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NATIONAL CITIZEN TRACT No. 1.
ANNA ELLA CARROLL VS. ULYSSES S. GRANT :
A FEW GENERALLY UNKNOWN FACTS IN REGARD TO OUR
BY MATILDA JOSLYN\QAGE.
The author of this pamphlet has for many years been cognizant
of the facts embodied in it, and also has personal acquaintance
with Miss Carroll. Her attention was first called to Miss Carroll s
vast work in 1873, at time of the annual Washington Convention
of the National Womans Suffrage Association. At that time
Miss Carroll sent copies of her memorial to the officers of the
association, together with the following letter :
"Mv DEAR MRS. GAGE,
I yesterday sent to your hotel a copy of a pamphlet
which has just been published in regard to my services to the
country in the war of the rebellion.
"This, as you will perceive, is not designed so much for the
general reader as for Congress. And yet I think its entire peru
sal may interest you inasmuch as it may serve in some degree
to furnish evidence in behalf of the cause you so ably represent.
" At this time, however, I would respectfully ask your attention
to the letters of Hon. B. F. Wade, page 48 and 49 as giving a
just conception of the merits of the case.
"1 regret that a difficulty in hearing at the present time deprives
me of the pleasure I should otherwise enjoy in listening to your
address while in this city.
With very high consideration,
A. E. CARROLL.
Washington, 706 i3th St., Jan i7th 73,"
This tract has been prepared by request of Mrs. Louisa South-
worth of Ohio, who desires to scatter a knowledge of Miss Carroll s
work widely over her State, and also to send the pamphlet to her
The part headed "Anna Ella Carroll vs. Ulysses S. Grant," was
my editorial in NATIONAL CITIZEN last November at time of
Grant s return to this country, and is here reproduced as giving
a general statement of the subject. The remainder of the tract
elucidates this editorial and enables any one so desiring to
examine the facts for themselves. A vast amount of proof exists,
that I have not been able to use in the compass of this pamphlet.
A short sketch of Miss Carroll is given, also a recent letter from
NATIONAL CITIZEN TRACT NO. 1,
MATILDA JOSLYN GAGE.
The Tennessee Campaign of 1862 ?
A FEW GENERALLY UNKNOWN FACTS IN REGARD TO OUR CIVIL WAR.
ANNA ELLA CARROLL vs. ULYSSES S. GRANT.
After a most wonderful tour around the world in which he has
been recognized as the most prominent man living, General
Grant has returned to the United States, here to be again feted
and honored. Senator Sharon, that man who for several years
holding the responsible office of a Senator of the United Sates
has never been seen in his seat until last winter, when to please
a young daughter who wished an introduction to the gaieties of
Washington, he for a short time took his place, has recently
given a banquet in Grant s honor, which rivalled foreign ones.
Two thousand five hundred people were transported twenty-six
miles, by three trains of cars to Senator Sharon s country seat,
said to be the largest and most palatial in the United States, and
were entertained with music and flowers and the substantiate of
a feast, and taking Grant by the hand, proud to say he was their
Why was this ? Twenty years ago Grant was an unknown
tanner in Galena. Twenty years ago not a thousand people had
heard his name. It is far less time, indeed, than that, when
being offered the command of a regiment he doubted his ability
to control ten companies, and to-day he is at the summit of
human fame, having gained his first reputation at Forts Henry
and Donelson and Pillow and other points of the Tennessee cam
paign, of which Vicksburg was the finality. The war had been
"" :: : **: 2
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conducted by Greeley s "On to Richmond" cry, had met its
Bull Run, and had fruitlessly beaten itself against the wooden
guns of Manassas, under the foolish leadership of McClellan,
while the north grew pale and fearful over this utter lack of
military strategy. "Whence is our deliverance to come ?" was
the cry of many a heart, the utterance of many a half-palsied
But help was near when least expected, and from a quarter
that none could have guessed. Anna Ella Carroll, a young girl of
Maryland, full of a patriotic spirit which, first used upon its Gov
ernor, kept Maryland within the Union, afterwards went to St.
