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Full text of "Where artists live, 1980"

Report #19 



Where ArtiStS LiVe 1980 National Endowment 



for the Arts 



Research Division 
March 1987 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/whereartistsliveOOnati 



Where Artists Live 1980 



National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, D.C. 



The sources used for the statistics in 
this report were: 1. U.S. Bureau of the 
Census, Supplementary Report, Detailed 
Occupation of the Experienced Civilian La- 
bor Force by Sex for the U.S. and Regions: 
1980 and 1970 , Washington, D.C.: GPO, 
19 84. 2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 
Characteristics of the Population: De- 
tailed Population Characteristics , 1980, 
Vols. 1N-52, Washington, D.C.: 1984. 
3. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity Special File , Machine 
Readable Data File, 1980. Prepared by the 
Data User Services Division, U.S. Bureau 
of the Census, Washington, D.C.: 1982. 



This report is produced by the Publishing 
Center for Cultural Resources as part of a 
pilot project supported by the National En- 
dowment for the Arts demonstrating economy 
and efficiency in nonprofit publishing. 
The Publishing Center's planning, production, 
and distribution services are available to 
all cultural and educational groups and or- 
ganizations. For further information, write 
Publishing Center for Cultural Resources, 
625 Broadway, New York City 10012 or tele- 
phone 212/260-2010. 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 



Where artists live, 1980. 

(Research Division report ; 19) 

1. Artists — United States. 2. Arts Surveys — United 
States. I. National Endowment for the Arts. II. Series: 
Research Division report (National Endowment for the Arts. 
Research Division) ; 19. 

NX503.W54 1986 305 '. 9 7 ' 009 73 86-12630 

ISBN 0-39062-209-4 (pbk.) 



Manufactured in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE / 4 

TABLES, MAPS, AND FIGURES / 5 

NATIONAL TRENDS / 7 

Regional change / 9 
Migration / 10 

CHANGE IN ARTIST OCCUPATIONS / 11 

STATE-BY-STATE SUMMARY / 35 

ARTISTS IN CITIES / 41 

APPENDIX / 45 

Artist population of states and major cities 1980 / 45 

REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES / 72 



PREFACE 



with small numbers of persons such as 
actors and dancers. 



This report examines information on the 
number and location of the nation's 
artists as reported in the 1980 Census of 
Population and provides comparisons with 
the 1970 Census. The decennial census of- 
fers unique opportunities for examining 
the artist population. The sample from 
which the census figures are developed is 
sufficiently large to reflect the artist 
population of small geographic areas and 
detailed characteristics of the artist pop- 
ulation at large. Moreover, census infor- 
mation relating to artist occupations can 
be directly compared to that for other 
occupations. 

Like Research Division Report #5, Where 
Artists Live; 1970 , this report focuses 
on the size and location of the artist 
population, but there are two major dif- 
ferences in the data in the two reports. 

First, there was a revision in the occupa- 
tional classification system between 
censuses. (The effect of this change is 
summarized in Research Division Note #7, 
"Artist Employment in 1983: Revised Classi- 
fication System Now in Use," March 15, 
1984; and a more detailed discussion of 
how it affects the data for each of the 
artist occupation groups may be found in 
Tom Bradshaw, "An Examination of the 
Comparability of 1970 and 1980 Census Sta- 
tistics on Artists," The Economics of 
Cultural Industries, Proceedings of the 
Third International Conference on Cultural 
Economics and Planning , April 25-28, 1984. 
Vol. 1. Akron, OH: Association for Cul- 
tural Economics, University of Akron, 
1984.) To facilitate comparisons of 1980 
occupational statistics with those of 
1970, the Bureau of the Census adjusted 
the 1970 data to conform to the 1980 
codes. The process involved coding a sam- 
ple of 120,000 questionnaires according to 
both systems and calculating adjustment 
factors for each occupation. The 1970 ad- 
justed estimates are used in this report. 

The second difference was that Report #5 
used data for employed artists whereas 
this report deals with the artist labor 
force , which includes unemployed as well 
as employed artists. The labor force esti- 
mates were chosen because unemployment 
tends to be high in several artist occupa- 
tions, especially in the performing arts. 
Exclusion of the unemployed would serious- 
ly understate the number of individuals 
actively pursuing careers in these occupa- 
tions in 1980. Combining the employed and 
the unemployed provides the sample size 
needed to report detailed geographic infor- 
mation, especially for the occupations 



Both the Research Division Reports of 
1970 and 19 80 use a normalizing tech- 
nique to compare occupation levels of 
states with widely divergent population 
counts. One would expect a state like 
California to have more individuals in al- 
most every occupation than would be found 
in relatively small population states. 
To determine whether California has a rel- 
atively high concentration in a partic- 
ular artist occupation, the number of Cal- 
ifornians in that occupation is divided 
by the total California labor force and 
the result, in turn, is divided by the 
national ratio for that occupation. This 
technique produces a ratio that compares 
California to the whole country for the 
occupation. The same computation is made 
for every artist occupation in each state 
to obtain concentration ratios that can 
be compared from state to state and per- 
mit each state to be compared with the 
country as a whole. When the 1980 concen- 
tration ratio is 1.00, the proportion of 
artists in the state labor force is iden- 
tical to the national proportion. 

The census provides cross-sectional and 
not longitudinal data for the two peri- 
ods, so we are unable to trace the paths 
of artists from 1970 to 1980. Collective 
movement is another matter; net migration 
is measured by the census, and that 
source of regional growth is discussed in 
this report. It is not possible, how- 
ever, to distinguish and separately 
measure the extent to which occupational 
increase is due to new entrants (persons 
entering the labor force for the first 
time) , reentrants (persons who had previ- 
ously worked in the occupation and 
returned after a period away from it), or 
transfers from other occupations. Nor is 
it possible to measure the extent to 
which people left artist occupations be- 
tween 1970 and 1980 and did not return. 
The difference between. the levels of 1970 
and 1980 is net growth as a result of oc- 
cupation entrances and exits and migra- 
tion. For simplicity, this is referred 
to in the report as increase or change 
over the decade (and is most often 
expressed as a percentage). 

Research Division 

National Endowment for the Arts 

March 19 8 7 



TABLES 



1 Number of persons in artist occupations 19 70 and 19 80 / 6 

2 Distribution of artist labor force by occupation 1970 and 1980 / 7 

3 Urban and rural location of artists 1980 / 41 



MAPS 



A Regional change in artist occupations compared to total labor force 1970-80 / 
B Migration of artists 1975-80 / 10 



FIGURES SHOWING DISTRIBUTION, CONCENTRATION, AND CHANGE 

I All artists / 13 
II Actors and directors / 15 
III Announcers / 17 
IV Architects / 19 

V Authors / 21 
VI Dancers / 23 
VII Designers / 25 
VIII Musicians and composers / 27 

IX Painters, sculptors, craft artists, and artist printmakers / 29 

X Photographers / 31 
XI Teachers of art, drama, and music (higher education) / 33 
XII Artists not elsewhere classified / 34 



Table 1 



Number of persons in artist occupations 
1970 and 1980 



^H 


Occupation 


1970 




19 80 


Percent 
change 


Architects 


53,670 




107,693 


+100.7 


Announcers 


25,942 




46,986 


+ 


81.1 


Dancers 


7,404 




13, 194 


+ 


78.2 


Painters . . . 


86, 849 




153, 162 


+ 


76.4 


Actors/directors 


40,201 




67, 180 


+ 


67.1 


Authors 


27, 752 




45, 748 


+ 


64.8 


Designers 


232, 890 




338, 374 


+ 


45.3 


Musicians/composers 


99,533 




140,556 


+ 


41.2 


Photographers 


67,588 




94, 762 


+ 


40.2 


Artists n.e.c. 


53, 131 




49,653 


- 


6.5 


Teachers (higher ed) 


42,000 




28, 385 


- 


32.4 


All artists 


736,960 


1, 


,085,693 


+ 


47.3 


Professional specialty- 
occupations 


8, 800,210 


12, 


,275, 140 


+ 


39.5 


Total U.S. labor force 


79, 801,605 


104. 


,057,985 


+ 


30.4 



NATIONAL TRENDS 



In 1980 there were 1,085,693 people in the 
United States in artist occupations. This 
figure includes persons 16 years of age 
and over in the civilian labor force who 
were classified in the 19 80 census as: 

Actors and directors 

Announcers 

Architects 

Authors 

Dancers 

Designers 

Musicians and composers 

Painters, sculptors, craft artists, 

and artist printmakers 
Photographers 
Teachers of art, drama, and music 

(higher education) 
Artists, performers, and related 

workers (not elsewhere classified) 

These occupations increased at a rapid 
rate during the 1970-80 decade — collec- 
tively more than 47 percent. This is sub- 
stantial when compared to the total U.S. 
civilian labor force increase of 30 per- 
cent during the same period, and it sur- 
passes the 40 percent increase for all 
specialty occupations including doctors, 
lawyers, engineers, and scientists. 

Architects increased more than those work- 
ing in any other artist occupation, doub- 
ling in size so that there were 107,693 
architects in the United States in 1980. 
The number of announcers, dancers, and vis- 
ual artists also increased substantially. 
In 1980 there were 81 percent more announc- 
ers (21,000 more people) than had worked 
in the field a decade before. Dancers in- 
creased by 78 percent (nearly 5,800 more 
people) and painters, sculptors, craft 
artists, and artist printmakers by 76 per- 
cent (over 66,000 more people). Actors/ 
directors, authors, designers, musicians/ 
composers, and photographers also exper- 
ienced increases greater than the average 
for the U.S. labor force and the profes- 
sional specialty occupations, with rates 
ranging from 40 percent for photographers 
to 67 percent for actors/directors. 

While artists were generally increasing in 
numbers, those who teach art, drama, and 
music in higher education showed a decline 
between 1970 and 1980. Approximately 
42,000 art, drama, and music teachers in 
colleges and universities were reported by 
the census for 1970 compared to 28,385 for 
1980. This decline, however, may be at- 
tributable to the fact that substantially 
fewer teachers specified their subject area 
in the 1980 census than in the 1970 census 
(29 percent of teachers in higher education 



specified their discipline on their census 
forms in 1980 vs. 67 percent in 1970) . 

Designers continued to be the largest 
artist occupation in 1980 with over 
338,000 members. Designers made up near- 
ly one-third of the total artist labor 
force in both 1970 and 1980. The archi- 
tect occupation had the greatest percent- 
age change in numbers during the 1970s 
decade. Architects represented 7.3 per- 
cent of the artist labor force in 1970, 
increasing to 10 percent by 1980. Paint- 
ers, sculptors, craft artists, and artist 
printmakers substantially increased their 
share of the artist labor force, com- 
prising 14.1 percent of the artist labor 
force in 1980 compared to 11.8 percent in 
1970. By 1980, painters, sculptors, 
craft artists, and artist printmakers 
moved ahead of the musician/composer occu- 
pation and became the second largest 
artist occupation in the U.S. Actors/ 
directors, announcers, authors, and danc- 
ers also increased their share of the 
artist labor force between 1970 and 1980. 
The dancer occupation had the third great- 
est increase, 78 percent from 1970 to 1980. 
However, this occupation has fewer members 
than any other artist occupation, repre- 
senting approximately 1 percent of the 
artist labor force in both time periods. 



Table 2 



Distribution of artist labor force 
by occupation 1970 and 1980 



Occupation 


1970 


1980 


Designers 


31.6% 


31.2% 


Painters . . . 


11.8% 


14.1% 


Musicians/composers 


13.5% 


13.0% 


Architects 


7.3% 


9.9% 


Photographers 


9.2% 


8. 7% 


Ac tors /directors 


5.4% 


6.2% 


Artists n.e.c. 


7.2% 


4.6% 


Announcers 


3.5% 


4.3% 


Authors 


3.8% 


4.2% 


Teachers (higher ed) 


5.7% 


2.6% 


Dancers 


1.0% 


1.2% 


All artists 


100.0% 


100.0% 



Map A 



Regional change in artist occupations compared to total labor force 1970-80 




72% 





64% 




Artists 


Total 
labor 
force 




42% 


29% 














14% 





West* 



North Central 



South 



Northeast 



*includes Alaska and Hawaii 



Regional change 

In all four major regions of the country — 
Northeast, North Central, South, and West 
— artist population increases outpaced 
that of the civilian labor force in the 
region. 

The Western region led the nation with its 
numbers qf artists increasing by 72 per- 
cent between 1970 and 1980. This was 
considerably higher than the increase in 
the total civilian labor force or the pro- 
fessional specialty occupations in the 
West — both of which increased by 49 per- 
cent during the same period. Four of the 
artist occupations more than doubled in 
the West between 1970 and 1980, including 
architects (148 percent increase), authors 
(127 percent), painters and other visual 
artists (126 percent), and actors and 
directors (116 percent). The West led the 
other regions in increases in these four 
occupations, as well as among musicians/ 
composers, who increased in the region by 
55 percent during the decade. Overall, 
the West counted 279,951 professional 
artists in its population in 1980, with 
nearly two-thirds living in the state of 
California. 

Of all the regions, the West had the high- 
est concentration ratio of artists — the 
proportion of artists relative to the 
total labor force of the region — 1.32. 
Approximately one out of every 73 workers 
in the West is in an artist occupation. 



The Northeast and North Central regions 
had more moderate percent changes between 
1970 and 1980. Artist populations in- 
creased by about 30 percent in each re- 
gion. During the same period, the total 
civilian labor force increased by only 14 
percent in the Northeast and by 22 per- 
cent in the North Central region. The 
percentage of increase among all profes- 
sional speciality occupations was similar 
to artists' — 27 percent for the Northeast 
region and 31 percent for the North Cen- 
tral region. Although all of the artist 
occupations experienced their greatest in- 
creases in the South or West, some occu- 
pations made impressive gains in the North 
Central and Northeast as well. Dancers 
more than doubled (111 percent), actors 
increased by 67 percent, and authors by 
53 percent, in the Northeast between 1970 
and 1980. In the North Central region, 
the announcer occupation increased by 84 
percent. The Northeast region had the 
second greatest number of artists in 
1980 — a total of 282,165, with half resid- 
ing in New York State. The North Central 
region had fewest artists with a total of 
229,838. The Northeast region, like the 
West, also had a concentration of artists 
in its work force that was greater than 
the national average — 1.18. The North 
Central region had the lowest proportion 
of artists in its labor force of all the 
regions — .80, or 20 percent below the 
national average. 



The South also experienced a large change 
in their artist population, increasing by 
64 percent over the decade. Their total 
civilian labor force also expanded great- 
ly during the decade, increasing by 41 
percent, and their professional specialty 
occupations grew by 53 percent. Dancers 
showed a higher percentage increase in 
the South than in any other region, 
changing by 137 percent between 1970 and 
1980. Announcers nearly doubled their 
number in the South. Designers (71 per- 
cent increase) and photographers (58 
percent) also had greater percentage in- 
creases in the South than in any other 
region. The South was second to the West 
in increasing its share of architects, 
with 126 percent more architects in 1980 
than in 1970. Other artist occupations 
that did well in the South were painters. 
(113 percent increase) and musicians/ 
composers (53 percent) . The South had 
more artists overall than any other 
region — 293,739, with over one-fifth in 
the state of Texas. However, the South ' s 
proportion of artists among its total 
labor force compared to the U.S. average 
was only .84 or 16 percent below the U.S. 
average. 



Migration of artists 1975-80 



4 

4 



8,400 



7,500 



4 



2,500 




Note: The West includes Alaska and Hawaii. 



Migration 

The Northeast and North Central regions 
have lost out in the interregional migra- 
tion exchange with the South and West re- 
gions of the United States for the past 
two decades. Artists have followed this 
trend. 



During the 1975 
tracted a net i 
by migration, 
crease of 13 , 10 
east lost about 
North Central r 
net of 15,900 a 
Map B shows the 
tion flows for 
regions between 
this five-year 
100,000, moved 
try to another, 
slightly higher 



-80 period, the West at- 
ncrease of 18,400 artists 
The South had a net in- 
artists, while the North- 

the same number. The 
egion lost the most, with a 
rtists moving elsewhere. 

direction of net migra- 
artists among the four U.S. 

1975 and 1980. During 
period, 9 percent, or about 
from one region of the coun- 
The migration rate is 

than it was a decade ear- 



lier, when 8 percent of artists moved 
interregional ly. 

Migration has an impact on the distribu- 
tion of artists across the regions but 
overall growth in the artist population is 
due primarily to new labor force entries 
and to occupational change. In the West, 
artists who moved into the region between 
1975 and 1980 accounted for about 6 per- 
cent of Western artists in 1980. In the 
South, migrants from other regions made up 
about 4 percent of the South' s artist popu- 
lation in 1980. The Northeast lost about 
5 percent and the North Central region 
lost about 7 percent of their artists to 
migration. Migration into and out of the 
United States netted this country only 
2,500 additional artists between 1975 and 
1980. In total, about 22,500 artists who 
were either immigrants or American artists 
living abroad came to this country, while 
about 20,000 artists left the country. 



10 



CHANGE IN ARTIST OCCUPATIONS 



The large increase in the number of artists 
in the nation varied by artist occupation 
and by state. This change between 1970 
and 19 80 is summarized on the following 
pages for all artists, actors/directors, 
announcers, architects, authors, dancers, 
designers, musicians/composers, painters..., 
photographers, teachers (higher ed) , and 
artists not elsewhere classified. 



11 




100,000 or more 
Km 25,000-99,999 
| 1 10,000-24,999 

0-10,000 



Number of all artists 1980 




1.56% 

(highest in the nation) 



.54% 

(lowest in the nation) 



f."' ' 1 1.30% or more 

I 1 .79% to 1.29% 

I 1 .78% or less 



Concentration ratio of all artists 19 80 



Figure 



All artists 



Comparison of 1980 and 19 70 state 
distribution of all artists. 



"All artists" as used in this report re- 
fers to the sum of the eleven individual 
artist occupations that are dealt with 
separately. One or several of the eleven 
separate occupations may be subtracted 
from the "all artists" grouping to pro- 
vide information about special sub- 
groupings. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


176,321 


1.49 


1 


108,437 


1.48 


New ¥ork 


2 


138,424 


1.66 


2 


107,916 


1.58 


Texas 


3 


61,802 


.90 


5 


34,969 


.88 


Illinois 


4 


50,467 


.89 


3 


4.1,211 


.97 


Florida 


5 


48,302 


1.10 


9 


24,960 


1.07 


Pennsylvania 


6 


43,363 


.78 


4 


35,137 


.81 


Ohio 


7 


39,768 


.77 


6 


32,378 


.83 


Michigan 


8 


36,888 


.84 


7 


29,660 


.93 


New Jersey 


9 


36,510 


1.00 


8 


28,686 


1.05 


Massachusetts 


10 


32,223 


1.10 


10 


23,499 


1.07 


Virginia 


11 


24,775 


.96 


12 


15,253 


.94 


Washington 


12 


22,974 


1.14 


19 


12,553 


1.02 


Maryland 


13 


20,990 


.98 


11 


17,135 


1.17 


North Carolina 


14 


20,561 


.72 


18 


12,640 


.67 


Georgia 


15 


20,330 


.79 


20 


11,776 


.71 


Minnesota 


16 


19,512 


.94 


16 


12,967 


.92 


Missouri 


17 


18,951 


.81 


13 


14,199 


.84 


Wisconsin 


18 


18,429 


.78 


15 


13,320 


.82 


Colorado 


19 


17,930 


1.20 


22 


8,838 


1.11 


Tennessee 


20 


17,714 


.82 


21 


10,607 


.76 


Indiana 


21 


17,439 


.65 


17 


12,941 


.67 


Connecticut 


22 


17,211 


1.07 


14 


13,404 


1.12 


Arizona 


23 


14,023 


1.14 


30 


6,597 


1.12 


Oregon 


24 


13,157 


1.02 


26 


6,978 


.91 


Louisiana 


25 


12,825 


.71 


23 


8,019 


.71 


Alabama 


26 


11,779 


.69 


24 


7,965 


.69 


Kentucky 


27 


10,446 


.66 


29 


6,863 


.65 


Oklahoma 


28 


10,308 


.74 


28 


6,884 


.77 


South Carolina 


29 


9,526 


.65 


31 


5,209 


.57 


Iowa 


30 


9,395 


.66 


27 


6,917 


.67 


Kansas 


31 


9,377 


.80 


25 


7,031 


.86 


Hawaii 


32 


6,753 


1.49 


34 


3,667 


1.35 


Nevada 


33 


6,507 


1.48 


40 


3,078 


1.60 


New Mexico 


34 


6,505 


1.14 


36 


3,553 


1.13 


Mississippi 


35 


6,155 


.59 


33 


3,826 


.55 


Utah 


36 


5,858 


.91 


35 


3,659 


1.00 


Nebraska 


37 


5,666 


.73 


32 


4,068 


.75 


Arkansas 


38 


5,468 


.56 


37 


3,344 


.53 


Rhode Island 


39 


4,527 


.95 


38 


3,124 


.87 


West Virginia 


40 


4,223 


.54 


39 


3,091 


.58 


Maine 


41 


3,790 


.73 


42 


2,171 


.62 


New Hampshire 


42 


3,751 


.79 


41 


2,474 


.88 


Idaho 


43 


3,207 


.74 


44 


1,844 


.74 


Montana 


44 


2,966 


.80 


43 


1,857 


.77 


Vermont 


45 


2,366 


.94 


46 


1,600 


.99 


Delaware 


46 


2,288 


.78 


45 


1,681 


.83 


Alaska 


47 


2,148 


1.13 


50 


710 


.79 


South Dakota 


48 


1,974 


.61 


47 


1,435 


.63 


North Dakota 


49 


1,972 


.66 


48 


1,155 


.59 


Wyoming 


50 


1,602 


.68 


49 


844 


.71 



California was the state with the largest 
number of artists in 1980 with 176,321 
artists — as well as in 1970 with 108,437. 
New York ranked second in both years 
with 138,424 artists in 1980 and 107,916 
in 1970. The New York concentration 
ratio for all artists increased more than 
that of California during the decade. 

No state had fewer than 1,000 artists in 
1980, while in 1970 there were only 844 
in Wyoming and 710 in Alaska. Wyoming 
had the smallest artist population 
(1,602) in 1980. 

