Koven) 

Rose Maiden (Cowen) 

Ruth (Gaul) 

Wreck of the Hesperus (Anderton) 

Lesson I 
The Orchestra 

The symphony orchestra * is divided into four sections accord- 
ing to the character of the instruments which compose it, and con- 
sists of from fifty to one hundred players. In an orchestra of ninety- 
five the instruments are proportioned as follows : 

* It is the custom to designate any grouping of instruments playing together by the term 
"orchestra." Such orchestras are heard at dances, theatres, restaurants, etc. Occasionally 
they are heard in small concerts. The modern orchestra is called "symphony orchestra" be- 
cause its chief function is to play symphonic music. For the proper presentation of opera and 
oratorio an orchestra of this size and character is necessary. 

142 



The Orchestra 



' Strings' 



" Wood-Wind : 



First Violins (16) or (18) 
Second Violins (14) or (16) 
Violas (12) 
Violoncellos (12) 
Double Basses (10) 



Flutes 



Double Reeds 



Single Reeds 



"Brasses" 



"Battery" or Percussion 



[Flutes (2) 

Oboes (2) 
English Horn (1) 
Bassoons (2) 
Contra-Bassoon (1) 
J Clarinets (2) 
[Bass Clarinet (1) 

The French horn, by reason of its beautiful tone quality, is fre- 
quently used as a member of the ' ' wood-winds. ' ' 

French Horns (4) 
Trumpets (4) 
Trombones (4) 
Tuba (1) 

Tympani or Kettle Drums (2) or (3) 

Side Drum (1) 

Bass Drum (1) 

Bells (1) 

Triangle (1) 

.Tambourine, etc. (1) 

The harp belongs to no particular division of the orchestra. 
Usually two harps are employed. 

As the "strings" are the most important instruments in the 
orchestra, they are given the place of prominence in the seating of 
the players. On the left of the conductor sit the first violins; their 
leader, who is known as "concert-master," occupying the first desk 
on the outside row. Directly opposite the first violins, on the right of 
the conductor, are the second violins ; next to them, toward the center, 
the violas are placed. Contrasted with the violas on the side by the 
first violins are found the violoncellos. Directly back of the first 
violins and 'cellos are grouped the double basses. This leaves the 
whole center of the orchestra to the wood-wind instruments. The 
flutes and piccolo occupy the front row; the oboes (English horn) 
and clarinets (bass clarinet), the row behind; and the bassoons (contra- 
bassoon) and the French horns the next. To balance the heavier 



143 




144 



The Orchestra 

strings (the 'cellos and double basses) the "brasses" (trumpets, trom- 
bones and tuba) flank the right center of the orchestra. The tympani 
and percussion instruments occupy the middle center directly opposite 
the conductor. 

Sonle of the instruments of the orchestra sound a different tone 
from the actual written note. These are known as transposing instru- 
ments. 

DOUBLE BASS : Sounds an octave lower than the music is written. 

PICCOLO: Sounds an octave higher than the music is written. 

ENGLISH HORN : Sounds a fifth lower than the music is written. 

CLARINET : All clarinets except that in the key of C. 

CONTRA BASSOON : Sounds an octave lower than the music is 
written. 

FRENCH HORNS : All French horns except that in the key of C. 

TRUMPETS OR CORNETS : All except those in the key. of C. 

TUBA : Sounds an octave lower than the music is written. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Instruments of the Orchestra 

35670J ft] fy 6 ^J Ch ?rj, } Victor Orchestra 

\ (b) The Wood-wind Choir] 

35671/ () The Brass Choir \ Victor Orchestra 

\ (b) The Percussion Instruments) 

17815 Overture "William Tell," Part I (Rossini) Victor Concert Orchestra 

18012 Overture "William Tell," Parts III-IV (Rossini) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson II 

The String Choir 

The 'string choir is called the "string quartet," but this is a 
misnomer, as in the modern orchestra the four groups of instruments 
comprising this section are divided into five parts, which may be 
classified as : 

1st Violins, soprano, 

2d Violins, mezzo-soprano, 

Violas, alto (sometimes tenor), 

Violoncellos, tenor (sometimes baritone), 

Contra-bass, bass. 

The strings are in truth the "backbone" of the orchestra, as they 
can play for any reasonable length of time without greatly fatiguing 
the performer, whereas the "wind" instruments, being dependent upon 
the breath of their players, have to be given constant opportunities 
for rest, As the strings in reality give the true strength to the 

145 



The Orchestra 




VIOLONCELLO 



STRING CHOIR 

DOUBLE BASS 



orchestra, it will be noted that there are many more members in this 
section than in the "wood- wind" or "brass" divisions. 

Berlioz has said that ' ' the strings, ' ' when played together, possess 
"force, lightness, grace, accents both gloomy and gay, thought and 
passion. ' ' He further says : ' ' Slow and tender melodies, confided too 
often to the wind instruments, are nevertheless never better rendered 
than by a mass of violins. Nothing can equal the touching sweetness 
of a score of first violins made to sing by twenty well-skilled bows. 
That is, in fact, the true woman's voice of the orchestra a voice at 
once passionate and chaste, heart-rending, yet soft, which can weep, 
sigh, lament, chant, pray and muse, or burst forth into joyous accents, 
as none other can do. It is in truth the most brilliant color of the 
modern orchestra." 

The force of the strings in unison is felt in the opening measures 
of the First Movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. The whole 
of the Vorspiel to Lohengrin may be considered as an example of 
pure violin tone color. Here the violins are divided into several groups, 
and by the use of harmonics the mysterious ethereal character, which 
is a feature of this composition, is obtained. 

146 



74135 
35506J 



The Orchestra 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Meditation ' ' Thais ' ' (Massenet) 
Molto Lento (Op. 17 No. 2) (Rubinstein) 



Powell 

Victor String Quartet 
Victor String Quartet 



Scherzo (Op. 18 No. 4) (Beethoven) 

Prelude " Lohengrin" (Wagner) 

Allegro con brio -Symphony No. 5, C Minor (Beethoven) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Allegretto Scherzando Symphony No. 8, F Major (Beethoven) 

Philadelphia Orchestra 
Ride of the Valkyries" Valkyrie" (Wagner) Philadelphia Orchestra 

Lesson III 
The Violin 

The violin is the most important instrument in the orchestra, 
and as Henderson so well expressed it, "is the prima donna of the 
string choir, and is both a coloratura and a dramatic singer." This 
instrument, which is the most 
brilliant of the old viol family, 
was brought to its technical per- 
fection by the great violin makers 
of Cremona, who nourished from 
the middle of the sixteenth to the 
opening of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. (See Lesson XX, Part 
III.) 

When the violin first entered 
the orchestra in the seventeenth 
century it was called "the little 
French fiddle. ' ' Monteverde 
(1567-1643) of the Venetian 
School introduced the violin into 
the orchestra and employed the 
use of tremolo and pizzicato on 
the violin in the opera "Tan- 
cred" (1624). Monteverde 's or- 
chestra consisted of two harpsi- 
chords, two large lutes, two vio- 
lins, ten tenor viols, two viole de Gamba, two bass viols, a double harp, 
three trumpets, two cornets, a small flute, a clarion, and three portable 
organs. As the violin increased in popularity, it gradually became of 
more importance in the orchestra. 




"LITTLE FRENCH FIDDLE" OF THE DANCING 

MASTERS (1687) 



In preparation. 



147 



The Orchestra 

The resources of the violin in the way of technical agility are very 
great, but its powers of emotional expression are still greater. The 
effect of a solo violin is very different from that of a number of violins 
playing together, a body of violins producing a vigorous sonorous 
volume of tone, whose character is as different from that of the solo 
violin as is its amount. 

The compass of the violin (from low G to C in the sixth space 
above the staff) is often increased by the use of harmonics. These 
are the strangely sweet flute-like tones, which the Germans call 
"flageolet" tones, but which the scientist knows as "over tones." It 
is a law of acoustics that every musical tone is composed of several 
tones, the ear catching only the fundamental tone of the group. It 
has been discovered that by lightly touching a vibrating string, the 
vibrations of the fundamental tone will be stopped, and the upper 
over tones can be distinctly heard. These harmonics are too high and 
mysterious in quality to be used in vigorous music, but in certain 
passages they produce an ethereal beauty of tone. A great many 
special effects can be produced on the violin. The manner of draw- 
ing the bow across the strings makes a great difference in the tone 
quality. Bowing close to the bridge produces a rough, metallic sound, 
while bowing over the finger board gives a soft, mysterious quality. 
The tremolo or rapid, alternating strokes of the bow upward and 
downward is very common in all orchestral music. It usually is 
expressive of great agitation or of combat. The opening of Wagner's 
Overture "The Flying Dutchman" is an excellent example. 

The plucking of the strings produces the pizzicato effect which 
has always been very popular. Sordinos or mutes are little pieces 
of wood or brass that fit over the strings and deaden the vibrations, 
producing a veiled, weird tone often used to depict mystery or mourn- 
fulness. Occasionally the player is called upon to strike his strings 
with the back of the bow (col legno). This is the means employed 
by Wagner to depict Mime's laughter and scorn of Siegfried. 

The violins of the orchestra are divided into two main groups. 
The second violins are identical instruments to those of the first 
group. They play the part of second soprano, or contralto, filling 
in the harmonic gap between the violins and violas and are of great im- 
portance, although their position in the orchestra with the sound holes 
turned away from the audience places them at a disadvantage, and 
their tone is not so strong as the first violin section. 

In many of the arias of the early masters the voice part was sup- 
ported and enriched by a second melody played by a single instru- 
ment. This was known as the obbligato, the name "obliged bound 

148 



The Orchestra 

indispensable" signifying that the obbligato voice was necessary for 
the complete understanding and enjoyment of the entire work. Mod- 
ern composers have been especially fond of this method of compo- 
sition. 

The violin is frequently used as an obbligato instrument and 
blends beautifully with the human voice. 

ILLUSTBATIONS 

74051 Souvenir de Moscow (Wieniawski) Elman 

89104 Ave Maria (Bach-Gounod) McCormack-Kreisler 

74183 Will-o'-the-Wisp (Sauret) Powell 

64823 Guitarre (Moszkowski-Sarasate) . Heifetz 

Lesson IV 

The Viola 

The viola, although one of the most useful of instruments and 
possessing beautiful tone quality, is less familiar to the average music 
lover than its other string companions. The individual voice of the 
viola has been practically unknown until modern times. The instru- 
ment is simply a larger violin, possessed of a deeper compass and 
tuned a fifth lower than the violin. The four strings of the viola are 
tuned a perfect fifth lower than the violin. The C clef is usually used. 

The viola is an older instrument in the orchestra than the violin, 
being the viola da braccio ("arm fiddle") of the Venetians of the 
sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. 

The position of the viola in the modern orchestra is of great 
importance, as the voice of the instrument makes it possible for the 
viola to be used as the alto, or tenor, of our string choir, as occasion 
demands. Either voice always blends with the other instruments. 

The tone of this instrument, although rich and penetrating, is 
not so brilliant as that of the violin, yet it possesses a peculiar pathos 
which makes its tone at once individual and striking. It is, in fact, 
one of the most helpful instruments of the orchestra and its place is 
of supreme importance. The viola is frequently used to reinforce the 
other stringed instruments ; an interesting example of this is the open- 
ing of the Andante of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. 

Lavignac, the famous French master of instrumentation, says : 
' ' The viola is a philosopher, sad, helpful ; always ready to come to the 
aid of others, but reluctant to call attention to himself." 

The viola was excellently used by Wagner, particularly in the 
Tannhauser Overture. One of the most beautiful and characteristic 

149 



The Orchestra 



uses of the viola is in the symphony, "Harold in Italy," by Berlioz. 
Here the viola voices the melancholy wanderer of Byron. The viola 
was a favorite orchestral voice with Johannes Brahms. Saint-Saens 
has written a beautiful solo for viola in the "Reverie du Soir" in his 
"Suite Algerienne. " 

All the effects of bowing, tremolo, pizzicato, sordines, etc., that 
apply to the violin, are also used on the viola. 



ILLUSTEAT1ONS 

35668 Reverie du Soir (Saint-Saens) 

35580 Andante Symphony No. 5, C Minor (Beethoven) 

88210 Romanza "Huguenots" (Meyerbeer) 

35452 Italian Symphony Andante (Mendelssohn) 



Victor Concert Orchestra 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

Caruso 

Victor Orchestra 



Lesson V 
The Violoncello 

The violoncello was developed 
from the viola d'gamba (or knee 
fiddle) of the seventeenth century. It 
has ever been one of the most popu- 
lar of instruments. The beautiful 
quality of the 'cello's tone is more 
nearly like that of the human voice 
than any of the other instruments. 

Like the viola, the 'cello is tuned 
in fifths, but it is an octave lower in 
pitch. The deep, full voice of the 
'cello is best heard when the instru- 
ment is used as the baritone of the 
string choir. In the early days it was 
used as the bass,* but modern com- 
posers frequently employ its tone as 
tenor robusto, and it is often used as 
a solo instrument. Owing to its great 
compass, the 'cello may be employed 
as the bass of the string choir, as a 

solo instrument, or as a singer of the melody, with the accompaniment 

of the other strings. 

Berlioz says : "Nothing is more voluptuously melancholy or more 

suited to the utterance of tender, languishing themes, than a mass of 




Showin 
strings. '. 



ST. CECILIA 



; viola de gamba with six 
fotice the reversed curves. 



* In string quartets the 'cello still plays the bass part. 

150 



The Orchestra 



violoncellos playing in unison on their first strings; while nothing 
is more expressive of dignity without passion than the lower tones 
of the 'cello when uttered by several instruments together." 

On account of the depth of 
its timbre and the thickness of 
its strings, the 'cello is not sus- 
ceptible to the extreme agility 
belonging to the violin and 
viola. In solo passages frequent 
use is made of harmonics. They 
are obtained by the same method 
employed on the violin and 
viola, but owing to the length of 
the strings of the 'cello, those 
harmonics which are produced 
near the bridge are even more 
beautiful than those of the 
violin. 

The 'cellos are often di- 
vided. When Beethoven wished 
to produce the impression of the 
peaceful, rippling brook in his 
Pastoral Symphony he gave a murmuring figure to the divided 'cellos. 
It is as "the sighing lover of the orchestral company" that the 
violoncello has been most frequently used. Four 'cellos in harmony 
support Siegmund in the outpouring of his ecstatic love in the first 
act of Wagner's "Valkyrie." The violoncello is a favorite instru- 
ment for obbligatos. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Le Cygne (Saint-Saens) Kindler 

Melody in F (Rubinstein) Kindler 

Elegie (Massenet) Eames and Hollman 

Andante Symphony, F major, No. 6 "Pastoral" (Beethoven) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Andante Cantabile (Op. 11) (Tschaikowsky) Elman String Quartet 




KNEE FIDDLE OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY 



88014 
35320 



74575 



Lesson VI 
Double Bass 

The patriarchal double bass provides the foundation for the 
harmonic structure of orchestral music. The instrument is called the 
double bass, because it was used in early times to double the bass part 
of the violoncello. Until Beethoven's day little was known of the 



151 



The Orchestra 



possibilities of the instrument, which then became an important indi- 
vidual voice in the orchestra. Many of Beethoven's contemporaries 
looked askance at his innovations and even Berlioz, the great French 
master of instrumentation, likened the famous passage for the basses 
in Beethoven's C Minor ("Fifth") Symphony, to "the happy gam- 
bols of an elephant." An equally famous use of these instruments is 
the transitional passage between the third and fourth movements of 
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, where the basses play the part of 
mediator between the orchestra and the chorus. There lived in Vienna 
during Beethoven's life a remarkable player upon the double bass, 
whose name was Dragonetti. It is said he was able to play upon his 
instrument all the most difficult music written for the 'cello. As 
Dragonetti played in Beethoven 's orchestra he doubtless influenced the 
great composer in his use of these ponderous instruments. 

The double bass is a transposing instru- 
ment, that is, an instrument whose sound is 
different from the actual written notes. The 
double bass sounds an octave lower than the 
music is written. The tremolo on the double 
bass is most dramatic and is frequently used 
to represent storm. The pizzicato of the 
basses is often used and is clearer and better 
than that of any other stringed instrument. 
Harmonics, however, are rarely employed, as 
they are strident and harsh, and are only intro- 
duced for grotesque purposes, or in occasional 
compositions of program music. Mutes are 
employed only by the most modern composers. 
A most interesting use of the double bass 
is to be found in the opening of Tschaikowsky 's 
"Marche Slave." Here the double basses and 
bassoons intone the theme of the dirge. 




DOMENICO DRAGONETTI, A 
FAMOUS CONTRA-BASSIST 

(1763-1846) 



ILLUSTEATIONS 
55105 Marche Slave (Tschaikowsky} 
18278 Scherzo Fifth Symphony (Beethoven) 



Herbert's Orchestra 
Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson VII 
The Harp 

The harp is of recent introduction in the orchestra and belongs 
to no particular choir. The harp is a very primitive instrument, being 

152 



The Orchestra 

used in the ancient days as the national instrument of Egypt and 
also by the Hebrews, who modeled their small hand harp, or lyre, 
from the instrument used by the Egyptians.* In the study of folk 
music the harp was one of the most popular instruments of the 
people, being especially noted in the early music of Ireland, Scotland 
and Wales. Yet it is rarely found in the orchestras until the modern 
day. Many great composers have used the harp in their orchestras, 
but only as a means of lending national color or descriptive expres- 
sion. Thus, where Biblical or classic subjects were treated, or in 
the later imitation of folk music, the harp was employed. 

In 1810, Sebastian Erard perfected his pedal mechanism, making 
it possible for the harpist to play in all keys, where before but a few 
had been practical. But it was not until the time of Berlioz and 
Wagner that the harp became a true orchestral voice. Wagner first 
used it to depict the accompaniment of the singing of the Minnesingers 
in " Tannhauser, " but later discovering its great possibilities, he used 
it for many effects. One of the most striking examples of Wagner's 
use of the harp is to be observed in the great "Magic Fire Scene" 
from ' ' The Valkyrie. ' ' Now the harp is constantly used by symphony 
writers as well as by composers of opera. It is usually treated either 
in broad effects or in arpeggios. 

Many special effects are also possible on the harp. The glissando 
is frequently used. This is produced by sliding the hands rapidly over 
the strings, without stopping to pluck them with the fingers. It is a 
frequent piano effect used by Liszt, and is to be noted in his Hun- 
garian Rhapsodies. Pizzicato, produced by the plucking of the strings, 
is the usual method of harp playing. Harmonics can also be pro- 
duced easily by the ' ' stopping ' ' of the strings, in a manner similar to 
that employed in the violin family. This effect on the harp is very 
pretty and sounds like a faint tinkle from a muffled bell. One of the 
best examples of this use is found in the Ballet of the Sylphs from 
Berlioz's "Damnation of Faust." 

Few truly great composers have written music for the harp as 
a solo instrument. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

55102 The Fountain (Zabel) Sassoli 

87072 Cavalleria Rusticana Siciliana (Mascagni) Caruso 

55111 Concerto for Harp and Flute (Mozart) Sassoli-Lemmone 

35464 Prelude L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune (Debussy) Symphony Orchestra of Paris 

55102 Valse de Concert (Hasselmans) Sassoli 



See half-tone illustrations, pages 65, 66, 67, 68, and 69. 

153 



The Orchestra 

Lesson VIII 
Technical Mechanism of Wind Instruments 

The method of tone production on wind instruments can be best 
understood by taking a common type, and then observing the precise 
manner in which air, when set in musical vibration by the breath, 
is definitely controlled to this or that pitch. Take as this common 
type, a straight tube of wood, two feet in length and an inch in 
diameter, w r hich is closed at one end and pierced with a hole about 
an inch from the end, after the manner of a flute embouchure. The 
tone then given is C. Now, by increasing the breath, C octave is 
heard, and then Gl, C2, E2, etc. This process is typical of all tubes 
of whatever size or material. The tube then gives at least five tones, 
without any appliances except the increase of breath. If the tube is 
shortened an inch the tone is D, then E, etc., and their harmonics. 
The tube may be shortened by piercing holes. When the holes are 
covered, the tone is C ; as they are uncovered, one by one, the other 
tones are heard. When the full scale is obtained it must be remem- 
bered the harmonics are possible as well. 

In the case of the trombone the performer does actually shorten or 
lengthen the tube, as this tube is of two parts, one sliding into the 
other. In other brass instruments, the long normal tube is bent into 
several crooks, which can be thrown into one tube, or successively 
shut off to diminish the aggregate length, by means of the pistons and 
valves, which the performer works with his finger, for the bending of 
a tube makes no difference in the tone quality. Therefore, by remem- 
bering these three things, first, that the shortening of the tube height- 
ens the pitch; second, that a tube may be shortened by holes in the 
side (as in flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons), or by shutting off 
its crooks (as in horns, trumpets, etc.), or by directly contracting its 
length as in trombones; and third, that each of the tones of the first 
octave produces from one to five other tones, by simply increasing the 
breath pressure; one will then understand the principle, varying only 
in detail, which underlies the whole wind side of the orchestra. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

35670 The Instruments of the Orchestra Wood-wind Victor Orchestra 

35671 The Instruments of the Orchestra The Brasses Victor Orchestra 
Under the Greenwood Tree (Wood-wind accompaniment) Dixon and Chorus 

17623^ What Shall He Have Who Killed the Deer (Brass accompaniment) 

Victor Male Chorus 



154 



Flutes 



The Orchestra 

Lesson IX 
The Wood-wind Choir 

The wood-wind choir is composed of flutes and reeds, which 
are divided as follows : 

J Flute (middle C up three octaves). 

I Piccolo-Flute (octave higher than flute). 

Bassoon (contra B[j and A[j up over three 

octaves). 
Oboe (B below middle C up two octaves 

and a half). 

Reeds. . . . \ English Horn (fifth lower than oboe). 

Contra-Bassoon (octave lower in pitch). 
Clarinet (F below middle C up three 

octaves). 
( Bass-Clarinet (octave lower than clarinet). 





1 

Double 




Reeds 




Single 

T-k T 




WOOD-WIND CHOIR 
FLUTE PICCOLO OBOE ENGLISH HORN CLARINET BASSOON 

The French horn, although a brass instrument, also is used as a 
member of the wood-wind choir. 



155 



The Orchestra 

Although designated as the "wood-wind choir," the voices of 
the flute, oboe and clarinet are practically the same in range. They 
may be distinguished as : 

Coloratura Soprano, Flute, 

Lyric Soprano, Oboe, 

Dramatic Soprano, Clarinet. 

(See Lesson IV, Part I.) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35670 The Instruments of the Orchestra Wood-wind Victor Orchestra 

Sweet Bird "II Pensieroso" (Handel) (Flute and Oboe) Doucet and Bar one, 



17174< Hear Me, Norma (Bellini) (Oboe and Clarinet) Doucet and Christie 

[ Tarantelle (Saint-Saens) (Clarinet and Flute) Christie and Barone 

17717 Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind (Shakespeare-Stevens) Dixon and Male Quartet 

Lesson X 

The Flute 

The flute is the "coloratura" soprano of the wood-wind family, 
but it is lacking in the depth of expression which is characteristic of 
the oboe and clarinet. The flute is more familiar than any of the other 
w r ood-wind instruments and is one of the oldest instruments in the 
orchestra, although it has only been in modern days that it has come 
to the front rank as a solo instrument. In the old days it was im- 
possible to have the holes of an equal distance owing to the differ- 
ence in the lengths of the fingers; therefore the flute was never per- 
fectly in tune throughout its entire compass.* Bohm (1794-1881) 
invented a mechanism by which the holes could be covered by padded 
keys, therefore they could be made of a uniform proportion. Bohm's 
invention has been adopted for all the wood-wind instruments. 

The flute is possessed of a marvelous agility which is very useful 
in the orchestra. It is usually given the highest voice when playing 
with the oboe and clarinet. The flute is popular as an obbligato instru- 
ment. In this capacity it blends marvelously with the coloratura 
soprano. 

Gluck uses the flute in "Orpheus" to voice the sadness of the be- 
reaved husband when he is searching for Eurydice in the Elysian 
Fields. 

In the Finale of Beethoven's Overture, Leonore No. 3, is an excel- 
lent example of the joyous character of the flute. Tschaikowsky in 
all his works shows a decided preference for this instrument. 



* Rossini had a favorite conundrum: "W T hat is worse than one flute?" Answer, "two 
flutes," 

156 



The Orchestra 

The octave flute, or piccolo, is the highest wind instrument of our 
orchestra. Sounded alone it is almost unbearable, for it is own cousin 
to the ear-piercing fife, but when used with the other instruments, 
excellent effects of combination are possible. There are three flutes 
in the symphony orchestra and one piccolo-flute. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

45053 Danse des Mirlitons "Casse Noisette Suite" (Tschaikowsky) 

Herbert's Orchestra 

18684 Whirluiind (Tourbillon) (Krantz) Brooke 

16047 The Wren (Demare) (Piccolo) Lyons 

88073 Lo, Here the Gentle Lark (Bishop) (Flute obbligato) Melba 

35462 Minuet of Will-o'-the-Wisps "Damnation of Faust" (Berlioz) 

Symphony Orchestra of Paris 
35269 Finale Overture, Leonore No. 3 (Beethoven) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson XI 
The Oboe and English Horn 

The flute or pipe of the Greeks was the ancestor of the oboe and 
clarinet. These instruments are sounded by blowing the air in at the 
end, and the tone is created by the vibration of reeds attached to the 
mouthpiece, whereas in the flute, it is the result of the impinging of 
the air on the edge of the embouchure (or opening) on the side of the 
instrument. The reeds are thin pieces of cane. The size and bore of 
the instruments and the difference between these reeds are the causes 
for the difference in tone quality of these instruments. The double 
reed instruments, oboe, English horn, bassoon, contra-bassoon, have 
two pieces of cane fitted closely together, extending from the upper 
end of the oboe and English horn, and from the sides of the bassoons. 
These reeds are pinched in the lips and set in vibration by the breath. 

In playing the oboe, such a small quantity of air is required, that 
the performer is almost constantly holding his breath, which is very 
fatiguing. The oboe is the most refined of any of the wind instru- 
ments. Its tone is more reedy in character than the clarinet, and 
has two peculiar qualities: soft and tender, yet astonishingly pene- 
trating. The oboe has always held the right to sound the tuning A 
for the orchestra. 

The oboe is especially fitted for the expression of melody not 
necessarily sad but in the most intense degree romantic. It is particu- 
larly beautiful in pastoral effects. Berlioz says of it : "Candor, artless 
grace, soft joy or the grief of a fragile being suit the oboe's accents. 

157 



The Orchestra 

A certain degree of agitation is also within its powers of expression, 
but care should be taken not to urge it into utterances of passion or 
violent outbursts of anger, menace or heroism, for then its small acid 
voice becomes ineffectual and absolutely grotesque." As an example 
of tenderness the Funeral March from Beethoven's "Eroica" Sym- 
phony should be noted, while an excellent illustration of the pastoral 
quality of the instrument is found in the same composer's "Pastoral" 
Symphony. 

The alto of the oboe is the English horn. This instrument is 
to the oboe what the viola is to the violin, and is tuned a fifth lower 
It is larger and the upper part, which is of metal, is bent so as to 
be more convenient for the player. This is a very old instrument, 
and was originally covered with a skin which made it resemble an 
Alpine horn, but no one knows why it was called English. Its tone 
is more veiled and dreamy than the oboe. It has only been used in 
the orchestra in modern times, Berlioz being one of the first composers 
to recognize its beauties. 

One of the most beautiful uses of the instrument is found in 
Dvorak 's ' ' From the New World Symphony, ' ' where the English horn 
sings the lovely theme of the Largo. Wagner also uses the voice of the 
English horn to accompany the shepherd in the first act of "Tann- 
hauser," and in the third act of "Tristan and Isolde." 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

18312 Romance for Oboe (Schumann) Foreman 

18323 Praeludium (Jarnefelt) Victor Concert Orchestra 

74631 Largo "New World Symphony" (Dvorak) Victor Concert Orchestra 
oK fi97 f Rustic Wedding Symphony Bridal Song (Goldmark)) y. . r , rtrrh^trn 

35b27 \ Rustic Wedding Symphony Serenade (Goldmark) } V [ 

35241 Carnival Romain Overture (Berlioz) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson XII 
The Clarinet 

The clarinet is of more recent introduction into the orchestra 
than any of the other instruments, yet it is the most useful, and in 
some respects the most important, of the wood-wind family. Its 
chief structural difference is the mouth-piece, which is cut down 
chisel-shaped; into this, a simple flat reed is fastened. The clarinet 
has a very extensive compass of over three octaves, and possesses 
great agility. The fingering of the clarinet differs from the other wood- 
wind instruments, and as it is almost impossible to play in keys having 

158 



The Orchestra 

more than two sharps or flats, various kinds of clarinets are made to be 
used in the different keys. The C clarinet plays what is written on the 
score; the others are transposing instruments. For example, should 
the 13 flat clarinet play from the same music as the rest of the orchestra 
it will sound a major second lower; therefore, in order to have it play 
with the orchestra, the score must be written for the clarinet in a dif- 
ferent key from the rest of the orchestra, so all will sound together. 
The three clarinets commonly in use are C, A and B flat. The clarinet 
in B flat plays two half-tones lower (a major second) than the orches- 
tra; the A clarinet three half-tones lower (a minor third) ; therefore 
the parts must be written on the score two half-tones and three half- 
tones higher, thus : 




> Key signature 

As written for A Clarinet 

Key signature 



n?-3 & M = 

.^^ MtjTf^ 




As written for B^ Clarinet 



In some cases where there is not a great difference in the difficulties of 
playing, it is observed that each clarinet has its distinctive quality of 
tone. The C clarinet is rather unsympathetic and is rarely used. The 
A clarinet is less brilliant in solo passages. The most beautiful voice 
is heard from the B flat clarinet, which possesses a full, clear, rich 
tone. Berlioz says: "Its voice is that of heroic love. It is little 
appropriate to the Idyll. It is an epic instrument, like the horns, 
trumpets and trombones. ' ' 

The clarinet has four distinct registers, and because of these, four 
individual tonal qualities. Its ability to crescendo and diminish a 
tone makes the instrument of great importance in brass bands, as 
well as orchestras. 

The clarinet was first used in the opera orchestra by Rameau, but 
it does not appear in any scores of Bach or Handel. Haydn w r as taught 
its beauty by his pupil, Mozart, who was the first to recognize the pos- 
sibilities of the clarinet as a leading orchestral voice. Almost every 

159 



The Orchestra 

orchestral work since his day contains passages which serve to display 
the rich mellow voice of the clarinet that Berlioz so aptly character- 
ized as ''sour-sweet." An exquisite use of the instrument is found in 
the first movement of Tschaikowsky 's "Symphonic Pathetique," 
where the clarinet sings the theme of the second subject. In Wagner's 
Overture to Tannhauser the clarinet gives the theme of the hymn to 
Venus. 

The deeper voice of the clarinets is found in the bass-clarinet, an 
instrument pitched an octave lower than the regular clarinet. The bass 
clarinet is bent and has a bell of brass which turns upward, pipe 
fashion. The voice of the bass clarinet is impressive and noble, and 
similar in quality to certain registers of the organ. Meyerbeer first 
used the bass clarinet in his orchestra. This was a favorite instrument 
with Franz Liszt, who used it frequently in his symphonic poems. 

ILLUSTRATIONS* 

^Overture to "Tannhauser 1 ' (Wagner) 
35182 Concertino (Weber) (Clarinet) Draper 

t Andante "Pathetic" Symphony (Tschaikowsky) 

64790 Hymn to the Sun "Le Coq d'Or" (Rimsky-Korsakow) Garrison 

74671 Bacchanale "Samson et Dalila" (Saint-Saens) Philadelphia Orchestra 

Lesson XIII 
Bassoon 

The bass of the double reed family is the bassoon, and here is 
noticed a quality unknown to the other wood-wind instruments. The 
bassoon is the bass of the wood-wind choir ; occasionally, when a very 
deep bass is needed the contra-bassoon is employed. The bassoon is 
bent for the convenience of the player, and, therefore, the Italians call 
the instrument a ' ' f agotte ' ' or bundle of sticks. From the side of the 
bassoon there projects a silver tube, into which the reeds, similar 
but larger, to those of the oboe, are fitted. The instrument is easily 
distinguished in the orchestra. It is an exceedingly useful instru- 
ment as its register is over three octaves, and it has great technical 
agility. Its voice is similar to the 'cello and horn, only it is more 
nasal in quality. There is no instrument capable of greater variety 
than the bassoon. On account of its great compass it has four distinct 
registers of tone. The sustained melodies in its high register are full 
of expression, almost resembling a tenor voice ; like the oboe and Eng- 

* If time permits, the class should hear Record No. 35644, Spanish Dance No. 2 in G 
minor (Moszkowski), in which the clarinet has important solo parts. 
t In preparation. 

160 



The Orchestra 

lish horn, this tone quality is particularly suitable for the representa- 
tion of pastoral effects. From the middle register the tone is, as Ber- 
lioz said, "a pale cadaverous sound." Handel used this in his scene 
between Saul and the "Witch of Endor. For the production of grotesque 
effects the bassoon is the clown of the orchestra. Its humor is uncon- 
scious, however, and comes from the use of the deepest register of the 
instrument. When this depth of tone is combined with the extreme 
agility of which the instrument is possible, we have a grotesque effect 
which is irresistible. In this manner it has been used very often by 
composers of program music. Beethoven employs this effect in the rus- 
tic dance of the Pastoral Symphony, and Mendelssohn in the droll 
dance which introduces the clowns in "A Midsummer-Night's Dream." 
It is frequently noted in the scores of Richard Strauss and his fol- 
lowers. 

The deep quality of the contra-bassoon is rarely needed in the 
orchestra, and is best suited for grandiose effects of harmony. Bee- 
thoven occasionally employs it, one of his best uses being in the Ninth 
Symphony. When the chorus sings, ' ' He shall dwell in glory yonder, ' ' 
the passage is given to bassoon, tympani and contra-bassoon, which 
produce "an overpowering representation of eternity." Strauss uses 
the contra-bassoon in a similar manner in his tone poem, "Death and 
Transfiguration." In the clever Scherzo by Paul Dukas, "Le Ap- 
prenti Sorcier," the contra-bassoon is employed for grotesque effects. 

ILLUSTRATIONS * 

18684 Hungarian Fantasie (Weber} (Bassoon) Gruner 

35527 Intermezzo A Midsummer-Night's Dream (Mendelssohn) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

45053 Danse Chinoise Casse Noisette Suite (T schaikowsky) Herbert's Orchestra 
18042 Peer Gynt Suite, No. 1 Part 4, "In the Hall of the Mountain King" 

(Edvard Grieg, Op. 46) Victor Concert Orchestra 

55105 Marche Slave (T schaikowsky) Herbert's Orchestra 



Lesson XIV 
Brass Choir 

The brass choir consists of French horns, trumpets (cornets), 
trombones and tuba. In early scores the trumpets were considered the 

* It is suggested that the special record for the instruments (35670) be replayed so that 
the tone color of the wood-wind instruments may be contrasted. Listen for the voice of the 
bassoons in the "Marche Slave" and see how many of the other wood-wind instruments can be 
distinguished. 

161 



The Orchestra 

most important instruments, but now the French horns are the most 
popular. It was also customary to arrange a quartet of brass instru- 
ments, thus: 

Trumpet (Cornet), Soprano; 

Horn, Alto; 

Trombone, Tenor or Baritone ; 

Tuba, Bass. 

In writing for the brass choir in the modern day, it is generally 
the custom to write for each group in independent harmony ; thus : 
three trumpets or three trombones, with tuba make complete harmony, 
as do the four French horns. Then, again, trombones and trumpets 
may combine; or horns and trombones; or horns and trumpets. 




BRASS CHOIR 
FRENCH HORN TROMBONE TUBA TRUMPET (CORNET) 



CORNET (TRUMPET.) 



With the wood-wind instruments the tones are produced by vi- 
brating reeds, but with the brasses the lips of the players act as the 
reeds, and each tone is produced by a different pressure of the lips, 
or to use a technical term, a different "embouchure." It is for this 
reason that the instruments of the brass division are so difficult to play.* 

* Many of the false notes heard from the brass instruments are due to the condition of the 
player's lips, which often become rough from climatic changes. 

162 



The Orchestra 

It has been said that if the tone quality of the brass choir sounds 
blatant and "brassy" it is either because the parts are badly written 
or badly played. When the brass choir is properly employed it is 
capable of the most beautiful rich tones, which nearly resemble those 
of the organ. 

A remarkable example of this is to be noted in the accompaniment 
to the King's Prayer in the first act of Wagner's "Lohengrin." 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

35265 Triumphal March "Alda" (Verdi) Vessella's Band 

17216 Farewell to the Forest (Mendelssohn) (2) Spring Song (Pinsuti) 

Victor Brass Quartet 

64013 King's Prayer "Lohengrin" (Wagner) Journet 

17133 Pilgrims 1 Chorus "Tannhduser" (Wagner) Victor Brass Quartet 



Lesson XV 
Trumpet (Cornet] 

The trumpet is the soprano of the brass choir, its voice being 
an octave higher than the horn, although its harmonic scale 
is the same. The 
chief structural 
difference is that 
the tube of the 
trumpet is cylin- 
drical throughout, 
only opening out 
into a small cone 
near the bell. The 
tube is only half 
the length of that 
of the horn. The trumpet is a transposing instrument and a number 
of different crooks, in various keys, are used. The quality of the tone 
is brilliant and noble. It has been necessary to substitute the cornet 
for the trumpet in many orchestras, as the former instrument, al- 
though not possessing the tonal beauty of the trumpet, is a much easier 
one to play. 

Until the time of Beethoven the individual character of the trum- 
pet's tone was rarely used. A notable exception is found in the use 
made by Handel in the Aria "And the Trumpet Shall Sound," from 
"The Messiah." Beethoven makes an interesting use of the tone of 
this instrument in the "Overture Leonore No. 3," where the trumpet 




THE TRUMPETS OF KING PHILIP II IN THE FUNERAL CORTEGE OF 
CHARLES V (1559) 



163 



The Orchestra 

announces the arrival of the governor. The echo effect is also noticed 
here. The trumpets are seldom called upon to intone a melody except 
in passages where the brass plays alone or when a brilliant and forcible 
orchestration is used. 

The cornet is the most valuable member of the brass band. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

74080 The Trumpet Shall Sound " Messiah" (Handel) Wither spoon 

18012 Overture " William Tell" (Rossini) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35268 Overture Leonore No. 3 (Part II) (Beethoven) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35668 Marche Militaire Franqais (Saint-Saens) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson XVI 
French Horn 

The French horn is often heard as a member of the wood-wind 
choir, although by family it belongs to the ' ' brasses. ' ' In Beethoven 's 
day the horn was, in reality, the old hunting horn, which was coiled, 
so that it might be slipped over the head of the mounted hunter and 
carried resting on the shoulder. If the horn were straightened out, it 
would be seventeen feet long. This instrument is very difficult to play, 
as the lips act as reeds in the cup-shaped mouthpiece, and the force 
of the lips and the rapidity of oscillation produces the tone.* In 
olden times it was discovered by accident, that by putting the hand 
into the lower end of the tube (the flaring part, called the bell), the 
pitch of a tone was raised, and this method is even now occasionally 
used, although it is no longer necessary, since the horn has been pro- 
vided with valves and crooks, making it now possible to play a full 
chromatic scale. Formerly it was necessary to use horns of different 
pitches, and players were provided with different crooks, which pro- 
duced different keys. The composer designated on his score which 
crook was to be used, much the same as with clarinets. Now, the 
horn in the key of F is used for almost all music, as its tone is much 
more beautiful and mellow than when the other keys are used. 

The horn is the most genial of all instruments; its tones are full 
of passion, pathos and solemnity. It blends well with the general 
harmony and can therefore be used to play a solo part in com- 
plete harmony, or simply to fill in the general scheme of orchestra- 
tion. There are several splendid effects which are possible on the 

* It is very necessary for the player on any brass instrument to keep his lips perfectly 
smooth. This is especially true of the horn. 

164 



The Orchestra 

horn. By means of a mute, the echo horn is heard. Stopped tones 
produced by the insertion of the hand in the bell produce an effective 
tone, which is nasal and discordant, and is employed to depict strife 
and discord in program music. 

The most characteristic use of the horn is found in Wagner's 
"Ring of the Nibelungen," where the hero, Siegfried, is always rep- 
resented by this instrument. It is naturally also employed in depict- 
ing hunting scenes. 

The romantic quality of the horn is a favorite medium with all 
composers. When Faust sees the vision of Marguerite, Gounod in- 
trusts the theme to the French horn. In the Nocturne of Mendels- 
sohn's "Midsummer-Night's Dream" the horn sings a beautiful mel- 
ody. Another lovely use of the instrument is noted in the Andante 
of Tschaikowsky 's Fifth Symphony. The horn quartet is employed 
in the opening theme of Weber's overture "Der Freischiitz"; another 
equally famous example is noted in Saint-Saens' symphonic poem, 
"Phaeton." 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

17174 Siegfried's Horn Call (Wagner) French Horn Homer 

35527 Nocturne "Midsummer-Night's Dream" (Mendelssohn) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
*Third Symphony Poco Allegretto (Brahms) 



Lesson XVII 
Trombone Tuba 

The trombone is one of the noblest instruments of the orchestra. 
Its tone is grave and majestic, and in all solemn and dignified music 
the trombone plays an important part. It is customary to write for 
the instrument in parts, using the tuba for the bass of the quartet, 
but the trombones are also used in unison. The wonderful effect in 
the "Pilgrims' Chorus" in "Tannhauser" is produced by this means. 

Lavignae, the most eminent French authority on the instruments 
of the orchestra, says : ' ' The timbre of the trombone is in its nature 
majestic and imposing. It is sufficiently powerful to dominate a whole 
orchestra and produces an impression of a superhuman power. In 
fortissimo there is no instrument more stately, noble or imposing, 
but it can also become terrible if the composer so desires ; in pianissimo 
it is mournful and full of dismay, or it may have the serenity of the 
organ ; it can also, according to the shades of meaning, become fierce or 

* In preparation. 

165 




PERFORMANCE OF A MASS BY WILLAERT. THE CHOIRS OF BRASS 
INSTRUMENTS WERE USED IN THE ANTIPHONAL MANNER 



The Orchestra 

satanic, hut still 
with undiminished 
grandeur and maj- 
esty. It is a su- 
perb instrument ol! 
lofty dramatic 
power, which 
should be reserved 
for great occasions ; 
when properly in- 
troduced its effect 
is overwhelming. ' ' 
Mendelssohn had 
the same idea when 
he said, ' ' The trom- 
bones are too sacred 
for often use." 
Most of the great composers have felt this and have employed the 
trombones only for the expression of overwhelming impressivencss. 
Wagner thus uses the trombones at the height of his crescendo in the 
Vorspiel to "Lohengrin." 

The four-part harmony of the trombones is usually given by 
three trombones and the tuba. The tuba is the double bass of the 
brass family and has the deepest tone in the wind choir. It belongs 
to the class of instruments commonly known as "saxohorn. " (So 
named for the inventor, Sax, of Paris. ) * 

The tuba 's voice is noble and dignified. The instrument is made 
in several keys, but the one generally used in the orchestra is in B flat. 
Wagner, in "Siegfried's Death March," employs the tenor tuba, which 
is also to be found in the scores of many of the modern composers. 
One of the best uses of the tuba in all musical literature is in the 
Torch Dance of Meyerbeer. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

35157 Cujus Animam "Stabat Mater" (Rossini) Pryor and Band 

16371 Miserere "II Trovatore" (Verdi) (Cornet and Trombone) Pryor-Keneke 

35505 Fackeltanz (Meyerbeer) Conway's Band 

35157 Funeral March (Chopin) Pry or' s Band 

35369 Siegfried's Funeral March (Wagner) Vessella's Band 



* These instruments should not be confused with the saxophones, also an invention of the 
French instrument maker. The saxophones are made in several sizes. They resemble in shape 
the clarinets and have a flat mouthpiece, with a single reed. Their tone resembles the charac- 
ter of the wood-wind instruments but has greater sonority. They are indispensable in brass 
bands. 

IfiG 



The Orchestra 

Lesson XVIII 
Percussion Instruments 

The instruments of percussion are generally termed "the 
battery." The most important of these are the tympani or kettle- 
drums, as they are the only drums which can be tuned to a definite 
pitch. These instruments are hemispherical brass or copper vessels, 
kettles, in short, covered with vellum heads, which can be controlled 
to pitch by means of a tension of this head, which is applied with key 
screws working through iron rings. The part of the drummer is a 
very difficult one, for he must have not only absolute pitch, but also 




XYLOPHONE 



PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 
ORCHESTRA BELLS SIDE DRUM CHIMES TYMPANI (KETTLE DRUM) 



a perfect sense of time and rhythm. Very often the drummer is 
called upon to change one or all of his drums into another key while 
the orchestra is still playing in the original key. 

In olden days the drums were used only to accentuate the rhythm. 
Bach uses them as solo instruments in the opening of "The Christ- 
mas Oratorio. ' ' Beethoven was the first to realize the true importance 
of the tympani. They had formerly been tuned only in tonic and 
dominant. Beethoven tuned them also in octaves. His remarkable 

167 



The Orchestra 

use of the tympani in the Scherzo of the Ninth Symphony and in the 
C Minor Symphony are the best examples of this method. Wagner 
makes excellent use of the tympani in many of his scores. Modern 
composers now use the kettle drums in any key desired. 

The other instruments of percussion are: 

SNARE DRUM. Military drum having catgut strings or "snares," 
which rattle against it when it is struck. Its tone is sharp and 
incisive and is usually associated with the fife or piccolo. 

BASS DRUM. The largest drum, which gives a deep, indefinite 
tone. Used only to mark the rhythm and is associated with the 
cymbals. 

TAMBOURINE. Although not a drum, the tambourine belongs to 
the same family. It is constructed of a wooden hoop, on one side of 
which vellum is stretched. It is beaten by the hand, and several 
metal plates called jingles, which are fixed loosely around the hoop, 
produce a bell-like tone. 

THE BELLS. Bells of various sizes have been used in the orchestra 
from the time of Bach to the present day. Most familiar is the 
Glockenspiel or Carillon, with keyboard, which is usually employed 
in the symphony orchestra. In smaller organizations the carillon 
consists of a number of metal bars, which are struck with a hammer. 

THE XYLOPHONE. An instrument similar to the carillon, but 
with bars of wood instead of steel. 

THE TRIANGLE. A bar of steel bent in the shape of a triangle 
and struck with a small steel rod. Its tone is clear and incisive, the 
pitch is indefinite and the triangle can be used with all keys. It is 
distinctly a rhythmic instrument. 

THE CYMBALS. These are circular disks of metal with a hemi- 
spherical concavity in jthe middle. These are struck together, pro- 
ducing a metallic clang which may be employed for either fortissimo 
or pianissimo effects. In the latter use the cymbals are most effective. 

THE GONG OR TOM-TOM. This huge metal disk is of Chinese 
origin and is used only for special effects in funereal compositions and 
in dramatic scenes where horror is carried to its height. 

CHIME OF BELLS. Metal bars of various lengths which produce 
definite tones when struck with a hammer. A very popular and beau- 
tiful effect. 

The CELESTA is a most useful adaptation of the bells, which was 
invented in 1886 by Auguste Mustel, of Paris. In this instrument 
plates of steel, which are suspended over resonating boxes of wood, 
are struck by hammers which are operated by a keyboard similar to 
that of the piano. Modern composers, especially since Tschaikowsky's 

108 



The Orchestra 



remarkable uses of the instrument, almost constantly employ the 
celesta in place of the other forms of glockenspiel and carillon. 

CASTANETS. Two wooden shells which click against each other 
in the hollow of the player's hand. They are entirely rhythmic in 
character and their principal use is to accent national music in com- 
bination with the tambourine. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Menuett (Gluck) (2) Menuett (Mozart) Bells Reitz 

Gavotte (Mozart) (2) Gavotte (Gretry) Xylophone Reitz 

Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes (Old English) Celesta Arndt 

To a Wild Rose (Nevin) Celesta Arndt 

Intermezzo "Goyescas" (Granados) Castanets McKee's Orchestra 

Casse Noisette Suite (T schaikowsky) Herbert' 's Orchestra 

Dagger Dance "Natoma" (Herbert) Herbert's Orchestra 



17917J 

17691J 

35574 
45053 
55113 



Lesson XIX 
The Early Folk Instruments 

The use of instruments can be traced back to early man who first 
used the drums and tom-tom (percussion instruments) for the accom- 
paniment to his primitive chants and dances.* The second step shows 
the use of wind instruments as 
made from the horns of animals 
and later duplicated in brass and 
other metals. In the third period 
the gentler side of man's heart 
seems to have awakened, and there 
is noticed an instinct to reproduce 
the sounds of Nature by means 
of the reed instruments, made from 
the sources provided by Nature 
herself. The last period brings the 
use of the stringed instruments, 
first noticed in the simple lyre and 
harp, later developing into the 
stringed instruments played with 
the bow. 

In mediaeval days, while the 
science of music was being fostered 
by the Church, instruments were 




Cue or H x< 



TWO EXAMPLES OF THE CRWTH 

No. 1. Tenth Century. 

No. 2. Eighteenth Century in England. 



* The American Indian and the savage African still use the old tom-tom to accompany 
their war-songs and dances. Among many ancient tribes these drums assumed artistic im- 
portance. In the relics of the Aztec Indians many drums of queer design and exquisite decora- 
tion have been discovered. 

169 



The Orchestra 



used principally by the common people, and it is noticed that all the 
troubadour, minstrel and minnesinger songs were accompanied by 
stringed instruments. (See Lesson IV, Part II.) 

The Crusaders brought back many instruments from the Far 
East, and the assimilation of these with the folk instruments of 
Europe resulted in many of the modern instruments in use to-day. 
The crwth, a stringed instrument played with a bow r , which was 
the popular instrument of the Welsh bards, being combined with 
the rebec, a bowed instrument from India, became the viol of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which later developed into our 
.violin family. It is curious to note that the perfection of the viols and 
violins takes place in Cremona, a city of northern Italy, near Venice.* 

It would almost seem as though 
the crwth came down from the north 
of Europe and met the rebec, enter- 
ing the western world through the 
Adriatic seaport, the union of the 
two producing the earliest viol. 
(See Lesson XX, Part III.) 

Another eastern instrument 
which entered Europe with the Cru- 
saders, and which became popular 
in every land, was the lute. Some 
authorities claim the lute was the 
outgrowth of the ancient lyre of 
the Greeks, but it can be definitely 
traced to the Arabians and Moors. 
The lute existed in several sizes, 
the largest being the theorbo, arch- 
lute, and chitarrone, which all 
played prominent parts in the 
early opera orchestras. The lutes 

FOLK INSTRUMENTS were g^ j n p0pu l ar f aVO r at the 

(A and R) Russian Balalaika. .. ,-. , , ,,.. , , 

(O Crwth. time 01 Bach and Handel. 

Almost all of these early instruments are now obsolete.! In the 
British Isles the bagpipe has been retained as a folk instrument and 
a few genuine old harps are also still in use. 

* At the end of the sixteenth century the greatest instrumental school was that of Venice, 
which was founded by Adrian Willaert, of the Netherlands. (See Lesson VI, Part II.) 
Willaert and his followers used the instruments in the same antiphonal manner as that cm- 
ployed for choruses. From this method of composition, our earliest orchestras were developed. 
(See picture, page 166.) 

t Recall the use of the lute as an accompaniment of the Swedish folk songs and in the 
French Troubadour songs. The harp as used with the Irish songs. (Lessons XXV, XXVI, 
XXVII, XXVIII, Part I.) 

170 





The Orchestra 



Many of the simpler folk instruments of bygone days have been 
retained by semi-civilized communities. In the Hawaiian Islands the 
native instruments are "strings," which resemble the older forms of 
guitar, the strings being plucked by the fingers. Modern conditions 
have affected but little the native music .of Hawaii. 

The Russian balalaika is the most perfect folk instrument of the 
early days which is still in existence. This curious three-stringed 
instrument is similar to the mandolin and is made in several sizes, 
some as large as our double bass. These instruments have been used 
by the Russian peasants for centuries, but it has only been within the 
last few years, since the folk music of Russia has awakened such gen- 
eral interest, that the instruments have been known. Through the 
efforts of M. Andreeff the folk instruments of the Russian peasants 
have been rediscovered, and his combination in an orchestra of the 
balalaika with the doumra (a later instrument, more like our guitar) 
has brought great popularity to the Russian Balalaika Orchestra, of 
which he is director. 



ILLUSTEATIONS 



1-Ri i/ White Dog Song 
1/bll \ Medicine Song 



(2) Grass Dance 



1cc - 77 / Alohae oe 
1S&77 j Kuu Home 



(Farewell to Thee) 
(Plantation Song) 

FM- So,u,* $ Mol dka 
fiolL ^0/^6 ^ Sun in the SkiJ 



Glacier Park Indians 

Glacier Park Indians 

Hawaiian Quintette 

Hawaiian Quintette 

Russian Balalaika Orchestra 

Shining Russian Balalaika Orchestra 



Lesson XX 
The Development of the Violin Family 

The instruments 
known as "the viols" were 
a combination of the old 
rebec (a bowed instrument 
from the Far East, Avhich 
entered Europe at the time 
of the Crusades) and the 
crwth (or stringed instru- 
ment) of the northern min- 
strels. 

There were many 
types of viol made from 
the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries, but all were gradually super- 
seded by the violin family, which first came into prominence during 

171 




BY FRA 3ARTOLOMMEO 

ANGELS, SHOWING LUTE AND VIOL 



The Orchestra 






GIGUE, THIRTEENTH 
CENTURY 



TROMBA MARINA (TRUM- 
SCHEIT), FIFTEENTH 

CENTURY 

the seventeenth century. The viols were slightly larger than the 
violins and were made with five, six or seven strings tuned either in 
thirds or fourths. Their tone was shrill and penetrating. The violin 
model has shallower sides, an arched instead of a liat back and high 
shoulders. The tone is more powerful and brilliant than that of the 
viols. The viols w r ere made in four sizes: 

Treble Viol (superseded by violin), 

Viola da Braccio (superseded by viola), 

Viola da Gamba (superseded by Violoncello), 

Bass Viol (Double Bass in the modern orchestra). 

The most famous makers of stringed instruments lived in the 
Italian city of Cremona. Foremost among these stands the family 

of Amati, known as makers of lutes and viols 
from 1511. The most famous member of this 
family was Nicolo Amati (1596-1684), whose 
instrument, known as the "grand model," 
is the best of the Amati style. 

Antonio Stradivarius (1650-1737) is 
said to have been a pupil of Nicolo Amati. 
His violins are the greatest the world has 
ever known. Stradivarius perfected the 
Amati model. His instruments, both in re- 
finement and brilliancy of tone, as well as in 
grace and lightness of form, mark the cul- 
mination of the violin development. The 
two sons of Stradivarius carried on their 
father's work. 

Another important family of Cremona, 
makers of stringed instruments, was that 







OLD BASS VIOL OF FLANDERS, 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 
(SHOWING THE ORIGIN OF THE 
VIOL IN THE HUNTSMAN'S 
BOW) 



172 



The Orchestra 




COLLECTION OF PAUL DE WET, LEIPSIC 



instrument having but a single string. 

2. Pochette, or "Pocket Fiddle," of the French 

dancing masters of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. 

3. Violins. 

4. Violas (the alto viol). 



1. Marine Trompettes, or "Nun's Fiddle," an S. Viola d'Amore (an obsolete instrument), 

possessing a set of vibrating "sym- 
pathetic" strings. 

6. Viola de gamba. 

7. Violoncello. 

8. Baritone (the viola de gamba possessing 

sympathetic strings). 

9. Viola pomposa (obsolete). 

10. Bow Guitar (obsolete). 

of Guarnerius. Giuseppe Antonio (1638-1745), known as Joseph 
Guarnerius, produced many instruments which rank with those of 
Stradivarius, whose model he frankly copied. 

The Maggini family, of Brescia, were particularly successful with 
the larger models 
of stringed instru- 
ments. 

In southern 
Germany and the 
Tyrol many excel- 
lent string instru- 
ments were made. 
Jacob S t a i n e r 
(1621-1683), the 
most famous of this 
group, modeled his 
instruments after 
the Cremona 




ANTONIO STRADIVARIUS 



173 



The Orchestra 




GIUSEPPE TARTIN1 



school. Stainer never equaled the tone and 
brilliancy of Amati or Stradivarius. 

The early bows were clumsy and 
awkward. It was not until the eighteenth 
century that the bow was brought to its per- 
fection by Francois Tourte (1747-1835). 
Naturally, with the perfection of the 
violin came a school of violin players. In- 
dividual expression was the order of the 
seventeenth century and the virtuoso vio- 
linist began to assume importance. Among 
those early masters must be noted Bas- 
sani (d. 1716) and his pupil, Archangelo 
Corelli (1653-1713), w 7 ho was, in reality, 
the founder of the earliest violin school. 
Corelli 's pupils were: Vivaldi (d. 1743), 
Veracini (1685-1750) and Tartini (1692- 
1770). The latter was one of the greatest 
masters of violin technic the world has 
ever known. 

In the late eighteenth century the 
chief interest in instrumental music was 
to be found in Germany, France and Eng- 
land. Many pupils of Corelli and Tartini 
founded schools of violin playing in those 
countries. 

From Bach 
t o Beetho- 
ven all the 

classical masters were excellent violinists. 
With the rise of the Romantic School 
spectacular violin virtuosity is noticed in 
the advent of Niccolo Paganini. (See 
Lesson XVI, Part II.) 

De Beriot (1802-1870) carried on 
the French school founded by Viotti, one 
of Corelli 's pupils. In Germany, Louis 
Spohr (1784-1859) and Ferdinand David 
(1810-1875) both exerted an important 
influence as teachers, interpreters and 
composers. 





ARCHANGELO CORELLI 



JOSEF JOACHIM 



174 



The Orchestra 

The touring violin virtuoso has remained in prominence since the 
days of Paganini. Among them may be noted : 

Ole Bull (1810-1880), Heinrich Ernst (1814-1865), Henri Vieux- 
temps (1820-1881), Edward Remenyi (1830-1898), Joseph Joachim 
(1831-1907), Henry Wieniawski (1835-1880), Pablo Sarasate (1844- 
1908). Emile Sauret (1852- ), Eugene 
Ysaye (1858- ), Wilhelmji (1845- ). 

Among the most famous violinists of 
to-day are: Mischa Elman, Jascha Heifetz, 
Fritz Kreisler, Jan Kubelik and Efrem 
Zimbalist. 

ILLUSTKATIONS 

64156 Variations (Tartini, arr. Kreisler} Kreisler 

74581 Moto Perpetuo (Paganini) Heifetz 

74051 Souvenir de Moscow (Wieniawski) Elman 

64028 Polonaise (Op. 38) (Vieuxtemps) Powell 

74367 Romanza Andaluza (Sarasate) Kubelik 
74303 Hungarian Dances 20-21 (Brahms- 
Joachim) Zimbalist 




HENRI VIEUXTEMPS 



Lesson XXI 
The Development of the Pianoforte 

Stringed instruments are divided into three classes: in those of 
the viol family the tones are produced by rubbing the strings with 
a bow; in the harp family the plucking of the strings produces a 
tone; in the dulcimer family the strings sound when they are struck. 
In the evolution of the modern pianoforte, it is found that all of these 
methods have been employed, being gradually discarded for the one 
in use to-day. Krehbiel thus describes the modern pianoforte: "It 
is an instrument of music the tones of which are generated by strings 
set in vibration by blows delivered by hammers, controlled by a key- 
board, the mechanism of which is so adjusted that the force of the 
blow and the dynamic intensity of the resultant tone are measurably 
at the command of the player. It also has a sound or resonance-box 
to augment the tone after its creation." 

The dulcimer, or psaltery, of the ancients was made with a 
resonance-box and the strings were plucked with a plectrum. (See 
Lesson I, Part II.) In media?val days this instrument became 
very popular. Another instrument having a resonance-box was the 
monochord, which Guido of Arezzo is said to have constantly used. 

175 



The Orchestra 



To him is also attributed the applied keys, which, when being pressed 
on the monochord, divided the string and produced different tones. 
In the eleventh century also came the use of the keyboard; this was 
borrowed from instruments of the organ class and was applied to the 

psaltery, which became known 
as the "keyed cithara. " Al- 
though many strings were 
added to the keyed mono- 
chord, it retained its name 
(meaning single-stringed) 
until the sixteenth century. 
Many keyboard instruments 
came into being at this time; 
though all are based on the 
same principle, the tone being 
produced by the plucking or 
striking of the strings, by a 
plectrum attached to each 
string, which was 
by the keyboard, 
names were given 




governed 
Various 

these in- 
different 



THE CONCERT 



struments in the 
parts of Europe, namely, the 
clavecin, clavicembalo, gravi- 
cembalo, clavichord, virginal, harpsichord and spinet. 

The virginal, said to be named for "the Virgin Queen Eliza- 
beth," was a popular instrument at the time of Shakespeare. It was 
superseded by the harpsichord, which was usually made with two key- 
boards and several pedals, and later by the spinet, so called from its 
inventor, Sebastian Spinetti. The strings of these instruments were 
plucked with metal quills. The tone was once described as "a scratch 
with a note at the end of it. ' ' 

The clavichord, which was the popular instrument at the time 
of Bach, possessed the ability to increase or diminish the tone at the 
command of the player. 

The introduction of the hammer action and the definite design 
known as piano-forte is claimed to have been the invention of Angelo 
Christofori, who, in 1709, brought out in Florence an instrument 
which forever did away with the scratching sound of the plectrum. 
Christopher Schroter, a German, and Marius, a Frenchman, also 
made clavecins having hammer action during the early eighteenth 
century. 

176 



The Orchestra 




FRANCOIS COUFERIN 



During the late seventeenth cen- 
tury a school in England for the play- 
ing on the virginal was very promi- 
nent. Many of the composers for the 
instrument attempted program music. 
John Munday (d. 1630) wrote a 
"Fantasia for Virginal" in which 
his sections are described as "Fair 
Weather, " " Lightning, " " Thunder, ' ' 
finally ending in "A Clear Day." 
Many of the earliest Shakespearean 
songs were the works of these men, 
who included : Dr. John Bull, William 
Byrd, Giles Farnaby, Thomas Morley. 
John Munday, Orlando Gibbons and 
Thomas Tallis. 

In France and Italy the various 
forms of clavichord and harpsichord 
became popular in the century following the Virginal School of 
England. Court dances were the favorite forms of the French school, 
although several of the composers were also fascinated by the possi- 
bilities of descriptive, or program music. Beginning with Jacques 
Chambonnieres, the court musician to Louis XIV, this school reached 
its perfection with Francois Couperin (1668-1733) and Jean Philippe 
Rameau (1683-1764). 

In Italy, the greatest master of the harpsichord was Domenico 
Scarlatti (1683-1757), who is said to have stimulated the interest of 
his contemporary Handel in this instrument. 
Bach laid the foundation of modern 
pianism with his "Well Tempered Clavi- 
chord," two books of fugal studies for this 
instrument. 

At the time of Mozart and Beethoven the 
pianoforte had become the keyboard instru- 
ment of the day. Mozart frequently played 
the harpsichord, however, and Beethoven still 
employed the clavichord as a teaching instru- 
ment. 

Every great composer has contributed 
to the literature of the piano, the most useful 




IGNACE JAN PADEREWSKI 



of instruments. 



177 



T he Orchestra 

INSTRUMENTS IN COLLECTION OF PAUL DE WET, LEIPSIC 















1. Virginal, 1631, shown closed, half open and fully open. This also served my lady as 
a sewing box. 2. Octave Spinet, so called because it was pitched an octave higher than the 
regular spinet. 3. Spinet. 4. Spinet closed and opened. 5. Clavichord of seventeenth century. 




1. Great Harpsichord, or Cembalo, with two keyboards. 2. Italian Cembalo with inter- 
esting decorations, showing it to have been the property of a monastery, 

178 



The Orchestra 

The virtuoso pianist first appeared in the Romantic School in 
the persons of Chopin and Liszt. (See Lesson XVI, Part II.) 

To-day the virtuoso on this instrument remains one of the most 
interesting figures on our concert stage. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

64919 Le Coucou (Daquiri) Rachmaninoff 

64921 Spinning Song (Mendelssohn) Rachmaninoff 

74285 Prophet Bird (Schumann) Spring Song (Mendelssohn) de Pachmann 

64263 Mazurka (Chopin) de Pachmann 

74589 Caprice Poetic (Liszt) Cortot 

74588 Waltz Etude in D Flat (Saint-Saens) Cortot 

74659 The Fountain (Ravel) Cortot 

64935 Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum (Debussy) Rachmaninoff 

74535 Cracovienne Fantastique (Paderewski) Paderewski 



Lesson XXII 
Early Instrumental Forms 

The folk song is the first and simplest musical pattern, and from 
the folk dances many different forms were evolved during the classical 
period of music history. As men became proficient on the various 
instruments and combined these into groups, so the early simple forms 
developed into the more intricate and complicated sonata, quartet 
and symphony. 

With the perfection of these forms came a desire for further indi- 
vidual expression, sometimes manifested through the medium of the 
orchestra, sometimes in the adaptation of the formal vehicle itself. 




A WEDDING IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

179 



The Orchestra 

In the modern school the development of program music has made 
radical changes, not only in the formal expression, but in instru- 
mentation as well. 

The simplest folk form was the two-part form in which the first 
melody was contrasted with another, called the counter-theme. Cer- 
tain changes in this form developed into what we now know as the 
binary, the ternary and the rondo forms, which were all within the 
realms of folk music. (See Lesson VIII, Part I.) 

With the birth of opera and the development of individual instru- 
mental virtuosity came an increased interest in the instrumental forms. 
In the earliest known opera, "Eurydice" (1600) is a short instru- 
mental interlude known as "Symphonia for three flutes." This is 
practically only a short connecting phrase between two vocal passages, 
but it points the way toward the future development. 




A FLEMISH KERMESSE 



The Venetian opera composers wrote much purely instrumental 
music, and in addition to the overture (the instrumental prelude) to 
their operas they elaborated the short entr 'actes into what were known 
as "Opera Symphonies." These were a collection of dances and 
simple airs which were played during the intermissions between the 
acts of the opera. In France, where the interest in the dance was 
particularly strong, these interludes became known as Ballets, and 
sometimes short, humorous stories were acted in pantomime by the 
dancers. In Germany the great Thirty Years' War made opera an 
impossible luxury. But the German town pipers now heard for the 
first time the dances and folk songs of the various nations and pro- 

180 



The Orchestra 



ceeded to adapt them to their own needs. The first collection of these 
old dances was undoubtedly made in Germany, for the "allemand, " 
a German contribution, is given the place of first importance. These 
collections of dances were known as "partitas." When the French 
later elaborated the form they called their collections "suites." 
Among the simple dances to be found in the early partitas and suites 
were : 

ALLEMANDE. An adaptation of the simplest German dance, which 
is still popular with the peasants in certain portions of southern 
Germany and Switzerland. It is of a quiet, contented character and 
consists of two parts, each of which is repeated. As used by the 
earliest writers of partitas, the allemande retains little of its dance 
character, becoming a piece of moderate 
rapidity in 2/4, 3/4 or 3/8 rhythm. 

COURANTE. A dance of either French 
or Italian origin, the name being derived 
from "courir," to run. It is of merry, 
rapid character in 3/2 or 3/4 rhythm. 

BOURREE. A cheerful, rapid dance 
from southern France or Spain in 2/4 or 
4/4 rhythm and following the dactylic 
metre (two short notes preceded by a long 
one). It is in two parts, each being re- 
peated. 

GAVOTTE. A dance very similar to the 
Bourree, but chiefly used for exhibition or 
theatrical purposes, in 4/4 rhythm and 
in the regular two-part form. 

SARABANDE. A Spanish dance of Moor- 
ish origin, adapted by the Italians, who 

changed its original merry measures into a stately, solemn ceremonial 
dance ; usually in 3/4 or 3/2 rhythm. 

GIGUE. This dance takes its name from the musical instrument 
which originally played it. Although known throughout Europe, the 
gigue was most popular in England, where it developed into the jig. 
The gigue consisted of two strains or sections, each of which was re- 
peated. Usually the second part was built from an inversion of the 
first. The gigue existed in several forms. In France it was known as 
Loure (also the name of an old instrument) ; as danced in the Canary 
Islands it was known as the Canary; and in Italy as Giga. THE 
TAMBOURIN was another dance taking its name from the musical 
instrument used to accompany it. 




ANDRE ERNEST MODESTE GRETRY 



181 



The Orchestra 

MINUET. A French dance which has always been a court favorite 
with all nations. Although popular with the folk, it is essentially the 
dance of the nobility. The name is derived from the Latin minutus 
(small) and referred to the dainty steps taken by the dancers. The 
second part was termed "trio," because it was set for three instru- 
ments while the minuet itself was played by but two. It is the one 
dance form which was retained in the symphony when that form 
supplemented the suite. 

PASSEPIED. Originally a sailor's dance, the passepied was intro- 
duced into the ballet at the time of Louis XIV. In its character this 
dance was similar to a fast minuet. By the contrapuntal composers 
the passepied was frequently used as the basis for the theme and 
variations. 

Two dances which were most popular with the contrapuntalists 
were the PASSACAGLIA and the CHACONNE. The first was of Italian 
or Spanish origin, the name meaning street musicians or "passing 
music." The Chaconne was slower and more stately than the Pas- 
sacaglia. It was always in the major, while the Passacaglia was usu- 
ally in the minor. In the Chaconne the theme was always in the bass ; 
the melody of the Passacaglia might be in any part. 

Other dance forms adapted were the Pavan, Galliard, Rigaudon, 
Sicilian, Musette and Rondo. 

The Rondo was a very popular single form and was an outgrowth 
of the same form in verse. It existed in several patterns. (See Les- 
son VIII, Part I.) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

74672 Gagliarda Galliard (Galilei) Toscanini Orchestra 

16474 Amaryllis (Ghys) Victor Concert Orchestra 

fuias/ Gavotte (Gretry) Elman 
^ 8 



Tambourin (Gossec) Elman 

64201 Rigaudon (Monsigny) Elman 

18314 Musette " Armide" (Gluck) Victor Concert Orchestra 

74294 Scherzo (Dittersdorf) Kreisler 

67201 Rigodon de Dardanus (Ratneau) Symphony Orchestra of Paris 



Lesson XXIII 
The Instrumental Forms at the Time of Bach 

At the time of Bach the orchestra consisted of an almost evenly 
balanced proportion of reed and stringed instruments. These were still 
treated in the old method of antiphonal writing. 

The most popular solo instruments at this time were the violin, 

182 



The Orchestra 




BACH AT THE ORGAN 



clavichord, harpsichord and 
organ. The organ is the largest, 
the most powerful as well as the 
most complicated of musical in- 
struments. It is in truth a gigantic 
orchestra, for each stop repre- 
sents a perfect orchestral instru- 
ment, which is played upon by 
one master. It is one of the old- 
est musical instruments, yet one 
can scarcely realize in the mag- 
nificent grand organs of to-day 
that the original prototype was 
the simple pipes of Pan. The ad- 
dition of air and hydraulic pres- 
sure followed, and in the fourth 
century organs on this plan were 
in general use throughout the 
Eastern Empire. The keyboard 
first appeared in the sixth or 
seventh century ; the original keys were several inches wide and a blow 
from a clenched fist was needed to strike them in order to produce 
any tone. In the tenth century, organs were used having .over four 
hundred pipes and forty keys, and from* that time on the development 
of this mighty instrument has constantly progressed. The Netherland 
masters of the Venetian School were the first to appreciate the pos- 
sibilities of this wonderful instrument. From the time of Willaert 
to the period of Bach the development of organ playing made mighty 
strides. It may be said that fully nine-tenths of the modern organ 
composition rests on the foundation laid by Bach. Although in the 
past two centuries many great works have been written for the organ, 
and excellent and brilliant organ virtuosi have arisen, none has ex- 
celled Bach in absolute understanding of the instrument. The organ is 
occasionally used to augment the orchestra. Modern composers 
employ it to increase the grandiose effect of majesty and strength of 
the full orchestra. 

The greatest instrumental forms of Bach's time were: 

FUGUE. The most highly developed form of counterpoint, which 

is the art of combining individual melodies in part Avriting. The 

word fugue is derived from the Latin fuga (flight), and refers to the 

successive entrances of the different voices at various intervals of 



183 



The Orchestra 



time, in the development of one theme by cumulative interest. Fugue 
was derived from the early contrapuntal form known as Canon* in 
which two or more voices follow one another at set intervals, each 
voice repeating note for note what the first voice has sung, while each 
preceding voice goes on with its own melody. The unalterable rules 
for this form of composition placed many absurd restrictions on the 
composer. All canonic writing was termed Fugue until the eighteenth 
century, when the definite form of Fugue was laid down by the set 
rules given by Johann Fux in "Gradus ad Parnassum." It has been 
said that "Bach created a living form from the skeleton supplied by 
Fux." It is certain that with Bach and Handel the Fugue became a 
work full of real musical interest which was unknown in the stilted 
compositions of their predecessors. 

As the form stands 
to-day, it is capable of 
considerable freedom 
of treatment. In gen- 
eral a Fugue consists 
of three parts : the Ex- 
position, the Middle 
or Modulatory Section, 
and the Restatement. 
Take, for example, a 
Fugue for four voices. 
The Exposition intro- 
duces the thematic ma- 
terial as follows: the 
main theme, known as 
the Subject, is announced by the first voice in the tonic key. The re- 
sponse, or Answer, is then given by the second voice in the dominant 
(a fifth above or a fourth below). While the answer is being given 
by the second voice the first continues a melody in counterpoint. 
When this melody is in "double counterpoint" (so written that it 
may be played either above the subject or below with satisfactory 
results) it is known as the Counter-Subject. When a counter-subject 
of this kind is employed it usually appears whenever the subject is 
heard, though this is not an invariable rule. The third voice now 
enters, presenting the subject in the tonic, an octave above or below, 
while the other voices continue in counterpoint. The answer is now 
given by the fourth voice in the dominant. After the theme, as sub- 

* Familiar examples of Canon are "Sumer Is Icumen In" (Record No. 35279). "Three 
Blind Mice," "Scotland's Burning" and other common school rounds (Record No. 18277). 

1S4 




The Orchestra 

ject and answer, has appeared once in each voice, the Exposition may 
end.* 

The middle section is for contrast, and is called the Modulatory 
section. It consists of the restatements of the theme, as subject and 
answer, or as answer and subject, treated in related keys, and in a 
new order of voices. These repetitions alternate with musical digres- 
sions known as Episodes, which furnish variety and new musical in- 
terest, and serve to modulate into another key. The Episodes are 
usually founded upon the material of the Subject, or Counter-Subject, 
and call for great originality of treatment. 

The most interesting device for quickening interest in the Fugue 
is the use of the Stretto (meaning to draw together], in which each 
voice enters with the answer before the preceding voice has finished 
with the subject. The Stretto usually furnishes the climax in a Fugue, 
and also marks the return to the original key. Another interesting 
device frequently employed is the Pedal-Point, a sustained bass-note 
over which the melody proceeds. Often a Pedal-Point on the Domi- 
nant immediately precedes the Stretto. 

The Fugue ends with a Coda, which frequently takes the form of 
a Pedal-Point, but this time on the Tonic instead of the Dominant, 
leading to a Full Cadence. This Cadence (or stopping-place) is the 
only one heard in a Fugue. In a Fugue the flow of music is continu- 
ous. There is no cadential break such as often occurs between the 
first and second subjects of a sonata, f 

THEME AND VARIATIONS. Original variations on a given theme, 
a popular form for organ or harpsichord. 

The Passacaglia, Chaconne and Siciliano were usually employed 
as the melodic basis of this form. 

FANTASIA. Free development of one or more themes; usually 
follows a prelude and precedes the Fugue in Bach's largest organ 
forms. 

OVERTURE. The introduction to the opera takes two forms in the 
seventeenth century that of France, the ' ' Lully Overture, ' ' and that 
of Italy the "Scarlatti Overture." 

The "Lully Overture" consisted of three movements: a slow 
introduction, followed by a rapid fugal passage, with slow coda ending. 

The "Scarlatti Overture" consisted of rapid first part, contrast- 
ing slow movement, rapid ending. 

* In older Fugues the Exposition was followed by a Counter-Exposition, voices which gave 
the Subject now giving the Answer, and vice-versa. Nowadays it is sufficient for the first voice 
to give the Answer to be heard in the Subject. Sometimes even this slight Counter-Exposition 
is omitted. 

t Although this outline of a Fugue is substantially correct, it by no means follows that all 
Fugues follow this outline strictly. There are many modifications of the form, and many varie- 
ties of Fugue (such as Double Fugue, for instance) of which space does not permit detailed 
analysis. 

185 



The Orchestra 

These two forms combined in the early seventeenth century in the : 

SONATA. Generally written for solo instruments; a composition 
having three movements: 

First : follows form of Lully Overture, its general character being 
rapid. 

Second: song form or theme and variations slow in character. 

Third : rondo or jig rapid in character. 

Thus we have three movements, fast, slow, fast, following the 




THE WATER MUSIC (HANDEL AND GEORGE l) 



pattern of the ' ' Scarlatti Overture, ' ' while the first movement follows 
definitely the "Lully Overture." 

The French prefaced the partita with an overture (Lully form) 
and called the collection a suite. This form became very popular 
throughout the European courts. Sometimes it was played between 
the acts of the opera, like the earlier Venetian opera symphonies; 
sometimes it was given as a purely instrumental concert number. It 
was in this form that Bach wrote his greatest suites. 

SERENADE. A collection of short compositions in the simple song 
form instead of the dance forms of the partita. These were collected 
by the paid serenaders of the early seventeenth century. The form 
later developed in a similar manner to that of the suite. It is often 
prefaced with an overture and sometimes popular dances, particularly 
the minuet, are introduced. 

18G 



The Orchestra 

THE CONCERTO-GROSSO w r as an outgrowth of the old Venetian 
opera symphony. As men became more proficient on individual in- 
struments we find the orchestras being divided between the virtuosi 
and the accompanists. The old antiphonal choirs were thus retained, 
but the more difficult passages were allotted to the virtuosi group. 
In form the concerto-grosso generally followed the sonata, although 
frequently dances from the suites and airs similar to those employed 
in the serenades were also introduced. The concerto-grosso is the 
direct ancestor of the present symphony.* 

SYMPHONY. The term symphony was occasionally employed at 
Bach's time to designate a composition which was sounded,! or played, 
in contrast to music which was sung, and which was termed cantata. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35499 Pastoral Symphony "The Messiah" (Handel) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35669 D Major Suite Overture (Bach) Victor Concert Orchestra 

orflcfl / D Major Suite Air (Bach) Victor Concert Orchestra 

\ D Major Suite Gavottes Victor Concert Orchestra 

74392 Canto Amoroso (Sammartini) Elman 

76028 Concerto for Two Violins (In D Minor) (Bach) (Parti) 

Kreisler-Zimbalist 

76029 Concerto for Two Violins (Part 2) Kreisler-Zimbalist 

76030 Concerto for Two Violins (Part 3) Kreisler-Zimbalist 



Lesson XXIV 
The Sonata Form of Haydn 

The next great composer to leave a definite mark on the develop- 
ment of the orchestra was Franz Josef Haydn, who is rightly called 
"the father of the modern symphony orchestra." Haydn divided 
the orchestra into the four choirs of to-day, grouping his instruments 
according to families. He increased the number of strings and re- 
tained in the wind choirs those instruments whose voices were the 
most strikingly characteristic of their class. Through the influence 
of his pupil, Mozart, who introduced to him the beautiful tone color 
of the clarinets, Haydn began an appreciative use of the single-reed 
instruments. But his greatest contribution to modern instrumental 
music w r as the evolving from the old Lully overture form the pat- 



* The best example of the concerto-grosso is "The Water Music" composed by Handel for 
George I. 

t This name was derived from the Greek Ovv^uvq ( S yn together, and phone Bound), 
and reters to a number of instruments sounded together. The word sonata comes from the 
Latin sonare, to pound or play on. 

187 



The Orchestra 

tern known as ' ' Sonata Form, ' ' which has been the basis of all instru- 
mental compositions since his time. This form he used in place of 
the Lully overture as the first movement of all sonatas. It is larger 
and more elaborate and gives a greater opportunity, not only for the 
composer to show his technical skill, but also his knowledge of instru- 
mentation. 

The old movement, known as the Introduction, was retained. In 
place of the customary fugue, Haydn introduced an Allegro, which 
was thus divided : 

Statement of Subjects: 

First Subject of bright, gay character, in the regular key. 

Second Subject more subdued and contemplative in character, 
in related key. (If first subject is announced by the strings, the second 
subject is usually given by the wood-winds or vice-versa.) 

Repetition of Subjects: 

Free Fantasia or working out of the subjects, giving the com- 
poser an opportunity to show his skill in combining instruments and 
themes. This is in the key of the second subject. 

Recapitulation of Subjects: Return of original subjects as first 
heard, only both are now given in the regulation key. 

Coda or short summing up of subject-matter. 

This "Sonata Form" is the pattern for all first movements of 
sonatas, duets, trios, quartets, etc., for symphonies, concertos and 
for some overtures. When used as the plan for overtures the repe- 
tition of the subjects is omitted. 

Haydn's sonata or symphony was composed of four movements, 
in place of the old form, which had but three. It was thus arranged : 

First Movement: ' ' Sonata ' ' form. 

Second Movement: Song; Theme and Variations, or "Sonata" 
form. 

Third Movement: Minuet, Trio, Minuet. 

Fourth Movement: Rondo; Theme and Variations, or "Sonata" 
form. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
' ' Surprise Symphony ' ' (Haydn) 

35244 Andante Vivace Victor Concert Orchestra 

35243 Andante Victor Concert Orchestra 

35244 Menuetto Victor Concert Orchestra 
35243 Allegro di Molto Victor Concert Orchestra 

" Symphony in G Minor" (Mozart) 

35482 J Allegro molto Victor Concert Orchestra 

[Andante Victor Concert Orchestra 

(Menuetto Victor Concert Orchestra 

[Allegro assai Victor Concert Orchestra 

188 



The Orchestra 




SEVENTEENTH CENTURY CHAMBER MUSIC 



Lesson XXV 
The Development of the String Quartet 

During the jgggj^^f^fj^f^^^fjjj^^ 
seventeenth c e n- 
tury each nobleman 
retained in his 
court a group of 
players for the en- 
tertainment of his 
guests. These mu- 
sicians frequently 
played for the 
dances, and it was 
largely through 
their efforts that 
many of the suites 
were arranged. 

As the solo in- 
struments im- 
proved, the rise of virtuosity inspired many of these musicians to 
greater efforts and a noticeable change takes place in the personnel of 
these small orchestras. It soon became evident that three or four vir- 
tuoso artists could produce a better ensemble than a larger group of 
inferior players. The result was an increased interest in the smaller 
combinations, which were knoAvn as chamber orchestras (from the 
Italian musica de camera, or music room) . The increasing popularity of 

this form also reacted 
on the individual player 
and encouraged him to 
greater efficiency. 

At the time of 
Haydn these chamber 
combinations were very 
popular. Haydn in his 
group at the Court of 
Esterhazy chose four 
players, two for violin, 
viola and violoncello. 

THE JOACHIM QUARTET rpj^ fl^ g^g Q Uar . 

tet" was established. The compositions written for these instruments 
were, of course, based upon the sonata pattern of Haydn and followed 

189 




The Orchestra 

the form of the symphony in that they had four movements : Allegro 
(sonata form) ; Adagio or Andante (song, theme and variations or 
sonata form) ; Minuet (dance, trio, minuet) ; Finale (rondo, theme and 
variations, or sonata form). 

Many of the greatest works of musical literature have been writ- 
ten for the string quartet, all great composers from Haydn to Schden- 
berg have written in this form. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

64671 Allegro Quartet in E Flat (Dittersdorf) Elman String Quartet 

74579 Quartet in D Major -Andante (Mozart) Flonzaley Quartet 

1 7Qfi4/ Quartet i n C Minor Menuetto (Beethoven) Victor String Quartet 

\ Quartet in F Major Scherzo (Beethoven) Victor String Quartet 

74634 Allegro Moderate a la Polka (Smetana) Flonzaley Quartet 

Lesson XXVI 
Beethoven's Use of Instruments 

Mozart and Beethoven both followed the ideas of Haydn, but 
carried this work much farther than ' ' Papa Haydn ' ' had ever dreamed. 
As one writer has said, "Beethoven built a palace where Mozart had 
started a charming garden house on the plans of Haydn. ' ' Mozart had 
the opportunity by his frequent travels through Europe to come into 
contact with the greatest orchestras of the world, and he assimilated 
much from these associations. One notices his spontaneous use of in- 
strumentation in his operas as well as his symphonies. His music 
reflects the spirit of the court, while Haydn's is that of the common 
people. Mozart introduced the clarinet into the symphony orchestra, 
although it had been previously used in the operas of the French 
school. 

Beethoven brought the symphony to its state of perfection. He 
also introduced the spirit of romanticism into music. In his use of 
the orchestra Beethoven made many innovations. In fact, his con- 
temporaries declared his use of the instruments to be abuses, and 
vowed that Beethoven was ready for the mad-house. 

Beethoven was the first to realize the importance of the tympani 
or kettle-drums, and he gave them a melodic part in many of his 
later compositions. His individual work for the double basses is best 
shown in the Scherzo of the Fifth Symphony and the transitional 
passage between the Third Movement and the Finale of the Ninth 
Symphony. 

In the development of the string quartet the works of Mozart 
and Beethoven carry on Haydn's original plan in much the same man- 
ner that is observed in the symphonies. Their use of the pianoforte is 

190 



The Orchestra 





BEETHOVEN 



BEETHOVEN IN HIS THIRTY-EIGHTH 
YEAR 




SCHieiMI 

BEETHOVEN IN HIS STUDY 




J. SCHMlO 

BEETHOVEN LISTENING TO THE SONG 
OF THE WOODS 



The Orchestra 

far in advance of Haydn's because of the changes which were taking 
place in the development of that instrument. 

ILLUSTKATIONS 

35268 Overture "LeonoreNo. 3" (Parts I, II) (Beethoven) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35269 Overture " Leonore No. 3" (Part III) Victor Concert Orchestra 
Symphony No. 5 (C Minor, Op. 67) (Beethoven) 

18124 Allegro con brio Victor Concert Orchestra 

35580 Andante con moto Victor Concert Orchestra 

18278 Scherzo (Allegro) Victor Concert Orchestra 

35637 Finale (Allegro, presto) Victor Concert Orchestra 



Lesson XXVII 

The Influence of the Romantic School 

The principal thought of the romantic composers was the expres- 
sion of individuality by means of virtuosity, nationality and program 
music ; therefore, it is but to be expected that the use of the orchestra 
during this period is of great importance. The romantic composers 
of Germany were less spectacular in their methods of treatment than 
those of the French school, where the virtuosity of both Berlioz and 
Liszt makes itself apparent in their marvelous instrumentation. The 
German school, however, originated two forms, which, although 
founded on the classical model of the "sonata," make possible the 
expression of program music as well. These forms are the concert 
overture and the symphonic poem. 

The concert overture is the term applied by Mendelssohn to an 
overture written in sonata form, which has a definite title and 
tells a definite story. It was not written as the introduction for any 
dramatic work, but, as its name implies, was purely a concert com- 
position.* A popular form for the piano introduced by Mendelssohn 
was the "Song Without Words." 

The symphonic poem was the name given by Franz Liszt to a 
composition for symphony orchestra which was programmatic, in that 
it always had a title and generally was prefaced by a definite story 
or idea. This form was much longer than the concert overture and 
different tempi were used. Two main contrasting subjects were em- 
ployed, but these were of such plasticity that their entire character 
was frequently altered by the change from one tempo to another. 

* Many works of Beethoven and others, which were originally written for dramatic or 
operatic performances, are now regarded as concert overtures. The drama or opera may have 
been forgotten while the overture is still popular on concert programs. Among such works 
would be classed Beethoven's "Leonore Overtures," "Egmont," "Coriolanus" ; Schubert's 
"Rosamunde" ; Schumann's "Manfred," etc. 

192 



The Orchestra 

In the use of the orchestra Schubert employed many beauti- 
ful combinations of tone, but nothing which is to-day regarded as 
startling. Von Weber makes excellent use of natural tone qualities, 
especially of the wood-winds, while the effect of the French horns in 
his overture to "Der Freischiitz" and "Oberon" is most beautiful. 
Technically, Mendelssohn understood the orchestra thoroughly and 
his instrumentation is always exquisite. His most unique uses will be 
noticeable in the music for "A Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Schumann had practically no knowledge of the technical side of 
the orchestra. It is said that when his first symphony was given the 
composer, not realizing that trumpets were transposing instruments, 
had written for his entire orchestra in the same key. Schumann owed 
much to the friendship and help of Mendelssohn in arranging his 
orchestral works. 

The dazzling strength of Liszt is apparent in many of his beauti- 
ful but unusual orchestrations, which no doubt were influenced by 
both Berlioz and Wagner. His piano compositions require stupendous 
technique. 

Chopin, on the other hand, thought through the medium of the 
piano, and his piano concertos, the only orchestral works he left, 
are mediocre and commonplace in the method of instrumentation 
employed. 

The great genius of orchestration in the romantic school is 
Hector Berlioz, who has left "A Treatise on Instrumentation," 
which will ever be regarded as the best authority, on the possibilities 
of the modern orchestra. Strangely enough, Berlioz himself could 
not play any instrument, save the guitar, and yet no man in the 
history of music ever used the orchestra with such daring brilliancy as 
did he. Berlioz may be said to have established modern orchestration ; 
for new treatment, new effects, new combinations of tone, new insight 
into the characteristics of individual instruments are all distinctive 
features in his use of the orchestra. If he be "the uncompromising 
champion of program music," as Schumann once said, he is the 
virtuoso orchestra composer of the nineteenth century as well. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35241 Overture Carnival Romain (Berlioz) Victor Concert Orchestra 

(Menuet des Pallets "Damnation of Faust" (Berlioz) 
Symphony Orchestra of Paris 
Marche Hongroiss (Berlioz) Symphony Orchestra of Paris 

35452 Italian Symphony Andante con motn and Con moto moderato 

(Mendelssohn) Victor Concert Orchestra 

74598 Invitation to the Waltz (Weber) Philadelphia Orchestra 

193 



The Or chest r a 



Lesson XXVIII 
The Influence of the Wagner Music Drama 

Wagner brought back to the music drama the fundamental prin- 
ciples on which it was originally founded; but in doing so he em- 
ployed all the resources of modern stage craft and technical musical 
achievement. Richard Wagner ranks, therefore, not only as the great- 
est dramatic composer in the history of music, but as the greatest 
master of orchestration in the annals of the art. From his development 
of the "leit motif" Wagner discovered the possibilities of carrying 
this 'characteristic phrase into the orchestra. As definite motifs de- 
picted definite characters, so by giving these melodic ideas always with 
the same instrument, Wagner strengthened materially the power of the 
"leit motif." Thus in "Lohengrin" the strings always accompany 
the Swan Knight, the trumpets King Henry and the wood-winds the 
unfortunate Elsa. Wagner felt the orchestra to be capable of por- 
traying dramatic 
action, either when 
used as an accom- 
paniment to the 
voices or as a 
purely instru- 
mental interlude, 
and he also be- 
1 i e v e d that the 
overture should 
prepare the minds 
of the audience for 
the action to follow in 
the next act. With 
"Lohengrin," Wagner 
instituted a custom of 
giving each act its own 
prelude and in writing 
these introductions he departed from the old form of overture and 
created a tonal atmosphere, which is as important to the subject of 
the action as is the dramatic situation after the curtain is raised. In 
his Festival Play-House at Bayreuth, Wagner returned to the old 
custom of the seventeenth century and seated his immense orchestra 
beneath the stage, so that its voice was heard but not seen ; thus the 
music surrounds the action on the stage, but never becomes more 
important than the actual drama. 

