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Full text of "The white pine (Pinus strobus Linnaeus)"

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BULLETIN No. 22. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF A(;RICI T LTURK. 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 



A 



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THE WHITE PINE 

(PINUS SX^OBl^S Linnaeus.) 



V. M. SPALDING, 

1 'ri > IV ,--.. >i- i>l" liiit.iriy iii tin- 1 : i i i v. -rs-ii I \- i)f Vliol lifcfan. 



KI',\'ISI,I> AMI 



B. K. FHRXOW, 

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\VITH CONTRinUTlONS: 

IXSI.CT KM'MlliS (II- Till- \\IIITIv I'lNE . . My F. II. CHITTEXItliN, Division ofl-ntomoloyy. 
THK WOOD 01- THI- \\ IHTIv I'lXi: lly riUMEUT UOTII, Division of Forestry. 




WASHINGTON 1 : 

i ; ( i v ); K \ M K x 'i' r K i \ T i x < ; < > K K i o K , 
i S(, 9. 



Presented to the Faculty of Forestry 




LIBRARY 

By JjLO-r-^A. /S**tnjLrxJ AD. 

~ '51 






FACULTY OF FCRESYnY LIL 
UiiiVuRSiTY OF TORONTO 



APR 2 6 1984 



Bulletin No 22 Di. of Forestry, U. S. Dept of Agricultuie. 




WHITE PINE FOREST. 



BULLETIN No. 22. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 



THE WHITE PINE 

(PINUS STROBUS Linneeus.) 



BY 



V. M. SPALDING, 

Professor of Botany in the University of Michigan. 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

* 

B. E. FERNOW, 

Chief of the Division of Forestry 

"WITH CONTRIBUTIONS: 

INSECT ENEMIES OF THE WHITE FIXE . . By F. H. CHITTENDEN, Division of Entomology. 
THE WOOD OF THE WHITE PINE By FILIBEKT ROTH, Division of Forestry. 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
I 899. 

FACULTY Or S7RY Ul 

UNIVERSITY OF, TCP. 



51) 




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

DIVISION OP FORESTRY, 
Washington, D. G., March 15, 1898. 

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith for publication a monograph on the White Pine of 
the Northern United States. 

The first draft of this monograph, like the one on "The Timber Pines of the Southern United 
States" (Bulletin No. 13, Division of Forestry), by Dr. Charles Mohr, was prepared more than ten 
years ago by Prof. V. M. Spalding, of Anu Arbor, Mich. ; but it was then found that much informa- 
tion of practical value was still lacking, and hence publication was delayed until the deficiencies 
could be supplied. Professor Spalding, after having made several revisions, under the pressure 
of other work had to abandon the idea of amplifying and perfecting the monograph itself, and 
this was left to the undersigned, with the collaboration of the staff of the Division of Forestry. 

The undersigned is responsible not only for the plan of the work, but especially for the 
portions referring to forest conditions, forestal treatment, and for the discussion on the rate of 
growth, to which Mr. Mlodziansky also contributed. 

Mr. Filibert Roth, of the Division, besides furnishing the study on the wood of the species, 
has also contributed the portions on the history of the lumbering operations, while the discussion 
on the injurious insects is by Mr. F. H. Chitteuden, of the Division of Entomology. 

A very comprehensive investigation into the rate of growth of the White Pine has been 
carried on since 1892 as opportunity afforded and funds permitted. The results of this investiga- 
tion, comprising the analysis of over seven hundred trees, in the form of tables and notes, will be 
found in the Appendix. The measurements in the field were mainly executed by Mr. Austin Gary, 
of Bangor, Me., and by Mr. A. K. Mlodziansky, of the Division. The latter also performed the 
calculations and tabulations in the Division, and in this work developed a short and satisfactory 
method of tabulating, analyzing, and using the large mass of data readily for the purpose of 
summarizing, averaging, and generalization. This method is described in Bulletin No. 20, 
Division of Forestry. 

The situation regarding White- Pine supplies has materially changed since this monograph 
was first conceived, so that it might almost be charged that this publication comes too late. This 
would be a misconception both as to the situation and the objects of the monograph. No 
information of any kind could have arrested the decimation of our White Pine supplies, which 
proceeds through the momentum of economic laws; and even now, when it is well known that a 
few years will see their exhaustion, no change in the methods of milling with a view to length- 
ening the supplies is contemplated by the manufacturer, who is only concerned in keeping his 
mill running. The manufacturer is a harvester, not a forest grower. 

The object of this monograph is to lay the basis for an intelligent recuperation of the virgin 
growth by the forest grower of the future, work which will surely be begun presently, but which 
would not have been undertaken ten years ago. 

In the preparation of this monograph use has been made of all available sources of informa- 
tion. Acknowledgments are due to a large number of correspondents, named in the proper 
connection, who have rendered valuable aid by contributing notes on distribution or have assisted 
in other ways. 

3 






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



The botanical illustrations showing external characters are by Mr. George B. Sudworth ; those 
of the anatomy of the wood are by Mr. N. B. Pierce and Mr. Filibert Roth, and those of parasitic 
organisms and disease conditions are from Hartig's "Lehrbuch der Baumkrankheiten" and 
"Zersetzungserscheinungeu des Holzes." The illustrations accompanying the section on injurious 
insects were furnished by the Division of Entomology. The map of distribution was prepared in 
the Division of Forestry. 

The monograph is believed to be just in time for the use for which it is intended, namely, to 
prepare for the application of sylviculture to the remnant of oar pineries. 

Respectfully, 

B. E. FERNOW, 

Chief of Division. 
Hon. JAMES WILSON, 

Secretary of Agriculture, 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction U 

Geographical distribution n 

Character of distribution, by regions 12 

Notes on general distribution 15 

Conclusions regarding natural distribution 16 

The White Pine lumber industry lg 

Original stand and present supplies 19 

Natural history 20 

Botanical description 20 

Relationship 21 

Morphological characters 21 

Root, stem, and branch sj stem 21 

Leaves 22 

Floral organs 22 

Seeds 23 

Seed supply 23 

The \vood 24 

Growth aud development 26 

Rate of growth 27 

Height growth 27 

Seedliug stage 27 

Development in open stand 28 

Development in the forest 30 

Effect of composition of forest upon height growth 32 

Effect of locality upon height growth 33 

Growth in thickness 34 

Detail measurements of annual gain in circumference 35 

Area accretion 36 

Form development, or taper 36 

Growth in volume 37 

Cubic contents of trees 38 

Lumber contents of trees 38 

Conditions of development 39 

Demands upon climate and soil 39 

Associated species 40 

Light requirements 43 

Yield of White Pine ' 44 

Dangers and diseases 49 

Injuries by human agency 49 

Injuries by storms 50 

Diseases 51 

Effect of heat and drought 51 

Parasitic diseases 51 

Insect enemies of the White Pine. By F. H. CHITTENDEN, Division of Entomology 55 

Introduction 55 

The destructive pine bark-beetle 55 

Remedies 56 

Other injurious bark-beetles 56 

Timber-beetles and other Scolytidie 57 

Pine sawyers aud other borers 57 

The white-pine weevil 58 

Moth caterpillars and plant-lice on trunks aud limbs 59 

Leaf-feeding insects 60 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

Tage. 

Forest management 61 

Natural reproduction 62 

Notes on natural reproduction 62 

Artificial reproduction 63 

Planting notes 64 

The White Pine as a forest tree in Germany 67 

The wood of the White Pine. By FILIBERT KOTH, Division of Forestry 73 

Character and physical properties of the wood 73 

Specific weight 73 

Shrinkage 77 

Stn-iigth 77 

Durability 80 

Comparison with other woods 80 

Uses of White Pine 81 

Appendix : 

Tables of measurements . . 85 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 
White Pine forest Frontispiece. 

PLATE I. Map showing original distribution of White Pine (Pinus stratus L.) 11 

II. Fig. 1. White Pine mixed with hardwoods in central New York. Fig. 2. Old White Pine tree in 

mixed forest (young pine in the foreground) in New York State 12 

III. Map showing forest conditions of northern Wisconsin 14 

IV. Fig. 1. Transporting logs over ice road hi Michigan. Fig. 2. Lumber camp in Michigan 20 

V. Leaves and bud of the White Pine 22 

VI. Cones, seeds, etc., of the White Pine 23 

VII. Sections of young shoot of White Pine 26 

VIII. Sections of wood of White Pine 26 

IX. Seedlings of White Pine 27 

X. Fig. 1. A thinned pine grove in New Hampshire. Fig. 2. Young pine in New Hampshire 48 

XI. Fig. 1. Young pine in need of pruning. Fig. 2. Young pine pruned 50 

XII. Disease of White Pine: Agaricns melleus 54 

XIII. Disease of White Pine: PoJ.yporus annosus 54 

TEXT FIGURES. 

FIG. 1. Bark of old White Piue 21 

2. Diagram showing height growth of mixed and of pure growth White Pine in Presque Isle County, 

Mich 32 

3. Diagram showing height growth of White Pine in forest of varying composition in Pennsylvania 33 

4. Girdled White Pine continuing to grow 49 

5. Dendroctonu frontali> 55 

6. Tomicus cacographus 56 

7. Galleries of Tomicut cacoyrapluis 57 

8. Gnatliotrichui maU-riarius 57 

9. Gallery of Gnathotrichue materiariiu 58 

10. Chtilcojihora riryiniensii 58 

11. Pitsodes strobi 59 

12. Larval mines under bark and pupal cells of I'issodes strobi 59 

13. Lnphyras abbotii 60 

14. Tubes of pine leaves made by pine tube-builder 60 

15. Chionaspis pinifoliu: 60 

16. Diagram showing specific weight of wood at different cross sections of the stem; also a decrease of 

weight from the stump upward, and the similarity of the wood of different trees 76 

17. Diagram showing specific weight of kiln-dry wood at different points in the stem from ground upward. 76 

18. Diagram showing effect of moisture on crushing strength 80 

19. Diagram showing rate of height growth of dominant trees 93 

20. Diagram showing rate of height growth of codominaut trees , 94 

21. Diagram showing rate of height growth of oppressed trees 95 

22. Diagram showing height growth of dominant, codominant, and oppressed trees throughout range 96 

23. Diagram showing volume growth of dominant, codominaut, and oppressed trees throughout range ... 97 

24. Diagram showing height growth of dominant trees, by States 100 

25. Diagram showing height growth of codominant trees, by States 101 

26. Diagram showing height growth of oppressed trees, by States 101 

27. Diagram showing volume growth of dominant trees, by States 102 

28. Diagram showing volume growth of codominaut trees, by States 103 

29. Diagram showing volume growth of oppressed trees, by States 104 

7 



8 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Kir.. 30. Diagram showing average progress of diameter growth (breast high) of dominant trees 108 

31. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground (average 

throughout range) 108 

32. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominant trees at various heights from ground (average 

throughout range) 109 

33. Diagram showing diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground (average 

throughout range) 109 

34. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Wisconsin.. Ill 

35. Diagram showing diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground in Wisconsin.. Ill 

36. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Pennsylvania. 113 

37. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominunt trees at various heights from ground in Pennsylvania 113 

38. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Michigan... 115 

39. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominant trees at various heights from ground in Michigan. 115 

40. Diagram showing diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground in Michigan. .. 116 






THE WHITE PINE. 

(PINUS STROBUS Linneeus.) 



SYNONYMS. 

Pinus sirobus Linna-us, Spec. PI. ed. 1, 1001 (1731). 
rinus^tenuifolia Salisbury, Prodr. 399 (1796). 

LOCAL OR COMMON NAMES. 

White Pine (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Ontario, Nebraska). 

Weymouth Pine (Massachusetts, South Carolina, European literature). 

Soft Pine (Pennsylvania). 

Northern Pine (South Carolina). 

Spruce Pine (Tennessee). 



BULLETIN No. 22, DIV. OF FORESTRY, U. 8. DEPT. OF AOR. 



PLATE 










WHITE PINE (Pinus strobus L.) 

Prepared under the direction of 

B. E. FERNOW 

Chief of the Division of Forestry 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 

LEGEND 

^^m PINE FOREST WITH OTHER CONIFERS AND HARDWOODS 
PINERY PROPER ON SANDY SOILS: BIST DEVELOPMENT 
IN COMMERCIAL QUANTITIES. 



to 



IMPORTANT AS ADMIXTURE TO HARDWOODS. 



EXTENSION OF BOTANICAL RANGE: OCCURR 
OR IN SMALL BODIES. 



# 

INO ISOLATED 



THE WHITE PINE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

For two centuries and a half the White Pine has been universally employed for purposes of 
construction in the Northern United States. Its abundance and the combination of qualities 
which adapts it to an almost unlimited number of, uses have made it the most important and the 
most highly prized of all the timber trees of the region to which it is indigenous. In several of 
the Northern States it has been a more constant source of wealth and has yielded larger returns 
than any other single product. Thus, for instance, in 1879, a fair year for comparison, the natural 
products of the State of Michigan were estimated by Governor Jerome as follows : ' 

Agricultural products $88, 500, 000 

Timber 60,000,000 

Copper 8,000,000 

Iron 10,000,000 

Salt 2,000,000 

Fish , 1,000,000 

According to this estimate the value of the timber products, chiefly White Pine, was at that 
time, in round numbers, six times that of the iron, seven and one-half times that of the copper, 
and thirty times that of the salt product of the State, and amounted to about 35 per cent of all the 
products of the State combined; and if the value of the entire White Pine product of the present 
year (1898), some 7 billion to 8 billion feet B. M., be taken into consideration, it will exceed in 
value at first points of production th> entire gold and silver output of the country, which is not 
much less than $100,000,000. 

Commercial interests of great magnitude, dependent upon the handling and transportation of 
the White Pine producl^have been built up in Chicago and other northern cities, and the diminu- 
tion or failure of the supply must inevitably result in the transfer of the capital thus employed to 
other purposes or to other centers of distribution. In fact, such changes have already been and 
are now being made with great rapidity, and much of the capital formerly invested in the pine 
lands and mills of the northern lake region has been transferred to those of the Gulf States and 
the Pacific coast. 

A multitude of industries is dependent upon a continued and large production of pine lumber, 
and its failure, though perhaps not threatening such a collapse of business interests as alarmists 
have pictured, will nevertheless involve serious if not disastrous consequences to the communities 
relying upon its continuance. The maintenance of an adequate future supply, especially in view 
of the well-known fact that the existing forests of White Pine can last but a few years longer, at 
most, is therefore a matter of great economical importance and can not receive too prompt 
attention. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The White Pine is a tree mainly of northern distribution, although it occurs along the 
mountain ranges as far south as northern Georgia. It occupies in this distribution the Boreal 
and Transition life zones, as defined by Dr. C. Hart Merriain. 

1 Michigan and its Resources, Lansing, 1881. 

11 



12 THE WHITE PINE. 

The botanical range of the White Pine may be circumscribed as follows: From Newfoundland 
and the Atlantic coast north of the Gulf of St. Lawrence its northern limit runs in a wavy 
line between the forty ninth and fifty-first degree of latitude, its most northern extension occur- 
ring near its western limit, when, skirting the southeastern end of Lake Winnipeg, it turns 
southward, following more or less closely the ninety-sixth meridian of longitude, and in a 
southeastern direction the line which demarcates the boundary between forest and prairie to the 
Cedar River at the Iowa line, and along the Mississippi River, crossing it near Rock River, when, 
following this river for some time, it takes an easterly course to the head of Lake Michigan, then 
in a northeasterly direction through Michigan to the shores of Lake St. Glair and across Ontario, 
skirting the southern shores of Lake Erie in the two most northeasterly counties of Ohio, then 
turns southward through the eastern counties of that State, and following into West Virginia 
near the 1,000-foot contour line along the foothills of the Allegheuies through Kentucky and 
Tennessee, gradually withdrawing to higher elevations (1,200 feet) into northeastern Georgia; the 
line then returning northward along the eastern slope and crossing upper Delaware, reaches the 
Atlantic coast in southern New Jersey. 

The distribution of commercially valuable timber is, to be sure, very different and much 
more confined. The northern parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan contained probably 
the largest amount of White Pine, the broad belt of commercial pine of these States continuing 
eastward through Ontario, northern New York, and the northern New England States to New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland, and following the New England coast, while the higher elevations 
of the New England States showed preponderantly spruce with pine intermixed. The northern 
counties of western Pennsylvania also contained a large amount of White Pine timber mixed with 
Hemlock and hardwoods. The character of this distribution is exhibited by general outlines 
and shadings on the accompanying map (PI. I). The extreme limits of its sporadic occurrence 
can not be fixed with absolute precision, and from the nature of the case must remain more or less 
indefinite. Similarly, the limits of greater or less development can only be approximately stated. 

The occurrence of the White Pine was generally as a component of the mixed hardwood 
forest of the Atlantic, even in the best developed portions of its range, and under such condi- 
tions, that is, in mixture with other species, it seems to attain ite^most perfect development. 

The finest specimens of the highly esteemed (^ Cork Pine,/J)>f Michigan grew among hard- 
woods on a better quality of soils than those which produced less valued grades. On the lighter 
sands true pinery (pure or nearly pure growth of White Pine) occurs. Here its admixtures are 
most frequently of Red Pine (Pinna reainoaa) and in its northern limits of Jack Pine (Pinna divar- 
icata), while on the better and cooler situations it accompanies the spruces (Picea mariana and 
P. canadensis) with Balsam Fir (Abies balaamen) and Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). 

CHARACTER OF DISTRIBUTION, BY REGIONS. 

The character of the occurrence of the White Pine in the forest within its field of distribution 
will readily appear from the descriptions in the tables of acre yield in the Appendix. 

In Maine, the lower altitudes, along the coast and some of the river valleys, contained in their 
hardwood forests the White Pine in fine development, which gave to that State its cognomen of 
the "Pine Tree State.'L^Reports of trees 6 to 7 feet and over in diameter and up to 250 feet in height 
testify to the capacity of the species in this region. The original stand of this pine in the State is 
practically entirely removed, while the young growth furnishes now again small quantities of 
logging material. The higher altitudes, with their slate and granite soils, are stocked entirely with 
the spruce and hardwood forest in which the pine occurs only as a scattering mixture and of 
inferior development. 

This same manner of distribution applies more or less to X~ew Hamimliin- and northern Xeic 
I'ork/ In the Adiroudacks the pine, now almost entirely removed, fringes with the Spruce and 
Balsam Fir the many lakes and water courses and keeps to the lower altitudes; mixed in with the 
Maples, Birches, Beech, a-ul Spruce, it towers 50 to 60 feet above the general level of the woods, 
with diameters of 30 to 40 inches. Its reproduction under the shade of its competitors, however, 
is prevented, young pine being rarely seen except on old abandoned openings in the forest. (See 
PI. II.) 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE II. 




FIG. 1. WHITE PINE MIXED WITH HARDWOODS IN CENTRAL NEW YORK. 




FIG. 2.-OLD WHITE PINE TREE IN MIXED FOREST (YOUNG PINE IN THE FOREGROUND) IN NEW YORK STATE. 




CHARACTER OF DISTRIBUTION, BY REGIONS. 13 

In western New York the White Pine was once quite abundant as a concomitant of the hard- 
wood forest. Young growth is now creeping into every wood lot, while in Pennsylvania the White 
Pine occurred undoubtedly in the lower eastern counties in commercial quantities as well as in the 
adjoining counties of New Jersey, where it begins to be a tree of the mountains, the higher slopes, 
ridges, and tops becoming its favorite habitatcXf t is here largely associated with Hemlock, which 
often becomes the preponderant tree. Pure pine growth is rare, but the mixed hardwood forest is 
seldom without an admixture of White Pine to the extent, as a rule, of about 30 per cent numeri- 
cally, the soils within the range of its occurrence being seemingly everywhere quite favorable to 
its growth. 

Besides the Hemlock, the coniferous species with which it is found associated are Pitch Pine 
(Pinus rigida) and Spruce, while Red Pine (Pinus resinosa), the most successful rival of the White 
Pine in the lake region, is here rarely met, and then only in single individuals. The hardwoods 
most frequently represented are Maple, Beech, and Birch, more rarely Oak and Chestnut, with 
Basswood, Cucumber, Hickory, Cherry, etc., interspersed in single individuals. 

The best development of the White Pine is usually found along the water courses. Thus, in 
Pennsylvania, in Luzerne County the White Pine is situated along Bear Creek and its tributaries; 
in Clinton County the pine is found on both branches of Hyner Run and along Youngwomaus 
Creek; in Clearfleld County there were 20,000 acres along Sandy Creek and its tributaries heavily 
timbered with White Pine, of which about 2,000 acres of primeval timber are left, which would 
cut about 100 million feet B. M. of White Pine. In Jefferson County a tract of Hemlock and 
White Pine forest of about 90 square miles, known as the Hay's tract, is traversed by the North 
Fork and its tributaries. In Forest County the areas heavily covered with pine were situated 
along Hickory and Tionesta creeks. There is as yet standing over 100 million feet B. M. of White 
Pine along Hickory Creek and its tributaries. 

The heavy cut of pine in Elk County came from Medix Rnn^Dents Run, and their tributaries. 
The courses of the streams follow the trend of the ridges, the substrata of which are usually of a 
porous nature, consisting in most cases of slate or laminated shale, a soil very favorable to pine 
situated on moderately elevated grounds and slopes along the hollows and gorges, which, on 
account of the pervious substratum, offer most satisfactory soil-moisture conditions. 

From Neic Jersey the White Pine has practically vanished long ago as a factor in lumber 
production, and almost as a tree of common occurrence. 

With the extension of the distribution southward, the White Pine becomes less frequent and 
of inferior development ; the climate forces it to higher and higher altitudes. It occurs in quantity 
only in islands or in small bodies on the crests and along the slopes of the Alleghenies^both east 
_aucLwest, usually accompanying water courses in broader or narrower belts. 

Regarding the manner of occurrence of the White Pine in these southern regions, the remarks 
of Mr. W. W. Ashe on the distribution in North Carolina (Bulletin No. 6, North Carolina geological 
survey, 1898) are more or less applicable : 

The woodland in which White Pine is the dominant coniferous tree is not extensive, but lies in isolated, small 
bodies along the crest and southern and eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge, or on the low hills on the west, * " 
extensive forests seldom being found above the higher limit (3,000 feet in Macon and Jackson counties), or perfect 
individual development attained below the lower (2,800 feet). In a few places on the southern slope of the Blue 
Ridge * * the White Pine is associated with Yellow Pines as well as with deciduous trees, but the trees are 

generally short-boled, and neither so large nor tall as those growing at a higher elevation to the west of this range. 
Single specimens or small groups of trees are locally dispersed in the broad-leaf forests throughout the mountain 
counties between the limits of altitude given above. 

It appears from these statements that in these latitudes below the 2,000-foot level this pine 
can hardly be expected to be of commercial or forestal value for the future. 

The area of greatest quantitative development is found around the Great Lakes and in the 
basin of the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, in the very places most perfectly adapted to its 
ready and economical exploitation and easy shipment to markets, the large number of streams 
that are capable of carrying logs, the accessibility of natural ports of distribution, and favorable 
climatic conditions inviting the logger and lumberman. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
have thus become known as the great lumber region of the United States. 



14 THE WHITE PINE. . 

In Michigan the distribution of the species is entirely controlled by the character of the soil, 
all sandy areas being pinery proper, with large areas of pure growth of several square miles in 
extent containing only White Pine. Occasionally, and especially on the driest and poorest sandy 
gravels, the Red Pine (Pinus reainosa) associates and sometimes predominates, the White Pine 
not representing more than 10 to 20 per cent of the number of trees. In the northern regions 
Jack Pine (Pinus diraricata) takes the place of the Red Pine. 

The typical pine forest on fresh sandy soils consists of White Pine (45 to 55 per cent of the 
dominant growth) mixed with Red Pine (25 to 45 per cent) with scattering Hemlock (10 to 15 per 
cent) and occasional Fir and hardwoods. The undergrowth, usually moderately dense, consists 
mainly of small Hemlock, Fir, and young hardwoods. 

On moister sand with loam or clay subsoil Hemlock and hardwoods replace the pines, the 
Red Pine vanishing entirely and the White Pine occurring only in large isolated individuals. Into 
wet or swampy places the White Pine also penetrates in single individuals among Arborvita?, 
Hackmatack, and Spruce. 

As the loam in the composition of the soil increases, the hardwoods increase numerically, the 
White Pine occurring only in single individuals and groups, and Red Pine and Hemlock only 
occasionally. Finally, the heavy clay soils toward the southern range of the species give absolute 
preponderance or exclusive possession to the hardwoods, mainly Sugar Maple, Yellow Birch, and 
Beech, although occasionally White Pine appears scattered, or even in smaller or larger groups. 

Lumbering of White Pine in Michigan began about 1835, and was at its best in 1883, but now 
the virgin pine is nearly cut out. Reproduction is satisfactory on the sandy areas wherever fires 
are kept out, which is rare; on the clay-loam areas reproductionuuderthe shade of the hardwoods 
is practically impossible. 

In Wisconsin the same dependence on soil conditions in the distribution of the species prevails 
as in Michigan. The accompanying map of the forest areas of Wisconsin, taken from Bulletin No. 
16, of the Division of Forestry, will serve to give an idea of the manner in which this distribution 
appears within the belt of best development. (See PI. III.) From this map it will be seen that 
the distribution is to the largest extent dependent on soil conditions, the sandy soils representing 
the pinery areas, in which merchantable hardwoods and Hemlocks are wanting; the loam and clay 
areas are stocked with the hardwood forest, in which both Hemlock and Pine occur scattering or 
in isolated groves, represented almost entirely by mature old timber. Saplings, bushy young 
trees, and seedlings are comparatively scarce, an active reproduction of the pine evidently not 
going on. This condition is found especially on the heaviest soils, where the hardwoods crowd out 
the pine, while on the sandy or gravelly soils the pine holds its own and forms a fair proportion of 
the sapling timber. In the true pinery of the sandy soils the hardwoods are scantily represented 
by small White Birch, Aspen, and Maple. The Hemlock is entirely wanting. On the barrens 
proper the White Pine is replaced by Jack Pine and Red Pine, one, or both together, forming 
forests of considerable extent, usually with hardly any undergrowth or admixture save some 
scattering Scrub Oak. 

In Minnesota climatic conditions again begin to assert themselves in influencing the distribu- 
tion of the White Pine. 

The conifers become preponderant over the hardwoods everywhere. Pines, both Red and 
White, together with Tamarack (Larix laricina) and Arborvitre (Cedar Thuja occidental!*) and 
some admixture of Spruce occupy those sites, both swamp and dry lands, which elsewhere would 
be occupied by hardwoods. With this change in composition goes a decrease in development; 
the sixes both in diameter and height are reduced. 

It is an interesting fact that both in Wisconsin and Minnesota the pine area does not, as in 
the eastern field of distribution, gradually fade out toward the prairie, but the true pine woods 
cease abruptly within 30 or 40 miles at most from the demarcation line of the prairie, leaving the 
intervening ground to Birch and Aspen or Scrubby Oak and Jack Pine openings. 

In the Canadian extension of the species pure pinery is very rare. The great bulk of the 
most productive pine country lies northward and westward from the mouth of the Ottawa River 
to Georgian Bay in mixed growth, which consists mainly of hardwoods, with Hemlock, Spruce, 
Arborvitie (Cedar), and Balsam, while the lower tiers of Ontario are of the same character of 
hardwoods, with little scattering pine, as in southern Michigan. The eastern extension of the 




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NOTES ON GENERAL DISTRIBUTION. 15 

field of commercial pine iii Canada followed mainly the St. Lawrence River as far as Quebec. On 
Newfoundland the species is indigenous to nearly the whole of the island, and in some parts pro- 
duces considerable quantities of merchantable timber. At its northwestern limit the forest fades 
out into prairie, the White Pine gradually disappearing, while at the northern limit the change 
is into Spruce forest. 

NOTES ON GENERAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Dr. N. L. Brittou, for some years connected with the geological survey of New Jersey, writes of the occurrence 
of White Pine iu that State as follows: 

Pine Brook Station and sparingly northward along the Southern Railroad of New Jersey (Britton); sparingly 
3 miles south of Woodbury, Gloucester County (Canby), and frequent in the middle and northern portions of the 
State. There are no White Pine forests iu New Jersey, and the largest grove known to me is of hut a few acres in 
extent. It evidently prefers a heavier soil than does P. rigida, which forms the forests of the pine barrens. On 
Staten Island, New York, there are a few scattered trees of P. strobui. 

Mr. William M. Canby, of Wilmington, Del., reports the existence of a grove of White Pine trees in upper 
Delaware, and Mr. Thomas Meehan, of Germantown, Pa., states that White Pine grows (or did recently) at the 
Soapstone quarry, on the east side of the Schuylkill, some 8 or 10 miles above Philadelphia. Mr. Canby adds: "It 
is a very difficult thing to define the limit of a species that is being so rapidly destroyed, and doubtless the southern 
line is being rapidly effaced." 

Prof. Lester F. Ward, of Washington, D. C., is of the opinion that Pinus strobus is not indigenous around 
Washington, and that the few trees met with in wild situations iu its vicinity grew from seeds blown from planted 
trees. He has never met it in his botanical excursions into southeastern Maryland and Virginia. 

Mr. F. E. Boynton writes from Highlands, N. C. : 

I have seen some very fine specimens growing in Pickens and Oconee counties, S. C., but I have never seen it in 
this part of the country except in high altitudes, say from 2,500 to 3,000 feet usually. I have never seen or heard of 
its forming forests here. I have seen groves of a few acres where it might be said to predominate. As a rule, it is 
found scattered among other forest trees. It nearly always grows in or quite near Rhododendron and Mountain 
Laurel thickets, which indicate a moist soil. It often grows to be a very large tree here I measured a log in the 
mill yard near here last night that was 37 inches through. Considerable lumber is cut from White Pine in this 
mountain region, but, as a rule, the lumber is of inferior quality, being very knotty and often shaky. Cultivated 
specimens thrive and grow very fast. It is usually found most common on southern exposures. The rock formation 
is granite, and soil usually a sandy or gravelly loam wherever I have observed the White Pine in this region. 

The following has been furnished by Prof. W. R. Lazenby, of the State agricultural experiment station at 
Columbus, Ohio : 

From all tbe data in my possession, I should say that White Pino is rarely met with in Ohio outside the borders 
of two of our northeastern counties, viz, Ashtabula and Lake. Occasionally a sporadic patch has been noted along 
the banks of streams in some of the eastern counties. I have never heard of its spontaneous occurrence anywhere 
throughout the central or southern portions of the State. It appears to thrive well here at Columbus and submits 
kindly to change of soil. Wherever I have seen it in Ohio under artificial cultivation it has presented a thrifty 
appearance, although the young plants do not make a very rapid growth for the first few years. 

Concerning the occurrence of White Pine near the head of Lake Michigan, Prof. E. J. Hill, of Normal Park, 111., 
writes: 

It begins at Whiting Station, on the Michigan Southern Railroad, and extends eastward to Michigan City. I 
came across a clump of White Pine once, about a mile north of Otis, where the Michigan Southern Railroad crosses 
the New Albany road. * Yon would be pretty safe in taking the Calumet River as the southern boundary. 

I do not know of a single native tree in Cook County, 111. 

Mr. M. S. Bebb, of Rockford, 111., communicates the following concerning the occurrence of White Pine in the 
northern portion of that State: 

In a few localities on Rents Creek and Rays Creek, in Wiunebago County, and giving the name to Pine Creek 
in Ogle, the county immediately north of this, the White Pine is certainly indigenous, but occurring only as a 
sparse growth, cresting precipitous banks, where it seems to have found a favorable environment. 

To this Mr. S. B. Wadsworth, of Oregon, 111., adds: 

The White Pine in ( )gl County grows in some cases to a height of 40 or 50 feet. * * * Nearly all the small 
streams in Pine Rock township have some pines near the mouths of the streams if there are any rocks along the 
banks. * * The White Pine, prefers the St. Peters sandstone, but in some cases grows on limestone rocks. 

.Mr. K. Williams, of Streator, 111., says: 

White Pine is without doubt a native of La Sallo County. It occurs on the Vermilion and its little tributaries 
wherever there is an exposure of carboniferous sandstone, and more frequently is seen close to the edge of the 
highest bluffs, where the soil is largely composed of the disintegrated rock. To find one beyond the influence of 
tbe sand rock would be almost phenomenal. The number is very small and their situation does not permit them to 
attain much size. I think that 40 feet is about the limit of height. Small thrifty plants from one to a few feet in 
height occur here and there, and are sometimes transplanted to the prairie soil, where they make a vigorous growth, 
outstripping Norway Spruce, Scotch and Austrian Pine, Hemlock, and White Cedar. Pines planted here in 1854 or 
1855 are now (188(5) about 40 feet high. 

The limiting line of the White Pine beyond the Mississippi northwestward is traced substantially as indicated 
by Mr. Warren Upham in tbe Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. Mr. Upham sends the following : 

The, White Pine, wherever I have seen it in New Hampshire and other parts of New England and in the Nprth- 
we-t. prefers somewhat clayey laud. It does not thrive on wholly sandy plains ("modified drift" of glacialists), 



16 THE WHITE PINE. 

which are denominated "pine barrens," the congenial dwelling place in the East for the Pitch Pine (P. rigida), and 
in the Northwest for the Banksitin or Jack Pine (P. diraricata); nor does the White Pine in either region grow 
plentifully and of largest size on very clayey land, which is the favorite location for Maples, Hasswood, Elms, and 
other deciduous trees. The White Pine in this matter of its choice of soil follows the injunction, Media lulissimus 
ibu. The Red Pine (P. retinota), so far as I have observed, can thrive better on the very sandy plains and "bar- 
rens" than the White Pine, being intermediate in this between the White Pine and the Pitch and Jack pines. 

Prof. T. H. Macbride, of the State University of Iowa, says : 

I have collected White Pine in the following counties in this State: Mitchell, Howard, Winneshiek, Allamakee, 
Clayton, Dnbnque, Delaware, Jackson, and Muscat inr. It is, by others, reported from Scott. It ought to be found 
also in Fayette, bnt I have never rnn across it there. 

[This would confine the White Pine in Iowa to the counties bordering the Mississippi River and the Minnesota 
State line as far west as the Cedar River Valley.] 

CONCLUSIONS REGARDING NATURAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The leading conclusions to be drawn from what has been stated regarding the natural distri- 
bution of "White Pine seein to be the following: 

(1) Leaving out of consideration all the outlying portions of the region under discussion, there 
is left an area of not less than 400,000 square miles in the United States and Dominion of Canada 
within which the White Pine is in its home and surrounded by the conditions of its own choice, 
throughout which its successful cultivation is fully assured. 

(2) A much larger territory than this is included within the limits of extreme distribution as 
denned above, and there is abundant evidence to show that over nearly the whole of this wide 
area, and in some directions far beyond it, this species makes under cultivation a healthy and 
rapid growth. There is apparently no species of equal value indigenous to eastern North 
America that is at the same time adapted to so wide an area. 

(3) The habits of this species near the western limit of its natural occurrence, as well as 
experimental planting, indicate plainly that its successful growth can not be depended upon much 
beyond this limit. 

THE WHITE PINE LUMBER INDUSTRY. 

No species of American timber has been so much used for lumber as the White Pine, and 
the development of the lumber industry in this country is coincident with the exploitation of the 
White Pine forests. 

The commercial use of White Pine began with the first settlement of New England. The first 
sawmills were established in the seventeenth century, and numerous small sawmills, which were 
usually an attachment of the neighborhood gristmill, were in operation early in the eighteenth 
century. Timber was exchanged for merchandise, and the collections thus made were floated to 
ports of shipment, whence they were exported. This primitive industry, confined largely to White 
Pine, was continued well into the third decade of the present century. In 1850, J. S. Springer, of 
Maine, wrote: ''Thirty years ago it was unnecessary to search for a locality for a lumber camp on 
the Penobscot, for a man could step from his house to his day's work, the pine, that forest king, 
abounding on every side. Fifty years hence the vast pine forests through which the Penobscot 
flows will be on the eve of destruction." Thisprophecy has long since been verified, for the Spruce 
has practically taken the place of the White Pine in the lumber output of Maine. 

This early trade in White Pine, though involving small capital and limited operations on the 
part of each dealer, was by no means unimportant in the aggregate, lumber being a leading 
industry in New England from the first. The Bangor Weekly Register of March 2, 1816, noted 
that between 300 and 400 sleigh loads of lumber, etc., came into Belfast in one day. The Gazette 
of July 10, 1822, says that 136,080 feet of lumber and 35,000 shingles were hauled in on one Saturday 
by teams. In 1825 twenty-five vessels were engaged in the lumber trade from Bangor to the West 
Indies. The mills of those days were all small affairs, generally single-sash saws, driven by water 
power, with a capacity of 1,000 to 3,000 feet per day. About 1830 the construction of larger mills 
began, and in 1890 a capital of nearly $12,000,000 was invested in the sawmilling industry in the 
State of Maine alone. 

In general, it may be said that the White Pine of New England was cut by numerous small 
concerns, and that the bnlk of the supplies was cut before modern sawmilling began. 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY. 17 

Although the great forests of White Pine in Maine have disappeared, a small amount of this 
material is still cut in the State every year, so that since 1881, on the Penobscot, for instance, out 
of a total cut of about 150 million feet per year between 24 and 30 million feet have been pine, the 
pine thus generally forming 15 to 20 per cent of the entire output. 

In Pennsylvania the exploitation of White Pine likewise began quite early. Pittsburg 
furnished pine lumber to points along the Ohio and even to St. Louis, Mo. As late as 1850 
Philadelphia received its 150 million feet of lumber, largely White Pine, from the State, importing 
but very little from New England and the South. At Williainsport, the center of White Pine 
lumbering in Pennsylvania, thejirst large mills were erected about 1838, and the bulk of the pine 
was cut prior to 1870. 

In the forties the >Vhite Pine product marketed at Williamsport excelled in quantity all other 
points of production. The highest production was reached in 1873, with nearly 300 million feet 
B. M. in logs boomed, which in 1893 had sunk to a little over one-tenth of that amount. While 
in 1873 the amount of timber standing was estimated as 3,300 million feet B. M., in 1896 the State 
commissioner of forests places the remainder at 500 million feet B. M. 

The only uncut White Pine forests of Pennsylvania now standing are isolated bodies in the 
more inaccessible parts of Clearfleld, Lycomiug, and Tioga counties. 

In the State of New York, too, which in the Adirondacks and in the western counties con- 
tained considerable quantities of White Pine, the species is largely cut out. Hardly more than 5 
per cent of the cut is now of White Pine, the output from the Adirondack mills being in the 
neighborhood of 25 million feet B. M. 

The exploitation of White Pine in the Lake region began during the thirties, when small 
mills were erected at various points, both in ^Michigan and Wisconsin. The first steam sawmill at 
Sagiuaw was built in 1834, and the first mill at Alpeua was built two years later. Nevertheless 
the lumber industry of both Michigan and Wisconsin remained insignificant until toward the close 
of the fifties, when most of the present sites of manufacture had been established. Ten years 
later (1870) the annual cut of White Pine in Michigan and Wisconsin amounted to nearly 4 billion 
feet; Minnesota had scarcely begun to contribute to the output; and in the marketing the rail- 
way was fast displacing the older method of rafting. The progress of lumbering is well illus- 
trated in the following figures from the Northwestern Lumberman, representing the annual cut of 
lumber alone from 1873 to 1897 : 

.Iniiiinl cut of lumber (exclusive of shini/les and laths) of the three Lake States, Michigan, Wisconsin, 

and Minnesota, 1S7S-1S97. 



FeetB. M. 



Feet B. M. 



1873 3,993,780,000 1886 7,425,368,443 

1874 3,751,306,000 i 1887 7,757,916,784 

1875 3,968,553,000 ! 1888 8,388,716,460 

1876 3,879,046,000 i 1889 8,305,833,277 

1877 5,595,333,496 i 1890 8,664,504,715 



1878 3,699,472,759 

4,806,943,000 
1880 5,651,295,006 



1891 7,943,137,012 

1892 8,903,748,423 

1893 7,599,748,458 



1881 6,768,856,749 i 1894 6,763,110,649 

1882 7,552,150,744' 1895 7,093,398,598 

1883 7,624,789,786 1896 5,725,763,035 

1884 7,935,033,054 1897 6,233,454,000 

188.', 7,053,094,555 : 

Or, dividing the time into periods of five years each, the figures are as follows: 

I'n'. of lumber (exclusive of shint/les and laths) in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, by periods of 

fire years. 

Feet. 

1876-1880 21,562,090,361 

lxsi-1885 36,933,924,888 

1886-1890 40,542,339,679 

1891-1895 38,302,143,140 

Tota l 137,340,498,068 

20233 No. 22 2 



18 



THE WHITE PINE. 






From the figures, to which about 10 per cent must be added for shingles, laths, etc.. it appears 
that the yearly output did not reach 4 billion feet until 1879, and that the greatest increase in the 
< nt occurred between 1876 and 1882, when the 7 -billion mark was reached. This enormous cut 
continued until the general business depression of 1894 called a temporary halt, lu Minnesota, 
pini' lumbering began on the St. Croix and did not reach conspicuous dimensions until during the 
eighties, when the regions along the upper Mississippi, as well as the Duluth district, were opened. 
This progress westward is well illustrated by the following figures, which show the percentage of 
the total cut of lumber alone from period to period, by districts: 

Percentage of total cut of lumber, 1873 to 1895, 1>y districts. 



Districts. 


Lumber cut. 


1878 


1880 


1885 1890 


lSil.1 


Saginaw district and mills along railways in southern 


Per cent. 
36 
30 
34 


Per cent. 
31 
32 

37 


Per cent. Per cent. 

27 24 
28 28 

45 48 


Per cent. 
16 
26 
58 


Ports aWmt Lake Michigan, including those of Green 

]J a y 


District west of Chicago, that is, most of the mills in 





111 this connection the White Pine trade of St. Louis presents an interesting illustration. The 
first pine lumber was received from Pittsburg in 1819, and this point remained the principal 
source of supplies for years. In 1843 a boom ou the St. Croix Eiver broke and the liberated logs 
were gathered and rafted to St. Louis, where they were sawn. In 1850 the first regular raft of 
Wisconsin logs was brought to the city. In 1853 Schulenberg and Boeckler built a large sawmill 
on the St. Croix, and from this time on rafts of sawed White Pine were sent to St. Louis from the 
northern rivers. 

The receipts of White Pine at St. Louis were: In 1853, about 60 million feet; in 1882, about 
162 million feet. Similarly the lumber trade of the city of Chicago, the greatest lumber market 
in the United States, if not in the world, illustrates well the development of the White Pine 
lumber industry. In 1847 only 32 million feet of White Pine lumber were received. The annual 
receipts at intervals of ten years since 1855 to 1895 were as follows : 

Feet. 

1855 306,000,000 

1865 647,145,734 

1875 1,153,715,432 

1885 1,744,892,000 

1895 1,637,389,000 

The receipts reached their maximum in 1892 with 2,203,874,000 feet, and the heavy diminution 
since that date is not greater than would be accounted for by the general business depression 
throughout the country. 

In Canada, as in New England, the exploitation of White Pine began almost with the first 
settlement. Logs, hewn timbers, and especially ship spars, were exported in early days, and of 
late years an extensive trade in sawn lumber, as well as saw logs, has sprung up between that 
country and the United States. Since reliable statistics of the lumber output of this region are 
wanting, the following figures for the dues on crown timber in Ontario and Quebec must suffice to 
illustrate the development of the industry: 



Areraye annual dues on crown timber for Ontario and Quebec. 



1826-1834. 



$24,000 



lSi5-1851 82,000 

1852-1857 122,000 

1858-1866 168,000 

1867-1881 450,000 

The export into the United States for 1894, the heaviest year, was: Lumber, 1,155 million 
feet (Pine and Spruce); pine logs, 277,947,000 feet, or less than H billion feet B. M. 

Though scattering White Pine occurs in all provinces of eastern Canada, large bodies of 
merchantable timber are only to be found on the upper waters of the Ottawa, and on the shores 



ORIGINAL STAND AND PRESENT SUPPLIES. 19 

of Lake Huron (Georgian Bay district) and Lake Superior, and the White Pine lumbering is 
practically confined to these districts. The output of White Pine in the Dominion is estimated 
at 1J to 2 billion feet per year. 

ORIGINAL STAND AND PRESENT SUPPLIES. 

What the original stand of White Pine was is difficult even lo estimate. The amount of 
White Piue cut in the New England States, New York, Pennsylvania, and the eastern Provinces 
of Canada is not known, and the only reliable figures which give an indication of what has been 
harvested are the figures for the Lake States above mentioned. For the Lake region alone the 
estimated original stand for Wisconsin may serve as an illustration. For the pine-stocked area of 
this State, a total stand of about 150 million feet per township (23,000 acres) has been shown to be a 
fair average. This would indicate a total of about 130 billion feet, of which about GG billion feet were 
cut between 1873 and 1897, and about 20 billion feet are'supposed to have been cut prior to 1873, 
making a totat~ef sbo~ufTS6 billion feet as actually harvested, while about 18 billion feet were 
believed to be still standing in 1897. \ These figures are based upon a thorough canvass made by 
ilr. Filibert Koth and published in detail in Bulletin No. 16 of the Division of Forestry. On the 
same basis, Michigan possessed fully 150 billion feet and Minnesota may be assumed to have had 
about 70 billion feet, which would make an aggregate of about 350 billion feet of pine for the Lake 
States. Of this about 170 billion feet were cut between 1873 and 1897. and about 50 billion feet 
were probably cut prior to this time, accounting for about 220 billion feet out of 350 billion feet. 
While it must remain mere conjecture, it seems quite fair, nevertheless, to assume that the total 
supplies of White Pine aggregated probably not less than 700 billion feet of standing timber 
originally. Of this total, then, not less than 50 per cent was contained in Canada and the 
Eastern States, the United States portion representing about two-thirds of this heritage, the 
Canadian portion showing less than 20 per cent of total supplies. 

Of this large amount of virgin supplies, a little over 15 per cent, or 100 billion feet, may be 
estimated as standing. These supplies may be approximately distributed as follows: 

Cauada is credited by the statistician of its department of agriculture with about 37 billion 
feet of standing pine, an estimate probably far below the real truth. For the Lake States the 
following estimates were made iu 1897 by the best-informed man of the Lake region : Minnesota, 36 
billion feet; Wisconsin, 18 billion feet: Michigan, 10 billion feet. These estimates are considered 
quite high by many. The standing pine in Michigan is placed by a detail township canvass in 
1890 at only about 6 billion feet; the standing White Piue of Minnesota is estimated by the State 
chief fire warden at only about 12,600 million feet, while an estimate for Wisconsin made in 1895 
places the standing pine of that State at only 8 billion feet. 

Retaining the larger figures as probably the nearest correct, there exist to-day: In the Lake 
States, about 04 billion feet; in Cauada, over 40 billion feet; in New York and Pennsylvania, not 
over 2 billion feet; in New England, not over 3 billion feet; in West Virginia and Tennessee, not 
over 1 billion feet; making a total of about 110 billion feet, or about 22 per cent of what may fairly 
be believed to have been standing originally. Of this standing supply, about 100 billion feet are 
so located that the present rate of exploitation (over 6 billion feet per year) can be, and probably 
will be, continued until over 75 per cent of the present supply is cut, when, of course, a lack of 
logs will lead to a reduction iu output. This condition may be looked for before the end of the 
next ten or twenty years, and from that time, unless recuperative measures are adopted, White 
Pine will cease to be the great staple of our lumber markets. 

In former years lumbering of all kinds was careless, and even in the White Piue forests the 
prevailing "inexhaustible supply" notion led to enormous waste. Stumps were left 3 to 4 feet 
high, all defective trees were left, and top logs burned up with the debris. Many of these old 
slashings have been logged for the second and even the third time, often yielding a greater profit 
than when first culled. 

At present this is no longer the case. High stuinpage prices and a perfect market have led 
to the closest economy iu logging, milling, and shipping of White Pine. The trees are felled with 
the saw, the stumps are 18 inches and less, care is had in the marking and sawing of logs, and 
the top is utilized, irrespective of knots, just as far as it will make saw timber. Defective logs 



20 THE WHITE PINE. 

are rarely left behind, and "clean cutting" now means the removal of all logs, however defective. 

In logging, ice roads, improved by nightly sprinkling, enable the transport of enormous loads 

~..n<H) feet and more) by single or double teams. The logging railway is fast finding favor, and in 

many places the logging is thereby made continuous, being carried on at all seasons. (See PI. IV.) 

The yields in White Pine are, as might be expected, very variable. 

A cut of 2 million feet B. M. on a " forty," or 50,000 feet per acre, was not a rare one in the 
pineries of southern Michigan, and oc"asionally such cuts are made in Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
To yield such a result the entire " forty" must be well and evenly stocked. The best acre, then, 
need not be far above the average, and, in fact, rarely exceeds 75,000 feet. 

A stand of 1 million feet on a "forty," or 25,000 feet per acre, is a good one, but was of quite 
common occurrence in all White Pine districts, and may still be found in many places, while whole 
townships or counties have averaged 10,000 feet per acre. 

These yields depend, of course, on the character of the forest growth, the greater or smaller 
admixture of other species occasioning the differences. Thus, if any large territory of the pine 
districts were taken into consideration, a yield of 150 million feet per township would be found a 
fair statement for most parts of the pineries of Wisconsin and Michigan. 

The best yields do not usually come from those tracts which contain the largest trees, but 
where the pine is least mixed with other species and stands most dense. 

Such areas, pineries proper, where no merchantable hardwoods were mixed with the pine, are 
usually tracts of loamy sand, and occur in extensive bodies in all three of the Lake States. 
Generally, White Pine cuts more wasteful than Norway or Red Pine, has a thicker bark, more 
large dead limbs and knots, these latter often coming to within 20 feet of the ground, even on large 
trees, and is quite given to forking. This latter peculiarity seems natural to the tree, and has 
been observed abroad as well as here. It seems independent of the character of the soil, as it 
occurs on clay and sand alike, but it is often localized, so that on a small tract of 10 or 20 acres 
nearly all trees are forked. Trees with three and four forks are not rare, and five forks occur. In 
addition. White Pine is extensively defective by decay, so much so that in some localities 15 to i-'O 
per cent must be allowed for the loss from this source. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

The oldest description of the White Pine appears to be that of Plukenet, published in 1700. 
Its scientific name of Pinus strobus was given the species by Linna?us in 1753, and unlike most 
trees but one other scientific name has been applied to it, the synonym being Pini<s tenuifolla Salis- 
bury, 1796. Besides the generally accepted common name of White Pine, the species is locally 
known in the United States as Soft Pine, Northern Pine, and Spruce Pine, and to a limited extent 
by its usual European name of Weymouth Pine. 

The species was first introduced in Europe at Badminton, England, and was soon after exten- 
sively planted on the estate of Lord Weymouth, whence its^dinmon name abroad. It was also 
extensively planted in Germany at the end of the last century under the same name, Weymuth- 
kiefer. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. 

White Pine (Pinus strobm L.) in its natural habitat is a' tree of large size, 100 feet or more in 
height (not unfrequently attaining a height of over 150 feet, even trees of 250 feet in height having 
been reported), with smooth, thin, grayish bark (fig. 1), becoming at the base thick and deeply 
furrowed with age. The leaves are slender, straight, triangular in section, live in a sheath, 2i to 
4i inches long; resin ducts, chiefly two near the dorsal face; stomata in three to five rows on the 
ventral faces; fibro vascular bundle, one. Cones, single or in groups of two to three, stalked and 
pendulous, 4 to 6 inches long, cylindrical, slightly tapering and curved, fruit-scales oblong wedge- 
shaped, the apophysis half pyramidal, with a triangular blunt point. Seeds, one-fifth to one-fourth 
inch long, grayish-brown, with a thin membranaceous wing. Cotyledons, seven to eleven. 

A number of varieties, more or less distinctly marked, are recogni/.ed in cultivation. Among 
these are nana, a dwarf, bushy form, cultivated in gardens in the Old World; nivea, riritlis, and 
aurea, named from the color of their leaves; brevifolia, and several others (umbraculifera, minima, 



. 



Bulletin No. 22, Dw. of Forestry, U. S. Deot of Agriculture. 



PLATE IV. 




Fio. 1. TRANSPORTING LOGS OVER ICE ROAD IN MICHIGAN. 




FIG. 2. LUMBER CAMP IN MICHIGAN. 



MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. 



21 



fastif/iata, gracilifolia, rariegata, zebrina, aud prostrata), some of which are propagated and sold as 
special attractions iu nurseries. 

RELATIONSHIP. 

The White Pine (Pinus strobus) is closely related to the Bhotau Pine (Pinus excelsa) of India, 
the Swiss Stone Piue (Pinus cembra) of southern Europe, the White Pine (Pinus flejcilis) of the 
Eocky Mountains, the Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) of the Pacific coast, and a number of others 
less generally known, of which Pinus monticola, P. albicaulis, P. strobiformis, P. qtiadrifolia, P. 
parryana, and P. cembroides are natives of the United 
States. 

The species belonging to this section of the pine genus 
are distinguished by their slender, delicate leaves, five in 
a sheath ; by the exceptionally soft and even texture of 
their wood, and by certain well-defined botanical charac- 
ters, by which they are marked as a natural and easily 
recognized group. 

The group of species just named shows a preference, 
generally characteristic of this section of pines, for ele- 
vated, mountain regions, and a light rather than a heavy 
soil, making, as a rule, a healthy growth on sandy aud 
rocky places, and manifestly preferring these to low and 
heavy soil. All are handsome trees, symmetrical in form, 
some of them, as the Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana), of 
rapid growth, aud forming magnificent specimens from 
loO to over 200 feet in height, while others are of slow 
growth, as the Stone Pine of the Alps, which produces, 
however, a beautiful, fine-grained wood, extensively used 
by the Swiss peasants for carving. The Bhotan Pine cf 
the Himalayas is the representative of the White Pine in 
Asia, resembling it very closely in habit, size, structure 
of wood, and various technical characters. 

Admitting the common ancestry of these various species, a more extended comparative study 
of their preferences and habits would be of much interest in relation to their cultivation beyond 
their natural range, considering the fact that, whatever their environment, such ancestral traits 
are certain to manifest themselves. 




Fig. 1. Hark ( 



V. 



MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. 
ROOT, STEM, AND BRANCH SYSTEM. 

Ill the natural forest, with a due amount of shade, the White Pine has at maturity a straight 
columnar trunk, destitute of branches for half to two-thirds of the distance from the ground to 
the tip of the leader. 

The branches are for many years disposed regularly in whorls, and during this early period 
the tree retains a symmetrical, conical form, and is one of the most graceful of the pines for orna- 
mental cultivation, but, as is the case with other conifers, the lower branches are short lived, and 
ultimately, by their decay, the tree becomes unsightly. This fact, which renders this species, in 
common with all other conifers, undesirable during part of their lifetime for ornamental purposes, 
gives it the greater value as a timber tree. 

The crown, at first pyramidal, is finally less regular, although rarely flattening, and, owing to 
the rapid and persistent growth of the tree, conspicuously overtops the surrounding forest of 
deciduobs-fcregsT The root system is small compared with the size of the tree and spreads near the 
surface of the ground; its comparatively slight development is in harmony with the less pro- 
nounced dependence of this species ou the soil aud its greater dependence on the atmosphere. 




2J THE WHITE PINE. 

Nursery seedlings produce numerous slender, fibrous roots, the delicate tissues of \vhieli are as in 
most conifers easily dried at tlie time of transplanting, resulting in very serious injury or loss of 
plant material. White Pines planted upon the dry sand along the Lake Michigan shore and 
trimmed of their lower brandies have been observed restoring these lower limbs and forming a 
thick, given covering over the roots before making any height growth, suggesting in a striking 
manner the necessity of protecting the root system against too rapid evaporation and a too highly 
heated soil. In the natural forest, and in artificial groves properly planted, th<- fallen leaves fulfill 
this function by making a deep, thick coating over the roots. 

LEAVES. 

The leaves arise from greatly reduced short brauchlets and are produced five together, sur- 
rounded at the base by a thiu deciduous sheath, and are further distinguished by being more 
slender and delicate than those of our other native pines. (PI. V, 7, ;?, 5, -L) The relative position 
of the five leaves inclosed in their common sheath is shown in PL V, 5, and in PI. V, //', is repre- 
sented a cross section of a single leaf, magnified sufficiently to show the characteristic arrange- 
ment of the tissues. 

Without entering into a detailed account of its functions, which would here be irrelevant, it 
may nevertheless be remarked that the leaf of the White Pine constitutes a highly complicated 
and delicate piece of apparatus. Like all foliage leaves, the leaf of the White Pine fulfills the 
portant functions of respiration and the manufacture of starchy food, during which processes 
large amounts of watery vapor are exhaled. 

A healthy pine seedling, three years old, in the air of a dry room, lost by evaporation in 
twenty-four hours 81.1 per cent and in the following twenty-five hours 9G.7 per cent of its entire 
dry weight. 1 The evaporation, chiefly through the leaves, is more rapid in the daytime than in 
the night, in clear than in cloudy weather, and most rapid of all in a drying wind. It will readily 
be seen that if a tree is planted on a clear, dry, and windy day, the conditions are the most 
unfavorable that could possibly be chosen, the rapid evaporation carrying oft' the water of the 
plant beyond the capacity of the roots, not yet adapted to their new place, to meet the demand, 
which results in the drying up of the tissues and often in the death of the tree. 

The various forms of modified leaves are characterized by extreme delicacy. Winter buds 
(PL V, 7^, with their thin and small scales, present a striking contrast to those of Longleaf Pine, for 
example, and other species that produce large buds with relatively thick and coarse scales. The 
very loose leaf sheaths and scale-like leaves of the young shoots are early deciduous, a fact that 
contributes to the growth of the smooth, clean bark characteristic of the branches of White Pine, 
in which it differs in so marked a way from the species of the Yellow Pine group. 

In PL V, 1, the modified, scale-like leaves that constitute the lotise sheaths are conspicuously 
shown. Separate fascicles, with their sheaths, are represented in PL V at 2 and 5, while at 4 is an 
older one as it appears at the end of the summer after the sheath has fallen. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

1. Shoot showing foliage and scale leaves of different ages. 

. Yonng fascicle with sheath. 
S. Yonng fascicle further developed. 
/. .Still older fascicle from which the deciduous sheath ha.s fallen. 

5. Section of fascicle inclosed in sheath. 

6. Section of leaf magnified. 

7. Winter bud. 

FLORAL ORGANS. . 

Flowers and fruit are rarely produced to any considerable extent before the tree has attained 
the uge of fifteen <>r twenty years, though occasionally trees may bear fruit at ten to twelve years 
of age. 

The stamiuate and pistillate flowers are separate, but produced on the same tree. They 
appear in May, the pollen ripening and pollination taking place (in the latitude of Ann Arbor, 

1 According to determinations made in the botanical laboratory of the University of Michigan, November 18, 1886. 



Bulletin No. 22. Div. of Forestry. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE V. 




LEAVES AND BUD OF THE WHITE PINE. 



Bultotm No. 22. On of Fornry. U. S. Dept ol Agriculture. 



PLATE VI. 




CONES, SEEDS, ETC., OF THE WHITE PINE. 



SEEDS AND SEED SUPPLY. 23 

Mich.) between the middle and the end of the month. The staminate flowers are borne laterally 
on the shoots of the season (PL VI, l). They are extremely simple in structure, consisting of 
numerous pollen sacs borne in pairs on the outer face of the scale-like staminal leaves. The 
pollen is produced in great abundance and is carried by the wind to great distances. Fertilization, 
however, notwithstanding the profuse production of pollen, often fails to take place. In fact, 
failure appears to be rather the rule than the exception, if we consider the frequency of " oft' 
years," in which little, if any, good seed is produced. But doubtless other causes often combine 
to prevent the production of a full crop of seeds. 

The pistillate flowers occupy the apex of the young shoot (PI. VI, ), finally forming a bunch of 
cones pendent from the ends of the branches. At the time of pollination they are about one- 
fourth of an inch in length and have the appearance of minute fleshy cones, which by the end of 
the first summer's growth have attained the length of three fourths of an inch to an inch, and 
have the appearance represented in PI. VI, 3. They are not ripe until the fall of the succeeding 
year, when the cones, having now attained their full size, as shown in PI. VI, 5 and 6, open and 
allow the winged seeds to escape. In order to prevent loss of seeds it is necessary to gather the 
cones a little before they ripen, which occurs during early September in most localities of the 
natural range. Afterwards, if kept in a dry place, they will open readily themselves and allow 
the seeds to fall out. The ripening is signalized by the change of color to a yellow brown and the 
forming of a resin coat. 

SEEDS. 

The seeds are one-fourth of an inch in length by about half that measure in breadth, of an 
oval form, grayish-brown in color, sprinkled with darker spots, and provided with a thin, delicate 
wing, by means of which they are disseminated through the agency of the wind (PL VI, 8). The 
seed coats consist of a hard outer shell, or testa, inside of which is a thinner membrane, the 
endopleura. Inside of the seed coats is the whitish endosperm,' constituting the food" of the 
germinating plant, within whichj occupying the center of the seed, is the small, straight embryo, 
the three parts of which, stem, radicle, and cotyledons, are plainly distinguishable. 

To get 1 pound of seed from 2 to 2 bushels of cones are necessary. 

Concerning the production of seed, the experience in this country is but fragmentary. The 
individual tree begins to bear quite early. Isolated specimens, or trees in open groves, bear cones 
before they are twenty years old, and even trees in the dense forest seem to bear generally before 
they are forty years of age. The capacity to bear abundantly is retained to old age, the oldest 
trees seen still bearing heavily, and even mutilation by fire or otherwise does not prevent the trees 
from bearing. 

EXPLANATION OK PLATE VI. 

1. Staminate flowers of Pinna strobiu just before shedding of pollen. 

2. Pistillate flowers, terminating young shoot. 

3. Young cones in autumn of first year. 

I. Young cones early in summer of second year. 

5. Cones at close of second year's growth before opening of scales. 

';. Mature cone, the scales separated to admit of dissemination of seeds. 

7. Single scale, showing outer surface. 

8. Single scale, showing inner surface with seeds in place. 

k 

SEED SUPPLY. 

A full crop of seeds is usually produced by the same tree only at intervals of several years. 
Cones may be formed year after year, but upon examination it is often foundthat many of the 
seeds are abortive, joi a large number of cones gathered at Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1886, not a 
single one showed a perfect seed. Mr. John E. Hobbs states that the same year (188C) was a good 
seed year in Maine, and that trees had not produced so largely before since 1879. According to 
Mr. J. Dawson, of the Arnold Arboretum, a crop of seed may be looked for about once in five 
years, though others make intervals between seed years shorter. The frequency of seed years has 
not been sufficiently noted as yet to warrant any general statement, but it is known that during 
certain seasons the seed production is perfectly general over large areas, while in other years it 
is not. Thus, in 1897 the White Pine bore heavily in every pine county in northern Wisconsin. 



24 THE WHITE PINE. 

The frequency of seed year* varies of course not only o^i account of more or less favorable seasons, 
but according to locality and climatic conditions^ In Europe the White Pine is regarded as a 
frequent and heavy seeder, one year out of three being generallyujjxrfiuctive. A grove of 8 acres 
near Frank tort rathe Main produced during twenty years, on an average, 8100 worth of seed, 
with a maximum yield of $500, and with but three "off" or fail years in the twenty. Similarly 
an area of about 4<> acres in the Palatinate furnishes as high as 1,700 bushels of cones, or about 
|N>uiids of seed, supplying all the nurseries of the Palatinate State forests with seed. 

THE WOOD. 

The structure and development of the wood of the White Pine may be studied to the best 
advantage by beginning with a young shoot cut from a vigorous tree in early summer. A cross 
>ection of such a shoot in the first season of its growth (PI. VII, l) shows three plainly marked 
zones the pith (m) surrounded by the wood (x) and the inner bark (ph), which together form 
the conspicuous /one crossed by radiating bands, the so-called medullary rays, and outside of the 
parts just described, a broad zone of cellular tissue, constituting the middle bark, which is bounded 
externally by the epidermis. 

The pith, medullary rays, and middle bark consist of simple cells, originally of an irregularly 
rounded form. Together they constitute the so-called ground tissue of the stem, as distinguished 
from the fibro-vascular portion, which includes the wood and inner bark. 

Within the cortical portion of the ground tissue numerous large openings (PI. VII, 1, rd) are 
seen, of different sizes and apparently without definite arrangement. These are the resin ducts. 
Kadi duct runs longitudinally through the stem, and consists of a central cavity filled with resin, 
around which is a single layer of secreting cells, easily distinguished by the nature of their con- 
tents from the. surrounding cells of the cortex. At this stage of development the resin ducts are 
confined to the cortical parenchyma, none having yet been formed in the woody portion of the 
stein; but later in the season, as may be seen iu older sections, a number of ducts are formed, 
arranged in a circle near the periphery of the wood. These have essentially the same structure 
as those of the cortex, but are of smaller size and are surrounded by fewer secreting cells. Iu 
cross sections of older stems the resin ducts are seen, arranged iu an irregular circle, in each 
annual ring. Their physiological significance is not fully understood, though there can be little 
doubt that De Vries is correct in assuming that the abundant resin is of service to the growing 
tree, when wounded, in preventing decay of the wood, and that its preservative influence is con- 
tinued after the tree has been cut into lumber. 

In such a young shoot as has been described the cells are vitally active, and are filled with 
granular protoplasm, in addition to which several other substances are either produced or stored 
up in them, particularly in the cells belonging to the ground tissue. Chlorophyll occurs in the 
pith and medullary rays as well as in the cortical portion. It is most abundant in the cells of the 
cortical parenchyma, occurring in the form of minute grains, irregular iu shape and size. Starch, 
in rounded granules, occurs abundantly throughout the ground tissue, the cells of the cortex con- 
taining a larger proportion than those of the pith. Resin, as already stated, fills the resin ducts 
and the secreting cells around them, though starch is often found in the latter. 

Passing now to the woody portion immediately surrounding the pith, two characteristic fea- 
tures at once attract attention. The elements composing the wood, ,r ( PI. VII, 1 and 3), have a 
much narrower lumen than those of the pith, and are regularly disposed in radiating rows. These 
dements, the tracheids, are elongated thick-walled cells, four to six sided, according to the number 
of traehfids by which they are surrounded. Their walls are lignified and are marked by the 
peculiar structures called bordered pits. Their structure, when fully developed, is shown in PI. 
VIII. /..?, and /. In the economy of the tree the wood fulfills the function of mechanical support, 
and serves as the conducting tissue through which the water, evaporated from the leaves, is carried 
up from the roots. 

'I lie medullary rays are composed of cells so flattened by the pressure of the tracheids that 
on longitudinal sections they appear as represented in PI. VIII, 3. They contain a conspicuous 
nucleus, are closely packed with granular food substances, and serve collectively as a storehouse 



THE WOOD. 25 

of reserve materials. Communication between these and the tracheids is effected by means of 
simple pits on their radial walls. 

The inner bark, or phloem, ph (PI. VII, 1 and 5), closely resembles the young wood on 
cross section, its elements being arranged in radiating rows and traversed in like manner by the 
medullary rays. The cells composing it differ, however, in various important particulars from 
those of the wood. Their walls are of cellulose, and although important as conducting tissue, they 
contribute comparatively little to the rigidity of the stem. 

Between the wood and inner bark is the cambium or formative tissue, represented in PL 
VTI, 1, as a -light band of extremely small and delicate cells, and in the same plate as a zone 
of cells with thin walls and large lumen, contrasting strongly with the wood elements and those of 
the inner bark between which they lie. It is from the cells of the cambium that those of the wood 
are formed on the one hand and those of the bark on the other. The process is a gradual one, and 
no absolute line of demarcation can be drawn between the cambium and the tissues derived from 
it. The cells of the cambium multiply by tangential division. The essential features of this 
process, as regards the position of the cell walls, are represented in PL VIII, 4, in which the 
lightest lines represent the youngest walls and the heavier ones those of greater age, successively. 
It is by the constant repetition of this process of tangential division and the subsequent thicken- 
ing of the walls of the cells thus formed that the wood and inner bark make their yearly increase 
in thickness. In the spring the cells of the cambium are large and vigorous, and a rapid forma- 
tion of wood elements with relatively thin walls and large cavities takes place, while later in the 
season much smaller tracheids with thicker walls are formed. This results in the strong contrast 
between the wood last produced in any given year and that formed at the beginning of the next 
season's growth, giving rise to the sharp distinction of annual rings so clearly brought out in 
PL VIII, 1. 

The histological characters thus briefly summarized hold true, in a general way, for other 
conifers as well as the White Pine. This species, however, presents a number of peculiarities 
that are of both physiological and economical interest. 

The resin ducts of the White Pine are larger and more numerous in the cortex than in the 
wood, an arrangement well adapted to secure the protective action of the resin contained in them 
without introducing an element of weakness into the wood. Comparisons with other species bring 
out this fact in a striking manner. Thus, upon comparing the distribution of the resin ducts in 
stems of the White and Scotch piues, as nearly alike as possible, it was found that in the cortex 
of White Pine steins of one year's growth the number of resin passages ranged from 20 to 47, the 
average being about 33. The number in the wood was more uniform and averaged about 13. lu 
the Scotch Pine the average for the wood was found to be 33 and for the cortex 10. Taking the 
second year's growth in the same way, the average number for cortex of White Pine in the 
specimens examined was 28 and for wood 27; in Scotch Pine, for cortex 9 and for wood 37.' 
The small size of the resin ducts in the wood contrasts strongly with the very large ones of Scotch 
Pine, which seriously interfere with the continuity of the wood and tend both to weaken it and to 
give it an uneven texture. 

The extremely small number of thick walled tracheids constituting the summer wood of the 
White Pine is in marked contrast with the broad baud of summer wood formed in various other 
species. Comparing the annual rings of White Pine with those of Longleaf Pine, for example, 
it is seen that while the thick-walled tracheids of the former make hardly more than the 
mere outer edge of each ring, those of the latter constitute one-third or more of its entire width. 
Moreover, the gradual, almost imperceptible, transition from spring to summer wood in the 
White Pine contrasts strongly with the abrupt line of demarcation seen in Longleaf Pine and all 
other Yellow Pines. It is to this very gradual transition that the uniform texture of the wood 
of White IMne is chiefly due. The medullary rays of the different groups of pines show certain 
structural peculiarities that appear to be constant for the group of species in which they occur. 
The writer is indebted to Mr. Filibert Roth for the following notes in regard to this feature: 

In all pines the medullary ray is made up of two kinds of cells which differ in their general form, and still 
more in the configuration of the cell wall and pits. Tin- one kind occupies the upper and lower rows of each ray, 

> Etta L. Kuowles, in Botanical Gazette, August, 1886. 



26 THK WHITE PINE. 

ml are tbi-rwfore termed the outer cell*; the other kind makes up the intermediate rows and are known as the 

inniT cell*. 

In the appearance of Ixith outer and inner cells then- is :\ marked and constant ditVerence in different groups 
of pine-t. While the interior of the wall of the outer cells (transverse traoheids) is smooth in some groups, it is 
bvttt with nniiiiToiii bold projections in others. Similarly the inner cells (parenchyma) of the spring wood of each 
ray in some groups have Init n single large pit comninnicating with the neighboring tracheid, while in other groups 
this is brought about by three to six smaller pits. 

Based upon these differences, the following classification of the wood of different species of pines is proposed 
by Dr. J. Schroeder: 1 

SECTION I. Walls of the tracheids of the pith ray willi dentate projections. 

a. One to i wo large, simple piU to.each tracheid on the radial walla of the cells of the pith ray. Group 1. Represented In this country 

only 1>> I'. trtinoM. 
fc. Three to six simple pits to each trachcid, on the walls of the cells of the pith ray. Croup 2. /'. tMda. j/aluitru, etc., including 

most of our " hard" and "yellow" pines. 
SECTIOM II. Walls of tracheids of pith ray smooth, without dentate projections. 

ii. Dneor two large pits to each tracheid on the radial walls of each cell of the pith ray. Group :t. /'. iirubut. lambertiana, and other 
true White Pines. 

b. Throe to six small pits on the radial walls of each cell of the pith ray. .-Group 4. P. parryana, and other nut pines, including also 

I*. 6n//otfr<ina. 

Returning to the medullary ray of the White Pine, it i observed that the walls of the outer cells arc thin 
(1.5^ to 2 >i); the round pits quite variable in number and size, but always as small, and often smaller, than the 
pits of the tracheids in the summer wood; also tliat the walls of the inner cells are thin (1.5 /* to 3 ft), for the most 
part very thin, being largely occupied by pits; that the pits are large ovals on the radial walls of the cells in the 
spring wood, small erect ovals in the summer wood, and small and irregular in outline above and below where the 
inner cells communicate with each other. The length of these cells varies, even in the same ray, between 50 /< and 
300 n ; the width was found to be about 7 for the outer and 12 ft for the inner cells; the height, more variable in 
the outer than in the inner cells, and less variable than either width or length, may be set at about 23 ft for outer 
and inner cells. The average number of cell rows in one medullary ray, for the specimens studied, is 7.5, whereof 
2.6 fall to the outer cells and 4.9 to the inner cells. The limits of the total number of cell rows were 2 and 16; the 
height of the ray, therefore, 46 // to 368 /<, dimensions scarcely appreciable to the unaided eye. What is lost in size 
is gained in number; on an average 21.3 medullary rays were counted on 1 square millimeter, or 13,:U2 to 1 square 
inch of tangential section. 

A study of the wood iu its physical and mechanical properties, by Mr. Filibert Roth, will be 
found further on in this monograph. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

1. Transverse section of fresh shoot, cut in summer of first year x 25. The zone of small cells surrounding the pith 

includes the wood and inner bark, both of which are traversed radially by the medullary rays. The thick 
cortical parenchyma outside of these is marked by the presence of a number of large resin dncts. 

2. Portion of epidermis, with appendages. Beneath the epidermis a few cells of the cortical parenchyma containing 

starch. 
5. Highly magnified view of a part of the transverse section, showing the structure of wood and inner bark, with the 

thin-walled cells composing the cambium lying between them. 

[Figs. 2 and 3 were drawn with great care with the camera, but unfortunately no statement of the magnification 
was preserved with them.] 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 

/. Cross section of wood X 175. The section includes parts of three medullary rays, the middle one of which is cnt 
partly through the inner cells and partly through the cross tracheids. The gradual transition from spring to 
summer wood is clearly shown. Part of a resin duct is seen on the right. 

2. Radial longitudinal section of wood x 200, showing a few of the thick-walled tracheids of the summer wood 

followed by the large thin-walled ones of the succeeding spring, both crossed by a medullary ray. The 
bordered pits of the outer cells of the ray, shown both in section and surface view, are in strong contrast with 
the simple pits of the inner cells. 

3. Tangential section of wood x 200. 

4. Cross section of part of twig collected May 20, 1886, x 175, showing cambium and development of wood and bark. 

The woody ring is about one-third its final thickness. 

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. 

The seeds of the White Pine retain their vitality for a long period. Trustworthy observers 
state that a fair percentage will grow after being kept five years or more. The conditions of 
germination and successful growth are, in general, the same as for other pines, namely, a suitable 

'Dr. J. Schroeder, Das Holz der Coniferen, 1872. 



Bulletin No. 22. Div. of Fcxestry. U. S. Dept. of Agiiculture. 



PLATE VII. 





SECTIONS OF YOUNG SHOOT OF WHITE PINE. 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry, U. S. Dept. oi Agriculture. 



PLATE VIII. 





SECTIONS OF WOOD OF WHITE PINE. 



Bulletin Me. JJ. 0.. o< fowttry. U. S. D.pt. ot Afrieultuw. 



PLATE IX. 




SEEDLINGS OF WHITE PINE. 



RATE OF GROWTH. 27 

soil, moderately warm and moist (uot wet), in which the seeds are covered at a depth not 
"exceedingtwice th*ir own diameter, and, further, protection of the young seedlings against the 
hot sun and drying winds. Special attention is required in the nursery to avoid undue moisture 
when the seedlings appear above the ground, as they are often attacked by a destructive disease 
very common in propagating beds, known as "damping oil'." If, however, no adverse iulluences 
have interfered with its normal development, the young plant presents itself after some mouths' 
growth as a slender shoot, crowned by the persistent ^eed leaves, in the midst of which is the 
terminal bud, the latter having already formed numerous short foliage leaves. No branches have 
appeared, and the foliage leaves arise singly instead of in groups of five. The whole plant, as 
it appears at this time, with its slender stem and long taproot, is represented, natural size, in PI. 
IX, drawn from a specimen obtained in the pine woods of Michigan, in September, 1886. Earlier 
and later stages of development of the seedlings are shown in the same plate (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) drawn 
from nursery specimens. 

For the first two or three years the growth of the seedling is slow, and is so greatly influenced 
by its surroundings as to make it impossible to give averages that will fairly represent the yearly 
increase in height and diameter. 

Thus, a healthy seedling, three years old, from the nursery TOW, measured 4.6 inches, while a 
self sown specimen from Maine, four years old, measured only 2.7 inches in height. But, if the 
circumstances are favorable, after the third year a growth of one to several inches is made each 
year, and from this time on the yearly increase in height is clearly defined by alternating nodes 
and internodes, a whorl of branches being formed at each node. 

The leading shoot is from the first the most conspicuous and the most important part of the 
plant, branches being manifestly subordinate, dying off in later years as in other conifers. The 
rate of growth being of most important practical interest, much space has been devoted to this 
part of the developmental history. 

The tree rarely reaches a height of more than 160 feet and diameters of more than 40 inches, 
more usually 30 inches. Occasionally these dimensions are exceeded; trees of 200 feet in height 
and of 60 inches in diameter have been reported. The largest actually measured by the Division ot 
Forestry was 48 inches in diameter breast high and 170 feet in height, with an age of about four 
hundred and sixty years, containing 13* cubic feet of wood, standing in a group of similarly old 
and large pines in Michigan. Another tree of this group, with 47 inches diameter and 162 feet 
in height, contained 855 cubic feet, being less tapered. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

1. Seedling as it first appears with seed coat attached to seed leaves. 

2. Seedling with seed coat detached. 

3. Seedling with seed leaves and primary foliage leaves disposed singly on stem; five months old. 

4. Seedling in its second year, showing primary leaves and secondary leaves (mature form), the latter in clusters 

of fi ve. 
5 and 6. Seedlings three to five years old. 

RATE OF GROWTH. 

The following statements regarding the progress and rate of growth of White Pine are based 
mainly upon the very comprehensive data collected by the Division of Forestry in Maine, New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Wisconsin. These data, involving meas- 
urements and detailed analyses of over seven hundred trees grown under varying conditions, 
together with records of the conditions under which they grew, and the amounts of timber which 
were produced under such conditions per acre, are presented fully in the tables, with accompanying 
notes, in the Appendix to this monograph. It appeared, however, desirable to present in the text 
not only the generalizations and conclusions, but also some typical cases. Some other measure- 
ments, made before this comprehensive investigation and recorded by the writer in his original 
manuscript, are .also produced. 

