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Full text of "Who planned the Tennessee campaign of 1862? or, Anna Ella Carroll vs. Ulysses S. Grant : a few generally unknown facts in regard to our Civil War"

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The author of this pamphlet has for many years been cognizant 
of the facts embodied in it, and also has personal acquaintance 
with Miss Carroll. Her attention was first called to Miss Carroll s 
vast work in 1873, at time of the annual Washington Convention 
of the National Womans Suffrage Association. At that time 
Miss Carroll sent copies of her memorial to the officers of the 
association, together with the following letter : 


I yesterday sent to your hotel a copy of a pamphlet 
which has just been published in regard to my services to the 
country in the war of the rebellion. 

"This, as you will perceive, is not designed so much for the 
general reader as for Congress. And yet I think its entire peru 
sal may interest you inasmuch as it may serve in some degree 
to furnish evidence in behalf of the cause you so ably represent. 

" At this time, however, I would respectfully ask your attention 
to the letters of Hon. B. F. Wade, page 48 and 49 as giving a 
just conception of the merits of the case. 

"1 regret that a difficulty in hearing at the present time deprives 
me of the pleasure I should otherwise enjoy in listening to your 
address while in this city. 

With very high consideration, 

Washington, 706 i3th St., Jan i7th 73," 

This tract has been prepared by request of Mrs. Louisa South- 
worth of Ohio, who desires to scatter a knowledge of Miss Carroll s 
work widely over her State, and also to send the pamphlet to her 
friends abroad. 

The part headed "Anna Ella Carroll vs. Ulysses S. Grant," was 
my editorial in NATIONAL CITIZEN last November at time of 
Grant s return to this country, and is here reproduced as giving 
a general statement of the subject. The remainder of the tract 
elucidates this editorial and enables any one so desiring to 
examine the facts for themselves. A vast amount of proof exists, 
that I have not been able to use in the compass of this pamphlet. 
A short sketch of Miss Carroll is given, also a recent letter from 
Mr. Scott. 






The Tennessee Campaign of 1862 ? 



After a most wonderful tour around the world in which he has 
been recognized as the most prominent man living, General 
Grant has returned to the United States, here to be again feted 
and honored. Senator Sharon, that man who for several years 
holding the responsible office of a Senator of the United Sates 
has never been seen in his seat until last winter, when to please 
a young daughter who wished an introduction to the gaieties of 
Washington, he for a short time took his place, has recently 
given a banquet in Grant s honor, which rivalled foreign ones. 
Two thousand five hundred people were transported twenty-six 
miles, by three trains of cars to Senator Sharon s country seat, 
said to be the largest and most palatial in the United States, and 
were entertained with music and flowers and the substantiate of 
a feast, and taking Grant by the hand, proud to say he was their 

Why was this ? Twenty years ago Grant was an unknown 
tanner in Galena. Twenty years ago not a thousand people had 
heard his name. It is far less time, indeed, than that, when 
being offered the command of a regiment he doubted his ability 
to control ten companies, and to-day he is at the summit of 
human fame, having gained his first reputation at Forts Henry 
and Donelson and Pillow and other points of the Tennessee cam 
paign, of which Vicksburg was the finality. The war had been 


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conducted by Greeley s "On to Richmond" cry, had met its 

Bull Run, and had fruitlessly beaten itself against the wooden 
guns of Manassas, under the foolish leadership of McClellan, 
while the north grew pale and fearful over this utter lack of 
military strategy. "Whence is our deliverance to come ?" was 
the cry of many a heart, the utterance of many a half-palsied 

