(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The white conquest of Arizona : history of the pioneers"

811 






I lie White Conquest 



OF 



ARIZONA 



OF 



HISTORY 
THE PIONEERS 



OR1CK 



By 

JACKSON 



PUBLISHED BY 

IB* West Coast Magazine 

PRICE FIFTY CENTS 



Ike GRAF TON CO. (Inc. 
LOS ANCCLES, CAL, 



Sr. 









tite 



i 

I 
e 



/ / 



u. c. 

ACADEMY OF 

PACIFIC COAST 
HISTORY 



~> 




BANCROFT LIBRARY 



THE WHITE CONQUEST 

OF 

ARIZONA 



HISTORY 
OF THE PIONEERS 



By 
ORICK JACKSON 



Published by 
THE WEST COAST MAGAZINE 



The GRAFTON CO. (Inc.) 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



Copyrighted 1908. by 

WEST COAST MAGAZINE 

All rights reserved 



-71 



Contents 

Advent of the First White Man 
Walker's Famous Expedition 

Other Expeditions 
Beginning of Indian Hostilities 

Ghastly Pinole Treaty 

Woolsey's Second Expedition 

A One Man Army 

Memorable Indian Fights 

Skull Valley, What a Boy's Playhouse Did, 
Sam Miller's Nerve, The Wickenburg Massacre 

Crook and His Work 
Names that are Familiar 

A Patriotic Pilgrim 

Three Women on the Frontier 

Desperate Days and Desperate Men 

Legend of the Hassayampa 

Gigantic Wildcatting 
Arizona's First Christmas Tree 

Lehigh's Folly 

Massacre of the Oatman Family 
Lee's Revenge 



Illustrations 

Famous Hassayampa River 

Judge N. L. Griffin 

Judge W. H. Kirkland 

Gov. Goodwin's Mansion 

Hon. Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Miller 

Gen. George Crook 

Joseph Ehle 
Col. Alex. A. Brodie, U.S.A. 

J. H. Lee 

Wales Arnold 

J. N. Rodenburg 

Danuel Hatz 




Famous Hassayampa River 



CIGHT miles south of Prescott, said to have been first explored 
by Annanias. The legend is that anyone who drinks the water of 
this River will never again tell the truth, save a dollar or leave the 
Territory of Ariz ma. 



The White Conquest 
of Arizona 



By 

OR1CK JACKSON 



OF ALL the subdivisions of the American Union, 
Arizona is the most neglected of any on the 
pages of history. From that memorable day in 
1863, when by proclamation it was cut out from 
New Mexico, up to the present era, not a leaflet re- 
cords its vivid past, so far as official consideration 
goes, nor is there any probability of preserving itb 
earlier life unless a radical reform is inaugurated. The 
most fascinating and the most thrilling history of the 
Territory is crystalized around the dark days of the 
earlier '6o's. But of that time what is there to au- 
thoritatively point to, or what official data is there to 
guide one in his research? Absolutely nothing. Aside 
from a greasy piece of ordinary newspaper about eight 
inches square, which heralds the birth of Arizona, and 
on file somewhere at the capital, and a few mouldy 
books containing the proceedings of the first Legisla- 
ture at Prescott in 1864, dry and nauseous reading 
only is available. On the other hand, the scenes that 
go with thrilling events, that cover the entry of the 
first white men to an unknown land, that tell the old 
story over of good old days on a very bad frontier, and 
kindred doings, all these are lacking. From the dis- 
position of the body politic in Arizona, the average 
legislator is as desirous of burying the past as he is 
of crucifying his own ambitions after once he has 
been elected to that office, and accordingly, any effort 
to officially and justly weave the story of the past into 
something definite and legitimate is obnoxious, in view 



TO THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

of the debt he owes his constituency who frequently 
have a financial string of their own to pull at, and from 
which their personal beacon light generally gets the 
biggest end of the bolt. Time and again have meri- 
torious measures been broached to preserve the his- 
torical beauties of the past, but just as often have they 
been shelved. With but one exception have the appeals 
of the pioneers been answered. That single exception 
is known as the Pioneer Society at Tucson. It gets, 
biennially, the semblance of regard in a burro appro- 
priation of money to "sustain" its aims and objects. 
Measured in service to the cause, the janitor gets the 
first whack at it, and the landlord who owns the room 
in which the "display," as they call it, is open to all, 
starts in to squeal about the middle of the month for 
the pittance that is left, and nearly collapses when pay 
day is before him in reality. Individualism in Arizona 
is equally lockstepped to the biethren who are in the 
official saddle in respect to the pioneer. One by one, 
as they pass over the Divide, there attends the usual 
obsequies, and after they are laid away, that is the end 
of them. Possibly a few may linger long enough in 
memory to recall how they ran the gauntlet in the Dra- 
goons, how single handed they "fit" Natchez and Nana 
to a standstill on the Santa Cruz, how "Bill" Jones 
stampeded a rancheria on the Hassayampa, and other 
hair-breadth adventures, but when once they are in 
the cold earth, the past goes with them. 

Get on your hands and knees and creep down the 
long line of mounds that cover Paulin Weaver, John 
Townsend, King S. Woolsey, Al. Sieber, Charley Spen- 
cer, Dan O'Leary, Pat Kehoe, Willard Rice, Billy Mc- 
cloud, Gus Swain, Captain Joe Walker and score and 
scores of other brave men in the same cause. What 
faces you in recognition of the valiant life they fol- 
lowed to blaze the mountain side with trails to lead 
and guide those who were to follow ? So far as North- 
ern Arizona figures in this utter disregard of the pio- 
neer, even in death, it is a disgraceful fact to make 
public that its saviors in the days of the Apache drama 
are, in each and every instance, sleeping in graves 'that 
are unmarked without even a headboard to designate 
who they are or where they are. 

Prescott and Yavapai county are the cradle of Ari- 
zona. It was here that the ball started to roll, and it 




Judge N. L. Griffin 

The pioneer living resident of Prescott where he arrived in 1864 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA n 

was to them that the first white man's expedition was 
attracted. Of the members of that expedition, only a 
very few remain. In a decade they will follow the 
wing that has gone. Appreciating how invaluable the 
events of the earlier days will set on the equilibrium of 
the present, an effort will be made in these chronicles 
to recall some of the noteworthy happenings of the 
earlier days, the period, in short, attending the combat 
when the Apache contested every inch of the land in- 
vaded, when whites fought whites, when the earth was 
seething in all the fury of a cataclysm, to again break 
through the crust of the volcano that buried everybody 
and everything in one way and another. The domain 
to be included in this brief resume is confined to that 
region lying north of the Gila, an area in its day that 
was known as Yavapai county, and embraced over 
50,000 square miles of land. To secure this data, 
friendly intercourse has been had with a few of the 
generous old-time pioneers left, and to whom the writer 
is grateful for kindness shown and information fur- 
nished. 

ADVENT OF THE FIRST WHITE MAN. 

No matter what biographers may say, or what vis- 
ionary writers may speculate on as to who was first 
to enter and become identified with Arizona, the fact 
is incontrovertibly established that Paulin Weaver has 
the honor and the distinction of being the first white 
man to live in Arizona. As long ago as 1830 he ex- 
plored alone the region lying along the Verde river, 
forty miles north of the present city of Prescott, and 
so informed many nf his associates in this section in 
later years when he was permanently located. He 
came to Arizona to lay out ground for the Hudson 
Bay Company and for the purpose of following the 
trade of trapper for that company. In 1843, or there- 
abouts, he again returned to the Verde, being accom- 
panied by Captain Joe Walker and the famous Kit Car- 
son. They followed the vocation of trappers, and 
when the streams were devastated of game, Carson 
and Walker left with the booty. Weaver continued 
to live here, and became a roving member of the many 
Indian tribes then in existence. He was a typical 
mountaineer, of a magnificent physique, and a genial 
disposition. Probably no man ever lived who enjoyed 



12 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

the confidence of the Indian more than did he. He 
would travel at any hour of the day or night into their 
camps, and during the hostile period in later years, 
when the whites entered, the chain of friendship was 
never disturbed or broken. He acted as the pilot on 
many expeditions to make treaties, and until the out- 
break became general and uncontrolable, was success- 
ful. He located in the 6o's at a gulch in the south- 
western part of this county, and to this day the place 
is called Weaver. He followed placer mining for 
years, and acquired considerable "dust" at one time. 
His long career in the interest of exploration, the hard- 
ships and privations incidental thereto, and the strenu- 
ous life of the day when he was in the prime of man- 
hood undermined him, and he retraced his steps to the 
scenes of other days, the beautiful valley of the Verde, 
where he passed away in the later years of the 6o's. 
Paulin Weaver was a picturesque figure in the pioneer 
era, and was beloved by all Arizonans. 

WALKER'S FAMOUS EXPEDITION. 

Not excepting the entry of the gubernatorial party 
and the organization by them of the Territory in 1863, 
is there a more noteworthy event to chronicle in the 
history of Arizona than the entry of the famous little 
band of intrepid men under Captain Joe Walker. 

In the lore of frontier doings, the trite expression of 
today is applicable this was "going some." This ex- 
pedition will go down in history as the most notable 
one that ever graced western annals, and no exception 
will be made and no ground given to place it at any 
other point than the top notch of American enterprise 
and exploration. In 1861 the formation of this party 
was accomplished, and Joe Walker was selected as its 
leader. Keyesville, California, was the point of ren- 
dezvous, and from there nineteen men started on their 
long journey. 

Twenty years or more before Captain Walker had 
visited Arizona with Carson and Weaver. His obser- 
vations were conclusive, and, returning, he moulded his 
men into a unit. His conception of the land was that 
of game there was an abundance of wood and water 
there was plenty, but above all other things, surface 
indications gave him the fondest hope that placer gold 
and quartz veins of gold and silver existed. With such 




Judge W. H. Kirkland 

""THE patriotic Arizona pioneer, now in his 75th year He has the 
honor and distinction of having raised the first American flag in 
Arizona over a Mexican fort at Tucson, Feb. 20, 1856. Only 17 
American were witnesses of the historic event, each "armed to the teeth". 
Judge Kirkland pulled the rope with one hand while he held his navy 
revolver in the other. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 13 

tidings to allure the adventurous, every man of the 
party got into the saddle, and, with the wild elation 
that seizes men to make history and to gain renown 
in a pecuniary channel, the expedition got under head- 
way. The party crossed the Colorado river at Fort 
Mohave, and from there wended its v/ay to the base 
of the San Francisco mountains. Here a halt was 
made and an inventory of the food supplies taken. It 
was found that the resources in this line were insuffi- 
cient to permit of extensive exploration in the region 
in which today Prescott and the tributary gold fields 
exist, and after a consultation the decision was arrived 
at to continue on to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Break- 
ing camp, and in a few weeks entering the Navajo In- 
dian reservation, the troubles of the party commenced. 
The Indian disputed the right of the pale face, and 
without any parleying, Walker and his party opened 
hostilities, killing several, and paving the way for the 
advance. Fighting continued as progress was made 
to the goal, and when the objective was reached not a 
man of the party was missing, although some had been 
wounded by arrows from the redskins. The members 
of the party were startled on arriving in Albuquerque 
to learn that the Civil War was in progress, and for a 
time it was believed the morale of the organization 
would be shattered by the eagerness with which sev- 
eral desired to go into the field with one or the other 
military forces. Some few enlisted for a limited time, 
and when service expired they retraced their footsteps 
to the mother body and renewed with more zeal than 
ever the object of the expedition. In speaking of the 
entry of the party into Albuquerque, a survivor of the 
party who is alive today and resides in Prescott, states 
that the Mexican population stampeded when they be- 
held the raiment of the men. They were attired in 
buckskin clothes from head to foot, the edges fringed 
and highly colored. Each member was a typical moun- 
taineer, and when the purpose of the organization was 
learned, several recruits of the same type heartily en- 
tered the enrollment. In 1862 the expedition was again 
under headway, and following the Rio Grande and 
crossing the Black Range of mountains, Tucson was 
reached. By this time over thirty intrepid men were 
on the roll call. From Tucson the party traveled 
toward the northern fields, the point oirginally mapped 



i 4 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

out. They fought the savages in the southern country, 
and hardly a day passed without an encounter. Ar- 
riving in what is now Prescott, small wings of the party 
struck out in different directions to explore. Afte'r 
several streams had been exploited, Lynx Creek, but 
ten miles distant, was selected, placer gold being in 
evidence in every place dug into. Here the patry went 
into camp as a permanent organization. They were 
successful in mining, and hundreds of thousands of 
dollars of the "free stuff" was washed out of the soil. 
It was here, too, that the dismemberment of the or- 
ganization took place. One by one, individuals left, 
and in a few years as an organization the famous 
Walker party went into shreds. 

