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Full text of ""White caps" and Florence Nightingale"


loyalty will I endeavor to 
I aid the physfcian in his work, j 
and devote myself to the welfare 
of those committed to my care. 






A 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



<5 



ITCH 



CLU-M 



GIFT OF 



DR. AND MRS. ELMER BELT 




CALMITOL 

155 EAST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK 17, N, Y. j 



LWI 



CONTENTS 



editorial 

26 R.N. Speaks: "Who's to Hoe, Water and Bug Us?' 

features 

28 Candid Comments— 

A Message for the Coming Generation 
Janet M. Geister, R.N. 

31 Spring, anywhere 

Merle Perry, R.N. 

32 The Case for Margarine 

Lynne Svec 
34 Stuttering and Semantic Environment 
Harvey W. Alexander 

37 Bellevue's 75th Anniversary 

38 Army Seeks 29,000 Nurses For Reserve 
42 Ward Heel 

Jo Brown 

44 A High School Health Plan That Works 

45 "White Caps" and Florence Nightingale 
Rev. Joseph B. McAllister, Ph.D. 

47 Probie 

50 Two Weeks was not enough 

Alexis Wilson, R.N. 
52 Diphtheria 

Carolyn Valentine, B.S. 
departments 

5 Debits & Credits 
21 Science Shorts 

48 Reviewing the News 
55 Calling All Nurses 

103 Positions Available 



f 



cover credit 

Photograph of bas-relief 
of Florence Nightingale 
from New York City 
WPA Art Project 



editor: 

Alice R. Clarke, R.N. 
assistant editor 

Marion R. Scraver 
art director: 

Jo Brown 



may, 1948 



11, no. 8 



Circulation 150,000 registered nurses monthly. Copy- 
right 1948, Nightingale Press, Inc., Rutherford, N. J. 



BARCO 

OF CALIFORNIA designs for you 




Till pA(A*>Um££ t^^CK^ 



m 



\ 



Style No. 919, BELDING NYLON, sizes 10 

to 18, about 15.00. 

Style No. 916, also available in ttAYON 

SANDGRAIN, about 10.00. 

Write us for name of your nearest store. 

FREE on request ... our new 1948 catalog 

BARCO GARMENT CO. 



Are you one of the increasing 
number of nurses who prefer an 
>earance of individuality for "on duty" 
hours? Then you'll be pleased with our beau- 
tifully tailored BELDING NYLON uni- 
form highlighted with smart dolman sleeves, 
detachable contour beltond unusual winged 
cuffs. 



937 EAST PICO BLVD., LOS ANGELES 21, CALIF, 



Experience is the Best Teacher 



Camillo Golgi (1844-1926) 
proved it in neurology 




EXPERIENCE IS THE BEST TEACHER 
IN CIGARETTES, TOO! 

With smokers who have tried different 
brands, Camels are the "choice of expe- 
rience." Try Camels! See how your taste 
welcomes the rich flavor of Camels. See 
if your throat doesn't find Camel's cool 
mildness mighty pleasing. Let your own 
experience tell you why more people are 
smoking Camels than ever before. 

According to a WationtciUe survey: 

More Doctors Smoke CAMELS 

than any other cigarette 

Three leading independent research organizations in a nationwide survey asked 113,597 doctors 
what cigarette they smoked. The brand named most wa* Camel! 



Let no shadow mar "her" day! 



Let "her," instead, rely 
on Anacin's swift, sure, pro- 
longed action for freedom 
from any shadow of men- 
strual pain. 

Let her remember, too, 
that Anacin tablets are 
just as effective in allaying 
the pains of simple head- 
ache and minor neuralgia. 

This quick-acting, long- 
lasting analgesic can be 
obtained at your favorite 
drugstore or hospital phar- 
macy. Try it, won't you? 

for Rapid, Prolonged 
Analgesia rely on 




ANACIN 



® 




"Come Live With Me" 

Dear Editor: 

I am often reminded that there 
are many, many nurses who are un- 
doubtedly caught in this maelstrom 
of economic distress and wonder how 
many there are without homes. 

I do have a dear, cozy home of 
my very own and would love to 
share it with another nurse who 
might be willing to help carry the 
expense of such a plan. I feel selfish 
living alone nor can I really afford 
to do so, but the usual methods of 
making a home pay do not work out 
ideally in our small village. 



£*Z 



I go for a case now and then, but 
my specialty has always been ob- 
stetric and pediatric nursing and I 
wear down very quickly when at 
work. The strain of listening is hard 
and, in the home, one is expected to 
do 24-hour duty. Moreover, at 60 
it is easier to work long hours than 
to "go and come." 

Frankly, I think I have earned my 
retirement but I shall have to aug- 
ment my income in some way, per- 
haps for the rest of my life, unless 
conditions improve. What do you 
think of having my little idea ex- 
pressed in a letter to "Debits and 
Credits?" Of course, this would be 
a heavy quest, but it would work 
both ways. It would be equally diffi- 



cult for a stranger to accept my plan 
as for me to accept the stranger. But 
a correspondence with interested per- 
son or persons might eventually 
bring a great measure of happiness 
to two individuals. 

I am never lonely but I am alone, 
even in a world of real friends, and 
I know that companionship is the 
priceless ingredient that completes 
happy living. 

Elisabeth L. Spohn, R.N. 

SHEPHERDSTOWN, W.VA. 



x^x 



Taxitis Rx 

Dear Editor: 

The article, "Taxitis," by Elliott 
Hunt Marrus [R.N., Feb.] states that 
"cost of uniforms, shoes, stockings, 
caps, etc., and their laundering and 
repair" are legal deductions from our 
income tax. 

Myself and many other nurses 
have been called in by the Bureau 
of Internal Revenue and told we had 
made illegal deductions on all ol 
these items. Some nurses have had 
to pay money deducted as long as 
two and three years ago with a 6 
per cent interest. 

If this can be corrected, we would 
be grateful to R.N. forever. 

Norah I. Haley, R.N. 

NEW YORK, N.Y. 

[The editor of R.N. has checked 

in person with the Bureau of Internal 



may R.N. 1948 



Pjeama-T/wk 

BODY RUB 




\ 



Protects your hands 



i 





N^v 



A bland, lanolin-rich emollient 
containing carbamide and natural 
menthol, Tomac DERMA-FRESH 
gives cooling, soothing relief with- 
out the heat reaction or skin-drying 
effect of alcoholic solutions. Actu- 
ally softens the patient's skin — and 
its non-drying qualities protect your 
hands at the same time! 

Sold only to hospi- 
tals. A FREE full- 
size trial bottle will 
be sent to any Su- 
perintendent of 
Nurses requesting 
it on her hospital 
stationery. 

TOMAC 




Distributed exclusively by 

AMERICAN HOSPITAL* 
SUPPLY CORPORATION 

General Offices — Evanilon, Illinois 



Revenue, Treasury Department, 
Washington, D.C., and has received 
confirmation of the ruling as pub- 
lished. The Department reiterated 
that: 

"This office holds that the cost of 
the uniforms and maintenance there- 
of, including laundry, is an ordinary 
and necessary business expense and, 
therefore, constitutes an allowable 
deduction from gross income. 

"This riding is not restricted to 
nurses coming into contact with 
communicable diseases but is appli- 
cable with respect to all nurses in 
the practice of their profession." 

Nurses who experience difficulty 
when they file for the cost and main- 
tenance of uniforms should refer 
local authorities to the official ruling. 

—THE EDITORS.] 

Thank You Note 

Dear Editor: 

I have received an abundance of 
interesting letters from nurses who 
read my letter [R.N., Feb.] request- 
ing "pen pals." Many of them were 
from nurses as far off as California. 
I want to thank them and plan to 
write them all just as soon as I pos- 
sibly can. 

Mary Griffin, R.N. 

HOLYOKE, MASS. 

Pet Peeve 

Dear Editor: 

Your magazine should be an in- 
fluential place to refer my pet peeve 
and see what can be done about it. 

We nurses can now appear quite 

may R.N. 1948 



New vitamin factors in 
canned foods 



The role of the newer B complex 
vitamins in mammalian nutrition 
has been studied by a number of in- 
vestigators in the last few years. 
Biotin, pyridoxine, and "folic acid" 
have been shown by animal experi- 
ment to be essential (1). 

"Folic acid" has also been reported 
as effective in the treatment of sprue 
and certain other types of human 
anemia (2, 3). 

While the physiological properties 
and human requirements of these 
new vitamins are not fully under- 



stood or completely established, they 
will probably be elaborated in the 
near future. 

In anticipation of that time atten- 
tion is being directed to the occur- 
rence of these factors in foods. 

Tabulated below are the amounts 
of these nutrients found in represen- 
tative canned foods (4). 

It is planned in future work to de- 
velop more complete information re- 
garding the biotin, pyridoxine and 
"folic acid" values of this important 
class of foods. 



Pyridoxine, Biotin, and "Folic Acid" Contents of Canned Foods 

{Recalculated in terms of four-ounce (113 grams) servings.) 

Pyridoxine Biotin "Folic Acid" 











S. Lactis Factor L, 


Casei Factor 






Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 




No. of 


Micrograms 


Micrograms 


Micrograms 


Microgram 


Product 


Samples 


Per Serving 


Per Serving 


Per Serving 


Per Serving 


Asparagus, Green 


10 


34 


1.9 


6.6 


10.1 


Beans, Green 


11 


36 


1.5 


3.3 


8.7 


Carrots 


10 


25 


1.7 


1.5 


4.6 


Corn, Yellow 


10 


77 


2.5 


1.9 


6.3 


Grapefruit Juice 


11 


16 


0.3 


0.6 


1.4 


Peaches 


9 


18 


0.2 


0.6 


1.7 


Peas 


10 


52 


2.4 


1.9 


5.0 


Salmon 


10 


147 


11.1 


2.9 


7.8 


Spinach 


10 


68 


2.6 


8.4 


23.4 


Tomatoes 


10 


80 


2.0 


3.0 


6.1 


(1) Nutrition Reviews 4, 163 (1946) 


(3) 


Am. J. Pub. Health 37, 688 (1947) 


(2) Nutrition Reviews 4, 11 (1946) 


(4) Journal of Nutrition 31, 347 (1946) 


(£^§§) AMERICAN 


CAN COMPANY 230 Park Avenue, New York 17, 


New York 



This is the second in a new series of 
articles which will summarize, for 
your convenience, the conclusions 
about canned foods which authori- 
ties in nutritional research and can- 
ning technology have reached. We 
want to make this series available 
to you, and so we ask your help. 



Will you tell us on a post card ad- 
dressed to the American Can Com- 
pany, General Research Laboratory, 
Maywood, Illinois, what phases of 
canned foods knowledge are of great- 
est interest to you. Your suggestions 
will help determine the subject mat- 
ter of future articles. 



The Seal of Acceptance denotes that the statements pertaining to nutrition in this advertise- 
ment are acceptable to the Council on Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical 
Association. 

Visit our booth #88 at the Biennial Nursing Convention, Chicago, III., May 30- June 5 



The most comfortable 

beauties you ^^ Fjf 
ever wore" 




they're both made 
almost entirely by hand! 

Crafted without a single seam, bulge or 
ridge on the sole! Not a single nail any- 
where! No stiff toe-boxes to cramp your 
toes! No counters to blister your feet! And 
such mellow, such soft, such supple calf! 
Your feet will love your Haymakers... 
and you'll adore their beauty. White Elk. 
Also in red, black and brown. $19 Q ^ 
Sizes 4-10, Widths AAAA-C IL.dO 

At your favorite store, or mail us this order: 



AVON SHOE CO. 
Dcpt BN-4 47 W. 34thSt.,N.Y. 

Please send me Haymakers at $12.95 pair. 

Moccasin Ties: Size Color 

Moccasin Pumps: Size Color 

Check enclosed D Money Order enclosedQ 

Name — 

Address . — 

City . — 

State 



modish in the new nylon uniforms 
and hose, but oh! the shoes. I have 
been pleading with shoe stores and 
shoe manufacturers for a shoe with- 
out laces. Washing white shoe laces 
seems such a waste of effort. Why 
not a walking shoe like those easy to 
find in black or brown, but which 
never seem to come in white? It has 
a moderate heel, comes up well 
across arch«of foot, preferably in elk- 
skin leather with perforated toes, and 
looks trim and neat. 

R.N., LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 



Physiotherapy 



Dear Editor: 

In reply to Eleanor Woest's letter 
[R.N., Jan.], many universities in the 
U.S., including Northwestern Uni- 
versity where I received my certifi- 
cate in 1941, do not require a college 
degree to take a physiotherapy 
course. 

Any interested nurse can obtain a 
list of accredited schools accepting 
R.N.'s for physical therapy courses 
by writing to the American Physio- 
therapy Association, 1790 Broadway, 
New York, N.Y. 

Mildred G. Feldman, R.N. 

OAK RIDGE, TENN. 

That Dash of Color 

Dear Editor: 

Why has it become the accept- 
able habit of so many R.N.'s to tuck 
a bit of color in the breast pocket of 
their uniforms? Our uniform manu- 
facturers are trying their level best 
to create the latest in styles and have 



may 



R.N. 1948 




"Cripes, she forgot the Cutter Poisonok 
-we can't make a break without that!" 



No, for rhus-sensitive people, there's only 
one way to escape from the miseries of 
poison oak — pre- seasonal protection. And 
for that, Cutter Poisonok- is specific. 

It's designed for oral administration in 
ascending dosage — much the preferred 
method of treatment because you can adjust 
it to individual needs. Protection lasts from 
3 to 8 months — and patients are eternally 
grateful. 

When treatment is needed — Cutter 
Toxok produces dramatic relief of symp- 
toms.' One or two intramuscular injections 
usually stops the spreading eruption, and 



reduces swelling and inflammation. Or if 
the case is mild, Cutter Poisonok can be 
used effectively for oral treatment — and 
offers a simple method of prescription for 
home use. 

To help your patients escape poison oak, 
remember 

CUTTER 
POISONOK AND TOXOK 

CUTTER LABORATORIES 

BERKELEY I, CALIFORNIA 




?r 



I call it 'My Salvation' " 



And so will a lot of your patients. Cutter 
Dermesthetic Ointment can save them from 
losing their minds — or friends — or jobs. 
Because it gives prompt and lasting, triple- 
action relief from itching. 

Industrial dermatitis — insect bites — 
poison oak and ivy — allergic rash — what- 
ever their cause, Dermesthetic Ointment 
stops the itch. Right now ! Without stain- 
ing skin or clothes! 

Cutter Dermesthetic Ointment's triple 
action works like this: 

First, benzyl alcohol gives fast, on-the- 
spot relief. Then comes phenol for inter- 
mediate, overlapping relief. And finally, 
benzocaine takes over for prolonged 
relief. 
This itch relief — added to the ointment's 



bacteriostatic action — also helps to avoid 
secondary infections from scratching. 

Would you like a sample of Dermesthetic 
Ointment for trial? Just write to Cutter 
Laboratories, Dept. 50, Berkeley 1, Calif. 




Cutter Laboratories • Berkeley I, Calif . 




The high cost off living 
has us walking 
a tightrope too 



The high cost of living is another name for in- 
flation. It hurts us' just where it hurts you— in 
the pocketbook. For when prices are too high, 
fewer people buy. 

We are doing everything we can to keep our 
prices down and quality up. To this end, key 
men from all our companies meet at a round 
table once every month. They study the best 
results of National Dairy operations . . . pool 
brains and experience ... to bring you top 
quality at lowest possible price. 

Here are some figures which show how milk 
prices compare with food prices, from 1939 to 
1947: 

Increase in cost of food 106% 

Increase in cost of fluid milk . . . 63% 

Notice that milk has not increased nearly so 
much as the average of other foods. Our profit 
from all of our milk divisions averaged less than 
Vz cent per quart of milk sold in 1947— far less 



than the public thinks business makes — and much 
less than the average profit in the food industry. 

Milk— nature's most nearly perfect food- 
gives you more for your money than anything 
else you can eat. Our research guards the qual- 
ity of milk— and cheese, butter, ice cream and 
other products made from milk — to keep nutri- 
tion and flavor at highest levels. Then we make 
these foods available at the lowest possible 
prices to the greatest number of people. 



An impartial national survey shows that 
most Americans consider \0%-\5% on 
sales a fair profit for business. Compared 
to this, the average profit in the food in- 
dustry is less than 5%. And National 
Dairy's profit in its milk divisions in 
1947 was less than 2%. 



NATIONAL DAIRY 

PRODUCTS CORPORATION 



WATCHES and WATCHES 
and WATCHES and WATCHES 

and BULOVA 



THE NURSES' BULOVA 

fat a ti£eti*tte o£ fieautcf 
eutd defae*uO%Me &envcce 




$37.50 is all it costs you. Including taxes. It's 
good tor at least 37 ! /j years. That's a dollar 
a year tor perfect time-keeping and the pride 
you'll have in owning and using this gorgeous 
timepiece. • It's great tor work — it has the 
sweep-second hand. It's beautiful for dress — 
10 Kt. rolled-gold-plate top, steel back, silk 
cord with ratchet safety clasp. It has 17 jewels 
and BULOVA perfection and guarantee. There is 
NO better watch for YOU. • Other watches may 
be plentiful but THIS BULOVA is still scarce. 
Our supplies are limited, so, why not order 
RIGHT NOW? 

FOR WORK OR DRESS 
THE PERFECT NURSES' WATCH_ 

R. N. SPECIALTY COMPANY, 

15 E. 22nd Street, New York 10, N. Y. 

Please send me a NURSES* BULOVA If I'm 

not thrilled I'll send it back for full refund. 

D Enclosed is remittance. 

□ Send C. O. D., plus C. O. D. fees. 

Name ■ — 



Address- 



THE PERFECT GIFT 



10 



succeeded beautifully. I, for one, 
would like to see nurses in uniform 
condemn that absurd practice of 
trimming the pocket with a bit of 
colored lace or dainty material. 

What is to be admired— that bit of 
pink or blue lace or a spotless white 
uniform? Let's be uniform when in 
uniform. 

R.N., GREAT BEND, KAN. 

Conscience Preferred 

Dear Editor: 

Wouldn't it be better to allow into 
training all high school graduates 
who wish to become nurses though 
they may not be in the upper third 
of their class? Some of the girls 
barred from schools of nursing be- 
cause of grades would make good 
bedside nurses. When I'm in the 
prone position, I'd rather have a 
nurse with a conscience who may not 
have been a good scholar, than one 
with high grades, a degree and no 
conscience. 

R.N., DAVENPORT, IOWA 

Provoked 

Dear Editor: 

An advertisement in a Duluth, 
Minn., paper reads: "Uniforms suit- 
able for nurses, waitresses and 
maids . . ." This has more than pro- 
voked me for I took a considerable 
amount of "ribbing" from my hus- 
band as well as some friends. I can- 
not say that I blame them for their 
remarks such as "And I thought nurs- 
ing was a profession." 

People outside our profession 

may R.N. 1948 




Qua/tty foi €wei 50 ueakb 



Bix-flBakc 



U N I 



Styled after the U.S. Navy nurses' 
uniform is this Dix-Make uniform of 
exceptional quality and smartness. 
In fine, sanforized* Simpson's Sou- 
lette poplin, it is available in three 
lengths, short, regular and long. 

Pointed club collar,pleated bodice, 
set-in belt, removable pearl but- 
tons, and french cuffs with pearl 
links on the long sleeve model. 

Dix Style No. 400 with long sleeves 
. . . illustrated. 

Dix Style No. 4000 with short 
sleeves . . . not illustrated. ^ 

$8. At Leading Department Stores 
or write Dix-Make direct. 



SHORT 




LONG 



Send for the illustrated Dix-Make Folder. 



HENRY A. DIX & SONS CORP. 

DEPT. R .1350 BROADWAY • NEW YORK 18. N.Y. 



'Max. Shrinkage Visit Dix-Make at The Biennial Nursing Convention . . . Stevens Hotel . . . 
leu Than \<?o Chicago . . . May 31 • June 3, 1948 . . . Booths 153 and 154 




should be made to realize that we 
spent three to five years and consid- 
erable money to get a professional 
rating. School teachers are not 
classed with janitors— why should 
nurses be classed with waitresses and 
maids even in a uniform ad? 

Jacqueline H. Sullivan, R.N. 

MOUNTAIN IRON, MINN. 

Rose Dolan 

Dear Editor: 

We were very much interested in 
the article about Rose Dolan [R.N., 
Feb.]. 

Miss Dolan has been a member 
of the Comite Americain de Secours 
Civils and its predecessor, the Co- 
mite Americain des Regions Devas- 
tees, since 1917 and, as Vice-Presi- 
dent and Director of Health and 
Welfare, is in charge of our activities 
in France at the present moment. 

Incidentally, the Fresh Air School 
for Children mentioned in your arti- 
cle is called the "Cure de Plein 
Air," Gionges, Maine, and it was re- 
opened by her during the summer 
of 1947. Thirty-five underprivileged 
Paris boys are lodged and cared for 
there. 

Eva Drexel Dahlgren 
american friends of france 
new york, n.y. 



Misconception 

Dear Editor: 

So much is said about practical 
nurses and R.N.'s working together. 
Certainly it can be done. I not only 
have worked with several practical 



12 



may R.N. 1948 



for improved nutrition 
and better health! 

The tangy, sun-filled goodness of Florida citrus 
fruits and juices, sparked by rich, energy-producing 
fruit sugars, 2 and boasting a wide variety of 
essential nutrients,* make pre-eminently important 
their "prescription" in the patient dietary today. 

Citrus fruits are a bountiful source of natural 
vitamin C, so vital to the restoration of tissue 
health and vigor. 3 Their base-forming properties 1 
exert a markedly normalizing influence 
throughout the gastro-intestinal tract, and their 
stimulus to calcium retention' helps improve 
bone and blood building. 

Of great value too, particularly 

in convalescent diets, is their 

seldom-failing ability to 

whet languishing appetites. 1 

For growth, pregnancy, 

lactation, infant feeding, 

illness or convalescence, Florida 

citrus fruits and juices — 

canned or fresh — constitute potent 

(and pleasant) "supportive therapy." 

FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION 



AKELAND. FLORIDA 




'Citrus fruits are among 
the richest known 
sources of vitamin C; 
they also contain vita- 
mins A,Bi,G and P, and 
other nutritional factors 
such as iron, calcium, 
citrates, citric acid and 
readily assimilable fruit 
sugars. 