Thirteen states had concentration ratios 
greater than the national proportion of 
all artists in both 1980 and 1970. In 
each census one state had a concentration 
ratio exactly the same as the national 
proportion — New Jersey in 1980 and Utah 
in 1970. In both states, the concentration 
ratio was lower in 19 80 than in 1970 — New 
Jersey dropped from 1.05 to 1.00 and Utah 
from 1.00 to .91. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of all artists in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 




13 



20,751 






a " °?o 


>r\ 


O 




3,000 or more 
I I 1,000-2,999 
I I 500-999 
I I 499 or less 



Number of actors/directors 19 80 




2.95% 

highest in the nation) 



I I 1.30* or more 
I I .79% to 1.29% 
I I .78% or less 



in the nation) 



Concentration ratio of actors/directors 1980 



Figure II 



Actors and directors 



Comparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of actors/directors. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 




tration 




of 


E 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


20, 


,751 


2.83 


1 


8 


,966 


2 


.23 


New York 


2 


15, 


,180 


2.95 


2 


7 


,800 


2 


.09 


Texas 


3 


2 


,445 


.58 


4 


1 


,569 




.73 


Illinois 


4 


2 


,271 


.65 


3 


1 


,804 




.78 


Florida 


5 


2 


,103 


.78 


8 


1 


,158 




.91 


New Jersey 


6 


1 


,785 


.79 


5 


1 


,448 




.97 


Pennsylvania 


7 


1 


,461 


.42 


6 


1 


,327 




.56 


Massachusetts 


8 


1 


,377 


.76 


9 


1 


,012 




.84 


Virginia 


9 


1 


,300 


.82 


12 




658 




.74 


Ohio 


10 


1 


,275 


.40 


7 


1 


,262 




.59 


Michigan 


11 


1 


,217 


.45 


10 




991 




.57 


Maryland 


12 


1 


,024 


.77 


11 




871 


1 


.09 


Washington 


13 




933 


.75 


18 




546 




.81 


Georgia 


14 




889 


.56 


14 




608 




.67 


Connecticut 


15 




832 


.83 


13 




632 




.97 


Minnesota 


16 




779 


.61 


16 




567 




.74 


North Carolina 


17 




712 


.40 


19 




552 




.53 


Missouri 


18 




695 


.48 


15 




590 




.64 


Colorado 


19 




688 


.75 


23 




404 




.93 


Indiana 


20 




645 


.39 


17 




549 




.52 


Wisconsin 


21 




640 


.44 


20 




494 




.55 


Arizona 


22 




609 


.80 


30 




332 


1 


.03 


Tennessee 


23 




548 


.41 


21 




487 




.63 


Oregon 


24 




529 


.66 


24 




382 




.91 


Iowa 


25 




495 


.56 


26 




374 




.66 


Louisiana 


26 




488 


.44 


22 




445 




.73 


Kentucky 


27 




409 


.42 


29 




334 




.58 


Kansas 


28 




367 


.51 


28 




336 




.75 


Oklahoma 


29 




350 


.41 


25 




378 




.78 


South Carolina 


30 




340 


.38 


31 




253 




.51 


Nevada 


31 




301 


1.10 


36 




176 


1 


.68 


Alabama 


32 




290 


.28 


27 




372 




.59 


Nebraska 


33 




281 


.59 


32 




242 




.81 


Utah 


34 




261 


.65 


39 




160 




.80 


Hawaii 


35 




258 


.92 


38 




162 


1 


.09 


New Mexico 


36 




255 


.72 


37 




171 


1 


.00 


Arkansas 


37 




238 


.39 


33 




214 




.62 


Mississippi 


38 




208 


.32 


34 




195 




.51 


Rhode Island 


39 




197 


.67 


40 




133 




.68 


West Virginia 


40 




189 


.39 


35 




185 




.64 


South Dakota 


41 




165 


.82 


45 




92 




.73 


Montana 


42 




162 


.70 


44 




103 




.79 


Idaho 


43 




159 


.59 


42 




111 




.81 


Alaska 


44 




149 


1.27 


50 




41 




.83 


Maine 


45 




148 


.46 


41 




111 




.58 


North Dakota 


46 




113 


.61 


46 




81 




.75 


Vermont 


47 




94 


.60 


47 




69 




.78 


Delaware 


48 




85 


.47 


49 




49 




.44 


New Hampshire 


49 




50 


.17 


43 




105 




.68 


Wyoming 


50 




42 


.29 


48 




68 


1 


.04 



There was a 67 percent increase in the 
number of actors/directors in the United 
States between 1970 and 1980. This was 
20 percent greater than the average 
increase for all artists combined. There 
were 67,180 actors/directors in 1980, 
compared to 40,201 in 1970. The Western 
region more than doubled its number of 
actors/directors while growth was smallest 
in the North Central region. California 
had the largest number of actors/directors 
in both 1970 and 1980 — 8,966 and 20,751 
respectively. 

In 1980 as in 1970 actors/directors con- 
tinued to be heavily concentrated in New 
York and California. In fact, the propor- 
tion of actors/directors in these two 
states increased from 41.7 percent to 
53.5 percent over the decade. In 1980, 
California had 30.9 percent of all 
actors/directors and New York had 22.6 
percent. 



The conce 
tors was 
— both in 
centratio 
than Cali 
than Cali 
Calif orni 
times the 
actors/di 



ntration ratios 
also highest in 

1970 and 1980. 
n increased more 
fornia's and was 
fornia's in 1980 
a and New York h 

national concen 
rectors in their 



for actors 
these two 
New York' 
over the 
slightly 
By 1980 
ad nearly 
tration of 
labor for 



/direc- 
states 
s con- 
decade 
higher 

both 
three 

ces. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of actors/directors in 
state labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio 
of 1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical 
to the national average. 



15 




f } 2,500 or more 
f-^l 1,000-2,499 
I I 500-999 

499 or less 



Number of announcers 19 80 




.39% 

(lowest in the nation) 



m 1.3 0% or more 
| 1 .79% to 1.29% 
.78% or less 



Concentration ratio of announcers 1980 



Figure 



Announcers 



Comparison of 1980 and 19 70 state 
distribution of announcers. 





I960 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


3 


,986 


.78 


1 


2,415 


.93 


Texas 


2 


3, 


,267 


1.10 


3 


1,502 


1.08 


New York 


3 


2 


,690 


.75 


2 


1,966 


.82 


Florida 


4 


2 


,293 


1.21 


5 


1,099 


1.34 


Ohio 


5 


1 


,843 


.83 


7 


1,021 


.74 


Illinois 


6 


1 


,817 


.74 


6 


1,049 


.70 


Pennsylvania 


7 


1 


,793 


.74 


4 


1,287 


.84 


Michigan 


8 


1 


,661 


.88 


8 


913 


.82 


North Carolina 


9 


1, 


,551 


1.25 


9 


856 


1.29 


Virginia 


10 


1 


,425 


1.28 


11 


684 


1.19 


Georgia 


11 


1 


,236 


1.11 


10 


734 


1.25 


Tennessee 


12 


1 


,174 


1.26 


12 


658 


1.33 


Alabama 


13 


1, 


,174 


1.60 


19 


513 


1.27 


Wisconsin 


14 


1 


,136 


1.12 


13 


606 


1.05 


Indiana 


15 


1 


,101 


.95 


17 


556 


.82 


Missouri 


16 


1 


,085 


1.07 


14 


578 


.97 


Louisiana 


17 




990 


1.26 


21 


468 


1.18 


Washington 


18 




915 


1.05 


18 


520 


1.20 


Minnesota 


19 




894 


1.00 


22 


456 


.92 


Colorado 


20 




874 


1.36 


27 


357 


1.28 


Kentucky 


21 




873 


1.28 


23 


442 


1.20 


Massachusetts 


22 




846 


.67 


16 


561 


.72 


Maryland 


23 




835 


.90 


15 


576 


1.12 


Iowa 


24 




832 


1.35 


20 


489 


1.34 


Oklahoma 


25 




823 


1.36 


30 


320 


1.02 


South Carolina 


26 




777 


1.23 


29 


339 


1.06 


Oregon 


27 




706 


1.26 


26 


369 


1.36 


Kansas 


28 




706 


1.40 


28 


356 


1.24 


Mississippi 


29 




679 


1.50 


25 


390 


1.59 


Arizona 


30 




666 


1.25 


32 


279 


1.34 


New Jersey 


31 




625 


.39 


24 


395 


.41 


Arkansas 


32 




581 


1.37 


33 


273 


1.22 


Connecticut 


33 




485 


.69 


31 


291 


.69 


Nebraska 


34 




433 


1.29 


35 


215 


1.12 


West Virginia 


35 




433 


1.28 


38 


191 


1.02 


New Mexico 


36 




392 


1.59 


34 


260 


2.35 


North Dakota 


37 




334 


2.58 


39 


186 


2.68 


Montana 


38 




291 


1.81 


40 


174 


2.06 


Utah 


39 




280 


1.00 


37 


199 


1.54 


Idaho 


40 




280 


1.49 


41 


160 


1.82 


Maine 


41 




279 


1.25 


36 


203 


1.64 


South Dakota 


42 




260 


1.85 


42 


145 


1.80 


Nevada 


43 




259 


1.36 


43 


141 


2.08 


Hawaii 


44 




241 


1.23 


47 


94 


.98 


Alaska 


45 




205 


2.49 


50 


53 


1.67 


Wyoming 


46 




192 


1.88 


45 


105 


2.50 


New Hampshire 


47 




180 


.88 


44 


116 


1.17 


Rhode Island 


48 




174 


.84 


48 


71 


.56 


Vermont 


49 




103 


.94 


46 


96 


1.69 


Delaware 


50 




84 


.67 


49 


70 


.99 



The number of announcers in the United 
States grew by 81 percent between 1970 
and 1980 — from 25,942 announcers in 1970 
to 46,986 in 1980. The percentage of in- 
crease was second only to that of archi- 
tects, whose population doubled over the 
decade. The number of announcers in- 
creased in every state with the Southern 
region having the highest increases. 

Announcers is one of the most evenly dis- 
tributed artist occupations. All states 
had fewer than 4,000 announcers and only 
Delaware had fewer than 100. California 
had the most announcers in both 19 70 and 
1980 — 2,415 and 3,986. 

The states with the highest concentration 
ratios for announcers in 1970 and 1980 
were the ones with the least population 
density. This indicates that there is 
some minimal number of radio or tele- 
vision stations (and thus announcers) 
in relation to land area regardless of the 
size of the state population or labor 
force. North Dakota had the highest con- 
centration ratio in 19 80 — about two and 
one-half times the national concentration. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of announcers in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 



17 




9,000 or more 
r"~~\ 5,000-8,999 
| I 1,000-4,999 
I I 999 or less 



Number of architects 1980 




.31% 

(lowest in the nation) 



| I 1.30% or more 
I I .79% to 1.29% 
I I .78% or less 



Concentration ratio of architects 1980 



Figure IV 



Architects 



Comparison of 1980 and 19 70 state 
distribution of architects. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




inzr 


f 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


17,652 


1.50 


1 


7 


,710 


1.44 


New York 


2 


8,691 


1.05 


2 


6 


,151 


1.24 


Texas 


3 


7,775 


1.15 


. 4 


3 


,019 


1.05 


Illinois 


4 


5,583 


.99 


3 


3 


,262 


1.06 


Florida 


5 


5,302 


1.22 


9 


1 


,881 


1.11 


Pennsylvania 


6 


4,380 


.79 


5 


2 


,632 


.83 


Massachusetts 


7 


3,815 


1.31 


6 


2 


,278 


1.42 


Ohio 


8 


3,505 


.69 


7 


2 


,077 


.73 


Michigan 


9 


3,170 


.73 


8 


1, 


,910 


.82 


Washington 


10 


3,148 


1.58 


12 


1 


,494 


1.66 


New Jersey 


11 


3,057 


.84 


10 


1, 


,836 


.92 


Virginia 


12 


2,817 


1.11 


13 


1, 


,473 


1.24 


Colorado 


13 


2,741 


1.85 


21 




745 


1.29 


Maryland 


14 


2,242 


1.05 


11 


1, 


,567 


1.47 


Georgia 


15 


2,193 


.86 


15 


1, 


,004 


.83 


Minnesota 


16 


1,982 


.96 


16 


1 


,003 


.98 


Missouri 


17 


1,945 


.84 


17 




993 


.80 


North Carolina 


18 


1,909 


.67 


18 




845 


.61 


Connecticut 


19 


1,827 


1.14 


14 


1, 


,369 


1.57 


Arizona 


20 


1,786 


1.46 


26 




540 


1.26 


Oregon 


21 


1,753 


1.37 


20 




747 


1.33 


Tennessee 


22 


1,581 


.74 


25 




571 


.56 


Louisiana 


23 


1,533 


.85 


23 




718 


.88 


Wisconsin 


24 


1,529 


.66 


22 




732 


.61 


Indiana 


25 


1,313 


.50 


19 




783 


.55 


Kansas 


26 


1,169 


1.01 


24 




614 


1.03 


Alabama 


27 


1,145 


.68 


28 




431 


.52 


South Carolina 


28 


1,115 


.77 


30 




358 


.54 


Oklahoma 


29 


882 


.64 


27 




506 


.78 


Hawaii 


30 


878 


1.95 


32 




352 


1.78 


Iowa 


31 


796 


.56 


29 




391 


.52 


Kentucky 


32 


776 


.50 


31 




355 


.46 


Utah 


33 


686 


1.07 


35 




266 


.99 


New Mexico 


34 


683 


1.21 


36 




253 


1.10 


Nebraska 


35 


597 


.78 


33 




340 


.85 


Idaho 


36 


491 


1.14 


42 




121 


.66 


Arkansas 


37 


482 


.50 


37 




218 


.47 


Mississippi 


38 


470 


.45 


34 




267 


.53 


Nevada 


39 


390 


.89 


47 




77 


.55 


Montana 


40 


373 


1.01 


44 




113 


.65 


Maine 


41 


354 


.69 


45 




105 


.41 


Alaska 


42 


335 


1.78 


46 




87 


1.32 


Rhode Island 


43 


306 


.65 


38 




212 


.81 


Vermont 


44 


298 


1.19 


40 




158 


1.35 


New Hampshire 


45 


265 


.57 


39 




160 


.78 


West Virginia 


46 


242 


.31 


43 




116 


.30 


North Dakota 


47 


224 


.75 


49 




63 


.44 


Wyoming 


48 


214 


.92 


48 




68 


.78 


Delaware 


49 


192 


.66 


41 




151 


1.03 


South Dakota 


50 


127 


.39 


50 




55 


.33 



Of all the artist occupations, architects 
had the largest percent increase between 
1970 and 1980. There were twice as many 
architects in 1980 as there were in 1970, 
their number increasing from 53,670 to 
107,693. This is three times the percent- 
age growth of the United States labor 
force in general. Most of the increase 
in architects occurred in the Southern 
and Western regions. 

California had the largest number of 
architects in both 1970 and 1980 — 7,710 
and 17,652 respectively. New York had 
the second largest number in both years, 
6,151 in 1970 and 8,691 in 1980, but in 
1980 it had less than half the architects 
in California compared with 20 percent 
less in 1970. 

Hawaii had the highest concentration of 
architects in its labor force relative to 
the national average in both 1970 and 
1980. Hawaii had nearly twice (1.95) the 
national concentration of architects in 
its labor force in 1980. Colorado had 
the second highest concentration ratio 
(1.85) in 1980. The state of Washington 
had the second highest ratio in 1970 
(1.66). 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of architects in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 



19 



11,272 




2,000 or more 
r I 1,000-1,999 
500-999 
499 or less 



Number of authors 19 80 




2.67% 
(highest in the nation) 



1.30% or more 
I I .79% to 1.29% 
.78% or less 



Concentration ratio of authors 19 80 



Figure V 



Authors 



Comparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of authors. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 




tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


11 


,272 


2 


.26 


2 


5,035 


1 


.82 


New York 


2 


9 


,361 


2 


.67 


1 


5,567 


2 


.16 


Illinois 


3 


1 


,701 




.71 


7 


840 




.53 


Massachusetts 


4 


1 


,525 


1 


.24 


4 


1,347 


1. 


.62 


Texas 


5 


1 


,487 




.52 


9 


721 




.48 


New Jersey 


6 


1 


,370 




.89 


8 


839 




.81 


Florida 


7 


1 


,352 




.73 


11 


708 




.81 


Virginia 


8 


1 


,320 


1, 


.22 


6 


914 


1 


.49 


Pennsylvania 


9 


1 


,237 




.53 


10 


710 




.43 


Colorado 


10 




882 


1 


.40 


21 


318 


1, 


.06 


Connecticut 


11 




873 


1 


.28 


5 


1,058 


2 


.35 


Maryland 


12 




864 




.95 


3 


1,401 


2. 


.54 


Washington 


13 




852 


1. 


.00 


18 


448 




.97 


Ohio 


14 




797 




.37 


12 


660 




.45 


Michigan 


15 




757 




.41 


13 


624 




.52 


Wisconsin 


16 




656 




.66 


17 


453 




.74 


Minnesota 


17 




632 




.72 


14 


608 


1 


.15 


Georgia 


18 




605 




.56 


24 


243 




.39 


Missouri 


19 




590 




.60 


16 


462 




.72 


Oregon 


20 




566 


1 


.04 


27 


191 




.66 


North Carolina 


21 




513 




.42 


15 


511 




.72 


Arizona 


22 




498 




.96 


20 


336 


1 


.51 


South Carolina 


23 




338 




.55 


36 


77 




.22 


New Mexico 


24 




335 


1 


.40 


29 


144 


1 


.22 


Indiana 


25 




333 




.30 


19 


338 




.46 


Louisiana 


26 




324 




.42 


39 


73 




.17 


Oklahoma 


27 




293 




.50 


23 


289 




.86 


Tennessee 


28 




286 




.32 


31 


133 




.25 


Nevada 


29 




255 


1 


.37 


43 


47 




.65 


Maine 


30 




253 


1 


.16 


41 


58 




.44 


Kansas 


31 




252 




.51 


25 


235 




.76 


Iowa 


32 




236 




.39 


26 


211 




.54 


Hawaii 


33 




233 


1 


.22 


33 


90 




.88 


New Hampshire 


34 




209 


1 


.05 


32 


124 


1 


.17 


Utah 


35 




208 




.77 


30 


140 


1 


.01 


Kentucky 


36 




169 




.25 


35 


85 




.21 


Rhode Island 


37 




166 




.83 


38 


76 




.56 


Montana 


38 




157 


1 


.00 


46 


17 




.19 


Idaho 


39 




126 




.69 


42 


48 




.51 


Alaska 


40 




121 


1 


.51 


45 


26 




.76 


Alabama 


41 




117 




.16 


22 


299 




.69 


Nebraska 


42 




117 




.36 


37 


77 




.37 


South Dakota 


43 




100 




.73 


49 


* 




* 


Vermont 


44 




93 




.88 


34 


86 


1 


.42 


Arkansas 


45 




88 




.21 


44 


38 




.16 


Mississippi 


46 




82 




.19 


28 


168 




.64 


Delaware 


47 




74 




.60 


40 


65 




.85 


West Virginia 


48 




58 




.18 


47 


12 




.06 


Wyoming 


49 




53 




.53 


50 


* 




* 


North Dakota 


50 




18 




.14 


48 


10 




.13 



There were 45,748 authors counted in 1980, 
an increase of 65 percent since 1970. 
This is a greater increase than the 
average for all artists, and considerably 
greater than the growth for the U.S. 
labor force in general. 

Authors made their greatest gains in the 
West, California replacing New York as 
the state with the largest number of 
authors. There were 11,272 authors in 
California in 1980 compared to 9,361 in 
the state of New York. The two states 
combined had 45.1 percent of the nation's 
authors in 1980 and 38.2 percent in 1970. 

New York had the highest concentration ra- 
tio (2.67) in 1980 and third highest in 
1970. California had the second highest 
concentration ratio in 1980 and fourth 
highest in 1970. Maryland and Connecti- 
cut, which had the highest concentration 
ratios for authors in 1970, experienced a 
substantial drop in the number of authors 
in 1980. The decline may reflect, in 
part, the introduction of the "technical 
writer" category into the 1980 Census 
classification system. The number of 
technical writers increased 677 percent 
in Maryland and 57 3 percent in Connecti- 
cut over the decade. This means that 
some of the respondents classified as 
authors in the 1970 Census were classified 
as technical writers in the 19 80 Census. 
It also means that the author category in 
19 80 more nearly approaches a category 
of creative writers of literary genre 
(e.g., lyricists, playwrights, poets, and 
novelists) . 

In the rankings at left an asterisk (*) 
is used to represent numbers that are too 
low to be meaningful (fewer than ten 
artists) and the concentration ratios 
derived from them. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of authors in state labor 
force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 1.00 
would mean that state concentration was identical to the 
national average. 



21 




I~~] 1,000 or more 
CI 500-999 
I I 100-499 
I I 99 or less 



Number of dancers 19 80 



10.64 
(highest in the nation 




1.30% or more 
I 1 .79% to 1.29% 
78% or less 



Concentration ratio of dancers 19 80 



Figure VI 



Dancers 



Comparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of dancers. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


New York 


1 


2,600 


2.57 


2 


1,281 


1.86 


California 


2 


2,279 


1.59 


1 


1,836 


2.48 


Florida 


3 


818 


1.54 


8 


254 


1.08 


Texas 


4 


713 


.86 


9 


241 


.60 


Nevada 


5 


568 


10.64 


5 


266 


13.73 


New Jersey 


6 


459 


1.03 


12 


140 


.51 


Hawaii 


7 


441 


8.03 


6 


262 


9.59 


Illinois 


8 


399 


.58 


7 


257 


.60 


Ohio 


9 


383 


.61 


3 


330 


.84 


Pennsylvania 


10 


304 


.45 


10 


190 


.43 


Maryland 


11 


297 


1.14 


11 


168 


1.14 


Indiana 


12 


288 


.89 


20 


93 


.48 


Georgia 


13 


220 


.70 


16 


104 


.62 


Massachusetts 


14 


218 


.61 


14 


106 


.48 


Arizona 


15 


218 


1.46 


17 


99 


1.67 


Washington 


16 


204 


.83 


13 


130 


1.05 


Colorado 


17 


196 


1.08 


15 


106 


1.33 


Kentucky 


18 


189 


.99 


23 


76 


.72 


North Carolina 


19 


185 


.53 


27 


58 


.30 


Wisconsin 


20 


172 


.60 


18 


98 


.60 


Connecticut 


21 


165 


.84 


30 


46 


.38 


Michigan 


22 


153 


.29 


* 


309 


.97 


Tennessee 


23 


152 


.58 


47 


* 


* 


Minnesota 


24 


149 


.59 


33 


24 


.17 


Virginia 


25 


147 


.47 


22 


81 


.49 


Louisiana 


26 


124 


.56 


19 


97 


.86 


Oregon 


27 


118 


.75 


21 


89 


1.15 


Iowa 


28 


103 


.59 


39 


14 


.13 


Utah 


29 


87 


1.11 


25 


63 


1.70 


Mississippi 


30 


82 


.64 


41 


11 


.16 


Missouri 


31 


76 


.27 


26 


59 


.34 


Alabama 


32 


74 


.36 


31 


30 


.26 


Oklahoma 


33 


72 


.43 


29 


56 


.62 


Alaska 


34 


63 


2.74 


32 


31 


3.41 


Arkansas 


35 


58 


.49 


40 


11 


.17 


West Virginia 


36 


47 


.49 


36 


16 


.30 


South Carolina 


37 


43 


.24 


24 


69 


.75 


Nebraska 


38 


43 


.46 


37 


16 


.29 


Kansas 


39 


38 


.27 


28 


57 


.69 


Montana 


40 


33 


.73 


49 


* 


* 


Idaho 


41 


30 


.57 


35 


17 


.67 


Delaware 


42 


30 


.85 


42 


10 


.49 


New Mexico 


43 


27 


.39 


43 


10 


.32 


Maine 


44 


19 


.30 


48 


* 


* 


Rhode Island 


45 


13 


.22 


38 


16 


.44 


Vermont 


46 


* 


* 


50 


* 


* 


Wyoming 


47 


* 


* 


34 


22 


1.83 


New Hampshire 


48 


* 


* 


44 


* 


* 


North Dakota 


49 


* 


* 


45 


* 


* 


South Dakota 


50 


* 


* 


46 


* 


* 



Although increasing by 78 percent during 
the 1970-80 decade, dancers remained the 
smallest artist occupation population 
with 13,194 members in 1980. This is the 
only artist occupation with more people 
in New York than California and with the 
highest percent change in the Northeast 
and South rather than the West. 