194 




THE HIDDEN ORCHESTRA OF THE WAGNER THEATRE AT BAY- 
REUTH. SIEGFRIED WAGNER IS CONDUCTING 



The Orchestra 

While Wagner did not radically depart from the old-established 
rules of orchestration, his grouping and treatment of the instruments 
was entirely new. His most radical changes were with the brasses. 
The modern inventions of valves and pistons made possible the use 
of valve trumpets and horns and the discarding of the ancient 
ophicleide for the tuba. 

When Wagner's music sounds too "brassy" it is because it is 
badly played. When properly interpreted, Wagner's use of the brass 
choir is sonorous and always dignified. No one ever so well under- 
stood the methods of the use of the percussion instruments. In a 
word, Richard Wagner is the greatest master of sane orchestration. 
He brought the modern orchestra to its state of perfection. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

74602 Rienzi Overture Part I (Wagner) Philadelphia Orchestra 

74603 Rienzi Overture Part II (Wagner) Philadelphia Orchestra 
- * Prelude "Lohengrin" 

55041 fTrdume Herbert's Orchestra 

{Tristan and Isolde Herbert's Orchestra 

* Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire Scene 



Lesson XXIX 
Modern Instrumental Composers of Germany, France and Italy 

All the modern masters of instrumental music have used the 
orchestra in a much broader and individual manner since the advent 
of the Wagner music drama. The favorite vehicle of instrumental 
expression has been the tone poem or symphonic poem, the form 
originally established by Franz Liszt. 

There have been, however, two notable examples in the modern 
school of composers who have never departed entirely from the 
classic models. These two men were Johannes Brahms, of Germany, 
and Cesar Franek, a Belgian, who w r as always identified with the 
French school. 

Brahms was the strongest disciple of absolute music of the late 
nineteenth century. He believed that the essence of musical inven- 
tion was more important than its method of expression, and his w r orks 
give nothing new as to form or extravagant and unusual types of in- 
strumentation, yet he is rightly regarded as the greatest musician of 
his period, and his strength and knowledge of the true beauty of all 
the instruments is felt in every measure of his music. 

* In preparation. 

195 



The Orchestra 

In direct contrast to Brahms is Richard Strauss, of the present 
German school, who is the strongest living adherent of extreme pro- 
gram music. No one has ever possessed such accurate knowledge of 
the possibilities of the modern instruments as has Richard Strauss, 
and he stops at nothing in the beautiful or hideous combinations of 
tone he may desire to use. All of Strauss' music is programmatic, 
and if he desires to portray disagreeable thoughts and ideas, he does 
so quite as gladly as he would portray beauty. If he wishes to turn 
the orchestra into a flock of sheep, as he does in his tone poem of 
"Don Quixote," he shatters all traditions by employing mutes for 
the brasses ; if he desires to depict war, as in " Heldenleben, ' ' he uses 
the full orchestra, fortissimo, playing in four different keys. As all 
his works are in the form of program music, the tone poem being his 
favorite medium of expression, Strauss secures his best effects by ex- 
treme and highly colored instrumentation. His themes are submitted 
to a kaleidoscopic treatment of tonal combination and his climaxes 
are achieved by dynamic effects rather than thematic development. 
In his operas, especially "Salome" and "Electra," he has followed 
the methods of Wagner regarding the characteristic use of instru- 
ments, but all his works show an insatiable craving for hitherto 
unknown instrumental combinations and effects. 

Other great instrumental composers of modern Germany are : 
Carl Goldmark (1830-1915), Gustave Mahler (1860-1911), Max Reger 
(1873), and Arnold Schoenberg (1874), who has carried instrumental 
music to the verge of insanity. 

Cesar Franck (1822-1890) is the most important instrumental 
composer of the late nineteenth century in France. While he was 
most progressive in his ideas, he never faltered in his artistic ideals 
and his music was always kept within the bounds of reason. Franck 
wrote in the classic form of the symphony, as well as in the more 
modern form of symphonic poem, but there is not a bar of unworthy 
music in any of his compositions. Although he died before he became 
truly famous, Franck left a devoted band of followers. Chief among 
them were: Vincent D'Indy (1851), Ernest Chausson (1855-1899), 
Alexis Chabrier (1842-1894) and Paul Dukas (1865- ). Contempo- 
raneous with Franck were Camille Saint-Saens (1835) and Jules 
Massenet (1842-1912), both of whom were identified with the opera 
school quite as much as with the purely instrumental type of com- 
position. 

The most unique genius of modern France was Claude Debussy 
(1862-1919), whose subtle and evasive method of expression is based 
on the use of the Greek modes adapted to modern expression. Debussy 

19G 



The Orchestra 



uses either the piano or orchestra as a 
medium for impressionistic painting, and 
his tonal tints are so blended that form and 
story are both lost in the wonderful maze 
of color. One does not stop to consider 
the individual use of this or that instru- 
ment, one hears a sonorous blending of tone, 
just as one delights in the mingling of color 
on the canvas cf the modern painter of 
the impressionistic school. One writer has 
described Debussy as a composer of "fluid 
music." Although there are imitators of 
Debussy in all the schools of music, the 
principal followers of Debussy are Maurice 
Ravel (1875- ), of France, and Cyril 
Scott (1879- ), of England. 

The Italian opera composers all use the orchestra with great 
freedom and many of them have featured instrumental interludes 
in their operas. The present generation of Italian composers are 
devoting much attention to the composition of purely orchestral 
works. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 




RICHARD STRAUSS 



35627 



Rustic Wedding Symphony Bridal Song (Goldmark) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 
Rustic Wedding Symphony In the Garden (Goldmark) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

Allegretto Symphony No. 3 (Brahms) 

35464 L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune (Debussy) Symphony Orchestra of Paris 

Rouet d'Omphale (Saint-Saens) 
74621 Spanish Rhapsody (Chabrier) Philadelphia Orchestra 



Lesson XXX 
Modern Instrumental Composers of Russia, Bohemia and Scandinavia 

Of the modern instrumental composers there is none more 
interesting than those to be found in the great national schools of 
Russia, Bohemia and Scandinavia. All of these composers use the 
orchestra in a striking and individual manner, but those of the Russian 
group have left more brilliant examples of pure tonal expression than 
any of the modern masters. Their most striking characteristic seems 
to be a defiance of all traditional classic methods. 



* In preparation. 



197 



The Orchestra 




PETER ILYTSCH TSCHAIKOWSKY 



The first great modern Russian 
composer to win international recogni- 
tion was Peter Ilytsch Tschaikowsky 
(1840-1893), who used the orchestra in 
a most dazzling and brilliant manner. 
The principal characteristic of Tschai- 
kowsky 's type of composition is to be 
noted in its excessive sadness or ex- 
cessive gaiety. Therefore, his use of the 
orchestra either brings forward the 
darkest or the most startling of the 
tone colors on the orchestral palette. 
Although older in years than 
Tschaikowsy, Rhnsky-Korsakow (1844- 
1919) seems to be of a younger group 
of composers. His nationalism is less flamboyant than Tschaikowsky 's, 
but his use of the orchestra is both startling and brilliant, although 
never bizarre. His pupil, Alexandre Glazounow (1865-1921), is 
considered the most important of the present-day group. Although 
known as a pianist of international reputation, Sergei Rachmaninoff 
(1873) is regarded as one of the greatest instrumental composers of 
the day. Extreme in their methods of composition are Stravinisky 
(1882) and Sergei Prokieff, whose extravagant use of the orchestra 
has dazzled the musical world of to-day. 

The founder of the Bohemian school, Friedrich Smetana (1824- 
1884), was a pupil of Liszt; therefore, it is but natural that he should 
have employed the models of his master, 
and Smetana 's greatest orchestral works 
are all in the form of the symphonic poem. 
He always used folk music and legend to 
carry out his program. 

The greatest master of the Bohemian 
school was Antonin Dvorak, who has writ- 
ten in all types of musical forms and with 
rare knowledge of the possibilities of the 
instruments. 

In the Scandinavian school, the best- 
known master was Edvard Grieg (1843- 
1907), who wrote both absolute and 
program music, basing many of his com- 
positions on the folk music of his native 
Norway. 




MAURICE RAVEL 



198 



The Orchestra 

The most unique genius from the North is Jan Sibelius (1865) 
from far-away Finland. He is an uncompromising nationalist and 
uses the legends of his land for his inspiration as to program, and 
the strange, plaintive type of the Finnish folk song for his idiom. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

74593 Scheherazade Festival at Bagdad (Rirnsky-Korsakow) 

Philadelphia Orchestra 

74691 The Young Prince and the Young Princess (Rimsky- 
Korsakow) Philadelphia Orchestra 
74631 Largo from "New World" Symphony (Dvorak) Philadelphia Orchestra 

The Moldau (Smetana) 

Andante "Pathetic Symphony" (Tschaikowsky) 

45053 Casse Noisette Suite (Tschaikowsky) Herbert's Orchestra 

35437 Valse Triste (Sibelius) Victor Concert Orchestra 

55105 Marchc Slave (Tschaikowsky) Herbert's Orchestra 



* In preparation. 



log 



PART IV 

The Opera and Oratorio 



Preface 

The first music drama was produced in Florence at the end of 
the Renaissance. In that early work, "Euridice, " are to be found all 
of those principles which Gluck, Beethoven and Wagner each strove 
to give to the world, and which have become, as Wagner prophesied 
they would become, the music of the future. In their attempt to 
give to the world a Greek drama in its original setting, the Floren- 
tine scholars of 1600 established this definite form, that music, drama 
and interpretation should be of equal importance. Many changes came 
to their original form before it was perfected by Wagner, who added 
all that modern science of musical expression could give. 

The development of oratorio will be studied in relation to the 
opera. 

As these lessons are arranged to show only the historical develop- 
ment of the opera, students should be provided with "The Victrola 
Book of the Opera," which gives a complete version of the stories of 
all the standard operas. 

I. The Form of Opera and Oratorio. 
II. The Beginnings of Opera. 

III. Oratorio to Handel. 

IV. Early Eighteenth Century Opera. 
V. The Reforms of Gluck. 

VI. The Operas of Mozart. 
VII. Opera at the Close of the Classical Period. 
VIII. German Romantic Opera. 
IX. Oratorio from Handel to Mendelssohn. 
X. French Grand Opera: (I) Bellini and Donizetti. 
XI. French Grand Opera: (II) Meyerbeer. 
XII. The Early Wagner. 

XIII. The Ring of the Nibelungs. 

XIV. The Late Wagner. 

XV. The Rise of National Opera. 

200 



The Opera 

XVI. Light Opera in Nineteenth Century. 
XVII. The Early Verdi. 
XVIII. The Late Verdi. 
XIX. Opera in Italy since Verdi. 
XX. Puccini. 

XXI. Leoncavallo and Mascagni. 
XXII. Modern Opera in Italy. 

XXIII. Gounod. 

XXIV. Opera Comique. 
XXV. Bizet. 

XXVI. Massenet. 

XXVII. Modern Opera in France. 
XXVIII. Modern Opera in Germany. 
XXIX. Modern Oratorio. 
XXX. Opera in America. 



Lesson I 
The Form of Opera and Oratorio 

The opera, the largest musical form, is a drama, set to music, 
for solo voices, choruses and orchestra. Its component parts are : 

LIBRETTO. The versified story of the play. 

SCORE. The orchestral setting, which includes overture, entr'- 
acte, choruses, concerted music and solos. 

OVERTURE. The orchestral introduction to the opera. The 
Wagner music drama gave each act its own introduction, which is 
called the prelude. 

ENTR'ACTE. The musical interlude between the acts, sometimes 
called INTERMEZZO. 

CHORUS. Either in parts, or in unison. 

CONCERTED Music. The duet, trio, quartet, quintet, sextet, etc. 

SOLO : 

RECITATIVE. A tonal declamation or imitation of dramatic 
speech, or 

ARIA. A song, either in two or three period form, with orches- 
tral accompaniment. 

The oratorio is in form practically the same as the opera, although 
the method of treatment is very different. In opera, action must be 
preeminent; in oratorio, contemplation is the dominant idea. The 
oratorio is always set to religious or sacred words and is usually pre- 
sented as a concert number without scenery, costume or action. At the 

201 



The Opera 

time of Handel, oratorios were frequently presented with costumes 
and scenery. In England, Biblical subjects were not permitted on the 
stage until 1914; therefore many operas based on religious themes 
are given there in oratorio form. "Samson and Delilah," by Saint- 
Saens, is an excellent example. In oratorio the libretto is called the 
text, but the musical forms of recitative, aria, duet, trio, etc., are 
practically the same as those employed in opera. An elaborate chorus 
takes the place of the operatic finale. In all oratorios the chorus as- 
sumes greater importance than the individual singer. The solos are 
usually divided between soprano, contralto, tenor and bass that the 
quartet may be a feature of ensemble numbers. Dignity and grandeur 
are the distinctive qualities of the oratorio. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

88113 Un bel di vedremo (Some Day He Will Come) (" Madame Butterfly") 

(Puccini) Farrar 

88613 He Shall Feed His Flock ("Messiah") (Handel) Homer 

74088 If With All Your Hearts ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) Williams 

92065 Toreador Song ("Carmen") (Bizet) Ruffo 

35678 Hallelujah Chorus ("Messiah") (Handel) Victor Oratorio Chorus 

CHORUSES 

Over the Summer Sea (La donna e mobile, "Rigoletto") (Verdi) 

Soldiers' Chorus. "Faust" (Gounod) 

And the Glory of the Lord ("Messiah") (Handel) 

How Lovely Are the Messengers ("St. Paul") (Mendelssohn) 



Lesson II 
The Beginnings of Opera 

In the study of mediaeval music it was found that musical accom- 
paniment was used in all the old mystery and miracle plays and 
by the troubadours as a setting for their pastoral operas, of which 
"Robin and Marion," by Adam de la Halle, is the most famous ex- 
ample. But the form of the opera, which has developed into the music 
drama of the modern day, was born in Florence at the end of the 
Renaissance through the efforts of a band of Florentine nobles who 
were known as the ' ' Camerata. ' ' Their first work, called ' ' Daf ne, ' ' by 
Peri and Rinuccini,* appeared in 1597, but as this work was lost, the 
first opera is in reality, "Euridice, " which was written by the same 

* Caccini also contributed several musical numbers to this work, and in the same year 
set the entire libretto to a score of his own. 

202 



The Opera 



L E M V S I C H E 

DI IACOPO PERI 

NOBIL FIORENTINO 

Sopra L'Euridicc 
DELS1G OTTAVIORINVCC1NI 

(UpprcfcnuM Ncllo Spon&l.zio 
dclUCrifhamfsinu 

MARIA MEDICI 

REGINA DI FRANCIA 
E BI N A V A R a A 




IN FIORENZA 

APPRESSO GIOK.GIO MAR.ESCOTTI- 

M DC- 



TITLE PAGE, EURIDICE 



authors for the marriage of Henry 

IV and Maria de Medici in 1600. 

The fundamental principle on which 

the first opera was founded, was that 

music, drama, and interpretation 

were of equal importance. With the 

birth of opera, music was no longer 

confined to the contrapuntal polyph- 

ony of the church school, and this ac- 

counts for the immediate popularity 

of the new form. By the end of the 

seventeenth century many opera 

houses were established throughout 

Italy and France. In Germany the 

centers of operatic activities w r ere 

Vienna and Hamburg,* but on ac- 

count of the Thirty Years ' War, there 

was little or no development of opera 

in Germany. 

In Italy, the three cities where 

definite music schools had been established in the previous century, each 

made contributions to the form of 
opera; thus Rome perfected the 
choruses (here the oratorio was 
born), while Naples developed bel 
canto, or the art of song; and 

f mf^^ ''T "jIF I^H^I Venice brought the instrumental 

side of the opera to its great devel- 
opment. 

The most important school was 
that of Venice, where the first 
genius of opera appeared in Claudio 
Monteverde (1567-1643). Monte- 
verde in his first opera "Orfeo" 
(1607) wrote the first duet (hith- 
erto each voice sang alone). In 
1624 he introduced the violins into 
his orchestra of " Tancred, " using 




MON-TEVERDK 



* One of the earliest opera houses in Germany was that built in Bayreuth, the little town 
later made famous by the erection of the Wagner Festival Playhouse. 



The Opera 





the tremolo to describe the agitation during the duel scene, and the 
pizzicati to depict the sword thrusts. 

His pupil, Francesco Cavalli (1600-1676) perfected Monteverde's 
style. He grouped several voices in duets, trios and quartets, the 
chorus becoming of secondary importance. Cavalli also introduced 
into opera the comic element. Contemporaneous with Cavalli was 
Griacomo Carissimi (1604-1674), of Rome, who excelled in oratorio, 

and in the massing 
of choral effects. 
His pupil, Marc An- 
tonio Cesti (1620- 
1669), brought into 
the Venetian School, 
the style of Caris- 
simi 's oratorio. But 
the public now de- 
manded their amuse- 
ment, as in the time 
of Cavalli, so Cesti 
divided the opera 
into two classes : the 
opera seria and the 
opera buffa.* 

Opera seria was 

elaborately staged, many different scenes being employed. Singers 
were given every opportunity for vocal display, regardless of the 
dramatic effect. Great choruses were used but without dramatic 
reason. The orchestra became but an accompaniment; and absurd 
dramatic situations were the result. 

Opera buffa was of a light farcical character. It retained more 
of the dramatic effect, but became frequently vulgar and common. 
The dialogue was carried on by means of recitative, which was relieved 
by the introduction of airs, duets and choruses. In Naples, that form 
of opera became popular, which gave a greater chance to the singers 
for the display of vocal technique. 

In these operas there were always six characters; three of each 
sex, all lovers. Three acts were given, each terminating in an aria. 
The same character could not have two airs in succession, and no air 
was followed by another of the same class. The principal airs were 






FIRST PAGE, "EURIDICE" 




204 



used to conclude the first and second acts. The second and third acts 
each contained at least one duet for hero and heroine, but no trios 
and concerted numbers were to be found, except in opera buffa. 

Alessandro Stradella (1645-1681) employed the methods of Caris- 
simi in all his works; but the great importance of the Neapolitan 
School, was due to the efforts of Alessando Scarlatti (1659-1725), 
who is the connecting link between the severe contrapuntal school, and 
the free school of bel canto. "With Scarlatti, melody becomes more 
fluent and graceful, and arias take the 
definite form of recitative and aria, the 
recitative being given with orchestral ac- 
companiment. Scarlatti also used the 
form of the overture, but inverted the 
form of Lully, of France. (See Lesson 
XXIII, Part III.) 

In England the influence of the opera 
made itself felt first in the music for the 
masques which were written by William 
and Henry Lawes, Pelham Humphrey, 
and others. Many of these men studied 
under Lully, of France and to the 
French School is due also the form em- 
ployed by Henry Purcell (1658-1695), 
the greatest of the early English opera 
writers. Purcell stood alone as a com- 
poser of English opera, for with the 
advent of George Frederic Handel (1685-1759), Italian opera took 
the position of supreme importance in England, as well as in France. 




74672 
55051 

45069 

45083 
88599 

17718 



35549 
45092 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

Gagliarda (Galilei) 

Funeste piaggie ( ' ' Euridice ' ' ) (Peri) 
(Non piango e non sospiro ("Euridice") (Caccini) 
\Intorno all' idol mio (Cesti) 

Tu se' morta ("Orfeo") (Montcverde) 

Pietd, Signore (Stradella) 

(a) O cessate di piagarmi (Scarlatti) 

(b) Ecco purch'a voi ritorno ("Orfeo") (Monteverde) 

(c) Caro mio ben (Giordani) 

(From the Heavens Now I Fly (2) Sabrina Fair 



Sweet Echo (2) By the Rushy Fringed Bank (3) Back, 
{ Shepherds, Back! 
I Attempt from Love's Sickness to Fly (Henry Purcell) 

205 



Toscanini Orchestra 
Werrenrath 
Werrenrath 
Marsh 
Werrenrath 
Caruso 
Werrenrath 
Werrenrath 
Werrenrath 
Dixon and Mixed Quartet 



Kline and Dixon 
Werrenrath 



The Opera 

Lesson III 
The Oratorio to Handel 

Oratorio was born in Kome at the end of the sixteenth century. 
In the church of St. Maria Vallicelli, St. Philip Neri founded the 
"Society of Oratorians." (See Lesson VII, Part II.) The first work 
to be definitely termed Oratorio has the title "The Representation of 
the Soul and the Body." Its composer, Emilio del Cavalieri, died 
before its presentation in 1600 (the year "Eurydice" was given to the 
world), but he left explicit directions as to the production of his work, 
which show that his principles were identical with those of the Came- 
rata of Florence. 

The first great master of oratorio was Giacomo Carissimi (1604- 
1684), of the Roman school. He left more than fifteen oratorios and 
many masses and other sacred works. Before the time of Carissimi 
the only difference between opera and oratorio lay in the fact that 
opera was secular, while oratorio was religious in text. Both were 
given with scenery and costumes, and as there was not much dra- 
matic action in the opera, there was little or no difference in the two 
forms. Carissimi put aside the idea of theatrical presentation and 
introduced into oratorio besides the actual characters, the "Narrator," 
who set forth the dramatic happenings in his recitations. Carissimi 's 
oratorios were always short, and adhered to actual Biblical history, 
for he never used his works to glorify any Church saint, as other 
composers had done. Carissimi also developed the cantata, a shorter 
dramatic form, for the employment of vocal recitatives and arias, 
and wrote both secular and religious cantatas. Carissimi stands with 
Monteverde as the most important genius in Italy in the seventeenth 
century. 

In Germany the oratorio became the vocal form of the day, as 
the expense of opera production made the music drama an impossi- 
bility. It is but natural that the oratorio in Germany should be 
divided between the music used in the Roman Catholic Church and 
that employed by the Lutherans. The master who must be remem- 
bered as the dominating figure of this period is Heinrich Schiitz (1585- 
1672), who, although trained in Italy, was essentially German in his 
art. Schiitz paved the way in church music for the advent of the 
great Bach. In his oratorios he used a form far removed from the 
opera, which is more suitable for religious concerts, and for use in 
church. Schiitz, like Carissimi, employed the "Narrator" as an im- 
portant personage in his works. Schiitz also used chorales, as if they 

200 



The Opera 



were the voice of the audience. He developed the form known as 
' ' Passion Music, ' ' that is, the musical setting of the narratives of the 
Gospels regarding the Passion of Christ.* 

In France there was very little interest in oratorio, the masses of 
the French Catholic Church being the favorite forms of religious 
expression in music. 

In England, the Italian oratorio form was introduced by Handel, 
who established the popularity of the work by decreeing it to be 
a concert form not confined to the church service. Between the 
operas and oratorios of Handel there is little dramatic difference. 
The chief musical difference lies 
in the marvelous choruses which 
Handel employed in his oratorios, 
and which give the best idea of his 
great contrapuntal skill. His join- 
ing of the recitative and aria re- 
sulted in a type for English ora- 
torio, which has caused Handel's 
works in this form to live although 
his operas have become obsolete. 
When the "Messiah," Handel's 
greatest oratorio, was produced, at a 
concert in Dublin, the ladies were 
requested to come without their 
hoops and the gentlemen without 
their swords, that there might be 
more room in the hall. This gives 
an idea of Handel's popularity, but 
it also points a marked contrast between the oratorios of Handel and 
those of Bach, whose works all bear the inscription, "To the Glory of 
God Alone," and were in reality written only for the Church service, 
and never for the concert hall. 

In Bach's day the organist, who was also the choir director, was 
obliged to write new music for each church service, so there exist a 
great number of truly religious works by Bach. These are in the form 
of Passion Music. Bach wrote four settings, taken from the four 
Apostles; Church Oratorios, of which "The Christmas Oratorio" is 
the most famous ; and Church Cantatas, which were sung between the 
parts of the service. 




GEORGE FREDERIC HANDEL 



* Schiitz is also said to have written a "Singspiel" on the original libretto of "Dafne," 
but as this was lost, it is of little or no significance in later operatic development. 

207 



The Opera 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

18173 Opening Chorus Recitative The Seven Last Words of Christ 

(Heinrich Schiitz) Victor Oratorio Chorus 

(Vittoria, Mio Core! (Carissimi) Werrenrath 

{Come Raggio di Sol (Caldara) Werrenrath 

88613 He Shall Feed His Flock ("Messiah") (Handel) Homer 

88575 My Heart Ever Faithful (Bach) Homer 

I (a) And the Glory of the Lord ("Messiah") Victor Chorus 

(b) Pastoral Symphony ("Messiah") Victor Concert Orchestra 

(c) Glory to God ("Messiah") Victor Chorus 

CHOEUSES 

And the Glory of the Lord, "Messiah" (Handel) 
Hallelujah Chorus, "Messiah" (Handel) 



Lesson IV 

Early Eighteenth Century Opera 

From the time of Alessandro Scarlatti, whose works were the 
first of the bel canto school, the Neapolitan opera was entirely influ- 
enced by vocal virtuosity. The followers of Scarlatti were : Nicolo 
Porpora (1686-1766), who was particularly noted as a voice teacher, 
although he was the writer of forty-six operas; Francesco Durante 
(1684-1755), who had many illustrious pupils, including Nicolo 
Logroscino (1700-1763), the inventor of "Concerted Finale." This 
was further developed by Nicolo Piccini (1728-1800), the leader of 
the Italian opera during the period of Gluck in Paris. 

In Venice, interest centered in opera buffa, although opera 
seria was still popular. 

It is interesting to note that v much greater care was taken in 
the development of instrumental forms in the opera buffa than in 
the opera seria. The overture to the opera buffa was a collection 
of the most pleasing airs from the opera. , It was not modeled on either 
the Lully or Scarlatti pattern (see Lesson XXIII, Part III), but 
became what is known as the "Italian Potpourri Overture." Great 
interest was taken in the entr'actes and dances; this led to the estab- 
lishment of the ballet. ; 

Prominent in the opera buffa school are : 

Naples Giovanni Pergolesi (1710-1736). He wrote an epoch- 
making work, "La Serva Padrona" ("The Maid as Mistress") ; 
also a "Stabat Mater," which stands alone in the church composi- 
tions of this period. 

208 



The Opera 



Naples Niccolo Jomelli (1714-1774), called the "Italian 
Gluck," composer of many Neapolitan operas and sacred com- 
positions. 

Venice Baldassare Galuppi (1706-1785), called "Father 
of Opera Buffa," a distinguished player and composer for the 
^harpsichord and organ. 

v The greatest exponent of the opera seria at this period was 
Giovanni Bononcini (1660-1750), who was the rival of Handel for 
operatic favor. 

George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) 
was the first great German composer to 
become identified with the Italian opera 
school. Handel's early operas were written 
for Hamburg, but in 1706 he went to Italy 
and there became imbued with the style of 
the Italian school. Most of Handel 's great- 
est works in the form of opera were written 
for the English public, as he made his home 
in England from 1710 until his death, 1753. 
Handel wrote forty-two operas, butyin spite 
of their many beauties, they have long since 
been banished from the stage, j Handel Avas 
a genius, Avho was content to employ exist- 
ing forms, which he frequently brought to 

perfection, but (he never advanced any form of musical art, except 
the oratorio. Opera in his day consisted of a string cf recitatives and 
arias, with an occasional duet or a chorus, to bring down the curtain 

at the end of each act. While Handel's 
genius infused rare beauty in many of his 
arias, there was little opportunity for the 
growth of true dramatic expression. 

The first French opera was produced in 
1659, and was the work of Pietro Perriii 
(1620-1675), butfno definite school of opera 
was established in France until the advent 
of Giovanni Lully (1633-1 687). Lully was an 
Italian, who went to Paris in the suite of the 
Duke of Guise, and he held for many years 
the exclusive right to produce opera in 
^^^H France. Most of the Lully works were musi- 
cal settings for the plays of Moliere. In 
these he attempted to follow the text and 




JEAN BAPTISTE LULLY 




JEAN PHILIPPE RAMEAU 



209 



The Opera 



adapted the music to the words, but employed no airs, duets, or adorn- 
ments to aid him in his musical delineation. Lully enlarged the over- 
ture into the form known as "Lully Overture. *] (See Lesson XX1I1, 
Parian.) 

fjean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) carried on Lully 's traditions, 
but as he had a much greater knowledge of the technical side of his 
art, he gave a richer and more original method of treatment to the 
orchestra, introducing new and original effects. 1 But Rameau 's great 
importance lies in the influence w r hich his music exerted over Christoph 
Willibald Gluck. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
Nina (Pergolesi) 

Stizzoso, mio stizzoso (" La Serva Padrona") (Pergolesi) 
Sweet Bird (" II Pensieroso") (Handel) 
(Haste Thee Nymph (" L' Allegro") 
\ComeandTripIt (" L' Allegro") 
(Let Me Wander Not Unseen (" L' Allegro") 
(Hide Me From Day's Garish Eye ("II Pensieroso") 
74594 Come, Beloved, from " Atalanta" (Handel) 
88617 Largt ("Xerxes") (Handel) 



64932 
55051 
88068 



Kindler 
Marsh 
Mdba 

IHxon-Lyric Quartet 

Dixon-Lyric Quartet 

Green 

Green 

Gluck 

Caruso 



Lesson V 
The Reforms of Gluck 




CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK 



(Christoph Willibald Gluck 
(1714-1787) was the first great re- 
former of the music drama/\ 

Gluck was born in Austria, 
near Vienna, but (jiis first study^ 
of operatic forms was in Italy, j 
After the production of several 
conventional Italian operas had 
brought him considerable fame, 
he made his way to England, 
where Handel was then at the 
zenith of his power. But re- 
alizing the need for further study, 
and feeling dissatisfied with exist- 

I ing opera conditions, Gluck visited 
Paris, and was much impressed 

I with the works of Rameau. Re- 

t \ 

I turning to Vienna, \hq once more 
(pursued his serious studies with 

210 



The Opera 

the constant thought in mind that a closer relationship of music and 
drama must be re-established. )In 1764 "Orfeo, " in which he worked 



out many of his theories, was produced, fit was not. however, until 
1767, when "Alceste" was given to the world, that the principles of 
the music drama were boldly proclaimed. In the preface to his 
'"Alceste" Gluck avows these principles as being the fundamental 
ideas on which the music drama was originally built, and declares them 
to be the foundation for all opera to come. 

''When 1 undertook to compose the music for 'Alceste/ my 
intention was to rid it of all those abuses, which, introduced either 
through the mistaken vanity of singers, or the over-indulgence of com- 
posers, have so long disfigured Italian opera, and turned the finest 
and most pompous spectacle into the most ridiculous and tedious. 
wished to reduce music to its true function, which is to second poetry 
in expressing the emotions and situations of the play, without inter- 
rupting the action nor chilling it with the useless and superfluous 
ornaments.^ I accordingly, have wished neither to stop an actor 
where the-dialogue is at its warmest, in order to let the orchestra 
play a tedious ritornello, nor to hold him back on a favorite vowel, 
in the middle of the word, that he may either show off the agility of 
his fine voice in a long roulade, or wait for the orchestra to give 
him time to take breath for a cadenza. I have deemed that the over- 
ture ought to apprize the spectator of the action to be represented, 
and, so to speak, constitute itself the argument ; that the co-operation 
of the instruments should be determined proportionately to the inter- 
est and passion of a scene, and that no sharp contrast between air and 
recitative should be left in the dialogue, so as not to stunt the period 
out of all reason, nor inappropriately interrupt the vigor and warmth 
of the action. I have believed, furthermore, that my greatest efforts 
should be reduced to seeking for a beautiful simplicity, and have 
avoided making a display of difficulties, to the prejudice of clearness ; 
the discovery of a novelty has not seemed admirable in my eyes, except 
in so far as it was naturally suggested by the situation, or helpful to 
the expression: and there is no rule of form which I have not thought 
best willingly to sacrifice the effect. These are my principles." 

In 1773 Gluck went to Paris at the invitation of Marie Antoinette, 
who had been previously his pupil in Vienna. Here in 1774 "Iphi- 
genie en Aulide" was given to the world. From that time dates one 
of the most interesting musical battles which the world has ever wit- 
nessed. Gluck declaring for "simplicity and truth" in opera, was 
opposed by the Italian Piccini, who clung to the old dramatic absurd- 
ities of the past generation. In "Armide," 1777, and "Tphigenie en 

211 



The Opera 



Tauride, " 1779, Gluck vanquished his opponent. Many of G-luck's 
theories were not new, for most of the abuses which he aimed to cor- 
rect had been recognized by others. v But he was the first to strike a 
decisive blow for the freedom of the music drama. Although all his 
works were in a sense restricted by the classic reserve in expression, 
which was fitting for the setting of classic subject matter, still one 
cannot fail to detect an emotional freedom, which was far in advance 
of Gluck 's period. ) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
18314 Musette ("Armide") 
74618 Gavotte 
88285 Che faro senza Euridice (I Have Lost my Euridice) 

("Orfeo")*. (Gluck) 
74567 Ballet Music ("Orpheus"') 

CHORUSES 

Lift Up Your Heads (Gluck) See, What Grace (Gluck) 

The Broken Ring (Gluck) 



Victor Concert Orchestra 
Novaes 

Homer 
Philadelphia Orchestra 



Lesson VI 
The Operas of Mozart 



The interesting experiences of 
the youthful prodigy of music, 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756- 
1791). in the domain of purely in- 
strumental music, were considered 
in Lesson XII, Part II. His operas 
will now be studied. 
r It must be remembered that 
^Mozart was influenced, by the 
Italian opera of the day, which he 
heard at the courts of Salzburg and 
Vienna. It was n/ot until his visit 
to Paris in 1778( that he became 
acquainted with ihe reforms of 
Gluck, and learned to know the true 
possibilities of the music drama. 
Mozart's early operas before this 
period are rarely given, his first 
great work after his return to Germany being "Idomeneo," which 
was produced in 1781. This opera was modeled after a French work 
on the same subject, but the music is, for the most part, purely Italian 

* Gluck was very partial to the contralto voice. Note that it is here used to portray tlie 
character of a man, Orpheus. 

212 




WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART 



The Opera 

in form. There is one important point in this work, however, which 
must be noted. For the first time the chorus becomes a part of the 
action on the stage, and is no longer retained as a passive spectator to 
the scene. The orchestration of "Idomeneo" is superior to any pre- 
viously found in opera. 

Mozart's next opera, "Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" ("The 
Elopement from the Serail") was produced in 1782, and followed the 
old German form of his early works. With his famous work, "Le Nozze 
di FigaiS^ f t V 'Tne Marriage of Figaro") (1786). Mozart shows his 
rarest dramatic genius, for this charming comedy adapts itself wonder- 
fully to the form of .opera buffa which the composer chose as the 
medium of expressionJ 

In his next work, "Don Giovanni" (French "Don Juan"), which 
was produced in Prague in 1787. we find that the extremely compli- 
cated libretto has been so wonderfully adapted by Mozart that "Don 
Giovanni" will ever be regarded as one of the few immortal musical 
works in the old form of opera. 

Of "Cosi fan Tutti" (1790) and "La Clemenza di Tito" (1791) 
little need be said, both were hurriedly written and do not show the 
strength of Mozart's genius as do the works which have been mentioned. 

Mozart's last opera, "Die Zauberflote" ("The Magic Flute"), 
was produced a month later than "Clemenza di Tito," but was 
really written previously. Mozart attempted to defend the dramatic 
absurdities and impossibilities of "The Magic Flute," by giving the 
world to understand that it was full of allegorical significance in the 
struggle and triumph of Free Masonry. While this is not easy to 
credit, and the dramatic inanities of "The Magic Flute" still must 
be acknowledged, the fact remains that Mozart never gave any greater 
example of his consummate dramatic gift than in the music written 
for this work. As Jahn so aptly expresses it, "If in his Italian operas 
Mozart assimilated the traditions of a long period of development 
and in some sense put the finishing stroke to it, with 'Die Zauberflote' 
he treads on the threshold of the future and unlocks for his country - 
v men the sacred treasure of national art." 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

88067 Voi che sapete (" The Marriage of Figaro") Melba 

88194 Deh vieni all finestra (Open Thy Window) (" Don Giovanni") Scotti 

89015 Duet La ci darem la mano (" Don Giovanni") Farrar-Scolti 

88026 Batti, Batti, Bel Masetto ("Don Giovanni") (Mozart) Sembrich 

85042 Invocation (" Ths Magic Flute") Plan$on 

CHORUSES 

I Am a Fowler, "Magic Flute" (Mozart) 
The Blacksmith, "Marriage of Figaro" (Mozart) 
Who Treads the Path of Duty (Mozart) 

213 



The Opera 



Lesson VII 
Opera at the Close of the Classical Period 

The Gluck traditions required that all grand operas should be 
written in five acts, with ballets in the second and fourth, and 
concerted numbers at certain definite places. Only a great genius 
could show his own individuality while employing such an arbitrary 
form. 

There are but two composers who are worthy of mention as direct 
followers of Gluck: Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), who lived in Vienna 
during the French Revolution and was the teacher of both Beethoven 
and Schubert; and Etienne Henri Mehul (1763-1817), whose greatest 
works were Biblical operas, which were original and effective. 

i The greatest genius of this period was Luigi Cherubini* (1760- 
1842~), who, although a Florentine, was identified with the French 
school. He was the first director of the Paris Conservatoire ; and dur- 
ing his long life there he saw not only the close of the classic school, 
the rise and development of the romantic school, but also the dawn of 
the modern era. In all his works the extreme formality of Cheru- 

bini's style overbalances the beauty of 
melody. 

Closely identified with the Paris 
school was another Italian, Gasparo 
Spontini (1774-1851) whose "La Ves- 
tale" (1807) and "Ferdinand Cor- 
tez" (1809) exerted a great influence 
on both Meyerbeer and the early 
Wagner. 

/The most popular opera composer 
of the day was Gioachino Rossini (1792- 
1868), who established his reputation 
as a composer of opera sesia when he 
wrote "Tancredi" in 1813. } (This was 
f the year Wagner and Verdi were born.) 
K Two years later, he became known as 
the composer of the most popular opera 
buffa of the day, "The Barber of 
Seville." This work is still regarded as Rossini's greatest musical 
gift to the world, although "William Tell" (1829) should be ranked 

* Review the development of opera and make a strong point of the influence of the Italian 
School on that of Prance. Remind the class of the Romantic Period as studied in Lesson XVI, 
Part II, and the political and artistic reasons for the importance of Paris at this time. 

214 




GIOACHINO ANTONIO ROSSINI 



The Opera 

as Rossini's best effort in the style of the grand opera. This work 
is the most serious of any of Rossini's operas, and is a very remark- 
able musical setting of Schiller's historic tragedy. "William Tell" 
was written for the Paris grand opera, and one might say was the 
first work of that school, which exerted such a great influence up to 
the time of Wagner. Rossini's particular characteristic was his love 
of vocal display, in the old coloratura singing, and we find him openly 
practising all the abuses against which Gluck had rebelled. J Even 
his recitatives were full of trills, roulades, and vocal embellishments, 
and although he withdrew from the singers their absurd right to im- 
provise a cadence during the singing of an aria, he amply compensated 
them by the florid cadenzas he himself provided. 

In considering Beethoven (1770-1827) in relation to the develop- 
ment of the music drama, it must be remembered that Beethoven lived 
at a period when superficial display, especially as manifested at the 
Court of Vienna, brought little or no realization of the true artistic 
worth of any art. It was easier for Beethoven 's true greatness to stand 
revealed in the purely instrumental forms, for there was practically no 
standard for comparison, while in opera, the Viennese public had 
become familiar with the saccharine sweetness of the Italian school, 
and refused to accept any dramatic work which did not consider the 
singer of greater importance than the music or the story. 

Beethoven made but cne attempt at dramatic composition, chocs- 
ing for his subject an eld Spanish tale, which had been popular in 
France, and which was known as "Leonore. "* This work appeared 
first in Vienna in 1805 during the French occupation. It was hardly 
an auspicious time for the presentation of a work in which "sim- 
plicity and truth" were once more acknowledged as "the sole princi- 
ples of art." "Leonore" was a failure and was withdrawn after but 
three performances. The following year the work was rewritten with 
a new overture and presented twice. In 1814, Beethoven again re- 
wrote the work and under the title of "Fidelio" it was received with 
moderate success. "Fidelio" was the second opera after "Magic 
Flute" to be written in the form of the "Singspiel," that is, with 
spoken dialogue. It is in the music alone that "Fidelio" is great, 
for' the libretto is weak ; therefore the opera is not a perfect type of 
music drama, as no unity between music and poetry exists. The 
true dramatic greatness of "Fidelio" is felt in the second overture 
written for the work, which is known as "Leonore No. 3." 



* Beethoven wrote three "Leonore" overtures and one "Fidelio" overture. The greatest 
is the "Leonore No. 3," which was written for the second performance of the opera in 1806. 

215 



The Opera 



Victor Concert Orchestra 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

35269 { Overture > " Leonore " No - 3 (Beethoven) 
55075 Guide Thou M y Steps ("Les Deux Journees") (Cherubini) Werrenrath 

88097 Una voce poco fa (" Barber of Seville") (Rossini) Sembrich 

88391 Largo al factotum (" Barber of Seville" ) (Rossini) Ruffo 

35576 Chorus of Prisoners ("Fidelio") (Beethoven) Victor Male Chorus 

CHOEUSES 

The Gypsies' Song (Beethoven) 
Serenade from ' ' Fidelio ' ' 
Morning Hymn (Beethoven) 
The Heavens Resound (Beethoven) 
Inflammatus, " Stabat Mater" (Rossini) 

Hark, Hear the Drums Beat, "The Barber of Seville" (Rossini) 
Swiss Battle Song, "William Tell" (Rossini) 



Lesson VIII 
German Romantic Opera 

The true founder of. the German ro- 
mantic opera was Carl Maria von Weber 
(1786-1826), who, in "Der Freischiitz," 
gave the German people their first national 
opera. \This work, produced in 1821 in 
Berlin, Ms based on a German folk-tale; 
German folk-music was used by von Weber 
throughout the work, which was sung in the 
German tongue, by German singers. 

Von Weber's musical education was 
pursued in Vienna under Michael Haydn 
and the great Abbe Vogler, who, it is said, 
first called his pupil's attention to, the 
possibilities of German folk-music. (Von 
Weber's early operas were not successful, 
but with ''Der Freischiitz"* he became 
the acknowledged leader of German romanticism. jln "Euryanthe" 
(1823), his next work, he was not so fortunate, for the libretto by 
Wilhelmina von Chezy, is as absurd as the text she prepared for 
Schubert's "Rosamunde. "t I Von Weber's last work was "Oberon," 
produced in England in 1826, shortly before the death of the composer. 
With "Oberon" von Weber opened up the realms of fairyland, and 
made possible the later musical pictures of gnomes and elves. ^, 

the redeeming love of woman, is fundamentally the 
" 




* The legend of "Der Freischiitz," the r 
same as "Don Juan," "Manfred" and "Faust." 

t Schubert also wrote a number of works in the form of the "Singspiel," but in none 
scored a success. 



216 



I 



The Opera 



The romantic opera of von Weber is the connecting link between 
the old "Singspiel" and the music drama of Wagner. As it was a 
union of the supernatural with everyday events, it was drawn from 
modern folk life as well as from medieval legend. It thus combined 
the national, the comic, and the realistic, with the purely imaginative. / 

The two great contem- 
poraries of von Weber in 
Germany were Spohr and 
Marschner. 

Ludwig Spohr (1784- 
1859) was a great violinist 
as well as an opera composer. 
It was his misfortune that 
his works were so overshad- 
owed by von Weber 's greater 
genius that Spohr was not 
given the credit due him 
for his excellent operas of 
"Faust" (1818) and "Jes- 
sonda" (1823). Spohr 's 
most remarkable w r ork was 
done in the writing of his 
overtures and the masterly 
accompaniments to his arias. 
He possessed imagination 
but not sufficient freedom of 
expression, to make any ad- 
vance from the old set forms of opera. 

Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861) was a genius more nearly resem- 
bling von Weber, for he possessed a skill in depicting folk simplicity, 
as well as the weird and supernatural. His dramatic judgment was 
always sound and his orchestral resources were remarkable. His great- 
est works were "Der Vampyr" (1828) and "Hans Heiling" (1833), 
operas which are still very popular on the German stage. 

Although not an opera, Mendelssohn's (1809-1847) "A Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream" (1841) is classed with the German romantic dra- 
matic school. This setting for Shakespeare's fairy comedy reflects 
the dramatic situations of the play far better than many operas do. 
Mendelssohn, in his early life, attempted opera writing, but his one 
work, "Die Hochzeit des Camancho" (1827), was not successful. 

Robert Schumann (1810-1856) also made one operatic attempt, 
"Genoveva" (1850). This work was never successful. Schumann's 




JF VON WEBER IN DRESDEN 



217 



The Opera 

musical settings for the dramatic works, Byron 's ' ' Manfred ' ' and 
Goethe's "Faust," are still presented in the theatre. 

Many composers of popular light operas were found in Germany 
during the middle of the nineteenth century. (See Lesson XVI, 
Part IV.) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35000 Overture (" Der Freischiiiz") (von Weber) Sousa's Band 

45078 Through the Forest (" Der Freischutz") (von Weber) Jorn 

35625 Midsummer-Night's Dream Overture (Mendelssohn) Victor Orchestra 

74560 Midsummer-Night's Dream (Scherzo) Philadelphia Orchestra 

oeco? (Midsummer-Night's Dream Nocturne Victor Orchestra 

[Midsummer-Night's Dream Intermezzo Victor Orchestra 

55060 You Spotted Snakes Victor Women's Chorus 

55048 Wedding March (Mendelssohn) Herbert's Orchestra 

CHORUSES 
Hunting Song, "Freischutz" (von Weber) Boat Song, "Oberon" (von Weber) 

HYMNS 

Seymour (von Weber) My Jesus, As Thon Wilt (von Weber) 

Come, Ye Disconsolate (von Weber) 



Lesson IX 
The Oratorio from Handel to Mendelssohn 

At the time of Haydn and Mozart the interest in opera, reawak- 
ened by Gluck's endeavors, had spread through Italy, France and 
p]ngland, while the new instrumental forms which Haydn crystallized, 
were occupying the attention of the musical minds of Germany and 
Austria. Haydn's greatest works w r ere his quartets and symphonies. 
He left a number of operas which are obsolete, a few simple songs, and 
many masses which are still sung in the Roman Catholic Church. His 
greatest vocal efforts were his two oratorios, "The Creation" and "The 
Seasons." These were written late in Haydn's career, after his visits 
to England, and reflect decidedly the influence of Handel. Haydn's 
use of the instruments in these works is remarkable. His choruses 
are most effective, and still remain a valuable part of choral literature. 

Mozart wrote in all forms, and his masses, which are in the same 
style as his operas, are very popular in the Roman Catholic Church. 
His last great work was in the form of a mass, which is considered his 
greatest choral composition. Mozart left fifteen masses, four litanies, 
a Magnificat, a Te Deum, a De Profundis, and many other shorter 
works for the church service. A Passion cantata, and three other 

218 



The Ope r a 

works in the form of the cantata (two of these on Masonic subjects) 
complete his list of choral compositions. 

Beethoven wrote one remarkable oratorio called "The Mount of 
Olives," but this work and his "Missa Solennis in D" are both concert 
works rather than compositions for church service. Beethoven's 
greatest composition for the chorus is found in the finale of the ' ' Ninth 
Symphony. ' ' 

Late in life Cherubini turned his attention to religious music, to 
which his style of composition was well adapted. His sacred works 
include his celebrated "Messe Mort" (Mass in C Minor), which was 
performed on the anniversary of the death of Louis XVI (1817). 
Cherubini exerted a great influence in bringing about a reform in 
church music of his time. 

Schubert left six masses, an oratorio, "Lazarus," two Stabat 
Maters and many short choruses for the church service. Schubert's 
religious compositions are rarely given. 

One of the greatest influences in the rise of the romantic school in 
Germany was the discovery of the Bach manuscripts in Leipsic in 
1828. The Bach Society, of which Schumann and Mendelssohn were 
early members, brought to light the greatest works of Bach, many 
of which had remained in oblivion since the time of their composer. 
The interest in the production of Bach's "St. Matthew's Passion," 
in 1828, led Mendelssohn to study seriously Bach's great sacred works. 
The popularity of the gifted young German composer and conductor 
spread through Europe to England, and during his visits to London, 
Mendelssohn became embued with a love for Handel's oratorios, 
which had been, for a hundred years, the favorite concert works of 
England. It is but natural that in his oratorios, Mendelssohn should 
have combined his enthusiasm for both Handel and Bach. In his 
chorales and contrapuntal choruses, the spirit of Bach is reflected, 
while in the general form of oratorio for concert production, the 
genius of Handel is openly copied by Mendelssohn in both "St. Paul" 
and "Elijah." In "The Hymn of Praise," Mendelssohn follows the 
ideas of Beethoven's chorale Finale of the "Ninth Symphony." Men- 
delssohn shows his own individuality in the characterization of his 
orchestration, and in his fluent melodic solo numbers. No other such 
oratorios have been given to the world since Handel. 

Schumann wrote no oratorios, but left several masses which are, 
however, rarely given. His best choral work, ' ' Paradise and the Peri, ' ' 
is a cantata. 

In the French romantic school Berlioz was constantly using the 
forces of a chorus in connection with his orchestral works. His 

219 



The Opera 

masses are still used, but his oratorio, "The Infancy of Christ," has 
been rarely heard outside of France. 

Franz Liszt left many sacred compositions, the greatest being the 
"Graner" and "Hungarian Coronation" masses and two oratorios, 
"The Legend of the Holy Elizabeth" and "Christus." These are 
strong dramatic works which are supported by the highly-colored 
orchestrations of this gifted composer. 

Several of the grand opera writers left oratorios, masses and so- 
called religious works, although they hardly are to be distinguished 
from their operas in character. Of these the most notable example is 
Rossini's "Stabat Mater," which is a setting of the most sacred text 
of the church service, to music of the same character which Rossini 
would have used for any of his operas. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
55075 Requiem Aeternam (From Mass in C Minor) (Cherubini) 

Victor Oratorio Chorus 

88460 Cujus Animam ("Stabat Mater") (Rossini) Caruso 

89098 Quis est Homo (" Stabat Mater") (Rossini) Gluck-Homer 

89158 Quis est Homo ("Stabat Mater") (Rossini) Homer-Homer 

88191 But the Lord is Mindful of His Own ("St. Paul") (Mendelssohn) 

Schumann-Heink 

74088 If With All Your Hearts ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) Williams 

74082 It is Enough ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) Withcrspoon 

CHORUSES 

Baal, We Cry to Thee, "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) 
How Lovely Are the Messengers, "St. Paul" (Mendelssohn) 
Lord God of Abraham, "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) 
He, Watching Over Israel, "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) 
Lift Thine Eyes, "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) 



Lesson X 
The French Grand Opera I. Donizetti and Bellini 

With the rise of romanticism in France, there appeared but one 
great genius, who was a native Frenchman, Hector Berlioz (1803-1869). 
Berlioz exerted his greatest influence over the instrumental school; 
and, although he wrote several operas, they were entirely overshadowed 
by the popularity of his Italian rivals. 

The early days of the Empire under Louis Philippe, and the 
establishment of the French grand opera, attracted once more to the 
French court all the greatest opera composers of the world. The 
influence of the Revolution had left a marked impression on the public 

220 



The Opera 




GAETANO DONIZETTI 



taste of the Parisians of this period. The 
writings of the great Balzac, Dumas and 
Hugo had taught the French people to look 
for realism and horror in all phases of art ; 
no dramatic work which was not spectacu- 
lar in character could hope for a success 
in Paris at this time. 

The French grand opera, as the French 
form of opera seria of this period was called, 
is frequently designated as ''Historical 
Opera," because the subject matter chosen 
was almost always based on an actual his- 
torical incident. In this form, two fol- 
lowers of the Italian Rossini excelled; they 
soon became the most popular leaders of the 
French grand opera school. These Italians lived in Paris during this 
period. They were: Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) and Vincenzo 
Bellini (1801-1835). 

Although neither of these composers possessed the vigor and 
strength of Rossini, they were more refined and cultured in their 
style. 

Donizetti possessed a real gift for dramatic intensity and was a 
man of broad culture, whose powerful works in both the opera seria 
and opera buffa manner, still retain a popular place in operatic 
repertoire. "Lucrezia Borgia" (1834), based on Victor Hugo's his- 
torical novel; and "Lucia di Lammermoor" (1835). based on Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, "The Bride of Lammermoor," are the best 

examples of the former type; while "Elisir 
d'Amore" (1837), "La Fille du Regiment" 
(1840) and "Don Pasquale" (1843) are 
types of opera buffa well worthy to rank with 
the ' ' Barber of Seville. ' ' 

"Lucrezia Borgia" (1833), "La Favor- 
ita" (1840), "Linda di Chamounix" (1842) 
were successful when produced, but are 
rarely heard in the opera houses of to-day. 
Occasionally coloratura airs from these 
operas appear on concert programs. 

Bellini possessed a more delicate poetic 
gift of melody than did Donizetti. He 
wrote only in the style of opera seria, his 




VINCENZO BELLINI 



221 



The Opera 

best works being, "La Sonnambula" (1831), "Norma" (1831) and 
"Puritan!" (1834). These works still hold the stage; but it is prin- 
cipally because they give to the coloratura singer such wonderful op- 
portunities for vocal display. Bellini made no pretenses as a great 
dramatic composer. He relied on the grace, elegance and charm of 
his melodies. His scores show him to be deficient in harmony and 
orchestration, but in sensuous melody he surpassed the greatness of 
Rossini. 

The Romantic movement as exemplified by von Weber was car- 
ried into the French school by Louis Joseph Herold (1791-1843). In 
his early life a follower of Adam and Mehul, Herold acknowledges his 
allegiance to von Weber in his greatest work, "Zampa" (1831). 

Another name to be remembered in this period is that of Jacques 
Halevy (1799-1862). also a native Frenchman, whose greatest work 
was "La Juive" (1835). 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

88104 Casta Diva (Queen of Heaven) ("Norma") (Bellini) Sembrich 

88299 Mad Scene (" Lucia di Lammermoor") (Donizetti) Tetrazzini 
96200 Sextette (" Lucia di Lammermoor") (Donizetti) 

Sembrich, Severina, Caruso, Scotti, Journet and Daddi 

74599 Cavalina ("Don Pasquale") Galli-Curci 

88625 Rachel ! Quand du Seigneur ("La Juive") (Halevy) Caruso 

CHORUSES 

Soprano solo, Act I Tyrolese, Act II, ' ' Daughter of the Regiment ' ' 
(Donizetti) 

O, Italia, Italia Beloved, "Lucrezia Borgia" (Donizetti) 
Chorus from Finale, "Lucia di Lammermoor" (Donizetti) 
When Daylight's Going, "La Sonnambula" (Bellini) 
Hear Me, Normal "Norma" (Bellini) 



The French Grand Opera 77. Meyerbeer 

! In the study of the opera the principal names connected with the 
French school have been men from either Italy or Germany. The 
dominating personality of the French grand opera of the nineteenth 
century was Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864). The son of a Jewish 
banker of Berlin, Jacob Liebmann Beer began his musical studies as a 
pianist, and achieved some small success on the concert stage. His 
aspirations lay, however, toward the broader field of opera, and failing 
to meet success by his efforts in Germany, he went to Italy, where, 
through the influence of Rossini, several of his smaller works were 

222 




GIACOMO MEYERBEER 



The Opera 

produced. Changing his name to an Italian version, he bcame Giacomo 
Meyerbeer, and entered the operatic arena of Paris in 1826. 

Meyerbeer's chief talent lay in his wonderful ability to adapt 
himself to all styles. Realizing that the 
French public of the day wished to be 
startled and amazed by spectacular opera, 
he set himself to work to provide for them 
exactly what they desired. Riemann says, 
"In his combination of German harmony, 
Italian melody and French rhythm, Meyer- 
beer stands alone." To these attributes the 
composer added a dramatic power and a 
sensational display, either in the use of 
solo voices, chorus or orchestra ; the result 
being a dazzling, spectacular melodrama, 
which has influenced many composers of the 
modern school.") 

Meyerbeer^s first work to attract uni- 
versal attention was "Robert Le Diable" (1831), which was an im- 
mense success, and which paved the way for other triumphs. "Les 
Huguenots" (1836) is considered his masterpiece. This setting of the 
war between the Catholics and Huguenots, ending in the great Mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, is absurd from a dramatic point of view, but 
it gives a great opportunity for vocal display and shows the superficial 
splendor of Meyerbeer at his best.* 

In "Le Prophete" (1849) Meyerbeer carries his spectacular 
form to a still greater extreme. Many effects which might have dra- 
matic significance are entirely lost on the overcrowded stage. 
" L 'Af ricaine " occupied him during the last years of his life, 
although not produced until a year after his death. This work is con- 
sidered by musicians to be Meyerbeer's most serious composition, but 
it has never achieved the popularity of "Les Huguenots." Meyerbeer 
also wrote in the style of the opera comique, his best works in this 
form being "L'Etoile du Nord" and "Dinorah." 

Streatfield says: "Meyerbeer was extravagantly praised during 
his lifetime; he is now as bitterly decried. The truth seems to lie be- 
tween the two extremes, (jlis influence on modern opera has been 
extensive. He was the true founder of melo-dramatic opera.") 



* Review the period of the Huguenots. Claude Goudimel. the Netherland master, who 
founded the gr;'at choral school of Rome (see Lesson V, Part II), was killed in this 
massacre. Recall the influence of the Italian Medici family in France. Catherine de Medici 
was Queen of France at the time of the massacre which she is said to have instigated. Maria 
do Medici in 1600 married the French King, Henry IV, and it was for their nuptial festivi- 
ties that the rirst music drama. ''I'hiridice." was written. 

223 



The Opera 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

88210 Romanza Fairer than the Lily (" Les Huguenots") (Meyerbeer) Caruso 
74532 Shadow Song ("Dinorah") (Meyerbeer) Galli-Curci 

88187 Ah,monfils (" Le Prophete") (Meyerbeer) Schumann-Heink 

74275 Benediction of the Swords (" Les Huguenots") (Meyerbeer) Journet-Chorus 

CHORUSES 

List the Trumpets' Thrilling Sound, "Huguenots" (Meyerbeer) 
Thy Flow'ry Banks (O, Maiden Fair), "Huguenots" (Meyerbeer) 



Lesson XII 
The Early Wagner 

In the year 1813, 
Jean Paul Richter, the 
great poet of the Ho- 
rn anticists, wrote, 
' ' Hitherto Apollo has 
distributed his poetic 
gifts with his right 
hand, his musical gifts 
with his left hand, to 
two men so remotely 
apart, that the world is 
still waiting the ad- 
vent of a genius, who 
shall create a genuine 
music drama by writ- 
ing both the words and 
the music. ' ' That very 
year there was born in Leipsic the man whose life and works were to 
be the fulfillment of that prophecy Wilhelm Richard Wagner* (1813- 
1883). Wagner's youth was spent in Leipsic and Dresden, where 
he was strongly influenced by the operas of Carl Maria von Weber, 
r the symphonies of Beethoven, and the dramas of Shakespeare, t 
VWagner's works must be divided into three periods: 




WAHNFRIED, WAGNER S HOME IN BAYREUTH 



EARLY OPERAS 



"The Fairies," 1833. 
"Das Liebesverbot, " 1834. 
' ' Rienzi, ' ' 1842. Influence 
Opera. 



Influence of Weber 

and Marschner. 
of French Grand 



* Review Lesson XIX, Part II. 

t Review (Lesson IV, Part II) the Minnesingers and point out how they influenced 
Wagner, and how he immortalized their works. 

224 



The Opera 



TRANSITIONAL 
PERIOD 



Music DRAMA 



r "The Flying Dutchman," 1844. 
< Tannhauser,"1845. 
'Lohengrin, "1850. 
'The Ring of the Nibehmgs," 1876. 
'Tristan and Isolde," 1865. 
'The Mastersingers of Nuremberg," 1868. 
'Parsifal, "1882. 




THE WAGNER THEATRE, BAYREUTH 



Like Bach and Beethoven, Wagner was an epoch-maker; not only 
did he bring the forms known at his time to their culmination, but 
he pointed the way toward the future of the music drama. ) One must 
first clearly understand 
what are the striking 
features of Wagner 's 
' ' m u s i c of the fu- 
ture." 

First. The return 
of the first principle of 
''the Camerata," th.it 
music, drama (or 
story), and interpreta- 
tion should be equally 
important. To do this 
Wagner found it was 
necessary to abolish old 
forms, and also to seek new inspiration from legendary sources for dra- 
matic material. Wagner therefore wrote all his own librettos, using 
the myths and legends of mediaeval days. I 

Seco>id.-(^Leit motif or use of guiding themes. This idea was not 
original with Wagner, although he was the first to use it consistently, 
to depict not only the personality of his characters, but also inanimate 
objects, thoughts and ideas, as well.) -To employ the "leit motif" cor- 
rectly, Wagner disregarded all the old fo^ms of recitatives and arias, 
the regulation duet and concerted finale!: but by blending his motifs 
into a polyphonic whole he produced a continuous web of melody.) 

Third. Characteristic instrumentation ; the use of certain instru- 
ments in the delineation of the character. With Wagner, the orchestra 
was no longer merely an accompaniment, but a vital force in portraying 
the persons of the drama. 

Fourth. Making the audience "a part of the being." Wagner 
felt that the audience should share in the unfolding of the dramatic 
plot, and he therefore employed a means, which, although not new, was 

225 



The O.pera 

carried to its perfection by his great genius. This was to employ the 
characteristic instrumentation and motives to aid the listener in com- 
prehending ihe situation, even before the actors on the stage realized it 
themselves. \For example, in Lohengrin's "Narrative," by the con- 
stant use of the "grail" motive and the characteristic use of the 
"strings," Wagner tells his audience that Lohengrin is a knight of 
the Holy Grail, long before the hero so announces himself by words. 




DECORATION IN MINSTRELS HALL, WARTBURG CASTLE, SHOWING THE ANNUAL CONTEST 
OF THE MINNESINGERS 

Fifth.-+The use of preludes instead of overtures. Wagner de- 
parted from the old form of overture and gave to his introductions 
the title of "Prelude." This symphonic orchestral composition served 
as a preparation for the dramatic action which was to follow. Each 
act had its own preluded 

Wagner's earliest ambition in the writing of "Rienzi" had been 
to outdo in splendor the magnificence of the French grand opera 
school. When this work was produced in 1841 in Dresden. Wagner 
was declared to be the equal if not the superior of Bellini, Donizetti 
and Meyerbeer. But he had realized the dramatic absurdities of this 
style while writing "Rienzi." and in "The Flying Dutchman" he 
began the development of his theories, as to the possibilities of the 
future music drama. Many of his ideas were looked upon askance 
by the greatest musicians of the time, but there was still much in ' ' The 

226 



The Opera 




Flying Dutchman" which they could commend. "With the appear- 
ance of " Tannhauser, " however, Wagner was openly declared a mad- 
man. Even Eobert Schumann w r rote that there was not a moment of 
melody in the entire work. But it is a pleasure to record that Schu- 
mann later proclaimed "Tannhauser" to be the greatest work of the 
modern epoch. 

The production of "Lohengrin" in 1850 was, in reality, the turn- 
ing point of "Wagner's life. "When he left Germany in 1849 a political 
exile, Wagner stopped in Weimar to visit his friend Franz Liszt; 
there he heard Liszt 
conducting a perform- 
ance of ' ' Tannhau- 
ser. ' ' When he reached 
Switzerland, Wagner 
wrote a letter to his 
friend, in which he 
said: "What I felt in 
writing my 'Tannhau- 
ser/ you seem to feel 
in making it sound. I 
am. sending you the score of my 'Lohengrin';* write me exactly what 
you think of it." To this, Liszt replied: "Like the pious priest who 
underlined every word of 'The Imitation of Christ,' I should like to 
underline your 'Lohengrin,' note by note. It shall be given the great- 
est performance which has ever been heard in Germany, for I shall 
produce it for the Goethe Centennial." And so it happened that 
the first German music drama was presented at Weimar, August 
28, 1850, to an audience of the greatest men of Europe, who had 
gathered to do homage to Germany's great poet-dramatist. From 
that day Wagner's genius was recognized, and the new form was 
acknowledged to he "the music of the future." In "Lohengrin" 
Wagner for the first time uses his theory of characteristic instrumen- 
tation; he here changes the overture to a prelude, or vorspiel, giving 
each act its own introduction; he elaborates the use of the leit motif; 
and carries cut his theory of making "the audience a part of the 
being." 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

74602 Rienzi Overture Part I (Wagner] Philadelphia Orchestra 

746"3 Rienzi Overture Part II (Wagner) Philadelphia Orchestra 



OPERA HOUSE IN WEIMAR, WHERE "LOHENGRIN" 
WAS PRODUCED 



* Wagner here used a historical episode from the life of King Henry the Fowler. The 
scene is laid in the old part <>f Antwerp, on the shores of the river Scheldt. The story follows 
the 1,-srend of Wolfram von Eschenliadi, the Minnesinger. It is the same legend Wagner later 
employed in "Parsifal." 



The Opera 



35494 Spinning Song (" The Flying Dutchman") 

88053 Elizabeth's Prayer ("Tannhauser") 

88154 The Evening Star ("Tannhauser") 

88038 Elsa's Dream ("Lohengrin"} 

64013 King Henry's Prayer ("Lohengrin") 

74130 Lohengrin's Narrative ("Lohengrin") 

35494 Bridal Chorus ("Lohengrin") 



Victor Women's Chorus 

Farrar 

de Gogorza 

Gadski 

Journet 

Evan Williams 

Victor Opera Chorus 



CHORUSES 

Spinning Chorus, "The Flying Dutchman" (Wagner) 
Hail, Bright Abode, ' ' Tannhauser " (Wagner) 
Pilgrims' Chorus, "Tannhauser" (Wagner) 
O Thou Sublime Sweet Evening Star, "Tannhauser" (Wagner) 
Bridal Chorus, "Lohengrin" (Wagner) 
The Swan, "Lohengrin" (Wagner) 

Lesson XIII 
The Ring of the Nibelungs 

The greatest work of Richard Wagner was the famous Tetralogy, 
( 'Der Ring der Nibehmgen" (The Ring of the Nibelungs), which con- 
sists of four music dramas : 

"Das Rheingold" (The Rhinegold Prelude to Trilogy). 

"Die Walkiire " (The Valkyrie ) . 

"Siegfried" (Siegfried). 

"Die Gotterdammerung" (The Twilight of the Gods). 




SIEGFRIED S DEATH MARCH 

228 



The Opera 

Is was Wagner's original idea to use the legends of the Norse, 
known as the ' ' Volsung Sagas, ' ' in one great music drama to be called 
"Siegfried, the Hero." Finding it necessary to tell of Siegfried's 
youth, he prefixed this with a work entitled "Siegfried," then told 
of Siegfried's parentage in "The Valkyrie," and prefaced the whole 
by telling the story of the stealth of the gold, and the curse which rested 
upon it, with the preliminary drama of "Ehinegold. " He then 
began to work out his gigantic musical plan, and after many years, the 
greatest operatic work ever written was finally presented to the 
world. Wagner has used all the legendary stories to be found in the 
Norse sagas and eddas, as well as the Teutonic versions of the story 
with which he became acquainted through his study of the Minne- 
singer knights. These stories he has changed, blended and devel- 
oped into a perfectly coherent whole, making the poem of "The 
Ring of the Nibelungs" a work which w 7 ould merit the attention of 
the world if it was without a musical setting. In this music, Wagner 
has developed the idea of the "leit motif" to its fullest extent.*f : Not 
alone content to have character motives, we find each inanimate object 
becomes a vital living force in the music, while thoughts and ideas, 
as they develop in the hearts and minds of the characters, assume 
great significance. I For example, the crafty Alberich, whose lust for 
gold causes him to steal the treasure from the Rhine maidens, curses 
the gold when it is taken from him by Wotan. Henceforth that curse 
rests upon the gold and is used throughout in the music until it causes 
the downfall of the gods in the finale of the tragedy. 

Take the theme of the Rhine as heard in the prelude to "The 
Rhinegold," describing the depth and power of the mighty river; 
it depicts the mystery of wisdom when it appears later in the same 
opera, to accompany Erda, as she warns Wotan to give up the gold ; 
then changed, it appears again in Erda's theme when she gives her 
final warning to Wotan in "Siegfried"; it returns in "The Twilight 
of the Gods," first in the theme between Siegfried and the Rhine 
daughters, then in the death march, and last in the finale. Note the 
development of the characters themselves; the change in Brunnhilde 
from the warlike maiden to the suppliant daughter of Wotan in 
"Valkyrie"; the awakening of her love for Siegfried in "Siegfried." 
In "The Twilight of the Gods" she is seen first as Siegfried's loving 
wife; then as the outcast from Walhalla; next the outraged wife of 
Gunther; then as the avenger of her disgrace, in the plotting against 
Siegfried; and finally as the self-sacrificing redeemer of the world 
from the curse on the gold in the immolation scene. 

* For a perfect understanding of the dramatic significance of Warner's music, one must 
be thoroughly conversant with the legend and story of "The Ring." 

229 



The Opera 



ILLUSTEATIONS 

74684 Ride of Valkyries ("Valkyrie") Philadelphia Orchestra 

87002 Ho-yo-to-ho Brunnhilde's War Cry ("Valkyrie") Gadski 

64278 Wotan's Farewell Part I ("Valkyrie") Whitehill 

35369 Siegfried's Funeral March ("Twilight of ths Gods") Vessella's Band 

* Magic Firs Scene ("Valkyrie") 

CHORUSES 
Continue the study of choruses in Lessons XII and XIII. 



Lesson XIV 

i\ The Late Wagner 

(Wagner's three greatest individual music dramas are "Tristan 
and Isolde," "Die Meistersinger, " and "Parsifal," t and with these 
works (which were all written or sketched while he was in exile) the 
most remarkable point to notice is that each work has its own charac- 
teristic atmosphere. The tragic passion of "Tristan and Isolde" 
creates a very different effect from the jovial gaiety of the folk life 
as reflected in "Die Meistersinger," while the spirit of religious 
mysticism of "Parsifal" is again distinct. The characters are drawn 

with marvelous skill, and the use 
of the orchestra is still more re- 
marlpble. ) 

|" Tristan and Isolde" (1865) 
is one of the greatest musical love 
tragedies of the world. \Wagner 
used the Teutonic version of this 
old Celtic legend, as it was given 
to Germany by Gctfried von 
Strassburg. We find the same 
legend in France, Ireland and 
England, but Wagner in his musi(; 
drama has woven all these legends 
into a most /beautiful and com-, 
plete whole. (By many authorities ) 
"Tristan and: Isolde "fis consid- 
ered the most perfect example of 
the Wagner music drama. ) 

In "The Mastersingers, " 
which is Wagner's one music 




PARSIFAL IN SEARCH OF THE GRAIL 



* Tn preparation. 

t The stories of these works must be familiar, so that the difference in the musical 
atmosphere with which Wagner has surrounded eac.h of these dramas will be clearly under- 
stood. 

230 



The Opera 

comedy, is found an entirely new phase of Wagnerism. This work, 
which was written as a satire on Wagner's critics, returns to the old 
form of opera, with concerted numbers, etc., but all are made to com- 
bine with the dramatic action, so that the work is not only a perfect 
opera, but a complete music drama as well. Wagner's marvelous science 
of blending his orchestra and voices into perfect contrapuntal poly- 
phony is here carried to its zenith, j 




INTERIOR OF WAGNER THEATRE AT BAYREUTH 



It was Wagner's original idea in writing his drama of ^Parsi- 
fal" that it should never be given outside of the ideal Festival Play- 
house of Bayreuth, for the composer rightly felt that the proper relig- 
ious atmosphere, necessary to make his audience "a, part of the 
being" of this work, could be found only among ideal surroundings 
far apart from everyday reality.* In 1903 the work was produced in 
New York. The European copyright on the work expired in 1913, and 
"Parsifal" is now in the repertoire of all the great opera houses of 
the world. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

68210 Prelude ("Tristan und Isolde") 
55041 Triiumc Isolde's Liebestod 



La Scala Orchestra 
Herbert's Orchestra 



* It is the surroundings of the little town of Bayreuth which makes the performances there 
so ideal, just as the Passion Play of Oberammergao would be impossible in a large city. 



The Opera 



70080 Prize Song ("Die Meister singer") ' 
74406 Amfortas' Prayer ("Parsifal") 

Choruses in Lesson XII suggested. 



Murphy 
Whitehill 



' 



Lesson XV 

The Rise of National Opera 

The rise of national opera is contemporaneous with the founding 
of the national schools of music in Russia, Scandinavia and Bohemia, 
in the middle of the nineteenth century. The Slavic nations have 
been those most interested in the development of opera. ) There is 
practically no operatic school in Scandinavia.* In Russia, a love for 
the opera has always been very strong, and Italian and French opera 
companies were ever popular. 1 The first distinctly Russian opera was 
written by Michael Glinka (1803-1857), who, by his great work, "A 
Life for the Czar," laid the foundation of Russian national music. In 
this opera we find a splendid portrayal of both nationality and patriot- 
ism, although it follows the general plan of Italian opera. Glinka's 
second opera, "Russian and Ludmilla," while lacking in the strong 

national feeling of his first, is, never- 
theless, a much greater dramatic work; 
neither of Glinka's operas has ever \von 
success outside of his native land. 

The greatest Russian opera is "Boris 
Godounow" (1874), a remarkable work by 
Moussorgsky, in which the true strength 
of the Russian music drama stands re- 
vealed. This opera has met with phenom- 
enal success in London and New York. 

Owing to the universal popularity of 
Tschaikowsky, several of his operas have 
been heard in Europe and America. Of 
these the greatest is undoubtedly ' ' Eugene 
Onegin ' ' ( 1879 ) , although ' ' Pique Dame ' ' 
(1890) is also worthy of mention. Tschaikowsky favored the Italian 
school, and his operas show his love of the lyric opera, as portrayed 
by Mozart. Strangely enough the great dramatic strength felt in 
Tschaikowsky 's orchestral works, is utterly lacking in his works for 
the stage. 

f The ballet has always been a popular feature of the Russian opera. 

* In May, 1914, the first opera by Christian Sinding, "The Holy Mountain," was pro- 
duced in Dessau. This work is not Scandinavian in cither subject or musical treatment. 

232 




MODEST MOUSSORGSKY 



The Opera 




FRIEDRICH SMETANA 



Many of the greatest Russian composers have employed this form. 
Rimsky-Korsakow, Tschaikowsky and Glazounow have written popular 
and , charming ballets. 

The Bohemian school has developed 
a national form of operatic expres- 
sion, for the masters of this school have 
been chiefly inspired by the old German 
form of "Singspiel. " Smetana laid 
the foundation of Bohemia's national 
school of music with "The Bartered 
Bride" ("Prodana Nevesta"), which is 
the only one of Smetana 's eight operas 
which has achieved popularity outside 
of Bohemia. Here Smetana uses a Bo- 
hemian story with Bohemian musical 
setting and Bohemian dances, written 
in a form which also reflects the national 
characteristics of the Bohemian people. 

Dvorak, although possessed of greater talent than his master, 
seems to have had little success in operatic work. His operas follow 
the style of Smetana closely, but do not show the great genius of their 
composer, as do his orchestral works. They are given but rarely out- 
side of Bohemia. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

35148 Overture ("The Bartered Bride") (Smetana) Pry or' s Band 

88519 Lieblicher Mond (Oh Lovely Moon) ("Rusalka") (Dvorak} Destinn 

89118 Duet ("Pique Dame") (Tschaikowsky) Destinn-Duchene 

88582 Faint Echo of My Youth ("EugenOnegin") (Tschaikowsky) Caruso 

64209 Song of the Shepherd Lehl (Ballet "The Snow Maiden") (Rimsky-Korsakow) 

Gluck 

76031 Finale Act III ("Boris Godounow") (Moussorgsky) Ober-Althouse 

64790 Hymn to the Sun ("Le Coq d'Or") (Rimsky-Korsakow) Garrison 

41:100 IChorus of Tartar Women ("Prince Igor") (Borodin) Metropolitan Opera Cho. 

\ChorusandDance ("Prince Igor") (Borodin) Metropolitan Opera Cho. 

CHOEUSES 

It is suggested that the choral work for the remainder of this 
year be devoted to one of the cantatas or operettas listed in Part 
III, page 142. 

Lesson XVI 

Light Opera in Nineteenth Century 

In the seventeenth century, opera was divided by Marc Antonio 
Cesti, of the Venetian school, into opera seria and opera buffa, the latter 
being the name given to the opera in which the story is of humorous 

233 



T h e Opera 




SIR ARTHUR Sl'LLIVAN 



character. The dialogue is in musical recita- 
tive.Un France the form was known as opera 
comique, the recitative being spoken. Any 
work in which spoken dialogue occurred came 
under this general classification, whether the 
piece was of a humorous cr tragic character.* 
In Germany the term "Singspiel" was 
given to this form. Such early German 
works were almost always settings of popular 
German folk tales. 

In all of the opera schools there were 
many works of a lighter calibre than those 
previously considered, and these operas 
are generally termed "Light Opera" or 
"Operetta." 

/This form has been very popular in England, largely owing to 
the works of Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900) and W. S. Gilbert, his . 
librettist. Their comic operas are original, entertaining and musical j 
and w^ell deserve their great popularity. 

The greatest composers who wrote in light opera form are : 
GERMANY : 

Gustav Lortzing (1801- {"Czar and Carpenter," (1839). 

1851) ("Undine," (1845). 

Otto Nicolai (1810-1849) . ."MerryWives of Windsor "(1849). 
Freidrich von Flotow 

(1812-1883) "Martha," (1847). 

Franz von Suppe (1820- {"Fatinitza," (1876). 
1893) ("Boccaccio," (1879). 

Moor "The Bat," (1872). 

Johann Strauss (1825- L (rr , ,1 , , , 1QQ -s 

.nqqN The Merry War," (188/). 

"I" The Gypsy Baron." (1883). 
FRANCE : 

Robert Planquette (1850- 

1903) "Chimes of Normandy," (1877). 

Jacques Offenbach (1819- 

1880) "Tales of Hoffman." (1881). 

ENGLAND : 

Michael Balfe (1808-1870). "The Bohemian Girl," (1843). 
William Vincent Wallace. .(1814-1865) "Maritana," (1845). 



* In Prance "opera bouffe" is also found. This 
acter, similar to the modern comic opera in America. 

234 



of a lighter, more humorous char- 



The Opera 

Pinafore," (1878). 
Pirates of Penzance 
"Patience," (1881). 



; Piratesof Penzance. " (1880). 
Sir Arthur Sullivan 



16398 



(1842-1900) {<T . , 1QQ0 . 

lolanthe, (1882). 

"Mikado. 1 

Of these works, "Merry Wives of Windsor," "Martha," "The 
Bat," "Tales of Hoffman" and "The Bohemian Girl" have retained 
their popularity with the general public, and are still frequently given 
at the grand opera houses throughout the world. 

Recent revivals of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas have brought 
back to the public a realization of the true worth and importance of 
such w y orks as "Pinafore," "Pirates of Penzance," "lolanthe," and 
"The Mikado."* 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

35270 Overture ("Merry Wives of Windsor 1 ') (Nicolai) 

New Symphony Orchestra of London 

(a) I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls ("The Bohemian Girl") 

(Balfe) Wheeler 

(b] Then You'll Remember Me ("The Bohemian Girl") 

(Balfe) Macdonough 

70052 Spinning Wheel Quartet ("Martha") (von Flotow) Victor Opera Quartet 

87532 Barcarolle ("Talcs cf Hoffman") (Offenbach) Gluck-Homer 

CHORUSES 

Good-Night, "Martha" (Flotow) 

Last Rose of Summer (Flotow) 

Legend of the Bells, "Chimes of Normandy" (Planquette) 

Gypsy Chorus, "Bohemian Girl" (Balfe) 

The Heart Bowed Down, "Bohemian Girl" (Balfe) 

Pirates' Song, "Pirates of Penzance" (Sullivan) 

Lesson XVII 
The Early Verdi 

Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) was born the same year as the great 
Richard Wagner ; he lived to see the rise of romanticism, the triumph 
of the Wagner music drama, and the establishment of the modern 
schools. 

' Verdi was the last and greatest of the old school of Italian opera 
composers, and the founder of the modern school of Italy. His work 
is divided into three periods: 

FIRST PERIOD. Simple melodic charm, 
"ILombardi," (1843). 



* No works offer such good opportunities for the community opera companies as these 
light operas. Many high schools and colleges are giving performances of these operas and 
their example is being followed by the young people in the music clubs of the communities 
all over the country. 

235 



' 



The Opera 

"Ernani," (1844). (Story taken from Victor Hugo's melo- 
drama. ) 

SECOND PERIOD. Elaborate dramatic effects in vocal and orchestral 

forces. 

"Rigoletto," (1851), from Victor Hugo's "Le Roi s 'amuse." 
"II Trovatore," (1853). Extreme melodrama. 
"La Traviata," (1853). Dumas' "Camille." 
"The Sicilian Vespers," (1855). Historical. 
"The Masked Ball." (1861). Scene laid in New England. 
"Don Carlos," (1867). Historical. 

THIRD PERIOD. Influence of Wagner. 

"Ai'da," (1871). Egyptian subject. 
' ' Otello, ' ' ( 1887 ) . Shakespeare 's Tragedy. 
"Falstaff," (1893). Shakespeare's Comedy, "Merry Wives 
of Windsor." 

Verdi 's first success as an opera composer was with ' ' I Lombardi ' ' 
(1843) and "Ernani" (1844), and as his music w r as in great demand, 
a new opera appeared almost every year. Of course, many of these 
were failures, but with the performance of "Rigoletto" in 1851, 
Verdi became universally recognized as the greatest Italian master 
of the day. From this time the simple melodies, which had satisfied 
the composer for his early operas, became more intensely dramatic, 
and greater harmonic variety was employed. Verdi possessed a wealth 
of melody and a rare gift for passionate expression in tragedy and 
melodrama. ) 

Italy w'as at this time undergoing great political changes, and 
the masculine vigor of Verdi's melodies seemed to arouse the patriot- 
ism of the Italians to such an extent that in a certain sense Verdi 
may be looked upon as the founder of a modern national school of 
opera. Before the performance of ' ' Ernani " in 1844, the police forced 
Verdi to make certain changes in the score lest it should provoke an 
insurrection. 

Through all of Verdi's works of the second period, the old- 
fashioned bel canto still claims chief consideration, but \vith "Rigo- 
letto" a new force seems to enter Verdi's operas. " Rigoletto 's" great 
monologue is a simple piece of pure declamation, which up to that 
time had been unheard in Italy. The whole of the last act discloses 
a Verdi which is not again found until "Ai'da." 

In "II Trovatore" Verdi allows the melodrama to run wild, 
but it does not interfere too seriously with the arias and concerted 

236 



The Opera 

pieces. Many of the most popular of the Verdi selections are from 
the score of "II Trovatore, " which still retains a tirst place in the 
opera houses of the world to-day. 

In "La Traviata" Verdi shows once more a glimpse of his later 
genius. The characterization of his music in this work, would be 
remarkable, had it not been necessary for him to sacrifice much to the 
prima donna, who wished to display her vocal attainments as Camille ; 
yet the opera-goer owes to this singer some of the most beautiful 
examples of coloratura bel canto to be found in modern opera. 

The "Sicilian Vespers" is based on an historical event of such 
character that it becomes practically a national opera. The work 
achieved but scant success. 

"The Masked Ball" was a popular favorite for many years. The 
scene is laid in New England. 

"Don Carlos" is a setting of a Spanish episode of Court life. 
There are scenes here which foreshadow the coming greatness of 
Verdi, but conventional usage frequently spoils them. 

ILLUSTEATIONS* 

oriyn [ sommo Carlo ("Ernani") (Verdi) Grisi, Sangiorgi, Cigada and Chorus 

[Ferma, crudele ("Ernani") (Verdi) Bernacchi-Colazza-de Luna 

88618 Monologo (" Rigoletto") (Verdi) Ruffo 

87017 La donna e mobile (" Rigoletto") (Verdi) Caruso 

88018 Ahjors'elui ("La Traviata") (Verdi) Sembrich 

89060 Ai nostri monti ("II Trovatore") (Verdi) Schumann-Heink-Caruso 



~ 



Lesson XVIII 
The Late Verdi 



With his opera of "Ai'da," Verdi's true dramatic greatness 
stands revealed. As this work was written for the opening of the 
grand opera house in Cairo, Verdi chose an Egyptian subject, and 
this seemed to give him an inspiration to depart from the customary 
operatic model. Although the score is absolutely Italian in melodic 
feeling, it must be conceded that Verdi was greatly influenced by the 
Wagner music drama, when he conceived "Ai'da." He here uses the 
orchestra with a proportion and balance in relation to the singers, 
which is not found in his earlier works. He also introduces local color 



* If it seems feasible, practically all, or any of these operas can be given. It may be pos- 
sible for the class to present one of these operas; different members of the class telling the 
story and describing the music. These illustrations have been chosen to show the three points 
mentioned in the lesson. Enough of the story of each opera should be told so that the class, 
will understand where each selection occurs. '(See "Victrola Book of the Opera.") 

237 



The Opera 



by the use of a few real Oriental airs, but throughout the work there 
is still the wonderful charm of the best of Italian melody. 

It was sixteen years before his 
next opera appeared, yet "Otello" is 
considered by musicians to be Verdi's 
masterpiece. An excellent condensa- 
tion of Shakespeare's tragedy was 
furnished Verdi for his libretto, by 
the musician, Bo'ito, who also showed 
his dramatic power in several scenes, 
which are his own conception. (With 
"Otello" Verdi shook off all the 
shackles of conventionality, but still 
kept his wonderful melodic charm. It 
is with this work that Yerdi openly 
avows the use of motives, and displays 
great skill in the working out of these 
themes in the orchestra, j 
The composer was in his eightieth year when he ivrote his lastj 
opera, "Falstaff, " yet the work is filled with the spirit of youthful 
gaiety. This opera is also based on a Shakespearean adaptation made 
by Bo'ito, the music becoming a definite part of the action in real 
Wagnerian manner. The part writing is very complicated in many 
instances, but Verdi also has displayed a rare and imaginative beauty, 
which has never been equaled in any of his works. 

Streatfeild says of Verdi: "He was not like his great con- 
temporary, Wagner, one of the world's great revolutionists. His genius 
lay, not in overturning systems and in exploring paths hitherto un- 
trodden, but in developing existing materials to the highest conceivable 
pitch of beauty and completeness. His music has nothing to do with 
theories, it is the voice of nature speaking in the idiom of art." 




GIUSEPPE VERDI 



ILLUSTRATIONS* 

35265 Triumphal March ("A'ida") 

88127 Celeste Alda ("Alda") 

89028 Fatal Stone ("Alda") 

88328 Credo ("Otello") 

88148 Willow Song ("Otello") 

89075 Duet, ' ' We Swear by Heaven and Earth " (' 'Otello ' ' ) 



VesseHa'x Band 
Caruso 

Gadxki-Caruso 

A mato 

Melba 

Caruso-Ruffo 



* One entire opera may be presented if desired. The stories of "Ai'da" and "Otello" 
should be briefly sketched, so the class will understand where these selections occur. Note the 
duet in "Ai'da" as being a concerted finale, yet having direct dramatic thought. 

238 



The Opera 

Lesson XIX 
Opera in Italy Since Verdi 

The composers in Italy since Verdi are: 

ARRIGO BOITO (1842) " Mefistofele, " (1868). 

AMILCARE PONCHIELLI (1834 

1886) "La Gioconda," (1876). 

NICOLA SPINELLI (1865) "A Basso Porto," (1894). 

"I Pagliacci," (1892). 



RITGGIERO LEONCAVALLO (1858- 
1919) 



"LaBoheme," (1897). 
"Zaza," (1900). 



"Maia," (1910). 
"Zingari," (1913). 
"Edipo Re" (1921). 

["Cavalleria Rustioana," (1890). 

PIETRO MASCAGNI (1863) " Iris, " (1898). 

["Ysobel," (1912). 

"Asrael." (1888). 

ALBERTO FRANCHETTI (1860) . . J " Christoforo Colombo," (1892). 

"Germania," (1902). 

UMBERTO GIORDANO (1863) . , . . {"Andrea Chenier," (1896). 

I "Fedora," (1898). 

"Le Villi," (1884). 
"ManonLescaut," (1893). 
"LaBoheme," (1896). 
"LaTosca," (1900). 
"Mme. Butterfly," (1904). 
"Girl of the Golden West," 

(1910). 

"II Tabarro," (1919). 
"Seour Angelica," (1919). 
"Gianni Schicci," (1919). 

"Le Donne Curiose," (1903). 
"The Secret of Suzanne," 

(1910). 
"The Jewels of the Modonna." 

(1911). 
"L'AmoreMedecin," (1913). 

239 



GIACOMO PUCCINI (1858) 



ERMANNO WOLF-FERRARI 
(1876) 



The Opera 

RICCARDO ZANDONAI (1880) . . . . {' ] Conchita, " (1911) 

("Francesca di Rimini," (1914). 

ITALO MONTEMEZZI (1885) .... {"L'Amore Dei Tre Re," (1913). 

["LeNave," (1919). 

The direct followers of Verdi were more or less overshadowed 
by the towering genius of their greater Italian master. It is a strange 
circumstance that with the exception of Puccini and Wolf -Ferrari, 
most of the Italian composers are known to fame as composers of only 
one great work. 

Arrigo Boito is the composer of but one opera, ' ' Mefistofele, ' ' yet 
in this work he has shown himself to be a 
master of the Wagnerian principles. In 
this adaptation of "Faust," as an Italian 
opera, it must be conceded that Boi'to has 
more successfully reproduced the atmos- 
phere of Goethe than any other opera 
composer who has been inspired by this 
work. Boi'to 's dramatic gifts were also 
an aid to Verdi, for it was Boito who pro- 
vided the librettos for both "Otello" and 
"Falstaff." 

Amilcare Ponchielli is known for his 
"Gioconda," a work based on Victor 
Hugo's "Angelo, the Tyrant of Padua." 
There is much in "Gioconda" which re- 
flects the influence of both "Aida" and "Mefistofele." Ponchielli 
was possessed of great dramatic gifts, and he also understood the 
strength of pure melody. 

Nicola Spinelli, in his "A Basso Porto," gives a picture of the 
darkest side of life in Naples. It is the first great Italian opera 
to deal with every-day life, and although the subject, as it here is 
used, is an unpleasant one, it is a significant fact that in modern music 
is found a decided tendency toward the picturing of life as it actually 
exists. One must acknowledge this as one of the results of national 
expression. 