Louis to view the situation from that quarter. Here her bright
wit taught her that from Charleston to Memphis lay the line of
Southern strength, and that not Richmond, but the Tennessee
River and all it commanded was the point to strike the fatal blow.
She returned to Washington, drew up a plan of campaign from
this basis, gave her reasons therefor, and accompanying it by a
map fully illustrating her plan, sent it to the War Department at
Washington, in November, 1861. The military men who exam
ined it, saw at once that a military genius had arisen who would
prove the salvation of the country. Miss Carroll s plan was
adopted by the Secretary of War and his assistants. Grant was
sent west to carry out her ideas, which were a triumphant success,
bringing tears of joy to the eyes of her countrymen, and sending
Grant s name to thousands of lips, while the cause of it all was
silent and unknown. Unknown, I have called her ; she was
known to the few, men the highest and most honored in the
United States knew of her, and as all through the war she still
sent in her campaign plans, the War Department still acted upon
them, glad to work out the salvation of the country through this
woman s brains. But look at the justice of man toward woman.
When the war was over she asked for a pension. She had spent
time and money as well as brains in her country s service. Grant
was at this hour general of the army, and soon to be elected to
the presidency. A long line of men, officers and privates, claimed
their country s gratitude thousands and tens of thousands re
ceived pensions for what they had done, and she, whose work
had been an hundred-fold above all others, she, too, asked a
pension. Her claim was supported by a long line of eminent
men, some of whom are dead, some of whom are living. Old
Ben Wade, of stalwart abolition fame, Edwin M. Stanton and
his assistant Secretary, Tom Scott, sustained her ; Abraham Lin
coln, the martyred President, and Chief Justice Evans, of Texas,
Hannibal Hamlin and dozens more of great and lesser note,
have acknowledged the justice of her claim, and this testimony
is all garnered up in voluminous reports from the Military Com
mittee of various Congresses, and rests on the shelves of the
libraries of the Senate and of the House of Representatives in
Washington, free for the examination of any one.
But to-day Ulysses S. Grant traverses the world, the guest of
many a nation because of the victories he gained under this
woman s direction, while Anna Ella Carroll, whose wisdom saw
our country s needs at the hour of its extremest peril, whose
genius planned and laid out the campaign which first brought
us hope and victory, receives no recognition from those whom her
wisdom saved ; and her country, though dealing out. with liberal
hand pensions and back pensions to men incapable of planning
and whose only virtue was that of fighting in the ranks, still
denies to her the pension she asks.
To fight lies in the power of most men, but it is only the great
military geniuses of the world who can successfully plan. Alex
ander and Hannibal and Caesar and Napoleon had good fighters
under them, but these fighters were merely the parts of a machine,
to do as they were bidden, and to conduce to results whose ways
and means were beyond their powers.
It is not to the man who fights that the results are mainly due,
but to the one who plans. It is acknowledged by military men
that to plan a successful campaign requires the highest order of
military genius and power, far higher than that of the general
who commands the army which follows out this plan.
Judging by all the standards of military men throughout the
world, in times past and to-day, there is not now existing in this
country or in the world, a person possessed of the transcendant
military genius of Anna Ella Carroll, of Maryland; and yet Grant,
who merely followed her directions, is feted and honored, spoken
of for a third term of the Presidency, for a perpetual General-in-
chief-ship, as a forthcoming Dictator, while she, in unregarded
solitude, seeks of Congress each year the simple recognition of a
moderate pension for her services. And this is man s justice to
Hon. L. D. Evans, at that time Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of Texas, some eight years ago, prepared a pamphlet,
entitled, " The Material Bearing oft he Tennessee Campaign in
1862, upon the Destinies of Our Civil War."
In a short preface, Judge Evans declared himself to be in full
possession of the question ; that he had thoroughly investigated
all data, official and otherwise, connected with Miss Carroll s
claim ; that the facts and argument could by no possibility be
AUTHOR OF THE PLAN.