There were 2,600 dancers in New York in 
1980. New York overtook California's 
1970 lead in the dance occupation during 
the decade, a trend that is the opposite 
of what has happened in the other artist 
occupations. California had 2,279 
dancers in 1980. All the other states 
had fewer than 1,000 dancers, and more 
than a third of the states had fewer than 
100. 

Nevada and Hawaii had the highest dancer 
concentration ratios in both 1980 and 
1970. Nevada had more than ten times the 
national concentration and Hawaii eight 
times. Both states have large entertain- 
ment industries in which dancers play an 
important role. 

In the rankings at left an asterisk (*) 
is used to represent numbers too low to 
be meaningful (fewer than ten artists) 
and the concentration ratios derived from 
them. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of dancers in state labor 

force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 1.00 

would mean that state concentration was identical to the 
national average. 



23 



48,036 




25,000 or more 
F^"~1 8,000-24,999 
I I 1,000-7,999 
I I 999 or less 



Number of designers 19 80 




1.69% 

(highest in the nation) 



II 1.30% or more 
79% to 1.29% 
78% or less 



Concentration ratio of designers 1980 



Figure VII 



Designers 



Comparison of 1980 and 19 70 state 
distribution of designers. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


48,036 


1 


.30 


2 


31,127 


1.34 


New York 


2 


43,833 


1 


.69 


1 


37,236 


1.72 


Texas 


3 


20,581 




.97 


8 


10,663 


.85 


Illinois 


4 


17,255 




.98 


3 


13,616 


1.02 


Pennsylvania 


5 


14,981 




.86 


4 


12,051 


.88 


Michigan 


6 


14,786 


1 


.08 


6 


11,428 


1.14 


Florida 


7 


14,102 


1 


.03 


10 


7,330 


1.00 


Ohio 


8 


13,949 




.87 


5 


11,575 


.94 


New Jersey 


9 


13,728 


1 


.20 


7 


11,240 


1.30 


Massachusetts 


10 


10,089 


1 


.11 


9 


7,821 


1.12 


Virginia 


11 


7,588 




.95 


11 


4,996 


.97 


North Carolina 


12 


7,472 




.84 


16 


4,225 


.71 


Washington 


13 


6,733 


1 


.07 


21 


3,119 


.80 


Georgia 


14 


6,664 




.83 


18 


3,772 


.72 


Indiana 


15 


6,287 




.76 


13 


4,470 


.73 


Minnesota 


16 


6,083 




.94 


19 


3,749 


.84 


Wisconsin 


17 


6,024 




.82 


17 


3,981 


.77 


Maryland 


18 


5,750 




.86 


12 


4,586 


.99 


Connecticut 


19 


5,744 


1 


.14 


15 


4,227 


1.12 


Missouri 


20 


5,720 




.78 


14 


4,409 


.82 


Tennessee 


21 


4,929 




.74 


20 


3,349 


.76 


Colorado 


22 


4,683 


1 


.01 


23 


2,415 


.96 


Alabama 


23 


4,256 




.80 


22 


2,560 


.71 


Oregon 


24 


3,787 




.94 


31 


1,609 


.66 


Arizona 


25 


3,756 




.98 


29 


1,734 


.93 


Louisiana 


26 


3,656 




.65 


24 


2,132 


.60 


Oklahoma 


27 


3,321 




.76 


30 


1,727 


.61 


Kentucky 


28 


3,284 




.67 


25 


2,104 


.63 


South Carolina 


29 


3,090 




.68 


28 


1,874 


.65 


Iowa 


30 


2,995 




.67 


26 


2,041 


.62 


Kansas 


31 


2,763 




.76 


27 


1,889 


.73 


Mississippi 


32 


2,069 




.63 


33 


1,158 


.53 


Arkansas 


33 


1,855 




.61 


37 


953 


.48 


Rhode Island 


34 


1,841 


1 


.24 


32 


1,223 


1.08 


Utah 


35 


1,836 




.91 


35 


1,066 


.92 


Nebraska 


36 


1,643 




.68 


34 


1,073 


.62 


West Virginia 


37 


1,591 




.65 


36 


1,036 


.62 


New Mexico 


38 


1,422 




.80 


40 


83 8 


.84 


New Hampshire 


39 


1,357 




.92 


38 


900 


1.01 


Hawaii 


40 


1,236 




.88 


39 


879 


1.03 


Nevada 


41 


1,143 




.83 


43 


478 


.79 


Maine 


42 


944 




.59 


41 


601 


.54 


Delaware 


43 


799 




.88 


42 


541 


.85 


Idaho 


44 


760 




.56 


45 


459 


.58 


Vermont 


45 


627 




.80 


44 


467 


.92 


Montana 


46 


565 




.49 


46 


418 


.55 


North Dakota 


47 


447 




.48 


48 


213 


.34 


Wyoming 


48 


442 




.60 


50 


160 


.42 


South Dakota 


49 


386 




.38 


47 


320 


.44 


Alaska 


50 


363 




.61 


49 


172 


.60 



Designers constituted the largest of the 
artist occupational groups with 338,374 
people in 1980. Although their growth 
was more moderate than the other artist 
occupations, it was greater than that of 
the United States labor force in general. 
The 1970-80 increase was 45 percent, 
with the West and South gaining the most. 



Following the general 
the West, designers ar 
to live in California 
which ranked first in 
had 48,036 designers i 
with New York's 43,833 
quarter of all designe 
two states. Other sta 
more designers include 
Pennsylvania, Michigan 
New Jersey, and Massac 



population shift to 
e now more likely 
than in New York, 
1970. California 
n 1980 compared 

More than one 
rs live in these 
tes with 10,000 or 
Texas, Illinois, 
, Florida, Ohio, 
husetts . 



Although the number of designers in Cali- 
fornia was greater than in New York in 
1980, New York continues to have the high- 
est concentration ratio — 1.69 vs. 1.30 
for California. Furthermore, the third 
highest concentration ratio for designers 
in 1980 was that of Rhode Island (1.24). 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of designers in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio 
of 1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical 
to the national average. 



25 







°° °?o 


>r\ 


o 



BHB 8,000 or more 

t 1 5,000-7,999 

I I 1,000-4,999 

I | 999 or less 



Number of musicians/composers 19 80 



3.0 
(highest in the natio 




P 1 1.30% or more 
I I .79% to 1.29% 
.78% or less 



Concentration ratio of musicians/composers 19 80 



Figure VIII 



Musicians and composers 



Comparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of musicians/composers. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


22,919 


1.50 


1 


14,752 


1, 


,49 


New York 


2 


16,836 


1.56 


2 


12,132 


1. 


.31 


Texas 


3 


7,717 


.87 


3 


5,445 


1. 


,02 


Florida 


4 


7,713 


1.36 


7 


4,328 


1, 


.38 


Pennsylvania 


5 


5,892 


.82 


5 


4,873 




.83 


Illinois 


6 


5,514 


.75 


4 


5,120 




.90 


Ohio 


7 


5,424 


.81 


6 


4,385 




.83 


Michigan 


8 


4,640 


.82 


8 


3,847 




.90 


New Jersey 


9 


4,481 


.95 


9 


3,354 




.91 


Massachusetts 


10 


4,257 


1.12 


10 


2,504 




.84 


Tennessee 


11 


3,826 


1.37 


11 


2,129 


1. 


.12 


Washington 


12 


3,366 


1.29 


12 


2,095 


1 


.26 


Georgia 


13 


2,745 


.82 


19 


1,569 




.70 


Minnesota 


14 


2,736 


1.02 


15 


1,984 


1 


.04 


North Carolina 


15 


2,652 


.71 


18 


1,763 




.69 


Virginia 


16 


2,592 


.78 


20 


1,477 




.67 


Maryland 


17 


2,589 


.93 


17 


1,912 




.97 


Missouri 


18 


2,493 


.82 


14 


1,988 




.87 


Wisconsin 


19 


2,414 


.79 


13 


1,995 




.90 


Indiana 


20 


2,234 


.65 


16 


1,934 




.74 


Colorado 


21 


2,014 


1.04 


22 


1,338 


1 


.25 


Louisiana 


22 


1,892 


.81 


21 


1,429 




.94 


Nevada 


23 


1,750 


3.07 


25 


1,090 


4 


.19 


Arizona 


24 


1,747 


1.09 


30 


1,033 


1 


.30 


Connecticut 


25 


1,740 


.83 


24 


1,162 




.72 


Kentucky 


26 


1,666 


.82 


26 


1,085 




.77 


Oregon 


27 


1,621 


.97 


28 


1,077 


1 


.03 


Alabama 


28 


1,468 


.67 


23 


1,307 




.84 


Oklahoma 


29 


1,314 


.73 


29 


1,048 




.87 


South Carolina 


30 


1,131 


.60 


33 


706 




.57 


Iowa 


31 


1,112 


.60 


31 


978 




.70 


Hawa i i 


32 


1,097 


1.87 


34 


620 


1 


.69 


Kansas 


33 


904 


.60 


27 


1,078 




.98 


Mississippi 


34 


899 


.66 


35 


573 




.61 


Nebraska 


35 


768 


.77 


32 


751 


1 


.02 


Arkansas 


36 


728 


.58 


37 


459 




.54 


New Mexico 


37 


693 


.94 


36 


468 


1 


.10 


Maine 


38 


548 


.82 


41 


347 




.73 


West Virginia 


39 


521 


.51 


38 


406 




.57 


Rhode Island 


40 


489 


.79 


40 


351 




.73 


Utah 


41 


462 


.55 


44 


234 




.47 


New Hampshire 


42 


426 


.70 


47 


149 




.39 


Montana 


43 


330 


.69 


39 


401 


1 


.24 


Idaho 


44 


306 


.55 


42 


339 


1 


.00 


South Dakota 


45 


303 


.72 


43 


316 


1 


.02 


North Dakota 


46 


287 


.74 


46 


186 




.70 


Vermont 


47 


262 


.80 


50 


91 




.42 


Delaware 


48 


237 


.63 


45 


207 




.76 


Alaska 


49 


213 


.87 


49 


94 




.77 


Wyoming 


50 


78 


.26 


48 


138 




.86 



The 140,556 musicians/composers in the 
country had grown by 41 percent: over the 
decade — moderate compared to artist 
occupation as a whole. The growth was 
spread evenly across the regions, and 
California continued to have the largest 
number of musicians and composers with 
22,919 in 1980. 

In addition to maintaining its position 
as the state with the most musicians and 
composers, California increased its lead 
over the second-ranked state, New York. 
While the musician/composer population in 
New York increased by over 35 percent — 
from 12,132 to 16,836 — California's 
increased by 55 percent. 

In terms of the concentration of musi- 
cians/composers in the state labor force, 
Nevada and Hawaii were first and second, 
respectively, in both 1970 and 1980. 
Nevada's concentration ratio was 3.07 in 
1980 and Hawaii's was 1.87. As in the 
case of dancers, the relative importance 
of the entertainment industries in Nevada 
and Hawaii results in the employment of a 
large proportion of musicians in these 
states' labor forces. 



tConcentration ratio: Proportion of musicians/composers in 
state labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio 
of 1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical 
to the national average. 



27 



24,657 




9,000 or more 
I I 5,000-8,999 
I I 1,000-4,999 
I I 999 or less 



Number of painters... 1980 




1.89% 

(highest in the nation) 



.32% 

(lowest in the nation) 

I I 1.30% or more 
I I .79% to 1.29% 
I I .78% or less 



Concentration ratio of painters... 19 80 



Figure IX 



Painters, sculptors, craft artists, 
and artist printmakers 



Comparison of 19 80 and 1970 state 
distribution of painters... 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio 1 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


California 


1 


24,657 


1.48 


2 


12,507 


1. 


.44 


New York 


2 


21,274 


1.81 


1 


15,381 


1. 


,91 


Texas 


3 


8,419 


.87 


7 


3,560 




.76 


Illinois 


4 


7,382 


.92 


3 


6,055 


1. 


.22 


Pennsylvania 


5 


6,376 


.81 


4 


4,359 




.85 


Florida 


6 


5,926 


.96 


10 


2,607 




.95 


New Jersey 


7 


5,602 


1.08 


6 


3,941 


1, 


.22 


Ohio 


8 


5,373 


.74 


5 


4,036 




.88 


Massachusetts 


9 


4,788 


1.16 


9 


2,970 


1, 


.14 


Michigan 


10 


4,699 


.76 


8 


3,482 




,93 


Virginia 


11 


3,878 


1.07 


16 


1,573 




.82 


Washington 


12 


3,620 


1.27 


18 


1,315 




.91 


Maryland 


13 


3,575 


1.18 


11 


2,003 


1 


.16 


Minnesota 


14 


3,060 


1.05 


15 


1,662 


1 


.00 


Missouri 


15 


2,968 


.90 


12 


1,874 




.94 


Connecticut 


16 


2,83 5 


1.24 


14 


1,761 


1. 


.25 


Colorado 


17 


2,805 


1.33 


20 


1,022 


1 


.09 


Wisconsin 


18 


2,760 


.83 


13 


1,766 




.92 


Georgia 


19 


2,538 


.70 


17 


1,334 




.68 


Arizona 


20 


2,284 


1.31 


26 


707 


1 


.02 


Indiana 


21 


2,212 


.59 


19 


1,154 




.51 


Tennessee 


22 


2,138 


.71 


22 


919 




.56 


North Carolina 


23 


1,987 


.49 


21 


1,022 




.46 


Oregon 


24 


1,910 


1.05 


24 


745 




.82 


New Mexico 


25 


1,514 


1.89 


32 


425 


1 


.15 


Oklahoma 


26 


1,448 


.74 


28 


682 




.65 


Louisiana 


27 


1,357 


.53 


27 


687 




.52 


Kansas 


28 


1,280 


.78 


23 


792 




.82 . 


Alabama 


29 


1,213 


.51 


25 


710 




.52 


Iowa 


30 


1,210 


.60 


29 


562 




.46 


Hawa i i 


31 


1,101 


1.72 


36 


337 


1 


.05 


Kentucky 


32 


1,060 


.48 


30 


. 538 




.44 


South Carolina 


33 


946 


.46 


35 


371 




.35 


Utah 


34 


936 


1.03 


31 


463 


1 


.07 


Nebraska 


35 


73 7 


.68 


33 


390 




.61 


New Hampshire 


36 


687 


1.03 


39 


245 




.74 


Rhode Island 


37 


626 


.93 


34 


378 




.90 


Maine 


38 


583 


.80 


41 


197 




.48 


Mississippi 


39 


570 


.39 


42 


195 




.24 


Montana 


40 


534 


1.02 


44 


157 




.56 


Nevada 


41 


502 


.81 


45 


151 




.67 


Vermont 


42 


500 


1.41 


40 


215 


1 


.13 


Arkansas 


43 


478 


.35 


38 


270 




.36 


Idaho 


44 


370 


.61 


46 


134 




.45 


Alaska 


45 


366 


1.37 


48 


61 




.57 


West Virginia 


46 


355 


.32 


37 


284 




.45 


Delaware 


47 


323 


.79 


43 


193 




.81 


South Dakota 


48 


178 


.39 


47 


78 




.29 


Wyoming 


49 


172 


.52 


49 


55 




.39 


North Dakota 


50 


146 


.35 


50 


49 




.21 



The number of painters, sculptors, craft 
artists, and artist printmakers increased 
by 76 percent during the 1970-80 decade. 
As a result of this substantial increase, 
they constituted the second largest art- 
ist occupation in 1980 with 153,162 
people. 

California took the lead from New York in 
the number of painters... in 1980 with 
24,6 57 compared to New York's 21,274. In 
terms of concentration ratio, however, 
New York continues to have a substantially 
higher concentration than California — 1.81 
compared to 1.48. The state with the 
highest concentration ratio of painters... 
in 19 80 was New Mexico. New Mexico ex- 
perienced a 256 percent increase in its 
visual artist labor force over the decade 
and had a concentration ratio of 1.89 
in 1980. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of painters... in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. ^ A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 



29 







'" °?« 


>* ^ 


C7 



6,000 or more 
I I 2,000-5,999 
1,000-1,999 
999 or less 



Number of photographers 19 80 





.56% 

(lowest in the nation) 



1.30% or more 
r I .79% to 1.29% 
.78% or less 



1.53% 

(highest in the nation) 



Concentration ratio of photographers 19 80 



Figure X 



Photographers 



Comparison of 1980 and 19 70 state 
distribution of photographers. 





1980 




Concen- 
tration 


1970 






Concen- 
tration 


State 


Rank 


Number 


ratio t 


Rank 


Number 


ratio t 


California 


1 


13,060 


1.26 


1 


9, 


,494 


1. 


.41 


New York 


2 


10,539 


1.45 


2 


8, 


,775 


1. 


.40 


Texas 


3 


5,582 


.94 


4 


3, 


,398 




.94 


Illinois 


4 


4,929 


1.00 


3 


4, 


,138 


1 


.07 


Ohio 


5 


4,211 


.94 


6 


3, 


,003 




.84 


Florida 


6 


4,098 


1.07 


9 


2, 


,189 


1 


.03 


Pennsylvania 


7 


3,859 


.79 


5 


3, 


,347 




.84 


Michigan 


8 


3,384 


.89 


7 


2, 


,575 




.88 


New Jersey 


9 


3,134 


.98 


8 


2 


,471 




.98 


Massachusetts 


10 


2,818 


1.10 


10 


1, 


,970 




.98 


Virginia 


11 


2,196 


.98 


12 


1, 


,465 




.98 


Maryland 


12 


2,097 


1.12 


11 


1 


,894 


1 


.41 


Missouri 


13 


1,934 


.94 


13 


1, 


,455 




.93 


North Carolina 


14 


1,928 


.77 


20 


1, 


,057 




.61 


Tennessee 


15 


1,816 


.97 


21 




997 




.77 


Washington 


16 


1,806 


1.03 


18 


1 


,123 




.99 


Minnesota 


17 


1,783 


.99 


15 


1, 


,363 


1 


.06 


Georgia 


18 


1,678 


.75 


19 


1, 


,105 




.72 


Wisconsin 


19 


1,669 


.81 


16 


1 


,222 




.82 


Indiana 


20 


1,596 


.69 


14 


1. 


,388 




.78 


Colorado 


21 


1,556 


1.20 


22 




905 


1 


.24 


Connecticut 


22 


1,488 


1.06 


17 


1 


,182 


1 


.08 


Louisiana 


23 


1,274 


.81 


23 




814 




.79 


Oregon 


24 


1,203 


1.07 


27 




706 


1 


.00 


Arizona 


25 


1,184 


1.10 


30 




529 




.98 


Alabama 


26 


1,120 


.76 


26 




751 




.71 


Kentucky 


27 


1,054 


.77 


25 




756 




.79 


Oklahoma 


28 


1,053 


.86 


24 




814 


1 


.00 


Kansas 


29 


975 


.96 


28 




696 




.93 


South Carolina 


30 


936 


.73 


31 




485 




.58 


Iowa 


31 


790 


.63 


29 




570 




.60 


Nebraska 


32 


675 


1.00 


35 




359 




.72 


Hawaii 


33 


603 


1.53 


36 




324 


1 


.30 


Utah 


34 


601 


1.07 


34 




360 


1 


.07 


Arkansas 


35 


581 


.68 


33 




369 




.64 


Nevada 


36 


573 


1.49 


44 




192 


1 


.09 


New Mexico 


37 


554 


1.12 


32 




452 


1 


.57 


Mississippi 


38 


540 


.59 


37 




306 




.48 


Rhode Island 


39 


430 


1.03 


39 




270 




.82 


West Virginia 


40 


387 


.57 


38 




285 




.58 


Maine 


41 


379 


.84 


41 




221 




.68 


Idaho 


42 


335 


.89 


43 




198 




.86 


Montana 


43 


307 


.95 


42 




203 




.92 


New Hampshire 


44 


230 


.56 


40 




248 




.96 


Delaware 


45 


223 


.88 


45 




169 




.91 


South Dakota 


46 


211 


.75 


48 




146 




.69 


Alaska 


47 


200 


1.21 


50 




63 




.76 


North Dakota 


48 


190 


.73 


47 




154 




.85 


Wyoming 


49 


183 


.89 


49 




90 




.82 


Vermont 


50 


165 


.75 


46 




166 


1 


.12 



The photographer occupation increased by 
40 percent over the decade, which was 
higher than the U.S. labor force in 
general but low relative to other artist 
occupations. The growth in photographers 
was spread fairly uniformly throughout 
the nation with only the South showing a 
slightly higher increase than the other 
regions. 

California continued to lead the states 
in number of photographers with 13,060 in 
1980. New York was second with 10,539. 
More than half the states had at least 
1,000 photographers. 

