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of lite 

^luiucrsitu of (Lorouta 

l!rs. Eric E. Ryerson 



No\i;mi!KR. 1900, TO ArkiL, 1901. 

r H E 












"' lUITH IS 




Vol, VI. 


1 900. 




I 90 1 


























(see i'age 6.) 


The Wide World Magazine. 

Vol. VI. 

NOVEMBER, 1900. 

No. ^i. 

l\\y Unsuccessful Bear Hunt. 

By Alexander Macdon.\ld. 

The author is an adventurous young Scotsman who has seen a good deal of exploring work in 
Westralia and Arctic Canada. Rushing out from camp to pursue a wounded bear, he got lost and 
benighted in the Alaskan forest, and was in great peril of being frozen to death. Photos, of himself 

and his companions are reproduced. 

OWARDS the end of October, 1897, 
my party arrived at a point on the 
Stewart River, about a hundred 
miles distant from its junction with 
the Yukon. My comrades, Mac 
and Stewart, were men of much experience and 
great strength ; they were known in and around 
Dawson as Macdonald's Bodyguard, so closely 
did they adhere to me at all 
times when strife was rife. 
Their description here, how- 
ever, is unnecessary, as they 
do not figure largely in this 

We had crossed from 
Skookum Gulch on the 
Klondike, intending to pro- 
spect the then entirely un 
known creeks flowing into 
the Stewart River. WV- 
reached our oestination early 
in the afternoon, and pitched 
our camp well among the 
timber, so as to receive 
every possible shelter from 
the elements. The ther- 
mometer at that time- 
occasionally dropped to 
4odeg. below zero. Much 
difficulty was experienced 
in penetrating the great 
forest that extends from the 
river bank northwards into 
the mountains, and we were very thankful 
to arrive safely after having been three days on 
the trail. 

We had just got our canvas home arranged 
comfortably and were partaking of our mono- 
tonous midday meal, when a violent shaking of 
the ridge pole made us hasten out. What we 
saw was distinctly surprising. There before us 
was an enormous bear, rubbing his furry neck 
on the guy-rope with evident pleasure. He 
bolted immediately he saw us, however, and 

Vol. vi.— t. 


Froiita Photo, by The Falk Studio, Sydney, N.S. U 

with a shout to my companions that I would be 
" back in a minute," I seized my rifle and gave 
chase. Mac roared out some warnings which I 
did not hear, being too intent on the pursuit. 
My quarry led me through the heavy brush- 
wood that grows directly beside the river, and 
on into the large wooded plateau that extends 
for many miles in the vicinity. 

I ought to have re- 
membered our great diffi- 
culty in penetrating this 
forest earlier in the day and 
restrained my ardour ; but, 
no, I thought only of the 
bear, and he kept crashing 
through the timber seem- 
mgly but a few yards ahead. 
At length I reached a break 
in the forest. A small 
white plain spread before 
me, and in the centre was 
Bruin shuffling over the 
snow with rapid steps. I 
quite forgot that my snow- 
shoes were left in camp. 
My first step in the open 
plunged me deep into the 
vapoury snow — right up to 
the neck. I scrambled out 
hurriedly, and, lying flat, 
took two shots at the bear, 
who was now disappear- 
ing in the wood beyond. 
The reports 
by a hoarse, 

the urgainly brute stagger and then stumble 
wildly into the sheltering copse. I must have 
hit him pretty badly. My dum-dums usually 
brought down whatever they struck, and if I 
could only work my way over the snow-patch I 
would probably find my enemy hors de combat. 

I gingerly got on to my hands and knees 
and very cautiously crawled over the powdery 
surface, moving as if on eggs. Several times I 

of my rifle were answered 
angry bellow, and I saw 


\vc)U under, bul 1 not to W- deterred ; I 
must ** K\;i " that l>ear. The open was crossed 
at bst, and close to the forest were several great 
blood splashes — but no IxMr. A crimson track 
led me into the densest \xin oi the thicket, 

wrong. 1 had not reached the open patch 
which 1 had crossed before, and I needed 
il to correct my course. 

I changed my route sligluly and kept up the 
run ; the light was fast failing, and I stumbled 

then off at a different angle, and I followed. 
First this way, then that, the blood-stains 
directed my way. A little later they became 
less frequent, and finally ceased altogether. 
Then it dawned upon me that I was alone, and 
many miles from camp — horribly alone in an 
unknown forest, so that even the companionship 
of a very-much-alive bear would then have been 

1 looked at my watch ; it was three o'clock, 
■jeen two hours away from camp, and had 
iioi noticed the distance travelled. " Rather 
hard luck," I .soliloquized, as I shouldered my 
rifle and started to go back. Then an awful 
truth flashed u|X)n me : darkness came on at 
four, and I would be lost, indeed, unless I 
succeeded in reaching camp ere that time. I 
cursed my stupidity ; the country was flat save 
for a gentle undulation that rolled to every point 
of the compass. I remembered how often rny 
course had been altered, and now I was hope- 
lessly confused — not even having my compass 
to obtain an approximate bearing. I guessed 
out rapidly the position of the camp, and 
started off at a run, intending to cut off the 
angles traversed on my outward journey. About 
a quarter of an hour's exertion sufficed to 
con\-ince me that my reckonings had been 

repeatedly over fallen trees anu floundered 
wildly in snow wreaths that I might have avoided 
had my energy been less and my brain cooler. 
At length I ceased my endeavours and sat down 
in the snow to think. I ought to have thought 
sooner — and so might have escaped my un- 
I)leasant predicament. The weather was well 
under zero, temperature, and towards evening the 
cold always became more intense. Icicles had 
already formed on my chin, and my moustache 
was frozen solid. Assuredly a night in the forest 
would kill me ; that I reasoned out without any 
loss of time. Then I started up and discharged 
four shots into the air at regular intervals. I 
hoped that my companions would hear and 
understand. I listened intently, but no answer- 
ing report came. I felt utterly miserable. 
I had only one more cartridge in the magazine, 
and that I must keep in case of attack from 
any wild beast. 

Why did I not follow my tracks back ? 
That is what I blamed myself for, but I had 
imagined that I could steer a more direct course 
to the camp, and therein I was much mistaken. 
It was almost dark now, but perhaps not yet too 
late. I started back, tracing but dimly in the 
sun the imprints of my moccasins. How slow 
it was ! I could not for a moment raise my 


eyes lest I should fail to find the track again, 
and so I manoeuvred back over the erratic 
course I had steered — back seemingly for many 
miles, and when I reached the point where I 
had lost the bear darkness had completely 
closed over and around me. 

My progress now became painfully slow — I 
literally felt for 'the snow depressions, working 
onwards in a half-stooping, half-kneeling position. 
At one juncture I was puzzled by cross tracks 
I could not understand. Surely I had not 
traversed my own track twice ! I had one 
treasure in my pocket in the shape of a box 
of matches ; I struck a light and minutely 
examined the different markings^^'w was a 
fresh bear track ! 

This was a danger I had not much con- 

and howls of the various animals around made 
me feel somewhat nervous. The coyote's 
melancholy wail resounded incessantly, and this 
was broken at intervals by the harsh guttural 
voicings of the bear tribe. Even the crow was 
there, with hideous, rasping squawk, and that I 
disliked more than any other. 

I dreaded an encounter with the lynx, too — 
that long-haired, cat-like creature that might 
drop from the trees at any moment and tear me 
with its awful claws. My rifle was clutched 
closely to my side as I laboriously picked out 
the tracks. Twice I followed bear imprints for 
some distance before noticing my mistake. A 
bear's track is almost identical with that of a 
moccasined foot, the only difference being the 
presence of a feathery trail made by the claws 

From a 



sidered ; now, however, I unstrapped my rifle 
and placed the only cartridge in the barrel. 
I was afraid to feel for the markings further, 
in case I might follow some animal's trail that 
had crossed. I started lighting the matches 
one by one. They flamed and flickered out, 
and each time I would make a scramble of 
some yards. 

After what seemed an age I reached the open 
patch, and in my haste floundered again to the 
neck in the chilly wreaths. I really swam over 
that hundred yards or so, with my eyes close to 
the hoary surface, trying to trace the track by 
starlight alone. Then the forest again en- 
shrouded me, and the match-lighting process 
was renewed. 

And now the growls and shrieks and moans 

of the monster as he drags along his cumbrous 
limbs ; this, however, was not easily discernible 
by match-light. Ages seemed to have passed. 

My matches had all been used but three, and 
I tried hard to save them for an exceptional 
emergency, so I writhed my way over the snow, 
trying to trace my way by its reflection alone. 
But after many failures I began to despair of 
ever reaching camp ; how far it was off now I 
could not imagine — not far, surely, but too far 
for me, who could go no farther. 

At this stage I was almost mad. All hope 
had gone from me, and I was resigned to the 
worst. My fingers were stiff and my face frozen 
completely over ; yet I did not feel cold. I 
was dangerously past the first stage of freezing 
to death, and I knew it. I have faced the grim 

THK \\\in: WORLD mac;azine. 

plutUom many times and have grazed it more 
llun oncx* ; but never did the ordeal so unnerve 
me as it ilid in that Alaskan forest. I wondered 
how my com|»anions would fare without their 
leader — the leader lost ; the idea was amusing, 
though the reality had little humour. 

I lit my three remaining matches, and got 
onwards ai>out another hundred yards. Then I 
felt around for a tree on which to pass the night, 
although I had a fairly sure knowledge that I 
Would be frozen stiff long before morning. 

" I won't need that cartridge any longer," I 
viid, rememl)ering that I had still one dumdum 
in the Iwrrel. "so here goes." The report seemed 
to be the loudest I had ever heard. The sharp 
l»ark of the exploding cordite lengthened out 
into great rolling volumes of sound that rever- 
Ix'rated as mighty thunder among the trees ; 
and I waited, eagerly listening until the last faint 
echo had trembled into stillness, but there came 
no welcome reply. 

Wearily I started to climb a much-gnarled 
tree, and had reached one of its lower limbs 
when a series of rifle-shots crashed through the 
air with a suddenness 
tlial startled and terri- 
fied me. yet thrilled me 
with joy and relief. I 
dropped from the tree, 
gripped my rifle, and 
ran towards the sound. 
Far in the distance I 
could hear men's 
voices. As I drew 
nearer I recognised 
Nfac's stentorian shout 
— " Whaur did it come 
frae? Lx)ad up again. 
Stewart." Another 
volley shattered thc 
stillness of the night. 
and then a medlev 
of shouts and rifle 

shots was kept up with barely a break. I 
got over the distance with alacrity, and very 
soon could see the blaze of the fire, which we 
always kept up to ward off wild animals, 
glimmering through the trees. Then, with a 
sigh of satisfaction, I slowed my pace to a 
more dignified mode of progression, and arrived 
among them as my worthy compatriots were 
bombarding the night with all the fire-arms in 
our arsenal. 