In this pamphlet Judge Evans said, "All writers upon our civil
war concede that the movement which transferred the National
armies from Cairo and the northern part of Kentucky to their new
base in northern Mississippi and Alabama, on the Memphis
and Charleston railroad, was the decisive campaign of the war.
It made the destruction of the " Southern Confederacy " in
evitable. It sapped it to its foundation, and thenceforth, it
decayed, grew ripe for destruction and smouldered to its fall.
But, while there has been universal assent as to the vital im
portance of the Tennessee campaign, it was not until the report
of the Military Committee of the United States Senate, nine
years after, that it became known to whom the merit of the plan
belonged. This report establishes the fact, that on the 3oth of
November, 1861, Miss Carroll, of Maryland, presented to the
War Department at Washington, an elaborate plan for this cam
paign, which was adopted by the administration, and there can
be no doubt that future critical researches, by bringing more
clearly to light the dangers which then hazarded the Union,
will not only confirm this judgment, but will lift it to a place
which belongs only to the most extraordinary strategic movements
in ancient or modern warfare, and invest the author with an
historic interest not heretofore conceived.
It is impossible to comprehend the tremendous importance of
this plan without a knowledge of the military situation.
In the autumn of 61, the Confederate States had acquired an
organization and consistency, strong enough to put in the field and
maintain a military power too formidable to be overthrown by
any power the National Government could bring against it, on
any of the lines of operation known to the administration.
If this rebel power could gain time to prepare for replenishing
its warlike material by the creation of machine power, it was
numerous enough and rich enough in intellectual and material
resources to resist indefinitely, if not able to destroy the Union
altogether. No blockade could so control its supplies of warlike
material but what was ra pidly being supplemented by the energies
of the people.
Could the National armies, however, penetrate the central
region so as to break up its internal lines of connection and,
at the same time, disorganize its industrial system, the Con
federacy would be geographically cut in two, and its ability to
create resources for large armies forever destroyed."
Judge Evans shows that no military plan known to the Govern
ment could have saved the Union, as geographically considered,
there was but one line which the National armies could take and
maintain and that " was unthought of and unknown " until its plan
was suggested by Miss Carroll. He further shows that at the
time Miss Carroll proposed to the Government to abandon the
Mississippi expedition, the war had been waged over six months,
but with the exception of West Virginia the battle had been
steadly against the Union, that the grand army of the Potomac
was a mistake, the capture of Richmond possessing no material
influence ; as in order for the National Government to maintain
itself against the rebellion it was necessary for it to reach its
center and deliver a blow upon its resources, the only avenue
to reach this point being the Tennessee river. By taking that
river, the Confederacy was cut in two from east to west, and a
base secured in Mississippi and Alabama. " That river was
navigable for gunboats to the foot of the muscle shoals in Ala
bama, within hearing of the locomotives of the Memphis and
Charleston railroad, the only complete bond of communication
between the rebel armies of the east, and the rebel armies of the
"Miss Carroll," says Judge Evans, "had the genius to grasp the
situation and perceive that the fall of Richmond could not de
stroy the rebellion, and the Mississippi could not be opened on
its waters ; that the Government must seize a strategic position
within the cotton States, and if a fatal blow could be inflicted, it
must fall there."
On the i2th of November, 1861, while still in St. Louis, Miss
Carroll wrote to the Hon. Edward Bates at Washington, that from
information gained by her, she believed the expedition would fail.
She urged him to try and have this expedition directed instead,
up the Tennessee river, as the true line of attack. Mr. Bates
having been the member of the Cabinet who first suggested the
gunboat expedition down the Mississippi, Miss Carroll s first
suggestion to the Government of a change, was made through
him. But she also dispatched a similar letter to Col. Thomas
A. Scott, at that time Assistant Secretary of War.
On the 3oth of November, (1861,) Miss Carroll laid her plan
before, the War Department and soon had the satisfaction of
seeing it adopted.