In terms of concentration ratio, Hawaii, 
Nevada, and New York all have approxi- 
mately one and one-half times the national 
average of photographers in the labor 
force. Hawaii's ratio is 1.53, Nevada's 
is 1.49, and New York's is 1.45. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of photographers in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 



31 



3,219 



n 


°° °fo 


,>^\ 


O 




I I 2,500 or more 

I I 1,000-2,499 

I I 500-999 

I I 499 or less 



Number of teachers (higher ed) 19 80 



2.84% (highest in the nation) 




.6 5% 

(lowest in the nation) 



1.30% or more 
.79% to 1.29% 
.78% or less 



Concentration ratio of teachers (higher ed) 19 80 



Figure XI 



Teachers of art, drama, 

and music (higher education) 



:omparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of teachers (higher ed) . 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






of 


tration 




of 


tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratiot 


California 


1 


3,219 


1.04 


1 


4, 


,295 


1.03 


New York 


2 


2,195 


1.01 


2 


3, 


,635 


.93 


Texas 


3 


1,571 


.88 


4 


2, 


,085 


.92 


Illinois 


4 


1,448 


.98 


3 


2, 


,335 


.97 


Pennsylvania 


5 


1,279 


.88 


5 


2, 


,03 9 


.82 


Ohio 


6 


1,186 


.88 


6 


I, 


,876 


.84 


Massachusetts 


7 


1,078 


1.41 


8 


1, 


,439 


1.15 


Michigan 


8 


878 


.77 


7 


I, 


,633 


.90 


North Carolina 


9 


834 


1.11 


11 


1, 


,124 


1.04 


Florida 


10 


815 


.71 


10 


1 


,135 


.86 


Wisconsin 


11 


767 


1.25 


9 


1 


,327 


1.43 


Indiana 


12 


717 


1.03 


12 


1 


,108 


1.00 


Minnesota 


13 


688 


1.27 


14 


1 


,007 


1.25 


New Jersey 


14 


621 


.65 


18 




823 


.53 


Missouri 


15 


618 


1.01 


13 


1 


,016 


1.05 


Washington 


16 


595 


1.13 


15 




937 


1.33 


Virginia 


17 


551 


.82 


17 




845 


.91 


Colorado 


18 


544 


1.39 


25 




650 


1.44 


Iowa 


19 


522 


1.40 


16 




864 


1.46 


Connecticut 


20 


493 


1.17 


23 




673 


.99 


Georgia 


21 


482 


.71 


21 




700 


.74 


Kansas 


22 


479 


1.57 


22 




682 


1.47 


Louisiana 


23 


477 


1.01 


24 




673 


1.05 


Tennessee 


24 


474 


.84 


19 




799 


1.00 


Maryland 


25 


469 


.83 


20 




790 


.95 


Oregon 


26 


448 


1.33 


27 




596 


1.36 


South Carolina 


27 


436 


1.14 


34 




389 


.75 


Oklahoma 


28 


394 


1.08 


28 




596 


1.17 


Alabama 


29 


389 


.88 


29 




568 


.87 


Arizona 


30 


346 


1.07 


32 




433 


1.29 


Kentucky 


31 


323 


.78 


26 




605 


1.01 


Utah 


32 


267 


1.58 


30 




450 


2.15 


Mississippi 


33 


255 


.93 


31 




443 


1.12 


New Mexico 


34 


239 


1.61 


37 




240 


1.34 


Idaho 


35 


211 


1.86 


45 




155 


1.09 


Nebraska 


36 


192 


.95 


33 




423 


1.36 


South Dakota 


37 


176 


2.07 


38 




207 


1.58 


Wyoming 


38 


175 


2.84 


48 




99 


1.46 


Arkansas 


39 


170 


.66 


36 




324 


.90 


Hawai i 


40 


154 


1.30 


40 




190 


1.23 


West Virginia 


41 


139 


.68 


35 




352 


1.16 


Maine 


42 


127 


.94 


46 




149 


.74 


North Dakota 


43 


120 


1.53 


43 




167 


1.49 


New Hampshire 


44 


119 


.96 


42 




173 


1.08 


Rhode Island 


45 


114 


.91 


39 




200 


.98 


Montana 


46 


110 


1.13 


41 




190 


1.39 


Vermont 


47 


108 


1.64 


44 




156 


1.70 


Nevada 


48 


93 


.81 


49 




48 


.44 


Delaware 


49 


70 


.92 


47 




122 


1.06 


Alaska 


50 


70 


1.41 


50 




26 


.50 



Teachers of art, drama, and music in col- 
leges and universities are the only art- 
ist occupational group to show a loss in 
the census population figures during the 
1970-80 decade. There were an estimated 
42,000 such teachers in 1970 and this num- 
ber reportedly dropped to 28,385 by 1980, 
a loss of 32 percent. The loss occurred 
in all regions of the country, although 
in the West the loss was less severe. 
Only five states (South Carolina, Idaho, 
Wyoming, Nevada, and Alaska) did not have 
a loss. As previously noted, this re- 
ported drop may only reflect the fact that 
substantially fewer teachers specified 
their subject area in the 1980 Census than 
in 1970. The Bureau of the Census plans 
to further examine this phenomenon. 

California continued to have the most 
teachers of art, drama, and music in high- 
er education — 3,219 according to the 1980 
census. New York is second with 2,195. 
The census reports that only five other 
states — Texas, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylva- 
nia, and Massachusetts — have at least 
1,000 teachers of art, drama, and music 
in their colleges and universities, con- 
servatories, and other professional 
training programs. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of teachers (higher ed) 
in state labor force compared with national proportion. A 
ratio of 1.00 would mean that state concentration was 
identical to the national average. 



33 



Figure XII 



Artists not elsewhere classified 



Comparison of 1980 and 1970 state 
distribution of artists n.e.c. 





1980 


Number 


Concen- 


1970 


Number 


Concen- 






o: 


E 


tration 




of 




tration 


State 


Rank 


artists 


ratio t 


Rank 


artists 


ratio' t 


California 


1 


8, 


,490 


1.57 


1 


10, 


.300 


1 


.94 


New York 


2 


5 


,225 


1.37 


2 


7 


.991 


1 


.62 


Florida 


3 


3 


,780 


1.89 


6 


2, 


,271 


1 


.36 


Texas 


4 


2 


,245 


.72 


3 


2 


,766 




.97 


Illinois 


5 


2 


,168 


.84 


4 


2 


,73 5 




.90 


Ohio 


6 


1, 


,822 


.77 


8 


2 


,153 




.77 


Pennsylvania 


7 


1 


,801 


.71 


5 


2 


,322 




.74 


New Jersey 


8 


1. 


,648 


.98 


7 


2 


,199 


1 


.11 


Michigan 


9 


1 


,543 


.77 


9 


1 


,948 




.85 


Massachusetts 


10 


1 


,412 


1.05 


10 


1 


,491 




,94 


Maryland 


11 


1 


,248 


1.27 


11 


1 


,367 


1 


.29 


Georgia 


12 


1 


,080 


.92 


18 




603 




.50 


Virginia 


13 




961 


.82 


12 


1 


,087 




.93 


Colorado 


14 




947 


1.39 


19 




578 


1 


.01 


Arizona 


15 




929 


1.65 


20 




575 


1 


.35 


Missouri 


16 




827 


.77 


15 




775 




.63 


North Carolina 


17 




818 


.62 


17 




627 




.46 


Washington 


18 




802 


.87 


14 




826 




.93 


Tennessee 


19 




790 


.80 


22 




560 




.55 


Connecticut 


20 




729 


.99 


13 


1 


,003 


1 


.16 


Minnesota 


21 




726 


.77 


23 




544 




.54 


Indiana 


22 




713 


.58 


21 




568 




.41 


Louisiana 


23 




710 


.86 


24 




483 




.60 


Nevada 


24 




673 


3.34 


30 




412 


2 


.97 


Wisconsin 


25 




662 


.62 


16 




646 




.55 


Kentucky 


26 




643 


.89 


25 




483 




.64 


Alabama 


27 




533 


.69 


28 




424 




.51 


Oregon 


28 




516 


.87 


27 




467 




.84 


Hawaii 


29 




511 


2.47 


31 




357 


1 


.83 


Kansas 


30 




444 


.83 


32 




296 




.50 


New Mexico 


31 




391 


1.50 


33 




292 


1 


.29 


South Carolina 


32 




374 


.56 


34 




288 




.44 


Oklahoma 


33 




358 


.56 


26 




468 




.73 


Iowa 


34 




304 


.47 


29 




423 




.57 


Mississippi 


35 




301 


.63 


42 




120 




.24 


West Virginia 


36 




261 


.73 


38 




208 




.54 


Utah 


37 




234 


.79 


35 




258 




.97 


New Hampshire 


38 




228 


1.06 


36 




245 


1 


.21 


Arkansas 


39 




209 


.47 


37 




215 




.47 


Nebraska 


40 




180 


.51 


40 




182 




.46 


Rhode Island 


41 




171 


.78 


39 




194 




.75 


Delaware 


42 




171 


1.28 


43 




104 




.71 


Maine 


43 




156 


.66 


41 




176 




.69 


Idaho 


44 




13 9 


.70 


44 




102 




.57 


Vermont 


45 




113 


.98 


45 




96 




.83 


Montana 


46 




104 


.61 


46 




81 




.47 


North Dakota 


47 




93 


.68 


49 




37 




.26 


South Dakota 


48 




68 


.46 


47 




65 




.39 


Alaska 


49 




63 


.73 


48 




56 




.86 


Wyoming 


50 




51 


.47 


50 




35 




.41 



This census classification represents a 
residual group of artist occupations that 
do not lend themselves to classification 
in any of the ten previously described 
categories. A wide variety is included 
(e.g., circus performer, model maker, 
inker and opaquer ) . The 1970 Census 
reported 53,131 individuals in this cate- 
gory and 49,653 were reported in 1980. 
The states with the highest concentration 
of these artists in 1980 were Nevada 
(3.34) and Hawaii (2.47). This again 
reflects the strong entertainment industry 
in these two states. 



t Concentration ratio: Proportion of artists n.e.c. in state 
labor force compared with national proportion. A ratio of 
1.00 would mean that state concentration was identical to 
the national average. 



STATE-BY-STATE SUMMARY 



While the artist population increased by 
47 percent in the U.S. as a whole between 
1970 and 1980, there were considerable dif 
ferences from state to state. Increase 
ranged from a low of 23 percent in Mary- 
land and Illinois to a high of over 200 
percent in Alaska. The states with the 
highest percentage increase in artist pop- 
ulation were Alaska, Arizona, Nevada, Col- 
orado, Florida, Wyoming, Oregon, Hawaii, 
New Mexico, Washington, and South Caro- 
lina. All but two of these are in the 
Western region. 



most states, designers (3,756) consti- 
tuted its largest artist occupational 
group. The 1980 concentration ratio of 
Arizona artists was 1.14 times the U.S. 
average. 



Arkansas 

There were 5,468 ar 
sas in 1980. This 
cent increase over 
average increase fo 
sas ranked thirty-s 
thirty-eighth in 19 
artists. In the oc 
states it was highe 
the announcer categ 
ers. The 1980 cone 
kansas artists was 
nation at .56 of th 



In the foregoing section, which deals with 
change in the different artist occupa- 
tions, the states are ranked in order of 

descending 1980 population for each occupa- California 
tional group. These rankings are referred 
to in the following state summaries. 



tists living in Arkan- 
represents a 64 per- 
1970, well above the 
r U.S. artists. Arkan- 
eventh in 1970 and 
80 for total number of 
cupational rankings of 
st (thirty-second) in 
ory with 581 announc- 
entration ratio of Ar- 
second lowest in the 
e U.S. average. 



Alabama 

Alabama had 11,779 artists in 1980. With 
an increase of 48 percent between 1970 and 
1980, it was slightly above the U.S. aver- 
age. It was twenty-sixth in number of art- 
ists, dropping from twenty-fourth position 
a decade earlier. In the occupational 
rankings of states its highest position is 
in the announcer category, where it was 
thirteenth. The 1980 concentration ratio 
of Alabama artists remained low at .69 of 
the U.S. average, the same as in 1970. 



Alaska 

Alaska 

increas 

nation, 

populat 

710 Ala 

1970 Ce 

2,148. 

the 197 

seventh 

ranking 

fourth) 

highest 

The 198 

artists 

compare 

Arizona 



had the greatest proportionate 
e in artists of any state in the 

more than tripling its artist 
ion between 1970 and 1980. Only 
ska artists were counted in the 
nsus, but by 1980 the state had 

The state moved from last place in 
ranking of artists to forty- 

in 1980. In the occupational 
s of states it was highest (thirty- 

in the dancer category and next 

(fortieth) in the author category. 
concentration ratio of Alaska 

was 1.13 times the U.S. average 
d with .79 in 1970. 



California led the nation in 1980 in all 
the artist occupations with the exception 
of dancers. There were 176,321 artists 
in California in 1980 (over 16 percent of 
all artists in the U.S.), an increase of 
63 percent from 1970. One-third of all 
U.S. actors and directors and one-quarter 
of all U.S. authors were in California in 
1980, but designers (48,036) constituted 
its largest artist occupational group. 
The 1980 concentration ratio of Califor- 
nia artists was 1.49 times the U.S. aver- 
age. California tied with Hawaii for the 
second highest ratio in the nation. 

Colorado 

Colorado doubled its artist population be- 
tween 1970 and 1980. With nearly 18,000 
artists in 1980, it ranked nineteenth in 
the nation. In the occupational rankings 
of states Colorado was highest (tenth) in 
the author category with 882 authors. 
Its largest 1980 artist occupational 
groups were designers (4,683) followed by 
painters, sculptors, craft artists, and 
artist printmakers (2,805) and architects 
(2,741). The 1980 concentration ratio of 
Colorado artists was 1.20 times the U.S. 
average. This was the fifth highest ra- 
tio in the nation. 



Arizona more than doubled its number of 
artists between 1970 and 1980, increasing 
113 percent. With over 14,000 artists at 
the end of the decade, the state moved 
from thirtieth to twenty-third place in 
total number of artists. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states Arizona was 
highest (fifteenth) in the dancer cate- 
gory with 218 dancers. However, as in 



Connecticut 

Connecticut had a relati 
crease (28 percent) in i 
tion between 1970 and 19 
from fourteenth place in 
artists to twenty-second 
were over 17,000 artists 
in 1980. Designers (5,7 
the largest artist occup 
lowed by 2,835 painters, 
artists, and artist prin 
occupational rankings of 



vely small in- 
ts artist popula- 
80. It dropped 
number of 
place. There 
in Connecticut 
44) constituted 
ational group fol- 
sculptors, craft 
tmakers. In the 
states Connecti- 



35 



cut was eleventh in the author category, 
dropping from fifth place in 1970. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Connecticut's 
artists was 1.07 times the U.S. average. 

Delaware 



the listing of announcers and thirteenth 
in dancers and musicians/composers. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Georgia 
artists was .79 of the U.S. average. 

Hawaii 



Delaware had 2,288 artists in 1980, rank- 
ing forty-sixth in the nation. Its in- 
crease of artists (36 percent) was less 
than the U.S. average. Designers (799) 
constituted the largest artist occupation- 
al group. In the occupational rankings of 
states Delaware was no higher than forty- 
second for any artist occupation. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Delaware 
artists was .78 of the U.S. average. 

District of Columbia 

As the federal city, the District of Co- 
lumbia has more artists than many states, 
taking thirty-fifth place when ranked with 
them. Its artist population increased 29 
percent between 1970 and 1980, well below 
the U.S. average. In reference to the oc- 
cupational rankings of states the District 
would be highest in the author category 
with 944 authors. (Colorado ranked tenth 
with 822 authors. ) The Washington metro- 
politan area, which includes its Maryland 
and Virginia suburbs as well as the 
federal city itself, had 24,979 artists in 
1980 or almost four times the 6,247 artist 
population of the federal city alone. More 
information about the metropolitan area 
appears in the following chapter. 

Florida 

Florida had the fifth greatest increase of 
artists among the states: 94 percent be- 
tween 1970 and 1980. In 1980 it ranked 
fifth in the nation in total artists 
(48,302), behind California, New York, Tex- 
as, and Illinois; this was up from ninth 
position in 1970. While its 14,102 design- 
ers constituted Florida's largest artist 
occupational group, the importance of 
entertainment and tourism were reflected 
in relatively large numbers of dancers 
(818) and musician/composers (7,713). In 
the occupational rankings of states Flor- 
ida was third in the dancer category, 
fourth in the announcer and musician/com- 
poser categories, and between fifth and 
tenth in all other artist occupations. 
The 1980 concentration ratio of Florida 
artists was 1.10 times the U.S. average. 

Georgia 

Georgia had over 20,000 artists in 1980, 
moving to fifteenth place from twentieth 
place in 1970. Its increase of 73 per- 
cent between 1970 and 1980 was well above 
the U.S. average. In the occupational 
rankings of states Georgia was eleventh in 



Hawaii had an 84 percent increase in its 
artist population between 1970 and 1980, 
moving from thirty-fourth to thirty-sec- 
ond position. Most Hawaiian artists live 
in Honolulu. While its 1,236 designers 
constitute the largest artist occupation- 
al group, Hawaii is unusual in having al- 
most equally large numbers of musicians/ 
composers (1,097) and painters... (1,101). 
In the occupational rankings of states 
Hawaii was highest (seventh) in the 
dancer category with 441 dancers. In 
its 1980 concentration ratio of artists, 
which is 1.49 times the U.S. average, 
Hawaii tied with California for second 
national position. 

Idaho 

Idaho had an increase of 74 percent in 
its artist population from 1970 to 1980. 
With 3,207 artists, it was forty-third in 
the nation, up slightly from its forty- 
fourth position in 1970. Idaho's artists 
are dispersed throughout the state and 
less than one-third of them live in or 
near Boise, its one large metropolitan 
area. In the occupational rankings of 
states Idaho was highest (thirty-fifth) 
in the teacher category, followed by ar- 
chitects (thirty-sixth) . The 19 80 concen- 
tration ratio of Idaho artists was .74 of 
the U.S. average. 

Illinois 

Illinois' 23 percent increase in artists 
was one of the smallest in the nation be- 
tween 1970 and 1980. Despite this, Illi- 
nois continued to have large numbers of 
artists (50,467) in each occupation with 
nearly 75 percent of them concentrated in 
Chicago and designers (17,255) far outnum- 
bering the other artist occupational 
groups. In the occupational rankings of 
states it was third in the author cate- 
gory and fourth in the categories of 
actors/directors, architects, designers, 
painters..., photographers, and teachers. 
The 1980 concentration ratio of Illinois 
artists was .89 of the U.S. average, a 
decrease from its 1970 concentration 
ratio at .97. 

Indiana 

Indiana had 17,439 artists in the state 
in 1980. Its 35 percent increase in 
artists from 1970 was below the national 
average. Designers (6,287) constituted 
its largest artist occupational group and 



36 



were nearly three times as numerous as the 
next largest group, musicians/composers 
(2,234). In the occupational rankings of 
states, Indiana was twelfth in the dancer 
and teacher categories. The 1980 concen- 
tration ratio of Indiana artists was .65 
of the U.S. average. 

Iowa 



Iowa had 9,395 artists in 1980. Its in- 
crease from 1970 was 36 percent, which is 
below the national average. In the occu- 
pational rankings of states Iowa was nine- 
teenth in the teacher category. The 1980 
concentration ratio of Iowa artists was 
.66 of the U.S. average. 

Kansas 

Kansas had 9,377 artists in 1980. Its in- 
crease of 33 percent over 1970 was below 
the national average. In the occupation- 
al rankings of states Kansas was highest 
in the listing of teachers (twenty-second) 
and architects (twenty-sixth) . The 19 80 
concentration ratio of Kansas artists was 
.80 of the U.S. average. 

Kentucky 

Kentucky's artist population increased to 
10,446 by 1980, representing a 52 percent 
increase from 1970. This was above the 
national average. In the occupational 
rankings of states Kentucky was highest 
(eighteenth) in the dancer category with 
189 dancers. The 1980 concentration ra- 
tio of Kentucky artists was .66 of the 
U.S. average. 

Louisiana 

Louisiana had 12,825 artists in 1980, an 
increase of 60 percent over 1970. Des- 
pite this, Louisiana fell from twenty- 
third place in 1970 to twenty-fifth in 
1980. In the occupational rankings of 
states Louisiana's highest place was sev- 
enteenth in the announcer category. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Louisiana 
artists was .71 of the U.S. average. 

Maine 

Maine's artist population increased by 75 
percent between 1970 and 1980. Its total 
of 3,790 artists made it forty-first in 
the nation. In the occupational rankings 
of states Maine was highest (thirtieth) in 
the author category with 253 authors. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Maine artists 
was .73 of the U.S. average. 

Maryland 

Maryland had one of the lowest increases 
in artists (22 percent) between 1970 and 



1980, falling from eleventh place to thir- 
teenth place. The state had a total of 
20,990 artists in 1980. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states Maryland was 
highest (eleventh) in the dancer cate- 
gory. The 1980 concentration ratio of 
Maryland artists was .98 of the U.S. aver- 
age. 

Massachusetts 

Massachusetts had 32,223 artists in 1980, 
remaining the tenth state in the nation 
for number of artists. Its increase of 
37 percent between 1970 and 1980 was be- 
low the U.S. average. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states Massachusetts 
was fourth in the author category with 
1,525 authors. The 1980 concentration 
ratio of Massachusetts artists was 1.10 
times the U.S. average. 



Michigan 

Michigan had 36 
its 24 percent 
tion was one of 
Between 1970 an 
from seventh to 
In the occupati 
Michigan was si 
gory with 14,78 
centration rati 
.84 of the U.S. 

Minnesota 



,888 artists in 1980, but 
increase in artist popula- 

the lowest in the nation, 
d 1980 the state fell 

eighth national position, 
onal rankings of states 
xth in the designer cate- 
6 designers. The 1980 con- 
o of Michigan artists was 

average. 



Minnesota had 19,512 artists in 1980. 
Its increase between 1970 and 1980 (51 
percent) was slightly above the U.S. aver- 
age. It held sixteenth place in total 
artists in both 1970 and 1980. In the 
occupational rankings of states Minnesota 
was thirteenth in the teacher category 
and fourteenth in the musician/composer 
and painter... categories. The 19 80 con- 
centration ratio of Minnesota artists was 
.94 of the U.S. average. 

Mississippi 

Mississippi's artist population increased 
by 61 percent between 1970 and 1980. 
With 6,155 artists in 1980, the state was 
in thirty-fifth place in the nation. In 
the occupational rankings of states Mis- 
sissippi was highest (twenty-ninth) in 
the announcer category with 6 79 announ- 
cers. The 1980 concentration ratio of 
Mississippi artists was .59 of the U.S. 
average. 

Missouri 

Missouri increased its artist population 
by 34 percent between 1970 and 1980, but 
dropped from thirteenth to seventeenth po- 
sition in the nation. The state had 



37 



18,951 artists in 1980. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states it was highest 
(thirteenth) in the photographer category 
with 1,934 photographers. The 1980 con- 
centration ratio of Missouri artists was 
.81 of the U.S. average. 

Montana 

Montana had 2,966 artists in 1980. Its 
60 percent growth since 19 70 was above 
the U.S. average. In the occupational 
rankings of states Montana was highest 
(thirty-eighth) in the announcer and 
author categories with 291 and 157 re- 
spectively. The 19 80 concentration ratio 
of Montana artists was .80 of the U.S. 
average. 



was exactly the same as the U.S. average 
(1.00). 



Nebraska 

Nebraska's increase in 
cent between 1970 and 1 
from a rank of thirty-s 
seventh with a total 19 
tion of 5,666. In the 
rankings of states Nebr 
(thirty-second) in the 
gory. The 1980 concent 
Nebraska artists was .7 
average. 