Reference* 

1. Bridges, M. A.: Dietetic* for the 
Clinician. Lea & Febiger. Philadelphia. 
4th ed., 1941 

2. McLester. J. S.: Nutrition and Diet in 
Health and Disease. W. B. Saunders 
Co.. Philadelphia. 4th ed.. 1944 

S. Sherman. H. C: Chemistry of Food 
and Nutrition. The Macmillan Co.. 
New York. 7th ed.. 1946 s 



Florida 



Orange* . Grapefruit • Tangerine* . L-lmea 



1 

UHIfO«*S f 

t sAVirooJfj 




THERE'S NO RETAIL 
PROFIT, no jobber's 
profit and no high 
overhead to run prices 
up. That's why you 
enjoy such substan- 
tial savings. Preen 
Uniforms are un- 
conditionally guar- 
anteed — or money 
back. Sold only 
by mail or in our f 
factory show- djj? 



\ I 







LUXURIOUS 

NYLON 



995 



Style 
#363 



!**>* 
'% 



Short Sleeves-Style #1363 

The Nylon in this 

beautifully tailored 

uniform has the 

"feel" and richness 

of heavy silk. It dries 

quickly — needs no j. . 

ironing. 7 gore % tf , "#&» 

skirt, set-in waist- ^fye* *f 

band. . **'*# 

A $13.00 value $Jt - 

Sizes 11.15; 12-44 ©*0 

PREEN UNIFORMS, INC. Dept. RN-5 
37 E. 28 St., N. Y. 16, N. Y. 

Please send me style # .Uniforms, 

Size Enclosed is $ 

Check □ M.O. □ C.O.D. Q 

(Postage prepaid on orders accompanied by 
check or M.O.) Please send FREE catalog □. 



Name 

Street 

Gty ~ State... 




nurses, but had one at home after 
a long siege of illness. The doctor 
felt, as an R.N., I could tell her how 
to do things. Not only was she clean 
and cooperative, but her undergrad- 
uate club phoned to find out if she 
were satisfactory. 

Not so the "practicals" who set 
themselves up as office nurses. The 
only nursing they know is what the 
doctor teaches them. Yet, on all 
sides, you hear, "she is the office 
nurse." Why can't the public be 
educated to see that it takes more 
than white shoes and a white uni- 
form to make a nurse? 

R.N., LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 

Oldest Hospital? 

Dear Editor: 

According to Virginia Harrell in 
her article, "Paper Containers— Boon 
to Hospitals" [R.N., Dec, 1947], 
America's oldest hospital is "historic 
Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadel- 
phia." That's certainly news to me 
and I hope to every other R.N. who 
read it. 

According to my history of nursing 
book and Foote's "State Board Ques- 
tions and Answers for Nurses," page 
1065, 23rd edition, "the first hospital 
in the United States was founded in 
the year 1658 on Manhattan Island 
and later was known as Bellevue 
Hospital." 

Yirgie Lutz Little, R.N. 

NEW CASTLE, PA. 

[There has always been some 
question as to which is the oldest 
hospital in the U.S. Pennsylvania 
Hospital claims priority on the 



14 



may R.N. 1948 



f°r soft smooth hands that peop/ ( 



'** 




Begin today to use TRUSHA Y -and 
when patients admire your well- 
groomed hands, tell them about the 
lotion with the 



'beforehand" extra- 



TRIM 




oioon 




Now you can have those well-groomed hands On 
Duty as well as Off Duty— in spite of the drying 
damage of frequent scrubbings, soap and water. 

with TRUSHAY that is. 

For TRUSHAY starts off by being the most lux- 
urious softener that ever smoothed your skin— 
rich as cream— but without a trace of stickiness- 
It's sheer delight f*» use at any time. 

And that isnt all. 

For TRUSHAY does double duty with its unique 
"beforehand" extra. Smoothed on before frequent 
washings, TRUSHAY protects your hands even 
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grounds that it received its Charter 
in 1751 and "it has always been de- 
voted entirely to the care of the sick, 
whilst older foundations included the 
care of orphans, the aged and the 
insane, and also the relief of pov- 
erty."— the EDITORS.] 

Wheel Chairs 

Dear Editor: 

I am writing in behalf of the 300- 
400 patients with Hansen's Disease 
at the U.S. Marine Hospital, Car- 
ville, La., with whom I visited re- 
cently. Some of them have expressed 
the need for wheel chairs which can 
be motivated by the feet or silent 
motor. Perhaps you or some of your 
readers would know where they can 
be purchased. 

R.N., HUMPHREY, NEB. 

Could Be! 

Dear Editor: 

I agree 100 per cent with R.N., 
Springfield, Ore. [R.N., Nov. 1947], 
that nurses' salaries should corre- 
spond with their doctors'. 

It is true that the doctor has the 
responsibility of performing the op- 
eration and issuing proper orders; 
but it is also true that he needs a 
competent nurse to carry out orders, 
keep him informed of his patients' 
condition and render first aid, if 
necessary. 

Maybe our problems would be 
solved if all nurses became Sisters 
of Charity. At least we would have 
assurance of security. 

R.N., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

may R.N. 1948 



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Two University of Chicago scien- 
tists have found a commercial dye, 
toluidine blue, to be a potent anti- 
dote for the blood "thinning" effect 
of overexposure to atomic particles 
and rays. 

A new German drug, aludrine sul- 
fate, which can be self administered 
and does not raise the blood pres- 
sure, has been reported by the Com- 
merce Department as a possible 
treatment for asthma. 



^ 



American government investiga- 
tors came upon a new milk treatment 
in Milan, Italy, where they were 
studying wartime development of 
dyeing materials. It was found that 
a small amount of hydrogen peroxide 
mixed with the milk produced per- 
fect sterilization for three days with- 
out affecting the taste. 

7m the JAMA, Dr. J. Charles 
Franklyn suggests that penicillin is 
superior to silver nitrate in prevent- 
ing infection in the eyes of newborn 
infants. 

Two AMA accepted drugs, man- 
nitol and sodiumpara-aminohippur- 
ate, are claimed by their manufac- 
turers to be the only two products 
presently available for the accurate 
estimation of kidney function. The 
latter, commonly known as PAH, 
has also been used successfully in 



large doses for elevating penicillin 
blood levels in treating subacute bac- 
terial endocarditis. 

The word CANCER comes from 
the Greek for crab because the veins 
and hardened tissue extending from 
it were compared by ancients to the 
claws of a crab. (Webster) 

Dr. Charles J. Wells at the Con- 
gress of Anesthetists stated that a 
high protein content in the body 
lessens considerably a patient's dan- 
ger during and after a major surgi- 
cal operation. 



^ 



For every 1,000 veterans dis- 
charged, one is released with tuber- 
culosis. Dr. John Barnwell of the Vet- 
erans' Administration predicts in the 
Health Pilot that tuberculosis among 
veterans will reach its peak in 1975. 

A 30-year-old Russian scientist 
has been successful in exchanging 
the hearts and lungs of dogs for the 
same organs of other dogs. The dogs 
lived for about eight days after the 
operations and died as a result of 
developing pleurisy in the thoracic 
cavity and not from a disturbance of 
heart action. 

Through experiments on white 
rats, Dr. Henry Clapp Sherman in- 
dicated the possibility that large 
amounts of vitamin A might add 10 



may R.N. 1948 



21 




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years to the "prime of life" period of 
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welcome innovation. Made with tiny 
fibers of glass which do not penetrate 
the pillow ticking, the Glasdown is 
accepted and approved by the Coun- 
cil on Physical Medicine. 

The chemicals in an adult human 
body, said until recently to he worth 
98 cents, have now been revalued as 
worth $31.04. 

Wheel chairs are part of the stand- 
ard equipment on the basketball floor 
at the Veteran's Hospital in Van 
Nuys, California now, according to 
Everest and Jennings, manufacturers. 
Strong and mobile, the folding 
wheel chairs are used by handi- 
capped veterans in "rough and 
tumble games." 

To provide proper nutrition, fats 
are essential, and a moderate increase 
of fats up to 200 grams in the dietary 
treatment of infectious hepatitis is 
advocated in an article in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Digestive Diseases. 

Such is modern science that in- 
jections are possible without the use 
of needles. The Sub-Q-Jet, designed 
by a diesel engineer, forces a liquid 
into the skin under very high pres- 
sure and the American Practitioner 
suggests its potential practical value 
to pediatricians. 

may R.N. 1948 




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"WHO'S TO HOE, 



Because the structure study will have prominent "billing" at the 
Biennial Convention, it is not too early to start thinking on this 
subject. In fact, thinking should not be limited to delegates and dis- 
trict members alone. It might not be too much of an Utopian idea 
that opportunity for study and discussion of the newly presented Plan 
for One National Nursing Organization be extended to all professional 
nurses in the district area, regardless of their active membership in the 
association. 

This new Plan, which has not yet been formally accepted by the 
Boards of the six national nursing organizations,* is much simpler in 
design and, in its explanatory text, much more readily comprehensible 
than was either of the two Rich Plans. Set up flexible and changeable, 
we are told it is offered purely as a point of departure for discussion 
and study, and is in no way to be considered a final plan. Its approach 
—a natural— is from the district upward, or so it gives that impression. 
It outlines structure for national, state and district organizations, follow- 
ing the links in the present district-to-state-to-national ANA chain. 

"Let's begin in the community. Find first a form of local organiza- 
tion that will meet the needs of nurses where they do their work and 
meet nursing needs of the community. Then build state and national 
organization on that." 

In this statement the Committee on Structure sounds the keynote 
of the new Plan. This sound principle puts us on the right track for 
finding the answer to our structural problem. 

Our comment now is not on the Plan or any of its provisions- 
discussion of these things must come later. At present, we must focus 
thought on how we are going to attack or study the plan. And as 
Sally Johnson of Massachusetts General Hospital fame, now retired, 
said many years ago of a similar problem in nursing organization, 
"Alright, the seed has been planted, now tell us— who's to hoe, water 
and bug us." 

The Committee rightly urges the wide and thorough establishment 
of district and state structure committees to continue the study. At 
long last, it appears to be recognized that decisions must come from 

26 may R.N. 1948 



WATER AND MG US?'' 



the heart of the organization, the district— the area where nurses live 
and work, confer with each other closely, where purposes and results 
of nursing have their sharpest realities. 

It is in the district where the individual member has her greatest 
power for action and greatest responsibility. If we interpret correctly 
the philosophy of the Committee on Structure, this new Plan will 
stimulate a district activity of inestimable value in our political educa- 
tion. We believe that nurses are not only amenable to such activity 
but are eager for it. The discussion on the Rich plans aroused a 
rather apathetic profession to a keen realization of the value of organ- 
ization. Today nurses want four things: effective guidance, a program 
they can understand, objectives that inspire them, and a chance to 
express themselves in words and action without jeopardizing their 
positions or future. 

The confusion attending the study of the former plans should not 
be repeated. We need to be guided by principles and outlines of 
orderly procedure if the results of our studies are to be measurable 
and of value. It should be remembered that we have great unevenness 
in district development and district grasp of ideas. This brings up the 
question— how can we insure uniformity of results without uniformity 
in study procedure? 

Obviously, we cannot study a national and state plan already set 
up, and at the same time work out a district plan that can be adopted 
by state and national. One of the causes of all the confusion and 
indecision surrounding last year's study of the Rich Plans was the 
average nurse's inability to get her teeth into the problem. We must 
find a vulnerable spot for that bite this time and such a statement 
prefacing the new report as: "It will be easier to follow the Commit- 
tee's thinking, therefore, if national structure, in which all elements 
are apparent, is considered before state and local structure" does not 
dispel the confusion. 

The Committee on Structure's eight specific "premises" that are the 
core of whatever plan the districts set up call for districts to determine 
the most efficient form of organization for today. [Continued on page IS] 

may R.N. 1948 




Dear Seniors: 

Many of you are puzzled today 
about nursing as a career. You are 
wondering if you made a wise choice. 
None of you has missed the cries of 
"crisis," the complaints about pay, 
the criticisms of how badly "they," 
our leaders, have managed things. 
You've heard the gripes of some 
nurses, watched the indifferent work 
of others. You know about the cen- 
sures coming to us from the outside. 
I asked a representative group of 
students recently how many had read 
the famous article in which we were 
publicly scolded by a feature writer. 
Every hand went up. 

With the sharp realism of youth 
you are examining the situation. Is 
nursing worth while? Yet not one of 
you but wants to believe with all 
your heart that nursing is everything 
you expected it to be when you chose 
it as a career. And you can do so! 
There is nothing wrong with nursing. 
It has reached a point of usefulness, 
prestige and opportunity beyond any- 
thing we have ever known. The 
things that are wrong are with cer- 
tain of its environments, its condi- 
tions of practice— wrongs that crept 
in and accumulated while we were 
busy building a profession. There 



CANDID COMMENTS- 



isn't a single major wrong that can't 
be cured, and that won't be cured. 

We are apt to forget, in looking at 
our troubles, how young nursing is 
and how far and fast it has traveled. 
It took 75 years of prodigious, self- 
less, intensive work to bring nursing 
to its present respected and useful 
place. Thousands and thousands of 
nurses helped build it— with their 
money, their scant leisure and their 
unstinted devotion. Hours of work 
in those building days were always 
long; the eight-hour day was a Uto- 
pian dream. The work was endless 
for it often included housekeeping 
jobs. Paid vacations and expense ac- 
counts were non-existent, yet our 
early leaders found the means to 
work mightily for the profession as 
well as for their patients. 

The story of how our young state 
associations toiled to get nurse prac- 
tice acts in every state is a saga equal 
in drama to any of our American 
frontier tales. Small bands of nurses, 
on their own time and money, 
camped at the doors of legislatures; 
they endured the snubs and sneers 
and fought until they got a toehold 
in state legislation. Year after year 
since then the fight has gone on, 
sometimes to hold what has been 
gained, oftener to improve on it. As 
a result, you can hold your head 
high over the "RN" you will get. 

Alongside these women stood the 



28 



may 



R.N. 1948 



MESSAGE FOR THE COMING GENERATION 



nurse educators, struggling always 
against big odds to lift nurses' train- 
ing out of its apprenticeship into 
true nursing education. Recently I 
read over many old annual reports 
of the National League of Nursing 
Education. It was awe-inspiring. 
These nurses aimed at miles of gains, 
took the grudging inches and kept 
right on. Every inch of gain repre- 
sents long battles, and the battle is 
still going strong. 

Out of all this has come something 
pretty wonderful. Nursing has come 
of age. It walks shoulder to shoulder 
with other essential professions. 
Nurses were once known only to the 
very sick. Cloistered behind sick- 
room walls, they were strangers to 
the public. Today, wherever there 
are people, we find nurses at work: 
in the skies, in the mines, on ships, 
in stores, factories, offices, clinics, 
schools, hospitals, homes. We find 
them in isolated areas, in hamlets 
and in the big cities. 

Nursing today is recognized as ab- 
solutely essential in the public wel- 
fare. The doctor must have the 
skilled nurse in practicing modern 
medicine. The hospital must shut 
down beds when nurses are not 
available. Last year the American 
Hospital Association reported 32,000 
beds closed for lack of nurses. More 
than 80 per cent of the army of pub- 
lic health nurses are paid out of tax- 



by Janet M. Geister, R.N. 

funds, a direct evidence of the value 
placed on professional nursing. In- 
dustry and business employ more 
than 10,000 nurses, and management 
does not invest money for luxuries. 
Our Federal government employs 
more than 21,000, and there are 60,- 
000 nurses very busy in private duty. 
Thousands more are working in our 
hospitals. 

Every one of these services is ask- 
ing for more nurses. The health hun- 
ger of our people is growing. The 
specialty fields: mental hygiene, psy- 
chiatry, orthopedics, geriatrics, med- 
ical research and others, haven't be- 
gun to be extended to their limits. 
No one can predict how wide and 
high will be the future expansion 
of nursing, but we do know that it 
is firmly established as an essential 
community service, increasingly valu- 
able to society. 

Our troubles are great but our op- 
portunities are greater. The story of 
what these troubles are and why 
they came is long. For one thing, we 
grew so fast we weren't ready for 
our great new role. Our nursing or- 
ganizations, through which all prog- 
ress must come, needed to be 
streamlined and geared to the new 
order. We're working hard on that 
now. We're somewhat like the ado- 
lescent bov who suddenly- finds him- 



may R.N. 1948 



29 



self all wrists and ankles. But the 
lad catches up with his growth, and 
that is exactly what we are doing in 
nursing today. 

Too, we were slow in taking up the 
cause of nurse welfare. Our forbears 
rightly gave their whole attention to 
developing and protecting standards 
of patient care. That had to come 
first. The spiritual aspects of nurs- 
ing gave rise to the idea that it was 
unethical for the nurse to ask eco- 
nomic and retirement protection for 
herself. We've routed that idea and 
now we're definitely on the way to 
better earthly rewards for nurses. 

The public has wrong ideas too. 
It insistently demands more nurses, 
nurses educated to the minute in the 
sciences, yet practicing the arts we 
had time for 30 years ago. But as 
yet it is doing precious little to sup- 
port nursing education. It is becom- 
ing clearer every day that organized 
hospital staffs must relieve students 
of much of their present nursing 
loads if students are to study nursing 
and achieve their full powers. 
Changes here must come more slowly 
than in other areas, but they will 
come, make sure of that. 

There are other problems, but 
again, not one that isn't remediable. 
I do not underestimate their gravity, 
neither do I overestimate it. They 
are environmental and therefore 
changeable; the heart of nursing re- 
mains sound and its usefulness has 
reached new heights. The profes- 
sion is thoroughly aroused to the 
need for changes, and that fact alone 
insures changes. The new ideas are 
getting rooted in our souls and minds, 



and as Professor Weaver* tells us, 
"ideas have consequences." The 
right ideas have good consequences, 
and never before have so many in 
our profession held the right ideas. 

Hold fast then to your faith in 
nursing and help us restore the joy 
of its service. Help us lift it to even 
higher levels of usefulness. Don't let 
the gripers influence you wrongly. 
Griping in reasonable amounts is 
good hygiene; when it becomes un- 
reasonable, ask the gripers what they 
are doing to improve matters. Tell 
them to stop feeling sorry for them- 
selves and devote that energy to dis- 
trict and committee activity where 
we're now hard at work on these 
problems. 

We need you in nursing, not only 
in the hospitals, homes and plants, 
but in our own company. The fact 
that you took up nursing as a career 
marks you as a distinctive person for 
you knew that three years of hard 
work lay ahead. You had no illusions. 
Too many today want quick success 
without much work. You like people 
or you would have selected another 
field, and liking people is essential 
to good nursing. You welcome ad- 
venture for you've learned that every 
day in nursing is packed with drama. 
You like challenge— and there is no 
visible end to the challenges to 
greater usefulness that will come to 
nursing. 

For these things and more, we 
want you in nursing, not because 
there is nothing else you can do, but 
because there is nothing else you 



*Ideas 
Weaver. 



Have Consequences, Richard M. 



30 



may R.N. 1948 



want to do. The environmental mat- 
ters like wages, pensions, sound per- 
sonnel practices, will be settled— 
I've lived through too many of our 
crises not to know what our profes- 
sion can do when it means business. 
I urge you to get into the profes- 
sional organizations early and stay 
there. Outside of organization you 
can still be a good practitioner of 
nursing, but you'll walk alone. You 
can help only your patient. Within 
it, you will be a citizen of nursing 



helping the community, the profes- 
sion and yourself, as well as your pa- 
tient—and, more than that, you will 
walk in good company. 

My favorite talk to young nurses 
is called "Take It From Here!" and 
I give that message to you. Work 
with us for a while and then take 
over alone. Nursing has grown into 
a major profession; its responsibilities 
to society and to its practitioners are 
growing. Your generation must be 
citizens, [Continued on page 100] 




-. •. A 





SPRING, anywhere SN— 

Noses running, 

Hoboes sunning, 

Poets punning. 

Towser scratching 

Something catching, 

Nurses hatching 

Up a scheme to 

Build a lean-to 

Where they mean to 

Rest their feet and 
Rest their feet and 
Rest their feet and 







REST. 



-Merle Perry, R.N. 



may R.N. 1948 



31 




by Lynne Svec 



CASE FOR MARGARINE 



For 62 years a battle has been rag- 
ing—with the American dinner 
table and pocketbook at stake. 

The main contenders are Butter 
vs. Margarine. Now the issue is out 
in the open once more, with both 
sides hammering away at each other 
with the skill developed over dec- 
ades of battle. This year the griev- 
ance has been brought to a head due 
to a number of reasons. 

The cost of living today is two- 
thirds higher than the 1935-39 aver- 
age; it has advanced 13 per cent in 
the past year. The cost of food is 



more than double the 1935-39 aver- 
age; it has advanced 17 per cent 
in the past year. In addition, in the 
past ten years, the increase in our 
population is equal to the entire pop- 
ulation of Canada. 

Plainly, there are more mouths to 
feed and budgets just are not elastic 
enough to buy all necessary food- 
stuffs. In times of necessity substi- 
tutes are sought. As anyone with a 
hand in the family budget knows, 
margarine is an alternate for high- 
priced and scarce butter. 

Granted that one of margarine's 



32 



may R.N. 1948 



O Bossy kicks back at margarine 
producers as housewives de- 
mand Congress to take bull by horns. 

most endearing qualities is its econo- 
my, since it can be purchased for 
less than half the price of butter, but 
what of margarine's nutritive value 
as compared to that of butter? 

The nation's doctors, including the 
American Medical Association, have 
assured us that there is virtually no 
nutritive difference between butter 
and margarine, each offering about 
3,300 calories per pound. 

As Dr. Alan F. Fowler of the De- 
partment of Metabolism and Toxi- 
cology at the Montreal General Hos- 
pital recently stated, "One cannot 
discuss a problem in nutrition with- 
out considering two important under- 
lying factors. First, availability of 
the foodstuff. Second, ability to pur- 
chase the foodstuff. 

"Margarine is available to a greater 
number of people in larger amounts 
and at a lower cost," he continued. 
And summarized, "As manufactured 
at present, margarine is a nutritious 
food. From the point of view of its 
nutritional value, it is equal to but- 
ter and in one respect, that is with 
regard to the Vitamin A content, it 
is actually superior to butter." 

'Twasn't always thus— as marga- 
rine's history will bear out. 