MISS CARROLL S PLAN.
The civil and military authorities seem to me to be laboring
under a great mistake in regard to the true key of the war in the
Southwest. It is not the Mississippi, but the Tennessee River.
Now all the military preparations made in the west indicate that
.the Mississippi River is the point to which the authorities are di
recting their attention. On that river many battles must be fought
and heavy risks incurred, before any impression can be made on
the enemy, all of which could be avoided by using the Tennessee
River. This river is navigable for medium-class boats to the foot
of Muscle Shoals in Alabama, and is opened to navigation all the
year, while the distance is but two hundred and fifty miles by the
river from Paducah, on the Ohio. The Tennessee offers many ad
vantages over the Mississippi. We should avoid the almost im
pregnable batteries of the enemy, which cannot be taken without
great danger and great risk of life to our forces, from the fact that
our forces, if crippled, would fall a prey to the enemy by being
swept by the current to him, and away from the relief of our
friends. But even should we succeed, still we have only begun
the war, for we shall then have to fight the country from whence
the enemy derives his supplies.
Now, an advance up the Tennessee River would avoid this
danger; for, if our boats were crippled, they would drop back
with the current and escape capture.
But a still greater advantage would be its tendency to cut the
enemy s lines in two, by reaching the Memphis and Charleston rail
road, threatening Memphis, which lies one hundred miles due
west, and no defensible point between ; also Nashville, only ninety
miles northeast, and Florence and Tuscumbia in North Alabama,
forty miles east. A movement in this direction would do more
to relieve our friends in Kentucky, and inspire the loyal hearts in
East Tennessee, than the possession of the whole of the Missis
sippi River. If well executed, it would cause the evacuation of
all those formidable fortifications on which the rebels ground their
hopes for success ; and in the event bf our fleet attacking Mobile,
the presence of our troops in the northern part of Alabama,
would be material aid to the fleet.
Again, the aid our forces would receive from the loyal men in
Tennessee would enable them soon to crush the last traitor in that
region, and the separation of the two extremes would do more than
one hundred battles for the Union cause.
The Tennessee river is crossed by the Memphis and Louisville
railroad, and the Memphis and Nashville railroad. At Hamburg
the river makes the big bend on the east, touching the northeast
corner of Mississippi, entering the northwest corner of Alabama,
forming an arc to the south, entering the State of Tennessee at
the northeast corner of Alabama, and if it does not touch the
northwest corner of Georgia, comes very near it. It is but eight
miles from Hamburg to the Memphis and Charleston railroad,
which goes through Tuscumbia, only two miles from the river,
which it crosses at Decatur, thirty miles above, intersecting with
the Nashville and Chattanooga road at Stephenson. The Ten
nessee never has less than three feet to Hamburg, on the " shoal-
est " bar, and during the fall, winter and spring months, there is
always water for the largest boats that are used on the Mississippi
river. It follows from the above facts, that in making the Missis
sippi the key to the war in the West, or rather in overlooking the
Tennessee river, the subject is not understood by the superiors in
Being a civilian and above all, a woman, and knowing the preju
dice existing against advice from such quarters, Miss Carroll,
with self-sacrificing, patriotic spirit, refrained from signing her
name to this plan when she sent it in to the War Department,
though her letters of the same tenor, previously written to Hon.
Mr. Bates and Col. Scott, bore her signature.
The events of the Tennessee campaign proved exactly in ac
cordance with Miss Carroll s predictions. The enemy s lines were
cut in two, formidable fortifications were evacuated, and more
was done for the Union "than one hundred battles" would have
Judge Evans, having critically examined all the plans of gener-
als, and every official document published by the War Department,
bearing upon this point, and also every history written upon the
war, finds that until Miss Carroll submitted her plan to the gov
ernment, the idea of the Tennessee River as the true line of
invasion had not occurred to any military mind.