ILLUSTRATIONS* 

74651 L'Altra Nolle (They Threw My Child) ("Mefistofele") (Boito) Alda 

G4933 From the Green Fields (" Mefistofele") (Boito) Gigli 

64876 Voce di donna (Angelic Voice) (" La Gioconda") Besanzoni 

88246 Cielo e mar (Heaven and Ocean) (" La Gioconda") Caruso. 

55044 Dance of the Hours ("La Gioconda") Herbert's Orchestra 

* Review the settings of "Faust" made by other composers. Briefly sketch the story of 
"Gioconda." 

240 




ARRIGO BOITO 



The Opera 



Lesson XX 
Puccini 

v The most popular composer in Italy, since Verdi, is Giacomo 
Puccini., whose works have been successful throughout the musical 
world. 1 Puccini's first opera, "Le Villi," appeared in 1884. The 
strange subject is depicted with the imaginative power of a genius; 
the orchestration, so descriptive of the weird legend, attracted great 
interest to its young composer, although the work was not, in any 
sense, a success. 

Puccini's next work, "Edgar," was a flat failure, but in his set- 
ting of "Man on Lescaut" he shows his true worth, although the 
Italian version of the story has never been so successful as that by the 
gifted Frenchman, Jules Massenet. /It was with x" La Boheme" in 
1896 that Puccini achieved his first great triumph, p. or this setting of 
Miirger 's famous novel will 
ever remain a masterpiece. 
While it was impossible to 
make a connected story 
from the novel, Puccini's 
four scenes from the lives 
of the joyous Bohemians 
are so filled with the spirit 
of the story that the work 
seems complete and alto- 
gether satisfying. The com- 
poser has never once for- 
gotten his Italian ancestry, 
although the style and col- 
oring of the music echoes 

/the spirit of Parisian life. 

^ No more popular opera has been produced in recent years than Puc- 
cinips masterpiece, "La Boheme. '0 

\In 1900 another triumph awaited the composer in the production 
of ' La Tosca," a clever condensation of Sardou's famous drama. J 
Strangely enough, "La Tosca" and "Gianni Schicci" are the only 
operas by Puccini in which the scene is laid in Italy. \ 

"Madam Butterfly," with its scenes set in Japan,] was first pro- 
duced in Milan in 1904, and was pronounced a failure/ Q remained 
for America to recognize the beauty and charm of this work, which 
has done more to popularize Puccini's name in this country than all 
his other operas. The success of the work in America has spread 




GIACOMO PUCCINI 



241 



The Opera 

through Europe, although the Italians still favor "La Boheme" and 
"Tosca."/ 

In 1910 American critics rather severely arraigned Puccini for 
attempting the musical setting of the American play, "The Girl of 
the Golden West." While visiting America for the production of 
"Madame Butterfly," Puccini saw Blanche Bates in the character of 
Minnie, and asked Mr. Belasco if he might use as his next libretto 
"The Girl of the Golden West." The production of this work was 
awaited with interest and rightly enough the premiere took place in 
America. Even Puccini's great popularity in this country did not 
offset the strange combination of American cowboys singing in tones 
of Italian lyric beauty, and the opera did not meet with the sympa- 
thetic interest anticipated by the composer. It was not until the 
production of the work in Europe that any true appreciation was 
shown for this opera. Although there are moments of great dramatic 
strength in "The Girl of the Golden West." there is less of the impas- 
sioned Puccini melody than is to be found in his earlier works. 

In 1919 appeared three short operas, "II Tabarro, " "Seour An- 
gelica" and "Gianni Schicci," which have met with great success in 
Europe as well as America. 

, Puccini's genius reflects the happy combination of Italian melody 
as adapted to the Wagner music drama. 

Many years ago the great Verdi named Puccini as his rightful 
successor, and the world has certainly justified Verdi's choice. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

88002 Rudolph's Narrative (" La Boheme") 

74400 Vissi d'arti (" Tosca") 

64560 M usetta Waltz ("La Boheme") 

96002 Quartet " Farewell Sweet Love" ("La Boheme") 

Farrar- Viafora-Caruso-Scotti 

88122 Cantabile di Scarpia (Venal, My Enemies Call Me) ("Tosca") Scotti 

64886 Ch'ella mi creda (That She May Believe Me) ("The Girl of ths Golden West") 

Johnson 

64802 O mio babbino caro (Oh My Beloved Daddy) ("Gianni Schicci") Alda 

88113 Un bel di vedremo (Some Day He'll Come) ("Madame Butterfly") Farrar 
89008 Tuttiifior (Duet of the Flowers) (" Madame Butterfly") Farrar-Homer 

Lesson XXI 
Mascagni and Leoncavallo 

\ All the greatest of the present Italian opera composers reflect the 
combination of the Italian bel canto with the principles of the Wag- 

242 




The Opera 




PIETRO MASCAGNI 



nerian music drama. Although Puc- 
cini is the most prolific composer of 
Italy, Leoncavallo in "I Pagliacci," 
and Mascagni in "Cavalleria Rusti- 
cana," bothxhave achieved universal 
recognition. / 

Pietro Mascagni (1863) won his 
first fame as an opera composer with 
his "Cavalleria Rusticana, " pro- 
duced in 1890. The success of this 
work has been phenomenal. The story 
is a simple Sicilian tale, which Mas- 
cagni has set to vigorous music, oft- 
times coarse, but always melodious. 
The over-praise of "Cavalleria" 

had a serious effect on Mascagni 's later works, for he has not again 
equaled the strength of his first opera. "L'Amico Fritz" and "I 
Rantzau" were both failures. "Guglielmo Ratcliffe" and "Silvano, " 
both produced in 1895, have never been given outside of Italy. ' ' Zan- 
etto" (1896) is said to be very popular throughout Italy. "Iris" 
(1898), based on a Japanese story, has been produced in many cities 
of Europe and in America. "Isabeau" (1918), Mascagni 's latest 
work, has won for the composer but moderate success. 

Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1858-1919), al- 
though older in years than Mascagni, fol- 
lowed the lead of the composer of "Caval- 
leria" in the writing of "I Pagliacci" 
(1892) ; this opera is also a setting of a 
simple Italian tale of every-day life. Al- 
though it is but a short work, it is the only 
one of Leoncavallo 's compositions which has 
scored a genuine success. "La Boheme" 
(1897) was completely overshadowed by 
Puccini's setting of the same story. "Zaza" 
(1900) found little favor in Italy. In 
1913 Leoncavallo came to America to pro- 
duce "Zingari," an opera founded on a 
Hungarian gypsy theme. There is little 
in "Zing:ri" which Leoncavallo had not 

already expressed in "I Pagliacci." Leoncavallo is too theatrical and 
sensational in his art to be considered as a remarkable genius. His 
music is reminiscent of Wagner, Meyerbeer and Verdi, yet his com- 

243 




RUGGTERO LEONCAVALLO 



The Opera 

mand of orchestral forces gives an impassioned dramatic strength to 
all his works. Leoncavallo wrote all his own librettos. After Leon- 
cavallo's death, "Edipo Re," which he wrote for his friend, Titta 
Ruffo, was given its production. 

ILLUSTRATIONS* 

87072 Siciliana (Thy Lips Like Crimson Berries) ("Cavalleria Rusticana") 

(Mascagni) Caruso 

R8218 (Opening Chorus (" Cavalleria Rusticana") La Scala Chorus 

\Regina Coeli (" Cavalleria Rusticana") Minolfi-Rambelli 

45186 Intermezzo ("Cavalleria Rusticana") (Mascagni) Herbert's Orchestra 

64907 Zaza, piccola zingara (Little Gypsy) ("Zaza") (Leoncavallo) Zanelli 

88092 Prologue (" I Pagliacci") (Leoncavallo) Scotti 

88398 Ye Birds Without Number (" I Pagliacci") (Leoncavallo) Bori 

88061 Vesti la giubba ("On With the Play") (" I Pagliacci") (Leoncavallo) 

Caruso 

Lesson XXII 
Modern Opera in Italy 

The Italy of to-day still maintains its supremacy as leader of \ 
the opera school, and new works by Italians are constantly appearing. ) 
Alberto Franchetti (1860- ) has been called "The Meyerbeer of 
Modern Italy. ' ' His best music is written for massive stage effects of 
a spectacular character. "Christoforo Colombo" was w r ritten for the 
Columbus celebration in 1892. It was produced at that time in Genoa, 
but it was not heard in America until 1913. "Germania," a setting of 
the student uprising in Germany during the Napoleon campaigns, 
was produced in Milan in 1902, and was heard in America in 1910. 
Umberto Giordano (1863), although the composer of several 
operas, did not reach distinction until 1896, when "Andrea Chenier" 
scored a real success. "Fedora" (1898) was also successful, but 
"Siberia" (1904) and "Mme. Sans Gene" (1913), Giordano's latest 
works, have not met with such immediate favor. 

(The greatest genius of opera to-day is the young Ermanno Wolf- 
Ferrari (1876), whose works have been received with s^ch great en- 
thusiasm in Europe and America in the past ten years. yVblf-Ferrari 
is the son of a German father and an Italian mother. He was trained 
in the strictest rules of counterpoint by Josef Rheinberger, of Munich ; 
then went to Italy, where he spent several years under the guidance 
of Verdi. The result is a German foundation of composition and 
orchestration, combined with the Italian melody, giving its expression 

* A complete presentation of either "Cavalleria Rusticana" or "I Pagliacci" may be given 
if desired. See "Victrola Book of the Opera." 

244 



The Opera 




ERMANNO WOLF-FERRARI 



in the mould of the Wagnerian music 
drama. Wolf-Ferrari, in "Le Donne Cu- 
riose," a setting of Goldoni's comedy, and in 
"The Secret of Suzanne," a little one-act 
comedy, has displayed a charm and grace 
which are reminiscent of Mozart. "The 
Jewels of the Madonna, ' ' which was given its 
Italian premiere, under the direction of the 
composer, by the Chicago Opera Company, 
in January, 1912, is one of the greatest 
operatic works since Wagner. A sordid, un- 
pleasant tale of Neapolitan every-day life is 
the theme, but Wolf-Ferrari's remarkable 
dramatic sense (the composer writes his own 
librettos) has given a perfect picture of 
Naples to-day. Wolf-Ferrari's use of the 

Neapolitan folk melodies is masterful. No composer since Dvorak has 
caught the essence of the folk spirit as does the composer in this opera. 

"L'Amore Medicin, " a setting of Moliere's comedy, was produced 
in 1913 with great success. 

Riccardo Zandonai (1880) is a recent addition to the list of opera 
composers of Italy. Zandonai, while influenced by the national idea 
of modern music, is also exceedingly original in his instrumentation 
and methods of composition. "Conchita, " produced in 1912, is a 
remarkable blending of Spanish folk music and modern impressionism. 

"Francesca di Rimini." produced in 1914, is an excellent exam- 
ple of the modern music drama of the Italian impressionistic type. 

The sensational success of "L'Amore Dei Tre Re" ("The Love 
of the Three Kings"), produced in New York, January 2, 1913, intro- 
duced to the 'operatic world another youthful genius in Italio Monte- 
mezzi (1885), who has been proclaimed as "the legitimate heir to the 
supremacy of Verdi." 

Montemezzi's "Le Nave." based on the drama by d'Annunzio. is 
a gigantic w r ork, but will never attain the universal popularity of 
"L'Amore Dei Tre Re." 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

87193 Rafael's Serenade ("Jewels of the Madonna") (Wolf-Ferrari) Amalo 

64905 My Love Compels Thy Love (" Fedora") (Giordano) Johnson 

88060 Aria " Over the Azure Fields" (" Andrea Chenier") (Giordano) Caruso 

87053 Students Arise ("Germania") (Franchetti) Caruso 
35270 Intermezzo (" Jewels of ths Madonna") (Wolf-Ferrari) 

Victor Concert Orchestra 

245 



The Opera 



Lesson XXIII 




CHARLES GOUNOD 



The opera in France, up to the middle 
of the nineteenth century, was entirely influ- 
enced by either Italian or German com- 
posers. Yet the modern French opera school 
is one of the strongest forces in the develop- 
ment of the music drama since Wagner, j 

i The greatest genius of the modern 
French school was Charles Gounod 1(1818- 
1893). who was trained in the school of 
Meyerbeer, but who was also strongly influ- 
enced, first by the purity and serenity of 
Mozart, later by the strength of Wagner. 
It was Gounod's original intention to 
enter the church, and he always retained an 
interest in religion, which is reflected in his 
style of composition. Gounod's first opera, 

"Sapho" (1851), was never really successful, but in his setting of 
Moliere's comedy, "Le Medecin Malgre Lui" (1858), he scored an 
immediate popularity. 

( It was not until 1859 that Gounod's reputation was absolutely 

established, with the production of his masterpiece, "Faust, i No 

later work by this composer has ever reached the heights of dramatic 

musical beauty which is found in his setting of Goethe's tragedy. It is 

strange that this work, so essentially Teutonic in idea, should have 

appealed so strongly to the French imagination. Berlioz used the 

r story for his Dramatic Cantata, "The Damnation of Faust" (1846). 

I This work undoubtedly paved the way for the later popularity of 

Gounod's opera. 

^No work of the nineteenth century French school is so well known 
or so universally popular as is "Faust."" 

"Philemon et Baucis" (1860) was built en the lines of the opera 
comique; with "La Reine de Saba" (1862) Gounod returned to th" 
grand opera style again, but neither in this work, ncr in "Mireille" 
(1864) did he achieve the popularity of "Faust." In 1869 the com- 
poser's "Romeo et Juliette" was given to the world. This setting of 
Shakespeare is ranked next to "Faust" in the catalogue of Gounod's 



* In giving "Faust" by Gounod, review the Faust legend as it is used in music. The 
legend of the redeeming power of woman's love is found in nil folk legends. On the sen it 
becomes "The Flying Dutchman" ; in the South, "Don Juan" ; in the mountains, "Manfred" ; 
in the forest towns, "The Free-shooter" ; in the scholastic towns, "Doctor Faustus." 

24G 



The Opera 



works, yet there are many critics, who, although acknowledging the 
beauties of Gounod's other works, claim immortality only for "Faust." 
Although Gounod was a great musician and a thorough master 
of instrumentation, his dramatic compositions, as one writer says, 
' ' seem to hover between mysticism and voluptuousness. This contrast 
between two opposing principles may be traced in all his works, sacred 
or dramatic ; in the chords of his orchestra, majestic as those of a 
cathedral organ, we recognize the mystic in his soft and original 
melodies, the man of pleasure. In a word, the lyric element predomi- 
nates in his work, too often at the expense of variety and dramatic 
truth." 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

Dio possente (Even Bravest Heart) (" Faust") Scotti 

Jewel Song (" Faust") Sembrich 

Elle ouvre sa fenitre (She opens thy Window) ("Faust") Farrar-Journet 

Prison Scene ("Faust") Firrar-Caruso-Journet 

Waltz Sonj ('' Romzo and Juliet") Galli-Curci 

Lend Me Your Aid ("Queen of Sheba") Williams 



88203 
88024 
89040 
95203 
74512 
64096 



Lesson XXIV 
Opera Comique in France 

The real founder of modern French opera comique was Daniel 
Auber (1782-1871), whose long life enabled him to see the rise of the 
French school of opera, the reforms of Wagner and the dawn of 
modern music. Auber is noted for his operas of the lighter style, the two 
best known being "Fra Diavolo" and 
"Masaniello."' 

Auber had many imitators, chief 
among them being Adolphe Adam (1803- 
1856), whose "Chalet" and "Postilion 
de Longjumeau" are both still given: 
and Felicien David (1810-1876), who 
was the first Frenchman to bring 
Oriental color into music, as he chose 
Oriental subjects for all his operas. His 
best work was "Le Desert." 

Auber 's successor as Director of 
the Paris Conservatoire was Ambroise 
Thomas (1811-1896). His greatest work 
is "Mignon," which was produced in 
1866. Like "Faust," this opera is a setting of a Goethe play, "Wil- 
helm Meister." Although "Mignon" has gained a world- wide popu- 
larity it is heard infrequently at modern opera houses. Like Gounod, 




AMBROISE THOMAS 



24; 



The Opera 



Thomas went to Shakespeare for the inspiration of his second great 
work, ''Hamlet," which was produced in 1868. It scored a success 
in Paris, but has been rarely heard outside of France. 

There are three other opera composers of this period who must 
be briefly considered: 

Ernest Reyer (1823-1909) uses the same Nibelungen legends in 
his "Sigurd" which Wagner uses in "The Ring of the Nibelungs. " 

Leo Delibes' (1836-1891) greatest work is the East Indian opera of 
"Lakme. " He has also written many charming ballets. 

Edouard Lalo (1823-1892) is a composer of charming grace. His 
greatest work is "Le Roi d'Ys. " 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

Laughing Song ( " Manon Lescaut " ) ( A uber ) 

Agnes, Beautiful Flower ("Fra Diavolo") (Auber) 

Bell Song (" Lakme") (Delibes) 

Vieni al contento (In Forest Depths) ("Lakme") (Delibes) 

Polonaise (" Mignon") (Thomas) 

Monologo ("Hamlet") (Thomas) 

Thou Brilliant Bird ("Pearl of Brazil" (David)) 



G4669 
63171 
74510 
64171 
74489 
92042 
74552 



Galli-Curci 
Lara 

Galli-Curci 

McCormack 

Garrison 

Ruffo 

Galli-Curci 



Lesson XXV 

Bizet 
The greatest genius of the French opera was Georges Bizet (1838- 

1875), whose last work, "Carmen," is considered the greatest opera 

that was ever written. J 

With Bizet 's compositions the influence of Wagner is more keenly 

felt than in the works of any other 
French composer. .Bizet's genius is 
first shown in two Oriental works 
modeled after David, and employing 
the ideas of Wagner. These are 
"The Pearl Fishers" and "Djami- 
leh, " which, although Oriental and 
charming, seem scarcely worthy to 
rank with his masterpiece, "Car- 
men." It seems hard to realize 
that when produced in 1875 this 
great work was received with such 
coldness that Bizet died shortly after 
its performance, a broken-hearted 
man. (The popularity of "Carmen" 
has been phenomenal, but it is rightly 
deserved, for in no modern work has 




GEORGES BIZET 



248 



The Opera 

the true dramatic depth of tragedy been more fittingly set to music 
than in this remarkable picture of Spanish life and character. "Car- 
men" may rightly be considered national opera, for, although the 
work of a French composer, the spirit vof the Spanish folk has been 
reflected in every measure of this music) Although not an opera, the 
incidental music which Bizet wrote for Alphonse Baudot's drama, 
"L'Arlesienne," is considered as one of the greatest dramatic works 
of ;the modern French school. 

Bizet's chief characteristic was the national atmosphere with 
which he surrounded all of his works, yln his two earliest operas the 
Oriental coloring is most charmingly used, while in "L'Arlesienne" 
and "Carmen" the warm tones of the south and the characteristic 
rhythms of Southern France and Spain are remarkably portrayed in 
the music. 

ILLUSTBATIONS 

All of " Carmen" that is possible. See "Victor General Catalog," under the heading 
"Carmen," in its alphabetical order. There are also several excellent records from 
"L'Arlesienne." 



Lesson XXVI 
Massenet 

The most prolific opera writer of recent timefc was Jules Massenet 
(1842-1912), of the French modern opera school. / Massenet was grad- 
uated from the Conservatoire, winning the Grand Prix de Rome, and 
after his return from Italy became a professor at the Conservatoire, 
and also a Director at the Opera Comique. 

Massenet's operas are classed as 
lyric dramas, and follow the general idea 
of Gounod, from whom he has inherited 
a sensuous melodic gift, which is ever the 
great charm in his works. Massenet also 
proved himself susceptible to the influ- 
ence of Wagner ; although, even in those 
operas where th^r Wagnerian system of 
guiding themes is most apparent, one 
ever feels the distinct influence of the 
French school. His works have had a 
tremendous vogue in France, England, 
and America, in the past decade/ Masse- 
net has used many subjects from all 
schools and lands, as the dramatic foun- 




JULES MASSENET 



249 



The Opera 

dations for his works. J3is first successful opera was "Le Rci de La- 
hore," which was produced in 1877. " Herodiade, " in 1881, contains 
some of the best music the composer has ever written, though the spec- 
tacle of Salome singing a love duet with John the Baptist, can hardly 
be considered as dramatically fitting. 

"Manon" (1884) is one of Massenet's most beautiful works, for 
this delicate drama is admirably suited to his style. "Le Cid" and 
"Le Mage" were regarded as failures, but " Esclarmonde " (1889) 
marks an important stage in Massenet's career, as his use of the Wag- 
nerian principles now becomes clearly apparent. 

For his next work Massenet uses a German text, Goethe's 
"Werther" (1892), inspiring him with a musical setting considered 
by many musicians to be his best. "Thai's" and "La Navarraise" 
were both produced in 1894 and have proved to be remarkably popular, 
though hardly to be ranked with the composer's best works. The sen- 
timental quasi-religious appeal of "Thais" has proved to be a strong 
attraction to the general public, though its superficialities are most 
apparent to the serious musician. "Sapho" (1897), "Cinderella" 
(1899), and "Griselidis" (1901), are all works of light calibre, but in 
1902 Massenet revealed an almost forgotten genius in " Le Jongleur de 
Notre Dame," which is a musical setting of an old mediaeval legend 
that is sincere, simple and beautiful in its direct appeal. In 1890 
"Don Quichotte, " the greatest character study in music of to-day, 
made a successful debut. Massenet's last work, "Cleopatra," has 
been presented in Europe and America and has w r on great success. 

ILLUSTKATIONS * 

88153 Aria "Fleeting Vision" ("Herodiade") (Massenet) de Gogorza 

88146 Farewell, Our Little Table ("Manon") (Massenet') Farrar 

64234 Why Awake Me? ("Werther") (Massenet) Clement 

89123 Duet With Holy Water Anoint Me ("Thais") (Masxenet) Battistini-Janni 

74135 Meditation (" Thais") (Massenet) Powell 

74123 Legend of th i Sagebrush ("Jongleur de Notre Dame") (Massenet) Journet 

64587 Air de la lettre (" Clcopdire") (Massenet) Journet 

Lesson XXVII 
Modern Opera in France 

The French music of to-day reflects the phase of mo< 
literature and art, which is known as "Impressionism." ]\ 



dern French 
One of the 




loaern composers. 

t Review Lesson XXVI, Part II, and Lesson XXIX, Part III. Speak at length on the 
lodern impressionistic school of French literature and art. Review the influence of literature 
nd art on the music of Prance since the Revolution. 

250 



The per a 




VINCENT D INDY 



best critics of the time speaks of these composers as "writing the music 
of to-morrow. " It is certainly the most important music of to-day. 

Vincent d'Indy (1851- ), a fol- 
lower of the school of Cesar Franck, is the 
most avowed Wagnerian of this group. His 
"Fervaal" (1897) was clearly modeled 
after the patterns of Wagner, but his later 
works have shown a decided leaning toward 
the impressionistic school. 

Gustavo Charpentier (1860- ) struck 
a new note in the French opera, when his 
"Louise" was first heard in 1900. This 
work, which is the story cf an every-day 
working girl in Paris, is a marvelous pic- 
ture of the seamy side of the Bohemian life 
in Paris to-day. In a certain sense this is 
a remarkable illustration of national ex- 
pression. In 1914 appeared a sequel to 

''Louise" in "Jullien," a composition which is an operatic version of 
the composer's earlier work, "The Life of the Poet." This work is 
very intricate and will never meet with the popular success of 
"Louise." 

f Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was the most individual genius of 
the modern musical world. Debussy returned to the old Greek modes 

for his melodic inspiration, and his music 
was. as one writer says, "a fluid impres- 
sionism."/ In "L 'Enfant Prodigue," his 
first opera, he hinted at his new forms, but 
with "Pelleas et Melisande" he portrayed 
a marvelous example of the mystery of the 
poet Maeterlinck, reflected in a musical set- 
ing. In his last work. "St. Sebastian" 
(1911) Debussy carried his ideas still fur- 
ther. Here the lines are declaimed, with- 
out musical accompaniment, the music 
being entirely symphonic in character, and 
reflecting the action cf the piece. We are 
too near to the music of Debussy to see his 
works in their proper perspective ; only 
time will tell if this is to be the lasting form 
of opera in the future. 

A direct follower of Debussy is Paul Dukas, whose greatest 

251 




GUSTAVE CHARPENTIER 



The Opera 

operatic work is his setting of Maeterlinck's " Ariane et Barbe Bleue" ; 
Henri Fevrier, whose "Monna Vanna" is another Maeterlinck opera; 
and Maurice Ravel, whose short opera, "L'Heure Espagnole" has 
attracted much attention. 

( Camille Saint-Saens, the Dean of the French Opera, still clings 
to the old form of French grand opera. His Biblical opera, "Sam- 
son et Dalila," was produced in 1876, ^and it is but natural that it 
shows the influence of the old school. I But in "Dejanire" (1914) 
Saint-Saens clearly shows that he is not in sympathy with the new 
school of French opera. The work was a failure. 

Other French operas which have won a place in public favor in 
America as well as France are : " Le Chemineau ' ' and ' ' Le Sauteriot, ' ' 
by Xavier Leroux; "Le Vielle Aigle, " by Raoul Gunsbourg; "Aphro- 
dite," by Camille Erlanger; "Mme. Chrysantheme, " by Andre Mes- 
sager; "Noel," by Frederic d 'Erlanger, and "Marouf," by Henri 
Rabaud. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

74252 Depuis le jour (Ever Since the Day) ("Louise") (Charpentier) Gluck 

*35464 Prelude L'Apres-Midi D'un Faune (Debussy) 

Symphony Orchestra of Paris 

17624 Chorus Spring Flowers ("Samson et Dalila") Chorus of Women 

88627 Dalila's Song of Sprinj (" Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) Homer 

88201 Love, Thy Aid (" Samson et Dalila") (Saini-Saens) Homer 

74671 Bacchanale ("Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) Philadelphia Orchestra 

88199 My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice (" Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) Homer 

Lesson XXVIII 
Modern Opera in Germany 

Wagner's ideas and theories have influenced the music since his 
time, not only in the instrumental compositions, but in the operatic 
schools as well. (See Lesson XIX, Part II, and Lesson XXIX, 
Part III.) At the time of Wagner there w r ere two excellent German 
opera composers who were directly influenced by both Wagner and 
Liszt; these men were Peter Cornelius (1824-1874), whose "Barber 
of Bagdad," produced in 1858, shows many of Wagner's ideas; and 
Hermann Goetz (1840-1876), whose best opera is a musical setting of 
Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew." 

Carl Goldrnark (1830-1915) has written three excellent operas, 
reflective of the Wagnerian principles. "The Queen of Sheba" 

* Debussy's peculiar style cannot always be clearly comprehended from his opera airs, for 
the voices declaim rather than sing. Therefore the Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun" 
has been chosen as his most representative orchestral composition. 

252 



The Opera 




ENGELBERT 1IUMPERDINCK 



(1875) was his first work and was received with tremendous enthusi- 
asm. "Merlin" (1888) has never been so 
popular; but "The Cricket on the 
Hearth" (1896), a setting of Dickens' 
story, is filled with the simple, natural 
charm of the German Singspiel, and is 
entitled to its popular place in the mod- 
ern opera repertoire. 

Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1915) 
sprang into immortal fame with his first 
opera, "Hansel and Gretel" (1893). This 
charming use of the old folk tale, set in 
a modern version of the Singspiel, has 
been the most popular German opera of 
modern days. In 1910 Humperdinck 's 
"Die Konigskinder" was produced in 
New York, and bids fair to rival "Hansel 

and Gretel" in the public's affection. Humperdinck 's two operas are 
the best use of the folk spirit which has come into modern German 
music. "The Miracle," Humperdinck 's magnificent stage spectacle, 
and "Die Marketenderin," his new comic opera, have recently been 
produced. 

/The greatest genius of modern German opera is the remarkable 
composer, Richard Strauss (1864- ), who has carried the ideas of 
Wagner and Liszt to a dangerous extreme. Strauss has written in all 
forms, but his remarkable dramatic gift of musical characterization is^ 
almost as strongly felt in his instrumental compositions as in his operas. / 
His first opera, "Guntram" (1894), \vas not remarkable, but in 
"Feuersnoth" (1901) he showed his true greatness, by-- his use of an 
old folk tale, in a modern version of the Singspiel. f In 1905, the 
artistic world eagerly welcomed his masterpiece, the setting of Oscar 
Wilde's "Salome. 'J Over this remarkable work bitter war has raged; 
but the fact remains, that no such character drawing in music has 
ever been conceived, as that which Strauss has employed in this 
marvelous music drama. With "Electra" he carried his theories still 
farther, and the music of the orchestra, and that sung by the singers, 
is worked out in an almost barbarous cacophony. In his next work 
Strauss has assumed the na'ive grace of Mozart, and has composed a 
comic opera, entitled "The Rose Cavalier." Here also his contra- 
puntal strength and marvelous orchestration places this work in a 
class by itself. "Ariadne auf Naxos" and a ballet, "The Legend 
of Joseph," are the latest dramatic works by Strauss. 

253 



The Opera 



Wilhelm Kienzl (1857) is also a follower of Wagner and was 
one of the first to declare that the Wagnerian principles could be used 
for simple drama as well as for settings of heroic subjects. "Der 
Evangelimann" (1894), which met with remarkable success in Europe, 
proved Kienzl 's contention. "Der Kuhreigen," produced in Vienna 
in 1911 and in America in 1912, is a setting of a romantic tale founded 
on an historical incident of the French Revolution. 
Other German operas of to-day are: 

Eugene d' Albert (1864), "Tiefland"; 

Max Shillings (1868), "Ingewelde"; 

Siegfried Wagner (1869), "Der Barenhauter. " 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

68481 Fantasie ("Evangelist"} (Kienzl) Apollo Orchestra 

87526 Hexenritt und Knusperwalzer (" Hansel and Gretel") (Humperdinck) 



Gluck-Homer 
Caruso 
Gluck-Homer 
Gluck-Homer 



87041 Magic Tones ("Queen of Sheba") (Goldmark) 

89099 Susie, Little Susie ( ' ' Hansel and Gretel ") 

89100 I am the Sleep Fairy ("Hansel and Gretel") 

CHORUSES 

As choruses, illustrative of this period, are difficult to obtain, a review is 
suggested. 



Lesson XXIX 
Modern Oratorio 

All oratorios have been influenced by the opera ever since the 
birth of the two forms. In the modern schools this influence is more 
keenly apparent in the French and Italian schools, for the oratorios 

which have come from Germany and Eng- 
land, are more truly religious in character. 
Verdi's great Requiem Mass (1874) was 
written for Manzoni, the Italian patriot; 
and while reflecting the style of the com- 
poser, it shows a great advance in religious 
feeling compared with the Italian church 
compositions at the time of Rossini. On his 
accession to the Papal See, Pius X ordered 
the return to the Gregorian Chant, and the 
influence of this truly religious reformation 
in music is already strongly noticeable in 
the masses of Don Lorenza Perosi (1872), 
who has united the style of Palestrina with 
CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS modem dramatic expression. 




254 



The Opera 



In France, Charles Gounod wrote three oratorios which are re- 
flective of the same style as his operas. These works are ' ' Messe Solen- 
nelle" (1850), "Redemption" (1883), "Mors et Vita." 

Saint-Saens' Biblical opera, "Samson et Dalila" (3877), is fre- 
quently presented 011 the concert stage as an oratorio. 

"The Seven Last Words of Christ" (1867), by Theodore Dubois 
(1837), is another excellent example of the French style. 

But the greatest French work in this form is unquestionably 
"The Beatitudes," by Cesar Franck (1822-1890), who also wrote two 
other oratorios, entitled "Ruth" and "The Redemption." 

Gabriel Pierne (1874) is the most conspicuous figure in French 
Oratorio to-day. His greatest work is "The Children's Crusade" 
(1905). 

In the German school the most remarkable oratorio is the "Ger- 
man Requiem," of Johannes Brahms, which is regarded as the great- 
est modern composition for chorus. 

Max Bruch (1838-1921), of the German school, wrote several 
excellent cantatas, among them " Frith jof," 
"Fair Ellen" and "Odysseus." 

Of the younger German composers, 
Georg Schumann has produced a choral work, 
a remarkable oratorio based on the story of 
"Ruth." 

Antonin Dvorak left three excellent 
choral works, "Stabat Mater," "St. Lud- 
milla," and "Requiem Mass," which are 
often given. 

Grieg's cantata, "Olaf Trygvason," is 
an example of national expression. 

The greatest modern oratorios of the 
school of Handel are the three works by 
Edward Elgar, of England; " Caractacus, " 
"The Apostles," and "The Dream of 
Gerontius. " 

The greatest oratorio by an American composer is "Hora Novis- 
sima, ' ' by Horatio Parker, which is considered one of the finest exam- 
ples of modern oratorio. 

A number of excellent cantatas were written by American com- 
posers in celebration of the Tercentenary of the Landing of the 
Pilgrims. Among the best of these works are: "The Rock of Lib- 
erty," by Rossiter G. Cole, and "The Landing of the Pilgrims," by 
Louis Adolphe Coerne. 

255 




MAX BRUCH 



T he Op e r a 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

35075 UnJ 'old Ye Portals ("The Redemption") (Gounod) Trinity Choir 

88514 Requiem Mass Ingemisco (Sadly Groaning) (Verdi) Caruso 

74399 Panis Angelicus (Oh Lord Most Holy) In Latin ('Cello obbligato) Alda 

88416 Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) (Bizet) In Latin Schumann-Heink 



Lesson XXX 
Opera in America 

\ It has been said that the Americans of the present day are the 
greatest patrons of opera in the world. It is certainly true that the 
greatest singers of the world are receiving their largest fees to appeal- 
before American audiences, while the eyes 
of all the operatic composers of Europe 
are looking toward America as the land 
certain to give them fame and fortune 
with the production of any new good 
work. JAs a further proof of this it will be 
easy to recall that several of the greatest 
modern operas have been given their pre- 
mieres on the American opera stage dur- 
ing recent years, and that their composers 
have come to America personally to super- 
intend the production. These works are : 
"The Girl of the Golden West," Puccini; 
"Goyescas, " Granados; "Konigskinder, " 
Humperdinck ; "The Jewels of the Ma- 
donna," Wolf-Ferrari; "Zingari," Leon- 
cavallo; "Edipo Re," Leoncavallo (post- 

hirmous) ; "Isabeau," Mascagni; and "The Blue Bird," Albert Wolff. 
/ Americans have been popular for many years on the opera stages 
(|f Europe, and it may be said that the greatest successes of recent years 
have been won by American singers. 

Both the Metropolitan and the Chicago Opera Companies are re- 
garded as the best opera organizations in the world. J 

While ideal performances of opera are given in the languages in 




PHOTO WHITE 



VICTOR HERBERT 



* The National Federation of Music Clubs awarded the five thousand dollar prize for 
the best setting of the oratorio, "The Apocalypse," to Paulo Gallico. This was produced at the 
biennial of the Federation, June, 1921. 




The Ope r a 

which the operas were written by both of these 
companies, there is little attempt being made in 
America to give equally ideal performances in 
English. 

Several American operas have been pro- 
duced by both of these organizations, but al- 
though several of these works w r ere received 
with enthusiasm they were given but few per- 
formances. 

The Metropolitan Company has produced 
"The Sacrifice" and "The Pipe of Desire," 
both by Frederick Converse; "Mona," a re- 
markable work by Horatio Parker ;* ' ' Cyrano, ' ' 
another deservedly successful opera by Walter 
Damrosh; "The Canterbury Pilgrims," by 
Reginald DeKoven ; "Shanewis, " an Amerian 
Charles Wakefield Cadman ; "The Legend," by Joseph Breil, and 
"Cleopatra's Night" and "Azora," by Henry Hadley. The Chicago 
Opera Association has produced "Natoma" (1911) and "Madeleine" 
(1917), both by Victor Herbert; "Rip Van Winkle" (1920), by Reg- 
inald DeKoven, and the ballets "Boudour" (1920), by Felix Borow- 
ski, and "The Birthday of the Infanta" (1920), by John Alden 
Carpenter. 

Much is also being done for the betterment of opera in the smaller 
cities by the excellent traveling organizations now presenting English 
versions of the greatest operatic masterpieces. 

The greatest musicians of the w r orld agree that within the next 
decade an American School of Opera will be an accomplished reality. 

ILLUSTEATIONS 

74274 Natoma Spring Song (I List the Trill of Golden Throat} (Act II) Gluck 
55113 Natoma -Dagger Dance, Act II Herbert's Orchestra 

f Song of the Robin Woman "Shanewis" (Cadman) 



HORATIO PARKER 



Indian opera by 



SUGGESTIONS FOR REVIEW 

Give the composer, his period, nationality, and school. Briefly 
state what type of music is found in each selection and what voices 
are heard : 

Benediction of Swords. "Huguenots." 

Largo al Factotum. "Barber of Seville." 



* Horatio Parker also won the prize given by the Federation of Music Clubs for the best 
opera by an American composer. His work, which is entitled "Fairy Land," was produced in 
Los Angeles, June. 1915. 

f In preparation. 



The Opera 

Habanera, "Carmen." 

Wotan's Farewell, "The Valkyrie." 

La Donna e mobile, "Rigoletto. " 

Duet of Flowers, "Madame Butterfly." 

Briinnhilde's Battle Cry, "The Valkyrie." 

Comfort Ye My People, "The Messiah." 

If With All Your Hearts, "Elijah." 

My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice, "Samson and Delilah." 

Prize Song, " Meistersinger. " 

Sextet, "Lucia." 

Ah fora' e lui' "Traviata." 

Cujus Animam, "Stabat Mater." 

Toreador Song, "Carmen." 

Jewel Song, "Faust." 

Invocation, "Magic Flute." 

I Have Lost My Eurydice. "Orpheus and Eurydice. " 

Largo, "Xerxes." 

The Fatal Stone, "Aida." 



258 



Analyses 



Records are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the names of 
the composers or by nationality when no composer is given. 



These short analyses are guides for the study of the records suggested as illus- 
trations for the previous lessons. They are necessarily condensed and should be 
expanded by the teacher from personal wide reading and experience. We have 
given the translations of the principal selections, but not of those sung in English 
or of which the words are well known or easily obtained from other sources. 

The ' ' Victrola Book of the Opera, ' ' containing the stories of over one hundred 
operas, will be indispensable in presenting operatic numbers. The words of all the 
principal operatic arias will be found in "The Victrola Book of the Opera." 

64482 El Celoso (The Jealous One) Alvarez 

This song is in the form of the Habanera, which is one of the most popular 
of the dance song forms of Spain. Strangely enough the Habanera was brought 
to Spain from Havana (hence its name), having been introduced into Cuba from 
Africa by the negroes. It is sometimes called Creole contra dance. Bizet immor- 
talized the form in his famous Habanera in the first act of ' ' Carmen. ' ' A 
Habanera usually consists of a short introduction and two themes of either eight 
or sixteen measures. One is major and the other minor, the second theme answer- 
ing the purpose of a refrain. When the dance is used as a song form, many 
changes take place in this definite pattern. The composer of this song is Alvarez, 
who is but little known outside of his native land, where he is considered one of 
the most popular of modern Spanish composers. [Lesson XVII, Part /.] 

64819 Seguidilla Albeniz 

Don Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909) was the Spanish court pianist of his time, 
and wrote many interesting compositions, all of which reflect the influence of 
the modern impressionistic school of France. He is regarded as the pioneer in 
the modern renaissance of Spanish music. The ' ' Seguidilla ' ' is one of the Spanish 
dances which reflects the music of the Moors. It is a spirited and gay country 
dance, which is very popular among the Andalusian peasants. Often the dancers 
sing love verses as they dance the Seguidilla. Like most of the Spanish dances, 
the Seguidilla betrays caprice, coquettishness and romance. [Lesson XXVII, 
Part II.] 

64842 La Gitana Arabo- Spanish 

This beautiful old dance song of the 18th century is one of the many evidences 
found in Spanish folk music of the influence of the Moors on the art of Spain. 
Among the music of the gypsies of Spain to-day, many of the Oriental rhythms 
and melodic characteristics left by the Moors are to be found. This arrange- 
ment for violin was made by Fritz Kreisler, who also used the theme of this 
song for one of the charming numbers in his light opera, ' ' Apple Blossoms. ' ' 
The use of the castanets, and the peculiar Spanish rhythm should be especially 
noted. [Lesson I, Part I ; Lesson XVII, Part I.] 

17793 II bianco Cigno Arcadelt 

Jacob Arcadelt (1514-1575) belongs to the Fourth Period of the Nether- 
land School and was contemporaneous with Orlando de Lassus. As de Lassus car- 

259 



Analyses 

ried Netherland School teaching into Bavaria, so Arcadelt took the principles to 
France. Previous to his residence in Paris, Arcadelt was a chorus-master at 
St. Peter's in Rome. Many motets and masses from his pen are in the collection 
of the papal chapel, yet the majority of the works written at this time were 
secular in character. Most of the great Madrigals, for which he was famous, date 
from this period. The latter part of his life, which was spent in Paris, where he 
was in the service of the Duke of Guise, he devoted almost exclusively to sacred 
composition. It is as a composer of Madrigals that Arcadelt is famous. This 
air is from one of the Madrigals for four voices and is one of the best known 
songs of this period. The words are: 

"The white swan sings of love and I too will sing as T reach my life's ond. 
The swan died in a strange way but I am dying happy. I am full of joy and desire 
and feel no pain in death. I would willingly die the same death a thousand times." 

[Lesson V, Part IL\ 

64398 The Lass With the Delicate Air Dr. Arne 

This charming old English song belongs to the eighteenth century. Dr. Thomas 
Arne lived from ]710 to 1778, and was not only an excellent performer on the violin 
and spinet, but also conducted both choruses and orchestras. In his day he was 
regarded as the greatest English composer after Henry Purcell. His music all 
reflects the over-elaborate style of his period. [Lesson XIX, Part I.] 

Young Molly, who lives at the foot of the hill, 
Whose name ev'ry maiden with pleasure doth fill, 
Of beauty is hless'd with so ample a share, 
We call her the lass with the delicate air. 

Like sunshine, her glances so tend_erly fall, 
She smiles not for one, but she smiles on us all, 
And many a heart she has eas'd of its care, 
Will bless the dear lass with the delicate air. 

63171 Agnes, Beautiful Flower ("Fra Diavolo") Auber 

The greatest comic opera of the early Nineteenth Century was ' ' Fra Dia- 
volo ' ' by Daniel Auber, which was produced in Paris in 1 830. As Bie says, 
' ' this work is the most charming thing that the French musical spirit has pro- 
duced; a jolly text, overlaid with a music so charmingly mobile, so genially 
amiable, of such unbounded humor, so rich in ideas, so full of harmless pleasure 
and worldly chivalry, that it constitutes a laughing victory of a finely drawn, yet 
temperamental art, over a content that amounts to nil. ' ' This aria is sung by 
Fra Diavolo in the second act, the scene of which takes place in the chamber of 
Zerlina, the daughter of the innkeeper. Here Fra Diavolo is hidden, and the 
serenade is the signal to his band outside that they may enter and rob the house. 
This is a good example of the idiosyncrasies of grand opera during Auber 's 
time. One can hardly imagine the leader of a robber band singing a serenade in 
the room of a sleeping maiden, as a signal to his friends; but there are often 
strange dramatic moments in the pages of opera. [Lesson XXIV, Part IV. \ 

64669 Laughing Song (" Manon Lescaut") Auber 

The story of ' ' Manon Lescaut ' ' by Abbe Prevost has inspired several grand 
operas the best known being ' ' Manon ' ' by Massenet and ' ' Manon Lescaut ' ' by 
Puccini. This work by Auber belongs to an earlier period. It was never a great 
success, even during the days of Auber 's popularity. The only number from the 
opera heard to-day is this famous "Laughing Song," which is a popular aria 
for coloratura soprano. \Lesson XXIV, Part IV.] 

260 



89104 Ave Maria Bach-Gounod 

This beautiful setting of the great religious text "Ave Maria" was re-written 
in its present form by Gounod. The French composer used for his musical theme 
the first prelude from Bach 's ' ' Well Tempered Clavichord. ' ' He added another 
melody to that of Bach 's, but retained all the religious simplicity of Bach 's first 
expression. This aria is sung in Latin, and the obbligato to the soprano voice, is 
played by the violin. [Lesson IX, Part //.] 

76028] 

76029 > Concerto for Two Violins Bach 

76030 J 

This noble work dates from the period 1717-1723, when Bach was Music 
Director to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen. This Prince, who was an ardent 
music-lover, was so devoted to Bach that he even took the composer on his journeys. 
The Prince had an inferior organ, but his small orchestra was the finest chamber- 
music organization of the time. It is therefore but natural that Bach should have 
neglected organ and church music during the years he was in the service of the 
Prince. The greatest instrumental numbers by Bach date from this period. 
Philipp Spitta (1841-1894), Bach's greatest biographer, declares this concerto to 
be the finest of any composition by Bach. The concerto in Bach's day was the 
name given to any large instrumental composition used for concert purposes. The 
larger concertos with the two divisions of soloists and accompanists, were know T n 
as concerti grossi, and from this form our present symphony developed. Bach 
generally confined himself to but three movements: the first generally devoted to 
fugal development (it often follows the pattern of the Lully Overture), the sec- 
ond in song form and the third a rapid, brilliant rondo or gigue. This work 
is in a certain sense a concerto grosso, in that the two choirs are used: the 
two violins as soloists playing against the string quartet as orchestra. The form 
of the first movement is fugal in character; the second, is a most beautiful song, 
while the Finale is in the rapid, gay style of the period. Students should hear 
this record many times. They should listen to the alternating choirs of soloists 
and orchestra, and also listen to the individual voices of the two violins. It is 
only after repented hearings that one is able to appreciate the true beauty and 
worth of this exquisite composition. ^Lesson XXIII, Part III.] 

64132 Gavotte in E Major Bach 

The Gavotte is an old French dance, said to have originated in the Province 
of Dauphine, Le Pays du Gap, from whence it takes its name, Gavotte, as the 
people in that locality are called ' ' Gavots. " It is distinguished from some of 
the dances of the day in that the dancers lift their feet instead of shuffling them. 
This dance became very popular in French Court life during the last part of the 
seventeenth century. It follows in form the outline of the dance, contrasting dance 
or trio, and return to the original dance. \Lesson XII, Purt I. \ 

88575 My Heart Ever Faithful Bach 

Bach wrote 295 church cantatas, of which there are about two hundred in 
existence. Almost all of these works were written during the latter part of Bach 's 
life, while he was living in Leipsic. As director of the St. Thomas Church Choir, 
Bach's duty made it necessary for him to compose and have ready a new com- 
position for each church day. Many of these works were laid aside after one 
hearing. Through the efforts of the Bach Society, started by Robert Schumann, 

261 



Analyses 

who had been stimulated in his endeavors by the enthusiasm of Mendelssohn, many 
of these cantatas and oratorios have been restored to the world. It is interesting 
to note in the later cantatas of the Leipsic period the great stress laid by Bach 
on the instrumental accompaniment. 

"My Heart Ever Faithful" is from the cantata "For God So Loved the 
World." No composer of later days has ever been able to express the joyous 
rapture of thankfulness to God the Creator more remarkably than did Bach in 
this aria. [Lesson IX, Part II.\ 

35656-35669 Suite No. 3 in D Major Overture and Dances Bach 

The four greatest orchestral works by Bach the Suites, were written during 
the years 1717-1723, which were spent in Cothen. Here Bach was Capellmeister 
for the young Prince Leopold, whose court orchestra was considered one of the 
finest in Europe. The scores of these works, which Bach termed as Overtures, 
were in the collection of Bach's manuscripts, which for nearly a hundred years 
was forgotten by the world. Through the efforts of the Bach Society, of which 
Schumann and Mendelssohn were both ardent members, many of these manuscripts 
were recovered. Bach's D Major Suite was given to the world in 1838, when 
Mendelssohn produced it at the Gewandhaus in Leipsic. Bach's original scoring 
was for first and second violins, violas, basso continue, three trumpets or clarinos, 
two oboes and kettle drums. The trumpets and clarinos in Bach's day were of 
such high pitch that modern players have found it almost impossible to play the 
parts. Mendelssohn rearranged the trumpet passages for the modern trumpet, and 
in the Gigue introduced the clarinets. 

The Suite consists of five movements: Overture, Air, Gavottes I and II, 
Bourree and Gigue. 

The Overture is constructed on the old Lully pattern, beginning with a slow 
Introduction, grave, followed by a rapid Fugue, vivace; the grave returns with a 
slightly different treatment, to be followed by the Fugue, finally ending with the 
theme of the Introduction. 

In these records, the repetitions have of necessity been omitted. 

II. The second movement of Bach 's D Major Suite is the famous Air, which 
is one of the most beautiful melodies ever written. It is most familiar to con- 
cert goers as a solo violin composition, and is known as ' ' Air on the G String. ' ' 
This is because Wilhelmj, the great violinist, transposed the composition to the 
key of C Major and thus it was possible to play it on the G string of the violin. 
In its original form in the Suite, the melody is given to the violins, but is not 
confined to the G string. The movement follows the two-part song form, each 
part being repeated. This composition is one of the most perfect examples of 
absolute music to be found in the entire literature of the art. [Lesson X, Part I.] 

In the record by Herbert's Orchestra (55105), note the use of the 'cellos. 

III. The third movement in Bach's D Major Suite is a simple and beautiful 
Gavotte. Although Bach indicates on the score Gavotte I and II, they are in 
reality in the form of a dance-trio dance, as the first Gavotte is repeated after 
the statement of the second. Both Gavottes are in the same key and the com- 
position as a whole is one of the most perfect examples of the Gavotte form in 
existence. 

IV. The fourth movement in Bach 's D Major Suite is a Bourree. It is 
gay and lively in character. George Sand says the Bourree was originally a dance 
of the woodcutters in Southern France, which was transplanted into the Paris 

262 



Analyses 

salons during the dance craze of the early eighteenth century. The distinguishing 
feature of this dance is that it begins on the fourth beat and the phrases end 
on the third. This Bourree is in two parts, without a Trio. 

V. The Finale of Bach's Suite in D Major is the customary Gigue, which was 
the favorite dance for finales in Bach 's day. The name was originally ' ' giga, ' ' 
meaning the early Italian fiddle or ' ' geige, ' ' which always played the air for this 
gay dance. The French name "gigue" and the English "jig" are both from the 
same source. This Gigue is a rollicking dance which carries to a climax the merry 
geniality of the Bach Suite. [Lesson IX, Part II ; Lesson XXIII, Part III.] 

16398 Then You'll Bemember Me (2) 7 Dreamt I Dwelt In Marble 

Halls ("The Bohemian Girl") Balfe 

Michael Balfe (1808-1870) will always be remembered as the composer of the 
ever-popular ' ' Bohemian Girl, ' ' which was first produced in 1843, at the Drury 
Lane Theatre, London. The story of the beautiful Arline, who was stolen from 
the home of her father, Count Arnheim, and brought up by the gypsies, is so 
familiar that it need not here be repeated. ' ' Then You '11 Eemember Me ' ' is sung 
by Thaddeus, the faithful friend and later, lover of Arline. ' ' I Dreamt I Dwelt ' ' 
is Arline 's song in the second act as she tells Thaddeus of her dream. As both 
of these numbers are sung in English, it is not necessary to quote the words here. 
[Lesson XVI, Part IV.] 

74570 Eonde des Lutins (Dance of the Goblins) Bassini 

Antonio Bazzini (1818-1897) was an Italian violinist who was recognized in 
his youth as a coming genius by Paganini. On the advice of the great vio- 
linist, Bazzini toured throughout Europe before settling down in Milan as the 
director of the Conservatory. He composed several works for orchestra, which 
are rarely given to-day, and a number of short compositions for his own instru- 
ment, which have become universally popular. The ' ' Ronde des Lutins" is a 
very brilliant violin solo, and is an excellent example of the descriptive compo- 
sition of the imitative style. [Lesson XI, Part I.] 

35693 The Year's at the Spring Mrs. Beach 

Among American composers none occupies a more enviable position than does 
Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, of Boston. Mrs. Beach is an exponent of the school of com- 
position of John Knowles Paine. She is the composer of a number of large works 
for orchestra and chorus, and many shorter compositions for piano and violin. 
Of her sixty beautiful songs, none is more popular than this setting of ' ' Pippa 's 
Song of Happiness," from Eobert Browning's "Pippa Passes." [Lesson XXX, 
Part II.] 

63794 God in Nature Beethoven 

Beethoven 's love of nature and his faith in God 's power are both reflected 
in this great song, which is a setting of a poem by Gellert. 

The heavens are telling the Lord's endless glory. 

Through all the earth His praise is found, 
The seas re-echo the marvelous story, 

O man repeat that glorious sound. 



The earth is His. the heavens o'er it bending, 

The Maker in His works behold. 
He is, and will be, through ages unending, 

A God of strength and love untold. Copy't G. Schirmer. 

[Lesson XIII, Part II.] 
203 



Analyses 

35576 Chorus of Prisoners ("Fidelio") Beethoven 

Beethoven 's one opera ' ' Fidelio, ' ' although it foreshadowed the development 
of the modern music drama, was never a success during Beethoven 's life. The 
male chorus of the prisoners occurs at the end of the first act. The scene shows 
the courtyard of the prison, where Florestan has been unjustly confined. As 
the prisoners come out into the sunshine, they sing this beautiful chorus. [Lesson 
VII, Part IF.] 

17964 Menuetto, Quartette in C minor Beethoven 

It seems strange that Beethoven should have been so partial to a form which 
was so strictly a part of court life, as is the quartet, yet, it is generally believed that 
chamber music was his favorite means of musical expression. One gets closer to 
the man Beethoven in his chamber-music compositions than in any of his other works. 
The Quartette in C minor belongs to the early period of Beethoven 's work 
as a composer. It is the only one of a series of six, Opus 18, published in 1800, 
which shows in any Avay the individuality of the composer. The other works 
in this group might have been composed by Haydn, or Mozart, so little do they 
reflect the greatness of the immortal Beethoven. Like the model of Haydn, tin- 
third movement of this Quartette is in the form of a Menuetto. [Lesson A'AT, 
Part III.] 

35493 Overture ("Egmont") Beethoven 

Goethe's famous tragedy of "Egmont" was written in 178G, and in 1810 
Beethoven became inspired by the poem of the mighty poet, and wrote his wonder- 
ful incidental music for the drama. Fran/ Liszt has laid great stress on the fact 
that this is one of the earliest examples, in modern times, of a great composer 
drawing his inspiration directly from the words of a great poet. But the story 
of the gallant Duke of Egmont and his futile eil'orts to lead the Netherlander 
against the tyranny of the Spanish king, Philip, would have been one likely to 
inspire Beethoven, who at heart was an ardent democrat. The music to ' ' Kgmont 
consists of an overture, four entr'actes, two songs, and three pieces of incidental 
music. Beethoven seems to have written the music purely out of love for the play 
and esteem for the author. There is no account of the work having been written 
under contract, and no definite knowledge of its first performance beyond that of 
the date itself. The drama of ' ' Kgmont, ' ' however, is now never given in 
Germany without this music. 

The Overture opens with an Introduction which foreshadows the main incident 
of the opening Allegro. The first subject is of a twofold character, which seems 
to typify Egmont as a hero, and also as a lover; this is followed by a phrase 
which tells of the hero 's longing for action. As this phrase gradually unfolds, it is 
taken up by the whole orchestra and brought to a mighty climax. The second sub- 
ject is said to represent Clara, the brave young sweetheart of Egmont, and tells 
of her love for him. The Free Fantasia, or working out of the subjects, is followed 
by the regulation Recapitulation, and :i Coda which Beethoven called "The Sym- 
phony of Victory." This is based on the first subject, which is given first without 
harmony, then with the counterpoint above, and lastly in the highest part and 
seems "to burn with the enthusiasm of patriotism." [Lesson XIII, Part II. \ 



P(irt II O rertitrc, Lcoiiore Xo. > (Op. ?') i;i three pnrts Beethoven 

352(59 p art ///] 

In the year 1804 Beethoven was commissioned by the proprietor of the 

204 



Analyses 

Theatre an der Wien to compose an opera, and his secretary, Joseph Sonnleithner, 
undertook the libretto. He chose as his subject a story which had previously 
been set for the Vienna opera under the title of ' ' Leonore. ' ' This story told of 
a Spanish noble, Florestan, who had been falsely imprisoned by Don Pizarro, who 
hoped to have him put to death, and thus obtain his property. Florestan 's faithful 
wife, Leonore, goes to the jail disguised as a lad, and known by the name of 
Fidelio, she obtains employment as assistant jailer, and is thus enabled to be near 
her husband. Don Pizarro, hearing that the Governor is to make an inspection of 
the prison, and fearing that Florestan will be released, determines that he shall die, 
and orders the jailers to dig Florestan 's grave. As Don Pizarro raises his pistol 
to shoot the unfortunate prisoner, Fidelio throws herself in front of her husband, 
saying, ' ' Kill first the wife. ' ' Just at this dramatic moment the trumpets announce 
the arrival of the Governor, who puts Don Pizarro to death and gives his estates 
to the released Florestan. 

The story appealed most strongly to Beethoven, and lie at once set to Avork 
to make this, his first and only opera, a masterpiece in strength and form. The 
work, produced November 20, 1805, was never truly popular with the Viennese 
public, who wished only for the cloying melodies of the Italian school. Beethoven 
re-wrote the work four times, and for his revision wo have four overtures; the 
three known as Leonore No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and the Fidelio Overture. The 
Overture Leonore No. 3 is by far the greatest and is the one which was heard 
when the opera was rewritten in 1806. Wagner said of it: "This work is no 
longer an overture, but the most tremendous drama itself." 

The Overture begins with an Adagio introduction, a crash for full orchestra, 
followed by descending scale passage, which, many critics claim, suggests the 
going down into the depths of Florestan 's dungeon. The Allegro begins with an 
agitated subject, given first by violins, and 'cellos, and repeated by full orchestra. 
In the way in which these themes are developed one feels that they can but 
stand for the two characters of Florestan and the devoted Leonore. The develop- 
ment reaches its highest intensity when the distant sound of the trumpet is heard, 
given by trumpets behind the scenes, and as the call is repeated and grows louder 
the recapitulation of themes begins, the theme of the first subject now return- 
ing in more rapid tempo, and curiously enough, given by the flute. The second 
subject introduces a Coda (Presto) and, mounting to a very pean of joy, the 
great Oevrture ends in the perfect happiness of right which has triumphed over 
wrong. [Lessons X, XV, XXVI, Part III.] 

35506 Scherzo Quartet in C Minor (Op. 18, No. 4) Beethoven 

The set of six quartets Op. 18 is Beethoven's first work in this form. It is 
dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz, who at this period (1800) was a most generous 
friend to the composer. 

It is interesting to note that in Beethoven's sketch book of this period, 
mingled with the original melodies of the quartets is to be found the theme of 
the andante from the C Minor Symphony, and the Finale of the Ninth Symphony. 
As in the first quartet of this group, Beethoven uses the Scherzo as the second move- 
ment of the fourth quartet in the series, which is in the key of C Minor. The 
divisions of the Scherzo should be followed, also the instruments which state the 
theme. [Lesson II, Part III.] 

17964 Scherzo, Quartet in F Major Beetlioven 

The F Major Quartet was the last of the last group of five quartets 

written by the master from 1824 until his death. There is not one of these last 



A nalyses 

five works but which does not proclaim Beethoven 's victory over ' ' the evil forces 
which had so beset his earthly paths." 

The Quartet in F Major is the shortest of the last group of these composi- 
tions. It is simple in form, and calm and outspoken in manner. The second 
movement is this almost chiid-like Scherzo, which is built on two themes, not essen- 
tially different as to character, but developed in a very unusual manner. The 
climax of this movement is especially noteworthy. The first violin develops 
the theme over an accompaniment, consisting of an unvarying repetition by the 
other instruments in unison, of a single theme. This is one of the greatest exam- 
ples of the use of the Scherzo for the rapid movement of a string quartet. [Lesson 
XXV, Part III.] 

17964 Scherzo F Major Quartet (Op. 18, No. 1) Beethoven 

Beethoven's music has been divided into three classes, the first division, which 
reflects the spirit of Mozart and Haydn, being terminated with the ' ' Eroica ' ' 
Symphony (1804). Although the six quartets found in Op. 18 (1800) are the 
first works which Beethoven wrote in this form and belong unquestionably to 
the first period, there are moments when the greatness of the later Beethoven 
stands revealed. One of these is in the F Major Quartet, which Mendelssohn 
considered ' ' the most Beethovenish of all Beethoven 's works. ' ' 

The use of the Scherzo here is also worthy of comment. Beethoven still 
retained the Minuet as the third movement of his sonatas and symphonies during 
most of the first period of his composition, yet here is found a Scherzo which 
reflects the late Beethoven ! In its original form the Scherzo, literally termed ' ' a 
joke, ' ' was a gay three-part A-B-A dance which is found used by many eighteenth 
century composers. Beethoven introduced it as the third movement of the 
' ' Sonata ' ' form, and it takes the place of the Minuet of Haydn 's original pattern. 
Students should listen to this composition for its form and message, then for the 
differentiation of the tone color of the instruments. [Lesson XXV, Part III.] 

18124 Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (Op. 67) Allegro con brio 

(First Movement) Beethoven 

Of all the great symphonies ever written, "the Mighty Fifth" by Beethoven 
has remained not only the most perfect example of the form, but the most 
direct musical message which any composer has ever given the world. Although 
sketches for this work are found dating as early as 1800, the Symphony was really 
written in the year 1807, which was one of the most tragic in the life of the 
composer. Eealizing that his deafness came from hereditary causes which unfitted 
him to assume the position of husband and father, Beethoven canceled his bethrothal 
to the Countess Theresa Brunswick, "the Immortal Beloved," and betook him- 
self to the little town of Heiligenstadt. His happiness on being again in the 
country caused him to conceive and plan the ' ' Pastoral Symphony, ' ' which was 
finished the following year. Yet, that Beethoven was in a despairing mental 
condition is apparent from his letters at this time. He writes to Wegeler : "I will 
struggle with my Fate; it shall not destroy me." Later, in speaking of the 
opening theme of this Symphony, which is in truth the "moto" of the whole 
work, Beethoven is reported to have said: "Thus knocks Fate at the door." 
Therefore, it has become the custom of musical writers to allude to this Sym- 
phony as "The Fate" Symphony and a definite program has been built up to fit 
the work, the underlying thought of which is Beethoven 's struggle and triumph 
over the Fate which would overcome him. 

At the centennial celebration of Beethoven 's birth, Richard Wagner, in speak- 

266 



Analyses 

ing of the C Minor Symphony, said : ' ' This work captivates us as being one of 
the rarer conceptions of the master, in which painfully agitated passion, as the 
opening fundamental tone, soars up on the gamut of consolation, of exaltation, to 
the transport of triumphant joy. Here already lyric pathos almost enters an 
ideal dramatic sphere in the more definite sense, and while it might appear doubt- 
ful whether thereby musical conception might not already be clouded in its purity, 
because it might mislead to the introduction of concepts which appear in them- 
selves altogether foreign to music, there is, on the other hand, no mistaking the 
fact that the master was not guided in this by an erring esthetic speculation, 
but solely by an ideal instinct growing out of music 's own proper sphere. ' ' 

This work was first produced December 22, 1808, at the Theater an dcr Wicn, 
Vienna. The Symphony No. 6 ("Pastoral") was also given on this occasion. The 
work is scored for two flutes, piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bass6ons, 
double bassoon, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettle drums and 
strings. 

The first movement opens without Introduction, the first subject ("Fate 
motive") being heard in octaves in the strings and clarinets. The rhythmical 
foundation of the whole work rests on the opening four tones. The second sub- 
ject, which is introduced by the "Fate motive," is given in the horns (fifty 
seconds from the beginning), then carried on by the strings to a crescendo coda 
based on the first subject. After the repetition of subjects (here omitted), the 
Free-Fantasia begins. For fifty -five measures (forty seconds) this is given over 
to a development of the "Fate motive"; then the second subject is heard in the 
violins and is followed by a dialogue in chords between wood-winds and strings. 
The first half of the record ends with a fortissimo statement of the first subject 
in the full strength of the strings, which marks the beginning of the Recapitulation. 

The first subject is now heard in the violins; an adagio cadenza in the oboe 
then leads up to a recurrence of the first theme in full strings. The second sub- 
ject now appears in C Minor in French horn (bassoon) and the Coda is given 
over to a development of the first subject ("Fate motive"). [Lesson XXVI, 
Part III.] 

35580 Symphony No. 5 in C Minor Andante (Second Movement) Beethoven 

The second movement of the Beethoven Fifth Symphony is one of the most 
beautiful single movements in all orchestral literature. In form, a set of varia- 
tions on a double theme, the composer here presents a message of consolation 
and peace. The first theme is announced by the violas and violoncellos, then the 
wood-wind, and later the full string choir continue it. The second theme appears 
(fifty-six seconds from beginning of record) in the clarinets and bassoons, with a 
running accompaniment in the violas and the basses pizzicato. This is followed 
by a recurrence of the same theme given by horns and oboes. The first variation 
is in the original key (C Minor), given by 'cellos and violas, pizzicato on the other 
strings. The variation on the second theme begins with the violas. (This first 
variation forty-eight measures in sixteenth-notes has been omitted on the 
record to meet requirements of time.) The second variation in thirty-second 
notes is given by the lower strings with pizzicato in the violins and double basses, 
followed by a short duet between the clarinet and the bassoon. The second theme 
is now proclaimed by the full orchestra. (End of A side of record.) The third 
variation, in A Flat Minor, is given by the wood-winds with pizzicato harmony 
from the other strings, except the violins, which provide a broken chord figure. 
There is no development of the second theme in this variation. The Coda follows, 

267 



Analyses 

the bassoon presenting the theme, which is later taken up by the 'cellos. The 
movement ends with a statement of the opening subject. [Lesson X, Part I; 
Lesson XIII, Part II; Lesson IV, Part III; Lesson XXVI, Part III.] 

18278 Symphony No. 5 in C Minor Scherzo (Third Movement) Beethoven 

The third movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony he termed Allegro. It 
is in truth a Sclierzo. Berlioz speaks of it as "a strange composition. Its first 
measures, which are not terrible in themselves, provoke that inexplicable emotion 
which you feel when the magnetic gaze of certain persons is fixed on you." The 
movement opens with a mysterious theme given by the 'cellos and basses. This 
is repeated, with but slight change ; a new idea presents itself in the French 
horns fortissimo. This is based on the rhythm of the "Fate motive" of the 
first movement, and if there is any significance to the program, which declares this 
Beethoven's struggle over Fate, this movement at once announces that the struggle 
has recommenced. The Trio begins with the remarkable theme given by the 
double basses, which Berlioz so aptly likened to "the gambols of a frolicsome 
elephant. ' ' After a diminuendo the first part of the movement is repeated. But 
now the theme of the Scherzo is given staccato by the 'cellos and basses. In this 
form it is even more sinister than when first stated. The movement is connected 
by a transitional passage to the Finale. This is a remarkable example of the use 
of the kettle drums. [Lesson VI, Part III; Lesson XXVI, Part III. 

35637 SympJiony No. 5 in C Minor Allegro (Finale) Beethoven 

The Finale of Beethoven 's Fifth Symphony is a veritable hymn of triumph. 
and one readily believes that Beethoven has portrayed in music his defeat of the 
fetters with which Fate would bind him. 

From the transitional passage given by the kettle drums the violins emerge 
triumphant, and lead the full orchestra into the statement of the first subject of 
this movement. A transitional passage given by the wood-winds and horns leads 
into the second theme, a more tender melody given by the first violins, accompanied 
by second violins and violas. This subject is of two parts, the second being stated 
by the violas and clarinet, and carried on by the full orchestra. The development 
is given over almost entirely to the second subject, which is worked up to a tre- 
mendous climax fortissimo ; the sinister theme of the Scherzo is now heard again, 
leading into the Kecapitulation, in which the subjects are again brought back 
practically in the same form as when they were first heard. A Presto coda in 
which "the pinnacle of unrestrained joy is reached," brings this remarkable 
Symphony to its close. [Lesson XXVI, Part HI.] 

35320 Andante Symphony F Major "Pastoral" (Op. 68) Beethoven 

The second movement, or Andante, of Beethoven 's ' ' Pastoral ' ' Symphony is 
one of the most exquisite bits of tone painting in the entire range of music. The 
composer indicates by his title that he is describing a ' ' Scene by the Brook, ' ' and 
he furthermore also wrote on the score the words ' ' Nightingale, Quail and 
Cuckoo, ' ' as though anxious to have one hear with him the bird songs which had 
inspired him in the writing of this work. During the time which Beethoven fre- 
quently spent in Heiligenstadt, the little peasant village where this work was 
written, his favorite place for composing was underneath a large elm by the side 
of a rippling brook. Years after the ' ' Pastoral ' ' Symphony was completed, 
Beethoven pointed out this spot to his friend Schindler, saying, ' ' This is where I 
wrote the 'Scene by the Brook' and the yellow-hammers were singing above me, 
and the quails, nightingales and cuckoos calling around me." 

268 



Analyses 



The opening subject is given by the divided 'cellos, the theme well repro- 
ducing the murmur of a running stream. This' theme is really the background for 
the picture, and although various other motives are heard, some more or less 
imitative of the varying sounds of nature, the entire movement is technically 
constructed on the one subject. At the close, Beethoven has designated the voices 
of the nightingale, quail and cuckoo as being distinctly audible above the murmur 
of tone with which the movement closes. [Lesson V, Part 777.] 

74661 Allegretto Scherzando, Symphony No. 8, F Major Beethoven 

Beethoven always spoke of his Eighth Symphony as "my little one." It is 
the shortest and happiest of the nine great works in the symphonic form which 
Beethoven gave to the world. This Symphony was written in the summer of 1812, 
at Linz, a watering place near Vienna, where Beethoven, on the advice of his 
physicians, passed the summer of that year. The winter had been a very unhappy 
one because of the increasing deafness and constant pain, which had made Bee- 
thoven 's work and life most difficult. Yet, during this summer, the composer 
wrote his most tranquil symphony, Xo. 7, in A major, and his happiest work, 
the symphony, Xo. 8. This beautiful "Allegretto Scherzando'' is the second 
movement of this symphony. Berlioz said that this movement ' ' fell from heaven 
into the composer 's brain, ' ' but the theme in reality is one which Beethoven 
had used as a joke just previous to his departure from A T ienna. One night Bee- 
thoven and a group of his friends gave a farewell dinner for Maezel, the inventor 
of the metronome, who was leaving for a trip to London. Maezel had just pre- 
sented Beethoven with a new ear trumpet which he had invented, and the com- 
poser, to show his appreciation, wrote a short canon to the words, "ta, ta, Maezel, 
farewell, farewell, ' ' in imitation to the ticking of the metronome. This canon was 
sung by the assembled guests at the dinner. The theme Beethoven used later as the 
motive for the "Allegretto Scherzando" of his Eighth Symphony. [Lesson 11, 
Part III.] 

74538 Could I Believe (Ah! Non Credea Mirarti) ("La Sonnambula") 

Bellini 

Bellini 's opera, ' ' La Sonnambula, ' ' although rather foolish in plot and execu- 
tion, has held the operatic stage because it gives such an excellent opportunity to 
the coloratura soprano. The story is of Amina, a village maiden, who is be- 
trothed to Elvino. She is a confirmed somnambulist, and her nightly walks cause 
the village folk much alarm, as they fancy they are being haunted by a specter. 
On one occasion, Amina is found in the room of the inn, where Eodolfo, the lord 
of the village is asleep. She is, therefore, cast out by her lover and spurned by 
all. The next night she w r alks again in her sleep, and crosses over a frail bridge, 
which totters across the swollen mill stream. She is discovered in this act by 
Elvino and the village folk, who now realize her innocence. This aria is sung 
in the sleep walking scene, as Amina descends from her perilous position, while 
her friends and lover stand watching in terror, fearful lest they awaken her. She 
carries in her hand some faded flowers Elvino has given her. (For words, see 
"Victrola Book of the Opera." [Lesson XVIII, Part 77.] 

88104 Casta Diva (Queen of Heaven) (" Norma") Bellini 

Although Bellini 's opera ' ' Xorma ' ' is now rarely heard in its entirety, 
the charm of this aria still holds the concert public. X T o greater opportunity 
was ever given the coloratura soprano to show her powers than in the ' ' Casta 
Diva." The action of "Xorma" takes place in Gaul, following the Roman con- 

269 



A naly s e s 

quest. Norma, the high priestess of the Druids, has been false to her vows and 
is secretly wedded to Pollione, a Roman pro-consul. When the Druids declare 
war on the Romans, Norma rebukes them and prays to the moon ' ' that fair 
queen of heaven" to grant peace. [Lesson X, Part IV.] 

35462 March EaTcoczy ("Damnation of Faust") Berlioz 

The ' ' March Rakoczy ' ' is the national air of Hungary and was originally 
written by Michael Barna, a gypsy court musician of Prince Franz Rakoczy, 
from whom this composition takes its name. 

The Rakoczy family were the leaders of the Hungarian independent movement 
for many generations; the most famous member of the family being Franz II 
(1676-1735), who led the Hungarian Revolution in 1703. It is said that when the 
Prince with his young wife, Princess Amalia Catherine of Hesse, made his state 
entry into Eperjes, this march was played by the court orchestra under the direc- 
tion of the composer, Barna. In 1711, when Franz led the revolt against Emperor 
Leopold I, Barna revised the original melody into a war-like march, which has since 
remained the battle hymn of the Hungarians, being equally popular among the 
music-loving gypsies as with the Hungarian noblemen. The manuscript of the 
march was kept in the Barna family, although the theme was used and adapted 
by many Hungarian musicians. Much of the popularity of the march was due to 
the personal beauty and musical genius of a young gypsy girl violiniste, Pauna 
Cznika, the granddaughter of Barna, who played her grandfather's composition 
at all her concerts. After her death, the manuscript came into the hands of 
another Hungarian gypsy violinist, Ruzsitka, who rewrote the march, giving it 
much of the strength and character it now possesses. 

Berlioz, the great French composer, to whom we owe the present arrangement, 
borrowed his version from that of Ruzsitka. The idea of using this march came to 
Berlioz while he was in Buda-Pesth, arranging for a performance of his ' ' Damna- 
tion of Faust. ' ' Realizing the great patriotism of the Hungarian people, Berlioz 
changed his libretto to suit the situation, and took his much-travelled Faust to 
Hungary, that he might witness the departure of the Hungarian troops for the war, 
and an opportunity was thus given for the Rakoczy March to be played. The suc- 
cess of this plan was overpowering. Berlioz has said that the enthusiasm at the 
first performance in Pesth was so extraordinary that it quite frightened him. 
[Lesson XIV, Part I; Lesson XVI, Part II; Lesson XXVII, Part III.] 

35462 Minuet of Will-o'-the-Wisps ("Damnation of Faust") Berlioz 

This dainty orchestral number with its remarkable use of the piccolo flute, 
occurs in the first part of ' ' The Damnation of Faust. ' ' As Berlioz describes it, 
' ' Mephistopheles, to excite in Faust 's soul the love of pleasure, convokes the 
spirits of the air and bids them sing and dance before him. ' ' After this ' ' Dance 
of the Sylphs" Mephistopheles orders the will-o'-the-wisps to fly before Mar- 
guerite 's eyes qnd dazzle her with their brilliancy. The tiny specks of light appear 
and dance this charming and delicate minuet. [Lesson XVI, Part II ; Lesson X, 
Part III; Lesson XXVII, Part III.] 

81034 Serenade Mephistopheles ("Damnation of Faust") Berlioz 

The great serenade for Mephistopheles occurs in the third part of ' ' The 
Damnation of Faust, ' ' the cantata by Berlioz. The scene is Marguerite 's chamber, 
where Mephistopheles and Faust are hidden. The beautiful maiden sings, as 
she prepares for the night, the romantic ballad of ' ' The King of Thule. ' ' 
Mephistopheles then summons the will-o'-the-wisps to come and dance about the 

270 



A naly s e s 

room that the maiden may be bewildered and entranced. Then with demoniac 
laughter he sings this serenade ' ' Why Dost Thou Wait at the Door of Thy 
Lover?" while the orchestral accompaniment still depicts the swarm of will-o'- 
the-wisps, which surround him. Note the pizzicato of the strings which is here 
employed to describe Mephistopheles ' guitar. [Lesson XVI, Part II.] 

35241 Overture (" Le Carnaval Romain") Berlioz 

The overture ' ' Le Carnaval Eomain, ' ' was written by Berlioz to serve as the 
overture to the second act of his opera ' ' Benvenuto Cellini, ' ' which was produced 
in 1838. It is, therefore, apparent that Berlioz preceded Wagner in the use of 
overtures before the various acts of the opera. Berlioz, in his memoirs, writes 
that on the night of the presentation of ' ' Benvenuto Cellini ' ' this overture was 
received with ' ' exaggerated applause, ' ' while the opera itself was ' ' a brilliant 
failure, ' ' being ' ' hissed with remarkable energy. ' ' The theme of the ' ' Carnaval 
Romain" is a Saltarello, which is to-day still sung and danced in Rome. This 
theme opens the overture, and is followed by a slow melody of a romantic nature 
given by English horn; then suddenly the Saltarello theme is taken up again by 
the full orchestra ; the development is practically taken up with this theme, 
although the second subject is brought back once more to serve as contrast to the 
brilliant vigor of the dance subject. [Lesson XVI, Part II; Lesson XXVII r 
Part III.] 

88073 Lo, Here the Gentle Lark Bishop 

This brilliant soprano solo is a setting of Shakespeare's verses by Sir Henry 
Rowland Bishop (1786-1855). Bishop was the composer of over eighty operas 
and many shorter compositions, yet few of his works are known to-day. This 
aria demands the most pure and flexible coloratura voice. The obbligato for 
flute is supposed to depict the voice of the lark. 

Lo, here the gentle lark, weary of the rest, 

From his moist cabinet mounts up on high 
And wakes the morning, from whose silver breast 

The sun ariseth in his majesty. 
Who doth the world so gloriously behold 
That cedar-tops and hills seem burnish'd gold. 

(From "Venus and Adonis.") 

[Lesson X, Part III.] 

88416 Agnus Dei Bizet 

This beautiful setting of the Agnus Dei (O Lamb of God), the prayer in the 
Roman Catholic Mass, is the air from the Pastorale of L 'Arlesienne " by 
Georges Bizet. It was arranged in this form by Ernest Guiraud (1837-1892), 
one of Bizet's colleagues in Paris, who was a great admirer of the composer of 
"Carmen." Guiraud did much to aid the French public in their tardy apprecia- 
tion of the works of Bizet. [Lesson XXIX, Part IV.] 

88085 Habanera ("Carmen") Bizet 

This "Habenera" for mezzo-soprano is from Bizet's opera "Carmen," 
where it is sung by the Spanish cigarette-maker as she is trying to persuade the 
unfortunate Don Jose to fly with her. This aria is not only a beautiful composi- 
tion for the singer, but it is an excellent example of national expression, as Bizet 
here uses a Spanish gypsy dance tune as the basis of his musical composition. 
[Lesson II, Part I; Lesson IV, Part I; Lesson XXV, Part IV.] 

271 



92065 Toreador Song ("Carmen") Bizet 

This ever-popular aria for baritone is sung by the toreador Escamillo in the 
second act of Bizet 's ' ' Carmen. ' ' The scene shows the inn of Lillas Pastia, 
where Carmen and her gypsy friends are singing and dancing. All hail with joy 
the arrival of Escamillo, who tells them of the dangerous joys of the bull fight, 
in this remarkable descriptive aria. [Lesson II, Part I ; Lesson V, Part I ; Lesson 
XII, Part I; Lesson XX, Part II; Lesson I, Part IF; Lesson XXV, Part IV.] 

89116 Good-Night Bohemian Folk-Song 

This short, simple song is one of the most popular folk songs of Bohemia, and 
is sung every night by thousands of Bohemian children. 

Good-night, beloved, good-night, good-night, 
God keep you safe in His watchful sight, 
Good-night, dear, softly sleep. 

Copy't Rev. Vincent Pisek. 

[Lesson XX, Part /.] 

87310 Home Bohemian 

This beautiful song of ' ' Home ' ' has been sung by the Bohemians for genera- 
tions. Although oppressed by foreign rulers, and often exiled from the country 
they loved so well, the Bohemians have always clung to this song. [Lesson XX, 
Part 7.] 

87306 Last Tears Bohemian 

This song is the work of Mine. Destinu, the well-known dramatic soprano. 
It is a descriptive song, telling of the lover who forsees the end of love. As 
he leaves his beloved at the door of her home in the gray dawn, he tells her that 
the day will come when she will remember the tears that she saw in his eyes when 
he bade her farewell. The song opens with a choral-like strain, in which the 
fears of the lover that the time of disillusion has come, are easily distinguished. 
His memory recalls the dances he has enjoyed with this loved one, their first words 
of love, their daughter and happiness. The song closes with the plaintive strain 
with which it opened. [Lesson XX, Part I.] 

87554 The Wedding Bohemian Folk-Song 

One of the most popular of the Bohemian folk songs is ' ' The Wedding, ' ' which 
is a " dialogue song ' ' sung by the bride and bridegroom. 

To the church door now they lead my dear one ; 
"This time, O maiden dearest, this time thou art mine." 
"No, not quite yet, my most beloved, 
I am my mother's still, not thine." 



From the altar now I lead my dear one ; 

"This time. O maiden dearest, this time thou art mine." 

"Now I am thine, my most beloved, 

Not my mother's now, but thine." 

Copy't Rev. Vincent Pisek. 

[Lesson XX, Part I.] 

37600 At the Brook Boisdeffre 

Eene de Boisdeffre (1838-1906) was a talented French composer who is 

chiefly known for his chamber-music compositions. He wrote with great elegance 

of style and his compositions are always pleasing to the ear. This short piece is 

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Analyses 



for trio ; violin, 'cello and piano, and is an excellent example of poetic thought. 
Note the rhythmic imitation of the booklet. [Lesson VII, Part I; Lesson XII, 
Part /.] 

64933 From the Green Fields (Mefistofele") Bo'ito 

The greatest Italian opera, based on the story of Goethe's "Faust," is 
Boi'to T s " Mefistof ele, " which was produced in Milan in 1868, just nine years 
after Gounod wrote his famous opera on the same subject. Boi'to wrote his own 
libretto, and endeavored to give in one work the whole scheme of Goethe 's 
drama. This aria takes place in the second scene of the first act, which shows 
the study of Dr. Faust at night. Faust sings this beautiful aria of the green 
fields, in which he speaks of his love for God and his fellow men. This is one 
of the most exquisite of all Italian operatic airs for tenor. (For words, see "Vic- 
trola Book of the Opera,") [Lesson XIX, Part IV.] 

74651 L'Altra Notte (One Night in the Sea) (" Mefistof ele") Bolto 

This great aria is sung by Margaret at the opening of the Prison Scene, 
third act, of Bo'ito 's opera, ' ' Mefistof ele. ' ' In this lament, Margaret tells of 
how she went to the sea one night in sadness and drowned her baby. Streatfeild 
says of this opera, ' ' Although ' Mefiistof ele ' is unsatisfactory as a whole, the 
extraordinary beauty of several single scenes, ought to secure for it such im- 
mortality as the stage has to offer. Boi'to is most happily inspired by the charac- 
ter of Margaret, and the two scenes in which she appears are masterpieces of beauty 
and pathos." [Lesson XIX, Part IV.] 

45133 Chorus of Tartar Women. Chorus and Dance (" Prince Igor") Borodin 
Borodin was one of the group of Russian musicians, whose work as a com- 
poser was not his only profession. A scientist and university professor, the com- 
position of music was an avocation to Borodin. His musical works, therefore, 
were composed under great difficulties. His greatest opera, ' ' Prince Igor, ' ' for 
which he wrote both words and music, was left unfinished and was found after 
Borodin 's death by his friends Eimsky-Korsakow and Glazounoff, who completed 
the work. 

These choruses and oriental dances occur in the second act, which takes place 
in the camp of the Khan Konchak, where Igor is held captive. These dances are 
remarkable examples of the Cossack dance, the folk music of the Orient which 
came into Eussia from her Eastern provinces. [Lesson XV, Part IV.] 

Poco Allegretto Symphony in F Major, No. 3 Brahms 

Brahms wrote four symphonies, which are rightly regarded as the greatest 
work in this form since Beethoven 's day. The Symphony in F Major was first 
performed in Vienna in 1883. This is the third movement of the Symphony and 
takes the place of the traditional scherzo. It is scored for a very small orchestra, 
only strings wood-winds and two horns being employed. The opening melody is 
given by the violoncello and is almost immediately repeated by the first violins; 
it is then given out by the flute, oboe and horn, playing in three octaves with string 
accompaniment. The theme of the trio is first played by the wood-winds and 
horns. This is an excellent illustration of the horn used as a member of the 
wood-wind choir. The use of the horn and oboe should also be noted at the close 
of the movement when the first theme is brought back and repeated. I Lesson XXI. 
Part II; Lesson XVI, Part III.] 



* In preparation. 

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Analyses 



64553 Ever Lighter is My Slumber Brahms 

No composer siace Schubert has written so many exquisite songs as has 
Johannes Brahms. There are more than fifty of his songs which can be ranked 
as among the best in song literature. Although a romanticist in every measure 
of his music, Brahms has carried into all his compositions a classic regard for 
formal construction. For this reason every one of his poems would be a satis- 
factory musical composition even without the words. It has been said that 
' ' Brahms ' songs are mere instrumental compositions with words added, ' ' but this 
is hardly just, although it is quite true that the accompaniment and the melody 
do make a complete composition in themselves. [Lesson XXI, Part II.] 

74303 Hungarian Dances Brahms 

Brahms became interested in Hungarian music through his friendship for 
Eduard Remenyi, the great violinist and to him he dedicated his Hungarian 
Dances, written originally for the piano. Brahms does not give a clue as to 
whether the dances are original or were taken from the real Hungarian melodies. It 
is certain they possess all the national characteristics of the Czardas, the alternating 
Lassan and Friska being excellently employed. These arrangements for violin were 
made by Joseph Joachim, the great violinist, who was a warm admirer of Brahms. 
[Lesson XXI, Part I; Lesson XX, Part III.] 

17973 Hungarian Dance, No. 5 Brahms 

Brahms left four books of Hungarian Dances, which in their original version 
were written as pianoforte duets. One of the most typical of the unusual charm 
of the Hungarian influence is No. 5 of the series, which is played on this record 
by the ' ' cembalom, ' ' an instrument which belongs distinctly to the Hungarian 
Gypsy Orchestras. Beyond doubt the cembalom is the direct descendant of the 
dulcimer of Biblical days. It has passed through the transformation of the clavi- 
cembalo or early keyboard instrument, which was the precursor of the harpsi- 
chord, clavichord and modern pianoforte. Among the folk it has retained many 
of its ancient characteristics, and in the gypsy orchestras of Poland and Hungary 
it has changed but little from the early form. As used by the Hungarians, the 
cembalom has a trapezoidal sounding board with metal strings. Each note has 
from three to five strings and the tone is produced by two small, padded, hammer- 
like sticks. The instrument has a range of four octaves, so that compositions of 
pretentious proportions are possible to be played upon it. The reverse of this 
record is a typical Hungarian Czardas, also played on the cembalom. [Lesson 
XXI, Part I.] 

18440 Lullaby Brahms 

In this beautiful lullaby, Brahms has caught the simple grace of the folk song. 
When one remembers the greatness of Brahms' contrapuntal skill one feels that 
Gluck spoke the truth when he said, ' ' Simplicity and truth are the sole principles 
of the beautiful in art. ' ' [Lesson XXI, Part II.] 

18440 Little Dustman Brahms 

This is an adaptation by Brahms of an old folk song. It is a charming 
example of the regular three-part folk song. Notice the grace and beauty of the 
accompaniment to this song, which although simple in form and melody fits the 
meaning of the words in a truly remarkable manner. [Lesson XXI, Part II.\ 

63794 My Sweetheart Has A Rosy Mouth Brahms 

Brahms retained the folk song spirit in practically all of his songs and it is 

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Analyses 

this simplicity which makes the appeal of this little song so very strong. [Lesson 
XXI, Part II.] 

45060 The Smith Brahms 

"The Smith" is the shortest of any of the Brahms songs. It is a setting 
of a poem by Uhland. The maiden here tells of her lover, the mighty blacksmith, 
and she declares he is a hero even if he does work all day amid the grime of the 
blacksmith 's shop. The accompaniment is obviously intended to suggest the sparks 
flying from the anvil and is a striking example of the principle of making the 
accompaniment a vital part of the dramatic significance of the song. [Lesson XXI, 
Part II.] 

35674 Festival Te Deum Suck 

Dudley Buck (1839-1909) was one of the most important musicians of 
America during the late nineteenth century. He was the first great American 
composer to realize the importance of the organ and its influence upon church 
music. His two largest choral works were the ' ' Golden Legend, ' ' and ' ' The Light 
of Asia, ' ' but his influence in the field of church music was probably stronger 
and more lasting than in that of concert music. Although he never wrote with 
a distinctive individuality, there is, as one critic has said : "A Mendelssohnian 
fluency of writing, and a natural melodic line, which have gained for Dudley Buck 's 
works the favor of a large public. ' ' The ' ' Festival Te Deum, ' ' No. 7 in E flat, 
Op. 63, No. 1, is typical of Buck's style. This richly-flowing choral music is 
interspersed with several beautiful solos and duets. [Lesson XXX, Part II. J 

45069 Non piango e non sospiro ("Eurydice") Caccini 

Giulio Caccini, or Giuilo Romano as he is sometimes called, was one of the 
original members of the Florentine Camerata. He as well as Peri wrote a musical 
setting for the drama ' ' Eurydice ' ' by Rinnuccini. Several of the selections from 
Caccini 's setting were used in the original performance at the Pitta Palace in 
1600, though Caccini also contributed to that occasion a shorter composition in the 
same style. The two settings of ' ' Eurydice ' ' have much in common, and are so 
similar in style that one can easily see how they could have been combined for 
one performance. This new style, known as the stile rappresentativo, shows a close 
observance to the meaning of the text and a subservience to the structure of the 
poetry which is almost servile. Yet in this aria, which voices the resignation of 
Orfeo, there is much dramatic strength and purity. It is, in truth, a wonderful 
illustration of the principle ' ' that music, drama and interpreter are of equal 
importance." [Lesson VI, Part II; Lesson II, Part IV.] 

