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SaJlie SoutKaJl Gotten 






"While within its bright'ning dimness, 
With the misty halo 'round her, 
Stood a beautiful white maiden" 

Page 70 







printed tot tbc Hutbor 


Copyright, 1901 

All rights reserved 


The National Society 


Colonial Dames of America 




S civilization advances there develops 
in the heart of man a higher 
appreciation of the past, and the 
deeds of preceding generations 
come to be viewed with a calm 
criticism which denudes those 
deeds of false splendor and in 
creases the lustre of real accom 
plishment Man cannot see into the future and 
acquire the prescience of coming events which 
would make him infallible, but he can remove the 
veil from the past, contemplate the mistakes and 
successes of those who have lived before him, and 
who struggled with the same problems which now 
confront him. The results of their efforts are re 
corded in history, and inspired by high ideals he can 
study the past, and by feeding his lamp of wisdom 
with the oil of their pxperiences he secures a 
greater light to guide his own activities. Man 
remains a slave to Fate until Knowledge makes 
him free, and while all true knowledge comes 


from experience, it need not necessarily be personal 

In studying the past, deeds come to be estimated 
more with reference to their ultimate results and as 
factors in universal progress, and less as personal 
efforts ; just as more and more the personal merges 
into the universal in all lines of endeavor. Viewed 
in this light of ultimate results an imperishable and 
increased lustre envelops the name of Sir Walter 
Raleigh as the pioneer and faithful promoter of 
English colonization in America. The recognition 
of his services by the people who reap the reward 
of his labors has ever been too meagre. A por 
trait here and there, the name of the capital city in 
a State, a mention among other explorers on a 
tablet in the National Library, the name of a battle 
ship, and a few pages in history, help to remind us 
of his association with this nation. Perhaps a few 
may recognize his personal colors red and white 
in the binding in this book, and his Coat of Arms 
in the heraldic device which ornaments the cover, 
and which are mentioned "lest we forget" one we 
should honor. . 

The present and ever increasing greatness of 
these United States is due to the efforts of this 
remarkable man, who so wondrously combined in 


one personality the attributes of statesman, courtier, 
soldier, scientist, poet, explorer, and martyr. Isa 
bella of Spain offered her jewels to aid Columbus, 
and the deed has been lauded and celebrated as of 
international value, yet it contained no touch of 
personal sacrifice. She was never deprived of her 
jewels, and while her generous offer proved her 
faith in the theories and ability of Columbus, it 
brought to her no suffering. On the other hand, 
the efforts of Sir Walter Raleigh were at his own 
expense, and entailed financial disaster on him in 
the end. That he sought to extend the power of 
England must be admitted by those who correctly 
estimate his character ; yet no one will deny that 
he was the most important factor in the colonization 
of America by the English. Spain, France, and 
England contended long for supremacy in the New 
World, but France failed to gain any permanent 
power, and Spanish dominance, as illustrated in 
South America and Mexico, was followed by slow 
progress. It was the English race, led by Raleigh , 
which has become the leading power and modern 
strength of America. Colony after colony he sent 
to the new land, and desisted not, even after the 
death of his half-brother and coadjutor, Sir Hum 
phrey Gilbert Disaster could not daunt so brave 


a spirit, and with unsurpassed enterprise and perse 
verance he continued to send expeditions year after 
year to what is now the coast of North Carolina, but 
which was then called Virginia, and recognized as 
Raleigh's possessions. Much money was required, 
and when his own fortune was exhausted he trans 
ferred to what is known as the London Company 
his rights to the land, and by his advice they avoided 
his mistakes and made the next settlement at James 
town instead of Roanoak Island. 

These facts have been temporarily obscured by 
the moss of neglect, but they cannot be destroyed. 
They will ever remain the foundation-stones of the 
great structure known and respected among nations 
as the United States of America, and were laid by 
Sir Walter Raleigh at Roanoak Island, on the coast 
of North Carolina, which was then called Virginia. 
The intervening years have brought great results, 
those early struggles have ripened into success and 
greatness beyond Raleigh's most sanguine dreams. 
A new race has arisen, yet bearing the characteris 
tics of the race from which it sprung. Our English 
ancestors, our heritage of English law and custom, 
of religion and home life, of language and ideals, 
all tempered by the development of new character 
istics, bind us through him to England. 


Sir Walter Raleigh was not an ordinary man. 
He was one of the most remarkable of a coterie of 
remarkable men whom a remarkable queen (Eliza 
beth) gathered around her, and to whom she owed 
much of the grandeur of her remarkable reign. 
Elizabeth's greatest gift was a capacity for discern 
ing and using great minds, and she had the good 
fortune to find many around her at that period of 
time. Raleigh won her favor, and received from 
her many benefits, among which was the honor of 
knighthood with its emoluments, which she con 
ferred. In the end her favor cost him dear, because 
his heart had the courage to be true to itself in love. 
Elizabeth never forgave him for loving, marrying, 
and being true until death to her maid of honor, 
the beautiful Elizabeth Throckmorton. That vain 
and jealous queen permitted no rivals, and she 
wished to reign over the heart of this man, who, 
handsome, brave, gallant, intelligent, and romantic, 
made an ideal courtier. His life at court was bril 
liant but brief. Love anchored a soul attuned to 
loftier deeds, and after his marriage his career as a 
courtier was eclipsed by his later exploits as a states 
man, warrior, explorer, and author. He planned 
and participated in many expeditions which brought 
benefit to his queen and added to his own fortune, 


yet none of his expeditions have borne such an 
ever-increasing harvest of results as those he sent to 
America. He began that work in 1584, and con 
tinued to send expeditions in 1585-1586-1587, until 
the invasion of England by the Spanish Armada 
forced him to other activities, and even then he sent 
two expeditions to the relief of the colonists, which, 
because of the exigencies of war, failed to reach 
America. In fact, the attitude of Spain towards 
England at that time was the greatest obstacle which 
militated against the success of his colonies. His 
ships and his valor were necessary to suppress and 
check the insolence and ambition of Spain, who de 
signed to conquer England and become mistress of 
the world. By his valor, loyalty, and wisdom Raleigh 
was largely instrumental in bringing about the fail 
ure of those plans and in defeating the Spanish fleet, 
which had been boastingly named The Invincible 
Armada. Again his zeal and cool daring won for 
England the great victory of Cadiz, which has 
always ranked as the most remarkable achievement 
in the annals of naval warfare. With only seven 
ships he dashed in and destroyed a large Spanish 
fleet (fifty-five ships) in its own harbor with a dex 
terity and valor not surpassed even by Dewey at 
Manila nor by Schley at Santiago. 


Spain was always his foe because she feared him, 
and it seems like the Nemesis of fate that three hun 
dred years later the death-blow of Spain as a world 
power was dealt in Manila Bay by the nation which 
Raleigh strove so hard to plant, himself all uncon 
scious of what the years were to bring. On that 
famous morning when Dewey startled the world 
and chastised Spain for her insolence and cruelty, 
the ship which fired the first shot in a battle des 
tined to change the rating of two nations, the 
ship which first replied to the fire of the Spanish 
forts, as if answering the challenge of an old-time 
foe, that ship was the Raleigh, named in honor 
of that great man by the nation he had fostered, 
and in that battle Raleigh's foe was humbled, 
Raleigh's fame perpetuated, and Raleigh's death 

After the death of Elizabeth the star of Raleigh 
set. He whose most valiant work had been the 
defense of England against the attacks of Spain was 
falsely charged with treasonable negotiations with 
Spain, and after a farce of a trial was thrown into 
prison, where he remained more than twelve years. 
The only mitigations of the horrors of prison life were 
the presence of his devoted wife and his books. He 
had always been a student, and he spent the weary 


hours of his long confinement in that companionship 
which is known only to those who really love books, 
and to such minds they prove a panacea for sorrow 
and injustice. During that imprisonment he wrote 
his famous " History of the World," marking the 
eventful epoch by writing a history of the Old World 
at the same time that he was opening the gates of 
the future by planting English colonies in the New 
World. As soon as he was released from prison his 
mind returned to schemes of exploration. He made 
a voyage to South America, where new disasters 
befell him, and where his oldest son was killed. 
Shattered by grief and misfortune he returned to 
England, where his enemies had planned his certain 
downfall. Again he was sent to prison, but not for 
a long time, for soon his princely head paid the pen 
alty which true greatness has too often paid to the 
power of a weak king. As a subject he was loyal 
and valiant, as a husband faithful and devoted, as a 
father affectionate and inspiring, as a scholar distin 
guished in prose and poetry, as a soldier he won 
fame and fortune, as a statesman he contributed to 
the renown of his sovereign's realm, and as a man 
he lived and died guided by the highest ideals. 
This was the man who spent a fortune trying to 
establish English colonies in North America, and 


who sent repeated expeditions to the island of 
Roanoak, situated where the waters of the Albe- 
marle and Pamlico Sounds meet, on the coast of 
North Carolina, but which was then called Virginia. 
The island wears a cluster of historic jewels which 
should endear it to all patriotic Anglo-Americans. 
To them it should be the most sacred, the best 
loved spot in all the United States. There the first 
English settlements were made which led to English 
supremacy in the New World. There the first home 
altar was reared and the first child of English 
parents in the United States was born and baptized. 
There the blood of Englishmen first dyed the sod 
of North America, and there the first attempts at 
English agriculture were made. There was enacted 
the tragedy of American colonization, the dis 
appearance of Raleigh's Lost Colony, and there the 
sacrament of baptism was first administered in the 
United States. Roanoak Island is a beautiful place, 
with fertile soil and wild luxuriance of vine-covered 
forests which are enveloped in a deep solitude which 
has become dignity. Restless waters ebb and flow 
by its side, restless winds kiss its bare sand dunes, 
a genial sun brings to maturity its wealth of tree 
and vine and shrub. Protected from the storms 
which ravage the ocean beyond, it sleeps in quiet 


beauty, content with its heritage of fame as the first 
home of the English race in America. 

Its isolated position, its wild beauty, its tragic 
associations, its dignified repose, all seem to have 
set it aside from the rush of modern progress that it 
might become a shrine for the homage of a patriotic 

The wonderful fertility of the soil of this island 
seemed a marvel to the early explorers, all of whom 
have testified to it Ralph Lane, governor of the 
colony of 1585, in writing to Raleigh of the island 
and the surrounding country, declared it to be "the 
goodliest soil under the cope of heaven," and that 
" being inhabited with English no realm in Christ 
endom were comparable to it;" every word of which 
is true now, provided that the English who inhabit 
it follow the suggestions of nature and adopt horti 
culture as the developing means. The surrounding 
country as well as Roanoak Island has a wealth of 
climbing vines and clustering grapes which point 
instinctively to grape culture. Amadas and Barlowe 
(1584) wrote that they found the land "so full of 
grapes as the very beating and surge of the sea over 
flowed them, of which we found such plenty, as well 
there as in all places else, both on the sand and on 
the green soil, on the hills as on the plains, as well 


as on every little shrub as also climbing towards the 
top of high cedars, that I think in all the world the 
like abundance is not to be found." 

Surely no other such natural vineyard was ever 
found outside the fabled Garden of the Gods! 