In the years before the Franco- 
Prussian War, the French used edible 
fats for industry lubrication purposes 
(railroad and lamp fuel)— materially 
reducing their supply of edible fats 
and oils. And because of that drastic 
shortage, Napoleon III offered a sub- 



stantial prize for the creation of an 
economical substitute for this neces- 
sary edible fat, butter. 

Thus margarine was born. It was 
patented by a French chemist, Mege- 
Mouries, in 1869, and within a few 
years it was being made in France. 
Germany and England. In 1874 it 
was introduced into the United 
States as "oleomargarine," a name de- 
rived from its principal ingredient, 
beef fat. 

The original product was not very 
palatable. It neither looked nor 
tasted like modern margarine. 

Today a typical margarine con- 
sists of 80 per cent vegetable oils, 
plus 16.5 per cent pasteurized and 
cultured non-fat milk, a substantial 
re-inforcement of Vitamin A concen- 
trate, and small amounts of glycerin 
derivative, vegetable lecithin and 
salt. Margarine is pure, sweet and 
palatable. It is easily digestible; its 
fats have the same caloric value as 
other fats, and it performs all the 
functions of fat in the diet. 

The only basic difference between 
butter and margarine is that butter 
is composed of 80 per cent animal 
fats; margarine contains 80 per cent 
refined vegetable oils— predominantly 
cottonseed and soybean oil. Although 
only about 2 per cent of the fat used 
in modern margarine is animal fat, 
by law all packages must be labeled 
"oleomargarine" (from "oleo oil" or 
beef fat). Of the oils used in 1947 
production, 52 per cent was cotton- 
seed oil; 39 per cent was soybean 
oil. Peanut oil, corn oil, and other 
vegetable oils comprised the re- 
mainder. [Continued on page 66] 



may R.N. 1948 



33 



s T o T r e r 



|N G 



Some of our most distressing per- 
sonal problems may be traced to 
insignificant situations which accum- 
ulate, almost unnoticed, until we find 
ourselves virtually overwhelmed. For 
the stutterer, defective speech is a 
major personal problem, and in many 
cases the development of this dis- 
order may be attributed to his seman- 
tic environment. 

Semantic environment is described 
by Dr. Wendell Johnson as the "in- 
dividual's environment of attitudes, 
beliefs, assumptions, values, stand- 
ards, customs, knowledge, interests, 
conventions, institutions, etc." For 
example, the semantic environment 
of the young child is relatively simple, 
being composed primarily of his par- 
ents. As a person matures, however, 
his semantic environment extends to 
include friends, relatives and busi- 
ness associates, and changes as he 
meets new people or moves about 
from place to place. 

The importance of semantic en- 



vironment to stuttering is vividly re- 
vealed by a comparison of environ- 
ments which do and do not classify 
this disorder as a social handicap. 

It is no secret that stuttering exists 
in our modern society. In the United 
States, alone, there are almost a mill- 
ion and a half stutterers. 

In sharp contrast to our advanced 
culture is the primitive society of the 
Banncock and Shoshone tribes in 
Idaho, where no case of stuttering 
has been reported. The investigation, 
conducted by Dr. Johnson, also shows 
that the semantic environment of 
these Indians is such that all children 
are regarded as normal speakers- 
regardless of the manner in which 
they talk. 

The North American Indians do 
not present the only instance in which 
stuttering is not observed. In our own 
culture, for example, the very young 
children do not stutter. This was 
made evident in an investigation de- 
signed to study the onset of stutter- 




34 




AND SEMANTIC ENVIRONMENT 



ing. The study was conducted by the 
Iowa Child Welfare Station. In order 
to obtain more detailed information 
for case histories, a search was made 
to find persons who had just started 
to stutter. Almost all new cases of 
stuttering were found to be young 
children approximately three years 
of age, each with a historv of normal 
speech prior to the development of 
this disorder. More important than 
this, however, is the fact that the 46 
stuttering children included in the 
three-year study developed this dis- 
order after it had been diagnosed as 
stuttering - usually by a layman. 
Actual stuttering had been confused 
with the normal nonfluencies which 
accompany the speech development 
of young children. 

The belief that nonfluency in 
speech (characterized by repetitions, 
hesitations and pauses) is synony- 
mous with stuttering is erroneous. 
The fact is that no one is a fluent 
speaker. For example, in observing 





may R.N. 1948 



by Harvey W. Alexander 

four experienced lecturers, the writer 
tabulated 357 nonfluencies in one 
hour for one speaker, 136 nonflu- 
encies in 30 minutes for another, 87 
nonfluencies in 20 minutes for an- 
other and 10 nonfluencies per minute 
for still another. From these observa- 
tions, we may infer that nonfluency 
apparently is considered normal 
among adults in our culture, and that 
nonfluency only becomes noticeable 
when it is actually "studied." 

In the case of children, aged two 
to five years, repetitions, in some 
fashion, tend to occur about 45 times 
per 1,000 words during the course of 
free play speech, according to the 
study made at the Iowa Child Wel- 
fare Research Station. Moreover, 
these normal repetitions and hesita- 
tions, as in the case of normal adults, 
do not appear to be accompanied by 
fear or tension on the part of the 
child. These nonfluencies seem to in- 
crease, however, when the child at- 
tempts to explain something beyond 
the scope of his vocabulary. But how 
many adults could talk about atomic 

*The author majors in journalism at the 
University of Missouri and hopes to make a 
career of medical writing after graduation 
i - "o e - He suggests that readers see Chapter 
17, Stuttering: The Indians Have No Name 
*n ,' - 1R Dr - Wen dell Johnson's book, 
*?« J? °- uandar ies" (Harper and Broth- 
ers, 1946), to supplement the information 
covered in this article. Dr. Johnson is a 
professor of psychology and speech pathology 
and director of the speech clinic at the State 
University of Iowa. 



35 



energy for 5 minutes and not be 
"guilty" of frequent and noticeable 
pauses and repetitions? 

Since parents create the semantic 
environment for the young child, they 
can do much to prevent any actions 
which might ultimately lead to stut- 
tering. Parents should realize that 
nonfluencies appear more frequently 
when the child must compete in con- 
versation with adults; when the child 
is ignored by older people; when his 
actions are criticized by parents in 
such a manner that it promotes a 
sense of guilt or inferiority. 

In many instances of stuttering, it 
has been noted that the w child's pa- 
rents demand perfection in table 
manners and toilet habits as well as 
in speech. Often a child is scolded 
and sometimes punished for ignor- 
ance. Some parents confuse normal 
repetitions and hesitations with stut- 
tering, and implore the child to "talk 
slowly," "stop and start over," or to 
"know what he wants to say." When 
the child is thus made aware of these 
normal repetitions, he, too, believes 
something must be wrong and, 
adopting die false belief that non- 
fluencies and stuttering are synony- 
mous, becomes disturbed. In this 
manner excessive hesitations and 
repetitions may develop. 

Because the well-developed stut- 
terer is characterized by exaggerated 
nonfluencies, and even in some cases 
by bodily contortions, many people 
believe him to be physically and men- 
tally abnormal. Various investigations 
have demonstrated, however, that 
there is no anatomical or physio- 
logical difference between stutterers 

36 



and nonstutterers; that the average 
stutterer meets the common indices 
of development; and that there is 
no differentiation between stutter- 
ing and nonstuttering persons in 
respect to change in handedness. The 
fact is that of 92 children in one 
study at the University of Iowa, there 
were 14 nonstutterers and 12 stutter- 
ers who had undergone a change in 
handedness — a difference which can 
hardly be said to be significant. 

Personalities of stutterers and non- 
stutterers may differ to a considerable 
extent. This variation is not due to 
any inherent characteristics of the 
stutterer but to the semantic environ- 
ment which even forces some of the 
more severe types to withdraw almost 
completely from normal intercourse. 
Semantic environment is an import- 
ant factor to consider when attempt- 
ing to find causes for existence and 
nonexistence of stuttering in different 
societies. 

Our ideas and beliefs, whether true 
or false, originate and usually con- 
form to the prevailing culture. We 
have noted the absence of stutter- 
ing among certain North American 
Indians and the important fact that 
the semantic environment for some 
Indian children is such that all speak- 
ers are regarded as normal. In more 
advanced cultures, however, the se- 
mantic environments tend to differ. 
In addition to a societal intolerance of 
stuttering, much stress is placed upon 
fluent speech. Still, fluent speech in 
the absolute sense of the word is non- 
existent. Just as parents and teachers 
may confuse normal nonfluencies 
with actual [Continued on page 84] 



may 



R.N. 1948 






rhis month the first American Nursing Training School to be 
organized along the lines laid down by Florence Nightingale 
celebrates its 75th Anniversary. The opening class of Bellevue School of 
Nursing consisted of six students; today, the School has a record of 75 
years' continuous service, during which time a total of 4,350 nurses 
have been graduated. 

In the era of "almshouses" and "pest houses," only meagre nursing 
was available, and this was given by undirected, undisciplined and 
frequently unreliable women. The end of this kind of nursing care 
was brought about by the estab- 
lishment of the Bellevue School '\ ■ "\ 
of Nursing— on whose graduates the • ■•- - ' " - 
sun never sets— so it is said. A 




th 

ARy 



may R.N. 1948 



37 




l\S. Army Signal Corps 

Army nurses on active duty at home 
enjoy post recreational facilities. 

Recruitment went into high gear 
last month as the Army Nurse 
Corps stepped up its unprecedented 
peacetime program. Purpose of the 
program is to establish an ANC re- 
serve of 29,000— a nurse reservoir 
from which the Army may draw in 
time of national emergency. Three 
salient points highlight the program: 

1. A qualified R.N. may become 
a Reserve Corps officer without in- 
terrupting her civilian career. 

2. Reservists will not be called to 
active duty unless a national crisis 
occurs. 

3. No previous military experi- 
ence is required. 

Of the 29,000 to be commissioned 
this year, the great majority— some 
23,000— will be accorded "inactive 
duly status." In this category, the 
commissioned nurse will in no way 

38 



Army Seeks 29,000 



alter her civilian activities. She may, 
however, voluntarily take advantage 
of such special training as the Army 
may offer— in which case she may be 
eligible, during the volunteered per- 
iod, for base pay and allowances 
commensurate with her rank. Nor- 
mally, those on inactive duty status 
receive neither pay nor allowances. 

Opportunity for "extended active 
duty" will be available to a limited 
number. Presently, about 4,000 such 
posts exist, but only an estimated 
2,000 are to be vacated this year. 
Appointment to extended active duty 
will be made only upon request, and 
only as vacancies occur. (Such va- 
cancies, for the most part, result from 
the return of Army nurses to civilian 
life.) 

In requesting active duty, a re- 
servist may now choose a category 
commitment ranging from one to 
three years in a continuous period. 
Eventually, she will be able to re- 
quest such duty for periods of two 
weeks to three months for training 
purposes. 

Appointment in the Reserve Corps 
is for an initial period of five years. 
Voluntary requests for active duty 
may be made at any time during the 
period. 

To qualify for a commission, a 
nurse must be at least 21 years of 
age but not yet 45. She must be a 
U.S. citizen, a graduate of a recog- 

may R.N. 1948 



Nurses For Reserve 



nized school of nursing, and physi- 
cally qualified. She may be single, 
married or divorced. Married nurses 
or nurses with dependents under the 
age of 14 will not be eligible for ex- 
tended active duty during peacetime. 

In the case of applicants with no 
previous military service, recommen- 
dation must be obtained from the di- 
rector of the school of nursing from 
which the applicant was graduated; 
also from a physician with whom she 
has worked, and from at least one 
former employer or supervisor. 

Necessary application blanks may 
be obtained at any Army installation, 
at any U.S. postoffice, or by mail 
from The Adjutant General, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C. 

As soon as her application is filed 
with The Adjutant General, the nurse 
is sent a complete set of forms, in- 
cluding an instruction sheet and the 
"modified physical" examination form 
in triplicate. When these forms are 
duly completed and returned, about 
three weeks is required for process- 
ing the application. The nurse is 
then tendered an appointment or 
notified of her rejection. 

Those accepted, either for active 
or inactive duty status, must sign an 
Oath of Office— before a notary pub- 
lic or Army adjutant— and return it 
promptly to Washington. 

The "modified physical" examina- 
tion may be given by a private phy- 

may R.N. 1948 




U.S. Army Signal Corps 



Army nurses overseas instruct nurses' 
aides as well as give bedside care. 

sician if this is more convenient. 
Otherwise, it should be conducted at 
an Army installation. It omits chest 
x-ray, pelvic examination, electro- 
cardiogram, audiometer reading, 
blood serology and microscopic 
urinalysis. 

A "final type physical," including 
these omitted procedures, is given at 
an Army base immediately prior to 
active duty assignment. 

Eligibility requirements by rank, 
together with base pay and allow- 
ance rates, are shown in the table 
accompanying this article. Applicants 
with previous military experience re- 
tain whatever longevity benefits their 
prior service merits. 

So much for the bare facts. Be- 
yond them are two major considera- 
tions: First, in what ways may the 
individual nurse benefit by a com- 



39 



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mission? Second, how will the pro- 
gram affect civilian nursing? 

For the reservist on inactive duty 
status, the Army will soon offer a 
series of correspondence courses. 
Four subjects have already been ap- 
proved: Military Orientation; Nurs- 
ing Aspects of Atomic Warfare; Nurs- 
ing Aspects of Global Medicine; and 
Techniques of Flight Nursing. None 
of these courses is compulsory— but, 
says the Army, the nurse availing 
herself of the educational opportuni- 
ties "may keep abreast of advances 
in science, so that if a national emer- 
gency should arise she may be 
equipped to serve in a position equal 
to her experience and training." 

For nurses on extended active 
duty, "graduate work is provided at 
the Army's most up-to-date teaching 
centers. Courses range from five to 
thirteen months, and will be given 
in psychiatry, surgery, anesthesiol- 
ogy and hospital administration. 
Teaching staffs are composed of top 
medical personnel as well as expert 
Army nurse instructors. By means 
of this program, nurses on extended 
active duty may be able to prepare 
themselves for greater responsibility 
and more skillful nursing." 

Aside from these intrinsic advan- 
tages, the commissioned nurse, ac- 
cording to Army sources, "can win 
prestige and professional recognition 
in her community. Army informa- 
tion services will constantly be call- 
ing attention to Army medical pro- 
gress. The ANC itself has a similar 
program. With public attention thus 
focused on the reserve nurse, she 
will come to treasure her certificate 



of appointment as much as she does 
the diploma from her school of 
nursing." 

Also emphasized is the fact that 
those requesting active duty may 
choose from a wide variety of as- 
signments—with the promise that in- 
dividual requests "will be honored so 
far as is humanly possible" and still 
meet the nursing needs of the serv- 
ice. Foreign service may be re- 
quested in Germany, Japan, Korea, 
Hawaii, Okinawa, the Philippines, 
Alaska, Guam, Trieste, Austria, Puer- 
to Rico, Panama, Saipan, Iwo Jima, 
and Trinidad. Domestic assignments 
may be requested in preferred serv- 
ices, in favored locations, or with 
friends. Says the Army: "The ANC 
personnel division is making every 
effort to treat each applicant as an 
individual with special talents and 
preferences." 

As to the effect of the recruit- 
ment program on civilian nursing, the 
Army contends that no hardships 
should result. ANC sources point 
out that "of the 29,000 to be com- 
missioned, less than 14 per cent will 
be required for active duty on the 
basis of vacancies estimated to occur 
during the year." 

Added to these arguments is the 
fact that the ANC program has the 
enthusiastic endorsement— and volun- 
teered cooperation— of the American 

Hospital Association. 

* « e 

OfRcership in the ANC— oldest of 
the women's military services— car- 
ries with it the esteem traditionally 
accorded those who nurse American 
soldiers. [Continued on page 58] 



may R.N. 1948 



41 



Ward heel 




More than 4,000 students in New 
York City's Cathedral High 
School and its associate branches 
benefited this past year from a pro- 
gram of complete health care that 
could be a model project for schools 
the nation over. Instituted three years 
ago, the health service hit its stride 
in 1946 and, among other innova- 
tions, invited leaders in the field of 
public health to act as members of 
an Advisory Health Council. To fa- 
cilitate the program, a "health unit" 
was built at the high school, a ver- 
satile unit made up of a rest room, 
waiting room and test room that can 
also be used for audiometric testing, 
physical examinations, individual or 
group conferences, faculty meetings, 
medical or community conferences. 

To carry out the vast program of 
health care, the school officials must, 
of necessity, leave much of the work 
to the classroom teachers in seeing 
that the plans of the advisory com- 
mittee are fulfilled. However, they 
think this is one of the outstanding 
reasons for the success of their health 
service for "the entire school is alert- 
ed to do an intelligent job." Parent 
education and surveys of school 
lunches are also important factors. 

The health services are extensive, 
and are followed through to the point 
of keeping cumulative records on 
each student. The records are mark- 
ed with colored tabs to denote de- 
fects which require continuous 
health supervision. Complete physi- 
cal examination certificates are re- 
quired of the students twice in the 
four years, and members of the 
school varsity are given annual ex- 



aminations by the school doctor. This 
is also true of all employes of the 
school. These physical examinations 
are required in addition to the other 
types of testing done as part of the 
health service. During the school year 
hearing, sight and teeth are checked 
and students requiring correction of 
defects are referred to their family 
doctors or sent to a clinic if unable to 
afford medical care. Tuberculosis is 
frequently detected by patch testing 
and x-ray and given early treatment. 

For the future, the Health Service 
Department has two improvements 
in mind: one, that health service ac- 
tivities are to be somewhat decentral- 
ized by making use of a trained senior 
student group or perhaps a graduate 
nurse seeking school nursing experi- 
ence; secondly, it is intended to in- 
crease guidance in mental hygiene 
for students demonstrating emotion- 
al disturbances. 

In three years, the Cathedral High 
School health plan has proved its 
value. The proof is in the students 
who are being graduated into adult 
life with a better measure of health. 




44 



may R.N. 1948 



"MM DTI CMS" 

AND FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE 
by Rev. Joseph B. McAllister, Ph.D. 



9f at the time of which the late 
Dr. Victor Robinson wrote, 
Florence Nightingale was fat and 
doting, he might be justified in call- 
ing her senile and obese 1 — though 
they are cruel words. My purpose, 
however, is not to pass a general 
criticism upon Dr. Robinson's book, 
"White Caps." I wish to touch only 
upon his treatment of Florence 
Nightingale's opposition to the regis- 
tration of nurses. 

Dr. Robinson wrote that "Miss 
Nightingale constantly pointed out 
to her nurses the danger of stagnant 
water and stagnant air, and the dan- 
ger of becoming a stagnant woman: 
she could not realize that the most 
revolutionary woman of her epoch 
had become a stagnant woman. The 
time had come, in the upward climb 
of the profession she created, for the 
self-organization and state registra- 
tion of nurses. In the rapidly increas- 
ing, chaotic mass of nurses, it was 
necessary to differentiate the quali- 
fied and the unqualified. Doctors, 
schoolteachers and plumbers were 
not humiliated because they could 
not practice without a license: they 
regarded the license as legal evidence 
of their competence. A prolonged 
struggle was waged with acrimony 
and lawsuits between the registra- 




tionists and the anti-registrationists: 
the newspapers called it the 'Nurses' 
Battle.' The registrationists had logic 
and a princess on their side, but the 
anti-registrationists had Miss Night- 
ingale." 2 

Whether or not Florence Night- 
ingale had become a "stagnant wo- 
man" at this time may be a matter 
of opinion. Dr. Robinson was entitled 
to his. But evidence of Miss Night- 
ingale's "stagnation" demands better 
proof than what can be drawn from 
her attitude towards registration. 

Dr. Robinson represented Miss 
Nightingale as opposed to registra- 
tion. She was— steadily and energet- 
ically and in spite of Princess Chris- 
tian being in the opposite camp— set 
against registration of nurses of her 
day. But she was not opposed to 
registration unalterably and abso- 
lutely. On February 26, 1891, Flor- 
ence Nightingale wrote to Mr. Rath- 
bone: "Forty years hence such a 
scheme might not be preposterous, 
provided the intermediate time be 



may R.N. 1948 



45 



diligently and successfully employed 
in levelling up; that is, in making all 
nurses at least equal to the best train- 
ed nurses of this day, and in levelling 
up Training Schools in like manner." 3 

Obviously, therefore, Miss Night- 
ingale did not condemn registration 
without qualification. She thought it 
inopportune and above all incapable 
of doing at the time what its cham- 
pions claimed for it. They wanted to 
differentiate nurses, to sort the qual- 
ified out from among the unqualified, 
to safeguard the public. With these 
aims Florence Nightingale was in 
complete sympathy. But she contend- 
ed that public examination would not 
guarantee the public qualified nurses. 
"You cannot," she wrote, "select the 
good [nurse] from the inferior by 
any test or system of examination. 
But most of all, and first of all, must 
their moral qualifications be made to 
stand pre-eminent in estimation. All 
this can only be secured by the cur- 
rent supervision, tests, or examina- 
tion which they receive in their train- 
ing-school or hospital, not by any 
examination from a foreign body like 
that proposed by the British Nurses 
Association. Indeed, those who come 
best off in such would probably be 
the ready and forward, not the best 
nurses." 4 

Whether or not Miss Nightingale 
was "stagnant," she backed up her 
position with facts. She analyzed a 
preliminary register by the British 
Nurses Association. Of the nurses 
trained in one hospital, the private 
register of that hospital included only 
two-thirds of those which the Asso- 
ciation registered. 



If the aim of registration was to 
guarantee the public the best of nurs- 
ing care, Miss Nightingale's investi- 
gation proved that it was failing to do 
so. The British Nurses Association 
was listing nurses rejected by their 
own training schools. 

This should make Florence Night- 
ingale's position clear. She was just 
as definitely not opposed to sifting 
the qualified nurses from the unqual- 
ified as she was opposed to register- 
ing as a means of doing it. However, 
it should be remembered she was 
opposing registering as of her time. 
She conceded it might work when 
the standards of nursing and nursing 
schools had all been raised. 

Furthermore she opposed registra- 
tion because she feared it would en- 
danger the standards of the nursing 
profession. With reference to this 
issue, Florence Nightingale must be 
understood as speaking of her own 
day. Not many years before, the fa- 
mous Mrs. Wardroper of St. Thomas' 
Hospital had substituted the term 
"sister" for the word "nurse," because 
it "had fallen into such disrepute." 5 
Above all else Miss Nightingale 
wanted to preserve the gains which 
nursing had made. 