The entry of this party into central and northern 
Arizona signalized an event in history that few appre- 
ciate or consider in this late day. It was the initial or- 
ganization of white men that came; it was the pioneer 
body that had the nerve to settle an area and mould 
it into a scene of life and activity; it faced not a hab- 
itation ; not a foot of the entire region from Tucson to 
Fort Mohave had a spade full of the ground tilled ; not 
a white man's cabin even was in evidence, much less a 
human being of the same race. It was in all of its 
natural beauty on one hand and its horror on the 
other a wilderness of the most bewildering type. But 
it was conquered, nevertheless, and in a few months 
afterward the gold seeker, the home builder, the farm- 
er, the artisan, the politician, the bad men, came in 
long and continuous caravans and the country was 
opened. 

The original roll call of this party has been pre- 
served in memory's chain, and is as follows when it 
started from California: Captain Joe Walker; his 
nephews, Joe Walker and John Walker ; John J. Miller 
and his sons, S. C. Miller and Jacob L. Miller; John 
Dickson, Arthur Clothier, Robert Forsythe, George 
Lount, George Blosser, Luther Paine, George Coulter, 
Felix Burton, Jake Linn, Martam Lewis, Frank Finney, 
Colonel Hardin and Dutch John. To which are added 
the following on leaving Albuquerque: Jackson Me- 
Crackin, William Pointer, Dan E. Connor, Bob Noble, 
Jack Swilling, Messrs. Gilliland, Benedict, Chase, the 
Young" brothers, and four more whose names have been 
lost. Of the above cavalcade that drove their stakes 




Gov. Goodwin's Mansion 



RECTED in Prescott in 1864. Coincident with the erection oi this 
building Prescott was proclaimed the capital. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 15 

permanently in central Arizona, the Indian arrow, dis- 
ease and old age have thinned the ranks until but two 
men are alive today of that memorable party. They are 
Samuel C. Miller and Dan E. Connor. The latter is 
resting at his home in the old homestead in Missouri. 
Mr. Miller is still on the ground that he "picked" out 
in 1863, and which is situated but one mile from the 
court house in Prescott. He was the youngest mem- 
ber of the party, and mentally and physically is as alert 
as men of today one-half his age. He said in 1863 
that he came to grow up with the country, and is still 
growing. So he has the honor of being the first pio- 
neer in all of central and northern Arizona, alive today, 
if he is not in fact the ranking pioneer in continuous 
residence in all of Arizona. 

OTHER EXPEDITIONS. 

.Following close on the heels of the arrival of the 
Walker party, the news of which reached eastern and 
western points of the Union from six months to a year 
later, small and large expeditions were formed and got 
into action. The incentive with some was to get into 
the new gold fields, with others to locate land for agri- 
cultural purposes, to engage in the lumber business and 
merchandise, to freight, and, in short, to pursue any 
vocation or calling that a new country demanded in 
either muscle or brains. Accordingly, the Santa Fe 
trail was swarming with the hardy from every point 
east of the Rockies, while from the Pacific a stream 
of adventurers crossed the Colorado on the west. All 
of these expeditions had but one objective point, and 
that was the then little hamlet of Prescott. 

In date of arrival, the Saunders party probably has 
the honor of being among the first families to reach 
this section. It preceded any other by a few months, 
and came in from the "inside," as was the term used 
by the pioneer in the earlier days when referring to 
California. They located in the village of Prescott 
in March of 1864, and the following people comprised 
its makeup: Julius Saunders and his wife, and their 
children Mary Frances, Pete, Tom, Irvine and Rob, 
and Jerome Calkins. Many of the offspring of Mr. 
and Mrs. Saunders are still living and have continued 
to claim this section as their home. The only daugh- 
ter, Mary Frances, is the wife of Sam C. Miller, and 



16 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

resides with her husband on the old homestead one 
mile west of Prescott. Tom, Irvine and Rob are also 
alive, the two former living in Arizona and the latter 
in California. 

The Lee party reached Prescott from the East in 
1864. The personnel was made up of Charley Beach, 
Louis Huning, Andy Steinbrook and wife, J. H. Lee 
and wife, Captain Hargrave, Lieut. Taylor, and others 
whose names are not recalled. Aside from Indian con- 
flicts the journey was uneventful. They lost none of 
the members of the party, however, but suffered many 
hardships. 

The Wells party was another notable combination 
of "early birds" to venture in. It originally was mus- 
tered at Denver, and E. W. Wells, Sr., was entrusted 
to guiding it. As it traveled through Colorado it be- 
gan to grow as a snowball does when in motion, and 
when old Fort Wingate was reached it was composed 
of over 65 members, there being several small boys 
and girls in the party. At this military post the com- 
mand was halted and forbidden to proceed by the 
commanding officers, news being received that it was 
a perilous undertaking, owing to the general uprising 
among the Indians in Arizona. Two months passed 
and, taking the bit in his mouth, Captain Wells broke 
through the cordon and arrived in Prescott in 1864, 
after several Indian skirmishes, but fortunate in not 
losing any members. Surviving this expedition are 
Judge E. W. Wells of Prescott, a son of the captain ; 
Dr. Sweatnam of Phoenix, together with several of 
the children of the senior Osborn, among the latter 
being Neri, John and William and two daughters. 

Following the Wells party came Joseph Ehle and 
wife with several of their chidlren, and others. Mr. 
Ehle desired to go into the live stock business and 
open a "long-felt want" in this section in the shape 
of a dairy. He had a string of over 200 head of fine 
milch cows on leaving Albuquerque, and when his 
party reached Prescott the total number had dwindled 
to three bulls and one sickly heifer, the Indians pick- 
ing them off one by one in the three months they were 
on the road. Mr. Ehle still survives the vicissitudes 
of the early days, as also do his daughters, Mrs. James 
M. Baker, Mrs. John Dickson, and his son, John. The 
latter has closed 66 years on this earth, and but a few 




Hon. and Mrs. Samuel Miller 

1VA R. Miller killed the Indian Chief Wauba Uba, and saved the lives of 
many men, woman and children. Mrs. Miller is the pioneer 
woman of Northern and Central Arizona. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 17 

weeks ago entered the home stretch on the matrimonial 
track. Joseph Ehle is now entering the ninety-fifth 
year of his life. 

Another arrival of pioneers with their wives and 
children consisted of the Alexanders, Varney A. Steph- 
ens, George Banghart, D. W. Shivers, Jacob Kelsey, 
Mrs. Brown and many others of the '60 era whose 
names cannot now be recalled from that dim day. 
These noble women braved with the men all the trials 
and vicissitudes of the day, and in many individual 
instances they were just as courageous and self-sac- 
rificing as their male companions, whether husband 
or brother. When history pictures the true story of 
the Apache, and when it recites the heroism of the 
fair sex, a beautiful parallel will be drawn to prove 
that American womanhood in the '6o's along the Has- 
sayampa was an exact counterpart that succored the 
pioneer in Minnesota, in the Dakotas and other fron- 
tier days when the Star of Empire was racing west- 
ward. 

BEGINNING OF INDIAN HOSTILITIES. 

Coincident with the arrival of the Walker party, or 
practically a short time thereafter, the horizon began 
to assume an ominous hue, so far as relations between 
the white and the red man are to be considered. The 
Apache demanded a tithe for the use of the grass to 
feed the animals, the water was to be paid for, the 
game belonged to the God of the Happy Hunting 
Ground, and other ingenious exactions were demanded 
from the pale face. Seven miles south of Prescott this 
formal demand was made, and no sooner was it done 
than a shot rang from the rifle in answer. Thus the 
horrible drama of Indian warfare was begun in the 
winter of '63, and it did not cease till ten years later. 
In that time what a frightful retrospect to look upon ! 
From one to the other of the then twenty tribes it 
was flashed from the mountain tops by signal fires and 
other means to exterminate the whites. The govern- 
ment at Washington was appealed to, and it sent its 
soldiers. But the handful was like feeding the flames 
of a Vesuvius. The military were good as far as they 
went, but they were here to hold and preserve the do- 
main from invasion by the South, and, and their zone 
was practically limited in consequence. But what ser- 



i8 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

vice was performed was valiant and to their credit. 
The civilian and by that I mean the pioneer took 
the matter in hand and without any authority, and 
without a dollar in pay. The regular military service 
was but an auxiliary to the citizen, but they performed 
praiseworthy duty in every instance. This was the 
critical era in northern and central Arizona, when the 
scales were trembling, as it were, in the balance. Men 
from every camp volunteered; all organizations with 
a kindred feeling worked and acted in unison. The 
Civil War struggle between the North and South was 
brushed aside, and a common cause faced all. Those 
who still survive those perilous days whisper modestly 
in the ear of their inquirer and answer with one word : 
It was "hell." Shortly after the beginning of the 
Indian warfare, late in the fall of the same year, Gen- 
eral Craig, in command of the military and civilians, 
made an expedition to the south of the Hassayampa 
and annihilated, in the Bradshaw range, two large 
bands of Indians. For this grateful work Washing- 
ton advices a few months later were received peremp- 
torily ordering him to relinquish his command and 
report forthwith at Fort Churchill, Nevada, for "duty." 
The sentimentalists of the East, the weak-kneed breth- 
ren, in other words, had got in their work and reached 
the soft side of the ear of the powers that be. But 
this had the opposite effect so far as the civilian was 
to be reckoned with. 
At this juncture the 

GHASTLY PINOI^ TREATY 

came into life and was executed without a hitch. It 
may or may not be termed a just measure, but at any 
rate the trick was played, and it performed the purpose 
it was intended for. At this particular time King S. 
Woolsey, a civilian, had been combing the mountains 
and canyons of the country with a handful of men, 
and bringing out the Indian. He was tireless in his 
operations, and wherever he ventured there was some- 
thing to place in deposit in his bank, as he termed it. 
He scoured every nook and corner with the men under 
him, and hundreds of Indians fell. This was what was 
known as "Woolsey's First Expedition/ 'or, to be more 
exact, the Pinole Treaty on the side. Securing a large 
quantity of corn, wheat and barley, the orthodox dish 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 19 

known to the Mexican as ''pinole," a favorite viand 
with the Indian as well, was prepared, and under a flag 
of truce he asked for a consultation with the chiefs of 
two tribes. This was granted and the preliminaries 
were arranged. Both parties congregated at a given 
point, and the big pow-wow was started. A prelimi- 
nary was the distribution around the camp-fire of the 
pinole, and in addition the traditional pipe of peace 
was being indulged in. In a few minutes after the 
assemblage got in working order, and while the food 
was being devoured, Indians began to groan piteously 
and fall into the circle in front. At this juncture 
Woolsey gave the signal to begin operations, at the 
same time whipping out his six-shooter and shooting 
the two chiefs dead in their tracks. What the bullet 
did not hit, the pinole did. The latter was said to be 
"spiced" up with strychnine. The casualties were 
frightful on the Indian side, and the two bands were 
practically annihilated. Some authorities state that 
over 150 Indians were "murdered," while others say 
that 105 were killed, the other 45, the difference in the 
grand total, succumbing from acute cholera morbus. 
At any rate, the celebrated Pinole Treaty opened still 
wider the flood gates of the bloody days that followed 
for nearly a decade, and of which I shall write in fu- 
ture chapters of this history. 