Col. Scott possessing a knowledge of the railroad facilities and
connections of the South, unequaled perhaps by any other man
in the country at that time, at once saw the vital importance and
power of Miss Carroll s plan. He declared it to be the first clear
solution of the difficult problem, and he was soon sent west by
the War Department to assist in carrying it out in detail.
His opinion of it is very clearly expressed in the following letter
which he addressed to the Chairman of the Senate Military Com
mittee, Hon. Jacob M. Howard, when after the close of the war,
Miss Carroll memorialized the Government, to which she had
been of such eminent service, for a pension.
COL. THOMAS A. SCOTT S LETTER TO THE SENATE
Hon. Jacob M. Howard, United States Senate :
"On or about the 3oth of November, 1861, Miss Carroll, as
stated in her memorial, called on me as Assistant Secretary of
War, and suggested the propriety of abandoning the expedition
which was then preparing to descend the Mississippi river, and to
adopt instead, the Tennessee river, and handed to me the plan of
the campaign as appended to her memorial, which plan I sub
mitted to the Secretary of War, and its general ideas were
adopted. On my return from the south-west in 1862, I informed
Miss Carroll, as she states in her memorial, that through the
adoption of this plan, the country had been saved millions, and
that it entitled her to the kind consideration of Congress.
THOS A. SCOTT."
The capture of Fort Henry was the first result of Miss Carroll s
plan. With its fall, the enemy s center was pierced, the decisive
Previous to this rebellion but fifteen decisive battles in the
world s history had taken place, battles upon which the fate of
nations depended and which had changed the course of the
world s history. The capture of Fort Henry, the first fruit of
Anna Ella Carroll s strategic brain was the sixteenth and most
memorable of such battles. It was not the fate of our nation
alone which was at stake, but liberty itself; the future of all
mankind depended upon the results of our civil war.
At the commencement of the Tennessee Campaign it required
$2,000,000 each day to support the army in the field, and Hon.
Mr. Dawes, in a speech in the House while showing the vast ex
pense to which the country was put, declared it was impossible for
the United States to meet this state of things sixty days longer,
that an ignominious peace was upon the country and at its very
Sixty days more of such warfare would not only have brought
financial ruin but would also have induced foreign intervention.
England and France were watching our struggle in hopes of our
destruction, and a foreign war was imminent. Such was the
condition of things at the time Miss Carroll s plan was adopted.
The fall of Fort Henry opened the navigation of the Tennessee
river. Its capture was soon followed by the evacuation of
Columbus and Bowling Green. Fort Donelson was given up and
its rebel garrison of 14,000 troops marched out as prisoners of
war. Hope sprang up in the hearts of the people, and General
Grant s name was heard for the first time. Pittsburgh Landing
and Corinth soon followed the fate of the preceeding forts.
President Lincoln declared the victory at Fort Henry to be of
the utmost importance. North and South its influence was
alike felt. Gen. Beauregard was himself conscious that this
campaign sealed the fate of the "Southern Confederacy."
The author of the plan of the Tennessee Campaign being then
unknown, it was attributed to many different persons. A debate
as to its origin took place in the House of Representatives Feb.
24, 1862, and in the Senate March i3th, the same year. By some
it was ascribed to Lincoln himself ; by others to the Secretary of
War. Dr. Draper in his "History of the Civil War," ascribes it
to Gen. Halleck. Boynton in the " History of the Navy," gives
Commodore Foote credit of the plan. Lossing s "Civil War/
credits it to the combined wisdom of Grant, Halleck and Foote.
Badeon s "History of the Civil War," credits Gen. C. F. Smith.
Abbott s " Civil War," credits Gen. Fremont.
The success of the Tennessee campaign rendered foreign
intervention impossible and taught their mistake to those enemies
who were anxiously watching for our country s downfall. Missouri
was kept in the Union by its means, Tennessee and Kentucky were
restored, the National armies were enabled to push to the gulf
States and secure possession of all the great rivers and routes of
internal communication through the heart of the Confederate
As the result of this campaign, President Lincoln on the loth
of April, 1862, issued the following proclamation :
" It has pleased Almighty God to vouchsafe signal victories to
the land and naval forces engaged in suppressing an internal
rebellion ; and at the same time to avert from our country the
damages of foreign intervention and invasion."
