(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Who's who in China; containing the pictures and biographies of China's best known political, financial, business and professional men"

iiirmi^^fir>:;0'^'-^V': 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 

A « a + 



Containing the 


pictures i 


ind biograph 


ies of China's 


best known political, financial. 


business 




and professional men. 




ffl 


^ 


a 


I^ 


)Y 


^ 


M 


ic 


9 


^ 


^ 


cjj 


18§ 


A 


* 


m 




Third 


Edition 





Published by 

THE CHINA WEEKLY REVIEW 

SHANGHAI. 

i 

'^T m n ^ n !^ m ^! m ± 




P5 



PREFACE 

This **Who's Who in China" does not contain the biographies 
of all of the best men in the Republic of China, but it does attempt 
to give the names of most of the hest known men in the country. 

Persons familiar with China, upon glancing through this book 
will say, "How did he get in?" Others will say, "Why is so-and-so 
not included in a book of this kind?" We answer, both of these 
questions by saying that we have done the best we could, knowing 
that there may be names in the book which might have been 
omitted and that there are many persons in China whose names 
should have been included. 

Practically all of these pictures and biographies have appeared 
originally in the pages of the China Weekly Review during the 
past eight years. We have tried to bring them all up to date, but 
this has constituted a serious problem in view of the frequent 
internal political changes which always play havoc with biographical 
sketches. The civil war of September, 1924, forced the revision of 
many of the biographies and delayed for several months the 
publication of this volume. 

"How did the publishers of the China Weekly Review 
obtain these biographical sketches?" This is a question 
which many will ask and a reply is in order: First, most of those 
in official life were obtained from records in Peking and in this 
connection we desire to acknowledge the services of Messrs. H. K. 
Tong and William Stephen Wong of Peking and Tientsin. Then 
about two years ago we advertised in the pages of the China 
Weekly Review asking our readers to recommend the names of 
persons in various parts of the country whose biographies should 
be included in a book of this kind. This brought in a considerable 
number, especially men who had achieved reputation in business 
and the professions. 

Then about a year ago, owing to the attention which has been 
devoted to the Returned Students and their place in modern 
Chinese Society, it was suggested that we include the names 
and biographies of the alumni of Tsing Hua College of Pe- 
king, otherwise the names and information regarding the 
Chinese men and women who have studied in the United States 
through the school in Peking which was established as a result of 
the lirst remission of the American share of the China Boxer In- 
demnity. This list was compiled by Mr. C. T. Tsai, Alumni 
Secretary through the courtesy of Dr. Y. S. Tsao, President of the 
institution. 

We invite suggestions for the further improvement of this 
book, especially corrections which should be made in the biograph- 
ical sketches appearing in this volume, as well as the names of 
persons which should be included in the next edition. 

M. C. Powell, EiHtor 
The China Weekly Review 
Shanghai, June 1, 1925. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



















i 








1 District, 
an school, 
ie a clerk 
gistrate in 
energy to 
the inven- 
mown. In 
established 
ing Cham- 
1 was held 
nittee. In 
irty which 
government 
affairs of 
al Chamber 
unding of 
id its first 






Mr. . 
in 1868. 
As a you 
of the Ha 
the Metro 
the study 
tion of P 
1905 Mr. 
by the B( 
ber of Cc 
in Nankin 
October 
toured Ja 
called a 
the count 
of Comme 
the Natio 


Mr. An Ti-sheng 

\n Ti-sheng was born at Hsiangho Hsien, Metropolitai 
He received his Chinese education in the old Confuci 
th he showed artistic ability. In 1902 Mr. An was ma 
nlin Academy and in 1904 he became an expectant ma 
politan District. He constantly devoted his time and 
of the fine arts and among his accomplishments was 
ao Hua silver enamel ware which has become well 1 
An became a director of the Commercial Exhibit Hall 
)ard of Commerce and was made a member of the Pek 
mmerce. In the summer of 1910 a National Exhibitioi 
g, and Mr. An was a member of the Executive comr 
1911 he was a member of the Chinese Industrial Pj 
pan. In 1912, the year of the Republic, the Peking g 
national conference to discuss industrial and commercia 
ry. Mr. An as representative of the Metropolitan Gener 
rce attended the Conference which resulted in the fo 
nal Association of the Chambers ot Commerce which he 





WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



conference in Peking in 1914. Mr. An represented the Metropolitan Gen- 
eral Chamber of Commerce and was subsequently elected general secretary 
of the Association's Peking office. Since the establishment of the Direc- 
torate General of the Metropolitan Municipal Affairs, after the establishment 
of the Republic, Mr. An served as a member of the committee on 
Municipal Affairs. In 1914 he held the position of vice-president of the 
Panama Exhibition Commission in Peking. In February 1918 Mr. An was 
elected president of the Metropolitan General Chamber of Commerce and 
in August 1918 he was elected a member of the Shun-Chih (Metropolitan 
and Chihli) Provincial Assembly. In December 1918 he played an important 
part in the association for the Promotion of Internal Peace, being Chief- 
in-Charge of the General Affairs Department. In May 1919 when public 
sentiment against the pro-Japanese Anfu party developed into a nation- 
wide boycott of Japanese goods, Mr. An acted as leader of the industrial 
and commercial interests participating. In 1922 he represented the Me- 
tropolitan District at the Customs Tariff Revision Conference in Shanghai. 
The Pao Hua silver enamel ware invented by Mr. An has largely supplanted 
Japanese cloisonne in Peking. At present Japanese cloisonne has pratically 
disappeared from the Peking market. There are now in Peking a large 
number ot Poa Hua Silver Enamel Ware factories most of which were 
founded by the inventor himself. President Feng Kuo-chang conferred 
upon Mr. An the Fifth Order of Chiaho in May 1919; President Hsu Shih- 
chang. the Fourth Order of Chiaho in January 1920 and the Third Order 
of Chiaho in February 1922; and President Li Yuan-hung, the Second Order 
of Chiaho in March 1923. Besides, Mr. An has received the Second Class 
Medal of the Ministry of Finance which he has helped to tide oVer many 
financial crises in Peking. He also has received the Second Class Medal of 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce to which department he has 
been an Advisor for several years; and that of the Second Class Medal of 
the Ministry of Justice to which he has rendered assistance in the im- 
provement of industrial establishments in connection with the Peking pen- 
itentiaries. Mr. An held the presidency of the Metropolitan General Chamber 
of Commerce for a time, being relieved in 1924. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Cha Liang-Chao 

3£ H ^IJ ^ li ft 
(Ch'a Liang-chao) 

Mr. Cha Liang-chao was born in March 1896 in Tientsin, Chihli pro- 
vince, his family being from Hainien, Chekiang. He was graduated from 
Nankai Middle School, Tientsin, 1913, and from Tsing Hua Ck)llege, Peking, 
1917. He wa^ a teacher in Tsing Hua Middle School Dept., 1917-18. Mr. 
Cha went to the U. S. A. in August 1918, and attended Grinnell College, 
Iowa, 1918-1919, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 1919-1920 where he 
received the Degree, Ph. B., and the University of Chicago in June 1920. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



He lectured for the Ciiautauqua Association, Swarthmore, Pa. on Chinese 
subjects in the summer of 1920. Mr. Cha attended Teachers' College, Co- 
lumbia University, N. Y., in 1920-1922, and received the degree of M. A. 
from Columbia University June 1921, doing research work in the Department 
of Educational Administration. He was chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of the Chinese Students' Committee on the Washington Conference, 
during the Conference. Mr. Cha returned to China in July 1922 and became 
professor of education in Peking Teachers College (Peking National Normal 
University since July 1923) in August 1922. He was elected by the Faculty 
Council as acting dean of studies in May 1923; Lecturer in the Summ,er 
School of Nankai University Tientsin, 1923; and Director of the Institute 
for the Application of Scientific Measurement on Education, under the au- 
spices of the National Association for the Advancement of Education, Aug- 
ust, 1923, with Dr. Wm. A. MoOall and Dr. T. T. Liew as lecturers. In 
January 1924 Mr. Cha was appointed by President Fan Yuan-Lien as Pro- 
fessor of Education and Dean of Studies by President Fan Yuan-Lien as 
Professor of Education and Dean of Studies Association for the Advance- 
ment of Education and author of the "Survey Educational Tests," published 
by the Commercial Press, 1928. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chai Chao-Iin 

Mr. Chai Chao lin was born at Tientsin in 1870. He studied Civil 
Engineering at the Pei Yang Military School, Tientsin and graduated in 
1892 having specialized in railway engineering. From 1892 to 1896 Mr. 
Chai was a student engineer in charge of the new construction and main- 
tenance works of the Peking-Mukden Railway. From 1897 to 1899 Mr. 
Chai was engaged in surveying and supervising the construction works of 
the Lu-Pao Railway which later became the Lu Kou Chiao-Paoting Fu 
section of the Peking-Hankow Railway. From 1900 to 1905 Mr. Chai was 
assistant engineer supervising the construction and maintenance of way 
and structure of the Peking-Mukden Railway outside the Great Wall. From 
190() to 1916 Mr. Chai was first assistant, then resident and last dist/rict 
engineer of the Peking- Suiyuan Line which was then being constructed. 
As district engineer, Mr. Chai held the concurrent position of locomotive 
superintendent. Mr. Chai became chief engineer of the Peking-Suiyuan 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Line in 1917 and in 1920 when the two railways, the Peking- Suiyuan and 
the Peking-Hankow, were amalgamated, Mr. Chai became chief engineer of 
the Peking-Hankow-Suiyuan Railway. He retained the position of chief 
engineer of the Peking-Suiyuan Railway when it was later separated from 
the Peking-Hankow after the downfall of the Anfu Party which had been 
responsible for the aforementioned amalgamation. In 1921 Mr. Chai was 
appointed consulting engineer of the Peking-Suiyuan Railway. From De- 
cember 1921 to date, Mr. Chai has been holding the position of chief en- 
gineer of the Northern Section of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway. Mr. Chai 
has been awarded by the Chinese government the Third Order of Chai Ho. 
His present address is Engineering Department, Tientsin-Pukow Adminis- 
tration, Tientsin. 



oe 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chang Ch'a 

Mr. Chang Cha was born at Nantungchow, Kiangsu, in 1848. He was 
educated in the old Chinese school. He took a great interest in business 
when the value of commerce to the nation was not so well aj^preciatied as 
at the present time. He devoted his early life to business and his leisure to 
scholastic work. At the age of thirty, he served under- General Wu Chang- 
ching in the capacity of secretary. Upon General Wu's recommendation, 
he was promoted by the Peking government to the rank of Magistrate, and 
was ordered to proceed to Kiangii Province as a candidate. In Kiangsi he 
held two offices. He was appointed first as Magistrate for Yi-Chun and 
later as magistrate for Kwei-Chi. When his brother Mr. Chang Chien or- 
ganized the present Dah San cotton mill, he was requested to come back to 
assist in this important undertaking. Since then he has been devoting his 
whole energy to the development of Nantungchow industrially as well as 
educationally. When Revolution broke out in 1911 the civil and military 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



oiRcers of Nantungchow were at a loss to handle the situation. The people 
elected Mr. Chang Cha as the provisionary civil governor of the city and 
also as commander-in-chief to maintain order. Mr. Chang Cha handled the 
situation with great success, and Nantungchow passed the storm without 
loss of life or property. When the country was re-united under one Re- 
publican government, Mr. Chang Cha at once relinquished the posts as com- 
mander-in-chief and civil governor and again retired to industrial life. 
Whenever Mr. Chang Chien puts forward a new industry, or establishes an 
educational or a charitable institution, Mr. Chang Cha always lends a helpful 
hand. Hence every organization and every institution claims his service. 
Mr. Chang Cha has been vice-president of the following mills, Dah San 
Cotton Mil, Chung Ming Dah San Cotton Mill, Kwong Sung Oil Mill and Fu 
Sing Flour Mill; President of the following schools: Textile College, Com- 
mercial School and Medical School; Managing-Director of the following 
land reclamation companies: Dah Yu Tsing Co., Da Yu Co., Da La Co., 
Dah Fong Co., and Dah Kong Co., Honorable President of the Girl's Normal 
School, Nantung; President of the Foundling Hospital at Fan Cha; Presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce Tung Chung Hai Tai and Farmiers' 
Union Association; President of Nantung Shore Protection Institute and 
Nantung Conservancy Society. Several of these he is still holding. In 
February 1920 Mr. Chang was awarded by the government the Second Order 
of Chiaho decoration. In March 1923 he was given the Fifth Order of 
merit. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chang Nieh-yun 
(Chang Chi-ying) 



Mr. Chang Nieh-yun was born at Hsin An Hsien, Kuangtimg Province, 
in 1877. He studied English in Eongkong in the Governnijent Central 
School (later the Victoria College) and finished his preparatory education 
in the Shanghai Public School under the principalship of the late Mr. 
George Lanning. Mr. Chang then studied law in the Soochow University 
Law School and graduated in the first class of 1899. After serving m 
the Chinese Customs Service and as Translator in one of the foreign 
consulates, the Shanghai Mercury, Universal Gazetjte, Sin Wan Pao and 
other papers, in 1902. In 1907 Mr. Chang assisted Dr. W. London 
and China Syndicate in 1902. In 1907 Mr. Chang assisted Dr. W. 
W. Yen as sub-editor of the Nanfangpao. From, 1907 he served as 
interpreter and translator to Mr. W. V. Drummsond, Law Officer to the 



10 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Viceroy at Nanking and Taotai of Shanghai. He was admitted to practise 
in the Mixed Court as a Chinese attorney in 1919. For 11 years he served 
in the Chinese Company, Shanghai Volunteer Corps, as Translator Sergeant. 
Some of his present positions include: Advisor to the Chinese General 
Chamber of Commerce, Shangahi, Chinese Red Cross Society, Chapei Bureau 
of Works and Taxes, Anti-Kidnapping Society, and Commissioner of For- 
eign Affairs, Kiangsu, Councillor to General Lu Yung-hsiang of Chekiang 
and Chief Commander of the Chinese Navy, Director of Foreign Affairs, 
Chapei Fire Brigades Association; Member of Chinese Education Committee 
and General Educational Commisaion, 1922, Shanghai Municipal Council. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



11 




Mr. Chang Kia-ngau 

(Chang Chia-ao) 

Mr. Chang Kia-ngau was born at Paoshan Hsien, Kiangsu, in 1888. At 
the age of thirteen, he studied in the School of Foreign Languages which 
was located in the Kiangnan Arsenal and in which, Lu Chwang-isiang, 
Chinese Minister to Switzerland and Liu Ching-jen, former Chinese Minis- 
ter to Russia, also received their education. After studying three years 
in that institution Mr. Chang entered the Politique School in Peking, 
where he studied for one year and a half. In recognition of his scholar- 
ship, he was sent by the school to Japan to pursue a higher education. 



12 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



While in Japan Mr. Chang studied economics at the Keio University. After 
the completion of his courses, he returned to China aud joined the Board 
of CommunicationiS as a senior clerk. When the first revolution broke 
out, he went to Shanghai and actively participated in politics. In the 
first year of the Republic, Mr. Chang was appointed Secretary to the 
Military Governor of Chekiang, late General Chu Jui. When the formal 
Parliament met before the second revolution in 1913, he was made the 
Chief Secretary of the Senate. After the dissolution of Parliament by the 
late President Yuan Shih-kai, Mr. Chang joined the Bank of China. Subse- 
quently he was appointed vice-manager of the Shanghai branch. Since 
1914 Mr. Chang has been in the service of that Bank. During the third 
revolution against the monarchical movement of Yuan Shih-kai in 1915, 
the government proposed the suspension of specie payment. Mr. Chang 
strongly objected to the proposal, but as he could not change the decision 
of the government in this matter, he redeemed all the Shanghai notes of 
the Bank of China with silver dollars. In the autumn of 1917 when Liang 
Ghi-ohiao was appointed Minister of Finance, he invited Mr. Chang to 
become the vice-governor of the Bank of China, which offer he accepted. 
He was elected a member of the board of directors by the shareholders at 
the beginning of 1919, and was also re-appointed vice-governor. In June 
1922 he was again re^-elected Vice-Governor of the Bank, which position 
he is still holding. In July 1922, he was appointed a member of all China 
Finance Discussion Commission. Mr. Chang is a Chinese scholar, like his 
brother, Carson Chang. He knows English and Japanese and speaks some 
French . 



..•jc 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



13 




Dr. Carson Chang 

(Chang Chia-shen) 

Dr. Carson Chang was born at Chia-ting Hsien, Kiangsu Province, in 
1886. His native district is Pao-shan Hsien, Kiangsu. Dr. Chang receiv- 
ed his middle school education from the Institute of Modern Languages, 
Shangliai. He went to Japan in 1904 and graduated from the Waseda 
University, Tokyo, in 1909, having taken the Political Science Course. Upon 
returning to China, he attended the Imperial Examination for returned 
students and was subsequently made a Han Lin Compiler or Compiler of the 
College o f Literature, a degree equivalent to Ph. D. After the outbreak 
of the first revolution in October 1911, Dr. Chang resigned from the Han 
Lin post and became editor-in-chief of the Peking-Tientsin Shih Pao, 
Tientsin. In 1912, immediately after the establishment of the Republic, 



14 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Dr. Chang was appointed a secretary of the Ministry of Industry and Com- 
merce. From this position he soon resigned to become the editor of the 
Young Nation and also assistant editor of the Justice of which Mr. 
Liang Chi-chiao was the founder and chief editor. In 1913 Dr. Chang 
went to Germany and there studied in Berlin University. He spent almost 
a year in England doing research work in Political Science before he re- 
turned to China in April 1916. Subsequently, Dr. Chang was appointed 
chief of the Foreign Affairs Bureau at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. He 
had not held this position long when he became general manager of the 
China Times, Shanghai. The present work of Dr. Chang is that of a 
writer. He has been elected president of the Institute of Self- Government 
in Kiangsu. He is planning to take a trip in October this year to America 
to engage several professors for his Institute. Dr. Chang' is the author of 
many standard works among which are Draft for the Chinese Constitu- 
tion, Social Democracy in New Germany and many philosophical articles. 
His present address is No. 37, Moulmein Road, Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



15 




Mr. Chang Chien 

Mr. Chang Chien was born at Tungchow, Kiangsu, in 1853. After 
years of hard labor, he has succeeded in transforming his wretched birth- 
place into a modern industrial town where there are no beggars. Mr. 
Chang is a noted Hanlin scholar (Optimus) but in the Ching dynasty- 
declined to take any executive office, except that of Adviser to the 
Board of Commerce in 1904, in order to devote his energies to the 
fostering of industry and commerce. When Chang Chih-tung was viceroy 
of Liang Kiang Provinces, he appointed Chang Chien to organize a spin- 
ning and weaving mill, the capitalization of which was Tls. 1,000,000. This 
mission was carried out with success. Later he organized the Fuhsin 



16 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Flour Mill, the Kwangsheng Oil Mill, the Tse-sheng Iron Works, the Foush- 
eng Silk Filature, and the Ta Teh Steam Navigation Co. The next mission 
with which Chang Chien was entrusted by Viceroy Chang Chih-tung was 
the organization of four mills at Wuchang, namely, one weaving mill, one 
spinning mill, one hemp mill and one silk filature. It was undertaken 
with equal success. Other industrial projects he initiated were the coloniza- 
tion of Manchuria by poor people, the Huai River conservancy, and the 
formation of Sino-American industrial enterprises. In 1908 Chang Chien 
was elected chairman of the Kiangsu Provincial Assembly. In October of 
1911 when the first revolution broke out in Wuchang, he was elected 
Kiangsu governor. At the same time Yuan Shih-kai, the late President, who 
was then Imperial Prime Minister, appointed him Pacification Commissioner 
for Kiangsu. Shortly afterwards, he was appointed Imperial Minister of 
Commerce. Upon the establishment of the Provisional Republican govern- 
ment in Nanking after the revolution Chang Chien was made the first 
Minister of Industry and ordered to control salt affairs concurrently. On 
March 13, 1913, Mr. Chang was appointed director-General of the Huai River 
Conservancy Board. In September 1913, when Hsiung Hsi -lin organized 
the Cabinet, Mr. Chang was appointed Minister of Industry and Commerce 
and concurrently Minister of Agriculture and Forestry. In December 
he founded the National Consei'vancy Bureau and was appointed 
concurrently to hold the position of its Director-General. In the same 
month the two aformentioned ministries were amalgamated and became the 
Ministei of Agriculture and Commerce with Mr. Chang as Mi'nister. 
The late President Yuan after havinj^ made himself Emperor of China, 
made Ching Chien one of his "Four Friends of Sung shan." Since his retire- 
ment from Peking, Mr. Chang devotel himself to commercial enter- 
prises at Nantungchow and conservancy works in his native proVince. 
In May 1919 the Peking government upon the recommendation of Mr. 
Chang approved of the organization of the Kiangsu Grand Canal Improve- 
ment Board and appointed him the Director-General; in January 1920. 
Mr. Chang was conferred the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decora- 
tion. In November he was appointed director general of the Woosung Port 
Construction Board; December 1921, Mr. Chang was given the director- 
generalship of the Bureau for the Construction of a New Canal for the 
Five Seacoast District; January 1922, Mr. Chang was appointed vice- 
president of the Yangtsu River Commission; June 1922, he was elected 
president of the Bank of Communications. Mr. Chang wields great influence 
among the literati and modern Chinese merchants and industrial leaders. 
The First Order of Merit by Presidei-t Li Yuan-hung in recognition of 
his services rendered in connection with conservancy work. In January 
1923 Mr. Chang was appointed by the Peking government a member of the 
Educational Sinking Funds Commission. Mr. Chang is holding all these 
positions given to him since May 1919. Mr. Chang wields great influence 
among the literati as well as among modern Chinese merchants and industrial 
leaders. He is also the author of many standard works on Chinese 
literature and arts. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



17 




Mr. Tsang Chan-vung 

(Chang Chien-wen) 

Mr. Tsang Chang-vung, was born in Shaohing, Chekiang, in 1869. He 
gained his early education as well as his later legal education through 
private study. After serving in different capacities Mr. Tsang was in 1920 
made assistant magistrate of the International Mixed Court, and has since 
that time become well known with the members of the Shanghai Bar — Am- 
erican, British, Chinese, French, Russian, Japanese, and Portuguese, who 
have had the privilege of practising before him. Mr. Tsang's name has 
been enrolled in the Cabinet office as an official awaiting appointment and 
he has received from the government the Fourth Class Order of the Chiaho 
(Excellent Crop) and the Sixth Class Order of the Wenfu (Literary Tiger). 



18 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chang Ch'ih-t'an 

a i£ ?i ^ 35 ffl 

Mr. Chang Chih-t'an was born in 1S83 at T'engjen Hsien in the pro- 
vince of Chihli. He received a thorough education in Chinese literature and 
classics and when he was a mere youth was successful in government examin- 
ations during the Ching regime and got the degree of Chu-jen, equivalent 
to the present college degree of Master of Arts ir. 1904. Mr. Chang started 
his official career as a senior secretary of the Board of the Army. Later 
he was transferred to the Board of Civil Affairs and held the same ranTjj. 
When the former President Hsu Shih-Chang was Viceroy of the Three 
Eastern Provinces, he made Mr. Chang his special attache. Subsequently, 
Viceroy Hsu promoted Mr. Chang to be the councillor of the Military 
Training Bureau of the Three Eastern Provinces. Mr. Chang was given the 
concurrent position of the Co-Director of the Frontier Affairs Bureau of 
the Kirin Province. After the establishment of the Republic in 1911, Mr. 
Chang became secretary to President Yuan Shih-kai. In July 1914 he was 
appointed Taoyin of the Shuiyuan Frontier which position he did not hold 
long before he was recalled to Peking where he was appointed secretary 
of the Cabinet which was then headed by Marshal Tuan. In January 1917, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 19 



Mr. Chang was appointed Vice-Minister of the Interior. Subsequently he 
was ordered to take charge of the affairs of the same Ministry. While 
serving as Vice-Minister of the Interior he was concurrently holding the 
position of the director-general of the Metropolitan Municipal Bureau. 
In March 1918 when Marshal Tuan was appointed the Prime Minister 
for the third time, Mr. Chang was chosen to head the secretariat of the 
Cabinet. In the War Participation oiTice of which Marshal Tuan was the 
director-general, Mr. Chang was the Chief of the Confidential Documents 
Bureau. In January 1919 Mr. Chang was appointed acting Vice-Minister 
of War with rank of Lt. General. In December he was decorated with the First 
with rank of Lt. General. In December he was decorated with the First 
Class Tashou Chiaho Order. In January he was given the Fourth Order 
of Merit for war work. After the downfall of the Anfu Club and upon 
reinstitution of General Chin Yun-peng m August, 1920, General Chang was 
appointed Director General of Metropo]ita?i Municipal administration. At 
this time he was also Acting Minister of the Interior. In October 1920 
he was appointed Director General of Grovernment Famine Relief Bureau, 
and had conferred on him the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decora- 
tion. In May 1921 General Chang was transferred from the position of Acting 
Minister of the Interior to that of Mini&ter of CommlinicatioTis upon the 
reorganization of General Chin's Cabinet, leaving that post in December 
1921. Since 1922, General Chang has been interested in the construction 
of the street car system in Peking and is now president of the Peking 
Tram Car Company. In June 1924, General Chang was appointed vice- 
president of the Financial Reorganization Commission. 



^ 



20 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 





Mr. Changr Kin-fan 

Chang Ching-fan 

Mr. Chang King-fan was born at Taipuhsien, Kwantung province in 
1890 and received his primary education at home. Later he studied at the 
International Institute at Shanghai, the Anglo-Chinese College, Foochowi, 
and at Tsinghua College, Peking. He then entered the Colorado School of 
Mines, Boulder, Colorado, U. S. A., where he studied from 1911 to 1913. 
Later he studied at Lehigh University in 1913-15, where he was graduated 
with the degree of M. E. in 1915. He also took short courses at the Arm- 
our Institute of Technology. He returned to China in 1915 and was 
appointed surveyor and engineer of the Light Railway Company, Chao- 
chow. In 1915-16; assistant engineer. Kiutung Antimony Company, Yi- 
yang, Hunan, 1916-17 — ; engineering contractor for samt company, 1917; 
and prospecting engineer for private interests along the Yangtsze River, 
1918. Since 1918 he has been serving as engineer-in-chief and manager 
of the mines of the Liuchang Coal Mining and Railroad Company', 
Ohinwangtao. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



21 




General Chang Ching-hui 

General Chang Ching-hui was born in 1873 at Tanan, Fengtien, and 
brought up at a place which was thickly infested with a class of highway- 
men called "Hunghutzu." The environment much influenced him and he 
soon became a leader commanding thousands of those persons. He showed 
bravery in many encounters with government troops. Later, together 
with General Chang Tso-lin, General Chang surrendered to the authorities 
and became an officer of the government army. While serving in the Man- 
churian Army, he enrolled himself as a student of the Military Academy 



22 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



where he graduated after a few years. The first military rank he received 
froin the Republican government was that of a Colonel in the Infantry. 
He was commander of the 105fh Regiment of the 27\th Division, and later 
became that of the 28th Cavalry Regiment. Shortly afterwards he was 
transferred to the command of the 27th Cavalry Regiment. Third Class 
Chiaho and Fourth Class Paokuang Chiaho were the decorations conferred 
upon General Chang in the first few years of the Republic. In 1916 he 
was made a Major General. In December 1917 General Chang was promoted 
to be the Commander of the Fifty-Third Brigade of the Twenfcy-SeJventh 
Division. A year later he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General. 
In 1919 General Chang was promoted to be Commander of the Twenty- 
Seventh Division. In December 1919 he was conferred the Fifth Order of 
Merit. In June 1920 he was appointed Commanding General of the Chinese 
Eastern Railway Defence Force. 

Upon the outbreak of the Chihli-Anfu War, General Chang sent the 
First Division of the Fengtien Provincial Army which was under his com- 
mand into Shanhaikuan to side with Chibli. In September 1920, when the 
war was over, he was appointed by the Peking government the Tutung 
(Civil & Military Governor) of Charhar and concurrently the Commander 
of the 16th Division of the National Anny and was also given the brevet 
rank of Full General. A month later, he was given the Third Order of 
Merit. In November 1920 General Chang was appointed Commander-in-Chief 
of the Forces for the defence of Urga against the pending' attack by re- 
actionary Russians. Through his negligence Urga finally fell into the 
hands of the enemy. This however, did not affect his position and he held 
the Tutungship until May 1922 when he participated in the Chihli-Feng- 
tien conflct and was defeated by Wu Pei-fu's forces at Changsintien. 
Since that time. General Chang has been devoting himself to bring- 
ing the two contending parties to friendly terms again. In Aprii 1922, 
he was conferred the First Order of Wenfu. In February 1924, General 
Chang was appointed director-general of the National Highway Prepar- 
ation Bureau. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



23 




General Chang Ching-yao 

General Chang Ching-yao was born at Huo-Ch'iu Hsien, Anhui Pro- 
vince, in 1881. He attended the Military Academy at Paotingfu in his 
early youth. His military career before the first revolution in 1911 was 
none too promising. But after the establishment of the Republic of 
China, he was promoted from one rank to another with rapidity. 

From the position of a non-commissioned officer, General Chang was 
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General in August 1913 and given 
the brevet rank of Major-General in August 1914. During that period, he 
commanded the Second Regiment of the Eleventh Brigade of the Sixth 
Division. A little later he was promoted to be Commander of the Third 
Mixed Brigade, and at the same time was appointed Garrison Commander 



24 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



at Nanchang, Kiangsi. Shortly afterward he was promoted to be Commander 
of the Seventh Division. For a time he made his headquarters at Kai- 
feng, Honan, where he fought the White Wolf brigands. In 1917, Chang 
Hsun restored BLsuan Tung, former Manchu Emperor, to his throne. The 
Emperor appointed General Chang Ching-yao, Commander-in-chief of the 
Yang-tze Inland Navy. The first message of congratulations on the re- 
establishment of the monarchy was despatched by General Chang. Through 
the influence of Marshal Tuan, General Chang was allowed to retain his 
post after the failure of the Manchu restoration. In July 1917, General 
Chang was appointed Commissioner for the Extirpation of bandits at the 
boundary of Kiangsu, Anhwei, Shantung and Honan. In October 1917 he 
was appointed Tutung (Military and Civil Governor) of Charhar. Concur- 
rently he retained the Command of the Seventh Division. Upon the com- 
mencement of hostilities between North and South China, he was sent by 
the Peking government to Hunan as Comni,ander of the rear troops. Shortly 
afterwards, Changsha was lost to the South. General Wu Pei-fu's troops 
recaptured it but General Chang got the credit for this victory and was 
appointed Military Governor of Hunan. This unjust treatment of General 
Wu called forth much criticism from the people and was somewhat res- 
ponsible for the final withdrawal of General Wu's troops, from the Hunan 
front. As a result of the withdrawal of General Wu's troops, General Tan 
Ye-kai, southern Commander, advanced and expelled General Chang from 
Hunan in May 1920. General Chang became a refugee in a foreign 
concession at Hankow. He was officially removed from the Military Gover- 
norship of Hunan on June 29, 1920. He was pardoned in December 1923. 



«^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



25 




General Chang Fu-iai 



General Chang Fu-lai was born at Chiaho Hsien, Chihli province, in 
1871. He received a military education from a Military Academy in 
North China and started upon his militaiy career as a common soldier. 
He has been in Marshal Tsao Kun's camp for more than thirty years during 
which period he has been promoted through various ranks. His name was 
not very well known until November 1917 when he was appointed Com- 
mander of the Sixth Brigade of the Third Diviaion of the National Army, 



26 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Commander of the Fifth Brigade at that time being General Wu Pei-f u. 
At that time his military rank was Major General. In October 1919 Gen- 
eral Chang received the Fourth Class Paokaang Chiaho Decoiration. A 
year later he received the Second Class Chiaho Decoration. About the 
same time he was appointed the Commander of the Twenty-Fourth Division. 
In October 1921 General Chang was made a liioutonant General. In July 
1922 he was awarded the Chiangchun with an honorable title of the two 
words "Chin Wei." In October 1922 General Chang was appointed Com- 
missioner for Military Affairs in Honan Province to succeed former Tuchun 
General Feng Yu-hsiang who had been promoted to be the All China High 
Military Inspector following the abolition of the Tuchunship in Honan. 
General Chang is still commanding the Twenty Fourth Division. In 
November 1922 General Chang received from the Peking Government 
the Fourth Order of Merit and about the same time was decorated 
with the First Class Wenfu Order. In April 1923 General Chang was 
given the brevet rank of General. In March 1924, General Chang was re- 
moved from the command of the Twenty-fourth Division, when all military 
governors were removed from division commands. The following month 
he received a concurrent post as co-director of motor road construction 
in the northern provinces, of which General Wu Pei-fu was director-Gen- 
eral. In June 1924, General Chang was made a full General. He is still 
commissioner for military affairs of Honan. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



11 




Mr. Chang Fu-Yun 

Mr. Chang Fu-Yun was born in 1890 in Fu Shan Hsien, Shantung, and 
studied in the Shih Yi Academy, Chefoo, and in Tsing Hua College, Pek- 
ing. He waa graduated in 1914 from Harvard College with the degree of 
of A. B. GU7n laude ; in 1917 from the Harvard Law School with the degree 
of LL. B., and while in school was a member of the Diplomatic Club of 
Haivard University, and president of the Chinese Students Alliance in the 
U. S. A., 1917-1918. Upon his return to China he joined the Ministry of 
B^reign Affairs in 1918, and also served as lecturer in International Law 
in the Peking Government University. He was Secretary of the Chinese 



28 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



High Commission in Siberia, 1919-1920, and served as secretary to the 
Chinese Delegation to the Washington Conference 1921-22. Upon his re- 
turn he became director of the Marine Department of the Ministry of Com- 
munications, 1922-1923, in which capacity he advocated and took part in 
the drafting of marine laws for China. He has been President of the Un- 
iversity of Communications since 1923, and has received the 2nd Class Ta 
Shou Paokuang Chia Ho Decoration. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



29 




General Chang Hsi-yuan 

General Chang Hsi-yuan was born at Miyun Hsien, Metropolitan District 
of Peking in 1870. He attended school and graduated from the Shanhaikuan 
Military College. Under the Ching Regime, he served in the army 
through various ranks and for a time was Commander of the 58th Regiment 
of the Honan Provincial Army. Afterwards he was promoted to be Com- 
mander of the Twenty-Ninth Mixed Brigade. After the establishment of 
the Republic in 1912, General Chang was appointed Commander of the Ninth 
Division of the Honan Army. In December 1912 he was made a Lieutenant 



30 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



General, and subsequently was appointed Commander of the First Brigade 
of the metropolitan defence force. This position he held until December 
1917 when he was Commander of the Fourth Mixed Brigade of the National 
Army. At the same time he was appointed Defence Commissioner of 
Tung Kuan, of the boundary between Shensi and Honan. While at Tung 
Kuan, General Chang held concurrently the position of Assistant Command- 
er of the Forces for the extermination of brigands in Shensi and also 
that of commander of troops for the preservation of order in the far west 
district. In May 1922, after the defeat of the Fengtien Forces by Chihli 
Troops he was appointed Tutung, Civil and Military Commissioner of the 
Charhar Special Area to succeed General Chang Ching-hui, a Fengtien 
General. In September 1922 General Chang was created a Chiang-chun with 
the title of "Hsi Wei." In October of the same year he was awarded the 
Third Order of Merit. In April 1923 the First Class Wenfu Decoration 
was conferred upon General Chang, the highest civil honor he had held 
previously being the First Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration. General Chang 
was confirmed as Tutung of Charhar in July 1924. 



fe^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



31 




Mr. Ziangling Chang 

(Chang Hsiang-lin) 

Mr. Ziangling Chang was born at Shanghai in 1880. He received his 
early education at St. John's College of Shanghai and later went to 
America and studied for a short period at Columbia University. After 
graduation, Mr. Chang took up journalistic work at Shanghai. In 1913 
he joined the Peking Daily News, at that time the only English paper 



32 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



at Peking edited and managed by Chinese. Mr. Chang was connected 
with the News in the capacity 'of assistant editor for more than one year. 
In 1914 Mr. Chang joined the News and Translation Bureau of the 
Heiung Hsi-lin Cabinet and was in charge lof the foreign section. Later 
this Bureau was transferred to the Ministry »of Foreign Affairs and Mr. 
Chang was invited to continue his service which he did. For sometime 
he worked under Dr. Wellington Koo, at (that time Councillor of the Min- 
istry and Director of the Bureau. In the spring 1916 Mr. Chang returneid 
to China upon the death of his mother and later returned to the Translation 
Bureau of the Foreign Office. For a time he served as a member of the 
Commission for the Study of Politiical Affairs called by the late Presideoit 
Yuan Shih-kai. In 1917 Mr. Chang was appointed a Secretary of the 
Cabinet. During the next two years, he held various positions, among them 
being associate councillor of the Ministry of the Interior, secretary of the 
bureau for the Custody of Ememy Property, associate secretary of the 
Ministry of Communications, councillor of the Commission for the Reunifica- 
tion and Reorganization of China, member of the Commission for the Study 
of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet, member of the Diplomatic CommissiiOn 
during the World War, and member of the Famine Relief Burea\i. 
In March 1919 Mr. Chang was decorated with the Fourth Order of 
Wenfu. In June 1919 he ^vas conferred the F'ourth Order of Chiaho. In 
January 1920 he received the Third Order of Chiaho. In September 1920 
he was appointed assistant chief of the Foreign Affairs Investigating"' 
Bureau of Waichiaopu. In November 1920 he was appointed assistant dir- 
ector of the Translation Bureau, and acting director in 1921. In September 
1921 he was conferred the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In the same 
month he was appointed Secretary to the Chinese Delegation to the 
Washington Conference. In May 1922 Mr. Chang was conferred the Second 
Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In December 1922 he was appointed Consul- 
General at New York which position he is stiU holding. Mr. Chang is a 
Member of the American Society of International Law, Washington. D. C, 
of the Chinese Social and Political Science Association, and of the Chinese- 
American Association, Peking. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



33 




Mr. Chang Hsiang-wen 

Mr. Chang Hsiang-wen was born at Szuyang Hsien, Kiangsu Province, 
in 1866, and was a member of a very poor family. In his youth he studied 
the Chinese Literature and Classics, but did not distinguish himself in 
the competitive examinations under the Ching Regime. Later he took up 
the study of science and made himself an authority on the geograp'hy of 
China. For a period of twenty years he taught school while privately 
doing research work. During this time he published several books on 
Physical Geography and the Geographical History of China. Between 1905 
and 1911 Mr. Chang taught in several schools and colleges in Tientsin 
At that time two persons in China were considered authorities on Chinese 
Geography based on the modern method of study, one being Mr. Chang and 



34 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the other Mr. Pai Ya-yu, a revolutionist who was killed in 1911 at Lan- 
chow, Chihli. by General Wang Huai-ch'ing who was then commander of 
government troops stationed there. In 1908 Mr. Chang organized the 
Chinese Geographical Institution in Tientsin and was elected its President. 
Since its organization a monthly journal called "The Geographical Ma- 
gazine" has been published. After the establishment of the Republic, Mr. 
Chang was elected a member of the House of Represeoitatives of the First 
Parliament. When in January 1914 Parliament was dissolved by Yuan Shih- 
kai, Mr. Chang immediately started on an extensive expedition over the 
northwestern part of China. He discovered the original site of the Great 
Wall and located the tomb of Jenghiz Khan and wrote a series of articles on 
his discoveries and travel for the Journal of the Institution and other mag- 
azines. In June 1916 Mr. Chang returned to Peking when the old Parliament 
was reconvoked by President Li Yuan-hung. When it was for the second 
time dissolved in June 1917, Mr. Chang proceeded to Canton with other 
parliamentarians to establish the "Extraordinary Parliament" and join 
southern leaders. This gave him a chance to travel practically over all 
the Southwestern provinces. Since that time he has devoted most of his 
time to writing on various subjects, particularly on morals and religions. 
In June 1922 the old Parliament was for the third time reconvened 
by President Li Yuan-hung who had reassumed the office of Chief Execu- 
tive, and Mr. Chang again became an M.P. Mr. Chang strongly believes 
in Buddhist teachings and has been a vegetarian for many years. He is still 
writing for the Chinese Geographical Magazine and is the President of 
the Chinese Geographical Institution. 



*^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



35 




Mr. Chang Chien, Junior 

Mr. Chang Chien, Jr. was born at Chanlucheng, Nantungchow, He 
received his early education in the grammar school at Nantungchow. At 
the age of 17 he joined Tsingtao University. In 1917 he went to America 
and studied Commercial Science in the Arnhold Business College where he 
later graduated with the degree of B. C. S. Upon his return to China, Mr. 
Chang was elected a member of the Special Committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce, Nantungchow and chairman of Nantungchow College Faculty 
Union. He was then a Professor of the College. While in America Mr. 



36 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Chang was much interested in the question of foreign trade. After his 
return he began to organize Embroidery and Lace Works at Nantungchow 
with branch offices at Shanghai and New York. In 1919 Mr. Chang 
was elected president of the Administrative Board of Nantung Industrir/1 
Enterprises. Later he became president of the Huai Hai Industrial Bank. 
In June of the same year he was appointed concurrently the Secretary- in 
Chief of the Kiangsu Grand Canal Improvement Board. In November 1920 
Mr. Chang was appointed Secretary of the Woosung Port Construction 
Board. In August 1921, he was elected a member of the Kiangsu Provincial 
Assembly.' In July 1922, Mr. Chang was appointed by the Peking Govern- 
ment to study the industrial conditions in Europe, America and Japan. 
At the same time he was conferred the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. 
In January 1923, Mr. Chang was appointed expectant Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. In April 1923 he was conferred the 
Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho and in August, the Second Order of Wenfu. 
In September 1923, Mr. Chang left Shanghai with his staff for America on 
the Industrial Mission, returning in March 1924. In May 1924 he was ap- 
pointed Envoy Extra ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Chile. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



37 




General Changr Hsueh-liang 

m m%^mm 

General Chang Hsueh-liang was born at Hai-chen, Fengtien province, 
in 1898. He was given military training when he was a mere youth. He 
was among the first group of the graduates of the Military Training 
Academy of the Three Eastern Provinces. In July 1919, General Chang was 
appointed Commander of the Body Guards of the Tuchun of Fengtien, who 
was no other person than Marshal Chang Tso-lin, his father. In the same 
month he was made by the Peking government a colonel of National 
Artillery. In November 1919 he was awarded the Third Class Wenfu 
Decoration. In December 1919 he was promoted to become Commander, 
of the Second Battalion of the Body Guards Brigade. In May 1920, General 
Chang was appointed by President Hsu Shih-chang as his aide-de-camp. 
In .June 1920 he was appointed Commander of the aforementioned Body- 
Guards Brigade which was the Third Mixed Brigade of Fengtien. Upon the 



38 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



outbreak of the war between Chihli and Anhui factions, General Chang was 
ordered by his father to march Tii^ brlgnde into Shanhaikwan to side w'ith 
the Chihli forces. At Hsiao Chan, the place where the Pei Yang troops 
have been trained since Yuan Shih-kai's time, General Chang's men defeat- 
ed the Anhui ,troops commanded by General Lung Chi-Kuang. As the result 
of this defeat, several regiments of the noted Frontier Army surrendered 
to General Chang who took them to Mukden upon his return. In the 
autumn of 1920, the province of Kirin was much disturbed by banditry 
and General Chang was sent w*ith his troops to suppress it which he did 
in a short time. In October 1920 he was awarded by the Central govern- 
ment the Fifth Order of Merit. A month later he was made a Brigadier 
General. In March 1921 General Chang was awarded the Second Order 
of Wenfu. In October 1921, he was sent by his father to Japan to witness 
the autumn manoeuver. Upon his return, he introduced improvements in 
the Fengtien Army. While in Japan, he contributed funds for the support 
of the Chinesa students studying in that country. When the Chili-Fengtien 
war broke out in the spring of 1922, General Chang was commander of the 
Second Section of the East Wing. At Shaiha.ikwan, the Fengtien forces 
made an offensive attack upon the advancing Chihli forces. General Chang 
participating as commander of the front line defence. After the war. 
he was made commander of the Second Brigade of the Manchurian Army, 
and concurrently held the position of Chief-of-Stiff of the Manchurian 
Army Reorganization bureau, as well as being superintendent of the Mili- 
tary Training Academy and commandeer of pr.ovosts. These posts he still 
holds. In the war between Chihli and the Anfu-Fengtien party which 
broke out in September 1924, Mr. Chang as leader of the Fengtien First 
Army rendered exceptional service in the fighting in the vicinity of the 
Great Wall. Early in 1925 General Chang Hsuch-liang was sent by his 
father and the Provisional President Tuan Chi-jui to Shanghai, as a 
special delegate for purpose of assisting in the final reorganization and 
political affairs in lawer Yangtze valley. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



39 




Mr. Chang Hu 

iS » ^ fl? '^ 

Mr. Chang Hu was born at Haiaoshan Hsien, Chekiang Province, in 
1876. He was a Chu Jen or Provincial Graduate in the Ching Regime. Later 
he obtained the rank of Expectant Prefect, and was ordered to proceed 
to Fukien Province to "expect" appointment. Between 1902 and 1905 Mr. 
Chang took an active part in the management of educational and financial 
affairs of the province of Fukien. During this period he was principal 
of the Provincial High Normal School and also the proctor of the Provincial 
Treasurer. In 1906 Mr. Chang went to Manchuria to join Hsu Shih-chang, 
who was then Viceroy of Manchuria. At first he was appointed Section 
Chief of the Bui'eau of Manchurian Salt Affairs and later became Director- 
General of the Customs Administration for the Province of Kirin. Concur- 



40 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



rently he acted as Resident Director of the Bureau for the Reorganization 
of Financial Affairs of that Povince. In 1912 the First Year of the 
Republic Mr. Chang assisted Mr. Hsung Hsi-ling, who was then Minister of 
Finance, in taking over the control of the Board of Finance of the Nanking 
Provisional Government and in reorganizing the Board of Finance in Pek- 
ing. In September 1913 Mr. Chang was appointed Vice-Minister of Finance 
when Hsiung Hsi-ling was Prime Minister. In May 1914, when Hsu Shih- 
chang was appointed Kuo-Wu-Ching or Secretary of State — replacing the 
Premier — , Mr. Chang as Vice -Minister of Finance was appointed concur ently 
to held the position of director of the Salt Administration and of Chief 
Inspector of the Salt Inspectorate. In this capacity Mr. Chang in co- 
operation with Sir Richard Dane undertook the organization of the sub- 
offices of the Salt Inspectorate in the difference provinces. The result of 
the reorganization of the Salt Administration Was the increase of Salt 
revenue, for which Mr. Chang was conferred the Fourth Order of Merit. 
In June 1915 Mr. Chang was attacked by his political opponents who 
charged him with embezzlement. Mr. Chang was dismissed by a Presiden- 
tial Mandate from the finance posts and as a sign of degtiatiatfibn he 
was appointed a Taoying of the Szechuan Province. However before he 
could proceed to take up his 'new post, his arrest was ordered. Throiug'h 
the efforts of his foreign and Chinese friends, the case was dro'ppiO'd and 
he retired to private life in Tientsin. In December 1917 when China had 
joined the European War on the side of the Allies, Mr. Chang was ap- 
pointed Chief of the Labor Emigration Bureau of the Cabinet. 
In October 1918 Hsu Shih-chang became President. Two months later 
he appointed Mr. Chang to be Acting VIce-Minister of Finance. In Janu- 
ary 1919 Mr. Chang was appointed concurrently to hold the position of 
associate- director of Salt Administration and of Chief Inspector of the Salt 
Inspectorate. These positions he held until August 1920 when he was 
transferred to be Director of the Currency Administration. In December 
1920 he was conferred the First Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. 
In December 1921 Mr. Chang was appointed Minister of Finance under 
Liang Shih-i who became Prime Minister as nominee of Ch^ng Tso-lin. 
and also acted as Director- General of the Salt Administration and that of 
the Currency Administration. Marshal Wu Pei-fu opposed this Cabinet, 
particularly Liang, Chang and Yeh Kung-cho, the Minister of Communications. 
On May 5, 1922, Messrs. Liang Shih-i, Chang Hu and Yeh Kung-cho 
were ordered by a Presidential Mandate ti> be arrested for trial, when 
Chang Tso-lin was defeated by the Chihli forces. On February 5, 1923 
President Li Yuan-hung in a Mandate cancelled the said order of arrest in 
respect to Mr. Chang Hu, On August 14, 1923 Mr. Chang was appointed 
Acting Minister of Finance with the concurrent positions of Director-Gen- 
eral of the Salt Administration and that of the Currency Administration. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



41 




General Chang Huai-chih 

3S S ^ ^ ^ i£ 

General Chang Huai-chih was born at Tung-a Hsien, Shantung pro- 
vince, in 1860. He began his military career as Adjutant Aide-de-Camp 
to the late Yuan Shih-kai. In 1905 General Chang became Commander 
of the Defence Forces at Shanhaikuan. In 1908 he was sent to Japan to 
witness the Grand Manoeuver, Upon his return to China he joined the 
Peiyang First Division. After several promotions, he became Commander 
of the Shantung Fifth Division stationed at Tinafu. Shortly before the 
establishment of the Republic, his division was transferred to Tientsin. 
After the First Revolution, General Chang was appointed Defence Com- 
mision of Tientsin. Later he was transferred to be Defence Commissioner 
of Paotingfu, from which position hu resigned in the middle of 1914. In 
September 1915 General Chang was appointed Tutung of Charhar Special 



42 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Area. In May 1916 he was appoinfed Military Director of Shantung 
and two months later he became Tuchun of Shantung, and was also given 
the concurrent position of the Civil Governor of that province. In May 
1917 General Chang received the Second Order of Merit. In June 1917 
General Chang joined with Generals Ni of Anhui, Chang Tso-lin of Feng- 
tien, Tsao Kun of Chihli, and others in defending the position of Mars- 
hal Tuan Chi-jui against President Li Yuan-hung. This political issue 
finally resulted in the attempt by Chang Hsun to restore the old monarchy. 
When Marshal Tuan declared war against Chang Hsun, General Chang stood 
with the former and rendered valuable service by cutting off at Tsinan 
Chang Hsun's reinforcement from Anhui. In January 1919 General Chang 
was appointed Chief of General Staff which position he is still holding. 
In January 1920 he received the First Order of Merit. In October 1920 
he was awarded the First Order of Tashou Paokuang. In January 1922 
General Chang was made a full general. In October 1923 General Chang 
was made a Marshal with the Title "Fong Wei." 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



43 




Mr. H. L. Chang 

(Chang Hung-lien) 

Mr. Chang Hung-lieh was born at Ku Shih Hsien, Honan, in 1887. He 
began study at the age of seven under a private tutor and continued tiH 
he was grown when he took the old style examination. In 1906 he went 
to a private middle school in Kaifeng, later entering the Provincial Col- 
lege at the same place, where he finished the course four years later. In 
1921 Mr. Chang joined the Revolutionary Army which helped to make China 
a republic. He was elected a member of the Honan Assembly in 1912. 
He resigned to take the competitive examination for study in America. 
He was successful and went to America the following year. For two years 



• 



44 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



he studied at Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio, where he received his 
B. S. degree. He then studied at Oberlin. Next he went to the Universi- 
ty of Illinois where he received his B. A. degree in 1917 and his M. A. 
in 1918. In 1919 he returned to Chinai to help build up an educational 
system. Mr. G. H. Lee having resigned the presidency of the Government 
Preparatory School at Kaifeng to accept other work, Mr. Chang was in 
August 1919, elected to the office. In 1923 he was able to get the Honan 
Assembly to change the nature of the school into a university for the entire 
province. Chung Chow University is now its new name and Mr. Chang its 
President. Largely through his influence the school has been put on a per- 
manent basis of provincial taxation, a strong faculty has been selected of 
both Chinese and foreigners, and several modern buildings are now going 
up on a campus suited and plotted for the future expansion sure to come. 
In 1924 Mr. Chang wrote an important article on Chinese-Japanese Rela- 
tions which was published widely in America. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



45 




Mr. Chang I-lin 

H - H ^ ft t 

Mr. Chang I-lin was born at Soochow, Kiangsu Province, in 1865. 
When he was thirteen years old, he passed the Prefectural Examination 
and obtained the rank of "Salaried Licentiate." At the age of twenty he 
passed the Provincial Examination and became a Ohu Jen or "Provincial 
Graduate." 

Mr. Chang served, from that time on, for a number of years as pri- 
vate tutor to scholars from all over the country. He can count many 
prominent men as his former pupils. 

In 1899, theSSth Year of Emperor Kuang Hsu, the Imperial government 
held a special examination for high talented men. Mr. Chang was re- 
commended by the Kiangsu authorities to attend it. He passed the ex- 



46 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



amination with his name on the "Excellent Class" and was made an 
Expectant Magistrate. 

Mr. Chang's literary talent attracted the attention of Yuan Shih-kai 
who invited him to be his secretary when he became Viceroy of Chihli 
in 1902. By that time Mr. Chang was editor of the Peiyang Law Journal. 
Later he was promoted to be Viceroy Yuan's Chief Secretary. In that 
capacity he helped the reorganization of the Chihli educational system 
along modern lines. 

In 1907 Mr. Chang followed Yuan to Peking when the latter was 
appointed president of ^ the Board of Foreign Affairs and a Chun Chi Ta 
Ch'en (Lord of the Privy Council). Mr. Chang still served as Yuan's 
Secretary. In January 1909 Yuan Shih-kai was dismissed. During Yuan 
Shih-kai's exile from that time to December 1911, Mr. Chang served as 
secretary first to Governor of Chekiang and then to Governor of Kiangsu. 

When Yuan Shih-kai became President in 1912, Mr, Chang was ap- 
pointed Chief of the Secretariat of the President's Office. In May 1914 
Mr. Chang was appointed to hold concurrently the position of Chief of the 
Bureau of High Confidence in the Cabinet Office. 

In October 1915 Mr. Chang left the President Office as an expression 
of his disapproval when Yuan Shih-kai aspired to be emperor, and would 
not listen to his advice. However he was at the same time appointed 
Minister of Education. In April 1916 he resigned from that post and 
retired to private life. 

In November 1916, Feng Kuo-chang, who was then elected Vice- 
President invited Mr. Chang to be his Chief Secretary which office he 
accepted. When Feng became Acting President in August 1917, Mr. 
Chang became Chief Secretary of the President's Office again. He served 
in this position until August 1918 when Hsu Shih-chang was elected 
President by the "The Tuchun's Parliament." 

From that time on until May 1922 Mr. Chang was Advisor to Presid- 
ent Hsu Shih-chang. In August 1921 Mr. Chang was elected member of 
the Kiangsu Provincial Assembly. In November 1922 he was conferred the 
First Order of Tashou Paokuang Ghiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



47 



• 




' 












'^^^^^^^^^^^^- ^ '-'^''''lii 1 




Gene 
in 1867. 
he was a 
tung and 
he was a 
concurren 
the same 
was appo 
he was t 
March 1£ 
Governor 
Major Ge 
shih and i 
Chang an 
another c 


General Chang Kuang-chien 

ral Chang Kuang-chien was born at Hofei Hsien, Anhui Province, 
He was a mandarin in Ching Regime, and in November 1911 
)pointed Lieutenant Governor or Financial Commissioner of Shan- 
also Superintendent of the Government Granary. In January 1912 
ppointed acting Governor of Shantung and was ordered to hold 
tly the position of Provincial Commander-in-Chief. In March of 
year he was summoned to Peking and in December 1912 he 
inted Governor of the Metropolitan District. In September 1913 
ransferred to be Frontier Commissioner of Shensi and Kansu. In 
14 General Chang was appointed acting Mingchengchang (Civil 
) and Tutu (Military Commissioner) of Kansu and was made a 
neral. In May 1914 tha Mingchen-chang was changed into Hsunan- 
n June 1914 Tutu in to Chiang-chun. He therefore was Mingcheng 
d Chiangchun, directing military affairs of Kansu. In July 1916 
;hange of these title names was effected and General Chang was 





48 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



appointed Shengchang (Civil Governor) and Tuchun (Military Governor) of 
Kansu. In January 1920 General Chang received the First Class Tashou 
Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. In October he was awarded by the Presid- 
ent a "Sword of Eight Lions." In December he was removed by a 
Presidential Mandate from the Governorship of Kansu and created a 
Chiangchun with the honorable title of "Huan Wei." He left this post in 
the spring of 1921. In October 1921 General Chang was appointed Tutung 
(Civil and Military Administrator) of "Chinese Descendants under the 
Plain Yellow Banner," a unit of the Manchu Military Organization which 
position he is still holding. In October 1922 General Chang was awarded 
the Third Order of Merit and in January 1923 he was m'ide a Lieutenant 
General. In February 1924 he was made a Full General. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



49 




Mr. Chang Kuo-kan 

Mr. Chang Kuo-kan was born at P'u-ch'i Hsien, Hupei Province, in 
1873. Ho received a thorough education in Chinese, in 1903 he became a 
Chu jen or Provincial Graduate, through competitive examinations; He was 
a pupil of former President Hjsu Shih-chang. In the Ching time, Mr. 
Chang was an Expectant Taotai in Heilungkiang. Later he became a 
member of the Bureau for the Compilation of Constitutional Laws. From 
June 1911 to January 1912 Mr. Chang was assistant chief of the Statistics 
Bureau of the State Council or Cabinet. From May to October 1912, he 
was Chief of the Civil Service Bureau of the Cabinet. From October 
1912 to October 1913 he was Chief Secretary of the Cabinet. On May 15, 
1914 he was appointed Vice-Minister of the Interior, but on the 14th he 
resigned on account of mourning. In November 1914 Mr. Chang was ap- 



50 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



pointed T'san Cheng or Councillor of the T'sau Cheng Yuan (Yuan Shih- 
kai's State Advisory Council in place of the dissolved Parliament). He 
served in the Council until April 23, 1916 when he was appointed Minister 
of Education. On June 30, 1916 he was transferred to be Minister 
of Agriculture and Commerce and concurrently was Acting Minister of 
Justice. From these ministerships Mr. Chang was removed on July 31, 
1916 when he was appointed Civil Governor of Heilungkiang. However, 
he did not assume the new office and was officiaJlly relieved from the 
governor-ship on August 11. In November 1916 he became Chief Sec- 
retary of the Cabinet again. In July 1917, Mr. Chang was appointed 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce and concurrently Director-General 
of the National Conservancy Bureau. The latter position he soon resigned 
and the former position he held until November 1917., In January 1920 
Mr. Chang was conferred the Fourth Order of Merit. In February 1920 he 
was appointed Director-General of Hankow Port Construction Board. In 
October 1920, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Administrative Court 
in Peking. From June to August 1922 Mr. Chang was Minister of Agri- 
culture and Commerce and also acted for Tan Yen kai as Minister of the 
Interior. In November 1922 he was conferred the First Order of Wenfu. 
In January 1924 Mr. Chang was appointed Minister of Education in Sun 
Pao-chi's Cabinet. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



51 




Dr. L. N. Chang 



(Chang Li-ao) 

Dr. L. N. Chang, was born in Nanking in 1887. He received his 
education at St. John's University, Shanghai. While in school Dr. Chang 
was for some time editor of the St. John's Echo and the World's Chinese 
Students' Journal. In 1907 Dr. Chang went to America to pursue higher 
education on private support. He studied economics and philosophy at the 
University of Virginia, 1907-8. Later he studied law at Yale University, 
1909-11, and obtained the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of 
Laws in 1911. In 1910-11 he was editor of the Chinese Student's Month- 
ly. Upon his return to China in 1911, he was awarded the degree of Chih 



52 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Shih by the government. He was co-director of the International Institute 
at Shanghai, 1911-12. In 1912 Dr. Chang '.vent to Hankow to become co- 
editor of the Hankow Daily News, English editor. Later he entered upon 
on official career. He was for a time acting director of the Hupei Bur- 
eau of Foreign Affairs and at another time Acting High Procurator of the 
Hupei Procuratorate. While holding these positions he was also Legal 
Advisor to General Li Yuan-hung. For many years Dr. Chang has been 
practising law at Wuchang and Hankow. He has been legal advisor to the 
Hankow Special Administration District, ex-German Concession and also 
Councillor to General Wu Pei-fu. During the World War Dr. Chang was 
advisor to the Bureau for Sequestration of Enemy, later special Properties 
in Hupei. Dr. Chang was President of the Wuchang-Hankow Y.M.C.A, in 
1916 and again in 1918. In the latter year he was also chairma,n of fthe 
Hankow Chinese Volunteer Company. Dr. Chang's present address is 35 
Rue de Paris, Hankow. 



t^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



53 




Mr. Chang Lu-Ch'uan 
5S, @ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. Chang Lu-ch'uan was born at Huant'ai Hsien, Shantung Province, 
in 1880. He graduated from a High School in Shantung and the Agri- 
cultural School at Paoting. After graduation he joined an entsrprise for 
the colonization and cultivation of Fengtien Province. Subssquently he 
interested himself in an investigation into the agricultural conditions of 
several districts in North China. He also made a trip to Japan to inves- 
tigate the agricultural condition of that country. During the First Re- 
volution which resulted in the establishment of the Republic in 1912, Mr. 
Chang led an army and captured Kaomi and Chucheng, Shantung, which 
declared independence of the provincial authorities. After the abdication 
of the Manchus, he went to Tsinan, capital of Shantung, and rendered 



54 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



assistance in the organization of the Provisional Provincial Assembly of 
which he was subsequently elected a member. In April 1913 the First 
Parliament was inaugurated in Peking and Mr. Chang attended as a Senator 
from Shantung Province. IJe was a member of the Kuomingtang (People's 
Party) and was later elected chairman of Ithe Industrial Committee of the 
Senate. In that capacity he rendered valuable service in the adoption of 
phonetic simplification of the language and promotion of industrial educa- 
tion. Having prescribed the Kuomingtang as a seditious organization, the 
President Yuan Shih-kai unseated all members of the two Houses belong- 
ing to that Party in November 1913. Mr. Chang immediately retired to 
his native village and remained silent until October 1915 when Yuan Shih- 
kai launched his monarchical movement. Mr. Chang took an important 
part in the rebellion of the Republican troops at Choutsun and Weihsien, 
Shantung, against Yuan Shih-kai in May 1916. This movement had a strong 
effect on the decision subsequently taken by Yuan to revoke his scheme. 
During these trying times, Mr. Chang acted as the representative of the 
Shantung troops at the headquarters of the Republican Army in Shanghai. 
In August 1916 when Parliament was reconvened by the new President Li 
Yuan-hung, Mr. Chang again became a Senator. In June 1917 the Parlia- 
ment was for the second time dissolved, and Mr. Chang had to return 
home again, having declined offers of high positions by the militarists then 
ruling Peking. In October 1918 when Hsu Shih-chang became Presi- 
dent of China. Mr. Chang's attitude finally led to his being suspected of 
sympathy with the Southern Constitutionists. He finally accepted an in- 
vitation of the Constitutional Parliament and went to Canton. Upon his 
arrival at Canton, he was appointed Councillor of the Military government. 
At the same time he was invited by the parliamentarians to become Chief 
Secretary of the Two Houses. In June 1922 Mr. Chang returned to Peking 
with the old Parliament. Mr. Chang was awarded the Secooid Class Tashou 
Chiaho Decoration in October 1922. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



55 




Dr. Chang Po-ling. 

(Chang Pai-Iing) 

Dr. Chang Po-ling was born at Tientsin in April 1874.> He studied 
Chinese first under his father, a Chinese scholar, and then under private 
tutors. With this preparatory work at home, he went to the Peiyang 
Naval College, Tientsin, in 1888. After a stay of five years in that ins- 
titution, he graduated; Subsequently he joined the navy and served on 
a training ship for two years. After leaving the navy he taught at the 
home of Yen Hsiu, a famous Hanlin in the Ching Dynasty. His pupils 
included Mr. Yen's sons, nephews and relatives. Scane of them are now 
holding positions of importance anil influence. At the same time Dr. 
Chang taught at the home of Wang Kuei-chang, a well-known salt mer- 
chant. These two private schools which Dr. Chang conducted, having 
twenty students, were used as the foundation for the present Nankai Col- 
lege. In 1903, Dr. Chang went to Japan together with Yen Hsiu to study 



56 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Japanese educational system. Upon his return he started a high 
school in Mr. Yen's house by the combination of t hese two private schools. 
The high school began its carreer with seventy-three students. It had' a 
normal class of six students who studied and taught at the same time. 
Those who assisted Dr. Chang in the establishment of the school during 
that period were Mr. Yen and the late president Yiuan Shih-kad, who was 
then Viceroy of Chihli. In 1908, Dr. Chaug made a trip to America and 
Europe to study their educational system. Ho was away from China for 
seven months. Before his departure for foreign countries, he made a 
decision to become a Christian, and was baptised at Tientsin after his return. 
In August 1917, Dr. Chang went 1 3 America and spent a year and a 
half at Columbia Teachers' College where he 'specialized in education. 
Mr. Yen and Fan Yuen-lien, former Minister of Education^ joined him in 
America the following year. They returned togetiier to China at the end of 
1918. In the winter of 1918, Dr. Chang had the Nankai High School converted 
int) a college, which now has eighty students in the collegiate department 
and one thousand one hundred eighty .students in the middle school. He 
has been responsible for the pressnt growth 'of the college. General Li 
Shun, the late Military Governor of Kiangsu, shortly before his deaths 
gavi? a half million dollars to the new college. In the summer of 1919, 
St. John's University of Shanghai conferred upon Dr. Chang 'the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 



«je 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



57 




General Chang Shao-tseng 

.General Chang Shao-tseng was born at Tach'eng Hsien, Chihli pro- 
vince, in 1870. After having received preliminary education in a military- 
school in North China, he went to Japan and studied in the Military 
Officer's Academy where he graduated in Ostober 1901 as a member of 
the first group of Chines3 military studentfs from Japan. Upon his return 
to China, General Chang enlisted in the Army. In 1911 he was made Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Imperial 20th Division with headquarters at Hsin 
Ming Teng, Mukden. In October 1911, the Imperial Chin government ordered 
a great manoeuver to be held at Kaiping on the Peking Mukden Line. Six 
Divisions of the Imperial Army were to participate including General 
Chang's., His troops were given Lanchow, near Kaiping, for an encamp- 
ment. The revolution broke out ,at Wuc^liang on October 10, two days be- 
fore the beginning of the maneouver. An urgent order was issued to have 



58 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



larger portion of the ^sembled troops despatched t o the South to suppress 
the revolution. Before he was ordered to move, General Chang made the 
authorities in Peking to understand that he was in sympathy with the 
Revolutionists. He and two other general:?, late Wu Lu-chen and late Lan 
Tien-wei, who were then known as the "Three Heroes of North China," 
had been secretly working for the overthrow of the Manchu House. His 
position was weakened when Division Commander Wu iLu-chen was assas- 
sinated by Yuan Shih-kai's agent in his headquarters at Shahchiachuang, on 
the Peking-Hankow Line, in December 1911. In the Ijeginning of 1912, 
General Chang was appointed Pacification- Commissioner and sent to Shang- 
hai to expedite unification of South and North China- Ht3 was then the 
leader of the Progressive Party with headquarters at Tientsin. In April 
1912 Yuan Shih-kai appointed him Councillor. At the end of the year he 
was appointed Acting Chianchun of the Suiyuan Special Area. This, por- 
tion was substantiated to him in the Spring of 1913. A)boutf the samei 
time he was made a Lieutenant General with the brevet rank of Full 
General. In January 1914 General Chang was appointed concurrently the As- 
sistant Tutung of Kueihua Ch'eng, in the Suiyuan area. In April 1914 he 
became advisor to the President., In October 1916 he was appointed mili- 
tary Inspector General. In December 1917 General Chang was appointed a 
Chiangchun of the Chiangchun Fu with the honorable title of two words-: 
"Shu Wei." In Autumn of 1921, General Chang suggested the calling of a 
National Conference at Lushan for the discussion and settlement of civil 
and military affairs of the county. His suggestion had the strong support 
of General Wu Pei-fu who was said to be its real advocate. However, ow- 
ing to opposition it failed of realization. In June 1922, General Chang was 
appointed Civil Governor of Shensi. He did not assume office, because two 
months later he was appointed Acting Minister of War. In October 1922, 
he was conferred the Second Order of Merit. In November 1922, he was 
ordered concurrently to hold the post of President of the Commission for 
the Recovery of the Mongolian Front. General Chang's appointment as 
Premier was ratified by the Parliament in January 1921. As a Premier he 
held the portifolio of War and presidency • of the Commission for the Dis- 
cussion of Political Reorganization. Ir, February 1923 he was made a full 
General. In June 1923 he submitted his resignation from the Pi-emi'ership' 
and Ministership of War which was not officially accepted until January 
1924. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



59 




//•^ ,^ym'ii:.40^ '., - y "* ''^"-^S^i-VAe.'^ ^ > 



Mr. Chang Shou-Iing 



60 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mr. Chang Shou-ling was born at Changchow, Kiangsu in 1872. He 
is a literary man being a Metropolitan graduate of the Ching regime. 
When Mr. Chang was nineteen years ot age, he studied the question 
of finatices in the Chuchow Yamen of the Shantung Province. At the 
age of 26, Mr. Chang was appointed by the Governor of Shantung, Fu 
Kun, to take charge of financial affairs of the whob province. In 1895 Mr. 
Chang was transferred to Chihli and. served under Viceroys Wang Wen-shao, 
Jung-lu, Yuan Sshih-kai, Yang Shih-hsiang and Yu Lu successively for al- 
together twelve years. During that period he managed financial matters 
for Peiyang. In 1911, Mr. Chang was transferred by Chao Er-hsuan, then 
Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, to ba Director of the Fengtien 
Bureau for the management of Manchu affairs. Concurrently he held the 
positions of the head of the Provision and Taxation Bureau of the Three 
Eastern Provinces and of the Army Preparation Bureau. Upon the es- 
tablishment of the Republic, Mr. Chang was appointed chief secretary to the 
Tutuh or Military Governor of Fengtien. In September 1913, he was ap- 
pointed Chief of the Revenue Bureau of the Province of Kiangsu and also 
director of the Financial Department of the same Province. These posi- 
tions he held until February 1914, when he was appointed Viae-Minister 
of Finance while President Hsu Shih-chang was Secretary of State. He 
resigned this position in July 1915, but was not officially relieved of it 
until May 1916. When the late Feng Kuo-chang was President during 
1917-18, Mr. Chang was one of his High Advisors and was appointed 
Director-General of a Wine and Tobacco post. In October 1920 Mr. Chang 
was conferred the Second Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In Janu- 
ary 1922 he was conferred the First of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In April 
1922 Mr. Chang was ordered to assist in the organization of the proposed 
Wine and Tobacco Commercial Bank. Mr. Chang was one of the promoters 
of the Chinese-American Banking Corporation and is still a director of it. 



'J& 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



61 

















M^M«^^^MM«MmB|aBiM|M^^^BMM|^M|^MM^^H^^^^^^MW|^M| 








^^^^Ki^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m^°wz ^^imt 




























' MB^^^^^^^^^Ktf "^^J^K 








JsMflf^W^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 








... _--.-.#>?*»^«r&«^i-'fS2'^ 






G( 
in 187? 
Ching 


General Chang Tsai-yang 

56 IS ^ ^ Bt 10 
meral Chang Tsai-yang was born at Hsingchang, ChekiangP] 
. He was graduated from the Military College of Chekiang. 
Regime, he served in the army. After the establishment 


'ovince, 

In the 

of the 


I 



62 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Republic, General Chang was appointed Ck)mmander of the 50th Brigade of 
the National Army and subsequently was made Brigadier General. As a 
Brigade Commander, he was also the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence 
Force for Hangchow City. He was twice appointed Director General of 
the Opium Suppression Bureau of Chekiang. In 1913, General Chang was 
appointeed Defence Commissioner of the' ISiiiigpo-Shaohsin-Taichow district. 
In the beginning of 1915 he was transferred to act as Defence Commis- 
sioner of the Chiahsin-Huchow district of Chekiang. In June 1916 Gen- 
eral Chang was appointed Commander of the 25th Division, still holding 
the concurrent position of Defence Commissioner. About the same time 
he was made a Lieutenant General. In 1918 General Chang was appointed 
Commander of the Second Division of the Chekiang Provincial Army: dur- 
ing May-June 1919 he was Commander of the First Division of the same 
Army. In February 1920, General Chang was conferred the Fourth Order 
of Merit. In October 1922 he was given the Second Order of Tashou Pao- 
kuang Chiaho and was appointed Civil Governor of Chekiaoig, which posi- 
tion he is still holding. In February 1923 General Chang was given rank 
of full General. 



v^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



63 




Gneeral Chang Tso-hsians: 

General Chang Tso-hsiang was born at I-Hsien, Fengtien Province. 
In his youth he is reported to have led a life very much similar to that 
of Generals Chang Tso-lin and Chang Ching-hui, that is a leader of 
independent bands of soldiei;s. For several years however, General Chang 
has been a strong lieutenant of Marshal Chang Tso-lin. After he had 
surrendered to the authorities together with General Chang Tso-lin, 
General Chang became Commander of a Battalion of Patrol Forces first 
stationed at Hsin Ming Tun and later at Cheng Chia Tun and Tiao Nan. 
After the establishment of the Republic, General Chang was appointed 
Commander of the 27th Cavalry Regiment of the 27th Division. For a 
time he was commander of the 27th Artillery Regiment of the same Divi- 



64 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



sion. In December 1917 he was appointed Commander of the 54th Bri- 
gade of the 27th Division to succeed General Sun Lieh-cheng^ In Janu- 
ary 1918 he was made a Lieutenant General. In January 1919 he was ap- 
pointed to be concurrently the Chief of Staff to the High Inspecting Com- 
missioner of the Three Eastern Provinces. In May 1919 he was removed 
from the Commandership of the 54th Brigade and, in August 1919 was 
appointed Commander of the Twenty-Seventh Division to succeed General 
Sun Lieh-cheng was had became Tuchun of Heilungkiang. In January of 
1920 General Chang received the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho and 
in February 1920 he was awarded the Fifth Order of Merit and in October 
of the same year was given the Fourth Order of Merit. In December 1920 
he was removed from the position of Chief of Staff to Marshal Chang Tso- 
ling. In July 1921 General Chang, still commanding the 27th Division, re- 
ceived the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In April 1922 the 27th Divi- 
sion participated in the Chihli-Fengtien .fight between Wu Pei-fu and Chang 
Tso-ling which resulted in the defeat of the Fengtien troops. Since that 
time. Marshal Chang Tso-lin has declared his independence of Peking and 
his generals including Chang Tso-hsiang are receiving no orders from the 
Peking government but are serving under Marshal Chang Tso-lin for the 
preservation of peace and order in Manchuria. In April 1924 General Chang 
Tso-ling appointed General Chang Tso-hsiang to succeed General Sun Lien- 
cheng, who had died as Tuchun of Kirin. He has been also the assistant 
commander-in-chief of the Manchuria Forces for the Preservation of 
Peace. 



•Ji 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



65 




General Chang Tso-Iin 

General Chang Tso-lin was born at Haichen Hsien, Fengtien Province, 
in 1876. He received no education in his youth, but his bravery and 
initative distinguished him and signed him out to be a powerful leader 
among a class of outlaws known as Hungutzu. During the Russo-Japanese 
War General Chang fought on the side of Japan and rendered no smaJl 
service to the Mikadoi. In 1906 General Chang surrendered tD Chao Erh- 
hsun who was jthen the Tartar General of Mukden (Fengtien Chiangchtiin). 
A regime was immediately formed composed of his followars, with him- 
seli as Commanding Officer. A few years later he was promoted to be 
Commander of the Fengtien Defence Force in China in which capacity he 
rendered valuable service in the maintenence of peace and order through- 



66 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



out the Manchurian Province during the Revolution in 1911-12(w After 
the establishment of the Republic in 1912, General Chang was made a 
Lieutenant General and Commander of the Twenty-Seventh Division of 
the National Army. General Chang served Yuan Sha^kai faithfully, but 
when Yuan's monarchical movement was about to col|<i^e, he compell'eid 
General Tuan Chi-kuei, who Vfa& then Civil and Mililstiy Governor (Chi- 
angchun and Hsunanshih) of Fengtien, and supporter of the movement, to 
leave Fengtien. Asked why he refused to 'support Yuan, whom he had 
urged to assend the Throne, General Chang replied that he was pnly mak- 
ing a figure of speech when he asked Yuan to do so. -^^l 

On April 17, 1916 he was 'Ordered by Peking for the Chiang-chun 
of Fengtien. Two days later he got the appointment as Hsunanshih (Civil 
Governor) of Fengtien. On April 22, he was made a ChiangchuU; of Feng- 
tien with the special title of two words "Sheng Wu." On the 23rd he 
was appointed Acting Director-General of Military Affairs and coiietirrently 
to hold the position of Hsunanshih of Fengtien. 0,n July 6, 1916 General 
Chang became Tuchun and Shenglchang which were the new designations 
for Military and Civil Governors in place of Chiangcliun and I^suna^nshih 
respectively. General Chang assisted the former Prime Minister, General 
Tuan Chi-jui, in restoring the Republic for the second time in June 1917 
when it was (Overthrown by General Chang Bsun who attempted to restore 
the Ching Regime. In 1918 General Chang was appointed the High Ins- 
pecting Commissioner of fthe Three Eastern Provinces, still holding the 
positions of Military and Civil Governors of Fengtieii. In October 1919 
General Chang was conferred the^. First Order of Meriti. In January 1920 
he was made a Full General as recognition of service rend^3red in connec- 
tion with the Participation in the European War. In Febrijary 1920 he 
was conferred the First Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaha. During 1918- 
20, the government of North China ramained in the hands of a clique of 
Northern Militarists, presided over by Tuan Chi-juii. In July 1920 the 
Chihli and Fengtien Tuchuns took advantage of public hostility towards 
fche faction in power to force the matter to an issue. The dismissal of 
Hsu Shu-tseng from the Commandership" of the North-western Frontier De- 
fence Force and also from the position of North- Wtestern Colonization 
Commissioner was demanded by General \Vu Pei-fu and General Tsao-Kun, 
the High Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli, Shantung and Honan. The 
President yielded by issuing a Mandate on the 4th ordering the dismissal. 

Ae a result of the opposition of the "Tuchuns," Parliament and of 
the Anfu leaders, President Hsu on July 9, ordered Wu Pei-fu to be dis- 
missed from the Commandership of the Third Division to be deprived 
of all ranks and honors, and to be dealt with by law. Tsao Kun was 
also censured. These Generals accepted the challenge, and in co-operation 
with General Chang Tso-lin, undertook "to support the government" by the 
forcible removal of the Anfu Party. The power of the Anfu leaders 
collapsed after a few engagements in which the only real fighting was 
done by Wu Pei-fu's forces. On October 10, 1920 General Chang was 
made Shan Chiang-chun (Marshal) with the title of two words Chen Wei. 
Following a conference of Super-Tuchuns, Chang Tso-lin, Tsao Kun and 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 67 



Wang Chan-yuan, held at Tientsin and Peking, during April and May 1921, 
General Chang was appointed High Commissioner for Mongolia with full 
power to reconquer Urga which was then in the hands of Soviet Russians. 
During the latter part of 1921 General Chang again went to Peking from 
Manchuria ,to adjust matters to his own satisfaction, and the result of 
his visit was the installation of the Liang Shih-i Cabinet on December 
24, 1921. In March 1922 General Chang was awarded the First Order of 
Wenfu. During the winter 1921-22, a military and political coalition with 
General Chang as the leader was organized with the avowed purpose of 
eliminating Wu Pei-fu. The members of the coalition were the Manchurian 
military leaders, the Anfu leaders under Tuan Chi-jui, the Chiaotung fac- 
tion under Liang Shih-i, the Tuchuns of Honan, Anhui and Chekiang, and 
the Kuomingtang Party in the South under Sun Yat-sen. However this later 
met with failure as some of the members of the coalition lost their cour- 
age. The result of this invasion was a war in the vicinity of Tientsin and 
Peking. Fighting commenced on April 18, and lasted until May 4, when 
Chang's troops in the west of Peking had suffered heavy loss at the hands 
of Feng Yu-hsiang's 11th Division. The evacuation commenced at once 
and by noon of May 4. Chang's entire iorce was enroute for Mukden. 
On May 1, 1922, Presidential Mandates "were issued, dismissing General 
Chang from the position of Oivil and Milijtary gjovernors of Fengtien, 
abolishing the posts of High Inspecting Commissioner of the Three Eastern 
Provinces and of the High Commissioner for Mongolia, and ordering him to 
be dealt with by law. Ever since this defeat Manchuria under Genei'al 
Chang's ,rule has been independent of Peking with himself as the Command- 
er-in-Chief of the Forces for the Maintenance of Order and Peace in 
Manchuria. In September 1924 following the outbreak of the war in the 
lower Yangtse^ district between Chekiang and Kiangsu provinces, Marshal 
Chang Tso-lin, mobilized his forces for the purpose of assisting his assoc- 
iate Marshal Lu Yung-hsiang in the Yangtze area. Owing large;ly to the 
coup d'etat of General Feng Yu-heiang, in Peking, Marshal Chang was 
successful in defeating the leading power purporting the Peking govern- 
ment, having been responsible with General Feng Yu-hsiang in the return 
of Tuan Chi-jui to the presidency. 



•68 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chang Tsung-hsiang 

# ^ # ^ f t 5W 
Mr. Chang Chung-hsiang was born at Wusheng Hsien, Chekiang 
province, in 1897. He was brouglit up and given his education at his 
grandfather's home. The Chinese academic degree he held in the Ching Dy- 
nastywas "Ling Kung Sheng" or isalaried Senior Licentiate. He was one of 
the earliest Chinese students to study in Japan. In Japan Mr. Chang first 
studied at the First High School and then the Meiji University where he 
graduated in 1903 with the degree of LL.B. He later acted as interpreter 
of the late Wu Ju-lan. a very famous literati, when the latter in the capacity 
of the Dean of the Imperial University was visiting in Japan on a minsi-on 
to istudy educational conditions of that country. Upon his return to China 
following his graduation, Mr. Chang became teacher of the Institution of High 
Learning for Metropolitan graduates. In 1905 he assisted in the compila- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 69 



tion of Commercial Laws. In 1907 he was appointed junior secretary of 
the Board of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce. In 1906 Mr. Changi 
became Proctor of the Bureau of Laws and Regulations in the Boaird of 
the Interior. Subsequently he was appointed Co-Director of the Bureau 
of Comilations under the Office of Investigation and Oom.p|ilation of Con- 
stitutional Laws. During 19(E-10 Mr. Chang was Superintendent of Inner 
City Police of Peking. In June 1911 he was appointed assistant chief o^ 
the Laws Compilation Bureau of the Cabinet. This position he held until 
January 1912 when he retired. In April 1912 Mr. Chang was appointed 
by President Yuan Shih-kai to be Chief of the Law Comjpilation' Bureau 
of the Cabinet. In July 1912 he becam:e Chief Justice -of the Supreme 
Court. In January 1914 he became minister of Justice. In April 1914 he 
was ordered to act concurrently as Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. 
On June 30, 1916 Mr. Chang was appointed Chinese Minister to Japan. In April 
1919 he was granted permission by the President to return to Peking on/ 
a short leave of absence. During 1918-20 the government of North China 
remained in the hands of the Anfu Faction, with Tuan Chi-jui at the head 
of it. The government was able to retain office chiiefly as the result of a 
series of Japanese Loans, which were concluded regardless of public 
opinion. Public hostility to the government found expression on May 4, 
1919, when several pro-Japanese officials were attaoked by the students'. 
On June 10, Mr. Chang was officially relieved from the Tokyo post by a 
Presidential Mandate. In January 1920 he was Conferred the Fourth Order 
of Merit. 



^ 



70 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr.'^hang Tsung-yuan 

Mr. Chang Tsung-yuan was barn at Shanghai in 1876, although his 
native home is at Wuhsing Hsien, Chekiang Province. From 1898 to 1900 
he was a Istudent at Nanyang College. Upon graduation he went to Ame^ 
rica to study, arriving in January 1900. Mr. Chang prepared himself 
for college at Pomona College. In 1903 he entered the University of Cali- 
fornia where he studied Economics and Commerce and was graduated in 
1907 with the degree B, S. In July 1907 Mr. Chang returned to China 
and immediately became a member of the Board of Foreign Affairs. From 
1909 to 1911 he served as Preeident of the College of Finance, Peking. 
In June 1912 Mr. Chang was appointed Acting Vice-Minister of Finance and 
in August became Vice-Minister. In November 1912 he was appointed 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 71 



Financial Commissioner to London. In October 1913 Mr. Chang was ap- 
pointed Director of the Audit Department and in July 1914 he was appointed 
co-director-general of the currency administration.. He held this position 
until the office was abolished at the end of 1914. In Decembar 1917 Mr. 
Chang wai? appointed Hon. Member of the Commission for the Study of 
Financial Questions arising during the World War. In 1918 he was ap- 
pointed by the Ministry of Communications to the position of President of 
the Tangshan Engineering College which position he held until 1920 when 
he resigned. In March 1920 Mr. Chang received the Second Order of Tashou 
Chiaho. In May 1921 Mr. Chang became chairman of the Local Administra- 
tion Conference held in Peking and attended by delegates ftom all the 
Provinces and Special Areas. In September 1921 after the close of the 
conference he was a' warded the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho. 



72 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chang Yao-chiang 

(Chang Yao-h«iang) 

Mr. Chang Yao-chiang was born in Hankow in 1896 and studied first 
at Boone University. Ee graduated from Tsing Hua in 1915, went to Ame- 
rica in the sante year and studjied at Amherst OoUege a/id Columbia ITrii- 
versity, receiving his A. B. in 1918.^ He then (took post-graduate work 
in the Department of Psychology in the same University, received his A. 
M. in 1919. He returned to China in 1920 and was appointed professor of 
Peking Higher Normal College. He founded the Chinese Psychological 
Society in Nanking in 1921 and was elected the first president of the 
Society, and also editor of the Chinese Joutn'al of Psychology, a 150-pag«e 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 73 



quarterly, now drawing a circulation of 5,000 copies every issue. In that 
journal he published some of his original researches, such as "Chinese 
Vocabulary Test," "Chinese Information Test," "Chinese Superstitions," 
"Eccentricities of Past Chinese," "First Memories," "A Study of Emotion 
of Chinese New Poets," etc. He was appointed dean of the Department 
oi Education and Psychology of Peking Normal University in 1922, which 
post he is still holding. 



^ 



74 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chang Ying-fang. 

General Chang Ying-fang was born at Hengshui Hsien, Chihli Pro- 
vince, in 1889. He received his middle school education in the Tientsin 
Anglo-Chinese College and later joined the 20th Division of the Imperial 
Army when General Chang Shao-tseng was Commander-in-Chief. He at- 
tended the military training school attached to the Division. After the 
outbreak of the Revolution at Wuchang in October 1911, he went to Man- 
churia where he got together a large number of Hunghutzu and organiz- 
ed an army with the intention of attacking Peking from the North. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 75 



After the establishment of the Republic in 1912, President Yuan Shih- 
kai summoned General Chang to Peking, (jcneral Chang then voluntsered 
to lead an expedition into Mongolia which had declared its independence 
of Peking. However before the despatch of the expedition the Living 
Buddha Cheptsundampa sent representatives to Peking to re-establish 
friendly relations with the Central governmeiit. Subsequently General Chang 
declined all offers of position from President Yuan and retired to private 
life. When Yuan Shih-kai started his monarchical movement in August 
1915, General Chang went to Kueichow and joined General Yuan Tsu-ming, 
then Commander of a Division. Later he became Commander of a Brigade. 
In 1917 General Chang returned to the North and became Staff Officer to 
the 20th Division of the National Army.. In June 1922 he was asked to 
go to Shensi to reorganize the provincial police by General Chanjg Shao- 
tseng who had beenj appointed Civil Governor of that Province. Soon 
afterwards General Chang Shao-tseng was appointed Minister of War, when 
afterwards General Chang Shao-tseng was appointed Minister of War and 
Navy, and later was 'appointed Chief of the Military and Naval Audit Bureau. 
After assuming office, General Chang advocated the independence of military 
expenditures and incorporated his idea in a booklet entitled "Why Milit- 
ary Expenditures Should Be Independent." , This has been translated into 
English. The main idea of the plan is to nationalize all the provincial 
troo]^5 and to make the commissariat officers independent of the com- 
manders of the troops. In November 1922 General Chang was made a 
Brigadier General and at the same time received the Second Order of 
Wenfu> In January 1923 he was given the Second Order of Chiaho and 
the brevet rank of Lieutenant General. |[n February 1913 he received 
the Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho and in March 1923, the Second 
Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In April 1923 he was appointed a 
metober of the Commission for the Discussion of National Finances. In 
February 1924 he was removed from the post of Chief of the Military and 
Navy Audit Bureau. 



^ 



76 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



^^^^^^^^^^IV i^0^ jmI 


■ 


^^^^^■M -^ "m 


I^^^^^^^H 


^^^H 


^^^^^^H 


^^^^Bl ^^m 


^^^^H 


^^^^^^V ^ 


H 


mk 





Mr. Chang Ying-hua 

Mr. Chang Ying-hua was born at Hengshui Hsien, Chihli Provi^c,e, 
in 1886. He received his middle school education in the Tientsin Anglo- 
Chinese College. Later he went to England and studied in Manchester. 
He began his official career upon his return to China. In the first few years 
of the Republic, Mr. Chang served for a time as Consolation-Commissioner 
to the Three Eastern Provinces. Later after his return to Peking he be- 
came a professor of the Kuo Ming University. In 1918 Mr. Chang was 
appointed Inspector of the Chuannan District (at Tzeliuching) of the Sajt 



WHO'S WHO IN CHJNA 77 



Administration. In December that year he received the Fourth Order of 
Chiaho. In January 1919 Mr. Chang was ordered to act for the Salt Com- 
missioner of Szechuan and later was appointed to that position which he 
held for over two years. In January 1921 Mr. Chang received the Second 
Order of Chiaho. In June 1921 he resigned from the Szecl^uan post. In 
August of the same year he was appiointed Salt Conwni'ssiojier of H'otung 
(Shansi). This new positicm he held until January 1922 when he was ap- 
pointed Financial Commissioner of Kansu. In February 1922 Mr. Chang was 
appointed Deputy Director to the Kiangsu Government Bank. In June 1922 
he was appointed superintendent of the Soochow Customs. In August he 
was appointed Vice-Minister of Finance, and also as Chief of the Salt Ad- 
ministration and Inspector General of the Salt Inspectorate then he also 
acted avS Minister of Finance. In September he wtis transferred to become 
President of the Commission for the Study of China's Finance. In March 
1192.3 Mr. Chang was awarded the First Order of Wenfu. In the same month 
he was appointed Director-General of the Currency Administration. In May 
1923 he was appointed Acting Minister of Finance and Director General of 
Salt Administration which positions he held until July 10, 1923. 



7« 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Y. C. Chang 

m ):i ^^ mm 

(Chang Yu-Ch'uan) 

Dr. Y. C. Chang was born at Canton in 1880. He studied' at! the 
Anglo-Chinese College, Poochow, from 1890, to 1891, and at the Queen's 
College in the following year and later at the Peiyang University. From 
1898 to 1899 he studied at the Imperial University, Tokio, Japan. During 
the period he was awarded various prizes for high standing in Chinese, 
English and athletics. In August of 1901 Dr. Chang arrived in America 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 79 



to pursue a higher education. He studied law at the University of Cali- 
fornia and Yale University, where he graduated with a degree of LL.B. 
in 1903 and M.L. the following year. When the Chinese High Commissioners 
were appointed to go to Europe and America for the investigation of 
constitutional governments in 1906, he was appointed an attache. Upon 
his return he received the degree of Chin Shih (Doctor of Law) from the 
government after a competitive examination. From 1906 to 1907 Dr. 
Chang was Inspector of Schools in Shansi, Chihli, Shantung, Honan, etc. 
The next year 'found him as Second Secretary to the Chinese Legation in 
Japan. From 1910 to 1911 he was president of the College of Communica- 
tions, Peking. He was promoted to be Secretary to the President and 
Councillor of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs soon afterwards. In June 
1913 he was appointed Commissioner for Foreign Afffairs for Kiangs'u 
Province. In October 1913 he was appointed superintendent of Customs of 
Wuhu and concurrently Commissioner of Foreign Affairs for Anhwei province. 
The latter position he held until March 1915 when he was called to the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Dr. Chang was appointed president of the 
Tsing Hua College in the autumn of 1918. In May 1919 he was confierred 
the Second Order of Chiaho. In January 1920 he was recalled to the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In February 1920 Dr. Chang was conferred the 
Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In September he was appointed Chief of 
the Investigation Bureau of the Ministry. In November he was appointed 
to hold concurrently the post of Chief-in-Charge of the Translation 
Bureau. In March 1921 Dr. Chang was appointed to act as Councillor of 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In June he was given the Second Order 
of Wenfu. In August he was appointed Councillor of the Ministry. In 
September he became an expert to the Chinese Delegation to the Pacific 
Conference. In May 1922 Dr. Chang was conferred the Second Order of 
Paokuang Chiaho. In Noveember he was appointed a member of the Com- 
mission on Russian Affairs. Dr. Chang is still Councillor of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. In June 1924 he was appointed by the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs to be expert adviser to th(^ Sino-Russian Conference. 



-80 



WPIO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Yuan-shan Djang 

(Chang Yuan-shan) 

Mr. Y. S. Djang was born at Soochow in 1892 where he received his 
preliminary education. From 1907 to 1901, he studied at Kiangnan Col- 
lege, Nanking. Before he went to America in 1911, he studied in the Tsing- 
hua College for one year and obtained a scholarship. From 1911 to 1915 
he took a course in Liberal arts at Cornell University. While there he was 
chief manager of the Chinese Students' Monthly and was editor of the 
Chinese Students' annual in 1913-14. He was graduated in 1915 with 
the degree of B. A. and returned to China in August of the same year. 
Mr. Djang was appointed upon his return Chemist of the Chihli Pro- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 81 



vincial Industrial Laboratory and of the Pei Yang Plague Prevention 
Bureau, He also devoted much time in teaching and writing and also 
acted as lecturer in Sanitary Chemistry, Government University, Peking; 
teacher in the Chihli Middle School, Tientsin ; editor of the Ladies' Journal, 
Shanghai; etc. For some time he was English secretary to the Bureau 
of Foreign Affairs of Chihli and Advisor to the Chihli Police Adm'itiisbrar 
tion. Mr. Djang was secretary of the Cornell Alumni Association of North 
China in 1915; and Chinese secretary of American Returned Students' 
Club, Tientsin, 1916-17. In the winter of 1918, Mr. Djang was appointed 
general secretary of the Anti-Narcotic Society, Tientsin. From September 
1920 to December 1921, he served as general secretary of the North China 
International Society of Finance Relief. Since January 1922, he has been 
associate executive secretary of the China International Fam'ine Relief 
Commission, which has its headquarters in Peking. Being interested in 
social service, Mr. Djang held membership or offices in various public or- 
ganizations in Capital. Mr. Djang is the author of many articles in both 
Chinese and foreign journals and of number of pamphlets among which are. 
An Outline of a System of School Calculated to Promote Mass Education in 
China and Ledger Account for Household Express. 



^ 



82 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chao Ch'ing-hua 

Mr. Chao Ching-hua was born at Chingihua, Chekiang Province in 1879. 
He received his education at the Diocesan School of Hongkong from which 
institution he graduated in 1890. After his graduation, he entered the 
Government School of Telegraphy at Canton and completed this course in 
1892. At this time he became director of the Telegraph Administration of 
Kwangtung province. He remained in this position until 1897 when he 
became assistant secretary to C. W. Kinder, the engineer-in-chief of the 
Peking-Mukden railway. It was in this position that Mr. Chao first gained 
insight into his career. In 1904 Mr. Chao became secretary to T. J. Bourne, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 83 



chief engineer of S. Pierson and Sons, who were the contractors under- 
taking the construction of the Taikow-Cliinghua railway and continued 
further his study of railway operation and construction. During this time 
he brought 2,000 skilled laborers from the Taibow Chinghua railway for 
the grades and earthwork between Shanghai and Woosung. He also laid the 
track between Shanghai and Nanziang. Completing this work in 1907, Mr. 
Chao became Secretary to Tang Shao-yi, who was then Director General 
of Railways of the Ministry of Communication?. In 1909 he resigned from 
this position to take that of managing director of the Canton-Kowloon 
Railway and made the agreement with the Canton government for the 
Chinese-British section of the railway. In 1914 Mr. Chao became man- 
aging director of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway and reorganized the ad- 
ministration of both the north and south sections. In 1916 he was ap- 
pointed manager of the Shanghai branch of the Bank of Communications 
and while there modernized the accounting system, bridged over the 
moratorium and resumed the issue of specie ♦notes. In 1917 he became 
director of the sequestered Austrian and German river vessels and wharfs 
along the Yangtse River. In 1918 Mr. Chao was conferred the Third Order 
of Wenfu and in September 1920 the Third Order of Chiaho. In Novem- 
ber 1920 Mr. Chao was appointed a Member of the Railway Finance 
Reorganization Commission. In February 1921, he received the Second 
Order of Chiaho. In June 1921 he \Vas appointed a Member of the office 
of Councillors of the Ministry of Communications. In December 1921 Mr. 
Chao was appointed a Secretary of the Cabinet when Liang Shih-i was 
the Premier. He was removed from this post after the Chihli-Fengtien 
war in June 1922. In August 1922 Mr. Chao wa? ordered by the Peking 
government to be arrested for trial on a charge of havitig instigated the 
railway. He is still a political refugee. 



^ 



84 • 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chao Erh-sun 

mm m^ ''km 

General Chao Erk-sun is a descendant pf a Chinese Banner family. 
He was born in 1846. He becamb a provincial graduate in 1867 and a 
metropolitan graduate or chin shih in 1874. In the same year — 1874 — he 
was made a Hanlin with the degree of Pien Hsiu or Hinlin compiler of 
the College of Hanlins. The first official position General Chao held was 
that of assistant examiner for the provincial examinations of H'upei. 
Subsequently he was appointed a Supervising Censor of the Board of 
Works. In 1898 he becamie a prefect in the province of Kueichow and 
soon he was promoted to be a Ping Pei Tao or Taotai with power over 
military forces in the Kuangtung Province. In April 1895 General Chao 
was appointed Judicial Commissioner of Anhui Province and sometime 
later he was transferred to the Province of Shensi. In November 1898 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 85 



General Chao was appointed Financial Commissioner of Kansu and Hsin- 
kiang. In 1902 he was transferred to be Financial Commissioner of Shensi 
province. In 1903 General Chao became Governor of Hunan. In August 
1914 he was called to Peking and was given the position of acting Pres^ 
ident of the Board of Revenue. May 190o he was appointed Tartar 
general of Mukden with the concurrent post at Peking of Vice-President 
of the Board of War. Later he became governor of the metropolitan dis- 
trict and concurrently director of the imperial household affairs. In May 
1907 General Chao was appointed Viceroy of Szechuanv He did not as- 
sume this office however, and in September of the same yeiar he was ap- 
pointed viceroy of Hu-Kuang Provinces with the brevet title of President 
of the Board of War find that of President of the Censorate. In' Match 
1903 General Chao was transferred to act as Viceroy of Szechuan With 
the concurrent posts of Tartar General of Chengtu and the assistant di- 
rector-general of the Salt Adminstration. These posts he held until April 
1911, wheen he was appointed Viceroy of Manchuria having und'er his 
control all the Tartar Generals of the three provinces. In March 1912, 
the First Year of the Republic, a Bill was passed in the provisional 
assembly in Peking placing him upon las equal footing with the Tutuhs 
of Kirin and Heilungkiang. He was subsequently made a full general and 
awarded the Second Order of Merit and First Order of Chiaho. As Tutuh 
of Fengtien, General Chao was given supreme control of military and 
diplomatic affairs in three Manchurian Provinces. He resigned from this 
post on November 3, 1912 and subsequently was appointed director gene- 
ral of the Ching History Compilation Bureau, which posiition he is still 
holding. General Chao was one of the "Four Friends of Sungshan" of 
ex-President Yuan-Shih-kai, the other three being Hsu Shih-chang, Li 
Ching-hsi and Chang Chien. General Chao has been president of the 
board of directors of the Hsiangshan '' Childrens' Home, in the Western 
Hills, Peking, which was founded by ex-Premier Hsiung Hsi-ling after 
the 1917 fall flood in the Province of Chihli. 



^ 



86 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chao Heng-t'i 

General Chao Heng-t'i was born at Hsiang-t'an Hsien, Hunan Province, 
in 1880. After graduation from a military school in China, he went to 
Japan and entered the Military Officers' Academy, taking the coursa in 
artillery. In November 1908 he was graduated and returned to China. 
Subsequently General Chao became a commanding Officer in Kuangsi Pro- 
vince. During the First Revolution in 1911-12, he was in Hunan and 
played an active part as Commander of a Revolutionary Force, as a 
Kuomintang member. Following the establishment of the Republic in 1912 
and the election of Yuan Shih-kai to the Presidency, he went to Peking 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 87 



together with several other Kuomintang Generals. Owing to his intimate 
ralation with Kuomintang people, he was much Buspected by Yuan Shih- 
kai who subsequently had him arrested and imprisoned in the Peking 
Marshal Court popularly known as Yuan Shih-kai's "Bastile." General Chao 
remained in prison until finally released through the efforts of General 
T'an Yen-k'ai, then Tutuh (Military Governor) of Hunan. In December 1916 
he was appointed Commander of the First Division of Hunan and soon after- 
wards, became Commander in Chief of the Hunan Forces. In 1922 the 
people of Hunan declared Provincial Autonomy. A constitution was pro- 
mulgated containing the provision that the people were to elect their owa 
governoite. As a result of ;the election, General Chao was placed at the 
South. However he was thought to be on better terms with the former than 
capacity he was supposed to be neutral from the &tand])oint of North and 
South. However he was thought to be on better terms with the former than 
the latter. In October 1922 General Chao was decorated by the Secorai 
Order of Merit. In August 1923 Hunan Way threatened with an attack by 
Sun Yat-sen's men commanded by General T'an Yen-k'ai, former Military 
Governor of Hunan. General Chao's position has been weakened somewhat 
but he is still upholding the provincial constitution of Hunan. 



^ 



88 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. S. U. Zau 

(Chao Hai*en) 

Mr. S. U. Zau, was born at Shanghai in 1883. 'Be began hia educa- 
tion under private tutors since his father intended to prepare him 
for the literary examinations. However, in view of the growing 
popularity of the English language, Mr. Zau was required also to study 
this language. When schools were established to replase the literary 
examinations, Mr. Zau took the entrance examinations at the Telegraph 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA S^ 



Administration, the Kiangnan Naval Academy and the Peiyang Medical 
College and passed all with distinction. Due to the death of his brother, 
he was not permitted to leave home until the age of 14, when he went 
into business. Two years later he re-entered school, joining the Wei 
Tsong College, Shanghai, devoting most of his time to the study of Eng- 
lish, in which subject he excelled. He also taught at the same time. 
During the Boxer Rebellion, the Shanhaikwan Railway College was re- 
moved to Shanghai where it took up quarter^ at the present Nanyang 
College. Mr, Zau entered this College for a year and then succeeded 
in passing the postal examinations at Shanghai, entitling him to join the 
Postal Service. It was during this time that Mr. Zau became a member 
of the Christian church. He was appointed postmaster at Ta Tung, but 
he had to resign from this office in order to remain with his family in 
Shanghai. While in Shanghai, Mr. Zau was employed by the Christian 
Literature Society, and placed in charge of the Society's publication of 
an encyclopedia. At the same, he was interested in various business en- 
terprises, serving also as trustee of the Ming Jang School and the Eliza 
Yates Girls' School. In 1911, Mr. Zau was elected vice-chairman of the 
Chinese Volunteer Corps of West Shanghai and in the following year, 
his plan for the taxation of tobacco and wine as submitted to the Central 
government was accepted and made the basis for the present system. In 
1914, he was appointed deputy for the raising of government loans in 
the Provinces of Kiangsu and Chekiang, for which work he was awarded 
the Chiaho decoration. He also assisted Chekiang in the solution of va- 
rious diplomatic problems and was appointed advisor to the Civil Gover- 
nors of Chekiang and Shantung. In 1918, 'Mr. Zau was retained as an 
advisor to the Cabinet. The same year, he was apfprointed a director of 
the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai. In 1921, he be- 
came advisoj- to the Bureau of Taxation on Tobacco and Wine and 1922 
saw Mj-. Zau serving as China's Special Delegate to the Pan Pacific Com- 
mercial Conference in Honolulu, for which work he was decorated with the 
Third Class Chiaho Medal. He is director of the Shanghai Baptist College, 
the South-Eastern University, the Y. M. C. A. Middle School and the Sze 
Peng School, the last named being organized 'and financed entirely by him- 
self. In addition, he is director of tho Luug-Hua Orphanage, the Chinese 
Y. M. C. A., the Anti-Kidnapping Society and others. He is a prominent 
leader oi the Baptist Church. His business occupation consists of directing 
the Pootung Electric Works, the Chung Hua Industrial Company, the 
Shanghai and Paoshan Bank and the Tung Yi Realty Company. He has 
six sons and four daughters. 



90 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. G. T. Chao 

mmu^H m 

(Chao Kuo-t'sai) 

Mr. G. T. Chao was born ^t Shanghai in 1879. After an early educa- 
tion in private schools he attended St. John's University in 1899 and grad- 
uated with an A. B. degree in 1906. Between 1906 and 1907 he was English 
Secretary to the Taotai of Fungyang, Anhwei Province. In August 1907 
he arrived in America for a liigher education as a government stiu,dent 
and studied Political Science at Cornell University. From 1908 to 1911 he 
studied at the University of Wisconsin, receiving his B. A. degree in 1910 
and his A. M. in 1911. He returned to China in April 1911, and was en- 
gaged as a teacher at the Fu Tan College, Changsha. From 1912 to 1913 
he taught at the National Institute of Shanghai. In the winter of 1913 he 
was appointed Vice-President of the Tsing Hua College, Peking. In that 
capacity he re-visited America. From October 1915 to April 1916 he was 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 91 



acting-director of the Chinese Educational Mission at Washington, D. C. 
Many times he acted as president of Tsing Hua College— Aug.-Nov. 1913; 
Aug.-Dec. 1914; March.-April 1915; Aug.-Dec. 1916; Aug.-Dec. 1917; 
Jan.-July 1918; March-June 1919. Mr. Chao was chief editor of Who's 
Who of American Returned Students, published by the Tsing Hjua College, 
in 1917. In November 1920 he was appointed director of the Chinese 
Educational Mission at Washington D. C. to succeed Dr. Philip Sze, who had 
returned to China on account of other appointments. In January 1922 Mr. 
Chao was re-called to Peking and became vice-president of the Tsing Hfua 
college again. This post he is still holding. 



^ 



92 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. H. T. Chao 

ffi ^ H '# a ^ 

(Chao Te-sen) 

Mr. H. Chao was born at P'ingtu Hsien, Shantung Province, in 
1873. He received an engineering education in Tsingtao and started 
his career as a draftsman. In 1920 Mr. Chao was engaged by the Tao 
Ching Railway and in 1905 was transferred to the Shanghai-Nanking Rail- 
way as Chief Draftsman of the Woosung- Shanghai Section. In 1908 he 
became Chief Draftsman to the Chief Engineer of Tientsin Pukow Railway. 
In 1909, at the request of Governor Tuan E-ai-kuan of Shantung, he as- 
sisted Lao Tzu-chan in making a survey of the proposed Chefoo-Weihsien 
Railway of Shantung. In 1911 he became assistant engineer of the Hsu- 
chowfu Section of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway and in 1914 was promoted 
as chief of the engineering section of tbe Tientsin Pukow Railway Ad- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 93 



ministration. In 1916 he was appointed a Divisional Engineer of the North- 
ern Section of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway and in 1917 becanva Acting 
Chief Engineer of the Northern Section. In September of 1920 he was 
given the concurrent position as chief of the engineering depiartenent of 
the Chefoo-Weihsien Railway. In June 1922, Mr. Chao received the 
Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho and ^was appointed acting director in 
charge of the Direction of Railways of the Ministry of Qommunicatrions. 
Then he was given the concurrent position a.° chairman of the Commission 
for the Investigation of Railway Accounts and Director of the Railway 
Through Traffic Bureau. He also served as Director-General of the Govern- 
ment Railways. In October 1922 he received -the Second Order of Tas- 
hou Paokuang Chiaho and in November 1022 was appointed director in 
charge of the department still holding the several concurrent positions. 
In .January 1923 he was appointed a Member of the Commission to take 
over the Kiaotzi Railway and later became its managing director. This 
position he held until July 1923 when he was appointed mlanaging direc- 
tor of the Pienlo Railway. 



^ 



94 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General- Chao Yuk'e 

General Chao Yu-k'e was born at Tientsin in 1877. fle is a graduate 
of the Military Academy of Pei Yang. After his graduation he became 
the Drill Officer of the Bodyguards of Viceroy di Hung-chang. For 
some time he was also teaching in the College for Military Officers. He 
was instructor in cavalry in several provinces. Later he was prom.oted to 
be battalion commander in the 3rd IWvfsion, in charge of transportation, 
and other works. During that period he wrote several books on mili- 
tary science, strategy and cavalry drilling. In 1912, General Chao was 
promoted to be Commander of the Right Wing of the Metropolitan De- 
fence. Concurrently he acted as Chief of the Military Compilation and 
Translation Bureau. In 1916, when the trouble in Kweichow and Yunnan 
began, he was appointed chief of the general staff attached to the com- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 95 



raander-in-chief for the suppression of the uprising. He commanded the 
troops which advanced into Szechwan, and personally went to Luchow 
to supervise the operation. For this service he was awarded the rank 
of Major General. In the midst of the advance, Pekiivg ordered the ces- 
sation of hostilities and General Chao returned to Chihli to resume his old 
office. In April 1917 General Chao was appointed Occupation Commissioner 
of Tientsin with the concurrent position of Commander of the Defence 
Force for the first area of Chihli. In July 1917 when General Chang Hsun 
attempted the monarchical restoration, he participated in the expeditionary 
forces led by General Tuan Chi-jui against the monarchists. After the res- 
toration of the Republic, General Chang was conferred the Fifth Order of 
Meijt. In the latter part of 1917 a revolt broke out in the southwest. In 
the Spring of 1918 General Chao was appointed Chief of Staff to the First 
Forces sent down by the Peking government to suppress the revolt. After 
a while he returned to Chihli where besides taking up his old offices he 
was given the concurrent position as Chief Judge of the Martial Court 
for Chihli. In December 1919 General Chao was appointed Chief Staff Officer 
to General Tsao Kun, Tuchun of Chihli. During the Anfu-Chihli War in 
1920, he was Chief of Staff of the Chihli Forces engagied in the strife. 
In September, after the civil war, he was conferred the FJrst Class Tas- 
hou Chiaho and in October 1920 he was given the Fourth Order of . Merit. 
Subsequently he was appointed Chief Staff Officer to General Tsao Kun. 
High Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli. Shantung and Honan. In No- 
vember 1921 General Chao was mfade a Chiangchun with the special title 
of two words "Ching Wei." In February 1922 he received the First 
Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In March 1923 he was conferred the 
Third Order of Merit. In November 1928, General Chao resigned from the 
post of Occupation Commissioner to become the Director-General of the 
Aviation Department. He also took over the post of the Chief of the 
Aviation Department as a concurrent position. In the same month he 
was given the brevet rank of 6 Full General. M Marfch 1924 he was 
made a Full General. General Chao is still holding the two positions in 
the Aviation Department. 



96 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Che Ch'ing-yun 

m m m 'p m m 

General Cb'e Ch'ing-yun was born at Ching Chow, Chihli, in 1881, 
and was a member of a well-known family. He received a thorough 
education in Chinese in his youth. The defeat of China suffered in the 
Sino-Japanese War in 1895, led General Ch'e to realize the importance of 
military improvement in China and then he determined to make himself a 
soldier. Two years later Yuan Shih-kai started to train troops at Hsiao- 
Chan, the birth place of the Peiyang Army, General Ch'e was enlisted 
in the engineering regiment where he subsequently gained the know- 
ledge of gunnery and surveying. His graduation fell in the year of the 
Boxer Rising (1900. He was detailed to report on the condition and 
operation of the Allied Troops. Following the signing of the Protocol, 
the allied Troops were all withdrawn with the exception of the Russian 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 97 



forces which still occupied Port Arthur and the Chines 3 Eastern Rail- 
way. To report on the condition and action of the Russians, General Ch'e 
was sent by the government to Siberia three times as a secj-et service 
agent.' He travelled over the upper reach of the Amur River and 
visited the important cities east of Ural Mountains. Upon the out- 
break of the Russo-Japanese War, General Ch'e returned to China and 
wrote a book on the military strength of Russia for the information of 
his own government. For three years during the War, General Ch'e was 
with the Russian troops along the Yalu River and gained much experif- 
ence in modern warfare. After the close of the War, he entered the 
Military Officers Academy and remained there until graduation. He finally 
became Commander-in-Chief of Defence at Chingkiangpu, Kiangsu. After 
the establishment of the Republic, President Yuan Shih-kai appointed 
General Ch'e Commander of the 37th Brigade, with headquarters at Kiang 
pei, where he rendered service in the suppression of banditry. In the 
winter of 1912, General Ch'e was made a Brigadier General and appointed 
High Advisor to the Military Governor, of Kiangsu. In the autumn of 
1913, he was appointed director of the Nanking Mint, acting concurrently 
as the Defence Commissioner of Wuhu. Subsequently he joined General 
Chang Hsun as 'Chief of Staff, but retired soion after. In the spring of 
1918, General Ch'e was appointed Military Advisor to the Tuchun of Hei- 
lungkiang and Commander ■bf the Chinese Eastern Railway guards. In the 
autumn of 1919, he 'was transferred to the capital of Heilungkiang to become 
Chief of the Provincial Police Administration and also Chief of the Tsi- 
tsihar Port Police. In 1920 he was called to Peking and became a Junior 
Member of the Chiang Chun Fu, and Military Advisor to both the High 
Inspector General of Chihli, Shantung and Honan, and that of Hunan and 
Hupei. Inthe autumn of '1921, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the 
Emergency Forces of Shensi and also Director- General of the Opium Sup- 
pression Bureau. Jn 1922, General Ch'e Was appointed Provost Marshal 
of the Metropolis of Peking. In January 1924 he was given the brevet 
rank of Full General. 