HEIGHT GROWTH. 
SEKDLING STAGE. 

The growth of the seedling is variable, according to the conditions under which it grows. In 
the forest it is much slower than under cultivation, as would naturally be expected. The common 



THE WHJTE PINE. 






practice of nurserymen is to sow the seed broadcast in carefully prepared beds, where the seed- 
lings stand from two to four years before transplanting. Standing very close, tbe trees do uot 
make as stocky growth as they otberwise would. Under tbese conditions tbe average growtb of 
mi transplanted seedlings, according to statements by tbe well-known nurserymen, Thomas 
Meehau & Sons, is as follows: One year seedlings, '2 to 3 inches high; two years, 4 to (5 inches; 
three years, 12 to 15 inches; four years, 24 to 30 inches. 

The late Mr. Robert Douglas, the veteran nurseryman, of Waukegan, 111., wrote: 

White Pine seedlings one year old are 1 to 2 inches high and altogether too small and tender for transplanting. 
At two years old they are much stronger, from 3 to 5 inches high, with fine fibrous roots and in line condition lor 
transplanting. At three years old they are 6 to 9 inches high and should not lie allowed to stand another year, as 
they would add about 10 inches to their height during the next year and would not be suitable for planting. 

The first season after transplanting, the White Pine (like other trees) will not increase much in height, but 
will establish itself, extending its roots and forming a strong terminal bud, so that when it is six years old it will 
exceed in weight and bulk over one hundred times its proportions when transplanted, and thereafter will increase 
in growth from 18 to 30 inches in height annually in good soil for many years. 

Gardner & Sons, whose nursery is about 90 miles west of the Mississippi River, in Iowa, and 
therefore outside of the natural range of tbe species, submit tbe following measurements, coincid- 
ing with the above, as representing average growths at their nurseries before and after trans- 
planting: One-year-old seedling, 1 inches high; two-year-old seedling, 4 inches high; three-year- 
old seedling, 7 inches high. The trees are transplanted at three years of age and thereafter the 
average height for the three following seasons are: Four years old, 12 inches high; five years old, 
1C inches high; six years old, 33 inches high. Another establishment reports as the average 
height of two-year-old trees in seed bed, 3 inches; of three-year seedlings, 7 inches. 

Casual observations and measurements of some forty-five seedlings in the forest permit the 
following as to the height growth of seedlings in the forest: 

Height growth of White Pine in the forest for the first six years. 



Age of seedlings. 


Height of stem. 


Current 

anuiiM! Mr. 

<T!' tion. 


From 


To 


Average. 




Inchet. 
1 
2 
3 
6 
10 
30 


Inchet. 
2 

7i 
10 
12 
34 


I/fliet. 

3 S 
5 
8 
Hi 
Ml 


Inehet. 




2 
2 



20 













These measurements show that the rapid height growth begins with the sixth year, when the 
total growth of the first five years is almost doubled in one season. This, to be sure, holds only 
for seedlings favorably situated. In those less favored the rapid stage of development comes more 
gradually. This slow progress in younger years is naturally reflected in a retardation of the year 
of maximum height growth, which in dominant trees occurs about the twentieth year, while in 
oppressed trees it may uot come before the fortieth year. 

DEVKLOPMEXT IN OTK.V STAND. 

Trees on lawns and in pastures, which grow up in full enjoyment of light, are somewhat dif- 
ferent from trees in the forest. The slow seedling stage is followed by a very rapid increase in 
the rate, which attains its maximum before the twentieth year and then declines gradually. 

Table I, on the next page, presents a complete record from year to year of the growth of eight 
trees planted on a lawn at Ann Arbor, Mich., which were measured in 18SG, the annual increase 
being measured between the whorls of branches. Theye measurements also exhibit the great 
variability of growth from season to season and from tree to tree, even under otherwise similar 
conditions. In some of the trees, evidently, injuries or accidents retarded development. Such 
apparent deficiencies have been left out of consideration in averaging the data. 



HEIGHT GROWTH. 29 

TABLE I. Height growth of White Pine planted in lawn at Ann Arbor, Mich., ly years, in inches. 



Number of tree. 


Age. 


Diame- 
ter 
breast 
high. 


Height. 


Height, by years. 


Ito6 


7 


8 





10 11 

| 


12 


i:i 


14 


U 


Hi 


17 


IS 


1, 


_>o 


21 


22 23 

! 


24 


:!.-. 


M 


J7 


J* 


J'J 


:!() 


1 


I>. 

17 
19 

in 
21 
23 
29 


Inches. 
5.1 
3.8 
6 
6 
8.2 
12.8 


Feet. 
30.5 
2:1.5 
30.5 
20.6 
34.5 
44.5 


In. 
26 
20 
25 
41 
33 
50 


In. 
16 

a 

10 
6 

u 

7 


In. 

a 

5 
4 
U 

14 

If 


In 
21 
11 
U 

24 
14 
17 


In In. 
23 28 
16 11 
32 24 
23 18 
20 40 
24 28 


In. 
39 

19 
J.I 
26 
2!t 

2i> 


In. 

:i7 
21 
23 
23 
21) 
30 


In 

:i 

33 

1 
:i7 
21 


In. 
39 

32 
35 
20 
30 
27 


In 
39 
35 
32 
25 
10 
21 


In 
30 
28 
M 

5 
32 
25 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In 


In 


In 


In. 


In. 


In 


In 


In. 


In. 


o 


24 
26 
19 
30 
17 


21 
32 
20 

34 
























;; 






















4 


25 
20 
2.-. 


19 
24 
23 


















5 


211 15 

22! 17 
















6 


20 


12 


2!) 


25 


17 


1 


- 






32.5 
41 
39 



23 
J3 


12 17 
14 14 
20 24 


24 25 
9 3 
35 18 


20 

13 
U 


20 
IS 
14 


BS 

38 

18 


32 

27 
24 


27 
40 

n 


30132 
2741 
1822 


27 
M 
23 


jr. 
28 

:io 


22 

44 
J'J 


22 

30 
12 


\( 
:is 
15 








30 
30 


15 
13.5 


53 

47.5 


19 
24 


24 

n 


27 20 14 
24 1 22] 17 


21 
18 


12 

20 


8 


Average by 6-year periods. 






6 3 








1-i 












>7 t; 










| * 




























1 
























1 















NOTE. Trees Nos. 1 to 6 stood in shallow soil on gravel subsoil ; Nos. 7 and 8 in deep loam. 

From this table it appears that these eight trees grew on an average hardly more than 6 
inches during the first six years, more than three times as fast during the next six years, and 
reached a maximum rate of over 27 inches per year during the third period of six years, the 
decline beginning after the twentieth year and the rate decreasing until it has fallen to about 15 
inches near the thirtieth year. 

To show how, under less favorable conditions, the progress of self-sown trees is very nearly 
the same, the following measurements may serve, from which it appears that natural seedlings on 
pastures, standing more or less crowded, reach at ten years a height of 10 feet; at the age of 
twenty years about 25 feet, and trees thirty-five to forty years of age, with diameters of 6 to 9 
inches, attained and even passed the height of GO feet, showing an average growth for that period 
of 15 to 18 inches per year : 

TABLE II. Measurements of self-sown White Pine on pasture. 
(Furnished by Mr. J. E. Hobbs, of North Berwick, Me. ; altitude, 250 feet.) 



Number of tree. 


Number of 
rings OH 
stump cut 
at ground. 


Number of 
rings 1 foot 
above 
ground. 


Diameter of 
stump at 
grouud. 


Diameter 4 
feet high. 


Height of 
tree. 


Length of 
leader at 
time of 
measure- 
ment. 


Length of 
leader for 
last five 
years. 


1 


10 


6 


Inches. 
2} 


Inchea. 
1A 


Ft. in. 
8 10 


Inches. 
23 


ft. in. 
7 11 


9 . 


10 




3J 


2 


13 6 


32 


9 11 




10 






2 


12 9 


28 




4 


10 


8 


2ft 


2 


12 9 


28 


G 3 


5 . 


11 


8 


3 


1} 


11 3 


29J 


8 5 


G 


12 


9 


5 


-8 


13 a 


16 


7 2 


7 


12 




4 


3 




22 


10 10 


g 


13 


10 


5J 


*i 


15 9 


21 


9 7 


g .. 


13 


11 


4 


2 


13 9 


25 


9 


10 


14 


10 


3 


2 


13 9 


24 


8 


11 

1 


14 




* 


4 


21 


13 


7 


13 
14 
15 


14 
15 
15 




4 1 
5 
9 


3 


4J 


16 6 
25 
20 6 


21 
18 

18 


6 


16 '. 
17 
18 . ... 


18 
18 
18 


14 


i 
13i 

H 


jj 

10J 
4| 


28 4 
25 6 


33 
18 


e o 


U 


20 




3 


U 


25 6 


30 


6 


20 


22 


16 


4 


i 


28 10 


33 


7 


21 
22 
23 


26 
36 
3ft 


22 


5 


P 


29 9 
61 
60 
64 


14 
12 

15 
15 


6 1 


2* 
25 
26 


39 

40 






6J 
91 


60 

60 


18 
18 





NOTES TO TABLE II. 

No. 1. From old pasture after one year's tillage; 5 feet from No. 6; bore cones. 

No. 2. With Nos. 1 and 3, and from similar trees. 

No. 3. Old pasture, soil shallow, gravelly loam on compact subsoil of sand; pine mixed with Hemlock, Oak, and Maple. 

No. 4. Level ground, soil heavy loam, somewhat shaded. 

No. 5. From old pasture after one year's tillage; 5 feet from No. 6; bore cones. 

N,,. 0. From old pasture after one year's tillage ; 5 feet from No. 1 ; bore cones. 

No. 7. From old pasture after one year's tillage; 5 feet from No. ; bore cones; distant from neighbors 8, 34, and 19 inches. 

No. 8. From old pasture after one year s tillage; 5 feet from No. 6; bore cones; touched another 4-inch diameter. 



30 



THE WHITE I'l.NK. 






. Lrel (round, (oil henry loam, somewhat shaded. 

No. 10. From old pasture after one year's tillage; 5 feut from Xo. 6; hore cones. 

No. 11. old pasture. *>il shallow, gravelly loam ou compact niilxoil of sand; pine mixed with Hemlock, Oak, and Maple. 
So. 11. On slight incline to north; soil nearly 3 inches from similar tree, with others quite near; crowded. 
No. IS. Level (round, soil heavy loam, somewhat shaded. 

Xos. 14-16. Old panture, noil shallow, gravelly loam on compact snliinll of sand; pine mixed with Hemlock, Oak. and Maple. 
Ho. 17. Isolated; lost leader air years previous, apparently through leader worm. 
Xo. 18. Level ground, soil heavy loam, notnewhat slnided. 

Ko. 19. With Xo. 12; lost leader live years previous by leader worm ; nearest neighbors 2, 5, and 10 feet, respectively. 
Xo. 20. Level ground, soil heavy loam, somewhat shaded. 

X*. Jl-26. < >lil !>:* tun-, soil shallow, gravelly loatn on compact subsoil of sand ; pirn- mixed with Hemlock, Oak, and Maple; ground 
alopra to west; all six trees, besides four others, within circle of 24 feet diameter; crown ahout 20 feet lou^. 

Concerning trees 1, 2, 5, (i, 7, 8, and 10 (Table II), Mr. Hobbs sent the following interesting 
communication, under date of January 11, 1887: 

All these trees were found in an old pasture adjoining my land on the mirth and having similar aspect and soil. 
A fringe of tall White Pine timber surrounds it on three sides, north, east, and south. The distance across this open 
land from north to south is about 60 rods. This land has liei-n in pasture from fifty to one hundred years. It was 
formerly thickly covered with moss, sweet fern, and other low-growing bushes, in the shade of which animals found 
some grass. Although thus surrounded by tall pines their seeds seldom sprung up. 

Not many years before these trees started a portion of this land was plowed and planted with potatoes one year, 
and then turned out to pasture again, whereupon young pines immediately sprung up. These were cut down first, 
bnt they continued to come up so abundantly that they were allowed to grow, and now the patch that was planted 
with potatoes is quite thickly covered, in many places too thickly, with trees like those measured. This fact shows 
the importance of turning up the soil so that the seeds that fall upon it may have a chance to take root. Only here 
and there a seed will find lodgment on laud that is covered with moss and low-growing bushes, no matter how 
abundantly seeds may be sown upon it. 

How such trees continue to grow is shown in Table III. From the measurements it appears 
that a steady growth continues, which, by the hundredth year has brought the tree to a height of 
near 100 feet. 

TABLE III. Measurements of White Pine, grown on abandoned fields. 
[Furnished hy Mr. J. E. Hobbs, of North Berwick, Me.] 



Number of 
tree. 


Age. 


Diam- 
eter 
breast 
high. 


Diam- 
eter 
below 
crown. 


Length 
of 
crown. 


Length 
ot 
leader 
for last 
five 
years. 


Total 
height. 


Height at - 


10 

yrs. 


20 

yrs. 


30 

yrs. 


4 
yrs. 


50 

yrs. 


60 
yrs. 


;o 

yrs. 


80 

yrs. 


90 100 110 

yra. yrs. yrs. 


180 

yrs. 




Team. 
58 
59 
61 
64 
70 
82 
84 
85 
85 
87 
87 
108 
109 
117 
122 
123 


/in-/" 
16 
14 
12 
15 
15 
11 
211 
23 
18 
25 
19, 
32 
31 
29 
23 
28 


\ 


Inchea. 
10* 
10 

13 

u 

12J 
21J 
21 
23 
16 
19 


Ft. In. 
50 
30 
33 
28 6 
43 6 
38 
38 8 
45 6 
39 4 
49 10 
40 4 
52 6 
61 4 
57 
55 
50 


In chex. 
66 
M 
48 
56 
50 
72 
40 
66 
62 
36 
72 
28 
40 


Ft. In. 
80 10 
67 6 
78 3 
70 2 
84 6 
91 1 
100 8 
01 6 
92 7 
104 10 
100 2 
112 9 
112 9 
101 10 
107 5 
97 4 


Feet. 
15 
10 
12 
11 
14J 

9 
9 
8 
8 
9 
13 

14 
8 
10 


Feet. 
28 
20 
25 
24 
30 

19 
16 
16 
21 
25 

27 
16 
21 


Feet. 
42 
31 
37 
36 
46 
one lo< 

28 
26 
28 
35 
39 

40 
25 
35 


Feet. 
55 
45 
47 
47 
60 
[CUt; 

41 
39 
47 
48 
53 

48 
36 
52 


Feet. 
69 
57 
62 
58 
68 
height 
71 
52 
52 
66 
60 
66 
Not 
55 
49 
58 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Ftft. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


2 
















3 


77 
68 
76J 
at lift 
82 
63 
64. 
77 
70 
79 
cut in 
62 
62 
63 














4 






' ' ' 








5 


84* 
v-cigh 
91 
75 
76 
87 
81 
86 
to sect 
69 
7(1 










6 


: year. 
" 99 
86 
87 
97 
93 
92 
ions. 
76 
77 
74 


,6 feet 10 inches.' 


7 


8 








9 








10 








11 








12 


99 

83 
84 
80 


106 

90 
92 

85 






13 


97 
99 
90 


M 


14 


15 


30 

24 


16 





NOTES TO TABLE III. 

Xo. 1. North Berwick, Me.; near foot of hill sloping to north; growth, dense; apparently abandoned farm land; shallow, sandy soil. 

Xo. 2. South Berwick, Me. ; thrifty second growth, in valley of Great Works River; exhausted farm land on grauitic formation; 
sand over 20 feet deep, well stocked with White Pine. 

Xi>. :i. North Berwick, Me.; near foot of hill sloping to north ; growth, dense; apparently abandoned farm land; shallow, sandy soil. 

Xo. 4. Xorlh Berwick, Me. ; near foot of hill sloping to north; growth, dense: apparently abandoned farmland; shallow, sandy soil. 

XIP. :>. Smith Berwick. Me.; thrifty second growth, in valley of Great Works Kiver; exhausted farm land ou granitic formation: 
sand over 2 ) feet deep, well stocked with White Pine. 

N.ps.r^lil. Xortli Berwick, Me. ; near foot of hill sloping to north; growth, dense ; apparently abandoned farmland; shallow, sandy uil. 

DEVELOPMENT IN THE FOREST. 

In the dense forest the same general law of development, namely, of slow and rapid stages, 
prevails for dominant trees as is exemplified by the foregoing measurements of trees grown in 
the field, although the quantitative progress varies somewhat. According to the relative amount 



HEIGHT GROWTH. 31 

of light at the disposal of the crown the rate of growth differs, and there is found, therefore, in the 
forest trees, though very nearly the same age, trees of different heights, according to the success 
of the struggle for light which they have had with their neighbors. At every stage of the devel- 
opment of a forest growth, after its juvenile period, the trees can be classified into dominant, the 
tallest, which grow with their entire crown in full enjoyment of light and space, overtopping their 
neighbors; codominaut, which, although of same height, have their crowns narrowed in, bat still 
unimpeded at the top; while others (oppressed) are pressed in from sides and top, and finally are 
entirely suppressed and die. This relationship of individuals changes from time to time, some of 
the codominant gradually falling into the class of oppressed, and of these a large number become 
suppressed. Occasionally a codominant becomes dominant, or an oppressed one, by liberation of 
its oppressors, through storms or accident, finds opportunity to push forward and make up for 
lost time. Thus, a natural growth may start with a hundred thousand seedlings per acre; by the 
twentieth year these will have been reduced by death to 6,000, and by the hundredth year hardly 
300 may be left, the rest having succumbed under the shade of the survivors. 

It is owing to these changes that in analyzing tree growth we find great, often unaccountable, 
variation in the rate of growth of even the same individual, and hence, in order to recognize the 
average, a very large number must be measured to even out the deviations from the law. 

For the same reason it is desirable to classify the trees as indicated above and ascertain the 
rate of growth of trees grown under different light conditions. To be sure trees behave also 
somewhat differently under varying conditions of soil, climate, and exposure; hence, a further 
classification is necessary if it is desired to establish more than the mere general law of progress 
and also to ascertain the influence of these variable conditions. 

In a general way, we find, as in the trees grown in the open, the slow seedling stage followed 
by a very rapid increase in the annual rate of growth, beginning "with the sixth year and reaching 
a maximum of 16 inches with the tenth year in dominant trees. With trees which have not 
enjoyed access to light to the same extent the maximum occurs later; hence, in codominant trees 
it is reached, with 13 inches, in the twentieth year, while the oppressed trees reach their maximum, 
current accretion still later, namely at forty years, with less than 12 inches for the year. As soon 
as this highest rate is reached decline takes place gradually in all classes, much faster in the 
dominant trees than in the less-favored ones, which decline in the rate of annual height growth 
much more slowly. 

By the one huudreth year the annual height growth is reduced to from G to 7 inches, the 
dominant trees showing the lower rate, which continues to decline until about the one hundred 
and sixtieth to one hundred and seventieth year, when all tree classes have come to a rate of 
about 2 inches, at which they continue to grow, slowly but evenly, for another century. 

This persistence of the height growth, which makes old trees tower 40 to 50 feet above their 
broad-leafed neighbors, influences also the shape of the crown, which does not flatten, as is the 
case with most pines. Very old trees, four hundred years and over, rarely exceed a height of 160 
feet, although exceptional individuals have been found of the unusual height of 200 feet. 

It will thus appear that the principal height growth is made during the first century, the 
second century noting a persistent but only slow progress. 

If we take the average of all the yearly accretions at any one year of the life of the tree 
(the average annual accretion at that year), the influences which have been at work during the 
whole lifetime are of course reflected; therefore, since the juvenile period shows a slow growth, 
the average accretion attains its maximum much later. This culmination of the average annual 
accretion takes place much earlier in the more favored tree classes, namely, at about the twentieth 
to fortieth year, after that declining, while in the oppressed it does not occur until the seventieth 
year, maintaining itself afterwards for a long period. 

This difference would also appear if we compared better and poorer sites. In other words, 
when the annual rate of growth is slow it remains more persistent than when it is rapid. The 
persistence noted in oppressed trees indicates also the shade endurance of the species. From 
Table IV, which gives the accretions from decade to decade (periodic accretion), we see the 
capacity of the species to thrive in spite of the shade, even in later stages of its life. Even after 
ninety years of oppression, when the tree is given opportunity by increase of light, it is still able 



32 



THE WHITE PINE. 



to make as gx<l uu animal height growth as its more-favored neighbors, and can continue the 
same to the second century. From the table of heights at various ages it is learned that the 
success in the juvenile stages after all tells on the total height growth. 

T MU.K IV. Periodic height growth, by decades, of dominant, codoninant, and oppressed pint. 



' . , - - 


Decades. 




1 














8 


9 


10 


11 


!- 


IS 


14 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Jl 


SS 


ill 


14 


26 




It 

- 

4 
t 


Ft. 

12 
12 
8 


Ft. 
13 
10 

7 


Ft. 

13 
10 
8 


Ft. 
11 
12 
8 


Ft. 

10 
6 
9 


Ft. 
8 
8 
8 


Ft. 

7 
8 

8 


Ft. 
6 
7 
< 


ft. 
6 
6 



/Y. 
5 
5 



Ft. 
5 
5 
5 


Ft. 
4 

4 
I 


JY. 
3 
4 
4 


. 
3 
8 

4 


Ft. 
3 
3 
4 


Ft. 
3 

? 


n. 

3 
? 


Ft. 
3 
2 
3 


. 
3 
2 

-* 


Ft. 
2 


Ft. 


n. 


ft 


X. 


riNlnminant 


2 


2 


2 


1 















Effect of composition of forest upon height growth. 

The height development of White Pine seems to progress more rapidly when it grows mixed 
with other species. A striking instance showing how the height growth of White Pine is bene- 
fited by the presence of other species is given in the diagram (fig. 2), which represents the height 
growth of White Pine taken from two sites ( and 6) in Presque Isle County, Mich. The sites 

were about 5 or 6 miles distant from each other. 
The soil and the moisture conditions on both 
sites were apparently identical (fresh sand), as 
were the total number of trees to the acre (the 
sample area on site a contained 181 trees and 
that on site & 189 trees) and the age of the trees 
and their distribution over the ground (density 
of crown cover). The only difference found be- 
tween the sample areas staked off on both sites 
was the composition of the forest. Site a con- 
sisted of a mixed growth of Norway and White 
Pine, while site b represented practically a pure 
growth of White Pine save a few small Hemlock 
and an occasional Norway Pine. The diagram 
shows that the White Pine on site a was exceed- 
ingly stimulated in its height growth by the 




40 60 
RGE. 



presence of the Norway Pine. 



The associated species entering into the 
struggle for light with the White Pine naturally 

affect the P^ 88 of the hei s bt e rowth of the 

pine. The effects of the associated species upon 
the height growth of White Pine and the period of their influence depend npoii the capacity of 
the associated species to grow in height as well as upon the time when the associated species are 
either introduced among the pine or received it under their shelter. In case, for instance, hard- 
woods accompany White Pine from the very start the influence of the hardwood upon the height 
growth of the pine will last only for the first sixty or seventy years, that is, up to the age at which 
most of the hardwoods practically reach their maximum height. In case the Norway Pine or the 
Hemlock starts simultaneously with the White .Pine, the height growth of the White Pine will be 
stimulated to a considerably later age, because the Hemlock or Norway Pine continues to grow in 
height at a similar rate for a longer time. When the White Pine happens to start on ground 
already covered with other species in such a manner as not to be interfered with in its growth the 
associated species, if capable of growing in height to a later age, will stimulate the height growth 
of the White Pine for a considerably longer period. All this is clearly demonstrated in the accom- 
panying diagram (fig. 3), representing the height growth of White Pine taken from three sites 
(/, fr, and t) of identically the same conditions except as to composition of the forest and the differ- 
ence in the ages between the pine and associated species. All three sites had a well drained 
clayey loam underlaid by a laminated shale of indefinite depth. The White Pine on site/ (Clear- 
field County, Pa.) was mixed with Hemlock of a large size; the pine on this site had started 



HEIGHT GROWTH. 



33 



among the Hemlock, which stimulated the height growth of the piue during all its lifetime. The 
White Pine on site Jc (Jefferson County, Pa.) was mixed with Hemlock of a small unmerchantable 
size. The pine here had started simultaneously with the Hemlock, which stimulated the height 
growth of the pine only for a certain period, after which the Hemlock, being overtopped by the 
pine, was out of the struggle and left in the capacity of an underwood. The White Pine on site i, 
which merged into site fc, was mixed with hardwoods, which stimulated the height growth of the 
pine for the first sixty years, when the hardwoods reached their maximum height and then with- 
drew from the competition, leaving the pine to increase the height on its own account. 

The influgnce of climate and soil on height growth will further appear from a study of the 
tables in the Appendix. This influence on height growth is not very great, if we confine our 
inquiry to regions of best development, the difference rarely exceeding from 5 to 10 per cent. 



-Wrn 






120 -i 

IOO - 

K 

Kwi: 

M. 

$ 

^ 60 : 


Wnsitef \m 
\ " " '*" mm 

-_ [ ::::::::::::::: 

. j 1 1 1 \ ____.. r r '. 

!_..jj_:,i..I_ 

__-_ _______ _ _ * _ ^ _ . _._ _ f t 

_J (_|__ _, '~r\y- - -y -*P- 


;|lj;||;!|l|;; 

_,___ _.__lt 


1 

8 

^ 40 

20- 
^ 


1 _^ fy i -[--J j 

_. _. ' a ! - -- 
__. .__L(_..__- _ _ '.'. ___ 

> ' 

., -f-t ___ 

i _^. _4_ 2 i 

(--J2 J4 r - 
! I ! I J _ 1 _ _ ! .._. 

1 1 i _ 

!!::|::::::::::::::::::i: :::::::::!:;::: 





20 40 60 80 100 120 /40 I BO 

AGE 

I'm. 3. Diagram showing height growth of White Pine in forest of varying composition in Pennsylvania: Site/, Clearfiehl C'onntyj sites 

k and i, Jefferson County. 

Effect of locality upon height groicth. 

Comparing the growth in different localities, it appears that the trees from Pennsylvania 
started at a lower rate than those in all other localities, but after the twentieth to the twenty-fifth 
year they surpass all others. If this can be accepted as correct, the deduction of the development 
in early youth from old trees being subject to errors, it may be explained by the fact that these 
trees grew in mixture with Hemlock and were kept back by the shade of their neighbors, but when 
they had outgrown these they felt the stimulus exerted by them. 

The trees from Maine and Wisconsin, also starting more vigorously than those from Michigan, 
decline and sink below the Michigan trees between the eightieth and ninetieth year, which may for 
Wisconsin be possibly explained by the retarding influence of winds after the pines have out- 
grown the hardwoods, while in Maine the poorer soil may account for it. Michigan, with its 
tempered lake climate, presents a most regular and persistent height curve, coining nearest to the 
average of all locations. 

In codominant and oppressed trees these differences do not come to an expression, but; since 
the classification is somewhat doubtful and variations within wide ranges are possible, these data 
are hardly to be used for comparison as to locality effects. 
20233 No. 22 3 



34 THE WHITE PINE. 

GROWTH IN THICKNESS. 

The growth in thickness, or diameter accretion, although remarkably regular in this species, is 
much more variable, but it is also more persistent, than the height growth, as will appear from the 
following comparisons: Thus, in five groups of trees from different sites, ninety-four to one 
hundred and nine years old, the heights differ only by a little over 8 per cent, varying from 91 to 
98} feet, while the diameters differed by almost 50 per cent, varying from 16 to 23.7 inches. Again 
the persistence is illustrated by the comparison of the height growth of five groups from two 
hundred and seven to two hundred and thirty-three years old, which showed an increase over the 
group just mentioned of somewhat over 20 per cent, while the diameters were by 30 per cent 
greater; and if the poorest groups of the two sets had been compared the difference would have 
been still more striking, namely, 15 per cent for the height as against 37 per cent for the diameters. 

This is in part explained by the fact that, where the seedling springs up in the virgin forest, 
it is very apt to be suppressed for a longer or shorter period by the large mother trees and the 
host of deciduous and other forms which make up the forest cover. While the height growth is 
by this shade also impeded, this is not so to the same degree as the diameter, which is a direct 
function of the amount of foliage that is at work. 

The sapling may thus remain a slender pole for many years, and not until it is able to lift its 
head above its crowding neighbors, or until light has been admitted to its branches, does it begin 
to expand its crown and consequently thicken its stem. 

In managed forests, or in tracts where from any cause crowding has been prevented, the 
growth in diameter progresses somewhat more in the manner of the height growth, namely, slowly 
at first, then rapidly until the maximum is attained, when a slowly decreasing rate sets in. In 
the seedling the diameter growth is exceedingly small, very rapid in the young trees, when the 
annual ring is often one-sixth to one-half of an inch wide, but decreases with the slower rate of 
height growth. When the tree is sixty to eighty years old, the yearly ring is commonly not more 
than one-twelfth of an inch wide; it then gradually sinks to one fifteenth of an inch, which is then 
maintained throughout life, rarely falling to one twenty-fifth of an inch. 

The average annual accretion reaches its maximum about the fiftieth to the sixtieth year 
with somewhat over one-fiftli of an inch on the diameter of dominant trees, which rate is nearly 
maintained to the one hundred and fiftieth year. 

Thrifty trees at forty years of age grown in the forest, measure from 6 to 9 inches in diameter 
breast high; at fifty years, from TO to 12 inches; at eighty years, 15 to 17 inches; and they reach 
a diameter of 18 to 20 inches by the time they are a hundred years old. 

To attain a diameter of 30 to -10 inches, which represents the best merchantable material 
of days now almost passed, more than two hundred years have been required, while trees four 
hundred to four hundred and fifty years old attain diameters of 50 to 60 inches and over. Trees 
of 40 inches diameter at three hundred years were by no means rare. 

To be sure, there are exceptional individuals which exceed these dimensions, and variation in 
the rate of growth, due to soil, climate, and surrounding conditions, are naturally as frequent as 
in height growth. 

The progress of diameter development of dominant, codominaut, and oppressed tree classes, 
and in different localities, is exhibited in the tables and diagrams in the Appendix. 

The usual method is to determine the diameters at 4i feet from the ground (breast high), not 
only because when measuring standing trees the measurement is most conveniently made at this 
height, but because the lower diameters show- much more irregularity. There is also more wood 
deposited near the base at and above the root collar, giving rise to the so-called root swelling (butt 
swelling), undoubtedly a provision to strengthen the stability of the tree. Unfortunately for the 
investigations here recorded, it was not practicable to have the trees cut and measured at breast' 
height, since the measurements were made on trees felled in regular lumbering operations, exposing 
only the cross sections at the height of the stump, mostly 2 feet above ground, and at log lengths. 
Even at that height (2.i feet above ground), a difference in the progress of diameter growth from 
that on higher cross sections is noticeable and becomes especially pronounced in later life, as 
is shown in the curves representing the progress of diameter growth on cross sections at various 
heights. 

The diameters here given for the lowest section are, therefore, somewhat larger than those 
usually employed, namely, breast high, especially in later years. 



GROWTH IN THICKNESS. 



35 



The higher sections exhibit not only a regular course, but an entirely similar one, from cross 
section to cross section. There is no reason to assume that the course at breast height would uot 
follow the same law; therefore there can be constructed a curve for this height similar to the 
curves of higher sections, using for guide points the data obtained from a series of measurements 
made to establish the yield of pine in which trees were measured at breast height (compiled in 
tables in the Appendix). This has been done on the diagram in the Appendix, which shows the 
diameter development of different cross sections for dominant trees. From this can be read 
the following average dimensions as approximating the diameters of each decade, leaving out 
the uncertainjuvenile stage: 

Diameter, breast high, of White Pine (averages approximated), in inches. 





Decade. 


to 


SO 


40 


50 60 


70 


80 | 90 


100 110 


120 130 


110 


160 


160 


17(1 ISO 


190 


200 


In. 
4.5 












In. 
16.5 


In. 
17.8 


In. In. 
19 20.2 


In. In. 
21. 3 22. 2 


In. 
23 


In. 
23.8 


In. 
24.5 


In. \ In. 
25.2 i 26.4 


In. 
26.8 


In. 
27.5 


5.5 


8 


11.5 


13.5 


15 



That these figures may be considerably exceeded (even by 50 to 60 per cent) under favorable 
conditions will appear from the various tables of measurements in the Appendix. Especially is 
this the case in the second-growth groves of pine. 

As will be readily seen in the curves after the juvenile stage, during which the diameter 
grows very slowly, an acceleration in the rale takes place, which soon reaches a maximum, 
continuing at that for a short time, and then slowly and persistently declining from about 3 inches 
per decade between forty and fifty years to 1J inches at one hundred years, and half that amount 
at two hundred years. 

DETAIL MEASUREMENTS OK ANNUAL GAIN IN CIRCUMFERENCE. 

An interesting set of most accurate observations have been made and reported by Mr. 
Nathaniel Morton, of Plymouth, Mass., exhibiting 38 young trees of White Pine, which had 
sprung up among oak and other hardwoods, mixed with White Pine and a few Pitch Pine in an 
old, rather-neglected piece of woods, and which were measured every year from 1891 up to 1898. 
The trees stand rather open. The age varied from twenty-eight to forty-two years, most trees 
being between thirty and thirty-six years old and their average age thirty-six years in 1891. 

In 1891 the average cross section 3 feet from ground was 131 square inches; in 1898, 197 
square inches ; the growth 66 square inches, or about 9 square inches per year, one tree making 
15 square inches per year. This growth corresponds to a growth in circumference of about 1.3 
inches per year, or a growth in diameter of four-tenths of an inch per year. 

The detail measurements are given in the following table : 

TABLE V. Annual gain in circumference of White Pine trees in Massachusetts. 



Number of tree. 


Circum- 
ference 
in 1890. 


Gain, in quarter inches. 


Total 
in six 
years. 


Number of tree. 


Circum- 
ference 
in 1890. 


Gain, in quarter inches. 


Total 
in six 

years. 


1891 


1892 


1898 

5 
5 
6 
2 
4 
3 
4 
4 
3 
6 
4 
4 
4 
7 
5 
6 
3 
4 
4 
5 
7 
3 
5 
5 
6 
8 


1894 

5 
6 

6 
2 
3 
3 
4 
5 
6 
6 
3 
5 
3 
5 
7 
6 
4 
3 
2 
5 

e 

6 
6 
5 
5 
5 


1895 


1896 


1891 


18921893 1894 1895 


1896 


1 


Inehel 
55 
26 
26 
50 
28 

3 

27 
36 
40, 
34 
22 
M 

33; 
24 
26; 

28- 
39 
48 
50 
49 
49 
35; 
33 
61 
37 


I 


3 
3 
4 
1 
1 

1 
2 
3 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 
4 
5 
1 
1 
1 
2 
5 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 


5 
6 
5 
1 
3 
1 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
5 
3 
2 
1 
4 
6 
2 
4 
3 
3 
3 


4 
4 
5 
2 
1 
2 
'4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
5 
4 
5 
3 
3 
3 
4 
7 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 


5 
5 
6 
2 
3 
1 
2 
5 
4 
4 
4 
5 
2 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 

8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 


27 
29 
32 
10 
1ft 
10 
18 
23 
22 
25 
17 
22 
16 
29 
28 
31 
17 
16 
13 
26 
39 
24 
29 
28 
28 
27 


27 


Inchet. 

W 
42 
40J 
57 
44i 
42J 
444 
46i 

3 

36J 


4 
5 
4 
4 

5 
1 
3 
4 
3 
4 
2 


6 
7 
4 
5 
2 
4 
5 
5 
4 
3 
4 
4 


6 
7 
6 
6 
5 
6 
5 
6 
6 
4 
7 
6 


6 
5 
5 
5 
6 
4 
5 
4 
4 
5 
3 


7 
7 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
4 
5 
3 
4 
4 


8 
6 
5 
5 
4 
5 
5 
4 
5 
3 
5 
4 


38 
38 
29 
30 
20 
30 
25 
27 
28 
20 
29 
23 


2 


28 


3 


29 




30 


5 


31 


6 


32 


7 


33 


g 


34 


g 


35 


10 


36 


11 


37 


12 


38 




Total 


14 


103 


139 190 


181 


157 


168 


938 


15 
1 


Total in inches. 

Percentage o f 
gain as com- 
pared with 
gain of 1891... 




25} 3 <i 47 4 


45J 


39JJ 42 


234J 


17 

1* 




100 


135 


184 


176 


152 


m 




1 i 


20 


21 


2J 
23 .. . .. 


Average gain 
per tree (in 




AV 


fts 


m 





TOO 


ftj 




24 




28 











36 



THE WHITE PINE. 

AREA ACCRETION. 



While the diameter accretion decreases in rate continuously after the juvenile stage, the 
growth of the areas or layer of wood corresponding to the diameter increments follows by no 
means the same course. 

After the juvenile stage, which is determined by the formation of a definite crown, and when 
the diameter has attained at least 6 inches the cross- section area begins to increase in arithmetical 
progression; a constantly increasing rate prevails until a maximum is attained, which comes 
between the sixtieth and one hundred and twentieth year, and then continues remarkably uniform 
for a long period. No decline is noticeable until after the second century has begun. In codominaut 
au<l oppressed trees the area as well as the diameter accretion move somewhat differently, the 
maximum rate coming later and lasting a shorter time, the decline following soon after the 
maximum. 

FORM DEVELOPMENT, OR TAPER. 

Since size of crown and light conditions regulate the amount of diameter growth, it is evident 
that trees with well-developed free crowns form more wood than those crowded, the dominant more 
than the oppressed, and those on lawns more than those in the dense forest. Moreover, in these 
latter the wood is differently disposed along the trunk than in the former. Not only do trees 
grown in the open throw their energy into branch growth, but the accretion on the bole is laid on 
in layers, increasing in width from top to base. The result is a more rapid taper than in forest- 
grown trees, in which each annual layer is wider at the top than at the base of the tree, producing 
thereby a more cylindrical form. 

The following table exhibits in the measurements of six trees this variation in the width of 
the same annual rings at different heights, and also in general the mode of diameter growth in 
these trees. More elaborate tables, showing the diameter growth of White Pine at various heights 
from the ground for dominant, codominant, and oppressed trees in various parts of its range, 
together with diagrams, will be found in the Appendix: 

Diameter growth of forett-grown trees at r-arious heights from ground. 



Height 
of sec- 
tion 
from 
fround. 


Width of rings, in millimeters. 


Age of 
tree. 


Single groups of ten rings, beginning 
at periphery. 


Accumulative, by groups of ten rings, beginning at 
periphery. 


1 


2 


a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 1 10 


20 


30 


40 


60 


00 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Fat. 
17 
33 
49 
68 

16 
34 

50 
66 

18 
M 

60 
66 

16 
28 
42 
68 
76 

18 
34 
60 
66 

18 
42 
68 
70 
86 


14 
15 
19 

27 

9 
14 
16 
19 

11 
12 
13 
14 

13 
20 
19 
20 
24 

19 

23 
24 
25 

13 
13 
13 
16 
11 


19 
21 
28 
58 

10 
16 
22 
19 

13 

15 
17 
25 

26 
24 
28 
33 
19 

25 
33 
34 
35 

u 

19 
21 
U 

ta 


21 
32 
39 


17 
28 

27 


17 
34 


13 


18 


22 


.> 


14 
15 
19 
27 

9 
14 
16 
19 

11 

12 
13 
14 

13 
20 
19 
20 
24 

19 
23 
24 
25 

13 
13 
13 
16 
11 


33 
36 

47 
85 

19 
30 
38 
38 

Jl 
-'7 
30 
39 

39 
44 

47 
53 
63 

44 
56 
58 
60 

31 
32 
34 
41 
40 


54 

68 
86 


71 
96 
113 


88 
130 


101 


119 


141 






Tean. 
1 115 

| 100 
I 105 

102 
I 110 
i 165 










































16 
23 
25 
32 

16 
18 
23 
24 

21 

28 
31 
45 


20 
27 
37 


21 
31 
40 


40 
52 


39 






35 

53 
63 
70 

40 
45 
53 
63 

60 

72 
78 
98 


55 
80 
100 


76 
111 
140 


11 
163 


155 
















































V> 

20 
31 
35 

24 
11 

41 


15 

22 
39 
42 

24 

39 


20 
36 
39 


32 
50 


48 





55 
65 
84 
98 

84 
103 
119 


70 
87 
123 
140 

108 
142 
155 


90 
123 
162 


122 

173 


170 


































28 








136 
170 


177 


















































































27 
35 
34 


28 
44 
40 


26 

31 


31 


35 






71 
91 
92 


99 
135 
132 


125 
166 


156 


191 


























































21 

20 
22 

W 




21 
22 
26 
32 


24 
25 
27 

SO 


25 
27 
32 


21 
35 
40 


21 
32 
32 


18 
23 


52 
52 
56 
66 
69 


73 
74 
82 

98 


97 
99 
109 
133 


122 

126 
141 


143 

161 
181 


164 
193 
213 


182 
216 


193 

















































From such tabulations the taper, factor of shape, or form factor, may be derived (see Tables 
II and V in Appendix), which denotes the deviation of the shape of the tree from a cylinder. 
This factor varies between 0.40 for the older trees and larger diameters to 0.50 for younger and 



GROWTH IN VOLUME. 37 

more slender trees, a factor of 0.45 being about the average for centenarians that means the 
volume of a hundred-year-old tree is forty-five one-himdredths of a cylinder of the diameter, 
measured at breast height and the height of the tree. 

This factor varies, of course, according to the ratio between diameter and height, and since in 
codomiuant and oppressed trees this ratio is a different one from that of dominant trees, as we have 
seen, their factor of shape is also different from that for dominant trees, that is, their taper differs, 
the former being more cylindrical than the latter. This will appear from a comparison of the 
taper of trees as recorded in Table II of the Appendix, in which small diameters with compara- 
tively long giiafts indicate the codorninant and suppressed trees. Those with short lengths and 
large diameters are trees grown in open stand. 

From Table II, Appendix, we also see that the taper varies within wide limits from less than 1 
inch to 5 inches for every 1C feet, although in the majority of cases it lies between 2 and 3 inches. 
The tops taper, to be sure, much faster than the middle portion; and, again, in older trees espe- 
cially, the butt logs much faster than the upper portions, which are outside of the influence of the 
root swelling. 

In young trees which make three log lengths of .16 feet, it will be safe to allow li inches for 
the first two logs and 2 inches for the last one as the average taper. In medium sized trees, 
making four to five log lengths, an allowance of 2 inches on the whole will fairly represent the aver- 
age taper, or one-eighth of an inch for every foot in length. In old trees which furnish five and six 
or more logs, an allowance of 4 to 5 and even 7 to 8 inches must be made for the first log and 3 to 
4 inches for the two top logs, while the middle portions show a more regular and less variable 
taper of about 2 inches, or one-eighth of an inch per foot. 

GROWTH IN VOLUME. 

During the juvenile stages the volume growth of the White Pine, as of most trees, is insig- 
nificant, a dominant tree of twenty years measuring not more than 0.5 cubic foot, which means an 
average accretion of 0.025 cubic foot per year. For the third decade the amount of wood formed 
is over three times what it was during the first two decades, and at fifty years the bole of a domi- 
nant tree may contain from 10 to 14 cubic feet and over, the average annual accretion having 
come up to one-fourth of a cubic foot, or ten times what it was at twenty years. 

Xow, after the rapid height-growth period, with fully developed crowns, a rapid rate of 
volume growth sets in, increasing with each year, in arithmetical progression, until at sixty to 
seventy years the current accretion has become 1 cubic foot and over, and at one hundred years 
as much as 1 cubic feet is attained. After the one hundred and twenty-fifth year the increase 
in the rate abates, yet before the second century it has become 2 cubic feet, and remains then 
practically stationary for another century at least. 

Some of the oldest trees (four hundred and fifty years and over) measured contained 600 to 
800 cubic feet of wood in the stem alone, the largest, with 855 cubic feet, indicating an average 
annual accretion for this long life of over 1.8 cubic feet. 

While the current annual accretion after the fiftieth year is rapidly increasing, the average 
annual accretion, affected by the earlier stages of slow growth, increases naturally more slowly. 
For the first one hundred years the average is about two-thirds to three-fourths of a cubic foot 
for dominant pine, making the volume about 70 cubic feet. It increases to 1 cubic foot at one 
hundred and fifty years and 1 cubic feet at two hundred years, and, as shown above, gains 
gradually until old age. 

The progress in volume growth naturally varies under different soil conditions and with tree 
classes. In a general way, the oppressed trees and those on poorer sites do not begin the period 
of rapid volume growth as early as the dominant classes, but just as in the height growth, which 
is similarly delayed, the rate when once at its maximum persists with great uniformity until 
about the one hundred and fortieth to one hundred and sixtieth year, when a decrease becomes 
noticeable. 

The tables and diagrams in the Appendix show, by figures and graphically, the progress of 
diameter, height, and volume accretion for dominant, codominant, and oppressed trees throughout 
the range of the species. Comparing the growth from the several localities represented, a striking 



;{-< THE WHITE PINE. 

difference is not observed. It would appear that in similar soils tbe White Pine grows at about 
the same rate, with similar persistence, and to the same dimensions in all parts of its range. 

In Europe, too, as appears from a table on page 69, its growth as well as its general behavior, 
at least in the forests of Germany, is fully as favorable as at home. 

Besides differences as result of soils, an influence of the composition of the forest is noticeable. 
White Pine mixed with Hemlock (Pennsylvania stations) shows a more rapid growth for the first 
one hundred and thirty years, while among hardwoods (Wisconsin stations) the next one hundred 
years seem to produce the thriftiest growth. This is perhaps explained by the fact that in the 
latter mixture the White Pine has after the first one hundred years its entire crown above the 
shorter hardwoods, and hence is in full enjoyment of light. 

The so-called "second growth" pine develops somewhat differently, because, as a rule, it does 
not start in a dense growth, enjoying the light conditions of the open stand, the single individuals 
make a more rapid volume growth, until they have closed up, and forest conditions prevail. This 
is fully exhibited in the measurements of young groves in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
tabulated in the Appendix. 

In managed woods, where the number of trees allowed to grow per acre is under control, the 
volume accretion may also be accelerated; the growth energy of the site being then exerted on 
fewer individuals, each one deposits larger amounts. What this increase can be may be inferred 
from the table on page 69, which records the growth of White Pine iu Germany. 

CUBIC CONTESTS OF TREKS. 

Having ascertained by a large number of measurements the diameters, heights, and factors 
of dhape possessed by trees under all sorts of conditions, the cubic contents of such trees can 
be calculated and recorded in a table for further use, by reference, in measuring contents of trees. 
Such table for White Pine of different diameters and heights will be found in the Appendix, from 
which the contents in cubic feet of the bole of a tree whose diameter at breast height has been 
measured and whose height has been estimated or measured can at once be read off. 

LUMBER CONTEXTS OF TREES. 

The total cubic contents, being based on mathematical considerations alone, is the only 
rational measure of the volume. By stating contents in board measure we introduce at once a 
number of uncertain factors, which are variable in the practice, such as the lowest-size diameter 
to which logs are taken; the size of the lumber that is cut, from one half-inch boards to square 
beams ; the saw used, which determines the loss in kerf, and the skill of the sawyer, who can 
waste a large proportion in slabs and inconsiderate use of the logs. 1 

In these losses there is no allowance made for crooks or rot, which would reduce the results 
still further, so that hardly one-third of the total volume of the tree would seem to reappear in 
the shape of lumber, provided the log scales used are correct, which anticipate a loss of 44 per 
cent (Scribuer) to 50 per cent (Doyle) in sawdust, slabs, and edgings for 14-inch logs, the average 
size of logs in the northern pineries. 

As a matter of fact, in good modern mill practice, not only does no such waste occur as is 
indicated in these 'og scales, even if all logs were cut into inch boards, but in addition small logs 
are worked into dimension material 2 by 4, 2 by 6, 4 by 4, etc., in which the loss is reduced to a 
minimum; thus an 8-inch log may be cut to 6 by 6 inches. It then would make, if 16 feet long, 
not 16 to 25 feet B. M., but 48 feet. Since the bulk of our pine material is now obtained from 
small logs (over one-half below 14 inches diameter), these differences are of considerable practical 
importance. 

'A careful examination anil measurement of one hundred trees of White Pine was made by Mr. Filibert Roth 
to ascertain what rational allowance should be made on the cubic contents of trees when converted into lumber. 
The average dianietn ..f tin- t.-ees measured was 28 inches, breast high with bark, and the height 100 feet, the factor 
of shape 0.43, that is to say, they were old trees with a moderate taper. They averaged 4.2 logs of 16 feet per tree, 
which represented 76 per cent of the total volume of the bole with bark, 24 per cent being lost in the top and stump 
and in the bark. The lumber contents of these logs, calculated by Scribner's log rule, represented only 39.5 per cent 
of the total volume of the tree, that is to say, over 60 per cent of the whole tree is supposed not to reappear in the 
lumber, the saw waste representing 48 per cent of the log volume and 36 per cent of the total volume of the tree. 



CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT. 



39 



Based upon a proper consideration of these practices, it will appear that an average allowance 
of 30 per cent in saw waste on the volume of logs of all sizes is more than ample, and that the 
lumber yield given in the following table and computed on this assumption of waste, although 
being for same sizes even 100 per cent above the log scales in use, remains still below the 
practically obtainable results: 

Lumber contents in 16-foot lays. 



Diameter 
at small 
end. 


Judson's 
favorite. 


Doyle rule. 


Scribner 
rule. 


Computed 
for 30 per 
cent waste. 


Waste. 


By Scrib- 
ner. 


By Doyle. 


Inches. 


Feet B. Jf. 


FeetB M. 


Feet B. M. 


Feet B. M. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 










32 to 48 






8 


22 


16 


25 


4li 


61 


76 


10 


37 


36 


49 


60 to 85 
72 


50 


.65 


12 


64 






100 to 130 














105 


4 i 


57 


14 


95 


100 


114 


142 


44 


51 


16 


142 


144 


159 


187 


41 


46 


18 


107 


196 


213 


237 


37 


42 


20 


248 


256 


280 


292 


33 


3!) 


22 


324 


324 


334 


336 


34 


36 


24 


392 


400 


404 


420 


33 


33 


26 


476 


484 


500 


492 


30 


32 


28 


562 


576 


582 


MM 


29 


30 



In estimating the cut of lumber that may be obtained from a given area, there must, to be sure, 
an allowance be made in addition for unserviceable, crooked, knotty, rotten material, which may 
reach from 15 to 20 per cent, and, furthermore, an allowance for the loggers' risk in breakages and 
other losses, which may be figured at 10 to 12 per cent. 

To give, however, an approximate idea of the lumber contents of trees of various diameters 
and heights, these have been calculated for a number of trees and recorded in Table II, p. 87, 
in the Appendix. 

From these measurements, which are based upon Doyle's log scale, the following tabulation is 
made, showing approximately the increase of lumber contents with diameter growth and age. 
From this it would appear that the greatest per cent of increase occurs during the period from the 
fortieth to seventieth year, while in the fortieth year the average annual growth in volume has 
been about one-third of a cubic foot, in the seventieth year it is nearly 2 cubic feet, :>r six times as 
great, and by the one hundredth year this rate is doubled, centenarians containing about 400 
feet B. M. During the next century the trees make twice as much lumber wood, for now all wood 
deposited makes lumber : 

Increase in lumber contents with itze. 















Percent of 


Diameter 
breat 
high. 


Height. 


Approxi- 
mate age. 


Lumber. 


Average 
annual ac- 
cretion. 


Periodic ac- 
cretion. 


increase 
per year 
during pre- 
ceding 














peri on. 


Inchti. 


Feet. 


Tean. 


Feet B. M. 


Cubic feet. 


Feet B. M. 


Per cent. 


7 to 9 


50 to 70 


40 


14 


0.35 






10 to 12 


50 to 80 


55 


50 


.9 


36 


17 


13 to 15 


55 to 115 


70 


130 


1.8 


80 


17 


18 to 18 


75 to 125 


85 


260 


3 


in 


7 


19 to 21 


80 to 135 


110 


440 


4 


180 


3 


22 to 24 


85 to 140 


140 


650 


4.6 


210 


1.7 


25 to 27 


85 to 150 


1R5 


940 


5. ; 


290 


1 


28 to 30 


85 to 150 


230 


1,200 


;> 


260 


.6 



CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT. 



DEMANDS UPON CLIMATK AND SOIL. 



The wide field of its natural distribution and the thriftiness with which the White Pine 
develops in climates outside of its native home show that it is quite adaptive as far as climatic con- 
ditions are concerned. Yet, from the manner of its development within the climatic range of its 



40 THE WHITE PINE. 

occurrence, its use for forestal purposes would seem to be circumscribed by conditions of humid 
and cool atmospheres, such as are found iu northern latitudes and high altitudes. Its distribution 
is manifestly more dependent on humidity than on temperature, or rather, on a low transpiration 
factor, that is, such a relation of heat and moisture, both at the foot and at the top, that the tliin 
foliage can readily perform its functions; hence, its failure in cultivation in the trans-Missouri 
States, the contraction of its southern field to the high altitudes, and its best development in 
quantity if not in quality within the influence of the Great Lakes and to the northward and 
eastward. 

While adapting itself readily to almost any variety of soil, the White Pine manifestly prefers 
one with a fair admixture of sand, insuring a moderately rapid drainage. The pine tribe in 
general occupies the sandy soils, to which it is better adapted than most of the deciduous tree 
species; but the White Pine is capable of disputing possession with its competitors even of the 
fresh medium-heavy loam and clay soils, making here the best individual growth. 

Its shallow root system, iu which it resembles, as in many other respects, the spruces, permits 
it to accompany the latter to the thinner soils of the rocky slopes in the Adirondacks and New 
England States, although here its development is naturally less thrifty. Its growth on the rocky 
hills of Massachusetts within the hardwoods of that region is, however, at least for the first sixty 
to eighty years not much less thrifty than iu the better soils in the valleys. It does not shun even 
the wetter and occasionally overflowed and swampy ground, and is here found,,together with the 
Fir, Arborvita", and even Tamarack; yet, on the dry, light sandy, coarse, and gravelly soil the 
Red Pine and Jack Pine seem to be able to outdo it. 

ASSOCIATED SPECIES. 

The White Pine is less gregarious than any other pines of the Eastern United States. Although 
it occurs in pure growths as true pinery on the red clays and moister gravels, it more frequently 
is an admixture in the hardwoods, sharing with them the compacter, heavier soils from which the 
other pines are excluded. 

Spruce, Hemlock, and Arborvifce (Cedar) are most frequent concomitants of the White Pine 
in Canada; various species of Birch and Maple with Beech and Spruce form the composition of 
the forest in the Adirondacks, overtowered by the pines, and there is hardly any species of the 
Northern Atlantic forest which in one or the other region of its distribution may not be found in 
association with the White Pine. 

Owing to the fact that the hardwoods as a rule occupy the better soils, the best individual 
development of the White Pine is also found in these mixtures. In the pinery of the northwest 
Red Pine and Jack Pine are the associates, while the Pitch Pine (P. rigida), and, in the southern 
field, the Shortleaf Pine (P. echinata) are not uufrequently found in its company. 

The samples of "acre yields" following will serve to illustrate more iu detail the manner of 
distribution, the associations, and the capacity of White Pine in the native forests in different 
parts of its range. More extensive tabulation will be found iu the Appendix. 




CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT. 
TABLE VI. Acre yield of White Pine on sites in Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Maine. 

WISCONSIN. 
SITE a : Washburn County. 



41 



Description of Bite. 


"White Pine. 


Bass wood. 


Fir. 


Elm. 


Yellow Birch. 


Butternut. 


Hornbeam. 


Number of trees. 


Diameter (breast 
high). 


a 
u 

i 

a 


Volume. 


Number of trees. 


j . 




! 


49 

.a . 




i 


43 

J: . 




X 

I 


a . 




! 


breast 

. 




1 


. . 


4 



i 


1 


Merchanta- 
ble timber. 


Diameter 
high 


l 

_Z 

.SP 
3 

a 


NumbiT o 


Diameter 
liigh 


j= 

jy 
"1 

a 


Number o 


Diameter 

liigh 


.r 
U 
' 

w 


Number o 


Diameter 
Ufb 


Height. 


Number o 


Diameter 

hi;;h 


*s 
^: 
u 

'2 

a 


N umber o 


Diameter 
high 


Sample area, 1 acre, 1,200 feet 
above sea. Age of pine. 
200 to 220 years. Number of 
trees, 132: White Pine, 52 
per cent; hardwoods 48 per 
cent. Classification for White 
Pine: Dominant, 75 per cent; 
oppressed, 22 percent; sup- 
pressed, 3 per cent. 
Two-story stand, upper storv 
formed by White Pine, the 
lower story by hardwoods 
(Yellow Birch mixed with 
Basswood with scattering 
Hornbeam and Fir and occa- 
sional Elin). Scanty under- 
growth of the young hard- 
woods and Fir. Soil, clay, 
underlaid by a bardpan of 
clay and stones. 4-inch mold 
on top, with a surface cover 
of leaves. 


i 

3 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
6 
5 
5 
C 
3 
2 
1 
1 

1! 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 


In 

14 
HI 
111 

n 

21 
21 
23 
24 
tl 
M 
17 
28 

M 
31 
M 
H 

I!.'. 

M 

17 

:;.- 
39 
40 


120 to 140. 80 to 120. Jj 


Cujt. 
55 
71 
288 
210 
114 
280 
918 
1,440 
534 
1,152 
1,035 
1,155 
1,482 
780 
560 
315 
347 
1,101 
1,161 
408 
429 
485 
1,521 


Ft. B. M. 


9 
6 


In. 
3 to 6 
6tolO 


ft. 

40 
00 


5 


In. 
3 to 6 


FI. 

40 


1 


In. 

3 to 6 


Jl 

40 


II 
It 

3 
1 


I?i. 
3 to 10 

6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 
19 


Ft. 

411 
lit) 
80 
BO 

8H 


1 

1 


In. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 


ft. 

40 
(ill 


5 

1 


In. 
3 to 6 
6tolO 


Ft. 

40 
60 










. .. 































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































"'I ;;; 























































































































































15,341 


95,040 


18 


j 51 




1 






*M 






? 






r 








1 1 





























Average annual accretion : White Pine, 75 cubit- feet. 

452 feet B "M. 



MICHIGAN. 



SiTEd; Montmorency County. 



Description of site. 


White Pine. 


Eed Pine. 


Hemlock. 


*- 

1H 

O 

1 

1 

h 


jl 

R 


4 

jl 

&C 

~e' 


Volume. 


CM 
O 

1 

M 




. 
fef 

|3 

p 


J 


1 


o 

1 
K 


j! 

p 


J 

f. 

s 

' 
H 


i 

"5 
a 


jl 

J3 S 

6? 

B 

S 


Sample area, 1 acre. Ape of pine, 250 to 270 
years. Number of trees, 113: White Pine, 54 
percent; Red Pine, 35 per rent: Hemlock. 11 
per cent. Locality damaged liy flre twelve 
years before ; 15 per cent dead trees and 20 per 
cent injured by fire. 
White Pine mixed with Red Pine and inter- 
mixed with Hemlock. Soil, fresh, loose sand 
of a gray color, turning brown and red under- 
neath, w'itb a surface rover of brakes, checker- 
berry- 1'he subsoil is a brown sand, sometime* 
loamy and in spots clayey. Density of crown 
carer, 0.5. 




2 
1 
3 

3 
3 

3 
2 
6 
5 
9 
4 
1 
3 
2 
7 
2 
1 
1 


Inchet. 
10 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 


Feet. 

| 

3 



Cu.ft. 
36 
38 
159 
60 
207 
231 
86 
96 
315 
280 
906 
855 
1,611 
800 
216 
696 
498 
1,862 
50 
302 
340 


Ft. B. M. 


2 

1 
3 
1 
3 
3 
6 
5 
4 
8 
1 
1 
1 


Inchet. 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
30 


Feet. 



s 




2 

1 
1 
2 
6 
1 


Inchet. 
3 to 61 
9/ 
11) 

12 
15 
20) 


Feet. 

40 

50 to 80 























































.... 

















































































































61 






10, 154 


60, 900 


3 




13 



















T',t,il >/i< W : 86.100 feet B. M., of which White Pine 66 per cent. 
Vulpine of Red Pine: Holes, 5,256 cubic feet ; merchantable tim 



IHVIIIK UJ liKti ftrte. jwicn, o,_j wimwiw ' ' i , in 

Averaae annual accretinn : White Pine, 59 cubic feet. 

331 feet i!. M. 



itable timber, 25,200 feet B.M. 



42 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE VI. Acre yield of White Piiu on >ite in TTitconiin, Hichiyait, Penmylvania, and Maine Continued. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

SITE /.- Dnbois, Clearfield Connty. 



Description of site. 



Sample area, 1 acre, 1,200 to 1,500 
feet above Ma. A go of pine, 240 to 
260 years. Number of trees, 132: 
White Pine, 37; Hemlock, 84; Ma- 
ple. 5: Beech. 3; Birch, II. 

Hemlock mixed with While Pine, 
with occasional Maple. Beech, and 
Birch, on a hill sloping towards 
south" -M. "liere it is bound* il l>v 
the left-hand branch of the Nar- 
row Creek. The undergrowth, 
moderately dense, consists of vn-y 
vminjj Beech, Hemlock, and oeca 
sional liirch and Cucumber. Sml, 
yellow clavey loam of a medium 
grain (6ne shales in iti, deep, fresh, 
well drained, with 2 to 3 inches 
mold on top, with surface cover of 
scanty leaves, fern, tcabcrries, and 
scattering dogwood (laurel, north- 
east corner and north side). Sub- 
soil, laminated shale of an indefinite 
depth. Density of crown cover, 
0.7 (in places 0.8). 



White Pine. 



In. 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
34 
40 
41 
45 



1 



Feet. 
120 
120 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
135 
135 
135 
135 
135 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 



Volume. 



Boles. 



Cu./t. 



1,370 



570 

651 
257 

1,140 

610 
1,220 
390 
800 
511 
511 
638 



Ft. 
B.3I. 

1,360 



6,420 



3,000 



1,390 
6,600 

3,900 
7,800 
2.300 
4.800 
3,300 
3,300 
4.400 



9,028 52,260 



Tolal yield : 90,103 feet B. M. 

Average annual accretion : White pine, 36 cubic feet. 

209 feet B.M. 

MAINE. 
SITE a: York County. 





White Pine. 




8 


s 




o 


Description of site. 


If 


ls 


~ 


|| 




3 ^ 


5-2-z 


'3 


*o 




q 


5" 


H 


t 






In. 


Feet. 


<w< 


Sample area, one-half acre. Age of pine, 90 to 
100 years. Numberof trees: White Pine. 


2 

8 


10 
11 


75 
75 


42 

192 


118;" Red Oak. 6; Norway Pine, 2. Classi- 


8 


12 


75 


233 


fication for White Pine: Dominant, 26 per 


4 


12 


85 


120 


i , HI : codominant, 40 percent; oppressed, 


6 


13 


85 


222 


18 per cent: suppressed, 16 per cent. 
White Pine with scattering Ked and White 


4 

8 


14 
14 


75 
85 


154 
332 


Oak and occasional Norway Pine, on a level 


8 


15 


85 


384 


site. The undergrowth, moderately dense, 


8 


16 


85 


408 


consists of small Hemlock aud Beech, small 


8 


17 


85 


528 


Maple and Oaks numerous. Soil, a fine 


10 


18 


85 


690 


loamy sand, gray or brown in color, deep, 


18 


19 


85 


1,323 


fresh, with 2 or 3 inches mold on top, and 


2 


20 


85 152 


leafy surface cover; clay lies probably 
some feet below surface. Density of crown 


4 




21 
22 


85 320 
85 534 


cover, 0.5. 


6 


23 


85 660 




2 24 


95 250 




2 


25 


95 280 




4 


26 


95 : 560 




118 




; 7 384 




I 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 77 cubic feet. 
Ourrtnt accretion : White Pine, 160 cubic feet. 



MAINE. 
SITE 6: York County. 





White Pine. 




3 


t X 




3 


Description of site. 


ii 


t 3^ 

= SJS 


~ 


1-S 




= *Z* 


K 


=J 




z 




'5 







K 


Q 


B 


> 


Sample area, one-fourth acre. Age of pine, 
50 to CO years. Number of trees: Mature 


4 


In. 
6 


Feet. 
45 


Cujt. 
20 


White Pine. H28: young White Pine. 160; 


32 


7 


55 


256 


mature Hemlock, 20 1 young Hemlock, 20. 


60 


7 


45 


330 


Classification lor White Pine: Dominant, 


84 


8 


55 


840 


9 per cent; codominant, 45 per cent; op. 


8 


8 


45 


72 


pressed. 23 per cent; suppressed, 23 per 


36 


9 


55 


414 


cent. 


8 


10 


65 


144 


White Pine, with scattering Hemlock and 


52 


10 


55 


780 


occasional Spruce aud Fir, on a plain and 


8 


11 


55 


144 


level site. Sranty undergrowth of Hazel 


12 


12 


65 


306 


and young Hemlock. Soil, a gray sand, 


12 


12 


55 


240 


sometimes brown or loamy, with a vegeta- 
ble mold of 3 inches, deep, fresh, with a 


4 
8 


13 

17 


65 

75 


116 
408 


leafy surface cover. Clayey subsoil, prob- 
ably 4 or 5 feet below surface. Densitj of 










328 






4,070 


crown cover, 0.7. 











Average annual accretion: White Pine, 74 cubic feet. 
Current accretion: White Pine, 133 cubic feet. 



MAINE. 
SITE c: York County. 





White Pine. 




kj 


3- 




o 


Description of site. 


1! 


Hi 


* 

1 


Jj 

o 




* 


A 


H 








In. 


Feet. 


Cujt. 


Sample area, one-fourth acre. Age of pine, 
50 to 60 years. Number of trees: Mature 


4 

28 


6 
6 


65 

55 


28 
168 


White Pine, 396. Classification for White 


20 


7 


65 


190 


Pine: Dominant, 18 per cent; codominant. 


20 


7 


55 


160 


27 per cent; oppressed, 24 per cent; sup- 


84 


8 


65 


1,008 


pressed, 31 per cont. 
White Pine, with occasional Xorway Pine, 


24 
36 


8 
9 


55 
65 


240 
522 


on a slopo to nortli 5 to 10. Scanty 


32 


10 


65 


576 


undergrowth of Hemlock, Oak, ami Fir. 
Soil, a sandy loam, with little pebbles in it, 


8 
40 


10 
11 


75 
65 


168 
880 


of a brown" color, deep and fresh, with 


4 


11 


75 


100 


black soil and mold of 3 inches on top and 


16 


12 


65 


408 


leafy surface cover; clay probably 8 to 12 
feet down. Density of crown cover, 0.8. 


24 

8 


12 
11 


75 
65 


696 
232 




16 


13 


75 


552 




4 


14 


65 


132 




12 


14 


75 


462 




8 


15 


65 


292 




4 


16 


75 


184 




4 


17 


75 


204 




396 


*" 




7,202 







Average annual accretion: White Pine, 131 cubic feet. 



CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT. 



43 



LIGHT REQUIREMENTS. 

The capacity of the White Pine to keep its place in mixture with the hardwoods is probably 
mainly due to its shade endurance. In this respect it excels all pines with which we are acquainted. 
Pines are, as a rule, rather light-needing species, and are usually at a disadvantage in the mixed 
forest, unless compensating influences are in their favor. The White Pine is an exception. As a 
consequence, it is capable of forming dense thickets, supporting a larger number of trees per acre 
and producing a larger amount of material than the more light-needing species. Also, as a con- 
sequence of its shade endurance, it does not clean itself of its branches as readily as other pines; 
not only do tire lower branches remain green for a long period in spite of the shade of the superior 
tiers of foliage, but they persist after they are dead for many years. 

As this shade endurance is, however, only relative, and as many of the associates possess it 
in greater degree, the additional advantage of rapid height growth alone saves the pine from 
being after all suppressed by its shadier companions. Yet, these succeed in keeping the young 
progeny of the pine subdued, and hence the observation that in the dense virgin forest of hard- 
woods the reproduction of White Pine is scanty. 

The difficulty of cleaning itself of dead branches seems to be overcome by association with 
shadier companions, for, as a rule, the best quality, cleaner boles, and absence of black knots, 
which denotes earlier cleaning, are found in such association. Yet, in these mixtures the trees are 
apt to be shorter bodied, since the hardwood companions are shorter bodied and the stimulus to 
height growth ceases sooner. In the pinery proper tbe stimulus to height growth exerted by the 
neighbors continues longer; hence, longer shafts are found here, other conditions being the same, 
although the boles are less clean and less free of knots. 

Its shade endurance is decidedly less than that of the Spruce, which maintains itself, but 
not thriving under the dense shade of Maple, Birch, and Beech, where White Pine seedlings and 
saplings are not to be found, although they sustain perfectly the shade of oaks. To be sure, this 
shade endurance is to some extent dependent on moisture conditions of soil, being less on the 
drier than on the fresher soils. 

This relatively high shade endurance permits ready natural reproduction of the pine, espe- 
cially where the hardwoods have been thinned out to some extent, or where, after clearing, all 
species start their race for reoccupatiou of the soil with equal chance. The pine then appears in 
the young hardwood growth in single individuals at first, somewhat behind in height, but finally, 
when it enters upon the period of rapid height growth, it outgrows its competitors and is .assured 
of its place. 

More frequently does the reproduction take place in groups, smaller or larger, the many areas 
of "second growth" of several acres in extent, which are found throughout the hardwood coppice 
of Massachusetts, showing that tendency toward gregariousness so characteristic of the conifers. 
A further discussion of the conditions of reproduction and the yield occurs in the portion devoted 
to the discussion of forest management and of forest yield. 

In these natural reproductions the trees grow close together, that is, close for unaided nat- 
ural reproduction, as is apparent from the following table of acre yields of young growth taken 
at various places in New England : 

TAIILK VII. Acre yield of youny pine groves. 



State. 


Soil. 


White Pine. 


Species intermixed. 


Age. 


Diameter 
Number. ' (breast 
high). 


Length of log. 


Volume 
of logs. 


Number. 


Name and remarks. 


Mauachusette 
Total 


Fresh, well-drained loam 
and Bandy loam. 


Yean. 
35 


o 
128 
284 
75 

1 


Inches. 
14 to 18 
10 to 14 
6 to 10 
3 to 6 
3 


Max. 
40 
40 
35 


J/in. 
35 

20 
20 


Cu.feet. 

1,611.2 
348.9 


147 
52 
21 
8 


Oak. 
Chestnut. 
Maple. 
All other. 

All small. 

Maple. 
Gray Birch. 
Pitch Pine. 
All other. 


















490 








2, 014. 1 


228 


New Hampshire... 
Total... 


Dry, well-drained sandy 
loam. 


35 


3 
13 
79 
231 
181 
5 


18 to 24 
14 to 18 
10 to 14 
8 to 10 
3 to 6 
3 


30 
30 
35 


18 
22 

15 


178.9 
372.4 
1,007 


13 
10 
9 
6 


























512 








1, 558. 3 


38 



44 



THE WHITE PINE. 
TABLE VII. Acre yield of youny pine grorei Continued. 



Bute. 


Soil. 


White Pine. 


Species intermixed. 


Ag. 


Number. 


Diameter 
(breast Length of log. 
high). | 


Volume 
of logs. 


Number. 


Name and remarks. 


Uassacbnsetu 


Froah, well-drained sanity 
lea*. 


Yean. 
40 


14 

136 
177 
32 
3 


Inehu. 
14 to 18 

10 to 11 

6 to 10 
3 to 6 
3 


Max. 
40 
40 


Min. 
25 
20 


Ou. ftct. 
315.9 

1.870.4 


133 
204 
19 
15 
11 
15 


Oak. 
Maple, 
Chestnut. 
Cray Birch. 

Chi-rrv. 
All other. 

All less than 3-inch 
diameter. 

Hemlock. 
Keel Pine. 
Gray Birch. 

Small. 
None. 

Representingaeven 
species. 






















362 






2, 186. 3 


397 


New Hampshire . . . 
ToUl 


Dry, well-drained loamy 
sand. 




1 




40 


46 
65 
184 
615 
150 


14 to 18 
10 to 14 
6 to 10 
3 to 6 
3 


35 
30 


15 
15 


489.3 
51.9 


26 
27 
1 


























1.060 








541.2 


54 


Massachusetts 
Total 


Freab, well-drained sandy 
luatu. 


48 


11 

158 
277 
18 


14 to 18 
10 to 14 
6 to 10 
3 to 6 


40 

40 


30 
15 


L'.V. ! 
2,096.9 


























4111 

T 

48 
126 
147 
15 








2, 355. 1 





Massachusetts 


Dry, well-drained loamy 
sand. 














50 to 55 


1H to HI 
14 to 18 
10 to 14 
6 to 10 
3 to 6 


35 
40 
40 
30 




102 
902 
1,311.5 
152.2 


19 


20 
13 
18 
















337 








2, 467. 7 


11 















It would be possible to increase the number of trees that could grow per acre and develop 
satisfactorily by attention of the forester, as will appear from the statements regarding the White 
Pine forest plantations in Germany, where pure White Pine growths showed at sixty-eight years 
fetill over six hundred and seventy trees, and in another place at eighty-two years seven hundred 
and twenty-three trees, and at one hundred and four years over two hundred and fifty trees per 
acre. Even in such close stand the crown of living branches remains long, occupying one-third of 
the bole, and dry branches persist down to over half the length. The steins are straight and 
cylindrical, in this respect also reminding one of the Norway Spruce, although the tendency to 
fork seems more frequently developed. 

YIELD OP WHITE PINE. 

The question as to the amount of material which the White Pine is capable of producing per 
acre is difficult to answer. It can not, of course, be deduced from a knowledge of the development 
of the individual tree, since there remains one factor unknown, namely, the number of trees of 
different classes that can occupy an acre. Nor can the capacity of production, as a rule, be ascer- 
tained from the actual production or acre yield of natural virgin growths, for these usually not 
only do not occur in pure growths, but also are usually not developed under most advantageous 
conditions, and do not, therefore, represent the possible or normal yield which could be secured. 
Only by selecting smaller, seemingly normally and favorably developed groups in the forest at 
different ages and in various localities and measuring the same may we arrive at an approximation 
of what the species is capable of producing by itself. 

Such measurements have not been attempted, but the yield of virgin acres under varying 
conditions has been ascertained to give at least a forecast of the possibilities, although not repre- 
senting the normal or possible yield of fully stocked acres of White Pine. In addition we may 
utilize the results recorded from Germany (page 69) of a number of plantations, which have had 
the advantage of at least the partial care of forest management. 

From these indications, we are justified iu the assertion that the White Pine produces per 
aero as well as any species with which we are acquainted in our northeastern woods, and at a rate 
which is not excelled by any of the lumber trees within its range. 

In this respect, again, it approaches the German Spruce, though it probably excels this species 
in persistency, as it does in the dimensions which it can produce. We can, therefore, for the first 



YIELD. 45 

hundred years at least, approximate the capacity of our White Piiie by reference to experience 
tables of the German Spruce. 

As with all conifers, the rate of production at first is very slow, not more than 40 to 70 cubic 
feet in the average per year for the first twenty years. With the better development of crowns 
and tlie assertion of individual superiority in the struggle of neighbors, which leads to the estab- 
lishment of dominant classes, the production increases rapidly, and by the fiftieth year, in fully 
stocked areas, the average rate of 140 to 100 cubic feet per acre may be attained, so that at that 
age we may, with five hundred to six hundred trees to the acre, find 7,000 to 8,000 cubic feet of 
wood stored up in the boles of the trees. The current annual accretion, then, may readily be at 
the rate of 186 to 180 cubic feet, keeping the average annual accretion of fully stocked acres very 
nearly to those figures, so that at one hundred years we should find, under favorable conditions, 
as much as 15,000 cubic feet of wood, of which at least 80,000 to 90,000 feet B. M. is saw material. 

The persistency of growth seems to continue beyond tbat age, and the indications are that 
the decrease of the current as well as average accretion per acre during the next century takes 
place so gradually that at one hundred and fifty years it may still be over 100 cubic feet, and not 
much below at two hundred years, when the burden of the acre may be near 20,000 cubic feet, 
with over 120,000 feet B. M., and double the amount in the oldest growths of two hundred and 
fifty or more years, which may possibly be the limit of production. 

While these figures, which differ very materially from those proposed in the tables by Messrs. 
Pinchot and Graves, may stand for the better soils, as ideally possible, practically, perhaps, rarely 
attainable, especially in older stands, poorer soil sites will vary from them by from 20 to 40 per cent, 
so that a yield of 9,000 cubic feet at a hundred years, or 50,000 feet of lumber, would still be quite 
reasonable to expect on the poorest soils on which White Pine can be satisfactorily grown. On 
the sandy soils of Wisconsin whole forties are found to average 50,000 feet per acre of naturally 
grown unattended forests of one hundred and fifty years of age. 

Table VIII summarizes the measurements of sample areas, which are given in detail in the 
Appendix. It will serve to show what our native woods, without attention, stocked with partly 
useless trees and in open stand, exhibiting much wastage in unoccupied ground, are capable of 
producing. 

If we assume that the areas might have been stocked with pine alone, that they would have 
produced at only the same rate as they have xinder their present conditions, even though the acres 
had been fully stocked and not in the fractional manner which is indicated by the decimal giv- 
ing density of cover (all assumptions), and if in connection with the density factor we consider 
the number of all trees per acre and the percentage which the pine represents, we may, as a mere 
matter of judgment not fit for tabulation, arrive at an indication as to what the acre might 
possibly have produced. Such indication of possibility has been attempted in the last column of 
the table, and has served in the above discussion in connection with all other data presented. 
This is all that can be done in the absence of the measurements above indicated. These figures 
are of no direct practical application except to give a general notion of the productivity of White 
Pine and the variability of yields. 

An inspection of the table of yield in Germany, on page 69, will show that these approxi- 
mations are not unreasonable. The lumber contents in board feet may be approximated by 
multiplying these figures by 4 or 5 in the younger growths and by G or 7 in the older. Assuming a 
moderately careful practice of logger and sawyer, by no means mathematically tenable, the above 
tentative propositions for normal yields might be even increased. 

To assume, as is done by certain authorities, that tables of normal yield could be constructed 
by using the density indicated by a decimal as a inathematical factor, using that factor as a divisor 
of the actually measured yield in order to arrive at the normal, is to mistake the value of the 
density factor. Not only would trees and whole acres have developed very differently when grown 
under different density conditions during their life, but the estimate of the density is such a vague 
and uncertain one, a mere opinion, that even if the greatest care were exercised, its use as a mathe- 
matical factor would not be admissible. It is a mere indication of the present condition of the 
growth, and its meaning at different periods of life is very different in its physiological effects 
as expressed in volume accretiou. 