But help was near when least expected, and from a quarter 
that none could have guessed. Anna Ella Carroll, a young girl of 
Maryland, full of a patriotic spirit which, first used upon its Gov 
ernor, kept Maryland within the Union, afterwards went to St. 
Louis to view the situation from that quarter. Here her bright 
wit taught her that from Charleston to Memphis lay the line of 
Southern strength, and that not Richmond, but the Tennessee 
River and all it commanded was the point to strike the fatal blow. 
She returned to Washington, drew up a plan of campaign from 
this basis, gave her reasons therefor, and accompanying it by a 
map fully illustrating her plan, sent it to the War Department at 
Washington, in November, 1861. The military men who exam 
ined it, saw at once that a military genius had arisen who would 
prove the salvation of the country. Miss Carroll s plan was 
adopted by the Secretary of War and his assistants. Grant was 
sent west to carry out her ideas, which were a triumphant success, 
bringing tears of joy to the eyes of her countrymen, and sending 
Grant s name to thousands of lips, while the cause of it all was 
silent and unknown. Unknown, I have called her ; she was 
known to the few, men the highest and most honored in the 
United States knew of her, and as all through the war she still 
sent in her campaign plans, the War Department still acted upon 
them, glad to work out the salvation of the country through this 
woman s brains. But look at the justice of man toward woman. 
When the war was over she asked for a pension. She had spent 
time and money as well as brains in her country s service. Grant 
was at this hour general of the army, and soon to be elected to 
the presidency. A long line of men, officers and privates, claimed 
their country s gratitude thousands and tens of thousands re 
ceived pensions for what they had done, and she, whose work 
had been an hundred-fold above all others, she, too, asked a 
pension. Her claim was supported by a long line of eminent 


men, some of whom are dead, some of whom are living. Old 
Ben Wade, of stalwart abolition fame, Edwin M. Stanton and 
his assistant Secretary, Tom Scott, sustained her ; Abraham Lin 
coln, the martyred President, and Chief Justice Evans, of Texas, 
Hannibal Hamlin and dozens more of great and lesser note, 
have acknowledged the justice of her claim, and this testimony 
is all garnered up in voluminous reports from the Military Com 
mittee of various Congresses, and rests on the shelves of the 
libraries of the Senate and of the House of Representatives in 
Washington, free for the examination of any one. 

But to-day Ulysses S. Grant traverses the world, the guest of 
many a nation because of the victories he gained under this 
woman s direction, while Anna Ella Carroll, whose wisdom saw 
our country s needs at the hour of its extremest peril, whose 
genius planned and laid out the campaign which first brought 
us hope and victory, receives no recognition from those whom her 
wisdom saved ; and her country, though dealing out. with liberal 
hand pensions and back pensions to men incapable of planning 
and whose only virtue was that of fighting in the ranks, still 
denies to her the pension she asks. 

To fight lies in the power of most men, but it is only the great 
military geniuses of the world who can successfully plan. Alex 
ander and Hannibal and Caesar and Napoleon had good fighters 
under them, but these fighters were merely the parts of a machine, 
to do as they were bidden, and to conduce to results whose ways 
and means were beyond their powers. 

It is not to the man who fights that the results are mainly due, 
but to the one who plans. It is acknowledged by military men 
that to plan a successful campaign requires the highest order of 
military genius and power, far higher than that of the general 
who commands the army which follows out this plan. 

Judging by all the standards of military men throughout the 
world, in times past and to-day, there is not now existing in this 
country or in the world, a person possessed of the transcendant 
military genius of Anna Ella Carroll, of Maryland; and yet Grant, 
who merely followed her directions, is feted and honored, spoken 
of for a third term of the Presidency, for a perpetual General-in- 
chief-ship, as a forthcoming Dictator, while she, in unregarded 
solitude, seeks of Congress each year the simple recognition of a 

moderate pension for her services. And this is man s justice to 

Hon. L. D. Evans, at that time Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Texas, some eight years ago, prepared a pamphlet, 
entitled, " The Material Bearing oft he Tennessee Campaign in 
1862, upon the Destinies of Our Civil War." 

In a short preface, Judge Evans declared himself to be in full 
possession of the question ; that he had thoroughly investigated 
all data, official and otherwise, connected with Miss Carroll s 
claim ; that the facts and argument could by no possibility be 
successfully controverted. 


In this pamphlet Judge Evans said, "All writers upon our civil 
war concede that the movement which transferred the National 
armies from Cairo and the northern part of Kentucky to their new 
base in northern Mississippi and Alabama, on the Memphis 
and Charleston railroad, was the decisive campaign of the war. 