PART II. 
WOOLSEY'S SECOND EXPEDITION. 

IN the next year Woolsey again came into promi- 
nence in his Indian work. He cut loose from the 
military that was now coming in, and, in turn, 
the military would have nothing to do with him. He 
organized another expedition and had 101 men with 
him. His headquarters were at the Woolsey ranch. 
The railroad today runs within fifty feet of it on the 
Prescott and Bradshaw Mountain line. It is less 
than 20 miles distant from Prescott. Woolsey worked 
stealthily and entrusted his plans to none but his 
closest friends and supporters. Being asked one day 
where his pay came from, and why he was so deter- 
mined in his Indian warfare, he simply opened his 
vest on the left side and placing his hand over his 
heart said that was the motive power behind his body. 



20 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

His second venture proved more bloody than the 
first. It occupied the field for over a month and was 
unmerciful and vicious in its work. No prisoners 
were taken, and after the big "clean-up," as it was 
termed, had taken place, Woolsey moved away and 
settled in what is now the Salt River Valley. He 
was a magnificent type of manhood. Standing over 
six feet in his bare feet, with eyes and hair as black 
as jet, with a frame perfect in its symmetrical propor- 
tions, he commanded attention at all times. He was 
always reticent, was as true as steel to all, and was 
never known to prove false to any one. He was in 
the late 7o's chosen to preside over the Senate of Ari- 
zona, and his fair dealings with the members again 
stamped upon his official duties the same justice that 
followed him in his fight against the Apache. In a 
convention he was later nominated for Congress, but 
was defeated at the election. He passed away a 
short time afterward in Phoenix, and lies buried 
well, no one knows where. 

A ONE-MAN ARMY. 

In the long chain of personal reminiscences of the 
Apache days it would simply be criminal not to take 
one big link from the same in another personal channel, 
and include the name of John Townsend, and give all 
the honor that is possible to him in his career during 
these trying times. His name is idolized wherever it 
is heard, and he stands alongside of the late General 
Crook in the affections of the people. He fought the 
Apache single-handed, and trustworthy sources state 
that he killed at least sixty-five of them, and without 
any assistance whatever. At one time he was em- 
ployed under General Crook as a scout and when the 
command left Fort Whipple, Townsend was with it. 
As the column came into the zone where the Indians 
had been located he broke loose and went at it single- 
handed. Returning, he displayed fifteen scalps, while 
the soldiers had not a single victim to their credit. 

This incensed General Crook, and he immediately 
discharged Townsend. Behind this intrepid man 
there was but one thing for him to live for, so inform- 
ants say, and that was the extermination of the Indian. 
It was due to the loss of his father and mother by 
the Comanche when he was a child in the cradle, and 




Joseph Ehle 

V TOW in his 95th year. Said to be the oldest living- Mason in the 
* United States. He is still vigorous in Prescott where he has 
resided during the past 44 years. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 21 

the most beautiful anticipation in life that he looked 
ahead to was when an Apache got within range of 
his gun. With all of the man's bravery he was en- 
dowed with a fertile brain, and was well trained in an 
intellectual way. His method of operating against 
the Indian was to go alone into the mountains and 
hide out, and locate his game. He would never falter 
at numbers, but shield himself in a position that was 
impregnable and secure from an attack from the rear. 
So universal was the affection for him that he was 
called to Prescott in the zenith of his glory, and in 
an open meeting presented with a handsome Win- 
chester and a thousand rounds of ammunition. To 
this gracious act he responded in feeling language, 
and in a few days the tidings reached the people 
that the gun was doing good work, and was a dandy, 
which was suggestive that Townsend was on the 
firing line again. But with all of his cunning and his 
bravery, he fell a victim to the Indians and put his 
foot in the same trap that had been laid for them so 
many times. He followed a band and ascended a 
mountain for observation. He had reached the most 
elevated point Dripping Springs and here his life 
ended. He was shot through and through, and from 
the location of the wounds must have expired at once. 
His horse, on which he usually traveled, remained be- 
side its master for at least five days, pawing the soil 
near him in an endeavor to rouse him. When the 
body began to decompose the keen sense of smell told 
the animal that death had taken place. Measuring the 
hoof steps of the animal down the mountain side and 
the space between the steps on level ground below, the 
horse walked slowly down the incline, but on level 
ground must have galloped to the Townsend ranch 
without a break in speed for over ten miles. The 
appearance of the horse, riderless, alarmed the neigh- 
borhood, and trailing the tracks, a party found the 
body in a badly decomposed condition. His remains 
were brought to Prescott for burial, and now lie in 
the Masonic cemetery, of which Order he was a 
member. Until a decade ago his grave was marked 
with an ordinary head-board, but time has obliterated 
the plot where John Townsend is sleeping today. 

MEMORABLE INDIAN FIGHTS. 

During the carnival of blood that extended from 



22 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

1863 to 1873, over 600 white men were killed by the 
Indians in that zone lying north of the Gila and Salt 
Rivers. These fatalities were confined principally to 
"picking off" travelers in parties of from two to five. 
Organized bodies were very seldom molested, except- 
ing of course, the military operations in a general 
fight. Many ranchers fell in the field while at work or 
in going from home to a neighbor. Invariably the 
white victim was scalped and horribly mutilated other- 
wise. As there is no record of many events, the more 
important of the combats will be mentioned, and as 
they are recalled by those who were conversant with or 
were principals in them. 

AT PRESCOTT. During the construction of the gu- 
bernatorial mansion in '64, the carpenters engaged 
were "annoyed" they say by the Indians creeping up 
in range and bothering them by imitating the coyote 
so as to attract them to the rocks and timber near by. 
The decoy was short-lived, however. While the men 
continued their labor on the building another party 
ricochetted around the hill and there were three "good" 
Indians less. At another time the Apaches entered the 
town in numbers at dusk, killing one man and stam- 
peding all the milch cows in the burg. A posse got 
into action and returned in two hours. There was 
nothing doing after that, and there were several In- 
dians to the good. 

AT BATTLE FLAT. While returning from a mine 
prospecting trip in the '6o's Fred Henry, Frank Short, 
Sam Small and Messrs. Hinckler and Binkley were 
attacked just after coming down the northern slope of 
the Bradshaws. They made a run for the open and 
level ground adjacent, and there stood. This fight 
goes down in history as one of the most remarkable 
and noteworthy in Arizona history of the Apache days, 
and is still rehearsed at every opportunity. Each 
member of this quintette was shot from five to fifteen 
times, but not one was killed. The combat lasted for 
over twelve hours, and over 160 Indians were engaged. 
The strongest man of the party, physically, at night 
broke through the cordon and wended his way to 
Walnut Grove for relief, but owing to his wounds 
made slow progress. He was Hinckler. The distance 
was eight miles, and the next morning their rescue 
was accomplished, and just as the redskins were re- 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 23 

forming for a final attack. Over 40 Indians were 
killed. The four men were "all in" and one Mr. 
Binkley had one eye shot out, and the eyesight of the 
other was gone. Later, however, his wounded eye 
regained sight. This little band had not a morsel of 
food or a drop of water for over 36 hours, and with 
their ammunition nearly exhausted. 

SKULL VALLEY. To those who today travel on 
the railroad to the south from Prescott they will hear 
the cry of Skull Valley from the conductor. That 
means nothing to the ordinary traveler. But to the 
pioneer it echoes and re-echoes. It was here that there 
was something on the boards in the drama of the In- 
dian days. The story is told that the baptism was 
deserved and well earned. M. P. Freeman was 
camped here with a long string of teams en route to 
Prescott in the 6o's, with freight. The Indians (and 
there were over 400 of them) desired to make a 
"treaty" with the owner. They only wanted the 
horses and mules, some 100 in number, while the 
owner could take all the provisions excepting the flour. 
Freeman's answer was both barrels of a shot gun, 
and seven Indians and three spokes of a wagon fell 
to the ground. Then the ball opened, and the slaugh- 
ter began. There were 21 white men and 33 Mexi- 
cans on one side, and at least 400 Indians on the 
other. The fatalities were frightful, and many valu- 
able animals were killed. The Indians' loss was over 
75, while the whites had several killed and nearly 
every man was wounded. In this fight Mr. Binckley, 
one of the heroes of Battle Flat, was also engaged, 
but was not hit. As he said afterward, "1 had all the 
lead I could carry anyway, but didn't I get even that 
day ! and with only one good eye !" The carcasses of 
the dead animals were permitted to lie on the ground ; 
hence in later years there were many skulls to give 
the place the name that time does not efface. 

WHAT A BOY'S PLAYHOUSE DID. A pathetic story 
is that attending the memorable fight at Fort Rock, 
christened so from the part a little boulder figured in 
the combat. Thad Buckman, a boy but twelve years of 
age, had constructed around the cabin where his father 
and mother lived, a playhouse of little rocks, forming 
them into a semi-circle. One boulder was the chim- 
ney, about twelve inches high and eight wide. Pat 



24 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

McAteer, William Poindexter, a soldier carrying the 
mail, the Senior Buckman, and two or three others 
were attacked here by over 100 Indians. They were all 
on the outside, conversing. The first volley wounded 
all, and all but McAteer retreated to the cabin, wound- 
ed. The latter dropped down into the playhouse and 
commenced a fusillade, being partly secluded from 
view by the boy's handiwork. The boulder he used as 
a protection for his head and it well served the pur- 
pose. McAteer's position on the outside was a fa- 
vorable one. The bullet would strike a rock and 
ricochet, and from the port holes in the building the 
location of the Indian would be told him, hence he 
could locate the devils. During this fight, the boy 
in the cabin was lying wounded with both legs broken 
by a bullet. His father and mother would gently raise 
him up and hold his face to the port hole, and he 
would fire. Every shot counted. His aim was un- 
erring. Locating the chief of the tribe riding over 
300 yards away, the boy was again raised to the open- 
ing, and fired his last shot. It brought the chief to the 
ground, and the fight was at an end, after an all-day 
battle. The Indians left the field at once. In after 
years this slab of rock was put away. It showed the 
dents of many bullets, and probably saved the party 
from a horrible fate. Over 30 Indians were killed in 
this memorable fight, and to this day the place bears 
the unique name of Fort Rock, from that little inci- 
dent of a boy's unintentionally built fortress. 