They were so much engrossed in their occu- 
pation that they did not notice my approach 
until I spoke : " ( lO it slow with cartridges, 
boys ; we had a pretty tough job getting them 
over the Chilcoot." 

" Whur ye no lost ? " bellowed Stewart, in 

" Of course not," I replied, satirically ; " only 
been having a constitutional in the night air." 

However, my frozen proboscis belied my 
words in very evident fashion, and my body 
generally required thawing. My companions 
had followed my tracks for a long way, and then 
returned, thinking I might have reached camp 

by a more direct route. 
They had been pre- 
paring to start out again 
when they heard my 
solitary signal. 

Mac does not yet be- 
lieve that I could really 
have been lost. " Nae 
fear o' that," says he. 
" A hae wandered \vi' 
him ow'r mony (Godfor- 
saken kintrasand never 
seen him 'bushed' yet." 
He will read this, per- 
haps, amid his desert 
surroundings in AVest- 
ern Australia, and pon- 
der the puzzling doings 
of that eventful night. 

.i:K A'. IH'jj< A- HI-; I.IJOKI.IJ . 
/■>0»t a] IN THE FROZEN 

I v'.ll'''Ii:J lOH TKAViiLLl.N(v 
NORTH-WEST. \Photo. 

A Climatic Miracle in California. 

By Charles Frederick Holder, of Pasadena, Cal. 

Ocean bathing, picking oranges and roses, and snowballing — all in one day. A curious demon- 
stration arranged and carried out in the lovely Californian resort of Pasadena, to show that climatic 
conditions existed there which could be equalled nowhere else in the world. A photographer 
accompanied the party and recorded each stage of the proceedings. His photos, are here reproduced. 

ALIFORNIA has obtained a reputa- 
tion for big things. It has the tallest 
mountains of any State ; the largest 
and oldest trees in America ; it 
produces the largest fruit ; its vine- 
yards, orchards and orange groves are the most 
extensive in the world; it is the greatest gold 
producer; has more and a greater variety of 
mineral springs than any other section; its State 
parks are larger and grander ; its game fish 
bigger than those elsewhere, and .finally it boasts, 
and with some reason, more varieties of climate, 
nearer together, than any land under the sun 
populated by a highly civilized people. 

So much has been said and written about the 
climate, so many jokes told at its expense, that 
Californians are, to a certain extent, sensitive 
about the subject, and have fallen into a habit 
of expecting sunshiny weather every day in the 
year. Some years ago a Californian author 
wrote an article on the peculiar climatic condi- 
tions, and ended by saying that a resident of 
Pasadena could, with very little difficulty, enjoy 
all kinds of climate from the level of the sea to 
6,oooft. above it in on eday ; and, more than 
that, could pick oranges in the morning at 
Pasadena, lunch at the seashore and take a sea 
bath in water not too cold, and before dinner, 
or dark of the same day, enjoy a sleigh ride 
through the snow at back of Pasadena, thus 
having enjoyed the fruits of summer and the 
sports of winter all in one day. And at no 
time need the resident be more than twenty 
miles from Los Angeles, a city of 110,000 

This statement was greeted by the Eastern 
Press as one of the Californian " big things," 
and was told and retold as an example of the 
kind of stories manufactured in California under 
the influence of the climate, which appeared to 
be both expansive and exhilarating. Finally a 
resident of the East, who had visited the San 
Gabriel Valley, saw the articles, and came out 
with a letter offering to wager any of the critics 
any amount that he would go to California 
and prove the snow, strawberry, and orange 
story. His proposition was that he was to 
pick and eat a pint of strawberries (grow- 
ing out of doors), pick a half - bushel of 
oranges from the trees of Pasadena, gather ten 
or twenty different varieties of roses and wild 
flowers, take an ocean bath, go for a sleigh ride, 
and indulge in a game of snowball— all on the 
same day, either in January, February, or March, 

the start to be made from Pasadena, which is 
about twenty-seven miles from the sea, and the 
return to be there. There were no takers to 
this wager, and the doubters were for the time 

This and other incidents of a similar nature 
in all probability suggested to someone in 
Pasadena the idea of demonstrating beyond 
question that the thing was possible. It was 
discussed in the local papers, pro and con, and 
finally the Board of Trade took official action,, 
and it was decided to pick oranges and roses, 
bathe in the Pacific, and go snowballing on the 
1 6th of January, thus demonstrating to the 
world that Pasadena possessed all the extra- 
ordinary possibilities that had been claimed ;. 
at the same time hurling confusion at her 

Pasadena, it might be explained, is a beautiful) 
town of 12.000 inhabitants, situated at the head 
of the San Gabriel Valley in Southern California. 
It is on the hills of the Sierra Madre Mountains,, 
and was founded by a committee of citizens- 
from the State of Indiana about twenty-five 
years ago. The location, which is very beautiful, 
was selected after a carelul examination of all 
Southern California. Its claims for health, 
beauty, and other good things are not without 
merit. On the west of the town extends a deep 
gorge — the Arroyo Seco. To the north the 
Sierra Madres rise to a height of 6,Gooft.,. 
not four miles distant ; while some of the 
peaks back in the range attain a height of 
i2,oooft. From the hills of Pasadena the 
blue Pacific can be seen, twenty-seven miles- 
away ; while the range of mountains on Santa 
Catalina Island, thirty miles out to sea, is also 
distinctly visible. 

The site of Pasadena was known as early 
as 1 54 1, when Cabrillo, the Spanish explorer,, 
saw the poppies on the foothills, and called it 
"Terra del Fuego," the land of fire— the fire being 
the blaze of the poppy, Copa del Oro, whose 
wonderful colour had been observed thirty miles 
distant. From Pasadena a view of the entire 
San Gabriel Valley is obtained; and in winter,. 
when the summits of the Sierras are white witb 
snow and the bed of the valley is a glorious 
garden, the scene is grand and impressive, semi- 
tropic summer and winter being face to face and 
not a mile apart. It is little wonder, then, that 
Pasadenians have made great claims for their 
town, which is, perhaps, one of the wealthiest 
places for its size in the whole world. 


TH1-: WIDK W0RI.1> ma(;azixe. 

f- * ^rft a I 'U-IO. i'\\ 

K'T 1 II r 



tita, Cal. 

Pasadena is governed by a Board of Trustees 
elected by the people ; but it has a Board of 
Trade, composed of several hundred influential 
citizens who have the best interests of the town 
at heart. On the i6th of J'inuary referred to 
the directors of the board were James H. 
Adams, Walter A. Edwards, H. H. Hertel, 
Kdwin Stearns, Warren J. Richardson, Colin 
Stewart, and Horace M. Dobbins. Its officers 
were Herman H. Hertel, president ; Edwin 
Steams, vice - president ; Frank P. Boynton, 
secretary : and P. M. Green, treasurer. 

The directors agreed to put to a test the 
question of the climatic possibilities of Pasa- 
dena, and it was further agreed that the 
committee should be compo.sed of the directors, 
representatives of the Press, and an official 
photographer: the journalists to be the historians 
of the trip, and the latter, by effective pictures, to 
prove the experiment at every stage. All could 
not go, but the president of the Board, Mr. 
Hertel, a prominent merchant of Pasadena ; the 
vice-president, Mr. Stearns ; the city editor of a 
local paper ; Mr. Boynton, the secretary of the 
Board of Trade, and one of the directors, Colin 
Stewart ; a capitalist, Warren J. Richardson ; 
Charles A- Gardner, editor of the Pasadena 
Star, and Mr. Hill, official photographer of the 
"Board, constituted the committee, several other 
gentlemen joining the party at various stages 
of the expedition. Xo sooner was the plan 

announced than it attracted much attention. 
Reporters from Los Angeles papers were detailed 
to it, and the directors were the subject of 
much discussion, and attained a notoriety which 
astonished them. 

Pasadena in winter is a great health, fashion, 
and tourist resort, and its hotels and the 
surrounding country arc filled with strangers 
from all over the world. Naturally, the demon- 
stration attracted much notice. The i6th of 
January is midwinter in Southern California, 
but no one would suspect it. The annual 
Tournament of Roses had occurred only two 
weeks previously. The air was filled with the 
perfume of the orange blossom, and the trees 
were weighted down by golden fruit. The song 
of birds was heard on every side, while the 
mocking-birds made music all night. So long 
as one kept his eyes upon the ground it was 
semi-tropic summer ; but did one raise them, 
the great wall of the Sierras was seen to be 
white with snow; and on the summit of Mount 
San Antonio, one of the sentinels of the range, 
the snow could be seen blowing up and off into 
the summerland below in great feathery clouds. 
The day was bright and beautiful, not a cloud 
in the sky, and the temperature in the shade at 
ytdeg. The party met at the appointed hour 
and walked to the terminal depot. The plan 
had been carefully laid out, and was as 
follows : First, an illustration of the wealth of 



From a Photo, by Hill., Pasadena, Cal. 

flowers out of doors at Pasadena in winter ; 
second, the picking of oranges, illustrating the 
wealth of fruit and the possibility of citrus 
fruit in January ; third, illustrating the possi- 
bility of bathing in the ocean in Southern 
California in January, with an ocean temperature 
sim'lar to that of the Atlantic in July ; fourth, 
illustrating the possibility of enjoying sleighing 
and snowballing the same day as the oranges 
were picked. The directors took the terminal 
railway to Altadena — a suburb of Pasadena, and 
three or four miles distant. Here they entered 
the grounds of Mr. Andrew McNally, the 
Chicago publisher — a typical Pasadena home 
surrounded by a wealth of roses of the rarest 
kinds. The above photograph, taken by Mr. 
Hill, shows the party 
picking roses. The resi- 
dence of Mr. McNally is 
seen in the background ; 
behind it rise the Sierra 
Madre Mountains, the 
snow line showing dis- 
tinctly. To the right of 
the picture is Mr. Hertel, 
the President of the Board 
of Trade, and all of the 
party are picking roses or 
holding those they have 
just gathered. It was now 
lo a.m., and when the 
photograph was taken Mr. 
McNally led 
into an 

Here were the famous 
Washington navels, 
or seedless orange ; 
the Mediterranean 
sweet ; the tangerine, 
and many more. In 
the next photo, the 
party is seen eating 
the fruit of the seed- 
less Washington ; 
time, 10.15. T"he 
golden fruit stood out 
in high relief against 
the dark green foliage, 
while the starry blos- 
soms filled the air 
with fragrance. This 
is a peculiarity of the 
orange tree — that it 
bears fruit of all sizes 
and blossom at the 
same time. On the 
right of the photograph is seen a date palm — 

of the 

a common tree here, and 


tropical flora in a temperate zone. 