In May of 1892, Miss Nightingale 
wrote to Dr. Jowett, "There comes a 
crisis in the lives of all social move- 
ments, rough-hew them as you will, 
when the amateur and outward and 
certifying or registering spirit comes 
in on the one side, and the mercantile 
or buying-and-selling spirit on the 
other. This has come in the case of 
Nursing in about 30 years; for Nurs- 
ing was born 30 years ago. The pres- 



46 



may R.N. 1948 



ent trial ( about the charter and regis- 
ter) is not persecution but fashion; 
and this brings in all sorts of amateur 
alloy, and public life instead of the 
life of a calling, and registering in- 
stead of training. On the other hand, 
an extra mercantile spirit has come in 
—of forcing up wages, regardless of 
the truism that Nursing has been 
raised from the sink it was, not more 
by training, than by making the Hos- 
pital, Workhouse, Infirmary, or Dis- 
trict Home a place of moral and 
healthful safe-guards, inspiring a 
sense of duty and love of the call- 
ing." 6 

Exalted and transcendental do not 
exaggerate Florence Nightingale's 
view of nursing. She preferred to 
consider it a calling, and associated 
it with a profoundly religious out- 



look. Writing to Dr. Jowett in 1889, 
she spoke of how nursing is one 
answer to the necessity of giving 
some external expression to one's in- 
ternal religious life: ". . . . When very 
many years ago I planned a future, 
my idea was not organizing a Hos- 
pital, but organizing a Religion." 7 

Several years later, in Chicago, at 
a Congress on Woman's Work, held 
in 1893, Miss Nightingale gave a 
summary of her philosophy of nurs- 
ing. "A new art, and a new science, 
has been created since and within the 
last forty years. And with it a new 
profession — so they say; we say, 
calling." She then went on to speak 
of the dangers nursing faces: "Fash- 
ion on the one side, and a consequent 
want of earnestness; mere money- 
getting on [Continued on page 73] 



Prob 



le 






& 




mJ$*& 




"You ought to see a doctor." 



may R.N. 1948 



47 



► GOVERNOR DEWEY SIGNED 
all legislation sponsored by the New 
York State Nurses Association and 
the Practical Nurses of New York, 
Inc. The Law now includes provi- 
sions for the following: 

1. Authorizes the Department of 
Education to license, without 
further examination, any reg- 
istered professional nurse or 
licensed practical nurse from 
another state, province, or 
country, who has completed a 
course in the study of nursing 
considered to be equivalent to 
requirements in this state at 
that time and who was licensed 
by examination and meets all 
requirements in this state, as 
to character, citizenship and 
preliminary education. 

2. The Department of Education 
may admit to examination any 
graduate of a school of nursing 
for professional nurses or prac- 
tical nurses from another state, 
province or country who has 
had a course comparable to 
that given in this state, but 
who has not been licensed by 
examination. 

3. The Department of Education 
may admit to a practical ex- 
amination, any person who has 
proof of having practiced for 
one year as a practical nurse 
and providing such practice is 
verified by affidavits of two 
registered physicians stating 
that the applicant has satisfac- 



torily performed the duties of 



a nurse. 



a. All applications must be 
filed with the Depart- 
ment of Education not 
later than April 1, 1949. 

b. The Department of Edu- 
cation shall have one year 
after the filing date of 
April 1, 1949 in which to 
process applications. 

4. The provisions of 6902 of the 
Education Law does not pro- 
hibit the practice of nursing by 
others than registered profes- 
sional or licensed practical 
nurses until April 1, 1949. 



► STUDENT NURSE recruitment, 
under the auspices of the National 
Student Nurse Recruitment Commit- 
tee, is being aided locally by various 
Red Cross chapters, according to of- 
ficial announcement. Chapter activi- 
ties, correlated with those of local 
recruitment committees, include talks 
on nursing as a career before Red 
Cross classes, civic groups and school 
assemblies; assistance to nurse's 
aides in the completion of plans to 
enter nursing schools; arrangements 
for visits to such schools by prospec- 
tive students; distribution of litera- 
ture; and preparation of newspaper 
and radio publicity. The national re- 
cruitment committee is endeavoring 
to enroll a total of 50,000 students. 



48 



may R.N. 1948 




► IN THE BOOKS written about the 
fight against yellow fever in Cuba at 
the turn of the century, little is said 
of the work of the nurses who fought 
shoulder to shoulder with the doc- 
tors. The story of one of these women 
was told in a play, "No Greater 
Love," written by Virginia Radcliffe 
and presented on the Dupont Caval- 
cade of America radio program. 

Dorothy McGuire, stage and 
screen star, portrayed Clara Maas, 
Army nurse, who volunteered to take 
the bite of an infected Stegomyia to 
help save her patients, a courageous 
act which led to her death. 

Among the guests at the broad- 
cast was Miss Jessie Murdock, Direc- 
tor of the School of Nursing at Jersey 
City Medical Center. Miss Murdock, 
shown above with Miss McGuire, 
served on the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama during the construction of the 
Canal. 

may R.N. 1948 



► THE ANA ELECTION TICKET 
submitted by the Committee on 
Nominations and accepted by the 
ANA Board of Directors on January 
19 is as follows: President, L. Louise 
Baker, Calif; Pearl Mclver, D.C. 
First vice-president: Catherine R. 
Dempsey, Mass.; Janet M. Geister, 
111. Second vice-president: A. Louise 
Dietrich, Tex.; Mrs. Bethel J. Mc- 
Grath, Minn. Secretary: Mrs. Lin- 
nie Laird, Ore.; M. Ruth Moubray, 
Md. Treasurer: Lucy D. Germain, 
Mich.; Agnes K. Ohlson, Conn. Di- 
rectors: Mrs. Myrtle C. Applegate, 
Ky.; Ruth B. Freeman, D.C. (Miss 
Freeman withdrew her name as it 
is on the NOPHN ticket); Mrs. Mar- 
garet M. Jones, Me.; Mrs. Estelle 
Riddle Osborne, N.Y.; Mrs. Eliza- 
beth K. Porter, Pa.; Nina E. Woot- 
ton, Tenn. Committee on Nomina- 
tions: F. Ruth Kahl, D.C; Mrs. 
Edith Partridge, Wis.; Mrs. Mary O. 
Tschudin, Wash.; Mrs. Edna W. 
Viets, Ohio; Mrs. Ruth W. Williams, 
N.D.; Kathleen F. Young, Mich. 

► BRITAIN'S M.D.'s, at war with 
the Labor Government over provi- 
sions in the compulsory national 
health program which is slated to go 
into effect July 5, won three prom- 
ised modifications in the plan last 
month after threatening non-partici- 
pation. The doctors had charged 
that the scheme as projected would 
lead to enslavement of the medical 
profession; therefore, their negative 
reaction. [Continued on page 86] 

49 



TWO WEEKS was not enough 



The note of desperation in the 
voice of a superintendent of nurses 
speaking at a district meeting goaded 
me into offering two weeks of my 
annual month's vacation to nursing 
in a hospital. "Anything from one 
hour up will be gratefully received," 
she had begged, "and I'm especially 
appealing to those of you who are 
not active and have been away from 
nursing for some time." 

I'd been away from nursing for 
eight years. One year after gradua- 
tion from nursing school I was of- 
fered a good paying office position 
with opportunity for rapid advance- 
ment. I took it. As a result, I became 
absorbed in the routine of the busi- 
ness world and my only contact with 
nursing came with attendance at 
meetings, from frequent contact with 
my friends, most of whom are nurses, 
and from reading nursing journals. 

My services were offered to a 600- 
bed hospital. The first day I reported 
for work I was assigned to a 24-bed 
gynecological ward. Because the hos- 
pital had become affiliated with the 
state medical school and the patient 
load had grown to gigantic propor- 
tions, every bit of hospital space that 
had been available for reconversion 
had been made into bed space. 

The ward had been reconverted 
from a sun porch, utility room and 
delivery room. The physical set-up 
of the ward itself was inadequate and 

50 



adding to the irritation of no running 
water in the kitchen, no bathtub or 
toilet on the floor, was the fact that 
the linen, some drugs and the ice 
cabinet were on a ward at the end 
of the corridor. It was necessary to 
walk the length of the hall to get 
clean linen, drugs, to fill ice caps and 
water pitchers. There was one maid 
and only one other nurse on the floor. 
All beds were occupied. 

On my first morning, three pa- 
tients were scheduled for surgery 
which meant catheterizations and the 
usual preoperative routine for gyne- 
cological surgery. A two-day post- 
operative patient was in critical con- 
dition requiring continuous Wangan- 
steen, intravenous fluids, three-hour 
injections of penicillin and three- 
hour bladder irrigations. Tempera- 
tures, medicines, ward round with 
doctors, answering the floor phone, 
sprinting down the hall every few 
minutes to the utility room for bed 
pans, ice packs, setting up trays, pre- 
paring patients for examinations, 
sending patients to surgery and get- 
ting them back kept me and a very 
efficient co-worker spinning. 

We tripped over medical students 
who swarmed over the place like ants 
in a honey jar. Requests from the 
medical students were expected to be 
carried out with the same alacrity as 
written orders of the doctors. "Stat" 
orders for enemas, catheterized urine 

may R.N. 1948 




specimens, complete blood counts 
and other like orders were blithely 
written by doctors sending ambula- 
tory patients in for routine admis- 
sion for surgery. 

Baths were given sporadically and 
sometimes not at all. Linen was 
changed when possible. Special treat- 
ments, routine procedures of tem- 
peratures and medicines, examina- 
tions, ward rounds and the hundred 
things required by patients kept us 
hopping from seven in the morning 
until late, very late in the afternoon. 
At times the chaos on the floor was 
so great I had the urge to call for aid 
from the Disaster Committee of the 
American Red Cross. 

Instead, we nurses got our heads 
together and mapped out a plan 



by Alexis Wilson, R.N. 



which we thought might help save 
time and energy. As there was no 
supervisor or head nurse on the floor, 
we went ahead with our scheme with 
the approval of the superintendent of 
nurses. 

First, we prevailed upon the resi- 
dent physician to write out some 
routine admittance and preoperative 
orders. We chose the resident to do 
this because he was the person most 
familiar with routines of the various 
doctors and we thought that he might 
incorporate their various orders into 
one that would be acceptable to all. 
After the list of routine orders was 
drawn up it was shown to all the 
doctors who had occasion to send 
patients to the gynecological ward 
for treatment. They were asked to 
read and sign it if they approved. 
After a few slight changes all doctors 
signed and from then on we had no 
hit-or-miss [Continued on page 74] 



may R.N. 1948 



51 



Diphtheria 



• dramatic new therapies, recent- 
ly discovered principles, and a host 
of new drugs may tend to cause loss 
of interest in the older and better 
known diseases. Publication of im- 
portant information about a long- 
known disease may be necessary to 
revive interest and control measures. 
Apparently this has happened in the 
case of diphtheria, for no review has 
been made since 1942 until recently. 

In Europe alone (excluding Rus- 
sia), due to a tremendous epidemic 
in 1943 that fortunately did not oc- 
cur in the United States, there was 
a total of 630,000 reported cases of 
this disease. Making exception for 
unreported cases, it is estimated that 
the actual total should stand at a 
million cases and at least that many 
for 1944. 

In the U.S., a public health sur- 
vey of the year 1945 showed that 
there was a definite increase in inci- 
dence of diphtheria throughout many 
sections of the country. During the 
last few months of that year, for the 
country as a whole, the excess in 
reported cases over the median for 
corresponding months of 1940-44 
had increased by 30-40 per cent. 

Travel necessitated by war may 
have caused that increase, especially 



52 



on the coastal areas. Although some 
of the returning veterans were dem- 
onstrated to be diphtheria carriers 
because of skin or wound infections, 
few of the reported cases were ex- 
posed to these men. Whatever the 
causes of increase in the dread dis- 
ease, public health authorities viewed 
it with alarm and agreed that there 
must be more publicity and greater 
control measures employed, because 
diphtheria can be controlled. 

This acute infection and conta- 
gious disease is caused by Coryne- 
bacterium diphtheria or the Klebs- 
Loeffler bacillus. It is characterized 
by the formation of a local white or 
grayish fibrinous exudate on the mu- 
cous membranes, especially of the 
throat and upper respiratory pas- 
sages, and by constitutional symp- 
toms caused by the absorption of 
toxin from the local lesion. 
cause and transmission-. The dis- 
ease, which is both endemic and epi- 



\* 



* * 



may R.N. 1948 



^r 




by Carolyn Valentine, B.S, 



demic, is spread by discharges from 
diphtheritic lesions of the nose, 
throat, conjunctiva, vagina and 
wound surfaces; secretions from the 
nose and throat are carriers of the 
bacillus. Transmission may be 
through direct personal contact, or 
indirectly from articles that have 
been freshly soiled with discharges. 
Contaminated milk and milk prod- 
ucts are also transmission agents. 
Carriers, of which there is an esti- 
mated 1 per cent in the population, 
can also transmit the disease. 

The incubation of diphtheria is 
usually from two to five days, but 
may be longer if a carrier state pre- 
cedes development of clinical symp- 
toms. Following incubation, the 
dirty white membrane appears in the 
throat, and gradually extends from 
the tonsils to the uvula and soft and 
hard palate, sometimes to the larynx. 
symptoms. The initial general symp- 
toms are usually slight but vary with 
the location of the disease; those of a 
head cold, slight fever, malaise, head- 
ache or sore throat may occur. Clini- 
cally there are three classified types- 
nasal, faucial, and laryngeal. 

In nasal diphtheria, with an onset 
characteristic of a common head cold, 
a serous excoriating and often bloody 



nasal discharge appears; and on ex- 
amination a membrane may often be 
seen on the mucous membranes of 
the nose. It can be promptly cured 
with the administration of the anti- 
toxin—without the latter, it may run 
on for many days. When the nose is 
involved, resulting from an exten- 
sion of the membrane from the 
throat, it is a very severe form of the 
disease. 

Faucial diphtheria has a gradual 
onset, with a sore throat, headache 
and malaise. The patient runs a fever 
of 101°-102° F., looks pale, and has 
a soft and rapid pulse. The mem- 
brane forms on the tonsils and may 
increase in size in severe cases to 
cover the whole posterior part of the 
throat. If an attempt is made to re- 
move it, a bleeding surface results. 
In advanced cases edema and swell- 
ing of the neck is sometimes present. 
If untreated with an antitoxin, the 
course of the disease may go on to 
death, or the patient may recover 
after a long and stormy conva- 
lescent period. 

Laryngeal diphtheria is the most 
fatal form and represents about one- 
fourth of all cases. It usually occurs 
between the age of six months and 
five years and begins with a croupy 



may R.N. 1948 



53 



cough, followed by dyspnea, stridor 
and finally cyanosis. The obstruction 
is caused by the membrane, swell- 
ing, or by both. If no relief is given, 
vasomotor collapse becomes emi- 
nent. The skin turns a greyish color, 
is clammy, and the patient becomes 
apathetic and finally dies. In this 
type, the antitoxin must be given 
promptly and mechanical relief of 
the obstruction may be necessary. 

Diphtheria of other parts of the 
body is rare and usually secondary, 
but it has been found in the eye, 
middle ear, vulva, penis and skin. 

A few years ago, a rare type of 
diphtheria, brought to the U.S. by 
the war, was reported. This form 
differs from the throat infection, for 
the germ enters the skin through a 
wound or sore and attacks the nose, 
throat and ears, as well as the skin. 
An Army hospital reported virulent 
diphtheria germs in one-twentieth of 
the patients sent to them for tropi- 
cal skin infections. When workers in 
these wards were Schick-tested, 
nearly half of them were found to be 
susceptible to diphtheria. The Army 
checked the spread of wound diph- 
theria through examination, isola- 
tion and quarantine, with Schick 
tests for all attendants. 

Complications, when they occur, 
constitute a serious aspect of the dis- 
ease. These include bronchopneu- 
monia, cervical adenitis, otitis media 
and albuminuria. Paralysis appears 
in about 10 per cent of cases. It is a 
painless peripheral neuritis which 
progresses gradually downward, ap- 
pearing first in the palate, and last 
in the legs. Recovery from these com- 



plications is usually within a few 
months. 

diagnosis. Early diagnosis is of the 
utmost importance, and yet this is 
often made difficult by the similarity 
of symptoms to other diseases, such 
as: follicular tonsillitis, septic throat, 
Vincent's angina, croup, congenital 
syphilis or a foreign body. Any ap- 
pearance of a membrane in the 
throat, croupy cough, dyspnea or 
post-nasal infection indicates reason 
for the administration of antitoxin, 
unless the lesion is proved not diph- 
therial. The diagnosis of diphtheria 
is made when the bacillus can be 
demonstrated in cultures from the 
affected part, in an individual who 
does not show immunity through the 
Schick test. 

treatment. The patient should be 
kept in bed at a flat or low gatch with 
external stimuli controlled to a mini- 
mum until all danger of cardiac in- 
jury has passed. A liquid diet during 
the acute stage is preferable with 
emphasis on adequate vitamins and 
carbohydrates and a minimum of 
proteins. 

Since cardiac involvement is al- 
ways imminent, nursing care must 
be given with the least possible 
amount of exertion required of the 
patient. Ten per cent glucose i.v. is 
beneficial in combating toxemia, and 
perhaps in forestalling myocarditis 
by replacing the loss of glycogen 
from the liver and improving the nu- 
trition of the heart muscle. For con- 
tinued nausea and vomiting some 
doctors recommend the use of 50 
per cent glucose i.v., 25-50 cc. two to 
four times [Continued on page 60] 



54 



may R.N. 1948 



World War I and II Nurses: The New 

Jersey Department of the National World 
War Nurses is making plans for the annual 
meeting in May at Mount Saint Mary's, 
North Plainfield, N.J. If you'd like to be a 
member, write at once to Sister Mary Felix, 
c/o the Mount. 

M.G.H. Graduates: You can come 
home again — for a June weekend. The 
Second Annual Home Coming and 75th 
Anniversary celebration of the Massachu- 
setts General School of Nursing will take 
place June 11-13. All M.G.H.'ers are in- 
vited whether Alumnae Association mem- 
bers or not. Registration — I p.m. on the 
eleventh and 10 a.m. on the twelfth. Of- 
ficers of the Class of '39 are making plans 
to combine this with a 1 0th reunion of 
our class. Alice R. Clarke, Class of '39. 

Grads of Plainview, Texas Sanitarium: 

We are planning a homecoming in May 
and need your current name and address. 
Miss Stella Cain, 315 Reid St., Clovis, 
N.Mex. 

Crouse-lrving Hospital Graduates: The 

Class of 1928 celebrates its 20th anniver- 
sary in May. How about a reunion? Emily 
B. (Mrs. Seymour C.) Merritt, RFD No. 3, 
Syracuse 7, N.Y. 

Evelyn Horsch Brown: Graduate of Iowa 
Methodist Hospital and school nurse in San 
Antonio, Tex. You are the only "lost" mem- 
ber of our class and we are very anxious 
to locate you so you can attend our re- 
union in the spring. Florence H. Stevens, 
2300-39th St., Des Moines 10, Iowa. 

Gallinger Municipal Hospital Alumnae: 

Please watch bulletin board at the Biennial 
Convention in Chicago for notice of a re- 
union of the graduates of the Capital City 
School of Nursing. The alumnae associa- 
tion is planning a homecoming in October. 
Send your name and address to Mrs. Nancy 
Harris, 1617 Holbrook St., N.E., Washing- 



may R.N. 1948 



ton, D.C. so you will be sure to get an 
announcement. 

Alpha Tau Delta Sorority Sisters: Your 
Eighth Biennial Convention of this national 
nursing sorority is to be held at the Con- 
gress Hotel in Chicago, May 31-June 3. 
The program is arranged to allow a maxi- 
mum of time for attendance of ANA con- 
vention meetings since our convention is 
scheduled on the same days as theirs. 
Barbara Baer, President, lota Chapter. 

Garfield Park Grads: We're having our 
annual spring banguet on May 27. A res- 
ervation will be mailed to each graduate 
whose address we have. Write immediately 
to Vivian Keller, 3461 W. Madison, Chi- 
cago, III. 

Jane Roberts: Anxious to hear from you. 
Last I heard you were on your way to Eng- 
land with the ANC. I enjoyed Army nurses' 
life with you in Greensboro, N.C., and Gulf- 
port, Miss. Am planning a trip to Massa- 
chusetts in the summer and would like to 
have a reunion with you. Betty (Paranto) 
Boothroyd, West 5th St., Britt, Iowa. 

Stamp-Collecting R.N.'s: I would like 
to hear from you and exchange stamps 
with you. I have been ill and bed-riddan 
for over a year and find stamp-collecting 
an interesting pastime. Irma Guerrucci, 
1513 Pittston Ave., Scranton 5, Pa. 

McClean Graduates: Class of 1928. 
Would like to correspond with each of you 
to discuss plans for a 20th reunion. Please 
drop me a line and include the address of 
any other '28 member who may not see 
this notice. Mary E. Gushee, 3453 W. 
Penn St., Philadelphia 29, Pa. 

My R.N. Friends. Thank you for your 
sympathy and assistance upon the death 
of my husband, Matthew Blair, on January 
24, 1948. Many of your cards and letters 
had no addresses, so I couldn't answer 



55 







■■ft***"* 



t the 



eecf 



nu 



SAFER . . . EASff R ... 6 FEATURES! 



Little or no "air-colic" — little or no spitting up ! Easier to use — 
no need to reverse nipple — no fumbling. Just warm the bottle, 
"Lift the Cap— Feed the Baby !" . . . Use the EVEREADY 
Nurser. Mothers will thank you for telling them about it! 



FINEST QUALITY SINCE 1877 



RUBBER SUNDRIES DIVISION 

THE SEAMIIE5 RUBBER COMPANY 

NSW HAVEN 3, CONN., U.S.A. 




them. MaBelle DuBrey Blair, public health 
nurse, Dept. of Health, New York, N.Y. 

Dorothy Zinn: I was associated with you 
in the U.S. Veterans Hospital at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Since your transfer to California, I 
have been unable to locate you. Jessie 
Dale Radcliffe, Box 32, Knox Dale, Pa. 