46 



THE WHITE 1'INE. 



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48 



THE WHITE I'lXE. 



It may be of interest to record more especially the data of a small clamp of young White 
Pine sprung up naturally on an abandoned field of less tbau three-fourths of an acre in extent, 
situated near Farmington, N. H., which its owner (Mr. J. D. Lyman, of Exeter) had from time to 
time thinned out for the last twenty-two years, with a view of accelerating the growth of the 
trees. Unfortunately, no record of previous conditions and frequency and extent of operations 
was attainable, bat the present condition (three or four years ago) is exhibited in the following 
table: 

Data of a clump of naturally grown young White Pine. 
[Age: Forty-six to fifty-six years; average, nfty-one years. Height: 70 to 80 feet. Area: 108 square rods.] 



Number of trees. 


Dianiflrr 
(breast high). 


Voltllm'. 


1 


Incha. 
H 


Cubic fat. 
85 


1 


-1J 


84 


J0 


16 to 1!) 


600 


>7 


14 to 16 


1,169 


25 


13 to 14 


875 


31 


11 to 12 


806 


18 


10 to 11 


360 


g 


9 to !0 


M 


2 


7 


20 








121 




4,095 









This would indicate a yield per acre of about 6,000 cubic feet, from which, with the dimensions 
attained under careful mill practice, some 30,000 feet of lumber might be cut. To be sure, with 
such open stand much of this must be knotty, even though the trees were pruned as far as possible. 

By comparison with the measurements of naturally grown uuthiuued acres, we find that two 
to three times the number of trees of the age indicated in the above table might stand on an acre 
and make as much total product (see Massachusetts, site c, which, with 324 trees, produced 6,188 
cubic feet); and although a few trees in the thinned grove had reached larger dimensions, the 
total product of trees over 12 inches in diameter is almost the same, the difference in favor of the 
thinned part being only 100 cubic feet. From this comparison it would appear that the thinning 
was too severe to secure the most desirable results. PI. X shows the condition of the grove when 
the measurements were taken. 

Allowance, however, should be made for the amount utilized in thinnings. Whether this 
inferior material would pay in most cases the cost of its removal is questionable. A very uncertain 
estimate by the man who performed the thinnings places the amount of wood removed equal to 
that now standing, among which is 5,000 shingles. 

The following table shows the measurements of one of the largest trees in the grove: 

Measurements of tree. 
[Age: Fifty-six years. Height: 80 feet.] 



Height of section, in feet. 


Diameter, in 
inches. 


Number of 
rings on sec- 
tion. 


Stamp 


in 


54 


10 


n 


46 


20 


12! 


42 


80 


12? 


37 


40 


101 


32 


60 


u 


24 


60 


a 


15 


70 


f 


g 









This tree, when felled and cut into waney-edged boards, made lumber to the amount of 364 feet. 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry, U. S. Dept, of Agiicult 



PLATE X. 




FIG. 1. A THINNED PINE GR.OVE IN NEW HAMPSHIRE (TREES 51 YEARS OLD 186 TO THE ACRE;. 




FIG. 2. YOUNG PINE IN NEW HAMPSHIRE (TREES 20 YEARS OLO>. 



DANGERS AXD DISEASES. 
DANGERS AND DISEASES. 



49 



The White Pine is subject to a considerable number of destructive influences even when 
growing spontaneously, but a large proportion of these might be avoided if properly understood 
and guarded against, since they are in great part due to human agency. 

INJURIES BY HUMAN AGENCY. 

The subject of forest fires has been so fully discussed that it is unnecessary here to treat it 
in detail, although the pine forests of the Northern States have suffered more irreparable injury 
from this than from all other destructive agencies combined. From the numerous suggestions 
that have beeu made respecting protection from fire and from unnecessary injuries in general, the 
most important appear to be: 

(1) That a well-digested code of laws, capable of prompt enforcement, based upon the 
recommendation of a nonpolitical forest commission, is of primary importance. 




Fio. 4. Girdled White Pine continuing to grow. 

(2) That a correct public sentiment, encouraged by a wider dissemination of information 
concerning the value of forest products and the time required for their growth, will have more 
influence than all other means together in preventing unnecessary destruction. 

Unlike the Loblolly Tine of the Southern States, or the Eed Pine with which it is commonly 
associated, White Pine has a thin bark during the first thirty to fifty years, which affords but 
slight protection from fire. Consequently, the species suffers much in young growths from surface 
tires, which do little or no harm to the thick-barked pines and hardwoods. In the mature trees 
the growing layer is much better protected, as the bark with age becomes proportionately thicker 
than that of Red Pine. 

Related to the foregoing, and properly placed under the head of injuries to be charged to 

human responsibility, are wounds occasioned by cattle. A pine forest is less liable to injury 

from the browsing of cattle than one composed of deciduous trees, and in the Eastern States old 

pastures commonly grow up to pine, the deciduous species being kept down by the cattle. t ^But in 

20233 No. 22 4 



50 THE WHITE PINE. 

any case, when the growth of timber is the primary object, domestic animals should be rigorously 
excluded, as they are certain to do more or less injury to the growing trees. A pine forest, or a 
forest of any kind, is no more properly a "run" for cattle than a field of standing grain, and the 
damage is likely to be more extensive and less capable of repair in the former than in the latter 
case. 

The White Pine shows considerable recuperative power, which is exhibited in the ready 
reestablishment of broken leader and the healing of wounds, in which the prolific resin exudations 
assist by keeping out water and fungi. 

The experiences of Mr. Nathaniel Morton, of Plymouth, Mass., in trimming pines, recorded 
in The Forester (June, 1898), show the absolute safety of pruning live limbs of 3 to 5 inches and 
more in diameter, which are covered in a few years by new growth (PI. XI). An interesting case 
of pertinacity of life and recuperative power, which at the same time throws light on the much- 
debated question of food and water movement in trees, is also reported from the same source, and 
represented in fig. 4. 

A young pine in the forest was, two years ago, not only girdled, but the bark peeled off for 
11 inches all around the tree. The tree has a perfectly healthy appearance, and has continued to 
grow iu length, although apparently about half as fast as before. The measurements of internodes 
of this tree during the last six years follow. The diameter growth above the wound has continued, 
while below the wound it has remained stationary, as will appear from the measurements made 
two years after the removal of the bark. 

Inches. 

Circumference near the ground 15 

Circumference just below the wound 11 

Circumference where bark is stripped 9J 

Circumference j ust above first row of branches 14 

Circumference above second row of branches 11 

The wound is entirely covered by pitch. The growth just above the wound has a baggy 
appearance, showing an accumulation of wood deposit, which shows the arrest of the food 
materials due to the absence of the cambium layer and bark. 

It would appear that the roots could either live without the food supply from above (at least 
for two years), or else that a sufficient amount can pass through the dead wood of the trunk, and 
at least the water necessary for the elaboration of food materials in the foliage can be supplied 
through the old wood. The writer inspected this tree, and can vouch for the truthfulness of the 
description A similar case with a southern pine (species undetermined) came to his attention, 
where the tree was older and had grown over twenty years above the wound; but as only a cut 
was inspected the possibility of a cambial connection of the upper and lower parts was not abso- 
lutely excluded, as in the present case. 

INJURIES BY STORMS. 

Of injuries not within human control may be mentioned, first, those resulting from storms, 
snow, and ice. The soft texture of the wood and the short-lived branches of the White Pine 
would naturally suggest its being more liable to injury by storms than are deciduous trees. This, 
however, is not the case. The angle which the branches make with the trunk admits of their 
readily bending, and under such a weight it is found that Maples and other hardwood trees break 
down much more frequently. Mr. B. F. Hoyt, of Manchester, Iowa, states that " a whole summer's 
observation among the White Pines of Tennessee failed to reveal a single case in which a, tree of 
that species was injured by the wind," attributing the fact to the mechanical disposition and 
structure of the trunk and branches. 1 In this respect, then, the White Pine stands at a decided 
advantage as compared with many deciduous trees with which it is naturally associated. 

Like the shallow-rooted Spruce, the White Pine is liable to be uprooted and thrown by storms, 
although to a less degree. 

While, however, the mechanical effects of the wind and of storms of snow and ice are not 
sufficient to require special consideration, the injurious consequences of drying winds are such as 

'American Naturalist, December, 1886. 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agricultun 



PLATE XI. 



I 

c 
c 



T> 
z 



Tl 

a 




f 



o 



m 

9 




DISEASES. 51 

to become an important factor in determining the limits of the artificial cultivation of this species. 
At the time of planting, deciduous trees are not in leaf, and accordingly there is but little evap- 
oration of water, while the leaf surface of conifers is exposed then as much as ever to the drying 
effects of the atmosphere, often resulting in their death before they are fully established in the soil. 
It is for this reason and because of the general lack of a sufficient amount of atmospheric mois- 
ture that comparatively slight success has attended the cultivation of the White Pine on the 
plains west of the Mississippi. The raw winds from the Atlantic again have been found to be 
much more injurious to this species than to* the Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida), and the latter is there- 
fore decidedly preferable for planting in the immediate vicinity of the coast. 

DISEASES. 
EFFECT OF HEAT AND DROUGHT. 

In Germany, plantations of White Pine thirty-five to forty years old have suffered much injury 
from a disease which appears to be occasioned by unusual heat and drought, and which was par- 
ticularly severe after the hot, dry summer of 1876. 1 The disease manifests itself externally by 
dried up patches on the trunks, the spots being largest 3 to 6 feet from the ground, gradually 
running out above and below this, and often reaching a height of 15 to 18 feet. The spots may be 
only an inch or two wide, but frequently the bark is dead nearly around the entire trunk. As 
a rule, these dead spots are on the south and west sides of the tree. The wood is often penetrated 
by larva? of insects, but these are not the cause of the disease, since in many cases they are not 
present. 

Dr. E. Hartig, from a comparison of specimens and study of the disease in question, concludes 
that it is due to extreme dryness and that the White Pine can not be trusted to endure such 
extremes. He further states that it suffers greatly from dry air even in the winter time. 

PARASITIC DISEASES. 

The White Pine is subject to a number of parasitic diseases, some of which attack it when 
growing spontaneously in the forest, while others are highly destructive to the tree in cultivation, 
especially in Europe under changed climatic conditions. A few only of the best known of these, 
including several due to fungi, will be considered in detail. 

(1) Agaricus melleus Vahl. This fungus, of common occurrence in the United States as well 
as Europe, is exceedingly destructive to coniferous trees, the White Pine in particular suffering 
greatly from its attacks. It also fastens upon various deciduous species as a parasite, attacking 
living trees of all ages, but living as well upon dead roots and stumps and on wood that has 
been cut and worked up, occurring frequently on bridges, railroad ties, and the like, and causing 
prompt decay wherever it has effected an entrance. The most conspicuous part of the fungus is 
found frequently in the summer and fall on the diseased parts of the tree or timber infested by it. 
It Is one of the common toadstools, this particular species being recognized by its yellowish color, 
gills extending downward upon the stem, which is encircled a little lower down by a ring, and by 
its habit of growing in tufts or little clumps of several or many individuals together (PI. XII, 
1 and 2). It is also particularly distinguished by the formation of slender, dark-colored strings 
(PI. XII, 2 and 3), consisting of compact mycelium, from which the fruiting parts just described 
arise. The.se hard root-like strings (called rhizouiorphs) extend along just beneath the surface 
of the ground, often for a distance of several feet, and penetrate the roots of sound trees. By 
carefully removing the bark from a root thus invaded the fungus is seen in the form of a dense, 
nearly white, mass of mycelium (PI. XII, 3, c), which, as the parts around decay, gradually pro- 
duces again the rhizomorphs already described. These rhizomorphs are a characteristic part 
of the fungus. Occurring both in the decayed wood, from which they spread to the adjacent 
parts, and extending in the soil from root to root, they constitute a most effective agency in the 
extension of the disease. 

The symptoms of the disease are marked, and, taken together, sufficiently characteristic to 
admit of its ready recognition. External symptoms, to be observed especially in young specimens 

1 Hartig. Untersuchungeu aus clem Forstbotanischen Institut zu Miinchen, 1883. 



52 THE WHITE PINE. 

recently attacked, consist in a change of the leaves to a pale sickly color and often the production 
of short stunted shoots. A still more marked symptom is the formation of great quantities of 
resin, which Mow downward through the injured parts and out into the ground, resulting in the 

king together of the roots and masses of dirt that have been penetrated by the resin. Passing 
up a little way into the trunk, the cause of this is seen in the active working of the fungus in the 
medullary rays and around the resin canals, where apparently both cell walls and cell contents 
undergo degeneration and partial conversion into resin. This flows downward, as already stated, 
and also works laterally into the cambium, producing great blisters in the younger parts where 
growth is going on, and also resulting in the formation of abnormally large resin canals. 

As the disease advances the fungus continues to attack the tracheids of the sound wood and 
soon induces marked changes. Under its influence the walls lose their lignifled character, become 
softer, and give the cellulose reaction, while the mycelium of the fungus penetrates and fills the 
enlarged cavities of the tracheids. (PI. XII, J, 5, 6.) 

The whole inside of the trunk may finally become hollow for some distance above the stump, 
its interior being filled with a loose rotting mass, penetrated by rhizomorph strings, and only 
becoming worse the longer it stands. The disease having once reached this stage, there is of course 
nothing to be done for the tree but to fell it as soon as possible and save whatever wood remains 
unaffected. 

(2) Polyporus annosus Fries ( Trametes radidperda R. Hartig). This is one of the most dangerous 
parasites of coniferous trees, causing "red rot" and the dying out of plantations both of young 
and old pines. In Germany it infests various species of pines, including Pinus strobus and Pinus 
sylrestris ; also Picea excelsa, Juniperus communis, and others. It is more destructive to the White 
Pine than to the Scotch Pine. 

The disease appears in plantations of various ages, from five to oije hundred years old, show- 
ing itself by single plants here and there becoming pale, then yellow, and suddenly dying. These 
external symptoms are altogether similar to those observed in trees infected by Agaricus melleiis. 
Other trees are attacked in the neighborhood of the infected ones, and so the disease spreads 
centrifugally. 

The fruiting portion of the fungus (PI. XIII, 1 to 6") grows on the roots near the surface 
of the ground, forming yellowish-white cushions (white on the spore-bearing surface) that may 
finally, though rarely, become a foot or more in diameter. Between the wood and bark of the 
attected tree are extremely thin layers of mycelium, distinguished from those of Agaricus melleus 
by their softness and delicacy. The tissue of the roots and the inside of the stem is decayed to a 
considerable height. 

The disease is spread hy the spores, which are carried away by mice and other burrowing 
animals and deposited on the roots of adjacent trees, where they germinate and penetrate the 
living tissues of the bark, passing thence into the wood elements and growing in them toward the 
stem. It is also communicated by the roots of infected trees crossing those of sound ones in the 
ground (PI. XIII, 7), the fungus growing directly from one to the other. 

A violet discoloration of the wood is the external symptom of beginning decomposition, in 
which the contents of the parenchyma cells die and turn brown through the action of the mycelium. 
This color disappears with the loss of the cell contents, and a clear brownish-yellow takes its place, 
with scattering black spots here and there. These are surrounded at a later period with a white 
zone (PI. XII, 8), and at the same time the wood becomes continually lighter and more spongy. 
At last numerous openings arise, the wood is separated into its constituent fibers, and becomes 
watery and of a clear brownish-yellow color. The cell wall undergoes decomposition, giving the 
cellulose reaction instead of remaining liguified, and finally even the entire middle lamella disap- 
pears. The process may go on until the wood elements are isolated, so that they are easily picked 
apart like threads of asbestos. 

The parasite advances rapidly in the wood elements, decomposition sometimes going on in this 
way to the height of 25 fett. In tlie bark it proceeds more slowly, but is finally none the less 
dangerous, since it causes the death of the cortical part of the root in which it originates, and 
when after reaching the trunk it passes into the other roots, their death finally resulting in the 
death of the whole tree. 



DISEASES. 53 

In the Scotch Pine a great amount of resin is produced, and this, accumulating in the lower 
part of the stem, probably acts as a barrier to the growth of the mycelium upward. lu the White 
Pine the fungus extends much farther in the trunk. 

PI. XII, 7, represents a stump of White Pine that has been attacked by Polyporus annosus. 
The heart is surrounded by decayed wood and spots filled with masses of resin. PI. XII, 9, 
represents parts of adjacent wood elements of Norway Spruce after they have beeu acted upon 
by the fungus; the mycelium hyphre and spores, highly magnified, are represented in 10 of the 
same plate. 

(3) Coleosporium senecionis Pers. This fungus, under the name of "pine blister," infests 
various species of pines, growing in the aecidium stage on both leaves and bark, and sometimes 
proving very destructive. When growing on the leaves it affects but little the vitality of the tree, 
but is highly injurious when the bark is the place of attack. It penetrates the bark, apparently 
through wounds occasioned by insects, woodpeckers, or other agencies, and its mycelium spreads 
through the cortical parenchyma and bast, and into the wood to the depth of several inches, 
passing through the medullary rays. 

Under its influence the starch and other cell contents disappear and a resinous substance 
collects in their stead, a mass of dead tissue soon taking the place of the living cells. This change 
of the cell contents results in a great accumulation of resin, which often exudes in large quantities 
from the diseased parts of the tree. 

The mycelium is perennial, extending itself through the stem from year to year, particularly 
in a longitudinal direction. Where it is present the growth of the stem is prevented and the 
formative materials are diverted to the opposite side of the stem, causing there a greatly stimulated 
and abnormal growth. The death of the leader often results, especially in dry summers, for the 
reason that the wood, thus choked with resin, is unable to supply it with sufficient water. 

The researches of Wolf lead to the conclusion that this parasite of the pine lives in the form 
known as Coleosporium senecionis on various species of Senecio, and that it is communicated to 
pine shoots from them. He proposes the extermination of these hosts as a preventive measure. 
Later investigations of Kleebahu go to show that a blister rust which he observed badly affecting 
the bark of Pinus strobus, in the neighborhood of Bremen, is caused by a closely related parasite 
form which he names Peridermium strobi, and considers to be the svcidiuui stage of Cronartium 
rilncola. 

All these fungi have probably caused far more destruction of timber than casual observation 
would indicate, but the limited extent to which artificial cultivation of forests has thus far beeu 
carried on in this country gives comparatively few exact data regarding them. The facts, as above 
stated, have therefore been drawn largely from the works of Ilartig and other European authorities. 
With increasing cultivation of timber and probable increase of such diseases, their investigation 
and the employment of protective measures must necessarily receive far more attention. 

Several diseases attributable to the action of fungi, but as yet imperfectly investigated, are of 
frequent occurrence in this country. One of these, known as "damping off," characterized by the 
sudden decay of seedlings at the surface of the ground, is common in nurseries, and attacks young 
plants of different kinds, the White Pine among them. 

The disease is most prevalent in plants growing in a damp soil in a warm, moist atmosphere. 
As observed in the Ann Arbor (Michigan) greenhouses for several years in various plants propa- 
gated from slips, the disease appears a few days after the slips are set, giving the lower part of 
the stem a wet, unhealthy arppearance, which extends to the lower leaves, particularly where these 
touch the sand in which they are growing. Upon taking up the specimens, the parts affected are 
found to be in the early stages of decay, and penetrated throughout, even in the interior of the 
epidermal appendages, by the branching filaments of a fungus. The fungus appears to live in the 
sand in which the plants are propagated, and to run in it from one to another, resulting often in 
the rapid destruction of the plants in the bed. 

"Damping off'" is due to the action of several different parasitic organisms, of which the 
pottiug-bed fungus, Pythium de baryanum Hesse, is one of the most common, though a number of 
other species have been shown to be capable of producing the disease. The relief measures 
recommended by those who have studied the disease are the use of fresh soil free from decaying 



54 THK WHITE PINE. 

matter, as much sunlight as the plants will en'dure without wilting, a fairly low temperature, and 
an abundant supply of fresh air. Mr. J. Dawson, of the Arnold Arboretum, suggests watering 
the young plants from below, so as to avoid wilting the leaves, as a means of prevention. Other 
suggestions will be found in recent literature of the subject, practically in the reports of various 
agricultural experiment stations. 1 

A disease which attacks the trunk of the tree, at various ages, is very prevalent in pine 
forests, and occasions the condition known among lumbermen as "punky pine." A diseased tree 
can frequently be recognized by its having one or more knots with a rough, irregular contour, at 
a considerable height above the ground, commonly conspicuous by a considerable outflow of resin. 
These seem to result from the breaking off of branches, followed by gradual decay at the place 
where they have separated from the tree, in such a way as to admit water into the trunk, the 
opening being afterwards partially covered by subsequent growth of the tree while decay is going 
ou inside. 

Upon examining the wood of such a tree, it is seen to be discolored and in various stages of 
decay, the diseased condition extending inward from the knot hole, and both upward and 
downward from it in the trunk. By inspecting logs cut from such trees, it will be noticed that 
the decayed portion may have filled up the center, making a rotten heart; or it may follow the 
rings of growth for some distance, midway from the center to the periphery; or it may be still 
nearer to the surface, its position and extent being very variable and following no recognizable 
rule. The parts diseased are utterly worthless, though boards containing a greater or less amount 
of wood thus affected are common in the market. Microscopic examination shows that the wood 
is penetrated by the filaments of a fungus, and that the elements of which the wood is made up 
have been greatly altered, and to a considerable extent decomposed by its action. 

Continued observation in the pine woods of Michigan, in different years, does not so far justify 
the reference of this disease to any single species of the various fungi found growing upon the 
trunks and logs of decaying pine trees. But whatever the species, one or several, concerned in 
producing or hastening the condition described, the general facts, as stated above, appear to be 
that the disease finds its way where the separation and decay of a branch presents a favorable 
place for the entrance of water and the spores of fungi, and that it spreads so extensively in the 
trunk as to entirely ruin large and valuable trees. 

In our natural forests there is, of course, neither remedy nor prevention, but in artificial culti- 
vation careful and seasonable pruning would doubtless be the most effectual preventive, since, if 
properly performed, the wounds left by the removal of branches would soon be grown over and 
there would be no further danger from this source. 

KXPLAXATIOX OK PLATE XII. 

1. Agaricus melleus, cluster of youug sporopliores.' 

2. Agaricus melleus, larger sporopkore with root-like organ of attachment. 

3. Root of spruce tree invaded by mycelium of Agaricus melleus; rhizomorph of same fungnn ou the right. 
4-6. Fragments of pine wood showing the destructive action of Agaricut melleus. 

7. Stump of White Pine attacked by Polyporus annosus ; the heart is still sound, but is surrounded by decayed 

wood and spots filled with masses of resin. 
S. Wood of Norway Spruce in early stages of decay occasioned by action of Polyporus annosus; the white areas 

have become delignified, and the wood elements composing them are soft and easily separable. 
9. Wood elements of Norway Spruce isolated and showing the mycelium of the Polyporus annosus. 
10. Fruiting hyphiu and spores of Polyporus annosus. 

KXPLAXATION OK PLATE XIII. 

1. Stump of Norway Spruce, with a sporophore of 1'olyporits annosus several years old; the inner portions of the 

stump wholly decayed. 

2. Roots of a diseased spruce tree, with numerous small sporophores of Polyporus annosus attached. 

5. Stump and part of root system of a young pine tree killed by the action of Polyporns annosus, the sporophoros of 

which have grown entirely around the base of the trunk. 

4. Mature sporophore of Polyporim annosus seen from below, showing the porous spore-bearing surface. 
.5. Mature sporophore of Polyporus annosux from above, showing the velvety upper surface and concentric bands. 

6. Mature sporopbore of 1'olijporun aiinosiit in section. 

T. Mode of infection; where the smaller diseased root crosses the larger one, the mycelium of the Polyporus annosus 
has penetrated the latter and spread in both directions for some distance. 

1 Cf. Atkinson, Cornell Univ., Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 94, 1895. 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry. U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



PLATE XII. 




DISEASE OF WHITE PINE: AGARICUS MELLEUS. 



- s 



Bulletin No. 22, Div. of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



PLATE XIII. 




DISEASE OF WHITE PINE: POLYPORUS ANNOSUS. 



r 



INSECT ENEMIES. 55 

INSECT ENEMIES OF THE WHITE PINE, 
By F. H. CHITTENDEN, Division of Entomology. 
INTRODUCTION. 

Of all coniferous plants, perhaps none are more subject to insect attack than the White Pine. 
Upward of a hundred species are reported to affect this tree, and a careful compilation of all 
known species would probably add many more to this list. The more important are found in the 
order Coleoptera, and of these the cylindrical bark-beetles of the family Scolytidaj hold the highest 
rank. Most of the Scolytidse live within the cambium of dead or dying trees, but a few penetrate 
the solid wood, and several forms, when excessively abundant, do not hesitate to attack healthy 
growth. Numerous other Coleoptera belonging to the families CerarnbycidiB and Buprestidae 
similarly infest the White Pine, but are for the most part secondary in the nature of their attack, 
and will therefore require only passing mention. One species, however, the white-pine weevil 
(Pissodes strobi Peck), is a pest of_the_jaQSi_pejuiciaus. type: In addition to the bark-boring and 
wood-boring insects, several species infest the roots, some only the branches j?r "twigs, some 'the 
cones, and others injure growing trees by defoliation.^ The leaf-feeding species comprise the larvaj 
of several sawtties, the caterpillars of numerous moths, and a number of beetles. Various species 
of plant-lice and scale insects also occur upon the leaves, and often the limbs and trunks of trees 
are injured by them. 

Most of our injurious forest insects are native to this country, in which respect they diifer 
markedly from those which affect field and garden crops. Only such species as experience has 
shown to be more or less injurious either to living trees or to cut timber will be considered in 
this paper. Some few forms that have not been recorded on White Pine are mentioned, as it is 
more than probable that they are capable of injury to this tree. The majority, however, have 
been observed on White Pine. 

In the preparation of the present paper the writer has drawn freely from the published works 
of Packard, Fitch, and Hopkins, as well as from personal experience in pine forests, particularly 
of New York. 

THE DESTRUCTIVE PINE BARK-BEETLE. 

The last decade witnessed very extensive destruction of pine and spruce forests in portions of 
the United States east of the Rocky Mountain^s^-Tlie principal injury, which dates from about the 
year 1888, has been attributed to the so-called destructive pine 
bark-beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), one of a genus of six 
described species, all of wide distribution and all destructive to 
the Couifene. It is quite possible that some predisposing 
agency had first caused a weakened condition of the trees in the 
infested districts, but it is fairly certain that this species of beetle 
was responsible for much injury. The infested area observed 
comprised the pine and spruce forests from Maryland in the 
North to and including North Carolina in the Sooth, an area Fia . s ._ DendnctonutfrontaKs: a , dor8alvi ew 
estimated at upward of 10,000 square miles in extent. In same of beetle; &. lateral view-euiarged about six 

. . , , times [ c. antenna greatly enlarged (author's 

sections entire forests were killed. illustration). 

The accompanying illustration of this species (fig. 5) will 

enable its recognition. ^It ranges from reddish to dark brown in color, and measures about one- 
eighth of an inch in length, being the smallest species of its genus. Its credited distribution 
includes Lake Superior to Georgia, and it is recorded also from Arizona and California. The 
adult beetle appears some time in May_, the date depending upon season and locality, bores into 
living trees and its larvas develop binder the green, sappy barb^Copious quantities of turpentine 
exude from the holes made by the beetles and dry in masses upon the bark. The manner of work 
of the larv;e in great numbers beneath the bark produces about the same effect as that of girdling, 
thus cutting off the flow of sap, the natural supply of plant food and moisture, greatly weaken- 
ing and eventually killing the trees. The first outward manifestation of injury is the accumu- 
lated masses of pitch, followed by the leaves turning yellow and then red, as though scorched 
by fire. 




;,i; THE WHITE I'INE. 

A singular feature in connection with the irruption of this species is that it was practically 
unknown save in the collections of specialists until its sudden appearance in 1888, but still more 
remarkable is its unaccountable, but almost entire, disappearance in 1893, not, however, before it 
had done a great amount of damage, which has been estimated at upward of a million dollars. 
The apparent extermination of this bark-beetle in the district where it was most destructive is 
believed to have been due to a fungoid disease. 



REMEDIES. 

After boring insects of this class once gain access to a tree it is practically impossible to eject 
them, and to save the tree recourse must be had to preventive measures. For this purpose 
various protective washes are in use. One of these consists of lime, to which has been added a 
sufficient quantity of Paris green to give it a slight green color and enough glue to cause it to be 
adhesive. Another wash consists of soft soap reduced to the consistency of a thick paint by the 
addition of washing soda in water. A thick wash of soap, plaster of Paris, and Paris green is 
also of value. A carbolated wash, which is in successful use against the peach-tree borer, is pre- 
pared by mixing a pint of crude carbolic acid with a gallon of soft soap in eight gallons of soft 

water. Fish or train oil is valuable as a deterrent, but should 
not be used except with the greatest caution upon young 
trees. Whatever wash is employed should be applied to the 
trees on the first appearance of the beetles in May, and should 
be renewed if found necessary. 

Better than any other measure, however, is the observ- 
ance of clean cultural methods. Owners of pine forests or 
groves will do well to cut down all dead and trim all injured 
trees. For the protection of pines, dead spruces and other 
coniferous trees, and such as are infested and too much weak- 
ened to recuperate, should be cut down and destroyed by 
burning. A great deal of good can be accomplished merely 
by removing the bark of dead timber. The progeny of the 
insects that have deposited their eggs in one season so 
loosen the bark that it is an easy matter to remove and burn 
it before the following spring. By pursuing this method mil- 

Fio. 6. Tnmicut cacoyraphut : beetle, showing dor- .-,, , 

sal view at left, in profile t rights-enlarged lions of the insects will be destroyed before they have an 
about fc-n times; antenna above, highly mag- opportunity to issue and lay their eggs for the destruction of 

ni tit-. 1 (original). 111 *_ i ..... 

other valuable trees. A practice known as "rossing' is in 

use on borer-infested lumber in Canada. It consists in cutting a strip of bark along the full 
length of the upper side of a log, which causes the bark to dry up and eventually drop away. 




OTHER INJURIOUS BARK-BEETLES. 

Of the other species of Dendroctonus, one has recently been reported as ravaging the spruce 
forests of New Hampshire. It is the species at present known as D. rufipennis Kby., and 
although not known to affect White Pine, it is not impossible that it might attack this tree in case 
it extends its present depredations. The species of Dendroctouus are peculiarly periodical in 
their attacks. There is, however, one exception, J). terebrans Ol., which is usually common at all 
times over a very wide area of the United States and Canada, infesting all the pines. According 
to information received in May, 1898, this or a related species is now ravaging' the pine forests of 
a portion of southern New Jersey. 

The genus Tomicus contains perhaps quite as dangerous forms as those which have just been 
mentioned. The appearance of the beetles is somewhat similar, as is also their method of life. A 
species that has been associated with the mortality of pines in the region about and south of the 
District of Columbia is '/'. i-uctii/ruphus'Lec., or southern pine bark-beetle, which is illustrated much 
enlarged at fig. G. It is reddish in color and may be readily separated from any of the preceding 



TIMBER-BEETLES AND PINE SAWYERS. 



57 



species by the structure of its antennae and by tbe toothed apex of the elytra or wing-covers. Its 
mine is shown as it appears on the uuder side of the bark of a tree at fig. 7. 

Tomicus pini Say, the northern pine bark-beetle, is destructive to pine forests in the North in 
a very similar manner to the preceding species, which it much resembles in structure as in habit, 
but is less injurious farther South. T. calligraphus Germ., a 
similar species to the two preceding and about equally destruc 
tive, abounds in the pine woods of both the North and South, 
and T. ccelatus Ziuim. and T. avulsus Eich. also infest White Pine. 

Among other well-known white-pine bark-beetles may be 
mentioned Crypturgus pusillus Gyll., Hylurgops glabratus Zett., 
and several species of Hylastes and Dryoccetes. 

The remedies to be employed against these insects are prac- 
tically the same as for the destructive pine bark-beetle. 

TIMBER-BEETLES AND OTHER SCOLYTID2E. 

While the majority of the pine-infesting Scolytidae breed 

between the bark and the wood, a considerable number, called 

timber-beetles, live entirely within the sapwood ; others, 

the twig-beetles in the small twigs and branches, and a third 

group, represented by Pityophthorus coniperda Sz., inhabits the 

cones. 

The chief danger from the bark-beetles, as has been shown, 

is from their attacks on living trees. They do comparatively 

little damage to timber, except as they loosen the bark and thus 

afford ready access to water and mold and to other destructive 

insects. The timber-beetles, or . ambrosia beetles, as they are 

sometimes called, live almost exclusively in greenwood, pre- 
ferring that which is slightly injured, of impaired vitality, or 

such as has been newly felled, but they often attack and kill 

healthy growth, and in the process of their work in timber cause 

a staining or "bluing" which- entails a still greater loss than 

results from their direct attack to living trees^j/The presence of 

these beetles in a tree is manifested by the little piles of white Flo 7 ._ GaUeries ot Tomicus eacographul 

sawdust which they eject from the " pin-hole" entrance to their on wood under bark of pine (original). 

galleries^/The pine timber-beetles are found in the genera Gnathotrichus, Xyloterus, Xylebo- 

rus, and Platypus. Gnathotrichus materiarius Fitch is the commonest of three species of the 
genus, all of which attack pine. This species is shown greatly enlarged 
at fig. 8, and its characteristic galleries in the wood of pine are well illus- 
trat d at fig. 9. 

The same remedies advised against bark-beetles will prove valuable 
against the timber beetles. Kerosene emulsion or a carbolated wash would 
accomplish the destruction of the timber-beetles even after they have 
attained entrance to a tree, provided the application be made in time. 

The twig beetles are represented by the genera Pityophthorus and 
Hypothenemus. Of the former genus, P. sparsus Lee., cariniceps Lee., pullus 
Lee., lautus JZich.,plagiatu8 Lee., are all well-known pine species. The genus 
Hypothenemns inhabits alike deciduous and coniferous trees. 

Remedies are the same as for bark-beetles. Pruning and burning 
infested twigs and branches and the clearing away and burning of brush 
_ heaps during winter are indicated. For choice ornamental trees in private 

grounds and in parks plugging the "pin holes" with wire and stimulating the trees with manures 

and fertilizers to assist them to recuperate from attack are advisable. 

PINE SAWYERS AND OTHER BORERS. 

Of all the insects that occur in pine timber the Cerambycid, or long-horned beetles, of the 
genus Monohamrnus, are the best known, and are credited with being the most destructive. If 





FIG. 8. (rnathotricltug ma. 
Uriariut: beetle, enlarged ; 
antenna, still more en- 
larged at left (Marx del.). 



58 



THE WHITE PINE. 



we except the losses occasioned by the more or less sporadic attacks of certain species of the 
Scolytida* already mentioned, probably this opinion is about correct. Five of these species have 
been dcscrihfcl. all pine feeders and beetles of the largest size, with elongate cylindrical bodies 
and extremely long antenme, those of the male being two or three times as long as the remainder 
of the insect. The pine sawyers are most troublesome in the mill yard, and their large white larvre 
often do much damage to logs by eating great holes through their solid interior. While burrowing 
in the wood the larva- make a peculiar grating sound that may be heard on quiet nights at a consid- 
erable distance. This is a familiar sound in the lumber camps of the North, and has probably 




Fin. 9 Gallery of Onathotnehus materiarius in pine (adapted from a drawing by A. D. Hopkins). 

given rise to the name of pine sawyers, by which these insects are known. Monoltammus con- 
fitsor Kby. is a large gray species destructive in the lumbering districts of the Northern United 
States and Canada ; M. titillator Fab., a mottled brown beetle, replaces the above species in the 
South, and M. mticulosus Hald. occurs in the "West; M. scutellatus Say. is widely distributed and 
abundant from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and M. marmorator Kby. is a rather rare northern 
form. 

Among other borers belonging to the same family as the sawyers, the majority of which infest 
White Pine, may be mentioned Criocephalns agrestis Kby., C. obsoletus Baud., Asemum nicest ion 
Hald., Orthosoma brunneum Forst., Prionus pocularis Dalm., Hylotrupes bajiiliis Linn., CalUilium 
antennatum Newm., Khagium lineatum Ol., GrapMsuruspusillus Kby., Acantkocinus 
obsoletus Ol., A. nodosus Fab., and Neoclytus muricatulus Kby. 

In the Coleopterous family Buprestidae are many borers which infest pine. 
These include five species of Chalcophora, one of which, C. virginiensis Dru., is 
figured (fig. 10) ; Dicerca punctulata Sch., D. tenebrosa Kby., Buprestis striata 
Fab., Melanophila fulvoguttata Harr., M. longipcs Say., Ghrysobothris dentipes 
Germ., C.floricola Gory, and C. scabripennis Lap. and Gory. These beetles are 
graceful in form, hard of texture, and many are brilliantly metallic. Their larvae 
are slender, white grubs with very large, round flat heads. Some of this family 
attack living trees and do injury to the sapwopd and to felled timber in the same manner as the 
sawyers, but the majority of them prefer devitalized material, and their attacks are usually 
secondary to some more injurious species. 

THE 'WHITE-PINE "WEEVIL. 

In the White Pine forests of the Northern States, particularly in those of a second growth, 
one's attention is often drawn to the great number of deformed trees. They sometimes occur 
singly, but more often in groups. The insect that is responsible for this damage is the white-pine 
weevil (7V. </<* strain Peck). This beetle is a member of the family Curculionidre, and is about a 
fourth of an inch in length, of oval form, red and brown in color, with its elytra marked with white 




Tto. 10. Chalcnphorn 
virffimcn.tii natural 
size (Marx deli. 



MOTH CATERPILLARS AND PLANT-LICE. 



59 




Fio. II. Piitodei ttrobi: beetle at left; a, 
larva; 6, pupa enlarged about three 
times (from Packard). 



spots, as shown in the accompanying illustration (fig. 11). It is provided with a rather long 

rostrum or suout to which are attached its elbowed antennre. The larva, which is white aud foot- 

less, is illustrated at a, and the pupa, also white, is figured at 6. 

This weevil is one of the first spring visitants in the North, occurring as early as March abont 

Washington City and in April or May farther north. Its eggs are deposited on the terminal shoots 

of pine, particularly of young trees, but sometimes also in the bark of old trees. The larva, when 

hatched, bores into the pith or mines the sapwood. Toward the 

end of summer it attains full growth, when it goes into hiberna- 

tion until the next spring, transforming to pupa and soon after- 

ward to the mature or beetle form. The presence of this insect in 

a tree is first manifested by the wilting of the leading shoots, which 

becomes most evident toward the close of summer. The identity 

of the species at work may be established at once from its peculiar 

cells beneath the bark. (See fig. 12.) These cells, which are 

destined for its winter nest and for further transformation, are 

sunk into the pith and covered over with long fibers of chipped 

wood. When a terminal shoot of a small tree becomes filled in the summer with these larvaj, to 

the number sometimes of a score or more, the shoot, with its lateral branches, as well as the stock 

below, wilt and gradually die, the bark becomes loosened, pitch oozes out, and by autumn the 

shoot turns black, and the bark is covered with masses of pitch. A tree thus damaged will fail 

sometimes for several successive seasons to send out a new terminal shoot, with the result that 

the lateral shoots continue to grow, and the tree becomes more or less 
distorted. 

Owners and overseers of pine groves will do well to make a practice 
of examining the young trees each year, say in August, and when one 
with a wilting terminal shoot is found to cut or break it off and commit 
it to the flames. With every blighted twig thus treated from a dozen to 
fifty or more weevils will be destroyed, and thus the numbers of the 
insects for the coming year will be greatly lessened. All dead growth 
or 6uc h trees as have from any cause been injured beyond recovery 
and which might serve as centers of infestation by harboring this weevil 
or other injurious species should be similarly treated. What is most 
needed is a preventive, and for this purpose a good thick fish-oil soap 
mixed with Paris green and carbolic acid, in the proportion of about a 
pound of the former and a quart of the latter to 100 gallons of the wash, 
is recommended. It should be sprayed in April and May on the terminal 
shoots of the trees and repeated at the end of a month if necessary. 

MOTH CATERPILLARS AND PLANT-LICE ON TRUNKS AND LIMBS. 

The trunks and limbs of pine are also subject to the attack of sev- 
eral insects besides those in the order Coleoptera that have been men- 
tioned. Of these are three tortricid moths of the genus Eetinia, which 
affect the pitch and other pines. Two other moths of similar habits to 
the above occur on White Pine, wounding the trunk below the insertion 
of the branches and .causing the resinous sap to exude. These are 
the pitch-drop worm (Pinipestis gimmermanni Grote) and Harmonia, 



\(t 



FK;. 12. Pistoda ttroli : a, larval 
mines under bark; b, pupal pint Kell. 
cells natural size (from Riley). 



. 

The same remedies advised for other boring species, and particularly 

those specified to be used against the white-pine weevil, are indicated for the present class of 
insects. 

Several species of plant-lice affect the White Pine. The white-pine aphis (Lachnus strobi 
Fitch) is very abundant in the Northern States, living in colonies on the branches of trees aud 
puncturing and extracting their juices. The so-called "pine blight," Chermes pinicorticit Fitch, is 
sometimes very destructive, its presence being manifested by large patches of a white, flocculent 



\ 



60 



THE WHITE I'INE. 



secretion, beneath which covering are concealed myriads of minute lice. Schizoneura pinicola 
Thos., feeds on the tender shoots of young White Piiie. 

Kerosene emulsion applied as a spray is the appropriate remedy for these plant-lice. 

LEAF -FEEDING INSECTS. 

The most destructive insects of the foliage of pine are several species of sawflies of the genera 
Lophyrus and Lyda, one of which is represented iu its several stages at fig. 13. It is called 




FIG. 13. Lophyrut abbotii : 1 female, enlarged ; 2, 3, 
pupa, enlarged; 4, 4, lame, natural size; 5, cocoon, 
natural size; 6, male antenna, 7, female antenna, enlarged 
(from Elley). 




Flo. 14 Tubes of pine leaves made by pine tube-builder natural size 
(from Packard). 



Abbot's white-pine sawfly (Lophyrus abbotii Leach.), and is perhaps the most injurious foliage 
feeder which infests the pine woods of the North. 

The caterpillar of a single species of butterfly, Thecla niphon Hbn., is known to feed upon the 
foliage of White Pine, but among the larvae of moths of different families are innumerable piue- 




Kic;. 15,ChioTMipii pm\foli<r: 2, ncales on White Pine, leaves stunted ; 2a, same leaves not stunted by insects ; 26, 2c. female scale ; 2d, male 
scale 2 and 2o natural size, 26 and 2c much enlarged (from Comstock Ann., Kept. Dept. Agr., 1880). 

feeding species. Prominent among them is the magnificent sulphur-yellow imperial moth (Eacles 
imperialist l)ru.), whose larva attacks the leaves of various forest trees. Of other moths whose 
caterpillars devour the foliage of White Pine may be mentioned : Harris's pine hawk moth (Ellemti 
harrisii Clem.), E. coniferarum S. and A., E. pinoim Lint., Tolype laricis Fitch, the white-pine 
tufted caterpillar (Platycemra furcilla Pack.), the redhead inchworm (Semiot J .isa bisignata Walk.), 



FOREST MANAGEMENT. 61 

the sulphur leaf-roller moth (Dichelia sulphureana Clem.), Teras ferrttgana S. V., and Amorbia 
hnmerosanaC\em. An interesting species is the pine tube-builder (Lophoderns politana Haw.), 
which, in its larval stage, lives within a tube formed by webbing together a number of pine needles 
as shown in fig. 14. 

A number of species of adult Coleoptera, whose larval habits are imperfectly understood, sub- 
sist upon the leaves of White Pine. Of these are the Scarabceid, Dichelonycha albicollis Burm., 
and the Chrysomelid, Glyptoscelis pubesccns Fab. 

The best remedy for the sawfly larvae, caterpillars, and beetles is a spray of Paris green, 
applied upon tbe first appearance of these insects on the trees. 

The consideration of the insect enemies of the White Pine may conclude with the mention of 
the pine-leaf scale insect (Chionaspis pinifoliie Fitch), which forms its scales upon the leaves, 
exhausting them of their juices and causing them to turn yellow. This species is illustrated at 
fig. 15. 

A strong spray of kerosene emulsion will be found an efficient remedy against these scale 
insects. >/^ 

FOREST MANAGEMENT. 

As regards forest management, we have, unfortunately, in this country no experiences which 
would permit us to form very positive opinions based on actual observation regarding this species 
or any other. The study of the natural history of the species in its native occurrence permits us, 
nevertheless, to draw conclusions which may at least serve as a basis for its future sylvicultural 
treatment. 

In the first place, it may be declared that the White Pine is the most important and promising 
species upon which to expend attention in our coming forestry operations within the limits of its 
natural occurrence. Its adaptation to a variety of soils and situations within these limits, its rapid 
growth, its excellent form, its remarkable mass development per acre, its shade endurance, its 
all-round useful wood product, and its propagation, both by natural and artificial reproduction, 
give it a position among our timber trees hardly approached by any other. 

There are certain general principles which are the result of experience in forest management 
in Europe arid elsewhere^applying to this as to most species. The first is, that mixed growth is in 
every respect superior to pure growth; it will therefore be proper policy to grow White Pine pref- 
erably, if not altogether, in mixture with other species. This advice is given in spite of the fact 
that the White Pine grows rather well in pure stand, and that, owing to its shady crown during a 
long period of its life and the density of stand in which it can develop, and the large quantity of 
foliage which it sheds, the soil conditions are not in danger of deteriorating, as would be the case 
with more light-needing species. But, as has been observed in its natural occurrence, its develop- 
ment is more favorable in compa'niouship, and especially is this tlie case with regard to the 
cleaning of the bole of its branches, which are peculiarly persistent. W r hether it would pay to 
substitute an artificial cleaning by pruning the young growths is still doubtful; meanwhile the 
self-pruning performed by mixture with shady companions will have to be encouraged, especially 
as thereby other valuable advantages are secured which attach to the mixed forest in general. 

Unfortunately, our irrational exploitation has reduced the White Pine in the natural forest areas 
often to such an extent that its reestablishment is possible only by artificial means. Wherever 
the culling has not been too severe, and either young growth has developed or seedling trees have 
been left, the natural reproduction should be encouraged by favoring the young growth and by 
removing or thinning out other species which interfere with the starting of a young growth. 
Fortunately, the White Pine, owing to its shade endurance, is specially fitted for natural repro- 
duction from the seed of mother trees, more so than most other pines, and the rapidity of its 
growth, in which it excels most other shade-enduring species, is also favorable in this respect. 

We are not yet prepared to determine the most profitable rotation in which the species is to 
be managed under varying conditions. The fact that it is not only a very rapid but one of the 
most persistent growers, trees making wood at the rate of 1| to 2 cubic feet per year up to the 
one hundred and fortieth year, permits a wide range of choice for -rotations, and since its wood, 
being rapidly changed into heartwood, becomes serviceable very early, the rotations may be either 
low or high, varying from fifty to one hundred and fifty years, according to local economic and 
soil conditions. 




62 THE WHITE PINE. 

NATURAL REPRODUCTION. 

The White Pine reproduces itself readily in the virgin forest on all sandy and loamy sand 
soils where the hardwoods do not interfere. On these areas thickets of young growth, sapling 
timber, and dense groves of mature trees are scattered without regularity, and there is no indica- 
tion that this pine forest has undergone material change for centuries. In the hardwood districts 
of the heavier soils of the Lake region, where the pine is met with chiefly as old, overripe timber, 
the reproduction of the pine seems, temporarily at least, to be interfered with by the associated 
growth. Large, old trees occur, thinly scattered or in clusters, but sapling timber and young 
growth is often entirely wanting over considerable areas. Similar conditions prevail, or have pre- 
vailed, in the mountains of Pennsylvania, and also in New England and in the Adirondacks. 
Where the pine is cut and some seed trees are left the ground soon covers itself with young growth. 
This, contrary to the common notion, is true even where fire has run over the slashings and the 
ground for a time is stocked with Poplar and other brush. Such groves or thickets of young pine 
occur in all parts of the pinery of the Lake region, and in the aggregate cover several hundred 
thousand acres. Generally, however, the fire returns from time to time, the young seedlings, as 
well as the mother trees, are finally all destroyed, and thus the reproduction is completely pre- 
vented. On such lauds, impoverished by fire and exposure to sun and wind, not even the Poplar 
returns. In the hardwood, Spruce, and Hemlock regions the cutting of the pine in the usual 
manner simply assists its competitors, and its reproduction is seriously hampered and frequently 
prevented altogether. Where these clay and loam lands are completely cleared and then aban- 
doned, as has been the case with thousands of acres of New England forests, the White Pine is 
one of the first to return if any seed trees exist in the vicinity. Hundreds of groves have sprung 
up in New England in this way. 

NOTES ON NATURAL REPRODUCTION. 

A case of the kind above referred to was observed in 188G in York County, Me., and the 
following notes on the subject will, no doubt, prove of interest: 

In company with Mr. John E. Hobbs, who is thoroughly familiar with the history of the various pieces of 
forestexainined, a visit was made to a number of places on which White Pine was growing, others on which young 
pine seedlings were coming in, and still others in the immediate vicinity where none were to be seen, although the 
general conditions of soil and situation were practically identical. The soil, much of it, was light and sandy, with 
a growth of Comptonia, Pteris, Gaultheria, and other plants common on pine land. 

A large number of trees had a crop of cones, the last year before this visit in which there was a good crop 
having been 1879, according to Mr. Hobbs. Going first to an open field that was formerly covered with pine trees, 
it was found to be very thickly covered with young seedlings, from a few inches to 2 feet or more in height, 
that had sprung up in such abundance that a bare spot was hardly to be seen over the whole tract. This piece was 
cut over in the winter of 1879-80, the ground was not burned over, and there being a good crop of seeds, these 
had grown promptly and a young forest was rapidly coming on to take the place of the one removed. 

On going to other pieces in the vicinity, from which the pine had been cut at different times since 1879, a most 
striking contrast was observed. On these pieces that seemed otherwise just like the first, and with the conditions 
just as favorable for a second growth, only a very few pine seedlings were to be seen. These few may have come 
from seeds carried by wind from the neighboring forests, but evidently the ground had not been seeded as the first 
piece had, and it was impossible not to draw the conclusion that the difference was dne simply to the fact that the 
first piece was fully seeded, while the others were not. Repeated observations of similar pieces of laud led further 
to the conclusion that no dependence can be placed upon the springing up of seeds that have lain dormant in the 
ground for a term of years; or, in other words, although the seeds of the White Pine retain their vitality for a long 
time if kept in a dry place, there is a lack of evidence to show that this is the case in the natural forest, where they 
are alternately dry and wet. 

Other interesting conditions of growth were noticed in the same region. In the vicinity of standing pine 
forests, particularly on their leeward side, seedlings of different ages were coming up, often very thickly, but upon 
entering the forest, .after the first 2 or 3 rods, no more of these were to be seen, their growth having evidently been . 
prevented by the dense shade of the standing trees. In hardwoods, ou the other hand, where the surroundings were 
a little more favorable, some young pines were growing here and there. 

All observations reenforced the truth that there is no mysterious succession of forest growth, involving necessary 
alternations, and that the White Pine does actually grow and flourish for au indefinite number of generations on 
the same laud, if only the necessary seeding has been insured. 

In such regions as have just been described reforesting with the White Pine is a comparatively simple matter. 
Where nothing more is done than to take advantage of natural conditions by felling the trees in seed years, or by 
leaving seed trees here and there, an abundant crop of yonug pines may often be secured. As a matter of fact, large 



ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION. 63 

tracts in Maine and Massachusetts are coming up in this way to second-growth pine, and as the profit arising from 
the protection of these youu^; forests is better understood, there is no reasou to donbt that the whole matter will in 
a great measure regulate itself. 

In the Adirondack region and in the pine belt of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota the case is far different. 
Under the present system forest fires are an almost necessary result of all lumbering operations. To start with, all 
trees that are large enough are cut, and if by chance here and there one has escaped that might produce a crop 
of seeds, it perishes in the tires that soon sweep over the ground, leaving hardly a living thing behind them, and 
burning the seeds that under other conditions might have sprung up to form a second growth of pine. On all 
such burned tracts pine seedlings are rarely found in any number, and yet here and there they are seen growing 
where the fire had left a seed tree by the side of a stream or a piece of unburued ground, thus giving the seed a 
chance to grows 

After making a careful study of the pine lands of Michigan for several years the conclusion seems plain that 
here, exactly as in New Englaud, everything practically depends upon reseeding. Here in the Northwest the seed 
trees have been destroyed, the seeds in the ground have been burned, and, as an inevitable consequence, the land 
remains a wilderness and must remain so until some means are found of restoring the forests by artificial sowing or 
planting. There is nothing in the soil itself that prevents reforesting the pine lands of Michigan at once. It is 
because seeds are, to a great extent, wanting, and the seedlings that do start are not protected, that these pine lands 
are left in their desolate and unproductive couditiou. 1 

The experience with White Piue in Europe fully confirms the correctness of the observations 
above recited. White Piue abroad reproduces well, seeds abundantly, and is so particularly well 
suited to natural reproduction that the most experienced and competent recent writers claim that 
this tree fairly " demands 1 ' this form of regeneration. 

ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION. 

Concerning the artificial reproduction by seeding or planting, the experience, both in this 
country and Europe, is quite extensive. Not only has this species been planted frequently and 
for a long time in New England and in other parts of its natural range, even for forest purposes, 
but thrifty groves have been established also in the Western prairies beyond the limits of natural 
distribution. In Germany larger or smaller plantations were made in many localities near the 
beginning of the century. 

The planting in this country has, however, not usually proceeded with a knowledge of proper 
forestry practice. As a rule, plants have been set out too old, and hence the planting has proved 
expensive; usually, also, it has been too wide spaced to secure the most desirable result in form 
development. Another point also usually neglected is the admixture of other species to stimulate 
the growth of the pines and possibly to reduce the expense of covering the ground. 

In Europe the majority of pine plantations made with Scotch Pine (Plnus silvestris) is made 
with one-year-old seedlings, which is done very cheaply and expeditiously, often on unprepared 
ground, when one man may set 1,000 to 1,500 plants in a day. 

For White Pine, especially under our conditions, where the young plants have much to contend 
with in the way of climatic ills, weed growth, etc., this method is probably not applicable. 

Two-year and even three-year old plants, grown in seed beds and once transplanted in nursery 
rows, to produce a stocky root system and growth, will probably be more successful, being better 
prepared to overcome adversities. 

The seedlings, grown from seed sown either broadcast or in drills in the seedibeds, must be 
shaded during the first two years, as is usual with conifers in this country. After the second year 
they will endure the hottest sun. The shade must be graduated according to the weather, as the 
seedlings are liable to damp off the first season if too much shaded and to burn off if not shaded 
enough. 

As there are about 1,800 seeds to the ounce, it will take about 5 to G ounces to the 100 feet of 
drill, unless the seed be specially poor, when greater allowance will have to be made in proportion 

1 We are likely to repeat in the Northwest, on an extensive scale, the history of several of the Eastern States. 
Under inducements held out to encourage immigration, many settlers have been led to take up land all through the 
worst part of Michigan and Wisconsin, including the "barrens." They clear the land, seed it, if they can, with 
clover, and put in other crops, work in the adjacent pine woods for a living, and "develop the country," thus doing 
for the State exactly what needs to be done and what the State has neglected to do for itself; but it is a disastrous 
experiment for the settlers. The many farms kept up in this way for a while may finally be abandoned, but the 
whole region will then be in a great measure secured against extensive fires, and the lands that have been plowed 
and worked over will be in a better condition for reforesting. 



64 THE WHITE PIXK. 

to the percentage of germination. In ordinary collecting the percentage of germinating seeds 
may not exceed 75 per cent, and, as is indicated in the discussion ou seed supply (page 23), it may 
fall far below this figure in some years. Even if -!0,000 to 25,000 seeds should germinate per 
pound, it would not be safe to count on more than 5,000 to 8,000 seedlings that will grow to use, 
and in the transplanting to nursery rows an allowance of at least 5 to 10 per cent should be made 
for losses, so that to secure 10,000 transplants at least 1 pounds of seed is needed, to secure 
which it may take from 3 to 4 bushels of cones. 

Close planting is indicated on account of the difficulty with which this pine cleans itself of its 
branches. It should be planted not more than 4 feet apart or, preferably, set out in mixture with 
a shady, slower growing companion, the Black Spruce (Plcea nigra) being an ideal choice within 
its habitat, and of broad-leafed trees the Sugar Maple (Acer saccharinum), which, for the sake of 
economy, may be sown between the wider spaced (8 feet or more) plants of White Pine. The 
mixture should not stop here, but other kinds chosen with circumspection from the many that are 
found associated with the White Pine in its natural habitat should be added, as Chestnut, Yellow, 
and Red Birch, Basswood, Hickories, and Oaks, and of conifers, the Ked Pine, Hemlock, and 
occasionally in some localities Arborvitic. 

Dr. Fernow has for some time (since 1887) advocated a method of forest planting in which the 
main or "final harvest crop" is distinguished from the mere "nurse crop" or "filler," when only 
500 or 600 trees per acre, or even less, of the better kinds are set out with care as the main crop, 
receiving due attention in their further development, and the nurse crop is introduced of the 
cheapest kinds and in the cheapest manner to act as soil cover to check weed growth and stimu- 
late height growth, straight form, and cleaning of the main crop. The White Pine would, of 
course, be a most excellent main crop. 

By the fiftieth year or so the pines, if set out at the rate of 500, will have overtopped the 
nurse crop, except where trees of the latter have taken the place of a failing pine, and their 
crowns will have closed up, their boles straight and clean, furnishing clear lumber, if the nurse 
crop was properly chosen and has done its duty. The further management then would concern 
itself mostly with gradual thinning out of the main crop to secure the diameter accretion due to 
increased crown development and light. By the one hundredth year it will be reasonable 
to expect at least half the trees set out to have reached their highest value in maturity and size, 
with 15,000 to 20,000 cubic feet to the acre, for the White Pine is not only a rapid grower, but a 
large producer, its shade endurance permitting as large a number of trees to develop satisfactorily 
per acre as the Spruce, which it outgrows in height and diameter. 

While planting nursery-grown seedlings as a rule furnishes better results, sowing the seeds 
into permanent sites may, under certain conditions, especially on soils not too prone to weed growth 
and in the more humid climate of the Northeastern States, prove satisfactory and cheaper. 

Various methods can be employed according to circumstances. On light soils sowing broad- 
cast on snow may furnish satisfactory results; ou heavier soils preparation of the ground to receive 
the seed will prove indispensable. This may be done by plowing furrows or by hoeing plats of 2 
or 3 feet square (the larger size where overgrowing by brushwood is to be feared) and sowing into 
these in drills or broadcast. Dr. Fernow devised such a method for reclothing cut-over lands on 
slopes in Pennsylvania grown up with brush, where it would be too expensive to prepare the entire 
ground. Here the plats were made larger, 4 or even feet square, and into these not only pines were 
either planted or sown but also a nurse crop surrounding the pines, expectation being that this 
nurse crop will protect the pines against the encroachment of the surrounding brush growth until 
the pines are tall enough to fight their own battle and finally kill out the brush. A fuller descrip- 
tion of these plantings is to be found in Bulletin 17, "Check list of the forest trees of the United 
States," etc., of the Division of Forestry. 

PLANTING NOTES. 

The following notes on planted groves, their condition, growth, and results are given a place 
here as recording individual experiences in various parts of the country, without intending to 
recommend the practices of the planters, which, from the forester's point of view, are faulty in some 
directions, especially in the open stand, which is advocated : 

In Eastern Massachusetts, particularly in Plymouth and Bristol counties, there are numerous small bodies of 
White Pine that wcro set out from forty to lil'ty years ago, and whose rapid growth and healthy conditions show that 



PLANTING NOTES. 65 

there the work of planting at least has been successful. The trees composing them averaged at thirty to thirty-five 
years from the time of planting, not far from 45 feet in height, and measured approximately 2 feet 6 inches in circum- 
ference, breast high. These measurements vary for different bodies of pine, but are believed to represent very closely 
the average size at the age indicated, and in many cases the trees are considerably larger (see measurements of 
growth on page 88). This growth of pine is of such value that according to competent judges of property in that 
region, much of the land that without the pine would be worth only $3 to $10 per acre, is worth with the standing 
pine $50 to $75 or more per acre according to location. 

Upon visiting these different groves and conversing with men who had planted some of them, it was found 
that opinions and practice were quite variable, both as to time and manner of planting. Mr. S. E. Hall, of Rayn- 
ham, who has had long experience, states that he has set the White Pine successfully every month in the year. 
The young trees, t to G inches, or even a foot high, are taken up with a piece of sod on their roots and set out in a 
wet time. These two conditions were particularly emphasized by Mr. Hall, who says that if they are observed the 
trees "will grow anywhere." He plants 10 feet apart each way and recommends this as the best distance, which 
is, however, not good forestry practice. In a grove set by him forty years ago the trees were set in rows at the 
above distance and had made a vigorous and healthy growth. In another grove, planted about the same time, 
the trees stood 8 feet apart each way and were apparently doing quite as well as in the first one. On the other 
hand, Mr. Spencer Leonard, of Bridgewater, after many years of practical trial and observation, states that having 
formerly set out pine trees 10 feet apart, he is now setting them at a distance of 15 feet, with a view to reduce the 
expense of planting and because they soon became crowded if planted closer. He, too, sets out the trees with a 
Bod, simply plowing a furrow and setting the seedlings at the right distance. Mr. Hall digs a hole for each tree, 
but says that the work can be done very rapidly, aud that he has himself set an acre a day. 

One of the many plantations in southeastern Massachusetts known as "Leb. Pratt's grove," is within less 
than a mile of the village of North Middleboro. It was set out forty-two years ago. The trees were set in rows 
10 feet apart each way. The grove twelve years ago even was practically impenetrable by reason of the dead 
interlocking branches that had never been removed. 

Four trees of average size were measured in 1886 and showed diameters of 7 to 9 inches. Some were of larger 
and others of smaller size, though the growth was fairly even. The average height wae estimated at 40 feet; the 
branches were dead three-quarters of the way to the top, the remaining one-fourth, say 10 feet, constituting the 
crown, was green and healthy. The soil was poor, that passed over from the road in reaching the grove being light 
sand with some gravel. 

Another grove, some 3 miles northward of North Middleboro, was visited in 1886, and a greater number of 
measurements made. According to Mr. S'. Hay ward, near whose farm it stands, this grove was set out rather more 
than thirty, not more than thirty-five, years ago, but had not made quite as good a growth as some others have. 
The trees are in rows, 7 to 8 feet apart each way, and are quite uniform in size. Beginning with the third from 
the north side, a fair average row, the following measurements were made of the trees taken in order as they stood. 
The circumference, breast high, was : 



Ft. Ins. 

No.l 2 10 

No.2 2 6$ 

No. 3 2 9 

No.4 2 44 

No.5 2 6 

No.6 2 1 



Ft. Ins. 

No.7 2 6 

No.8 2 11 

No..9 2 10 

No.lOa j 1 5 

10 10 

No. 11.. ..20 



a Two main stems and bad lost a third. 

The largest tree measured in the grovo was 3 feet 1 inch in circumference or 1 foot in diameter, breast high. 
A very few have been choked out aud have died after living fifteen or twenty years. An average tree on the south 
side measured 45 feet in height. All the trees of the grove that were still living seemed healthy and vigorous. The 
lower branches had died at an earlier age than in the preceding grove and the trunks were free from them for some 
8 feet or more. Above this line the dead branches still remained on the trees, only those of the crowns being green 

and living. 

Near Bridgewater, Mass., a piece of land had been sown with pine seeds some thirty-five years before, the seeds 
being sown broadcast and dragged in. The trees were slender and too much crowded, the smallest ones dying out. 
Thev seemed much in need of proper thinning. Some of the best specimens measured 2 feet 7 inches in circumfer- 
ence breast high, but they were very uneven in size, and did not impress one nearly as favorably as those in the 
groves that ha<f been regularly planted at a distance of 8 or 10 feet apart. 

This second growth pine finds a ready market at the box factories of Bridgewater, Halifax, Taunton, and 
various other towns in this part of the State. Six dollars per cord is the price paid at present (1886 ; now $8 to $9) 
for logs delivered at the factory. Logs are accepted down to 8 inches in diameter, and in establishments where 
staves are made a smaller size is taken. There is no trouble in obtaining all that is wanted, there being an 
abundant supply of pine for box boards, staves, and the like in the immediate vicinity of the towns where they are 
manufactured. 

A few notes on plantations made on the Western border and outside of the natural range of 
the White Pine will show the adaptability of the species in those regions: 

There is an instructive plat of White Pines in the forest plantation of the State University of Illinois. This 
institution is located at Champaign, about 200 miles south of Chicago and much beyond the natural range of the 
20J33 No. 22 5 



66 THE WHITE PINE. 

pine. The history of the plat, as given in Bulletin No. 26 of the University Agricultural Experiment Station, is aa 
follows : 

\\ lull- Pine seedlings were collected in the spring of 18G9, put in close nursery rows and shaded with lath 
frames. About 8 per cent died the first year. Of a few hundred trees, purposely left without shading, 32 per cent 
died. Aftt-r having grown iu the nursery three years, they were deemed in good condition for transplanting. They 
were at this time 12 to 15 inches high, well-formed, healthy trees. 

The land, 1 acre, where the White Pines are planted, is quite flat, what slope there is being to the south ; and 
at least one-half of it is too wet in spring, and often in the early part of summer, for the best results in tiling" . 
The soil is black, part of it mucky, 1 to 2 feet in depth, and underlaid, for the most part, with a rather stilt', blue 
clay. The trees were planted May 4, 1872, 4 feet apart each way. The White Pine is a comparatively hard tree to 
transplant successfully ( f ). The roots are soft, long and naked, with very few small or fibrous roots near the tree. 
Knowing the necessity of careful handling, no effort was spared, from digging iu the nursery to setting in permanent 
place, to secure successful results. 

Throughout the season the ground was kept in a good state of tillage 1 y frequent cultivation, but it was 
exceedingly dry; and of nearly three thousand trees planted, two-thirds died during the summer. Of Norway 
Spruce, planted the same day, in the same manner, and on very similar soil, not more than 2 per cent died. It is 
difficult to explain this greater per cent of loss in the pines, except as we take into account the comparative method 
of development of tho roots of the two species [and its high transpiration factor. B E. F.]. 

In the spring of 1873 the vacant spaces were filled from the nursery, and again in 1874 trees were set where 
needed. The result of the three plantings was an almost perfect stand of trees. The cultivation with horse and 
hoe was kept up thoroughly for three years. During the fourth, fifth, and sixth years the weeds were mowed. But 
little cultivating was done, because the ground was too wet in the early part of the season. 

For a number of years after the White Pines were fairly started they made admirable growth, and promised to 
furnish very valuable timber for the prairie soil here, as well as for their native regions. In a report made in 1886 
the following statement is made : " From the first the living trees have done exceedingly well. Very few trees have 
died from any cause since they began their growth in their present position. They are now remarkably healthy and 
vigorous, and the plantation Vies with that of the European Larch iu beauty and prospective value." At present 
they are not maintaining the early promise. 

No thinning or pruning of any kind was done, except what nature does, until the winter of 1889-90. During 
that winter and the next the dead branches, to an average height of about 10 feet, were trimmed off, and the dead 
trees (some more than three hundred and fifty) were cut out. During the winter of 1891-92 sixty-eight more dead 
trees were cut out, and there are at present fifty-two still standing that have died since the last were cut. The trees 
cut out the first time had not all died recently. Some of them gave evidence of having been dead for a number of 
years, while others had died so lately that they still carried dead leaves. Most of the trees that have died were the 
smaller ones, such as were overgrown or badly crowded. A few only of the larger trees have died. Of the trees 
still alive, very few have any live branches lower than 20 feet. Many of them have an unthrifty look, either in the 
top or on the trunk, and the prospect is that there will be a very considerable number of trees to cut out year by 
year for some time. 

The principal reason for so many trees dying is probably overcrowding [more likely owing to the stiff subsoil. 
B. E. F.] . As the trees now stand they occupy a space of less than 7 feet square each. The trees have been damaged 
in other ways than crowding, but not, so far as can be judged, until after they had already begun to die. There is 
continually a thick mat of leaves on the ground, and these have been partially burned off twice, both times injuring 
the trees more or less from the ground up 2 or 3 feet, but apparently not any higher. Boys seem to delight to cut 
their names or designs in the smooth bark of the trees. Occasionally a tree is entirely girdled. The girdling soon 
kills the trees, but most of the smaller damage to bark soon grows over. A woolly plant louse (Churnus pinicurtidn 
Fitch) has been very abundant on many of the trees, attacking the trunks and larger branches for several years. 
They are sometimes so abundant that the whole trunk has from a little distance a white or grayish-white appearance. 

The White Pines do not cast so dense a shade now as they did ten years ago. At that time there was no 
undergrowth among them. At present there are small wooded plants, such as Grape, Raspberry, Cherry, Box Elder, 
etc., besides weeds, coming in, and there would likely he more of these were it not for the heavy mulch of leaves 
that covers the ground. 

In 1886 the average size of the better trees was: Height, 24 feet 9 inches, and a little less than 6 inches in 
diameter. At present, 1895, the better trees are 38 to 40 feet high, and 8 to 9 inches in diameter. During the winter 
of 1882-83 the leaders of a considerable proportion of the trees were broken down by the weight of sleet. This 
was the cause of many trees being crooked at that point, and of others having rnoro than one leader. Except for the 
trees deformed in this way nearly all have almost perfectly straight trunks. The trees are much more nearly uniform 
in height than in diameter. The sizes of the trees in the plat are as follows: Fifty-eight are 3 inches in diameter; 
one hundred and ninety-four, 4 inches; two hundred and fifty-six, 5 inches; two hundred and thirty-six, 6 inches; 
one hundred and forty-four, 7 inches; seventy, 8 inches; eleven, 9 inches; five, 10 inches. 

In the autumn of 1895 the thirty-nine trees constituting the central row of the plantation were measured, and 
the average diameter, breast high, was 5.9 inches, the range being from 4.1 inches to 8.6 inches. 

At the old Elgin nurseries, planted in open prairie about 1J miles west of the Fox River, black loam soil, from 
4 to 5 feet to gravel, White Pines, forty to forty-five years old, with Norway Spruce and Scotch Pine as neighbors, 
measure 22 inches iu diameter, breast high, and are 52 feet high. In a neighboring grove, twenty-five years from 
seed, planted exclusively to White Pine, the trees average 11 inches in diameter and 45 feet high. When planted 
alternately with European Larch 5 to 6 feet apart, the White Pines, thirty-five to thirty-six years old, are perfectly 
straight and average 13 inches in diameter and 75 feet in height. The European Larch proves to be the best tree to 
plant with White Pine as a nurse. When planted with Box Elder and Ash the growth Of the pines is not so satis- 
factory. Where Scotch Pine has been planted alternately with White Pine the latter has outgrown the Scotch, 
nearly all of which are killed out. In the groves where Larch is planted with White Piue the ground is completely 
mulched from the foliage of the Larch ; drought has never affected the trees, and no grass or weeds can grow 
among them. 

Mr. Thomas Hunt, of Hidott, 111., set out White Pine in a plantation of 10 acres twenty-two years ago. The 
trees were 10 to 18 inches high when set, making their age at time of measurement about tweuty-seveu years. 

The grove is planted on a ridge with thin clay loam underlaid with broken laminated limestone. Mr. Hunt found 
the land unprofitable under tillage after several years' trial. The trees of each variety are planted iu solid rows, 
hardwoods and conifers alternating. In a plat of White aud Scotch Pine, Norway Spruce, Arborvita>, European 
Larch, White Elm, Box Elder, Green Ash, and Willow, the conifers have almost shaded out the hardwoods. The 



AS A FOREST TREE IN GERMANY. 67 

Larch are the tallest and the ArborvitiE the lowest, the remaining conifers heing of about equal height, averaging 
35 feet. Seventy White Pines were measured, taking all the trees as they came in the rows, and including the center 
of the plantation. The average diameter, breast high, was 6.2 inches. The branches were dead, but still persistent 
to a height of 18 to 20 feet. 

At the Bryant nurseries, Princeton, 111., somewhat south of the natural limit of the White Pine, trees that were 
grown as ornamental nursery stock have been permitted to stand, giving some notion of the growth of the species 
in the rich prairie loam of that region. The oldest specimens were set in 1858 and were imported seedlings. They 
are now about forty-two years of age, and average about 65 feet in height. Measured trees range from 9 inches to 
26 inches in diameter. Norway Spruce of the same planting equal the pines in height, but the average diameter is 
less. These trees stand about 30 feet apart. On the margin of a natural hardwood grove an acre of the richest 
prairie land wa* planted to White and Scotch Pine seedlings about twenty-two years ago. The trees were set 3 by 
4 feet, and have never been thinned. Each species was planted pure, and one of the tallest White Pines measured 
33 feet high, the average height being estimated at 26 feet. Fifty White Pines, taken as they came in the rows, were 
measured, breast high, the average diameter being 4J iuches. Scotch Pine showed about equal growth. 

At the Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa, in the center county of the State, a piece of waste land of about 
3 acres was planted to White Pine, European Larch, Box Elder, Green Ash, and Cottonwood in 1875. The plat 
occupies a gravelly knoll sloping to the north. The soil is a yellow clay, with much gravel, and of unknown depth. 
The top of the knoll forming the south side of the plantation is set with pure Larch. The Pine, Box Elder, and Ash 
are mixed, evidently without order. The original planting was 3i by 31 feet apart, and the trees now average 
about 10 feet apart each way. The White Pines are estimated to average 30 feet high, and twenty -six measured 
trees, taken as they came, ranged from 5 to 14 inches in diameter, the average being 8.7 inches. The pines are now 
the dominant trees of the mixture and are fully 10 feet higher than the Box Elder, which exceed the Ash 5 feet. The 
following diameter measurements will serve as an additional basis of comparison : 

Inches. 

White Pine, as above (26 trees) 8.7 

Box Elder, as above (23 trees) 4.7 

Green Ash, as above (21 trees) 3.6 

European Larch (planted pure on crest, 26 trees) 6 

Cottonwood (same plat, base of knoll, 14 trees) 10.5 

It should be added that the Cottouwoods stand wider apart than the mixture of Pine, Box Elder, and Ash, 
while the Larch stand closer together. All were set originally 31 by 3J feet, and the alternate rows have been 
removed throughout the plantation. 

At Windom, Minn., in the southwest part of the State, Mr. E. Sevatson has included two rows of White Pine 
in a plantation covering 10 acres. These trees were set about thirteen years ago, when 8 to 12 inches high, and 
are presumably not over eighteen years old. The two rows of pine are between rows of Arborvitte and Balsam Fir. 
They are about 25 feet in height, and the average diameter, breast high, of seventeen trees, taken as they came in the 
rows, was 5 inches. The soil is a stiff clay loam, and the plantation is about 100 feet above the surface of a lake 
which joins the farm. The entire country is treeless, except for groups of trees on the lake shore and groves along 
the Des Moines River, 3 miles distant. The White Pine in this location is less vigorous than Scotch Pine, European 
Larch, or Norway Spruce. 

Fine trees of White Pine, set in single specimens about thirty years ago, are growing at Arbor Lodge, Nebraska 
City, Nebr., the home of Hon. J. Sterling Morton, ex-Secretary of Agriculture. These stand in bluff soil (a fine loam) 
about 2 miles west of the Missouri River. A few fine specimens may also be seen in the lawn at the homestead of 
Hon. A. H. Whiting, at Whiting, Monona County, Iowa, in the deep black loam of the Missouri bottoms. At Brookings, 
8. Dak., within 17 miles of the Minnesota line, repeated plantings of the White Pine have resulted in failure. At 
Franklin, Nebr., about halfway across the State, near the Kansas line, this species has failed after extended trial. 
Very few trees can be seen in Lincoln, Nebr., though it has been repeatedly tested there as an ornamental tree. The 
diminished amount of atmospheric moisture will necessarily prevent general satisfactory cultivation beyond the 
western boundary of Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota. 

A number of fine specimens of White Pine stand in the lawn of the Rollins homestead at Columbia, Mo., about 
10 miles north of the Missouri River and halfway between the east and west boundaries of the State. The soil is a 
clay loam, underlaid with limestone, which outcrops at many places in the vicinity. These trees were planted in 
1855, when two or three years old, by Col. J. H. Rollins. The largest is now (1897) 29 inches in diameter, breast high, 
apd 64 feet 9 inches in height. One of the smallest is about 56 feet high and 16 inches in diameter. 

Additional notes of plantations in the West might be given, but the above is sufficient to show the White Pine 
can be successfully grown somewhat beyond its natural range, but does not well endure the dry conditions of soil 
and atmosphere which it must meet in the region west of the Missouri River. 

THE "WHITE PINE AS A FOREST TREE IN GERMANY. 

As has been stated, the White Pine was introduced quite early into England, and from there 
it found its way into various parts of the Continent. In England it remained largely a park tree. 
In Germany it has been a forest tree proper for over a century, being used quite frequently, on 
account of its hardiness and shade endurance, as " gap cover" to fill fail places. It has also been 
planted in many places on small areas as pure growth or mixture with the common European or 
Scotch Pine (Pinm silvestris) and Spruce. For a long time this " newcomer" was regarded with a 



68 



THE WHITE PINE. 



feeling of doubt and even suspicion, and long before anything definite could possibly be said about 
the matter the merits and faults of the White Pine were extensively discussed. The " practical" 
man, and with him some scientific men, were satisfied that such a light colored softwood could not 
possibly be durable or otherwise desirable, and the small quantities offered from time to time did 
not always find ready market. Of late years this condition has changed. In a series of excel- 
lent articles, Dr. L. Wappes, a Bavarian forester, records the experience had in one of the oldest 
bodies of White Pine in Germany, in which he shows that the tree in pure growth, and also as 
mixture with piue, spruce, or hardwoods, has proven a most excellent factor of the German forest; 
that it seeds early and heavily, and as plant material is easily and cheaply secured ; that it is readily 
and even preferably reproduced by natural seeding, a rapid grower, capable to withstand crowd- 
ing and shading, and that it is a tree especially capable of producing a large amount of timber 
even on poor soils, all of which coincides with the observations on its native habitat laid down in 
this monograph. He shows that besides the Fir (Balsam), the White Pine is the only tree which, in 
the Palatinate and on poor soils will, at the age of one hundred and ten years, make timber of Class I 
(according to German notation, diameter at half length, 22 inches and better); that while the com- 
mon pine at that age furnishes only 13 per cent of Class III and better (diameter 12 inches and 
over), the White Pine furnishes 27 per cent, or more than double this amount of these and more 
valuable diameter classes. Dr. Wappes emphatically states that White Pine, wherever known, is 
eagerly bought, and that the opinion of the consumers has radically changed. He proves by the 
figures of large sales from the State forests, that since 1882 the value of White Pine has nearly 
doubled, while that of Spruce and common Scotch Pine has increased by only 20 per cent, and that 
of Fir and Larch has actually declined during this period. The following figures give an idea of 
the growth of White Pine abroad. The groves of the Palatinate are stocked on very inferior soil, 
nearly all other groves cited being on loamy sand. The figures for total volume .are somewhat 
misleading, since they do not include the timber which has been removed from the older groves in 
thinnings, which would add probably from 10 to 15 per cent to make up whole production. 