«je 



98 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Che Hin-Shing 

(Ch's Hsien-Ch'eng) 

Mr. Che Hin-shing was born in Hongkong in 1888, where his father 
was a merchant. His native district is Fang Yu Hsien, Kuangtung. At the 
age of 14 he entered Queen's College but left a year later to join St. Step- 
hen's College. In 1908 he went, to England and in 1911 he was matriculated 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 99 



as a commoner at Christ College, Cambridge, where he took the law degree. 
He was called to the Bar by the Honorable Society of Gray's Inn in 1915, 
and returned to China in 1916, after having read in chambers for one year. 
He wa;9 a member of various societies in Bagland, having for their object 
the promotion of better relationship and understanding between Great Britain 
and China. Shortly after his return to China Mr, Che joined the Ministry 
of Communications and assisted in the codification of the Railway Laws. On 
the entry of China in the late War on the side of the Allies, he was as- 
signed to deal with the protests by neutral countries concerning the dis- 
missal of German and Austrian employees from Chinese government rail- 
ways and other institutions. In 1919 when the law Codification Commis- 
sion was re-organized Mr. Che was appointed one of the compilers by the 
President. He assisted in the drafting of the Codes of Civil and Criminal 
Procedures, the latter of which together with the "Regul-ations relating to 
Judicial Stamps" and "Regulations relating to Summary Criminal Procedure" 
he translated. In 1921 when Courts with jurisdiction over Russians in 
Harbin were established, Mr. Che was appointed a judge of the High Court. 
He was obliged, however, to leave for reasons of health owing to the se- 
verity of the climate. He was then re-appointed a member of the Law 
Codification Commission. In 1922 Mr. Che was appointed Chief Procurator 
for the Shanghai District, a position similar to that occupied by the 
Director of Public Prosecutions in England. He has always been interested 
in prison reform and since his appointment to the chief position of the 
Shanghai Procuratorate he has not spared hinxself in this branch of his 
work. The result of his labor in this direction is the considerable enlarge- 
ment of the Detention House attached to the Procuratorate by the erection 
of a new building, and other reforms and improvements. 



dt 



100 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 





General Chen Tsao-chung 

mM^ '# a iy 

(Ch'en Chao-ch'un) 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 101 



General Chen Tsao-chung, was born at Ta-cheng Hsien, Chihli. In 
1886 he entered Ting Hu Army as corporal and -instructior. In 1887 he 
was appointed corporal of the recruits. In the following year General 
Chen was promoted tight guard of the third camp of the reorganized in- 
fantry. At the expiration of training the recruits in the following year, he 
was decorated with sixth-class Military Merit. By 'dint of his valor in ex- 
terminating bandits in the three Eastern Provinces, General Chen was 
recommended as candidate for a lieutenancy in 1905. In the fall of the 
same year he was appointed lieutenant of the first platoon of the sixth camp 
of the Zu-Chuang Army. In 1907 General Chen was made captain of the 
tenth infantry. In 1910 he was pent to study in the Military Academy of 
the three Eastern Provinces, from which institution he was graduated in 
the summer of the following year. Four months after graduation he was 
recommended to fill the position of major. In 1912, after suppressing 
bandits in Shansi General Chen was appointed major with the honorary title 
of Brigadier-general. In April of the same year he was promoted com- 
mander of the first regiment of [the infantry. In April 1913, he received a 
fourth-class Wen Hu Decoration. In May, he twice fought Mongolian bandits, 
and received th« title of lieutenant colonel. In May 1914, General Chen was 
appointed Commander of the 37th Tuan of the tenth regiment. On Decem- 
ber 14, 1915, he was specially appointed commander of the Woos mg Forts, 
from which position he soon fesigned. He was decorated with the third- 
class Wen Hu in March 1917, and also conferred the honorary title of 
major-general. On July 7, 1919, he received the fourth-class Chia Wu 
Decoration. On December 11, of the same year he was appointed lassistaavt 
commander of the Tan Districts, Chekiang, which position he resigned in 
August 1923. Since his resignation as assistant commander of the Tan 
Districts, he has been holding office as assistant commander of Kashing, 
Chekiang. 



^ 



102 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chun Shut-kai 

(Ch'«n Chao-jui) 

Mr. Chun Shutkai, compradore of Messrs. Butterfield and Swire, 
Shanghai, and one of the leading business men of the city, was born in 
Heungshan, Kwangtung, in 1873. After graduating from Queen's College, 
Hongkong University, he came to Shanghai to engage in business, 
being associated with his late father, Mr. Chun Ko-liang, who was 
serving as compradore for Messrs. Butterfield and Swire and other 
firms. After the death of his father, Mr. Chun became compradore and 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 103 



in a comparatively short period of service, has won for himself a host of 
friends among both the foreign and Chinese communities in Shanghai. 
Mr. Chun is a director of the Canton Guild, the Shantung Road Hospital, 
the Pootung Hospital and the Union Club. He is a member of the Chinese 
General Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai and an advisor to the Ministry 
of Communications. For his services during the drive for funds of the 
International Famine Relief Committee, he was awarded in 1922 the 
Third Class Chiaho Medal. 



^ 



104 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ch'en Ch'i-shou 

Mr. Chen Chi-shou, was born at Haining, Chekiang, in 1869. After 
receiving an education under private tuition and passing several literary 
examinations, he was made magistrate of various cities under the Manchu 
dynasty, including Soochow, Kiangyin, Kingahan and Fenghsien of Kiangsu 
and serving also as deputy of transportation, machinery arms and tele- 
phone services and director of bureaus of commercial affairs, of public 
works, of agriculture, of education, of police and foreign aiidub During 
the Nanking Exposition, he was appointed chief of the Bureau of Agriculture, 
Works and Commerce. After the exposition, Mr. Chen promoted the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 105 



Kiangsu Industrial Home, of which he became director after its establish- 
ment, serving also as magistrate of the Kiangnan Land and River Police 
and as Judge for various cities in the Soochow Circuit, in which capacity, 
he tried and handed down important verdicts in some of the most his- 
torical criminal as well as civil cases. In recognition of his work, he 
was made a prefect with the rank of an expectant Taotai of the Manchu 
Regime. In 1915 a ^recommendation was made by Civil Governor Chu 
Chia-pao of Chihli to make Mr. Chen mayor of a Chihli city. In 1917 
he was appointed by Civil Governor Chi of Chekiang to serve under his 
administration. In July 1919, Mr. Chen was appointed Magistrate of the 
French Mixed Court, Shanghaiti Concurrently, he takes an active part 
in famine relief work and in recognition of this service, he has been re- 
commended by the Honan Governor to be promoted with distinction^ which 
recommendation has been accepted by the Cabinet. 



^ 



106 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ch'en Chieh 

Mr. Ch'en Chieh, a native of Dianghsiang, Hunan was born in 
Chekiang in 1885. He received his elementary training in a private school 
and in 1890 he entered the Middle School of Hangchow, Chekiang. In 
1902, when the goverment was yeplacing classical Chinese learning with 
modern education, Mr. Ch'en was selected and sent to a preparatory school 
in Japan, where he was graduated. After this he spent three years in 
the First High School of Tokyo. Later he attended the Tokyo Imperial 
University. In the winter of 1907, he went to Germany and continued 
his study of law and political economy in Berlin Univeiisitiy, He also 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 107 



traveled extensively in European countries. Mr. Ch'en came back to China 
in 1911, just at the time when Republic&n institutions were supplanting 
the Manchu rule. Subsequently Mr. Ch'en was appointed by the govern- 
ment to be the director of the commercial department of the Mnnisfry of 
Industry and Commerce, which was later changed into the Ministiy of 
Agriculture and Commerce. Later he was promoted to be the director 
of the industry and commercial department of the same Ministry in which 
he served for five years. In 1916, Mr. Ch'en resigned from that Ministry 
to accept the post of Councillor in the Peking Cabinet. Then! the question 
of declaring war with Germany occasioned a crisis in Peking. Mr. Chen 
participated in all discussions of this iquestion as well as the taking over 
of German Concessions in Hankow and Tientsin. In ■ 1917 Mr. Ch'en again 
joined the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce /as secretary with the 
concurrent post of Councillor of the Mjinistry of Finance. In September 
1917 he was appointed to the Commissionership of Industry of Shantuiag 
Province, which he declined. He was again transferred to the Cabinet as 
a member of the Commission on War affairs. While in Peking, Mr. Ch'en 
taught in the law department of the Peking National Univoi-ai'ty and the 
Peking Law School. He speaks English, German and Japenese with an ad- 
ditional knowledge of French and Latin. In ,Pebruary 1924 Mr. Ch'en was 
removed from his dual position ,in Hupei. In May 1924 he was appointed 
assistant director general of the National Conservancy Bureau, Peking which 
position he is still holding. In 1918 Mr. Ch'en w-as ielected a member of 
the New Parliament which made Hsu Shih-chang as President of China. Mr. 
Ch'en represented Hunan Province. In November 1919 Mr. Ch'en was con- 
ferred the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1920 the Second 
Order of Wenfu was conferred upon him. In December 1920 he was 
appointed Superintendent of Customs of Hankow. In January 1921 Mr. 
Ch'en was given the concurrent position of Commissioner for Foreign Af- 
fairs of Hupei. In November 1922 he was decorated by the First Order of 
Tashou Chiaho. In February 1923 his name was recorded by the Cabinet as 
candidate Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 



^ 



108 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. T. L. Chen 

(Ch'en Chih-Iin) 

Mr. T. L. Chen was born at Hai-ch'en flsien, Fukien Province, in 
1897. He became a Shiu-tsai or Licentiate in 1896. In 1902 he gra- 
duated from the Anglo-Chinese College, Foochow. In 1903 Mr. Chen be- 
came Master of the An Chee High School. In the same year he became a 
Chu-jen or Provincial Graduate. In 1904-1905 Mr. Chen travelled through 
the Straits- Settlements and Dutch Colonies. On his return he became 
President of the Middle School of Changchow. In 1908 Mr. Chen was 
elected Vice-President of the Fukien Provincial Assembly. First time 
from October 1912 to February 1913 and second time from December 1913 
to May 1914, Mr. Chen was Financial Commissioner of Fukien. During 
the intervening period he was Taotai of Amoy. Then he was also Pre- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 109 



sident of the Anti-Opium Bureau. In May 1914 he was called to Peking. 
In September 1917 Mr. Chen was nominated by the Fukien Governors as 
Senator of the Provisional Senate in Pekingf. He is at presenti the gieneral 
manager of the Fukien Industry Company, director of the Foochow Elec- 
tric Light Co., Foochow Motor-Car Co., and the Whapao Mining Co. 
He is also the manager of the Woo-Hong Bank lof Amoy, and the Chinese 
manager of the American-Oriental Bank of Fukien, Foochow. Besides 
all the above responsible positions with which he is connected, he is the 
chairman of the Foochow Y. M. C. A., vice-chairman pf Fooclhow Interna- 
tional Anti-Opium Society, and is one of the members of the National Com- 
mittee of Y. M. C. A's. of China. 



^ 



no 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Ch'en Chin-t'ao 

Dr. Ch'en Chin-tao was born at Nan Hai Hsien, Kuangtung Province, 
in 1870. He received his education and was graduated from Queen's 
College, Hongkong. After graduation he became instructor at Queen's 
College and later went north and became professor at Pei Yang University. 
Dr. Ch'en went to America in 1901 to pursue his higher education with 
government support. He studied mathematics and Social Science at Columbia 
University during 1901-1902. After graduating with the degree of M. S. 
in 1902, he entered Yale University and studied Political Economy and was 
graduated with the degree of Ph. D. in 1906, the subject of his doctor's 
thesis being "Societary Circulation." Dr. Ch'en returned to China in 1906 
and was the same year made a Hanlin by the Imperial Court. He held 
successively the following positions in the Ching Regime: Educational In- 
spector at Canton; Educational Inspector at Peking; Inspector of the Ta- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA HI 



Ching Government Bank; Chief of the Budget Department of the Board 
of Finance; Chief of the Department of Statistics of the same Board; 
Vice-Director of the Bureau of Printing and Engraving; Chairman of the 
Currency Reform Commission ; Vice-Governor of t he Ta-Ching Government 
Bank; Member of the Tzu Cheng Yuan; Vice-President of the Board of 
Finance in Yuan Shih-kai's Cabinet. Early in 1912 Dr. Ch'en was appointed 
Minister of Finance under the Provisional government. Later he was 
Chinese representative to the International Conference of Chambers of 
Commerce held in Boston. He was also the Commissioner sent to select a 
site for the Chinese Government Pavilion at the Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, San Francisco. In September 1912 Dr. Ch'en was appointed Director 
of the Audit Bureau under the Cabinet. This appointment was made some- 
time before his return to China. In October 1913 he was appointed 
Financial Commissioner to Europe. For a long time Dr. Ch'en acted as 
Advisor to the President. On June 23, 1916, Dr. Ch'en was appointed 
Minister of Finance and to hold concurrently the post of Director General 
of the Salt Administration. On June 30 he was appointed concurrently 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. This latter position he held until October 
1916. In May 1917 he was removed from the Finance post as a result of 
a plot by political opponent. He was charged with embezzling public funds 
and was prosecuted by the court. In February 1918 he was exonerated 
by special mandate of the President. In 1920 Dr. Ch'en, being recognized 
as one of China's best financial experts, was appointed Minister of Finance 
by the Canton Military government. He is the author of many stan;dard 
works among which are "Distribution of Wealth," "Public School in the 
Four Countries." He has been awarded the Second Order of Pao-Kuang 
Tashou Chiaho. 



^ 



112 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Ch'en Chiung-ming 

General Ch'en Chiung-ming was born at Haifeng Hsien, Kuangtung 
Province, in 1875. He received a thorough education in Chinese and ob- 
tained while still a young man the literary degree of Chu-j'en, Provincial 
Graduate, through the Competitive Examination in the Ching Regime. 
General Ch'en attended the Government Law School of Kuangtung and 
w!as a member of the Provincial Council of Kuangtung representing Hai- 
feng Hsien when the Ching Dynasty inaugurated the first item of cons- 
titutional government in China in its last days. Upon the outbreak of 
the Revolution in October 1911, at Wuchang, General Ch'en echoed at H^ui- 
chow, Kuangtung, by getting hold of the Garrison trodps stationing there 
and declaring independence, therefore the whole Province of Kuangtung 
was won over by revolutionists'. Hu Han-ming was elected Tutuh and 
General Ch'en Chiung-ming Assistant Tutuh, of Kuangtung. In Jarijuary 
1912 Dr. Sun Yat-sen was elected .president of the Provisional government 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 113 



in Nanking and Hu Han-ming left the position of Tutuh to become chief 
secretary to the President. Ch'en Chiung-ming became Acting Tutuh. 
In July 1912 Hu Han-ming returned to Canto'n and was elected Tutuh of 
Kuangtung, General Ch'en was entrusted with the work of reorganizing 
the troops and in December 1912 he was appointed by the Peking govern- 
ment the Hu-Chun-Shih, or Director of Military Affairs, of Kuangtung under 
the Tutuh. In June 1913 Hu Han-ming was appointed Pacification Commis- 
sioner to Tibet and General Ch'en succeeded his as Tutuh of Kuangtunig. 
In July 1913 General Ch'en declared independence in Kuangtung in response 
to the Second Revolution in defiance of Yuan Shih-kai. In Augjust 1913 
General Ch'en fled from Canton when the Revolution had proved a failture 
and the Peking government had appointed General Lung Chi-kuang to 
the post of Tutuh of Kuangtung. General Ch'en stayed in the South Sea 
Islands for several years. General Ch'en returned to Canton in 1915 when 
Yuan Shih-kai had launched his monarchical movement. He participate^d 
in the several attempts to recover Kuomingtang's power in Kuangtung. 
In June 1917 the First Parliament was for the second time dissolved' in 
Peking. Kuangtung and Kuangsi immediately declared independence. 
General Ch'en accompanied Dr. Sun Yat-sen to Canton when the latter 
commenced his constitutional struggle against Peking. A new govern- 
ment in which Sun Yat-sen/Tang Shao-i and Wu Ting-fang took the lead- 
ing role, was formed there. The ex-Parliamentarians proceeded to Can- 
ton and in August 1917 the Extraordinary Parliament was inaugurated. 
In May 1918 a military government of seven directors. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, 
late Dr. Wu Ting-fang, Admiral Ling Tao-h'si. T'sen Chun-hsuan, Tang 
Shao-i, General Lu Yung-ting and General Tang Chi-yao-was establish at 
Canton. General Ch'en was given the portfolio of War. Subsequently he 
was ordered to lead an expeditionary force to Fukien in order to assis-fc 
the Fukien Constitutionalists to be independent of Peking, but he only 
reached Changchow, Fukien, remaining in his occupied territory until 
the summer of 1920. At one time most of the Southern and South- Western 
Provinces were !in revolt aglainst Peking, and in sympathy with Canton. Soon, 
however, quarrels occurred among the Southern leaders. In the spring of 
1920 Sun Yat-sen and his associates were ousted from power by the Kuangsi 
faction under General Lu Yung-ting, and his nominee. Mo Jung-hsin, as- 
sumed control of Kuangtung', In summer of 1920 General Ch'en received 
Sun Yat-sen's order from Shanghai to send his forces to wedge an attaclc' 
on Kuangtung to oust the Kuangsi regime. General Ch'en arrived ^t Can- 
ton early in November 1920, after General Mo Jung-hsin had cleared the way 
for him. In December 1920 Sun Yat-sen, and his associates returned' to 
Canton again. In April 1921 Sun Yat-sen was elected by the Extraordin- 
ary Parliament the President of China. General Ch'en was appointed Civil 
Governor of Kuangtung and concurrently Commander-in-Chief of the Kuang- 
tung Troops. Subsequently General Ch'en personally led the Cantonese ex- 
pedition against the Kuangsi niilitarists. In August 1921, he disarmed the 
best equipped soldiers in Kuangsi and refused to assume any military or 
civil office in that province and returned to Canton, leaving the province of 
Kuangsi to Kuangsi people. During the winter 1921-22 a military and 



114 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



political coalition, with General Chang Tso-lin as the leader, was formed. 
All of the forces under Sun Yat-sen in Kuangtung and Kii.angsi, with the 
exception of the three Kuangtung Divisions under General Gh'en Chiung- 
ming, were for this movement. Dr. Sun personally led his forces to 
Kueilin, the capital of Kuangsi, during the winter. In February 1922 a 
step was made in the direction of the north. To this General Wu Pei-fu 
paid no attention thus Dr. Sun failed to attain his object of dividing 
Wu's strength and attacking him on many sides. 

In the meanwhile in Canton city Genteral Ch'en Chiung-ming was 
obstinately withholding his support. Early in 1922, Dr. Sun seeing his 
positions hopeless abandoned Kuangsi and retreated into Kuangtung. His 
troops took up a new position at Shaochow on the North River, thence 
menacing the province of Ki'angsi, while Dr. Sun himiself returned to Can- 
ton to force General Ch'en to give him support. This led directly to 
a breach of relations. In April 1922 General Ch'en was removed from 
the posts of Civil Governor and the Commander-in-Chief. He at once 
took his troops to Waichow. Dr. Sun took command in Canton, attemptirig 
to direct an advance through Kiangsi.. In the meantime Wu Pei-fu had 
won the war in the north with Chang Tso-lin badly de.feated. His nor- 
thern units were released for the defence of Kiangisi before Dr. Sun could 
have made any headway in that province. Sun's power thus declined 
rapidly and he was eventually driven from Canton by General Ch'en's com- 
manders in August 1922. In September 1922 General Ch'en assumed the 
post of Commander-in-Chief in Canton. In February 1923 the Kuoming- 
tang generals became active in Kuangtung again. General Ch'en was 
finally overrun by them and obliged to return to his stronghold at Waichow. 
Canton once again went to the hands of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Since the begin- 
ing of the summer 1923, (the Kuangsi generals made a fresh attack upon 
Sun Yat-sen. General Ch'en desiring to take advantage of this opportu- 
nity to take revenge, sided with the Kiangsi forces by attacking Sun Yat- 
sen from Waichow. However the Kiangsi forces were not successful. Since 
July 1923 the city of Waichow has been besiged by Dr. Sun Yat-sen's forces . 



^ 



WHO S WHO IN CHINA 



115 




Mr. Chunjen Constant Chen 

^ ^ A 

(Ch'en Chun-jen) 

Mr. Chunjen Constant Chen, was born November 1, 1898 and is a native 
of Shanghai. He received his early education in the Ming Li Middle School 
of Shanghai, after which he went to the United States as a privately sup- 
ported student. From 1914 to 1915 he studied at the University High School 
of the University of California and then entered the University of Cali- 
fornia. In 1919, he entered Cornell University and received the degree 
of B. S. the same year. Then he attended the University of Maryland and 
re&eived the degree of M. S. the following year. During his stay at Cornell 
he served as student assistant in the department of Crop Physiology In- 
vestigations, Bureau of Plant Industry, M. S. Department of Agriculture, 
and assistant in Entomology, Summer School of Cornell. During his stay 
at Maryland University, he served as research assistant in Plant Pathology 
of Maryland Agriculture Experiment Station from 1919 to 1920. In 1920 
he was appointed a fellow in Cotton Improvement, on behalf of the Chinese 



116 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Cotton Millowners' Association and was attached to the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. Mr. Chen returned to China in the summer of 1921 and was 
appointed agricultural advisor to the Commissioner of Industry of Chihli 
Province. In 1922, he was appointed Cotton Specialist in the Ministry 
of Agriculture and Commerce. He is now 'professor of Biology and Agri- 
culture in Tsing Hua College and lecturer in Agriculture in Yenching 
University in charge of Plant Breeding Experimenjt Station at Hai Tien, 
Peking member and field representative of thu World Agriculture Society 
and collaborator of the Botanical Abstracts, U. S. A. He is a contributor 
to a number of technical publications in America such as Science, the 
Phytopathology and the Technical Bulletin of the Maryland Agriculture 
Experiment Station. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



117 




Dr. Ch'en Huan-chang 

m^ ^^ mm 

Dr. Ch'en Huan-chang, was born on Inkslab Island, Kwangtung, in 
1881. Dr. Chen is a pupil of Kang Yu-wei, China's modern sage. Be- 
tween 1899 and 1900 Dr. Chen was editor of a Chinese paper called the 
Chinese Reformer. In 1902 he was engaged by the Shih-ming High 
School as a professor of Chinese literature. A year later he was promoted 
to principal of the school. In 1905 Dr. Chen passed the metropolitan lite- 
rary examinations in Peking and became a metropolitan graduate (Ph. D.). 
Soon afterwards, having received a government scholarship, he went to 
America to secure a modern education. Dr. Chen entered Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, and he was given a Ph. D. in 1911, his subject of 
Doctor's Dissertation was the "Economic Principles of Confucius and His 
School." Dr. Chen returned to China in January of the same year and 



118 WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



founded the National Confucian Association, He was elected President of 
the Association in 1913. In 1913 Dr. Ch'en was made a Legal Advisor to 
the President. At the same time he became editor of the Confucian As- 
sociation Monthly. That year he tried every possible means to induce the 
Parliament to pass a bill proposing that Confucianism be made the State 
Religion of China. His efforts failed as a Result of the opposition of the 
Christian and Mohammedan members of the Parliament. Dr. Ch'en was also 
a member of the Tuchun's or the New Parliament which was assembled in 
Peking in August 1918. In January 1920 Dr. Ch'en was conferred the 
Third Order of Wenfu. After the dissolution of the Second Parliament fol- 
lowing the Chihli-Anfu War in July 1920, Dr. Ch'en became divisor to both 
the President and the Premier which positions he is still holding. In Jan- 
uary 1923 Dr. Ch'en was conferred the Second Order of Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho and in March the Second Order of Wenfu. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



119 




General Ch'en Kuang-yuan 

General Ch'en Kuang-yuan was born at Wuchinghsien, Chihli in 1S78. 
He received military education from the Peiyang Military Academy and 
served in the Peiyang Army through different ranks. In 1912, the first 
year of the Republic General Ch'en Kuang-yuan was given the rank of Bri- 
gadier-General. In July 1913, he was appointed Occupation Commissioner 
of Chihfeng, Jehol Special District, which position he held until May 1914 
when it was abolished. The troops that were then in his command were 
the 12th Division. He was ordered to move his soldiers to Ksiyuan or the 
western suburb of Peking for the protection' of Peking*. In May, 1917. 
when General Tuan Chi-jui, Prime Minister, was dismissed by a mandate in 
consequence of his decision to force the Parliament to pass a bill on China's 
declaration of war against Germany, and all military governors of the dif- 



120 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ferent provinces assembled at Peking and schemed to overthrow the ad- 
ministration of President Li Yuan-hung, General Chen Kuang-yuan was 
appointed Assistant Commander-in-chief of the Metropolitan Precautionary 
Force by General Wang Shih-cheng, then Prime Minister, who wias Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Force-, General Chen assisted General Tuan Chi-jui 
in the movement to overthrow Chang ILsun's monarchical movement and 
restore the Republic in July 1917. His troops on this occasion rendered 
no small service. They fought General Chang iTsun's soldiers by way of 
Hsichihmen and successfully drove them into their head quarters and finally 
cornered them. On July 27th 1917 General Chen was appointed Tutung of 
Charhar Special District. However, a mandate issued on August 6, 1917 
transferred him to the post of Tuchun of Kiangsi. In October 1920 General 
Gh'en was made a Full General. In June 1922 General Ch'en was relieved 
of the post of Kiangsi Tuchun and commiander of the 12th Division. 



f^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



121 




Mr. ChantLim Chung 

(Chen Lien-chung) 

Chan Lim Chung, of Namhoi, Kwangtung, born in 1889, is president 
of the General Chamber of Commerce of Kwangtung and treasurer of the 
Canton Merchants Volunteer Corps, an organized army of civilians with 
miltary training and equipment prepared for local defence. Mr. Chan is 
right hand man of the well-known Cantonese merchant, Chan Lim Pak, 
his elder brother. Chen Lim Chung is a director in many noted local 
firms and associated with his brother in the compradore office of the Hong- 
kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation of Shameen, Canton. Like his 
brother, Lim Pak, Mr. Chan follows pretty closely in the way of giving 
support to activities for the welfare of the public. The property of the 
Canton Merchants Volunteer Corps, including lands, building, arms and 



122 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ammunitions belonging to the general headquarters of the organization, 
worth nearly a million dollars, is under his direct attention. The fact 
that the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce at Canton has been able 
to function at all during the disturbed political situation at Canton has 
been due largely to his enterprise and executive ability. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO iJSf CHINA 



l^^ 




Mr* Chan Lim Pak 

(Ch'en Lien-pai) 

Mr. Chan Lim Pak was born in Namhoi, Kwangtung, in 1884, He was 
president of the General Chamber of Commerce in Canton 1920-1922 and 
is at present Commander-in-Chief of the Merchants Volunteers of the 
Province of Kwangtung and Colonel- in-Chief commanding the ten regi- 
ments in Canton City proper. The Canton Corps consists of 7,000 well- 
trained and equipped men in active service with 6,000 recruits awaiting 
assignments pending the completion of their six-months course of instruc- 
tion in military science and tactics being given by regular army officers. 
Mr. Chan is a major-general (brevet) in the ranks of the Chinese Army, 
an honor accorded him by Peking several years ago in consideration of 
his service in the promotion and development of the best armed corps of 
civilians for local defense purposes without any financial support from 



124 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the government local or central except good-will and recognition. Mr. 
Chan gives liberally toward all forms of useful charity and education, be- 
ing a director in many schools and hospitals, besides financing a primary 
school in his home town. He was many years president of the Canton 
Chinese Silk Association and is the president of the Canton Mining and 
the Kwangtung Export Associations. In business Mr. Chan is Chinese 
agent of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation in Shameen, 
Canton, and general manager of the Tee Lee Ming Company, chief director 
of Chung Kwock Po Lee S. S. Company and of Cheong Wah Insurance 
Company; president of liopack Company of Canton and Hongkong; prop- 
rietor of Cheong Chen Silk Firm, and one of the directors of the Nanyang 
Brothers Tobacco Company, Chen Kwong Company, Chu Kong Motor Boat 
Company, and other leading Chinese firms of Hongkong and Canton. He 
owns the fastest motor-boats in Canton and his house in the western sub- 
urb of Canton is the finest in this city. Mr. Chan has refused many offers 
for political office, and he has served only as trade commissioner to the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, an honorary position awarded 
him in recognition of his sarvice to commerce and finance in South China. 
In February 1921 Mr. Chang was decorated by the Peking government witih 
the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1923 he received the Second 
Order of Tashau Chiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



125 




Mr. Tcheng-loh. 

m m ^ ih ^ 

(Chen Lu) 

Mr. Tcheng-loh was born at Min Hsien, Fukien Province, in 1878. 
Ee is a student of Chinese classics, history and philosophy. He became 
a Licentiate (B. A.) through competitive examination. In 1893 he enter- 
ed the Arsenal School at Foochow, and studied science and French un'der 
the guidance of M. Medard. In 1896 he left this school to join Chekiang 
College, in Wuchang, and four years later was made a teachesr. In 1903 
Mr. Tcheng was sent to Paris by Viceroy Chang Chih-tung, He joined the 
faculty of Law in the Paris University where he graduated with the degree 
of Bachelor of Law. In 1906 Mr. Tcheng was attached to a special mission 
to European countries to study their constitutions. Tai Hung-che, Minister 
of Rites, and Viceroy Tuan Fang were chiefs of the mission. On this oc- 



126 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



casion Tcheng-loh visited England, Germany, America, Italy, Belgium and 
Switzerland. He compiled the voluminous reports of the result of the trip 
for the Court. In 1907 Mr. Tcheng passed with success the law examina- 
tions. In the same year the Imperial Manchu government detailed him to 
accompany H. E. Lu Cheng-hsiang, then Chinese delegate to the Hague 
conference, to Europe. He received the rank of Secretary of Embassy of 
the 2nd Class. In 1908, on being recalled to China, Mr. Tchen^g was {ap- 
pointed Councillor in the Foreign Office, with the concurrent position of co- 
director of the Ch'u Tsai Kuan (a special school for higii officials- who 
desired to study constitutional, judicial, political and administrative topics). 
At the same time he was Chief of the Department for drawing up a cons- 
titution for China. He was duly given the degree of Ph. D., later he 
presented himself for the Imperial Examinations and was made Han-lin and 
appointed Compiler of |theJIan-Lin-yuan. In 1909 Mr. Tcheng was promoted 
to be Chief Secretary of the Waichiapu (Board of Foreign Affairs) a year 
later he became Director of Political Affairs, which office he retained dur- 
ing the revolution of 1911. In 1914 he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Republic of Mexico. In August of the 
same year he was sent to attend the Sino-Russian-Mong'olian conference at 
Kiakta in the capacity of Chinese Plenipotentiary. In 1915 President Yuan 
Shih-kai appointed Tcheng-loh Resident-General at Urga. In 1916 Mr. 
Tcheng was ordered by Mandate to carry out the investiture of the Ltvin,g 
Buddha, the spiritual and temporal chief of Mongolia. In 1917, worn out 
by the bad climate of Urga, Mr. Tcheng was granted sick leave and returned 
to Peking. After having helped the organization of the High Diplomatic 
Commission during the European war, he returned to Foochow. In April 
1918 Mr. Tcheng was recalled to Peking and in May 4, 1918 appointed the 
vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was in charge of the ministry from 
November 1918 to September 1920. In January 1920 Mr, Tcheng was con- 
ferred the first order of Wenfu. In September 1920 he was appointed 
Minister to France which position he is still holding. In October 1922 
Mr. Tcheng was awarded the Fifth Order of Merit. In July 1923 he was 
appointed Chinese delegate to the League of Nations. Mr. Tcheng is the 
author of Historical Works on Mongolia and Types of French Documents. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



137 




Mr* M. K. Chen 

(Ch'en Mou-chieh) 

Mr. M. K. Chen was born at Minuhsien, Fukien Province, in 1887. 
Being a member of an educated family he was >given thorough education 
in his youth. He went to the United States of America in 1903 for higher 
education. Soon after his arrival, he joined the Cook Academy, where he 
graduated in 1909. Dr. Wu Ting-fang, then Chinese Minister to America 
granted to him a government scholarship in recognition of his good re- 
cord. In 1909 Mr. Chen joined Cornell University where he specialized 
in civil engineering. During his attendance at that university he wrote 
a thesis on "Hydraulic Surges in Stand Pipes." In 1911 he was chosen 
as captain of a survey party. One year later he graduatad from Cornell 
After his graduation he returned to China, and was appointed Technical 



128 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Expert of the Bureau of the Construction of the Commercial Mart at Pu- 
kow. At the same time he was a teacher at the College for Naval Officers 
at Nanking. In 1914 he became assistant engineer of the Nanking-Chang- 
sha Railway. In 1915 he headed the survey party for the Keemen-Tenchi 
section. In 1917 be was appointed senior lassistant engineer of the Chu- 
chow-Chow Railway, and while in its service, was chief of party. In 1918 
he was appointed Directorate-General of Flood Relief and Conservancy. Three 
months later he became assistant engineer-in-charge of survey under the 
Chihli River Commission with its headquarters at Tientsn. In May 1920 he 
resignned this position in order to accept the appointment of engieer-in- 
chief to the directorate -general for the construction of the Hulutao port. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



129 




Mr. S. K. Chen 

Ht tit 3fc ^ g m 

(Ch'en Shih-kuang) 



130 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mr, S. K. Chen was born of Cantonese parents. He has been in the 
Chinese government service since 1901, serving first as student interpre- 
ter and a few years later the Chief Secretary of the Bureau for Foreign 
Affairs, Shanghai. In the latter capacity, he has served under more 
than fifteen commissioners. Mr. Chen is at present holding besides the 
post of Chief Secretary of the Bureau for Foreign Affairs, the following 
concurrent positions: Advisor on Foreign Affairs to the Military and the 
Civil Governor of Chekiang ; Secretary for Foreign Affairs to the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Chinese Navy; English Secretary to the Occupation Com- 
missioner of Shanghai and Sungkiang; Advisor to the Tariff Revision 
Commission. Mr. Chen was conferred the Third Order of Chiaho in June 
1919; the Second Order of Chiaho in July 1921; the Fourth Order of 
Paokuang Chiaho in September 1922 ; and the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho 
in March 1923. He has also been conferred the Third Order of Wenfu. 
Mr. Chen is the wearer of the following decorations and medals: Chevalier 
of the Legion d'Honneur, France; Officer de I'Instruction Public, Franca; 
Officer de I'Etoile Noire, France; Cavaliere Knight of the Crown of Italy; 
Order of the Double Rising Sun; Official da Ordem Militar de Cristo, Port- 
ugal; Brunswick Order of Henry the Lion, Germany; L'Order des Millioiiis 
d'Elephants et du Parasol Blanc, Reyaume de Luang-Prabang. In September 
1924, following the resignation of Mr. Hsu Yuan, Commissioner of Foreign 
Affairs and Superintendent of native Customs of Shanghai, Mr. S. K. Chen 
was appointed to these positions. 

\ 



rM 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



131 




Mr. Ch'en Shih-li 

Mr. Ch'en Shih-li was born at He-chiang Hsien, Szechuan province, in 
1875. He was a law graduate and began his official career in 1896 as a 
member of the Ping Pu, then the Board of War. In 1899 Mr. Ch'en was 
given the rank of Expectant Secretary of the Ping Pu and in 1900 he was 
given on the recommendation of the Viceroy of Szechuan the rank of 
Taotai and was subsequently sent to Kuangtung for appointment. In 
1901, at the recommendation of the Viceroy of Chihli, Mr. Ch'en was 
appointed by a special Imperial Decree a Court Director of the Fourth 
Order. In 1903 he was given an appointment on the Board of Commerce. 
In 1905 he became Director of the East Police Bureau of the Outer City 
of Peking. In 1906 he was appointed Councillor-in-Chief to the Outer 
City Police Administration. In February 1907 Mr. Ch'en was appointed 
Chief Secretary of the same administration. Five months later he became 



132 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Chief of the Oouter City Police. In 1908 he was made a member of the 
Councillors' Bureau in the Ming Chen Pu, then the Board of the Interior 
and concurrently the directorship of the Metropolian Secret Service. In 
July 1909 Mr. Ch'en was ordered to wait for appointment as Military 
Deputy-Lieutenant-Governor. In May 1912, the First Year of the Republic, 
Mr. Ch'en was appointed Chief of the Police Department in the Ministry 
of the Interior. In May 1913 he received the additional post of legal 
councillor to the President. About the same time he was given the Fourth 
Order of Chiaho. In Octaber 1915 Mr. Chen was appointed to another 
concurrent position as Chief of the Local Police Training Institution. In 
Septem'ber 1916 he was ordered to act as Chief pf the Department of 
Rites and Ceremonies. In January 1917 he became chief of the Depart- 
ment of Civil Engineering in the Ministry of the Interior. In February 
he was awarded the Third Order of Chiaho. In August he was ordered 
to hold concurrently the post of the proctor of the Directorate of tht 
Metropolitan Municipal Administration. In December he received the 
Fourth Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1918 Mr. Ch'en was ap- 
pointed resident director of the Municipal Administration, still holding 
other posts in the Ministry of the Interior. In March he was honored 
with the Second Order of Chiaho and in December, the Third of Wenfu. 
In February 1919 Mr. Ch'en was appointed a councillor of the Alien 
Property Administration Bureau. In May he received the Second Order of 
Tashou Chiaho. In March 1920 Mr. Ch'en was decorated with the Second 
Order of Wenfu. In July he was given another position in the Councillors' 
Hall of the Ministry of Communications. In the same month he was ap- 
pointed Advisor to the Municipal Administration. In October he assumed 
the post of chief in charge of the Works Department in the Famine Re- 
lief Administration. A month later a Commission was called in the Min- 
istry of the Interior for the study of famine relief measiures and Mr. 
Ch'en was made one of its members. In December he was appointed Co- 
Director of the Famine Relief Bond Bureau. In February 1921 Mr. Ch'en 
was conferred the Second Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In December 
he was invited by the Civil Governor of Anhui to be his High Advisor. 
In February 1922 Mr. Ch'en was appointed executive member of the Yang- 
tze River Commission and in March became chairman of the Yangtze 
Technical Committee under that Commission. In November 1922, Mr. Ch'en 
was removed from the posts that he had been hitherto holding in the 
Ministry of the Interior, which he had continuously served since 1907. 
In April 1923 Mr. Ch'en was reinstated in the Ministry of the Interior 
and given the former post of Chief of the Department of Civil Engineer- 
ing. This post he is still holding. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



133 




General Chen Shu-fan 

General Ch'en Shu-fan was born at An-kang Hsien Shensi province, 
and is a graduate of the Paotingfu Military Academy. He played an im- 
portant part in the First Revolution commanding the people's army at 
Hotung, Shansi, against the royal soldiers and therefore, subsequent to the 
eetablishment of the Republic in 1912, he was appointed Commander of 
the First Mixed Brigade in the province of Shensi. From 1912-14 the 
notorious bandit chief, "The White Wolf," created much disturbance in 
Honan, Shansi and Shensi in open defiance of the provincial authorities. 
General Ch'en maintained order and peace in the province of Shensi to 



134 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the best of his ability and his efforts finally drove the White Wolf out of 
Shensi. In May 1915 General Ch'en was appointed Defence Commissioner 
of Southern Shensi and in January 1916 he was transferred to Northern 
Shensi. In December 1915 occurred the Yunnan Uprising against Yuan 
Shih-kai's monarchical attempt. Upon reaching Northern Shensi, General 
Ch'en gathered together all the revolutionary members and declared in- 
dependence at San Yuan, at the north of Northern Shensi. General Lu 
Chien-chang then Military Governor of Shensi, was driven away and Gen- 
eral Ch'en was made Commander of the Shensi Republican Army. Fol- 
lowing the death of Yuan Shih-kai in June 1916, Li Yuan-hung became 
president and in July he appointed General Ch'en Tuchun of Shensi. In 
July 1917 he was ordered t o act concurrently as Civil Governor of Shensi. 
These positions he held until May 1921 when he was relieved and sub- 
sequently created a Chiang Chun of the Chiang Chun Fu with the special 
title of two words "Hsiang Wei." He has since been living in retirement 
at Tientsin. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



135 




Dr. S. P. Chen 

(Chen Szu'pang) 

Dr. S. P. Chen, obtained his preliminary education in the Federated 
Malay States. His professional education commenced at Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he also distinguished himself by being appointed one 
of the assistant demonstrators in anatomy in the University Laboratory 
early in his third year. Here he passed his natural science tripos with 
honors. • He underwent his hospital training at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
London, and on completion he took the medical and surgical degrees of 
his old University. He then served a year as Senior Resident Surgeon 
at the Western General Dispensary in London, thus acquiring a consider- 
able amount of practical experience. While acting as Chief Medical 



136 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Officer in Harbin, Dr. Chen received an invitation from the Ministry of the 
Interior to the Government Isolation Hospital, the first of its kind in the 
country. A large number of infectious cases have been cared for, since 
its organization which would have otherwise been at large and been the 
means of spreading infection, perhaps with fatal results, to many more. 
During the floods in the autumn of 1917, and when the danger of epidem- 
ic outbreaks was threatening on account of the presence of large num- 
bers of refugees in Tientsin, H. E. Hsiung Hsi-ling, Director-General of Flood 
Relief, appointed Dr. Chen to be his Chief Medical Officer of Health. As 
a result of Dr. Chen's preventive measures no outbreak of epidemic dis- 
ease occurred. In the outbreak of pneumonic plague in Shansi in 1918, 
Dr. Chen was one of the three commissioners appointed by the govern- 
ment to cope with the situation. In June 1919 Dr. Chen was appointed 
Principal Medical Expert of the Ministry of the interior still holding the 
position of director of the Peking Government Isolation Hospital. In 
October 1921, Dr. Chen was conferred the Second Order of Chiaho, in 
December 1921, the Second Order of Tacho Chiaho; and in June 1922, 
the 4th Order of Wenfu. 



^ 



ft 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



W 




Dr. Chen Ta 
(Chen Ta) 

Dr. Chen Ta is a native of Yuhang, Hangchow, China. He studied 
Chinese at home under private tutorship, then went to the primary school 
of his district, and after graduation went to the Middle School at Hang- 
chow. In 1911, he was admitted to Tsing Hua College, Peking. Five years 
later, he was sent to the United States for higher education. He received 
his A. B. degree from Reed College, Portland, Oregon, in 1919, his A, M. 
degree from Columbia University in 1920, and his Ph. D. degree from 



138 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Columbia University in 1923. In the year 1919-20, Dr. Chen was editor 
of the Chinese Students Quarterly, which is published by the Chinese 
Students Alliance in the United States. During the academfic year 1920- 
21, he was University Fellow in Social Science at Columbia University. 
He was asociated with the Chinese Delegation to the Disarmament Con- 
ference, held at Washington, D. C, November 11, 1921 to February 14, 
1922. He is author of Chinese Migrations, with special reference ■ to 
labor conditions, bulletin No. 340 of the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. Since 1923, he has been instructor at Tsing Hua College, and 
concurrently editor of the Tsing Hua Journal, a quarterly magazine published 
in the Chinese language. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



13^ 




Dr. Chen Ding-sai 



(Ch'en T'ing-jui) 

Dr. D. S. Chen, was born at Soochow, Kiangsu Province, in 1889. 
During his youth, he studied Chinese language and classics at home under 
guidance and direction of his father Yin S. Ohen, a renowned scholar. In 
1904 Dr. Chen entered Soochow University at Soochow where he devoted 
much of his time and energy to the study and mast-ering of the English 
language. Following the completion of the sophomore class in that institu- 
tion in 1909 he came to Shanghai and engaged in literary pursuits. He 
served as a compiler in the Chung Hwa Book Company for several years 
then acted as co- editor for the well-known Chinese miagazine Ta Chung 



140 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Hwa, edited by the noted statesman and scholar, Liang Chi-chao. At the 
same time his proficiency both in English and in Chinese enabled him to 
translate scores of books which have been widely read and the translations 
of which have won him much popularity. In 1917, Dr. Chen became greatly 
interested in law and pursued his advanced education in the Comparative 
Law School of China, Law Department of Soochow University, where hei 
made a painstaking study of the legal institutions of Western countries 
for three years. Upon the . satisfactory completion of his course in 1920 
he was given the degree of L.L.B. Following that summer. Dr. Chen went 
to America as a self-supporting student and there he took a post-graduate 
course in the University of Michigan. In 1921, he received a Doctorate 
of Jurisprudence and the next year was recipient of a Master of Arts 
degree in Political Science, his thesis being "The Principles of State Suc- 
cession as Revealed by the Versailles Treaty," which was very favorably 
commended by both the literary and judicial circles. On account of his 
high legal attainments. Dr. Chen was recommended by the faculty of the 
University of Michigan as a University Felldw of that institution of learn- 
ing and was awarded a prize amounting to S500 Gold — a distinction very 
seldom earned by any foreign student. During his academic years in the 
United States. Dr. Chen was noted for various activities. He was elected 
President of the Chinese Students' Association in the University of Michig- 
an; and at the tinie of Washington Conference, he was appointed special 
correspondent in America by the Sin Wen Pao, one of the largest Chinese 
newspapers in Shanghai.. His view as set down in the newspapers were 
far-sighted and penetrating, and did much to arouse Chinese interest in 
the things transacted in the conference. In the fall of 1922, Dr. Chen 
returned to China. His immediate arrival was accompanied by a request 
to accept the professorship of public law in the Comparative Law School, 
his Alma Mater, which position he is still holding. Besides practising 
law in Shanghai, Dr. Chen is also connected with the Shun Pao, serving in 
the capacity of a special editor. From time to time, he has written articles 
dealing with present day problems which are widely read and often-times 
reprinted by various Chinese newspapers throughout the country. Dr. Chen 
was one of four delegates who went to Peking during 1924 for the rendi- 
tion of the Shanghai Mixed Court. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



141 




Admiral Chen Tso-heng 

Admiral Chen Tso-cheng was born in Chihli province in 1865. At the 
age of 16, he entered Tientsin Naval College, from which he was graduated 
with honors in 1884. H-e was then sent by the government to pursue 
higher naval studies in England, where he specialized in gunnery at Green- 
wich. In 188S, he served abroad on a British man-of-war in the Mediterran- 
ean. On returning to China, he was appointed a teacher on various training 
ships in the Chinese navy, and also held important posts in alm^ost all of 



142 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Chinese Naval Colleges. Admiral Chen has been spesially proficient in 
mathematics, having invented the angle trisector, which is used in the solu- 
tion of cubic equations. He has taught mathematics in the Normal school, 
the High Normal and the Technical College, Peking. For distingui- 
shed work in the navy, the Chinese government made him a captain in 1914 
and a Rear-Adm'iral in 1924. Admiral Chen is at present Director of the 
Shanghai College, Chiaotung Ta Hsu University. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



143 




Dr. Wei Ping Chen 

(Ch'en Wei-ping) 

Dr. Wei Ping Chen was born in Peking in 1876. Ha received his 
education fron? the Peking Methodist University where he entered in 1887 
and graduated in 1895 with the degree of B. A. After graduation he im- 
mediately went into the Ministry and remained in it for 14 years, serving 
first in a hsieu (district) city, Yanching (North Chihli), Tientsin and Pek- 
ing for three, four and seven years respectively. In June 1910 Dr. Chen 
went to America to receive higher education with private support. He im- 



144 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



mediately entered the Ohio Wesleyan University taking the course in Li- 
beral Arts. There he graduated in 1911 with the degree of M. A. Be- 
tween 1911 and 1913 he studied in the University of Michigan. In 1913 
he entered the Boston University where he graduated in 1915 with the 
degree of Ph. D. the subject of his Director's dissertation being "develop- 
ment of the Customs House under the Ching Dynasty." Dr. Chen re- 
turned to China in January 1916. Shortly afterwards he was elected to 
be the editor of the Chinese Christian Advocate. In 1920 he was chosen 
as one of the delegates representing the Chinese Christians of the Metho- 
dist Church to the General Conference of that denomination held in 
Des Monies. Iowa, in May that year. In the winter of 1920 he was elected 
secretary of the department of Evangelism of the Centenary Movement of 
the Methodist Episcopal Mission, and during this time Dr. Chen has devoted 
his time to evangelistic work, visiting important centers of the Methodist 
Mission. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



145 




Mr. Eugene Chen 

(Chen Yu-jen) 

Mr. Eugene Chen is a Cantonese who was born abroad. He is British- 
educated and has had a legal training. In 1912 he acted as legal adviser 
to the Ministry of Communications, Peking, during the premiership of 
Tang Shao-yi, who formed the first Cabinet under the Republican regime 
in China. Besides other dailies, he owned and edited the Peking Gazette. 
His first notable work in the cause of renascent China was done on that 
paper. Mr. Chen has suffered imprisonment in the cause of liberty. In 
May 1917, the powerful pro-Japanese section of the then Peking admin- 
istration caused him to be arrested, shortly after midnight, for an article 
which had appeared in the Peking Gazette, disclosing and denouncing cer- 
tain sinister negotiations which later developed into the China-Japan Milit- 
ary Pact of 1918. After a term of incarceration in two Peking jails, 
which somewhat impaired his health, Mr. Chen was liberated in pursuance 
of a Presidential mandate ordering his release. He left Peking soon after 
for Shanghai, where he was in close touch with Dr. Sun Yat-sen ;and 
other Southern leaders during the eventful months which followed the 
second forcible dissolution of Parliament in 1917. When the Military 
government at Canton decided to despatch a diplomatic mission to the 
United States in the summer of 1918, Mr. Chen was selected as a member. 



146 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



his colleagues being Quo Tai-chi and C. T. Wang. Mr. Chen was sent as 
a technical delegate in the Southern section of the Chinese deleg^ation to 
the Peace Conference at Paris in 1919. He prepared some of the principal 
documents of the delegation, including an important memorandum which set 
forth China's case for the abrogation of the treaties and not3S connected 
with Japan's Twenty-One Demands. The late Dr. George E. Morrison, who 
was attached to jthe delegation as a political advisDr, declared that this 
memorandum was the ablest state paper which the Chinese delegation had 
submitteed for the consideration of the Peace Conference. After the Peace 
Conference, Mr. Chen went to London and visited various centers of con- 
tinental Europe, investigating' post-war conditions and studying, on the 
spot, the political and economic problems arising out of the vast litter and 
profound changes caused by the war. After an absence of nearly three 
years in America and Europe, Mr. Chen returned to China in the summer 
1920. On his arrival at Canton, President Sun Yat-sen immediat3ly appointed 
him to an important office. Late in 1924 when Dr. Sun Yat-sen gave up 
his post at Canton, he was accompanied by Mr. Chen. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



147 




Mr. Chi-Pao Cheng 

m ^- ii^m ^ 

(Ch'eng Ch'i-pao) 

Mr. Chi-Pao Cheng was born in Nanchan;^ in 1897. He entered Tsing 
Hua College at the age of 15. While there, he was one of the leading 
students and was once editor-in-chief of the Tsing Hua Journal, a monthly 
published alternately in English and Chinese. Mr. Cheng was sent to 
America by this College in the summer of 1918 and first entered Hamlin 
University as a senior student. Half a year later he was appointed a 
member of the War Work Council and was sent to France with the Y. M. C. 
A. as a secretary. Mr. Cheng rendered valuable service to the associa- 
tion and also to the Chinese Labor Battalion under the French Army. He 
travelled extensively throughout Europe and contributed to several Paris 
papers. Mr. Cheng returned to Hamlin in April 1920 land received his B. 
A. degree in the same summer. Hte then entered the University of Wis- 
consin and the University of Chicago and took his M. A. degtee from the 
latter institution. He then enrolled as a graduate student in Teachers' 



14^ WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



College, Columbia University, where he will receive his Ph. D, degree 
upon the publication of his thesis. In July 1923, he was made a member of 
China's delegation to the world Conference on Education in San Francisco. 
His work there was well received. Upon his return to China, in September 
1923, Mr. Cheng was appointed the executive secretary of the National 
Southeastern University — an important position in the institution. At the 
same time, he is exerting large influence upon Chinese education through 
his work, lectures and writings. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



149 




General CK'eng K'e 

g ^ ^ # ife 

General Ch'eng K'e was born in Kaifeng, Honan Province, in 1878. 
He first studied law during the Manchu Regime and then went to Japan 
and attended the Imperial University where he graduated from the law 
department. Upon his return from Japan General Ch'eng organized a re- 
volutionary organ in Tientsin with the object of overthrowing the Manchu 
regime. He was arrested by the authorities but through the good offices 
of the late Chao Ping-chun, former Chihli Governor and Prime Minister, he 
was liberated and subsequently given official appointment. After the estab- 
lishment of the Republic in 1912, General Ch'eng became a Councillor of 
the Ministry of the Interior, a Deputy of the Bureau for Parliamentary 
Affairs and Legal Councillor to President Yuan Shih-kai. In 1913 he was 
elected a senator representing Tibet. In June 1914 he was appointed 



150 WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



Taoyin of Hanchung Circuit, Shensi, and while there worked against the 
cultivation of opium. Subsequently he was transferred to the position of 
High Commissioner for Altai in December 1915. During! his residence in 
Altai he looked after both foreign and Chinese affairs with satisfaction to 
all concerned. He remained there for fiive years and in 1920 retired. In 
December 1919 General Ch'eng was awarded the Second-class Paokuang 
Chiaho. In 1922 General Ch'eng assisted General Feng Yu-hsiang in Honan 
in the management of military affairs. In January 1923 General Ch'eng was 
appointed acting Minister of Justice and in January 1924 he was made " a 
Lieutenant General and transferred from the post of Acting Minister of 
Justice to that of Minister of the Interior in the Sun P^o-chi cabinet. 
This position he is still holding at this date. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



151 




Dr. F. T. Cheng 

(Ch'cng T'ien hsH 

Dr. F. T. Cheng was born at Hsiangshan Hsien, Kwangtung Province, 
in 1884. He received his early education in Hongkong. In 1907 he went 
to Londoii for higher education and in 1909 joined the University of Lon- 
don and graduated with honors in law in 1912. In 1913 he was called to 
the Bar, after which he did some research work and obtained a Doctorate 
of Laws of the University of London, being the first Chinese to obtain 
that honor. In 1916 he won the Quain Prize of the University of London 
in a public essay competition in international law. In the same year he 



15: 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



was elected an honorary member of the Grotius Society of London, a 
rare distinction for a Chinese. While reading in London he wrote a book 
on "Rules of Private International Law Determining Capacity to Con- 
tract," which was described by the International Law Notes of London 
as "a learned and most clear-headed piece of work;." He returned to 
China in 1917 and was admitted to the Hongkong Bar, He went to Pek- 
ing towards the end of 1917. At first was attached to the Ministry of 
Justice and in 1918 was appointed Chief Compiler of the Law Codification 
Commission. In 1919 he was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court. 
In January 1920 Dr. Ch'eng was decorated by the Fourth Order of Chi- 
aho and in the same month appointed Standing Examiner of the Final 
Examination for Judicial Officials. In September 1920 Dr. Cheng was 
transferred back to the Law Codification Commission. Since his arrival 
in Peking he has translated a number of works of Chinese legal literature 
into English, among which may be mentioned the "Supreme Court deci- 
sions" "High Prize Court Judgments," "Draft Code of Criminal Procedure," 
and "Supreme Court Regulations." He has brought out an English version 
to the draft civil code. Dr. Cheng was elected a member of the Interna- 
tional Law Association of London. In September 1921 Dr. Ch'eng was 
appointed Legal Expert to the Chinese Delegation to the Pacific Conference. 
In June 1922 he was again appointed Chief Compiler of the Law Codifica- 
tion Commission which position he resigned in November 192-3. 



• 



%^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



153 




Dr. Ch'eng Ching-i 

1^ If fi& ^ a - 

Dr. Ch'eng Ching-i was born of Manchu parents. Like his father, 
who for twenty-five years was a Minister of the Gospel in connection with 
the London Missionary Society Church in Peking until his death, Cheng 
Ching-yi has been a member of their branch of the Church from childhood. 
Receiving his education under Christian influence he decided voluntarily 
to devote the rest of his life to the propagation of the Fu-yin (Blessed 
News). He served as Church Secretary in the London Missionary Society, 
Peking, from 1900 to 1903. Dr. Ch'eng was appointed assistant revisor 
of the Chinese text of the New Testament and served in this capacity 
for three years. From 1908 to 1913 Dr. Ch'eng was pastor of the three 
self-supporting churches of the London Missionary Society and in 1910 
was representative of the Chinese Churches of the London Missionary Soc- 
iety to the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh. From 1910 to 1913 
Dr. Ch'eng was the only Chinese member of the Edinburgh Continuation 



154 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Committee. In 1913 he was appointed Chinese general secretary of the 
China Continuation Committee. This position he is still holding. In 
1916 one of the Canadian universities conferred upon Dr. Ch'eng the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. He is the only Chinese to 
hold this degree from a British University j Dr. Ch'eng was one of the 
prime movers in the organization of the China-for-Christ Movement in 
1919 and was later elected the general secretary. Dr. Ch'eng was un- 
animously elected the First Chairman of the National Christian Confer- 
ence, the initial meetings of which were held in the Shanghai Town Hall 
from May 2 to 11, 1922. Dr. Ch'eng left China in August 1922 for 
America and Canada on a two year's furlough. He is at present taking 
special courses of study in the leading universities, after which he will 
go probably to Europe to study conditions there. In 1918 Dr. Ch'eng 
was appointad chairman of the Chinese Home Missionary Society, Shang- 
hai an organization composed entirely of Chinese that has been doing 
the work of sending Chinese missionaries to inland China such as the 
remote part of Yunnan, Szechuan, Kueichow, etc. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



155 




Mr. T. T. Cheng 

fe ^ *r 

(Ch'eng T'ien-tou) 

Mr. T. T. Cheng was born at Hsiangshan Kwangtung, in 1891. He 
went to Honolulu when he was a young boy, and attended Mills Institute, 
Oahu College, and other institutions of learning, leaving there for Am- 
erica in 1906, attending first the Stanford and then the Chicago Universi- 
ty, receiving the degree of Ph. B. from the latter. Mr. Cheng was ap- 
pointed soon after the Revolution, Coinmissioner of Public Works in Canton. 
During his term of office, he proposed the demolition of the ancient city 
wall, the widening of the streets of Canton, the improvement of the Tai- 
sba-tao, dredging of the Whanspoa to admit larger steamers, and general 
conservancy work. Since his retirement from politics in 1915 Mr. 



156 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Cheng, has been working on industrial lines, two years ago in the 
organization at Hongkong of the Industrial and Commercial Bank with 
offices at No. 6 Des Vouex Road. Up to summer 1923 Mr. Cheng was 
manager of the Provincial Bank of Kwangtung and Commissioner of Finance 
of the same Province under Dr. Sun Yat-sen. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



157 





General Ch'i Hsieh-yuan 

General Ch'i Hsieh-yuan was born at Ning-ho Hsien, Chihli Province, 
in 1879. He received his Chinese education from regular Confucian 
schooh and was a Licentiate (B. A.). Afterwards he enrolled in the Pei- 
yang Military Academy and graduated with honors in 1906 from the 
Artillery Department of that institution. Later he enrolled at the Lu 
Chun (Army) University, remained there about one year, and graduated. 
After graduation General Ch'i was appointed Second Officer of the 23rd 



158 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Regiment and later promoted to be First Deputy Commander of the Sec- 
ond Division of the later Imperial Army. Later he was promoted to be 
Second Staff-Officer of the First Division and then First Staff-Officer. Still 
later he became Staff Officer to the Commander-in-Chief of the Southern 
Honan Army. In 1909 General Oh'i was appointed Chief Staff-Officer to 
the following military units: The 6th Division of the Imperial Army; 
Left Headquarters of the First Army ; Defence Commissioner of West 
Yangtze; and Office of Governor of Kiangsi. In 1910 General Ch'i resigned 
from the position of Chief Staff-Officer and became Commander of the Fifth 
Reserve Brigade of the 6th Division and concurrently Commander of the 
11th and the 12th Infantry Brigades of the same Division. In 1912 General 
Ch'i was appointed a Field Commander and was awarded the Fourth Order 
of Merit. He was in command of the 12th Brigade of the 6th Division until 
December 1917 when he was promoted to be Commander-in-Chief of the 
6th Division and Occupation Commissioner of Nanking. In November 
1918 General Ch'i was conferred the Second Order >of Tashou Chiaho 
and in August 1919 the Second . Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. 
In May 1920, General Ch'i was ordered to assist in the superintend- 
ing of military affairs of Kiangsu. At that time the late General Li Ch'un 
was Tuchun, of Kiangsu. On October 2, 1920 Li Ch'un was appointed 
High Inspecting Commissioner of Kiangsu, Anhui and Kiangsi, and General 
Ch'i the Assistant Commissioner. On October 8th General Ch'i was given 
the brevet rank of Full General, and on the 10th the Third Order of Merit. 
The sudden death of General Li Ch'un occurred on October 12th and Gen- 
eral Ch'i was ordered on the 15th to act for Tuchun of Kiangsu. Vn 
December 1920 he was appointed Acting Tuchun and in September 1921 
Tuchun of Kiangsu. In July 1922 General Ch'i was made a Chiangchun 
with the honorable title of the two words Ning Wu. In August he was 
given the; concurrent post of director-general of the Pukow Port Construc- 
tion Board. In October he was m'ade a Full General. In June 1923, General 
Ch'i was conferred the First Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
November 1923 he was appointed High Inspecting Commissiotaer of Kiang- 
su, Anhui and Kiangsi. He was also made a Shan Chiang Chun or Field 
Marshal with the special title "Ning Wu." In March 1924 General Ch'i 
was relieved of the concurrent post of Director-General of the Pukow Con- 
struction Board. But in April he was appointed director-general of the 
Huai River Conservancy Board. He served as High Inspecting Commis- 
sioner of Kiangsu-Anhui-Kiangsi and Tuchun of Kiangsu until September 
1924, following the outbreak of war between Chekiang and Kianglsu pro- 
vinces. Marshal Chi was made Commander of the Chihli armies in attempt 
to subjugate Chekiang province. In October 1924 Marshal Chi in associa- 
tion with Marshal Sun Chuan-fang of Chekiang and Fukien provinces, was 
successful in defeating Marshal Lu Yung-hsiang of Chekiang. The victory, 
however, was shortlived, owing to the defeat of the Chihli party in the 
North and in the elimination of Marshal Wu Pei-fu as a military factor in 
North China. When the Provisional government under Marshal Tuan Chi- 
jui, was established in Peking, Marshal Chi was deprived of his office by 
official Mandate. "Then the Provisional government despatched General 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 159 



Chang Chung-chang with a Fengtien force to Nanking, Marshal Chi gave 
up his post at Nanking and proceeded to Shanghai where he organized a new 
rebellion against the Peking Government. His forces, however, were 
defeated in the vicinity of Chinkiang, chiefly the cause of the use of 
Russian conscript soldiers in the Fengtien army. Following the defeat of 
his armies, Marshal Chi went to Japan where he is now residing. 



^ 



160 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ch'i Yao-lin 

Mr. Ch'i Yao-lin was born at I-tung Hsien, Kirin Province, in 1864. 
He became a Chin-shih, or Metropolitan, graduate in 1894. Mr. Ch'i 
started his official career as m,agistrate in several districts in the Province 
of Chihli. In February 1908 he was appointed Taotai of the Yungting 
Ho, one of the five main waterways of Chihli. In January 1910 Mr. Ch'i 
was promoted to be Chief Justice of Chihli later called Judicial Commis- 
sion. In the early part of 1911 Mr. Ch'i was provincial treasurer of Kiangsu 
and in November became provincial treasurer of Honan. Before he arrived 
at the n§w post, he had been ap'pointed Governor of Honan. In March 
1912. when the Revolution was over, Mr. Ch'i was appointed the Tutuh or 
Governor, of Honan. He held this position only for one month and then 
resigned. In June 1913, when the administration of military and civil af- 
fairs were separated, Mr. Ch'i was appointed Mingcheng-ching or Civil 
Governor of Kirin, his native province. In May 1914 he became Hsunan- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 161 



shih, the new designation for civil governors. In July 1914 Mr. Ch'i was 
transferred to be Hsunanshih of Kiangsu. In July 1916 the designation 
for civil governors was changed from Hsunanshih to Shengchang; there- 
upon Mr. Ch'i beecame Shengchang of Kiangsu. From July 8th to August 
6th, 1917 he acted concurrently Tuchun of Kiangsu, being proceeded by 
Feng Kuo-chang and succeeded by the late General Li Ch'un. In Septem- 
ber 1919, Mr. Ch'i was conferred the First Order of Wenfu. In 1920 there 
was some misunderstanding between Mr. Ch'i and the Kiangsu Provincial 
Assembly. The latter impeached him in the Assembly Hall and the former 
had to give up the post. He was i officially relieved of the post of Sheng- 
chang on September 18, 1920. Ever since that time, Mr. Ch'i has been 
a resident in Tientsin. 



^ 



162 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ch'i Yao-shan 

Mr. Ch'i Yao-shan was born af l-tung' Hsien, Kirin Province, in 
1867. Through competitive examinations, he became a Chu-jen, Provin- 
cial Graduate, in 1889 and a Chih-shih, Metropolitan Graduate, in 1890. 
He Vvegan his career as secretary of the Imperial Chancery and a 
companion of the Emperor in study. Later the rank of sub-prefect was 
conferred upon him. Various official positions he held in the Ching re- 
gime were as follows: Expectant Prefect of Hupeh, chief secretary to 
the Governor of Hupeh, chief of the police at Wuchang, Acting Prefect 
of Ichang, Proctor of the Hupeh Mint, chief secretary of the Hupeh Re- 
organization Bureau, director of the army Medical College, assistant chief 
of staff of the army training headquarters in Hupeh, secretary to the 
Viceroy of Hupeh and Hunan, director of the silver mint in Hupeh, chief 
Instructor for the Hupeh army training headquarters, chief adjutant of 
the Southern force in the autumn manoeuvre at Changteh, Honan, direc- 
tor of the Hupeh Reorganization Bureau, director of the Martial Court in 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 163 



Hupeh, director of the Szechuen Salt Administration at Ichang, Customs 
superintendent at Chinchow and Ichang, Customs Taotai at Hankow, super- 
intendent of Foreign Affairs at the *ame place, acting Educational Com- 
missioner. From January 1913 to July 1913 Mr. Ch'i was Chief of the Salt Re- 
organization Bureau which later became the Salt Administration. In April 
1915 Mr. Ch'i was appointed Acting T'san Cheng of the T'san-Cheng-Yuan 
or the State Advisory Council. In June 1915 he was appointed President 
of the Commission for the Consideration of People's Livelihood. In Aug- 
ust 1915 he became a substantial T'san Cheng. In October 1915 he was 
conferred the Fourth Order of Chiaho. In January 1917 Mr. Ch'i was 
appointed Shengchang, or Civil Governor, of Chekiang. This position he 
held for more than two years. In June 1920 he was appointed Sheng- 
chang of Shantung which post he held until October 1920. In May 1921 
Mr. Ch'i joined the Cabinet as Minister of the Interior. In June he was 
given a concurrent position in the Director Generalship of the Metropoli- 
tan Municipal Office. In July he became President of the Bank of Agri- 
culture and Commerce. In October, Director General of the Famine Re- 
lief. In November he was conferred the First Order of Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. On December 24th, when the Cabinet was reorganized, he was 
transferred to be Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. On December 
27th, he was given the concurrent position of Acting Minister of Educa- 
tion. In January 1922, Mr. Ch'i was given another position, namely, the 
President of the Commission for the Investigation of Food supplies. In 
January he was relieved of both the Director-General of the Famine Relief 
Bureau and of the Municipal Office. In April he was relieved of the post 
of Acting Minister of Education. In June he was removed from the Minis- 
try of Agriculture and Commerce. In November 1922 he was conferre.d 
the First Order of Wenfu. Mr. Ch'i is now the President of the Bank of 
Agriculture and Commerce. He has been residing at Tientsin ever since 
he retired from Peking. 



^ 



164 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chiang CK'ao-tsung 

General Chiang Ch'ao-tsung was born at Ching-te Hsien Anhui province, 
in 1859. He began his official career as an expectant Taotai in the Ching 
Dynastj\ Before he came to Peking he was the Brigade-General in com- 
mand of Hanchung Garrison. In July 1912 General Chiang became Acting 
Commander-in-Chief of the Metropolitan Gendarmiere and also Deputy 
Lieutenant-General of the Bordered Red Chinese Banner. In December 1912 
the first mentioned post was substantiated to him. In Alay 1917 General 
Chiang was awarded the First Order of Wenfu, the highest military order. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 165 



About the same time he was appointed Assistant Commander of the forces 
for the maintenance of order in Peking and Tientsin. In. June 1917 Gen- 
eral Chiang accepted the post of Acting Premier and countersigned Pre- 
sident Li Yuan-hung's mandate dissolving the Parliament. In the begin- 
ning of July General Chang Hsun made the attempt to restore the oid 
monarchy. General Chiang being an old official of the Ching Dynasty waa 
soon favored with two appointments, Comm^der-in-Chief of the Imperial 
Metropolitan Gendarmerie and Director-General of the Peking Octroi. The 
monarchical restoration did not last long as Chang Hsun's forces were soon 
brought into subjection by Marshal Tuan Chi-jui's army. All those who 
had accepted appointments from the coup d'etat were suspected of symp- 
athy to Chang Hsun. General Chiang consequently resigned from all the 
posti! that he had been hitherto holding and retired into private life in 
Peking where he is at present considered a leading citizen. In August 1917 
he was created a Chiang Chun of the Chiang Chun Fu or the College of 
Marshals with the special title of two words "Ti Wei." In October 1922 
President Li Yuan-hung conferred upon General Chiang the Third Order of 
Merit in recognition of the service he had rendered to the country during 
the first few years of the Republic. 



.^ 



=i 



166 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Kiang Kang-hu 

tC /L J^ ^ /L J^ 
(Chiang Kang>hu) 

Dr. Kiang Kang-hu was born at Shang-jao Hsien, Kiangsi Province 
in 188S. When he was a youth he was given a thorough education in 
Chinese literature and the classics. Dr. Kiang received his modern ed- 
ucation first in Japan, then in Belgium and hst in America. In the Chang 
time, after 1900, Dr. Kiang held the following positioire: Director of the 
Pei Yang Translation and Compilation Bureau; senior secretary of the Board 
of Justice: professor of the Peking Imperial University. After the first 
revolution which resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China 
Dr. Kiang organized the Socialist Party and was chosen leader. The par- 
ty was dissolved by the order of Yuan Shih-kai, in November 1911. In 
the following year he was proscribed by Yuan Shih-kai who ordered to 
arrest him. He had to leave China and for several years he was a refugee 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 167 



in America. "While in America Dr. Kiang interested himself in educational 
work. Then he was lecturer in the University of California; and in charge at 
one time of Oriental Collections, Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 
It was from the University of California that he was conferred the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In 1921 Dr. ,Kiang travelled extensively 
throughout Soviet Russia. In 1922 after having returned to China, he or- 
ganized the Southern University at Shanghai and is now its President. In 
summer 1924 he extended the activity of his University by establisjiing' 
the Peking Division of the Southern University. The Socialist Party of 
China was reorganized in June 1924 and Dr. Kiang is still its leader. Dr. 
Kiang; is a well known writer. Among many of his works that have been 
published are: A series of text books on Chinese Literature (1905); A 
series of lectures on the World History (1910); "Hung Shui Chi" or "The 
Flood" (1913;) Chinese and Social Revelation (1913); A iseries of lectures 
on Chinese Classics (1920); Travels in New Rus.siaifl923).;ThePoem6of 
the Tang Dynasty (1923); Collection of Addresses and Speeches (1923). 
Dr. Kiang's address is 44, Markham Road, Shanghai, or 2, Fu Yuan Shih 
Hou-Chieli. Peking. 



168 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Monlin Chianif 

(Chiang Meng-lin) 

Dr. Monlin Chiang was born at Yu-yao Hsien, Chekiang Province, in 
1884. He received his education first in the Chekiang Provincial College, 
Hangchow, and later in the Nanyang College, Shanghai. He was a student 
of Mr. Tsai Yuan-pei, Councillor of the Peking Governm-ent University. 
In 1904 he became a Licentiate or B. A. Dr. Chiang went to America in. 
1908. For four years he studied in the University of California where he 
jgraduated with the degree of B. L. During 1909-1912 he was chief editor 
of the Chinese Free Press, the revolutionary organ of Dr. Sun Yat-sen of 
San Francisco. In 1912 Dr. Chiang entered the University of Columbia 
and studied subjects on Education and Philosophy under Drs. John Dewey 
and Paul Monroe, In 1913 he reseived the degree of M. A. and in 1917 
that of Ph.D. Dr. Chiang returned to China in 1917. He founded the 
"New Education" (1918-1920). He joined the Department of Philosophy 
of the Peking Government University in 1919. During 1919-1920 he helped 
Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei in reorganizing the administration of the University. 
This reorganization has influenced very much the educational institutions in 
China. Dr. Chiang became Dean of the Department of Philosophy in 1921. 
Since 1919 he has been the Chairman of thi Administration Council. In 
1921, during the absence of Tsai Yuan-pei in Europe, Dr. Chiang was Act- 
ing Chancellor. In September 1921, Dr. Chiang and Dr. David Yui went 



m 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 169 



to America to attend the Washington Confc-i'ince as the Chinese people's 
delegation elected by the National Association of the Chambers of Com- 
merce and National Federation of the Educational Associations. After 
the Conference, he travelled in France and many other European countries. 
In 192S Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei left China for Europe to study aesthetics. He' 
nominated Dr. Chiang to be Acting Chancellor and the nomination met with 
the approval of the Academic Senate of the University.' This position Dr. 
Chiang is still holding. Dr. Chiang is the author of "A Study in Chinese 
Principles of Education." 



^ 



170 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. S. T. Kong 

(Chiang Shun-te) 

Dr. S. T. Kong, was born at Paoan Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1?80. He attended the Peiyang University Tienisin, from 1895 to 1900. 
The year of 1902 found him in the University of California where he 
studied for three years, graduating with the degree of B. S. in 1905. 
After that he spent two more years in the States attending Columbia 
University from which he got an M. A. degree in 1907. Upon returning 
to China, he was called to attend examination of returned students in 
Peking, and was conferred with a doctors degree in engineering by the 
Imperial Ching Government in 1909. Soon after he was engaged as min- 
ing and metallurgical engineer by the Provincial Government of Hunan 
at Changsha, which position he held until 1909. In 1909-1912, he was 
engineer-ir-chief for the Lead and Silver Smelting Works of the Plunan 
government. This work was the fii\st work started by Chinese on a sclent- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 171 



iSc scale, and is still going on at present. The year following found him 
as Engineer-in-Chief for the Canton government where concurrently he 
was Co-director for the Canton Government Analytical Laboratory and 
Chemical Department. He was engineer-in-chief for the Tsang Shing Mau- 
Fung-Shan Gold Mining and Milling Company 1913-1915. After that he 
was. engineer-in-chief and technical manager of the Hunan Government 
Smelting Works which is for smelting antimony. When the great war was 
over, the price of antimony dropped almost to nothing. Dr. S. T. Kong 
proposed to the Hunan government to run the works for smelting Chinese 
copper cash for copper and zinc. He succeeded in turning out pure cop- 
per and zinc which played a great part in keeping down the price of 
foreign copper in the province. Dr. Kong is the founder of the Bright 
Star Company, zinc oxide, colors and paints manufacturers, and he is its 
manager and engineer-in-chief. It has works at Changsha, Hunan, and 
head-office at Hankow. Dr. Kong is also at present the president of the 
Board of Directors of the Dau Sung School, newly founded at Hankow. 
H»; is also the manager of the Hankow oiFice of the National Commercial 
and Savings Bank of Hongkong. He is interested in the Chinese Y.M.C.A. 
work and is the chairman of the board of directors of the Wu-Han Y.M. 
C.A. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of the Boone University, 
Wuchang, and member of the American Institute «f Mining and Metallur- 
gical Engineers since 1905. 



JC 



172 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr Chiang T'ien-to 

Mr. Chiang T'ien-to was born at Hua Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1879. He received his early education in the old Confucian schools and 
went to Japan in 1902 for his modern education, where he studied Poli- 
tical Science and Law at Waseda University; graduating in 1907. After 
returning to China, Mr. Chiang j-oined the Compilation Bureau of the 
Mingchenpu or Board of the Interior. He became involved in early re- 
volutionary activities and was forced to go to Japan where he took a post- 
graduate course in Political Science at Waseda University. In 1910 he 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 173 



returned to China and became a teacher in the High Police School in 
Peking and also practiced law in the capital after the First Revolution. He 
was later elected a member of Parliament which assembled in Peking in 
April 191 3 and served when that body was in session. In July 1917, shortly 
after the overthrow of Chang Hsun's Tnonarchical movement, he was ap- 
pointed Vice-Minister of Agriculture and Commerce which position he held 
for more than three years. In January 1920 Mr. Chiang was awarded the 
Vice-Minister of Agriculture and Commerce which position he held for 
more than three years. In January 1920 Mr. Chiang was awarded the 
First Order of Wenfu. In February he w.as appointed Minister of Agri- 
culture and Commerce and was also given the concurrent position of the 
President of the Food Supply Investigation Commission. In August 1920 
he retired from both positions. Wlien Parliament was reconvened by 
President Li Yuan-hung, Mr. Chiang again was a, member. Later he was 
again appointed Vice-Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. This he held 
until August 1922 when he was appointed director general of the National 
Conservancy Bureau. In September 1923 he was given the concurrent post 
of vice-president of the Yangtze River Commission. In October 1922 he 
was awarded the First Order of Tashou Chiaho. In May 1924 Mr. Chiang 
resigned from the posts of director-general of the National Conservancy 
Bureau and vice-president of the Yangtze River Commission, because it 
was required that an M. P. should not hold other offices. 



174 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tsiang T«eng-yi 

(Chiang Tseng-i) 

Mr. Tsiang Tseng-yi was born at Raining Hsien, Chekiang Province, 
in 1877. In his youth he acquired high education in Chinese and became 
a Hsiu-t'sai or Licentiate in his teens and obtained the literary degree of 
Chu-jen or Provincial Graduate when he was little over twenty. In 1904 
he attended the Metropolitan Competitive Examination and obtained the de- 
gree of Chin Shih, Metropolitan graduate, which is equivalent to Ph.D. 
Having become a Chin-shih, Mr. Tsiang was awarded the rank of 
secretary of the Grand Secretariat of State. In the following seven years 
before the establishment of the Republic, Mr. Tsiang was at different 
times junior secretary of the Board of the Interior, junior secretary of the 
Board of Finance, assistant senior secretary of the Board of Communica- 
tions and finally director in charge of the Department of Telegraphs of 
the Board of Communications. By that time the t3legraphy sarvice was 
partly in the hands of a commercial company. Upon becorafng a director 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 175 



of the Telegrraphs, Mr. Tsiang proposed the plan of nationalizing all the 
telegraph establishments. His proposal received the approval of the govern- 
ment and was carried out accordingly. He was also responsible for the 
establishment of two radio stations at Peking and Nanking respectively in 
1911. Mr. Tsiang left the Board of Communications for sometime after the 
establishment of the Republic in 1913. However, he joined the Board 
(then changed into Ministry of Communications) in 1913. From that time 
until 1916 he was Chief of the Financial Bureau of the Department of 
Telegraphs, Posts and Navigation. 

During 1917 and 1918 Mr. Tsiang was Councillor of the Ministry of 
Communications, first acting then substantiated. In January 1919 Mr. Tsiang 
was appointed acting director in charge of the Department of Telegraphs 
and concurrently director-general of the Government Telegraphs and Tele- 
phone establishments. In June he was substantiated to this acting post. 
In January 1920 Mr. Tsiang was awarded the Second Order of Wenfu. In 
September 1920 he was a member of the Famine Relief Committee of the 
Ministry. In December 1920 he was ordered to assist in the organization 
of the Communications University. In February 1921 Mr. Tsiang was confer- 
red the Second Order of Chiaho. In March 1922 Mr. Tsiang received two 
concurrent posts, namely, executive member of the Commission in Com- 
munications Questions in connection with the Retrocession of Shantung and 
chairman of the Telegraphy Accounts Commission. In May 1922 Mr. Tsiang 
was removfid from all his posts in the Ministry of Communications. 



176 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chiang Tso-pin 

General Chiang Tso-pin was born at Yinchen. Hupei Province, in 1883. 
After having received Chinese education in the native province, he went 
to Japan where he entered and graduated from the Imperial University in 
Tokyo. In December 1907 he enrolled in the Military Officers' Academy. 
He was one of the 64 Chinese students of the fourth battfh admitted to 
that Academy. General Chiang took the course on Infantry. Upon his 
return to China after graduation from the Academy, he took examinations 
in Peking and was given the rank of Chu-ien. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed a professor in the Government Military College. There he trans- 
lated into Chinese several Japanese books on military tactics and ter- 
minology which brought to him much fame. While in Japan, General 
Chiang made the acquaintance of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, and became a strong 
revolutionary agitator. He took a prominent part in the First Revolution. 
The Provisional government was inaugurated in Nanking on January Ist 
1912, the Brithday of the Chinese Republic. On the 4th, President Sun 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 177 



Yat-sen in a Mandate made Chiang Tso-pin a Full General, and appointed' 
him Vice-Minister of War. In April 1912, General Chiang was appointed 
Vice-Minister of War. This position he held until May 1916 when he was 
promoted to be Chiangchim of the Chiangchunfu, or Military Council. 
The special title given to him as Chiangchun was "Yeh-Wei". General 
Hsu Shu-tseng, commonly known as "Little Hsu" succeeded him as Vice- 
Minister of War. In July 1916 Mr. Chiang was appointed Vice-Chief of 
the General Staff. In July 1917 he was ordered to be arrested by Chang 
Hsun because of his opposition to Chang's attempt to restore the old mon- 
archy but he had left Peking before the order was issued. Finally Chang 
failed and at the end of July 1917 General Chiang officially sent in his 
resignation which was accepted by Tuan Chi-jui. General Chiang was 
Military Advisor to the Chinese Delegation at the World Peace Conference 
at Versailles, in 1918. Since his retirement from Peking offices, he 
has been in association with the Southern military and political leaders in 
the attempt to overthrow the Northern militarists. The trouble in Hupei 
against Peking in 1921 brought General Chiang's name to the fore. In 
the summer of the same year, he rose against Gerieral Wang^ Chan-yuan 
then Tuchun of Hupei, and was elected Commandter-in-Ohief of the staff 
government troops' of that Province. He advocated the control of Hupei 
by the Hupei people. Ais a result of the uprising, WanSg" Chan-yuan was 
compelled to give up his dual post of Tuchun of Hupei and the High In- 
specting Commissioner of Hunan and Hupei. General Chiang did not suc- 
ceed to make Hupei controlled by the Hupei people, for he himself was 
subsequently defeated by General Wu Pei-fu who became High Inspecting 
Commissioner of Hunan and Hupei. Later General Chiang went to Canton 
and joined Dr. Sun Yat-sen who at once appointed him the Director- General 
of Operations in the campaign against the North. General Chiang is a 
fellow provincial and a close friend of President Li Yuan-hung. When 
Li Yuan-hung was invited by the Chihli Generals to re-assume the Presidency 
of China which he actually did in June 1922 after the Chihli-Mukden War, 
General Chiang did everything he could to urge his old friend not to accept 
that invitation. In October 1922, President Li conferred on him the Third 
Order of Merit. 



178 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chiang Yen-hsing 

#)! ^f '# sr B 

General Chiang Yen-hsing was born at Fou-ch'eng Hsien, Chihli 
province, and was graduated from the Peiyang Military Academy in Tientsin. 
In 1901 General Chang was sent to Japan with 38 other military graduates 
forming the first group of Chinese students to study in the Japan Military 
Officer's Academy. From this institution he later graduated and specialized 
in the infantry department. Upon returning to China, General Chiang 
joined the Peiyang Military clique. Subsequently he was appointed Coun- 
cillor to the Headquarters of the Commander of Kiangpei Northern Kiangsu 
Troops and concurrently Commander of the 13th Piao or Brigade stationed 
at Tsingkiangpu. During the first Revolution, General Chiang was elected 
Tutu or Military Commander of Kiangpey. In July 1913 he was appointed 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 179 



Special Military Commissioner to Kiang-Huai. In August 1913 he became 
Director-General of the Kiangpei military affairs. In September 1914 Gen- 
eral Chiang was called to Peking and was made a "Chiang-cihun of the 
Chiangchunfu" or College of Marshals his special fitter being "Ching Wei." 
Later he was appointed Director General for the Promotion of Military 
Standards. From October 1916 to July 1917 General Chiang was Tutung of 
Suiyuan Special Area. In August 1920 he was appointed Deputy-Chief of 
General Staff which position he is still holding. In October 1919 General 
Chiang was awarded the First Order of Wenfu; in October 1920, the First 
Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho; in October 1922, the Second Order of 
Merit. In March 1923 General Chiang was appointed a member of the 
Commission for the study of questions regarding Mongolia. In December 
1923 General Chiang was made a Full General. 



^ 



180 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Chian Yung 

Mr. Chiang Yung, was born at Changtinghsien, Fukien, in 1877. He 
studied at Waseda University where he specialized in law and economics. 
In 1907, the Imperial government appointed him to conduct a mission to 
study the Japanese educational system. He graduated from Waseda in 
the autumn of the same year. Upon his return to China Mr. Chiang was 
engaged by the late President Yuan Shih-kai, who was then Grand Councillor, 
to be a teacher in the law school. Later he was transferred to the Board 
of Education, and later Dean of the law college. In 1908 Minister Shen 
had studied abroad and was given the degree of M. A. In 1910 he suc- 
cessfully passed the Imperial Examinations and received the degree of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 181 



LL.D. In December 1911, two months after the outbreak of the First Revolu- 
tion, Mr. Chang was appointed by Yuan Shih-kai, then Imperial Prime 
Minister, as a delegate representing the Ching House at the Internal Peace 
Conference held at Shanghai, the Chief Delegate being Mr. Tang Shao-yi. 
In 1912, he was invited by Minister Tsai Yuan-pei of Education to 
be president of the Government Law College in Peking. In August 
1912 he was appointed Chief of the Metropolitan High Court. On Sep- 
tember 16, 1913, he was appointed vice-president of the Law Codification 
Commission. A week later the appointment was substantiated. In August 
1916 he was ordered to act for the Minister of Justice. This position he 
held until September 1916 when he resigned from the Vice-Ministership. On 
June 16, 1917 Mr. Chiang was ordered to act as Vice-Minister of Justice. 
From June 29 to July 17 he was Acting Minister of Justice. In July 26 
1917, he was appointed Vice-Minister. In December 1917 he became 
Minister of Justice which position he held until the end of March 1918. 
Subsequently Mr. Chiang was appointed director of Chinese Educa- 
tion. In January 1920 Mr. Chiang was conferred the First Order 
of Tashou Chiaho. In July 1920 after the overthrow of the Anfu 
Faction, he was appointed president of the Law Codification' Com- 
mission. In the beginning of 1921 he was appointed concurrently to hold 
the post of the president of the Commission for the Study of Jurisdiction. 
In February 1921 he was conferred the First Order of Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. In August 1921 he was relieved of the two concurrent posts. In 
1922 Mr. Chiang was conferred the Fourth Order of Merit. In the spring 
of 1923 he left Peking as a protest against the mishandling of Dr. Lo 
Wen-kan's case on the part of a few Cabinet ministers who, according to 
him, had taken law into their o^vn hands. He was officially relieved of 
the presidency of the Law Codification Commission in October 1923. In 
June 1923, Mr. Chiang founded in Peking' a weekly called The Law Review, 
of which he himself has been the editor-in-chief. Ever since he resigned 
from this official post, he has been practising law in Peking'. His present 
address is Pai-Mien-Tsao, East City, Peking. 



18^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ch'Ien Ch'ung-kai 

II ^ ^ '-3^ iHl ft 

Mr. Ch'ien Ch'ung-kai Was born at Ch'ing Hsien, Chihli Province, in 
1881. He attended the Tientsin Naval College for a few years and latei 
entered the Peiyang University from which 83hool he was graduated with 
distinction in English and mathematics. After graduation, he went to 
Manchuria and rendered service in educational work for a few years at 
Mukden, Hsinming, Liaoyang, and other places outside Shanhaikuan. Later 
he came; to Peking where he became a teacher of several schools, such as 
the Translation School, the High Industrial College, the Middle Military 
School, etc. Upon the outbreak of the Revolution in October 1911, Mr. 
Ch'ien and some of his friends who were in sympathy with the Revolution 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 183 



formed an organization in North China and played a part in the work of 
overthrowing the Manchu House. He served as Chief Staff Officer of the 
organization which served as head office for northern troops. In 1912, the 
year the Republic was founded, he was elected a member of the provisional 
provincial assembly of Chihli. In April 1913, the first Parliament was con- 
voked in Peking and Mr. Ch'ien served as a Chihli member of the Lower 
House. After the dissolution of the parliament by Yuan Shih-kai in 
January 1914, he joined the Salt Administration, first as Chief of the audit 
section of the Hotung District of the Salt Inspectorate, then as Chief of 
the Collection Section of the Fengtien district, and again as chief of the 
Kuangning Salt Revenue Bureau. Parliament was for the second time 
convoked in August 1916, after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, and Mr. Ch'ien 
remained a ' member until its second dissolution on June 13, 1917. Subse- 
quently he went to Canton where on August 27, 1917. the Extraordinary 
Parliament was convoked for the purpose o»f upholding the Provisional 
Constitution against the Northern military rule. In April 1922, Mr. Ch'ien's 
name appeared again in the Peking Government Gazette when he was ap- 
pointed director of the Government Salt Bureau. On President Li Yuan- 
hung's reassumption of office in June 1922, he reconvoked the parliament 
which he had dissolved in June 1917, and it reassembled in Peking on 
August 1, 1922. Mr. Ch'ien, a member of the House of Representatives, was 
subsequently elected chairman of the Budget Committee of the House. In 
December 1922, Mr. Ch'ien was awarded the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho ; 
in January 1923, the Second Order of Wenfu; and in March 1923, the Second 
Order of Tashou Packuang Chiaho. In June 1923 President Li Yuan-hung 
was again ousted and a number of parliamentarians deserted Peking as a 
protest against the coup d'etat. Mr. Ch'ien considered it illegal to deprive 
the Parliament of a quorum by staying away and he therefore, remained in 
Peking and succeeded in inducing the deserting members to return in order 
that the Constitution could be completed and a new President could be 
elected. 



184 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr* Pei-Yu Chien 

Mr. Pei-Yu Chien, was born in 1896 in Kiangyin, Kiangsu. After having 
finished his elementary school work, he went to Peking where he entered 
Tsing-hua College, After the Revolution of 1911, he became a student in 
Peking University of the Methodist Mission. He entered the Customs Col- 
lege, Peking, in 1914 and was graduated in 1918. He was then appointed 
to a position in the Chinese Maritime Customs in Tientsin where he stayed 
for three years. During his stay in Tientsin, Mr. Chien acted also as one 
of the editors of the Yin Shih Pao, or Social Welfare. In 1921, he was 
appointed the representative of Social Welfare to the Second Press Con- 
gress of the World held in Honolulu and then proceeded to Washington, 
D. C, to cover the Disarmament Conference for his paper. After the 
Washington Conference he attended the School of Journalism of the Univers- 
ity of Missouri, the oldest and best-known institution of its kind in the 
States, While he was in school, he won several prizes on account of his 
literarv attainments. He returned to China in June 1923, after receiving 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 1^5 



the degree of Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Missouri. 
Besides connected with a number of newspapers in Peking and Tientsin, he 
is now contributing editor of the China Weekly Review, Shanghai, and 
assistant editor of the North China Star, Tientsin. 

Mr. Chien joined the editorial staff of the North China Star, an Am- 
erican daily newspaper in Tientsin, in June, 1924 and after six months, 
he resigned to enter governmental services in Peking. He was appointed 
the Secretary to the Chinese Chief Inspector of the Salt Revenue Admin- 
stratiou, Ministry of Finance, which position he is still holding. Mr. 
Chien is still connected with the China Weekly Review in Shanghai as its 
contributing editor from the Capital and has contributed a number of in- 
teresting articles from semi-official sources. 



^ 



186 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Tsien Tai 
II # ^# Pg ^ 
(Ch'ien T'ai) 

Dr. Taien Tai was born at Chiashan Hsien, Chekiang Province, in 
1888. In 1906 he passed a "Competitive Examination by Imperial Grace" 
and obtained the degree of "Yu Kung Sheng" or Meritorious Senior 
Licentiate. He was a graduate of the University of Paris with the degree 
of LL.D. Dr. Tsien was for some time a Deputy Judge of the Peking Local 
Court, In January 1915 he was appointed a Secretary of the Ministry of 
Justice. In April he was delegated by the Ministry to be a member of the 
Measurements Standardization Commission under the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Commerce. In September he was appointed to hold concurrently the 
position of Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Ministry of Justice. 
In December he was appointed by the President to be Councillor of the 
same Ministry. In the same month the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and 
of Justice jointly invited him to be a member of the Judicial Discussion 
Commission. In April 1917 Dr. Tsien received another appointment in the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 187 



Ministry of Justice, the Chief of the Compilation Bureau. In August the 
Ministry delegated him to be a member of the Commission for the study 
of International Affairs at war time. In December he became Comptroller 
of the Law Translation Commission. In January 1918 Dr. Tsien was ap- 
pointed by the President to be Resident Member of the Commission for the 
Supervision of the Final Examination for Judicial Officials. In February 
he was invited by the Cabinet to be a member of the Preparation .Bureau 
for the Participation of the European Peace Conference. In December a 
Presidential Mandate appointed him to be Judicial Expert of the Chinese 
Delegation to the Paris Pease Conference. A Third Class Paokuang Chiaho 
Decoration was then conferred upon him. In July 1919 Dr. Tsien was 
delegated by the Ministry lof Justce to be a member of the International 
Communications Committee under the Ministry of Communications. In 
September he was invited to be a member of the Commission for the Study 
of the Peace Treaty in the Ministry of Foreign Affaire. In Oct'ober he 
was delegated as a member of the Temporary Commission ap-poinfced to 
take over the Russian Court on the Chines? Eastern Railway. In December 
the Waichiaopu and Ministry of Justice jointly appointed him to be a 
member of the Commission for the Study of Jurisdiction. At the same 
time he was appointed an Assistant Councillor of the Ministry of Foreigh 
Affairs. In December he was appointed a member 'of the Commission for 
the Study of Russian Affairs. In November 1920 Dr. Tsien was conferred 
the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. la March 1921 Dr. Tsien 
was appointsd by the Minister of Justice to be a member of the Com- 
mission for the Examination of the Service Records of Judicial Officials. 
In May a Presidential Mandate appointed hini a Director of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. Simultaneously he was appointed a member of the 
Councillors' Hall of the Ministry of Justice. In August the Waichiaopu 
a4)pointed him a member of the Bureau for the Preparatory Work for the 
Participatiori in the Washington Conference. In September he was ap- 
pointed legal expert to the Chinese Delegation to the Pacific Oonference. 
In November he was made a taember of the Commission for the study of 
Tibetan Questions. In March 1922 Dr. Tsien was appointed an expectaait 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. In June he was ap- 
pointed assistant director of the Secretariat of the Cabinet. In December 
the Waichiaopu appointed him a member of the Bureau for the Prepara- 
tion of Customs Conference. 

In May 1923 Dr. Tsien was appointed Advisor to the Bureau for the 
Preparation of Sino-Russian Conference. In June 1924 he was appointed 
Expert to the Sino-Russian Conference. He has been with this post two 
years and is still the Director des Traites et Conventions, Foreig-n Office 
Peking. The highest orders of honor Dr. Tsien at present holds are the 
Second Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and the Third Class Wenfu. Besides, he 
has been conferred by the French government with the Third Order of Black 
Star and by the Greek government the Second Order of Joseph. 



1^8 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. M. Y. Ch'ien 

(Ch'ien Yung-ming) 

Mr. M. Y, Ch'ien was born in Shanghai in 1885. He graduatefd 
from the Kobe Commercial College, of Kobe, Japan. Upon returning to 
China he engaged in the baixking business and became manager of the 
Shanghai branch of the Bank of Communications and in addition has served 
as Vice-President of the Shanghai Bankers' Association and director of the 
Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Chien has been director of 
the Peking Bankers' Association; director of the Chekiang Industrial Bank 
of Shanghai; director of the Great North- Western Bank; president of the 
Tai Shan Brick Manufacturing Company, Shanghai; director of the Hua Feng 
Cotton Mill, Shanghai; director of the Pao Tung Electrical Works Company; 
director of the South-Eastern University, Nanking; director of the Com- 
mercial College; director of the Chi Nan College; and director of the China 
Vocational Educational Association. The Peking government conferred upon 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 189 



Mr. Ch'ien the Third Order of Chiaho in January 1920; the Third Order of 
Wenfu in January 1921; and the Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho in Feb- 
ruary 1921. Since June 1922 Mr. Ch'ien has been the vice-president of the 
Bank of Communications. In April 1923 Mr. Ch'ien was appointed a Member 
of the commission for the Consideration of China's finance. 



^ 



190 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. F. Ch'in 

(Ch'in Fen) 

Mr. F. Ch'in was born at Chiating Hsien, Kiangsu Province, in 1887. 
He received his middle school and college education in Shanghai. In 
1906 he went to America and studied mathematics and astronomy at Har- 
vard University, from which school he was graduated in 1909 with the 
degree of A. B., (Magna Cum Laude). In the same year he obtained the 
degree of A. M. During 1909-1910 Mr. Ch'in spent a year in England 
and Germany taking post-graduate courses at Glasgow University and 
Freiburg University. Mr. Ch'in returned to China in June 1910 and be- 
came Dean of the Kiangnan High School of Nanking. Later he accepted 
the Deanship of the Pootung Middle School, Shanghai. From 1912 to 1915 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 191 



he was professor of mathematics of the Nanyang College, now known as 
the Communications University. From 1915 to 1919 he was professor of 
mathematics and astronomy at the Government University of Peking and 
also Dean of the Science Department. In March 1919 he was appointed 
director of the Ministry of Education in charge of the Department of 
Technical Education. In November 1920 he was promoted to be Councillor 
of the Ministry of Education. In July 1922 Mr. Ch'In received the Third 
Order of Chiaho. In April 1923 he was appointed by the Ministry to be 
Chinese Delegate to the International Educational Conference. Mr. Ch'in 
is still Councillor of the Ministry of Education. He is the author of a 
series of text books on mathematics in Chinese and several books on as- 
tronomy. 



^ 



192 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. P. C. King 

^ #13 IE ^ f t H 
(Chin Pang-cheng) 

Mr. P. C. Kingi is a native of Anhui but he was born in Hangchow, 
Chekiang Province, in 1887. Between . 1901 and 1902 he studied at the 
Nanyang Institute of Technology. Prom 1905 to 1908 he attended the 
Nankai Middle School, Tientsin, where he graduated. From 1908 to 1909 
he studied at the Customs College, Peking. Mr. King successfully passed 
the competitive examinations conducted by the Bureau of the Educational 
Mission to the United States of America, and was sent to America in 
November 1909. He prepared himself for college at Williston Seminary, 
Easthampton, Mass., and in 1910 joined Cornell University where he special- 
ized in forestry. He received his degree of B. S. and M. F. in 1914. 
At Cornell he was elected to Sigma Xi In May 1914. He returned to 
China in October 1914, and was introduced to Mr. Han Kuo-chun, then Civil 
Governor of the Anhwei Province, by Professor Joseph Bailie, of the Un- 
iversity of Nanking, and was appointed to start and take charge of the 
forestry work for the whole province and to conduct at the same time the 
Provincial Agricultural School at Anking. Later he opened a forestry de- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 193 



partment in the Agriculture School, and organized the Bureau of Forestry 
for Anhwei. A nursery was organized and extensive reforestation in several 
districts of the province was planned and carried out. Mr. King left Anhui 
during General Chang Hsun's monarchical movement in June 1917. In the 
summer of 1917 he was appointed by Mr. Fan Yuan-lien, then Minister of 
Education, to be president of the Government Agricultural College, Peking. 
He held this position for three years. In August 1920 Mr. King was 
appointed president of the Tsing Hua College to succeed Dr. Hawk-ling 
Yen who was appointed secretary to the League of Nations. In January 
1922 Mr. King was appointed director of the Chinese Educational Mission 
to the United States and to be concurrently director of the Tsing Hau 
Students Mission. These positions he is still holding. 



^ 



194 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kungpah King 

(Chin Shao-ch'eng) 

Mr, Kungpah King was born at Nanhsun, Chekiang Province, in 1876. 
After having finished his Chinese education at home, he acquired his 
rudimentary knowlege of English at the St. Xavier's School, Shanghai. 
In 1901 Mr. King went to England and joined the Department of 
Commerce of King's College, London and finished in 1905. Upon his return 
to China in the same year, he was appointed Assistant Miag-jstrate of the 
Mixed Court at Shanghai. In the following year he was in charge of the 
Trade Marks section of the Board of Commerce at Peking. Later, Mr. King 
was transferred to be a Judge in the Supreme Court of Justice, which 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 195 



position he held for five years. During the fourth year of his office, he 
was sent to Washington as Chinese delegate to attend the Prison Con- 
ference. After the conference, he investigated prison conditions and studiet'. 
law proceedings in some eighteen different countries in America and 
Europe. Upon his return to China, he wrote a number of books embodying 
the results of his studies and researches. In 1912 Mr. King resigned from 
the Supreme Court and became the Dean of the College of Commerce of 
the Peking University and concurrently held the position of secretary to 
the Board of the Interior. About the same time he founded the first Na- 
tional Museum in the Chinese Capital, and was appointed its first curator. 
In 1914 when Hsiung Hsi-ling was director-general of the National Oil 
Administration, Mr. King served as resident director of the Field Off.ce in 
Shensi where a number of wells were dug by the Standard Oil Company 
undertaking the exploitation work. In August 1918 Mr. King was elected 
a Member of Eepresentative of the new or ••Tuchuns'" Parliament. Sub- 
sequently he was chosen as one of the three representatives to attend the 
International Parliamentary Conference of Commerce held in Belgium. 
In 1920, after the Anfu-Chihli war which resulted in the overthrow of the 
Anfu Faction, the Parliament was dissolved. Subsequently Mr. King was 
appointed a Secretary of the Cabinet which position, however, he did not 
hold. In May 1915 he was Conferred the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho 
and in January 1920 the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In October 1922 
Mr. King received the Third Order of Wenfu. In 1922 he was appointed 
again to bs a secretary of the Cabinet and held this position until January 
1923. In March 1923 he was appointed Councillor of the Bureau of Mongo- 
lian and Tibetan Affairs, which position he is today holding. Mr. King 
is a recognized authority on Chinese antique arts, such as paintings and' 
porcelains and a highly accomplished artist himself. 



196 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sok-tsu G Kins 

(Chin Shao-chi) 

Sho-tsu G, King, was born at Nanziang, Chekiang, in 1886. He re- 
ceived his early education under private tutors at liome. In 1902 he went 
to England for higher education, in company with his two elder brothers. 
Upon his arrival in London, he joined King's College and specialized 
in electric engineering. He spent one year as an apprentice in the Gen- 
eral Electric Company where he received practical training in electrical 
engineering. Mr. King returned to China in 1905. After a rest for one 
year, he went to North China, organized the electric department in the 
Technical School of the Board of Commerce at Peking, and became its 
first professor. At the request of Tang Wen-chih, at the time Vice-Min- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 197 



ister of Commerce, he was a member of the Board of Qommunications. 
Upon Mr. Tang's retiring from official life to become President of the 
Nanyang College, Mr. King was transferred to that College and stayed 
there for four years and a half, as head of the Chemical Department. 
In 1911 he was transferred back to Peking and detailed for service in the 
Ministry of Communicatioaj. He was attached to the postal administration 
for some time with the rank of Junior Secretary. After the first revolu- 
tion in 1911 which resulted in the establishment of the present Republic, 
Mr. King went to Hankow and stayed there over four years as managing 
director of a real estate concern called the Real Estate and Trading Comp- 
any, and under him the management control property now valued at several 
million dollars. In 1916 he came to Peking and was engaged in general 
business. Some of the big commercial deals concluded in China since the 
war such as the organization of the Chinese national wireless company 
and the Vickers' contract of £1,800,000 were pushed through by Mr. King. 
Mr. King is in Peking acting as agent of the Vicker's Company. 



^ 



198 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chin Sliao-tseng 

^^^^^ m 

General Chin Shao-tseng was born at Tientsin. His service with the 
Mjinistry of War began in the Ching Dynasty which he served as a councillor. 
After the establishment of the Republic, General Chin continued as a Coun- 
cillor in the Ministry of War until December 1917, when he was appointed 
Chief of the Department of Civil Affairs and Appointments. In March 1920 
be was awarded the Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho and in August was 
appointed Vice-Minister of War. In May 1921, General Chin was made a 
lieutenant-general and in May 1922 he was appointed to act for the Minister 
of War for a period. In October 1922 he was granted the First Order of 
Wenfu and in November 1922 he was made a Chiangchun of the College of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 199 



Marshals with the special title "Shao-wei." In Septembsr 1923 General 
Chin wias again placed in charge of the affairs of the Ministry of War which 
position he held until January 1924 when General Lu Chin was appointe.d 
Minister of War. General China's present position is Vice-Minister of War. 



^ 



200 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Chin '^un-peng 

mmmt-nm 

General Chin Yun-peng was born at Chining, Shantung Province, in 
1877. He was graduated from the Peiyang Military Academy and upon 
graduation was appointed to command a small number of soldiers. In 1910 
General Chin was transferred to Chekiang and appointed by the governor 
of that province. His Excellency Ts'eng Yun, to command a regiment. 
Soon after he was promoted to be commander-in-chief of the troops of that 
province. In 1911 the first revolution broke out and General Chin was detached 
for service under General Tuan Chi-jui, who was then commander-in-chief of 
the Imperial troops for the suppression of the rebellion. On account of 
his merit, he was given the rank of Lieutenant-General. In August 1913 
General Chin was ordered to act for the Tutuh Military Governor of Shan- 
tung and a month later was appointed acting Tutuh of Shantung. In June 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 201 



1914 he was given the rank of Tai Hu Chiangchun. The rank of Count was con- 
ferred upon General Chin in the latter part of 1915 when Yuan Shih-kai 
proclaimed himself Emperor of China. On account of his loyalty to Pre- 
sident Yuan General Chin did not take part in the third revolution 
started for the restoration of the Republic. General Chin Yun-peng was 
madu a Chiangchun with the special title of two words Kuo Wei, and ap- 
pointed a member of the Chiangchanfu or the Military Council in June 
1916. This was an "Irish promotion," by means of which he was removed 
from thf position of military governor of Shantung. He had to come to 
Peking to assume his new office. In November 1917 General Chin in 
company of General Chu Tung-feng went to Japan as Chinesa representa- 
tive to witness the Imperial Grand Manoeuver of that country. When the 
War Participation Bureau was organised in March 1918, with Marshal Tuan 
Chi-jui as its Director-General, General Chin was appointed the Adminis- 
trative Director of that Bureau having in his control all the forces under 
it. On January 11, 1919 General Chin lyas appointed Minister of War by 
President Hsu Shih-ch'ang. In September he was ordered to act as Premier 
and in November was appointed Premier. In December he was appointed 
concurrently to be Minister of War. In January 1920 General Chin was 
decorated with the First Order of Merit in recognizance of his service 
rendered in connection with the War Participation Office. On July 2, 1920 
General Chin was relieved of the Premiership and War portfolio. On Aug- 
ust 9, he was reinstated as Acting Prime Minister with the concurrent 
position of Minister of War. In October 1920 he was made a Full General. 
On May 14, 1921 General Chin was appointed Prime Minister which position 
he held until December 18, 1921. Ever since that time. General Chin has 
been a resident in Tientsin. 



202 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ching Yao-yueh 

Mr. Ching Yao-yueh was born at Jui Ch'eng Hsien, Shansi Province, 
in 1883. He earlj'^ became a well-known scholar although he was only a 
Fukung-sheng, or Senior Licentiate qualified to take the Metropolitan 
Competitive Examinations. In 1904 he was admitted to Shansi University 
as the holder of a government scholarship. Later he was sent with 
government support to study in Japan. He studied Political Science and 
Law at the Tokyo Imperial University where he was graduated in 1910 
with the degree of LL.B. While in Japan, Mr. Ching joined the Tungming- 
hui, the Revolutionary Party headed by Sun Yat-sen and the late Huang 
Hsing. Among the Tungminghui members, he was noted as a powerful 
propagandist. He edited a number of influential political papers immed- 
iately before and after the Revolution among which were the Kuo Pao of 
Tokyo, the Ming Hu Pao and the Ming Lieh Pao of Shanghai, the Ming 
Chih Pao and the Ta Kuo Ming Jih Pao of Peking, etc. After his return 
to China, he was for a time Professor of History to the Hsin Kung Hsueh 
in Shanghai and president of the Liangkiang Law University in Nanking,. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 203 



In the capacity of an executive member of the political section of the 
Tung Ming Hui, Mr. Ching played an active part in the Revolution. Af- 
ter the outbreak in October 1911, Mr. Ching represented the Shansi Military 
government at the Nanking provisional government. He was subsequent- 
ly elected president of the Conference of the provincial representa- 
tives. He was also a member of the Nanking National Council; member 
of the Provisional Constitution Drafting Committee; and chairman of the 
Provisional Constitution Commission. In January 1912, the first day of 
the Chinese Republic, Dr. Sun Yatrsen, who was elected provisional pre- 
sident according to that constitution, assumed office and Mr. Ching was 
appointed Vice-Minister of Education and also acting Minister of Educa- 
tion. In March 1912 the unification of the country was effected through 
Sun Yat-sen's resignation in favor of Yuan Shih-kai who was elected the 
provisional president by the national council according to the constita- 
tion. In May 1912 Mr. Ching went to Peking and accepted the position 
of High Political Advisar to the president. Subsequently Mr. Ching was 
elected a member of the First Parliament which assembled in Peking in 
April 1913. In August 1917 after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, Mr. Ching 
returned to the Parliament again when it was reconvoked by Li Yuan- 
hung. In June 1917 when the Parliament was again dissolved and Chang 
Hsun attempted to restore the Ching regime, Mr. Ching returned to 
Shansi and assumed the Commandership of troops opposing the monar- 
chical restoration. In June 1919 Mr. Ching received the Second Order 
of Chiaho and ir January 1920, the Third Order of Wenfu. In February 
1920 he was appoint3d Councillor of the government Bureau of Economic 
Information. In February 1921 ho was awarded the Second Order of 
Tashou Chiaho. In August 1922, when the old Parliament was reconven- 
ed in Peking by President Li Yuan-hur.g, Mr. Ching resigned from the 
Bureau of Economic Information to become a member of the House oi 
Representatives again. In October 1922, he received the Second Order of 
Paokuang Chiaho; in November 1922, the First Order of Wenfu; and in 
January 1923, the Second Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In April 1924 
Mr. Ching was appoinnted Director of the Bureau for the Preparation of' 
New Parliamentary Electric which position he is still holding. Mr. Chang 
is the author of many standard works in literature and poetry, among 
which are "History of Chinese Pedagogy," "History of Chinese Metaphy- 
sics," "Birth of the Chinese Republic," "The Political History of ths Re- 
public," "A Treatise on China's Land System," "Gems of Chinese Poe- 
tiy" in thirty volumes, "The Collection of Works of the Poets of Ching 
Dynasty" in 120 volumes, "The Works of Mr. Ching Yao-yueh" in 65 
volumes, and "The Essays of Ching Yao-yueh" in 3 volumes. 



204 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Tsur Chi-lien 
(.Chow Chi-lien) 

Dr. Tsur Chi-lien was born at Ningpo, Chekiang, in 1877. After 
graduating from St. John's University of Shanghai, he went to England 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 205 



and attended Edinburgh University and received the degree of M. A. 
Shortly afterwards he studied in Germany and specialized in political sci- 
ence and was awarded the degree of Ph. D. Upon the completion of his 
education in Germany Dr. Tsur returned to China and entered the govern- 
ment service. In 1910 he accompanied Chang Tsung-hsiang, a former 
Chinese Minister to Japan, to Germany to study German constitutional and 
municipal governments. They returned in the latter part of 1911 when 
the First Revolution resulting in the establishment of the present Republic 
commenced. After the overthrow of the Manchu Regime, a law compila- 
tion bureau was established at Peking and Dr. Tsur was appointed a 
councillor of it. This position he held for two years. In 1914 Dr. Tsur 
was appointed Third Secretary to the Chinese Legation in Japan. At the 
time when he was recalled to be Commissioner to Australia in charge of 
German and Austrian prisoners in June, 1918, he was Secretary to the 
Chinese Legation in Tokio. After the decision to deport enemy subjects 
in China to Australia was reversed, Dr. Tsur was made' a member of the 
Foreign Office. Ffiv a while he was Acting Secretary. In 1919 Dr. Tsur 
was appointed , Consul-General to New York. In the winter of the same 
year he returned to China. In June 1920 he was relieved of the New 
York post. In April 1922 Dr. Tsur was appointed Consul General at 
Ottawa, Canada, which position he is still hoUing. In September 1923 Dr. 
Tsur returned to China upon the death of his father at Shanghai. 



^ 



206 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. L. Y. Chow 

(Cbou Lun-yuan) 

Mr. L. Y. Chow was born in A'ingpo, Chekiang province, in 1890. 
He received his early education at the Ningpo Baptist Middle School, 
entering St. John's University, Shanghai, in 1907. In 1911, he went to 
the United States as a Boxer Indemnity student, and was graduated 
from Lehigh University in 1915 with a degree in mining engineering. 
After working in various mines in the United States, he returned to 
China in the fall of 1915 and joined the Ping-hsiang Colliery as assistant 
engineer. In 1918 he was made mining superintendent, from which posi- 
tion he resigned in 1921 to accept the managership of the machinery de- 
partment of the Far East Trading Company in Shanghai. He subsequently 
went to the Fengtien Mining Administiration as chief mining engineer at 
the Pataohao Coal Mine. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



207 




Mr. Chow Pei-Chen 

mum. 