Verona Loe: I received your Christmas 
card but lost the address. Will you send 
me your new San Francisco address right 
away? Reeva Cranor, 309 Thompson St., 
Apt. No. 4, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Grads of L.D.S. Hospital: The alumnae 
association is planning a homecoming in 
the early fall in honor of the hospital's 25th 
anniversary. Will you please aid us by send- 
ing your present and maiden names, year 
of graduation and address immediately? 
Mrs. Verl Paulsen, L.D.S. Hospital, Idaho 
Falls, Idaho. 

Olive G. Selamanie: We were stationed 
at Ft. Devens in 1941. You were sent over- 
seas early in 1942. I have tried to con- 
tact you several times, but to no avail. 
Hope this will be successful. Marjorie M. 
Gonda Lydiard, 53 Brookline Ave., West- 
field, Mass. 

Navy Nurses Ann Higgins, Leda Schiazza, 
Dorothy Woodall, Mable Viclcers, Yolander: 

Remember Jacksonville, Fla? How about 
a letter giving where, what and why? Mil- 
dred E. Poli, 38 Greenleaf St., Boston, 
Mass. 

Methodist Hospital Grads: The alumnae 
association would like to complete its mail- 
ing list. Please send your present name, 
maiden name, year of graduation and ad- 
dress to Marjorie E. Jones, 506 6th St., 
Brooklyn 15, N.Y. 

Leona Powers: Graduate of St. Mary's 
School of Nursing, Milwaukee, Wis., class 
of 1937. Home town was Mukwonago, Wis. 
Last heard you were married and living in 
Tacoma, Wash. You are the only one of 
our class we haven't heard from in years. 

may R.N. 1948 



Mrs. Eleanor Kwiatkowski Zar, 8323 Chest- 
nut St., Wauwatosa 13, Wis. 

Audrey J. Silbaugh, G. A. Slalcis, Priscilla 
G. Landgraf, Diana Cubra: Would like 
very much to near from you. I have many 
former Army nurses' addresses which you 
might be interested in having. Nell Dun- 
lop Ellis, 6920 Mohawk St., San Diego 5, 
Calif. 

Burnett Sanitarium Alumnae: We are at- 
tempting to bfing our records up to date 
and would appreciate receiving your full 
name, year qf graduation and address. 
Please cooperate and keep informed of 
our alumnae activities. Mabel B. Hansen, 
Secretary, Burnett Sanitarium Alumnae, 
Fresno, Calif. 

Miriam Rousch: University of Pennsyl- 
vania graduate. Cadet nurse at Valley 
Forge Hospital in 1944. Please write. Mrs. 
Raymond (Eleanor Rowe) Cooper, 1447 
Paley Drive, Apt. 348, Akron 6, Ohio. 

Ola B. Collins: Entered the Navy Nurse 
Corps at Portsmouth, Va., in March, 1944. 
Was discharged in 1946. My letters to 
your home in Gaston, N.C., have been re- 
turned marked "Unknown." Where are 
you? Lt. (jg) Vertie C. J. Casuille, Naval 
Station, Box No. 25, San Juan, P.R. 

Eva Sager: I lost your Madison, Wis. and 
Albany, N.Y. addresses many years ago. 
Won't you please write to me? Katherine 
Sylla, 3200 Creston Drive, Oklahoma City 
5, Okla. 

Ex-Lt. Dorothy Baar, ANC: Graduate of 
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Dayton, Ohio. Dotty, 
I happened to find your picture, along wilth 
others including "Cousin Hoiman," taken 
in Reed City, Mich., in 1941. I'd love to 
hear from you. Jessie Lambert Quinn, RFD 
No. 2, N. Delsea Drive, Millville, N.J. 

Creedmoor State Hospital Grads: We 

are planning "great goings-on." Send your 
name and address to Audrey Stimis, Pres., 
5 Fairmont Place, Glen Cove, L.I., N.Y. 



57 



Army Nurse Corps 

[Continued from page 41] 

This tradition dates back to the 
year 1775 when military nursing was 
instituted in this country: the colon- 
ial Congress, on General Washing- 
ton's recommendation, enacted leg- 
islation calling for "a matron to super- 
vice nurses, bedding, and so forth," 
and "nurses to attend the sick and 
obey the matron's orders." The ANC 
as such was established in 1901. 

In World War I, 21,480 nurses 
served with the Army— 10,400 of 
them overseas. In 1920, ANC offi- 
cers were given "relative rank" in 
recognition of the Corps' war rec- 
ord. Actual rank— with pay and 
privileges now equal to those of 
male officers— was conferred during 



World War II, largely through the 
efforts of Col. Florence A. Blanch- 
field, wartime head of the Corps. In 
this latter conflict, the ANC reached 
a peak strength of 57,000, with about 
50 per cent serving overseas. 

At present, the majority of Army 
nurses are on active duty in this 
country. Some 500 are assigned to 
occupied areas, such as Trieste, Ger- 
many, Austria, Japan and Korea. 
Others may be found in such widely 
separated spots as Panama, Hawaii 
and Alaska— or wherever else the 
U.S. Army is represented. 



You had to be old and ugly to be 
a nurse a few centuries back in the 
land of the Scots, because young and 
pretty damsels were considered 
"highly immoral." 



NeHan WHITE NYLONS 

"Walking All Over The Country" 

/Specially co-nlbiuc'ed fart, Nuid&d. 
* 30 Denier Style No. 510-W 

* First Quality Full Fashioned 
* All Nylon from top to toe 
* Reinforced at toe and heel 
J\j * Proportioned leg construction 

* Special finish reduces possibility of snags and runs. 
All these features combined make for longer and 
better wear, sturdy yet sheer construction and a finer 
more comfortable fit throughout. 

Medium 8'/ 2 to 10y 2 $1.15 per pr. $6.60 for 6 prs. 

Long 91/2 to 11 $1.25 per pr. $7.20 for 6 prs. 

NESIAN CO. INC., Dept. NW, 
131 Larchmont Ave., Larchmont, N.Y. 

Please send me prs. Style 510-W White Nylons in size 

( ) Check ( ) Money Order enclosed $ 

( ) Send C.O.D. 

Name 

Address 

City State 

Other Styles in newest Spring and Summer Colors also available. 

may R.N. 1948 




58 



MAYO White elk moccasin 
oxford with Goodyear welt 
construction and 8/8 rubber 
heel. Sizes AAA to C, 33 




GRADUATE. White elk ox- 
ford with Goodyear welt 
construction and 10/8 leath- 
er heel. Sizes AAA to C, 



j*zr' 




s^oes 




LAHEY. White elk oxford 
with Goodyear welt con- 
struction and 14/8 built-up 
white ivory heel. Sizes AAA 
to C, lYi, to 10. $7.95 




ON DUTY. White elk ox- 
ford with Goodyear welt 
construction and 10/8 built- 
up white ivory heel Also 
available in black kid. Sizes 
AAA to E, 3 to 10. $7.95 



CORNELL. White elk moc- 
casin oxford with Goodyear 
welt construction and 12/8 
built-up white ivory heel. 
Sizes AAA to C, 3H to 10. 
$7.95 



At leading stores everywhere. 
Please write for name of store nearest you. 

TODAY, MORE THAN EVER- 



Guaranteed by *^\ 
Good Housekeeping 

^S AMERICAN GIRL SHOE CO., 120 Kingston St., Boston, Mass. 



AMERICA'S STANDARD OF VALUE 



Division: Consolidated National Shoe Corp. 



Diphtheria 

[Continued from page 54] 

daily. In addition to this, one unit 
of insulin for every 2.5 gm. of glu- 
cose should be given s.c. Morphine 
can be given to secure rest and quiet. 
Cardiac stimulants have proved of 
little value, and digitalis is usually 
contra-indicated since it may only 
increase the heart block. In case of 
vasomotor collapse, caffeine sodio- 
benzoate is effective. 

Usually no particular treatment is 
required for paralysis accompanying 
diphtheria. However, in extreme 
cases, such as respiratory paralysis, a 
respirator may be needed, or in 
paralysis of the swallowing muscles, 
suction provides relief. 

The most important single phase 
of treatment is the administration of 
the antitoxin; it checks further dam- 
age to the organism by the toxin. Its 
curative effect is limited, since it 
cannot affect the toxin already tied 
up in the tissue cells. But it is well 
to remember that patients treated 
thus on the first day of infection usu- 
ally recover— with each succeeding 
day of delay the mortality rises. 



nursing care. There is no question 
that a diphtheria patient needs alert 
and intelligent nursing care. The 
nurse should observe the patient's 
general clinical symptoms and report 
any change in condition to the doc- 
tor—such as character of pulse, res- 
pirations, and swelling in cervical 
lymph nodes. She is usually directly 
responsible for maintaining the coop- 
eration and relaxation of the sick per- 
son. Local treatment, although it has 
no effect upon the toxic damage, if 
prescribed with caution, may ease 
the comfort of the patient. Throat 
irrigations, gargles and suction may 
bring relief. In laryngeal diphtheria, 
when mechanical relief of the ob- 
struction is necessary, intubation is 
the most common method used. 
While wearing the tube the patient 
must be under constant supervision. 
If intubation proves unsuccessful or 
the obstruction is above the larynx, 
a tracheotomy must be resorted to. 
Here again the nurse must watch the 
patient constantly and keep the tube 
clean and patent. 

prophylaxis. Highest mortality from 
diphtheria occurs between the ages 
of six months and five years. Infants 




SPECIALIZATION 

CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUE 

holds greater opportunities for the capable Nurse 
Technician than ever before. It is the one field that 
is not overcrowded, and one in which professional 
ability is highly regarded and recognized. Our cata- 
log will be of interest and we shall be pleased to 
mail it postpaid upon request. Established 30 years. 

Northwest Institute of Medical Technology, Inc. 

3404 E. Lake Street Minneapolis 6, Minn. 



60 



may R.N. 1948 



HAVE YOU BACKACHE 

AND NERVOUS FATIGUE 




DUE TO TIRED 

ABDOMINAL 

MUSCLES? 



Welcome ! 
SPENCER 

EXHIBIT 

Biennial 

Nurs. Conv. 

BOOTH 119 



. f 






Why not have a Spencer Support 
designed especially for you? It will 
give gentle support to sagging mus- 
cles while permitting normal activity 
of abdominal muscles. And it will 
guide your body into restful posture, 
encouraging better general function- 
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tone to musculature. 



Spencer Designers Also Create 
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Thousands of doctors prescribe individually 
designed Spencer Supports for back derange- 
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operations; maternity and following child- 
birth; displaced internal organs; movable kid- 
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This woman is wearing her Spencer 
Body and Breast Supports that were 
designed especially for her. 



Send coupon at right for free 
information or look in telephone 
book for "Spencer corsetiere" or; 
'Spencer Support Shop". 



SPENCER 



WRITE FOR FREE BOOKLET 

Spencer, Inc., Dept. N2 

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The M. D» — a handsome, two-piece 

suit of finest grade, sleek, white sharkskin, 

Jacket Ho* long sleeves, button culls, 

large ocean pearl buttons, Inverted back 

pleat for action freedom. Handkerchief 

pocket, and two large pepftim 

pockets. Full, new length skirt 

with Talon zipper side opening. 

Sixes: 10 — 44. 

R&ta'tte abovt $W.9B 




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Los Angeles 15, California 



WRITE FOR FREE 1948 CATALOG AND NAME OF NEAREST STORE. 






FOR A LADY IN 



A glamourous new 

Medico Professional Fashion 

by Hyman of California 

The Lady Kay — an on-the-job 
uniform with an off-duty look. Fashion 
inspired three quarter semi-Dolman 
sleeves, subtle Peter Pan collar, flare- 
away pointed cuffs. Full seven gore 
skirt, detachable belt and buttons. 
Tailored smartly in crisp sharkskin, 
so easy to wash and iron. Also in 
full length semi-Dolman sleeves 
and French cuffs. Sizes 10—46. 
Retails under $9.00 

At better stores everywhere, or write 
for name of store nearest you. 





1830 SOUTH HILL STREET, LOS ANGELES 13, CALIFORNIA 

AS SHOWN IN CHARM AND GLAMOUR 



born of mothers with established im- 
munity are usually immune during 
the early months of life, but this con- 
genital immunity usually wears off 
by six months of age. After this, im- 
munity may be developed by contact 
with persons carrying the bacillus— 
but control is practicable only by ac- 
tive immunization. This is best se- 
cured by administering toxoid ( a tox- 
in treated so as to destroy its toxicity, 
but still capable of inducing forma- 
tion of antibodies on injection), or 
toxin-antitoxin to all children in early 
life (six months to one year). To 
verify immunity, a Schick test should 
be done six months after the admin- 
istration of serum. This is the injec- 
tion intradermally of a minute 
amount of toxin in solution along 
with a control injection. If the indi- 
vidual is not immune, a positive re- 
action results and a distinct wheal 
appears within 24-48 hours. When 
a person has been exposed to the dis- 
ease, active immunity takes too long 
to be of use and passive immunity 
may be necessary. This is the admin- 
istration of 1,500 to 2,000 units of 
antitoxin. The immunity lasts from 
two to three weeks. In order to pre- 



vent direct or indirect contact of the 
patient with others, isolation, aseptic 
technique, and disinfection of all in- 
fective agents are of the utmost im- 
portance. 

* e * 

conclusion. While diphtheria has 
not assumed the grave proportions 
of some of the other diseases, it is, 
nevertheless, a serious disease and 
should be controlled with every 
known and tried method. Public 
health nurses are aware of the dan- 
gers of the disease and are constantly 
on the alert for children who have 
not been properly immunized. All 
nurses should realize that any serious 
outbreak of diphtheria is unnecessary 
in the light of the success that has 
followed immunization. Although 
the disease has increased within the 
last few years, it should not be al- 
lowed to continue for diphtheria can 
be controlled. 

Carolyn Valentine, B.S. 



The first nursing school was 
opened in Athens, Greece, in 380 
B.C. It featured a one-year course, 
graduating 80 students, of which 
only 46 were women. 



NOW-Probie-$10Q A Copy 

We still have a few copies of "Probie" in book form. 
These are available at $1.00 each until the supply is 
exhausted. 



Nightingale Press, Inc., Rutherford, N. J. 



64 



may R.N. 1948 




/ clean dentures the POLIDENT way 

Avoid that nasty job of denture scrubbing. Use POLIDENT! 

It's simple, safe, sound. • All you do is have the 

patient slip the dentures in a glass of POLIDENT solution, 

and 15 minutes later (after rinsing) they're fresh, clean and 

ready to wear. By gentle, chemical action — POLIDENT quickly 

dissolves food particles, mucin plaques and stains... 

^g^~~ -\ no neec * for scrubbing ... no danger of abrasion or 

r/f^^^i^S breakage ... no messy handling. 

If seeing is believing, let us send you 
a professional sample for trial. 



POLIDGriT 



Recommended by more dentists than any other denture cleanser 
HUDSON PRODUCTS, INC. . 8 HIGH ST. r JERSEY CITY 6, N. J. 

HUDSON PRODUCTS, INC. B-58 

8 High Street, Jersey City 6, N. J. 

Please send me a professional sample of POLIDENT. 




SOAK 

Soak 15 minutes in solution 
(or overnight) . . . ( 1 capful 
of POLIDENT to 1 glass of 
water) 







RINSE 

Hold under running water 
to rinse-THAT'S ALL 



Name. 



.R.N. 



Address- 

Street 

City_ 



.State. 



Case For Margarine 

[Continued from page 33] 

Fortified margarine must, in ac- 
cordance with Federal regulations, 
contain at least 9,000 USP units 
of Vitamin A. Actually, over 99 per 
cent is fortified with 15,000 units. 
And the guaranteed amount of this 
vitamin content is printed on each 
package of margarine. Further, mar- 
garine contains substantial quanti- 
ties of the three unsaturated fatty 
acids, essential to life and health. 
These are sometimes known as Vita- 
min F. 

The fats and oils used in the manu- 
facture of margarine contain some 
naturally yellow color. Under Fed- 
eral regulations, however, these fats 
and oils must be bleached, a process 
which adds to the cost of manufac- 
ture, in order to make the white 
margarine. 

A gadget called the Lovibund tint- 
ometer is employed to measure the 
amount of "white" in a sample of 
margarine. In 1931 Congress passed 
a law which is still in effect, requir- 
ing that any margarine which shows 
more than 1.6 degrees of yellow on 



the tintometer shall be taxed ten 
cents a pound. 

On the other hand, artificial color 
is added to butter about eight months 
out of twelve without penalty. In 
the spring, when cows are pastured 
on green grass, the butter produced 
generally is very yellow. In the fall, 
with the grass no longer green, a 
butter which is light in color is pro- 
duced, and butter manufacturers 
generally add color to give it a 
deeper yellow color. Furthermore, 
the artificial coloring added in butter 
is not uniform. It is colored differ- 
ently for different markets, depend- 
ing on consumer preference. For ex- 
ample, the butter sold in the New 
York market is lighter than butter 
sold in the Chicago market. 

The addition of color to butter or 
margarine is not harmful, but it adds 
no food value beyond that associated 
with a color that is pleasing to the 
average individual because of his 
food habits. 

As color varies in butter, so does 
the vitamin content vary from 500 
to 20,000 USP units of Vitamin A; 
whereas the Vitamin A content set 
at 15,000 units in margarine is stabi- 





' Write for Sample "Write for Sample 

The Alkalol Company, Taunton 24, Mass. The Alkalol Company, Taunton 24, Mass. 

66 may R.N. 1948 




to your patients . • • 



Mi * 



a most important ingredient is 



Yes, doctor, one thing that vitally concerns 
any patient is the taste of the preparation 
he must take.Which is one more reason why 
BiSoDoL is so effective . . . for in addition 
to its rapid, prolonged action, this mi|d and 
soothing antacid alkalizer has a pleasant 
taste . . . invites patient cooperation. 

BiSoDoL's easy-to-take characteristic has 
won it wide medical acceptance. Try 
BiSoDoL in your practice, and you, too, will 
soon see why. 



TASTE! 




BiSoDoL 



POWDER* MINTS 



® 






•**£&««* 



WHITEHALL PHARMACAL COMPANY 
22 E. 40th ST., NEW YORK 16, N.Y. 











BUSINESS AND 
MEDICAL REGISTRY 

(agency) 

ELSIE MILLER, DIRECTOR 

553 S. Western Avenue 
Los Angeles 5, California 

Nursing positions in every field. Twenty 
years' association with California and 
western hospitals. Write us. No regis- 
tration fee. 



For $1. 

18 DUPONT NYLON or PURE SILK 

Hair Nets 
With Elastic Fine Mesh Cap Shape 

or 
12 Human Hair Nets Double Mesh 

Cap Shape 

(Human Hair No Grey No White) 

Retail Price $1.80 

You save 80 cents 

Colors : dark brown, medium brown, 

light brown, blonde, black, 

grey, white and auburn. 

Unconditionally guaranteed. Money 
refunded if not completely satisfied. 

Valuable coupons will be sent 

to R.N. readers with the 

initial order. 

Please send for $1.— Postage Prepaid 
Nylon — Silk — Human Hair 

Name 

Please Print Name 
Street 

City 

Enclosed (cash, money order or check) 

UNITED HAIRNET CO. 

210 Fifth Avenue, Dept. RN-5 
New York 10, N.Y. 



68 



lized for the whole year round. 

During the war, the Government 
ordered the margarine manufactured 
for Lend-Lease and for the use of 
our Armed Forces colored yellow. 
Consumers abroad and the men in 
the Armed Forces preferred it that 
way. Yet at no time has the con- 
sumer been able to get yellow mar- 
garine at home without paying ten 
cents a pound extra for it. Instead, 
the consumer is forced to buy white 
margarine and go to the trouble and 
waste of mixing in the color at home. 

In 1947, it was estimated that 
American housewives used up nearly 
11,500 years mixing coloring matter 
into margarine; the average time for 
home-coloring being 10 minutes per 
pound. Approximately 12,500,000 
pounds of margarine are wasted a 
year in the home-mixing process. 

Despite all the attributes which 
margarine now possesses, rigid Fed- 
eral and state taxes and restrictions 
are maintained. First Federal laws 
regulating its sale and manufacture, 
laws demanded by the dairy indus- 
try, were enacted in 1886. Others 
were added in 1902 and in 1931. 

In addition to a ten-cent tax on 
yellow margarine, a quarter of a 
cent tax on white, the Federal gov- 
ernment imposes a license fee on the 
manufacturer of $600 a year. This 
law has been interpreted to mean 
that private hospitals, private chari- 
table institutions, public eating 
places, and others which buy and 
color margarine must pay the yearly 
manufacturers' license fee of $600 
plus the ten cents per pound tax. 
Also, 17 states prohibit or restrict 

may R.N. 1948 



Here's your invitation 
to try 

YODORA 

the gentler cream 
deodorant 

FREE 



ITS EFFECTIVE! Yodora stops 
perspiration odor safely, quickly . . . 
yet is positively soothing to normal 
skin. It's pleasantly fragrant. A 
lovely, cosmetic-type deodorant. 

TS GENTLE! Yodora is made with 
a face cream base. Jt actually helps 
to soften your skin, like a face 
cream. And it stays fresh and creamy, 
never gets grainy in the jar. 

IT'S SAFE! No acid salts to cause 
skin irritation or eruptions. Safe for 
fabrics, too . . . the impartial Better 
Fabrics Testing Bureau certifies 
Yodora is chemically harmless to 
dress fabrics. 



In tubes or jars, 
10*, 30*, 60«. 

A better buy 

for 
your money 




'■// 



NO UNDERARM 
IRRITATION! 
IT'S ACTUALLY 
SOOTHING! 



IT'S FOR YOU! 
...AND FREE! 



Just clip the invitation cou- 
pon and send it in today. 
Once you've enjoyed 
Yodora's plus protection, 
you'll always prefer thii= 
gentler, lovelier deodorant. 




McKesson & Robbins, Inc., 
Bridgeport, Conn., Dept. RN-5 

I'd like to try yodora. Please send me a 
sample of this gentler Cream deodorant, 
absolutely free, as offered in your ad- 
vertisement. 

name 



ADDRESS. 



CITY & ZONE. 



.STATE. 



the use of margarine in their state 
institutions. 

A wholesaler must pay $480 a 
year for the privilege of selling col- 
ored margarine and $200 for selling 
uncolored margarine. Even the indi- 
vidual grocers are obliged to pay a 
special fee of $48 for selling colored 
margarine, $6 for selling the uncol- 
ored product. 

Additional taxes for the same right 
are levied in many states ranging up 
to $1,000 a year for manufacturers 
and wholesalers and up to $400 for 
retailers. 