It will be of interest to give more in detail the conditions of the last-mentioned plantation, 
reported this year in Dr. Lorey's Allgemeine Forst und Jagdzeituug : 

The plantation of about 9 acres, on fresh loamy sand, situated at an elevation of 2,200 feet 
above sea level in Wurtemberg, consists of White Pine mixed with Scotch Pine, Spruce, and Fir 
in single individuals or groups. The White Pine represents, numerically, two-thirds of the total 
number, Scotch Pine is found among the dominant growth in part, but the Spruce and the small 
number of Firs show only codomiuant and oppressed trees. 

The density of the growth was reported as satisfactory until in 1875, when a snowstorm broke 
down much material, so that at present the density does not average over 0.7. 

The stand, originating from seed, was several times thinned, and the last time, occasioned by 
the snowstorm, 400 White Pines were removed, with over 10,000 cubic feet of wood. The number 
of trees averaged 183 per acre, of which 142 White Pines, with diameters varying from 7 to 24 
inches, and 16 inches in the average, yielded altogether 9,510 cubic feet, while the other species 
added only 1,290 cubic feet. Comparison with the other acre yields recorded shows that under 
these conditions the product was less than in more favored situations, either the site or light 
conditions reducing the growth. 

The diameters represented on a sample area were distributed as follows : 

10 to 12 12 to 14 14 to 16 16 to 18 18 to 20 20 to 22 22 to 24 
20 . 24 30 33 23 . 4 1 

Of the Scotch Pines only four had reached diameters over 1C inches, and of the Spruces none 
over 14 inches. The superiority of the White Pine also appears from the comparison of height 
growth, which was established for every five years by the measurement of average sample trees, 
as follows : 

Height growth of White Pine, Scotch Pine, and Spruce, by years. 



Diameters inches.. 8 to 10 

Number of trees 7 



Sample trees. 


Age (years) and height growth (in feet). 


1 


10 


IS 


SO 


26 


80 


35 


40 


46 


60 


66 


60 


66 


70 


75 


SO 


86 


00 


White Pine height growth 
Scotch Pine height growth 
Spruce height growth 


2.1 
4 
2 


9 

12 
8 


18 
20 
18 


29 
29 
24 


38 
35 
35 


45 
42 
42 


52 
49 

48 


59 
54 
54 


65 
60 
59 


71 
65 
63 


76 
69 
68 


81 
73 
72 


85 

77 
75 


89 
80 
78 


92 
82 
80 


95 

84 
82 


97 
87 
84 


100 
88 
86 





AS A FOREST TREE IN GERMANY. 



69 



The preceding table shows how the slow growth of the first five years which the White Pine 
has in common with the Norway Spruce is overcome before the fifteenth year, aud by the twen- 
tieth year the White Pine has distanced the Scotch Pine, gaining on it constantly until, by the 
ninetieth year, it has outgrown it 12 per cent. 

Dimensions and yields of White Pine in German forests. 



reality. . 


Character of forest. 


Age. 


Number 
of trees 
per acre. 


Average 
diameter 
(without 
bark). 


Height. 


Volume of 
wood, ex- 
clusive of 
limbs and 
stumps. 


Palatinate I 




Tears. 

104 


250 


Inches. 
15 6 


Feet. 
92 


Cubic feet. 

13 300 


Palatinate II 


do 


68 


660 


9 1 


66 


10 000 


Palatinate III 




68 


550 


10 4 


79 


12 000 


Palatinate IV 


"White Pine and Scotch Pine 


58 


330 


10 3 


64 


6 000 


Palatinate V 


do 


46 


GOO 


7 4 


49 


4 000 


Palatinate VI 


do 


25 


2 200 


4 


34 


3 200 


Prussia ((irafinrode) 


White Pine mixed with Scotch Pine 


(75 to 80) 


452 


(6 to 9 8) 


(72 to 87) 


13 224 


Do 


and Spruce. 


(75 to 80) 


410 


(8 to 18) 


(80 to 87) 


13 000 


Prussia (Rogelwitz) 




95 


333 


15 


88 


14 298 


Frankfort on the Main 


...do ... 


82 


723 


9.7 


72 


12, 024 


Thuringia 


. do 


78 


415 


11 7 


(79 to 89) 


13 027 






93 


183 


16 


98 


10 800 




Spruce, and Fir. 













From these figures the capacity of the White Pine to produce large amounts of valuable stem- 
wood is apparent. Thus, on soil on which the 100-year-old trees developed only a height of 92 
feet, over 13,000 cubic feet of stemwood, corresponding to about 60,000 to 70,000 feet B. M., 
American scale, were cut per acre over and above about 1,200 cubic feet of material removed in 
previous thinnings. In every case the White Pine excels the common pine, and even the Spruce 
in this respect. It should be added that most of these plantations, made in the early part of this 
century, were not executed according to present superior methods, the species being an exotic and 
expensive was set out more in orchard fashion, as most planters in our country have been apt 
to do, at distances of 8, 12, aud more feet apart. Owing to this fact the development was prob- 
ably not as satisfactory in the earlier years as it might have been had the method of close planting, 
either pure or in mixture, prevailed. 

The superiority of growth over the German Spruce and Pine is more fully illustrated in the 
following table, which shows the distribution aud proportion of trees of White Pine and Spruce 
and of White Pine and Scotch Pine that are found in given diameter classes in two mixed planted 
growths of these species : 

Jlistributioit and proportion of White Pine and Spruce and White Pine and Scotch Pine. 



White Pine and Norway Spruce, 
Hlxty-eight years old. 
[85 percent Pine; 35 per cent 
Spruce.] 


White Pine and Scotch Pine, fifty- 
eight years ohl. 
[50 per cent of each.] 


Diameter 
of trees. 


White 
Pine. 


Norway 
Spruce. 


Diameter 
of trees. 


White 
Pine. 


Scotch 
Pine. 


Inches. 
4 to 6 
6 to 8 
8 to 10 
10 to 12 
12 to 14 
14 to 16 
18 to 18 


Per cent. 

. 15 
30 
22 
20.5 
10.5 
1.5 


Per cent. 
9.5 
30 
27 
26 
6.8 


Inohen. 
4 to 6 
6 to 8 
8 to 10 
10 to 12 
12 to 14 
14 to 16 
16 to 18 
18 to 20 


Per cent. 
1 
19.5 
18.7 
26 
23.5 
8 
2.4 
1 


Per cent. 
2.4 
32 
35 
24 
4.9 
1.6 











It appears that nearly 32 per cent of the White Pine is over 12 inches in diameter, as against 
less than 7 per cent of the Spruce, while 35 per cent of White Pine, as against 6.5 per cent of 
Scotch Pine, developed over 12 inches in the mixture of these two, and over 11 per cent of the 
former belongs to sizes above 14 inches, which is hardly reached at. that age by its competitor. 
These figures prove clearly that the White Pine excels the Scotch Pine even during the age of 



70 THE WHITE PINE. 

most rapid growth, so that the difference, in view of the steady growth of White Pine and the 
marked decrease in rate of growth in the Scotch Pine, would be markedly greater if older timber 
had been compared. 

Just as in its native range, the White Pine is decidedly a heart pine, the sapwood changing 
early into the durable and more valuable heartwood. In timber one hundred years old grown in 
the Palatinate the sap in many cases is less than 1 inch thic.k, so that 75 per cent and more of 
the entire stem is composed of heartwood. 

In view of these facts it is quite safe to say that the White Pine in the future will be one 
of the prominent forest trees of Germany, and perhaps of Europe, as it will always be the king of 
woods in our Northern and Eastern States. 






THE WOOD OF THE WHITE PINE. 



71 



THE WOOD OF THE WHITE PINE. 

By FILIBERT ROTH, Division of Forestry. 



White Pine is a favorite material with the wood consumer in the Northeastern States on 
account of the combination of qualities it possesses. It is a light, soft, uniform, straight-grained 
timber, to be had iu all markets in any quantity and in all dimensions, from the ship's mast to the 
clapboard. It seasons well, shrinks and warps but little, is quite durable, insect-proof, and takes 
oil and paint and has a good color, is light to handle, easy to saw and plane, takes nails without 
splitting, and is, in short, the ideal material for the carpenter and joiner, who handles the bulk 
of the 30 to 40 billion feet of sawed timber and lumber annually used in this country, of which 
White Pine furnishes over 30 per cent. 

CHARACTER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD. 

The structure of White Pine, like that of other pines, is simple. Ninety per cent and more 
of the weight of the dry wood is formed by the common wood fibers, or tracheids, 0.12 to 0.20 
inches long, well suited for pulp material./The spring wood of each annual ring passes gradually 
into the summer wood and thus the sharply defined bands of hard, dark and soft, light-colored 
material so conspicuous in the rings of all hard pine, especially Longleaf and Cuban Pine, are 
absent in White Pine, making the cutting of the wood by either plane or saw much easier 
than is the case with hard pin esyoap wood and heartwood are quite distinct the former white, 
the latter with a slightly brownish cast-^The change from sapwood to heartwood takes place earlier 
in the young tree and the younger portions of old trees than in older timber. Thus, in a thrifty 
sapling thirty years old the sapwood shows about eighteen rings on the stump, but only ten rings 
35 feet from the ground. In trees over one hundred years old the number of rings in the sapwood 
is generally over thirty at the stump, decreasing often to fifteen or twenty near the top. The 
number of rings in the sap, as in other pines, is smaller in thrifty and greater in slow-growing 
trees, while the width of the sapwood is generally least in slow-growing timber. Compared to 
other pines, White Pine has a narrow sap at all periods of its growth. While in the hard pines, 
like the Longleaf Pine, and still more in Loblolly and Shortleaf Pines, the sap forms generally 
from 50 to 75 per cent of the log, it is generally less than 35 per cent of mill-sized timber in White 
Pine. This highly valuable property of the White Pine is found in all localities, even in Europe, 
where the tree has been widely planted. 

SPECIFIC WEIGHT. 

To determine specific the weight of the wood and other physical properties a collection of 
seventy-three trees was made, including material from the New England States, Michigan, and 
Wisconsin, and also from the mountains of North Carolina. 

The specific weight of the greenwood varies chiefly with the amount of sapwood and conse- 
quent abundance of moisture, since the heartwood contains but little water outside of its cell 
walls (except in some cases where the heartwood near the stump also contains liquid water). 
Generally the weight of the greenwood varies from about 40 to 50 pounds per cubic foot, and is 
greater in young poles than in old timber, which latter on this account floats readily, rarely sink- 
ing, even after years of immersion. 

The specific weight of the kiln-dry wood varies, generally from 0.33 to 0.40 (20 to 25 pounds 
per cubic foot), is greater in the old tree than iu the young sapling, is greater at the stump than 

73 



74 



THE WHITK PINE. 



farther up in the same stem, is independent of orientation (as great on the north side as on the 
south side), is no greater on clay land than on the sandy soils, and seems in these particulars 
quite independent of locality. The wood from the swamp trees is no heavier nor lighter than the 
wood from the upland trees, the trees from New England differing apparently in no way from those 
of either the Lake region or North Carolina. 

leaving out of consideration the specific weight of the limbs and knots (these being always 
heavy, as in all pines), the average specific weight of the dry wood of the stem was found to be for 



gravity. 
Five trees 200 to 250 years old ........................................................... 0.386 

Five trees 125 to 160 years old ........................................................... ;388 

Five trees 100 to 125 years old ............................................................ 383 

Ten trees 75 to 99 years old ............................................................... 378 

Ten trees 50 to 74 years old ............................................................... 366 

Nineteen trees 40 to 49 years old ......................................................... 353 

Nineteen trees 30 to 39 years old ......................................................... 351 

From the above, and still more from the table following, in which the trees are grouped 
according to age, it will be seen that White Pine displays a uniformity of specific weight, and other 
properties dependent on weight, such as is entirely unknown in any other pine of the Eastern 
United States. 

Average weight (kiln dry and green), moisture content, and shrinkage per cent of White Pine. 
I. TREES 200 TO 250 YEARS OLD. 



Locality. 


Original 
number of 
trees. 


Approxi- 
mate age 
of trees. 


Diameter 
breast high 
without 
bark. 


Width of 
rings. 


Specific gravity X 100. 


Moisture as 
per cent 
of the ' 
weight of 
dry wood. 


Shrinkage 
in volume. 


Kiln dry. 


Green. 




5 
18 
3 
1 
2 
3 


yean. 
225 
250 
205 
209 
202 
202 


Inchel. 
23.0 
22.0 
19.0 
27.0 
19.4 
20.5 


HIM. 
1.1 

.8 
1.3 
1.6 
1.0 
1.2 


38.1 
38.5 
36.0 
39.0 
38.5 
39.2 


69 
62 
64 
66 
66 
67 


Per cent. 
93 
73 
95 
85 
100 
81 


Per cent. 
7.6 
8.6 
8.5 
8.1 
8.0 
7.9 








I)o r^. 


Do 












38.6 


65 


88 


8.1 












II. TREES 125 TO 160 YEARS OLD. 




1 
2 
3 
4 

458 


146 
140 
141 
140 
158 


19.0 
22.0 
12.0 
15.0 
33.0 


1.5 
1.9 
1.0 
1.2 
2.1 


42.0 
36.4 
38.4 
40.5 
37.1 


74 
72 
65 
72 
72 


92 
113 
92 
87 
110 


9.0 
8.7 
8.1 
9.8 
7.7 


Do 


Do .... 


Do 


Linville, N. C 












38.8 


71 


95 


8.9 












III. TREES 100 TO 122 YEARS OLD. 


Grayling Mich 


1 
2 

4 
i 
7 
8 
9 
10 


110 
122 
114 
105 
115 
108 
112 
111 


17.5 
17.7 
9.5 
7.5 
7.8 
7.8 
7.8 
5.0 


2.2 
1.8 
1.1 
.9 
1.1 
1.2 
1.3 
.8 


36.0 
35.0 
39.8 
38.3 
46.8 
38.9 
38.0 
36.7 


64 
64 
79 
76 
100 
78 
85 
71 


96 
99 
120 
121 
138 
122 
147 
109 


8.2 
9.0 
9.8 
8.5 
10.5 
8.8 
8.8 
8.5 


Do . . ... 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do... 


Do 


Do 












38.3 


74 


119 


8.9 












IV.-TREES 75 TO 100 YEARS OLD. 




6 
12 
13 
14 
15 
6 
5 
6 
7 
9 


75 
84 
90 
81 
95 
93 
83 
94 
84 
78 


4.0 
14.0 
12.0 
15.0 
10.0 
7.0 
7.0 
6.3 
10.4 
10.2 


0.8 
2.0 
2.1 
2.7 
1.4 
1.6 
1.5 
1.0 
2.4 
1.8 


36.3 
39.4 
37.0 
36.0 
40.4 
40.1 
36.3 
37.0 
37.1 
38.5 


68 
76 
85 
73 
72 
90 
76 
74 
78 
78 


111 
110 
148 
121 
88 
149 
132 
115 
128 
119 


8.4 

9.0 
9.8 
9.0 
9.4 
8.7 
9.8 
8.0 
9.8 
8.7 


Marathon County. Wig 


Do ". 


Do 


Do 


Gravhng Mich 




Do 


Do... 


Do 










37.8 


76 


112 


9.0 













SPECIFIC WEIGHT OP WOOD. 75 

Average weight (kiln dry and green), moisture content, imil shrinkage per cent of White I'ine Continued. 

V. TEEES 50 TO 74 TEARS OLD. 






Locality. 


Original 
number of 
trees. 


Approxi- 
mate age 
of trees. 


Diameter 
breast high 
without 
bark. 


Width of 

rings. 


Specific gravity X 100. 


Moisture as 
per cent 
of the 
weight of 
dry wood. 


Shrinkage 
in volume. 


Kiln dry. 


Green. 


Lincoln County, "Wis... 


8 
11 
8 
4 
10 
1 
4 
16 
17 
18 


Tears. 
60 
50 
52 
65 
73 
67 
50 
52 
54 
65 
60 


Inchel. 
4.5 
2.0 
5.5 
8.0 
7.0 
4.2 
13.0 
11.0 
14.0 
10.0 
10.0 


mm. 
1.3 
. 7 
1.7 
2.9 
1.5 
1.2 
4.0 
2.8 
3.6 
2.4 
2.3 


34.3 
39.3 
33.8 
38.7 
39.0 
35.7 
35.3 
38.5 
39.0 
36.5 
35.5 


80 
70 
86 
78 
64 
72 
68 
73 
69 
67 


Per cent. 
148 


Per cent. 
8.5 
8.5 
8.6 
9.0 
10.1 
8.0 
8.6 
8.6 
8.4 
7.3 
7.5 


Do...*.... 


Vn. ...... 






122 
84 
121 
112 
106 
93 
103 


Do 


Do 




Do 






Do 


Average 














36.8 


74 


115 


8.0 












VI TREES 40 TO 49 TEARS OLD. 




9 
10 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
2 
3 
5 
6 
10 
11 
12 
25 
. 26 
27 
32 
33 


48 
47 
40 
40 
40 
42 
44 
46 
45 
49 
47 
48 
49 
46 
46 
45 
45 
41 
40 


2.3 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 
2.0 
2.8 
4.0 
8. 5 
9.2 
13.7 
9.5 
12.5 
ID. 3 
10.2 
10.0 
12.8 
9.1 
10.3 
8.6 


0.6 
2.0 
2.2 
2.3 
1.1 
1.0 
1.4 
2.6 
3.0 
3.9 
2.8 
3.6 
3.1 
2.9 
2.7 
3.8 
2.6 
3.4 
3.1 


43.3 
31.3 
33.5 
34.5 
33.7 
35.0 
33.8 
36.2 
36.2 
35.0 
38.0 
34.5 
39.0 
37.2 
35.0 
35.5 
37.7 
33.0 
31.7 


81 
86 
85 
81 
71 
67 
82 
58 
65 
61 
64 
65 
67 
70 
66 
67 
75 
61 
64 


102 
162 
173 
149 
124 
105 
158 
76 
95 
93 
81 
108 
89 
104 
103 
106 
118 
98 
122 


8.5 
8.9 
9.0 
8.6 
8.3 
8.4 
7.9 
8.4 
8.5 
8.4 
8.1 
9.3 
9.3 
7.0 
8.1 
8.6 
9.4 
7.9 
8.4 


Do 


Marathon County AVis 


Do 


Do... 


Do 


Do 




Do .. '.. 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 




Do 


Do 


Merrimack County N. H 


Do 


Averacc 






35.3 


70 


113 


8.4 


i ! 


VII. TREES 30 TO 39 TEARS OLD. 




22 
7 
8 
1 

13 
14 
15 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
28 
29 
30 
31 
34 
35 
36 


38 
36 
34 
35 
38 
38 
37 
35 
33 
31 
33 
36 
35 
38 
37 
37 
39 
34 
35 
35 


4.0 
6.3 
9.1 
12.0 
11. 
10.8 
10.8 
9.2 
11.2 
6.5 
10.5 
9.2 
7.0 
6.8 
7.1 
8.2 
9.5 
7.5 
9.3 
10.3 


1.5 
3.5 
3.4 
4.7 
3.4 
3.6 
3.7 
3.6 
4.8 
2.9 
4.4 
3.6 
2.9 
2 4 
2] 8 
3.0 
3.2 
3.3 
3.7 
3.9 


31.3 

36.5 
35.2 
35.7 
35.2 
33.7 
36.0 
36.1 
33.6 
35.2 
33.0 
35.2 
34.5 
38.5 
36.7 
36.7 
37.7 
32.7 
34.5 
30.0 


77 
64 
66 
66 
74 
74 
83 
61 
65 
83 
72 
68 
66 
66 
67 
71 
65 
71 
74 
64 


162 
93 
105 
100 
131 
147 
146 
85 
108 
99 
143 
111 
109 
89 
108 
111 
99 
129 
123 
147 


8.2 
8.3 
9.2 
7.7 
9.1 
8.2 
7.5 
8.1 
7.0 
9.5 
9.3 
8.7 
8.2 
9.8 
10.2 
8.5 
9.0 
7.5 
9.2 
8.0 




Do 


Do 




Do 


Do 




Do * 


Do 


Do . ... 


Do 


Do ... 




Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 












35.1 


68 


104 


8.5 












VIII. TREES 20 TO 30 TEARS OLD. 


Linyille N C 


459 22 
460 26 


4.0 
7.0 


2.7 

2.8 


34.7 
36.9 


83 
85 


164 
156 


9.4 
10.2 


Do 








35.5 


84 


165 


9.8 









76 



THE WHITE PINE. 



From the table it appears that the specific weight of the timber is quite independent of the 
rate of growth, and that the individual variation generally moves within very narrow limits. The 
diagrams (figs. 16 and 17) show the relation of weight for the different sections from the stump 




to 



30 40 SO 60 

Position . of discs, feet from ground . 



70 



SO 



90 



FIG. 16. Diagram showing specific weight of wood at different cross sections of the stem; also a decrease of weight from the stamp 

upward, and the similarity of the wood of different trees. (Five trees, over 200 years old. Dotted line indicates the average.) 

upward; the slightly greater weight of the older timber, as compared to sapling material, the 
uniform decrease in weight from stump upward, and also the uniformity of the several individuals 
of any group of trees is clearly apparent from the lines. The same decrease in weight from below 




a 



TO 



so 



ill' 



30 40 50 ttO 

Position of discs, feet from ground . 

Fro. 17 Diagram showing specific weight of kiln-dry wood at different points in the stem from ground upward: a, six trees, 200 to 250 

years old ; b, five trees, 125 to 160 years old ; c, seven trees, 100 to 125 years old j d, ten trees, 75 to 100 years old ; e, ten trees, 50 to 74 years 
old ; /, eighteen trees, 40 to 40 years old : g, nineteen trees, 30 to 39 years old. 

upward is observed in the wood of any given period of growth; thus, the wood of the last forty 
rings (next to the bark) was found to be as follows: 



llecreate in weight of the wood of the last (outer) forty rings in the several ditks from stump njucari:. 



Disk number. 


Specific gravity. 


Tree No. 
458. 


Tree No. 1. 


Tree No. 2. 


Tree No. 3. 


I... 


0.37 
.31 
.30 
.295 
.31 


0.42 
.39 
.36 
.35 
.33 


0.44 
.40 
.36 
.36 


0.45 
.405 
.39 
.38 
.37 


11 


rn 


IV... 


v . . 







SHRINKAGE AND STRENGTH OF WOOD. 77 

As in other pines, there is usually an increase of weight in the crown, apparently due to an 
influence of the limbs, but as this influence is local, so the apparent result is local, and the weight 
is very irregular for the crown part of the stem ; the pronounced increase is apparent only in the 
immediate vicinity of the limbs. The absence of a pronounced or sharply defined summer wood 
makes it difficult and impracticable to apply the microscopic methods to determine the variation 
of weight from pith to bark on any cross section. From the actual determinations of weight, it 
appears that for the lower portions of any normally grown tree there is usually at first an increase 
of weight from the pith outward, reaching a maximum somewhere between the fiftieth and eightieth 
ring, maintained for a long period and usually followed by a very slow decrease in weight from 
there on outward. This variation is generally small, and never reaches the proportions met in 
sections of hard pine, such as Longleaf Pine, where it commonly amounts to 75 to 100 per cent of 
the weight of the lightest portion. 

Usually about half the weight of a green log is water. The amount of moisture generally 
varies in the sapwood from about 120 to 160 per cent and from 40 to 60 per cent in the heartwood, 
the amount for the entire log, therefore, varying with the proportion of sap and heart is greatest 
in saplings and least in large mature trees, in the latter from about 90 to 120 per cent of the 
weight of the timber after it is kiln-dried. Tbe wood parts with its moisture as easily as any 
wood in the market, dries rapidly, with little injury, and may safely be kiln-dried fresh from the 
saw, though in actual practice this method is almost unknown in the White Pine regions, the 
usual way of drying by carefully piling in immense piles, being the universal way of seasoning. 
Well air dried White Pine, as in an ordinary room, still retains 8 to 9 per cent moisture, and if 
unprotected by oil, paint, etc., is quite susceptible to changes of humidity, absorbing and giving 
off moisture at every change of temperature and humidity of the air. 

SHRINKAGE. 

In keeping with its smaller specific weight, the shrinkage of White Pine is less than that of 
other pines. It is greater for sap than heart, and therefore greater for sapling timber than for 
older trees. From the table on page 71 it appears that the shrinkage in volume varies for the 
several groups of trees from 8 to 9 per cent, and, like the weight, is quite uniform for the different 
individuals of each group. 

The ease and rapidity with which White Pine seasons, and the manner of distribution of 
White Pine lumber, encouraging proper seasoning before use, have done much to earn for White 
Pine the fame of being one of the woods which do "not shrink" nor "work," a virtue which is not 
only in part due to the small weight and consequent sniall shrinkage, but is largely the result of 
proper handling. 

STRENGTH. 

Being the lightest, White Pine is also the weakest among the pines of the Eastern United 
States, as appears from the following general average: 

Strength of White Pine at 13 per cent moisture. 

Pounds per 
square inch. 

Compression endwise and in bending to true elastic limit 5,200 

Bending to rnptnre 7, 900 

Modulus of elasticity 1,410,000 

Compression across the grain (3 per cent deformation) 720 

Shearing parallel to fiber 380 

Out of about seven hundred tests made by the Division of Forestry, about 55 per cent fall 
within 10 per cent of this general average, and 90 per cent within 25 per cent of the same. Though 
the test series for White Pine was by no means as full as is desirable, the above average results 
will probably be found fairly accurate and sufficient for general purposes. The table on the next 
page presents the average results for the several trees. 



78 



THE WHITE PINE. 
Average strength of the wood of White Pine of different treet at IS per cent moisture. 



Locality. 


Original 
number of 
trees. 


Modulus of 

. !.,.n, :U 
.;.,- 

pound*). 


Bending to 


Compres- 
sion end- 
wise. 


Compres- 
sion across 
grain to 3 
per cent de- 
formation. 


Shearing 
parallel to 
fiber. 


Average 
specific 
weight. 


Itupture. 


Relative 
elastic 
limit. 




101 
102 
104 
112 
114 
118 
601 
602 
603 
607 
608 
609 


,360 
,520 
,350 
,330 
,190 
.350 
,370 
,470 
,470 
.380 
,560 
,510 


Pound* per 
fi.in. 
8.100 
7,400 
7,800 
8.300 
a 0.800 
8.300 
7,400 
7,800 
7,850 
8,000 
8.000 
S.L'Oli 


Pound* ptr 
iq. in. 
8,200 
5,300 
6,000 
6,300 
5.000 
5.900 
6,300 
6,700 
6.650 
6,800 
7.450 

r,: 7ii(i 


Pound* per 
to. in. 
4.600 
4,200 
4.800 
5,000 
4,250 
5,000 
5,500 
5,700 
5,400 
5,700 
5,700 
6,200 


Pound* per 
; in. 
680 
560 
620 
650 
630 
560 
810 
860 
790 
910 
670 
880 


Pound* per 

11 . in. 
460 
320 
430 
440 
400 
470 
350 
420 
320 
340 
HO 
340 


0.42 
.36 
.40 
.39 
.36 
.385 
.38 
.37 
.38 
.39 
.385 
.392 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 






Do 


Do 




I)o .. 


Do 




1,410 


7,800 
8.000 


I;.:ICM 
0,760 


5,200 
5,700 


720 


380 


.384 








1,460 


8,200 


:;-,<i 


38.3 







o Insufficient data for a fair average. 

In the above table the data for trees 101 to 116 are insufficient. Both material and tests for 
trees 001 to 609 -were satisfactory in every respect, and the results, therefore, of far greater value 
than those for trees 101 to 116. 

In keeping with its greater weight, the wood of the butt logs is slightly stronger than that of 
the top logs, and there is generally a regular difference between different parts of the same cross 
section, the center, as appears usual in pine, beiug the weakest, the heavier intermediate portion 
the strongest, and the peripheral part lying between the two. 

For a more careful study of this relation, tests were made of a set of 2 by 2 inch sticks cut out 
of one log from each of three trees, in such a manner that the centers of the logs formed one set, 
the part midway from center to bark another set, and the outer portion of the logs a third or outer 
set, the latter two being all quarter-sawed pieces. The tests furnished the following average 
results : 

Strength of 2 J>y 2 pieces at 12 per cent moisture. 



K ind of test. 


Tree No. 601. 


Tree No. 602. 


Tree No. 603. 




Pounds per 
to. in. 
6 710 


Pounds per 
tq. in. 
6 890 


Pound* per 
sq. in. 
6 340 




7. 960 


7,970 


7,890 




9 360 


9 630 


9 340 


Modulns of elasticity (1 000 pounds) 


1 306 


],9l 


1,285 











It is apparent from the above that the perfect quarter-sawed material confirmed the other 
test results in showing the great similarity of the wood of these three trees. It also shows, how- 
ever, that the effect of defects in an unselected lot reduces the strength values markedly in this 
species. 

Arranging the results according to the position of the test pieces in the log, it is found that in 
compression endwise the strength was: Center pieces, 5,o20 pounds, or 78 per cent; intermediate, 
7,000 pounds, or 100 per cent; outside pieces, C,6SO pounds, or 95 per cent; showing that the 
heart pieces, as has been found in other conifers, are always the weakest, thus verifying the results 
of the general series. The slight decrease from the intermediate to the outside pieces is in keeping 
with the smaller weight of the latter and need not be ascribed to the fact that these pieces con- 
tained small proportions of sapwood. As might be expected, the uniformity of results in this 
properly selected and prepared material was greater than in the ordinary series. Of 58 tests, all 
fell within '2~> per cent of the average strength and 76 per cent within 10 per cent of the average. 

In connection with a general study into the maximum uniformity of wood, three scantlings of 
White Pine, with an average specific gravity of about 0.34 and an average compressive strength 
at 8 per cent moisture of 4,900 pounds, were examined, two being tested air-dry (8 per cent) and 






SHRINKAGE AND STKENGTH OF WOOD. 



79 



the other after being soaked for three mouths iu cold water. The results of these tests 011 White 
Pine are embodied in the following table: 

Strength of contiguous blocks of the same scantling of White Pine, select material, in compression endwise. 

[Dimensions generally, 2.76 by 2.76 by 2.76 inches.] 



Number of block. 


Dry scantling. 


Soaked 
scantling. 


Xumber of block. 


Dry scantling. 


Soaked 
scantling. 


1 


2 


3 


1 2 


8 


1 ... 


Pounds per 
S'f. in. 
4,850 
4,860 
4.690 
4,840 
4,760 
4,720 
4,730 
4,760 
4,750 
4,770 
4,730 
4,760 
4,770 
4 670 


Pounds per 
itq.in. 
5,070 
5,150 
5,020 
4,770 
4,770 
4,920 
4,950 
4,840 
4,860 
06.460 
4,860 
5, 010 


Pounds per 
tiii. in. 
2,270 
2,390 
2,300 
2,260 
o5,700 
2,390 
2,300 
2,310 
2.290 
2,310 
2,340 
2,210 
2,370 
2,340 
2,340 
2,340 
2,330 
05,710 
2,310 
2,280 
2,180 
2,130 


26 


Pounds per 
8<i. in. 
5,070 
4,940 
5.020 
5.110 
5 020 


Pounds per 
sq. in. 
4,860 
4,940 
5,010 
4,950 


Pounds per 
tq. in. 


2 


27 





3 


28 




4 


29 





5 


30 





6 


31 


4 950 






7 


32 


4 8^0 






8 


33 


4,950 
4.900 
5,040 
5,160 
5,120 
5.100 
5,230 
5,280 
5,260 
5, 280 
5,300 
5,310 
5,300 
5,350 
5406 
5,360 
5, :I60 
5,5)0 


4,690 
4,750 
4,670 
4,630 
4,800 
4,730 
4,660 
o 6, 000 
4, 841) 
4,780 
4,840 
4,870 
5.040 
5,150 
5,340 
5,300 
5,200 




9 


34 





10 


35 





11 


36 




12 


37 




13 


38 




11 




39 




15 


4, 600 
4,660 
4 590 


4,960 


40 




18 


41 . .... 




17 




42 




18 


4 600 




43 




19 


4.610 
4,880 
4,920 
4,870 
4,970 
4.940 


4.910 
a 6, 600 
4,600 
4,650 
4,720 
4,860 


44 . 




20 


45 




21 


46 




22 


47 




23 


a 




24 


49 




25 


50 













a Dried at 189 F. (to about 2 per cent moisture) before teating. 

It appears that in the tests ou dry material the greatest difference between any two contiguous 
blocks of select quarter-sawed White Pine was 190 pounds per square inch, or 3.8 per cent of the 
total strength; that generally it was.less than 2 per cent, and several times only about 0.2 per 
cent, but that iu tests of this kind less then 200 pounds in the results can not be regarded as any 
difference at all, this amount being due to indeterminable differences found even iu the best 
material, and partly due also to imperfections in the means and methods of testing. It is also 
clear that iu the same scantling, though select and of small dimension (only 6 feet long) a 
difference of nearly 900 pounds per square inch, or 18 per cent of the strength, iu compression 
endwise may be found, so that any inferences from scantling to scantling must be taken with 
great caution, and any accurate relations, such as the influence of seasoning, etc., can be made 
only in a manner similar to that employed in these uniformity tests. 

From the general series of tests, also from the tests on the select 2 by 2 inch pieces, and in 
way of indication also from some of the tests in maximum uniformity, it appears that seasoning 
affects the wood of White Pine to about the same degree as that of other pines. The strength of 
greenwood, or wood soaked to a point where additional immersion no longer changes the volume, 
is independent of differences in moisture. This is quite clear from the test in uniformity of the 
scantling immersed for three months. Though the blocks differed (especially near the ends) 
within wide limits as to the amount of moisture they contained, yet the strength was found to be 
as uniform as in evenly dried timber. By drying green or fully saturated wood to about 2 per cent 
moisture (kiln-drying at 80 C.), the strength is more than doubled; and even if pieces well air- 
dried are kiln-dried the strength is still increased by over 40 per cent. For timber to be used 
under cover and kept properly ventilated, it is safe to presume that the strength, once seasoned, 
will be 50 per cent greater than when green, and if used in heated rooms, an increase of 100 per 
cent on the strength of the green timber may reasonably be expected. The diagram (fig. 18) well 
illustrates this feature. 



, 



80 



THE WHITE PINE. 



100 



60 



3000 5000 7000 10OOO 

Compression Strength per. scf. inch in pounds. 

Flo. 18 Diagram showiug effect of luoiature oil crushiug strength. 
DURABILITY. 

With regard to its durability, White Pine is generally underrated. The soft, light-colored 
wood suggests general frailty and a lack of resistance, in which resistance to decay is included. 
In the region where it grows the unusual great durability of the heartwood of White Pine is 
well known; "the stumps of White Piue last a lifetime;" old logs, covered with moss and often 
with young Poplars and Birch growing from their surface are uncovered and utilized as shingle 
bolts. White Pine shingles wear out, but rarely decay, and a good sidewalk of White Pine is 
considered the best to be had. As in other pines, the sapwood decays readily, but this being 
narrow in good logs, more than half of all White Pine sawed is good durable heart, a wood which 
is neither subject to decay nor to the boring insects any more than the heavy resinous heart of 
the Bed Pine or of the Southern pines. 



COMPARISON WITH OTHER WOODS. 

Generally White Pine is logged and milled on a large scale, cut mostly into boards and plank, 
and there is to-day no common wood which is more economically handled and more carefully 
selected. 

Compared to other pines, the White Pine is offered more extensively and has a greater 
influence on lumber markets than any other wood used. It is more uniform, lighter, softer, and 



USES OF WOOD. 



81 



shrinks less than any other pine; it is durable, insect proof, and suited to a much greater 
number of uses than the wood of other pine... / 

The following table exhibits the position of White Pine as to weight and strength: 

Weight and strength of White Pine compared with other pines. 



Name of pines. 


Specific gravity. 


Bending. 


Compression endwise. 


Knpture. 


To relative elastic limit. 


Actual. 


Relative. 


Pounds 

per square 
inch. 


Eelative. 


Founds 
per square 
inch. 


Relative. 


Ponnds 

per square 
inch. 


Relative. 




81 
53 
51 
48 
38 


100 
87 
84 
78 
62 


12, 800 
11,800 
10, 400 
0,100 
7,900 


100 
92 
81 
71 
62 


10, 300 
9,500 
7,800 
7,700 
6,400 


100 
92 
76 
75 
62 


8,300 
7,800 
6,500 
6,700 
5,200 


100 
94 
78 
81 
62 


Loblolly 


Shortleaf 




White 





Of the several columns, that on specific weight being at once the simplest and most truly 
representative of the entire stem of mature timber, illustrates probably the relative position of 
these five pines most perfectly. The Southern pines, if only the saw timber is considered, will 
prove even heavier and stronger by several per cent than appears from this table. 



USES OF WHITE PINE. 

There is no wood in the United States, perhaps in the world, of which there is a greater 
quantity used, nor one which is put to a greater variety of uses thau that of the White Pine. At 
present the great mass of White Pine, probably not less than 95 per cent of the entire output, is 
cut into even lengths, usually 12 to 18 feet long, preferably 16 feet (full 75 per cent being 16 feet), 
and is converted principally into boards, plank, and " dimension stuff," 1 to 4 inches thick and 
4 inches and upward in width, the widths varying always by an even number of inches. 

In all the better mills the slabs are cut into laths, pickets, etc., while the thickest slabs and 
the sound portions of very defective logs are cut into shingles. JPhese " shingle cants "are of 
variable sizes, usually containing knots and decayed portions; these defects in the shingle are 
cut out subsequently by the knot sawyers . y Shingles of regular widths are rarely made. In the 
sawing of the great mass of lumber the main saw merely cuts slices of various thicknesses from N 
the logs, and their conversion into certain widths, as well as the removal of uneven edges, is left 
to the edger, on whose knowledge and skill much of the success of the mill depends^ftlsually' 
the clear stuff, whenever possible, is left in broad and thick planks; the rest is cut into different 
widths so as to insure the greatest value, in most cases boards of extra width and select boards, 
for siding, etc., receiving preference and determining the conversion. The clear stuff, or "uppers," 
rarely forming over 15 per cent of the cut in our times, are used by manufacturers of sash, doors, 
and blinds, and by furniture men, and the most select portions by model makers and other special 
manaEggturers where the price of the material is of secondary cnnsidera{jmi^jTnrTTin.tf-ria,l of this \ \\ 
] kind the consumer generally pays over $50 per 1,000 feet B. M.. and in some cases it is retailed at 
over $100^ Of the remainder, the great mass is used in the construction of frame houses, where~~ 
commonly everything of wood, from cellar to roof, is made of this material. Of the inferior 
grades, enormous quantities are used for boxes, and much also is used as fencing and barn lumber. 

For box shocks, straight-stave cooperage, pails, tubs, etc., a great deal of small sapling pine 
is employed. Smaller quantities of better-grade White Pine are used in mill constructions (for 
chutes, elevators, etc.):, also in the manufacture of farm implements, for large surfaces, panelwork, 
etcT, and in boat and ship building for decking, in fitting up cabins, for all kinds of spars, where 
its lightness, stiffness, and durability, together with its tine form and dimensions, render it a 
special favorite. 

Considerable quantities of hewn and round timbers are still brought to market for export, 
but on the whole this trade is insignificant when compared to the entire output. 

White Pine is universally seasoned in the yard ; most of the lumber does not reach the consumer 
until a year after manufacture. The ease of working induces the consumers to do a great deal of 
20233 No. 22 6 






82 THE WHITE PINE. 

resawing. The flooring, and even siding for the smaller markets, and for cheap construction are 
commonly the selected parts of sheathing and other inferior grades, as classed at the mill, and it 
is rare to find, in recent years, the best grades of White Pine in the smaller retailers' yards. 

In the classification of White Pine a great degree of finesse has been introduced, and the 
closest attention is paid here, as well as in edging and trimming, to the probable future use of a 
given piece of material. - 

From the enormous consumption of White Pine alone, and also from the great variety of uses 
to which it is put, it is clear that any material diminution of supplies must afl'ect extensively and 
intimately the wood market and wood industries of this country. The common claim of substi- 
tution of some other pine or conifer, and still more thel>efieTin the use of hardwoods in the place of 
White Pine, have but little in their favor. I A shipping case of White Pine requires abou^half the 
effortto make and only 50 to 65 per cent of the effort to haul or handle as one made of Southern 
Pine, its most natur.il substitute v Similarly, a White Pine lath nails with half the effort, shrinks 
less, and thus is far more satisfactory than one made of hard pine. For a good door or for satis- 
factory sash and blinds only the Cypress and White Cedar can enter as a substitute, and both 
are too restricted in their occurrence, and the Cypress has too little chance of future regeneration 
to deserve consideration as a general substitute. The transportation of Pacific coast timbers, 
a small portion of which have the properties of White Pine, to the densely populated Eastern 
United States is not likely to occur on a large scale, for the cost of hauling alone equals the 
value of good grades of Eastern lumber. 



APPENDIX. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



83 



APPKNDIX. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 

The following tables record the detail investigations, measurements, and tabulations which 
have served as a basis for the discussion of the growth of the White Tine. The measurements 
in the field were made by Mr. Austin Gary, of Bangor, Me., and by Mr. A. K. Mlodziansky, of 
the Division of Forestry. Mr. Mlodziansky has also executed the laborious calculations, and is 
responsible for their accuracy. 

The methods employed in this investigation have been described in general in Bulletin No. 20, 
"Measuring the forest crop," of the Division of Forestry. They are in the main similar to those 
practiced by European foresters, with some minor and one important modification, which latter 
Mr. Mlodziansky has developed during the course of his work in collating the data. This modifi- 
cation, which refers to the analyzing of trees for ascertaining the rate of growth, consists in 
grouping by age classes, and instead of analyzing each single-measured tree, as is usually done 
in European practice, averages the data of measurement from a number of trees grouped and 
then analyzes the growth of the average tree thus constructed of each age class or group. In 
this way the work of collating is very considerably reduced and the measurements of a very much 
larger number of trees can be expeditiously utilized for average statement. It is needful, 
however, in order to be quite satisfactory, that the classification or grouping of trees be made 
in the woods while measuring, a task which requires considerable judgment. When the classi- 
fication is so done in the woods, the mechanical work is further simplified by entering the 
measurements for each group in sets, the measurements of cross sections taken at the same height 
being entered on the same sheet for all trees of the group, when the averaging of the measurements 
can at once be performed on the same sheets. 

The forms used in the investigation are also appended, and will serve to further elucidate the 
methods pursued. 

Since it was not expedient to fell trees specially for these measurements, it was not always 
possible to secure all measurements in the most desirable form; for instance, the desirable meas- 
urement and correlation to age of diameters at breast height, and at short intervals of the height, 
could not be obtained, because the work was performed on trees cut in regular lumbering opera- 
tions; hence, the data had to be manipulated and interpolations used so as to secure satisfactory 
approximations for the periodic growth. The number of trees analyzed (some 700) is so large 
that any deficiency of method may be considered as neutralized. 

TABLES OP CUBIC AND BOARD CONTENTS OP "WHITE PINE. 

The tables of cubic and board contents of White Pine are based upon the measurements of 
pine taken for analysis from the various sites described in the tabulations of acre yields. 

The stem of each individual tree was calipered at intervals of 4 or 8 feet, and the volumes of 
the portions between two successive diameter measurements were calculated separately, considering 
them as frustrums of cones. From the volumes of stems of similar height and diameter, breast 
high, the average volume was noted. The volumes of stems of missing dimensions was calculated 
by employing the corresponding factors of shape. The factor of shape is determined by dividing 
the volume of a tree by that of a cylinder of the same height and diameter, breast high ; it shows 
the taper of the stem and is usually expressed in decimals, thus representing arithmetically the 
form of the stem. For determining the volume of a tree by means of the factor of shape, it is 
necessary only to measure the diameter and height of the tree, find the volume of a cylinder of the 
corresponding height and diameter, and multiply that volume by the factor of shape. 

The lumber of stems in board feet was determined by employing Scribner's rule. 

85 



86 



THE WHITE PINE. 



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TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



87 



TABLE II. Actual tapering and board contents of stems of White Pine from 5 to SH inches in diameter, breast high. 



ct 

1 

*i 

a 

tt> 
" 

H 


Diameter (in inches) with bark at a height from 
ground of 


Number of 16-foot 
logs of 5 inches and 
more at small end. 


I 

>1 


a 



< 

I 
@ 


Diameter (in Inches) with bark at a height from 
ground of 


Number of 16-foot 
logs of 5 inches and 
more at small end. 


Lumber. 


i 

3 




I 

W 


1 

94 

CO 


1 

00 




4 
1 

3 


1 

3, 


1 



I 
c* 


a 

M 

m 


1 
to 


1 

S3 


1 
SS 


1 

3 


I 



1 

1 


1 

M 
^H 


35 
45 
40 
55 
45 
60 
50 
55 
55 
45 
70 
55 
70 
45 
55 
65 
55 
80 
60 
45 
60 
75 
80 
95 
120 
55 
65 
75 
85 
95 
70 
85 
95 
115 
60 
85 
95 
105 
120 
60 
125 
75 
85 
95 
110 
75 
85 
90 
105 
120 
80 
65 
85 
95 
105 
125 
80 
95 
105 
120 
85 
95 
105 
115 
135 
85 
5 
105 
115 
95 
105 
115 
140 
85 
100 
115 
120 
140 
85 
95 
105 
115 
125 


5.2 
5.1 

6.0 
6.2 
7.1 
7.2 
8.1 
8.0 
9.1 
9.5 
9.2 
10.1 
10.2 
11.3 
11.2 
11.1 
12.3 
12.1 
12.0 
13.5 
13.2 
13.0 
13.1 
13.2 
13.0 
14.2 
14.2 
14.2 
14.2 
14.0 
14.7 
15.0 
15.0 
15.1 
16.0 
16.1 
16.4 
16.4 
16.5 
17.0 
17.0 
17.0 
17.1 
17.0 
16.9 
18.5 
18.2 
18.0 
18.2 
17.8 
17.8 
19.1 
19'.0 
19.2 
19.1 
19.1 
20.0 
20.2 
20.2 
20.3 
21.1 
20.9 
21.0 
21.3 
21.0 
22.0 
22.3 
22.1 
22.1 
22.9 
23.2 
23.1 
23.2 
24.3 
24.1 
24.0 
24.2 
24.2 
25.0 
25.2 
25.1 
25.0 
25.0 


4.0 
4.3 
5.0 
5.4 
5.7 
6.2 
6.7 
6.8 
7.7 
8.0 
7.7 
8.7 
9.1 
8.8 
9.2 
9.6 
10.0 
10.6 
10.0 
10.9 
10.9 
11.1 
11.8 
12.0 
12.2 
11.9 
12.0 
12.1 
12.9 
12.3 
13.0 
13.3 
13.4 
13.9 
14.0 
14.0 
14.1 
14.3 
15.5 
14.3 
14.9 
14.7 
14.6 
15.2 
15.0 
16.0 
15.4 
15.2 
16.0 
17.0 
15.4 
15.9 
16.5 
16.3 
1.6 
17.1 
17.4 
17.5 
17.4 
18.0 
18.5 
18.6 
18.5 
18.4 
17.3 
18.2 
19.7 
19.5 
19.1 
19.4 
19.6 
20.1 
20.1 
20.6 
21.0 
20.4 
21.3 
21.0 
21.3 
21.4 
21.2 
21.0 
22.0 


1.2 
2.6 
2.3 
3.9 
3.2 
5.0 
4.2 
5.3 
5.6 
4.2 
6.5 
6.3 
8.1 
4.1 
6.8 
8.2 
7.0 
9.3 
7.5 
4.2 
8.1 
10.0 
10.2 
10.6 
11.5 
8.2 
9.7 
10.8 
11.3 
11.4 
10.7 
11.8 
12.0 
12.9 
9.5 
12.3 
13.0 
12.9 
14.0 
8.0 
13.0 
12.8 
13.3 
13.5 
13.9 
13.8 
13.7 
13.3 
14.5 
15.5 
12.9 
12.4 
14.9 
14.9 
15.2 
16.0 
15.0 
16.2 
15.9 
16.9 
16.7 
16.9 
16.9 
17.4 
15.8 
16.0 
18.1 
17.9 
17.4 
17.5 
17.8 
18.8 
19.2 
18.6 
19.0 
18.9 
19.3 
19.3 
19.0 
19.7 
19.5 
19.2 
20.3 
















135 
145 
90 
105 
115 
125 
135 
145 
105 
115 
125 
140 
150 
70 
90 
105 
115 
125 
140 
155 
100 
85 
115 
130 
145 
100 
110 
120 
130 
145 
95 
115 
125 
135 
145 
105 
115 
125 
135 
145 
155 
110 
125 
135 
145 
105 
115 
125 
135 
145 
155 
115 
125 
135 
145 
155 
175 
105 
115 
125 
135 
155 
105 
125 
145 
155 
115 
125 
145 
130 
155 
135 
145 
140 
150 
135 
145 
140 
165 
160 
140 
150 


25.2 
25.1 
26.5 
26.0 
25.9 
26.1 
26.2 
26.0 
27.1 
27.0 
27.0 
26.8 
27.0 
28.0 
28.5 
28.0 
28.3 
28.4 
28.3 
28.1 
29.0 
29.0 
29.1 
29.0 
29.1 
30.0 
30.1 
30.1 
30.1 
30.0 
31.0 
31.1 
31.0 
31.2 
31.1 
32.0 
32.0 
31.9 
32.0 
32.2 
32.2 
33.2 
33.1 
33.1 
33.2 
34.0 
34.0 
34.2 
34.0 
34.0 
34.3 
35.0 
35.1 
35.2 
35.2 
35.2 
35.0 
36.2 
36.1 
36.0 
36.0 
36.0 
37.0 
36.9 
37.0 
37.0 
38.0 
38.0 
38.0 
39.0 
39.0 
40.0 
41.0 
42.0 
43.0 
44.0 
45.0 
46.0 
46.0 
47.0 
50.0 
51.5 


22.2 
22.2 
21.3 
21.9 
22.7 
22.5 
22.7 
22.2 
22.9 
22.6 
22.7 
23.6 
23.1 
24.2 
23.6 
22.9 
23.0 
24.8 
24.8 
25 3 
23.7 
23.0 
25.0 
24.2 
24.8 
26.5 
24.6 
25.1 
25.8 
26.2 
26.7 
27.1 
25.1 
26.7 
26.7 
28.3 
27.2 
27.1 
25.9 
28.2 
27.4 
29.4 
28.7 
28.0 
27.9 
30.0 
27.9 
28.7 
28.3 
29.4 
29.2 
27.8 
27.8 
30.5 
30.5 
30.3 
31.0 
29.5 
28.3 
28.0 
29.0 
31.3 
30.0 
30.5 
31.8 
29.8 
30.0 
31.5 
31.5 
23.8 
33.0 
33.0 
37.2 
34.5 
36.8 
35.6 
37.5 
30.0 
38.7 
40.4 
41.0 
41.5 


20.6 
20.6 
19.3 
20.2 
21.3 
20.5 
21.0 
21.0 
21.2 
20.4 
21.1 
22.2 
21.0 
21.0 
21.9 
20.6 
21.0 
22.7 
23.1 
24.2 
21.2 
20.0 
22.8 
22.6 
23.1 
23.8 
22.1 
23.2 
23.6 
24.8 
23.8 
24.3 
22.7 
24.2 
24.6 
25.5 
24.9 
24.9 
23.9 
26.4 
26.1 
26.2 
26.0 
25.8 
25.8 
24.5 
25.7 
26.1 
25.6 
27.1 
27.7 
25.3 
25.8 
28.1 
28.0 
28.5 
29.0 
25.0 
26.1 
23.9 
28.0 
30.0 
25.0 
27.9 
30.5 
26.5 
25.0 
28.5 
23.5 
27.7 
30.0 
31.2 
33.5 
31.8 
34.1 
33.9 
34.4 
23.0 
:. 8 
37.4 
38.0 
38.0 


19.2 
18.8 
16.4 
18.5 
19.0 
19.0 
19.7 
19.5 
18.8 
18.7 
19.4 
20.8 
19.0 
18.0 
19.5 
17.9 
19.3 
20.9 
21.6 
22.5 
18.8 
14.5 
20.6 
21.1 
21.4 
22.5 
20.4 
21.0 
21.6 
22.9 
19.7 
21.2 
20.8 
22.7 
22.7 
22.7 
23.2 
24.0 
21.5 
24.2 
24.1 
22.6 
23.8 
24.0 
24.5 
21.5 
2-J.7 
23.9 
24.3 
25.3 
25.5 
23.7 
23.6 
25.7 
26.0 
26.3 
28.0 
22.5 
23.0 
22.1 
19.0 
28.0 
21.5 
25.1 
28.7 
25. 5 
23. 
26.3 
22.2 
24.0 
28.5 
29.5 
31.2 
29.0 
32.3 
30.7 
30.6 
22.5 
34.4 
35.3 
35.0 
34.0 


16.8 
17.4 
12.3 
14.8 
16.7 
16.6 
]8.7 
17.9 
15.0 
16.5 
16.4 
19.0 
17.5 


14.3 
15.2 
6.8 
9.1 
12.9 
13.5 
16.3 
16.1 
11.7 
9.3 
14.1 
15.1 
15.2 


11.5 
12.6 


7.3 
9.9 


7 
7 
5 
5 
6 
6 
7 
7 
5 
6 
7 
6 

3 
5 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
6 
4 
6 
7 
7 
4 
C 
6 
7 
7 

e 

6 
6 

7 
7 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
5 
6 
7 
7 
5 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
5 
6 
6 
5 
7 
5 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
7 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 


1,018 
1,093 
630 
832 
971 
971 
1,227 
1,177 
925 
887 
983 
1,229 
1,109 
784 
974 
828 
999 
1,230 
1,515 
1,743 
934 
671 
1,203 
1,279 
1,518 
1,268 
1,114 
1,278 
1,388 
1,825 
1,120 
1,318 
1.202 
1.650 
1,684 
1,395 
1,409 
1,821 
1,390 
2,023 
2,181 
1,511 
1,779 
1,787 
1,965 
1,341 
1,445 
1,705 
1,877 
2,259 
2,408 
1,550 
1,672 
2.368 
2,309 
2,512 
3,007 
1,490 
1,521 
1,474 
1,285 
2,800 
1,509 
2,035 
2,987 
2,396 
1,604 
2,204 
1,751 
1,706 
3,107 
2,850 
3,581 
2,817 
3,810 
3,589 
3,411 
1,665 
4,702 
4,980 
4,483 
4,350 


























1 




1.7 


























1 
2 

1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
1 
2 
4 
5 
4 
6 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
3 
4 
5 
6 
3 
4 
5 
5 
6 
2 
5 
3 
4 
5 
5 
3 
4 
5 
5 
S 
3 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 
4 
5 
5 
7 
4 
5 
5 
8 
6 
4 
5 
6 
6 
5 
5 
6 
7 
4 
6 
6 
7 
7 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 


8 
12 

8 
12 
19 
15 
23 
30 
48 
22 
37 
55 
44 
80 
44 
36 
58 
87 
115 
122 
193 
71 
93 
126 
139 
157 
115 
167 
200 
284 
118 
189 
237 
274 
317 
96 
257 
193 
208 
263 
303 
238 
221 
235 
336 
397 
197 
192 
333 
322 
394 
568 
288 
411 
410 
576 
423 
466 
477 
566 
443 
369 
522 
587 
586 
480 
572 
729 
912 
516 
697 
709 
839 
816 
625 
661 
738 
760 
1,012 


8.9 
10.1 
13.8 
13.6 




2.4 










'io.'i" 

10.8 










2.3 

2.8 


























5.6 
10.4 
12.6 
12.0 














5.3 


3.6 
5.5 




























3.4 
5.5 
3.0 
7.5 
3.8 










15.5 
14.2 
16.5 
18.4 
20.0 
20.7 
15.4 
8.5 
17.2 
18.9 
19.8 
16.5 
17.6 
18.4 
19.1 
21.0 
14.2 
18.1 
17.9 
20.7 
20.8 
17.6 
19.1 
20.9 
19.1 
22.1 
23.9 
18.2 
21.3 
21.7 
22.6 
16.5 
18.5 
21.0 
22.2 
23.4 
23.7 
20.3 
20.8 
23.0 
23.7 
24.5 
27.0 
19.5 
18.1 
19.2 
14.0 
25.0 
19.0 
22.7 
26.5 
2:!.7 
19.9 
22.9 
20.5 
20.0 
26.0 
25.3 
28.4 
26.2 
29.7 
28.7 
28.0 
20.0 
32.4 
32.4 
31.0 
31.5 


7.3 
9.3 
12.9 
15.1 
17.4 
19.0 
10.4 




2.7 








4.0 
7.8 
8.4 
14.5 
16.7 
8.6 












4.2 








4.7 
11.7 
12.0 
















3.4 

7.5 
8.5 
8.2 
10.3 
3.7 
4.5 
8 5 










5.0 
6.0 
5.7 
9.5 










4.7 






12.5 
15.2 
18.2 


7.9 
12.0 
15.4 








7.4 
12.1 


8.0 


6.5 














12.5 
14.3 
15.1 
18.9 
11.7 
13.2 
15.1 
18.5 
18.3 
12.3 
13.9 
16.2 
16.5 
19.9 
21.3 
11.0 
16.7 
18.0 
20.0 
10.0 
13.9 
14.9 
19.1 
20.4 
22.0 
14.4 
17.2 
20.8 
20.0 
22.3 
24.0 
10.0 
14.3 
15.0 
10.0 
22.8 
14.0 
18.3 
24.2 
24.0 
13.0 
18.5 
17.5 
14.8 
23.0 
22.0 
25.5 
23.0 
26.2 
24.4 
23.8 
19.0 
29.1 
29.6 
27.0 
23.0 


6.5 
9.3 
10.7 
10.3 
10.0 
9.3 
10.0 
14.3 
15.9 
10.0 
7.1 
13.4 
12.6 
16.3 
18.5 




4 9 








"s.'o" 

12.3 

io.2 

11.5 


8.7 
9.5 
7.2 
9.7 
10.2 
11.7 
6.2 
10.0 
11.1 
11.6 
13.0 


5.5 
7.0 


4.0 
3.3 














6.2 
7.8 
10.3 








5.1 

8.5 






6.8 






6.6 
8.3 
9.6 
12.0 








5.5 
6.8 
10.0 






"s.'i" 

10.0 
13.3 
15.4 






7.5 






11.6 
9.4 
11.0 
11.9 
12.2 
10.2 
11.0 
11.7 
13.0 
14.0 
9.8 
8.5 
11.9 
12.8 
13.1 
14.8 
10.9 
13.5 
14.1 
15.1 
13.7 
14.5 
14.5 
15.5 
15.0 
12.8 
15.2 
16.0 
15.8 
14.8 
15.8 
17.1 
17.7 
15.0 
16.6 
17.3 
18.2 
18.2 
16.5 
16.8 
17.5 
17.3 
19.3 


10.0 
4.2 
li.7 
9.1 
10.7 
3.5 
5.2 
8.6 
10.2 
12.0 
5.0 


6.8 










2.6 
5.6 

8.0 






11.6 
12. 6 9. 
16. 8 12. 7 


2.0 










3.0 
4.8 
7.2 
10.0 






9.0 
8.0 
15.1 
17.5 
19.5 
10.9 
12.6 
17.5 
14.6 
19.3 
23.0 


5.1 
11.7 
13.7 
15.3 

7.6 
12.7 
12.2 
15.7 
18.0 










7.0 










7.9 
8.4 
11.0 
13.8 
6.8 
10.5 
11.1 
13.6 
9.4 
11.4 
11.9 
13.6 
14.3 
7.6 
11.6 
13.3 
13.5 
11.0 
12.9 
14.9 
16.4 
9.1 
12.4 
14.6 
16.3 
16.4 
9.7 
10.7 
13.9 
14.7 
17.3 








6.0 
8.2 
12.0 
3.0 
5.8 
7.3 
11.9 






7.1 
9.5 


"9." 6" 






3.0 
9.2 


"5." 6" 


9.2 
14.0 








5.7 
7.8 
10.9 
11.3 
3.2 
6.2 
9.8 
10.1 
5 3 






18.9 

'is.'i' 

20.8 
18.7 
8.0 
12.5 
13.2 
6.8 
21.5 
17.3 
20.7 
14.3 
21.8 
19.5 
18.3 
18.0 
25.1 
25.9 
21.5 
18.5 


15.0 

"s.'o 

14.2 
14.5 


3.5 
7.0 
9.5 








3.5 
6.7 
6.5 


...... 





10.0 

18." 6 
10.2 
15.7 
9.1 
16.3 
20.0 
13.2 
10.0 
21.3 
20.9 
13.0 
15.5 


8.7 
11.7 
14.7 
4.4 
9.0 
10.9 
12.6 
14.5 
3.5 
4.4 
10.1 
11.7 
14.5 






7.7 
11.9 


"To" 


7.5 
6.8 
9.9 
9.8 


"s-'i" 

8.0 






7.6 
11.0 


"s.'s" 



THE WHITE FIXE. 



TABUS III. .Vratureme*t of White Pint grown under timilar condition*, grouped in age elattesfor averaging. 
[The group* of tree* measured are sample tree* recorded in Table VI.] 



Group, location. nd description of rite. 


Tree 
num- 
ber. 


A-.- 


Diameter 
with bark 
(breast 
high). 


Total 
height. 


Factor of 
shape. 


Katio of 

the length 
of crown 
to the to 
tal height 
of the 
tree. 


Volume 
of boles. 


Arc relion. 


Current 
annual 


AM -r.ii:i- 

annual. 


GROUP A. 

Mauachtitrtts and Kete Ilamplliire. 

Wblte Pine mixed with hardwoods on a hill. Soil, 
brown or yellowish sandy loam, medium-sized grain, 
light, loose, fresh, and well drained, with a leafy sur- 
face cover. Trees, 400-500 tot he wre. 


21 
33 
2 
19 
3 
31 
27 
25 
20 
32 
1 
26 


Tn. 
33 
42 

48 
39 
48 
41 
47 
47 
36 
44 
55 
47 


Indua. 
6.5 
8.6 
8.5 
9.2 
9.2 
9.5 
9.1 
10.0 
11.2 
10.3 
13.0 
12.8 


Feet. 
51.3 
65.3 
60.0 
55.2 
62.5 
63.0 
64.0 
62.7 
53.0 
70.0 
71.5 
69.5 


0.57 
.51 
.58 
.58 
.57 
.57 
.56 
.50 
.52 
.50 
.50 
.52 


0.37 
.34 
.21 
.42 
.35 
.36 
.40 
.35 
.54 
.34 
.48 
.37 


Cvbicft 
6. 7 
13.1 
13.8 
14.3 
15.6 
16.0 
15.9 
17.0 
18.4 
21.3 
32.7 
33.1 


Cvbiefl. 


Oubic/t. 




















































44 

41 
41 

39 
40 
40 
49 
49 
50 
54 
39 
51 
52 


9.8 

6.8 
7.1 
8.3 
8.2 
9.1 
9.5 
10.2 
10.3 
11.2 
12.0 
12.5 
13.7 


62.3 

43.8 
51.8 
52.0 
55.0 
58.2 
63.7 
68.0 
63.0 
59.0 
59.1 
69.9 
71.5 


.53 

0.47 
.51 
.43 
.51 
.51 
.51 
.45 
.50 
.51 
.48 
.52 
.51 


.38 

0.42 
.51 
.40 
.51 
.36 
.43 
.47 
.46 
.37 
.51 
.41 
.42 


18.1 

5.6 
8.0 
8.8 
9.9 
13.0 
16.3 
16.6 
19.0 
19.7 
22.4 
31.3 
36.3 


0.60 


0.41 


GBOCP B. 

Mastachutetts and New Hampihirt. 

White Pine on a level plain site. Soil, a brown or yel- 
low-brown loamv sand, underlaid by sand or sand with, 
gravel in medium or sometimes coarse grain, shallow, 
porous, light, moderately loose, fresh, and well drained, 
with an abundant lealy surface cover. Trees, 350-400 
to the acre. 


28 
29 
7 
30 
8 
6 
12 
11 
4 
9 
10 
5 












































45 

46 
44 
44 
47 
47 
45 
47 
47 
48 
47 


9.9 

12.0 
11.5 
12.5 
11.0 
11.5 
11.0 
10.5 
10.0 
10.5 
11.0 


60.0 

60.0 
58.5 
55.0 
59.0 
56.0 
58.5 
60.0 
59.0 
58.0 
55.0 


.50 

0.43 
.47 
.41 
.48 
.45 
.49 
.48 
.51 
.46 
.42 


.44 

O.C2 
.55 
.67 
.49 
.50 
.52 
.43 
.46 
.48 
.49 


17.0 

20.2 
20.0 
19.4 
18.7 
18.3 
17.9 
17.3 
16.4 
16.3 
15.4 


0.50 


0.38 


Pennsylvania. 

White Pine intermixed with hardwoods and occasional 
Hemlock. Soil, clayey loam, with yellow-brown shales 
in it. deep, fresh, aiid well drained. 


3 
12 
2 
8 
16 
9 
5 
6 
21 
19 












































46 

50 
59 
55 
50 
59 
50 


11.0 

14.5 
13.3 
12.8 
11.8 
10.2 
11.0 


58.0 

64 
60 
61 
58 
65 
62 


.45 

0.45 
.44 
.45 

.52 
.59 
.50 


.52 

0.55 
.58 
.38 
.41 
.35 
.35 


18.0 

33.1 
26.4 
25.6 
20.1 
22.0 
21.1 


0.70 


0.39 


OROCP C. 

Jfatne. 

White Pine with scattering Hemlock, occasional Spruce 
and Fir, on a level plain site ; scanty undergrowth of 
Hazel and young Hemlock. Soil, gray sand, some- 
times brown or loamy, with 3 inches vegetable mold, 
deep, fresh, leafy surface cover; clayey subsoil 
probably 4 or 5 feet below surface. Density of crown 
cover, 0.7. Trees. 370 to the acre. 


9 
4 

8 
3 
10 
12 




























54 

64 
57 
50 
47 
52 
49 
52 
54 
54 


12.3 

14.5 
14.5 
8.5 
8.0 
11.0 
11.5 
9.5 
8.0 
10.0 


62 

54 
58 
50 
46 
50 
46 
5:1 
54 
.58 


.49 

0.46 
.47 
.48 
.45 
.43 
.47 
.46 
.53 
.48 


.44 

0.66 
.66 
.60 
.61 
.60 
.61 
.66 
.66 
.68 


24.7 

28.7 
31.4 
9.5 

7 :t 


0.94 


0.46 


Pennsylvania. 

From a yonng White Pine grove mixed with mature 
Spruce, Hemlock, and scattering hardwoods. Soil, 
fresh sand, well drained. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

7 
8 
9 














14.2 
15.7 
12.1 
10.1 
14.7 




























53 

82 
81 
83 
79 
81 
89 


10.5 

14.0 
14.7 
15.0 
15.0 
19.0 
18.7 


52 

82 
84 
82 
83 
85 
96 


.47 

0.49 
.50 
.48 
.48 
.46 
.47 


.64 

0.39 
.42 
.41 
.31 
.37 
.51 


16.0 

43.0 
48.0 
48.1 
50.8 
78.2 
85.7 


0.68 


0.30 


uROfp D. 
Wisconsin. 

An open grorc of hardwoods, in which White Pine is 
scattered in varying proportions, on broken land, with 
frequent IWBinpl in tlie hollows: undergrowth, of 
young hardwoods, I-'ir. few Hemlock, ami Hornl am. 
Soil, light -brown sandy loam, im'dium tine grain, 
loom. deep, fn-sh, and well drained, with an abundant 
leafy surface cover. 

Average 


22 
23 
31 
27 
30 
33 




























82* 16.0 .40 58.9 2.16 0.71 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 89 

TABLE III. Measurements of White Pine grown under similar conditions, grouped in age classes for averaging Continued. 



Gronp, location, and description of site. 


Tree 
num- 
ber. 


Age. 


Diameter 
with bark 
(breast 
high). 


Total 
height. 


Factor of 

shape*. 


Ratio of 
the length 
of crown 
to the to- 
tal height 
of the 
tree. 


Volume 
of boles. 


Accretion. 


Current 
annual. 


Average 
annual. 


GROUP E. 

Maine. 

White Pine with scattering Red and White Oak, and 
occasional Norway Pine, on a level; undergrowth, 
moderately dense, of small Hemlock and Beech, with 
numerous small Maple and Oak. Soil, gray or hrown, 
fine, loamy sand, fresh, with 2 or 3 inches mold on 
top, and leafy surface cover; clay probably some feet 
below surface. Density of crown, 0. 7. Trees, 126 to 
the acre. 

Average 


7 
12 
13 
17 
18 
23 
21 
16 
9 
20 


Trf. 

98 
92 
98 
92 
92 
97 
97 
90 
102 
100 


Inches. 
28.0 
28.0 
25.0 
25.5 
25.0 
22.0 
20.6 
22.5 
20.0 
20.3 


Feet. 
100 
103 
92 
91 
88 
98 
102 
91 
100 
103 


0.41 
.36 
.46 
.42 
.44 
.46 
.35 
.46 
.47 
.41 


0.60 
.61 
.48 
.56 
.46 
.49 
.45 
.52 
.43 
.40 


Cubic ft. 
175.3 
161.0 
140.3 
136.3 
131.7 
119.4 
118.1 
115.1 
104.0 
98.8 


Cubic ft. 


Cubic ft. 












































96 

101 
98 
98 
89 
93 
93 
89 
99 
89 


23.7 

20.5 
19.5 
19.0 
16.8 
18.5 
18.5 
18.7 
17.2 
17.2 


97 

95 
99 
96 
99 
92 
80 
79 
87 
89 


.42 

0.43 
.43 
.45 
.46 
.41 
.48 
.45 
.49 
.43 


.50 

0.40 
.33 
.35 
.40 
.52 
.41 
.48 
.46 
.38 


130.0 

93.3 

88.4 
84.9 
71.3 
69,9 
68.4 
67.2 
67.0 
60.7 


2.10 


1.35 


OEOCP F. 

Maine. 

White Pine with scattering Red and White Oak, and 
occasional Norway Pine, on a level; undergrowth, 
moderately dense, of small Hemlock and Beech, with 
numerous small Maple and Oak. Soil, gray or brown, 
fine, loamy sand, fresh, with 2 or 3 inches mold on top, 
and leafy surface cover ; clay probably some feet below 
surface. Density of crown cover, 0. 7. Trees, 126 to 
the acre. 


4 
8 
22 
10 
14 
28 
19 
15 
11 








































95 

100 
96 
82 
99 


18.5 

13.5 
14.4 
16.5 
20.0 


91 

94 
90 
94 
100 


.45 

0.44 
.47 
.47 
.41 


.41 

0.57 

<?) .53 
.46 


74.5 

41.0 

48.7 
65.7 
90.9 


1.55 


0.78 


OBOCP O. 

Michigan. 

Open grove on a level plain, alongthe banks of a river, 
of mixed White and Norway Pine, with scattering 
White Birch, and occasionally Oak, Hackmatack, and 
Banksian Pine; undergrowth scanty, of voung Fir, 
Cedar (Thuja occidentals i), and few small Oaks. Soil, 
gray or light brown, sand,, medium fine-grained, 
porous, light, loose, dry (in places fresh), with a 
leafy surface cover. 

Average 


1 
24 
18 
9 




















94 

109 
112 
109 
106 
110 
109 
112 
112 
108 
109 


16.0 

13.0 
14.0 
14.8 
15.3 
16.5 
17.0 
17.0 
18.3 
20.5 
20.8 


94i 

$ 

93 
85 
104 
101 
100 
103 
105 
105 


.45 

.52 
.47 
.45 
.47 
.41 
.42 
.45 
.44 
.41 
.39 


.51 

0.51 

.47 
.47 
.37 
.30 
.59 

(') 
.56 
.49 
.42 


61.5 

45.7 
50.2 
51.4 
53.3 
64.3 
67.6 
72.4 
85.3 
99.1 
99.8 


2.13 


0.65 


OBOCP H. 
Michigan. 

Open grove on a level plain, along the banks of a river, 
of mixed White and Norway Pine, with scattering 
White Birch, and occasionally Oak, Hackmatack, 
and lianksian Pine : undergrowth scanty, of young 
Fir. Cedar ( Thuja occidentalm), and a few small Oaks. 
Soil, gray or light brown, sandy, medium, fine- 
grained, porous, light, loose, dry (in places fresh), 
with a leafy surface cover. 


5 
23 
22 
15 
7 
6 
20 
4 
19 
21 












































109) 

123 
101 
105 
104 


16.7 

20.0 
20.8 
20.5 
22.7 


98} 

102 
90 
99 
94 


.44 

0.40 
.42 
.42 

.39 


.46 

0.54 
.51 
.44 
.59 


08.9 

89.7 
92.7 
96.7 
103.0 


1.64 


0.63 


GBOCP I. 

Michigan. 

Norway Pine (67 per cent), mixed with White Pine 
(42 per cent), and occasional Rock Maple, on a level 
plain. Soil, yellow or gray and, fresh, moderately 
loose, with a surface cover of brakes; subsoil, sandy. 
Density of crown cover, 0.7. Trees, 182 to the acre. 


1 
22 
48 
47 




















108 

121 
125 
125 
125 
119 


21.0 

20.2 
24.5 
26.5 
26.3 
29.0 


96 

91 
89 
96 
105 
97 


.41 

0.45 
.45 
.39 
.47 
.42 


.51 

0.50 
.58 
.46 
.53 
.57 


95.5 

90.9 
131.8 
141.5 
176.8 
189.5 


1.81 


0.89 


O1OCP K. 

Wisconsin . 

An open grove of hardwoods, in which White Pine is 
scattered in varying projx>rtious, on broken land, with 
frequent swamps in the hollows; undergrowth, of 
young hardwoods. Fir. few Hemlock, and Hornbeam. 
Soil, light-brown sandy loam, medium line grain, 
loose, deep, fresh, and well drained, with an abundaut 
leafy surface cover. 

Average ... 


14 
28 
15 
16 

17 
























123 25. 3 


95 


.44 


.53 


145.5 


2.92 1.19 



90 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLB HI. Xeonrewuntt of JFMtt Pitu grow* under ""<" condition, grouped in age elattet for averaging Continued. 



Group, locution, and description of site. 


Tree 
num- 
ber. 


Age. 


Diameteij 
with bark 

rfantat 

high). 


Total 
height. 


Factor of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
thelength 
of crown 
to the to- 
tal height 
of the 
tree. 


Volume 
of boles. 


Accretion. 


Current 
annual. 


Average 

aiiiiiiiil. 


CSOUP L. 

Michigan. 

White Pine (70 percent) Intennixed with Norway Pine 
(14 per cent) and Hemlock ( 15 per cent), with scattering 
Cedar (Thuja (xeidentalit) and Kock Maple, and 
occasional Beech and White Birch, on a level plain; 
undergrowth, dense, of young Fir. Soil, gray sand, 
fresh and deep, light and loose, with a surface cover 
of scanty leaves ; subsoil, sand v loam, underlaid by 
clay. Density of crown, 0.8. Trees, 166 to the acre. 


34 


33 
S7 
36 
35 
2 
22 
4 
3 
1 
16 


Tn. 

140 
136 
135 
134 
136 
135 
138 
133 
130 
135 
138 
139 


Inehet. 
19.5 
19.7 
20.0 
22.0 
22.5 
21.7 
22.8 
23.2 
24.0 
24.0 
23.5 
25.0 


Feet. 
124 
114 
115 
113 
123 
122 
119 
116 
106 
108 
113 
122 


0.42 
.49 
.48 
.31 
.39 
.44 
.40 
.41 
.41 
.42 
.43 
.44 


0.34 
.31 
.32 
.27 
.30 
.32 
.30 
.38 
.40 
.35 
.26 
.50 


Cubie/t. 
109.8 
115.1 
121.5 
123.5 
130.1 
136.4 
138.5 
141.1 
143.5 
144.7 
146.5 
187.3 


Cubuft. 


Cubit/t. 




















































130 

133 
141 
132 
145 
128 
153 
131 
148 
153 
136 


22.3 

15.2 
15.5 
16.3 
18.8 
20.5 
19.0 
22.5 
23.0 
23.0 
24.6 


116 

H 
92 
88 
100 
98 
104 
112 
116 
100 
115 


.42 

0.43 
.46 
.47 
.38 
.42 
.41 
.41 
.41 
.47 
.41 


.34 

0.43 
.42 
.66 
.44 
.47 
.38 
.46 
.46 
.30 
.40 


136.0 

48.6 
55.3 
61.7 
71.1 
94.6 
85.0 
129.4 
137.9 
137.6 


1.60 


1.00 


GROUP M. 

Michigan. 

A two-roof grove, upper roof formed of White Pine, 
under roof of Beech, Maple, Fir, and occasionally 
White Birch and Hemlock ; undergrowth, moderately 
dense, ot young hardwoods and Fir. Soil, brown 
loamy sand, fresh, moderately loose, with a> surface 
cover of brakes and grass ; subsoil, sand with stones. 


32 
37 
12 
40 
25 
27 
9 
26 
31 
11 


































154.1 












140 

149 
135 
135 


19.8 

20.2 
21.1 
22.0 


102 

105 
114 
121 


.43 

0.39 
.39 

.40 


.44 

0.50 
.57 
.43 


95.3 

88.9 
107.9 
139.6 


1.49 


0.70 


GROUP K. 

Michigan. 

Norway Pins (67 per cent) mixed with White Pine 
(32 per cent), and occasional Rock Maple, on a level 
plain. Soil, yellow or gray sand, fresh, moderately 
loose, with a surface cover of brakes ; subsoil, sandy. 
Density of crown cover, 0.7. Trees, 182 to the acre. 


5 
8 

35 
















140 

142 
142 
142 
142 
143 
149 
148 


21.0 

23.0 
24.0 
23.5 
22.0 
24.2 
25.0 
26.3 


113 

117 
110 
114 
lift 
116 
113 
115 


.39 

0.41 
.41 
.43 
.49 
-.45 
.46 
.46 


.50 

0.30 
.39 
.36 
.26 
.38 
.34 
.39 


112. 1 

138.9 
140.6 
148.0 
157.3 
164.3 
168.8 
205.4 


2.08 


0.80 


GROUP O. 