Even in this generation an old resident of the 
Banks, an ante-bellum pilot on these waters, has 
testified that his grandfather could remember the 
time " when if a vessel were stranded on any of the 
beaches the crew could crawl to land on the grape 
vines hanging over where now there is only a dry 
sand beach." Throughout the eastern part of that 
State (North Carolina) the grape riots in natural 
luxuriance and is luscious and fragrant. Many 
varieties remain wild, while others have been im 
proved by cultivation. The three finest native 
American grapes, the Catawba, the Isabella, and the 
Scuppernong, are all indigenous to the soil of North 
Carolina. The Catawba, native to the banks of the 
river Catawba, from which it takes its name, is still 
found wild in North Carolina, while it has become 
celebrated at the North as a table-grape, and in 
Ohio as a wine-grape. In its adopted home it has 
revolutionized land values because of the money 
value of the product. The Isabella grape, so 
generally cultivated for table use, is thought to be a 


hybrid between the Burgundy and the native fox- 
grape of the Carolinas. The tradition runs that 
the Burgundy was brought to South Carolina by the 
Huguenots, and that cuttings from this hybrid were 
brought to North Carolina and successfully prop 
agated. Mrs. Isabella Gibbs, for whom this well- 
known grape was named, carried a vine from North 
Carolina to Long Island, where it attracted attention 
because of its hardiness. 

To the people of the South Atlantic coast the 
Scuppernong is by far the most important of the 
native grapes, for while it refuses to flourish away 
from its native home, yet its great possibilities as a 
wine-grape are beginning to be appreciated. All 
the early explorers gave it special mention. Hariot 
in his famous Narrative wrote, "There are two kinds 
of grapes that the soil does yield naturally, the one 
is small and sour, of the ordinary bigness of ours in 
England ; the other far greater and of himself luscious 
sweet. When they are planted and husbanded as 
they ought, a principal commodity of wines by them 
may be raised." (Hakluyt, 1586.) Lawson in his 
history (1714) describes several varieties, and dwells 
on the abundant supply of grapes and the great 
tangles of green vines. He wrote of a native white 
grape, which many in that day thought existed only 

Old " Mother" Scuppernong Vine. 


in his imagination ; but it was a reality and was the 
now well-known Scuppernong, whose fame history 
and tradition both perpetuate, and whose real worth, 
greater than its legendary fame, is now being recog 
nized and appreciated. There are several varieties 
of the Scuppernong, all luscious and yielding rich 
juices, and when ripe they fill the air with a fragrance 
unknown to any other grape. 

The first Scuppernong vine known to history was 
found on the mainland of the North Carolina coast 
by Amadas and Barlowe on their first voyage (l 584). 
Tradition relates thay they transplanted this vine to 
Roanoak Island. On this island there still flourishes 
an old vine, which despite its gnarled body and 
evident age continues to bear fruit. It is claimed 
that it is the same vine Amadas and Barlowe planted. 
Some insist that it was planted by Sir Walter Raleigh 
himself, but as that famous knight did not realize his 
wish to visit his new possessions in North America, 
the honor of having planted the vine must revert to 
Amadas and Barlowe. It seems to be endowed 
with perennial youth, and the harvest from its 
branches is an annual certainty. 

What the early explorers testified as to the abun 
dant supply of grapes on the Carolina coast, and the 
propitious conditions existing for the propagation of 


the vine, is equally true to-day. The manifest des 
tiny of North Carolina as the rival of Southern France 
in the production of wines seems to be inevitable. 
The marvel is how it has been so long delayed after 
Hariot's special mention of such possibilities. Hariot 
was a close observer with a practical mind, and the 
presence of an indigenous supply of material to sus 
tain an important industry suggested to him that the 
people coming to this grape-laden land might estab 
lish such an industry to their advantage. The delay 
of the development of grape-culture in its native 
home can only be explained on the theory that when 
nature boldly invites, man becomes shy. This in 
difference to grape-culture is peculiar to America, for 
in Europe all the aristocracy who are land-owners, 
where the climate makes it possible, are cultivators 
of the grape, take great pride in their wines, boast 
of their rare and fine vintages, and hold the making 
of wine as one of the fine arts. 

The original Scuppernong has white skin, white 
pulp, white juice, and makes a white wine. Other 
varieties have dark purple skins and yield a reddish 
juice which makes a red wine. The dark varieties 
are said to be seedlings from the original white va 
riety, and tradition explains the metamorphosis in 
this way. 


In the magic spring made famous in the legend 
of The White Doe, after the blood of Virginia Dare 
had melted from the silver arrow into the water of 
the spring, then the water disappeared. As the 
legend says : 

' ' Dry became the magic fountain, 
Leaving bare the silver arrow." 

Then while O-kis-ko looked on in wonderment he 


' ' a tiny shoot with leaflets 
Pushing upward to the sunlight. ' ' 

Tradition says that this " tiny shoot with leaflets " 
was a young seedling of the Scuppernong which had 
sprouted in the edge of the water, and it was not 
seen by O-kis-ko until all the water had disappeared. 
Then he saw it and immediately associated its ap 
pearance with the magic arrow, and so left it " reach 
ing upward to the sunlight." After many days he 
returned to the spot drawn by an irresistible long 
ing, and covered the fatal arrow, which had brought 
him so much woe, with earth and leaves to hide 
it from his sight. The earth and leaves furnished 
the necessary nourishment to the tiny vine, which 
reached out with strength and vigor, and finding 
friendly bushes upon which to climb, it soon made a 


sheltering bower above the spot where had bubbled 
the magic spring. This tiny green bower became the 
favorite retreat of O-kis-ko, where he would linger to 
cherish thoughts of his lost love, Virginia Dare, and 
marvel on the wonders of her death. Then it came 
to pass that when fruit came upon this vine, lo ! it 
was purple in hue instead of white like the other 
grapes, and yielded a red juice. Full of super 
stition, and still credulous of marvels, O-kis-ko imag 
ined the change to be due to the magic arrow buried 
at its root. He gathered the grapes and pressed the 
juice from them, and lo ! it was red it was the sem 
blance of blood, Virginia Dare's blood, absorbed 
from the water (in which it had melted from the 
arrow) by the vine, and yet potent for good. Surely 
it held some unseen power, for it combined in some 
mystic way through the mysterious earth at his feet 
all the power of the magic spring, the power of the 
silver arrow, and the power of human blood conse 
crated through human love. He reverently drank 
the juice of this new vine, believing that it would in 
some way link him with the spirit of her he had 
loved and lost. Year after year he drank this juice 
and fed his soul on thoughts of love, making uncon 
sciously a sacrament, and finding happiness in the 
thought that the blood of the maiden would feed his 


spirit and lead him to her at last To become good 
like her and to go to her became his highest hope. 
Aspiration had been born in his soul, and quickened 
by love it could not die, but led him blindly to strive 
to reach her, and such striving is never in vain. 

Another fact that should be enshrined in the 
hearts and perpetuated in the memorials of the 
nation, is that on Roanoak Island the first Christian 
baptism in the United States was administered. By 
order of Sir Walter Raleigh, Manteo, the friendly 
Indian chief, was baptized soon after the arrival of 
the colony under Governor White, and the following 
Sunday Virginia Dare, the granddaughter of Gover 
nor White, was baptized, both events being officially 
reported to Raleigh. In this day of religious free 
dom any enforced adoption of religious forms shocks 
our pious instincts. Yet baptism has always been 
considered necessary to salvation, and in the past 
the zeal of Christians for the salvation of their fellow- 
men often assumed the form of mild force. We read 
where the Spaniards, always religious fanatics, ad 
ministered the Holy Sacrament to thousands in 
Central America and Mexico at the point of the 
sword ; their zeal misleading them to force upon 
those less enlightened than themselves the hope of 
that heaven which they believed to be accessible 


only through certain Christian rites. So to order 
the baptism of an Indian chief seems a simple, 
kindly thing, and most probably Manteo desired it 
done. The only other Indian who received baptism 
in those early settlements was Pocahontas, in 1614. 
She was a captive at the time and held as a hostage 
to induce Powhatan to comply with certain demands 
of the colonists at Jamestown. 

Despite the fact that Virginia Dare was baptized 
twenty-seven years earlier than Pocahontas, yet it is 
the Indian Princess who is figured in the painting 
on the walls of the dome of the Capitol at Wash 
ington as receiving the first baptism in the colonies. 
Buried in the annals of that time lies the fact that 
twenty-seven years before any colonist even came 
to Jamestown, Virginia Dare was born and bap 
tized, as the sequence of Christian birth and as the 
child of Christian parents. Virginia Dare was not a 
myth. She was a living, breathing reality, a human 
creature of good English descent, the granddaughter 
of the governor of the colonies, the daughter of 
the assistant governor, and a sharer in the myste 
rious fate of Raleigh's Lost Colony. The histori 
cal facts of her life and the legend of her fate and 
death are contained in the pages of "The White 


Her baptism would not have been mentioned in 
the records if it had not been official and proper. 
In a new land, surrounded by dangers and difficul 
ties, with strange environment to divert the mind 
to other channels, it would have been easy and 
natural for her baptism to have been delayed if not 
altogether neglected amid the stress of events. Her 
prompt baptism and the official report of the event 
to Sir Walter Raleigh is convincing testimony to 
the presence of a chaplain at Roanoak. 



How naturally the scene rises before us. The 
young mother, her heart thrilling with the mysteries 
of love and life, and elated with the joy of mother 
hood, alert to the dangers of the new land, and sus 
picious of the strange people among whom her 
blue-eyed treasure must live, yet yielding cheerfully 
to the busy smiling English women who had crossed 
the ocean with her, and now with womanly intuition 
ministered to her needs. We can picture them 
making tidy the confused household, and stilling the 
cries of the infant as they prepare her to receive 
the sign of the cross. We can almost picture them 
deliberating over a choice from among their limited 


supply of vessels of one worthy to become the re 
ceptacle of the water to be used. It was on the 
Sabbath-Day, and the dedication to God of the 
wee creature who had so newly come among them 
was a fitting observance of the day. The solemn 
words of the ritual of the English Church, never 
before spoken in that primeval forest, must have 
awakened mysterious vibrations which linger yet 
and give to Roanoak Island that atmosphere of 
perpetual repose which envelops it. There must 
have come to those who witnessed the scene that 
holy Sabbath-Day, just as it comes now to those 
who view it from afar, a deep realization that the 
God of the English and the Great Spirit of the In 
dian are one and the same, then, now, and ever 
more. The One God to whom in baptism Virginia 
Dare was brought and in whose name Manteo the 
savage was signed with the cross and given the 
promise of salvation, and who remains the God of 
the millions of English-speaking people who now 
worship in the land which was then and there dedi 
cated to the service of Christ 

The mist of oblivion fades before the light of 
Truth, and Virginia Dare will be a shining jewel in 
the Chaplet of Memories which some day Christian 
America will place upon the tomb of the Past. 