Mr. Chow Pei Chen was born in Nanzing, Chekiang, in 1883. In 1901, 
he passed successfully the civil examination. Afcer the Boxer Rebellion, 
he took up a business career but when the reform movement spread over 
China, he joined Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Democratic Party. At the time of the 
revolution he was one of the strong advocates of the republican form of 
government and devoted much of his time in maintaining the peace of 
Kiangsu and Chekiang. In 1917, he was appointed president of the Bur- 
eau of Governmental Properties of Chekiang. He resigned his post the 
following year, and in 1919, organized with some prominent merchants of 
Shanghai the Chartered Stock & Produc3 Exchange, which was then a new 



208 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



enterprise in China and of which he is still one of the managing directors. 
The next year, he was elected a member of the committee of the Shanghai 
General Chamber of Commerce. In 1923, he was appointed Vice-President 
of the Board of Finance of the Kuomingtang Party. He is a liberal sup- 
porter of charitable organization and public works <and in politics has 
always been a loyal supporter of Dr. Sun. He has done much to spread 
the doctrine of democracy. 



t^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CAINH 



209 




Mr. Peter S. Jowe 

m ^ i^ 

(Chou Pei-te) 

Mr. Peter S. Jowe was born in Hankow in 1898 and received his 
primary education in St. John's Primary School of the American Church 
Mission, in which institution he continued his higher education unfilthe 
higher school period, attending St. Paul's School, Cathedral Choir School 
and the Middle School of Boone University. He left Boone University to 
join Nanyang Collegfe in Shanghai, where he completed the academical 



210 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



course of arts. Later he took the civil engineering course, which he 
gave up on account of his inclination toward literature and journalism. 
While in college, he devoted much time to the study of English literature. 
In 1918 he began his career by contributing articles to reading magazines 
and newspapers in Shanghai and editing the college paper at the same 
time. In the early spring of 1919 he returned to Hankow, where he was 
appointed contributing editor for Central China for the China Weekly 
Review then known as Millard's Review. A few months later, he received 
the appointment as special correspondent of The China Press, Shanghai. 
During the 1920 Anfu-Chihli war, Mr. Jowe was responsible for all the 
reports of the war in his territory, being also the first to wire the opening 
of the war to Shanghai. In the same year, Mr. Jowe assisted the local 
Y. M. C. A. in organizing their educational work, and became headmaster, 
of their School of Commerce and Finance. The next year, 1921, he was 
appointed Hankow correspondent of the North China Star, The Peking 
Leader and for a time. The Shanghai Times. Later, he was appointed by 
the Chung Mei News Agency as their staff correspondent in the inte-rior. 
Later he organized the Independent News Service, which has become to- 
day a very influential and important organization supplying news from 
Hankow and the interior to the outside world through a chain of import- 
ant newspapers, including The China Press, The Peking Leader, the Peking 
Daily News. The Far Eastern Times, the North China Standard, The In- 
dependent News and the North China Star. In the spring of 1923, hie 
started the Independent News, a daily and Sunday newspaper in Hankow. 
The paper was started practically as a personal enterprise by Mr. Jowe, 
who at the beginning could interest only a very limited number of per- 
sons with his newspaper scheme. In spite of many difficulties the paper 
has proved to be a successful venture. It is his hope now to still further 
improve and enlarge the paper. Mr. Jowe is also proprietor of the Chung 
Mei Advertising Agency, the pioneer organization of its kind in Hankow. 
This he started in 1919 and is now handling the advertising account of 
many important advertisers in China. He is now a member of the 
Crystal Club, a union of twelve formed along the line of a Rotary Club. 
He has been adviser to Tuchun Hsiao Yao-nan of Hupeh, who is concurrently 
High Inspecting Commissioner of Hupeh and Hunan. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



211 




Mr. Chou Shu-mu 

^ ^^ ^ ^ m 

Mr. Chou Shu-mu, was born at Tienmen Hsien, Hupeh in 1868. In 
1889 Mr, Chou successfully passed the Metropolitan Examinations and ob- 
tained the title of Metropolitan Graduate and shortly afterwards was made 
a Hanlin. At the beginning of 1900, Mr. Chou was appointed literary. ex- 
aminer to Shansi. Later he was sent to Kwangtung in the same capacity. 
Appreciative of the service which Mr. Chow had rendered, Chang Chih- 
tung, Viceroy of Hupeh, extended to him an invitation to bs a professor 
of the Lianghu College. Latar Mr. Chou was appointed a censor under the 
Ching government. In 1907, following Mr. Chou's trip abroad studying 
constitutional governments, he was appointed Commissioner of Public In- 
struction for Kiangsu. Toward the end of the year Mr. Chou was transferred 
to Mukden at the request of Hsu Shih-chang, who was then Viceroy of the 



212 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Three Eastern Provinces. Mr. Chou then became the senior assistant of 
President Hsu whereas former Prime Minister Chien Nun-hsiung was the 
junior assistant. The first thing which Mr. Chou did was to alleviate the 
suffering of the people in Fengtien caused by the Russo-Japanese War which 
was just over. One year after his arrival the administration of Fengtien 
was re-established and the suffering of the people greatly reduced. Then 
he was appointed Governor of Heilungkiang. After the establishment of 
the Republic in 1912, Mr. Chou retired into private life. Upon the request 
of Yuan Shih-kai he accepted the position of President of the Administrative 
Court which he held twice, first from May 1914 to October 1915 and then 
President of the Commission for the Punishment of High Civil Officials. He 
retired to private life in 1921. In November 1922 he was conferred by 
President Li Yuan-hung the First Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. Mr. 
Chou is the author of "Memorials of Heilung-kiang," "Poems of Siu Kou 
Tsai," and several other literary works. 



ta^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



213 




Mr. Chow T«o-ming 

^ f ^ S ^ f^ S 

Mr. Chow Tso-ming, was born at Huaian Hsien Kiangsu, in 1882. He 
studied at the Nanyang College of Shanghai, and then went to Japan to 
pursue higher studies. After his graduation in Japan, he returned to 
China and joined the Ministry of Finance, where his promotion W£S steady. 
At last, he became Chief of the Treasury Department in the Ministry. In 
1916 he joined the Bank of Communications and served that bank in vari- 
ous capacities. In 1918, the Kincheng Banking Corporation with a total 
capitalization of $5,000,003 was organized, and he was elected managing 
director of the institution. He is still holding the position. In November 

1919, Mr. Chow was decorated with the 2nd Order of Chiaho; in January 

1920, the 2nd Order of Paokuang Chiaho; and in August 1921, the 2nd Order 
of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In July 1922, Mr. Chow was appointed a 



214 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



member of the All China Finance Discussion Conference. In 1923, the Kin- 
cheng Banking Corporation, the Salt Industry Bank the Bank of Chinese 
and Oveerseas, and the Continental Bank formed a Four Bank Savings 
Syndicate with headquarters in Peking and branch offices in all important 
cities. For this new enterprise, Mr. Chow was responsible. 



I 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



215 




Mr. Bin Yuan Chu, B. S., M. A. 

Mi*. Bin Yuan Chu was born in 1894, in Changsha, the capital of Hunan 
Province. Ho received his elementary education from the Minteh Primary 
and Middle schools promoted by the General Woong Hsin, a noted leader 
of the first revolution. In 1910, he was sent by the provincial government, 
after a competitive examination, to study in the then newly founded Tsing 
Hua College. When the Revolution broke out, Chu returned to Changsha, 
and for some time was student at the Yale College. Lat-er, he rejoined 
Tsing Hua, and was sent by that institution in 1916 to study finance arid 
banking in America. He first attended Wesleyan University, Middleton, 
Conn., from which he received the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1918. 
After his graduation, he joined the banking firm, of Brown Bros, & Co., New 
York, as a member of the foreign department. During the same time, he. 
took many business courses in the evening school of New York University 



216 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



at Wall Street. He helped to organize the Chinese Students' Banking Club 
of which he was one time sesretary, and later president. He was also 
made circulation manager of the Chinese Students' Quarterly, published in 
America. In the fall of 1919, Mr. Chu joined Columbia University, taking 
post-graduate work in the School of Business and in the Department of 
Social Sciences, from which he obtained the degree of "Master of Arts in 
1920. The subject of his thesis was, "'Investment Banking in the United 
States." During that year, he was successful competitor in the essay con- 
tests held by the American Asiatic Association and the Chinese Educational 
Mission. On both occasions, he secured the first prize. The subjects of 
his essays were "Plans and Possil3ilities for Currency Reforms in China," 
and "Advantages for the Investment of American Capital in China." Mr. 
Chu joined the Wah Chang Trading Corporation in New York, shortly after 
his post-graduate work in Columbia. In 1921, he was sent to the Shanghai 
office of the same company as assistant secretary. Later in the year, he 
joined the Shanghai branch of the Industrial and Commercial Bank, Ltd., 
as assistant managei^ In 1923, he was transferred to the head office of 
the bank as secretary. In 1924, he resigned from the bank to be- 
come Professor of Economics and Commercial Sciences ,in Tsing Hua Col- 
lege. Mr. Chu has contributed to the China Weekly Review having written 
an article based on his experience in banking entitled "Some Asip.3cts of 
Foreign Exchange and Silver" as appeared in issues of the Review, 
Volume XXIX, No. 3 to 13. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



217 




Mr. Chu Chi-chien, 

^ Bi. ^ 

Chu Chi-chien is a native of Kweichow. In the Tsing dynasty he re- 
ceived the degree of M. A. through competitive Chinesa examinations. 
After having held various government offices, Mr. Chu was appointed to 
assist in the management of educational affairs for the Capital. In 1904 
he was appointed Superintendent of Peking Inner Police. In 1907 the 
present President, Hsu Shih-chang, was appointed Viceroy of Manchuria, 
and soon after the appointment, he recommended to the Throne that Chu 
Chi-chien be given the office of Director-General of Mongolian Affairs. The 
Throne approved of the recommendation and gave him' a handsome month- 
ly salary. Later. Hsu Shih-chang sent Mr. Chu abroad to study the problems 
of colonization in order that he might be of assistance in colonizing Man- 



218 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



churia. Upon his return, Mr. Chu was engaged by a Viceroy of Manchuria 
as his adviser. On account of his disagreement with General Tien Liang, 
a member of the Government Council, he returned to Peking and was sub- 
sequently appointed director of one section of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway 
in 1909. Chu Chi-chien was taken into the confidence of the late President 
Yuan Shih-kai uponn the recommendation of Hsu Shih-chang. In July of 
1912, he was therefore, appointed Minister of Communications when Lu 
Cheng-hsiang was Prime Minister. He retained this office after Chao Ping- 
chun had succeeded Premier Lu. In July of 1913, when the second re- 
volution was at its height, Mr. Chu was appoint3d Acting Prime Min,- 
ister, but he did not accept the post on account of political inexpedien- 
cy. On September 11 of the same year, when' the^ revolution was sup- 
pressed, he became Minister of the Interior, which position he held for 
almost two years. In the winter of 1915, Yuan Shihvkai started the move- 
ment to make himself Emperor, and Chu Chi-chien played an important part 
in the movement. Upon the death of Yuan Shih-kai after the failure of his 
movement, Mr. Chu resigned the office of Minister of Interior, and was 
ordered to be arrested on account of his connection with the imperialistic 
President. He retired to Tientsin^ In the eummer of 1918, the new 
parliament was convoked, and Chu Chi-chien was elected Vice-Speaker of 
the Senate. A few days before this event, the government issued a mandate 
pardoning those who were associated with the Yuan Shih-kai monarchical 
movement. However, Mr. Chu declined the honor, and a few months later 
a new Vice-Speaker of the Senate was elected. Chu Chi-chien has 
was appointed Chief of the Northern peace delegation to the Chinese 
peace conference. He has the confidence of the people generally and is 
considered a powerful leadier of the Chaotung clique or Comm^unications 
Party. 



v$5 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



219 




Mr. Chu Ch'i 

Mr. Chu Ch'i was born at Naiihaihsien, Kwangtung in 1858. He 
studied under Chen Lan-pu, a famous scholar at that time. At the age 
of 21, Mr. Chu became a Licentiate by compstitive examinations. Nine 
years later, he became a Provincial Graduate. In 1899, Mr. Chu gave up 
teaching and established the Ling Hsueh Monthly. In 1900 he started the 
Ling Hai Daily News. In 1901 he organized the Tung Hu Daily News, 
In 1903 he went to Tsingtao and started the Kiaochow Daily News. In 
1904 he went to Peking and organized the Peking Jih Pao, the oldest 



220 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Chinese newspaper in Peking. The Shun Tien Shih Pao, a Japanese daily 
in the Capitol, was established about the same time. In 1907, Mr. Chu 
founded the English Peking Daily News. In the last days of the Ching 
Dynasty a press association was founded and Mr. Chu was elected chair- 
man of the association which position he held until the first year of the 
Republic when he was relieved by .Mr. Wang Chien-chai. In May 1921, 
the National Press Association met at Peking and Mr. Chu was elected 
chief secretary of the association. Besides being a prominent journalist, 
Mr. Chu is a scholar of no mean attainment. At the time when Yuan 
Shih-kai was Viceroy of Pei Yang, an offer of a political position was 
made to Mr. Chu, but was declined. Late Mr. Chao Ping-chun, former 
Prime Minister and one of Yuan's truatad lieutenants, was a pupil of Mr. 
Chu. Mr. Chu is still the editor of the Peking Jih Pao. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



221 




Mr. Chu Hsing-yuan 

Mr. Chu Hsing-yuan was born at Tahsin Hsien, .Metropolitan District, 
in 1880. He received thorough education in Chinese and was a graduate 
of the Peking Imperial University with the degree of Chu-jen, equivalent 
to M. A. After his graduation, Mr. Chu went to Japan where he studied 
for two years in the Chung Yin Academy. Upon his return to China, he 
was appointed Councillor of the Board of Foreign Affairs. At the same 
time he taught in the Academy of High Learning for Metropolitan Grad- 
uates (Chin..-shih or Ph. D.); the Academy for Civil Officials; the Peking 
Imperial University; and the School for Translation. In August 1912 Mr. 
Chu was appointed junior secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
In September 1913 he was promoted to be senior secretary of the same 
Ministry. In October the late President Yuan awarded him the Third 
Order of Chiaho. In December 1913 he was appointed First Secretary to 
the Chinese Legation at Washington D. C. Before proceeding to Washing- 
ton to assume office, Mr. Chu travelled extensively in Europe. In July 



222 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



1918 Mr. Chu was again appointed secretary of the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs and to act concurrently as Councillor of the Ministry. In August 

1919 he was appointed a member of the Commission to supervise the Ex- 
amination for Diplomatic and Consular Officials. In the same month he 
was appointed Secretary to the Ministry of Communications. In January 
1920, Mr. Chu was awarded the Second Order of Wenfu.. In October 1920 
he was appointed Commissioner of Foreign Affairs for Chihli with head- 
quarters at Tientsin to succeed Huang Yung-liang who was then appointed 
to be Chinese Minister to Vienna. This position Mr. Chu is still holding. 
In February 1921 Mr. Chu was conferred the Second Order of Chiaho and 
in October 1922, the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



223 




Mr. Co Ching Chu 

^ ^ ti 

(Chu K'e-Chen 

Dr. Co Ching Chu, was born in Shao-hsin Chekiang, in 1890. He at- 
tended Ching Chong School, Shanghai, in 1908-1907, Middle School of 
Fut'an College in 1907-1908, and Tangshan Engineering College in 1909- 
1910. After finishing the freshman year in Tangshan Engineering College, 
he went to America on a Boxer Indemnity Scholarship during the summer 
of 1910 and entered the University of Illinois in the autumn of 1910, tak- 
ing the degree of B. S. from the latter University in 1913. He was awarded 
the Emerson Scohlarship at Harvard University in 1917. He received the 
degree of Ph. D. from the Department of Geology and Geography of Harvard 
University in 1918, his graduate thesis being on "The Typhoons of the 
Pacific Ocean." Upon returning to China he was appointad lecturer on 
Meteorology and Physical Geography in the Government Teachers' College 
of Wuchang during the academic years 1918-1919 and 1919-1920 and the 
next year lecturer on Climatology and Meteorology in the Natonal South- 
eastern University (formerly Government Teachers' College of Nanking) 
and head of the Department of Geology and Geography since 1921. He 
is a member of the Board of Directors of the Science Soeidfcy of China, 
Fellow of the American Geographical Society (elected 1917), member of 
the Geological Society of China, co-translator of Prof. A. J. Thomson's 



224 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



"Outline of Science" (Commercial Press, Shanghai 1923), author of Rain- 
fall Distribution in China Monthly Weather Review, Washington D. C, 
1916), "Chinese Contribution to Meteorology" (Geographical Review, New 
York City, 1917), "Meteorology" (popular series, Commercial Press 1923), 
and several other articles on meteorology, geography and allied subjects. 



t^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



225 




Mr. Chu Pao-San 

Mr. Chu Pao-san, is rightly called the veteran merchant of Shanghai, 
having been in business in Shanghai for more than 60 years. Was 
born in 1847 in the city of Tinghai, Chekiang, Mr. Chu indeed has had 
a most varied and interesting commercial life, serving as the head even 
today of many industrial enterprises. As chairman of the Chinese General 
Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai he enjoyed the confidence of all Chinese 
and foreigners in the community on account of his spirit of public ser- 
vice and keen sense for justice. He also served for sometime as the 
Vice-Chairman of the National Association of Chambers of Commerce. 



226 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



In banking, he promoted the Commercial Bank of China, the Ningpo 
Commercial Bank, Ltd., the Chekiang Industrial Bank, Ltd., and the Chung 
Hwa Commercial and Savings Bank. In insurance, he was organizer of 
the Wah An Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., the Wah Sing In- 
surance Co., Ltd., and the China United Assurance Society, Ltd. In min- 
ing, Mr. Chu is directing the Liu Kiang and Chang Hsin Mining com- 
panies. In electric works, he has considerable interests in the Shanghai 
Nantao Tramway Co., Ltd., the Ting Hai Electric Construction Company 
and the Chousan Electric Company. In navigation, Mr. Chu is director 
of the Chousan Steam Navigation Co., the Yung An Steamship Company, 
the Yung Lee Shipping Company and the Chang Ho Navigation Company. 
Besides these Mr. Chu organized the Lung Chang Paper Mill, the Ta Yu 
Factory, the Ta Tah Steamship Company, the Nantao Water Works, the 
Shanghai Cement Company, the Li Dah and Chung Hsin Flour Mills, the 
Shanghai Silk Manufacturing Co., the Sin Wan Pao, Ltd., the First Woolen 
Goods Factory, the Ho Hsin Iron Foundry, the Ho Fung Cotton Mill, 
Ningpo, and others. Educationally, he is trustee for the Shanghai Com- 
mercial School, the Tung Chi Medical and Engineering College, the Ting 
Hai School, the Sheng Yi School m Tinghai and the Yi Chi School of 
Ningpo. In philanthropic and public enterprises, he is director of the 
Union Club, the Chinese Red Cross Society, the Ningpo Guild, the Ting 
Hai Guild, the Door of Hope, the Kwang Yi, Jen Chi and Wei Chung 
Benevolent Institutes, the Ningpo Hospital, the Kwang Chi Hospital, the 
Tung Chi Hospital, the Shanghai Summer Disease Hospital, the Woosung 
Quarantine Hospital, the Shanghai Kung Li Hospital, the Shanghai Or- 
phanage, the Hsin Pu Yi Tang, the Pu Yi Industrial Home, the Anti-Kid- 
napping Society, the Tung Yi and Liengyi Philanthropic Institutes, the 
Bureau for the Cheap Sale of Rice and the International Famine Relief 
Committee. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



227 




Dr. Jennings P. Chu 

(Chu Pin-k'uel) 

Mr. Jennings Pinkwei Chu. was bora in 1895, at Chia-shan, Chekiang, 
China. In 1911, he entered Tsing Hua College, Peking, where he graduated 
in 1916. He was then 'sent to the United States, entering John Hopkins 
University from which he received his A. B. degree in 1918. He took one 
year of graduate work in education there in 1918-19. From 1919-22, he 
was transferred to Teachers College, Columbia University, specializing in 
educational statistics and educational administration. From Columbia he 
received his A. M. degree in 1920 and his Ph. D. degree in 1922. He was 
appointed Research Scholar of Teachers College 1921-22, appointed lecturer 



228 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



in Chinese in New York University for two years^ 1920-22; became a 
member of the Kappa Delta Pi National Educational Fraternity in America 
in 1922; was elected President of the Tsing Hua Alumiii Association in 
America 1920-21. In the summer of 1922, he took an extensive trip to 
Europe where he conducted an investigation of the new educational condi- 
tions in the continental countries. Upon his return to China, he was 
appointed Professor of Education at the National Southeastern University, 
Nanking, and Dean of the Kiangsu First Girls Normal School, He was 
immediately promoted to the Assistant and Acting Dean of the Colleg'ie of 
Education of the same University. He is now Director of the Instruction 
Department, Director of the Summer School and Professor of Education of 
the National Southeastern University and also Dean of the Kiangsu First 
Girls Normal School. He has written the following two books: Chinese 
Students in America; Qualities Associated With Their Success, published 
by Columbia University, No. 127 of the Columbia University Contributions 
to Education and Some Statistical and Measurement Terms Standarized in 
Chinese, published by the Commercial Press, Shanghai. 



<^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



229 




'^'•' Mr. Chu Shao-hsin 

Mr, Chu Shao-hsin was born at Hua Hsien, Kuangtung province, in 
1880. In his youth he was educated in the Chinese classics by his 
father and his uncle who both enjoyed high repute as distinguished 
writers. In 1896 he attended the prefectural competitive examinations 
and obtained the literary degree of Hsiu ts'ai or Licentiate. In 1897 
he became a lin-sheng or salaried licentiate and was then admitted as a 
scholar to the Kuang Ya College, Canton, where he became an instructor 
in literature. From 1903 to 1907 Mr. Chu attended the Imperial Univer- 



230 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



sity of Peking where he received the literary degree of Chujen or pro- 
vincial graduate (equivalent to M. A. in western schools). In February 
1908 Mr. Chu was sent to America by the board of Education to pursue 
advanced studies and also to open a Chinese public school in New York 
City. For three years he studied commerce and finance at New York 
University and later took post-graduate courses in Political Science and 
Law at Columbia University where he was graduated in 1911 with the 
degree of B. S. C. In 1912 he obtained the degree of M. A. Mr. Chu 
returned to China in December 1912 and at first joined the Government 
University of Peking, as Professor in Economics. Later he was appointed 
Secretary and Political Councillor to the President's Office under Yuan 
Shih-kai. In April 1913 the First Parliament was inaugurated in Peking 
and Mr. Chu was a Senator representing Chinese Overseas. He served with 
distinction on the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Senate and was also 
a member of the Constitutional Drafting Committee which held its ses- 
sions in the Temple of Heaven. He was a member of the Kuomingtang 
party. After the dissolution of Parliamently Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914 
he was appointed the Mixed Court magistrate of Kulongsu in Amoy, Fukien 
province. This position he later resigned to return to Peking to practise 
law where he was elected by the Peking Lawyers' Association as its vice- 
president. When the first parliament was reconvoked by President Li Yuan- 
hung in June 1916 Mr. Chu again served as senator until June 1917 when 
it was again dissolved. Mr. Chu was then appointed Commissioner of 
Foreign Affairs for Kiangsu Province. There he came in touch with the late 
General Feng Kuo-chang, then the Vice-President with headquarters at 
Nanking. In August 1917 Feng Kuo-chang assumed the Presidency and 
asked Mr. Chu to join him as English Secretary. Mr. Chu was appointed 
Consul-General in San Francisco in 1918 and served until February 1921, 
when he was transferred to the Chinese Legation in London as First 
Secretary and Counoilto. In May 1920 Mr. Chu was awarded the Third 
Order of Paokuang Chiaho. During the absence of Dr. Wellington Koo, 
the Minister to London who attended the Assembly of the League of Nations 
in Geneva and the Washington Conference and then returned to China on 
leave and subsequently became Minister for Foreign Affairs at Peking. Mr. 
Chu also acted as Charge d'Affaires to the Court of St. James. In February 
1922 Mr. Chu was appointed to represent China on the Opium; .^dvis-ory 
Committee, constituted under the League of Nations. In September 1922 
he attended the Third Assembly of the League of Natfons as China's de- 
legate-substitute. In October 1922 he was awarded the Second Order of 
Tashou Chiaho. In July 1923, Mr. Chu was given the rank of Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. He is still Chinese Charge 
d'Affaires at London. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



231 




Mr. Chu Shen 

Mr. Chu Shen was born at Yungchingihsien, Chihli in 1830. Mr. Chu, 
after having completed his studies in Chinese schools in Tientsin and 
Peking went to Japan and studied law in Tokyo University where he 
graduated with the degree of L. L. B. Upon his return to China, Mr. 
Chu practised law. His public career, however, commenced in August of 
1912 when he was appointed Acting Chief Procurator of the Local Pro- 
curatorate in Peking. In November 1913, Mr. Chu was appointed Chief 
Procurator the Metropolitan High Procuratorata. Later he became a mem- 
ber of the Chief Procuratorate which is attached to the Supreme Court. 
In November 1915, he was promoted to be chief of the Chief Procuratorate. 
In September 1917, Mr. Chu was appointed Minister of Justice. He was 



232 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



concurrently appointed Minister of the Interior in June 1919 upon the 
resignation of Chien Nun-hsun from the Ministry and the Premiership. In 
December 1920 he was relieved of the concurrent post. Mr, Chu was a 
strong supporter of the Anfu Clique. After the resignation of Mr. Chien 
as Premier, his party nominated him for the premiership. But the no- 
mination was objected to by the President and the anti-Anfu factions and 
it was therefore not submitted to Parliament for approval. In July 1920, 
after the downfall of Anfu as a result of Chihli-Anfu strife, all the Anfu 
members in the Cabinet were dismissed, including Mr. Chu. In the same 
month he was deprived of all honors and offices that he had hitherto 
received and ordered to be arrested for trial. He fled to the legation 
for quite a long time and later escaped to Tientsin. He was pardoned in 
December 1923 and now he is a resident in Tientsin. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHiNA 



^3 




Mr* Chu Ta-ch'un 

(Chai Laifong) 

Mr. Chai Lai-Pong was born in Wusih in 1855. He came to Shanghai 
in 1872 and in course of time established the Yueng Chong Company., 
trading in coal and other minerals. The enterprise proving very success- 
ful, he directed his attention to shipping and operated a number of 
steamers between Shanghai, Singapore, Japan and ports on the China coast. 
With the profits made in these ventures, Mr. Chai made big investments 
in mills, among which may be mentioned the Yuen Chong Silk Filature 
established in 1895, the Wah Shing Flour Mill with a capital of Tls. 300,000, 
half of which was subscribed by himself, the Yuen Chong Rice Mill, est- 
ablished in 1888 and later amalgamated with the Shanghai Rice Mill, and 



234 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Kung Yih Cotton Mill with 182,000 spindles and capitalised at S1,000, 
000 of which Mr. Chai owns two-thirds. Mr. Chai has also inveested heavily 
in land and buildings, holding' shares in many commercial enterprises and 
banks. He is compradore for boeh Jardine, Matheson and Co. and the 
Shanghai Electric Construction Company. He is a member of the Shanghai 
Paper and Oil Mills, chairman of the Wusih Chamber of Commerce, and 
Director of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



235 




Mr* Ponson C. Chu 

* ^ ^ '# 1$ ^ 
(Chu Szu-fei) 

Mr. Ponson C. Chu was born at Shanghai in 1885. He received his 
college education at the St. John's University where he stayed from 1897 
to 1904. In September 1904 Mr. Chu went to America as a privately sup- 
ported student. He prepared for college at the Central High School, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1904-5. In 1905 he entered the Yale University studying 
Political Science and Law. During 1907-8, he was president of the Yale 
Chinese Students' Club, Secretary of the Cosmpoplitan Club and manager 
of the Chinese Students' Monthly. In 1909 he graduated with the degree 
of B. A. Mr. Chu returned to China in September 1909 by way of Europe 
In 1910 he passed the Examination for Returned Students held by 
the Imperial Board of Education and the degree of Chu-jen or Provincial 
Graduate (equivalent to M. A.) was given to him by the Imperial govern- 



23(^ WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ment. In May 1911, he attended the Imperial Court Examination for 
Civil Officials. By an Imperial Edict, he was appointed Senior Secretar}' 
of the Board of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce. From this position 
he resigned in October 1911 when the First Revolution broke out at Wu- 
chang. Mr. Chu returned to Shanghai and was appointed Chief of the 
Educational Department of the Chapei Municipal Council and later elect- 
ed Alderman of the Second Ward of Chapei District. These positions he 
held until 1912, In 1913, upon application to the Ministry of Justice, Mr. 
Chu was licensed to practise law. Ever since that time he has been a 
popular Legal Practitioner in Shanghai. His address is Nanling Lee, Rain- 
ing Rood, Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



237 




Mr. Chu Yu-chi 

^^ m ^i^ ^ 

Mr. Chu Yu-chi was born at Paoshan Hsien, Kiangsu, in 1886. His 
father, the late Chu Chih-chao, assisted Li Hung-chang in founding the 
China Merchants Navigation Company, in establishing telegraphic com- 
munication between China and Korea, and in opening the Kaip'ing. and 
Pingchuan Mines. The initiation of the building of the Shanghai-Woosung 
Railway was also his. When his father was in the North as the Yung Ting 
Ho Taotai and Director General of the North China Telegraph Administra- 
tion, Mr. Chu was with him serving as private secretary. In 1906 Mr. 
Chu joined the secretariat of General Chiang Kuei-ti who was then the 
Commander-in-Chief of the I Chun Troops. At the outbreak of the First 



238 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Revolution in 1911, Mr. Chu was in Taiyuan Fu, Shensi where he was visit- 
ing a relative who was the magistrate, where they were besieged by 
iting a relative who was the mag'istrate, where they were besieged by 
bandits. Mr. Chu happened to be inside that city, volunteered his services 
to organize a volunteer corps for the defence of the city and finally saved 
the city. In 1914, Mr. Chu became Chief of the Kuan Kang Salt Tran- 
sportation Office in Shantung. During 1915-16 he was Director of the 
Chuang Ho Salt Taxation Bureau, in Fengtien Province. In 1917 Mr. Chu 
was appointed Director of the Provincial Stamp Tax Bureau of Kirin. 
While in that province, he started several large lumber producing com- 
panies with joint Sino-Japanese capitals at work in the forests of that pro- 
vince. Among these may be mentioned the Hailing and the Ching-yun. In 
192G Mr. Chu was transferred to the Ministry of Finance in Peking where he 
served in different capacities. In 1921 he was given a concurrent position 
in the Ministry of War. In September 1923 Mr. Chu was appointed 
Director of the Shanghai Mint which position he is still holding. Follow- 
ing this appointment he served twice as Chief of the General Affairs 
Department of the Ministry of Finance during the period when the Cabinet 
was performing the functions of the President. 



«^ 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



239 




Dr. Y Y. Tsu 

(Chu Yu-yu) 

Dr. Y. Y. Tsu was born at Shanghai in December 1887. He studied 
at St. John's. In college he was a prominent student and athlete. He 
was also editor of the college publications, the Echo and the Dragon. 
In 1907, Dr. Tsu graduated from the institution and received the degree 
of A. B. After teaching in his alma mater for two years, he sailed for 
the United States in the summer of 1909 for advanced study. He entered 
the General Theological Seminary in New York City, specializing in soci- 
ology. Later he joined Columbia University, receiving the degrees of M. 
A. and Ph. D. Dr. Tsu returned to China in August 1912 by way of 
Europe and Siberia,, and has since been engaged in educational work as 



240 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Professor of Sociology of the St. John's University, Shanghai. Dr. Tsu 
is connected with many public organizations and holds several offices, 
including chairman, Boy Scout Association of Shanghai; chairman, St. 
John's University Alumni Association, Shanghai branch; Chinese secretary, 
American University Club; member editorial board of the Chinese Recorder; 
publication committee of the Christian Literature Society of China, Na- 
tional Committee, Y. M. C. A., China Continuation Committee and member 
of the directorate of the World's Chinese Students' Federation. Dr. Tsu 
is the author of several books both in English and in Chinese. He wrote 
the Sprit of Philanthropy, (in English) and translated George' Hodges 
Saints and Heroes. He has contributed to magazines on sociological 
subjects, such as "Confucian Idea of God," "Eugenics," "Native Charities 
of Shanghai," etc. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



241 




Mr. Chu Yung-kuang 

M B^ ^ '-# 5: ^ 

Mr. Ch'u Ying-kuang was born at Linghai Hsien, Chekiang Province, 
in 1881. He graduated from the Ch'ili Cheng Institute and was engaged 
as a teacher. Later he became president of the Commercial School at 
T'ai Chow, Chekiang. Still later Mr. Ch'u became teacher of the Military 
Survey School in Anhui. In 1912 Mr. Ch'u was appointed Advisor to the 
Fifth Division of the Provincial Army of Chekiang after having taken a 
prominent part in the first Revolution in October 1911. In August 1912 
he was appointed Director in charge of the Civil Affairs Department of 
his native province. In September 1913 Mr. Ch'u beecame acting Chief 
Civil Administrator of Chekiang. In May 1914 he became Hsun An hih, 
new name for the Civil Head of a province. The late President Yuan 



242 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



had much confidence in Mr. Ch'u who was also well liked by the Kuo- 
mingtang people at the same time. In December 1915 when Yuan Shih-kai 
practically made himself Emperor of China, he conferred upon him the rank 
of Count of the First Order. In April 1916 Chekiang declared independence 
of Peking as a protest against Yuan's monarchical movement.. Mr. Ch'u 
sided with the people although he was after a few days appointed by Pek- 
ing to be concurrently acting 'director of Military Affairs of Chekiang. Mr. 
Ch'u resigned from the Shantung posts in July 1916 and went to Peking 
when he promoted the Sino-American Association. In July 1919 Mr. Ch'u 
was appointed acting Civil Governor of Shantung. In March 1920 he Avas 
conferred the Third Order of Merit. A Presidential Mandate dated June 24, 
1920 ordered his removal from the Shantung governship. Another Mandate 
was issued on August 8, 1920 ordering him to leave the post for his Suc- 
cessor and go to Peking. In October 1922 Mr. Ch'u was decorated with 
the First Order of Wenfu. He has been a resident in Tientsin since leaving 
Shantung. 



^ 



I 



WHO S WHO IN CHINA 



243 




Mr. Ch'uan Liang 

Mr. Ch'uan Liang was born at Wuchang, Hupeh in 1875. After hav- 
ing studied in Chinese schools he went to Japan for a foreign education. 
He graduated from the Commercial College at Tokyo and returned to 
China shortly afterwards. He received the degree of A. M. after suc- 
cessfully passing the examinations. He joined the government service 
and was given the rank of expectant clerk. Later he was appointed In- 
dustrial Adviser to the Viceroy of Hupeh. He started the Commercial 
College of Hupeh of which he subsequently became director. Later he 
was trransferred to the Peking Government University and became director 
of its commercial department. Among the other official posts he held 
were the second class sectional member of the Board of Communications 
and the second class sectional chief of the Railway Traffic Department. 
Toward the end of the Manchu government, he was transferred to the 
Board of Interior and Commerce and was appointed a Secretary. After the 
establishment of the Republic, Mr. Ch'uan continued holding the position 
in the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce (formerly Board of 



244 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Industry and Commerce). A year later he was transferred to the Ministry 
of Communications where he became officiating Counsellor and Acting Dir- 
ector of the Railway Department. On May 26, 1916 Mr. Ch'uan was order- 
ed to take charge of the Ministry and on June 16, he was appointed acting 
Vice-Minister of Communications. In October 1916 he was relieved of the 
acting post and returned to the Councillor post again. From April 1917 
to July 1917 Mr. Ch'uan was Vice-Minister of Communications. Durir^g 
the month of May he was acting, for the Minislbar of Com.munications. 
After his resignation from the Vice-Ministership, he was at once appointed 
Director of the Kir in-Huining Railway which position he held only for a few 
months. In January 1919 Mr. Ch'uan was appointed Director-General of the 
Kirin-Huining Railway and concurrently the managing director of the 
Kirin-Changchun Railway and was in the same month decorated by the 
Second Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1920 Mr. Ch'uan was 
awarded the Second Order of Wenhu and in February, the Second Order 
of Tashou Paokuang. In July 1920, immediately after the Chihli-Anfu 
War he was appointed acting Vice- Minister of Communications and dir- 
ector-general of Government Railways. He was also' ordered to dis- 
charge the functions of the Minister. In August 1920 Yen Kung-ch'ao 
became Minister and Mr. Ch'uan handed over the office. He was at the 
same time relieved of the Vice-Ministership and ordered to return to 
Kirin-Huining and Kirin-Changchun posts. In November 1920 he was 
charged with having misappropriated $100,000 out of the railway con- 
struction fund. He was summoned before the Peking Court to answer 
the charge. The case however resulted ii. the finding of Mr. Ch'uan be- 
ing not guilty and he was soon reinstated to the position of director- 
general of Kirin Huining Railway. In May 1921 Mr. Ch'uan was remov- 
ed from the Kirin-Huining post. In March 1922 he was appointed an 
executive member of the Commission on the Problems of Communications 
in connection with the Retrocession of Shantung. In May 1922, after the 
downfall of the Communications Clique. Mr. Ch'uan was again appointed 
Director-General of the Kirin-Huining Railway and to hold concurrently 
the post of Acting Minister of Communications. A week later h.6 was re- 
lieved from the latter position and has been Director-General of the Kirin- 
Huining Railway ever since that time. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



245 




Dr. Ch'uan S. H. Chuan 

^ $a it ^ ^ f A 

Ch'uan Shao Ching 

Dr. Chuan Shao-ching was born at Wanpinghsien, Chihli in 1884. He 
studied medicine at the Peiyang Medical College, Tientsin, where he grad- 
uated in 1904. In 1905 Dr. Ch'uan was attached to the Chinese Im- 
perial Mission to Tibet as a doctor. Ho accompanied the same mission to 
India. Returning to China he became professor of anatomy and medicine 
at the Peiyang Medical College. He remained with that college until 
1910, and in 1911 played a prominent part in the campaign against the 
plague in North Manchuria. Dr. Chuan went to America and spent one 
year at John Hopkins University in 1912, and spent another year at the 
sanitary school at Harvard University. While studying in America, he 



246 WHO S WHO IN CHINA 



was appointed by the Chinesa government to attend the Congress of In- 
ternational Red Cross in 1912, and the International Congress of Medi- 
?ine in London in 1913. Returning to China after the London Congress 
Dr. Chuan was again appointed Proff-ssor of Medicine at the Peiyang 
Mfdical College. Later he became Surgeon-General of the Chinese Army 
and director of the Army Medical College. Since 1914 he has been holding 
both positions concurrently. During General Chang Hsun's monarchical 
movement in 1917, he was councillor to the Ministry of War, and was at- 
tached to Marshal Tuan's army as a secretary. In 1918 Dr. Ch'uan was sent to 
Suiyuan to fight the plague and fought it successfully. In March 1920 he 
was conferred the Second Order of Chiaho. In April 1921 he was ap- 
pointed by the government as special delegate to the International Con- 
gress of Medicine and Pharmacy to be held at Brussel, Belgium, in Sep- 
tember. In June 1922, Dr. Ch'uan was appointed Vice-Minister of Ed- 
ucation when Kao Er-hung was Acting Minister. This position he held 
only for a month. In July 1922 Dr. Ch'uan was awarded the Second Order 
of Tashou Chiaho; in January 1923, the Second Order of Tashou Paok- 
uang Chiaho; and in March 1923, the First Order of Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. In August 1922 Dr. Ch'uan was appointed Chief of the Metro- 
politan Plague Prevention Service. This position he held until April 
1923. Since spring 1924 Dr. Ch'uan has been in Change of the Public 
Health of Tsingtao. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



247 




Or. Chung Shih-ming 

M ffi^ ^ M 4 

Dr. Chung Shih-min^'j was born at Tientsin in 1880. He obtained his 
middle school education from the Tientsin Government High School which 
he entered in 1901. In April 1903 he was admitted to the Pel Yang Un- 
iversity where he studied for three years. In 1906 Dr. Chung was sent to Am- 
erica for higher education at government expenses. In the United States 
he attended Harvard University and graduated in September 1908 with the 
degree of B. A. He took post-graduate work in the same university and 
was given the degree of M. A. in IS ovember 1909. On his way back to 
China, by way of Siberia, he was instructed by the Chinese government 
to visit all the leading European countries and study their political con- 
ditions. In February 1910 Dr. Chung was appointed a member of the 
technical education department of the Chihli Educational Administration, 
and concurrently was professor of English in the High Industrial College 



248 r WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



of Chihli, In September 1910, Dr. Chung passed the Returned Students 
Examinations by the then Board of Education and was awarded the degree 
of Doctor of Law. In January 1911, he was appointsd assistant chief of 
the technical education department of the Chihli Educational Administra- 
tion. In May he attended the Imperial Court Examination and came out 
the fourth of the First grade and was given the honorary degree of Han- 
lin as well as a post in Peking. Seeing that his service at Tientsin was 
indispensible, the then Viceroy of Chihli, made Dr. Chung chief of the 
technical educational department of the Chihli Educational Administration. 
In June 1912, he was appointed dean of the Chihli High Industrial College 
and at the same time taught law in Pei Yang Law College. In December 
the office of the Chihli Educational Administration was abolished and Dr. 
Chung accepted the offer of the Ministry of Finance to assist in the pre- 
liminary organization of a national salt service. In January 1913 he was 
appointed resident director of the Salt Gabelle which was then just or- 
ganized. A year later, he was awarded the Fourth Class Chia Ho de- 
coration in recognition of his service rendered to the Salt Administra- 
tion. In May 1914 he was given concurrently the post of resident director 
of the translation bureau of the Salt Administration. In December he 
was given the Third Class Chia Ho decoration. In June 1915 Dr. Chung 
was appointed Councillor of the Salt Administration. In April 1916 at 
the recommendation of the Minister of Finance, he was given the brevet 
rank of salt transportation commissioner. In May he was appointed sec- 
retary of the Salt Administration. In June 1918 he was appointed by the 
Salt Administration to supervise works of the Executive Department. 
In October 1918 Dr. Chung was awarded the Second Order of Chiaho. In 
November 1919, the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In February 1921, 
he reviewed the Second Order of Paokuang Chiah. In November 1921 Dr. 
Chung was appointed to act as vice-Minister of Finance, holding the poste 
of associate director of the Salt Administration and Inspector General of 
the Salt Inspectorate. In December 1921, the position of Vice-Minister 
was substantiated. In March 1922, Dr. Chung was in charge of the affair., 
of the Ministry of Finance. On May 26, of the same year he was dismis- 
sed from the financial positions which he had hitherto held. In June 
1923, Dr. Chung received the appointment from General Chang Tso-lin as 
High Financial Advisor. In March 1924 he was appointed Commissioner 
of Foreign Affairs for Fengtien Province which position he is still holding. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



249 




General Chang Chung-chang 

^ ^ 13 

From a common soldier to Fieldmarshaldom in the brief space of a few 
years in the remarkable record of General Chang Chung-chang, Commander 
of the First Fengtien Army which conquered Shanghai 'and vicinity and 
defeated the Chihli forces in their last stand against the Anfu-Fengtien forces 
early in 1925. General Chang spent his early years in Manchuria. He was 
born in Shangtung province in 1881. During the Russo-Japanese War, 
the Czarists offered him a commission in their army and he was given the 
rank of Captain and won a considerable reputation for his bravery and 
energy. When the first revolution broke out in China in 1911, he at once 
identified himself with the Republican cause. With the assistance of Lieut- 
Col. T. C. Soo, now his foreign advisor, but at that time compradore of 
Bryner, Konsentzoff and Co. of Siberia, he organized the first force of 
Manchurian troops to be despatched to Shanghai to attack the government 
arsenal. Six hundred men and 100 horses were shipped to the lower 



250 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Yangtsze. They were consigned to General Li Tsung-wu, who was then 
in charge of the revolutionary forces at Shanghai and he led the attack 
against the Arsenal which was held by the loyalists. General Chang later 
came to Shanghai himself and served under Li as a commander of a cavalry 
brigade. After the establishment of the Republic, General Chang and his 
forces were transferred to Nanking, serving under General Lung Yu-chiu, 
in command of the Third Division. After the second revolution, he was 
stationed in Hsuchowfu to undertake the work of bandit suppression in 
this district, which was over run with brigand.^ and stragglers. When Lung 
retired, he was given command of the third division upon the recom- 
mendation of brother officers. In 1917, when Feng Kuo-chang went to 
Peking to become President, Chang was appointed his adjutant. He 
and General Ho Chung-lien were commissioned to Harbin, where they dis- 
solved the Russian White Army which had become a menace to the resid- 
ents. Upon his return, he was made superintendent of Military Education 
in the Ministry of War. In the following year, General Chang was sent 
to Hupeh at the head of the sixth mixed brigade on an expedition to 
Canton to stop the march of General Tan Yen-kai, who had occupied 
Hunan. His victory at Chuchow and Liling was complete. From then on, 
he remained in Kiangsi as a division commander. In 1922, he leftKiangisi 
for Manchuria. After defeating General Kao Shih-ping, who was then 
plotting against Marshal Chang Tso-lin at the instance of the Chihli Party, 
Chang succeeded him as Occupation Commissioner of Suiling, Kirin. Due 
to his intimate knowledge of tihe Russians, all the "white" officers and 
men perving under the Mukden Marshal were placed under General Chang's 
command. Being in command of the first army he was the first to enter 
Tientsin and Peking after the defeat of Wu Pei-fu in 1924 as a result of 
General Feng Yu-hsiang's historical coup d'etat. He was assigned duties 
under Marshal Lu Yung-hsiang when the latter was appointed Pacification 
Commissioner for Kiangsu and Anhui in December 1923. At the head of 
Marshal Lu's army, he came to Shanghai in less then a month along' 
the Tientsin-Pukow and Shanghai-Nanking Railways with little bloodshed. 
General Chang is popular with his officer and men, and leads them per- 
sonally at the front. He is reputed to be lacking in political ambition. 
In January 1925, he was made Field Marshal and has established his head- 
quarters at the towns of Hsuchowfu and Changchow in Kiangsu Province. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



251 




Mr. Fan Yuar-lien 

m jg zn ^ B? 4 

Mr. Fan Yuan-lien was born Hsiangying Hsien, Hunan Provice. He 
attended the Shih Hu School in his native province in 1899. After his 
graduation he went to Japan for higher education. He attended the 
Normal College at Tokyo, where he specialized in teaching. Upon the com- 
pletion of his course, he attended the Law College and took a few short 
courses in jurisprudence. Upon his return to China he attracted much 
public attention from the Chinese educational authorities. He was invited 
by the Board of Education to be Counsellor. Later he bjecame Vice- 
President of the Tsing Hua College. In the first year of the Republic, 
1912, he was appointed by President Yuan Shih-kai as secretary of the 
President's Office. In April of the same year, he was Vice-Minister of 
Education. Upon the resignation of Mr. Tsai Yuan-pei, as Minister of 
Education, he succeeded him. In January of 1913 Mr. Fan resigned the 
office of Minister of Education, and went to Shanghai to the Chung Hua 
Book Publishing Company. In 1916, when the Cabinet with Marrshal Tuan 
Chi-jui as Prime Minister was organized, Mr. Fan again joined the govern- 
ment serrvice and was appointed Minister of Education. A few months 
later he acted concurrently as Minister of the Interior. On account of 
the monarchical movement in 1917, all the Ministers resigned, and he alone 
remained for some time, because his Ministry had nothing to do with 



252 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



politics. In November 1917, he also resigned. After his resignation, Mr. 
Fan went to America to make educational investigations, and returned in 
the spring of 1920. In August 1920, General Ch'in Yung-pang, upon 
being made Prime Minister again, invited Mr. Fan to ba acting Minister of 
Education. In October 1920, he was awarded the First Order of Tashou 
Chiaho. In May 1921, Mr. Fan was appointed Minister of Education, in- 
stead of acting Minister. This portfolio he held until December 1921. 
In November 1922, Mr. Fan received the First Order of Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. In February 1922, he was appointed president of the Teachers' 
College, Peking. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



253 




Mr. Fan Chiu-pah 

:^ § ^ -ji ^ f & 

(Fang Chi-fan) 

Mr. Fan Chiu-pah, the popular vice-chairman of the Shanghai Chinese 
Greneral Chamber of Commerce who is in charge of the affairs of the 
chamber during the absence on sick leave of the chairman, Mr. Sung Hang- 
chang, was born in 1884 at Tsenghai, Chekiang, of one of the best known 
families. His grandfather, Mr. Fan Hsin-tsai, was one of the foremost 
merchants in Shanghai in the early days of the Settlement, having made, 
his fortune in tea and silk. His name appeared quite frequently in the 
historical records of the "model settlement." Mr. Fan's father, Mr. Fan 
Chi-ling, was a Master of Arts under the Manchu regime, being successful 
in passing the second series of the literary examinations, but he died at 
an early age. Assuming the heavy responsibilities of the chief of a big' 



254 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



family, Mr. Fan managed the affairs of the hous ahold in an excellent 
manner, devoting his energies and time t3 financial and banking activities 
in Shanghai as well as in Ningpo. When the Manchu Dynasty abolished 
the literary examinations and established s3hools for the education of young 
men, Mr. Fan subscribed over one hundred thousand dollars toward the 
organization of the Pei Yu School in Tsenghai. He was then 23 years old, 
he was appointed principal. After three years' service in this school, he 
became the principal of Chihai School in Ningpo, at the same time serving 
as member of the Educational Council of the City Administrative Council, 
and of the Advisory Board and as chairman of the Self-Government Society. 
Not satisfied with the educational qualifications, Mr. Fan took a course in 
law in the Cheng Chow Law School of Shanghai, from which institutioai iie 
graduated in 1917. Mr. Fan was also promoter of the esl^ablishment of 
the Ningpo Association, the Ningpo Guild, and Ningpo Hospital, of which 
he is still serving as director. In 1918, he was appointed manager of 
the Tung Lu Bank, Shanghai, serving alsD as chief of the Arbitration; 
Board of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce arid a director of the 
chamber. In 1020, Mr. Fan was appointed a member of the board of 
directors of the Shanghai Mint and of Shanghai Bankers' Association. In 
the following year, he was made a director of the Ningpo-Shaoshing Steam 
Navigation Co. Ltd., and of the Chinese Merchants' Stock Exchange. In 
1922, he was elected vice-chairman of the Chinese Chamber and of the 
Chinese Ratepayers' Association. It was in Ithis year that he organized 
the Ta Yu Yu Oil Factory of which he is one of the directors. In 1923, 
Mr. Fan assumed his office as manager of the Nantao branch of -the Com- 
mercial Bank of China and director of the Hung An Steamship Company. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



255 




Mr. Fei Ch'i-hao 

Mr. Fei Ch'i-hao was born at Tung Hsien, the Metropolitan District, in 
1879. He studied at the North China Union College, Tung Chow, and gra- 
duated there in 1898. After graduation Mr. Fei became a teacher in the 
Oberlin College, Tai-kuo Hsien, Shansi Province. Between 1899 and 1900 
he was teacher of the Fen Chow Middle School, Shansi. Mr. Fei arrived 
in America in September 1901, with private support to study. He 
prepared for college at Oberlin Academy between 1902 and 1903. From 
1903 to 1906 he studied Liberal Arts at the Oberlin College and graduated 
from it in 1906 with the degree of B. A. Then he entered Yale University 
and received the degree of M. A. from it in 1907, From 1907 to 1908 



256 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mr. Fei was principal of the Putung Middle School, Tientsin. From 1908 
to 1911 he was president of the Chihli Provincial College, Paotingfu. In 
1911 during the first Revolution which broke out in Wuchang, Mr. Fei was 
appointed by the provisional government to be Councillor of the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. Later he became a political Councillor. In the 
provisional government at Nanking he w;as a Deputy of the Minister of 
Educatiion. In 1913 Mr. Fei became secretary of the Peking Y. M. C. A. 
in charge of the department of the intellectual education, which position 
he is still holding. Besides, he has been for many years and is still the 
president of the College of Economy and Commerce, Peking. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



257 




Dr. Feng Hsi-yun 

J® gS il ^ it ^ 

Dr. Feng Hsi-yun was born in 1885 at Tientsin, where members of his 
family have been prominent in wholesale trade and banking circles since 
the declining years of the Ming DjTiasty. After graduating from the 
well-known Tientsin Government Middle School and winning for himself 
the Chu Jen degree, he entered Peiyang University at about the same 
time that Ex-Premiers Wang Chung-hui and C. T. Wang were students 
there. The records show him to have been faithful and diligent in every 
duty. In 1907, having won a provincial scholarship which provided for 
an advanced education in one or more of the leading American institu- 
tions, he set sail for the United Staltes. Entering Harvard University, he 
won the B. A. degree in three years, and two years later thte Doctor bf 
Jurisprudence degree at Chicago University, in 1912. While in the United 
States he travelled extensively. On Dr. Feng's return to China in 1912 he 
was appointed prosecuting attorney in the Chihli Provincial Court and 
was stationed temporarily at Paotingfu. The following year he became 



258 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Associate Justice of t he Chihli Supreme Court, being allocated to the Civil 
Bench. In 1914 he resigned from the Supreme Court to accept a Professor- 
.ship of Law in Peiyang Universit|y. In this position he served for five 
years, giving a course in comparative government, until he was invited to 
take the Presidency of the University, '^'ince Dr. Feng assumed office 
many improvements have been made in Peiyang. A large dormitory has 
been constructed, a radio outfit has been installed, and many other material 
equipments added. A Metallurgical Engineering Department, the only one 
of its kind in China, has been opened. By his faithfulnesa to duty, his 
sterling integrity, and his unfailing tact. Dr. Feng has continually growa 
in the estimation of .both students and faculty. He is indeed one of the 
best products of China's latter-day education, one of those returned students 
who by their works have justified the national educational program of the 
last twenty years. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



259 




General Feng Yu-hsiang 

jS 3E # ^ ^ 3^ . 

General Feng Yu-hsiang was born at Ch'ao Hsien, Anhui province, in 
1880. When he was 16 years old he joined the Peiyang Military School. 
Before graduation, in 1898, he left the college and enrolled himself as a 
private in the "Wu Wei Yu Chun." Subsequently he was appointed a 
Commander of a company under the Ninth Division of the Nanyang troops. 
While commanding, he attended the Chiang Yu Tang, or Lecture Hall for 
training soldiers. Later he was recommended by his superior to be a 
regular student of the Paoting Military Academy whence he was graduated. 
Marshal Wang Shih-chen and the late General Yang Shan-te, both leaders 
of the Peiyang Army, took great interest in General Feng and highly 
recommended him to Marshal Tuan Chi-jui for appointment. But this was 
frustrated by a commanding officer of the "I Chun" who was jealous of 



260 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



him. In 1910 General Feng became commander of the Third Regiment, 
10th Battalion, 5th Brigade, 3rd Division of the Imperial Army, having un- 
der him 500 soldiers, with station at Fangsnan Hsien, Chihli. Subsequent- 
ly his regiment was reorganized and became the Provost Guard Regiment 
of the Metropolis. The number of persons under his command was then 
increased to 2,000. In 1913, Yuan Shih-kai trained 10 new Mixed Brigades. 
General Feng's regiment was taken in, reorganized an|d beqame the 
16th Mixed Brigade, composed of two battalions of infantry and one reg- 
iment of artilleryv In 1916 General Feng's Mixed Brigade was sent to 
Anhui, by Yuan Shih-kai to deferid that province from the imp-ending 
attack by the republican troops from the neighbering provinces which 
had responded to General Tsao Ao's revolt against Yuan's monarchical 
movement. But Yuan Shih-kai soon died and General Feng's troops were 
left in Anhui. As a result of the Chang Hsun's monarehi'cal attempt, Li 
Yuan-hung vacated the presidency and Tuan Chi-jui came into power again. 
This happened in July 1917. In August 1917 General Tang Chi-yao de- 
clared independence in Yunnan in open defiance of Tuan Chi-jui. Then came 
Kuangtung, Kuangsi and southern Hunan, and General Feng was ordered 
to proceed with his troops to Szechuan which was being threatened by 
attacks from Yunnan. General Feng moved his troops !first to Wu-Yueh, 
Hupei, on the Yangtze and then to Changte, Hunan. There he mad.? ac- 
quaintance with General Wu Pei-fu who had been commanding the Sixth 
Brigade of Marshal Tsao Kun's Third Division in Hunan. 

After the Chihli-Fengtien struggle in the summer of 1920, in which 
General Wu Pei-fu, the responsible head of the Chihli side, came out vic- 
torious, and General Feng with his 16th Mixed Brigade played a very 
important part for Chihli, the two generals bedame very close friends. 
Subsequently General Feng's troops were, at the suggestion of General 
Wu, transferred to Honan. In June 1920 he received the Second Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In August 1921 the late General Yen Hsiang- 
wen, then commander of the Second Division, was appointed Tuchun of 
Shensi. At the recommendation of General Wu Pei-fu, General Feng was 
appointed Co-Director for Military Affairs of Shensi and at the same time 
his Mixed Brigade was reorganized to become (the 11th Division. Upon 
the sudden and mysterious death of General Yen Hsiang-wen which oc- 
curred in the same month — August 1921 — General Feng ,was appointed 
Acting Tuchun of Shensi still commanding the 11th Division. While in 
Shensi General Feng sought a compromise with and between the different 
contending military leaders and finally brought that province back to peace 
again. In the spring of 1922 the civil war between Chihli and Mukden 
warlords broke out. General Wu Pei-fu transferred General Feng's troops 
to participate in the fight and appointed him the Commander of the Rear 
Defence Forces. His troops played a decisive part in this armed struggle 
which resulted in the victory of Chihli. In May 1922, General Feng was 
appointed Tuchun of Honan. In July he was made the "Yang Wu Chiang 
Chun" a member of the College of Marshals. In October he was conferred 
the second Order of Merit. On October 31, he was appointed Inspector 
General of the National Army with headquarters in Peking. Upon receiv- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 261 



ing this appointment General Feng transferred all his troops to Peking. 
These troops which are estimated to be over 40,000 men strong, havQ been 
stationed at Nan Yuan the Imperial Hunting Park to the south of Peking. 
General Feng himself is also living there. In January 1923 General Feng 
was made a 'Full General. In April 1923 he was awarded the First Class 
Wenfu Decoration. In May 1923 he was appointed concurrently Director 
General for the Defence of the Northweatern Provinces. In November 
1923 he was made "Yang Wu Shan Chiang-chuA/' a Marshal. General 
Feng is a Christian and so are most of his soldiers. He has been known 
by foreigners as the "Christian General". He became a widower in 1923 
and in February 1924 he married Miss Li a secretary of the Peking 
Y. W. C. A. When the war broke out in September 1924, between 
the Chihli and Anfu-Fengtien parties, it was generally known that! 
Marshal Feng was opposed to the war at that time. His: argument 
being that the country was in no condition to finance the war, 
principally on account of the floods and famines oi 1923-1924. How- 
ever, at a military conference held in Peking and participated in by 
Marshal Feng, Marshals Wu Pei-fu, President Tsao Kun and other leaders 
of the Chihli party. General Feng was finally won over and was assigned 
to the job of defending the districts of Jehol, to the North ot Peking. 
General Feng began the movement of his troops into this district and was 
seriously handicapped by the lack of roads and lack of funds. Pjnallyon 
October 23 1924,, he suddenly turned about and returned to Pek'ing witb 
his army, taking complete possession of the city and making the President 
a prisoner. His action in this regard which has never been completely 
explained resulted in the defeat of Marshal Wu Pei-fu in the fiigMing in 
the vicinity of the Great Wall and the con^piete demoralization of the 
Chihli forces. At a .conference held in Tientsin between General Feng 
and Marshal Chang Tso-lin, Marshal Tuan Chi-jui, was induced to accept 
the Provisional Presidency. Late in 1924, General Feng was appointed 
Defence Commissioner of the Northwest Territory wb/ch position he is still 
holding, although it is frequently reported he desires to resign and go 
abroad. 



262 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




J. PInlcuet Fu 

f« 3^ ^ f- a ^ 

(Fu Jui-haing) 

Mr. J. Pinkuet Fu is a native of Chinhai, Ningpo, and is 28 years of age. 
Like his distinguished father (Fu Siao En), J. Pinkuet Fu is also a banker and 
till recently held the responsible position of chief compradoreship in the Asia 
Banking Corporation of Shanghai. He was educated in Nanyang '"lolltge. 
Shanghai, where he made excellent progress. Upon graduation lie assist- 
ed his father in the various lines of business that his father was then 
connected with, thereby gaining considerable experience. When he was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 263 



19 years of age he was manag/ing proprietor of the Chang Dah Yuan' 
Hardware and Metals Company, which is one of the leading firms in its 
line in Slianghai. He was one of the promoters of the Shanghai Metals 
Association. His knowledge of the English language won for him the 
Advisory Secretaryship to the Director-General for the reorganization 
of Military Affairs in Chekiang. He has been decorated by the govern- 
ment with the orders of Chiaho and Wenfu. Besides his other connect- 
ions he is a director of the Inland Waterworks Co., Ltd., agent of the 
American Bank Note Co., Shanghai, and secretary of the China Merch- 
ants' Stean; Navigation Company. 



^ 



264 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Fu Liang-tso 

General Fu Liang-tso was born at Kan-cheng Hsien, Hunan province. 
He graduated from the Japanese Military Officers' Academy in October 
1904, having specialized in artillery. In 1912, the First Year of the Re- 
public, General Fu was made a Lieutenant- General. In the previous years 
he had served in the Peiyang Army under the late Yuan Shih-kai. After 
Yuan Shih-kai became President of China, he appointed General Fu to be 
Chief of the Military Affairs Bureau in the President's Office. He held 
this position until November 1912 'when he was appointed Tutung (Milit- 
ary & Civil) of the Charhar Special Area. In June 1913 General Fu was 
transferred to Chihli and appointed acting Occupation Commissioner of 
the Chi-yu District!. This posiition he held only for three months. 
In May 1916 General Fu was appointed Vice-Minister of War. This 
position he held for serveral years. The Chang Hsun's monarchical move- 
ment broke out in 1917. General Fu played an important part in over- 
throwing it for he was a close follower of Marshal Tuan Chi-iiui. Aftet 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 265 



having overthrown the movement, Marshal Tuan Chi-jui became Premier 
again. In July 1917 General Fu was appointed Tuchun of Hunan. How- 
ever, owing to the opposition of the Tuchuns of other Yangtse provinces 
he only remained there for a few months and returned to Peking in 
November 1917. Owing to his being a close follower of Marshal Tuan 
and a prominent figure of the Anfu Party, General Fu was consider- 
ed by the opponent party to be one of the undesirables to be removed. 
During the Anfu downfall, 1920, he was imprisoned by Civil Governor Tsao 
of Chihli, a strong factor of the opponent party, while on a secret mis- 
sion Sent by Marshal Tuan Chi-jui to Tientsin. General Fu was released 
in May 1921 and has been residing in Tientsin ever since that time. 



*^ 



266 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Fu Tseng -hsiang 

«it m ?ffl '# -?i &L 

Mr. Fu was born at Chiangan Hsien, fe'zechwan Province, in 1872. 
He is popular among the Chinese literati. In 1898 he obtained through 
public examinations the Literary Degree of Hanlin. In 1903 Mr. Fu was 
appo'inted secretary to the late President Yuan Shih-kai, who was then 
Viceroy of Chihli province. During his connection for two years with 
the late President Yuan, he rendered much service to the promotion of 



WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 26" 



modern educatiion. While acting as secretary, he also devoted part of his 
time to the training of the new troops under the direction of his chieif". 
In 1905 Mr. Fu was transferred to the Office of General Liu. the- 
Provincial Commander-in-chief of Kiang Pei. He assisted General Liu' 
in training his militia. Upon the completion of ihis work as General Liu's 
associate, he returned to Chihli and was soon appointed Associate Director 
of the Committee on Educational Affairs of Chihli. In 1906 Mr. Fu was 
appointed Superintendent of the Education of Women in Tientsin. The ap- 
•pointment was made at a time when people in the North paid no atten- 
tion to women's education. Under his direction, the Peiyang Normal 
School for Women was established;. In addition to this, he founded 
one high school and nine primary sshools for girls. In 1908 Mr. 
Fu received his imperial appointment as Commissioner of Educatiofl 
of Chihli province. During the summer of the same year, it was- 
he who called an educational conference of Chihli for the consider- 
ation of educational questions. As a means to encourage modern educa- 
tion, he made personal investigations of educational affairs in the districts 
of Paoting, Shunteh, Taming, Kwangping, Hsuanhua and Hochien. Upon 
completion of his tour Mr. Fu divided Chihli province into four educa- 
tional districts and established one normal school for training of teachers 
in each of these districts. These four normal Schools were located at 
Tientsin, Paoting, Launchow and, Shunteh. They were established in 1910. 
Mr. Fu successfully carried out his educational program, but in 1911 
the first revolution broke out at Wuchang, and he went to Shanghai to 
assist in the movement. In 1914 he became a censor of the Censorate. 
During his tenure of office, he devised many important schemes for the 
benefit' of railway administration for the whole country, in March 
1916 he was relieved of office upon the abolishment of the Censorate. 
In December 1917, Mr. Fu was specially appointed Minister of Ed- 
ucation. Soon afterwards he was appointed superintendent of the Chinese 
students in Japan and ordered to revise the regulations governing Chinese 
students studying abroad. During the summer and autumn of 1918, Mr. 
Fu called a .national conference of the presidents of the normal schools, 
a national conference of the principals of middle schools and a national 
conference of the principals of the technical schools in order to ascertain 
the progress of modern education and prepare plans for educational re- 
form. Mr. Fu has made a number of plans for the spread of popular 
education, and these plans will be carried out as soon as China becomes 
united and funds can be secured for the purpose. He resigned in April 
1919 in consequence of the students' movement against the pro-Japanese 
government he subsequently became an advisor to President Hsu Shih- 
chang. In May 1922 Mr. Fu was appointed Director of the Government 
Financial Liquidation Office. In February 1923 he was awarded the second 
Order of Tashou Paokuang. 



268 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Fu Siao-en 

(Fu Tsung-yao) 

Mr. Fu Siao-en was born at Chinghai Hsien, Ningpo, Chekiang, in 
1871. He is one of the most prominent Chinese merchants in Shanghai. 
Begimning at the bottom Mr. Fu has worked his way to the very top, 
meeting and overcoming numerous obstacles, and today is considered one of 
the richest men in the country. From 1920 to 1923 Mr. Fu held the 
following positions: Shanghai Superintendent of the Bank of China, since 
May 1920; managing director of the China Merchants Steam Navigation 
Co.; High Advisor to the Ministry of Finance; and Shanghai Commissioner 
for the Investigation of Wine and Tobacco Taxes. In the spring of 
1922 Mr. Fu was offered the portfolio of Finance but he did not 
accept it being reluctant to enter into purely political life. In Nov- 
ember 1922 Minister of Communications, Kao En-hung charged Mr. 
Fu with conspiracy and treason in connection with the China Mer- 
chants Steam Navigation Company. A mandate was issued depriving 
Mr. Fu of the post of Superintendent of the Bank of China a(nd ordering 
his arrest and punishment. But the charges brought by Kao En-hung 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA ^ 269 



were finally found to be without grounds. President Li Yuan-hung, who 
had issued the above-mentioned mandate at the suggestion of Kao En- 
hung, issued another mandate in February 1923 following the downfall of 
Kao En-hung cancelling the former one and Mr. Fu recovered his original 
standing again. Mr. Fu holds the following positions: — director and general 
manager of the Commercial Bank of China, Ltd; director and member of the 
Arbitration Committee of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Shang- 
hai; director of the Ningpo Commercial Bank, Ltd; director of the Chung 
Hua Commercial & Savings Bank, Ltd; managing director and manager of 
properties of the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Co. Ltd; general 
manager of the Inland Steam Launch Co; manager of the C. M. Inland 
Engine Works; director of the Han Yeh Ping Iron & Coal Co., Ltd; chair- 
man of the association of shareholders of the Hari Yen Ping Iron & Coal 
Co; director of the Shanghai Native Waterworks Co; director of the 
Lungchang Paper Mills; director of the Wah Shing Fire & Marine Insur- 
ance Co. Ltd; director of the Tai Lai Flour Mills; director of the Credit. 
Franco-Chinois; director of the Nicholas Tsu Engineering Works; and 
director of the Sino-French Navigation Co., etc. In public life also, 
Mr. Fu is extremely active. He is a generous giver and' not an appeal 
reaches him without meeting with a satisfactory response. The many 
public activities with which he is identified are: The Chinese-Foreign 
Famine Relief Committee (of which Mr. Fu is treasurer) and the Ningpo 
Association (of which he is vice-chairman) etc., claim not a little of the 
time of this busy man. Mr. Fu has been awarded the following decorations: 
4th Class Paokuang Chiaho, February 1919; 2nd Class Chiaho, March 1919; 
2nd Class Tashou Chiaho, September 1919; 5th Class Wenfu, May 1921; 
2nd Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho, June 1921 ; 3rd Class Wenfu, May 1923. 



270 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Professor Fung Yu-Lan, Ph. D. 

^ & B8 

Dr. Fung Yu-lan was born thirty years ago in Honan Province and with 
the increasing years he has show'n a 'growing ,zeal for the advancement o^ 
the people of his native province and of all China. Philosophy is his chosen 
field. He does not think of philosophy as a mere abstraction with no real 
relation to life and history but rather holds with a great scholar that 
"History is only Philosophy teaching by example." The new Chung Chow 
University at Kaifeng, Honan, with its pesent teaching staff of sixty faculty 
members, can not boast of a more prominent acquisition than that of its 
new Professor of Philosophy, Fung Yu-lan, Ph. D., who is doing a greiat 
work in helping to build up for interior China a great modern school. He 
first studied philosophy ,in the National University of Peking where he 
graduated in 1918. He then went to Columbia University, New York City, 
where after years of research he fulfilled the requirements for the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy in 1923. His dissertation entitled, "A Comparative 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 271 



study of Life Ideals," was highly commended by Professor John Dewey. It 
is now in press and will be published in a few weelcs by the Cominiercial 
Press. As it is an interesting and rather complete comparison of leading 
Chinese systems of philosophy with those of leading western philosophies 
it is safe to predict that the book will have a large sale in China and 
abroad, for it will be published in English. Dr. Fung is alSo autjhor of 
"Life's Ideals" recently published in Chinese by the Commercial Press. He 
is contributing editor of the International Journal of Ethics, Chicago; the 
Journal of Philosophy, New York; and other literary and academic maga- 
zines in China. He is the editor of the Mind's Echo, a bi-weekly paper 
published in Kaifeng. In addition to his important chair in Chung Chow 
University, Dr. Fung is Dean of the Department of Liberal Arts. 



^ 



272 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Ha Han-chang 

General Ha Han-chang was born in Hupei. He is a graduate of the 
Japanese Military Officers' Academy where he was sent by the Chinese 
government in October 1920. In 1907 General Ha was assistant director 
of the Military Council of the Board of War. In September 1909 he was 
appointed a Director-in-chief of the General Staff. In April 1912 General 
Han was appointed Military Advisor to the President. In July 1922 he 
was made a Chiangchun or a Member of the College of Marshals with 
the two-word special title "Lien-wei." In December 1922 he was award- 
ed the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1923 General 
Ha was appointed a member of the Discussion of Matters regarding the 
Mongolian Territory. General Ha is a close friend of former President Li 
Yuan-hung. He was known as one of the strong and influential advisors 
of President Li when the latter was? in Office. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



273 




Mr. Nang Han 

W S '?*- ii' ^ 

(Han An) 

Mr. Han was born at Chao Hsien, Anhui province in 1885. Mr. Han 
studied at the University of Nanking from 1896 t,o 190S. He graduated 
with a degree of B. A. On account of his high scholarship, he was en- 
gaged as a teacher of the same University upon his graduation. He taught 
here for two years. In August of 1907, Mr. Han arrived in America to 
pursue his higher education, supported by the government. From 1907 
to 1909 he studied liberal arts at Cornell University. With this prepara- 
tion Mr. Han attended the University of Michigan and studied forestry in 
1909, where he stayed for three years. From 1911 to 1912 he studied 
agriculture at the University of Wisconsin. From these institutions of 



274 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



higher learning, Mr. Han received the degrees B. A. in 1909 and M. Sc. 
F. in 1911. In August of 1912, Nang Han returned to China. He was soon 
afterwards invited to join the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and 
later promoted to be Sen'ior Secretary'. Now and then he was sent out 
for investigation. Onnce he was ' director of the Bureau of Forestry in 
Kirin. From 1915 he was assistant director of the Bureau of Forestry in 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Editor-in-chief of the "Agricul- 
ture and Forestry Revie\v." In 1919 he was transferred to the Peking- 
Hankow railway for planting trees along the line and for some special distri^cts 
for timber supply and for the prevention of floods. In forty years he believes 
that all the timber needed by the Peking-Hankow railway can be supplied 
by the forest reserves to be created soon under his direction. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



275 




Dr. N. L. Han 

m ^ m 

Han Yu-lin 

Dr. Han was born in Soochow, Kiangsu, and is 43 years old. He is 
the founder and general manager of the national transport company, which 
operates on the Shanghai-Nanking Railway, the Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo 
Railway, the Tientsin-Pukow Railway and the Lunghai Railway, with branch 
offices at the major stations of eaoh line and accepts freig'ht and parcels 
for transfer to any part of the world. He went to the United States in 1904 
in connection with the Chinese exhibit at the Exposition held at St. Louis, 



k 



276 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



and while there took special courses at the Jones Commercial College, at 
the same time studying American express transportation systems. Upon 
returning to China ha founded the China Express Company of Shanghai 
which was the first express company started in China and which still exists. 
The Chinese public has accepted the express system introduced by Mr. Han 
who was also the first Chinese to organize the express parcels delivery 
system in China. As Transportation Officer of the Republican forces he 
played an important role during the first Revolution of 1911 and for 
meritorious services rendered was awarded a "Chiao Ho" decoration by 
the Chinese government. As a public ;spirited citizen he is interested in 
various religious and social lactivities, is a director of St. Luke's Hospital. 
National Committee, Y. M. C. A.'s of China, the Shanghai Y. M. C. A. 
Chants Academy, and a member of commercial and guild organizations and 
several important clubs of Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



277 




Mr. Ho Chieh 

Mr. Ho Chieh was born at Canton, is 1888. He Studied in the Canton 
Christian College, 1903-6; in the Tangshan Railway and Engineering Col- 
lege 1906-9 ; went to America in October 1909, after becoming a successful 
candidate for a government scholarship; studied mining and metallurgy 
at the Colorado School of Mines, 1910-13; and graduated in 1913 with the 
degree of E. M. (Engineer of Mines). He took up post-graduate work on 
Coal and Iron at Lehigh University, 1913-14, and received the degree of 
M. S. (Master of Science) in 1914, Mr. Ho returned to China in August 
1914. He was Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, the National Univers- 



278 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ity of Peking, 1914-19, Dean of the Department of Engineering, 1919-23, 
concurrently Dean of the Department of Geology, 1919-24. He also held 
other concurrent posts, besides those of the National University of Peking, 
as assistant engineer, Chou Siang Railway, 1917, and professor of mathe- 
matics, University of Communications of Peking, 1923-24. His present 
position is Dean annd Professor of Mining, Pei-Yang University. Mr. Ho 
is Member of the American Institute of Mining & Met. Engineers, 1913; of 
the Association of Chinese & American Engineers, 1920; and of the Geolo- 
gical Society of China, 1922, also elected Councillor of t{he Society in 
1924. He was conferred the Fourth Class Chiaho Decoration, 1923. 
Mr. Ho is the author of the following sets of notes all of which 
have been published by the National University Press of Peking: Ore 
Analysis, Analysis of Iron and Steel, Technical Gas Analysis, Fire Assaying, 
Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, and Mine Sampling and Valuation; also 
a Popular Gem Stone in North China, printed by the Geologic'al Sopi'aty 
of China. He has also published a number of magazine articles in Chinese 
on "Gems and Precious Stones." 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



279 




Mr. G. Zay Wood 

M « ^^ K « 

(Ho Chieh-ts'ai) 

Mr. G. Zay Wood, popularly known in Peking as "General Wood," was 
born at Tsa-Bridge, Shanghai, August 27, 1895. He received his prelim- 
inary education in the Sung-kiang Middle School and the Nanyang Middle 
School. After his graduation from Nanyang in 1913, he went to Tsinghua 
College, where he remained but two years before he was sent by the 
government to the United States for advanced (education. In 1915 he en- 
tered Yale as a Junior. He was awarded the "Charles Washburn Clark 



2^0 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Prize," during his senior year for his essay on "The Diplomatic and 
Consular Service of the United States as Compared with that of the Eur- 
opean Countries." In 1917, after his graduation from Yale, he entered 
Harvard to take his post-graduate work. Political science was the subject 
of his special study. He took his Master Degree in one year. In 1918, 
he studied international law at Columbia University. He was appointed by 
the University in the following year "Curtis Fellow in International Law" 
and was reappointed in 1920. During his student days, he served as the' 
editor-in-chief of the Chinese Students' Monthly and of the Far Eastern 
Republic He was twice elected president of the Chinese Political Science 
Association. Besides, he was a frequent contributor to the American news- 
papers and magazines. In 1921, he was asked by Dr. Sao-ke Alfred Sze, 
the Chinese Minister at Washington, to be temporarily attached to the 
Chinese Legation there. Later he joined the Chinese delegation to the 
Washington Conference. He served as an assistant in the Press Bureau 
attached to the Chinese delegation. In 1922 he returned to China. Upon 
his arrival in Peking, he was invited to take charge of the Peking Daily 
News as its chief editor. In the meantime, he was appointed secretary to 
the Commission on National Financial Conference. In 1923, at the end of 
January, he 'left the Peking Daily News to join the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs as its secretary..' In June of the same year, he waS appointed 
Secretary to the Cabinet. Mr. Wood is the author of many books, the best 
known of which include. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance, The Twenty-One 
Demands, The Chino-Japanese Treaties, The Shantung Question, A 
Study in Diplomacy and World Politics. He is also the author of China 
and Japan, a booklet of about 100 pages privately printed for distribution. 
Mr. Wood is now the editor and publisher of the Evening World of Peking, 
which is said to be the "only foreign language evening pA'per in China 
that is, published every day in the year." 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



281 





General Ho Feng-Iin 

General Ho Feng-lin, was born at Pingyin, Shantung, in 1873. After 
studying in the lower schools of his native province, General Ho deter- 
mined to enter military service. Like many other .'notable civil and mili- 
tary officials of the nation of China, he received his education at Peiyang 
College. His aptitude won recognition and following his graduation he 
was placed as a military tutor under the late Yuan Shih-k'ai during the 
time the latter was training his modern forces at Siaotsan, Chihli. In the 
first year of the Republic, General Ho was appointed a Brigade Commander 
and received honorable mention in military dispatches for his services dur- 
ing the battles of Wuchang and Nanking. He accompanied General Yang 
Shan-teh, late Tuchun of Chekiang province, on his expedition to the South 
in the second year of the Republic and served with him as commandant of 
forces at Sunkiang. For his ability and deportment a.^ an officer, he was 



282 WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



later promoted to the position of M^ilitary Coramissioiner of Ningpo and 
Taichow, Chekiang. General Ho was made acting Defense Commissioner of 
Shanghai and Sunkiang when General Lu Yung-hsiang was promoted to the 
Tuchunship of Chekiang province, and his successful discharge of the duties 
assigned won for him the permanent occupancy of the position, the con- 
firmation of which came late in 1920. The life of General Ho has been one 
of service, he having been mentioned a number of times in military orders 
and dispatches for his loyalty and heroic conduct. His troops are widely 
known for the excellence of their discipline. His handling of the position 
which he occupied during his tenure of office as acting Defense Commis- 
senior in a number of trying incidents in the districts of Shanghai and 
Sunkiang won for him the friendship and praise of foreigners and Chinese 
aliike. In January 19201, General Ho received the First Order of Tashou; 
in September 1920, the second Order of Tashou Paokuang ; in October 1920, 
the First Order of Tashou Paokuang; in May 1921, the Third Order of Merit; 
in January 1922, the brevet rank of Full General; and in October 1923, 
Second Order of Merit. Following the defeat of Marshal Lu Yung-hsiang 
of Chekiang province in the war which began between Chekiang and 
Kiangsu provinces in September 1924, General Ho was forced to relinquish 
his position of Defense Commissioner of Shanghai and go to Japan.. How- 
ever, when the Anfu-Fengtien party was successful at the conclusion of 
this war, General Ho returned to Shanghai, where he is now residing. 



^ 



WHO S WHO IN CHINA 



283 




Mr. J. C. Ho 

(Ho Jui-chang) 

Mr. Ho was born at Nanling Hsien, Anhui, in 1889. He graduated from 
the Kiangnan High School in Nanking. In 1910 Mr. Ho received the degree 
of M. A. when he successfully passed the literary examinations held by 
the Board of Education. Subsequently he was given the rank of an ex- 
pectant secretary. In June 1910, he reported at the Board of Education 



284 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



for duty. Later he was detailed to the Board of Justice for servlice. In 
Septerabei' 1911, he was appointed by the Board of Communications to be 
English translator of the Directorate-General of Railways, and to be 
concurrently a member of the accounts department. In July 1912, he was 
transferred back to the Board of Communications and was assigned to the 
Traffic Department for service. In September he was given the official 
rank of Junior Secretary. In August 1913 he was appointed Acting 
Secretary of the Ministry. Three months later, he was awarded the sixth 
Class Chia Ho Decoration. In- February 1914 he was recommended for the 
appointment as Secretary. Subsequently he resigned this position and was 
appointed Secretary of the Railway Bureau. In July he received the Fifth 
Class Chia Ho Decoration awarded for his meritorious service. Later he 
was promoted to be Senior Secetary, and was given additional office as a 
member of the transportation section of the Traffic Department,. Mr. Ho 
assisted in the compilation of a dictionary containing translations of 
foreign railway terms, for i which he was specially awarded an honorary 
Medal by the Ministry of Communicationa, In July 1917, he was appointed 
Associate Director of the Chu-ching and Chow-hsing Railways. In August, 
Mr. Ho was transferred to the Peking-Suiyuan Railway and given the same 
position as Assistant Director. At the same time he acted as Chief of the 
General Affairs Department. In September, he was elected Chairman of 
the Society for the Study of Communications. In October he was awarded 
the Third Class Chia Ho Decoration. In November he was concurrently 
appointed a member of 'the Commission for the codification of railway 
legislation. He was awarded about the same time a Third Class Wen Hu 
Decoration for service rendered in connection with the suppression of 
"tufeis." In November 1918, he was appointed Secretary of the Pres- 
ident's Office. In the same month he was again transferred back to the 
Ministry of Communications for service, upon his resignation from the 
office of Assistant Director of the Peking-Suiyuan Railway. In January' 
1920, Mr. Ho was appointed chief of the General Affairs department to the 
office of the High General Industrial Commission. During the period from 
August to December 1920, he received several important appointments in 
the Ministry of Communications. In January 1921, Mr. Ho received the 
Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho, and in February 1922 the Second Order 
of Tashou Chiaho, In March 1922, he was appointed acting councillor of 
the Ministry of Communications. Mr. Ho retired from political life in 
September 1922, subsequent to the downfall of the Chiaotung clique, of 
which Liang Shih-i and Yeh Kung-cho were the leaders. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



285 



■*?s-^ -^.s^s 




Mr. Ho P'ei-jung 

fsj « J^ ^m H 



286 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mr, Ho P'ei-jung was born at Chieh-shih Hsien, Hupeh, in 1880. Mr. 
Ho attended the Military College in Japan after his graduation from a 
militarj- school at home, and specialised in infantry. In 1907 he graduated 
from the Military College and returned to China in the summer of the 
same year. Upon his arrival in Peking, Mr. Ho reported to the Ministry 
of War for appointment. He was detained for service in the Ministry. 
Later he was transferred to the Second Division of the Peiyang Army and 
was subsequently appointed to command a regiment. Gradually he worked 
his way up. In two years he was promoted to be Chief of the Second 
Division. In September of 1913 he was given the rank of Major-General. 
In 1915 General Wang Chan-yuan, Command'er-in-Chief of the Second Divi- 
sion, was appointed military governor of Hupeh. and General Ho accompanied 
his chief. In his first year in Hupeh, he continued to function as 
Chief of the Political Affairs Department of Hupeh province. In 
1917 General Ho was appointed Civil Governor of Hupeh by the Central 
government. This position he held until August 1290. In October of the 
same year he was appointed Director of the Government Mining Bureau of 
the Province- of Hupeh. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



287 




Sir Robert Hotung 

(Ho Tung) 

Sir Robert Hotung, rightly called Sir Robert, because of knightood 
conferred upon him by King George V. and his many decorations from the 
Chinese government, stands out among the prominent men of China, those 
of the past, present and the future. Born in Hongkong, December 22, 
1862 he is the eldst member of a larg^e family. He received most of 
his early education in Chinese schools, obtaining his training under free 
tuition, owing to the remarkable progress made and the ambition he show- 
ed for higher knowledge. He spent four years in the Hongkong Central 
School (now Queen's College) learning English, graduating with highest 
honors In his class. Following this he started his business career, holding 
a post on the indoor staff of the Maritime Customs, remaining' in this 



288 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



position from 1878 to 1880. Later he resigned from this position and 
accepted the position of junior assistant to the compradore of Messrs. 
Jardine, Matheson and Company, Ltd. While his remuneration was small 
his bonus at the end of the year compensated him enough to remain there, 
thus gaining valuable experienca. Later he accepted the position of the 
Chinese agency of the Hongkong Fire and Canton Insurance Companies, 
and acted as chief compradore for this firm for the next six ye3,ra. Later 
owing to ill health he relinquished this position in favor of his brother, 
Ho Fook. Since that time, 'Sir Robert has won his way to the highest pin- 
nacles of financial and business success in the Colony which gave him birth, 
and to-day he is a very rich man, so great indeed is his wealth that he 
can with truth be described as one of the great pillars of Hongkong's 
financial strength. His advice is frequently sought by the leading interests 
of the colony, and he has come to be recognized as one of the shrewdest 
business men Hongkong has ever known. He is a very large shareholder 
in the Hongkong and ' Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Hongkong and 
Whampoa Dock Company and other big concerns, while evidence of the 
value attached to his commercial insight is to be found in the fact that he 
is director of s everal prominent companies, including the Hongkong and 
Whampoa Dock Company, the Hongkong Electric Company, the Hongkong 
Tramway Company, the Hongkong Land Investment Company, the Hongkong 
Reclamation Company, the Hongkong Canton and Macao Steamboat Company, 
the Indo-China Steam Navigation Company, the Hongkong Fire Insurance 
Company, the Canton Insurance Office, and the Kam Hing Knitting Company. 
Although Sir Robert's health has not permitted him to take as pro- 
m'inent a part as he would wish in public life and business activity, he is 
still to be found every day at his private office! in the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank Building, where he is always being consulted on matters 
of business policy and high finance. His own interests, too, as a very large 
property owner, naturally occupy much of his time. Besides this Sir Robert 
is often consulted regarding financial and industrial affairs of China by 
Chinese high officials and statesmen. He has also large personal interests 
of an industrial character in North China and Manchuria, this fact demon- 
strating the wide influence which he wields. Sir Robert's interests in 
public affairs have been many and varied. He is one of the largest bene- 
factors of the Hongkong University's Endowment Fund, his gifts to this 
institution totaling no less a sum than $270,000. He presented to the 
Colony the Kowloon British School, the first civil school for European 
children in Hongkong, founded a scholarship that bears his name at Queen's 
College, and in many other directions has aided the cause of learning. Sir 
Robert was Justice of Peace for Hongkong and the honor of kinghthood 
was conferred upon him by King George in 1915. Many high decorations 
have been conferred upon him also by the Chinese government, from the 
late President Yuan Shih-kai on down to Presidents Li Yuan-hung, was 
conferred upon him the First-class Chia Ho with Grand Sash'. As a man 
of knowledge Sir Robert has traded extensively in Europe and America as 
well as in Asiatic countries. His policy of life consists of strarght-for- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 289 



wardness and cautiousness, and he attributes his success in life to honesty, 
foresight, carefulness, courtesy and perseverance. He is a keen believer 
in reform and abandonment of bad customs in China, as is shown by his 
public and private actions. Sir Robert has in late years interested himself 
in a solution of China's present political troubles and conferred with 
political leaders trying to bring about a peace conference on the part 
of the various contending elements. 



^ 



HPVSNNmPWHBP 



290 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C. T. Hsia 

X ^ ^'^^'^ 

(Hsia Ch'ang-chih) 

Mr. C. T. Hsia was born at Tsingpu Hsien, Kiangsu Province, in 1890. 
In the summer of 1909, he graduated from the Kiangsu Provincial College, 
He was- specially given the degree of Chu Jeii, or M. A., by the govern- 
ment. Subsequently he was appointed a junior secretary of the Cabinet. 
After having served in the Cabinet for some time, Mr. Hsia joined the Govern- 
ment University of Peking, with the object of furthering his education in 
practical science, and studied civil engineering for three years. While he 
was studying in the University, he held the position of junior member of 
the railway department of the Ministry of Communications. In March 
1913, graduated from the University at the head of the class, and was' 
given the degree of C. E. One month later he was appointed acting 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 291 



technical expert of the Ministry of Communications. In 'December of the 
same year, this position was substantiated for him. Mr. Hsia held it 
until September 1916 when he was promoted to acting inspector. In less 
than a month's time, the new position was substantiated: by a Presidential 
Mandate. The successive positions Mr. Hsia held in the Ministry of Com- 
munications before August 1914 were: deputy for the prospecting of lines; 
member of the 'electrical department, the engineering department, 
mechanical department; chief of construction section of the drawing 
office; and associate member of the Railway Terhiinology Commission. In 
August 1914 he was appointed assistant chief of the engineering section 
of the railway department. In December of the same year, he was sent 
as special delegate of the Ministry of Communications, to attend the 
Panamia-Pacific International Exposition, and was one of the vice-chairman 
of the Jury of Awards. In the capacity of the delegate of the Ministry Mr. 
Hsia attended the International Engineering Congress, International Ed- 
ucational Congress, ■ International Irrigation Congress, the Convention of 
the American Railway Engineering Association, the Convention of the 
American Mechanical Engineering Association, and the Convention of the 
Society of Testing Materials. While in America Mr. Hsia also visited the 
Eastern States to study highway administration, electrical works, 
municipal administration, and industrial activitfies. He returned to China 
in February, 1916. Three months after his return, he was again sent to 
the United States to study railway engineering. Upon his second return 
to China in August 1916, he was made the chief of the section of efficiency 
of works of the railway department. In November, he was appointed a 
member of the Communication Conference. In January 1917, he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Commission for the P^xamination of the Railway 
Cadets. In April 1917, he was appointed the chief of thei Canton-Samshui 
Railway Administration. In September 1917, he was made one of the 
members of the Commission for the Study of Communications, two months 
later, a member of the Commission for Drafting of Railway Laws, and in 
December, became a member of the Commission of the Study of Railway 
Technics. In April 1918, Mr. Hsia was transferred to Hankow as the res- 
ident chief of the Hankow office of the Peking-Hankow railway. In May 
he was made a member of the Railw,ay Transportation Commission. In 
August 1918, he was appointed by the Tuchun of Hupeh as its councillor. 
In March 1920, he was relieved from the position of inspector of the Ministry 
of Communications. In April 1920, Mr. Hsia received the appointment 
of councillorship from the office of the High Industrial Commissioner; In 
November 1920, Mr. Hsia was appointed chief of the Hankow land develop- 
ment department of the Peking-Hankow railway. In February 1921, he 
received the Third order of Chiaho. In November 1922 he was appointed 
a special member of the commission for the study o5f international com- 
munications in connection with China's participation in the Washington 
Conference. In 1923 he became a 'section chief in the Ministry of Com- 
munications. 



292 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hsia Ch'in-hsi, 

Mr. Hsia Ch'in-hsi was born at Tientsin, Chihli. fle is a graduabe 
of the Tinetsin Commercial School and the Chihli Law School, and a prac- 
ticing barrister-at-law before the Tientsin Higher and Local Courts. His 
combined commercial and law training make him especially fitted to handle 
the complicated business of a large Chinese Chamber of Commerce. In 
1914 he was the delegate of the Chinese Chambers to the InternationaJ 
Conference of Chambers of Commerce held in Japan. At that time he 
received a silver medal from the Japanese government. On his return he 
became Secretary of the Tientsin Chamber, which position he has held 
ever since, through several administrations. He was active in relief work 
at the time of the Tientsin flood, and in recognition of his 'services was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 293 



offered the Seventh Class Chiaho decoration by President Li Yuan-hung. 
He refused this and later was offered the Sixth Class, Which honor he also 
declined to accept, saying that he felt it undemocratic to accept decora- 
tions. He was active in the organization of t)he People's Union shortly 
after the out break of the students against traitorous officials in Peking 
in May 1919 and became its Second Secretary, as well as acting chairtpian 
of the executive committee. Mr. Hsia Chin-hsi has been called the "Brains 
of the Patriotic Movement in Tientsin." His importance to the movement 
was not overlooked by the ^authorities determined to stamp out the boycott; 
as he was among the first group of leaders to be seized and placed in 
solitary confinement upon the ractionary ascendency in January, 1920. Mr. 
Hsia is a worthy representative of the more substantial element among the 
patriots. As the capable secretary of the Tientsin Chinese General Chamber 
of Commerce into whose hands practically all the affairs of the Chamber 
were entrusted by his chief, Pien Yueh-ting, president of the chamber, 
Mr. Hsia wielded immense influence in the merchant community. It was 
largely through his efforts that the merchants of Tientsin and North China 
joined whole-heartedly in the patriotic labors of the students 



^ 



294 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hsia Ching-kuan 

K m m 

Mr. Hsia Ching-kuan is a ^native of Kiangsu and was a provincial 
graduate in the Ching Dynasty. He is a scholar whose literary attainments 
and writings have for a long time been admired by the Chinese.. After 
many years of active service in his native province, Mr*. Hsila came to 
Shanghai and was made director of Fulitan college (now Fuhtan University) 
and the China National Institute. In these positions he made it poissible for 
many young people to receive an education to fit them for life work. 
When the Republic was established, Mr. Hsia became an editor with 
the Commercial Press, which post he held for a number of years. In 
December 1919, Mr. Hsia was appointed Commissioner of Education for 
the province of Chekiang. In February 1921, he was awarded the Third 
Class Chiaho. In 1922, Mr. Hsia was relieved from the post of Commis- 
sioner of Education of Chekiang, and in September was appointed prin- 
cipal librarian of the Metropolitan Library, Peking. In the spring of 1923, 
Mr. Hsia returned to Chekiang again where he was appointed by Genesral 
Lu Yung-hsiang to be director of the Cigarette Tax Bureau. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



295 




Dr. Hsia Ching-lin 

a w M ^ ^^ 

Dr. Hsia Ching-lin was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 1894. 
He was brought up at Tientsin where his father had baen a merchant for 
many years. Dr. Hsia received his elementary education from the Tientsin 
Kiangsu Primary School from 1906 to 1910 and a middle school education 
at Tientsin Anglo-Chinese College from 1910 to 1914. In 1914 Dr. Hsia 
went to England as a private student. He studied at Mill Hill School, 
London, until 1916 when he was admitted to the University of Glasgow 
where he was graduated in 1919 with the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
From Glasgow Dr. Hsia went to the University of Edinburgh where he 



296 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



obtained the degree of Master of Arts in 1920 and that of Doctor of Philo- 
sophy in the Faculty of Law in 1922, the subject of his dissertation bein'g 
'Treaty Relations between China and Great Britain.", He was the prize 
student in International Law in that University in 1917-20. Dr. Hsia 
returned to China in 1922 and was at once appointed secretary and treas- 
urer to the Chinese Weihaiwei Retrocession Commission. This position he 
held until the summer of 1923 when he left Peking for Shanghai. Begin- 
ning from the fall of 1923, Dr. Hsia took up educational work. At present 
he is connected with the Southern University as Dean of the Arts Faculty, 
and with the Shanghai Collegie of Commerce of the National Southeast^ern 
University, the Shanghai College of Law and Politics and the University 
of Shanghai, as Professor of International Law, Diplomatic History, and 
English Literature. Dr. Hsia's address is F. B. 216 Avenue Haig, Shang- 
hai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



297 




Mr. H»ia Yi-Ting 

(Hsia I-t'ing) 

Mr. Hsia I-t'ing was born at Kiangying Hsien, Kiangsu Province in 
1878. Beginning his diplomatic career as a student interpreter of the 
Chinese Legation in Berlin, Mr. Hsia now Chinese Minister to Brazil, filled 
successfully the offices of Attache to the legation in Spain and of Secretary 
to the legation in Paris. At one time he was Charge d'Affaires of the 
legation inn Spain. Next he became Consul-General in Yokohama, Japan. 
Later he was Councillor of the Special Diplomatic Mission sent to Belgium 
and France. In 1914 Mr. Hsia was made Secretary to the Cabinet and 



29^ WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



afterwards of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1915, when Lu Cheng- 
hsiang was recalled from Switzerland where he was recuperating his health 
to become Minister of Foreign Affairs to handle the delicate negotiations 
over the Twenty-One Demands presented by the Japanese government, Mr. 
Hsia was appointed Councillor of the Ministry, After the failure of Yuan Shih- 
kai's monarchical scheme, he created the Politics Studying Commission to 
devise means and ways for the improvement of internal politics. Mr. Hsia was 
elected Chief Secretary of the Commission, of which many prominent fore- 
ign advisers like Dr. Morrison, Dr. Willoughby and Dr. Agria, were 
members'. In ApTil 1916, Mr. Hsia was appointed acting Vice-minister of 
Foreign Affairs. In October he was 'ordered to officiate as Minister, just 
before the assumption of this important office by Dr. Wu Ting-fang. In 
December 1916, he resigned from ,this post and later accepted the advisor- 
ship to the President's Office and also to the Cabinet, besides serving as a. 
member of the War Commission. In October 1917, Mr. Hsia was appointed 
Minister to Brazil and Peru. These posts he is still holding. In January 
1920 he was awarded the 'Second Order of Wenfu. In March 1921 he re 
presented China at the Centenary of the Republic of Peru, and a year later 
at the Centenary of the Independence of Brazil. In October 1922, he 
received the First Order of Tashou Chiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



299 




Mr. Hsiang Hsiang 

Jg H -#: ^ M 
(Witson H. Shan) 

Mr. Shan was born at Jui-an Hsien, Chekiang province, in 1880. He 
was a Hsiu Ts'ai or Licentiate through competitive examinations in the 
Ching Dynasty. Having become a Licentiate, Mr. Shan was given an ap- 
pointment by the Hsueh Pu, then Board of Education, as an assistant com- 
piler in the Translation and Compilation Office. After a few year's work 
in that office, he was sent to America where he stmdied Political Econ- 
omy at Columbia University. He graduated from that University with the 
degree of M. A. Upon his return to China, Mr. Shan attended the Im- 
perial Examination for returned students and obtained the degree of Han 
Lin or Ph. D. Subsequently he was appointed a member of the Councillors' 
Hall of the Board of Communications. Many a time Mr. Shan was assistant 
examiner or examiner of the Imperial Examination either for returned 
students, or for judicial officials or for high civil officials. Subsequent to 



300 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the establishment of the Republic, Mr. Shan Joined the Ministry of Finance 
and from the very beginning he was a Councillor of the Ministry. During 
the following years Mr. Shan held many important positions among whidi 
were: Acting Superintendent of the Bank of China; Member of the Com- 
mission to Discuss Internal Affairs; Member of the Currency Reform 
Commission; Executive Member of the Financial Discussion Commission; 
Member of the Commission for the Examination of High Civil Officials; Co- 
Director of the Maritime Tariff Reform Commission; Director of Income 
Tax Bureau; Director of the Cigarette Tax Bureau; etc. In September 
1919 Mr. Shan was awarded the Second Order of Chiiaho and in February 

1921 the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In Februry 1922 he was ap- 
pointed a Councillor to the Central Salt Administration. In July 1922 he 
was made a member of the National Finance Comm'ssion. In October 1922 
he resigned the Second Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In December 

1922 Mr. Shan was ordered to be acting Vice-Minister of Finance with the 
concurrent posts of Chiief Director of the Central Salt Administration and 
Chief Inspector of the Salt Revenue. In Jauary 1923 he was given the 
First Order of Tashou Chiaho and about the same time he was reliev-ed of 
the acting post. In October 1923 Mr. Shan was appointed Vice-Minister 
of Finance which position he is still holding. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



301 




General Hsiao Yao-nan 

mmm^mm 

General Hsian Yao-nan was born at Huang -kang Hsien, Hupei pro- 
vince. He is a inember of the Peiyang Military Clique. During 1917-18 
he was Commander of the Chihli Third Mixed Brigade. In October 1919 
General Hsian was awarded the Second Order of Chiabo. In October 1920, 
following the Chihli-Annfu armed struggle, in which he took an actiVe 
part in Chihli, General Chang received the Fouth Order of Merit. About 
the same time he was promoted to be Commander of the 25tih National 
Army Division. In August 1921 General Hsian was appointed Tuchun of 
Hupei. In February 1922 he was awarded the Second Order of Tashou 
Paokuang Chiaho. In July he was made a Chiangchun of the College of 
Marshals with the special title in two words "Ping-Wu." In August the 
First Order of Wenfu was conferred upon him and in October 1922 the 
Second Order of Meriit. In November 1923 General Hsiao was made a 
Marshal or Ping-Wu Shan Chiang-chun. In January 1924 he was appoint- 
ed to be concurrently Civil Governor of Hupei still commanding the 2oth 
Army Division. In March 1924 General Hsiao was male a Full General. 



302 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Htiao Yung-hsi 

H rlt ^ '# =^ ife 

Mr. Hsiao Yung-hsi was born at Hua-yang Hsien, Szechuan province, 
in 1878. He was graduated from the English -department of the Szechuan 
College in Peking,. In 1901 Mr. Hsiao went to England as an attache to 
the Chinese Legation in London. In 1905 he was called back to Peking* 
where he received an appointment in the Board of Foreign Affairs. In 
1908 Mr. Hsiao was appointed Chinese Consul to Vancouver. In 1909 he 
was transferred to be Acting Consul at Rangoon. In 1910 he was appoint- 
ed Consul at the same place. In 1911 Mr,. Hsiao was sent to India to' 
attend the coronation of King George of Greiat Britain. Mr. Hsiao re- 
turned to China in 1913. Subsequently he was appointed Co-Director of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 303 



the Peking Octroi and concurrently a consulting member of the Ministry. 
In February 1916 Mr. Hsiao was awarded the Fifth Class Chiaho. In April 
he was appointed Chief-in-Charge of the Telegraph Bureau of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. In December 1920 Mr. Hsiao was appointed Acting 
Second Secretary to the Chinese Legation in Sweden. In January 1921 
he was given the Fourth Class Chiaho. For a time he was Chinese Charge 
d'Affaires in Sweden. In 1922 Mr. Hs'ao was transferred to become First 
Secretary to the Chinese Legation in Norway and at the same time was 
Charge d'Affaires. In June 1922 he returned to China and immediately 
became Advisor to the High Inspecting Commissioner of Hunan and Hupei, 
General Wu Pei-fu. In August 1922 Mr. Hsiao was appointed Acting Coun- 
cillor of the Ministry of Communications. A month later he was transferred 
to be Acting Director of the Department of Posts and concurrently a com- 
piler of the Commission for the compilation of the history of Chinese 
Communications. In October 1922 Mr. Hsiao received the Second Class 
Chiaho. In the same month he was appointed Director of the Department 
of Navigation which position he is still holding. In May 1923 he was' 
awarded the Third Class Wenfu. 



<^ 



304 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Hsieh Chih-heng 

m ^f" m ^^i^ 

General Hsieh Chih-heng was born at Lu Lung Hsien, Chihli province. 
General Hsieh became Resident Director of the Office of the Municipal 
Works in Peking in July 1920. In September of the same year he re- 
ceived the appointment of "Tu Hu Pu Shih." In October 1920 General 
Hsieh was given the brevet rank of Lieutenant General. In January 1921 
he was awarded the Second Class Wenfu. In January 1922 General Hsieh 
was appointed Inspector-General of the Metropolitan Police and concurrently 
Co-Director of the Office of Administration of Metropolitan Municipal 
Works. In May 1922 he was made a Lieutenant General. In October 1922 
General Hsieh was awarded the Fifth Order of Merit and in November the 
Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In February 1923 he was made a Chiangchun 
or Member of the College of Marshals with the special two-word "Ping 
Wei". In March 1923 he received the First Class Wenfu. In November 
1923 General Hsieh was given the brevet rank of a Full General.. He is 
still the Inspector General of the Metropolitan Police. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



305 




Mr. Hsieh En-lung 

it mm'^mm 

Mr. Hsieh En-lung was born in Canton in 1884. He studied at the 
Queen's College, Hongkong, during 1900-1904 and then at the Peiyang 
University, Tientsin, during 1904-1906. In June 1906 Mr. Hsieh went to 
America. From 1906 to 1909 he studied Agriculture at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College and was graduated from it with the degree of B. So. 
He obtained the degree of B. A. from Boston University in 1909. He was 
elected to Phi Kappa Phi in June of the same year. Subsequently Mr. 
Hsieh took post-graduate work in Cornell University and in 1910 he was 
graduated with the degree of 'M. S. Then he went to Germany and spent 
sometime in the Leipzig University. Mr. Hsieh returned to China in 
June 1912. That year he was appointed Technical Expert to the Ministry 
of Agriculture and Commerce. As a Chinese delegate he attended the 
International Dry Farming Congress at Lathbridge, Alberta, Canada, in 
1912. Upon his return he wrote a comprehensive report. Mr. Hsieh was 
editor-in-chief of the Journal of Agriculture and Forestry from 1912 to 



306 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



1915. While in the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce he was Chief 
Compiler of the Translation and Compilation Bureau and associate editor 
of the Journal of Agriculture and Commerce. In 1914 Mr. Hsieh was ap^ 
pointed Principal Expert of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, 
In October 1920, Mr. Hsieh left the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 
and in November he was appointed Principal Technical Expert of the 
Ministry of Communications. In the latter Ministry he was at different 
times chief of different sections either in the Railway Department or 
in the Telegraph Department. In December 1921, Mr. Hsieh was awarded 
the Third Class Chiaho. In 1922 he was one of the Chinese delegates to 
the Sino-Japanese Postal Conference. From May 1921 to May 1922, Mr. 
Hsieh concurrently held the position of Departmental Chief in the Office 
of the High Industrial Commissioner and also that of Chief editor of the 
Journal of Industrial Development published by that office. Mr. Hsieh ig 
at present serving as a Principal Technical Expert of the Ministry of Com- 
munications, member of the General Affairs Section of the Department 
and also a member of the Office of Technical Affairs. Mr. Hsieh is the 
author of Report on Tobacco Industry in Shantung and Chinese Tea, written 
in 1915. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



107 




Mr. Hsieh Tu-pi 

^ ^ S? ^ ^ H 

Mr. Hsieh Tu-pi was born at Chieh Hsieh, Shansi province, in 1892. 
He was graduated from the Shansi Provincial Law College. In February 
1912 Mr. Hsieh, was appointed a Judge of the Local Court of Hotung 
District, Shansi. In October of the same year he was transferred to be- 
come Judge of the Local Court of Pingyang District. In December 1914 
Mr. Hsieh was appointed by the Commander of the 16th Mixed Brigade, 
who was then no other person than General Feng Yu-hsiang, to be Secret- 
ary. Mr. Hsieh became Military Judge to the same Brigade. In April 
1918 he received a concurrent position as Chief of the Ching-shih Likin 
Station in Hunan in which province the 16th Mixed Brigade was then 
stationed. In July he was transferred to be Chief of the Chang-teh Likin 
Station, still holding the position of Military Judge of the Brigade. In 
August 1918 Mr. Hsieh was awarded the Third Class Chiaho in recognition 
of service rendered in connection with recapturing the city of Chang-teh, 
Hunan, from the hands of Southern leaders. In July 1919 Mr. Hsieh was 



308 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



appointed Magistrate of Channg-teh Hsieh. This position he held until 
Julj'^ 1920 when he went North with the 16th Mixed Brigade of which he 
was still the Military Legal Officer. At the same time he received the 
Second Class Chiaho, In 1921 General Feng Yu-hsiang became Tuchun of 
Shensi while General Liu Chen-hua was the Civil Governor. In July that 
year Civil Governor Liu appointed Mr. Hsieh to be Magistrate of Yenyanig 
Hsieh. In August he was transferred to be Acting Magistrate of Chang-an 
Hsien, the capital of the province of Shensi. In October 1921 Mr. Hsieh 
was appointed jointly by Tuchun Feng and Governor Liu to act as director 
of the Shensi Opium Prevention Bureau. In December 1921 Mr. Hsieih 
was appointed to act for the Chief of the Shensi Financial Bureatu In 
May 1922 he was appointed by a President Mandate to be Acting Chief 
of the Shensi Financial Bureau. In the meanwhile General Feng Yu-hsiang 
was transferred to Honan. In May 1922 the Civil Governor of Honan ap- 
pointed Mr. Hsieh to act for the Chief of the Honan Financial Bureau. In 
June another Presidential Mandate appointed him to be Acting Chief of 
that Bureau. In January 1923 Mr. Hsieh was appointed Acting Vice- 
Minister of Justice. For some time after May 1923 he was concurrently 
Chief Secretary of the Cabinet. In July 1923 Mr. Hsieh was appointed to 
act concurrently as Chief of the Peking Octroi. In January 1924 Mr. 
Hsieh was appointed to take charge of the Affairs of the Ministry of 
Justice. Besides this post which he is still holding, Mr. Hsien is now 
the Director of the Peking Octroi. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



309 




Mr. Y. S. Ziar 
(Hsieh Yung-shen) 

Mr. Y. S. Ziar, Chinese attorney and formerly chairman of the Chinese 
Advisory Committee to the Shanghai Municipal Council, is a native of Shao- 
shing, Chekiang, a place well-known in China for its production of wise men 
and lawyers. He was born on March 15, 1885, and was the son of late Mr, 
Ziar Lun-hui, managing director of the Commercial Bank of China and one 
of the foremost bankers in the country. After receiving his education i-n 
the preparatory schools in Shanghai, Mr. Ziar went to England in 1906, 
entering Cambridge University in 1907, and took his B. A. degree in 1910 
and M. A. in 1915. He is a member of the Inner Temple, London, and 
was called to the bar in 1914. After two year's practice in England, he 
returned to China and joined the firm of Messrs. Piatt and Company of 
Shanghai in 1916. He has appeared in many important criminal and civil 
cases in the Mixed Court and other judicial tribunals in Shanghai. When 



310 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Chinese Ratepayers* Association was organized to further the activi- 
ties of thii Chinese in municipal affairs, Mr. Ziar was elect^ed ooie of the 
directors of the association and when later the creation of an a-dvisory 
committee was authorised by the Shanghai ratepayers he became one o'f 
the members of the first committee, which elected him as its chairman. In 
1923, he resigned from the committee to take an extensive trip in Europe 
and America where he made investigations of the judicial systems of the 
various countries. He returned in 1924 and since has continued his prac- 
tice with Messrs. Piatt and Company, Mr. Ziar has been appointed legal 
advisor to the Bureau of Foreign Affairs the General Chamber of 
Commerce of Shanghai annd the Military Governor of Chekiang. 



tjt 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



311 




Mr« HsSun^t Hsi-iing 

Mr. Hsiung Hsi-ling Was born at Peng'huang Hsien, Hunan province, 
in 1867. He was a Metropolitan graduate of 1894 and a prominent Hanlin 
scholar. Mr. Hsiung was an intimate friend of the reformer Kang Yu-hui 
and after the latter's downfall which occurred in 1898 he was arrested 
by the Imperial Ching government, but was promptly released. Subsequently 
Mr. Haiung went to Japan to study. There he reniained for a few years. 
In 1905 when he had returned to Peking he accompanied Tuan Fang on 
the latter's foreign mission. On that occasion, he visited America and 
Europe. After the return of the mission, Mr. Hsiung was appointed 



312 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Chief of the Bureau of Agriculture, Industry & Commerce of Kiangsu. 
Later he was transferred to the same post in Fengtien. Mr. Hsiung 
was the principal assistant of General Chao Erh-hsun when the latter 
was Viceroy of Manchuria. In September 1910 he received the ap- 
pointment to be Acting Commissioner of Foreign Affairs in Hupei. But 
very soon he returned to Mukden where he held several important posi- 
tions at different times, the highest being that of the Principal Finance 
Commissioner of Manchuria and that of Salt Commissioner of Fengtien. 
A.t the time of the Wuchang outbreak, October 1911, Mr. Hsiung was 
Finance Commissioner at Mukden. Subsequently he went south and joined 
the Tutuh of Kiangsu. I^ater he went to Hunan and became chair- 
man of the Republican Committee of that province. In March 1912 
Mr. Hsiung was appointed Minister of Finance in the first Republican 
Cabinet headed by Tang Shao-i. He was responsible for the conduct 
of the loan negotiations with the International Bank'ng Group, for 
the First Reorganization Loan from the time of his arrival until he 
resigned in June 1912 after Premier Tang had given up the premiership. 
Mr. Hsiung, however, continued to be employed by the government in the 
capacity of Chief of a Commission for the negotiation of foreign loans. 
It was he who was mainly responsible for negotiating the Crisp Loan. 
Subsequently Mr. Hsiung was appointed Tutung or Lieutenant-General of 
Jehol. The appointment was interesting in view of the fact that he had 
never held a military position before. He remained at Jehol until July 
1913. Mr. Hsiung was appointed Prime Minister on July 31, 1913. In 
September he was given the concurrent post of Minister of Finance. 
These positions he held until February 1914r In May 1914 Mr. Hsiung 
was appointed a member of the Tsan Chen Yuan, the Advisory Council 
of the late President Yuan Shih-kai. At the same time he was ap- 
pointed Director-General of the National Oil Administration which was 
organized for the purpose to undertake the development of petroleum 
resources in China in cooperation with the Standard Oil Company of 
New York. As the expedition to Shensi and Shansi failed to discover 
oil of a commercial quantity the Administration was dissolved in 
December 1916. In 1917, the year a big flood occurred in Chihli 
inundating part of the Port of Tientsin, Mr. Hsiung was appointed Dir- 
ector-General of the Flood Relief and Conservancy. He was mainly re- 
sponsible for the formation of the Chihli River Commission, of which he 
was made President. In the capacity of the Director-General, Mr. Hsiung 
signed the agreement with the American International Corporation for a 
$6,000,000 loan for the improvement of the Grand Canal. He later 
became Director General of the Grand Canal Improvement Board. 
In December 1918 Mr. Hsiung was awarded the Third Order of Merit. 
In May 1919 he was ordered to hold concurrently the post of director 
general of Famine Relief in Hunan Province. In March 1920 Mr. Hsiung 
received the First Class Wenfu Decoration. In May 1920 he was relieved 
of the three aforementioned posts: Flood Relief and Conservancy; Grand 
Canal Improvement; and Hunan Famine Relief. Following in the wake 
of the 1921 flood the refugees driven to despair by the famine were 
abandoning their children on the roadside or selling them to the highest 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 313 



bidders. Mr. Hsiung in the capacity of Director-General established two 
asylums in Peking to receive these children. When the flood subsided, 
most of these children were claimed and taken back by their parents, but 
still about 200 were left on the hands of the authorities without 
any claimants. Finding it necessary to find a place for the up- 
bringing of the children, Mr. Hsiung secured the donation by Ching 
Household of the Imperial Hunting Park on the Western Hills and 
using this place he establisihed an orphanage called the Children's 
Home. In May 1921 Mr. Hsiung was called to Hunan to direct the self- 
government movement in that province. He returned to Peking in July 
1921. The object of this hasty return was partly to ease the mind of the 
northern leaders who suspected him of having joined the southern leaders 
and partly to save the Children's Home from losing the government's sup- 
port. In November 1922, Mr. Hsiung was awarded the Second Order of 
Merit. In the same month he was ordered by the President to devise means 
of living for the poor people in the Metropolis. In January 1923 he was 
appointed a Member of the Educational Sinking Fund Commission. Mr. 
Hsiung's address is Children's Home, Hsiang Shan, Peking. 



.je 



314 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Hsiung Ping-ch'i 

General Hsiung Ping-ch'i was born in Shantung. He graduated from 
a military academy in North China. General Hsiung served the late Pre- 
sident Feng Kuo-chang for many years. When the latter was Commander- 
in-chief of the Body Guard of the Ching Imperial Family, General 
Hsiung was a Second Staff Officer. From September 1912 to July 
1913, during which period Feng KuQ-ohang was M.ilitary Governor 
of Chihli, General Hsiung was his Staff Officer. In December 1913 
Feng Kuo-chang became Tutu or Military Governor of Kiangsu, and 
General Hsiung was appointed Chief of Military Affairs Department, 
Subsequently he was made a Colonel General. In August 1917 Feng 
Kuo-chang came to Peking to succeed Li Yuan-hung as President of China 
General Hsiung was given an important position in the President's Office. 
Hsiung retired into private life when Feng Kuo-chang was relieved of 
the Presidency by Hsu Shih-chang in September 1918. In March 1919 
General Hsiung was appointed Director of the National University for 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 315 



military training. Subsequently he was made a Lieutenant-General. 
In May 1920 General Hsiung was awarded the Second Class Chiaho. 
In November 1920 he left the University and very soon was appointed 
Chief Staff Officer to the High Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli, Shan- 
tung and Honan, who was no other person than Marshal Tsao Kun. In 
February 1922 General Hsiung received the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. 
In July 1922 he was made "Chang Wei" Chiangchun, a member of the 
College of Marshals. In Septemjjer 1922 General Hsiung was appointed 
Civil Governor of Shantung — ^this position he is still holding. In October 
1922 he was given the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In November 1922 
he was appointed to hold concurrently . the post of Associate Director of 
the Shantung Rehabilation Bureau and also that of Director General of 
the Administration of the Kiaochou Port. He was also commissioned to 
cooperate with Dr. C. T. Wang in taking over that Port from the Japan- 
ese. In February 1923 another appointment was given to him and that 
was associate director for the Construction Works of the Kungchiakou 
Breach of the Yellow River. In May 1923 General Hsiung was ordered to 
be censured in connection with the Lincheng Outrage, but to remain in 
position as before. In November 1923 General Hsiung was given the brevet 
rank of a full General. 