Nevada 



artists was 39 per- 
980. It dropped 
econd to thirty- 
80 artist popula- 
occupational 
aska was highest 
photographer cate- 
ration ratio of 
3 of the U.S. 



Nevada had the 
artist populati 
1970 and 1980, 
tion to thirty- 
artists in 1980 
ings of states 
category with 5 
centration rati 
1.48 times the 
highest ratio i 



third greates 
on (111 perce 
moving from f 
third with a 

In the occ 
it was fifth 
68 dancers 
o of Nevada a 
U.S. average, 
n the nation. 



t increase in 
nt) between 
ortieth posi- 
total of 6,507 
upational rank- 
in the dancer 
The 1980 con- 
rtists was 
the fourth 



New Hampshire 

New Hampshire 1 
creased 52 per 
A total of 3,7 
second positio 
tional ranking 
was highest (t 
category with 
centration rat 
was .79 of the 



s artist population in- 
cent between 1970 and 1980. 
51 artists put it in forty- 
n in 1980. In the occupa- 
s of states New Hampshire 
hirty-f ourth) in the author 
209 authors. The 1980 con- 
io of New Hampshire artists 
U.S. average. 



New Jersey 



New Jersey's 1980 artist population showed 
a 27 percent increase over 1970 with a 
total of 36,510 artists. Nevertheless, 
the state fell from eighth national posi- 
tion in 1970 to ninth in 1980. In the oc- 
cupational rankings of states New Jersey 
was sixth in the listings of actors/ 
directors, authors, and dancers. The 1980 
concentration ratio of New Jersey artists 



New Mexico 

New Mexico's increase in artis 
tion was 83 percent between 19 
1980, the ninth highest percen 
increase in the nation. The s 
from thirty-sixth position to 
fourth with a total of 6,505 a 
1980. In the occupational ran 
states New Mexico was twenty-f 
the author category. The 1980 
tion ratio of New Mexico artis 
times the U.S. average, the si 
ratio in the nation. 



t popula- 
70 and 
tage 

tate moved 
thirty- 
rtists in 
kings of 
ourth in 

concentra- 
ts was 1.14 
xth highest 



New York 

New York had 138,4 
with the largest n 
occupation — 43 ,83 3 
during the 1970-80 
well below the U.S 
In the occupationa 
New York was first 
gory; it was secon 
other artist occup 
announcer category 
both Texas and Cal 
centration ratio o 
the highest in the 
U.S. average. 

North Carolina 



24 artists in 1980, 
umber in the designer 

people. Its increase 

decade was 28 percent, 
. average for artists. 
1 rankings of states 

in the dancer cate- 
d to California in all 
ations, excepting the 

in which it was below 
ifornia. The 1980 con- 
f New York artists was 

nation, 1.66 times the 



North Carolina had 20,561 artists in 
1980. Its increase between 1970 and 1980 
(63 percent) was well above the U.S. aver- 
age, moving it from eighteenth to four- 
teenth in national ranking. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states North Carolina 
was highest (ninth) in the announcer and 
teacher categories. The 1980 concentra- 
tion ratio of North Carolina artists was 
.72 of the U.S. average. 

North Dakota 

North Dakota had 1,972 artists in 1980 
with an increase of 71 percent over 1970, 
being well above the U.S. average. In 
spite of this substantial increase, the 
state fell from forty-eighth to forty- 
ninth in national ranking. In the occupa- 
tional rankings of states North Dakota 
was highest (thirty-seventh) in the 
announcer category with 334 announcers. 
The 1980 concentration ratio of North 
Dakota artists was .66 of the U.S. 
average. 

Ohio 

Ohio had nearly 40,000 artists and held 
seventh position in the nation in 1980, 
dropping from sixth place in 1970. Its 



38 



Oklahoma 


Oklahoma ' s 


50 percent 


mained in t 


the nation 


artists. I 


states Okla 


fifth) in t 


1980 concen 


artists was 


Oregon 



23 percent increase of artists between 
1970 and 1980 was one of the lowest per- 
centage changes. In the occupational 
rankings of states Ohio was fifth in the 
nation in the photographer and announcer 
categories, having 4,211 photographers and 
1,843 announcers in 1980. The 1980 concen- 
tration ratio of Ohio artists was .77 of 
the U.S. average. 



artist population increased by 
between 1970 and 1980. It re- 
he twenty-eighth position in 
with its 1980 total of 10,308 
n the occupational rankings of 
homa was highest (twenty- 
he announcer category. The 
tration ratio of Oklahoma 
.74 of the U.S. average. 



In 1980, Oregon had a total of 13,157 
artists, reflecting an 89 percent increase 
in its artist population since 1970. That 
percentage increase was seventh highest in 
the nation, moving Oregon from twenty-sixth 
to twenty-fourth national position. In 
the occupational rankings of states Oregon 
was highest (twentieth) in the author cat- 
egory with 566 authors in 1980. The 1980 
concentration ratio of Oregon artists was 
1.02 times the U.S. average. 

Pennsylvania 

Like most other northeastern states, Penn- 
sylvania had a relatively modest increase 
in its artist population (23 percent) be- 
tween 1970 and 1980 and fell from fourth 
national position in 1970 to sixth in 1980 
with a total artist population of 43,363. 
In the occupational rankings of states it 
was fifth in the designer, musician/com- 
poser, painter..., and teacher categories. 
The 19 80 concentration ratio of Penn- 
sylvania artists was .78 of the U.S. 
average. 

Rhode Island 

Rhode Island's artist population in- 
creased by 45 percent between 1970 and 
1980. With 4,527 artists it took forti- 
eth position in the nation in 1980. In 
the occupational rankings of states Rhode 
Island was highest in the designer cate- 
gory with 1,841 designers. The 1980 con- 
centration ratio of Rhode Island artists 
was .95 of the U.S. average. 

South Carolina 

South Carolina's increase in artists was 
83 percent between 1970 and 1980, moving 
it from thirty-first to twenty-ninth 



national position with a total of 9,526 
artists. In the occupational rankings of 
states South Carolina was twenty-third in 
the author category with 338 authors. 
The 1980 concentration ratio of South Car- 
olina artists was .65 of the U.S. aver- 
age. 

South Dakota 

South Dakota had 1,974 artists in 1980, 
taking forty-eighth position in the nation. 
It had relatively little increase (38 per- 
cent) in its artist population between 
19 70 and 19 80. In the occupational rank- 
ings of states South Dakota was highest 
(thirty-seventh) in the teacher category. 
The 19 80 concentration ratio of South 
Dakota artists was .61 of the U.S. 
average. 

T ennessee 

Tennessee had 17,714 artists in 1980. 
Its growth between 1970 and 1980 was 67 
percent, moving it from twenty-first to 
twentieth national position. In the occu- 
pational rankings of states Tennessee was 
highest (twelfth) in the announcer cate- 
gory with 1,174 announcers. The 1980 con- 
centration ratio of Tennessee artists was 
.82 of the U.S. average. 



Texas 

Texas 
number 
artist 
betwee 
al ran 
1970 a 
vania 
is sec 
catego 
states 
The 19 
artist 

Utah 



held third place in the nation in 
of artists (61,802) in 1980. Its 
population increased by 77 percent 
n 1970 and 1980. In the occupation- 
kings of states Texas was fifth in 
nd moved past Illinois and Pennsyl- 
to the third spot in 1980. Texas 
ond in the nation in the announcer 
ry and ranks among the top five 

in all other artist occupations. 
80 concentration ratio of Texas 
s was .90 of the U.S. average. 



Utah had 5,858 artists in 1980, an in- 
crease of 60 percent over 1970. It held 
thirty-sixth position in the nation for 
number of artists, down from thirty-fifth 
place in 1970. In the occupational rank- 
ings of states Utah was twenty-ninth in 
the dancer category. The 1980 concentra- 
tion ratio of Utah artists was .91 of the 
U.S. average. 

Vermont 

Vermont's increase in artists was 48 per- 
cent (the same as the national average) 
between 1970 and 1980. With 2,366 
artists it was in forty-fifth position 
nationally in 1980. In the occupational 
rankings of states Vermont was highest in 



39 



the painters category with 500 in 19 80, states Wyoming was highest (thirty- 

an increase from 215 in 1970. The 19 80 eighth) in the teacher category with 175 

concentration ratio of Vermont artists teachers in higher education. The 1980 

was .94 of the U.S. average. concentration ratio of Wyoming artists 



Virginia 

Virginia had 24,775 artists in 1980. Be- 
tween 1970 and 1980 its artist population 
increased by 62 percent, which is above 
the U.S. average, and its national posi- 
tion moved from twelfth to eleventh place. 
In the occupational rankings of states 
Virginia was highest (eighth) in the 
author category with 1,320 authors, and 
moved from twelfth to ninth place in the 
actor/director category. The 19 80 concen- 
tration ratio of Virginia artists was .96 
of the U.S. average. 

Washington 

Washington had 22,974 artists in 1980, a 
large increase (83 percent) in its artist 
population since 1970 moving it from nine- 
teenth to twelfth national position. In 
the occupational rankings of states Wash- 
ington was tenth in the architect cate- 
gory. Its 3,148 architects are more than 
double the number it had in 1970. The 
1980 concentration ratio of Washington 
artists was 1.14 times the U.S. average, 
sixth in the nation. 

West Virginia 

West Virginia's artist population in- 
creased moderately (37 percent) between 
1970 and 1980. With 4,223 artists in the 
state, it held fortieth position in the 
country. In the occupational rankings of 
states West Virginia was thirty-fifth in 
the announcer category with 433 announ- 
cers. The 1980 concentration ratio of 
West Virginia artists was .54 of the U.S. 
average. 

Wisconsin 

Wisconsin had 18,429 artists in 1980, drop- 
ping from fifteenth national position in 
1970 to eighteenth in 1980. Its increase 
(38 percent) was below the U.S. average 
for artists. In the occupational rankings 
of states Wisconsin was eleventh in the 
teacher category with 767 teachers in 
higher education. The 1980 concentration 
ratio of Wisconsin artists was .78 of the 
U.S. average. 

Wyoming 

Wyoming, with the smallest number of 
artists of any state, had one of the high- 
est increases (90 percent) between 1970 
ana 3 980. The number of Wyoming artists 
increased from 844 in 1970 to 1,602 by 
1980. In the occupational rankings of 



was .68 of the U.S. average. 



40 



ARTISTS IN CITIES 



Artists tend to be highly urbanized; 86 
percent of the artists counted in the 1980 
Census lived in urban locations. The ur- 
ban proportion varied only moderately 
among the eleven artist occupations. 
Dancers were the most urbanized, with 96 
percent living in urban areas. Actors/ 
directors (92 percent) and musicians/com- 
posers (89 percent) were the second and 
third most urbanized. The concentration 
of performing artists in urban areas (86 
percent) contrasted markedly with that 
for the U.S. population as a whole (75 
percent) . 

For the 19 80 Census, an "urban area" was 
an incorporated or unincorporated com- 
munity of 2,500 or more people. However, 
the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area 
(SMSA) is more useful than the urban area 
as a concept because the SMSA conforms to 
the general sense in which cities are 
thought of as metropolitan areas. SMSAs 
are bounded regions defined by the U.S. 
Office of Management and Budget and deter- 
mined by both population size and relation 
to adjoining counties. 

In the 1980 Census there were 318 SMSAs. 
The sixty largest of these had 704,472 
artists or 65 percent of all artists. The 
uppermost twenty provided homes for over 
45 percent of U.S. artists and the top 
two, New York City and Los Angeles, had 
102,954 and 77,678 artists respectively — 
or together nearly 17 percent of the total 
U.S. artist population. The number of 
artists in New York City and Los Angeles 
was also very substantial in relation to 
their civilian labor force. They were the 
only large metropolitan areas in the 1980 
Census with more than 2 percent of workers 
in artist occupations; artists comprised 
2.45 percent of the New York City labor 
force and 2.10 percent of the Los Angeles 
labor force. The national proportion of 
artists in .the total labor force was 1.04 
percent in 19 80. 

Three smaller SMSAs had artists comprising 
more than 2 percent of their labor force 
in 1980 — Norwalk and Stamford, both in Con- 
necticut, and Santa Cruz, California. 
Among the sixty largest SMSAs, those with 
the highest percentage of artists after 
New York and Los Angeles were Las Vegas 
(1.82), San Francisco (1.75), Honolulu 
(1.65), Austin (1.63), Seattle/Everett 
(1.59), Washington (1.56), and Boston and 
Tucson (both 1.49 ) . 

The New York City SMSA had the largest art- 
ist population and was the area of resi- 
dence of about one of ten U.S. artists in 



1980. Designers constituted its largest 
occupational group with 31,653 members. 
This was nearly double the second largest 
group of painters, sculptors, craft art- 
ists, and artist printmakers with 15,640 
members. The 1980 New York City SMSA did 
not include Nassau and Suffolk counties as 
it had in 1970. The latter two counties 
comprise their own SMSA in the 19 80 Census. 
Together, the New York City SMSA and the 
Nassau/Suffolk SMSA had nearly 120,000 art- 
ists in 19 80, dominating the New York State 
artist population with over 86 percent of 
the state total. In addition to New York 
City, two other New York State SMSAs ex- 
ceeded the national average (1.04 percent) 
of artists in the total labor force; they 
were Nassau/Suffolk and Poughkeepsie with 
1.35 and 1.06 percent, respectively. 

The Los Angeles SMSA had the second 
largest artist population in 1980. 
Designers constituted the largest artist 



Table 3 



Urban and rural location of artists 1980 









Percent 


Percent 


Occupation 




urban 


rural 


Dancers 




96 


4 


Actors/directors 




92 


8 


Musicians/composers 


89 


11 


Architects 




87 


13 


Authors 




87 


13 


Photographers 




86 


14 


Painters . . . 




85 


15 


Teachers (higher 


ed) 


85 


15 


Designers 




84 


16 


Announcers 




83 


17 


Artists n.e.c. 




80 


20 


All artists 




86 


14 


Professional specialty 






occupations 




81 


19 


Total U.S. labor 


force 


75 


25 



41 



occupational group with 18,564 members. 
The second largest was the actor/director 
group with 16,081 members, reflecting the 
importance of the media production in Los 
Angeles artist employment. Unlike New 
York City, Los Angeles did not dominate 
its entire state in number of artists. 
(Only 44 percent of California artists re- 
side in the Los Angeles SMSA.) The state 
of California had eleven other SMSAs with 
artists exceeding the 1.04 percent nation- 
al average proportion of artists in the 
civilian labor force: Anaheim/Santa Ana/ 
Garden Grove (1.45 percent), Chico (1.10 
percent), Oxnard/Simi Valley/ Ventura 
(1.24 percent), Sacramento (1.14 per- 
cent), Salinas/Seaside/Monterey (1.26 per- 
cent), San Diego (1.47 percent), San Fran- 
cisco/Oakland (1.75 percent), San Jose 
(1.22 percent), Santa Barbara/Santa Maria 
(1.56 percent), Santa Cruz (2.04 per- 
cent), and Santa Rosa (1.34 percent). 

The Chicago SMSA had the third largest 
artist population in 1980. However, its 
37,536 artists were less than half as nu- 
merous as Los Angeles artists. Designers 
constituted the largest Chicago group 
with 12,945 members — more than one-third 
of the total artist population. Paint- 
ers, sculptors, craft artists, and artist 
printmakers formed the second largest 
group with 5,903 members, and architects 
were close behind with 4,646 members. 
The greatest proportion of artists to the 
total labor force in Illinois cities was 
1.53 percent in the Champaign/Urbana/ 
Rantoul SMSA versus the 1.0 8 percent of 
Chicago. 

The San Francisco/Oakland SMSA had the 
fourth largest artist population (29,570 
artists) in 1980. With 1.75 percent 
artists in its total labor force, how- 
ever, it ranked below Santa Cruz (2.04 
percent) as well as Los Angeles (2.10 per- 
cent) in proportionate representation of 
artists in California cities. Designers 
(8,268) constituted the largest San Fran- 
cisco/Oakland artist occupational group 
followed by painters, sculptors, craft 
artists, and artist printmakers with 4,516 
members and architects with 4,383 members. 

The Washington SMSA comprising the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and surrounding counties 
in Maryland and Virginia had the fifth 
largest artist population in 1980. The 
District of Columbia had only about one- 
quarter of the artists in the SMSA, but 
its proportion of artists to total labor 
force was greater than that of the SMSA 
(1.95 percent compared with 1.56 percent). 
The proportion of artists in each of the 
occupations living in the District of 
Columbia compared to the whole metropoli- 
tan area varied substantially. Designers 
constituted the largest SMSA occupational 



group (5,613), with about one-fifth of 
them living in the District of Columbia. 
Second most numerous were the painters, 
sculptors, craft artists, and artist print- 
makers with 4,307 in the SMSA; about one- 
fifth of these also lived in the District 
of Columbia. Authors, dancers, and 
teachers in higher education were the 
three artist occupations in which the pro- 
portions in the District of Columbia were 
greatest. More than one-third of those in 
these three occupations lived in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia but nearly two-thirds 
lived elsewhere in the SMSA. 

The Philadelphia SMSA ranked sixth in 
number of artists with 22,834 in 1980. In 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia was the city with the second highest 
concentration of artists in the civil- 
ian labor force (1.06 percent). The great- 
est concentration was in State College 
(1.30 percent), but the total population 
was small and only 652 artists lived there 
in 1980. Pittsburgh had about one-third 
as many artists as Philadelphia. The dif- 
ference between these two large cities was 
more marked in connection with specific 
artist occupational groups. In five of 
these — architects; teachers in higher 
education; authors; painters, sculptors, 
craft artists, and artist printmakers; and 
dancers — there were more than three times 
as many artists living in Philadelphia 
as in Pittsburgh. 

The Boston SMSA ranked seventh in the 
U.S. in number of artists with 20,839 or 
slightly more than two-thirds of the 
artists in the whole of Massachusetts. It 
was the only city in Massachusetts with a 
concentration of artists in its civilian 
labor force greater than the national 
average. Designers were the most numerous 
Boston artist occupational group (6,227) 
followed at a distance by architects 
(2,860); painters, sculptors, craft 
artists, and artist printmakers (2,834), 
and musicians/composers (2,804). 

The Detroit SMSA ranked eighth in the 
U.S. in number of artists with 19,942. 
The proportion of artists in its civil- 
ian labor force (.99 percent) was below 
the national average and far below that 
of the nearby city of Ann Arbor, which 
had 1.59 percent artists in its civilian 
labor force. The 8,918 designers in De- 
troit comprised by far the most numerous 
artist occupational group. Second were 
the painters, sculptors, craft artists, 
and artist printmakers with 2,610, while 
musicians/composers with 2,316 were third. 

The Dallas/Fort Worth SMSA ranked ninth 
in 1980 number of artists with 18,618. 
The proportion of artists in its civil- 
ian labor force was 1.21 percent. Among 



42 



other Texas SMSAs, Austin had a far greater 
concentration of artists — 1.63 percent — 
in its smaller civilian labor force and 
Houston and San Antonio also had concentra- 
tions of artists that exceeded the national 
average. The leading artist occupational 
group in Dallas/Fort Worth in number of 
members was that of the designers (6,027) 
followed by painters, sculptors, craft 
artists, and artist printmakers with 2,721, 
musicians/composers with 2,428, and archi- 
tects with 2,309. 

Nassau and Suffolk counties in the state 
of New York comprised a new SMSA in 19 80 
(they were formerly part of the New 
York City SMSA). Its 16,561 artists con- 
stituted 1.35 percent of its civilian 
labor force and made it the tenth largest 
SMSA in the nation in terms of artists. 
Designers were the most numerous artist 
occupational group with 6,243. Painters, 
sculptors, craft artists, and artist print- 
makers were second (and substantially more 
numerous than any of the remaining artist 
occupations) with 3,0 33. The designer and 
painter... groups comprised well over half 
of the artist population in the Nassau/ 
Suffolk SMSA. 

Among the SMSAs smaller than the top sixty, 
the greatest proportion of artists in the 
civilian labor force was found in Norwalk 

(2.52 percent), Stamford (2.09 percent), 
Santa Cruz (2.04 percent), Bloomington 

(1.93 percent), Lawrence (1.60 percent), 
Ann Arbor (1.59 percent), Santa Barbara/ 
Santa Marie (1.56 percent), Anchorage (1.48 
percent), and Albuquerque (1.46 percent) . 
The Bellingham, Danbury, Madison, and Reno 
SMSAs all had artist populations that con- 
stituted 1.4 5 percent of their labor force. 
Norwalk had the greatest proportion of 
artists in its civilian labor force of all 
U.S. SMSAs in 1980 — exceeding the New York 
City SMSA's 2.45 percent. A large part of 
the Norwalk resident artist population 
may indeed be employed in New York City, 
but this cannot be determined from Census 
data. 



43 



APPENDIX 



Artist population of states and major 
cities 1980 

The table that follows shows the number of 
artists living in each of the fifty states, 
the District of Columbia, and the 318 
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas 
(SMSAs) recognized in the 1980 Census. 
Numbers are provided for all eleven artist 
occupations. The 19 70 Census estimates of 
the total number of artists in each state 
are also shown in the table. 

Some SMSAs encompass counties in several 
states. The figures for these SMSAs are 
repeated in the table under each of the 
relevant states. It should be noted that 
the artist population in each state is dif- 
ferent from the sum of the SMSAs in the 
state: some artists live in rural areas, 
towns, and cities that are not part of the 
SMSAs and the SMSA figures will include 
artists from more than one state when SMSA 
boundaries cross state lines. Numbers too 
small to be meaningful (fewer than ten 
artists) are represented in the table by 
an asterisk (* ) . 