SAM MILLER'S NERVE. Every pioneer of Northern 
Arizona knows of Sam Miller, or is personally ac- 
quainted with him. He was the "kid" of the famous 
Walker party, and piloted the corvettes of the Colorado 
desert from the time that the memory of man knoweth 
not. In the vernacular of a day gone by he was the 
"boss" freighter on the road, and had the slickest lot of 
mules that ever came from Missouri. He went out of 
the business just as the Southern Pacific railroad left 
Dos Palms, because the opposition of the iron horse 
pinched him down to short rations for his mules. So he 
quit the road, and went to mining and is now engaged 
in praying for rain on a dry ranch. In the early days 
Mr. Miller took passengers along with merchandise, 
Pullman accommodations barred. He left Hardyville 
on the Colorado river on one trip loaded to the brim on 




Col. Alex. A. Brodie, U. S. A. 

CAMOUS in the Apache and Nez Perce wars and also as Major of 
the Rough Riders in the Cuban war. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 25 

the main deck, and in the "trail" wagon there were 
three families, and that means several women and more 
children. George Banghart was among the passengers, 
and with his wife and four young ladies, the precious- 
ness of the occasion will be appreciated, as these ladies 
were gifted with more than the ordinary beauty and 
personal accomplishments. Mr. Miller, on the other 
hand, says he was "skeered" up somewhat as the route 
of his journey lay through the Wallapai country. The 
trip was uneventful until Beale Springs was reached, 
and the many wagons were parked for the night. As 
the sun was setting, the horizon seeemd to be alive with 
the red devils, and it seemed to Mr. Miller that the 
entire tribe was in action. Suddenly the head man of 
the tribe, Wauba Uba, rode up and demanded a 
"treaty," saying that the horses and mules and the 
flour was all that was needed. The argument was 
brief. Mr. Miller reached for his Hawkins rifle and 
sent a bullet crashing through the lungs of the Indian, 
tearing a hole in his body as big as his hand.. Imme- 
diately there were preparations made to resist an at- 
tack. This was unnecessary. Beingt trained to know 
the characteristics of the Indians, Mr. Miller knew that 
when once a chief falls the "jig is up." He allayed all 
fears, and felt "very comfortable." The entire band 
dispersed, and from that time there was no sign of 
Indians on the road to Prescott. Had the demand of 
Wauba Uba been complied with there is no question 
in Mr. Miller's mind that a massacre would have fol- 
lowed pell mell, and the women would have been taken 
into captivity. The rifle that did the "business" is still 
in possession of Mr. Miller, and may be seen at his 
home in Prescott. There is one woman residing in 
Prescott today who was present on that critical even- 
ing; she is Mrs. E. W. Wells, a daughter of the late 
Mr. and Mrs. Banghart. She is the wife of Judge E. 
W. Wells, and in the 6o's, shortly after the memorable 
event at Beale Springs, she was married. She still 
talks of the narrow escape that signalized her coming to 
Prescott. 

THE: WICKENBURG MASSACRE. This is the old story 
of a stage coach full of human beings being ambushed 
and slaughtered. It is still referred to, and has been 
the subject time and again of magazine articles and 
theoretical speculation as to some of its inside work- 



26 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

ings and strange perplexities in certain lines covering 
the deed. The story goes thus, and the reader can 
draw his own conclusions : The regular mail stage had 
left Prescott, and in about fifteen hours had reached 
Wickenburg. From there the route lay to Cullen's 
Well, and thence to the Colorado. The destination was 
San Francisco, and the passengers were: Frederick 
Shoholm, F. W. Loring, P. M. Hammel, W. G. Salmon, 
C. S. Adams, Mollie Sheppard, and William Kruger, 
with a man named Lang as the driver. The stage was 
attacked by Indians nine miles from Wickenburg, and 
the only survivors were the woman and Kruger. Of 
these two latter it is best not to dwell too exhaustively, 
but suffice to say that the woman was a notorious cour- 
tesan, while the man was nothing more nor less than 
her "lover." She had a large sum of money on her 
person, while he had nothing but the ill-gotten gains of 
her life to draw on. The men who were murdered by 
Indians or any one else had just closed their business 
deals and were en route to the coast and Eastern points, 
in the aggregate having over $100,000 in cash with 
them. In the beginning of this massacre the woman 
was slightly wounded while her male companion es- 
caped without a scratch. Talk to the men who were 
on the scene in that day, and who are yet alive they 
will significantly place their finger to their lips and say 

they "don't care to talk about the d d thing." 

BRODIE'S LIVELY SKIRMISH. It is not generally 
known that the late Governor of Arizona, Colonel Bro- 
die, now of the U. S. Army, is a graduate of the West 
Point military school. Such is a fact. His first field 
experience was had at Camp Apache, under the late 
General Crook. It was here that he distinguished him- 
self, being at that time a lieutenant in the Second U. S. 
cavalry. To him was assigned the delicate duty of 
escorting General Howard, then inspector-general of 
the department, out of Camp Apache to a command 
that was to take him to the southern posts of the terri- 
tory. This mission was fulfilled. In returning with 
a squad of his cavalry and when within a few miles of 
his post, he was ambushed by the White Mountain 
Apaches. The troopers triumphed, and the Indians 
were driven in retreat, many being killed. The shoot- 
ing was heard at the post, and the entire garrison was 
soon under arms, and came to his relief. So brilliant 




Gen. George Crook 

\X7HOM the Apaches called "The Gray Fox." He was the most 
famous Indian Fighter of his time. This photograph was taken 
in Prescott in 1874 after Crook had subdued the Apaches, on which 
occasion the citizens held a celebration in his honor. General Crook 
died in 1890. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 27 

was Brodie's handling of the situation, and so courage- 
ously was it executed, that an order of the War De- 
partment at Washington was issued commending him 
for his zeal and valor. The order was posted at West 
Point in the armory on official orders of the Secretary 
of War. Later Brodie was sent to the Lava Beds of 
the North, and again came into prominence in the In- 
dian wars there. He resigned from the army and re- 
turned to Prescott to live. In the Spanish-American 
war he again entered the army, and at San Juan his 
military training and keen knowledge of field tactics 
again were well demonstrated, and his name was at 
the top when that war closed and the Rough Riders 
were moulded into the nation's history. He was ap- 
pointed governor of Arizona after this war, and is now 
permanently identified with the regular army as a 
colonel. He is probably the last of the old school of 
soldiers in active service today who served under Gen- 
eral Crook. He is a typical Western man in nature, 
and will do to tie to at the head of a command when 
anything is on the programme. 

CROOK AND HIS WORK. 

In 1870 General Crook was ordered from Oregon 
to Arizona. It was the most auspicious event that ever 
blessed the territory. His fame preceded him and his 
arrival was the beginning of the end of the Apache. 
Up to this time the military under many leaders had 
succeeded just enough to make the Indians more deter- 
mined and accordingly more courageous. General 
Stoneman, General Howard, and all the subalterns had 
performed their work in an apathetic manner, and the 
Indian ring, or bureau, as it was called, strangled the 
military to a standstill. Collier, by his methods, had 
practically dug trenches in which the blood of the 
whites flowed unceasingly, and in addition, the military 
and the civilians were at dagger points at all times. 
The Indian nature was not known in the earlier days, 
and treaty making was but a hoodwink an open door 
by which the Indian could go or come at will. The 
sentiment of the church in the East was antagonistic 
toward a continuation of the warfare, and they handi- 
capped the execution of field operations to a degree that 
must have pleased the Indian. With the coming of 
Crook these stupid plans were crucified. The civil 



28 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

and the military were drawn closer together, and the 
relations between them were soon cemented in the 
strongest ties of devotion and fellowship. More troops 
were asked and given Crook, as it was his purpose to 
conquer by over-aweing them in numbers and not by 
slaughter. This pleased the sentimental fraternity of 
the nation the church. It also pleased Crook. The 
Indian, after Crook arrived, was given to understand 
that once a treaty was agreed upon no one chief was 
to execute it, but all the chiefs of all the tribes were 
to subscribe. Heretofore but a small band of a big 
tribe and one sub-chief had performed this service 
which was binding only upon that one and a few fol- 
lowers. Crook's alternative was to fight. Several of 
the big chiefs chose the field, and the warfare continued 
for over two years. 

With the hearty co-operation of the civilians, the 
military under the new regime got down to work in 
earnest. Fort Whipple was made the headquarters of 
the Department of Arizona, and within striking dis- 
tance were Camp Verde on the east, Date Creek on 
the southwest, and Wallapai, Rollins and the Willows 
on the west. Each of these posts had from 100 to 300 
men on duty. The Wallapai tribe were annihilated and 
the final fight that brought them to their knees was on 
the Santa Maria. The official report to the War De- 
partment gave the casualties as: Killed, 16; wounded, 
30 ; captured, 1 16. The civilian report that was backed 
by personal observation was: Killed, 218, and sur- 
rendered 325. This programme was followed out in 
the same spirit with other tribes, and in a little over 
one year the western part of Arizona was relieved of 
any further trouble. Operations were again started in 
the vicinity of Prescott on the east, and by 1873 there 
was the general surrender at Date Creek of all Indians 
in Northern Arizona. In the meantime, however, the 
execution had been frightful by the military under 
Crook. Wherever a depredation had been committed, 
troops were rushed at once into the field, and scouting 
detachments were everywhere in action. Over 6,000 
Indians, after the Date Creek surrender were removed 
to the Verde and from the latter point to San Carlos 
in Southeastern Arizona, where they formed a grand 
total of over 15,000, all of which is due to the admin- 
istration of Crook and his able lieutenants. 





J. H. Lee 

The Hero of the American Ranch 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 29 

Crook's final blow to the Apache in Northern and 
Central Arizona was that pleasant event known as the 
"Squaw Peak Surprise Party." It was learned that a 
band of over 40 Indians had dropped out of the march- 
ing line to the San Carlos from Camp Verde and had 
taken refuge on the summit of a mountain a few miles 
distant, refusing to go to the new reservation. Giving 
instructions to Al Seiber, Dan O'Leary and Pat Kehoe 
to bring these renegades into the main body, an effort 
was made to obey orders (?) Only one soul was per- 
suaded to join the party on the road, and that was the 
only squaw in the band. The "bucks" stayed, and 
their bones are yet on the pinnacle of that mountain. 

I do not believe that General Crook had a single 
enemy in all of Northern and Central Arizona during 
the days of his military career. On the other hand his 
memory is sacredly worshiped, and to this day, when 
occasionally the old pioneers are grouped in each 
other's company, and the old, old story is being told 
over and over again, the monotony of Indian tales is 
sure to be enlivened by such quaint expressions as 
"Wasn't George Crook and his bunch a dandy out- 
fit!" 

One peculiarity of this great Indian fighter was his 
reckless and unconcerned regard for his rank, on or 
off duty. He would head a column attired in a com- 
mon blouse, and he would mingle with the private sol- 
diers as willingly as he would with the officers. He 
has been known to go out hunting for game with but 
a single soldier to accompany him, and to do his own 
washing and help at the cooking of the game killed 
without the least concern. The Indians christened him 
the "Gray Fox," and when he heard of it he simply 
smiled. He passed away in Chicago in the go's. 

PART III. 

NAMES THAT ARE FAMIUAR. 