^ 



316 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. S. P. Hung 

m '^ ^ 

Hsiung Hsiao-hao 

Mr. S. P. Hung is managing editor of the Chinese Peking and Tientsin 
Times, special correspondent for the Shun Pao of Shanghai, and a member 
of the sub-committee for China of the World Press Congress. Born in 
Hongkong in 1892, Mr. Hung studied p]nglish in Queen's College at the 
place of his birth. In 1910 he went to Peking and entered the College 
of Communications, a government institution in the Capital. In August of 
1911 he became translator and reporter for the Associated Press in Peking. 
In 1912 he became assistant correspondent in Peking of the Chicago Daily 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 317 



News. In 1914 he was reporter for Renter's Agency in the Capital and was 
transferred to Tientsin after the war broke out in Europe. In 1914 he 
became translator and reporter for Renter's Tientsin Agency and the Pek- 
ing and Tientsin Times, and illustrator and artist of the China Illustrated 
Weekly and the Tientsin Press. In 1917 the Chinese Peking and Tientsin 
Times was established, and Mr. Hung acted concurrently as managing editor 
of that paper. In April of 1921 he attended the Press Conference of the 
Far East in Tokyo. While in Japan he succeeded in sectiring aasista^nce 
of the Japanese press in putting an end to the Japanese morphine traffic in 
China. The Japan Times and Mail in one of its April issues stated: "It 
was partly through Mr. Rung's efforts that a black list was published in 
the English and Chinese newspapers in China, containing the names of 
dealers, Japanese and others, who helped to carry on this deadly traffic 
which resulted in the death of 100,000 people in China every year." Mr. 
Hung attributed his anti-Japanese attitude to the Japanese merchants in 
China secretly trafficing in opium and said: "Out of every hundred known 
opium smugglers, 93 are Japanese while statistics reveal 100,000 victims of 
this traffic annually. If this trade continues several hundred years more, 
one-fourth of the whole Chinese population will perish." 



^ 



318 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. George Hsu 

(Hsu Ch'ien) 

Mr. George Hsu was born at Nanchang, Kiangsi province, in 1872. 
His father, who was a district magistrate, died while he was a child, and 
at the age of nine he moved w'iith his uncle to Soochow and later to 
Peking. Mr, Hsu studied in Peking until he became a Metropolitan gra- 
duate or Han-lin, Then he entered the Chin Shih Kuan, a post-graduate 
school for those having passed the third literary examination. There he 
studied foreign law for three years. On completing his studies he was 
appointed a Councillor of the Board of Justice. In 1906, Tai Hung-tzu, 
then President of the Board of Justice, returned from his tour abroad. Mr. 
Hsu made suggestions to him to separate the judicial functions of the 



WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 319 



governraennt from the executive. This brought the organization of district 
courts and the Supreme Court in Peking. Mr. Hsu was appointed Chief 
Justice of the Peking Local Court. In 1907 Mr. Hsu was promoted to the 
position of Attorney-General of the Higher Court of Peking. In 1910 Mr. 
Hsu attended as Chinese Delegate the Eighth International Prison Con- 
ference at Washington D. C, visiting the leading European capitals about 
the same time. Upon his return to Peking, he was appointed Vice-Pres- 
ident of the Board of Justice, holding this position until the Revolution of 
1911. After the peace pact in Shanghai. January 1912, Mr. Hsu was appoint- 
ed Vice-President of the Supreme Court in Peking. In April 1912 he 
was appointed Vice-Minister of Justice in Tang Shao-i's Cabinet. For 
sometime he acted for the Minister of Justice, Dr. Wang Chung-hui, who 
did not assume office. Mr. Hsu resigned from the Ministry of Justice in 
July 1912 because he disliked Yuan Shih-kai's absolute rule. Then he 
went to Shanghai and joined Dr. Sun Yat-sen's party. During the Seoond 
Revolution, in the summer of 1913, Mr. Hsu was practising law in Shanghai 
before the Mixed and Native Courts. He remained there for three years. 
Yuan Shih-kai died in June 1916. Li Yuan-hung became President 
and Tuan Chi-jui Prime Minister. In September 1916 Mr. Hsu was ap- 
pointed Vice-Minister of Justice. Before the dissolution of Parliament 
on June 13, 1917, by President Li Yuan-hung, Mr. Hsu strongly opposed 
President Li's taking such an unconstitutional step. On June 16, his re- 
signation was officially accepted. Immediately after his resignation, Mr. 
Hsu proceeded to Shanghai where he spent three months, while Peking 
witnessed the beginning and end of General Chang Hsun's attempt to 
restore the Manchu Monarch. Meanwhile the members of the dissolved 
Parliament gathered at Canton. Dr. Sun went there on July 19. On July 
22, the First Squadron of the Chinese Navy headed by Admiral Ch'en Pi- 
kuang declared its independence and sailed to Canton. A military govern- 
ment was immediately established with Dr. Sun as Generalissimo. On Aug- 
gust 27, the Extraordinary Parliament was inaugurated at Canton,, Mr. 
Hsu was invited by Dr. Sun to be his Chief Secretary whicfh he reaidily 
accepted. In January 1918 a Southwestern government was formed at 
Canton. Dr. Sun, General Tsen Chun-hsuan, Dr. Wu Ting-fang, General 
Tang Chi-yao, General Lu Yung-ting and Admiral Ch'en Pi-kuang were 
elected administrators. Mr. Hsu became Dr. Sun's representative on the 
Administrative Council, concurrently acting as Miaister of Justice, 
Mr. Hsu was one of the first to advocate a peace conference between 
the North and the South for the settling of their differences. Immediately 
after the armistice had been proclaimed in France, in November 1918, 
Mr. Hsu suggested the idea in an article in the Peking Leader, and draft- 
ed a wire to President Hsu suggesting that both sides send an equal 
number of delegates to Shanghai to discuss a reconciliation. The Canton 
Administrative Council and the representatives of the Southern provinces 
and troops of the Military governnraent passed favorably on his suggestion, 
and the telegram as drafted was wired to Peking on Nov>e(mber, 1918. 
being at the same time delivered to the consulates of the Powers in Canton. 
It was at least two days later that the memorandum of the five Powers 
advising a peace conference was delivered by the various consulates- 



320 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



general and legations in Canton and Peking. In 1919 Mr. Hsu was asked 
by the Canton government to attend the Paris Peace Conference as advisor 
to the Chinese Delegation and also by the Chinese Christian bodies to 
represent their interests unofl5cially at the Conference. Upon his return 
from Paris at the end of August 1919, two months after the signing of the 
Versailles Treaty, Mr. Hsu found Dr. Sun in Shanghai, having severed 
connection with the Southern government and left Canton. Mr. Hsu sent 
in his resignation as Minister of Justice, which however, was not accepted. 
Then Mr. Hsu went to Tientsin and took up the chief editorship of the 
Social Welfare. Upon the return of Dr. Sun to power in Canton late 1920, 
Mr. Hsu resumed his activities with the movement. He was President of the 
Supreme Court of the Constitutional government and was charged also with 
the duties of the Minister of Justice. In June 1922, Li Yuan-hung became 
President in Peking again. Parliament was reconvcked. In September 
1922 President Li appointed Mr. Hsu, Acting Minister of Justice. He did 
not afisutae office and was officially relieved of this post in November 1922. 
In October 1922 he was awarded by President Li the First Class Tashou Chiaho 
Decoration. Mr. Hsu is still in Canton holding several positions. He 
was a faithful follower of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. When not in office, Mr. Hsu 
practices law privately. He is a Christian, and in spite of his many duties 
in Canton Mr. Hsu finds time to conduct Bible classes and also answer the 
frequent calls to preach in the churches of the city. He is now Chancellor 
of the Central University recently established by the Southern government 
at Canton. 



%ae 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



321 




Mr. Jabin Hsu 
(Hsu Chien-ping) 

Mr. Jabin Hsu, one of the best known of the madern journalists in 
China, was born in Shanghai, March 26, 1889. He received his preliminary 
education in the Municipal Public School for Chinese, graduating in 1907. 
In the same year, he passed as one of the first five Chinese students tak- 
ing the Cambridge University local examinations. In 1908, Mr. Hsu acted 
as interpreter for a foreign law firm in Shanghai. In the following year, 
he became the editor of the Yu Shang Pao, a weekly commercial pa^er 
published in Chinese. In 1910 he passed the competitive examination of 
Tsing Hua College and was sent by the college to the Unlitied States, en- 
tering the University of Michigan in the fall of 1911. While in college, 
Mr. Hsu was active in college dramatics, oratory and journalism, appearing 



322 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



in several college shows, and was winner of the Kauffman medal for oratory 
in 1913 and served as one of the editors of the Michigan Daily, besides 
holding many honorary offices. Upon completing his course in 1914, Mr. 
Hsu was appointed assistant news editor of the Detroit Tribune, which 
office he held at the beginning of the wodd war and relinquished only 
when he returned to China early in 1915. The following two years Mr. 
Hsu was engaged in legal work, being associated with one of the British 
law firms in Shanghai. He continued, however, his activities, his articles 
appearing in local Chinese and American papers. In March 1917, the 
China Press, invited him to join its staff and since then, Mr.. Ilsu's nam© 
has been closely identifed with this journal. In 1921, Mr. Hsu was elec- 
ted by the Chinese newspapers in Shanghai to represent them at the Press 
Congress of the World in Honolulu. After fufilling his duties at this gath- 
ering, he went on to America and attended, as staff correspondent of 
the China Press, the Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. While 
there, he also contributed articles for the New York Herald, the Balti- 
more Sun and the San Francisco Chronicle, which received considerable 
attention. Mr. Hsu returned to China in 1922 and spent considerable time 
traveling about the country. In recognition of his services in the news- 
paper world, he was appointed in 1923 managing director of the Shangihai 
Tribune Publishing Co., publishers of the Shanghai Tribune, which office he 
holds concurrently at present. Since 1922, Mr .Hsu has also been serving 
on the Advisory Committee of the Shanghai Municipal Council, besides be- 
ing director of a number of local organizations including the American 
University Club. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



323 




Mr. Charles S. Y. Shu-Tze 

/^ ti ^ M © 

(Hau Ch'ih) 

Mr. Shu-Tze was born at Hangchow, Chekiang province, in 1886. He 
studied Political Science and Law and graduated from Christ College, 
Cambridge, England, and also the University Libre, Brusselles. After 
graduation Mr. Shu entered the Chinese diplomatic service. At different 
times he was secretary to the Chinese legations in Belgium', Switzerland 
and Spain. In January 1918 he was appointed Third Secretary to the 
Chinese Legation in Switzerland. In September 1920, Second Secretary 
to Chinese legation in Spain. During the Paris Peace Conference in 1920 
Mr. Shu-Tze served as one of the secretaries of the Chinese Delegation. 
Upon his return to China he was appointed an Officer of Ceremony in the 
President's Mansion. In December 1920 Mr. Shu was appointed a Councillor 
of the Ministry at the Interior— this position he is still holding. In 
September 1921 he received the Third Class Chiaho and in October the 



324 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Second Class Wenfu. In November 1922 Mr. Shu was appointed acting 
director of the Civil Affairs Department of the Ministry of the Interior. In 
the same month he received the appointment as chairman of the Commission 
for the Prevention of Famine under the Ministry. Mr. Shu was awarded 
the Second Tashou Chiaho in April 1923 and Second Class Paokuang Chiaho 
in October 1923. His present address is 27 Shih Fang Yuan East City, 
Peking, China. 



m 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



325 




Mr. Hsu Un-yuen 

^ .^ 7C ^ # * 

Mr. Hsu Un-yuen, one of the leading financial authorities in China, is 
a native of Chekiang Prrovince, where he was born in 1884. He joined 
the Nanyang CoUegie, Shanghai, educated in the old school, and 
won his first degree in Chinese Classics 1897; from which he was 
graduated with high honors. He went to England in 1905; and 
in the following year, he entered the University of London. After 
completing a course in political economy, in the School of Economics 
and Politcal Science of that University, he did some research work 
on the subject of currency and banking. While in Enland, he made 
contributions to the Economic Journal and to other papers. He won the 
Jevons Memorial Research Scholarship: which is indeed a rare distinction. 
He was a fellow of the University College, London, as well as a fellow of 
several royal societies in England. After leaving the University, he worked 



326 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



in the Union of London and Smith's Bank for nearly two years; working 
from the head office down to the country branches. For a time he served 
under His Excellency Wang Ta-hsieh, Chinese Constitutional CommissioTier 
to London; and he studied then the methods of English local government 
in matters pertaining to finance, education, police-protection, sanitation, 
prisons, poor laws, etc. He was a government delegate to the Currency 
Conference that met in London in 1911. Mr .Hsu has held many raspon- 
sible positions in Peking, such as: phief of the Departmient of Public 
Loans of the Ministry of Finance, Director of the Bureau of Audit, Special 
Commissioner of Currency Reform, Director of the Bureau of Public Credit, 
which is comprised of the department of Currency and Banking and Public 
Loans and the Treasury oif the Ministry of Finance ; Member of the Financial 
Commission appointed by the President; Deputy Director-General of the 
Bureau of Currency of which His Excellency Liang Chi-chao was Director- 
General. He was appointed Deputy Auditor-General of the Board of Audit, 
in May 1914; which post he held until 1917. During that time he was, on 
several occasions, appointed to act for the Direc/tJor-General of Audit. In 
June 1916, Mr. Hsu was appointed, concurrently, as Governor of the Bank 
of China, in which, at that time, a moo-atorium had been declared. While 
he was with this bank he tried his best to bring about the resum-ption o.f 
specie payment: and finally succeeded in doing so for the branches in 
Shantung, Shensi, Kwangtung, Tientsin and Kalgan. At the Peking branch, 
on account of an exceptionally heavy and continuous run, he adopted a 
system, known as the "Silver Exchange Standard." By means of this 
system he was able to maintain the price of the notes at approximately 
98 per cent of their face value until he left the institution, in May 1917. 
In the summer of 1919, Mr. Hsu took a brief trip to America to study 
after-war financial conditions. In January 1920, he founded the Chinese 
Bank of Commerrce, capitalized at $10,000,000. The bank has its Exec- 
utive Office in Shanghai ; and maintains branches in Tientsin, Peking, Tsinan, 
Shanghai, Harbin and Shihkiachwang. Mr. Hsu is now Councellor of the 
Cabinet at Peking. He has traveled a good deal in Europe, in America, 
and in Japan, as well as in the interior (Of China. Among the many 
decorations which he has been awarded are: the first Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho, the Class Wenfu, the First Class Tashou Chiaho, and the Chevalier 
de la Legion d'Honneur. He was a Shao-Ching during President Yuan 
■Shih-kai's regime. Mr. Heu is fond of nature, and spends his time of re- 
creation principally in reading, walking and hill-climbing. With his 
excellent past record and his strong character, Mr. Hsu will no doubt do 
some great good for the benefit of his country in the near future. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



327 




Mr. Hsu Fo-su 

^ ^ B 
Mr, Hsu Fo-su was born Changsha, Hunan Province, in 1880, though 
his native home is Chekiang. While a student,he associated with persons 
who later became leaders of either reform movements or revolutionary par- 
ties. He studied political science and graduated from Higher Normal Col- 
lege in Tokyo. While in Japan Mr. Hsu joined Mr. Liang Chi-chiao's party 
advocating constitutional monarchy. He assisted in the running of the 
famous magazine Hsin Ming Chung Pao, edited by Liang Chi-chiao. After 
the Boxer trouble, Mr. Hsu's political principles gradually changed and he 
began to advocate revolution. In 1903, he returned to China in company 
with over twenty persons including the late General Tsai Ac. Several 
members of the party were left at Shanghai where a newspaper organ was 
founded. Mr. Hsu and many others secretly returned to Hunan to start a 
revolution. They failed because their plot was discovered by the authori- 
ties. A few of their colleagues were taken prisoners and Mr. Hsu and the 



328 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



late General Huang Hsin fled to Shanghai disguised as coolies. Upon 
reaching Shanghai, Mr. Hsu found that the Shanghai members including 
men like Chang Tai-yen had been arrested by the Mixed Court and their 
organ closed in June 1903. H\e was also arrested and remained in prisoti 
for three months after which they were released by order of the Peking 
imperial government. Mr .Hsu sailed for Japan again. There he took up 
the study of law and political science and his principles underwent another 
change returning to constitutional reform and he joined Liang Chi-chiao's 
party again. It was at this time the Constitutional Party came into existence 
and openly challenged the Revolutionary Party headed by Sun Yat-sen. In 
1907 Mr. Hsu returned to China, and started the movement of urging the 
government to adopt a constitutional system. In December 1908, as a 
result of repeated representations, by the people, an Imperial Edict was pro- 
mulgated promising to introduce constitutional government after nine years 
during which period of time preparations would be made. Mr. Hsu then 
influenced the advisory councils of the different provinces to form a joint 
representative body demanding the government to shorten the preparation 
period. At the same time he established a newspaper organ in Peking 
called Kuo Ming Kung Pao to support the representation. In November 
1910 the Peking government made a declaration to convoke a parliament 
in 1913 but on the other hand gave instructions to the provincial governors 
to dissolve all the representative bodies. Mr. Hsu's, Ming Kung Pao was at 
once closed and many leaders were arrested* The reaction was that most 
of the prominent persons who had been hitherto advocating a constitutional 
monarchy became revolutionists. A big revolutionary plan was laid with 
Mr. Hsu as agent for Hunan province. Men like the late Tong Hua-lung, 
General Tan Yen-kai, Ling Chang-ming Sun Hung-i, and Wen Shih-lin were 
in this movement as agents for their own respective provinces. The First 
Revolution broke out at Wuchang in October 1911. Through the efforts of 
these agents, many provinces responded to the revolutionary call. After 
the establishment of the Reipulic in 1912, Mr. Hsu went to Peking where 
he again started his paper the Kuo Ming Kung Pao. He did not accept any 
official position until 1914 when President Yuan Shih-kai gave him a post 
political councillor. Mr. Hsu ,took a very strong attitude against (Yuan 
Shih-kai when the latter launched his monarchical movement in 1915. He 
was one of the important members of the revolt which overthrew Yuan 
Shih-kai's movement, the other members being the late General Tsai Ao, 
Liang Chi-chiao, and several others. Mr. Hsu did not accept any offer of 
high position during President Li Yuan-hung's regime. The dissolution of 
the First Parliament prior to Chang Hsun's monarchical attempt in 1917 
and the refusal of the northern leaders to reconvoke it after Chang Hsun's 
overthrow finally resulted in the opening of civil strife between the north 
and the south. In September 1918 Hsu Shih-chang was elected President 
by the New Parliament., To him Mr. Hsu submitted the idea of calling a 
Peace Conference to axscomplish China's reunification. This was accepted 
and was agreed to by the southern leaders. In December 1918 Peking ap- 
pointed Chu Chi-chien as Chief Deilegate and Mr. Hsu and eight others as 
members of the Northern Delegation. The experience Mr. Hsu gained in 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 329 



the Peace Conference, which resulted in nothing, led him to believe it was 
impossible to re-establish the absolute centralization of power in Peking, 
Then he wrote a book entitled Self-Government of the Southwestern Pro- 
vinces and Peace, in which he advocated the formation of a federation 
among the southwestern provinces and final unification by an understanding 
between this Union and, the Northern government. This idea on one hand 
received the approval of the southwestern leaders who actually put it into 
practice and on ,the other hand incurred the displeasure of the northern 
leaders. In the autumn of 1920 Mr. Hsu, in cooperation with Liang Chi- 
chiao, Hsiung Hsi-Ung and Fang Yuan-lien, drafted a provincial constitu- 
tion for the province of Hunan. It was submitted to the Hunan government 
and was adopted by the Hunan Provisional Assembly in the winter of 1920. 
During 1921-22 Mr. Hsu devoted his time and energy -entirely to the pro- 
motion of a federal system throughout the different provinces. In the 
spring of 1921 he gathered together a number of prominent persons and 
organized the Federation Government Association whose object was to push 
through the adoption of this system of government. In June 1922 Mr. Hsu 
was appointed by the Peking government Director-General of the Currency 
Bureau. In October he received the Second Class Paokua Chiaho. In March 
1923 Mr. Hsu was appointed President of the Commission for the Discus- 
sion of China's Finance and was awarded the First Glas3 Tashou Chiaho 
Decoration. 



'A^ 



330 



WHO'S Who in china 




Mr. Hsu Fu-lin 

Mr. Hsu Fu-lin was born at Ho-ping Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1870. He became an orphan wlien he was only three years old. But 
he was a studious boy and now is one of the noted scholars in that province. 
Under the old Competitive Examination system, Mr. Hsu was a Senior 
Licentiate. From the Peking Law College he graduated and then he went 
to study in Japani'. He graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Law from 
the Hosie University. After his return to China, Mr, Hsu became a secretary 
to the Judicial Commissioner — then called Ch'a Shih — of his own province. 
Mr. Hsu played an important part in the First Revolution. He was 
provincial assemblyman chosen by the Ho-ping district to Canton. In 
January 1912 he was in Nanking as a member of the National Council 
which drafted the Provisional Conststiution. This Council was transferred 
to Peking in March 1912 to act as the Legislature unt/il the inauguration 
of the new two-chamber National Assembly. This Assembly was formally 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA sn 



inaugurated in April 1913, and Mr. Hsu became a Member of the lower 
Hcuse representing Kuangtung Province. In January 1914 the National 
Assembly was dissolved by Yuan Shih-kai. Mr. Hsu then went to Japan. 
In April 1915 he returned to Shanghai and founded two political magazines 
called "Righto usness" and "New Chung Hua" the main object of which 
was to oppose the absolute rule of Yuan Shih-kai. 

When Yuan Shih-kai launched his monarchical attempt, in the winter of 
1915, Mr. Hsu and many other republican leaders published in Shanghai a 
daily paper called "Chung Hua Hsin Pao" which was then considered the 
only paper for the Republic. Through this paper Mr. Hsu rendered valu- 
able service to the Republican Army headed by the late General Tsao Ao. 
A reward of $100,000 was put up by Yuan Shih-kai for the arrest of Mr. 
Hsu. Mr. Hsu was in Peking as member of the Lower House again from 
July 1916 until June 1917 when the National Assembly was again dis- 
solved, this time by Li Yuan-hung as demanded by the different military 
leaders, who took strong exception to the draft of the New Constitfu,tion 
by the Assembly. 'Subsequently Mr. Hsu went to Canton where a military 
government had been formed in which Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shao-yi and 
Wu Ting-fang took the leading role and whither the ex- Parliamentarians 
proceeded to re-establish Constitutionalism. Under this Canton new govern- 
ment Mr. Hsu at different times held the followiing positions: Chief 
Justice of the High Court, Minister of Justice, and Chief Justice of the 
"Supreme Court. 



^ 



^3^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Singloh Hsu 

^ F&f ^> ^ S ?ft 

(Hsu Hsin-liu) 

Mr. Singloh Hsu was born in 1890 at Hangchow, Chekiang. After 
having obtained education in Chinese classics and literature at home, he 
entered the Imperial Poljrtechnic College (Nanyang College) Shanghai, from 
which he was graduated in 1907. In 1908, M,r. Hsu went to England with 
the Chekiang Provincial government's support and entered Birmingham Un- 
iversity to study science. He graduated in 1911 with the degree of B. Sc. 
Subsequently Mr. Hsu entered the Faculty of Commerce, Victoria Un- 
iversity of Manchester when he was graduated in 1913 with the degree of 
B. Com. Mr. Hsu then went to Paris and entered the Ecole des Sciences 
Politiques (Finance Section). Mr. Hsu returned to China in 1914. The 
next year, he joined the Ministry of Finance, Peking, as a "Chien Shih" 
Secretary, which position he later resigned to join the Bank of China aa 
associate director of the Treasury Department. In 1917 Mr. Hsu again 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 333 



joined the Ministry of Finance as a Secretary to the Minister. He returned 
again to the Bank of China in 1918 as sub-manager of the Peking Office. 
In 1919 Mr. Hsu was sent to Europe by the g^overnment and attached to 
Mr. Liang Chi-chiao's Mission. While in Europe, he served as Chinese 
Technical Delegate for Reparations. He returned to China in July of the 
same year. Subsequently Mr. Hsu organized the Sintoon Overseas Trading 
Co , Ltd. and he was elected to be a managing director. In the same year 
assistant general manager. Mr. Hsu was awarded by the Peking govern- 
ment the Third Class Chiaho in December 1918 and the Third Class Wenfu 
in January 1920, 



AH 



334 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hsu Jen Tsing 

(Hsu Jen-Chun) 

Perhaps no other man has done more to improve the public utilities 
and sanitary conditions in Chapei than Mr. Hsu Jen-tsing, director of 
the Chapei Public Works, who ateo holds the office of the Chief of Com- 
missariat of the Yamen of the Military Governor of Sunkiang and Shang- 
hai. Mr. Bsu is forty-nine years old and is a native of Wuhsien, Kiangsu. 
After receiving his preliminary education under the old literary examina- 
tion system, he served as secretary to various high officials in North and 
South China as well as those along the Yangtsze Valley. Later he re- 
ceived a high course of education in finance and law and held several 
important positions in Kwangtung Province. In 1913 he was appointed 
by Admiral Tseng Jucheng, then Military Commissioner of Shanghai 
to join hia commissariat. When General Yang Shan-teh succeeded Admiral 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 335 



Tseng upon the latter's assassination, he appointed Mr. Hsu head of the 
department. In this capacity, Mr. Hsu has served since under Generals Lu 
Yung-hsiang and Ho Feng-Iin to the satisfaction of both. Since 1921, 
Mr. Hsu has been holding the directorship of the Chapei Public Works concur- 
rently; and his work is being appreciated by the residents in Chaipei. 
Many improvements have been made in the municipal administration while 
new roads have been constructed to facilitate the communicationa. Laet 
year, he repaired the banks of the Soocohw Creek and the road along the 
water front, constructed the Chun Hsin Road, remodelled Paoshan Road and 
widened the Ta Tung Road, which work drew* a considerable amount of 
favorable comment. Along his new plans are the reconstruction of the 
Sinza Road Bridge and the building of another reinforced concrete bridge 
across the Soochow Creek at Kwan Fu Road where the district is thickly 
populated. Many decorations have been awarded Mr. Hsu by the Central 
government. The highest of these is the Second Class Chiaho. His official rank 
is that of the Chief of an Army Commi^ariat. He is also Brevet Coun- 
sellor of the Ministry of Finance, advisor to the Cabinet, the Director of 
Military Rehabilitation of Chekiang, the Governor of Chekiang and the 
Woosung Bureau of Commercial Development and delegate to the National 
Conference of River Conservancy. He has been in Shanghai more than 
ten years and is well-versed in the diplomatic and political situation of 
the locality. 



^ 



336 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Hsu Lan-chou 

Wrmm^^ m 

General Hsu Lan-chou, was born in Nan Kun Hsien, Chihli, in 1873. 
He followed President Hsu Shih-chang, who was at that time Viceroy of 
Manchuria to Fengtien as a member of the Viceroy.'s staff. Later he 
was attached to General Chang Hsun's force as commander of a section 
of the patrol troops. In 1912, General Hsu was promoted to be a brigade 
commander with the rank of lieutenant general. In 1913, he was given 
the official rank of major general for his successful suppression of the Sun 
Ya-hu band of Hunghutze. In 1914, he was acting commander of the 3rd 
Division in Heilungkiang. In 1917, he expelled General Pi Kuei-fang, then 
Military Governor of Heilungkiang, and succeeded him subsequently, as 
acting Military Governor. Later Peking appointed General Pao Kwei-ching 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 337 



to be Military Governor of Heilungkiang to succeed General Hsu and Gen- 
eral Hsu was transferred to be adviser to General Chang Tso-ling. In 
December 1917 he was appointed by the Central government to be aide de 
camp of the College of Marshals, Peking, and he held this post for a brief 
period. In October 1920 he was conferred the Fifth Order of Merit. In 
December 1920 he became commander of the Fengtien troqps in Mukden 
and Chief of Staff to General Chang Tso-ling, High Inspecting Commissioner 
of Manchuria. During the Chihll-Fengtien War in 1922, General Hsu took 
an active part as Commander of one brigade of Cavalry. After the defeat 
of Fengtien, General Hsu retired into private life and has been residing in 
Tientsin ever since that time. 



^ 



338 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C* L* Zeen 

(Hsu Mon) 

Mr. C. . L. Zeen, promoter and director of the China Industrial Train- 
ing Works and manager of the Bank of Kiangnan, was born in 1862 in 
the village of Hsuyang, Yu Yao, Chekiang. At the age of 14, Mr. 
Zeen came to Shanghai to join one of the commercial houses. Although 
the studying of English at that time was not so much in vogue as now, 
he devoted his spare time to learning this language with a measurable 
amount of success. Except for a short time he spent in Chinkiang as 
manager of a local firm there, he has spent practically all his time in 
Shanghai. In 1882 he became manager of Messrs. Moutrie and Co. Ltd- 
In 1911, Mr. Zeen served on the commission for the Nanking Exposi- 
tion and attracted world wide attention for his work in planning the 
grounds and constructing the roads. During the First Revolution, he 
organized the Chapei Volunteer Corps along the same lines as the Shang- 
hai Volunteer Corps, of which the Chinese Company was ajso promoted 



] 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 339 



by Mr. Zeen and his friends. During the Second Revolution when Nantao 
saw the havoc of war, he organized relief parties which handled over 
10,000 families, housing them under temporary quarters and feeding them 
in the extreme heat of the summer. But the outstanding feature of Mr. 
Zeen's social welfare work is the promotion and establishment of the Anti- 
Kidnapping Society for the relief of women and children who have fallen 
into the hands of outlaws. Branch bureaus have been established in Mukden, 
Yingkow, and Changchun where most of these unfortunate victims 
are shipped to after their capture. Several thousand victims have been 
saved by this institution, which maintains a home for these destitutes in 
Kiangwan where they are clothed, fed and educated until they are capable 
of supporting themselves. In 1913, Mr. Zeen organized the International 
Famine Relief Committee. In 1915, he served on the International War 
Relief Committee and in 1917 he succeeded in collecting over a million 
dollars for the Chihli-Fengtien Famine Relief Commisaion. All in all, he 
has participated in over a dozen drives for relief funds, receiving com- 
mendatory tablets from practically all the high officials of the nation. 
Besides his numerous activities, he is also serving now as a director 
of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce; chairman of the Honan 
Famine Relief Society; chairman of the Chi Seng Hospital, Chapei; dir- 
ector of second company, Chapei Fire Brigade ; director, Kiangwan Electric 
Works; and director, Chinese Ratepayers' Association. For his meritor- 
ious service, he has been awarded the Second Class Chiaho Decoration. 



^ 



340 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr- Hsu Shih-chan^ 

^ tft # '45 « « 

(Hsu Shih-chang) 

Mr. Hbu Shih-chang, is a native of Tientsin, Chihii Province, and was 
born in 1886. He is a brother of ex-President Hsu Shih-chang. While 
still a student of the Imperial College of Languages, Peking, he was 
appointed as Attache to the Imperial Ck)mmissioners to study financial 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 341 



conditions in Belgium. While residing there he took an entrance exaraina- 
in 1908. In the spring of 1909 he returned to China. In the same year 
he was sent by the Civil Governor of Kirin to investigate commercial 
conditions in Belgium. While residing there he took an entrance examina- 
tion, and was admitted to the Liege University. He obtained the Degree 
of Bachelor of Commerce in 1911. Inn the summer of 1911 Mr. Hsu was 
appointed by the Chinese Minister to Italy and the Italian Minister of 
Labor and Commerce as Judge to the Turin International Exposition. 
Upon the closing of the exposition he was awarded a certificate and medal 
by the Italian government. He then left for England, Germany, France, 
Switezerland, Holland, Luxembourg and other European countries to make 
practical investigations in commercial and railway administration. In 1912 
Mr. Hsu returned to China and was appointed a member of the Ministry 
of Communications. In November he was made a Junior Clerk assigned 
to work in the Trafiic Division of the Railway Department, Ministry of 
Communications. In May 1913 he was appointed assistant accountant of 
the Lunghai Railway. In July 1914 he became acting assistant director 
of the Engineering Administration of the Western Section of the Lunghai 
Railway. In July 1915 he was prom>oted to be assistant director, and in 
November was awarded an Order of Appreciation by the President for the 
prompt completion of the construction work. He was conferred the Fifth 
Class Chiaho in May, 1916. 

Four months later, Mr. Hsu was appointed assistant managing director 
of the Peking-Hankow Railway. In January 1917 he was awarded the 
Fourth class Chiaho. In March he was sent to Japan to attend the cele- 
bration commemorating the joint China-Japan through traffic arrangements 
and also to study the administration of railroads, posts, telegraphs and 
navigation. On his return, he was appointed managing director of the 
Tientsin-Pukow line. Concurrently, he acted as the Director-General of 
the Pu Sing Railway (Pukow S'ngyangchow). In July 1917, he was made 
Councillor to tlie Headquarters of the Expeditionary Force. In September 
he was appointed a member of the Commission for the Investigation of 
Communications and in October he received the second class Paokuang De- 
coration. He served as a member of the Committee on the Unification of 
Railway Rules and Regulations in November, and a month later was 
awarded the Medal of Honor by the Ministry of Communications, and 
at the same time received the second class Wen Hu Decoration. In' 
March 1918 he was appointed a member of the Joint Commission for 
the Prevention of Plague on the Chinese Government Railway and also 
acted as Chief of the Plague Prevention Bureau of the Tientsin-Pukow 
Railway. In June he was appointed a member of the Traffic Conference, 
and received the Honor Certificate from the Ministry of Communications 
in August. Two months later he received an Order of Appreciation from 
the President. In December he was conferred the second class Tashou 
Paokuang Chia Ho. In January 1919 he was specially requested to act as 
High Advisor to the Inspector-General of the Yang'tse River and to the 
Military Governor of Kiangsu-Province. In the same month he was appointed 
Co-Director of the Administration for the Repatriation of Enemy Subjects. 



342 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



In February he was requested to act as Adviser to the Civil and Military 
Governor of Shantung. For services rendered in connection with the 
Plague Prevention Commission he was again given an Order of Appreciation 
by the President. In November Mr. Hsu was awarded the second class Tashou 
Chia Ho Decoration. In March 1920 he was appointed Director-General 
of the Pu-Hsing Railway. At the end of the month he was instructed to 
act concurrently as the managing director of the Tientsin-Pukow Railway. 
In August 1920 he was appointed Vice- Minister of Communications 
and also appointed by the Ministry of Communications to act concur- 
rently as Director-General of Railways, Chairman of the Standing Com- 
mittee on the Unification of Railway AccountB and Statistics, Dep,uty 
Governor of the Bank of Commujiications and Chairman of the Commission 
for the study of Freedom of International Transit and Communications. 
In December 1920 Mr. Hsu wias ordered to make preparations for the 
organization of the Communication University. In January 1921 Mr. Hsu 
was conferred the Second Class Tashou Chiaho and appointed to hold con- 
currently the post of Director General of the Post. In August 1921 Mr. 
Hsu was conferred the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and in October 
the First Class Wenfu. During October-December 1921 he received three 
additional appointments, viz: chief the International Communications Bur- 
eau; associate director of the Famine Relief Bureau; and director gen- 
eral of the currency bureau. In June 1922 Mr. Hsu was relieved of the 
directorship of the currency bureau and also vice-directorship of the 
Famine Relief Bureau. General Hsu retired to private life in 1922. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



343 




Mr. Hsu Shih-ch'ang 

Mr. Hsu Shih-ch'ang was born at Tientsin in 1858. He became an 
orphan when a youth and was brought up by the late Yuan Chia-san, father 
of the late President Yuan Shih-kai. Mr. Hsu was born of a literary 
family and was given a good education. He passed through the successive 
literary examinations and became a Hanlin or Metropolitan Graduate in 
1886. Subsequently Mr. Hsu was appointed a Leader of the Oollege of 
Literature. In November 1903 he became Senior Councillor of the Board 
of Oimmerce. In June 1904 he was made Probationary Grand Councillor. 
One year later he became a Minister of Government Council. In. 
October 1905 Mr. Hsu was appointed President of the Board of the 
Civil Administration. In February 1906 he was promoted to be a Grand 
Councillor of the State. In November 1906 he was removed from the Grand 



344 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Council in consequence of certain reform measures which he recommended 
to the Throne and which offended the Court. But in January 1907 he was 
appointed to accompany Prince Tsai Chen on a Special Mission to Man- 
churia. Upon his return to the Capital, he was asked to be the President 
of the Board of the Interior. In April 1907, he was appointed Viceroy 
of Manchuria, where he stayed until February 1909, when he was recalled 
and appointed President of the Board of Communications. Five months 
afterwards, he became concurrently the Director-General of the Tientsin- 
Pukow Railway. In March 1910 Mr. Hsu was made Assistant Grand 
Secretary of the State and Grand Councillor of the State in August 1910'. 
In Prince Ching's Cabinet, which was organized in May 1911, he was 
given the position of Associate Prime Minister. This office he resigned 
shortly afterwards in order to accept the office of the Vice-President of 
the Privy Council on November 1, 1911. Although he is a literary man, 
Hsu was appointed Chief of the General Staff in December 1911. The 
next month he was authorized by an edict to be High Commissioner for 
the Emperor, the most honorable position he could ever desire under the 
Manchu Dynasty. In February 1912, he was relieved of the office of Chief 
of the General Staff. On the resignation of the Prince Regent, President 
Hsu was again appointed, together with Shih Hsu, Grand Guardian of the 
Emperor. After that First Revolution, Mr. Hsu retired to private life. 
Being a "sworn" brother of the late President Yuan Shih-kai, Mr. Hsu 
became Secretary of State in May 1914. He served the Republican govern- 
ment in that capacity until fend of October that year when he tendered his 
resignation. After the First Revolution and the establishment of the Re- 
public, Mr. Hsu took a trip to Japan and there he met a number of 
prominent Japanese officials. He did not stay there as long as it was ex- 
pected because of his sickness Necessitating his early reiturn to China. 
Being a "sworn" brother of Yuan Shih-kai, Mr. Hsu could not very well 
stay away from politics. In May 1914 he was appointed Secretary of State 
in the place of the Prime Minister when Yuan Shih-kai had taken over the 
administrative power'. 'Mr. Hsu took leave of absence in October 1915 
when Yuan Shih-kai had launched his monarchical movement. Subsequently 
Mr. Hsu was given the title of "The Four Friends of Sungshan" by 
Yuan Shih-kai who (considered him' as the mountain Sungshan, in 
Honan, his own province, and Hsu Shih-ch'ang, Chao Erh-hsun, Li Ching- 
hsi and Chang Chien as the other four famous mountains in China'. 
In March 1916, at the time when Yuan Shih-kai's movement was about 
to fail, Mr. Hsu was again appointed Secretary of St&te. He re- 
mained in this position just for one month and was relieved by Marshal 
Tuan Chi-jui who became Secretary of State for two rafonths and then 
Prime Minister after the death of Yuan Shih-kai. Mr. Hsu retired to 
Honan, where his home was, for some time. He returned to Peking in 
November 1916 to mediate between the President Li Yuan-hung and the 
Premier Tuan Chi-jui. During the unsettled period, 1917-1918, he re- 
mained detached from Peking politics, but without losing his influence 
over the contending factions. On September 4, 1918, Mr. Hsu, was 
elected President of the Republic of China, at a joint meeting of the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 345 



Senate and House of Representatives of the so-called "Tuchuns' Parlia- 
ment," by 425 out of 436 vottes. 'Mr. Hsu receivdd the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Literature from the University of Paris in 1921. In June 
that year he sent Mr. Chu Chichien to represent him on the occasion of 
awarding th'.s degree by the authorities of the University at Par'ia. Mr. 
Hsu vacated the Presidency on June 1, 1922 and left for Tientsin on the 
following day. Ever since that time he has been living in retirement in 
his Tientsin home. 



*^ 



= 



346 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ksu Shie-ying 

Mr. Hsu Shih-ying was born at Chiu-pu Hsien, Anhui Province, in 
1872. He became a Pa Kung or Senior Licentiate in 1897. He began his 
official career as a member in the Law Compilation Bureau under the Board 
of Justice. In 1908 he became Associate Chief of the High Court of Jus- 
tice for the Province of Fengtien. Some time laiter he was transferred 
to become the Judicial Commissioner of Shansi. In 1910 Mr. Hsu ac- 
companied Mr. George Hsu Chien, then a high Judicial Official in Peking, 
to Europe on a special mission to investigate and study judicial conditions 
existing in the different European countries. They were also sent to the 
United States to attend the Eighth Conference on Prison Reforms. In 
the beginning of 1912 Mr. Hsu was in the Secretariat of General Chang 
Hsi-luan, then Military Governor of Chihli. In May 1912 he was 
appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Peking. In July 1922 
he became Minister of Justice. Mr. Hsu resigned from the Minister- 
ship in September 1913. In October 1913 he was appointed Civil 



WHO'S WHO IN CHLNA 347 



Governor of Fengcien. In March 1914 he resigned from this position and 
in May 1914 he received the appointment to be Civil Governor of Fukie-n. 
In April 1916 Mr. Hsu left Foochow for Peking and a month later he 
resigned from the Civil Governorship of Fukien. In June 1916 he was 
transferred to be Minister of Communications. In May 1917 Mr. Hsu was 
involved in a case in connection with the purchase of cars for the Tien- 
tsin-Pukow Railway and he tendered his resignation. In December 1913 
Mr. Hsu was conferred the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
March 1920 he was conferred the Fourth Order of Merit. In September 
1921 Mr. Hsu received two appointments: director general of Anhui Famine 
Relief and Civil Governor of Anhui. In September 1922 he was conferred 
Acting Minister of Justice but he did not take up the appointment. In 
January 1923 Mr. Hsu was appointed Director of the Government Aeronautic 
Department but owing to opposition from certain military quarters he was 
not able to assume office and was officially relieved of this post in November 
1923. 



^ 



348 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Hsu Seu- Cheng 

!i m m-t-xm 

General Hsu Sbn-^heng was born at Hsuchow, Kiangsu province, in 
1883. He is a scholar in Chinese history and literature. He studied in 
the Peiyang Military College when he was little over twenty years of age. 
After graduation he served Tuan Chi-jui in a minor capacity. General 
Hsu was a mere clerk to Tuan when the latter was commanding the Sixth 
Division of the Imperial Army with headquarters at Nanyuan, south suburb 
of Peking. General Hsu's application and industry rapidly won Tuan's 
esteem. In December 1908 General Hsu was sent at the recommenda- 
tion of Tuan by the government to Japan among the 7th Group of 
Chinese students to study in Military Officers' Academy. From this 
institution he was graduated in the infantry course in May 1910. 
He returned to China and joined Tuan Chi-jui in Hupei where he was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 349 



then commanding trooi^ at Hupei. In 1912 when Tuan Chi-jui came to 
Peking to be Minister of War, he followed him hither. First he was a 
secretary of the Ministry. In May 1914 General Hsu was made a Lieutenant 
General and appointed Vice-Minister of War. This post he held until 
June 1915 when he retired with Tuan Chi-jui, being dissatisfied with Yuan 
Shih-kai's ambitious movements. In April 1916 when Yuan Shih-kai's 
monarchical attempt was nearing failure, Tuan Chi-jui became Secretary 
of State again. In June, following the death of Yuan, Tuan became 
Prime Minister again, re-establishing the responsible cabinet system, 
and General Hsu was appointed Chief Secretary of the Cabinet. In 
November 1916 General Hsu resigned from the secretaryship as a 
result of a conflict of opium with Ting Shih-to, then Chief Secretary 
of President Li Yuan-hung. In the summer of 1917 General Hsu was ap- 
pointed Chief of the Administrative Department of the College of Mar- 
shals. In July 1917 he rendered valuable service in overthrowing Chang 
Hsun's attempt to restore the boy emperor. The campaign was led by 
Marshal Tuan Chi-jui. Tuan became Prime Minister in July 1917 and con- 
currently Acting Minister of War. In August General Hsu was appointed 
Vice Minister of War. Tuan's administration proved disagreeable to many 
of the Northern leaders, while the Southern leaders, who had mobilized to 
oust Chang Hsun, distrusted Tuan, and declined to recognize his authority. 
Finally over the question regarding home peace, Tuan resigned from the 
Prime Ministry in November 1917. General Hsu retired with him. 
In December 1917 Marshal Tuan was appointed Director-General of the 
European War Participation Bureau. In March 1918, General Hsu restored 
Tuan to the premiership by coercing President Feng Kuo-chang to issue 
the Mandate announcing the appointment of Tuan to head the cabinet 
with the troops borrowed from Fengtien. He had appointed himself As- 
sistant Commander of these troops. In October 1918 General Hsu was 
sent on a special mission to Japan. Previous to this appointment he had 
been given the brevet rank of a Full General. In June 1919 General Hsu 
was appointed Director General of the Northwestern Frontier Development, 
concurrently Director General of Outer Mongolian Affairs and Commander 
General of the Northwestern Frontier Defence Forces. In that capacity 
he effected the cancellation of the autonomy of Outer Mongolia at the 
beginning of 1920. In January 1920 he was awarded the Sectond 
Order of Merit. In February 1920 General Hsu was appointed to be 
concurrently Director General of the proposed Kalgian-Urga Railway. 
Meanwhile the government of North China had remained in the hands 
of the so-called Anfu Clique and its many military patrons headed by Tuan 
Chi-jui. Public hostility to the government found expression in May 1919 
in the students's demonstrations in Peking, which led to the resignation 
of Tsao Ju-lin who was held responsible for many of the unpopular Japan- 
ese loans that had enabled that Clique to retain office for a long period of 
time. In 1920, however, Tuan Chi-jui and his "Anfu" proteges were still 
in power, among them was General Hsu. The Chihli and Fengtien Tuchuns 
took advantage of public hostility towards the faction in power to force 
matters to an issue. The dismissal of General Hsu was demanded by Gen- 
eral Wu Pei-fu and General Tsao Kun, the Chihli Tuchun. President Hau 



350 WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



Shih ch'ang yielded. Then, as the result of the opposition of the "Tuchuns 
Parliament" and the Anfu leaders, President Hsu d'smissed Wu Pei-fu and 
censured Tsao Kun. These Generals accepted the challenge and in coopera- 
tion with General Chang Tso-lin, the Fengtien Tuchun, undertook to sup- 
port the government by the forcible removal of the Anfu Party. The 
power of the Anfu leaders collapsed after a few engagements. Finally 
General Hsu fled for refuge to the Japanes9 Legation, It was about the 
last week of July 1920. On July 4, General Hsu was removed from the 
Director Generalship of the Northwestern Frontier Development and ap- 
pointed a Marshal of the College of Marshals with the two-word special 
title "Yuan-Wei." On July 28, the post of Commander General of the North- 
western Frontier Defence Forces was abolished and a Mandate was issued 
depriving General Hsu of all the honors, appointments and decorations 
and ordering his arrest'. General Hsu remained in the Japanese Legation 
until November 13, 1920 when the Chinese government was informed by 
the Japanese Minister that General Hsu had mysteriously escaped the 
previous night. He has remained at large ever since that time. In Octobsr 
1922 General Hsu was implicated in the revolt against the Fuklen Tuchun. 
Before this he Wrote a book on the subject of How to Run a Government, 
in which he suggested a special system. To make a trial of the system he 
advocated, General Hsu made use of the occupation troops at Chuan Chow, 
Fukien, whose commander-in-Chief was in sympathy with him, and thus 
declared independence. But owing to lack of support as indicated by the 
fact that no response was made from other quarters his plan failed and he 
fled to Japan. Subsequently another Mandate was issued ordering his arrest. 
In the autumn of 1924 Mr. Hsu returned to Shanghai and unofficially assisted 
the Anfu-Fengtien party in the fighting against Marshal Chi Hsieh- 
yuan and the Chihli forces which began on September 1, 1924. Following' 
the sudden departure of the Anfu leader Lu Yung-hsiang for Japan, Gen- 
eral Hsu attempted to reorganize Lu's defeated troops for a fresh stand 
on the borders of the French Settlement but came into conflict with the foreign 
authorities, owing to his alleged violation of the settlement regulations 
pertaining to the plotting of disorder while residing in the Settlement. 
General Hsu was arrested and placed under surveillance but soon after 
departed on a trip to Europe. The Chinese government appointed him 
Special Commissioner to investigate the economic conditions in Europe. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



351 




Mr. Hsu Kwan-nan 

^ ^ -^ S iS 

Mr. Hsu Kwan-nan, was born at Wucheng, Chekiang Province, in 1867. 
At the comparatively young age of 23, he succeeded in passing the second 
series of literary examinations, became a Chu Jen (Provincial Graduate), 
and was appointed a junior secretary of the Prime Minister. In 1898, he 
was given the post of Chief of the Shantung Section of the Board of 
Finance. It was while serving in this capacity in the capital that Mr. 
Hsu devoted his spare time in establishing the Huai Wen College in Pek- 
ing, for which work the Imperial government bestowed upon him the 
honor of "Special Commendation by Edict" as a result of the recom- 



352 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



mendation made by the then Minister of Education, Sun Chia-nai. 
In 1903, Mr. Hsu was appointed Expectant Taotai of Kiangsa. In the 
following year, he was given the Brevet Second Rank for his contribution 
towards the repair of the Imperial West Garden. Iri 1905, the late Sheng 
Kung Pao, as Minister of Railways, took a great deal of interest in him 
and obtained the consent of the Peking Administration to have him direct 
the railway and mining section of his yamen. In, the same year, the late 
Yuan Shih-k'ai recommended to the throne Mr. Hsu's immediate appoint- 
ment as a Taotai of the most important circuit on account of the latter's 
record in securing funds for the famine relief work in Chihli Province. 
This was confirmed by an imperial edict. Following the inauguration of 
the Republic, Mr. Hsu devoted most of his time to philanthropic work in 
his home province and in Shanghai ; and at the same time took an interest 
in industrial development of the country, being organizer of the Nantao 
Water Works of Shanghai, of which he is the managing director. The 
matter was brought to the attention of the president and in 1916, a com- 
mendatory tablet was awarded him by the president. For his work in 
raising funds for the International Famine Relief Work, the Third Class 
Chiaho was conferred on him in 1920. The next year saw Mr. Hsu acting 
as an advisor to the Ministry of Finance, being decorated with the Second 
Class Chiaho. In 1922, in recognition of his services in doing relief work 
for the Kansu earthquake, the government ordered his records to be filed 
with the Cabinet for an early appointment to an important post. Besides 
being a director of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai, 
Mr. Hsu is serving on the board of direcitors of many banks in Shanghai. 
Chekiang, Canton and Hongkong. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



3S3 




Lieut. Commander T. S. Chu 

(Hsu Tsu-Shan) 

Lieut. Commander T. S. Chu, was born at Wusih, Kiangsu in 1890. 
He received his naval education in the Nanking Naval Academy, graduating 
from that institution at the head of his class in 1908. Following his 
graduation, Commander Chu served in the Chinese Navy on the high seas 
for two years. In 1910, he was sent by the government to pursue a course 
in naval architecture in the United States. Commander Chu studied at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where the degree of M. A. in 
Naval Architecture was conferred on him in 1915. During the subsequent 



354 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



two years he worked in various Navy Yards and Submarine Works as 
naval architect. In the winter of 1916, he wrote a book in Chinese on 
Submarine Construction, which was published by the Commercial Press, 
Shanghai. Early in 1917, Commander Chu was deputed by the Ministry of 
Navy to participate in watching the Great European Conflict, being attached 
to the Second of the Grand Fleet of Great Britain and the fleets of France 
and Italy, visiting practically all the important scenes of war both on land and 
on sea. In recognition of his services with the Grand Fleet, the British govern- 
ment has conferred on Commander Chu the Disting:uished Service Order, 
In the winter of 1918, Commander Chu was appointed Assistant-Naval At- 
tache to the Chinese Legation in London. In the following year, he 
served on the Committee on Naval Affairs at the Paris Peace Conference. 
As one of the commissioners to inspect the autumn manoeuvres of 
Japan, Commander Chu went to Japan in the fall of 1919. Upon his re- 
turn, he was attached to the Bureau of Naval Affairs of the Ministry of 
Navy, with the rank of sectional chief, holding concurrently the office of 
special commissioner at Shanghai of the Department of Aeronautics. 
In the Spring of 1920, Commander Chu was delegated by the Chinese 
government to welcome the Italian Army aviators engaged in the Rome- 
to-Tokio flight. In February 1921, he was appointed acting Councillor of 
the government Aeronautic Bureau and concurrently chief of the general 
affairs department of the same bureau. In December 1922, he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Kiaochow Customs, which position he is still 
holding. He was awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho in January 
1923. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



355 




Hsu Tung-fan 



Mr. Hsu Tung-fan was born in Shantung. After graduating from the 
Peking Government University, Mr. Hsu went to England and studied at 
the University of Birmingham, from which institution he took the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Economics. While in London, 
Mr. Hsu did some research work in international law, constitutional law 
and economics, at the same time gaining some practical experience in 
banking at the famous English house of Lloyds' and in the Belgian Bank. 
Proceeding to the Continent, Mr. Hsu took special courses in the Un- 
inversities of Zurich and Laussane and during the Versailles Conference, 
he did much for the Chinese cause in the way of spreading propaganda 
speeches and writing for the newspapers. Upon his return to China, he 
was appointed secretary to Chu Ying-kuang, Civil Governor of Shantung 
and after Chu retired. General Tien Chung-yu, Chu's successor, made 
Hsu his chief foreign secretary, which position he still holds. Mr. 



356 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Hsu was attached to the Chinese delegation at Washington as councillor, 
at the same time representing the people of Shantung. He delive- 
red numerous addresses during his stay in the United States and 
made many American friends. In June 1922, Mr. Hau was appointed chief 
associate of Dr. C. T. Wang, director-General for the rehabilitation of 
Shantung Rights. In the same month, he received the Third Class Tashou 
Chiaho. In January 1923, Mr. Hsu was referred to the ministry of foreign 
affairs for appointment, and also received the Second Glass Tashou Ghiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



3^7 




Dr. Showin Wetzen Hsu 

(Hsu Wei-chen) 

Dr. Showin Wetzen Hsu was born in Tunghsiang Hsien, Chekiang pro- 
vince, in 1881. In 1898 he entered Nanyang College, Shanghai, and after 
his graduation he was sent by that College to America for further pur- 
suance of study. He arrived there in the spring of 1905 and joined the 
Hastings Law School of the University of California. After the San Fran- 
cisco earthquake and fire in April, 1906, he went to the University of 
Chicago to continue his law studies. In order to specialize in Political 



3^8 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Science. International Law and Diplomacy under Dr. Harding, Dr. Wood- 
burn and Professor Hershey, he entered the University of Indiana in the 
fall of 1908, where he received a law degree the following year. 
In the latter part of 1909 Dr. Hsu was recalled by the Ministry of 
Communications and was appointed as a legal adviser in the Councillor's 
Department. In 1910 he was appointed to the position of a legal adviser 
to the Naval Commission. In August he passed successfully the Competi- 
tive Examination given to the returned students. In December when the 
Ministry of the Navy was established he was appointed the Judicial Officer 
of the said Ministry. In 1911 when he took the Palace Examination he 
was awarded the M. A. degree and wa<s appointed Secretary of the Minis- 
try of Education. In the same year he was appointed by the Ministry of 
Communcations as Chief of the Bureau for Foreign Affairs in the Direc- 
torate-General of the Chinese Railways. In July when war between Italy 
and Turkey broke out he was specially commissioned by the Ministry of 
Navy to consult the Ministries for Foreign Affairs and Army to devise 
ways and means for China's neutrality. While connected with the 
Ministry of Navy he wrote and translated many important works on 
Naval Laws and Regulations. In July he was appointed by the Prime 
Minister as a member of the Legislative Bureau in the Cabinet. 
In 1912 he was appointed by the Ministry of Finance as a member of 
the Reorganization Loan Commission. In August he was appointed by the 
President, Justice of the Supreme Court of China. In 1913 with the con- 
sent of the Supreme Court he was specially invited by the Shanghai Defense 
Commissioner to be a legal adviser on International Law and Foreign Af- 
fairs. In recognition of his service he was awarded the Fifth Class Wen- 
hu Decoration. In 1915 and 1916 Dr. Hsu was awarded the Fourth and 
the Third Class Chia-ho Decorations, respectively. In November he was 
appointed to act concurrently as a Judge of the High Prize Court. In 
July 1918 he was appointed as a Member of the Court of Equity. In Oct- 
ober he was awarded by the President the 2nd Class Chiaho Decoration. 
In November he was awarded the 2nd Class Wen-hu. In February 1919 
Dr. Hsu was appointed Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Shansi 
province. Since 1920, he has been Chief Justice of the High Court of 
Justice of Shansi. In January 1920, he received the Third Class Paokuang 
Chiaho. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



359 




Mr. G. F. Hsu 

(Hsu yuan) 

Mr. G. F. Hsu was born in Chinkiang, Kiangsu province, in 1873. He 
received his preliminary education from I'Ecole Municipal Francaise at 
Shanghai. Later, he studied at Nanking Univeralty and Nanyang Tungwen 
College, from which he was graduated. After teaching in various schools, 
he was appointed by the late Tsing Dynasty a, Sub-magistrate in 1899 and 
was later promoted to the rank of prefect. At different times, Mr. Hsu 
has held the following positions: English translator of the foreign affairs 
bureau of Chekiang; Inspector of the Hangchow Customs; Proctor of the 
foreign affairs bureau of Chekiang; English secretary of the Governor of 
Shansi; General secretary to the Governor of Kiangsu; Proctor of the 
bureau of foreign affairs in Soochow; Diplomatic advisor to the Governor 
of Honan; Resident director of the foreign affairs bureau of Honan. 
After the establishment of the Republic in 1912, Mr. Hsu became secretary 
in charge of foreign affairs of the Tutuh of Honan, and at the same time 



360 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



time chief of the foreign affairs bureau of Honan. In June 1913, he was 
appointed by the Peking government as commissioner of foreign affairs in 
Honan, which position he held for many years. Since May 1920, Mr. Hsu has 
been commissioner of foreign affairs in Kiangsu with headquaiters at Shanghai. 
In March 1922, he received the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
February 1922, his name w'as recorded in the Cabinet as an expectant 
Minister Plenipotentiary. In April 1923, he was awarded the First Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. 



^ 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



361 




Mr. Hu Ao-kung 

*8 US 4^ ^ rr H 

Mr. Hu Ao-kung was born at Chiang-lin Hsien, Hupei Province, in 
1885. He graduated from the Ohiang Hsu College, Hupei, High Agricul- 
ture College, Peiyang; and High Agriculture College, Kiangsi. While a 
student he joined the revolutionary party and played active parts in the 
party's movements. During the First Revolution which broke out at Wu- 
chang in October 1911, Mr. Hu was one of the commanding officers of the 
Hupei Revolutionary Troops. When General Li Yuan-hung was elected 
Tutu of the Province of Hupei by the revolutionists, Mr. Hu became Chief 
of the General Affairs Department in the Office of the Tutu or Military 
Governor. Subsequently Mr. Hu was despatched to the North by General 
Li Yuan-hung to organize revolutionary forces of which he was later 
elected Commander-in-Chief. After the establishment of the Republic 
in 1912 Mr. Hu returned to Hupei and was appointed by the provincial 
government the Director of the Bureau for devising means of living for 
the Manchus at Chinchow. In 1913 Mr. Hu was elected a member of the 



362 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



House of RepresentativeB. After the dissolution of Parliament by Yuan 
Shih-kai in January 1914. Mr, Hu returned to Hupei and very soon became 
the President of the Chinchow Law College. Later he went to Szechuan 
and joined General Ch'en I, then Military Governor of Szechuan. While 
in Szechuan he was at different times Secretary to General Ch'en, Prefect 
of a Circuit, and Pacification Commissioner. Mr. Hu played an active 
part in the Yunnan Uprising against the Yuan Shih-kai monarchiical 
movetaenti. The province of Szebhuan was the earliest to declare 
independence and to respond to Yunnan's call. In 1917 he was appointed 
Prefect of the Chiao-Jen Circuit of K*uangtung but he did not take 
up that appointment. In June 1919 he was awarded the Third Class 
Chiaho. In April 1921 he was appointed Chief of the Civil Administra- 
tion Bureau of Hupei. This position he held for about half a year. 
The old Parliament was reconvoked in August 1922, and Mr. Hu took 
his seat as member of the House. In December 1922 he was appointed 
Vice-Minister of Education. In January 1923 he received the Second Class 
Tashou Chiaho. In February 1924 he was officially relieved of the Vice- 
Ministership. Mr. Hu is the author of many books among which may be 
mentioned The Principles of Agriculture, The Principles of Forestry, 
The New Heaven and the New Earth, Literary Works of Ao-Kung, 
eto. He is also the managing editor of the magazine called To-day which 
strongly advocates the Marxian Theroy, for Mr. Hu himself is a Marxist. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



US 




General Hu En-kuang 

ig .1 3t ^ ® & 

General Hu En-kuang was born at Tientsin in 1874. He graduated 
from the Peiyang Military SchooiL At different times Mr. Hu has held 
the following positions: Teacher of the Military School at Suiyuan; 
Commander of a Mixed Regiment at Suiyuan; Director of the Suiyuan 
Military School; Director of the Suiyuan Police Administration; Direc- 
tor of the First Military Middle School; at Chingho; Director of the Pao- 
ting Arsenal; Director of the Marshal Court for Fukien Province; Com- 
mander of the Right Wing of the Fukien Troops; Councillor to the Tu- 
chun of Fukien; Military Representative in Peking for the Tuchun of 
Fukien; Member of the Councillors' Hall of the Ministry of War; Coun- 
cillor to the Military Administrator of Kiangsi; Director of the Depart- 
ment of Ammunitions in the Ministry of War; Director of the General 
Affairs Department in the Ministry of War. General Hu was appointed to 
the last mentioned position in January 1924 and he is still holding it. He 
is a Lieutenant General in rank; and has been awarded the Fifth Order of 
Merit, the First Class Tashou Chiaho, the Second Class Weoifu, the Second 
Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho, and the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. 



364 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hu Han-ming 

Mr, Hu Han-ming was born at Fan-yu Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1886. His native home is at Shan-ying Hsien, Chekiang. He is one of the 
staunchest supporters of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. After having received pre- 
liminary education in Canton, General Hu proceeded to Japan to study. 
There he made the acquaintance of Dr. Sun, who had been in exile since 1897 
with a heavy reward on his head offered by the Manchu House. In 1905 
the famous revolutionary party called the Chungkuo Tung-ming-hui was 
organized in Japan with its headquarters at Tokyo. This party published a 
paper called Ming Pao. General Hu and Mr. Wang Chao-ming were 
editors. Sometime afterwards, the Ming Pao was closed down. General 
Hu and Mr. Wang went to Singapore where they published another 
revolutionary paper called H«(in Wen. Prior to the outbreak of the First 



WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 365 



Revolution in October 1911, Hu took a small party of revolutionists to Canton 
to get ready for action. Upon the declaration of independence of Kuang- 
tung Province following the Wuchang outbreak, October 10th 1911, Gen- 
eral Chiang Tsen-kuei was elected Provisional Tutu of that Province. H-e 
did not hold this position very long and was finally relieved by General Hu. 
In January 1912 Dr. Sun Yat-sen was elected by the National Council 
in Nanking to be the Provisional President of the Republic. General Hu 
was appointed his Chief-secretary. He was succeeded by General Chen 
Chiung-ming as Tutu. On February 15, 1912, Dr. Sun tendered his re- 
signation and the National Council elected Yuan Shih-kai the Provisional 
President. Dr. Sun returned to Canton and General Hu accompained him. 
The Acting Tutu, General Chen Chiung-ming, promptly resigned in 
Hu's favor. In July 1912 General Hu was appointed Tutu or Military Gov- 
ernor, of Kuangtung. He was previously elected to that post by the 
Kuangtung Provincial Assembly. This position he held until June 1913 
when he was appointed Commissioner for the Pacification of Tibet. General 
Chen Chiung-ming was appointed to succeed him as Tutu of Kuangtung. 
The Second Revolution broke out in July 1913. The Peking govern- 
ment at once replaced General Ch'en Chiung-ming by General Lung Chi- 
kuang who had been hitherto the Deputy-Military Director of Kuangtung. 
In response to the revolutionary call which was entirely planned by the 
Kuo Ming Tang leaders, Hu supported by General Ch'en Chiung-ming, laun- 
ched an attack on the Canton City. They met with success at filrst but 
shortly afterwards their forces were overpowered, about the same time the 
main base in Kiangsi was clashed by Yuan Shih-kai's forces. Hu like other 
Kuo Ming Tang leaders had to take refuge in foreign countries most of 
them going to Japan. Since that time and before his return to Shanghai 
in the spring of 1916, he secretly travelled between Japan and the South 
Sea Islands laying down plans to overthrow Yuan Shih-kai. Upon becom- 
ing President in June 1916, to succeed luan Shih-kai, Li Yuan-hung with- 
drew all the orders issued by his predecessor depriving the Kuo Ming Tang 
leaders of their freedom, and they all returned to China. The dissolution 
for the second time of the First Parliament prior to Chang Hsun's monar- 
chical attempt In June 1917 and the refusal of the northeffin leaders to 
reconvoke it after Chang Hsun's overthrow finally resulted in the 
opening of civil strife between the north and the south. In July 

1917 the Parliament was convened at Canton, and elected Dr. Sun 
the Generalissimo. Hu was following Dr. Sun as his Councillor and 
also Secretary. In the following month the Extraordinary Parliament 
was convened at Canton, and elected Dr. Sun the Generalissimo. In May 

1918 a Military government was established at Canton. Hu was appointed 
Chief Secretary of the Executive Council of the government. In the winter of 

1919 Dr. Sun and his associates were ousted from power by the Kuan'gsi 
faction under General Lu Yuang-ting. Mr. Hu accompanied Dr. Sun to 
Shanghai where they remained in 1920. In December 1920 Dr. Sun Yat- 
sen, the late Dr. Wu Ting-fang and Tang Shao-i, who had sought refuge 
at Shanghai, returned to Canton again and re-established the Constitutional 
government. In April 1921 Dr. Sun was elected President of the Southern 



366 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



government. Hu became Civil Governor of Kuangtung which position he 
held until June 1922 when Dr. Sun was expelled from Canton by Chen 
Chiung-ming and he returned to Shanghai again. In January 1923 General 
Shen Hung-yin employed by Marshal Wu Pei-fu launched an attack upon 
Kuangtung and General Ch'en Chiung-ming evacuated the city after a few 
skirmishes and retreated to Huichow. Meanwhile Dr. Sun sent a number of 
his followers to take up various posts in Canton after Ch'en Chiung-ming's 
expulsion. These functionaries were seized by the invaders and Hu Han- 
ming whom Dr. Sun had appointed Civil Governor narrowly escaped execu- 
tion at the hands of the Kuangsi men. Dr. Sun regained his position at 
Canton in February 1923. Since then Mr. Hu has been given important 
positions in the southern government. In September 1924 Dr. Sun upon 
his leaving Canton to lead personally an expedition again'st the north ap- 
pointed Hu Civil Governor of Kuangtung. On March 18, General Hu was 
appointed acting Generalissimo. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



367 




Mr. H. Y. Hu 

(Hu Hung yu) 

Mr. H. Y. Hu was born at Wusih, Kiangsu province, in 1888. He 
entered Nanyang College, Shanghai, in 1900, and was graduated from 
the Middle School in 1905. Then he took a special course in Industry 
and Commerce in the same College, and graduated in 1907. Upon grad- 
uation Mr. Hu was awarded a scholarship to study in America. He 
entered the Junior Class of the Wharton School of Commerce and FinancQ 
of the University of Pennsylvania in January 1908. He was graduated 
with the degree of B. S. in 1909 and took an M. A. in 1910 from the 



368 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



same University. He left America for Germany in 1911 and studied in 
Berlin University for four months. Mr. Hu returned to China in April 
1912. Then he became a Professor in the Nanyang Poljiiechnic Institute, 
Shanghai, but held that position only for a few months. From August 
1912 to December 1913 he was manager of the Nanking branch of the Kiang- 
su Bank. From January to April 1914 he was manager of the Wuslh 
Branch of the same bank. He joined the Department of Railway Ac- 
counts and Statistics, Ministry of Communications, in September 1914; 
and was appointed a Member of the Standing Committee on the Unifica- 
tion of Railway Accounts and Statistics in July 1917. In May 1918 he 
was appointed a Delegate to the Seventh China-Japan Through Traffic 
Conference held in Tokyo. He became Chief of the investigation section 
and assistant chief of the traffic section of the same Department in January 
1919. From January to December 1920 Mr. Hu was a delegate of the Minis- 
try of Communications at Paris in connection with the Peace Conference. 
In May 1921 he was appointed Chief of the Traffic Section of the Railway 
Department. He was appointed Director of the Railway Through Traffic 
Administration in February 1923. Mr. Hu has been awarded by the 
Government the Second Order of Ta Shou Chiaho and also the Second 
Order of Wenfu. His address in 35 An Fu Hutung, West City, Peking. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



369 




Mr. Hu I-ku 

(Wenfu Yiko Hu) 

Mr. Wenfu Yiko Hu was born at Niiigpo, Chekiang province, in 1876. 
He received his education in the St. John's College, Shanghai, from 1890 
to 1897. He was editor of the St. John's Echo from 1895 to 1897. This 
was the first college paper ever published in China. After his gradua- 
tion until 1899 Mr. Hu was librarian and Secretary of St. John's College. 
In 1899 he left the College and joined the Nanyang College first as an 
Instructor in English and later as Dean of the English Department. 
In Januarj- 1906 Mr. Hu went to America. He studied law in the 
University of California in 1906. From 1906-1908 he was at the Univer- 
Bity of Chicago and during 1908-1909 he attended the University of 
Illinois, where he took his B. A. in 1908 and LL. B. in 1909. In 1908 



370 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mr. Hu edited the "Pocket Chinese and English Dictionary," published 
by the Commercial Press Shanghai. Mr. Hu was a member of the Com- 
monwealth Club from 1906 to 1908; member of the Reynolds Club from 
1907 to 1908; member of the Oratorical Association from 1908 to 
1909; and president of the Cosmopolitan Club from 1907 to 1909. He 
was also a member of the Law Club of the University of Illinois. 
After hig return to China in September 1909, Mr. Hu became Legal 
Advisor of the Board of Communications and also member of the Com- 
mission for the drawing up of the railway, telegraph, navigation and post 
laws. He was Professor of Law in the Inij.'erial University, Peking, from 
1909 to 1912. During 1912-1913 Mr. Hu was Dean of Nanyang College 
Shanghai. In 1913 he was appointed by the Peking government a Justice 
of the Supreme Court. He became a member of the Chinese Law Club 
in 1913; member of the Chinese Social and Political Science Association 
in 1915. Of the latter mentioned association he later became a member 
of the Executive Council. In 1917 Mr. Hu became a member of the 
Commission for the Discipline of Judicial OiTicers. When China declared 
war on Germany and Austria in August 1917 he was appointed to take up 
concurrently the post of Judge of the High Prize Court. In 1918 Mr. 
Hu was a;ppointed a Member of the Commission for the E.xamination of 
Judicial Officers, this being a concurrent post. In November 1918 
he was awarded the Second Class Wenfu, a military decoration. In 
the spring of 1919 Mr. Hu was sent by the government as special 
delegate to attend the annual meeting of the Philippine Sar As- 
sociation. In March that year he received the Third Class Paokuang 
Chiaho. In 1920 at the invitation of the Ministries of': Foreign 
Affairs and Justice, he became a member of the Commission for 
the Study of Judicial Questions. Jn November of that year he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Commission for the Examination of Special 
Judicial Officers. In March 1921 Mr. Hu was appointed to act as President 
of the Commission for the Discipline of Judicial Officers. In June 1922 
he was appointed a member of the Commission for the Discipline of High 
Civil Officers. In July 1921 he was appointed an acting Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court. In October 1922, Mr. Hu was appointed Acting Pre- 
sident of the Commission for the Discipline of Judicial Officers. In 
December 1922 he was awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In 
January 1923 he was appointed Chief Justice of the Third Civil C/Ourt of 
the Supreme Court, Peking. This position he is still holding. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



371 




Mr. Hu Lin 

Mr. Hu Lin was born in Szechuan in 1893. He took his early educa- 
tion in his home province and while still iu his early twenties received 
the degree of Chujen (Master of Arts). Proceeding to Japan, Mr. Hu 
studied in the Tokyo University from which he graduated in 1911, taking 
the general college course and special course in law and politics. 
Returning to China, Mr. Hu made application for admission to the 
Bar and successfully passed the examinations. He came to Shanghai and 
became editor of the Ta Kung Ho Pao, resigning to become judge of the 
Chinkiang branch of the Provincial Court of Kiangsu. Mr. Hu later pro- 
ceeded to Peking as special correspondent for a number of Shanghai 



372 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



newspapers, acting at the same time as professor in the Government Col- 
lege of Law and of several other educational institutions. In 1915, Mr. 
Hu went to Kirin in connection with the Sino-Japanese negotiations 
about the time the Twenty-One Demands were presented to China with an 
ultimatum. He was there appointed chief secretary of the provincial 
government attending especially to the administration of foreign affai'rs 
and finances. He resigned from Eirin and went to Peking as Counsellor 
to the Ministry of Interior which post he gave up again to enter into 
journalistic work, becoming editor of I'lmpaitial in Tientsin. In 1918 
he went abroad, visiting more than twenty countries and was the only 
Chinese newspaper correspondent in Paris during the Peace Conference at 
Versailles. He returned in 1920 and organised and edited the newspaper 
New Society in Peking and Tientsin. In 1921 Mr. Hu came to Shanghai 
and organized the Kuo Wen News Agency, one of the few independent 
news and advertising service organizations in China. He is an excellent 
linguist who speaks and reads half a dozen languages. 



.ae 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



373 




Dr. Hu Suh 

(Hu Shih) 

Mr. Hu Suh was born in Shanghai on December 17, 1891. His fatlier 
was a scholar of high attainment and was known for his geographical 
researches in northern Manchuria, where he travelled extensively. His 
father died when Dr. Hu was only a little over three years old, and he 
was brought up by his mother, of whom he often tells his friends that, 
though she could not read a single line he wrote;, it is to her alone that 
he owes everything. Dr. Hu lived with her at their home in Chih-ki 
Hsien, Southern Anhui, until 1904, when he came toi Shanghai. Dr. 
Hu began his study of Chinese when he was scarcely three years old. 
During his six years' stay in Shanghai he studied at the Mei-chi School, 
the Ching Chung School and the Chinese National Institute, founded by 



374 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



revolutionary students who in 1907 left Ja])an in a body as a protest 
against Japanese policies. Financial dii!icuity compelled him to support 
himself by teaching and by editing a revolutionary paper issued every 
ten days. In 1910 he passed the government examination for In- 
demnity Scholarships and was sent to America, where he first entered 
Cornell University as a freshman in the College of Agriculture. Dr. 
Hu soon realized that he was not fitted for agricultural work and 
that China needed literature and philosophy just as badly as scientific 
farming. So after studying! a year and a half in the College of Agric- 
culture, he was transferred to the College of Arts and Science, where he 
devoted himself to English literature, political science and philosophy. 
He was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 1918 and was awarded 
the Hiram Corson Prize for his essay on Robert Browning in the follow- 
ing year. After his graduation in 1914, he continued his advanced studies 
in philosophy and was given a graduate scholarship at the Sage School 
of Philosophy in Cornell University. In 1915 Dr. Hu went to Columbia 
University, spent two years there and wrote his doctorate diss3rtation 
on "The Development of Logical Methods in Ancient China." It was dur- 
ing these two years that he gradually developed his ideas of a radical 
reform in Chinese literature. These ideas were afterwards formulated 
into an article entitled "Suggestions for the Reform of Chinese Liter- 
ature," which was simultaneously published in La Jeunesse and the Chinese 
Students Quarterly (January 1917). This article formed the fixst 
mainfeisto of the ''literary revolution" and its historical place was 
only superceded by another article of his entitled "A Constructive 
Revolution in Chinese Literature" (La Jeunesse, April 1918), which 
embodied the results of maturer reflection and fruitful experimentation. 
Dr. Hu was the first Chinese poet to devote himself to writing poe- 
try exclusively in the spoken language. He has published over a hundred 
poems in the vulgate which he calls "experimental poefcry." He bi>gan 
this poetic experiment in 1916. Since then there has grown upi a school 
of "Vulgate Poets" whose contributions are appearing in a number of 
periodioals. Since 1917, Dr. Hu has been Profesisor of Philosophy at the 
Government University; and in 1922 he became Dean of the Department 
of English Literature. "Philosophy", as he is fond of saying, "is my 
life work, and literature is my hobby." In 1918 he piibUshed a course 
of lectures on the Philosophy of the Mo School. In 1919, he published 
another book entitled Outline of Chinese Philosophy, Volume I, and in 
1920 another work, Ancient History of China. In January 1922, Dr. Hu 
organized and edited a weekly in Peking called the Endeavor. He spent 
1923 at Hangchow to recuperate his health. In 1924. he returned to 
Peking and again joined the Government Ilnivereity. His Peking address 
is 14 Drum Tower, Ti An Ming, Peking. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



375 




Mr. Hu Yun 

(Y. Hu) 

Mr. Y. Hu is a native of Chinkiang and was born in 1884. Prior to 
the organization of the China & South Sea Bank, he was manager of the 
head office of the Bank of Communications in Peking. At the opening of 
South Sea Bank in Shanghai in July 1921, he was made general manager. 
Mr. Hu has been largely instrumental in the formation of a banking 
alliance with three other well-known Chinese banks: viz., the Yienyieh 
Commercial Bank, Kincheng Banking Corporation and the Continental Bank. 
The Four Banks' Joint Treasury and the Four Banks' Joint Savings Society 
have been organized under his direction. The former controls the issue of 
bank notes of the China & South Sea Bank upon a full cash basis, while the 
latter follows the pattern of a mutual savings bank whereby the depositors 
may share in its profits. He is one of the chief supervisors of the Joint 
Treasury and a member of the executive comoiittee of the Joint Savings 



376 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Society. Aeide from his interest in the China & South Sea Bank, he 
is director of several other Chinese banks; such as the Kincheng Banking 
Corporation, the Tacheng Bank in Peking, and the Sinhua Savings Bank and 
the Kiangsu Tenyieh Bank 



v^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



377 




Mr. Charles Ahfook Wong. 

(Huang Fu) 

Mr. Charles A. Wong, born in Honolulu, received there the rudiments 
of education. After graduation from the Hawaii High School, he went 
to the United States of America for higher education. Prior to going to 
the United States he worked for some time in order to save enough money 
to study in an American university. He attended Harvard University 
where he graduated with honors. After graduation in 1911 he returned 
to Honolulu to work. In 1922 he came to Peking and entered the Chinese 
g'overnment service, moved by the patriotic feeling to render service to 
his own country. He was appointed a member of the Salt Gabelle in 1913 
and assigned to the accounting department. He performed his duties 
successfully. At one time an attempt was made by the salt officials to 
influence him to make some change in the account book, but he refused to 
do s and thus incurred their displeasure. During his stay at Peking he 



378 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



was a director of the Y. M. C. A., and made many friends among both the 
ChinevSe and foreign residents. At the invitation of his friends in Hon- 
olulu in 1916 Mr. Wong returned to the place of his birth and organized 
the Chinese American Bank for the sole benefit of overseas Chinese. The 
bank which he has promoted and is now managing has been a success. It" 
is being patronized by all overseas Chinese in the Territory of Hawaii. 
He returned to China in 1920 for a visit. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



379 




General Huan^ Fu 

M%^ m & 

General Ilunng Fu was born at Hangchow, Chekiang province, in 1883. 
He was given a thorough education in Chinese during his youth. General 
Huang received his military education fiist in the Provincial Military School 
of Chekiang; then at the Chun Wu Academy, the Military Preparatory School 
Japan; and finally at the Military Survey Academy, Tokyo, where he 
graduated with honor in the winter of 19] 0. General Huang returned to 
China in 1911. In 1911 the Imperial Ching government planned a big 
manoeuvre to be held at Yung Ping Fu, inside Shankaikuan, in October 



380 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



General Huang who was known as he having made many friends among 
the revolutionary leaders while he was in Japan, was then sent by the 
Peking General Staff as military intelligence agent at Shanghai. Upon 
reaching Shanghai, General Huang joined the late General Ch'en Chi-mei 
who declared independence at Shanghai with himself as Tutu. General 
Huang was his Chief Staff Officer. Besides this post, General Huang held 
many other important positions in connection with the First Revolution, 
such as Chief Superintendent of the Military Transportation Headquarberss 
of t he Revolutionary Force ; Chief Staff Officer to the late Marshal Huang 
Hsin, Chief Executive Protemp in Nanking; Civil Governor of Kiangsu; 
Commander-in-Chief of the 23rd Division; Director in charge of the dis- 
bandment of the revolutionary troops. In the summer of 1913 the Second 
Revolutionary broke out against Yuan Shih-kai. General Huang partici- 
pated in the capacity of the Chief Staff Officer to General Ch'en Chi-mei 
who again made Shanghai a base for the revolutionary movements. Finally 
the second Revolution was clashed i)y Yuan Shih-kai's troops. General 
Huang, like other revolutionary leaders, whose arrest was ordered by the 
Peking government, had to take flight from China. He first went to Japan. 
Early in 1914 General Huang went to America, where he remained for one 
year after which he went to Singapore where he also stayed for a year. 
After the death of Yuan Shih-kai, in June 1916, he returned to China and 
accepted the position of the representative of the Chekiang Military Go- 
vernor in Peking which position he is still holding. During 1917-1920 
General Huang made his home at Tientsin. In the first two years he devoted 
his whole energy and time in writing articles regarding what he had seen 
and learned during his sojourn in foreign countries. He wrote two books 
in Chinese entitled "Lessons from the European War and the Future of 
China" and "The World after the War." While residing in Tientsin he 
gave a series of lectures on the international questions at the Nanking 
College. During the year 1920-21, General Huang was assisting the ex- 
President Hsu Shih-chang in writing a book called "China's Finance and 
Education after the European War." At the same time he was also a Dir- 
ector of the Government Economic Investigation Bureau. In November 
1920 he was conferred the Second Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration. In the 
summer of 1921 General Huang went to Europe and America on a semi- 
official mission to study post-war financial conditions. He was in America 
when the Washington Conference was convened in November 1921. The 
Peking government appointed him Advisor to the Chinese Delegation while 
he was also serving as Hsu Shih-chang's personal representative. Before 
the convention of the Washington Conference, he wrote a book on "The 
Initiation of the Washington Conference and its Tendencies." What he 
had anticipated in this book was realized. General Huang left Washington 
before the close of the Conference and went to Europe, where he travelled 
for about half a year and then returned to China. In July 1922 General 
Huang was conferred the Second Class Weiiliu Decoration and in August he 
was made a Chiangchun with the title "Chu-Wei." In September he was 
appointed Special Deputy to make preparations for the organization of a 
Financial Commission to straighten up the fiscal affairs of the country. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 381 



In October he was awarded the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. 
In February 1923 General Huang was appointed Acting Minister of Foreign 
Affairs which position he held only for two months. He received the First 
Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration in the same month. In March 
he became concurrently President of the Diplomatic Commission, In Sep- 
tember 1923 General Huang was appointed Acting Minister of Education 
which position he held until January 1924. Since that time, he devoted 
himself in giving lectures in several of the universities in Peking and also 
at the headquarters of General Feng Yu-hsiang's troops of Nanyuan, Peking. 
In September 1924 General Huang became Minister of Education in Dr. W. 
W. Yen's Cabinet. This position he is still holding. 



^ 



382 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Han-Liang Huang 



(Huang Han-Hang) 

Dr. Han-Liang Huang was born in 189'^ in Amoy, Fukien province, and 
received his early education under the old literary system. He began the 
study of English in 1910, and entered Tsing Hua College in the spring of 
1011 as one of the first group of students. After graduation from Taing 
Hwa he was sent by the College to America and studied in the University of 
Michigan for two years and Princeton University for two years, receiving 
from the latter the degree of Litt. B. in 1915, aftjer which he studied Eco- 
nomics in Columbia University 1915-1918, receiving A. M. in 1916 and Ph. 
D. in 1918. Dr. Huang returned to China in the winter of 1918 and 



WHO'S WEiO IN CHINA 383 



has been engaged in the banking business in Shanghai and Manila since he 
returned. He was appointed manager of the Ho Hong Bank, Ltd., Hong- 
kong in 1923 which position he still holds, Mr. Huang has served as 
Director of the Chinese Y. M. C. A. in Shanghai "and Manila and Chairman 
of South Chini*"Chapter of Tsing Hua Alumni Association. He is a member 
of Princeton Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. ^ 



i"^ 



v5C 



384 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hin Wong 



(Huang Hsien-chao) 

Mr. Hin Wong was born in Honolulu In 1888, of Cantonese parents. 
He graduated from Oahu College, Punahou. in 1907, studied at Columbia 
University in New York, 1910-11, and received the degree of B. S. in 
Journalism from the School of Journalism, Missouri University, in 1912. 
Mr. Wong was for several years an active journalist in Canton, 
correspondent of Reuters, China Weekly Review, and other news- 
papers and news agencies in the Far East. At times he has also acted ae 
correspondent of the Associated Press of America, Associated Newspapers 
of America, Chicago Daily News, and other publications and news associations. 
He represented China at the World Press Congress in Hawaii in 1921 and 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 385 



was made one of the vice-presidents of the Congress and was Canton Press 
representative at the Disarmament Conference in Washington 1921-22. 
In Canton he was many years editor-in-chief of the Canton Times a,nd 
later he founded and first edited the Canton Daily News. He retired from 
these publications early in 1923 due to the political unrest. From 1917 
to 1920 he was Director of the Intelligence Bureau of the Canton Military 
government. Mr. Wong has been several times tried by court-martial at 
Canton for his views and in May 1924, opportunity was taken by the Sua 
Yat-sen faction to place blame on Mr. Hin Wong for the erroneous report 
issued by Reuters that Sun Yat-sen was dead, to imprison him and banish 
him from Canton for 10 years. Outside the newspap«!r field, Mr. Wong 
is interested in the educational and social welfare activities of Oanton. 
He was one time president of Kwangtung College, general superintendent 
of the Canton Government Homes for the Blind, Aged, and Infirm, and 
honorary inspector of prisons of the Kwangtung Bureau of Justice. Upon 
the organization of the Canton Municipality in 1921 he was made chief 
of the charity division of the Municipal Department of Education, re- 
signing the latter part of the year. He was Boy Scout commissioner of 
Kwangtung and honorary inspector of prisons for the Procuratorate-General 
of South China. For more than four years Mr. Wong was chairman of the 
of the boys work committee of the Canton Y. M. C. A. Mr. Wong married 
Miss Chan Hon Ming of Canton in 191.3, and has five children. 



^ 



386 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Hwang Yung-liang 

^ ^n ^^ m 

(Hung Jung-liang) 

Mr. Hwang Yung-liang was born in Wuwei Hsien, Anhwei province. 
He studied at the University of Nanking between 1890 and 1896, and 
received his degree of A. B. Upon his graduation he was engaged as a 
teacher of the University. Between 1897 and 1899 he served as Dean. 
In September 1900, Mr. Hwang went to America to pursue higher educa- 
tion, and entered Baker University. For three years, he studied liberal 
arts, and in 1903 received the degree of A. B. For tiie next two years, 
he took post-graduate work at Columbia University. During his stay in 
America, Mr. Hwang was well liked by his American associates as was 
shown in his election to be a member of Alpha Delta, a signal honor. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 387 



In May of 1906 he returned to China, and shortly afterwurds was 
appointed by the Chinese governnient a Second Translator of the Chinese 
Legation in London. For two years Mr. Hwang worked for the Chinese 
Minister in London, and learned muT'h of the diplomatic procedures. Lord 
Li Ching-feng, then Chinese Minister to Great Britain, was highly impressed 
with his willingness to work and with his diplomatic ability. He recom- 
mended to the Foreign Office in Peking that Mr. Hwang be appointed Consul 
to New Zealand. For two years, namely 1908-10, he was Consul there. To- 
ward the end of 1910 he was promoted to be Consul-General to Australia. 
This promotion was considered a great honor in view of the fact that Mr, 
Hwang had not been long in the diplomatic service. For three years he 
functioned as Consul-General in Australia, and was popular among his dip- 
lomatic associates. From 1914 to 1916 Mr. Hwang worked in the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs as an Assistant Secretary. In October 1916 the Laohsi- 
kai dispute with the French authorities in Tientsin arose and the case was 
very difficult of settlement. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs dispatched Mr. 
Hwang to handle this case. He settled the case with credit to himself and 
in November 1916 he was appointed Acting Commissioner of Foreign Affairs 
for Chihli. In that capacity he was appointed to hold concurrently in 
February 1919 the post of Chief of the Bureau for the Administration of 
Enemy Subjects and Properties. In March 1919 Mr. Hwang was awarded 
the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In August 1919 he was appointed Com- 
missioner of Foreign Affairs for Chihli. In August 1920 Mr. Hwang re- 
ceived the Second Class Wenfu. In October 1920 he was appointed Minister 
to Austria which position he is still holding. In June 1922 Mr. Hwang 
was appointed Chinese representative to the League of Nations. In October 
1922 he was given the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho.' In September 1923 
he was relieved of the post of Chinese representative to the League of 
Nations, remaining as Minister to Austria. Mr. Hwang was given the 
Honorary Degree of M. A. by Baker University in 1909. He is honorary 
member of the New Zealand Club, Melbourne Club and the Sydney Club. 



388 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr* Huang K'ai-wen 

rc m % 

(Wong Kai-wen) 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 389 



Mr. Wong Kai-wen, Grand Master of Ceremonies of the Presidential 
Palace, was born at Chiao Ling Hsien, Kwangtung Province, in 1865. He 
came to North China for his education and joined the Peking Telegraph 
College, where he graduated. After his graduation, he joined the telegraph 
service. Gradually he worked his way up and became manager of teleg- 
raphs. For many years he held the position of telegraph m'anager in 
different provinces. In 1907 Mr. Wong was appointed by President Hsu 
Shih-chang, who was then Viceroy of Manchuria, to be Industrial Taotai 
of the Fengtien Province. In that capacity he introduced many industrial 
refonns. It was he who first suggested to the then Vicerqy Hsu the im- 
portance of the promulgation of mining laws. Asa result of his suggestion, 
Viceroy Hsu recommended to the Throne that mining laws be promul- 
gated. In a few months the mining laws were published by Edict. In 
1910 Mr. Wong was appointed managing director of the Tao Ching Railway. 
In 191 1 he became Taotai of Han Huang Teh Circuit of the Hupeh Province 
and concurrently acted as Superintendent of the Customs in Hankow. At 
the same time he was Director of Commercial and Military affairs of Hupeh, 
and Director General of the Tung Cheng Railway. He held all these official 
posts until 1913. In 1914 Mr. Wong was appointed Grand Master of Ce- 
remonies of the President's Office to succeed Alf'ed Sze, who became 
Chinese Minister to the Court of Sd. James.. Mr. Wong is still holding 
the position. He has served five Presidents with satisfaction, namely, 
President Yuan Shih-kai, President Li Yuan-hung, and President Feng Kuo- 
chang. President Hsu Shih-chang, and President Tsao Kun. In January 1919 
Mr. Wong wa?^ awarded the Second Class Wenfu; in December 1919, the 
Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho, in February 1921 the First Class 
Wenfu; and in October 1922 the Fifth Order of Merit. 



^ 



390 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Y. C. Whang. 

(Huang Tsau-hsi) 

Mr. Y. C. Whang, was born at Min Hou Hsien, Fukien province, in 1874. 
He studied at Queen's College, Hongkong. Directly after leaving school 
in 1892 he worked in the Traffic Department of the Tientsin-Shanhiikwan 
Railway and in 1901 he was transferred to the Railway Administration as 
translator. In 1907 he was appointed Chinese Auditor of the same line and 
in 1911 he was appointed Chief of the Statistical Division concurrently. 
After the establishment of the Republic, he was transferred to the Min- 
istry of Communications, and has since held various responsible positions, 
such as a member of the Unification of Accounts and Statistics Commis- 
sion and Chief of the Traffic and Transportation Section. In 1915 he was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 391 



appointed Assistant Director of the Railway Department. In the middle of 
August 1916, he was appointed Senior Clerk of the Ministry. He went to 
Japan in 1917 under Ministerial Order to attend the fifth China-Japan 
Through Traffic Conference as a delegate. In the same year he was detached 
to the Peking Mukden Line as Chief of the General Affairs Department. 
During Chang Hsun's Monarchical movement he volunteered his service in 
the Republican army and was appointed by General Tuan Chi-iui, to assist 
in the work of the Department of Communications of the Republican 
forces. Mr. Whang was then holding concurrently the position of Chief 
of General Affairs Department of the Peking-Mukden Railway. It was at 
this critical moment that he, in cooperation with Dr. C. C. Wang, then Di- 
rector of the Peking-Mukden Railway, rendered perhaps the most valuable 
service to the Republican cause in preventing the Southward movement 
of the Monarchical troops from Manchuria by suddenly cutting off the sup- 
ply of cars outside of Shanhaikwan. In recognition of the services rendered 
in this campaign he was given the iirst class Golden, Decoration of the 
Ministry of War. Immediately after^the defeat of Chang Hsun, he was 
appointed Assistant Councillor of the Ministry of Communications. 
In 1918 he took an active part in the work of the Plague Prevention 
Commission. Later, he was appointed Director of the East section of the 
Lung Hai Railway. During his term of office on this line, Mr. Whang 
made a thorough investigation of the conditions of the intricate Likiu sys- 
tem which was strangling the business of the operating section of the Lung- 
Hai Line, and suggested a series of effective remedies to the Central 
government. In January 1919 Mr. Whang was appointed to be concurrent- 
ly Chief of the Railway Through-Traffic Bureau and Acting Director of the 
Department of Railways. In the same month he received another concurrent 
position, as Vice-Chairman of the Commission on the Codification of Rail- 
way Laws. Mr. Whang was awarded the Second Class Chiaho in March 
1919 and the Second Class Wenfu in April 1919. In June 1919 he was ap- 
pointed Director of the Department of Railways. In December 1919 he 
was appointed concurrently Director General of the Hankow-Canton-Sze- 
chuan Railway. In January 1920 Mr. Whang was given the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho. In February 1920 he was appointed concurrently the 
Assistant Chief of the Loans Bureau of the Ministry of Communications. 



392 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Huang Yen-pe'i, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 393 



Mr. Huang Yen-p'ei was born at Shanghai in 1879. He was graduated 
from Nanyang College, and then went to Japan to study and specialized in 
education. During the First Revolution — 1911-12, he was Chief of the 
Educational Bureau under the Tutu of Kiangsu. In 1914 he resigned from 
this post and subsequently took a special trip to investigate the educational 
conditions existing in the different Yangtze provinces. While travelling he 
acted as special correspondent of the Shun Pao of Shanghai. In 1915 he 
went to America to study the industrial conditions in the capacity of Sec- 
retary to the Chinese Industrial Mission. After the death of Yuan Shih- 
kai in June 1916, Mr. Huang wrote an article called "Nine Lessons" which 
'acquired a national fame for the writer. For many years Mr. Huang has 
been vice-chairman of the Kiangsu Provincial Education Association; 
Chairman of the China Vocational Education Association; and Member of 
Kiangsu Provincial Assembly. In December 1921 Mr. Huang was appointed 
Minister of Education but he did not accept the office. He was re- 
appointed Min'ster of Education in June 1922 in Dr. W. W. Yen's Cabinet. 
But he declined again. In January 1923 Mr. Huang was appointed a 
Member of the Educational Sinking Fund Commission. He has received the 
Second Class Chiaho Decoration. 



.^ 



394 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Willam Hung 

(Hung Yeh) 

Mr. William Hung was barn at Foochow, Fukien Province, in 1893. 
At the age of 22, he graduated from the Anglo-Chinese College in hiis 
native city, remaining a^ instructor the following year. In 1916, Mr. 
Hung went to the United States entering Ohio W«sleyan University from 
which he received an A. B. degree in 1917. In 1919 he was given his 
A. M. at Columbia University and in 1920 he became a Bachelor of Divin- 
ity at the Union Theological Seminary in New York. During 1921-22 he was 
Chinese secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, at the same tira,'e lecturing extensively throughout America 
under the management of the Lyceum and Chautauqua organizations. In 
1922, Mr. Hung was Horizon Lecturer at De Pauw University, during v/h'icja 
period he was appointed assistant professor of history of Peking University. 
The following year, he became acting hsad of the histlsry depiartment of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 395 



latter University. Mr, Hung is a member of the Civic Club, Clergy Club, 
China Society of America, and Phi Beta Kappa in New York City, and of 
the American Historical Association, Washington, and the Gesellschaft fur 
Kirchengeschichte, Berlin- Friedenau. 



oe 



396 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. I Tsung-k'uei 

Mr. I Tsung-k'uei was born at Hsiang-tan Hsien, Hunan province, in 
1875. He was poor but was anxious to educate himself and fin- 
ally became a learned man. . After his return to China Mr. I took up 
teaching work at several schools and colleges in Changsha, Hunan province. 
In 1909 Mr. I was sent by his province to Peking to join the People's 
Delegation tfrging the opening of a parliament. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed a Member of the Constitutional Council. He was prominent in the 
impeachment of Prince Ching. Mr. 1 was connected with the revolution 
started by Tang Tsai-tsang. On the failure of Kang Yu-wei's reform' 
scheme in 1898, M!r. I retired into seclusion and wrote several volumes on 
the subject of Reforms, until the time when schools were started every- 
where v/hen he took up teaching. In 1904 Mj*. I went to Japan to study. 
While in Japan he edited a revolutionary periodical. It was at this time 
he joined the Kuomingtang. In 1912, the First Year of the Republic, Mr. 
I was appointed Compiler of the Law Compilation Office under the Cabinet. 
In 1913 he was elected a Member of the House of Representatives, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 397 



representing Mongolia, and when Yuan Shih-kai proscribed the Kuom- 
ingtang as a seditious organization and in November 1913 unseated 
all members of the two House belonging to that Party. Mir. I then went 
south. This Parliament was reconvoked by Li Yuan-hung in June 
1916 following the death of Yuan Shih-kai. Mr. I took his seat in 
Parliament, and remained until June 1917 when it was again dissolved. 
In < June 1919 Mr. I was awarded the Third Class Chiaho and in -January 
1920 the Third Class Wenfu. In February 1920 he was appointed Coun- 
cillor of the Government Economic Bureau. In February 1921 he received 
the Second Class Chiaho. In August 1922 the Old Parliament of which Mr. 
I was relieved of the councillor post to become a Member of the House of 
Representatives. In October 1922 Mt. I was awarded the Second Class 
Tashou Chiaho and in January 1923 the Second Class Wenfu. In April 
1923 he was appointed Chief of the Law Compilation Bureau in the Cabinet. 
This position he is still holding. 



^ 



398 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Loe Men Len 

(Jao Meng-jen) 

Dr. Loe Men Len was born at Nanchang Hsien, Kiangsi province, in 
1882. When a mere youth he was noted as a scholar. At the age of 13 
he became a Licentiate. In 1902 he passed the Provincial Competitive Ex- 
amination winning the degree of Chu Jen and in the year following he be- 
came a Metropolitan Graduate of Chih Shih which is equivalent to Ph.D. 
Subsequently Dr. Loe was made Junior Secretary of the Board of Works 
holding the rank of Taotai. In 1903 he was sent first to Japan and then 
to England to study Law. He graduated with the degree of B. A. from 
Lincoln's Inn and London University. Before returning to China, Dr. 
Loe served as Third Councillor to the Chinese Legation in London. 
Upon his return to China he attended the Examination by the Board 
of Education and obtained the honorary degree of Han-lin Compiler. The 
first appointment Dr. Loe received then was Second Class Secretary to the 
Board of War. Very soon he was promoted to be Senior Secretary of the 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 399 



same Board. Sometime afterwards he was transferred to the Law Depart- 
ment of the Imperial Chancery or Cabinet, first as a Sectional Chief and 
then as a Councillor. Following the outbreak of the First Revolution in 
October 1911, Dr. Loe was elected a senator of the Nanking Provisional: 
Assembly. In 1912 Dr. Loe became Secretary to the President. During 
Yuan Shih-kai's term, he held many positions as in the Compilation Bureau 
in the Cabinet, Councillor of the Law Bureau in the State Department, 
Assistant Examiner of the Magistrate Examination, and Legal Councillor to 
the President. 



^ 



400 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C. P. Yin 

(Jen Chuan-pang) 

Mr. C. P. Yin was born at Wukiang Hsien Kiangsu province in 1878. 
After receiving his Chinese education he went to Japan where he studied 
at the Commercial School in Tokyo until 1906. In March 1906 Mr. Yin went 
to America as a government student. He entered the University of Illinois 
and took the Railway Administration course, and was graduated with the 
degree of A. B. in 1911. He returned to China in December 1911. 
During 1912 Mr. Yin was advisor on foreign affairs to the late General 
Lan Tien-wei, a Kuomingtang military leader. In 1913 he was appointed 
a Member of the Commission on the Unification of Railway Accounts and 
Statistics of the Ministry of Communications. He became Technical Expert 
of the same Ministry in 1914. In 191G he was given the concurrent pos- 
ition of acting secretary. In May 1916 Mr. Yin was appointed managing 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 401 



director of the Peking- Suiyuan Railway and in May 1917 he was promoted 
to the position of managing director of the same Railw^ay. In June 1917 
Mr, Yin was appointed managing director of the Shanghai-Nanking and 
Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Railways. In February 1919 he was awarded 
the Third Order of Chiaho for services rendered in connection with Pla^e 
Prevention. In November 1919, at the recommendation of the Defence 
Commissioner of Sungkiang and Shanghai, his name was recorded as one 
eligible for appointment by the President in recognition of his services 
in connection with the Repatriation of Enemy Subjects. In January 1920 
he was awarded the Second Order of Wenfu for services rendered in con- 
nection with particiption in the World War. In August 1920 Mr. Yin was 
transferred and appointed Member of the Councillors' Department of the 
Ministry of Communications. He wa^, however, reappointed managing 
director of the Shanghai-Nanking, Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Railways in 
June 1921 which position he is still holding. In June 1922 Mr. Yin re- 
ceived the Second Order of Chiaho. 



^ 



402 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. K'ang Yu-wei, 

m ^ ^ ^ S ^ 
Mr. K'ang Yu-wei was born at Nan-Hai Hsien, Kuangtung province, in 
1856. He became a provincial graduate in 1893 and a Metropolitan Grad- 
uate in 1895. The famous school called Wan Mu Tsao Tang at Canton was 
founded by Mr. K'ang and was the place where he taught a large number 
of Chinese scholars from all over the land. Among those who later became 
distinguished are Mr. Liang Chi-chiao, the late Hsu Chin and the late T'ang 
Chu-teng. Mr. Kang Yu-wei is a well-known reformer, having started his 
campaign in favor of reform in the South during the Sino-Japanese war 
in 1894-95 by means of leaflets and lectures. He petitioned the Imperial 
government advising it not to mako peace with Japan and suggesting 
immediate reforms. On June 14, 1898, he received an audience from the 
late Emperor Kwang Hsu on the recommendation of Weng T'ung-ho, the 
Imperial Tutu. He at once obtained strong influence over the Emperor, 
whose famous reform decrees of 1898 were inspired by him. A plot to 
prevent the Empress Dowager from actively interfering in politics laid 
by Kang Yu-wei and his followers was reported to the Empress Dowa(ger 
by Yuan Shih-kai, then Viceroy of Chihli. who was prompted to do so through 
fear of losing his own power should Ka,ng's party became predominant. 



WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 403 



In consequence, Mr. Kang was proscribed and ordered to be decapitated 
when the Empress Dowager effected her coup d'etat to save herself. For- 
tunately Mr. K'ang escaped and resided abroad for many years, principally 
in America and Japan. During this period, he traveled extensively in 
many countries, accompanied by his daughter, now Mrs. Lo Chang, 
the poetess. Mr. K'ang returned to China after the overthrow of the Manchu 
government and the establishment of the Republic. Through the encour- 
agement of the late Yuan Shih-kai, he founded the society for the worship 
of Confucius. He has been a persistent advocate of the adoption of Con- 
fucianism as the state religion of China. One of his ambitions has been 
the restoration of the Manchus to the Throne. He played an important 
part in General Chang Hsun's movement to reovown the dethroned 
Enperor in July of 1917. On July 1, the first day of the restora- 
tion. Mr. K'ang was appointed vice-presdent of the House of Peers. 
Chang's forces collapsed on July 12, and Mr. K'ang fled to the Am- 
erican Legation for refuge on the following day. Subsequently he was 
ordered to be arrested by the Republican government. In December 1917, 
Mr. K'ang effected his escape to Tientsin. In March 1918 he was granted 
an amnesty by a Presidential mandate, cancelling the order for his arresti 
Mr. K'ang's writings are widely read by Chinese scholars. Recently, he 
has been devoting all of his time to advocating the adoption of Confuci- 
anism as the State religion and a Coneifcutional Monarchy instead of the 
Republic. 



^ 



404 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kao En-hung 

Mr. Kao En-hung was born at P'eng Hai Hsien, Shantung Province, in 
1875. He studied in the Temple Hill College, Chefoo. He completed his 
studies at King's College, London, where he remained for six years. Re- 
turning he was first attached to the Chinese Amban in Tibet from 1907 to 
1909. He was next appointed Secretary to ex-President Hsu Shih-chang 
who was at that time directlor-general of the Tientsin- Puko!w Railway. 
Later he became secretary to the Governor of Mukden, who was no other 
than Mr. Tang Shao-yi. In 1910 Mr. Kao was transferred to the Board of 
Communications, then known as Yuchuan Pu, and in 1912 he was appointed 
secretary to the Szechuan-Hankow Railway Administration and concurrently 
director of the telegraph office in Hankow. In 1914 Mr. Kao was made 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 405 



director of the Szechuan-Tibet Telegraph Administration, with headquarters 
at Chengtu, and in 1916 he was appointed director of the Department of 
Telegraph Materials in Shanghai. In September 1920 Mr. Kao was given 
the concurrent position of a member of the Counselor's Hall in the Minis- 
try of Communications. In February 1921 he was awarded the Third Order 
of Chiaho. In May 1922 Mr. Kao was appointed Acting Minister of Com- 
munications. In June 1922 he was ordered to act concurrently as Minister 
of Education. In July 1922 he received the First Order of Tashou Chiaho, 
and in October 1922 the First Order of Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. He held 
the post of Acting Minister of Communications until January 1923 when he 
retired to private life. Mr. Kao's name has been registered as candidate 
for the post of Minister Plenipotentiary to a foreign country. In March 
1924, Mr. Kao was appointed Director General of the Administration of 
Kiaochow Trading area. Owing to Mr. Kao's close affiliation with the 
Chihli party, he was dismissed from his position late in 1924, when the 
Chihli forces were defeated by the Anfu-Fengtien faction, in the war 
which began September 1, 1924. In December he was kidnapped by the 
militarists and since that time has been detained in Tsinanfu, the capital 
of Shantung province, and Tientsin. Early in 1925 he was offered his 
release but refused to accept without an apology and a statement from 
the Peking government, completely exonerating him from any charge of 
misconduct while in office as Governor of the Tsingtao Special Adminis- 
trative Area. 



^ 



406 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kao Lin-wei 

Mj-. Kao Lin-wei, Was born at Tientsin, Chihli, in 1869. In 1869 he 
succeessfuUy passed the literary examinations and was afterwards assigned 
to the province lof Hupeh for official appointment. He was sub-director of 
the High School of the Chin Hsin College, and superintendent of the Milit- 
ary Academy in Hupeh. Later he became director of the Hupeh Govern- 
ment Mint. While holding the position of Viceroy of Hunan and Hupeh, 
Chang Chih-tang ordered the establishment of an arsenal, industrial plants 
and copper and silver mints, and also encouraged the establishment of 
learning in his territory. Mr. Kao participated in all these activities to 
the satisfaction of the great Viceroy. In 1906 he was promoted to be 
commissioner of education in Hupeh, It was at a time when the Central 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 407 



government tried to concentrate power in Peking and local finances were 
consequently stringent and the fund for education became very scant. In 
such circumstances Mr. Kao accepted the new appointment. But in a 
few months he was able to increase the number of schools in that province 
by ten and find the necessary funds for the purpose. In 1909 Mj, Kao 
was promoted to be provincial treasurer, a very high provincial appoint- 
ment at that time. After serving in that important capacity for sometime, 
one of his parents died, and according to the ancient custom, he had to 
retire from oflicial duties for three years. Then came the first revolution in 
1911, and Mr. Kao went to Tientsin to continue living in retirement. During 
his retirement in Tientsin, at the request of his friends, he did all he could 
to direct the organization of banks along modern lines in the different parts 
of the country. In August 1913 Mr. Kao, was appointed Acting Chief of 
the Financial Bureau of Chihli. In September 1913 he was ordered to act 
concurrently as Chief of the Preparation Bureau for the Collection of Na- 
tional Taxes in Chihli. He was relieved of these two posts in April 1914, 
In 1915 Mr. Kao was High Advisor to the Office of the Tuchun of the Three 
Eastern Provinces. In August 1917, a new Parliament was convened and 
Mr. Kao was a member of it from Chihli. In August 1920 M.T. Kao was 
appointed Vice-Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. In January 1921 
he received the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In July 1921 he was ap- 
pointed Vice-President of the Bank of Agriculture and Commerce. In 
October 1921, he was appointed Minister of Finance and was awarded the 
First Class Tashou Chiaho. In November 1921 he was ordered to be con- 
currently Director General of the Currency Bureau and also Director 
General of the Salt Adminstratiofn. In December 1921 he was transferred 
to be Minister of the Interior. In this capacity he served iin January 

1922 the following concurrent positions: Director-General of Famine Re- 
lief; Director General of the Metropolitan Municipal Administration; and 
President of the Yangtze River Coin'mission. In March 1922 Mr. Kao was 
awarded the First Class Wenfu. In May 1922 he was ordered to act con- 
currently as Minister of Comimunications. This acting post he only held 
fbr half a month. In June 12, 1922 Mr. Kao was relieved of the portfolio 
of the Interior. On the 18th of the same m^onth he was appointed Civil 
Governor of Chihli. But he did not assume office and on the 24th he was 
relieved of the po^ of governor. In Augu^ 1922 he was appointed 
Acting Minister of Finance. In September he was transferred to be Acting 
Minister of Agriculture and C-ommerce. In October 1922 Mr. Kao was 
given the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In November 1922 he was 
transferred to be Acting Minister of the Interior. In January 1923 he was 
appointed Minister of the Interior. In February he was ordered to hold 
concurrently the Presidency of the Yangtze River Com'mission. In October 

1923 Mr. Kao was appointed to act as Premier. This position he held until 
January 1924, when he was appointed Director General of the Customs 
Administration to succeed Mr. Sun Pao-chi, who had been appointed 
Premier. 



408 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kao Lu 

Mr. Kao Lu was born at Chang Le Hsien, Fukien Province, in 1881. 
He was graduated from the Naval Architecture Department of the Naval 
Academy at the Foochow Naval Dockyard. After graduation Mr. Kao worked 
for three years in railway survey and construction and then went to Belgium 
as a government student. He studied in the University of Brussels and 
was graduated from there with the degree of B. Sc. From Belgium Mr. 
Kao went to Germany and France. In both of these countries he was ad- 
mitted to a number of factories where he received much practical training. 
He spent altogether nine years in Europe. While in France, Mr. Kao 
wrote a book on aviation and aircraft. Mr. Kao returned to China in 1911. 
He arrived at Canton in November just in time to join the revolutionary 
activities as he was a Kuo-ming-tang member. He was immediately en- 
gaged by the Canton Provincial government to plan an air fleet. In January 
1912 the Provisional government in Nanking appointed Mr. Kao a Secret- 



i^rt- 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 409 



ary to President Sun Yat-sen. After a permanent government was estab- 
lished in Peking, he became Director of the Cadastral Department in the 
Ministry of the Interior, In 1913 upon the recommendation of the Ministry 
of Education Mr. Kao was appointed Director of the Government Observa- 
tory in Peking. In that capacity he introduced scientific methods regarding 
operation and also publications of the observations. Since his time the 
Observatory has been publishing a Year Book and a monthly meterological 
magazine. In 1920 Mr. Kao again visited Europe to study the progress of 
modern science. Subsequently the Ministry of Education appointed him 
Director of the Educational Mission in Europe. In February 1921 Mr. 
Kao received the Second Class Pao-Kuang Chiaho. In February 1922 he 
was recalled to China and resumed the directorships of the Peking Ob- 
servatory, which position he is still holding. Mr. Kao is president of the 
Chinese Astromomical Institution; and author of The Principle of Einstein's 
Theory of Relativity, and Absolute Integral Calculus. 



^ 



410 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Ko Tai-hong 

(Kao Ta-fang) 

Dr. T. H. Ko was born at Chang-chow, Fukien Province in 1877. He 
received his elementary and advanced education at home, and then studied 
medical science in the Siokhe Hiospital, Siokhe, and the Hope's Hospital, 
Kulangsoo, Amoy, of which the late John Otte, M. D., one of the foremost 
physicians in Fukien, was superintendent. Dr. Ko was graduated with first 
honors in 1899 in science and has practiced both in Changchow and Amoy. 
Beside his professional pursuits, he is prominent in social and business 
activities, especially in Christian movements. It was largely his efforts 
and assistance that led to the establishment of the Chinese Christian Church 
in Changchow, the first Church in Fukien Province established and support- 
ed by Chinese. Among the numerous positions he holds at present may be 
mentioned: President of the Chinese Christian Church, Changchow; member 
of the committee of the General Chamber of Commerce in Amoy; Advisor 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 411 



to the Ck)inmercial and Industrial Bank, and the Nitaka Bank; vice-director 
of the Amoy Canning Company; Director of the Lamfong Drug Co., Amoy, 
and the Lamaon Dispensary, Changchow; member of the Committee of the 
City Y. M. C. A., Amoy; and a member of the Board of Trustees of the- 
Girls Public School, Amoy. 