Michigan. 

White Pine (70 per cent) intermixed with Norway Pine 
(14 percent) and Hemlock (15 percent), with scatter- 
ing Cedar {Thuja occidental^) and Rock Maple, and 
occasional Beech and White Birch, on a level plain; 
undergrowth dense, of young Fir. Soil, gray sand, 
fresh and deep, light and loose, with a surface cover 
of scanty leaves ; subsoil, sandy loam, underlaid by 
clay. Density of crown cover, 0.8. Trees, 156 to the 
acre. 


27 
26 
11 
20 
30 
24 
5 
































142J 

160 
170 
178 
170 
175 
168 
185 
173 


24.0 

23.5 
24.0 
24.2 
25.7 
27.3 
30.5 
23.2 
26.0 


115 

104 
119 
114 
111 
122 
114 
110 
112 


.44 

0.40 
.46 
.48 
.45 
.43 
.44 
.42 
.46 


.34 

0.40 
.41 

.38 
.41 
.46 
.42 
.34 
.28 


160.5 

127 
172 
176 
181 
217 
256 
138 
190 


2.20 


1.10 


GBOUP P. 

Wiicontin. 

White Pine mixed more or less with Yellow Birch, 
Rock Maple, Norway Pine, and occasional Bass, Pop- 
lar, and Kim, on uneven land, full of drift ridges and 
hollows, frequently full of water. Soil, a mixture 
of loam, sand, ana stones, with 2 to 3 inches black 
mold on top, and fairly covered with leaves. 


3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
15 
9 
































1.00 




172 

182 
188 
186 


25.5 

25.2 
26.7 
31.0 


113 

118 
118 
119 


.44 

0.43 
.45 
.45 


.39 

0.53 
.59 

.40 


182 

173.0 
202.1 
286.6 


1.44 


OHOCP <j. 
Michigan 

Norway Pine intermixed with White Pine in varying 
proportions, on rolling land, with open places of Red 
Oak, Maple, and Beech: no undergrowth. Soil, 
light-brown sand (slightly loamy), very deep, me- 
dium line, light, loose, dry, and well drained, with a 
moderately leafy surface cover. 

Average 


34 

18 
5 
















185 


27.6 


118 


.44 


.51 


220.5 


2.22 


1.19 



TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



91 



TABLE III. Measurements of White Pine grown under similar conditions, grouped in age classes for averaging Continued. 



Group, location, and description of site. 


Tree 

ium- 
ber. 


Age. 


Diameter 
with bark 
(breast 
high). 


Total 
height. 


Factor of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
he length 
of crown 
to the to- 
tal height 
of the 
tree. 


Volume 
of boles. 


Accretion. 


Current 
annual. 


Average 
annual. 


GROUP R. 

Wisconsin. 

White Pine intermixes with Yellow Birch, Rock Maple, 
Bass, and Norway Pine, on ridge land, with hollows 
sometimes full of water, more often open grassy 
swamps, with Alder and Hackmatack, fringed by 
pine. Soil, red clayey loam, mixed with sand and 
stones of all sizes, moist; subsoil, sometimes of clay, 
sometimes of sand. 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


Yrs. 
204 
210 
207 
200 
206 
205 
210 
214 
210 


Inches. 
27.3 
25.2 
31.0 
29.5 
29.2 
30.0 
34.0 
36.0 
39.0 


Feet. 
123 
137 
127 
116 
130 
133 
118 
113 
130 


0.44 
.48 
.37 
.43 
.46 
.43 
.39 
.39 
.38 


0.59 
.40 
.35 
.51 
.29 
.52 
.37 
.38 
.49 


Cubic ft. 
219 
227 
246 
239 
282 
284 
292 
312 
415 


Cubic ft. 


Cubic ft. 








































2(17 

211 

228 
220 
207 
204 
205 
212 
204 


31.2 

20.2 
23.6 
22.8 
27.2 
27.0 
27.0 
27.8 
27.3 


125 

116 
113 
121 
107 
121 
122 
104 
112 


.42 

0.51 
.43 
.45 
.46 
.42 
.43 
.41 
.41 


43 

0.64 
.42 
.45 
.28 
.43 
.25 
.51 
.41 


279 

132 

148 
153 
200 
204 
210 
180 
186 


1.67 


1.34 


GROUP 8. 

Wisconsin. 

White Pine intermixed with Yellow Birch, Rock Maple, 
Bass, and Norway Pine, on ridge land, with hollows 
sometimes full of water, more often open grassy 
swamps, with Alder and Hackmatack, fringed by pine. 
Soil, red clayey loam, mixed with sand and stones of 
all sizes, moist; subsoil, sometimes of clay, sometimes 
of sand. 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 




































211 

204 
221 
213 
214 
216 
202 
204 
212 
213 


25.4 

24.7 
27.0 
27.0 
26.0 
26.8 
24.0 
29.0 
29 
30.0 


114 

102 
113 
121 
126 
126 
134 
132 
133 
133 


.44 

0.49 
.41 
.39 
.43 
.42 
.44 
.39 
.41 
.44 


.42 

0.45 
.33 
.37 
.41 
.40 
.42 
.37 
.39 
.42 


176.5 

166 
183 
191 
201 
210 
187 
238 
250 
291 


0.88 


0.83 


GROUP T. 

Wisconsin. 

White Pine mixed with hardwoods, on drift and some- 
what uneven land ; undergrowth, of young hardwoods 
anil Fir. Soil, clayey, underlaid by a hardpan of clay 
and stones, fresh with 4-inch mold on top. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 








































211 

216 
222 
228 
220 
220 
218 


27.0 

31.8 

35.0 
24.8 
24.0 
24.5 
29.0 


124 

121 
123 
116 
100 
107 
118 


.42 

0.43 
.42 
.41 
.49 

.45 
.44 


.44 

0.40 
.46 
.40 
.27 
.35 
.49 


213 

287 
344 
160 
156 
157 
249 


1.49 


1.00 


GROUP U. 

Wisconsin. 

White Pine mixed more or less with Yellow Birch, 
Rock Maple, Norway Pine, and occasional Hass, Pop- 
lar, and Elm, on uneven land, full of drift ridges 
and hollows, frequently full of water. Soil, a mix- 
ture of loam, sand, and stones, with 2 to 3 inches black 
mold on top, and fairly covered with leaves. 


10 
11 
12 
13 
16 
17 




























221 

245 
242 
226 
226 
220 
250 
219 
226 
237 
233 
245 


28.2 

20.0 
24.5 
27.5 
27.5 
28.3 
30.2 
33.0 
33.0 
33.0 
37.0 
40.0 


114 

120 
137 
138 
129 
143 
141 
121 
140 
144 
147 
125 


.44 

0.43 
.42 
.38 
.41 
.42 
.42 
.44 
.38 
.45 
.41 
.43 


.39 

0.46 

.41 

'".38 
.60 
.31 
.43 
.49 
.77 
.55 
.40 


224 

112. 56 
191. 07 
215. 28 
222. 29 
264.49 
291.03 
317. 85 
321.86 
389.57 
455. 05 
479. 51 


1.57 


1.01 


GROUP V. 

Michigan. 

A two-roof grove, upper roof formed of White Pine, 
under roof of Beech, Maple, Fir, and occasionally 
White Birch and Hemlock; undergrowth, moderately 
dense, of young hardwoods and Fir. Soil, brown 
loamy sand, fresh, moderately loose, with a surface 
cover of brakes and grass ; subsoil, sand with stones. 


41 
8 
30 
1 
28 
34 
10 
33 
39 
29 
3 
















































233 

234 
236 
235 
237 
237 
251 
232 
233 
237 
235 
245 
236 
236 
238 
244 
233 


30.3 

23.2 
23 8 
24.5 
23.5 
24.5 
27.0 
24.5 
25.5 
25.5 
26.0 
30.0 
26.2 
27.0 
29.0 
34.0 
32.0 


135 

137 
142 
142 
140 
145 
120 
145 
143 
145 
143 
122 
145 
150 
140 
130 
144 


.41 

0.43 
.44 
.43 
.46 
.43 
.43 
.48 
.42 
.44 
.43 
.39 
.44 
.45 
.43 
.42 
.43 


.48 

0.39 
.43 
.43 
.36 
.40 
.36 
.47 
.42 
.44 
.23 
.36 
.42 
.41 
.40 
.62 
.89 


296.6 

169.0 
197.3 
199.1 
202.6 
205.4 
206.8 
207 


1.05 


1.27 


QROCP W. 

Michigan. 

A two-roof grove, upper roof formed hy White Pine (80 
per cent) and Norway Pine (20 per cent), under roof of 
fine, tall Hemlock: undergrowth, of young Hemlock, 
Beech, and Dwarf Maple. Soil, brown loamy sand, 
deep, fine (for sand), porous, loose, and well drained 
(water stands in low ground), with a moderately leafy 
surface cover ; subsoil, same as soil. 


3 
2 
11 
1 
6 
20 
17 
10 
10 
15 
18 
9 
4 
8 
19 
12 


























212.6 
227.3 










231.1 
233.9 
240.2 
271.5 
281.1 
348.1 
349.6 


















1 














237J 


26.5 


140 


.43 


.41 


236.4 


1.64 


0.99 



92 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE III. Meatnrme*tt of White Pint grote* under simitar conditiont, grouped in age claws for averaging Continued. 



Group, location, and description of site. 


Tree 
num- 
ber. 


Age. 


Diameter 
with bark 
(breast 
high). 


Total 
height. 


Factor of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
thelength 
of crown 
to the to- 
tal lieight 
of the 
tree. 


Volume 
of holes. 


Accretion. 


Current 
annual. 


Average 
annual. 


UROFP X. 

KiOtiyan. 

A two-roof (rrove, upper roof formfdof White Pine, un- 
der roof of Iksech. Maple. Fir. and occasionally White 
Birch and Hemlock; undergrowth, moderately dense, 
of young hardwoods and Fir. Soil, brown loamy sand, 
fresh, moderately loose, with a surface cover of brakes 
and grass; subsoil, sand with stones. 


14 
7 
38 
23 
13 
36 
4 
42 
16 
2 
35 
6 
15 
5 
17 


I>. 

258 
252 
252 
265 
2J3 
256 
260 
260 
251 
256 
265 
266 
256 
258 
260 


Inchri. 
26.0 
29.2 
25.5 
27.0 
30.0 
32.0 
31.5 
29.5 
33.0 
31.0 
31.5 
33.0 
32.0 
34.0 
36.0 


feet. 
119 
139 
157 
126 
135 
142 
132 
155 
144 
145 
144 
139 
154 
138 
149 


0.37 
.41 
.35 
.41 
.39 
.34 
.38 
.42 
.33 
.41 
.40 
.38 
.41 
.42 
.37 


0.40 
.46 
.58 
.44 
.45 
.59 
.48 
.48 
.41 
.39 
.33 
.SI 
.33 
.59 
.45 


Cubic ft. 
162.54 
193. 21 
205.21 
207.67 
250. 13 
267.87 
275. 89 
311.99 
313. 07 
314.06 
314.38 
316.81 
360.75 
370.50 
404. 18 


Cukie/t. 


Ctibie/t. 


































258 

417 
445 
455 
426 
460 
457 
461 
435 
458 


30.5 

37.0 
35.5 
41.0 
43.0 
46.0 
47.0 
48.0 
46.0 
47.0 


141 

155 
141 
152 
160 
150 
160 
170 
168 
162 


.39 

0.37 
.52 
.41 
.42 
.40 
.37 
.38 
.42 
.43 


.46 

0.45 
.39 
.53 
.56 
.48 
.45 
.56 
.51 
.57 


235.00 

433.2 
510.5 
583.7 
677.3 
094.1 
721.9 
737.9 
819.6 
855.3 


1.50 


LIO 


onorp Y. 
Michigan. 

Moderately dense grove of White Pine intermixed with 
hardwoods and Hemlock, with occasional Norway 
Pine, on a level plain ; undergrowth, of young Hem- 
lock and hardwoods. Soil, brown loamy saud, me- 
dium nne grain, light, loose, very deep, fresh, well 
drained, with a moderately leafy surface cover. 


5 
1 
4 

9 

8 
7 
3 
6 
10 








































446 

260 
260 
259 
241 
244 
262 
265 
250 
266 
245 
248 
259 
262 
263 
241 
261 


43.0 

35.5 
36.0 
32.0 
32.0 
33.0 
28.0 
39.0 
34.0 
44.0 
34.0 
34.0 
33.0 
33.0 
31.0 
31.5 
37.0 


157 

158 
157 
152 
150 
146 
156 
153 
150 
144 
146 
142 
133 
146 
144 
134 
146 


.41 

0.40 
.43 
.46 
.41 
.42 
.43 
.40 
.42 
.42 
.40 
.42 
.40 
.42 
.36 
.42 
.44 


.50 

0.43 
.42 
.44 
.59 
.34 
.43 
.42 
.48 
.30 
.37 
.37 
.31 
.38 
.43 
.34 
.27 


670.4 

435.4 
481.3 
:::><?.<> 
347.7 
365.9 
285.8 
511.1 
402.4 
638.4 
366.7 
373.4 
304.5 
369.2 
27.-.. 2 
307.7 
4S2.9 


2.60 


1.50 


OEOCP Z. 

Pennsylvania. 

Hemlock mixed with White Pine, with scattering hard- 
woods; undergrowth, moderately dense, of youn^ 
hardwoods and Hemlock. Soil, vellow clay loam of 
a medium grain, deep, fresh, well drained, with 2 to 
3 inches mold on top, and a surface cover of scanty 
leaves, Fern and Teaberrics. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
10 
12 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
33 
34 
35 
3 
37 


























































255 


34.0 


147 


.41 


.39 


390.0 


2. 1C 


1.53 





TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



93 



TABLK IV. IXmensions, volume, and rate of growth, by decades, baaed upon analyses of trees in Tables III and VI. 

(A) OLD-GROWTH PINE. 

(1) DOMINANT TREES. 

Average throughout the range.] 
(224 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
at height 
of 2$ feet 
(without 

b. '0. 


Total 
height 
of tree. 


Volume 
of stem 
(without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
~ volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Tears. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 


Inches. 
0.9 
2.5 
4.8 
6.9 
8.7 
10.5 
12.1 
13.8 
15.5 
17.2 
18.9 
20.6 
22.2 
23.7 
25.0 
26.3 
27.5 
28.7 
29.8 
31.0 
30.7 
31.6 
' 32.0 


Feet. 
7.7 
21.0 
33.7 
46.0 
56.7 
66.3 
74.7 
82.0 
89.0 
91.3 
99.0 
103.7 
107.7 
111.3 
114.4 
117.3 
120.7 
123.7 
126.3 
129.0 
134.5 
137.5 
140.5 


Cutncjt. 

(') 
0.5 
2.2 
5.6 

10.8 
18.6 
28.0 
38.8 
50.9 
66.0 
82.7 
100.3 
118.5 
137.3 
155.7 
175.3 
194.6 
214.8 
234.7 
254.7 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
f 10 

\ U 
I 12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


Feet. 
7.7 
13.3 
12.7 
12.3 
10.7 
9.7 
8.3 
7.3 
7.0 
5.7 
4.3 
4.7 
4.0 
3.7 
3.0 
3.0 
3.3 
3.0 
2.7 
2.7 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 


CiMo/t. 
(?) 
(?) 
1.7 
3.4 
5.2 
7.7 
9.5 
10.8 
12.1 
15.1 
16.7 
17.6 
18.2 
18. a 
18.4 
19.6 
19.3 
20.2 
19.9 
20.0 
20.6 
21.5 
21.6 


Cubicft. 
(0 
0.02 
.07 
.13 
.22 
.31 
.40 
.49 
.56 
.66 
.75 
.84 
.91 
.98 
1.04 
1.09 
1.14 
1.19 
1.23 
1.27 
1.25 
1.30 
1.34 


Cubic ft. 
(?) 
(?) 
0.17 
.34 
.52 
.77 
.95 
1.08 
1.21 
1.51 
1.67 
1.76 
1.82 
1.88 
1.84 
1.96 
1.93 
2.02 
1.99 
2.00 
2.06 
2.15 
2.16 




















40 


47 


13 














| . 


33 


12 






































65 


23 


12 












69 


21 


11 





F;;i : ^ :::::: fS|tt :::: irj4 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;^^g;;:;;;i;;];;:^;;;:;;:i;: 


rii:|:::| 


fc|||j||||l| 

ij 5 r--- 

>^ 


:::: Average annual accretion 
\ Current 

|5 r , . . . - -- "'. 


.. ' 


I;; 


.. ...5 ...... 

-_j_... 1 - * E 





flGE 

FK. 19. Diagram allowing rate of height growth of dominant trees. 



THE WHITE PINE. 



T.U.I K IV. Dimtmtioni, tol*iM, and rate of growth, 6y decades, etc. Continued. 
(A) OLIMJROWTH PINE Continned. 

(2) CODOMINAKT TBEKS. 

[Average throughont the range.] 
(106 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
at heieht 
of 2J feet 
(without 
bark). 


Total 

hdfhi 

of tree. 


Volume 
of utern 

< without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Tiart. 
10 
20 
80 
40 
SO 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 


Inchtl. 
0.8 
2.3 
4.0 
5.8 
7.5 
9.0 
10.5 
11.9 
13.3 
14.7 
16.0 
17.3 
18.6 
19.8 
20.8 
22,0 
23.0 
23.8 
24.7 
25.6 
26.3 
27.0 
27.7 


Feet. 
6.0 
16.0 
28.5 
38.0 
47.5 
56.5 
64.0 
71.5 
79.0 
84.5 
XI. .1 
94.5 
19.0 
103.0 
107.0 
111.0 
114.0 
117.5 
120.0 
122.5 
125.0 
127.5 
130.0 


Cubic ft. 
(!) 
0.4 
1.6 
4.4 
7.7 
11.3 
17.4 
24.9 
34.4 
44.5 
55.5 
67.5 
78.6 
91.5 
104.0 
115.9 
127.7 
129.2 
142.9 
152.7 
165.5 
179.3 
193.0 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


Fett. 
6.0 
10.0. 
12.0 
9.5 
9.5 
9.0 
7.5 
7.5 
7.5 
5.5 
5.0 
6.0 
4.5 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
3.0 
3.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 


CiMe/t. 

I 

2.9 
3.3 
3.6 
6.1 
7.5 
9.5 
10.2 
11.0 
12.0 
11.2 
12.9 
12.5 
12.0 
11.8 
13.9 
13.7 
9.8 
12.8 
13.8 
15.7 


Cubic ft, 
(') 
0.02 
.05 
.11 
.15 
.19 
.25 
.31 
.38 
.45 
.50 
.56 
.61 
.66 
.69 
.72 
.75 
.72 
.75 
.76 
.79 
.81 
.81 


Cubic ft. 
(!) 

In 

0.12 
.29 
.33 
.36 
.61 
.75 
.95 
1.02 
1.10 
1.20 
1.12 
1.29 
1.25 
1.20 
1.18 
1.39 
1.37 
.98 
1.28 
1.38 
1.67 









































































































































19 *' : ' " " " ' 5 ' ' 

LIIIIIIIIIII 






/nn ifjn t A n i fyrt /ort r&] 



flGE 

Flo. 20. Diagram showing rate of height growth of codominant trees. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



95 



TABLE IV. Dimensions, volume, and rate of growth, by decades, etc. Continued. 
(A) OLD-GROWTH PINE Continued. 

(3) OPPRESSED THBES. 

[Average throughout the range.] 
(104 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
at height 
of 24 feet 
(without 

ba-k). 


Total 

height 
of tree. 


Volume 
of stem 
(without 
hark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Yean. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 


Inches. 
0.9 
2.0 
3.7 
5.2 
6.7 
8.0 
9.2 
10.6 
11.9 
13.3 
14.7 
15.9 
17.1 
18.2 
19.3 
20.3 
21.2 
22.2 
23.2 
23.9 


Feet. 
4.0 
11.0 
18.0 
26.0 
34.5 
43.5 
51.5 
59.5 
66.5 
73.0 
79.0 
84.5 
89.0 
93.5 
97.0 
100.5 
103.5 
106.5 
109.0 
111.5 


OuMc/t. 

(?) 
0.4 
0.7 
1.7 
3.6 
f.5 
10.3 
15.1 
26.5 
29.0 
37.5 
48.8 
67.0 
68.5 
79.5 
90.8 
102.3 
114.0 
125.0 
136.0 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

( 10 
\ 11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


Feet, 
4.0 
7.0 
7.0 
8.0 
8.5 
9.0 
8.0 
8.0 
7.0 
6.5 
6.0 
5.5 
4.5 
4.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.0 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 


Cubicft. 
<> 

! i 

1.0 
1.9 
2.9 
3.8 
4.8 
6.5 
7.5 
8.5 
9.3 
10.3 
11.5 
11.0 
11.3 
11.5 
11.8 
11.0 
11.0 


OuMcft. 

<U 
0.02 
.02 
.04 
.07 
.11 
.15 
.19 
.24 
.29 
.35 
.39 
.44 
.49 
.54 
.57 
.60 
.84 
.68 
.68 


Cubicft. 
(?) 
(?) 
0.04 
.10 
.19 
.29 
.38 
.48 
.65 
.75 
.85 
.93 
1.03 
.15 
.10 
.13 
.15 
.18 
1.10 
1.10 


















































\ - 


36 


13 






































60 


28 


12 



/f \\\ III Illll'l' liiil ll'll'l Illllllllllllllll 


iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifPiii'iiiTni 


_ y^f| . .. || XT- - -; - 

| =^-y=;lf-:>:IPi 


: Average annual accretion : : : : 
Current A 


20 40 6O 80 1 
ft 

FIG. 21. Diagram showing rate of 


:::::::::::::::::::;::::::::::::::!!;;:;::;;;:;;:; 

00 120 MO /GO 180 2OO 
GE 

height growth of oppressed trees. 



96 



THE WHITE PINE. 



IfiUr- 






120- 

100- 

k 

Uj 

JJ47- 

^ | 

L cn 


a Dominant 1 EJ 
"\ Co-dominant S 
| Oppressed f---- 

...__. ......J ._.__ ! -_L. . ...... ,el_ 

..._.. ....-- 1 1 j I!. !".... I. ...... .......... ..,,*-.- 

...._. .__...__ i L . . _ _._ . J 1 4, i ....... - > !......., i ! 

X ' ' ' ' " 

. ... _______i____. ..._'._. .._ F ! ,?.._......_ 


__!_.., .... H i<;._. .......... ..........!........ 


\^- OU I 

r 
1 

OU- 
ZO - 

n **- 


.. .... , , _-._.^. n 2 . ..__'_. . 

::::::i?:: : ii::: : i I::::: 
T i:: : !!::: : i! :: - 
::::i!: : i!:::;:' 

// / 
-..__i*_.Tj .. ..._.__ _ 

/ /.^ 
i^l'- 





'0 20 40 60 80 100 120 10-0 160 180 20O 220 

RGE 

FIG. 22. Diagram showing height growth of dominant, codomiuaut, and oppressed trees throughout range. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



97 



cou -_ 




rjzj: Dominant . : 5 : : 
Z4O 3tr Co-dominant - : rprr : m 1 


, , , 1 


^ Oppressed - ::::::::::::::::: 

220 -rjxt-tj:' 

2005 

180 i.l '^::::::::::::| jj 5 1 
ISO ~ 

\ !ii!ii|ljji| 

S; :::::j:::::|:::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::: 


__..._... t - - -r- 
, 

. _| J 

::: ? 


JMM 

20 40 BO 80 100 


i _. . .1 't . II 

ft. yjl ; t L '.'. 

II LT! Jt\\ 1 

120 140 160 180 20 



flGE 

Flo. 23. Diagram showing volume growth of dominant, cmlominant, and oppressed trees throughout range. 

20233 No. 22 7 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE IV. IHmetmioni, roJume, and rale of groitth, by deeadet, etc. Continued. 
(A) OLD-GROWTH PINK Continued. 

(4) DOMINANT TREES. 

[Average in Wiaconain.] 
(68 trees.) 



Age. 


Dhunct.r 
at li.-iitlit Total 
of 2) feet height 
(without of tree, 
bark). 


Volume 
of Kti-m 
(without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 

ami mil 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Tear*. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 
110 
150 
160 
170 
180' 
190 
200 


Inchn. 
1.0 
2.2 
3.8 
0.3 
6.6 
8.0 
9.3 
11.0 
13.0 
15.2 
17.4 
19.6 
21.8 
24.0 
25.7 
27.4 
29.0 
30.5 
32.0 
33.3 


Feet. 
9 

22 
34 
46 
57 
66 
74 
80 
86 
91 
95 
100 
104 
108 
111 
114 
117 
120 
122 
124 


Cubic ft. 
(!) 
0.5 
1.9 
3.5 
7.6 
13.2 
21.0 
30.0 
41.5 
58.0 
78.0 
100.5 
124.0 
147.5 
169.0 
190.5 
212.5 
234.5 
256.0 
277.0 


Per cent. 


Ver cent. 


Per cent. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


Feet. 
9 
13 
12 
12 
11 
9 
8 
6 
6 
5 
4 
5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 


Cubic ft. 
(!) 

( i'.4 
1.6 
4.1 
5.6 
7.8 
9.0 
11.5 
16.5 
20.0 
22.5 
23.5 
23.5 
21.5 
21.5 
22.0 
22.0 
21.5 
21.0 


Cubicft. 
(!) 
0.02 
.06 
.02 
.15 
.22 
.30 
.38 
.46 
.58 
.71 
.84 
.95 
1.05 
1.13 
1.19 
1.25 
1.30 
1.35 
1.38 


Cubicft. 
(!) 
(!) 
0.14 
.16 
.41 
.56 
.78 
.90 
1.15 
1.65 
2.00 
2.25 
2.35 
2.35 
2.15 
2.15 
2.20 
2.20 
2.15 
2.10 














































































































65 


23 


12 



(5) OPPRESSED TREES. 

[Average in Wisconsin.] 
(55 trees.) 



10 


1 


4 


(?) 








1 


4 


(!) 


(?) 


(!) 




2 2 


10 


4 








2 


6 


(!) 


02 


11} 


30 


4 


16 


7 








3 


8 


0.3 


02 


',;; 


40 


5 4 


24 


1 6 








4 


8 


.9 


.04 


09 


50 


6 8 


32 


3.2 








5 


8 


1.6 


.06 


.16 


60 


8 


40 


6.0 








6 


8 


?.8 


.10 


.28 


70 


9 2 


47 


9 5 








7 


7 


3.5 


13 


.35 


80 


10 6 


55 


13.5 








8 


8 


4.0 


.17 


40 


90 


12.0 


62 


20.0 








9 


7 


6.5 


.22 


65 


100 


13 4 


69 


'8 








10 


7 


8.0 


28 


80 


110 


14 7 


75 


38 








11 


6 


10.0 


.35 


00 


120 


16 


81 


48 5 








12 


6 


10 5 


40 


05 


130 


17 2 


86 


60 








13 


5 


11 5 


46 


15 


140 


18.3 


90 


73.0 








14 


4 


13.0 


52 


30 


150 


19 5 


94 


85 








15 


4 


12 


57 


>0 


160 


20 B 


98 


97 5 








16 


4 


12 5 


61 


25 


170 


21 6 


101 


109.5 








17 


3 


12.0 


64 


20 


180 


22 7 


104 


122 








18 


3 


12 5 


68 


9^ 


190 


23.7 


107 


134 








19 


3 


12 


70 


20 


200 


24.6 


110 


146.0 


60 


28 


12 


20 


3 


12.0 


.73 


1.20 



(6) DOMINANT TREES. 

[Average in Michigan.] 
(75 trees.) 



10 


0.8 




(') 








1 


7 


() 


(?) 


(!) 


20 


2.6 


20 


0.5 








2 


13 


< ') 


02 


(!) 


30 


5.2 


32 


2.0 








3 


12 


1 5 


07 


15 


40 


7.4 


43 


5.5 








4 


11 


3 5 


16 


35 


60 


9.4 


53 


10.5 








5 


10 


5 


1 


50 


60 


11.3 


63 


17.6 








6 


10 


7 1 


29 


71 


70 


18.1 


72 


27.0 








7 


9 


9 4 


39 


94 


80 


14.8 


80 


38.2 








| 


g 


11 2 


48 


1 12 


90 


16.4 


88 


51.6 








9 


3 


13 4 


57 


1 34 


100 
110 
120 
130 
140 


17.9 
19.3 
20.6 
21.8 
23.0 


94 

98 
103 
107 
110 


65.5 
79.4 
93.6 
108.0 
123.5 


) ' 


31 


12 


f 10 
11 

1 12 
I 13 
14 


6 
4 

5 

4 
3 


13.9 
13.9 
14.2 
14.4 

15 5 


.65 
.72 
.78 
.83 
88 


1.39 
1.39 
1.42 

1.44 
1 55 


150 


24.0 


113 


140.0 








15 


3 


16 5 


93 


1 65 


160 


25.1 


116 


158.5 








"16 


3 


18 5 


99 


1.85 


170 


26.1 


120 


175.0 








17 


4 


16 5 


1 03 


1 65 


180 


27.0 


123 


192.5 








18 


3 


17 5 


1 07 


1 75 


190 


27.9 


126 


210.0 








19 


3 


17 5 


1 10 


1 75 


200 


28.8 


at 


226.5 








20 


3 


16 5 


1 13 


1 65 


210 


29.5 


132 


244.0 








21 


3 


17 5 


1 16 


1 75 


220 


80.3 


135 


261.5 








V 


3 


17 5 


1 19 


1 75 


230 


81.0 


138 


279.0 


69 


20 


11 


23 


3 


17.5 


1.21 


1.75 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



99 



TABLE IV. Dimensions, volume, and rate of growth, by decades, etc. Continued. 



U) OLD-GROWTH PINE Continued. 

(7) CODOMINANT TREES. 

[Average in Michigan.] 
(28 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
at height 
of 2i feet 
(without 

bark). 


Total 
height 
of tree. 


Volume 
of stem 
(without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Tears. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 


Inchft. 
0.7 
2.2 
4.0 
5.7 
7.3 
8.8 
10.1 
11.7 
13.2 
14.6 
IS. 9 
17.2 
18.5 
19.8 
20.9 
22.1 
23.2 
24.1 
25.1 
26.0 
26.7 
27.4 
28.0 


Feet. 
7 
16 
29 
37 
47 
57 
65 
74 
83 
89 
94 
99 
104 
108 
112 
116 
119 
123 
126 
129 
132 
135 
138 


Cubicft. 
(!) 
0.4 
1.3 
4.0 
7.6 
11.5 
18.0 
26.4 
38.0 
60.0 
63.0 
77.0 
92.0 
106.0 
119.0 
130.0 
140.0 

en 

(?) 
(?) 
(?) 
(?) 
() 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

( 21 
22 
1 23 


Feet. 
7 
9 
13 
8 
10 
10 
8 
9 
9 
6 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


Cubic ft. 
(?) 
(?) 
0.9 
2.7 
3.6 
3.9 
6.5 
8.4 
11.6 
12.0 
13.0 
14.0 
15.0 
14.0 
13.0 
11.0 
10.0 


Cubicft. 
(0 
0.02 
.04 
.10 
.15 
.19 
.26 
.33 
.42 
.50 
.57 
.64 
.71 
.76 
.79 
.81 
.82 


Cubic ft. 
(1) 
(!) 
0.09 
.27 
.36 
.39 
.65 
.84 
1.16 
.20 
.30 
.40 
.50 
.40 
.30 
.10 
.00 


























i 








i 




1 












| 










































I 83 


24 


13 



























(8) OPPRESSED TREES. 

[Average in Michigan.] 
(36 trees.) 



10 


0.7 


4 


(?) 








1 


4 


(?) 


(?) 


(?) 


20 


1 8 


12 


3 









2 


8 


(?) 


015 


(?) 


30 


3.3 


20 










3 


8 


0.4 


.02 


04 


40 


5 


28 


1 8 








4 


3 


1 i 


04 


11 


50 


6 6 


37 


4 








5 


9 


2 2 


.08 


22 


60 


8.0 


47 


7.0 








6 


10 


3.0 


.12 


.30 


70 


9 2 


56 


11 








7 


9 


4.0 


16 


40 


80 


10 5 


64 


16.6 








8 


8 


5.6 


.21 


.56 


90 


11 8 


71 


23 








9 


7 


6 4 


25 


64 


100 
110 
120 
130 
140 


13.2 
14.6 
15.8 

17.0 
18 


77 
83 
88 
92 
97 


30.0 
37.0 
45. 
54.0 
64 


I 


36 


13 


f 10 
11 

1 12 
I 13 

14 


6 
6 
5 
4 
5 


7.0 
7.0 
8.0 
9.0 
10 


.30 
.34 
.37 
.41 
.46 


.70 
.70 
.80 
.90 
1 00 


150 


19 


100 


74 








15 


3 


10 


50 


1 00 


160 


20 


103 


84 








16 


3 


10 


.52 


1 00 


170 


20 8 


106 


95 








17 


3 


11.0 


.56 


1.10 


180 


21 6 


109 


106 








18 


3 


11 


.60 


1 10 


190 


22 4 


111 


116 








19 


2 


10.0 


.61 


1.00 


200 


23 ** 


113 


126 








20 


2 


10 


63 


1 00 


210 


23 8 


115 


137 








21 


2 


11.0 


.65 


1.10 


220 


24 4 


117 


147 








22 


2 


10 


67 


1 00 


230 


24.9 


119 


157.0 


68 


19 


13 


23 


2 


10.0 


.68 


1.00 



(9) DOMINANT TREES. 

[Average in Pennsylvania.] 
(81 trees.) 



10 


1 





(?) 








1 


7 


(?) 


(?) 


(?) 


**0 


2 8 


2t 


5 








2 


14 


(?) 


0.02 


(?) 


30 


5 5 


35 


2 6 








3 


11 


2.1 


..09 


0.21 


40 


8 


49 


7 8 








4 


14 


5.2 


.20 


.52 


50 
60 


10.2 
12 2 


60 

70 


14.4 
24.9 


40 


47 


13 


5 
6* 


11 
10 


6.6 

10.5 


.29 
.41 


.66 

1.05 


70 


14 


78 


36 1 








7 


8 


11.2 


.52 


1.12 


80 


15 6 


86 


48 3 








8 


8 


12.2 


.60 


1.22 


90 


17 1 


93 


59 6 








9 


7 


11.3 


.66 


1.13 


100 
110 
120 
130 


18.6 
20.0 
21.5 

22 9 


99 
104 
108 
112 


74.6 
90.7 
106.9 
123 6 


j . 


35 


12 


( 10 
11 
1 12 
13 


6 
5 
4 
4 


15.0 
16.1 
16.2 
16.7 


.75 
.82 
.89 
.95 


1.50 
1.61 
1.62 
1.67 


140 


24 1 


110 


140 9 








14 


4 


17.3 


1.00 


1.73 


150 


25 2 


119 


158 2 









15 


3 


17.3 


1.06 


1.73 


160 


26 4 


122 


176 9 








16 


3 


18.7 


1.10 


1.87 


170 


27 5 


125 


196 2 








17 


3 


19.3 


1.15 


1.93 


180 


28 6 


128 


217 4 








18 


3 


21.2 


1.21 


2.12 


190 


29 6 


131 


238 








19 


3 


20.6 


1.25 


2.06 


200 


'!" - 


134 


260 5 








20 


3 


22.5 


1.30 


2.25 


210 


31 9 


137 


234.2 









21 


3 


23.7 


1.35 


2.37 


220 


33 


140 


309 7 








22 


3 


25.5 


1.41 


2.55 


230 


34.0 


143 


330.4 


69 


21 


10 


23 


3 


25.7 


1.46 


2.57 



100 



THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE IV. Dimensions, volume, and rate of yrowth, by decades, etc. Continued. 
(A) OLD-GROWTH PINE Continued. 

(10) CODOMINANT TBEE8. 

[Average in Pennsylvania.] 
(78 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 

at height 
iif 24 feet 
(with, .lit 
bark). 


Total 
height 
of tree. 


Volnme 
of stem 
(without 
bark). 


Kelative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 

Per cent. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Yean. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
SO 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 

no 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 


Incha. 
0.9 
2.3 
4.0 
5.9 
7.6 
9.3 
10.8 
12.0 
13.4 
14.7 
16.0 
17.3 
18.6 
19.7 
20.7 
21.8 
22.7 
23.5 
. 24.3 
25.1 
25.8 
26.5 
27.3 


Fat. 
5 
16 
28 
39 
48 
56 
63 
69 
75 
80 
85 
90 
94 
98 
102 
106 
109 
112 
114 
116 
118 
120 
122 


Cnbicft. 
( 
0.4 
1.8 
4.8 
7.8 
11.1 
16.7 
23.3 
30.7 
39.0 
47.9 
57.9 
65.2 
76.9 
88.9 
101.8 
115.3 
129.2 
142.9 
152.7 
165.5 
179.3 
195.0 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


Feet. 
5 

11 
12 
H 
9 
8 
7 
6 
6 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
8 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Cubic ft. 
(!) 
(0 
1.4 
3.0 
3.0 
3.3 
5.6 
6.6 
7.4 
8.3, 
8.9 
10.0 
7.3 
11.7 
12.0 
12.9 
13.5 
13.9 
13.7 
9.8 
12.8 
13.8 
15.7 


Cubic ft. 
(?) 
0. 02 
.06 
.12 
.15 
.18 
.24 
.29 
.34 
.39 
.43 
.48 
.50 
.55 
.59 
.63 
.68 
.72 
.75 
.76 
.79 
.81 
.84 


Cubic ft. 
(1) 

(I) 
0.14 
.30 
.30 
.33 
.56 
.66 
.74 
.83 
.89 
1.00 
.73 
1.17 
1.20 
1.29 
1.35 
1.39 
1.37 
.98 
1.28 
1.38 
1.57 




























































































































C5 


'l~t 


10 



e 



fc E fia 
n /M 
fflW 
tea--, 3 /W 


nnsylvania ~ 
chigan r 
sconsin c 

sine ;:::iT::::::::::::::i::Tr:3:::;:;! 


^^-^^-'^'^ r 


00 -^ 
20 ~ a. 
0\jf ' 


' j ( ! p----.----------*--i 

::: ;^::i: ::::::::::::::: ::::::^:^}q::^: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::: 
j i :;;;;;; ; ; tin "" ".'.','.". 


- ; T 

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

_}: ~^ + ~~ + ~"$. 5; 4^ ''i 4 

/>/? yo/7 nnn inn n/in nc 



flGE 

FIG. 24. Diagram showing height growth of dominant trees, by States. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



101 



/40r 



W 



'i/an/a- 



/O0 



w 



40 



ay 



40 &7 <?0 /00 /?0 /4.O /60 /80 200 2SO 

Fio. 25. Diagram allowing height growth of codominant trees, by States. 



120 
100 

i 80 

j 

= BO 

\ 
1 

5 


- - - - - . -I-, ' ' ' T'~! ' ' | 1 | ' I ' ' ' j ' i ~t"' ; 'f ' ' ' ' ' *" 


jj^\l:^\~\:^l:]~l^^~~^: 


- Pennsylvania 
^Michigan F i rittl i i ! Utff 

i_/ -j 11,1 - -p -i i i*- 

: Wisconsin :;;::!::::;:! 
1 . _t= l:::::::::;ii:::: is!!'!; 
ra _______ ;l:::: :-;!:::::;;<:: + :::::: 

2::::::::;?:::;is*::: 

__ . U 4 U_ .__ ? ^__^- pL [_Ul p . r 

--p 3 ' - ^ -?"]- p- -| 
??' '"t~ 
..,'!.^tf... .- --. -- 
_. ...... * , 1 . iiTi pj . U --, 

< ' . .t r . J 


--T i-tff-i- = -4-T ;:i:::;i::;:5ffi: 
-": Yp"---^?^^- 1 - j- i::::::::::: ^r^^r" 

l^ll^l^li;y;;l^iyi^P|i 

Si::;;:::;;;:;:;;;;;;;;!:;:;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;::;:;^: 

I | |i| 1 II ||||p ||li!| NmM 

i i ' ' pi 4- -U ^ ;,!-,, \- -, ^ H ^ 1 r 

l__j TT" 1 T ::::::: TT 

EEEEE;;; iE|EEE;;EE^:E|:l |E:Ep^:i E^mll 


i 40 

I 

20 
L 


---rf"-- tt - L 

__ , \~\fT? ,'s i L ,,..,.- ntz^ 

JP 

::::::|i:|g5 ::: 4; :: ; :: | :: ;; :: : : ;;;;;;: : :::::;:::;:::;:;:::t 
x^x..i^^__uU^ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: j:: 

r-sS^- 
:ffi:J!||::::::::^g|::::: .., :::::!: J :::::::+::: 

J??r- -1- - -I | , [_ | i 1 ' | , _[_ . , , | | . _j I ! , J | | i . t 1 [ | . ) . [_ . _ 

7 37 4/7 5^7 80 100 /ZO /4l 
flG& 

Flo. 26. Diagram ahuwiug height growth of o 


:::::3::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::T|-j:^:^i 

rj ^- -^- ij'-iUi- 

, , f J J 1_- 4- T Lit ;; | i t , CT 1 i ) i 

' /<527 /^/7 ^Z7 ^537 JW 260 

>pre98ed trees, by Statea. 



102 



THE WHITE PINE. 



I 



H ;::::::::::: 




ummummmmmmmmMmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 
a 


...> 

mmmmtmmmmnm 
"I 



i Mi& 
320 K\ -\Wisc 
::::: Penn 

300 jiii jjjjj 

280 | 
260^ 
240^ 
220.. 
200\-_^\-_\-_-_ 

! ill 

>/80 ;;;r 

i 


higan \ 
onsin : 


t . . .t 2 _- 
j....! 

-- i"~" ' " " i i 

.._.-_ (.. .[ J 

_ i ! ,_? ,._ __- 
-- ? ! -Z 

1 1 1 1 !! I '!!!!!'! I -. , 
t ,. j i - 

' ' . _ 

::J::i::::j!::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::: 
). . i . i _ 


! ::::-ii 
/gfl i 

120 
100 
80::* 

60 ;;|; 

40 \ 
20 : 

C 20 


-_ .j. 
_ _ _.. ._._. .. 

- - ig ?--- 

Z. ' . j 

tf/3 5^7 5^7 /OO /^^ /4^ 


!.... E .. . , . , 

ISO 180 200 22O 24Q 



AGE 

FIG. 27. Diagram showing volume growth of dominant trees, by States. 



TABLES OF MEASUKEMENTS. 



103 



SQO 



. 

Wisconsin --- 



/BO 



t 

k' 
to 









60 



40 



20 



ISO IQO 160 180 200 



FIG. 28. Diagram showing volume growth of codominant trees, \ty States. 



104 



TUK WUITE FINE. 



VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET 




TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



105 



TABLE IV. Dimensions, volume, and rate of growth, by decades, etc. Continued. 
<) SECOND-GROWTH PINE. 
(11) SITE a: YORK COUNTY, MK. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

(11 trees.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
at height 
of 24 feet 
(without 
bark). 
4y 


Total 
height 
of tree. 


Volnme 
of stem 
(without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 
accretion. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volnme. 


Yean. 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 


Inches. 
2.1 
5.7 
10.2 
14.2 
18.6 
22.1 
24.6 
26.2 


Feet. 



37 
49J 
60*. 
69 
77 
85 
90 


Cubic ft. 
0.5 
2.1 
6.5 
17.0 
34.0 
60.3 
82.2 
100.0 
(?) 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


Feet. 

% 

16 

I? 

? 

8 
5 


Cubicft. 
0.9 
1.6 
4.4 
10.5 
17.0 
28.3 
21.9 
17.8 


Cubic ft. 
0.05 
.10 
.21 
.42 
.68 
1.00 
1.17 
1.25 


Cubicft. 
0.05 
.16 
.44 
1.05 
1.70 
2.63 
2.19 
1.78 
































) 58 
to 
) 60 


29 
to 

32 


10 ( 
to 

11 1 











CODOM1NANT TBEES. 

(33 trees.) 



10 


1.8 


7 


0.2 








1 


7 


2 


02 


02 


20 


4.1 


17i 


.7 








2 


10* 


5 


03 


05 


30 


6.2 


30* 


2.4 








3 


12* 


1 7 


08 


17 


40 


8.6 


43 


6 4 








4 


13 


4 


16 


40 


50 


11.7 


56 


14.6 








5 


13 


8 2 


29 


82 


60 


14.8 


66* 


26 2 








8 




1] 6 


44 


1 16 


70 
80 
90 


17.3 
19.1 
21.0 


75* 
8*7* 


39.6 
54.0 
70.0 


1 4T 
to 

J 55 


34 
to 
41 


11 ( 
to{ 

12 1 


7 
8 
9 


1 


13.4 
14.4 
16.0 


.56 
.67 

.78 


1.34 
1.44 
1.60 



OPPRESSED TREES. 

(12 trees.) 



10 


1.5 


6 


(') " 








1 


6 


(?) 


(!) 


in 


20 


4 5 


18 


07 








2 


12 


(') 


03 


(?) 


30 


7.2 


30 


2 8 








3 


12 


2 1 


09 


21 


40 


9 5 


41 4 


6 6 








4 


111 


3 8 


16 


38 


SO 


11 2 


53 


12 3 








5 


lit 


5 7 


25 


57 


60 


12 8 




19.0 








6 


13* 


6.7 


.31 


.67 


70 


14 


"5JJ 


26 








7 


9 


7 


36 


70 


80 


15 


794 


32.4 








8 


4 


6.4 


.40 


.64 


90 


15.4 


83J 


39.0 


68 


28 


12 


9 


4 


6.6 


.43 


.66 



(12) SITE e: YORK COUNTY, ME. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

(10 trees.) 



10 


1 9 


7 5 


5 




I 


1 


7.5 


0.5 


0.05 


05 


20 


6 1 


19 


1 2 




1 


2 


11.5 


.7 


.06 


.07 


30 


9 4 


32 


5 


.... 




3 


13 


3 8 


.17 


.38 


40 


12 1 


45 


12 


; 


| 


4 


13.0 


7.0 


.30 


.70 


50 


13.9 


58.0 


21.4 


43 


45 [ 12 


5 


13.0 


9.4 


.43 


.94 












DOMINANT TREES. 

(8 trees.) 

















9 7 


2 








1 


9.7 


0.2 


0.02 


0.02 


20 


5 6 


21 3 


1 








2 


11.6 


.8 


.05 


.08 






33 4 


3 8 








3 


12.1 


2.8 


.13 


.28 




9 


43 


8 4 








4 


9.6 


4.6 


.21 


.46 


50 


10.3 


56.0 


13.0 


43 


45 


12 


5 


13.0 


4.6 


.26 


.46 



(13) MASSACHUSETTS AND NEW HAMPSHIBE. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

(12 trees.) 



10 
20 
30 

40 


2.2 
4.7 
7.5 
9.8 


9 
25 
39 
53 


O.I 
1.4 
4.3 
9.3 








1 
2 
3 

4 


9 

16 
14 
14 


0.1 
1.3 
2.9 

5.0 


0.01 
.07 
.14 

.23 


0.01 
.13 
.29 
.50 














40 


51 


9 


(Average in Massachusetts and New Hampshire of 12 trees. ' 


10 
20 
30 
40 


2.5 
5.4 
7.8 
9.1 


10 
33 
48 
58 


0.5 
2.0 
6.5 

12.5 








1 
2 
3 
4 


10 
23 
15 
10 


0.5 
1.5 
4.5 
6.0 


0.05 
.10 
.22 

.31 


0.05 
.15 
.45 

.60 














48 


46 


6 



106 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE IV. IHmentioiii, rolume, and rate of groirth, by deeadet, etc. Continued. 

(B) 8ECOXU-GKOWTH PINE-Continued. 

(14) SITE j/: CLEABFIELD COUNTY, PA. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

'4 trees.) 



Ago. 


Diameter 

at lirkhl 
of 2 feet 
(without 

but 


Total 
height 
of tree. 


Volume 
of stem 
(without 
bark). 


Relative per cent of total 
volume. 


Periodic accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accretion. 


Current 
annual 

ai'rivl ii.M. 


Heart- 
wood. 


Sapwood. 


Bark. 


Decade. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Ttan. 
10 
20 
30 


Inchtt. 
2.6 
7.3 
13.2 


Feet. 
9 
27 
i 


Cutncft. 
0.1 

3.0 
13.5 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Percent. 


1 
2 
3 


Feet. 
9 
18 
141 


Cubieft. 
0.1 
2.9 
10.5 


Cubic ft. 
0.01 
.15 
.45 


Cubic ft. 
0.01 
.29 
1.05 








37 


59 


8 



CODOMINANT TREES. 

(5 trees.) 


10 
20 
30 


1.8 
6.4 
10.8 


9 
27 
41 


0.1 
1.9 
8.0 






1 

2 
3 


9 
18 
14 


0.1 
1.8 
6.1 


0.01 
.09 
.20 


0.01 
.18 
.61 








34 


52 


14 


OPPRESSED TREES. 

(3 trees.) 


10 
20 

30 


1.6 
4.1 
6.3 


7 
25 
35 


0.04 
.60 
2.90 








1 
2 
3 


7 
18 
10 


O.M 
.56 
2.30 


0.004 
.03 
.10 


O.OM 

.056 
.230 








27 


60 


13 


SUPPRESSED TREES. 

(3 trees.) 


10 
20 


1.1 
2.4 


21 





















































(15) SITE t.- FOREST COUNTY, PA. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

(2 trees.) 



10 
20 
30 
40 


1.8 
6.9 
10.4 
12.9 


9 

41} 


(?) 
2.5 
8.7 
19.0 








1 
2 
3 
4 


9 
20J 
12 
11 


(?) 

1 L 

9.3 


(?) 
0.12 
.32 
.47 


(?) 
(?) 
0.72 
.93 














36 


54 


10 


DOMINANT TREES. 

(10 trees.) 


10 
20 
30 
40 


2.1 
5.9 
8.7 
11.0 


9 
27 
41} 
53 


(?) 
1.8 
6.0 
13.0 








1 

2 

3 

4 


9 

18 

ill 


(!) 
(?) 
4.2 
7.0 


!> 09 
.20 
.32 


(?) 
(?) 
0.42 
.70 














35 


52 


13 


CODOMINANT THEE8. 

(10 trees.) 


10 
20 
30 
40 


1.9 
4.8 
6.8 
8.5 


9 
27 
40 
52 


(0 
1.3 
4.7 
9.8 








1 
2 
3 
4 


9 
18 
13 
12 


(!) 
(.') 

3.4 
5.1 


(!) 
0.06 
.16 
.24 


(?) 
(!) 
0.34 
.51 














36 


58 


11 


OPPRESSED TREES. 

(5 trees.) 


10 
20 
30 
40 


2.1 
4.2 
5.7 
6.6 


^ 

36 
44 


(?) 
1.0 

2.7 

4.8 








1 
2 
3 
4 


7 (?) 
16 i (?) 
13 j 1.7 
8 2.1 


(?) 
0.05 
.09 
.12 


















0.17 
.2, 


34 


55 


11 



(16) SITE c: LUZERNE COUNTY, PA. 

DOMINANT TREES. 

(!l trees.) 



10 


1.0 


6 


(?) 








1 


| 


( ? ) 


( ? ) 


(?) 


20 


3.2 


19 


0.4 








2 


13 


(?) 


02 


(') 


30 


5.9 


33 


2.5 








3 


14 


2 1 


08 


21 


40 


8.7 


441 


7.2 








4 


ill 


4 7 


18 


47 


50 


11.5 


51 


14.0 


40 


47 


13 


5 


U 


6.8 


.28 


.68 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



107 



TABLE V. Growth of diameter and cro-section area at various heights from the ground. 
(1) AVERAGE THROUGHOUT THE RANGE. 



Charac 


Height 
of section 


DIAMETER OF SECTION, IN INCHES, AT AGE (YBARS) OF 


^ 2E.. 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


130 


140 


150 


160 


170 


180 


190 


200 


210 


220 


230 


Feet. 
















































2J 


1.9 


4.1 


6. 2 8. 2 


9.9 


11.6 13.2 


14.8 


16.6 


18.4 


20.1 


21.7 


23.2 


24.7 


26.0 


27.2 


28.4 29.6 


30.7 


31.71 32.6 


33.6 


34. S 


** x. 


18 


2.8 


5.4 


7. 3 9. 


10.5 


11.9 13.3 


14.6 


15.8 


17.0 


18.2 


19.3 


20.3 


21.2 


22.1 


22.9 


23.7! 24.5 


25.2 25. 9 26. 4J 26.9 




5 


34 


- - 


5.3 


7. 5 9. 3 


10.9 


12.4 


13.8 15.1 16.3 17.4 


18.5 19.4 


20.3 21.1 


21.9 


22.6 


23.3 24.0 


24.8' 25.4 26.0 




II 


50 


2.. 


5.4 


7. 7 9. 6 


11.2 


12.7 


14.0 15.1 16.2 17.1 


18 18.9 19.7 20.5 


21.3 


2' 1 (I 


22.7 23.4 


24.0 


24.7 










66 


2.5 


5.1 


7. 2 9. 3 


10.9 


12.2 13.4' 14.5 15.5 16.5 


17.4 18.2, 18.9 19.6 


20.3 


20.9 21.5 22.0 












jl 5l 


82 


2.3 


-1.4 


6. 1 7. 6 


9.0 


10.2 11.3 12.3 13.3 14.1 


14.9 15.7 


16.5 17.2 


17.9 


18.6 
















" ti 


100 


1.9 


3.8 


5.4 


6.9 


8.2 9.4 10.4 


11.4 12.3 


13.2 


14.1 


14.9 


15.8 


16.6 






















115 


1.4 


2.9 


4.4 


5.6 


6. 9 8. 1 


9.3 10.4 11.3 


12.1 






























2J 


1.11 


3. 5! 5. 3 


7.0 


8.6 10.0, 11. 4- 12.9 14.3 


15.6 


16.9 


18.3 


19.5 


20.6 


21.7 


22.8 


23.8 24.7 


25.6 26.4 


27.1 


27.8 


28.5 


tf __^ 


18 


2.4 


4.9 6.7 8.3 9.6 10.8 12.0 13.1 14.1 


15.1 


16.0 


17.0 17.8 


18.5 


19.2 


19.9 


20.6 21.2 


21.8 22. 4 1 23.0 


23.6 






34 


2.6 


5.11 7.0J 8.6 10.0 11.2 12.3 13.3 14.2 


15.1 


15.9 


16.7 17.4 


18.1 


18.7 


19.4 


20.0 20.6 


21.1 


21.8 


22.4 








50 


2.6 


4.9 6.9 8.6 


10.1 11.4 


12.4 13.4 14.3 


15.2 16.0 


16.8 17.5 


18.2 


18.9 


19.5 


211. 2 


20.8 


21.4 










|| 


66 


2.2 


4.3 6.1J 7.6 8.9:i0.011.C;11.9 12.7113.5 14.3 


15.0 15.7 


16.3 


17.0 


17.6 


18.2 
















82 


1.9 


3.8 : 5.3 6.7J 7.9: 9. 0| 10.0 10.9 11.7 12.4 13.1 


13. 7 1 14.3 


15.0 




















U ^ 


98 


1.6 


2.9 4.2 5.4 I',.:, 


7. 6i 8. 5 9. 6 


10.2 10.8 11.5 




























114 


1.0 


2.0 3.1 4.2 5.2 












































































2J 1.4 


3.1 4.8 6.4 7.7 8.9 10.3 11.5 


13.0 


14.3 15.7 


16.9' 18.1 


19.2 20.3 


21.3 


22.3 23.2 24.0 24.8 


25.4 


25.9 


26.4 


"5 ^ 


18 2.1 


4.2 5.8 7.1: 8. li 9.2 


10. li 11.2 


12.4 


13.4! 14.4 


15.3 16.1 


16.9 17.7 


18.4 


19. Ol 19.5 19.9 20.3 








* S 


34 


2.2 


4.4 6.2 7.9 9.3 10.5 


11.6 12.7 


13.6 14.4 15.2 


16.0 16.7 


17.4 18.0 


18.4 


18.8 19.1 








-" 


50 


2.1 


4.3 6.2 7.7 9.1 10.4 il.6 


12.6 


13.6 14.5 15.4 


16.2 16.8 17.4 17.8 


18.2 


18.7 














-* 


66 


2.4 


4.7 6.4 7.9 9.1: 10.3 11.3 


12.2 


12.9 13.5' 14.0 


14.5 15.0 15.5 


15.9 


















cl 


82 


2.3 


4. 1 5. 7 6. 9 7. 8 8. 4 9. 1 


9.8 


10.2 10.6 11.0 


11. 4| 11.9 





















100 


1.9 


3.8 6.0 5.9 6.7 7.4 


8.1 


8.6 


9.0J 






















Charac- 
ter of 

jfTOWth 


Height 

rf section 
from 


DIAMETER ACCRETION, IN INCHES, FOR DECADES 


















8n 


in 




1 9 


1 " 




1 fi 


1ft 17 


f Q 


i 'i 


on 


91 




'' 


grouiiu. i 


- 














V 


1U 




lz 


MM 




10 


III It 


19 


IV 


V 


Zl 




&o 




Feet. 










































2 1. 


) 2.2 


2.1 


2.( 


1.1 


1.' 


l.C 


LI 


1.8 


1.8 


1. 7 1. 6 


i.e 


1.5 


1.3 1.2 1.2 


l.S 


1.1 


1.0 


0.9 


1. C 


0.9 


. 


18 2. 


s 2.e 


1.9 


1.' 


.5 


l.t 


1.4 


1.3 


1.2 1.2 


1.2 1.1 


1.0 


O.S 


0. 9J 0. 8 0. 8 


o.s 


0.1 


0.7 


0.5 


0. ! 




= F 


34 2. 


! 2. 6 2. 2 


LI 


.e 


1.5 1.4 


1.3 


1.2 1.1 


1.1 0.9 


0.9 


O.S 


0.8 


0.1 0.1 


0.1 


O.S 


o.e 


o.e 






= - 


.Til 


2. 


i, 2.8 


2.3 


1.! 


.e 


1.5 .3 


1.1 


1.1 


0.8 


0. 9 0. 9 


!).* 


o.s 


O.E 


0.1 0.1 


0.1 


o.e 


0.7 








* ii 


66 




>i 2 e 


2 1 


2 1 


6 


13 2 


1.1 


l.fl 


1.0 


0. 


I 0.8 


0.7 


" 


0.1 


o.e o. e 


O.E 















82 


2. 


t 2.1 


1.7 


I.E 


.4 


1. 2' . 1 


1.0 


1.0 


0.8 


O.i 


) 0.8 


o.a 


o.- 


0.1 


0.7 














&i 


100 


1. 


) 1.9 


1.6 


1.5 .3 


1.2 .0 


1. 0. S 


0.9 


O.I 


) 0.8 


0.9 


o.s 






















115 


1. 


1 1.5 


1.5 


1.2 .3 


1.2 .2 


l.i: o. 


0.8 






























21 


1. 


5 1.8 


Lf 


1.7 .e 


1.4 


.4 


1.5 


1.4 


1.3 


1. 


I 1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.0 


O.S 


o.s 


o.s 


0.7 


0.1 


0.7 


~ . 


18 


2. 4 2. 5 


1.8 


1.6 .3 


1.2 .2 


l.l 


l.t 


l.C 


0. 9 1. 


o.s 


0.' 


0." 


0.' 


0.7 


o.e 


o.e 


o.e 


o.e 


o.e 




S *" 


34 


2. 2. 5 


1.9 


1.6 .4 


1.2 .1 


1. 0. 8 


O.S 


0.8 0.8 


11.7 


0.' 


0.0 


0." 


o.e 


o.e 


O.E 


0.1 


o.e 






-E S 


50 


2. 6 2. 3 2. 1 


1.7 . 


1. 3' . C 


1.0 0.9 0. 9 


0. 8! 0. 8 


0.7 


0.' 


0.1 


O.f 


0.7 


o.e 


o.e 










= - 


66 


2. 


2' 2.1 1.8 


1.5 .3 


1.1 .C 


0. 9 0. 8 0. S 


0. 8 0. 7 


0.7 


o.e 


0.1 


o.< 


o.e 














Is 


82 


1. 


J 1.9 l.S 


1.4 .5 


1.1 .e 


0.9 0.8| 0.7 


0. 7 0. 6 


o.e 


0.' 




















0^ 


98 


1. 


1 1.3 1.3 1.2 .1 1.1 O.S 


1.1 0.6 


o.e 


0.7J 


























114 


1.0 l.C 


1.1 


1.1 1.0 




































21 


1. 4 1. ' 


1.7 


1.1 


! l.S 


i.: 


! 1.4 


l.i 


I.E 


1.3 


1.4 1.2 


1.2 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


l.C 


O.t 


o.s 


o.s 


o.e 


O.E 


0.5 


5 X 


18* 


2. 


1 2.1 


i.e 


1. 


i i.e 


1.1 0.9 1.1 l.S 


l.C 


1. 0. S 


0. 8 0. i 


O.I 


0.' 


o.e 


O.E 


0.4 


0.4 








x * 


34 


2. 


2 2.5 


1.8 


1. 


1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 O.E 


o.s 


0. 8 0. 8 


0. 7 0. ' 


0. f 


0.4 


0.4 


o.: 












s 


50 


2. 


1 2.1 


1.9 


1. 


) 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 l.C 


o.s 


0. 9 0. 8 


0. 6 0. f 


0.4 


0.' 


I O.E 














fcr 


66 


2. 4 2. r 


1.7 


1.. 


> 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.' 


o.e 


0.51 0.5 


0. 5 0. ! 


0.4 


















B3 




82 


2. 


i 1.! 


l.t 


1.2| 0.9 0.6, 0.7 0.7 0.4 


0.4 


0.4 0.4 


0.5 
























100 


1.9 1.9 1.2 


0.9 0.8 0.7 0.1 


0.! 


0.4 




\ 

























CORRESPONDING ARBA ACCRETION, IN SQUARE FEET, FOR DECADES 



growth, g^;;;; 1 ,, , 


2 


S 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


28 




2J 0.02 

18 04 


0.07 
12 


0.13 
.13 


0.16 
.16 


0.18 
17 


0.20 
.17 


0.21 
19 


0.24 
20 


0.30 
.20 


0.33 

.22 


0.35 
.23 


0.35 
.22 


0.36 
.22 


0.39 

.20 


0.35 
.21 


0.36 
.21 


0.38 
.20 


0.38 
.22 


0.87 
.20 


0.34 
.20 


0.32 
.14 


0.35 
.15 


0.32 


- "-i 


34 04 


.12 


.15 .17 .18 


.18 .20 


.20 


.20 


.20 


.21 


.18 


.19 


.19 


.19 


.18 


.18 


.18 


.20 


.16 


.16 








50 04 


13 




. 18! 18 


.19 .19 


Ifl 


.19 


.Ifl 


.17 


.17 


.18 


.17 


.17 


.18 


.15 


.16 


.15 


.16 










66 03 


. 11 


.14 


. 151 . 17 


.16 .17 


.12 


.17 


.10 


.17 


.15 


.14 


.14 


.15 


.16 


.14 


.12 












r -f 


82 03 


07 


10 


.11 .12 


.13 .12 


.12 


.14 


.13 


.12 


.12 


.14 


.13 


.13 


.14 
















C ?i 


100 


m. 


,06 


.08 


.11 


.10 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.12 


.13 


.12 


.12 


.16 


.14 
























.01 


.03 


.07 


.07 


.09 


.10 


.11 


.10 


.11 

































2J 
18 


.01 
03 


.06 
10 


.09 
.12 


.11 
.13 


.13 
.12 


.15 
.14 


.16 

14 


.19 
15 


.21 
.15 


.21 
.15 


.23 
.15 


.27 
.17 


.24 
.15 


.23 
.14 


.24 
.14 


.27 

.15 


.24 
.14 


.23 
.14 


.23 
.13 


.22 
.14 


.20 
.14 


.21 
.15 


.21 


ii 


34 
50 


.04 
04 


.10 
.09 


.13 
.14 


.13 
14 


.14 

.15 


.14 
.15 


.14 
.13 


.14 
.14 


.14 

.14 


.14 
.14 


.14 
.13 


.13 
.14 


.13 
.13 


.13 
.13 


.12 
.13 


.14 

.12 


.13 
.14 


.13 
.12 


.12 
.13 


.15 


.13 






= 


M 




07 


10 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.10 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.10 


.11 


.10 


.12 

















82 


. I)'-' 


06 


,08 


.09 


.09 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.09 


.10 


.09 


.08 


.10 






















98 


Off 


03 


.06 


.00 


.07 .08 


.08 


.10 


.07 


.07 


.09 


























114 


.01 


.01 


.03 


.05 


.05 






































11 


21 
18 
34 


.01 
.02 
03 


.'14 
.08 
08 


.07 


.10 
.09 
.13 


.10 
.08 
.13 


.11 
.10 
13 


.15 
.09 
.13 


.14 
.13 
.14 


.19 
.15 
.13 


.20 
.14 
.12 


.22 
.15 
.12 


.20 

.14 
.13 


.22 
.14 
.13 


.22 
.13 
.12 


.23J .23 

.141 .12 
.12 .08 


.21 
.11 
.08 


.22 
.10 
.08 


.20 
.08 


.20 
.08 


.15 


.14 


.13 


y 


50 
66 


.02 

113 


.08 
.09 


.11 .11 
.11 .12 


.12 
.11 


.14 
.12 


.14, .14 
.121 .11 


.13 
.10 


.13 
.09 


.13 
.07 


.13 

.08 


.10 

.07 


.11 

.08 


. 07 . 07 
.07 


.10 














~ 


82 


.03 


06 


. 119 . OS 


.07 


.05 .07 .07 .05 


.04 .05 .05 


.06 






















~~ 


100 


.02 


.00 


.06 .05 


.05 .06! .00 .04 .04 























108 



THE WHITE PIXE. 




Flo. 30. Diagram showing average progress of diameter growth (breast high) of dominant trees. 



8 
1 









i zte A 

18 

rr 50 
66 
8Z 

- too 


?et from ground : 

v ft rt 

rt 99 > . I it 
u .. . 

> ._.. . . 


1 I j 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1 1 I 1 | 1 I 1 lUJ-TTTll t 


\ 

:: : :: ::|! ; j!:;;! 
I lljjjjjj:::: 


itwrfr"" 5 -. 
|i|;;!i;;;:;;-;i-;;i;;;-;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:;;;;;:;;;; 


:::::::.:.:::::..----::.--- :.f ------- 



"0 20 40 GO 80 100 I2O 140 160 180 200 2ZO 24O 

RGE OF DISK 

Pm. 81. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground (average throughout range). 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



109 



32 \ 

~+-T 


||1|| 


"";;;:;;;:" !:: """"""" : """"- : " ::: " : "-:" 




m 

28^=^ 
24 


2 ^ef /9z7 ground : 
/5 " " : 
34 - i 
]\JO U 

66 - - ' : 




y^ j t i i 


82 .- 
55 


::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::^ :::::;;= ;;i-:!::: 


; = . j j j ;! 1 1 -- 


1 I 

;;:; 

4r: 


::::;::::::j! 

: /^4rffl 


*;-?'=------;r^ 

TTH Ff (ftr- ' 




=3 
f- 


^^ttffltitttttH 1 ^ 




<%- 


in /in an an inn i?n i/in 


//7/7 IRF1 577/7 ^i?/7 ^ 



nee OF DISK 

FIG. 32. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominant trees at various heights from ground (average throughout range). 



2 l /s feet from ground 

18 ' " 

34 

50 - 

66 * " 

82 " 

100 ,. " 




~4O 6O 80 100 IZD I4O 160 180 SOU ZZO Z4O 

AGE OF DISK 

Flo. 33.-Diagram showiDg diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground (average throughout range). 



HO THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE V. Growth of diameter and crou-tection area at tnriout heights from the ground Continued. 

(2) AVERAGE FOR WISCONSIN. 



ch- J^r 


DIAMETER OF SECTION, IN INCHES, AT AGE (TEARS) OF 


growth. 


ground. 


10 


to 


SO 


40 


SO 


60 


70 


so 


00 


100 


110 


ISO 


180 140 


150 


160 


170 


180 


190 


200 


Jill 


220 280 


j 




































Fret. 


































- . ( 2J 


1 8 


3. 3 4. 8 


6.2 


7.5 8.8 10. 3' 


12.0 14.2 


16.6 is.tt 


21.0 


2:!.l 25. 1 26.8 28.4 30.0 31.5 


32.8 34.0 








1? 


21 4.2 5.8 


7.2 


8.6 10.1 11.7 


13.3 14.8 


16.4 17.9 


in. a 


2.4 21.:. -J2.H 2:1. 6 2J.5 25.4 


26.2 








III 34 


2.2 4.4 6.4 


8.3 


10.1 ll.li 13.5 


15.1 16.6 


17.9 19.0 


20.0 


21.0 21.9 22.8 23.6 24.4 














50 


2. 4 5. 7. 4 


9.5 


11.3 13.0 14.5 


15.8 17.1 


18.2 19.2 


20.2 


21." 21.8 22.6 23.4 












Jf on 1 


66 


2.4 5.0 7.2 


9 2 


ll.o 12.5 


13. H 


15.1 


16.2 


17.2 is. 1 


18.8 


111.4 20. J 














s [ 


82 


2.3 


4.4 


H. 1 


7.6 


9.0 10.3 


11.4 


12.3 


13.2 


14.0 14.7 


15.5 




















s^. 


24 


15 


3.4 4.9 


6.4 


7.6 


8.7 


10.2 


11.4 


12.8 


14.2 15.6 


16.7 


17.8 


19.0 20.2 


21.2 


22.3 23.4 


24.2 


25. 








;; ' 


18* 


21 


4.2 5.7 


6.9 


7.8 


8.8 


9.7 


10.9 


12.1 


13.1 14.2 


15.2 


16.0 


IB. 8 17.7 


18.4 


19.0 














fe 


34 


1 8 


3. 6 5. 


n 5 


7.9 


A. 2 


10.4 


11.6 


12.7 


13.7 


14.6 


15.8 


16 3 


17.1 17.8 


















tB 


50 


IB 


3. 4 5. 2 


67 


8.3 


9.8 


11.2 


12.4 


13.5 


14.5 


15.4 


16.3 


16.8 






















** 


66 


2.2 


4.6 


6.4 


8.1 


9.4 


10.7 


11.8 


12.7 


13.4 


14.0 


1,4 


























Charac- 


Height 

Of MClkTO 


DIAMETER ACCRETION, 


IN INCHES, FOR DECADES 


growth. 


from 












































































































































Feet. 
















































N 


1.1 


1.7 l.E 


1.4 1.3 1.3 


1.5 1.1 


2. 2 2. 4 


2. 3 2. 1 


2.1 


2.0 1.7 1.6 l.f 


1.5 1.S 


l.S 








- ' ( 


18 212111 


14 1.4 1.5 l.l 


1.6 1. 


. i f 


1 5 


1 V 


1 1 


1.1 11 10 os 


0.9 01 










c J 


34 2.2 2.2 2. ( 


1.9 1.8 1.8 l.( 


1.6 1.5 1.3 


1.1 1.0 1.0 


0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 














jf i 


50 2.4 2.6 2.. 


2. 1 1. 8 1. ' 


l.S 


i.; 


1 ; 


1.1 


1.1 


l.l 


O.t 


0. 8 0. 8 0. 1 
















S X 1 


66 2.4 2.6 2.5 


2.0 1.8 l.E 


1.4 1.2 


1. 


i.e 


0. 9 0. 7 0. ( 


0.6 
















(5_ I 


82 2.3 2.1 1.1 


1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 


0.8 


0. 9 0. 8 


0. 7 0. 8 


















_ . . 


21 15' 19 IE 


1 I 


12 11 


1.1 


1 5 


14 14 


1 4 l.l! 1.1 


12 11 


i n 


1 1 


1.1 


{ 


t 








i i 


18 2.1 2.1 1.1 


1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.2 


1.2 1.0 


1.1 


1.0 0. 8 


0. 8 0. 9 0. i 


0.6 














^ \ 


34 1.8 1.1 


Ll 


1.5 1.4 1.3 1.5 


. 1.2 


1. 


i.( 


O.I 


O.I 


O.f 


0. 8 0. ' 


















c.^ j 


50 1.6 1.8 l.l 


1.5 1.6 1.5 1.4| 1.2 


1. 


i.i 


O.I 


0. 9 0. 5 














, 








-=~>- ( 


66 2.2 2.4 l.l 


1." 


1.3 1.3 1. 


1 0.1 


0. 


0.< 


0.' 








































I 





























Phr . Height 


CORRESPONDING 


AREA ACCBETION, IN 


SQUARE FEET, FOR DECADES 


,f of section 












Icr OJ 

growth 


from 
ground. 


1 


a 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


S 


9 


10 


11 


li 


18 


14 


16 


16 


17 18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


tl 




Feet. 












































*s . 


2)1 0.01 


0.05 


0.07 


0.08 


0.10 0.11 0.16 0.20 


0.32 


0.40 


0.45 0.45 


0.51 0.53 


0.48 


0.48 0.51 0.50 0.40 0.43 








~ 
SE 


18 


.02 


.08 


.08 


.10 


.121 .16 .19 .21 


.23 


.28 


.28! -28 


. 24 . 25 


.26 


.20 .23 .25 .22 








._ 8 


34 


.03 .08 


.11 


.16 


.18 .21 .22 


.25 


.26 


.25 


.221 .21 


.22 .21 


.22 


.21 


.21 












*3 


50 


.03 .11 


.16 


.19 


.21 .22 


.23 .21! .23 


.22 


. 20 . 21 


.18 .19] .19 


.21 














- s 


66 


.03 


.11 


.14 


.18 


.20 .19 


.20, .19 


.10 


.18; .18 .14 


.12 


.13 
















e_ 


82 


.03 


.08 


.09 


.11 


.13 


.14 


.13 .11 .13 


.12 


.11 


.13 






















1-s ( 


24 


.01 


.05 


.07 


.09 


.03 .10 


.IB .14 


.18 




.23 


.19 


.21 


.24 


.25 


.23 


.26 .28 


.20 


.22 








18 


.02 


.08 .08 .08 


.07 .09 .09 .14 


.15 


ill 


.17 .in 


.14 


.14 


.17 


.14 


.12 












fc \ 84 


.02 


.05 .07 


.09 


.111 .12 .13' .14 


.15 


.14 


.14; .15 


.14 


.14 


.14 


.14 
















c. 1 50 


.01 


.05 .09 .09 


.13 .15 .16 .16 


.15 


.16 


.14 .Hi 


.09 






















e"s es 
1 


.03 


.08 


.11 


.14 


.12 


.14 


.14 


.12 


.101 .09 


.06 



























TABLES OF MEASUKEMENTS. 



Ill 



32 



2'/2 feat from ground - 
18 .. .. - 
34 > > if 

66 " " ',', - 
82 



(o 

^.20 
^ 



12 



40 6O 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 

AGE OF DISK 

Fio. 34 Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Wisconsin. 



to :: 






wiM'/i 

: * 
5t 
20 ~ ~ 6t 

\ 


?'/? feet from ground - 
? :: 
y - 




^ ::::::::: 

4\\ 


.. ; .-,-- ,-. - 

-. j ' . , . , 1 , i ' . . 
.'- .-tf'tt _ 

li!'::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::: 





20 40 60 80 100 I2O I4O 160 ISO 200 

flE OF DISK 

Fio. 35 Diagram showing diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground in Wisconsin. 



112 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE V. Growth of diameter and croii-tcction area at variant heights from the ground Continued. 

(3) AVERAGE FOR PENNSYLVANIA. 



Charmc 
terof 


Height of 


DIAJIETEK Or SECTION, IN INCHES, AT AOE (TEARS) Of 














































growth 


ground. 10 


to 


SO 


40 


50 


60 


70 


so 


90 


100 


110 


120 


ISO 


140 


150 


160 170 


ISO 


190 


200 


210 


220 


2SO 




. 


i n 


4.4 


7 1 


9 5 


11 5 


13.4 


15.0 


16.5 


iao 


19.5 


21.0 


22.4 


23.6 


24.9 


26.0 


27.1 


28.2 


29.3 


30.4 


31.5 


32.7 


33,9 


34 9 




18 


1 4 


6.4 




10.3 


11,8 


13.0 14.1 


15.2 


16.2 


17.2 


18.2 


19.1 


20.0 


20.8 


21.5 


22.2 23.0 23.8 


24.6 


25.4 


25.9 


26.4 




9 " 


34 


n ? 


6.1 


8.3 


9.9 


11. :i 


i2. :. 1:1.1 


14.7 


15.7 


16.7 


17.6 


18.4 


19.3 


20.1 


20.9 


21.6 22.3 23.1 


24.0 21.7 


25 3 






_ - 


SO 


? 7 


5. 6 7. 8 


9 4 


10 7 


11.9 13.1 


14.2 


15.2 


16.0 


16.7 17.4 


18.2 


18.9 


19.7 


20.6 21.2 21.9 


22. e 


23.3 










66 


? 5 


5. 7. 


8,7 


10.3 


ll.fi 


12.8 


13.9 


14.8 


15.8 


16.7 17.5 


18.3 


19.1 


19.9 


20.6 21.3 21. g 












- 


82 


^ 


4.4 


6.2 


7 8 


9 ? 


10 5 


11,6 


12.7 


13.7 


14.5 


15.3 16.1 


16.9 


17.7 


18.4 


19.1 

















100 


1 8 


3.7 


6.3 




8.1 


9.3 


10.4 


11.6 


12.6 


13.6 


14.6 15.5 


16.4 


17.2 




















115 


1.4 


LI 


4.4 


5.6 


6.9 


8.1 


9.3 


10.4 


11.3 


12.1 




























2 , 


1 A 


3,5 


5.4 


7.2 


8.7 


10.2 


11.6 


12.9 


14.2 


15.5 


16.8 18.2 


19.3 


20.3 


21.3 


22.3 


23.2 


24.0 


24.8 


25.5 


26.2 


27.0 


27.8 


* 


18 


1 4 


4 8 


6 5 


8 


9,1 


10.1 


11.2 


12.3 


13.2 


14.1 


14.9 15.8 


16.5 


17.2 


17.8 


18.4 19.1! 19.7 


2(1. 3 


21. (1 


21. fl 


22.2 




* "*" 


34 


2 3 


4 6 


64 


7.8 


9.0 


10.1 


11.1 


12.0 


12.8 


13.6 


14.4 15.1 


15.8 


16.5 


17.1 


17.8 18.4 19.1 


19.7 


20.4 


21.0 






5 Sj 


50 


2 3 


4.4 


6.2 


7.9 


9.3 


10.. 1 ) 


11.5 


12.5 


13.4 


14.2 


14.9 15.6 


16.3 


16.9 


17.6 


18.2 18.9 


19.5 


20.1 










Ei: 


66 


fl 1 


4.1 


5 f" 


7.2 


8.5 


9.6 


10. e 


11.5 


12.3 


13.1 


13.9 14.6 


15.3 


15.9 


16.6 


17.2 17.8 














iff 


82 


1.6 


3.1 


4.5 


5.7 


il.S 


7.8 


8.7 


9.6 


10.4 


11.1 


11.8 12.4 


13.0 


13.7 






















98 


1.4 


2.5 


3.8 


6.0 


6.1 


7.1 


8.0 




































114 


1.0 


2.0 


3.1 


4.2 


5.2 






































r- tow 


Height of 
section 


DIAMETER ACCRETION, IN INCHES, FOR DECADES 




from 
















g 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


1A 


17 


18 






























































Feet. 


















































U 


?, 


2.4 


2.7 


2.4 


2.1 


l.t 


i.e 


.5 


.5 


1.5 


1.5 


1.4 


1.2 


1.3 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.2 


1,? 