It made the destruction of the " Southern Confederacy " in 
evitable. It sapped it to its foundation, and thenceforth, it 
decayed, grew ripe for destruction and smouldered to its fall. 

But, while there has been universal assent as to the vital im 
portance of the Tennessee campaign, it was not until the report 
of the Military Committee of the United States Senate, nine 
years after, that it became known to whom the merit of the plan 
belonged. This report establishes the fact, that on the 3oth of 
November, 1861, Miss Carroll, of Maryland, presented to the 
War Department at Washington, an elaborate plan for this cam 
paign, which was adopted by the administration, and there can 
be no doubt that future critical researches, by bringing more 
clearly to light the dangers which then hazarded the Union, 
will not only confirm this judgment, but will lift it to a place 
which belongs only to the most extraordinary strategic movements 
in ancient or modern warfare, and invest the author with an 
historic interest not heretofore conceived. 


It is impossible to comprehend the tremendous importance of 
this plan without a knowledge of the military situation. 


In the autumn of 61, the Confederate States had acquired an 
organization and consistency, strong enough to put in the field and 
maintain a military power too formidable to be overthrown by 
any power the National Government could bring against it, on 
any of the lines of operation known to the administration. 

If this rebel power could gain time to prepare for replenishing 
its warlike material by the creation of machine power, it was 
numerous enough and rich enough in intellectual and material 
resources to resist indefinitely, if not able to destroy the Union 
altogether. No blockade could so control its supplies of warlike 
material but what was ra pidly being supplemented by the energies 
of the people. 

Could the National armies, however, penetrate the central 
region so as to break up its internal lines of connection and, 
at the same time, disorganize its industrial system, the Con 
federacy would be geographically cut in two, and its ability to 
create resources for large armies forever destroyed." 

Judge Evans shows that no military plan known to the Govern 
ment could have saved the Union, as geographically considered, 
there was but one line which the National armies could take and 
maintain and that " was unthought of and unknown " until its plan 
was suggested by Miss Carroll. He further shows that at the 
time Miss Carroll proposed to the Government to abandon the 
Mississippi expedition, the war had been waged over six months, 
but with the exception of West Virginia the battle had been 
steadly against the Union, that the grand army of the Potomac 
was a mistake, the capture of Richmond possessing no material 
influence ; as in order for the National Government to maintain 
itself against the rebellion it was necessary for it to reach its 
center and deliver a blow upon its resources, the only avenue 
to reach this point being the Tennessee river. By taking that 
river, the Confederacy was cut in two from east to west, and a 
base secured in Mississippi and Alabama. " That river was 
navigable for gunboats to the foot of the muscle shoals in Ala 
bama, within hearing of the locomotives of the Memphis and 
Charleston railroad, the only complete bond of communication 
between the rebel armies of the east, and the rebel armies of the 
Mississippi Valley." 

"Miss Carroll," says Judge Evans, "had the genius to grasp the 


situation and perceive that the fall of Richmond could not de 
stroy the rebellion, and the Mississippi could not be opened on 
its waters ; that the Government must seize a strategic position 
within the cotton States, and if a fatal blow could be inflicted, it 
must fall there." 

On the i2th of November, 1861, while still in St. Louis, Miss 
Carroll wrote to the Hon. Edward Bates at Washington, that from 
information gained by her, she believed the expedition would fail. 
She urged him to try and have this expedition directed instead, 
up the Tennessee river, as the true line of attack. Mr. Bates 
having been the member of the Cabinet who first suggested the 
gunboat expedition down the Mississippi, Miss Carroll s first 
suggestion to the Government of a change, was made through 
him. But she also dispatched a similar letter to Col. Thomas 
A. Scott, at that time Assistant Secretary of War. 

On the 3oth of November, (1861,) Miss Carroll laid her plan 
before, the War Department and soon had the satisfaction of 
seeing it adopted. 