If the average reader should have been told 
that one hour and a quarter later these gentle- 
men would be enjoying a game of snowball, 
knee-deep in snow-banks, and some of them on 
snow-shoes, surrounded by great Alpine trees, 
he would naturally think the storyteller a modern 




grove ad- 
jommg the rose garden 
and invited them to help 
themselves to the fruit. 

Vol. vi.— 2. 

From a Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 


rm; widk worid macazinl:. 

Munchausen. Vet this is exactly happened, 
and tnc diretrtors did not travel to the Arctic 
zone on thi- lamous tlyinj; horse of the Arabian 
Nights., or the wonderiiil carpet that carried its 
owner wherever he desired. Xo ; they merely 
walked out of the '^tow, boarded an electric 
car, and went spinning up over the .slopes of 
the mountains, crossing a vast bed of golden 
poppies, which carpeted the earth, and entered 
Kut»io Canyon, a deep gulch in the range. Then 
they skirted the precipice, rising higher and 
htgher, finally coming out at the station of 
the great incluie of Mount Lowe. "All aboard 
(or Kcho Mountain and the snowfields ! " 
shouted the conductor : and the directors, 
with their photogra[)her, mounted a step and 
entered a white chariot or car, which rested 
at the foot of the incline on a pavilion which 
s^uns the l>ed of a mountain stream, cro.ssing 
the entire canyon and holding, besides the foot 
of the road, an hotel as well. The conductor 
toui hed a wire with a wand, and immediately the 
lowt-r world appeared to drop away from the 
directors as they rose into the clouds and 
toward the snow above them at the rate of five 
miles an hour. Xo motion was experienced as 
vihta after vista of grand scenery appeared — a 
mar\ellous and realistic panorama. Up they 
went : now at a grade of 48 per cent., now 62, 
hauled by a cable of iron which had been tested 
to a hundred-ton strain. Eight minutes slipped 
away ; the car glided on to a platform, and the 
conductor again 
'.houted, " Echo 
,?. 500ft. above 
the sea ! CJentle- 
men. you have 
ascended 1.300ft. 
in eight minutes.' 
It wa-i now 10.45 

The scene 
which stretched 
before them was 
wonderful. Pasa- 
dena Lay at their 
feet ; the grove 
of oranges they 
had just left 
looked like a 
checker board : 
and so clear wa'- 
the atraospheT' 
that they coul! 
see the ocean 
breaking on the 
beach at Santa 
Monica, nearly ^' '-.s-akkival ok th.. ,.ar,v us 

thirty miles distant, a line of white, where they 
were soon to bathe. Beyond was the blue Pacific 
and the islands of Southern Califcnnia, resting 
like sea-monsters on its surface, fifty miles away. 

" All aboard for Mount Lowe ! " said the con- 
ductor ; and the party stepped into another car, 
run by electricity, and went whirling up the 
slopes of Mount Lowe. Flowers were about 
them still, but in a few minutes, or, to be exact, 
at 1 1.5, they left them behind, and snow 
appeared in the secluded places. Then, 
suddenly, as the car turned a point and 
came upon the north side of the mountain, so 
far as appearances went, the directors were in 
the Arctic regions, for mountains and canyons 
were fairly white with snow. " Five minutes for 
photographing ! " said the conductor, calmly, as 
he brought the car to a stop ; and the party, 
now wearing heavy coats, and some provided 
with snow-shoes, stepped off into the snow, 
where they were photographed at 11. 15 by Mr. 
Hill, as seen in the accompanying photo. The 
range of the Sierras was before them, with the 
great peaks of Disappointment and Brown all 
covered with the mantle of ermine, and the tall 
firs standing out like huge pom-poms of purest 
white. The grade of this road did not exceed 
7}4 per cent., and the speed was rapid. They 
wound about steep canyons, the drop being 
hundreds of feet ; now over trestles, showing 
remarkable engineering skill. 

Exactly at 11.30, or one hour and a quarter 


Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 




From a Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 

after picking oranges, the conductor called out, 
" Alpine Tavern," where the directors jumped 
off into a snowbank and walked through the 
Grand Canyon. All about were firs and other 
trees bowed down with snow ; and here the 
sport began. Snowballs were rolled, and 
the directors pelted each other with all the 
enthusiasm and 
enjoyment they 
had shown when 
picking oranges 
and roses. It 
was winter in all 
that the term 
implies. The 
party had all 
donned their 
overcoats and 
ulsters, which had 
been brought for 
the purpose, and 
during the height 
of the frolic the 
above photo, was 
taken, showing 
President Hertel 
and the other 
directors bom- 
barding each 
other, the one in 
advance being on 
snow-shoes. In 

the rear are the 
newspaper men, 
taking mental 
notes of the 
strange scene. 
The snow was so 
deep that the 
labourers had 
been , shovelling 
it all the morning 
so that the sleigh 
could make the 
run 3,500ft. 
higher to the 
summit of Mount 
Lowe. But the 
visitors did not 
care to go so high ; 
they had found 
winter here, and 
after making 
some snowballs 
to carry down, to 
toss into the gar- 
d e n s as they 
passed through 
Pasadena, they 
re-entered the car and began the descent. In 
a few minutes overcoats were thrown aside, and 
at Echo Mountain the odour of flowers greeted 
the party once more. Eight minutes' more 
dropping downward over the tops of trees into 
a mighty canyon, and they were in Rubio, enter- 
ing the waiting car to go flying down the 
incline which follows the sides 
of Rubio Canyon. 

" All aboard for Santa 

Monica ! " And riding down 

to Pasadena the party changed 

cars leisurely, taking the niid- 

or the town of 


From a Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 





From a Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 

SaiiLi Monica, a favourite resort both winter 
and summer. This they reached in less than 
an hour and a half, and by three o'clock the 
directors were walking down to the long beach, 
greeted by the roar of the surf. Here the air 
is mild, the sun warm, and everything suggestive 
of summer ; and yet only a few hours before 
they were snowballing. The beach has large 
pa\-ilions and a vast array of bathing-houses. 
In summer five thousand or more people bathe 
here daily. At 3.30 the directors hired bathing 
suits, and in the above illustration we see them 
on the beach, having had a swim in the invigo- 
rating surf, posing for their photographs. 
The mountains 
at back of them 
are a spur of the 
Sierra Madres, 
the Sierra .Santa 
Monica range : 
and from where 
they stand on 
the shining 
sands they can 
see the white 
domes of the 
mother moun- 
tains which they 
have recently left. 
By four oclock 
the bath was 
complete, and 
before dark the 
directors stepped 
from the train at 
Pasadena, having 
between half-past 
ten in the morn- 
ing and dark of '"'^'•' """^ ''*"' '^*' succEssPur 

*-" Front 

the same day 
passed from 
tropical verdure 
to icy winter and 
hack, bathed in 
the ocean on a 
mid - winter day 
and returned to 
the orange groves 
of Pasadena. On 
reaching the 
latter town they 
were driven to 
the residence of 
one of the party,* 
and seated on the 
lawn, surrounded 
by orange trees 
and roses, we see 
them reading 
congratulatory telegrams on the success of their 
trip. Such are the possibilities in the land of the 
setting sun — all due to the remarkable climatic 
conditions which obtain here. The maximum 
temperature for January, for twenty years was 
76deg. ; the minimum, 34deg. The February 
maximum, ygdeg. ; minimum, 36deg. The 
maximum for the hottest month (September), 
97deg. ; the minimum, 49deg. It will be 
seen from this that the boast of Californians 
that they have an almost perfect climate seems 
to be justified by the facts. It is not perfect, it 
is true ; but, such as it is, it is unique, and has 
been the means of prolonging thousands of lives. 


a Photo, by Hill, Pasadena, Cal. 

Twelve Years of ''Snake Terror" in Queensland. 

By Mrs. Henry Lucas, of Grandchester, Queensland. 

This lady has simply jotted down all the snake alarms that stand out most vividly in her mind after a 
long residence in the tropical Colony. The mother of a family in the " back-blocks " of Queensland must 
needs be a person altogether without timidity, for her little ones frequently have terribly narrow escapes. 

H : what a snake yarn ! " is a com- 
mon saying among Colonials, 
when hearing an exaggerated 
account of anything. But the 
snake yarns I am going to write 
of are absolutely true, and happened in my own 
home, a cattle station in the Queensland bush. 
Why we were pestered so much by these 
uncanny and unwelcome visitors evidently lay 
in the fact that the house was close to a large 
river, whose beautiful banks afforded shelter to 
all kinds of snakes — so much so, in fact, that 
eventually we had a good deal of the luxuriant 
growth cut away. 

The garden ran down the slope almost to the 
water's edge. One day I was pick- 
ing grapes, and, in reaching up for 
a particularly tempting bunch, I saw 
to my horror the outstretched head 
and neck of a browny-green monster, 
with its horrible two-pronged tongue 
protruding, the rest of its body being 
hidden by the leaves, and exactly the 
colour of the stem of the vine. 
Naturalists say this colour is given to 
certain snakes for their protection : 
but I pause and vainly ask, " Where 
do human beings come in ? " Experi- 
enced snake-killers tell you if you see 
a snake always to " keep your eye on 
it," and by so doing it will not move 
until someone comes to kill it or 
brings you something to kill it with. 
But it is difficult to command your- 
self sufficiently to " keep your eye " 
on a deadly reptile, especially if only 
a few inches from your head. At any 
rate, unlike Mrs. Gamp I did not feel 
"dispoged" to do it, but dropped 
my basket and fled. 

I was braver on other occasions, 
however — for example, when my 
husband, together with the young 
Englishman who had come out to 
learn " Colonial experience," and all 
the men were miles away muster- 
ing cattle. The maids, too, were 
at their dinner ; I was sewing, and my two 
little children were playing about the room. 
I thought I heard the baby wake, and so I said 
to my little girl, " Run and see if that is baby 
crying " ; but she had hardly left the room 
when she commenced to scream. I rushed out 
and saw an enormous black snake on the 

veranda, coming straight for one of the open 
doors. I ran for a long-handled hoe (which 
was always kept in a corner of the veranda as 
being a handy "snake" weapon), made a sudden 
and frantic dive at the snake with it, and to my 
amazement cut it nearly in two. 