IN Arizona there is nothing in existence today of a 
chronological nature that records anything per- 
sonal. Nevertheless, there is a long line of men 
whose names should be given a fitting and ap- 
propriate place on its Roll of Honor. Some of them 
were of the military, some were of the civilians. They 
all were "good 'uns" in their day, and they all had 
their sleeves rolled up to advance the interests of the 



30 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 



Territory in one way or the other. Some used the 
rifle on the Indian, some built homes and improved the 
country, some were officials of the government in 
brief all were builders. A peculiarity of the early ar- 
rivals is the fact that they were men of the world, 
and all were trained in any vocation they chose to fol- 
low. The bad man came, of course, later, but as he 
neither sows nor reaps, he got the crumbs that fell; 
but he was short-lived. A few of the many names re- 
called are the following: 



Dan Lount 
J. A. Park 
John Reese 
John Marion 
Washington French 
H. A. Bigelow 
John Dickson 
Ed. Peck 
Herbert Bowers 
Jesse Jackson 
A. J. Doran 
John Simmons 
Louis St. James 
P. C. Wilder 
"Lud" Bacon 
Levi Bash ford 
H. W. Fleury 
John Howard 
Geo, D. Kendall 
Dan Hatz 
Cal. Jackson 
Ben. H. Weaver 
Gideon Brooke 
Michael Goldwatei 
W. H. Ferguson 
James Oneal 
Theo. Boggs 
A. L. Moeller 
A. C. Dunn 
Harvey Twaddell 
N. L. Griffin 
D. W. Shivers 
W. C. Bashford 
Robert Brown 
T. W. Otis 



Judge Kirkland 
Henry Wickenburg 
S. C. Rogers 
W. J. Simmons 
Coles Bashford 
T. A. Hand 
Major Willis 
C. P. Head 
Wales Arnold 
Zade Jackson 
C. W. Beach 
L. A. Stephens 
Jim Bones 
Charley Genung 
J. G. Campbell 
W. N. Kelly 
Abner French 
Jefferson Davis 
Pard Pierce 
Jack Swilling 
Alfred Shupp 
Ed. Bowers 
C. C. Bean 
Geo. W. Sines 
Thos. Simmons 
Hank Williams 
Gov. Goodwin 
R. C. McCormick 
Hezekiah Brooks 
Captain Hardy 
W. S. Head 
Geo. W. Hance 
Jno. G. Bourke 
Van C. Smith 
W. H. Hardy 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 31 

The above named were arrivals in the early 6o's 
and with others mentioned elsewhere in specific in- 
stances, give the character of the men in so far as 
Americanism in name goes. 

There are two men who lead the longevity column 
for continuous residence in Prescott. Judge Griffin 
has been camped in town for over 44 years, while Sam 
Miller has clipped the same number. It is now up to 
the calendar for the month to settle the dispute. 

Of all the pioneers of the period prior to the 6o's in 
this section there are not over twenty alive today. 

A PATRIOTIC PILGRIM. 

The first American flag raised in Arizona was at 
Tucson, and the honor belongs to Judge W. H. Kirk- 
land, residing near Prescott. This historic event oc- 
curred in 1856, and notwithstanding that over half a 
century has rolled around since that day, this patriotic 
man is still blessed with physical vigor and is as ready 
as ever to shoulder a musket in defense of his country's 
emblem. Judge Kirkland has had many thrilling ex- 
periences with the Indians, and it is said of him that he 
is just as cunning as the men of the forest were. 
Many are the thrilling deeds of this old pioneer, but 
the hoisting of "Old Glory" supersedes all other events 
in his long years on this earth. He is traveling rapidly 
toward the century goal. 

THREE WOMEN ON THE FRONTIER. 

Why should men be given the sole honor of the 
deeds of daring and the suffering incidental to the pio- 
neer day? Woman's dominion is said to be the home, 
and the cares and tribulations incidental thereto. But 
once in a while this principle is shattered and there is 
invariably something noteworthy to chronicle when 
her temperament asserts itself and she takes the reins 
in hand to do things other than domestic duties. In 
this connection it is deemed proper to single out three 
little women and place them where they belong in the 
dark day of the pioneers in Northern Arizona. 

If there is anything nobler in life than charity, the 
scriptures are wilfully misleading. If there ever lived 
in this sphere a firmer or more ardent desciple of this 
faith and one who followed zealously its teachings than 
Mrs. Ganelli an American woman, it has never been 



32 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

brought out. None knew her by her true name and 
none cared to. She was christened "Virgin Mary" 
and when she passed away it was : "Virgin Mary has 
gone." Her life was a beautiful exemplification of the 
teachings of the Bible, and when she was stricken many 
weeping eyes were seen. Her life was devoted to the 
wounded and distressed, and her purse and every far- 
thing she could procure went the same way. She 
went to the cabin or in the field, and at her home in the 
early 6o's in Prescott, there was always the latch 
string for the needy. The door was always open. 
Many a man in need and many that were pierced with 
the arrow or bullet of the Apache found in her a de- 
voted helper. It seems cruel, but it is the way of 
the world, to say that she ended a beautiful life in dis- 
tress. She lies buried on the hillside of the Lynx 
Creek range of mountains ten miles from Prescott, and 
her memory is almost lost. 

In valor or pure "nerve," as it is called in this sec- 
tion of the world, early history would be at fault if it 
failed to encircle the name of Mrs. Fannie Stevens, the 
devoted wife of Lewis A. Stevens. The ranch known 
by this name is situated but four miles north of the city 
of Prescott, and is nestled just on the outskirts of a 
veritable inferno of buolders and crevices, just such as 
the Indian loved in his day of marauding and ambush 
work. Mr. Stevens and some of his employees were 
engaged in clearing the rubbish from the ground ad- 
jacent to the home, and while so engaged the devoted 
little woman stood guard over them with a Henry 
rifle. A bunch of the redskins were about to surprise 
and sweep down on them when the keen eyesight of 
Mrs. Stevens detected the bunch of grass was moving, 
while not a breath of air was stirring. She raised the 
rifle and it "talked" in pretty language. The Indian 
was hit and mortally wounded. Others came to his 
rescue and he was pulled out of range. The male mem- 
bers at once got into action, and several shots were ex- 
changed. Two bodies were found. Mrs. Stevens is 
still alive, but in feeble health. She lives in Oakland, 
Cal. Previous to her marriage to Mr. Stevens she 
taught in the public schools of Prescott, and was known 
as the "Nervy Schoolmarm" ever afterward. 

Another instance of feminine courage is one which 
is generally known and in which Mrs. S. C. Miller, 




Wales Arnold 

MOW 71 years of age. A patriotic Arizona pioneer and surviving 
member of the famous Fourth Regiment, Infantry, California Vol- 
unteers of 1863. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 33 

alive and residing near the city of Prescott, figures 
prominently. The occasion when she got hold of a 
Winchester and held up the Indian was when the lat- 
ter stampeded a large herd of animals and was making 
way with them. She held several Indians at bay with 
the gun, and at the same time opened the corral gate 
and permitted the horses and cattle to be secure. Asked 
if she shot any of them, she modestly said "No, but they 
knew from the way the bullets sprinkled around their 
feet that I could hit pretty close. We women just 
had to learn to handle a gun in those days," she says, 
"and I want to tell you another thing many nights 
when Sam was away and I was alone, there would be 
no light burning in the house that night, and I always 
retired with a six-shooter under my pillow." Mrs. 
Miller is a pleasant little woman in conversation, and 
is charming personally. As Mary Saunders she enjoys 
the distinction of being the first arrival of her sex in 
northern Arizona. 

DESPERATE DAYS AND DESPERATE MEN. 

The mines at the north wouldn't pay, 

Nevada was in a decline, 
So the miners and bummers straightway 
Packed up for this new Forty-Nine. 

By no means was the Indian the only evil to be met 
with in the period covering the day bordering on the 
middle of the 6o's. So far as life in the settlements 
was concerned the bad man was by far the greater evil 
of the two. The civil war was raging and sectional 
lines were drawn only too close to each other. A 
spark and the explosion followed. The efforts of the 
substantial and cool-headed people was accordingly 
directed toward confining the trouble to the naturally 
inclined "bad men" and in not permitting them to get 
away from their own boundaries. 

In this respect success followed to a certain degree, 
but in many cases some of the most willful and cold- 
blooded of murders were committed and the guilty 
never arrested, even. The lie was equivalent to the 
crack of a six-shooter, and there was no ceremony to 
precede the event. The discovery of gold in fabulous 
sums on Rich Hill brought in every conceivable make- 
up of human nature from highwayman to prospector, 
and the business man and laborer also entered. The 



34 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

more dust taken from that mountain only the more 
exasperating did the whole situation become, and rob- 
bery after robbery of miners and their wealth were fre- 
quent. 

In the zenith of this, Lynx Creek was also producing 
handsome sums in placer dust; likewise Big Bug and 
the Hassayampa. 

"The Montana gang," a combination of everything 
vicious and lawless, equipped with crooked gambling 
devices, lewd women and bad digestion appeared on the 
ground, and were followed immediately by the notori- 
ous Jeff Standefer and his outfit, with a larger stock of 
the same goods and wares. These two combinations 
made a perfect pandemonium of anything and every- 
thing and they practically ran the town. The mur- 
ders traceable directly to them and their ilk were a dis- 
grace to civilization, but with the Indian on one side 
and they on the other, the respectable element side- 
stepped any -interference and left them to themselves. 

Many murders attributed to the Indians were no 
doubt due to this lawless element, and the play on this 
line of action was no doubt a welcome opportunity. In 
a few vears the situation was changed and those that 
remained changed their tactics, and ultimately got out 
of the groove of "undesirable" citizens. A new era 
drove these men away as it usually does in all com- 
munities where mining excitements lose their boom and 
the industry settles down to a basis of practical con- 
sideration on cool-headed principles. 

It is said of Jeff Standefer that he came to Arizona 
on the reputation that reached him in Nevada that 
King S. Woolsey was "the" bad man of Arizona. He 
was also in the same category in the Sagebrush State, 
and he desired to "meet" the Arizonan and settle the 
personal claims of each as to the supremacy of the in- 
dividual. He did so, but in Woolsey he found a man 
of iron, and a brave one, but not a bad one, so Stande- 
fer weakened at a critical time, and gave in. Later 
he went away, and in Southern Arizona got in front 
of a bullet and his life went out in a barroom duel. 

LEGEND OF THE HASSAYAMPA. 

You've heard about the wondrous stream 

They call the Hassayamp; 
They say it will turn a truthful guy 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 35 

Into a lying scamp. 

And if you quaff its waters once 
It's sure to prove your bane, 

You'll ne'er forsake the blarsted stream 
Or tell the truth again. 

Wherever Arizona is known the Hassayampa is also 
known. Its fame is world-wide. The tenderfoot has 
bandied it all to pieces and the accepted deduction is 
generally in harmony with the doggerel given above. 
The word is derived from the Indian tongue and au- 
thorities give it many versions in translation to Eng- 
lish. Water is, however, the foundation of the word, 
some saying that running water is one, while others 
maintain in the Indian vernacular it signifies queen of 
waters, and so on. As to the selection of the name it is 
traced to Pauline Weaver and his version was Beautiful 
Water, and it was so named. Tradition among the 
Indians is firmly and immovably moulded in hatred to 
it since the day a beautiful Indian girl was accidental- 
ly killed at a point near its source, and from their 
theory its waters are polluted, since that time, hence 
the belief that the Indian hoodoo is perfectly proper 
and always will be. A bad quality of whisky also goes 
into the root as Hassayamp water, and so on, and on, 
until the vocabulary is exhausted. 

GIGANTIC WILDCATTING. 

One of the shrewdest pieces of mining manipulation 
and one of the most rascally also, that ever took place 
in the West was the notorious "Diamond Field Dis- 
covery" that was incubated and put on the market in 
Prescott in 1869. Upon the announcement of the so- 
called discovery hundreds of explorers and the usual 
followers of mining booms came in and went out to 
the so-called fields where the precious stones were sup- 
posed to exist. The ground laid where the four cor- 
ners of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado 
merge, and Prescott in that day was the most desirable 
point from which to enter. Hundreds came and out- 
fitted there and went on. The inside facts of the "deal" 
are well known in every detail and the scheme received 
a wide ventilation when the leak broke. The plans 
were over three years in maturing and the principals 
in the wildcat scheme were George Harpending, J. B. 
Slack and a man named Arnold. The victims were W. 