The civil and military authorities seem to me to be laboring 
under a great mistake in regard to the true key of the war in the 
Southwest. It is not the Mississippi, but the Tennessee River. 
Now all the military preparations made in the west indicate that 
.the Mississippi River is the point to which the authorities are di 
recting their attention. On that river many battles must be fought 
and heavy risks incurred, before any impression can be made on 
the enemy, all of which could be avoided by using the Tennessee 
River. This river is navigable for medium-class boats to the foot 
of Muscle Shoals in Alabama, and is opened to navigation all the 
year, while the distance is but two hundred and fifty miles by the 
river from Paducah, on the Ohio. The Tennessee offers many ad 
vantages over the Mississippi. We should avoid the almost im 
pregnable batteries of the enemy, which cannot be taken without 
great danger and great risk of life to our forces, from the fact that 
our forces, if crippled, would fall a prey to the enemy by being 
swept by the current to him, and away from the relief of our 
friends. But even should we succeed, still we have only begun 
the war, for we shall then have to fight the country from whence 
the enemy derives his supplies. 

Now, an advance up the Tennessee River would avoid this 
danger; for, if our boats were crippled, they would drop back 
with the current and escape capture. 

But a still greater advantage would be its tendency to cut the 

enemy s lines in two, by reaching the Memphis and Charleston rail 
road, threatening Memphis, which lies one hundred miles due 
west, and no defensible point between ; also Nashville, only ninety 
miles northeast, and Florence and Tuscumbia in North Alabama, 
forty miles east. A movement in this direction would do more 
to relieve our friends in Kentucky, and inspire the loyal hearts in 
East Tennessee, than the possession of the whole of the Missis 
sippi River. If well executed, it would cause the evacuation of 
all those formidable fortifications on which the rebels ground their 
hopes for success ; and in the event bf our fleet attacking Mobile, 
the presence of our troops in the northern part of Alabama, 
would be material aid to the fleet. 

Again, the aid our forces would receive from the loyal men in 
Tennessee would enable them soon to crush the last traitor in that 
region, and the separation of the two extremes would do more than 
one hundred battles for the Union cause. 

The Tennessee river is crossed by the Memphis and Louisville 
railroad, and the Memphis and Nashville railroad. At Hamburg 
the river makes the big bend on the east, touching the northeast 
corner of Mississippi, entering the northwest corner of Alabama, 
forming an arc to the south, entering the State of Tennessee at 
the northeast corner of Alabama, and if it does not touch the 
northwest corner of Georgia, comes very near it. It is but eight 
miles from Hamburg to the Memphis and Charleston railroad, 
which goes through Tuscumbia, only two miles from the river, 
which it crosses at Decatur, thirty miles above, intersecting with 
the Nashville and Chattanooga road at Stephenson. The Ten 
nessee never has less than three feet to Hamburg, on the " shoal- 
est " bar, and during the fall, winter and spring months, there is 
always water for the largest boats that are used on the Mississippi 
river. It follows from the above facts, that in making the Missis 
sippi the key to the war in the West, or rather in overlooking the 
Tennessee river, the subject is not understood by the superiors in 

Being a civilian and above all, a woman, and knowing the preju 
dice existing against advice from such quarters, Miss Carroll, 
with self-sacrificing, patriotic spirit, refrained from signing her 
name to this plan when she sent it in to the War Department, 
though her letters of the same tenor, previously written to Hon. 
Mr. Bates and Col. Scott, bore her signature. 

The events of the Tennessee campaign proved exactly in ac 
cordance with Miss Carroll s predictions. The enemy s lines were 
cut in two, formidable fortifications were evacuated, and more 
was done for the Union "than one hundred battles" would have 
brought about. 

Judge Evans, having critically examined all the plans of gener- 

als, and every official document published by the War Department, 
bearing upon this point, and also every history written upon the 
war, finds that until Miss Carroll submitted her plan to the gov 
ernment, the idea of the Tennessee River as the true line of 
invasion had not occurred to any military mind. 

Col. Scott possessing a knowledge of the railroad facilities and 
connections of the South, unequaled perhaps by any other man 
in the country at that time, at once saw the vital importance and 
power of Miss Carroll s plan. He declared it to be the first clear 
solution of the difficult problem, and he was soon sent west by 
the War Department to assist in carrying it out in detail. 