45170 At Dawning Cadman 

One of the most beautiful songs by Charles Wakefield Cadman is his "At 
Dawning, ' ' which, like his other works, takes its theme from one of the American 
Indian melodies. This arrangement for orchestra has been made by Victor Herbert. 
The movement is slow, the opening melody in the strings is enhanced by the bird- 
like tones from the wood-winds, and the sparkling notes of the harp, seem to depict 
the glitter of the diamond dew drops on the leaves as they are kissed by the sun 
rays of morning. Slowly, but gradually gaining in strength and majesty, the dawn 
advances, until the broad sweep of melody in the full orchestra proclaims the sun 
riding clear in the heavens. (This number should be contrasted with "Morning" 
by Edvard Grieg.) [Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

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Analyses 

64705 Little Firefly Cadman 

In this charming little piece, based on Indian themes, Cadman has painted in 
tone a clever picture of the dainty firefly (Wah-Wah Taysee), as it lightens up 
the dark night on the prairie. This is an excellent example of an imitative com- 
position which belongs to the poetic rather than the descriptive classification. 
[Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

* Song of the Bobin Woman ("Shanewis") Cadman 

"Shanewis, " or the "Robin Woman" is a two-act opera by Charles Wakefield 
Cadman, with text by Nelle Richmond Eberhardt. It was given its first per- 
formance by the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York, March 23, 1918. The 
presentation was far from adequate yet the work was received with enthusiastic 
interest; nevertheless it was given only a few times. The story is of an Indian 
girl, Shanewis, who possesses a beautiful voice. Her singing attracts the atten- 
tion of a wealthy woman who gives Shanewis an education. The Indian maiden 
falls in love with the son of her benefactress, but finds that the young man is 
betrothed to the daughter of his mother's friend. The Indian suitor of Shanewis. 
finding that she has been deceived shoots her lover with a poisoned arrow. In 
this aria, Shanewis tells of the song of an ancient princess of her tribe, who was 
called the ' ' Robin Woman ' ' because she knew the language of the birds and could 
bring them to her when she sang this song. [Lesson XXX, Part IV.] 

17703 Come llaggio di Sol Caldara 

One of the last composers of the seventeenth century Venetian opera school, 
Antonio Caldara (1670-1736) is best known for his contemplative style of com- 
position. His works include operas, sacred operas (a particular form of oratorio), 
oratorios, cantatas and masses. This aria is the most familiar and beautiful of 
Caldara 's known works. The melody fits the text in a union which is rarely 
found in the early schools of opera. 

As on the swelling wave, in idle motion, 

Wanton sunbeams at play are gaily riding ; 
While in the bosom of unfathpmed ocean 

There lies a tempest in hiding. 
So are many that wear a mien contented, 



While deep within the bosom lies a heart tormented. 

Copy't 1894 G. Schirmer. 
[Lesson VII, Part II; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

17870 Joseph Mine Calvisius 

Sethus Calvisius (1556-1615) was one of Bach's predecessors at the Thomas 
Schule in Leipsic. Calvisius was not only renowned as a musician but was also a 
famous chronologer and astronomer. While in Leipsic in 1611, he was offered the 
Chair of Mathematics at Wittenberg University, a position he declined in favor 
of music. Many of his hymns and motets are in the Library of the Thomas 
Schule, and doubtless they did much to inspire Bach. One of the few works of 
Calvisius that is generally known is this motet, "Joseph Mine." Written in 1587, 
it is an excellent example of the counterpoint of the schools of that period. 



* In preparation. 

276 



Analyses 



Eja, eja, sum impleta quae praedixit Gabriel: 
Joseph, tender Joseph mine, Eja, eja, eja. 

Help me rock my babe divine, Virgo Deum genuit, 

Slumber, darling baby mine. quod divina voluit dementia. 

dementia, dementia, dementia. 

***** 

Copy't 1898 G. Schirmer. 
[Lesson V, Part II. ] 

17703 Vittoria, mio Core! Carissimi 

It was Carissimi who developed the early oratorio and, in truth, laid the 
foundation of that form. Although he wrote many operas and cantatas, he is 
chiefly identified with the oratorio school. The words of this aria are not relig- 
ious, but in character it is similar to the virile baritone arias of the day. Com- 
pare it with ' ' Sound an Alarm ' ' by Handel. This aria describes a poor lover 
who has attempted to break love 's bonds and has at last achieved his purpose. 

Victorious my heart is, 
And tears are in vain. 
For love now has broken 
Its shackles in twain. 
* * * * 

Copy't 1880 G. Schirmer. 
[Lesson VII, Part II ; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

45069 Intorno all' idol mio (Caressing Mine Idol's Pillow) Cesti 

Marc Antonio Cesti was a Franciscan monk who was born in Arezzo 1620 and 
died in Venice in 1669. He is identified with the second period of Venetian 
opera. In attempting to free the opera from the buffoonery of his predecessor, 
Cavalli, and also to introduce the more dignified character of his master, Carissimi, 
Cesti divided the opera into Opera Buffa and Opera Seria (the latter is often 
referred to as "Oratorio Opera"). His chief contribution to opera was the form 
of the Da Capo aria, or the repetition of the first part of the aria entirely, after 
the conclusion of the second part. It was due to the later development of the 
Da Capo aria that the opera lost so much of its dramatic strength. Cesti 's first 
opera, ' ' Orontea, ' ' was produced at A T enice in 1 649. This aria, which is from 
' ' Orontea, " is an excellent example of the Da Capo form. 

Caressing mine idol's pillow, 
lireathe lightly o'er me. ye zephyrs, 
Bear my greetings to her. 

[Lesson VI, Part II; Lesson II, Part IF.] 

74621 Espana Sapsodie Chabrier 

Alexis Emmanuel Chabrier (1841-1894) was one of the best loved of the 
French orchestral composers of the late 19th century. This work, which was in- 
spired by Chabrier 's travels in Spain, was first produced in 1883, and was the 
first work by Chabrier to win universal recognition for its composer. The 
Espana Rapsodie is as its name implies a freely constructed fantasia on Spanish 
dance tunes, the Jota and Malagueiia being brought the most prominently before 
the hearer. The Jota is a type of Spanish dance, which is always sung by the 
dancers who accompany themselves with guitars and castanets, playing as they 
dance. The Malaguena is practically the same dance as the Fandango. Like the 
Jota it is also in triple time and accompanied by castanets. There is a slight 
rhythmical difference between the two dance tunes, which is easily recognized. 

277 



Analyses 

This Rapsodie follows no fixed form, but is simply a fascinating combination of 
these two Spanish dances. [Lesson XXIX, Part 777.] 

55072 Veni, Creator Spiritus Charlemagne 

This old Latin hymn has been for centuries attributed to Charlemagne, though 
there are some Church authorities who claim that it is one of the Ambrosian 
hymns of the fourth century. 

Ekkehard's "Life of Notker" (a work of the thirteenth century) tells that 
Notker, who was a man of gentle, contemplative nature, was moved by the sound 
of a mill wheel to compose the musical sequence, ' ' Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis 
gratia. ' ' When he had finished this hymn he sent it as a present to the Emperor 
Charles ("Charles the Bold"), the grandson of Charlemagne. The Emperor sent 
him in return the hymn ' ' Veni Creator, ' ' which ' ' the Spirit had inspired him to 
write." Some historians point out this story and claim that Charles the Bold 
appropriated the hymn of his grandfather for this occasion. The army of 
Jeanne D 'Are is known to have used this chant as their battle hymn, and it is said 
that the troops led by ' ' The Maid of Orleans ' ' sang the ' ' Veni Creator ' ' before 
every battle. 

It has been constantly sung throughout Western Europe as part of the offices 
for the coronation of kings, the consecration and ordination of bishops and priests 
and for all high ecclesiastical solemnities, including the coronation of popes. 
Gustave Mahler uses this hymn as a text in the first movement of his Eighth 
Symphony. 

The Latin verses here used are: ENGLISH TRANSLATION 

Veni Creator Spiritus Come, Holy Ghost, Creator blest, 

Mentes Tuorum Visita And in pur souls take up Thy rest ; 

Imple superna gratia Come with Thy grace and heavenly aid 

Quae tu creasti pectora. And fill the hearts which Thou hast made. 

Qui paraclitus diceris O Comforter to Thee we cry ; 

Donum Dei altissimi Thou Heavenly gift of God Most High ; 

Fons vivus, ignis, caritas The fount of life, the floor of love 

Et Spiritalis unctio. The soul's anointing from above. 

Hostem Repellas longius Do thou the enemy repel 

Pacemque clones protinus And grant Thou peace at home to dwell ; 

Ductore sic te praevio With Thee, our head, protecting arm, 

Vitemus omne noxium. May we escape from every harm. 

[Lesson III, Part II.] 

74252 Depuislejour ("Louise") Charpenlier 

Charpentier in his opera "Louise" paints in tone a perfect picture of the 
Bohemian life in Paris. This great aria occurs in the third act, which takes place 
in the garden of the small house on Montmartre, where Julien has taken Louise. 
To his question if she is truly happy, she replies in this song. [Lesson XXVII, 
Part IV.] 

55075 Guide Thou My Steps (From "Les Deux Journees") Cherubini 

Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini (1760-1842) is one of the 
most interesting personalities of music history. But four years younger than 
Mozart, he lived to see the beginning of the modern school of music. (The first 
performance of Wagner's "Rienzi" took place in 3842.) Born in Italy, Cheru- 
bini lived most of his life in France, where he witnessed the great Revolution, the 
rise and fall of Napoleon and the reconstruction of the Republic under Louis 
Philippe. At the founding of ' ' the Conservatoire de Musique ' ' in Paris, 1 795, 
Cherubini was appointed one of the three Inspectors; later, on account of 

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A naly s c s 

Napoleon's aversion to him, Cherubim went to Vienna; but the war between 
Austria and France soon brought him into the power of his old enemy, and he 
returned to France, where he went into semi-retirement for several years. During 
' ' The Hundred Days ' ' Napoleon made him a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and 
he received further honors from Louis XVIII. In 1822 he became Director of the 
Conservatoire, and during his long regime there all the important French Com- 
posers of the Romantic School came under his tutelage. 

Cherubini's career as a composer is usually divided into three periods. The 
first (1760-91) is the Italian Period, and most of the works of this time are in 
the old style of the Italian Church School, or light operettas. In the second period 
his greatest dramatic works were written; while in the third period, dating from 
1816, his sacred compositions were perfected. The most popular of Cherubini's 
operas is "Les Deux Journees, " written in 1800. This work, known as "Der 
Wassertrager, ' ' is called in English either ' ' The Two Days, " or " The Water 
Carrier. ' ' Its setting is Paris during the ' ' Reign of Terror, ' ' and the story is of 
a poor water carrier who befriends a French magistrate. Although Cherubini 
devoted his life to French music, one can hardly class him as a French composer, 
for he never lost his classic manner of expression. It is therefore but natural that 
his music has met with greater appreciation in Germany than in any other land. 
' ' Der Wassertrager ' ' is still a popular opera on the German stage. Beethoven 
considered the libretto of this opera the best in existence and esteemed Cherubini 
above all the writers for the stage of his day. [Lesson XVIII, Part II ; Lesson 
VII, Part IV.} 

55075 Requiem Aeternam ("Eequiem Mass in C Minor") Cherubini 

It is in his sacred music that Cherubini most freely developed his individual 
genius, for his great knowledge of counterpoint is here combined with the best 
of his writing for the voice. The Requiem in C, which belongs to the third period 
of Cherubini's life, is rightly regarded as his greatest and most famous work. 
The Requiem Mass is the most solemn Mass of the Catholic Church. Palestrina 
gave it its present form, but it remained for Mozart and Cherubini to carry the 
form to its culmination. Cherubini left two marvelous works in this form; the 
first, in C Minor, was written for the anniversary of the death of King Louis XVI 
(1793), and was sung for the first time at the Abbey Church of St. Denis 1817. 
' ' Its general character is one of extreme mournf ulness, pervaded throughout 
by deep religious feeling. ' ' This is particularly noticeable in the opening chorus 
(Introit), "Requiem Aeternam." [Lesson IX, Part IV.] 

74260 tude (Opus 10, No. 6) f Chopin 

Chopin, in speaking of his Etudes, says : ' ' Everything is to be read cantabile, 
even in my Etudes; everything must be made to sing the bass, the minor parts 
everything. The singing hand may deviate from strict time, but the accom- 
panying hand must keep time. Fancy a tree with its branches swayed by the 
wind the stem is the steady time, the moving leaves are the melodic inflections. ' ' 
Chopin's music, even in these short studies, is always expressive of his own 
individual sufferings. For this reason he has often been compared to Heinrich 
Heine, whose tragic heart longings always color his lyric poetry. 

Of all the piano virtuosos Chopin has achieved the greatest fame as a com- 
poser for his chosen instrument. Always spontaneous, always refined, always 
romantic, each short piece by Chopin, be it intended as a study, or as a prelude, 
or as a definite dance form, has its own individual place in the works of the 

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Analyses 

composer and in the hearts of the audience of Chopin's admirers. [Lesson XVII, 
Part II.} 

35157 Funeral March Chopin 

This ever-popular composition is in reality the third movement of Chopin's 
great B flat minor Sonata for piano, written by the Polish pianist while in Paris. 
It really reflects his grief over the loss of Polish independence. The march 
follows the regulation form of march, trio, march. Notice the theme of the trio, 
which seems to breathe a spirit of consolation in sorrow. Liszt says of this com- 
position : ' ' All that the funeral procession of an entire nation in mourning, 
weeping for its own death, could contain of desolate woe, of deepest sorrow, is 
found in this funeral knell. One feels here that it is not only the death of a hero 
who is mourned, while other heroes remain to avenge him, but rather that of an 
entire generation of warriors who have succumbed, leaving only women, children 
and priests. ' ' [Lesson XVII, Part III.] 

64263 Mazurka No. %, A flat Major Chopin 

The Mazurka is a Polish dance, which is said to have originated in the six- 
teenth century. It was always sung while the folk danced, and is exclusively a 
dance of the common people, whereas the Polonaise is the dance of the nobility. 
Although the name Mazurka means measure, the dance is remarkable for the 
variety and liberty of its performance; in fact, many mazurkas become in truth 
improvisations, for the invention of new steps and figures was ever permissible. 
The music is 3-4 or 3-8 time and consists of two parts of eight measures each, 
repeated several times. 

Chopin treated the Mazurka in a new and original manner, refining it of all 
vulgarity. He employed Polish folk tunes, but retained little more than the char- 
acter of the old folk dance. [Lesson XXI, Part III.] 

64076 The Minute Walts Chopin 

This charming little composition is a perfect example of the waltz form, con- 
sisting of the waltz, trio, waltz. It was originally written for piano, but makes a 
most attractive number as it is here played by the violin. 

There is a story that this composition was suggested to Chopin upon seeing 
Oeorge Sands' little dog whirl 'round and 'round in pursuit of his tail. [Lesson 
XII, Part I.] 

35241 Polonaise Militaire Chopin 

This great composition known as ' ' the military polonaise ' ' was composed by 
Chopin in 1843 for pianoforte solo. This work has always been considered the 
greatest composition which Chopin has written in the form of the polonaise, the 
national dance of his tragic country. It is more than the stately dance of the 
Polish nobility, although it follows the general contour of danee-trio-dance. 
Mecks thus describes it : "Is this the composer of the dreamy nocturnes, the 
elegant waltzes, who here fumes and frets, struggling with a fierce suffocating 
rage, and then shouts forth, sure of victory, his bold and scornful challenge? 
And in the trio, do we not hear the tramping of horses the clatter of arms and 
spurs, and the sound of trumpets? Do we not hear and see, too, a high-spirited 
chivalry approaching and passing in this martial tone picture?" [Lesson XVII, 
Part II. ] 

74260 Prelude (Op. 28. No. 34) Chopin 

When Robert Schumann in 1839 reviewed in The New Journal of Music the 

280 



Analyses 

Preludes of Chopin, he called him "the boldest and proudest poetic spirit of the 
times. " " He might have added, ' ' continues Edward Dannreuther, ' ' that Chopin 
was a legitimately trained musician of quite exceptional attainments; a pianist 
of the first order, and a composer for the pianoforte pre-eminent beyond com- 
parison, a great master of style, a fascinating melodist, as well as a most original 
manipulator of puissant and refined rhythm and harmony. Each etude, prelude 
or impromptu presents an aspect of the subject not pointed out before. Like a 
magician, he appears possessed of the secret to transmit and transfigure what- 
ever he touches into some weird crystal, convincing in its conformation, trans- 
parent in its eccentricity, of which no duplicate is possible, no imitation desirable." 
In each of his pieces Chopin makes a direct impression. Each has its own 
individual personality, though all possess the charming grace of their creator. 
[Lesson XVII, Part 77.] 

55072 Hymn to St. John the Baptist Church 

One of the most famous early hymns of the Christian Church was the ' ' Hymn 
to St. John the Baptist," by Paul Diaconus (about 770 A. D.). Guido of Arezzo 
developed his system of solfeggio from this hymn. Noting that each line of the 
hymn began on the successive tones of the scale, Guido took these syllables to 
represent the tones, and his method has proved of great value in the development 
of sight singing. The original Latin words are: 

UT quenat laxis 
.RE'sonare fibris 
M7ra gestorum 
Famuli tuorum 
SOlve polluti 
LAbii reatum 
Sancte Joannes 

The first syllable, UT, was changed later to DO. Saint Ian (French for St. 
John) became the syllable SI, which was later changed TI. The English transla- 
tion is: 

"In order that Thy servants with loose (vocal) chords may sing again and 
again the wonders of Thy deeds, quash the indictment against our sinful lips, 
O Saint John ! ' ' 

On this record Miss Kline also sings the Major Diatonic Scale (descending 
and ascending), the Chromatic Scale and four forms of the Minor Scale: Normal, 
Harmonic, Melodic and Tonic. [Lesson III, Part 77.] 

55072 Lament for Charlemagne Church 

Charlemagne (742-814), Charles the Great, was the Boman emperor and 
King of the Franks from 768. He did much to spread the cause of learning 
and was much interested in the development of music. He collected songs of the 
old bards, and sent clerks to Pope Adrian in Borne to be trained in the rudiments 
of singing. His greatest achievement was the founding of the University of 
Paris. This ' ' Lament ' ' was doubtless written in one of the monasteries, and 
was chanted alike throughout France and Germany, as both nations claimed 
Charlemagne as their own ruler. Although the words are, in a sense, secular, 
the music is typical of the church chant of this time and was written down in 
the Neume notation of the period. The melody is confined within the limits of 
the tetrachord. The words are: 

2S1 



Analyses 



LATIN ENGLISH 

A soils ortu usque ad occidua From, the rising sun to the western 

Littora maris planctus pulsat pectora : shores of the sea, lamentation makes the 

Ultra marina agmina tristitia hearts of men throb. Overwhelming sor- 

Tetigit ingens cum maerore (errore) row has covered with excessive grief our 

mimio, armies beyond the sea. Alas, I lament in 

Heu ! me dolens, plango ! Franci, my grief ! 

Roman! atque cuncti creduli, Franks, Romans, and all true believers, 

Luctu punguntur et magna molestia infants, aged, renowned princes, feel the 

In fantes senes, gloriosi principes : pangs of sorrow and a great calamity. 

Nam clangit orbis detrimentum Karoli For the earth cries out the loss of Charles 

Heu! mihi misero ! (Charlemagne.) 

Alas, miserable me ! 

[Lesson III, Part II.] 

55059 Onaway! Awake, Beloved Coleridge-Taylor 

This beautiful tenor aria is from the cantata "Hiawatha's Wedding Feast," 
by the Negro-English composer, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. The most popular 
of his works is this setting of Longfellow's poem, although the composer rightly 
felt that it was not truly representative of his genius. His later compositions 
show much greater breadth and originality of treatment, yet this plaintive tenor 
aria, the setting of Hiawatha's great love song, remains the best known and 
beloved of his works. [Lesson XXVIII, Part II.] 

64786 Song of the Vikings Coleridge-Taylor 

This stirring song by Coleridge-Taylor is a modern Viking song. Its spirit 
so encompasses one that the giant-like, sturdy Vikings stand in their carved ships 
before one 's eyes, all adventure. ' ' Lord of the Waves We Are ' ' was quite true of 
the Vikings, and Faning has given the poem a splendid setting. [Lesson XXVIII, 
Part II.] 

64292 Chanson Louis XIII and Pavane Couperin 

King Louis XIII of France is said to have been a very excellent musician and 
many old airs are attributed to him. This song of pastoral character was originally 
called "Amaryllis." This simple composition follows the song form A-B-A. The 
introduction and coda should be noticed. The Pavane was a stately old dance 
of Italian origin, taking its name from Padua. Some say the name pavanne 
comes from the Latin word pavannis (pavo meaning peacock), referring to the 
stately, proud steps of that bird. This dance follows the pattern of A-A-B-A coda. 
[Lesson VIII, Part I.] 

* Whoopee Ti Yi To, Git Along, Little Dogies Cowboy Song 

One of the most interesting of our purely American sources of folk music is 
the unique song of the cowboy of the great Southwest. The cowboy songs are 
essentially folk music, for they came into being spontaneously and simply; they 
reflect the occupations and customs of their creators, whose names have long since 
been forgotten. In a letter to John A. Lomax, whose book, ' ' Cowboy Songs, ' ' 
is the only collection of these interesting songs, Theodore Eoosevelt says : ' ' There 
is something very curious in the reproduction here on this new continent of essen- 
tially the conditions of ballad-growth, which obtained in medieval England. How- 
ever, the native ballad is speedily killed by competition with the music hall songs, 
the cowboys becoming ashamed to sing the crude homespun ballads in view of what 
Owen Wister calls the 'ill smelling saloon cleverness' of the far less interesting 
compositions of the music hall singers. ' ' The ballad form, with its many verses, 
always made a direct appeal to the cowboy, but the most characteristic of his songs 



* In preparation. 

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Analyses 

are known as the ' ' Dogie Songs. ' ' Mr. Lomax calls these ' ' improvised cattle 
lullabies, which were created for the purpose of preventing cattle stampedes. ' ' 
These ' ' Dogie Songs ' ' belong to the days of the ' ' long trail ' ' when the cattle 
were driven up each spring to Wyoming and Montana from their breeding grounds 
in Texas. ' ' Whoopee Ti Ti Yo ' ' is one of the best and most popular of the 
' ' Dogie Songs. ' ' [Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

45066 Orientale (Kaleidoscope) Cui 

This violoncello selection is No. 9 in a suite entitled ' ' Kaleidoscope, ' ' a work 
by the great Russian composer, Cesar Cui. The modern form of suite is usually 
classed with program music, for instead of being but a collection of dances, as 
was the form during the classic period, the suite of to-day is given a general 
descriptive title, while each selection has its own title and all seek to express 
the same idea. Each is in the same key. This suite is entitled ' ' Kaleidoscope ' ' and 
each number is of a different form and coloring. The ' ' Orientale ' ' dance is a 
very good example of the rhythmic and melodic character of the dances of the 
Far East. Note the 'cello effects which are here used. [Lesson XXII, Part II. J 

16047 The Wren Damare 

This short composition is an excellent example of the tone quality of the 
piccolo, or octave flute. As the name indicates, this is a short tone picture of 
the twittering little bird, the wren. It is a good example of imitative music. 
[Lesson X, Part III.] 

35476 Danny Deever Damrosch 

No descriptive song by any American composer is better deserving of its 
popularity than ' ' Danny Deever. ' ' This musical setting of Kipling 's poem is by 
Walter Damrosch (1862), the well-known American conductor and composer. The 
poem is from Kipling 's ' ' Barrack Room Ballads ' ' and tells the gruesome story 
of the hanging of Danny Deever, who ' ' shot a comrade sleeping ' ' and became 
' ' the regiment 's disgrace. ' ' 

On the reverse of this record is another of the ' ' Barrack Room Ballads ' ' of 
Kipling. ' ' On the Road to Mandalay ' ' is in lighter vein, and the excellent setting 
by Oley Speaks makes a charming and attractive song. [Lesson II, Part I; Lesson 
XI, Part I; Lesson XXX, Part 77.] 

16591 King Christian Danish 

' ' King Christian, ' ' the National song of Denmark, is one of the oldest known 
legendary folk songs. In 1 775 there was produced in Copenhagen a drama by 
Ewald, entitled "The Fisherman." This old song re-arranged by Johann Hart- 
mann was used in this play. So popular did the air become, that it has remained 
the National Song of Denmark ever since that day. [Lesson XXV, Part I.] 

17158 Dance of Greeting Danish 

This is one of the simplest of the Danish dance games. It is said to have been 
originated in order to teach the lesson of courtesy to little children. [Lesson VIII, 
Part I.} 

64919 Le Coucou Daquin 

Louis Claude Daquin (1694-1772) was one of the best known of the instru- 
mental composers of the French School in the early 18th century. He is one of 
the earliest examples of the infant prodigy, as Daquin is known to have played the 

283 



Analyses 

Clavecin before Louis XIV when but six years of age; while at the age of twelve, 
he became organist at the church of St. Antoine, where unusual crowds thronged 
the services, in order to hear the youthful organist. And although he lived to be 
nearly eighty, Daquin never lost his youthful enthusiasm. So fascinated was he by 
the effects and imitations which music could produce, that he frequently employed 
such means during church services. It is said that at one Christmas Eve service, 
he imitated the voice of the nightingale so perfectly on his. organ that the treasurer 
sent beadles all through the church looking for the escaped songster. This little 
tone picture, ' ' Le Coucou, ' ' originally written for Clavecin, follows the old pat- 
tern of rondo, and is based on the well-known cuckoo call, which is here admirably 
reproduced on the piano. [Lesson XI, Part I ; Lesson XXI, Part III.] 

88318 Thou Brilliant Bird (" The Pearl of Brazil") David 

Felicien David (1810-3876) was one of the first of the French Semantic 
composers to introduce Oriental effects into music. Shortly after graduation 
from college, David entered the order of St. Simonians, and when this order was 
dissolved, in 1833, he went to the Orient with a number of the brethren, as a 
missionary. Later he returned to Paris and became identified with music, and 
especially the French School of Opera. ' ' The Pearl of Brazil ' ' was produced in 
1851, and is a story of similar character to Meyerbeer's "L'Africaine. " It is 
full of interesting uses of Oriental melodies and rhythmic effects. This aria 
belongs to the type of imitative arias which are so dear to the heart of the 
coloratura soprano. [Lesson IX, Part I.] 

64934 A Beautiful Evening Debussy 
In his songs, as in some of his instrumental compositions Debussy uses the 

idiom which has come to be recognized as strictly his own. Although other com- 
posers have attempted to write music in the same style none has made this impres- 
sionistic music so distinctly a part of his individual expression as has Claude 
Debussy. "Beau Soir" (A Beautiful Evening) is one of the simplest of the 
Debussy songs. It reveals him as an impressionistic tone painter of rare ability, 
for one can clearly visualize the beauties of this night from listening to this 
exquisite melody in the voice and its accompaniment. [Lesson XXVI, Part II.] 

64935 Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum, from "A Children's Corner" Debussy 
There is a subtle humor and a real musical wit displayed by Debussy in his 

collection of short pieces for piano entitled ' ' A Children 's Corner. ' ' The most 
interesting of these is ' ' Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum, ' ' which is a ludicrous 
musical satire on the formulas of technical music study of the past. [Lesson 
XXI, Part III.] 

35464 L 'Apres-Midi d 'un Faune Debussy 

This remarkable Prelude, which is in reality a tone poem, was composed in 
1892. It was the first work which Debussy wrote for orchestra, in which his indi- 
vidual style of instrumentation is to be noticed. The music was inspired by the 
poem of Stephane Mallarme, whose unusual word pictures have been such a great 
part of the French impressionistic school of poetic imagery. Edmund Gosse thus 
describes ' ' The Afternoon of a Faun " : "A faun, a simple, sensuous, passionate 
being, wakens in the forest at daybreak and tries to recall his experience of the 
previous afternoon. Was he the fortunate recipient of an actual visit from 
nymphs, white and golden goddesses, divinely tender and indulgent, or is the 
memory he seems ts retain but the shadow of a vision, no more substantial than 

284 



Analyses 

the 'arid rain' of notes from his own flute? He cannot tell. Yet surely there 
was, surely there is, an animal whiteness among the brown reeds of the lake that 
shines out yonder? Were they, are they, swans? No! But naiads plunging? 
Perhaps ! Vaguer and vaguer grows the impression of this delicious experience. 
He would resign his woodland godship to retain it. A garden of lilies, golden - 
headed, white-stalked, behind the trellis of red roses? Ah! the effort is too great 
for his weak brain. Perhaps if he selects one lily from the garth of lilies, one 
benign and beneficent yielder of her cup to thirsty lips, the memory, the ever- 
receding memory, may be forced back. So, when he has glutted upon a bunch 
of grapes, he is wont to toss the empty skins into the air and blow them out in 
a visionary greediness. But no, the delicious hour grows vaguer. Experience or 
dream, he will know which it was. The sun is warm, the grasses yielding; and 
he curls himself up again, after worshipping the efficacious star of wine, that he 
may pursue the dubious ecstasy into the more hopeful boscages of sleep. ' ' 

The principal theme is given by the flute, and this is followed by a dreamy 
melody, first intoned by the wood-winds. It is taken up by the horn, then by the 
oboe and clarinet in dialogue. The first theme returns, but now the 'cello joins 
the flute and the melody dies away as though into the mist which surrounds the 
sleeping faun. [Lesson VII, Part III; Lesson XXVII, Part IV,} 

88083 Maria, Mari de Capua 

This Neapolitan folk song belongs to the class of composed folk songs. Its 
composer, Edward de Capua, belongs to the group of modern Italian composers 
who have written songs in the folk song manner. This song is one of the most 
popular of the Italian street songs of to-day. [Lesson XVI, Part /.] 

64834 La Spagnola Di Chiara 

This dance song by Di Chiara is in the form of a Bolero. The Bolero is 
one of the most dignified Spanish folk dances, and was very popular at Court, as 
well as with the common people. The Spanish folk say the dance dates back to 
the period of the Moors, but many authorities on dancing claim the Bolero was 
the invention of Sebastian Cerezo, a celebrated Spanish dancer of the eighteenth 
century. 

The music of the Bolero is varied, and there are many cadenzas for the voice, 
as well as the instruments. The tune, or air, is varied at will by the singers, but 
the rhythm must always be retained in a very marked and regular form. [Lesson 
AT/7, Part /.] 

3 7793 Mon coear se recommande a vous de Lassus 

Orlando de Lassus (1532-1594) was known as the "Prince of Musicians." 
He was the culmination of the Netherland School and was its greatest genius. He 
is contemporaneous with Palestrina, of the Roman School. Although more popu- 
lar in his lifetime than the great Roman master of counterpoint, de Lassus is 
little know r n to-day. His works, of both religious and secular character, are 
deserving of far more attention from musicians of our day. The words of this 
beautiful aria are: "My heart calls to thee full of sorrow and misery. Grant me 
at least the strength to leave thee. My tongue once full of pleasant words and 
happy laughter can now only curse those who have banished me from thy sight. ' ' 
[Lesson V, Part II. ] 

74510 Bell Song ("Lakme") Delibes 

Leo Delibes (183G-1891) is principally known as a composer of ballet music; 

285 



Analyses 

however, his opera, ' ' Lakme, " is a work of much charm and beauty. It was first 
produced in Paris in 1883, and, on account of the rare opportunity given to the 
coloratura soprano, it has remained a popular opera in modern repertoire. 

The Bell Song occurs in the second act, the scene of which is set in a street 
bazaar in an Indian city. Lakme has been brought there from her secluded home 
in the forest by her father, the fanatical Brahmin priest, who is anxious to dis- 
cover the lover of the maiden. Commanded by her father to sing, Lakme realizes 
that his intention has been to force her lover to betray himself, and she is filled 
with dread and dismay. The Bell Song therefore becomes of dramatic importance 
in the unfolding of the plot, and is not entirely a ' ' display number ' ' as most 
coloratura arias are. The charming use of the bells and the imitation of bells by 
the voice should be noted. The words are : 

In the forest near at hand, Far away from prying sight, 

A hut of bamboo is hiding, Without there's naught to reveal it, 

'Xeath a shading tree doth stand, Silent woods by day and night, 

This roof of my providing. Ever jealously conceal it ; 

Like a nest of timid birds, Thither shalt thou follow me 

In leafy silence abiding, When dawn earth is greeting, 

From all eyes secret it lies. Thee with smiles I shall be meeting. 

And waits it there a happy pair ! For 'tis there thy home shall be. 

[Lesson IV, Part I ; Lesson XI, Part /.] 

64171 Vieni Al Contento (In Forest Depths) ("Lakme") Delibes 

This beautiful aria for tenor occurs at the opening of the third act of Delibes ' 
opera, "Lakme." The scene shows a hut in the deep tropical forest. Here 
Lakme and her faithful attendant have brought the wounded Gerald, and here 
he has been nursed back to health by the devoted Lakme. He voices his love for 
her in this exquisite aria. (For words, see "Victrola Book of the Opera.") 
[Lesson XXIV, Part IV.] 

64671 Allegro, Quartette in E Flat Dittersdorf 

Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf (1739-1799) was one of the first of the Vien- 
nese violinists to attain international fame. He accompanied Gluck on his famous 
Italian journey in 1761, and after returning to Vienna, devoted his life to 
composition. He wrote many operas, oratorios, and cantatas, twelve symphonies 
in the early form, and numerous string quartettes and shorter compositions. He 
was one of the first of Haydn's contemporaries to employ the form laid down by 
the decree of ' ' Papa Haydn. ' ' This Allegro follows the simple pattern of the 
early "Sonata form." [Lesson XXIV, Part HI.] 

74599 Cavatina ("Don Pasquale") Donizetti 

' ' Don Pasquale, ' ' produced in Paris in 1 843, is one of the comic master- 
pieces by Donizetti. The story is from Italian sources, and is very merry and 
bright. As an example of the Italian form of ' ' Opera Buff a, ' ' this work is most 
sparkling and delightful. ' ' Don Pasquale ' ' has been called ' ' the neatest fol- 
lower of the Barbiere di Siviglia"; and it is little wonder that this charming 
opera still holds the stage to-day. The ' ' Cavatina, ' ' which is sung by Norina in 
the first act, gives a rare opportunity to the coloratura soprano. [Lesson X, 
Part IV.] 

88299 Mad Scene (With flute obbligato) (" Lucia di Lammer moor") Donizetti 
Few single operatic numbers have ever met with the great popularity of this 

selection from ' ' Lucia di Lammermoor. ' ' 

This aria is regarded not only as a great opportunity for the coloratura 

286 



Analyses 

soprano to show her technical skill, but has also real dramatic value, when heard 
in its rightful place in the third act of the opera the poor demented Lucy, 
forgetting her recent, hated marriage, sings here of her love for Edgar and the 
dream of her union with him. [Lesson XVIII, Part II ; Lesson X, Part IV.] 

96200 Sextette ("Lucia di Lammermoor") Donizetti 

"Lucia di Lammermoor," the best known of Donizetti's works in the form 
of Opera Seria, is a musical setting of Sir Walter Scott 's novel, ' ' The Bride of 
Lammermoor." It was presented in Paris, in 1839. The greatest concerted 
number in the opera, usually designated as the ' ' Contract Scene, ' ' is the famous 
and ever-popular Sextette, which occurs at the end of the second act. The young 
Lucia, forced by her brother to sign the marriage contract with Sir Arthur, 
discovers that her lover Edgar is still alive and true to her. Sir Henry and 
Edgar, both overcome with anger, sing a short duet and Lucia, her maid, the 
notary Raymond and Sir Arthur, join with them in this great sextette. [Lesson X, 
Part IV.] 

74163 Humoresque Dvorak 

This charming little tone poem is Opus 101 of Dvorak's compositions, and 
was originally written for pianoforte, although the violin arrangement has been 
equally popular. This composition belongs to the class of program music pieces 
in which the true meaning of the composer 's title is left largely to the imagination 
of the audience. [Lesson XXIV, Part II.] 

Largo ("The New World Symphony") Dvorak 

This ever-popular number has its place as the second movement of Dvorak's 
Fifth Symphony, which was written after his return from America, in 1895. 
In this work, which he called ' ' From the New World, ' ' Dvorak used many musical 
idioms which had impressed him during his visit to America. Being especially 
interested in negro melodies, Dvorak employs them throughout the symphony. 
In this Largo, which is in the song form, Dvorak has given a tone picture of the 
homesick immigrant, who has come to ' ' the New World ' ' in search of fortune. 
While in America, Dvorak used to visit a Bohemian settlement in Iowa each sum- 
mer, and it is thought that these visits to his countrymen, settled on the broad 
prairies, far from their native land, impressed him in the writing of this movement. 

The theme is ' ' sung' ' by the English horn, while the muted strings play a quiet 
accompaniment. The second theme is of a more agitated character and is played 
by the flutes and oboes; after which the first is repeated. The principal melody is 
the familiar "Massa Dear." [Lesson VII, Part I; Lesson XI, Part III ; Lesson 
XXX, Part III.} 

88519 Lieblicher Mond ("Rusalka") Dvorak 

The eight operas of Dvorak are but little known outside of his native Bohemia. 
Like all of his compositions these works also reflect national Bohemian character- 
istics. Naturally, therefore, the dramatic works do not make a strong appeal 
except among Bohemian people. With the exception of ' ' Der Bauer em Schelm, ' ' 
which was presented in Dresden and Hamburg, none of Dvorak's operas has been 
heard except in Prague. "Rusalka" ("The Water Sprite") is based on an old 
Slavic fairy story, which is also popular in Russia. Dargomijsky, the Russian 

287 




Analyses 

composer, wrote an opera based on the same story in ]856. Dvorak's work dates 
from 1901. The story is similar in character to the French ' ' Undine, ' ' and 
doubtless comes from the same source in folk-lore. This aria, sung in German, is 
a most beautiful number. [Lesson XXI ]' , Part II; Lesson XV, Part IV.} 

64563 Songs My Mother Taught Me Dvorak 

This is an adaptation for the violin of the beautiful gypsy song ' ' Songs 
My Mother Taught Me, in the Days Long Vanished. ' ' It is equally beautiful in 
its present setting as it is in the song, for the violin carries the old Slavic gypsy 
melody and suggests the words now so familiar. [Lesson XXIV, Part II.} 

74437 Slavonic Dance Dvorak 

Like the Brahms Hungarian Dances, the Slavonic Dances of Dvorak were origi- 
nally written for pianoforte duet. It was with these dances, which were published 
in 1878, that Dvorak first attracted the attention of the musical world. No com- 
poser of our modern day has so remarkably reflected nationality as has Dvorak. 
In these dances we have a striking example of Dvorak's genius as a master of 
national composition. [Lesson XX, Part I ; Lesson XXIV, Part II.] 

88311 Swiss Echo Song Eckert 

This charming song for coloratura soprano is the work of Karl Eckert (1820- 
1879), a pianist, composer and conductor of the middle nineteenth century, whose 
work was confined to Austria and Germany. Very few of his compositions are 
heard to-day. This beautiful song gives an excellent opportunity for the colora- 
tura soprano to show her technical equipment. It is also a good example of the 
use of imitation in a song. [Lesson XIV, Part I.} 

64760 Capriceuse Elgar 

This is a short and graceful composition played as its name implies ' ' capri- 
ciously. ' ' [Lesson XXV III, Part II.} 

35247 Pomp and Circumstance March Elgar 

The stirring march ' ' Pomp and Circumstance ' ' is one of the most popular 
concert numbers by Sir Edward Elgar, of the Modern English School. It was 
composed for the Coronation of King Edward VII and played during all the 
incident festivities. Soon after his accession to the throne, King Edward bestowed 
the title of Knight on the English musician. 

It is an excellent example of march form and the brass effects should especially 
be noted. [Lesson XXVIII, Part II; Lesson XII, Pert I.] 

64373 Salut d' Amour Elgar 

The greatest English composer of to-day is Sir Edward Elgar. This little 
composition is one of the most popular short compositions in the literature of 
modern music. It is a personal page from the life of its composer, for this simple 
"Salute of Love" was written as a tribute to his sweetheart, who later became 
Lady Elgar. The composition is in the three-part song form and the melody is 
of a popular and sentimental character. [Lesson XXVIII, Part 77.] 

* Barbara Allen Old English 

This is one of the oldest and best-beloved ballads of the English speaking race. 



* In preparation. 

288 



Analyses 



It is found in every land where English is spoken, but it is said that the oldest 
versions of the song are found in their purest form among the mountaineers of 
the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. 

Authorities say that this was one of the original ' ' Border Ballads, ' ' and 
that Carlisle is the ' ' Scarlet Town ' ' referred to in the text. Kef erences to ' ' Bar- 
bara Allen ' ' are found in many writings of great literary men. 

Pepy, in his diary of January 2, 1663, speaks of hearing "Mrs. Kipps sing 
her little Scotch song of Barbary Allen, ' ' and Goldsmith says : ' ' The music of 
the finest singer is dissonance to what I felt when our old dairy maid sang me 
into tears with ' ' The Cruelty of Barbara Allen. ' ' The song came to America 
with the early Colonists. Horace Greeley, in his ' ' Kecollections of a Busy Life, ' ' 
speaks of one of his earliest remembrances being, hearing his mother sing the 
ballad of "Barbara Allen." [Lesson XIII, Part I; Lesson XXIX, Part II.] 

45114 Drink To Me Only With Thine Eyes English 

This old English folk song is still as popular to-day as when it was first heard 
in Queen Elizabeth's day. The words are by "rare" Ben Jonson (1573-1637) 
and are entitled ' ' To Celia. ' ' They are a translation from some verses by Philos- 
tratus, the Greek poet of the second century. Many authorities have claimed that 
the music of this song was composed by Mozart, but this statement has been abso- 
lutely disproved and the composer still remains unknown. [Lesson XXIX, Part I.\ 

17724 Green-Sleeves Old English 

The old dance known as ' ' Green-Sleeves ' ' shared the popularity of ' ' Sellen- 
ger's Bound" during Elizabethan days. Beaumont and Fletcher mention it in 
' ' The Loyal Subject, ' ' and Shakespeare frequently alludes to it. His most famous 
jest regarding ' ' the dance song ' ' occurs in ' ' The Merry Wives of Windsor, ' ' 
where Mistress Ford, speaking of Falstaff's letters, says: "I would have sworn 
his disposition would have gone to the truth of his words; but they do no more 
adhere and keep place together than the Hundredth Psalm to the tune of 
' Green-Sleeves. ' ' This reference is particularly interesting as it has frequently 
been used to prove the argument that the ' ' Immortal Bard ' ' knew far more 
concerning music than the dramatic writers of later days. There were many 
different settings to the tune of "Green-Sleeves"; the one here given is one 
of the oldest and most authentic. It was arranged by Dr. Charles Vincent, and 
is to be found in "Fifty Shakespeare Songs." [Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

64320 Have You Seen But a Whyte Lillie Grow (Ben Jonson) Old English 

The manuscript of this song is in the British Museum ; the accompaniment 
being written for the lute. The author of the music has never been definitely 
ascertained. The words were by "rare" Ben Jonson (1573-1637) and appeared 
in his play, "The Devil's an Ass," which was produced in 1616. 

Have you seen but a whyte lillie grow 
Before rude hands had touched it. 



Oh, so whyte, oh, so soft, oh, so 
Sweet is she. 

P.oosoy Edition. 

[Lesson XXIX, Part 7.] 
289 



Analyses 



64100 The Lass of Richmond Hill English 

This beautiful old English song was said to have been composed by George IV, 
who, when Prince of Wales, loved the fair Mrs. Fitz Herbert, who long occupied 
the position of being the original ' ' Lass of Eichmond Hill. ' ' This fanciful tale 
has been disproved by the definite evidence, recently brought to light, that the 
composer of the song was a cathedral organist named James Hook (1746-1827), 
who wrote nearly two thousand popular songs. The original ' ' Lass ' ' was the 
daughter of a Mr. William Jansen of Richmond Hill, who married a young poet 
Leonard McNally, the author of the verses which Hook set to music. The song 
was first heard at the Vauxhall Gardens in 1799, and was the most popular air 
in England at the time Haydn was living in London. Many critics claim that there 
is a strong resemblance between this air and the music of Haydn 's chorus, ' ' The 
Heavens Are Telling." Although acknowledged to be the favorite air of George 
III, ' ' The Lass of Richmond Hill ' ' was very popular in America during the 
early days of our Republic. [Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

1 7087 May Pole Dance English 

No custom in England is more charming than the annual May Pole Dance, 
which is held to celebrate the birth of spring. The fete occurs on the village 
green and begins with the weaving of garlands from flowers in the May baskets, 
then comes the crowning of the Queen of May. After this ceremony, the May 
Pole, with its many colored ribbons, is set up, and the dancers weave these rib- 
bons to and fro, taking a joyous skipping step as they sing. (The weaving of 
ribbons is a modern innovation.) This tune is called "Bluff King Hal" and is 
a well-known old English air, which doubtless originated at the time of the 
"Bluff King," who is known in history as Henry VIII. [Lesson XXIX, 
Part I.] 

18010 Sellenger's Bound Old English 

One of the most popular of the sixteenth century airs was Sellenger 's Round, 
which is frequently referred to in sixteenth and seventeenth century literature. 
The original title is thought to have been "St. Leger's Round." In "The Fitz- 
william Virginal Book ' ' an excellent version of the tune with variation by 
William Byrd is to be found. In a rude woodcut of the seventeenth century a 
group of figures dancing a Maypole dance are found, the title being, ' ' Hey for 
Sellenger 's Round. ' ' This well proves that in its original form the Round was 
a Maypole dance. The setting here given is by Cecil Sharp, the English composer, 
who is giving to the world again many of the forgotten folk songs of the British 
Isles. The delightful charm and vigor of the air is to be felt in this arrangement, 
and Sellenger's Round charms the audiences of the twentieth century just as it 
did during its own period. 

On the reverse side of this record is another old English dance, "Gathering 
Peascods ' ' ; this is one of the old dances around the Maypole. It is also a setting 
by Cecil Sharp. [Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

35279 " Sumer is icumen in" Old English 

This wonderful canon, the manuscript of which is one of the chief treasures 
of the British Museum, is our best proof that a contrapuntal school existed 
in England during the thirteenth century. Literary men of this day speak of 
the use of the round in the contrapuntal form of the canon as being of frequent 
occurrence in England at this time. Authorities differ as to the actual composer 

290 



Analyses 

of this song of spring, but it is beyond question the best example of counterpoint 
which is found before the establishment of the Netherland School. The words are 
in the old English of the period of Chaucer. The four upper voices sing the 
melody in canon form, while the two lower voices repeat the words ' ' Lhoud 
sing cuccu," giving a ground bass to the canon. 

Sumer is icumen in 
Lhoud sing cuccu (cuckoo). 
Groweth sed and bloweth med 
And springeth the wod enu. 
Sing, sing, cuccu. 
Ewe hleteth after lamb 
L/houth after calve cu, 
Bulluc sterteth 
Bucke verteth, 
Murie, sing cuccu. 
Sumer is icumen in 
Lhoud sing cuccu. 

[Lesson V, Part II.] 

70052 Spinning Wheel Quartet ("Martha") Flotow 

This favorite quartet occurs in the second act of Flotow 's ' ' Martha. " It is 
sung by Martha (Lady Harriet), Julia (Nancy), Plunkett and Lionel. Having 
taken employment (as a joke) with the young men whom they met at the Fair, 
Lady Harriet and her maid Nancy find they cannot perform even the simple 
duties of the household. In this quartet, Lionel and Plunkett endeavor to show 
the maidens how to spin, and the incident as depicted in the music is one of the 
most popular numbers from the opera. The imitative effect in the accompaniment 
should be noted. [Lesson XVI, Part IV.] 

35693 An Irish Love Song Foote 

One of the most important and interesting of America's composers is Arthur 
Foote, who was the first of his countrymen to receive his entire musical education 
in his own land. He has written in all forms, save that of opera. His ' ' Irish Love 
Song ' ' has found its way all over the world, and is universally recognized as one 
of the best examples in song of a national composition being conceived by a 
musician of another land. As one critic says, ' ' Foote is possessed of a keen insight 
into the possibilities of the voice, a touch of lyric genius, and an unfailing in- 
genuity in accompaniment." [Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

87303 Hard Times Come No More Foster 

Stephen Foster (1826-1864) was one of those rare genuises whose habits of 
life in no way reflected his true ability or real worth as an artist. He died penni- 
less and alone. Yet he is rightly regarded to-day as the greatest American com- 
poser of ' ' folk ' ' music, and was in fact one of the most remarkable composers of 
this type of music that the world has ever known. In his ballads ' ' Nelly Ely, ' ' 
,' ' Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming, ' ' and ' ' Hard Times Come No More ' ' 
there is to be noticed a more artificial strain than is found in the plantation songs 
which are undoubtedly his best works. ' ' Hard Times Come No More ' ' was written 
during Civil War days, but its sentiment will make an equally strong appeal to 
the many war-weary hearts of to-day. 

Let us pause in life's pleasure and count While we seek mirth and beauty, and 

its many tears. music light and gay, 

While we all sup Borrow with the poor ; There are frail forms fainting at the 

There's a song that will linger forever door ; 

in our ears ; Tho' their voices are silent, their plead- 

Oh ! hard times, come again no more. ing looks will say, 

Oh ! hard times, come again no more. 

291 



Analyses 



ClIOKUS 

'Tis the song, the sigh of the weary, 
Hard times, hard times, come again 

no more ; 
Many days you have linger'd around my 

cabin door, 
Oh ! hard times, come again no more. 

[Lesson XXIX, Part 77.] 

74442 Old Slack Joe Foster 

No song of the Negro on the plantation has ever made a more individual 
appeal than has ' ' Old Black Joe. " It is one of the most perfect gems in the 
entire literature of the "composed folk song." [Lesson XIII, Part I.\ 

18519 Massa's in Ac Cold, Cold Ground Old Folk's at Home Foster 

The composer of these two songs was a ' ' Northerner, ' ' being born in Pitts- 
burgh, July 4, 1826, and dying in New York, January 13, 1864. No American 
composer ever touched the sympathetic chord in all hearts with the sadness of 
the negro slaves as did Foster in these two songs. They retain all the character- 
istics of the American negro music, and are in truth fitted to rank with the best 
legendary folk-songs of any land. Foster wrote both the words and the music of 
his songs. These belong to an early ' ' Plantation Melody ' ' collection, by Foster, 
which appeared in 1852. [Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

87053 Students Arise ("Germania") Franchetti 

The composer of ' ' Germania, ' ' Albert Franchetti, is an Italian nobleman, 
who has made the writing of opera his hobby. ' ' Germania, ' ' which was produced 
in 1902 in Milan, is regarded as his best work. The action of the opera takes place 
in Germany during the Napoleonic campaign, the story dealing with the attempts 
of the German students to thwart the progress of Napoleon. This rousing aria 
is heard in the Prologue, as Loewe, by this great address, seeks to arouse his 
comrades to revolt. [Lesson XXII, Part IF,] 

74399 Panis Angelicus Franclc 

Cesar Franck (1822-1890) has been termed "the French Bach" because of 
his devotion to the pure and true in absolute music. A master of counterpoint, 
Franck stands with Brahms as a great modern representative of the classic forms 
in music. Like Brahms, also, Franck devoted himself to symphonic music, the few 
vocal compositions (besides his songs) being of religious character. Yet this gentle 
Belgian has influenced modern French music of the operatic as well as the instru- 
mental schools. This beautiful prayer, ' ' O Lord Most Holy, " is an exquisite 
example of Franck 's poetic quality. The student should notice the lovely obbli- 
gato for violoncello. [Lesson XXVI, Part II; Lesson XXIX, Part IV.} 

88556 La Procession Franck 

Cesar Franck holds the highest position among the masters of modern French 
music. His greatest works were written for orchestra, with the exception of ' ' The 
Beatitudes, ' ' which is considered one of the best of modern oratorios. 

Franck wrote but a few songs, but they are regarded by critics as the most 
perfect examples of the modern French art songs. "The Procession" is one 
of Franck 's songs, which has become a classic of song literature. [Lesson XXVI, 
Part 77.] 

292 



A naly s e s 

16474 Amaryllis French 

This charming old French dance follows the general outlines of the regular 
three-part dance form; one can also trace its resemblance to the rondo. It may 
be used as an example of both. King Louis XIII wrote a charming song called 
' * Amaryllis, ' ' with which this air is frequently confused. In truth, this melody 
is much earlier than the song, as this composition was played for the first time 
at the wedding of Margaret of Lorraine and the Due de Joyeuse, in 1581. The 
melody is ascribed to Baltazarini, the favorite composer of Henri III, and was 
originally called "La Clochette. " [Lesson VIII, Part I; Lesson XXII, Part 
III.] 

64202 Aubade Provengale French 

The custom of playing a morning hymn, or aubade, in place of the evening 
song, or serenade, was a very popular one in southern France, the Troubadours 
frequently going at dawn to the windows of their fair ladies and singing a morn- 
ing song of love. It later became a very popular instrumental form. This 
selection is an arrangement of an old air by Louis Couperin (1630-1665) and is 
an excellent example of pure song form. This aubade begins with an ancient 
Gregorian tune and then changes to a popular rondo, thus showing how church 
melodies became secularized. [Lesson XVIII, Part /.] 

64223 Bcrgere Legere French 

This charming old pastorale belongs to the class of old French songs which 
were known as ' ' Bergerettes. ' ' From the kings down to the common people, it is 
found, that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in France, there was a 
love for the simple pastoral joys of country life, which found its expression in 
literature, art and music. 

This little roundelay is an excellent example of the ' ' Bergerette ' ' : 

Fickle shepherdess, I fear your charms, 

Your beloved one is inflamed with love, 

But you do not care ; 

Your whimsical face 

Attracts and charms. 

But frivolous and haughty. 

You flee from him who follows you. 

Fickle shepherdess, I fear your charms. 

[Lesson XV III, Part I.} 

72165 Folk Songs French 

These old French folk songs are found in certain districts of Canada in 
as pure a form as they are to be found in France. Many of them found their 
way to America, and w r ere sung by the French colonists, and handed down 
by them to their children 's children. Quite a number of these songs are to 
be found in the early school song books, but were wrongly credited to Germany. 
They are still in use by French children all over the world. 

French English 

Ar CLAIU DE LA LUXE BY THE MOONLIGHT 

Au claire de la lune, By the moonlight, 

Mon ami Pierrot, My friend, Pierrot, 

Prete moi ta plumo Lend me your pen 

Pour ecrire un mot. To write a few words. 

Ma chandelle est morte, My candle is out, 

.Te n'ai plus de feu. I have no more light. 

Ouvre moi ta porte Open your door 

Pour 1'amour de Dieu. For pity's sake. 

293 



Analyses 



Au clair de la mne, 
Pierrot repondit 
Je n'ai pas de plume 
Je suis dans mon lit, 
Va chez la voisine 
Je crois qu'elle y est, 
Car dans sa cuisine 
On bat le briquet. 

French 

IL PLEUT, IL PLEUT, BERGERE 
II pleut, il pleut, bergere, 
Kentre tes blancs moutons 
Allon a ma chaumiere, 
Bergere vite aliens ; 
J'entends sous le feuillage 
L'eau qui tombe a grand bruit, 
Voici venir 1'orage, 
Voila 1'eclair qui luit. 



French 

PROMENADE EN BATEAU 
Au courant de la riviere 
Glisse, glisse, glisse doucement : 
Glisse, glisse, glisse, glisse, 
Glisse, glisse, barque 16gere ! 
Glisse, glisse, ba_rque 16gere ! 
Glisse, glisse, glisse doucement ! 

French 

FAIS DODO, COLAS 
Fais dodo, Colas, mon p'tit frere, 
Fais dodo, tu auras du lolo ; 
Papa est en haut, 
Qui fait des sabots ; 
Maman est en bas, 
Qui fait des bas. 

French 

SAVEZ-VOUS PLANTER LES CHOUX? 
Savez vous planter les choux, 
A la mode, a la mode, 
Savez vous planter les choux, 
A la mode de chez nous? 

On les plante avec le pied, 
A la mode, a la mode, 
On les plante avec le pied, 
A la mode de chez nous. 

On les plante avec la main, 
A la mode, a la mode, 
On les plante avec la main, 
A la mode de* chez nous. 

French 

THEMPE TON PAIN 
Tremp' ton pain, Marie, 
tremp' ton pain, Marie, 
tremp' ton pain, dans la sauce, 
Tremp' ton pain, Marie, 
tremp' ton pain, Marie, 
tremp' ton, pain dans le vin. 
Nous irons Dimanche 
A la maison blanche, 
Toi z'en Nankin 
Moi z'en bazin, 
Tous deux en escarpins. 

French 

LA MERE MICHEL 

C'est la mer' Michel qui a perdu son chat, 
Qui cri' par la f'netre a qui lo lui rendra, 
Et 1' comper' Lustucru qui lui a rfipondu. 
Allez la mer' Michel vot' chat n'est pas 
perdu. 



By the moonlight, 

Pierrot answered 

I have no pen 

I am in bed 

Go to the neighbor 

I think she is in, 

For in her kitchen 

Someone is striking a fire. 

English 
IT Is RAINING, IT Is RAINING, 

SHEPHERDESS 

It is raining, it is raining, Shepherdess, 
Bring in your white lambs, 
Let us go to my hut. 
Quick, come Shepherdess, 
I hear under the foliage 
Raindrops falling with a great noise, 
Here comes the storm, 
There's the lightning so bright. 

English 
BOAT TRIP 

By the current of the river, 
Glide, glide, glide gently ; 
Glide, glide, glide, glide, 
Glide, glide, light craft ! 
Glide, glide, light craft. 
Glide, glide, glide gently ! 

English 

Go TO SLEEP, COLAS 
Go to sleep, Colas, my little brother. 
Go to sleep, you shall have some candy ; 
Papa is upstairs 
Making wooden shoes 
Mama is downstairs 
Knitting stockings. 

English 

Do You KNOW How TO PLANT CABBAGES? 
Do you know how to plant cabbages, 
After the fashion, after the fashion, 
Do you know how to plant cabbages 
After the fashion at home? 

We plant them with the foot, 
After the fashion, after the fashion, 
We plant them with the foot, 
After the fashion at home. 

We plant them with the hand, 
After the fashion, after the fashion, 
We plant them with the hand, 
After the fashion at home. 

English 

DIP Yoru BREAD 
Dip your bread, Mary, 
Dip your bread, Mary 
Dip your bread in the gravy, 
Dip your bread, Mary, 
Dip your bread, Mary. 
Dip your bread in the wine. 
We shall go Sunday 
To the white house. 
You dressed in Nankeen, 
I in my best clothes, 
The two of us in shining boots. 

English 

MOTHER MICHEL 

It is Mother Michel who has lost her cat, 
And cries thru her window for someone 

to bring it back, 

And that old crony, Lustucru, who an- 
swers, 

"Go on, Mother Michel, your cat is not 
lost." 



294 



A naly s e ,v 



C'est la mere Michel qui lui a demaude : 
Mou chat n'est pas perdu ! vous 1' avez 

done trouv6 ? 

Et 1' comper Lustucru qui lui a rfipondu, 
Donnez un' recompense, il vous sera 

rendu. 

Et la mere Michel lui dit : c'est d6cid6 
Si vous rendez mon chat, vous aurez uu 

baiser, 

Le comper' Lustucru qui n'en a pas voulu 
Lui dit pour un lapin votre chat est 

vendu. 

French 
MALBUOUCK 

Malbrouck s'en va t'en guerre, 
Mironton, mironton, mirontaine ; 
Malbrouck s'en va t'en guerre, 
Ne salt quand reviendra ; 
Ne salt quand reviendra, 
Ne sait quand reviendra ! 
Malbrouck s'en va t'en guerre, 
Mironton, mironton, mirontaine ; 
Malbrouck s'en va t'en guerre, 
Ne sait quand reviendra. 



72166 Folk Songs 

French 

LE PONT D'AviQNON 
Sur le pont d' Avignon, 
L'on y danse, Ton y danse ; 
Sur le pout d'Avignon, 
L'on y danse tout en rond. 
Les beaux messieurs font comm' c.a, 
Et puis encor' comm' c.a, 




French 

An' Vous DIUAI-.TE, MAMAN 
Ah ! vous dirai-je, maman, 
Oe qui cause mon tourment ! 
1'apa veut que je raisonne comme 

une grande persoune ; 
Moi je dis que les bonbons 
Valent mieux que la raison. 

French 

LA BONNE AVENTUHE 
Je suis un gentil poupon 
De belle figure, 
Qui aime bien les bonbons 
Et les confitures. 
Si vous voulez m'en donner, 
.Te saurai bien les manger. 
La bonne aventure, 
Oh ! gai ! 
La bonne aventure ! 

Je serai sage et bien bon, 
Pour plaire a ma mere. 
Je saurai bien ma lec.on, 
Pour plaire a mon pere ; 
Je veux bien les contenter, 
Et s'ils veulent m'embrasser, 
La bonne aventure, 
Oh ! gai ! 
La bonne aventure ! 



It is Mother Michel who asks him : 
"My cat is not lost? You must then 

have found it." 

And that old crony, Lustucru, answers, 
"Give a reward and it will be returned." 

And Mother Michel told him "It is set- 
tled, 

If you return my cat, I will give you a 
kiss," 

Old crony, Lustucru, who did not want 
any, said, 

"Your cat was sold as a rabbit." 

English 
MAHLBOKOUGH 
Marlborough is going to war, 

Mironton, mironton, mirontaine ; 
Marlborough is going to war, 
Does not know when he shall return, 
Does not know when he shall return, 
Does not know when he shall return : 
Marlborough is going to war, 

Mironton, mironton, mirontaine; 
Marlborough is going to war, 
Does not know when he shall return. 
[Lesson XVIII, Part I.] 

French 

English 

THE BRIDUE AT AVIGNON 
On the bridge at Avignon 
They dance, they dance ; 
On the bridge at Avignon 
They dance, all in a ring. 
The handsome men do like this, 
And then again like this. 

On the bridge at Avignon 
They dance, they dance ; 
On the bridge at Avignon 
They dance, all in a ring. 
The beautiful ladies do like this, 
And then again like this. 

English 

AH ! SHOHLD I TELL You, MAMMA 
Ah ! should I tell you, mamma, 
What is the cause of my distress ! 
Papa wants me to reason like 

a grown-up person ; 
But I say that candies 
Are worth more than reason. 

English 

THE HAPPY EVENT 
I am a cute little darling, 
And good looking, 
Who is very fond of candy 
And preserves. 
If you will give me some, 
I shall surely eat them. 
The happy event, 
Oh ! joy ! 
The happy event ! 

I will be good and behave, 

To please my mother. 

I shall know my lesson, 

To please my father ; 

I am willing to make them happy, 

And if they want to kiss me, 

The happy event, 

Oh! joy! 

The happy event. 



295 



Analyses 



French 

J'AI Du BON TABAC 
J'ai du bon tabac daus ma tabatiere, 
J'ai du bon tabac, tu n'en auras pas. 
J'en ai du fin et du bien rap6, 
Qui ne s'ra pas pour ton fichu nez ! 
J'ai du bon tabac dans ma tabatiere, 
J'ai du bon tabac, tu n'en auras pas. 



French 

LA CASQUETTE DU PRE BUGEAUD 
As-tu vu la casquette, la casquette, 
As-tu vu la casquett' au pere Bugeaud ? 
Elle est fait' la casquette la casquette 
Elle est fait' avec du poil de chameau. 



English 

I HAVE SOME GOOD STUFF 
I have some good snuff in my snuff-box, 
I have some good snuff, you shall not 

have any. 
I have some that is fine, and some well 

grated, 

But that is not for your sorry nose ! 
I have some good snuff in my snuff-box, 
I have some good snuff, you shall not 

have any. 

English 

FATHER BUGEAUD'S CAP 
Did you see the cap? the cap? 
Did you see Father Bugeaud's cap ? 
It is made, the cap, the cap, 
It is made of camel's hair. 



NOTE. During the war in Algeria, in 1840. a French Camp was caught in a sur- 
prise attack by the Arabs ; Marshall Bugeaud came rushing out of his tent to get at 
the head of his troops. To the delight of his soldiers, he found that he still had his 
woolen night-cap on his head : the "/ouaves" immediately started to sing this little 
song with the improvised words, and it has ever since remained the march that often 
led the French on to victory. 



French 

LA MIST' EN LAI KB 
Bonhomnie, bonhomme, que savez-vous 

faire? 

Savez-vous jouer de la mist'-en 1'aire? 
L'aire, 1'aire. 1'aire, de la mist'-en 1'aire? 
Ah ! ah ! ah ! que savez-vous faire? 



French 

FRERE JACQUES 
Frere Jacques, 
Frere Jacques, dormez-vous? 
Dormez-vous ? 
Sonnez les ma tines, 
Sonnez les ma tines, 
Din, din, don ! 
Din, din, don ! 



English 

THE TUNE IN THE AIR 
My good man, my good man, what do 

you do? 
Do you know how to plav a tune in the 

air? 

Air. air, air, a tune in the air? 
Ah ! ah ! ah ! what do you do? 

English 

BROTHER JAMES 
Brother James, 

Brother James, are you asleep? 
Are you asleep? 
King for the morning prayers. 
King for the morning prayers. 
Ding, ding, (long ! 
Ding, ding, dong ! 



The last song on the record is the ever-popular ' ' Marche Lorraine. ' ' 

[Lesson XVIJI. Part 1.} 

64586 Marche Lorraine French 

The "Marche Lorraine" is an arrangement of one of the oldest French 
airs as a song by Louis Ganne. This air was originally a round for dancing, 
and dates hack to the 16th century. Always very popular in Lorraine, it was 
forbidden to be sung by the folk since the German occupation in 1870. The 
Allied Army, under Marshal Foch, marched into Metz singing the ' ' Marche 
Lorraine." [Lesson XIII, Part I; Lesson XVIII, Part I.] 

64557 Pere de la Yictoire (Father of Victory) French 

This remarkable patriotic song is an old French song, which, during the 
Great War, was given a new text and a new setting by Louis Ganne. In its 
original form, it was a march that was the favorite air of General Carnot. 
When Carnot 's grandson was President of France, Ganne made the music into 
a song, which afterward became the favorite drinking song of the French 
soldiers. In its present version, the song tells of an old French patriot, who 
is called "Father of Victory." | Lesson XVIII, Part 7.] 



29(5 



A n aly s e s 

17725 To War Has Gone Duke Narlborough Old French 

It is claimed that Godfrey of Bouillon was the first to bring this air to Europe, 
and that it had been used by his armies during his famous Crusade of 1096. It 
was not until after the victory of Duke Marlborough at the battle of Malplaquet 
(1709) that these words were associated with the tune. All through the eighteenth 
century the song increased in popularity, and it is said was sung as a lullaby by 
Marie Antoinette in 1781. At the time of Napoleon the song was universally 
popular throughout Europe, the English having two settings, "We Won't Go 
Home 'Till Morning" and "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow." In 1813, when 
Beethoven wrote his Battle Symphony entitled ' ' Wellington 's Victory at Vittoria, ' ' 
he used this theme to depict the French army. 

The Arabs possess a version also of this tune, which it is thought was brought 
to them by the French army at the time of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt. 
[Lesson IV , Part II.] 

17725 War Songs of Xormans Crusaders' Hymn French Crusaders 

These two old songs have been traced back to the crusades of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. The French minstrel Blondel is supposed to be the author 
of the Norman War Song, which, history relates, he sang during the Battle of 
Hastings, 1066 A. D. The Crusaders' Hymn has come down through the 
centuries and is still sung in our churches as the hymn "Fairest Lord Jesus." 
Its slow, dignified inarch measures were eminently suitable to be sung by a band 
of marchers whose religious fervor aided them toward their goal. [Lesson IV; 
Part II.] 

71023 Filiae Jerusalem Gabrielli 

This beautiful setting of the "Daughters of Jerusalem," is by Andrea 
(labrielli (1510-1586), who was a member of the Venetian School, founded by 
Adrian Willaert. Andrea Gabrieli was the most noted organist of his time and 
had many distinguished pupils, among them many of the North German organists. 
He wrote much music for the Church and one recognizes the gain in freedom of 
expression, which is due to the increased knowledge of the instruments and instru- 
mental possibilities. Giovanni Gabrielli, the nephew and pupil of Andrea, was 
the first to classify the instruments into two divisions, and his experiments in 
tone color led to the later orchestral accomplishments of the Venetian School of 
Opera at the time of Monteverde. This is an excellent example of the vocal fugue 
form. [Lesson V, Part II. ] 

74672 Gagliarda Galilei 

Vincenzo Galilei, (1533-1600) the father of the celebrated astronomer, was 
a native of Florence and an enthusiastic member of the ' ' Camerata, ' ' who gave 
to the world the first music drama. A skilful performer on the lute and violin, 
Galilei wrote much music for the single voice, accompanied by these instru- 
ments; but he also left a number of dances and simple instrumental compo- 
sitions. 

The Galliard was a popular Court dance of this period. It is said that 
Queen Elizabeth fell in love with young Hatton because of his dancing of the 
Galliard, which was the most popular of the Italian dances during Elizabethan 
days. It is frequently mentioned in Shakespeare. [Lesson VI, Part 77; Lesson 
.\.\If, Part III ; Lesson II, Part IV.} 

297 



Analyses 

87536 Du, du liegst mir im Hersen ("Thou, Thou Fittest My Heart") German 
This ever-popular German folk tune dates from the year 1820. 

Thou, thou fillest my heart, dear, 

Thou, thou pleasest mine eye, 
Thou, thou troublest me sorely 

Know'st not how loving am I ; 
Yes, yes, yes, yes, know'st not how loving am I. 



If, if when we are parted, 

Thou this picture shouid'st see, 
Then, then be broken hearted ; 

Wish we together might be ! 
Yes, yes, yes, yes, wish we together might be. 

[Lesson XIX, Part I. 

45066 Liebesfreud Old German Waltz 

This charming waltz is an arrangement made by Fritz Kreisler of an old 
Viennese waltz, which still retains its folk spirit. In form, the composition fol- 
lows that of the regular dance consisting of dance, trio, dance, coda. [Lesson 
XIX, Part I.] 

35530 Two Dances from "Henry VIII" Suite German 

The true name of this English composer is Edward German Jones. His 
teacher, Sir George Macfarren, advised his writing under the nom de plume of 
Edward German. This suite was first produced at the Leeds festival in 1895. 
The numbers were taken from German's incidental music to Shakespeare's 
' ' Henry VIII, ' ' given at the Lyceum in 1 892 by Sir Henry Irving. 

The first is a good example of the modern use of the old Morris Dance. 
The second, called ' ' The Shepherd 's Dance, ' ' is light and graceful and at once 
caught the popular fancy, both in Europe and America. [Lesson XXVIII, Part 
II.} 

17718 Caro mio ben (Thou, All My Bliss) Giordani 

Giuseppe Giordani (1744-1798) was a prolific opera and oratorio composer 
of the eighteenth century Neapolitan School. His genius was somewhat over- 
shadowed by his contemporaries, Cimarosa and Zingarelli. He lived for many 
years in England, where his thirty operas had great vogue. He left many sepa- 
rate Ariettas, of which this selection is one. [Lesson II, Part IV.] 

88060 Un di all'azzuro spazio (Once O'er the Azure Fields) ("Andrea 

Chenier ' ' ) Giordano 

Umberto Giordano is a follower of Mascagni, Leoncavallo and Puccini. Sev- 
eral of his works have been produced in Italy, but only two, "Andrea Chenier" 
(1896) and "Fedora" (1898), have met with success in America. "Andrea 
Chenier" is set in Paris during the French Revolution. The young poet, 
Andrea Chenier, who has spent his early years in Constantinople, comes to Paris 
to pursue his education. He becomes imbued with the spirit of freedom and 
decides to cast his lot with the revolutionists. He is accused of treason and 
sentenced to the guillotine. 

The first act takes place in the Castle of Coigny, where a grand ball is in 
progress. Among the guests is Andrea Chenier. When asked to speak he replies 
in this aria with a criticism of the aristocracy, the pride of the rich and its 

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Analyses 

influence on the poor. The guests are displeased and Chenier leaves them to 
join the mob outside. [Lesson XXII, Part IV.] 

64905 My Love Compels Thy Love ("Fedora") Giordano 

This beautiful opera by Giordano is based on Sardou 's famous tragedy, 
"Fedora." It was first produced in Milan in 1898. This great aria for tenor 
occurs in the second act, the scene of which is Fedora's home in Paris. Count 
Loris has been entertained by Fedora, and now tells her of his great love in 
this beautiful aria. [Lesson XXII, Part IV.~\ 

74667 Interludium in Modo Antico Glasounow 

As its name implies, this Interlude is a slow grave movement with the 
elements of melody and harmony quite overshadowing the rhythmic feeling. It 
is in truth in an ' ' antique manner ' ' even although filled with the wonderful 
and changing harmonies which characterize the modern school. [Lesson XXII, 
Part II.] 

18314 Musette "Armide" Gluck 

Gluck's opera of "Armide" was produced in 1777, and was based upon 
the same libretto from Tasso 's ' ' Jerusalem Delivered ' ' as that previously used 
by Lully nearly a hundred years before. There are over fifty operas upon this 
same subject. 

The story is much more full of romanticism than the classical subjects 
which had previously inspired Gluck. The scene takes place in Damascus dur- 
ing the first Crusade. The Musette is from the ballet in the opera. An old 
pastorale dance, which became popular during the court days of Marie An- 
toinette, the Musette takes its name from the old French bagpipe which was 
used for its musical accompaniment. [Lesson X, Part II; Lesson V, Part IV.] 

88285 Che faro senza Eurydice ("Orfeo") Gluck 

This ever-popular aria from Gluck 's great opera occurs in the last act of 
' ' Orfeo. ' ' Orpheus, after journeying to the underworld and obtaining his bride, 
leads her out to the open clay. Eurydice begs him to look upon her, and forgetful 
of his vow, Orpheus does so, and Eurydice sinks back lifeless in his arms. He 
pours forth his woe and desolation in this famous aria: 

THE GATES OP HELL, ACT IV : 
I have lost my Eurydice 
My misfortune is without hope. 
Cruel fate ! I shall die of my sorrow. 
Eurydice, Eurydice, answer me ! 

It is your faithless husband, 

Hear my voice, which calls you, 

Silence of death ! vain hope ! 

What suffering, what torment, wrings my heart ! 

[Lesson X, Part II ; Lesson V, Part IV.] 

74567 Dance of the Happi/ Spirits, ("Orfeo") GiucTc 

This beautiful and classic composition is taken from Gluck 's opera of 
' ' Orpheus. ' ' To the Valley of the Blest comes Orpheus, in search of his beloved 
Eurydice. lie sees her dancing among the happy spirits, and his beautiful song 
is answered by the shades, who bring to him his lost loved one. This beautiful 
melody is one of the greatest illustrations in musical literature of the use of 
the flute. [Lesson X, Part II; Lesson V, Part IV.] 

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Analyses 



74618 Gavotte Gluck 

This old Gavotte by Gluek is a typical example of the French Court ver- 
sion of the old French folk dance. It follows the regulation three-part form of 
contrasting Trio. [Lesson V , Part IV .] 

87041 Aria Magic Tones ("The Queen of Sheba") Goldmarlc 

Goldmark's setting of the story of the famous visit to Solomon by the Queen 
of Sheba was written many years later than Gounod's work on the same subject. 
This great tenor aria is sung by Assad in the Second Act, which takes place in 
the gardens of the palace. The Queen has sent for Assad to appear before her, 
and as he comes through the garden he sings: 

Tones of enchantment ! 

Perfume laden air, breathe on me, 

Gentle evening breeze. 

[Lesson XXV 111, Part II'.] 

35627 Bridal Song and Serenade "The Country Wedding" Goldmark 

"The Country Wedding" by Karl Goldmark is usually termed a "Sym- 
phony, ' ' but it is more nearly in the f orm of the modern suite. It consists of 
five movements, none being in the form of the regulation ' ' Sonata, ' ' 
which is always employed as the model for the first movements of symphonic 
works. The first movement of ' ' The Country Wedding " is a wedding inarch 
in the form of a theme with variations. This is followed by the beautiful and 
melodious Andante, which is called "Bridal Song." This composition follows 
the regulation song form ; one should especially notice the lovely use of the 
oboe in the Trio or middle portion. One critic has said "it is as if one of the 
bridesmaids had stepped forward. ' ' Notice also the melody in the basses ac- 
companying this theme, and how cleverly the theme of the wedding march has 
been woven into this accompaniment. 

The third movement of this work, which answers to the Scherzo, is en- 
titled ' ' A tuneful Serenade, which the village musicians, heading the proces- 
sion of country folk who inarch up to offer their well wishes, give to the pair. ' ' 
The duet for two oboes, with accompanying bassoons which present the open- 
ing theme, should be particularly noted. [Lesson XXV, Part 77.] 

64198 Tambourin Gosscc 

Francois Gossec (1734-1829) belongs to the same period and school as G retry. 
At this period, in Paris, all operas, whether grand opera style or opera comique, 
introduced many dances and ballets. This charming little dance is an excellent 
example of imitative music; the dance taking its name Tambourine, from the 
instrument used to accompany it. This was a favorite dance of Provence, and 
was of a lively character, the first tambourine being followed by a second in a 
minor key, after which the first dance was repeated. [Lesson XXII, Part III.] 

95206 Trio, Duel Scene ("Faust") Gounod 

This trio between Valentine, Faust and Mephistopheles takes place in the 
fourth act of Gounod's opera, "Faust." The second scene shows the square in 
front of the Cathedral and the return of the soldiers from the wars is witnessed. 
As his companions march away, Valentine goes in search of his sister Marguerite 
and is confronted by Faust and Mephistopheles. A quarrel ensues, leading up to 
this spirited trio, after which occurs the duel scene and the death of Valentine. 
[Lesson V, Part 7.] 

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Analyses 

95203 Trio, Prison Scene ("Faust") Gounod 

To Marguerite in her prison comes Faust who attempts to persuade her to 
Hee with him, but she is weak in both body and mind, and can only think of her 
past happiness. In the midst of their impassioned duet, Mephistopheles appears 
and calls to Faust to leave her to her doom. He tells Faust that the horses out- 
side will bear them both to safety if he will but hasten. Then Marguerite recog- 
nizes the evil presence ; and falling on her knees prays that Heaven will forgive 
Faust and herself and spare them from the curse of Satan. The great trio which 
follows portrays the three characters: Faust, who desires earthly happiness; 
Marguerite, who prays for Heavenly rest; and Mephistopheles, who desires the 
destruction of them both. The love and trust of Marguerite wins for Faust his 
redemption. [Lesson XX, Part II; Lesson XXIII, Part IV.} 

88203 Dio Possente ("Faust") Gounod 

This is the greatest aria for baritone in Gounod's "Faust." It is sung 
by Marguerite 's brother, Valentine, when he returns from the war in the second 
act of the opera. [Lesson XXIII, Part IV.] 

88024 Jewel Song ("Faust") Gounod 

The most famous aria for soprano in Gounod 's opera ' ' Faust ' ' is the 
' ' Jewel Song ' ' which is sung by Marguerite in the third act. The scene 
takes place in the garden of Marguerite's home. She is spinning, and sings 
as she works her plaintive air, ' ' The King of Thule. ' ' She then finds the 
casket filled with jewels, which Faust and Mephistopheles have left. She opens 
it with joy and voices her happiness and delight at the beautiful gems. 

Oh Heaven ! What brilliant gems, 

Can they be real? 

Oh, never in my sle-p did I dream of aught so lovely !" 

[Lesson XXIII, Part IV.] 

64096 Lend Me Your Aid ("Queen of Sheba") Gounod 

"La Reine de Saba" (The Queen of Sheba) is one of the four almost for- 
gotten operas by Gounod, which were written between his two successes "Faust" 
1859, and "Romeo and Juliette" 1867. This opera was first performed in Paris 
in 1862. The first act takes place in the studio of the sculptor, Adomiram. He 
is seen at work on his great masterpiece as the curtain rises. In this opening aria, 
he calls upon the "Sons of Tubal Cain" to aid him in his work. (For words, see 
"Victrola Book of the Opera.") [Lesson XXIII, Part IV.] 

35075 Chorus Unfold Te Portals (" The Redemption") Gounod 

Gounod gave to this work the title ' ' The Redemption, a Sacred Trilogy, ' ' and 
he wrote on the opening page, ' ' The work of my life. ' ' He has said that ' ' the 
work is a lyrical setting forth of the three great facts on which depends the 
existence of the Christian Church; the passion and death of the Saviour; His 
glorious life on earth, from the Resurrection to the Assumption; and the spread 
of Christianity throughout the world, through the mission of the Apostles." 
This chorus occurs as the finale to the second part of the Trilogy: 

Unfold, ye portals everlasting, 

With welcome to receive Him ascending on high. 

Behold the King of Glory! He mounts up through the sky, 

Back to the heavenly mansions hasting, 

Unfold, for lo ! the King comes nigh. 

But who is He! the King of Glory? 

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Analyses 



He who death overcame, the Lord in battle mighty, 
Of hosts, He is the Lord of Angels and of powers, 
The King of Glory is the King of Saints, 
Unfold ye portals everlasting, 
For lo ! the King comes nigh. 

[Lesson XII, Part I; Lesson XXIX, Part IV.} 

74512 Walts Song (''Borneo and Juliet") Gounod 

This ever-popular song in waltz form is sung by Juliet in the first act of 
Gounod 's opera, ' ' Romeo and Juliet. ' ' The scene shows a ballroom in the Capulet 
palace in Verona. A masked ball is in progress, in honor of the debutante daughter, 
Juliet. When she appears, the guests hail her with delight, then pass on to the 
banquet hall, leaving Juliet, who expresses her joy and naive delight in this 
song, which gives the coloratura soprano a rare opportunity to disclose her talents. 
The words are: 

Song, jest, perfume and dances, Sprites from fairyland olden 

Smiles, vows, love-laden glances, On me now bend. 

All that spells or entrances, Forever would this gladness 

In one charm blends, Shine on me brightly as now, 

As In fair dreams enfolden Would that never age or sadness 

Born of fantasy golden. Threw their shade o'er my brow I 

[Lesson II, Part 1 ; Lesson XII, Part I ; Lesson XX, Part II ; Lesson XXIII, 
Part IV.] 

74580 Molly on the Shore Grainger 

This is a most interesting modern arrangement of an old folk air, by the 
talented modern composer, Percy Grainger. It was originally written for string 
quartet, or as Grainger calls it, "string foursome," and was presented as a birth- 
day gift to the composer 's mother in 1907. It was later written for piano solo 
and for orchestra. The theme used is an old Cork reel tune called ' ' Molly on 
the Shore. ' ' The score bears the dedication : ' ' Lovingly and reverently dedicated 
to the memory of Edward Grieg." [Lesson Til, Part I; Lesson XXVIII, 
Part 17.] 

17897 Shepherd's Hey Grainger 

This clever arrangement of old English Morris tunes was made by Percy 
Grainger, the Australian composer, who is the most interesting figure in the 
modern English School of to-day. Mr. Grainger is devoting his particular atten- 
tion to folk music, and his settings of old dance tunes are of great value and 
interest. Shepherd's Hey, while not intended to be used as a regular Morris 
Dance, is a combination of four old airs, which Mr. Grainger obtained from 
Cecil J. Sharp, the famous authority on Old English Country Dances, who col- 
lected them from old country fiddlers in different parts of England. 

This number is an excellent example of simple orchestration. In studying 
the instruments of the orchestra the students should listen for the order of 
entrance of the following instruments: first and second violins and violas; 'cello; 
double bass; clarinet (solo); flute; oboe; bassoon; harp; horns; trumpets (solo); 
trombone; tuba; hammer-woods; triangle and kettle drums. [Lesson XXIX, 
Part I; Lesson XXVIII, Part II.] 

17897 Irish Tune from County Derry Grainger 

In his search for old folk melodies Percy Grainger met a Miss Ross, of 

New Town, County of Londonderry, who had made a collection of old unpublished 

melodies of Northern Ireland. One of the most beautiful of these, Grainger 

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Analyses 

has arranged and given to the world as an "Irish Tune from County Derry." 
[Lesson XXVI, Part I.] 

35574 Intermezzo ("Goyescas") Granados 

Enrique Granados (1867-1916) was a modern Spanish composer who was 
greatly influenced by the French school of impressionism. His opera ''Goyescas," 
produced for the first time by the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York in 
1916, is a brilliant example of Granados' genius. It was on his return from the 
successful production of this work that Granados lost his life, when the ill-fated 
steamer ' ' Sussex ' ' was torpedoed in the English Channel by the Germans. His 
death robbed the world of one of the most remarkable musical genuises of the day. 
The opera "Goyescas" is full of rhythmic vitality and spontaneous melody. Its 
orchestration is brilliant and striking and the employment of the Spanish dances 
with the chorus singing the accompaniment is unique and most attractive. The 
orchestral Intermezzo was written in New York about ten days before the opera 
was produced. It is said that Granados composed this entire Intermezzo, without 
touching the piano, in less than an hour's time. Its place in the opera is just 
before the scene ' ' The Candle Lighted Ball. ' ' This act shows a dimly lighted 
dance hall in the slums. Here at the dare of the toreador, the Captain of the 
Royal Guards has brought his betrothed. This is a brilliant bit of music notable 
for its striking use of characteristic Spanish rhythms and instrumentation. [Les- 
son XXV II, Part II; Lesson XVIII, Part I1I.\ 

64556 Spanish Dance (' ' Goyescas " ) Granados 

' ' Goyescas ' ' introduced to the world the modern Spanish School of Opera, 
which is almost unknown outside of Spain. This beautiful dance belongs to Anda- 
lusia, whence comes the best of the Spanish folk music. In the folk music from this 
province the influence of the Orient is always noticeable. Carl Engel says these 
Oriental traits in Spanish music are: "First, a profusion of ornaments around 
the central melody; secondly, a polyrhythmie cast of music the simultaneous 
existence of different rhythms in different parts; and, thirdly, the peculiarity of 
the melodies being based on a curious scale, founded apparently on the Phrygian 
and Mixolydian modes. ' ' It will be of interest to the student to distinguish 
these characteristics in this charming dance for violin. [Lesson XVII, Part I.\ 

35279 Hymn to Apollo Greek 

This great Hymn to Apollo* is considered the most authentic music of Ancient 
Greece. The two tablets of marble on which this hymn was inscribed, have the 
neuine notation of the third century B. C., and as there is the record of such a 
song, sung in praise of the Delphic Apollo, the date has beeen determined as 278 
B.C. The two tablets were discovered in Delphi, May, 1893, by the French Archeo- 
logical School of Athens. The measure is the famous 5/4, which came into 
Russian folk music through the influence of the Greek Church. 

"I will sing in praise of thce, glorious son of Zeus ! 

Who dwellets on the snowy peak of the hill, where in sacred oracles to mortal men 
Thou dost proclaim tidings prophetic, from the divine tripodic seat. 
Thou hast driven forth from his place the dragon who watched over the shrine, 
And, with thy darts, hast forced him to hide far in the dark underwood. 

''Muses come from deeply wooded Helicon, 
Beautiful fair-armed daughters of the loud-singing god, dwelling there ; 



* Transcribed by Theodore Reinach. Accompaniment (ad lib.) by Gabriel Faure. 
Greek text restored by Henri Weil. English translation by C. F. Abdy Williams. 

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Analyses 



Praising their noble kinsman, even Phoebus, with golden hair, 

To the lyre sing they their songs. 

He hovers o'er the twin-headed peak of Parnasse, and he haunts the rocky places, 

Hound about famous Delphi and Castalia's plentiful springs, full of waters deep 

and clear, 
And presides o'er Delphi with its oracle true in prophecy." 

From the Novello Edition. 

[Lesson II, Part II.] 

63511 Kyrie Kekraxa Kinonikon Greek 

The chants of the Hebrews were copied by both the Egyptians and the Greeks. 
With the rise of the Christian Church the Hebrew influence was very strong. The 
division of the Eastern and Western Church resulted in the Greek Church return- 
ing to some of the earlier Greek chants, said to be more similar to those employed 
by Ambrose, in the fourth century. This is an example of the Kyrie from the 
ritual of the mass used in the Greek Church to-day. Notice the deep bass voices. 
[Lesson II, Part 11.} 



Greek Chants 

Eoumeliotica Greek Chants 

These two chants of the Greek mountaineers are still sung in the obscure 
mountain towns. It is probable that they can be traced back to the ancient 
and more glorious days of Greece. They are not written down, but have been 
sung by father to son for generations. Note the restricted melody which is 
based on the ancient tetrachord scale ; the instrument is the flute or pipe, which 
is similar to the oboe or clarinet. The flute interludes are used to accompany 
a dance around, or choros. [Lesson II, Part II.] 

61123 Exultate Justi Gregorian 

This is a splendid example of the Gregorian Chant as it is used in the Eoman 
Catholic Church of to-day. ' ' The Gregorian collection is divided into two parts ; 
the first containing the music of the Mass and occasional services (found in the 
modern Missal), and the second containing the music of the daily Hours of Divine 
Service (found in the Breviary). While much of the music came and grew with 
the development of the Church, the finest portion was added during the fourth, 
fifth and sixth centuries, when the Mass and the system of hour service was per- 
fected. The wealth of this collection can be imagined when it is known that there 
are 630 compositions for the various days of the year, constituting the Gregorian 
music of the Mass; and that the second part of the collection contains about two 
thousand antiphons, eight hundred Greater Responds, and ever so many lesser 
musical items. The hymns of the Eoman Church are not included in this category. ' ' 
[Lesson III, Part II.] 

71001 Kyrie Eleison Gregorian 

The Mass consists of six musical numbers: 

1. The Kyrie Eleison, ' ' Lord Have Mercy. ' ' 

2. The Gloria, "Angels' Song." 

3. The Credo (Creed). 

4. The Sanctus, "Holy, Holy, Holy." 

5. The Benedictus (Benediction). 

6. The Agnus Dei, "Behold the Lamb of God." 

The Kyrie Eleison (Lord Have Mercy) is that portion of the Mass which 

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Analyses 

follows the Introit and precedes the Gloria in Excelsis. It is the end of the 
Litany which precedes the Mass. [Lesson III, Part II.] 

61108 Offertorio e Communione Gregorian 

The Offertorio is a portion of a psalm or verses from some part of the Scrip- 
tures sung by the choir at the High Mass, immediately after the Credo, during 
the time when the priest is making the oblations and offering them on the altar. 
In Gregorian music these lines are sung antiphonally. [Lesson HI, Part II.] 

64198 Gavotte Gretry 

Andre Gretry (1741-1813) was the most famous composer of that group of 
Frenchmen, who wrote in the form of the opera comique, at the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

Acknowledged by all critics to be weak in harmony, and although a poor 
master of the use of instruments, Gretry was remarkable for his cleverness in 
characterization. He left many instrumental works, including six symphonies, in 
the style of his contemporary, Haydn. The Minuet was the favorite Court dance 
of this period, but the Gavotte (so named from the region whence it originated, 
a province in France) was also exceedingly popular. This charming example of 
the Gavotte follows the regulation form of dance, trio, dance. [Lesson XXII, 
Part III.] 

17917 Gavotte Gretry 

This arrangement of the well-known Gretry Gavotte is here given on the 
xylophone. [Lesson XVIII, Part III.] 