Hon. Benjamin F. Wade, who during the war was Chairman of
the Committee on the conduct of the War, and during the last pe
riod of his services, after the assassination of President Lincoln had
elevated Andrew Johnson to the Presidency, was acting Vice-Pres
ident and President of the Senate, was a friend of Miss Carroll.
He addressed the following letter to her in 1869, just before the
close of his last Congressional session :
WASHINGTON, March i, 1869.
Miss CARROLL : I cannot take leave of my public life without
expressing my deep sense of your services to the country during
the whole period of our National troubles. Although a citizen of
a State almost unanimously disloyal and deeply sympathizing with
secession, especially the wealthy and aristocratic class of her
people, to which you belonged, yet, in the midst of such sur
roundings, you emancipated your own slaves at a great sacrifice of
personal interest, and with your powerful pen defended the cause
of the Union and loyalty as ably and effectively as it has ever
yet been defended.
From my position on the Committee on the conduct of the
War I know that some of the most successful expeditions of the
war were suggested by you, among which I might instance the
expedition up the Tennessee river.
The powerful support you gave Governor Hicks during the
darkest hour of your State s history, prompted him to take and
maintain the stand he did, and thereby saved your State from
secession and consequent ruin.
All those things, as well as your unremitted labors in the cause
of reconstruction, I doubt not, are well known and remembered
by the members of Congress at that period.
I also well know in what high estimation your services were
held by President Lincoln ; and I cannot leave this subject with-
out sincerely hoping that the Government may yet confer on
you some token of acknowledgment for all these services and
Very sincerely, your friend,
B. F. WADE.
Hon. Cassius M. Clay, who was U. S. Minister to St. Peters
burg during the crisis of our civil war, after returning home and
becoming informed of Miss Carroll s extraordinary work, wrote
her at different times in relation to that work. In a letter written
Jan 24, 1873, from White Hall, Madison Co., Ky., he said : " I
trust that whilst land, and rank, and pensions are allowed Union
men, that the Union women who risked life and health, as well in
the sanitary and in other departments, should share those similar
Be that as it may, your case stands out unique for you tow
ered above all our generals in military genius, and it would be
a shame upon our country if you were not honored with the
gratitude of all, and solid pecuniary reward.
C. M. CLAY."
Hon. Orestes H. Browning of Illinois, Senator during the war,
and in confidential relations with President Lincoln and Secretary
Stanton, wrote Miss Carroll in 1873, from Quincy, 111., saying:
"During the progress of the war of the rebellion, from 1861 to
1865, I had frequent conversations with President Lincoln and
Secretary Stanton in regard to the active and efficient part you
had taken in behalf of the country, in all of which they ex
pressed their admiration and gratitude for the patriotic and
valuable services you had rendered the cause of the Union, and
the hope that you would be adequately compensated by Congress."
On the 28th of February, 1872, three years after his leaving
public life, Judge Wade addressed .the following letter :
To the Chairman of the Military Committee of the United States
DEAR SIR. I have been requested to make a brief statement
of what I can recollect concerning the claim of Miss Carroll, now
before Congress. From my position as Chairman of the Com
mittee on the conduct of the War, it came to my knowledge that
the expedition that was preparing, under the special direction of
President Lincoln, to descend the Mississippi river, was aban
doned, and the Tennessee expedition was adopted by the Gov
ernment in pursuance of information and a plan presented to the
Secretary of War, I think in the latter part of November, 1861,
by Miss Carroll. A copy of this plan was put in my hands im
mediately after the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson. With the
knowledge of its author I interrogated witnesses before the
committee to ascertain how far military men were cognizant of
the fact. Subsequently President Lincoln informed me that the
merit of this plan was due to Miss Carroll ; that the transfer of
the armies from Cairo and the northern part of Kentucky to the
Memphis and Charleston railroad was her conception and was
afterwards carried out generally, and very much in detail, ac
cording to her suggestions. Secretary Stanton also conversed
with me on the matter, and fully recognized Miss Carroll s
service to the Union in the organization of this campaign. In
deed, both Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Stanton, the latter only a few
weeks before his death, expressed to me their high appreciation
of this service, and all the other services she was enabled to
render the country by her influence and ability as a writer, and
they both expressed the wish that the Government would reward
her liberally for the same, in which wish I most fully concur.