His opinion of it is very clearly expressed in the following letter 
which he addressed to the Chairman of the Senate Military Com 
mittee, Hon. Jacob M. Howard, when after the close of the war, 
Miss Carroll memorialized the Government, to which she had 
been of such eminent service, for a pension. 


Hon. Jacob M. Howard, United States Senate : 

"On or about the 3oth of November, 1861, Miss Carroll, as 
stated in her memorial, called on me as Assistant Secretary of 
War, and suggested the propriety of abandoning the expedition 
which was then preparing to descend the Mississippi river, and to 
adopt instead, the Tennessee river, and handed to me the plan of 
the campaign as appended to her memorial, which plan I sub 
mitted to the Secretary of War, and its general ideas were 
adopted. On my return from the south-west in 1862, I informed 
Miss Carroll, as she states in her memorial, that through the 
adoption of this plan, the country had been saved millions, and 
that it entitled her to the kind consideration of Congress. 


The capture of Fort Henry was the first result of Miss Carroll s 
plan. With its fall, the enemy s center was pierced, the decisive 
point gained. 

Previous to this rebellion but fifteen decisive battles in the 
world s history had taken place, battles upon which the fate of 
nations depended and which had changed the course of the 
world s history. The capture of Fort Henry, the first fruit of 
Anna Ella Carroll s strategic brain was the sixteenth and most 


memorable of such battles. It was not the fate of our nation 
alone which was at stake, but liberty itself; the future of all 
mankind depended upon the results of our civil war. 

At the commencement of the Tennessee Campaign it required 
$2,000,000 each day to support the army in the field, and Hon. 
Mr. Dawes, in a speech in the House while showing the vast ex 
pense to which the country was put, declared it was impossible for 
the United States to meet this state of things sixty days longer, 
that an ignominious peace was upon the country and at its very 

Sixty days more of such warfare would not only have brought 
financial ruin but would also have induced foreign intervention. 
England and France were watching our struggle in hopes of our 
destruction, and a foreign war was imminent. Such was the 
condition of things at the time Miss Carroll s plan was adopted. 
The fall of Fort Henry opened the navigation of the Tennessee 
river. Its capture was soon followed by the evacuation of 
Columbus and Bowling Green. Fort Donelson was given up and 
its rebel garrison of 14,000 troops marched out as prisoners of 
war. Hope sprang up in the hearts of the people, and General 
Grant s name was heard for the first time. Pittsburgh Landing 
and Corinth soon followed the fate of the preceeding forts. 
President Lincoln declared the victory at Fort Henry to be of 
the utmost importance. North and South its influence was 
alike felt. Gen. Beauregard was himself conscious that this 
campaign sealed the fate of the "Southern Confederacy." 

The author of the plan of the Tennessee Campaign being then 
unknown, it was attributed to many different persons. A debate 
as to its origin took place in the House of Representatives Feb. 
24, 1862, and in the Senate March i3th, the same year. By some 
it was ascribed to Lincoln himself ; by others to the Secretary of 
War. Dr. Draper in his "History of the Civil War," ascribes it 
to Gen. Halleck. Boynton in the " History of the Navy," gives 
Commodore Foote credit of the plan. Lossing s "Civil War/ 
credits it to the combined wisdom of Grant, Halleck and Foote. 
Badeon s "History of the Civil War," credits Gen. C. F. Smith. 
Abbott s " Civil War," credits Gen. Fremont. 

The success of the Tennessee campaign rendered foreign 
intervention impossible and taught their mistake to those enemies 


who were anxiously watching for our country s downfall. Missouri 
was kept in the Union by its means, Tennessee and Kentucky were 
restored, the National armies were enabled to push to the gulf 
States and secure possession of all the great rivers and routes of 
internal communication through the heart of the Confederate 

As the result of this campaign, President Lincoln on the loth 
of April, 1862, issued the following proclamation : 

" It has pleased Almighty God to vouchsafe signal victories to 
the land and naval forces engaged in suppressing an internal 
rebellion ; and at the same time to avert from our country the 
damages of foreign intervention and invasion." 