Three states tax boarding houses 
up to $10 a year for serving it and 
four impose taxes up to $50 for res- 
taurants; 23 prohibit colored mar- 
garine entirely; eight tax it from five 
to fifteen cents a pound. And two 
states impose a $1 per year tax on 
the private home using margarine 
purchased outside the state. 

So it is, that after 62 years, the 
Federal government, and states too, 
still tax and regulate margarine— the 
only pure food in the land so re- 
stricted by our laws, for the benefit 
of another competitive product. This 
Federal action is somewhat of a 



paradox, inasmuch as margarine has 
been decreed one of the basic seven 
foods recommended by the govern- 
ment for good health. 

There is danger in the diminution 
of butter production in America to- 
day. Before the war, the annual per 
capita consumption of all butter 
averaged about 16.6 pounds. This 
was a decline from the high point 
between the two wars of 18.5 pounds 
per capita in 1926. But by 1946, 
butter consumption had declined still 
further to 10.5 pounds per person. 
Reasons for this are two-fold: (1) 
the cattle population of the country 
has been dropping for several years, 
and (2) the dairy farmers' interest 
lies in expanding their market for 
fluid milk, for this is the most profit- 
able market for their product. The 
share of the total dollar from dairy 
products which comes from butter 
is very small— 15 per cent. 

Thus, although margarine con- 
sumption increased from 230 million 
pounds in 1931 to 725 million 
pounds in 1947, the effect of de- 
creasing butter production has been 
to keep the total of both spreads 
well below [Continued on page 84] 



WEAK OR FALLEN ARCHES 

Are Especially Common Among Nurses. Quick Relief This Proved Way 

Tired, aching feet, rheumatoid foot and leg pains, callosities, burn- / 
ing sensations, sore heels — these are typical symptoms of disturb- / 
ances in the arch structure. Don't let them jeopardize your health, happiness, 
disposition, career. Be fitted with Dr. Scholl's Arch Supports for quick, lasting 
relief. Light in weight, thin, extremely resilient. Expertly 
fitted at Shoe, Department Stores and Dr. Scholl's Foot 
Comfort Shops. $3.50 pair, up. For booklet on Foot Care, 
write Dr. Scholl's, Inc., Chicago. * Trade iviark Reg. u.s. Pat. off. 



f\f C" L. II' <Zoct Cimtftnt* 

U- OCnOllS ARCH SUPPORTS 



70 



mav R.N. 1948 




"'-: V ; 




The monkey who came to dinner 



NUTRITION TRAINING IMPORTANT 
IN ALL INCOME GROUPS 




A study based on reports from 
821 school children in a large 
eastern city showed that even 
in families with high incomes, 
over Vi the children needed to 
improve their eating habits. 

MATERIALS ARE FREE 



■4\ 



Ask bout our complete mater- 
ials and services for developing 
school-community nutrition 
and health education programs. 



"Winky" is a toy monkey who never knows 
where his next meal is coming from. Every day one 
of the children in the classroom serves him a meal — 
paper models of the very dinner the youngster 
ate the night before. The class gathers around to 
discuss Winky's menu . . . They offer comments — 
and they learn. 

And there you have the basis of a valuable lesson 
in nutrition — simple, yet dramatic enough to in- 
terest the youngest school child. The Shinnston, 
West Virginia, teacher who uses a toy monkey to 
improve her pupils' eating habits, is just one of a 
growing number of similarly enterprising educators 
and other youth leaders. Using basic educational 
materials provided by General Mills, these leaders 
and health workers are increasingly devising new 
ways of including the study of foods in their health 
programs. And as a result of such study, they are 
reporting encouraging improvements in eating habits. 

If you would like to know about General Mills 
"Program of Assistance in Nutrition and Health 
Education," write 
to: Education 
Section, Public 
Services De- 
partment, 
General 
Mills, Minne- 
apolis 1, Minn. 

Copyright 1948, General Mills, Inc 




*W MENU TODAY 



. p atie nt Obviously Approy ef/ , 







\ 

$>^- 



I 



SPECIAL DIET 
RECIPE BOOKLET 
For free books, plus 
Special Diet Folders 
and Professional Ref- 
erence Cards, write to 
Gerber Products Co., 
Dejit. 355-8 Fremont, 
Mich. 



To perk up special diets, Gerber's offer you a Spe- 
cial Diet Recipe Book. The 73 appetite-tempting 
dishes, planned by qualified nutritionists, are 
based mostly on Gerber's good-tasting Strained 
Foods — all low in crude fiber. 

Now, an even greater variety of Gerber's! Soups, 
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erber's 

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WHITE CAPS 

[Continued from page 47] 

the other side; and a mechanical 
view of nursing." A little later she 
mentioned also the "imminent danger 
of stereotyping instead of progress- 
ing. No system can endure that does 
not march. Objects of registration 
are not capable of being gained by 
a public register/' 8 

One may not, and perhaps should 
not, accept Florence Nightingale's 
concept of nursing exclusively as an 
externalization of mystical religion. 
But how does holding to it prove 
stagnation? It can be taken as a sign 
of stagnation only if one arbitrarily 
identifies a religious point of view 
with stagnation. 

This is apparently what Dr. Robin- 
son did. Consider this passage 
where he wrote that "as the mother- 
chief (Florence Nightingale) grew 
older, her letters to her dear children 
grew sweeter. Soft, sentimental and 
mystic, the aging Miss Nightingale 
writes ecstatic notes to the probation- 
ers: 'Our Heavenly Father thanks 
you for what you do. Lift high the 
royal banner of nursing. Christ was 
the author of our profession.' The 
atmosphere of St. Thomas' is medi- 
evalized: within its corridors is heard 
no echo of scientific investigation." 9 

St. Thomas' Hospital may indeed 
have become a "chain on the feet of 
the progress," 10 but there is no evi- 
dence in what Dr. Robinson offered 
to suggest that Miss Nightingale's re- 
ligious outlook was responsible. 

It seems fair to say that Dr. Robin- 
son thought Florence Nightingale's 



religious convictions contributed to 
the stagnation which he alleged en- 
compassed St. Thomas' Hospital and 
Florence Nightingale. Going beyond 
this, he apparently considered the re- 
ligious point of view unnecessary 
and a purely humanitarian attitude 
more sensible. 

For example, he seemed to take 
satisfaction in the fact that the 
pledges of military nurses omitted the 
name of God and divorced nursing 
from religious conviction. 11 Why, 
precisely, it should be more sensible 
to devote oneself to suffering human 
beings for their own sake than to 
serve them for the love of God, Dr. 
Robinson did not say. Yet it was no 
merely humanitarian motive which 
led Florence Nightingale into the 
filth, squalor, disease and bitterness 
of Scutari, and to give her life to pro- 
mote intelligent and devoted nursing. 

The progress she made may not 
have been enough to satisfy Dr. Rob- 
inson. But it is simply gratuitous to 
speak of the alleged shortcomings of 
Florence Nightingale as "the foibles 
of the pioneer," 12 and to insinuate 
that among those foibles were Miss 
Nightingale's faith in God and her 
profound and practical religious out- 
look both upon life and the nursing 
profession. 

1 "White Caps," Dr. Victor Robinson (New- 
York: J. B. Lippincott. 1946) page 129 

2 "White Caps," page 127 

3 "The Life of Florence Nightingale," Sir 
Edward Cook (London: MacMillan and Co., 
1913), 2 vols, ii, 364 

■•Cook, op. cit., ii, 359 

5 Robinson, op. cit., page 124 

eCook, op. cit., ii. 359-360 

7 Cook, op. cit., ii, 367 

8 Cook, op. cit., ii, 363 

°Robinson, op. cit., page 126 

10 Robinson, op. cit., page 125 

"Robinson, op. cit., page 357 

12 Robinson, op. cit., page 128 



may R.N. 1948 



73 



Two Weeks 

[Continued from page 51] 

orders on patients who were being 
admitted to the ward or being pre- 
pared for surgery. On the whole, we 
were able to plan our work better 
and give better attention to patients 
because we knew beforehand ap- 
proximately what they would need. 

We kept a chart of the steps taken 
by the nurses and the maid during a 
15-minute period on the day shift. 
We charted the trips made from 
wards to rooms to hopper to kitchen 
to linen room back to wards and 
rooms, down the hall for ice and 
medication. Using a red pencil to 
record the trips made by the nurses 
and a blue pencil for the trips made 
by the maids, we had a very impres- 
sive chart to show the amount of 
extra steps necessary to care for pa- 
tients on the ward. We presented this 
chart to the superintendent and the 
immediate result was that a com- 
bination linen and drug room was 
converted from an old cloak room, 
an ice cabinet was purchased for the 
floor, and recommendations went in 
for a bath tub and toilet to be in- 



stalled as soon as possible. Of course, 
all of these things would eventually 
have come about but the chart pre- 
cipitated them and the actual steps 
taken by the nurses and the maid 
were cut almost in half. 

Instead of taking temperatures 
twice daily on the convalescent and 
preoperative patients, we took them 
only once, in the afternoon. 

Catheterization trays were set up 
immediately following use after theii 
contents had been sterilized. 

The bed patients' baths were stag- 
gered and given only every other 
day. One day the ward patients were 
bathed, the next day, the private 
room patients. On alternate days, 
back rubs and change of linen were 
made to suffice for the patient in the 
way of morning care. 

The medical students were re- 
quested to get the specimens they 
wanted and take them to the labora- 
tory. Nurses were responsible only 
for the specimens which were either 
routine or "stat" orders from the pa- 
tient's doctor. 

Resident physicians and interns 
were requested to make their ward 
round and write orders as near as 



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ternally caused pimples, follow nightly cleansing with emollient /;■ 
Cuticura Ointment. A wonderful complexion help. Try it ! 

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74 



may R.N. 1948 




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possible to 1 o'clock. At this hour. 
just after lunch, the morning rush 
was easing up and it was long enough 
before the change of shifts that the 
orders could be carried out and 
charted by the time the 3-11 nurse 
reported for duty. Gentle insistence 
was needed to get the interns to co- 
operate but after awhile they saw our 
point and were willing to try it. Of 
course, there were always those few 
who gave us the impression that we 
were personally responsible for caus- 
ing all the salpingitis, ovarian cysts, 
cervical tears and cystoceles that ex- 
isted and their cooperation was any- 
thing but enthusiastic. However, time 
will probably wear them down and 
they will come around to seeing 
things from the nursing viewpoint. 

Two weeks of working on the floor 
was almost too much for me. I cer- 
tainly doff my cap to those of the 
profession who are giving their serv- 
ices in hospitals. I cannot but greatly 
admire their stamina and courage in 
working under the frustrating, trying 
conditions which I observed. 

Since serving those two weeks, I 
have made it a rule to offer my assist- 
ance at a hospital on any day when 
I have a few free hours. It isn't much 
perhaps, but if other nurses in the 
same position will offer what time 
they have, things may ease up for 
those institutional nurses who are tak- 
ing the brunt of the nursing shortage. 



76 



A pleasant prescription for spark- 
ling teeth— eat sugar-coated straw- 
berries after each meal. Hungarian 
ladies of the 19th Century believed 
it aided digestion, too. 

may R.N. 1948 



ehind the Label... 




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"Who's To Hoe? . . ." 

[Continued from page 27] 

After reading the new report, we 
have three specific questions to place 
before the Committee on Structure: 

1 . If the districts are to work out 
the form of organization best adapt- 
ed to our needs and thus set a pat- 
tern for state and national organiza- 
tion, why is even the most tentative 
plan for national and state set before 
them? 

2. Who will establish the prin- 
ciples to guide the districts in their 
studies, provide outlines and measur- 
ing rods, suggest collateral reading, 
evaluate results? Will these guides 
come from the national committee 
or will each state and district work 
out its own? 

3. Where shall we place our em- 
phasis—on the new Plan en toto, on 
the district search for a new plan, or 
on both? 

Perhaps it is that the tentative 
overall Plan is offered purely to 
stimulate thinking and to offer a 
framework on which to proceed. It 
seems to us most important that this 
issue, whether the study actually is 



to begin locally or not, be cleared 
before we proceed. 

The Committee urges that every 
district and state appoint, or re- 
activate structure committees. To our 
way of thinking, if this is done, every 
committee should begin its work 
without any pre-conceived ideas and 
should form conclusions solely from 
the facts the study reveals. Also, they 
should outline objectives and deter- 
mine how to achieve these objectives. 
There must be certain basic outlines, 
for in 155,000 members there are 
that many shades of experience with 
organization. The eight premises 
cover points so vital that they could 
be studied with profit for weeks, 
months and even years. How far 
shall we go? 

W 7 e must determine the subjects 
to be attacked in district study and 
clearly outline and arrange them in 
order of importance. As an example, 
every major subject could be ar- 
ranged in three parts: 

1. A statement of the problem it- 
self. 

2. A list of suggested readings. 

3. A list of questions. 

[Turn the page] 




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78 



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devices to pinch baby's fingers. 
Folder sent on request 

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may R.N. 1948 




t> 




This important new treatise containing invaluable research is now 
available to the medical profession. Of particular interest is the full-color, 
diagrammatic chart that traces the pre-natal and post-natal development 
of the infant mouth. Drawings are based on actual dissections of embryos 
and foeti of 7 to 20 weeks, of infants up to 12 months. Special X-ray 
plates of teeth and jaws were also taken for the treatise. 

Prominent doctors and professors in seven fields of the medical profession 
assisted in compiling the illustrations and data in the treatise. When you 
see "The Development of the Infant Mouth from Embryo through First 
Year" we're sure you'll agree it is an important new addition to your 
reference library. 



Here is the coupon for your complimentary copy 
(This offer is limited to doctors and nurses only.) 



DAVOL RUBBER COMPANY 

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Waiting For You! 

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55 East Washington Street 
Chicago 2, Illinois 



80 



What determines the right size of 
a district for effective work? How big 
is too big— how little is too little? 
Who will give us the principles for 
determining the answers? Districts 
have long been established on the 
basis of transportation facilities. 
What other factors besides numbers 
should enter into the study? The new 
plan suggests more "autonomy" for 
sections. Precisely what does this 
term mean? Could it be possible for 
sections to violate good principles of 
organization by too much self gov- 
ernment? Surely this is an area where 
collateral reading— reading to com- 
pare our type of organization with 
others— is essential. As the purpose of 
nursing organization is of a dual na- 
ture, for the protection and advance- 
ment of the nurse herself and also 
for the better care of her patient, we 
must relate our program to the com- 
munity's nursing needs and its health 
program. Carried to its logical lengths 
this premise brings in consideration 
of the layman, the practical nurse, 
and our relationships with allied 
groups. What are the high points to 
consider in determining community 
nursing needs? 

There are other equally important 
questions involved in the "premises." 
Which of them takes precedence in 
the order of our study, or shall we 
attack them all simultaneously? 

It is perhaps too early to ask these 
questions. Our purpose in doing so 
now is to focus attention on the need 
for: fixing the responsibility for guid- 
ance of the districts (Will this come 
from the national or state commit- 
tees—or both? ) ; establishing the prin- 

may R.N. 1948 



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ciples of our studies (Where shall 
we begin? How intensively shall we 
delve? How will our returns be 
evaluated?); furnishing outlines that 
enable us to understand the salient 
factors in each subject we take up 
for study. 

These questions are asked only to 
clear the air before we proceed along 
the sound line of district activity laid 
down by the Committee. Commit- 
tee resources are now greater than 
they were in the earlier study of 
structure and the Committee is eager 
to make these resources useful in re- 
sponding to the expressed will and 
the questions of the members. The 
Committee wants comments and 
questions. This hard working group, 
every member of which has a press- 
ing full-time job of her own, can 
help us only if we help it. 

At this phase of the study, R.N/s 
recommendations to the house of 
delegates would be to: 

1. Endorse the principle of plac- 
ing responsibility for working out an 
answer for a new plan of structure 
squarely on the district. 

2. Endorse the principle that state 



and national plans be built upon 
what districts find useful. 

3. Request practical down-to- 
earth outlines and measuring rods 
that will provide uniformity in study 
so that the returns from all districts 
can be given the same interpretation 
and be evaluated together. 

4. Request that for the present the 
districts pre-occupy themselves with 
a study of the district, and hold the 
state and national plans in abeyance. 

Finally, we urge every nurse to 
read the plan as published in the 
current issue of the American Jour- 
nal of Nursing, ponder the questions 
we have asked here, talk the subject 
over with fellow nurses, and send or 
bring to the house of delegates your 
own questions, opinions, ideas and 
recommendations. 

Alice R. Clarke, R.N. 

[*As R.N. goes to press a joint meet- 
ing of the Six National Boards of Di- 
rectors is scheduled for April 30 in 
New York City to consider principles 
of structure and prepare a plan for 
presentation to the ANA House of 
Delegates— the editors] 



KEEP YOUR PATIENT 

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little attentions mean such a lot to a patient's 
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82 



may R.N. 1948 



ot BREAKAGE 



Do You Recognize These 

\\ Co» seS 

I 1 TO 

HYPODERMIC SYRINGES? 



n 



Bottom blown 
out by releasing 
plunger when testing 
with finger over tip. 



_ Tip broken by 
2. lateral pressure 

on poorly annealed or 

scored tip. 





Tip chipped by 
«3 knocking against 
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other object. 



. Split T'p caused 

4 by clearing tip 

with too large needle 






T 



SftD 



Tip broken by 
•5 too great lateral 
pressure. 



, "Tip Crush" 
O caused by wedg- 


_ Break typical of 
/ improperly an- 


q Break caused by 
O wedging plunger 


ing improperly fitting 


nealed glass. 


when inserting. 


needle on tip. 









x~z 



M 



_.ow - out" 
y Break. Caused 
by boiling unclean 
parts together. 



_ Tip broken by 
IU removing stuck 
needle by twisting. 



_- Impact Break. 
Some object 
dropped on syringe. 



any types of syringe breakage are due to careless or uninformed han- 
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Stuttering 

[Continued from page 36] 

stuttering, so the child may also 
adopt their beliefs and become con- 
fused when normal nonfluencies do 
occur. 

Preventive "treatment," therefore, 
advises parents to create a semantic- 
environment in which disapproval 
and scolding are held to a minimum; 
react to the child's speech in such a 
manner that he senses approval from 
others; refrain from remarking about 
normal hesitations and repetitions in 
the child's speech; refrain from giv- 
ing the child instructions on "how 
to speak"; and enlarge the child's 
vocabulary so he may express him- 
self with greater ease, thereby re- 
ducing the number of nonfluencies 
which would have occurred had such 
words been foreign to his limited 
vocabulary. 



84 



Case For Margarine 

[Continued from page 70] 

prewar, and for many groups, below 
what may be termed a nutritionally 
desirable level. 

Today approximately 31,839,000 
American families (84 per cent, or 
four out of five) use some margarine 
as compared to 65 per cent two 
years ago. And that many Americans 
can't be wrong about a food prod- 
uct that gives them so much for so 
little. 

Congress will eventually accede to 
the demands they hear in the 
"Voice of America ..." 

may R.N. 1948 





2^< — or why you can count on safer 

Cutter Saftiflask Solutions 

You've heard about Hollywood 
and its "y es "- men — but have you 
ever heard about the mecca for 
"no"- men? 

It's Cutter's testing department 
— where Saftiflask Solutions are 
put through purges that make the 
Gestapo look sissy ! 

So tough, in fact, are Cutter 
testing technicians that they put 
solutions to the same meticulous 
tests they use on delicate vaccines 
and serums — figuring, no doubt, 
that any material designed for 
mass intravenous injection should 
be equally dependable. 

This ivory tower attitude is not 
aimed at pleasing Cutter produc- 
tion men — who not so fondly refer 
to the testers as "stinkers." But 
it does pay off in safer solutions 
for you. 

Add to such assurance the 
smooth performance of Saftiflask 
equipment — and you'll see why so 
many doctors and hospitals specify 
Cutter Solutions in Saftiflasks. 
You'll surely find it worth your 
while, too. 



CUTTER 
LABORATORIES 

BERKELEY 1, CALIFORNIA 





News 

[Continued from page 49] 

The promised concessions include 
changes in the way physicians may 
be paid and in the provisions which 
could make full-time salaried work 
obligatory. Also granted was a de- 
mand for further study of the contro- 
versial points covering partnership 
agreements between doctors. 

► JAPANESE nursing standards are 
expected to benefit by the refresher 
courses instituted recently at Tokyo 
Red Cross headquarters. Represen- 
tatives from 31 nursing schools 
throughout Japan have been enrolled 
in the four-week courses, which 
cover re-education in modern nurs- 
ing and special training in the in- 
struction of others. 

► THE CRISIS IN ENROLMENT 

has passed according to Blanche 
Graves, Nebraska State Director of 
Education and Registration of 
Nurses. She is referring specifically 
to the student loss which reached its 
"black Friday" in 1946 when the 
Nebraska attrition rate was more 



than 54 per cent. She accounts for 
the "steadier" enrolment now be- 
cause the Cadet Nurse Corps pro- 
gram is no longer doing the financing 
and it is harder for the students to 
explain to their dads, who are footing 
the bills, when they drop out of 
training. 

► A STRIKE of 1,300 male nurses 
and orderlies, followed by furious 
rioting, endangered the lives of 2,500 
hospital patients and resulted in 125 
casualties and the arrest of 517 per- 
sons in Cairo, Egypt, last month. 
One nurse, thrown from a window 
when he refused to take part in the 
fighting, was injured fatally. Medi- 
cal students, in sympathy with the 
strike, joined the battle, which con- 
tinued for several hours before po- 
lice could restore order in the two 
hospitals affected. 

Boiling water, kitchen utensils, 
blazing mattresses and slabs of con- 
crete were hurled at the police from 
windows and roofs of the buildings 
where the strikers had barricaded 
themselves. Patients and women 
nurses were terrorized when ring- 
leaders threatened to set fire to the 



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86 



may R.N. 1948 



A Collyrium Designed to Meet the 
Normal Requirements of the Eye 



T^ 



ie normal eye varies from a pH of 7.2 to 
8.4, according to extensive research re- 
ported in an outstanding work on Ophthal- 
mology. 

Murine meets the pH requirements of a 
collyrium suitable for the normal eye, and 
therefore causes a soothing subjective sen- 
sation of eye comfort. The pH of the Murine 
formula is approximately 8.0. The stability 
of this pH permits classification of Murine 
as a buffered solution. 