^ 



412 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ku Chung'hsin 

Mr. Ku Chung-hsin was born at Ting Hsien, Chihli Province, in 1874. 
He studied Chinese under the famous literate Wu Ju-lung, ,the founder of 
the Tung-ch'eng School. In 1900 Mr. Ku attended the Chihli Provincial 
Examination granted by Imperial Grace, and came out first on the list, re- 
ceiving the title of Yu Kung or Senior Licentiate thus qualifying to be 
admitted to the metropolitan competition. Having passed the metropolitan 
examination he was given the qualification to be a magistrate. However, 
he did not take up any magistrate's post because soon after he entered the 
Imperial University of Peking. In 1901 Dr. Ku went to Japan to study in 
Waseda University where he was later graduated. Upon his return to 
China he became a teacher In the High Normal School of Chihli. Sub- 
sequently Mr. Ku became the private secretary to Governor Tseng of Chihli 
where he rendered great assistance in establishing not less than eight 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 413 



courts. After the outbreak of the first Revolution in October 1911, Mr. 
Ku represented the-Chihli Provincial Assembly, then known as Tze-i-chu, 
at Wuchang and Nanking to assist in the organization of the new govern- 
ment. He was on the committee to draft the Provisional Constitution. He 
wae also a member of the National Council in Nanking which elected Dr. 
Sun Yat-.sen as the Provisional President. On the Manchu abdication in 
February 1912, Sun Yat-sen resigned in favor of Yuan Shih-kai, who 
accepted the Provisional Constitution drawn up by the National Council at 
Nanking. The Council was then transferred to Peking to act as the Legis- 
lature until the inauguration of the new, two-chamber National Assembly. 
The Parliament or National Assembly was formally inaugurated in April 
1913. Mr. Ku was a member of the Lower House and also on the Consti- 
tution Drafting Committee. In January 1924 the National Assembly was 
dissolved by Yuan Shih-kai who had previously proscribed the Kuomintang 
as a seditious organization, unseated all the members of the two Houses 
belonging to that Party, thereby depriving the Legislatiire .of a legal qu- 
orum. Mr. Ku, being a prominent Kuomintang member, fled to Shanghai 
the winter of 1913 and at once started the magazine True Opinion and 
the daily paper Chung Hua Hsin Pao to oppose Yuan Shih-kai. In Peking, 
two years of absolute rule by Yuan Shih-kai followed and then his monar- 
chical project was launched. However, in December 1915 a revolt, 
organized by the late General Tsao Ao, broke out in Yunnan. Mr. Ku was 
appointed the official representative at Shanghai for the revolting 
organization, in which capacity he rendered no small service in overthrowing 
Yuan Shih-kai. Yuan Shih-kai died in June 1916 and Li Yuan-hung be- 
came President. In July Mr. Ku was appointed Minister of Agriculture and 
Commerce in Marshal Tuan Chi-jui's Cabinet. At the same time he was 
appointed Director- General of the National Conservancy Bureau. In June 
1917 he resigned from the ministership. In August 1922 Old Parliament 
was reconvoked and Mr. Ku became an M. P. again. In December he, was 
awarded the First Order of Tashou Chiaho. In February 1923 Air. Ku was 
appointed Director General of the Bureau for the Preparation of Redeeming 
Railway. Mr. Ku is noted for his scholastic ability, having written many 
books among which are: "Essays on Politics" in 20 volumes, "Some As- 
pects on the Development of Agriculture and Commerce" in one volume, 
"Ku's Bassays and Poems", "Explanations on the Constitutions drafted in 
the Temple of Heaven," and "A History on the Infanthood of the China 
Republic." 



wmtHmmgmmtm 



414 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Vi-tsing Koo 

(Ku Wei-ching) 

Mr. Vi-tsing Koo was born at Wusih, Kiangsu, in 188S. After obtain- 
ing his Chinese education under private tutorship in his native city, he 
entered Nanyang College, Shanghai, in 1907. On graduation from that 
College he succeeded in passing a competitive examination and was sent 
by the government to the United States to pursue higher education. Upon 
his arrival in America, he studied electrical engineering in the University 
of Illinois. After receiving the degrje of B. S. from that University, Mr. 
Koo went to the East to continue etudy in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology from which he received the degree of Master of Science. He 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 415 



was also awarded the degree of M. S. by Harvard University. It was 
during his study at the Institute of Technology that he perfected a hydraulic 
microphone. Mr. Koo returned to China in 1916 and was immediately given 
a professorship at Conservancy College, Nanking, which position he retained 
until he was called to take u,p a similar position by his Alma Mater, 
Nanyang College (now Nanyang University) in 1917. In 1919 Mr, Koo was 
Chief Engineer of the Yu Foong Cotton Mill at Cheng ChoW, Honan. He 
resigned from that position in 1922 and went to the Chiao Tung University 
at Peking to be the Director of Business and at t he same time Head of the 
Radio Engineering Department. In the summer of 1923, his service in his 
Alma Mater was again needed and he was then appointed Dean of the 
University, which position he is now holding. Besides the school in his 
Alma Mater, Mr. Koo is also chief engineer of Yao Ming Lighting Plant at 
his native city, Wusih. 



^ 



416 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Vi-kyuinWellinglon Koo 

mmm^'jf ni 

(Ku Wei-chun) 

Dr. Wellington Koo was born at Shanghai in 1887. From 1899 to 1900 
Ije studied at the Anglo-Chinese Ck)llege, Shanghai; at the Yu Tsai School 
from 1900 to 1901; and at the St. John's University from 1901 to 1904. 
While at the St. John's he was editor of the Dragon. Dr. Koo went to 
America in October 1904. He prepared for college at Cook Academy dur- 
ing 1904-1905. At Columbia University he studied Liberal Arts from 1905 
to 1908 and Political Science from 1908 to 1912. He received the degree 
of A. B. in 1908; A. M. in 1909; and Ph. D. in 1912. While in America 
Dr. Koo was a member of the American Society of International Law and 
of the American Political Science Association. He was elected to the 
Nacoms, the Blue Pencil, and Delta Epsilon Rho societies in 1911. He was 
the recipient of the Philoleecean Literary Prize, the Columbia-Cornell 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



417 



Debating Medal, and a member of the Varsity Debating Team, 1906-1907. 
He was editor of the Columbia Spectator; the Chinese Students' Monthly; 
the Chinese Students' Annual; and manager of the Columbia and the Col- 
umbia Monthly. He was always a very popular speaker in America. Dr. Koo 
returned to China in April 1912. He immediately joined the government 
as Secretary of the Cabinet and also of the President. In August 1912 he 
joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a Secretary, and in October of 
the same year he was promoted to be a Councillor. He was connected with 
the Presidential Office and the Ministry until 1915. On July 11, 1915 Dr. 
Koo was appointed Chinese Minister to Mexico and was subsequently awarded 
the Second Class Chiaho Decoration. On October 25, 1915 he was trans- 
ferred to be Chinese Minister to the United States and Cuba. Dr. Koo 
became a member of the Columbia Union Club in 1915 and of the 
Metropolitan Club in 1916. He was awarded the Honorary Degree of LL. 
D. by Yale University in 1916. In January 1919 Dr. Koo was appointed 
Chinese Delegate to the Paris Peace Conference. At the conference he 
was one of the chief advocates of refusing to sign the Treaty. In July 
1919 he was appointed Chinese delegate to the International Labor 
Conference. In August 1920 Dr. Koo became Chief Chinese Delegate to 
the League of Nations. In September 1920 he was transferred to be Chinese 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. 
James. In December 1920 he was elected a member of the Administrative 
Council of the League of Nations. For some time he was its chairman. 
On the day when he was elected to that honorable seat, he was awarded by 
the Chinese government the Third Order of Merit. In October 1921 Dr. 
Koo was appointed one of the four Chinese Delegates to the Washington 
Conference. In November 1921 he was given the rank of Ambassador. In 
March 1922 Dr. Koo received the First Class Tashou Chiaho and also the 
First Class Wenfu. He returned to Peking in May 1922 on a visit to confer 
with the government on important diplomatic questions in consequence of 
the Washington Conference. In June 1922 Dr. Koo was appointed President 
of the Commission for the Discussion of National Financial Questiotis. In 
August 1922 he was appointed Acting Minister of Foreigin Affairs., In 
September 1922 he was relieved of the post of President of the Financial 
Commission. In October 1922 he Was given the First Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. In November 1922 he was ordered to be concurrently the Chief of 
the Preparations Bureau for the Special Tariff Conference. In the same 
month he was relieved of the portfolio of Foreign Affairs. In April 1923 
Dr. Koo was again appointed Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs. In Jan- 
uary 1924 Mr. Sun Pao-chi became Prime Minister and Dr. Koo was 
appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. Dr. Koo served as Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, until October 1924, when he was forced to retire upon the 
defeat of the Chihli party by the Anfu-Fengtien faction, in the war which 
began in September 1924. Dr. Koo is at present residing in Tientsin. 



41« 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kuan Chun 

(Kuan Chiung) 

Mr. Kuan Chun who presides at the Mixed Court as Senior Magistrate, 
was born at Hanyang Hsien, Hupeh. .\fter successfully passing the second 
series of literary examinations in the Manchu dynasty when the title of 
Master of Arts was conferred on him at quite an early age, he was appointed 
an expectant magistrate in the Province of Kiangsu. In 1902 Mr. Kuan 
attempted the third series of examinations but without success. In the 
following year, he became acting magistrate of the Mixed Court in the 
International Settlement of Shanghai, in which capacity he has enjoyed the 
confidence of the community and has been given the perfectship while still 
retaining his post. When ex-President Hsu Shih-chang became Viceroy of 
Manchuria, he and the Kirin Governor memorialized the throne for the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 419 



transfer of Magistrate Kuan to Manchuria. But on account of the appeal 
made on the latter's behalf by the Consular Body in Shanghai, he remained 
in Shanghai. The year 1907 saw Magistrate Kuan promoted to be 
magistrate of the Kiangyin district. While the revolution in 1911 was in 
full sway, Mr. Kuan was appointed by Liu Hsiang-sung, Taotai to return to 
his former oiBce in the Mixed Court in deference to the request of the 
Shanghai community. The appointment was officially gazetted upon the 
establishment of the Republic through General Tseng Teh-chuan, Tutuh of 
Kiangsu. At that time, ex-President Li Yuan-hung was serving as Tutuh of 
Hupeh and he urged Mr. Kuan to return to his home province for an im- 
portant appointment, but the repeated requests of the Chinese General 
Chamber of Commerce and the Consular Body in Shanghai induced him to 
hold his present office. The reorganization of certain sections of the Mixed 
Court as well as the just decisions rendered in the difficult and complicated 
cases that come before Mr. Kuan's tribunal has drawn a great deal of favor- 
able comment from all interests. Magistrate Kuan is an excellent English 
scholar, although he bad very little schooling in this language he has devoted 
much of his ispare time to perfecting himself in this language, which is 
extremely valuable in his consulation with the foreign assessors of the 
court. For his distinguished services, he has been decorated by the Peking 
as well as other governments. He received the Second Class Tashou Chiaho 
in May 1919, the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in May 1920; and 
the Second Class Wen Fu in February 1922. 



^ 



420 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. H. C. Kuan 

m m \n ^mm 

(Kuan Hai-Ch'ing) 

Mr. H. C. Kuan was born at Mukden, Fengtien Province, in 1881. In 
his youth, Mr. Kuan received the old Chinese education and obtained the 
degree of Chu Jen. In 1899, he entered a private foreign language school 
and studied Russian and Japanese. Later he entered Peking Government 
University and studied philosophy, literature and politics in the High 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 421 



Normal Department. In 1908, Mr. Kuan was graduated from the University 
and was honored with the rank of secretary of the Imperial Cabineti. In 
1909, he was appointed president of Fengtien High College and also was 
made professor in Fengtien High Normal School. Later he was promoted 
to the rank of perfect, being recommended by His Excellency Chao Erh- 
shun, then the Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces. In 1912 he was 
appointed the Director of Fengtien Law College and the professor of Roman 
Jurisprudence and International Law in the same institute and in 1916, he 
was appointed president of Fengtien Foreign Language College and in the 
same year was engaged as secretary in the ifilitary and Civil Governor's 
Yamen. In 1918, Mr. Kuan was appointed Special Commissioner for Foreign 
Affairs, Mukden, and the Superintendent of Fengtien Maritime Customs. 
In 1921, he resigned from the Diplomatic Commission, and since then has 
been connected with the Customs Service. He has received the following 
decorations:— 2nd class Ta-Shou Chia-Ho, 2nd class Pao-Kuang Chia-Ho, 
2nd class Wen-Hu, 2nd class Japanese Jui-Pao Decoration and 3rd class 
Japanese Rising Sun. 



^ 



422 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 





Mr. Kuan Keng-lin 

IS K « ^ M A 
Mr. Kuan Keng-lin was born at Nan-hai hsien, Kuangtung province, in 
1880. He became a Metropolitan graduate in 1904. Subsequently, he went 
to Japan and studied in the Hung Wen school. Upon his return to China 
he joined the Peking Government University, where he studied politics and 
law. Upon the completion of these courses he was appointed a junior 
secretary of the Board of War. In 1905 he accompanied Viceroy Tuan 
Fang and Grand Councillor Tai Hung-tse on their mission to America and 
Europe to study constitutional forms of government and received decora- 
tions from the governments of Prussia, Russia, Sweden and Italy. In 
1906, he returned to China and resumed the office of secretary of the Board 
of War, acting concurrently as educational superintendent of the School 
for Cantonese in Peking. During 1906 he was transferred to the Boord of 
Communications. In 1907 he was appointed junior secretary of the railway 
department and acted as chief of General Affairs and Railway Affairs. 
Later he was promoted and was in charge of Telegraph Affairs. In 1908 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 423 



he became sub-director of the railway department, with rank of senior 
secretary. In 1911, Mr. Kuan was appointed associate director of the 
Peking-Hankow railway administration. From 1912-1915, he was director 
of the administration. For his meritorious services he received the Fourth 
Class Wen Hu and the Third Class Chiaho. In 1912, he founded the 
Railway Association, together with Liang Shih-yi and Yeh Kung-cho, and 
was elected chief secretary of the Association. In 1916 he became secret- 
ary of the Ministry of Finance. The next year he was appointed director 
of the railway department of the Ministry of Communications. During his 
connection with the Ministry he was chairman of the Transportation Con- 
ference for the codification of railway laws and vice-chairman of the 
Conference for Railway Sanitation. He received the Third Class Wen Hu 
in recognition of his distinguished services. He Was also elected vice- 
chairman of the Railway Association, being reelected in 1918. In 1918, 
Mr. Kuan was appointed chief of the Through Traffic Depardment, an,d 
received the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho decoration. He was also ap- 
pointed a member of the Finance Commission in the President's office. In 
January 1919, he was appointed acting counsellor and concurrently chief 
of the Transportation Bureau of the Ministry of Communications, and 
received the Second Class Tashou Chiaho decoration. In June 1919, he 
became a Councillor of the Ministry. The following January, he was 
awarded the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In August 1920, he was given 
the concurrent position of Director General of the Hankow-Canton-Szechuen 
Railway and appointed a member of the committee on International Com- 
munications. In September 1920, Mr. Kuan was appointed a member of 
the Famine Relief Commission of the Ministry, and in November he 
received another concurrent position as executive member of the Railway 
Finance Commission. He helped draw up plans for the establish- 
ment of the Communications University. In Febrxiary he was relieved 
of all other posts. He only retained this position until August 1921. 
Mr. Kuan was awarded the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and 
was appointed a "member of the Railway Location Commission, In March 
1922, he was appointed executive member of the Commission on 
Communications in connection with the rendition of Shantung. In June 
1922, he was appointed president of the Communications University. 



424 



Who^s who in china 




Dr. Fong Foo See 

(Kuang Fu-shao) 

Dr. Fong F. Sec was born at Sunning, Kuangtung Province, in 1869 
and entered a private primary school in his home village when he was 
eight years of age. His father was a farmer and Dr. Fong was one of 
eight children. At that time many Chinese in South China were going to 
America to work on the western railways. In 1882, accompanied by 
neighbor villagers Dr. Fong embarked for the United States. The steamer 
that took him to America was the a. s. China. Through the recommendation 
of an American family,he obtained work and his weekly wage was one dollar. 
Being anxious to acquire a knowledge of the English language, Dr. Fong 
entered a night school. A Chinese Christian pastor. Chin Toy by name, took 
an interest in him and assisted him materially. He soon became a Christian. 
The Salvation Army was at that time active on the Western coast of America 
and Dr. Fong became an enthusiastic worker. He soon left Sacramento and 
went to San Francisco, where he underwent a course of training for six 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 425 



months. He travelled up and down the Pacific Coast in the interest of the 
Armj^ and was afterwards assigned to duties at its headquarters in San 
Francisco. He took a course in shorthand and typewriting and later obtained 
a position as stenographer to the Chief Officer of the Salvation Army on 
the Pacific Coast. He remained with the Salvation Army from 1885 to 
1893. In 1897 he entered Pomona College, one of the leading institutions 
of learning in California and supported himself by working about the Col- 
lege campus. Altogether five years were spent in Pomona College, where 
he did the high school work and spent his fxeshman year. From Pomona- 
he went to the University of California 3nd after a study of three years he 
obtained the degree of Bachelor of Letters, in 1905. Having obtained a 
scholarship at Teachers College, Columbia University, Dr. Fong proceeded 
to that university to specialize in English and education for one year", at 
the end of which time the degrees of M. A. and M. E. were conferred upon 
him. At that time Liang Chen-tung was Chinese Minister at Washington 
and he recommended Dr. Fong to Tsen Chun-hsuan, who was then the 
Viceroy of the Liang Kuang Provinces, and in the summer of 1906 Dr. 
Fong was appointed professor of English in the College of Foreign Lang- 
uages and Provincial College in Canton. On his return to Canton Dr. Fong 
found his parents still living. He taught school for one year and in the 
autumn of 1907 went to Peking where he competed in an examination for 
returned students and Won the degree of Chin Shih which was equivalent 
to the degree of Doctor of Literature. After passing the examination. Dr. 
Fong was given an appointment in the Ministry of Communications; how- 
ever, he had no inclination for official life, so in 1908 he became editor- 
in-chief of the English editorial department of the Commercial Press, which 
position he is still holding. Dr. Fong has written a number of textbooks 
specially adapted to the needs of Chinese students of English, among which 
books may be mentioned the following: Language Lessons, A Class- 
room Conversation Book, Elementary and Intermediate Composition, 
Stories from Shakespeare. In raising the standard of the English books 
published by the Commercial Press, Dr. Fong has made his chief contribution 
to educational development in China. In 1922 the Pomona College con- 
ferred the degree of Doctor of Laws upon Dr. Fong, That College had 
only twice before in its history awarded this degree. Notwithstanding his 
busy life he has found time for work of social usefulness, and in the 
numerous offices which he has been and is holding in a social capacity may 
be mentioned the following: Chairman (for many years) of the National 
Committee of the Y. M. C. A. of China, member of committee of manage- 
ment of the Institution for the Chinese Blind, director of the Shanghai 
Chinese Y. M. C. A., member of Field Board of Shangtung Christian Uni- 
versity, honorary president of Nanyang Commercial Academy, member of 
the executive committee of the China Christian Educational Association, 
member of the executive committee of the Forestry Fund, Eld|er of the 
Cantonese Union Church in Shanghai, Dr. Fong's present address is c/o 
Editorial Department, Commercial Press, Shanghai. 



426 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. H. K. Kwong 

(Kuang Hsu-kun) 

Mr. H. K. Kwong was born in Canton, Kwangtung, in 1892. After 
securing his preliminary education in Canton and Shanghai, he entered St. 
John's University, Shanghai, in 1907. In 1909 he obtained the government 
scholarship established with the returned indemnity fund, being second in 
the competitive examinations held for Chinese students to be sent tO' the 
United States. Upon arriving in America in September 1909, he entered 
Andover Academy and stayed there for one year. He was admitted to 



WHO'S WHO IN CHIN-A 42l 



Princeton University in 1910 and received his degree of Litt. B. in 1914. 
While in college Mr. Kwong was popular, and was identified with many 
college activities. He served on the Daily Princetonian as an editor from 
1912 to 1914, being the first foreigner ever appointed on the editorial 
board of the paper. From 1912 to 1914, he was a member of the Key and 
Seal Club, which is a substitute for Greek letter fraternities in Princeton, 
the latter being prohibited. In 1913, he was a member of the Muniqipal 
Club. During his junior year, Mr. Kwong was also on the staff of the 
Springfield Republican. He attended the Columbia University Graduate 
School during 1914-15, specialising in economics. He was editor-in-chief 
of the Chinese Students' Monthly the official organ of the Chinese students 
in North America. In 1915, he served as Chinese delegate to the Interna- 
tional Press Conference held in connection with the Panama Exhibition. In 
the fall of the same year, Mr. Kwong entered the Columbia School of 
Journalism, receiving his degree in 1916. During this period he was 
president of the Chinese Students' Alliance. In August 1916, Mr. Kwong 
returned to China, and became assistant editor of the Peking Gazette. At 
the same time he was correspondent of the New York Evening Post. 
After a year he accepted a professorship of English and later was lecturer 
on International Law at Tsing Hua College. In 1918, Mr. Kwong returned 
to Shanghai and was appointed secretary of the Kiangnan Dock and Eng- 
ineering Works. In February 1922, he joined the Ministry of Communica- 
tions, Peking, as assistant chief of the assets section of the railway 
department. The , next month he received an appointment as expert of the 
Commission on Communications Questions called by the Ministry in connec- 
tion with the redemption of Shantung. Since 1923, Mr, Kwong has been 
in Harbin connected with the Chinese Eastern Railway. 



428 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. K. Y. Kwong 

(K'uang Sun-mou) 

Mr. K. Y. Kwong, a native of Nanhai Hsien, Kuangtung Province, was 
born in Canton in 1863. He was one of the iirst groups of young Chinese 
who was sent to America by the Chinese government tio receive modern 
education. Mr. Kwong prepared for college in Williston Seminary, Eaat- 
hampton, Mass., from 1887 to 1880. He entered the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1880 and joined the 1884 class, but returned to China 
in 1882, before graduation. From 1882 to 1886 Mr. Kwong was general 
assistant in the Kaiping Mining Company, Tongshan. From 1886 to 1900 
he was assistant engineer on Peking-Muk len Railway. He was assistant 
engineer in the Pinghsiang-Chuchow Railway from 1901 to 1903. Mr. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 429 



Kwong rejoined the Peking-Mukden Railway as resident engineer from 
1903 to 1905. And was district engineer on the Peking-Kalgan Railway in 
the fall of 1905-1906. In the fall of 1906 he became engineer-in-chief of 
the Canton end of the Canton-Hankow Railway. From 1911 to 1916 he 
was chief engineer of the Peking-Sulyuan Railway and from 1917 to 1919 
that of the Tientsin- Pukow Railway. During 1920-1921 Mr. Kwong was 
shop superintendent of the Peking-Hankow and Peking-Suiyuan Railways. 
From 1921 to 1922 he was engineer- in-chief of the Peking- Suiyjaan and 
consulting engineer of Peking-Hankow Railway. He retired to private 
life in May 1922. Mr. Kwong was awarded in December 1912 the Fifth 
Order of Chiaho; in November 1913 the Fourth Order of Wenfu; in March 
1915 the Fourth Order of Chiaho; in DesemJber 1917 the Third Order of 
Chiaho; and in February 1921 the Fourth Order of Paokuang Chiaho. He 
was for some time president of the Association of Chinese and American 
engineers and also of the Chinese Engineers' Association. He was also a 
member of the Commission for the location of railroad lines called by the 
Ministry of Communications. Mr. Kwong's permanent address is: Care 
of Association of Chinese and American Engineers, Nanchitzu, Peking. 



^ 



430 



WHO'S WfiO IN CHINA 




Mr. H. H. Kung 

Jii^m^m z 

(K'ung Hsang hsi) 

Mr. H. H. Kung, was born at Taikunsten, Shansi. He is the 75th direct 
descendant of Confucius. He was sent to America in 1901 by Viceroy Li 
Hung-chang for Western education. In 1906 he obtained the degree of B. 
A. at Oberlin College. The following year he received the degree of M. 
A. from Yale University. Mr. Kung returned to Shansi in 1907, where he 
organized the Shansi Oberlin Memorial College, of which he has since been 
president. He is an active Christian and is chairman of the Y. M. C. A. 
in Taiyuanfu. During the first revolution in 1911 he became the civil and 
military head of the Taikuhsien district, and kept that rich historic bank- 
ing center in order. Mr. Kung is adviser to the "model Governor" Yen 
Hsih-shan, of Shansi, and a leading promoter in the industrial development 
of his native province. He is on the directorate of many banks both in 
Shansi and elsewhere. During the great famine in 1919 he helped to 
organize the Chinese Foreign Famine Relief Committee in Shansi, sitting 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 431 



also on the Famine Relief Road Commission. Ke was instrumental in 
bringing about the construction of roads in the province of Shansi by the 
Red Cross Famine Relief Committee. In June 1922, Mr. Kung was appointed 
a member of the Joint Sino-Japanese Commission to settle the details for 
the rendition of Shantung to China. He served on this Commission with 
much credit. He was awarded the Third Class Chiaho in January 1923, the 
Third Class Wenfu in May 1923, and the Second Class Wenfu in September 
1923. Aside from his activities in official circles, Mr. Kung has been suc- 
cessful in business, dealing in coal and pig-iron. He is really more of an 
industrialist than a politician. Mr. Kung is a close friend of Sir John 
Jordan, and American Ministers at Peking, Dr. Reinsoh, Dr. Tenney, and 
Mr. Crane. Mrs. Kung is the elder sister of the wife of the late Dr. Sun 
Yat-sen, the President of South China. 



v^ 



432 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Prince Khalachin 

(Kung Sang No Erh Pu) 

Prince Khalachin was born in the Ohosnt'u League of Inner Mongolia 
in 1867. After having mastered both the Chinese and Mongolian languages, 
he went to Japan for further education. He stayed in Japan for several 
years and acquired a good command of the language. Upon his return to 
Mongolia, he introduced many modern improvements especially in respect to 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 433 



educational system. He engaged a large number of Japanese teachers for 
the schools and started many new educational institutions. He was res- 
ponsible for sending of many young Mongols to Japan to pursue modern 
education. Princess Khalachin is a sister of Prince Su, thus Prince Khala- 
chin was very influential with the Imperial Ching Household. He was for 
many , years Prince by heredity of the Right Wing of the Khalachin Tribe 
of the Chosot'u League of Inner Mongolia. In 1911 there came the First 
Revolution which resulted in the establishment of the Republic and the 
raising of the status of Mongolia to the same level as that of China Proper. 
Mongols were consequently invited to participate in the organization of the 
National Parliament. For loyality to the Republic Prince Khalachin was 
promoted from Second to First Class Prince in October 1912 by Yuan Shih- 
kai. In 1913 he was elected a Senator of the First Parliament. In January 
1914 Parliament was dissolved and in May the same year he was appointed 
Director of the Bureau for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. He was con- 
currrently Tu-tung or Lieutenant General of the Plain White Banner under 
the Manchu Military Organization. In July 1917 when the boy emperor of 
the Ching Household was restored by Chang Hsun, Prince Khalachin was 
appointed President of the Board of Colonial Affairs. But the restoration 
was short lived, and he remained as Director of Mongolian and Tibetan 
Affairs as usual. He was removed from the Directorship in April 1922 and 
was at the same time appointed Chong Wei Chiangchun, Marshal of the 
College of Marshals, Peking. In February 1923 Prince Khalachin was again 
appointed Director of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Bureau. This 
position he is still holding. He is also Prince of the First Order of the 
Right Wing of the Khalachin Tribe of the Chosot'u League of Inner Mongolia, 
has been awarded the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and also the 
Second Class Wenfu. 



434 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. P. W. Kuo 

IP ?R ^ ^ ?ll « 
(Kuo Ping-wen) 

Dr. P. W. Kuo was born at Shanghai in 1880. He entered Lowrie 
Institute, Shanghai, in 1893 and graduated from it in 1896. From 1896 to 
1897 Dr. Kuo Was instructor of Lowrie Institutie. From 1897 to 1906 he 
was in the Customs and Postal services at Shanghai, Kashing and Hangchow. 
In July 1906 Dr. Kuo went to America to pursue higher education. He' 
prepared himself for college at Wooster Academy for two years. From 
1908 to 1911 he studied Science at the University of Wooster, receiving 
the degree of Ph. B. in 1911. From 1911 to 1914 Dr. Kuo attended Col- 
umbia University in New York where he specialized in education. In 1912 
he obtained the degree of A. M., and in 1914 that of Ph. D. The subject 
of his doctor's dissertation was "Chinese System of Public Education" which 
has since been published in book form. In the same year he was given a 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 435 



diploma in Education, Teachers' College, Columbia. During his stay in 
America, Dr. Kuo manifested an unusual amount of leadership and showed 
great interest in religious works. He was editor-in-chief of the Chinese 
Students' Monthly, 1908 to 1909; editor of the Wooster Voice, 1909 to 
1910; officer of the College Y. M. C. A., 1909 to 1911; officer of the Col- 
lege Literary Society, 1910 to 1911; general secretary of the Chinese 
Students' Christian Association, 1910 to 1912; President of the Chinese 
Students' Alliance, 1911 to 1912; elected to Phi Delta Kappa in 1912, and 
to Tause in 1913 ; and was awarded the Livingston Fellowship in Education, 
Columbia Teachers' College 1912 to 1913. In 1914 before his return to 
China, Dr. Kuo joined the Kiangsu Educational Commission to Europe and 
American as a member. He returned to China in July 1914. During 1914 
and 1915 Dr. Kuo was an editor at the Commercial Press, Shanghai. In 

1915 he became Dean of the Government Teachers' College, Nanking. In 

1916 he was elected president of the Lowrie Institute and also of the 
Chekiang Provincial College. In 1917 he was chairman of the Educational 
Commission to Japan and the Philippiaes. Since 1917 he has been editor 
and director of the Commercial Press. In 1918 Dr. Kuo was appointed by 
the government as President of the Teachers' College, Nanking. During 

1917 and 1918 he was Advisor to the Military Governor of Kiangsu. He 
became president of the Nanking Y. M. C. A. in 1915. In 1919 Dr. Kuo 
was chairman of the Educational Commission to Europe and America to 
study after-war educational problems and returned to China the late part of 
the year. Then he gave a series of lectures on the educational conditions 
in America and Europe. Since 1922 Dr. Kuo has been President of the 
South- Eastern University of which the Goverment Teachers' College formed 
the nucleus. He has also been the president of the College .of Commerce 
at Shanghai. In January 1923 Dr. Kuo was appointed by President Li 
Yuan-hung to serve as member of the National Educational Sinking Funds 
Commisson. 



436 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Quo Tai-chi 
(Kuo T'ai Chi) 

Mr. Quo Tai-chi was born at Wusueh, Hupeh, in 1889. He studied in 
Wuchang from 1903 to 1904. In May 1904 Mr. Quo arrived in the United 
States of America, as a government supported student. For one year he 
prepared for college at Easthampton high school, and at Willeston Seminary 
between 1907 and 1908. He studied political science at the University of 
Pennsylvania between 1908 and 1911, and graduated with the degree of 
B. S. In his college days he was active socially. He was elected to Phi 
Beta Kappa in March 1911; and was a member and an officer of the 
Philomathean Literary Society during 1908-11; and a member of the 
Cosmopolitan Club 1909-11. Between 1911 and 1912 he was awarded a 
scholarship in sociology at Pennsylvania, and became an editor of the 
Pennaylvanian. In 1911 he was reporter for the Philadelphia Press. He 
returned to China in March 1912, and was appointed Secretary to Li Yuan- 
hung, who was then Vice-President with his headquarters at Wuchang, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 437 



where he also functioned as Military Governor of Hupeh. When President 
Li went to Peking in December 1913, Mt. Quo accompanied him thither 
as his secretary. In June 1916 Li Yuan-hung became President to suc- 
ceed Yuan Shih-kai who died that month. Mr. Quo became Chief English 
Secretary of the Presidential office and remained in that position, until the 
summer of 1917 when his, chief resigned from the office of the Chief Ex- 
ecutive as a result of Chang Hsun's monarchical movement. In 1916 Mr. 
Quo was appointed Councillor of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Peking,, 
and this position he held until the summer of 1917 when he resigned from 
all the government offices upon the resignation of his chief from the Pre- 
sidiency, and left for the South where he joined the opposition government. 
In 1919 and 1920 he was in Paris as a member of the Conference and did 
much for China. After the termination of the Conference he returned to 
China and remained inactive for a time. When Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shao-yi 
and Dr. Wu Ting-fang returned to Canton and resumed their political 
activities, in the spring of 1921 he likewise took an active part in the 
administration of the opposition government. 



^ 



438 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Kuo Tse-yun 

» m m-t'^Mm 

Mr. Kuo Tse-yun is from the Province of Fukien. He was, however, 
born in 1882 at Taichow, Chekiang, where his grandfather was Prefect. 
Mr. Kuo was educated in his boyhood under private tutors'. In 1899 he 
entered the Peking Government University where he spent only one year. 
In 1900, he had again to study under private tutors on account of the 
Boxer Uprising. In 1902 Mr. Kuo successfully passed the Metropolitan ex- 
aminations held in Peking and became a Hanlin or Metropolitan graduate. 
He thus got his high literary honor at the comparatively young age of 
twenty. After spending nearly two years in the Hanlin Academy, Mr. Kuo 
went to Japan in 1905 to pursue higher studies. He joined Waseda Uni- 
versity where he studied political science and economics. Upon his return 
to China in 1907, he was appointed secretary in Manchuria, to Viceroy Hsu 
Shih-chang, and remained there for two years. In 1909 Mr. Kuo was ap- 
pointed by the government to be Customs Taotai at Wanchow, and Chuchow, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 439 



Chekiang. In 1911, he was transferred to Hangchow to be Police Taotai. 
Upon the establishment of the Republic in 1912, he was appointed Secretary 
of the Cabinet. In May 1914 he was appointed Councillor of the State 
Department when the Hsu Shih-chang was Secretary of State. In August 
1914 he was ordered to act concurrently Chief of the Merit Recording 
Bureau. In September 1914 he was appointed Chief of that Bureau. At 
the same time he was a member of the Bureau of Rites. In 1915 he was 
appointed Assistant of the State Department which was established during 
that period to replace the Cabinet upon the adoption of the Preidential 
System, which system, however, died together with the late President Yuan 
Shih-kai in the summer of 1916. In 1916 he was Deputy Commissioner of 
the Civil Service examinations. In 1918, Mr. Kuo was appointed Acting 
Chief Secretary in Chien Nun-hsiung's Cabinet. He was made Chief Secre- 
tary of the Cabinet in January 1919 when General Chin Yun-peng became 
Prime Minister. In November 1919 he was appointed Active Chief Secre- 
tary of the Cabinet. In January 1920 Mr. Kuo was connferred the First 
Order of Wenfu. In March 1920 he was appointed concurrently 
Assistant Director General of the Government Economic Information 
Bureau. On May 2, 1920, he was appointed to be Director General of 
the same Bureau. On Miay 14, 1920, Mr. Kuo was conferred the 
First Order of Wenfu. In March 1920 he was appointed concurrently As- 
sistant Director General of the Government Economic Information Bureau. 
On May 2, 1920, he was promoted to Director General of the same Bureau. 
On May 14, 1920, he was relieved of this post. In July, 1920 Mr. Kuo was 
conferred the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In December 1921 he 
was relieved of the post of Acting Chief Secretary of the Cabinet and was 
appointed Chief of the Bureau of Immigration. He was relieved of this 
post in June 1922. 



k 



440 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Y* K. Kuo 

(Kuo Yun-kuan) 

Mr. Yun Kwan Kuo was born at Wenchow, Chekiang, in 1888. He 
studied at the Futan College, Woosung, and graduated in 1910. Later he 
took a post-graduate woik in the law department of Peiyang University and 
graduated at the university in 1914. After his graduation he joined the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, having successfully passed the diplomatic ser- 
vice examinations. He remained in the ministry until 1916 when he was 
sent by the government to America to make further study on international 
law and diplomacy in the post-graduate sshool of Columbia University, 
New York. Before his graduation at Columbia, peace was declared, and 
he was instructed by the Chinese government to go to Europe as a staff" 
member of the Chinese delegation to the Peace Conference. When the 
delegation reached Europe, he was appointed secretary to Dr. C. T. Wang, 
one of the five Chinese members to the conference. Mr. Kuo returned to 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 441 



China in December of 1919, and rejoined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
He received the rank of Assistant Secretary of the Ministry. In September 
1920 he was appointed a compiler of the Law Codification Commission. In 
November 1920 he was made a member of the commission to study the peace 
treaty, and of the commission to study the problems of jurisdiction. He 
was chosen by Dr. Wang Chung-hui, in March 1921 to accompany him to 
Europe in the capacity of secretary when the latter was invited by Dr. 
Drummond, Secretary-General of the League of Nations, to be Chinese 
member of the commission to study the proposals for the amendments of 
the League Covenant. In May 1922 he was awarded the Third Class Chi- 
aho. Mr. Kuo is a Chinese scholar. He has written a book in Chinese on 
evidence for the Guild of Chinese Judiciaries, which he dedicated to his 
father, "who spared no effort in providing me with a legal education." 



^ 



442 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Admiral K* K. Lang 

fe^ Jt flS ^ ^ * 

(Lan Chien-shinJ 

Admiral K. K. Lang born at Minghouhsien, Fukien, in 1858, He re- 
ceived his naval education at the Foochow Naval School, graduating from 
that institution in 1874 with the highest honors. Immediately after his 
graduation, he joined the navy, working gradually up as third second lieu- 
tenant and was chosen as Lieut. Commander of the Chaoyung War Vessel 
which once visited Great Britain. Following his return, he served as 
Captain of the gunboats, Chen Cheung, Chen Hsi and Chen Nan and of the 
training ships. We Yuen, Chiah and Tung Chi and of the cruiser Hai Chin. 
During the last days of the Manchus he was tranferred to the Ministry of 
Navy, when he served respectively as Staff officer, head of the Administra- 
tive Department and Rear Admiral with right to wear the peacock feather 



WHO'S WHO IN CMlNA 443 



and occupying important offices in Chihli and Shantung. When the Republic 
was established, Admiral Lang was appointed in April 1912 as senior 
member of the Naval General Staff and became commander-in-chief of the 
First Squadron. In July 1913, he was appointed Counsellor on Naval Affairs 
to the President and on May 16, of the following year was given the office 
of Chief of the Naval Staff of the President. In March 1918, Admiral Lang 
was appointed the Commander- in chief of the Chinese Navy, succeeding 
Admiral Sah Cheng-ping. In October 1919 Admiral Lang was awarded 
the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1920 he was awarded the 
Fourth Order of Merit. In July 1921 he was made a Chiangchun of the 
Chiangchun Fu or College of Marshals with the two word title Ching Wei. 
In June 1922 he was relieved by Admiral Tu Hsi-kuei of the post of Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Navy. 



<^ 



444 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Lan Kung-wu 

M <2f ® ^ iS * 

Mr. Lan Kung-wu was born at Wu-kiang Hsien, Kiangsu Province, in 
1886 and received his education at tlie Tokyo Imperial University, where 
he took a course in philosophy. Mr. Lan is a gi-eat admirer of Mr. Liang 
Chi-chiao, the liberal leader and writer. Upon his return to China, he took 
up journalistic work becoming editor of several leading papers at different 
timee. He was one of the editors of Justice of which Liang Chi-chiao 
was the founder as well the editor-in-chief. In 1913 Mr. Lan was elected 
Senator of the First Parliament. After the dissolution of the Parliament in 
January 1914, Mr. Lan went to Berlin to study. He remained there until 
1915. Upon his return to Peking, he became chief editor of the Chinese 
department of the Peking Gazette and also editor of the magazine Ta Chung 
Hua, founded by Liang Chi-chiao. Mr. Lan played a very important part 
in the Yunnan Uprising against Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical movement. 
In March 1916 he accompanied Liang Chi-chiao to Kuangsi, which later 
declared independence, responding to the call of General Tsao Ao, the Hero 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 445 



of the Yunnan Revolt. In June 1916 after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the 
First Parliament was reconvoked and Mr. Lan became a Senator ag^ain. 
In June 1917 it was again dissolved and the following month witnessed 
Chang Hsun's attempt to restore the boy emperor. In September 1917, 
President Feng Kuo-chang ordered a Provisional Senate or National Council 
and in January 1918 it was formally inaugurated with Mr. Lan as one of 
the Senators. In March 1918 a mandate was issued for a new Parliament- 
based on newly amended Election Laws. In August 1918 the so called 
Anfu or "Tuchun's" Parliament was assembled. Mr. Lan was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives. However, he was present only at 
one meeting and then tendered his resignation. Subsequently Mr. Lan be- 
came President of the daily paper Kuo Ming Kung Pao in Peking. During 
the Anfu rule in Peking, this paper was considered the only paper that 
remained independent. It strongly supported the non-signing at the Paris. 
Conference, and the Students' Moveraent. It was also the first paper which 
introduced "modern thoughts" through" journalistic means. It was finally 
closed by the Anfu government in the autumn of 1920. After this Mr. 
Lan in cooperation with Liang Chi-chiao started the magazine called Re- 
organization. In June 1922 the First Parliament was for the second time 
revoked and Mr. Lan returned to Peking and became a Senator again. Mr. 
Lan is an important member of the Progressive Party. He is a brother- 
in-law of Mr. Hsu Fo-su. Mr. Lan was awarded the Third Class Chiaho in 
December 1919. 



^ 



446 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Ginarn Lao 

9^ m St 

(Lao Ching-an) 

Mr. G-inarn Lao, a son of Mr. Lo King Kee was born at Shanghai in 
1893, and was educated first in the Preparatory Department of the St. John's 
University and later was graduated from Nanyang College in 1913. In 1914 
Mr. Lao went to America to study engineering and commerce at Lehigli 
and New York universities. He returned to China in the fall of 1918 and 
joined the Yangtse Trading Co., Hankow, and was sent back to America in 
1919 as the representative of the company to make connections and to sell 
wood-oil for the firm. In 1920 he was appointed Secretary of the Chinese 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 447 



delegation to the International Red Cross Conference held at Geneva, 
Switzerland. Upon returning from the Conference he was invited to join 
the Bark of Canton, Ltd., Hongkong, in its foreign department. In 1921 
he was appointed by the Board of Directors of the bank to be the New 
York agent to open up an office in New York City, which is now located 
at. No. 1 Wall Street. While in New York he was also a director of the 
China Society of America. In the summer of 1922 he returned to China 
and was appointed secretary of the foreign department at the head office 
of the Bank of Canton. In 1923 he was transferred to the Shanghai Branch 
as accountant and assistant manager of the exchange department, which 
office he is still holding. 



^ 



448 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Lo King Kee 

» ± m f- ^ ft 

(Lao Nien-tsu) 

Mr. Lo King Kee born at Canton in 1863, and educated at the High 
Commercial School of Canton. He came to Shanghai at the age of 15 and 
joined Messrs. Reiss & Co., a leading British firm. Soon he distinguished 
himself and rose rapidly through various departments until 1905 when he 
was appointed general corapradore and has become one of the leading 



WHO^S WHO IN ACHIN 449 



business men of China. He has been a member of the Committee of the 
Chinese General Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai since 1911. He is at 
present the Superintendent of the Bank of Canton, Ltd., director and' 
treasurer of the China National Sugar Refining Co., Ltd., director of the 
Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Co., Ltd., and member of the committee of the 
Shanghai Fire & Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., The Sincere Co., Ltd, and M. 
Y. San & Co., Ltd. Mr. Lo King Kee is also an Advisor to the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce and was the Chinese delegate to the Interna- 
tional Red Cross Conference held at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1920. In 
addition he is a supporter of many schools, hospitals and other charitable 
institutions. In March 1923, he was conferred the Second-Class Tashou 
Chiaho Decoration. 



vS8 



450 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Juwan Usang Ly 

(Li Chao-huan) 

n Usang Ly was born at Lysville, Nanhai Hsien, Kwangtung 

S. He was educated both at home and abroad, having been 

•xa Shu Yuan, a student at the New Youth School, Kweng- 

ool, and the Liang-Kwang Academy for the preparation 

abroad. He was the recipient of a partial Ching-hua 

vangtung Provincial scholarship; attended the College 

'ork and was graduated with the degree of B. C. S. 

■)t New York. He attended Columbia University, 

versity of Pensylvania, Massachusetts Agricultural 

ihington Univei'sity. After finishing his education 

\ment Research Fellow at the Library of Congress, 

Dupont .National Bank, Washington, D. C. From 

manager of the Industrial and Commercial Bank, 

1922 he acted as chief of division on commerce 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 451 



and industry of the Kwangtung Provincial Economic Research Bureau. He 
was also acting manager of the Chinese Merchants Bank, Ltd., Canton, in 
1922-1923. Mr. Ly is author of the following books: Dr. Sun Yat-sen and 
China; The Question of the Hour; An Economic Interpretation of the In- 
crease of Bandits in China. He has also from time to time contributed 
various short articles to newspapers under pen names. He served as 
director of the Y. M. C. A. in Hongkong in 1921-1922 and is a life 
member of the Scienfce Society (China). He was also appointed a member 
of the Canton Municipality in 1921. Mr. Ly is now taking) a trip around 
the world representing the Chinese Merchants Bank. 



^ 



452 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Li Chiao-ao, 

Mr. Li Chia-ao, was born at Shanghai in 1859. In his j'outh he studied 
Chinese in the typically classical school. iLater he secured a position in 
the Kiangnan Arsenal where he was highly esteemed by his superiors for 
his activities in ,the reform of the administration. In 1886 Mr. Li went to 
Russia to study by way of London. Upon his arrival at Petrograd he joined 
a high military school. On the completion of his education, he joined the 
Chinese legation in Russia in the capacity of an attache, and remained at 
his post for nine years. After a stay of more than ten years in Russia, he 
returned to China. On h's way back home he extensively travelled in East- 
ern and Western Siberia and visited the Russo-Chinese frontiexs. The 
whole voyage lasted 109 days, during which he studied the commercial 
conditions and the characters of the countries. As at that time the Trans- 
Siberia Railway had not yet been constructed, he had to travel part of the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 453 



way by carriage and part by boat. On his return Mr. Li published a book 
entitled Memories on the Travel in Siberia. The book comprising two 
volumes was highly valued by His Excellency Li Hung-chang. Soon after 
its appearance, Mr. Li was appointed to take charge of foreign affairs in 
Tientsin. Later he became Taoyin of Pin Kiang in Kirin Province. Con- 
currently he held the position of Commissioner for Foreign Affairs for 
Harbin and Director of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the Kirin Railway. 
He remained there for three years and a half. Mr. Li was ' decorated by 
the Emperor Nicholas H with the second class order of Stanisals. In 1910 
he accompanied Tai Hung-shih as Counsellor to Russia in connection with 
an important mission. During this visit to Russia he was given the Order 
of St. Ann, which was a high honor. After his resignation, more on account 
of health than for any other reason, he was engaged in business. He in- 
terested himself in gold mines. During that period he had nothing to do 
with politics. In 1918 he was again appointed Taoyin of Pin Kiang and 
concurrently held the other two posts as before. In December 1918 he was 
conferred the third class Paokuang Chiaho. In March 1919 he resigned these 
posts and returned to the Capital and was appointed a member of the 
Foreign Office. In August 1919 he was appointed a Member of the Commis- 
sion for the 'Examination of Diplomatic and Consular officials. In September 
when Liu Chin- j en, former Chinese Minister to Russia, was appointed 
Minister to Tokio, and had to resign from the office of High Commissioner 
to Siberia, Mr. Li was appointed his successor, and was also ordered to 
represent China at the board of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In August 
1920 he was called back to Peking. In September 1921 he was appointed 
Acting Chief Justice of the Special High Court for the Eastern Provinces. 
In December 1921 he was conferred the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In 
March 1923 he was relieved of the Chief Justiceships. In October 1923 Mr. 
Li was appointed Chinese Envoy to Russia. In November 1923 he was 
given the rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 



454 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. T. M. Li 

(Li Ch'ing-mao) 

Dr. T. M. Li was born in Honolulu in 1884. He studied at Oahu 
College, Honolulu, between 1898 and 1902; and at St. John's University, 
Shanghai, between 1902 and 1907. He graduated in medicine at St. John's 
in 1907. Mr. Li went to the United States in June 1907, and for two years 
studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was awarded' 
a prize for clinical medicine and graduated with the degree of M. D. He 
returned to China in August 1909 and was engaged ,as a professor in the 
University Medical School at Canton, where he remained until 1913. During 
1913-14 he was physician-in-charge of the Hunan Red Cross Hospital and 
associate physician of the Yale Hospital at Changsha. Dr. Li visited Am- 
erica in January 1915 and joined the Philadelphia Polyclinc Hospital and 
College for Graduates of Medicine where he graduated with a diploma in 
ophthalmology in 1915. Later he worked under Professor de Schwenitz, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 455 



of the University of Pennsylvania for about a year. He returned to China 
in 1916 and became a member of the Red Cross Hospital and the Harvard 
out patient department staff, occupying this position for more than half 
year. In 1917 he went to Peking and joined the Union Medical Collage. 
He was in charge of the eye, ear, nose and throat departments for 
two years. In 1919 he was appointed associate professor in ophthalmology' 
of the college. Four years of service with the Union Medical College en- 
titled him to a vacation in America of one year and a half, during which 
time he did special research work under the widely known, eye specialisi;;, 
Dr. Verhoeff, Boston. Dr. Li was a member of China Medical Missionary 
Association between 1909 and 1914, and of National Medical Association of 
China in 1916. Dr. Li returned to China in 1923 and is at present 'work- 
ing in the Union Medical College, Peking. 



^ 



456 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Li Chuan-shih 

^ « I* ^ m 4 
(Li Ch'uan-shih) 

Mr. Li Chuan-shih was born at Chinghai, Chekiang Province, in 1895, 
and received his elementary education in his native district. He was 
admitted to Tsing Hua College through the provincial competitive examina- 
tions and was graduated in 1918. While in school he was editor of the 
Tsing Hua Weekly and was president of the College Confucian Association. 
After graduation from Tsing Hua he went to America as a government 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 457 



student and attended Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., from 1918 to 1920 taking 
the B. A. degree with honors. He then went to the University of Chicago 
where he received the M. A. degree in 1921 and the next year 'received 
the Ph. D. degree, his thesis being on the "Central and Local Financed 'Of 
China." After returning from America he joined the faculty of Fuh Tan 
University of Shanghai as professor of economics and commercial subjects. 
He was soon appointed dean of the School of Commerce and in 1924 was 
appointed dean of the Collegiate Department which position ha is still 
holding. 



458 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. G. H. Li was born at Lunan, Honan Province in 1889. His 
trainng began in the Lunan Primary School and continued in the Lunan 
Middle School where he finished in the first class in 1905 and later g^rad- 
uated from Honan College in 1910 with high honors. His scholarship 
earned for him a trip to America where he entered the University of 
Michigan in 1913. He specialized in architecture, and was graduated with 
the B. S. A. degree in 1917. He then returned to China and engaged in 
educational and architectural work in his home province. On his return he 
was elected Principal of the Government Preparatory School at Kaifeng 
which he helped to make Buccessful and upon the basis of which has recently 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 459 



been started the Chung Chow University of which he has the honor to be 
Dean. After holding this principalship two years he resigned to accept the 
headship of the Fu Chung College of Mines at Chao Chow, which position 
he held three years, resigning at the entreaty of President H. L. Chang 
and others to become Dean and architect for the building of Chung Chcfw 
University. Mr. Lee was assistant architect to Shattuck and Hussey at the 
laying of the foundations of the Peking Union Medical College in 1917-18, 
is President of the Honan Teachers Alliance and author of a plan to estab- 
lish an jndependent educational fund for the province of Honan. He has 
contributed several articles to leading magazines, one being a plan to re- 
construct China. Mr. Lee, besides being the Dean at Chung Chow University, 
is at present engaged in erecting several dormitories and an $80,000.00 
Science Hall for that institution. 



Jt 



460 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Li Su-mai 

(Li Hsiu-mei) 

Mr. Li Su-mai was born at Hangchow, Chskiang Province, in 1873. He 
was first taksn as one of the five Chinese Magistrates at the Inte^mationad 
Mixed Court and holds the position of second assistant magistrate. He is a 
well-known Chinese scholar. He studied law privately and practiced at his 
profession for several years before his appointment to the Mixed Court 
Bench in Shanghai. In recognition of his services in the post he has held 
this position for past six years. The Chinese government has conferred 
upon him several decorations, and has appointed him a District Magistrate 
in waifng. Mr. Li's name has also been registered with the Cabinet for 
further promotion. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



461 




Mr. James Hsions Lee 

(Li Ju-hsiung) 

Mr. James Hsiong Lee is a native of Ningpo, Chekiang, and was born 
in 1891. His great grandfather, known as Bai Wha Shan Cheng, was one 
of the most famous Chinese poets and his elder brother, Z. Y. Lee, returned 
student from England, is the first aviator in China. In early years Mr. 
Lee received his education in an old school and won his high degree inj 
Chinese literature. He left school when he was quite young, and entered 
into business in Shanghai in 1912. Thereafter his time and energy have 
been mostly devoted to the development of commerce and industry. In 
1915 Mr. Lee was appointed by the Board of Agriculture and Commerce as 
one of the Trade Commissioners tp the U. S. A., where he travelled over 
a great many large cities, attended the Panama Exhibition and visited 
various famous industrial plants. Mr. Lee has held many responsible posi- 



462 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



tions, such as general manager of Kiangsi Land Investment Co., managing 
director of Wah Foo Commercial Bank of China, president of Wuhu City 
Telephone Plant, manager of Lee Bros. & Co., special inspector of the 
currency bureau for Shanghai, advisor to the Bureau of Enemy's Property 
and advisor to the Governor of Chekiang.. In 1919 Mr. Lee organized a 
Telephone plant in his native city of Ningpo. At the outset the number 
of subscribers was scarcely over two hundred, but it has now passed one. 
thousand. He also established the Tanang City Light plant. He is now 
the president of both plants and director of the Chartered Stock & Produce 
Exchange of Shanghai, the Polo Coal Mining Co. and the Union Bank of 
China. Besides his business activities, Mr. Lee is also connected with many 
social institutions, such as director of the Ningpo Guild, the Charitable 
Institute, is a member of the General Chamber of Commierce of Shanghai 
and the Association of Chapei and the World's • Chinese Students' Federa- 
tion. He is a .member of the Union Club. In 1920 Mr. Lee realized the 
necessity of forming an important establishment in order to promote the 
industrial and commercial enterprises in China. In pursuance of this object 
a company was organized the next spring, called the Foong Shen Industrial 
& Commercial Development Corporation, of which he was subsequently 
elected vice-president and assistant general manager. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



463 




General Li Keng-yuan 

General Li Keng-yuan was born at Teng-yueh Hsien, Yunnan province, 
in 1878. After acquiring an elementary military training in Yunnan, he 
was sent to Japan among the sixth group of Chinese militai'y students to 
study in the Japanese Military Cadets Academy. The course he took was 
in the infantry and he graduated from that institution. After his 
return to China, General Li became Director of the Military Lecture Hall 
of Yunnan and later was concurrently Councillor of the General Staff Office 
of the Yunnan forces. Upon the outbreak of the First Revolution in 
October 1911, General Li organized a Revolutionary Force with the students 
of the Military Lecture Hall and declared the independence of Yunnan. 
He was elected Vice Tutuh or Assistant Military Director. In 1913 General 
Li was elected a Member of the House of Representatives of the First 
National Parliament which was dissolved by Yuan Shih-kai in January 
1914. In 1915 he joined the Yunnan Rebellion. During Yuan Shih-kai's 
monarchical movement. General Li secretly travelled between Japan, Hong- 



464 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



kong and the South Sea Islands as representative of the Revolutionary 
forces. In March 1916 he took part in the organization of the headquarters 
of the Southern Expeditionary forces at the boundary between Kuangtung 
and Kuangsi. In July 1916 following the death of Yuan Shih-kai General 
Li was appointed Civil Governor of Shensi to succeed General Ch'en Shu- 
fan who had been hitherto acting in the capacity of Military Governor of 
that province. In October 1916 he was conferred the Third Order of Merit. 
In July 1917 he resigned from the Civil Governorajiip lof Shensi owing to. 
difference of opinion with General Ch'en Shu-fan. He was first taken 
prisoner by General Ch'en and, afterwards he effected his escape to Pek- 
ing.' During 1918 and 1919 General Li was connected with the Military 
government of the South in which General Tsen Chun-hsuan played a 
leading role. General Li has always been known as the clever advisor and 
right hand man of General Tsen. Thus he has been a prominent figure of 
the Chen Hsueh Hui, a political party, of which General Tsen is the leader. 
In June 1922 after the Chihli-Fengtien War when General Li Yuan-hung 
re-assumed the presidency. General Li Keng-yuan was a member of the 
parliament which reassembled in August 1922. In September 1922 he was 
appointed Director General of the Government Aeronautic Bureau. In 
October he was awarded the Second Class Wenfu and Yun-Wei Chiangchun, 
a member of the College of Marshals. In November 1922 General Li was 
appointed Acting Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. In January 
1923 he was appointed Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, of which 
post he was relieved in September 1923. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



465 




Marquis W. H. Li 

(Li Kuo-chich) 

Marquis W. H. Li, the eldest grandson of the celebrated statesman and 
soldier, Li Hung-chang, was born at He-Tei Hsien, Anhui, in 1881. He 
showed unusual public spirit, even when in childhood. In 1901 when his 
grandfather died, he took on the title of Marquis from the Ta Ching Dynasty 
out of respect to the late Prime Minister and was g^iven the post of As- 
sistant Chamberlain, commanding the Palace Guard. Later, where he 
established many workshops for the Manchu soldiers and apportioned lands 
for reclamation work in order to enable them to make their own livelihood 
without always depending upon the allowance given them by the govern- 
ment. Before completing his work, he was transferred, after serving for 
more than a year, to Peking to become the senior councillor of the Board 
of Agriculture, Works and Commerce. In this capacity, the Marquis draft- 
ed a set of regulations for the promotion of the mining industry as well 
as a memorandum planning for the establishment of a constitutional 



466 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



governnment. The memorandum calls for the promulgation of administra- 
tive rules governing schools in order to develop a type of students fitted 
for public service, of a system of army organization in order to unify the 
military defense of the nation, of police regulations for the protection of 
the communities and for a reliable census and of a press law in order to 
assist the work of the newspapers. His suggestions failed to go through 
the proper channels. When the baby emperor, Hsuan Tung, ascended the 
throne, the tottering government was unable to adopt any constructive 
measure while wily mandarins did everything to realise their own ambi- 
tion. Tuan Fang, the Viceroy at Nanking, being suspicious of the marquis, 
memorialised the throne with several alleged charges against him but the 
latter's straightforwardness and honesty was never shaken. In the follow- 
ing year 1910, Marquis Li was sent ta Belgium as the Chinese Ambassador 
to Brussels where he gained much popularity for the picturesque way in 
which he moved about and (the rigid order he had given to his embassy 
to use everything Chinese. Mr. Li's collection of Chinese articles 
and decorations still stand in the Chinese Leg'ation in Brussels today and 
form the center of attraction of Belgians who visit their capital. During 
the revolution of 1911, the financial allowance for students abroad was 
practically all discontinued. But those in Belgium enjoyed the usual 
monetary aid, because Marquis Li had advanced out of his own pocket 
sums amounting to over $100,000 to relieve the stringency. The students 
in England, Germany, France and Austria were practically penniless and 
created much unpleasantness with the several legations. But the Brussels 
Legation was exempt from this trouble, thanks to the effort of the Marquis. 
Many of these students in Belgium have now returned and are ''holding 
high offices in the government. In December 1912 Mr. Wang Kuang-chi 
was appointed to succeed Marquis Li as Minister to Belgium. In 1913 he 
returned to China. In May 1914 he was appointed by President Yuan 
Shih-kai a Member of the Advis3ry Council which was abolished in June 
1916 after the death of the founders. Ever since that time he has bean 
living in retirement in Shanghai. However, he still takes an intensive 
interest in the China Merchants' Steam Naivgation Co., which was estab- 
lished by his grandfather and of which he is now the chairman of the 
board of directors. Marquis Li is connected with a large number of big 
industrial enterprises. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



467 




Mr. K. C. Li 

(Li Kuo-ching) 

Mr. K. C. Li was born at Changsha, Hunan in September 1892. After 
receiving his earlier education in local schools, he entered the Hunan 
Technical Institute, taking up the study of mining. Finishing thexourse of 
this institution, he entered the Royal School of Mines, London, graduating 
from that college with the degree of Mining-Engineer. Upon his return to 



468 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



China, Mr. Li became actively associated with the mining industry in 
Hunan, occupying the positions of secretary of the Hunan Mining Board, 
president of the Kiangwah Government Tin Mines, president of the Hsiao 
Ku San Government Mines, and co-director of the Hunan Mining Board. 
During this time, he was sent as a mining commissioner of the government 
to Europe. With the formation of the Wah Chang Mining and Smelting 
Company, Ltd., as an institution for international trade, Mr. Li was appointed 
vice-president and New York manager of the corporation. The later 
development of the Wah Chang Trading Corporation, the largest Chinese 
owned and directed import and export firm in the nation, brought the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Li as president and manager director. Mr. Li has been 
a resident of New York since his appointment, making frequent trips to 
China and to other nations t)f the world in connection with the business of 
his firms. He is the representative in New York of the Chinese Ministry 
of Finance and the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. As a director 
and vice-president of the China Society of America, he has become one of 
the best known Chinese business men in the United States, both commercially 
and socially. For meritorius service rendered to the Republic of China, 
Mr. Li received the fourth class Chia Ho decoration from the president in 
May 1920. He is also well known in the nation as a mathematician and 
has written books of trigonometry, algebra and calculus in Chinese which 
are used in native schools as text books. He received four honors during 
his college career and is widely known as a student of Chinese literature.-' 
During the European war, Mr. Li was active for both the American and 
Canadian governments in obtaining war materials from China and South 
America. He has received letters of appreciation and congratulation from 
the authorities of the various Allied governments. Mr. Li is a member of 
the Lawyer's Club, and the Old Colonial Club of New York, and also of the 
committee of the New York Metal Exchange, the New York Credit Associa- 
tion and the American Institute of Mining Engineers. He is married and 
has two children. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



469 




f 



Mr. Li Kuo-yun was born at He-Fei Hsien, Anhui Province, in 1878, 
and is a grnad nephew of Li Hung-chang and the second son of former 
Premier Li Ching-hsi., Mr. Li became a Provincial School Graduate in 
1902 and in the following year was recommended by the Governor of An- 
hui Province for the official examinations which be passed. In the Chirig 
regime he held the following positions; Director of the Lu Chow Middle 
School, Anhui; president of the Educational Association of the District of 
He Fei Hsien; president of the Chamber of Commerce of Lu Chow; Vice- 
Speaker of the Provincial Advisory Council of Anhui; Member of the Im- 



470 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



perial Advisory Council, Peking. In December 1912 Mr. Li was appointed 
Chief of the Financial Bureau of Anhui Province and in September 1913 
was transferred to be Chief of the Internal Affairs Bureau of the Province 
of Anhui. From November 1913 to March 1914 Mr. Li was concurrently 
Chief of the Financial Bureau of Anhui and Chief of the National Revenue 
Preparation Bureati. In May 1914 he was (appointed Civil Governor of 
Kuangtung which position he held until July 1915 when he was transferred 
to be Civil Governor of Kuangsi. But he did not take up this position and 
resigned soon afterwards. In July 1915 Mr. Li was appointed Councillor 
or Member of the National Advisory Council, founded by Yuan Shih-kai 
after the dissolution of the Old Parliament. This Council was abolished in 
June 1916 following the death of its founder. In September 1920 Mr. Li 
was appointed Director General of the Bureau of Economic Research. In- 
vestigation which position he is still holding, Mr. Li was awarded the 
Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in January 1921; the First Class 
Tashou in October 1922; and First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in March 
1923. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



471 




Mr« Li Mau-chi 

(Li Mac-chih) 

Mr. Li Mau-chi was born at Canton in 1883. His father was familiarly- 
known in the commercial circles of Hongkong as "Miilllonaire Lee". Mr. 
Li was educated in private schools, specializing in Chinese literature, and 
later received an English education in Hongkong. During the first Revolu- 
tion of 1911 Mr. Li was a Councillor of the Military Governor of Kuangtung 
Province. When the Provisional government was established at Nanking 
with Dr. Sun Yat-sen as President he was given the post of secretary of 
of the "White House" at Nanking., In 1913 he was elected as a senator 
from the province of Kwangtung to the first Parliament. When the Parlia- 
ment was dissolved in January 1914 Mr. Li went to Shanghai where he 
cooperated with Ex-Premier Tang Shao-yi in the formation of the Gold Star 
Life Insurance Company, being a director of this company at present. At 
the same time he in cooperation with Mr. Ku Chung-shin founded the 



472 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



"Ching I" magazine. The old Parliament was reconvoked in June 1916 
and Mr. Li retur^ned to Peking and took his seat in the Senate. In June 
1917 the Parliament was again dissolved and he returned to his home city 
of Canton and helped to establish , the military government there and to 
call the extraordinary parliament. During the years of 1918 and 1919 he 
served as salt commissioner for Kwangtung and Kwangsi Provinces. When 
General Chen Chung-ming reentered Canton in 1920, Mr. Li was appointed 
Special Commissioner of Finance, also taking charge of the Kwangtung 
Treasury, holding this position until November. The old Parliament was 
for the second time reconvoked in June 1922. Mr. Li became a Senator 
again. Mr. Li is the founder of the Public of Canton and is also the chief 
auditor of the Provincial Bank of Kwangtung. He was conferred the Second 
Class Chiaho in October 1922 and First Class Tashou Chiaho in April 1923. 



^ 



WHO'S WEiO IN CHINA 



473 




Mr, Li Ming 

Mr. Li Ming is a native of Shaoshing, Chekiang, and was born in 1889. 
In early years he received his education in a middle sqhool at i Shaoshing 
and the Wayland Academy, Hangchow. Being anxious to obtain a higher 
education, he went to Japan and pursued his studies in the Yamaguchi 
Commercial College. After seven years in Japan, he returned to China just 
before the outbreak of the revolution and served the Chekiang provincial 



474 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



government as financial advisor to the Commissioner of Finance. Later 
on he joined the Shanghai office of the Chekiang Bank as manager aiid 
under his hand this institution underwent severe re-orgatiiz-ttion, being, 
renamed the Chekiang Industrial Bank, Ltd. He introduced and directed 
its business along modern commercial banking lines instead of in semi- 
official nature. Since then it has been built up on .modern business lines. 
He encouraged public savings by opening a Savings Bank Department 
along purely Western 'lines and participated in financing imports and ex- 
ports by opening the Foreign Exchange Department in the Shanghai office 
of the Bank. Due to his work the Bank's capital was increased to $2,000,- 
000, and the interest of the Chekiang provincial government was bought 
overat a premium of about 70 0/0 to make the bank a purely private institu- 
tion. At the same time he acquired and built a permanent and commodious 
home to house the ever increasing activities of the bank and removed its 
head office from Hangchow to its present location in Shanghai at the corner 
of Hankow and Kiangse Roads, known as the Chekiang Industrial Bank 
building. In the c ourse of more than thirteen years in Shanghai his time 
and energy have mostly been devoted to the development of banking as 
well as commerce a'nd industry. He is one of the prominent figures in 
banking pircles in China and is one of the founders of the Shanghai Chinese 
Bankers Association. He is now director and general managger of The 
Chekiang Industrial Bank, Ltd., director of The Bank of China, The Bank 
of Communications, and also the Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank, 
Ltd., which last institution he in company with K. P. Chen, its director 
and general manager, with one or two others helped to promote. Mr. Li 
is purely self-made, good natured, kind hearted, generous, self-confident, 
full of energy, and with alwa,ys a keen eye in business and financial 
matters. He has given much of his time for public service and education 
and was decorated by the Chinese government in 1921 with the third Order 
of Chiaho for meritorious public service. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



4751 




Mr. Li Sheng-to 

Mr. Li Sheng-to, was born at Kiukiang, Kiangsi. In 1860 in 1890 he 
successfully passed the Metropolitan examination becaming a Metropolitan 
graduate. Subsequently he joined the Hanlin Academy. In 1895 he was ap- 
pointed Chinese Minister to Japan where he stayed for two years.. Upon 
his return to China he was made Governor of the Metropolitan District. In 
1905 he was one of the five ministers sent abroad to study the constitutional 
forms of government. In that year he traveled extensively in Japan, 
Europe and America. In 1906 he was Chinese Minister to Belgium and 
returned in 1909. After the first revolution in 1911, he was appointeid 
advisor to President Yuan Shih-kai. On June 29, 1917 he was appointed 
Acting Minister of ■ Agriculture and Commerce and concurrently Director 
General of the National Conservancy Bureau, On July 17, 1917, he re- 



476 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



signed on account of General Chang Hsun's monarchical movement, but he 
was appointed President of the Board of Agriculture of the short lived 
monarchy. In 1918, when the new Parliament was organized, Mr. Li was 
elected Speaker of the Senate. It was this Parliament which elected Hsu 
Shih-Ch'ang president. Mr. Li was conferred the First Class Tashun 
Chiaho in May 1919 and the First Class Tashun Paokuang Chiaho in 
October 1919. The new Parliament was dissolved in 1920 after the down- 
fall of the Sufu Club resulting from the Chihli Anfu war. Ever since that 
time Mr. Li has been living in retirement at Tientsin. 



«£$» 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



477 




Mr. Li Shih-wei "^ "I j 

Mr. Li Shih-wei was born at Yungpinghsien, Chihli in 1895. In 1901 
he was sent by the Chihli government to Japan to pursue a higher educa- 
tion. He graduated at Waseda University in 1906, and in the same year 
returned to China. His official rank in the late Manchu regime was that 
of industrial Taotai. After his return to Chihli he was appointed a secretary 
to the Viceroy of Pei-yang. Later he became superintendent of the Pei- 
yang Normal School. After some time he became assistant director of the 
Bureau of Education for the whole of Chihli, and was concurrently appointed 
to be in charge of the preparation for the self-government of the province, 
and assisted in the organization of the bureau for the preparation of the 
estlablisliment of a legislative council. He was a member of the Nanyang 
Industrial Promotion Association, and Director-General of the Ching Shing 
Mining Company for many years and is a director of the Chee Hsin Cement 



478 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Company, of the Peking Water Works, of the Hua Hsin Spinning and 
Weaving Company, and of the Tung Wei Industrial Company. He is also 
chairman of the Board of Directors of the United Association of Mining 
Industries; Assistant Director General of the Chinese Industrial Bank; 
general manager of the Chinese-Japanese Industrial Company. He has been 
high advisor to the President, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce. After the establishment of the Republic in 
1912, he was made a member of an advisory bureau in the President's 
Office. In 1913 he was appointed mining adviser to the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Commerce. In May 1914 he became a member of the Tsang- 
chengyuan or Legislative Council in place of Parliament. In April 1915 he 
resigned in order to become Governor of the Bank of China: In April 
1916 he was relieved from the governorship of the Bank. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



479 




General Li Shu-cheng 

General Li Shu-ch'eng was born at Ch'ien-chiang Hsien, Hnpei Province, 
in 1873 and vfa& a salaried licentiate or Linsheng in the Ching' Dynasty. 
He received a middle school education in the Ching-H.'sin Institute of 
Learning in Hupei. Later he was sent by Viceory Chang Chih-tung to 
Japan to obtain a higher education. He first studied in normal college 
then joined the Military Cadets Academy where he graduated in November 
1908. While in Japan General Li became a member of the Tung Ming 
Hui, the revolutionary organization headed by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Owing to 
his intimate relation with Dr. Sun he became a prominent figure with the 
Tung Ming Hui. Upon his return to China in 1909, General Li was appointed 
Director of the Military Academy attached to the headquarters of the 
Kuangsi Army. Subsequently he was transferred to Peking where he 
received the appoiintment as a Member of the Chun Tzu Fu which is equi- 
valent to the General Staff of the present day. In the autumn of 1911 
General Li went south to join the revolution. After the outbreak of the 



480 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



first revolution in October 1911, he became Chief Staff Officer to General 
Huang Hsing, Commander-in-Chief of Hanyang Defence. In January 1912 
Dr. Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President in Nanking and General 
Li .accepted the secretaryship to the President. From March to May 1912, 
General Li was Chief of Staff to General Huang Hsing the Administrator 
protem in Nanking. After Yuan Shih-kai assumed the presidency in Pek- 
ing, General Li was made Lieutenant General and subsequently appointed 
Deputy Chief of the Military Affairs Bureau in the President's office. In 
1914 General Li went to America accompanying Huang Hsing. He returned 
to China in 1916 and at once became Military Advisor to President 'Li 
Yuan-hung. In 1917 the Southern Leaders formed a new government in 
Canton to defend the Provisional Constitution. Many of the southwestern 
provinces joined in this movement ani General Li firsb served as Director- 
General for the Defence of Western Hunan and concurrently Commander- 
in-Chief of the First Constitutional Army of Hupei. In 1919 General Li 
was appointed by the Canton Militray Government Director-General of the 
Alien Subjects Repatriation Bureau. In December 1920 the Peking govern- 
ment made General Li a Chiangchun of the College of Marshals.' In July 
1922 he was appointed Advisor to President Li Yuan-hung. In September 
1922 he became a Councillor of the Cabinet which '.position he is still hold- 
ing. In October 1922 he was awarded the Second Order of Wenfu. 



•k^C 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



481 




Dr. Shun-CKing Lee 

^ US ® ^ #^ g 

Dr. Shun-Ching Lee was born in Shantung Province in 1895 and 
received his early education in Tsingtau. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Nanking, in 1919 with the B. S. degree and passed the Tsing- 
Hua fellowship examination and was sent to the U. S. A. in August 1919. 
Arriving in America he entered the graduate school of Yale University 
specializing in forestry and got the M. F. degree in 1921. After gradua- 
tion he was transferred to the University of Chicago and specialised in 
botany. In 1922 he was elected a member of the Sigma Xi Society-. He 
received the Ph. D. degree with honor from the University of Chicago in 
1923. He was appointed as head of the Department of Biology of the 
Peking National Normal University, Peking, which position he is still hold- 
ing. 



482 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Li Shih-hou 

(Li Szu-hao) 

Mr. Li Shih-hou, was born at Ningpo in 1880. In his youth he was 
well known, throughout his native Province of Chekiang, for his literary 
attainments and high scholarship. Being successful in the government 
examinations, he obtained the literary degree of Chu Jen or M. A. when 
he was only twenty -two years old. In 1905 Mr. Li went to Peking. Soon 
after his arrival in the capital he was appointed a second class Junior 
Secretary of the Board of Revenues. In 1908 he was made a member of 
the Department of Taxation and concurrently held the post of the Resident 
Director of the Statistical Bureau of the Board of Finance which was pre- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 483 



viously called the Board of Revenues. At the end of 1908, Mr. Li was 
promoted to be a Second Class Member of the Department of Taxation. 
In the summer of the following year he was appointed to the post , of the 
Assistant Director-General of the Statistical Bureau. At the end of 1909 
he received an additional post as the First Class Deputy of the Direcotrate- 
General of the Salt Administration. In 1910 Mr. Li became the Chief of 
the Department of Taxation. In 1911 Mr. Li received the concurrent post 
of the Chief Auditor of the Financial Re-organization Bureau. After 
the establishment of the Republic in 1912, Mr. Li was appointed Junior 
Secretary of the Ministry of Finance; in January 1913, a member of the 
National Taxation Preparation Bureau; and in September, Chief of the Salt 
Department of the same Bureau. In January 1914, Mr. Li was awarded the 
Fourth Class Chia Ho Decoration. In the same year he was recommended 
by the then Minister of Finance to the post of the Sectional Chief of the 
Salt Administration. The following year he was given the rank of Chung" 
Ta Fu and also the Third Class Chiaho Decoration. In April 1916, a 
President Rescript was issued ordering that his name be recorded in the 
Cabinet, then known as Cheng Shih Tang, under the rank of Salt Trans- 
portation Commissioner. In May 1916 he received the appointment nominally 
as Acting Vice-Minister of Finance and substantially as Chief of the Salt 
Administration and also Chief Chinese Inspector of the Salt Gabelle. Later 
he was given the Second Class Tashou Chia Ho Decoration. In April 1917 
a Presidential Mandate was issued appointing him to take charge of the 
Ministry of Finance. In June he was concurrently appointed the Director- 
General of the Bank of China. In August of the same year he was made 
full Vice-Minister of Finance, holding the concurrent posts of the Chief 
of the Salt Administration and Chief Inspector of the Salt Gabelle. Two 
months later he was given the Second Class Wen Hu Decoration, thei first 
military order ever awarded to Mr. Li. In November he was again ordered 
to take charge of the Ministry of Finance. Jiist about one year after- 
ward, he was awarded the Second Class Tashou Paokwan Chia Ho Decor- 
ation. In January 1919, he was relieved from the post of the Salt 
Administration ; btut shortly afterwards he was again ordered to take charge 
of the Ministry of Finance. In June he was specially appointed Director- 
General of the Currency Reform Bureau; and in September, was ordered 
to be in charge of the Ministry of Finance. In October he became the 
recipient of the First Class Tashou Chia Ho Decoration. In December 
1919, Mr. LI was appointed Minister of Finance and became Director- 
General of the Salt Administration at the same time. The other concur- 
rent but responsible position which Mr. Li then held simultaneously was 
the Director-General of the Currency Reform Bureau to which post he was 
appointed only one week after he had been appointed the Minister of Fin- 
ance. In July 1920 Mr. Li was relieved of all the positions which he had 
been hitherto holding. He was involved in the Chihli-Anfu war. He 
lived in the Legation Quarter for two years and was pardoned In 1923 by 
President Li Yuan-hung. 



484 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. T. H. Lee 

(Li Teng-hui) 

Dr. T. H. Lee was born in Batavia, Java, in 1872. His native home 
being Tungan Hsien, near Amoy, Fukien Province, China. In his early 
childhood he received his preliminary education under Dutch auspices. At 
the age of fourteen he began his English education in the Anglo-Chinese 
School under the auspices of the M. E. Mission where he cam:^ under 
Christian influence. At the age of nineteen Dr. Lee went to the United 
States and entered Ohio Wesleyan University of which Bishop J. W. Baeh- 
ford was then president. In 1897 he went to Yale University and was 
graduated in June 1899. Dr. Lee returned to the Straits Settlements as a 
teacher in the Anglo-Chinese School, but left in 1901 to found an English 
School in Batavia in connection with the Reform Movement of Mr. K'ang 
Yu-wei. Dr. Lee arrived in Shanghai in 1905 and in August of the same 
year promoted the World Chinese Students' Federation of which he served 
as chairman for a period of ten years. He also helped in the establish- 
ment of the Fuh-Tan University of which he was first Dean and later 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 485 



became the president. This position he is still holding. Dr. Lee was 
chief-editor of the Republican Advocate in 1912-1913 and at the same time 
held the position "ot editorship in the English Department of the Chung 
Hwa Book Company. He was elected an Honorary Member of the Chung 
Hwa Guild of Batavia in 1906; I*'ellow of the American Geographical 
Society in 1915; honorary president of the Huai River Conservancy in 1922; 
and was awarded the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters by St. John's 
University, Shanghai,in 1919. Dr. Lee took an active part in the students' 
movement of 1918, and during the Peace Conference at Versailles, he pro- 
moted the League of public organizations which he served as provisional 
chairman to protest against the Treaty affecting Chinese rights and oppose 
the placing of China's signature on the pact. During the Washington Con- 
ference Dr. Lee became chairman of the People's National Diplomatic 
Federation representing 180 organizations from different parts of the coun- 
try. Besides being President of Fuh Tan University, Dr. Lee is also holding 
a number of honorary positions: chairman of the Shanghai Chinese Y. M. 
C. A., vice-chairman of the National Committee of the Y. M. C. A., chair- 
man of the Over-seas Chinese Association, vice-chairman of the World 
Chinese Students Federation, director of the Pan-Pacific Union, director of 
the Tsinan Institute, director of the Shih-pei Public School, Director of 
the Christian Educational Association of China, vice-chairman of the East 
China Association of Christian Colleges and Universities, director of Amoy 
University, and member of the educational commission of the Shanghai 
Municipal CounciL 



^ 



486 



WHO*S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Li T'ien-Iu 

Dr. Li Tien-lu was born in 1886 ^and received hia edHioation at tihe 
Peking Methodist University from which institution he was graduated in 
1908 with the B. A. degree. From 1908 to 1913 Dr. Li served as instruc- 
tor in English in his alma mater and then went to America for his advanced 
educational work. Dr. Li received the degree of M. A. from Vanderbilt 
University in 1914 and the Ph. D. degree from the same institution in 1916. 
He attended sessions of the Washington Conference as secretary to the 
Chinese Delegation. From 1922 to 1923 Dr. Li served as president of the 
Peking Academy and since that time has been dean of the School of Arts 
of Shantung Christian University, Tsinanfu. Dr. Li is the author of 
Congressional Policy in Reapest to Chinese Immigration, which was 
published in America. In 1922 he was awarded the Fourth Class Chia-ho 
decoration by the Chinese government in consideration of his services at 
the Washington Conference. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



487 




Admiral Li Ting-hsin 

Admiral Li Ting-hsin, was born at Min Hou Hsien, Fukien, in 1861. 
He studied at ithe Navigation College at Ma Kiang, where he subsequently 
graduated. Then he was sent by the government to England. After a 
stay of six years he graduated from the Greenwich Naval College. After 
his graduation he joined the British fleet cruising to North America and 
Western India, and received much training during the voyage. Upon his 
return to China he was appointed lieutenant and assigiied to the cruiser 
Ting Yuan for service. Later he was promoted to the rank of captain, and 
transferred to the cruiser Hai Chiu. Subsequently he was made Assistant 
Commander of the Shanhaikwan Patrol Squadron. In the last days of the 
Manchu regime he was chief of the martial law department of the Ministry 
of Navy. After the establishment of the Republic his promotion became 
more rapid. He was appointed councillor of the Ministry of Navy on Sep- 
tember 5, 1912. Two months later he became Chief of Naval General Staff. 
On August 20, 1913, he was created Admiral (brevet), and was appointed 



488 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. During the second revolution, he was 
in charge of the defence of the Kiangnan Arsenal against the attack of 
the revolutionary force headed by Chen Chi-mei. In the revolution of 1915, 
he was deprived of the rank but retained office on account of the loss of 
the crusier Chao Ho to the anti-government force. After the death of 
the late President Yuan Shih-kai in the summer of 1916 he became Com- 
mander-in-chief of the First fleet. On December of 1917 he was relieved 
of active service and appointed Yao Wei Chiang Chun. He became con- 
currently adviser to the President and the Cabinet. In January 1920 
Admiral Li was conferred the Second Class Wenfu and also the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho. In March 1921 Admiral Li was .appointed Minister of 
the Navy. In October he was made Full Admiral. In December 1921 -the 
Cabinet underwent a change and Admiral Li remained in the navy post. 
In June 1922 Admiral Li became Acting Minister of the Navy following a 
cabinet change. Another change of cabinet in August 1922 did not affect 
his post. In September 1922 he was awarded the First Class Wenfu, In 
September 1922 he remained intact through a cabinet change. In October 
1922 he was conferred the Second Order of Merit. In November 1922 
Admiral Li underwent another Cabinet change. In January 1923 Admiral 
Li was appointed Minister of the Navy. In Jantory 1924 he was 
again appointed Minister of the Navy when *Sun Pao-chi became Prime 
Minister. 



^ 



WHO'S Who in china 



4^9 




Mr. Lee Tsung-ching 

mmm^jE m 

(Li Wei-ch'ing) 

Mr. Lee Tsung-ching was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 1878. 
He wad graduated from the Anglo-Chinese College, Shanghai, specializing 
in a commerical line. In 1892 he began his business career as a shipping 
clerk in a native business firm at Shanghai. In 1895, when the commerical 
navigation between Soochow and Hangchow had just been started, he was 
employed as customs clerk of the Soochow-Hangchow Inland Navigation 
Company. A year later he joined the Shanghai office of Carlowitz & Co. as 
cashier. In 1897 Mr. Lee went to Tientsin and joined the firm of Gipperich 
& Co. His position being a general clerk. In 1903 he started his first in- 
dependent business as compradore of the Sieroessen & Co., Tientsin. This 
position he held until 1905 when he was invited to join the Shanghai 
office of Gipperich & Co., becoming the principal assistant of E. Gipperich, 
the general manager of that firm. Mr. Lee ■ returned to Tientsin in 1908, 
and accepted the compradoreship of Rousseau & Co., then a leading French 
firm. In 1910 in partnership with L. 0. McGowan promoted the China 



490 WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



American Trading Co., with head office at Tientsin. Mr. Lee was the 
Chinese- manager of that newly established firm. At the same time he ac- 
cepted the compradoreship of the Fearon, Daniel & Co., holding this con- 
current post for three years. In 1918, during the time of repatriation of 
enemy subjects in China, Mr. Lee was entrusted with the work of establishing 
the Tientsin office of the San Peh Steam Navigation Co., by Yu Ya-ching, 
the founder of this company, who has been for m»iny years one of the 
com-merical leaders in Shanghai. Very soon the branch office was founded 
at Tientsin, occupying the wharves formerly belonging to Hambury Steam- 
ship Co. Ever since its establ'shment, this company under the managership 
of Mr. Lee, has been playing an important part in the China sea coast 
navigation service. In the spring of 1921, Mr. Lee accepted another con- 
current post as manager of the Tientsin office of the Industrial Development 
Bank of China. In 1923, owing to the pressure of work in the San Peh 
Steam Navigation Co., he resigned from both (the China-American Trading 
Co., and the Industrial Development Bank. In September 1924 he rejoined 
the China-American Trading Co. Mr. Lee is one of the pioneer southern 
merchants at Tientsin, and has served for ten years as a director of the 
Chekiang Provincial Guild, Tientsin. He is also one of the founders of tho 
Chekiang School of Tientsin. Mr. Lee's present address is No. 153 Parkes 
Road, Tientsin. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



491 




Mr. William Yinson Lee 

^ 7C fi 
(Li Yuan-hsin) 

Mr. William Yinaon Lee of Brewer Manufacturing Cremists, wholesale 
druggists and merchants, was born at Sydney, N. S. W. Australia, in 1884. 
He was the eldest son of the later W. R. G. Lee, well-known merchant of 
Sydney, Hongkong and Heungshan City (Canton), Kwangtung, and received 
his English and Chinese education under private tutors in Australia and 
Hongkong. He came to China in 1903 and joined Johnson, Stokss & Master, 
a leading legal firm in Hongkong and* became closely assiociated with the 
late Sir Boshan Wei Yuk, K. C. M. G. and the late Sir Hormuejee Mody, 



492 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Kt. In 1909, as representative of an influential group of Hongkong mer- 
chants, Mr. Yinson accompanied Admiral Li Tsun upon a visit and survey 
of Yulinkan, Hainan Island (the southernmost point in China, at that time 
proposed as a naval base), also visiting and surveying the Paracels, a group 
of islands lying between Hainan and the Philippines. He spent from 1910 
to 1922 in commercial pursuits in Australia, Hongkong and Canton, located 
principaly in Sydney, N. S. W., but paying frequent visit to China. Mr. 
Yinson Lee is a vigorous writer and was a frequent Ciontributor to the 
leading press of Australia in the defence of Chinese matters. During the 
war, he was instrumental in securing the sanction of the Commonwealth 
government, the State government of New South Wales and the Municipal 
Council of Sydney for the inclusion of the Chinese flag among those of 
the principal allied nations when officially displayed, which example was 
followed by the general public in the principal cities, the Chinese in Aus- 
tralia greatly appreciating the recognition. He is a life governor of Royal 
Prince Alfred Hospital the principal hospital in Sydney; and is one of the 
two Chinese members of the Sydney Chamber of Commerce, a prominent 
member of the Millions Club of New South Wales and the Masonic Club of 
Sydney, a Mason holding the highest degrees in the New South Wales, 
Scottish and American Constitution and a Shriner of Aleppo Temple, Boston, 
Mass. He holds the distinction of being the youngest Mason ever initiated 
in Australia, being only 18 years and 3 months old when 'he receiv'ed his 
initiation by special dispensation of the M. W. Grandmaster for New South 
Wales, Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, State Governor. Mr. Yinson Lee made 
a tour of the South Sea Islands, Australia, Europe and America in 1922-3 
securing business connections and came to China to open the China Branch 
of Brewer & Co. Inc. of Worcester, Mass., of which he is co-director, in 
January 1924. He is a charter member and president of the Y Men's Club 
of Shanghai, affiliated with the International Association of Y Men's Clubs. 
Toledo 0. Mr. Yinson Lee possesses a unique collection of rare procelain 
and ancient Chinese coins. 



*v 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



493 




General Li Yuan-hung 



494 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Genpral Li Yuan-hung was born at Huang-pi Hsien, Hupei Province, 
in October 1864. He studied at the Peiyang Naval College, Tientsin, where 
he graduated in 1888 after having undergone a course of six years. Sub- 
sequently General Li served on a crusier during the Sino-Japanese War, 
1894-95, and the late Admiral Chen Pi-kuang was his chief at that time. 
After the War he was engaged in service at Nanking by Viceroy Chang 
Chih-tung. During h's stay at Nanking he was in charge of the reco,n- 
struction of the Nanking Fort and Commander of the Nanking Fortification. 
Upon the transfer of Chang Chih-tung to Wuchang to become the Viceroy 
of Hu-Kuang Provinces, General Li accompanied him thither. There he in 
co-operation with many German military officers assisted in the organization 
and training of the modern troops called Tzu Chiang Chun. In 1897 Gen- 
eral Li was sent to Japan to study he military organization and educational 
conditions of that country. This trip lasted about a year. In 1899 he 
went to Japan again and .served in the Imperial Metropolitan Troop Divi- 
sions. Upon his return to China in 1898, General Li became a major in 
the cavalry and subsequently held several commands, including that of the 
21st Brigade. In 1902 General Li was sent to Japan to witness the 
Imperial Manoeuvers. In 1903 he was appointed Commander of the Four 
Infantry Regiments for the protection of the Provincial Capital of Hupei. 
In 1904 he became Commander of the Second Imperial Army Division sta- 
tioned at Hupei Province. Concurrently General Li then held several other 
positions such as Commander of the Yangtze Fleet, co-director of the 
Hupei Military College, director of the Hupei Arsenals and director of Wu 
Chung College. In the autumn of 1906 he was appointed Commanding 
Officer of the 8th Imperial Army Division which participated in the Changteh 
Manoeuvres. Upon the outbreak of the First Revolution on October 10, 
1911, General Li was forced to accept the comn^and of the revolutionary 
forces thus becoming the Tutu of Hupei. He direcbed their oparations 
against the imperial army. In January 1912 a Provisional government was 
formed in Nanking. Dr. Sun Yat-sen and General Li Yuan-hunng were 
elected President and Vice-President of the Republic respectively. General 
Li was mainly instrumental in arranging for the Shanghai Peace Conference 
which resulted in the abdication of the Manchus and the establishment of 
the Republic of China. On February 15, 1912 Yuan Shih-kai was elected 
Provisional President to succeed Dr. Sun Yat-sen. General Li remained 
as Vice-President. He was appointed to be concurrently Chief of the Gen- 
eral Staff and Military Governor of Hupei, with his headquarters at 
Wuchang. General Li was made a Full General in September 1912. In 
June 1913 he was appointed to hold concurrently the post of Tutu or Military 
Governor of Kiangsi upon the dismissal of General Li Lieh-chun, a Kuo-" 
mingtang member from the Tutuship in connection with the Second 
Itevolution. General Li resigned from the Tutuship of Kiangsi in 
September 1913. In October 1913 the First Parliament elected Yuan 
Shih-kai and Li Yuan-hung the First President and the First Vice-President 
of the Republic respectively. In December 1913 General Li was relieved 
from the Tutuship of Hupei. He went to Peking in the same month tc 
assume the office of Chief of the General Staffs. In January 1914 Yuan 
Shih-kai dissolved the First Parliament. In May 1914 the National Advis- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 495 



ory Council was organized with Li Yuan-hung as its President. In January 
1916 Yuan Shih-kai declared himself Emperor of China. He made General 
Li Yuan-hung a Prince with the special title in two words "Wu I". As 
an expression of his unwillingness to serve Yuan as a monarch, General 
Li confined himself to his private residence in Peking until the death of 
Yuan, which occurred in June 1916. Upon the death of Yuan Shih-kai, 
General Li became President of China according to the constitutions. Feng 
Kuo-chang became Vice-President. The Old Parliament was reconvoked. 
The Advisory Council was dissolved. Tuan Chi-jui became Prime Minister. 
Then the conflict between the President's Office and the Cabinet starbed. 
On the May 23, President Li issued a Mandate dismissing Tuan Chi- 
jui as Prime Mjnistar and appointing Dr. Wu Tin^-fang Act-fig. 
Premier; Chang Shih-yu, Acting Minister of War; and General Wang 
Shih-chen, Commander of the Precautionary Forces in Peking and 
Tientsin. Marshal Tuan went to Tientsin. On May 29, 1917, Li 
Ching-hsi was appointed Premier. General Ni Tzu-chung, then Civil 
Governor of Anhui who was a strong supporter of Tuan Chi-jui, declared 
independence and detained the cars on the Tientsin- Pukow Railway mobo- 
lizing his troops. On the 30th Chang Tso-lin, then Tuchun of Fengtie-n, 
declared independence which was immediately responded to by Shantung, 
Fukien, Chekiang, Honan, Shansi, Chihli. Shensi, Heilungkiang, and Shang- 
hai. On the 31st May Tong Hua-lung, Speaker of the House, resigned. On 
June 1st 1917, General Chang Hsun. then Tuchun of Anhui sent out a cir- 
cular telegram advocating the restoration of monarch and the reitirement 
of the President. On the 2nd he sent to President Li another telegram 
volunteering his own service to mediate between the President and the 
Military Leaders and suggesting the dissolution of the Parliament as the 
condition for the withdrawal of troops by the military leaders. On June 
5, the Tuchuns' Group established their headquarters at Tientsin with 
the object to put up a provisional government there. On the 6th Wang 
Chia-hsiang, President of the Senate tendered his resignation. On the 
7th General Chang Hsun mobilized hi^ troops northward and demanded the 
immediate dissolution of Parliament. Dr. Wu Ting-fang, the Acting 
Premier, declined to counter-sign the Mandate ordering' the demanded dis- 
solution of the Parliament and resigned. General Chiang Chiao-chung, then 
Commander of the Gendamerie was appointed to act as Premier and he 
countersigned the mandate which was issued on June 13. On June 14 
Chang Hsun's troops entered Peking. On July 1, Chang Hsun restored 
the Manchu Emperor to the throne. General Chang's coup d'etat did not 
last long and he was driven into the Dutch Leg'ation for tetnge. "The 
Republic was re-established by Marshal Tuan. But General Li refused to 
resume his office as President of China, and he was succeeded by General 
Feng Kuo-chang. After the restoration of the Republic, ' he stayed for a 
time in Peking, but later went to Tientsin to live. During his retirement 
in Tientsin, General Li took great interest in industrial and mining enter- 
prises in the country. His name has been found among the list of im- 
portant shareholders of the various big industrial and mining corporations. 
In June 1922 General Li was prevailed upon to re-assume the Presidency., 



496 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



after the flight of Hsu Shih-chang, President elected by the so called Tuchun's 
Parliament. On the eve of leaving Tientsin for the Capital, he issued a 
flaming denunciation of the Tuchun System and his consent to resume the 
Presidency was only secured after he had received the assurances from the 
Northern military leaders, particularly General Wu Pei-fu, that they would 
support him in the policies of destroying the Tuchunate, bringing about 
the disbandment of superfluous troops and restoring t' he rule of law. Im- 
mediately after his assuming office, General Li convoked the Old Parlia- 
ment and dissolved the Tuchuns' Parliament. He remained in his office 
just about one year during which time he Avag not able to exercise 
his power nor to carry out his wishes. The pledges of the military 
leaders to support his policies did not forthcome. In June 1923, a cam- 
paign was waged in Peking to oust President Li who finally abandoned 
what was obviously a hopeless struggle and left for Tientsin. Shortly 
afterwards, he proceeded to Shanghai and then went to Japan. He re- 
mained in that country until May 1924 when he returned to Tientsin again. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



497 




Mr. Liang Chi-ch'ao 

Liang Hu-hao 

Mr. Liang Chi-chiao was born at Hsing-hui Hsien, Kuangtung Province, 
in 1869. He studied under Kang Yu-wei at the latter's private school 
called Wan Mu Tsao Tang and has become the most prominent of Kang's 
pupils. Mr. Liang became a Provincial Graduate in 1889. The combination 
of the two names Kang and Liang is generally known in China to mean 
the central figures of the reform movement which was responsible for the 
famous reform decrees of 1898. Proceeding the reform movement, Mr. 
Liang started the first Chinese daily newspaper in Peking. It was a small 
leaflet containing only an editorial which was given away gratuitously. 
The reform decrees of 1898 was inspired by Kang and Liang who laid the 
plot to prevent the Empress Dowager from actively interfering in politics. 



498 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



This plot was finally reported to the Empress Dowager secretly by Yuan. 
Shih-kai who was prompted to do so through fear of losing his own power 
should Kang's party become predominant. A coup d'etat was established 
by Empress Dowager. The reform leaders were proscribed. Six of them 
were arrested and decapitated. Both Kang and Liang, however, escaped 
from being arrested and fled to Japan. There they organized the Pao 
Huang Tang or Party supporting Emperor Kuang Hsu. It advocated a 
limited monarchy in preference to a Republic thus becoming greatly op- 
posed to the Revolutionary Party headed by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Hsin. 
While in Japan, Mr. Liang edited several powerful papers among which 
may be mentioned Ching I Pao, Hsin Ming Chung Pao, Political Opinion, 
Kuo Feng Pao, and Hsin Wen Magazine. During his exile, Mr. Liang also 
visited America, England and Europe, and through such visits learned much 
of social and political conditions abroad about which he informed his fel- 
low-countrymen through his writings. Mr. Liang returned to China after 
the revolution of 1911, which resulted in the establishment of the present 
Republic. Soon after his return he started a daily paper in Tientsin advo- 
cating the spread of political education and the diffusion of general 
knowledge among the Chinese. Mr. Liang was appointed Vice-Minister of 
Justice in Yuan Shih-kai's first Cabinet, but he refused to accept the office. 
Then he founded and tedited the Yung Yen Pao ("Justice"), a bi-monthl,y 
periodical at Tientsin. Ever since his return to China, Mr. Liang had been 
working to organize a big political party to oppose the Kuo Ming Tang, 
headed by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Hsin, which was then the majority party 
in the Parliament. His success came in May 1913 when the three 
existing parties, the Republican Party, the Democratic Party and 
the Unionists Party, were amalgamated to become the Chin Pu Tung 
or Progressive Party and he himself became a leader of it. In September 
1913 he was appointed Minister of Justice in Hsiung Hsi-ling's Cabi-net 
of first-class men. This office he accepted. He resigned in February 1914, 
and was appointed Head of the Currency Bureau, which was afterwards 
incorporated in the Ministry of Finance in December of 1914, after his 
resignation from the Bureau. Liang Chi-chiao rendered signal service to 
the country between 1914 and 1915 through his powerful writings denounc- 
ing Japan's ambition as was shown in the Twenty-One Demands she present- 
ed. Toward the end of 1915, he opposed Yuan Shih-kai's imperialistic 
movement. He fled from' Tientsin to Yunnan where he enlisted the support 
of his pupli. General Tsai Ao. The third revolution consequently commenced. 
It resulted in the collapse of the imperialistic movement and the restoration of 
the Republic in June 1916. In the spring of 1917 the question as to whether 
China should join the European war on the side of the Allies arose. Mr. Liang 
was called to Peking by General Tuan Chi-jui, who was then Prime Min- 
ister, for consultation. Largely upon the advice of Mr. Liang, the Tuan 
Cabinet decided in favor of joining the war. In July 1917, General Chang 
Hsun launched forth the monarchical movement to set the little Manchu 
Emperor on the Throne again. Mr. Liang played an important part as an 
adviser to General Tuan Chi-jui in overthrowing the movement. Upon the 
second restoration of the Republc, he was appointed Minister of Finance, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 499 



and also director general of the Salt Administration. In December the 
Tuan Cabinet was overthrown, and Mr. Liang retired at the same time. 
Mr. Liang visited Paris during the Peace Conference. He arrived in 
London in February 1919 and returned to China at the beginning of 1920. 
He was advisor to Mr. Lu Cheng-hsiang, Chief Delegate of the Chinese 
Delegittion. In 1923 Mr. Liang was elected a member of the P. E. N. 
Cluh, the International Writers' Club founded by John Galsworthy in October 
1921. During the past two years Mr. Liang has -been traveling in the 
different provinces and giving lectures in several high institutions of learn- 
ing. He has considerable influence over the literary people in China on 
account of his forcible pen. 



^ 



500 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Liang Hu-hao 

m to «^ ^ S ^ 

(Better known as M. T. Liang) 

Mr. M. T. Liang was born in Tang Chia, Kuangtung Province, in 
1860. He was one of the earliest Chinese students sent to America where 
he arrived in 1874. He studied engineering at the Steven's Institute of 
Technology, and returned to China in 1881. Mr. Liang served for many 
years with the Shanhaikwan Railway first as a junior and finally as manag- 
ing director. In April 1906, he was appointed Taolai of the Fengtien- 
Chihchow-Shanhaikwan circuit. In April 1907 he was appointed Customs 
Taotai of Tientsin In October of the same year he was appointed Shang- 
hai Taotai. In March 1908 Mr. Liang was appointed Councillor of the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 501 



Board of Foreign Affairs and four months later was made the Chief Sec- 
retary to the Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces. In June 1909, he 
was recalled to Peking. He was offered the post of Vice-Miinister of 
Communications in Yuan Shih-kai's Cabinet of November 16, 1911, but 
he did not accept. He was nominated for the post of Minister of Com- 
munications in the first Republican Cabinet, but the nomination was rejected 
by Parliament. In September 1912 Mr. Liang was appointed Minister of 
Foreign Affairs which position he held only for two months. Since that 
time he has resided in Tientsin. During 1920 and 1921, he assisted in 
the organization and was elected president of the North China International 
Society of Famine Relief. He has been and is still the president of the 
China International Famine Relief Commission. In November 1921, he was 
appointed High Advisor to the Chinese Delegation to the Washington Con- 
ference and accompanied it to America. In April 1922, Mr. Liang was 
appointed Director-General of the Bureau for the Rendition of Weihaiwei. 
In that capacity he has been successfully negotiating with the British 
delegates on the question of the return to China of this port, Mr. Liang 
has received the First Class Taahou Chiaho Decoration. 



^ 



502 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Liang Lang-hsun 



Mr. Liang Lang-hsun, was born at Samshui, Kwangtung, in 1880. He 
attended Queen's College when young and was an Expectant Taotai of the 
Tsing Dynasty. Mr. Liang was an instructor in Tientsin University in 
its early days. After leaving the university faculty, Mr. Liang served 
for a time as secretary of the Canton-Hankow Railroad. Among the offices 
he has occupied daring his official career were the Assistant Commission 
for Foreign Affairs in the office of the Viceroy of Liang Kwang, Coramia- 
sioner for Foreign Affairs in Pakhoi, Consul-General at Sydney, collector 
of likin at Hohao, and held various posts in the Peking Ministry of Finance. 
For his service to the government he has been awarded many decorations 
and orders, including the Second Order of Execllent Crops. Mr. Liang has 
been Superintendent of Customs and Commissioner for Foreign Affairs in 
Canton. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



503 




Mr. Liang Shih-i 

Mr. Liang Shih-i was born at San-shui Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1860. He became a Metropolitan Graduate in 1894 and was subsequently 
given the rank of ministerial senior secretary. In 1899 Mr. Liang was 
specially recommended to the Manchu Throne by Chang Chih-tung, then 
Viceroy of Hu-Kuangj to attend the examination for men of unusual 
talents. He passed it, coming out at the top of the list, thus gaining for 
himself a nation-wide reputation. In 1906 Mr. Liang was appointed Sec- 
retary to Tang Shao-i who was sent to ( India on a special government 
mission. In 1907, upon Tang's return to Peking, Mr. Liang became Chief 
of the Railway Department of the Board of Communications. Shortly after- 
wards he was ordered to hold concurreutly the post of the Chief of the 



504 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Postal Departments. The other important posts Mr. Liang held under the 
Ching regime were those of assistant director of the Bank of Communica- 
tions, Proctor of the Bureau for the Preparation of Constitutional govern- 
ment, and Director General of the Imperial Railways. In July 1909 Mr. 
Liang was promoted to be Senior Councillor of the Board, but he did n^t 
resign from his other posts until February 1911. Following the outbreak 
of the First Revolution in October 1911, the Manchu government recalled 
Yuan Shih-kai from his retirement in Honan and appointed him Prime 
Minister. In this Cabinet Mr. Liang was the vice-president of the Board 
of Communications. In December 1911, he was made acting director of 
the Imperial Chinese Posts. In January 1912 he was ordered to act for the 
President of the Board until March 1912 when Tang Shao-i was appointed 
the first Prime Minister of the Retpublican government. Upon being 
elected President of the Republic in February 1912, Yuan Shih-kai ap- 
pointed Mr. Liang Chief Secretary of the President's Office. From May 
to September in 1913, while still retaining his position of Chief 
Secretary, he was Acting Vice-Minlster of Finance. As Vice-Minister he 
acted for the Minister twice. After the dissolution of the Parliament by 
Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914, the Council of State as a legislature was 
founded. In May 1914, when the Council was convoked, Mr. Liang was 
appointed a member of it. On the same day he was appointed Director 
General of Customs Administration. Subsequently he received another post 
as Director General of the Bureau of Taxes. All these positions he held 
until June 1916. Mr. Liang played an important part in the movement of 
Yuan Shih-kai in 1915 to make himself Emperor of China. The movement 
collapsed in June 1916. In July 1917 President Li Yuan-hung who had 
succeeded Yuan Shih-kai issued a mandate ordering the arrest of eight 
high officials including Mr. Liang who had figured prominently in the mon- 
archical movement. Mr. Liang went to Hongkong and retired from public 
life. In the winter of 1917 Mr. Liang visited Japan where he stayed for 
some time and made connections with influential financiers and statesmen in 
that country for the industrial developments of China. In February 1918 
he was pardoned by a Mandate. Soon after his return from Japan, he waa 
invited to Peking. When Mr. Liang first came to Peking he was full of 
views of the South. As General Hsu Shu-tsen, Prime Minister Tuan's right 
hand man, was against the opening of peace negotiations with the south, Mr. 
Liang was obliged to remain silent. In the, spring of 1918 the Anfu Club- 
came into existence. Of this club Mr. Liang was one of the promoters. It 
was active during the election of the members for the new Parliament which 
was convoked in August 1918 and of which Mr. Liang was elected Speaker 
of the Senate. This position he resigned after a few months. In March 
1920 Mr. Liang was appointed Dierctor-General of the Domestic Loan 
Administration. In September 1921 he was awarded the First Class Tas- 
hou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. In December 1921, Mr. Liang became 
Prime Minister, under the influence of Marshal Chang Tso-lin. On January 
5, 1922 Marshal Wu Pei-fu, waged a telegraphic campaign against the 
Peking government accusing Mr. Liang of having cabled instructions to the 
Chinese Delegation to the Washington Conference to drop the Shantung 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 505 



negotiations with the Japanese Delegation so that the Shantung question 
might be disposed of to Japan's satisfaction in Peking. In spite of several 
refutations made by Mr. Liang, the officials of Kiangsu, Kiangsi, Hupei, 
Shantung, Honan and Shensi, on January 19, 1922 jointly demanded the 
dismissal of Mr. Liang, threatening to break connection with Peking should 
the demands be neglected. On the 25th Mr. Liang left Peking. After 
the Chihli-Fengtien War which took place near Peking in May 1922 and 
resulted in the defeat of Fengtien. Mr. Liang became a political refugee 
in south. Mr. Liang made an extensive trip to Europe and America during 
the first part of 1922 and returned to China in the summer of this year. 
He is at present residing at Hongkong. 



^ 



506 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Sze-chen Liao, 

(Liao Shih-ch'ang) 

Dr. Sze-chen Liao, professor of Educational Psychology, National 
Southeastern University, and director of the University Middle School, 
was born in Rating, Kiangsu province, on June 14, 1893. After his 
graduation from Nanyang College Middle School, he entered Tsing Hua 
College at Peking. He was sent abroad by the latter institution in 1915. 
Then he joined Brown University as a sophomore where he received his 
Ph. B. and M. A. degrees. In the meantime he went to New York and 
studied at Teachers College, Columbia University, for three summer sessions 
consecutively. In 1918 he was elected to Sigma Xi and was awarded the 
James Manning Scholarship for "distinguished excellence in college studies." 
In 1919 he came back to China, working at his thesis, while he was teach- 
ing in the Higher Normal School at Nanking. In 1920 he received his Ph. 
D. degree from Brown University. Since then he has spent most of his 
time in doing experimental work in secondary education. The books he 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 5o7 



has written are as follows: Principles of Secondary Education (Commerical 
Press), Educational Psychology (Tsung Hua Book Co.), Middle School Ed- 
ucation in China, Bulletins on Chinese Education, 1923 (Commercial Press), 
and Group Intelligence Tests (Commercial Press). Besides, he has trans- 
lated Colvin and Bagley's Human Behavior (Tsung Hua Book Co.). He is 
editor of Secondary Education magazine, and Chairman of the Secondary 
Education Committee organized by the Chinese National Association for the 
Advancement of Education. 



^ 



508 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Lin Chang-ming. 

W fft W ^ :8« m 

Mr. Lin Chang-ming was born at Ming Hon Hsien, Fukien in 1876. 
When he was a boy, he studied Chinese literature in a typical Confucian- 
school. He commenced to study the English language in 1900. The sub- 
jects of foreign politics and law interested him very much. Mr. Lin went 
to Japan to study in 1902, and entered the Waseda University where he spec- 
ialized in political science and economics. He studied in Japan for seven 
years. He returned to China in 1909 when there was a national move- 
ment for constitutiional government, and when the Advising Council in 
Peking and provincial assemblies in the provinces had been established. 
Upon his arrival at his native province, Mr. Lin was made Chief Secretary 
of the Fukien Provincial Assembly. Shortly afterwards he became a con- 
trolling factor in the assembly and organized a political party. Owing 
to the conflict of old and new ideas, Mr. Lin was opposed strongly 
by the conservative members of Fukien gentry and had bo leave his native 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 509 



place. When the first revolution broke out in 1911, he was at Shanghai. 
The new situation afforded to him an opportunity to show his politcal 
leiadership. He travelled between Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow and 
Nanking, in his efforts to persuade the governors and generals to combine 
their influence and organize a provisional government and declare inde- 
pendence of Peking. All the telegrams and declarations issued by the 
Provisional government during that period were drafted by him. After 
joining in the revolutionary movement, Fukien requested Mr. Lin to be its 
representative, and in that capacity, he took part in the conference of the 
provincial delegates held in Nanking to consider the question of breaking, 
away from the Manchu government. Mr. Lin proposed that the election of 
the President to direct the provisional government should not be postponed 
until after the union of North and South, and for this proposal became 
the object of attack to his political opponents. While he was seeing a 
friend of his off at the Nanking Railway station, two bullets from a would- 
be assassin for him missed him. It was subsequently learned that the 
would-be assassin was in possession of a secret order from the Shanghai 
Taotai alleging that Mr. Lin was a traitor. The would-be assassin was 
arrested but released the next day on account of the exertion of highe,r 
influence. After the reunion of North and South, Mr. Lin was appointed 
Chief Secretary of the Provisional Parliament. At the same time he promoted 
the Republican Constitutional Society which later became the Republican 
Party. In 1913 he was elected a member of the Lower House and appointed 
by the Speaker its Chief Secretary. Upon the amalgamation of the Re- 
publican Party with other parties and the creation of a new political party 
called the Chin Pu Tang or Progressive Party, he was elected the chief of 
the political section of that party. In 1914 Mr. Lin was appointed Coun- 
sellor to the State Department. In 1916 he was given the position of 
Chief of the Law Bureau, but he refused to accept the appointment. At 
the time when the German submarine policy aroused the indignation of 
Minister of Justice. The new Cabinet at once declared war against 
Germany and Australia. General Tuan resigned in April of 1919. 
He persuaded Vice-President Feng to urge the government to break 
off diplomatic relations with Germany, but the opinion held by various 
high officials was then divided. Finally General Tuan Chi-jui, Prime 
Minister was dismissed on account of his war policy, following which 
General Chang Hsun attempted to restore the Manchu Emperor to 
the Throne and President Li Yuan-hung fled. After the restoration of the 
Republic by General Tuan, Mr. Lin joined his Cabinet in the capacity of 
Minister of Justice. The new Cabinet at once declared war against Ger- 
many and Australia. General Tuan resigned in April of 1918, and Mr. Lin 
also resigned- After his retirement, Mr. Lin travelled in Japan. Upon 
the declaration of the armistice in Europe, the President sent Mr. Liang 
Chi-chiao to Europe as an official envoy upon his suggestion. In January 
1920 he was awarded the Fourth Order of Merit. At that time Mr. Lin 
was a member of the Diplomatic Commission. When the news of China's 
failure at the Paris Peace Conference reached Peking, he wrote many 
articles and made a number of speeches against Japan, and strongly con- 



510 WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



demned her for trying to inherit the former German rights in Shantung. 
He lost favor with the government and was suspected by the Japanese as a 
leader of the anti-Japanese party. Mr. Lin left for Europe and America 
with his daughter to study foreign conditions in March 1920. He return- 
ed to China in 1923. Immediately he joined the Parliament and took part 
in the drafting of the Constitution. Following the election of Marshal Tsao 
Kun to the Presidency. Mr. Lin deserted the Peking government and to- 
gether with a number of other M. P's. he went to Shanghai to devise means 
to fight against the absolute rule of militants. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



sn 




Arthur F. Lym 

^ Wt yt 

Lin Fu-yuan 

Captain Arthur F. Lym, second in command of the Canton Aviation 
Corps, was born in San Francisco, U. S. A., in 1891. Aside from occupying 
an important post in the Army of Canton Captain Lym has also entered 
into active business and is now doing well as an import and export 
insurance agent. He is now starting a school to train chauffers for the 
growing motor car trade in which he has taken the lead. Captain Lym is 
the first Chinese to graduate from the well-known Curtis Aviation School 
of Buffalo, N. Y., receiving his diploma 1913. He is now the holder of 
International Pilot License No. 245. While in America he flew over 
many cities and won many trophies for record flights. Captain Lym arrived 
in China 1914 and gave some demonstrations in Swatow and Canton soon 
after his arrival. The authorities in these two ports rewarded him specially 



512 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



for his fluccesa in showing the local inhabitants the possibilrty of other 
Chinese learning the science of aviation. In 1915, the Military Governor 
of Kwangtung commissioned Captain Lym to invade the bandit strongholds 
in the island of Hainan. He finished the job well. To promote local aviation 
Captain Lym has organized an Aero Club in Canton. He is now chairman 
of a flourishing club of more then twenty members. Captain Lym is very 
popular socially in Canton. He is the head of the Sun Tinge Club and 
treasurer of the European-American Returned Students' Association, two 
of the leading organizations of college men and foreign educated Chinese. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



513 




Mr. V. Fong Lam 

¥^± :» 'P ±-^ 

(Lin Yun-fang) 

Mr. V. Fong Lam, was born in 1891 in Canton, where he received his 
preliminary education. In 1909 he went to America to further his studies 
first in a preparatory school in Brooklyn, New York, and two years lat«r 
in Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Here he took up the special 
five years course in Naval Construction, a course similarly offered in the 
same Institute to the graduates of the Annapolis Naval Academy. After 
his graduation from the Institute, Mr. Lam worked for three years in The 
New London Ship and Engine Co. and the New York Shipbuilding Co. in 
many minor positions in order to supplement the theoretical training with 
the practical experience he was then gaining. At the end of 1919 Mr. 
Lam returned to China. Prior to his return he realized that the time for 
the development of the shipbuilding industry in China had not arrived, 



514 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



whereupon he organized the Lam, Glines and Co., Inc. Mr. Glines, who is 
Mr. Lam's partner, is one of the executives of the well-known American 
engineering firm of Stone and Webster. The formation of the largest ship- 
yard in the world, the Hog Island Shipyard, was in great measure due to 
the efforts of Mr. Glines. He is now serving as Chairman of the Advisory 
Board of Secretary Hoover's Far Eastern Commerce Committee. Although 
Lam, Glines and Co., Inc. is now engaged as contractor, architect, and 
trader yet the object to which Mr, Lara will ultimately direct his Company's 
efforts is the development of industries in China. Mr. Lam has under him 
a staff of young Chinese engineers who are graduates of American Colleges 
and who will no doubt live up to what is expected of them. Besides being 
head of his own firm Mr. Lam is also serving as director of the Eristern 
Hide and Leather Co. He is a member of the Rotary Club as well as be- 
longing to other learned societies and was at one time associate member 
of the Institute of Naval Architects of Londen, and the Society of Naval 
Architects and Marine Engineers of America. 