To this day I am sure I hit at it with my 
eyes shut ; but though feeling decidedly limp, 
after disabling the enemy, I felt eaten up with 
pride at my achievement — especially as black 
snakes are among the most deadly of Australian 
varieties. While the back is a shining black, 
the underside is a bright carmine — a beau- 
tiful colour, but, oh I so poisonous-looking ; 
and I believe during the latter part of 

summer, when 
they are rearing 
their young and 


are more vicious, the colour grows a deeper 

Shall I ever forget having one of those 
loathsome things in my bedroom ? , I had got 
out of -bed and was putting on my slippers, 
when I saw something dark sticking out from 
between the wall and the dressing - table. 



Another glance showed it to be a huge black 
snake, which stayed where it was, fortunately, 
while my huslxind got his gun and shot it. 
The most thrilling jxut was that my dear baby 
had toddled across the room a short time 
before. She slept in a cot by my side, and I had 
lifted her out when she woke to run through to 
the nurser)-, which was the next room. Our 
hearts fell cold to think of the risk she had run. 
It was easy for a snake to come into the house 
at night, for it was built bungalow fashion, with 
glass doors opening on to the veranda ; and 
these were left oj^Hjn in summer. 

It is wonderful the small space a snake can 
get through, especially the long, thin ones. One 
day I heard a furious barking in my room, and 
found our little terrier had a green snake at bay 
under a table. In another instant it had glided 
under the door, which did not fit quite close to 
the floor. I rushed after it to see it gliding 
round and round the nursery bath, in which 
n?v of mv children was sitting, the nurse 



paralyzed with terror. I snatched the child up 
and looked round, but the snake had dis- 
appeared in a twinkling, probably under the 
door and into the veranda, and search as we 
might we never found it. In running round 
the bath I believe it was trying to find a way to 
escape from the terrier, who came through the 
door with me. 

These green snakes never grow very large. 
They are a light yellow underneath, and are 
supposed to be non-poisonous, though I never 
heard of anyone letting himself be experi- 
mented upon in the way of offering himself 
for a bite ! Some brave hero May do so some 
day for the sake of science, but I doubt it. 

We had another fright once through the same 
sort of snake. My husband's brother was stay- 
ing with us, and we were all on the veranda after 
dinner, enjoying the cool breeze that generally 
follows the setting of the sun in Queensland. 
All at once we heard my husband call out, 
" Look out, Fred," and saw him jump up and 
tip his brother out of his chair, round the leg 
of which was coiled a green snake. My brother- 
in-law then suggested we should go into the 
house. After this, as may be supposed, we 
carefully examined the veranda chairs before 
sitting on them in the evening. 

The wide verandas of most bush-houses are 
naturally very much used in summer, and they 
generally extend all round the building. One 
evening my children were having 
their tea on ours, when the young- 
est would not eat, but kept looking 
overhead. "Come, drink your 
milk, baby," the nurse kept saying, 
but baby would do nothing but 
throw back her head and gaze up- 
ward. She was too young to speak. 
Suddenly it was discovered that the 
attraction was a snake, which was 
coiled in a ring between the rafter 
and shingled roof, just over the 
children's heads, and evidently 
asleep; it was easily dispatched. 

The space between the rafters 
and roof seemed to be a favourite 
resting - place for our persistent 
visitors. The bath-room was built 
in the corner of the veranda ; and 
one day I was startled by my boy 
(who was then about six) rushing 
up the hall, in Nature's garb, pallid 
with fear. He clung to me, crying, 
" Snake, snake, in the bath-room." 
The poor little fellow had turned 
on the water, and was in the act of 
getting into the bath, when he saw 

NURSE PARALYZED °i i > i i , i . 

the snake s head and neck hangmg 



over him, the rest of its body being coiled up 
under the rafters of the roof. It was one of the 
largest black snakes we had seen, and I shall 
never forget its angry " hiss " when we went into 
the room. Doubtless it had been asleep, and the 
running water from the tap had disturbed it. 

My boy had another narrow escape when a 
few years older. He was climbing over a fence 
and jumped down literally on top of a brown 
snake — a most deadly kind ; how he escaped 
being bitten is a marvel. Indeed, it «eem.s 
wonderful how few people are bitten, in com- 
parison with the number of snakes come in 
contact with in the bush during the hot months. 

The whip snake is another dangerous kind ; 
it is very long, rather thin, and has just the 
appearance of the lash of a whip, colour and 
all. But the different kinds of snakes are 
legion. I must mention the diamond 
snake, however. It is terribly poison- 
ous, but its skin is beautifully and won- 
derfully marked, in exact and even 
diamonds. Then there is the carpet 
snake, marked exactly like a carpet, in 
white, cream, black, and grey. This 
species is of the boa-constrictor kind ; it 
crushes its prey, so its bite is not deadly. 
They are enormous in size, and these 
are the snakes which the so-called 
" snake-charmers " and circus people 
twine round their necks and arms. 

Some people are averse to killing 
non-poisonous snakes, as they do good 
in barns and outbuildings in keeping 
down rats and other pests. But, give 
me the rats ! Most bush people have 
enough of snakes and frights to make 
them murderous towards all the tribe. 
Picture to yourself, dear reader, a 
creature, at least 8ft. in length, and 
as thick as the top of a big man's arm, 
going about the premises. 

We were staying once at a neigh- 
bouring station, and were taken out to 
a picnic on the edge of the scrub. The 
cloth was spread on the ground, the 
eatables put on, and we were just about to begin 
when one of the party discovered a carpet snake, 
coiled in a ring (which looked as large as a round 
bath-tub) behind a small bush, and not 3ft. from 
one end of the tablecloth. Immediately everyone 
ran to collect sticks and weapons to kill it with. 

" What are you all doing ? " cried our host. 
"I would not have it killed for anything. Think 
of the good it does me in killing kangaroo-rats 
and bandicoots, that live on the grass." 

So the snake was left in peace, and lunch 
proceeded with. I noticed, however, that nearly 
everyone, myself included, crowded down to 

the end of the table-cloth farthest from the 
bush ! Afterwards we found our bugbear had 
slipped away without a sound. The noiseless 
movement of these reptiles, by the way, is one 
of the things most dreaded about them ; no 
matter how near they are, there will be no 
sound till roused, and then comes the never- 
to-be- forgotten "hiss." 

It is strange the liking these reptiles have 
for milk ; and so they are often found about 
dairies. Our cook once saw one in the very act 
of drinking out of a pan, and, poor thing, she 
never got such a " turn " in her life. 

If one walks or rides in the bush in summer, 
taking dogs with them, the latter will often hunt 
out a snake from fallen logs or long grass, and 
quite enjoy keeping it at bay till someone helps 
them to kill it. Dogs are often too venture- 



some, though, and forfeit their lives for their fun. 
Twice we lost favourites in this way, and their 
sudden deaths brought home to us more vividly 
than anything the fatality of a snake- bite. 
They do not, it seems to me, bite, but strike at 
their victim with their upper jaw, in which the 
poison fangs are secreted. These fangs are 
hollow, and in the act of striking the poison, 
which lies under the fang, is forced up into the 
wound. The more poisonous snakes have but 
two fangs ; those which leave four or six punc- 
tures are not nearly so dangerous. They strike 
with wonderful force, as the following will show. 



a bep.utiful 

1 and inv chiKiren wore one day walking in 
a luddock alx^ui a qiinrier of a mile from the 
house. Suddenly the two dogs we had with us 
routed out a black snake from a log. One on 
each side, they snapped and barked at it, at the 
same lime keeping at a respectful distance, but 
disregarding our efforts to call them away. 
Never shall I forget the fury of the reptile. 
Raised in ihc air. almost on its tail, with its 
horrible head and neck flattened out, and its 
whole body quivering with rage, it waited its 

All at once the smaller do, 
civker spaniel, ventured closer. 
With one bound the terrible thing 
was on him and had fastened its 
fangs in his neck. The poor little 
dog yelled and howled, trying to 
shake it off, but to no purpose. 
He then started running towards 
us, and as he ran he i/riij^,i;C(/ the 
snake with him, so firmly were its 
fangs fastened in. and it was as 
much as he could do to drag the 
heavy reptile along. At last, the 
snake'sfell purpose accomplished, 
it let go, and poor little Dash 
stopped howling, but shivered and 
trembled as with an ague. We 
hurried home with him, poured 
spirits down his throat, and 
bathed his poor neck (though on 
account of his hair being so thick 
and long we could not find the 
puncture) with every antidote 
we could get in the hurry 
•'.le moment, but it was 
.ill to no purpose: he died 
in about ten minutes, shivering 
all the time, but in no apparent pain. 

Some years after my youngest girl found our 
fox-terrier lying by the steps of the veranda. 
"Oh, jxjor Rally must be sick," we heard her 
call out, but he was quite dead. AVe should 
never have known what caused his death had 
not a man seen him fighting a snake in the 
paddock, and the man killed it with a stick, 
little knowing that poor Rally had received his 
death-wound, to which he succumbed almost as 
quickly as our other poor dog. 

Experience Uught us jn time that cats about 
the house kept snakes away ; so we encouraged 
the cats to good purpose. It seems almost 
incredible that a cat should attack so for- 
midable a creature. They do not rouse it 
impetuously as a dog would, but lie in wait 
quietly, till certain of succeeding. Then they 

make a sudden spring on its neck, close to 
its head, and shake it, as a terrier would a 
rat, till its back is broken. One summer the 
only snake we saw was one brought in dead 
by a cat to her kitten. She laid it on the 
veranda witli the air of a conqueror, and she was 
quite exhausted, poor thing, after her fight, and 
stood panting, while we patted and praised her. 
These experiences of mine lasted over a period 
of twelve years. It must not be imagined that we 
werejighting snakes all the time, or that all the 
Queensland bush is so infested with snakes as 
was our station for the first years we were there. 


We are living now near the metropolis, and 
snakes are never heard of, much less seen, but 
still I often long to be back in our bush home. 
It is strange, but true, that those who have once 
had a taste of the bush never lose the love of 
the life. "Fiee, unconquered, lonely," there is 
a something inexpressible that constitutes the 
charm ; and though after long years the 
memory of it may fade, perhaps just the scent 
of eucalyptus in honey -laden bloom, a whiff 
of the wattle blossom, or the crack of a 
stock-whip in the distance brings it all back. 
Oh, the calm, quiet days ; the hush of the 
beautiful nights, with ever and again the soft 
" mo-poke " of the owl in the distance ; the 
weird cry of the curlew ; the splash of the 
platypus from the river bank, and over all a 
" silence too great for speech." 

A Lady Missionary in China. 

Bv Rachel Clemson. 

Here is an article mainly prepared from the diary of a lady missionary of the C.M.S. She tells 

exactly what she saw and experienced, how the extraordinary life of these inscrutable people 

struck her, together with the humours and dangers of a missionary career in the interior of the 

Empire. The photos, will be found unusually interesting. 