Hon. Benjamin F. Wade, who during the war was Chairman of 
the Committee on the conduct of the War, and during the last pe 
riod of his services, after the assassination of President Lincoln had 
elevated Andrew Johnson to the Presidency, was acting Vice-Pres 
ident and President of the Senate, was a friend of Miss Carroll. 
He addressed the following letter to her in 1869, just before the 
close of his last Congressional session : 

WASHINGTON, March i, 1869. 

Miss CARROLL : I cannot take leave of my public life without 
expressing my deep sense of your services to the country during 
the whole period of our National troubles. Although a citizen of 
a State almost unanimously disloyal and deeply sympathizing with 
secession, especially the wealthy and aristocratic class of her 
people, to which you belonged, yet, in the midst of such sur 
roundings, you emancipated your own slaves at a great sacrifice of 
personal interest, and with your powerful pen defended the cause 
of the Union and loyalty as ably and effectively as it has ever 
yet been defended. 

From my position on the Committee on the conduct of the 
War I know that some of the most successful expeditions of the 
war were suggested by you, among which I might instance the 
expedition up the Tennessee river. 

The powerful support you gave Governor Hicks during the 
darkest hour of your State s history, prompted him to take and 
maintain the stand he did, and thereby saved your State from 
secession and consequent ruin. 

All those things, as well as your unremitted labors in the cause 
of reconstruction, I doubt not, are well known and remembered 
by the members of Congress at that period. 

I also well know in what high estimation your services were 
held by President Lincoln ; and I cannot leave this subject with- 


out sincerely hoping that the Government may yet confer on 
you some token of acknowledgment for all these services and 

Very sincerely, your friend, 

B. F. WADE. 

Hon. Cassius M. Clay, who was U. S. Minister to St. Peters 
burg during the crisis of our civil war, after returning home and 
becoming informed of Miss Carroll s extraordinary work, wrote 
her at different times in relation to that work. In a letter written 
Jan 24, 1873, from White Hall, Madison Co., Ky., he said : " I 
trust that whilst land, and rank, and pensions are allowed Union 
men, that the Union women who risked life and health, as well in 
the sanitary and in other departments, should share those similar 

Be that as it may, your case stands out unique for you tow 
ered above all our generals in military genius, and it would be 
a shame upon our country if you were not honored with the 
gratitude of all, and solid pecuniary reward. 

C. M. CLAY." 

Hon. Orestes H. Browning of Illinois, Senator during the war, 
and in confidential relations with President Lincoln and Secretary 
Stanton, wrote Miss Carroll in 1873, from Quincy, 111., saying: 

"During the progress of the war of the rebellion, from 1861 to 
1865, I had frequent conversations with President Lincoln and 
Secretary Stanton in regard to the active and efficient part you 
had taken in behalf of the country, in all of which they ex 
pressed their admiration and gratitude for the patriotic and 
valuable services you had rendered the cause of the Union, and 
the hope that you would be adequately compensated by Congress." 

On the 28th of February, 1872, three years after his leaving 
public life, Judge Wade addressed .the following letter : 

To the Chairman of the Military Committee of the United States 
Senate : 

DEAR SIR. I have been requested to make a brief statement 
of what I can recollect concerning the claim of Miss Carroll, now 
before Congress. From my position as Chairman of the Com 
mittee on the conduct of the War, it came to my knowledge that 
the expedition that was preparing, under the special direction of 
President Lincoln, to descend the Mississippi river, was aban 
doned, and the Tennessee expedition was adopted by the Gov 
ernment in pursuance of information and a plan presented to the 
Secretary of War, I think in the latter part of November, 1861, 
by Miss Carroll. A copy of this plan was put in my hands im 
mediately after the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson. With the 


knowledge of its author I interrogated witnesses before the 
committee to ascertain how far military men were cognizant of 
the fact. Subsequently President Lincoln informed me that the 
merit of this plan was due to Miss Carroll ; that the transfer of 
the armies from Cairo and the northern part of Kentucky to the 
Memphis and Charleston railroad was her conception and was 
afterwards carried out generally, and very much in detail, ac 
cording to her suggestions. Secretary Stanton also conversed 
with me on the matter, and fully recognized Miss Carroll s 
service to the Union in the organization of this campaign. In 
deed, both Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Stanton, the latter only a few 
weeks before his death, expressed to me their high appreciation 
of this service, and all the other services she was enabled to 
render the country by her influence and ability as a writer, and 
they both expressed the wish that the Government would reward 
her liberally for the same, in which wish I most fully concur. 