A FAMILIAR knowledge of the history of one's 
own country increases patriotism and stimulates 
valor. For this reason the study of written records 
called history should be supplemented by research 
into myths, folk-lore, and legends. While the 
value of history lies ever in its truth, it must yet 
bear the ideals of the people who participated in 
the events narrated. Tradition was the mother 
of all history, and was necessarily robed in the 
superstitions of the era of which the tradition tells. 
History writers, jealously guarding the truth, have 
striven to banish all traditions which seemed colored 
by fancy or even freighted with a moral lesson. 
These exiled traditions, bearing the seed-germs of 
truth, cannot die, but, like wandering spirits, float 
down the centuries enveloped in the mists of super 
stition, until finally, embodied in romance or song, 
they assume a permanent form called legend and 
become the heritage of a people. Legends are 
the satellites of history because they have their 



origin in the same events, and the history of all 
countries is interspersed with them. 

The legend of The White Doe is probably the 
oldest and possibly the least known of all the 
legends which relate to the history of the United 
States. It is a genuine American legend, and the 
facts from which it had its origin form the first 
chapter in the history of English colonization in 
North America. Those facts are found in the 
repeated attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to estab 
lish an English colony in the New World. The 
Spaniards were in Florida, the French were in 
Nova Scotia, but England had gained no posses 
sions in North America when Raleigh began his 
efforts. This fact assumes more importance when 
we remember that civilization has made the greatest 
progress in those parts of America where the 
English became dominant In South America, 
dominated by the Spaniards, civilization has made 
no strides, while in the United States a new nation 
has arisen whose ultimate destiny none may limit 
or foretell. As the gates of a new century open 
and disclose almost unlimited fields for human 
progress, this new nation, with an enthusiasm and 
courage born of success, has taken her place to 
lead in the eternal forward search for better op- 


portunities and higher life for the human race. 
All this grand destiny, all this ripening opportunity, 
like a harvest from a few seeds, is traced back, 
event after event, to the early struggles of those 
who braved the dangers of sea and forest in the 
attempts to colonize America. Those pioneer 
efforts, so generously promoted by Sir Walter 
Raleigh, though only partially successful, were the 
stepping-stones which later led to the better-known 
settlement of Jamestown, in Virginia. A brief 
resume of those stepping-stones will make them 
familiar to all. 

In 1584 Queen Elizabeth made a grant to 
Raleigh for all the land from Nova Scotia to 
Florida, which was called Virginia, in honor of the 
Virgin Queen, as Elizabeth was called. 

The first expedition sent out under this grant 
was in the same year, 1584, and was entirely at 
the expense of Sir Walter Raleigh, as were all of 
the expeditions up to 1590. It was solely for the 
purpose of exploration, and was under the com 
mand of Amadas and Barlowe, who, after coast 
ing along the Atlantic shores, entered Pamlico 
Sound and landed on the island of Roanoak, 
on the coast of the present State of North Carolina. 
They made the acquaintance of the tribes there 


resident, explored the country on the coast, and 
returned to England to bear enthusiastic testimony 
to the delightsomeness of the country. They took 
with them back to England two native Indian 
chiefs, Manteo and Wanchese, who returned to 
America on a subsequent voyage, as the official 
records tell. 

The following year, 1585, a colony of one 
hundred and seven men landed on this same island 
of Roanoak. They came organized to occupy 
and possess the land granted to Raleigh, and to 
secure such benefits therefrom as in those days 
were deemed valuable. They remained one year, 
exploring the country and trying to establish rela 
tions with the Indians. They built houses, planted 
crops, and looked forward to the arrival of more 
men and food, which had been promised from 
England. But no ships came, provisions grew 
scarce, and before the crops they had planted were 
mature enough to harvest, Sir Francis Drake, the 
great sea-rover of that day, appeared off the 
island with a fleet of vessels. 

Knowing the dangers of that coast, he did not 
attempt to come to the island, but sent in to learn 
of the welfare of the colony, and offered to supply 
their immediate needs. They asked, among other 


things, that their sick and weak men be taken back 
to England, that food for those who remained be 
given them, and for a vessel in which they might 
return home if they so desired, all of which Drake 
granted. But a dreadful storm arose, which lasted 
three days and drove the promised vessel out to 
sea, with a goodly number of the colonists and 
the promised food on board. Seeing thus a part 
of their number and their food gone, the remain 
ing colonists became homesick and panic-stricken 
and begged Drake to take them all to England, 
which he did. Thus ended the first attempt at 
English colonization in North America. 

Fifteen days after their departure Sir Richard 
Grenville arrived with three vessels, bringing the 
promised supplies, but found the men gone. 
Wishing to hold the country for England until 
another colony could arrive, he left fifteen men 
on the island with provisions for two years, and he 
returned to England. Those fifteen men are sup 
posed to have been murdered and captured by 
the Indians, as the next colony found only some 
bones, a ruined fort, and empty houses in which 
deer were feeding. 

The leaving of those fifteen men is considered 
the second attempt at colonization, and is recog- 


nized as a failure. But all success is built only 
by persistent repetition of effort, and so, in 1587, 
another colony came from England to this same 
island of Roanoak. Among those colonists were 
seventeen women and nine children, thus proving 
the intention of making permanent homes, and 
the hope of establishing family ties which should 
for all time unite England and North America. 
A few days after the arrival of this colony at 
Roanoak, Virginia Dare was born, she being the 
first child born of English parents on the soil of 
North America, and because she was the first 
child born in Virginia she was called Virginia. 
Her mother, Eleanor Dare, was the daughter of 
John White, the governor of the colony, and the 
wife of one of the assistant governors. 

The Sunday following her birth she was baptized, 
this being another fact of official record. 

By Sir Walter Raleigh's command the rite of 
baptism had been administered, a few days earlier, 
to Manteo, an Indian chief, who had visited 
England with a returning expedition, as previously 
mentioned. This baptism of the adult Indian and 
of the white infant were the first Christian sacra 
ments administered in North America, and are 
worthy of commemoration. 


The colonists soon found that to make possible 
and permanent their home in a new land many 
things were needed more than they had provided. 
So at their urgent request their leader, Governor 
White, grandfather of Virginia Dare, consented 
to return to England to secure the needed sup 
plies, with which he was to return to them the 
following year. When White reached England he 
found war going on with Spain, and England 
threatened with an invasion by the famous Spanish 
Armada. His queen needed and demanded his 
services, and not until 1590 three years later did 
he succeed in returning to America. When at last 
he came the colonists had disappeared, and the 
only clue to their fate was the word "Croatoan," 
which he found carved on a tree ; it having been 
agreed between them that if they changed their 
place of abode in his absence they would carve 
on a tree the name of the place to which they 
had gone. 

The arrival of those colonists, the birth and 
baptism of Virginia Dare, the return of White to 
England, the disappearance of the colony, and the 
finding of the word Croatoan, these facts form 
the record of that colony, the disappearance of 
which is a mystery which history has not solved. 


But tradition illumines many periods of the 
past which history leaves in darkness, and tradi 
tion tells how this colony found among friendly 
Indians a refuge from the dangers of Roanoak 
Island, and how this infant grew into fair maiden 
hood, and was changed by the sorcery of a re 
jected lover into a white doe, which roamed the 
lonely island and bore a charmed life, and how 
finally true love triumphed over magic and restored 
her to human form, only to result in the death 
of the maiden from a silver arrow shot by a cruel 

This tradition of a white doe and a silver 
arrow has survived through three centuries, and 
not only lingers where the events occurred, but 
some portions of it are found wherever in our 
land forests abound and deer abide. From Maine 
to Florida lumbermen are everywhere familiar 
with an old superstition that to see a white doe 
is an evil omen. In some localities lumbermen 
will quit work if a white deer is seen. That 
such a creature as a white deer really exists is 
demonstrated by their capture and exhibition in 
menageries, and to-day the rude hunters of the 
Alleghany Mountains believe that only a silver 
arrow will kill a white deer. 


The disappearance of this colony has been truly 
called "the tragedy of American colonization," 
and around it has hung a pathetic interest which 
ever leads to renewed investigation, in the hope 
of solving the mystery. From recent search into 
the subject by students of history a chain of 
evidence has been woven from which it has come 
to be believed that the lost colony, hopeless of 
succor from England, and deprived of all other 
human associations, became a part of a tribe of 
friendly Croatoan Indians, shared their wander 
ings, and intermarried with them, and that their 
descendants are to be found to-day among the 
Croatoan Indians of Robeson County, North 

(Those who desire to investigate this supposed 
solution of the mystery can easily secure the facts 
and the conclusions formed by those who have 
made a careful study of the subject) 

Of course, it can never be known certainly 
whether Virginia Dare was or was not of that 
number, but the full tradition of her life among 
the Indians is embodied in the legend of The 
White Doe. 

Much has been written about the Indian prin 
cess Pocahontas, and much sentiment has clustered 


around her association with the Jamestown colony, 
while few have given thought to the young English 
girl whose birth, baptism, and mysterious disap 
pearance link her forever with the earlier tragedies 
of the same era of history. It seems a strange 
coincidence that the Indian maiden Pocahontas, 
friend and companion of the White Man, having 
adopted his people as her own, should sleep in 
death on English soil, while the English maiden, 
Virginia Dare, friend and companion of the Red 
Man, having adopted his people as her own, should 
sleep in death on American soil, the two maidens 
thus exchanging nationality, and linking in life 
and in death the two countries whose destinies 
seem most naturally to intermingle. 

The scattered fragments of this legend have 
been carefully collected and woven into symmetry 
for preservation. Notes from authentic sources 
have been appended for the benefit of searchers 
into the historical basis of the poem, which is 
offered to the public with the hope that it may 
increase interest in the early history of our home 
land and strengthen the tie which binds England 
and the United States. 















APPENDIX . .... 81 


/ " While within its bright' ning dimness. 
With the misty halo 'round her, 
Stood a beautiful white maiden' FRONTISPIECE 

2 A Scuppernong Vineyard, Roanoak Island x 

3 Old " Mother" Scuppernong Vine xii 

4 Among the Scuppernongs. A Modern Vineyard xiv 
3 A " Virginia Dare' ' Vineyard xvi 

6 The Arrival of the Englishmen in Virginia 23 

7 ' ' The Fierce, firawny Red Man is King of the 

Wold" 24 

8 The Land-of- Wind-and- Water 32 

9 Man-te-o, a Chiefe Lorde of Roanoak 34. 

10 ' ' Then a New Canoe he fashioned 1 ' 32 

11 The Magician of Po-mou-ik jS 

Frontispiece from an original drawing by May Louise 

Maps and remaining illustrations reproduced from 
Theodore de Bry's edition of "The True Pictures and 
Fashions of the People in that Parte of America now 
called Virginia," 1590. 


IN the tomb of vanished ages sleep th" ungarnered truths 

of Time, 
Where the pall of silence covers deeds of honor and of 

crime ; 
Deeds of sacrifice and danger, which the careless earth 

There, in ever-deep' ning shadows, lie embalmed in mute 

Would-be-gleaners of the Present vainly grope amid this 

gloom ; 
Flowers of Truth to be immortal must be gathered while 

they bloom, 
Else they pass into the Silence, man's neglect their only 

And the Gleaner of the Ages stores them far from human 

Yet a perfume, sweet and subtle, lingers where each 

flower grew, 
Rising from the shattered petals, bathed and freshened by 

the dew ; 
And this perfume, in the twilight, forms a mist beneath 

the skies, 
Out of which, like airy phantoms, legends and traditions 

rise ; 
For the Seeds of Truth are buried in a legend's inmost 


To transplant them in the sunlight justifies the poet's art. 