35470 Peer Gynt (Opus 46, Suite I) 

Morning Mood (Allegretto Pastorale} Grieg 

The Death of Ase (Andante Doloroso) 

18042 Peer Gynt (Opus 46, Suite 7) 

Anitra's Dance (Tempo di Mazurka) Grieg 

In the Hall of the Mountain King (Marcia e Molto Marcato) 

The most popular composition of the greatest Norwegian composer, Grieg, is 
the incidental music which he wrote for Henrik Ibsen 's fantastic drama, ' ' Peer 
Gynt." This peculiar and interesting character of the Norwegian ne'er-do-well, 
which both Ibsen and Grieg have immortalized, is taken from a folk tale, and is a 
phase of the Faust legend. Peer Gynt's redemption can only come to him through 
the love of a pure, self -sacrificing woman. fvThe story, briefly sketched, tells 
of Peer Gynt, the son of a poor widow, Ase, who is filled with wild and fantastic 
dreams of his own future glory. His mother, although she fears his wild ways 
almost as much as do the neighbors, is the only person in the world who believes 
in him. He goes uninvited to a wedding and carries off the bride to the mountain 
heights, where he tells us, her hair is not so gold as that of the little peasant girl, 
Solvejg, with whom he had danced at the wedding. Deserting the bride the next 
morning, he wanders about over the mountain side and finds himself at night in 
the hall of the King of the Dovre Mountains. Here, surrounded by imps and 
elves, he woos the king's daughter, but upon their love being discovered he is 
tortured by the imps and devils and left to die on the side of the mountain. Here 
ho is found by Solvejg, who has left her family to follow after Peer and share his 
lot. Together they build a tiny hut and live in happiness until once more the imps 

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Analyses 

and elves appear to torture Peer Gynt. He deserts Solvejg and returns to his 
mother, whom he finds upon her death-bed. After many adventures in foreign 
lands, Peer Gynt achieves great riches, and lands in Morocco a wealthy man. Here 
his wealth is suddenly taken from him. He steals a horse and the garments of a 
prophet and travels through the desert, where he meets a beautiful maiden, Anitra, 
who so charms him with her dancing that he gives her all his gold and jewels. His 
thoughts go back to Solvejg and he decides to return to his native land. After 
many years of adventure, of shipwreck and hardship, he at last reaches Norway, 
and finds the hut on the mountain side and the patient Solvejg waiting for him. 
He sinks down exhausted but in peace, and dies in her loving arms. 

The incidental music, which was originally written for the performance of 
Ibsen 'a play, was afterwards arranged- by Grieg in two Concert Suites : the pres- 
ent selection being the First Suite. ( The opening number, ' ' Morning Mood, ' ' 
gives a charming tone picture of the first timid rays of the dawn up to the bursting 
into full view of the glorious golden sun. The second number, ' ' Ase 's Death, ' ' 
is a brief, sombre dirge, well depicting the lonely and forlorn old mother, deserted 
by a harum-scarum son.l/In the third movement, " Anitra 's Dance," one seems to 
see the fascinating sprite^ of the desert as she charms Peer Gynt with her graceful 
and sinuous dance. The last movement, ' ' In the Hall of the Mountain King, ' ' 
shows the imps and sprites in full cry after Peer. This selection is typically 
Norwegian in its character, with the constant repetition of the theme, which, as 
one writer expresses it, is "a veritable musical hornet's nest." The grotesque 
and whimsical nature of this movement is thoroughly in keeping with the mad 
scene enacted in the Hall of the Mountain King whither Peer Gynt has strayed. 
The theme enunciated by bassoons is weirdly descriptive of the uncouth antics 
of the mountain gnomes, as they commence to circle, jeering and mocking, around 
Peer Gynt. As the dance proceeds so the excitement increases and, drunk with 
hatred and malice, the gnomes whirl in a frenzied orgie around their terrified 
victim. The denouement occurs at the final crash, which represents the destruction 
of the Hall at the magic sound of the bells of a distant church. [Lesson XXIII, 
Part II; Lesson III, Part I; Lesson XXIII, Part II; Lesson XIII, Part III.} 

55108 Solvejg 's Song ( ' ' Peer Gynt ' ' ) Grieg 

This song of springtime is sung by Solvejg, whom Peer Gynt has deserted, 
as a prelude to Act V of Ibsen's drama. The scene shows a hut in the Norwe- 
gian forest, Solvejg is now middle aged. She sits spinning as she sings that the 
spring will surely come again and as surely will Peer Gynt return. She will 
await his coming as she promised. [Lesson XXIII, Part II.] 

64887 Greatest Miracle of All Guion 

David Guion is one of the younger school of American composers who has 
chosen to devote his talent to the use of Negro melodies. In this charming little 
song, with its rocking rhythm and its distinctly Negro melodic scale, the com- 
poser describes the various miracles of God, who, although He divided the Red 
Sea so the children of Israel could pass through on dry land, and caused the 
whale to swallow and give up Jonah, yet never achieved any miracle greater 
than to infuse life into a little ' ' color 'd chile. ' ' 

De Good Book tells 'bout tie miracles de Lawd used to do, 
How de Red Sea up an' parted, an' de whale ate Jonah, too ; 
But dat am nothin' to de miracle de Lawd jes' did, 
Fo' to-day He up an' sent me down a little eolor'd kid ! 

3QO 



Analyses 



REFRAIN 

Greatest miracle of all, little colpr'd chile, 

How'd dey put de mornin' light in yo' lovin* smile? 

How'd dey make yo' lips so red, eyes so big an' true. 

How'd dey put de whole wide worl' into little you'? 

Copyright, 1918, and published by G. Schirmer, N. Y. 

[Lesson XXX, Part II.} 

88625 Rachel, When the Lord Entrusted Thee to Me ("La Juive") Halevy 

Although heard infrequently to-day, "La Juive " by Jacques Halevy (1799- 
1862) is one of the most important works of the French Grand Opera School. 
The original libretto was written by Scribe for Kossini, who rejected it in favor 
of "William Tell." The story deals with the life of the Jews during the 15th 
century. Eleazar the goldsmith and his daughter Eachel have been condemned to 
death in a cauldron of burning oil, by the order of Cardinal Brogni. While 
waiting death, Eleazar, in this famous aria, discloses that the maiden Eachel 
is in truth not his daughter, but the lost child of the Cardinal himself. The aria 
is intensely dramatic, and although full of hopeless tragedy, is lightened by ex- 
quisite moments of tender melody. [Lesson X, Part IV.] 

(Haste Thee Nymph ("L' Allegro") Handel 

(Come and Trip It Handel 

(Let Me Wander Not Unseen (" L' Allegro") Handel 

[Hide Me From Day's Garish Eye ("II Pensieroso") Handel 

' ' L 'Allegro, il Pensieroso ed il Moderate ' ' is the complete name for this can- 
tata by Handel, which was presented in London February 27, 1740. It is said 
that Handel composed the entire work in but seventeen days. The first two move- 
ments are settings of Milton 's well-known poems ; the last movement ' ' Moderate ' ' 
was suggested and written by Handel 's collaborator, Charles Jennings. It will 
be remembered that in Milton 's ' ' L 'Allegro, ' ' the poet chants the praises of 
pleasure ; in ' ' II Pensieroso ' ' those of melancholy. In Handel 's setting of the 
poems, the part of " L 'Allegro ' ' is represented by the tenor, that of "II Pen- 
sieroso ' ' by the soprano, each being supported by a ch'orus. Upton in his ' ' Stan- 
dard Cantatas" says of this work: "The work as a whole is one of Handel's 
finest inspirations. The Allegro is bright and spirited throughout ; the Pensieroso 
grave and tender; and the Moderate quiet and respectable, as might be expected 
of a person who never experiences the enthusiasms of joy or the comforts of 
melancholy. ' ' One of the first arias is sung by Allegro, who here summons his 
retinue of mirth: 

"Haste thee nymph, and bring with thee 
Jest and youthful jollity, 
Quips and cranks and wanton wiles, 
Nods and becks and wreathed smiles, 
Such as hang on Hebe's cheek. 
And love to live in dimple sleek, 
Sport, that wrinkled care derides, 
And laughter, holding both his sides." 

The chorus takes up the refrain in the same manner, the Allegro again sings, 
this time to a graceful minuet air ' ' Come and Trip It As You Go. ' ' This is also 
sung by the chorus. 

Pensieroso and her chorus reply, begging Allegro to join with them in peace 
and quiet. Allegro then sings of the lark whose song of joy startles "dull night." 
Pensieroso replies with the brilliant and popular aria so frequently heard in con- 
cert: "Sweet Bird That Shuns 't the Noise of Folly," in which the song of the 

307 



Analyses 

nightingale is heard in the flute accompaniment. Allegro now sings a hunting 
song, which Pensieroso answers with a quiet meditative air. Allegro and his 
chorus reply with the beautiful aria ' ' Let Me Wander Not Unseen, ' ' with which 
the first part of the work is brought to its conclusion. Pensieroso 's canzonet 
' ' Hide Me From Day 's Garish Eye ' ' is sung in the second part of the work. 
These arias, while quaint and old fashioned, are remarkable -examples of the type 
so popular in England during the middle eighteenth century. [Lesson IV, Part 
IV.] 

88068 Aria Sweet Bird ("II Pensieroso") Handel 

No more beautiful use of the coloratura soprano is to be found in musical 
literature than ' ' Sweet Bird, ' ' in which the bird voices of the flute and soprano 
imitate and converse with each other. [Lesson IV, Part IV.] 

17174 II Pensieroso (Flute and Oboe) Handel 

This famous aria is originally sung by soprano with flute obbligato. Here 
one has an opportunity of hearing the oboe play the soprano part, while the 
flute is heard in its original part. [Lesson IX, Part III.] 

74504 Come Beloved (" Atalanta") Handel 

This beautiful soprano aria is from one of Handel 's forgotten operas, ' ' Ata- 
lanta, " which was written in 1736, and first heard in London during the period 
when Handel was producing his own works. This undertaking was a failure, and 
Handel soon became bankrupt. Several of the operas written at this time were 
never again heard; but a few of the airs of these works have withstood the 
test of time. [Lesson IV, Part IV.] 

74131 Sound an Alarm ("Judas Maccabaeus") Handel 

Handel 's oratorio, ' ' Judas Maccabams, ' ' was written five years after ' ' The 
Messiah, ' ' being produced April 16, 1 746, in honor of the victory of Culloden and 
the return of the troops from Scotland. Reverend Thomas Morrell, a Greek scholar, 
arranged the text for Handel, using as his subject the story of the great Jewish 
warrior, Judas Maccabaeus. This great aria occurs at the end of the second part 
of the work. Judas Maccabaeus returns in triumph, and the celebration of his 
victories is at its height when the messenger arrives announcing another attack 
of the enemy. Judas arouses the ebbing courage of the Israelites in this great 
aria, and the army once more departs against the enemy. [Lesson VII, Part II.] 

35499 And the Glory of the Lord ("The Messiah") Handel 

This great chorus is the first choral number in Handel 's ' ' Messiah. ' ' It 
follows the tenor recitative and aria, ' ' Comfort Ye My People, ' ' and declares the 
truth of the prophecy of the coming of the Messiah. ' ' And the glory of the Lord 
shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord hath 
spoken it." [Lesson VII, Part II; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

88613 He Shall Feed His Flock ("The Messiah") Handel 

The most popular oratorio ever written is Handel 's ' ' Messiah, ' ' which has 

remained in public favor ever since its production on April 12, 1742, in Dublin. 

The beautiful contralto aria, ' ' He Shall Feed His Flock, ' ' occurs at the end 

of the first part of the work. This was originally written for soprano, but was 

later re-scored for the deeper, more sympathetic tone quality of the contralto 

voice. ' ' Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf 

308 



Analyses 

unstopped; then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb 
shall sing. . . . He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, and He shall gather the 
lambs with His arm . . . Come unto Him, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, 
and He will give you rest." [Lesson III, Part IV.] 

35499 Pastoral Symphony ("Messiah") Handel 

At the time of Handel the term ' ' symphony ' ' designated an instrumental 
composition which occurred as an entr 'acte of an opera or an oratorio. The 
symphony from ' ' The Messiah ' ' follows the mighty chorus, ' ' For Unto Us a 
Child is Born, ' ' and immediately precedes the aria, ' ' For There Were Shepherds. ' ' 
Naturally, therefore, Handel has written a melody of a pastoral character, and 
the name ' ' Pastoral Symphony ' ' has been given to this short composition, which 
was written for the stringed orchestra. Strangely enough, in Bach's "Christmas 
Oratorio ' ' is found a similar ' ' Pastoral Symphony ' ' also immediately preceding 
the announcement to the shepherds. [Lesson VII, Part II; Lesson XXIII, Part 
III; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

35499 Glory to God ("Messiah") Handel 

This short chorus follows the Pastoral and speaks the words of the angel 
to the shepherds, ' ' Glory to God in the highest, and peace on earth, good-will 
toward men." [Lesson VII, Part II; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

35678 Hallelujah Chorus (" The Messiah") Handel 

The great "Hallelujah Chorus" is the triumphal climax of Handel's mighty 
oratorio, ' ' The Messiah. " It is said that after hearing the work sung for the 
first time, the composer exclaimed, "I did think I saw God Himself." The 
mighty force of this wonderful example of contrapuntal chorus writing has never 
been equaled by any composer of any school. When the oratorio was performed 
in London, in 3743, King George II rose to his feet to show his respect, and all 
the audience followed his exainple. This has become a custom which all audiences 
have observed during the singing of this great work. [Lesson VI, Part I; Lesson 
VIII, Part II; Lesson I, Part IV.] 

74080 The Trumpet Shall Sound ("The Messiah") Handel 

This great bass aria occurs in the last part of Handel 's oratorio, ' ' The 
Messiah. ' ' The use of the trumpet in the orchestral accompaniment, while follow- 
ing the imitative idea of Handel's period, also points the way toward the 
"characteristic orchestration" of the modern school. The text is from I Corin- 
thians xv: 52-53. 

' ' The trumpet shall sound and the dead shall be raised incorruptible ; and 
we shall be chang'd. 

' ' For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immor- 
tality." [Lesson XV, Part III.] 

16980 Dead March ("Saul") Handel 

' ' Saul ' ' was Handel 's first oratorio and was written in 1 739. This famous 
march deserves to rank as one of the greatest funeral marches in musical litera- 
ture. [Lesson VIII, Part II.] 

74423 Oh Sleep! Why Dost Thou Leave Me? (" Semele") Handel 

There was little difference between the Oratorio and Opera in Handel's day, 

yet the composer designates ' ' Semele " as "a secular oratorio. ' ' The work ap- 

309 



Analyses 

peared in 1743, the year after the production of "The Messiah." It is very 
probable that after the great success of ' ' The Messiah ' ' Handel wished to continue 
to use the form of the oratorio rather than the opera. ' ' Semele ' ' was produced in 
1744 and met with but scant success. Even on the occasions of its revivals it 
has not won popular approval. But two arias from this work remain on the 
concert stage : ' ' Wher 'er You Walk ' ' and ' ' Oh Sleep, Why Dost Thou Leave 
Me?" They rank among the greatest of Handel's arias. 

O Sleep, why dost thou leave me? 

Why thy visionary joys remove? 
O Sleep, again deceive me, 

To my arms restore my wand'ring love. 

Copy't 1905, Oliver Ditson Co. 

[Lesson Fill, Part II.] 

88617 Largo ("Xerxes") Handel 

The familiar and ever-popular Largo is usually given to-day as an instru- 
mental composition. It is, however, the air sung by tenor in Handel's opera, 
"Xerxes" (1738), and in its rightful place occurs at the beginning of 
the first act. The scene shows a summer house near a beautiful garden, 
where grows a plane-tree. To the garden comes Xerxes and sings : ' ' There never 
was a lovelier tree than thou, there never was a sweeter shade of a dear and lovely 
plant." [Lesson XII., Part I; Lesson VIII, Part II; Lesson IV, Part IV.] 

64538 Menuett Haydn 

The Minuet was the most popular Court dance of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. Its name denotes its French origin, for it is derived from 
the word minutus, meaning small, and probably referred to the dainty steps taken 
by the dancers. Some authorities claim it originated in the province of Poitou, 
others say it was the invention of Lully. In its earliest form, it consisted of two 
eight-measure phrases, in 3/4 time, both repeated. As a complement to the first 
minuet, a second was added. This was in three-part harmony (in the earliest days 
played by three instruments), hence its name, Trio. After this is played, 
the first minuet is repeated. We find interesting examples of the minuet in the 
suites of the period of Bach. It was Haydn who introduced the minuet into 
sonata, quartet and symphony, as the third movement of his four-part form. 
While retaining the old form of minuet, Haydn changes its spirit from the stately, 
slow dance of ceremony into the light-hearted, humorous gaiety of the German 
folk dance. The tempo is more animated, and the spirit of downright fun is 
apparent. [Lesson XI, Part II.] 

45092 My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair Haydn 

This charming song of Haydn's is an excellent example of the style of 
Italian concert aria in use in Haydn 's day. Although the ' ' Father of the Sonata ' ' 
left no great operatic works, he has shown in his oratorios and songs that he well 
understood the use of the human voice in the bel canto of the classical school. 

My mother bids me bind my hair 

With bands of rosy hue, 

Tie up my sleeves with ribands rare, 

And lace my bodice blue, 

For why, she cries, sit still and weep, 

While others dance and play? 

Alas ! I scarce can go or creep, 

While Lubin is away. 

[Lesson XI, Part II.] 
310 



A naly se s 

35243 Symphony No. 3 "Surprise" Haydn 
Haydn 's Symphony No. 3 is known as the ' ' Surprise ' ' Symphony because 

of the sudden fortissimo crash at the end of the second movement. Haydn wrote 
this work in 1791, while he was at the Court of Prince Esterhazy. The Prince 
one day complained that his music was all dull and of the same color, and Haydn 
determined to play a joke on him. When this symphony was being played, the 
dreamy, beautiful music of the andante, which served as the second movement, had 
quite put the Court to sleep, when suddenly the full orchestra in this FF chord 
aroused them to the fact that genial "Papa" Haydn had played a joke on them. 
Henceforth this symphony was known as ' ' The Surprise. ' ' The work follows 
the customary pattern of Haydn 's symphonies. The first movement opens with 
an andante introduction, which changes to vivace, with the statement of the first 
subject; the second subject is then heard in the related key (the repetition of 
subjects is not possible on a record of this size). The free fantasia or working out 
of subjects is followed by the return of the first subject in the original key, the 
second subject also appears in the original key, and a short coda brings the 
movement to a close. 

The second movement is a beautiful andante, which is in the form of theme 
and variations, a favorite model with Haydn. The entire movement breathes of 
peace and beauty until the "surprise" chords are heard. [Lesson XI, Part II; 
Lesson XXIV, Part III.] 

35244 Symphony No. 3 ' ' Surprise ' ' Haydn 
The third movement Minuet follows the customary form of the dance, contrast- 
ing dance or trio, and return to the first dance. With Haydn the minuet reflects 
the dance of the folk* and rarely shows the influence of the Court, where the 
minuet at this time ruled supreme. 

The last movement, Finale, is in the pattern of the Rondo. In this movement 
Haydn shows his rare gift for counterpoint, which he always combines so cleverly 
with spontaneity that the method is lost in the beauty of the work as a whole. 
[Lesson XI, Part II; Lesson XXIV, Part III.] 

18577 Aloha oe, Farewell to Thee (Queen Liliuokalani) Hawaiian 

Hawaii is a land of song and each event in the life of the individual is 
commemorated in appropriate verse. One of the customs of Hawaii is the cere- 
mony of departure. The traveler is presented with garlands of flowers and songs 
are sung in his honor. The most popular "Farewell Song" is "Aloha oe,'' said 
to have been given its present musical form by Queen Liliuokalani. 

Kuu Home is a native plantation song full of the joyous side of life. The 
accompaniment is played on guitars and on native instruments, "ukuleles," which 
are similar in character to the guitar. The weird harmonies and the slurring 
effect are obtained by the use of the "steel guitar," in which a steel bar is slid 
along the strings. The ukuleles are strummed in listless fashion by the players. 
[Lesson XV, Part I; Lesson XIX, Part III.] 

74274 Spring Song ("Natoma") Herbert 

The beautiful ' ' Spring Song ' ' is sung by Barbara in the second act of 

Victor Herbert 's ' ' Natoma. ' ' The scene takes place in the plaza, in front of 

the Mission Church of Santa Barbara. Don Francisco and his daughter are hailed 



* In the minuets as used for symphonic movements the tempo is always more rapid 
than is possible in the actual dances. 



Analyses 

with delight by the crowds who have assembled to do honor to Barbara. Filled 
with joy and happiness, Barbara sings of love and springtime. The accompaniment 
is very beautiful, and a clever imitation of birds ' songs and rustling leaves is here 
to be noticed in the remarkable instrumentation. [Lesson XXX, Part IV.] 

55113 Dagger Dance ("Natoma") Herbert 

The Dagger Dance occurs at the end of the second act of Victor Herbert 's 
opera ' ' Natoma. ' ' The scene shows the plaza in front of the Mission Church 
of Santa Barbara. The square is full of people who have assembled to take part 
in the fiesta. Castro, the half-breed Indian, rails at the dances of the time and 
challenges any one to dance with him the famous Indian Dagger Dance. Natoma 
responds to his challenge, and the ancient dance of the Californians begins. 
Mr. Herbert has employed an Indian theme, which as it is orchestrated for the 
drums and wind instruments, retains a barbaric simplicity which is remarkable. 
[Lesson XVIII, Part III; Lesson XXX, Part IV.] 

89099 Susie, Little Susie ("Hansel and Gretel") Humperdinck 
Humperdinck 's fairy opera "Hansel and Gretel" has met with universal 

popularity ever since its production in 1894. The story is an adaptation of the 
old Grimm fairy tale. This duet is sung by the two children in the first act. 
Their parents have gone out in search of food and have left them to do the house- 
hold tasks. Hansel and Gretel are so filled with happiness that they cannot re- 
member they are hungry and have to work. They begin to sing and dance. This 
little song is an old German folk air. 

Susie, little Susie, Oh what is the news? 

The geese are going barefoot because they've no shoes. 

The cobbler has leather and plenty to spare, 

Why doesn't he make the poor geese all a pair. 

[Lesson XXVIII, Part IV.] 

89100 I Am the Sleep Fairy ("Hansel and Gretel") Humperdinck 
One critic has said that the most important opera to be produced in Germany 

since ' ' Parsifal " is " Hansel and G retel. " It is certainly true that no opera 
has ever retained its hold upon the public more strongly. This beautiful aria is 
sung by the Sleep Fairy in the second act of the opera. Hansel and Gretel have 
wandered around in the woods until dark and now must spend the night in the 
enchanted forest. The Sandman or Sleep Fairy now appears and sings them to 
sleep with this lovely lullaby. {Lesson XXVIII, Part IV.] 

87526 Hexenritt and Knusperwaltz ("Hansel and Gretel") Humperdinck 

Humperdinck 's modern use of the Singspiel in "Hansel and Gretel" has 
opened a path which many other modern composers are taking: that of using 
simple folk tales and fairy tales as the basis of operatic librettos. No work since 
Wagner has been so enthusiastically received as has ' ' Hansel and Gretel, ' ' and it 
deserves its popularity. "The Witch's Bide" occurs in the third act. The scene 
shows the witch's home. Thither Hansel and Gretel have been led by the witch's 
magic, and Hansel has been put in a cage in the yard, while Gretel is ordered to 
bring him dainties from the house, that he may become fat-eating for the wicked 
witch. The witch indulges in some weird incantations, tells of her plans in this 
aria, then takes a short ride on her broomstick, in her delight that she has cap- 
tured two more toothsome victims. 

312 



Analyses 

When she returns, she plans to cook Gretel, but the clever little girl, aided by 
Hansel, succeeds in pushing the wicked witch herself into the oven. Hansel and 
Gretel now dance and sing in joy as they hastily gather all the sweetmeats they 
can find. [Lesson XXVIII, Part IV.} 

17973 Czardas Hungarian 

The Czardas is the most popular Hungarian dance. The name is derived 
from an inn, Czarda, on the plain, where this dance is said to have been first 
performed. Every Czardas consists of two parts, a Lassen, or slow movement, 
and a Friska, or rapid dance. These two alternate at the will of the dancers, 
a sign being given by them to the musicians whenever a change of tempo is 
desired. [Lesson XXI, Part I.} 

69072 Far Above Us Sails the Heron Hungarian 

One of the oldest and best-known folk songs of Hungary is this ' ' Heron 
Song, " as it is called by the Hungarians. The opening theme has been used 
by Brahms in his Hungarian Dances, and as the melodic theme of the Thirteenth 
Hungarian Rhapsody by Franz Liszt. There are several settings of this song; 
one being regarded as the national air of Hungary. This is the oldest version of 
the song. [Lesson XXI, Part I.] 

17462 Hungarian Gypsy Melodies Hungarian 

Both of these selections are improvisations on gypsy melodies of a quiet 
character resembling the ' ' Lassen. ' ' The solo violinist improvises as the other 
instruments follow him. Note the use of the gypsy dulcimer. [Lesson XXI, 
Part /.] 

17635 Navajo Songs Indian 

This record shows the different types of rhythm used by the Navajo Indians. 
It was made by Geoff ry O'Hara, who was an Instructor of Native Indian Music 
for the U. S. Government and who worked among the Navajos for many years. 
It is said the Navajo Tribe possesses over fifteen thousand songs. Many of these 
show the influence of the Spanish settlers of the Southwest. Note the use of the 
5/4 rhythm, which is found among many primitive people. [Lesson III, Part 7.J 

18444 Penobscot Tribal Songs Indian 

These four songs of the Penobscots have been arranged by Princess Watali- 
waso, the singer, whose father is the Penobscot Chief of the Indian colony at 
Oldtown, Maine. The first of these songs is the song of greeting, sung when two 
tribes meet in peace. The second is an Indian lullaby sung by the Indian Mother, 
as she hangs her papoose in the tree to swing. The third is about a bad little 
boy who ran away, and a snail caught him and threatened to eat him. The little 
boy cried out in terror, and his spirit brother heard him and came and rescued 
him. The last song is a wedding ceremonial and dance, which is punctuated by 
Indian war whoops. [Lesson XXX, Part /.] 

17611 / White Dog Song (2) Grass Dance 

\ Medicine Song American Indians 

These authentic Indian songs were sung by the Glacier Park Indians, who 

are representatives of the Blackfeet Tribe. The accompaniment used was the 

original Indian tom-tom. The peculiar quality of the voices of the Indian women 

is very noticeable in these selections. All Indian tonality is distinctive and almost 

318 



impossible to translate into the regular scale. The rhythm also is strongly 
accented. A popular rhythm with the American Indian is the 5/4, which was 
also a favorite with the ancient Greeks. All Indian songs have legendary stories. 
' ' The White Dog Song ' ' owes its origin to an incident which occurred when the 
Piegan Indians were at war with the Sioux Tribe. In a fierce battle the Sioux 
chief, ' ' White Dog, ' ' was killed and to celebrate the great victory the Piegans 
composed this song. The realistic war-whoops are an important part of this song. 

' ' The Grass Dancers ' ' are a special society of young Indian braves, who on 
great occasions dance for the entertainment of the tribe. They wear strings of 
bells around their waists, wrists and ankles, and each tries to outdo the other 
by the number and variety of his steps. 

' ' The Medicine Song ' ' is sung by the medicine men at the annual midsummer 
festival. [Lesson XV, Part I ; Lesson XIX, Part III.] 

64720 Bendemeer's Stream. Irish 

This delightful old Irish folk song is one for which the words were supplied 
by Thomas Moore. The song is an excellent example of the love for native land 
to be found among all the Irish people. [Lesson XXVI, Part /.] 

64259 The Harp That Once Thro' Tara's Halls Old Irish 

In the days when Ireland was a land renowned for its learning, the priests, 
bards and chiefs used to gather at the castle of Tara. It was there also that the 
annual contests of the harpers were held. These verses glorifying ' ' Tara 's Halls ' ' 
were written by Thomas Moore and are set to an old Irish air, ' ' Gramachree. ' ' 
[Lesson XXVI, Part I.] 

74236 Kathleen Mavourneen (Crouch) Irish 

This is a composed folk song, which is an example of a national composition 
having been written by a composer of another land. A typical Irish love song, 
' ' Kathleen Mavourneen ' ' was written by Nicholls Crouch an English composer, 
who spent the greater part of his life in America. [Lesson XIV, Part /.] 

64117 The Minstrel Boy Old Irish 

The words of this song are by Sir Thomas Moore, who wrote them to fit the 
music of an old Irish air called ' ' The Green Woods of Tringha. ' ' This tune is 
one of the oldest in Ireland, and is known by various names throughout the 
country. [Lesson XXVI, Part I; Lesson II, Part I ; Lesson XII, Part I.] 

64277 La Colomba (The Dove) Italian 

Among the folk music of various nations is often found a song describing 
the dove. Cuba 's ' ' La Paloma ' ' and the Welsh song ' ' The Dove ' ' are excellent 
well-known examples. In this Tuscan folk song another version of the ' ' dove 
song" is found: 

O dove, that flying o'er the hill dost stay thee, 
To make thy nest among the stones for cover, 

Lend me a feather from thy wings, I pray thee, 
That I may write a letter to my lover. 



Copy't O. Schirmer. 

[Lesson XIV, Part I.] 

16136 Garibaldi Hymn Italian 

This famous hymn of Italy dates from the rise of United Italy. The words 

are by Mercantini, the music by Olivieri. It was written in 1859, but owes its 

314 



Analyses 

popularity to its use by the armies of the great Garibaldi (1807-1882). It takes 
its name from the famous general. 

All forward ! All forward ! 

All forward to battle ! 

The trumpets are crying 

Our old flag Is flying. 

Liberty ! Liberty, deathless and glorious, 

Under thy banner thy sons are victorious. 

Hurrah for the banner ! 

The flag of the free ! 

Copy't Oliver Ditson Co. 

[Lesson XVI. Part /.] 

87243 Sole Mio (di Capua) Italian 

This charming Italian song of sunshine is a popular folk song in Italy to-day. 

It may be classed with legendary songs, as reflecting poetic thought. 

The Chapman translation, from the Schirmer edition of ' ' Neapolitan Songs. ' ' 

is given here by permission: 

Oh ! what's so fine, dear, as a day of sunshine? 
The sky is clear at last, the rain and storm is past, 
Through air so cool, so bright, comes the festal sunlight, 
Oh ! what's so fine, dear, as a day of sunshine? 

Another sunlight, 
Far lovelier lies, 
Oh ! my own sunshine, 
In your dear eyes ! 

When the day is ending and the sun's descending, 
A tender sadness pervades my gladness ; 
I long to linger underneath your window, 
When day is ending and the sun's descending. 
Another sunlight, etc. 

Copy't G. Schirmer. 

[Lesson XVI, Part I.} 



, > Santa Lucia (Denza) 



Italian 



88560' 
64663, 

This beautiful boat song, or barcarolle, was probably intended to illustrate 
the rise and fall of the boat on the water, and the regular strokes of the oar. 
The sequence of the two-measure phrases produces a monotonous effect, suggestive 
of the forward and backward sweep of the oars. Santa Lucia (St. Lucy) is the 
patron saint of the Neapolitans. The words are: 



Now 'neath the silver in< 

Ocean is glowing, 
O'er the calm billow 

Soft winds are blowing. 
Here balmy zephyrs blow, 

Pure joys invite us, 
And as we gently row 

All things delight us. 



When o'er thy waters 

Light winds are playing, 
Thy spell can soothe us, 

All care allaying. 
To thee, sweet Napoli, 

What charms are given 
Where smiles Creation 

Toil blest by Heaven. 



CHORUS 

Hark ! How the sailor's cry 
Joyously echoes nigh. 

Santa Lucia ! Santa Lucia ! 
Home of fair poesy, 
Realm of pure harmony, 

Santa Lucia ! Santa Lucia ! 

From "One Hundred Folk Songs" C. C. Birchard Co. 
[Lesson XIV, Part I ; Lesson VIII, Part I; Lesson XII, Part 7.] 



315 



Analy s e s 

88355 Tarantella Napolitana (Arr. by Rossini) Italian 

This attractive arrangement of a Neapolitan dance was made by Eossini. 
This dance, which is distinctive of South Italy, takes its name from Taranto, in 
the old province of Apulia. The music is in 6/8 time, played at increasing speed, 
with frequent changes from major to minor. In its oldest form it was always 
sung, and was accompanied by tambourines and castanets. The key constantly 
changes from major to minor. It is usually danced by two dancers, a man and 
woman, who accompany themselves by the castanets and tambourines. It con- 
tinually increases in tempo until the dancers are exhausted. A strange supersti- 
tion prevailed from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century among the South 
Italians, namely, that anyone bitten by a tarantula could alone be cured by dancing 
the Tarantella. [Lesson II, Part I ; Lesson XVI, Part 7.] 

45083 L'Espoir Que J'ai Jannequin 

Clement Jannequin, although by tradition a Frenchman, is usually ranked with 
the Netherland School. He lived in the sixteenth century and was a follower of 
Josquin des Pres. Little of Jannequin 's life is known but fortunately, enough 
of his music has come down to us to confirm his position as of great importance 
among the contrapuntal masters of this period. Jannequin seems to have been 
' ' the father of Programme Music, ' ' for many of his compositions are descriptive 
in character. He wrote little religious music and his secular works are original 
in choice of subject and treatment of melody. This air is a love song, more of 
the type of Troubadour melodies. The words are : ' ' The hope I have of finding 
favor in your eyes and of some day obtaining the desire of my heart, holds me 
captive awaiting your decision. But if the future brings no reward, my heart will 
lose its hope and love will depart." [Lesson V, Part 77.] 

18323 Praeludium Jdrnefelt 

Armas Jarnefelt is one of the modern composers from the far-away land of 
Finland, who has been attracting the attention of the musical world in recent 
years. He is now the director of the National Conservatory of Helsingfors. This 
' ' Praeludium ' ' for orchestra is a short composition in free form, based upon a 
pastoral dance theme of the Finnish peasants. Clever use of instruments is 
made by Jarnefelt in this composition against a basso ostinato, or short passage 
played continuously by the double basses and bassoons. A quaint pastoral dance 
air is heard in the oboe. Gradually the other instruments take up this theme. 
Then a solo French horn introduces a contrasting melody of rare beauty, which 
serves as the Trio theme of the movement. The original theme is then brought 
back in practically its original form. [Lesson XI, Part 777.] 

17771 Birchos Kohanim Jewish Chant 

The most ancient music, from which our modern musical development is 
traced, are the chants of the Hebrews. These antiphonal chants, begun by the 
cantor, and answered by his chorus, are still in use in the orthodox temples of 
the Jews to-day. They were imitated by the Greeks, and a combination of the 
Greek and Hebrew chanting resulted in the antiphonal chanting in the early 
Christian Church. This record gives the closing benediction by the priests to 
their congregation, as it is still sung in the Hebrew synagogues. \Lesson I. 
Part 77.] 

74")77 Eili Eili Jewish 

This song was arranged by William Arms Fisher from a traditional Yiddish 

316 



A n a I y s e s 

air, ' ' as noted by M. Shallet. ' ' This anguished cry to God was a prayer of 
the ancient Hebrews. 

"My God, My God, Why Hast Thou Forsaken Us, 
With fire and flame mankind hath us burned, 
And in all ways and lands have we Been Put to Shame 
Day and Night I Kneel and Pray 
Thou only, Oh Lord, Can'st Succor Give, 
Then Hear Israel." 

The words, "Eili, Eili, My God, Why Hast Thou Forsaken Me," are the 
traditional words uttered by the dying Christ, Matthew 24, 46; Mark 15-34. [Les- 
son I, Part II.] 

74568 Hebrew Melody Jewish 

The world is only just beginning to realize that among the Hebrew melodies 
still in existence there are many which doubtless were traditional even during 
the days of Solomon. It is quite evident that much of this music has come down 
in its purest form, for the orthodox Jew has cherished all his traditions and cus- 
toms through all the centuries of his oppression and it was even more possible 
for him to retain the melodies that he loved so well. This old Hebrew air has 
been arranged for violin by Jascha Heifetz, one of the most brilliant of the 
young Russian Jewish musicians of to-day. The marvellous use of the G string 
with its plaintive sadness colors the entire piece. [Lesson I, Part II.] 

17745 Kawokores Eolir Adre Jewish Chant 

This Hebrew chant, sung by Cantor Sirota, of Warsaw, with chorus, is the 
psalm ' ' Like a Shepherd. ' ' In this chant, one feels the expression of that stead- 
fast trust in the God "who watches over Israel." [Lesson I, Part 77.] 

74355 Kol Nidrei (Arranged by Max Bruch) Jewish 

The "Kol Nidrei" (Day of God) is the most sacred chant of the Hebrew 
service. It is sung only on the evening of the Day of Atonement, the most holy 
of the Jewish fast days. The religious fervor of the chant themes has been re- 
tained in this arrangement by Max Bruch, which was made for violin. The two 
traditional themes are first presented and are followed by short variations. 
[Lesson I, Part 77.] 

74595 Yohrzeit Jewish 

This song is an arrangement of a traditional Jewish air, by Ehea Silberta, 
the words being by H. B. Silberstein. On the title page is the following inscrip- 
tion: 

' ' An old Hebraic custom prescribes that a lamp, or candle, be lit at sunset 
on the anniversary of the death of a loved one, and that it burn twenty-four hours. 
This serves as a reminder that the love for the departed still burns in the heart 
of those still left behind. The ancient Kadish, either spoken or sung, is a prayer 
of comfort for the mourners, and of faith in the righteousness of the Lord. The 
chants used originated centuries ago. They were handed down from father to son, 
and retain their original forms to-day. Such a melody, beginning generations back 
in the composer's family, forms the authentic opening of this song." [Lesson I, 
Part 77.] 

17581 Star-Spangled Banner Key 

Francis Scott Key, who wrote America's national song, composed these verses 

during the bombardment of Fort McHenry, Baltimore, in the war of 1812. Key, 

317 



Analyses 



a young lawyer, sought the release of an American doctor, who had been captured 
by the English. With a flag of truce he went out to one of the English vessels, 
but as an attack on Fort McHenry had been planned, Key was detained a prisoner 
over night. During the bombardment, he watched with interest to see if the 
American forts were resisting the attack, and when morning dawned and he saw 
the Stars and Stripes still waving in triumph he was filled with joy. Key wrote 
the first stanza during the night, using as his music a song which the English 
officers were singing called ' ' To Anacreon in Heaven. ' ' He finished the song 
when he reached Baltimore, and it was immediately published in The Baltimore 
American for September 21, 1814. The great success of the song was unprece- 
dented, and it remains the accepted national anthem of America, having been so 
designated for use in the Navy by act of Congress. [Lesson XXX, Part 7.] 

68481 Fantasie ("The Evangelist") Kienzl 

Wilhelm Kienzl (1857-1920), the Austrian composer, wrote both text and 
music for this opera, ' ' The Evangelist, ' ' which was produced in 1 895 and re- 
mained the most popular opera on the German stage for several years. 

The story is taken from an old tale by Meissner. It tells of two brothers, 
Johannes and Matthias, who loved the same maiden, Martha. Although he knows 
that Martha returns the love of Matthias, Johannes is determined to destroy his 
brother; he accuses him of his own crime, and sees his brother condemned to 
prison. Martha, who can stand her grief no longer, commits suicide. Thirty years 
elapse. Matthias released from prison, becomes an evangelist, and wanders from 
city to city preaching to the people of the streets. He is recognized by Magda- 
lena, the friend of Martha, who brings him to Johannes' home, where Matthias 
finds his brother on his death-bed. Johannes does not recognize Matthias, but 
hearing there is an evangelist in the house, he asks him to hear his confession, and 
tells him the story of his crime of long ago. Matthias makes himself known, and 
forgives his brother. The music is very beautiful and tranquil in character. [Les- 
son X, Part IV.] 

88283 Sen Bolt Kneass 

This beautiful old song was first sung in a play brought out in Pittsburgh 
in 1848. The words were by Dr. Thomas Dunn English; the music by Nelson 
Kneass, who adapted a German folk song as his setting for the poem. It im- 
mediately became the popular song of the day, and ' ' Sweet Alice ' ' became the 
favorite of the whole world. Boats were named for her; plays and books were 
inspired by her; and, in truth no song ever won such a universal success. Many 
years later, Du Maurier 's novel of ' ' Trilby ' ' again brought the song ' ' Ben 
Bolt ' ' into popular favor, and it once more became a ' ' best seller. ' ' There is 
something about the quaint charm of this song which will doubtless insure its 
popularity for many years to come. 



Oh, don't you remember sweet Alice, 

Ben Bolt, 

Sweet Alice with hair so brown, 
She wept with delight when you gave 

her a smile, 

And trembled with fear at your frown. 
In the old churchyard in the valley, Ben 

Bolt, 

In a corner obscure and alone, 
They have fitted a slab of granite so 

gray, 
And sweet Alice lies under the stone. 



Oh don't you remember the wood, Ben 

Bolt, 

Near the green sunny slope of the hill, 
Where oft we have sung 'neath its wide- 
spreading shade, 

And kept time to the click of the mill. 
The mill has gone to decay, Ben Bolt, 
And the running little brook is now 

dry, 

And of all the friends who were school- 
mates then, 

There remains, Ben, but you and I. 
[Lesson XXIX, Part II.} 



318 



Analyses 

35549 Masque of Comus Lawes 

The early precursor of the opera in England was the Masque, which com- 
bined poetry (usually based on an allegorical or mythological subject), music, 
dancing, scenery and costumes. Often the Masques were very elaborate, and 
usually they were performed only before nobility of great wealth, and in the 
courts of kings. James I and Charles I spent vast sums on their productions. 
The most famous of these Masques was Milton's "Comus," which was produced 
at Ludlow Castle in 1634. Inigo Jones devised the machinery and designed the 
costumes, while Laniere and others painted the elaborate scenery. The music was 
by Henry Lawes, who appeared in the original production as ' ' The Attendant 
Spirit. ' ' The complete manuscript of ' ' Comus " is in the British Museum, and 
it is from this source that Sir Frederick Bridge has made the present arrange- 
ment. 

Milton considered Lawes the most remarkable composer of his day, and 
praised his understanding of the principle that music and text should be treated as 
one. The English historian of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw 
little in the music of Lawes to admire and considered him ' ' deficient in melody. ' ' 
In reality, his style of composition ' ' aria parlante, ' ' if properly interpreted, is of 
great dramatic beauty and makes a strong appeal to the audiences of to-day. 
This record gives five of the best -known selections from "Comus."* [Lesson 
VI, Part II; Lesson II, Part IV.] 

55059 Ah! Moon of My Delight Lehmann 

Mme. Liza Lehmann (1862), the English composer, owes her first great 
popularity to the song cycle, which appeared in 1 896, entitled "In a Persian 
Garden. ' ' This work, which is written for four solo voices and quartet, is a setting 
of poems from Edward Fitzgerald 's translation of the Rubayiat of Omar 
Khayyam, the Persian poet and astronomer of the twelfth century. The tenor 
solo, ' ' Ah ! Moon of My Delight, ' ' is one of the most beautiful numbers in the 
cycle. The words are: 

"Ah ! Moon of my delight that knows no wane, 
The Moon of Heaven is rising once again, 
How oft hereafter resisting shall she look 
Through this same garden after me in vain." 

[Lesson XXVIII, Part II.] 

64811 Vous Dansez, Marquise Lemaire 

This charming little song is in the form of a vocal waltz. It was written 
by Lemaire, a well-known voice teacher and composer of songs, who was popular 
in Paris with the last generation. It gives the coloratura soprano a grateful 
opportunity to display her voice. [Lesson II, Part I.} 



\Prologue ("I Pagliacci"} Leoncavallo 

i > 



88029' 
88392, 

This famous aria for baritone is used by Leoncavallo as the introduction to 
his opera of " I Pagliacci. " It is interesting to note that many of the operas 
of the modern Italians employ the voice as a part of the Prelude, the use of the 
Siciliana in "Cavalleria Rusticana" being another excellent example. 

The story of " I Pagliacci " is of a band of traveling mountebanks. As a 
fitting preparation of the scene which follows, the clown Tonio appears before 
the curtain and sings this aria. [Lesson XXVII, Part II ; Lesson XXI, Part IV.] 

* Record No. 35G23 gives the two other songs from "Comus." 

319 



Analyses 

88398 Ballatella "Che volo d'augelli" (Te Birds Withotit Number) 

("I Pagliaeci") Leoncavallo 

This brilliant soprano aria occurs in the first scene, after Canio 's departure. 

Nedda is left alone and wonders if Canio suspects her. She hears the voices of 

birds (tremolo on the strings) and looking about notices the beauty of the day. 

Ah ! ye birds without numbers ! 

What countless voices ! 

What ask ye? Who knows? 

My mother, she was skillful at telling one's fortune, 

She understood what they're singing, 

And in my childhood, thus would she sing me. 

Then follows the Balatella or Bird Song. The exquisite orchestral accom- 
paniment (mostly by strings) is an important feature of this selection. [Lesson 
XXI, Part IV.] 

88061 Vesti la giubba (On with the Play) ("I Pagliaeci") Leoncavallo 

This famous aria for tenor is the closing number of the first act of "I 
Pagliaeci." Canio is convinced of his wife's perfidy, and as Nedda goes into the 
theatre to make ready for the performance, he sings this heart-breaking lament. 
He mourns that he, as a player, may not indulge in grief. It is his duty to paint 
his face, and make merry, to amuse the people even though his heart is breaking. 
[Lesson XXI, Part IV.] 

64907 Piccola Zingara (" Zaza") Leoncavallo 

"Zaza," one of the last operas by Leoncavallo, was produced in 1900. It 
is based on the famous play, which was very popular throughout the world during 
the nineties. This aria, ' ' Zaza, Little Gipsy, ' ' is sung by Cascart in the last act 
of the opera. It is his final plea to Zaza to give up Dufresne and return to him, 
her first love. It is a very effective and melodious aria. [Lesson XXI, Part IV. \ 

89090 Le Nil (The Nile) Leroux 

Xavier Leroux, 1863, is one of the best-known song writers of France to-day. 
He has also composed several grand operas of which ' ' Le Chemineau ' ' is the best 
known in America. This song, "Le Nil," is written in the modern French im- 
pressionistic manner but it gives a most striking tone picture of the might and 
grandeur of the ancient river of Egypt. The use of the violin as an obbligato 
to the voice is especially beautiful. [Lesson XXVI, Part II.] 

18418 Aooah Lieurance 

Thurlow Lieurance is the leading authority on Indian music among the 
present-day American composers. Mr. Lieurance has spent years studying the 
music of the American Indians, and the collection of over five hundred records 
of Indian melodies in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington bears proof of 
his trials and hardships to secure for the American musician the music of "the 
vanishing race. ' ' 

' ' Aooah, " or " Pretty Leaf, " is a Pueblo love song of the Red Willow Tribe. 
Near Taos, New Mexico, there lived a pottery maker whc.se beautiful daughter 
bewitched all the young men of the tribe. They all made up verses to Aooah, and 
many sang songs accompanied by the flute, which is the ' ' love instrument ' ' of 
the American Indian. This song was sung by ' ' Deer of the Yellow Willow ' ' to 
Aooah, and was recorded by Mr. Lieurance in 1913. The use of the Pueblo flute 
should be noted. 

320 



Analyses 



I'm longing for Aooah, I'm longing for Aooah, 

Like fawn, fairest of the maids in lied Like fawn, cheeks like the sunset, 

Willow Land Eyes of gold, "My Leaf," 

Lithe as a leallet, from aspen boughs, With my flute, I call to thee, 

Smiles like sunshine from blue summer Calling for Aooah my golden leaf. 

skies. 

Copy't 1913, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 

[Lesson XXX, Part I; Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

18418 By Weeping Waters Lieurance 

This old ' ' mourning ' ' song comes from the Chippewa tribe, and is based 
011 the legend about a waterfall in Minnesota, which seems to fall -with a wailing 
sound of mourning. It is said that long ago at this spot a battle was fought 
by the Oneidas and the Chippewas. The Chippewas tried to cross to the opposite 
bank, but were slain, and the waters ran red with their blood. From that day, 
these falls have made a crying sound as though mourning for the dead heroes. It 
used to be a custom for the squaws of the Chippewa race to go to these falls 
and cry for several days after the death of the Tribal Chief. 

By weeping waters, The weeping waters O weeping waters 

Here will I mourn Still crimson flow, Mourn for my soul. 

Our Chieftains' call Red roses wild, A rose I pluck 

Their own to mourn. Drink red, my own. We love, we die. 

Copy't 1913, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 
[Lesson III, Part I ; Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

18431 By the Waters of Minnetonka Lieurance 

This beautiful song is one of the most popular songs on the concert stage 
to-day. It is the work of Thurlow Lieurance, and like all of his Indian songs it 
is based on an actual Indian theme. The song tells of the interesting old Indian 
legend of the young lovers of the Sun and the Moon Tribes, who loved each other 
against the tribal law, and how, to escape torture, they fled together, and sank into 
the lovely waters of a tranquil Northern lake. There they were united forever, 
and the blue skies looked down and smiled upon their love. 

Moon deer, how near your soul divine, 
Sun deer, no fear in heart of mine. 
Skies blue o'er you, look down in love ; 
Waves bright give light as on they move. 
Hear thou my vow to live, to die, 
Moon deer, thee near 
Beneath this sky. 

Copy't 1914, by Theo. Presser Co. I'sed by permission. 

[Lesson II, Part I.] 

18418 Her Blanket Lieurance 

It is the custom of the Xavajo squaw to weave a blanket in which she will 
depict all the story of her life, her joys and sorrows, and many of the deeds of 
her immediate family. This song tells us of this legendary custom, the themes 
being those in actual use by the Xavajo tribe. 

Tears for my heart? My life is written, scarlet and black 

Prayers for my soul? Here to remain. 

My tears arc old. For e'er and e'er. 

My prayers for naught. My love has flown, 

My fate I weave with shuttle old; My tears are old, 

Her.- to remain. The land of ghosts 

For e'er and e'er. Calls for my soul. 

Copy't 1913, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 

[Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

321 



Analyses 

64491 Lullaby Lieurance 

This beautiful lullaby is the song of the mother to her child, in which she 
tells him that when he becomes a man he will be a mighty chieftan like his father. 
The exquisite flute theme, which prefaces this song and which is heard throughout, 
is the love song by which the chief wooed the mother when she was a maiden. 
The words are: 

"Wi um, Wi um," 
"Wi um, Wi um." 

Hush thee, my wee flower, Um 

Sleep, my wee flower in thy beaded bow'r. 
Some day you'll be a Warrior, too ; 

Sleep, my wee flow'r, Um 
Hush thee, my wee flow'r, Um. 

When you wake, your chieftain you will see, 
Tears on your cheeks, sparkle like stars, 
Soon he will kiss them all away, 
"Wi um, Wi um." 

Copy't 1918, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 
[Lesson XIV, Part I.] 

18444 Papupooh Lieurance 

This song tells of one of the daughters of the chief of the Red Willow Pueblos. 
A young chief of another tribe fell in love with the beautiful Papupooh, or ' ' Deer 
Flower. ' ' When he found out that her father would not let her marry outside 
of her tribe, he sang this song of sorrow and disappointment. 

Papupooh, My Deer-Flower ! 
Papupooh, My Deer-Flower ! 
The sunset calls me far from you, 
Papupooh, my Deer-Flower, Farewell. 

Copy't 1913, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 

[Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

18444 The Sacrifice Lieurance 

This song is taken from an old legend of Vancouver. A young chief was told 
that he must give up whatever was the dearest thing in life to him, in order to 
become the chief of the tribe. He threw his flute into the fire and sang this song, 
the theme of which was taken from an old Sioux melody. 

In sacrificial fires, I cast with tears of However dear they are to me ; 

dole You give me back my youth. 

My flute, and there expires The morning stars you wrong, 

The music of my very soul. And rob the birds, in truth, 

Great Spirit of the sea, To give new power to your song. 
Of mountain, stream, and plain, 
No offering to thee 

Copy't 1915, by Theo. Presser Co. Used by permission. 

[Lesson XXX, Part 7.] 

64693 The Marseillaise Eouget de Lisle 

The French patriotic hymn owes its name to the fact that it was originally 
sung by the corps of the city of Marseilles when they entered Paris, July 29, 
1792. Perhaps the best account of this composition is that written by a nephew 
of the author, from which the following facts are gathered: 

' ' Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle was a captain of engineers, quartered at 
Strasbourg in 1792. Baron de Dietrich was then mayor of the city. He asked 
de Lisle for a patriotic song which he wished to give to the Lower Rhine Volun- 
teers to sing ; and as the captain was both poet and musician, he went to his rooms 
and set to work. The song was conceived through the night of April 24th, written 

322 



Analyses 

and sung the next day at the mayor's house, and publicly played on Sunday, 
April 29th, by the band of the National Guard at Strasbourg. It did not reach 
Marseilles until June, where it created as great a furore and excitement as at 
Strasbourg. ' ' 

During the attack of the Tuilleries, in August, 1792, this great song became 
in truth the National Hymn of France: 



Allous, enfants tie la patrie ! 
Le jour de gloire est arrive ; 
Centre nous cle la tyrannic. 
L'etendard sanglant est leve, 
L'etendard sanglant est leve! 
Kntendez vous, dans les campagnes, 
Mujrir ces feroces soldats? 
Us viennent jusque dans iios bras, 
Egorger DOS fils : nos compagnes ! 



Amour sacre de la patrie, 

Conduits, soutiens nos bras vengeurs. 

Liberte, liberte cherie. 

1 1 :Combats avec tes defenseurs :| | 

Sous nos drapeaux que la victoire 

Accoure a tes males accens ; 

Que tes euncmis expiraiis 

Voyent ton triomphe et notre gloire. 



CHORUS 

Aux armes, citoyens ! 
Formez vos bataillons. 
Marchons, marchous, 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 

[Lesson XII, Part I.] 

74589 Caprice Poetic Lisst 

One writer has said ' ' the great resources of Liszt are speed and noise, ' ' yet 
when Liszt wished to enter the domain of poetic thought he was able to give 
expression to his ideal imagination in a manner quite as poetic and beautiful as 
that of Chopin. This charming Caprice Poetic is such a composition and reflects 
Liszt in a meditative mood, although the technical skill of the virtuoso, is needed 
to give full expression to the greatness of this most interesting work. [Lesson 
XXI, Part III.] 



55094 Liebestraum 



Liszt 



Liszt wrote three short tone poems for piano solo which he called ' ' Liebes- 
traum. " The first two he gives a sub-title of Nocturne, but they are, in reality, 
' ' Songs Without Words, ' ' as they are in truth simple songs of several stanzas in 
which the piano decorates by cadenza and accompaniment. The most famous of 
the three is this Liebestraum in A flat, published in 1850 as a piano solo. Liszt 
originally used this melody as a song, which was set to the poem by Ferdinand 
Freiligrath (1810-1876), a German Revolutionary poet, who in his youth wrote 
many charming lyrics reflective of Romanticism. His poem ' ' O Love ' ' made a 
very deep impression on Liszt, who first used it as a song, then as this transcrip- 
tion. The words are: 

Oh, love, while love is thine to give. 

While true love yet remains to thee, 
The hour comes, when at the grave 

Thou'lt stand, and weep full bitterly. 
Let kindness glow within thy breast, 

Let love's bright flame unfailing burn, 
While still another faithful heart 

To thine beats warmly in return. 
And hold him dear thro' weal and woe, 

Who bares his inmost heart to thee. 



Guard well thy tongue, seal fast thy lips ; 

The angry word unspoken keep. 
O God ! I meant no ill ! 

But he will seek a place apart to weep. 

Copy't 1903 by Oliver Ditson Co. From Ditson Edition, Piano Solo. 
[Lesson X, Part I; Lesson XVII, Part II.] 



323 



88204 The Loreley Liszt 

This song is the most popular of any of the songs which Franz Liszt gave to 
the world. It was written in 1841 at Nonuewerth on the Rhine, and is a setting 
of Heinrich Heine 's poem telling of the enchantress of the Rhine. It must not 
be confused with the Silcher song, which is a simple folk version of the story. 
It may be interesting to compare the art song of Liszt's with the folk song by 
Silcher. [Lesson XVII, Part II.] 

74647 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 Liszt 

This composition is an arrangement of the most famous of the fifteen Hun- 
garian Rhapsodies for piano by Franz Liszt. In these works, by the use of 
characteristic folk themes and the peculiar rhythm of the musical gypsies, Liszt 
gives a glimpse of Hungarian nationality in a remarkable degree. This compo- 
sition consists of a slow introductory movement patterned after the ' ' Lassen ' ' 
or slow dance, followed "by a rapid ' ' Friska ' ' from the Czardas, the national 
dance of Hungary. [Lesson XXI, Part I; Lesson XVII, Part II.] 

68339 Die Uhr (The Watch) (Op. 123, No. 3) Loew'e 

Carl Loewe (1796-1869), although a trifle older than Schubert, really fol- 
lowed the great master of song in his writing of ballads and art songs. Being 
a professional singer by training, Loewe understood the possibilities of the human 
voice, and although many of his works are highly dramatic, they always remain 
singable, for the lyric and dramatic elements are welded with a master hand. 
Loewe always carries his dramatic ideas into the musical accompaniment. Notice 
in this selection the imitation of the ticking of the watch. Be certain that the 
class understands the poetic significance here, also. 

Where'er I go, I carry But should it e'er rim no longer, 

A watch with me alway, Its day would then be o'er ; 

And only need look whenever None other but him who made it. 

I'd know the time of day. Could set it going once more. 

It was a master workman Then I to the Maker must hie me, 

Who deftly its work designed, How far, no mortal can say, 

Tho' 'twill not always follow Beyond Creation's beginning. 

The whims of a foolish mind. Far off in an endless day ! 

And there, as a grateful child might, 

I'll give my Father His own : 
"See, Lord. I did not spoil it, 
'Tis only all run down." 

Copy't 1903 by G. Schirmer. 
Poem by Gabriel Seidl. English translation by Dr. Th. linker. 

[Lesson XIV, Part II.] 

16159 Ein' feste Burg (A Mighty Fortress) Luiltcr 

Martin Luther (1483-1546) wrote this great chorale while a prisoner 
in the Wartburg Castle in Eisenach. It is said that it was first sung by his fol- 
lowers when they made the triumphal entry into Worms, and from that day 
its popularity was amazing. It was the battle hymn of the soldiers under Gustavus 
Adolphus, who often sang the hymn during the fight. Luther was contem- 
poraneous with Josquin des Pres, of the second period of the Netherland School. 
[Lesson XIX, Part I.] 

18598 Of a Tailor and a Bear MacDowell 

In his early life, Edward MacDowell wrote a number of short compositions 

324 



A n a I y s e a 

under the nom de plume of Edgar Thorn. ' ' Of a Tailor and a Bear" is one of 
these works. It is a clever imitative story of a tailor, who was such a lover of 
music that he always kept his violin beside him as he worked. One day as the 
tailor was busily working, he heard a great commotion on the street, and suddenly 
a big bear appeared in his doorway. Although he was very badly frightened, the 
tailor remembered that bears loved music; so he began to play, and the bear was 
so delighted that he began to dance. However, the keeper came and led the 
dancing bear away, and the tailor much relieved settled down to his work. [Les- 
son XI, Part I.] 

64470 Thy Beaming Eyes MacDowell 

One of the most beautiful songs by Edward MacDowell is "Thy Beaming 
Eyes." It is in a slow, almost grave measure, but is full of true emotion and 
sincerity. It follows the ' ' art song ' ' form, in that its stanzas differ from one 
another in slight changes of melody. Notice the exquisite use of the harp 
arpeggio just before the end of the song. [Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

45187 Woodland Sketches MacDowell 

(1) At an Old Try sting Place (2) To a Wild Rose 

Of all MacDowell 's compositions, none has been more universally popular 
than the series of short pianoforte pieces, entitled ' ' Woodland Sketches. ' ' These 
two numbers belong to this group of compositions. Both of these selections are 
of the class of music which reflects poetic thought, for although bearing titles, 
these selections leave much to the imagination of the hearer. [Lesson XXX, 
Part II.] 

87072 Siciliana (" Cavalleria Rusticana"} Mascagni 

This beautiful aria is, in reality, a part of the Prelude to Mascagni 's opera 
' ' Cavalleria Rusticana. ' ' The opening measures of the introduction are played 
by the orchestra; then to the harp accompaniment the voice of Turiddu (tenor) 
is heard behind the scenes singing: 

O Lola, with tliy lips like crimson berries, 

Eyes with tlie glow of love deepening in them. 
Cheeks with the hue of wild, blossoming cherries 

Fortunate he who first finds favor to win them ; 

Yet, tho' I died and found Heaven on me beaming 
Wort thou not there to greet me, grief I should cherish ! 

Copy't 1891, G. Schirmer. 

[Lesson XXI, Part IV.] 

IGli aranci olesano (Blossoms of Oranges') (" Cavalleria Rusticana"} 
Mascagni 
Regina Coeli (Queen of Heaven} ("Cavalleria Rusticana"} Mascagni 
The opening chorus of ' ' Cavalleria Eusticana ' ' is sung by the crowds of 
villagers who throng the square on the way to Easter morning service. The 
women 's voices, singing of the fragrance of the orange blossoms, and of the bird 
songs of spring, are answered by the men, who rejoice that they shall soon meet 
their sweethearts. The ' ' Regina Creli ' ' is sung by the people before they enter 
the church to attend Easter Mass. It is a good example of a modern antiphonal 
chorus. [Lesson XXI, Part IV.] 

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Analyses 

45186 Intermezzo ("Cavalleria Eusticana") Mascagni 

The famous Intermezzo, from Mascagni 's ' ' Cavalleria Eusticana, ' ' has won 
universal popularity. This short one-act opera is divided into two parts, and 
between these two scenes of tragedy and horror is introduced this musical mes- 
sage of peace, breathing an air of simplicity and holy love. Dramatically, it 
does not fit into the opera, save to bring into contrast the scenes of tragic turmoil, 
but played as a concert number, it has made its composer famous. [Lesson 
XXVII, Part II; Lesson XXI, Part IF.] 

35437 The Angelus ("Scenes Pittoresques") Massenet 

Jules Massenet is known as one of the most prolific opera composers of the 
Modern School. He has, however, left several concert suites, which prove that, had 
he devoted more attention to instrumental composition, he would have been as 
popular in that branch of the art as in his operatic work. 

The suite ' ' Scenes Pittoresques ' ' consists of four numbers : March, Air de 
Ballet, Angelus, Bohemian Festival. The Angelus, which is a beautiful little tone- 
poem descriptive of the same situation which Millet has immortalized, is an 
excellent example of the bell effect in instrumentation. [Lesson XXVI, Part II. ] 

64587 Air de la Lettre ("Cleopatre") Massenet 

"Cleopatre," one of the last works of Massenet, the great French opera com- 
poser, was produced in Monte Carlo in 1914. This air, "Alone on my terrace, I 
Think of Thee, ' ' is sung by Marc Anthony in the second act. The scene shows 
the atrium of Marc Anthony's house. It is the day of his marriage to Octavia. 
He opens a casket which Cleopatre gave him on parting, and takes out and reads 
the letter which is the text of this beautiful love aria. [Lesson XXVI, Part IV.] 

88014 tlegie Massenet 

Jules Massenet wrote the incidental music for Leconte de Lisle 's antique 
drama, ' ' Les firinnyes " in 1 873. The drama was not a success, but much of 
Massenet 's music was so popular that he was urged to arrange it in the form 
of a suite for orchestra. The theme of the Invocation, which was played by the 
violoncello as Electra poured the libations upon her father 's tomb, was so beautiful 
that Massenet used it also as the melodic material for the famous song, ' ' Elegie. ' ' 

The blooming spring days of yore, 
Have left me for aye, 
No more shall the skies smile for me. 
My loved one is far away. 

The birds no longer sing 
The sun is dark as the grave, 
All the daylight of my life is gone. 
Dead is my heart for evermore. 

[Lesson X, Part I ; Lesson V t Part III.] 

88153 Aria Fleeting Vision (" Herodiade") Massenet 

Massenet 's version of the story of Salome and John the Baptist is very dif- 
ferent from that of Richard Strauss. A French version of the story is here used. 
This aria is sung by King Herod in the second act. He has surrounded him- 
self with his dancers, and has tried in vain to forget the wonderful beauty of 
Salome, which ever seems to haunt him as a vision. [Lesson XXVI, Part IV. ] 

74123 Legende de la Sauge ("Jongleur de Notre Dame") Massenet 

This beautiful aria occurs in the second act of the mystical opera, ' ' The 

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Analyses 

Jongleur of Notre Dame." The scene is the study of the Abbey, and the monks 
have been discussing the merits of their relative arts. After they have gone into 
the chapel, Jean sadly exclaims, "And I alone have nothing to offer Mary." 
The cook, Boniface, then tells him the legend of the sage bush, a mediaeval story, 
which Massenet has here set to an old folk song. 

The tale ran that Mary, fleeing from the vengeance of Herod, sought to hide 
the holy babe. She appealed to a rosebush to open wide its petals and shield her 
son, but the rose declined to thus soil her dress. A humble sagebush was more 
kind, and formed a safe cradle wherein to hide the child Jesus, and so was blessed 
by Mary. [Lesson XXVI, Part IV.] 

89123 Duet, "D'acqua Aspergini" ("Thais") Massenet 

The best known of Massenet 's works is his opera, ' ' Thai's, ' ' which was pro- 
duced in Paris in 1894. The action takes place in Alexandria during the first 
century, when the early Christians were in daily conflict with the unholy pagan 
sensuality. Mr. Finck aptly summarized this work, when he described it as " The 
story of a sinner who became a saint, and a saint who became a sinner." 

This duet occurs in Act three. The scene is an oasis in the desert. Hither 
come Athanael and Thai's, exhausted from their long journey through the desert. 
He hastens to find food and drink for her, and as she is refreshing herself, he 
realizes his great love for her. (For words, see "Victrola Book of the Opera.") 
[Lesson XXVI, Part IV.] 

74135 Meditation ("Thais") Massenet 

Massenet's opera, "Thai's," is a quasi-religious portrayal of the conversion 
of the courtesan Thai's, of Alexandria, by a fanatic monk of the desert, Athanael. 
The story is taken from Anatole France 's romance of the same name. This beau- 
tiful violin solo with orchestra, called the ' ' Eeligious Meditation, ' ' takes place as 
an intermezzo between the third and fourth scenes of the opera. Athanael has 
told Thai's in the third scene, which takes place in her house, that he will await 
her coming on her doorstep all through the night. This music is supposedly 
descriptive of the conflict in the soul of the woman who gives up ' ' the god of 
love for the love of God." [Lesson II, Part III; Lesson XXVI, Part IV.} 

64234 Ossian's Ode ("Werther") Massenet 

Many authorities consider ' ' Werther ' ' Massenet 's best opera. This charming 
music drama is a French version of Goethe's celebrated tragedy, "The Sorrows of 
Werther, ' ' which was in reality the romantic story of the German poet 's own life. 

Werther sings the famous ode of the great Gaelic poet Ossian to Charlotte 
in the third act of the opera. The scene shows the living-room in the home of 
Albert and Charlotte. Werther comes to bid farewell to Charlotte, and noticing 
the poems of Ossian on the table, he reminds Charlotte of the happy days, when 
together they translated the beautiful odes. He sings, and as he finishes both 
Werther and Charlotte realize their love for each other and that they must make 
their farewell for eternity. 

WERTHER: "Yes, I see! Nothing is changed here except hearts. Every- 
thing is in the familiar place. There is the harpsichord that pleased my merry 
hours or responded to my sad moods then your voice accompanied mine. These 
books how many times have we bent our heads together over them. 

(Looks at his pistols.) 

' ' And these weapons one day my hands sought them. Already I had become 

327 



Analyses 

impatient for the long, breathless sleep. And here are the poems of Ossian that 
you commenced to translate. Translate! Ah! how often my dreams have soared 
on the wings of these poems, and it is thou, dear poet, who often interpreted my 
feelings ! All my soul is there ! ' ' 

"Oh ! wake me not, thou brea th of spring, And dreads awakening. 

Thou breath of spring. The stranger found me fair to see 

Let me dream on, as one who knows And now in scorn, he passes me, 

Bleak winter with its chills and snows, To see so sad a thing !" 

[Lesson XXVI, Part IV. \ 

45083 Douce Dame Jolie Mauchault 

Guillaime de Mauchault (1295-1377) ranks with Adam de la Halle as the last 
of the Troubadours. In reality they connect the old school of Chansonniers with 
the Contrapuntal School which dominated Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. Guillaime de Mauchault was a poet as well as a musician, and seems 
to have won his greatest renown with his graceful, rhythmical ballettes. In the 
songs of this period one noticeable feature is apparent: the melody closely follows 
the quick succession of the syllables and is never drawn out to the detriment of 
the text. Not only did de Mauchault advance music in his day, but he also 
greatly improved the science of notation. The signs he used were lozenge-shaped, 
some being black, some red. As he expresses it : " The black are perfect, the red 
imperfect." De Mauchault was in the service of Jean, Duke of Luxembourg, 
who later became King of Bohemia. He sang his songs in praise of Agnes of 
Navarre, with whom he was deeply infatuated. This beautiful love air is one 
of the songs Guillaime de Mauchault dedicated to his fair mistress. The words 
are ' ' Beautiful and gentle lady God knows that none other reigns o 'er me but 
thyself alone. Fair and gracious lady, each day of my life, I swear it, will be 
spent in thy humble service only." [Lesson IV, Part 77.] 

74088 If With All Your Hearts ("Elijah") Mendelssohn 

"Elijah," which is considered to be the greatest oratorio Mendelssohn wrote, 

was originally intended as the first of a series of three works, "Elijah," 

' ' Christus ' ' and ' ' St. Paul. ' ' The ' ' Christus ' ' was left unfinished at the time 

of the composer's death. 

This great aria for tenor is one of the favorite selections from oratorio. The 

people have been weeping and questioning the power of God. The voice of 

Obadiah is heard comforting them. [Lesson IX, Part IV.] 

88288 Oh, Rest In the Lord (" Elijah") Mendelssohn, 

This beautiful air for contralto occurs in the second part of Mendelssohn 's 
oratorio ' ' Elijah. ' ' The prophet is discouraged and voices his complaint in the 
aria "O Lord I Have Labored In Vain." In answer to his cry of despair, the 
voice of the angel is heard breathing comfort in this lovely air. It is said that 
Mendelssohn here made use, probably unconsciously, of the tune of the old Scotch 
ballad "Auld Eobin Gray," as there is a striking similarity in the two themes. 
The text is: "Oh, rest in the Lord: wait patiently for Him and lie shall give 
thee thy heart 's desires. Commit thy ways unto Him, and trust in Him, and fret 
not thyself because of evil-doers." [Lesson IV, Part I.] 

17216 Farewell to the Forest Mendelssohn 

This beautiful arrangement of Mendelssohn's song "Farewell to the Forest" 

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Analyses 

gives an excellent chance of comparing the tone coloring of the instruments 
which comprise the brass choir. [Lesson XIV, Part III.] 

88191 But the Lord Is Mindful of His Own ("St. Paul") Mendelssohn 

This great aria for contralto is one of the favorite oratorio selections which 
finds its way to the concert stage. In its original setting it occurs in the first 
part of the oratorio ' ' St. Paul, ' ' which is the first work in this form which 
Mendelssohn gave to the world. After the martyrdom of St. Stephen, Saul 
appears ' ' breathing out threatenings and slaughter, ' ' against all the Apostles. 
His aria is followed by the voice of comfort from the contralto. 
EECITATIVE : 

And he journeyed with companions toward Damascus, and had authority 
from the High Priest that he should bring them bound men and women unto 
Jerusalem. 

ARIA : 

But the Lord is mindful of His own, 

He remembers His children ; 

Bow down before Him ye mighty 

For the Lord is near us. 

Yea the Lord is mindful of His own, 

He remembers His children. 

[Lesson IX, Part IT.] 

45065 On Wings of Song Mendelssohn 

Originally this charming composition was a song, but it is equally popular 

as an instrumental composition. It is one of the best beloved of Mendelssohn's 
short works. [Lesson X, Part I.] 

35625 Overture ("A Midsummer-Night's Dream") Mendelssohn 

Mendelssohn never wrote an opera, but his music to Shakespeare 's comedy, 
"A Midsummer-Night's Dream," would be sufficient to give him a high place 
among dramatic composers. The overture was written for a performance of 
Shakespeare 's comedy, which was given by the Mendelssohn family, when the 
composer was but seventeen years old. Seventeen years later the remainder of 
the incidental music was written. In its truest sense, this overture belongs to 
the style of "Concert Overtures," which Mendelssohn later gave to the world. 
Frederick Weiks thus describes this work: 

"The sustained chords of the wind instruments with which the overture opens, 
are the magic formula that opens to us the realms of fairyland. The busy trip- 
ping first subject tells us of the fairies ; the broader and more dignified theme 
which follows, of Duke Theseus and his retinue ; the passionate second subject of 
the romantic lovers, while the clownish second part pictures the tradesmen, and 
the braying reminds us of Bottom, as the ass. The development is full of bustle 
and the play of the elves. In conclusion, we have once more the magic formula 
which now dissolves the dream it before conjured up." [Lesson XI, Part I; 
Lesson XV, Part II; Lesson VIII, Part IV.] 

7-1560 Scherzo "Midsummer-Night's Dream" Mendelssohn 

This sparkling fairy Scherzo occurs as an entr 'acte to the first and second 
acts of Mendelssohn's musical setting for "A Midsummer-Night's Dream." 
This is a dainty and delicate piece of writing for orchestra, being scored for 
strings, wood-winds, two horns, two trumpets and kettle drums. The two con- 
trasting themes are used in the regulation two-part dance form. [Lesson VIII, 
Part /K.J 

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Analyses 

35527 Intermezzo "A Midsummer- Night's Dream" Mendelssohn 

This beautiful number is usually played at the end of the second act of 
Mendelssohn 's setting of "A Midsummer-Night 's Dream. ' ' Hermia awakes to 
find Lysander gone, and starts on her fruitless search for him. This lovely move- 
ment, which seemingly expresses the conflict of emotions in Hermia 's heart, is 
played by the first violins, which are answered by the flute and clarinet. 

The theme then abruptly changes to the semi-comic measures of the ' ' Clown 's 
March, ' ' which is here intoned by the bassoons, the clarinets playing in thirds. 
This prepares the audience for the entrance of Bottom and his fellows, who begin 
their rehearsal in the woods. [Lesson XIII, Part III.] 

35527 Nocturne "A Midsummer-Night's Dream" Mendelssohn 

This beautiful Notturno or Nocturne is the incidental music to be played 
between the third and fourth acts of Mendelssohn 's setting of Shakespeare 's 
"A Midsummer-Night's Dream." The four lovers are lying asleep in the woods, 
and to the strains of this lovely melody, Puck appears with the remedy that 
shall straighten out the love tangle and make all happily reunited. The opening 
theme is one of the most beautiful of all uses for the French horn. The harmony 
is exquisitely furnished by 'cellos and bassoons. The Coda ending is a charming 
bit of writing, here given to two flutes. [Lesson XVI, Part III.] 

55048 Wedding March "A Midsummer-Night's Dream" Mendelssohn 

The great popularity of the ' ' Wedding March, ' ' which Mendelssohn wrote for 
the performance of " A Midsummer-Night 's Dream " to be given at Potsdam in 
1843, has been unequaled. There have been few marriages since that date that 
have not been enhanced by the majestic strains of this noble wedding march. In 
its original setting, the march occurs between Acts IV and V and leads on the 
stage the Duke Theseus, Hippolyta and the four lovers, whose adventures form 
the narrative of ' ' A Midsummer-Night 's Dream. ' ' 

The plan of the march is quite simple; following the preliminary trumpet 
calls, the familiar principal subject is given out fortissimo. This subject is in 
two parts, each repeating. A contrasting subject in G Major follows, after which 
the opening march returns. The Trio is followed by a return of the first subject 
and a Coda based upon the principal theme, the second subject not being heard 
again. [Lesson VIII, Part I.] 

55060 You Spotted Snakes "A Midsummer -Night's Dream" Mendelssohn 

In Mendelssohn 's setting of "A Midsummer-Night 's Dream, ' ' this chorus 
is sung by women's voices to represent the fairies lulling the Queen, Titania, to 
sleep. The setting is the wood near Athens; and Titania enters with her fairy 
train. The Queen commands, "Come, now a roundel and a fairy song. * * * 
Sing me now asleep. Then to your offices and let me rest." The fairies then 
sing this lullaby. [Lesson VIII, Part IV.] 

64921 Spinning Song Mendelssohn 

The Spinning Song is an excellent example of the song form, and also is 

a descriptive piece of program music, in which the accompaniment is imitative 

of the busily whirring spinning wheel. 

This composition is No. 4, Op. 67, of the ' ' Songs Without Words, ' ' by 

Mendelssohn. [Lesson IX, Part I ; Lesson XXI, Part III.] 

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Analyses 

74285 Spring Song Mendelssohn 

This popular short composition is the last work in Book V, of Mendelssohn 's 
' ' Songs Without Words. ' ' These pieces for pianoforte were Mendelssohn 's ex- 
pression of the romantic use of the principle of poetic thought. Although these 
works bear titles and are, in a certain sense, programmatic, in that they have 
imitative effects freely employed, they are not in the modern sense ' ' program 
music." In form this composition follows the regular song pattern. [Lesson AT, 
Part II.] 

35452 Andante con Moto ("Italian Symphony") Mendelssohn 

Mendelssohn 's two greatest works in the symphonic form are : the Symphony 
in A Minor, designated by him as the ' ' Scotch ' ' Symphony, and this work in 
A Major, which he called ' ' Italian ' ' Symphony. Both are national composition, 
in that they were inspired by travel in Scotland and Italy, and that historical 
events as well as actual musical peculiarities are portrayed by the composer. The 
"Italian" Symphony was inspired by Mendelssohn's trip to Italy (1830-3]). 
Upton says: "The first movement, Allegro -vivace, reflects as clearly the blue 
skies, clear air, brightness and joyousness of Italy as the first movement of the 
A Minor Symphony does the sombre and melancholy aspect of Ilolyrood. ' ' 

' ' The Andante, ' ' Ambrose says, ' ' is generally known as the ' Pilgrims ' 
March. ' It has been thought by some to be in the church style. ' The cowl, ' 
according to an old chronicle, ' does not make the monk, ' and just as little does a 
continuous contrapuntal bass make a piece of music into a contrapuntally con- 
ceived one. We might, perhaps, say that this Andante tells a romance of the 
olden time, in the style of chronicles- only the poet 's eye occasionally betrays 
itself, sadly smiling. Being once in the Albanian Mountains, we can now recall 
the picturesque castle embattlements of Grotto Ferrata, and the old devotional 
stations with the solemn mosaic pictures of saints upon a gold ground." 

The opening theme, which seems to be "a call to prayer," is followed by 
a beautiful theme for oboe, bassoon and violas, which is then repeated by the 
violins with a rather elaborate accompaniment by the flutes. The introductory 
theme then presents the second subject, in which a joyous phrase for clarinets and 
flutes is noticeable, the theme of the introduction again occurs, and both first and 
second themes are repeated several times with brief intermezzo-like passages inter- 
vening. [Lesson XXVII, Part 777.] 

35452 Con Moto Moderato ("Italian Symphony") Mendelssohn 

The third movement of Mendelssohn 's ' ' Italian Symphony ' ' is said to have 
been taken from an earlier work. It opens with a dainty ' ' Mozartean ' ' melody. 
The Trio is another beautiful melody, given by the violins, then by flutes, over 
an accompaniment of bassoons and horns. Ambrose says of this Scherzo: 

' ' In the third movement the person of the tone-poet advances more into the 
foreground; it is the purest feeling of well-being, of calm, happy enjoyment that 
emanates from this gentle melody. And these horns in the Trio, are they not as 
if, in the midst of this Italian paradise, a truly German yearning comes over him 
for the dear light green of the woods of his home?" [Lesson XXVII, Part III.] 

74532 Shadow Song ("Dinorah") Meyerbeer 

Although rarely heard to-day, the opera of ' ' Dinorah ' ' gives a rare oppor- 
tunity for the coloratura soprano to show her vocal powers. The heroine of the story, 
Dinorah becomes demented, because she fears her lover has deserted her. Accom- 

331 



Analyses 

panied by her goat, she wanders about the country, searching for her beloved 
one. The ' ' Shadow Song ' ' occurs as the opening scene of the second act. It 
is moonlight in the woods. Thither comes Dinorah, and as she dances with her 
shadow, she sings this beautiful coloratura aria. (For words, see " \ r ictrola Book 
of the Opera.") [Lesson XI, Part IV.] 

35505 Faclccltans Meyerbeer 

The Fackeltanz (Marche aux Flambeaux) is a torchlight procession, which 
has survived from the old mediaevel tournaments. The procession marches around 
the hall and passes through many interesting ceremonies during the playing of the 
march, which, in character, is very much like the Polonaise. Meyerbeer wrote four 
of these compositions, the first being composed for the marriage of the King of 
Bavaria, in 1846. Although this record is made by band instead of orchestra, 
the original is heavily scored for the brass choir, hence much of the real character 
of the piece is here retained. The remarkable use of the tuba, which here gives 
the theme of the trio, should be noticed especially. [Lesson XVII, Part III.] 

88210 Romansa (" Les Huguenots") Meyerbeer 

This beautiful tenor aria is one of the gems of Meyerbeer 's ' ' Les Huguenots. ' ' 
It occurs in the first act, the scene of which takes place in the apartment of the 
Count de Nevers. Eaoul de Nangis tells the story of a fair one whom he rescued 
in an encounter. Note the use of the viola as an obbligato instrument. [Lesson 
XI, Part IV.] 

74275 Benediction of the Swords ("Les Huguenots") Meyerbeer 

One of the greatest concerted numbers for basso and chorus is the famous 
' ' Benediction of the Swords, ' ' from Meyerbeer 's ' ' Les Huguenots. ' ' The selec- 
tion occurs in the fourth act, in a room in the home of Count de Nevers. 
Valentine is surprised by the arrival of her lover, Raoul, but he is forced to hide 
behind some tapestries, on the arrival of several Catholic noblemen, who come 
to acquaint the Count with the details of the plot of St. Bris for the St. Bartholo- 
mew Massacre. The conference is brought to its conclusion with the thrilling 
consecration of the swords, sung by St. Bris and the conspirators. [Lesson XVIII, 
Part II; Lesson XI, Part IV.] 

88187 Aria Ah! Mon Fils (" Le Prophcte") Meyerbeer 

' ' Le Prophete ' ' was produced in Paris, in 1 849, thirteen years after its 
predecessor, ' ' Les Huguenots. ' ' 

The scene of the opera is laid in Holland, in 1534; the story is of John of 
Ley den. This great aria for contralto takes place in the second act and is sung 
by Fides to John, following the scene where he is obliged to give up his betrothed, 
Bertha, in order to save his mother's life. [Lesson XI, Part IV.] 

17290 Summertime Minnesinger 

This song is attributed to Xeidhart von Reuenthal, a famous Minnesinger of 
the thirteenth century. 

Welcome lovely summertime 

With thy wealth of happy flowers 
Which light-footed May has' brought 

So swiftly through the hours. 

Copy't Oliver Ditson Co. 

[Lesson IV, Part II.] 
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Analyses 

64201 Rigaudon Monsigny 

Pierre Alexandra Monsigny (1 729-] 81 7) was the composer of many operas 
during the late eighteenth century. His works are now practically obsolete, 
although Monsigny is still regarded as one of the founders of the Opera Comique. 
His melody is always clear and beautiful, though he was sadly deficient in theory 
and technic. The Rigaudon, a favorite court dance of France, is a four-part form 
of which the third is very short. [Lesson XXII, Part III.] 

17718 Ecco purch'a voi ritorno ("Orfeo") Monteverde 

The first opera by the Venetian composer, Claudio Monteverde, is based on the 
ever-popular legend of Orpheus and Eurydice. This work, known as "Orfeo, " 
was produced in Mantua, but seven years after the presentation in Florence of 
Peri 's and Caccini 's ' ' Eurydice. ' ' Monteverde 's text was by Allessandro Striggio, 
and at the special command of the Duke of Mantua, the libretto was published, 
that the audience might follow the text. The orchestra of Monteverde 's was far 
more imposing than that of the Camerata, and a greater freedom of melody and 
a more pronounced dramatic feeling was the natural result. Yet Monteverde him- 
self was a greater master of the dramatic possibilities of music than either Peri 
or Caccini. The opportunities of the Venetian instrumental school aided him in 
a larger comprehension of the musical expression for passion and agitation. Yet 
he ever realized that ' ' the word is the mistress, not the slave of music, ' ' and the 
cample treatment of this great aria, sung by Orfeo when he realizes that Eurydice 
is forever lost to him, is an excellent proof of Monteverde 's dramatic strength. 
After hearing this exquisite aria one realizes anew the strength of Gluck 's 
assertion that "simplicity and truth are the sole principles of the beautiful in 
art. ' ' [Lesson II, Part IV.} 

45083 Tu Se' Morta (Thou Art Dead) ("Orfeo") Monteverde 

This remarkable aria is sung by Orfeo when he realizes that he has lost his 
beloved Eurydice forever. One is reminded of the old adage, ' ' There is nothing 
new under the sun, ' ' as one listens to this tragic short aria, in which the tones 
speak the heartbroken grief of the bereaved husband. Has modern music gained 
a freer expression for the same grief? One feels here all the pathos and tender- 
ness which music possesses. It is easily seen where Gluck obtained the model of 
his famous aria, "I Have Lost My Eurydice." [Lesson II, Part IV.] 

76031 Finale, Act III ("Boris Godounow"} Moussorgslcy 

Modest Moussorgsky (1839-1881) is considered by the Eussians as the greatest 
genius of the Keo-Russian School. His opera, "Boris Godounow, " certainly proves 
him to be a remarkable exponent of modern dramatic genius coupled with the 
Russian national feeling. This work, which is a musical setting of Pushkin's 
mighty historical drama, "Boris Godounow," was arranged in operatic form by 
Moussorgsky himself. It is more like a series of historical tableaux than a con- 
nected drama, but the music welds the work together into a unity which is 
surprising when one attempts to analyze definitely each scene. 

Pushkin's story is based on historical fact, and tells of the condition of 
Russia after the death of the insane, cruel ' ' Ivan the Terrible. ' ' His son, Feodor, 
the weak-witted heir to the throne, is ruled by Boris Godounow, his brother-in-law 
and regent. The little child Dimitri alone stands between Boris and the throne. 
The murder of Dimitri is so cleverly arranged that Boris is able to free himself 
from the suspicions of the people, and on the death of Feodor, Boris becomes 

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Analyses 

Tsar of Russia. Overcome by remorse, his mind gives way just as the people, led 
by the monk Gregory and a Polish prince, who poses as the dead Dimitri, advance 
on Moscow. Death brings welcome relief. This great duet occurs as the finale to 
Act III, which takes place in Poland. In the garden of the castle of Sandomire, 
Marina, the young Polish princess, sees herself in fancy on Russia 's throne as the 
bride of the false Dimitri. In this duet Marina inspires her lover to assert his 
rights and snatch the Russian throne from the imbecile Tsar, Boris Godounow. 
[Lesson XV, Part IV. .] 

74579 Andante, Quartet in D Major Mozart 

This Andante is the second movement in the first Quartet for strings written 
by Mozart. It is said that the work was composed to while away some weary 
hours during one of Mozart's concert tours to Italy, where the youthful genius 
was then startling all the courts by his virtuosity. It is quite Italian in its 
character, and this is particularly noticeable in the wonderful melody of the second 
part of this beautiful Andante. [Lesson XXV, Part 1II.\ 

88026 Batti, Batti o bel Masetto (Scold Me, Dear Masetto) 

("Don Giovanni") Mozart 

This charming soprano air occurs in the first act of ' ' Don Giovanni. ' ' The 
simple little bride Zerlina has been attracted by the charms and flattery of 
Don Giovanni. They sing the duet ' ' La ci darem la Mano, ' ' but as they are 
starting away together, Donna Elvira appears and rescues Zerlina, whom she 
restores to her bridegroom, Masetto. In the next scene Zerlina attempts to 
make her peace with her husband. The gentle lyric quality of this aria makes it an 
exceptional number in the list of Mozart 's brilliant coloratura airs for soprano. 
[Lesson VI, Part IV.] 

17917 Menuett ("Don Giovanni") Mozart 

No composer ever wrote more perfect examples of the minuet than did 
Mozart, and this minuet from ' ' Don Giovanni ; ' is considered his best. Although 
he used the form of his master, Haydn, Mozart 's minuets are a much more 
faithful reproduction of the stately court dance than are the rollicking minuets of 
good ' ' Papa ' ' Haydn. With Mozart, all the tenderness, and grace and charm of 
court life is felt, in centra-distinction to the homely gaiety of the common folk 
as reflected in Haydn's minuets. 

This arrangement of this popular minuet is given on the bells. [Lesson XV III, 
Part III.] 

88194 Deh vieni alia finestra Mozart 

This charming serenade is sung by the amorous Don in the second act of 

Mozart's lovely opera, "Don Giovanni." (For words, see "Victrola Book of 

the Opera.") [Lesson XII, Part II; Lesson VI, Part IV. \ 

55111 Concerto for Flute and Harp Mozart 

Mozart left several chamber music compositions for unusual combinations 
of instruments. One of the most interesting is the Concerto for Flute and Harp. 
This work give an excellent opportunity for the study of the tone quality of these 
instruments. [Lesson VII, Part III.] 

89015 La ci darem Id mano (Thy Little Hand) ("Don Giovanni") Mozart 
The charm and grace of Mozart 's melody is well illustrated in this beautiful 

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Analyses 

duet, sung by the Spanish Don and Zerlina, in the first act of Mozart's opera, 
' ' Don Giovanni. ' ' This is one of the best examples of dialogue duet to be found 
in all operatic literature. [Lesson XII, Part II ; Lesson VI, Part IV.] 

17917 Gavotte Mozart 

The spirit of the Gavotte adapts itself well for a xylophone solo. This is an 

excellent opportunity to hear this interesting percussion instrument as a solo. 

[Lesson XVIII, Part III.} 

88067 Voi die sapete (What Is This Feeling?) ("Marriage of Figaro") Mozart 
The Page 's Song from Mozart 's charming ' ' Marriage of Figaro ' ' has ever 
been a popular concert number. In its actual dramatic setting it is sung by 
Cherubino, the page to the Countess, in the first act of the opera. Notice should 
be taken of the fact that Mozart has here employed the simple ballad form, while 
the accompaniment on the strings, pizzicato, is in imitation of the guitar. [Lesson 
I' I, Part IV.] 

85042 Invocation ("The Magic Flute") Mozart 

' ' The Magic Flute ' ' was the last opera of Mozart 's to be produced. It is 
the most extraordinary work that has ever been given to the world, for although 
set to a libretto which is absolutely ludicrous, the beauty of the music has caused 
this opera to be regarded as one of Mozart 's finest musical achievements. 

This Invocation occurs at the opening of the second act; the scene shows 
the abode of Sarastro, the High Priest of Isis, and his voice is heard as he 
invokes her aid in one of the greatest basso arias ever written. [Lesson VI, 
Part IV.} 

35678 Gloria (" Twelfth Mass") Mozart 

Mozart wrote fifteen masses for the Catholic Church service. The Gloria 
occurs in the mass at the end of the Kyrie, and is the hymn ' ' Gloria in Excelsis. ' ' 
This was probably of Eastern origin, although it has been in the Western Roman 
Church since the early days. [Lesson VI, Part I.} 

35482 Allegro Molto First Movement (Symphony in G Minor) Mozart 

One of the most beautiful of symphonies is this lovely symphony in G Minor 
by Mozart. It dates as do the E Flat Major and the C Major (Jupiter) from 
the summer of 1788. It seems almost incredible that in the space of two months 
three great works of such magnitude could have been conceived and written, yet 
of the forty-nine symphonies which Mozart composed, his fame as a symphonist 
rests on these three alone. The G Minor Symphony was written in ten days- 
from July 15 to 25, 1788. In its original scoring the orchestra consisted of one 
flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns and strings. Later, Mozart added 
clarinets also. 