HAVE no doubt that many persons 
will be glad to learn something more 
about China than they already know, 
especially now, at this time, when the 
eyes of all Europe are so anxiously 
turned towards that great empire, which, as is 
well known, covers an area fifteen times bigger 
than (jreat Britain and Ireland put together, 
and is estimated to contain 400,000,000 
people. In the various provinces and districts 
there are great differences 
in speech, in the way of 
living, in dress, and in 
many other respects. To 
describe these differences 
in detail would be beyond 
my powers, so I shall 
confine myself chiefly to 
the province I know best, 
Fuh-kien, in South China. 
Foo-chow, the registered 
port name of the capital, 
which is situated near the 
mouth of the beautiful 
River Min, is a treaty 
port, and here in 1850 
the Church Missionary 
Society commenced work 
in Fuh - kien. For ten 
years its emissaries 
laboured with no apparent 
result, and it was not until 
186 1 that the first con- 
verts were baptized. And 
so, slowly and surely, the 

work of the devoted missionaries progressed in 
Fuh-kien until now, under Archdeacon Wolfe 
and his fellow-labourers, the mission in that 
province is one of the most thriving in connec- 
tion with the C. M.S., there being about 20,000 
native Christians. 

Fuh-ning, a walled city near the sea coast on 
the North Pacific Ocean, is about four days' 
Journey from Foo-chow, and the route generally 
taken is partly by land and partly by water. 
Speaking broadly, there are no horses in the 
province except those kept by the mandarins 
and the English and other communities for 
sporting purposes ; and the journey overland 
is accomplished by means of chairs borne 
by coolies, who will, on an average, carry a 
passenger thirty miles in a day. There are 
three coolies to each chair, and each man 
takes a turn to walk along and secure some 

Vol. vi.— 3. 

measure of rest and relief while the other two 
carry the human burden. The vehicles are, 
in appearance, something like a Sedan chair. 
The one shown in the photograph of Mrs. T. de 
Clare Studdert, wearing adapted dress (of which 
more presently), is a very fair specimen of those 
used by the missionaries for rough country 

This chair is made of cane, the poles of 
bamboo, and the cover of waterproof cloth 



From a\ 



painted royal blue. It has glass windows, which 
slide open, and it is carried by the coolies on 
their shoulders. The chairs used by the Euro- 
peans for paying visits and going short distances 
in the town are much lighter, and more elegant 
and ornamental. 

Naturally, to an Englishman, or even more so 
to an American, this mode of progression seems 
extremely tedious ; but one might almost say 
that the Chinese motto is "Slowly, slowly!" And 
as the roads are for the most part mere sheep- 
tracks it would be utterly impossible to take 
wheeled conveyances along them, unless one 
were willing to make use of a wheelbarrow, and 
even this would not answer on the mountain 
paths, which generally consist of a succession of 
rough, uneven steps. 

In the* cities there are chairs for hire just as 
there are cabs in England, and you make a 



bargnin with the proprietor. ICvon supposing 
one travels a great ileal, it is not ailvisable to 
keep private ehair-coolies, because if ihey 
are idle for a little time they speedily get out of 
training, whilst the public chair-caniers are 
always in good condition, so to speak. 

At I"uh-ning the Church Missionary Society 
has cstablishetl a llourisliing boarding school 
for nati\e girls, 'i'he children, in number about 
forty, including a few day scholars, are under 
the care of two (sometimes three) English ladies, 
who, I believe, (ind their pupils very interesting 

/•'.';« a] 


and tractable. I have seen it stated on good 
authority that Chinese parents refuse to send 
their girls to the mission schools unless assured 
that the principal will find them suitable 
husbands: iJut Miss Clarke, the lady who 
has until recently acted as principal of the 
school named, assures me that this is not so in 
Euh-kien, as most of the girls are already 
betrothed when they come to school, and not 
once in her exjjerience of nearly seven years has 
she been asked to i)lay the part of a match- 

Marriage is purely a matter of business with 
the Chinese. Men either buy their wives 
themselves through a middle-man or else 
they are bought for them by their parents. 
Frequently a boy's parents will pay a sum of 
money to another couple as the f)rice of a 
small daughter to be their son's wife when 

both arrive at a marriageable age. By making 
the purchase in infancy the bride is obtained at 
a much cheaper rate ; but the bargain is a specu- 
lative one, for the i)urchasers have to take all 
risks ; and as death sometimes claims their 
property, it is not an uncommon case to come 
across a forlorn young bachelor who, having 
thus been cheated of the bride his parents 
acquired for him, is too poor to buy another, and 
thus has to spend a prolonged period of single 
blessedness while he is scraping together suffi- 
cient cash to replace the dear departed — whom 

he has probably 
never seen. 

As may easily 
be understood, 
this system is 
largely responsi- 
ble for the fact 
that so many girl 
babies are left to 
die, for if the 
supply were too 
plentiful good 
prices could not 
be obtained, and, 
therefore, many 
are sacrificed to 
keep the market 
up. Once, on 
their travels, 
some mission- 
aries came across 
an isolated village 
which was inha- 
bited solely by 
men — there was 
not a woman in 
the place. On 
being asked the 
reason for this, one of the natives replied that 
they were all too poor to buy wives, so they had 
resolved to live without any. 

It is obvious that women's work is a real 
necessity in connection with missionary effort. 
For in China, as in all Oriental countries, it is 
only women who can come into direct personal 
contact with those of their own sex. And in 
the past it has often been found that the native 
women, with their ignorant prejudices, were very 
great hindrances to the spread of Christianity ; 
for although \iomen occupy such a subordinate 
position, and in puljlic the Celestial usually 
speaks contemptuously of his wife as " the old 
horse," she can on occasion make things as 
lively for him as a scolding wife of any other 

Miss Clarke is very enthusiastic about her 
work in Fuh-ning, and speaks most highly of 




the people. In that district there are over two 
hundred baptized native Christians and nearly 
seven hundred catechumens ; and Miss Clarke 
and her companion, Miss Rosamond Clemson 
(now Mrs. Studdert), in addition to their work 
at the girls' school, found many opportunities of 
teaching the people and ministering to them. 
In Fuh-ning city the C.M.S. has also established 
a very successful hospital, which was originally 
under the auspices of Dr. Taylor, the founder, 
who trained several Christian young men to be 
his assistants. 

The Rev. H. M. Eyton-Jones, M.A., had 
general charge of the work in a large district 
known as the Fuh-ning Prefecture ; but within 
the last year or two, however, Irish clergymen 
and doctors, as well as several other mission- 
aries, have been sent out there by Trinity College, 
Dublin; and I I)elieve the whole staff is sup- 
ported by the Dublin University's Fuh-kien 
Mission. The accompanying photograph shows 
the interior of the chapel at the girls' school. 

Occasionally during vacations Miss Clarke 
and her comj)anions undertook itinerating work, 
when they became objects of much curiosity 
to the natives of the villages they passed 
through, many of whom have scarcely seen a 
foreigner. Despite the coolies' unflattering but 
well-meant assurances that their passengers are 
"nothing good to look at," crowds often assemble 
to see the " foreign children " and sadly impede 
their progress. And when they put up at the 
wretched village inn food is partaken of and 

toilets are made under fire from a battery of 
curious eyes glued to every chink from which 
they can possibly (^ommand a view. It is not 
advisable to be too reserved with them, or they 
will regard you in the same light as a cow 
which seems inclined to give chase and be 
spiteful, and the Chinese word they will use 
in describing you is identical with that which 
they would use in the case of the ill-natured 

Therefore the English ladies betray no 
surprise even when the natives crowd into the 
room where they are eating and handle and 
examine their food. Bread is an article of 
diet which excites much wonderment, as it is 
rarely seen among the Chinese of this province, 
boiled rice being their staple food. Here is 
one phase of travelling in China, as described 
by Mrs. Studdert : — 

" We left Fuh-ning on a Friday, crossed the 
bay in the Relief {xhc mission boat), and arrived 
at Lo-nguong on Saturday at midday, to find 

all the people fled, some 
to Sharp Peak and some 
to Kuliang. We had a 
very pleasant journey so 
far, but on Sunday it 
commenced raining ; so 
we stayed at Lo-nguong 
for Sunday. We started 
at six on Monday morn- 
ing, and it soon poured 
again, and the coolies and 
our cook got very wet. 
We hoped to have reached 
Leing-kong and slept 
there, but about 4 p.m. 
we had to stop at a native 
inn, because the coolies 
refused to go farther. We 
heard that the flood was 
out a few miles farther on, 
so we had to fix up for 
the night there. But not 
a wink of sleep could we 
get. On three sides were 
coolies and pigs grunting 
and snoring ; on the other, 
frogs in a gutter croaking ; on the roof were 
rats killing and eating young birds ; and inside, 
mosquitoes and spiders. What more could the 
heart desire ? 

" We were very glad to start again next morn- 
ing, and arrived at the flood, hired a tiny, 
rickety boat, and were pushed up a swollen 
river for about an hour with bamboo poles. 
Arrived at Leing-kong we had dinner, hired 
another boat, crossed another flooded river, 
were carried for a short time through the 



riu-: wiDi: world mac.aziNE. 

wntor covcrinj; the pdily - Ileitis, aiul on 
Tucsilay ni^lu ri.nlK-d Kaunj; l.ui. wluro we 
slept that iiiglu in our chairs in the eliapel in 
prclercncc to another nati\e inn. 

"Wc had to wait until eleven till the steam 
launch staited for I'oo-chow, so a young 
tueviieal student of Pr. Rigij's i-ame to look us 
up and took us to his house. He has ojiened 
a chennsl"s shop and doctors people himself."' 

The foregoing extract, however, does not refer 
to an itinerating tour, but to the journey to 
Kuliang, a hill .sanatorium to which many of 
the l-'uhkien missionaries repair for a few weeks 
during the height of summer when the heat is 
intense. The Kuliang Hills are seen in the 
I background of the phoU)graiih which shows 
Ii»o-chow and the River Min. 

first itinerating trip, and liad some queer 
(.'X[)eriences. We have been sleeping in all 
kinds of dirty, horrible places. I wish 1 could 
describe some of them. 

"The last night was spent at a place called 
Sua-dong, in a tiny room with a mud floor. The 
window was merely a hole in the mud wall 
(some rooms have no window at all and are 
quite dark except for the holes in the roof) ; and 
the bed was just boards and trestles. 'l"he one 
other piece of furniture was a huge tub of some 
kind of grain ; so we had supper and breakfast 
on the bed. The roof and walls were black 
witli the accumulated soot of years. 