ROAN OAK, 1587 

SHIMMERING waters, aweary of tossing, 
Hopeful of rest, ripple on to the shore ; 
Dimpling with light, as they waver and quiver, 
Echoing faintly the ocean's wild roar. 
Locked in the arms of the tremulous waters 
Nestles an island, with beauty abloom, 
Where the warm kiss of an amorous summer 
Fills all the air with a languid perfume. 
Windward, the roar of the turbulent breakers 
Warns of the dangers of rock and of reef; 
Burdened with mem'ries of sorrowful shipwreck, 
They break on the sands in torrents of grief 
Leeward, the forest, grown giant in greenness, 
Shelters a land where a fervid sun shines ; 
Wild with the beauty of riotous nature, 
Thick with the tangles of fruit-laden vines.* 
From fragrant clusters, grown purple with ripeness, 
Rare, spicy odors float out to the sea,f 
Where the gray gulls flit with restless endeavor, 
Skimming the waves in their frolicsome glee. 

* See Appendix, Note a. f See Appendix, Note b. 



Out from the shore stalks the stately white 


Seeking his food from the deep without fear, 
Gracefully waving wide wings as he rises 
When the canoe of the Indian draws near. 
Through reedy brake and the tangled sea-grasses 
Wander the stag and the timid-eyed doe * 
Down to the water's edge, watchful and wary 
For arrows that fly from the red hunter's bow. 
Fearless Red Hunter ! his birthright the forest, 
Lithe as the antelope, joyous and free. 
Trusting his bow for his food and his free 

Wresting a tribute from forest and sea, 
No chilling forecast of doom in the future 
Daunts his brave spirit, by freedom made bold. 
Far o'er the wildwood he roams at his pleasure, 
The fierce, brawny Red Man is king of the wold. 

Lo ! in the offing the white sails are gleaming, 
Ships from afar to the land drawing nigh ; 
Laden with men, strong and brave to meet dan 
Stalwart of form, fair of skin, blue of eye. 

* See Appendix, Note c. 


Boldly they land where the white man is alien ; 
Women are with them, with hearts true and brave ; 
Sadly they stand where their countrymen perished,* 
Seeking a home where they found but a grave. 

Friendly red hunters greet them with kindness, 
Tell the sad tale how their countrymen died,f 
Beg for a token of friendship and safety, f 
Promise in love and in peace to abide. 
Manteo's heart glows with friendly remembrance, 
He greets them as brothers and offers good 

cheer ; 

No thrill of welcome is felt by Wanchese,J 
His heart is bitter with malice and fear. 
Envying men his superiors in wisdom, 
Fearing a race his superiors in skill ; 
Sullen and silent he watches the strangers, 
Whom from the first he determines to kill. 

Then the sign of the Cross, on the brow of the 


Seals to the savage the promise of life ; 
Sweet symbol of sacrifice, emblem of duty, 
Standard of Peace, though borne amidst strife : 

* See Appendix, Note d. \ Pronounced Wan-chess-e. 

f See Appendix, Note . # See Appendix, Note /. 


Draped with the sombre, stained banner of Con 

Dark with the guilt of man's murder and greed, 

Yet bright with God's message of love and for 

Unto a universe welded to creed. 

Gently the morning breeze tosses the tree-tops, 

Low ebbs the tide on the outlying sand ; 

When a tiny white babe opens eyes to the sun- 

Heaven's sweet pledge for the weal of the 

Babe of the Wilderness ! tenderly cherished ! 

Signed with the Cross on the next Sabbath 

Brave English Mother ! through danger and sor 

For a nation of Christians thou leadest the way. 

Back to the home-land, across the deep water, 
Goes the wise leader, their needs to abate ; f 
Leaving with sorrow the babe and its mother 
In a strange land as a hostage to Fate. 

* See Appendix, Note g. f See Appendix, Note h. 


Many long months pass in busy home-making, 
Sweet English customs prevail on the isle ; 
Anxious eyes watch for the ship in the offing, 
Saddened hearts droop, but the lips bravely smile. 

Gone are the sweet dreamy days of the summer, 
In from the ocean the winter winds shriek ; 
Dangers encompass and enemies threaten, 
Mother and child other refuge must seek. 
Mother and child, as in Bethlehem story, 
Flee from the hate of their blood-thirsty foes ; 
Hopeless of help from their own land and people, 
They seek friendly tribes to find rest from their 

To the fair borders of Croatoan Island, 
Over the night-covered waters they flee ; 
Seeking for safety with Manteo's people, 
Leaving the word "Croatoan" on a tree.* 
Name of the refuge in which they sought shelter, 
Only the name of a tribe, nothing more ; * 
Sign whereby those who would seek them might 

To their new home on the Croatoan's shore. 

* See Appesdix, Note k. 


Why did they leave the rude fort they had 

builded ? 

Why did they seek far away a new home? 
O innocent babe ! Roanoak's lost nestling ! 
How shall we learn where thy footsteps did roam ? 
'Mid the rude tribes of the primeval forest, 
Bearing the signet of Christ on thy brow, 
Wert thou the teacher and guide of the savage ? 
Who, of thy mission, can aught tell us now ? 
Through the dim ages comes only the perfume, 
Left where the flowers of Truth fell to earth ; 
With ne'er a gleaner to treasure the blossoms, 
Save the sweet petals of baptism and birth. 
Vainly we seek on Time's shore for thy footprints, 
Hid in a mist of pathos is thy fate ; 
Yet of a life under savage enchantment 
Quaint Indian legends do strangely relate. 



IN the Land-of-Wind-and- Water, 
Loud the sea bemoaned its sameness ; 
Dashing shoreward with impatience 
To explore the landward mysteries. 
On the sand the waves spread boldly, 
Vainly striving to reach higher ; 
Then abashed by vain ambition, 
Glided to their ordained duty. 
There the pine-tree, tall and stately, 
Whispered low the ocean's murmur ; 
Strove to soothe the restless waters 
With its lullaby of sighing. 
There the tall and dank sea-grasses, 
From the storm-tide gathered secrets 
Of the caverns filled with treasures, 
Milky pearls and tinted coral, 
Stores of amber and of jacinth, 
In the caves festooned with sea-weed, 
Where the Sea-King held his revels 
And the Naiads danced in beauty. 



In this Land-of-Wind-and-Water, 
Dowered with the sunshine's splendor, 
Juicy grapes grew in profusion, 
Draping all the trees with greenness, 
And the maize grew hard and yellow, 
With the sunshine in its kernels. 
Through the forest roamed the black bear, 
And the red deer boldly herded ; 
Through the air flew birds of flavor, 
And the sea was full of fishes, 
Till the Red Man knew no hunger, 
And his wigwam hung with trophies. 

There brave Man-te-o, the Faithful, 
Ruled the Cro-a-to-ans with firmness, 
Dwelt in peace beside the waters, 
Smoked his pipe beneath the pine-tree, 
Gazed with pride upon his bear-skins 
Which hung ready for the winter. 
Told his people all the marvels 
Of the Land-of-the-Pale-Faces ; 
Of the ships with wings like sea-birds 
Wherein he had crossed the water ; * 
Of the Pale-Face Weroanzaf 

* See Appendix, Note /. f Queen Elizabeth. 

The Land 

C A W A 

* "A 

W E A P E - 

I -" m^m- 

' :; - : - -"- :: i 

fr^J ^--.-->^ ., ;4& ; <xi rt *< v-^. *>%- 5- 

/ind -and- Water 


Whom he saw in her own country ; 

Of her robes of silken texture, 

Of her wisdom and her power ; 

Told them of her warlike people 

And their ships which breathed the lightning. 

How he pledged with them a friendship, 

Hoping they would come to teach him 

How to make his people mighty, 

How to make them strong in battle 

So the other tribes would fear them. 

And the dream of future greatness 

Filled the Cro-a-to-ans with courage ; 

And their hearts grew warm and friendly 

To the race of white-faced strangers. 

When bold white men came among them, 
To the isle of Ro-a-no-ak, 
Man-te-o, the friendly Weroance, 
Faithful proved to all his pledges. 
Smoked with them the pipe of friendship, 
Took their God to be his Father ; 
Took upon his swarthy forehead 
Their strange emblem of salvation,* 
Emblem of the One Great Spirit, 
Father of all tribes and nations. 

* See Appendix, Note / 


Man-te-o, the friend and brother, 
Bade them fear the false Wan-ches-e, 
And the Weroance Win-gin-a, 
Whose hearts burned with bitter hatred 
For the men they feared in combat, 
For the strangers who defied them. 

When the Pale-Face, weak and hungry, 
Feeble from continued labor, 
Shivered in the blasts of winter 
Which blew cold across the water, 
Then Wan-ches-e planned their ruin, 
With Win-gin-a sought to slay them. 

To the isle of Ro-a-no-ak, 
Where the Pale-Face slept unguarded, 
Sped the swift canoes of Red Men, 
Gliding through the silent shadows. 
As the sky grew red with dawning,* 
While they dreamed of home and kindred, 
Suddenly with whoop of murder 
Wily Indians swarmed around them. 

Skill of Pale-Face, craft of Red Man, 
Met in fierce, determined battle ; 

* See Appendix, Note m. 

Man-te-o, a chiefe lorde of Roanottk 


While within the Fort called Ralegh 
Many arrows fell, like raindrops. 
Arrows tipped with serpent's poison, 
Arrows tipped with blazing rosin, 
Winged with savage thirst for murder, 
Aimed with cruel skill to torture. 
Threatened by the blazing roof-tree 
Then the Pale-Face crouched in terror ; 
Saw the folly of resistance, 
Feared his doom, and fled for safety. 

Man-te-o, alert for danger, 
From afar saw signs of conflict ; 
Saw the waves of smoke ascending 
Heavenward, like prayers for rescue. 
Swift, with boats and trusty warriors, 
Crossed he then to Ro-a-no-ak ; 
Strong to help his Pale- Face brothers, 
Faithful to his friendly pledges. 

As the daylight slowly faded, 
Hopeless of the bloody struggle, 
Stealthily the Pale-Face warriors 
Fled with Man-te-o' s brave people. 
Left they then the Fort called Ralegh, 
Left the dead within its stockade ; 


Sought another island refuge, 
Hoping there to rest in safety. 

Man-te-o sought for the mother,* 
She with babe there born and nurtured 
'Neath the shadow of disaster, 
In the Land-of-Wind-and-Water. 
"Come," said he, "the darkness falleth, 
All your people must flee henceward ; 
Wan-ches-e will show no mercy, 
You must not become his captive. 
Take the papoose from thy bosom, 
Call the white chief whom thou lovest, 
Haste with me upon the flood-tide 
To my wigwam on Wo-ko-kon." 