A simple form of buffered solution is an 
ideal medium for eye drops. An alkaline 
solution is less irritating and is a suitable 
medium for certain drugs. An alkaline buff- 
ered solution is a soothing, cleansing, non- 
irritating medium and does not interfere with 
the normal functioning of the conjunctiva. 

Murine meets all of the above desiderata, 
and blends perfectly with the natural fluids 
of the eye. It is essentially a mechanical 



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cleansing agent, harmless to the tissues of 
the eye, and may be used as often as desired. 
Murine is an adjuvant to the cleansing action 
of lysozyme and does notinhibit itsfunctions. 

Murine's formula combines the following 
ingredients: Potassium Bicarbonate, Potas- 
sium Borate, Boric Acid, Berberine Hydro- 
chloride, Glycerin, Hydrastine Hydrochlo- 
ride, 'Merthiolate' (Sodium Ethyl Mercuri 
Thiosalicylate, Lilly) .001%, combined with 
sterilized water. 

The method of compounding these ingre- 
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the final product. 

All of the above considerations, taken 
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ACTIVE INGREDIENTS 

Zinc Chloride - Menthol 

Formaldehyde - Saccharine 

Oil Cinnamon - Oil Cloves 

Alcohol 5% 





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88 



buildings after the police had re- 
sorted to the use of machine-guns 
and tear gas. When the rioting was 
finally quelled, the hospital an- 
nounced that all male nurses would 
be replaced by women. 

Cause of the strike was a demand 
for higher pay and better working 
conditions— the same issues involved 
in a police strike which had been 
settled only one day earlier. 

► "IT'S NEWS TO ME": Polio cases 
reported to the U.S. Public Health 
Service in 1947 totaled 10,734, com- 
pared to 25,698 in 1946 . . . Pre- 
paredness to meet a possible attack 
upon New York City was discussed 
recently at a joint meeting of the 
Academy of Medicine and the metro- 
politan chapter of the Association of 
Military Surgeons ... A $10,000 
grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foun- 
dation is being used by the Michi- 
gan Nursing Center Association to 
expand its field service . . . Sulfone 
treatment for leprosy, as adminis- 
tered at the National Leprosarium, 
Carville, La., during 1946, is re- 
ported to have cut the number of 
deaths by more than 50 per cent and 
doubled the number of arrested cases 
. . . Blood transfusions in the U.S. 
now total about 2,000,000 a year, 
according to blood bank reports . . . 
Legislation providing for U.S. mem- 
bership in the World Health Organ- 
ization, after being passed unani- 
mously by the Senate, encountered 
House committee coolness. Some 
Congressmen were said to fear that 
implications of socialized medicine 
were inherent in the measure ... A 

may R.N. 1948 



WITH THE EXCLUSIVE HON-TIP CARTON STAND— 10ft & 25?! SIZES 




AVAILABLE AGAIN EVERYWHERE— 15s! & 250 SIZES 




but more nurses take to Griffin- 
their favorite white shoe cleaner 

Again in 1947, in a nation-wide survey nurses voted GRIFFIN ALLWITE their 
favorite white shoe cleaner, because . . . 

• IT MAKES SHOES WHITER actually whiter than new. 

• CLEANS WELL • RESISTS RUBBING OFF 

• EASY TO APPLY • SAFE FOR ALL WHITE SHOES 

Either way ... in the economical bottle, with its neat applicator and non- 
tip carton that prevents spilling ... or the tube that's always handy and so 
convenient to carry in your bag . . . GRIFFIN ALLWITE keeps your shoes 
sparkling white. 



new and better 



©ROM AOJMOB 



"hospital version" of a projected 
Broadway comedy, "For Dear Life," 
is scheduled for presentation at var- 
ious veterans' hospitals in the New 
York area . . . Back in 1910, the 
country had one nurse for every 
1,116 persons; in 1946, the ratio 
was one for every 316 .. . Nurses 
recruited for polio outbreaks are paid 
by the National Foundation for In- 
fantile Paralysis, says the Red Cross, 
adding that some of its volunteer 
nurses' aides have been given special 
training in the care of convalescent 
victims. 

► NURSE ANESTHETISTS are be- 
ing "sniped at," says an editorial in 
Trustee, which charges that "distor- 
tion and misrepresentation" have 
been resorted to in an organized pub- 



licity campaign to glorify M.D. an- 
esthesiology. The publication, a 
journal for governing boards, is is- 
sued by the American Hospital As- 
sociation. 

Contention is made that the medi- 
cal specialty has been so dramatized 
in popular magazines that nurse an- 
esthetists have been discredited and 
the public led to believe that no op- 
eration is safe unless the anesthetic 
be given under the supervision of a 
doctor certified by the American 
Board of Anesthesiology. 

Pointing out that the Board had 
only 325 members a year ago, the 
editorial notes that this is but one 
M.D. for eveiy 20 registered hospi- 
tals; and that totally, including 3,732 
nurse anesthetists, the country now 
has but 5,157 trained persons to 



ream 




of^omfort 



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free sample of each. 



WHEN the bedridden patient cries out for relief 
from the itching, burning and smarting of 
pressure sores, sheet burns, simple rash, minor 
rectal or vulval irritation — there's comfort in 
the soothing touch of Resinol. 
When baby's skin is chafed and red from 
dry eczema or diaper rash — the bland 
medication in Resinol gently allays fiery 
stinging and itching. 
When the children come running 
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knee — oily, time-tested Resinol 
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suffer from burning, cracked, 
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This stream of comfort 
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may R.N. 1948 




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simple headaches and neuralgias, bodily 
discomfort from colds, and certain types 
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92 



meet the needs of 6,280 institutions. 
Thus, concludes Trustee, the real 
problem is a matter of training many 
more— R.N. 's as well as M.D.'s. 

► NAMES IN THE NEWS: Mrs. 
Florence Seder Burns, a public rela- 
tions consultant in the nursing field 
and formerly with the ANA Nursing 
Information Bureau, has become a 
staff associate of the Michigan Nurs- 
ing Center Association, with head- 
quarters in Lansing . . . Mrs. Ruth 
Bergamini, Kathryn A. Robeson and 
Lucille E. Notter have been named 
assistant directors for personnel, ad- 
ministration and education, respec- 
tively, for the Visiting Nurse Sen- 
ice of New York . . . The U.S. dele- 
gation at the fifth International Lep- 
rosy Congress in Havana last month 
was headed by Perry Burgess, presi- 
dent of Leonard Wood Memorial, 
and included Drs. F. A. Johansen, 
E. R. Kellersberger, Norman Sloan, 
and Malcolm H. Soule ... In a re- 
cent letter to the New York Times, 
Ella Best, executive secretary of the 
ANA, declared that "the present 
nursing, crisis results from an over- 
whelming demand for nursing serv- 
ice, rather than from a nursing short- 
age" . . . Anna Fillmore of New York 
was appointed as General Director 
of the National Organization for 
Public Health Nursing. 

► ANY OLD UNIFORMS? Bruck 
Uniform Shops with headquarters at 
640 Madison Avenue, New York 22, 
N.Y., has instituted a new service 
designed to give a boost to the 
morale of nurses in the war- 
may R.N. 1948 




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devastated countries. The firm has 
offered to collect donated nurses' uni- 
forms, replace buttons where neces- 
sary and make the shipments abroad. 

Bruck Shops, which has a number 
of customer services for nurses in our 
own country, decided on this move 
when an increasing number of nurses 
returning from overseas brought back 
the word that there was a desperate 
need abroad for nurses' uniforms and 
equipment. These returned nurses 
were all of the same mind— that even 
gifts of old uniforms, if clean, serv- 
iceable and having some semblance 
of neatness, would do much for the 
morale of fellow nurses in less for- 
tunate parts of the world. 

Bruck Shops gladly accepted the 
important task of collecting and dis- 
tributing the uniforms and are now 
calling on nurses everywhere to send 
in their worn uniforms. Donations 
can be sent to Bruck's Overseas Uni- 
forms in New York City or to their 
Chicago, Pittsburgh and Detroit 
stores. These addresses are: Bruck's 
Overseas Uniforms, 17 North State 
Street, Chicago, 111.; 627 Smithfield 
Street, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 2539 Wood- 
ward Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

► SISTER KENNY, stormy petrel 
(f.) of the medical world, went into 
action on a new front last month with 
the opening of a Kenny Institute for 
Infantile Paralysis at the Jersey City 
(N.J.) Medical Center. The insti- 
tute, first to be established in the 
East and the second in the country, 
ocupies two entire floors. Facilities 
include 100 beds, isolation and out- 
patient departments, and a technical 



training center headed by Miss V. 
Harvey, Australian nurse, described 
by Sister K. as "the best Kenny tech- 
nician available in the world." The 
publicity-wise founder of the much- 
discussed therapy system took advan- 
tage of the occasion to urge that an 
official investigation of her methods 
be made by a conference of physi- 
cians and laymen. A previously es- 
tablished institute is in Minneapolis. 

► IN PALESTINE last month, the 
safety of thousands was being jeop- 
ardized as the International Red 
Cross asked Arab, Jewish, and British 
authorities to abide by Geneva con- 
vention rules covering wartime pro- 
tection of the sick and wounded, re- 
spect for the dead, and security for 
non-combatants and prisoners of 
war. Pledges in writing were re- 
quested, and a Red Cross relief pro- 
gram was being readied. A fund of 
$250,000 to administer the program 
was to be asked of the three warring 
factions. 

► RELATIVELY LOW PAY and un- 
attractive working conditions are to 
blame for the nurse shortage, says 
Richard Thruelson, associate editor 
of The Saturday Evening Post in his 
article, "Registered Nurse," which 
appeared in the April 3 issue of that 
publication. Quoting a recent De- 
partment of Labor figure, which lists 
the average nurse's wage at $40 for a 
44-hour week, Mr. Thruelson calls it 
"a lean pay check for a job requiring 
at least three years of specialized 
schooling." Nurses, he says, "would 
like to catch up with our 50-cent 



may R.N. 1948 



95 



dollar." He concludes that "some- 
body forgot the nurse when we 
started dealing out the better (and 
more expensive) way of life. Except 
for the staffs of a few of the more 
advanced urban institutions, today's 
angel of mercy is trying to fly on one 
wing." 

► AN APPEAL to nurses to donate 
a day's pay to the American Overseas 
Aid- United Nations Appeal for Chil- 
dren has been made by Ella Best, 
Executive Secretary of the ANA. The 
relief agency is endeavoring to raise 
a fund of $60,000,000 by the end of 
this month. Fund headquarters are at 
39 Broadway, New York 6, N.Y. 

► BROOKLYN'S Visiting Nurse As- 
sociation made 145,529 calls on 25,- 
602 patients last year, employing 108 
nurses in home-to-home visits. Six- 
teen additional staff nurses were as- 
signed to a special district project 
being carried out in cooperation with 
the city health department. The as- 
sociation spent $422,084, received 
$132,839 for services during the per- 
iod, according to the group's 60th 
annual report. 



► A BLOOD BANK system, nation- 
wide in scope and capable of meet- 
ing any eventuality caused by an 
atomic bomb attack, is being set up 
by the American Association of Blood 
Banks. Plans call for the correla- 
tion of techniques and equipment, 
enabling the country's 1,200 banks 
to join hands in coping with any 
emergency. A meeting to discuss 
scientific aspects of the program and 
possible international cooperation is 
scheduled for Buffalo in August. 

► VETERANS enrolled in full-time 
institutional training are receiving 
authorized increases in their subsis- 
tence allowances as of May 1, says 
the VA. The monthly increases 
amount to $10 for those without de- 
pendents, $15 for those with one de- 
pendent. Veterans with two or more 
dependents who have been receiving 
$90 monthly are automatically being 
allowed $105; in order to receive the 
authorized $120 per month, they 
"must submit satisfactory evidence of 
the additional dependent," says the 
VA. "If this evidence is received on 
or before July 1, the $120 allowance 
may be retroactive to include the 



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Catalog lists and describes the largest and most complete stock of 
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96 



may R.N. 1948 



HOW A SPIRELLA SUPPORT 
HELPS CASES LIKE THESE... 




A SPIRELLA individually de- 
signed support permits wo- 
men with figure conditions like 
these to lead normal, comfortable 
lives. The reason is that Spirella 
supports with upward and back- 
ward traction, assists the abdom- 
inal muscles, encourages correct 
posture, without constriction in 
the region of the diaphragm. 
Bulky, uncomfortable inner belts 
or straps are unnecessary. Thus 
patients are glad to wear comfort- 
able Spirella garments, which also 
improve their appearance. 

Here's how the Spirella system of 
corsetry works in cases of problem 



figures: First the Spirella Corse- 
tiere adjusts the exclusive Model- 
ing Garments on the patient in 
the doctor's presence. This per- 
mits him to check the degree of 
support in the fluoroscope if he 
desires. Then, measurements are 
taken over the figure — properly 
supported by the Modeling Gar- 
ments. From these correct mea- 
surements the finished garment is 
individually made. 

For full information about Spi- 
rella write: 



In the U. S. 
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SPIRELLA SUPPORT IS RECOMMENDED 
IN CASES LIKE THESE: 

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month of April. If the evidence is 
received after July 1, the $120 rate 
will be authorized only from the date 
such evidence is received." An ex- 
planation of what constitutes satis- 
factory evidence may be obtained 
from the nearest VA office. 

► DR. HELEN B. TAUSSIG and 
Dr. Alfred Blalock have been named 
co-winners of the annual award of 
the Passano Foundation, established 
in 1944 by the medical publishing 
house of Williams and Wilkins to aid 
medical research. Dr. Taussig is the 
first woman to win the award. She 
and Dr. Blalock, members of the 
faculty at Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, developed the famed "blue 
baby operation," a procedure which 
has been utilized in more than 600 
cases at Johns Hopkins since it was 
first performed in 1944. Presentation 
of the $5,000 cash award will be 
made in Chicago next month during 
AMA convention week. 

► PRACTICAL NURSES in New 
York State who are registered with 
the State Department of Education 
for the two-year period ending Aug. 



31, 1948, have been sent renewal 
cards for the next biennial period, the 
department announces. "These cards 
should be filled out and returned 
with a $2 fee," says the department, 
adding that "the cards should not be 
spindled, bent or mutilated in any 
way." The nurses are further cau- 
tioned to notify the department im- 
mediately of any change in address 
which has not been reported previous 
to this time. 

► BRITISH HOSPITALS, hit by 

shortages of student nurses, are be- 
ing forced in some instances to re- 
cruit trainees abroad, according to 
Reuters, the British news agency. 
Cited as typical of the movement is 
an advertising campaign in French, 
Belgian, and Dutch newspapers 
soliciting applications for student 
nursing posts at the Schenley Men- 
tal Hospital in Hertfordshire. The 
hospital is under the jurisdiction of 
the Middlesex County Council, 
which is said to have gone over the 
heads of the Ministry of Labor in 
placing the advertisements. The 
shortage is reported to be most acute 
in mental institutions. 



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may R.N. 1948 



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penal and other institutions. Here's why! 

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Candid Comments 

[Continued from page 31] 

not only practitioners, of nursing. 
The big issues involved will not be 
money or hours, but how free, wide, 
active and mature are your minds. 
The lesser things will then come 
naturally. "The business of the young 
generation is one of rebellion" says 
Dr. Edman of Columbia University. 
He means don't accept every tradi- 
tion as the law of Moses. Examine, 
question, explore every rule and rite 
you inherit. 

Belong to your professional organ- 
izations; be of them— think for your 
profession; talk for it; fight for it; 
and I promise that not only will you 
have a very good time but also a 
very good life. No one who has 



made nursing a lifetime job has had 
an easy life, but who wants an easy 
life? It would be as dull as dish 
water. We veterans have found 
nursing packed with the satisfac- 
tions that make living a beautiful, 
zestful experience. Some nurses, un- 
happily, see only its hardships, but 
the most are like the Ohio nurse who 
said, "I hope when I get old that 
my mind will stay clear. Legs, arms 
and even eyes may fail but I want 
my memories. Nursing is such a 
beautiful way to live." Perhaps that 
is why so many of its veterans can 
"look on life with quiet eyes." They 
are rich in the only things that endure. 
[The Editors believe that, although 
this article is directed to student 
nurses, many new "graduates" may 
find in it an inspiring message.] 



On our roster is an intriguing op- 
portunity for a qualified operating 
room Supervisor. 

The hospital is new ; the com- 
munity urban in character and offer- 
ing many social and cultural advan- 
tages. 

Most of the population is under 
40 . . . among them a great many 
young scientists engaged in impor- 
tant research. 

Wire or write for complete infor- 
mation. All negotiations strictly con- 
fidential. 

Wc have many other unusual and 

attractive opportunities in nursing, 

here and abroad. Write us! 

BURNEICE LARSON, Director 

^T HE MEDICAL BUREAU 

Palmolive Bldg., at 919 N. Michigan Ave 
CHICAGO - - • ILLINOIS 





100 



may R.N. 1948 



MERE AM SPECIFICS ON .„ MIfU lCl 

WHAT'S IN A CAM OF PEACHES! 





C,,n 9s*o„ e 



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ava Cs°*^ ^ «* nutn ,. Ucao ^^oo d °: 




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OUR NEW BOOKLET, "Canned Foods in the 
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by individual foods and charts foods by rank 
as sources of six chief vitamins, three minerals, 
fat, protein, and carbohydrate. For your free 
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To apply, write directly to address given in ad. If no address ap- 
pears, send application to correct box number, care of R.N., Ruther- 
ford, New Jersey. j[R.N. does not conduct an employment service, 
but forwards your inquiries to individual employers. Send no money 
with application. Bureaus requiring a fee will send you a bill. 

ANSWER JOB ADVERTISEMENTS PROMPTLY! 



ADMINISTRATOR : East. Hospital for chil- 
dren convalescing from orthopedic conditions ; 
executive nurse experienced in care of chil- 
dren desired ; $3,600-$5,000 ; complete main- 
tenance. RN5-1, Medical Bureau (Burneice 
Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 
11, 111. 

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR: East. For school 
of nursing in 400-bed approved hospital in 
lake resort area ; duties include reviewing 
nursing curriculum, planning clinical in- 
struction, faculty guidance ; some opportunity 
to teach ; $3,600. Woodward (formerly 
Aznoes) Medical Personnel Bureau, 185 N. 
Wabash Ave., Chicago 1, 111. 

ANESTHETIST: Montana. Modern, well- 
equipped surgery in 235-bed hospital. Pleas- 
ant working conditions ; no delivery room 
calls ; salary open. Apply : Director of Nurses, 
Columbus Hospital, Great Falls. Mont. 

ANESTHETIST: Washington. Resident or 
independent. Five-day week ; few emergencies. 
Opportunity for additional work in vicinity. 
Apply : Yakima County Hospital, Yakima, 
Wash. 

CAMP NURSE: New York. For children's 
camp 40 miles from New York City ; July 
and August ; beautiful and congenial sur- 
roundings. Personal interview essential. Write 
Louis Saperstein, 1679 53rd St.. Brooklyn 4, 
N. Y. 

CAMP NURSES: New York. Two, for girls' 
summer camp equipped with infirmary ; M.D. 
in attendance. Apply : Camp Oquago, 207 W. 
106th St., New York 25, N.Y. 

DIRECTOR FOR DEPARTMENT OF NURS- 
ING: South. For 300-bed university hospital 
with four year degree program in nursing 
education ; master's degree and several years' 
experience required ; $5,000. Woodward (for- 
merly Aznoes) Medical Personnel Bureau, 
185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1, 111. 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICE: South 
America. General hospital operated under 
American auspices ; $6,000. RN5-4, Medical 
Bureau (Burneice Larson, Director), Palm- 
olive Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR: Central me- 
tropolis. To join faculty of 350-bed hospital ; 
master's degree desirable ; minimum $300 ; 
maintenance. RN5-6, Medical Bureau (Bur- 



neice Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., 
Chicago 11, 111. 

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR: Hawaii. For 
children's hospital ; degree and postgraduate 
course in pediatrics and teaching experience 
required ; $300. Business and Medical Reg- 
istry, 553 S. Western Ave., Los Angeles 5, 
Calif. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: Alaska. Two; 
small hospital, one of the larger towns ; $200, 
maintenance. RN4-14, Medical Bureau (Bur- 
neice Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., 
Chicago 11, 111. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: Central Cali- 
fornia. County hospital ; $250 ; 40-hour week. 
Business and Medical Registry, 553 S. Western 
Ave.. Los Angeles 5, Calif. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: North Dakota. 
Modern, fully-accredited 70-bed hospital in 
college town of 10,000 population ; 48-hour 
week. Excellent salary with board and laun- 
dering of uniforms. Building program in 
progress. Also need graduate Technician and 
Director of Nursing. Apply : Box J6-47. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: North Dakota. 
Salary $155-$190. Also surgical nurses $160- 
$175. Full maintenance, estimated to be 
worth $56 minimum per month, and laundry 
of uniforms. Town of over 6,000 population. 
Apply : Supt., Deaconess Hospital, Grafton, 
N.D. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: Texas. General 
hospital of 150 beds ; $195-$210, plus uniform 
laundry ; no maintenance. Apply : Director of 
Nursing, Shannon West Texas Memorial Hos- 
pital, San Angelo, Tex. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: New Jersey. 
Needed in all departments including operat- 
ing rooms ; attractive salary with full main- 
tenance ; 8-hour duty, rotating shifts. 45- 
hour week, vacation and sick leave. Apply : 
Directress of Nurses, Princeton Hospital, 
Princeton, N.J. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: New Jersey. 
Approved 500-bed general hospital ten miles 
from New York City ; $225 to start for a 
44-hour week. Also Suture Nurses, $235 to 
start. Night work $10 extra. Semi-annual 
increases. Hospital withholds $75 for full 
maintenance (room, board and laundry). Al- 
lowance for living out, $25 per month. Holi- 
days, vacation, sick leave, promotional oppor- 



may R.N. 1948 



03 




Ann Woodward 
Director 



The 

"New Look 11 

In Jobs — 



-IS HERE! More acceptable working condi- 
tions, salaries, environment, future. There is 
(7 job designed for you, along lines you will 
approve, to help you utilize the best of your 
training and experience, and develop your 
cherished plans. And ours is the "shop" that 
can help you, with fifty-two years' experience 
and a staff alert to the needs of Today's 
Nurse . . . You'll always find a cordial re- 
ception at the 

WOOD WARD 

MEDICAL PERSONNEL BUREAU 

(Formerly Aznoe's) 

Ninth Floor, 185 N. Wabash Ave. 