"One day we passed some criminals being 
taken down to I'oo-chow to be tried : they were 
carried in wooden cages something like poultry 

-ij nil-. i;r\i::u .min. wnii thk ki ; i 


Though ordinary bread is not eaten by the 
Chinese, when entertained by them at a feast 
one is often offered little round cakes with 
holes in the middle, somewhat like muffins or 
pikelets. And the Emperor eats a kind of 
steamed bread almost like boiled pudding. 
Whether you are host or guest it is strictly in 
accordance with Chinese etiquette to rise imme- 
diately you have finished, but you must not 
hurry your companions, and therefore you invite 
them to '• slowly, slowly eat.' 

Speaking of her first itinerating trip, in 1897, 
before her marriage, Mrs. Studdert says : — 

"■ La-st week I went with Miss Clarke for my 

crates. There is no such thing as justice in 
China: the mandarins don't know the meaninc; 
of the word. If a man has money he gets 
'justice,' if he has not he doesn't. And 
criminals are most cruelly treated. They cut 
their ears, burn their backs, and so on. Last 
year a coolie stole 75dols. belonging to Miss 
Clarke. Some people wanted her to have 
him sent to the mandarin, but she wouldn't, 
because these officials are so frightfully cruel. 
The man had bought a dose of opium strong 
enough to kill him, and this he intended taking 
should he be arrested, as he preferred death to 
being taken to the mandarin's yamen. 




From a\ 


" One day we reached the foot of a hill about 
4 p.m., and of course intended going up for 
coohicss, but tlie coolies who were carrying our 
Sedan chairs said it would be dark before they 
reached the top. We knew they were wrong, 
and told them so. Then we had a grand 
argument. Each coolie in turn, and in his 
loudest voice, gave his opinion on the subject; 
then a chorus, and all would join in. Miss 
Clarke stood calmly fanning herself till they 
had to stop for want of 
breath. Then siie pro- 
ceeded to give her view of 
the case ; but it was of no 
use, they would 7Jot go, so 
we had to sleep in a tiny 
native inn. You've no idea 
what those inns are like. 
I should infinitely prefer 
sleeping in any English 
stable ; our harness-room 
at home is palatial com- 
pared with the bedrooms 
in these wretched places. 
Nobody but those who 
have seen them ca?i ever 
imagine anything so utterly 
comfortless and filthy. 
Pigs wander in and out at 
their own sweet pleasure. 
There is no chimney, and 
all smoke has to escape 
through the door or holes 
in the roof. Then beetles, 

spiders, centipedes, 
mosquitoes, rats, and 
other vermin all add 
their quota to the 
general unpleasant- 
ness ; and the smells 
are" quite indescrib- 

Mrs. Studdert 
writes enthusiasti- 
cally of the scenery 
through which she 
passed at this stage 
of her journey. In 
some places bamboo 
groves fringe the 
banks of the River 
Min, great hills form 
a stately background, 
and great waterfalls 
sparkle in the bril- 
liant sun. Near Foo- 
chow stands the 
curious isolated 
temple seen in our 
photograph. It is built on a rocky islet in the 
River Min. When Mrs. Studdert reached the 
coast, however, her enthusiasm for Chinese 
scenery grew less. 

" One part of our journey was acr(jss an 
inland sea, or rather bay, which only takes twelve 
hours to cross. We went on board a native 
boat on Friday night, and oug,ht to have reached 
the other side by four o'clock on Saturday after- 
noon. The sailors, however, overslept themselves 



Front a\ 




.:* ^ 

ings ! 

hrctn a\ 



and missed the night tide, so we calmly reposed 
on a mud-!>ank all day and started again in the 
evening, only to cast anchor after a few hours' 
pitching about in a typhoon. On Sunday we 
were exactly where we were on Friday. Tfie 
native boats have arched bamboo roofs, which 
don't allow us to stand up at all, so the only 
thing is to lie down all the time on the hard 
Ixiards. We got 
very tired of this, 
so determined to 
get ofT through 
the mud when 
the tide went out 
and go to Hi- 
luang to a native 
service. I slipped 
one leg into the 
mud, laughing at 
Miss Clarke des- 
cending from the 
boat on a narrow, 
shaky, slippen,- 
wet plank. It 
was pouring with 
rain, and the 
narrow paths 
were simply 
streams, so it 
ended in my 
attending Divine 
ser\ice with bare 
feet, as I had to 
wring my stock- 

! Don't be 
shocked: in 
China men and 
women never sit 
together ; so only 
a few girls saw 

"All day on 
Sunday it was 
typhoony, so we 
did not get in 
until Monday; 
and we were very 
glad indeed to 
leave the boat 
with its many 
shouting sailors, 
and the odour of 
the opium which 
ihcy smoke inces- 
santly." A good 
idea of these 
quaint arched- 
roofed boats to 

which Mrs. Studdert refers is given in the photo. 
" At one village we were hooted, and a crowd 
of men and boys made a rush, shouting, 
' Foreign devils ! Foreign devils ! ' That is 
their favourite term of endearment, and we get 
quite used to it. Their hatred simply arises 
from superstition, of course. How superstitious 
they are may be seen in the photograph of 







From a flio. 




From a\ 



the coffin -houses which I .secured. In these 
quaint sheds the coffins are deposited to await a 
' lucky day ' for burial. That day may come 

tomorrow, or it 

may be a case of 
several years ! 

" We were also 
on another tiny 
boat, but only to 
be taken across 
an inlet. 11 r 
bedding basket 
was placed in the 
centre of the 
boat, and Miss 
Clarke sat on one 
half and I on the 
other. We thus 
propi^ed each 
other's backs, 
while our feet 
dangled over the 
edge of the l)as- 
ket. The Bible- 

woman sat at the end of the boat and made 
a very good figure-head. She was not satis- 
fied with our rate of progress, and tried to 
instruct the ' captain ' (?), but he wouldn't 
be instructed. 

" She is a very plucky little thing. One 
day on our tour she got the room cleared 
for us to have our dinner in peace by the 
following movement (of course we always 
get crowds of people staring at us). She 
addressed the throng as follows : ' Well, 
what are you waiting for? What do you 
want to see ? What the Kuniongs eat, eh ? ' 
(all unmarried women are called Kuniongs). 
' Yery well, here is fish, here is rice, here are 
eggs, and here is fruit. Now look, look, 
look closely, and you will see that the 
Kuniongs have mouths and eyes and hands 
just like you ; so there's nothing more to 
see, and you may go.' 
• " She and Aliss Clarke preached the 
Gospel to hundreds, as wherever we went 
every inhabitant must come to see the 
' foreign devils.' When a crowd assembled 
they told them the ' old, old story.' 

" At one fishing village on the east coast 
the work is going on sjjlendidly. They 
have collected among themselves 2oodols. 
to build a church, which they are hoping to 
get this year. They say they are going to 
build a comfortable room for us, so that 
we may often go to see them ; no foreigner 
lives there. I really think that the Buddhist 
monastery will have little cause for exist- 
ence before long. 
" One photograph shows the picturesque 
flight of steps leading to the monastery referred 
to ; while the other is of a party of visitors from 

/''mill n\ 





a forcii;n who wore 'taken " within the 
very monastery walls. In this building, by the 
way, are thousands of idols, greatly revered by 
the followers of lUiddha. 

"One young fisherman takes his IJible out 
with him in his boat and reads to the men and 
also at the Customs. The men on the other 
boats like to hear the hymn-singing, so they 
invite him to their boats, and then he can talk 
and tell them of the 'good tidings of great joy.' 

" One day going over a hill my coolies 
dropped me and my chair four times. Once 
we all went over together sideways— chair, 
coolies, and myself inside. I luul to scramble 
out through the front in a most undignified 
manner : and we mii^ht have rolled down a 

/■rem a\ 

TlUi I1IN(,-HL'A l'A<;(il).\ I.\ SllLlH CHJN 

ravine. As it was, I escaped with nothing 
worse than thorns in my hands and wrath in 
my heart. I did so want to scold the coolies, 
but couldn't, as my knowledge of Chinese wasn't 
equal to it. At the same time I wanted to 
laugh so badly, for I must have looked a 'sight' 
crawling out on all fours as in an obstacle race ; 
but I had to laugh inwardly lest the men should 
see me, as they were inclined to giggle too." 

An Englishwoman's waist causes many rude 
remarks, and is spoken of by many as an 
argument for continuing foot-binding, so for 
these reasonsmany of the China Inland mission- 
aries wear native costume. This is seldom 
done by the ladies of the Church Mission- 
ary' Society, but in remote country places and 

when travelling they often wear loose blouses 
without any waists, and this "adapted dress" is 
shown in the photograph of Mrs. Studdert, 
before referred to. 

Alas ! that there should be another side to 
the picture. Readers of The \\\\ni World 
Mac.azink will remember that in the issue of 
April, 1899, a very graphic descrijjtion was 
given of the massacre of the Rev. R. ^V. 
Stewart, his wife, two children, the nurse, and 
si.x other lady missionaries, the article being 
entitled " The Martyrs of Ku-cheng." This 
awful scene of violence and bloodshed took place 
in the same province of Inih-kien to which I have 
been referring, and at Foo-chow, where the vic- 
tims were buried, 
a beautiful monu- 
ment is erected 
to their memor\'. 
Our photograjih 
shows a town in 
the lovely pro- 
vince of Fuh- 
kien, and gives a 
good idea of the 
fertility and the 
beauty of scenery 

Even in Fuh- 
ning proclama- 
tions have once 
or twice been 
posted up saying 
that the church 
was to be pulled 
down and the 
catechist killed, 
and many of the 
Christians, both 
native and Euro- 
irhoto. peaUj'have had a 
price set upon 
their heads. Sometimes the city has been 
invaded by a body of armed men threatening 
to kill the foreigners and burn their buildings. 
Twice to my knowledge this has happened, and 
in each instance the mvasion was due to a 
persecution case. For example, a young village 
Christian was much persecuted at the instigation 
of a literary man living in the same village, and 
the case came before the mandarin. Fearing 
lest the latter should give judgment for the 
{)ersecuted man, his tormentors armed and 
came into the city, threatening the mandarin's 
yamen as well as the missionaries' houses. But 
on this, as on the other occasion, the mandarin 
acted very well and promptly for the protection 
of the foreigners. 

Tzintzuntzan and Its ''Titian.*' 


By R. Bruce Johnstone. 

This gentleman, hearing of the superb " Entombment," by Titian, so jealously guarded by the 
fanatical Indians of Tzintzuntzan, in Southern Mexico, set out to see and photograph it one 
day in i8go. He nearly lost his life, and his photographic plates were destroyed. The trip is safe 
enough now, however, and anyone may see the picture. The interesting photos, illustrate Mr. 