.je 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



515 




Mr. Chi-chun Lin 

Jt K ll^ 
(Ling Ch'i-chun) 

Mr. Chi-Chun Lin was born at Shanghai, in 1897. He attended Tsing 
Hua College, Peking, in 1911, and in 1913-16. He then went to America 
where he attended Iowa State College, 1916-17; Ohio State University 1917- 
19, from which he was graduated with honor, receiving the degree of 
Bachelor of Ceramic Engineering. He was the first Chinese student to 
study ceramics, realizing the importance of developing the ceramic indu- 
stries in China. While in America Mr. Lin acted as assistant ceramist of 
the Mosiac Tile Company, Zanesville, Ohio, 1919-20, and research ceramic 
engineer of the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. He is the 
author of several technical papers on high fire proselain and procelain 
high tension insulators which were published in the Journal of the American 
Ceramic Society; he is an active member of the same society. Mr. Lin 
after returning to China in the spring of 1921 investigated the pottery 
industries at Ishun and Kingteh-cheng under the auspices of the Chinese 



516 WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 



General Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai. He made personal visits to some 
ten different provinces in China, investigating clay mining, brick and tile 
manufacture, glass and enamel making and other ceramic industries. Mr. 
Lin has acted as engineer of the Ta Hu Cement Company, Wusih. He was 
one of the founders and is now acting as engineer of the National Pottery 
Company, Shanghai, the first modern pottery using machinery and scientific 
methods in making all kinds of porcelain and pottery ware in China. Mr. 
Lin is a member of the Sigma Xi honorary fraternity, the Chinese Society 
of Chemical Industries, Committee on Geological Survey, and the Provincial 
Bureau of Education and Industry, Kiangsu. His business address is National 
Pottery Co., 96 Szechuen Road, Shanghai. His residence address is 43C 
Yu Yuen Road, Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



517 




Dr. Ling Ping 

Dr. Ling Ping was born in Ku Shih Hsien, Honan, July 1894. He 
received his primary education at home and college education at Nankai 
College graduating in 1912. In 1913, Dr. Ling went to America and 
entered Stanford University where he graduated in 1916 with the degree 
of B. A. While studying in that university, he was elected to Phi Beta 
Kappa, the academic honor society. In the autumn of 1916, Dr. Ling 
entered Teacher's College of Columbia University to do research work in 
pedagogical psychology. He was graduated from Columbia in 1917 with 
the degree of Master of Pedagogy. From 1917 to 1919 Dr. Ling continued 
his studies at Clark University, doing further research work in pedagogical 
psychology. The degree of Ph. D. was conferred upon him on the comple- 



518 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



tion of this work. In the autumn of 1919, Dr. Ling returned to China and 
became dean of Nankai University until the autumn of 1922 he was a-p- 
pointed Commissioner of Education of Honan, his native province. He did 
not remain long in this position, however, but soon reLiurned to Nankai 
where he resumed the position of the Dean of the Universitjy Deimrtment. 
He is the author of many published works among which are: Feeble 
Mindedness and Heredity. Public Schools and the War, and Outline 
of Psychology of the Children, the latter being in Chinese published by 
the Commercial Press, Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



519 




Mr. D. Y. Lii 



(Ling Tao*yang) 

Mr. Lin was born at Pao-an Hsien, Kuangtung province, in 1888 and 
received his early education at St. Jolin's University, Shanghai, graduating 
in 1909. In the fail of 1909 Mr. Lin went to America and ia 1912 was 
graduated from the Massachusetts Agricultural College with the degree of 
B. Sc. in agriculture. Then he took post graduate work in foresty at the 
Yale Forest School, Yale University, and obtained the degree of M. F. in 
1914. In the summer of 1914 he investigated the German forestry service. 
He returned to China in the fall of 1915 and was appointed Lecturer on 



520 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Conservation in the National Y. M. C. A. in 1915. In 1917 he became 
Technical Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Peking. 
In the fall of 1917 he accepted the professorship on forestry in the Uni- 
versity of Nanking. In April 1919, Mr. Lin became Commissioner of 
Forestry for Shantung and concurrently forester in the Ministry of Com- 
munications on railway forestry matters, and adviser to the Shantung Civil 
Governor. Later he served as expert on agricultural and forestry matters 
at the Shantung Negotiations in Peking, in the fall of 1922. Since March 
1923 Mr. Lin has been Director of the Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry, 
Tsingtao, and concurrently special secretary for general affairs for the 
Tsingtao government. Mr. Lin is the author of the following publications: 
Elements of Forestry— 1915; Manual of Forestry— 1916 ; The Chinese 
Wood Oil, Camphor, Etc.— 1917; Forests and Chihli Flood— 1918; Rela- 
tion of Forests to Floods and Droughts— 1919 ; Some Features of Chinese 
Agriculture — 1922. The Elements of Forestry and Manual of Forestry, 
published by the Commercial Press, are popular text books used in the 
agricultural schools and colleges of China. Mr. Lin's address is Bureau of 
Agricultural and Forestry, Tsingtao, China. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



521 







■■■^■■^■^■■^^■■a 


■■■■■i^^aa 


1. 


?tj^M^>^^Hr>»^ 


1 


1 


i 




H| 


■ 


i 


^^^^HOIt 


£ '^PK '^K 


iHHI 


\i 






4. 


{ 




^■pp^N ^C 




i 




1^ 


g 






IP 


... i'4''l-:'*i5) 



General Liu Chao 

General Liu Chao was born at Wu Ohio Hsien, Chihli province, in 
1887. He was a Provincial Graduate in the Ching Dynasty. He studied 
law in Japan and graduated with the degree of LL.B. General Liu began 
his official career as a Junior Secretary of the Board of the Interior; and 
has held the following positions: Member of the Chihli Provincial Assembly; 



522 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Sectional Chief of the Inspectorate General of the Military Forces; Chief 
of Administrative Department of the Suiyuan Special Area; Chief of Civil 
Administration Department of the Kuei-Sui Area; Chief of Judicial Depart- 
ment of the Kuei-Sui Area; Chief Secretary to the Tuchun of Kiangsi 
Province; Chief Justice of the Kiangsi Military Court; Advisor to the 
Cabinet; Member of the Commission for the Consolidation of Domestic and 
Foreign Loans; Superintendent of the Sino-Norwegian Bank; and . Chief 
Justice of the Martial Court under the Ministry of War, which latter posi- 
tion he still holds. General Liu is a Major-General and he has received 
the Second Class Tashou Chiaho and the Second Class Wenfu. 



Ji 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



^n 




General Liu Chen-hua 

SiJ ^ ip ^ g ffi 

General Liu Chen-hua was born at Kung Hsien, Honan province, in 
1883, and was a Shiu-tsai or licentiate being graduated from the Peking 
Law College. General Liu took an active part in the First Revolution, 
having under his command a brigade of soldiers stationed at the boundary 
between Shensi and Honan. After the establishment of the Republic, Yuan 
Shih-kai took great interest in General Liu and had his troops re-organized 
under the name of Chen Sung Chun. These troops were very soon engaged 
in suppressing the bandits which were then thickly infesting the province 
of Honan. In 1913 General Liu was made a Major General and in 1914 
was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General. Subsequently he was 
granted the Third Order of Merit. In 1917 General Liu with his troops 
was sent to Shensi to maintain order which had been disturbed by banditry. 
He was still commanding officer of the Chen Sung Chun. In October 1920 
General Liu was granted the First Class Wenfu and in December 1920 the 
Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In March 1922 he was given the brevet rank 



524 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



of full General. In May 1922 he was appointed to act concurrently as 
Military Governor of Shensi. General Liu carried out this mission to the 
satisfaction of the Central government, which appointed him Civil Governor. 
In 1922 he was given the brevet rank of a full General. In May 1922 
he was appointed to act concurrently as Military Governor of Shensi. 
In July 1922 he was made "Fou-Wei Chiangchun," a member of the College 
of Marshals. In October 1922, he was granted the First Class Tashou Pao- 
kiiang Chiaho, and in December 1923 he was made a Full General. General 
Liu is still the Civil Governor and the Acting Military Governor of Shensi. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



525 




Mr. Liu Chen-hua 

Mr. Liu Chen-hua was born at Wanhsien, Chihli Province, in 1890. 
He entered the Yu Teh School, Paoting, from which he graduated in 1912. 
Aiter a year and a half spent in the Peking Government University he 
was one of eight students who won four-year scholarships to the Hongkong 
University. He entered as a Freshman the Mechanical Engineering 
Department in 1914. Four years later he was graduated with the degree 
of B. S. C. His notes and papers were sent for the inspection of the London 
University authorities, who pronounced them of the highest excellence. 



526 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Hongkong University also forwarded records of his work to the National 
Board of Education in Peking. He entered the Yu Teh School, Paoting, 
from which he graduated in 1912. Mr. Liu went to Tientsin in 1918, to be- 
come Professor of Prime Movers and Machine Designs. At Yu Teh he 
remained three years, giving special courses in workshop appliances and 
other technical branches and organized the Yu Teh Iron Works as a departi- 
ment of the school. About one hundred students were sent to France as a 
Board of Education in Peking. During his stay in Paoting he also 
found time to invent two irrigating machines which later were awarded 
certificates of honor by the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, and 
the Chihli Provincial Exhibition of Engineering Products, held in Tientsin. 
In 1921 Mr. Liu accepted the Chair of Physics, Farm Motors and Farm 
Machinery in the newly established Hopei University at Paoting, and later 
assumed the Presidency of Peiyang University in Tientsin, which he holds 
at the present time. Mri. Liu has been an untiring worker with the pen. 
He has written in Chinese the following books which have been published 
in Shanghai by the Commercial Press. Applied Mechanics (now in its 
third edition), Steam Engines, and Internal Combustion Engines. He 
is the author of a textbook on physics for university classes, which will 
soon be published, and he is at present engaged in preparing a volume 
entitled Farm Motors and Farm Machinery. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



527 




Mr. Liu Chih-chou 

Mr. Liu Chih-chou was born at Feng-hsiang Hsien, Shensi Province, 
in 1883. He was graduated from the School of Science at Shanghai. 
Subsequentlj'- he taught in the Middle School of his native district for three 
years. Upon the outbreak of the First Revolution in October 1911, Mr. 
Lia organized a volunteer corp in his district and declared the independ- 
ence of Feng Hsiang and the adjacent districts in defiance of the Manchu 
authority. In 1912, the first year of the Republic, Mr. Liu was elected a 
member of the Shensi Provincial Assembly. At the same time he taught 
in the Shensi Academy, Sianfu. In 1913 Mr. Liu was elected a Member of 
the Lower House of the First Parliament which was convoked in Peking in 



528 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



April 1913 and dissolved by Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914. From April 
1914 to the spring of 1916 Mr. Liu was connected with the National Oil 
Administration as field manager of the prospecting party digging wells in 
the northern region of Shensi. From August 1916, when the First Parlia- 
ment was reconvoked after the death of Yuan Shih-kai; to June 1917 when 
it was again dissolved, Mr, Liu was in Peking occupying his seat in 
Parliament. Subsequent to the second dissolution of Parliament, he went 
in company with large numbers of M. P. s first to Shang^hai and 
then to Canton where in August 1917 the Extraordinary Parliament 
was convoked. Mr, Liu remained with the Southern government, 
holding various positions in the administrative offices in addition to being 
a member of the Extraordinary Parliament, until the end of 1920 when the 
Cheng Hsueh Hui faction lost their power in Canton, Mr. Liu Was then a 
member -of that faction. Subsequently Mr. Liu went to Shensi and very 
soon joined General Wu Pei-fu's camp at Loyang as a Counsellor, lie was 
taken into high confidence by General Wu and he rendered valuable service 
in the latter's campaign against Fengtien in the summer of 1922. The- 
First Parliament was reconvoked in July 1922, and Mr. Liu returned to 
the Lower House again. In December 1922 he was appointed Vice-Minister 
of A<;.riculture and Commerce. In February 1923 he was .given a concur- 
rent post as President of the Commission for the Drafting of Laws govern- 
ing industry and commerce. In March 1923 Mr. Liu was awarded the 
Second Class Wenfu Decoration 'and was given another concurrenti position 
as Member of the Commission for the Study of Mongolian Questions. In 
July 1923 he was relieved of the Vice-Miniatership, Since that time he 
has been living in Tientsin, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



529 




Mr. Liu Chin 

fii ^ *^ ii H 

(Hsisan C. Liu) 

Mr. Hsisait C. Liu, secretary and engineer-in-charge of the Technical 
Department of the Szechuan-Hankow Railway, and Deputy of the Yangtze 
River Commission in Hankow, is a native of Wusih, born in Shanghai in 
1885. He received the early part of his education in the Anglo-Chineee 



530 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



College at Shanghai, and later joined the Shanhaikwan Railway College in 
North China as a igovernment student, and graduated from that college in 
1900. Just .then the Boxer trouble arose which made his position on the 
Tientsin- Shanhaikwan Railway insecure. Thereupon Mr. Liu joined the 
Weihaiwei Regiment under British Officers as Cadet and Interpreter. Upon 
the reduction of troops in the fall of 1902, Mr. Liu left the Regiment with 
the rank of Military Sergeant. On account of his military training under 
British Officers, he was engaged in 1903 by the Paotingfu University as 
Military Drill Instructor, which he later resigned to be Assistant Police 
Superintendent under Captain William W. Quincey in the organization of a 
modern police force composed of Chinese and Sikhs in the Commercial Port 
of Tsinanf u, Shantung Province. In recognition of his meritorious services 
rendered while in Tsinanfu, he was awarded the Commission of Major and 
was transferred to Tientsin as Aide-de-Camp to the Viceroy of Chihli, H. 
E. Yang Shih-hsiang. Liu also had a title as sub-prefect which was 
awarded him by the Imperial Manchu government for services rendered in 
rescuing lives and property from merchant ships off the Shantung Coast. In 
1908 Mr. Liu was engineer in charge of the Lotung Railway, First Section, 
and acting locomotive engineer of the Lunghai Railway. Then the Siems- 
Carey Canal and Railway Co. of America projected two railways in the 
interior of China, one from Hankow to Chengtu in Szschuan Province and 
the other from Chuchow, Hunan, to Chinchow in Kwangtung Province in 
South China. On these projected lines preliminary work began, and Mr. 
Liu soon became the surveying engineer of the Chow-chikow-Hsiangyang 
section of the Hankow- Chengtu line, called Chow-Hsiang Railway. No 
sooner had the work started than unsucces.gful negotiations with the Chinese 
government made the Siems-Carey plans fall through, and 1917 found Mr. 
Liu in Hankow as Secretary of the Szechuan-Hankow Railway, which posi- 
tion he still holds. Aside from his railway work, Mr. Liu is also Councillor 
to General Wu Pei-fu. He is in possession of a British War Medal awarded 
him by the British government in 1900. With the Association of Chinese 
and American Engineers, he is corresponding secretary in Hankow. In the 
recently proposed Door- of -Hope for helpless Chinese girls, in Hankow, he 
was elected honorary secretary. In addition he is a member of the now board 
of managers of the Hankow Y. M. C. A. When Lenox Simpson started the 
Far Eastern Times in Peking in 1923 Mr. Liu was appointed agent and 
correspondent of the Times in Hankow. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



531 




Mr. Liu Ching-jen, 

Mr. Liu Ching-jen was born at Paosanhsien, Kiangsu, in 1868. He first 
joined the sshool of Languag'e at the Arsenal in Shanghai, and was after- 
wards transferred to the College of Tung Wen Kwan in Peking, where he 
graduated in 1893. After his 'graduation he was sent to London as a 



S32 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



student interpreter to the Chinese Legation. From London he was, 
transferred to the Legation in Paris. In 1896 Mr. Liu left Paris and was 
employed in the Three Eastern Provinces, where he was entrusted with 
the task of surveying the railway lines. Upon the completion of the 
mission, he remained attached to the office of the said railway for conduct- 
ing diplomatic affairs. In 1906 Minister Liu was transferred to the 
Legation at Petrograd as Councillor, where several times he was charge 
d'affaires in the absence of the Minister. In 1908 he was recalled and sent 
to Harbin to be President of the Bureau of Diplomatic Affairs for the 
province of Heilungkiang. Soon afterwards he was appointed Taotai of 
Harbin. The following year he was made Assistant Director of the Peking- 
Hankow Railway. In 1910 Mr. Liu v/as appointed Expectant Councillor of 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1911 he was again appointed Taotai of 
Harbin. Before taking up his office. Minister Liu was sent to Petograd to 
negotiate for the modification of the Chinese-Russian Commercial Treaty. 
While on the mission he was appointed Chinese Minister to Holland. He 
assumed the office on February 22, but in September of the same 
year he was transferred to be Chinese Minister to Russia. In the spring" 
of 1918 Mr. Liu returned to China in company with the Japanese Ambas- 
sador, Viscount Uchida, on account of the disorder in Russia following the 
overthrow of Tsardom. In January 1919 Mr. Liu was awarded the Second 
Class Wenfu. In September 1919 he was appointed Chinese Minister to 
Japan. But he declined the honor and persistently refused to proceed to 
this post. In January 1920 Mr. Liu was awarded the Second Class Tashou 
Paokuang Chiaho. In September 1920 he was officially relieved of the 
Tokyo post and was appointed Vice-President of the Commission for the 
Study of Treaties under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1922 Mr. Liu 
was appointed concurrently President of the Commission for Russian Affairs 
in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In October 1922 he was awarded the 
First Class Tashou Chiaho. In May 1923 Mr. Liu was appointed Vice- 
President of the Commission on Foreign Affairs which position he is still 
holding. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



533 



^ 




Mr. C. S. Liu 

sij a m ^ It a 

(Liu Ching-shan) 

Mr. G. S. Liu was born at Tientsin, Chihli Province, in 1882. He 
studied between 1901 and 1902 at the Pu-tung School, Tientsin, which later 
became the nucleus of the present Nankai College; at the Tientsin High 
School between 1902-1903; at the Peiyang University between 1903 and 
1905. In July 1905, Mr. Liu went to America as a governmeint student. 
He studied political economy at the University of Pennsylvania between 
1905 and 1910. In 1909 he received the degree of B. S., and in 1910 that 
of M. A. He returned to China in August 1910. In 1912 Mr. Liu was 
appointed auditor of the Kiangsu Provincial Bank, Shanghai. Shortly 
afterwards he became Professor of the Commercial College in Tientsin. In 



534 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



1913 he was delegated to survey the famine districts in Anhui along, the 
Huai River Region together with Mx. C. D. Jameson, engineer represe'nt- 
ative of the American Red Cross. Later Mr. Liu became Chief of the 
F'oreign Affairs Department in the office of the Customs Superintendent in 
Chefoo. After his resignation from this post he was appointed a member 
of the Commission on the Unification of Railway Accouats and Statistics. 
In August 1914 Mr. Liu was promoted to be Assistant Chief of the Audit 
and Accounts Division of the Accounts Department of the Ministry of 
Communications. In September 1914 he was conferred the 7th Class Chiaho 
Decoration. In November he became a Technical Expert in the Ministry. 
In August 1915 Mr. Liu was given the official appointment of Senior Sec- 
retary. Subsequently he became Chief of the Audit and Accounts Division 
of the Postal Department. In September 1915 he was transferred to be a 
member of the central auditing division of the Ministry of Communications. 
In July 1917 Mr. Liu became Chief of the Audit and Accounts Division of 
the Railway Department. In September he was appointed a member of the 
Commission for the Study of Railway Administration. In November he 
received another appointment as a member of the Commission on the Codi- 
fication of Railway Regulations and Rules and also Chief of the Accounts 
Section of the same Commission. In May 1918 Mr. Liu became chairman 
of the Traffic Conference. In June he was transferred to be Chief of the 
traffic section of the Railway Department, and concurrently acted as Chief 
of the Audit and Accounts Division of the same Department. In August 
he became Chief of the General Affairs Division ,of the Through Traffic 
Administration. In November he was appointed Chief of the Traffic Divi- 
sion of the Railway Technical Commission and in December he became 
Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee on the Unification of Railway 
Accounts and Statistics. In January 1919 Mr. Liu was transferred back to 
be Chief of the Audit and Accounts Division of the Railway Department. 
In June he was given the Third Class Wenhu Decoration. In August 1920 
Mr. Liu was again made the Chief of the Traffic Division of the Railway 
Department and was simultaneously appointed to act as Chief of the Audit 
and Accounts Division, Co-Director of the Through Traffic Administration, 
and Chief of the Chinese Eastern Railway Affairs Bureau. In the same 
month he became a member of the Commission on International Transit. In 
November he became a member of the Railway Finance Conference arid 
was conferred the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho. In December he received 
two appointments, namely, Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Eastern Railway 
Commission, and Special Deputy to assist in the organization of the Uni- 
versity of Communications. In February 1921 Mr. Liu became Chairman 
of the Committee on Through Traffic ; and also a member of the Commission 
for the Study of Railway Lines for the Whole of China. In March he was 
appointed Chief Accountant of the Peking-Hankow Railway. In May he 
became a member of the Commission for the Improvements of Documents 
and Official Procedures and was also appointed Councillor of the Ministry 
of Communications. In June he became vice-president of the Chinese 
Eastern Railway. This appointment was made as a recognition of his 
services rendered during the winter of 1920 in connection with the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 535 



negotiations of a new agreement concerning the Chinese Eastern Railway. 
In December 1921 Mr. Liu returned to Peking Ministry again, becoming 
Chief of the Railway Department. He held concurrently the following 
positions; President of the Commission for the Study of Railway Affairs, 
Vice-Chairman of the Commission for the Study of Railway Lines, and 
Vice-Chairman of the Railway Finance Commission. In March 1922 Mr. 
Liu received another post as an Executive Member of the Commission on 
Communications in . connection with the redention of Shantung interests. 
In December he was awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration. 
In January 1923 the government awarded upon Mr. Liu the Second Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. Later he joined the Bank of Com- 
munications to which he is still connected. In September 1923 he was 
appointed an expert to the Financial Re-organization Commission under 
the Cabinet. 



^ 



536 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Liu Ck'u-hsiang 

Mr. Lia Ch'u-hsiang was born at Teng-tsung Hsien, Yunnan province. 
He was graduated from Canton Christian College. After the First Revolu- 
tion Mr. Liu returned to his home where he founded the Teng-tsung Middle 
School with himself as the principal. In 1916 Mr. Liu was elected Member 
of the House of Representatives. In the House he was on the Budget 
Committee. After the dissolution of Parliament in 1917, he went to Canton 
and joined the Constitutional government headed by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. In 
1919 the Extraordinary Parliament in Canton resumed the Constitution 
drafting work. Mr. Chu took a part in this important task. During the 
following years Mr. Chu stayed at Cantt.n playing an important part in 
politics. In 1922 Mr. Liu returned to Peking where the First Parliament- 
was again called to meet by President Li Yuan-hung. On theConstitution 
Drafting Committee, he suggested several drastic amendments to the original 
draft among which may be mentioned the suggestion of electing nine ad- 
ministrative directors in place of a president. When President Li was 
ousted in the summer lof 1923, Mr. Liu showed deep sympathy for him 
and left Peking with many of his friends, going to Shanghai to declare 
defiance of the Peking government. Mr. Liu, besides being a politician, is 
a poet. He has written volumes of poems which will soon be published. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



5^1 




Mr. Liu Chung-chieh 

Si ^ « ^ iF *g 

Mr. Liu Chung-chieh was born at Minghouhsien, Fukien Province, in 
1880. After having studied Chinese at home under private tutors, he went 
to Japan for higher education and joined the Waseda University, where he 
graduated. Upon his return to China he was appointed Counsellor of the 
Board of Education. He thus began his official life at an early age. A 
year later he returned to his native province and became superintendent 
of the Fukien College of Law. In the last days of the Manchu Dynasty he 
served as First Counsellor to the Chinese Legation in Tokyo. Upon the 
establishment of the Republic he was made First Secretary to the Chinese 
Legation in the same metropolis. During May 1916 he acted as Chinese 
Charge d' Affaires. In March 1917 Mr. Liu was appointed Counsellor of 
the Cabinet and was conferred the Second Class Chiaho. Four months later 
he was ordered to act concurrently as Counsellor of the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs. In the spring of 1919 Mr. Liu accompanied Mr. Liang Chi-chiao, 



h 



538 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



former Minster of Finance, to Europe to assist the Chinese Delegation to 
the International Peace Conference. He returned at the beginning of 1920 
and re-joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the same capacity of 
Counsellor. In January 1920 Mr. Liu was awarded the Second Class Tas- 
hou Paokuang Chiaho. In September 1920 he was appointed Chinese 
Minister to Spain and Portugal. In October 1922 Mr. Liu was given 
the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



539 




Liu En-ke 



Mr. Liu En-ke was born at Liaoyang, Fengtien, in 1866. He studded 
law at the Law School in his native province. After having spent several 
years in that school, he went to Japan for a higher legal education. Upon 
his return to China, he travelled extensively in the Yangtse Valley to ac- 
quire knowledge of the local conditions in China. He travelled to Yunnan 
in quest of knowledge where he was given an official appointment. He 
spent three years as an official in that province. Then he adopted the 
profession of teaching and taught law in several law schools throughout 
the country. Upon the outbreak of the first revolution, Mr. Liu returned 
to Fengtien, and threw his weight against the monarchy. In 1912, when 
the Republic was established, he was appointed sectional chief of the Law 
Bureau in Fengtien. In 1913 he was elected a member of the House of 
Representatives of the National Parliament. He was a strong member of 
the Kuo Min Tang and was made a member of the committee to draft a 
permanent constitution for China. In 1914 when the second revolution 



540 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



was launched, he took sides with the South against the existiinjg goverti- 
ment. Eight members of Parliament who showed hostility toward the 
government were arrested, and he was one of the eight. L0ter he was 
released, and kept at his own home in close watch by the authorities. After 
the death of Yuan Shih-kai Mr. Liu becamie a Secretary of the Military 
Governor of Fengtien, General Chang Tso-lin. In September 1917 the so- 
called "Tuchun's Parliament" was called and Mr. Lin was sent by General 
Chang as Fengtien member. It was formally convoked in January 1918 
and Mr. Liu was elected Vice- Speaker. In December 1918 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Northern Delegation to the Internal Peace Con- 
ference. In June 1918 Mr. Liu was conferred the Second Class Tashou 
Chiaho and in October 1919 the First Class Tashou Chiaho. The Tuchun's 
Parliament was dissolved in 1920 after the downfall of the Sufu Club. In 
October 1921 he was appointed Prefect of the Hsin-Ho Circuit of the Special 
Area of Chiaho. The old Parliament was reconovoked by President Li 
Yuan-hung in June 1922. Mr. Liu is still acting as a member of it. 



.^ 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



541 




General Liu Hsiang 

General Liu Hsiang was born in 1890 at Tayihsien, a small city to the 
west of Chengtu, in the province of Szechuan, close up to the Tibetam 
mountains. According to the old system he received his early education 
in his own home afterwards attending the Military Academy in Chengtu 
from which he graduated in 1910. He entered into the military life of the 
Republic becoming a Colonel in 1914 when he was stationed at Chungking, 
a Colonel in 1914 when he was stationed at Chungking, a Brigadier General 
in 1917 while at Yunchwan, and was given a division in 1918 stationed at 
Szechuan. In 1820 he was given the rank of General in Command of the 
Second Army while at Paoting, and in the following year was made the 
Szechuan Generalissimo and Civil Governor at Chungking when Hsiung 



542 WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



Keh wu was obliged to resign at Chengtu. However he was only able to 
maintain his position for about a year and in 1922 he resigned all his 
positions and retired to his home at Tayi to await developments. At that 
time General Liu Yu Kiu, a native of the same place, was placed in the 
position of Governor at Chengtu and lie tried to induce Liu Hsiang again 
to take an active part in the affairs of the province. Hsiung Keh Wu had 
again returned to power and was trying to drive out all those who were 
opposed to Dr. Sun and Canton. General Liu Hsiang remained in his 
retirement? until Yang Sen had turned the fortunes of war and ha then 
came out to help. Liu Hsiang was made the Director of Reorganization at 
Wanhsien in 1923 when the plans were being formulated that have succeed- 
ed. He was with Yang Sen and Yuan Tzu Ming when they captured 
Chengtu, and he went immediately with Yuan Tzu Ming to see that the job 
of extermination was well done. Recently he has been in Luchow and 
Chungking trying to bring some order out of the confusion which has 
existed. Many honors have come to Liu Hsiang from the Central govern- 
ment. In 1923 he was made a Chiang-Chun with "Chia-Wei" as title and 
in 1924 he became a Full General. Other decorations have been given to 
hira from time to time. His pressnt position is that of Director for De- 
fence of the Yunnan Frontier, Commissioner for the Tibetan Frontier and 
Director of Bandit Suppression. His real position, however, is that of 
Overlord among the different factions in the province. Liu Hsiang is a 
conservative. His manner is the manner of the old Chinese literati. He 
says very little but has a head full of plans which he is trying to work 
out. Though still a young man he gives the impression of being much 
older. He has held all the offices his native province can give him and he 
is doubtless looking to Peking to give him a position that will make it 
possible for him to settle the affairs of Szechuan. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



543 




Admiral Liu Kuan-hsiuns: 

f ij S 41 ^ Sf M 
Admiral Liu Kuan-hslung was born at Ming-hou Hsien, Fukien Pro- 
vince, in 1858. He was graduated from the Naval School in Fukien land 
subsequently was sent to England for higher education. Admiral Liu 
attended the Royal Naval College at Greenwich where he graduated. Upon 
his return to China, he was given a commission in the Imperial 
Chinese Navy. Shortly after his joining the navy, the Sino- Japanese War 
(1894-95) broke out and Admiral Lu participated therein. At the Battle 
of the Yulu he distinguished himself and was afterwards rewarded for his 
bravery by the Manchu Emperor. Since that time up to the breaking out 
of the First Revolution, he held various naval offices, from a non-commis- 
sioned officer to the commander of a squadron. When ;the first republican 
government was formed following the successful issue of the revolution in 
1911, Admiral Liu was appointed Minister of Navy as a reward for his 
services to the republicans during the critical moment of the epoch-mak- 



544 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ing event. He was a member of the National Council in Nanking. Upon 
Yuan Shih-kai's election to the Presidency, he was elected a member of 
the Southern delegation sent to Peking to convey congratulations. In 
March 1912 Lu was appointed Minister of Navy in Tang Shao-i's Cabinet. 
For a few days in June he also acted as Minister of Education. He was 
Minister of Navy from July to September in Lu Tseng-hsialng's Cabinet. 
During July 1912 he also acted as Minister of Communications. He held the 
portfolio of navy in Chao Ping-chun's Cabinet 1912 to July 1913; in Hs'.ung 
Hsi-ling's Cabinet from August 1913. In August 1913 he was appointed 
to hold concurrently the post of High Inspecting Com. missioner of the 
Southern Sea. In December 1913 he was appointed to bei Military Gover- 
nor of Fukien Province. Admiral Liu was Minister of Navy in Sun Pao- 
chi's Cabinet from February 1914 to April 1914; in Hsu Shih-chang's Cab- 
inet from May 1914 to April 1916; and in Tuan Chi-jui's Cabinet from April 
1916 until the overthrow of Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical movement. 
Admiral Liu played an important part in this movement. For that reason 
he was obliged to leave the cabinet upon the collapse of the movement 
and the subsequent death of Yuan Shih-kai. For one year he lived a pri- 
vate life in Tientsin. In June 1917 occurred the monarchical movement of 
Chang Hsun. This movement also failed. In July 1917 Marshal Tuan Chi- 
3ui, who had effected the overthrow of the movement, became Prime 
Minister, Admiral Liu became Minister of Navy again. This post he held 
until November 1919 through many changes of premiers. In January 
1920 Admiral Liu was awarded the First Order of Merit, having 
received the highest civil and military decorations already. In June 1921 
he received the appointment to investigate the opium plantation in the 
province of Fukien. In November 1922 Admiral Liu became Pacification Com- 
missioner to Fukien specially delegated by the Peking government. In 
April 1923 he was appointed High Commissioner _ of Coasjtal Defence for 
Fukien and Kuangtung which position he is still holding. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



545 




Mr. L. N. Lau 

m ^ ^ 

(Liu Lu-nan) 

Mr. L. N. Lau was born in 1892 in the district of Sunwui, Canton, 
Kwantung Province. He was graduated from Canton Christian College at 
the age of 23, and went to America, graduating in 1919 from the College- 
of Arts and Sciences of Cornell University. After graduation he went 
into the real estate business in Florida, organizing the Florida Agricultural 
Corporation in 1919 which now has a paid-up capital of •S20O,000. He 
has been director, vice-president and treasurer of the concern since its 
organization. Returning to China in 1920, Mr. Lau was appointed secretary 
to the director of the Canton Mint. When the Chinese Merchants' Ba-nk, 
Ltd. of Hongkong opened an agency in New York City in 1922, Mr. 
Lau took charge there and has remained as agent since. In 1924 he was 
elected vice-president and a director of Vantine, ; Inc., a flourishing store 
near Fifth Avenue, New York, dealing in Oriental merchandise. Mr. I^aa 
was one of the founders of the Rho Psi Fraternity at Cornell University, 
a society particularly well-known to Chinese students in America. 



546 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Liu Shih-hsun 

Mr. Liu Shih-hsun, was born at Nan-hui Hsien Kiangsu, 1868, was a 
student at the Kiangnan Arsenal School, Shanghai, 'and later at the School 
of Foreign Languages, Peking^ He studied French for fifteen years in 
China before he was sent to the Chinese Legation at Paris as a stiudent- 
interpreter. After having stayed in France for some time, he was trans- 
ferred to the Chinese Legation at Petrograd ' and then to Berlin. Having 
acquired an intimate knowledge of international affairs, he was called back 
to be a member of the Tsungli Yamen or State Department. After the 
Boxer uprising in 1900, he assisted Viceroy 'Li Hung-chang in restoring 
friendly relations with foreign countries. Afterward, he was sent to Yun- 
nan and arranged a settlement of a boundary dispute between that province 
and Tonguin. In 1904 a mission was sent to England to attend the corona- 
tion of King Edward VII and Mr. Liu was a French secretary to the 
mission. On that occasion, he visited the principaL countries in Europe. 
Later he was appointed first secretary to the Chinese Legation at Paris, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 547 



and when Sun Pao-chi was transferred back to China to be Chief Secretary 
of the government Council in 1906, succeeded him as Chinese Minister to 
France. He stayed in France until September 1912. During his residence 
at Paris, he was a member of the perm.anent Council of Arbitration at the 
Hague. After the first revolution and the establishment of the Republic, 
Mr. Liu returned to China and was Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs between 
January and August 1913. Upon his resignation from the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, he was sent to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as Chinese Minister 
in December 1914 and remained there until December 1916. Mr. Liu 
again became Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs at the end of 1916 and 
continued holding the position until March 1917. After his resignation, he 
was appointed Councillor to the President and a member of the Commission 
for Foreign Affairs in Peking. In January 1920 he was conferred the 
Second Class Wenfu. In September 1920 he was again appointed Vice- 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. In September 1920 he became concurrently 
President of the Famine Relief Commission in the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs; in October, President of the Commission for the Examination of 
Diplomatic and Consular Officers. In January 1921 Mr. Liu was awarded 
the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and in November the First Class 
Tashou Chiaho. In January 1922 Mr. Lin was relieved of the Vice- 
Ministership. Subsequently he became Vice-President of the Commission 
for the Study of Treaties and also 'Chief of the Washington Conference 
Preparation Bureau. In March 1922 Mr. Liu was awarded the First Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1923 he was appointed Vice-President 
of the Diplomatic Commission. In 1904, he married a young French girl 
and at the end of 1912, returned to China with his wife. Mr. Liu has 
been awarded the Commandeur de la Legion d'Honeur; Commandeur de 
rOrdre de la Conception du Portugal; Chevalier de I'Ordre de Leopold de 
Belgique. In addition to these, he has received many Chinese decorations 
for his loyal services. 



548 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Shu-yung Liu 

(Liu Shu-yung) 

Mr. Shu-yung Liu was born at Tai-shan district, Kwangtung province, 
in 1897. He entered the middle school of Tsing Hua College, Peking, la 
1911 and was graduated in 1918, going to the United States on a Boxer 
scholarship in the summer of that year. He studied ceramic engineering 
at Ohio State University and was graduated from the New York State 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 549 



School of Ceramics and Clay Working in 1921 with the degree of B. S. in 
Ceramic Engineering. After graduation, Mr. Liu was employed by the 
Thatcher Furnace Company of New Jersey and later by the Baltimore Por- 
celain Enamel Manufacturing Company, as an enamel chemist. He returned 
to China in 1922 and was one of the promoters of the Chen Kwong Cera- 
mics Company in Hongkong, a million dollar organization. Mr. Liu is at 
present an engineer of the company. 



^ 



550 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dakuin K. Lieu 

(Liu Ta-chun) 

Mr. Lieu was born at Chinkiang, Kiangsu Province, in 1891. He 
studied mathematics, science and modern languages under private tutors 
until he reached the age of 14 when he attended sch'ool in Shanghai and 
Peking. At the former place he attended the Y. M. C. A. School; and at 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 551 



the latter he went to the Wu Ch'eng Middle School first and then the Im- 
perial University. In 1911 Mr. Lieu went to America and studied econ- 
omics at the University of Michigan. In 1915, upon the advice and under 
the direction of Professor Henry C. Adams, he travelled extensively in the 
United States studying industrial and financial conditions of that country as 
affected by the Great War. He received B. A. degree in June and was 
elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Upon returning to China, Mr. Lieu 
became English Secretary of the Kiangsu Provincial Educational Associa- 
tion. From 1916 to 1919 he was Professor of Economy in the Tsing Hua 
College. During 1919-1920 he was Cost Accountant of the Hanyang Iron 
Works. In 1920 he joined the Government Bureau of Economic Informa- 
tion of which he is now Chief of the Research and Investigation Depart- 
ment. In September 1923 Mr. Lieu was appointed expert of the All-China 
Finance Commission. Mr. Lieu has served at different times as Secretary 
of the Chinese Delegation to the Washington Conference, Expert of the 
Special Tariff Conference Preparation Bureau of the Foreign Office, Dean 
of the English Department of the Peking Goverriment Teaohers' College 
Professor of English of the same college. Mr. Lieu was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal English Society of Arts in 1920. He is a frequent contribut- 
or to Chinese and foreign newspapers and magazines, such as the China 
Weekly Review, the Wall Street Journal, New York, the London Financier, 
the Baltimore Sun, the Chinese Social and Political Science Review, the 
Chinese Bankers' Magazine in Peking, the Peking Daily News, the Peking 
Leader, and other papers. Mr. Lieu has been awarded the Fourth Order 
of Chiaho for "contribution to learning and service to society." 



^ 



552 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Timothy Ting-fang Lew 

m m. m 

(Liu T'ing-fang) 

Mr. Lew was born at Wenchow, Chekiang, in 1891 and received hie 
preliminary education at St. John's University, Shanghai, where he won the 
Viceroy's Medal for Chinese Essay Writing. Dr. Lew then went to America 
and entered the University of Georgia where he won the Horace Russefl 
Prize in Psychology. He later distinguished himself at Columbia University 
where he received the degree of B. A. (1914), M. A. (1915,) and Ph. 'D. 
in Psychology and Education (1920), and was a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa. He then studied Theology in the Union Seminary, winning the 
highest merit scholarship and an appointment to the Dean's Scholarship at 
Columbia. Later he received from Yale the degree of Bachelor of Divin- 
ity (B. D.) in 1918 with magna cum laude, winning also the Fogg Divinity 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 553 



Scholarship. He was later appointed an Assistant in the Department of 
Religious Education in Union Seminary, the first Chinese ever appointed 
to teach anj' subject other than Chinese in an American theological school. 
He was elected to membership in the American Society of Church History 
and to the Council of the Religious Education Association.; Dr. Lew 
returned to China in 1920, and was appointed Dean of the Graduate School 
of Education, Peking Government Teachers' College; Professor of Psycho- 
logy in the National University of Peking; and a member of the theological 
faculty of the Peking University (Yenching Ta Hsu'eh). In 1921 Dr. 
Lew was elected Dean of the School of Theology in the Yenching University, 
resigning his deanship in Teachers' College. His activities pince his 
return to China have been varied, including; joint-editor of China 
in Education; joint-author with Dr. Hu Suh and others of "China To-day," 
"Some Aspects of Chinese Civilization;" joint-author with Prof. W. A. 
McCall of Columbia of "How to Measure in Education," "Method of Con- 
structing Psychological and Educational Tests;" author of "China in 
America Text Books," "The Psychological Study of Learning Chinese," 
"Middle School Intelligence Tests," "Problems of the Chinese Church," 
"The Responsibility of Ministers in the Renaissance Movement;" associate 
editor of The Journal of New Education; editor of The Life Journal; 
member of the National Christian Council; member of the National Christian 
Educational Association and Chairman of its Committee of Standardized 
Tests; Member of the Literature Committee of the National Committee ofl 
the Y. M. C. A; Board of Directors of the Peking Y. M. C. A; National 
Association for the Advancemfent of Education; Executive Secretary of 
the Society for the study of International Educati.o'n; Executive Counc'il 
of the China Psychological Association; Commission of National Phonetics; 
Commission of the Ministry of Education on the Investigation of Element- 
ary School Records, etc. In addition to being Dean of the Faculty of' 
Theology and Professor in the Peking University, Dr. Lew is also Professor 
of the National Peking Normal University and Lecturer of the National 
University of Peking. Dr. Lew's address is c/o Yenching University, Pek- 



554 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Liu Tsun-hou 

General Liu Tsun-hou was born at Chien-yang lisien, Szechuan 
province, in 1885. In 1903 he entered the Military Academy at Chengtu 
and in 1904 was sent to Japan to study in the Japinesa Cadets' Academy. 
He was graduated from the Infantry Section of that Acaiemy in December 
1908. Upon his return to Peking, in 1909 he passed examination and was' 
given the rank of Chiu-jen. Subsequently he went to Yunnan where he 
was appointed Director of the Yunnan Military Academy, ranking as s 
Major. During the First Revolution in 1911-12, he was Chief Staff Oflicor 
of the Yunnan Revolutionary government. In the meantime Yunnan leaders 
had an unworthy ambition to gain control of Szechuan and they made plans 
to come into the province in the name of assisting revolutionary movements 
whereas thoir ulterior motive was to make Szechuan which is rich to supply 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 555 



Yunnan which is unproductive. General Liu knowing the secret reported 
the matter to the Szechuan government and there was a united sJjand 
against the Yunnan invasion. Subsequently General Liu returned to 
Szechuan and was given to command the 4th Szechuan Division, and also 
made a Lieutenent General. In October 1913 he was appointed Garrison, 
Commissioner of Chungking and given the Second Class Wenfu and 
Second Class Chiaho. In 1914 he was given to command the Second Divi- 
sion of Szechuan Army. In December 1915 came the Yunnan Revolt led 
by the late General Tsai Ao against Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical movement. 
General Liu responded to this call by gathering troops to help the Yunnan 
forces. This attitude led to his dismissal from the post of Garrison Com- 
missioner in February 1916. After the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the Peking 
governm.ent gave him the brevet rank of Full General and also the command 
of the First Szechuan Army., In February 1916 General Liu was relieved 
of the Garrison Commissioner post. In July 1916 General Lo Pei-ching: 
was appointed to act as both Civil and Military Governor of Szechuan for 
General Tsai Ao who was sick. The new governor planned to set up a: 
Southwestern government. His plan was, however, discovered by General 
Liu who at once reported to the Peking government. Lo was furious &<b 
this and drove him away from Chengtu. In the meanwhile another general 
Tai Kan came into the province from Yunnan to oppose General Lo and 
gradually assumed the position Lo had held. In April General Tai was 
appointed bvV the Peking government to succeed General Lo. At the 
same time General Liu was made a Chingchun with "Ch'ung-Wei" as 
special title. In July 1917 Chang Hsun attempted to restore the Manchu 
Throne. He appointed General Liu Governor of Szechuan. But this move- 
ment died away shortly afterwards. Subsequently the Peking government 
appointed him Commander-in-Chief of Southern Szechuan. This ap- 
pointment led to fierce fighting between General Lo and himself. The 
former yielded but was eventually killed by him. In December 1917 he 
was appointed Tuchun of Szechuan. In the spring of 1918 trouble again 
blew up. This time General Hsiung Ke-wu threw in his lot with Yunnan 
and Kueichow and drove General Liu from Chengtu who subsequently went 
to Shensi where he remained for some years. He was able to return for 
a short period of time after the coup of General Lu Tao who succeeded i.n 
driving out General Hsiung in 1919, at which time there was a series of 
reverses with several men trying to gain control of the province. In 1920 
General Hsiung was himself a fugitive. While at Paoning he sent to 
General Liu for help. The latter appealed to Peking and was given order 
to proceed at once to settle affairs of Szechuuan calling on Hunan, Kuei- 
chow, Shensi and Kansu to assist him. This brings us down to the winter 
of 1921. In the spring of 1924 when General Hsiung was finally defeated, 
the Peking government made General Liu a Full General. As Szechuan 
was now in peace, he asked four times for permission te resign from the 
Tuchunship which he had held amid many viccisitudes since 1917. In 
May 1924 General Yang Sen and Teng Shih-hou were appointed Military 
and Civil Governors of Szechuan respectively. General Liu was appointed 
the frontier Defence Commissioner of Szechuan and Shensi, and in June 
1924 he became Inspector General of the Szechuan Arm.y which position he 
is still holding. 



556 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Lo Chong 



(Lo Ch'anjf) 

Mr. Lo Chong was born at Paoan Hsisii; Ruangtung, in 1883, and 
received a large part of his education in Honolulu. Mr. Lo is a son-in 
law of Kang Yu-wei.. In 1903 he went to England and attended Oxford 
University. After having studied there for fully five years he received 
his B. A. degree and returned to China. He took the Chinese government's 
literary examinations for returned students, and received the degree of 
A. M. His first official position was that of Imperial Clerk in the Ching 
dynasty. In 1912, upon the establishment of the Republic, Mr. Lo was 
made secretary to the Minist3r of Communications. From January 1914 
to February 1915 he was Special Commissioner for Foreign Affairs to the 
Province of Shantung. During his residence in Shantung, Mr. Lo was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 557 



confronted with the most difficult problems demanding solution. These 
problems related to the siege of Tsingtao by Japan, the delineation of the 
war zone by China, and other allied subjects connected therewith. In 
March 1915 Mr. Lo Chong joined the Ministry cf Finance. A year later, 
he was sent to Szechuan to audit the salt accounts. He returned in the 
winter of the sam.e year, and was sent to Amoy by the government as 
Superintendent of Customs and Commissioner for Foreign Aifairs. In the 
summer of 1917 Lo Chong was given the con&iirrent position of Taoyin 
of Amoy. He, remained, in that port, holding three positions at the same 
time, namely Taoyin, Customs Superintendent and Commissioner for Foreign 
Affairs of Amoy, untiil September 22, 1918 when he was appointed Consul- 
General at Singapore. Soon after the appointment, Mr. Lo turned over 
his old offices to his successor and came to Peking to ask for instructions 
prior to his proceeding to Singapore. Upon his arrival in Peking in Jan- 
uary 1919 he was appointed Acting Consul-General to London. In the 
following month this appointment was substantiated to him. In September 
1921 Mr. Lo was transferred to be Acting Consul-General at Singapore. 
Since April 1922 he has been substantiated as Consul-General to Singapore. 



^ 



558 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. R. Y. Lo 

(Lo Yun-yen) 

Dr. R. Y. Lo was born at Kiukiang, Kiangsi Province, in -1890. He 
entered the William Nast College at Kiukiang in 1901 and graduated from 
it in 1907. While still a student he began teaching ; he was teacher of the 
Kiukiang First Government School and also of the Wen Hua School from 
1906 to 1907. From 1907 to 1909 he was teaching in the Teh Hua, Kiuk- 
kiang. Dr. Lo went to America in September 1909. He studied Liberal Arts 
in the Baldwin- Wallace CoUeg.e of Berea, Ohio and graduated from it in 
1911. In June 1911 he won a first prize in an oratorical contest. He re- 
ceived the degree of B. A. that year. He was president of the Goethe 
Society during 1910-1911. From 1911 to 1914 Dr. Lo was at Syracuse 
University studying Economics and Political Science. He was taking a law 
course during 1914 at the University of Michigan. He received the degree 
of M. A. in 1912 and that of Ph. D. in 1914, the subject of his doctor's 



WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 559 



disseration being "The Social Teaching of Confucious". While in America 
in one summer vacation Dr. Lo made a lecture tour to the Northern States 
of America. After his return to China in September 1914, Dr. Lo took 
the chair of Sociology and Economics in William Nast College. His name 
became known to the government authorities and he was offered an advisor- 
ship in the Bureau of Foreign Affairs to the governor of Kiangsi, which 
post he accepted and held for several years. In 1920 the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in China sent him to Shanghai as editor of the Chinese 
Christian Advocate and the Young Peoples Friend. Dr. Lo is author of 
several books and a contributor to many periodicals both foreign and 
Chinese. In recent years he has travelled quite extensively, giving 
ispeeches to conferences and institutes, and as one of the Commission chair- 
men, he attained high success in the preparation of the report of 
"Commission IV" of the National Christian Conference which took place in 
the Shanghai Town Hall In May 1922. At present Dr. Lo is general editor 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, vice-chairman of the China Christian 
Literature Council, lecturer in the comparative Law School of Soochow 
University, and a member of the Chinese Recorder's editorial board. 



^ 



560 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Y. T. Lou 

(Lou Yu-tao) 

Mr. Y. T. Lou was born at Shaoshing, Chekiang Province, in I88O1 
Since his youth he came to North China where his father waS' a very- 
famous official who had been chief secretary to many Viceroys of Chihli 
including Yuan Shih-kai, Mr. Lou entered the Peking Government Univer- 
sity in 1891 and graduated from there in 1900. In 1902 he ,att»ejided the 
Anglo-Chinese College, Tientsin. He arrived in America in March 1903 
partly as Attache to the Chinese Minister at Washington, D. C, and partly 
to study. Mr. Lou studied in the Oahu College unntil 1908. Then he went 
to study law at Yale University where he graduated with the degree of B. 
C. L. in 1911. In September that year he returned to China. From 1912 
to 1913 Mr. Lou was Legal Advisor to the late Feng Kuo-chang who was 
then Tutuh of Chihli. During 1914-1915 he was in America as Provincial 
Delegate of Chihli of the Panama Pacific International Exposition. Mr. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 56L 



Lou has been and is still Secretary to Director-General of the Kailan Min- 
ing Administration since 1912; Legal Advisor to General Chi Hsieh-yuan of 
Kiangsu since April 1923; and Councillor of the Ministry of Communica- 
tions since 1923. Mr. Lou has been awarded by the Peking government 
the Fourth Order of Chiaho. His address is 13 Ta Ching Lu, Hopei, Tientsin. 



^ 



562 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Loh Zau-tsoong 

1^ m m 'f' f-f K 

(Lu Ch'ao-tsung) 

Mr. Loh Zau-tsoong was born at Hangchow, Chekiang Province, in 
1889. He is the youngest member of the Chinese section of the Bench of 
the International Mixed Court at Shanghai who assumed his present post 
four years ago. Graduating from the Law Department of the Imperial 
University of Japan with degrees in law and politics, Mr. Loh returned to 
China and joined the Ministry of Justice, serving in different capacities. 
His good work and his per^Dnal qualities were recognized and Mr. Loh 
was four years ago promoted to his present position. Mr. Loh, whose 
name has been entered in the Cabinet registers as an official awaiting a 
post, holds a decoration from Ministry of Justice and the Fifth Class order 
of the Chiaho from the Central government. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



563 




Mr. Lu Chengr-hsiang 

Mr. Lu Cheng-hsiang, was born at Shanghai in 1870. Receiving his 
first education at the Language School in the Kiangnan Arsenal, he was 
sent to the Tung Wen Kwan College in Peking for his post-graduate work. 
One year aftei- his post-graduation, he was sent to the Chinese Legation at 
Petrograd as interpreter in 1890. In 1892 he was promoted to be attache, 
and in 1893 secretary. He was afterwards deputed to accompany tho 
Chinese Envoy Extraordinary to the coronation of the Tsar. In 1899 Min- 
ister Lu was appointed to represent China at the Hague Conference. He 
was made Minister to the Netherlands in 1905. When the second Hague 
Conference convened, he was again appointed China's delegate. During his 
second term as Chinese Mimster to Holland in 1908, he negotiated the 
Consular Convention with that country. In the revolutionary year of 1911, 
he was sent to the Hague to exchange ratifications of this Convention, 
and thence proceeded to Petrograd to undertake negotiations with the 
Russian government for the revision of the Treaty of 1881. At the same 



564 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



time he was appointed Minister to Kussia, Lu Cheng-hsiang was elected 
Minister of Foreign Affairs in the first Republican Cabinet in March 1912. 
He arrived at Peking on May 24, to take up his new post. On June 17, 
1912 he was ordered to act as Prime Minister. On June 29 he 
was appointed Prime Minister and retained the portfolio of Foreign Af- 
fairs. In September 1912 Mr. Lu resigned from the Prime Ministership. 
From November 1912 to September 1913 he was again Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. Subsequently he became Master of Ceremony in the President's 
office. In January 1915 Mr. Lu was again appointed Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. In December 1915 he was ordered to act for Hsu Shih-Ch'ang as 
Secretary of State. This position he held until March 1916. In May 1916 
he resigned from the Ministership of Foreign Affairs. In December 1917 
Mr. Lu was again appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. He remained 
intact through the cabinet changes in March 1918 and January 1919. In 
January 1919 Mr. Lu became China's Chief Delegate to the Paris Peace 
Conference. In December 1919 he returned to Peking and became Minister 
of Foreign Affairs again. In March 1920 Mr. Lu was awarded the First 
Order of Merit. In August 1920 he was relieved of the Ministership of 
Foreign Affairs. In October 1920 he became co-director of Government 
Famine Relief Bureau. From May to August 1921 Mr. Lu was president 
of the Famine Prevention Commission. In June 1922 he was appointed 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Switzerland and also 
China's representative to the League of Nations. In October 1922 he 
represented China at the International Laborers' Conference. At the 
same time he was awarded the Second Class Wenfu. In September 1923 
he represented China at the International Laborers' Conference again. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



56S 




Mr. Lu Chih-I 

3 l£ f» ^ 5^ 1^ 

Mr. Lu Chih-i was born at Szu-mao Hsien, Yunnan province, in 1880. 
When a youth he was .given a thorough education in Chinese. In 1896 
he became a Licentiate or B. A. In the summer of 1904 he went to Japan 
where he first studied at the Hung Wen Academy taking the normal course 
and then he joined Waseda University studying Political Economy. It was 
about the time the Revolutionary Society Tung Ming Hui was organized and 
Mr. Lu joined it when he was in Japan where the headquarters of this 
secret society were situated. Upon his return to China, he was made 
Chief of the Yunnan branch of the Tung Ming Hui. At the same time he 
was editor of the magazine Yunnan, and the Yunnan Daily, both of which 
were advocating drastic reform in China. In the winter of 1908 Mr. Lu 
went to the western part of Yunnan via Burma on an attetopt to start the 
revolution. Finally the plot failed and many of his colleagues were ar- 
rested and decapitated. He fled to Rangoon where he became editor-in- 
chief of the Kuang Hua Daily and Progress. In the winter of 1910 Mr, Lu 
made another attempt in western Yunnan but it was frustrated by the 



566 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



occupation of the Pima district by British troops. In the spring of 1911 
he participated in the uprising in Canton. Upon the failure of the move- 
ment, he went to Shanghai |and became an editor of the Ming Lieh Pao. 
October 10, 1911, the First Revolution broke out at Wuchang, near Hankow. 
Yunnan was not slow to respond and Mr. Lu bscame Secretary and Councillor 
of the Tutu, Military Governor, of Yunnan. In the following months a 
Provisional government took form at Nanking. All the provinces that had 
declared independence sent its representatives to Nanking to participate 
in the organization of the government. Mr. Lu was the representative 
from Yunnan. On January 1, 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen was inaugurated as 
the Provisional President of the Republic at Nanking. Mr. Lu was appointed 
Vice-Minister of Justice. He resigned from this post in March 1912 when 
the Provisional government was reiioved to Peking and Yuan Shih-kai 
succeeded Sun Yat-sen as Provisional President. Then Mr. Lu became 
chief of the Shanghai branch of the China Tung Ming Hui and also chief 
editor of the Ming Kuo Hsin Wen. In the autumn of 1912 he went to the 
South Sea Islands to establish branches of the Tung Ming Hui. In the 
Spring of 1913 Mr. Lu 'was elected by the Provincial Assembly of Yunnan 
to be a Senator of the First National Assembly. This Parliament was in- 
augurated in April 1913 and subsequently he was elected a member of the 
Constitution Drafting Committee. In June 1916, after the death of Yuan, 
Parliament was reconvoked and Mr. Lu became a Senator again. After the 
second dissolution of the Parliament in June 1917 by President Li Yuan- 
hung, yielding to the demands of the militarists, Mr. Lu went to Canton to 
join the constitutional government. In August 1917 these members of the 
Parliament assembled at Canton and convoked the Extraordinary Parliament. 
In 1918 Mr. Lu was concurrently a Councillor of the Military government. 
In the winter of 1920 he became concurrently Vice-Minister of Justice of 
the Military government. In the summer of 1921 Dr. Sun Yat-sen was 
elected by the Extraordinary Parliament the President of China, Mr. Lu 
was appointed Vice-Minister of Justice and at the same time acting as 
Minister. In the autumn of 1922 the First Parliament was reconvoked at 
Peking by President Li Yuan-hung, and Mr. Lu found himself in the Senate 
again. He left Peking, however when President Li was ousted. He has 
joined the Southern leaders again and he is now travelling between Canton 
and Shanghai. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



567 




General Lu Chin 

General Lu Chin was born at Tientsin in 1880. After his graduation 
from the Pel Yang Military Academy, he went to Japan where he first 
entered the Cheng School and then the Military Officers Academy, Upon 
his graduation General Lu returned to China and became a military officer. 
Durinc the Ching Regime, he was first. Assistant Commander of the Artillery 
Regiment of the First Army Corps, then Chief of Staff to the Second Army 
Corps, then Director of the Staff Office of the Pei Yang Army, and finally 
was Councillor to the Shantung Military Training Office. In 1912, General 
Lu was Councillor to the Chihli Military Training Office and later became 
the Chief of Staff to the Military Governor of Chihli. From Octjober 1913 
he was Defence Commissioner of Tientsin until July 1914 when he was 
called to Peking to become a Junior Member of the Chiang Chun Fu. In 
1914 a Model Regiment was f.)nned in Peking, of which Yuan Shih-kai 
himself was honorary colonel, and General Lu was a colonel commanding 
one battalion. In 1917 he was appointed Assistant Chief of the General 



568 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



staff and held that position for about two years. In January 1919 General 
Lu was given the brevet of Chiangchun or Marshal. In December 1919 he 
was made "Ming-Wu Chiangchun, a member of the College of Marshals. In 
January 1920 General Lu was conferred the First-Class Tashou Chiaho. In 
August 1920 he was appointed Acting Commander of the Ninth Division pf 
the National Army. In October 1920 he was conferred the First- Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In February 1921 General Lu was given the 
brevet rank of a Full General. In November 1922 he was appointed Chief 
Staff Officer to the High Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli, Shantung and 
Honan. In March 1923 General Lu was awarded the Fourth Order of 
Merit. In November 1923 he was made a Full General. Since January 
1924 General Lu has been the Minister of War. In March 1924 he was 
relieved of the Commandership of the Ninth Division of the National Army. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



569 




Mr. Hingr-yun Loo 

a.m m 

(Lu Hsing-yuan) 

Mr. Hing-yun Loo, also known as H. Y. Loo, is the fourth son of the 
well-known late Loo Kow of Macao. He was born in 1885 in Macao. After 
having received a Chinese education, Mr. Loo went to England in 1909. 
He stayed in England for seven years attending Oxford University and 
the Inner Temple in London being called to the English Bar in 1916 re- 
ceiving the M. A. degree in 1915. Mr. Loo learned the French language while 
in France for about a year. Since his return to China he has been practicing 
law in Shanghai, Hongkong, and Canton. He was for a time lecturer on 
Law in the Soochow University. He entered the government service at 
Canton in 1919, when he was appointed a departmental chief of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. In 1920 Mr. Loo was invited by the Civil Governor, 
General Chen Chiung-ming, to be his advisor and also a member of the law 
compiling commission to draft the system of provincial government. In 
February, 1921, Mr. Loo was appointed Chief Justice of a division of the 
Supreme Court of the Constitutional government. 



570 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Lu Hsueh-p'u 

Mr. Lu, Hsueh-p'u was born at Tung Hsiang Hsien, Chekiang, in 1879. 
Mr. Lu obtained the literary degree of Chu Jen or M. A. in 1901 through 
competitive provincial examinations. Immediately after his successful ex- 
aminations, he was awarded the rank of magistrate. In the last days of 
the Tsing dynasty Mr. Lu served as chief of the Foreign Affairs Section at 
Nanking when Tuan Fang was Viceroy of Liang K'ang, and held the same 
position in Tientsin upon his chief's transference to the North to become 
Viceroy of Peiyang. Later, he was appointed secretary to the Commissioner 
of Education in the province of Fengtien. In Octobe|r, 1912, he was ap- 
pointed junior secretary of the Ministry of Finance. Shortly afterwards 
he was asked to act concurrently as chief of the First Section of the Loan 
Department. In July, 1913, he was appointed to act as Chief of the Loan 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 571 



Department, and in January 1914 he was appointed Chief of the Confidential 
Affairs Section in the Bureau of Expenditure. In July of 1914 Mr. Lu 
was promoted to be Director of the Loan Department which position he 
has been successfully holding for the past six years. During this im- 
portant period he participated in all important financial transactions, such 
as the negotiations for the Reorganization Loan of 1913, the successful 
issue of domestic loans in 1914 and the readjustment of all short term 
foreign debts in 1915. In May 1919 Mr. Lu was ordered to act as Vice- 
Minister of Finance. In December 1920 he was appointed Co-Director of 
the Internal Loan Bureau. In February 1921 Mr. Lu was conferred the 
Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In March 1921 he was relieved of the 
Directorship of a Department in the Ministry of Finance. In Decgmber 
1921 he was appointed Vice-Minister of Finance. In May 1922 Mr. Lu 
was relieved of the. Vice-Ministership and in August 1922 he resigned 
from the post of Co-Director of the Internal Loans Bureau. Since his 
retirement from official work Mr. Lu has been active in banking enter- 
prises. 



■.iS' 



572 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Colonel Lu Jung-chien 

Colonel Lu Jung-chien was born at Tientsin in 1878, his native home 
is Tungshan Hsien, Chekiang Province. He received his prelimin- 
ary education at the Police School in Paoting, Chihli, graduating in 1902. 
Colonel Lu then entered the Tientsin Training School for Police and com- 
pleted the course in 1903, after which he joined the Tientsin Police 
Administration. In 1904 Colonel Lu became Chief of the Fourth Precinct 
of the First Police Station in Tientsin and in 1905 he was promoted to be 
Chief of the Third Station. In 1908 Colonel Lu was appointed Chief of the 
General Affairs Section of the Kiangsu Constabulary and in, 1909 he was 
transferred to Hankow as Advisor on Police Matters. Leaving Hankow 
service in 1913, Colonel Lu was made Director of the Bureau of Commercial 
Taxes at Fengtai, near Peking. In 1914 he became Proctor of Oil Ad- 
ministration Transporting Office at Loyang. Later he was promoted to be 
its co-director. In April 1916 Colonel Lu went to Hunan in connection 
with the Mission to Pacify Western Hunan and in 1917 he returned to 
Chihli becoming Chief of the Auditing Bureau of the Directorate General 
of the Metropolitan Flood Relief and Conservancy of which the ex-Premier 
HsiungHsi-lin was the Director-General. In 1918 Colonel Lu was appointed 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 573 



Advisor to the Woosung and Shanghai Constabulary. In 1920 he beciame 
Chief of the Secret Service. In 1923 he was promoted to be Chief of the 
General Affairs Section of the same office. In November 1923, following 
the assassination of General Hsu Kuo-liang, Colonel Lu w'as appointed 
Acting Chief of the Woosung and Shanghai Constabulary, which position he 
is still holding. Colonel Lu has been awarded by the Peking government 
the Third Class Chiaho Decoration. 



^ 



574 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Lu Vung-ting 

General Lu Yung-ting was born at Hu-ming Hsien, Kuangsi Province, 
in 185G. He was at one time a leader of outlaws but later reolaimed and 
took military service when Soo Yuan-chun was Commander-in-Chief of 
Kuangsi troops. In 19Q3 General Lu was commander of an expedition 
against the bandits in Kuangsi during which he distinguished himself as a 
good fighter. He was gradually promoted to Brigade General of Tso- 
chiang Chen; Commander of the Defence Forces and Patrols of Lungchow; 
and Provincial Commander of Kuangsi. In 1911 General Lu was appointed 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 575 



Governor of Kiangsi, but prior to his departure for that province the First 
Revolution broke out and he was elected Tutu of Kuangsi. In July 1912 
General Lu was appointed Tutu of Kuangsi Province by the Central 
Government. In June 1914 he was made a Chiangchun with "Ning-Wu" 
as title, directing the Military Affairs of Kuangsi Province. General 
Lu Yung-ting was given the rank of full general, and was appointed 
to act concurrently as civil governor of Kuangsi. In December 
of the same year. General Lu was made a first class duke by the late Pre- 
sident Yuan. But he joined hands with the Yunnan troops under tha 
leadership of General Tsai Ao and assisted in defeating the imperial troops. 
In February, 1916, Kuangsi declared independence of the Central govern- 
ment, and the monarchists in Peking were greatly alarmed. In June 1916 
the monarchical movement was abandoned with the death of its promoter 
and the Republic was restored. In July General Lu was transferred to 
Kuangtung as Tuchun and awarded by General Li Yuan- hung, who was 
then President of the Republic, the First order of Merit f'or the services 
he had rendered during the third revolution. In April, 1917, General Lu 
was appointed by the government Inspecting Commissioner of Kuangtung 
and Kuangsi, which appointment was considered a great honor. About 
the same time he took a trip to Peking to pay his respects to the president. 
During his visit to Peking he had an audience with his former mastjer, 
ex-Emperor Hsunan Tung, to whom he was still loyal. Following the dis- 
solution of th? First Parliament which occurred in June 1917, the leaders 
of Kuangtung and Kuangsi declared self-government although General Lu, 
the Inspecting Commissioner of these provinces, did not approve of it. The 
following month saw the monarchical restoration by Chang Hsun. Being 
an old official of the Ching Dynasty, General Lu was appointed Viceroy of 
Kuangtung and Kuangsi. But owing to the short life of the restoration, 
he did not have time to make clear his attitude toward this appiointment. 
Later, t he southern provinces opposed to the dissolution of the Parliament 
refused to take instructions from Peking. General Lu joined the south in 
order to strengthen his position. In November 1917 the Peking govern- 
mont removed him from the post of Inspecting Commissioner of Kuangt;.ng 
and Kuangsi, made him a Shan Chiang-chun (Marshal), and ordered him to 
proceed, to Peking which he did not obey. In May 1918 the Extraordinary 
Parliament at Canton elected Marshal Lu one of the seven Directors of 
the Military government, the other six being Tang Shao-i, Tang Chi-yao, 
Sun Yat-sen, Wu Ting-fang, Ling Pao-i and Tsen Chun-hsuan. At one time 
most of the Southern and the South-western provinces were in a revolt 
against Peking and in sympathy with Canton. In the summer of 1919 Sun 
Yat-sen and his associates were ousted from power by the Kuangsi faction 
under General Lu Yung -ting, and his nominee. Mo Jung-hsin, assumed 
control of Kuangtung. In the Autumn of 1920 Ch'en Chiung-ming, Sun 
Yat-sen's nominee, with the slogan 'Kuangtung for the Kuangtungese" at- 
tacked and after a brief struggle drove out the Kuangsi faction. Marshal 
Lu Jung-ting left Canton in Novem!)er for Kuangsi. In Dece'mber he 
declared allegiance of Kuangsi to Peking again. At once the northern 



576 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



government appointed him Director General of the Frontier Defence of 
Kuangtung. In January 1921 Marshal Lu was appointed Director-General 
of the Military Affairs on the Kuangsi Frontier. Since that time he car- 
ried on fighting against Kuangtung until he was driven out of Kuangsi by 
Ch'en Chiung-ming in July 1921 when he announced his resignation from 
the post of Director General by a circular telegram. In September 1922 
Marshal Lu returned to Lung-chow, Kuangsi, where he again took up the 
post of Director-General of the Frontier Defence of Kuangsi. He was 
appointed High Defence Commissioner for Kuangsi Frontier in November 
1922 which position he is still holding. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



577 




Mr. Tachuen S. K» Loh 

H ^? IS ^ ii s 

(Lu Shou-ching) 

Mr. Tachuen S. K. Loh, was born January 1885, in Tsingpoo, near 
Shanghai. He received his early education in Nanyang College, and, after 
a brief career as a school teacher and a newspaper editor both in Shanghai 
and Peking, he went in 1911 to the United States as a government student 
and graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1914. In January 1915, 
he joined the Ministry of Justice as a junior clerk in the Civil Depart- 
ment. He soon was appointed a member of the Judicial Reform Bureau. 
In August 1916, he was jointly appointed by the Ministries of Justice and 
Foreign Affairs as Magistrate of the Amoy Mixed Court, which office he 
held for a year and a half when he was transferred to Shanghai as Chief 
Justice of the Shanghai District Court. While magistrate of the Amoy 



578 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Mixed Court, he made many judicial reforms and was raucli admired by 
both Chinese and Foreign communities. Being a native of Kiangsu, his 
appointment as Chief Justice of the Shanghai Court was rather an 
exception and consequently he was transferred to K'angsu. In 1918 and 
1919, he concurrently held the offices of assistant sub-director of the 
Repatriation bureau of German and Austrian subjects and also Chief of the 
Executive Department of the Enemy Property Bureau. In 1920, he was 
made Chief Secretary to Gen. Ho Feng-Lin, Military Governor for Sunkiang 
and Shanghai, and has held that office up to the present. For some time 
in 1922, he was also director of the Telegraph Material Supply Depaitment, 
Shanghai, and Advisor to the Ministry of Communications. Aside from 
his official capacities, Judge Loh is vice-president of the American Re- 
turned Students' Club, Shanghai member of the Board of Trustees of Futa'n 
University, and a member of the Chinese and Foreign Famine Relief Com- 
mittee. 



JH 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



579 




Mr. Lu Tsung-yu 

Mr. Lu Tsung-yu was born at Hai-ning Hsien, Chekiang Province, in 
1875. He graduated from the Waseda University, -Japan. In 1905 Mr. Lu 
attended the Imperial Examination for returned students and obtained the 
^legree of Chu- jen. He was subsequently made an expectant secretary of the 
Grand Secretariat or State Department. In August 1905 the Imperial 
government sent five high officials, Prince Tsai Tse, Tai Hung-tze, Hsu 
Shih-ch'ang, Tuan Fang and Shao Ying, on a m'ssion to study the constitu- 
tional conditions of the different foreign nations. Mr. Lu was with the 
mission as Second Class Councillor. Upon the return of the mission to 
Peking in September 1906, Mr. Lu was appointed a Junior Secretary of 
the Board of Police. When Hsu Shih-ch'ang- became Viceroy of Manchuria 



580 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



in May 1907, he took Mr. Lu with him. While in Manchuria Mr. Lu was 
first Director of the Manchuria Salt Bureau and later its Director-General. 
He stayed there until March 1919 when he returned to Peking with Viceroy 
Hsu who was then appoirtted President of the Board of Communications. 
In 1909 Mr. Lu received two appointments, ais a Mentber of the Constitu- 
tional Laws Investigation and Compilation Bureau and Chief Inspector of 
the Bank of Communications. From the latter mentioned position he was 
soon promoted to be vice-president of the Bank, For a time he was a 
Councillor of the Board of Finance. Lu Tsung-yu, director of the Chinese- 
Japanese Exchange Bank is a native of Haining-hsien, Chekiang. He is 
partly responsible for the Japanese loans which China concluded in 1917 
and 1918. During the Tsing dynasty, Mr. Lu received the second literary 
degree through public examinations. Upon receipt of the degree, he went 
to Japan to pursue a short course, in political science. Through his abil- 
ity in entertaining officials of the hour, Mr. Lu received quick promotions. 
Before long he became Assistant Proctor in the Government Council. In 
the summer 1910 Mr. Lu was appointed by an Imperial Edict a Member of the 
Imperial Advisory Council which had been established in January 1907 at 
the suggestion of the aforementioned missioit. He was still holding the 
1909 appointments!. In 1911, before the outbreak of the First Revoliution, 
Mr. Lu was appointed Chieff of the Bureau of Printing and Engraving in 
the Cabinet. In January 1912 before the abdication of the Manchu Throne 
he was appointed by Prime M,inister Yuan Shih-kai the Junior General 
Secretary of the Board of Finance. In March 1912 Yuan Shih-kai, who 
had just been elected President of the Republic by the National Council 
at Nanking, appointed Mr. Lu the Vice-Director of the Board of Finance 
which later changed into Ministry of Finance. In September 1912 Mr. Lu 
was appointed Financial Advisor to the President. In 1913 he was elected 
a Senator of the First National Assembly which was formally inaugurated 
in Peking in April that year. In Decv^mber 1913 he was appointed Chinese 
Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan. The significance of this appointment 
was generally believed to be that President Yuan sent him to Japan to 
work for the recognition of the monarchical government of China. He 
was considered one of the important officials of the monarchical movement 
of Yuan Shih-kai. Yuan Shih-kai died on June 6, 1916. Mr. Lu tendered 
his resignation from the Ministership ion June 30, 1916. He remained in 
Japan for some time and returned to China. Shortly afterwards he became 
interested in Chinese-Japanese co-operation in the industrial development 
of China. He was accountable for the formation of the Chinese-Japanese 
Exchange Bank, of which he was appointed a Chinese director. It is 
believed that the bank does not have any Chinese capital. As a director 
of the bank, Lu Tsung-yu has contracted many loans from Japan for the 
Chinese militarists in the North. Through his Japanese influence, he was 
a;ppointed in 1919 director of several Chihli mines. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



581 




General Lu Yung-bsiang 



582 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



General Lu Yung-hsiang was born at Tsi-yang Hsien, Shantung 
Province, in 1867. He joined the Shanhaikuan Military Academy in 1887 
and graduated from it in 1891. General Lu joined the army after grad- 
uation and worked his way up. On account of his bravery he soon became 
known as an able infantry commander in the Peiyang Army. From the 
rank of Tsung-ping or Brigade General to that of Ti-tu or Provincial Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Next promotion ranked him as Fu Tu-tung or Manchu 
General. General Lu held at different times the following positions under 
the Ching regime: Assistant Commander of the Right Wing of the 
Shantung Troops; Commander of several Regiments of left Division of 
the Peiyang Troops; Infantry Commander of the 11th Brigade of the Im- 
perial Army; Commander-in-Chief of the 5th Brigade of the Imperial Army. 
In 1911 General Lu became Commander of the 5th Mixed Brigade with the 
rank of a Major-General. When the First Revolution broke out in October 
that year, his soldiers fought bravely on the side of Imperialists at Nang 
Tzu Kuan, the month of Shansi, on the Cheng Tai Railway. In 1912 Pre- 
sident Yuan Shih-kai promoted General Lu to be a Lieutenant Gener'al 
and was soon appointed Commander of the 20th Division of the National 
Army. In 1914 General Lu was Itran'sf erred to be Commander of the 10th 
Division. During that period he was conferred the Fourth Order of Merit 
and the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. In December 1915 he 
was appointed Assistant Defence Commissioner of Shanghai and Woosung 
while General Yang was the Principal Commissioner. In January 1917 
General Yang became Tuchun of Chekiang and General Lu was promoted 
Defence Commissioner of Shanghai and Woosung still commanding the 10th 
Division.. He was concurrently Co-Director of the Military Affairs of 
Kiangsu. In July 1917 General Chang Hsun effected a monarchical rest- 
oration and the new imperial government appointed General Lu the 
Military Commander-in-Chief of Kiangnan, south of the Yangtze. During 
1918-19 General Lu's soldiers were totally engaged in the construction of 
the macadamized road from Shanghai to Woosung. In August 1919 he was 
appointed to be concurrently the Tuchun of Chekiang, to succeed General 
Yang Shan-te who had died at Hangchow. The post of Military Commis- 
sioner of Shanghai and Woosung was not relieved until July 1920 when General 
Ho Feng-lin was appointed to that post and he himself became the Tuchun 
of Chekiang. In March 1920 General Lu was awarded the First Order of 
Merit and in October 1920 the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
January 1922 he was made a Full General. In June 1922 General Lu 
severed his connection with the Peking government by abolishing the 
Tuchun system and declaring himself the Director of Military Affairs of 
Chekiang. Up to September 1924, he was the only Anfu General who 
managed to retain his post following the collapse of the Anfu party in 
1920. As a result of the Civil War which began in September 1924, Marshal 
Lu was finally defeated after what was considered to be the most serioua 
fighting which has taken place in China since the Revolution. The Chihli 
forces launched their attack on Marshal Lu both from the North along the 
Shanghai-Nanking Railway and the South from Fukien province. Marshal 
Lu first retreated from Hangchow to Shanghai and after a strong stand at 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 583 



Shanghai was forced to retire and go to Japan. Following the defeat of 
the Chihli party in the North Marshal Lu returned to China by way of 
Mukden where he received support from Marshal Chang Tso-lin and finally 
was appointed Tuchun of Kiangsu province with headquarters in Nanking, 
where he is now stationed. 



Jt 



584 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Lun Wan-sheung 

(Lun Yun-h«iang) 

Mr. Lun Wan-sheung, chief engineer of the Canton Municipality, was 
born at Canton in 1884. Mr. Lun went to the United Kingdom for nine 
years and studied at the Victoria University in Edinburgh, where he grad- 
uated in 1914, after undergoing the full course of eng^ineering.. After 
graduation, he was for more than three years in the various departments 
of the Edinburgh Municipality. At the same time he studied the police 
and the detective system of the United Kingdom in the Police force of 
Edinburgh and Soctland Yard, the most famous detective office in the world. 
In 191G, when Mr. Lun returned to China, he joined the Public Works 
Department as engineer to the commissioner of Police of Kwangtung'. In 
1917, as soon as the Canton Municipality was established, Mr. Lun became 



p 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 585 



the englneer-in-chief of this office. In March, 1920, he was also made 
engineer-in-chief of the Military Roads Bureau of Kwangtung, of which 
the Military Governor is the director-general. Since Mr. Lun took up 
his position in the Canton Municipality, he has pulled down about sev'en 
miles of the city walls and constructed more than sixteen miles of modern 
roads of the various width from 80 to 150 feet. He has also opened 
several gardens, and modern markets. He is now preparing his second 
plan of reform work which involves more than thirty miles of modern 
roads. 



^ 



586 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Ma Fu-hsiang 

H Mh # ^ ^ •'f 
General Ma Fu-hsiang was born at Tao-ho Hsien, Kansu province. He 
was a Provincial Graduate in military science, having successfully passed 
the provincial examinations. The highest position General Ma held under 
the Ching regime was that of Brigade-General at Palikun, New Dominion. 
In July-August 1912, Genera! Ma was Acting Chief Executive Officer at Ko- 
konor. In October 1912 he was appointed Commander of the Guards Division 
stationed at Altai. In September 1913 Geneial Ma was appointed Deputy 
Military Commissioner of Ninghsia, Kansu Province. Subsequently he was 
made a Lieutenant General. In May 1917 General Ma was awarded the 
Third Order of Merit; in July 1919, the First Class Tashou Chiaho; and in 
October 1920, the Second Order of Merit. In December 192J General Ma 
was appointed Tutung or Governor of the Suiyuan Special Area. In July 
1922 General Ma was made a Chiangchun with the special title "Hsiang 
Wu"; and in October 1922 he was given the First Class Tashou Pao- 
kuang Chiaho Decoration. 



m 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



587 




Dr. Ma Chun-wu 

M, ^ -P S ^ 
(Ma Ho) 

Dr. Ma Chun-wu was born at Kueiling, Kuangsi province, in 1891. 
After receiving his Chinese education, he went to Japan and studied in 
the Kyoto Imperial University from which he graduated in 1906. From 
Japan Dr. Ma went to Germany and entered "Die Kaiserlische Technische 
Hochschule zu Berlin." From this University he obtained in 1910 the 
degree of "Diplom Ingenieur" and in 1915 that of "Doktor Ingenieur" 



588 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



through an essay on "Vergleicheude untersuchung uber die phyS'kalischen 
und chemischen Eigenschaften der chinesischen und iapanischen Seiden." 
In the winter 1911 Dr. Ma was elected by the Provincial Assembly of 
Kuangsi as representative to Nanking to draft the Provisional Constitution. 
In January 1912 President Sun Yat-sen appointed him Vice-Minister of 
Agriculture and Commerce, which post he held until the government was 
moved to Peking in April of same year. In February 1913 Dr. Ma was 
elected by the Kuangsi Provincial Assembly as a senator to the Peking 
parliament, as a iKuomingtang member. His party was proscribed by Yuan 
Shih-kai as a seditious organization and all members of the two Houses 
belonging to this Party were unseated in November 1913. The Parliament 
was dissolved in January 1914. The First Parliament enjoyed another year 
of life in Peking after the death of Yuan Shih-kai in June 1916, but was 
again dissolved in June 1917. Dr. Ma remained in Peking as Senator for 
a part of this period, and in 1918 he was appointed by the Constitutional 
government, headed by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, as the Minister of Communications. 
From 1918 to 1920 he worked at the Canton Arsenal as Chief Chemical 
Engineer. In December 1920 Dr. Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton again 
with the late Dr. Wu Ting-fang and Tang Shao-i and Dr. Ma was ap- 
pointed Chief Secretary of the government. In July 1921 he was appointed 
Civil Governor of Kuangsi which position he held until December 1922. 
Since his retirement from Kuangsi, he has been interesting himself in farm- 
ing. In October 1922 he received from President Li Yuan Hung the First 
Order of Tashou Chiao. Dr. Ma has translated a large number of books 
into Chinese among which are Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, John S. 
Mill's On Liberty, Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology, Ernst 
Haeckel's Die Weltraetzel, Eugen von Philippovich's Volkwritschafts politik, 
J. J. Rousseau's Du Contrat Social, Prof. Kiepert's Differential Equations, 
Todhunter's Trigonometry, ' West- worth's Plans & Solid Geometry, Prof. 
Remsen's Elements of Chemistry, and Elements of Organic Chemistry, Dr. 
Hussak's Mineralogie, Lanenstein's Mechanik. In addition Dr. Ma has also 
written many books among which the following are specially noted: Text- 
book of Zoology, Textbook of Botany, German-Chinese Dictionary, Poetical 
Works. All the above works, translated as well as written, were published 
either by the Commercial Press or the Chun Hwa Book Company of Shanghai. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



589 




Mr. Ma Hsiao-chin 

Mr. Ma Hsiao-chin was born at Tai-shan Hsien, Kuangtung Province, in 
1887. He was a Province Graduate in the Ching regime. Mr. Ma studied 
in the following schools: School of Political Science, Canton; St. Stephen's 
College, Hongkong; Columbia University and New York University, U. S. 
A. Mr. Ma was a prominent member of the revolutionary party Tung. 
Ming Hui, and played important roles in its activities prior to the estab- 
lishm.ent of the Republic. In January 1912 the Nanking Provincial govern- 
ment awarded Mr. Ma an Order of Merit. In 1913 Mr. Ma was elected a 
member of the Lower House of the First Parliament which was convoked 
in Peking in April 1913 and dissolved by Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914. 



590 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



He was a Kuomingtang member in Parliament. Besides being on the 
Foreign Affairs and the Finance Committees of the House, he was also a 
member of the Constitution Drafting Commission. After the dissolution of 
Parliament and the overthrow of the Second Revolution, Mr. Ma severed 
his connection with the Kuomingtang. Subsequently he became a Secretary 
to President Yuan. Later he was appointed Secretary of the Ministry of 
Finance and still later a co-director of the Customs Administration. Mr. 
Ma returned to Parliament again when it was reconvoked in 1916 subse- 
quent to the death of Yuan Shih-kai. After its second dissolution in June 
1917, Mr. Ma returned to Kuangtung and became a member of the Extraordin- 
ary Parliament which was convoked at Canton in August 1917. While at 
Canton Mr. Ma also held the position of Councellor to the Generalissimo 
and also to the Tuchun of Kuangtung. For a time Mr. Ma kept himself 
away from politics and took interest in educational work, being Dean of 
St, Stephen's College, and Professor of St. Paul's College. The First Par- 
liament being reconvoked in July 1922, Mr. Ma returned to Peking and 
became an M. P. again, and still continues as such. The highest decora- 
tions Mr. Ma has been awarded are the Second Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho (April 1923) and the Third Class Wenfu (May 1923). During the 
past ten years, aside from his holding offices, Mr. Ma has been contributing 
editor and special correspondent of several papers and periodicals, in China 
and in foreign countries. Being a scholar in Chinese classics and also a 
poet, Mr. Ma has made a large number of contributions to the literary 
world. He is the author of "The Diary of a Traveler," "A Short History 
of World Literature," "Poems and Essays by Hsiao-Chin," "How to Im- 
prove China's Tea Industry," "How to Improve Chinese Cotton," "On Woman 
Suffrage," "Constitutional Freedom," "General Outline of Law," etc. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



591 




Mr. 


Ma 


Soo 


m 


'# 


m ' 


(M 


a Su) 



Mr. Ma Soo was born in 1883 at Shanghai. He first studied in 
the regular Confucian school and then attended St. -Joseph's College at 
Hongkong where he stayed until he had passed the examination for the 
Oxford senior. He went to Canton to teach and after staying there for a 
while returned to Shanghai to became Professor, of History at the Nan- 
yang College. He taught at that College for two years. He joined Dr. Sun 
Yat-sen in 1911 as his private secretary at Shanghai. He took part in the 
attack on the Kiangnan Arsenal with Chen Chi-mei during the First 
Revolution. After the revolution, he accompanied Dr. Sun Yat-sen to 
Nanking in the capacity of English Secretary. In 1912 he started the 
China Republican, an English daily paper, at Shanghai. The paper was 
closed by the authorities of the French Concession on November 6, 1913, 



592 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



on account of its extreme views on politics. In 1914 he went to London 
and studied at the School of Economics and Political Science of the 
London University. In 1915 he went to New Yoik and studied at Columbia 
and New York universities. He studied in these two universities until 
1919 when the degree of M. A. was awarded him. He specialized 
in philosophy. While studying in New York, he lectured on Chinese arts. 
He is now at the head of the Kuo Ming Tang in America, Canada and 
Mexico. Shortly before returning to China in August 1920 he held a Kuo 
Ming Tang Conference in Philadephia which was attended by delegates 
from all over the United States. At the Washington Conference in 1921- 
22, Mr. Ma Soo served as a special delegate appointed by the Kuomingtang 
in South China, and maintained an office in Washington during the course 
of the Conference, where he exercised considerable influence on course of 
events at that meeting. Mr. Ma Soo also ; edited a magazine devoted tq 
Chinese interests in New York known as the China Review, which had a 
considerable circulation both among Chinese and Americans interested in 
China, In the fall of 1924, he returned to China, and delivered a number 
of addresses in opposition to the radical elements which were trying, to 
swing the Kuomingtang party in favor of communism. Mr. Ma Soo is now 
residing in Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



593 




Dr. Ma Yin-ch'u 

Dr. Ma Yin-ch'u was born at Ch'eng Hsien, Chekiang Province, in 1884. 
After having studied at Peiyang University, Tientsin, he went to America 
with government support to pursue higher education. He was in America 
studying for nine years. The first school Dr. Ma attended in America was 
Yale University where he graduated in 1910 with the degree of B. A. 
Then he was admitted to the Columbia University to do research work on 
Political Economy and there obtained the degree of M .A., and also that 
of Ph. D. Following his graduation from Columbia, Dr. Ma spent two 



594 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



years at the Department of Commerce in the University of New York. 
During this period of time he devoted himself to the study of high ac- 
countancy and statistics and finally wrote a book entitled The Finances 
of the City of New York. Dr. Ma returned to China in 1915, when he 
became a Professor of Economy in the Peking Government Univiersity. 
Later he was given the Chair of the Department of Economy. Subse- 
quently the university underwent a reorganization and Dr. Ma was 
appointed Dean of the University. In 1920 Dr. Ma left Peking for Shang- 
hai where he took up the advisorship to the National Comtnercial Bank, 
and at the same time played an important part in the founding and 
organization of the Department of Commerce at Shanghai under the South- 
Eastern University, Nanking. In 1922 Dr. Ma returned to Peking 
to become the Chief of the Issue Department of the Bank of China 
in its head office. At the same time he again accepted the professtorship 
in the Department of Economy of the Peking Government Universitly. 
These positions Dr. Ma still holds. Dr. Ma has been spending his leisure' 
time in writing books, giving lectures and making study on economic 
sciences in general and on Chinese financial problems in particular. The 
first volume of his lectures has been lately published. 



^ 



I 



WHO'S WHO Ix\ CHINA 



595 




Mr. M. Y. San 

,S 3E 111 ^ 5 OJ 
(Ma Yu-san) 

Mr. M. Y. San was born at Hsiang Shan Hsien Kuangtung province, in 
1878. He became a merchant abroad while still a youth. In the Philippine 
Islands, Mr. M. Y. San established a confectionery and biscuit factory, and 
made rapid success, in his business. After the establishment of the Re- 
public in 1912, Mr. M. Y. San returned to Canton. He extended his con- 
fectionery business by establishing a central factory at Hongkong, regis- 
tering with the Hongkong government, increasing the capital to three 
million dollars. Subsequently he put up a special factory to make 



596 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



sweetened gingeirs and also a glass factory at Hongkong. Soon afterwards, 
Mr. M. Y. San opened his head office in a building in Nanking Road, 
Shanghai. With this place as his headquarters and with branches all over 
China and the South Sea Islands, he carried on export business on an 
extensive scale. In 1921 he promoted the China National Sugar Refining 
Company for which a capital of ten million dollars was subscribed. The 
Chinese government granted tax exemption on the products of that com- 
pany for a period of ten years. The factory is situated at Woosung, near 
Shanghai. In 1922 Mr. M. Y. San made a round-the-world trip to 
investigate sugar production in the different countries. He was also on 
a government mission to study the industrial conditions of the various 
nations. During his trip, he personally inspected all the leading factories 
of Great Britain, the United States, Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, 
Holland, and the South Sea Islands. Mr. M. Y. San is at present president 
of the M. Y. San Confectionery and Biscuit Manufacturing Company, as 
well as of the China National Sugar Refining Co. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



597 




Mr. T. H. Mai 

(Mai Tso-heng) 
Mr. T. H. Mai was born in Canton in 1895. From 1902 to 1908, he. 
studied at home, and then entered the Kwangtung school, Peking, for two 
years. The following year, he studied at the preparatory school of the 
College of Finance, Peking, and then studied at Tsing Hua College from 
1911 to 1917. Going to the United States, he received an A. B. degree 
from Beloit College, Wisconsin, in 1919, and was a graduate student at 
Columbia University during 1919-20. After several months experience in 
the Harriman National Bank in New York, he returned to China in 1921, 
and shortly secured a "position as assistant manager of the Hankow branch 
of the Industrial and Commercial Bank. He was soon transferred to Hong- 
kong in a similar capacity and rose to manager of the Hongkong branch 
in 1922, at the same time occupying the assistant managership of the Fu 
Tien Bank. In 1923, he was promoted to the assistant general managership 
of the Industrial and Commercial Bank. 



598 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Thomson Eason Mao 

^ ^U # * Jg E 
(Mao I-eheng) 

Dr. Thomson E. Mao was born at Chinkiang, Kiangsu Province, in 1896. 
He received his middle-school education in Shanghai. In 1910 Dr. Mao 
entered the Tangshan Engineering College, Tangshan, taking civil engine- 
ering courses. From that institution he graduated in 1916. Immediately 
after his graduation from Tangshan, Dr. Mao went to America. He obtained 
the degree of M. C. E., from the Cornell University in 1917; served as 
engineer with McClintic, Marshal Construction Company, Pittsburgh, 1917- 
18, and was given the degree of Doctor of Engineering by the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, in 1920. He is the first Chinese 
receiving this degree, his thesis being "Secondary Stresses in Bridge' 
Trusses." Dr. Mao returned to China in 1917. He served as Professor of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 599 



Bridge Engineering and engineering management, Tangshan Engineering 
College, Tangshan, 1917-18; in 1921 the Ministry of Communications 
established the Communications University (Chiao Tung University) by 
amalgamating the three colleges which had been maintained by the Minis- 
try, the Tangshan Engineering College, the Shanghai Nanyang Collegfe, and 
the Peking College of Communications. Dr. Mao was appointed assistant 
principal and head of Civil Engineering Department, of the Tangshan 
College of the Chiao Tung University. In 1922 Dr. Mao left Tangshan and 
became Dean of College of Engineering, National Southeastern University, 
Nanking. In the summer of 1924 the College of Engineering of the South- 
eastern University was temporary suspended on account of lack of funds. 
In July 1924 Dr. Mao became president of the Conservancy Engineering 
College, Nanking. Dr. Mao is chairman of the Committee on Joint 
Administration of Kiangsu Education and Industry, Nanking. He has been 
awarded the honorable Fuertes Medal for Original Research by Cornell 
University. He is a member of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering 
Education, U.S.A., of the Chinese Engineering Society; and of the Chinese 
Science Society. He is the author of many articles on Bridge Engineering 
in America in Engineering periodicals. 



^ 



600 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Fu Hung-chun 

Mr. Pu Hung-chun, popularly known as Pu Yoong-ding, was the winner 
of the first prize in a competition announced by the Chma Weekly Review 
during 1924 for a "Most Practical Peace Plan for China." 

Mx. Fu was born at the town of Li-li in Kiangsu Province and is 50 
years of age. ' He received his education under several noted scholars, 
including Chang Yi-ling, secretary to the late Yuan Shih-k'ai. In 1903 
he received his bachelor's degree at the annual examinations of his native 
Li-li Magistracy and in 1906 he organized the Jen Primary School in his 
native village. In recognition of his educational work he was electetl 
chairman of the Li-Li Educational Asyociation in 1913 when he held con- 
currently the office of the principal of the First High School in Li-Li and 
of the head of the Third Primary School of the same place. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 601 



In 1914, he was appointed principal of the First Kuo Ming School of 
Kiangsu, for which work he was awarded the third Class Chia Hsing 
Medal by Governor Han Kuo-chun of the province. In 1915, he was elected 
chairman of the Li-Li Educational Research Association and in 1918 he served 
as Eiducational Commissioner for the same district receiving the gold 
medal of the Wukiang Magistracy in the following year. In 1921, he 
became chairman of the council of the Wukiang Educational Association, 
but resigned his position to become secretary to Mr. H. Y. Moh, managing 
director of the Cotton Goods Eu\change at Shanghai, when the exchange 
opened in 1921. He is still serving in this position. 



^ 



602 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Howard S. Moy 

W ^ M 

(Mei Ying-fu) 

Mr. Howard S. Moy is & native of Kwangtung Province. He went to 
America in 1898 and received most of his education there. He traveled 
in Europe in 1906 with Kang Yu-wei and then returned to China where he 
acted as English secretary for the Jun Wah Mining Company of Kwangsi 
I'rovince. After his return to America he and his father became interested 
in a chain of restaurants and cafes in Chicago and are now prop-rietors 
of several enterprises of this kind, the chief one being the King Joy Lo of 
Chicago, which was established fifteen years ago largely through the etforts 
of Mr. Kang Yu-wei. It is in banking, however, that Mr. Moy has become 
identified with the larger business interests of the Chicago district. He 
is assistant manager of the foreign department of the Gi^eat Lakes Trust 
Company of Chicago, an institution which was organized in 1919. This 
was ~the first bank to be organized in Amierica that catered to Chinese 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 603 



investors in the United States and has done a great deal to induce the 
Chinese merchants of America to make investments in America rather than 
send their surplus funds back of China. The bank has connections in China and 
is now developing an ambitious banking scheme for both China and New 
York City. The president of the bank is Harry H. Merrick, fomerly of 
Armour and Company, and now president of the Mississippi Valley Associa- 
tion and former president of the Chicago Association of Commerce. Mr. 
Merrick is one of the leading business men of the Central Western part 
of America and is an important factor in the development of Americ;an 
trade in China. Mr. Moy was one of the organizers of the Chinese' 
Industrial and Commercial Association of Chicago, an organization which 
includes t he leading Chinese business men of that section. It is affiliated 
with the Chicago Association of Commerce. There are approximately 
5,000 Chinese in the Chicago district and they are said to own more than 
G. $20,000,000 worth of real estate, chiefly business property in the city of 
Chicago. They are actively woi king to make Chicago the center of Chinese- 
American trade and are an active factor in encouraging the American man- 
ufacturers in the Chicago and Mississippi Valley territory to extend their 
selling organizations to China. Mr. Moy's father, Moy Wah June has been 
president of the Chicago Chinese organization since its founding early in 
1919. 



^ 



604 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Meng En-yuan 

General Meng En-yuan was born at Tientsin, in 1855. In his youth he 
was very poor and was an ordinary trader. He had no opportunity of 
receiving any education. He is illiterate and used very often to tell his 
friends that he only learned four Chinese characters in his life-time, namely 
Meng, En, Yuan (His name) and Ha (Tiger). Whenever there was any ;of- 
ficial document for his signature, he simply signed on it the word "Hu." 
In consequence he has been called by his friends "Hu Chiang-chun" or 
Tiger General. At the age of about twenty, tired of his un-intere6t?ing 
life, General Meng enlisted himself in the army and well liked his new 
career. Gradual promotions followed. In a few years he was appointed 
Commander of a 'Section of the Patrol Force of Chihli. Later he became 
Commander of a Company of the Force and finally was promoted to be 
Commander of the Force. In 1908 Geoieral Meng became director of the 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 605 



Kirin Patrol Force, upon the establishment of the Republic, he was appointed 
Division Commander of the Twenty-Third Division with his headquarters at 
Kirin. In November 1912 he was given the office of Deputy Military Com- 
missioner Kirin. In June 1914 the Central government awarded, 
General Meng the rank of Chenan Chiang-chun and ordered him to superint- 
end the military affairs of Kirin. In July 1916 General Meng was appointed 
Tuchun or military governor of Kirin. In July 1917, when General Chang 
Hsun's monarchical movement was launched, he was in Peking attending a 
military conference. By an edict, Emperor Hsun Tung ordered him to be 
Governor of Kirin. Union /the overthrow of Chang Hsun's attempt, he 
secretly returned to Kirin to resume his old office. Subsequently the 
Peking government tried to remove General Meng from office. In anti- 
cipation of its intention to remove their chief, some of General Meng's 
followers stationed from Kirin to Changchun declared independence of 
Peking. General Chang Tso-ling, military governor of Fengtien, mobilized 
his troops in position to fight them upon the order of the Central govern- 
ment. It was at the time when Peking got itself ready to fight the South 
and needed all available troops, having no desire to have any dissension in 
its own camp. The proposal to dismiss General Meng from the Tuchunship 
of Kirin was finally given up. In 1919 General Meng failed to agree with 
General Chang Tso-ling, military governor of Fengtien, and also Inspecting 
Commissioner of the Three Eastern Provinces, over the appointment of a 
protegee of the latter to be the civil governor of Kirin. As General Chang 
is virtually higher than General Meng in official rank, he succeeded in 
having the latter dismissed in July 1919. The compensation for the dis- 
misal was found in his being appointed a Chiangchun with a special title 
"Hui Wei." General Meng was awarded the Third Order of Merit in 
January 1920 and First Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration in October 1920. 
General 'Meng has been a resident in Tientsin, interested in many 
industrial enterprises. 



606 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Miu Er-cfa'ao 

e W f^ ^ it J8i 

Mr. Miu Er-ch'ao was born at Hsuan-cheng Hsien, Yunnan province. 
He was a scholar of the regular Confucian school in the Ching Dynasty 
possesising unusual knowledge in old Chinese classics. Upon his becoming 
a Pakung, he was given official appointment. Mr. Miu participated in the 
First Revolution, playing his part in making Kuaichow and Yunnan respond 
to tha revolutionary call. After the establishment of the Republic, for 
many years Mr. Miu was magistrate in various districts in the remote region 
of Kueichow Province. In 1922 General Li Keng-yuan became Minister of 
Agriculture and Commerce. He appointed Mr. Miu Secretary of the Ministry 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 607 



in December 1922. Mr. Miu was promoted to be Director in February 1923, 
first in charge of the Forestry Department and later of the Sea Products 
and Agriculture Department. In March 1924 Mr. Miu was appointed 
Industrial Commissioner of the Suiyuan Special Area which position he is 
still holding. 



^ 



608 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Mou Lin 

Mr. Mou Lin was born at Tseng-i Hsien, Kuelchow province, in 1879. 
He Vas a provincial graduate in the Ching Dyrtasty and received a modern 
education in Japan being graduated from the Normal Course of the Hung 
Wen Academy. After his return from Japan, Mr. Mou served as President 
of the Kueichow High Normal College and also of Kueiyang government 
Middle School. In 1909 Tzu-I-Chu (Provincial Advisory Council) came into 
Kueichow province. In 1910 the Tzu Chen Yuan (National Advisory 
Council) was convoked in Peking, Mr. Mou being elected to represent 
Kueichow in the Council. After the establishment of the Republic, Mr. 
Mou was elected Member of the Lower House of the First Parliament 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 609 



which was convoked in Peking in April 1913 and dissolved by Yuan Shih- 
kai in January 1914. Mr. Mou played an important part in the Yunnan 
Revolt against Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical attempt in 1915-16. Before 
the Yunnan Uprising (December 25, 1915) Mr. Mou secretly went to Kuei- 
chow where he came into close touch with the Commanders of the Kueichow 
troops. These troops were afterwards engaged in actual campaigns against 
the Northern troops. In August 1916, after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, 
the First Parliament was reconvoked. Mr. Mou as an M. P. went to Peking 
sometime after its convocation. The second dissolution of Parliament 
occurred in June 1917, Mr. Mou in company with other M. P.'s went to Can- 
ton where in August 1917 the Extraordinary Parliament came into existence. 
During the period from August 1917 to October 1922 when the First 
Parliament was for the third time convoked in Peking, Mr. Mou was 
travelling through the southwestern provinces and between Canton and 
Shanghai doing publicity work for the constitutional cause. Since October 
1922 Mr. Mou has been in Peking taking his seat in Parliament. He was 
awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho in October 1922 and the Second 
Class Wenhu in January 1923. 



^ 



610 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. H. Y. Moh 

(Mu Hsiang-yueh) 

Mr. H. Y. Moh was born at Shanghai in 1877. Between 1891 and 1898 he 
worked in the cotton store owned by his father. Mr. Moh attended school from 
1898 to 1900. From 1900 to 1905 he served as a clerk in the Shanghai Maritime 
Customs. In 1906 he became supervisor as well as English instructor 
at the Loong Meng Normal School Shanghai. Early in 1907, he was sent, 
by the directors of the Kiangsu Railway Company to investigate the railway 
police system in Northern and Central China. In the same year, he was 
made Chief of the Police Department of the company. This position he 
held till the end of 1908. In 1909, Mr. Moh sailed for the United States 
and entered the University of Wisconsin, where he stayed till 1911. Then 
he transferred his studies to the University of Illinois, where he completed 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 611 



his course in agriculture and took the degree of B. S. in 1911. During the 
summer of 1911 he took a special course on soap making in Armour In- 
stitute, Chicago; thence he went to the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
of Texas, College Station, Texas, where he studied cotton planting and 
manufacturing. The degree of M. S. was awarded him by the college 
in 1914. Immediately following his return to China in 1914 Mr. Moh con- 
ducted a campaign for the establishment of a cotton mill. Assisted by 
his brother, Mr. Moh Su-chai, a well-known cotton expert, Mr. Moh 
succeeded in raising $200,000 and put his mill into operation in 
June 1915. In 1914, Mr. Moh inaugurated a cotton experiment station 
named after him, where American seeds were acclimated and freely dis- 
tributed among the farmers. Mr. Moh's station was the first one that 
introduced American varieties with satisfactory results. To encourage 
the farmers to plant Amejrican seed, he established at his own expense 
in 1918 on Lay Road, Shanghai, a cotton ginnery with American saw 
gins. Recognizing his technical knowledge and managing ability, a group 
of wealthy Chinese in 1916 ask^d Mr. Moh to organize for them another 
huge cotton mill, the Huo Sang Cotton Mill. It had a captalization of 
one million two hundred thousand taels, but since it started oper- 
ation in June 1918 the paid-up capital has increased to two milli'on 
taels. This mill 'being in the interior is able to render very effective 
service to the public. Mr. Moh wrote in 1914 a book entitled Simpi'e 
Remarks on Cotton Improvement over 30,000 copies of which have been 
distributed throughout China. He also translated Dr. F. W. Taylor's, The 
Principles of Scientific Management in 1915, and Mrs. W. A. Graham 
Clark's, Cotton Goods in Japan, in 1916. In the autumn of 1919 Mr. Moh 
represented China in the Pacific Commercial Conference held at Honolulu. 
In October 1923 he was Chief Chinese Delegate to the Pan-Pacific Con- 
ference held at the same place. In 1920 Mr. Moh organized the Chinese 
Industrial Bank and the Chinese Cotton Goods Exchange, of which he is 
president. He has served as President of China and the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce, honorary Advisor on Industry, Director of the 
General Chamber of Commerce of Shanghai, the Vocational School of China, 
chairman of the Cotton Extension and Improvement Committee of the Chinese 
Cotton Mill Owners' Association, President of the American Returned Stud- 
ents' Club, and Advisor to the Shanghai Municipal Council. 



612 



WHO'S WHO IN CHLNA 




Mr. C. C. Nieh 

(NiehCh'i.chieh) 

Mr. C. C. Nieh, was born in 1880 at Changsha, Hunan. His father 
was the late Chih-kuei, Taotai of Shanghai and Governor of Kiangsu and 
Chekiang Provinces. Governor Nieh, it will be remembered, was the first 
man in China to build iron clad ships and 12 inch guns, while acting as 
director of the Kiangnan Arsenal. Mr. Nieh's maternal grandfather was 
Marquis Tseng Kuo-fang China's famous statesman. When only two years 
old, Mr. Nieh was brought to Shanghai by his family. Like sons of all 
Chinese high officials at that time, Mr. Nieh was educated under private 
tutorage together with his five brothers and four sisters. Mr. Nieh pur- 
sued courses in engineering, electrical and chemical engineering, without 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 613 



teachers and to-day he is considered not only an officient engineer but 
also one of the best English speaking Chinese orators in the country. In 
1904, Mr. Nieh gathered together his influential friends and purchased the 
Heng Foong Cotton Mill in Yangtszepoo. The mill, which had 15,000 
spindles, was being run at a losis. To reorganise the plant was indeed an 
uphill fight, but Mr. Nieh, after persistent hard labor, succeeded in show- 
ing a profit on the balance sheet by the end of the sixth year of its 
reorganization. To-day the Heng Foong Cotton Mill is giving employment to 
1,500 people and is capitalised at Tls. 1,500,000 The mill maintains ten scholar- 
ships in the Technical College, Nantungchow, two in France and two in the 
United States and a few in England. It also maintains a school within the mill, 
administered by two superintendents educated in Japan. Mr. Nieh was 
Vice-President of the Chinese Commercial Commission to the United States 
in 1915 as a return visit to the Pacific Commercial Commission. Durin;g 
his visit in America, he extended an invitation to most of the cotton experts 
he met to visit China and give her their technical advic'es. Ais a result 
of his efforts, several of them actually visited China, among them was Mr. 
Griffin. For the work of improving Chinese cotton industry, Mr. Nieh 
initated the idea of securing the co-operation of the agricultural depart- 
ment of the University of Nanking. Mr. Nieh has been interested in many 
other cotton mills such as the Dah Sung of Nantungchow, the Dah Sung of 
Chungming Inland, and the Anglo-Chinese Cotton Mill of Shanghai. His 
relation to them has been established through his being either their pro- 
moter or their director. He is also a Committee man of the Cotton Mill 
Owners' Association organized by foreigners, in Shanghai. In 1918 Mr. Nieh 
organized the Chinese Cotton Mill Owners' Association in Shanghai and was 
made its first President, and was responsible for the organization of the 
Cotton Improvement Committee. In 1919 he organized the Great China 
Cotton Mill of which he is still the general manager. Mr. Nieh is an 
ardent advocate for the establishment of Vocational Educational Schools 
and was one of the founders of the Vocational Educational School, West 
Gate, which has proved to bei a great success, attracting students from all 
parts of the country. In 1920 Mr. Nieh organized a larger school of the 
same nature. It was equipped with a complete cotton mill, foundry and 
workship. He became a southern Methodist in 1914 together with Mrs. 
Nieh. Mr. Nieh has been connected with the Y, M. C. A. for about 18 
years, serving on various committees and as director for the last eight 
years. He is also treasurer- director of the National Committee, Y. M. C. 
A. Among other offices, Mr. Nieh holds the presidency of the Chinese Cotton 
Mill Owners' Association. He was first chairman of the Society for Con- 
structive Endeavor and a member of the A. B. C. Club. He is also a 
Member of the Chinese Advisory Council, the medium between the Chinese 
rate-payers and the Municipal authorities in Shanghai. Mr. Nieh tran- 
slated a book on telegraphy in 1901. Mr. Nieh was awarded by the Peking 
government the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho in February 1920. He was 
appointed in January 1923 a Member of the Commission for the Raising of 
Educational Sinking Funds. 



614 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Nieh Hsien-fan 

Genera) Nieh Hsien-fan was born at He-fei Hsien, Anliui province, in 
1880. He is the second son of the late General Nieh Shih-oheng, 
Military Commander-in-Chief of Chihli and Director-General of Huai Chun 
and other Imperial government troops, who died in the Sino-Japanese 
War. On account of his father's distinguished service, the Imperial Ching 
government awarded General Nieh Hsien-fan the rank of Prefect. Later 
he was promoted to the rank of Taotai. General Nieh received militiarjr 
education at the Chun-Wu Academy, Japan, in the same class with the late 
General Tsai Ao, the hero of the Yunnan Uprising against Yuan Shih-kai. 
After his return from Japan, General Nieh served under the Ching regime 
as Co-Director of Chihli Ying-Wu-Chu (Provost-guard); Director of the 
Staff Officers' Department and also of the Ammunition and Commissary 
Department of the Headquarters of the Metropolitan Defence Troops; 
Director of the Shantung Ying Wu Chu; Commander-in-Chief of Shantun-g 
Patrol Forces; Taotai at several circuits in Shantung; Judicial Commis- 
sioner of Shantung; Salt Commissioner of Shantung; Brigade-General at 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 615 



Teng Chow, Shantung. In June 1912 the Republican government appointed 
General Nieh Acting Brigade-General of the Tengchow area of Shantung 
which position he held until August 1913 when this post was changed to 
Defence Commissioner of the Chefoo Area and he was appointed to this 
new office. Subsequently General Nieh was made a Lieutenant General. 
In December 1919 he was appointed Civil Governor of Anhui. In December 
1920 he was conferred the First Class Tashou Chiaho. In August 1921 he 
was relieved, of the Civil Governorship. In May 1922 General Nieh was 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Metropolitan Gendarmerie which 
position he is still holding. In June 1922 he was given two concurrent 
positions, namely, Directorship of the Bureau of Government Properties in 
the Metropolitan Area and Officer in Charge of the Amunnitions for the 
Body-Guards of the Ching family. In October 1922 Geaeral Nieh was 
made a Chiangchun with special title "Hsien Wei". In November 1922, 
the First Class Wenhu Decoration was awarded him and in February 
1923 he was given the brevet rank of Full General. In November 1923 
he was made a Full General. 



^ 



616 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Nieh Chung-hsi 

(Nieh Tsung«hsi) 

Mr. Nieh Chung-hsi was barn at Luho Hsien, Anhwei province, in 
1877, and was educated under the old Imperial system. Under the Manchu 
regime he served as a prefect in Kiangsu province and for a time was 
connected with the Bureau of Sea Defence at Shanghai. For the past 
eighteen years he has served as a magistrate of the Mixed Court of the 
French Concession at Shanghai. He has received decorations from both 
the Chinese and French governments. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



617 




Ma. Niu Chuan-shan 

M ^ # ^ 7C f 6 

Mr. Niu Chuan-hsan, was born in Kiukiang, Kiangsi, in 1875. He 
received his early education in Japan. He started early in government 
service under the Manchu regime as magistrate of Tehyang, Huayang. 
Mienning and Chungking in Szechuen province. While serving as Prefect 
of the Chungking Prefecture, in the days of Emperor Kwang Hsu, he was 
considered the most brilliant among his colleagues in handling intricate 
cases by Governors Chao Erh-shun and Hsi Liang of Szechuan, whom he 
assisted in establishing schools, industrial enterprises, police systems and 
self-government. Mr. Niu's book on the constitutional government of pre- 
fectures and cities was recommended for Imperial perusal and thus enjoyed 
nation wide publicity. Through the recommendation of Lord Li Ching- 
hsi, then Viceroy of Yunnan and Kweichow, Mr. Niu was appointed Prefect 



618 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



of the Li Kiang Prefecture. But before departure for his post in 1911, 
the revolution broke out and he remained in his position as Taotai of East 
Szechuen with full military and police power within his own territory. He 
was one of the first to declare independence from the Imperial government 
and maintained peace and order within his jurisdiction. From January 
1913 to November 1913 Mr. Niu was Customs Superintedent of Kiukiang, 
Kiangsi Province. From August to November, 1913, he was also holding 
the post of the Civil Commissioner of the Northern Kiangsi. During the 
Second Revolution in 1913, there was clash between Li Shun, then Tutu of 
Kiangsi, and Li Lieh-chun, the revolutionary leader, and Kiangsi was left 
without an administrative head. Mr. Niu remained as active chief of the 
province for some considerable time. In February 1914 Mr. Niu was ap- 
pointed Acting Civil Commissioner of the Central Shensi which position he 
held until April 1914 when he was appointed Acting Chief of the National 
Taxation Bureau of Shensi and also Acting Financial Commissioner. In 
May 1914 the two offices were amalgamated into the Bureau of Finance 
with Mr. Niu becoming its Chief. From July to October, 1914, he was 
Acting Civil Governor of Shensi. He was officially relieved of the finance 
post in December 1914. While he was the Civil Governor of Shensi, the 
Military Governor, General Lu Chien-chang, was profiting himself through 
encouraging opium traffic and poppy plantation throughout Shensi 
Province. This ■ action drew much favorable comment. In July 1915 
Mr. Niu was appointed Acting Vice-Minister of Finance. Subsequently 
the Bureau of Wine and Tobacco Monopoly was created and Niu be- 
came its first Director-General. All the regulations of the Bureau and 
its organizations were perfected by Mr. Niu personally. Within half 
a year tjhe entire system of taxing wine and tobacco was operating smoothly 
throughout the country ; and the yearly revenue of the nation was increased 
by several tens of millions of dollars. It was Mr. Niu's plan to make both 
wine and tobacco government monoplies. He started a Wine and Tobacco 
Bank in Peking to facilitate financial arrangements and was to establish a 
tobacco leaf factory in Shanghai to compete with imported leaves. In 
accordance with his scheme, Mr. Niu hoped to increase the revenue of his 
department to the extent of the salt revenue within ten years. 'But after 
three years' of service, he was relieved. In June 1921 Mr. Niu was again 
appointed Vice-Minister of Finance.. He resigned in November 1921 be- 
cause he saw no chance of carrying out his own plan. Mr. Niu is at 
present engaged in industrial enterprises, refusing to be entangled in 
political activities. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



619 




Dr. Way-Sung New 

f^ 15 ^ 

(Niu Hui-sheng) 

Dr. Way-Sung New was born in Shanghai on June 14 1892, being a 
aonof the late Shang-Chow New, who was one of the early Chinese students 
sent to America and upon his return was the secretary of the Kiangnan 
Dock and Engineering Works of Shanghai. Dr. New received his primary 
education under private auspices and attended the St. John's Middle School 
from 1902 to 1907. From 1907 to 1910, he studied at St. John's Univers- 
ity, graduating in the latter year with the B. A. degree. In July he 
went to the United States and entered Harvard, joining the Medical School 



620 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



where he graduated with the M. D. degree in 1914. During and after his 
college years, Dr. New had considerable practical experience, being house 
physician and surgeon of St. Luke's Hospital, New Bedford, in 1914-1915. 
Upon returning to China in August 1915, he took charge of the ^Department 
of Anatomy at the Harvard Medical School of China, Shanghai, from 
September 1915 to July 1916 when he once more sailed for the United 
States as a fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation. From September 1916 
to April 1917, Dr. New served at the Out-Patient Department of the 
Carney Hospital, Boston, Children's Hospital and the Massachusetts General 
Hospital as orthopedic assistant. From September 1916 to February 1917, 
he was also instructor in bacteriology at the Harvard Mjedical School. 
From May 1917 to April 1918, he became orthopedic house surgeon at .the 
Massachusetts General Hospital. From May to July 1918, he was orthopedic 
assistant of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Then he returned to China to 
take charge of the department of orthopedic surgery, Peking Medical Col- 
lege, which offices he kept till June 1920. Dr. New was admitted to be a 
member of the Boylston Medical Society upon the presentation of a thesis 
entitled "Acute Anterior Poliomvelitis," in March 1913. He became a 
fellow of the American Medical Association and a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society in 1917 and was licensed to practice medicine by 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1917. He was a charter member 
of the National Medical Association of China when the orglanisation was 
inaugurated ,in 1915. In the same year he was elected a meinber of the 
China Medical Missionary Association. He served as the secretary of the 
Peking Medical Society in 1919-1920, secretary of St. Jhn's Alumni As- 
sociation of Peking, 1919-1920, secretary-treasurer of Harvard Club of 
North China, 1919-1920, secretary of American JJniversity Club of North 
China, 1919-1920, secretary of The National Medspal Association of China, 
1915-1916 and 1920-1922, treasurer of The National Medical Association of 
China, 1922, Councillor of the Shanghai Medical Society, 1921-1923, mem- 
ber of the executive committee of the China Medical Miissionary Associa- 
tion, 1923, secretary of St. John's Alumni Association of Shanghai, 1921- 
1922, secretary-treasurer iof St. John's University Alumni advisory Council, 
1922, and national secretary of the Phi Tau Phi, 1922. Dr. New is also 
one of the officials of the Red Cross Society of China at present, Dr. New 
is physician to the Shanghai College of Commerce as well as to the 
Chinese Institute for the Blind, orthopedic surgeon to the Red Cross Gen- 
eral Hospital, to the Margaret Williamson Hospital and to the Soochoiw 
Hospital, Medical Officer to the Yangtze River Commission, director of the 
Rotary Club of Shanghai, medical advisor to the Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo 
Railway and medical examiner for the West Coast Life Insurance Co 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



621 




General P'an Chu-ying 

General P'an Chu-ying was born at Tsining, Shantung Province in 1876. 
He received first grade military education in a military school in Shantung. 
In 1904 General P'an was sent to Japan by the Imperial government among 
the fourth group of the Chinese military students, to study in the Military 
Oificers' Academy in Tokyo. Upon returning to China after graduation 
from the Academy, General P'an joined the army and received gradual 
promotion. In the last days of the Manchu regime, he was Com- 
mander of the 20th Imperial Army Division stationed in Manchuria. 
After the establishment of the Republic, General P'an became Com- 
mander of the 20th Division of the National Army. In April 1914 
he was appointed Acting Chiangchun of Suiyuan Special Area. In June 
the denomination of the highest officer of the special areas was changed 



622 WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 



from Chiangchun to Tutung and General P'an therefore, became Acting Tutung 
of Suiyuan. In December 1914 this post was substantiated to him. In 
October 1910 General P'an was relieved of the Suiyuan post and was called 
to Peking whero he received military advisorship to the President. In 
June 1918 Marshal Tsao Kun was appointed High Military Commissioner of 
Szechuan, Kuangtung, Hunan and Kiangsi, for operations against the south. 
General P'an was appointed Chief Staff Officer to the office of the High 
Military Commissioner. In March 1919 General P'an was awarded the 
Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and in November 1919 he was made 
a Chiangchun of the Chiangchun Fu or College of Marshals. In 1920 
given the Second Class Wenfu. In July 1921 General P'an was appointed 
Chief of the Aeronautic Department. In February 1922 he was awarded 
the Fifth Order of Merit and in October 1922 the First Class Tashou 
Chiaho Decoration and was also made a Chiangchun with special title 
"Chu-wei." In November 1923 General P'an was removed from the post 
of Chief of the Aeronautic Department, being succeeded by General Chao 
Yu-k'e. 