B. F. WADE.
[Extracts from letters written by B.F.Wade to Miss Carroll at different periods.]
JEFFERSON, OHIO, August 14, 1876.
"I rejoice that you are to have the testimony in your case
published by Congress, as I cannot but believf that Congress,
when they have the facts properly before them will be shamed
into doing you justice, though late.
" I fully appreciate and deeply regret the injustice done you
as though the case were my own. The country almost in her
last extremity was saved by your sagacity and unremitted labor ;
indeed your services were so great that it is hard to make the
world believe it. Many have been most generously rewarded for
services having no more proportion to yours than a mole hill to
a mountain and that all this great work should be brought about
by a woman is inconceivable to vulgar minds, but I hope and
believe that justice will triumph at last.
B. F. WADE."
JEFFERSON, OHIO, Sept. 9, 1874.
" This Congress may be mean enough to refuse to remunerate
you for your services, but thank Heaven they cannot deprive you
of the honor and consciousness of having done greater and more
efficient services for the country in the time of her greatest peril
than any other person in the Republic, and a knowledge of this
cannot long be suppressed, though I do not underrate the mighty
powers that may be arrayed against you.
B. F. WADE."
JEFFERSON, O., October 3, 1876.
" The truth is, your services were so great that they cannot be
comprehended by the ordinary capacity of our public men, and
then again your services were of such a character that they
threw a shadow over the reputation of some of our would be
great men. No doubt great pains has been taken in the business
of trying to defeat you : but it has been an article of faith with
me that truth and justice must ultimately triumph.
Ever yours truly,
B. F. WADE."
[Letter from Reverdy Johnson.]
WESTMINSTER PALACE HOTEL, LONDON, Nov. 29, 1875.
My Dear Miss Carroll : I remember very well that you were
the first to advise the campaign on the Tennessee River in Novem
ber, 1861, this I have never heard doubted, and the great events
which followed it demonstrated the value of your suggestions.
That you will be recognized by our Government sooner or later
I cannot doubt. Sincerely your friend,
[Extract from Robert J. Walker s letter on Miss Carroll s "War Power Paper."]
WASHINGTON, May 22, 1862.
I regret I am without influence to serve you in the War
Department, but Mr. Lincoln with whom I have conversed, has
I know the highest appreciation of your services in this connec
[Extract of a letter from Gerritt Smith.]
" Our country will be deeply dishonored if you, its wise and
faithful and grandly useful servant, shall be left unpaid."
With great regard, your friend,
Peterboro, N. Y., May, 1874. GERRITT SMITH.
[Extract of a letter from Salmon P. Chase, 1861.]
" You have my grateful thanks for the great and patriotic
services you have rendered and are still rendering the country
in this crisis."
I have the honor to be your friend and servant,
S. P. CHASE.
Prior to the preparation of this tract I addressed a letter to
Col. Scott, saying that any information he could give me in re-
lation to Miss Carroll s claims would be most gladly received.
I sent this letter to Miss Thompson of Philadelphia, that she
might hand it herself to Col. Scott, who is a personal friend of
her own. Miss Thompson unfortunately lost my letter, but herself
wrote Col. Scott and obtained the following reply :
No. 233 South Fourth St., )
PHILADELPHIA, March 29, 1880. ("
My Dear Miss Thompson: I have your letter of March 25th
in regard to Miss Carroll s matter, and beg to say in reply that I
do not know whether the old papers are on file in the War De
partment or not, I presume the only way to ascertain would be to
apply to the Department direct.