Johnstone's journey, and are by Waite, of Mexico City, 

AR down in the rich, copper-bear- 
ing State of Michoacan, Southern 
Mexico, there is a large lake, known 
as the " Lago de Patzcuaro." This 
lake, at an elevation of over 8,oooft. 

above sea level, is one of the highest navigable 

bodies of water on the globe. Clustered all 

along its banks are hundreds of small huts, 

adobe-built, and thatched with straw and J>a////as. 

In these the Indian fisher-folk live. One of 

these little hamlets is called 

"Tzintzuntzan " (meaning 

" humming - bird "), and its 

huts are built in the shadow 

of a great grey church. It is 

with Tzintzuntzan and this 

same old ruined grey church 

that my adventure deals. 
While the old church, 

Moorish-domed, moss-grown, 

and more than half-ruined, 

is in itself fully worthy of a 

visit, there are many more 

churches almost exactly like 

it in Mexico -the work of 

devoted Jesuits and Francis- 
cans, who laboured, during 

the fifteenth and sixteenth 

centuries, with the barbarous 

Indians of Mexico. But, from 

an interior point of view, there 

is nothing like it on the 

Western Hemisphere. For, 

hung on the crumbling wall 

of this old church, in a light 

that would drive an artist to 

distraction, is one of the priceless treasures of 

the world : a treasure that princes and bishops 

and millionaires have in vain attempted to. buy 

from the simple Indians — an undoubtedly 

genuine " Entombment " by Titian ! 

For many years I had known of this picture, 

hidden away in an obscure church, in an 

obscure fishing-town of Mexico, and guarded 

jealously, night and day, by adoring Indians. 

For years, also, I had endeavoured to arrange 

Vol. vi. — 4. 


Front a r/ioiogra/i/i 

my plans so as to visit the little village, and see 
with my own eyes the great picture so long lost 
to the outside world. 

Many circumstances prevented me, however, 
and it was not until I was on the point of leaving 
Mexico that an opportunity finally occurred. 
Remotely situated as Tzintzuntzan was, and is, 
I found that by taking advantage of " Holy 
Week "and the attendant holidays I could get 
to the town of Patzcuaro, on the lake of the 
same name ; thence cross to 
^Fzintzuntzan, either by boat 
or by horseback around the 
lake ; have a look at the great 
[)icture, and then return to my 
starting-point, Mexico City— 
and all within one week. You 
can imagine the alacrity with 
which I packed up my camera 
— for I was determined to get 
a good photograph of the 
painting — and included as 
many extra plates as I dared 
take ; also sketching materials 
and a couple of revolvers. 

Generally speaking, I had 
found the Indians of Mexico a 
very pacific folk; courteous, 
too, and very hospitably in- 
clined toward travellers. But 
friends who were in a position 
to know assured me that, 
firstly, during Holy Week all 
Indians were more or less on 
the "rampage"; and secondly, 
that the Indians of Michoacan 
were not pacifically inclined — on the contrary, 
that they would as soon make things unpleasant 
for a white man as not ; and that, thirdly, it 
was 7iof a safe thing, under any circumstances, 
to visit Tzintzunt/an and the "Titian." More 
than one traveller (I was told) had been escorted 
back, under threat of death, from the adobe 
walls of the remote hamlet, without a sight of 
the picture, and widi no encouragement to 
return again for a look at it. There was a dark 



tale, told me by reputable Mexicans, of some 
enterprising Yankees who had formed a syndicate 
to steal the noble {viintini;. and resell it " for 
some high figure "" in New York. Their plans, 
to put it mildly, had gone astray. I asked what 
bccanie of the promoters, and my friend shrugged 
his shoulders indifferently. 

" Who knows ? " he murmured. " I'here were 
three of then>, all 'white men,' and armed tooth 
and nail. All the same, they never came back, 
either to ^at^cuaro or Mexico City. Of course, 
we tried to unravel the mystery ; we sent 
jXTsonal search parties, and the (lovernment did 
what it could to find the men. Never was hair 
or hide of them found. Perhaps, if the lake 
could be dragged, we could learn more about 
things. lUjt until that is done " 

From all accounts it was not going to prove 
a "walk-over" to visit the ''Titian." Many 
"Job's comforters," indeed, prophesied that I 
would never return in l/ie fJes/i, and even Todos 
Santos murmured rebelliously — like the man in 
the Bible, " begging to be excused." I must 
explain that Todos Santos was my niozo, or 

of T/.int/.untzan : they were all bastanie malos 
(or bad) ; and if the senor desired to journey 
among such sin veri^uenzas (shameless ones) he, 
Todos, desired permission to remain meanwhile 
in the town of Patzcuaro, wherein peace and 
order were to be had, and there were gendarmes 
at every street corner. 

However, the scruples of Todos Santos were 
overcome long before we reached Patzcuaro 
town, a silver-laced sombrero proving a potent 
factor ; and so it was not mozo-less that I pre- 
pared, in Patzcuaro, for a final fifteen-mile ride 
around the lake to Tzintzuntzan and the mys- 
terious " Titian." Todos Santos had begged 
permission, however, to carry botli a revolver and 
his beloved " throwing-knife." Knowing that 
he could do little damage with the former, and 
that the latter might be of use, I made no 
objections. Little did I think that it was to 
this same knife I should later on owe my life ! 

Li Patzcuaro— a quaint, beautiful, old-world 
city — I hastened to engage horses, provisions, 
etc., for the trip. We, of course, could have 
boated across the lake, but one glance at the 

I- Ton, a /■Hctn. ly\ the TcW.-; <jI- I'AiZCL AHil, THE FIRST STAGE OF MR. JOHNSTONKS JOURNEV. [ll-'aite, MexicO. 

personal attendant. His name, interpreted, 
means "All the Saints," and he was so called 
by his godfathers and godmothers in baptism 
because of the fact that they could not agree 
upon any one saint after whom to name him ; 
hence, as a compromise, he was christened 
" All the Saints." 

Todos announced that he knew Patzcuaro, it 
being his tierrn (or birthplace) ; also he knew 
the Indians of that place, as well as the Indians 

queer, flat-bottomed Indian boats decided me 
to have nothing to do with them ! For these 
craft are anything but safe. Besides, the 
Lake of Paizcuaro is a very frisky and breezy 
body of water, and, in short, I concluded that 
horses would provide an entirely safe mode of 
locomotion ! 

On a somewhat weedy pair of beasts, there- 
fore, we started at dawn, I " packing " my large 
camera with me, and 'Podos Santos caring for 




From a Photo, by Waite, Mexico. 

the food : that is to say, at such times as he 
was not muttering fervent ''Padre Nuestros" 
and praying to his namesakes, the saints, to 
preserve our souls from the genie malo (bad 
people) of Tzintzuntzan I 

The road lay close to the shores of the lake, 
and wound about through beautifully fresh 
green country. Cool lake breezes fluttered the 
leaves of trees. Huge white, scarlet, and V:>lue 
creepers flaunted themselves almost in our very 
faces, and on all 
sides there were 
the twittering 
and chirping of 
song-birds. At 
almost every 
step we had ex- 
quisite views of 
the lake : I took 
several photo- 
graphs of it, as 
well as of the 
road itself, with 
the lake and 
towering moun- 
tains in the back- 

Midway on 
the journey we 
began to come 
up to and pass 
group after group 
of festively -clad 
Indians, who, 
carrying liuge 

crates of pottery 
on their backs, 
were on their 
way to Patzcuaro 
for the fiestas. 
None of them 
responded to 
my friendly 
" Buenos dias " 
(good morning), 
but trotted sul- 
lenly forward, 
their dark faces 
stern and un- 
friendly. " I 
told you so, 
sen or," mur- 
mured my mozo, 
spurring up 
closer to my 
side ; " these are 
very ugly Indios. 
They may yet 
give us trouble!" 
On the top of the next hill Todos pointed 
out a speck of white, surrounded by groves of 
dark green ; this he announced to be the 
church inside which hung the " retrato," or 
picture. Incited thereby to fresh efforts, 1 
whipped up my jaded horse, with orders to 
Todos also to hasten his beast. Then, plan- 
ning in my own mind how best to secure 
several really good photographs of the paint- 
ing, I was trotting briskly onward, my eyes 

From a Photo, by Waite, Mexico. 



fjxcil eaijerly on the white dot of a church. 
when I heard a wail behintl nic of " Palron ! 
{xitron ! " (master). 

It was Todos Santos, of course, and in 
irouhle — equally of course. His horse was 
limping painfully, evidently badly lamed, and 
I gallo|>ed back to lliul out how much was 
wronj:. 1 soon .saw that the horse could not 
possibly keep up with me, and, in fact, must 
travel "very slowly. For myself, if I intended 
to get good views of the " Titian " before the 
noon light waned, it behoved me to press on 
ahead of my unlucky mozo, allowing him to 
follow as the horse's lamed leg permitted. Tell- 
ing him, therefore, to meet me at the church, I 
galloped along briskly alone, followed by Todos's 
anxious importunities to " have much care " 
once I should be in the village. 

As I drew nearer the little town I began to 
notice occasional queerly-clad figures crawling 
along the road wliich I was following — the 
figures of Indian men and women, attired in 
rags, and each one croivned with thorns! I 
wondered mightily, until it finally occurred to 
me that these were penitents, who, for either 
real or fancied sins, were making the journey to 
Tzintzuntzan and the great picture on their 
knees, without food, and their skulls crowned 
with cruel, piercing thorns. All these pilgrims 
covered their faces as I approached, but I could 
-See the bruises on their poor, worn bodies, as 
well as the travel stains, traces of blood and 
flagellations which their self-ordered penances 
had imposed. And, still pondering on the 
fanaticism which rendered these crazy perform- 
ances possible, I galloped up to the walls of 
Tzintzuntzan. My pilgrimage was ended at 
last, and noiv for the famous and mysterious 
" Titian " ! 

It seemed difficult to believe, as I clattered 
u|» the narrow, adobe-lined street, that this 
deserted Indian town had once been an im- 
porLint city of 40,000 souls ; the head-(|uarters 
of a great Spanish bishop, whose see was in the 
old church of San Francisco, dating back to 
the fifteenth century. Whatever had been the 
splendour of Tzintzuntzan three hundred years 
ago, " Irhabod '' could now have been written 
over its crumbling adobe portals. Verily had 
its glor)- departed ! 