36 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

M. Lent, the mining magnate of the stock exchange of 
San Francisco along with the Senior Tiffany of New 
York and other wealthy friends of the same city. Be- 
hind this transaction was the hatred of Harpending to- 
ward Lent, the latter having crucified the former in a 
stock deal in an earlier day. A break-even turn was 
Harpending's dream and he got into the harness to ac- 
complish his aim. Slack had had considerable prac- 
tical experience in the diamond fields of Africa, while 
Arnold was likewise conversant with the theoretical 
end of the calling. Both were sent to Europe. They 
secured several thousand dollars worth of the stones in 
the rough and in the matrix, as well. Returning the 
right ground was selected in soil to plant the imported 
goods, when the news electrified the nation and stam- 
peded the whole country to the scene. It was here 
that Harpending crept into the play and gave the op- 
tion to Lent. Geologists of ability were sent to the 
field and dug up the gems and pronounced the find a 
genuine one. Other experts likewise reported favor- 
ably, and Lent paid over the sum of $200,000 in cash 
on the first payment. Then the new syndicate began 
an active career in development. Clarence King, the 
geologist of the U. S. government, was employed and 
visited the diggings. He pronounced the same a rank 
fake. Thus the bubble broke and redress was asked of 
the sellers. Harpending had placed his money in his 
pocket and so had Slack. Arnold went to Louisville 
and bought up a desirable piece of business property, 
which in a suit he was compelled to give up. Harpen- 
ding and Slack had no resources that the law could 
reach, and thus closed the history of the famous dia- 
mond fields in Arizona. 



ARIZONAS FIRST CHRISTMAS 

THERE is one Arizonan alive today who holds a 
unique station among men, and who enjoys a 
a distinction that is beautiful and praiseworthy. 
His name is J. N. Rodenburg, and to him belongs 
the honor of being the first man who conceived the 
idea of zealously and fervently observing the birth of 
the Savior in a wild land and providing the first Christ- 
mas tree to be erected in Arizona. This tribute to 
Christianity was initiated by him under conditions that 
would seem in this flay of peace and plenty as difficult 






J. N. Rodenburg 

JVA R. RODENBURG is the man who gave Arizona their first Christ- 
** mas tree and gathered together the people in an "old home" 
celebration . 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 37 

of execution, but those who are yet alive bear evidence 
to it in its every detail. 

Every desert has its oasis. When the day arrived 
that Arizona was to have its first Christmas tree and 
the birth of the Savior was to be fittingly celebrated, 
there was evidence of much humorous curiosity among 
the frontiersmen as to how the plan was to be carried 
out. Where were the goods and wares, toys, candies 
and the like to be had ? And where were the children 
to come from to brighten the occasion, as is so custom- 
ary in events of this character? A census was taken 
and in the skirmish seven eligible "kids" were rounded 
up, together with a half dozen others who were still 
young, but grown tall. Mr. Rodenburg then got into 
the theological harness and, with an escort of six men, 
went into the woods to get the tree end of the occasion. 
A beautiful fir was secured, and the Indians permitted 
the party to return in safety. This was erected in 
Rodenburg's house, and thus was the ''big doings" 
started. A call was issued to the public for the pres- 
ents to ornament the tree. In that day, over forty 
years ago, the stores carried absolutely nothing in the 
line of toys or trinkets, candies or bonbons, and it was 
here that the first serious problem confronted the com- 
mittee. A big stock of brown sugar was purchased, 
and, with the assistance of a New Orleans negro, three 
kinds of black-jack were skillfully moulded. This set- 
tled the sweet end of the programme, the candy being 
encased in manilla paper bags glued together with 
flour paste. The tree must have illumination, so the 
market was searched for all the tallow candles neces- 
sary. These were cut in two, and after being tied to 
the limbs with ordinary twine, another obstacle was 
conquered. There was a scarcity of ribbons to give 
the scene the beauty and brilliancy necessary, but the 
bottom of every trunk was scoured among the ladies 
who had recently arrived from the East, and a few 
bolts were donated. Various crude toys and goods 
were then manufactured by men conversant with the 
handling of implements, or skilled in such handiwork. 
Quite a respectable collection was secured in this man- 
ner, everybody contributing something that he either 
could manufacture or purchase. But the most import- 
ant consideration yet faced the committee, and that 
was to secure music for the event. An inventory of 



38 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

the burg disclosed that there was but one musical in- 
strument to be found a violin, out of tune and minus 
a string. The owner was conversant with but one 
air The Arkansaw Traveler. This was humiliating 
to the directors, but there must be melody, and after 
the operator was admonished to play something half 
way through and then to repeat it with a change in 
cadence, the day arrived for the event Arizona's first 
Christmas tree. 

The little home was jammed, and the men who 
usually wore hard-looking countenances and in their 
reckless careers were accustomed to the rougher side 
of human life, recalled the long ago in old New Eng- 
land when they, too, were young and when they also 
went up to get what was coming as their names were 
called out by the superintendent of the Sunday school. 
So they weakened, as it were, and each gave himself 
up to the spirit of the day with a joyousness that was 
in harmony with their lives when they were home with 
the old folks beyond the Rockies. Mr. Rodenburg 
says that electric bulbs may glow in many colors from 
the Christmas trees of the present day, trained voices 
may chant the melodies, diamonds and gilt-edged pres- 
ents may ornament the garments, children may devour 
the many colored sweets that are run out by the ton, 
but that old black-jack was just as good, that old tree 
was just as handsome, and above it all there was the 
genuine and the devoted spirit around that old Christ- 
mas tree of long ago that cannot be duplicated, be- 
cause, he says, we did not mix the occasion then, as 
they do now, with discrimination and commercialism 
we gave them all a run for their money. 

LEHIGH'S FOLLY. 

No branch of the government working to subdue 
the Indians figured more earnestly or terminated more 
disastrously than that of the Indian Bureau when the 
Apache was in the zenith of his freedom and lawless- 
ness. With instructions to the military to crush, a 
companion order would emanate from the administra- 
tion for the Indian Bureau to sugar coat with moral 
suasion the same red men. Thus it will be seen that 
the central government had two elements working 
directly against each other. The men with iron hands 
demanded the bullet, and the sentimental element placed 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 39 

a Bible in the hands of their representative. At the 
beginning of Indian warfare in Arizona, and while 
President Grant was in office, Young Dent, a brother 
of Mrs. U. S. Grant, was sent to Prescott, with the 
support of the Indian Bureau behind him. He tried 
all known methods to pacify the Apache, and after one 
year's humiliation returned to Washington, chagrined 
and openly stating that the Indian's nature would not 
respond to anything except force, and the most strenu- 
ous article at that. But the set principles inaugurated 
were maintained, and after Dent had cast his shoes 
aside, Minister Lehigh, of Petaluma, California, stepped 
into them. He came and took quarters with General 
Crook at Fort Whipple. His arrival was a most aus- 
picious event in his method of pacification. The In- 
dian was rampant in his bloodthirsty work, and Lehigh 
was enthusiastic to prepare his salve and rub it in on 
the Indian. He got into harness, and, to his credit it 
must be said, he worked courageously, going among the 
different tribes and innoculating them with the doc- 
trine of Christianity. But when a lone horseman hap- 
pened to be going by and the animal was branded with 
a U. S. mark, Christian doctrine easily rubbed off, and 
animal and rider were taken in. The same rule would 
apply to a long string of freight teams ; when the In- 
dian believed he was strong enough to accomplish his 
ends, his former instruction from the Book of God, for 
the time being, came in for but little consideration. 

But Lehigh never wavered. He worked persist- 
ently and enthusiastically, doing some good, and like- 
wise considerable harm. With his chief clerk, also of 
the same religious persuasion, he went to Southern 
Arizona, as well as to visit all points in the north. 
He educated the Indian with kindness that was effica- 
cious, and especially so when it was accompanied with 
presents, for which the Indian had a decidedly re- 
ceptive nature. With this method he became known 
to all the tribes, and was in constant communication 
with them. Pat Kehoe, the noted Indian scout, in 
speaking of this trait of the Indian, informed the writer 
many years ago that this was a trick of the Apache, 
and he could do the same thing that Lehigh did, but, 
said he, "When you are alone with an Apache, after 
you think you have his confidence and his good will, 
and you want to spit, don't, for heaven's sake, turn 



40 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

your head aside the thirty-second part of an inch. If 
you do he will get the drop on you and the jig is up." 
Lehigh made the same mistake, and he paid for it 
with his life. He left on a journey from Fort Whipple 
with his trusted clerk one morning in a blackboard. 
General Cook endeavored to dissuade him from making 
the perilous trip, at the same time insisting that he be 
provided with a strong escort of cavalry, as the route 
he was taking was alive with Indians. Raising the 
cushion from the seat on the buckboard, Lehigh drew 
forth a Bible, and, placing it above his head, informed 
the general that that little Book had carried him through 
many a trying and dangerous locality, and that it would 
stop any bullet that came along. Besides, he said, the 
Indians knew him, and he feared them not. 

Three days passed and Indians were killing travelers 
and people on the farms. The military, as usual, got 
into the zone of hostilities. In passing through Bell's 
canyon the bodies of Lehigh and his clerk were found, 
the men having been murdered by the Apaches. In 
addition to taking his life, the Indians frightfully muti- 
lated Lehigh's body. Every portion of his anatomy 
was hacked in the most barbarous manner imaginable. 
His body was burned to an extent as to be almost un- 
recognizable. His clerk's body was not molested. The 
traveler of today in going through this canyon will be 
attracted by a big black boulder that lies alongside the 
road. After bung exposed to the elements for over 
thirty-five years, it still carries the blackened stain it 
received, and serves to recall the sad ending of a man 
of the highest impulses to do right to the uncivilized 
Indian, and who fell in the performance of a sacred 
duty. With the death of this man, the Indian Bureau 
received its final blow. Afterward the military fol- 
lowed out its plan of subjugating the Indians, and was 
successful in its work. 

MASSACRE OF THE OATMAN FAMILY. 

In the drama of blood that cursed Arizona when the 
Apache ruled supreme, and when the Territory was 
about to enter the Union, a subdivision as now estab- 
lished, one of the most ghastly of the many massacres 
for which the unmerciful Indian was responsible was 
that of the slaughter of James Oatman and family 
while en route to California from Texas via the Butter- 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 41 

field stage route that then traversed Southern Arizona. 
This wanton murder of a fine family occurred in 1861 
at a point midway between what is now Phoenix, the 
capital of Arizona, and Yuma, on the Colorado river. 
The spot where the lives of fourteen human beings 
were wiped out is to this day known as Oatman Flat. 
This route of travel was the only highway taken by 
pilgrims to the Pacific Coast in that era, for in the 
northern portion of Arizona there was no regular or 
established line, neither were there any wagon roads 
for vehicles, horsemen being the only travelers, as a 
rule. As a result of this favorable condition, the old 
Butterfield stage route was the means usually taken 
to reach the Coast, and all parties who carried house- 
hold goods naturally selected it, and particularly so 
in the winter months. Officially speaking, Arizona at 
this time was not created, and there were practically 
no white men living north of the Gila and Salt rivers. 
Consequently Tucson was the military seat of Arizona, 
or that zone bordering close to it, and hither all immi- 
gration was directed, coming or going. 