Noiseless, she amid the conflict 
Sought her heart's mate to flee with her ; 
Useless all the strife and courage, 
Useless all the rude home-making ; 
Shrine for worship, fort for safety, 
Hope of future peace and plenty, 
All were vain ; yet life we cherish, 
Far above all boons we hold it : 
So she hastened on her mission 
For the life of self and loved ones. 

* Eleanor Dare. 


As they neared the island border, 
Pale-Face husband, child, and mother, 
Man-te-o in silence leading, 
Every sense alive to danger, 
Suddenly the Pale-Face father 
Thought him of the parting caution 
Given by their absent leader : 
If they fled in search of safety 
On a tree to leave a token, 
Whereby he might surely find them, 
In the land which gave them shelter, 
When he came again to seek them.* 

By his side a sturdy live-oak 
Spread its green, protecting branches ; 
Quick he strove to carve the token 
Which should speak to all who followed. 
C. R. O., in bold, plain letters* 
Cut he in the tree's firm body, 
When a random, poisoned arrow 
Pierced his heart, and he fell lifeless. 

With a smothered cry of horror, 
In an agony of sorrow, 

* See Appendix, Note k. 


She would fain have lingered near him, 
But that Man-te-o urged onward. 
If discovered, flight was futile, 
Weakness now meant worse disaster ; 
She must save her helpless baby 
Though her heart be rent with anguish. 

Frantic with love's desolation, 

Strong with thoughts of home and father, 

With a woman's wondrous calmness 

When great peril calls for action, 

Safe she placed the sleeping infant 

'Cross the brawny arms of Man-te-o, 

While with knife drawn from his girdle 

Carved she on another live-oak 

Plain, the one word " CROATOAN" * 

As a sign to all her people. 

Trusting all to savage friendship, 

Cutting hope with every letter, 

Praying God to guide her father 

To the haven she was seeking. 

Trust is woman's strongest bulwark, 
All true manhood yields unto it. 

* See Appendix, Note k. 


As her sad eyes turned upon him 
Man-te-o was moved with pity 
For the brave and tender woman, 
Friendless in the land without him. 

On the brow of Pale-Face baby 
First he made the Holy Cross-Sign ; 
Then upon the sad-eyed mother 
Traced the sign her people taught him ; 
Then again the sacred symbol 
Outlined on his own dark forehead ; 
And with open hand uplifted 
Sealed his promise of protection ; 
Linking thus his pledge of safety 
With her faith in Unseen Power. 

Mute with grief, she trusted in him ; 
In his boat they crossed the water, 
While the night fell like a mantle 
Spread in mercy to help save them. 

When in Cro-a-to-an they landed, 
There they found the few survivors 
Of that day of doom to many, 
Glad once more to greet each other. 
Man-te-o within his wigwam 


From the cold wind gave them shelter, 
Shared with them his furry bear-skins, 
Made them warm, and warmth gave courage 
To meet life's relentless duties. 

Then he summoned all the people, 
Called the old men and the young men, 
Bade the squaws to come and listen, 
Showed the papoose to the women. 
They gazed on its tender whiteness, 
Stroked the mother's flaxen tresses ; 
"'Tis a snow-papoose" they whispered, 
" It will melt when comes the summer." 

Man-te-o said to the warriors : 
"Ye all know these Pale-Face people 
Whom Wan-ches-e sought to murder, 
They have often made us welcome. 
Brave their hearts, but few are living, 
If left friendless these will perish ; 
We have store of corn and venison, 
They are hungry, let us feed them ; 
They have lightning for their arrows, 
Let them teach us how to shoot it. 
They with us shall search the forest, 
And our game shall be abundant ; 


Let them teach us their strange wisdom 
And become with us one people." 

And the old men, grave in counsel, 
And the young men, mute with deference, 
While the uppowoc* was burning, 
Pondered on his words thus spoken, 
And to Man-te-o gave answer : 
"All your words are full of wisdom; 
We will share with them our venison, 
They shall be as our own people." 

From the isle of Ro-a-no-ak 
Thus the Pale-Face fled for succor, 
Thus in Cro-a-to-an's fair borders 
Found a home with friendly Red Men. 
Nevermore to see white faces, 
Nevermore to see their home-land, 
Yet to all the future ages 
Sending proof of honest daring ; 
Forging thus a link of effort 
In the chain of human progress. 

* Tobacco. 



NATURE feels no throb of pity, 
Makes no pause for human heartbreak ; 
Though with agony we quiver, 
She gives forth no sign of feeling. 
Waxed and waned the moon, in season, 
Ebbed and flowed the tides obedient ; 
Summers filled the land with plenty, 
Winters chilled the summers' ardor. 
No winged ships gleamed in the offing ; 
No Pale-Faces sought their kindred ; 
In the Land-of-Wind-and-Water 
Roamed the Red Man unmolested. 

While the babe of Ro-a-no-ak 
Grew in strength and wondrous beauty ; 
Like a flower of the wildwood, 
Bloomed beside the Indian maidens. 
And Wi-no-na Ska * they called her, 
She of all the maidens fairest. 

* Literally, "first-born white daughter." 


In the tangles of her tresses 

Sunbeams lingered, pale and yellow ; 

In her eyes the limpid blueness 

Of the noonday sky was mirrored. 

And the squaws of darksome features 

Smiled upon her fair young beauty ; 

Felt their woman hearts within them 

Warming to the Pale-Face maiden. 

And the braves, who scorned all weakness, 

Listened to her artless prattle, 

While their savage natures softened, 

Of the change themselves unconscious. 

Like the light of summer morning 
Beaming on a world in slumber 
Was the face of young Wi-no-na 
To the Cro-a-to-ans who loved her. 
She, whose mind bore in its dawning 
Impress of developed races, 
To the rude, untutored savage 
Seemed divinely 'do wed with reason. 
She, the heir of civilization, 
They, the slaves of superstition, 
Gave to her a silent rev'rence, 
Growing better with such giving. 


Oft she told them that the Cross-Sign, 
Made by Man-te-o before them 
When he talked to his own nation, 
Was the symbol of a Spirit 
Great, and good, and wise, and loving ; 
He who kept the maize-fields fruitful, 
He who filled the sea with fishes, 
He who made the sun to warm them 
And sent game to feed His children. 

If, when in their games or councils, 

They grew quarrelsome and angry, 

Suddenly among them standing 

Was a maiden like the sunrise, 

Making with her taper finger 

This strange sign which they respected ; 

And without a word of pleading 

Strife and wrath would no more vex them, 

While the influence of her presence 

Lingered 'round them like enchantment. 

Thus the babe of Ro-a-no-ak 
Grew to be the joy and teacher 
Of a tribe of native heathen 


In the land which gave her shelter. 
And the tide of her affections 
Flowed to those who gave her friendship ; 
Whom alone she knew as human, 
Whom to her became as kindred. 



MAN-TO-AC, the Mighty Father, 

When he filled the earth with blessings, 

Deep within the heart of Woman 

Hid the burning Need-of-Loving ; 

Which through her should warm the ages 

With a flame of mutual feeling, 

Throbbing through her sons and daughters 

With a force beyond their power. 

And this law of human loving, 

Changeless through unending changes, 

Fills each living heart with yearning 

For another heart to love it ; 

And against this ceaseless craving 

Creed, nor clime, nor color standeth ; 

Heart to heart all nature crieth 

That the earth may thrill with gladness. 

So the young braves of the nation, 
Thrilled with love for fair Wi-no-na, 
Made rude ornaments to please her, 


Laid the red deer at her wigwam. 
Brought her skins of furry rabbits 
Soft and white as her own skin was ; 
Robbed the black bear and the otter 
That her bed might soft and warm be. 
And the children of the forest 
Were uplifted by such loving 
Of a higher type of being, 
Who yet throbbed with human instincts. 

Brave O-kis-ko loved the maiden 

With a love which made him noble ; 

With the love that self-forgetting 

Fills the soul with higher impulse. 

As the sun with constant fervor, 

Heat and light to earth bestowing, 

Seeks for no return of blessing, 

Feels no loss for all his giving, 

So O-kis-ko loved Wi-no-na, 

Gave her all his heart's rude homage, 

Felt no loss for all his giving, 

Loved her for the joy of loving. 

Scorned he all fatigue and danger 

Which would bring her food or pleasure ; 

And each day brought proof of fealty, 

For his deeds were more than language. 


For her sake he tried to fasten 

To his rude canoe white pinions 

Like the winged ships of the white man, 

That with her he might sail boldly 

Out towards the rosy sunrise, 

Seeking for her lost grandsire * 

For whose coming her heart saddened. 

Though his red companions mocked him, 

His endeavor pleased the maiden, 

And her eyes beamed kindly on him, 

Though no passion stirred her pulses. 

For sweet maiden hopes and fancies 

Filled her life with happy dreaming 

Ere her woman's heart awakened 

To O-kis-ko's patient waiting. 

Waiting for her eyes to brighten 

'Neath the ardor of his glances ; 

Waiting for her soul to quicken 

With the answer to his longing ; 

Finding sweet content in silence, 

Glad each day to see and serve her. 

Now old Chi-co, the Magician, 
Also loved the fair Wi-no-na, 

* Governor White, of the lost colony. 


All his youth to him returning 
As he gazed upon her beauty. 
In his wigwam pelt of gray wolf, 
Antlers of the deer and bison, 
Hung to prove his deeds of valor ; 
And he wooed the gentle maiden 
With his cunning tales of prowess. 

She would not rebuke his boasting, 
Fearful lest her words offend him ; 
For her nature kind and loving 
Could not scorn the vaunting Chi-co. 

When he walked among the maidens, 
Gay with paint and decked with feathers, 
She would look on him with kindness 
That the others might not scoff him ; 
She would smile upon his weakness, 
Though she did not wish to wed him. 

Chi-co's love was fierce as fire 
Which from flame yields only ashes ; 
Which gives not for joy of giving, 
But demands unceasing tribute, 
More and more to feed its craving. 
He grew eager and impatient, 



He would share with none her favor ; 
All for him her eyes must brighten, 
Else his frown would blight her pleasure. 

When the young men played or wrestled, 

If O-kis-ko came out victor ; 

Or returning with the hunters 

He it was who bore the stag home ; 

If with eyes abrim with pleasure 

Sweet Wi-no-na smiled upon him, 

Or with timid maiden shyness 

Drooped her eyes beneath his glances, 

Then old Chi-co's heart would wither 

With the fire of jealous fury, 

Till at length in bitter anger 

He determined none should win her, 

As from him she turned in coldness. 

Wrapped in silence grim and sullen, 
Much he wandered near the water ; 
With his soul he took dark counsel, 
Seeking for devices cruel 
For the torture of his rival 
And destruction of the maiden. 

Though he rarely used his power, 
Chi-co was a great magician. 


He knew all the spells of starlight 
And the link 'tween moon and water ; 
Knew the language of lost spirits 
And the secret of their power ; 
Knew the magic words and symbols 
Whereby man may conquer nature. 

Long he plotted, much he brooded, 
While he gathered from the water 
Mussel-pearls all streaked and pieded,* 
All with rays like purple halos. 

Such pearls are the souls of Naiads 
Who have disobeyed the Sea-King, 
And in mussel-shells are prisoned 
For this taint of human frailty. 
When by man released from durance 
These souls, grateful for their freedom, 
Are his slaves, and ever render 
Good or evil at his bidding. 