Schubert, speaking of this symphony, said : ' ' You can hear the angels singing 
in it. ' ' Every great composer since Mozart 's day has revered this beautiful work. 
The first movement is in the orthodox sonata form, save that the first subject 
begins at once, without the slow introduction. This theme is given by the violins, 
with accompaniment by the violas. The transitional passage to the second sub- 
ject is of interest as showing Mozart 's genius in invention. The second subject, 
in B Flat Major, is announced by the strings and instantly taken up by the 
oboe and bassoon. The first subject is given a short redevelopment before the 
repetition of subject matter. The Free Fantasia then begins. This is worked 



Analyses 

out of the material of the first subject almost entirely. The Recapitulation 
restates the themes practically as they were first presented, save that the transi- 
tional passage is considerably lengthened, and that the second subject returns in 
the key of G Major. The Coda is based on the material of the first subject. 

(Analysis of the Symphony in its entirety is here given. Students should, 
if possible, follow these records with small scores so that they may obesrve the 
cuts which have been made.) [Lesson XII, Part II.] 

35482 Andante Second Movement (Symphony in G Minor) Mozart 

The second movement of Mozart 's G Minor Symphony follows the pattern 
of the sonata form. The first theme, given by the strings, is of an agitated, flut- 
tering character. In contrast is the more melodic second subject, also given by 
the strings. The Development, or Free Fantasia, is very short and deals princi- 
pally with the first subject. The Recapitulation brings back both subjects in the 
orthodox fashion. (This record gives only the statement of the subjects.) [Lesson 
XXIV, Part III; Lesson XII, Part II.] 

35489 Menuetto Third Movement (G Minor Symphony) Mozart 

The third movement of Mozart 's G Minor Symphony is one of the most popu- 
lar minuets ever written. It ranks with Mozart 's Minuet from ' ' Don Giovanni ' ' 
as an almost perfect example of this charming three-part form. The theme of the 
Trio in G Major is first given by the strings pianissimo, being continued first 
by the wood-winds, then by the horn. The character of this Trio is in marvelous 
contrast to the Minuet, which is repeated at the close of the Trio exactly as it 
was first heard. [Lesson XXIV, Part III; Lesson XII, Part 77.] 

35489 Allegro Finale (G Minor Symphony} Mozart 

The Finale of Mozart's G Minor Symphony brings back the agitated, passion- 
ate character of the opening movement. This also follows the outlines of Sonata 
form. The principal subject consists of sixteen measures, divided equally, each 
part being repeated. The second subject, given by the strings, is in B Flat. 
The first subject is again heard now in the wood-winds. The Development is 
chiefly concerned with the opening theme of the first subject. This is followed 
by the orthodox Recapitulation. [Lesson XII, Part 77; Lesson XXIV, Part III.] 

ii-cco (Good News 

l/bo.5 < Negro Spirituals 

(Live a-Humble 

Booker T. Washington says: "The plantation songs known as 'The Spirit- 
uals' are the spontaneous outburst of intense religious fervor, and had their origin 
chiefly in the camp-meeting, the revival, and in other religious exercises. They 
breathe a childlike faith in a personal Father and glow with the hope that the 
children of bondage will ultimately pass out of the wilderness of slavery, into the 
land of freedom. There is in these songs a pathos and a beauty that appeals 
to a wide range of tastes, and their improvised native harmony makes abiding 
impression upon persons of the highest musical culture. The music of these songs 
goes to the heart, because it comes from the heart. ' ' 

"Good News, the Chariot's Coming," is one of the most popular of the 
"shouting spirituals," while "Live a-Humble" is an earnest plea for God's 
guidance. [Lesson III, Part 7.] 

18446 Been a Listenin' Negro 

A good example of the brighter side of the Xegro Spiritual is to be found 

33G 



Analyses 

in ' ' Been a Listenin ', ' ' which is filled with the quaint and charming humor always 
found in the music of the "Upper South." [Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

18446 I Want To Be Eeady Negro 

This is a typical Spiritual of the ' ' Upper South. ' ' The influence of the 
cake walk, or walk around, is suggested in the sly, unconscious humor of this song. 
[Lesson XXX, Part I.] 

65928 The Tree Nordraak 

Eichard Nordraak (1842-1866) was the friend and adviser of Grieg. Although 
he spent some years in study in Germany, he never lost his Norwegian musical 
speech, and his short life was spent entirely in the study and advancement of 
Norwegian art. He was the cousin of Bjornson, and many of his songs were 
settings to Bjornson 's verses. Nordraak 's most ambitious work was the incidental 
music to his dramatist cousin 's ' ' Mary Stuart. ' ' In this short song, ' ' The Tree, ' ' 
Nordraak has followed the text of Bjornson, but has kept also the Norwegian 
character : 

The tree's early leaf-buds were bursting their brown ; 
"Shall I take them away?" said the Frost sweeping down. 
"No, dear, leave them alone, till blossoms have grown," 
Prayed the tree, while he trembled from rootlet to crown. 

The tree refused his blossoms to the wind, but when the little girl asked for 
his fruit, then he gladly bent down his branches and gave all his wealth to her. 
Words from Norway Music Album. Copy't 0. Ditson & Co. [Lesson XXIII, 
Part II.] 

18519 \ T 

C481P/ want Norton 

This is one of the most popular American songs of the past generation. It 
is said that the melody was of Spanish origin which was popular in the Southwest 
of America, and that the words were adapted to this melody by Mrs. Caroline 
Norton, who is generally accredited to be the composer of this song. [Lesson XXX, 
Part I; Lesson XXIX, Part II.] 

{(a) Aa, Ola Ola Norwegian Folk Song 

(b) Astri, Mi Astri Norwegian Folk Song 

These two Norwegian folk songs show the characteristic sadness which pre- 
vails in all the melodies of Norway. Even in the attempt to be gay in the 
dialogue song, ' ' Astri, My Astri, ' ' the dark coloring is noticeable. Tennyson most 
truly expressed this characteristic when he said : ' ' Dark and true and tender is 
the North." 

Aa.Ola Ola! 

Oh, Ole, Ole, I loved you dearly, 
But you have dealt with me insincerely. 
I did not think you would let your tongue 
Be false to me, whom you saw was young. 

Astri! Mi Astri 
DIALOGUE SONG 
SVERNING : 

Astri ! my Astri ! your heart mine alone was 
In those old days of joy and delight ; 
You always wept when our eventide flown was, 

Tho' 'we did meet each Saturday night. 
Then 'twas my heart, Astri, you stole from me. 
Happier I was than princes can be. 

337 



1 n a I y s e s 



ASTRI : 

. Ah, you did Astri then love, and her only, 

That was ere Svanaug you cared so to see ; 
I knew not then what it was to be lonely. 

For every week you did hasten to me. 
With no fine lady to change would I choose ; 
In those old days if I you must thus lose. 

From Norway Song Album. Copy't Oliver Ditson Co. 

[Lesson XXIV, Part I.] 

65929 Gamale Norge (Old Norway) Norwegian Folk Song 

It is believed that this Norwegian folk song originated in some Norwegian 
colony in America. The words describe the lonely exile as he longs for his native 
land. The music is an adaptation of several Norwegian characteristic folk tunes. 
[Lesson XXIV, Part 7.] 

(San Mass Aan Lasse Norwegian Folk Song 

(Han Ole Norwegian Folk Song 

There is a great contrast in these two old Norwegian folk songs, which are 
here sung without accompaniment, in the old Norse style. In a certain sense both 
are satirical, as each describes some national Norwegian trait. 

The first tells of two companions who go to shoot bear. The recurring 
refrain, ' ' Three Whole Days, ' ' tells how long it takes them to prepare to go to 
the forest; to draw their knives; to dress the bear, and to eat the bear. Each 
trivial incident in the story is described as being ' ' three whole days. ' ' Each 
verse ends with the words, ' ' You don 't say so ! " This humorous description of 
the slow-working Norwegian mind is in contrast to the second song, presenting 
the sentimentality of the Norwegian peasant. Han Ole receives word that his 
sweetheart is dead; he seats himself in his chair, breathes a prayer and dies of 
a broken heart. [Lesson XXIV, Part 7.] 

65929 To Norway, Mother of the Brave Norwegian Folk Song 

This song of Norway, which was arranged in its present version by Gretry, the 

French composer, gives true patriotic feeling. It is a " toast song ' ' to the nation. 

To Norway, mother of the brave, 
We crown the cup of pleasure, 
And dream our freedom come again, 
And grasp the vanished treasure. 
When once the mighty task's begun, 
The glorious race is swift to run. 
To Norway, mother of the brave 
We crown the cup of pleasure. 



Then drink to Norway's hills sublime, 
Rocks, snows, and glens profound ; 
"Success !" her thousand echoes cry, 
And thank us with the sound. 
Old Dovre mingles with our glee, 
And joins our shouts with three times three, 
Then drink to Norway's hills sublime ; 
Rocks, snows and glens profound ! 

Copy't 1881 by O. Ditson & Co. 

[Lesson XXIV, Part I.} 

17160 Mountain March Norwegian 

The student of Norwegian music will find a great difference in the music of 

the mountainous regions and that of the valley. The Norwegian folk tunes have 

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Analyses 

been less affected by outside conditions than have those of Sweden, and they 
are always distinguishable by a rhythmic and melodic irregularity, which is sug- 
gestive of the energetic step of the peasant in his rough dances. This folk dance 
is danced in groups of three, who represent two mountain climbers and their 
guide. [Lesson XXIV, Part I.] 

87532 Barcarolle ("Tales of Iloffman ") Offenbach 

Jacques Offenbach is often called ' ' the father of modern Opera Buffa. ' ' 
Though of German birth, Offenbach, like Meyerbeer, is chiefly identified with the 
French School, for all his works were written for the Opera Comique of Paris. 
His operas have met with great popularity all over the world, but of his one 
hundred works for the stage none is more beloved than ''The Tales of Iloffman." 
The ever-popular Barcarolle occurs at the opening of the third act. The scene 
discloses a room in a Venetian palace and through the open windows can be seen 
the canals bathed in the silvery moonlight. The lovers sing to the rocking 
measure used by the Venetian gondoliers and known as the Barcarolle, this 
beautiful duet. [Lesson XVI, Part IV.] 

35670 Instruments of the Orchestra 

This record gives the voices of the strings and wood-wind sections of the 
orchestra. 

Harp, Overture, Mignon (Thomas) Violin, String Qt. in C. Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 
(Beethoven) Viola, Recitative. Act ''> Froisclnitz (Weber) Violoncello, Overture, Wil- 
liam Tell (Kossini) Contra Bass, Faust Overture (Wagner) String Ensemble, The 
Pizzicato, Sylvia Ballet (Delibes) String Ensemble. Ballet Music from Orfeo (Gluck). 

Piccolo. Will-o'-the-Wisp, Damnation of Faust (Berlioz) Flute, Overture, Semi- 
ramide (Rossini) Oboe. Aida, Act 3 (Verdi) English Horn, Largo, New World 
Symphony (Dvorak) Clarinet. Overture. Orpheus (Offenbach) Bassoon, Sherzo, 3d 
Symphony (Schumann) Ensemble, Wedding March, Lohengrin (Wagner). 

35671 Instruments of the Orchestra 

This record gives the voices of the brass and percussion sections of the orches- 
tra, also a short number for the entire orchestra. 

French Horn. Overture, Mignon (Thomas) Trumpet. Overture. Fra Diavolo (Au- 
ber) Trombone, Pilgrims' Chorus, Tannhiiuser (Wagner)- Tuba, Dragon Motive, Sieg- 
fried (Wagner I Ensemble, Chorale (Bach). 

Tympani (Kettledrums), Eroica Symphony (Beethoven) Side Drum, Fra Diavolo 
(Auber) Marimba. Ilabanora, Carmen (Bizet) Castanets, Spanish Rhythm Or- 
chestra Bells. Sweet Love Gavotte (Resch) Xylophone, Witch's Dance. Hansel and 
Gretel (Humperdinck) Gong, Celesta, Dance of the "Sugar Plum Fairy." Nutcracker 
Suite (Tschaikowsky) Entire Orchestra, Pique Dame Oveture (Supp6). 

[Lesson I, Part III.] 

74535 Cracovicnne Fantastique Paderewski 

The most popular dance of the Poles living in the district of Cracow, is called 
the Cracovienne. It is a boisterous, almost wild dance, of the common people, and 
is generally danced by a number of couples, who shout while dancing. If the 
occasion be a wedding, a betrothal, or a birthday, appropriate improvised verses 
are sung by the dancers. After the fashion of all Polish dances, the Cracovienne 
varies between brilliant, fiery rhythms, and the expression of more langourous 
melody. 

Paderewski has written several Cracoviennes, as it has been his desire to 
have this form as well known as the Polonaise. This illustration, which is No. 6 
of Opus 14, is the best composition by Paderewski in this form. [Lesson XXIII 
Part I.] 

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Analyses 

16474 Minuet Paderewski 

No single composition of the past decade ever attained greater popularity 
than did the charming Minuet by the great Polish pianist, Paderewski. Written 
in the classic dance form, this Minuet breathes a spirit of past Court days. It 
is said that Paderewski and a friend were once discussing Mozart, and the friend 
remarked that no one of the present day could write in the quaint and dignified 
manner of the Court. Paderewski said : ' ' Possibly you do not know this Minuet 
by Mozart, ' ' and played for his friend this little composition. After the friend 
had used the playing of this work as a point to prove his argument, Paderewski 
told him that he was himself the composer of the dainty little dance. [Lesson XII, 
Part I.] 

74581 Moto perpetuo Paganini 

The most individual virtuoso on the violin was Niccolo Paganini (1784-1828) 
who amazed Europe by his dazzling playing on the violin and his unique person- 
ality. So odd and eccentric was the behavior of this genius that he attracted the 
curiosity of the entire world and this resulted in a general belief that the violinist 
was possessed of a superhuman power. Therefore none of the other artists of his 
day dared to attempt any of Paganini 's compositions. While the technique of 
Paganini was in truth collossal, there are a number of violinists before the public 
to-day, who must be considered as his equal technically and his superiors musically. 
Paganini 's ' ' Moto perpetuo ' ' is one of the most difficult compositions for bow- 
technic yet there are several violinists of to-day, who have made the work their 
own and are playing it quite as brilliantly as did its composer. 

Leopold Auer, the great violinist and teacher says of Paganini : "In spite 
of the novelty of idea, the elegance and harmonic richness and variety of his 
compositions, Paganini conceived them almost purely from the point of view of 
violinistic effect. His music was skillfully devised to display to the greatest advan- 
tage his stupendous skill in playing harmonics, extended passages in double stops, 
his mastery of the G string, his intimate combination of bow sounds with left hand 
pizzicato, his well-nigh incredible violinistic tours de force. ' ' All these effects 
are to be noticed in this composition. [Lesson XX, Part III.] 

74118 The Lark Now Leaves Its Wat'ry Nest Parker 

Horatio Parker (1863-1920) was the most important of the modern American 
composers. His works were always scholarly and self-contained, but they were 
possessed of a rare loftiness of style and genuine contrapuntal strength. He 
wrote a number of beautiful songs, of which this is the best known and most 
popular. [Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

88047 Home, Sweet Home Payne 

This song of home, which still lives in the hearts of all English speaking 
people, was written by John Howard Payne, who is known as "the homeless bard 
of home." He was born in New York City in 1792, and came from a prominent 
family of educators. He went on the stage early in life, and his success as an 
actor and writer of dramas took him to London when he was but twenty years 
of age. This song was given to the world in a short opera, which was entitled, 
' ' Clari, the Maid of Milan, ' ' which was produced in London in 1 823. The music 
for the opera was arranged by Sir Henry Rowland Bishop for Payne 's verses. 
The air to ' ' Home, Sweet Home, ' ' was said by Bishop to be a " Sicilian air, ' ' 
but it has since been proved that Bishop wrote the melody himself in the style 



Analyses 

of the Sicilian folk songs. "Home, Sweet Home" became very popular immedi- 
ately all over the world; it was introduced into the lesson scene of the opera, 
' ' The Barber of Seville, ' ' and into Donizetti 's opera of ' ' Anna Bolena. ' ' It 
was a favorite with Jenny Lind, Christine Neilsson and Adelina Patti, just as it 
still is with all the great sopranos of to-day. Payne, who became a homeless 
wanderer, died in Tunis in 1852. His body was brought back to the United States 
in 1883, and was buried in Washington, D. C., with great honor. Just before his 
death, Payne wrote in his diary : ' ' How often have I been in the heart of Paris, 
Berlin, London, or some other city, and have heard persons singing, or hand 
organs playing ' ' Home, Sweet Home, ' ' without having a shilling to buy myself 
the next meal, or a place to lay my head. The world has literally sung my song 
until every heart is familiar with its melody, yet I have been a wanderer from 
my boyhood." [Lesson XXIX, Part II.] 

-.__ . j Gloria Patri Palestrina 

\ Popule Meus Palestrina 

In the religious choruses of Palestrina there is noticeable, not only a marvel- 
ous skill in contrapuntal writing, but a truly religious feeling, which has never 
been excelled by any master of church music. The Gloria Patri should not be 
confused with the Gloria in Excelsis, which is a part of the Mass. The Gloria 
Patri is sung after the Psalms, and this custom is peculiar to the Western Church. 
This record is so analyzed that each chorus can be followed easily. 

The Popule Meus belongs to the Improperia or form of service used on Good 
Friday. The text of the Improperia (Reproaches) depicts the remonstrance of 
Christ with His people, who have returned His benefits with ingratitude. Since 
the Pontificate of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565), these verses have always been 
chanted to the music of Palestrina. "In depth of feeling and perfect adapta- 
tion of the music to the sense of the words, these wonderful Improperia have 
never been exceeded even by Palestrina himself. We may well believe, indeed, 
that he alone could have succeeded in drawing from the few simple chords which 
enter into their construction, the profoundly impressive effect, they never fail 
to produce. ' ' 

Popule Meus (Antiphonal) 

Chorus I: Popule meus, quid foci tihi? Chorus II: Agios O Theos. 

ChoriiK II: Aut in quo contristavi te? Churns I: Sanctus Deus. 

Responde mihi ! Chorus II: Agios Ischyros. 

Chorus I: Quia eduxi te de terra JEgypti ; Chorim I: Sanctus fortis. 

I'arasti crucem Salvatori tuo. ****** * 
(Edited by Frank Damrosch) Copy't 1899 by G. Schirmer. 

[Lesson V, Part 77.] 

55051 Stizzoso, mio stiszoso (Unruly Sir) (" La Serva Padrona") Pergolesi 
It has been the custom for biographers of Pergolesi to speak of ' ' La Serva 
Padrona " as " the first comic opera. ' ' This is not entirely true, for the comic 
element entered the music drama at the time of Cavalli (1600-1676), while Marc 
Antonio Cesti (1620-1669) was responsible for the division of the Opera Buffa 
from the Opera Seria. However, Pergolesi may be credited with the definite 
establishment of the form, for "La Serva Padrona" made the tour of all the 
capitals of Europe and did much to establish the popularity of this form. Pergo- 
lesi followed Logroscino (1700-1763) and Jomelli (1714-1774) in perfecting the 
form of the Opera Buffa. Originally these comic operas were termed Intermezzi 
and were played between the acts of the Opera Seria, in much the same way that 

341 



Analyses 

the French Ballet was employed. With ' ' La Serva Padrona ' ' the Neapolitan 
Intermezzo became a definite form, able to stand on its own merits in the popu- 
larity of the audience. 

This little operetta tells of the schemes of a serving maid, Serpina, to win 
the hand of Pandolfo, her master. The valet, Scapin, aids her by disguising him- 
self as a person of rank and by making such violent love, that the old master 
becomes piqued and proposes to her himself. 

Pergolesi introduced the Bondo as a substitute for the Da Capo Aria, which 
had become so stereotyped that its set formality was hardly in keeping with gay 
situations. This aria is an example of the Eondo form and has retained its 
popularity for two centuries. [Lesson IV, Part IV.] 

64932 Nina Pergolesi 

Giovanni Battiste Pergolesi (1710-1736) was the greatest composer of the 
Neapolitan School in the early eighteenth century, lie was the first real genius 
of the "Opera Buff'a School," and with his "Serva Padrona" he laid the founda- 
tion of all future comic opera development. Although he wrote a number of operas, 
none was successful, and many of his works have become obsolete. This short air, 
' ' Nina, ' ' which is here played by the 'cello, is one of the lovely old melodies 
by Pergolesi which has lain forgotten for nearly two centuries. [Lesson IV, 
Part IV.] 

55051 Funeste piaggie ("Eurydice") Peri 

The opera "Eurydice" was the second attempt of the Florentine Camerata 
to prove that the Greek drama had been accompanied by music. This work, 
which was the joint effort of the poet Einnuccini and the musicians Peri and 
Caccini, was produced at the Pitti Palace in Florence, October 6, 1600, for the 
marriage festivities of Maria de Medici and Henry IV of France. The orchestra 
consisted of a grave-cembalo, chitarone, lira grande, theorbo and three flutes. 
These latter instruments figure in the only purely instrumental passage in the 
work, which is termed ' ' Symphonia for three flutes. ' ' This orchestra was placed 
in the back of the stage. It should be noted that the preponderance of instru- 
ments was of the harmony-producing type, and nothing but a basso continuo is 
found in the first editions of the work. This aria is a monologue by Orfeo to the 
inhabitants of the underworld. "Ye dismal hillsides, how sad ye are without 
Eurydice." [Lesson VI, Part II; Lesson II, Part IV.] 

17216 Spring Song Pinsuti 

Giro Pinsuti (1829-1888) although an Italian by birth, spent many years in 
London, where he was long the teacher of singing in the Eoyal Academy. In this 
capacity he was the instructor of many of the greatest singers the world has 
ever known, among them being Bosio, Graziani, Grisi, Mario and Patti. 

This selection is a simple song of spring, which is here played in an arrange- 
ment for brass quartet. It gives a splendid opportunity for hearing the staccato 
tone quality in the brasses. [Lesson XI F, Part III.] 

18627 Stars of the Summer Night Pease 

Arthur Pease (1838-1882), the composer of this and more than eighty other 
songs, was an American, who was popular as a composer and pianist during the 
early part of the nineteenth century. These words are from Longfellow 's poem, 
"The Spanish Student." 

342 



Analyses 



Stars of the summer night, She sleeps, my lady sleeps, 

Far in yon azure deep. She sleeps, she sleeps, my lady sleeps. 

Hide, hide your golden light, 

Dreams of the summer night, 

CHORUS Tell her, her lover keeps 

She sleeps, my lady sleeps, Watch, while, in slumber light, 

She sleeps, she sleeps, my lady sleeps. 

She sleeps, my lady sleeps, 

Moon of the summer night She sleeps, she sleeps, my lady sleeps. 

Par down yon western steeps 
Sink, sink in silver light, 

[Lesson XII, Part I.] 

17712 March Sambre et Meuse Tlanquctte 

This stirring patriotic inarch is by Eobert Planquette (1840-1903), the cele- 
brated Parisian light opera composer. During the world war, words were set to 
the march by Paul Cezano, and the song became the favorite marching song of 
the French army. [Lesson XIV, Part I.] 

45170 Poupee Valsante Poldini 

Although originally written for the piano, this charming little imitation of a 
dancing doll has been arranged as a violin solo, and also for orchestra. Its com- 
poser, Edward Poldini, was a Viennese pianist, who wrote a number of charming 
and popular compositions for his chosen instrument. [Lesson IX, Part 7.] 

18002 \Cracoviac Polish 

63460 / 

One of the oldest of the Polish dances is the Cracoviac, or Krakowiak, which 
comes from the district of Cracow. It is described in a book of poems by Mias- 
kowski as early as 1632. It is a lively song-dance in duple time, which is thus 
described by an eye-witness: "There are usually a great many couples as many 
as in an English country dance. They shout while dancing and occasionally the 
smart man of the party sings an impromptu couplet suited for the occasion 
on weddings, birthdays and other festivals. The men also strike their heels 
together while dancing, which produces a metallic sound, as their heels are covered 
with iron. ' ' The name Cracoviak is also given to the songs which originally 
were sung by the dancers and which have to-day been separated from the 
dances. [Lesson XXIII, Part I.~\ 

63460 Xa Wawel Polish 

This dance song is an excellent example of the folk music of Poland. [Lesson 
XXIII, Part 7.] 

64876 Voce di donna (Angelic Voice) ("La Gioconda") Ponchielli 

This scene occurs in the first act of "La Gioconda." The stage shows the 
courtyard of the Ducal Palace filled with a noisy crowd, who are celebrating the 
victory of the boat races. La Cieca, the aged blind mother of Gioconda, is 
accused by the loser of the race to have used witchcraft against him. The crowd 
turn on her and are about to take her life, when she is saved through the inter- 
vention of Laura, the wife of the noble Alvise. La Cieca speaks her gratitude 
in this great contralto aria. [Lesson XIX, Part IV.] 

88246 Cielo e mar (Heaven and Ocean) ("La Gioconda") Ponchielli 

This great tenor aria occurs in the second act. Enzo is waiting on the deck 
of his boat for the arrival of his beloved Laura, whom Barnaba has promised 
to bring to him in safety. [Lesson XIX, Part IV.] 

343 



Analyses 

55044 Dance of the Hours (" La Gioconda") Ponchielli 

In the third act of Ponchielli 's opera, ' ' La Gioconda, ' ' the scene shows 
the interior of the Duke's Palace during a masked ball. For the entertainment 
of the guests the dance is then given. Each group of dancers is dressed to 
represent darkness, dawn, light and twilight, and the action represents the struggle 
of light and darkness for supremacy. It is a charming example of ballet music, 
and the dance here given is one of the most popular from the series. [Lesson 
XIX, Part IF.] 

( Lo, How a Eose E 'er Blooming Praetorius 

\ To Us Is Born Immanuel Praetorius 

Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) comes from one of the oldest musical families 
in Germany. In his fifty years Michael Praetorious was one of the most prolific 
composers who has ever lived. His works are important because they form the 
link between the old Polyphonic School and the Modern School, which begins 
with Bach and Handel. 

Praetorius also left some very important treatises on musical composition ; 
one work gives a most complete idea of the instruments of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and their possibilities, and fortunately is profusely illustrated with woodcuts, 
so that many of the obsolete instruments of that period are now understandable. 

Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming To Us Is Born Immanuel 

(Written 1609) (Written 1G09) 

Lo, how a Rose e'er blooming To us is born Immanuel, 

From tender stem hath sprung ! Christ our Lord ; 

Of Jesse's lineage coming As foretold by Gabriel, 

As men of old have sung. Christ our Lord : 

It came a flow'ret bright, He who is our Saviour and King ador'd. 
Amid the cold of winter, 

When half-spent was the night. Here in a manger lying low, 

******* Christ our Lord ; 

English version by Dr. Th. Baker Yet this Child is God, we know, 

Christ our Lord : 
He who is our Saviour and King ador'd. 

Copy't 1894 by G. Schirmcr. 
[Lesson Y, Part II.] 

64802 0, Mio Babbino Caro (Beloved Daddy) ("Gianni Schicci") Puccini 

In 1919, Puccini presented the world with three one-act operas; "II Tabarro,'' 
a tragedy ; ' ' Suor Angelica, ' ' a mystery play ; and ' ' Gianni Schicci, ' ' a comedy. 
"Suor Angelica" is an inferior copy of Massenet's "Jongleur de Notre Dame," 
and is far from convincing. "II Tabarro" is a condensed melodrama of the 
old-school type; but "Gianni Schicci" is a gem; a true comic opera, with spark- 
ling and charmingly appropriate music. The action takes place in Florence, 
during the sixteenth century. The scene is laid in the bed chamber of 
Donati, who has just departed this life. His relatives are searching madly for 
his will, and when it is found they discover that their wealthy relative has left 
all his possessions to the church. In great despair they call to their aid Gianni 
Schicci, a clever lawyer of Florence. The daughter of Schicci, Lauretta, is be- 
trothed to Binucchio, but his relatives all oppose the union. In order to avenge 
himself for this slight,. Schicci tells the family that as no one knows Donati is 
dead, he will himself enact the role of the sick man and dictate a new will. He, 
thereupon, leaves all the wealth of Donati, to "my dear, good friend, Gianni 
Schicci," so that his daughter and her lover may inherit the fortune. This charm- 
ing aria is sung by Lauretta when she pleads with her father to help out the rela- 
tives of her lover. [Lesson XX, Part IV.] 

344 



Analyses 

64886 Aria "Ch' ella mi credo, libero" ("Girl of the Golden West") Puccini 
"The Girl of the Golden West" was presented for the first time on any stage 
in New York, December 10, 1911. This work by Puccini was based upon the 
popular drama by David Belasco, and although it has never attained the great 
popularity of Puccini 's other operas, it is one of the most dramatic works which 
Puccini ever wrote, for in no other work has he made his music so much a part 
of the dramatic action of the stage. The most inspired number in the opera is 
the great aria sung by ' ' Dick Johnson ' ' in the last act. The men have determined 
to lynch Johnson, and are preparing the noose, when he makes his final appeal to 
them. In this aria, he begs them to let Minnie believe that he has gained his 
freedom, and has gone to live the better life she has taught him. All his love for 
"the girl" is shown forth in this remarkable aria. [Lesson XX, Part IV.} 

88002 Rudolph's Narrative ("LaBohsme") Puccini 

No aria from modern opera is more universally popular than the beautiful 
tenor solo from the first act of Puccini 's setting of Murger 's ' ' La Vie Boheme. ' ' 
The scene shows the garret in the Latin Quarter that the four friends call their 
home. Rudolph, the poet, has begged his friends to leave him that he may finish 
a poem before joining them for supper. Mimi, the little flower maker, comes to 
ask for a light, and Rudolph at once falls a victim to her charms. When she 
asks him to tell her of his life, he replies that he is a poet. Although he lives in 
poverty, in soul, he is wealthy, for his mind and heart are filled with fair dreams 
and castles of fancy. These will all now disappear, for they have been crowded 
out by her sweet presence. [Lesson XX, Part IV.~\ 

96002 Quartet Addio (Farewell, Sweet Love} (" La Boheme") Puccini 

The charm and grace of Puccini's "La Bolu>me" is strikingly felt in this 

ever-popular Quartet, which holds an important position on the concert stage. 

This number is the last scene of Act III, and tells of the farewell between 

Mimi and Rudolph. All the characters are here briefly sketched in tone by 

Puccini: the gentle Mimi, who has been saddened by the mistrust of Rudolph; 

the poet, whose love for Mimi is once more re -awakened ; the fickle gaiety of 

Musetta, and the quarelsome bickerings of Marcel and Musetta. [Lesson XX, 

Part IF.] 

64560 Musetta Waltz ("La Boheme") Puccini 

This tuneful waltz-song, which is one of the most popular of the single num- 
bers from any of Puccini's operas, is sung by the little "grisette" Musetta. The 
scene is the Cafe Momus on Christmas Eve. Thither comes Musetta dressed 
with great elegance, on the arm of a wealthy banker. They seat themselves at the 
table next the Bohemians. To attract the attention of her lover, Marcel, Musetta 
sings this captivating waltz. She contrives to lose the aged banker and rushes off 
with Marcel. [Lesson XX, Part IT 7 .] 

88113 Un bel di vedremo (Some Day) ("Madame Butterfly") Puccini 

The story by John Luther Long, which was first dramatized by David Belasco, 

nod later used by Puccini for his opera, "Madame Butterfly," is a simple tale of 

life in Japan. 

In the first act we see the wedding celebration of Butterfly to the young 

American Lieutenant; in the second act is portrayed her hope of his ultimate 

return to her side, and in the Finale the tragic death of Butterfly. 

345 



Analyses 

This aria, which is one of the most popular numbers from the opera, occurs at 
the opening of the second act. Butterfly, who, in the three years since Pinkerton 's 
departure has never given up hope that he shall return, is living with her little 
boy and her faithful maid in the little house where she had been so happy. 
Suzuki begins to doubt that the American husband will return; but Butterfly 
calms her fears, in this beautiful aria, in which she tells of the great ship 
which will surely come again and bring once more happiness to them all. [Lesson 
XX, Part IV.-] 

89008 Duet of the Flowers {Madame Butterfly} Puccini 

This beautiful duet for soprano and alto occurs in the second act of Puccini 's 
Japanese opera, ' ' Madame Butterfly. ' ' Poor little Madame Butterfly at last 
sees the ship of Lieutenant Pinkerton come into the harbor, and, feeling certain 
that her husband will come to her, she calls to Suzuki, her faithful maid, to help 
her to decorate the room with flowers. So Suzuki brings in all the flowers from 
the garden, and as they decorate the room they sing this beautiful duet. [Lesson 
IF, Part I; Lesson XXVII, Part II; Lesson XX, Part IV.] 

88122 Cantabile Scarpia ("Tosca") Puccini 

Puccini 's setting of Sardou 's great drama ' ' Tosca ' ' gives us a wonderful 
musical delineation of character in the description of Scarpia, the Chief of Police 
of Rome, who is bent on Cavaradossi 's destruction, that he may win Tosea for 
himself. [Lesson XX, Part IV.] 

45092 I Attempt from Love's Sickness to Fly Purcell 

Henry Purcell (1658-1695) was the greatest composer England can claim 
as her own. His principal characteristics were a preference for a more austere 
type of melody than his contemporaries, and an unusually strong rhythmic feeling. 
He wrote much incidental music for the dramatic works of his day, but only one 
work which is classed as an opera. Purcell in the preface to ' ' The Prophetess ' ' 
(1690) of Beaumont and Fletcher, states the situation of opera at his day quite 
clearly : ' ' Musick and poetry have ever been acknowledged sisters, which, walk- 
ing hand in hand support each other. As poetry is the harmony of words so 
musick is that of notes; as poetry is a rise above prose and oratory, so is musick 
the exaltation of poetry. Both of them may excel apart, but surely they are 
most excellent when they are joined, because nothing is then wanting to either of 
their proportions for they appear like wit and beauty in the same person. Poetry 
and painting have arrived at perfection in our own country. Musick is yet but a 
forward child, which gives hope of what it may be hereafter in England, when the 
masters of it shall have found more encouragement. 'Tis now learning Italian, 
which is its best master, and studying a little of French art to give it somewhat 
more of gaiety and freedom. Thus being farther from the sun, we are of later 
growth than our neighbor countries and must be content to shake off our bar- 
barity by degrees. The present age seems already disposed to be refined and to 
distinguish between a wild fancy and a just numerous manner of composition. ' ' 

This aria, which is one of the most pleasing of Purcell 's vocal numbers, occurs 
in the incidental music written in 169.H for Howard and Dryden's "Indian 
Queen. " It is an excellent example of both the ternary and rondo forms, its 
pattern being A-B-A-C-A. 

I attempt from love's sickness to fly in vain, 

Since I am myself my own fever and pain. 

No more now, fond heart, with pride no more swell, 

340 



Analyses 



Thou can'st not raise forces enough to rebel. 
I attempt from love's sickness to fly in vain. 
Since I am myself my own fever and pain. 

For love has more pow'r and less mercy than fate, 
To make us seek ruin, and love those that hate. 
I attempt from love's sickness to fly in vain. 
Since I am myself my own fever and paiu. 

[Lesson VI, Part II; Lesson 11, Part IV.} 

64550 Passing By Purcell 

Edward Purcell (1689-1740) was the youngest son of Henry Purcell, the 
greatest English composer. This charming song reflects the type of music in 
popular use during the early days of the eighteenth century. 

There is a lady sweet and kind, Her gestures, motions, and her smile, 

Was never face so pleased my mind ; Her wit, her voice, my heart beguile. 

I did but see her passing by, Heguile my heart, I know not why ; 

And yet I love her till I die! And yet I love her till I die! 

Cupid is winged and doth range 
Her country ; so my love doth change. 
Hut change the earth or change the sky. 
Yet will I love her till I die ! 

[Lesson VI, Part II.] 

87574 Oh, Cease Thy Singing, Maiden Fair Rachmaninoff 

This beautiful art song by the famous Eussian composer is further enhanced 
by the exquisite violin obbhgato. The song is a typical Kussian musical expression 
and is filled with a mournful, almost supernatural beauty. 

35625 Prelude C Sharp Minor Rachmaninoff 

This composition is one of the most popular piano works of the modern school. 
It was inspired by the hearing of the bells of the Kremlin at Moscow, on a 
festival day. As the Kremlin bells ring out, all the bells of the city answer, until 
the air is filled with the clanging sound of bells. This work was written by 
Rachmaninoff when he was but twenty years old. He sold it to a publisher for 
a trifling sum, and although he never reaped any financial benefit, the great popu- 
larity of this short piece has done more to spread his fame than all his other great 
compositions. Originally written for piano, it has been arranged for practically 
every combination of instruments. [Lesson XXII, Part II.] 

67201 Eigodon de Dardanus Eameau 

Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764), who is known as "the father of har- 
mony, ' ' was the first great master to recognize the law of the inversion of chords. 
It is interesting to-day to read of the criticisms of the contemporaries who 
accused him of having abandoned the tonal successions and resolutions prescribed 
in the old treatises on harmony and composition. Having completed his first books, 
in which he proves his scientific theories regarding tonal relationship, he turned 
his attention to composition. Unfortunately, he had not had the opportunities of 
study in Italy, which most of his contemporaries possessed, so that he never 
nttained great freedom in writing for the voice. In his orchestral scores he more 
than makes up for the lack, however, as he realized the importance of the indi- 
vidual voices in the orchestra and was the first to introduce unexpected and beau- 
tiful passages for the wood-winds. ITe also introduced tne clarinet into the opera 
orchestra. He regulated the instrumental passages in his operas, always beginning 
with a well-constructed overture, after Lully's pattern, yet with a broader 
underlying harmonic foundation. Rameau gave to dramatic music a powerful 

347 



Analy s e 



impetus. He developed the chorus and the ensemble numbers. His ballet music 
was so fresh and pleasing in melody and rhythm that it remained the pattern for 
this form for many years in Italy and Germany as well as France. 

The Eigodon, or Bigaudon, is a lively dance of Provence which became popu- 
lar at the court of Louis XIII. 

Eousseau says its name was derived from its inventor, Eigaud, but other 
authorites say its name is derived from the English ' ' rig, ' ' meaning wanton or 
lively. The music is in 2-4 or 4-4 time and consists of three or four parts. The 
step is a peculiar jump, which made the dance very animated. This Eigadon is 
from the opera of ' ' Dardanus, ' ' which, in five acts and a prologue, was produced 
in 1739. [Lesson XXII, Part III.] 

74659 The Fountain Ravel 

Maurice Bavel is one of the most interesting of modern French composers. 
He uses almost exclusively the idiom of Claude Debussy. This musical idiom is 
especially happy when employed in short tone-pictures like this charming descrip- 
tion of the fountain. While listening to this beautiful piano number, it is easy 
to see before one, the picture of a fountain rising from a rippled pool, and splash- 
ing back into the peaceful waters the glittering drops which have been touched 
by the rainbow of the sunshine. [Lesson IX, Part I ; Lesson XI, Part I ; Lesson 
XXVI, Part II; Lesson XXI, Part III.] 



64790 Hymn to the Sun ("Le Coq d'Or") Rimsky-Korsakow 

"Le Coq d'Or" (The Golden Cockerel) was the last work of Eimsky-Korsakow, 
and was written in 1907. The libretto of the work is based on Poushkin's well- 
known poem, and the opera is in reality a satire, as its prologue tells us 

"A fairy-tale, not solid truth. 
It holds a moral good for youth." 

The beautiful soprano aria is taken from the second act of the opera. The 
aged King Dodon comes into a narrow pass, and sees the wreck of his great army 
and the corpses of his two sons. As day dawns, he notices a large tent which he 
supposes to be the tent of the leader of the hostile band, but greatly to his surprise 
Dodon hears a charming voice, and a most beautiful Princess comes from the 
tent, followed by her slaves who bear musical instruments. She sings this song of 
greeting to the sun, as Dodon bows before her. [Lesson XII, Part III ; Lesson XV, 
Part IV.] 

ii*r 
64209 Song of the Shepherd Lehl ("Snow Maiden") \EimsJcy-Korsakom. 

Eimsky-Korsakow has written his best works for orchestra and the concert 
room, but he also wrote several operas on Bussian stories, which have been popular 
in his native land. His ballet opera of ' ' The Snow Maiden ' ' is based on the fairy 
play of Ostrovsky and was produced in 1882. 

Snegourchka, or Snow Maiden, is the daughter of the King Frost and the 
Fairy Spring. Her father's old enemy, the Sun God, has declared that the beau- 
tiful maiden will die if his rays of sunlight shall ever touch her. So the maiden 
is brought up in the wintry woods. She has heard from afar the songs of the 
Shepherd Lehl and longs to be a mortal, that she may win the love of the shep- 
herd. Her mother persuades the old king that Snegourchka is old enough to go out 
into the world, and she is therefore given into the keeping of a peasant couple, 
who rear her as their own daughter. Lehl remains indifferent to her charms, but 
the Tartar merchant, Mizgyr, becomes infatuated with Snegourchka and deserts 



Analyses 

his own sweetheart, Kupara. But the Snow Maiden discovers that Lehl loves the 
deserted Kupara. In despair she calls on her mother for aid, but the sun comes 
through the clouds, and as though in answer to her cry, the shining rays melt her 
lovely form and she disappears. The symbolism of this quaint folk-tale is easily 
apparent, the Shepherd Lehl representing the spirit of Russian folk-lore. 

The flying cloud called to the thunder 
You rumble, I'll scatter the rain, 
Then the plains will be green with springtime 
And the smiling flowers shall spring. 

Now the girls through woods appear, 

Their strawberries they gather far and near 

We hear their song and laughter, 

Then a sudden cry of torture. 

'One maiden she has gone, 

Alas ! she'll meet the wolf alone," 

Oh ! My Lehl ! My Lehl ! My Lehl ! 

While the maidens sigh and cry 

A wild-eyed stranger they spy 

"You silly girls, have you lost your wits? 

Why do you weep and cry? 

Your silly tears will do no good, 

Why don't you look about the wood?" 

Oh ! My Lehl ! My Lohl ! My Lehl '. 

Copy't Oliver Ditson Co. 
[Lesson XXII, Part 11; Lesson XV, Part IV.} 

74593 Festival at Bagdad ("Scheherazade") Kimsky-Korsalcow 

This is the first part of the final movement of the Suite ' ' Scheherazade ' ' by 
Rimsky-Korsakow. In this movement the composer brings together all the themes 
that he uses in the entire work. Beginning at Bagdad, the festivities are carried 
on board the ship, which is sunk during the raging storm by contact with the 
magnetic rocks. The theme of the sea is heard at the opening of this movement. 
It is followed by the Scheherazade theme in the solo violin. This leads into the 
fete at Bagdad, which is a truly marvelous tone-picture of an Oriental festival. 
All the themes which have been heard in the entire work are here woven into a 
wild fantastic Oriental dance which grows in intensity until the final outburst from 
the trombones and drums which so well depicts the furious storm and the ship- 
wreck upon the rocks. The Scheherazade motive in the violin brings the movement 
to an end. [Lesson XXX, Part III.] 

74691 Tlic Young Prince and the Young Princess ("Scheherazade") 

Eimsky-Korsakow 

Rimsky-Korsakow 's greatest orchestral work is the Scheherazade Suite, the 
story of which is based on "The Arabian Nights." The score bears the follow- 
ing inscription: "The Sultan Schahriah, persuaded of the falseness and faith- 
lessness of women had sworn to have each one of his wives put to death after the 
first night. But the Sultana Scheherazade saved her life by interesting him iu 
the stories which she narrated for a thousand and one nights. Impelled by curi- 
osity, the Sultan remitted the punishment of his wife day after day and finally 
renounced his blood-thirsty resolution. Many wonderful things were told Schah- 
riah by the Sultana Scheherazade. In her narratives the Sultana drew on the 
poets for her verses, on folk songs for her songs, and intermingled tales and ad- 
venture with one another. ' ' 

In the opening movement Scheherazade tells of "The Sea and Sinbad's 

349 



Analyses 

Ship ; " in the second, ' ' The Narrative of the Calendar Prince ' ' is presented. The 
third movement tells of ' ' The Young Prince and the Young Princess. ' ' Their 
themes are very much alike melodically but the second theme is greatly enhanced 
by the use of the tambourine, triangle, cymbals and snare drum which accompany 
the plaintive Oriental melody given by the clarinet. Throughout the movement 
the Scheherazade theme is heard played by the solo violin. [Lesson XXX, 
Part III.] 

88097 Una Voce Poco Fa (" The Barber of Seville") Rossini 

In the ' ' Barber of Seville ' ' Rossini has given us his best work, for although 
in the form of Opera Buffa, this opera has been ever considered his greatest 
and -most popular composition. This story is from the Beaumarchias comedy, 
and is the same which Mozart immortalized in ' ' The Marriage of Figaro. ' ' 

The cavatina ' ' Una Voce Poco Fa " is sung by Rosina in the first act. 
[Lesson VII, Part IV.] 

88391 Largo al Factotum ("The Barber of Seville") Eossini 

No single number from Rossini 's ever-popular ' ' Barber of Seville ' ' has 
been more universally acclaimed than Figaro 's aria from the first act. This is 
one of the old style songs of Opera Buffa known as the ' ' Patter Song, ' ' in which 
the character tells of his work and personal habits. Figaro enters with a guitar 
hung about his neck. 

FIGAUO : 

Room for the city's factotum here, 

La. la, la, la, la, la. 
I must be off to my shop, for the dawn is near, 

La, la, la, la, la, la. 
What a merry life, what pleasure gay, 

Awaits a barber of quality. 
Ah, brave Figaro ; bravo, bravissimo, brave. 

La, la, la, la, la, la. 
Of men, the happiest, sure, art thou, bravo. 

La, la, la, la, la, la. 

" Oh ! what a happy life, ' ' soliloquizes the gay barber of quality. ' ' Oh, 
brave Figaro, bravo, bravissimo ; thou art sure the happiest of men, ready at all 
hours of the night, and, by day, perpetually in bustle and motion. What happier 
region of delight; what nobler life for a barber than mine! Razors, combs, 
lancets, scissors behold them all at my command! Besides the snug perquisites 
of the business, with gay damsels and cavaliers. All call me! all want me! dames 
and maidens old and young. My peruke! cries one my beard! shouts another 
bleed me! cries this this billetdoux! whispers that. Figaro, Figaro, heavens, what 
a crowd. Figaro, Figaro ! heavens what a tumult ! One at a time, for mercy sake ! 
Figaro here: Figaro there: Figaro above: Figaro below: I am all activity: I am 
quick as lightning ; in a word I am the factotum of the town. Oh, what a happy 
life! but little fatigue abundant amusement with a pocket that can always boast 
a doubloon, the noble fruit of my reputation. But I must hasten to the shop." 

[Lesson XVIII, Part II; Lesson VII, Part IV.] 

88460 Cujm Animam (" Stab at Mater") Eossini 

The " Stabat Mater" of Rossini belongs distinctly to the French Grand 
Opera School of his day. Although a musical setting of the most sacred words 
in the Roman Catholic Church service, Rossini has here used the same musical 
expression he would have employed for any trivial operatic libretto. The super 
ficial tendency of Rossini's age has been remarked, and as he favored the singers 



Analyses 



with florid and highly embellished arias in his operas, we find that the selections 
chosen from the ' ' Stabat Mater ' ' answer the same dramatic deficiencies. The 
' ' Cujus Animam ' ' is sung by the tenor, and follows the opening chorus ' ' Stabat 
Mater Dolorosa. ' ' 

Savior breathe forgiveness o'er me, 
In my need guide ine, keep me, 
God of Mercy God of love. 

Heavenly Father, help I pray Thee, 
While I humbly bend before Thee, 
Save and help me, blessed Lord. 

[Lesson IX, Part IV.] 

35157 Cujus Animam (For Trombone) Kossini 

The trombone here plays the famous tenor aria. It is an excellent example 
of the range and power of the tone of the trombone. [Lesson XVII, Part III.] 

on?-o \ Q uis est Homo ("Stabat Mater") Bossini 

891uo J 

This familiar and beautiful duet for two sopranos follows the tenor Aria 
"Cujus Animam" in Rossini's "Stabat Mater." The first soprano gives the 
lovely melodic theme, which is answered by the mezzo-soprano. The melody is 
elaborated with all the well-known Rossini skill for superficial vocal display. 
[Lesson IX, Part IV.] 







I Overture ("William Tell") Kossini 

2. } 



This familiar and ever-popular overture is the only one of Rossini's showy 
opera overtures which still retains a prominent place on concert programs. 
' ' William Tell ' ' was Rossini 's last dramatic work, and was presented in Paris 
in 3 829. The story is a wretched adaptation of Schiller 's famous play, based on 
the story of the Swiss patriot of 1207. In the overture, Rossini has attempted to 
give a description of Alpine life. Berlioz described it as "a symphony in four 
parts. ' ' The introduction gives a picture of sunrise in the mountains and is 
entitled "Dawn." The second part, "The Storm," is a wonderful musical 
delineation of an Alpine storm, which, as it gradually dies away, prepares for 
the third part. This andante, entitled ' ' The Calm, ' ' typifies the shepherd 's 
thanksgiving after the storm, and the " Ranz des vaches" is heard in the English 
horn and flute. A brilliant coda "Finale" depicting the march of the Swiss 
troops, brings the work to a spirited close. [Lesson I, Part HI; Lesson XV, 
Part III; Lesson XVIII, Part II.] 

~. \ Melody in F Eubinstein 

4;)(J9o J 

This delightful composition was originally a short piano selection. It 
clearly shows the influence of Mendelssohn and the German Romantic School, 
for it must be remembered that Rubinstein, although a Russian, was educated in 
Germany. The composer once said of himself, ' ' The Germans call me a Rus- 
sian; the Russians a German; the Jews a Christian, and the Christians a Jew. 
What then am I ? " In this famous Melody in F, we can clearly note the influence 
of Mendelssohn's "Songs Without Words," for although this beautiful mnnber 
does not bear a title, it is an excellent example of music illustrating a poetic 
thought. [Lesson I, Part I ; Lesson V, Part III.] 

351 



Analyses 

3550G Molto Lento (Op. 17, No. 2 ) Rubinstein 

No composer has ever possessed a more beautiful gift for melody than did 
Anton Eubinstein, who has been called ' ' the legitimate successor to Mendelssohn in 
melody. ' ' Eubinstein wrote in every department of music, yet his operas and 
symphonies are almost forgotten to-day, and in the larger forms, his concertos and 
chamber-music compositions are the most popular. They rank with the songs and 
shorter pianoforte compositions. Eubinstein termed this quartet ' ' The Music of 
the Spheres. ' ' The beautiful part played by the 'cello should be especially noticed. 
[Lesson II, Part III.] 

55044 Kamennoi-Ostrow Eubinstein 

This collection of twenty-four piano pieces is Op. 10 in the Eubinstein Cata- 
logue. The general title, ' ' Kamennoi-Ostrow, ' ' takes its name from a popular 
fashionable resort on the Kamennoi Island in the river Neva, where Eubinstein 
spent many vacation days. Each one of these short pieces is a tonal portrait of 
one of the friends or acquaintances made by Eubinstein while there. No. 22, 
"Eeve Angelique, " is dedicated to Mile. Anna de Friedbourg, and is said to 
be her idealized portrait painted in tone. 

Eubinstein wrote these short compositions while a guest at Kamenoi-Ostrow 
during the years 3852-54, which period he served as Court pianist to the Grand 
Duchess. He tells that the series is "An Album of Twenty-four Portraits," 
each piece being dedicated to one of the ladies of the Court, and it was his intention 
to convey some characteristic of each person or some incident connected with her 
friendship for himself. As we do not know the twenty-four personalities, Eubin- 
stein 's work can to-day hardly be called program music in its truest sense, but 
the collection will always remain a popular one because there is so much that is 
truly beautiful in many of these compositions. 

No. 22 in F-sharp Minor is the best known piece in the collection and is 
regarded as one of the most beautiful melodies which Eubinstein ever wrote 
After a few measures of accompaniment which serve as Introduction, the first sub- 
ject is announced. This is a broad, dignified melody which is in beautiful con- 
trast to the more animated second subject. This dreamy and pensive melody is 
sung by the 'cellos, with an accompaniment in the treble by flutes and violins, 
which suggests the ripples of the water. A third subject based on an old Eus- 
sian Church Chorale follows, and a short development leads to the return of the 
first subject, now brought back with an arpeggio accompaniment. A short remi- 
niscence of the second subject and the Chorale brings the composition to a close. 

It is said that this piece carries with it a definite program. The first subject 
in its broad serenity suggests a moon-lit garden on a summer evening, the second 
subject depicting the conversation of two lovers, whose tender words are interrupted 
by the tolling of a bell in the chapel nearby and the chanting of the monks at 
even-song. [Lesson XXII, Part 77.] 

17001 Kamarinslcaia Russian Dance 

The Kamarinskaia is the national dance of Eussia. It is in 4/4 time and is 
almost barbaric in its vigorous strength. It was originally danced only by men, 
and an unlimited number of steps were taken. Many of the Eussian composers 
have incorporated this air into their orchestral compositions. [Lesson XXII, 
Part 7.] 

63153 Two Folk Songs (1) Vanka (2) Kolebalnia Russian 

These two folk songs are excellent examples of Eussian folk music. Vanka is 

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in the gay mood which distinguishes the dance song. It is a descriptive song tell- 
ing of the custom still practiced by the peasant youth of proposing to his sweet- 
heart on the street. Kolebalnia is a Cossack's lullaby arranged by Bachmetieff. 
It is a charming example of the song form, full of the tender sadness of the 
Russian people. The mother, whose husband is a Cossack soldier, sings as she 
rocks her baby and dreams of that day when he too will go into the army to fight 
for Czar and country. [Lesson XXII, Part I.] 

65147 Two Folk Songs (1) Mother Moscow, (2} Song of Volga Boatmen Russian 
' ' Perhaps the most perfectly descriptive of all the peasant songs of Russia 
is Ei Ukhnam, the cry of the Volga bargees as they haul their heavy craft 
against the tide of the muddy river. They approach. The melody abruptly 
changes to a melodious chant of hope for the early termination of their labor. 
But the work must be done and they resign themselves to the inevitable. They 
journey on into the distance." [Lesson XIV, Part I; Lesson XXII, Part I.] 

70034 Russian Folk Songs Molodka (2} Sun in the Sky, Stop Shining Russian 
These two folk songs are excellent examples of the dance songs of ' ' Little 
Russia." It will be noted that the melody is here repeated ever and ever with 
increasing tempo. As these dances are played here by the Balalaika Orchestra, we 
have a perfect example of this style of dance tune, so popular among the Russian 
folk. ' ' Molodka ' ' is the name given to a young married woman. In this folk 
song her rejected lover begs her never to let him see her again, as the sight of 
her causes him pain and jealousy. 

' ' Sun in the Sky, Stop Shining ' ' describes the lover who calls upon the sun to 
be blotted out if he shall prove false. [Lesson XV, Part I; Lesson XXII, 
Part I; Lesson XIX, Part III.] 

45096 Le Cygne Saint-Saens 

No work of the famous French composer, Camille Saint-Saens, has been more 
universally popular than this charming short tone picture, which the composer 
has inscribed ' ' The Swan. ' ' That the piece must be as popular with its com- 
poser as with the public is attested to by the fact that Saint-Saens has made 
transcriptions of this composition for all the instruments. This work belongs to 
that class of program music in which the title merely suggests to the auditor 
the mood or poetic thought of the composer. [Lesson V, Part III.] 

35381 Danse Macabre Saint-Saens 

The Danse Macabre is the third symphonic poem which Saint-Saens wrote 
for orchestra. The French composer was inspired by the following verses by 
Henri Cazalis (1840-1909), a poet with a penchant for gloomy and grotesque 
subjects. In this poem Cazalis tells of the dance of the skeletons, at midnight: 

Zig, ziz, zig, death in grim cadence 

Strikes with bony heel upon the tomb. 

Death at midnight hour plays a dance. 

Zig. ziz. zig upon his violin. 

The winter winds blow, the night is dark, 

Moans are heard through the linden trees. 

Through the gloom the white skeletons run, 

Leaping and dancing in their shrouds. 

Zig. ziz, zig, each one is gay. 

Their bones are cracking in rhythmic time, 

Then suddenly they cease the dance. 

The cock has crowed ! The dawn has come. 

The clanging bell of midnight precedes the strange tones of Death tuning 

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Analyses 

his fiddle. Then the queer dance begins, the rattling of the boiies of the skeletons 
(xylophone) providing the accompaniment. The dance becomes more animated 
(a waltz caricature of the Dies Irae theme) until the crow of the cock announces 
the day, and the ghostly revelers hurry back to their tombs. This record is 
played by band, yet many of the interesting and unique instrumental combina- 
tions of the original score have been retained. [Lesson I, Part I; Lesson XII, 
Part I.] 

* Eouei d 'Omplwle Saint-Saens 

Camille Saint-Saens wrote four Symphonic Poems for orchestra, of which this 
work, the first of the series, and ' ' Danse Macabre, ' ' are the most celebrated. This 
composition was originally written as a piano solo and was played in that form 
by the composer at many public concerts during the year 1871. It was then re- 
written for the orchestra and first given at a Concert Populaire in Paris, on April 
14, 1872. 

The symphonic poem tells the story of Hercules at the court of Queen Omphale. 
The hero, Hercules, in punishment for having killed his friend, Iphitus, is sent 
by the oracle as a slave to the court of Queen Omphale, there to serve her for 
three years. Omphale, Queen of Lydia, forced the warrior to assume feminine 
attire, and to spend his time spinning among her maidens, while she brandished 
his club and paraded in his lion's skin. 

The music begins with the busy whirring spinning wheel theme, and the 
voices of the maidens as they chide Hercules for his careless and awkward use of 
the wheel. Next a theme is heard which depicts Hercules groaning as he realizes 
that he cannot break the bonds which hold him in slavery. Then Omphale 's 
mocking laughter is heard as she derides the hero, and the whirring of the wheels 
as the spinning is resumed brings the composition to an end. [Lesson XXIX, 
Part III.] 

35668 Eeverie du Soir Marche Militaire (" Suite Algerienne' ') Saint-Saens 

The Algerienne Suite bears on its title page this inscription : ' ' Picturesque 
Impressions of a voyage to Algeria. ' ' Its four movements are short tone-pictures, 
attempting to portray the composer's personal experiences and feeling. The first 
movement is called ' ' View of Algiers ' ' ; the second, ' ' Moorish Rhapsody ' ' ; the 
third, ' ' An Evening Dream at Blidah ' ' ; the finale, ' ' Military March. ' ' 

The "Reverie du Soir" (An Evening Dream) is of a quiet, romantic character. 
Blidah is a fortress outside of Algiers. In a note on the score, the composer says 
that this march not only emphasized his joy, but also his security on gazing on 
the French garrison of Algeriers. As Upton cleverly remarks: "Judged by the 
pomposity of the march rhythms, the composer 's joy and sense of security knew 
no bounds in expression." [Lesson XV, Part III.] 

74671 Bacchanale ("Samson et Dalila") Saint-Saens 

This remarkable dance occurs in the last act of Saint Sae'ns' Biblical opera, 
' ' Samson et Dalila. ' ' The scene is the interior of the Temple of Dagon. Thither 
the blind Samson is led to be taunted and mocked by the High Priest and the 
followers of Dagon. This ' ' Bacchanale ' ' accompanies the dance of Dalila and her 
maidens, which ends in a frenzy of Oriental passion, during which Samson, crash- 
ing down the Temple pillars, destroying himself and all his enemies. The score 
of this "Bacchanale" calls for a very large orchestra. There are excellent effects 



* In preparation. 

354 



Analyses 

of the oboe, English horn, clarinet, violincello, and castanets, which should be 
noted when listening to this record. [Lesson XII, Part III.] 

17624 Chorus ("Samson et Dalila") Saint-Saens 

This charming chorus for women 's voices occurs in the second scene of the 
first act of Saint-Saens' " Biblical opera," "Samson et Dalila." The fair tempt- 
ress of Sorek follows in the train of her maidens, who dance as they weave the gar- 
lands of spring, singing these beautiful verses. [Lesson IV, Part I ; Lesson 
XXV II, Part IV.} 

88627 Dalila' s Song of Spring (-'Samson et Dalila") Saint-Saens 

After the Philistine maidens finish their dancing and singing, Dalila steps 
forward and gazes earnestly at Samson. He tries to avoid her, but is fascinated 
by her beauty as she sings : 



Spring voices are singing, 

Bright hope they are bringing, 

All hearts making glad. 

And gone sorrow's traces, 

The soft air effaces 

All days that are sad. 

Our hearts warm are glowing. 

When sweet winds are blowing 

They dry out ev'ry tear. 

The earth glad and beaming, 

With freshness is teeming, 

While fruits and flowers are here. 

In vain all my beauty : 

1 \vccp my poor fate. 

My heart filled with love, 



The faithless doth wait. 
In vain am I striving? 
Can hope never last? 
I must then remember 
Only joys now past. 
When night is descending, 
With love all unending, 
Bewailing my fate, 
For him will I wait. 
I'll banish all sadness, 
Though deep I may yearn, 
When fond love returning, 
In his bosom burning 
May enforce his return ! 

[Lesson XXVII, Part IV.] 



88199 My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice ("Samson et Dalila") Saint-Saens 

This great aria occurs in the second act of ' ' Samson et Dalila. ' ' The scene 
shows the valley of Sorek and Dalila 's dwelling. It is a dark, stormy night and 
distant flashes of lightning are seen. Thither comes Samson beguiled by the 
charms of the beautiful Dalila. [Lesson XXVII, Part IV.] 

17174 Tarantella (For Flute and Clarinet) Saint-Saens 

The old Italian dance song, the Tarantella, has been very popular as a form 
for brilliant solo compositions. This duet for flute and clarinet, by Camille 
Saint-Saens, gives an excellent idea of the form as so employed. It will be 
remembered that as a dance, the Tarantella is participated in by two dancers. 
In this illustration the dancers are the clarinet and flute, so one has not only an 
excellent opportunity of studying the form, but also the tone quality of these 
wood-wind instruments. \Lesson IX, Part III.} 

74588 Waltz Etude Saint-Saens 

As a composer of piano music, Saint-Saens occupies a most enviable position. 
As one writer has said: "Saint-Saens is a great master of the pianoforte style, 
endowed moreover with a fine sense of form and a fine imagination. Everything 
he has written is finished with care, clear-cut and effective. ' ' This Etude in the 
form of the Waltz is a pleasing number, which is an excellent illustration of 
Saint-Saens' type of piano composition. [Lesson XXI, Part III.] 

74392 Canto Amoroso Sammartini 

Giovanni Sammartini (1705-1775) was the immediate predecessor of Haydn in 



355 



Analyses 

the field of symphonic composition. It was from the form of the sonata as it had 
been developed by C. P. E. Bach and Sammartini that Haydn evolved his pattern 
of ' ' Sonata form. ' ' This charming love song shows the influence of the Italian 
~bel canto on even the formal composers of the eighteenth century. [Lesson XXIII, 
Part III.} 

74367 Romanza Andaluza Sarasate 

As its name implies, the "Romanza Andaluza" reflects the music of Sara- 
sate 's native land. Two old Spanish themes are here used, and a series of bril- 
liant variations on these airs give the violin virtuoso an opportunity to display his 
skill in all varieties of technique. [Lesson XX, Part III.] 

74183 Will-o'-the-Wisp Sauret 

In its original version this short composition for violin was called ' ' Far- 
f alia, " or " Butterflies. " It is a splendid example not only of imitative music, 
but of the special effects possible on the violin, which the great violin virtuoso, 
Emile Sauret, so well understood. Notice the tremolo of the first subject ; the 
broad legato of the more tender second theme, and the pizzicati which are em- 
ployed in the coda ending. [Lesson IX, Part I ; Lesson III, Part III.] 

17718 cessate di piagarmi (Oh, No Longer Seek to Pain Me) Scarlatti 

The most important composer of the Neapolitan School was Alessandro Scar- 
latti, to whom was due the establishment of the school of bel canto. In truth, Scar- 
latti laid the foundations for the Modern Italian Opera. His music well reflects 
the joyous naivete of the Neapolitan, and although Scarlatti was a master of 
counterpoint, his melody was ever of greater importance to him. His opera orches- 
tra included violins, violas, 'cellos, double basses, two flutes, two oboes, two bas- 
soons and two horns. It was but natural, then, that there is found a greater 
melodic freedom in Scarlatti 's arias than in those of his predecessors. This aria is 
an excellent example of Scarlatti's power of appealing to the feelings. 

Wilt thou no longer seek to pain me, 

Or with fond memories a further poison to present me? 

[Lesson II, Part IV.} 

64670 Ballet Music ("Eosamunde") Schubert 

This beautiful ballet music is taken from the incidental music which Schubert 
wrote for the romantic play, ' ' Rosamunde, the Princess of Cyprus. ' ' This play 
was the work of the eccentric genius, Wilhelmina von Chezy, who also provided 
the libretto for von Weber's ill fated ' ' Euryanthe. " Not even Schubert's im- 
mortal music could save this wierd drama from the oblivion which it so righly 
deserved. The work was given two performances in Vienna in 1823, then Schubert 
placed his manuscript in his famous cupboard, where it remained unknown until 
found by Sir George Grove and Robert Schumann, many years after its com- 
poser's death. The Ballet music is a charming dance movement with a contrast- 
ing trio. The present arrangement for violin solo was made by Fritz Kreisler. 
[Lesson XIV, Part II.] 

88342 Erl King Schubert 

Schubert's famous setting of Goethe's poem was the composer's first pub 

lished work, and belongs to the year 1815. Yet this wonderful song is to-day still 

considered the most remarkable art-song in all song literature. Not only is it a 

35G 



Analyses 

perfect example of the song form, but it also dramatically relates the story by 
the use of the three voices and the marvelous descriptive character of the accom- 
paniment. 

Who rideth so late through windy iiight "Come lovely boy, wilt go with me? 

wild '! My daughters fair shall wait on thee, 

It is the father, he holds his child, My daughters lead in the revels each night, 

And close the boy nestles within his arm, There is dancing and singing and laughter 

He holds him tightly, he holds him warm. bright." 

"My son, why in terror do you shrink, and "My father, my father, oh, see'st thou not, 
hide?" The Erl King's daughter in yonder dim 

"O father, see next us the Erl King doth spot?" 

ride, "My son. my son, I know and I say, 

The Erl King dreaded with crown and 'Tis only the olden willows so grey." 

robe." 
"My son, 'tis but the mist of a cloud." "I love thee so, thou must come with me 

now, 

"Thou lovely child, come go with me, Thou must know -to my will thou shalt 

Such merry plays I'll play with thee, bow." 

Many gay blossoms are blooming there, "My father, my father, oh, fast hold me, 

My mother hath many gold robes to wear." do, 

The Erl King will drag me away from 
"My father, my father, did'st you not hear you." 

What the Erl King whispers so soft in my 

ear?" The father is troubled, he rides now wild. 

"Be quiet, my child, do not mind. And holds close in his arms his shuddering 

'Tis but the dead leaves stirred by the child. 

wind." He reaches the house with doubt and 

dread, 

But in his arms his child is dead. 
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). 

[Lesson XIV, Part II.} 

64093 Serenade Schubert 

No work of Schubert 's is more deservedly popular than the ever-beautiful song, 
the ' ' Serenade. ' ' This song is supposed to be sung by a lover beneath his lady 's 
window. 

Thro' the leaves the night-winds moving, murmur low and sweet ; 

To thy chamber window roving, love hath led my feet. 

Silent pray'rs of blissful feeling link us though apart. 

Link us though apart, on the breath of music stealing, 

To my dreaming heart, to thy dreaming heart. 

Sadly in the forest mourning wails the whip-poor-will 
And the heart for thee is yearning. 
O bid it love, be still. 

Moonlight on the earth is sleeping, winds are rustling low, 
Where the darkling streams are creeping, dearest, let us go! 
All the stars keep watch in heaven, while I sing to thee. 
While I sing to thee: and the night for love was given, 
Dearest, come to me. dearest, conic to me. 

Words by Frank Manley from Laurel Music reader 
Courtesy of C. C. Birchard & Co. 

[Lesson XIV, Part II.] 

17634 Who Is Sylvia? Schubert 

This charming setting of the love song from Shakespeare's "Two Gentlemen 
of Verona ' ' has an interesting history. It is said that Schubert was one after- 
noon with friends in a restaurant of Vienna when he noticed a volume of Shakes- 
peare on the table. Opening it, he noted the verses of "Cymbeline" and re- 
marked: "These would make a pretty song." Taking the back of the menu card 
lie wrote the music of ' ' Hark, Hark the Lark. ' ' Then turning the card over, he 
wrote the music for these verses. [Lesson XIV , Part II. ] 

68339 The Wanderer Schubert 

One of the most beautiful of the early songs of Schubert is ' ' The Wanderer, ' ' 

357 



Analyses 

which was written to words of George Schmidt, in 1816. It is said that Schu- 
bert wrote this song when but nineteen, and that it was composed in one evening. 
Were it not for the fact that ' ' Erl King ' ' was written the year previous, it 
would seem impossible to believe that such a mature work could have been con- 
ceived by such a young man. This is a wonderful example of the art song. 
The words are: 

From the lonely mountains I come I seek for you but never know 

From the dim vale, and ever moans the That land where hope is green, 

sea. That land where blooms the rose, 

Yet I wander joyously on Where friends so dear do wander, 

And ever ask the question, "Where? 1 ' Where all the dead do live again 

That land where all my tongue do speak. 

The sun seems to me pale and cold, O Land, where art thou? 
The flowers are faded, life is old ; 

And even speech has built a hollow sound. Yet I wonder joyously on 

I am a friendless stranger everywhere. And ever ask the question, "Where V" 

I hear the spirit's voice in answer, 

Where art thou, where art thou, my be- "There where thou art not, there is thy 
loved land ? rest." 

[Lesson XIV, Part II. } 

35314 Allegro Andante Unfinished Symphony Schubert 

Why this beautiful symphony, begun in 1822, was never finished, is one of 
the great mysteries of music history. The work was found by Sir George Grove 
in an old pile of Schubert manuscripts, in 1867, and given by him to the world. 
It consists of two complete movements and nine bars of the scherzo. Grove ays 
of it : " Every time that I hear it I am convinced that it stands quite apart 
from all the other compositions of Schubert or any other master. It must be the 
record of some period of unusual depression, even for the susceptible and pas- 
sionate nature of Schubert. In this symphony, Schubert exhibits for the first 
time a style absolutely his own, untinged by any predecessor, and full of that 
strangely direct appeal to the hearer, which is Schubert 's chief characteristic. It 
is certain that he never heard the work played, and that the new and delicate 
effects with which it is crowded were the result of his imagination alone. ' ' The 
allegro in its original form follows the absolute pattern of the sonata form, each 
division being introduced by a bit of the theme, which forms the introduction 
and is first given by the French horns. In this arrangement, the contrast in the 
subjects may be noted the beauty of the wood-winds in the first subject, and of 
the 'cellos in the second subject. The form is, however, condensed in this record. 
The andante follows the song form A-B-A and is composed of two exquisite 
melodies. [Lesson XIV , Part 77.] 

64076 The Bee Francois Schubert 

Francois Schubert, the composer of this charming little tone painting, was a 
violinist of Dresden, and was no relation to Franz Peter Schubert, of Vienna, the 
great composer of the time of Beethoven. This Franqois Schubert was born in 
Dresden, in 1808, and died there in 1878. Almost all of his compositions were for 
his favorite instrument. Possibly the one which has won for him the greatest rec 
ognition is this short but exceedingly clever musical delineation of the buzzing bee. 
[Lesson IX, Part I ; Lesson XII, Part 7.] 

64554 Moonlight Schumann 

Many of the greatest of the Schumann songs were written in 1 840, following 

the composer's marriage to Clara Wieck. Among these are the settings of twelve 

i if the poems of von Eichendorff. Joseph von Eichendorff (1788-1857) was one 

358 



of the most romantic poets of the period. His mystic poems are descriptive of 
the joys of wandering life, the moods of Nature and the legends of mediaeval days. 
In ' ' Mondnacht ' ' we have an excellent example of Eichendorff 's love of Nature, 
which Schumann has enveloped in one of his most beautiful tonal settings. 

It was as though the heaven 

Had kissed the earth asleep. 
That she, in flqw'r light-lying. 

A dreamy faith should keep. 
The wind was softly sighing, 

The grain it scarce could move, 
In far off woodlands dying. 

The sky was clear above. 
My soul her wings extended, 

And o'er the land away 
Her silent flight she wended 

As though her home there lay. 

. Copy't Oliver Ditson Co. 

[Lesson XV, Tart II.] 

745oG The Two Grenadiers Schumann 

This song by Robert Schumann is remarkable, not only because it is a perfect 
example of the art-song, but because Schumann has brought into the music a 
national expression in the employment of the Marseillaise Hymn. It seems strange 
that two Germans as essentially Teutonic as Heine and Schumann should have 
written a song which expresses the patriotic nationalism of France. 

The Two Grenadiers 

Toward France there travel' d two Let thorn beg their food if they hungry he, 

Grenadiers, My Emp'ror, my Emp'ror is taken ! 

Their Russian captivity leaving. 
As thro' the German camps slowly they Oh, grant a last request to me, 

drew, If here my life be over. 

Their heads were bow'd down with griev- Then take thou my body to France with 
ing ; thee, 

No soil but of France my cover. 
For there first they heard a sorrowful 

tale The cross of honor with its band 

Disasters their country had shaken, Leave on my bosom lying: 

The army so brave had borne rout and de- My musket place within my hand, 

feat. My dagger 'round me tying ; 

And the Emp'ror, the Emp'ror was 

taken ! Then shall I lie within the tomb, 

A sentry still and unstirring, 
Then sorrow'd together the Grenadiers Till the war of cannon resounds thro' its 

Such doleful news to be learning. gloom, 

And one spoke out amidst his tears : And tramp of horsemen spurring. 

"My wounds once again are burning." 

Then rideth my Emp'ror swift o'er my 
The other spoke : "The song is done, grave, 

Would that I, too, were dying ; While swords with clash are descending, 

Yet I have a wife and child at home, Then will I arise, fully armed, from my 

On me for bread relying'' : grave. 

My Emp'ror, my Emp'ror defending !" 
"Nor wife, nor child give care to me, 
What matter if they are forsaken. 

Heinrich Heine (1799-1856.) 

[Lesson XI, Part I.] 

74578 Scherzo Qvartet in A Minor Schumann 

Schumann wrote three String Quartets which are dedicated to Mendelssohn. It 
is said that although the composer had made sketches for these works several years 
before, they were actually written in eight weeks, during the summer of 1842. 

The first Quartet in the key of A Minor is regarded as one of the most beau- 
tiful works in chamber music literature. Following the model of Beethoven, 
Schumann employed the Scherzo for his rapid movement, which, in this Quartet. 



Analyses 

precedes the Andante, and serves as the second of the four movements. The 
Scherzo is an excellent example of Schumann's constant use of syncopation in 
the writing of any rapid passages. It also serves as a remarkable illustration of 
the effect of staccato of four stringed instruments playing together. This is con- 
trasted by the beautiful legato theme of the Intermezzo, which serves as a Trio 
to this unusual and beautiful movement. [Lesson XV, Part II.] 

45060 Tliou Art Like a Flower (Du hist wic eine blume) Schumann 

Spring Night (Fruhlingsnacht) 

' ' Thou Art Like a Flower " is a setting of a poem by Heine. It is one of 
the simplest and most beautiful of the Schumann songs. In that simplicity, 
prehaps, lies its chief charm and popularity. The music fits the text perfectly and 
the charming accompaniment greatly augments the vocal melody which is of ex- 
quisite beauty. Liszt and Rubinstein both wrote songs to this same text. 

' ' Spring Night ' ' is another famous and popular Schumann song. The text 
is by Eichendorff. Here is to be noted a remarkable example of the effect of an 
accompaniment. Schumann by his use of the triplets in his piano part has given a 
magical effect which well describes in tone the title of the song. [Lesson XV, 
Part II.} 

64217 Return of Spring Schumann 

One of the loveliest of all the Schumann songs is the ' ' Return of Spring. ' ' 
This record is made with orchestral accompaniment, in which the use of the horns 
should be especially noted. [Lesson XV, Part II.] 

74285 Vogel als Prophet (Prophet Bird) Schumann 

This charming short composition belongs to Opus 83, where it is No. 7, in a 
series of pianoforte pieces entitled ' ' Forest Scenes. ' ' It was written by Schu- 
mann in 1848. This piece belongs to the class of imitative music, as Schumann 
here describes the voice of the prophet bird, as heard in the forest. [Lesson XV. 
Part II; Lesson XXI, Part III.] 

18173 Seven Last Words of Christ ILeinrich Schutz 

Heinrich Schiitz ( 1 585-1 G72), "the father of German music," was the true 
predecessor of Handel and Bach, who brought to perfection the germ of the 
church music which Schiitz had created one hundred years earlier. 

Schutz was fortunate in being a student in Venice under the tutelage of 
Giovanni Gabrielli. This .did much to aid Schutz in a knowledge of instrumental 
composition, which was but little known in Germany at the time. It is as a com- 
poser of church music, however, that Schutz is principally known. His setting of 
Rinnuccini 's ' ' Daf ne ' ' translated into German is in reality the first German work 
in the form of the music drama. This work, unfortunately, was lost, as was also 
a Ballet and several other similar compositions for the stage. 

' ' The Seven Last Words of Christ ' ' was never published during the life of 
Schutz. Parts of it in manuscript were found, however, in Cassel in 1855 by O. 
Kade. They were adapted for modern performance by Carl Riedel and published 
in 1873. This work is of importance because it departs from the old style of in- 
toned liturgy, and the newer form of Arioso Recitative is employed. The Narrator 
is not sung by one voice, but by all four voices; once, in fact, it is given by the 
Quartet. The work opens and ends with a chorus, which supposedly expresses the 
feelings of Christians as they contemplate the Savior on the cross. After this 

360 



Analy 8 e 8 



chorus in the beginning, and before it at the close, there is a short instrumental 
number termed ' ' Symphonia, ' ' which one writer has aptly described as represent- 
ing the raising and lowering of the curtain on the action. 

There are no arias in our modern sense, all is in the form of expressive reci- 
tative. A beautiful and tender simplicity surrounds the whole work. In this 
record the opening chorus and a part of the recitative are given. [Lesson VII, 
Part II; Lesson III, Part IV.] 

17001 Highland Fling Scotch 

A popular dance of the Scotch Highlands is the ' ' Highland Fling, ' ' so called 
from the peculiar step, which is almost a kick. The performer dances on each leg 
alternately, and ' ' flings ' ' the other leg, now front, now back of him. The music 
is usually the same as that used for the other Highland dance, the Strathspey, which 
is distinguished by the constant employment of the semiquavers, which precede the 
long note, and which is characterized by the term "Scotch Snap." [Lesson 
XXVIII, Part I.] 

1G9G1 Joclc o' Ilazeldean Scotch 

Sir Walter Scott wrote the words of this song, using an old ballad having the 

same title. The melody is an old Scotch border song. The well-known air, ' ' The 

Girl I Left Behind Me," was taken from this tune. [Lesson XXVIII, Part I.\ 



Why weep ye by the tide, ladie? 

Why weep ye by the tide? 
I'll wed ye to my yoongest son, 

And ye sail be his bride : 
And ye sail be his bride, ladie, 

Sae comely to be seen 
But aye she loot the tears down fa' 
For Jock o' Ilazeldean. 

Now let this willfu' grief be done. 

And dry that cheek so pale! 
Young Frank is chief of Krrington 

And lord of Langley-dale ; 

64210 Loch Lommond 



His step is first in peaceful ha', 

His sword in battle keen 
But aye she loot the tears down fa' 

For Jock o' Ilazeldean. 

* * * * 

The kirk was decked at morning-tide. 

The tapers glimmered fair ; 
The priest and bridegroom wait the bride. 

And dame and knight were there. 
They sought her baith by bower and ha' ; 

The ladie was not seen ! 
She's o'er the Border and awa' 

Wi" Jock o' Ilazeldean. 

Sir Walter Scott. 

Scotch 



This beautiful Scotch legendary song is a Jacobite air, and is an excellent 
example of the hexachordal (six-noted) scale. The words, "I'll tak' the low 
road, ' ' indicate that the song is that of a fugitive, who must needs travel by 
stealth along hidden paths to reach his native Scotland. There are several other 
explanations of these words. \Lesson XXVIII, Part /.] 

18674 The Toils Are Pitched (They Bid Me Sleep) Scotch 

The words of these two lovely old Scotch songs are from Scott's "Lady of 
the Lake. ' ' The melodies are from old traditional tunes, which were found in 
a volume in the Congressional Library of Washington. These plates were photo- 
graphed, and from these old airs, this record was made. [Lesson XXVIII, Part I.\ 

17140 Scotch Medley March 

The famous Sutcliffe Troupe, which is composed of bag-pipers and drummers, 
have in this medley given a very interesting use of several of the best known 
Scotch airs. [Lesson XV, Part I; Lesson XXVIII, Part I.] 

16961 Scots' Wha' JIae' Wi' Wallace Bled Old Scotch 

It is said that this stirring Scotch patriotic hymn was first sung by Robert 

361 



Analyses 

Bruce 's army when they marched to Bannockburn, in 1314. In 1715 and 1745 the 
tune was certainly used under the name of ' ' Hei Tutti Taiti, ' ' words imitative 
of the martial notes of the trumpet. The air was ever popular throughout Scotland, 
and Lady Narine used it for a setting of her words, " I 'm Wearing Awa, ' Jean. ' ' 
The words by Robert Burns (published May, 3794), are, however, much more fit- 
ting to the character of the music. This song is an excellent example of the old 
scale-form of the Scotch pentatonic scale. [Lesson XXVIII, Part I.\ 

88150 Ye Banks and Braes Scotch 

No song of Scotland is more popular than this quaint description of the 
charm of the ' ' banks and braes of Bonnie Doou. " It is an excellent example of 
"the love of native land" principle discussed in Lesson XII, Part I. It is 
here sung by the pure lyric soprano voice. [Lesson IV, Part I.] 

17331 Weel May the Kell How Scotch 

This composition is- an old Scotch reel of great antiquity. The Scotch reel 
is the most typical dance of any found in Scotland. It is danced by four groups 
of partners, and was the ancestor of the ' ' Virginia Reel ' ' of the American 
Colonists. It was frequently accompanied by words sung by th^ dancers. This 
tune is similar to an older air known as "Smiling Polly." [Lesson XIII, Part 7.] 

55052 Hail to the Chief Scott-Sanderson 

James Sanderson (1769-1841), although an Englishman by birth, was intensely 
interested in Scotch music. Being a native of Durham, he was familiar with the 
' ' Border Ballads, ' ' which in reality belong equally to England and Scotland. His 
setting of ' ' Hail to the Chief ' ' is one of the most popular of the so-called 
' ' legendary folk-songs ' ' of Scotland. The scene occurs in Canto II of Scott 's 
' ' Lady of the Lake. ' ' The Clan-Alpine returns over Loch Katrine towards Ellen 's 
Isle, singing as they row, the vigorous boat song, ' ' Hail to the Chief, ' ' in praise of 
Roderick Dhu and the evergreen pine of his banner. This arrangement opens with 
a bagpipe prelude, which gives a national atmosphere to the spirited singing of 
the old song. [Lesson XXVIII, Part I.] 

17717 Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind ("As You Like It"} Shakespeare 

This song is sung by Amiens in the last scene of the second act of Shakes- 
peare 's "As You Like It. ' ' The scene takes place in the forest. The Duke and 
his retainers are at table when Orlando enters abruptly and demands food 
for the aged Adam. At the Duke 's command he goes to bring Adam to the 
table. Jacques ' famous speech, ' ' All the world 's a stage, ' ' then follows. 
Orlando bearing Adam returns, and as they are eating, Amiens at the command 
of the Duke sings this old song. Students should note the woodwind accom- 
paniment. [Lesson IX, Part III.] 

17724 Hold Thy Peace ("Twelfth Night") Shakespeare 

This interesting old ' ' Catch, ' ' or round, occurs in the third scene of the 
second act and is the climax of the drinking bout between Sir Toby, Sir Andrew 
and Feste, the clown. The original music is very old and it is certain that it 
antedates Shakespeare's day. It began slowly, then gradually became quicker 
and quicker until at the end the words ' ' thou Knave ' ' were all that remained. 
This arrangement is from Dr. Charles Vincent 's ' ' Fifty Shakespeare Songs. ' ' 
I Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

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Analyses 

17623 Under the Greenwood Tree ("As You Like It'-'} Shakespe'die 

This song is sung by Amiens in the fifth scene, second act, of "As You 
Like It." The present version is by Dr. Arne (1710-1778), and is of the florid 
style of the eighteenth century. The accompaniment is beautifully arranged 
here for the wood-wind choir, consisting of flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon. 
[Lesson VIII, Part III.] 

17623 WJiat Shall He Have Who Killed the Deer? ("As You Lilce It") 

Shakespeare 

This old glee or hunting song is sung in the second scene of the fourth act of 
Shakespeare 's "As You Like It. ' ' Jaques, the lords and foresters, enter with 
the slain deer and sing this song. The setting here given is by Sir Henry Bishop 
(1786-1855), who has preserved the old air in his arrangement. Note the use of 
the brass sextet (two cornets, two trombones and two horns) in the accom- 
paniment. [Lesson VIII, Part III.] 

17724 When That I Was a Little Tiny Boy ("Twelfth Night"} Shakespeare 

The original Shakespearean performances began at three o 'clock in the after- 
noon. As is generally known, the stage was practically bare of scenic equipment. 
The musicians sat in a balcony, generally on the side to the rear of the stage. 
Between the acts, dancing and singing were introduced. At the close of the play 
the clown, providing his own accompaniment upon the pipes or tabor, danced a 
jig to which he improvised words, which he sang as he danced. One of the best 
instances of this type of song is found at the close of ' ' Twelfth Night. " It is 
but natural to find the clown in this play singing and dancing, as Shakespeare 
depicts Feste throughout as a rare musician. This song, however, with which 
' ' Twelfth Night ' ' ends, is referred to again by Shakespeare in ' ' King Lear. ' ' 
This fact many authorities believe is a proof that Shakespeare here introduced a 
popular song of the day ; the words as well as the music. The traditional tune of 
the song has come down to us and is said by Chappell to have been composed by 
one Fielding. [Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

17724 Come L'nto These Yellow Sands (" The Tempest") Shakespeare-Purcell 

Henry Purcell (1658-1695) was the greatest composer of English birth who 
ever lived. Coming from a long line of musicians, it is not surprising that Henry 
Purcell began to compose when but a lad, even while he was still a boy soprano 
at the Chapel Royale. The director of the choristers was Pelham Humfrey, who 
had recently returned from Paris, where he had studied under the great opera 
composer, Lully. Humfrey took a great interest in the youth Purcell, as did 
John Blow, the organist, who even resigned his place as organist of Westminster 
Abbey in favor of his youthful pupil. Purcell 's compositions are of three kinds : 
church music, theatrical music and instrumental music. Of these his settings for 
dramatic performances are by far the most interesting. It must be remembered 
that Purcell 's music was soon overshadowed by Handel and Bach, so that much 
which has been forgotten was worthy of a far better fate. Purcell 's music to 
Shakespeare 's ' ' Tempest ' ' has never been excelled by any of the later Shakes- 
peare-inspired musicians. "Come Unto These Yellow Sands" is the song sung 
by Ariel to draw Ferdinand to Miranda 's presence. [Lesson XXIX, Part I.] 

363 



Analyses 



35505 Finlandia Sibelius 

No country is more full of poetry than Finland, which has been rightly 
called "the land of a thousand lakes." The Kalevala, the great poem of the 
Finns, is considered one of the greatest national epic poems of the world. The 
Finnish language is peculiarly melodious, the 5-4 beat of the rhythmic melodies 
being a reflection of the verse metre. 

Sibelius is the chief musician of Finland, and in his works one sees reflected 
all the atmosphere of runic legend, all the strength, yet all the tenderness of 
Finnish folk-music. In his tone-poem "Finlandia" he pictures the beauty 
of Finland's scenery, "those vast stretches of moors; deep, silent woods and long, 
dark winters, ' ' combined with the inner heart of his people ; their despairing and 
passionate struggles, their pride of race and their melancholy sadness as a sub- 
jugated nation. In its original version this composition is for orchestra. This 
record has been made by band, so that the original scoring cannot be followed. 
[Lesson XXIII, Part II.] 

35437 Valse Triste (Op. 44.) Sibelius 

Jan Sibelius (1865) is one of the most interesting of the present-day com- 
posers. A native of Finland, Sibelius reflects in his music all the sad tragedy 
of this far-away country which has lost its political freedom and only retains its 
nationality by the tolerance of Eussia. This waltz is in the regulation dance 
form and is of a sad, plaintive character. 

It is one of the numbers from the incidental music which Sibelius wrote for 
the drama "Kuolema" (Death), written by the composer's brother-in-law, 
Arvid Jarnefeld. 

Rosa Newmarch thus describes this waltz: 

"It is night. A son who has been watching by the bedside of his sick mother 
has fallen asleep from sheer weariness. Gradually, a ruddy light is reflected 
through the room; there is a sound of distant music; the glow and the music steal 
nearer until the strains of a valse melody float distinctly to our ears. The sleep- 
ing mother awakens, rises from her bed, and in her long white garment, which 
takes the semblance of a ball dress, begins to move slowly and silently to and 
fro. She waves her hands, and beckons in time to the music, as though she were 
summoning a crowd of invisible guests. And now they appear, these strange, 
visionary couples, turning and gliding to an unearthly valse rhythm. The dying 
woman mingles with the dancers; she strives to make them look into her eyes, but 
the shadowy guests, one and all avoid her gaze. Then she sinks exhausted on her 
couch, and the music breaks off. Presently, she gathers all her strength, and 
invokes the dance once again with more energetic gestures than before. Back 
come the shadowy dancers, gyrating in a wild, mad rhythm. The weird gaiety 
reaches a climax; there is a knock at the door, which flies wide open; the mother 
utters a despairing cry ; the spectral guests vanish ; the music dies away Death 
stands on the threshold." [Lesson XXIII, Part II.] 

88547 The Loreley Silclier 

There have been many wonderful musical settings of Heine 's poem, ' ' Lore- 
ley, ' ' but no one, not even Liszt, in his wonderful art song, came so closely to 
the popular idea of a musical setting for the legend as did Fredrich Silcher in this 
song. Although a product of the nineteenth centruy, Silcher 's music has all the 
elements of the German folk song. Just as Heine has immortalized the wonderful 

364 



Analyses 

old Rhine legend, so has Sileher in his music given a perfect example of the 
true legendary folk song. The words are: 

I cannot tell what is the reason Above the maiden sitteth. 

I feel so sad to-day, A wond'rous form and fair ; 

A inem'ry of olden season With jewels bright she plaiteth 

That will not be driven away. Her shining golden hair. 