45 



Appendix 



1970 



1980 



State, SMSA 



Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


number 

of artists 




1,243,141 


.64 


1.08 


7,965 


1,634,743 


.72 


1.08 


11,779 


Alabama 










46,833 


.71 


.03 


332 


Anniston 










374,193 


.92 


.32 


3,442 


Birmingham 










89,599 


.66 


.05 


590 


Columbus (AL, GA ) 










59,122 


.57 


.03 


339 


Florence 










42,033 


.47 


.02 


197 


Gadsden 










137,601 


.99 


.13 


1,364 


Huntsville 










185,985 


.82 


.14 


1,528 


Mobile 










116,171 


1.00 


.11 


1,165 


Montgomery 










58,146 


.80 


.04 


466 


Tuscaloosa 


97,875 


.73 


.10 


710 


182,679 


1.18 


.20 


2,148 


Alaska 










84,773 


1.48 


.12 


1,252 


Anchorage 


639,009 


1.03 


.90 


6,597 


1,186,832 


1.18 


1.29 


14,023 


Arizona 










701,242 


1.25 


.81 


8,777 


Phoenix 










235,430 


1.49 


.32 


3,512 


Tucson 


685,947 


.49 


.45 


3,344 


940,880 


.58 


.50 


5,468 


Arkansas 










79,737 


.72 


.05 


575 


Fayetteville- 
Springdale 










85,774 


.60 


.05 


512 


Fort Smith (AR, OK) 










183,369 


.89 


.15 


1,635 


Little Rock-North 
Little Rock 










405,187 


.99 


.37 


3,997 


Memphis (AR, MS, TN ) 










36,289 


.58 


.02 


209 


Pine Bluff 










52,489 


.56 


.03 


293 


Texarkana 


7,960,651 


1.36 


14.71 


108,437 


11,386,075 


1.55 


16.24 


176,321 


California 










1,016,754 


1.45 


1.35 


14,704 


Anaheim-Santa Ana- 
Garden Grove 










175,679 


.66 


.11 


1,153 


Bakersf ield 










59,755 


1.10 


.06 


656 


Chico 










235,077 


.83 


.18 


1,960 


Fresno 










3,694,683 


2.10 


7.16 


77,768 


Los Angeles- 
Long Beach 










121,256 


.56 


.06 


677 


Modesto 










249,037 


1.24 


.28 


3,081 


Oxnard-Simi Valley- 
Ventura 










48,754 


.83 


.04 


404 


Redding 










656,355 


.79 


.48 


5,173 


Riverside- San 

Bernardino-Ontario 










480,697 


1.14 


.50 


5,468 


Sacramento 










124,740 


1.26 


.14 


1,570 


Sal inas-Seaside- 
Mon terey 



46 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Archi tec ts 


Teachers 
(higher ed) 


Authors 


Designers 


Musicians/ 
composers 


Actors/ 
directors 


Painters. . 


Photo- 
graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


Artists 
n. e. c. 


1,145 




389 


117 


4. 


,256 


1 


,468 


290 


1 


,213 


1 


,120 


74 


1,174 


533 


11 




* 


* 




96 




85 


* 




41 




45 


* 


20 


19 


391 




91 


27 


1. 


,224 




501 


104 




357 




429 


* 


180 


138 


21 




18 


* 




160 




75 


45 




74 




96 


17 


36 


48 


IB 




16 


* 




106 




43 


* 




43 




32 


* 


50 


11 


39 




* 


* 




71 




33 


* 




* 




19 


* 


25 


* 


128 




33 


* 




421 




136 


39 




232 




134 


48 


129 


52 


199 




21 


27 




534 




144 


31 




237 




115 


* 


145 


68 


175 




18 


18 




427 




108 


32 




122 




101 


* 


111 


53 


17 




34 


17 




136 




83 


26 




16 




71 


* 


41 


25 


335 




70 


121 




363 




213 


149 




366 




200 


63 


205 


63 


222 




34 


71 




242 




89 


97 




173 




131 


53 


92 


48 


1,786 




346 


498 


3 


,756 


1 


,747 


609 


2 


,284 


1 


,184 


218 


666 


929 


1,252 




139 


242 


2, 


,625 


1 


,076 


313 


1 


,317 




740 


152 


337 


584 


404 




96 


150 




772 




432 


270 




554 




336 


57 


186 


255 


482 




170 


88 


1 


,855 




728 


238 




478 




581 


58 


581 


209 



71 



17,652 



36 



20 


20 


244 


19 


449 


110 


14 


* 



3,219 



23 



10 



66 



160 

170 
476 

1,113 
62 

114 



97 

70 
174 

797 
40 
54 



22 

23 
126 

70 



42 

79 
120 

530 
26 
24 



60 

71 
245 

377 
11 
44 



23 



56 



11,272 



48,036 



22,919 



20,751 



24,657 



13,060 



2,279 



58 



42 


17 


126 


72 


243 


186 


39 


12 


31 


12 



3,986 



8,490 



1,704 

146 

60 

189 

5,192 

50 
460 

28 
466 

817 
243 



264 

18 

38 

71 

968 

31 
58 



140 

171 
23 



650 

33 

52 

58 

5,569 

* 
166 

* 
289 

278 

75 



5,611 



1,394 



211 


148 


159 


114 


544 


257 


18,564 


10,961 


218 


103 


832 


318 


104 


55 


1,587 


857 


1,376 


693 


417 


165 



543 

69 

33 

110 

16,081 

76 
313 

20 
126 

162 
63 



2,369 

180 

85 

272 

9,032 

85 
466 

30 

940 

783 
277 



989 

125 

57 

283 

5,505 

35 
223 

47 
268 

517 
163 



107 



1,010 



15 



51 



79 



233 



840 



90 


133 


24 


29 


112 


64 


1,056 


3,830 


43 


36 


96 


134 


60 


48 


204 


245 


269 


323 


86 


54 



47 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 



% U.S. 
artists 



Number 

of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 
in civilian 



State, SMSA 



U.S. 


Number 


rtists 


of artists 


1.10 


11,969 


2.72 


29,570 


.78 


8,461 


.21 


2,279 


.17 


1,874 


.17 


1,873 


.09 


1,014 


.10 


1,081 


.06 


655 


.03 


322 




813,051 

1,688,103 

692,352 

145,949 

92,038 
139,955 
151,529 
144,429 

103,825 

40,758 



1.47 

1.75 
1.22 
1.56 

2.04 

1.34 

.67 

.75 

.63 

.79 



San Diego 

San Francisco-Oakland 

San Jose 

Santa Barbara- 
Santa Maria 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Rosa 

Stockton 

Valle jo- Fairfield- 
Napa 

Visalia-Tulare- 
Porterville 

Yuba City 



859,756 



1.03 



1.20 



8,838 



1,433,731 



1.25 



1.65 



17,930 



Colorado 



133,955 

855,455 

76,166 

57,514 

52,803 



1.41 

1.37 

1.25 

.77 

.75 



.17 1,886 8 Colorado Springs 

1.08 11,749 Denver-Boulder 

.09 952 | Fort Collins 

.04 444 Greeley 

.04 395 Pueblo 



1,296,056 



1.03 



1.82 



13,404 



1,554,810 



1.11 



1.59 



17,211 



Connecticut 



192,725 
38,249 
73,056 

375,972 
29,311 
75,423 

206,517 

111,084 

68,580 
253,938 

102,455 
108,650 



.94 

.64 

1.45 

.93 

.50 

.60 

1.20 

1.02 

2.52 
.84 

2.09 
.60 



.17 
.02 
.10 
.32 
.01 
.04 
.23 
.10 

.16 
.20 

.20 
.06 



1,819 

245 

1,056 

3,485 

148 

456 

2,485 

1,129 

1,728 
2,136 

2,13 7 
648 



Bridgeport 

Bristol 

Danbury 

Hartford 

Meriden 

New Britain 

New Haven-West Haven 

New London-Norwich 
(CT, RI ) 

Norwalk 

Springf i eld-Chic opee- 
Holyoke (CT, MA) 

Stamford 

Waterbury 



218,514 


.77 


.23 


1,681 


280,437 


.82 




.21 


2,288 


Delaware 










247,689 


.83 




19 


2,064 


Wilmington 

(DE, MD, NJ ) 


346,883 


1.39 


.66 


4,830 


319,738 


1.95 




58 


6,247 


District of Columbia 










1,596,466 


1.56 


2 


30 


24,979 


Washington (DC, MD, VA ) 



48 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
Architects (higher ed) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ 
Designers composers directors Painters. 



Photo- Artists 

graphers Dancers Announcers n.e.c. 



1,561 


214 


766 


3 


,445 


1 


,588 


611 


1 


778 


906 


293 


287 


520 


4,383 


572 


2,029 


8 


,268 


3 


,419 


1,756 


4 


516 


2,249 


454 


659 


1,265 


773 


191 


454 


3 


,209 




891 


269 


1 


511 


622 


95 


171 


275 


282 


64 


173 




588 




299 


156 




286 


150 


59 


91 


131 


134 


108 


145 




471 




345 


53 




337 


176 


* 


25 


80 


284 


42 


143 




457 




289 


37 




399 


102 


37 


49 


34 


153 


32 


28 




309 




125 


30 




118 


94 


* 


54 


62 


126 


49 


61 




276 




171 


35 




148 


122 


* 


23 


70 



65 



14 



15 



190 



112 



34 



123 



40 



41 



21 



59 



26 



120 



40 



49 



19 



2,741 



544 



4,683 



2,014 



688 



2,805 



1,556 



196 



947 



187 


117 


126 


406 


237 


66 


306 


226 


18 


129 


68 


1,865 


246 


533 


3,243 


1,289 


513 


1,953 


922 


163 


384 


638 


124 


41 


33 


296 


141 


16 


144 


70 


* 


36 


51 


34 


46 


11 


106 


68 


12 


29 


56 


* 


54 


28 


48 


18 


11 


77 


18 


27 


30 


57 


15 


80 


14 



1,827 



493 



873 



5,744 



1,740 



832 



2,835 



1,488 



165 



485 



729 



209 


14 


39 


646 


216 


63 


333 


184 


13 


* 


* 


91 


30 


19 


36 


15 


75 


12 


86 


346 


101 


34 


218 


131 


399 


114 


69 


1,177 


382 


157 


491 


309 


* 


* 


* 


56 


* 


18 


34 


28 


29 


• 


* 


205 


48 


* 


61 


55 


351 


124 


126 


557 


318 


78 


433 


276 


66 


34 


35 


540 


99 


30 


191 


78 


134 


* 


189 


625 


113 


124 


329 


104 


103 


13 7 


97 


643 


250 


83 


328 


250 


310 


17 


180 


690 


214 


189 


312 


116 


65 


* 


* 


256 


57 


31 


53 


90 



10 



78 



30 



13 



13 



25 


90 


25 


* 


* 


41 


146 


163 


* 


* 


26 


24 


118 


74 


29 


27 


17 


79 


112 


120 


24 


78 


28 


47 



192 


70 


74 


799 


237 


85 


323 


223 


30 


84 


171 


171 


74 


71 


739 


226 


76 


326 


230 


25 


34 


92 


974 


140 


944 


1,123 


510 


398 


904 


645 


94 


227 


288 



3,414 



406 



2,351 



5,613 2,349 



1,510 4,307 



2,515 



269 



1,039 



1,206 



49 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. 

labor force artists 



Number 

of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. 

labor force artists 



Number 

of artists 



State, SMSA 



2,514,295 



.99 



3.39 



24,960 



4,217,665 



1.15 



4.45 



48,302 



Florida 



56,626 
102,437 
456,205 

82,323 

40,838 

70,583 

324,488 

140,927 

121,034 

781,308 
46,567 

333,460 
39,179 

115,129 
77,920 
81,769 

647,424 

249,377 



1.00 
1.12 
1.33 

1.22 

1.09 

1.24 

.89 

.70 

1.03 

1.37 

.49 

1.40 

.93 

.83 

1.84 

1.28 

1.09 

1.32 



.05 
.11 
.56 

.09 
.04 
.08 
.27 
.09 

.12 



569 
1,147 
6,071 

1,003 
445 
874 

2,889 
993 

1,249 



Bradenton 

Daytona Beach 

Ft. Lauderdale- 
Hollywood 

Ft. Myers-Cape Coral 

Ft. Walton Beach 

Gainesville 

Jacksonville 

Lakeland- 
Winter Haven 

Melbourne-Titusvi lie- 
Cocoa 



99 


10, 


,713 


Miami 


02 




226 


Ocala 


43 


4, 


,659 


Orlando 


03 




366 


Panama City 


09 




959 


Pensacola 


13 


1, 


,435 


Sarasota 


10 


1, 


.044 


Tallahassee 


65 


7, 


,053 


Tampa-St. Petersburg 


30 


3, 


,302 


West Palm Beach- 
Boca Raton 



1,800,265 



.65 



1.60 



11,776 



2,481,298 



.82 



20,330 



Georgia 






49,587 


.57 


.03 


285 


Albany 


61,633 


1.27 


.07 


785 


Athens 


,015,933 


1.16 


1.09 


11,805 


Atlanta 


140,073 


.72 


.09 


1,010 


Augusta (GA, SO 


195,166 


.77 


.14 


1,500 


Chattanooga (GA, TN) 


89,599 


.66 


.05 


590 


Columbus (GA, AD 


110,185 


.66 


.07 


723 


Macon 


97,395 


.95 


.09 


923 


Savannah 



293,718 


1.25 


.50 


3,667 


435,780 


1.55 


.62 


6,753 


Hawai i 










339,863 


1.65 


.52 


5,618 


Honolulu 


270,875 


.68 


.25 


1,844 


416,891 


.77 


.30 


3,207 


Idaho 










87,396 


1.16 


.09 


1,011 


Boise City 


4,578,599 


.90 


5.59 


41,221 


5,458,785 


.92 


4.65 


50,467 


111 inois 



60,403 
82,603 



.93 
1.53 



.05 561 Bloomington-Normal 

.12 1,265 Champaign-Urbana- 
Rantoul 



50 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Architects 


Teachers 
(higher ed) 


Authors 


Designers 


Musicians/ 
composers 


Actors/ 
directors 


Pa 


inters. . 


Photo- 
graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


Artists 
n.e.c. 


5,302 




815 


1 


,352 


14, 


,102 


7,713 


2 


,103 


5 


,926 


4 


,098 


818 


2 


,293 


3,780 


49 




20 




* 




154 


98 




19 




114 




30 


* 




* 


80 


52 




12 




* 




308 


210 




75 




158 




147 


37 




45 


94 


566 




55 




202 


2, 


,054 


919 




222 




607 




464 


101 




225 


656 


65 




11 




25 




341 


142 




26 




115 




100 


26 




92 


60 


36 




13 




* 




95 


100 




20 




81 




48 


25 




* 


18 


98 




51 




54 




160 


88 




45 




152 




120 


* 




59 


47 


394 




74 




49 




788 


503 




154 




342 




255 


47 




149 


134 


78 




21 




12 




312 


154 




44 




99 




80 


16 




84 


93 



151 



12 



67 



318 



222 



89 



153 



112 



12 



70 



43 



1,455 


155 


258 


3,334 


1, 


,841 


498 


1,080 


949 


150 


430 


563 


22 


* 


* 


51 




54 


* 


40 


20 


* 


16 


23 


508 


77 


79 


1,053 




744 


220 


623 


429 


171 


210 


545 


* 


* 


* 


120 




66 


15 


74 


15 


11 


25 


25 


86 


25 


20 


239 




173 


47 


87 


84 


18 


77 


103 


123 


47 


69 


404 




194 


57 


234 


113 


* 


50 


144 


104 


80 


32 


276 




111 


87 


125 


103 


* 


99 


27 


639 


103 


187 


1,907 


1 


,242 


253 


1,041 


555 


156 


313 


657 


507 


* 


150 


1,080 




454 


178 


359 


270 


19 


113 


170 



2,193 



605 



6,664 



2,745 



2,53? 



1,678 



220 



1,236 



1,080 



* 


* 


* 


140 


13 


* 


12 


33 


* 


35 


30 


57 


83 


36 


174 


96 


57 


83 


97 


22 


53 


27 


1,604 


84 


441 


3,769 


1,568 


570 


1,676 


970 


130 


379 


614 


89 


* 


* 


259 


178 


37 


119 


144 


10 


76 


81 


129 


55 


12 


552 


175 


52 


164 


200 


15 


56 


90 


21 


18 


* 


160 


75 


45 


74 


96 


17 


36 


48 


76 


24 


* 


136 


197 


23 


63 


95 


* 


79 


23 


102 


20 


40 


324 


120 


50 


96 


30 


14 


99 


28 



878 


154 


233 


1,236 


1 


,097 


258 


1 


,101 


603 


441 


241 


511 


765 


122 


182 


1,082 




854 


202 




869 


554 


385 


207 


396 


491 


211 


126 


760 




306 


159 




370 


335 


30 


280 


139 


239 


42 


29 


226 




114 


61 




79 


93 


* 


81 


47 


5,583 


1,448 


1,701 


17,255 


5 


,514 


2,271 


7 


,382 


4,929 


399 


1,817 


2,168 



29 


52 


13 


130 


62 


28 


95 


188 


35 


269 


152 


84 



13 7 



59 
149 



66 

92 



34 
64 



51 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



1980 



State, SMSA 



Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 












3,477,007 


1.08 


3.46 


37,536 


Chicago 










184,430 


.68 


.12 


1,261 


Davenport- Rock 
Island-Moline 










62,174 


.67 


.04 


414 


Decatur 










46,211 


.42 


.02 


192 


Kankakee 










172,604 


.98 


.16 


1,688 


Peoria 










139,285 


.67 


.09 


932 


Rockf ord 










1,105,191 


.91 


.92 


10,035 


St. Louis (IL, MO) 










96,389 


.76 


.07 


731 


Springfield 


2,096,863 


.62 


1.76 


12,941 


2,566,755 


.68 


1.61 


17,439 


Indiana 










62,656 


.57 


.03 


356 


Anderson 










47,497 


1.93 


.08 


919 


Bloomington 










648,281 


1.02 


.61 


6,605 


Cincinnati 

(IN, KY, OH) 










68,418 


.63 


.04 


434 


Elkhart 










145,567 


.77 


.10 


1,119 


Evansville (IN, KY ) 










187,061 


.82 


.14 


1,529 


Fort Wayne 










290,171 


.49 


.13 


1,417 


Gary-Hammond- 
East Chicago 










571,132 


.83 


.44 


4,761 


Indianapolis 










49,017 


.40 


.02 


195 


Kokomo 










59,080 


.92 


.05 


546 


Lafayette- 
West Lafayette 










426,122 


.96 


.38 


4,087 


Louisville (IN, KY ) 










59,068 


.92 


.05 


542 


Muncie 










13 4,03 9 


.94 


.12 


1,255 


South Bend 










78,996 


.74 


.05 


586 


Terre Haute 


1,124,485 


.62 


.94 


6,917 


1,373,914 


.68 


.87 


9,395 


Iowa 










87,169 


.84 


.07 


729 


Cedar Rapids 










184,430 


.68 


.12 


1,261 


Davenport- Rock 
Island-Moline 
(IA, IL) 










176,888 


.97 


.16 


1,716 


Des Moines 










44,354 


.70 


.03 


310 


Dubuque 










45,531 


1.30 


.05 


591 


Iowa City 










271,194 


.95 


.24 


2,575 


Omaha (IA, NE ) 










54,437 


.72 


.04 


391 


Sioux City 










66,122 


1.09 


.07 


723 


Waterloo-Cedar Falls 


884,436 


.79 


.95 


7,031 


1,123,496 


.83 


.87 


9,377 


Kansas 










668,175 


1.07 


.66 


7,156 


Kansas City (KS, MO) 










34,129 


1.60 


.05 


547 


Lawrence 










93,249 


.85 


.07 


788 


Topeka 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Architects 


Teachers 
(higher ed) 


Authors 


Designers 


Musicians/ 
composers 


Actors/ 
directors 


Painters. . 


Photo- 
graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


Artists 
n.e.c. 


4,646 


674 


1,438 


12,945 


3 


,763 


1,839 


5,903 


3,495 


348 


916 


1,569 


119 


39 


34 


477 




120 


76 


13 4 


129 


22 


66 


45 


53 


* 


* 


131 




89 


* 


39 


60 


* 


20 


* 


12 


14 


* 


77 




28 


* 


16 


16 


* 


* 


14 


204 


84 


36 


474 




185 


58 


252 


215 


* 


80 


94 


70 


18 


24 


367 




164 


37 


118 


86 


* 


20 


28 


1,288 


224 


301 


3,009 


1 


,361 


322 


1,717 


1,060 


22 


359 


372 


126 


19 


25 


202 




62 


30 


63 


124 


* 


61 


17 


1,313 


717 


333 


6,287 


2 


,234 


645 


2,212 


1,596 


288 


1,101 


713 


18 


13 


* 


101 




90 


* 


66 


30 


* 


20 


* 


48 


195 


56 


159 




169 


88 


69 


46 


* 


34 


48 


730 


174 


104 


2,204 




964 


234 


957 


615 


86 


191 


346 


12 


21 


* 


190 




42 


* 


80 


15 


* 


22 


40 


64 


19 


30 


447 




103 


46 


144 


102 


30 


95 


39 


142 


19 


14 


657 




165 


70 


237 


78 


29 


87 


31 


135 


32 


* 


526 




150 


52 


194 


130 


33 


45 


113 


453 


119 


71 


1,680 




625 


171 


669 


525 


85 


214 


149 


17 


* 


* 


99 




* 


* 


21 


* 


23 


* 


* 


23 


27 


18 


172 




95 


38 


61 


46 


13 


32 


21 


311 


48 


76 


1,215 




783 


262 


496 


347 


98 


13 9 


312 


17 


117 


* 


131 




104 


* 


73 


28 


15 


32 


17 


104 


32 


41 


405 




191 


49 


146 


13 6 


13 


102 


36 


22 


42 


* 


188 




40 


32 


58 


58 


* 


105 


26 


796 


522 


236 


2,995 


1 


,112 


495 


1,210 


790 


103 


832 


304 


29 


25 


11 


274 




88 


44 


96 


64 


* 


82 


16 


119 


39 


34 


477 




120 


76 


13 4 


129 


22 


66 


45 


253 


23 


41 


508 




13 5 


125 


283 


115 


52 


114 


67 


48 


24 


* 


84 




31 


33 


23 


25 


* 


35 


* 


54 


112 


56 


88 




113 


* 


52 


38 


* 


36 


35 


396 


43 


50 


699 




344 


153 


389 


294 


48 


74 


85 


13 


12 


13 


113 




63 


53 


48 


33 


* 


43 


* 


35 


66 


* 


254 




105 


25 


82 


60 


* 


74 


22 


1,169 


479 


252 


2,763 




904 


367 


1,280 


975 


38 


706 


444 


934 


178 


245 


2,139 




886 


274 


1,302 


578 


78 


211 


331 


56 


68 


25 


147 




72 


21 


53 


86 


* 


15 


* 


13 9 


* 


* 


188 




74 


33 


124 


117 


* 


55 


41 



53 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. 

labor force artists 



Number 

of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



State, SMSA 



208,739 



.95 



.18 



1,980 



Wichita 



1,136,328 



.60 



.93 



6,863 



1,517,653 



.96 



10,446 



Kentucky 



648, 


,281 


1 


.02 


.61 


6 


,605 


Cincinnati 

(KY, IN, OH) 


52, 


,009 




.43 


.02 




226 


Clarksville- 

Hopkinsville (KY, 
TN) 


145, 


,567 




.77 


.10 


1 


,119 


Evansville (KY, IN) 


122. 