B. F. WADE. 

[Extracts from letters written by B.F.Wade to Miss Carroll at different periods.] 

JEFFERSON, OHIO, August 14, 1876. 

"I rejoice that you are to have the testimony in your case 
published by Congress, as I cannot but believf that Congress, 
when they have the facts properly before them will be shamed 
into doing you justice, though late. 

" I fully appreciate and deeply regret the injustice done you 
as though the case were my own. The country almost in her 
last extremity was saved by your sagacity and unremitted labor ; 
indeed your services were so great that it is hard to make the 
world believe it. Many have been most generously rewarded for 
services having no more proportion to yours than a mole hill to 
a mountain and that all this great work should be brought about 
by a woman is inconceivable to vulgar minds, but I hope and 
believe that justice will triumph at last. 

B. F. WADE." 

JEFFERSON, OHIO, Sept. 9, 1874. 

" This Congress may be mean enough to refuse to remunerate 
you for your services, but thank Heaven they cannot deprive you 
of the honor and consciousness of having done greater and more 
efficient services for the country in the time of her greatest peril 
than any other person in the Republic, and a knowledge of this 
cannot long be suppressed, though I do not underrate the mighty 
powers that may be arrayed against you. 

B. F. WADE." 


JEFFERSON, O., October 3, 1876. 

" The truth is, your services were so great that they cannot be 
comprehended by the ordinary capacity of our public men, and 
then again your services were of such a character that they 
threw a shadow over the reputation of some of our would be 
great men. No doubt great pains has been taken in the business 
of trying to defeat you : but it has been an article of faith with 
me that truth and justice must ultimately triumph. 

Ever yours truly, 

B. F. WADE." 

[Letter from Reverdy Johnson.] 

My Dear Miss Carroll : I remember very well that you were 
the first to advise the campaign on the Tennessee River in Novem 
ber, 1861, this I have never heard doubted, and the great events 
which followed it demonstrated the value of your suggestions. 
That you will be recognized by our Government sooner or later 
I cannot doubt. Sincerely your friend, 


[Extract from Robert J. Walker s letter on Miss Carroll s "War Power Paper."] 

WASHINGTON, May 22, 1862. 

I regret I am without influence to serve you in the War 
Department, but Mr. Lincoln with whom I have conversed, has 
I know the highest appreciation of your services in this connec 

[Extract of a letter from Gerritt Smith.] 

" Our country will be deeply dishonored if you, its wise and 
faithful and grandly useful servant, shall be left unpaid." 

With great regard, your friend, 
Peterboro, N. Y., May, 1874. GERRITT SMITH. 

[Extract of a letter from Salmon P. Chase, 1861.] 

" You have my grateful thanks for the great and patriotic 
services you have rendered and are still rendering the country 
in this crisis." 

I have the honor to be your friend and servant, 


Prior to the preparation of this tract I addressed a letter to 
Col. Scott, saying that any information he could give me in re- 


lation to Miss Carroll s claims would be most gladly received. 
I sent this letter to Miss Thompson of Philadelphia, that she 
might hand it herself to Col. Scott, who is a personal friend of 
her own. Miss Thompson unfortunately lost my letter, but herself 
wrote Col. Scott and obtained the following reply : 

No. 233 South Fourth St., ) 
PHILADELPHIA, March 29, 1880. (" 

My Dear Miss Thompson: I have your letter of March 25th 
in regard to Miss Carroll s matter, and beg to say in reply that I 
do not know whether the old papers are on file in the War De 
partment or not, I presume the only way to ascertain would be to 
apply to the Department direct. 