1 




18 


3.4 


3.0 


2.1 


l.S 


1.5 


1.2 


1.1 


.1 


.C 


l.o i.e 


. 


.1 


.i 


.1 


.7 


t g 


.f 


.f 


,f 


.1 


.5 






34 


3 2 


2 t 


2. S 


1 (3 


1.4 


l.S 


1.1 


.1 


.c 


i.( 


.8 


.8 


. 


.8 


.8 


.7 


.1 


.i 


.( 


.', 


.< 






c 


50 


2,7 


2.9 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


1.2 


.2 


.1 


.0 


.8 


.7 


.7 


.8 


.7 


.8 


.8 


.7 


.7 


.7 


.7 








J"~ -5 


66 


2.5 


2.5 


2.C 


1.7 


i.e 


1.3 


.2 


.1 


.0 


.! 


.t 


.8 


.8 


.8 


g 


.7 


.1 


.5 















82 


2.2 


2.2 


.8 


1 6 


1.4 


1.3 


.1 


.1 


1.0 


.t 


.8 


.8 


. 


.8 


.1 


.7 
















! 


100 


l.S 


l.S 


| 


1.5 


l.S 


1.2 


.1 


.2 


1.0 


l.( 


1.C 


.1 


.1 


.t 






















115 


1.4 


1.5 


.6 


1.2 


1.3 


1.2 


.2 


.1 


.9 


.H 






























2j 


1.6 


1.9 


.9 


1.8 


1.5 


1.5 


.4 


.3 


1.3 


1.3 


1.3 


1.4 


1.1 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


0.9 


0.8 


0.8 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.8 


* 


18 


2.4 


2.4 


.7 


1.6 


1.1 


i.e 


.1 


j 


.8 


.! 


. 


.8 


.7 


.7 


.e 


.6 


.7 


t 


.f 


.7 


.( 


.f 




8 


34 


2 3 


2 3 


.8 


1.4 


.2 


1.1 





.9 


.8 


.8 


.8 


.7 


.7 


.7 


6 


.7 


.6 


.7 


.6 


.7 








1 


50 


2 3 










1 2 






9 


8 


7 


7 


7 


6 




6 




6 












g c 


66 


-. 1 


2 




1 4 


3 


I I 





8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


.6 


7 


6 


6 














"3 ^ 


82 


1.6 


1.5 


.4 


1.2 


.1 


1.0 


.9 


.9 


.8 


.7 


.7 


.6 


.6 


.7 




















o ~* 


98 


1.4 


1.1 


1.3 


1.2 


.1 


LC 


.8 




































114 


1.0 


1.0 


1.1 


1.1 


1.0 






































Charac- 
ter of 


Height of 
section 


CORRESPONDING AREA ACCRETION, IN SQUARE FEET, FOR DECADES 














































growth 


ground. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


g 





10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


32 


23 




Feet. 


















































n 


0.02 


O.Oi 


0.17 


0.22 


0.2! 


0.25 


a. a 


0.2( 


0.2S 


0.3( 


0.33 


0.34 


0.3C 


0.34 


0.31 


0.31 


0.34 


0.34 


0.3( 


0.37 


0.42 


0.44 


0.37 






.06 


.If 


.17 


.1* 


.If 


.ie 


. ie 


.IS 


.17 


.11 


.21! 


.18 


.11 


.18 .16 


.17 


.IS 


.21 


.21 


.22 


.14 


.14 






34 


.05 


.15 


.11 


If. 


.II 


.15 


.11 


.17 


.16 


.If 


.17 


.ie 


.18 


.17 


.18 


.16 


.17 


.2C 


.25 


.18 


.ie 






a $ 


50 


.04 


.15 


.If 


.15 


.14 


.15 


.ie 


.17 


.If 


.14 


.12 


.13 


.If 


.14 


.11 


.17 


.16 


.If 


.11 


.16 








I* 3 


66 


OS 


11 


.IS 


.14 


.11 


.15 


11 


16 


Ifi 


15 


id 


15 


If 


.16 .17 


.18 


13 


.1? 












53 


82 


.03 


.01 


.11 


.12 


.13 


.14 


.13 


.15 


.14 


.13 


.13 


.13 


.15 


.15 .14 


.14 
















ss 


100 


.02 


.05 


. 08 


.ie 


.11 


.11 


.12 


.14 


.13 


.15 


.15 


.16 


. 16 


.14 






















115 


.01 


.03 


.07 


.07 


.09 


.10 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.10 






























2 i 


.01 


.M 


.09 


.12 


.13 


.IB 


.16 


.18 


.19 


.21 


.23 


.27 


.22 


.22 


.2? 


.24 


.22 


.21 


.21 


.20 


.19 


.24 


.23 




18 


.OS 


.OS 


.11 


.12 


. 1( 


.11 


.12 


.14 


.13 


.1.' 


.13 


.15 


.12 


. 13 . 12 


.12 


.14 


.13 


.IS 


.15 


.14 


.15 




* 3^ 


34 


.0: 


.01 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.12 .11 


.14 


.12 


.14 


.IS 


.15 


.13 






- $ 


50 


.OS 


.0" 


.11 


.13 


.11 


.11 


.12 


.IS 


.13 


.1? 


.11 


.1? 


.1? 


.11 .13 


. 12 


.14 


.1? 


.13 










= M 


66 


.02 


.117 


. (K 


.1C 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.11 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.10 .12 


.11 


.12 














"SS 


82 


.01 


. 04 


.Of 


.01 


.0: 


.Of 


.Of 


Of 


.05 


,08 


Of! 


Of 


.Of 


.10 


















u~ 


98 


.01 


.02 


.Of 


.0 


.11! 


.01 


,M 




































114 


.01 


.01 


.03 


.05 


.a 










































TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



113 



36 



32 



28 



18 

34 

50 

66 

82 

100 

115 



'/S feet from ground- 



" 



" ' 



s 



8 




20 4O 60 80 100 I2O 

flGE OFD/Sff 

Fio. 36. Diagram showing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Pennsylvania. 



?4O 



gorrnr 






i 2fo 
18 
241 34 

50 

t 66 
<D # i 82 
Si 98 

1114 

^ fiirr", " 

5 |( 


feet from ground : 

1 X ' '~ " 


i;;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 




r^Utf i :: ~" : ^^^3: ; = :i: 1 ::::: 
S &,<&- -- 

'" j ij< j ::;:;; t'l:^-:::' '-'-'-------'------- ------ 

tfrLnTHTI 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 " 





20 *HJ " 

Flo. 37. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominant trees at various heights from ground in Pennsylvania. 

20233 No. 22 8 



114 



THE WHITE PINE. 

V. Growtk ofdiamtter and orott-ttetion area at rariou KtigKttfroi* the ground Continued. 
(4) AVERAGE FOK MICHIGAN. 





D1AHETEB OF SECTION, IW INCHES, AT AOE (YEARS) OF 


. Hrii;lit '! 
v*l*rC- BMntlnn 


terof JJS 1 , 


1(1 


so 


so 


40 


(0 


60 


70 


80 


90 1 


00 1 


10 


120 


::o 


40 


160 


160 1 


70 I 


SO 190 i 


!00 i 


10 


!20 280 


R 


F*t. 

18* 
84 

60 
68 
82 
100 


2.8 
2.8 
2.5 
2.3 
2.1 


4.4 
A. 6 
5.8 
6.7 
6.2 
4.2 
4.0 


fi.l 

7.7 

(Li 

7.3 
5.9 
6.5 


8.7 10.6 
9.6 11.3 
11.8 11.4 
10.1 11.8 
8.8 10.1 
7. 4 8. 7 
7. 8. 2 


12.4 
12.8 
12.X 
13.3 
11.3 
9.7 
B.4 


14.0 
14.2 
14.2 t 
14.5 
12.4 
10.7 
10.3 


15.6 
16.6 
15.3 
16.8 

13 5 

11.6; 

11.1 


17.2 
Hi. 7 
16.3 
16.5 
14. S 
12.7 
11.9| 


18.7 
17.7 
17. :! 
17.4 
15.5 
13.6 
12.6 


20.0 
18.7 
18.5 

16.5 
14.4 
13.3 


21.2 
19.7 
19.4 
19.2 
17.4 
16.1 


22.3 
20.6 
20. 2 
20.1 
18.1 
15.8 


23.5 
2 l.S 
21.0 
20. 
18.8 
16.4 


24.5 
22.4 
21.7 
21.6 
19.4 
17.1 


23.2 
22.4! 
22. 2 
10.9 


!6.5 
>3.9 
3. 1 
22.8 
20.4 


27.5 28.4 
24.6 25.2 
B.7 24.:: 
23.4 23.9 


29.1 
25.8 
24.8 


29.8 
26.3 


30.6 ! 
26.8 


11.4 


\\ 


I 

18 

34 
60 
68 


1.6 
2.3 
2.8 
2.9 
2 2 


3.4 
4.9 

5.5 
5.3 
4.3 


5, 1 8. 7 8. 3 
6. 8 8. 4 9. 8 
7.4 9.1 10.6 
7.5 9.2 10.7 
6. 2 7. 7 9. 


9.6 11.0 12.6 
11.2 12.4 1:1. s 
11.9 13.1 14.2 
12.0 13.0 14.0 
10.0 11.0 11.8 


14.1 
14.6 
15.2 
14.9 
12.5, 


15.4 16.7 

15.fi 16.6 

1C,. 1 1C,. II 

15.8 16.6 
13.3 14.1 


18.1 
17.6 
17.7 
17.4 
14.8 


19.4 20.5 
18.5 19.2 
18.4 19.1 
18.1 18.8 
15.4 IS. 9 


21.6 
19.9 
19.7 

I'.'. 4 
10.4 


22.8 23.8 24.7 25.6 
20.6 21.3 21.9 22.4 
20.3 20.9 21.4 21.8 
19.9 20.5 21.0 
16.9 


26.4 
22.9 


27.1 


27.7 28.3 
23.9 


*SS 


V 


2.2 


4.4 


6. 7. 5 8. 8 


9.9 10.9 11.8 


12.6 13.3 


14.0 


14.6 


IT,. 1 IS. 7 


















o~ 


100 


1.7 


3.2 


4.5 


5. 6 6. 7 


7. 8 8. 7! 9. 5 


10.3 11.0 


11.7 
























]j 


18 

I 


1.2 
2.0 
2.5 
2.5 


2.6 
4.0 
5.1 
5.0 


4.4 

6.6 
7.2 

6.9 


6. 1 7. 5 
7.0 8.1 
9.0 10.3 
8. 31 9. 5 


8.8 10.1 
9.2 10.0 
11.4 12.4 
10.6 11.6 


11.3 
11.0 

is. a 

12.4 


12.8 
12.1 
14.0 
13.2 


14.0 
13.1 
14.6 
13.9 


15.3 
14.0 
15.2 
14.6 


16.5 
14.7 
15.8 

I:,.'-' 


17.7 
15.5 
16.4 
15.8 


18.7 
Hi. 2 
16.9 
16.4 


l!l. 7 2H.fi 
10.8 17.3 
17.4 17.8 
16.8 17.2 


21.4 22.1 
17.8 18.3 
18.2 18.5 
17.7 


22.9 
18.7 


23.6 

1'J. 1 


24.2 


24.7 25.2 


E.** 


H 


2.5 


4.7 


6. 3 7. 6 


8.7 


9.7 10.6 11.4 


12.1 


12.7 


i:i. II 


13.8 


14.3 


14.8 


15.2 


















s-S 


82 


2.3 


4.1 


6.7i 6.9 


7.8 


8.4 9.1! 9.8| 10.2 


10.6 


11.0 


11.4 


11.9 
























100 


1.9 


3.8 


5. 01 5. 9 


6.7 


7.4 


8.1 


8. 6 9. 






























Charac- 


Height of 
section 


DIAMETER ACCRETION, IN INCHES, FOR DECADES 


ter of 
growth. 


from 
ground. 


1 


2 


8 


4 


1 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


82 


28 




Fttt. 


2.0 
2 8 


2.4 

2.8 


2.2 
2.1 


2.1 

1.9 


.! 


1.8 
1.5 


1.6 

1.4 


1.6 

1.3 


1.6 

1.2 


1.5 
1.0 


1.3 
1.0 


1.2 
1.0 


1.1 
0.9 


1.2 

0.9 


1.0 
0.9 


1.0 
0.8 


1.0 
0.7 


1.0 

0.7 


0.9 
0.6 


0.7 
0.6 


0.7 
0.5 


0.8 
0.6 


0.8 


li 


34 

60 
86 


2.8 
2.8 
2.5 


2. 8 2. 3 1. 9 

2.9 2.3 2.1 
2.7 2.1 1.5 


'.6 1.4 

.7! .5 
.3' .2 


1.4 
1.2 
1.1 


1.1 

1.0 

1.1 


1.0 1.0 
1.0 0.9 

1.0 1.0 


1.2 

o.e 

1.0 


0.9 
0.9 
0.9 


0.8 
0.9 
0.7 


0. 8 0. 7 
0. 8 0. 7 

o. 7 o. e 


0.7 
0.6 
0.5 


0.7 
0.6 

0.5 


0. 6 0. 6 
0. 6 0. 5 


0.6 








(?- 


82 


2.3 1.9 


1.7 1.5 


.3 


.0 


1.0 


0.9 


1. 1 0. 9 


0. 8 0. 7 


0.7 


o.e 


0.7 














H ~ 


100 


2.1, 1.9 


1.5 


1.5 


1.2 


.2 


0.9 


0.8 


0. 8 0. 7 


0.7| 






















!| 


18 
34 


1.5 1.S 
2.3 2.6 
2. 8 2. 7 


1.7 
1.9 
1.9 


1.6 
1.6 
1.7 


1. 6 . ! 
1.5 '.I 


1.4 
1.2 
1.2 


1.8 
1.1 
1.1 


1.5 

1.1 
1.0 


1.3 
1.0 
0.9 


1.3 1.4 
1.0 1.0 

(1.8 n. s 


1.3 

0.9 
0.7 


1.1 

0.7 
0.7 


1.1 

0.7 

o.e 


1.2 
0.7 
0.6 


1. 0. 9 0. 9 
0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 
0. 6 0. 5 0. 4 


0.8 

0.5 


0.7 

0.5 


0.6 
0.5 


0.6 


1 


60 


2. 9 2. 4 


2.2J 1.7 


l.S 


.3 


1.0 


1.0 


0.9 0.9: 0.8 0.8 


0.7 


O.'i 


0.6 0.51 0.6 0.5 










a 


66 


2. 2 2. 1 


1.91 1.5 


U 


.0 1.0 0.8 


0.7 0.8 ! 0.8 0.7 


o.e 


O.E 


0. 5 0. 5 


0.4 












/, 


82 


2. 2 2. 2 1. 6 


1.5 


1.3 .1 l.Ol 0.9 


0. 8 0. 7 


o. 7; o. e 


0.5 


o.e 
















~ 


100 


1.7 1.5 


i.3 


1.1 


1.1 


.1 


0. 9 0. 8 


0. 8 0. 7 


0.' 


























21 


1. 2 1. < 


1 R 


1 7 


1 4 


a 


1 3 


1 2 


I.s! 1.2 


i 


1.5 


1 2 


i.< 


1.0 O.S 


0. 8 0. 7 0. 1 


0.1 


o.e 


0.5 


0.6 




I? 


2. 01 2. l 


1.6 


1.4 


1.1 


.1 


0.8 


1.0 


1.1] 1.0 0.9 0.7 


0.8 


0.' 


0. 6 0. 5 


0.6 0. 5 0. 4 


0.4 










84 


2. 5 2. ( 


2.1 1.8 


i.: 


.1 1.0 0.9 


(1.7 0.6 0.8 O.e 


o.e 


o.: 


0. 5 0. 4 


0.4 0.3 












60 


2. 5 2. ! 


1.9 1.4 


i.i 


.1 1.0 0.8 


0. 8 0. 7 0. ' 


0.6 


o.e 


O.I 


0. 4 0. 4 


0.5 














86 


2. 5 2. 1 


1.6 1.3 


i. 


1.0 0.9 0.8 


0. 7 0. 6 0. 


) 0. 5 0. E 


O.f 


0.4 


















82 
100 


2.3 l.i 
1.9 l.i 


I 1. 6 1. 2 
1 1.2 0.9 


O.I 
O.I 


> o.e 

i o.- 


0.7 
0.7 


0.7 
0.5 


0. 41 0. 4 

0.4 


0. 


1 0.4 


O.E 




1 
















Charao 
tor of 


Height of 

uection 


CORRESPONDING AREA ACCRETION, IN SQUARE FEET, FOR DECADES 














































growth 


ground. 


1 


8 


8 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


80 


21 


22 


28 




Feet. 


















































2| 


M 


2 0.0 


S 0.14 


i o.r 


0.2 


9 0.23 0.23 0.2( 


ii. -J. 


0.30 0.2 


- 11.2' 


0.26 0.30 0. -Jfi (i.2,- 


0.2i 


! 0.29 0.2l 


0.2; 


0.2! 


0.270.27 


1; 


18 


.0 


1 .1 


3 .11 


) .18 .2 


.19 .21 .2 


.2 


.19 .2i 


3 .2 


.22 .18 .22 .If 


.li 


) .19 . 11 


! .1 


r .!< 


I .15 




34 


.0 


4 .1 


S .1' 


.1H .1 


.18 .21 .li 


1 .1' 


.18 .2 


1 .11 


.17 .18 .17 .1" 


.17 .15 .Hi .1 


1 






E 


60 


.0 


4 .1 


1 .1 


r .21 .20 .20 .19) .11 


! .1- 


.1' 


r .1 


3 .li 


1 .19 .18 .16 . 1J 


.14 .16 .12 








- 


86 


.0 


S .1 


2 .1 


1 .13 .1 


4 .14 .1 


.1. 


. .!( 


.11 


i .1 


7 .V 


r .14 .1 


I .12 .11 


.1 




. 








; - 


82 


.0 


3 .0 


7 . 


) .11 .11 .10 .1 


.1 


.11 


.1! 


i .1 


i .1 


.12 .1 


I .12 
















100 


.0 


2 .0 


7 .0 


! .11 .0 


9 .12 .10 .0! 


1 .11 


:K 


) .O 1 


9 .01 


! 


































































** 


2 


.0 


1 .0 


5 .08 .10 .1:1 .13 .1 


) .2 


) .V 


.2 


1 .23 .2 


r .a 


) .2 


I .2 


5 .2! 


.2 


) .24 


.2 


i .21 


I .21 


) .18 


. l-.i 




18 


.0 


3 .1 


.1 


2 .13 .1 


4 .16 .1 


i .1 


> .1' 


.17 .1 


7 .11 


i .1 


1 .1 


1 .1 


5 .li 


.1 


) .14 .1 


i .r 


'. .1 






c 5 


34 


.0 


I .1 


2 .1 


1 .15 .1 


6 .10 .1 


r .1 


1 .1 


.15 .1 


5 .1 


> .1 


I .1 


1 .1 


3 .1! 


.1 


) .11 


.11 


) 








"fi 


60 


.0 


6 .1 


.1 


3 .15 .1 


6 .16 .1 


i .1 


i .1 


.15 .1 


4 .1 


i .1 


I .1 


1 .1 


2 .11 


.1 


) .11 












o 


66 


.c 


3 .0 


7 .1 


1 .1 


1 .1 


2 .10 .1 


! .1 


) .0 


.1 


L .12 .1 


L .1 


) .0 


3 .0 


1 . il' 
















18 


82 


.1 


: .( 


7 .1 


] .1 


1 .11 .11 .1 


2 .1 


I .1 


.01 


) .11 .0 


) .0 


! .1 


i 


















o~ 


100 


.1 


12 .0 


4 .0 


5 .06 .07 .0 


9 .0, 


S .0 


) .01 


.01 


i .09 


























2 


I ' 


1 .0 


8 .0 


3 .1 


3 .11 .1 


1 .1 


1 .1 


1.1 


.1 


i .2 


1 . 'J 


) .2 


1 .2 


I .2 


1 .2! 


! .1 


i .It 


.21 


> .1 


) .1 


> .U 


.13 




18 


.0 


L .(17 .(1 


8 .10 .09 .1(1 .0 


3 .1 


2 .1 


.1 


1 .1:1 .1 


1 .1 


) .1 


2 .1 


1 .01 


I .1 


) .u 


.01 


! .01 


< 








84 
60 
86 


.03 .11 .1 

.03 .11 .1 
.03 .1)9 .1 


t .16 .14 .1:; .1 
J .12 .11 .12 .1 
.09 .10 .10 .1 


2 .1 

2 .1 

D .1 


I .1 
1 .1 
9 .0 


.0 
.1 

.11 


.10 . 1 
) .11 .1 
3 .08 . 0. 


) .1 

1 .1 
i .0 


L .09 .0 

) .11 .0 

r .OB . o 


9 .01 
7 .ff 

- 


! .0 

r .1 


j .0 

j 














82 


.031 .08: .09 .08 .0 


7 .05 . 


7 .0 


7 .0 


.H 


1 .05 .01 


S .08' 






















100 


.02 .08 .06 .05 .05 .06 .0 


II .0 


1 .0 








i 





















TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



115 



32 



= 



2'/2feet from ground - 
18 ., . 
34 



" >> 



" " 



|20 



1" 




20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 ISO 200 220 240 



Flo. 38. Diagram allowing diameter growth of dominant trees at various heights from ground in Michigan. 






2'/2 feet from ground - 



34 
50 
66 
82 
100 









I 






5 

Q 








20 4O 6O 8O IOO 120 140 I BO I8O 2OO 2ZO 24O 

flCE OF DISK 

fia. 39. Diagram showing diameter growth of codominant trees at various heights from ground in Michigan. 




20 40 O 8O IOO ISO 140 160 ISO 2OO 22O 

/JGF DFD/SH 

Fio. 40. Diagram showing diameter growth of oppressed trees at various heights from ground in Michigan. 



240 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pint and measurements of sample trees. 



A.-MICHIGAN : 

(1) SITE a: 



Presque Isle County. 
[700 to 800 feet above sea 1,'vel.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil Yellow or gray sand, moderately loose, deep ; subsoil with small stoues, surface cover of Age of pine : 100 to 150 years. 

brakes, huckleberry, etc., Density of crown cover: 0.6. 

Foreit conditions: Ked'Pine (61 per cent), mixed wiih White Tine (36 percent), and occasional 

Maple, Poplar, Cedar 13 per cent), on level. Number of trees: 181. 

Olcutitication White Tine. Bed Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 40 

Oppressed do.... 27 

Suppressed do.... 43 28 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. i:.'d Pino. 




Volume. 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 










Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubic/tel. 


Feet B. 31. 




Inches. 


Fal. 


4 


3 to 6 


r 






9 






17 


6 to 10 




170 




25 


e'toio 




1 


10 




18 




4 


10 




4 


11 




100 




7 


11 




2 


12 




69 




7 


12 




5 


I* 




175 




5 


13 


80 


6 


14 




240 




7 


14 


to 


7 


15 


80 


322 




9 


15 


100 


4 


16 


to 

i im 


232 




13 


16 




6 


17 


1UU 


325 




12 


17 




3 


18 




216 




9 


18 




2 


19 




158 




3 


19 




2 


21 




186 




3 


20 




3 


22 




303 










1 


24 




110 










2 


27 




366 










8 trees: 


113 trees: 


Total cubic feet " 'i' i 


Total cubic feet. 3, 813 


Total feet B. M 




14,350 


Total feet B. M. 18,300 





Total yitld : Pine, 32,650 feet B. M., of which Whit* Pine 44 per cent. 
Average annual accretion: Whit* Pine, 57 cubic feet. 

272 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



117 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

A. MICHIGAN Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

Age clait: 80 to 100 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 

length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


13 . 


lean. 
100 
100 
95 


Inches. 
19.0 
20.2 
21.5 


Feet. 
94 
95 

100 


No. 
5.2 
4.9 
4.1 


Cu. ft. 
75.4 
99.6 
115.4 


0.40 
.48 
.45 


0.52 
.42 

.48 


Per cent. 
2.0 
.8 
1.0 


Cu.ft. 
1.50 
.80 
1.15 


Ou. ft. 
0.75 
1.00 
1.21 


42 


29 


Average... 


98 


20.2 


96 


4.7 


96.8 


.44 


.47 


1.3 


1.15 


.99 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



68 . . 


98 


14.5 


78 


5.9 


46.9 


0.52 


0.42 


2.2 


1.03 


0.47 




SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 


19 


92 

84 


10.5 
10.0 


72.0 
73.0 


8.2 
7.6 


20.6 
20.9 


0.47 
.53 


0.26 

.48 


1.2 

3.7 


0.25 

.77 


0.22 
.25 


11 


Average... 


88 


10.2 


72.5 


7.9 


20.7 


.50 


.37 


2.4 


.51 


.23 



Aye class: 100 to 150 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



1 . ... 


123 


20 


10 2 


5 5 


89 7 


40 


54 


2 9 


2 60 


073 


22 


101 


20 8 


90 


4.7 


92 7 


42 




2 


1 85 


91 


48 


105 


20.5 


99.0 


5.1 


96 7 


42 


44 


1 3 


1 26 


92 


47 


104 


22 7 


94 


4 7 


103 


39 


59 


1 5 


1 55 


99 
























Average... 
5... 


108 
149 


21.0 
20.2 


96.0 
105.0 


5.0 

7.6 


95.5 
88.9 


.41 
.39 


.52 
.50 


1.9 
2 


1.81 
1 78 


.89 
60 


g 


135 


21 


114.0 


8 2 


107 9 


39 


57 


2 2 


2 37 


80 


35 


135 


22.0 


121.0 


5.5 


139.6 


4U 


43 


1 5 


2 10 


1 03 
























Average... 


139.7 


21.1 


113.0 


6.4 


112.1 


.39 


.50 


1.9 


2.08 


.81 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



g 


102 


16.0 


85.0 


6.6 


48.8 


0.41 


0.46 


2.5 


1.22 


0.47 


31 


102 


15.1 


86.0 


6.7 


49.4 


.46 


.40 


1.4 


.69 


.48 


45 


102 


17.0 


84.0 


6.0 


58.5 


.44 


.61 


1.7 


.99 


.67 


43 


105 


16.8 


87.0 


6.1 


67.3 


.49 


.42 


.7 


.47 


.64 
























Average... 
4 


1U3 
127 


16.2 
17.0 


85.5 
88.0 


6.3 

6.7 


56.0 
56.9 


.45 
.41 


.47 
.54 


1.6 

5.2 


.84 
2.96 


.54 
.44 


40 


134 


15.0 


94.0 


8.6 


57.6 


.50 


.30 


2.2 


1.26 


.43 


3 


147 


18.0 


91.0 


7.9 


66.0 


.41 


.44 


4.9 


3.23 


.44 
























Average... 


136 


16.7 


91.0 


7.7 


60.2 


.44 


.43 


4.1 


2.48 


.44 



SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 





127 


11.0 


69 


1.2 


24.6 


0.54 


0.22 


3.2 


0.79 


0.19 

























Age clan: 250 to 300 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



7 


284 ' 33 


135 


8.7 


319.2 


0.39 




0.6 


1.91 


1. 




| 



















12J 



118 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLK VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurement* of sample trees Continued. 



A.-MIC-IIIGAN-Continued 
(3) Srrmt: 



IT M' i ii' Isle Cminiy. Sample area: 1 acre. 

[700 to 800 feet above sea level.] 
Soil : Deep, loose, gray sand, covered with leaves ; said to be underlaid by clay. 

Font! condition*: White Pine (68 per cent). Intermixed with Red Pine (14 percent), Hemlock 
(18 per cent), with scattering Cedar. 

ClaMi/tartion .- White Pine. 

Jwniinant per rent.. 52 

Oppressed do 18 

Suppressed do 30 

ACRE YIELD. 



Age of pine: 130 to 140 years. 
Density of crown cover: 0.7 to 

0.8. 
Number of trees: 181. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Hemlock. 








Volume. 














Xnmber 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer. 
Chan table 


Number 
of trees. 


Dianioter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 










timber. 
















Inchei. 


Feet. 


Cubicfeet. 


Feet B. 31. 




Inchei. 


Feet. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 


28 


6 to 10 




280 


1 6 to 10 




20 


etoio 


) 40 


5 


10 




95 ; 


1 


14 




11 


10 to 14 


to 


6 


11 




192 




1 


15 




3 


14 to 18 


) 60 


7 


12 




266 




5 


16 










6 


13 




264 




6 


17 


100 








11 


14 




550 




1 


18 


to 








9 


15 




522 




3 


19 


120 








6 


16 




384 




2 


20 










10 


h 


100 


720 




5 


21 










8 


18 


to 


640 




1 


22 










7 


19 


120 


616 
















6 


20 




690 
















6 


21 




744 
















7 


22 




945 
















1 


23 




117 
















1 


24 




153 














1 


3 


26 




555 
















1 


27 




199 
















1 


30 




240 
















129 trees : 


26 trees: 


34 trees: 


Total cubic fee* 8 9rc> 


Total cubic feet. 2,440 


Total cubic feet ... 520 


Total feet B. M 




. 39,300 









Total yield : All species, 11,162 cubic feet, of which White Pine 73 per cent. 
Averaye annual accretion : White Pine, 63 cubic feet. 

302 feet B. M . 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TKEES. 
Age clasii 130 to 150 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
nigh). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


84... 


Yeari. 
140 
136 
135 
134 
136 
135 
138 
133 
130 
13S 
138 
139 


Inchei. 
19.5 
19.7 
20.0 
22.0 
22.5 
21.7 
22.8 
23.2 
24.0 
24.0 
23.5 
25.0 


Feet. 
124 
114 
115 
113 
123 
122 
119 
116 
106 
108 
113 
122 


No. 
6.5 
6.7 
6.2 
6.0 
6.5 
5.9 
6.1 
5.5 
5.3 ' 
5.6 
8.7 
5.2 


Cu.ft. 
109.8 
115.9 
121.5 
123.5 
130.1 
136.4 
138.5 
141.1 
143.5 
144.7 
146.5 
187.3 


0.42 
.49 
.48 
.31 
.39 
.44 
.40 
.42 
.43 
.42 
.43 
.44 


0.34 
.31 
.32 
.27 
.30 
.32 
.30 
.38 
.40 
.35 
.26 
.50 


Percent. 
1.0 
1.2 
1.6 
.7 
1.4 
.7 
1.0 
1.2 
1.8 
.9 
1.0 
1.5 


Cu.ft. 
1.10 
1.39 
1.94 
.86 
1.82 
.95 
1.38 
1.69 
2.58 
1.30 
1.46 
2.81 


Cu.ft. 
0.78 
.85 
.90 
.92 
.96 
1.01 
1.00 
1.06 
1.10 
1.07 
1.06 
1.27 


9... 


S3 


37 


36 


35 


2 


22 


4 


8 


1 


ia 


Average . . . 
27... 


135.7 

142 
142 
142 
142 
143 
149 
148 


22.3 

23.0 
24.0 
23.5' 
22.0 
24.2 
25.0 
26.3 


116 

117 
110 
114 
119 
116 
113 
115 


5.9 

5.8 
6.8 
S.7 
6.0 
5.8 
5.7 
5.5 


136.6 

138.9 
140.6 
148.0 
157.3 
164.3 
168.8 
205.4 


.42 

.41 
.41 
.43 
.49 
.45 
.46 
.46 


.34 

.30 
.39 
.36 
.26 
.38 
.34 
.39 


1.2 

.2 
.6 
.8 
.5 
.7 
.8 
1.2 


1.61 

1.67 
2.11 
2.66 
2.36 
2.79 
1.35 
2.46 


1.00 

.98 
.99 
1.04 
1.11 
1.14 
1.06 
1.39 


26 


11 


20 


80 


24 


5 


Average . . . 


144 


24.0 


115 


5.8 


160.5 


.44 


.34 


1.4 


2.20 


1.10 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



119 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

A.-MICHIGA:N-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES Continued. 

OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 

Oil 

stamp. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


7 


fears. 
132 
139 
135 
135 
135 
140 


Inches. 
17.8 
18.5 
18.0 
17.5 
19.5 
18.5 


Feet. 
114 
112 
116 
110 
107 
102 


No. 
6.7 
7.8 
7.2 
7.3 
6.8 
7.5 


Cu. ft. 
83.6 
88.4 
91.2 
92.0 
95.6 
98.2 


0.41 
.42 
.44 
.49 
.43 
.51 


0.42 
.38 
.27 
.36 
.42 
.27 


Per cent. 
1.2 
1.1 
.9 
1.6 
.5 
1.9 


Cu. ft. 
1.00 
.97 
.82 
1.47 
.48 
1.87 


On. ft. 
0.63 
.63 
.67 
.67 
.70 
.70 


12 


18 


28 


14 


29 


Average . . . 


136 


18.3 


110 


7.2 


91.5 


.45 


.35 1.2 


1.10 


.67 



SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 



8... 


131 


15 


115 


8 5 


66 2 


47 


35 


1 


66 


50 


32 


135 


17 5 


()> 


7 2 


73 9 


Ml 


(? ) 


2 4 


1 77 


55 


31 . . 


238 


17 4 


104 


7 3 


78 6 


45 


29 


1 7 


1 34 


57 


13 


131 


16.4 


114 


7 7 


79 7 


.47 


.28 


1.3 


1 04 


61 


17 


138 


19.0 


103 


7.0 


80.6 


.39 


.28 


1.6 


1.29 


.58 
























Average . . . 
6... 


131. 6 
142 


17.0 
21.0 


109 
109 


7.5 
7 2 


75.8 
121.7 


.44 
.46 


.30 
.44 


1.6 
1.5 


1.22 
1 82 


.56 

85 


25 


154 


19.0 


97 


7.7 


78.6 


.41 


.41 


1.4 


1.10 


.80 
























Average . .. 


148 


20.0 


103 


7.5 


100.0 


.43 


.42 


1.4 


1.46 


.67 



(3) SITE d: 



Montmorency County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil : Fresh, loose gray sand, turning brown and red below, with surface cover of brakes and Age ot pine : 250 to 270 years. 

checkerberry ; subsoil, brown Sand, sometimes loamy, and in spots clay. Density of crown cover : 0.5. 

Forett conditiont: White Pine (54 per cent) mixed with" Red Pine (35 per 'cent) and Hemlock (11 

percent). Number of trees : 113. 

Damaged by fire twelve years before; sample area shows 15 per cent dead trees and 20 per 
cent damaged by fire. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Hemlock. 








Volume. 














Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 
















Inchet. 


Feet. 


Oubicfeet. 


Feetlt.it. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


2 


10 




36 




2 


13 




2 


3 to 6 


40 


1 


12 




38 




1 


14 




1 


9 




3 


13 




159 




3 


15 




1 


11 


50 to 


1 


14 




60 




1 


16 




2 


12 


flfl 


3 


15 




207 




3 


17 




6 


15 


oU 


3 


16 




231 




3 


18 


120 


1 


20 




1 


17 




86 




6 


19 


to 








1 


18 




96 




5 


20 


140 








3 


19 




315 




4 


21 










2 


21 


120 


280 




8 


22 










6 


22 


to 


906 




1 


23 










5 


23 


140 


855 




1 


24 










1 


24 




1,611 




1 


30 










4 


26 




800 
















1 


26 




216 
















3 


27 




696 
















2 


28 




498 
















7 


29 




1,862 
















2 


30 




560 
















1 


31 




302 
















1 


33 




340 
















61 trees: 


39 trees : 


13 trees. 


Total cubic feet 10. 154 


Total cubic feet. 5, 256 




Total feet B. M 




60,900 


Total feet B. M.. 25,200 







Total yield: Pine, 86,100 feet B. M.. of which White Pine 66 per ctnt. 
Average annual accretion: Pine, 59 cubic feet. 
331 feet B. M. 



120 



THE WHITE 1'INE. 



TABLE VI. Acre yield! of iriiite 1'iite and meaiiireiitente of sample tree* Continued. 



A.-MH-IHGAN-Contlnned. 

i4i SITE*.- 



Monlmorency County. 



Sample area: one-half acre. 



Soil: Brown or red Dandy loam, light, loow. dry, wli h stonen, and surface cover of brakes and Age of pine : 100 to 120 yean 

other weod. Density of crown cover: 0.5. 

Foral condition* : Ked Pine (59 per cent) mixed with White Pine (41 per cent! ; no undergrowth ; 

level. Number of trees : 110. 

Clainfcat:,m . W lute Pine. Red Pine. 

Dominant por rent.. 65 60 

OpfCHMd do 18 34 

Si 1 1. pi i "ill do 17 6 

HALF-ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 






Volume. 




TlilmntAt* 




Number 
of trees. 


1/lBmvMr 

(luvnit 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


Number 
of trees. 


Lnameier 
(breast 
liigh). _ 


Height. 




Ineha. 


Feet. 


Cubiefeet. 


FeetB.M. 




Ineha. 


Feet. 


2 3 to 6 








4 


3 to C 




2 6 to 10 




20 




6 


6 to 10 




4 10 




72 




4 


10 




2 11 




56 




2 


11 




2 


12 


on 


68 




6 


12 




6 


13 


BO 


234 




4 


13 




8 


14 


to 


360 




6 


14 


80 


2 


15 


100 


104 




2 


15 


to 


6 


16 




348 




2 


16 


100 


2 


17 




130 




4 


17 




4 


18 




288 




10 


i 18 




6 


19 




474 




6 


19 














4 


20 














2 


21 














2 


22 




46 trees : 64 trees : 


Total cubic feef 9 i si 


Total cubic feet 3 532 


Total feet B. 11 




9.030 


Total feet B.M." 14,' 800 





Total yield: Pine, 23,830 feet B. M., of which White Pine 38 per cent. 
Average annual accretion : Pine, 51 cubic feet. 
217 feet B.M. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 















Eatio of 






Tree number. Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 


Current annual 
accretior. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 














tree. 








Years. 


Inchei. 


Feet. 


.Vo. 


Cu./eet. 






Per cent. 


Cu.feet. 


Cu.feet. 


8... 120 


18 


96 


6.5 


71.6 


0.42 


0.41 


1.1 


0.79 


0.60 





OPPRESSED liROWTH. 



4 


118 











































TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



121 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



A. MICHIGAN Continued. 
(5) SITE/.- 



Montmorency County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil: Brown, dry sand, with stones, and surface cover of brakes and grass. Age of pine: 160 to 180 years 

Forest conditions : Red Pine (94 per cent) with scattering White Pine (6 per cent) on a level plain ; Density of crown cover : 0.6. 

no undergrowth save very small shrubs of scattered Oak (characteristic of this locality). 

About 15 per cent of trees injured by fire in 1891. Number of trees: 115. 

Classification : Red Pine. 

Dominant per cent.. 72 

Oppressed do 13 

Suppressed do 15 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
clmntable 
timber. 


1 
2 
1 (dead) 
1 (dead) 

1 
1 


Inchet. 
15 
16 
18 
21 
22 
23 


Feet. 

90 
to 
100 


Oubicfeet. 
52 
116 


Feet B.M. 


1 
1 
5 (2 dead) 
5 
8 (3 dead) 
13 (1 dead) 
18 '4 dead) 
20 (3 dead) 
24 (4 dead) 
5 
5 
2 
1 


Inches. 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


Feet. 

90 
to 
100 




112 
122 


7 trees : 
Total 
Total 


cubic feet 
feet B M 


402 


108 trees : 
Total cubic feet ... 6, 863 
Total feet B. M . . . . 28, 800 


1 fifln 





Total yield : Pine, 30,490 feet B. M., of which White Pine 5 per cent. 
Average annual accretion : Pine, 42 cubic feet. 
179 feet B. M. 



(6) SITE g : 



Crawford County. 
[About 1,200 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil: Brown, loamy sand, deep, fresh, moderately loose, with surface cover of fern and grass; Age of pine: 250 to 260 years 
sand with stones underlies the soil. Density of crown cover: 0.7. 

Forett conditions: Two-story stand, upper story of White Pine (1 Red Pine of 26 inches in diam- 
eter), with 0.3 density of crown cover, lower story of Fir (22 from 4 to 10 inches iu diameter), 
Beech (4 from 4 to 10' inches in diameter), and Hemlock (19 from 4 to 10 inches in diameter); 
undergrowth moderately dense, of Maple, Fir, Hemlock, and Beech. Percentages: White 
Pine. 50; Hemlock, 20; Fir, 25; hardwoods, 5. 

Clattitication: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 77 

Oppressed do 

Suppressed do.... 10 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees: (?) 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 
chantable 
timber. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 


Oubicfeet. 


Feet B.M. 


3 


16 




213 




1 
2 


18 

21 


100 


79 

228 




1 
1 


23 
24 


to 
120 


134 
146 




- 3 


25 




471 




2 


26 




432 




4 


27 




464 




7 


28 




1,743 




2 


29 




532 




5 


30 


130 


1,400 




2 


31 


to 


604 




5 


32 


150 


1,600 




3 


33 




1,020 




1 


35 




381 




1 


36 




401 




1 


42 




537 




44 trees: 


Total cubic feet--- - 10.385 


Total feet 13. M 




62,300 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 40 cubic feet. 

240 feet B. M. 



122 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TAIII.B VI. Acre yieldt of While Pine and meaturemeiitt of sample tree* Continued. 
A-MICHIGAN-Contlnued. MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

Age elan: 130 to 150 yean. 

I.' iMI.VAXr OBOWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(bretd 

high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 

stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


82 


Tean. 
133 
141 
132 
145 
128 
152 
131 
148 
153 
136 


Inehet. 
15.2 
15.5 
16.3 
18.6 
20.5 
19.0 
22.5 
23.0 
23.0 
24.6 


Feet. 
92 
92 
88 
100 
98 
104 
112 
116 
100 
115 


Ko. 
8.3 
S.2 
7.5 
7.0 
7.0 
7.3 
5.4 
6.8 
5.9 
6.2 


Ou.A 
48.59 
55.32 
61.70 
71.11 
04.56 
84.97 
129.42 
137.91 
137.63 
154.12 


0.43 
.46 
.47 
.58 
.42 
.41 
.41 
.41 
.47 
.41 


0.43 
.42 
.66 
.44 
.47 
.38 
.46 
.46 
.30 
.40 


Percent. 
2.2 
2.3 
.8 
2.0 
.5 
.4 
.7 
.9 
.7 
.4 


Cti. ft. 
1.07 
1.27 
.49 
1.42 
1.42 
1.19 
.91 
2.62 
2.40 
2.16 


Cu./t. 
0.36 
.39 
.46 
.49 
.73 
.55 
.98 
.93 
.90 
1.13 


37 


12 


40 


IK... 


27 





2 


11 ... 


11 


Average . . . 


140 


19.8 


102 


6.D 


97.5 


.43 


.43 


1.6 


1.49 


.69 



OI'I'IiKSSED GROWTH. 



18 


109 


14 


82 


7.5 


40.53 


0.46 


0.56 


4.5 


1.82 


0.37 

























Aye elcut: 220 to 240 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



41 


245 


20.0 


120 


11.0 


112.56 


0.43 


0.46 


0.9 


1.01 


0.46 


8 


242 


24.5 


137 


9.9 


191. 07 


.42 


.41 


.5 


.95 


.79 


30 


226 


27.5 


138 


7.6 


2i:. M 


.38 




.4 


.86 


.95 


1 


226 


27.5 


129 


7.6 


222. 29 


.41 


.38 


.4 


.89 


.98 


28 


220 


28 3 


143 


7.1 


264.40 


.42 


.60 


.8 


2 11 


1 20 


34 


250 


30.2 


141 


8.7 


291.03 


.42 


.31 


.4 


1.16 


1.16 


JO 


219 


33.0 


121 


6.3 


317.85 


.44 


.43 


.7 


2.22 


1.45 


33 


226 


33.0 


140 


7.1 


321. 86 


.38 


.49 


.8 


2.57 


1.42 


39 


237 


33.0 


144 


7.2 


389. 57 


.45 


.77 


.6 


2.34 


1.64 


29 


233 


37.0 


147 


6.1 


455. 05 


.41 


.55 


.6 


2.73 


1.95 


I 


245 


40.0 


125 


5.4 


479. 51 


.43 


.40 


.5 


2.40 


1.96 
























Average . . . 
14... 


233 
258 


30.4 
26.0 


135 
119 


7.6 
10.0 


296. 41 
162 54 


0.41 
37 


.48 
0.40 


.6 
0. 


1.75 
0.65 


1.27 
0.63 


7 


252 


25.2 


139 


9.5 


193. 21 


.41 


.46 




.77 


.76 


3g 


252 


25 5 


115 


9.5 


205 21 


.35 


.58 




1.85 


.81 


23 


265 


27.0 


126 


10.4 


207 67 


.41 


.44 




1.05 


.78 


13 


253 


30 


135 


8 8 


259 13 


39 


45 




1 03 


1 02 


at 


256 


32 


142 


8.1 


267 87 


.34 


59 




1.07 


1.04 


4 


260 


31.5 


132 


8.3 


275 89 


.38 


.48 


.7 


1.93 


1.06 


42.... 


"60 


29 5 


155 


8 9 


311 99 


42 


48 


3 


.93 


1 20 


18 


251 


33 


144 


7 1 


313 07 


33 


.41 


.9 


2.82 


1.24 


2 


256 


31.0 


145 


7.6 


314 06 


. 41 


.39 


.5 


1.57 


1.22 


35 


265 


31 5 


144 


8 2 


314 38 


40 


33 


4 


1 25 


1 18 


6 


286 


33.0 


139 


8 


316 81 


.38 


51 


.4 


1.27 


1.19 


15 


256 


32 


154 


7 4 


360 75 


41 


33 


7 


2 52 


1 41 


5 


258 


34 


138 


7 6 


370 50 


42 


59 


| 


2 90 


1.43 


17 


260 


36.0 


149 


7 5 


404 18 


.37 


.45 


.2 


.81 


1.55 
























Average . . . 


258 


30.5 


138 


8.5 


285.15 


.39 


.45 


.5 


1.50 


1.10 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



123 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 
A. MICHIGAN Continued. 



(7) SITE A.- 



Crawford County. 



Soil: Brown, loamy sand, medium fine, light, loose, very deep, fresh, well drained, with surface 
cover of abundant leaves. 

Forest conditions : Moderately dense stand of White Pine intermixed with Hemlock and Beech, 
with scattering Yullow and White Birch and occasional Red Pine, on a level plain; under- 
growth of young Hemlock and hardwoods. 






MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

Age clots : 420 to 450 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


5 


Tears. 
417 
445 
455 
426 
460 
457 
461 
435 
458 


Inches. 
37.0 
35.5 
41.0 
43.0 
46.0 
47.0 
46.0 
46.0 
47.0 


Feet. 
155 
141 
152 
160 
150 
160 
170 
168 
162 


Ko. 
14.0 
10.0 
11.0 
10.5 
(?) 
(?) 
10.0 
(!) 
10.5 


Cu. ft. 
433.2 
510.5 
583.7 
677.3 
694. 1 
721.9 
737.9 
819.6 
8E5.3 


0.37 
.52 
.41 
.42 
.40 
.37 
.38 
.42 
.43 


0.45 
.39 
.53 
.56 
.48 
.45 
.56 
.51 
.57 


Per cent. 
0.4 
.6 
.2 
.4 
.3 
.4 
.3 
.4 

:s 


Cu. ft. 
1.73 
3.06 
1.17 
2.71 
2.08 
2.89 
2.21 
3.28 
4.28 


Cu.ft. 
1.03 
1.15 
1.28 
1.59 
1.51 
1.59 
1.60 
1.88 
1.86 


1 


4 


9 


g 


7 


3 


g 


10 


Average - . . 


446 


43.0 


157 


11.0 


670.4 


.41 


.50 


.4 


2.60 


1.50 



Age class: 270 to 290 years. 



2 274 


45.0 


150 


7.1 


604.3 


0.36 


0.52 


0.4 


2.4 


2.20 























(8) SITE (.- 



Crawford County. 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Density of crown cover: 0.6. 
K umber of trees: 364. 



Soil : Brown, loamy sand of medium grain, light, loose, deep, fresh, well drained, with 2 to 3 inches Age of pine : 95 to 105 years, 
mold on top and surface cover of leaves. 

Forest conditions: White Pine (47 per cent) mixed with hardwoods (30 per cent) and Hemlock (23 
per cent), on a gentle slope; undergrowth scanty, of young Hemlock and Maple. 

Clasrijication: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 47 

Oppressed do 18 

Suppressed do 35 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Num- 
ber of 

Inn. 


Diameter 
(breaat 
high). 


Height, 


Volume. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 

trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 

trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer 
chantable 
timber. 


4 
52 
9 

g 
12 
15 
16 

11 
11 
13 
8 
5 
4 
3 
1 
1 


Inches. 
3to6 
6 to 10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
25 


Feet. 

90 
to 
110 


Cu.ft. 


FeetB.M. 


18 
44 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 
2 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 
11 
12 
16 
14 
16 
18 
20 
23 


Feet. 

60 
to 
80 


26 
28 
2 


Inches. 
3 to6 
6 to 10 
10 


Feet. 


20 
14 

1 


Inches. 
3to6 
6 to 10 
10 


Feet. 
1 40 
\ to 
1 50 


520 
162 
256 
456 
660 
800 
638 
704 
936 
640 
435 
384 
309 
122 
143 


White Birch. 


Yellow Birch. 


6 
4 
2 
1 
2 


6 to 10 
10 
14 
1 
17 


\ 40 
\ to 

I 


2 


6 to 10 




173 trees: 
Total onbic i 
Total feet B. 


eet .. . 7,165 


83 trees : 
Total cubic ft. . 1,330 
Total feet B.M. 4,780 


71 trees. 


37 trees. 


M 28,650 




Total yield : White Pine and Hemlock, 33,430 feet B. M., of which White Pine 87 per cent. 
Average annual accretion .- White Pine, 71 cubic feet. 
286 feet B. M. 



124 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLK VI. Acre yield* of White Pine and measurement! of sample treet Continued. 

A.-MKIIIGAN-Contlnul. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 

















Ratio of 


Current annual 
accretion. 






Tree number. 


\-' 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
tump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 
















tree. 






Ytari. 


Inrhrl. 


Feet. 


Xo. 


Cu./t. 






Per cent. 


Om.fl. 


Cu.fi. 


| 


100 


16.5 


98 


( 


64.5 


0. 44 0. 45 


1.7 


1.10 


0.64 


7 


98 


IB. 5 


100 


(') 


<8.4 


.4:1 


.40 


2.2 


1.50 .70 


g 


103 


17.0 


104 


5.3 


71.7 


.43 


.45 


1.5 


1.07 .70 


4 


100 


19.8 


too 


4.9 


94.6 


.45 


() 


1.7 


1. 61 . 95 




103 


18.5 


109 4. 8 


95.9 


.47 


.37 


2.1 


2. 01 . 93 


Average . . . 


101 


17.6 


103 


5.0 


79.0 


.44 


.42 


1.8 


1.46 .78 



CODOlflNANT GROWTH. 



5 


95 


14.0 


94 


6.6 


49.6 


0.49 


0.38 


2.0 


0.99 


0.52 


1 


101 


15.3 


91 


5.8 


52.1 


.43 


<') 


4.2 


2.46 


.51 


2 


101 


15.5 


96 


6.0 


62.8 


.49 


.57 


2.6 


1.63 


.62 
























Average... 


99 


15.0 


M 


6.1 


54.8 


.47 


. 44 


2.9 


1.69 


.55 



(0) SITE;.- 



Crawford County. 



Soil: Gray or light sand, medium fine grain, porous, light, loose, dry (in places fresh), with a 
moderately leafy surface cover. 

Forest condition*: Open stand of mixed White Pine and Xorway Pine with scattering White 
Birch and occasional Oak, Hackmatack, and lianksian Pine on a level plain along the banks of 
a river; undergrowth scanty, of young Fir, Cedar (Thuja occidentalit), and a few small Oaks. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 
Age clou : 90 to 110 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


6 -.... 


Tean. 
109 
112 
109 
106 
110 
109 
112 
112 
108 
108 


Inches. 
13.0 
14.0 
14.8 
15.3 
16.5 
17.0 
17.0 
18.3 
20.5 
20.8 


Feet. 
94.0 
96.0 
93.0 
85.0 
104.0 
101.0 
100.0 
103.0 
105.0 
105.0 


A'o. 
7.6 
7.3 
6.7 
6.5 
6.5 
6.3 
6.1 
5.8 
4.8 
5.0 


Cu./t. 
45.7 
50.2 
51.4 
53.3 
64.3 
67.6 
72.4 
85.3 
99.1 
99.8 


0.52 
.47 
.45 
.47 
.41 
.42 
.45 
.44 
.41 
.39 


0.51 
.47 
.47 
.37 
.30 
.59 
(!) 
.56 
.49 
.42 


Per cent. 
3.2 
3.5 
2.2 
2.5 
2.2 
1.8 
3.4 
2.5 
1.9 
1.8 


Cu./t. 
.46 
.75 
.14 
.33 
.41 
.22 
.46 
.13 
.88 
.60 


Cu./t. 
0.42 
.44 
.47 
.50 
.58 
.62 
.05 
.76 
.91 
.91 


23 


22 


15 


7 





20 


4 


19 


21 


Average . . . 


109.6 


16.7 


98.6 


6.3 


68.9 


.44 


.46 


2.5 


1.64 


.63 



CODOMINANT GROWTH. 



1... 


100 


13 5 


94 


7 


41 


44 


57 


2 


82 




24 


96 


14.4 


90 


6 6 


48 7 


47 


(I \ 


4 3 


2 08 


50 


18 


82 


16 5 


94 


4 8 


65 7 


47 












99 


20 


100 


4 4 


90 9 


41 


46 


3 3 




























Average . . . 


94 


16.1 


94.5 


5.7 


61.6 


.45 


.52 


3.4 


2.13 


.65 



Age clan ; 150 to 160 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



2... 


158 


22 5 


114 


6 6 














13 


157 


21 8 


115 






































Average . . . 


157.5 


22.1 


114.5 


6.8 


123.0 


.40 


.47 


1.8 


2.22 


.80 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



125 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 
A. MICHIGAN Continued. 



(10) SITE Jt: 



Roscommon County. 

[About 1,000 feet above sea level.] 

Half acre .Vo. 1. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil: Brown, loamy sand, deep, fine (for sand), porous, loose, fresh, and well drained (water stands Age of pine : 23' 

in low ground), with a moderately leafy surtace cover; subsoil, same as soil. Density of crown cover:" 0.8 to 



Forest conditions: Two-story stand on a gentle, slope, upper story of White Pin 
Ked Pine (20 per cent), lower story of fine tall Hemlock; undergrowth 
Hemlock, Beech, and dwarf Maple. 



e (80 per cent) and 
scanty, of young 



Clatsijication : 

Dominant percent 

Stressed d o . 

Suppressed do.. 



White Pine. 
63 
21 
16 



230 to 240 years. 
y of crc 
0.9. 

Number of trees: 186. 



HALF-ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. Hemlock. 








Volume. 














Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 

chantjible 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 










timber. 
















Inchet. 


Feet. 


Cu.feet. 


Feet B. Jr. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 




Inchei. 


Feet. 


6 


11 




192 




2 


14 




32 


6 to 10 


60 


2 


15 


an 


116 




2 


16 




4 


10 


1 7n 


2 

4 


16 

17 


0U 

to 

ion 


123 
288 




4 

14 


18 
19 


80 


6 
2 


11 
12 


70 
} to 


2 


18 


lO 


160 




6 


21 


to 


6 


14 


\ 80 


6 


19 




528 




2 


23 


150 


8 


15 




2 


20 




250 




2 


24 




2 


17 




4 


21 


< 


M 




2 


25 




2 


18 




8 


22 




1,216 










4 


19 


100 


12 


24 


130 


2,076 










2 


20 


to 


8 


25 


to 


1,544 










2 


21 


120 


6 


27 


150 


1,344 










2 


22 




8 


28 




1,920 










2 


23 




2 


30 




540 










2 


24 




4 


33 




1,312 
















76 trees : 


34 trees : 


76 trees : 


Total cubic feet - 12 174 


Total cubic feet. 4 270 


Total cubic feet. 3, 616 


Total feet B. M . 




58, 400 


Total feet B. M . 20, 500 


Total feet B. M . 13, 000 





Total yield: All species 20,060 cubic feet, of which White Pine was 61 per cent. 
Average annual accretion: White Pine, 52 cubic feet. 

248 feet B. M. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 
Age clan : 230 to 250 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Cnrrent annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


3 


Teart. 
234 
236 
235 
237 
237 
232 
233 
237 
235 
245 
236 
236 
238 
244 
233 
251 


Inchet. 
23.2 
23.8 
24.5 
23.5 
24.5 
24.7 
25.5 
25.5 
26.0 
30.0 
26.2 
27.0 
29.0 
34.0 
32.0 
27.0 


Feet. 
137 
142 
142 
140 
145 
145 
143 
145 
143 
122 
145 
150 
140 
130 
144 
120 


No. 
10.0 
9.6 
9.2 
9.6 
9.0 
(?) 
8.4 
9.1 
9.0 
(.') 
9.0 
8.5 
7.8 
7.0 
7.0 
9.1 


Cu./eet. 
169.0 
197.3 
199.1 
202.6 
205.4 
207.0 
212.6 
227.3 
231.1 
233.9 
240.2 
271.5 
281.1 
348.1 
349.6 
206.8 


0.43 
.44 
.43 
.46 
.43 
.43 
.42 
.44 
.43 
.39 
.44 
.45 
.43 
.42 
.43 
.43 


0.39 
.43 
.43 
.31 
.40 
.47 
.42 
.44 
.23 
.'35 
.42 
.41 
.40 
.62 
.39 
.36 


Per cent. 
0.8 
.7 
.7 
.8 
.5 
1.0 
.5 
.9 
.7 
.8 
.3 
.8 
.6 
.5 
1.0 
.5 


Cu.feet. 
1.35 
1.38 
1.39 
1.62 
1.03 
2.07 
1.06 
2.04 
1.62 
1.87 
0.72 
2.17 
1.69 
1.74 
3.50 
1.03 


Cu./eet. 
0.72 
.83 
.84 
.86 
.86 
.89 
.91 
.96 
.98 
.05 
1.01 
1.15 
1.18 
1.42 
1.50 
.82 


2 ... 


11 


1 


6 


17 


10 . .. 


16 


15 


18 


9 


4 


8 


19 


12 


20 


Average . . . 


237 


26.6 


140 


8.7 I 236.4 


.43 


.41 


.7 


1.64 


.99 



OPPHESSED GROWTH. 



14 


237 


21 


136 


11.0 


133.8 


0.41 


0.51 


0.7 


0.94 


0.56 

























SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 



7 


235 


13.0 


120 


17.7 


61.1 


0.55 


0.31 


0.6 


0.37 


0.26 


5 


229 


15.3 


12fi 


15.2 


86.7 


.52 


,41 


. 


.52 


.37 


Average . . . 


232 


14.1 


123 


16.4 


73.9 


.53 


.36 


.6 


.45 


.31 



126 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and mtaturementt of sample trees Continued. 
A.-MICHIGAN-Contlnu.d. 



Soil: Moist, low ground, near swamp. Age of pine: 230 to 240 years. 

Forett tantlitiont: White Pine (51 per cent) and Hemlock (49 per cent). Density of crown cover: 0.5. 

Classification White Pine. Number of trees: 118. 

Dominant Pr cent.. 80 

Oppressed do.... 10 

Suppressed do.... 10 

HALF-ACKE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Hemlock. 








Volume. 




Diameter 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
( breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cu.feet. 


FeetB.U. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 


2 


15 


] 80 


116 




6 


(itolO 


60 


4 


18 


1 to 


320 




6 


11 


!7ft 


2 


19 


J 125 


176 




4 


12 


(0 

+rt 


2 


22 




304 




4 


13 


to 


2 


24 




360 




4 


14 


80 


2 


25 




400 




6 


15 




4 


2fi 




864 




6 


16 


inn 


2 


28 




408 




6 


17 


1UU 


4 


28 




1,064 




2 


19 


to 

i9ft 


8 


30 


130 


1,680 




10 


20 


UB 


2 


31 


to 


604 




2 


24 




4 


32 


150 


1,280 




2 


25 




12 


33 




4,080 










2 


34 




720 










2 


35 




762 










4 


36 




1,604 










2 


37 




846 










2 


38 




890 










60 trees : 


58 trees : 


Total cubic feet ifi Rfifi 


Total cubic feet. 4,490 


Total feet B. il . 




99,400 


Total feet B. M.. 16,160 





Total yield : White Pine and Hemlock 21,076 cubic feet, of which White Pine 71 per cent. 
Average annual accretion : White Pine, 70 cubic feet. 

423 feet B. M. 



(11) SITE I : 



Roscommon County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Number of trees : 136. 



Soil : Light-brown, dry sand, loose, light, very deep, well drained ( ?), with 1 inch mold on top and Age of pine : ( ?) 

surface cover of leaves. Density of crown cover: (f) 

Forest conditions : Red Pine (84 per cent) intermixed with White Pine (16 per cent), with occa- 
sional Beech on a gentle slope (angle 5) ; no undergrowth. 

Classification: White Pine. Red Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 57 62 

Oppressed do 24 31 

Suppressed do 19 7 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Ked Pine. 


Beech. 








Volume. 














Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 










timber. 
















Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubicfeet. 


FeetS. U. 




Inches. 


Feet. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


2 


10 




36 




1 


6 to 10 




1 


3to6 




1 


11 




32 




2 


10 




1 


6 to 10 


/ 


1 


12 




38 




3 


11 










2 


13 




96 




7 


12 










1 


14 




55 




13 


13 










2 


15 


100 


126 




26 


14 


90 








2 


16 


to 


142 




16 


15 


to 








3 


18 


120 


261 




18 


16 


100 








1 


19 




96 




16 


17 










2 


21 




228 




5 


18 










2 


22 




246 




5 


19 










1 


23 




134 




1 


20 










1 


27 




199 
















21 trees: 
Total ruble feet 
Total feet B. M 




. 1,689 
. 7,090 


113 trees: 
Total cubic feet. 6,207 
Total feet B. M . 26, 060 


2 trees. 







Total yield: Pine 7,899 cubic feet, of which White Pine 21 per cent. 



TABLE.S OF MEASUREMENTS. 



127 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



A MICHIGAN Continued. 

(12) SlTEm.- 



Eoscommon County. 

[900 to 1,000 feet above sea level.] 

Acre No. 1. 



Sample area: 4 acres. 



Classification : 

Dominant per cent 

Oppressed do.. 

Suppressed do.. 



aple 
White Pine. 



73 

19 

8 



Eed Pine. 
87 
11 
2 



ACEE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Bed Pine. 


Oak. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
5 
2 
3 
2 

5 
4 
2 

1 
1 
1 


Inches. 
14 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
33 
34 
39 


Feet. 

k 

100 
to 
i:o 


Cubic/eel. 
55 
79 
88 
288 
210 
228 
615 
268 
438 
314 
845 
732 
392 
267 
283 
451 


FeetB.M. 


1 
2 
1 
2 
6 
5 
7 
8 
3 
7 
2 
2 
1 


Inches. 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


Feet. 

100 
to 
120 


1 
3 


Inchei. 
Under 3 
3 to 6 


Feet. 

} 


Maple. 


2 
2 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 


} 40 


36 trees: 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. 1 


t *.... 5,553 


47 trees: 
Total cubic feet. 5,360 
Total feet B. M . 28, 000 


8 trees. 


I 26 600 





Total yield : Pine, 10.913 cubic feet. 

52,600 feet B. M., of which White Pine 50 per cent. 
Average annual accretion : Pine, 61 cubic feet. 
298 feet B. M. 

Acre JVo. 2. 

Soil : Dry, light-brown sand, medium fine, deep, well drained, with moderately leafy surface cover. Age of pine : 160 to 200 years. 

Forett conditimi: Eed Pine (75 per cent) with White Pine (25 per cent) intermixed; level. Density of crown cover: (?). 

Clmtifoation : White Piue. Eed Pine. Number of trees : 153. 

Dominant per cent. . 62 74 

Oppressed do.... 26 23 

Suppressed do 13 

ACEE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Eed Pine. 








Volume. 








Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high) . 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chau table 
timber. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Inchei. 


Feet. 


Oubicfeet. 


FeetB.M. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


















1 


11 








3 


in 




1 


12 








9 


12 




4 


14 








12 


13 




1 


15 








8 


14 


100 


7 


16 








32 


15 


to 


4 


17 








17 


16 


120 


3 


18 








18 


17 




3 


19 








8 


18 




1 


20 








4 


19 




6 


21 








2 


20 




2 


22 














3 


23 














1 


25 
















113 trees: 


Total cubic fee' 3 332 


Total cubic feet. 7, 914 


Total feet B. Al 





15, 980 


Total feet B. M . 33, 240 





Total yield : Pine, 11,246 cubic feet. 

49,220 feet B. M., of which White Pine 32 per cent. 
Avcratte annual accretion : Pine, 95 cubic feet. 
273 feet B. M. 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Acre yield* of White Pine and measurements of sample treet Continued. 

MM IIH. \N '-..ntinued. 

Afrf .10. S. 

Soil: Light brown, dry nnil, inedlnm fine, deep, well drained, with a moderately leafy surface Age of pine : 160 to 200 yean. 
,-o\rr. Il.-tiMty ..I' crown cover: <?) 

'.(i.nM: Kid Pino (90 per cent) intermixed with White Pine (10 percent): level. Number of trees: 117. 

White Pine. Red Pine. 

1 (.'.mutant percent.. 75 H 

l>|>prvHc<i do.... 17 12 

Suppressed do 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. Red Pine. 








Volume. 








Ifanbar 

of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 

hlgb). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mcr- 
timher. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Inchn. 


Feet. 


Cvbic/eet. 


Feet B. M. 




Inche,. 


Feet. 


1 6 to 10 




10 




litolO 




1 13 




48 




1 10 




2 14 




110 




1 


11 




1 19 


100 


96 




6 


12 




1 20 


to 


105 




3 


13 




3 22 


1.0 


369 




12 


14 




2 


25 




314 




10 


15 


100 


1 


26 




169 




15 


16 


to 












25 


17 


120 












12 


18 














4 


19 














6 


20 














2 


21 














2 


22 














1 


23 




12 trees : 


105 trees: 


Total cubic feet -- --- 1-221 


Total cubic feet.. 8,170 


Total feet B. M 


5 120 


Total feet B.M.. 34,300 





Totalyitld: Pine, 9,391 cubic, IV. t. 

39,420 feet B. M.. of which White Pine 15 per cent. 
Average annual accretion: Pine, 52 cubic feet. 
219 feet B. M. 

Acre Ao. 4. 

Soil: Light-brown, fresh, loose sand, medium fine, deep, well drained, with a moderately leafy Age of pine: 160 to 200 years, 
surface cover. 

Forett conditions: Red Pine (61 per cent) intermixed with White Pine (33 per cent) and hard- 
woods (0 per cent) ; scattered young Oak and Beech on uneven ground. 

Olauiiiciiti~:-ii: \VliitePine. Red Pine. 

Dominant per cent . . 47 

Oppressed do 14 15 

Suppressed do 39 

ACRE TIELD. 



Density of crown cover : ( I). 
Number of trees : ()) 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Oak. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(brenst 
high). 


Height 


Volume. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 

trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chant- 
able 
timber. 


6 
3 
3 
1 

2 
2 
4 
3 
4 
2 
2 

4 
2 

1 
3 
1 
1 


Inclirt. 
6 to 10 
10 
11- 

u 

13 
14 
15 
16 
18 
19 
20 

a 

23 

25 
16 
27 
34 


Feet. 

100 
. to . 
120 


CtiWc/wf. 
63 
54 
6 
38 
96 
110 
252 
Bl 
352 

in 

210 
492 
268 

in 

507 
1X3 
283 


Ft.B.M. 


1 
2 

_' 
6 
14 
11 
8 
13 
.12 
12 
2 
2 


Inchei. 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


Feet. 

100 
to 
120 


1 


Inchet. 
3 to 6 


Fett. 
40 


Beech. 


3 
3 

1 
1 


3 to 6 
6. to 10 
13 
14 


1 40 
} to 

1 oo 


II ti 
Total . 
Total feet B. ] 


t 


3,563 

1 1. MO 


85 trees: 
Tolnl cubic ft. 7,572 
Total ft. B. M. 31, 800 


9 trees. 







Totalyitld: 1'ine, 11, ir, cubic feet. 

48.760 IWt I!. M., of liicli White Pine 32 per cent. 
Average annual accretion : Piue, 82 cubic leet. 
259 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



129 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

A. MICHIGAIf-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

Aye class : 160 to 180 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


9 


Years. 
178 
173 
163 


Inches. 
24.2 
27.2 
26.5 


Feet. 
118 
121 
120 


No. 
7.5 
6.2 
6.2 


Ou.fl. 
170.1 
218.8 
211.0 


0.4B 
.45 

.46 


0.54 
.28 
.31 


Per cent. 
1.2 

.7 
.7 


Cu. ft. 
2.04 
1.53 
1.47 


Cu. ft. 
0.95 
1.26 
1.29 


29 


24 


Average... 
34 


171 

182 
188 
186 


26.0 

25.2 
26.7 
31.0 


120 

118 
118 
119 


6.6 

7.4 
6.9 
5.5 


200.0 

173.0 
202.1 
286.6 


.46 

.43 
.45 
.45 


.38 

.53 
.59 

.40 


.9 

1.3 
1.2 

.7 


1.68 

2.25 
2.42 
2.0 


1.17 

.95 
1.07 
1.54 


18 


5 


Average . . . 


185 


27.6 


118 


6.6 


220.5 


.44 


.51 


1.1 


2.22 


1.19 



CODOMINANT GROWTH. 



15 


179 


19.0 


125.0 


9.9 


118.4 


0.48 


0.26 


0.8 


0.95 


0.66 


7 


185 


17.0 


125.0 


11.5 


79.2 


.41 


.51 


1.5 


1.19 


.42 


10 


185 


20.3 


105.0 


9.1 


111.8 


.46 


.32 


.8 


.89 


.60 


6 . 


184 


24.5 


109.0 


7.4 


128.6 


.36 


.38 


1.0 


1.29 


.70 


33 


182 


22.0 


111.0 


7.7 


134.3 


.45 


.44 


1.5 


2.01 


.73 
























Average... 


184 


20.9 


112.5 


8.9 


113.5 


.42 


.41 


1.2 


1.34 


.61 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



38 


165 1 18 103 


8.7 


87.9 


0.47 


0.46 


1.2 


1.05 


0.53 





















Age class : Over 200 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



19 


211 


28.5 


119 


7.3 


218.9 


0.41 


0.63 


1.3 


2.84 


1.03 

























OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



13 


206 


22 


119 


9.7 


144.4 


0.46 


0.38 


0.6 


0.87 


0.70 

























20233 No. 22 9 



130 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Aore yifldi of fWiitt J'ine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



A.-MICHIGAN-Continned. 
(IS) Srnn.- 



Koscommon County. 
[900 to 1,000 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Age of pine: 1 60 to 200 yearn. 
Density of crown cover: (>) 



Soil.- Light-brown, loamy sand, fresh, light, loose, fine, well drained, with 2 to 3 Inches mold on 
top, and a surface cover of abumlaut leaves. 

forut condition*: Hardwoods (69 per cent) mixed with White Pine (31 per cent) situated on a 
slope (angle 10) ; undergrowth scanty, of young Oak and Beech. [The single Red Pine stand- 
Ing rather exceptional. About 20 to '25 per cent of Bed Pine wonld have been more typical.] Number of trees : 130. 

Clatrittation: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 80 

Oppressed do.... 10 

Suppressed do 10 

ACRE YIELD. 



Wnite Pine. 


Beech. 


Rock Maple. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 

chantable 
timber. 


1 
3 

1 
1 
1 
2 
8 
3 
1 
3 
3 
4 
4 
1 
2 
2 
2 
.2 
1 


India. 
11 
13 
14 
15 
17 
20 
21 
23 
24 
25 
28 
27 
28 
29 
31 
32 
33 
34 
36 


Put. 

100 
to 
130 


Cubic ft. 
32 
159 
60 
72 
90 
240 
387 
477 
166 
555 
600 
864 
924 
247 
580 
594 
030 
668 
373 


FcetB.M. 


26 
34 
4 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Inchel. 
3 to 6 
8 to 10 
11 
12 
. 13 
14 
15 
16 
18 


Feet. 


8 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
10 
12 
13 
14 
17 


Feet. 


Red Oak. 


1 
1 
1 

1 


6 to 10 
12 
13 
26 




40 trees: 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. Id 


t 7 698 


75 trees. 


15 trees. 


36 950 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 42 cubic feet. 

205 feet B.M. 



TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



131 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



B. WISCONSIN: 

(1) SITE a: 



Washburn County . 

[1,200 feet above sea level.] 

Acre No. 1. 



Sample area: 2 acres. 



Soil: Fresh clay, underlaid by hardpan of clay and stones ; 4 inches of mold, surface cover leafy. Age of pine : 200 to 220 years. 

Forest conditions: Two-story stand, White Pine occupying upper story, hardwoods (Maple, Density of crown cover: (I). 
Yellow Birch, Elm or Basswoods, or Hornbeam) the lower story; undergrowth dense, of 
yonjg hardwoods, 1 to 3 inches in diameter, 20 to 30 feet high. White Pine, 56 per cent; 
harWrooda, U per cent. Number of trees : 76. 

Classification: White Pine. 



Dominant percent.. 73 

Oppressed do 9 

Suppressed do 18 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Maple. 


Nnjnher 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
3 
4 
1 
4 
1 
3 
4 
2 
1 
1 


Inches. 
11 
14 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
24 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
38 


Feet. 

80 
to , 
120 

120 
to 
135 


Cubicfeet. 
64 
165 
71 
79 
88 
96 
105 
114 
420 
480 
384 
621 
924 
247 
1,040 
280 
891 
1,260 
694 
367 
429 


Feet B.M. 


1 
18 
3 


Inchet. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 


Feet. 
40 
60 

80 


Elm. 


2 


6 to 10 


60 


Yellow Birch. 


1 
4 

4 


6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


60 

^ 80 


43 trees : 
Total cubic fe< 
Total feet B.M 


t .... 8, 119 


33 trees : 


52,920 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 38 cubic feet. 

252 feet B. M. 



132 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of Ifhite Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 
B^- WISCONSIN Continued. 



Acre .Vo. S . 



Soil: Fresh clay, underlaid by hardpan of clay aud atones; 4 Inches of mold, surface cover Age of pine: 200 to 220 years. 

Density of crown cover: (f) 



leafy. 

Farrit ionditiotu : Two-storr "tand, White Pine occupying the npper story and hardwoods 
(Maple Yellow Birch. Efm or Basswood. or Hornbeam) the lower story ; undergrowth scanty, 
of Toung hardwoods And Fir. White Pine, 52 per cent; hardwoods, 48 per cent. 

Clauificatian: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 75 

Oppressed do.... 22 

Suppressed do 3 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees: 132. 



White Pine. 


Fir. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer 

chan table 
timber. 


1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
2 
8 
9 
3 
8 
5 
5 
6 
3 
2 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 


Inchfg. 
14 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
28 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 


Feet. 

80 
to 
120 

120 
to 

140 


Cubiefeet. 
55 
71 
288 
210 
114 
280 
918 
1,440 
534 
1,152 
1,035 
1,155 
1,482 
780 
560 
315 
347 
1,101 
1,161 
408 
429 
485 
1,521 


FeetB.M. 


5 


Inches. 
3 U>6 


Feet. 
40 


Elm. 


1 


3to6 


40 


Hornbeam. 


5 
1 


3to 6 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


Yellow Birch. 


12 
16 
2 
3 
1 


3 to 10 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 
19 


40 
60 
80 
80 

86 


Butternut. 


1 
1 


3 to 6 

etoio 


40 
80 


Basawood. 


9 
8 


3 to 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


69 trees : 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. Id 


t 15 849 


63 trees. 


[ ... 95 040 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 75 cubic feet. 

452 feet B. M. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Katio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


1... 


Yean. 
204 


Inches. 
24 7 


Feet. 


C./f. 
166 






OK./*. 


2 


221 


27 


113 


183 








B 


213 


27 


121 5 


191 




53 


90 


4 


214 


26 


126 


201 








5 


216 


26 8 


126 




42 






6. 


202 


24 












7 


204 


29 


132 










8 


212 


29 


133 


250 


41 


42 




9 


213 


30 


133 5 


























Average... 


21 1 


27.0 


124.0 


213 


.42 


.44 


1.01 






TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



133 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of TTIiite Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



B.-WISCO>'SrV-Continued. 
(2) SITE c .- 



Waahburn County. 

[1,400 feet above sea level.] 

Acre No. 1. 



Sample area: 3 acres. 



Soilt Light-colored clay, underlaid by sand at a depth of about 2 feet; fresh, moist in hollow, Age of pine: 200 to 220 (few 160) 

with 3 inches mold on top and surface cover of leaves. \ t-arM. 

Forest conditions Two-story stand of typical open pine growth, upper story ol White Pine Density of crown cover: (f) 
(22 per cent), lower story of hardwoods (74 per cent), mainly Rock Maple, scattering 
Yellow Birch, and occasional Elm, Hornbeam, and Fir (4 per cent) ; undergrowth, moder- 
ately dense, of young hardwoods. Number of trees : 88. 






ACEE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Rock Maple. 


Yellow Birch. 


Elm. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diame- 
ter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 

trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 
chant- 
able 
timber. 


2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 


Ineha. 
18 
19 
21 
23 
26 
28 
32 
33 
34 
35 
38 
40 
46 


Feet. 
80 
to 
120 

120 
to 
140 


Cu.fl. 
160 
87 
103 
318 
400 
231 
297 
315 
334 
706 
1,335 
490 
638 


Ft.B.M. 