It was but a short time after this route had been 
opened that thousands of people were swarming across 
it, and this fact became known to the Apaches in the 
eastern as well as the western part of Arizona. Many 
travelers were picked off, and it soon became necessary 
to escort mail stages by soldiers drawn from Crittenden 
on the east and Yuma on the west. Several small par- 
ties, in numbers of from three to six, were massacred, 
and this served as a warning for others to combine 
at Tucson and travel as a unit. By this method the 
Indians were checked and travel progressed less inter- 
ruptedly. James Oatman, however, with his family, 
ventured unattended, thinking that in keeping in close 
touch with caravans within a few hours ahead of him 
he would be safe. He made the venture and lost. He 
had camped for the night in a flat but a few hundred 
yards off the main road, the ground being coated with 
a soft growth of green grass. As the preparations 
were made to go into camp for the night, two men 
who accompanied him were sent out in different direc- 
tions to gather wood. This left in the party himself, 
his wife, his brother-in-law, his sister-in-law, two 
daughters Olive, aged seven, and Mollie, aged five 



42 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

and one-half years his son, aged nine years, and five 
others, males. 

There were no eye witnesses of the tragedy that 
hurled these people into eternity. The struggle must 
have been a terrific one to the end, however. One of 
the men who went in search of wood returned to the 
camp and staid until he hailed the stage that passed 
during the night. The other man, who was likewise 
engaged, traveled to the nearest station and gave the 
alarm. When the military arrived, three were missing. 
They were the two young daughters and the son. 
Every one of the dead was frightfully mutilated. The 
wagons were burned and the animals taken. The 
scene, in short, was one of horror, and the only con- 
soling evidence of the struggle was the bodies of 
eighteen dead Indians. One of the men sent in search 
of fuel stated afterward that he saw the Indians ad- 
vancing on the camp and that they numbered at least 
three hundred, and were moving on at a rapid rate, 
some on foot and others mounted. Three days passed 
belore the military and the civilians reached the scene. 
The bodies were buried near where they fell. The 
fate of this family was flashed to both the East and 
the West, and when the sad story became known it 
aroused new hatred for the Apaches. To secure the 
captive children was the momentous problem that con- 
fronted the men who had come on their mission of 
rescue. Couriers were dispatched to Yuma and to 
Colonel Crittenden, in command of the military near 
Tucson. Both these wings got into action, and with 
volunteers from civil life several detachments were in 
the field in a few days. 

In the meantime the eastern States were aware of 
the sad ending of this party and the plight of the cap- 
tive girls and the boy. Mr. Oatman had at one time 
been a minister of the Gospel, while his wife had also 
figured prominently in missionary work, and especially 
so among the Indians. Soon the church took up the 
work of rescue, and in all the entire nation, de- 
nominational as well as official, was at fever heat to 
effect the saving of the captives and the punishment 
of the murderers. In one of the rescue columns was 
one of the men of the Oatman party, and in three days 
after it got into the field the boy was found about twelve 
miles distant wandering on the desert, in a demented 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 43 

condition. He was sent to Tucson, carefully nursed, 
but passed away in a few weeks, without regaining his 
mental faculties. This incident incensed the white 
people there only the more, and in their frenzy to wipe 
out the Apaches eight men enlisted in the service of the 
nation with the explicit understanding that they be 
sent to hunt the Indians and effect the rescue of the 
two girls. These men were rilled with the spirit of 
revenge, but nevertheless they were patriots of the 
purest type. In that day there were less than a score 
of unemployed Americans in Tucson, and this will give 
some idea of the difference between those times and 
these of the frenzied era we are living in at present, 
when philanthropy is cast aside to make way for "every- 
thing in sight." After nearly three weeks had passed, 
one of the military columns returned to Yuma and had 
in their escort the youngest girl, Mollie. She had not 
been rescued, but was found about three miles distant 
from the rancheria of the Indians, wandering alung the 
banks of the Colorado River with a bunch of tule grass 
in her hand, like poor, crazed Ophelia of old. At the 
approach of the rescue party she became alarmed and 
fled. With much difficulty she was captured and sent 
to the military post. She had been sent adrift by the 
Indians from their camp and left to wander, and later 
to die. She had lost her mind, and in her ramblings 
no coherent statement could be secured from her. Her 
relatives were living in Waco, Texas, and it was deemed 
advisable to send her to them via Tucson. At the lat- 
ter place she was placed under medical care, but the 
shock of her capture had shattered her young and deli- 
cate intellect, and after a few months at her old home 
in the Lone Star State she also passed away. 

When the news reached Southern Arizona that an- 
other Oatman victim had fallen, the military were 
roundly and unmercifully censured for not destroying 
the Indians when their camp was in sight, and when 
such a favorable opportunity was offered for the con- 
summation of this work at the time when Mollie Oat- 
man was rescued. But the brains of the military were 
working in another avenue that of the rescue of the 
eldest daughter, Olive. The spirit of the soldier was 
to exterminate the Indians, but the men in command 
were looking ahead to save the last victim, if possible, 
and later to deal the final blow. The missionary ele- 



44 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

ment by this time had also taken a prominent hand in 
the work, and they had their representative en route. 
That was the policy of the church, a policy, in short, 
to vacillate sugar coat the Indian and for the handi- 
capping of justice that the frontier was blessed with 
in that day the bullet the church would supercede 
it with a parson on his knees and his head bent heaven- 
ward. By this time the entire missionary machinery 
of the East was working, and at the same time the 
military genius,, and particularly that element versed 
in frontier warfare and knowledge of the Indian na- 
ture, was fighting them at every mark in the road. 
This policy checked every move made, and soon a year 
passed, with the girl victim still in captivity. The civil- 
ians became desperate, and at one time it was the in- 
tention to call for general volunteers and petition Presi- 
dent Lincoln for assistance. Colonel Crittenden be- 
came exasperated and threatened to resign from the 
army, but upon the promise that his Indian policy 
would not be discountenanced in the future, he re- 
mained and again worked independently. With the 
assistance of two civilians, veterans of the Mexican 
War, a plan was outlined to effect the rescue of the 
girl. A former soldier of the Mexican army had de- 
generated into a "squaw man" of the Chimevuavis 
tribe on the Colorado River, and through him it was 
determined to trace Olive Oatman, whether dead or 
alive, the medium to be the two veterans of the Mexi- 
can War. The military was to co-operate, and with 
this thread to solve the problem, the two ex-soldiers 
"donned" the apparel, so to speak, of the "squaw man." 
The play was without a hitch, and in a few months, 
or nearly eighteen months after the Oatman massacre, 
the curtain was rung down on the last act of the fright- 
ful drama. The Indians were betrayed by the three 
men who had presumably been their friends, Olive was 
rescued, and three of the chiefs were slaughtered in 
cold blood, along with thirty-two of the tribe. 

The poor girl had been so long in captivity and had 
become so accustomed to Indian manners and mode of 
living, that the problem of winning her back to civili- 
zation was a delicate task, and discretion had to be 
exercised to this end, so firmly molded in her young 
mind had become the life she had led. But in a short 
time she responded, and when she, too, reached Tucson, 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 45 

she had fully recovered, and with an unimpaired intel- 
lect. At Prescott the beginning of the end of another 
tragedy that was to come in later years was in process 
of incubation. Olive Oatman was met by the repre- 
sentative of a missionary society, in whose custody the 
military, authorized by her distant relatives, she was 
placed. She was taken to Texas and resided with her 
relatives for some years. When the Oatman massacre 
passed into history, and shortly after Olive had reached 
the age of thirteen years, again there appeared on the 
scene this missionary disciple and asked for the hand 
of this young and tender girl in marriage, which was 
readily consented to by her people. She was but a 
child. After her marriage she was taken to New Eng- 
land, and presumably her union was approved of by 
the church, from the fact of the prominence of her 
husband in the rescue work he was identified with in 
Arizona. But the man had a black heart. He traveled 
from pillar to post with his young bride ; in short, she 
was the drawing card that filled his pulpit on each and 
every occasion. It became a notorious proceeding, and 
finally the wife rebelled at the elastic manner in which 
she was being handled and desired to be relieved of 
any further publicity in either the press or the 
pulpit. Again did the church come into the work of 
rescue, and after the eastern and northern fields had 
been plucked of all possible advantages, the couple left 
for the South, arriving at Nashville, Tennessee. Here 
they led for a few months a secluded life, and here 
also was the final chapter in the woman's life enacted. 
She was stricken with fever, and in a short period there- 
after passed away from this earth that she had known 
for only eighteen years. What became of the man no 
one cares to know. Bancroft 

LEE'S REVENGE. 

To provide suitable accommodations in Arizona for 
the military when bodies of troops were on the march, 
to feed the cavalry horses and to water the same, de- 
sirable sites were selected by the War Department in 
the Apache fighting days, and such places were desig- 
nated as "road stations." One of these rendezvous 
was known by the title of the "American Ranch." It 
was also a stage station for the mail contractor. That 
gave it a distinction. Hay, grain, wood and water were 



46 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

accordingly In abundance at all times, and the way- 
farer knew that something was always in the larder. 
J. H. Lee, the owner, was from the same township 
that General Crook was born in, so that little incident 
figured as a pull at the government string, so to speak, 
and Lee had a "lead pipe cinch" for a time on the 
good money of Uncle Sam. Mr. Lee put up a good- 
sized building and stocked it with "the best the market 
affords." No sooner was it in full blast than the 
Indians appreciated the strategic importance of the 
place, and while the owner was away, the sole guardian 
was run off and the place burned to the ground. 

The loss was a complete one, and nothing of the 
value of a dollar was permitted to escape the flames. 
In addition over thirteen hundred dollars in cash went 
up in smoke. That sum was a small fortune in those 
days ; so, with the property loss, and the quartermaster 
checks, and the temporary abandonment of the station, 
Mr. Lee and the public appreciated the loss keenly. He 
attempted to rebuild and regain the prestige of the site, 
but the wily Indian disputed the claim. This exasper- 
ated the man, and he went to the limit of his credit to 
accomplish his purpose. In time he restored the place 
and the business came back. The Indians presumably 
had left that section, and the American Ranch became 
known for a long time as a peaceable locality and free 
from danger. But with the restocking of the place, 
the cultivation of the land in corn and barley and 
the restocking with animals, the place was turned over 
under lease and Mr. Lee came into town to live. The 
new owner was constantly assailed, and the profits of 
the business were eaten up in guards and protective 
facilities that required heavy expense to maintain. 