I have done all that I feel I can do in this matter, having given 
my evidence before the Committee in the most concise and direct 
form possible. 

I hope that Congress will do something for Miss Carroll, but 
with their present economical habits, I doubt very much whether 
they will. 

Hoping that the committee in charge of the matter may have 
success. I am, very truly yours 


Miss M. A. THOMPSON, 114 N. nth St. 


Anna Ella Carroll is the daughter of Thomas King Carroll, for 
merly Governor of Maryland, and one of the best men that State 
ever produced. By descent and blood she belongs to one of the 
oldest families in the State, her ancestors having founded the city 
of Baltimore. Charles Carroll of Carrolton, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, was of the same family. 

When the war of the rebellion broke out, Maryland was claim 
ed by the South, and for a long time seemed wavering in the 
balance. But although Miss Carroll was the resident of a slave 
State, a member of that class which generally proved disloyal, 
and although she herself was a slave owner, she resolutely op 
posed all suggestions of dismemberment,, not only freeing her 
slaves without compulsion, but exerting her powerful influence 
against secession. Governor Hicks, of whose family she was an 
intimate friend, listened to her advice, enforced by both word 


and pen, and despite the syren wooing of the South, in its 

plaint of 

. " Maryland, my Maryland," 

the influence of Miss Carroll preserved that State to the Union. 

Her services to the Government did not begin nor end with 
the plan of the Tennessee campaign. A powerful writer she 
early in the war prepared several strong papers, making many 
points clear upon which the nation was in doubt. In the sum 
mer of 1 86 1, she published a reply to the speech of Senator 
Breckenridge delivered during the July session of Congress. 
A large edition was circulated by the War Department as a war 
measure. The Government then desired her to write other 
pamphlets in aid of the Union, and particularly upon the power 
of the Government in the conduct of the war. Under this re 
quest she wrote a pamphlet entitled the " War Powers of the 
Government," which was accepted and its publication ordered in 
December, 1861. Her third pamphlet was entitled " The Rela 
tions of the Revolted Citizens to the National Government," and 
was written to meet the expressed views of President Lincoln, to 
whom it was directly submitted and approved by him. 

Since the close of the war, Miss Carroll spends her summers 
at her homestead in Maryland, but each winter is to be found in 
Washington where she is still engaged in the prosecution of her 
claims for a pension. In a conversation with Mr. Wade, Vice- 
President Wilson speaking of Miss Carroll s great services once 
said, " that the American people would cheerfully pay by contri 
bution boxes at cross-roads and Post-offices of the country," 
provided they were made aware of the fact. 

But during the war, all officials of the government were op 
posed to having it made known that the government was pro 
ceeding according to the advice and under the plan of a civilian, 
and that civilian a woman. Judge Wade at one time said, " I 
have sometimes reproached myself that I had not made known 
the author when they were discussing the resolution in Congress 
to find out, but Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Stanton were opposed to its 
being known that the armies were moving under the plan of a 
civilian, directed by the President as Commander-in-Chief. Mr. . 
Lincoln said it was that which made him hesitate to inaugurate 
the movement against the opinion of the military commanders 
and he did not wish to risk the effect it might have upon the 
armies if they found out some outside party had originated the 


campaign; that he wanted the country and the armies to believe 
they were doing the whole business of saving the country." 

Judge Evans conversed with Col. Scott upon this subject, Scott 
urging the absolute necessity of Miss Carroll s making no claim 
to the campaign while the struggle continued. 

In the plenitude of her self-sacrificing patriotism, Miss Carroll 
remained obscurely in the back-ground, though the country was 
indebted to her for its salvation. While thousands of men 
have in the past years received thanks and rewards from the 
country for work done under her plan, she is still to-day, fifteen 
years after the close of the war left to struggle for recognition 
from that country, which is indebted to her for its very life. 
Had she not been a woman would she have met this injustice ? 


Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

5Jan 53SS 


JAN 08 1993 
DEC 08 1992 

MAY 30 1954 



MAR 2 7 67 -2 fin/! 


LD 21-100m-7, 52(A2528sl6)476