18 
24 
6 
1 
1 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
17 
19 


Feet. 
40 
60 
80 
80 
80 


1 
3 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Inchet. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
15 
16 
17 
20 
31 


Feet. 
40 
60 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
Over 
80 


1 


Inches. 
15 


Feet. 
80 


Hornbeam. 


3 


3to6 


40 


Fir. 


4 


3to6 


4 


19 trees: 
Total cubi 
Total feet 


sfeet 


5,414 
32,480 


50 trees. 


11 trees. 


8 trees. 


8 M 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 26 cubic feet. 

155 feet B. M. 

Acre No. t. 

Soil : Light-colored clay, underlaid by sand at a depth of about 2 feet ; fresh, moist in hollow. Age of pine : 209 to 220 (few 180) 
with 3 Inches mold on top and surface cover of leaves. years. 

Fore$t condition!: Two-story stand of White Pine (44 per cent) mixed with hardwoods (53 per Density of crown cover: (?) 
cent), upper story of pine, the lower story of hardwoods (Rock Maple intermixed with 
Yellow Birch and scattering Hornbeam and Elm) and occasional Fir (3 per cent) ; no under- 
growth. Number of trees : 136 

CJatrification: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 

Oppressed do 26 

Suppressed do 6 

ACEE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Rock Maple. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


1 

8 
8 
4 


Ineha. 
6 to 10 
14 
18 
19 
20 
24 
26 
29 
31 
32 
45 


Cubicfeet. 
40 
20 
320 
348 
384 
1,992 
800 
988 
2,240 
2,376 
2,448 


FeetS.M. 


36 
16 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 


Feet. 
40 
60 


Yellow Birch. 


12 
4 
4 


6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


60 
} "> 


Fir. 


4 


3to6 


40 


60 trees : 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. 1< 


t 12,136 


76 trees: 


[ 72,810 





Average annual accretion: Whit* Pine, 58 cubic feet. 



134 



THE WHITE PINE 



TARLK VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurement* of sample tree* Continued. 



.-WIM <>\-lN-Contlnued. 



Acre .Vo. S. 



Soil: Light-colored 



clny. underlaid b.v sand at a depth of about 2 feet; fresh, moist in hollow, Age of pine: 200 to 220 (few 

with 3 inches mold on top, mid surface cover of leaves. 160) years. 

Fortit cunditwni : Two-story stand of White Pine (40 per cent) mixed with hardwoods (47 per Density of crown cover: (!). 

cent), upper storv of hardwoods (Rock Maple intermixed with Yellow Birch and scattering 

Hornbeam anil Klin; and occasional Fir (13 percent); moderately dense undergrowth, of very 

younj! hardwoods. 
Claaijltati::n: White Pine. 

Dominant .............................................................. percent.. 76 

< ipprrsM-d .................................................................. do.... 

Suppressed ................................................................. do ---- 16 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees : 123. 



White Pine. 


Rock Maple. 


Elm. , 


Number 
of tree*. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

|lir<>Hst. 

high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


5 
3 
3 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
2 
5 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


laehet. 
13 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
34 
35 
N 
37 
42 
43 
44 
46 


Fett. 

80 
to 
120 

120 
to 
140 


Oulne/eet. 
44 
58 
144 
240 
87 
480 
477 
498 
185 
400 
648 
693 
494 
520 
1,400 
630 
334 
353 
1,203 
423 
1,074 
562 
584 
633 


FeetB.M. 


18 
19 
6 


Inches. 
3to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


Put. 
40 
60 

} 80 


1 
1 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
14 to 18 


Feet. 
60 
80 


Basswood. 


Yellow Birch. 


1 


60 to 10 


60 


1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 


3to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 
15 
18 
19 


40 
60 

80 


Fir. 


12 
4 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


SO trees: 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B.M 


t 12 169 


54 trees. 


19 trees. 


... 73 000 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 58 cubic feet. 

348 feet B. M . 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES 
Age class: 100 to 150 years. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


46... 


Teart. 
107 


Inches. 
18 5 


Feet. 
86 


Cu. ft. 
63 


39 


44 


Ou.ft. 


47 


104 


18 


80 


70 


49 


63 


67 


48 


102 


18 7 


86 5 


74 


45 


61 




49 


120 


19 3 


90 


81 


46 


55 




50 


101 


14 


75 


41 


52 


40 




















Average . . . 
25... 


107 
102 


17.7 

12 8 


83.5 
77 5 


66 
34 


.46 
49 


.52 
30 


.61 


26 


102 


13 *> 


73 5 


36 








27 


100 


14 


75 


46 


57 






28 


102 


16 7 


79 5 


56 


52 


58 




29 


103 


22 2 


83 


97 


43 


49 


94 


30 


112 


18 8 


86 


81 


49 


50 




31 


118 


17 


86 5 


69 


50 






32 


105 


5 6 


41 5 


























Average... 
1 


105.5 
104 


15.0 
15 3 


75.0 
91 


53 
52 


.51 
45 


.46 


.54 
50 


2 


104 


15 5 












8 


101 


16 5 












4 


105 


19 5 


100 


95 


45 






5 


100 


14 n 




50 








6 


105 


17 












7 


102 


16 5 












8 


105 


18 5 


109 


96 
























Average . . . 

1 


103 
137 


16.6 
24 


100.0 
105 


70 


.46 


.42 


.68 


2 


142 


27 g 




























Average . . . 


139.5 


26.0 


106.5 


150 


.40 


.37 


1.14 






TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



135 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued 

B. "WISCONSIN Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OP SAMPLE TREES Continued. 

Age clas : 150 to 200 years. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
higb). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Eatioof 
lengtb 
of crown 
to total 
beigbt of 
tree. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


13... 


Tears. 

207 


Inchet. 
19 


Feet. 
94 5 


Cu.ft. 






Cu. ft. 


14 


200 














15 


208 


'2 6 












16 


195 


24 2 


97 




43 






17. 


197 


24 2 












18 


196 


23 


116 


154 


46 






19 


'05 


23 5 


113 5 


161 


47 






20 .. 


198 


25 8 


106 5 


166 








21 


217 


29 5 


114 5 


192 


35 






22 


197 


29 












23 . . 


210 


31 


115 o 


253 


*42 






24 


<>0<> 


30 5 












25 


205 


33 3 


120 


304 


42 






26 


205 


25 6 


100 5 


161 


44 






27 


204 


25 3 


116 5 










28 . 


2'>5 


28 2 


110 


175 


37 






29 


206 


28 5 


103 


183 


40 






30 


207 


28 5 


119 


213 


40 






31 


"04 


32 


111 5 


274 


44 


54 


1 34 


32 


205 


32 


115 










33 


200 


X4 


117 


285 


39 






34 


>01 


9 8 3 


119 


9Q8 
























Average . . . 
40 


204 
195 


27.0 
16 


111.0 
108 


195 

75 


.47 

47 


.49 
44 


1.75 
38 


















35 


01 


22 


95 


115 


45 






36 


191 


9 9 


116 


216 


41 


55 


1 13 


37 


216 


28 5 


120 


262 


49 


52 


1 21 


38 . . 


220 


34 5 


128 


308 


37 


56 




39 


207 


35 


126 


342 


41 


39 


1 65 


















Average . . . 
1 


207 
204 


29.8 
34 


117.0 
118 


249 
274 


.43 

37 


.53 

51 


1.19 
1 34 


2 


209 


35 5 


121.0 


305 


87 


.55 


1 46 


3 


200 


35 


116 


306 


40 


41 


1 53 


4 


212 


34 


120 


313 


42 


42 


1 48 


8 


210 


33.5 


141.0 


323 


.37 


.50 


1 54 


6 


212 


37 


128 


355 


37 


64 


1 G8 


7 


214 


38 


114.0 


357 


.40 


.47 


1 67 


g 


206 


38.0 


127.0 


371 


.37 


.46 


1.80 


9 


220 


37 


127.0 


399 


.42 


61 


1 81 


10 


210 


42.0 


140.0 


506 


.38 


.60 


2 41 


11 


210 


43 


144 


577 


40 


56 


2 75 


12 


210 


50.0 


138.0 


726 


.39 


.51 


3 46 


















Average . . . 
41 


210 
166 


38.0 
"5 


128.0 
105.0 


401 
158 


.39 
.44 


.52 
38 


1.91 
95 


42 


151 


29.5 


103.0 


175 


.36 


.52 


1.16 


43 


167 


28 7 


96.0 


176 


.41 


.55 


1 05 


44 


155 


29.0 


101.5 


201 


.43 


.52 


1.30 


45 


155 


28.0 


113.5 


217 


.45 


.41 


1.40 


















Average . . . 


159 


28.0 


104.0 


185 


.42 


.47 


1.17 



136 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TAIU.K VI. Acre yield* of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



B.-WISCOXSIN-Contioued. 
(3) Smt . 



Barren County. 
Acre Xo. 1. 



Sample area: 3 acres. 



Soil: Clavpy loam mixed with Band and stones, leaf cover underlaid by 2 to 3 inches mold ; subsoil, Age of pine: 160 to 200 (few 

clay in places and in others sand. 90 to 100) years. 

Forrtl conthtiont: Ki.lu. < rmvml with AVhite Pino (65 per cent) Intermixed with hardwoods (32 Density of crown cover: (J). 

per cent), mainly Hock Maple, few Yellow Birch, Hornbeam, Basswood, and occasional Elm, 

with scattering 'Fir (2 per cent) and Red Pine (1 per cent) ; hollows sometimes full of water, 

but more often open, grassy swampa, with Alder and Hackmatack, fringed by pine. 
Clattitieation: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 57 

Oppressed do 30 

Suppressed do 13 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees: 16. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


4 
4 
6 
2 
6 
10 
8 
2 
6 
4 
8 
2 
4 
4 
6 
8 
6 
4 
2 
8 
4 
2 


Inches. 
6tolO 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
30 
32 
33 


Fat. 

80 
to 
100 

110 
to 
130 


Cubic/eel 
40 
112 
204 
78 
270 
520 
464 
130 
432 
316 
688 
248 
536 
584 
918 
1,368 
1,110 
796 
426 
1,920 
548 
582 


Feet B.M. 


2 


Inches. 
18 


Feet. 
100 


Maple. 


20 
18 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


Yellow Birch. 


4 


3 to 6 


40 


Hornbeam. 


6 


3to6 


40 


Basswood. 


4 


3 to 6 


40 


Fir. 


4 


3 to6 


40 


108 trees 
Total 
Total 


: 
:ubicfeet 12 290 


58 trees. 


eetB.H 58990 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 65 cubic feet. 

310 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



137 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of WUte Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



B.-'WISCOrN'SIN-Coiitinued. 



Acre A'o. S. 



Number of trees : 110. 



Soil : Clayey loam mixed with sand and stones, leaf cover underlaid by 2 to 3 Inches mold ; subsoil, Age of pine : 160 to 200 (few 

clay in places and in others sand. SO to 100) years. 

foreit conditions .- Ridges covered with White Pfce (49 per cent) Intermixed with hardwoods Density of crown cover: (f). 

(51 per cent), mainly Eock Maple, few Yellow Birch, Hornbeam, Basswood, and occasional 

Elm, with scattering Fir and Red Pine ; hollows sometimes full of water, but more often open, 

grassy swamps, with Alder and Hackmatack, fringed by pine. 
Classification: White Pine. 

Dominant ( per cent. . 78 

Oppressed do 22 

Suppressed do.... 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Maple. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 
10 
2 
10 
2 
2 
8 
2 
2 
2 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
32 
35 
42 


Feet. 
) * ( 

1 & 1 

110 
to 
130 


Cubicfeet. 
20 
158 
172 
496 
536 
292 
1,530 
370 
1,990 
426 
456 
480 
548 
652 
1,074 


FeetB.M. 


26 
16 
2 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 


Feet. 
40 
60 
80 


Yellow Birch. 


2 


23 | 80 


Hornbeam. 


10 


3to6 


40 


54 trees: 
Total cubic fe 
Total feet B. M 


It 9 200 


56 trees. 


41,160 





Aterage annual accretion : White Pine, 48 cubic feet. 

216 feet B. M 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLK VI. Acre yieldt of Ifhitt Pins and meaiurementa of sample tree* Continued. 

B.-W18CON8IX-Coninued. 

Acre Xt. 3. 

SM: CUyey loam mixed wltli sand and stones, leaf covor underlaid by 2 to 3 inches mold; subsoil, Agoof pine: 180 to 220 (few 90 

clay in place* anil in others sand. to 10U) vears. 

Forest foiuliti'int: Kidii'-s covered with White Pine (59 per cent) intermixed with hardwoods (38 Density oY crown cover: (f). 

per cent), mainly Rock Maple, few Yellow Birch, Hornbeam, Baaswood. and occasional Kim, 

with scattering Fir (3 per cent) and K d 1'ine; hollows sometimes full of water, but more 

often open, grassy swamps, with Alder and Hackmatack, fringed by pine. 
Cltutilicativn: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 81 

Oppressed do IS 

Suppressed do.... 24 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees : 144. 



White Pine. 


Maple. 


Number 
of tree*. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


3 
1 
1 
5 
1 
11 
5 
7 

e 

4 
4 
6 
4 
5 
3 
1 
4 
1 
5 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Incha. 
6 to 10 
11 
13 
14 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
34 
35 
M 
38 
40 


Feet. 

80 
to . 
100 

110 
to 
130 

[{ 


Cubic/eel. 
30 
28 
39 
225 
52 
715 
360 
553 
516 
496 
536 
876 
612 
855 
555 
199 
852 
228 
1,200 
518 
274 
360 
380 
4U1 
445 
490 


Feet B. M. 

\ 


22 
11 


Jnehtt. 
3to 6 

I! In 111 


Feet. 
40 
60 


Hornbeam. 


3 


3 to 6 


40 


Basswood. 


4 
2 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


Fir. 


5 


3 to 6 


40 


85 trees: 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. 1 


t 11 795 


49 trees. 


[ 56 610 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 62 cubic feet. 

298 feet B. M. 






TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



139 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of Wliite Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

B.-WISCCXNSI^-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

Age clots : 200 to 220 years. 



Age cla: 180 to 180 years. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 

shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 

to total 
height of 
tree. 


Average 
animal 
accre- 
tion. 


1 


Year*. 

904 


Inches. 
27 3 


Feet. 
123 


Cu.ft. 






Cu.ft. 

07 


2 


210 


25 2 


137 


997 








3 


207 


31 


127 5 


246 


37 


35 


19 


4 


200 


29 5 


116 


939 








5 


206 


29 2 


130 5 


282 


*46 


29 




6 


205 


30 


133 


284 








7 . 


210 


34 


118 5 


292 


39 


37 




8 


214 


36 


113 5 


312 


39 


38 


1 46 


9 


210 


39 


130 


415 
























Average... 
10 


207 
211 


31. 

20 2 


125.0 
116 


280 
132 


.42 

51 


.43 

64 


1.35 

63 


11 


99g 


23 6 


113 


148 


43 


42 


65 


12.. . 


220 


22 8 


121 


153 


45 


45 


70 


13 


207 


27.2 


107 5 


200 


40 


28 


97 


14 


204 


27 


121 


204 


42 


43 


1 00 


15 


205 


27 


122 


210 


43 


25 


1 02 


16 


212 


27.8 


104 5 


180 


41 


51 


85 


17... 


204 


27 3 


112 


186 


41 


41 


91 


















Average... 


211 


25.0 


114.0 


177 


.44 


.42 


.84 



18 ... 


168 


30 


121 5 


206 


0.35 


49 


1 22 


19 


165 


28.4 


120.0 


224 


.41 


.50 


1.36 


20 


" 173 


28 4 


127 


257 


46 


.35 


1 49 


21 


163 


17.8 


91.5 


72 


.46 


.34 


.44 


2 


162 


23 


101 


130 


46 


54 


80 


23 


174 


28 


108.5 


167 


.36 


.54 


.96 


24 


166 


25.4 


104.0 


166 


.45 


.52 


1.00 


















Average... 


167 


26.0 


110.0 


174 


.42 


.47 


1.04 



140 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Acre yield* of WTtite Pine and meaiurements of eample treei Continued. 

B. \VI3CONSIX Continued. 

(4) Sm/: Waahburn County. 

Soil: Light brown sandy loam, medium 8ne grain, k>oe, deep, fresh, well drained, with abun- 
dant leafy surface cover. 

Forest condition* An open stand of hardwoodn (Kock Maple. Yellow Birch, and scattonnc Bass- 
wood, with Hemlock, and occasional Red Oak. White Birch, anil Poplar), in which White Pine 
ia scattered in varying proportions, on broken land, with frequent wamp in the hollows; 
undergrowth of yduug hardwoods. Fir and Hornbeam, and few Hemlock. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 
Ayr class : 80 to 100 years. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 




Tears. 
54 
62 
68 
90 


Inches. 
5.5 
6.0 
6.8 
6.8 


Feet. 
37 
40 
46 
88 


No. 


Cubiefeel. 
3.2 
4.2 
6.5 
4.8 


0.52 
.S3 
.48 
.50 


0.57 
.50 
.72 
.45 


Per cent. 


Cubic/eel. 


Cubicftet. 
.06 
.07 
.08 
.05 


52 








S3 
















Average... 








68.5 


6. 3 


M 




4.4 


.51 


.56 






.06 









DOMINANT GROWTH. 



2J 


82 


14.0 


82 


5.5 


43.0 


0.49 


0.39 


4.0 


1.72 


0.52 


23 


81 


14.7 


84 


5.0 


48.0 


.50 


.42 


2.7 


1.30 


.60 


si 


S3 


15.0 


82 


4. 


48.1 


.48 


.41 


5.2 


2.50 


.58 


27 


79 


15.0 


83 


4.8 


50.8 


.48 


.31 


3.2 


1.62 


.64 


30 


81 


19.0 


85 


3.9 


78.2 


.46 


.37 


2.4 


1.88 


.96 


33 


89 


18.7 


96 


3.9 


85.7 


.47 


.51 


4.6 


3.94 > 


.96 
























Average . . . 


82.5 


16.0 


" 


4.6 


59.0 


.48 


.40 


3.7 


2.16 


.71 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



26... 


82 


11.3 


101 


6.6 


30.0 


0.42 


0.40 


3.1 


0.93 


0.36 


32 


81 


11.8 


77 


6.2 


30.5 


.50 


.37 


4.0 


1.22 


.37 


2 


80 


11.9 


81 


5.7 


32.8 


.51 


.33 


4.6 


1.51 


.41 


24 


92 


14.5 


79 


5.6 


39.7 


.43 


.54 


3.6 


1.43 


.43 
























Average . . . 


84 


12.4 


84.5 


6.0 


33.3 


.46 


.41 


3.8 


1.27 


.39 



SCPPBESSED GROWTH. 



18 


127 


14 




6.5 


39.7 


0.50 


0.31 


4.3 


1.71 


0.31 

























Age class : 120 to 130 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



14... 


121 


20 2 


91 


5 4 


90 9 


0.45 


0.50 


3 4 


3 09 


0.75 


28 . ... 


125 


24 5 


89 


4 


131 8 


45 


58 


2 9 


3 82 


1 05 


15 


125 


26 5 


96 


4 


141 5 


39 


46 


1 5 


2 12 


1 13 


16 


125 


26.3 


105 


4 1 


176.8 


.47 


.53 


1.6 


2 83 


1.41 


17 


119 


29 


97 


3 8 


184 5 


42 


57 


1 5 


2 77 


1 55 
























Average . . . 


123 


25.3 


95 


4.3 


145.1 


.44 


.53 


2.2 


2.92 


1.18 



Age class : 220 to 230 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



86... 


223 


30 5 


116 


7 


237 4 


40 


38 


8 


1 90 


1 06 


10 


223 


31 


112 


7 


246 6 


42 


56 


| 


1 48 


1 10 


12 


228 


35 3 


124 
















5 


219 


35 


118 


6 


359 9 


45 




' 7 


2*52 


1 64 
























Average . . . 


m 


33.0 


117 


6.5 


291.5 


.42 


.46 


.8 


1.88 


1.30 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



141 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



B.-\VISCONSIX-Continued. 
(5) SITE g: 



Washburn County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil : Loam, generally fresh, sand and stone mixed, 2 to 3 inches mold on top, and a surface cover Age of pine : 160 to 230 years, 
of leaves. Density of crown cover: ( ?) 

Forest conditions: Two-story stand, upper story of White Pine (54 per cent) and Red Pine (9 per 
cent), second story of Fir (13 per cent and hardwoods (24 per cent) Maple, with scattering 
White and Yellow Birch, occasional Oak and Elm, Hemlock occurring singly; undergrowtfj 
scanty, of young hardwoods, uneven land full of drift ridges and hollows, often with steer 



inclines, the hollows frequently full of water. 
Classification: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 70 

Oppressed do 15 

Suppressed do 15 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees: 143. 



White Pine. 


Red Pine. 


Maple. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


3 
3 
1 
3 
4 
5 
2 
5 
2 
5 
5 
8 
4 
3 
3 
5 
6 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
29 
31 
32 
33 
34 


Feet. 

80 
to . 
100 

100 
to 
120 


Cubic/eel. 
30 
84 
34 
117 
180 
260 
116 
325 
176 
480 
525 
912 
492 
402 
438 
785 
J.014 
364 
627 
237 
251 
2C7 
566 


FeetB.M. 


1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 


Inches. 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
24 
25 
26 


Feet. 

80 
to 
120 


9 
16 
3 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 


Feet. 
40 
60 
80 


Birch. 


2 
3 
1 

1 


3 to 
6 to 10 
14 
16 


40 
60 

} 80 


Fir. 


16 
2 


3to 6 
6 to 10 


40 
60 


77 trees : 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. It 


t . 8, 682 


13 trees : 
Total cubic feet.. 1,469 
Total feet B. M.. , 160 


53 trees. 


41,600 





Average annual accretion: Pine, 51 cubic feet. 
239 feet B. M. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 
Aye class: 220 to 230 years. 















Ratio of 




Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 














tree. 






Tears. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Cltbicfeet. 






Oubicfeet. 


10 


216 


31.8 


121.5 


287 


0.43 


0.40 


1.33 


11 


222 


35.0 


123.5 


344 


.42 


.46 


1.55 


12 


228 


24.8 


116.5 


160 


.41 


.40 


.70 


13 


220 


24.0 


100.0 


156 


.49 


.27 


.78 


14 


208 


15.0 


96.0 


58 


.50 


.47 


.28 


18 


220 


24.5 


107.5 


157 


.45 


.35 


.71 


17 


218 


29.0 


118.0 


240 


.44 


.49 


1.10 


Average... 


219 


26.3 


112.0 


200 


.45 


.40 


.92 



Age class: 160 to 180 years. 



3 


160 


23.5 


104.5 


127 


0.40 


0.40 


0.79 


4 


170 


24.0 


119.0 


172 


.46 


.41 


1.01 


5 


178 


24.2 


114.0 


176 


.48 


.38 


.99 


6 


170 


25.7 


111.5 


181 


.45 


.41 


1.07 


7 


175 


27.3 


122.0 


217 


.43 


.46 


1.24 


g 


168 


30.5 


114.0 


256 


.44 


.42 


1.52 


15 


185 


23.2 


110.5 


138 


.42 


.34 


.74 


9 


173 


26.0 


112.0 


190 


.46 


.28 


1.10 


Average... 


172 


25.5 


113.0 


182 


.44 


.39 


1.06 



142 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. ,4cre yieldi of White Pine and meaturementi of sample tree* Continued. 



B.-WISCONSEN-ConUnued. 

(6) Srnw: 



Lincoln County. 



Stil: Red, compact <-lay (black on ton), well drained, with leafy surface cover. 
i'oral condition! ; A mixed stand of white Pine (50 per cent), Hemlock (30 per cent), and Birch 
(20 per cent), rolling country. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 
Age clou: 100 to 150 years. 



Tree number. 


Diameter 
(breaiit 

hid'). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 

abajw. 


Tree nnmber. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


60 


Incite*. 
21.0 


Feel. 
97 


Cu.ft. 
108.1 


0.48 


25 


Inchft. 
36 5 


Feet. 
114 


c./. ft. 
308 5 


36 


5 


20 5 


97 


105 8 


48 












86 


36.5 


104 


276.2 


.37 


Average 


28.6 


103 


199.6 


.43 























Age clots: 150 to 200 years. 



37 


24 


117 


122 2 


0.33 


40 


31 


132 


273 2 


40 


79 . ... 


24.0 


98 


137.7 


.44 


88 


35.0 


118 


287 7 


36 


95 


27 


101 


140 5 


35 


38 


34 


133 


313 8 


37 


45 


24 


104 


136 7 


.42 


44 .... 


35 


138 


311 4 


34 


4g 


25 


87 


140.1 


.47 


39 


32.0 


140 


318 6 


41 


76 


24 


121 


178 6 


47 


84 


36 


127 


'*; o 


35 


19 


24.0 


121 


180.7 


.47 


27 


36.0 


157 


365.8 


.33 


78 


33 


107 


236 8 


37 












94 


34.0 


105 


249.0 


.38 




30.0 


120 


231 2 


38 


47 


83.0 


136 


257.1 


.32 

































Age clatt: 200 to 250 years. 



90... 


25.0 


105 


102. : o. 29 


75 


36.0 


103 


263 5 


.36 


22 


25.0 


111 


105. 2 . 28 


23 


33 5 


114 


267 8 


38 


13 


22.0 


118 


129.9 .42 


89 


33 5 


115 


267 8 


38 


67 


25 


97 


136 6 41 


35 


29 


123 


277 3 


48 


02 


25.0 


101 


139 4 .40 


99 


37 


110 


274 4 


33 


6 


24.0 


115 


151.7 .42 


34 


32.0 


129 


286 2 


40 


67 


24 


115 


153 5 .42 


82 


38 


13 


290 5 


30 


81 


27.0 


106 


173. 5 . 41 


55 ... 


35 


133 


314 


35 


33 


30.0 


119 


180. 4 . 31 


17 


38.0 


149 


315 7 


27 


9* 


31 


97 


181 5 36 


4 


35 


149 


331 6 


34 


100 


29.0 


97 


182. 7 . 41 


61 


35 


148 


339 8 


34 


71 


27.0 


98 


185. 6 . 48 


20 


34 


138 


361 5 


41 


31 


27 


126 


194 2 39 


10 


51 5 


148 


634 8 


30 


65 


30 


115 


194 6 34 












58 


28.5 


127 


202. . 36 




31 7 


119 


235 5 


36 


73 


35 


108 


208 6 29 












28 


29.0 


135 


209 7 . 34 


8 .. 


26 


126 


159 1 


34 


60 


26.0 


117 


215.4 .50 


69 


27 


119 


164 6 


35 


14 


26 


117 


216 6 50 


51 


26 


126 


167 


36 


3 


28.5 


127 


216 8 38 


52 


27 


152 


188 3 


31 


54 


30.0 


129 


217.2 .34 


12 


27 


152 


194 3 


32 


g 


31 


94 


218 8 44 


83 


30 


126 


207 9 


34 


60 


31.0 


101 


220 7 42 


56 


31 


113 


227 1 


38 


32 


32.0 


136 


221. 1 . 29 


80 


34 ' 


129 


240 6 


30 


7 


31 


114 


223. 5 37 


72 


33 


116 


256 9 


37 


59 


31.0 


121 


228 4 36 


62 


32 


137 


2">7 


34 


91 


32 


119 


230 8 85 


3 


32 


137 






2 


31 


122 


233 1 38 


85 


32 


108 


272 3 


45 


87 


36.0 


110 


237 6 31 


21 


34 


137 


276 2 


32 


24 


36 


119 


239 6 28 


18 


36 


126 




31 


30 


38.0 


137 


243 2 22 


26 


32 


138 


293 4 


38 


1 


35.0 


128 


247. 5 29 


9 


36 


135 


303 6 


32 


16... 


35 


128 


248 2 29 


29 


34 


134 




37 


97 


33.0 


105 


255 4 41 


70 


34 


134 


321 9 


38 


93 


37.0 


101 


256. 8 34 


41 


35 


129 


341 6 


40 


74 


38.0 


119 


258 8 28 












49 


33 5 


139 


260 1 32 


A vprapfl 










77 


34.0 


104 


261 4 40 


fc> 





























Age clatt: 300 to 350 years. 



98... 


31.0 
80.0 
30.0 
36.0 
33.0 
46.0 


115 
132 
120 
124 
129 
140 


215.9 
219.8 
231.9 
240.3 
296.2 
309.4 


0.36 
.34 
.39 
.27 
.39 
.19 


15 


33.0 
36.0 
34.0 


136 
124 
146 


332.0 
237.0 
380.4 


0.41 
.27 
.41 


42 




53 


36 


46 


Average . . . 


43... 


34.3 


129 


273.6 


.33 


11 





TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 
TABLE VI. Acre yields of "ITJiite Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 



143 



(1) SITE d: 



Clinton County. 
[2,000 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 2 acres. 



of both in Age of pine : 240 to 260 years. 

i mold, and Density of crown cover: 0.4 

, , openings some Blackberries are seen. to 0.5 ; openings near top of 

Forest conditions: Hemlock (60 per cent) intermixed with White Pine (24 per cent), scattering slope. 
Black Birch and Yellow Birch and occasional Oak, Chestnut, and Maple, on steep slopes 

bordering Hyner Run ; undergrowth, moderately dense, of young Hemlock near the run and Number of trees per acre : 96. 
Birch and hardwoods above named near top of slope. 

YIELD FOR THE TWO ACRES. 



White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


Oak. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


1 

2 
1 
3 
4 
1 
5 
2 
o 

3 
2 
3 
1 
3 
5 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 


Inchet. 
10 
11 
13 
19 
22 
23 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
39 

1! 
42 


Feet. 
80 
80 
80 
130 
130 
130 
130 
135 
135 
135 
135 
135 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 


Cu.ft. 
j 108 

} 959 

190 

1,085 
514 

| 1,995 

915 
310 
1,170 

} 2,400 
960 

1 3,068 
J 


FeetB.M. 

432 

4,494 

1,000 
6,150 
2,780 

9,800 

5,850 
2,000 
6,900 

14, 400 
5,600 

19,800 


10 
24 
3 
4 
4 
5 
9 
3 
7 
3 
8 
5 
2 

3 
8 
5 
1 
3 
4 
2 
1 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
CtolO 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
25 
26 
27 
28 
30 
36 


Feet. 

80 
to 
100 


2 
3 


Inchet. 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 


Feet. 
1 35 to 
/ 60 


Birch. 


5 

10 
1 
1 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


1 40 
} to 

[ W 


Chestnut. 


3 

1 

1 


6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


} 40 

I to 
) 60 


Maple. 


1 
3 
1 


3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 




47 trees : 
Total cubic feet 
Total feet B. M 


6 836 


146 trees : 
Total cubic fee 
Total feet B. i 


t 11,148 


39 603 


[ 66 005 







Average annual accretion : All species, 49 cubic feet. 

264 feet B. M. 



MEASUREMENTS OP SAMPLE TREES. 
Age clats: 180 to 200 years. 















Volume. 






Lumber 




















Ratio of 


under 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 

tree. 


present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
total 


' 




















volume 






















of stem). 




Teart. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


.Vo. 


Cu.ft. 


FeetB.M. 








10 


194 


26.0 


116 


56 


6.6 


170.8 


908 


0.40 


0.51 


44 


11 .. 


199 


30.0 


114 


56 


5.6 


214.4 


1,273 


.38 


.51 


49 


12 


197 


26.5 


105 


56 


7.0 


183.3 


997 


.45 


.46 


45 


13 


196 


23.0 


95 


40 


7.4 


111.1 


490 


.40 


.58 


37 


14 


199 


29.0 


103 


52 


6.3 


220.6 


1,290 


.46 


.49 


48 


15 


189 


23.0 


104 


60 


8.0 


106.4 


534 


.35 


.42 


41 


16 


186 


22.0 


104 


54 


7.8 


128.0 


643 


.46 


.48 


42 


17 


189 


25.5 


105 


45 


6.9 


176.1 


892 


47 


.57 


42 


18 . 


197 


26.0 


101 


60 


7.3 


155.7 


791 


.42 


.50 


42 


19 


183 


26.5 


88 


40 


7.2 


151.2 


760 


.45 


.54 


41 


Average . . . 






















193 


26.0 


103 


51 


7.0 


162.0 


858 


.42 


.51 


43 
















i 







Ageclat*: 230 to 250 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



21 .... 


256 


34.0 


158 


94 


7.5 


416.3 


2,660 


0.42 


0.40 


53 


22 


242 


35.0 


150 


82 


6.2 


376.1 


2,261 


.37 


.45 


50 


Average . . . 


249 


34.5 


154 


88 


6.8 


396.0 


2,460 


.40 


.42 


51 


4 


201 


40.0 


129 


64 


5.0 


401.7 


2,300 


.36 


.50 


47 

























144 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurement of sample treei Continued. 

C.-PEXNSYLVANIA-Conttaned. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES Continued. 

Age elan: 230 to 250 years. 

CODOMDJAMT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Lumber 
product 
under 
present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
total 
volume 
of stem). 


Tree. 


Mer- 

chan table 
timber. 


1 


Yeart. 
245 
232 
256 


Inehet. 
28.5 
23.0 
23.5 


Feet. 
132 
132 
141 


Feet. 
94 
78 
90 


So. 
7.0 
9.3 
10.1 


Cu.ft. 
256.6 
160.6 
192.7 


FeetB.M. 

1,583 
766 
1,066 


0.44 
.42 
.45 


0.29 
.41 

.32 


51 
39 
40 


2 


20 


Average . . . 
6... 


244 

229 
234 
(1) 
231 
229 


25.0 

25.0 
23.0 
28.0 
27.0 
30.0 


135 

120 
116 
124 
110 
120 


89 

60 
60 
72 
60 
52 


8.8 

7.1 
9.3 
(?) 
7.8 
7.7 


203.0 

197.6 
160.4 
224.2 
190.2 
268.0 


1,138 

1.100 
888 
1,348 
1,070 
1,535 


.44 

.48 
.48 
.42 
.43 
.45 


.34 

.50 
.48 
.42 
.45 
.56 


45 

46 
46 
50 

47 
48 


6 


7 


$ 


9 


Average . . . 


231 


26.5 


118 


61 


8.0 


208.0 


1,188 


.45 


.48 


47 



(2) SITE/: 



Clearfield County. 
[1,200 to 1,500 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil : Yellow clayey loam of medium grain (fine shales in it), deep, fresh, well drained, with 2 Age of pine : 240 to 260 years, 
to 3 inches mold on top, and surface cover of scanty leaves, Fern, Teaberries, and scattering Density of crown cover : 0.7 ; 



Dogwood (Laurel northeast corner and north side) ; subsoil, laminated shale of indefinite 
depth. 

Foreit condition!: Hemlock (62 per cent) mixed with White Pine (28 per cent), with occasional 
hardwoods (10 per cent), Maple, Beech, and Birch, on hill sloping toward southwest, bordered 
by left-hand branch of Narrow Creek; undergrowth, moderately dense, of very young Beech, 
Hemlock, and occasional Birch and Cucumber. 

ACRE YIELD. 



in places, 0.8. 
Number of trees: 132. 



White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


Maple. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chan table 
timber. 


2 
2 
2 
1 

1 
4 
2 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Inches. 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
34 
40 
41 
45 


Feet. 
120 
120 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
135 
135 

135 
135 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 
145 


Cubicfeel. 
} 360 

I 1,370 

} 570 

651 
257 

| 1,140 

610 
1.220 
390 
800 
511 
511 
638 


FeetB.M. 
1.360 

6,420 

3,000 

3,690 
1,390 

6,600 

3,900 
7,800 
2, 300 
4,800 
3,300 
3,300 
4,400 


17 
4 
3 
4 
1 
8 
6 
6 
8 
5 
8 
3 
3 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 


Incheg. 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


Feet. 

80 
to 
100 


2 
3 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
14 to 18 


Feet. 
J40 to 60 


Beech. 


2 
1 


10 to 14 
14 to 18 


| . 


Birch. 


1 
2 


6 to 10 
10 to 14 


1 - 


37 trees : 
Total cubic feet 9,028 


95 trees: 
Total cnbic feet 
Total feet B. M 


15 686 


Total feetB.M 52.280 


90 103 









Average annual accretion : All species, 63 cubic feet. 

360 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



145 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

C.-PENXSYLVANIA-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree ntyber. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume. 


Factor 
of 

shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Lumber 
product 
under 
present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
total 
volume 
of stem). 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


1 


lean. 
260 
260 
259 
241 
244 
262 
265 
250 
266 
245 
248 
259 
262 
263 
241 
261 


Inches. 
35.5 
36.0 
32.0 
32.0 
33.0 
28.0 
39.0 
34.0 
44.0 
34.0 
34.0 
33.0 
33.0 
31.0 
31.5 
37.0 


Feet. 
158 
157 
152 
150 
146 
156 
153 
150 
144 
146 
142 
133 
146 
144 
134 
146 


Feet. 
90 
. 90 
84 
62 
96 
88 
88 
78 
100 
92 
90 
91 
90 
82 
88 
106 


Jfo. 
7.6 
7.0 
7.8 
6.6 
6.8 
9.0 
6.0 
6.3 
5.7 
7.1 
7.2 
8.0 
7.4 
8.5 
7.1 
6.7 


Cu.fl. 
435.4 
481.3 
396.0 
347.7 
365.9 
285.8 
511.1 
402.4 
638.4 
366.7 
373.4 
304.5 
369.2 
275.2 
307.7 
482.9 


Ft. It. M. 

3,030 
3,401 
2,637 
2,079 
2,384 
1,648 
3,318 
2,397 
4,388 
2,248 
2,318 
1,770 
2,220 
1,458 
1,853 
2,970 


0.40 
.43 
.46 
.41 
.42 
.43 
.40 
.42 
.42 
.40 
.42 
.40 
.42 
.36 
.42 
.44 


0.43 
.42 
.44 
.59 
.34 
.43 
.42 
.48 
.30 
.37 
.37 
.31 
.38 
.43 
.34 
.27 


58 
59 
55 
50 
54 
47 
54 
49 
57 
51 
51 
48 
50 
44 
50 
50 


2 


3 


4 


10 


12 


18 


19 


20 


21 ... 


23 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


Average . . . 


255 


34 


147 


88 


7.0 


390.0 


2,507 


.41 


.39 


52 



CODOMINANT GROWTH. 



28 


262 


28. 5 - 


138 


75 


9.8 


264.3 


1,551 


0.43 


0.45 


49 


25 


244 


28.5 


138 


107 


7.7 


298.1 


1,954 


.49 


.22 


54 


24 


245 


25.0 


130 


84 


9.3 


192.1 


1,102 


.43 


.35 


48 


22 


246 


31 


130 


82 


7.3 


310.3 


1,731 


.45 


.37 


46 


5 


264 


29.0 


140 


100 


8.4 


300.4 


1,905 


.47 


.28 


52 


6 


264 


29.0 


140 


110 


8.5 


291.4 


.631 


.45 


.21 


47 


7 


262 


29.0 


152 


112 


9.5 


302.8 


,854 


.46 


.26 


SI 


g 


235 


29 


142 


86 




248.6 


,318 


.38 


.39 


44 


9 


236 


32.0 


142 


84 




287.7 


,648 


.36 


.41 


48 


11 


244 


30.0 


141 


81 


7.5 


305.3 


,947 


.44 


.42 


53 


13 


258 


23.0 


147 


93 


9.6 


206.0 


,048 


.48 


.37 


42 




242 


25 


139 


98 




217.1 


,233 


.46 


.30 


47 


15 


262 


26 


136 


98 




257.2 


,389 


.51 


.28 


45 


16 


235 


24.5 


124 


93 




163.8 


815 


.40 


.25 


41 


17 


262 


25 


128 


108 




214.4 


1,183 


.49 


.16 


46 


26 


245 


26.0 


136 


98 


9.3 


199.2 


1,021 


.40 


.28 


47 


30 


259 


26.5 


134 


90 


9.2 


228.6 


1, 3:16 


.44 


.32 


48 


29 


264 


28.0 


141 


84 


9.2 


276.5 


1,577 


.46 


.40 


47 


31 


262 


25.5 


132 


88 


10.0 


191.8 


863 


.41 


.33 


37 


32 


261 


26.0 


142 


99 


9.1 


239.9 


1,322 


.46 


.30 


46 


Average . . . 


253 


27 


138 


93 


9.0 


250. 


1,421 


.44 


.32 


47 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



27 


259 


19.0 


132 


94 


11.6 


138.8 


683 


0.53 


0.29 


41 


3g 


260 


23.0 


137 


96 


11.1 


189.6 


987 


.48 


.30 


43 


39 . 


258 


20.5 


123 


109 


13.0 


130.9 


558 


.46 


.11 


35 


40 


261 


16.5 


120 


82 


13.7 


89.6 


339 


.50 


.31 


31 


Average . . . 


259 


20.0 


128 


95 


12.3 


137.0 


642 


.49 


.25 


37 



20233 No. 22 10 



146 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VI. Jcre yield* of mite I'ine and meamrrmentt of sample tree* Continued. 



C.-PKNN-\ i.\ A M A-Continned. 

(3) SlTK: 



Clearfleld County. 
[1,200 to 1,500 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 1 cre. 




: 240 to 260 years. 
. crown cover: 0.5 
in places openings. 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. Hemlock. 


Beech. 








Volume. 














Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
bigb). 


Height. 




Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(brawl 

high). 


Height. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
ibrcMl 
high). 


Height. 


Mer- 
Bole, chantable 








Umber. 














Inehti. 


Feet. 


Cubic fret Feet II. U. 


Indus. 


Feet. 




Iiuhet. 


Feet. 


1 


18 


130 


137 4'.' 1 


3 to 6 




16 


6 to 10 


30 to 40 


1 


20 


130 


137 642 


2 


7 










1 
1 
1 


21 
22 
23 
24 


130 
130 
130 


137 
} 380 


642 
2,000 


1 
2 
I 


9 
11 
16 




Black Birch. 


2 


26 


135 


514 


2,780 


4 


17 










2 
3 


28 
31 


135 
145 


570 
915 


3,300 
5,850 


1 
2 


18 
19 


80 


1 

1 


6 to 10 
10 to 14 


} 40 


4 


32 


145 


1,560 


9.200 


3 


20 










2 


34 


145 


800 


4,800 


3 


21 










1 
1 


35 
36 


145 

145 


| 960 


6,400 


2 
3 


23 
24 










1 
1 


40 1 145 
41 145 


} 1,022 


6,600 


1 
4 


25 
26 




















1 


27 




















3 


28 




















1 


33 










23 trees : 




55 trees: 


Total cubic feet 


.... -7 2fin 


Total cubic feet 11.221 


Total feet B. 1 







. 43,490 


Total feet B. M 




66.900 









Average annual accretion : All species, 45 cubic feet. 

268 feet B. M. 



(4)SiTK: 



Jefferson County. 
[1,500 to 1,800 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil : Reddish-brown clayey loam, deep, fresh, well drained, with 2 to 3 inches mold on top and Age of pine : 230 to 240 years, 
a surface cover of abundant leaves and ground Hemlock; subsoil, laminated shale of indefi- 
nite depth. Density of crown cover : 0.7 1 

Forest conditions: Hardwoods (71 per cent) mainly Beech, White Oak, and Maple mixed with in places 0.8. 
Hemlock (22 per cent) and scattering White Pine (7 per cent) on ridge; undergrowth, moder- 
ately dense, of very young Beech and some Maple. Number of trees; 155. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Beech. 


Maple. 


Hemlock. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diam- 
eter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Num- 
ber of 
trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer 

chantable 
timber. 


1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 


Inches. 
12 
17 
ID 
23 

3l{ 

37 
40 


Feet. 
90 
99 
102 
122 
126 
138 
140 
140 
147 
138 


Cu.feet. 
30.0 
70.2 
90.3 
152.3 
174.9 
BOO.O 
278.2 
401.2 
949.4 
487.1 


Feet B. M 

120 
236 
386 
656 
820 
1,682 
1.425 
2,605 
5,755 
3,056 


37 
14 
17 
1 


Inches. 
3to 6 
6 to 10 

10 to 14 
18 to 24 


Feet. 
\ 40 
I * 
J 6 


5 
9 
2 
3 


Inches. 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 
18 to 24 


Feet. 

\ 50 
V to 

I 


5 
15 
4 
3 
7 
3 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 
18 to 24 
over 30 


Feel. 

60 
to 

80 

100 


White Oak. 


Chestnut. 


4 14 to 18 
7 18 to 24 
6 21 to 30 


| 80 


2 


3 to 6 


( 20 
\ to 
I 30 


11 tree*: 
Total .ill.. 
Total feet 


c feet 2 933 


144 trees : 
Total cubic 


iMt 


5,526 


B.M 16 741 







Average annual accretion: White Pine, 12 cubic feet. 

71 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



147 



TABLE VI. Acre yields of White 1'ine and measurements of sample trees Continued. 

C. PENTVSYI/VAXIA Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 















Volume. 






Lumber 








































Ratio of 


under 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 

high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 

timber. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 

tree. 


present 
practice 
( per cent 
used of 
total 






















volume 






















of stem). 




Yeare. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Xo. 


Cubicfeet. 


Feet B. M. 








1 


228 


30 5 


136 


80 


5 6 










2 


239 


40 


138 
















3 


234 


37 


146 


72 














4 


240 


31 5 


140 


86 


9 Q 


' J 78 9 


1 45 37 


39 




5 


239 


37 


148 


96 












6 


239 


35 5 


140 


80 


6 1 


401 2 


2 605 


42 






Average . . . 






















236 


35.0 


141 


82 


6.4 


403.0 


2,420 


.41 


.42 


49 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



7 


235 


23 


122 


86 


9 3 


152 3 


656 


43 


29 


35 


8 


238 


24 5 


126 


92 


8 7 


174 9 


820 


42 


27 


36 
























Average . . . 


236 


23.5 


124 


89 


9.0 


163.0 


738 


.42 


.28 


35 



SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 



9 


1230 to/ 


19 


102 


50 


(?) 


90 3 


386 


44 


51 


35 


10 


/ 240 \ 


17 


99 


80 


1 1) 


70 2 


236 


44 


19 


28 




























18 


100 


65 




80 


311 




35 


31 

























(5) SITE k: 



Jefl'erson County. 
[1,500 to 1,600 feet above sea level. 



Soil: Reddish-brown clayey loam, deep, fresh, and drained by "Windfall Run. 
Foreit conditions: White Pine, with Hemlock and occasional hardwoods; Hemlock comparatively 
email, acting as an underwood, giving ample shade to the stems of the White Pine. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE TREES. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Lumber 
product 
under 
present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
total 
volume 
of stem). 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


11 


Yean. 
247 
241 
238 
236 
238 
241 
233 
227 
342 
236 
240 
236 


Inches. 
32.5 
35.0 
32.5 
32.5 
34.0 
30.0 
31.0 
29.5 
32.0 
35.0 
34.5 
32.5 


Feet. 
146 
176 
142 
158 
148 
143 
145 
142 
153 
158 
152 
158 


Feet. 
96 
90 
96 
96 
96 
96 
90 
88 
100 
112 
90 
92 


JVo. 
6.3 
7.3 
6.2 
8.2 
6.2 
8.0 
6.5 
6.6 
7.2 
6.2 
6.2 
5.8 


Cubic/eet 
398.0 
499.2 
359.7 
386.3 
382. 4 
322.2 
323.4 
255.8 
335.5 
485.3 
396.8 
387.9 


Feet B.M. 
2,221 
3,003 
2.053 
2,244 
2,236 
1,832 
2,464 
1,391 
1,985 
2,795 
2,312 
2.243 


0.47 
.42 
.44 
.42 
.41 
.46 
.42 
.38 
.39 
.46 
.45 
.42 


0.34 
.49 
.32 
.40 
.35 
.33 
.38 
.38 
.34 
.29 
.41 
.41 


46 
50 
48 
48 
it 
47 
63 
45 
. 46 
48 
49 
48 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


Average... 


238 


32.5 


152 


95 


6.7 


378.0 


2,231 


.43 


.37 


49 



148 



THE WHITE PINE. 



YIELD OF SECOND-GROWTH 'WHITE PINE, WITH MEASUREMENTS OF YOUNG PINE 

TAKEN FOR ANALYSIS. 

The yield of second-growth White Pine on selected sample areas in the States named is 
shown in the following notes and tabulations, which also give, for illustration, the number of trees, 
volume, and average annual accretion of pine, the soil, forest conditions, acre yields, and measure- 
ments of sample young pines taken for analysis : 

TAIU.K. VII. Acre yields of econd-growlh White fine, trith measurements of young pine taken for analysit. 



A. PENNSYLVANIA: 

(1) SlTEC: 



Lnzerne Conoty. 

[1,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.] 
Half acre No. 1. 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil: Dark-brown loamy sand, medium grain, with pebbles and gravel, light, loose, deep, fresh, Age of pine : 80 to 80 years, 
drained by Bear Creek and a number of other small streams, - inches mold on top, and a sur- 
face cover of abundant leaves and scanty fern. 

Forent condition!: White Pine, mixed with 'Maple, Beech, Hemlock, and scattering Yellow and 
White Birch, White nnd Red Oak, and occasional Black Cherry, in a valley sloping toward 
southwest and bordered on all sides by liills over 300 feet above station ; undergrowth moder- 
ately dense, of young Hemlock, Beech, Maple, Birch.' 

HALF-ACRE YIELD. 



Density of crown cover: 0.5. 



dumber of trees: 216. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Bole. 


Mer 

chan table 










timber. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 


Cubic/cct. 


FectB.lt. 


2 


6 


50 


11 




2 


7 


50 


12 




2 


8 


50 


19 




10 


9 


50 


115 




4 


10 


50 


60 




6 


11 


60 


126 




6 


12 


60 


150 




8 


13 


60 


208 




8 


14 


60 


240 




4 


15 


80 


176 




4 


16 


80 


184 




8 


17 


80 


456 




2 


18 


80 


135 




4 


19 


80 


276 




6 


20 


80 






2 


22 


80 


750 




2 


23 


80 


. 




80 trees : 


Total cubic feet. 9 oiu 


Total feet B. M 




14,006 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 41 cubic feet. 



'Intermixed tpeciei: Maple, 68; Beech, 22; Hemlock, 18; Yellow and White Birch, 14; White and Red Oak 12- Cherry 2. 
Undergrowth: Young Hemlock, 280; Beech. 146; Maple, 84; Birch, 12. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



149 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 

A.-PESTN-SYLVAXIA-Continued. 

Half acre No. 2. 



Soil: Reddish-brown sandy loam, fine grain, medium loose, deep, fresh, drained by Boar Creek, Age of pine : 60 to 80 years 
2 to 3 inches mold on top, and surface cover of abundant leaves ; Laurel and few Fern. Density of crown cover 

Foreit condition!: White Pine (154) mixed with Maple, scattering Beech, Hemlock, and occa- 0.8. 
sional Spruce, on uneven ground of a valley sloping toward northeast and bordered on all 
sides by nills over 300 feet above station ; undergrowth, moderately dense, of young Hem- 
lock, Beech, Maple, and a few young Spruce.' 



Number of trees : 232. 



HALF-ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chan table 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Gubicfeet 


FeetS.M. 


14 


3 to 6 


40 






2 


6 


50 


11 




4 


7 


5C 


24 




12 


8 


50 


114 




10 


9 


50 


115 




14 


10 


50 


210 




10 


11 


60 


210 




8 


12 


60 


200 




12 


13 


' 60 


312 




16 


14 


60 


480 




4 


15 


80 


176 




4 


16 


80 


184 




14 


17 


80 


798 




8 


19 


80 


552 




6 


20 


80 






6 


21 


80 






4 


22 


80 


1,650 




4 


24 


80 






2 


25 


80 






154 trees: 


Total cubic fee* - - - --- soafi 


Total feet B. M 




24, 173 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 72 cubic feet. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

Forett conditions : Ridge land densely covered with young hardwoods mainly White Oak and 
Red Oak, among which White Pine is scattered. 















Volume. 






Lumber 
product 


















Ratio of 




Tiee number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 


present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
















timber. 




tree. 


total 






















volume 






















of stem). 




Teari. 


Inchet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


A'o. 


CuHcSeet 


FeetS.lt. 








1 


123 


29.0 


84 


34 


3.5 


140.6 


627 


0.36 


0.60 


37 


2 


132 


20.0 


81 


20 


5.7 


78.1 


369 


.44 


.75 


a 39 


3 


134 


22.0 


81 


16 


5.7 


81.6 


369 


.38 


.80 


a 38 


4 . 


128 


31.0 


90 


20 


3.8 


193.8 


935 


.41 


.77 


40 


Average. .. 






















129 


25.5 


84 


22 


4.7 


124.0 


575 


.40 


.73 


38 



a Oppressed for the last forty years. 



1 Intermixed species: Maple, 36; Hemlock, 16; Beech. 18; Spruce, 8. 
Undergrowth: Young Hemlock, 200; Beech, 66; Maple, 24. 



150 



THK \VHITK PINE. 



TAHI.K VII. Acre yieldt of tetond-groivth WMte J'inr, icith meamrcmenlt of yoiiny jiine taken for analyiit Continued. 

A.-J'i:\N-\ I. VAXIA Continued. 

Iteddish-brown sandy loom, medium loose, fresh, deep, and well drained, with surface cover 
f altunilant leaves. 

Fortit eanailiotu: Hani woods -mainly Beech. Oak, Maple, Chestnut, and Birch mixed with 
White Pine. Pitch Pine, Hemlock, anil occanlonal Spruce. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 















Volume. 






Lumber 




















Ratio of 


under 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 

|I;IM' -it 

crown. 


Rings 

]KT inch 

on 

stump. 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


Factor 
of 
xhape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


present 
practice 
(per cent 
used of 
total 






















volume 






















of stem). 




Yean. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Xo. 


Cubic/eel. 


Feet P.M. 








1 


163 


29 


116 


50 


5.0 


191.4 


947 


0.36 


0.57 


40 


1 


98 


25.0 


84 


32 


3.5 


121.2 


530 


.42 


.62 


36 


2 


96 


20.0 


73 


32 


4.3 


76.1 


360 


.48 


.56 


40 


3 


92 


31.0 


97 


32 


2.5 


210.0 


976 


.41 


.67 


40 


4 


97 


19.5 


76 


26 


4.3 


67.0 


363 


.42 


.66 


45 


Average . . . 


96 


24.0 


82 


30 


' 3.5 


118.0 


557 


.43 


.63 


40 



Soil: Fresh sand, well drained. 

Forett condition!: A young White Pine grove mixed with mature Spruce, Hemlock, and scatter- 
ing hardwoods. 















Toll 


line. 






Lnmber 










































Ratio of 


under 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


_ 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Tree. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crowji 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


present 
practic.ii 
(per cent 
used of 
total 






















volume 






















of stem). 




lean. 


Inchel. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Ho. 


Cubic/eet. 


FeetB.M. 








1 . . 


64 


14 5 


54 


18 


4 


28 7 


110 


0.46 


0.66 


31 


2 


57 


14.5 


58 


20 


2 7 


31 4 


144 


.47 


.66 


38 


3 


50 


8.5 


50 


20 


4 8 


9 5 


43 


.48 


.60 


36 


4 . . . . 


47 


8 


46 


18 


5 


7 3 


32 


.45 


.61 


37 


6 


52 


11 


50 





3 7 


14 2 


M 


.43 


.60 


31 


g 


49 


11 5 


46 


18 


3 6 


15 7 


59 


.47 


.61 


31 


7 . .. 


52 


9 5 


63 


18 


4 


1' I 


48 


.46 


.66 


33 


8 


54 


8 


54 


18 


5 7 


10 1 


34 


.53 


.66 


27 


9 


54 


10.0 


56 


18 


4 3 


14 7 


59 


.48 


.68 


33 
























Average . . . 


53 


10.5 


52 


19 


4.2 


16.0 


65 


.47 


.64 


33 



(2) SITE <: 



Clinton County. 
[1.500 to 1.600 feet above sea level.) 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil: Loamy sand with rocks on face of slope, the brown-yellowish coarse grain full of shales, Age of pine: 120 to 130 years 
surface cover of 2 to 3 inches mold and abundant leaves. Density of crown cover : 0.2 

Forest condition!: Brush of very young White, Red, and Chestnut Oak, with scattering White (scattered). 
Pine (14). and occasional Chestnut Oak (6). Jack Pine (3), and Norway Pine (2), on a steep hill 
300 feet above station, facing south ; undergrowth, dense, of young hardwoods of same species 
as above. 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees : 25. 



White Pine. 


Number 

(if trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
3 
3 
1 


Inchet. 
10 
15 
19 
2\ 
22 
24. 
25 
29 


Feet. 
70 
76 
84 
85 
87 
85 
85 
85 


GiMcfeet. 
19 
41 

66 

270 
99 
345 
372 
151 


FeetB.M. 


161 
370 
1,245 
432 
1,449 
2,004 
760 


14 tree*: 
Total cubic fe< 
Total feet B. S 


t 1 368 


I... . 6 421 





Avtraye annual aeeretinn: White Vine, II mMc feet. 

57 feet B. M. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 151 

TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, u-ith measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued 
A. PE>"> T SYL,VAXIA-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 

stump. 


Volume. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length of 
crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Limibrr 
product 
under 
present 
practice 
(percent 
used of 
total 
volume 
of stem). 


Tree. 


Me. 
chan table 
timber. 


1 


Tears. 
125 
124 
124 
116 
122 
(?) 
120 
128 
127 
122 
125 
(?) 


Inches. 
21.0 
24.0 
22.0 
18.5 
19.5 
24.5 
21.0 
19.0 
19.5 
15.0 
17.0 
20.5 


Feet. 
78 
86 
87 
79 
85 
83 
89 
84 
88 
76 
84 
76 


Feet. 
40 
28 
34 
36 
40 
36 
38 
40 
40 
36 
3f 
38 


Ifo. 
4.8 
5.4 
5.5 
6.2 
5.9 
(?) 
5.4 
6.4 
5.7 
7.1 
6.9 
(?) 


Cubic/eel. 
88.6 
115.8 
99.0 
63.9 
79.7 
124.5 
94.5 
66.2 
92.0 
46.2 
61.4 
78.0 


Feet B.3I. 
404 
483 
432 
280 
364 
668 
429 
370 
446 
161 
267 
293 


0.47 
.42 
.43 
.43 
.45 
.46 
.44 
.40 
.50 
.49 
.46 
.45 


0.48 
.67 
.61 
.54 
.53 
.56 
.57 
.52 
.54 
.52 
.57 
.50 


39 
34 
36 
36 
38 
44 
37 
46 
40 
30 
36 
31 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Average . . . 


123 


20 


83 


37 


6.0 


84.0 


383 


.45 


.55 


37 



(3) S1TK0: 



Clearfleld County. 
[1,200 to 1,500 feet above sea level.) 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil: Yellow clayey loam, medium grain, deep, fresh, well drained (three small streams cross the Age of pine: 25 to 35 years. 
hollow in different directions), with 2 to 3 inches mold on top, surface cover of leaves. Fern, 

Ground Pine, Wintergreen, Elderberry, Blackberry, and Dogwood; subsoil laminated shale Density of crown cover: 0.5 
of indefinite depth. to 0.6. 

Forest conditions : Young White Pine intermixed with young hardwoods in hollow extending north 
and south, and bounded on the went by hill over 2 feet above station : undergrowth dense, of 
very small and various hardwoods, mainly Black Birch, Maple, and Beech, and few White 
Birch and Hemlock. 1 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees : ( ?) 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chan table 
timber. 


154 
41 
54 
34 
2 


Inches. 
Under 3 
3 to 5 
6 to 10 
10 to 14 
14 to 18 


Feet. 


Cubicfeet. 
4.5 
61.5 
432.0 
612.0 
42.0 


Feet B. if. 


1 to 37 
40 to 47 
42 to 50 




285 trees : 
Total cubic fee 


it . 1 152 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 38 cubic feet. 



' Intermixed species : White Pine, 131+154 small; Aspen, 12 + 54 small; Beech, 1 + 137 small; Maple, 6+254 small; Oak, 5+ 12 small; White 
Ash 3+21 small Cncumlwr. 6+90 small: Black Cherry, 2+77 small; Black Birch, 17+415 small; Hamamelis, 4 small; Basswood, 6 small; 
Tulip 13 small- Ironwood 2 small; Chestnut, 2 small; Willow, 10 small ; Hemlock, 50 small. 






152 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TAIILK VII. Acre yieldt of lecond-grou'th White 1'iur, tcith meauurtmtati of young pine taken for analysit Continued. 

A PENNSYLVANIA Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 






















Ratio of 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 


Rings 
per inch 
on 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 


length 
of crown 
to total 






high). 






stump. 




shape. 


height of 


















tree. 




Yean. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


A*o. 


Cubic ft. 








33 


13.5 


43.8 


11.0 


1.6 


21.0 


0.48 


0.75 


17 


36 


14.0 


47.0 


14.0 


1.9 


20.9 


.41 


.70 


9 


35 


12.5 


49.0 


18.5 


2.1 


18.8 


.45 


.62 


11 


34 


13.5 


43.0 


12.0 


1.9 


18.1 


.42 


.72 


Average . . . 


34 


13.4 


46.0 


14.0 


1.9 


19.7 


.44 


.70 



CODOMINANT GEOWTH. 



| u 


32 


11.2 


42.5 


19.5 


1.7 


12.6 


0.45 


0.54 


15 


31 


9.5 


47.0 


28.0 


2.5 


10.9 


.47 


.40 


16 


34 


8.0 


45.0 


28.0 


3.1 


7.7 


.48 


.38 


7 


34 


8.0 


41.8 


22.5 


3.5 


6.7 


.45 


.46 


IS 


34 


7.2 


41.5 


14.8 


3.9 


5.2 


.47 


.64 


Average . . . 


33 


8.8 


43.0 


22.0 


2.9 


8.6 


.46 


.48 



OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



6 .. 


31 


6.0 


39.8 


25.0 ' 


3.8 


4.0 


0.51 


0.17 


g 


33 


5.2 


37.0 


21.5 


4.7 


2.8 


.55 


.42 


12 


29 


5.0 


32.5 


14.0 


4.3 


2.1 


.48 


.57 


Average . . . 


31 


5.4 


36.0 


20.0 


4.3 


3.0 


.51 


.45 



SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 



5 


27 


3.0 


27.0 


13.0 


7.0 


0.7 


0.53 


0.51 


2 


30 


3.3 


23.5 


9.0 


7.9 


.7 


.44 


.61 


8 . 


27 


3.1 


27.8 


14.0 


7.4 


.6 


.47 


.49 




















Average . . . 
1 


27 
22 


3.1 
3.0 


26.0 
16 


, 12.0 
16.0 


7.4 

4.8 


.7 
.4 


.48 
.59 


.54 
1.00 


4 


24 


2.5 


24.0 


7.0 


5.9 


.3 


.41 


.71 




















Average . . . 


23 


2.7 


20.0 


11.0 


5.3 


.3 


.50 


.85 



(4) SITE j: 



Forest County. 
[1,100 to 1,200 feet above sea level.] 

Soil : Yellowish-brown clayey loam, with shales, deep, fresh, drained on south by Beaver Creek 

and on the west by Hickory Creek, 3 to 4 inches mold on top, and surface cover of leaves 

ana Fern ; subsoil, laminatea shale of indefinite depth. 
Forest conditions: Young "White Pine intermixed with hardwoods and occasional Hemlock on 

slope facing southwest; undergrowth dense, of very young Hemlock, Birch, Beech, some 

Maple and Ironwood, and a few other hardwoods. 1 

ACEE YIELD. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Age of pine : 40 to 50 years. 

Density of crown cover: 0.8 
(In places thickand crowded, 
ana in other places open- 
ings). 

Number of trees : (?). 





White Pine. 












Volume. 






Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 














timber. 








Inches. 


Feet. 


C\Mc/eet. 


Feet B. 31. 






.. t 


3 and 


\ 










144 { 


under 


}20to40 


53 








41 


4 


1 










49 


5 


46 










34 


6 


' 46 


572 








23 


7 


46 










24 


8 


54 










28 


9 


54 


839 








21 


10 


54 










12 


11 


58 











4 


12 


58 


306 








1 


13 


58 


- 








1 

1 


14 

15 


61 
61 


} 56 








383 trees ; 






Total cubic feet 1 826 




A verage annual accretion : Wbiti 






> Pine, 40 cubic feet. 


i Intrrmixeil ipeeiei : White Pine, 239+144 small; Hemlock, 78+248 small; Beech, 50+160 small; Maple, 46+108 small; Oak (White and 
Red), 20+12 small; Ash, 16+9 small; Black Birch, 73+76 small; Yellow Birch, 59+189 small; Ironwood, 13+100 small; Black Cherry, 
15+2 small; Hickory, 2; Cucumber, 2; Juneberry, 50; few small Aspen, Butternut, and Waterbeech. 






TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 153 

TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 
A. PENNSYI/V'AJflA Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Height to 
base of 
crown. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
ehape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


3 


Tears. 
46 


Inches. 

12 


Feet. 

60 


Feet. 
23 


No. 
3 5 


Cubic ft. 






12 


44 


11 5 














2 


44 


30 5 


55 


18 










8 


47 


11 


59 


30 


3 3 


18 7 






16 


47 


11 5 


66 


28 










9 


45 


11 


58 5 


28 


2 7 


17 9 






6 


47 


10 5 














6 


47 


10 


59 Q 


32 


3 3 


16 4 






21 


48 


10 5 


58 


30 


3 6 


16 3 


46 




19 


47 


11 


55 


28 


3 1 


























Average . . . 
7 


40 
47 


11.0 
14 


58.0 
64 


28 
34 


3.3 
2 9 


18.0 
29 6 


.45 


.52 


15 


46 


14 


58 


22 


3 


26 9 
























Average . . . 


46 


14.0 


61.0 


28 


3.0 


28.2 


.43 


.54 



CODOMINANT GROWTH. 



OPPBESSEI) GROWTH. 



18... 


43 


9 5 


56.0 


28 


4 1 


13 9 


50 


50 


14 


43 


10 


52 5 


30 


4 2 


13 9 


48 


43 


24 


46 


10 


53.0 


28 


3 9 


13 7 


47 


47 


11 


45 


9 5 


58 


30 


4 9 


IS 1 


46 


48 


17 


44 


9 


58 


32 


3 9 


12 9 


47 


44 


4 


45 


9.0 


46.0 


S3 


4 9 


11.4 


.46 


.59 


26 


45 


8 5 


50 


30 


4 6 


10 


51 


40 


13 


43- 


8 


54.0 


28 


3 7 


9 6 


.51 


48 


1 


47 


8.0 


50.0 


20 


5.1 


9.2 


.53 


.60 


10 


44 


8.0 


56 


36 


5 1 


8 6 


.44 


53 




















Average . . . 


44 


9.0 


54.0 


28 


4.4 


11.5 


.48 


.49 



27 


43 


7.5 


48 


22 


5.0 


7 9 


0.54 


0.54 


20 


42 


7.0 


46 


30 


5.0 


6 6 


.53 


.34 


25 


43 


7.5 


46 


30 


5.2 


6 1 


.43 


.35 


22 


43 


5.0 


45 


28 


6.9 


3 1 


.50 


.38 


23 


44 


5.5 


46 


38 


6.8 


3 6 


.47 


.17 




















Average . . . 


43 


6.5 


46 


30 


5.8 


5.4 


.49 


.35 



154 



THE WHITE PINK. 



TABLK VII. _ Acre yieldt of cco*d-groirth White 1'ine, irith measurements of youny pine taken for analysis Continued. 



B.-MAINK: 

(1) SITE a: 

.Soil 



fork County. 



Sample area: One-half acre. 



Gray or brown line, loamy sand, deep, fresh. 2 to 3 inches mold on top and leafy surface Age of pine: 90 to 100 years. 
cover.'anc! clay prolialdv HOII'H- feet tx-low surface. Density of crown cover: 0.5. 

ut condition! Whin- Hne, willi scuttcrinu lied Oak and White Oak and occasional Norway 



Fowl condition*. -"Whin- 1'in.-. with scattering 

Pino on n lev.-!: undergrowth, moderately dense, of small Hemlock and Beech and numerous 
Miiiill Maple and Ok. 

Dominant '. percent.. 26 

(.iidoinliiant do.... 40 

do 18 

do.... 18 



Number of trees: 



Suppressed 



HALF ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


-Mcr- 
chan table 
timber. 




Inehet. 


Feet. 


Cvtic/eet. 


FeetB.M. 


2 


10 


75 


42 




8 


11 


75 


192 




8 


12 


75 


233 




4 


12 


85 


120 




6 


13 


85 


222 




4 


14 


75 


154 




8 


14 


85 


332 




8 


15 


85 


384 




8 


16 


85 


408 




8 


17 


85 


528 




10 


18 


85 


690 




18 


19 


85 


1,323 




2 


20 


85 


152 




4 


21 


85 


320 




6 


22 


85 


534 




6 


23 


85 


660 


' 


2 


24 


95 


250 




2 


25 


95 


280 




4 


26 


95 


560 




118 trees : 


Total cnbic fee 


t 7 383 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 77 cubic feet. 
Current annual accretion : White Pine, 160 cubic feet. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 
Age class : 90 to 100 years. 

DOMINANT GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


7 


lean. 
98 
1(2 
98 
92 
92 
97 
97 
90 
102 
100 


Inehet. 
28.0 
28.0 
25.0 
25.5 
25.0 
22.0 
20.6 
22.5 
20.0 
20.3 


Feet. 
100 
103 
92 
91 
88 
98 
102 
91 
100 
103 


.Vo. 
2.9 
2.7 
3.2 
3.0 
3.2 
3.8 
4.1 
3.4 
4.1 
4.3 


Cubic ft. 
175.3 
161.0 
140.3 
136.3 
131.7 
119.4 
118.1 
115.1 
104.0 
98.8 


0.41 
.36 
.46 
.42 
.44 

: 

.46 
.47 
.41 


0.60 
.61 
.48 
.56 
.46 
.49 
.45 
.52 
.43 
.40 


Per cent. 


Cu.ft. 


Cu.ft. 


12 ... 








3 








17 








18 








23 








21 








16... 








8 








20 








Average . . . 








96 


23.7 


97 


3.5 


130. 01 .42 


.50 









CODOMINAKT GROWTH. 



4 


101 


20.5 


95 


3 8 


93 3 


43 


40 








8 


98 


19.5 


99 


3.8 


88 4 


43 


33 








22 


98 


19.0 


96 


4 i 


84 9 


45 


35 








10 


89 


16.8 


99 


3 8 


71 3 


46 


40 








U 


93 


18.5 


92 


4.3 


89.9 


.41 


.52 








1 


89 


18.7 


79 


4.6 
4.1 


68.4 
67 2 


.48 
45 


.41 
48 








16 


99 


17.2 


87 


4 6 


67 


49 


46 








11 


89 


17.2 


89 


4.0 


60.7 


.43 


.38 








Average . . . 


94 


18.5 


Dl 


4.1 


74.5 


.45 


.41 































TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



155 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 

B. MAETE Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES Continued. 

OPPRESSED GROWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Eatio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current, annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


25 


Tears. 
100 
100 
99 
86 
97 
99 
91 
99 


Inches. 
15.0 
15.0 
14.0 
14.3 
13.5 
12.6 
13.2 
12.0 


Feet. 
93 

90 
90 
88 
81 
86 
80 
80 


A-o. 
5.4 
6.5 
6.0 
5.0 
5.8 
7.2 
5.2 
6.3 


Cubic ft. 
55.5 
55.3 
47.3 
43.1 
37.3 
37.1 
35.9 
30.7 


0.48 
.51 
.49 
.42 
.46 
.50 
.48 
.49 


0.27 
.36 
.21 
.18 
.20 
.14 
.30 
.22 


Per cent. 


Ou.ft. 


Ou.ft. 


1 








26 








6 








24 








5 








13 








27 








Average . . . 








96 


13.7 


86 


6.0 


42.8 


.48 


.23 















Age clast : 50 to 60 years. 



DOMINANT GROWTH. 



2... 


55 


14.0 


61 


3 2 


34 2 


0.52 


0.69 


5.4 


1.85 


0.62 


1 


60 


14 7 


69 


O 


39 8 


50 


47 


4 


1 59 


66 


3 , 


60 


17.0 


61 


3 1 


42 8 


.44 


.64 


4.6 


1.97 


.71 


4 


59 


19 1 


65 


2 8 


60 7 


47 


69 


4 4 


2 67 


1 03 
























Average . . . 


58.5 


16.2 


64 


3.1 


44.4 


.48 


.62 


4.6 


2.02 


.75 



(J) SITE c.- 



York County. 
One-fourth acre No. 1. 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil.- Gray sand, sometimes brown or loamy, deep, fresh, with 3 inches vegetable mold, and a Age of pine: 50 to 60 years. 

leafy surface cover: subsoil clayey, probably 4 or 5 feet below surface. Density of crown cover: 0.7. 

Forest conditions: White Pine, with scattering Hemlock and occasional Spruce and Fir, on a level Number of trees : 328. 

plain; undergrowth, scanty, of Hazel ana young Hemlock. 1 
Classification: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 9 

Codominant do 45 

Oppressed do.... 23 

Suppressed do 23 

ONE-FOURTH ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


4 
32 
60 
84 
8 
36 
8 
52 
8 
12 
12 
4 
8 


Inches. 
6 

7 
7 
8 
8 
9 
10 
10 
11 
12 
12 
13 
17 


Feet. 
45 
55 
45 
55 
45 
55 
65 
55 


Cubicfeet. 
20 
256 
330 
840 
72 
414 
144 
780 
144 
306 
240 
116 
408 


Feet SM. 


65 
55 
65 
75 


328 trees : 
Total cubic fe 


it 4 070 





Average annual accretion: Whit* Pine, 74 cubic feet. 
Current annual accretion: White Pine, 133 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed species: Young White Pine, 160; Hemlock, 20 mature and 20 small. 



156 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABLE VII. Aon yiddt of teoond-grou-tk JTkite Pine, with meaiureateittt of young pint taken for analysis Contiuued. 

B. MAINE Continued. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PIKE TREES. 

DOMINANT OBOWTB. 

















Ratio of 


Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
rbreul 

high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
fitump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
abape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
















tree. 




Tean. 


Incht*. 


Fat. 


No. 


Oubicfeet. 






g 


SO 


14.5 


M 


2.8 


33.1 


0.45 


0.55 




59 


13.3 


60 


3.8 


26.4 


.44 


.58 


g 


55 


12.8 


61 


8.3 


25.6 


.45 


.38 




50 


11.8 


58 


3.5 


20.1 


.52 


.41 


JO 


58 


10.2 


65 


4.4 


22.0 


.59 


.35 


13 


50 


11.0 


62 


3.7 


21.1 


.50 


.35 


Average... 


54 


12.3 


62 


3.6 


24.7 


.49 


.44 



CODOMINAKT GROWTH. 



OPPRESSKD GROWTH. 



SCPPRESSKD OROWTH. 





52 


10.0 


59 


4.3 


16.1 


0.50 


0.40 


5 ,.j 


50 


9.0 


58 


4.3 


13.4 


.52 


.41 


20 


51 


8.8 


58 


4.6 


13.3 


.54 


.38 


7 


50 


9.4 


54 


4.3 


12.3 


.46 


<> 


27 


51 


8.1 


56 


5.1 


10.7 


.55 


.35 





50 


8.4 


55 


4.5 


10.6 


.50 


.40 


1 


49 


8.1 


56 


5.0 


10.2 


.52 


.34 


29 


52 


8.0 


57 


5.5 


10.1 


.50 


.37 


Average... 


51 


8.7 


57 


4.7 


12.1 


.51 


.39 



22 


49 


7.7 


53 


5.2 


9.6 


0.56 


0.30 


2 


52 


7.8 


54 


5.0 


9.5 


.50 


.26 


21 


49 


8.n 


51 


5.0 


9.5 


.53 


.39 


30 


48 


7.7 


54 


5.1 


9.0 


.52 


.40 


25 


50 


7.4 


58 


5.6 


9.0 


.50 


.33 


19 


51 


8.2 


47 


5.1 


8.9 


.51 


.34 


17 


50 


7.4 


54 


5.6 


8.0 


.50 


.30 


















Average. .. 


50 


7.8 


73 


5.2 


9.1 


.52 


.33 



14 


55 


6.3 


57 


(?) 


6.3 


0.51 


0.31 


16... 


48 


6.9 


49 


6.7 


5.8 


.44 


.28 


26 


46 


6 3 


51 


5.5 


5.5 


.47 


.25 


13 


46 


6.2 


47 


5.8 


5.1 


.51 


.27 


15 


48 


5 6 


50 


7 


4.3 


.52 


.20 


28 


50 


6 


39 


8.0 


3.7 


.48 


.56 


23 


48 


5.3 


46 


7.6 


3.6 


.47 


.26 


24 


52 


5 


48 


8 3 


3 4 


.52 


.43 


18 


52 


5.0 


46 


10.0 


3.2 


.50 


.27 


















Average . . . 


50 


5.8 


48 


7.2 


4.5 


.49 


.31 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



157 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Fine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 



B. MAI XE Continued. 



One-fourth acre No. 3. 



Soil: Brown sandy loam with little pebbles in it, deep, fresh, 3 inches black soil and mold on top, Age of pine : 50 to 60 years. 

and leafy surface cover; clay probably 8 to 12 inches below surface. Density of crown cover : 0.8 

Forest conditions: White Pine, with occasional Norway Pine, on a slope to north 5 to 10 ; Number of trees : 396. 

undergrowth scanty, of Hemlock. Oak, and Fir. 
Clastiiication : White Pine. 



Dominant per cent. 

Codominant do. 

Oppressed do. 

Suppressed do. 



18 
27 
24 
31 



ONE-FOURTH ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 






Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Oubiefeet. 


FeetB.M. 


4 


6 


65 


28 




28 


6 


55 


168 




20 


7 


65 


190 




20 


7 


55 


160 




84 


8 


65 


1,008 




24 


8 


55 


240 




36 





65 


522 




32 


10 


65 


576 




8 


10 


75 


168 




40 


11 


65 


880 




4 


11 


75 


100 




16 


12 


65 


408 




24 


12 


75 


696 




8 


13 


65 


232 




16 


13 


75 


552 




4 


14 


65 


132 




12 


14 


75 


462 




8 


15 


65 


292 




4 


16 


75 


184 




4 


17 


75 


204 




396 trees : 


Total cubic fe< 


s t 7,202 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 131 cubic feet. 

One-half acre No. 3. 

Soil: Brown sand, deep, fresh, and leafy surface cover; clay probably 4 to 6 feet below surface. Age of pine: 50 to 60 years. 
Forest conditions : White Pine intermixed with Norway Pine and occasional Spruce and Fir, on Density of crown cover: 0.8. 

a slope to north ; undergrowth scanty, of small and few Hemlock, Fir, and bpruce. Number of trees : 314. 