^ 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



623 




Mr. Chuag-Wen Pan 

(P'an Chung-wen) 

Mr. Chung- Wen Pan was born at Hsing-Cheng Hsien, Fengtien province, 
in 1896. He received his Chinese education at home under tutorship and 
graduated from the high primary school in his district. In 1910 Mr. Pan 
went to Tientsin where he entered the Tientsin Industrial College and won 
a full scholarship after passing successful examinations. Two years later, 
he was transferred to Tientsin Nan-Kai School. Upon his graduation from 
Nan-Kai, he applied for the competitive examination of Tsing Hua College. 
He was then admitted as a sophomore and was the first student that had 
ever been accepted by the College from the Manchurian Province. While 



624 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



there, he was once editor-in-chief of a paper which was circulated 
around Tsing Hua Yuan and inside of Peking as well. Mr. Pan was 
sent to America by the College in the summer of 1919 with the tenth 
group of Tsing Hua graduates. He first entered Lehigh University, Beth- 
lelem, Pa. where he was admitted as a sophomore student in the Mining 
Engineering Department. A year later, he was transferred to Michgan 
College of Mines, from which he was graduated having specialized in Min- 
ing, Metallurgy, and Geology, and received his degrees of B. Sc. and E. 
M. Also, he received his certificate of Mining Rescue Training from the 
Bureau of Mines in the Department of Interior of the U. S. government. 
He once assisted Prof. A. E. Seaman, Michigan State Geologist, to study 
the various ' geological formations in both the copper and iron countries, 
particularly the vein phenomena along the Gold Range north of Ishpeming 
and the Huronian elastics and rocks in the Marquette iron-bearing district 
where the largest iron ore bodies of the world are found associated with 
the Middle Marquette series. Also, he was once surveying in Bengal Iron 
Mine, Iron River, and working in Champion Copper Mill, Mich; and he 
travelled underground from mine to mine all over the iron country together 
with Prof. F. W. Sperr to study the different methods of mining. He then 
went to New York and enrolled as a graduate student in the School of 
Mines, Columbia University, and was researching on Metallography for his 
Doctor's degree when unfortunately he was called back on account of his 
father's illness. Upon his return in 1923, Mr. Pan was strongly recom- 
mended by Dr. K. F. Sun to Governor Wang Yuang-Kiang of Fengtiiep 
Province and consequently appointed to be Professor of North-Eastem 
University ^nd also to work out a plan of establishing a first grade Mining 
School for the university of which the Governor himself *is the piresidenl. 
In the meantime, he is directing prospecting work on an undeveloped 
bitiuminous property in his district. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



625 




Mr. P'an Fu 

(P'an Fu) 

Mr. Fan Fu was born at Tsinin, Shantung province, being a member of a 
literary and influential family. He was educated in regular Confucian 
school and became a Provincial Graduate when he was little over twenty. 
Shortly before the First Revolution Mr. Pan was for a time Industrial 
Taotai of Shantung. During the year 1911, he was in the Secretariat of 
General Cheng Teh-chuan, then Governor of Kiangsu. Upon the outbreak 
of the Revolution Cheng Teh-chuan was elected Tutuh of Kiangsu. Ying 
Teh-hung became Cheng's Chief Secretary and Mr. Pan on^ of Ying's 
assistants. In January 1912,, Ying Teh-hung was appointed Vice-Minister of 
Finance of the Nanking Provisional government. Mr. Pan was also given 
a position in the Ministry. In April 1912 President Yuan Shih-kai ap- 
pointed General Cheng Teh-chuan full Tutuh of Kiangsu. Mr. Pan was 
given a position of assistant secretary. In January 1913 Mr. Pan was ap- 
pointed Industrial Commissioner of Shantung. He held this post until 



626 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



May 1914 when this office was abolished. During his tenure of office, he 
encouraged the industrial development of the province by various means. 
Under his patronage an industrial exhibition was held in June 1914, its 
preparation being started from October 1913. In that exhibition, the 
products of Shantung for the International Exhibition to be held at Panama 
the following year were displayed. After the close of the Exhibition, Mr. 
Pan devoted his time and energy to the study of the problem of improving* 
the Grand Canal and its tributaries in Shantung Province.. Subsequently 
he drafted a scheme and submitted the same to the Peking gvernment. 
In November 1914 he was appointed Director of the Bureau for the 
Preparation of Shantung Grand Canal Improvement Works. In the autumn 
of 1915, Mr. Pan organized the Lu Feng Cotton Mill Company in Tsinan 
with a total capitalization of one million dollars. Since its .organization 
he has been and is still its managing director. In May 1916 Mr. Pan was 
appointea Associate Director-General of the National Conservancy Bureau. 
In June 1917 he became Ac?ting Director-General of the same Bureau. As 
Director of that Bureau, he worked out many plans for the improvement 
of the rivers' in China. Shortly afterwards, he left the Bureau. In Decem- 
ber 1918 Mr. Pan was appointed Ajsaociate Director-General of the Grand 
Canal Improvement Board of which Hsiung Hsi-ing was then the Director- 
General. In October 1919 Mr. Pan was given the Second Class Pao- 
kuang Chiaho. In December 1919 he became Vice-Minisfcer of Finance, 
still holding the post of Associate Director of the Grand Canal Board. In 
May 1920 Mr. Pan was appointed to be concurrently Direct'or-Gleneral of 
the Grand Canal Board. In July he was ordered to act for the Minister of 
Finance. In August he became concurrently Chief of the Salt Administra- 
tion and Inspector-General of the Salt Inspectorate. In October 1920 Mr. 
Pan wias awarded the Fifth Order of Merit and in January 1921 the Second 
Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1921 Li Shih-wei was appointed 
Minister of Fiance, but he did not assume office and therefore, in Ju^tie 
1921 Mr. Pan was again appointed Acting Minister of Finance. In October 
1921 Mr. Pan was awarded the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
November 1921 he left the Ministry of Finance and the Salt Administration. 
Since that time he has been a resident in Tientsin. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



627 




Mr. H. A. Pan 

(P'an Hsieh-an) 

Mr. H. A. Pan was born in 1893, at Shanghai. He received his 
early education from his parents and entered St. John's University, 
where in 1912 he received his B. A. Degree. After finishing at St. 
John's, he spent one year in Tsinghua College where he received a Boxer 
Indemnity scholarship. While waiting for his scholarship funds, he served 
as instructor in English in Soochow Academy for one year. In 1914 he 
went to America and entered the Wharton School of Commerce and Finance 
of the University of Pennsylvania, where he received the degrees of B. 
Sc, in economics in 1916 and M. A. in 1917. As a student, Mr. Pan was 
inclined chiefly toward literary activities, being associate editor of the 
Tsing Hua Alumni Annual, associate editor of the Chinese Students' Monthly 



628 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



for two years, and twice First Prize winner of tlie Monthly Essay Contest. 
Upon his return to Shanghai in 1918, he joined the faculty of the Teacher's 
College at Nanking as Professor of Economics and Insurance. In 1920 he 
became Chinese advisor to the general manager of the American Asiatic 
Underwriters. Since 1921 he has been Assistant-secretary of the Asia 
Life Insurance Company. Absorbed in the task of building up life in- 
surance in China, Mr. Pan is actively interested in insurance education 
and is now lecturing on property and life insurance at St. John's Univers- 
ity in Shanghai, and delivering special addresses on insurance and finance 
in other school and colleges. 



^ 



WHOS WHO IN CHINA 



629 




Mr. Pan Ching-po 

(P'en Tso-chi) 

Mr. Pan Ching-po, general compradore of Messrs. Jardine. Matheson 
and Company, Ltd., was born at Heong-shan, Kwangtung, in 1867. He 
entered the business world at Shanghai at an early age and has won the 
confidence of both Chinese and foreign merchants in this port. He was 
engaged as compradore of Jardine, Matheson and Company, Ltd., in 1911, 
the premier British firm in China, and has held this position continuously 
up to the present. He is an active member of the Chinese General Chamber 
of Commerce and an acknowledged leader in the business life of China's 
commercial metropolis. He has been awarded a Presidential Tablet and 
the Third Class Chiaho Decoration. 



630 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Pao Kuei-ch'ing 

General Pao Kuei-oh'ing was born at Hai-cheng Hsien, Fentien Pro- 
vince. He was graduated from the Kaiping Miltary Academy at Kaiping. 
Chihli. After graduation he joined the late President Yuan Shih-kai who 
was then ■ training modern troops at Hsiao-chan, as a non-conuniasioned 
officer. However, General Pao's promotion was rapid. Shortly before the 
First Revolution he was promoted to the position of Brigade Commandant. 
From September 1913 to August 1915 General Pao was the Garrison Com- 
missioner of Huhu, Anhui Province. From Anhui he was called to Peking 
becoming the Director of the National Military Training Institution, a 
very important position at that time. In July 1917 General Pao became 
Tuchun of Heilungkiang holding concurrently the post of Civil Governor of 
the same province. Simultaneously he was given the rank of a full Gen- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 631 



eral. The concurrent post he held only for a few months. During the 
time of the allied expedition to Siberia, General Pao Was Director-General 
of the Chinese Eastern Railway and rendered efficient service in that ca- 
pacity. Then he was also the director-general of the Ping-Hei Railway. 
In July 1919 General Pao was appointed Acting Tuchun of Kirin. In March 
1920 he was awarded the Third Order of Merit.j In Junle 1920 he was. 
relieved of the directorship of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the Chief 
Commandant of the Railway Defence Forces which two positions he 
had been holding concurrently. In September 1920 General Pao was 
ordered to act as Civil Governor of Kirin. In October 1920 he was 
awarded the Second Order of Merit. In March 1921 he was called 
to Peking and made a Chiangchun with "T'ing-Wei" as his Chiangchun 
title. In December 1921 General Pao was appointed Minister of War which 
post he held until June 1922 when the Chihli-Fengtien War had just bee'n 
fought. During the following two years he made several serious attempts 
to bring Chihli and Fengtien leaders together to a peaceful understanding 
which was, however, never realized. In September 1924, General Pao was 
appointed by the Peking government as much as by Marshal Chang Tso- 
lin to be the director-general of the Chinese Eastern Railway. iXhis post 
he is still holding. 



•^ 



632 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Colonel P. C. Pao 

SS M M 

(Pao Ping-ch'en) 

Colonel P. C. Pao was born at Wan-Hsien, Chihii Province, in 1889. 
He received his preliminary military education at the Yaocheng Military 
Academy, where he began his training in 1905. In April 1907, Major Pao 
was sent by the Ministry of War to take up a course in military training 
in France where he stayed for six years, receiving the pilot's certificate 
of the International Aero Union in 1913. In April 1914, Major Pao was 
asked to return to China and served as adjutant on the General Staff as 
well as instructor in aviation at the Government Aviation School. In 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 633 



August of the same year, he was promoted to be Captain. In 12W, the 
Fifthe Class Wen Ho was awarded him. For his services during the 
restoration of the Republic 1916, Major Pao became a Major. In October 
1917, Major Pao was sent to Yochow with his aviation corps, returning to 
Peking in March 1918. In April 1919, the Ministry of War appointed Major 
Pao, dean of the Government Aviation School at Nanyuan and in December 
1919 he was created head of the Bureau of Aeronautical Education of the 
Department of Aeronautics. In February 1921 Colonel Pao was appointed 
Director of the Grovernment Air-service Training School and also a Councillor 
at large of Government Aeronautic Department. In 1922 he was made a 
Colonel. 



OS 



tfrr'^it 



634 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Pien Shou-ching 

a * « ^' iR iH 

Pien Shou-ching, was born at Ching Hai Hsien, Chihli, in 1884. After 
having completed his course in law in the Law School at Paotingfu. He 
went to Japan for more advanced education. In three years he graduated 
from the Law School of Tokyo University. In 1910 he returned to China. 
Soon after his return from Japan, Mr. Pien was engaged by the P*)lice 
School at Paotingfu as its instructor. Later he taught in the Law School. 
In the winter of 1919 he went to Chekiang where he helped in organizing 
the Bureau of Judicial Affairs. Aftfsr having been acquainted with the 
conditions in that province, he was apjwinted to head the Bureau of Ad- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 635 



ministrative Affairs in Chekiang. He stayed in that province for two years, 
having held a number of important positions. In July of 1912, Mr. Pien 
was elected Vice-Speaker of the Provincial Assembly of Chihli. Thi^ 
honor conferred upon him by his fellow provincials was' a recognition of 
the valuable service he rendered during the revolution which resulted in 
the establishment of the present Republic. Shortly afterwards, he became 
Speaker, which he is still today. For many years Mr. Pien has been an 
Advisor to General Yang I-teh, the Police Commissioner of Chihli. He 
was also an Advisor to Marshal Ts'ao Kun when the latter was Hifjh In- 
specting Commissioner of Kiangsi, Honan, Szechuan and Kuangtung anc. 
latter of Chihli, Shantung and Honan. He has been and is still the Director- 
General of the Ling Ching Mining Corporation, Tientsin. In January 1921 
the Peking Government called a conference to meet at Peking to study 
the local government question. It was convoked in May that year. Mr. Pien 
nominated by the civil authorities of the Chihli Province w^ appointed 
vice-president of that Conference. A branch office of the International 
Anti-Opium Association was established at Tientsin in 1919. Mr. Pien 
was elected its chairman. In that capacity he rendered much assistance, 
in carrying out the activities of the association in face of much opposition. 
In 1920 the American-British-Chinese Commercial Club was founded at 
Tientsin. Mr. Pien was one of its promoters and also its first chairmani 
Mr. Pien is the sole proprietor of the Ho Pei Jih Pao, Tientsin. Mr. Pien 
was awarded the Fourth Class Paokuang Chiaho in 1919; the Fifth Order 
of Merit in 1920; the Second Class Chiaho in 1921; the Second Class Pao- 
kuang Chiaho ; the Second Class Wenhu and the Second Class Tashou Chiaho, 
in 1922; and the Fourth Order of Merit and the First Class Tashou Chiaho 
in 1923. 



636 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Bien Zue Sun 

(Pien Shou-sun) 

Mr. Bien Zue Sun was born at Wuchang, Hupei province, in 1883, hia 
native home being at I-Cheng Hsien, Kiangsu. He studied at the Aurora 
College, Shanghai, from 1904 to 1905. Mr. Bien went to America in 
November 1906. He studied Political Science and Economics at the Brown 
University from 1907 to 1912 when he graduated with the degree of Ph. 
D. In June 1912 he was appointed James Manning's Scholar for excellence 
in college studies on graduation. He was the author of Education as a 
Means of Social Progress. Mr. Bien returned to China in September 1912 
and was at once appointed assistant secretary of the B.vnk of China, Peking. 
He was sub-manager of the issue department of th? same bank in 1913- 
14; assistant inspector, 1914; and Inspector-General 1914-16. From 1916 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



637 



to 1920 Mr. Bien was Chief Secretary and Inspector-General of the Chun.g 
Fog Union Bank, Tientsin. In September 1920 he was appointed manager 
of H^ Tientsin Office ■■M ::the Bank,, of China which position he is still 
hol(fijig. In February ;jl912 Mr. fiien was awarded the Second Class 
Chiaho Decoration. In; 1922 he was giveB.i the concurrent post as manager 
of the Peking Office m the Bank of Chin^, which position he still holdls. 
In May 1923 he was gfiven the Third- Class Wenhu Decoration, 



^ 



579 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Pien Yin-ch'ang 

-\im ^'^ n m 

Mr. Pien Yin-ch'ang was born at Tientsin, Chihli, in 1870. In the 
Ching Dynasty, he held the post of Senior Secretary of the Board of Works 
and also of the Board of Justice. In the first year of the Republic of China 
(1912), Mr. Pien was elected associate director of the General Chamber 
of Commerce of Tientsin. Upon the oi'ganization of the Tientsin Chinese 
Merchants Volunteer Corps following the establishment of the Republic, 
he was made its commanding officer. He was also a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee of the Tientsin Red Cross Society. In 1913, the United 
Chamber of Commerce of Chihli was formed, and at the inaugural meeting 
which was held in Peking in March, he was elected the chairman of its 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 639 



executive committee. A few months later he was appointed President of 
the Panama Exhibition Participation Committee. In January 1913 Feng 
Kuo-chang became acting Civil Governor of Chihli when Mr. Pien was 
appointed one of his counsellors. In July 1913 he was made an Advisor 
to the Civil Governor's Office when Liu Je-tseng was Governor of Chihli. 
The special work assigned to him was the flood relief of the Metropolitoin 
district and of the province proper and in the carrying out of it he showed 
wonderful power of organization. In 1916 when tie Lao Hsi-kai affair 
(the French authorities tried to seizs Lao Hsi-kai from China) took place, 
and the indignation of the people was highly worked up a society known 
as the Association for the Protection of China's Sovereignty and Territory, 
was organized and Mr. Pien was elected pres'dent of that society. In 
1917, Mr. Pien was appointed by the Ministry of Finance as a special 
deputy for the investigation of taxation conditions of Chihli in c<innection 
with the matter of tariff revision. Mr. Pien was elected in 1918 a member 
of the New Parliament which was convoked in August that year and dis- 
missed in 1920. In November 1919 lie was elected President of the 
General Chamber of Commerce, Chihli. This position he is still holding. 
In the early part of 1920 he received a considerable amount of public 
attention in consequence of the demand of the Japanese Consul General at 
Tientsin for Mr. Pien's removal from the presidency of the Chamber of 
Commerce because of his anti-Japanese attitude as was shown in his 
interest in the boycott movement. Mr. Pien was awarded the Third Class 
of Chiaho in 1919; the Second Class Chiaho and the Second Class Tashou 
Chiaho in 1920; the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho in 1922; and the Second 
Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration in 1923. 



^ 



640 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



















1 
















-i 

Admi 
i 1858. Af 
Academy 
England t 
wich Nav 
, years he 
return to 
Naval Ac 
Li Yuan- 
miral Sah 


Admiral Sah Chen-ping 

mrnyn -r- m n 

(Sah Chen-ping) 

ral Sah Chen-ping was born at Ffoochow, Fukien pro 
ter having become a Hsiu-tsai or Licentiate he entered 1 
at Foochow where he was hter graduated. Then he wa 
pursue higher education. He spent a few years in th 
al College and was graduated there. For the follow 
was given practical training on a British man-of-war. 
China, Admiral Sah was engaged as an instructor in the 
ademy and had the honor of being the teacher of ex-. 
lung, who was then a student in that institution. In 1 
joined the Chinese Navy, first as captain of the train 


^'ince, in 
the Naval 
s sent to 
e Green- 
ng three 
Upon hie 
Tientsin 
^residemt 
885 Ad- 
ing ship 





WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 641 



Kuangchi, then captain of cruisers Tungchi and Haichi. He took part in 
the Sino-Japanese War in 1894. Upon the termination of the war he 
returned to his native place and retired from active servjce for one year. 
It was in that year his wife died at Foochow. He did not marry again. 
In 1897 Admiral Sah joined the Woosung Forts. In 1902 he became 
Tsung-ping, or Brigadier-General of Nanao Chen, Kuangtung. In 1903 
he was promoted to be Commander-in-Chief qf the Peiyang Naval Forces. 
In August 1905 he was transferred to be Commander-in-Chief of the 
Kuangtung Naval Forces. In November 1906 he was appointed to hold 
concurrently the posts of Commander-in-Chief of the land and sea forces 
in the same province. In January 1908 the land command was withdrawn 
from him. In February 1909 he was promoted to Commissioner of Naval 
Reorganization. In June 1909 he was made High Commissioner of Naval 
Reorganization. July 1909 he was appointed Admiral of the Imperial 
Fleet. In October that year he accompanied Prince Tsai Hsun on his naval 
mission to Europe and in August 1910 on the same mission to Japan and 
America. When the first revolution broke out in October 1911, he was in 
command of the Imperial naval forces. Under instructions from Peking, he 
took several cruisers to Hankow for action against the revolutioners. But 
owing to the lack of supplies and continual defections among his crew he 
was forced to vacate his command and retire to private life. In 1912 
Admiral Sah became President of the Maritime Academy at Woosung. In 
August 1918, when the second revolution commenced, he was appointed by 
the late President Yuan Shih-kai Director- General of the Land and River 
Police at Shanghai and Woosung. In 1914 he was made a member of the 
State Council functioning as Parliament. A little kter he was appointed 
Director-General of all the Arsenals in China. In the winter of 1916 he 
went to Canton to play the part of peace-maker to_settle the differences 
between General Lu Yun-ting and General Lung Ghi-kwang. About the 
same time he became the Inspecting Commissioner of -Kwangtung 
and of Fukien, and Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. In June 1917, 
shortly before the monarchical movement of General Chang Hsun, Admiral 
Sah was appointed Minister of Navy, but this office he did not take up. 
Later he was made High . Sea Inspecting General,.-but also declined this 
offer. At the request of the President, he, however, went to Peking to 
accept an appointment as Advisor to the President's Office. In 1918 he 
was sent to Fukien in the capacity of the Director-General for the sup- 
pression of bandits in that province. He was given the First Class Wenhu 
in January 1919; ordered to take a trip to Europe on a government mission 
in February 1919; relieved of the Fukien post in October 1919; and ap- 
pointed Minister of Navy in December 1919. In January 1926 Admiral 
Sah was awarded the First Class Tashou Chiaho in May 1920, and ordered to 
act as Prime Minister; and in October 1920, given the First Class Tashou 
Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1921 he was relieved of the ministership. A 
year later he was made a Shan Chiangchun (Marshal) with Shu-Wei as 
special title. In September 1922 he was appointed Special Commissioner 
for the Suppression of Opium in Fukien and Anhui. In October 1922 he 
was appointed Deputy Military Commissioner of Fukien and also Civil 
Governor of that province, which position he is still holding. 



642 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Fuchuen Kenneth Sah 

mm^ ^ 'J? a 

(Sa Fu-chun) 

Mr. F. K. Sah was born in Foochow, Fukien province, in 1886. He 
studied at St. John's College, Shanghai, from 1898 to 1903. Mr. Sah went 
to America in 1903 as attache to the Chinese Commission to the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition held at St. Louis, Mo. In 1906 he entered Purdue 
Uni'versity where he was graduated in 1910 with the degree of B. S., in 
Engineering. In the fall of 1910, Mr. Sah returned to China and joined 
the Kuangtung Yueh-Han Railway at Canton as student engineer. In the 
Spring of 1912 he was promoted to he assistant engineer in charg|e of 
one Construction Section. In the summer of 1913 he was transferred to 
the I-Kwei section of the Szechuan-Hankow Railway where he was engaged 
principally in the survey of the Upper Yangtze gorges. In the Spring of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



643 



1917 he was transferred to the Hankow-Ichang section of the same railway 
to complete the construction work left o*:er by German engiiieeTs. Upon 
the completion of the construction work in 1918, Mr. Sah was engaged by 
the Kuo-Pi Railway Co. of Yunnan to take charge of location and con- 
struction of a new branch line. He held that position until 1919 when he 
went to Peking to join the Ministry of Communications. In the Spring of 
1922 he was appointed assistant chief of the Land Development Department 
of the Peking-Hankow Railway at Hankow and later was transferred to the 
Shantung Rehabilitation Commission and appointed a member of the Com- 
mittee for the valuation of the Shantung Railway.- After completing the 
valuation work he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Kiao-Tsi Railway 
which position he held until the Summer of 1924 when he was, recalled to 
Peking by the Ministry of Communications. Mr. Sah comes from a well- 
known family, his father being Admiral Sah Chen-ping of the Chinese 
Navy. 



^ 



644 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sah Fu-moh 

(Sah Fu-tnou) 

Mr. Sah Fu-moh was born at Ming-hou Hsien, Fukien province, in 
1874. In 1889 he entered the Naval Academy at Tientsin and was grad- 
uated from it in 1894. Then he was given a position in the Board of 
Foreign Affairs. In 1895 he was appointed by Viceroy Liu of Kiangsu 
and Chekiang to assit Shen Tung-wou in the work of opening Woosung as 
as a treaty port. In 1896 he became Superintendent of the Chinese-Russian 
Railway Coal Mines. In 1900 Yuan Shih-kai, who was then Viceroy of 
Chihli, appointed him Assistant Commissioner of Foreign Affairs at Shan- 
haikuan. In 1901 Mr. San became director of the Ching-Hua Railway in 
Honan. In 1902 he was transferred to be Superintendent of the Tai-feng 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 645 



Gold Mine in Jehol. From 1903 until October 1905 he was superintendent! 
of the Sin Chu Coal Mine. In December 1905 he became acting director 
of the Tao-Ching Railway. In July 1906 he was transferred to be director 
of Telegraph and Telephone Administrations in Canton. In June 1907 he 
was apopinted Assistant Secretary for Foreign Affairs to the Viceroy of 
Kuangtung and Kuangsi. In October 1907 he was promoted to be Assist- 
ant Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. In December 1907 he became Chief 
of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs. In January 1911 he was appointed 
Director of Telegraph Administration in Canton holding concurrently the 
post of Commissioner of Customs. In August 1911 he was obliged to 
resign from his office owing to his parental mourning. In November 1911 
he started on a journey to Europe, America and Japan, returning to China 
in September 1912. In January 1923 Mr. Sah was appointed director of 
the Telegraph Administration in Shanghai. Having not yet accepted this 
position, he was appointed to head the Chinese Delegation to the Sino- 
Japanese Telegraph Conference in Japan. In February 1913 he was com- 
missioned to be Director of the Chinese Telegraph Bureau of Kiangsu and 
Chekiang. In July 1913 he was awarded the Fifth Class Chiaho. In 
August 1913 he became Special Commissioner for Foreign Affairs in 
Canton. In November 1913 he was made a Secretary in the Ministry of 
Communicatiions. In May 1914 he was sent by the Ministry as Secretary 
to the Chinese Delegation to the International Postal Conference in Spain. 
In June 1914 he was awarded the Fourth Class Chiaho. In July 1914 he 
he was appointed President of the Bank of China. In August 1914 he 
was transferred to be a committee man of the Department of Loans in the 
Ministry of Finance. In July 1915 Mr. Sah was given the Second 
Class Chiaho. In July 1917 he was appointed Special Commissioner for 
Foreign Affairs of Kiangsu Province. In August 1917 he was commission- 
ed to be President of the Bureau for the Disposal of Ex- Enemy Vessels. 
In January 1920 he was conferred the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. 
In March 1921 he was appointed by the Ministry of Finance^ to be Director 
of the Shanghai Mint. In August 1921 he became Chief of the Industrial 
Bureau at Shanghai under the control of the High Industrial Commissioner. 
Mr. Sah retired to private life in 1922. 



646 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. San To 

H 1^ ^ A^ 18 

Mr. San To was born at Hangchow, Chekiang province, in 1876. He 
is a 'member of the White Banner of Mongolia. He studied under Yu Chu- 
yuan, a famous scholar of the Ching Dynasty, and thus has become a 
scholar himself. He entered official service very early. For a time he 
was Prefect of Hangchow, and later director of the Military Academy of 
Hangchow and also director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of Chekiang 
Province. In 1902 Mr. San To left Hangchow and became Proctor of 
the Imperial University in Peking. In 1907 he became a Councillor of the 
Board of Civil Administration. In 1908 he was appointed Fu Tu-t'ung, or 
Deputy Lieutenant-General of Kuei-hua-chen. In 1909 he became resident 
commissioner at Urga, Mongolia. Following the establishment of the Re- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 647 



public in 1912, Mr. San To was appointed Deputy Lieutenant-Geiueral of 
Mukden in October 1912. In November 1912 he was ordered to hold 
concurrently the post of Fu Tu-t'ung of Chinchow. He held these posi- 
tions for a number of years. In September 1920 Mr. San To was appointed 
Chief of the Bureau of Emigration and Labor, Peking, upon the recopi- 
mendation of Marshal Chang Tso-lin, the High Inspecting Military 
Commissioner of Manchuria, with whom he has been on good terms. In 
July 1921 he was awarded the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In 
December 1921 he was appointed Chief of the Bureau of Civil ap-point- 
ments in the Cabinet Office. In June 1922 he became associate director 
of the Famine Relief Bureau, which position he held until October that 
year when he was appointed a Chiangchun of the College of Marshals. 
In November 1922 he was awarded the First Class Tashou Chiaho. 



^ 



648 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Shao Chen-chlng 

Mr. Shao Chen-ch'ing was bjrn at Hangchow, Chekiang province, in 
1889 and graduated from the High Provincial College of Chekiang. After 
graduation he taught three years in several middle and normal schools. 
During the First Revolution in 1911-12, Mr. Shao was editor of the Han 
Ming Jih Pao, a Kuomingtang paper, at Hangchow. Owing to his strong 
opposition against Yuan Shih-kai, his paper was proscribed by Yuan as a 
seditious organ, so in 1914 the Chekiang authorities were instructed by 
Peking to close down the Han Ming Jih Pao and to have the editor ar- 
rested and put into prison. Mr. Shao's life would have been taken if he 
did not have many friends to devise ways and means to save him. He 
remained in the prison for one year after which he was released and then 
went to Japan where he established the Tokyo Correspondence Service. 
Mr. Shao returned to China when Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical attempt was 
at its height. He became special correspondent for The Shun Pao and The 
China Times, two of the leading Chinese papers in Shanghai.- After the 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 649 



downfall of Yuan, Mr. Shao went to Peking as special correspondent of 
the Shun Pao. In 1917 Mr. Shao organized the Peking .News Agency, 
which was the first organization of this nature established by Chinese in 
China. The increase of telegraphic news items in the Shanghai papers 
since that time was due to the existence of the agency. Under the same 
influence, the papers in Peking underwent a reform in form as well as in 
spirit. He was the first man advocating .the publication of Cabinet dis- 
cussions for the information of the public. 'In 1920 Mr. Shao founded in 
Peking a 'daily paper called the Ching Pao and managed under the "modern 
system. When the Anfu Party was in power, this paper made strong 
attacks every day, as a result of which it was finally suppressed and Mr. 
Shao was ordered to be arrested. He fled to Japan and subeequejntly be- 
came advisor on Chinese questions to the Asahi Daily New-s. He was the 
first Chinese who was engaged in that capacity by a Japanese press. After 
the downfall of the Anfu Party, Mr. Shao resigned from the Asahi Daily 
News and re-establishea his Ching Pao at Peking. In 1921 the Peking 
Government University established the Journalism Society and Mr. Shao 
was invited to be a lecturer. During the past ten years, Mr. Shao has 
been devoting himself to journalistic work and has never accepted any 
appointment from the government. Mr. Shao is at present the President of 
the Ching Pao, the Peking News Agency, and special correspondent of 
the China Times of Shanghai. He was awarded by President Li Yuan- 
hung in April 1923 the Third Chiaho. 



^ 



650 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Shen Ckeng-shih 

V* ^ ^ ^ S H 

Mr. Shen ('heng-shih was born in 1889 and is a grandson of the late 
Sheng Pao-chen, famous Viceroy of Nanking and a son of the late Shen 
Yu-ching, Governor of Kueichow. Mr. Shen was educated in Peking for 
his preliminarj- in.struction and went to England for his higher educational 
work in 1908. H-ere he pursued courses in engineering and received his 
degree at Cambridge University. On his return to China he joined the 
Ministry of the Navy and at the same time acted as a lecturer on 
engineering subjects at the Peking Government University. Later he 
became chief engineer for the public works department of the Peking 
municlpiality. In 1923 he was appointed in charge of the secretarial 
department of the Peking Tramway Company. Since 1923 he has been 
associated with the British-American Tobacco Company, Ltd. He has 
always interested himself in commerce and industry and is well Known in 
North China in this connection. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



651 




Mr. M. H. Shen 

vA ^ ^ a is 

(Shen Ck'i) 

Mr. M. H. Shen was born at Ching'-liai Hsien, Chihli province, in 1871. 
He was one of the early graduates of the Peiyang Military Academy in 
railway engineering. After his graduation he joined the Imperial Army 
stationed along the Tientsin Shanhaikuan sector, serving for a few years 
as German interpreter and also teacher in German in the military camping" 
schools. Later he became German translator in the Foreign Affairs Bureau 
of Shantung at Tsinan. Mr. Shen began his engineering career as Cadet 
engineer of the Kiaochou Railway. The other positions he held in the 
Ghing regime were: Engineer of the Tientsin Municipal Works Bureau: 
engineer of Peking-Mukden line; engineer of Peking-Kalgan line; super- 
visor for the construction of the Army Training. Headquarters building 



652 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



and also the War Board building, Peking; associate director of the 
municipal works of the Outer City of Peking; director of the Municipal 
Works Office at Mukden; director of the Imperial Works Department at 
Mukden; adviser to the Szechuan-Canton Railway Administration; chief- 
inspector of the northern section construction works of the Tientsin-Pukow 
line; supervisor of the construction of the T. P. R. Yellow River Bridge; 
and co-director of the southern section of the Tientsin-Puko^w Railway 
Administration. In 1912 Mr. Shen was appointed a principal technical 
exjpert of the Ministry of Communications, having in charge at different 
times the Civil Engineering sgction, the Mechnical Engineering section- 
and the Drawing Office, of the Railway Department. In 1914 he was 
promoted to be Chief of the Railway Department. In December 1917 he 
was appointed the Chief Principal Technical Expert of the Ministry of 
Communications. In 1918 the Commission on Railway Technics was or- 
ganized with Dr. Jeme Tien-yu and Mr. Shen as chairman and vice-chair- 
man respectively.- The work of this Commission includes the selection of 
civil and mechanical engineering students and the standardization of traffic 
matters. In February 1919 Mr. Shen was given a concurrent position as 
President of the Railway Administration College. In June 1919, following 
the death of Dr. Jeme, he was appointed chairman of the Commission on 
Railway Technics. Subsequently he was given the post of director of the 
Peking-Suiyuan Railway. In July 1920 he was ordered to hold concurrent- 
ly the post of chief engineer of the northern section of the Tientsin- 
Pukow Railway. For a time he was also director of the Tsangdipw-Shih- 
chiachuang Railway. In December 1920 he was ordered to assist in the 
organization of the Commiunications University. In February 1921 the 
Second Class Paokuang Chiaho was awarded him. He was appointed 
an executive member of the Commission on the Communications Questions 
in connection with the Shantung Rehabilitation in March 1922; appointed 
acting Chief of the Railway Department in May 1922; ordered to hold 
concurrently the post of Chief of the Inter-Through Traffic Bureau, also in 
May given another concurrent post as Supervising Officer of the Bureau 
for the Compilation of the History of Communications, In January 1923 
he was relieved of the post of Chief of the Railway Department to become 
the Chief Principal Technical Expert of the Ministry. Since that time he 
has been given concurrent positions: Chairman of the Commission on 
Material Purchases; Vice-Chairman of the Commission on the Construction 
of Proposed Lines; and government director on the controlling board of 
the Lung-yen Coal Mining Company, Peking. Mr. Shen was President of 
the Chinese Institute of Engineers for the years 1916, 1917, 1919, 1920, 
1921 and 1922. He is an honorary member of the Haute Etude Chinoise, 
Paris, and of the Association of Chinese and American Engineers. 



WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



653 




Mr. Shen Jui-lin 

Mr. Shen Jui-lin was born at Wu-Hsing Hsien, Kiangsu province, in 
1875. He is son of the late Shen Ping-cheng, Viceroy of Liang-Kiang. 
Mr. Shen became a provincial graduate in 1890. He began his official 
career as Senior Secretary of the Board of War. Subsequently he 
was awarded the rank of Taotai. The first position Mr. Shen held in the 
Diplomatic Service was Attache to the Chinese Minister to Belgium. Later 
he became a Commercial Attache. Still later he was promoted to be the 



654 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Third Councillor. The next country Mr. Shen was sent to by the Ching 
government was Germany where he became Second Councillor of the Chinese 
Legation and also for a time Charge d'Affaires. In the winter of 1909-10 
Mr, Shen was called back from Germany and appo-inted a Councillor alb 
large of the Board of Foreign Affairs. Shortly afterwards, he was ap- 
pointed Deputy of the Board to deal with the National Advisory Council. 
In August 1910 Mr. Shen was appointed Chinese Minister to Austria. In 
December 1913 he was reappointed by the Peking government Envoy- 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Austria. Mr. Shen left 
Vienna in 1917 after China had declared war on Austria-Hungary. In 
January 1919 he was awarded the Second Class Wenhu and in January 1920 
the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In September 1920 a special 
Commission was organizsd by the Peking government to study the Versail- 
les Treaty. Mr. Shen was appointed its vice-president. In January 1922 
Mr. Shen was appointed Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs, holding con- 
currently the post of Chief-in-Charge of the Bureau for the Preparation of 
Participating in the Washington Conference. .,. In March 1922 Mr. Shen 
was awarded the First Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration. In July 1922 he 
was ordered to act for the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In October 1922 
he received the First Class Wen Hu Decoration. In October 1922 he 
received two concurrent posts, namely president of the Diplomatic and 
Consular Service Commission and assistant Chief of the Bureau for the 
Preparation of the Special Customs Tariff Revision Conference. In March 
1923 Mr. Shen was delegated by the Ministry to ba a Member of the Com- 
mission for the Study of Mongolian Affairs, and in May to the Commission 
for thc^ Re- organization of China's Domestic and Foreign Loans. Mr. Shen 
has been the Vice-Minisiter of Foreign Affairs since January 1922. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



655 




Mr. Shen Pao-ch'ang 

Mr. Shen Pao-ch'ang was born at Shao-hsing Hsien, Chekiang province, 
in 1880. He became a Provincial Graduate in 1903. Following this he 
entered the Government College of Law and Politics in Peking, and was 
graduated from it. In 1906 he was appointed Associate Justice of the 
Metropolitan Local Court. Subsequently ,for a time, he was Junior vice- 
president of the Board of Justice. After the establishment of the Republic, 
Mr. Shen was appointed a Senior Secretary of the Ministry of Justice and 
subsequently he was sent to Japan at the head of a commission for the 



656 WHO'S WHO IN ACHIN 



investigation of the Japanese legal system. In the end of 1913, Yuan 
Shih-kai, after having dissolved the Kuo-ming-tang and removed its members 
in the Parliament, organized a High Political Council. Mr. Shen was 
appointed a secretary of this Council. He served in a similar capacity to 
the conference called by Yuan Shih-kai in March 1914 for the sole purpose 
of revising the Provisional Constitution. In November 1914 he was 
appointed Magistrate of Shanghlai. In 1919 he was appointed to be 
concurrently ths Taotai or Prefect of the Hu-Hai Circuit, Kiangsu. He 
was awarded the Fourth Class Wenfu and the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho 
in June 1920, the Second Class Tashou Chiaho in January 1922 and the 
Third Class Wenhu in August 1923. 




Ka^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



657 




Mr. T. C. Shen 

;* g # ^ ^ «I 

(Shen Pao-shen) 

Mr. T. C. Shen was born at Shanghai in 1884. He received his early- 
education at the Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. From 1904 to 1909 he studied 
at the St. John's University, graduating there with the degree of A. B. 
He was awarded a medal for best translation in 1908. After his gradua- 
tion he was engaged as an instructor of the Shanghai High School for 
two years. In the mean time he was the editor of the Commercial Press, 
Shanghai, making commentary notes on Shakespeare's works. In 1910 he 
was also Secretary to Dr. Wu Ting-fang. In 1911 he accepted the posi- 
tion of secretary to the Bureau of Foreign Affairs, Hangchow. During the 



658 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



First Revolution, Mr. Shen was transferred to the Bureau of Foreign Af- 
fairs, Shanghai, for a year. He went to the United States in April 1913. 
From 1913 to 1916 he was Secretary to the Chinese Educational Mission in 
America. While serving in that capacity, he studied international law and 
diplomacy at George Washington University, graduating there with the 
degree Cif A. M. in 1915. He was a member of the International Law 
Society, 1914-16; member of the League to Enforce Peace, 1916; member 
of the Chinese Legation at Washington, D. C, 1916. Mr. Shen returned 
to China in August 1916. He was for a time, a translator in Peking. In 
1917 he was engaged as instructor in translation in the Li Hung-chang 
Memorial in St. John's University and also as lecturer on International 
Law, Constitutional Law and Far Eastern Questions, in the Department of 
government. He has been a member of the Chinese Political and Social 
Science Association and of the Twentieth Century Club, since 1916. He 
is also the general secretary of the Western Returned Students' Union of 
Shanghai. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO Ix\ CHINA 



659 




Mr. Shen Tsu-way 

(Shen Tsu-wei) 

Mr. Shen Tsu-way was born at Shanghai in 1891, his na,tive home 
being at Huchow, Chekiang province. He studied at St. John's Univers- 
ity, Shanghai, from 1904 to 1910. In September 1910 he arrived in America 
as a government student. He studied civil engineering at the University 
of Michigan, being graduated with the degree of C. E. in 1914. Mr. Shen 
returned to China in September 1914. After having served at the 
Conservancj' Engineering College, Nanking, as Instructor in drawing, for 
a short period of time, he joined the Standard Oil Company, Shanghai, as 
Superintendent of Construction in 1915. Shortly afterwards he returned to 
the Conservancy Engineering College again. From 1915 he was for 
many years Professor of Surveying and Structural Engineering in that 



660 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



College. In December 1921 Mr. Shen was appointed vice-president of the 
Conserv'ancy Engineering College, Nanking. From March 1922 to July 
1924 he was president of that College. Mr. Shen is member of the Chinese 
Institute of Engineers; director of the Nanking Branch of the Highway 
Construction Association; member of the Chinese Science Association; 
member of the Industrial Committee of the Kiangsu Educational and In- 
dustrial United Association. He has been awarded the Fourth Class. Chiaho 
Decoration. 



'.^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



661 




Mr* En Yee Edward Sheng 

^ ^m t' n n^ 

(Sheng En-i) 
Mr. En Yee Ekiward Sheng was born at Changchow, Kiangsu, in 18^2. 
He was the fourth son of the late Sheng Kung Pao and one of the leading; 
business men and philanthropists in China. He was educated at the 
Industrial High School, Peking, and later at the London University, Eng- 
land, and Columbia Universitiy, U. S. A. His first industrial school training, 
supplemented by an investigation of industries in Japan in 1911, decided 
him to take up a business career. He is a director and the assiiStant 
manager of the Han Yeh Ping Iron & Coal Co., president of San Sin Cotton 
Manufacturing Co., the Commercial Bank of China, and the Foong Sheng 
Industrial & Commercial Development Corporation. During the past few 
years, when China was visited with floods and famines, he was always 
among the foremost to contribute large sums to the relief of the poor, 
thereby saving thousands of lives. Mr. Sheng was awarded the Second 
Class Paokuang Chiaho in February 1920; the Second Class Tashou Pao- 
Chiaho in July 1921; the Fifth Order of Merit in December 1921; the First 
Class Tashou Chiaho in September 1922; the Third Class Wenhu in Novem- 
ber 1922; and the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration in 
March 1923. 



■- ■{ V- 



662 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Alfred Sao-ke Sze 

jBg« S ^ M ;i 

(Shih Chao-chi) 

Mr. Alfred Sze was born at Cheng-tze, Kiangsu province, in 1876. He 
studied at the St. John's University from 1888 to 1892. During his last 
year in the University he was editor of St. John's one of the earliest 
published college magazines in China. In August 1893 he went to the 
United States to study. He prepared for college at Washington High 
School from 1893 to 1896. In 1897 he entered the Cornell University 
studying Liberal Arts, graduating there with the degree of A. B. in 1901 
and that of M. A. in 190^. He was once elected editor of the Oornellian. 
In October Mr. Sze returned to China and was at once eng;aged by Viceroy 
Chang Chih-tung as his secretary. In 1904 he became secretary to Viceroy 
Tuan Fang. In 1906 he was transferred to Peking for service and was 
first appointed as acting junior secretary of the Board of Communications. 
In 1907 he became director of the Peking-Hankow Railway Administration. 
He was director of Northern Railways during 1907-08; Customs Taotai of 
Harbin during 1908-10. In July 1910 he was appointed acting Commis- 
sioner for Foreign Affairs, Kirin; in August 1910, Junior Councillor, Board 
of Foreign Affairs, Peking; Imperial Commissioner to the International 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 663 



Plague Conference at Mukden, in April 1911; acting Senior Vice-President 
of the Board of Foreign Affairs, m August 1911 ; and was nominated 
Chinese Minister to America, Peru, Mexico and Cuba just after the out- 
break of the First Revolution (October 1911) but he did not proceed. In 
May 1911 Mr. Szs was appointed Minister of Communications in 'tang 
Shao-i's Cabinet. This position he held for less than three months and 
resigned on account of ill-health. He is related, by marriage, to Tang 
Shao-i. In December 1913 he was appointed Officer of Ceremonies at the 
President's Office. In June 1914 he was appointed Chinese Minister to 
Great Britain. He was one of China's Chief Delegates to the Paris 
Conference in 1919. In September 1920 he was transferred to be 
Chinese Minister to Washington. In October 1921 he was awarded the 
First Class Wenhu and appointed a Chief Delegate to the Washington 
Conference. In November 1921 he was given the rank of Ambassador. 
In March 1922 and October 1922 he was awarded respeotive'ly the First 
Class Tashou Chiaho and the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. Mr. 
Sze visited China in November 1922. He was nominated as Minister of 
Foreign Affairs but rejected by the Senate, in January 1923. However, he 
was acting Minister of Foreign Affairs from January 5 to February 3, 1923. 
Subsequently he was awarded the Second Order of Merit. He returned to 
the Washington post in 1923. In July 1924 he was ordered to be Chinese 
delegate to the International Opium Conference held under the League of 
Nations. At this conference Dr. Sze made a strong fight supported by 
the American delegation to bring about the complete suppression of the 
opium p roduction and manufacturing, except for medical purposes. Finally 
at the session in 1925, when the matter was brought to a vote and no 
affirmative action tsken, the American and Chinese delegates left the Con- 
ference. Dr. Sze returned to his post in Washington. 



664 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. SzeSao-tseng 

(Shih Chao-tseng) 

Mr. Sze Sao-tseng was born at Soochow, Kiangsu province, in 1868, 
his ancestral home being Chinkiang. He is the elder brother of Mr. Alfred 
Sze, Chinese Minister, Washington. After having received education from 
regular Confucian schools, he served under the Ching regime as expectant 
magistrate and later as expectant prefest. He rendered good service in 
the flood relief works in north China. Mr. Sze was attache to the Chinese 
Legation at Washington from 1893 to 1895 and was Consul-General at New 
York from 1896 to 1897. In the winter of 1897 he returned to China and 
at once became the superintendent of the Hangyang Iron Works. From 
1898 to 1905 he was connected with the construction of the Peking Hankow 
Railway. He was Commissioner of the Shanghai-Nanking Railway, from 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 665 



1905 to 1907; and its managing director from 1907 to 1909. In 1910 he 
was appointed director of. the Peking Hankow Railw'ay. From 1910 to 
1912 he was director of the China Merchants Inland Navigation Company, 
serving at the same time as a member of the Board of Directors of the 
China Merchants : Steam Navigation Company. In 1913 he was appointed 
Director-General of the Lung-Hai Railway and also of the Tatung-Chengtu 
Railway. The Central Hospital in Peking, which was opened to the public 
in January 1918, was promoted and built by Mr. Sze with the assistance 
of his many friends. His son. Dr. Philip Sze, graduate of the medical 
department of George Washington University, acted for him as the 
superintendent of the Hospital for several years. In 1918 he travelled in 
Europe on an important mission in connection with the financial situation 
of the Lung-Hai railway. In 1919 he was awarded the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho and the Second Class Wenfu. In January 1920 he 
received the First Class Tashou Chiaho. In October 1922 he was relieved 
of the post of Director-General of the Lung-Hai Railway which he had 
held since 1913. Since 1922 he has been in retirement. 



^ 



6b6 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. I. Hsuan Si 

(Sheh I-hsuanj 

Mr. I. Hsuan Si was born at Fu Shan Hsien, near Chefoo, in 1886. He 
received his early education at the Anglo-Chinese School, Temple Hill, 
Chef 00 ; Shantung Christian Union College then at Weihsien, Shantung, now 
a part of the Shantung Christian University at Tsinanfu, Shantung; and 
for a few months, in Tsing Hua College, Peking. In 1911, Mr. Si 
continued h"s studies in the United States on a Tsing Hua scholarship. In 
the United States, he attended four universities, viz. University of Illinois, 
University of Michigan, Yale and Harvard, He holds the B. A. degree 
from Michigan '13, and the M. B. A. (Master in Business Administration) 
from the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration '16. After 
his studies in 1916 he was the first Chinese student ever admitted as an 
apprentice into the private banking firm of J. P. Morgan Co., N. Y., 
where he acquired a valuable experience in American banking systems. 
In 1917, Mr. Si went to France from America serving as the first Chinese 
Y. M. C. A. secretary among the Chinese laborers in French empl.oy. Ln 
France, he stayed in Lyons for some time and later was given charge of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 667 



the Rhone Zone in connection with Y. M. C. A. work. Upon his return to 
China, Mr. Si taught one year in the Commercial College of the Nankai 
University, Tientsin, acting at the same time as Dean of the Business 
School, and then continued his Y. M. G. A. work in Tientsin for another 
year. Resigning from the Tientsin Y. M. C. A. he entered into the railway 
service in the Ministry of Communications. From that Ministry he was 
sent a* one of the attaches to the Chinese Delegation to the Conference on 
the Limitation of Armament at Washington, 1921-2. Upon his return from 
Washington, he served in the Ministry of Communications as English 
secretary to the director of the Railway Department as well as acting assist- 
ant chief of the traffic section in the railway department. In the summer 
of 1923, during the Lincheng Bandit episode, he was sent as one of the 
two delegates to Tsaochuang to represent the Ministry of Communications. 
In September 1923, he was appDinted acting general superintendent of 
the materials department of the Kiao-Tsi Railway, and is now superintend- 
ent of that department located at Tsingtao. 



^ 



66S 



WHO'S WETO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tsannyuen Philip Sze 

(Shih Tsan-yuan) 

Dr. Philip Sze was born at Soochow, Kiangsu provi'nce, in 1888. He 
studied at Shun-Cheng School in 1900 and at the St. John's University 
from 1900 to 1904. He went to the United States in October 1904 wiith 
partial government support, and prepared for college at Central High, 
School, Washington, from 1904 to 1908. He studied medicine at George 
Washington University fr,om 1910 and was graduated from it with the 
degree of M. D. in 1914. He was awarded Ordranaux Prize for highest 
average in June 1913 and at graduation, 1914; the George Washington 
University Surgery Prize for best written paper, in June 1914. He was 
an interne at George Washington Umiversity Hospital for one year during 
1914-15, and resident phyaician of the Columbia Hospital for Women, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 669 



Washington, D. C, during 1915-16. In May 1916 Dr. Sze returned to 
China and was at once appointed associate college physician of Tsinghua 
College. In January 1918 he resigned from the Tsinghua post to take up 
charge of the Central Hospital, Peking, of which his father Mr. Sze 
Sao-tseng was the managing director. " In the summer of 1919 he was 
appointed director of the Chinese Educational Mission to Washington, D. C, 
to succeed Dr. T. T. Wong who was murdered by a Chinese student. In 
May 1921 he was appointed a vice-consul in the Chinese Consuate-General 
at San Francisco. In May 1922 he was awarded the Third Class Chiaho 
Decoration. 



^ 



Kvr-f'^^rrasjacBai mtmximt 



670 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. luming Suez. 

& ^ M ^ iS ± 

(Shih Yu-ming) 

Mr. luming Suez was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province in 1881. 
When a boy he attended the Church Missionary Society Day School at his 
native place. For three years he studied Chinese classics under a private 
tutor. In 1893 he enrolled with the Anglo-Chinese College, Shanghai where 
he stayed for half a year. Subsequently he att2nded the English High 
School in the same city. In 1895 he joined St. John's University 
where he graduated in February 1901. After his graduation he served for 
two years as Headmaster of the Chinese Polytechnic Institute, Shanghai. 
In 1903 he joined the Public Works Department of the Shanghai Municipal 
Council in the capacity of Translator and Chief Chinese Clerk. He served 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 671 



the Council for seven years, and then left jt^f .his own accord. In 1910 
and 1911 he was in banking Buslne^ III the ifall of 1911 he became 
the English secretary and superintendent of Posts and Telegraphs at. 
Gyangtse, Tibet. Later he was promoted to be Chinese trade agent of 
Gyangtse and concurrently appointed as superintendent of the Gyangtse 
Trade Mart. A few months later a mutiny of the garrisons stationed at 
that locality broke out, which was immediately followed by the first revolu- 
tion resulting in the establishment of the Republip. Through his offices 
the mutinous garrisons, which would otherwise have been terminated, were 
repatriated to China. Mr. Suez was the last man to leave the Tibetan 
outpost. During his stay there he had most thrilling experiences in his 
life, and was on the best of terms with the British trade agents. After 
leaving Gyangtse he went to Kalimpong in East Bengal, India, where he 
had been sent on a special mission. Prior to the Simla Conference in 
1913, he was, however, recalled to Peking and transferred to the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs for service. For several years he was in charge of a 
section under the Political Affairs Department. In 1918 he was holding a 
concurrent post as acting judge of the Shanghai Prize Court. In the same 
year he was instrumental in securing the release of the Kyle party which 
was held by bandits in Honan. Mr. Kyle was then chief-engineer of the 
Chuchow-Chingchow Railway. In July 1919 he was awarded the Fourth 
Class Chiaho. In August 1919 he was api>ointed a member of the 
Diplomatic and Consular Service Commission. In June 1920 Mr. Suez was 
appointed Consul-General at New York. In December 1921 he became 
Charge d' Affaires of the Chinese Legation at Panama. In April 1922 he 
was appointed Chinese Consul-General at Panama. In November 1922 he 
was appointed First Secretary of the Chinese Legation at Panama, still 
acting as Charge d' Affaires and holding the post of Consul General con- 
currently. In August 1923 he was transferred to be First Secretary to the 
Chinese Legation at Peru, at the same time acting as Charge d'Affaires. 



672 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C* S. Shui 
7jC 1^ ^ ^ ^ K 
(Shiu Chun-shao) 

Mr. C. S. Shui was born at Fou Ning Hsien, Kiangsu p.Dovince, in 
1878. He was one among the first-class graduates of the Peiyang Yu Ts'ai 
Kuan. After graduation he became a teacher in English of ^ the District 
School of Hangchow, the capital of Chekiang. In November 1902 Mr. Shui 
went to France as a Commercial Attache to Mr. Sun Pao-chi, then Chinese 
Minister to Berlin. Taking this opportunity to pursue higher education, 
he entered the Commercial College in Paris and graduated there with the 
degree of B. A. after four years of study. In October 1906 Mr. Shui 
returned to China and was giv'en a position at the Department of Trade in 
the Board of Commerce. In May 1907 he was appointed at the recom- 
mendation of the Board of Foreign Affairs to be Chinese Commercial Com- 
missioner to Germany. In June he was given a concurrent post in the 
Board of Agriculture, Works and Commerce as an expectant junior 
secretary. In December 1908 Mr. Shui was appointed to hold concurrently 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 6/3 



the position of Second Secretary to the Chinese Minister at Berlin who 
was no other person than Mr. Sun Pao-ehi. In April 1900 he was called 
back to Peking where he returned to the Board of Agriculture, Works and 
Commerce. In July 1909 Mr. Shui was transferred to the Board of Com- 
munications to become a French Translator to the Directorate-General of 
Railways. In August he was given a concurrent position in the Imperial 
Mausoleum Construction at Hsiling as Railway Transportation Supervisor. 
In October he was promoted to the rank of Second Class Secretary of the 
Board. In January 1910 Mr. Shui was appointed a Compiler of the 
Councillors' Hall in the Board of C/ommunications. In March 1910 he was 
appointed director of the Pienlo Railway and in September 1910 he was 
given a concurrent position of advisor to the Kaifeng-Hsuchow Railway. 
In December 1912, the first year of the Republic, Mr. Shui was awarded 
Fifth Order of Chiaho and in April 1913 he was transferred and appointed 
Proctor of the Peking-Hankow Railway. In September 1914 he was 
awarded the Fifth Order of Wenfu. In May 1916 Mr. Shui received the 
Third Order of Chiaho. In September 1916 he was appointed Chief of the 
general affairs department of the Peking-Hankow Railway. In June Mr. 
Shui was appointed associated managing director of the Peking-Hankow 
Railway. In November 1917 he was awarded the Fourth Order of Wenfu. 
In March 1918 Mr. Shui was appointed by the Ministry of Communications 
as a delegate to attend the Electrical Exposition in Japan and also to 
investigate railway administration in that country. In October 1918 he 
was awarded the Third Order of Wenfu. In February 1919 Mr. Shui was 
given the Second Order of Chiaho. In December 1919 he was appointed 
chief of the General Affairs Department of the Peking-Hankow and Peking- 
Suiyuau Railways which had just been amalgamated. In February 1910 
he was awarded the Third Order of Paokuang Chiaho. In July 1910 the 
two railways separated again and Mr. Shui was appointed acting associated 
managing director of the Peking-Hankow Railway Administration. In 
August 1920 he was transferred to be associated managing director of 
the Peking- Suiyuan Railway, this post he held until January 1921. 
At the same time he was appointed a member of the Councillors' 
Hall in the Ministry of Communications. In June 1921 Mr. Shui 
was given the Second Order of Tashou Chiaho. In June 1922 he 
was appointed acting managing director of the Peking-Mukden Railway 
which position he is still holding. In September 1922 he was appointed an 
executive Member of the Commission on Communications in connection with 
the Shantung Negotiations. In October 1922 he was given the First 
Order of Tashou Chiaho. In the same month he was \ appointed advisor to' 
General Wu Pei-fu, the High Inspecting Commissioner of Hunan and Hupei. 
In December 1922 Mr. Shui was appointed Councillor to the High Inspect- 
ing Commissioner of Chihli, Shantung and Honan, who was then no other 
person than the present President, Marshal Tsao Kun. In October 1923 
Mr. Shui was given the Second Order of Wenfu 



674 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C. L. Sun 

(Sun Ch'i-lien) 

Mr. C. L. Sun was born at Hangyang, Hupei province, in 1890. When 
he was ten years old he was sent to Boone College, Wuchang, for element- 
ary education. He remained in that institution until 1905. From 1905 
to 1909 Mr. Sun was at the St. John's Universitiv, Shang,hai, where he 
received a middle school education. In September 1909 Mr. Sun arrived 
in America to study with private support. Between 1909 and 1910 he 
prepared for college at Cook Academy. In 1910 Mr. Sun entered Syracuse 
University, New York, where he studied Law and was graduated with the 
degree of LL. B. in 1914. While in the school, he was elected to the 
Legal Fraternity, Phi Delta Phi, in October 1913. Mr. Sun returned to 
China in August 1914. In 1916 he was an editor of the Far Eastern News, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 675 



Peking. In 1917 he was translator in the President's Office, Peking. From 
1918-1921 Mr. Sun was English Secretary to General Li Yuan-hung. During 
1922-1923 he was English Secretary of the President's Office, Peking. He- 
was awarded the Third Class Chiaho Decoration in 1922. Since 1923 Mr. 
Sun has been Private English Secretary to General Li Yuan-hung. While 
serving General Li Yuan-hung in the capacity of private secretary, Mr. 
Sun was entrusted with looking after the education of General Li's children. 
Mr. Sun has also been a lecturer on law Bubjects in Nankai College. His 
present address is No. 182 Parkes Road, British Concession, Tientsin. 



dte 



676 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Feng-tsao 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 677 



Mr. Sun Feng-tsao was born at Tientsin, Chihli province, in 1879. He 
is one of the first graduates of Peiyang University, Tientsin. After 
graduation he served at different times as councillor of the Chihli Indust- 
trial Bureau, professor and proctor in the Chihli High Industrial School, 
principal of the Marine Products Institute, and committee man of the 
American Marine Products- Association. Later Mr. Sun was sent to Japan, 
Manila, Canada, and the United States to investigate education, industrial 
and n^arine products. He served as chairman of the National Famine 
Relief Association and vice-chairman of the Red Cross Association at Tien- 
tsin, and as speaker of the City Council. At diffe;rent times he was 
advisor to the President, the Cabinet, the Tuchun of Kiangsu, the High 
Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli-Honan- Shantung. Mr. Sun was Com- 
missioner of Education of Chihli during 1921-22. In 1923 he was appointed 
managing director ' of the Tlentsin-Pukow Railway and also of the Pu- 
Hsing Railway. H%. has received the Second Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho and the Second Class Wenhu Decorations. 



e^ 



678 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Hung-i 

Mr. Sun Hung-i was born at Tientsin, Chihli province, in 1870. He is 
a well known literati and reformer and is recognized as a leader of pro- 
gressive parties. After having taken high literary degrees under the Ching 
regime, he was elected a member of the Chihli Provincial Assembly. He 
gained a nation wide reputation in 1911 when he headed people's repe- 
sentation of the. whole country to demand of the Ching government to start 
constitutional .government at once. Mr. Sun had much to do with the first 
Revolution. After the ^tablishment he organized the Democratic Party with 
headquarters at Shanghai. In 1912 he was elected a member of the First 
Parliament. After its dissolution by Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914, he 
went to Shanghai standing out as one of Yuan's strongest opponents until 
1916. In June 1916 he was appointed Minister of Education in Tuan Chi- 
jui's Cabinet. In July 1916 he was transferred to be Minister of the 
Interior which post he held until November 1916. Since his retirement, 
Mr. Sun has been living at Shanghai working hard for the constitutional 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 679 



course. He was once appointed a cabinet minister in the Canton govern- 
ment. But after visiting Canton, he decided not to accept the offer. He 
has been several times offered by the Peking government important 
portfolios in the cabinet, but he has not accepted any. In spite of this he 
has remained an Important factor in China's politics. 



^ 



680 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Jun-yu 

Mr. Sun Jun-yu was born at Wu Hsien, Kiangsu province, in 1880, and 
was a Provincial Graduate under tlie Ciiing regime. In 1900, he graduat- 
ed from the Preparatory Department of the Peiyang University, Tientsin. 
In 1901 he made a tour in the South Sea Islands investigating industrial 
conditions there. After that trip, he went to Manchuria where , he was 
entrusted with the work of organizing the Fengtien University of which 
he later became a professor. In 1904 he was sent ,by the Kiangsu Pro- 
vincial government to Japan to study in the Japanese Imperial Law College 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 681 



where he later was graduated. After his return from Japan, Mr. Sun 
held the following positions under the Ching regime: Member of the 
Constitutional Government Preparation Committee in the Board of the Civil 
Administration; Chief of Statistics Section in the Board of War; Professor 
of the College of Finance,- High Police College and the Law College. In 
1912 he became Chief of the Police Bureau in the Ministry of the Interior 
holding concurrently the post of Director of the High Police College. 
Subsequently he was elected President of the Kiangsu Lawyers* Associa- 
tion. In 1913 he became a Member of the Lower House of the First 
Parliament and was subsequently elected a Member of the .Constitution 
Drafting Committee. Af'ter the first dissolution of the Parliament by 
Yuan Shih-kai in January 1914, Mr. Sun went to Japan becoming the First 
Class Councillor of the Chinese Legation in Tokyo. In 1916 when the 
First Parliament was reconvoked, Mr. Sun took his seat in the lower house 
again and was subsequently elected a member of the Foreign Affairs 
Affairs Committee of the House. At the same time he practiced law in 
Peking where he later became President of the Lawyers Association and was 
also retained lawyer of the Supreme Court. In June 1917 the First Parlia- 
ment was again dissolved. The Peking government in September 1917 
created a Special Senate to revise the Parliament Election Laws and he 
was a member of that Senate. In August 1917 the New Parliament was 
convoked in Peking. He was a member of the Lower House in which 
position he remained until August 1920 when the Anfu Party which had 
been riesponsible for the creation of this new parliament had been removed 
by the joint for^ces of Chihli and Fengtien. In August 1922 the First 
Parliament was reconvoked by Li Yuan-hung in Peking. Mr. Sun became 
a member of the Lower House again. In May 1924 he was appointed Chief 
of the Law Bureau in the Cabinet Office. In September ,1924 he was ap- 
pointed to hold concurrently the post of Chief Secretary of the Cabinet, 
Dr. W. W. Yen being the Premier. Mr. Sun was awarded the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho in December 1919; the Second Class Wenhu in January 
1921; the First Class Tashou Chiaho in October 1922: and the First Glas^ 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in April 1923. 



682 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Fo 

(Sun K'e) 

Mr. Sun Fo was born at Kuantung in 1891, his father being Dr. Sun Yat- 
sen, head of the Southern Constitutional government. His elementary 
education was obtained in the schools of Honolulu and following the com- 
pletion of his work there he entered the University of California. In 
1916 he was graduated from that university with the degree of B. A. He 
took his M. A. degree from the Columbia University in 1917. While at- 
tending school in Honolulu, he was engaged in journalistic works, being 
associate editor of The Liberty News, a Chinese language journal, from 
1908 to 1911. Mr. Sun returned to China in August 1917 and at once took 
part in the organization of the first military government at Canton under 
his father. From 1918 to 1919 he was secretary of the Canton National 
Assembly. In the winter of 1919 he became an associate >editor of the 
Canton Times which position he held until 1920. He took an active part 
in the organization and financing of the campai^ against the Kuangsi 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 68.3 



militarists in the period from July to October, 1920. Upon the formation 
of the commission form of government for the city of Canton in 1921, Mr. 
Sun was appointed to the position of Mayor. He held concurrently the 
position of director-general of the Board of Ck)nservancy Works of Kuang- 
tung. He was a member of the Legislative Commission which formulated 
the Canton City Charter and the local government system that has been 
put into effect throughout the province of Kuangtung. During the past 
twe years, he made several visits to Mukden and Shanghai as his father's 
representative to confer with the leaders of other parties on political 
affairs of China. Upon the defeat of the Chihli party in the war which 
started in September 1924, Mr. Sun Fo accompanied his father, Dr. Sun 
Yat-sen to Peking to participate in a discussion with the leaders of the 
Anfu-Fengtien party on the subject of National Reunification. Upon the 
death of his father, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a considerable section of the con- 
servative element in the Kuomingtang party advocated that Mr. Sun Fo 
should assume the position as head of this organization, the place his 
father had so long held. He is now living in Shanghai. 



e^ 



1 . 



684 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Pao*ch'i 

Ml". Sun Pao-ch'i was born at Hangchow, Chekiang province, in 1867. 
He was the eldest son of late Sun I-ching, Imperial Tutor of Emperor 
Hsien Feng of the Ching regime. On account of his father's rank he was 
given the title of Yinsun when he had completed his studies in Chinese 
and was ready to enter the official circle. At first he was app^ointed a 
junior secretary of the Board of Justice and later made a Taotai in Chihli 
Province. In June 1902 after having successively served as secetary to 
Chinese legations in Vienna, Berlin and Paris, Mr. Sun was appointed 
Chinese Minister to France. Later he was recalled to Peking and in thei 
summer of 1906 he was Chief- Secretary to the Government Counoil. In 
the autumn of the same year he was appointed Giovernor of the 
Metropolitan District. From April 1907 to December 1908, Mr. Sun 
was Chinese Minister to Germany. In September 1908, four months be- 
fore he returned from Germany, he was appointed assistant director of 
the Tientsin-Pukow Railway. From June 1909 to December 1911, he was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 685 



Governor of Shantung. In December 1912, he was appointed by President 
Yuan Shih-kai the Co-Director General of the Customs Administration and 
in May 1913 he was promoted to be Director General. In September 1913 
Mr. Sun succeeded Mr. Lu Tseng-hsiang as Minister of Foreign Affairs 
under the Hsiung Hsi-ling Cabinet. Upon the resignation of Premier Hsiung of 
which position he was relieved by Hsu Shih-chang in May 1914. In January 
1915 he became Director-Ge^neral of the Audit Department, He was 
appointed Minister of Finance in April 1916, holding concurrently the 
post of Director-General of the Salt Administration. He was relieved of 
of the Famine Prevention Commission and associate director of the Famine 
these two positions two months later to become again the Director-General 
of the Customs Administration. In January 1920 he was given the 
First Class Wenfu. From February to May 1920, he was concurrently 
Director of the Grovernment Economic Information Bureau. In October 
1921, Mr. Sun received two more concurrent positions, namely, President 
of the Relief Bureau. In January 1922 he was commissioned to be a Vice- 
president of the Yangtze Rivier Commission and in April 1922 to be vice- 
president of the Commission for the Study of diplomatic questions arising 
from the decisions of the Washington Conference, called by the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. In June 1922 he was appointed Director-General of 
the Famine Relief Bureau. In October 1922 he was given the Third 
Order of Merit. In November 1922 he received another concurrent post 
as one of the two directors of the office to provide means of living for 
the poor in the Metropolitan District, the other director being Mr. Hsiung 
Hsi-ling. In January 1923 Mr. Sun was appointed a member of the 
Educational Sinking Funds Commission. In January 1924 he was appointed 
Prime-Minister. At the same time he was relieved of the directorship of 
the Customs Administration by Kao Lin-wei. He resigned from the Prime 
Ministership in July 1924. Since then he has been living in retirement. 
Besides a popular official, Mr. Sun is also the president of the Han Yih 
Ping Coal and Iron Works and also of the China Merchants Steam Naviga- 
tion Company. In February 1925, Mr. Sun was appointed tupan of the new 
Shanghai- Woosung administration district which was created by the Peking- 
government, following the resignation of Marshal Chi Hsieh-yuan asTuchun 
of Kiangsu province. 



686 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tao-yu C. Sun 
(Sun To-yu) 

Mr. Tao-yu C. Sun was born at Shou Hsten, Anhui province. After 
having received his preparatory education at hom^, he went to America in 
1899 to study. He entered the Cornell University in 1905 and graduated 
with the degree of Civil Engineer in 1909. He returned to China in July 
1909. Subsequently he was appointed a councillor of the Hanlin Yuan 
under the Ching Regime. Once he was an assistant examiner for students' 
going abroad for study. Mr. Sun was assistant-engineer of the Kirin- 
Changchun Railway, 1909-10; district engineer of the same railway, 1910- 
11; managing director of the same railway, 1911-13; managing-director, 
Nanking-Changsha Railway, 1914-16; managing-director, Shanghai-Nanking 
Railway and Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Railway, 1919; and managing 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 687 



director of Chu-Ching, Chow-Hsiang and Hsiang-Ngo railways from 1916. 
He acted concurrently as director of the I-Kuei and Han-I sections of the 
Hankow-Szechuan Railway. In February 1920 Mr. Sun received the Second 
Class Chiaho decoration. In September 1920 he was commissioned to be a 
member of the Famine Relief Commission under the Ministry of 
Communications. In October 1920 he was appointed Director-General of 
the Pukow Port Construction. In November 1920 he was made a member 
of the Railway Finance Commission. In February 1921 he was given the 
Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In December 1921 he was relieved of the 
posts of managing director of Chu-ching, Chow-hsiang Railways., In July 
1922 he was commissioned to be a member of the National Finance Discus- 
sion Commission. In September 1922 he was relieved of the Pukow Port 
post. In January 1923 Mr. Sun was appointed Vice-Minister of Communica- 
tions, which position he held until October 1924. In March 1923 he was 
made a member of the Mongolian Affairs Commission. In April 1923 he 
received the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1923 he was 
commissioned to be a member of the Domestic and Foreign Debts Reor- 
ganization Commission. For a time Mr. Sun was President of the Tung 
Hui Industrial Corporation, a business enterprise founded by his elder 
brother, the late Sun To-sun, former Director-General of the Bank of China 
and once Governor of Anhui. 



^ 



6SS 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sun Tso-chang 

mm. ^^4-' mm 

(Sun Tsu-ci'ang) 

Mr. Sun Tso-chang, was born at Liaoyang Hsien, Fengtien province in 
1886. He was graduated from the Peking Imperial University before the 
Republic. In March 1912, he was appointed Director of the Provincial In- 
dustrial School at Yinkow. After a few months t he school was moved to 
Mukden and the name was changed to Fengtien Provincial Industrial 
College, Mr. Sun was then appointed its president. In 1916, he was ap- 
pointed general director of the Fengtien Electric Light Company of Mukden. 
In 1920 he was transferred to be the general director of the Yuan Linfe 
Forestry Company of Hailunkiang. In the following year, he was appointed 
concurrently the general director of Ho Kang Coal Mine Company of Hai- 
lunkiang. He was at the same time the general manager of the Govern- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 689 



ment Navigation Company of Hailunkiang and Sunhuakiang. In May, 1922, 
he received appointment as Councillor to the Military and Civil Governors 
of Kirin province; and in October of the same year, he was transferred to 
Mukden to be general manager of the Mukden Cotton Mill Company which 
is at present practically the biggest industrial enterprise in the Manchurian 
provinces. 



^ 



690 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Y. Ralph Sun 

(Sun Yuan-fang) 

Mr. Ralph Sun was born at Shou-Hsien, Anhui province, in 1883. He 
received his elementary education at home and went to America in April 
1903 with private support. At Wesleyan Academy he prepared for college 
from 1903 to 1906. He studied Mining at Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology during 1906-09; and barking at Brown University during 1909- 
12 graduating there with the degree of Ph. B. Mr. Sun returned to China 
in September 1912. He was inspector of the Bank of China, Peking, during 
1912-13. He assisted in the drawing of bank rules and gold reserve re- 
gulations most of which received favorable attention of the bank 
authorities. He was member of the Currency Commission, in the Ministry 
of Finance, during 1913-14. In 1914 Mr. Sun was made sub-manager of 
the Bank of China, at Hankow. After two years' successful service, he 
resigned and accepted the general managership of the Fou ^ Foong Flour 
Mill Co., Shanghai, which post he is still holding. In 1916 Mr. Sun assisted 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 691 



the late Mr. Sun Tsao-sun in establishing the Chung Foo Union Bank. 
Upon the formal opening of the Bank in May 1916, he became Shanghai 
manager of the Bank, as a concurrent post which he is still holding. He 
holds many other business positions, such as, director of the Flour Mer- 
chants' Guild, vice-president of the Chinese Bankers Association, Shanghai, 
member of editorial committee of the General Chamber of Commerce, 
Shanghai. He is also connected with the Chung Foo Union Bark, Fou 
Foong Fbur Mill Co., Tung Foong Flour Mil!, Honan, Tsi Foong Flour Mill. 
Shantung, Tai Loong Flour Mill, Wusih, Lee Hsin Transportation Co., 
Woo Foong GodowTi Co., Shanghai and Tung Hwei Industrial Development 
Co., Peking. He has been made a Counsellor of the Ministry of Agriculture 
& Comerce and has received three decorations of the "Chia Woo" rank. 



^ 



692 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Soong Tsung-faung 

5tc # ^ ^ # «/ 

(Sung Ch'un fang) 

Mr. Soong Tsung-faung was born in 1891 at Wu Shing, Chekiang. 
When he was a mere youth of thirteen, he received the degree of 
'•Shoutsai" or B. A. in the old Chinese Regime. He studied English at 
St. John's University, Shanghai, for some years, and later went to Switzer- 
land and entered the University of Geneva to study Social and Political 
Science. In 1915 he received the M. A. degree from that university. 
After his return to China, Mr. Soong became lecturer of modern languages 
in St. John's University from 1916 to 1917. Then he went to Peking and 
accepted the position of professorship in French Language in Tsing Hua 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 693 



College which he held until 1918 when he left Tsing Hua to take up the 
Chair of French Literature in Peking Government University. In 1920 Mr. 
Soong took his second trip to Europe to investigate post-war social condi- 
tions and literary tendencies. While in Europe he also served as Secretary 
of the Chinese Delegation to the Peace Conference at Geneva. After his 
return from Europe Mr. Soong held several official positions, Secretary of 
Ministry of Finance, (January-June 1922 and again since September 1923) 
Co-Director of Loan Department, vice-chairman of the Tariff Investigation 
Commission. Mr. Soong is the author of the follow'ing publications: 
"Parcourant le Monde en Flammes," "La Literature Chinois Contemporaine" 
and "Dramatic Essays." Mr. Soong is the editor of the undermentioned 
periodicals: "Tribune de Geneva," "Revue de Geneva" and "The Eastern 
Times, (Shanghai)." Mr. Soong is. president of the Peking Esthetic Club. 



^ 



694 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr Far-san T. Sung 

5tc « # ^' gC ^ 
(Sung Fa-hsiang) 

Mr. Far-san T, Sung was born at Hsing-hua Hsien, Fqkien province, in 
1883. He studied at Anglo-Chinese School, Hsinghua, 1896-1900. In 
August 1900 he went to America and studied Science at Ohio Wesle.y^n 
University, 1900-5, graduating with the degree of B. Sc; at the University 
of Chicago, 1905-7, graduating with the degree of B. Sc. also. He received 
M. S. degree from the Ohio Weeleyan in 1906. In August 1907 Mr. Sung 
returned to China. He passed the Imperial Examination for returned 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 695 



students and obtained the degree of Chu-Jen. He was a teacher in the 
Fukien Provincial College, 1907; Professor of Chemistry, Peking Govern- 
ment University, 1908-12; Technical Expert of the Ministry of Finance, 
1913; Co-Director of the Assaying Office, Ministry of Finance, 1912-13; 
Director of Soochow Mine, 1913; Co-Director of the Bureau of Printing 
and Engraving, 1914; Inspector General of Mints, Ministry of Finance, 
1914-16; Director of Nanking Mint, 1917; Advisor to Tuchun of Kiangsu, 
1915-16; private English secretary to the late President Feng Kuo-chang, 
1917-18; political advisor to the President's Office, 1919. Mr. Sung has 
promoted quite a number of industrial enterprises, of which the Paoting^ 
Electric Works is one. In co-operation with Mr. Ling Ping-chang, a 
leading merchant at Foochow, he founded the Fukien Industrial Company 
in 1920; and with Mr. Chiang Tien-to, the Sino-Scandinavian Bank in Pek- 
ing, in the spring of 1921. He was a councillor-at-large of the Ministry 
of Finance in 1920 and again from 1922 to 1924. In April 1923 he was 
awarded the Second Class Chiaho Decoration. In May 1923 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Commission for the Consolidation of Domestic 
and Foreign Debts. In September 1924 he became manager of the Peking 
Office of the Sino-Norwegian Bank which position he is still holding. 



v^ 



696 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr* Sung Han-chang 

515 g^ » '# 91 ^- 

Mr. Sung Han-chang was born in 1872 at Chien-ning Hsien, Fukien 

province, where his father was engaged in the salt business. In 1881 he 

returned to his father's native city, Yu-yao Hsien, Chekiang province. He 

studied there till 1889 when he joined the Chinese Telegraph Administra- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 697 



tion as an accountant. While serving in that capacity he spent his leisure 
time in studying English. He left the Administration in May 1895 to join 
the service of the Chinese Customs Administration, Shanghai, as a clerk on 
the indoor staff.- Two years later he was transferred to.the Ningpo office. 
Mr. Sung resigned from the customs in 1898.in, order to return to the 
service of the Telegraph Administration as an accountant and private 
secretary to the-manager, 5lr. King Lien-shan. In the same year he ac- 
compained Mr. King' on the latter's trip to Hongkong and Macao, and 
became his. assistant when Mr. King returned to Shanghai and joined the 
Imperial Bark of China, now known as the Commercial Bank of China, in 
1900. In August 1906 he went to Peking to start the Peking Savings Bank 
under the control of the Board of Revenue. This was jreally a. department 
for managing the savings accounts of the Ta Ching ■ Government Bank 
then in liquidation. By an order of the Minister of the Board. of Revenue. 
Mr. Sung returned to .Shanghai to - be' manager of the Ta Ching Bank 
in Shanghai. In 1912, with the consent of the local shareholders, he put 
the bank into liquidation. This involved a great volume of work for the 
manager and during a short period of time, the entire amount of capipal, 
totalling Haikwan Taels 5,000,000, was rutuined to the sharehoMers. On 
the other hand, Mr. Sung accepted tte appointment of manager of the Bank 
of China. The work of organizing and inaugurating the Bank of China also 
involved tremendous energy and trials, but Mr. Sung faced the' situatiton 
admirably. Just when Mr. Sung had set the bank on a firm footing, Yuan' 
Shih-kai proclaimed a state of moritorlum among the government banks 
and almost su2C83ded in undoing what Mr. Sung had labored for five years, 
to accomplish. The order was proclaimed by a Mandate on May 12, 1916, 
on accounnt of the government being short of funds. Instructions from 
Peking for Mr. Sung were that he should at once lock up the cash reserves 
in the strong room at the Shanghai office and remove his office to Chinese 
territory. Although he was impressed with the importance' of obeying 
this order, he realised that the financial market of the port wo'ald be 
greatly disturbed, if it were observed and carried out. Courageously he 
made up his mind to resist the order and transacted his banking business 
as usual, avoiding a financial panic and at the same time' keeping; the 
Shanghai notes at par. Mr. Sung has been for many years president of 
the Shanghai Barkers' Association and director of the Chinese General 
Chamber of Commerce, of the Red Cross. Society of. China, of the Anti- 
kidnapping. S'ocigty, and' of the- Sha-Hsing' Giiild. ,In 1916 he. was elected 
chairman of the Chinese General Chambet of . .Commerce, but J Be declined 
the honor on .account of. pressure, of. work in fiis banking business. He 
was awarded by the Peking government" the. Second Class. Chiaho in 
August 1919 and the Second Tashou Pabku-ngg Chiaho in April 1923. 



698 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Genera] Sung Hsiao-lien 

General Sung Hsiao-lien was born at Kirin, Kirin province, in 1864. 
After having studied in the regular Confucian schools, he joined the 
government service. Under the Ching Regime he held successively the 
following positions: a court secretary at Heilungkiang province; director 
of the Foreign Affairs Bureau connected with the Harbin Railway; Taotai 
of Hailar, Brigadier General at Hurunpir, Heilungkiang; Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Civil Administration of Heilungkiang from March 1911; Commis- 
sioner, from December 1911; and Governor of the province during the 
First Revolution. In March 1912, the Peking government appointed 
General Sung the Tutu or Military Governor of Heilungkiang. In August 

1913 h3 resigned on account of opposition from the Russians. In May 

1914 he was appointed by Yuan Shih-kai as a member of the State Council. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 699 



He lived an inactive life until June 1920 when he was appointed Director 
General of the- Chinese Eastern Railway. It was he who ordered that the 
Russians guilty of the Chinese law be bambooed in the regular ancient 
fashion, thus making himself unpopular with the Russians in Harbin. He 
was given the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho in January 1921; relie>V€d 
of the directorship in January 1922; and given the Second Class Tashou 
Paokuang Chiaho in December 1922. 



^ 



700 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Sung Tso-chiu 

(Sung Shu-heng) 

Mr. Sung Tse-chiu was born at Tientsin in 1863. He had a humble 
beginning in life and is now the most influential merchant at that port. 
Mr. Sung was an apprentice in a small store in hJs early youth. He- 
gradually work 3d his way up until he became manager of the Teng Ching 
Lung Company, one of the largest piece goods stores at Tientsin! . After 
his resignation, . he devoted his time and energy to the promotion of native 
goods stores and the encouragement of native products. In consequence 
of his activity in that direction, he was elected pres.ident of the Associia- 
tion for Industrial and Commercial Studies, and chairman of the Industrial 
Association, both of these offices being filled with great credit to himself. 
He invented An Kuo Pu or "Loving Country Cloth" to replace imported 
cloth. An Kuo Pu has now become so popular that it is extensively used 
by every family in the country and during the baginning of the: Great 
War, large quantities of it were shipped to Russia where it was in high 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 701 



demand. In 1915, he promoted the movement of boycotting Japanese goods 
as a result of the Twenty-One Demands Japan made upon China. When 
the European Peace Conference decided the Shantung issue in Japan's 
favor, he together with his friends promoted the organization of ten-men 
groups to arouse a healthy national feeling. In recognition of his en- 
thusiasm, he was elected vice-president of this organization, which 
subsequently proved to be one of the most influential 'organizations in 
promoting the boycott movement. On account of his Anti-Japanese 
activities, he was wanted by the Tientsin Police. Among the various 
offices he now holds are: dii*ector of the Native Goods Store which was 
founded more than fifteen years ago; chairman of the Association for the. 
Encouragement of Native Products; director of the Anti-Narcotic As- 
sociation ; A member of the People's Association ; chairman of the Financial 
Committee of the Union of Various Professions; assistant manager of the 
Tientsin Soap Factory. Mr. Sung is a Christian, and interested in the 
social welfare of the community in which he lives. Once he was president 
of the Reformatory where men with criminal inclinations or those who 
are mentally distorted are sent for treatment. Mr. Sung has established 
six schools at Tientsin all at his own expense. They are called Sung's 
Schools. 



^ 



702 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Genersl T'an Yen-k'ai 

General T'an Yen-k'ai was born at Ch'a-Iin Hsien, Hunan province, in 
1876, his father being the late T'an Chung-lin, the Viceroy of Hu and 
Kuang Provinces. He became a Metropolitan Graduate in 1904 and was 
subsequentlj' made a Hanlin Compiler, being admitted to the Hanlin 
Academy. Shortly afterwards he resigned from the Academy and returned 
home for retirement. While residing in Hunan, he was, however, active in 
local politics. In consequence he was elected chairman of the Provincial 
Assembly of Hunan in 1909, when the Ching House gave every indication 
of its determination to introduce constitutional government. In October 
1911 the First Revolution broke out and General T'an was elected Chief of 
Military Affairs with headquarters at Changsha. In July 1912 he was 
appointed Tutu or Military Governor of Hunan. In October 1913 he was 
ordered by Yuan Shih-kai to turn over the office of Tutu to Tang Hsiang- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 703 



ming. He was suspected of being disloyal to Yuan in connection with the 
Second Revolution which broke out In the summer of 1913. In June 1916, 
Yuan Shih-kai died. In August 1916 he was appointed Civil Governor of 
Hunan and concurrently Military Governor the denomination of which had 
by that time been changed from Tutu to Tuchun. He was relieved of the 
Tuchun post by Fu Liang-teo, a confidential man of Tuan Chi-jui, then 
Prime Minister, in August 1917. Subsequently the Kiangsi troops invaded 
Hunan, captured Changsha and drove away General Fu. In December 1917 
General T'an again became Tuchun of Hunan, this time being appointed by 
the Southern-western government. In the mean time the Peking govern- 
ment ordered General Tsao Kun, General Wu Pei-fu and General Chang. 
Chin-yao to retake Hunan. Their combined forces finally succeeded in 
recapturing Changsha and Yochow in April 1918, but the south-western 
troops unnder General Tan's leadership still occupied part of 'Hunan's- 
territory. In March 1919, before the victory was completed, Peking 
appointed General Chang Chin-yao, an Anfu man, Military Governor of 
Hunan, instead of General Wu Pei-fu, who should have deserved this ap- 
pointment because it was his troops who alone recaptured these two 
important cities. For a time, there were two military governors in Hunan, 
one appointed by Peking and the other by Canton. In March 1920, General 
Wu Pei-fu retired from Hunan to Paotingfu under the excuse of giving a 
rest to his troops but really as a protest against Peking's refusal to pay 
his- men although the- Anfu generals received their monthly allowance more 
regularly. Upon his retirement from Hunan, General Chang Chin-yao could 
not hold his ground. General Tan, taking advantage of the sitratatcon, 
advanced with his men, captured and expelled Chang Ching-yao in June 
1820. After Chang's flight, he became the civil as well as the military 
governor of Hunan, but he did not function as such under orders of 
Peking. On November 2, 1920 General T'an declared a self-governm-ent 
in Hunan. • On the 23rd, the civil and military administrations were sepa- 
rated with General Chao Heng-ti taking up the command of the military, 
troops and General T'an temporarily in chrage of the civil administration, 
awaiting the election by the people of the new governor. A week later the 
latter was relieved of the governorship by General Ling Chih-yu, who is 
General Chao's man. Since then General T'an joined the Southern govern- 
ment and made several attempts in vain to restore his stand in Hunan. In 
June 1922 when the Chihli-Fengtien War had just broken, out, the Peking 
government appointed him Acting Minister of the Interior but he did not 
accept the offer. In October 1923 he was awarded the Second Order 
of Merit. 



704 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General T'ang Chi-yao 

General T'ang Chi-yao was born at Tung-chuan Hsien, Yunnan province, 
in 1885. He was a Hsiu-Tsai in the Ching Dynasty and was graduated 
from the Provincial High College of Yunnan. In November 1909 he entered 
the Military Cadets' Academy, Japan, and was graduated from the Artillery 
Department in 1910. Upon his return to China, he served in the Army of 
Fengtien Province. Shortly afterwards he went to Yunnan becoming Staff 
Officer to the Viceroy of Yunnan-Kueichow and President of the Military 
Training College. General Tang became a revolutions when he was in Japan 
where he made acquaintances with the revolutionary leaders. The First, 
Revolution broke out at Wuchang on October 10, 1911. General Ts'ai 
Ao, Li Lieh-chun and T'ang Chi-yao responded to the revolutionary call 
by declaring independence in Yunnan on October 30. Ts'ai was elected 
Tutu and T'ang became Chief Staff Officer of the Yunnan Military govern- 
ment. In April 1912, at the recommendation of Ts'ai Ao, President Yuan! 
Shih-kai appointed General T'ang the Tutu of Kueichow Province. In 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 705 



July 1916, President Li Yuan-hung appointed General T'ang the Tuchuni, 
new designation of military governor, of Yunnan. In September 1916 h© 
was again ordered to act concurrently a Civil Governor of Yunnan. Aftear 
one year's quiet administration, another trouble started in which General 
T'ang was sariously involved. In May 1918 the Extraordinary Parliament 
elected seven directors to administer the Opposition Government and 
General T'ang was one of them. At first these leaders were in concerted 
action against the north. Soon, quarrels occurred between them. In 
June 1919 the Kuo Ming^ Tang elements including General T'ang were 
ousted by the Kuangsi faction. In December 1919 the Extraordinary 
Parliament ceased to function on account of military interference by the 
Kuangsi faction. Then General T'ang invited the parliamentarians to 
Yunnan, where they assembled in July 1920. In June 1920 General T'ang, 
in a circular telegram abolished the post of Tuchun of Yunnan and assumed 
the commandership of Yunnan and Szechuan Allied Forces. In July 1920 
he drove out General Hsiung Ke-wu from Chengtu, the capital of Szechuan 
and assumed the control of that province. In September 1920 General 
Hsiung Ke-wu, assisted by Liu Tsen-hou came back to Chengtu, drove 
General T'ang out of Szechuan, and Yunnan was left to itself. In Decem- 
ber 1920 the Kuo Ming Tang leaders resumed the . control of Kuangtun;g; 
and General T'ang became a Military Director again. During the following 
year he directed the troops remaining loyal to him ' in operations agB,insb 
the Szechuan leaders. In March 1922 General T'ang returped to Yunnan again 
and since that time he has been in control of that, province and also a 
part of -Szechuan province. 



^ 



706 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tang Shao-yi 

(T'ang Shao-i) 

Mr. Tang Shao-yi was born at Fang-yu Hsien, Kuangtung province, in 
1860. In 187S he was sent to America among the first group of Chineise 
students to study there with government support. He remained in the 
United States for seven years. He attended the Columbia University, New 
York but he returned to China before his graduation upon the order of 
the government which was sceptical about the real usefulness of the 
Western education. Mr. Tang was appointed assistant in charge of the 
Korean Maritime Customs in 1882, one year after his return from America. 
Later he attracted the attention of Yuan Shih-klai, and was appointed 
secretary to the Imperial Resident in Korea. After the China-Japanese 
War, Mr. Tong was Consul-General in Korea. Shortly afterwards he was 
employed on the staff of the Peiyang Railway Administration. In the 
winter of 1900 Mr. Tang was with Yuan Shih-fcai in Shantung it was the 
year of the Boxer rising, and Mr. Tang cooperated with Yuan Shih-kai in 
the suppression of the disturbances. In March 1902 he was appointed 
Customs Taotai of Tientsin, In October 1904 he was appointed 'special 
commissioner to Tibet. He visited India as China's envoy to negotiate the 
Tibet convention, which was subsequently completed at Peking in Nov- 
ember 1905. In December 1905 Mr. Tang was appointed Junior vice- 
president of the Board of Polreign Affairs. Shortly afterwards, he was 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 707 



made Director- General of the Shanghai- Nanking Railway and the Lu-Han 
Railway. In May 1906 h3 was made ConrptrQller-General of the Revenue 
Council in Peking. In January 1907 he became Senior Vice-President af 
the Board of Communications. At the same time he continued to act as 
Vice-President of the Board of Foreign Affairs. In April 1907 he was 
appointed first Governor of Fengtien upon the reorganization of the 
government of Manchuria when Hsu Shih-chang was Viceroy of Manchuria. 
In July of 1908 he was sent as a special envoy to America to thank the. 
United States government for waiving part of the Boxer indemnity. In 
July of 1908 he resigned the governorship of Fengtien. In , August 1910, 
Mr. Tang was expectant Vice-President of the Board of Communications, 
and soon afterwards was asked to act for the President, but he resiigned 
his office in the following spring. On the dismissal of Sheng Hsuan-huai 
on October 27, 1911, Mr. Tang was appointed President of the Board of 
Communications. On December 7, Yuan appointed Mr. Tang to head the 
revolutionary leaders for peace at Shanghai. On December 27, he re- 
signed from this position. Mr. Tang was appointed Prime Minister under 
the Republican government i;i February 1912. This position he held until 
June 1912. Subsequently he became High Advisor to President Yuan. 
He denounced Yuan Shih-kai in 1915 when the latter aspired to be 
Emperor and worked against his imperial plan. After the death of Yuan 
Shih-kai in June 1916, Li Yuan-hung became President who appointed Tuan 
Chi-jui to be Prime Minister. Mr. Tang was appointed Minister for Foreign 
Affairs. But he did not assume office on account of opposition in Peking, 
Ha was officially relieved of the portfolio in September 1916. In; May 
1918 Mr. Tang was elected by this Parliament as one of the seven directors 
of the Canton Military government. In iFebruary 1919 he was appointed 
by the Canton government to head the southern delegation to the conference 
held at Shanghai for the settlement of China's internal trouble which com-, 
menced in 1917. In October 1919 he resigned from this mission. In May 
1920 a dissention occurred between the directors of the Canton government 
as a result of which Mr. Tang and other Kuomingtang directors had to 
leave Canton. However, in December 1920 they regained their position at 
Canton. In April 1921 the Canton Parliament elected Dr. Sun Yat-sen 
President. Mr. Tang became Minister of Finance. In August 1922, the 
First Parliament was reconvoked in Peking. Subsequently President Li 
Yuan-hung appointed Mr. Tang Prime-Minister. In the meantime Sun Yat- 
sen's party was ousted from Canton by General Chen Chiung-ming'. Mr. 
Tang returned to Shanghai but did not proceed to Peking to assume office. 
When the Chihli party was defeated in the internal civil war which began 
in September 1924, Mr. Tang was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
in the nev/ Provisional Cabinet formed in Peking by the Anfu-Fengtien 
party. Mr. Tang, however, declined the appointment and is still residing in 
Shanghai. 



708 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General T'ang Tsai-Ii 

General T'ang Tsai-ll was born at Shanghai in 1882. He passed in 
1898 the competitive examinations conducted by the Shanghai School of 
Languages and was sent to Japan as a government student. He was 
among the first group of Chinese students sent to the Japanese Military- 
Cadet School. He entered this school in October 1901, taking a course in 
applied artillery and engineering, graduating there in 1904. In 1904 
General T'ang returned to China and served under Yuan Shih-kiai, who 
was then Viceroy of Peiyang, as his staff officer, chief assistant instructor 
and in various other capacities at the Training Bureau. He -acted as 
umpire at the manoeuvres held in Hokienfu, Chihli and Changtehfu Honan. 
In 1900, was appointed commander of the artillery regiment of the Fiftb 
Division stationed in Shantung. In 1908 he became chief of the depart- 
ment of the Training Bureau of the Metropolitan Forces. In the same 
year, he was commissioned Lieutenant -Colonel of the artillery, chief staff 
officer of the manoeuvres at Chochow, Chihli and inspected the National 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 709 



Manoeuvre of Japan. In 1910, went to Urga, Mongolia, as the chief of 
the military staff there. In the following year, he returned to Peking to 
become the staff officer of Yuan Shih-Kai. Upon the establishment of the 
Republic, Yuan Shih-kai sent him as one of the Northern Delegates to 
negotiate with the Nanking government to effect the unification of the 
North and the South. He served later in the year 1912 as Military 
Counselor to President Yuan, being promoted as a- Brigadier-General and 
awarded the Fourth Order of Merit. In 1914 he became Deputy Chief of 
the Military Council in the President's Office and a year later he was 
promoted to be Chief of the Council. In February 1915 he was commis- 
sioned to act as Deputy-Chief of the General Staff. In June 1915 he was 
appointed Acting Deputy Chief of the General Staff which position was 
substantiated to him in August 1915. In December 1915 he was ordered 
to act as Chief of the General Staff. In July 1916 he resigned from these 
posts, to accept a military councillorship in the president's office. In 1918 
General T'ang was sent to Europe as the Chinese representative at the 
Allied Military Council. During the first part of 1919 he was at Paris as 
Chief Military Delegate on the Chinese Delegation to the Peace Conference. 
In December 1919 he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Genleral Sta'ff 
although he was still in Europe making an extensive travel throughout 
the Balkans as well as Central and Southern Europe. While in England 
he was knighted (K. B. E.) by King George. He returned to China in 
the summer of 1920 and resigned from the General Staff in August that 
year. In recognition of his services, he was made a Chiangchun, of the 
College of Marshals with "Yen-Wei" as special title and also decorated 
with the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho and the Second Class Wenfu 
Decorations. In January 1922 he was appointed a Member of the Com- 
mission on Mongolian Affairs. General T'ang is the wearer of the French 
Legion d'Honneur, Commander; the Belgian Order of Crown, Commander; 
and the Greek Order of the Second Class. 



710 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Teng Hsi-hou 

General Teng was born in 18S9 in the city of Yungahanhsien in Sze- 
chwau. His education has baen entirely along military lines. After 
attending a Miltary Primary School in Szechwan he went to Nanking to 
the Military Middle School there. After graduating £rom the Paoting 
Military Academy he returned to Szechwan. In 1912, after the Revolution, 
like most of the other military leaders of the day the Republic gave him 
his opportunity. Ee has risen successively through the ranks, being 
recognized now as one of the important leaders in his native province. 
Since he was made a Brigadier General in 1918 he has held several dif- 
ferent commands including those of Bandit Suppression and General. As 
the latter he was to have had command of the Fo^urth Szechwan Army; 
this did not materialize. He is best known as the leader of the old Third " 
Division, which he has led since 1921, now known as the 30th National 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 711 



Division. General Teng is also in close touch with the old 7th Division, 
now the 31st National Division, led by General Cheng Kweh Tung. As 
such he was recognized as a Subordinate Generalissimo which was equiv- 
alent to a General Commanding an Army. General Teng has been given 
all the customary honors given by Peking. He was made a Chiangin in 
1923 with the title of "Pao Wei." For his part in the fighting, of 1923, 
wheji both he and General Cheng helped the Allied Armies, he has been 
given a higher rank as Marshal so that his emoluments are considered 
very pretentious. At present General Teng is the Civil Governor of Sze- 
chwan by appointment from Peking. 



^ 



712 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 713 



Prizeman in International Law at London University, which honor he 
held until 1916. Dr. Tyau, after his graduation at St. John's University 
and before going abroad, interested himself in the publication of the 
World's Chinese Students' Journal, which existed from 1906 to»1913 and 
of which he subsequently became an editor. While attending the Univers- 
ity of London, he acted as London correspondent of the Republican 
Advocate .(Shanghai) between 1912 and 1913, edited the East in the West 
(London), etc., frequently contributed articles to the (London) Times, the 
Contemporary Review, etc. In August of 1910, he represented China at 
the Universal Peace Congress at Stockholm, represented China together 
with Dr. C. T. Wang at the World's Christian Students, Conference at Con- 
stantinople in May of 1911, and at the Anti-Opium Conference, Paris, in 
May of 1914. Upon his return to China in September 1916, Dr. Tyau was 
engaged by the Tsing Hua College to lecture on International Law and 
teach English. This post he held until September '1919. He joined the 
faculty of the Tsinghua College in October 1919 again. From December 
1921 to May 1922 Dr. Tyau was Secretary to the Minister of Communications. 
In April 1922 he was appointed Secretary of the Post- Washington Confer- 
ence Commission. In May 1922 he was awarded the Fourth Class Chiaho 
Decoration and in April 1923 the Third Class Chaho. Dr. Tyau is the 
author of the following works: "The Legal Obligations arising out of 
Treaty Relations between China and other States" (1917); "China's New 
Constitutions and International Problems" (1918); edited "China in 1918" 
(1919); and "London through Chinese Eyes' (1920). The last mentioned 
work was published by Headly Brothers, illustrated by a Chinese lady artist 
and contains a preface by Sir John Jordan, former British Minister in Peking. 



^ 



714 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Philip K. C. Tyau 

(Tiao Tso-ch'ien) 

Dr. Philip K. C. Tyau was born at Hsing-ning Hsien, Kuangtung pro- 
vince, in 1880. In 1889 he went to Honolulu where his father was a well- 
known merchant. In 1896 he entered St. John's University, Shanghai. 
After graduatipn from that institution in 1901 he went to London and entered 
a secondary school in North London to learn Latin. After one year's 'pre- 
paration he enrolled himself at Christ College, Cambridge University. He 
obtained his B. A. degree in 1905 and his LL.B. degree in 1907. Also in 
1907 he became Barrister-at-law of the Middle Temple. He took his M. A. 
degree at Cambridge in 1908. During the interval between his graduation 
at Cambridge and call to the Bar he took the second year engineering course 
at Sheffield University. He registered himself for the LL.D. degree at the 
London University but had to return to China before the completion of his 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 715 



course. In 1907 he was appointed a secretary to the Director of the Im- 
perial Student Mission which had charge of all the Chinese students in 
Europe. He succeeded to the post of Director in 1909. He returned to 
Peking in 1910 and entered for the examination for returned students and 
obtained the Chin Shih LL.D. degree. He was a successful candidate at the 
Palace Examination in 1911 and was appointed a Hanlin of the First Grade 
(Compiler of the Imperial Academy). During the Revolution in 1911-1912 
Dr. Tyau took up the editorship of the Peking Daily News. When the Wai 
Chiao Pu (Foreign Office) was reorganised in 1912 he was appointed one of 
its four secretaries. In August 1912 he was appointed Councillor of the 
legation in London where he remained April 1916 when he was recalled 
by President Yuan Shih-kai for some specific duty. On his arrival at 
Peking in June after the President's death he rejoined the Wai Chiao Po 
as an Assistant Secretary. In 1917 he was appointed concurrently 
Assistant Secretary of the Cabinet. In April 1918 he was made Sec- 
retary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In December 1918 he became 
an Acting Councillor of the same Ministry. In February 1919 he was 
awarded the Fourth Class Wenfu. In April 1919 be was appointed to act 
as Chief of the Intelligence Bureau. In May 1919 he received the Third 
Class Paokuang Chiaho. In August 1919 he was one of the examiners of 
the Diplomatic and Consular Service Examination. In February 1920 Dr. 
Tyau was made a Director of the Tsingfhua College. In September he 
became a Councillor of the Foreign Office. In September 1920 he became 
concurrently Chief Secretary of the Peace' Treaty Discussion Commission 
under the Foreign Office. In October 1920 he received another concurrent 
position, viz Superintendent of the Diplomatic Intelligence Service. In 
February 1921 he was given the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In August 
1921 he was appointed Chinese Minister to Cuba. In October 1921 he 
was ordered to hold temporarily the post of Chief Secretary of the Chinese 
Delegation to Washington Conference. In January 1922 he was appointed 
to be concurrently Chinese Minister to Panama. This and the Cuba positions 
he is still holding. In May 1922 he received the Second Class Paokuang 
Chiaho and in October 1922 the Third Class Wenfu. Dr. Tyau is one of 
the few returned students who have gained laurels at out door games and 
have kept them up after their return to China. He was Captain of Christ- 
College Cambridge at lawn tennis and represented Cambridge University 
more than once at that game although he did not play in the Oxford-Cam- 
bridge match which alone entitles a player to receive the "Blue," He was 
also a member of his College team at Association football and played in 
the University League. He was the champion of the Peking International 
Lawn Tennis Club and won the open singles championship at Tientsin. Dr. 
Tyau is a Christian and takes a great interest in Y. M. C. A. work. 



716 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. T'ien Ying-huang 

Mr. T'ieii Ying-huang was born at Hun- Yuan Hsien, Shansi province, 
in 1866. He became a Chu-Jen or Provincial Graduate in 1894 through 
competitive examinations. During the subsequent years Mr. T'ien devoted 
himself to the promotion of education in his native province. In re- 
cognizance of his good service, the Imperial government at the request 
of the Governor of Shansi gave Mr. T'ien the qualification to become a 
Magistrate. Mr. T'ien was sent to Hupei where he was Magistrate of 
Lei-Feng Hsien for several years. Later he was transferred to En-Sze 
Hsien. Upon the outbreak of the First Revolution in Hupei, Mr. T'ien 
became a secretary to General Sze Hao, playing a part in the revolutionary 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 717 



activities. In May 1912 Mr. T'ien returned to Shansi to accept the post 
of High Political Advisor to the Tutuh of the province. President Yuan 
Shih-kai offered him the post of Commssioner of Kuei-Sui Area, but he 
declined to accept. Mr. T'ien was elected a Senator of the First Parliament 
which was convoked in April 1913 and dissolved in January 1914. In 
March 1913 Mr. T'ien became a member representing Shansi in the Yueh- 
Fa-Hui-I called by Yuan Shih-kai for the sole purpose of drafting a 
Provisional Constitution to replace the one promulgated by Sun Yat-sen 
in 1912 at Nanking. Aft3r the promulgation of the new constitution in 
May 1914 and the close of the conference that followed, Mr. T'ien was 
appointed an Assistant Compiler of the Ching History Compilation Bureau. 
After some time he returned to Shansi and became Chancellor of the Shansi 
University. Mr. T'ien did not take his seat in the Senate when the First 
Parliament was reconvoked in 1916 after the death of Yuan Shih-kai. It 
was again dissolved in June 1917. Mr. T'ien was a Member of the Pro- 
visional Senate which was convoked in January 1918. The formation of 
the Senate was demanded by the northern military leaders for the sole 
purpose to revise the Parliamental Election Laws upon which the First 
Parliament had been based. Based upon the new Election Laws, a new 
Parliament was called by the northern government in 1918. It was con- 
voked in August that year. Mr. T'ien was elected vice-president of the 
Senate. In June 1919 Mr. T'ien was awarded the Second Class Tashou 
Chiaho, in October 1919 the First Class Tashou Chiaho and in January 1920 
the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. The new Parliament 
was dismissed in August 1920 after the 'Chihli-Anfu war. In October 
1920 he was appointed to assist General Yen Hsi-shan in famine relief 
work in the province of Shansi. In September 1921 Mr. T'ien received 
the First Class Wenhu Decoration. The First Parliament was reconvoked 
in August 1922 in Peking after the Chihli-Fengtien war, and Mr. T'ien 
took his seat in Senate again. 



718 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General M. K. Tinn 

r m^mm 

(Ting Chin) 

General M. K. Tinn was born at Wu-hsi Hsien, Kiangsu province, in 
1878. He received his Chinese education under a private tutor and modern 
education in the Nanyang College, Shanghai, from which he was graduated 
in 1897. He is proficient in the Japanese language. Scon after his gradua- 
tion, he went to North China and through the introduction of Wu Shi- 
lung, former President of Peking Government University, joined General 
Tuan Chi-jui, who was then holding the position of Chief of the General 
Staff of the Viceroy of Chihli, in the capacity of translator to undertake 
the translation ^from Japanese into Chinese of all the books on military 
tactics. After having translated the Japanese books into Chinese for 
three months,- he applied to General Tuan for permission to enter a mili- 
tary school to study military tactics. His request was granted, and he 



J 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 719 



joined the Peiyang Military Academy in which institution most of the 
military leaders in China today were educated. He graduated in 1902. 
During his three years of stay in the Peiyang Military Academy he headed 
his class in every subject. Four different generals including General Tuan 
and the late President Feng Kuo-chang applied for his service. General 
Feng who was then engaged in training troops succeeded in getting 
General Tinn to work under him. In 1903, when General Feng was 
appointed Director-General of the Royal Military College in Peking, Gen- 
eral Tinn became a teacher of that school and it was then considered a 
high honor to teach princes, marquises, and barons. In 1905 General Tinn 
was a member of the Army Board and transferred to study military science 
and tactics under a Japanese officer who consented to become a Chinese 
subject by arrangement with the late President Yuan Shih-kai, then Grand 
Councillor, and expressed his willingness to build up a strong army for 
China. General Tieh Liang, president of the Army Board, at the request 
of Yuan Shih-kai, detailed ten junior officers to receive personal in- 
structions from the Japanese and exempted them from attending the 
Board, General Tinn was one of the ten junior officers. In 1906, General 
Tinn was engaged by the Army Board as an adviser. In 1907 he was 
invited by Li Ching-hsi, Viceroy of Yunnan and Kweichow, to be Chief of 
the General Staff in the Viceroy's Yamen and he was also in command of 
2,000 troops, /iln 1911, the revolution came, and though truly republican 
at heart, General Tinn refused to revolt against the reigning dynasty on 
the ground that every disciplined military man must be loyal to the 
government he serves. He left Yunnan without baggage and money. 
After several months of travelling he reached Shanghai at the height of 
the revolution. His native place wanted him to help them in crushing the 
Manchu government, and the Northern government wired to him for his 
service iii the North. He responded to neither request. He said that he 
could not take sides with the republican elements and fight the northern 
generals who used to be his teachers and chiefe, nor could he help the 
Manchus and fight his own people and his relatives. He remained 
quietly at Shanghai during the revolution. After the revolution. General 
Tinn went to Peking at the invitation of Yuan Shih-kai and was appoint- 
ed Supervisor of the Ministry of War to look after the military education 
of soldiers and officers. In 1914, he was appointed Councillor of the 
Ministry of War. In 1917, he assisted Marshal Tuan in defeating the 
monarchical movement of General Chang Hsun. Upon the appointment of 
Marshal Tuan as Prime Minister after the restoration of the Republic, he 
was made Chief of the Military Operations Department of the Ministry of 
War. This post he held until January 1919. Later he was made a Major- 
General and was given the Third Brigade of the Frontier Force to 
command. At the end of 1919 he was appointed Chief of the Chinese 
Government Aeronautic Bureau. In January 1920 he was awarded the 
Fifth Order of Merit. In August 1920, after the fall of the Anfu govern- 
ment, he was relieved of the Aeronautic post. In January 1921 he was 
made a Lieutenant General and in February 1921 he was again appointed 
Chief of the Government Aeronautic Bureau. 