,305 




.60 


.07 




735 


Huntington- Ashland 
(KY, OH, WV) 


155 


,635 


1 


.09 


.16 


1 


,696 


Lexington- Fayette 


426 


,122 




.96 


.38 


4 


,087 


Louisville (KY, IN) 


38 


,989 




.55 


.02 




215 


Owensboro 



1,217,334 



.66 



1.09 



8,019 



1,744,102 



.74 



1.18 



12,825 



Louisiana 



57,352 


.70 


.04 


404 


Alexandria 


221,779 


.88 


.18 


1,955 


Baton Rouge 


71,508 


1.20 


.08 


858 


Lafayette 


74,063 


.58 


.04 


429 


Lake Charles 


57,648 


1.03 


.05 


594 


Monroe 


524,375 


.96 


.47 


5,056 


New Orleans 


167,233 


.76 


.18 


1,273 


Shreveport 



380,993 



.57 



.29 



2,171 



497,401 



.76 



.35 



3,790 



39,656 


.92 


.03 


364 


Bangor 


34,071 


.52 


.02 


178 


Lewis ton- Auburn 


89,073 


1.07 


.09 


951 


Portland 


77,155 


.91 


.06 


699 


Portsmouth- Dove: 



Rochester (ME, NH ) 



1,586,218 



1.08 



2.33 



17,135 



2,065,512 



1.02 



1.93 



20,990 



Maryland 






1,041,954 


.94 


.90 


9,752 


Baltimore 






43,412 


.55 


.02 


237 


Cumberland 






51,310 


.70 


.03 


360 


Hagerstown 






1,596,466 


1.56 


2.30 


24,979 


Washington 
(MD , DC , 


VA) 




247,689 


.83 


.19 


2,064 


Wilmington 
NJ) 


(DE, 


MD 



2,385,146 



.99 



3.91 



23,499 



2,816,374 



1.14 



2.97 



32,223 



Massachusetts 



,399 


,302 


1 


.49 


1.92 


20 


,839 


Boston 


79 


,262 




.61 


.04 




481 


Brockton 


82, 


,554 




.52 


.04 




429 


Fall River (MA, RI ) 


47, 


,889 




.61 


.03 




294 


Fitch burg-Ledminster 



54 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Architects 


Teachers 
(higher ed ) 


Authors 


Designers 


Musicians/ 
composers 


Actors/ 
directors 


Pa 


inters. . 


Photo- 
graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


Artists 
n.e.c. 


265 


'94 


34 




508 




171 


98 




311 




261 


12 


148 


78 


776 


323 


169 


3 


,284 


1 


,666 


409 


1 


,060 


1 


,054 


189 


873 


643 


730 


174 


104 


2 


,204 




964 


234 




957 




615 


86 


191 


346 


21 


15 


* 




42 




43 


* 




36 




20 


* 


37 


12 


64 


19 


30 




447 




103 


46 




144 




102 


30 


95 


39 


33 


26 


11 




306 




95 


63 




38 




66 


18 


58 


21 


237 


75 


36 




508 




221 


58 




146 




198 


25 


98 


94 


311 


48 


76 


1 


,215 




783 


262 




496 




347 


98 


13 9 


312 


20 


12 


* 




56 




27 


* 




* 




42 


* 


42 


11 


1,533 


477 


324 


3 


,656 


1 


,892 


488 


1 


,357 


1 


,274 


124 


990 


710 


71 


* 


23 




98 




94 


* 




24 




41 


* 


15 


20 


361 


106 


67 




636 




189 


57 




157 




206 


21 


100 


55 


100 


77 


21 




212 




56 


34 




53 




131 


* 


93 


77 


48 


12 


* 




118 




43 


20 




* 




43 


* 


88 


50 


33 


17 


* 




208 




104 


18 




44 




47 


* 


91 


32 


681 


106 


145 


1 


,278 




799 


223 




768 




471 


65 


220 


300 


67 


25 


20 




416 




232 


73 




136 




126 


25 


121 


32 


354 


127 


253 




944 




548 


148 




583 




379 


19 


279 


156 


30 


33 


32 




38 




37 


17 




50 




43 


* 


63 


21 


25 


* 


* 




49 




22 


11 




12 




17 


* 


19 


23 


93 


12 


32 




263 




137 


30 




152 




93 


17 


84 


38 


57 


16 


23 




247 




125 


20 




75 




59 


* 


31 


46 


2,242 


469 


864 


5 


,750 


2 


,589 


1,024 


3 


,575 


2 


,097 


297 


835 


1,248 


1,042 


242 


302 


2 


,861 


1 


,289 


455 


1 


,637 




957 


141 


336 


490 


* 


24 


* 




82 




58 


13 




10 




17 


* 


17 


* 


19 


* 


* 




168 




46 


17 




49 




28 


* 


* 


13 


3,414 


406 


2,351 


5 


,613 


2 


,349 


1,510 


4 


,307 


2 


,515 


269 


1,039 


1,206 



171 



74 



71 



739 



226 



76 



326 



230 



25 



34 



92 



3,815 



1,078 



1,525 



10,089 



4,257 



1,377 



4,78 



2,818 



218 



846 



1,412 



2,860 
14 
55 



618 



10 



1,140 



6,227 


2, 


804 


177 




86 


123 




85 


126 




49 



1,019 



12 



2,834 


1,775 


87 


74 


51 


50 


62 


12 



176 



516 



22 



870 
19 
19 
29 



55 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



1980 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



% artists 



State, SMSA 



Civilian 
labor force 


in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 




136,597 




.78 






.10 


1,060 


Lawrence-Haverhill 
(MA, NH) 


114,576 




.68 






.07 


778 


Lowell (MA, NH) 


78,583 




.65 






.05 


508 


New Bedford 


43,145 




.72 






.03 


311 


Pittsf ield 


453,213 




.94 






.39 


4,261 


Providence-Warwick- 
Pawtucket 


253,938 




.84 






.20 


2,136 


Springf ield-Chicopee- 
Holyoke (MA, CT) 


180,369 




.69 






.11 


1,245 


Worcester 



3,442,453 



.86 



4.02 



29,660 



4,211,997 



3.40 



36,888 



Michigan 






137,866 


1.59 


.20 


2,188 


Ann Arbor 


84,218 


.56 


.04 


468 


Battle Creek 


53,294 


.50 


.02 


268 


Bay City 


77,575 


.75 


.05 


581 


Benton Harbor 


2,006,556 


.99 


1.84 


19,942 


Detroit 


230,581 


.66 


.14 


1,512 


Flint 


293,893 


.97 


.26 


2,859 


Grand Rapids 


66,988 


.87 


.05 


594 


Jackson 


134,464 


.96 


.12 


1,296 Kalamazoo-Portage 


227,445 


.94 


.20 


2,140 


Lansing-East Lansing 


77,824 


.60 


.04 


466 


Muskegon-Norton Shor 
Muskegon Heights 


97,942 


.59 


.05 


577 


Saginaw 


363,424 


.76 


.25 


2,755 


Toledo (MI, OH) 



1,525,010 



1.76 



12,967 



1,993,352 



.98 



1.80 



19,512 



Minnesota 






116,562 

69,822 

43,307 

1,120,236 

49,541 

74,682 



.85 

1.05 

.75 

1.27 

.82 

.63 



.09 992 Duluth-Superior 
(MN, WI ) 

.07 734 Fargo-Moorehead 
(MN, ND) 

.03 325 Grand Forks (MN, ND) 

1.31 14,219 Minneapolis-St. Paul 

.04 405 Rochester 

.04 471 St. Cloud 



752,966 



.50 



.52 



3,826 



1,009,374 



.61 



.57 



6,155 



Mississippi 



71,281 


.83 


.05 


592 


Biloxi-Gulfport 




149,179 


1.07 


.15 


1,593 


Jackson 




405,187 


.99 


.37 


3,997 


Memphis (MS, AR, 


TN) 


50,159 


.59 


.03 


296 


Pascagoula- 
Moss Point 





1,839,567 



.77 



1.93 



14,199 



2,259,764 



.84 



1.75 



18,951 



56 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
Architects (higher ed ) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ 
Designers composers directors Painters. 



Photo- 
graphers Dancers 



Artists 
Announcers n.e.c. 



76 



32 



17 



470 



124 



16 



179 



82 



58 



30 


12 


* 


316 


13 3 


32 


10 


11 


169 


56 


12 


19 


18 


88 


35 


316 


111 


146 


1,783 


470 



22 



204 



122 


74 


100 


44 


58 


31 


540 


348 



20 



21 


42 


37 


36 


29 


15 


59 


164 



103 



137 



97 



643 



250 



83 



328 



250 



13 



112 



120 



438 



175 



64 



204 



110 



25 



72 



3,170 



757 



14,786 



4,640 



1,217 



4,699 



3,384 



153 



1,661 



1,543 



347 


143 


92 


609 


284 


109 


324 


152 


10 


16 


12 


160 


70 


20 


92 


58 


24 


* 


10 


79 


57 


* 


37 


30 


19 


34 


36 


261 


73 


* 


65 


38 


1,772 


208 


298 


8,918 


2,316 


554 


2,610 


1,749 


96 


16 


27 


558 


227 


61 


102 


162 


255 


76 


53 


969 


432 


121 


427 


314 


34 


18 


* 


305 


53 


11 


42 


31 


89 


106 


29 


411 


181 


66 


178 


132 


186 


125 


66 


691 


313 


107 


221 


156 


37 


* 


* 


178 


65 


24 


42 


42 


57 


* 


* 


257 


77 


12 


53 


72 


202 


117 


20 


923 


418 


126 


333 


280 



12 



113 



59 


57 


21 


* 


13 


* 


34 


19 


534 


870 


188 


69 


103 


101 


44 


43 


63 


41 


175 


100 


37 


34 


13 


23 


216 


111 



1,982 



688 



6,083 



2,736 



3,060 



1,783 



149 



894 



726 



78 



82 



11 



173 



180 



55 



125 



103 



181 



106 



54 



12 



147 



132 



68 



54 



78 



69 



14 



27 


28 


* 


87 


53 


* 


30 


32 


* 


46 


22 


1,703 


338 


528 


4,572 


1,972 


611 


2,417 


1,177 


114 


267 


520 


30 


* 


13 


177 


29 


12 


17 


64 


* 


34 


29 


33 


31 


* 


152 


84 


14 


34 


49 


* 


61 


* 


470 


255 


82 


2,069 


899 


208 


570 


540 


82 


679 


301 


60 


* 


13 


183 


105 


* 


88 


39 


20 


37 


35 


183 


78 


19 


440 


221 


100 


158 


166 


30 


125 


73 


449 


110 


66 


1,113 


79.7 


70 


530 


377 


56 


243 


186 


* 


* 


10 


13 8 


34 


* 


40 


27 


* 


20 


22 


1,945 


618 


590 


5,720 


2,493 


695 


2,968 


1,934 


76 


1,085 


827 



57 



Appendix (continued) 



HH^^^H 


1970 

Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


1980 

Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


State, SMSA 












53,147 


1.00 


.05 


531 


Columbia 












56,318 


.70 


.04 


393 


Jopl in 












668,175 


1.07 


.66 


7,156 


Kansas City (MO, KS ) 












45,433 


.75 


.03 


343 


St. Joseph 










1 


,105,191 


.91 


.92 


10,03 5 


St. Louis (MO, ID 












96,535 


1.24 


.11 


1,199 


Springfield 


259,612 


.72 


.25 


1,857 




357,846 


.83 


.27 


2,966 


Montana 












52,956 


1.00 


.05 


529 


Billings 












35,469 


.97 


.03 


345 


Great Falls 


591,148 


.69 


.55 


4,068 




744,195 


.76 


.52 


5,666 


Nebraska 












105,267 


1.00 


.13 


1,381 


Lincoln 












271,194 


.95 


.24 


2,575 


Omaha (NE, IA ) 












54,437 


.72 


.04 


391 


Sioux City (NE, Ift ) 


208,368 


1.48 


.42 


3,078 




423,688 


1.54 


.60 


6,507 


Nevada 












240,320 


1.82 


.40 


4,373 


Las Vegas 












113,673 


1.45 


.15 


1,645 


Reno 


304,279 


.81 


.34 


2,474 




454,430 


.83 


.35 


3,751 


New Hampshire 












136,597 


.78 


.10 


1,060 


Lawrence- Haverhill 
(NH, MA) 












114,576 


.68 


.07 


778 


Lowell (NH, MA) 












82,525 


.75 


.06 


622 


Manchester 












58,730 


.82 


.04 


482 


Nashua 












77,155 


.91 


.06 


699 


Portsmouth-Dover- 
Rochester (NH, ME) 


2,966,177 


.97 


3.89 


28,686 


3 


,523,255 


1.04 


3.36 


36,510 


New Jersey 












303,659 


.75 


.21 


2,281 


Allentown-Bethlehem- 
Easton (NJ, PA) 












90,574 


.94 


.08 


848 


Atlantic City 












262,788 


.76 


.21 


2,002 


Jersey City 












230,408 


1.11 


.24 


2,556 


Long Branch-Asbury 
Park 












307,623 


.88 


.25 


2,695 


New Brunswick-Perth 
Amboy-Sayreville 










4 


,198,263 


2.45 


9.48 


102,954 


New York (NJ, NY) 












964,013 


1.02 


.91 


9,834 


Newark 












215,035 


.96 


.19 


2,054 


Patterson-Clifton- 
Passaic 










2 


,156,231 


1.06 


2.10 


22,834 


Philadelphia 
(NJ, PA) 












151,611 


1.25 


.17 


1,894 


Trenton 



58 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
Architects (higher ed) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ Photo- 

Designers composers directors Painters... graphers Dancers 



Artists 
Announcers n.e.c. 



39 


54 


* 


129 


89 


41 


26 


69 


* 


56 


28 


17 


18 


15 


130 


75 


10 


48 


30 


* 


39 


11 


934 


178 


245 


2,139 


886 


274 


1,302 


578 


78 


211 


331 


18 


* 


16 


102 


39 


* 


42 


75 


* 


14 


22 


1,288 


224 


301 


3,009 


1,361 


322 


1,717 


1,060 


22 


359 


372 


100 


80 


21 


327 


161 


64 


160 


98 


* 


122 


66 


373 


110 


157 


565 


330 


162 


534 


307 


33 


291 


104 


106 


12 


* 


126 


61 


30 


87 


67 


* 


29 


11 


38 


* 


13 


78 


31 


* 


101 


13 


* 


64 


* 


597 


192 


117 


1,643 


768 


281 


737 


675 


43 


433 


180 


162 


69 


27 


369 


200 


98 


177 


122 


* 


101 


56 


396 


43 


50 


699 


344 


153 


389 


294 


48 


74 


85 


13 


12 


13 


113 


63 


53 


48 


33 


* 


43 


* 


390 


93 


255 


1,143 


1,750 


301 


502 


573 


568 


259 


673 


185 


24 


137 


703 


1,286 


254 


285 


404 


484 


155 


456 


149 


57 


69 


308 


356 


47 


193 


112 


78 


65 


211 


265 


119 


209 


1,357 


426 


50 


687 


230 


* 


180 


228 



76 



32 



17 



470 



124 



16 



179 



82 



30 12 * 

38 35 17 

28 13 17 

57 16 23 



316 
221 
262 

247 



133 
74 
35 

125 



22 122 

* 99 

* 62 
20 75 



74 
64 
14 
59 



21 


42 


36 


32 


22 


20 


31 


46 



3,057 



621 



1,370 



13,728 



4,481 



1,785 



5,602 



3,134 



459 



1,648 



157 



57 



80 



996 



256 



74 



265 



205 



96 



89 


14 


* 


220 


244 


30 


108 


64 


14 


11 


54 


100 


25 


70 


764 


191 


233 


293 


194 


34 


20 


78 


177 


38 


86 


943 


311 


84 


403 


232 


15 


45 


222 



255 



56 



91 



1,061 



324 



91 



385 



189 



83 



52 



108 



6,109 


1,168 


8,084 


31,653 


12,340 


13 


,824 


15,640 


7,342 


2,439 


1,070 


3,285 


774 


161 


412 


4,043 


1,111 




471 


1,466 


751 


120 


129 


396 


138 


* 


57 


697 


247 




133 


433 


243 


15 


23 


61 


2,481 


602 


839 


7,844 


2,771 




729 


3,749 


1,958 


304 


585 


972 


321 


119 


127 


496 


244 




47 


309 


131 


12 


26 


62 



59 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



State, SMSA 



58,36 



247,689 



.49 



.83 



.03 



.19 



284 



2,064 



Vineland-Millville- 
Bridgeton 

Wilmington 

(NJ, DE, MD) 



340,260 



1.04 



.48 



3,553 



547,074 



1.19 



.60 



6,505 



New Mexico 



210,915 


1.46 


.28 


3,075 


Albuquerque 


37,816 


1.40 


.05 


531 


Las Cruces 



7,399,632 



1.46 



14.64 



107,916 



8,012,824 



1.73 



12.75 



138,424 



New York 



372, 


.859 




.98 


.33 


3,637 


Albany-Schenectady- 
Troy 


139, 


,538 




.94 


.12 


1,315 


Binghamton (NY, PA) 


570, 


.566 




.72 


.38 


4,132 


Buffalo 


42, 


.846 




.67 


.03 


285 


Elmira 


46, 


,474 




.63 


.03 


291 


Glens Falls 


,228, 


,582 


1 


.35 


1.53 


16,561 


Nassau-Suffolk 


,198, 


,263 


2 


.45 


9.48 


102,954 


New York (NY, NJ ) 


111, 


,526 




.91 


.09 


1,018 


Newburgh-Middletown 


112, 


,243 


1 


.06 


.11 


1,187 


Poughkeepsie 


467, 


,389 


1 


.00 


.43 


4,673 


Rochester 


296, 


,548 




.96 


.26 


2,845 


Syracuse 


135, 


,878 




.70 


.09 


956 


Utica-Rome 



2,049,090 



.62 



1.72 



12,640 



2,759,197 



.75 



1.89 



20,561 



North Carolina 




82 


,717 


.89 


52, 


,056 


.75 


333 


,565 


1.14 


79 


,459 


.78 


424 


,002 


.95 


69 


,826 


.66 


29 


,055 


.69 


323 


,677 


.95 



276,247 


1.16 


94,059 


.57 


62,563 


.62 



07 




736 


Asheville 


04 




393 


Burl ington 


35 


3 


,804 


Charlotte-Gastonia 


06 




617 


Payetteville 


37 


4 


,03 7 


Greensboro- Wins ton 
Salem-High Point 


04 




462 


Hickory 


02 




200 


Jacksonville 


28 


3 


,087 


Norfolk- Virginia 
Beach- Portsmouth 
(NC, VA) 


30 


3 


,228 


Raleigh- Durham 


05 




536 


Salisbury-Concord 


04 




391 


Wilmington 



213,650 



.54 



.16 



1,155 



288,011 



.68 



.16 



1,972 



North Dakota 






40,355 



69,822 



43,307 



.90 

1.05 

.75 



.03 
.07 

.03 



365 Bismarck 

734 Fargo-Moorehead 
(ND, MN) 

325 Grand Forks (ND, MN ) 



60 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
Architects (higher ed ) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ 
Designers composers directors Painters. 



Photo- 
graphers Dancers 



Artists 
Announcers n.e.c. 



126 



19 



40 



20 



171 



74 



71 



739 



226 



76 



326 



230 



25 



34 



92 



683 



239 



335 



693 



255 



1,514 



554 



27 



392 



391 



79 


115 


152 


755 


354 


126 


555 


244 


42 


30 


25 


52 


99 


20 


61 


28 



27 



205 

17 



163 

157 



8,691 



2,195 



,361 



43,833 



16,836 



15,180 



21,274 



10,539 



2,600 



2,690 



5,225 



590 



70 



463 



200 



408 



355 



146 



162 



37 


32 


33 


549 


205 


50 


172 


149 


* 


46 


38 


296 


145 


42 


1,251 


729 


143 


591 


316 


57 


290 


272 


23 


* 


* 


123 


27 


18 


43 


38 


* 


13 


* 


11 


16 


16 


84 


36 


* 


28 


43 


* 


25 


23 


1,286 


142 


694 


6,243 


1,664 


686 


3,033 


1,526 


62 


328 


897 


6,109 


1,168 


8,084 


31,653 


12,340 


13,824 


15,640 


7,342 


2,439 


1,070 


3,285 


56 


19 


68 


323 


135 


46 


146 


111 


* 


34 


71 


64 


24 


101 


457 


123 


37 


229 


67 


* 


26 


59 


276 


179 


123 


1,821 


638 


194 


633 


474 


24 


105 


206 


276 


157 


56 


919 


360 


13 5 


356 


257 


16 


205 


108 


73 


24 


17 


354 


139 


29 


127 


74 


10 


75 


34 


1,909 


834 


513 


7,472 


2,652 


712 


1,987 


1,928 


185 


1,551 


818 


91 


35 


45 


177 


153 


* 


76 


83 


* 


28 


33 


* 


12 


14 


122 


61 


* 


66 


49 


* 


32 


37 


530 


91 


70 


1,475 


457 


138 


342 


447 


11 


154 


89 


42 


15 


* 


148 


144 


21 


50 


52 


35 


57 


48 


245 


181 


72 


1,493 


540 


211 


368 


425 


62 


256 


184 


63 


19 


12 


213 


56 


* 


* 


30 


* 


58 


* 


* 


13 


* 


71 


28 


* 


* 


12 


28 


29 


13 


404 


47 


51 


1,013 


515 


195 


328 


215 


48 


208 


63 


376 


13 3 


111 


1,084 


383 


117 


415 


279 


29 


192 


109 


17 


17 


13 


229 


69 


* 


102 


38 


* 


25 


13 


83 


* 


22 


105 


42 


* 


30 


48 


* 


34 


20 


224 


120 


18 


447 


287 


113 


146 


190 


* 


334 


93 


31 


10 


* 


98 


65 


19 


43 


38 


* 


50 


11 


106 


54 


12 


147 


132 


68 


54 


78 


* 


69 


14 



27 



28 



87 



53 



30 



32 



61 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



1980 
% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number Civilian 
labor force artists of artists labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



State, SMSA 



4,221,948 



.77 



4.40 



32,378 



4,953,353 



.80 



3.66 



39,768 



Ohio 



309,580 
184,086 
648,281 

905,390 
534,045 
382,649 
117,262 
122,305 

99,450 
123,677 
60,200 
55,600 
70,025 

81,975 
66,732 

363,424 

78,173 
235,866 



.96 

.69 

1.02 

.97 
1.01 
.91 
.65 
.60 

.54 
.60 
.64 
.52 

.55 

.67 
.62 

.76 
.50 
.62 



.27 
.12 
.61 

.81 
.50 
.32 
.07 
.07 

.05 
.07 
.04 
.03 
.04 

.05 
.04 

.25 
.04 
.13 



2,968 
1,275 
6,605 

8,754 
5,400 
3,499 

768 
73 5 

541 
740 
387 
290 
385 

546 
412 

2,755 

393 

1,462 



Akron 

Canton 

Cincinnati 

(OH, KY, IN) 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Dayton 

Hamilton-Middle town 

Huntington- Ashland 
(OH, KY, WV) 

Lima 

Lorain-Elyria 

Mansfield 

Newark 

Parkersburg-Marietta 
(OH, WV) 

Springfield 

Steubenville-Weirton 
(OH, WV) 

Toledo (OH, MI) 

Wheeling (OH, WV ) 

Youngs town-Warren 



965,542 



.71 



.93 



6,884 



1,343,066 



.77 



.95 



10,308 




28,598 

85,774 

38,050 

404,179 

332,784 



.68 

.60 
.81 
.98 
.93 



Oklahoma 



.02 194 Enid 

.05 512 Fort Smith (OK, AR) 

.03 309 Lawton 

.36 3,955 Oklahoma City 

.28 3,093 Tulsa 



834,739 



.84 



6,978 



1,241,025 



1.06 



1.21 



13,157 



Oregon 






130, 


,671 


1.27 


.15 


1,664 


Eugene- Springfield 


58, 


,551 


1.08 


.06 


634 


Medford 


620, 


,755 


1.25 


.71 


7,748 


Portland (OR, WA ) 


112, 


,409 


.79 


.08 


889 


Salem 



4,699,617 



.75 



4.77 



35,137 



5,358,609 



.81 



3.99 



43,363 



Pennsylvania 



303,659 


.75 


.21 


2,281 


All en town- Bethlehem- 
Easton 


57,904 


.64 


.03 


372 


Altoona 


139,538 


.94 


.12 


1,315 


Binghamton (PA, NY) 


127,456 


.64 


.08 


819 


Erie 



62 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Architects 


Teachers 
(higher ed) 


Authors 


Designers 


Musicians/ 
composers 


Actors/ 
directors 


Painters. . 