I have done all that I feel I can do in this matter, having given
my evidence before the Committee in the most concise and direct
I hope that Congress will do something for Miss Carroll, but
with their present economical habits, I doubt very much whether
Hoping that the committee in charge of the matter may have
success. I am, very truly yours
Miss M. A. THOMPSON, 114 N. nth St.
SKETCH OF MISS CARROLL.
Anna Ella Carroll is the daughter of Thomas King Carroll, for
merly Governor of Maryland, and one of the best men that State
ever produced. By descent and blood she belongs to one of the
oldest families in the State, her ancestors having founded the city
of Baltimore. Charles Carroll of Carrolton, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence, was of the same family.
When the war of the rebellion broke out, Maryland was claim
ed by the South, and for a long time seemed wavering in the
balance. But although Miss Carroll was the resident of a slave
State, a member of that class which generally proved disloyal,
and although she herself was a slave owner, she resolutely op
posed all suggestions of dismemberment,, not only freeing her
slaves without compulsion, but exerting her powerful influence
against secession. Governor Hicks, of whose family she was an
intimate friend, listened to her advice, enforced by both word
and pen, and despite the syren wooing of the South, in its
. " Maryland, my Maryland,"
the influence of Miss Carroll preserved that State to the Union.
Her services to the Government did not begin nor end with
the plan of the Tennessee campaign. A powerful writer she
early in the war prepared several strong papers, making many
points clear upon which the nation was in doubt. In the sum
mer of 1 86 1, she published a reply to the speech of Senator
Breckenridge delivered during the July session of Congress.
A large edition was circulated by the War Department as a war
measure. The Government then desired her to write other
pamphlets in aid of the Union, and particularly upon the power
of the Government in the conduct of the war. Under this re
quest she wrote a pamphlet entitled the " War Powers of the
Government," which was accepted and its publication ordered in
December, 1861. Her third pamphlet was entitled " The Rela
tions of the Revolted Citizens to the National Government," and
was written to meet the expressed views of President Lincoln, to
whom it was directly submitted and approved by him.
Since the close of the war, Miss Carroll spends her summers
at her homestead in Maryland, but each winter is to be found in
Washington where she is still engaged in the prosecution of her
claims for a pension. In a conversation with Mr. Wade, Vice-
President Wilson speaking of Miss Carroll s great services once
said, " that the American people would cheerfully pay by contri
bution boxes at cross-roads and Post-offices of the country,"
provided they were made aware of the fact.
But during the war, all officials of the government were op
posed to having it made known that the government was pro
ceeding according to the advice and under the plan of a civilian,
and that civilian a woman. Judge Wade at one time said, " I
have sometimes reproached myself that I had not made known
the author when they were discussing the resolution in Congress
to find out, but Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Stanton were opposed to its
being known that the armies were moving under the plan of a
civilian, directed by the President as Commander-in-Chief. Mr. .
Lincoln said it was that which made him hesitate to inaugurate
the movement against the opinion of the military commanders
and he did not wish to risk the effect it might have upon the
armies if they found out some outside party had originated the
campaign; that he wanted the country and the armies to believe
they were doing the whole business of saving the country."
Judge Evans conversed with Col. Scott upon this subject, Scott
urging the absolute necessity of Miss Carroll s making no claim
to the campaign while the struggle continued.
In the plenitude of her self-sacrificing patriotism, Miss Carroll
remained obscurely in the back-ground, though the country was
indebted to her for its salvation. While thousands of men
have in the past years received thanks and rewards from the
country for work done under her plan, she is still to-day, fifteen
years after the close of the war left to struggle for recognition
from that country, which is indebted to her for its very life.
Had she not been a woman would she have met this injustice ?
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
Return to desk from which borrowed.
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.
JAN 08 1993
DEC 08 1992
MAY 30 1954
MAR 2 7 67 -2 fin/!
LD 21-100m-7, 52(A2528sl6)476
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