Chi-co steeped each one he gathered 

In a bath of mystic brewing ; 

Told each purple, pieded pearl-drop 

* See Appendix, Note n. 


What the evil was he plotted. 
Never once his purpose wavered, 
Never once his fury lessened ; 
Nursing vengeance as a guerdon 
While the mussel-pearls he polished. 

Then a new canoe he fashioned, 

Safe, and strong, and deep he made it ; * 

And then sought to work his magic 

On the innocent Wi-no-na ; 

Asked the maiden to go with him 

In his boat across the water. 

" Come," said he, " to Ro-a-no-ak, 

Where the waves are white with blossoms, 

Where the grapes hang ripe in clusters, 

Come with me and drink their juices." 

And the innocent Wi-no-na 
Listened to his artful pleading ; 
Went with him in search of pleasure, 
Glad to show him friendly feeling. 

While with idle stroke they floated 
To the fragrant lily-blossoms, 

* See Appendix, Note o. 


He a string of pearls gave to her, 
Smooth and polished, pied and purple. 
'Round her snowy neck she placed them 
With no thought of harm or cunning ; 
And with simple, maiden speeches 
Filled the time as they sped onward. 

To each pearl had Chi-co chanted, 
Each had bathed in mystic water, 
Each held fast the same weird power, 
Till the time grew ripe for evil. 
On the waves they could not harm her, 
There the Sea-King ruled them ever ; 
But when on the shore she landed 
They would work their evil mission. 

On the shore of Ro-a-no-ak 

Chi-co sent his boat with vigor. 

Lithe and happy she sprang shoreward, 

When, from where her foot first lightly 

Pressed the sand with human imprint, 

On away towards the thicket, 

Sprang a White Doe, fleet and graceful. 

His revenge thus wrought in safety, 
Drifting seaward Chi-co chanted : 


" Go, White Doe, hide in the forest, 
Feed upon the sweet wild-grasses ; 
No winged arrow e'er shall harm you, 
No Red Hunter e'er shall win you ; 
Roam forever, fleet and fearless, 
Living free and yet in fetters." 

O fair maiden ! born and nurtured 
'Neath the shadow of disaster ! 
Isle of Fate was Ro-a-no-ak, 
In the Land-of-Wind-and-Water. 
Nevermore to fill with gladness 
The sad heart of stricken mother ; 
Nevermore to hear the wooing 
Of the brave and true O-kis-ko. 
Gone thy charm of youthful beauty, 
Gone thy sway o'er savage natures ; 
Doomed to flee before the hunter, 
Doomed to roam the lonely island, 
Doomed to bondage e'en in freedom. 
Is the seal of doom eternal ? 
Hath the mussel-pearl all power? 
Cannot love thy fetters loosen? 



MAW-TE-O and all his warriors 
Long and far sought for Wi-no-na ; 
Sought to find the sky-eyed maiden 
Sent by Man-to-ac, the Mighty, 
To the Cro-a-to-ans to bless them, 
And to make them wise and happy. 
As a being more than mortal, 
As a deity they held her ; 
And when no more seen among them 
Lamentations filled the island. 
Through Wo-ko-kon's sandy stretches, 
Through the bog-lands of Po-mou-ik, 
Even unto Das-a-mon-que-peu, 
Hunted they the missing maiden ; 
If perchance some other nation, 
Envious of their peace and plenty, 
Had the maiden boldly captured, 
For themselves to win her power. 
Louder grew their lamentations 
When they found no trail to follow ; 



Wilder grew their threats of vengeance 
'Gainst the tribe which held her captive. 

While they wailed the Pale-Face Mother, 
She who once was brave for love's sake, 
Weak from hardships new and wearing, 
Utterly bereft of kindred, 
Her heart's comfort thus torn from her, 
Died beneath her weight of sorrow. 
And a pity, soft and human, 
Though he knew no name to call it, 
Thrilled the Red Man as he laid her 
'Neath the forest leaves to slumber. 

But the wary, wily Chi-co 
Told his secret unto no one, 
While he listened to the stories, 
Strange and true, told by the hunters 
Of a fleet and graceful White Doe 
On the banks of Ro-a-no-ak. 
And the hunters said, no arrow 
Howsoever aimed could reach her ; 
Said the deer herd round her gathered, 
And where e'er she led they followed. 

The old women of the nation 

Heard the tales about this White Doe. 


Children they of superstition, 

With their faith firm in enchantment, 

Linked the going of the maiden 

With the coming of the White Doe. 

They believed in magic powers, 

They knew Chi-co's hopeless passion, 

So th&y shook their heads and whispered, 

Looked mysterious at each other, 

" Ho," they whispered to each other, 

" Chi-co is a great Magician, 

Chi-co should go hunt this White Doe ; 

He is not too old for loving ; 

Love keeps step with Youth and Courage ; 

Old age should not make him tremble. 

Timid is a doe, and gentle 

Like a maiden, like Wi-no-na. 

Oho ! Oho !" and they chuckled, 

Casting dark looks at old Chi-co, 

"He," said they, "has 'witched our maiden." 

When O-kis-ko heard the whispers 
Of the garrulous old women, 
Glad belief he gave unto them 
That the Doe on Ro-a-no-ak 
Was in truth the Pale-Face Maiden 
Wrung from him by cruel magic. 


He was not a gabbling boaster, 
He could think and act in silence ; 
And alone he roamed the island 
Seeking this White Doe to capture, 
So that he might tame and keep her 
Near him to assuage his sorrow. 

All in vain, no hand could touch her. 
All in vain, no hunter won her. 
Up the dunes of Ro-a-no-ak 
Still she led the herd of wild deer. 

Then O-kis-ko sought We-nau-don, 
The Magician of Po-mou-ik.* 
Gave him store of skins and wampum, 
Promised all his greed demanded, 
If he would restore the maiden, 
Break the spell which held her spirit 

In his heart We-nau-don cherished 
Hatred for his rival Chi-co 
For some boyhood's cause of anger, 
For defeat in public wrestling ; 
And because of this he welcomed 

* See Appendix, Note j. 


Now the time to vent his malice. 
So he promised from enchantment 
To release the captive maiden. 

In the days of pristine nature, 

In the dells of Ro-a-no-ak, 

Bubbling from the earth's dark caverns, 

Was a spring of magic water. 

There the Naiads held their revels, 

There in secret met their lovers ; 

And they laid a spell upon it 

Which should make true lovers happy ; 

For to them true love was precious. 

He who drank of it at midnight 
When the Harvest Moon was brightest, 
Using as a drinking-vessel 
Skull-bowl of his greatest rival 
Killed in open, honest combat, 
And by summer sunshine whitened, 
He gained youth perennial from it 
And the heart he wished to love him. 

He who bathed within its waters, 
Having killed a dove while moaning, 


And had killed no other creature 

Since three crescent moons had rounded; 

Vowing to be kind and helpful 

To the sad and weary-hearted : 

He received the magic power 

To undo all spells of evil 

Which divided faithful lovers. 

In this spring had bathed We-nau-don, 
And he held its secrets sacred ; 
But a feeling ever moved him 
To make glad the heavy-hearted. 
So he showed unto O-kis-ko 
Where to find the magic water ; 
With this counter-charm, he told him 
How to free the charmed Wi-no-na : 

" In a shark's tooth, long and narrow 

In a closely wrought triangle, 

Set three mussel-pearls of purple, 

Smooth and polished with much rubbing. 

To an arrow of witch-hazel, 

New, and fashioned very slender, 

Set the shark's tooth, long and narrow, 

With its pearl-inlaid triangle. 

From the wing of living heron 


Pluck one feather, white and trusty ; 

With this feather wing the arrow, 

That it swerve not as it flyeth. 

Fashioned thus with care and caution, 

Let no mortal eye gaze on it ; 

Tell no mortal of your purpose ; 

Secretly at sunset place it 

In the spring of magic water. 

Let it rest there through three sunsets, 

Then when sunrise gilds the tree-tops 

Take it dripping from the water, 

At the rising sun straight point it, 

While three times these words repeating : 

Mussel-pearl arrow, to her heart go ; 

Loosen the fetters which bind the White Doe ; 

Bring the lost maiden back to O-kis-ko. 

With this arrow hunt the White Doe, 

Have no timid fear of wounding ; 

When her heart it enters boldly 

Chi-co's charm will melt before it" 

Every word O-kis-ko heeded, 
Hope, once dead, now cheered his spirit. 
From the sea three pearls he gathered ; 
From the thicket brought witch-hazel 
For the making of the arrow ; 


From the heron's wing a feather 
Plucked to true its speed in flying. 
Patiently he cut and labored, 
As for love's sake man will labor ; 
Shaped the arrow, new and slender, 
Set the pearls into the shark's tooth, 
Fastened firm the heron's feather, 
With a faith which mastered reason. 
In the magic spring he steeped it, 
Watching lest some eye should see it ; 
Through three sunsets steeped and watched it ; 
Three times o'er the charm repeated 
While the sunrise touched the tree-tops ; 
Then prepared to test its power. 


IN the Land-of-Wind-and-Water 
Long the Summer-Glory lingered, 
Loath to yield its ripened beauty 
To the cold embrace of Winter. 
And the greenness of the forest 
Gave no sign of coming treason, 
Till the White Frost without warning 
Hung his banners from the tree-tops. 
Then a blush of brilliant color 
Decked each shrub with tinted beauty ; 
Gold, and brown, and scarlet mingled 
Till no color seemed triumphant; 
And the Summer doomed to exile 
Fled before the chilling Autumn. 

While the glow of colors deepened, 
The proud Weroance Win-gin-a, 
Chief of Das-a-mon-gue-pue land, 
Made a feast for all his people ; 
Called them forth with bow and arrow 
To a test of skill and valor. 



He was weary of the mysteries 
Whispered of the famous White Doe, 
Whose strange courage feared no hunter, 
For no arrow ever reached her. 
" Ha !" said he, " a skilful hunter 
Is not daunted by a white doe ; 
Craven hearts make trembling fingers, 
Arrows fail when shot by cowards. 
/ will shoot this doe so fearless, 
Her white skin shall be my mantle,* 
Her white meat shall serve for feasting, 
And my braves shall cease from fearing. 
From the fields the maize invites us, 
Sturgeons have been fat and plenty. 
We are weary of fish-eating, 
We will feast on meat of white deer." 

Messengers of invitation 
Sent he to the other nations, 
Saying, "Come and hunt the White Doe, 
Bring your surest, fleetest arrows ; 
We will eat the meat of white deer, 
We will drink the purple grape-juice, 
Burn the uppowoc in pipe-bowls, 
While we shame the trembling hunters." 

* See Appendix, Note /. 


But the Cro-a-to-ans kept silence, 

Sent no answer to his greeting. 

They believed the charmed White Doe 

Was Wi-no-na Ska's pure spirit, 

Who in freedom still was happy, 

And they would not wound or harm her, 

They" would shoot no arrows at her, 

Nor help feast upon her body. 

Then O-kis-ko answered boldly ; 

" I will go and hunt this White Doe, 

I will shoot from my own ambush, 

I will take my fleetest arrow." 