Clairijication: White Pine. 

Dominant percent.. 

Codomioant do 36 

Oppressed do 

Suppressed do 26 

HALF-ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 




Inches. 


Ftet. 


Cubicfeet. 


FeetB.M. 


18 


1 


65 


162 




48 


7 


55 


384 




60 


8 


65 


.720 




26 


8 


55 


260 




44 


9 


65 


638 




6 


9 


55 


69 




4 


10 


75 


82 




38 


10 


65 


684 




10 


11 


75 


250 




23 


11 


65 


618 




4 


12 


75 


116 




14 


12 


65 


357 




4 


13 


75 


138 




6 


13 


65 


174 




2 


14 


75 


77 




2 


15 


65 


73 




314 trees: 


Total cutyc fe 


>(. 4,800 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 87 cubic feet. 



158 



THE WHITE PINE. 






TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth fl~kite Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 

B.-MATNE-Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TKKKS. 

DOMINANT OKOWTH. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 

(lirr:iKl 
higb). 


Height. 


Kings 
per iucb 
on 
stamp. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 

shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 

lirl-lll of 

tree. 




Tear*. 
89 


Inches. 
21.8 


Feet. 
86 


No. 
3.7 


Cu.ft. 
89.3 


0.40 


0.42 




85 


19. C 


85 


4.0 


76.5 


.43 


.50 


5 


92 


17.3 


87 


4.4 


69.5 


.48 


.52 




92 


19.3 


79 


4.2 


69.3 


.42 


.47 




82 


18.8 


80 


3.8 


68.6 


.43 


.39 


10 


82 


17.7 


85 


4.4 


67.4 


.46 


.41 




96 


18.5 


75 


4.4 


66.6 


.42 


.46 




91 


17.2 


85 


4.5 


66.4 


.49 


.48 


15 


91 


17.2 


82 


4.4 


63.7 


.49 


.46 




















89 


18.6 


83 


4.2 


70.8 


.45 


.46 


9 


89 


24.0 


85 


3.3 


123.5 


.45 


.54 



















SUPPRESSED GROWTH. 



3 . ... 


100 


12.6 


57' 


8.0 


24.9 


50 


54 


1 


190 


10.0 


69 


8.7 


20.1 


.53 


.39 




















95 


11.3 


63 


8.3 


22.5 


51 


46 



















PENOBSCOT COUNTY. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


9 


Years. 
66 
77 
73 
74 
70 
69 
73 
75 
70 
73 
79 
77 
72 


Inches. 
12.5 
16.0 
12.7 
13.0 
13.0 
13.2 
13.5 
14.7 
15.7 
14.5 
17.0 
16.5 
15.2 


Feet. 
76 
62 
80 
80 
77 
82 
83 
83 
81 
82 
74 
78 
85 


Cu.ft. 
31.83 
34.55 
:;.-,. :,] 
36.00 
35.15 
38.49 
40.43 
43.20 
42.34 
45.10 
51.14 
51.28 
51.91 


0.49 
.39 
.52 
.48 
.50 
.51 
.49 
.45 
.40 
.47 
.43 
.44 
.48 


0.40 
.69 
.45 
.40 
.52 
.35 
.32 
.35 
.43 
.39 
.43 
.65 
.30 


Percent. 
2.8 
3.3 
3.7 
3.1 
3.0 
3.6 
2.1 
2.5 
3.6 
3.2 
2.0 
3.8 
2.0 


Cu.ft. 
0.89 
1.14 
1.31 
1.12 
1.05 
1.38 
.85 
1.08 
1.51 
1.44 
1.02 
1.95 
1.04 


Cu.ft. 
0.48 
.44 
.48 
.48 
.50 
.55 
.55 
.57 
.60 
.61 
.85 
.66 
.72 


1 


7 .. . .. 


10 


6 


8 


3 


5 


1 


4 


2 


3 


2 


Average . . . 


73 


14.4 


79 ; 41.30 j .46 


.44 


3.0 


1.21 


.56 












TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 159 

TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken fur analytie Continued. 



C. MASSACHUSETTS: 

(1) SITE a: 



Holbrook, Norfolk County. Sample area : 1 acre. 

Soil : Yellowish-brown sandy loam, shallow, loose, dry, with 1 or 2 inches mold on top and a mod- Age of pine : 35 to 38 years, 
erately leafy surface cover; subsoil, sand with stones and gravel. Density of crown cover: 0.6. 



forest condition! : White Pine on a slope (angle about 10) ; undergrowth scanty, of Red Cedar 



with scattering Hemlock and White and Red Oak. 



Number of trees : 286. 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chautable 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Oubicfeet. 


Feet B.N. 


169 


8 


60 


1,690 




5 


10 


60 


80 




18 


10 


70 


342 




24 


11 


70 


528 




23 


12 


70 


598 




28 


13 


70 


868 




11 


14 


70 


385 




7 


15 


70 


280 




1 


17 


70 


51 




286 trees: 
Total cubic fee 


t 4 822 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 131 cubic feet. 

(2) SITE I, : 



Pembroke, Plymouth County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 




ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 

(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


226 
19 
18 
38 
22 
10 
2 
3 
1 


Inches. 
8 
10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 


Feet. 
60 
60 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 


Cubicfeet. 
2,260 
304 
342 
836 
572 
310 
70 
120 
45 


FeetS.M. 


339 trees : 
Total cubic fe< 


t 4 859 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 92 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed tpecies: Red Cedar, 2 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high; 8 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet 
high. Red Oak, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Hemlock, 4 from 3 to 6 
inches diameter and under 40 feet high. White Oak, 3 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Young White Pine, 85, 

I'ndergrovth: Red Cedar, 29; White Oak, 1; and Hemlock, 3. 

'Intermixed tpeeiei: Oak, 10 from 10 to 14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 1 over 6 inches diameter and over 60 feet high ; 6 from 
6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. Maple, 4 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and 
over 40 feet high 8 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Gray Birch, 1 over 6 inches diameter and over 60 feet high ; 6 from 
6 to 10 inches diameter and under t'O feet high ; 43 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. Young White Pine, 69. 

Undergrowth: Gray Birch, 21; Maple, 38; Hornbeam, 1, and Sassafras, 3. 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TJLBLX Vlt.Acre yitlto of tcoond-grovth White Pine, u-ith meaiurementt of young pine taken for anofysia-Continued. 



C __ MASSAflirsETTS-Continiii'd. 
(DSrno: 



Hanson. Plymouth County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 






1 Vi 

Soil- Yellowih loamy land, medium grain, porous, light, looe. deep, dry. and well drained, with Age of pine : 
about 2 inrhes mold on top ami surface cover of abundant leaves ; euLaoil sand and gravel. Density of ci 
JV>1< condition,: P..ro Whfte Pine on level plain, originally .nixed with hardwoods, but ten 

* vl _ i .,..; : ,. ,.., ].,ai-in(v i ,,iimr nnlf H 1 tn *?. fWt. hiffn tnrimfmoilt 



50 to 55 years. 

>f crown cover : ( ') 



an*- Pure White l me on icvei pituii, mi^iumi^ UUAOU im i..unwvuo, vt 
hanlwowls and dying pine cut out, leaving yonng oaks 1 to 2 feet high throughout 



yiBo 

site; undergrowth of hardwoods. 1 



Number of trees: 310. 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 
chantable 
timber. 




Incha. 


Feet. 


Cubic/eel. 


Feet B.2f. 


127 


8 


55 


1,143 




19 


10 


55 


285 




21 


10 


70 


399 




39 


11 


70 


858 




31 


12 


70 


806 




23 


13 


70 


713 




22 


14 


70 


770 




16 


15 


70 


640 




g 


16 


70 


360 




2 


17 


70 


102 




2 


18 


70 


112 




310 trees: 


Total cubic fei 


,t 8,188 





Average annual accretion : "White Pine, 123 cubic feet. 
(4) Srr <i: Weymonth, Norfolk County. 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



[180 feet above sea level.] 

Soil: Brown or yellow sandy loam, medium grain, shallow, light, loose, dry, and well drained, Age of pine: 50 years. 

with 1 or 2 inches mold on top and surface cover of abundant leaves; subsoil, gravel and stone. Density of crown cover: (I 

Forett condition*: White Pine, with scattering Red Oak and occasional Maple and Hornbeam on 
somewhat hilly site ; undergrowth dense, of White Oak, Red Oak, Gray Birch, and Black 
Birch. 1 Number of trees : 295. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubic feet. 


FeetS.M. 


174 


8 


00 


1,740 




36 


10 


65 


612 




26 


11 


70 


572 




21 


12 


70 


546 




16 


13 


70 


496 




10 


14 


70 


350 




4 


15 


70 


160 




3 


16 


70 


135 




1 


17 


70 


51 




3 


19 


70 


183 




1 


21 


70 


78 




295 trees: 


Total cubic fe< 


jt 4 923 








Average annual accretion: White Pine, 98 cubic feet. 



1 Undergrowth: Hemlock. 7; Maple, 1; Red Cedar, 1; Black Birch, 4 ; Cherry, 4; Poplar, 1; White Oak, 1, with numerous small oaks. 

1 Intermixed tpeciei: White Oak, 5 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 16 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 
Gray Birch, 8 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 ieet high; 7 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Red Oak, 2 from 10 to 
14 inches diameter nn<l under 80 feet high; 20 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high; 12 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 
feet high; 23 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Cherry, 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Black Birch, 2 
from 3 to A inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Red Cedar, 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Maple, 1 over 3 inches 



feet high; 23 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Cherry, 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Black Birch, 2 
from 3 to A inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Red Cedar, 1 
diameter and ov. r 40 feet high. Young White Pine, 47. 

Undergrowth: White Oak, 35, anr 1 numerous small ones; Cherry,2; RedCedar.l; Rod Oak, 4; Black Birch, 19, and numerous small ones; 
Hemlock, 1; Gray Birch, 2; Hornbeam, 1. 



TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



161 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 
C.-MASSACHUSETTS-Continued. 



(5) SITE e : Bridgewater, Plymouth County. 

[100 feet above sea level.] 

Soil: Dark-brown loamy sand, medinm grain, light, loose, shallow, fresh, with about 2 Inches mold 
on top, and surface cover of abundant leaves ; subsoil, yellow fine sand. 

Forest conditions: Cultivated White Pine, with occasional Grray Birch, on leve 
of scattering Oak and Maple. 1 

ACRE YIELD. 



vel plain ; undergrowth 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Age of pine: 45 years. 
Density of crown cover: (?) 

Number of trees: 374. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Her- 
chan table 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cnbicfeet. 


FeetS.M. 


240 


8 


55 


2,160 




1 


10 


55 


15 




42 


10 


60 


672 




22 


11 


60 


418 




27 


12 


60 


621 




15 


13 


60 


390 




13 


14 


65 


429 




6 


15 


65 


222 




2 


16 


65 


84 




4 


17 


70 


204 




2 


18 


70 


112 




374 trees : 


Total cubic fe< 


it 


5,327 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 118 cubic feet. 
(6) SITE/.- 



Bridgewater, Plymouth County. 
[100 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil: Light-brown sandy loam, medium grain, shallow, light, loose, dry, well drained, with aboat Age of pine: 2; 
2 inches mold on top, and surface cover of abundant leaves; subsoil, gravel of all sizes. Density of cro 

Forest condition*: Cultivated "White" Pine, intermixed with young hardwoods and Pitch Pine. 



25 years. 

cover: (?). 



(Pine seedlings from woods, 1 to 2 feet high, set in furrows at 6 or 8 feet each way.) 2 

ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees : 560. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chan table 
timber. 


115 
184 
211 
47 
1 
2 


Inches. 
3 

3 to e 

6 to 8 
8 to 10 
10 
14 


Feet. 
20 

30 
30 
30 
35 
35 


Cubufeet. 


FeetB. M. 




1,055 
423 
11 
46 


560 trees : 
Total cubic fe 


)t 1 536 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 61 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed specie!: Gray Birch, 4 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 7 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. 
1,-rgr'oath: White Oak, 23; Maple, 3. 

Intermixed rpeciei: Gray Birch, 13 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 30 feet high. Pitch Pine, 1 over 8 inches diameter and under 
30 feet high ; 5 from 6 to 8 inches diameter and under 30 feet high j 28 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 30 feet high. Ked Cedar, 1 over 3 
inches diameter and under 30 feet high. 

Undergroicth: Oak, 97; Gray Birch, 54; Pitch Pine, 10; Maple, 8; Cherry, 3; Hickory, 1. 

L'OL>33 No. 22 11 



162 THE WHITE PINE. 

TABUS VII. Acre yieldt of leeood growth White Pine, with meaiurements of young pine taken for analyiit Continued. 



C.-MA8SACHUSETT!*-Continul. 
(7) srnty: 



Grafton, Middlesex County. 
[500 feet above sea level.] 



Sam pie area: 1 acre. 



Soil- Brown, nearly black. Randy loam, medium grain, shallow, fresh, well drained, with 1 or 2 Age of pine: 40 yean. 

inchc.* mold on top, and moderately leafy arfce cover; subsoil, rock on ridge, yellowish Density of crowu coyer: 0.8 

/WwSI'ondttSm/PwTiite Pine on hill ; undergrowth, dense, of Maple and Oak and some Chestnut, Number of trees: 323. 
Cherry, Gray Birch, and other hardwoods. ' 



ACRK YIKI.il 



White Pine. 


Number 
of tree*. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


176 
2 
43 
44 
23 
21 
8 
4 
2 


Inehrt. 
8 
10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
18 


feet. 
60 
60 

70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 


Cubicfeet. 
1, WO 
32 
817 
968 
598 
651 
280 
160 
112 


FcctB.ir. 


323 trees: 
Total cubic fe< 


t ... 5,378 





Average annual accretion: White Pin>,, 134 cubic feet. 

(8) Srr *: Worcester, Worcester County. Sample area: 1 acre. 

[About 600 feet above sea level.] 

Soil: Brown sandy loam, medium grain, deep, fresh, well drained, with about 1 inch mold on top Age of pine : 30 to 35 years. 

and a moderat'elv leafy surface cover: subsoil, drift gravel and stones. Density of crown cover: 0. 6 to 

Forett conditions : WnUePine, with scattering Gray Birch and occasional Poplar and Pitch Pine 0. 8 (in places 0. 2 awl 0. 4). 



on a hill; undergrowth, scanty, of Hemlock. 3 



Number of trees: 301. 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Her- 
fhan table 
timber. 


193 
39 
M 

13 
12 
5 
3 

1 
1 


Inches. 
8 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Feel. 
60 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 


Cubicfeet. 
1,930 
741 
748 
338 
372 
175 
120 
45 
51 


FeetB.lt. 


301 trees: 
Total cubic fe< 


>t 4,520 








Average annual accretion: White Pine, 141 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed tpcciei: Pitch Pine, 1 over 3 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 1 over 
10 liirln s iliaiiii-ti-r mid under 80 feet high. White Birch, 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. Gray Hirch, from 3 to 6 
inches diameter mid under 40 feet high. Young White Pine, 35. 

I'n'lrrarmrth (under 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high): Maple, 204 (mostly Striped Maple); Oak, 133; Chestnut, 19; Cherry, 11; 
Grav Birch. 6: Thrn,4; llamamelis,3; Hicl,..i\, l : Homlnc-k. l : Klin, 2. 

Intermixed upeeiet: Pitch Pine. 3 from fi to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high. I'ojnihit grandidcntata, 1 over 6 inches dinm- 
t.T jind under 60 feet high. Gray llirch. 6 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and uwler 60 feet high; 31 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and o\ <-r -tu 
fn I high. Poplar, 2 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and uwler 60 feet high. Hemlock, 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Young 
Whit.. I'ine, 90. 

I'ndergrmcth : Oak, 53; Gray Birch, 1, and a few small Cherry, not counted. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



163 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young fine taken for analysis Continued. 
C. MASSACHUSETTS Continued. 



(9) SITE i: 



Northbridge, Worcester County. 
[500 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil: Yellow sandy loam, fine grain, deep, fresh, well drained, with about 4 inches mold on top, Age of pine: 35 years. 

and a moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, probably ledge rock. Density of crown cover: 0.8. 

Foreit condition!: V hite Pine, with occasional Birch and Maple, on a hill ; undergrowth, moder- Number of trees : 413. 

ately dense, of Oak, Maple, and Chestnut. 1 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubicfret. 


Feet S.M. 


284 


8 


50 


2,556 




53 


10 


70 


1,007 




36 


11 


70 


792 




20 


12 


70 


520 




11 


13 


70 


341 




7 


14 


70 


245 




2 


15 


70 


80 




413 trees : 


Total cubic fef 


t 5 540 





Sample area : 1 acre. 



Average annual accretion: White Pine, 158 cubic feet. 

Brookfield, Worcester County. 
[800 to 900 feet above sea level.] 

Soil: Dark brown or black loam, fine grain, light, deep, fresh, well drained, with about 2 inches Age of pine: 35 to 40 years. 

mold on top and a moderately leafy surfaro cover; subsoil, rock not far below surface. Density of crown cover : 0.8. 

Forest conditions : White Pine, with occasional Pitch Pine and hardwoods on north slope of uneven Number of trees : 303. 

land ; undergrowth dense, of various hardwoods, with Oak and Chestnut predominating. 2 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubicfeet. 


FeetB. M. 


165 


8 


55 


1,485 




43 


9 


55 


516 




1 


10 


55 


15 




33 


10 


60 


528 




25 


11 


60 


475 




14 


12 


60 


322 




14 


13 


60 


364 




7 


14 


65 


231 




1 


15 


65 


37 




303 trees : 


Total cubic fee 


t 3 973 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 104 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed ipeciet: White Maple, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. 
Maple, 2 from 10 to 14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 8 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 1 over 3 inches diameter 
and under 40 feet high. Apple, 1 over 3 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. Young White Pine, 77. 

'/< : Oak, 152 (and numerous small trees) ; Chestnut, 52; Gray Birch, 1 ; Maple, 12 (and numerous small trees) ; White Maple, 3. 

1 Intermixed tpeciet : Pitch Pine, 2 from 10 to 14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 5 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet 
high. Oak, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high; 1 over 3 inches diameter and over 40 feet high; 1 over :t inches diameter and 
nnder 40 iV-vt high. Gray liirch, 21 from 3 to tt inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 4 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 
Whit i- liirch loverS inrhm diameter and over 40 feet high. Maple, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high; 1 over 3 inches diame- 
ter :ind under 40 feet high. Chestnut, lover 10 inches "diameter and under 80 feet high; 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 
Poplar, 1 over 10 inches diameter and under 80 feet high. Young White Pine. 89. 

rndergrowlh .- Oak, 404; Chestnut. 188; Maple (Red and White), 93; Black Birch, 27; Heinlock,7; Ash, 30; Gray Biroh,32; Cherry (and 
numerous small trees), 1. Numerous small Poplars not counted. 



164 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VII. Acre yield* of lecond-growth TFAite Pine, tcith meaxurementi of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 

C. MASSACHUSETTS Continued. 

,11) SITE t. fharlton. Worcester County. Sample area: lacre. 

iAbout 800 feet above sea level.] 

Soil: Dark -brown sandy loam, medium grain, loose, deep, fresh, well drained, with about 2 inches Age of pine : 48 years. 

mold on top, and n moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, rock and sand. Density of crown cover: 0.8. 
Fortit eotulitifiii : White Pine, nearly pure, with 18 young trees on a hill; undergrowth scanty, of 

Cheatuut, Maple, Oak, and Cherry. Number of trees: 448. 



White Pine. 


K umber 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


277 
62 
60 
29 
13 
9 
3 
3 


Inches. 
8 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 


Feet. 
60 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 


Cubiefeet. 
2,770 
1,178 
1,100 
754 
403 
315 
120 
135 


FettS. M. 


446 trees: 
Total cubic feet 


6 775 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 141 cubic feet. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

SITE b. 















Ratio of 




Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 














tree. 






Yean. 


Inches. 


Feel. 


Cu. ft. 






Cu.ft. 


1 


82.0 


13.0 


71.5 


31.7 


0.47 


0.47 


0.61 


2 


50. 


9.0 


CO.O 


13.8 


.52 


.22 


.28 


3 


48 


9.2 


02. 5 


15.* 


.54 


.36 


.32 


















Average . . . 


50.0 


10.4 


65.0 


20.4 


.51 


.35 


.40 



4 


54.0 


11.3 


59.0 


19.7 


0.48 


0.37 


36 


5 


52.0 


13.8 


71.5 


36.3 


.49 


.42 


.70 


g . , 


50.0 


9 5 


64 


16 3 


.52 


28 


33 


















Average . . . 


52.0 


11.5 


65.0 


27.4 


.50 


.36 


.46 



g 


39.0 . 
39 


8.3 
9 2 


52.0 

58 


8.8 
13 


0.45 
49 


0.40 
36 


0.22 
33 


9 


39 


12 


59 


22 4 


48 


50 


57 


















Average . . . 


39.0 


9.8 


56.0 


14.7 


.47 


.42 


.37 | 



SITE i. 



19... 


40 


9 5 


55 


14 3 


53 


4 1 * 


36 


20 


36 


11 2 


53 


18 4 


51 


55 


51 


21 


33 


6 5 


51 


6 7 


57 




20 


















Average . . . 


36.3 


9.0 


53.0 


13.1 


.54 


.45 


.36 



SITE j. 



22 


37 


10 5 


63 










23 


39 


3 


55 










24 


39 


7 


52 


7 9 


56 


37 


20 


















Average . . . 


38.3 


8.9 


53.0 


12.7 


.54 


.42 


.33 



SITE k. 



26... 


48 


10 


63 


17 


50 


6 




2 


48.0 


12 8 


69 5 


33 


53 


38 


69 


27 


48 


9 1 


64 


16 
























Average . . . 


48.0 


10.6 


65.5 


22.0 


.52 


.35 


.46 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



165 



TABLE VII. Acre yieldt of second-growth niiite Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analyiis Continued. 
D. NEW HAMPSHIRE: 

(l)SiTE{: Boscawen, Merrimack County. Sample area : 1 acre. 

[300 feet above sea level.] 

Soil : Dark-brown loamy sand, coarse grain, porous, loose, shallow, dry, well drained, with 1 inch Age of pine : 40 years. 

mold on top and moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, yellow s'and. Density of crown cover- (?) 

Forert conditions : White Pine, with scattering Ked Pine ou somewhat uneven land, which slopes 
east to the Merrimack River and falls ofl' west to bordering run ; undergrowth of few Hem- 
lock and small White Pine. 1 Number of trees: 1,077. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


150 
619 
195 
65 
30 
7 

! 


Incht.. 
Under 3 
3 to 6 
6 to 8 
8 to 10 
JO 
11 
12 
13 
14 
16 


Feet. 
20 
40 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
SO 
50 


Oubicfeet. 


FeetS.M. 




1,365 
715 
390 
112 
76 
110 
25 
39 


1,077 trees : 
Total cubic feet 


2,832 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 71 cubic feet. 



(2) SITE m : 



Franklin, Merrimack County. 
[900 to 1,000 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil : Brown sandy loam, medium grain, compact, moist, well drained, with 1 to 3 inches mold on Age of pine: 40 to 45 years, 

top and moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, rock. Density of crown cover: 0.9. 

Forett conditions: White Pine intermixed with Maple and Birch, on a bill; undergrowth, moder- 
ately dense, of young Maple, Birch, and other scattering hardwoods. 2 Number of trees : 410. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


298 
7 
47 
38 
9 
7 
2 
1 
1 


Inches. 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 


Feet 
60 
60 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 


Cubic feet. 
2,980 
91 
893 
836 
234 
217 
70 
40 
45 


FeetB.M. 


410 trees: 
Total cnbic fe< 


t . 5 406 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 120 cnbic feet. 



i Intermixed tpeciei: Red Pine, 1 over 10 inches diameter and under 40 feet high ; 2 from 8 to 10 inches diameter and under 40 feet high; 
4 from 6 to 8 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 4 from 6 to 8 inches diameter and under 40 feet high ; 5 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and 
over 40 feet liijih ; 13 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Red Pine, 1 over 8 inches diameter aud o-er 40 feet high; 1 over 3 
inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 

I'nderarincth: Hemlock, 26: Gray Birch, 1. 

Intermixed nieciet Red Maple, 11 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and over 60 feet high ; 6 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet 
high 30 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 3 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. White Bircb, 7 from 10 to 
14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 26 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and over 60 feet high ; 29 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 
feet high. Ked Onk. 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. Prunui terotina, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high. 
Poplar/- from 6 in ! inches diameter and over 60 feet high. Hemlock, 2 from 3 to U inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Chestnut, 1 
over 6 inches diameter and over 60 feet high. Young White Pine, 119. 

Undergrowth : Red Maple, 23; Cherry, 3; Hamamelis, 14; Whit* Birch, 2; Hemlock. 4; Ash, 1; Poplar, 1. 



166 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TABLE VII. Acre yield* of aeeond-yroicth If'hite I'ine, irith meamirementi of young pine taken for anatyti* Continued. 



D. NKW IIAMPSHIRE-Contlnued. 
(3) Smtfl: 



Hopklnton, Merrimack County. 
[800 to 900 feet above sea level.] 

Sail : Brown, gray, or nearly black sandy loam, fine grain, moist, well drained, with mold on top 

and moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, rock. 
Forttt eondiliimi: W hlte Pine, with occasional Ked I'ine.on a hill; underKrowth, moderately dense, 

of Ilemlock and scattering hardwoods ; on occasions dead and little auppressed trees cut out 

and trimming done. 1 

ACRE YIELD. 



Saaple area: 1 acre. 



Age of pine: 60 to 65 years. 
Density of crown cover: 0.8 
to 0.9. 

Number of trees: -"Jl. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 




Inehei. 


Fett. 


Cubic/eet. 


FeetB.M. 


54 


8 


60 


540 




43 


10 


70 


817 




48 


11 


70 j 1.056 




36 


12 


70 


036 




37 


13 


70 


1,147 




27 


14 


70 


945 




14 


15 


70 560 




14 


16 


70 630 




8 


17 


80 464 




3 


18 


80 102 




3 


19 


80 210 




1 


20 


80 77 




2 


22 


80 192 




1 


23 


80 104 




291 trees : 


Total cubic fee 


t 7,870 





Average annual accretion : White Fine, 127 cubic feet. 



(4) Srnto: 



Hopkinton, Merrimack County. 
[800 to 900 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area: 1 acre. 



Soil : Brown loam, fine grain, moderately loose, fresh, well drained, with 3 to 4 inches mold on Age of pine : 35 to 40 years. 

ton and leafy surface cover; subsoil, rocks not very far down. Density of crown cover: 0.8. 

Foraf conditions : W hit* Pine with occasional Red Pine on a north slope of hill ; undergrowth, 

moderately dense, of Elm, Maple, Hemlock, and occasional hardwoods.* 

ACRE YIELD. 



If umber of trees : 435. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Her- 
chantable 
timber. 


63 
189 
56 
52 
26 
27 
8 
11 
3 


Inchel. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 


Feet. 
40 
50 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
65 
65 


Cvbicfcet. 


FeetB.M. 


1,701 
876 
988 
598 
702 
243 
418 
126 


435 trees: 
Total cubic fee 


t 5 649 





Average annual accretion : White Pine, 148 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed tpeeiet: Red Pine, 6 from 10 to 14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; Maple, 1 over 10 inches diameter and under 
80 fpet high. 

I'ntleryroirth : llrmlock, 98; Beech, 4. 

'Intrrmixrd sptciet : Red Pine. 3 from 10 to 14 Inches diameter and under 80 feet high. Maple, 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and over 
40 feet high. White Birch, 1 over :i inches diameter and over 40 feet high. A pple, 2 from 10 to 14 Inches diameter and under 80 feet high. 
Hemlock. 3 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 

I'ndergrowth : Elm, 64; Cornu, alterni/olia, 1; Beech, 1 ; Hemlock, 36: Cherry, 2; Ash, 1; Hamamelis, 1; Maple. 62; numerous small 
small Oaks. 



TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS. 



167 



TABLE VlI.-Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis-Continued. 

Litchfield, Hillsboro County. Sample area : 1 acre. 

[About 250 feet above sea level.] 



D NEW HAMPSHIRE Continued. 
(5) SITE p 



SoiZ ;," k > - brown 8an .7 Ioan >. fine grain, porous, light, loose, shallow, dry, well drained with 
53 mold on top and moderately leafy surface cover; subsoil, yellowish fine sand 



with clay about 4 to 6 feet below surface. ' 



i scanty, of 



ACRE YIELD. 



Number of trees: 517. 






White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 




Bole. 


Her- 
ohantable 










timber. 


5 


Inches. 
Under 3 


Feet. 
20 


Cubic/eet. 


FeetB.M. 


182 


3 to6 


40 






233 


6 to 10 


50 


2,097 




30 


10 


60 


480 




19 


11 


60 


361 




13 


12 


00 


199 




10 


13 


60 


260 




12 


14 


65 


396 




6 


15 


65 


222 




2 


18 


65 


84 




2 


17 


70 


102 




1 


18 


70 


56 




1 


19 


70 


61 




1 22 


70 


78 




517 trees: 




Total cubic fe( 


it 


.. 4,396 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 15 cubic feet. 



(6) SITE q: 



Hillsboro County. 
[About 700 feet above sea level.] 



Sample area : 1 acre. 



Soil : Brown loam, fine grain, deep, moist, well drained, with 2 to 4 inches mold on top and abnnd- Age of pine 40 to 45 vears 

ant leafy surface cover; subsoil, compact, clayey sand. Density of crown cover: In 

Forest conditions : White Pine with scattering Maple and Hemlock onliill; undergrowth dense, clusters. 

of Maple, Oak, Chestnnt mainly, and few other scattering hardwoods. 2 Number of trees: 371. 



ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 
timber. 


76 
153 
36 
40 
31 
17 
8 
6 
3 
1 


Inches. 
3 to 6 
6 to 10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Feet. 
40 
50 
00 
60 
60 
60 
H 
65 
65 
65 


Cubic/eet. 


Feet S.M. 


1,377 
576 
760 
713 
442 
240 
222 
126 
47 


371 trees: 
Total cubic fet 


t 4 503 





Average annual accretion .- White Piae, 107 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed specie*: Gray Birch, 1 over 3 inches diameter and over 40 feet high; 1 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 
Maple, 1 over 6 inches diameter and under 60 feet high; 1 over 3 inches diameter and over 40 feet high; 2 over 3 inches diameter and under 40 
feet high. Pitch I'ine, 1 over 10 inches diameter and over 80 feet high ; 9 from 10 to 14 inches diameter and under 80 feet high. 

Undergrowth: Maple, 9 : Gray Birch, 8 ; Cherry, 1 ; Oak, 4 ; Spruce, 1 ; numerous small Oaks and Poplars. 

* Intermixed ipecies : Hemlock. 12 from 6 to lo'inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 8 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet 
high. Maple, 1 over 10 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 2 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and over 60 feet high ; 21 from 6 to 10 inches 
diameter and under 00 feet high; 26 from :i to 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high; 11 from 3 to G inches diameter and under 40 feet high. 
White Oak, 5 from 3 to inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 3 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Cherry, 1 over 10 inches 
diameter and under 80 feet high ; 1 over 6 inches diameter arid under 00 feet high; 2 from 3 To 6 inches diameter and over 40 feet high. 

Undergrowth: Chestnnt, 202; Cherry, 8; Maple, 492 j Black Birch, 3; Ash, 21; White Oak, 221) ; Hemlock, 20; Elm, 9; Thorn. 1. 



ins 



THE WHITE PINE. 



TAIII.K VII. Aer yield* of teoond-growth ll'hite Pine, with measurement! of young jrine taken for analysis Continued. 



D.-NKW IIAMPsIIIHK-Continued. 
(7) Rt-rm r: 



Sample area: 2 acres. 



Milford, Hillsboro County. 

(300 to 400 feet above sea level.] 

Acre 2fo. 1. 

Salt: Dark-brown sandy loam, fine grain, shallow, dry, well drained, with 1 to 2 inches mold on Age of pine: 

top and surface cover of abundant leaves ; subsoil, light colored and powdery. 6 to 10 inches Density of cr 
deep, probably sandy lower down. 

F orett condit iom : White Pine on slope; undergrowth, dense, of Oak mixed with Maple, Chestnut. 

and other scattering hardwoods.' Number of tree* : 794. 

ACRE YIELD. 



35 to 40 years. 
:rown cover: Fall. 



White Pine. 


Number 
of trees. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Volume. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chan table 
timber. 


339 
323 
108 
11 
9 
2 
2 


Inchet. 
3 to 6 
6 to 8 
8 to 10 
10 
11 
12 
13 


Feet. 
40 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 


Cubicfeel. 


FeetB.M. 


2,261 
1,188 
143 
144 
38 
44 


794 tree* : 
Total cubic IV< 


t 3,818 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 109 cubic feet. 



Acre So. S. 



Age of pine : 35 to 40 years. 



Soil: Brown sandy loam, medium grain, loose, fresh, 1 foot deep, with 2 inches mold on top and a Density of crown cover : 0.6 
moderately leafy surface cover. to 0.7. 

Forest condition!: White Pine with scattering Maple on north slope of hill ; undergrowth, in parts 
moderately dense, of Aah, Maple, and lew other hardwoods, and in denser parts very little 

undergrowth. 1 Number of trees: 503. 

ACRE YIELD. 



White Pine. 








Volume. 


Number 
of trees. 


(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Bole. 


Mer- 
chantable 










timber. 




Inchet. 


Feet. 


Cubic/eel. 


Feet B.M. 


151 


3 to 6 


40 






236 


8 to 10 


50 


2 121 




44 


10 


55 


660 




21 


11 


55 


378 




17 


12 


55 


357 




10 


13 


55 


240 




11 


14 


60 


330 




5 


15 


60 


175 




3 


16 


60 


117 




2 


17 


60 


86 




1 


19 


60 


57 




1 


20 


70 


72 




1 


21 


70 


78 




503 trees : 


Total cubic fei 


)t . 4 674 





Average annual accretion: White Pine, 123 cubic feet. 



1 Intermixed tpeeiti : Oak. 1 over 10 inches diameter and over 50 feet high ; 1 over 8 inches diameter and under 50 feet high ; 3 from 3 to 6 
inches diameter and over 40 feet high. 

Undergrowth: Oak. 381; Maple, 64; Chestnut, 41; Gray Birch, 4; Yellow Birch, 1; Hemlock. 1; Cherry, 14, with numerous small trees. 

Intermixed tpecies: Maple, 1 over 10 inches diameter and under 80 feet high ; 5 from 6 to 10 inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 
4 from 3 to 8 inches diameter and over 40 feet high ; 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Cherrv, 1 over 6 inches diameter 
and under 60 leet high ; 2 from 3 to 6 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. Apple 1'over inches diameter and under 60 feet high ; 1 over 
3 inches diameter and under 40 feet high. I'itch Pine, 2 from 6 to 10 inches diameter nml under UO feet high. White Birch, 1 over 6 inches 
diameter and over 60 feet high. 

Vndergrowth: Alb, 45; Maple, 8; Cherry, 3; Oak, 5; Hamamelis, 10; Chestnut, 1; Elm, a. 



TABLES OP MEASUREMENTS. 



169 



TABLE VII. Acre yields of second-growth White Pine, with measurements of young pine taken for analysis Continued. 

D. NEW HAMPSHIRE- Continued. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SAMPLE YOUNG PINE TREES. 

Age clan: Under 50 years. 

SITE I. 



Tree number. 


Age. 


Diameter 
(breast 
high). 


Height. 


Rings 
per inch 
on 
stump. 


Volume 
of tree. 


Factor 
of 
shape. 


Ratio of 
length 
of crown 
to total 
height of 
tree. 


Current" annual 
accretion. 


Average 
annual 
accre- 
tion. 


28... 


Heart. 
41 
41 
41 


Inches. 
6.8 
7.1 
8.2 


Feet. 
44 
52 
55 


No. 


Cubic ft. 
5.6 
8.0 
10.0 


0.51 
.56 
.51 


0.43 

.51 
.51 


Per cent. 


Cubic ft. 


Cubicft. 
0.30 
.20 
.24 


29 








30 








Average . . . 








41 


7.4 


50 




7.9 


.53 


.48 






.25 









31 


42 
42 
42 


9.7 

10.4 
8.7 


63 
70 
65 




16 
21.3 
13.1 


0.50 
.51 
.49 


0.38 
.34 

.34 






0.38 
.51 
.31 


32 








33 








Average . . . 








42 


9.6 


66 




16.8 


.50 


.35 






.40 








SITE 0. 


35 


38 
39 


9.3 
10.3 


57.5 
62.5 




13.8 
18.0 


0.51 
.50 


0.39 
.40 






0.36 
.46 


36 








Average . . . 








38.5 


9.8 


60 




15.9 


.50 


.39 






.41 









1 


81 


17 


73 


4 


48.2 


0.42 


0.53 


4.6 


2.22 


0.59 


2 


77 


17 


74 


4 


52.4 


.44 


.55 


3.0 


1.57 


.68 


Average . . . 


79 


17 


73.5 


4 


50.3 


.43 


.54 


3.8 


1.89 


.63 



SCHEDULE'S AND SAMPLE RECORDS. 



171 






SCHEDULES AND SAMPLE RECORDS. 



FORMS USED IN THE INVESTIGATION. 

FORM NO. 1. 



United States Department of Agriculture. 

DIVISION OP FORESTRY. 



RECORDS OF TREE MEASUREMENTS. 



Name of collector : N. 
Species : White Pine. 
Year: 1897. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF STATION. 
[Denoted by capital letter.] 

State: Pennsylvania. County: Clearfield. Town: Dubois. 

Longitude: 78 45 . Latitude: 41 3'. Altitude: 1,200 to 1,500 feet. 

General conliguration : Plains hills plateau mountainous. 

General trend of valleys or hills: (Not noted.) 

Climatic features: (Meteorological tables furnished.) 

General forest conditions of the region : This region in 1876 extended over 20,000 acres. The lumber operation 
carried on for twenty years by Mr. Du Hois left for the present only from 1,500 to 2,000 acres standing timber iu a 
primeval condition. 

Three typical forms of forest conditions are suggested to the observer: 

(1) Hemlock and White Pine forest, with an admixture of mature hardwoods and a number of young hard- 
woods and young Hemlock, which form the undergrowth. 

(2) Hemlock mixed with White Pine, -with scattering hardwoods ; the undergrowth usually moderately dense, 
consists mainly of young Hemlock -with the admixture of young hardwoods. 

(3) Hard-woods intermixed with White Pine and scattering Hemlock. The undergrowth here consists mainiy 
of young hardwoods. 

Among the hardwoods, the Oak, Birch, and Maple form the staple of the hardwood forest, while the Beech, 
Chestnut, Hickory, Cucumber, Ash, Cherry, and Basswood are comparatively few in number. The region has a 
uniform soil and subsoil as it may be judged by the sample areas NN. 5, 6, and 7, and is well provided with moisture 
by th(j many streams crossing it all over in different directions. 

173 



174 



THE WHITE PINE. 
FORM NO. 2. 



DESCRIPTION OF SITE. 

[Denoted by small letter.] 

Sample area, No. 5: (One acre.) 

Conformation of surface : Hill sloping toward southwest, where it is bordered by the left-hand branch of Irish 
Narrow Creek. 

Soil and drainage conditions: Yellow clay loam of a medium grain (fine shale in it), deep, fresh, well drained, 
with 2 to 3 inches mold on top. 

Subsoil: Laminated shale of an indefinite depth. 

Soil cover: Scanty leaves, fern, and teaberries. 

( infill of stand: Natural regeneration. 

Form : 1 "inform ; stoned. White Pino forms first and Hemlock the second. 

Composition : A stand of Hemlock inixei with White Pine, intermixed with scattering Maple, Beech, and Birch. 

Undergrowth: Absent; dense; moderately dense; scanty; consists of very young Beech, Hemlock, and occa- 
sional Birch, Cucumber, and Dogwood (Laurel in northeast corner). 

Density of stand: 0.7 (in places 0.8). 

l.'i MAKKS. Crowns of White Pine generally well developed; clear and straight stems. Age of White Pine 
230 to 260 years. Age of HemlocK almost the same as that of White Pine. 

ACRE- YIELD MEASUREMENTS. 



| 


Name of species. 


Undergrowth. 


1 


White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Birch. 




Diameter 
(breast high). 


11 

c 

"" 

a 

g 


o 

* * 

jll 


Cotlomiiiiint bright 
trmii 100 to 140. 


Oppressed height 
from 80 to 100. 


Dominant height 
from 90 to 120. 


Codominant height 
from 80 to 120. 


5= 
~ '. 

r 


Dominant height 
from 80 to 100. 


Codominant height 
from 00 to 80. 


Oppressed height 
from 40 to 60. 


Dominant height 
from 80 to 100. 


Codominant height 
from 60 to 80. 


Oppressed height 
from 40 to 60. 


Dominant height 
from 80 to 100. 


Codominant height 
from 60 to 80. 


Oppressed height 
from 40 to 60. 


i 
I 

00 

g 

O 

1 
ft 


3-6 
inches. 


Under 
3 inches. 


6 
































v 




29 


7 












fHJ/HJ/l 


/ 






















36 


8 


























1 






_ 




43 


9 












in 


/ 























37 


10 












i j 




















w 




34 


11 


























1 










11 


12 












Illl 














1 










47 


13 




















// 
















38 


14 












Ill 




















^ 




31 


15 












Illl 


/I 


















*o. 




42 


16 






1 








1 


















c9 




38 


17 










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mj 


























18 
19 
20 






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/ 


















21 








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g 






22 








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8 






23 




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24 




































25 


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4 


27 
28 / 
29 


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1 

n 






30 


i 




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81 // 




































32 // 




































33 // 




































34 /// 






























ij 






35 j 






























Jl 






i0 / 






























g 






37 / 
38 






























1 






39 1 / 






























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40 




































41 




































42 




































43 






































44 


/ 




































45 





































DEDUCED RESULTS. 

Total number of trees on the acre : 132, of which there were 

First species : White Pine, 37; dominant, 41 per cent; codoiniuant, 48 per cent; oppressed, 11 per cent. 

Second : Hemlock, 84; dominant, 32 per cent; Codominant, 26 per ceut; oppressed, 42 per cent. 

Third: Maple, 5. 

Fi.nrth: Beech, 3. 

Fifth : Birch, 3. 

Total yield of the acre: Volume of stems, 15,686 cnbio feet; merchantable timber, 90,103 feet B. M. 

< >t which there were 

First species: White Pine, 58 per cent of total yield. 

Second species: Hemlock, 42 per cent of total yield. 

Third, fourth, and fifth species: Hemlock not taken into consideration. 

Average annual accretion: In cubic feet, 65; merchantable timber, in feet B. M., 375. 



SCHEDULES AND SAMPLE RECORDS. 



175 






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ncling 
Remarks. 




Do. 
Crown free. 
Somewhat crowded. 

Crowded. 
Do. 


Top killed; somewhat crowded. 
Crowded. 
Do. 
At 134 feet top lost; free crown about 


16 feet. 

Crown free. 
CFOWD free; sound. 
Crown somewhat crowded. 
Crown free. 
Somewhat crowded. 
Do. 

Crown very crowded. 
.. Somewhat crowded. 


Free exposure. 
Do. 
Top about 8 feet not found. 
Do. 
Do. 
Crowu very crowded. 
Do. 
Crown very small. 


1 


Is 



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176 



THE WHITE PINE. 



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SCHEDULES AND SAMPLE RECORDS. 



177 



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20233 No. 22 12 



178 



THE WHITE PINE. 



FORM NO. 5. 



SITE: /. 



AGE CLASS : 240 to 260 years. 



SPECIES: White Pine. 



















Volume. 




1 


= '- 


























~ 


II 
















e 


P. 








\i 


P. 3 












1 






| 


OB 




1 






"H S ^ 




Location. 


Description of site. 






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W 


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2 


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Feet. 
















Yrs 


In. 


Ft. 




No. 


Oujt. 


B.M. 










Dnbois, Clear- 


Hemlock, mixed 


1 


260 


35} 


158 


90 




435.4 


3, 030 0. 40 


0.43 


58 


i 


field County, 


with White Pine, 


2 


260 


36 


157 


90 


1.0 


481.3 3,401 .43 


.42 


59 




Pa; lati- 


with scattering 


3 259 


32 


152 


84 


7.8 


396.0 2,637 .46 


.44 55 




tude, 41 3'; 


Maple, Beech, and 


4 241 


32 


150 


62 


6.6 


347. 71 2, 079 . 41 


. 59 50 




longitude, 


Birch, on a hill 


10 244 


33 


146 


96 


6.8 


365.9 2,384 .42 


.34 54 




78 45' ; alti- 


sloping toward 


12 262 28 


156 


88 


9.0 


285.8 1.648 .43 


.43 47 


. 


tude, 1,200 to 


southwest, where 


18 265 39 


153 


K- 


6.0 


511.1 3,318 .40 


. 42 54 


a i 


1,400 feet. 


it is bordered by 


19 250 


34 


150 


78 


6.3 


402.4 2,397 .42 


.48 


49 



a 




the left-hand 


20 266 44 


144 


100 


5.7 


638.4 4,388 .42 


.30 


57 







branch of Narrow 


21 245 34 


146 


92 


7.1 


366.7 2,248 .40 


.37 


51 







Creek. The mod- 


23 248 


34 


142 


90 


7.2 


373.4 


2,318 .42 


.37 


51 


p 




erately dense un- 


33 259 


33 


133 


91 


8.0 


304.5 


1,770 .40 


.31 


48 






dergrowth con- 


34 2621 33 


144 


90 


7 4 


369.2 


2,220, .42 


38 


50 






sista of very young 


35 263 


31 


144 


82 


8.5 


275.2 


1,458 .36 


.43 


44 






Beech, Hemlock, 


36 241 311 


134 


88 


7.1 


307.7 


1,853 .42 


.34 


50 






and occasional 


37 261! 37 


146 


106' 6.7 


482.9 


2,970 


.44 


. 27| 50l 






Birch and Cucum- 






1 














ber. 


























255 3i 


147 


88 


7.0 


390.0 


2,507 


.41 


.39 59 




Soil: Yellow clay 


28 262 


28* 


138 


75 


9.8 


264.3 


.551 


.43 


.45 


49 


1 




loam of a medium 


25 244; 28J 


138 


107 


7.7 


298. 1 '. 954 


.49 


. 22 54 






grain (fine shales 


24 245! 25 


130 


84 


9.3 


192. 1 , 102 


.43 


.35 48 






in it), deep, fresh, 


22 246 31 


130 


82 


7.3 


310.3 


,731 


.45 


.37 46 






well drained, with 


5 24| 29 


140 


100 


8.4 


300.4 


,905 


.47 


.28 52' 






2 to 3 inches mold 


6 264 29 


140 


110 


8.5 


291.4 


.631 


.45 


.21 


47 






on top. and with a 


7 262 29 


152 


112 


9.5 


302. 8 , 854 


.461 .26 51 






surface cover of 


8 235 29 


142 


86 


. ... 


248.6, ,3180.380.39 44 


+* 




scanty leaves, 


9 236 


32 


142 


84 




287. 7i 1,648 .36 


.41 


48 






fern, teaber r i e B , 


11 244 


30 


141 


81 


~7."5 


305.3 1,947 .44 


.42 53 






and scattering 


13 258 


23 


141 


93 


9.6 


206.0 1.048! .48 


.37 42 


s 




Dogwood ( Laurel 


14 242 


25 


139 


98 




217.1 


1,233 


.46 


.30 47 


3 




in northeast cor- 


15 262 


26 


136 


98 




257.2 


1,389 


.51 


.28 


45 







ner and on north 


16 235 


24ji 


124 


93 




163.8 


815 


.40 


.25 41 






side). 


17 262 


1!5'~ 


128 


108 




214.4 


1,183 


.49 


. 16 46 






Subsoil : Laminated 


26 ?45 




136 


98 


9.3 


199.2 


1,021 


.40 


.28 


47 






shale of an indefi- 


30 259 


>_>m 


134 


90 


9.2 


228.6 


1,336 


.44 




48 






nite depth. 


29 264 


M'" 


141 


84 9.2 


276. 5 


1,577 


.46 .40 


47 








31 262 


25J 


132 


88 10. 


191.8 


863 


.41 


.33 


37 








32 261 


26 


142 


99 


9.1 


239. 9 


1,322 


.46 .30 


46 J 




Average 


53 


27 


138 


93 


9. C 


250. 


1, 421 


. 44 


32 


47 
































27 259 


19 


132 


94 


11.6 


138. 8 683 


.53 


.29 


41 1 13 






38: 260 23 


137 


96 


11.1 


189. 6 987 


.48 .30 


. a 
Ic.* 






39 258 20i 


123 


109 


13.0 


130. 9 558 


.46 .11 


35 foS 






40 


261 


16J 


120 


82 


13.7 


89.6 339 


.50 .31 


31 J S. 








259 


20 


128 


95 


12.3 


137.0 


642 


.49 


.25 


37 









SCHEDULES AND SAMPLE RECORDS. 



179 



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Diameter and corresponding area. 


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INDKX. 



Page. 

Abbot's white-pine sawfly, note 60 

Accretion, area, in White Pine 36 

average annual, for old trees 37 

diameter, of pine, discussion 34 

yearly, of White Pine, notes 31 

Acre yield of second-growth "White Pine, with measurements of 

young pine 148-169 

White Pine in natural forest 46 

young pine groves 43 

yields of White Pine and measurements of sample trees. 118-147 

Adirondack mills, output of White Pine 17 

region, destruction of young pine growth by fire. . 63 

Adirondack*, composition of forest 40 

condition as to reproduction of White Pine 62 

growth of White Pine 12 

Agarimt mcllrui, injury to White Pine 51 

Age classes of White Pine, tables of measurements 88-92 

Alleghenies, occurrence of White Pine 13 

Alpena, Mich., first sawmill , 17 

Ann Arbor, Mich ., growth of pine 28 

Annual height growth of White Pine in first hundred years. . . 31 

rings, comparison for varieties of pines 25 

Aphis, White Pine, note 59 

ArborviUB, concomitant of White Pine 40 

mixture with White Pine 14 

Area accretion of White Pine 36 

Artificial reproduction ot pine, discussion.. 63 

Ash, result of planting with White Pine 66 

Atlantic, injury by raw winds to White Pine 51 

Balsam Fir, admixture with White Pine 12 

Bark-beetle, destructive to pine, discussion 55 

pine, description and injury 55 

Bark'- beetles other than pine bark-beetle, injurious to pine trees . 56, 57 

Bark of pine, manner of growth and function 25 

White Pine, slight protection against fire 49 

Barn lumber, use of pine 81 

Bebb. M. S., note on White Pine in Illinois 15 

Beech, Birch, and Maple, effect of shade on White Pine 43 

with pine in Adirondacks 40 

Beetles, bark, destructive to pine 55-57 

Buprestida3, injurious to pine, description 58 

Belfast, Me., trade in White Pine 18 

Bhotan Pine, relationship to White Pine 21 

Birch, Maple, and Beech, effect of shade on White Pine 43 

with pino in Adirondacks 40 

Black Sprnce, usefulness for planting with pine 64 

Board and cubic contents of White Pine, tables 85-147 

Boards, plank, and "dimension stuff" of White Pine, sizes 81 

Boat building, use of White Pine 81 

Boles of pines, variation with character of associated trees 43 

Borers and pine sawyers, discussion 57 

Botanical description of White Pine 20 

range of Whit* Pine 12 

Box Elder, result of planting with White Pine 66 

Boxes, use of White Pine 81 

Boynton, F. E., note on occurrence of White Pine in the Caro- 
lina* 15 

Branch, root, and stem system of White Pine 21 

Brit ton, N.L.. note on occurrence of White Pine in Xew Jersey. 15 

Brookings, 8. Dak., failure of plantings of White Pine 67 



Page. 

Buprestidse, species injurious to pine ; description 58 

Cambium of pine, characteristics 25 

Canada, field of commercial pine 15 

occurrence of White Pine 18 

original and present supplies of White Pine 19 

" rossing" as protection from pine bark- borer 56 

trade in White Pine 18 

Canadian pinery, note 14 

Canby, William M., note on occurrence of White Pine in Dela- 
ware [5 

Carbolated wash, remedy for beetles on pine 57 

Carbolic acid, use against pine weevil 59 

Cary, Austin, measurements of Wh ite Pine 85 

Caterpillar injurious to pine, notes 60 

Cattle, injurious to pine forests 49 

Cedar, White, and Cypress as substitutes for White Pine 82 

Cells in pine wood, discussion 25, 26 

Cerambycid beetles, injury to pine 57 

Chalcophora, species injurious to pine 58 

Champaign, 111., instructive plat of White Pine 65 

Chermes pinicortiris, " pine blight," note 59 

Chicago, growth of White Pine trade 18 

Chionaspis pintfolice, manner of injury to pine 61 

CHITTENDEN, F. H., discussion of "Insect enemies of White 

Pine" 55 

Chlorophyll, occurrence in young pine 24 

Circumference of pine trees, measurements of annual gain 35 

Classification of White Pine 82 

Clay and loam lands, reproduction of White Pine 02 

land, relation of specific weight of pine wood 74 

Climate and soil, demands for development of White Pine 39 

influence on height growth 33 

Coleoptera, adult, injury to pine 61 

enemies of White Pine 55 

Coleoiporium lenecionii, cause of disease in pine 53 

Compression endwise, tests of White Pine 77, 78, 79 

Cones, age of trees at first production 23 

quantity to produce pound of seed 23 

Conifers and hardwoods, planting in alternate rows 66 

danger of drying atmosphere in planting 51 

necessity of shading 63 

useful for planting with pine 64 

"CorkPine" of Michigan, locality of growth 12 

Cortex of pine, characters 25 

Criocephalus agrettis and other species injurious to White Pine 58 

Cronartium ribicola, relation to cause of disease in pine 53 

Crop of White Pine, time for maturity 64 

Crown of White Pine, description 21 

Cubic and board contents of White Pine, tables 85 

Cultivation of pine nursery at University of Illinois 66 

White Pine, area of probable success 16 

Curculionidro, beetle, damage to White Pine 58 

Cypress and White Cedar as substitutes for White Pine 82 

"Damping off" parasitic organisms as cause 53 

relief measures 53 

Dangers and diseases of White Pine, discussion 49-55 

Dawson, J., statement as to seed crop of White Pine 23 

Do Vries, assumption as use of resin in plant growth 24 

Delaware, occurrence of White Pine 15 

DendroctontisSrontalis, pine bark-beetle, description 55 

181 



182 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Ivn.lroctonin. specie* injmlous t<> pin* 56 

ttrebrant. ravage* in pine rarest of New Jersey . . SO 

Development of pine In forest .* 30 

open stand 28 

White Pine, conditions 39 

Diagram* and tables of measurement* 03-100 

Diameter accretion of pine, discussion 34 

" Dimension stuff." boards and plank, of White Pine, sizes 81 

Disease* and danger* of White Pine, discussion 48-55 

of pine, discussion 51-55 

Distribution, geographical, of White Pine 11 

natural, of White Pine, conclusions 18 

of White Pine, by regions 12 

Domestic animals, notes on. danger to forest 48 

Douglas, Kobert, remarks on transplanting pine 28 

Drought and heat effect on pine 51 

Drying and seasoning, effect on strength of White Pine 79 

winds, injurious consequences to pine 56 

Durability of White Pine, discussion 80 

Elgin nurseries. White Pines of forty-five years' growth 60 

Enemies, insect, of White Pine 55 

England, introduction of White Pine 20 

note on introduction of White Pine 67 

Europe, comparison of pine growth with America 38 

experience regarding reforesting 63 

notes on Stone Pine 21 

planting of Scotch Pine 63 

production of seed by White Pine 24 

European Larch, use ns nurse tree for White Pine 66 

Experiment stations, note on reports as to "damping off" 54 

Exportof White Pine, note 81 

Factor of shape for White Pine 36 

In find ing cubic and board contents of tree, use. 85 

Farm implements, use of White Pine 81 

Kin-mill ::t on. X. H., record of growth of White Pine 48 

Fencing, use of White Pine 81 

Fernow, Dr., method of forest planting 64 

Fields, abandoned, measurements of pine 30 

Fire, damage by burning young seedling pine growth 62 

problem of protection of pine forest 49 

Fir, note on growth in the Palatinate, Germany 68 

Fish-oil soap, use against pine weevil 59 

Floral organs of Wh ite Pine, discussion 22 

Forest, effect of composition on heigh t growth 32 

fire*, suggestions for laws 49 

growth, classification of trees 31 

of pine, classification 31 

insects, injurious, nativity 55 

management, discussion 61 

planting, method advocated by Dr. Fernow 64 

table showing first six years' growth of White Pine ... 28 

tree in Germany, White Pine, discussion 67 

Forester, The, facts on trimming pines 50 

Forest -grown trees, diameter growth at various heights 36 

Forests of White Pine, note on probable exhaustion 11 

Form development of pine - 36 

Forms used in the investigation 173-179 

Frame house, use of pine 81 

Frankfort on the Main, product of seed of White Pine 24 

Fresh air, use agiinst "damping off" 54 

Fungi, various species, cause of " pnnky pine " disease 54 

Fungus, Ayarimi meUeut, injury to White Pine 51 

CoUoiporitim tenecionis, cause of disease iu pines 53 

Folyjiorus annonus, injury to coniferous trees 52 

Furniture men. use of White Pine 81 

Gardner it. Sons, measurements of height growth of pine 28 

German Spruce, use of tables for finding yield of White Pine. . 44 

Germany, injury to pine by heat and drought 51 

plantations of pine 63 

statement* regarding acre yield of pine under forester 44 

White Pine as forest troe, discussion 67 

Germination of pine seeds, condition* 26 

Girdling of young pine, effect 50 

Qnathotrichui tnateriariu*, form ; protecti6n for pine 57 

Grave* ami I'ltirhot. Messrs.. figures for yield of pine per acre. 45 

Growth and development of White Pine 26-48 

height of White Pine in forest, first six years 28 



Pa-i-. 

Growth In thickness of pine 34 

volume of White Pine 37 

of diameter and cross section, table* and diagrams .. 107-116 

pine, rate 27 

Hall, s. K . , statement as to time of setting pine 65 

Hard pine, variation in weight 77 

Hardwood forest, notes on growth of White Pine 43 

intermixture with White Pine 12 

species useful for planting with pine 64 

Hardwoods and conifers, planting in alternate rows 66 

mixture with White Pine 14 

Harmonia pint, enemy of pine, note 59 

Hartig, K., conclusion as to endurance of extreme weather by 

pines 51 

Heartwood of White Pine, instances of remarkable durability. 80 

variation iu moisture 77 

Heat and drought, effect on pine 51 

Height growth of pine, seedling stage 27 

trees after first century of life 31 

White Pine, tables 29 

Hemlock, concomitant of Wliite Pine 40 

growth of White Pine in mixture 38 

mixture in growtli with White Pine 32 

occurrence with White Pine in Pennsylvania 12 

Hill, E. J., note on White Pine at head of Lake Michigan 15 

Histological characters of pine 25 

Hobbs, John E., statements as to seed production of White 

Pine 23 

table on height growth of pine 29 

Hoyt, B. F., statement as to effect of wind on White Pines 50 

Humidity, relation to development of White Pine 40 

Hunt, Thomas, plantation of White Pine at Ridott, 111 66 

Hypothenemus, twig beetles injurious to pine 57 

Ice roads, note on use i n logging : 20 

Illinois, growth of spruce and pine in forty-five years 67 

occurrence of White Pine 15 

T'niveraity, note on forest plantation 65 

India, note on Jihotan Pine 21 

Injuries to pine by human agency 49 

Insect enemies of White Pine, discussion 55 

Iowa Agricultural College, notes on planting of pine, larch, and 

brood-leafed trees of 1875 67 

growth of White Pineal Whiting 67 

occurrence of White Pine 16 

Jock Pine, admixture with White Pine 12,14 

associate of White Pine 40 

Jerome, Governor, estimate of Michigan products 11 

Juvenile stage, determination of limit for pine 36 

Kerosene emulsion, remedy for beetles on pine 57 

use against plant-lice 60 

Kleebahn, investigation of blister rust 53 

Lachnus strobi, enemy of pine 59 

Lake Michigan, note ou gro\xtu of White Pine on shore 22 

region, condition as to reproduction of White Pine 62 

original stand and present supplies of White Pine 19 

trade in White Pine, and present supply 17, 18 

Land in Massachusetts, estimate of value added by fifty years' 

growth of pine 65 

Lath of White Pine, advantages 82 

Laths and pickets, use of White Pine 81 

Laws against Injuries to forests, suggestion 49 

Lazenby, W. R., note on White Pine in Ohio 15 

Leaf- feeding insects injurious to pine, discussion 60 

Leaves of Whito Pine, description 22 

Leonard, Spencer, practice iu setting out pine 65 

Life zones of White Pine 11 

Light requirements of White Pine 43 

Lime and Paris green, used against pine bark-beetle 56 

Lincoln, Nebr.. comparative failure iu growing White Pine 67 

Loam and clay lands, reproduction of White Pine 62 

effect on growth of hardwoods 14 

prairie, growth of pine in Illinois 67 

stiff clay, growth of pine at Wiudom. Minn 67 

Loamy and sandy soils, reproduction of White Pine 62 

Locality, effect on height growth of trees 33 

Loggers' risks in breakages, etc.. allowance 39 

Logging railway, note on eilec ton lumbering 19 



INDEX. 



183 



Page. 

Logs, small, reduction of loss 38 

Long- horned beetles, enemies of pine 57 

Longleaf Pine, comparison of annual rings with "White Pine. . . 25 

specific weight for crown part of stem 77 

Lumber contents in 16- foot logs 39 

of trees 38 

cat in Lake region, by districts, 1873 to 1895 18 

industry, "White Pine, discussion 16-19 

markets, influence of White Pine 80 

of stem of tree, reckoning , 85 

pine, importance of production 11 

ratio to total volume of pine tree 38 

Lumbering districts for White Pine in Canada 18, 19 

of "White Pine, change of methods 19 

iu Michigan, note 14 

waste 18,19 

Lumbermen, name for disease of piue tree 54 

Lyman, J. D., record of growth of "White Pine 48 

Macbride, T. H.. note on "White Pine in Iowa 16 

Maine, acre yield of White Pine 42 

character ot'White Pine growth 12 

second-growth pine, note 63 

trade in White Pine, and supply 16 

Wisconsin and Michigan, comparison of growth of pine. 33 

Maple, Birch, and Beech, effect of shade on White Pine 43 

with Beech and pine in Adirondacks 40 

Market for second-growth pine in Massachusetts 65 

White Pine, change in Germany 68 

Markets for lumber, influence of White Pine 80 

Maryland, occurrence of White Pine 15 

Massachusetts, market for second-growth pine 65 

note on groves of pine set fifty years ago 64 

second-growth pine, note 63 

soil of pine groves and value of young pine 

growth 65 

table of annual gain in circumference 35 

Measurements, detail, of annual gain in circumference of pine. 35 

diameter, of trees 34 

of sample trees and acre yields of White Pine. 116-147 

White Pine, tables 85-179 

Medullary rays in pine, notes 24,25 

Meeban, Thomas, & Sons, statements as to growth of seedling 

pine 28 

note on occurrence of White Pine in Penn- 
sylvania 15 

Mice, spread of fungus disease 52 

Michigan, acre yield of White Pine, table 41 

yields of White Pine and measurements of sam- 
ple trees 116-131 

destruction of young pine growth by fire 63 

Maine, and Wisconsin, comparison of growth of pine. 33 

need of seed for reforesting bare pine lands 63 

occurrence of White Pine 14 

original stand and present supply of White Pine ... 19 

value of pine and other products in 1879 11 

Wisconsin, and Minnesota, annual cut of White 

Pine, 1873-1697 17 

yield of White Pine, per acre 20 

Mill construction use of White Pine 81 

Minnesota, beginning of pino lumbering 18 

destruction of young pine growth by fire 63 

Michigan, and Wisconsin, annual cut of White 

Pine, 1873-1897 17 

occurrence of White Pine 14 

original stand and present supplies 19 

Wiiidom, growth of White Pine 67 

Missouri (river) bottoms, growth of White Pine 67 

growing specimens of White Pine at Columbia 67 

Mixed growth, advantages for pino 61 

Mlodziansky, A.K., measurements and calculations of White 

85 



Pine . 

Model makers, use of White Pine 

Modulus of elasticity of White Pine 

Moisture content of White Pine, table 

Monohammus, beetles most destructive to pine 

con/u$or and other species injurious to pine..-. 
Morphological characters of White Pine 



Page. 

Morton, J. Sterling, note on White Pine trees at home 67 

Nathaniel, experience in trimming pines 50 

Moth caterpillars and plaut-lico on trunks and limbs 59 

Moths, species injurious to pine 60 

Names synonymous with White Pine 20 

Natural history of White Pine 20 

reproduction of White Pine, discussion 62 

Nebraska, White Pino at Arbor Lodge 67 

New England, condition as to reproduction of White Pine 62 

early commercial use of White Pine 16 

planting of pine 63 

present supply of White Pine 19 

Newfoundland, occurrence of White Pine 15 

New Hampshire, distribution of White Pine 12 

New Jersey, occurrence of White Pine 13, 15 

New York and Pennsylvania, present supply of White Pine. . . 19 

distribution of White Pine 12,13 

occurrence of White Pine 13 

trade in White Pine; present supply 17 

Nomenclature, synonyms of White Pine 9 

North Carolina, occurrence of White Pine 13 

Middleboro, Mass., notes on pine groves of forty years' 

growth 65 

Northwestern Lumberman, figures for annual cut of lumber in 

Lake States, 1893-1897 17 

Norway Pine, growth in mixture with White Pine 32 

Spruce, growth in forty-five years at Princeton, 111 67 

Nurse crop of trees, cheap method of use 64 

Nursery, growth of White Pine 28 

Nurserymen, practice in sowing pine seeds 28 

Ohio, occurrence of White Pine 15 

Old-growth pine, tables of measurements and diagrams 93-100 

Ontario and Quebec, average annual dues on crown timber 18 

Orientation, relation to specific weight of pine wood 74 

Pacific coast timbers, barrier to substitution for White Pine on 

Kastern markets 82 

Palatinate, report 011 growth of pine and fir 68 

supply of cones for seed 24 

Parasitic diseases of White Pino 51 

organisms, cause of "damping off" in pines 53 

Paris green and lime, use against pino bark-beetle 56 

use against pine weevil 59 

sawfly, larva?, caterpillars, and beetles . 61 
Pennsylvania, acre yield of second-growth White Pine, with 

measurements of young pine. . 1*8-169 

White Pino 42 

and New York, present supply of White Pine.. 19 

conditions as to reproduction of White Pine 02 

occurrence of White Pine 13, 15 

trade in "White Pine ; present supply 17 

Penobscot, White Pine trade and supply 17 

Peridennium strobi, cause of disease in White Pine 53 

Phloem of pine, characteristics 25 

Physical properties and character of White Pine wood 73 

Pickets and laths, use of White Pine 81 

Pinchotand Graves, Messrs., figures for yield of pine per acre. 45 

Pine bark-beetle, destructive, discussion of injuries 55 

blight, note 59 

blister disease caused by Coleosporium senecionis 53 

leaf scale insect, manner of injury to pine 61 

number of seed to ouuce; of ounces to 100 feet of drill... 63 

percentage of heart wood in several kiuds , 73 

sawyers and other borers, discussion 57 

value per acre of fifty years' growth, note 65 

Pines, comparison weight and strength, table 81 

note as to shrinkage 77 

Pinipeitis zimmermanni, enemy of pine, note 59 

Pinus nana, variety of White Pine, description 20 

nivea, viridis, aurea, brevifolia, etc., varieties of White 

Pine 21 

Pissodes atrobi, enemy of White Pine, discussion; description. 58 

Pistillate flowers of White Pine, description 23 

Pitch Pine, associate of White Pine 40 

value for planting on Atlantic coast 51 

Pits in pine wood, location, number, and size 25,26 

Pittsburg, trade in W bite Pine 17 

Pity ophthorus, species inj urious to pino 57 



184 



INDEX. 



Page. 

I'Uini, muKio for ullght snccew In cultivation of pine 51 

Plunk, board*, and 'dimension stuff" of White Pine, sites ... 81 

Planting note* for Whit* Pine M 

of pine, comparison of nursery-grown seedlings with 

owing srd * 

dlsUnco between tree* <4 

notes *3 

White Pine, note on experiment at Illinois Uni- 
versity 

time for White Pine, note OS 

Plant-lice, and moth caterpillars, on trunk* and limbs 59 

kerosene emulsion as remedy 60 

louse, attacks on pine, note 66 

Pollen, ripening, and pollination 22 

Pollination of White Pine, notes 23 

Polyporu* annoimi. inj ury to coniferous trees 52 

Poplar, growth on piue slashings 62 

Presque Isle County, Mich. .height growth of trees 32 

Princeton, 111., pine of forty-five yearn' growth 67 

Protective washes against pine bark beetle 56 

Public sentiment, value In preservation of forests 49 

" Punky pine " disease of trunk of pine tree 54 

PyAium di baryanvin, cause of " damping off" in young pines 53 

Quebec and Ontario, average annual dues on crown timber 18 

Rate of growth and volume of White Pine, tables 93-106 

of WhitePine 27 

Records of tree measurements, forms 173-179 

Red Pine, admixture with White Pint 12 

associate of White Piue 40 

mixture with WhitePine 11 

Reforesting with White Pine, ease 62 

Remedies for pine bark-beetle 56 

Reproduction, artificial, of pine, discussion 63 

of White Pine, natural, discussion 62 

Reaeeding, importance in reforesting with pine 63 

Resin ducts, discussion 24 

in cortex of pine 25 

of pine, effect of fungus diseases 52, 53 

Rhizomorphs, action in fungus disease of White Pine 51 

Rings, annual, comparison for varieties of pine 25 

Rocky Mountains, note on White Pine 21 

Root, stem, and branch of White Pine 21 

syttem of White Pine, relation to place of growth 40 

Roots, seat of fungus disease of pines 52 

" Resting " prottctiou against pino bark borer 56 

Rotation of trees in forest management 61 

Rorn, FiLiBERT, article on "Wood of the White Pine " 73 

conclusions as to allowance for waste in saw- 
ing 38 

Saginaw, Mich., first sawmill 17 

St. Lawrence River, occurrence of White Pine 15 

St. Louis, growth of White Pine trade 18 

Sand, loamy, growth of White Pine 68 

preference of White Pine 40 

spread of fungus in causing "damping off" of pines 53 

Sandy and loamy soils, reproduction of White Pino 62 

soils, relation to specific weight of pine wood 74 

Sapwoodof tree, variation of moisture 77 

White Pine, note on change to heartwood 73 

Sawfiles, enemies of pine, notes CO 

Sawing of lumber from WhitePine, notes 81 

Sawyer, possible waste of pine 38 

Sawyere, pine, and other borers, discussion 57 

Scale Inseota, kerosene emulsion as remedy 61 

Schedules and sample records, forms 173-179 

Schizonrura pinicola, enemy of White Pino, note 60 

Srhroeder, J., proposed classification of wood of pine 26 

Sci.lytida-, em-roles of White Pino 55 

other, timber beetles 57 

Scotch Pluc, comparison of resin ducts with White Pine 25 

growth in forty-live years at Princeton, 111 67 

German v 68 

result of planting w.th White Pino 66 

Seasoning nii'l <!T n -irength of White Pine 79 

of White Pine, comparison with other pines 77 

not. 1 81 

Second-growth piue, development 38 



Page. 

Second-growth pine, market and use in Massachusetts 65 

tables of measurement and diagram 100-106 

White Pine, acre yield, with measurements of 

young pine 148-169 

Seeding of White Pine in German}-, note (8 

Seedling stage of pine, height growth 27 

Seedlings of pine, growth ; destruction by fire 62 

protection 27 

Seed, nnmber to the ounce for pine ; to 100 feet of drill 63 

of pine, method of sowing 63 

White Pine, effect of exposure upon vitality 62 

production, discussion 23 

Seeds of pine, conditions for germination 27 

percentage germinating 64 

retention of vitality 26 

White Pine, description 23 

ripening 23 

Shade endurance of White Pine, note 43 

for seed beds of pine 63 

Shape, factor, in White Pine 37 

use in finding cnbic and board contents of tree. . 85 

Shingles, laths, etc., note on output in lake States 18 

of White Pine, durability 80 

useof WhitePine 81 

Shipbuilding, use of White Pine 81 

Shipping case of White Pine, advantages 82 

Shortleaf Pine, associate of White Piue 40 

Shrinkage of White Pine, discussion 77 

table 74 

Size of White Pine 20 

Soap, fish-oil, use against pine weevil 59 

soft, use against pine- bark beetle 56 

Soda, washing, use against pine-bark beetle 5G 

Soil and climate demands for development of White Pine 39 

influence on height growth of trees 33 

black loam, growth of pine 66 

character for use against "damping off" 53 

for White Pine, notes 15 

of Palatinate, character for growth of pine 08 

Soils and soil conditions for "White Pine 12,13,14 

light, advisability of sowing seed of pine broadcast 64 

South Carolina, occurrence of White Pine 15 

Dakota, failure of plantings of White Pine at Blockings. 67 

Specific weight of pine, notes 73, 74 

Spores of Polyporus annosus, spread of disease in pines 52 

Springer, J. S., note on White Pine 16 

Spruce, concomitant of White Pine 40 

forest of Canada, note 15 

liability to being uprooted 50 

mixture with White Pine 14 

Norway, record of growth in Germany 69 

Spruces, admixture with White Pine 12 

Staminate flowers of White Pine, description 23 

Stem, root, and branch system of White Pino 21 

Storms, injuries to forest 50 

Strength and weight of pines, comparison 81 

of pine, variation with location of wood in tree 78 

White Pine, discussion 77-79 

Structure of White Pine, notes 73 

Subsoil, stifl", effect on young pine GG 

Sugar Maple, usefulness for planting with pine 64 

Pine, relationship to White Pine 21 

Sunlight, value against "damping oft'" in pines 54 

Supplies of While Pine, original and present, discussion .- 19 

Swamp trees, note on specific weight 74 

Swiss Stone Pine, relationship to White Pino 21 

Synonyms of White Pino 9 

Tamarack, mixture with White Pine 14 

Taper of pine tree, relation to conditions of growth 36 

WhitePine, variations 37 

Temperature, relation to development of White Pine 40 

to prevent "damping otf" 54 

Tennessee and West Virginia, present supply of White Pine . . 19 

Thecla niphon, injury to pine 60 

Thinning of ]mif. notr 66 

White Pine, conclusion from record at Farming- 
ton, N.II 48 



INDEX. 



18.5 



Page. 

Timber beetles and otber Scoly tidse, discussion 57 

commercially valuable, distribution of White Pino 12 

of White 1'ine, diagrams on weight 76 

variation in strength with location in 

tree 78 

products of Michigan, comparison for 1879 with other 

products 11 

Tomicus cacograpkug, injury to pines, description 56 

pint and other species, injury to pine 57 

Tortricid moths, enemies of pine, remedies 59 

Tracheids in pine, notes 25 

Trametex radic\perda, injury to coniferous trees 52 

Transplanting jTme seedlings, notes 28 

Tree, largest pine actually measured 27 

measurements and calculation for determination of volume 85 

Trees, cubic and lumber contents, note 38 

deformed, damaged by White Pine weevil 58 

forest-grown, diameter growth at various heights 36 

living, danger of attacks from bark beetles 57 

of different ages, table showing average weight, moist- 
ure content, and shrinkage 74,75 

young, average taper 37 

Trunks and limbs of pine, moth caterpillars and plant-lice 59 

(See alto Sterna and Jloles.) 

Tube-builder, pine, manner of injury 61 

Turpentine flow from holes made by bark beetle 55 

Twig beetles, genera injurious to pine 57 

Ujihain, Warren, note on soil for White Pino 15 

Upland trees, note on specific weight 74 

Uprooting, danger of White Pine 50 

Useaof White Pine, discussion 81 

Varieties of White Piue 20 

Virginia, occurrence of White Pine 15 

Volume and rate of growth of White Pine, tables 93-100 

growth of pine, variation with soil 37 

of tree, measurements and calculation - 85 

Wadsworth, S. B., note on White Pine in Illinois 15 

Wappes, L., Bavarian forester, report on White Pine 68 

Ward, Lester F., noteon occurrence of White Pine in Maryland 

and Virginia 15 

Wash, composition for use against bark beetles 56 

for protection against White Pine weevil 59 

Washes, protective, against pine bark-beetle 56 

Washington City, first spring visitation of White Pine weevil. 59 

Wait-ring, method for prevention of "damping off" 54 

Weather, relation to shading of pine seedlings 63 

Weed growth, drawback to reproduction of pine 63 

Weevil, White Pine, discussion 58 

\ measures for protection of pine 59 

time of appearance 59 

-'Oi':j;i No. 22 13 



Page. 

Weight, specific, and strength of pinna, comparison 81 

of White Pino timber, diagrams 76 

wood of White Pine, discussion 73 

West Virginia and Tennessee, present, supply of White Pine. . 19 

Western prairies, establishment of pine groves C3 

White Piue, advantage over other pines in reproduction from 

seed 61 

trees in wind storm 50 

burning of wilting terminal as protection against 

wevil 59 

insect enemies, general statement 55 

weevil, discussion 58 

Whiting, A. H., growth of White Pineal home 67 

Williams, E., note on White Pine in Illinois 15 

Williamsport, Pa., trade in White Pine 17 

Wind, immunity of White Pine from injury 50 

Windom, Minn., growth of White Pine in thirteen years 07 

Winds, drying, injurious consequences to pine 50 

Wisconsin, acre yield of White Pine, table 41 

yields of White Pine aud measurements of 

sample trees 131-147 

destruction of young pine growth by fire 63 

first logs taken to St. Louis 18 

heavy production of pine seed 23 

Maine and Michigan, comparison of growth of pine 33 
Michigan and Minnesota, annual cut of White 

Pine, 1873-1897 17 

occurrence of White Pine 14 

original stand and present supply of White Pine.. 19 

yield of White Pine, per acre 20 

Wood, amount formed in pine in different decades of growth . . 37 

function in economy of tree 24 

green, variation in weight 73 

kiln-dry, variation in specific, weight 73 

note on change in White Pine 70 

of White Pine, character and physical properties 73 

discussion 73-82 

remarks 24-26 

Woods, other, comparison with White Pine 80 

Wurteinburg, growth of White Pino 88 

Yield, acre, of White Pine in natural forest 46 

young pine groves 43 

of White Pine, discussion 44 

per acre 20 

second-growth White Pine with measurements of 

young pine taken for analysis .: 148-169 

Yields, acre, of White Pine and measurements of sample 

trees 116 147 

York County, Me., statement as to reproduction of pine 62 



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