^ 



720 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General S. V. W. Ting 

T -fc ig ^ R3 ^ 

(Ting Shih-yuan) 

General S. Y. W. Ting was born at Wu-hsing Hsien, Chekiang province, 
in 1897. In his youth he attended the St. John's College at Shanghai. 
For a time he was engaged in the insurance business. Later through the 
assistanco of a (Manchu Prince he entered the government service. Before 
long he was made an important officer in the Chienmen Octroi, Pekingv 
While serving as tax officer, he devoted his leisure time to the publica- 
tion of a daily newspaper together with the son of an influential official. 
One day Na Tung, former Grand Councillor in the Manchu regime, dis- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 721 



covered that paper had been attacking him, and in the course of a cabinet 
conference, proposed to have these two youngsters shot. General Ting's 
royal patron hearing of this intention secretly passed a word to him, and 
finally helped him to get away from Peking. After leaving the Chienmen 
Octroi. General Ting went to England to study for a year or so. During 
his sojurn abroad he was delegat3d to attend a Hague Conference where 
he represented himself as Advocate-General. The Conference wired to 
Peking for confirmation of his representation and Peking sent the con- 
firmation desired. Subsequently he returned to China and gradually worked 
his way up. He was Chief of the Law Department of the Board of War; 
Advisor to the Board of the Interior; and Director of the Metropolitan 
Police College. In January 1924 General Ting was appointed Superintendent 
of the Customs of Hankow and concurrently Commissioner for Foreign 
Affaiis of Hupei Province. These positions he held until July 1916. In 
June 1917 he was given the Second Class Wenfu. Later he was ap- 
pointed managing-director of the Peking-Suiyuan Railway. In December 

1918 he was appointed the managing director of the Peking-Hankow 
Railway. In February 1919 he received another concurrent position as 
Chief of the Aviation Department. In April 1919 he was commissioned 
to be associate director-general of the Lung- Yen Iron Mining Company. 
In October 1919 he was .made a Lieutenant-Gfeneral. Toward the end of 

1919 General Ting amalgamated the Peking-Hankow and the Peking- 
Suiyuan Railways anl became their managing director. In January 1920 
he was given the Fifth Order of Merit. Upon the collapse of the Anfu 
forces, he fled and became a guest of the Imperial Japanese Legation, 
Peking, from which he escaped on November 1922. During 1923-24 he 
he was editing a daily paper in Tientsin which has been known to be an 
organ of the Japanese interests. 



^ 



722 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. T. Chinpin Tsai 
^ IE ^ jtt ^ 
(Ts'ai Cheng) 

Mr. T. Chinpin Tsai was born in Nan-An, Kiangsi Province, in 1892. 
Ho studied at the Yu-Chang Methodist Preparatory School, Nanchang. 
where he was awarded a scholarship as the best pupil for the year 1906- 
1907. From 1907-1910 he attended Nanking University and the following 
year was graduated from the Fuh Tan Middle School, Mr. Tsai then spent 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 723 



a year touring Japan, returning in 1912 to study at Tsing Hua College, 
from which he was graduated in 1915, after taking a leading part in 
student activities such as oratorical contests, debates, and editing the 
Tsing Hua weekly paper, the Tsinghuapper. During 1915-1916 Mr. Tsai 
taught English and mathematics at Tsing Hua. Mr. Tsai went to America 
in 1916 on a Tsing Hua scholarship, studying at Pomona College, Clare- 
mont, California, where he was member of the Areopagus literary and 
debating^ lociety and winner of the second prize in the Freshman oratorical 
contest. In 1917 he entered Princeton University, where he was a member 
of the Clio literary and debating society. iDuring ■ 1917-1918, he studied 
eccnomics at College, from which he received an A. B. degree. The 
following year he studied economics and business in Columbia University, 
receiving an M. A. degree. Before returning to China in 1920, Mr. Tsai 
was editor-in-tchief of the Chinese Students' Quarterly of th3 Chinese 
Students' Alliance, and treasurer and president of the Tsing Hua .^.lumni 
Association in America. He worked in the export department of the 
Wah Chang Trading Corporation, New York City, durin.!]^ his last year in 
America. Returning to China. Mr. Tsai became dean of the Business 
School and professor of business science, Fuh Tan University, Shanghai, 
where he remained for two years. He was lecturer on business principles 
at the Shanghai Commercial College of National Southeastern University in 
1921-1922, and also lecturer on banking and exchange in the Commercial 
Department of the Chi Nan Institute, Shanghai, and instructor of business 
English at the Kiangsu First Provincial Commercial School, Shanghai. In 
1922, he went to Tsing Hua College, Peking, as teacher of economics and 
business, and has been Alumni Secretary since 1923. 



«£^ 



724 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




General Ts'ai Ch'eng-hsun 

General Ts'ai Ch'eng-hsun was born at Tientsin, Chihli province, in 
1873. He was graduated from the Peiyang Military Academy in 1899. 
Subsequently he was appointed a deputy to the Metropolitan Banner 
Troops. Concurrently he acted as teacher of the military school attached 
to the troops. After a few years he was promoted to be a deputy director 
of the Metropolitan Garrison forces. Later he became a proctor in the 
headquarters of the Metro'politan Troops and staff-officer of the First 
Imperial Division. Still later he was appointed assistant commander of 
the troops stationed in the vicinity of Peking and afterwards staff officer 
of the Training Headquarters. In 1911, before the First Revolution, 
General Ts'ai was appointed commander of the 41st Brigade stationed 
in Chekiang province. During the First Revolution, he was commissioned 
to direct field operations against the Shansi revolutionary forces at Nang- 
Tzu-Kuan on the Cheng-Tai Railway. Upon the establishment of the 
Republic, Yuan Shih-kai appointed him an aid-de-camp of the President's Office 
and also made him a Major-GeneraJ. In September 1913 he was appointed 
Commander of the First Brigade of the First Division. In August 1914 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 725 



he was promoted to be the Commander-in-Chief of the First Division and 
made a Lieutenant General. During the subsequent two years, his troops 
under his personal director were engaged in the suppression of banditry 
at Dolonor and Suiyuan districts. In October 1916 he was awarded the 
Second Class Chiaho. In July 1917 General Ts'ai was appointed Com- 
mander of the 7th Unit of the forces engaged in the expeditionary 
campaign against the southern opponents. In August 1917 he was made 
Tutung of the Charhar Special Dstrict and also given the brevet of Full 
General. In August 1919 he was awarded the First Class Wenfu; in 
October 1919, the Second Class Tashou Chiaho, and in October 1920, the 
Third Order of Merit. In the new-year of 1921 he was appointed Tuchun 
and Civil Governor of Kansu province. But he did not proceed to this 
post and was appointed Minister of War in May 1921. This post he held 
until December 1921 when he was made a Chiangchun of the College of 
Marshals with "Chi-Wei" as special title. In May 1922 General Ts'ai 
was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the northern forces sent to defend 
Kiangsi province against the invasion by Li Lieh-chun. In June 1922 
he was ordered to assume control of the military forces in that province. 
In September 1922 he was appointed Military Director (Tuchun) of 
Kiangsi. In October 1922 he was given the Secoind Order of Merit. In 
November 1923 he was made a Full General. In December 1923 he was 
ordered to act as Civil Governor of Kiangsi concurrently. 



^ 



726 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr, Char Kwang-ki 

(Ts'ai Kuang-i) 

Mr. Char Kwang-ki was born at Shanghai in 1889. From 1901 to 
1908 he studied at the St. John's University, Shanghai. He was bhe 
winner of the gold medal in an essay contest in 1907 and was editor of 
St. John's Echo in 1908. With government support Mr. Char went to 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 727 



America in 1908 and studied civil engineering at Cornell University where 
he graduated in 1912 with the degree of C. E. He was elected to Siglna 
Xi in April 1912 and was second vice-president of the Cosmopolitan Club 
1911-12. Mr. Char returned to China in 1912. The first professional 
position he held in China was that of assistant engiineer of the Pukow 
Commercial Port during 1912 and 1913. He was professor of Civil 
Engineering in St. John's University 1913-14; assistant engineer of the 
Szechuan-Hankow Railway, I-Chang Section, 1914-1915; assistant engineer 
of the Nanking-Hunan Railway, 1916; Secretary and Engineer of the 
Chu-Ching Railway, 1917-1920. From May 1921 to January 1922 Mr. 
Char was secretary to the Minister of Communciations, Peking. While in 
that capacity, he was sent to Washington in the winter of 1921 as a 
technical expert of the Chinese Delegation to the Pacific Conference. He 
was given the Third Class Chiaho in June 1922. Since his leaving 
Peking in 1922, he has been connected with the Shanghai Office of the 
Chung Foo Union Banking Corporation. 



^ 



728 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Admiral Tsai Ting-kan 

(Ts'ai T'ing-kan) 

Admiral Tsai Ting-kan was born at Hsiang-shan Hsien, Kuangtung 
province, in 1861. He received his early education at a country school, 
and afterwards studied at the Chinese Educational Mission School in 
Shanghai from 1872-73, which was organized by Mr. Yung Wing, pioneer 
of China's modern education. He was one of the students of the first 
batch sent to America in 1873, as arranged by Mr. Yung Wing. Admiral 
Tsai was assigned to Hartford Grammar School upon his first arrival. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 729 



Later he was transferred to the New Britain High School. He returned 
to China in 1881, together with the other students, in consequence of a 
memorial, endorsed by Chin Lan-pin, the Chinese Minister at Washington, 
complaining of the course of study pursued by these youths "as including 
Latin and Greek and other unnecessary subjects; of the disrespectful 
behavior of the boys when brought before their chiefs; of their deplor- 
able lack of patriotism; of their forgetting their mother-tongue, and other 
sins of omission and commission." Soon after his return to China, Admiral 
Tsai Ting-kan joined the Torpedo School at Taku, where he stayed for 
three years. Upsn his graduation he was made captain of a torpedo boat. 
In 1892 he was promoted to be commodore of the Torpedo Fleet. This 
Fleet played a very active part in the Gulf , of Chihli during the Stno- 
Japanese War, 1894-5. In 1910 he was made a Rear-Admiral. In 1911 he 
was appointed a Departmental Director of the Board of Navy under the 
Ching government. In 1912 Admiral Tsai became a High Military Advisor 
to President Yuan Shih-kai and was made a Vice-Admiral. In September 
1913 he was appointed Co-Director of the Inspectorate General of the Salt 
Administration. In May 1914 he received concurrently as Master of Cere- 
mony in the Presidential Palace. When Yuan Shih-kai was President, 
Admiral Tsai was his Chief Engl.'sh Secretary and he handled all foreign 
matters for his chief . In 1906 he was awarded the Fourth Order of Merit 
and also the Second Class Chiaho decoration. In December 1917 he was 
appointed Associate Director of the Customs Administration which position 
he is still holding. In January 1919 Admiral Tsai was commissioned to be 
associate director of the office of the Repatriation of Enemy Subjects in 
connection with the European War. In April 1919 he was appointed 
vice-president of the Chinese Red Cross Society. In September 1919 he 
received the First Class Tashou Chiaho and in January 1920 the First Class 
Tashou Chiaho and in January 1920 the First Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho. In February 1922 he was commissioned to be Chairman of the 
Tariff Revision Commission and was largely responsible for arranging 
a new tariff for China that has been put into operation,. In Augaist 1922 
he was again appointed Vice-President of the Chinese Red Cross Society. 
In October 1922 he was awarded the Third Order of Merit. In May 1923 
he became a member of the Commission for the Reorganization of the 
Domestic and Foreign Debts. In June 1923 he was ordered to hold 
concurrently the post of Assistant Chief of the Bureau for the preparation 
of the New Customs Tariff Revision Conference to readjust the tariff 
according to the understandings reached at the Washington Conference. 
In April 1924 he was again appointed Peking vice-president of the Chinese 
Red Cross Society. In September 1924 he was appointed Director General 
of the Cantonse Administration. Admiral Tsai devotes his leisure time to 
the translation of Chinese poems into English and made his name well 
known through these translations at the St. Louis Exhibition in America. 
He has been chairman of the American College Club for a number of years 
and for a time was actively identified with a number of social activities 
in the Capital. 



730 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Jun-ke Choy 

(Ts'ai Tseng-chi) 

Mr. Jun-ke Choy was born in Honolulu in 1892. He studied at 
McKinley High School from 1908 to 1911 after having graduated from 
primary schools in the Hawaii Islands. In 1911 he returned to Kuangtung, 
his native province, and was soon afterwards elected a member of the 
Provincial Assembly. Finding politics uninteresting, Mr. Choy returned to 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 731 



America in August of 1912 to pursue higher education. He studied 
political science and international law at Columbia University New York, 
as a Chinese government student. He received his degree of B. S. 
from the University in 1915 after a study of three years. During his 
residence in New York, Mr. Choy was elected president of the Columbia 
Chinese Students' Club* in 1913. His interests were not only confined to 
student activities, as he was also a member of the New York Artillery. 
In June of 1915 Mr. Choy again returned to China. He was made a 
member of the Liangkwang military Headquarters. The following year, 
he was given the appointment of Director of Foreign Affairs of the milit- 
ary government in Kwangtung. Shortly afterwards he resigned to take up 
business. Mr. Choy has been a newspaper man for some time. During 
his visit to Peking in 1915 he was appointed assistant editor of the "Peking 
Post.'' It was at the time when Yuan Shih-kai was trying to make himself 
Emperor of China. Mr. Choy resigned from the "Post" and left Peking 
for the South, as he was against the monarchical movement. Subsequently 
he became vice-president of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of Hong- 
kong. In 191& he raised money for the establishment of branch offices of 
the Bank at Hankow and Tientsin. He secured over fifty thousand dollars 
worth of subscriptions to the total capitalization of the branch banks 



-1^ 



^ 



732 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tsai Yuan-pei 

Mr. Tsai Yuan-pei was born at Shan-ying Hsien, Chekiang province, 
in 1867. While studying as a youth Mr. Tsai spent much time on Chinese 
literature and classics and became Licentiate in 1883, a provincial 
graduate in 1889, Metropolitan graduate in 1890, Hani in Bachelor in 1892, 
and Hanlin Compiler, second class in 1894. In 1890 Mr. Tsai became 
Chief Historiographer of the Shanghai District, Chekiang and after the 
Sino-Japanese war in 1894 began on translations of European books. In 
1898 he organized a club in. Peking to study the Japanese language and that 
year witnessed the Reform movement of Kang Yu-wei and Liang Chi-chiao. 
Mr. Tsai from this period spent much time in instruction in various 
government and private schools. In 1901 he founded the Ai-Kuo Girls 
School at Shanghai of which later he became principal. At this time 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 733 



educationalists in Shanghai organized the Chung-kuo Educational Associa- 
tion and elected Mr. Tsai president. During 1902 Mr. Tsai became 
interested in revolutionary propoganda and so arrested the attention of 
the authorities he was asked to sever connections with the Ai-Kuo School 
and the Chang-Kuo Educational Association, which he eventually did, 
His friends urged him to study abroad and he later went to Germany. 
Previous to his departure he studied in Tsingtao and there translated from 
the Japanese version into Chinese "The Outline Philosophy" by a German 
author. In October 1903, Mr. Tsai returned from Tsingtao and started a 
daily paper called, Russia. For a long time he was connected with 
this paper but later again became principal of the Ai-Kuo Girls School. 
In 1915 he entered the revolutionary party organized by Dr. Sun Yat-sen 
and subsequently introduced the elements in Shanghai and acted as secret 
agent. Having found his revolutionary work unsuccessful, Mr. Tsai returned 
to his native district and again entered educational work. In 1907 Mx. 
Tsai went to Germany and while there enrolled in Leipzig University. 
While there he took courses in Practical Psychology and Esthetics. He 
attended the Practical Psychology Research Institute and also the Institute 
for the Research of the History of World Civilization. Besides he compiled 
a series of text books for middle schools on ethics, wrote "The History 
of Chinese Ethics," and translated several German books into Chinese. 
He returned to China in 1911 when the First Revolution broke out and 
was appointed by the Nanking Provisional government the Minister of 
Education. Later when Dr. Sun resigned from the Provisional presidency 
in Nanking, Yuan Shih-kai was elected to fill his place, and in 1913 when 
Yuan Shih-kai was President of the government in Peking, he retained 
Mr. Tsai as Minister of Education in Peking. Later he resigned and went 
to study in Germany again and in 1913 took his family to France where he 
studied French and assisted Li Shih-tseng and Wang Ching-wei in running 
the Educational Institute for Chinese laborers and organizing the Sino- 
French Educational Association. Following this he wrote the novel, The 
Red Tower Dream, A Brief History of European Esthetics, and a series of 
lectures for the Chinese Laborers School. In 1916, Mr. Tsai was appointed 
Chancellor of the Peking Government University and assumed this position 
in 1917 when he returned to China. Despite adverse criticism and diffi- 
culties he encountered Mr. Tsai introduced a wonderful change in the life 
of China's first seat of learning. In October 1922 Mr. Ts'ai was awarded 
the First Class Paokuang Chiaho. In January 1923 he was appointed a 
member of the Educational Sinking Funds Commission. On January 18, he 
tendered his resignation from the Chancellorship as a protest against Peng 
Yun-yen, the Minister of Education. Mr. Ts'ai in a manifesto denounced 
the Minister of Education for having interfered with the Judiciary. On the 
same day he left Peking. In the summer of 1923 Mr. Ts'ai went to France 
to continue his study. 



734 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Tsao Ju-lin 

Mr. Ts'ao Ju-lin was born at Shanghai in 1875. In 1898 he passed 
a competitive examination and was sent by the government to Japan 
to pursue a higher education. Upon his arrival at the Island Empire, he 
learned the rudiments of the Japanese language, after which he entered the 
the Imperial University in Tokio. For several years he studied law in that 
well-known institution of learning, and upon his graduation he returned 
to. China in 1904. Then the government was holding an examination of all 
the returned students from Europe, America and Japan. This examination 
was taken by Mr. Tsao, and successfully passed. He was awarded the degree 
of Doctor of Law, and at once appointed a junior secretary of the Board 
of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce. At the same time he was a lee- 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 735 



turer on law in the Peking Imperial University which was just founded. 
In 1905 he was transferred to be Junior Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Affairs. He participated in all Chinese-Japanese negotiations in 1905 in 
consequence of the Russo-Japanese War. While in the Foreign Office, he 
was concurrently a member of the bureau for the drafting of a constitu- 
tion for the country. His promotion was very rapid, from junior secretary 
then senior secretary, then Ck)uncillor, then junior Vice-president of the 
Board. During the First Revolution, 1911, he retained the latter mentioned 
post under Yuan Shih-kai's Cabinet. In 1912 Mr. Ts'ao became Yuan Shih- 
kai's pergonal advisor and also practised law in Peking occupying a prom- 
inent place in that profession. When the First Parliament was convoked 
in April 1913, he was a member of the Senate, representing Mongolia. 
In the meantime, the relation between China and Japan was becoming 
critical. President Y-uan desiring the service of Mr. Ts'ao in handling 
Sino-Japanese affairs, appointed him in August 1913 to be Vice-Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. He assisted President Yuan in the negotiations with 
Japan over the Twenty-One Demands issue in 1915. In April 1916 he 
was appointed Minister of Communications and in May 1916 he was ordered 
to hold concurrently the portfolio of Foreign Affairs. At the end of June 
1916, shortly after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, he resigned from the two 
posts and retired. After the collapse of Chang Hsun's movement to re- 
. store the Manchu House in July 1917, Mr. Ts'ao was appointed Minister of 
Communications, which ipost he held until May 1919 through many changes 
of premiers. At the same time he was President of the Bank of 
Communicatons. He was concurrently Acting Minister of Finance from 
March 1918 to January 1919. Hfe had a share in all loan transactions with 
Japanese financiers through Mr. Nishihara in 1918 and therefore, has been 
considered a leading pro-Japanese official. He resigned from all the 
government positions in May 1919 as a result of students activities against 
him for his pro-Japanese attitude. Mr. Ts'ao was awarded the Third 
Order of Merit in January 1920. In January 1922 he was appointed High 
Industrial Commissioner which post, however, he only held until June 1922 
when he was proscribed in connection with alleged compilations in making 
foreign loans while a cabinet minister. During the past few years, he has 
been interesting himself in mining enterprises although his influence in 
political affairs is still felt. 



736 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Marshal Tsao Kun 

W ^ * ^t 351 

Marshal Tsao Kun was born at Tientsin. Chihli province, in 1862. At 
the age of twenty, he enlished himself in the Army and became a 
common soldier. On account of his good conduct and commanding person- 
ality, which he displayed during the few years in the camp. Marshal Tsao 
was sent to the Military Academy of Tientsin by the Commanding Officer 
of the Army. In 1890 he graduated from the Academy and was at once 
engaged to be a teacher of the same institution. During the Sino-Japanese 
War, 1894-1895, Marshal Tsao was in the front and personally engaged in 
the Yalu Battle. After this War, Yuan Shih-kai trained a modern army at 
Hsiao Chan. Marshal Tsao was first appointed a Director of the Hsiao- 
Chan Field training school and later given command of a Parge company 
of troops. After the Boxer Trouble in 1990, General Tieh Liang, a famous 
Manchu military man, invited Marshal Tsao to iassist him in the training 
of new troops at Paotingfu. In 1901 he became Commander of a Regiment 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



737 



of the newly trained army and in 1902 Commander of a Brigade. Subse- 
quently he was made a Full General. In 1903 Marshal Tsao became 
Commander-in-Chief of the Third Division of the Imperial A.rmy and was 
sent to Mukden with the 10,000 soldiers in his command. In 1905 the 
Third Division was transferred to Kirin Province. In August 1911 the 
Third Division was moved down to Lanchow inside Shanhaikuan to 
participate in a 'grand manoeuver scheduled to take place on October 13. 
On October 10 the first revolution broke out at Wuchang. The manoeuver 
was given up. In November 1911 the Imperial Ching House appointed 
Yuan Shih-kai the Prime Minister. Upon his coming to Peking, Yuan 
Shih-kai made Marshal Tsao's troops responsible of maintaining peace and 
order of the Metropolitan District. In 1912 President Yuan Shih-kai 
appointed Marshal Tsao Commander-in-Chief of the Third Division of the 
National Army. In the first few years of the Republic Marshal Tsao's 
Third Division was charged with the duty of protecting the Metropolitan 
Area. In the late part of 1915 Yuan Shih-kai launched his monarchical 
movement. As a precautious measure he despatched the Third Division to 
Hunan to watch the movement of the military leaders of the Yangtze 
Provinces. In October 1915 Marshal Tsao was made a Chiangchun with 
"Hu Wei" as the special title. On December 25, 1915, the Yunnan Revolt 
broke out. In January 1916 Marshal Tsao Kun was ordered to proceed 
with his troops westward to chastise the revolt. His troops came into 
actual encounter with the Republican Forces but both sides were strong 
enough to hold their positions till the death of Yuan Shih-kai on June 6, 
1916. In June 1916, after the death of Yuan, Marshal Tsao was appointed 
Deputy Military Commissioner of Szechuan but this post he did not take 
up. He returned to Chihli in September 1916 when he was appointed 
Tuchun of that province. Ill October 1916 he was given the Second 
Order of Merit. In July 1517 Chang Hsun attempted to restore the Manchu 
Emperor. Marshal Tuan Chi-jui stood out against the restoration, making 
himself Commander-in-Chief of the Republican Forces and Marshal Tsao 
Kun Commander of the West Wing. At this juncture, Marshal Tsao was 
ordered to be concurrently Civil Governor of Chihli. After the overthrow 
of the restoration, Tuan Chi-jui came to power again. But the southern 
leaders who had mobilized to oust Chang Hsun distrusted Marshal Tuan. 
One after another the southern and south-western provinces declared in- 
dependence of Peking, formed a new government at Canton and planned 
to send an expedition to conquer the north. In December 1917 Hupei 
and Hunan were endangered with several parts having been taken by the 
southern troops. Chihli troops received orders of mobilization to relieve 
the expedition. In June 1918 Marshal Tsao was appointed the Special Commis- 
sioner of Szechuan, Kuangtung Hunan and Kiangsi. Although Marshal 
Tsao did not have to go to the south personally, his troops were on account 
of that appointment detained in Hunan and Hupei. In September 1918 
the New Parliament elected Hsu Shih-chang President of China. In 
November President Hsu called a Tuchun Conference in Peking at which 
both Marshal Tsao and Marshal Chang Tso-lin attended. He was also 
awarded the First Order of Merit. In March 1920 the withdrawal 
of the Chihli troops commenced against the wish of Peking. On 



738 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



July 3, 1920 Marshals Tsao Kun, Chang Tso-lin and Wang Chan-yuan, 
three High Inspecting Commissioners, sent a joint telegram to Peking 
denouncing the action of General Hsu Shu-tseng, the real head of the 
Anfu Faction who was then Commander-in-Chief of the Frontier Defence 
Force. Three days later, General Hsu mobilized the Frontier Defence 
Troops in the direction of Paotingfu declaring to fight the Chihli Troops. 
Another three days later President Hsu Shi-chang acting upon the petition 
of the College of Marshals dismissed Marshal Tsao and General Wu from 
official posts. On Ju,ly 12, 1920, Marshal Tsao with the promised support 
of Marshal Chang Tso-lin accepted the challenge of the Anfu Leader in a 
circular telegram ordering mobilization of his forces. The next day saw 
the coming of Chang's troops into Shanhaikuan. The actual encounter 
commenced on July 14, 1920. Three days later the Anfu forces collapsed 
and Chihli won the war. On July 26th, 1920 President Hsu cancelled the 
order of the dismissal of Marshal Tsao and GeneralWu. On August 14th, 
Marshal Tsao accompanied by Marshal Chang visited in Pekng where he 
remained until September 4. On August 20, Marshal Tsao was relieved 
of the High Commissionership of Szechuan, Kuangtung, Hunan and Kiangsi, 
and was appointed High Inspecting Commissioner of Chihli, Shantung and 
Honan. Following the Anfu-Chihli War, the Chihli influences extended 
over many provinces. Marslial Tsao took General Wu Pei-fu into strong 
confidence. In consequence the hatred of the discontented factions and 
the Fengtien Warlord gradually centered on Wu Pei-fu who was becoming 
more outspoken and more serious with the political issues. During 1921 
when the feeling between Wu Pei-fu and the opposition parties was be- 
coming worse every day. Marshal Tsao tried his best to remove the 
understanding as indicated by the fact that he held altogether four con- 
ferences with the leaders of the other factions, in April, M^y, Nbvember 
and December respectively. The December conference was held at the 
time of Chang Tso-lin's visit in Peking. The sole purpose of Chang's 
visit was to adjust matters to his own satisfaction and the result of it was 
the installation of the Liang Shih-i Cabinet. General Wu Pei-fu was much 
against this new Cabinet. Following the war between the Chihli Fengtien 
parties Marshal Tsao demanded of the Peking government to reconvoke the 
First Parliament. On June 2, 1922 he took the lead in a telegram asking 
President Hsu Shih-chang to retire in favor of General Li Yuan-hang. 
President Li Yuan-hung entered Peking on June 11, 1922 and resumed his 
office. On June 13, he reconvoked the Parliament by' a Mandate cancelling 
the Dissolution Order which he himself issued in 1917. The Parliament reas- 
sembled in Peking on August 1, 1922. On October 5, 1923 Marshal Tsao Kun 
was elected President of the Republic by the First Parliament with 480 votes 
out of a house of 590. On the October 10, 1923, the National Anniversary Day, 
Marshal Tsao came to Peking and assumed t^ Office of Presidency. As a 
result of the defeat of Marshal Wu Pei-fu an(|*^^e Chihli party in the Civil 
War which began in September 1924, President Tsao Kun and his Cabinet 
were deposed and for several months was detained in Peking, upon the 
order of the Provisional government, supported by Marshal Chang Tso-lin 
and Feng Yu-hsiang. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



739 




General Ts'ao Ying 

General Ts'ao Ying was born at Tientsin, in 1873. He is a brother 
of Marshal Ts'ao Kun. He studied at the Military Academy, Tientsin, and 
became a teacher after graduation. In 1907 he was awarded the rank of 
magistrate and subsequently he went to Mukden and joined the General 
Staff Office of the Manchuria Viceroy as a non-commissioned officer. He 
was later detailed to make an investigation of the boundary question in 
Manchuli and Siberia. Upon the completion of this mission, he was promoted 
to be the first class member of the transportation department and con- 
currently a member of the second bureau for the compilation of military 
maps. In 1909 he became an advisor to the Intelligence Bureau in Man- 
churia. In 1910 he was transferred to the Military Survey School as sub- 
director. Shortly afterwards he was promoted to be superintendent and 



740 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



acting director of the same school. In 1912 General Ts'ao was appointed 
dean of the Military Survey School. In 1913 he was transferred to the 
Board of General Staff, Peking, to act as special intelligence officer. In 
1915 he was appointed aide de camp to the General Officer commanding the 
Precautionary Troops on the Yangtze River. In 1916 he became first class 
Aide de camp to the headquarters of the troops in mobilization and con- 
currently acted as advisor to the commiander. He was at the same time 
made a colonel and given the brevet rank of Major General. In the late 
part of 1916 he was transferred to the Tuchun Yamen of Chihli as chief 
military advisor. In 1917 he was appointed Chief 'of the Staff of the 
expeditionary force fighting for the overthrow of Chang Hsun's monarchical 
attempt. Subsequently he became Commander of the Fourth Mixed 
Brigade. In 1918 he was given the Fifth Order of Merit and was made a 
Major General with the brevet rank of Lieutenant General. About the 
same time he was appointed Garrison Commissioner of Shanhaikuan. In 
March 1919 General Ts'ao was awarded the Second Class Chiaho. He- 
took part in the overthrow of the Anfu government in the summer of 1920. 
He was awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho in September and the 
Fourth Order of Merit in October, 1920. Subsequently he was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of the 26th Army Division formed of the 4th and the 
5th Mixed Brigades which had been in his command, and also made a 
Lieutenant General. In February 1922 he was given the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho. In September he was made a Chiiangchun with "Ping- 
Wei" as special title. In March 1923 he was given the brevet rank of Full 
General and also awarded the First Class Wenfu decoration. In Novem- 
ber 1923 he was made a Full General. In January 1924 he was appointed 
Director-General of Forestry Development at Jehol, still in command of 
the 26th Division . 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



741 




Mr. Y. S. Tsao 

(Ts'ao Yun-hsiang) 

Mr. Y. S. Tsao was born at Nanziang, Kiangsu province, in 1881. 
He studied at St. J-ohn's University, Shanghai, graduating in 1900. 
He was assistant instructor in the University, 1900-3; Dean ,of Fu 
Yang Middle School, Changchow, 1904-5; Ih-Cu Middle School, Ningpo. 
1905-7; editor of the Nan-Fang- Pao, Shanghai 1906. In September 1907 
he was sent to the United States on government support and began his- 
studies in liberal arts at Yale University. In 1911 he received the degree 
of A. B. His college life was full of interesting incidents.; He elected to 
the Yale Debating Association in 1909-11, awarded first prize for the best 
oration in the Sophomore Lincoln Oratorical Contest in February 1909, in 



742 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Junior Exhibition Oratorical Contest in 1910 and in the De Forest 
Oratorical Contest in 1911. Besides his oratorical activities, he was also 
chairman of the Yale Cogmopolitan Club in 1909-11, president of the Chinese 
Students' Club 1910-11, member of the class debating team in 1910-11 and 
editor in chief of the Chinese Students Monthly, the organ of the Chinese 
students in North America. Mr. Tsao was married in 1914 and immediately 
plunged into official life when he was appointed second secretary of the 
Chinese Legation in London, which post he held until March 1919. In 
1917, he was given the post of officiating Consul-General for China at 
London. During his London sojourn, he was elected a member of the China 
Society, honorary member of the British Foreign Bible Society, and honor- 
ary foreign correspondent of the Royal Society of Literature. In the 
Summer of 1919, Mr. Tsao returned to China for the first time in 12 years. 
He wasted no time in organizing the Western Returned Students' Union, 
traveling throughout the Republic to link together the local organizations 
to form a 'national federation. His efforts were successful and in August 
the Union was formally organized with Mr. Tsao as its first general secret- 
ary. In November 1919 he was appointed First Secretary of the Chinese 
Legation in Copenhagen. In January 1921 he was awarded the Third 
Class Chiaho Decoration. In July 1921 Mr. Tsao was recalled by the 
Peking government from Copenhagen. In August 1921 he was appointed 
Councillor of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In October 1921 he was 
detailed to be Deputy Chief Secretary of the Chinese Delegation to the 
Washington Conference. In March 1922 he was made a director of 
Tsinghua College. In May 1922 he received the Third Class Paokuang 
Chiaho. In October 1922 he was appointed Acting President of the Tsinghua 
College. Later this position was substantiated to him. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



743 




General Ts'en Ch'un-hsuan 

^ #*t^g PS 
General Ts'en Ch'un-hauan was born at Hai-ling Hsien, Kuangsi pro- 
vince, in 1859. He is the eldest son of Ts'en Yu-yin, famous viceroy of 
Ching Dynasty. After having received education from regular Confucian 
schools, he entered official life through the influence of his father. In 
June 1892 he was appointed Sub-Director of Court of Imperial Entertain- 
ments; in 1893, Sub-Director of Court of Imperial Study; and in 1898, 
Lieutenant Governor of Kuangtung Province. Later he was transferred 
to be Lieutenant Governor of Kansu. In September 1900, General Ts'en 
was promoted to be Governor of Shensi. In April 1901 he was transferred 
to Shansi, where he also functioned as Governor for one year. In January 
1902 he was awarded the Yellow Jacket, the highest honor which the Im- 
perial Family had in its power to confer, on account of the protection! 



744 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



which he accorded to the Empress Dowager, who fled to Sheii«i from 
Peking during the Boxer rising. In May 190:i, General Tsen was made 
Governor of Kwangtung. In October 1902 he was promoted to be Acting 
Viceroy of Szechuan, which position he held until May 1903. In November 
1903 he was appointed Acting Viceroy of Lang-Kuang (or Kuangtung and 
Kuangsi). In September 1906, General Ts'en was appointed Viceroy of 
Yunnan annd Kweichow, but he did not proceed to assume office on account 
of a difference of political views with the ruling authorities. In March 
1907, he was appointed Viceroy of Szechuan. Likewise he did not take up 
this office. On May 3, 1907, he was appointed President of the Board of 
Communications. In the same month he was, however, re-appointed Viceroy 
of Kwangtung and Kwangsi. He resigned this office on account of "ill- 
health" on August 12, 1907. In September 1911, General Ts'en was ordered 
to proceed to Szechuan to suppress the railway agitation in that prov;ince 
in cooperation with the Viceroy Chao Erh-feng. Before he lefl Hankow 
the Revolution of 1911, which resulted in the establishment of the Republic 
had broken out. On October 14, General Ts'en was appointed Viceroy of 
Szechuan to cope with the situation, but he did not accept the appoint- 
ment. Later he was appointed Commissioner of Pacification for Fukien. 
In February 1913, he was appointed Director-General of the Hukuang 
Railways, which position he resigned on June 17. The then Pres- 
ident Yuan Shih-fcai, ordered his arrest on account of his alleged 
complicity in the rebellion during the summer of 1913. He fled to the 
South Sea Islands remainingi their as a political refugee for some time. 
General Ts'en was one of the leaders of the revolt against Yuan Shih-kai's 
monarchical plan which was launched in 1915. In May 1916, a month before 
the death of Yuan, the Kuangtung and Kuangsi forces organized their 
headquarters at Shao-ching, Kunagtung, to direct operations against 
Yuan's forces. General Ts'en was elected the Commander-in-Chief of the 
allied forces. After the overthrow of Yuan Shih-kai's Administration, 
the First Parliament was convoked and General Ts'en retired to private 
life. In June 1917 the First Parliament was again dissolved. In July 
occurred the Restoration of the Manchu Throne by Chang Hsun. General 
Ts'en was appointed by the Boy Emperor the President of the House of 
Peers, but he remained indifferent to this appointment. After the overthrow 
of this restoration, Marshal Tuan Chi-jui came to power again and refused 
to reconvoke the Parliament whose members then went down to Canton 
where he created the Extraordinary Parliament in August 1917 and elected 
seven directors to form what was then known as the Military government 
in May 1918. They were Tang Shao-i, Tang Chi-yao, Wu Ting-fang, Ling 
Pao-hsi, Lu Yung-ting and General Ts'en. In August 1918 General Ts'en 
became the presiding director of the military government. In May 1920 the 
Kuangtung faction headed by Sun Yat-sen was ousted by the Kuangsi faction 
headed by General Lu Yung-ting and the Cheng Hsueh-Hui Party, headed by 
General Ts'en. In October 1920 the Kuangtung faction returned to Canton 
again as the result of which General Ts'en and his associates had to leave 
for Shanghai where he has been living in retirement since that time. In 
October 1922, the Peking government awarded upon him the First Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho Decoraton. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



745 




Mr. T K. Tseng 

fi ^.m^ mm 

(Tseng Tsung-chien) 

Mr. T. K. Tseng was born at Ming-hou Esien, Fukien pj-ovince, in 
1882. He graduated from Nanyang College, Shanghai, in 1901, where he 
obtained the highest scholarship. After graduation, he was sent to 
England as a government student in the same year. Upon arrival 
in England he joined King's College where he stayed until 1907. He 
went to Cambridge (Pembroke College) in 1907 where he was popu- 
lar with the students and prominent in rowing circles. His special 



746 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



subject of study was political economy. After his graduation he return- 
ed to China and joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and remained 
there until 1917. During the first revolution in 1911-12 Mr. Tseng was 
secretary for foreign intercourse to Marshal Tuan Chi-jui, who was then 
Commander-in-Chief at Hankow. In the second revolution he served in 
the same capacity under General Tuan Chih-kuei in Kiukiang. In 1914 he 
was appointed the Chinese Consul-General to Australia where he remained 
until China declared war against Germany in 1917, when he returned home 
to offer his service to Marshal Tuan, and to arrange for the dispatch of 
Chinese soldiers to Europe. Upon his return to Peking, he found to his 
great disappointment that it was impossible to dispatch Chinese troops to 
Europe. In November 1917 Mr. Tseng was appointed Commissioner for 
Foreign Affairs at Shanghai. But owing to political reasons he did not 
proceed to assume office. Ip December 1917 he was appointed Salt Com- 
missioner in Kirin and Heilungkiang, this position he held until Dtecember 
1919. In 1918 he accompanied General Hsu Shu-tseng to Japan to attend 
the Japanese Grand Manoeuvres in the capacity of Chief Secretary. Since 
then his name was always mentioned when ever the government tried to find 
a suitable person to be Chinese Minister to Tokyo. In April 1919 he was 
given the Second Class Wienfu and in October 1919 the Second Clasf^ 
Tashou Chiaho. In December 1919 when he had just been relieved of , the 
Salt Commissioner post, he was appointed Director of the Cadastral Ad- 
ministration, Peking. This post he held until August 1920 when the Anfu 
Ministry had collapsed. 



oe 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



741 




Mr. Tseng Yu-tsun. 

Mr. Tseng Yu-tsun was born at Ming-hou Hsien, Fukien province, in 
1879. He became a Provincial Graduate in 1898. Subsequently he held a 
series of official posts in different districts and prefects in Chihli province 
such as Magistrate Prefect and Expectant Taotai. Afterwards he was 
transferred to Peking and worked in the Board of Post and Communica- 
tions in various capacities. In 1924 he served as Director of Military 
Supplies and Chief of the Salt Revenue Bureau in Kalgan. Later he 
was appointed Secretary to the Cabinet. In 1916 he became manag- 
ing director of the Peking-Hankow Railway. A year later he resig- 
ned from this post on account of ill health. In 1918 Mr. Tseng 
was elected a member of the Senaite of the New Parliament. 1ji 
October 1918 he was appointed Vice-Minister of Communications and 
concurrently to be Director- General of the Chinese government railways. 
In May of 1919 he was appointed to be Director-General of the Hankow- 



MS WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Canton- Szech wan Railways, which office was a concurrent one. A month 
after the resignation of Mr. Tsao Jui-lin from the Ministry of Communica- 
tions, in June 1919, -Mr. Tseng was app.ointed Acting Minister of Com- 
munications. In December 1919 he was appointed Minister of Communications. 
In January 1920 he was awarded the Fourth Order of Merit. Later he was 
given both the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and the Second Class 
Wenfu. In July 1920 he was removed from the Ministership and was 
subsequently ordered to be apprehended and deprived of all honors and 
decorations because the Anfu Ministry had fallen. He was a ''guest" in 
the Japanese Legation until October 1, 1922 when he escaped in company 
with Messrs. Wang Chih-lung and Liang Hung-chih. In 1923 he was 
given his freedom by a Mandate. 



i^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



749 




Mr. Tsou Ping-wen 

m m oc 

Mr. Ping-wen Tsou, a native of Soochow, was born in Canton ou 
October 26. 1892, where he obtained his early training. In 1907, he went 
to Peking and was enrolled as a student in Hwei-wen University and in 
1910, he began to study abroad in Cook Academy, Montour Palls, N. Y. 
The next year he studied mechanics in Cornell Univiersity but not long 
after this he determined to specialize in agriculture in the same institu- 
tion. After graduation, which took place in 1915, he further studied 
in the graduate school paying special attention to plant pathology. The 
next summer he came back to China and was invited by the University of 
Nanking to teach plant pathology. His success attracted the president of 



750 WHO^S WHO IN CHINA 



the National Teachers' College in Nanking, who urged him to be the head 
of the Department of Agriculture of this college. In 1921 when the 
Teachers' College was reorganized into the S;)utheastern University, this 
Department became the College of Agriculture and Mr. Tsou was appointed 
Dean. In the same year he was elected the Chief Manager of the Joint 
Administration for Kiangsu Education and Industry. The next year he 
called the National Agricultural Convention at Tsinan. About 270 agri- 
cultural men from various parts of China were present at the meeting to 
devise means for agricultural improvement and to solve important agri- 
cultural problems. During the meeting Mr. Tsou held the chair and, when 
the meeting was over, he was elected the chairman of the executive com- 
mittee. In addition to the important positions mentioned above, Mr. Tsou 
is now holding the following offices: chief manager of the Chinese 
Agricultural Society, member of the National Association for the Advance-, 
ment of Chinese Education and the vice-chairman of the Committee of 
Vocational Education of the said Association, member of the National 
A^§lsociation Education of China and chairman of the Committee of 
Agriculture of the same Association, member of the Provincial Agricultural 
Society, of Kiangsu and of its Legislative Department, member of the 
Science Association of China, member of the Chinese World Student 
Association, and member of the Plant Pathology Club of the United States. 
Mr. Tsou is also a noted agricultural writer. His two books, "Agricultural 
Problems in China" and "Text-book of Higher Botany" were published in 
Chinese by the Commercial Press, Ltd. Other writings on Chinese 
agriculture and agricultural education are found in the following publica- 
tions: Agricultural Science, New Education, Vocational Education, China 
Weekly Review, China Press, etc. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



751 




Mr. Tii Ch'un 

*t M ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. Tu Ch'un was born at Pan-yu Hsien, Kuangtung province, in 
1886. Shortly after leaving school, Mr. Tu was called to official life and 
under the Manchu regime, received his first important appointment as 
Special Commissioner for the preparation and arrangement of the Nan- 
yang Industrial Exposition. Following the establishment of the Republic 
in 1911 Mr. Tu became chief secretary in the yamen of the Commissioner 
of Defense for Shanghai and Sungkiang, a post which was later changed 
to that of Military Governor of Shanghai and Sungkiang. He served in this 



752 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



post under three governors. In August 1919 he was awarded the Second 
Class Chiaho. In June 1920 the Peking government appointed Mr. Tu to 
the post of Customs Superintendent of Hangchow. In December 1920 he 
received the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho. While in Chekiang he was 
for some time Commissioner of Finance concurrently. In Maixh 1922 he 
was appointed Salt Transportation Commissioner of Chekiang. In Septem- 
ber 1922 he was awarded the Second Class Ta«hou Chiaho. He is chairman 
of the Chekiang Flood Relief ('ommission and is Director of the Hangchow 
branch of the Chinese-Foreign Famine Relief Committee. His activities 
are devoted not only to Hangchow and the province of Chekiang, but 
Shanghai, Peking and Canton organizations also have his assistance. He 
holds many other decorations, including a special medal of merit for 
benevolence from the Peking government and the highest medal of honor 
from the Red Gross Society of China. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



753 




Admiral Tu Hsi-kuei 

*fc !§, ^ ^ m 3^ 

Admiral Tu Hsi-kuei was born at Foochow, Fukien province, in 1875. 
He was graduated from the Naval College, Nanking with the highest honors 
in 1902. Subsequently he was given the rank of sub-lieutenant on board 
the cruiser Hai Chi. Sixteen months later he was promoted to the rank of 
junior lieutenant. After holding the ranks of navigating lieutenant and 
gunnery lieutenant for a short time he was appointed commander of the 
torpedo boat Chien Tze, and five months later acted as commander of the 
cruiser Kien An. In this capacity he directed the survey of the Port of 
Lungkou. He was appointed to the rank of full commander and was posted 
at Chefoo in charge of the marine corps, later being posted to the Kiang 
Ting, and Hai Yung respectively. Upon the establishment of the Republic, 
Admiral Tu was still in charge of the Haitung, China's largest cruiser.' 
He was ordered to act concurrently as director of defences in Fukien. In 
1915 the Chinese government appointed him commander of the training 



754 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



cruiser Chao Ho. From there he was transferred to the Hai Yung. In 
1917 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Second Squardron. In 
January 1920 he was awarded the Second Class Tashou Chiaho. In 
August 1921 he received the Fourth Order of Merit. In October 1921 he 
was made a Rear- Admiral. In January 1922 he was awarded ' the First 
Class Wenfu, In June 1922 he became Commander-in-chief of the Chinese 
Navy. During the Chihli-Fengtien War in 1922 he played an important 
part which w^as partly responsible for the Chihli Party. In October 1922 
he was awarded the First Class Tashou Chiaho. In the sp'ring of 1923 
the Shanghai Section of the Chinese Navy declared independence of tho 
Peking government. As a result of it Admiral Tii tendered his resigna- 
tion. In October 1923 he was made a Chiangchun with "Ying-Wei" as 
special title. In November 1923 he was again appointed Commander-in- 
Chief of Chinese Navy. In March 1924 he was made an Admiral. In Sep- 
tember 1924 he was appointed to command the fleet to participate in the, 
Punitive Expedition waged by the Peking government against Marshal 
Cliang Tso-lin. 



v^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



/7 ^ •" 




Mr. Tu Cho-hsuan 

(Tu Tso-hsuan) 

Mr. Tu Cho-hsuan was born at En Hsien, Shantung province in 1883. 
He is a Catholic. He attended the North China Christian Union College 
at Pei Tungchow for eight years. After graduation he was on the faculty 
for three years (between 1905 and 1907) at the same college, teaching 
history and mathematics. In 1908 he joined the Reform Society, organized 
by Mr. Thwing, and remained with it for four years. The work for the 
Reform Society prepared him to be a iournal'st. The society carried on 
an anti-opium, and anti-liquor campaign under the able direction of Mr. 
Thwing, and Mr. Tu was entrusted with the task of preparing propaganda 
articles for the press. Mr. Thwing and Mr. Tu went to Kwangtung, 
Kwangsi, Fukien, Yunnan and Kweichow to investigate the poppy condi- 
tions, and many pamphlets were published by them jointly. In 1912 he 



756 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



joined the Ta Kung Pao of Tientsin ^as editor. During his connection, 
that paper was most prosperous commercially. Realizing that he could not 
advocate his policy in a paper owned by others, he started the (Social 
Welfare) Yi Shih Pao in 1916 with the cooperation of a few friends whose 
ideas on politics and other public affairs were similar to his. Four months 
later he established the Peking Yi Shih Pao. Today the Tientsin Yi Shih 
Pao has a daily circulation of 15,000 and the Peking Yi Shih Pao prints 
14,000 copies. They are the largest papers in the two cities and wield 
considerable influence locally. Acting manager of the Peking Yi Shih Pao, 
Mr. Tu also retains a control over the Tientsin paper. During the Anfu 
time, his paper at Peking was closed by the authorities, and he had to flee 
to the Legation Quarters for safety where he stayed for more than two 
months. During the fight for supremacy between Chihli and Anfu forces in 
the summer of 1920, he was being closely watched by the Anfu detectives 
and his life wa& in constant danger. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



757 




Mr. T. W. Tu. 

(T'u Wei-Tseng) 

T. W. Tu was born at Soochow, Kiangsu, in 1884. He studied at the 
Anglo-Chinese School in his native place between 1897-8, at Nanyang Col- 
lege, Shanghai, 1898-1905. In January of 1905 he went to America for 
higher education as a government supported student. He studied civil 
engineering at the University of California, 1905-7; railway engineering 
at the University of Illinois, 1907-9. He received the degree of B. S. in 
1909, and soon after his graduation, joined the Chicago and Alton Raitlway 
as a transitman. In 1910 he was bridge detailer of the Chicago-North- 
western Railway. In 1911 he was construction foreman of the Kansas; City 
Terminal Railway. He returned to China in the winter, and became resident 



758 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



engineer of the Shanghai -Hangchow-Ningpo Railway in charge of survey- 
ing construction of a section fifty miles long. Before the completion of 
the work the revolution at Wuchang broke out, and the work had to be 
suspended. From February to July, 1912 Mr. Tu was instructor in railway 
engineering ^of the Polytechnic Institute, Shanghai. He tauglit railway 
construction, • bridge designing, graphic statistics, and mechanics. From 
August 5, 1912 to January 1915, he was district engineer of the Kiukiang- 
Nanchang Railway in charge of surveying and construction of a section 
thirty miles long, designed and constructed: (1) a 60' span 200' bridge 
with reinforced concrete cylinder foundation, and (2) a 10-span 100' bridge 
with woodern crib caisson sunk through sand. From January 6, 191.5 to 
January 1918 he was senior assistant engineer of the Canton-Hankow 
Railway in charge of surveying and construction of a section fifteen miles 
long, and at the same time wias in charge of all bridge erection work on 
the district forty-five miles long. From April 1918 to April 1919, he was 
resident member of the Commission on the Unification on Railway Technics 
in the Ministry of Communications. He was in charge of drafting of 
regulations on the duties governing maintenance of way employes, and 
designing of road and bridge standards for Chinese Government Railways. 
From April to August 1919, Mr. Tu was technical secretary to the Chinese 
representative on the Inter-Allied Technical Board for the supervision of 
the Chinese Eastern and Siberia Railways. At one time he acted as I'hinese 
representative on the technical board for three months during the absence 
of Dr. C. C. Wang. Between September 1919 and May 1920 he was Chinese 
representative on the Inter- Allied Purchasing Committee at Vladivostok. 
In June 1920 he resumed the position of Technical Secretary to the Chines? 
Representative and is still holding the position. He is concurrently 
acting as assistant chief of Maintenance of the Chinese Eastern Railway. 
. Mr. Tu was one of the experts attached to the Chinese Delegation attending 
the Washington Conference in the winter of 1921-22. He was given the 
Third Class Chiaho Decoration in June 1922. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



759 




Marshal Tuan Chi-jui. 



760 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Marshal Tuan Chi-jui was born at He-fei Hsien, Anhui province, in 
1864. He graduated from the Tientsin Military Academy in 1885. In 1889 
he was sent to Germany where he worked for owe year in an arsenal and 
also studied artillery science. Upon his return to China, he joined Yuan 
Shih-kai's camp. In 1895 Yuan Shih-kai started to train modern troops at 
Hsiao-Chan and gave one regiment of artillery units to Marshal Tuan to 
command. At the same time he was Director of the Military College at 
Hsiao-Chan. Marshal Tuan was retained by Yuan Shih-kai as a Senior 
Training Officer of his army the Right Wu-Wei-Chun. He was concur- 
rently Director of the several departments and training halls,. During the- 
Boxer Trouble, when Yuan Shih-kai was Governor of Shantung command- 
ing the Right Wu Wei Chun, Marshal Tuan rendered valuable service in 
assisting him to prevent the Boxer Movements from spreading southward. 
In 1901 Yuan Shih-kai succeeded Li Hung-chang as Viceroy of Chihli. 
Beginning from 1902 Yuan Shih-kai devoted full energy to train modern 
army divisions. At Paotingfu the training headquarters were established 
consisting of three departments, the Ordnance, the Staffs and the Eduteation. 
Marshal Tujan was Chief of the Staffs Department. In 1903 two divisions 
were completely organized. In December that year Mershal Tu^an was pro- 
moted to be Senior Commandant of the Training Headquarters and was 
given the brevet rank of Lieutenant General, in 1904. Marshal Tuan 
was ordered to be concurrently a Brigadier Commander of the third division. 
In 1905 the Right Wu Wei Chun was reorganized to become the Fourth 
Division of the Regular Army with Marshal Tuan as its Commander-in-Chief. 
He was Chief Commander of the northern army participating in the First 
maneuver held at Ho-Chien Fu, Chihli in the autumn of 1905. The London 
Times paid a very high tribute to the participating units. In February 
1906 Marshal Tuan was transferred to be Commander-in-Chief of the Third 
Army Division holding concurrently the post of Director of the Peiyang 
Military College. In March 1906 he was appointed Tsung-Ping (Brigade- 
General) of T'ing Chow Chen, Fukien Province. In 1907 he became Dir- 
ector-General of all the military colleges and also Deputy-Lieutenant 
General of Chinese Units of the Bordered Yellow Banner Division. (Man- 
chu Military Organization). Marshal Tuan was the Grand Jury of the 
Imperial Examinations for military students returned from Japan, for three 
times, namely, 1908, 1909 and 1901. In December 1909 he was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of the Sixth Army Division. In December 1910 he was 
transferred to be the Provincial Commander-in-Chief (ti-Tu) of Kiang-per, 
the most honored military position under the Ching government. Upon the 
outbreak of the First Revolution in October 1911, Marshal Tuan was ap- 
pointed Commander-in-Chief of the Second Army Corp to fight against the 
revolutionary troops. Later, acting upon the instruction of Yuan Shih-kai, 
then Prime Minister in Peking, Marshal Tuan took the lead in a telegram 
requesting the Manchu Emperor to abdicate. It was dated January 26, 
1912 and February 12, occurred the abdication. Dr. Sun Yat-sen re- 
signed from the Provisional Presidency on the following day and on the 
15th the Nanking Provisional Assembly elected Yuan Shih-kai to succeed 
Dr. Sun. In March 1912 Marshal Tuan was appointed Minister of War and 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 761 



in Septemher 1912 made a Full General. In October 1912 he was awarded 
the Order of Merit, and also Second Class Chiaho Decoration. Shortly 
afterwards he was given the First Class Chiaho. From May to July, 1913 
he acted as Prime Minister. In October 1913, upon Vice-President Li 
Yuan-hung coming to Peking, Marshal Tuan was appointed Tutu, Military 
Governor, of Hupei, still holding the post of War. In February 1914 he 
was transferred to be Tutu of Honan and in April 1914 he returned to 
Peking resuming the War post. In June 1914 he was made Shang Chiang- 
chun, Marshal, with the "Chien-Wei" as special title and simultaneously 
appointed to hold concurrently the post of President of the College of 
Marshals. In the spring of 1917, over the question of War Participation, 
the President and then Prime Minister Tuan began to quarrel. On March 
4th, after an interview with the President in which he requested the Chief 
Executive to order the Chinese Ministers in Allied countries to negotiate 
conditions of China's Participation with the respective governments and 
the request was rejected by the President on the ground that it had to be 
referred to the Parliament first, Marshal Tuan left for Tientsin. Vice- 
President Feng Kuo-chang then personally called upon him at Tientsin as 
a mediator. On March 6, Marshal Tuan returned to Peking, resuming his 
duty. On May 19, the House of Representatives, which on the previous 
day had been threatened by a large group of mobs demanding the adoption 
of the Participation Bill, passed a resolution to defer the discussion of the 
bill. On the same day the various Tuchuns, who were at Peking attending 
the Military Conference called by Marshal Tuan, demanded the dissolution 
of the Parliament. On May 21, they all left Peking in a body. On the 
23rd President Li Yuan-hung dismissed Marshal Tuan from the Prime 
Ministership. On 29th the Tuchuns declared independence of Peking es- 
tablishing headquarters at Tientsin to oppose the Peking government. On 
July 14, Marshal Tuan entered Peking, assuming the Prime Ministerships 
Li Yuan-hung left the Japanese Legation resigning from the Presidency ; and 
Feng Kuo-chang became Acting President. The following day the Marshal was 
appointed.to the Minister of War as a concurrent post. On August 4, 1917 
China declared war on Germany and Austro-Hungary. But in the meanfme the 
southern leaders distrusting Marshal Tuan and supporting the dissolved 
Parliament lined up against the north. On August 25, the Extraordinary 
Parliament was inaugurated at Canton. It subsequently elected Dr. Sun 
Yat-sen the Generalissimo of the Opposition government. Marshal Tuan 
at once laid out plans to challenge the south. But his plans did not work. 
In November 1917 he resigned from the Premiership and the War post. In 
December 1917 Marshal Tuan was appointed Director-General of the War 
Participation Bureau. In March 1918 he was reinstated as Prime Minister. 
In April he visited the northern troops in Hupei which had recaptured 
several important cities from the south. In the meantime his followers 
organized the Anfu Club to run for the election of the New Parliament. 
The new Legislature was convoked in August 1918 and it elected Hsu Shih- 
chang President in September. About the same time the commanders of 
the northern troops in the south started the peace movement, overruling 
Marshal Tuan's "Unification by Force" policy. Therefore in October 1918, 



762 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



he resigned from the Prime Ministership. In October Marshal Tuan in the 
Military Conference in which practically all the northern leading militarists 
attended. In this conference it was decided to end the civil strife, to 
call an internal peace conference, and to maki3 a stand in the com'ing 
World Peace Conference. In July 1919 the War Participation Bureau was 
abolished and in its place a Frontier Defence Bureau was created with 
Marshal Tuan still as Director- General. In September 1919 he was awarded 
the Grand Order of Merit. In July 1920, after the overthrow of the 
Anfu Club as the result of the Chihli-Anfu War, Marshal Tuan was relieved 
of the Directorship of the Frontier Defence and also of the Presidency of 
the College of Marshals. Late in 1924 following the defeat of the Chihli 
faction by the Anfu-Fengtien party. Marshal Tuan was prevailed upon to 
accept the Provisional presidency being assured of the support of Marshal 
Chang Tso-lin and General Feng Yu-hsiang. One of the conditions which 
Marshal Tuan made for his acceptancy to the position was the calling of 
a National Reorganization Conference, which met in February 1925, in 
Peking, for the purpose of reorganizing the government and bringing about 
a 'reunification of the country. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



763 




Mr. Hollington K. Tong 

(Tuny Hsien-kuang) 

Mr. Hollington K. Tong was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 
1887 from a humble family. He studied at the Lowrie High School. 
Shanghai High School, and the Anglo-Chinese College, Shanghai. Before 
graduating from the high school, he was compelled to leave school upon 
the death of his father in order to support his mother and famjily. He 
taught for one year in a high school in Ningpo and then joined the staff 



764 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



of the Commerical Press at Shanghai where he was employed for two years. 
In 1907, with borrowed money, he was enabled to go to the United States 
to pursue a higher education. He attended Park College, a religious in- 
stitution located near Kansas City for one year and in 1908 entered the 
University of Missouri where he studied the liberal arts and also took 
cources in journalism under the deanship of Dr. Walter Williams. Upon 
graduation in 1911 from the University of Missouri where he received the 
A. B. degree, he went to Columbia University, N. Y. where he took courses 
in the post-graduate school. Upon completing this work he served for a 
time on the reportorial staffs of the New York Times and the New York 
Evening Post, and also served as an assistant editor on the New York 
Independent. Mr. Tong returned to China in January 1912 and worked 
first as assistant editor of the China Republican, published at Shanghai.. 
He then went to Peking and for a year acted as correspondent for a num- 
ber of Chinese newspapers and one foreign paper in Shanghai, and served 
as editor of the Peking Daily News during 1913-14. He was also English 
Secretary of the Senats of the First Parliament during the same period of 
time. In April 1914 he joined the National Oil Administration as an 
English secretary. At the end of 1915 he was commissioned by the 
government to go to America on a special mission. Upon his return to 
China, after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, he rejoined the National Admin- 
istration. In 1917 he accepted a position as travelling agent for the 
Standard Oil Company, After a time he resigned from this position to 
become the Peking correspondent of Millard's Review which is now known 
as the China Weekly Review. In March 1918 he was appointed Deputy 
Secretary of the Chihli River Commission, Tientsin which position he still 
holds at the same time accepting the assistant editorship of the Review. 
He is now contributing editor of the Review. Since 1919 Mr. Tong has 
been Advisor to General Yang I-teh, Police Commissioner of Chihli and to 
Mr. Chu Hsing-yuan, Commissioner of Foreign Affairs in Tientsin. In. 
August 1920 he was appointed a Junior-Advisor of the Ministry of Com- 
munications and in October 1920 he became an executive secretary of the 
Railway Finance Commission. In October 1921 he was delegated by the 
Peking government to represent China at the International Press Confer- 
ence in Honolulu. In May 1922 he was appointed acting councillor of the 
Ministry of Communications but he resigned from it in June 1922. In 
February 1923 he was appointed Secretary to Admiral Y. L. Woo, Minister 
of Communications. He was given the Third Class Chiaho in May 1923, 
the Second Chiaho in July 1923, and the Second Class Tashou Paokuang 
Chiaho in October 1923. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



765 




Mr. Tung K'ang 

Mr. Tung K'ang was born at Wu-chin Hsien, Kiangsu province, in 
1869. He was brought up in a well known literary family of southern 
China. He became a Metropolitan Graduate in 1889 when he was barely 
twenty years of age. He began his official career as Junior Secretary of 
the Board of Punishment. The other positions he held under the Ching 
Regime were judge of the criminal department of the Supreme Court and 
general secretary to the Law Codification Bureau. He distinguished him- 
self in judicial administration. He directed the drafting of the criminal 
law, civil law, commercial law, civil procedure, criminal procedure, etc. 
which were provisional and effective for the time being. In the first year 
of the Republic, Minister Tung travelled extensively in Japan. He returned 
to China in the winter of 1913. In February 1914 he was appointed Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court which position he held until July 1918 when 
he was appointed president of the Law Codification Bureau. He was Chief 
Justice of the Prize Court from 1917 till the time when he resigned from 



766 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the Supreme Court. In November 1918 he was awarded the First Class 
Wenfu. In July 1920 Mr, Tung was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court for the second time. But a month later he was appointed Acting 
Minister of Justice. From May to December, 1921, he was Minister of 
Justic. In December 1921 he returned to the Supreme Court again holding 
concurrently the post of President of the High Judicial Service Punishment 
Commission. In February 1922 he received another post as President of 
the Commission for the Consolidation of Domestic and Foreign Debts. In 
May 1922 he was appointed Acting Minister of Finance, holding concur- 
rently the post of Director General of the Salt Administration, of the 
Currency Bureau and of the Wine and Tobacco Administration. In August 
1922 Mr. Tung was relieved from all the financial posts. Shortly afterwards 
he left China on a touring trip to America and Europe to investigate 
commercial and industrial conditions therein. During his absence, he was 
appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Septeml)er 1922, with Yu 
Chi-chang to act for him; President of the High Judicial Service Court, 
in October 1922 with Hu I-Ku to act for him. In February 1923 he was 
officially relieved of these two appointment and was at the same time the 
Vice-President of the Commission for the Discussion of Jurisprudence. In 
October 1923 he was given the Second Order of Merit. In 1924 he returned 
to China. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



7-67 




Mr. George Wan 

(Wan Chao-chih) 
Mr. George Wan was born at Nanchang, Kiangsi province, in 1890, 
He was a Pa Kung or Senior Licentiate under the Ching Dynasty educa- 
tional system. Subsequently he entered the Peking Imperial University to 
receive an education along modern lines, graduating in 1910. After 
graduation Mr. Wan was appainted by the Imperial government a Chou 
P'an or Second Class Assistant Department Magistrate in Kiangsu in which 
province he held different positions until 1914 when he was called to 
revise the Provisional Constitution as adopted by the Nanking Provisional 
government in 1911-12, Mr. Wan was appointed first as Secretary and 
later as Chief Secretary to the Council which adopted the New Provisional 
Constitution in May 1914. Subsequently Mr. Wan went to America and 
entered Johns Hopkins University from which he received the degree of 
A. B. in 1916; M. A. in 1917; and LL.B. in 1919 from Harvard University. 



768 WHO'S WEiO IN CHINA 



Upon his return to China in 1919, Mr. Wan became Principal of the Pro- 
vincial Middle School of Kiangtsi. Soon afterwards he went to Peking 
and for the period 1919-1920 he served as Professor of International Law 
and Political Science in Peking Government University. And at the same 
time he taught history in the Peking High Normal College. From 1920 
to 1921 Mr. Wan was Secretary to the Ministry of Communications'. In 
February 1921 he was ordered by the Ministry of the Interior to take 
charge of the Preparation Bureau for calling a conference to discuss 
matters regarding local government. In April 1921 he was appointed 
Executive Secretary to that Conference which was then called at Peking 
and attended by delegates from the different Ministries and provinces. 
Subsequently Mr. Wan was appointed Acting Secretary of the Ministry of 
Justice. From September 1921 he held a concurrent position in the Law 
Compilation Bureau in the Cabinet as an Acting Compiler. In September 
1922 he left the Ministry of Justice and became a Compiler of the Law 
Compilation Bureau. In December 1922 he became Secretary of the Cabinet 
and later Acting Chief Secretary until June 1923 when he was appointed 
Councillor of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which position he is still 
holding. He is also Advisor to the Central Salt Administration. Mr, Wan 
was awarded the Second Class order of Wenfu and also Second Class 
Chiaho in February 1923. His present address is 30 An Yuan Hutung, In- 
side Shun Chih Men, Peking 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



769 




Marshal Wang Chan-yuan 

5 f*j 7C ^ q^ # 

Marshal Wang Chan-yuan was born at Kuan Hsien, Shantung province, 
in 1860. He was graduated in the first class of the Peiyang Military 
Academy and .served in the Siano-Japanese War, 1894-95. Later he was 
enggaged by Yuan Shih-kai to train the modern army at Hsiao Chan. He 
was engaged by Yuan Shih-kai to traini a modern army at Hsiao Chan. He 
started as a captain commanding Anhui troops. Subsequently he was 
promotoU to be a colonel and then to Bridagier-General. Upon the out- 
break of the First Revolution October 1911 Marshal Wang accompanied 
Feng Kuo-chang to Wuchang when the latter was in command of the First 
Imperial Army to .suppress the revolt. He was responsible for the recapture 
of the city Hanying from the revolutionaries on November 27. 1911. Upon 



770 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



the establishment of the Republic in 1911, he was appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of the Second Army Division. In 1913 he was made a General 
and was at the same time awiarded the Second Class Wenfu Decoration. 
In October 1915 Marshal Wang was created a Chiangchun, or Member of 
College of Marshals, with Chang Wei as special title. In December 1915 
he was ordered to act as Chiangchun (Military Governor) of Hupei in 
which province his Second Division had been hitherto stationing. In 
January 1916 he was appointed Chiang-Chun of Hupei. In July 1917, 
after the death of Yuan Shih-kai he was appointed Tuchun of the same 
province, "Tuchun" being the new denomination of military governor. In 
the same month he was ordered to hold concurrently the Civil Governorship 
of Hupei. In October 1917 he was awarded the Second Order of Merit, 
and in January 1920 the First Order of Merit. In June 1920 Marshal Wang 
was appointed High Inspecting Commissioner of Hunan and Hupei. In 
October 1920 he was made a Marshal with Chang Wei as special title. In 
May 1921 he attended the Tuchun's Conference at Tientsin. Upon his re- 
turn to Wuchang he was confronted with serious difficulties as a result of 
the mutiny of portions of his forces at Wuchang and Ichang and was 
therefore, officially relieved of his office in August 1921. Since that time, 
he has been living in retirement at Tientsin. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



771 




Mr. Henri Waung 

(Wang Chao-ming) 

Mr. Henri Waung was born at Canton in 188.5. His native province 
is Chekiang. In his youth he studied in the Hsueh Hai Tang, a famous old 
institute of learning, at Canton, and specialized in the study of the hi^ory 
of China from which he imbibed the idea of racial independence. When 
he was sixteen, Mr. Waung went to Japan and studied Political Science 
and Sociology in Tokyo Law College where he later graduated. There he 
received the idea of democracy. While Mr. Waung was in Japan, Dr. Sun 
Yat-sen and the late Huang Hsing organized the Tung Ming Hui in Tokyo. 
Mr. Waung attended the first conference of this organization and was 
elected a member of the Executive Council, and later elected chairman. 
At the same time he was engaged to be the editor of the Ming Pao, Tung 
Ming Hui's organ. Through this paper he advocated "A Republic for 
China" Doctrine. He personally paticipated in the uprisings of the 
revolutionary forces at Kuangtung and Kuangsi led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.- 



b 



772 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Subsequently Mr. Waung went to the South Sea Islands. To every Chinese 
immigrant he met there, he preached the Revolutionary Doctrine. As a 
result, large sums of money were collected from the Chinese as, voluntary 
contributions toward the Revolut'onary Cause. In March 1911 Mr. Waung 
smuggled himself to Peking where he worked in cooperation with several 
friends in an attempt to assassinate the Prince Regent, Father of the 
Boy Emperor Hsuan Tung. A big bomb with a time-fuse had been placed 
under the brigade at the throne of the Regent's Palace. However, it was 
discovered by a sentinel. The whole city of Peking was searched for the 
guilty persons which resulted in the arrest of Mr. Waung and his ac- 
complices. ,Mr. Waung' was triefi personally by Prince S'han Ch-'i, then 
president of the Board of Civil Administration. During the trial a Ijng written 
statement was found in his pocket entitled "Determination of Revolution." In 
December 1911 a Peace Conference was held at Shanghai between the Re- 
volutionary government's representatives headed by the late Dr. Wu Ting- 
fang and the delegation of the Manchu House headed by Tang Sao-i. Mr. 
Waung was of the Revolutionary representatives and was the author of the 
articles for the Provision of Pensions for the defunct Ching Family. After the 
establishment of the Republic in 1912, Mr. Waung was elected Tutuh of 
Kuangtung. This he declined. He also refused to accept the offer by Yuan 
Shih-kai of the post of Minister of Justice at Peking. His argument was 
that after having spent several years in revolutionary work and in addi- 
tion two years in prison, he was nearing intellectual starvation and 
therefore in need of a few more years of study before he could be of any 
service t o the country. Subsequently Mr. Waung went to France where 
he studied Sociology and Literature. Upon leaving China he told his 
friends that should the country face any crisis he would return immedi- 
ately considering it to be a moral obligation to which he must respond. 
While in France, Mr. Waung helped in the organization of the Learning 
and Labor Society for Chinese, the Sino-Franco Educational Association, 
and many magazines. While the Paris Conference was cdled in 1919, the 
Canton Military government intended to appoint Mr. Waung as special 
delegate to attend the Conference because he was the first man who had 
advocated the participation in the European War by China. He declined 
the offer on account of his determination never tD become an official. 
However, he went to France unofficially and subsequantiy wrote a book 
entitled "The World and China after the Paris Conference." Since 1920 
Mr. Woung has been interesting himself in educational works. In the 
capacity of the president of the Kuangtung Provincial E.lucational Associa- 
tion, he introduced in the National Educational Conference a plan for the 
reform of Chinese Eudcational System which was eventually adopted. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



773 




Mr. Cheng-fu Wang 

(Wang Cheng-fu) 

Mr. Cheng-fu Wang was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 1890. 
He received his early education at the Tientsin Middle School, Preparatory 
Department of the Peiyang University, Tientsin, and in the School of Eng- 
ineering, Mining and Metallurgy of the Peiyang University. He was 
awarded the title of Hanlin Scholar in 1910. Then he went to America 
and studied at Columbia University, School of Mining, and in 1912 receiv- 
ed the degree of M. A. Fr/om 1912 he continued in the same institutiio'n 
working for the Doctor's degree until 1915 when illness forced him to 



774 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



return to China. Upon his return Mr. Wang serve'l as secretary of the 
Peking Y. M. C. A. for a year. During the time when Mr. Wang was 
in America, he served as president of the Chinese Students' Christian 
Association, the Chinese Students' Alliance, etc. In 1916, he was appointed 
by the Board of Commerce and Agriculture, Chef f^ngineer for the Iron 
Division of the Sino-Japanese Coal and Mining Company at Penhsihu in 
charge of iron smelting, iron mining, and concentration plant. He 
served in that capacity until 1921. In 1921, Mr. Wang was appoint- 
ed managing director and chief engineer of the Fengtien Mining 
Administration. Mr. Wang succeeded in putting the administration 
ting plant. He served in that capacity imtii 1921. In 1921, Mr. Wang 
was appointed Managing Director and Chief Engineer of the Fengtien 
Mining Administration. Mr. Waag succeeded in putting the administration" 
on a sound business basis. He is now assisted by several returned students 
of business and engineering ability. At present, the following mines are 
also under his direction: Pataohao Mine, Lientun Coal Mine, Talin Talc 
Mine, Pingerhfong Magnesite Mine, Hsincheng Manganese Mine and a few 
other mines in process. He is also the president of the Mukden Y. M. C. A. 
and member of the board of management of the Manchurian Christian 
Medical College. He also iserves the public in various other capacities. 



Tt 



(^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



775 




Marshal Wang Ch'eng-pin 

3E ;^ « ^^ # f & 

Marshal Wang Ch'eng-pin was born at Hsing-cheng Hsien, Fengtien 
Province, in 1874. He graduated from both the Peiyang Military School 
and the Imperial Military University. In the Ching Dynasty, Marshal 
Wang served in the Third Imperial Division as Junior Staff Officer. Later 
he was promoted to be Chief Staff Officer of the Fifth Mixed Brigade of 
the Imperial Army. During the First Revolution in the winter of 1911-12, 
Marshal Wang's troops were in charge of the defence of Shihchiachuang 
and other important places along the Chengtingfu-Taiyuanfu Railway 
rendering valuable service in maintaining the order and peace in that 
part of the country. In 1912, the First Year of the Republic, Marshal 



776 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Wang was promoted to be Commander of the 11th Regiment, th? 6th i 
Brigade, the Third Division of the National Army. In February 1913 ' 
Marshal Wang was made a Colonel. In April 1913 he was awarded the 
Third Class Wenhu Decoration and also given the brevet rank of major 
General. In 1914 Marshal Wang's troops were engaged in the suppression 
of bandits in Hunan and was lat3r made a Brigadicr-Genereal. In 1915-16 
Marshal Wang was in the Upper Yangtzu Region commanding government 
troops for the relief of Szechuan which was about to fall into the hands 
of the southern leaders. The lata General Tsai Ao, the Hero of the Yunnan 
Revolt against Yuan Shih-kai's monarchical movement, considered Marshal 
Wang as one of China's best military commanders. In April 1916 Marshal 
Wang was promoted to be Commander of the Extra Brigade of the Third 
Division, In May he w^as awarded the Fifth Order of Merit; the .Fourth 
Class Chiaho Decoration; and ths brevet rank of Lieut enant-General. In 
March 1917 Marshal Wang bacame the Commander of the First Mixed 
Brigade of Chihli. His troops participates in the overthrow of the Mon- 
archical Restoration attempted by the late General Chang Hsun in July 
1917. Subsequently he was awarded the Fourth Order of Merit. During 
the flood in the Autumn of 1917, Marshal Wang's troops saved the :city of 
Cho Hsien, Chihli, from being inundated by untiringly fighting against the 
water, under his personal supervision. A monument erected by the people 
inside the city as an expression of their gratitude for Marshal i Wang.- 
Meanwhile the country was having' a civil strife between tha North and 
the South, the province of Hunan having been taken by the southern 
leaders. In January 1918 Marshal Tsao Kun was appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of an Expedition Force to fight the south in Hunan and Hupei. 
This force included Marshal Wang's troops which were later responsible 
for the recapture of the several important cities in Hanan Province.- Ln 
August 1918 Marshal Wu Pei-fei, then commanding the Third Division in 
the Northern, Hunan, demanded the Peking government to cease waging 
war against the south, and also expressed the wish of having all ■ the 
Chihli Troops withdrawn from the south. In taking this strong attitude, 
Marshal Wu had the full support of Marshal Wang who had much moral 
influence over the other senior commanders of the Chihli troops. Some- 
later Marshal Wang's Mixed Brigade was transferred back to Caihli and he 
wais awarded the Third Order of Merit. In 1919 he was a Lieuftenant- 
General and was also given the Second Class Chiaho, the Second Class 
Wenhu and the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho Decorations. Duringi the 
Chihli-Anfu War in July 1920, Marshal Wang's Mixed Brigade was stationed 
at Chengchow, Honan. He took part in this war as Commander-in-Chief 
of the Rear Forces of Chihli Defence. At that time there were as many 
as five mixed brigades of the Frontier Army under General Hsu Shu-tseng, 
the leader of the Anfu Faction, in Honan. Marshal Wang' personally 
convinced the commanders of these brigades of the serious consequence) 
if they should take any offense against the Chihli farce there and finally 
made them to surrender their armus and these troops were subsequently 
disbanded without causing the slightest trouble. In October 1920 Marshal 
Wang was given the Second Order of Merit. In December when the 
Chihli troops were re-organized he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 777 



the 23rd Division of the National Army. In November 1921 Marshal 
Wang was made a Chiangchun with "I- Wei" as special title. In February 
1922 he was given the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. In 
April 1922 he was appointed Deputy Military Director of Chihli. During 
the Chihli-Fengtien War in May 1922, Marshal Wang was Commander-in 
Chief of the Chihli Eastern Frank. His 23rd Division, part of which was 
stationed at Tsang Hsien on the Tientsin-Pukow Railway, and part at 
Lang-fang on the Peking-Tientsin Line, played an important part in the 
campaign 'against the Fengtien troops. Previous to this war. Marshal 
Wang visited Marshal Chang Tso-ling, the Fengtien War Lord, at Mukden 
three times trying to bring Chihli and Fengtien to an understanding and 
to avoid an open conflict between them. In June 1922 Marshal Wang was 
appointed Civil Governor of Chihli. In September 1922 he was given the 
brevet rank of Full General. In October he was given the First Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In November he was made a Full General. In 
October 1923 Marshal Wang was appointed concurrently to hold the post 
of Military Director of Chihli to replace that of Tucjhun which was then 
abolished. In November he was made a Shan Chiangchun, Marshal, with 
"Kuang-Wu' .as his special title and was simultaneously appointed Depuuty 
High Inspecting Cammission of Chihli-Honan-Shantung. In January 1924 
Marshal Wang was relieved of the command of the 23rd Division. I*n 
April he was appointed assistant director of the Motor Traffic Highroad 
Constitution Administration for the Chihli-Honan-Shantung Area. Marshal 
Wang is at present holding the posts of Deputy High Inspecting Commis- 
sioner of Chihli-Honan-Shantung and of the Civil Governor of Chihli. In 
September 1924 General Wang was appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief 
of the Punitive Expedition against Chang Tso-lang. Following the defeat 
of the Chihli Armies General Wang retired to Tientsin where he is now 
living. 



^ 



778 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. C. T. Wang 

(Wang Cheng-t'ing) 

Dr. C. T. Wang was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 1882. 
After having acquired the rudiments of education in his native province, 
he went to North China. He studied in the Pei-yang University, Tientsin, from 
1895 to 1900. He taught at the Tientsin Anglo-Chinese College, Tientsin, 
and the Hunan Provincial High School, Changsha, during 1900-1903. Then 
he went to Japan to study. During his four years stay in that country he 
was also Secretary of the Y. M(. C. A. in Tokyo. In July 1907 he wieno 
to America with private support. He studied Liberal Arts at the Univers- 
ity of Michigan, 1907-8, at Yale University, 1908-11. He obtained the 
degree of R. A. in 1911; elected to Phi Beta Kappa, June 1910. Dr. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 779 



Wang returned to China in June 1911 and was at once appointed Secretary 
of the Chinese Y. M. C. A. at Shanghai. Upon the outbreak of the FirstI 
Revolution in October 1911, he actively identified himself with the revolu- 
tionary leaders. He worked for a time under General Li Yuan-hung, who 
was then the revolutionary commander. Dr. Wang attended, in the 
capacity of representing Hupei Province, the Conference of Representatives 
of Provincial Military governments which adopted the Provisional Govern- 
ment Organization' Law at Hankow on December 3, 1911. He was one 
of the signatories of that paper. In the- beginning of 1912, Dr. Wang 
assisted in the organization of the Provisional government. In February 
1913, Yuan Shih-kai succeeded Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the Provisional Pres- 
ident and assumed the presidency at Peking. The first Republican Cabinet 
was then formed with Tang Shao-i as Prime Minister. In April Dr. Wang 
was appointed Vice-Minister of Industry and Commerce. In May he was 
ordered to act as Minister of Industry and Commerce. In July he resigned 
from the Ministry. Dr. Wang was a member of the First Parliament which 
was convoked at Peking on April 8, 1912. He was elected vice-president 
of the Senate on . April 26. The Parliament was then practically in the 
control of the Kuomingtang of which Dr. Wang was a prominent member. In 
November 1913 Yuan Shih-kai proscribed the Kuomingtang to be a seditious 
organization, dissolved it and unseated all the members of the Parliament 
belonging to that party. In January 1914 the Parliament was dissolved. 
Dr. Wang then retired into private life and was afterwards invited by 
the Shanghai Y. M. C. A. to rejoin its service. He was appointed Sec- 
retary of the National Committee of the Y. M. C. A. After the death of 
Yuan Shih-kai in June 1916, the First Parliament was reconvoked and Dr. 
Wang resumed his office as Vice-President of the Senate. He remained in 
this position until the Parliament was again dissolved in June 1917. Dr. 
Wang, then went to Canton with other parliamentarians. In August 1917 
the Extraordinary Parliament was inaugurated at Canton supporting the 
Opposition government. Dr. Wang was also connected with this movement. 
In the autumn of 1918 the Southern government despatched him to Wash- 
ington to represent its case before President Wilson and secure American 
recognition of its belligerency. During his mission, he was appointed by 
the Peking government in January 1919 as one of China's Chief Delegates 
to the Paris Conference. The appointment was made with the object of 
presenting China as a united country before the World and accepted for 
national interest. In February 1920 Dr. Wang returned to China. Then he 
took an interest in business. He organized an import and export company 
at Shanghai with himself as Vice-President. He also founded the Hua Feng 
Cotton Mill Company at Woosung. of which he was managing director. 
In September 1920 the Peking government appointed him President of the 
Commission for the Study of Peace Treaties. In March 1922 he became 
Director General of the Rehabilitation of Shantung interests. In April 
1922 he was awarded the First Class Tashou Chiaho. In June 1922 he was 
appointed China's Chief Commissioner to the Sino-Japanese joint Commis- 
sion to settle the Shantung Question. In July 1922 he was awarded the 
First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho. In October 1922 Dr. Wang was ap- 
pointed Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs and in December he was ordered 



780 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



to hold concurrently the post of Chief of the Bureau for the preparation 
of the Special Tariff Revision Commission. On December 11, he was ap- 
pointed to act as Prime Minister. In January 1923, when the Cabinet 
underwent a change, he was appointed Acting Minister of Justice. But this 
post he held only for a week. In the same month he was appointed a 
member of the Educational Sinking Funds Commission. In February 1923 
he was awarded the First Class Wenfu. In March 1923 he was ordered to 
make preparation for the Sincf-Russian Negotiation. In November 1923 
Dr. Wang was commissioned to visit Japan making investigations of the 
conditions of Chinese students and merchants after the earthquake. After 
his return from Japan, he commenced the Sino-Russian Negotiation with 
Mr. Kharahan, the Soviet Envoy at Peking. In March 1924 Dr. Wang 
signed with Mr. Karahan, the preliminary of the Sino-Russian Treaty. But 
question was then raised as to his authority of signing the prel'ilminary, 
agreement without referring to the Cabinet. He was attacked by his 
opponents i as a (result of which the Sino-Russian Negotiation was subse- 
quently taken over by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shortly after this, 
he accepted the post of managing director of the Liu Ho Kou Coal Mining 
Company. Following the defeat of the Chihli party by the Anfu-Fengtien 
combination caused by the cotip d'etat by the Christian General Feng Yu- 
hsiang, Dr. C. T. Wang served for a time as acting Premier and Minister 
of Foreign Affairs in the temporary government established by General 
Feng, prior to the organization of the Provisional government headed by 
Marshal Tuan Chi-jui. In February 1925, Dr. Wang was again appointed 
by the Peking government to conduct the Sino-Russian negotiations. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



781 




Mr. C. Z. Waung 

(Wang Ch'i-ch'ang) 

Mr. C. Z. Waung was born at Ningpo, Chekiang, in 1888. He was educated 
at St. John's University, Shanghai (1900-1907). He left China for Great 
Britain in October 1907 and entered the University of London in March 
1908. He studied economics at the London School of Economics and Poli- 
tical Science and received the degree of Bachelor of Science (Economics) 
from the University of London at the end of 1911 with honors. After his 
graduation, he returned ta China in February 1912, and joined the Ministry 
of Finance of the Provisional government of the Republic of China at 
Nanking. After the unification of the North and the South, he went to 
Peking and continued to serve at the Ministry of Finance. When the 
Bureau of Auditing of Finance was formed in the summer of 1912, he was 
appointed an assistant auditor. After the abolition of the bureau, he was 
appointed senior clerk of the Ministry of Finance. In the winter of 1913, 
he was delegated by the Ministry to be a member of the Financial Com- 



782 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



mission of the Cabinet. In the summer of 1915, he was appointed by the 
Ministry as a member of the Taxation Reform Commission. From 1913 to 
1919, he was also connected with the Peking Government University as 
professor of economic history. When the Bureau of Currency Reform was 
formed at the end of 1917, he was transferred to that bureau. In November' 
1919, he was appointad by the Bureau of Currency Reform to proceed to 
Europe to investigate the currency condition in Europa and America since 
the Great War. At the same time he was appointed by the Chinese Assoc- 
iated Trading Company to act as its representative in Europe. The trading 
company is the first Chinese importing and exporting firm carrying on direct 
trade with Europe and America. After he had finished his mission in Europe, 
. he returned to Peking in November 1920 and again joined the Ministry of 
Finance. In the summer of 1921, he organized, with a number of his 
friends, the Chinese Women's Commercial and Savings Bank in Peking. At 
the first general meeting of the shareholders, in September 1921, he was 
elected the general manager. This is the first bank in China which lias a 
staff of women oflicers, and the organizers expect to open up a new sphere 
of activity for educated Chinese women. Socially, Mr. Waung has been 
for a long time an ac:ive member of the Anglo-Chinese Society at Peking. 
From 19iy to 1919, he served as the treasurer of this society. He is also 
nn active member of the Peking Y. M. G. A., and for several years he has 
nerved on a committee of its educational department. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



783 




Mr. Ouang Ki-tseng 

(Wang Chi-tseng) 

Ml". Quang Ki-t?eng was born at Ming-hou Hsien, Fukien province, in 
1880, from a family which has given forth many noted officials during the 
Ching Regime. His great grandfather, Ouang Ching-yun, was a member of 
the Hanlin Academy and Governor of the Provinces of Shansi and Shensi, 
Viceroy of Szechuen and of the Liangkuang Provinces, and President of 
the Board of Works. His name is recorded in Chinese history by the Na- 
tional Historiographers' Office. He v/rote a book called "Shih Chu Yu Chi" 
in which the historical events of the Ching Dynasty from its establishment 
up to the reign of Tao Kuang were given in detail. It is a comprehensive 
work, and is held in high esteem. His uncle, Ouang Jen-km, the famous 
Optimus at the Palace Examinations of 1877 was for some time Prefect of 
Chekiang and of Soochow. His father, Ouang Jen-tung, was a secretary of 
the Imperial Council and was afterwards transferred to Kiangsu as sub- 
prefect of Nantungchow. Later he was promoted as Granary Taotai of the 



784 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Kiangning circuit. After his graduation from the Nanyang College at 
Shanghai, Mr. Ouang Ki-tssng accompanied Mr. Sun Pao-chi, then Chinese 
Minister to France, to Paris in the winter of 1902 to pursue higher studies 
and to serve as the same timb 'as a legation student, and Assistant Com- 
mercial Attache. He stayed in France for seven years, and underwent a 
course of study in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales and the Ecole 
Libre des Sciences Politiques which institution of learning is famous for 
coaching up students for diplomatic and public service^. Daring his stay 
in school he was a member of the Society of Public Speaking of the Ecole 
Libre 'des Sciences Politiques and received I'Aureat. Upon the completion 
of his studies he was awarded "Mention Tres Bien." In 1906 he accompanied 
the Chinese High Commissioners to Europe for the study of constitutions in 
Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Au^ria, etc. In 1908 he was appointed 
representative of the Chinese government to the International Conference 
of Oriental Literature held at Copenhagen. In 1909 he returned to China 
and was appointed Secretary to Chang Shih-tung, the celebrated Imperial 
Chancellor and statesman. Afterwards Liu Hsi-hsun, at that time Chinese 
Minister to France, recommended him to the -position of Superintendent of 
Chinese Students in France. On his second visit to France he remained for 
two years. In 1910 he was appointed representative of the Chinese 
government to the International High Educational Conference at Brussels. 
In 1911 he was appointed a member of the jury of the Internati'Onal Ex"- 
position at Turin in Italy. Upon the establishment of the Republic in 1912, 
Mr. Ouang returned to China and joined the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 
For nine years in this Ministry he served at different times, as Junior 
Secretary, Senior Secretary, Chief Secretary, Sectional Chief, Department 
Chief, and Councillor. In March 1919 he was awarded the Second Class 
Tashou Chiaho and in January 1920 the Second Class Wenf u. In September 
1920 he was appointed Chinese Minister to Mexico and Cuba. In October 
1922 he was given the Third Class Paokuang Chiaho. At the end of 1923 
he returned to China on a leave of absence. In January 1924, Mr. Sun 
Pao-chi became Prime Minister and appointed him Chief Secretary of the 
Cabinet. • In May he was relieved of the Mexico and Cuba posts. In 
September 1924 he left the Cabinet. Mr. Ouang has received the follow- 
ing foreign decorations: The Fifth Class Crown Decoration of Italy; The 
Second Class Decoration from Russia: The Fourth Class Decoration of the 
Legion of Honor from France: The Third Class Rising Sun Decoration from 
Japan: The Second Clsas Crown Decoration from Italy. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



785 




Mr. Wang Chia-hsiang 

Mr. Wang Chia-hsiang was born at Shao-hsing, Chekiang province, in 
1873. Ho was Senior Licentiate (Kung Sheng) in the Ching Dynasty. In 
1901 Mr. Wang was appointed an Expectant Sub- Prefect. In 1902 he was 
promoted tio Expectant Prefect. In 1904 Mr. Wang went to .Japan to study 
police administration in the police department of Tokyo. He returned to 
China in 1906 upon graduation. Subsequently Mr. Wang was appointed 
Councillor of the Police Department of Chekiang and also Proctor of the 
Chekiang High Police School. He also taught in that school as well as in 
the law School at HangcJiow. 'Mr. Wang made another trip to Japan, 
spending one year during 1907-1908, in the Tokyo Police College from 
which he was graduated. Upon returning to China, Mr. Wang became 



786 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Director of the Police Administration of Chekiang province. In 1909 he 
was elected a member of the Chekiang Provincial Advisory Council. In 
1911 Mt*. Wang was director of the Police Administration of Kirin province. 
TIpo/i the outbreak of the First Revolution in October 1911, he returned to 
Chekiang becoming magistrate of Hangchow, the capital of Chdciang. Mr. 
Wang was elected a Member of the Provisional National Assembly which 
was convoked in January 1912. This Assembly elected Yuan Shih-kai as 
Provisional President to succeed Sun Yat-sen and drafted the Provisional 
Constitution. Mr. Wang was Senator of the First Parliament which was 
convoked in April 1913 at Peking replacing the Provisional National 
Assem-bly. He was then a leader of the Progressive Party. In his con- 
nection with the Frst Parliament, Mr. Wang was a member of the Consti- 
tution Drafting Committee; President of the Senate; Chairman, of the 
Constitution Conference; and Chairman of the Presidential Election College 
which elected Yuan Shih-kai the First President of China in October 1913. 
In January 1914 Yuan Shih-kai dissolved the First Parliament and in May 
1914 he created a new advisory body called Tsan Cheng Yuan to act in the 
place of the Parliament filled with the President's nominees, of which 
Mr. Wang was one. The First Parliament was reconvoked in August 1916 
when Yuan Shih-kai had died. Mr. Wang became President of the Senate 
again. After the second dissolution of the First Parliament, which occur- 
red in June 1917, Mr. Wang was appointed Director General of the Fu 
Chung Corporation, a Sino-British mining concern. The second recon- 
vocation of the First Parliament in Peking occurred in June 1922 after the 
Chihli-Fengtien War. Mr. Wang became a Senator, holding the position of 
President of the Senate until the end of 1923. He was awarded the Fifth 
Order of Merit in January 1920, the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in 
October 1922; and the First Class Wenhu Decoration in February 1923. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



787 




Mr. John Wong 

(Wang Chien) 

Mr. John Wong was born at Taiku hsien, Shensi, in 1885. His father 
was then a magistrate of that district. At the age of 10, he went with 
his parents to their permanant home in Peking. For the next two years 
he studied at home and was then tutored in English by a g'raduate of 
Peking University. In 1898 Mr. Wang entered St. John's College, Shanghai. 



788 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Shortly after, the Boxer Uprising broke out, and being severed from his 
family in Peking for over six months, he was much embarrassed financially. 
Howevei", his class-mates at St. John's came to his assistance, and he even- 
tually was graduated from St. John's with honor. After two years in the 
collegiate department of St. John's, he received a government scholarship 
to the Tientsin Polytechnic College, where he studied chemistry, completing 
five years' work in two. In 1909, Mr. Wong took the competitive examina- 
tion for a Boxer Indemnity scholarship, and was one of the first group of 
47 to go to the United States. In the winter of 1910, he studied at Gushing 
Academy, Ashburham, Massachusetts, and then took four years in chemistry 
at the State University of Wisconsin, from which he received the degree 
of B. A. in 1914. The following year he specialized in leather chemistry 
at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, working during the summer in several American 
tanneries The following year he obtained an M. A. from Columbia 
University. In the fall of 1916, Mr. Wong returned to Tientsin, where he 
started a .small tannery of his own, with a capital of $500. His venture 
proved successful, and today his tannery has a paid-up capital of i5lOO,000 
and there are plans for increasing it to $250,000. Mr. Wong is a Christian, 
having been baptized in the Congregational Church at Ashburnham. On 
his return to China, he was elected to the board of the Y. M. G. A., and 
has served in that capacity ever since. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



789 




Mr. Wang Ch'ih-ch'ang 

aE ^ ^ ^ » t 

Mr. Wang Ch'ih-ch'ang waa born at Tientsin, Chihli province, in 1877. 
He studied law at the Peiyang University, Tientsin. Before graduation 
from that University, he went to Japan, where he entered Waseda Univers- 
ity taking a Commercial Course and was graduated with the degree of 
B. C. Ho was awarded the degree of Chu-jen, or Provincial Graduate in 
commerce by the Ching government. Mr. Wang began his official career as 
a member of the Board of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce. For a 
time before the establishment of the Republic, he was professor in the 
College of Commerce at Tientsin. In 1912 Mr. Wang became a Junior 
Secretary of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in charge of the 
Foreign Trade Section. In December 1913 this Ministry and the Ministry 
of Agriculture of Forestry were amalgamated into the Ministry of Agricul- 



790 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



ture and Commerce. Mr. Wang was given the post of Senior Secretary 
in the new Ministry. Later Mr. Wang was promoted to be a Councillor of 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, becoming concurrently the Curator 
of the Commercial Museum of the Ministry. In December 1918 Mr. Wang 
was appointed by the Ministry to study the post-war industrial conditions 
in Europe and America. He was at the same time awarded the Second Class 
Paokuang Chiaho Decoration. When the Peace Conference was held in Paris 
in the first part of 1919, Mr. Wang was with the Chinese Delegation 'as 
technical expert. In January 1920 Mr. Wang received the Second Class 
Wen-hu Decoration. In January 1921 he was given the Second Class 
Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and at the same time appointed a Director of the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, in charge of the Department of 
Industry and Commerce. In August 1921 Mr. Wang was appointed to be 
concurrently the government superintendent of the Bank of Agriculture and 
Commerce which position he is still holding. In September 1921 he was 
appointed Technical Expert of the Chinese Delegation to the Washington 
Conference. Subsequently to his return from the Washington Conference, 
Mr. Wang was appointed Vice-President of the Commission for the Discus- 
sion of Customs Tariff Revision. In November 1922 he was awarded the 
Second Class Tashou Chiaho Decoration. In January 1923, Mr. Wang 
received another concurrent position as a Member of the Bureau for the 
Preparation of the calling of the Special Conference for the Revision of 
the Customs Tariff. In February 1923 he became Vice-President of the 
Commission for the Revision of the Commercial and Industrial Laws. 
Besides holding the posts of Director of the Ministry and Superintendent 
of the Bank of Agriculture and Commerce, Mr. Wang has been for many 
years a Member of the Advisory Council of the Government Immigration 
Bureau. Mr. Wang has also been registered with the Cabinet as an official 
qualified to be Envloy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to a 
foreign country. Mr. Wang is wearer of the First Class Gold Medal of the 
Ministry of Finance and also of the First Class Medal of the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



791 




Dr. C. P. Wang 

aE f& ^ ^ lb tf 

(Wang Chih.p'ing) 

Dr. C. P. Wang was hoi'n in Peking, and was graduated from the Peking 
Methodist University in 1900. After his graduation Dr. Wang was ap- 
pointed by the Methodist Mission to be pastor at Ohien Wei Chen outside 
Shanhaikuan. In 1901 he wa« transferred to Fu-Ning Hsien, Chihli 
province. From 1902 to 1907 Dr. Wang was engaged in educational work 



792 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



at Shanhaikuan under the auspdces of the Methodist Mission and was for a 
larger part of this period principal of the Middle School there. In the 
fall of 1907 he was called to Peking and given a pi>ofessorship in the 
Methodist University. He served as dean of the Chinese Department while 
he v;as also teaching English. In 1914 Dr. Wang went to America for 
graduate work and received the degree of M. A. in 1915 and that of Ph.D. 
in 1917. Upon his return to China in 1917 Dr. Wang became Professor of 
Political Historj^ in the Methodist University. In the winter of 1919 he was 
invited by the Tientsin Y. M. C. A. to be its assistiant general secretary 
and since 1922 he has been general secretary of the Tientsin Y. M. C. A., 
and for several years has served on the committee of the Y. M. C. A. of 
China. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



793 




General Wang Ching-ch'en 



794 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



General Wang Ching-cheng, was born in Yihsien, Anhui province, in 
1871. He graduated from the Peiyang Military College in 1904, in which 
year he left for Japan to enter the Military Cadets' Academy of Japan, 
completing his course on Commissary in 1906. Following his return to 
China, he was appointed instructor of the Peiyang Army and chief of the 
educational section of the Peiyang Training Bureau and other offices. Upon 
the establishment of the Republic, General Wang became garrison com- 
mander of the Fourth Division of the Peiyang Army Corps and was later 
transferred to be superintendent of the Commissariat of the National Training 
Corps, concurrently acting as councillor of the Bureau of the General Staff 
and War and Senior Councillor of the Precautionary Forces of Shantung. 
Since 1920 he was chief of staff to the Defence Commissioner of Sunkiang 
and Shanghai, also commanding the Woosung Forts and co-director of the 
Kiangnan Arsenal at Shanghai. He was considered as one of the most 
capable soldiers of the time during the Yuan Shih-kai regime and since 
his appointment at Shanghai, he won for himself an emviiable reputation 
not only as a soldier but also as General Ho's advisor on local matters 
arising out of his office. 



^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



795 




Mr. Wang King-ky 

(Wang Chingch'i) 

Mr. Wang King-ky was born at Ming-hou Hsien, Fukien province, in 
1882. He entered Tze Chiang School at Wuchang in 1896 for the study of 
French. In 1900 he enrolled with the Little Academy in France. After- 
wards he joined the School of Political Science in Paris, specializing in 
diplomacy, where he graduated with high honors. Subsequently he went 
to England and attended Oxford and Edinburgh Universities. In 1908 he 
was appointed an attache to the Chinese Legation in Paris. In February 
of 1918 Mr. Wang was transferred to Peking and became an attache to the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In March 1913 he was appointed by the 
Cabinet concurrently as reporter of the Commission on the Study of Con- 
stitutions. In September he was appointed by the Ministry of Foreign 



796 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



Affairs to be Chinese representative on the Claims Commission. In 
October he was promoted to the rank of senior clerk in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs. In April 1914 he became a member of the commission on 
Chinese and foreign legation and concurrently acted as associate secret- 
ary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In August he became first 
secretary to the Outer Mongolian Conference. In June ' 1915 Mr. Wang 
returned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs upon the completion of the 
functions as first secretary to the conference, -and in Septeimber. was 
appointed a member of the Commission on 'the Preparations for the 
European Peace Conference. In December he was jointly appointed by 
theMinisterof Justice and the Minister of Foreign Affairs to be a member 
of the Commission on the study of Judicial Questions. In January 1916 
he became chief of the private law section, Department of Political Affairs, 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In June 1916 he receiv'ed an additional post 
as examination of the Diplomatic Service Commission. In September 1916 
he was engaged by the Peking Government University as professor of the 
History of Chinese Commercial Relations and Treaties and of the Interna- 
■ tional liaw. In October 1916 he became concurrently chief of the treaties 
section of the Foreign Office. In August 1917 Mr. Wang was appointed 
an Associate Councillor and in June 1918 an Acting Councillor, of the 
Foreign Office. At the end of 1918 Mr. Wang was sent to Paris as coun- 
cillor of the Chinese Delegation. In January 1920 Mr. Wang returned to 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs becoming an associate councillor, and 
was also given the Third Class Wenfu. In September 1920 he became 
an Acting Councillor of the Foreign Office. In October 1920 he was made 
a member of the Peace Treaty Discussion Commission. In February 1921 
he was awarded the Second Class Chiaho and also appointed substantial 
Councillor of the Foreign Office. In August 1921 he was appointed Chinese 
Minister to Belgium and was at the same time given the Second Class 
Tashou Chiaho Decoration. Mr. Wang left China in September 1921 and 
is still in Belgium, In October 1922 he was awarded the Third Clasa 
Paokuang Chiaho. 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



797 




Dr. C. C. Wang 

£ Ji: # -^ ^fe !S 

(Wang Ching-ch'un) 

Dr. C. C. Wang was born at Lanchow, Chihli province ,in 1882. He 
studied at Peking Methodist University and was clerk and interpreter at 
ihe America Legation, Peking from 1900 to 1904. In April 1904 he arrived 
in America with private support. He studied science at Ohio Wes- 
leyan University during 1905-06. He entered Yale University in 1906 
studying civil engineering and graduating from it with the degree of Ph.B. 
in 1908. From 1908 to 1911 he was in the University of Illinois, where 
he took the degree of M. A. on Railway Administration in 1909 and that 
of Ph.D. on Economics and Political Science in 1911, the subject of his 



798 WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 



doctor's dissertation being "Legislative Regulation on Railway Finance 
in England." Dr. Wang was awarded Wu Ting-fang's Prize for .scholar- 
ship and general conduct in August 1909. He was president of the Chinese 
Students' Alliance during 1907-08; of the Cosmopolitan Club, 1908-9; of 
the Association of Cosmopolitan Clubs, 1909-10; Honorary Fellowship in 
Railway Administration, University of Illinois; 1909-11; Teacher in 
Oriental History and Commerce, University of Illinois, 1909-10; editor of 
the Chinese Students' Monthly, 1907; edito'r-in-chief of the same Monthly, 
1908-9. He carried on investigation for some time with the Illinois Central 
Railway, Interstate Commerce Commission U. S. A., and North Western 
Railway and Board of Trade in London. Dr. Wang returned to China in 
November 1911. At once he was appointed a Member of the Board of 
Communications, Peking. He was Councillor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
Provisional Government, Nanking, 1912; Co-Director of Peking Mukden 
Railway, 1912-13; Co-Director, Peking-Hankow Railway, 1913-14: Official 
Delegate to the Fift*h International Congress of Commerce in Boston 
and to the Panama Pacific Exposition to open the grounds. From America 
he went to Europe to study railway administration. Upon his return to 
America to attend the Exposition, he wrote a number of scholarly articles 
for well-known American magazines. As soon as he got back to China he 
was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Commission on the Unification of 
Railway Accounts and Statistics. The fundamental reform in this con- 
nection was largely due to Dr. Wang's initiation and persistence. Later, 
Dr. Wang was appointed Director of the Department of Railway Finance 
and Accounts and Acting Director-General of Posts under the Ministry of 
Communications, concurrently. On account of Minister Hsu Shih-yin's 
reactionary policy in 1916, the Commission on the Unification of Railway 
Accounts and Statistics, was dissolved and Dr. Wang was made a Coun- 
cillor of the Ministry, 1916-17. He was special government delegate to 
the Fifth Sino-Japanese Joint Traffic Conference held in Japan in 1917. 
He was appointed managing director of the Peking Mukden Railway in 
the summer of 1917. In this capacity, he saved Peking a bloody battle 
between Republican troops and General Feng Ling-kuo's Hunghutsze sold- 
iers by his timely withdrawal of locomotives and cars from Koupangtze 
in order to prevent this hairy horde from coming to the Capital, where 
Chang Hsun was attempting to put the Boy Emperor on the throne again. 
When the Republic was restored Dr. Wang was transferred to be managing 
director of the Peking-Hankow Railway. In November 1918 he was com- 
missioned to a company with the High Industrial Commissioner Yeh Kung-cho 
to Europe on a mission to study industrial conditions in European countries. 
While in Europe he was technical delegata of China's Delegation to the 
Paris Peace Conference. In the winter of 1919, after his return from 
Europe, he resigned from the Peking-Hankow post. In December 1919 
he became a Councillor of the Ministry 'of Communications again. In 
January 1920 he was ordered to be concurrently China's representative on 
the Inter-allied Technical Board for the administration of the Siberian 
and Chinese Eastern Railways at Harbin, and was at the same time 
given the Second Class Paokuang Chiaho. In May 1920 he was given the 
Second Class Tahsou Paokuang Chiaho and also commissioned to act as 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 799 



Associate Director General of the Chinese Eastern Railway. He was made 
a member of the Famine Relief Communications under the Ministry in 
September 1920 and a special member of the Railway Finance Communica- 
tions in November 1920. He was associate director general from November 

1920 to May 1921 ; and Chief of the Railway Department in the Ministry of 
Communications from May 1921 to January 1922. While a DeparCmental 
Chief he was Vice-Chairman of the Famine Relief Commission; Railway 
Finance Commission; Railway Location Commission; Chief Executive 
Secretary of the Commission on Chinese Eastern Railway Affairs; As- 
sistant Chief of the International Through Traffic Bureau. In December 

1921 he was transferred to be Councillor of the Ministry of Communications. 
In January 1922, he became again the associate director general of the 
Chinese Eastern Railway. In March 1922 he was promoted to be Acting 
Director General of the same Railway which position was later substantiated 
to him. In December 1922 he was given the First Class Tashou Chiaho. 
He resigned from the Director Generalship early in 1924 on account of 
difference of opinion with Marshal Chang Tso-lin. 



.'Jt 



800 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Dr. Wang Chung-hui 

Dr. Wang Chung-hui was born at Canton, Kuangtung province, in 1882. 
He studied at the Peiyang University, Tientsin, between 1895 and 1900. 
During the Boxer rising, he went to Japan to study political affairs. Upon 
his completion of the study, he went to America to pursue a higher educa« 
tion. In 1904 he received his D. C. L. degree from Yale University. 
While in America, Dr. Wang translated the German Civil Code into Eng- 
lish and acted as co-editor of the "Journal of the Amierican Bar Associa- 
tion." In 1905 he studied jurisprudence and international law in England, 
France and Germany. In the course of his post-graduate work, he was 
called to the English Bar at the Inner Temple. In 1907 he was appointed 
by the Chinese government as assistant to Lu Cheng-hsiang, China's repre- 
sentative to the Second Hague Conference. In the first revolution in 1911, 
Kuangtung elected Dr. Wang as its representative to attend the conference 
at Nanking for the discussion of the form of government for China. Later 
he was appointed Minister for Foreign .\ffairs of the Nanking Provisional 
government. In March 1912 Dr. Wang was appointed first Minister of 
Justice of the newly formed republican government at Peking. In July 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 801 



1912 he resigned from the office of Minister cf Justice upon the resignation 
of Tang Shao-yi from the premiership. Oh his resignation he was appoint- 
ed Chief Advisor to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Dr. Wang instead; 
of accepting the new appointment went to Shanghai where he was soon 
afterwards engaged by the Chunghua Book Publishing Company as its chief 
editor. Between 1914 and 1916 Dr. Wang acted concurrently as vice- 
president of the Fu Tan College. His interests in national affairs while 
being occupied with educational works were as active as ever. In 1915, 
when the Yuan. Shih-kai monarchical movement was started, for instance, 
he played no small part in frustrating it. In April 1916 he was appointed 
to take charge of foreign affairs in Kuangtung. In 1917 he was appointed 
President of the Law Codification Commission, Peking. He was given 
the Second Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho in October 1919 and the S3Cond 
Class Wenfu in January 1920. In August 1920 he became Chief Judge of 
the Supreme Court. He was commissioned to be President of the Judicial 
Officials Punishment Commission in October 1920 and President of the 
Jurisdiction Discussion Commission in November 1920. In February 1921 
Dr. Wang was given the First Class Tashou Chiaho. In March he 
was appointed in the capacity of Chief of Supreme Court to be 
appointed in the capacity of Chief of Supreme Court to be Chinese 
Repres^entative to participate in the revision of the covenant of 
the League of Nations. In June 1921 he was appointed Chinese Chief 
Delegate to the League of Nations. In October 1921 he became one of 
China's Chief Delegates to the Wasliington Conference. In D-ccember 1921 
he was awarded the First Class Tashou Paokuang Chiaho and subsequently 
was appointed Minister of Ju'stice, which office he was not able to assume 
until June 1922 when he returned from America. In March 1922 he was 
awarded the First Class Wenfu. In August 1922, after the Chihli-Feng- 
tien War, Tang Shao-i was ordered to form a Cabinet. Dr. Wang who was 
appointed Minister of Education was asked to act Premier for Mr. Tang 
who could not come. From September to November, 1922, he was Acting 
Premier. From September 1922 to Januiary 1923 he was President of the 
Political Reorganization Discussion Commission. In April 1923 he left 
China to assume the post of a judge of the International Court at Hague, 
to which position he had been elected. On his way to Holland, he visited' 
Dr. Sun Yat-sen at Canton with a peace message from Peking. In January 
1924 he was appointed Minister of Justice and Hsieh Tupeh to act for him 
before his return from Hague. He was officially relieved of this post in 
Septe!mber 1924. He is still in Hague. 



802 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. C. Y. Wang 

2 11 fe '# fe E 

. (Wang Ch'ung-yu) 

Mr. C. Y. Wang was born in Hongkong in 1879, his home being, at 
Tung Kun Hsien, Kuangtung province. He studied at Queen's College 
from 189S to 1895 and entered Peiyang University, Tientsin, in 1895, 
graduating from the Mining Department in 1899. Mr. Wang went to 
America in 1901 and studied mining at the University of California during 
1901-1902. In the fall of 1902 he entered Columbia University to study 
mining and geology and was graduated with the degree of M. A. in 1908. 
Mr. Wang becamb a member of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In 
1904 he was elected to Sigma Xi and the American Institute of Mini»ng; 
Engineers. Mr. Wang returned to China in 1908. The following gives 
the various positions he has held since his return from America: 1908- 
1909, Metallurgist, Wah Chang Mining & Smelting Co., Changsha; 1909- 
1918, managing director, Pao Tai Mining & Smelting Co; 1910-1911, 
Mining Engineer, government of the province of Kuangse; 1911-1912^ 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 803 



Commissioner of Commerce and Industries, Canton; 1914-1916 superin- 
tendent of Taj^eh & Iron Mines; 1916-1918, engineer-in-chief, Panolf 
& Antimony Refinery, Hankow; 1919-1921, consulting mining engineer, 
1921-1922, Councillor of the Chinese Delegation to the Washington Con- 
ference; 1921-1922, Head of the Mine Committee for the Rendition of the 
Shantung Mines, 1923, manager of the Yangtzu Blast Furnace, Liu-Ho-Kou 
Mining Company; and since 1923 head of the Technical Department, Liu 
Ho Kou Mining Company, Peking. Mr. Wang is the author of the follow- 
ing publications; Treaties on Antimony published by Messrs. Charles 
Griffin Co., London, 1908; The Origin and Nature of Love published by 
The Open Road Publishing Co., London, 1908; The Bibliography of the 
Minei-al Wealth and Geology of China, published by Charles Griffin Co., 
London, 1912; and The Mineral Resources of China, 1921. He was awarded 
the Third Class Chiaho in July 1922 and Second Class Chiaho in January 
1923. His present address is Liu Ho Kou Mining Co., Mu Ch'ang Hutung, 
Peking, or 21, Rue de Paris, Hankow^. 



oe 



804 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Wong Soong-dong 

(Wang En-p'u) 

Mr. Won^c Soong-dong was born at Ningpo, Chekiang province, in 
1854. He came to Shanghai at an early age and received his education in 
that port. In 1871 he joined the staff at the American Consulate, Shang- 
hai, as shroiT and has served as compradore in the disbursing office of the 
Consulate under sixteen Consuls-General, being the oldest and only Chinese 
consular officer in the U. S. service in China. Mr. Wong has seen many 
changes in Shanghai and in the U. S. consular work since the time he- 
joined the staff. At that time there were few foreign houses and the U. S. 
Consulate was located in the old Japanese Consular buildings, novw a 
godown at 36 Whangpoo Road. Later the consulate removed to Kiukiang 
Road and then to its present location at 12 Whangpoo Road. Mr. Wong 
said there have been great changes from the time when they rented their 
buildings, which were only valued at Tls. 8,000 and now when the land 
is worth Tls. 60,000 and the buildings are government owned. Mr. Wong 
is the father of six sons, has eight grandsons, and two great-grandsons. 
He now resides with Mrs. Wong at 14 Morrison Road. One of Mr. Wong's 
sons, Homer Wong, who received his education at St. John's University, 
is Deputy Director General of Posts at Peking and another Yates Wong, 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 805 



former interpreter at the U. S. Consulate-General, is now with the Canton- 
Hankow Railway. It was during the year of 1879 when General Grant was 
on a ftour of the world that Mr. Wong met General Grant in Shanghai .and 
acted as his escort to the various nearby Chinese towns. When General 
Grant departed from Shanghai he gave to the young Chinese gentleman, 
who had escorted him a solid gold American eagle emblem, which Mr. 
Wong has worn as a watch charm these many years. Mr Wong is also the 
recipient of an engraved silver cup which was donated by the consular 
authorities to him for his remarkable record of fifty years of service for 
the government of the United States. The cup was presented by M. F. 
Perkins, acting Consul-General in 1921. Since the time of Mr. Wong's 
connection with the U. S. Consulate the following Consuls-General .have 
served at the Shanghai post; G. F. Seward, 1871-1876; W. Willis, 1876- 
1877; L. H. Bailey, 1877-1880; T. Mylers, 1880-1883; J, Stohel; 1883- 
1886; J. D. Kennedy, 1886-1889; J. A. Leonard, 1889-1893; 0. N. Den- 
ning, 1893-1898; W. Smithers, 1895-1897; T. R. Jernigan, 1896-189; J. 
Goodnow. 1899-1904; C. Denby, 1904-1906; J. L. Rodgers, 1906-1909; 
A. P. Wilder, 1909-1914; T. Sammons, 1914 1919; and E. S. Cunningham 
1919-to the present. 



^ 



806 



WHO'S WHO IN CHINA 




Mr. Won); Kok-shan 

(Wang Hsun) 

Mr. Wong Kok Shan was born in 1872 in Kwangtung province aftd 
was educated first at home and then entered Queen's College in Hongkong. 
After graduation he was appointed a teacher in the Peiyang University 
of Tientsin in 1895. Later he gave up teaching work and became agent 
of the Chinese Engineering and Mining Company at Tientsin in 1896. In 

1902 he was awarded the brevet I'ank of Taotai by the government. In 

1903 he was appointed commissioner of the Canton-Hankow Railway and in 
1905 was awarded the same position on the Shanghai-Nanking Railway. 
In 1908 he became commercial manager of the Han-yeh-ping Iron and Coal 
Company and in 1918 was appointed commercial manager of the Yangtsze 
Engineering Works at Hankow. At the pi-esent he is general manager