And the men and women wondered, 

For they knew his former loving. 

But O-kis-ko kept his secret, 

Showed no one his new-made arrow ; 

'Round his shoulders threw a mantle 

Made of skins of many sea-gulls, 

So that he could hide his arrow, 

And no mortal eye could see it 

Till he sent it on its mission 

Winged with magic, fraught with mercy. 

Thus he went to Ro-a-no-ak, 

Love, and hope, and faith impelling, 



Conscious of his aim unerring, 
Trusting in the arrow's power. 

From Po-mou-ik came Wan-ches-e, 
For the hunt and feast impatient, 
Boasting of his skill and valor, 
Saying in his loud vainglory : 
"I will teach the braves to shoot deer, 
Young men now are not great hunters, 
Hearts like squaws they have within them, 
Nothing fears them but a papoose." 

Wan-ches-e had crossed the water * 
In the ships with wings like sea-birds, 
And the Pale-Face Weroanza, 
Whom he saw in her own country, 
Him to please and show her friendship, 
Gave an arrow-head of silver 
To him as a mark of favor. 

This he now brought proudly with him, 
As of all his arrows fleetest ; 
Bearing in its lustrous metal, 
As he thought, some gift of power 

* See Appendix, Note /. 


From the mighty Weroanza 

Which would bring success unto him ; 

And the warriors all would praise him 

As around the feast they gathered, 

Saying as he walked among them : 

"There is none like brave Wan-ches-e, 

He can bend the bow with firmness, 

He has arrow-points of silver, 

And the White Doe falls before him." 

And he polished well the arrow 

Which he thought would bring him praises. 

Where the deer were wont to wander 
All the hunters took their stations, 
While the stalkers sought the forest, 
From its depths to start the deer-herd. 

Near the shore Win-gin-a lingered 
That he first might shoot his arrow, 
And thus have the certain glory 
Of the White Doe's death upon him. 

By a pine-tree stood Wan-ches-e 
With his silver arrow ready ; 
While O-kis-ko, unseen, waited 
Near by in his chosen ambush, 


Where he oft had watched the White Doe, 
Where he knew she always lingered. 

Soon the stalkers with great shouting 
Started up the frightened red deer ; 
On they came through brake and thicket, 
In the front the White Doe leading, 
With fleet foot and head uplifted, 
Daring all the herd to follow. 

Easy seemed the task of killing, 
So Win-gin-a twanged his bow-string, 
But his arrow fell beside her 
As she sprang away from danger. 

Through the tanglewood, still onward, 
Head uplifted, her feet scorning 
All the wealth of bright-hued foliage 
Which lay scattered in her pathway. 
Up the high sand-dunes she bounded, 
In her wake the whole herd followed, 
While the arrows aimed from ambush 
Fell around her ever harmless. 

On she sped, towards the water, 
Nostrils spread to sniff the sea-breeze ; 


Through the air a whizzing arrow 
Flew, but did not touch the White Doe ; 
But a stag beside her bounding 
Wounded fell among the bushes, 
And the herd fled in confusion, 
Waiting now not for the leader. 

On again, with leaping footsteps, 

Tossing head turned to the sea-shore ; 

For one fatal minute standing 

Where the White Man's Fort had once stood ; 

In her eyes came wistful gleamings 

Like a lost hope's fleeting shadow. 

While with graceful poise she lingered, 
Swift, Wan-ches-e shot his arrow 
Aimed with cruel thought to kill her ; 
While from near and secret ambush, 
With unerring aim, O-kis-ko 
Forward sent his magic arrow, 
Aimed with thought of love and mercy. 

To her heart straight went both arrows, 
And with leap of pain she bounded 
From the earth, and then fell forward, 
Prone, amidst the forest splendor. 


O-kis-ko, with fond heart swelling, 
Wan-ches-e, with pride exultant, 
To the Doe both sprang to claim it, 
Each surprised to see the other. 

Suddenly, within the forest, 

Spread a gleaming mist around them, 

Like a dense white fog in summer, 

So they scarce could grope their pathway. 

Slowly, as if warmed by sunbeams, 

From one spot the soft mist melted, 

While within its bright' ning dimness, 

With the misty halo 'round her, 

Stood a beautiful white maiden, 

Stood the gentle, lost Wi-no-na. 

Through her heart two arrows crosswise 
Pierced the flesh with cruel wounding ; 
Downward flowed the crimson blood-tide, 
Staining red the snow-white doe-skin 
Which with grace her form enveloped, 
While her arms with pleading gesture 
To O-kis-ko were outstretching. 

As they gazed upon the vision, 
All their souls with wonder filling ; 


While the white mist slowly melted, 
Prostrate fell the wounded maiden. 

Then revealed was all the myst'ry, 
Then they saw what had befallen. 
To her heart the magic arrow 
First had pierced, and lo ! Wi-no-na 
Once more breathed in form of maiden. 

But while yet the charm was passing 
Came the arrow of Wan-ches-e ; 
To her heart it pierced unerring, 
Pierced the pearl-inlaid triangle, 
Struck and broke the shark's tooth narrow, 
Charm and counter-charm undoing ; 
Leaving but a mortal maiden 
Wounded past the hope of healing. 

Woe to love, and hope, and magic ! 
Woe to hearts whom death divideth ! 
While upon her bleeding bosom 
Fatal arrows made the Cross-Sign, 
Wistful eyes she turned to Heaven ; 
" O forget not your Wi-no-na," 
Whispered she unto O-kis-ko, 
As her soul passed to the silence. 


FEAR seized on the bold Wan-ches-e 

When, he saw the Pale-Face maiden 

Standing where had poised the White Doe, 

Where the White Man's Fort had once stood. 

He knew naught of magic arrows, 

Nor O-kis-ko's secret mission ; 

He saw only his own arrow 

Piercing through her tender bosom, 

Never doubting but the wonder 

Which his awe-struck eyes had witnessed 

Had been wrought by his own arrow, 

Silver arrow from a far land, 

Fashioned by the skill of Pale-Face, 

Gift of Pale-Face Weroanza 

To a race she willed to conquer. 

All his hatred of the Pale-Face, 
Fed by fear and superstition, 
To him made this sudden vision 
Seem an omen of the future, 



When the Red Man, like the White Doe, 
Should give place unto the Pale-Face, 
And the Indian, like the white mist, 
Fade from out his native forest 
All his courage seemed to weaken 
With the dread of dark disaster ; 
And "with instincts strong for safety 
Fled he from the place in terror. 

Love hath not the fear of danger, 

And O-kis-ko's faith in magic 

Kept him brave to meet the changes 

Which had each so quickly followed. 

For he saw the human maiden 

Where had stood the living White Doe ; 

And he knew his hazel arrow, 

Charmed with all We-nau-don's magic, 

Had restored the lost Wi-no-na 

To reward his patient loving. 

But the conflict of two arrows, 
Bringing death unto the maiden, 
Was a deep and darksome myst'ry 
Which his ignorance could not fathom. 
All the cause of his undoing 
Saw he in the silver arrow ; 


So with true love's tireless effort, 
Quick he strove to break its power. 

From her heart he plucked the arrow, 
Hastened to the magic water, 
Hoping to destroy the evil 
Which had stilled the maiden's pulses. 
In the sparkling spring he laid it 
So no spot was left uncovered, 
So the full charm of the water 
Might act on the blood-stained arrow. 

As the blood-stains from it melted, 
Blood of Pale-Face shed by Red Man, 
Slowly, while he watched and waited, 
All the sparkling water vanished ; 
Dry became the magic fountain, 
Leaving bare the silver arrow. 

Was it thus the spell would weaken 
Which had wrought his love such evil ? 
Would she be again awakened 
When he sought her in the thicket? 
Must he shoot this arrow at her 
To restore her throbbing pulses ? 


Must he seek again We-nau-don 
To make warm her icy beauty? 

While he of himself sought guidance, 
Sought to know the hidden meaning 
Of the mysteries he witnessed ; 
Lo ! another mystic wonder 
Met his eyes as he sat musing. 

From the arrow made by Pale-Face, 
As th' enchanted water left it, 
Sprang a tiny shoot with leaflets 
Pushing upward to the sunlight 

Did the arrow dry the fountain 

With the blight of death it carried? 

Or in going, had the water 

Left a charm upon the arrow? 

Did the heart-blood of the Pale-Face 

From the arrow in the water 

Cause the coming of the green shoot, 

Which reached upward to the sunlight? 

All O-kis-ko's love and courage 
Could not give him greater knowledge. 
Savage mind could not unravel 
All the meaning of this marvel. 


Fear forbade him touch the arrow 

Lest he should destroy the green shoot; 

So he left the tender leaflets 

Reaching upward to the sunlight, 

Sought again the lifeless maiden 

For whose love his soul had hungered ; 

Knelt beside her in the forest, 

With the awe of death upon him, 

Which in heathen as in Christian 

Moves the human soul to worship. 

All his faith in savage magic 
Turned to frenzy at his failure ; 
And the helplessness of mortals 
Pressed upon him like a burden ; 
While a mighty longing seized him 
For a knowledge of the Unknown, 
For a light to pierce the Silence 
Into which none enter living. 
And unconsciously his spirit 
Rose in quest of Might Supernal, 
Which should rule both dead and living, 
Leaving naught to chance or magic ; 
Which should seize the throbbing pulses 
Ebbing from a dying mortal, 
And create a higher being 


Free from thrall of earthly nature ; 
Almost grasping in his yearning 
Knowledge of the God Eternal, 
In whose hand the earth lies helpless, 
In whose heart all souls find refuge. 

But no light came to O-kis-ko ; 

Still the burden pressed upon him, 

And a pall of hopeless yearning 

Wrapped his soul in voiceless sorrow 

As he gazed upon the maiden 

With death's mysteries enfolded. 

Then he made upon her bosom 

The strange Cross-Sign she had taught him ; 

From his shoulders took the mantle 

Made of skins of many sea-gulls, 

Gently wrapped the maiden in it, 

Heaped the tinted leaves about her ; 

Leaving all his own life's brightness 

With her where the shadows darkened. 

Thus the ancient legend runneth, with its plaint 

of hopeless doom, 
Bearing in its heart the fragrance of the Truth's 

enduring bloom, 


Standing in the light of knowledge, where de 
veloped ages meet, 
We can read the mystic omens which O-kis-ko's 

eyes did greet. 
And to us they seem the symbols of what coming 

ages brought, 
Realization gives the answer, which in vain the 

Savage sought. 
For we know the silver arrow, fatal to all 

Was the gleaming light of Progress speeding 

from across the sea, 
Before which the Red Man vanished, shrinking 

from its silvery light 
As the magic waters yielded to the silver arrow's 

And the tiny shoot with leaflets, by the sunlight 

warmed to life, 
Was the Vine of Civilization in the wilderness 

of strife ; 
With no friendly hand to tend it, yet it grew 

midst slight and wrong, 
Taking root in other places,* growing green, 

and broad, and strong, 

* Jamestown and Plymouth Rock. 