Photo- 
graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


Artists 
n.e.c. 


3,505 


1,186 


797 


13,949 


5, 


424 


1. 


,275 


5,373 


4,211 


383 


1,843 


1,822 


271 


138 


47 


931 




341 




107 


431 


336 


91 


83 


192 


68 


41 


31 


492 




134 




* 


229 


161 


14 


67 


33 


730 


174 


104 


2,204 




964 




234 


957 


615 


86 


191 


346 


1,005 


163 


202 


3,079 


1, 


,075 




293 


1,418 


784 


84 


306 


345 


642 


176 


136 


1,737 




831 




152 


656 


534 


65 


218 


253 


143 


69 


73 


1,231 




501 




172 


475 


386 


46 


259 


144 


45 


38 


29 


278 




116 




23 


61 


97 


* 


46 


35 


33 


26 


11 


306 




95 




63 


38 


66 


18 


58 


21 


48 


18 


* 


228 




86 




10 


21 


69 


* 


37 


23 


50 


46 


10 


322 




107 




* 


79 


73 


* 


37 


16 


13 


* 


* 


138 




49 




* 


92 


55 


* 


* 


10 


15 


* 


14 


121 




20 




* 


26 


42 


* 


18 


22 


30 


13 


* 


145 




60 




20 


31 


49 


* 


28 


* 


25 


36 


* 


222 




61 




* 


86 


66 


* 


28 


15 


11 


* 


* 


128 




82 




* 


32 


47 


* 


* 


92 


202 


117 


20 


923 




418 




126 


333 


280 


* 


216 


111 


* 


* 


* 


103 




65 




11 


28 


73 


* 


63 


40 


71 


32 


27 


554 




270 




41 


139 


190 


12 


49 


77 


882 


394 


293 


3,321 


1 


,314 




350 


1,448 


1,053 


72 


823 


358 


20 


* 


* 


78 




16 




* 


28 


16 


* 


13 


22 


20 


20 


* 


170 




70 




23 


79 


71 


* 


42 


17 


32 


14 


12 


97 




58 




* 


53 


16 


* 


21 


* 


381 


219 


151 


1,206 




498 




145 


584 


405 


35 


232 


99 


322 


36 


62 


941 




447 




134 


505 


284 


29 


226 


107 


1,753 


448 


566 


3,787 


1 


,621 




529 


1,910 


1,203 


118 


706 


516 


270 


82 


107 


420 




171 




57 


200 


159 


* 


138 


55 


78 


15 


24 


136 




56 




72 


86 


45 


* 


75 


42 


1,151 


174 


319 


2,379 




938 




325 


1,077 


648 


101 


273 


363 


75 


44 


. 30 


306 




132 




20 


130 


106 


* 


26 


20 


4,380 


1,279 


1,237 


14,981 


5 


,892 


1 


,461 


6,376 


3,859 


304 


1,793 


1,801 



996 



256 



74 



265 



205 



96 



41 


10 


* 


101 


68 


15 


49 


24 


37 


32 


33 


549 


205 


50 


172 


149 


46 


35 


20 


307 


91 


59 


97 


95 



57 
46 
47 



38 

22 



63 



Appendix (continued) 



■■ ■■ 


1970 

Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


1980 

Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


State, SMSA 










217,336 


.77 




.15 


1,671 


Harrisburg 










104,246 


.45 




.04 


469 


Johnstown 










179,281 


.78 




.13 


1,393 


Lancaster 










280,978 


.68 




.18 


1,907 


Northeast 

Pennsylvania 










2,156,231 


1.06 




2.10 


22,834 


Philadelphia 
(PA, NJ) 










1,013,903 


.83 




.78 


8,444 


Pittsburgh 










154,261 


.71 




.10 


1,100 


Reading 










54,738 


.54 




.03 


295 


Sharon 










50,103 


1.30 




.06 


652 


State College 










53,740 


.64 




.03 


346 


Williamsport 










188,649 


.70 




.12 


1,325 


York 


387,256 


.81 


.42 


3,124 


459,146 


.99 




.42 


4,527 


Rhode Island 










82,554 


.52 




.04 


429 


Fall River (RI, MA) 










111,084 


1.02 




.10 


1,129 


New London-Norwich 
(RI, CT) 










453,213 


.94 




.39 


4,261 


P ro vide nee- Warwick- 
Pawtucket (RI, MA) 


987,979 


.53 


.71 


5,209 


1,405,262 


.68 




.88 


9,526 


South Carolina 










64,745 


.42 




.03 


275 


Anderson 










140,073 


.72 




.09 


1,010 


Augusta 










177,400 


.74 




.12 


1,315 


Charles ton- North 
Charleston 










194,987 


1.02 




.18 


2,001 


Columbia 










49,157 


.51 




.02 


250 


Florence 










275,775 


.82 




.21 


2,272 


Greenville- 
Spartanburg 










52,218 


.53 




.03 


279 


Rock Hill 


248,468 


.58 


.19 


1,435 


312,022 


.63 




.18 


1,974 


South Dakota 










55,783 


.95 




.05 


529 


Sioux Falls 


1,519,880 


.70 


1.43 


10,607 


2,067,882 


.86 




1.63 


17,714 


Tennessee 










195,166 


.77 




.14 


1,500 


Chattanooga (TN, GA ) 










52,009 


.43 




.02 


226 


Clarksville- 
Hopkinsville 
(TN, KY) 










189,252 


.70 




.12 


1,328 


Johnson City- 

Kingsport- Bristol 
(TN, VA) 










219,646 


1.12 




.23 


2,453 


Knoxville 










405,187 


.99 




.37 


3,997 


Memphis (TN, AR, MS) 










418,370 


1.35 




.52 


5,655 


Nashvi lie- Davidson 



64 



Artist population of states and major cities 































i 




Teachers 








Musicians/ 


Actors/ 






Ph 


DtO~ 






Artists 


Architects 


(higher 


ed) 


Authors 


Designers 


composers 


directors 


Pa 


inters. . 


graphers 


Dancers 


Announcers 


n 


e.c. 


226 


25 




46 


520 


168 


49 




264 




130 


* 


118 




125 


51 


* 




* 


148 


68 


13 




44 




78 


* 


52 




* 


118 


27 




23 


527 


220 


60 




217 




82 


* 


81 




38 


179 


64 




12 


529 


433 


29 




238 




225 


* 


126 




72 



2,481 



602 



839 



7,844 



2,771 



729 



3,749 



1,956 



304 



972 



826 


191 


188 


3,117 


1,270 


68 


29 


21 


441 


197 


29 


14 


* 


108 


59 


58 


108 


* 


101 


93 


* 


* 


17 


159 


37 


139 


24 


44 


571 


168 



344 



51 



23 



,129 


696 


147 


108 


14 


32 


82 


67 


43 


16 


209 


99 



75 



255 


353 


53 


30 


31 


* 


52 


33 


42 


26 


31 


17 



306 



114 



166 



489 



197 



626 



430 



13 



174 



171 



55 
66 

316 



34 



111 



* 


123 


85 


12 


51 


50 


35 


540 


99 


30 


191 


78 


146 


1,783 


470 


204 


540 


348 



20 



22 
29 

159 



19 
27 

164 



1,115 



436 



338 



3,090 



1,131 



340 



946 



936 



43 



777 



374 



41 


* 


* 


94 


50 


* 


* 


36 


89 


* 


* 


259 


178 


37 


119 


144 


213 


44 


30 


378 


236 


46 


154 


129 


233 


161 


112 


471 


263 


93 


200 


193 


24 


23 


32 


101 


10 


* 


18 


13 


295 


81 


55 


869 


180 


83 


247 


221 



10 



14 



21 


12 


76 


81 


46 


32 


92 


74 


* 


23 


55 


72 



12 9 
21 



55 

15 



75 



62 



26 



23 



33 



12 



552 
42 



175 
43 



52 



164 
36 



200 
20 



15 



28 



56 

37 



23 



127 


176 


100 


386 


303 


165 


178 


211 


* 


260 


68 


60 


43 


16 


88 


116 


44 


53 


33 


* 


70 


* 


1,581 


474 


286 


4,929 


3,826 


548 


2,138 


1,816 


152 


1,174 


790 



90 
12 



87 



72 



403 



149 



94 



142 



209 



15 



120 



37 



345 


69 


88 


649 


399 


114 


347 


218 


28 


110 




86 


449 


110 


66 


1,113 


797 


70 


530 


377 


56 


243 




186 


393 


76 


112 


1,169 


2,013 


190 


611 


541 


36 


215 




299 



65 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. 

labor force artists 



Number 

of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



State, SMSA 



4,284,702 



.82 



4.75 



34,969 



6,574,676 



.94 



5.69 



61,802 



Texas 




61,189 


.78 


.04 




480 


Abilene 


86,536 


.95 


.08 




818 


Amarillo 


270,060 


1.63 


.41 


4 


,413 


Austin 


168,154 


.63 


.10 


1 


,064 


Beaumont-Port Arthur 


77,405 


.51 


.04 




396 


Brownsville- 
Harlingen- 
San Benito 


41,756 


.97 


.04 




403 


Bryan-College 
Station 


143,867 


.81 


.11 


1 


,166 


Corpus Christi 


1,535,145 


1.21 


1.71 


18 


,618 


Dallas-Ft. Worth 


181,867 


.93 


.16 


1 


,692 


El Paso 


96,043 


.61 


.05 




590 


Galveston-Texas City 


1,499,469 


1.07 


1.48 


16 


,050 


Houston 


68,307 


.50 


.03 




340 


Killeen-Temple 


35,451 


.47 


.02 




165 


; Laredo 


69,991 


.74 


.05 




519 


Longvi erf-Mar shall 


101,520 


.98 


.09 




998 


Lubbock 


104,940 


.47 


.05 




490 


McAllen-Pharr- 

Edinburg 


42,577 


.76 


.03 




324 


Midland 


57,371 


.63 


.03 




363 


Odessa 


39,996 


.60 


.02 




241 


San Angelo 


439,068 


1.07 


.43 


4 


,684 


San Antonio 


42,195 


.54 


.02 




227 


Sherman-Denison 


52,489 


.56 


.03 




293 


Texarkana (TX, AR ) 


60,602 


.65 


.04 




393 


Tyler 


32,269 


.57 


.02 




134 


Victoria 


76,798 


.94 


.07 




722 


Waco 


57,315 


.91 


.05 




522 


Wichita Falls 



397,533 



.92 



.50 



3,659 



619,738 



.95 



.54 



5,85£ 



Utah 



82,642 
417,508 



1.09 
1.02 



.08 898 Provo-Orem 

.39 4,267 Salt Lake City-Ogden 



174,459 


.92 


.22 


1,600 


242,456 


.98 


.22 


2,366 


Vermont 










56,720 


1.07 


.06 


609 


Burlington 


1,761,812 


.87 


2.07 


15,253 


2,471,158 


1.00 


2.28 


24,775 


Virginia 



56,055 


1.29 


.07 


725 


Charlottesville 


53,063 


.51 


.03 


272 


Danville 



66 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
Architects (higher ed ) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ 
Designers composers directors Painters. 



7,775 



1,571 



1,487 



20,581 



7,717 



2,445 



8,419 



Photo- 
graphers Dancers 



Artists 
Announcers n.e.c. 



5,582 



713 



3,267 



2,245 



19 


63 


14 


187 


45 


* 


44 


60 


10 


30 


* 


92 


19 


31 


185 


133 


46 


119 


94 


25 


52 


22 


761 


160 


242 


1,049 


681 


217 


654 


321 


17 


161 


150 


50 


25 


10 


333 


13 5 


73 


123 


117 


* 


160 


33 


55 


* 


20 


127 


54 


25 


53 


17 


* 


45 


* 



70 



17 



17 



96 



33 



21 



43 



54 



41 



11 



159 


20 


42 


407 


87 


72 


97 


158 


20 


80 


24 


2,309 


470 


436 


6,027 


2,428 


874 


2,721 


1,613 


364 


611 


765 


177 


64 


56 


369 


194 


65 


207 


158 


25 


230 


147 


37 


* 


40 


213 


73 


* 


90 


87 


* 


17 


18 


2,926 


226 


286 


5,975 


1,755 


511 


2,113 


1,195 


154 


486 


423 


24 


* 


* 


126 


61 


11 


33 


19 


* 


31 


23 


13 


* 


* 


51 


14 


17 


* 


32 


* 


* 


17 


66 


19 


* 


184 


94 


* 


67 


32 


* 


33 


13 


77 


66 


23 


320 


109 


22 


113 


99 


* 


105 


56 


36 


15 


* 


147 


129 


* 


55 


57 


* 


34 


* 


42 


* 


* 


138 


21 


20 


74 


* 


* 


21 


* 


16 


34 


* 


140 


39 


* 


13 


20 


* 


50 


31 


37 


* 


* 


65 


39 


25 


29 


16 


* 


12 


12 


427 


94 


97 


1,394 


750 


169 


811 


561 


48 


199 


134 


* 


* 


* 


71 


18 


13 


15 


55 


* 


45 


* 


* 


* 


* 


114 


54 


* 


24 


44 


* 


31 


12 


48 


11 


* 


116 


58 


* 


53 


35 


* 


29 


30 


* 


* 


* 


98 


16 


* 


12 


19 


* 


19 


* 


35 


24 


12 


217 


83 


25 


116 


83 


10 


63 


54 


26 


11 


* 


198 


41 


36 


84 


46 


* 


64 


* 



686 



208 



1,836 



462 



261 



936 



601 



280 



234 



43 


120 


56 


230 


112 


61 


122 


86 


561 


101 


117 


1,372 


329 


175 


696 


463 



124 
13 



13 



35 


145 


78 


32 


121 


19 


91 


40 


10 


22 



66 
18 



34 

197 



67 
53 



34 
169 



298 


108 


93 


627 


262 


94 


500 


165 


* 


103 


113 


95 


14 


29 


192 


77 


39 


85 


* 


* 


32 


44 


2,817 


551 


1,320 


7,588 


2,592 


1,300 


3,878 


2,196 


147 


1,425 


961 



39 



67 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 



% U.S. 
artists 



Number 

of artists 



1980 



Civilian 
labor force 



% artists 

in civilian % U.S. Number 

labor force artists of artists 



State, SMSA 



189,252 



53,883 



.70 



72,065 


.82 


.03 


594 


58,661 


1.21 


.18 


1,918 


23,677 


.95 


.28 


3,087 



.57 



.12 1,328 Johnson City- 

Kingsport- Bristol 
(VA, TN) 

Lynchburg 

Newport News-Hampton 

Norfolk-Virginia 
Beach- Portsmouth 
(VA, NO 

.03 307 Petersburg-Colonial 

Heights-Hopewell 



318, 


,380 


.90 


.26 


2,861 


Richmond 


106, 


,697 


1.02 


.10 


1,093 


Roanoke 


1,596, 


,466 


1.56 


2.30 


24,979 


Washington 
(VA, DC, MD 



1,333,708 



.94 



1.70 



12,553 



1,937,615 



1.19 



2.12 



22,974 



Washington 



49, 


,233 


1 


.45 


.07 




713 


Bellingham 


60, 


,196 


1 


.15 


.06 




693 


Bremerton 


57, 


,074 




.86 


.05 




491 


Olympia 


620, 


.755 


1 


.25 


.71 


7 


,748 


Portland (WA, OR) 


71 


,606 




.88 


.06 




633 


Richland- Ken newick 
Pasco 


838, 


,764 


1 


.59 


1.23 


13 


,301 


Seattle- Everett 


151 


,574 


1 


.06 


.15 


1, 


,610 


Spokane 


198 


,935 




.97 


.18 


1 


,937 


Tacoma 


76 


,909 




.60 


.04 




460 


Yakima 



575,966 



.54 



3,091 



753,076 



.56 



.39 



4,223 



West Virginia 




119,918 


.80 


.09 


962 


43,412 


.55 


.02 


237 


122,305 


.60 


.07 


735 


70,025 


.55 


.04 


385 


66,732 


.62 


.04 


412 


78,173 


.50 


.04 


393 



Charleston 

Cumberland (WV, MD) 

Hun ting ton- Ash land 
(WV, KY, OH) 

Parkersburg-Marietta 
(WV, OH) 

Steubenville-Weirton 
(WV, OH) 

Wheeling (WV, OH) 



1,769,248 



.75 



13,320 



2,263,413 



.81 



1.70 



18,429 



Wisconsin 



141,453 


.85 


.11 


1,203 


116,562 


.85 


.09 


992 



59,625 


.59 


.03 


352 


Kenosha 


45,751 


1.04 


.04 


475 


La Crosse 


178,136 


1.45 


.24 


2,588 


Madison 



68 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers 
architects (higher ed ) Authors 



Musicians/ Actors/ 
Designers composers directors Painters. 



Photo- 
graphers Dancers 



Artists 
Announcers n.e.c. 



87 



72 



403 



149 



94 



142 



209 



15 



120 



37 



44 


32 


* 


199 


58 


23 


116 


63 


90 


16 


14 


989 


262 


55 


230 


112 


404 


47 


51 


1,013 


515 


195 


328 


215 



48 



39 


20 


56 


89 


08 


63 



27 



10 



139 



36 



16 



39 



12 



19 



297 


97 


56 


961 


338 


125 


489 


298 


146 


21 


64 


295 


120 


84 


178 


113 


3,414 


406 


2,351 


5,613 


2,349 


1,510 


4,307 


2,515 



19 



269 



102 


79 


51 


21 


,039 


1,206 



3,148 



595 



852 



6,733 



3,366 



933 



3,620 



1,806 



204 



915 



802 



51 


32 


36 


205 


206 


* 


13 3 


16 


154 


* 


36 


249 


61 


* 


65 


69 


55 


17 


34 


183 


62 


* 


60 


31 


1,151 


174 


319 


2,379 


938 


325 


1,077 


648 


42 


* 


* 


300 


52 


17 


128 


33 


2,081 


299 


484 


3,793 


1,837 


671 


2,254 


967 


236 


41 


58 


374 


265 


112 


184 


206 


169 


42 


52 


560 


333 


55 


376 


160 


49 


13 


* 


168 


48 


13 


43 


39 



15 



101 



164 



21 



24 


10 


17 


22 


25 


19 


273 


363 


54 


* 


360 


391 


70 


64 


102 


67 


46 


32 



139 



58 



1,591 



521 



355 



387 



47 



433 



261 



100 

* 

33 
30 



22 

24 
26 

13 



10 



11 



413 


139 


21 


101 


50 


82 


58 


13 


10 


17 


306 


95 


63 


38 


66 



13 



18 



145 



60 



20 



31 



49 



83 
17 
58 

28 



10 



21 



11 



128 



82 



32 



47 



92 



103 



65 



11 



28 



73 



63 



40 



1,529 


767 


656 


6,024 


2,414 


640 


2,760 


1,669 


172 


1,136 


662 


84 


62 


11 


404 


137 


25 


202 


147 


* 


83 


42 


78 


82 


11 


173 


180 


55 


125 


103 


* 


181 


* 


52 


30 


10 


198 


47 


* 


44 


20 


* 


53 


12 


84 


* 


14 


256 


56 


84 


97 


60 


* 


70 


44 


23 


15 


16 


186 


43 


* 


55 


14 


* 


25 


32 


* 


* 


* 


172 


21 


* 


46 


48 


* 


25 


33 


30 


67 


* 


104 


17 


* 


101 


71 


11 


38 


24 


285 


192 


211 


464 


381 


114 


394 


242 


22 


161 


122 



69 



Appendix (continued) 



1970 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


1980 

Civilian 
labor force 


% artists 
in civilian 
labor force 


% U.S. 
artists 


Number 

of artists 


State, SMS A 




Civilian 
labor force 












697,470 


.99 




.64 


6,913 


Milwaukee 












1,120,236 


1.27 




1.31 


14,219 


Minneapolis-St. 


Paul 










84,330 


.73 




.06 


617 


Racine 












49,840 


.96 




.04 


477 


Sheboygan 












53,172 


.60 




.03 


319 


Wausau 




129,149 


.65 


.11 


844 


226,762 


.71 




.15 


1,602 


Wyoming 












38,068 


1.02 




.04 


389 


Casper 





70 



Artist population of states and major cities 



Teachers Musicians/ Actors/ Photo- Artists 

Architects (higher ed ) Authors Designers composers directors Painters... graphers Dancers Announcers n.e.c. 



611 


195 


210 


2 


,428 


977 


275 


1, 


,103 


621 


120 


184 


189 


1,703 


338 


528 


4 


,572 


1,972 


611 


2, 


,417 


1,177 


114 


267 


520 


29 


* 


19 




278 


63 


26 




86 


60 


* 


* 


39 


48 


13 


25 




183 


69 


38 




34 


32 


* 


21 


14 


17 


* 


10 




115 


60 


* 




40 


35 


* 


26 


* 


214 


175 


53 




442 


78 


42 




172 


183 


* 


192 


51 


92 


28 


* 




92 


12 


25 




34 


51 


* 


45 


10 



71 



REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES 



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#1 Employment and Unemployment of Artists : 
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#14 Audience Development: An Examination 
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#17 The Arts Public in the South. 64 
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#10 Self -Employment, Migration, and House- 
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72 



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