Chicago 1, Illinois 



CONVALESCENT 

DIET NEWS, FREE 

Send for this free library of special 
diet booklets, including variety of 
delicious menus and recipes combin- 
ing Knox unflavored Gelatine with 
dietary foods. Address 
Knox Gelatine, Dept. V3, 
Johnstown, N. Y. 



KNOX 




GELATINE 



ALL PROTEIN-NO SUGAR 



104 



tunities. Apply: Director of Nursing, Newark 
Beth Israel Hospital, Newark 8. N.J. 

GENERAL DUTY NURSES: Alaska and 
Hawaii. Small hospitals ; Alaskan Catholic 
hospital on coast, $250 ; Hawaii, $190, main- 
tenance. Business and Medical Registry, 553 
S. Western Ave., Los Angeles 5, Calif. 

HEAD NURSE: California. For communi- 
cable disease service ; large general hospital ; 
$239. Shay Medical Agency, 55 E. Washing- 
ton St., Chicago 2, 111. 

INDUSTRIAL NURSING CONSULTANT: 

Chicago headquarters. Duties consist of in- 
specting plants, dealing with management ; 
public health training desirable ; industrial 
experience required ; considerable traveling. 
RN5-7, Medical Bureau (Burneice Larson, 
Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

INSTRUCTOR, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 
FOR GRADUATE NURSES AND ATTEND- 
ANTS : Midwest. Large charity hospital hav- 
ing medical school affiliations ; $3,855-$5,395. 
RN5-8. Medical Bureau (Burneice Larson, 
Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

INSTRUCTOR, NURSING ARTS: California. 
For 600-bed county general hospital south- 
east of San Francisco ; approved training 
school ; $258 ; 40-hour week. Business and 
Medical Registry, 553 S. Western Ave., Los 
Angeles 5, Calif. 

LABORATORY AND X-RAY TECHNICIAN: 

Midwest. General hospital of 30 beds in small 
town on Lake Superior ; latest and very 
complete equipment ; salary to $250. Shay 
Medical Agency, 55 E. Washington St., Chi- 
cago 2, 111. 

MALE NURSE: West Indies. Several grad- 
uate nurses to join medical staff of indus- 
trial company having operation in West 
Indies ; excellent salaries including main- 
tenance, transportation. RN5-10, Medical Bu- 
reau (Burneice Larson, Director), Palmolive 
Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

NURSE-SECRETARY: California. Graduate 
nurse qualified as secretary to take complete 
charge of business end of practice of sur- 
geon ; diplomate of American Board ; winter 
resort town in Southern California RN5-11, 
Medical Bureau (Burneice Larson, Director), 
Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

PHARMACIST: South. General, non-profit 
community hospital of 350 beds ; prefer wom- 
an with hospital experience ; $300 ; complete 
maintenance. Shay Medical Agency, 55 E. 
Washington St., Chicago 2, 111. 

PHYSIOTHERAPIST: East. Registered, with 
nursing background, to take charge active 
department in 400-bed hospital in university 
town ; experienced ; $3,600. Woodward (for- 
merly Aznoes) Medical Personnel Bureau, 
185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1. 111. 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE: Midwest. Will 
supervise four field nurses ; $260-$300 ; trans- 
portation furnished. Shay Medical Agency, 
55 E. Washington St., Chicago 2. 111. 

PUBLIC HEALTH SUPERVISOR: New 

York. Supervise three nurse organizations 
located in Harrison, N.Y. Excellent com- 



may R.N. 1948 



PROTEINS...Pre- and Postoperative 



"Surgical patients in many instances tend to 
come to operations in a depleted state. There are 
many reasons for this: chronic gastro-intestinal 
disease . . . long-standing infectious processes 
... or loss of blood. The preparation of the pa- 
tient for surgery includes nutritional prepared- 
ness. In the first instance, this means a good 
supply of proteins and carbohydrates. { 

"The operation itself and the reaction of the 
body to it in the immediate convalescent period 
are likely to increase breakdown of body pro- 
tein. There seems little doubt that the recent 
stress upon maintenance and supplementation 
of dietary protein has had a beneficial effect upon 
the period of convalescence and the incidence of 
complications."* 

SWIFT'S STRAINED MEATS 

Palatable protein supplementation 
for patients on soft, smooth diets 

When surgery or disease creates a problem in 
protein supplementation, many physicians now 
use Swift's Strained Meats. These all-meat prod- 
ucts provide an abundant and palatable source of 
complete, high-quality proteins, B vitamins and 
minerals. Originally developed for infant feed- 
ing, the meats are strained fine — may easily be 
used in tube-feeding or for oral feeding in soft 
diets. Swift's Strained Meats are convenient to 
use — ready to heat and serve. Six kinds provide 
variety and tempting flavors that help combat 
anorexia: beef, lamb, pork, veal, liver and heart. 
3V2 ounces per tin. 

*"The Importance of Protein Foods in Health and Disease" — 
new, physicians' handbook on protein- feeding,. Prepared by a 
physician, in conjunction with the Nutrition Division of Swift & 
Company, this booklet will be sent you free on request. Simply 
fill out the coupon. 




Also Swift's Diced Meats— 
for high-protein diets requir- 
ing foods in a form less fine 
than strained, these tender, 
juicy pieces of meat are highly 
desirable. 



SwiftsMeats 

.FOR BABIES 



SwiftsMeats 

FOR JUNIORS 



CESS* 



All nutritional statements made in this advertise- 
ment are accepted by the American Medical Asso- 
ciation's Council on Foods and Nutrition. 



SWIFT & COMPANY • CHICAGO 9, ILLINOIS 





Swift & Company 
Dept. SMB 
Chicago 9, Illinois 

Please send me my free copy of 
"The Importance of Protein Foods 
in Health and Disease." 

Doctor 



Address . 



City. 



State. 



We have many im- 
mediate openings in 
general and specialized 
fields of nursing. 

Ample private duty 
placements available. 

i 1 i * i 

A- 1 Nurses Registry 
715 Leavenworth Street 
San Francisco 9, Calif. 

(Agency) 




mutation to New York City. To qualify, must 
have had a public health nursing course and 
supervisory training. Apply : Mrs. Thomas 
H. O'Gorman, Chairman, 355 Locust Ave., 
Rye, N.Y. 

RECORD LIBRARIANS: California. Two: 
one for 100-bed Catholic hospital, city of 
85,000, 125 miles northeast of Los Angeles ; 
$225 ; 40-hour week ; another for 75-bed pri- 
vate general hospital ; small seacoast town 
north of Los Angeles ; $225 ; 40-hour week. 
Business and Medical Registry, 553 S. 
Western Ave., Los Angeles 5, Calif. 

REGISTERED NURSE: Michigan. For health 
resort in attractive lake shore location in 
southern Michigan ; no mental or com- 
municable disease patients ; $2,400 ; complete 
maintenance. Woodward (formerly Aznoes) 
Medical Personnel Bureau, 185 N. Wabash 
Ave., Chicago 1, 111. 

RESIDENT NURSE: East. To assume charge 
of school infirmary in small private school in 
attractive residential community on East 
Coast; $1,800-82,600, including quarters, 
meals and laundry ; Christmas, spring and 
summer vacations with pay. Woodward (for- 
merly Aznoes) Medical Personnel Bureau, 
185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1, 111. 

STAFF NURSES: Midwest. For openings in 
various departments of large general hospi- 
tal, municipally operated ; $3,150 ; oppor- 
tunity of being assigned head nurse or su- 
pervisor. RN5-12, Medical Bureau (Burneice 
Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 
11, 111. 

STAFF NURSES: Nebraska. General hos- 
pital of 28 beds ; alternate shifts ; 7-3 $175 ; 3- 
11 and 11-7 $185 ; 8-hour day, 6-day week. 
Full maintenance; 10 per cent bonus at end 
of year's work ; two weeks' vacation. Apply : 
Chadron Municipal Hospital, Chadron, Neb. 

STAFF NURSES: Michigan. Five-day, 40- 
hour week ; positions in post-operative, 
surgical and medical departments, surgical 
and medical tuberculosis units, operating 
rooms. Day begins at 7 :30 or 8 a.m. All uni- 
versity holidays with pay ; sick leave ; vaca- 
tion ; $200-$210 ; additional $10 for evening 
and night duty. Promotions to assistant and 
head nurse positions made from staff mem- 
bers. Room charge of $15 per month if live in. 
Apply : Director of Nursing, University Hos- 
pital, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

STAFF NURSES: Oklahoma. General hos- 
pital connected with training school ; rotat- 
ing shifts or permanent 3-11 or 11-7 duty ; 
$175, meals and laundry. Apply: Director, 
School of Nursing, Western Oklahoma State 
Hospital, Clinton, Okla. 

STAFF NURSES: Kentucky. Approved 100- 
bed hospital ; hospitalization insurance ; 
straight 8-hour duty ; holidays, vacation, sick 
leave. Full maintenance, $l,680-$2,400, semi- 
annual increases. Apply : Director of Nursing, 
T. J. Samson Community Hospital, Glasgow, 
Ky. 

STUDENT HEALTH NURSE: South. Co- 
educational college, 1,800 students; well- 
equipped infirmary of 60 beds ; private apart- 
ment available ; $3,600. RN5-15. Medical Bu- 






106 



may R.N. 1948 



An IMPROVED TECHNIQUE for controlling 
HOT-WEATHER MILIARIA 




Lotion leaves a discontinuous film. 

Johnson's Baby Lotion is a finely 
homogenized emulsion of mineral oil 
and lanolin in water, with a mild anti- 
septic (hydroxy quinoline) added. As 
the water phase evaporates, a dis- 
continuous film (see photomicro- 
graph) is left on the infant's skin. 
This permits normal heat radiation, 



Incidence of miliaria among 
infants born in summer 
months (May through Septem- 
ber) often runs as high as 50%, 
hospital records show. 

But when new Johnson's 
Baby Lotion is used for routine 
skin care, cases of miliaria drop 
to a remarkable low ! 

For two years, Johnson's 
Baby Lotion was tested on 
many hundreds of newborns. 
Its performance in preventing 
miliaria (which may lead to 
more serious secondary infec- 
tions) was outstanding — even 
in hot summer months. 




Johnson's 
Baby Lotion 
leaves a discon 
tinuous film. (1000 x) 

and allows perspiration to escape 
readily — thus lessening the danger 
of irritation. 




Johnsons 
Baby Lotion 



FREE! Mail coupon for sample bottle! 

Johnson & Johnson. Baby Products Div. 
Dept. H-3. New Brunswick. N. J. 

Please send me, free of charge, one 
sample bottle of Johnson's Baby Lotion. 



Name- 
Street- 



States 



City 

limited to nursing profession in U. S. A. 



Yes! 

EX- LAX 

Because: 



1 . Ex-Lax is a dependable laxative 
that has earned the confidence 
of the many physicians who use 
it in their practice . . . 

2. Ex-Lax is thorough' yet gentle 
in its action . . . 

3. Ex-Lax is a pleasant-to-take lax- 
ative. Its chocolated base makes 
it exceptionally palatable . . . 

4. Ex-Lax is suitable for adults 
and children, in appropriate 
doses . . . 

5. Ex-Lax exerts its action grad- 
ually; it does not give rise to 
embarrassing urgency . . . 

6. Ex-Lax is truly economical to 
use. Only 10 or 25 cents a box. 

Every measure that determines the 
merits of a therapeutic product 
suggests 

EX-LAX 

THE CHOCOLATED LAXATIVE 

Ex-Lax, Inc. — Brooklyn 17 — New York 

108 



reau (Burneice Larson, Director), Palmolive 
Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSES: Cali- 
fornia. For 100-bed general hospital in pleas- 
ant small town 60 miles from Los Angeles ; 
no training school ; $325 ; meals. Business 
and Medical Registry, 553 S. Western Ave., 
Los Angeles 5, Calif. 

SUPERVISOR OF NURSES: Midwest. 
Health department of public school system ; 
bachelor's degree required ; $4,000 ; 9-month 
year. RN5-17, Medical Bureau (Burneice 
Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 
11, 111. 

SUPERVISOR, OPERATING ROOM: East. 
Busy department ; operations average 300-350 
monthly ; staff of seven assistants ; town of 
40,000 located short distance from university 
medical center; $3,100. RN5-21. Medical Bu- 
reau (Burneice Larson, Director), Palmolive 
Bldg., Chicago 11, 111. 

SUPERVISOR, OPERATING ROOM: Ohio. 
Thirty-bed hospital, one operating room nurse, 
good salary, deductions for maintenance. Ap- 
ply : Director of Nurses, Parkview Hospital, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

SUPERVISOR, ORTHOPEDIC: East. Ap- 
proved hospital of 200 beds specializing in 
surgical and convalescent care of orthopedic 
children ; $2,400-$3,000 ; three weeks vaca- 
tion ; maintenance available. Woodward (for- 
merly Aznoes) Medical Personnel Bureau, 
185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1. 111. 

SUPERVISOR, PEDIATRIC: East. With 
good preparation to take charge of 40-bed 
pediatric division and classroom and ward 
teaching programs in that unit ; salary open. 
Shay Medical Agency. 55 E. Washington St., 
Chicago 2, 111. 

SURGICAL NURSE: Chicago area. To serve 
as personal assistant to surgeon, FACS, in 
office in hospital ; surgical training required , 
S250. RN4-25, Medical Bureau (Burneice 
Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 
11, 111. 

SURGICAL NURSE: Midwest. Opportunity 
for early promotion to operating room su- 
pervisor; 300-bed hospital; minimum $200, 
maintenance ; considerable thoracic surgery. 
RN4-26, Medical Bureau (Burneice Larson, 
Director), Palmolive Bldg., Chicago 11, 111 

SURGICAL NURSE: West. Small general 
hospital ; ultra modern, splendidly equipped ; 
operated by large industrial company ; $278 ; 
maintenance. RN5-25, Medical Bureau (Bur- 
neice Larson, Director), Palmolive Bldg., 
Chicago 11, 111. 

SURGICAL NURSES: California. Two: 
small well-equipped 250-bed private general 
hospital near ocean ; north of Los Angeles ; 
pleasant working conditions ; $300. Business 
and Medical Registry, 553 S. Western Ave., 
Los Angeles 5, Calif. 

X-RAY TECHNICIAN: Southwest. Clinic; 
beginning salary $225 with increase to $275 
or higher. Shay Medical Agency, 55 E. Wash- 
ington St., Chicago 2, 111. 



may R.N. 1948 



When these J 

PARASITES STRIKE 

Ki m U OINTMENT 

IS SPECIFICALLY INDICATED 



& 



Scabies and pediculosis are rapidly brought 
under control by Kwell Ointment. One applica- 
tion usually suffices in the majority of patients, 
regardless of the extent of the invasion. No 
single instance of dermatitis or skin irritation 
due to the active ingredient has been reported. 
Kwell Ointment contains the gamma isomer of 
1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (1%) in a 
vanishing cream base. May be safely used on 
tender skin areas and on infants' skin. 



££.£ "P/fiMffUlCm&M/s) 



A DIVISION OF COMMItll 



urai OINTMENT 



**•«* ;*>!? * hnM °* -**«' 



WHERE TO FIND 
OUR ADVERTISERS 



A-l Nurses Reeristry 

Alkalol Co., The 

American Can Co _ 

American Girl Shoe Co. . 
American Hospital Supply Corp. 
Avon Shoe Co __. 



106 

66 

7 

69 

6 

8 



Baby Bathinette Corp. _ 98 

Barco Garment Co ~ 2 

Bayer Aspirin 77 

Becton, Dickinson & Co. 83 

Beech-Nut Packing Co. ...... IBC 

Belmont Laboratories Co. 111 

Bencone Uniforms Inc ._ 80 

Bristol-Myers Co. 15, 24, 91 

Bruck Shops Inc. 112 

Budget Uniform Center 17 

Business & Medical Registry 68 



Camels _ 

Can Manufacturers' Institute Inc. 

Carlson Mfg. Co. — 

Chicago Medical Book Co. 

Clinic Shoe for Young 

Women in White 

Commercial Solvents Corp. 

Cuticura — 

Cutter Laboratories ~ 



3 

101 

78 

96 



18, 19 



Davol Rubber Co. 

Debruille Chemical Corp. 
Dix & Sons Corp., Henry A. 



Energine Shoe White 106 

Enna-Jettick Shoes 23 

Excelle Uniform Co. 76 

Ex-Lax Inc. 108 



Florida Citrus Commission 
Foley Mfg. Co. ' 



General Drug Co 

General Mills Inc. 
Gerber Products Co. 
Gotham Hosiery Co. 
Griffin Mfg. Co. 



Happiness Tours 

Hyman Co., The Edward 



Johnson & Johnson 



76 
62, 63 



107 



Knox Gelatine Co. Inc., Charles B. 104 

Kress & Owen Co. 82 



Lavoris Co., The 

Leeming & Co. Inc., Thomas 

Linde Air Products Co. 

Lobica Inc 

McKesson & Robbins Inc 

Medical Bureau, The 

Meds Tampon 

Merck & Co. Inc 

Mu-Col Co., The ... 

Murine Co. Inc., The 



National Dairy Products Corp. 

Nesian Co. Inc. 

Northwest Institute of Med. Tech. 
Nursecraft Inc. 



87 
IFC 



69, 99 
..... 100 
81 

94 
84 

57 



Polident 

Preen Uniforms Inc. 
Pyramid Rubber Co. 

Q-Tips Inc. 



Reynolds Tobacco Co., R. J. 3 

R.N. Specialty Co. __ 10 

Resinol Chemical Co. 90 



Scholl Mfg. Co. Inc., The 

Seamless Rubber Co. 

Sharp & Dohme Inc. 

Shay Medical Agency 

Shepherd Knitwear Co. Inc. 

Spencer Inc. 

Spirella Co. Inc. 

Sugar Research Foundation Inc. 

Swift & Co. 



Union Carbide & Carbon Corp. 
United Hair Net 

United States Shoe Corp. 



70 
56 
93 
80 
22 
61 
97 
25 
105 

86 
68 
BC 



Whitehall Pharmacal Co. 



4, 67 



White Rock Uniform Co _ _ 102 

Woodward Medical Personnel Bureau __. 104 



IF YOU HAVE CHANGED YOUR ADDRESS RECENTLY 

Please fill out the following form: 
Name 

Former address: 

St reet 

City 

Zone State 



R.N. 

(please print) 



New address: 

Street 

City 

Zone State .. 

(Please use this coupon for address change only) 



no 



may R.N. 1948 



made for cooperation" 






As Marcus Aurelius would have said, 
"like feet, like hands, like eyelids" . . . 
MAZON Ointment and MAZON Soap 
are designed to work together in the 
relief of obstinate skin conditions. 

Pure, mild MAZON Soap prepares the 
skin for antipruritic, antiparasitic, anti- 
septic MAZON Ointment, and their 
complementary action assures optimum 
therapeutic results. 

For more than 20 years physicians have 
prescribed this effective combination in 
cases of acute and chronic eczema, 
psoriasis, alopecia, ringworm, athlete's 
foot, and other skin conditions not 
caused by or associated with systemic or 
metabolic disturbances. 



MA"? ON 



Available at your local pharmacy. 

BELMONT LABORATORIES 

Philadelphia Pa. 



MAJON 

<&>*/>,/&/- tender d%ip 

ttiMOXt lABORATORSES CO. 




jodeui i& 



Always first with the finest, BRUCK'S 
proudly presents The Twosome, a 
thrilling new poplin uniform . . . de- 
signed to put pep in your step and 
dollars in your pocket. 



There's double style, double 
wear and double value in 
every graceful inch. From the 
two-type neckline to the flat- 
tering flare skirt, BRUCK'S 
Twosome is practically two- 
uniforms-in-one. 



One day, you're pert and pretty 
the square neckline; next day, attach 
the separate Peter Pan collar and 
Presto! — you seem to be wearing a 
fresh uniform! 



'HwiAtf Sc 4m<i%t and <Ctut C <Ut*4f. 
Today it's TWO for ONE . . . and the one is YOU! 



ORDER DIRECTLY 



Give Size, Height, Bust, ^ 

Waist, Hips 





£o 



yy 



h 



\S& 



Style 



7800 



rr 



Basic $750 Separate Collar: 45c extra 
Uniform # (Order with or without collar) 



ASK FOR CATALOGUE 



. . it's FREE 



VISIT OUR SHOPS 



Detroit — Pittsburgh 
Chicago — New York 




Dept. RN5 
387 Fourth Avenue, New York 16 



This is the type of advertising 

Beech-Nut is running in newspapers 

and magazines to reach mothers 




Babies know, too, that 
Beech-Nut meal time 
is happy time. 



{jwo people 

whose judgment F 
you can depend on / 

Your baby knows when he wants to • 
eat, and how much. 

Your baby's doctor knows what the 
baby should eat and every mother 
should seek the advice of a food 
specialist in infant feeding. 

There is but one more important mat- 
ter for mothers to remember: Beech- 
Nut has always cooperated with 
doctors in the selection and processing 
of baby foods. They are scientifically 
prepared — the natural food values 
and flavor are retained in high degree. 
You never go wrong with Beech-Nut. 



-Nut 




NURSES NAME 5 THINGS THEY 

WANT MOST in a duty shoe 



Recent survey reveals features considered most important 

""-•■ 



n. Comfort that shortens corridor 

miles. (Gold (Red) Cross Shoes 
are famous for comfort and fit. 
Made over exclusive "Limit" 



n 



\-3 



3 



v» 



lasts.) 

Long Wear. (Gold (Red) Cross 
quality and fit both mean extra 
mileage. Uppers hold shape 
longer.) 

Safe, Quiet Soles and Heels. 

(Made of non-skid, non-friction 
composition material.) 

Easy Cleaning. (Gold (Red) 
Cross makes all uppers of soft, 
easy-to-clean white!) 



//'■^~\^ A Professional Look in all styles 

x."" 1 ^ and heel heights. (Professional 
^^ nurses helped design Gold (Red) 

Cross duty shoes.) 



Shoes Illustrated, $8.95 







The TROOPER 



The EXERCISER. 



I 

The B. W. 



D CROSS SHOES 



The choice of more nurses for more years than any other duty shoes 

SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER 

THE UNITED STATES SHOE CORPORATION, CINCINNATI 7, OHIO