Till its vigor knew no weakness, with its branches 

Till a prosp'rous land it sheltered where th' 

oppressed a refuge sought, 
Till its fruit made all who labored 'neath its 

shade both bold and free, 
Till a people dwelt beneath it strong to meet 

their destiny. 

Now beneath its spreading branches dwells a 

nation brave and free, 
Raising glad, triumphant paeans for the boon of 

Liberty ; 
Holding fast the Holy Cross-Sign, Heirs of Duty 

and of Light, 
Still they speed the arrow, Progress, on its civilizing 

flight ; 
Keeping bright the Fires of Freedom, where Man, 

Brotherhood may know, 
For God's breath upon the altar keeps the sacred 

flame aglow. 


NOTE a.-*r-"We viewed the land about us, being where 
we first landed very sandy and low towards the water side, 
but so full of grapes as the very beating and surge of the 
sea overflowed them, of which we found such plenty, as 
well there as in all places else, both on the sand and on 
the green soil, on the hills as in the plains, as well on 
every little shrub, as also climbing towards the tops of 
high cedars, that I think in all the world the like abun 
dance is not to be found." First voyage of Amadas and 
Barlowe, 1584. From Hakluyt. 

NOTE b. "The second of July we found shoal water, 
where we smelled so sweet and so strong a smell as if we 
had been in the midst of some delicate garden abounding 
with all kinds of odoriferous flowers, by which we were 
, assured that the land could not be far distant." First 
voyage of Amadas and Barlowe, 1584. 

NOTE c. "Deer, in some places there are great store: 

near unto the seacoast they are of the ordinary bigness 
of ours in England, and some less : but further up into 
the country where there is better feed, they are greater." 
Harriot's Report. 

6 81 


NOTE d. "The Governor (John White) with divers of 
his company, walked to the north end of the island, 
where Master Ralph Lane had his fort, with sundry 
necessary and decent dwelling houses, made by his men 
about it, the year before, where we hoped to find some 
signs, or certain knowledge of our fifteen men. When 
we came thither we found the fort razed down, but all 
the houses standing unhurt, saving that the neather rooms 
of them, and also of the fort, were overgrown with melons 
of divers sorts, and deer within them, feeding on those 
melons ; so we returned to our company, without hope 
of ever seeing any of the fifteen alive." Hakluyt. 

NOTE e. "At our first landing they seemed as though 
they would fight with us, but perceiving us begin to march 
with our shot towards them, they turned their backs and 
fled. Then Manteo, their countryman, called to them in 
their own language, whom, as soon as they heard, they 
returned, and threw away their bows and arrows, and 
some of them came unto us embracing and entertaining 
us friendly, desiring us not to gather or spoil any of their 
corn, for that they had but little. We answered them 
that neither their corn nor any other thing of theirs 
should be diminished by any of us, and that our coming 
was only to renew the old love, that was between us and 
them at the first, and to live with them as brethren and 
friends ; which answer seemed to please them well, where 
fore they requested us to walk up to their town, who there 
feasted us after their manner, and desired us earnestly 


that there might be some token or badge given them of 
us, whereby we might know them to be our friends," 

"And also we understood by them of Croatoan, how 
that the fifteen Englishmen left at Roanoak the year 
before, by Sir Richard Grenville, were suddenly set upon 
by thirty of the men of Secota, Aquoscogoc, and Dasa- 
monguepeue, in manner following. They conveyed them 
selves secretly behind the trees, near the houses where 
our men carelessly lived, and having perceived that of 
those fifteen they could see but eleven only, two of those 
savages appeared to the eleven Englishmen, calling to 
them by friendly signs that but two of their chief men 
should come unarmed to speak with those two savages, 
who seemed also to be unarmed. Wherefore two of the 
chiefest of our Englishmen went gladly to them ; but 
whilst one of those savages traitorously embraced one 
of our men, the other with his sword of wood, which 
he had secretly hidden under his mantle, struck him on 
the head and slew him, and presently the other eight and 
twenty savages shewed themselves ; the other Englishman 
perceiving this, fled to his company, whom the savages 
pursued with their bows and arrows so fast that the English 
men were forced to take the house, wherein all their 
victuals and weapons were ; but the savages forthwith 
set the same on fire, by means whereof our men were 
forced to take up such weapons as came first to hand, 
and without order to run forth among the savages, with 
whom they skirmished above an hour. In this skirmish 
another of our men was shot into the mouth with an arrow, 


where he died ; and also one of the savages was shot into 
the side by one of our men, with a wild fire arrow, whereof 
he died presently. The place where they fought was of 
great advantage to the savages, by means of the thick 
trees, behind which the savages through their nimbleness 
defended themselves, and so offended our men with their 
arrows, that our men, being some of them hurt, retired 
fighting to the water side where their boat lay, with which 
they fled towards Hatorask. By that time they had rowed 
but a quarter of a mile, they espied their four fellows 
coming from a creek thereby, where they had been to 
fetch oysters ; these four they received into their boat, 
leaving Roanoak, and landed on a little island on the 
right hand of our entrance into the harbor of Hatorask, 
where they remained awhile, but afterwards departed, 
whither as yet we know not." Hakluyt. 

NOTE f. "The thirteenth of August, our savage, 
Manteo, by the commandment of Sir Walter Raleigh, 
was christened in Roanoak, and called Lord thereof, and 
of Dasamonguepeuc, in reward of his faithful services." 

NOTE g. "The eighteenth, Eleanor, daughter to the 
Governor, and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the assistants, 
was delivered of a daughter, in Roanoak, and the same 
was christened there the Sunday following, and because 
this child was the first Christian born in Virginia, she was 
named Virginia." Hakluyt. 


NOTE h. "The twenty-second of August, the whole 
company, both of the assistants and planters, came to 
the Governor, and with one voice requested him to return 
himself into England, for the better and sooner obtaining 
of supplies and other necessaries for them ; but he refused 
it, and alleged many sufficient causes why he would 
not. . . . The next day, not only the assistants, 
but divers* others, as well women as men, began to 
renew their requests to the Governor again, to take upon 
him to return into England for the supplies and dispatch 
of all such things as there were to be done. . . . 
The Governor being at the last, through their extreme 
entreating, constrained to return into England, having 
then but half a day's respite to prepare himself for the 
same, departed from Roanoak the seven and twentieth 
of August in the morning, and the same day about mid 
night came aboard the Fly-boat who already had weighed 
anchor, and rode without the bar, the admiral riding by 
them, who but the same morning was newly come thither 
again. The same day both the ships weighed anchor and 
set sail for England." Hakluyt. 

NOTE k. "Our boats and all things filled again, we 
put off from Hatorask, being the number of nineteen 
persons in both boats ; but before we could get to the 
place where our planters were left, it was so exceeding 
dark, that we overshot the place a quarter of a mile, 
where we espied towards the North end of the island the 
light of a great fire through the woods to the which we 
presently rowed : when we came right over against it we 


let fall our grapnel near the shore, and sounded with a 
trumpet a call, and afterwards many familiar English 
tunes of songs, and called to them friendly ; but we had 
no answer, we therefore landed at daybreak, and coming 
to the fire we found the grass and sundry rotten trees 
burning about the place. From hence we went through 
the woods to that part of the island directly over against 
Dasamonguepeuc, and from thence we returned by the 
water side round about the north point of the island, 
until we came to the place where I left our colony in the 
year 1586. In all this way we saw in the sand the print 
of the savages' feet of two or three sorts trodden in the 
night ; and as we entered up the sandy bank, upon a 
tree, in the very brow thereof, were curiously carved these 
fair Roman letters C. R. O., which letters presently we 
knew to signify the place where I should find the planters 
seated, according to a secret token agreed upon between 
them and me at my last departure from them ; which 
was, that in any way they should not fail to write or 
carve on the trees or posts of the doors the name of the 
place where they should be seated ; for at my coming 
away they were prepared to remove from Roanoak fifty 
miles into the main. Therefore at my departure from 
them in An. 1587, I willed them that if they should 
happen to be distressed in any of those places, that then 
they should carve over the letters or name, a cross f in 
this form ; but we found no such sign of distress. . . . 
And having well considered of this, we passed towards 
the place where they were left in sundry houses, but we 
found the houses taken down, and the place very strongly 


enclosed with a high palisade of great trees, with curtains 
and flankers, very fort-like, and one of the chief trees or 
posts at the right side of the entrance had the bark taken 
off, and five feet from the ground in fair capital letters 
was graven CROATOAN without any cross or sign of 
distress. ... I greatly joyed that I had safely found 
a certain token of their safe being at Croatoan, which is 
the place where Manteo was born, and the savages of 
the island our friends." From Governor White s account 
of his voyage in search of the colonists, after the defeat 
of the Spanish Armada. Hakluyt, Vol. III. 

NOTE /. "We brought home also two of the savages, 
being lusty men, whose names were Wan-ches-e and 
Man-te-o." First voyage by Amadas and Barlowe. 

NOTE m. All authorities agree in the statement that 
the favorite time among the Indians for an attack on an 
enemy was at, or about, daybreak. 

NOTE . " Into this river falls another great river called 
Cipo in which there is found great store of mussels in which 
there are pearls." Voyage of Amadas and Barlowe. 

"In her ears she had bracelets of pearls, hanging down 
to her middle, and these were of the bigness of good 
pease." Voyage of Amadas and Barlowe. 

"Sometimes feeding on mussels, we found some pearle, 
but it was our hap to meet with ragges, or of a pied colour ; 
not having yet discovered those places where we heard of 
better and more plenty." Harriot's Report. 


NOTE o. "The manner of making their boats in Vir 
ginia is very wonderful. For whereas they want instruments 
of iron or others like unto ours, yet they know how to make 
them as handsomely, to sail with where they list in their 
rivers, and to fish withal, as ours. First they choose some 
long and thick tree, according to the bigness of the boat 
which they would frame, and make a fire on the ground 
about the roots thereof, kindling the same by little and 
little with dry moss of trees, and chips of wood that the 
flame should not mount up too high, and burn too much 
of the length of the tree. When it is almost burnt through, 
and ready to fall they make a new fire which they suffer 
to burn until the tree falls of its own accord. Then 
burning off the top and boughs of the tree in such wise 
that the body of the same may retain his just length, 
they raise it upon poles laid over cross wise upon forked 
posts at such a reasonable height as they may handsomely 
work upon it. Then take they off the bark with certain 
shells ; they reserve the innermost part of the bark for 
the nethermost part of the boat. On the other side they 
make a fire according to the length of the body of the 
tree saving at both the ends. That which they think is 
sufficiently burned, they quench and scrape away with 
shells, and making a new fire they burn it again and so 
they continue, sometimes burning and sometimes scraping 
until the boat have sufficient bottoms." Harriot' s Report. 

NOTE p. " They are a people clothed with loose mantles 
made of deer skin, and aprons of the same round about 
their middles." Harriot' 's Report. 


NOTE s. "They have commonly conjurers or jugglers, 
which use strange gestures, and often contrary to nature 
in their enchantments : For they be very familiar with 
devils of whom they inquire what their enemies do, or 
other such things." Harriot's Report. 

University of California, San Diego 


MftR 2 \W 

MAR 2 1980 

CJ 39 

UCSD Libr. 

A 001 441 550 9