The fading light grows dimmer, With comb of gold prepares it, 

The Rhine doth calmly flow ; The task with song beguiled, 

The lofty hilltops glimmer A fitful burden bears it 

All red with sunset's glow. That melody so wild. 

The boatmen on the river 

Lists to the song spell-bound. 
Ah! what shall him deliver 

From danger threat'ning round? 
The waters deep have caught them, 
Both boat and boatman brave, 
'Tis Lorelei's song hath brought them 
Beneath the foaming wave ! 

[Lesson XIX, Part I.] 

16596 National Hymn of Norway Sinding 

Christian Sinding is one of the greatest modern composers and, since Grieg, 
is rightly regarded as the most representative composer of Norway. Although he 
is the composer of many important large works in all forms of composition, Sind- 
ing has also taken great interest in the writing of folk-songs and in the rear- 
rangement of folk material. This national hymn is a good example of Sinding 
as a Norse patriot, for he has here arranged the old national anthem of his 
countrymen. 

The words are: 

Sons of Norway's ancient kingdom, 

Sing with harp this festal air, 

Lift your manly voices 

And praise the Fatherland in song. 

The splendid deeds of the past 

We recall when we think of our fathers, so true. 

With swelling hearts and glowing cheeks, 

Let us join in this loving holy hymn. 

As in ancient times the holy flame burned. 

So it still glows in the Norwegian's breast. 

Still it is the same in courage and strength, 

Always thoughtful of freedom and honor. 

When Norway's halls with hero's song resound, 

Her thoughts swell with happy pride. 

(Madly would he give the South and all its splendor, 

For his snowy homeland, Norway. 

[Lesson XXIV , Part /.] 

55055 Angelus ("King Rene's Daughter"} Smart 

Henry Smart (1813-1879) was well known in England as a prominent organist 
and composer of cantatas. His most popular work was ' ' King Rene 's Daughter, ' ' 
which was produced in 1871. The story is a free adaptation of the beautiful 
lyric drama by Henrik Hertz. King Rene, of Provence, has a beautiful daughter, 
lolanthe, who since birth has been betrothed to the young Count of Vandemont, 
who has never seen her face. When but a year old, lolanthe became blind, but 
her father has brought her up in ignorance of her affliction. A magician has 
promised he can cure her if her father will but allow him to tell her of her 
condition, but King Rene refuses to do so. The young Count, wandering through 
the country, sees the fair one, and she realizes now for the first time that the 

365 



Analyses 

faculty of sight has been denied her. The magician, however, restores her sight, 
and all live in happiness. 

Smart 's cantata is written for women 's voices, the solo parts being sung by 
soprano, mezzo-soprano and contralto. The chorus, ' ' Sweet the Angelus is 
Ringing, ' ' occurs just before the finale, and is sung by duet and chorus. Notice 
the bell effect in the accompaniment. [Lesson IV, Part I.] 

74634 Allegro Moderate a la Polka Quartette in E Minor Smetana 

The great Bohemian composer Smetana always embodied in his music his 
love for his native land. This famous Quartette in E Minor bears the inscription, 
' ' From My Land, ' ' and is one of the few works in chamber music literature which 
may be classed as ' ' Program Music. ' ' The first movement represents ' ' love of 
music in my youth. A predominating romanticism, the inexpressible yearning for 
something which I could neither name nor define ; ' ' the second, ' ' memories of 
happy days of dancing on the country side ; ' ' the third represents the love of his 
sweetheart, who later became his bride ; and the last ' ' our beautiful national art. ' ' 
The second movement with its characteristic polka rhythm gives a charming pic- 
ture of a Bohemian country dance. The melodies are all taken from folk tunes 
of Bohemia, and here combined by the hand of a master who loved his native 
land, and wished all the musical world to realize the wealth of melody to be found 
in the folk music of his country. [Lesson XX, Part I; Lesson XXV, Part III; 
Lesson XXIV, Part II.] 

The Moldau (Symphonic Poem) Smetana 

This work is the second of a cycle of six Symphonic Poems, entitled, ' ' My 
Fatherland," with which Freidrich Smetana, the founder of the National School 
of Bohemian music, sought to glorify the country of his birth. At the time this 
work was completed, the composer was hopelessly and totally deaf from a malady 
which later caused his death in an insane hospital. The Moldau is the principal 
river in Bohemia, and in this tone-picture Smetana describes the course of the 
river, and the country through which it flows. The following paragraph written 
by the composer is on the title page of the score: 

' ' Two springs pour forth their streams in the shade of the Bohemian forest ; 
the one warm and gushing, the other cold and tranquil. Their waves, joyfully 
flowing over their rocky beds, unite and sparkle in the morning sun. The forest 
brook, rushing on, becomes the River Moldau, which, with its waters speeding 
through Bohemia's valleys, grows into a mighty stream. It flows through dense 
woods, in which are heard the joyous sounds of the hunt, and the notes of the 
hunter 's horn are heard ever nearer and nearer. It flows through emerald meadows 
and lowlands where there is being celebrated, with song and dancing, a wedding 
feast. At night in its shining waves, the wood and water nymphs hold their revels, 
and in these waves are reflected many a fortress and castle witnesses of by-gone 
splendor of chivalry, and the vanished martial fame of days that are no more. 
At the rapids of St. John, the stream speeds on, winding its way through cataracts, 
and hewing a path for its foaming waters through the rocky chasm into the broad 
river-bed in which it flows on in majestic calm toward Prague; welcomed by the 
time honored Vysehrad, to disappear in the far distance from the poet's gaze." 
I Lesson XXX, Part III.] 

* In preparation. 

360 



Analyses 

35148 Overture ("The Bartered Bride") Smetana 

' ' The Bartered Bride ' ' is the first Bohemian national opera and is a delightful 
example of spontaneous and happy composition. Smetana was the founder of 
the modern Bohemian school, and it may be said that this opera is in reality the 
cornerstone of national Bohemian music. 

"The Bartered Bride'' ("Prodana Nevesta" is the Bohemian name of the 
work) is based on a simple old Bohemian folk-tale, and Smetana employs, through- 
out, Bohemian folk music. The story is of a young peasant, Jenik, who loves 
Marenka, the daughter of a rich peasant. Kezal, a marriage broker, has appealed 
to Krusina, the maiden's father, and has arranged a marriage between his 
daughter and the son of Micha. Marenka refuses to consider this match, as the 
proposed bridegroom, Yasek, is almost an idiot and a stammerer as well, but 
Kezal tells Jenik that Marenka has consented and Jenik sells to the crafty dealer 
his right to the maiden 's hand for 300 gulden, but stipulates that the marriage 
contract shall set down that Marenka is to marry the son of Micha. Upon the 
arrival of Micha and his wife, Jenik announces that he is their long lost son and 
claims both the bride and the marriage settlement. 

The Overture to this merry opera is thoroughly saturated with Bohemian 
melodies and rhythms and follows the formal idea of the Overture only in a very 
free manner. The first subject is composed of two Bohemian dance tunes, while 
the second subject is taken from the love scene between Jenik and Marenka. The 
Free Fantasia is a short working out in quasi-fugal style of the subject matter and 
both subjects are brought back in regulation manner in the Eecapitulation, and 
once more suggested in the Coda, which brings the Overture to its conclusion. 
[Lesson XXIV, Part II; Lesson XV, Part IV.] 

64213 Cradle Song (" Ilubiclca") Smetana 

' ' Hubicka ' ' is an opera by Smetana, which is practically unknown outside of 
Bohemia, yet Smetana has in this work given a wonderful example of the use of 
folk music. The Cradle Song is a remarkable illustration of Smetana 's national 
composition. (As it is here sung in English, no statement of the words is needed.) 
[Lesson XXIV, Part II.] 

35159 Swedish Wedding March Sodermann 

August Johann Scdermann (1832-1876) was one of the best Swedish composers 
of the modern school. Most of the Swedish music has been strongly influenced by 
that of France and Germany, and is not as unusual or distinctive as that of Eussia 
or Norway. This march is in regulation form with trio and is based on a Swedish 
folk air. Note the use of the kettle-drums. Compare this march witli Grieg's 
Norwegian Wedding March. A drone bass is characteristic of the folk music of 
Scandinavia and of many other lands. [Lesson XXV, Part I; Lesson XII, 
Part I.] 

1(>777 Stars and Stripes Forever Sousa 

John Philip Sousa (1859- ) is a unique personality in American music. 
Born in Washington of German-Spanish descent he began to achieve musical 
triumphs in his early youth. These culminated in his being chosen as director of 
the United States Marine Band when he was a young man. lie remained as 
the head of that organization for several years. In 1902 he organized the famous 
band which bears his name but during the late war went back into the government 
service and organized and led massed bands for both the Army and the Navy. 

367 



Analyses 

Mr. Sousa has been called most aptly ' ' the March King ' ' and has frequently 
been compared to Johanu Strauss of waltz fame. It is certainly true that Sousa 's 
stirring marches although excellent dance compositions as were also the Strauss 
waltzes, have like them a,lso an important place on the concert program. ' ' The 
Stars and Stripes Forever ' ' with its well chosen words has, as one critic says, 
' ' become permanent in the affection of the people, being indeed a national anthem 
more eloquent in Americanism than many tunes which bear the official seal as 
such." [Lesson XXX, Part II.] 

64042 Linda Mia Spanish 

This old Spanish dance song is a love song from the Pyrenees. 

My fair one was born In Castilla 

And the people all call her Linda. 

She was maid to a noble one in Salamanca, 

And there we first met. 

Ah ! won't you dance the fandango 

With me, O Linda mia ? 

Alas, my fair one is to leave me. 

To seek her fortune, the world to see ; 

What shall I do, my Linda, without thee, 

How shall I live alone, my pet ? 

O yet we will dance the fandango 

O ! Linda mia ! Linda mia ! 

[Lesson XVII, Part I.] 

88599 Pieta S'ignore Stradella 

One of the most romantic of musicians was Alessandro Stradella, who lived 
during the early seventeenth century in Venice, though the date and place of his 
birth, and of his death, have never been actually proved. There is an exceedingly 
mysterious story told that Stradella, having gained the ill will of a certain Italian 
nobleman, was attacked by paid assassins, employed by the nobleman; but that his 
captors refused to put him to death, because of his beautiful singing. This story 
was used by Flotow as the basis of his opera, "Stradella," which was produced 
in 1837. The church aria, "Pieta Signore, " (Have Mercy, Oh God) is one of 
the few authentic works remaining of this interesting and unique personality 
of the early Italian Opera School. [Lesson II, Part If 7 .] 

74627 Blue Danube Waltz Joliann Strauss 

This most popular waltz, by the famous ' ' Waltz King, ' ' Johann Strauss 
(1825-1899), was written soon after the battle of Koenigsberg (July 3, 1866), 
when the city of Vienna was unusually saddened and depressed. Originally pro- 
duced by a male chorus, it was a flat failure, but rewritten for the Strauss 
orchestra, it was received with wild enthusiasm. Theodore Thomas introduced it 
to America a few months after Strauss had played it for the first time in 
Vienna, and it at once became the popular waltz of the entire world. Wagner 
once said of it: "It surpasses in grace, refinement and real musical substance 
many of the works of the time. " It is said that Johannes Brahms, once writing 
his autograph on the fan of Mme. Strauss, prefixed it with the opening theme of 
the ' ' Blue Danube, ' ' and added, ' ' Unfortunately not by me, Johannes Brahms. ' ' 
[Lesson XXV, Part II. Lesson I, Part 7.] 

16835 Voce di primavera (Spring Voices') Joliann Strauss 

This beautiful waltz song of spring is one of the best concert numbers ever 
written for coloratura soprano. It is here given by a whistler. It is the work 
of Johann Strauss (1825-1899), "The Waltz King." [Lesson IX, Part I.] 

308 



Analyses 

64339 Morgen (Morning) Richard Strauss 

One of the most beautiful and popular of the songs by Richard Strauss is 
his song entitled ' ' Morgen. ' ' The exquisite obbligato for violoncello should be 
noted: 

Tomorrow's sun will rise in glory beaming, 

And in the pathway that my foot shall wander 
We'll meet, forget the earth, and lost in dreaming. 

Let heaven unite a love, that earth shall no more sunder. 
* * * * * * * * 

Breitkopf & Haertel Edition. 

[Lesson XXV, Part II.} 

18627 Onward, Christian Soldiers Sullivan 

The most universally popular of modern hymns is the well-known recessional 
' ' Onward, Christian Soldiers. ' ' The words of this famous hymn are by Reverend 
S. Baring-Gould; while the music was composed by the famous English com- 
poser, Sir Arthur Sullivan. [Lesson XII, Part I.\ 

65928 Venetian Serenade Svendsen 

Of all the Norwegian composers, Svendsen traveled the most, and is possibly 
for that reason the least truly Norwegian in his music. This serenade is descrip- 
tive of the songs of the gondoliers of Venice. [Lesson XXIII, Part 77.] 

87566 Cradle Song Swedish 

One of the lovliest airs of the Northland is this beautiful folk song of Sweden. 
Although characteristic of Scandinavia, this song is essentially a lullaby. The 
beautiful melody, played as an obbligato by the violin, is suggestive of the 
mother's dreams of her baby's future life. [Lesson II, Part I; Lesson XIV, 
Part 7.] 

63429 Swedish Folk Songs Swedish 

These two Swedish folk songs are sung with lute accompaniment, by Torkel 
Scholander, a famous singer of Scandinavian songs. The first of these is a folk 
song of a shepherd boy, who dreams as he watches his flock and sees the beautiful 
doves soaring in the blue sky above him. It is of the type of legendary folk songs. 
The other song is a setting of Bellman's famous Fredman's Epistle, No. 16. 
Karl Nikarl Bellman (1740-95), a poet, whose genius is akin to that of Marlowe, 
is one of the most unique figures in Swedish literature. A great favorite with 
Gustavus III, who gave him a large pension, Bellman 's verses became as popular 
at court as among the folk. All his works are essentially folk-music, and are full 
of animal spirits and originality, although he frequently borrowed his musical 
themes from German and French songs. His greatest works were the Epistles, 
which he wrote under the nom de plume of "Fredman. " These recount experi- 
ences in the Stockholm taverns and are full of exquisite simple humor. They have 
frequently been compared to the paintings of the folk life in the late Netherland 
School of painters. The "Fredman" songs are popular in Germany, as well as 
throughout Scandinavia. Bellman originally accompanied his songs with the lute 
as Scholander does in this song. [Lesson XXV, Part 7.] 

17158 7 See Ton Swedish 

This is a very old Swedish dance song, which is played by the children of 
Sweden as a "Peek-a-boo" game, behind the trees. [Lesson VIII, Part I.} 

3G9 



Analyses 



16596 National Air Swedish 

The Swedish National Hymn is the work of August Lindblad (1801-1878), 
who is best known to music-lovers as the singing teacher of Jenny Lind. Lind- 
blad made many arrangements of Swedish folk-songs, and all his own composi- 
tions in the song form are flavored with Scandinavian characteristics. 
The words of this song, which are by Strandberg, are: 

From Swedish hearts let now resound, 

A simple song of noble sound, 

To our brave king and good ; 

For him and his with faith to fight, 

The crown upon his head rests light, 

And all our troth to him to plight, 

O folk of famous blood ! 

[Lesson XXV, Part I.] 

64808 When I Was Seventeen Swedish 

This simple Swedish folk song is in the binary form with a charming refrain 
' ' la, la, la, la, ' ' between each verse. The tune is said to be a very old one ; the 
words are by the Swedish poet H. Lilljebjorn (1797-1875). The maiden tells of 
her happy, care-free life when she was but fourteen and had 110 thought of sweet- 
hearts; but now that she is seventeen she is often gay, often sorry, there is some- 
thing amiss in the world, and things are not as they once were. 

This is a good example of coloratura combined with the lyric soprano. 
[Lesson XXV, Part I.] 

64156 Variations Tartini 

Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770) is one of the first great virtuosi on the violin. 
His compositions are chiefly for the string instruments. The violin studies of 
Tartini rank with those of Bach as being of great importance to the early classical 
school. The air and variations was one of the most popular forms of the early 
eighteenth century composers. The similarity in theme and treatments to the 
music of Bach is to be noted in this composition. Tartini founded this composi- 
tion upon a Gavotte theme by Corelli. [Lesson XX, Part III.] 

85119 Air du Tambour Major (" Le Caid") Thomas 

' ' Le Caid, ' ' produced in 1 849, is a three-act opera comique, which achieved 
great success and helped to make Ambroise Thomas famous. The brilliant 
' ' Drum Major 's Air ' ' gives an excellent opportunity to the basso cantante. Note 
the imitative effects of the drum in the rhythmic accompaniment : 

Yes, 'tis plain as day, 
All ladies love a soldier. 

***** 

Blazing all in gold, 
Who so fine as a gay drum major? 
***** 

Ne'er a man I'll wager 
Half so gallant, half so bold, 

Who so fine as a gay drum major? 

Boosey Edition. 

[Lesson V , Part I.] 

64714 Norwegian Echo Song Thrane 

The composer of this song, Waldemar Thrane (1790-1828), was one of the 
early composers of Norway. The ' ' Norwegian Echo Song " is an excellent example 
of the "yodel" song, which is found among the mountains of Norway, as well as 
in the Alpine regions. In fact, the ' ' yodel ' ' is typical in all mountainous countries. 

370 



Analyses 

This song gives a good opportunity for the coloratura soprano to display her vocal 
attainments. This was a favorite concert number of Jennie Lind. [Lesson XIV , 

Part I.] 

18684 The Whirlwind Krantz 

This short descriptive number for flute is a tonal picture of a capricious 
whirlwind, as it scampers along, tossing the dead leaves into the air; it is gay, 
it is mad, it is slower, it becomes more intense until it disappears at last in a 
frenzied whirl. [Lesson X, Part III.] 

17290 When the Nightingale Shall Sing (Chatelain de Coucy} Troubadour 

Among the twelfth century Troubadours was a French knight, Chatelain 
de Coucy, whose tragic fate has been often a theme for poets, the Ballade of 
Uhland being founded on his history. He loved the wife of another, and realizing 
his duty, departed for the Crusades, where he lost his life. To comply with his 
dying request, his heart was embalmed and sent to the fair lady, whose husband 
intercepted the gift, and it is said caused it to be served to his wife for dinner. 
After she had unsuspectingly eaten of this gruesome dish, her lord informed her 
she had eaten the heart of her lover. To this she bravely replied that as she had 
consumed that which she most dearly loved she would never again eat of any- 
thing inferior, so she declined all food and shortly after died. The words are: 

When the nightingale shall sing 
Songs of love from night to morn, 
When the rose and lily spring 
And the dew bespangles the thorn ; 
Then should I my voice expand, 
Like a lover fond and true. 
Could I but its tones command 
And the tender strain pursue ; 
Hut his love \yho fears to tell 
Notes of passion ne'er can swell. 

Dr. Burney's History of Music. 

[Lesson IV, Part II. ] 

17760 Merci Clamant (Chatelain de Coucy) Troubadour 

Chatelain de Coucy (1157-1192) is one of the earliest of the French Trouba- 
dours. He went to Palestine in 1190 with Richard Coeur de Lion and there met 
his death at the hands of the Saracens. He was equally renowned as a poet, a 
lover and a musician. His music often reflects the tonality of the Gregorian 
chant. In the ' ' Merci Clamant ' ' the singer tells his love of life is lost through 
sorrow. "This shall be the end of my songs. All have betrayed me; all have 
forsaken me my song fails me." [Lesson IV, Part 77.] 

17760 Robins M'aime (Adam de la Halle) Troubadour 

Adam de la Halle, the Hunchback of Arras (1240-1288), was the most famous 
of the Troubadours. In 1882, while in the service of Robert II of Artois, Adam 
de la Halle accompanied his master and the Due d 'Alenqon to Naples to aid the 
Due d'Anjou in taking revenge for the "Sicilian Vespers." The Troubadour 
wrote many songs and short dramatic dialogues for the entertainment of the 
French Court in Naples. Among these is the interesting Dramatic Pastorale, 
' ' Robin et Marion, ' ' in which are to be found the germs of later comic opera". 
Eleven persons appear in this piece, which was written in dialogue and divided 
into scenes quite in the manner of our modern works. Adam de la Halle wrote 
the words as well as the music of all his compositions. So popular did one of 

371 



Analyses 

the airs from ' ' Robin et Marion ' ' become, that it became a part of the church 
music of the day. In fact this air, "L'llomme Arme, " was not entirely put out 
of the liturgy until the Council of Trent, in the sixteenth century, ordered it 
deposed. 

The words of this aria, which is sung by the Shepherdess Marion, are: 
' ' Robin loves me he has chosen me and I am his. Robin bought me a scarlet 
kirtle fine and beautiful, with gay belt and ribbons. Robin loves me. I am his 
chosen, and I am his." [Lesson IV, Part II.] 

17760 J'ai encor un tel pate (Hondo) (Adam de la Halle) Troubadour 

The pastoral comedy ' ' Robin et Marion ' ' is probably the oldest collection of 
French airs in existence, for it has been quite accurately proved that, although 
Adam de la Halle wrote the verses for the play, he introduced many tunes not 
original with him, but which were the popular songs of the day. This charming 
Rondo aria has so much of the gay charm of de la Halle's other known composi- 
tions that it is generally believed to have been one of his original numbers. The 
words are: 

' ' I have the most beautiful little cake that ever was made which we shall 
eat, lip to lip, you and I. I have also a fine fat chicken which too we shall eat, 
lip to lip." [Lesson IV, Part II.] 

17760 Pour mal terns, ni pour gelee (Thibaut of Navarre) Troubadour 

The leader of the thirteenth century Troubadours was Thibaut, Count of 
Champagne, King of Navarre, who was born in 1201. History tells much of 
his exciting career, for he seems to have been as great a warrior as he was poet. 
lie fought with Louis VIII in his Poitou expedition in 1224, aud in 1239 he 
organized and led a famous Crusade. 

Most of his songs were written in praise of Queen Blanche, the mother of 
Louis IX ("St. Louis"). History proves that Thibaut 's interest in the Queen 
lay largely in his political aspirations, yet an old document, speaking of the 
Troubadour King, says: "Often one would see the gentle and lovely face of 
the Queen; his heart was then filled with sweet love, but, remembering her spot- 
less reputation and saintly life, his love was swallowed in sadness." This air, 
like many of the secular songs of the day, retains much of the character of the 
church chant, and the opening is distinctly reminiscent of the Doxology. The 
words are : 

' ' Hardships, frost or cold winter morns, cannot rid me of my thoughts of 
love for thee too full of love is my heart. She, my beautiful, fair and adored 
one, who chose me above all others, tells me she is mine. Ah! I must die of the 
love I have consecrated to thee! " [Lesson IV, Part II.} 

74575 Andante Cantabile Tscliaikowsky 

This exquisite Andante is the second movement of the first String Quartet 
by Tschaikowsky. The theme of this beautiful movement is taken from a folk 
song of ' ' Little Russia. " It is said that the composer was one day at his piano, 
when he heard a plasterer singing as he worked beneath Tschaikowsky 's window. 
The lovely folk song haunted the composer all night, and in the morning he 
sought out the plasterer and wrote down the melody of his song. This mournful 
and plaintive air Tschaikowsky gave to the world in the Andante Cantabile of his 
String Quartet, Opus 11. The movement follows the simple three-part folk song, 
and is a most exquisite example of the use of a folk air as the basis of a national 
composition. [Lesson VII, Part I.] 

372 



Analyses 

45053 Dances from "Casse Noisette Ballet" Tschaikowsky 

Tschaikowsky wrote his ballet of "Casse Noisette" in 1892. It is based on 
the Hoffman fairy tale, of the little girl who, having indulged herself with 
Christmas goodies, dreams on Christmas night that she again sees the tree lighted 
in all its glory, while the toys and dolls are holding a fairy revel, led by "Nut 
Cracker, the Prince of Fairyland. ' ' The success of the ballet encouraged 
Tschaikowsky to arrange a suite on the most popular numbers from the ballet. 
The Danse Arabe is a clever imitation of the characteristic Oriental dance, 
with its minor tone and the employment of the florid cadences which are so much 
a part of Moorish and Arabian music. 

The Danse Chinoise is in direct contrast. The theme is here given by the 
flute, piccolo and bassoon, the exceedingly interesting instrumental combination 
should be noted. The Danse Mirlitons (toy -pipes) has been described as a "stac- 
cato polka." [Lesson XIII, Part III; Lesson XVIII, Part III.] 

88582 Faint Echo of My Youth (" Eugen Onegen") Tscliaikowsky 

' ' Eugen Onegen, ' ' the greatest opera by Tschaikowsky, is based on the epic 
story of the same name by Pushkin. It was produced in Moscow in 1879. This 
beautiful aria is sung by the poet, Lenske, at the end of the second act, just 
before the duel scene in which he meets his death at the hand of Onegen. In 
a letter to a friend, Tschaikowsky wrote of this work: "I know the opera does 
not give great scope for musical treatment, but a wealth of poetry and a deeply 
interesting tale, more than atone for its faults. ' ' 

' ' We must judge the opera, ' ' says Mrs. Newmarch, ' ' not so much as Tschai- 
kowsky 's greatest intellectual effort, but as the outcome of a passionate single- 
hearted impulse. As a work of art, 'Eugen Onegen' defies criticism. It answers 
to no particular standard of dramatic truth, yet the sense of joy in creation is 
reflected in every bar of this music." [Lesson XV, Part IV.] 

55105 Marche Slave (Op. 31) Tschaikowsky 

This popular selection was written in 1876, the year of the war between Turkey 
and Servia. It will be remembered that many demonstrations of Slavonic patriot- 
ism took place in Russia at this time, and for the great concert, arranged by 
Nicholas Rubinstein for the benefit of the wounded soldiers, Tschaikowsky wrote the 
groat Marche Slave. The composition opens with a dirge-like chant, given by the 
bassoons, to the accompaniment of the double basses; presently a gay folk song is 
heard in the oboe, taken up by the other wood-winds, until the full orchestra 
carries it to a resounding climax. In the trio of the Marche, notice the employment 
of the Russian national anthem, which again is triumphantly shouted by the 
brasses in the coda ending. [Lesson XIII, Part I ; Lesson XXII, Part II ; Lesson 
VI, Part III; Lesson XIII, Part III; Lesson XXX, Part III.] 

74630 Troika en Traincaux Tscliaikowsky 

A Troika is a Russian team of three horses which are harnessed abreast. 
The two outer horses are taught to gallop, holding their heads to right and 
left. To ride in a Troika harnessed to a sleigh was supposed to be the greatest 
winter sport in Russia. Tschaikowsky has here pictured in tone the joys of 
riding in such a sleigh. This charming piece for piano opens with a curious 
half melancholy Russian air, which is succeeded by the swift brilliant rhythm of 
the Troika bells heard in the distance. [Lesson XXII, Part II. ] 

373 



Analyses 

87217 Clavelitos Valverdc 

Quinito Valverde is one of the most prominent of living Spanish composers. 
Like his father, Joaquin Valverde, he has written much in the form of the zarzuela. 
This song, ' ' Carnations, ' ' gives a rare opportunity to the coloratura, soprano. 
It is typical Spanish music as well. Note the use of the mandolin and castanets 
in the accompaniment. [Lesson XVII, Part I.\ 

35170 sommo Carlo (Oh, Noble Carlos) (" Ernani") Verdi 

1 ' Ernani, ' ' an adaptation of Victor Hugo 's great drama, ' ' Hernani, ' ' is one 
of the earlier operas of the great Italian genius, Giuseppe Verdi. 

This great aria occurs at the end of Act III. King Carlos, knowing that his 
life is in danger, has hidden himself in the tomb of his ancestor, Charlemagne, 
in the crypt of the Cathedral of Aix la Chapelle. He overhears the plotting of his 
enemies, who have conspired to take his life, but at this dramatic moment the 
booming of the cannon announces that Carlos has been proclaimed Emperor, lie 
comes forth, surprises the conspirators and condemns them to death. The life 
of Ernani is spared by the pleading of Elvira, and the Emperor unites them in 
marriage. [Lesson XVII, Part IV.] 

35170 Ferma, Crudele (Stay Thee, My Lord) ("Ernani") Verdi 

This dramatic duet occurs in the last scene of Verdi's opera, "Ernani." 
The love dream of Elvira and Ernani is interrupted by the blast of a silver horn, 
and Ernani recognizes this as the signal made in his compact with Silva, that 
he shall give his life at Silva 's demand. In vain Elvira pleads with Silva that 
he shall spare her husband's life, but Ernani, after a touching farewell to his 
wife, fulfils his vow by a thrust from his dagger, and Elvira falls lifeless on 
his dead body. [Lesson XVII, Part IV.] 

88618 Monologo (" Sigoletto") Verdi 

In many parts of "Eigoletto" Verdi discloses the great genius which is 
not fully revealed until "A'ida. " The monologue for Rigoletto in the second 
scene of the first act is such an instance. Here the true character of the poor 
jester, Eigoletto, is depicted in his remarkable aria. [Lesson XVII, Part IV.] 

87017 La donna e Mobile (Woman Is Fickle) ("Eigoletto") Verdi 

Possibly the best known air from Verdi 's early opera, ' ' Eigoletto, " is "La 
donna e Mobile, ' ' which is sung by the Duke at the opening of Act III. The 
scene shows us the house of Sparafucile, in a lonely spot near the river. Hither 
Eigoletto comes with his daughter, Gilda, who is disguised as a boy. It is her 
father's wish that she may see the false Duke as he really is, flirting with 
Maddalena. It is not long before the Duke, in the dress of a common soldier, 
comes and asks for wine. He then begins his famous song. [Lesson XVII, 
Part IV.] 

17563 Anvil Chorus ("II Trovatore") Verdi 

One of the ever-popular numbers in Verdi's "II Trovatore" is the "Anvil 
Chorus ' ' which is sung at the opening of the second act. The scene shows the 
gypsy camp in the Biscay Mountains. It is early dawn, and the men begin their 
work, singing as they strike their hammers upon their anvils. [Lesson V, Part I.] 

16371 Miserere ("II Trovatore") Verdi 

This arrangement of the famous duet from Verdi 's opera, ' ' II Trovatore, ' ' 

374 



Analyses 



is for cornet and trombone and gives an excellent opportunity to contrast the 
tone quality of these instrumpnts. [Lesson XVII, Part III.] 

89060 Duct Home to Our Mountains ("II Trovatore") Verdi 

"II Trovatore, ' ' although the setting of a libretto which is absurdly im- 
possible, has remained a popular opera on account of the beautiful Italian 
melody with which Verdi has clothed it. This famous duet is sung by the gypsy, 
Azucena, and her foster son, Manrico, in the prison where they are under sentence 
of death. As the curtain rises on the last act, Manrico is trying to comfort the 
gypsy with the assurance that they will soon be free and can return to their 
mountain home together. [Lesson XVII, Part IV.] 

88018 Aria Ah! Fors' e Lui ("La Traviata") Verdi 

This popular aria for coloratura soprano occurs in the first act of "La 
Traviata. " The scene shows the supper at Violetta's home; after the vivacious 
opening chorus sung by the guests, and an impassioned love duet betweeen Violetta 
and Alfred, Violetta sings this grand scena, which has become a favorite 
show-aria for the coloratura soprano. [Lesson XVII, Part IV.] 

88514 Ingcmisco Requiem Mass Verdi 

The Eequiem Mass which Verdi composed at the time of the death of his 
friend, the poet Manzoni, has an interesting history. After Rossini's death in 
1861, Verdi proposed that all the Italian composers should unite in writing a 
Requiem Mass in honor of their great colleague. The parts were apportioned and 
Verdi composed the Finale ' ' Libera me. ' ' When the works were examined it was 
found that there was such variety of style in the various parts that the plan was 
abandoned. Verdi 's number had deeply impressed the musical critic ' ' Meizzu- 
cato, " who had examined the score and he urged Verdi to compose an entire Mass. 
Soon after came the tragic death of Manzoni and Verdi wrote this Requiem in 
his honor. The Ingemisco is the sixth number of the Mass and is one of the 
most remarkable tenor solos ever written. It is the penitential section of the 
Mass and opens with a cry of lamentation, which later changes to the brighter 
melody, which brings hope and consolation. [Lesson XXIX, Part IV.] 

88127 Celeste AUa ("A'ida") Verdi 

The most famous aria for tenor from any modern opera, is the popular 
Romanza, from the first act of Verdi 's ' ' Ai'da. ' ' The scene shows the Hall 
in the palace of the King of Egypt. The young warrior Rhadames has returned 
from the wars victorious, and after a short dialogue with Ramphis, the high 
priest, he discloses his love for the captive princess, A'ida, in this Aria. [Lesson 
II. Part I ; Lesson V, Part I; Lesson XVIII, Part IV.] 

35265 Triumphal March (" A'ida") Verdi 

No modern operatic work gives a greater chance for the display of stage 
splendor than does Verdi's great opera, "Ai'da." This march occurs at the 
opening of the second scene in the second act. Rhadames has returned from the 
war, with the victorious Egyptian army, and the entire Court has assembled to 
do him homage. Notice the interesting use of the trumpets and trombones in 
the instrumentation. [Lesson VII, Part I ; Lesson XVIII, Part IV.] 

89028 Duct The Fatal Stone ("A'ida") Verdi 

This beautiful duet makes a fitting dramatic climax to the opera of "AYda," 

375 



Analyses 

while also serving as an excellent example of the use of a concerted finale. The 
stage is arranged in two parts, so that there is seen above, the temple of Phtah, 
crowded with the priests chanting, as the stone is laid; below, Aida and Khadames 
in their rocky tomb as they sing this wonderful duet, united in their last hours on 
earth. [Lesson XX, Part II; Lesson XVIII, Part IV.] 

88328 logo's Credo ("Otello") Verdi 

In the writing of both "Otello" and "Falstaff" Verdi was aided by the 
dramatic genius of Arrigo Boito, himself an opera composer of no mean attain- 
ment. In arranging Shakespeare 's ' ' Otello ' ' Bo'ito introduced several scenes 
which were entirely original. Of these, the best is lago 's Credo, which opens 
the second act. It is a wonderful description of the malign lago, who in his 
monologue tells all his thoughts and feelings. [Lesson XX, Part II; Lesson 
XVIII, Part IV.] 

89075 Si pel del (We Swear by Heaven and Earth) ("Otello") Verdi 

' ' Otello, ' ' a dramatization by Boito of Shakespeare 's drama, with music by 
Verdi, was first produced February 5, 1887, at La Scala, Milan. Verdi has here 
shown how greatly the modern music drama has influenced him, although the 
work still retains the contour of the Italian opera. This great duet occurs as 
the finale of the second act, which takes place in a room in Otello 's castle. lago 
is determined to ruin Cassio, and by means of a handkerchief, which his wife has 
stolen from Desdemona, he convinces Otello that Desdemona and Cassio have been 
false to him. Otello is enraged and vows death to the traitors. lago offers to 
help him, and together they then swear "by heaven and earth" this oath of 
vengeance and death. [Lesson V, Part I ; Lesson XVIII, Part IV.] 

88148 Willow Song ("Otello") Verdi 

This beautiful song occurs in the last act of Verdi 's ' ' Otello, ' ' when 
Desdemona says that her mother had a maid called Barbara, whose lover had 
become insane, and that the poor creature used to sing a sad song called 
"Willow," which so haunted her (Desdemona) that she must sing it. (Notice the 
remarkable horn and bassoon accompaniment.) 

The poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree, 

Sing all a green willow ; 
Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee, 

Sing willow, willow, willow. 

The fresh streams ran by her, and murmur'd her moans ; 

Sing willow, etc. 
Her salt tears fell from her, and soften'd the stones ; 

[Lesson XVIII, Part IV.] 

64028 Polonaise Vieuxtemps 

Henri Vieuxtemps (1820-1881) was one of the greatest of the French violin 
virtuosi of the last century. Berlioz said of him : "If Vieuxtemps were not so 
great a virtuoso he would be acclaimed as a great composer. I must remark above 
all upon the beauty and orderly skill of his compositions. They are the works 
of a master whose melodic skill always is noble and dignified. ' ' This Polonaise 
is an admirable example of Vieuxtemps' genius in writing for his chosen instru- 
ment. All the most difficult technique of the violin virtuoso is called upon to play 
this brilliant number, which is in the form of the Polish dance, so popular with 
French audiences of the period. [Lesson XII, Part I ; Lesson XX, Part III.] 

376 



Analyses 



35182 Concertino for Clarinet von Weber 

Few great composers have left any individual solos for the wind instru- 
ments. This Concertino for clarinet by von Weber is one of the best known 
solo works for that instrument. Weber shows in his use of the orchestra in all 
his works a marked predilection for the clarinet, and beautiful phrases for this 
instrument are found in all Weber 's compositions. All the registers of the 
clarinet are well illustrated in this beautiful Concertino. [Lesson XII, Part III.} 

35000 Overture ("Dcr Freischiits") von Weber 

With his opera, ' ' Der Freischiitz, von Weber laid the foundation for the 
German Romantic Opera School. The legend, which is the basis of this story of 
' ' The Free-Shooter, " is a very popular one in Germany, being practically the 
same as that of ' ' Faust ' ' and ' ' The Flying Dutchman ' ' the redeeming power 
of woman's love. Although von Weber has followed the general outline of the 
' ' sonata ' ' form in this overture, he has also incorporated much of the melodic 
material of the opera. 

The opening theme of the introduction is given by the French horns, and is 
the same melody which has become a popular church hymn; the main part of 
the overture is a Vivace movement, with the orthodox contrasting subjects, and 
their usual working out and recapitulation. The coda is based on the second 
subject. [Lesson VIII, Part IV.] 

45078 Through the Forest (" Der Freischiitz") von Weber 

' ' Der Freischiitz ' ' tells of the old German legend of the forester, who 
sells his life to the power of evil for the magic bullets which always hit their 
mark. The young hunter, Max, wishing to win the hand of Agatha, and also to 
succeed her father as chief forester, is very anxious to win the shooting contest. 
Therefore he consults the Evil One, Zamiel, obtains the magic bullets, and is 
saved from the curse in the end by the self-sacrificing love of Agatha. 

This aria is sung by Max at the beginning of the opera. He is filled with 
forebodings about the contest on the morrow. [Lesson VIII, Part IV.] 

18684 Hungarian Fantasie von Weber 

This short composition is one of the few solo numbers ever written for bassoon. 
It not only shows to excellent advantage the tonal characteristics of the basson, 
but it is also a good example of a typical Hungarian composition, varying from 
the slow "lassen" to the spirited "friska. " [Lesson XIII, Part III.] 

74598 Invitation to the Walts von Weber 

This well-known composition was written in the summer of 1819, and with 
a number of other brilliant compositions for piano it varied von Weber's labors 
upon his opera of ' ' Der Frieschiitz. ' ' Hector Berlioz transcribed it for orchestra 
in 1814, and in 1896 Felix Weingartner rearranged it even more brilliantly for 
the modern symphonic orchestra. It is one of the most beautiful concert waltzes 
in the entire literature of music. [Lesson XXVII, Part III.] 

7/1(509 -I 

?> Overture ("Eientn") Wagner 

i *o(J-> J 

The Overture is in the conventional Operatic Overture form, being developed 
from the themes of the opera in such a fashion as to serve as an epitome of the 
entire work. Opening with a sustained introduction which makes use of the famous 
"prayer theme" as typical of the religious character of Rienzi, the "trumpet 



Analyses 



theme ' ' is heard in contrast as typical of ' ' Rienzi the hero. ' ' These two ideas take 
the place of the regulation first and second subjects in the Overture proper (Allegro 
Energico) and in the "working out" reaching a triumphant ending with the 
Recapitulation and a stirring use of the ' ' trumpet theme ' ' in the Coda ending. 
[Lesson XXVIII, Part III; Lesson XII, Part IV.} 

74130 Lohengrin's Narrative ("Lohengrin") Wagner 

It is in this narrative, sung in the finale of Wagner 's ' ' Lohengrin, ' ' that the 
Swan Knight discloses his true name and dwelling place. Then the swan boat 
appears, and releasing Elsa's brother from the fatal spell of Ortrud, which had 
changed him into a swan, Lohengrin delivers the boy to Elsa 's arms. She falls 
senseless on the shore, from which the boat, now guided by a dove, draws 
Lohengrin away to his distant home on Montsalvat. [Lesson XIX, Part II; 
Lesson XII, Part IV.] 

87002 Ho-yo-to-ho ("Die Wallcure") Wagner 

The magnificent battle-cry of the Valkyrie maidens is heard several times 
during the action of Wagner's "Die Walkiire. " It is first given in its entirety 
by Briinnhilde during the first scene of the second act of this work. Wotan has 
commanded his favorite daughter, Briinnhilde, to ride to the conflict between 
Hunding and Siegmund, and to protect the Volsung in the struggle. As she leaves 
her father and climbs upward over the rocks, the battle-cry of the Valkyries is 
heard. [Lesson IV, Part I; Lesson XIII, Part IV.] 



> Eide of the Valkyries ("Die Walkiire") Wagner 



74684 ' 
35369 

This famous excerpt from Wagner 's ' ' Ring of the Nibelungs ' ' is the 
introduction to the third act of Wagner 's ' ' Die Walkiire. ' ' This great tone 
picture of the ride of the war-like Valkyrie maidens through the air serves to 
prepare the audience for the scene on the Valkyrie rock, where the sisters on 
their winged steeds await the arrival of Briinnhilde, with Sieglinde on her saddle 
bow. This is one of the greatest examples of the pure tone of the violins in all 
orchestral literature. [Lesson XIX, Part II; Lesson XIII, Part IV.] 

64278 Wotan's Farewell ("Die Wallciire") Wagner 

Wagner once said that the saddest music he ever wrote was the last scene 
of ' ' Die Walkiire, ' ' where Wotan says farewell to his beloved daughter, Briinn- 
hilde. As a punishment for disobeying him, and for guarding Siegmund in the 
conflict, Wotan decrees that Briinnhilde shall become mortal. Tie will put her 
into a deep sleep, and whoever shall awaken her shall claim her for his mortal 
bride. No more may she enter Walhalla. Briimihilde then begs him to grant 
her request that only a fearless hero shall find her. [Lesson XIII, Part IV.] 

17174 Siegfried's Horn Call Wagner 

There never was a more beautiful theme written for the French horn than 
the joyous horn call of that happy, fearless child of the woods, the boy Sieg- 
fried, whose history is narrated by Wagner in ' ' The Ring of the Xibelungs. ' ' 
It is first heard in the opening of "Siegfried" and is used constantly throughout 
the opera associated with the hero. It is also heard in the same connection in 
"Die Gotterdammerung. " [Lesson XVI, Part III.] 

378 



Analyses 

35369 Siegfried's Death March ("Die Gotterdammerung") Wagner 

This wonderful death march occurs as the musical interlude between the 
two scenes in the last act of Wagner 's finale to ' ' The Ring of the Nibelungs. ' ' 
After the treacherous murder of Siegfried, by Hagen, the men at the command of 
King Gunther carry on their shields the body of the hero back to the Hall of 
the Gibichungs. The sun has set and twilight darkens to night, a dense fog 
covers over the Rhine, and by means of this music, one is carried by Wagner 
on, on, to the castle by the Rhine, where Gutrune and Briinnhilde are awaiting 
the return of the hunters. In this music Wagner has epitomized the life of his 
hero in tones of grandeur and mighty strength. Those motives which have been 
associated with Siegfried's life are heard, but all are here woven into a poly- 
phonic web of tone, which makes this ' ' the greatest funeral oration in all 
musical literature. ' ' 

One by one, yet tragically interrupted by the motive of "Death," the mo- 
tives are heard which tell of the struggle of the A'olsung hero against the fate 
which ultimately and surely is to crush the strength of the Gods. The ' ' Heroism ' ' 
and ' ' Love of the A T olsungs ' ' play an important part in the opening of this 
tragic poem of death. The gleaming ' ' Sword, ' ' followed by ' ' Siegfried, the 
Guardian of the Sword, ' ' are the two motives next heard, leading to the ' ' Horn 
Call, ' ' now so subtly metamorphosed that it assumes the greatest heroic impor- 
tance. Woven with this motive is the "Love Motive," the whole resolving into 
the motive of ' ' the Ring ' ' as the movement ends with the ' ' Death ' ' chords with 
which it began. [Lesson XIX, Part II; Lesson XVII, Part III ; Lesson XIII, 
Part IV.] 

70080 Walter's Prize Song ("Die Meistersinger") Wagner 

The great prize song of ' ' Die Meistersinger ' ' was written by Wagner while 
in Paris, an exile from his native land. It is the most popular aria from Wag- 
ner's one comic opera, which tells of the customs and manners of the Meister- 
singers of Nurnberg in the sixteenth century. In the last act of the opera takes 
place the song contest, which occurs on the banks of the river Pegnitz, outside 
of the town of Nurnberg. By the singing of this song, the young Walter von 
Stolzing wins the contest and the hand of Eva, the maiden he 'loves. [Lesson 
XIX, Part II; Lesson XIV, Part IV. 

68210 Prelude (" Tristan and Isolde"} Wagner 

The greatest love story ever penned is that which Wagner took from the 
old Minnesinger legend of Gottfried von Strassburg, and gave to the world in 
1865 as "Tristan and Isolde." The prelude to this work is cast in much the 
same mould as "Lohengrin"; beginning softly, it is devoleped through a long 
crescendo to a fortissimo climax, and then slowly dies away again. The whole 
work is woven on the themes of "Tristan" and "Isolde," in which are com- 
bined the motives of the "Glance," the "Magic Casket," the "Love Potion" 
and the ' ' Deliverance by Death. ' ' Wagner 's own description of the Prelude is 
the best analysis of this great work. 

"A primitive, old love-poem which, far from having become extinct, is con- 
stantly fashioning itself anew, and has been adopted by every European language 
of the Middle Ages, tells us of Tristan and Isolde. Tristan, the faithful vassal, 
woos for his king her for whom he dares not avow his own love, Isolde. Isolde, 
powerless to do otherwise than obey the wooer, follows him as bride to his lord. 
Jealous of this infringement of her rights, the Goddess of Love takes her revenge. 

379 



As the result of a happy mistake, she allows the couple to taste of the love-potion, 
which in accordance with the custom of the times, and by way of precaution, the 
mother had prepared for the husband who should marry her daughter from political 
motives, and which, by the burning desire which suddenly inflames them after 
tasting it, opens their eyes to the truth, and leads to the avowal that for the future 
they belong only to each other. Henceforth there is no end to the longings, the 
demands, the joys and woes of love. The world power, fame, splendor, honor, 
knighthood, fidelity, friendship, all are dissipated like an empty dream. One thing 
only remains: longing longing, insatiable longing, forever springing up anew, 
pining and thirsting. Death, which means passing away, perishing never awaken- 
ing, their only deliverance. . . . Powerless, the heart sinks back to languish in 
longing, in longing without attaining; for each attainment only begets new long- 
ing, until in the last stage of weariness the foreboding of the highest joy of dying, 
of no longer existing, of the last escape into that wonderful kingdom from which 
we are furthest off when we are most strenuously striving to enter therein. Shall 
we call it Death? Or is it the hidden wonder-world, from out of which an ivy and 
vine, entwined with each other, grew up upon Tristan's and Isolde's grave, as the 
legend tells us?" [Lesson XIV, Part IV.} 

55041 Licbestod (" Tristan and Isolde") Wagner 

The name of "Isolde's Liebestod" (or Love Death) was given to the clos- 
ing scene of the music drama, ' ' Tristan and Isolde, ' ' by Franz Liszt. The 
scene takes place in the courtyard of Tristan's castle in Brittany, where Kur- 
wenal has taken the wounded Tristan. Overcome with the excitement and joy 
of again seeing Isolde, Tristan tears open his wound; dies in her arms just as 
the shouting of the men proclaim the arrival of the boat of King Mark. The 
king, wath Brangane and several of the knights, enters to tell Tristan he is 
forgiven and is to return to Cornwall. Isolde then raises herself and sings her 
last farewell to her lover as she expires on his dead body. This ' ' Love Death ' ' 
song is woven of the themes of the great love scene heard in the second act of 
the opera, ending with the great motif of "Deliverance by Death." [Lesson 
XIX, Part II; Lesson XIV, Part IV.] 

35494 Spinning Song ("The Flying Dutchman") Wagner 

This chorus, which was the first part of ' ' The Flying Dutchman " to be 
written by the composer, occurs in the second act of the opera. The scene opens 
in Daland's home. His daughter, Senta, and her friends are spinning under the 
direction of Dame Mary. Senta, however, often sits lost in dreamy contemplation 
of the portrait of the Dutchman which hangs upon the wall. The merry whirring 
of the wheels provides a most unique and pleasing rhythmic background. The 
sinister motive, which later typifies the tragedy of the Dutchman, seems to indi- 
cate that Senta already has felt the force of his fate and longs to be his 
redeemer. [Lesson XIX, Part II. ] 

Overture (" Tannhaiiser") Wagner 

As the best description of the most popular of "Wagner 's compositions, the 

Overture to ' ' Tannhauser, ' ' we quote the composer 's own words : 

' ' At the commencement the orchestra represents the song of pilgrims, which 

as it approaches grows louder and louder and at length recedes. It is twilight. 

As night comes on magical phenomena present themselves. A roseate-hued and 



* In preparation. 

380 



Analyses 

fragrant mist arises, wafting voluptuous shouts of joy to our ears. We are made 
aware of the dizzy motion of a horribly wanton dance. These are the seductive, 
magic spells of the Venusberg, which at the hour of night reveal themselves to 
those whose breasts are inflamed with unholy desires. Attracted by these enticing 
phenomena, a tall and stately figure appears; it is Tannhauser, the Minnesinger. 
Proudly, exulting, he trolls forth his jubilant love song as if to challenge the 
wanton, magic crew to turn their attention to himself. Wild shouts respond to his 
call, the roseate clouds surround him more closely; its enrapturing fragrance over- 
whelms him and intoxicates his brain. Endowed now with supernatural power of 
vision, he perceives in the dim, seductive light spread out before him an unspeak- 
able lovely female figure; he hears a voice, which with its tremulous sweetness 
sounds like the call of sirens promising to the brave the fulfillment of his wildest 
wishes. It is Venus herself whom he sees before him. He is drawn into the 
presence of the goddess and with the highest rapture raises a song in her praise. 
As if in response to his magical call, the wonder of the Venusberg is revealed to 
him in its fullest brightness, boisterous shouts of wild delight re-echo on every 
side. Bacchantes rush hither and thither in their drunken revels, and dragging 
Tannhiiuser into their giddy dance deliver him over to the goddess, who carries him 
off, drunken with joy, to the unapproachable depths of her invisible kingdom. 
The wild throng then disperses and the commotion ceases. A voluptuous, plaintive, 
whirring sound now stirs the air and a horrible murmur pervades the spot where 
the enrapturing, profane, magic spell has shown itself and which now again is 
overshadowed by darkness. Day at length begins to dawn and the song of the 
pilgrims is heard in the distance. As their song draws nearer and day succeeds 
to light, that whirring and murmuring in the air, which but just now sounded like 
the horrible wail of the damned, gives way to more joyful strains; till at last 
when the sun has risen in all its splendor, and the pilgrims' song with mighty 
inspiration proclaims to the world and to all that lives salvation won, its surging 
sound swells into a rapturous torrent of sublime ecstasy. This divine song repre- 
sents to us Tannhauser 's release from the curse of the unholiness of the Venusberg. 
Thus all the pulse of life palpitates and leaps for joy in this song of deliverance, 
and the two divided elements, spirit and mind, God and Nature, embrace each 
other in the holy uniting kiss of love." [Lesson XII, Part III.] 

17563 Pilgrims' Chorus (" Tannhauser") Wagner 

This great Pilgrims ' Chorus from ' ' Tannhiiuser ' ' occurs in the last act of 
Wagner 's opera. The pilgrims have completed their penite7itial journey to Rome, 
and once more see their native land, which they greet with joy. [Lesson V, 
Part /.] 

17133 Pilgrims' Chorus ("Tannhiiuser") Wagner 

This arrangement of Wagner 's ever-popular ' ' Pilgrims ' Chorus, ' ' from 
" Tannhauser, " gives an unusual example of the deep sonority of the brasses, 
which here admirably reflects the religious character of this remarkable compo- 
sition. [Lesson XIV, Part III.] 

88154 Wolfram's Aria Evening Star ("Tannhiiuser") Wagner 

This ever-popular aria for baritone in its rightful place in opera is taken 
from the third act of Wagner 's ' ' Tannhauser. ' ' The faithful Wolfram has 
watched with Elizabeth the return of the pilgrims in the sunset. After her appeal 
to the Virgin, she turns and climbs the rocky path up to the Wartburg Castle. 

381 



Analyses 

Wolfram watches her retreating form, and then, taking his minstrel harp, he 
sings this air. [Lesson XII, Part IV.] 

Prelude (Vorspiel) ("Lohengrin'') Wagner 

It was with ' ' Lohengrin ' ' that Wagner first used the overture to prepare 
the audience for the action of the scene, which was to follow, so he deliberately 
departed here from the use of the orthodox form of overture, and in this Tor- 
spiel tells of the descent of the Holy Grail, as it was brought by the angels 
and delivered into the hands of the holy Titurel, who built for its shrine the 
Castle of Montsalvat. One writer has said that this Yorspiel is " a mighty web 
of sound woven on the single theme of the Holy Grail. ' ' The motive is heard 
at first softly in the highest register of the divided violins; it is taken up by 
the deeper strings, and, gradually increasing in volume until it is finally loudly 
intoned by the trombones; then as silently the theme dies away with a long 
diminuendo to the high tones of the strings again. 

' ' To the enraptured look of the highest, celestial longing for love, the clearest 
blue atmosphere of Heaven at first seems to condense itself into a wonderful, 
scarcely perceptible, but magically pleasing vision; with gradually increasing pre- 
cision the wonder-working angelic host is delineated in infinitely delicate lines as, 
conveying the holy vessel (the Grail) in its midst, it insensibly descends from the 
blazing heights of Heaven. As the vision grows more and more distinct, as it 
hovers over the surface of the earth, a narcotic, fragrant odor issues from its 
midst ; entrancing vapors well up from it like golden clouds, and overpower the 
sense of the astonished gazer, who from the lowest depts of his palpitating heart 
feels himself wonderfully urged to holy emotions. Imparting comfort the nearer 
it approaches, the divine vision reveals itself to our entranced senses, and when at 
last the holy vessel shows itself in the marvel of undraped reality, and clearly 
revealed to him to whom it is vouchsafed to behold it as the Holy Grail, which 
from out of its divine contents spreads broadcast the sunbeams of highest love, 
like the lights of a heavenly fire that stirs all hearts with the heat of the flame 
of its everlasting glow, the beholder's brain reels he falls down in a state of 
adoring annihilation. With chaste rejoicing, and smilingly looking down, the 
angelic host mounts again to Heaven's heights; the source of love, which had 
dried up upon the earth, has been brought by them to the world again the Grail 
they have left in the custody of pure-minded men, in whose hands its contents over- 
flow as a source of blessing and the angelic host vanishes in the glorious light of 
Heaven's blue sky, as before it thence came down." [Lesson II, Part III; Les- 
son XXV III, Part III.} 

88038 Elsa's Dream ("Lohengrin") Wagner 

This beautiful aria for soprano occurs in the first act of ' ' Lohengrin. ' ' 
King Henry has called before him the Court of Brabant, and Elsa is told that 
she must answer the charges of murdering her brother, brought against her by 
Frederick von Telramund. She answers in this song. [Lesson XII, Part IV.] 

64013 King's Prayer ("Lohengrin") Wagner 

This great aria for basso occurs in the first act of Wagner's "Lohengrin." 
The scene shows King Henry 's judgment court, on the banks of the River Scheldt, 
above Antwerp. The Swan Knight appears in defense of the accused Elsa. 
Before the duel takes place the king arises and calls upon heaven to be the 
true judge between the combatants. [Lesson XIV, Part III ; Lesson XII, Part IV.\ 



* In preparation. 

382 



Analyses 

35494 Bridal Chorus ("Lohengrin") Wagner 

This well-known chorus from ' ' Lohengrin, ' ' usually heard at wedding cere- 
monies, is sung by the bridal procession of Lohengrin and Elsa, as they lead 
the Swan Knight and his bride to the nuptial chamber at the beginning of 
the third act of "Lohengrin." [Lesson VI, Part I; Lesson XII, Part IV.] 

74406 Amfortas Prayer ("Parsifal") Wagner 

This scene follows the "Procession of Knights," and occurs in the third act 
of ' ' Parsifal. ' ' The wretched King Amfortas has for many years refused to 
uncover the Grail, but the knights have demanded that on Good Friday the 
sacred feast shall once more be celebrated. To the hall of the Grail they bring 
the suffering king, and as his train enter they pass the funeral procession of 
Amfortas' father, King Titurel. Raising himself on his couch, Amfortas turns 
to the bier and cries in anguish: 

My father ! highest venerated hero ! 
Oh ! thou who doth in heavenly heights 
Behold the Saviour 



Beg him to release me from this life, and grant me death ! 

[Lesson XIX, Part II; Lesson XIV, Part IV.] 

18267 America, the Beautiful Ward 

One of the most beautiful and dignified of the patriotic songs of America 
is ' ' America the Beautiful. ' ' The words are by Katherine Lee Bates, Professor 
of English at Wellesley College, and the music is the well-known church hymn, 
' ' Materna, ' ' which was arranged by the well-known hymn writer, Samuel A. 
Ward. [Lesson XII, Part I.} 

64403 Mignonette Weckerlin 

This dainty song belongs to the French type of ' ' Bergerette, ' ' which was 
popular during the days of Marie Antoinette. These charming Romances, sung 
in the court drawing-rooms, were supposed to be replicas of the songs of the folk; 
and, just as the court ladies loved to dress as Shepherdesses, and play at farming 
in "Little Tianon, " so they loved to sing these simple airs. The best of the 
" Bergerettes " were collected and published by Jean Baptiste Weckerlin (1821- 
1910), who was the greatest authority of the folk music of France. 

' ' Mignonette " is a charming and almost perfect example of the ' ' Ber- 
gerette. ' ' [Lesson XVIII, Part I.] 

74100 All Through the Night Welsh 

This song is set to an old Welsh air, originally known as ' ' Poor Mary Ann ' ' 
("Ar Hyd y Nos" in Welsh). It is a most interesting example of the earliest 
folk song, the first phrase of four measures being here twice repeated. This 
is a perfect example of binary form. [Lesson VIII, Part I; Lesson XXVII, 
Part I; Lesson XII, Part I.] 

64141 Mentra Gwen Welsh 

This charming old Welsh serenade belongs to the class of legendary folk- 
songs. In its present version it was published in Blind Parry's collection of 
Old Welsh airs, which was published in 1781. 

383 



Analyses 

t The stars in Heaven are bright 

Lovely Gwen, lady mine ! 
The moon is full to-night, 
Lady mine ! 

O deign to smile upon me 
Cast but one kind look on me, 
While here I wait upon thee, 
Longing for thee, lady mine ! 

The night wind passing by 
Lovely Gwen, lady mine ! 
To thee wafts many a sigh, 
Lady mine ! 

The flowers around are sleeping, 
And pearly tears are weeping, 
While I my guard am keeping, 
Longing for thee, lady mine ! 

[Lesson XXVII, Part I.] 

64764 The Dove Welsh 

This is a very old Welsh song. The words are of the same character as those 
of the ' ' dove songs ' ' found among the folk of many nations. The lover begs 
the dove to carry his message to his loved one. [Lesson XIV, Part I; Lesson 
XXVII, Part I.] 

72812 Men of Harlech Welsh 

This song, which is the national anthem of Wales, dates from the fifteenth 
century. Harlech is the name of a small town on the Welsh coast, where is 
located a famous fourteenth century castle. In 1468 the castle was forced to 
surrender, after many years resisting the Yorkist invaders. This song dates from 
that day. The English words are by John Oxenford. [Lesson XXVII, Part I.] 

74051 Souvenir de Moscow Wieniawski 

Henri Wieniawski (1835-1880) was a famous Polish violinist, who spent 
much of his life touring throughout Europe as a virtuoso. He came to America, in 
1872, with Anton Rubinstein. While all of his works were written with the 
thought of giving the greatest possible technical opportunity to the performer, 
Wieniawski has also used the rhythms and characteristic melodies of his native 
land. This composition is very free in form; it incorporates many Polish and 
Russian characteristics, but it also illustrates the different technical possibilities 
of the violin. [Lesson III, Part III; Lesson XX, Part III.] 

74119 Crossing the Bar Willeby 

This is a beautiful setting to Tennyson 's well-known and exquisite song. [Les- 
son X, Part I.] 

35270 Intermezzo ("Jewels of the Madonna") Wolf -Ferrari 

No work of modern days has met with such immediate success as ' ' The 
Jewels of the Madonna, ' ' which was given its initial performance in Italian 
by the Chicago Opera Company, in January, 1912. 

In this work Wolf -Ferrari has told the story of a commonplace incident 
of every-day life, in Naples, and the score reflects all the folk music of this inter- 
esting place. The work opens without an orchestral overture, but there are beau- 
tiful entr'actes or intermezzi between each act. It will be recalled that this is a 
favorite custom of Italian composers, the Intermezzo from ' ' Cavalleria Rusti- 
cana" being a striking example. This intermezzo precedes Act III of the opera. 
[Lesson XVI, Part I; Lesson XXVII, Part II; Lesson XXII, Part IV.] 

384 



Analyses 

17582 Song of a Thousand Years Work 

Henry Clay Work (1832-1882) was not a trained musician but he possessed 
a very distinct appreciation for the musical needs of the America of his time. As 
Louis Elson says, ' ' Work sounded the most characteristic note of all the American 
composers of his day and his songs give almost every note in the gamut of expres- 
sion, from sarcasm to triumph, from gaiety to military glory. ' ' Work is best 
known as the author of "Marching Through Georgia" the music of which is the 
most truly patriotic in character of any American national air. ' ' The Song of 
A Thousand Years" belongs to the Civil War period. [Lesson XXIX, Part II.] 

88480 La Paloma Yradier 

Of the many ' ' Dove Songs " to be found in folk music, the best known is 
this Spanish song by Sebastian Yradier, which is equally popular in Spain, South 
America and Mexico. 

If to thy window ever shall come a wee dove, 

Treat it with kindness, for thou wilt find 'tis me, love, 

Do, my darling, I pray ! Thou must give me thy love, ah ! 

So come with me, come with me darling, 

Come with me where I dwell ! 

Do, my darling, I pray ! 

Thou must give me thy love, ah ! 

So come with me, come with me, darling, 

Come with me where I dwell ! 

Copy't 1907, by G. Schirmer. 

[Lesson XIV, Part I.] 

55102 The Fountain Zabel 

This is a charming tone picture, descriptive, as its title implies, of the play 
of the fountain. It gives an excellent idea of the possibilities of the harp. 
Zabel (1822-1883) was a Berlin composer of many ballets, dances and military 
marches. [Lesson VII, Part III.] 

64562 Polish Vance Zimbalist 

This is a brilliant arrangement of an old Polish dance for violin by Efrem 
Zimbalist. The characteristic, national traits of Polish music will be easily recog- 
nized as one of the striking features of this composition. [Lesson XXIII, Part I.] 

64727 Two Folk Songs (Russian) Zimbalist 

These two folk songs of "Little Eussia" have been arranged by Efrem 
Zimbalist, the well-known violinist and composer. "Little Russia" is a district 
bordering on the Ukraine, where there have always been found the most interest 
ing of all the Slavic folk songs. Zimbalist has here combined two of these old 
tunes making one modern song. [Lesson XXII, Part I.] 



385 



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YOUNG (FILSON). Opera Stories. Holt. 



391 



Pronunciation Table Artists, Composers, 
Operas and Titles 



Abt (Ahbt) 

Acerbi (Ah-cher'-bee) 

Adagio lamentaso (Ah-dagh'-yo 

'lah-ment-oh'soh) 
Adelaide (Ah-duh-lah-ee'-duh) 
Africana (Af-ree-kah'-nah) 
Aida (Ah-ee'-dah) 
Alda (Ahl'-dah) 
Amaryllis (Ah-mahr-yl'-lees) 
Amato (Ah-mah'-toh) 
Ambroise (Ahm-bro-ees) 
Ancona (Ahn-koh'-nah) 
Andrea Chenier (Ahn-dray'-ah 

Sheh-neay') 
Andreef (An-dree'f) 
Arditi (Ahr-dee'-tee) 
Arne (Am) 
Ase (Oh-seh) 
Attila (At-til-lah) 
Aubade Provenale ( Ohbahd' 

Proh-von-sahl') 
Auber (Oh'-bare) 
Audran (Oh-drahn') 
Bach (Bahkh) 
Badinage (Bah-dee-nahsh') 
Balalaika (Bal-lah-lie-kah) 
Balfe (Balf) 
Ballo in Maschera (Bah'loh-een 

Mahs-keh-rah) 
Banda de Policia (Bahn-dah-day 

Po-lee-see'-ah or, thee-ah) 
Banda Pabellon de Rosas (Bahn-dah 

Pah-bel'-yon day fio'-zahs) 
Barcarolle (Bahr-kah-roll') 
Barbaini (Bahr-bah-ee'-nee) 
Barbiere di Siviglia (Bahr-beay'-reh dee 

See-veel'-yah) 
Bayreuth (By'-roit) 
Beethoven (Bay'tow-ven) 
Behrend (Beh'-rend) 
Bellini (Bell-lee' -nee) 
Bergere Legere (Baihr-zhair'-Lay-zhair') 
Beriot (Bay'-ree-oh) 
Berlioz (Bair'-lee-oz) 
Bizet (Bee-zay') 
Bleking (Blay'-king) 
Blockx (Blocks') 
Blumenthal (Blu'-men-tahl) 
Boethius (Bo-ee'ti-us) 
Boheme (Bow-ehm') 
Bohm (Borne) 
Boieldieu (Bwahl-dyuh) 
Boito (Boh-ee'-toh) 



Boninsegna (Bon-ncen-sayn'-yah) 
Bononcini (Bo-non-chee'-nee) 
Bourdon (Boor'-dohn) 
Bourree (Boor-ray') 
Brahms (Brahmss) 
Brambilla (Bram-beel-lah) 
Braslau (Brass'-low) (ow as in how) 
Brescia (Bresh'-sha) 
Brindisi (Brin-dee-see) 
Burmeester (Bur'-mee-ster) 
Caccini (Kah-chee'-nee) 
Cai'd (Kah'-eed) 
Calve (Eahl-veh') 
Campanari (Kahm-pahn-ah'-ree) 
Caronna (Kahr-rohn'-nah) 
Carrousal (Kar-rou-sall') 
Caruso (Kah-roo'-soh) 
Cavalieri (Kah-vahl-yair'-ec) 
Cavalleria Rusticana (Kah-vahl-eh-rec'-ah 
Eoos-tih-kah'-nah) 
Cesti (Chehs'-tee) 
Chaminade (Shah-mee-nahd 1 ) 
Charpentier (Shar-pori -tee-ay) 
Cherubini (Keh-roo-bee'-nee) 
Chopin (Sho-pahn) (Nasal) 
Cigada (Chee-gah'-dah) 
Clement (Klay-mohn') 
Codolini (Koh-doh-lee'-nee) 
Coenen (Ko'-nen) 
Colazza (Koh-lat'-zah) 
Concerto (Con-cher'-to) 
Contes d 'Hoffman (Kahnt doff'-mahn) 
Corsi (Kor'-see) 
Cothen (Kay 1 -ten) 
Couperin (Koo-per-rahn) 
Crestani (Kres-tah'-nee) 
Cui (Kwee) 

Cygne, Le (Luh Seen'-yuh) 
Czardas (Tshahr'-dahss) 
Czerny (Chair-nee) 
d 'Albert (Dahl'-bare) 
Dalmores (Dal-moh-race') 
David (Dah'-veed) 
Debussy (Duh-bus'-see) 
de Gogorza (Deh Goh-gor'-tha) 
d'Hardelot (Dard'-loh) 
d'Indy (Dan'-dy) 
Delibes (Duh-leeb 1 ) 
de Luna (deh-Loo'-nah) 
de Pachmann (duh-Pahk'-man) 
de Sarasate (Sar-ah-sah'-tay) 
de Segurola (Say-goo-roh'-lah) 
Destinn (Dess'-tinn) 



392 



Pronunciation 



Don Carlos (Don Kahr'-los) 

Don Giovanni (Don Jh-vahn'-nee) 

Donizetti (Don-i-tzet'-tee) 

Don Juan (DonHuahng') 

Don Pasquale (Don-Pahss-quah'-leh) 

Donne Curiose (Don-neh Koo-ree-oh'-seh) 

Drdla (Derd'-lah) 

Dubois (Du-bwah') 

Dukas (Du'-kah) 

Dvorak (Dvor'-zhalc') 

Eames (Aynz) 

Ein feste Burg (Eyn Fes'-tuh Boorg) 

Elgar (El'-gdhr) 

Elman (EU'-mahn) 

Elisir (['Amore(Ay-lee-seer' dam-oh'-reh) 

En Bateau (Ohn Bah-toe) 

Ernani (Ayr-nah'-nee) 

Exultate Juste (ETc-sool-tah'-tay 

Yoos'-tay) 

Fackeltanz (Fah'-Jcell-tahns) 
Falkenstein (Fal'-ken-sthine) 
Falstaff (Fahl-stahf) 
Farrar (Fah-rah) 
Faure (Fohr) 
Faust (Foivst) 
Favorita (Fah-voh-ree'-tah) 
Fedora (Fay-doh'-arh) 
Ferree (Fer-ray') 
Fidelio (Fee-deh'-lee-oh) 
Filiae Jerusalem (Feel'-yeah 

Yay-roo'-zah-lem ) 
Fille du Regiment (Fceyeh deu 

Raysh'-ee-mong') 

Flauto Magico (Flau'-toh Haj'-ee-koh) 
Flotow (Floh'-toh) 
Fornia (For'-nee-ah) 
Forza del Destine (Fort'-zah del 

Des-tee'-non} 

Fra Diavolo (Frah Deah'-voh-loh) 
Francesco (Frahn-chayss'-koh) 
Francois (Frahn-swah) 
Frank (Frahnlc) 
Franz (Frahntz) 
Freischiitz (Fry'-sJieutz) 
Gade (Gah'-deh) 
Galli-Curci (Gal-lee Kur'-chee} 
Galvany (Gahl-vah-nee) 
Gasparone (Gahs-par-oh'-neh) 
Gavotte (Gah-votf) 
Genee (Zheh-nch') 
Germania (Jaer-mah'-nee-ah) 
Gerville-Reache (Zlier-veel Ray-ahsh') 
Giacomelli (Jah-Jcoh-mell'-ee) 
Gialdini (Jahl-dee'-nee) 
Gilibert (Zeel'-ili-'bear) 
Gillet (Zhil-lay') 
Gioconda (Zhoh-Jcon' -dah) 
Gluck (Glook} 



Giordano (Zhe-or-dah-no) 

Godard (Go-dahr) 

Gomez (Goh'-mez) 

Goritz (Go'-ritz) 

Gottschalk (Got'-shallc) 

Gounod (Goo' -noli) 

Granados (Grahn-ah'-dos) 

Grieg (Greffg) 

Grodski (Grod-sTcee) 

Griindf eld ( Greun'-feld) 

Guido (Gwee'-do) 

Guilmant (Geel-mohn') 

Halevy (Ah-leh'-vee) 

Hambourg (Halim-boorg) 

Handel (Hen'-dell) 

Hansel und Gretel (Haen'-zel oondt 

Gray'-tel) 

Hasselman (Hahs'-sel-mahn) 
Haydn (High'-dn) 
Hayden (Quartet) (Hay' -den) 
Heroique (Ah-roh'-eek') 
Herold (Ay'-rold) 
Herodiade (Ay'-rohd-yadd') 
Hippolyte et Aricie (Ip-pol-leef eh 

Ar-ee-see) 
Hubay (Oo-by) 
Hugenots, Les (Lay Oog'-noh') 
Huguet (Oo-geh') 
Humperdink (Hoom'-per-dinlc') 
II Guarany (El Gair-ah-nay) 
II Pensieroso (ElPen-see-ay-roli'-soli) 
Inflammatus (In-flah-mah'-toos') 
Intermezzo (Inter-med'-so) 
Iphigenia in Aulis (Ee-fee-zhay'-nee-ah 

in Au'-liss) 
Iris (Ee-ris) 
Isolde (E-sol'-duh) 
Jadlowker (Y ad-loaf -her) 
Jakobowski (Yah-lcoh-boff'-skee') 
Jensen (Yen' -sen} 
Joachim (Yo-ahJc-im) 
Jocelyn (Joss'-lin) 
Jolie Fille de Perth (Zho-lee' Feey-duh ' 

Pairt) 

Jomelli (Yo-mel'-ee) 
Jongleur (Zhon-gleur') 
Joseffy (Yo-sef'-fee) 
Josquin Depres (Zhos-Tcan' Duh-pray) 
Journet (Zhur-nay) 
Judas Maccabaeus (You'-dahss 

Mali-lcah-'bay'-uliss) 
Juive, La (Lah-Zhoo-eev') 
Kamarinskaia (Kah-mahr-ins-Tcah'-yah) 
Kammenoi Ostrow (Kahm'-ayn-ohr 

Oss-troh'-roh) 
Kjerulf (Kyer'-oolf) 
Kb'nigskinder (Kuhnigs-Jcin-der) 
Kreisler (Krice'-ler) 



393 



Pronunciation 



Kubelik (Koo'-beh-leeTc) 

Lakme (Laic -may") 

Lalo (Lah-low') 

La Juive (Lah Zhoo-eev') 

Lecocq (Le-coke') 

Lemmone (Lem-mo'-neh) 

Leoncavallo (Lay-ohn-kah-vahl'-low) 

Liebesfreud (Lee'-bess-froyd) 

Liebestraum (Lee'-bes-troum) 

Linda Mia (Lin'-dah Mee'-ahq 

L'Isle, de (Duh-Leel') 

Liszt (List) 

Loewe (Luh'-vuh) 

Lohengrin (Loll' -en- grin') 

Lombard! (Lohm-bar-dih) 

Lucia (Loo-chee'-ah) 

Lucrezia Borgia (Loo-krez'-yah Bor'-jah) 

Lully (Luh'-lee) 

Maggini (Mad-jee'-nee) 

Mandolinata, La (Lah Man-doh-lee- 

nah'-tah) 

Manon Lescaut (Man-on' Les-koh') 
Marseillaise (Mahr-say-yais') 
Martinelli (Mar-tin- el-lih) 
Martucei (Mahr-tootch'-ee) 
Masaniello (Mah-san-nyel'-loh) 
Mascagni (Mas-kahn'-yee) 
Mascotte (Mas-hot' or Mas'-kot) 
Masse (Mah-say') 
Massenet (Mass'n-nay') 
Matzenauer (Mahts'-en-auer) 
Mazurka (Mah-zoor'-Tcah} 
Mefistofele (May-phee-stoh'-feh-leh) 
Meistersinger (My'-ster-zinger) 
Mendelssohn (Men'-d'lsohn) 
Mentra Gwen (Men'-trah Gven') 
Meyer (My'-er-baer) 
Michailowa (Mee-hay'-lo-wah) 
Mignon (Meen-yon') 
Mikado (Mi-kah 1 -doh) 
Mileri (Mee-ler'-ee) 
Minolfi (Meen-ol'-fee) 
Mirella (Mih-rel'-lah) 
Molodka (Moh-lod'-kah) 
Monteverde (Mon-teh-vair'-dee) 
Moscheles (Mosh'-eh-les) 
Moszkowski (Mos-koff'-skee) 
Mozart (Moh'-tsart) 
Natoma (Nah-toh'-mah) 
Nicholai (Nee-koh-lie) 
Niebelung (Nee'-bel-oong) 
Norma (Nor'-mah) 
Nozze di Figaro (Not-zeh dee Fee- 

gahr-oh) 

Oberon (Oh'-ber-on) 
Offenbach (Of'-fen-bahk) 
Offertorio e communione (Of-fer-toh'-re- 
oh ay com-moo-nee-oh'-nah) 



Orfeo ed Euridice (Or-feh'-oh ayd 

Ay-oo-ree-dee'-cheh) 
Orientale (Oh-rohn-tahV) 
O sole mio (Oh-soh'-lay mee'-oh*) 
Otello (Oh-tel'-loh) 
Ottoboni (Ot-to-bo'-ni) 
Oxdansen (Oks'-dan-zen) 
Paderewski (Pad-er-ef'-skee) 
Paganini (Pahg-ah-nee'-nee) 
Pagliacci (Pahl-yat'-chee) 
Paladilhe (Pa-lah-dee'-leh) 
Palestrina (Pah-les-tree'-nah) 
Paoli (Pah'-oh-lee) 
Parsifal (Par'-see-fahl) 
Pasquale (Pahs-quah'-lay) 
Peer Gynt (Pair Gint) 
Pergolesi (Pair-go-lay' '-zy) 
Pescatori di Perle (Pes-kah-toh'-ree dee 

Pairl) 

Pessard (Pes-sar'} 
Philemon et Baucis (Fee-lay-mohn' ay 

Bow-sees') 
Pierne (Py air -nay'} 
Pietro Deiro (Peay'-troh Deer'-o) 
Pini-Corsi (Pee-nee-Kor-sih) 
Pinsuti (Pin-soo'-tee) 
Pique Dame (Peek Dahm) 
Plan^on (Plahn'-sohn') 
Ponchielli (Pohn-kee-ell'-ee) 
Porpora (Por'-poh-rah) 
Preve (Pray'-veh) 
Prophete (Pro-feh'f or Proph'-et) 
Puccini (Poo-chee'-nee) 
Puritani (Poo-ree-tah'-nee) 
Pythagoras (Pi-thag'-o-ras) 
Rachmaninoff (Eakh-mah'-neeh-noff) 
Eakoczy (Rah-koh' tshee) 
Eameau (Bah-moh') 
Eecitative (Eay-sce-ta-teef) 
Reger (Eay'-ger) 
Regina di Saba (Eay-jee'-nah dee 

Sah'-bah) 

Rienecke (Bye'-neck-eh) 
Reiss (Bice) 
Reitz (Bights) 
Remenyi (Beh-men'-yee) 
Rheingold (Eine'-goldt) 
Rigoletto (Eig-oh-let'-toh) 
Rimsky-Korsakoff (Bim'-skee Kor- 

sa'-kof) 

Rinaldo (Bee-nahl'-doh) 
Robert le Diable 

(Boh-ber leli Dee-ah'-bl) 
Roi de Lahore (Booah'-duh Lah-ohr') 
Rossini (Eos-see 1 -nee) 
Rothier (Boh-teay) 
Rubenstein (Boo'-bin-sthine) 
Ruffo (Buff'-oh) 



394 



Pronunciation 



Sachs (Sahks) 
Safranek (Sahf'-rahn-ek) 
Saint-Saens (Sahn-Sohns') (nasal) 
Sakuntala (Sak-koon'-tah-lah) 
Sala (Sah'-lah) 
Salome (Sal-oh-may) 
Sammarco (Sahm-mar'-koh) 
Samson et Dalila (Sam-sohn' ay 

Dah-lee-lah') 

Sangiorgi (Sahn-jor'-jee) 
Sarasate (Sar-ah-sah'-tay) 
Sassoli (Sass'-oh-li) 
Scharwenka (Shar-ven'-ka) 
Scheherazade (Shay-hay-rah-tsah-deh) 
Scherzo (Shair'-tsoh) 
Schubert (Shoo'-bairt) 
Schumann (Shoo'-mahn) 
Schumann-Heink (Shoo'-man-Hynk') 
Schiitz (Shuhts) 
Scipioni (Shee-pee-oh'-nee) 
Scotti (Scot-tee) 
Segreto di Suzanna (Seh-gray'-toh dee 

Soo-san'-nah) 
Segurola (See " de Seg. ") 
Sembrich (Zem'-brihk) 
Semiramide (Seh-mee-rahm'-ee-deh) 
Sgambati (Sgam-bah'-tee) 
Siegfried (Zeeg'-freed) 
Sillich (Sil' -UK) 
Silcher (Zill'-hlcer) 
Sirota (Zee-roll' -tali) 
Slezak (Slay'-zahk) 
Smetana (Smay-tah'-nah) 
Soderman (Zuh'-der-mahn) 
Sonnambula (Son-nahm'-boo-lah) 
Spindler (Shpind'-laer) 
Stabat Mater (Stah'-baht Mah'-ter) 
Stradivarius (Strah-dee-vah-re-us) 
Strauss (Strouss) 
Suicidio (So-ee-chee'-de-oh) 
Suppe (Soup-pay) 
Svendsen (Svent'-sen) 
Tamagno (Tah-mahn'-yoh) 
Tambourin (Tahm-boor-ahn') 
Tannhauser (Tahn'-hoy-scr) 
Tetrazzini (Tet-trah-tsee'-nee) 
Thais (Tah-eece 1 ) 
Thibaut (Tee' -bo) 
Thomas (To-mah) 
Thome (Toe-may') 



Titl (Tee'-tl) 
Toreador et Andalouse 

(Toy-ray-ali-dor' ay Ahn-dah-loose') 
Tosca (Toss'-Jcah) 
Toscanini (Tos-kan-nee'-nee) 
Traumerei (Troy-muh-rye') 
Trentini (Tr en-tee' -nee) 
Traviata ( Tra-veeah'-tah) 
Trovatore (Troh-vah-tohr'-eh) 
Tschaikowsky (Chi-koff'-skee) 
Ugonotti (Oo-goh-not'-tee) 
Vails (Falls) 
Vanka (Vahn-Jcah) 
Van Rooy ( VaTnn Roy') 
Verdi (V air' -dee) 
Vespri-Siciliani ( Ves'-pree See-chee-e- 

a'-nee) 

Vessella ( Ves-sel'-lah) 
Viafora (Vee-ah-fohr'-ah) 
Vieuxtemps (Vyuh-tohn') 
Vivandiere (Vee-valin-deair') 
Voce di Primavera 

(Voh'-tshay dee Pree-mah-vay'rah) 
Vogel als Prophet 

Foh'-gell ahlss Proh-fate') 
von Suppe ( Von Soo-pay) 
Wagner (Valig'-ner) 
Waldteufel (Vahld'-toi-fell) 
Walkiire ( Vahl-Jceuh'-ruh) 
Wartburg (Vart'-boorg) 
Weber (Vay'-ber) 
Weimar (Vy'-mar) 
Werther (Vear'-ter) 
Wieniawski (Vee-en-yaff'-sTcee) 
Wilhelm (V ill-helm) 
Wilhelmj (Veel-hel'-mih ) 
Willaert (Veel'-ehrt) 
Wolf (Vohlf) 

Wolf -Ferrari ( Vohlf -Fair-ah'-ree) 
Xerxes (Zehr'-sehz) 
Yradier (Ee-rah-deay') 
Ysaye (E-sah'-ee) 
Zabel (T sail' -bell) 
Zaccaria (Zak-kah-ree'-ah) 
Zaza (Zah'-zah) 
Zephir (Tsay'-fear) 
Zerola (Zer'-o-lah) 
Ziehrer (Tse'-rer) 
Zimbalist (Zim'-bal-ist) 



395 



Index of Choruses Suggested 



Page 

Adoramus Te (Palestrina) 64 

All That's Good and Great (Spanish) 37 
All Through the Night (Welsh) 

24, 30, 54 

Aloha-oe (Hawaiian) 16 

Almighty Lord Prayer from ' ' Caval- 

leria Eusticana" (Mascagni) 141 

Amaryllis (Ghys) 24, 64 

America 28 

And the Glory of the Lord/ ' Messiah ' ' 

(Handel) 202, 208 

Angel, The (Eubinstein) 119 

Annie Laurie (Scott) 56 

Antioch (Old Hymn) (Handel) 84 

Arise to the Good and the True 

(French) 40 

Ash Grove (Old Welsh) 57 

Auld Lang Syne (Scotch) 30, 56 

Ave Maria (Gounod) 141 

Away with Melancholy (Mozart) .... 25 

Baal, We Cry to Thee, "Elijah" 

(Mendelssohn) 141, 220 

Ballade of Jeanne d'Arc (Old French) 64 

Barbara Allen (Old English) 30, 58 

Barcarolle (Brahms) 18 

Barcarolle (Neapolitan) 35 

Battle Hymn of the Hussites (Bohe- 
mian) 42 

Believe Me If All Those Endearing 

Young Charms (Moore) 15, 52 

Bell Doth Toll, The (French Eound) . 40 

Bells of Aberdovey (Old Welsh) 25 

Ben Bolt (Kneass) 18 

Bendemeer's Stream (Moore) 52 

Blacksmith, The (Brahms) 117 

Blacksmith, The "Marriage of 

Figaro ' ' (Mozart) 94, 213 

Blow, Gentle Gales (Bishop) 131 

Blue Danube Waltz (Strauss) 141 

Boat Song, ' ' Oberon ' ' (von Weber. . . 104 
Boat to Cross the Ferry (Old English) 

24, 58 

Bosnian Shepherd's Song (Hun- 
garian) 33, 44 

Brabanc.onne, La (Belgian) 32 

Bridal Chorus, "Lohengrin" (Wag- 
ner) 114, 228 

Bridal Chorus, "Cavalleria Eusti- 
cana" (Mascagni) 129 

Broken Eing, The (Gluck) . . 91, 212 

Brooklet In the Wood (Eheinberger) .125 
Butterfly, The (Old French) 64 



Page 

By Babylon 's W T ave (Gounod) 141 

By the Moon's Pale Light (Old 

French) 40 

By Peaceful Hearth, "Die Meister- 

singer ' ' (Wagner) 114 

Campbells are Coming, The (Scotch). 56 
Canst Thou Count the Stars? (Ger- 
man) 41 

Captive (From Art Songs) (Handel). 84 

Cavalry Catch (Sibelius) ] 21 

Chalet Girls' Sunday (Ole Bull) 121 

Chorale (Michael Praetorius, 1586- 

1610) 64 

Chorale (Johann Gruger) 64 

Chorus from Finale, ' ' Lucia di Lam- 

mermoor" (Donizetti) 222 

Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean 30 

Come, O Creator (Beethoven) 97 

Come Unto Him, "The Messiah" 

(Handel) 87 

Come Unto These Yellow Hills (Eng- 
lish) 58 

Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming 

(Foster) 61 

Come, Ye Disconsolate (von Weber) . .218 

Comin' Thro' the Eye (Scotch) 56 

Country Wedding, The (Bohemian 

Folk Song) 42 

Cradles, The (Gabriel Faure) 127 

Cradle Song (Favorite of Jenny Lind) 

(Swedish) 50 

Cradle Song (Schubert) 100 

Cuckoo, You Sing So Clear (German) . 41 

Daisies, The (Catalan Folk Song) 37 

Dannebrog, The (Denmark) 33 

Darky Lullaby ( ' ' Humoresque ' ' ) 

(Dvorak) ..123 

Daybreak (Faning) 141 

Devotion (Arranged from "Cavalleria 

Eusticana") (Mascagni) 129 

Dove, The (La Paloma) (Yradier) . . 142 
Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes 

(Old English) 24, 58 

Early to Bed (Old French Eound) ... 40 
Ebb and Flow (Norwegian Folk Song) 48 

Elegie (Massenet) 127 

Estudiantina (Lacome) 141 

Evening Hymn of St. Ambrose 

(Piericini) 64 

Evening Star (Vincent D'Indy) 127 



396 



Index of Choruses Suggested 



Page 

Fading, Still Fading (Portuguese) ... 37 
Far Above Us Sails the Heron 

(Hungarian) 44 

Far In the Woods in May (H. Parker) 143 
Farewell To the Forest (Mendelssohn) 104 
Father, Hear the Prayer We Offer 

(Mozart) 94 

Father of Victory (French) 27, 40 

Ferns, The (Humperdinck) 125 

Fisherman's Song (H. Parker) 28 

Fleecy Clouds (Minuet in G) 

(Beethoven) 97 

Flight Into Egypt (Berlioz) 105 

Flow Gently, Sweet Afton (Scotch). . 56 
Folk Song, "Hansel and Gretel " 

(Humperdinck) 115 

Forget Me Not (Bach) 89 

Forth to the Battle (Welsh) 54 

From the Depths of Swedish Hearts . . 50 

Garibaldi Hymn (Italian) 35 

Gloria' ' Twelfth Mass ' ' (Mozart) . . 141 

Gloria Patri (Palestrina) 64 

God of All Nature (Tschaikowsky) . .119 

Go Forsake Me (Mozart) 94 

God for Poland 47 

God Save the King (English) 58 

Good Night, "Martha" (Flotow) 235 

Good Night (Reger) 125 

Grasses Green Are Growing (Cui) ... .119 

Greeting (Brahms) 117 

Gypsy Chorus, "Bohemian Girl" 

(Balfe) 235 

Gypsies' Song, The (Beethoven) 216 

Haakon's Cradle Song (Grieg) 48 

Habanera, "Carmen" (Bizet) 115 

Hail, Bright Abode, ' ' Tannhauser ' ' 

(Wagner) 228 

Hallelujah Chorus, "Messiah" (Han- 
del) 208 

Hark, Hear the Drums Beat, ' ' Barber 

of Seville" (Rossini) 216 

Harp That Once Thro' Tara's Halls 

(Irish) 52 

Harvester, The (Old Russian) 46 

Heart Bowed Down, The, ' ' Bohemian 

Girl" (Balfe) 235 

Hear Me, Normal "Norma" (Bel- 
lini) 222 

Hear My Prayers (Palestrina) 64 

Heavens Resound, The (Beethoven) 

97, 216 

Help Us, Lord (Bach) 89 

Here's Good Wind (French-Canadian) 40 
He, Watching Over Israel, "Elijah" 
(Mendelssohn) 220 



Page 

Highlands, The (Boieldieu) 110 

Highland Cradle Song (Schumann) ... 104 
Holy Night (German Christmas 

Hymn) 41 

Home, Sweet Home (Payne-Bishop) . . 18 

Horn, The (Old Swedish) 50 

How Can I Leave Thee! (Old Ger- 
man) 41 

How Lovely Are the Messengers, ' ' St. 