As a last resort the lessee suggested that those red 
devils should be "fixed," and he adopted a plan to this 
end. A stock of flour was shipped to the place, and 
one sack was carefully marked and placed in a con- 
venient place where the renegades could easily secure 
it. In the meantime the red devils were destroying 
proprty at a wholesale rate, and many animals were 
killed while grazing in the pasture adjacent. That 
night this sack was placed at a convenient point and 
the next morning it was gone. For several days there- 
after there were no Indians to molest the tranquility 
of the scene. A few days later the military came and 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 47 

began scouting the country adjacent. With Dan 
O'Leary at their head, they were piloted to a locality 
where he had seen their rancherie a few weeks pre- 
vious. This was the objective point of the troops. The 
next day the soldiers returned from their scouting. 
They had capured all that was left of the place, some- 
thing like fourteen sick Indians, and had buried twenty- 
four who had died the day previous. The matter was 
reported to the military headquarters and an investi- 
gation was the result. Mr. Lee was exonerated, and 
in the meantime the lessee had fled the country. This 
became known for many years as the "Little Pinole 
Treaty," and it was severely condemned by many peo- 
ple, but the majority were in favor of any method to 
exterminate the Indians, and nothing was more wel- 
come to white men than extermination of their enemies, 
even by means of flour doctored up with strychnine. 
In that era the most fiendish atrocities were committed 
by the Apaches, and women and children were at their 
mercy. Like the slogan of the Texan in "Remember 
the Alamo," so was the watchword ever ringing in the 
ears of the Arizonan to remember the fate of the Oat- 
mans ; and when Miss Pemberton was scalped, lanced 
and thrown over a precipice for dead, but later rescued 
by the troops in Southern Arizona, men became hard 
in their feelings because their environment was such 
that they could not resist in demanding an eye for an 
eye and a tooth for a tooth. It is an established fact 
that livinsf springs of water were time and time again 
poisoned by the Apaches who followed the route of 
the marching troops. The Pinole treaty was con- 
demned, and so was General Crook for reporting a few 
souls as killed by his men when in realty and in truth 
he slew hundreds. At the time when the Indian signal 
smoke could be traced from the Dragoon Mountains on 
the south to the Mogollons on the north, from the Col- 
orado River on the west to the Blue on the east, is 
there any authority to point to living or dead who can 
say or could have said that in ten years of the Apache 
inferno one single white man of the many hundreds 
that were shot down did not fall from a foe that was 
in ambush ? And then, on the other hand, is it not an 
established fact that of all the hundreds of Indians 
taken in captivity all were pampered by a sickly senti- 
ment? Moreover, is there one single instance of a 



48 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

white man who was captured by the Indians and per- 
mitted to live? There are a few men alive today in 
Arizona who are cognizant of the dark days that en- 
shrouded this Territory when such bushwhackers as 
Sheerum, Natchez, Nana, Victoria, Loco, Geronimo 
and others of their ilk reigned, who will take off their 
hats to the valor of the Indians like Sitting Bull, Rain- 
in-the-Face, White Bear and other Northern Indians, 
because they fought in the open, and man for man, if 

the occasion called for it. 

* * * 

BEFORE the curtain falls on the last scene of the 
bloody Indian drama that cursed Arizona for 
over a decade, there is but one setting to the 
stage of the thrilling past. While it lasted it was in 
one sense of far more importance to the Territory than 
the preceding events that characterized the fight against 
the Apache, and incidentally it also gave to the fair 
name of Arizona for a generation afterward a fearful 
reputation of horror. But the Territory has emerged 
from the chasm that engulfed it only the more re- 
splendent and inviting, and the Apache no longer Way- 
lays the lone traveler. However, the final stab the 
Apache thrust in his doom was that frightful event 
when Loco, a noted war chief of the White Mountain 
Indians, broke loose from his reservation at San Carlos 
in 1882. With over 500 followers he raided the beau- 
tiful Gila Valley, and death and destruction followed. 
His cunning was such that none realized it until too 
late. Teamsters on the road were shot down, farmers 
in the fields picked off, and prospectors in the hills 
treated to the same fate. Over fifty were killed, and 
in one instance two young ladies on a cattle ranch 
were unmercifully shot down. This outbreak became 
of national importance, and soon the machinery of the 
war department at Washington was again oiled up 
and set in motion. Loco made for the Sierra Madre 
range of mountains in Mexico, which he succeeded in 
reaching. General Crook at this time was engaged 
against the Sioux, and he was again sent to Arizona. 
In the meantime several fights occurred while the 
flight of the Apache was in progress, and one of mem- 
orable rating was that which Captain Chaffee of the 
6th cavalry, directed. But this officer was handicapped 
in numbers, and had it not been for the lack of water 




Daniel Hatz . 

ONE of the old pioneers of Arizona who was in the thick of the early 
struggles of the territory. 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 49 

for his command, there is reason to believe he would 
have dealt the Indian a crushing blow. 

With the re-entrance of Crook the entire First regi- 
ment of infantry was ordered from Texas, and soon 
the boundary line of Mexico and the United States 
was alive with soldiers. So far as field operations 
were concerned Captain Crawford of the 3rd cavalry 
was practically in charge, being stationed on the line. 
The Americans, however, could not under treaty rights 
then prevailing, enter Mexican territory, hence there 
was an era of apathetic operations. This terminated 
in 1884, when a general surrender took place, and the 
Indians were again on the reservation, with the ex- 
ception of Natchez. This Indian was the son of the 
famous war god of the Chiricahuas Cochise, after 
whom Cochise county is named. Natchez was accord- 
ingly the hereditary chief of this tribe, after the death 
of his father. He was at this time in supreme com- 
mand of a fearless and cruel band, and his premier, or 
chief of staff, was the no-less heartless Geronimo. 
Natchez was a fine type of man physically, standing 
over six feet in height, with a frame as straight and 
symmetrical as an arrow. With his magnificent phy- 
sique, he was what might be termed a "gallant," so far 
as his association or relation with squaws was consid- 
ered. He was dutiful to them, and his delight was to 
squat down on a blanket and play the "coon can game" 
of cards or engage in conversation or favor them with 
personal attention. But Natchez tired soon of the hid- 
ing-out game and also came in and gave himself up. 

With a combination of ten war chiefs, and with 
Natchez at their head and Geronimo as the second 
best, these Indians asked to be sent into the mountains 
near San Carlos. This move was made for a purpose. 
They desired to mature plans for a general outbreak 
the following Spring, and they desired the isolation of 
the region to perfect their plans. They were sent to 
their new habitation and remained for nearly a year. 
In the Spring of 1885 they again took to the field in a 
determined outbreak, Natchez being again at the head, 
and Geronimo as second in command. Their strength 
was less than 100 fighting men, but they were the pick 
of the tribes. This outbreak electrified the nation, and 
there was everywhere a determined move on the part 
of the military to crush the Indians once and forever. 



50 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

Captain Crawford again took the field, and was given 
supreme command of the operations against the out- 
laws, who had again made for the Sierra Madres in 
Mexico. Crawford enlisted fifty-five White Mountain 
and forty-five Chiricahua Indians, the latter contingent 
all being brothers of the outlaws. With Crawford's 
command there were but six white officers : Dr. T. B. 
Davis, at present of Prescott, Arizona, as surgeon; 
Lieutenant M. P. Maus, Lieutenant W. H. Shipp, Lieu- 
tenant S. L. Faison, Thomas Home and J. H. Harri- 
son, as chiefs of the Indian scouts. This make-up of 
white men as against one hundred wild Apaches, and 
with over one-half of the latter related to the outlaws, 
will give one an idea of the perilous nature of the 
undertaking and what would result if treachery sup- 
planted fidelity while on the march in the mountain 
fastnesses of the route they were to travel. The chase 
was initiated under these conditions, and over eight 
months passed without any results being accomplished. 
The privations of this handful of white men were cruel 
in the extreme, but the spirit of Crawford was immov- 
ably centered to conquer, in which determination he 
was backed by the white officers to a man. A zigzag 
route of over five hundred miles in Mexico was trav- 
ersed by the command, most of the distance being 
covered on foot with mocassins as footwear, in a chain 
of mountains in comparison to which the Lava Beds 
of Oregon are a carpet. There is no region in North 
America, it is said, that is as rough and rugged as the 
Sierra Madres of Mexico, with neither trails nor 
wagon roads to guide. This command had additional 
privations to face in wading and swimming streams 
of water. In the heart of this chain of mountains the 
trail of the Indians was finally cut, and after a forced 
march of eighteen hours, the greater part of it being 
accomplished at night, the Indian camp was attacked, 
and captured, but without success so far as the outlaws 
were concerned. The camp supplies, the horses and 
other equipment were taken in, and one chief, Nana, 
with a few squaws and two bucks, but the morale of 
the organization was shattered. Natchez was left in 
the hills with nothing to eat, and soon his squaw ven- 
tured in offering to surrender. 

The tragic ending of this famous expedition, was 
here enacted. While Crawford was camped and his 



THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 51 

command was recuperating from their long and fa- 
tiguing pursuit, a company of Mexican soldiers ap- 
proached, believing (they said later) that it was the 
Indian rendezvous. They commenced firing when 
within range of the Americans, and notwithstanding 
they were addressed in the Mexican language, contin- 
ued the fusillade. In the midst of the shooting, Craw- 
ford jumped on top of a big boulder, and waving a 
white handkerchief, asked them to cease firing. A bul- 
let struck him over the left eye and he fell mortally 
wounded. Several of the Indian scouts were also hit. 
The entire command with the exception of Lieutenant 
Maus, were in favor of having a battle then and there 
with the Mexicans, and had it not been for the ranking 
officers there would have been a conflict. Crawford 
was taken on a litter improvised from cane poles and 
tied with buckskin strings, along with the wounded In- 
dians, and after eight days without regaining con- 
sciousness he passed away. Nacori, a Mexican ham- 
let, was reached in a few days, and the remains of 
Crawford were temporarily placed there. Later they 
were removed and taken to his native state, Nebraska, 
for burial. 

The hostile Indians in the hills continued overtures 
for peace, however, saying that in two months they 
would come to the Arizona line and surrender. This 
they did. Funnel Canyon near the line was selected 
for the big "pow wow." General Crook was notified 
at Bowie and he came on. A three days discussion 
followed, and here the fine hand and smooth tongue 
of Geronimo figured, and henceforth no other Indian 
in the history of the nation became as prominently 
known as he. No other Indian but Geronimo had 
anything to say, and even Natchez was always sup- 
planted when any point was up for discussion. The 
conclusion arrived at was to surrender unconditionally 
to General Crook and to come into Bowie. With this 
understanding Crook and the military left for that 
military post. But in the interim, several Indian trad- 
ers were infesting that region, where the military were 
as thick as fleas, and where revenue was wholesomely 
diverted into their coffers when there was any liquor to 
be had. These nefarious venders carried a Mexican 
decoction known as "mescal," and knowing the fond- 
ness of the Apache for the same, they found willing 



52 THE WHITE CONQUEST OF ARIZONA 

patrons. Besides, these Indians had plenty of Mexi- 
can money secured in their many raids, and the money 
for the fire-water was forthcoming. The effect of the 
liquor was to repudiate the contract with the military 
and Natchez and Geronimo again took to the field, or 
until their drunken debauch terminated. This news 
created a stir in military circles at Washington, and 
Crook was peremptorily ordered out of Arizona. Gen- 
eral Miles supplanted him, and inside of ten days Ge- 
ronimo came in and surrendered thirty-two of his fol- 
lowers to Lieutenant Gatewood in charge of some In- 
dian scouts at the San Bernardino ranch on the border. 
With Gatewood was Dr. Wood, now General Wood, 
in the U. S. Army of the Philippines. Critics of Gen- 
eral Crook state that if at the time of the agreement to 
surrender he had persisted in the custom to lay down 
arms and other weapons the glory would have been 
his, instead of it all going to General Miles. 

With all due respect to all military men and of every 
rank, the credit of Geronimo's or Natchez's downfall 
must attach to the memory of Captain Crawford. No 
expedition ever undertaken on the American conti- 
nent against the Indians or any other foe can equal 
that in the Mexican march he captained, nor was there 
ever in the American army on the frontier a more 
zealous, a more determined and a cooler officer. He 
was a trusted subaltern of Crook, and no one can gain- 
say that as the outcome of his magnificent work on 
this particular expedition, not a shot has been fired 
from that day to this by the Apache in Arizona. 



THE END.