Paul" (Mendelssohn) 141, 202, 220 

Hungary's Treasure (Hungarian) .... 44 

Hunter and the Lion (French) 40 

Hunting Song, "Freischutz" (von 

Weber) 218 

Hymn of the Slavs (Bohemian) 42 

Hymn to Music (Cesar Franck) 127 

I Am a Fowler, ' ' Magic Flute ' ' 

(Mozart) 213 

I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls, 

"Bohemian Girl" (Balfe) 131 

Iiiflammatus, "Stabat Mater" (Ros- 
sini) 216 

In Autumn (Gade) 121 

Indian Song, "Aha, Hiaha" (Dakota 

Tribe) 33 

In His Little Cradle (Cesar Franck) . . 127 

In Old Madrid (Trotere) 16, 141 

In the Boat (Grieg) 121 

Italian National Hymn 35 

Italian Hymn (Giardini) 35 

Jerusalem, "Gallia" (Gounod) 141 

Jolly Miller, The (English) 58 

Jutlandish Dance Song 24 

Keller's American Hymn 32 

King Christian (Danish) 50 

Knowest Thou the Land, ' ' Mignon ' ' 

(Thomas) 26 

Land of Light (Richard Strauss) 125 

Largo, "Xerxes" (Handel) 87 

Larghetto (Beethoven) 97 

Last Night the Nightingale Woke Me 

(Kjerulf) (Norwegian) 26, 48 

Lass of Richmond Hill (McNally) 

28, 58, 62 

Last Rose of Summer (Flotow). .52, 235 
Legend of the Bells, ' ' Chimes of Nor- 
mandy" (Planquette) 40, 235 

Lift Thine Eyes, "Elijah" (Mendels- 
sohn) 220 

Lift Up Your Heads (Gluck) 91, 212 

Light of the World (Old Swedish) ... 50 
Like as a Father (Cherubini) 110 



397 



Index of Choruses Suggested 



Page 
List the Trumpets' Thrilling Sound, 

' ' Huguenots ' ' (Meyerbeer) ... 110, 224 

Listen, Lordlings (Old English) 58 

Little Bingo (English) 58 

Loch Lomond (Scotch) 56 

Lord is My Shepherd, The 28 

Lord God of Abraham, "Elijah" 

(Mendelssohn) 220 

Lost Chord (Sullivan) 131 

Love's Old Sweet Song (Molloy) 19 

Low-Back 'd Car (Lover) 52 

Lullaby (Brahms) 117 

Lullaby (Schubert) 32 

Lullaby from "Erminie" (Jakobow-- 

ski) 26 

Maiden Song, A (Old Bohemian) 123 

Maiden's Wish (Spring Song) (Polish) 47 

Marche Lorraine (French) 40 

Marche Sambre et Meuse (French) ... 40 
March of Victory, "Aida" (Verdi) 

22, 115 

Margaret's Cradle Song (Grieg) 121 

Marseillaise (French) 32, 40 

Masaniello ( Auber) 110 

Massa Dear (Johnson) 61 

May Song (Polish) 47 

Melody in F (Rubinstein) 119 

Memorial March (Chopin) 108 

Men of Harlech (Welsh) 54 

Merry Life (Denza) 35, 141 

Miller's Wooing (Faning) 131 

Minnelied (Brahms) 117 

Minstrel Boy, The (Irish) 14, 27, 52 

Minuet (Mozart) 14, 94 

Molly Bawn (Irish) 52 

Morning Hymn (Beethoven) 216 

Morning Praise, ' ' Orf eo and Euri- 

dice" (Gluck) 91 

Morning Song, ' ' Samson et Dalila ' ' 

(Saint-Saens) 127 

My Dear Old Mother (Norwegian) ... 48 
My Faithful Johnny (Beethoven) ... 97 
My Heart's in the Highlands (Old 

Scotch) 56 

My Jesus, As Thou Wilt (von Weber) 

104, 218 
My Love Dwelt in a Northern Land 

(Elgar) 131, 141 

My Old Kentucky Home (Foster) 17 

My Salvation's Tower (Hebrew tune, 

sung at Feast of Judas Macca- 

baeus) 64 

National Air of Sweden (Charles John, 

Our Brave King) 50 

National Hymn of Norway 48 



Page 

Night Picture, A (Cesar Cui) 119 

Night Thoughts (Eeger) 125 

Now the Day is Over (Barnby) 14 

0, For the Wings of a Dove (Men- 
delssohn) 141 

Oer Tatra (Bohemian) 42 

Oh Dear, What Can the Matter Be? 

(English) 58 

O Hush Thee My Baby (Scotch) 32 

O, Italia, Beloved, "Lucrezia Borgia" 

(Donizetti) 110, 142, 222 

Olav Trygvason (Grieg) 121 

Old Black Joe (Foster) 61 

Old Dog Tray (Foster) 30 

Old Kentucky Home (Foster) 30 

Old Norway 48 

Old Oaken Bucket (Woodworth) 15 

On the Bridge at Avignon (Old 

French Round) 40 

Onward, Christian Soldiers (March) . . 15 

O Sole Mio (di Capua) 35 

O Thou, My Native Land (Hugo 

Wolf) 125 

O Thou Sublime Sweet Evening Star 

(Wagner) 142, 228 

Out On the Deep (Frederic N. Lohr) . 19 
Over Hill, Over Dale (Mendelssohn) .104 
Over the Summer Sea (La Donna e 

Mobile) ' ' Eigoletto ' ' (Verdi) 202 

O Worship the King (Haydn) 92 

Paloma, La (Spanish) (Yradier) . .22, 37 

Peasant Wedding (Sb'dermami) 121 

Penitential Hymn (Ancient Hebrew) . 64 

Pigtail, The 28 

Pilgrims ' Chorus, ' ' Tannhauser ' ' 

(Wagner) 228 

Piper, The (Bohemian Folk Song) . . .123 
Pirates ' Song, ' ' Pirates of Penzance ' ' 

(Sullivan) 235 

Plowing Song (Chadwick) 28 

Poets' Tomb, The (Gade) 121 

Polish Fatherland Song 47 

Polish National Song (Old Folk Song) 47 
Praise Ye the Lord (Saint-Saens) 127 

Recitative and Prayer, ' ' Otello ' ' 

(Verdi) 129 

Red Sarafan, The (Lwoff) (Russian) . 46 

Red, White and Blue (Shaw) 61 

Reuben and Rachel 61 

Robin Adair (Scotch) 32, 56 

Romance (Debussy) 127 

Rose's Complaint, The (Franz) 104 

Rule Britannia (Arne) 58 

Russian National Hymn (Lwoff).. 34, 49 



398 



Index of Choruses Suggested 



Page 

Sandman (Brahms) 117 

Santa Lucia (Italian) 35 

Scots Wha'Hae' (Old Scotch) (Burns) 

14, 33, 56 

Seeing Nellie Home (Fletcher) 61 

See, the Conquering Hero Comes, 

"Judas Maccabaeus" (Handel)... 87 

See What Grace (Gluck) 91, 212 

Serenade (Bohemian Air) 42 

Serenade, ' ' Fidelio ' ' (Beethoven) ... 216 

Seymour (von Weber) 218 

Sing, Smile, Slumber (Gounod) 142 

Skies Eesound, The (Beethoven). 101, 221 

Skylark, For Thy Wing (Smart) 25 

Sleep Holy Child (Old French Noel) . . 40 
Soldiers' Chorus, "Faust" (Gounod) 

142, 202 

Song of Rest (Bach) 89 

Song of a Thousand Years (Work) ... 61 

Song of the Pilgrim (Bach) 89 

Song of the Volga Boatmen (Old 

Russian) 46 

Song of Summer, A (Max Bruch) . . . .125 
Song of the Rhine Nymphs, ' ' Ring of 

Nibelungen" (Wagner) 114 

Soprano Solo, Act I, ' ' Daughter of 

the Regiment" (Donizetti) 228 

Spanish National Song ' 37 

Spinning Chorus, ' ' Flying Dutchman ' ' 

(Wagner) 114, 228 

Spring Song (Mendelssohn) 22 

Stars and Stripes Forever (Sousa) ... 30 

Star Spangled Banner (Key) 28, 64 

Stars of the Summer Night (Wolf- 

Ferrari) 129 

Sumer is Icumen In (Early English). 64 
Sun Smiles in Beauty, The (Old W r elsh 

Air- Ash Grove) 54 

Sun Upon the Lake is Low (Sibelius). 121 
Swan, The, "Lohengrin" (Wagner). 228 

Sweet and Low (Barnby) 24 

Swing Low Sweet Chariot 16 

Swiss Battle Song, "William Tell" 

(Rossini) 216 

Tannenbaum (German Folk Song) ... 41 
Then You '11 Remember Me, ' ' Bohe- 
mian Girl ' ' (Balfe) 131 

Thou Art Like a Flower (Liszt) 108 

Thy Flow'ry Banks (O, Maiden Fair) 

"Huguenots" (Meyerbeer) 224 

To God On High (Ancient Church 

Tune) 64 

To Nature (Swedish Folk Song) 50 



Page 
Triumphal March ("Aida") (Verdi) 

22, 115 

Troika, The (Russian) 46 

True Happiness (Humperdinck) 125 

Tyrolese from ' ' Daughter of the Regi- 
ment ' ' (Donizetti) 222 

Unfold Ye Portals, ' ' Redemption ' ' 

(Gounod) 142 

Unto Thee Will I Sing (Bach) 89 

Vermeland (Swedish) 50 

Vesper Hour, The (Cesar Franck) . ..127 

Vikings, The (Faning) 131, 142 

Vow, The (Old German) 41 

Wake, O Sweet Rose (Schumann) . . . .104 

Waltz, ' ' Faust ' ' (Gounod) 142 

Wanderer, The (Schubert) 100 

Wanderer's Night Song (Rubinstein) .119 
War Song of the Normans (Ancient 

Tune) 40, 64 

War Song of the Hussites (Old Bohe- 
mian) 123 

Wearing of the Green (Irish) 33, 52 

Wedding March, "Lohengrin" (Wag- 
ner) 142 

We'll Touch the Strings to Music 

(Mandolinata) (Paladilhe) 15 

Welcome, Sweet Springtime (Rubin- 
stein) 18 

Welcome the Morning (Grieg) 131 

Wha'll Be King But Charlie? (Old 

Scotch) 56 

When Daylight 's Going, ' ' La Sonnam- 

bula" (Bellini) 222 

When Green Leaves Come (Bruch) . . .125 
Where is My Home? (Bohemian) .... 42 

Who is Sylvia? (Schubert) 100 

Whoopee Ti Yi Yo (Cowboy Song) ... 27 
Who Treads the Path of Duty 

(Mozart) 213 

Wi' a Hundred Pipers an A' (Old 

Scotch) 19 

Winter Hath Not a Blossom, The 

(Reinecke) 104 

Wild Rose, The (Schubert) 100 

Windlass Song (Elgar) 131 

With Flowers of the Best (Massenet) .127 
With Sheathed Sword, "Damascus" 
(Costa) 131 



Yankee Doodle. 



30 



Zion, Awake (Costa) 131 



399 



Index of Choruses Suggested 
Cantatas Suggested 



Page 

Building of the Ship 142 

Crusaders (Gade) 142 

Egyptian Princess (Vincent) 142 

Erl King's Daughter (Gade) 142 

Fair Ellen (Max Bruch) 142 

Gallia (Gounod) 142 

Hiawatha's Childhood (Bessie M. 

Whitely) 142 

Joan of Arc (Gade) 142 

King Rene 's Daughter (Smart) 142 



Page 
Lady of Shalott (Tennyson-Bendall) .142 

Melusina (Hoffman) 142 

Mikado (Sullivan) 142 

Peace Pipe (Frederick Converse) . . . .142 

Pinafore (Sullivan) 142 

Pirates of Penzance (Sullivan) 142 

Eobin Hood (De Koven) 142 

Rose Maiden (Cowen) 142 

Ruth (Gaul) 142 

Wreck of the Hesperus (Anderton) . . .142 



400 



Numerical List of Records Used Grouped 
According to Parts 



Part 


I 


64714 


74583 


35241 


61108 


M. til v 




64720 


74593 


35243 


61123 


16136 


35270 


64727 


74627 


35244 


63511 


16159 


35381 


64764 


74631 


35247 


63535 


16474 


35470 


64808 


74634 


35270 


63794 


16591 


35476 


64811 


74647 


35279 


64093 


16596 


35494 


64834 


74659 


35314 


64209 


16835 


35576 


64842 


85119 


35369 


64213 


16961 


35580 


64919 


87002 


35437 


64217 


17001 


35625 


64921 


87217 


35462 


64218 


17084 


35678 


64928 


87243 


35470 


64339 


17087 


45057 


65147 


87306 


35476 


64373 


17140 


45066 


65929 


87310 


35482 


64423 


17158 


45096 


65931 


87536 


35489 


64470 


17160 


45114 


68052 


87554 


35493 


64538 


17328 


45170 


69072 


87566 


35494 


64550 


17331 


55049 


70034 


88014 


35499 


64553 


17462 


55052 


72165 


88083 


35505 


64554 


17563 


55055 


72166 


88085 


35530 


64556 


17581 


55094 


72812 


88127 


35549 


64563 


17600 


55105 


74100 


88150 


35574 


64638 


17611 


63153 


74119 


88288 


35576 


64670 


17624 


63429 


74183 


88311 


35580 


64705 


17635 


63460 


74236 


88318 


35623 


64729 


17663 


63618 


74303 


88355 


35625 


64736 


17712 


64028 


74437 


88480 


35627 


64750 


17724 


64042 


74442 


88547 


35656 


64752 


17897 


64076 


74510 


88560 


35669 


64760 


17962 


64100 


74512 


88617 


35674 


64786 


17973 


64117 


74535 


89008 


35678 


64812 


18002 


64132 


74550 


89075 


35693 


64819 


18010 


64141 


74570 


89116 


45060 


64841 


18042 


64202 


74575 


92065 


45066 


64846 


18237 


64210 


74580 


95206 


45069 


64887 


18418 


64223 






45083 


64934 


18431 
18444 


64259 

64277 


Part 


II 


45092 
45170 


64935 
65928 


18446 


64292 


16777 


17793 


45186 


67201 


18519 


64320 


16980 


17815 


45187 


68339 


18577 


64398 


17290 


17870 


55041 


70080 


18598 


64403 


17548 


17897 


55044 


71001 


18627 


64491 


17582 


17917 


55051 


71023 


18674 


64556 


17634 


18123 


55059 


74118 


18727 


64557 


17703 


18173 


55072 


74130 


35075 


64562 


17725 


18314 


55075 


74131 


35159 


64586 


17745 


18418 


55094 


74163 


35247 


64663 


17760 


18440 


55105 


74260 


35265 


64693 


17771 


35148 


55108 


74275 



401 



Numerical List of Records 



74285 


81034 


45096 


74392 


64876 


88061 


74355 


87303 


55041 


74535 


64886 


88067 


74395 


87526 


55102 


74575 


64905 


88068 


74399 


87574 


55105 


74579 


64907 


88097 


74406 


88029 


55111 


74581 


64932 


88104 


74423 


88047 


55113 


74588 


64933 


88113 


74437 


88067 


64013 


74589 


68210 


88122 


74512 


88154 


64028 


74593 


68218 


88127 


74538 


88194 


64156 


74598 


68481 


88146 


74556 


88204 


64198 


74602 


70052 


88148 


74567 


88283 


64201 


74603 


70080 


88153 


74568 


88285 


64263 


74621 


74082 


88154 


74577 


88299 


64671 


74631 


74088 


88187 


74578 


88328 


64790 


74634 


74123 


88191 


74580 


88342 


64823 


74659 


74130 


88194 


74581 


88391 


64919 


74661 


74135 


88199 


74588 


88519 


64921 


74671 


74252 


88201 


74589 


88556 


64935 


74672 


74274 


88203 


74595 


88575 


67201 


74684 


74275 


88210 


74611 


88617 


70034 


74691 


74399 


88246 


74621 


89008 


74051 


76028 


74400 


88285 


74627 


89015 


74080 


76029 


74406 


88299 


74630 


89028 


74135 


76030 


74489 


88328 


74634 


89090 


74183 


87072 


74504 


88391 


74647 


89104 


74285 


88014 


74510 


88392 


74659 


92065 


74294 


88073 


74512 


88398 


74667 


95203 


74303 


88210 


74532 


88416 


74672 




74367 


89104 


74552 


88460 










74560 


88514 


Part 


III 


Part 


IV 


74567 


88519 


16047 


35244 






74599 


88575 


16371 


35265 


16398 


45069 


74602 


88582 


16474 


35268 


17624 


45078 


74603 


88599 


17133 


35269 


17703 


45083 


74618 


88613 


17174 


35320 


17718 


45092 


74651 


88617 


17216 


35369 


18123 


45133 


74671 


88618 


17611 


35437 


18173 


15186 


74672 


88625 


17623 


35452 


18314 


55041 


74684 


88627 


17691 


35462 


35000 


55044 


76031 


89008 


17717 


35464 


35075 


55048 


85042 


89015 


17815 


35482 


35148 


55051 


87002 


89028 


17917 


35489 


35170 


55060 


87017 


89040 


17964 


35499 


35265 


55075 


87041 


89060 


18012 


35505 


35268 


55113 


87053 


89075 


18042 


35506 


35269 


63171 


87072 


89098 


18124 


35527 


35270 


64013 


87193 


89099 


18278 


35574 


35369 


64096 


87526 


89100 


18312 


35580 


35464 


64171 


87532 


89118 


18314 


35627 


35494 


64209 


88002 


89123 


18323 


35637 


35499 


64234 


88018 


89158 


18577 


35656 


35527 


64278 


88024 


92042 


18684 


35668 


35549 


64560 


88026 


92065 


35157 


35669 


35576 


64587 


88038 


95203 


35182 


35670 


35623 


64669 


88053 


96002 


35241 


35671 


35625 


64790 


88060 


96200 


35243 


45053 35678 


64802 







402 



Numerical List of Records Used 



16047 
16136 
16159 
16371 
16398 
16474 
16591 
16596 
16777 
16835 
16961 
16980 
17001 
17084 
17087 
17133 
17140 
17158 
17160 
17174 
17216 
17290 
17328 
17331 
17462 
17548 
17563 
17581 
17582 
17600 
17611 
17623 
17624 
17634 
17635 
17663 
17691 
17703 
17712 
17717 
17718 
17724 
17725 
17745 
17760 
17771 
17793 
17815 
17870 
17897 
17917 
17962 
17964 



17973 


35494 


61108 


64563 


69072 


18002 


35499 


61123 


64586 


70034 


18010 


35505 


63153 


64587 


70052 


18012 


35506 


63171 


64638 


70080 


18042 


35527 


63429 


64663 


71001 


18123 


35530 


63460 


64669 


71023 


18124 


35549 


63511 


64670 


72165 


18173 


35574 


63535 


64671 


72166 


18237 


35576 


63618 


64693 


72812 


18278 


35580 


63794 


64705 


74051 


18314 


35623 


64013 


64714 


74080 


18323 


35625 


64028 


64720 


74082 


18418 


35627 


64042 


64727 


74088 


18431 


35637 


64076 


64729 


74100 


18440 


35656 


64093 


64736 


74118 


18444 


35668 


64096 


64750 


74119 


18446 


35669 


64100 


64752 


74123 


18519 


35670 


64117 


64760 


74130 


18577 


35671 


64132 


64764 


74131 


18598 


35674 


64141 


64786 


74135 


18627 


35678 


64156 


64790 


74163 


18674 


35693 


64171 


64802 


74183 


18684 


45053 


64198 


64808 


74236 


18727 


45057 


64201 


64811 


74252 


35000 


45060 


64202 


64812 


74260 


35075 


45066 


64209 


64819 


74274 


35148 


45069 


64210 


64823 


74275 


35157 


45078 


64213 


64834 


74285 


35159 


45083 


64217 


64841 


74294 


35170 


45092 


64218 


64842 


74303 


35182 


45096 


64223 


64846 


74355 


35241 


45114 


64234 


64876 


74367 


35243 


45133 


64259 


64886 


74392 


35244 


45170 


64263 


64887 


74395 


35247 


45186 


64277 


64905 


74399 


35265 


45187 


64278 


64907 


74400 


35268 


55041 


64292 


64919 


74406 


35269 


55044 


64320 


64921 


74423 


35270 


55048 


64339 


64928 


74437 


35279 


55049 


64373 


64932 


74442 


35314 


55051 


64398 


64933 


74489 


35320 


55052 


64403 


64934 


74504 


35369 


55055 


64423 


64935 


74510 


35381 


55059 


64470 


65147 


74512 


35437 


55060 


64491 


65928 


74532 


35452 


55072 


64538 


65929 


74535 


35462 


55075 


64550 


65931 


74538 


35464 


55094 


64553 


67201 


74552 


35470 


55102 


64554 


68052 


74556 


35476 


55105 


64556 


68210 


74560 


35482 


55108 


64557 


68218 


74567 


35489 


55111 


64560 


68339 


74568 


35493 


55113 


64562 


68481 


74570 



403 



Numerical List of Records 



74575 
74577 
74578 
74579 
74580 
74581 
74583 
74588 
74589 
74593 
74595 
74598 
74599 
74602 
74603 
74611 
74618 
74621 
74627 
74630 
74631 
74634 
74647 



74651 


87303 


88083 


88288 


88625 


74659 


87306 


88085 


88299 


88627 


74661 


87310 


88097 


88311 


89008 


74667 


87526 


88104 


88318 


89015 


74671 


87532 


88113 


88328 


89028 


74672 


87536 


88122 


88342 


89040 


74684 


87554 


88127 


88355 


89060 


74691 


87566 


88146 


88391 


89075 


76028 


87574 


88148 


88398 


89090 


76029 


88002 


88150 


88416 


89098 


76030 


88014 


88153 


88460 


89099 


76031 


88018 


88154 


88480 


89100 


81034 


88024 


88187 


88514 


89104 


85042 


88026 


88191 


88519 


89116 


85119 


88029 


88194 


88547 


89118 


87002 


88038 


88199 


88556 


89123 


87017 


88047 


88201 


88560 


89158 


87041 


88053 


88203 


88575 


92042 


87053 


88060 


88204 


88582 


92065 


87072 


88061 


88210 


88599 


95203 


87193 


88067 


88246 


88613 


95206 


87217 


88068 


88283 


88617 


96002 


87243 


88073 


88285 


88618 


96200 



404 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Aa, Ola, Ola (Norwegian Folk Song) (63618) 48, 337 

Adieu du Matin, L' (Old French) (64223) 39 

Agnes, Beautiful Flower ("Fra Diavolo") (Auber) (63171) 248, 260 

Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) (Bizet) (88416) 256, 271 

Ah, fors e lui ("La Traviata") (Verdi) (88018) 237, 375 

Ah, Love But a Day (Beach) (35693) 139 

Ah, mon fils ("Le Prophete") (Meyerbeer) (88187) 224, 332 

Ah! Moon of My Delight (Liza Lehmann) (55059) 131, 319 

Ahlnoncredeamirarti (Could I Believe) ("Sonnambula") (Bellini) (74538) 110, 269 

Ah! vous dirai-je Maman (Old French) (72166) 39, 295 

Aida Celeste Aida (Verdi) (88127) 15, 19, 238, 375 

Aida Fatal Stone, The (Verdi) (89028) 115, 238, 375 

Aida Triumphal March (Verdi) (35265) 22, 163, 238, 375 

Ai nostri monti ("II Trovatore") (Verdi) (89060) 237, 375 

Air de la Lettre ("Cleopatre") (Massenet) (64587) 250, 326 

Air for G String (D Major Suite) (Bach) (35656) (55105) 26, 89, 187 

Allegro assai (Symphony in G Minor) (Mozart) (35489) 188, 336 

Allegro con brio (Symphony No. 5) (Beethoven) (18124) 147, 192, 266 

Allegro di molto (Surprise Symphony) (Haydn) (35243) 92, 188, 311 

Allegro, L' Come and Trip It (Milton-Handel) (18123) 87, 210, 307 

Allegro, L' Haste Thee Nymph (Milton-Handel) (18123) 87, 210, 307 

Allegro, L' Let Me Wander Not Unseen (Milton-Handel) (35623) ... .87, 210, 307 

Allegro Moderato a la Polka (Smetana) (74634) 42, 123, 190, 366 

Allegro Molto (Symphony in G Minor) (Mozart) (35482) 94, 188, 335 

Allegro, presto Finale (Fifth Symphony) (Beethoven) (35637) 192, 268 

Allegro (Quartet in E Flat) (Dittersdorf) (64671) 190, 286 

Allegretto (Third Symphony) (Brahms) (* ) ' 117, 165, 197, 273 

Allegretto Scherzando (Symphony No. 8) (Beethoven) (74661) 147, 269 

All Through the Night (Welsh Folk Song) (74100) 24, 28, 29, 54, 383 

Aloha Oe (Hawaiian) (18577) 33, 171, 311 

Altra Notte, L' ("Mefistofele") (Boito) (74651) 240, 273 

Amaryllis (Old French Rondo) (16474) 24, 28, 182, 293 

American Quartet Lento (Dvorak) (74611) 123 

America the Beautiful (Bates- Ward) (18627) 28, 383 

Amfortas' Prayer ("Parsifal") (Wagner) (74406) 114, 232, 383 

Andante Cantabile (Tschaikowsky) (74575) 22, 151, 372 

Andante (Fifth Symphony) (Beethoven) (35580) 26, 97, 150, 192, 267 

Andante (Italian Symphony) (Mendelssohn) (35452) 150, 193, 331 

Andante (Pastoral Symphony) (Beethoven) (35320) 151 

Andante ("Pathetic Symphony") (Tschaikowsky) (* ) 160, 199 

Andante (Quartet in D Major) (Mozart) (74579) 190, 334 

Andante (Surprise Symphony) (Haydn) (35243) 188, 311 

Andante (Symphony in F Major) (Beethoven) (35320) 151, 268 

Andante (Symphony in G Minor) (Mozart) (35482) 94, 188, 336 

Andante Vivance (Surprise Symphony) (Haydn) (35244) 188, 311 

Andrea Chenier Over the Azure Fields (Giordano) (88060) 245, 298 

And the Glory of the Lord ("Messiah") (Handel) (35499) 86, 208, 308 

Angelus, The ("Scenes Pittoresques") (Massenet) (35437) 127, 326 

An Irish Folk Song (Foote) (35693) 139, 291 

Anitra's Dance ("Peer Gynt Suite") (Grieg) (18042) 16, 305 

Anvil Chorus ("II Trovatore") (Verdi) (17563) 19, 374 

Aooah (Red Willow Pueblo) (18418) 60, 139, 320 

Apres-Midi d'un Faune, L' Prelude (Debussy) (35464) 153, 197, 252, 284 

*In preparation. 

405 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Armide Musette (Gluck) (18314) 91, 182, 212, 299 

Ase's Death ("Peer Gynt Suite") (Grieg) (35470) 16, 28, 121, 305 

Astri, mi Astri (Norwegian Folk Song) (63618) 48, 337 

Atalanta Come Beloved (Handel) (74504) 210, 308 

At an Old Trysting Place (MacDowell) (45187) 325 

At Dawning (Cadman) (45170) 139, 275 

At the Brook (Boisdeffre) (17600) 22, 28, 272 

Aubade Provengale (Old French) (64202) 39, 293 

Au Clair de la Lune (Old French) (72165) 39, 293 

Ave Maria (Bach-Gounod) (89104) 89, 149, 261 

Aw Horachmim (Hebrew) (17771) 68, 316 

Bacchanale ("Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) (74671) 160, 252, 354 

Back, Shepherds, Back ("Masque of Comus") (Milton-Lawes) (35549) ... 84, 205 

Ballet Music ("Orpheus") (Gluck) (74567) 212 

Ballet Music ("Rosamunde") (Schubert) (64670) 100, 356 

Barbara Allen (Folk Song) (* ) 29, 136, 288 

Barber of Seville Largo al factotum (Rossini) (88391) 110, 216, 350 

Barber of Seville Una Voce poco fa (Rossini) (88097) 216, 350 

Barcarolle ("Tales of Hoffman") (Offenbach) (87532) 235, 339 

Bartered Bride Overture (Smetana) (35148) 123, 233, 367 

Batti, batti, o bel Masetto ("Don Giovanni") (Mozart) (88026) 213, 334 

Battle Cry of Freedom (Root) (17582) 136 

Battle of Killiecrankie (Scotch) (17140) 33, 56 

Beautiful Evening, A (Beau Soir) (Debussy) (64934) 127, 284 

Been a' Listenin' (Negro Spiritual) (18446) 60, 336 

Bee, The (Francois Schubert) (64076) 25, 28, 358 

Bell Song ("Lakme") (Delibes) (74510) 18, 27, 248, 285 

Ben Bolt (Kneass) (88283) 135, 318 

Bendemeer's Stream (Moore) (64720) 52, 314 

Benediction of the Swords ("Les Huguenots") (Meyerbeer) (74275) ... 110, 224, 332 

Bergere Legere (Old French) (64223) 39, 293 

Birchos Kohanim (Benediction by the Priests) (Hebrew) (17771) 68, 316 

Birds of the Forest Gavotte (Adolfs) (16835) 25 

Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind (Shakespeare-Stevens) (17717) 156, 362 

Blue Danube Waltz (Johann Strauss) (74627) 14, 125, 368 

Boheme, La Farewell, Sweet Love (Puccini) (96002) 242, 345 

Boheme, La Musetta Waltz (Puccini) (64560) 242, 345 

Boheme, La Rudolph's Narrative (Puccini) (88002) 242, 345 

Bohemian Girl, The I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls (Balfe) (16398) . . 235, 263 

Bohemian Girl, The Then You'll Remember Me (Balfe) (16398) 235, 263 

Bonne Aventure, Le (Old French) (72166) 39, 295 

Boris Godounow Finale Act III (Moussorgsky) (76031) 233, 333 

Bourree and Gigue (D Major Suite) (Bach) (35669) 89 

Bridal Chorus ("Lohengrin") (Wagner) (35494) 21, 228, 383 

Bridal Song ("Rustic Wedding Symphony") (Goldmark) (35627) .. 125, 158, 197, 300 
But the Lord is Mindful of His Own ("St. Paul") (Mendelssohn) (88191) . . 220, 329 
By the Rushy Fringed Bank ("Masque of Comus") (Milton-Lawes) 

(35549) 84, 205, 319 

By the Weeping Waters (Lieurance) (18418) 16, 60, 139, 321 

By the Waters of Minnetonka (Lieurance) (18431) 15, 321 

Cantabi e di Scarpia ("Tosca") (Puccini) (88122) 242, 346 

Canto Amoroso (Sammartini) (74392) 187, 355 

Caprice Poetic (Liszt) (74589) 108, 179, 323 

Capricieuse (Elgar) (64760) 131, 288 

Carmen Habanera (Bizet) (88085) 15, 18, 271 

Carmen Toreador Song (Bizet) (92065) 15, 19, 28, 1 15, 202, 272 



*In preparation. 

406 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Carnival Remain Overture (Berlioz) (35241) 105, 158, 193, 271 

Caro mio ben (Giordani) (17718) 205, 298 

Casquette du Pere Bugeaud, La (Old French) (72166) , . 39, 296 

Casse Noisette (Nutcracker Suite) Danse Chinoise Danse des Mirlitons 

(Tschaikowsky) (45053) 157, 161, 169, 199, 373 

Casta Diva (Queen of Heaven) ("Norma") (Bellini) (88104) 222, 269 

Cavalleria Rusticana Intermezzo (Mascagni) (45186) 128, 244, 326 

Cavalleria Rusticana Opening Chorus (Mascagni) (68218) 244, 325 

Cavalleria Rusticana Regina Colli (Mascagni) (68218) 244, 325 

Cavalleria Rusticana Siciliana (Thy Lips Like Crimson Berries) 

(Mascagni) (87072) 153, 244, 325 

Cavatina ("Don Pasquale") (Donizetti) (74599) 222, 286 

Celeste Aida ("Ai'da") (Verdi) (88127) 15, 19, 238, 375 

Celoso, El (The Jealous One) (Alvarez) (64482) 37, 259 

Chanson Louis XIII and Pavane (Couperin-Kreisler) (64292) 24, 282 

Chant Negre (Kramer) (64736) 139 

Ch'ella mi creda (That She May Believe) ("The Girl of the Golden West") 

(Puccini) (64886) 242, 345 

Che fare senza Euridice ("Orfeo") (Gluck) (88285) 91, 212, 299 

Children's Corner, Study from (Debussy) See "Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum" 

Chorus and Dance (" Prince Igor") (Borodin) (45133) 233,273 

Chorus of Prisoners ("Fidelio") (Beethoven) (35576) 97, 216, 264 

Chorus of the Tartar Women ("Prince Igor") (Borodin) (45133) 233, 273 

Cielo e mar ("La Gioconda") (Ponchielli) (88246) 240, 343 

Clavelitos (Valverde) (87217) 37, 374 

Cleftopoula (Greek Mountaineer's Dance Song) (63535) 70, 304 

Cleopatre-Air de la Lettre (Massenet) (64587) 250, 326 

Come and Trip It ("L' Allegro") (Handel) (18123) 87, 210, 307 

Come Beloved (" Atalanta") (Handel) (74504) 210, 308 

Come raggio di sol (Caldara) (17703) 86, 208, 276 

Come Unto These Yellow Sands (Purcell) (Old English) (17724) 58, 363 

Come Wliere My Love Lies Dreaming (Foster) (64423) 135 

Comus Back, Shepherds, Back (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205 

Comus By the Rushy Fringed Bank (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Comus From the Heavens Now I Fly (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Comus Sabrina Fair (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Comus Sweet Echo (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Concertino for Clarinet (Von Weber) (35182) 160, 377 

Concerto for Harp and Flute (Mozart) (55111) 153, 334 

Concerto for Two Violins (Bach) (76028) (76029) (76030) 187, 261 

Coq d'Or, Le Hymn to the Sun (Rimsky-Korsakow) (64790) 160, 233 

Could I Believe (Ah! Non Credea Mirarti) ("La Sonnambula") (Bellini) 

(74538) 110, 269 

Coucou, Le (Daquin) (64919) 27, 179, 283 

Cracoviac (Polish Folk Dance) (18002) 47, 343 

Cracovienne Fantastique Paderewski) (74535) 47, 179, 339 

Cradle Song ("Hubicka") (Smetana) (64213) 123, 367 

Cradle Song (Swedish) (87566) 14, 31, 369 

Credo (lago's Creed) ("Otello") (Verdi) (88328) 115, 238, 376 

Crossing the Bar (Tennyson- Willcby) (74119) 26, 384 

Crusaders' Hymn (Traditional) (17725) 78, 297 

Cujus Animam ("Stabat Mater") (Rossini) (Trombone Solo) (35157) 166, 351 

Cujus Animam ("Stabat Mater") (Rossini) (Vocal) (88460) 220, 350 

Cygne, Le (The Swan) (Saint-Saens) (45096) 151, 353 

Dagger Dance ("Natoma") (Herbert) (55113) 169, 257, 312 

Dalila's Song of Spring ("Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) (88627) 252, 355 

Damnation of Faust Minuet des Follets (Berlioz) (35462) 105, 157, 193, 270 

Damnation of Faust Rakoczy March (Berlioz) (35462) 105, 193, 270 

407 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Damnation of Faust Serenade Mephistopheles (81034) 105, 270 

Dance of Greeting (Danish) (17158) 24, 283 

Dance of the Happy Spirits ("Orfeo") (74567) 91, 299 

Dance of the Hours ("La Gioconda") (Ponchielli) (55044) 240, 344 

Dances from "Henry VIII" Suite (Edward German) (35530) 131, 298 

Danny Deever (Damrosch) (35476) 15, 27, 139, 283 

Danse Chinoise ("Nutcracker Suite") (Tschaikowsky) (45053) 161, 169, 199 

Danse des Mirlitons ("Nutcracker Suite") (Tschaikowsky) (45053). . .157, 169, 199 

Danse Macabre (Saint-Saens) (35381) 14, 28, 353 

Dans les Bois (Paganini-Vogrich) (74395) 105 

Darling Nelly Gray (Hanby) (64729) 135 

Dead March ("Saul") (Handel) (16980) 87, 309 

Deh vieni alia finestra (Open Thy Window) ("Don Giovanni") (Mozart) 

(88194) 94, 213, 334 

Depuis le Jour (Ever Since the Day) ("Louise") (Charpentier) (74252) . . . 252, 278 
Der Freischiitz See " Freischiitz " 

Die Lorelei (Silcher) (88547) 41, 364 

Die Loreley (Liszt) (88204) 108, 324 

Die Walkure See "Valkyre" 

Dinorah Shadow Song (Meyerbeer) (74532) 224,331 

Dio possente (Even Bravest Heart) ("Faust") (Gounod) (88203) 247, 301 

D Major Suite Air (Bach) (35656) (55105) 26, 89, 187, 262 

D Major Suite Bourr6e and Gigue (Bach) (35669) 89, 262 

D Major Suite Gavottes (Bach) (35656) 89, 187, 262 

D Major Suite Overture and Dances (Bach) (35669) 89, 187, 262 

Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum (Study from "A Children's Corner") 

(Debussy) (64935) 127, 179 

Don Giovanni Batti, batti O bel Masetto (Mozart) (88026) 213, 334 

Don Giovanni Deh vieni alia finestra (Open Thy Window) (Mozart) 

(88194) 94, 213, 334 

Don Giovanni La ci darem la mano (Mozart) (89015) 94, 213, 334 

Don Pasquale Cavatina (Donizetti) (74599) 222, 286 

Douce Dame Jolie (Mauchault) (Troubadour) (45083) 78, 328 

Dove, The (Folk Song of Tuscany) (Italian) (64277) 31, 35, 314 

Dove, The (Welsh) (64764) 31, 54, 384 

Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes (Ben Jonson) (Celesta) (17691) 169 

Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes (Ben Jonson) (Vocal) (45114) 58, 289 

Drum Major's Air ("Le Caid") (Thomas) (85119) 19, 370 

Du, Du, Liegst mir im Herzen (German Folk Song) (87536) 41, 298 

Duel Scene (" Faust") (Gounod) (95206) 19, 300 

Duet of the Flowers ("Madame Butterfly") (Puccini) (89008) 18, 128, 242, 346 

Duet Pique Dame (Tschaikowsky) (89118) 233 

Duke of Marlborough (Old French) (17725) 78, 297 

Ecco purch' a voi ritorno ("Orfeo") (Monteverde) (17718) 205, 333 

Egmont Overture (Beethoven) (35493) 97, 264 

Eighth Symphony (Beethoven) See "Symphony No. 8" 

Eili, Eili (M. Shalitt) (Hebrew) (74577) 68, 316 

Eil Molei Rachmin (Hebrew) (17745) 68, 317 

Ein' Feste Burg (Luther) (16159) 41, 324 

El Celoso (The Jealous One) (Alvarez) (64482) 37, 259 

Elegie (Massenet) (88014) 26, 151, 326 

Elijah If With All Your Hearts (Mendelssohn) (74088) 202, 220, 328 

Elijah It is Enough (Mendelssohn) (74082) 220 

Elijah Oh, Rest in the Lord (Mendelssohn) (88288) 18, 328 

Elizabeth's Prayer ("Tannhauser") (Wagner) (88053) 228 

Elle ouvre sa fenetre (She Opens the Window) ("Faust") (Gounod) 

(89040) 247 

Elsa's Dream ("Lohengrin") (Wagner) (88038) 228, 382 

408 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Erl King (Schubert) (88342) 100, 356 

Ernani Ferma, crudele (Verdi) (35170) 237, 374 

Ernani O Sommo Carlo (Verdi) (35170) : . . 237, 374 

Espana Rapsodie (Chabrier) (74621) 127, 277 

Espoir que j'ai, L' (Jannequin) (45083) 78, 82 

Etude (Op. 10, No. 5) (Chopin) (74260) 108, 279 

Eugen Onegin Faint Echo of My Youth (Tschaikowsky) (88582) 233, 373 

Euridice Funeste piaggie (Peri) (55051) * 84, 205, 342 

Euridice Non piango (Caccini) (45069) 84, 205, 275 

Evangelist Fantasie (Kienzl) (68481) 254, 318 

Evening Star ("Tannhauser") (Wagner) (88154) 114, 228, 381 

Ever Lighter is My Slumber (Brahms) (64553) 117, 274 

Ever Since the Day ("Louise") (Charpentier) (74252) 252 

Exultate Justi (Gregorian) (61123) 73, 304 

Fackeltanz (Torch Dance) (Meyerbeer) (35505) 166, 332 

Faint Echo of My Youth ("Eugen Onegin") (Tschaikowsky) (88582) 233, 373 

Fais Dodo, Colas (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

Fantasie ("Evangelist") (Kienzl) (68481) 254, 318 

Farewell, Our Little Table ("Manon") (Massenet) (88146) 250 

Farewell, Sweet Love ("La Boheme") (Puccini) (96002) 242, 345 

Farewell to the Forest (Mendelssohn) (17216) 163, 328 

Fatal Stone, The Duet ("Aida") (Verdi) (89028) 115, 238, 375 

Faust Dio possente (Even Bravest Heart) (Gounod) (88203) 247, 301 

Faust Duel Scene (Gounod) (95206) 19, 300 

Faust Elle ouvre sa fenetre (She Opens the Window) (Gounod) (89040) . . 247 

Faust Jewel Song (Gounod) (88024) 247, 301 

Faust Prison Scene (Gounod) (95203) 115, 247, 301 

Fedora My Love Compels Thy Love (Giordano) (64905) 245, 299 

Ferma, Crudele ("Ernani") (Verdi) (35170) '. * 237, 374 

Festival at Bagdad Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakow) (74593) 27, 199, 349 

Festival Te Deum (Buck) (35674) * 139, 275 

Fidelio Prisoners' Chrous (Beethoven) (35576) 97, 216, 264 

Fifth Symphony Allegro con brio (Beethoven) (18124) 147, 192, 266 

Fifth Symphony Andante (Beethoven) (35580) 26, 97, 150, 192, 267 

Fifth Symphony Finale (Allegro, presto) (Beethoven) (35637) 192, 268 

Fifth Symphony Scherzo (Beethoven) (18278) 152, 192, 268 

Filiae Jerusalem (Gabrielli) (71023) 82, 297 

Finale Act III ("Boris Goudonow") (Moussorgsky) (76031) 233, 333 

Finale (Allegro, presto) Fifth Symphony (Beethoven) (35637) 192, 268 

Finlandia (Sibelius) (35505) 121, 364 

Fleeting Vision ("Herodiade") (Massenet) (88153) 250, 326 

Flying Dutchman Spinning Song (Wagner) (35494) 114, 228, 380 

Fountain, The (Ravel) (74659) 25, 27, 127, 179, 348 

Fountain, The (Zabel) (55102) 153, 385 

Four Penobscot Tribal Songs (18444) 60, 313 

Fra Diavolo Agnes, Beautiful Flower (Auber) (63171) 248, 260 

Freischutz Overture (Von Weber) (35000) 218, 377 

Freischutz Through the Forest (Von Weber) (45078) 218, 377 

Frere Jacques (Old French) (72166) 39, 296 

From the Green Fields ("Mefistofele") (Boi'to) (64933) 240, 273 

From the Heavens Now 1 Fly ("Comus") (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Funeral March (Chopin) (35157) 166, 280 

Funeste piaggie ("Euridice") (Peri) (55051) 84, 205, 342 

G Minor Symphony (Mozart) See "Symphony in G Minor" 

Gagliarda (Galilei) (74672) 84, 182, 205, 297 

Gamale Norge (Norwegian) (65929) 48, 338 

Garibaldi Hymn (Italian) (16136) 35, 314 

Gathering Peascods (English Folk Dance) (18010) 24, 58, 290 

409 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Gavottes D Major Suite (Bach) (35656) 89, 187 

Gavotte (Gre"try) (Violin) (64198) 182, 305 

Gavotte (Gretry) (Xylophone) (17917) 169, 305 

Gavotte (Mozart) (Xylophone) (17917) 169, 335 

Gavotte in E Major (Bach) (64132) 28, 261 

Gavotte (Gluck) (74618) 212, 300 

Germania Students Arise (Franchetti) (87053) 245, 292 

Get On Board (Negro Spiritual) (18446) 60 

Gianni Schicchi O mio babbino caro (Oh My Beloved Daddy) (Puccini) 

(64802) 242, 344 

Gioconda, La Cielo e Mar (Ponchielli) (88246) 240, 343 

Gioconda, La Dance of the Hours (Ponchielli) (55044) 240, 344 

Gioconda, La Voce di Donna (Ponchielli) (64876) 240, 343 

Girl of the Golden West, The Ch'ella mi creda (Puccini) (64886) 242, 345 

Gitana, La (Arabo-Spanish Gypsy Song) (arr. by Kreisler) (64842) 14, 37, 259 

Gloria Patri (Palestrina) (17548) 82, 341 

Gloria Twelfth Mass (Mozart) (35678) 21, 335 

Glory to God (" Messiah") (Handel) (35499) 86, 208, 309 

G Minor Symphony (Mozart) See "Symphony in G Minor" 

God in Nature (Beethoven) (63794) 97, 263 

Good Lord (Negro Spiritual) (18446) 60 

Good News (Negro Spiritual) (17663) 16, 336 

Good-Night (Bohemian Folk Song) (89116) 42, 272 

Gotterdamerung Siegfried's Funeral March (Wagner) (35369) . ..114, 166, 230, 379 

Goyescas Intermezzo (Granados) (35574) 128, 169, 303 

Grass Dance (Glacier Park Indians) (17611) 33, 171, 313 

Greatest Miracle of All (Wardall-Guion) (64887) 139, 306 

Greensleeves (Traditional) (17724) 58, 289 

Guide Thou My Steps "Les Deux Journees" (Cherubini) (55075) . . . 110, 216, 278 

Guitarre (Moszkowski-Sarasate) (64823) 149 

Habanera ("Carmen") (Bizet) (88085) 15, 18, 271 

Hail Columbia (Hopkinson-Phile) (17581) 60 

Hail to the Chief (Sanderson-Bach) (55052) 56, 362 

Hallelujah Chorus ("Messiah") (Handel) (35678) 21, 87, 202, 309 

Hamlet Monologo (Thomas) (92042) 248 

Han Mass Aan Lasse (Norwegian) (65931) 48, 338 

Han Ole (Norwegian) (65931) 48, 338 

Hansel and Gretel I am the Sleep Fairy (89100) 254, 312 

Hansel and Gretel Susie, Little Susie (89099) 254, 312 

Hansel and Gretel Witch's Dance (Humperdinck) (87526) 125, 254, 312 

Hard Times Come Again No More (Foster) (87303) 136, 291 

Hark! Hark! the Lark (Schubert) (64218) 100 

Harp That Once Thro' Tara's Halls, The (Irish Folk Song) (64259) 52, 314 

Haste Thee Nymph ("L' Allegro") (Handel) (18123) 87, 210, 307 

Have You Seen But a Whyte Lillie Grow (English) (64320) 58, 289 

Hear Me, Norma ("Norma") (Bellini) (Oboe and Clarinet) (17174) 156 

Heavens Resound, The (Beethoven) (35576) 21, 97 

Henry VIII Suite, Dances from (Edward German) (35530) 131, 298 

Hebrew Melody (Achron) (74568) 68, 317 

Her Blanket (Lieurance) (18418) 60, 139, 321 

Herodiade Fleeting Vision (Massenet) (88153) 250, 326 

He Shall Feed His Flock ("Messiah") (Handel) (88613) 202, 208, 308 

Heure Exquise, L' (Hahn) (64750) 127 

Hexenritt und Knusperwaltz ("Hansel and Gretel") (Humperdinck) See 

"Witch's Dance" 
Hiawatha's Wedding Feast Onaway! Awake Beloved! (Coleridge-Taylor) 

(55059) 131, 282 

410 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Hide Me From Day's Garish Eye ("II Pensieroso") (Milton-Handel) 

(35623) 87, 210, 307 

Highland Fling (Scotch) (17001) 56, 361 

Highland Schottische Weel May the Keel Row (Scotch) (17331) 29, 362 

Hold Thy Peace ("Twelfth Night") (17724) 58, 362 

Home (Bohemian Folk Song) (Destinn) (87310) 42, 272 

Home, Sweet Home (Payne) (88047) 135, 340 

Ho-yo-to-ho (Brunnhilde's Battle Cry) ("Valkyrie") (Wagner) (87002). .18, 230, 378 

Hubicka Cradle Song (Smetana) (64213) 123, 367 

Huguenots, Les Benediction of the Swords (Meyerbeer) (74275) 110, 224, 332 

Huguenots, Les Romanza ("Fairer Than the Lily") (Meyerbeer) 

(88210) 150, 224, 332 

Humoresque (Dvorak) (74163) 123, 287 

Hungarian Czardas (Cembalom) (17973) 44, 274, 313 

Hungarian Dance No. 5 (Brahms) (17973) (64752) 44, 117, 274, 313 

Hungarian Dance Nos. 20 and 21 (Brahms-Joachim) (74303) 44, 175, 274 

Hungarian Fantasie (Von Weber) (18684) 161, 377 

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (Liszt) (74647) 44, 108, 324 

Hymn of Charlemagne (Veni, Creator Spiritus) (Ancient Latin Hymn) 

(55072) 73, 278 

Hymn to St. John the Baptist (Church) (55072) 73, 281 

Hymn to Apollo (Ancient Greek) (35279) 70, 303 

Hymn to the Sun ("Le Coq d'Or") (Rimsky-Korsakow) (64790) 160, 233, 348 

I am the Sleep Fairy ("Hansel and Gretel") (89100) 254, 312 

I Attempt from Love's Sickness to Fly (Henry Purcell) (45092) 84, 205, 346 

I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls ("Bohemian Girl") (Balfe) (16398). . . . 235, 263 
If With All Your Hearts ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) (74088) 202, 220, 328 

II bianco cigno (Arcadelt) (17793) 82, 259 

II Pensieroso See "Pensieroso, II" 

II Pleut, H Pleut, Bergere (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

II Trovatore See "Trovatore" 

Improvisation on Old Hungarian Airs (17462) 44, 313 

Indian Lullaby (Lieurance) (64491) 31, 322 

Ingemisco Requiem Mass (Sadly Groaning) (Verdi) (88514) 256, 375 

Instruments of the Orchestra (35670) (35671) 145, 154, 156, 339 

Interludium in Modo Antico (Glazounow) (74667) 119, 299 

Intermezzo ("Cavalleria Rusticana") (Mascagni) (45186) 128, 244 

Intermezzo ("Goyescas") (Granados) (35574) 128, 169, 303 

Intermezzo ("Jewels of the Madonna") (Wolf-Ferrari) (35270). . . .35, 128, 245, 384 
Intermezzo ("A Midsummer-Night's Dream") (Mendelssohn) (35527). 161, 218, 330 

In the Garden ("Rustic Wedding Symphony") (Goldmark) (35627) 197 

In the Hall of the Mountain King (" Peer Gynt Suite") (Grieg) (18042). .16, 161, 305 

Intorno all' idol mio (Cesti) (45069) 84, 205, 277 

Invitation to the Waltz (Von Weber) (74598) 193, 377 

Invocation ("Magic Flute") (Mozart) (85042) 213. 335 

I Pagliacci See "Pagliacci" 

Irish Folk Song, An (Foote) (35693) 139, 291 

Irish Lilt (Irish Washerwoman) (17331) 52 

Irish Tune from County Derry (Arranged by Grainger) (17897) 52, 302 

Isolde's Love-Death ("Tristan and Isolde") (Wagner) (55041) . . . 114, 195, 231, 380 

I See You (Swedish) (17158) 24, 369 

Italian Symphony Andante (Mendelssohn) (35452) 150, 193, 331 

It is Enough ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) (74082) 22 

I Want to be Ready (Negro Spiritual) (18446) 60, 337 

J'ai du bon tabac (Old French) (72166) 39, 296 

J'ai encor un tel pate (de la Halle) (17760) 78, 372 

Jealous One, The (El Celoso) (Alvarez) (64482) 37, 259 

411 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Jewels of the Madonna Intermezzo (Before Act III) (Wolf-Ferrari) 

(35270) 35, 128, 245 

Jewels of the Madonna Rafael's Serenade (Wolf-Ferrari) (87193) 245 

Jewel Song ("Faust") (Gounod) (88024) 247, 301 

Jock o' Hazeldean (Scotch) (16961) 56, 361 

John Peel (Old English) (64928) 58 

Jongleur de Notre Dame Legend of the Sagebrush (Massenet) (74123) . . 250, 326 

Joseph Mine (Calvisius) (17870) 82, 276, 344 

Juanita (Norton) (64812) (18519) 60, 135, 337 

Judas Maccabaeus Sound an Alarm (Handel) (74131) 86, 308 

Juive, La Rachel! quand du Seigneur, etc. (Halevy) (88625) 222, 307 

Juliet's Waltz Song ("Romeo and Juliet") (Gounod) (74512) 15, 28, 115, 247 

Kamarinskaia (Russian Folk Dance) (17001) 46, 352 

Kamennoi-Ostrow (Rubinstein) (55044) 119, 352 

Kathleen Mavourneen (Irish) (74236) 31, 314 

King Christian (National Air of Denmark) (16591) 48, 283 

King Henry's Prayer ("Lohengrin") (Wagner) (64013) 163, 228, 382 

Kinonikon (Greek Church) (63511) 70 

Klappdans (Swedish) (17084) 50 

Kolebalnia (Russian Folk Song) (63153) 46, 352 

Kol Nidrei (Arr. Max Bruch) (Old Hebrew) (74355) 68, 125, 317 

Krakowiak (Polish) (63460) 47 

Kuu Home (Hawaiian) (18577) 33, 171 

Kyrie Eleison (Gregorian) (71001) 73, 304 

Kyrie Kekraxa (Greek Church) (63511) 70, 304 

L'Allegro See "Allegro" 
La Boheme See "Boheme" 

La ci darem la mano ("Don Giovanni") (Mozart) (89015) 94, 213, 334 

La Donna e Mobile (Woman is Fickle) ("Rigoletto") (Verdi) (87017) 237, 374 

La Gioconda See "Gioconda" 

La Juive Quand du Seigneur (Halevy) (88625) 222 

Lakme Bell Song (Delibes) (74510) 18, 27, 248, 285 

Lakme Vieni al contento (Delibes) (64171) 248, 286 

Lamb of God (Agnus Dei) (Bizet) (88416) 256, 271 

Lament for Charlemagne (Church) (Latin Chant) (55072) 73, 281 

L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune, Prelude See "Apres-Midi" 

Largo ("New World Symphony") (Dvorak) (74631) 22, 158, 199, 287 

Largo al factotum ("Barber of Seville") (Rossini) (88391) 110, 216, 350 

Largo ("Xerxes") (Handel) (88617) 28, 87, 210, 310 

Lark Now Leaves Its Wat'ry Nest, The (Parker) (74118) 139, 340 

Lass of Richmond Hill (McNally) (64100) 58, 290 

Lass With the Delicate Air, The (Arne) (64398) 58, 260 

Last Tears (Bohemian Folk Song) (87306) 42, 272 

La Traviata See "Traviata" 

Laughing Song ("Manon Lescaut") (Auber) (64669) 248, 260 

Le Caid Drum Major's Air (Thomas) (85119) 19, 370 

Le Coq d'Or Hymn of the Sun (Rimsky-Korsakow) (64790) 160, 233, 348 

Le Cygne See "Cygne, Le" 

Legend of the Sagebrush (" Jongleur de Notre Dame") (Massenet) (74123) . 250, 326 

Lend Me Your Aid ("Queen of Sheba") (Gounod) (64096) 247, 301 

Le Nil (Leroux) (89090) 127, 320 

Lento (American Quartet) (Dvorak) (74611) 123 

Leonore Overture No. 3 (Beethoven) (35268) (35269) 157, 164, 192, 216, 264 

Le Prophete See "Prophete" 

Les Deux Journees Guide Thou My Steps (Cherubini) (55075) 110, 216, 278 

Les Huguenots See "Huguenots" 

L'Espoir que j'ai (Jannequin) (45083) 78, 82, 316 

Let Me Wander Not Unseen ("L'Allegro") (Milton-Handel) (35623) . .87, 210, 307 

412 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Liebesfreud (Old Vienna Waltz) (45066) 41, 298 

Liebestraum (Liszt) (55094) 26, 108, 323 

Lieblicher Mond ("Rusalka") (Dvorak) (88519) 123, 233, 287 

Like a Shepherd (Kawokares Rohe Adre) (Hebrew) (17745) 68, 317 

Linda Mia (Spanish Folk Song) (64042) 37, 368 

Little Dustman (Brahms) (18440) 117, 274 

Little Firefly (Cadman) (64705) 139, 276 

Live a-Humble (Negro Spiritual) (17663) 16, 336 

Loch Lomond (Scotch Folk Song) (64210) 56, 361 

Lohengrin Bridal Chorus (Wagner) (35494) 21, 228, 383 

Lohengrin Elsa's Dream (Wagner) (88038) 228, 382 

Lohengrin King Henry's Prayer (Wagner) (64013) 163, 228, 382 

Lohengrin's Narrative ("Lohengrin") (74130) 114, 228, 378 

Lohengrin Prelude (Wagner) (* ) 195, 382 

Lo, Here the Gentle Lark (Bishop) (88073) 157, 271 

Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming (Praetorius) (17870) 82, 344 

Lorelei, Die (Silcher) (88547) 41, 364 

Loreley, The (Liszt) (88204) 108, 324 

Louise Depuis le jour (Ever Since the Day) (Charpentier) (74252) 252, 278 

Love, Thy Aid ("Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) (88201) 252 

Lucia Mad Scene (Donizetti) (88299) 110, 222, 286 

Lucia Sextette (Donizetti) (96200) 222, 287 

Lullaby (Brahms) (18440) 117, 274 

Madame Butterfly Duet of the Flowers (Puccini) (89008) 18, 128, 242, 346 

Madame Butterfly Un bel di vedremo (Puccini) (88113) 202, 242, 345 

Mad Scene ("Lucia") (Donizetti) (88299) 110, 222, 286 

Magic Fire Scene ("Valkyrie") (Wagner) (* ) 230 

Magic Flute Invocation (Mozart) (85042) 213, 335 

Magic Tones ("Queen of Sheba") (Goldmark) (87041) 254, 300 

Malaguena (Albeniz) (64846) 128 

Malbrouck (Old French) (72165) 39, 295 

M anon Farewell, Our Little Table (Massenet) (88146) 250 

Manon Lescaut Laughing Song (Auber) (64669) 248, 260 

Marche Hongroise (Rakoczy) ("Damnation de Faust") (Berlioz) (35462) 

105, 193, 270 

Marche Lorraine (Ganne) (64586) 29, 39, 296 

Marche Militaire Francaise (Saint-Saens) (35668) 164, 354 

Marche Slave (Tschaikowsky) (55105) 29, 119, 152, 161, 199, 373 

March Rakoczy (Berlioz) (68052) 31 

Maria, Mari (Neapolitan^ (88083) 31, 35, 285 

Marriage of Figaro Voi Che Sapete (Mozart) (88067) 94, 213, 335 

Marseillaise, La (de Lisle) (64693) 28, 322 

Martha Spinning Wheel Quartet (Flotow) (70052) 235, 291 

Masque of Comus (Milton-Lawes) See "Com us" 

Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground (Foster) (18519) (64638) 60, 136, 292 

May Pole Dance (English Folk Dance) (17087) 58, 290 

Mazurka No. 2 in A Flat Major (Op. 50) (Chopin) (64263) 179, 280 

Medicine Song (Glacier Park Indians) (17611) 33, 171, 313 

Meditation ("Thais") (Massenet) (74135) 147, 250 

Medley of Irish Jigs (18727) 52 

Mefistofele From the Green Fields (Boito) (64933) 240, 273 

Mefistofele L'Altra Notte (Boito) (74651) 240, 273 

Meistersingcr Prize Song (Wagner) (70080) 114, 232, 379 

Melody in F (Rubenstein) (45096) 14, 151 

Men of Harlech (Welsh) (72812) 54, 384 

Mentra Gwen (Welsh) (64141) 54, 383 



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413 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Menuet des Toilets ( Will-o'-the-Wisp) ("Damnation de Faust") (Berlioz) 

(35462) 105, 157, 193, 270 

Menuett (Gluck) (Bells) (17917) 91, 169, 334 

Menuett (Haydn) (64538) 92, 310 

Menuett (Mozart) (17917) 169 

Menuett (Handel) (64841) 87 

Menuetto (Quartet in C Minor) (Beethoven) (17964) 190, 264 

Menuetto (Surprise Symphony) (Haydn) (35244) 92, 188, 311 

Menuetto (Symphony in G Minor) (Mozart) (35489) 94, 188, 336 

Merci Clamant (Troubadour) (17760) 78, 371 

Mere Michel, La (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

Merry Wives of Windsor Overture (Nicolai) (35270) 235 

Messiah And the Glory of the Lord (Handel) (35499) 86, 208, 308 

Messiah Glory to God (Handel) (35499) 86, 208, 309 

Messiah Hallelujah Chorus (Handel) (35678) 21, 87 202, 309 

Messiah He Shall Feed His Flock (Handel) (88613) 202, 208, 308 

Messiah Pastoral Symphony (Handel) (35499) 86, 187, 208, 309 

Messiah The Trumpet Shall Sound (Handel) (74080) 164, 309 

Midsummer-Night's Dream Intermezzo (Mendelssohn) (35527) 161, 218, 330 

Midsummer-Night's Dream Nocturne (Mendelssohn) (35527) 165, 218, 330 

Midsummer-Night's Dream Overture (Mendelssohn) (35625) ... .27, 103, 218, 329 

Midsummer-Night's Dream Scherzo (Mendelssohn) (74560) 218, 329 

Midsummer-Night's Dream You Spotted Snakes (Mendelssohn) (55060) . 218, 330 
Midsummer-Night's Dream Wedding March (Mendelssohn) (55048) .... 330 

Mignon Polonaise (Thomas) (74489) 248 

Mignonette (Le Roux-Weckerlin) (64403) 39, 383 

Minstrel Boy, The (Irish Folk Song) (64117) 14, 28, 52, 314 

Minuet See "Menuet" and "Menuett" 

Minuet des Follets (Will-o'-the-Wisp) ("Damnation of Faust") (Berlioz) 

(35462) 105, 157, 193, 270 

Minuet (Paderewski) (16474) 28, 340 

Minute Waltz (Chopin) (64076) 28, 280 

Miserere ("II Trovatore") (Verdi) (Cornet and Trombone) (16371) 166, 374 

Mist'en 1'Aire, La (Old French) (72166) 39, 296 

Moldau, The (Smetana) (* ) 199, 366 

Molly on the Shore (Grainger) (74580) 22, 131, 302 

Molodka (Russian) (70034) 33, 46, 171, 353 

Molto Lento (Rubenstein) (35506) 147, 352 

Mon Coeur se recommande a vous (Orlando di Lassus) (17793) 82, 285 

Monologo ("Hamlet") (Thomas) (92042) 248 

Monologo ("Rigoletto") (Verdi) (88618) 237, 374 

Moonlight (Schumann) (64554) 103, 358 

Morning ("Peer Gynt Suite") (Grieg) (35470) 16, 121, 305 

Morgen (Morning) (Richard Strauss) (64339) 125, 369 

Morris Dance Henry VIII Suite (Edward German) (35530) 131, 298 

Moskow (Mother Moscow) (Russian) (65147) 46, 353 

Moto Perpetuo (Paganini) (74581) 105, 175, 340 

Musetta Waltz ("La Boheme") (Puccini) (64560) 242, 345 

Musette ("Armide") (Gluck) (18314) 91, 182, 212, 299 

My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice (''Samson et Dalila) (Saint-Saens) (88199) . . 252, 355 

My Heart Ever Faithful (Bach) (88575) 89, 208, 261 

My Love Compels Thy Love ("Fedora") (Giordano) (64905) 245, 299 

My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair (Haydn) (45092) 92, 310 

My Sweetheart Has a Rosy Mouth (Brahms) (63794) 117, 274 

National Airs of Sweden (16595) 50, 370 

National Hymn of Norway (Singing) (16596) 48, 365 



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Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Natoma Dagger Dance (Herbert) (55113) 169, 257, 312 

Xatoma -Spring Song (I List the Thrill of Golden Throat) (Herbert) 

(74274) 257, 311 

Navajo Indian Songs (O'Hara) (17635) 16, 313 

Na Wawel, Na Wawel (Polish) (63460) 47, 343 

New World Symphony Largo (Dvorak) (74631) 22, 158, 199, 287 

Nil, Le (Leroux) (89090) 127, 320 

Nina (Pergolesi) (64932) 210, 342 

Nobody Knows the Trouble I See (Negro Spiritual) (18237) 60 

Nocturne Midsummer-Night's Dream (Mendelssohn) (35527) 165, 218, 330 

Norma Casta Diva (Bellini) (88104) 222, 269 

Norma Hear Me, Norma (Bellini) (17174) 156 

Non piango e non sospiro ("Euridice") (Caccini) (45069) 84, 205, 275 

Norwegian Echo Song (Thrane) (64714) 31, 370 

Norwegian Mountain March (Folk Dance) (17160) 48, 338 

Nutcracker Suite (Tschaikowsky) See "Casse Noisette" 

O Cease Thy Singing, Maiden Fair (Rachmaninoff) (87574) 119, 347 

O Cessate di Piagarmi (Scarlatti) (17718) 205, 356 

Of a Tailor and a Bear (MacDowell) (18598) 27 

Offertorio e Communione (Gregorian) (61108) 73, 305 

Oh, Rest in the Lord ("Elijah") (Mendelssohn) (88288) 18, 328 

Oh Lord Most Holy Panis Angelicus (Franck) (74399) 127, 256 

Oh Sleep Why Dost Thou Leave Me ("Semele") (Handel) (74423) 87, 309 

Oh Star of Eve ("Tannhauser") (88154) 114, 228 

Old Black Joe (Foster) (74442) (18519) 29, 60, 292 

Old Folks at Home (Foster) (18519) 60, 292 

O mio babbino caro (Oh My Beloved Daddy) (" Gianni Schicchi") (Puccini) 

(64802) 242, 344 

Onaway! Awake Beloved! ("Hiawatha's Wedding Feast") (Coleridge- 
Taylor) (55059) 131, 282 

On the Road to Mandalay (Speaks) (35476) 139 

Onward, Christian Soldiers (Sullivan) (18627) 28, 369 

On Wings of Song (Mendelssohn) (74583) 26, 329 

Opening Chorus ("Cavalleria Rusticana") (Mascagni) (68218) 244, 325 

Orfeo Che faro senza Euridice (Gluck) (88285) 91, 212, 299 

Orfeo Dance of the Happy Spirits (Gluck) (74567) 91, 299 

Orfeo Ecco purch' a voi ritorno (Monteverde) (17718) 205, 333 

Orfeo Tu se' morta (Monteverde) (45083) 205, 333 

Orientale ("Kaleidoscope") (Cui) (45066) 119, 283 

Orpheus Ballet Music (Gluck) (74567) 212 

O Sole Mio (di Capua) (87243) 35, 315 

O sommo Carlo ("Ernani") (Verdi) (35170) 237, 374 

Otello Credo (Verdi) (88328) 115, 238, 376 

Otello We Swear by Heaven and Earth (Verdi) (89075) 19, 238, 376 

Otello Willow Song (Verdi) (88148) 238, 376 

Over the Azure Fields Aria ("Andrea Chenier") (Giordano) (88060) .... 245, 298 

Overture Bartered Bride (Smetana) (35148) 123, 233, 367 

Overture Carnival Remain (Berlioz) (35241) 105, 158, 193, 271 

Overture D Major Suite (Bach) (35669) 89, 187 

Overture ("Der Freischiitz") (Von Weber) (35000) 218, 377 

Overture Egmont (Beethoven) (35493) 97, 264 

Overture Leonore No. 3 (Beethoven) (35268) (35269) 157, 164, 192, 216, 264 

Overture Merry Wives of Windsor (Nicolai) (35270) 235 

Overture Midsummer-Night's Dream (Mendelssohn) (35625) 27, 103, 218, 329 

Overture Tannhauser (Wagner) (* ) 160, 380 

Overture William Tell Parts I, II (Rossini) (17815) 110, 145, 351 



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415 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Overture William TeU Parts III, IV (Rossini) (18012) 145, 164, 351 

Pagliacci Prologue (Leoncavallo (88029) 128, 244, 319 

Pagliacci Vesti la giubba (Leoncavallo) (88061) 244, 320 

Pagliacci Ye Birds Without Number (Ballatella) (Leoncavallo) (88398) . . 244, 320 

Paloma, La (Yradier) (88480) 31, 385 

Panis Angelicus (Oh Lord Most Holy) (Franck) (74399) 127, 256, 292 

Pa-pup-ooh (Lieurance) (18444) 60, 322 

Parsifal Amfortas' Prayer (Wagner) (74406) 114, 232, 383 

Passing By (Purcell) (64550) 84, 347 

Pastoral Symphony (Beethoven) (35320) 151, 268 

Pastoral Symphony ("Messiah") (Handel) (35499) 86, 187, 208, 309 

Pathetic Symphony Andante (Tschaikowsky) (* ) 160, 199 

Pearl of Brazil Thou Brilliant Bird (David) (88318) (74552) 25, 248, 284 

Peer Gynt Suite Anitra's Dance (Grieg) (18042) 16, 305 

Peer Gynt Suite Ase's Death (Grieg) (35470) 16, 28, 121, 305 

Peer Gynt Suite In the Hall of the Mountain King (Grieg) (18042) . . . 16, 161, 305 

Peer Gynt Suite Morning (Grieg) (35470) 16, 121, 305 

Peer Gynt Suite Solvejg's Song (Grieg) (55108) 121, 306 

Pensieroso, II Hide Me From Day's Garrish Eye (Milton-Handel) (35623) . 87, 210 

Pensieroso, II Sweet Bird (Handel) (17174) (88068) 156, 210, 308 

Pere de la Victoire, Le (French) (64557) 39, 296 

Pieta Signore (Stradella) (88599) 205, 368 

Pilgrims' Chorus ("Tannhauser") (Wagner) (17563) (17133) 19, 163, 381 

Pique Dame Duet (Tschaikowsky) (89118) 233 

Polish Dance (Arr. Zimbalist) (64562) 47, 385 

Polish Folk Songs (63460) 47 

Polonaise ("Mignon") (Thomas) (74489) 248 

Polonaise Militaire (Chopin) (35241) 108, 280 

Polonaise Op. 38 (Vieuxtemps) (64028) 28, 175, 376 

Pomp and Circumstance March (Elgar) (35247; 28, 131, 288 

Pont d' Avignon, Le (Old French) (72166) 39, 295 

Popule Meus (Palestrina) (17548) 82, 341 

Poupee Valsante (Waltzing Doll) (Poldini) (45170) 25, 343 

Pour mal terns (Thibaut of Navarre) (17760) 78, 372 

Praeludium (Jarnefelt) (18323) 158, 316 

Prelude C Sharp Minor (Rachmaninoff) (35625) 119, 347 

Prelude L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune (Debussy) (35464) 153, 197, 252 

Prelude ("Lohengrin") (Wagner) (* ) 195, 382 

Prelude (Op. 28, No. 24) (Chopin) (74260) 108, 280 

Prelude ("Tristan and Isolde") (Wagner) (68210) 231, 379 

Prince Igor Chorus and Dar.ce (Borodin) (45133) 233, 273 

Prince Igor Chorus of the Tartar Women (Borodin) (45133) 233, 273 

Prisoners' Chorus ("Fidelio") (35576) 97, 216, 264 

Prison Scene ("Faust") (Gounod) (95203) 115, 247, 301 

Prize Song ("Meistersinger") (Wagner) (70080) 114, 232, 379 

Procession, La (Cesar Franck) (88556) 127, 292 

Prologue ("I Pagliacci") (Leoncavallo) (88029) 128, 244, 319 

Promenade en Bateau (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

Prophet Bird (Vogel als Prophete) (Schumann) (74285) 103, 179, 360 

Prophete, Le Ah, mon fils (Meyerbeer) (88187) ., 224, 332 

Quartet Farewell Sweet Love ("La Boheme") (96002) 242, 345 

Quartet in C Minor Menuetto (Beethoven) (17964) 190, 264 

Quartet in A Minor Scherzo (Schumann) (74578) 103, 359 

Quartet in D Major Andante (Mozart) (74579) 190, 334 

Quartet in E Flat Allegro (Dittersdorf) (64671) 190, 286 

Quartet in F Major Scherzo (Beethoven) (17964) 190, 265, 266 



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Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Queen of Sheba Lend Me Your Aid (Gounod) (64096) 247, 301 

Queen of Sheba Magic Tones (Goldmark) (87041) 254, 300 

Quis est Homo Stabat Mater (Rossini) (89098) (89158) 220, 351 

Rachel! Quand du Seigneur ("La Juive") (Halevy) (88625) 222, 307 

Rafael's Serenade ("Jewels of the Madonna") (Wolf-Ferrari) (87193) 245 

Rakoczy March ("Damnation of Faust") (Berlioz) (35462) 1C5, 193, 270 

Redemption, The Unfold Ye Portals (Gounod) (35075) 28, 256, 301 

Regina Coeli ("Cavalleria Rusticana") (Mascagni) (68218) 244, 325 

Requiem Aeternam (from Mass in C Minor) (Cherubini) (55075) 220, 279 

Requiem Mass Ingemisco (Sadly Groaning) (Verdi) (88514) 256, 375 

Return of Spring (Schumann) (64217) 103, 360 

Reverie du Soir (Saint-Saens) (35668) 150, 354 

Ride of the Valkyries ("Die Walkure") (Wagner) (74684) (35369). 114, 147, 230, 378 

Rienzi Overture, Part I (Wagner) (74602) 195, 227, 377 

Rienzi Overture, Part II (Wagner) (74603) 195, 227, 377 

Rigodon de Dardanus (Rameau) (67201) 84, 182, 347 

Rigaudon (Monsigny) (64201) 182, 333 

Rigoletto La Donna e mobile (Verdi) (87017) 237, 374 

Rigoletto Monologo (Verdi) (88618) 237, 374 

Robins m'aime (Troubadour) (17760) 78, 371 

Roll, Jordan, Roll (Negro Spiritual) (18237) 60 

Romance for Oboe (Schumann) (18312) 158 

Romanza Andaluza (Sarasate) (74367) 175, 356 

Romanza ("Les Huguenots") ("Fairer Than the Lily") (Meyerbeer) 

(88210) 150, 224, 332 

Romeo and Juliet Juliet's Waltz Song (Gounod) (74512) 15, 28, 115, 247, 302 

Ronde des Lutins (Dance of the Goblins) (Bazzini) (74570) 27, 263 

Rosamunde Ballet Music (Schubert) (64670) 100, 356 

Rosary, The (Nevin) (45187) 139 

Rouet d'Omphaie (Saint-Saens) (* ) 197, 354 

Roumeliotica (Greek Mountaineer's Dance Song) (63535) 70, 304 

Royal March of Italy (Italian) (16136) '....' 35 

Rudolph's Narrative ("La Boheme") (Puccini) (88002) 242, 345 

Rusalka Lieblicher Mond (Dvorak) (88519) 123, 233, 287 

Rustic Wedding Symphony Bridal Song Serenade (Goldmark) (35627) 

125, 158, 197, 300 

Rustic Wedding Symphony In the Garden (Goldmark) (35627) 197 

Sabrina Fair ("Comus") (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205 

Sacrifice, The (Lieurance) (18444) 60, 322 

Salut d'amour (Elgar) (64373) 131, 288 

Sambre et Mouse, La (Turlet) (17712) 31, 343 

Samson et Dalila Bacchanale (Saint-Saens) (74671) 160, 252, 354 

Samson et Dalila Dalila's Song of Spring (88627) 252, 355 

Samson et Dalila Love, Thy Aid (Saint-Saens) (88201) 252 

Samson et Dalila My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice (Saint-Saens) (88199) . . 252, 355 

Samson et Dalila Spring Flowers (Saint-Saens) (17624) 18, 252, 355 

Santa Lucia (Italian Folk Song) (64663) (88560) 24, 28, 31, 315 

Saul Dead March (Handel) (16980) 87, 309 

Savez-vous Planter les choux (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

Scenes Pi Moresques The Angelus (Massenet) (35437) 127, 326 

Scheherazade Festival at Bagdad (Rimsky-Korsakow) (74593) 27, 199, 349 

Scheherazade The Young Prince and the Young Princoss (Rimsky- 
Korsakow) (74691) ' ". 199, 349 

Scherzo (Beethoven) (35506) 147, 265 

Scherzo (Dittersdorf) (74294) 182 

Scherzo Fifth Symphony (Beethoven) (18278) 152, 192, 268 

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Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Scherzo Midsummer-Night's Dream (Mendelssohn) (74560) 218, 329 

Scherzo Quartet in A Minor (Schumann) (74578) 103, 359 

Scherzo Quartet in F Major (Beethoven) (17964) 190, 265, 266 

Scotch Medley March (Bagpipes) (17140) 56, 361 

Scots, Wha' Hae' (Scotch) (16961) 56, 361 

Seguidilla (Albeniz) (64819) 128, 259 

Sellenger's Round (English Folk Dance) (18010) 24, 58, 290 

Semele Oh Sleep Why Dost Thou Leave Me (Handel) (74423) 87, 309 

Serenade Mephistophele Damnation of Faust (Berlioz) (81034) 105, 270 

Serenade (Drigo) (17600) 22 

Serenade ("Rustic Wedding Symphony") (Goldmark) (35627) . . . 125, 158, 197, 300 

Serenade (Schubert) (64093) 100, 356 

Serva Padrona, La Stizzoso mio Stizzoso (Pergolesi) (55051) 210, 341 

Seven Last Words of Christ, The (Schiitz) (18173) 86, 208, 360 

Sextette ("Lucia") (Donizetti) (96200) 222, 287 

Shadow Song ("Dinorah") (Meyerbeer) (74532) 224, 331 

Shanewis -Song of the Robin Woman (Cadman) (* ) 257, 276 

Shepherds' DanceHenry VIII Suite (Edward German) (35530) 131, 298 

Shepherds' Hay (English) (Arr. by Grainger) (17897) 58, 131, 302 

Shepherds' Hey (Sharp) (17328) " 28 

Shoemakers' Dance (Danish) (17084) 50 

Siciliana Thy Lips Like Crimson Berries ("Cavallcria Rusticana") 

(Mascagni) (87072) 153, 244, 325 

Siegfried's Funeral March ("Gotterdamerung") (Wagner; (35369) 114, 166, 230, 379 

Siegfried's Horn Call (Wagner) (17174) 165, 378 

Slavonic Dance No. 2 (Dvorak) (74437) 42, 123, 288 

Smith, The (Brahms) (45060) 117, 275 

Snow Maiden Song of the Shepherd Lehl (Rim sky-Korsakow) (64209) 119, 233, 348 

Solvejg's Song ("Peer Gynt Suite") (Grieg) (55108) 121, 306 

Some Day He'll Come ("Madame Butterfly") (Puccini) (88113) 202, 242 

Song of a Captive Nightingale (Real Bird) (45057) 25 

Song of a Thousand Years (Work) (17582) 136, 385 

Song of the Robin Woman ("Shanewis") (Cadman) (* ) 257, 276 

Song of the Shepherd Lehl ("Snow Maiden") (Rimsky-Korsakow) 

(64209) 119, 233, 348 

Song of a Thrush (Real Bird) (45057) 25 

Song of the Volga Boatmen (Ei Uchnem) (Russian Folk Song) (65147) . . 31, 46, 353 

Songs My Mother Taught Me (Dvorak) (64563) 123, 288 

Songs of our Native Birds (Charles Kellogg) (55049) 25 

Sonnambula Oh! non credea mirarti (Bellini) (74538) 110, 269 

Sound an Alarm ("Judas Maccabaeus") (Handel) (74131) 86, 308 

Souvenir de Moscow (Wieniawski) (74051) 149, 175, 384 

Spagnola, La (Dolc-di Chiara) (64834) 37, 284 

Spanish Dance (Granados) (64556) 37, 128, 303 

Spanish Rhapsody (Chabrier) (74621) 197 

Speed the Republic (18627) 28 

Spinning Song ("Flying Dutchman") (Wagner) (35494) 114, 228, 380 

Spinning Song (Mendelssohn) (64921) 25, 179, 330 

Spinning Wheel Quartet ("Martha") (Flotow) (70052) 235, 291 

Spring Flowers ("Samson et Dalila") (Saint-Saens) (17624) 18, 252 

Spring Night (Schumann) (45060) 103, 360 

Spring Song (Mendelssohn) (Piano) (74285) 103, 179, 331 

Spring Song ("Natoma") (Herbert) (74274) 257, 311 

Spring Song (Pinsuti) (17216) 163, 342 

Spring Voices (Strauss) (16835) 25, 368 

Stabat Mater Cujus Animam (Rossini) (35157) (88460) 166, 220, 350 



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418 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Stabat Mater Quis est Homo (Rossini) (88098) (89158) 220, 351 

Stars and Stripes Forever (Sousa) (16777) 139, 367 

Stars of the Summer Night (18627) 28, 342 

Star-Spangled Banner (Key) (17579) (17581) 60, 317 

Stizzoso mio stizzoso ("La Serva Padrona") (Pergolesi) (55051) 210, 341 

St. Paul But the Lord is Mindful of His Own (Mendelssohn) (88191) 220, 329 

Students Arise ("Germania") (Franchetti) (87053) 245, 292 

Study from "Children's Corner" (Debussy) (64935) 127, 179 

Suite in D Major (Bach) See "D Major Suite" 

Sumer is Icumen In (Old English Canon, 1226) (35279) 82, 290 

Summertime (Minnesinger) (17290) 78, 332 

Sun in the Sky Stop Shining (Russian) (70034) 33, 46, 171, 353 

Surprise Symphony Allegro di molto (Haydn) (35243) 92, 188, 311 

Surprise Symphony Andante (Haydn) (35243) 188, 311 

Surprise Symphony Andante-Vivace (Haydn) (35244) 188, 311 

Surprise Symphony Menuetto (Haydn) (35244) 92, 188, 311 

Susie, Little Susie ("Hansel and Gretel") (Humperdinok) (89099) 254, 312 

Swan, The (Saint-Saens) See "Cygne, Le" 

Swedish Cradle Song (Folk Song) (87566) 14, 31 

Swedish Wedding March (Sodermann) (35159) 28, 50, 367 

Sweet Bird ("II Pensieroso") (Handel) (Flute and Oboe) (17174) 156, 308 

Sweet Bird ("II Pensieroso") (Handel) (Vocal) (88068) 210, 308 

Sweet Echo ("Comus") (Milton-Lawes) (35549) 84, 205, 319 

Sweet the Angelus is Ringing (Smart) (55055) 18, 365 

Swiss Echo Song (Eckert) (88311) 31, 288 

Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven) See "Fifth Symphony" 

Symphony No. 8 Allegro Scherzando (Beethoven) (74661) 147, 269 

Symphony in B Minor (Schubert) See "Unfinished Symphony" 

Symphony in F Major Andante (Beethoven) (35320) 151 

Symphony in G Minor Allegro assai (Mozart) (35489) 188 

Symphony in G Minor Allegro Molto (Mozart) (35482) 94, 188, 335 

Symphony in G Minor Andante (Mozart) (35482) 94, 188, 336 

Symphony in G Minor Menuetto (Mozart) (35489) 94, 188, 336 

Tales of Hoffman Barcarolle (Offenbach) (87532) 235, 339 

Tambourin (Gossec) (64198) 182, 300 

Tannhauser Elizabeth's Prayer (Wagner) (88053) 228 

Tannhiiuser Evening Star (Wagner) (88154) 114, 228, 381 

Tannhauser Overture (Wagner) (* ) 160, 380 

Tannhauser Pilgrims' Chorus (Wagner) (17563) (17133) 19, 163, 381 

Tarantella (Saint-Saens) (Clarinet and Flute) (17174) 156, 355 

Tarantella Napolitana (Pepoli-Rossini) (88355) 14, 35, 316 

Thais Meditation (Massenet) (74135) 147, 250, 327 

Thais With Holy Water Anoint Me (Massenet) (89123) 250, 327 

Then You'll Remember Me ("Bohemian Girl") (Balfe) (16398) 235, 263 

They Bid Me Sleep (Wilson) (18674) 56 

Third Symphony Allegretto (Brahms) (* ) 117, 165, 197, 273 

Thou Art Like a Flower (Schumann) (45060) 103, 360 

Thou Brilliant Bird ("Pearl of Brazil") (David) (88318) 25, 248, 284 

Thou Brilliant Bird ("Pearl of Brazil") (David) (74552) 25, 248, 284 

Through the Forest ("Der Freischiitz") (Von Weber) (45078) 218, 377 

Thy Beaming Eyes (MacDowelD (64470) 139, 325 

Thy Lips Like Crimson Berries See "Siciliana" 

Tinker's Dance (Denmark) (17962) 28 

To a Wild Rose (MacDowell) (Celesta) (17691) (45187) 169, 325 

Toils are Pitched, The (Wilson) (18674) 56, 361 

To Norway, Mother of the Brave (Norwegian) (65929) 48, 338 



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419 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

Toreador Song ("Carmen") (Bizet) (92065) 15, 19, 28, 115, 202, 272 

Tosca Cantabile di Scarpia (Puccini) (88122) 242, 346 

Tosca Vissi d'Arte (Puccini) (74400) 242 

Traume (Wagner) (55041) 114, 195, 231 

Traviata, La Ah, fjors e lui (Verdi) (88018) 237, 375 

Tree, The (Nordraak) (65928) 121, 337 

Trempe Ton Pain (Old French) (72165) 39, 294 

Tristan and Isolde Isolde's Love Death (Wagner) (55041) 114, 195, 231, 380 

Tristan and Isolde Prelude (Wagner) (68210) 231, 379 

Triumphal March ("Aida") (Verdi) (35265) 22, 163, 238, 375 

Troika en traineaux (Tschaikowsky) (74630) 119, 373 

Trovatore Ai nostri monti (Verdi) (89060) 237, 375 

Trovatore Anvil Chorus (Verdi) (17563) 19, 374 

Trovatore Miserere (Verdi) (16371) 166, 374 

Trumpet Shall Sound, The ("Messiah") (Handel) (74080) 164, 309 

Tu se' morta ("Orfeo") (Monteverde) (45083) 205, 333 

Tutti i fior See "Duet of the Flowers" 

Twelfth Mass Gloria (Mozart (35678) 21, 335 

Twelfth Night Hold Thy Peace (17724) 58, 362 

Twilight of the Gods See " Gotterdamerung " 

Two Folk Songs of "Little Russia" (Arr. Zimbalist) (64727) 46, 385 

Two Folk Songs (Russia) (70034) 171 

Two Folk Songs with Lute Accompaniment (Swedish) (63429) 50, 369 

Two Folk Songs (Polish) Krakowiak Na Wawel, Na Wawel (63460) 47 

Two Grenadiers, The (Schumann) (74556) 27, 103, 359 

Two Hungarian Dances (Brahms) (74303) 44, 175, 274 

Two Hungarian Folk Songs (69072) 44, 313 

Una Voce poco fa ("Barber of Seville") (Rossini) (88097) 216, 350 

Un bel di vedremo ("Madame Butterfly") (Puccini) (88113) 202, 242, 345 

Under the Greenwood Tree (Shakespeare-Arne) (17623) 154, 363 

Unfinished Symphony (Schubert) (35314) 100, 358 

Unfold Ye Portals ("Redemption") (Gounod) (35075) 28, 256, 301 

Valkyrie, The Ho-yo-to-ho (Wagner) (87002) 18, 230, 378 

Valkyrie, The Magic Fire Scene (Wagner) (* ) 230 

Valkyrie, The Ride of the Valkyries (Wagner) (74684) (35369) . . 114, 147, 230, 378 

Valkyrie, The Wotan's Farewell (Wagner) (64278) 195, 230, 378 

Valse de Concert (Hasselman) (55102) 153 

Valse Triste (Sibelius) (35437) 121, 199, 364 

Vanka (Folk Song) (63153) 46, 352 

Variations (Tartini) (64156) 175, 370 

Venal My Enemies Call Me (Cantabile Scarpia) ("Tosca") (Puccini) 

(88182) 242, 346 

Venetian Serenade (Svendsen) (65928) 121, 369 

Veni, Creator Spiritus (Hymn of Charlemagne) (Ancient Latin Hymn) 

(55072) . - 73, 278 

Vesti la giubba ("On With the Play") (Pagliacci) (Leoncavallo) (88061) . . 244, 320 

Vieni, al contento (In Forest Depths) ("Lakme") (Delibes) (64171) 248, 286 

Viking Song (Coleridge Taylor) (64786) 131, 282 

Vissi d'Arte ("Tosca") (Puccini) (74400) 242 

Vittoria mio core (Carrisimi) (17703) 86, 208, 277 

Voce di donna La Gioconda (Ponchielli) (64876) 240, 343 

Voi che sapete Marriage of Figaro (Mozart) (88067) 94, 213, 335 

Vous dansez Marquise (Lemaire) (64811) 15, 319 

Waltz Etude (Saint-Saens) (74588) 127, 179, 355 

Waltz Song ("Romeo and Juliet") (Gounod) (74512) 15, 28, 115, 247, 302 

Wanderer, The (Schubert) (68339) 100, 357 



*In preparation. 

420 



Alphabetical Index of Records 

PAGES 

War Song of the Normans (Old French) (17725) 78, 297 

Watch, The (Carl Loewe) (68339) 100, 324 

Wedding March Midsummer-Night's Dream (Mendelssohn) (55048) .... 218, 330 

Wedding, The (Bohemian Folk Song) (87554) 42, 272 

Weel May the Keel Row Highland Schottische (17331) 29, 362 

Werther Why Awake Me? (Massenet) (64234) 250, 327 

We Swear by Heaven and Earth ("Otello") (Verdi) (89075) 19, 238, 376 

W r hat Shall He Have Who Killed the Deer (Bishop) (17623) 154, 363 

When I Was Seventeen (Swedish Folk Song) (64808) 50, 370 

When That I Was a Little Tiny Boy (English) (17724) 58, 363 

When the Nightingale Shall Sing (Troubadour) (de Coucy) (17290) 78, 371 

Whirlwind (Tourbillon) (Krantz) (18684) 157, 371 

White Dog Song (Glacier Park Indians) (17611) 33, 171, 313 

Who is Sylvia? (Schubert) (17634) 100, 357 

Whoopee Ti Ti Yo (Cowboy Song) (* ) 60, 282 

Why Awake Me? ("Werther") (Massenet) (64234) 250, 327 

With Holy Water Anoint Me ("Thais") (89123) 250, 327 

William Tell Overture, Parts I, II (Rossini) (17815) 110, 145, 351 

William Tell Overture, Parts III, IV (Rossini) (18012) 145, 164, 351 

Will-o'-the-Wisp (Sauret) (74183) 25, 149, 356 

Willow Song ("Otello") (Verdi) (88148) 238, 376 

Will Ye No Come Back Again (Scotch Bagpipes) (17140) 33 

Witch's Dance ("Hansel and Gretel") (Humperdinck) (87526) 125, 254, 312 

With Holy Water Anoint Me ("Thais") (Massenet) (89123) 250, 327 

Woodland Sketches (MacDowell) (45187) 139, 325 

Wotan's Farewell Part I (Wagner) (64278) 230, 378 

Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire Scene ("Valkyrie") (Wagner) (* ) . . 195 

Wren, The (Demare) (16047) 157, 283 

Xerxes Largo (Handel) (88617) 28, 87, 210, 310 

Year's at the Spring, The (Beach) (35693) 139, 263 

Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon (Scotch) (88150) 18, 362 

Ye Birds Without Number (Ballatella) ("Pagliacci") (Leoncavallo) 

(88398) 244, 320 

Yohrzeit (In Memoriam) (Silberta) (74595) 68, 317 

Young Prince and the Young Princess, The ("Scheherazade") (Rimsky- 

Korsakow) (74691) 199, 349 

You Spotted Snakes ("A Midsummer-Night's Dream") (Mendelssohn) 

(55060) 218, 330 

Zaza piccola zingara (Little Gypsy) ("Zaza") (Leoncavallo) (64907) .... 244,320 
Zaza Zaza piccola zingara (Little Gypsy) (Leoncavallo) (64907) 244, 320 



"In preparation. 



421 



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