Pigs, burros (, and hungry-looking pariah 
dogs haunted the narrow yards and deserted 
streets, and I began to wonder where were the 
"bad Indians " regarding whom Todos Santos 
had made so many dour prophecies. I was on 
the point of concluding that, like Ephraim, they 
were " not," when a turn of the narrow street 
gave me a full view of a shady place, in 
which were numerous tents and booths, all 

thronged with Indians in holiday attire, eating, 
drinking, and making merry. The buzzing 
sound of many voices filled the air, and 
there was music made by queer stringed 
iiistruuiciits and the sound of dancing. I 
had forgotten that it was " Holy Thursday," 
and that, consequently, the town would be 
en fete ! Having prayed and fasted early in the 
morning they were now eating, dancing, and 
drinking (especially drinking!). By night, if 
'i'odos Santos's predictions were of value, they 
would be crazily drunk and murderously in- 
clined — men, women, and children alike ! 

In truth no pleasant or friendly looks greeted 
me as I rode along the edge of the plaza. 
Dark faces scowled and glared at me, and 
guttural Indian words followed me, as with a 
creepy feeling in my back I hurriedly made for 
the church. There, as I hoped, I would find 
the priest, who would both protect me from un- 
pleasantness and make arrangements for me to 
see and photograph the " Entombment." 

Passing through a sunken, rusty iron grating 
I found myself in a delightful old orchard, 
planted with centuriesold olive trees, still green 
and lovely, though their huge trunks were white 
and gnarled with time. Here I tied my horse, 
rested for a brief moment, and then, unpacking 
my camera, made my way towards a flight of 
broken stone steps, which I judged to be the 
entrance to the priest's apartments. As I went 
I stopped for a moment to examine the bells, 
which, queerly enough, were suspended from a 
sort of scaffold outside the church ! Three 
larger bells were hanging side by side, and uj) 
in a lonely corner dangled a small one, all of 
them with their respective ropes sweeping the 
ground. Reaching up to examine the dates 
and legends graven into their copper rims 
(they were cast in the fifteenth century, 
under the direction of good Pishop Quiroga), 
I caught a glimpse of many white-clad Indians 
stealing furtively through the same gate which I 
had entered, and making iheir way towards the 
back of the church. I must confess that my 
heart beat rather quickly as I watched their 
stealthy movements, and unwelcome recollec- 
tions crept into my mind of the unfortunate 
Americans who had been mysteriously lost in 
this same place, and to recover whom // niig/it 
be ?ieeessary to drag the hike ! And yet, I had 
my two good revolvers and a belt full of cart- 
ridges. Remembering these, and the priest, 
who would of a surety protect even foreign 
visitors, I laughed at my nervous foreboding, 
and made my way briskly toward the padre's 
supposed residence. 

Passing through the crumbling entrance I 
found myself in a dreary, stone-paved corridor. 



Flickering rays of light stole in through a high 
octagonal window, from which the stained glass 
had long since fallen. Lizards sunned them- 
selves on its broken facings, and bats and 
mysterious birds flapped about in the arched 
dome. A heavy smell of incense hung about 
the place, from which I assumed that the 

Nevertheless, I said I wished to see the painting 
which hung in the sacristy. 

As I anticipated, my friend shook his shock 
head and closed his eyes, with a pained 
expression. " Oh, no ; it was impossible ! No 
estranjeros were admitted withm the sacristy. 
The entire village would rise in wrath were their 

great rttrato shown to a 
stranger and a heretic ! " 

Curbing my wrath, and 
observing the cunning 
gleam in his l)loodshot 
eyes, I quietly drew out 
of my pocket a five- 
dollar bill, and laid it on 
the rickety wooden table 
near me. His evil face 
shone, and, with a furtive 
glance about, he picked it 
up and hid it in his 
blouse. Then, in a pur- 
posely loud voice, he 
began to dally with me. 


"Would the 
cinco pesos 



From a Photo, iy] outside the church." [H'aite, Mexico. 

church, or a small chapel of it, adjoined this remained entirely 

My knock remained unanswered for several 
minutes, although I plainly heard the sound 
of sandalled feet and whispering voices. Im- 
patient, I knocked more loudly. Immediately 
a peon lounged lazily down the corridor towards 
me, grunting insolently in answer to my greeting, 
and puffing cigarette smoke into my very face. 
He was a wicked-looking customer, with bad 
eyes and a cruel mouth, and I felt an over- 
powering desire to kick him, which I restrained, 
however, and inquired calmly for "■ el padre." 

On the padre had my faith been pinned. 
Judge, therefore, of my dismay when I was 
informed by this evil-eyed \illain that "<?/ 
padre " was absent. When would he return ? 
Plies, he (the villain) did not know. Qnien 
sahel Perhaps to-morrow — perhaps the day 
after. Meanwhile, he (the villain) was' the 
sacristan, and had charge of the place. " What 
did the ' white man ' want ? " 

Now, this was a [)icce of bad luck, to be 
sure. Still, I was in for it, and inasmuch as I 
had travelled all this way to see the " Titian " I 
might as well make one last effort, even though 
I lelt sure I could do nothing with this ruffian. 

dollars) to the poor of 
the parish, in considera- 
tion of the risk which he 
(the sacristan) assumed 
through letting a Pro- 
ieslanlc into the sa^rario ? 
No? Plies, Hen: it 
impossible. ^Vithout a 
donation to the poor no one could be admitted 
to look at the picture of ' el Crista.' " 

The dallying ended by my passing over 
another bill to this sin vet^s^nenza, even though 
I knew I was being fleeced at a great rate ; after 
which, still carrying my camera, I was insolently 
beckoned down another crumbling hall-way, 
ending in a gloomy corridor, where, built into 
an arch, were two crazily-swinging wooden doors. 
Through these we passed, the villain crossing 
himself diligently the while, and praying steadily 
that the Virgin and the saints might forgive his 
sin in thus admitting a stranger and a heretic 
into this sacred place. 

The room was large and bare, and lighted by 
one heavily-barred window. It was furnished 
only with a large round table — and the "Titian." 
For there it hung, the no!)le painting, work of a 
master, and his present to a King. By the latter 
it had been sent to " His Most Beloved Country 
of Old New Spain," and now it was the idol of 
the still half-barbarous Indians of Tzintzuntzan ! 
For the first time I forgot the many petty 
annoyances which had attended my journey, and 
also my desire to kick and pound the insolent 
villain, who was even then puffing his tobacco 


smoke into my face. I even felt that the ten 
dollars of which I had been fleeced, " for the 
I>enerit of the poor." were ten dollars expended 
in a good and worthy cause. Amicably inclined 
even towards my scamp of a guide, I put down 
my camera on the table, seated myself alongside 
it. and prepared to worship steadily at the shrine 
of this great picture, which, with its strange and 
almost incredible story, possessed doubly great 
Hiscinations for me. 

Eew people are unacquainted with this greatest 
of Titian's paintings, " The Entombment." and 
I do not propose here to enter upon a descrip- 
tion of the undoubtedly genuine example at 
T/intzuntzan beyond saying that many noted 
artists agree that this painting is undoubtedly 

Francisco, in Tzintzuntzan. There, on the wall 
of the great church, this painting was placed, 
over 300 years ago, and in that same spot it 
has glowed, and " wasted its sweetness on 
the desert air,'' through earthquakes, floods, 
revolutions, and piratical attempts to tear it 
secretly from its place ! And for as many more 
years it is likely to remain there if the Indians 
who worship it have their say. Because, when 
archdeacons, bisho[)s, and even Popes (so it is 
said) are not allowed to buy, it is hardly prob- 
able that other efforts for the [possession ot 
"The I'^ntombment " will succeed ! 

At what time my scoundrelly guide dis- 
appeared ; how long I sat motionless, gazing at 
the picture, wondering at the freshness of its 


From a Photo, by Waitc, Mexico. 

by Titian. Certainly none but a master hand 
could have produced so marvellous a work. 

It may not be amiss, however, to state briefly 
the legends accounting for the presence of this 
" Entombment " in so obscure and out-of-the- 
world a place as Tzintzuntzan. 

When Titian was in the zenith of his fame and 
glor>- (so the stor>- goes) the fanatical Philip II. 
reigned on • .ne of Spain. To convert 

the Indians 01 nis distant possession, Mexico, 
this monarch sent over his own specially beloved 
friend, Bishop Quiroga, and, as a token of 
affection, Titian's masterpiece also crossed the 
ocean, given by the King to the See of San 

colours, and breaking over and over again the 
commandment which forbids covetousness, I 
have now no idea. It must, however, have 
been for over an hour, for when I came back to 
reality I saw that the shadows of the noonday 
sun were lengthening, and that if I wanted to 
get some good photogrnphs of the picture I 
had best get to work rapidly. 

Still half dreaming, I set up my camera at the 
proper distance : focused it properly : drew the 
black cloth over my head, and was on the point 
of squeezing the bulb, when a heavy struggling 
mass precipitated it.self on me — a mass that 
smelled of vile teguila, and jabbered in guttural 



unknown dialect — I, with my head still en- 
veloped in the black cloth, was borne to the 
stone floor, against which my head struck with 
a stunning bang. I heard the crash of breaking 
glass, and then things grew faint and inthstinct. 
My last recollection is of the trickling of some- 
thing warm over my face and neck. Then a 
sickening sensation, and after that — nothing I 

When I regained consciousness I found 
myself lying, bound hand and foot, in a dark, 
damp, unpaved place, with the odour of a tomb. 
Straggling rays of light filtered in through a 
high old Spanish window, enabling me to make 
out, in some degree, the dreariness of my sur- 
roundings : while from all sides, in the darkness, 
came the pattering of tiny feet (doubtless mice), 
and high overhead I heard the flapping and 
squeaking of bats. 

I felt very sick and faint. My head seemed 
to be splitting, and my arms and legs ached 
cruelly from their tightly-wound bonds. For a 
moment or two I could not realize what was 
wrong. Then, with a sudden flash of memory, 
I recollected all. I had been overpowered in 
the act of photographing the " Titian " ; this 
was doubtless the mysterious subterranean 
passage cut from Tzintzuntzan to the lake, of 
which 1 had heard so much. I was a prisoner 
thercMi, and probably intended by the Indians 
for either starvation here or drowning in the lake ! 

Struggling against and overcoming a feeling 
of despair and nausea, I managed to sit up. 
My feet were tied tightly together, but it 
occurred to me that it might be possible to 
gnaw asunder the lighter ropes that twisted 
around my hands. I therefore set to work with 
all my might. I would not submit willingly to 
be tortured by these demons of Indians. 

Suddenly I heard uncertain noises coming 
toward me in the darkness ; also the stumbling 
of sandalled feet. 'I'hen — oh, joy !— I heard 
the voice of Todos Santos, raised purposely, and 
discussing loudly with another Indian the pros 
and cons as to my disposal. Should I be left 
to starve here with the skeletons of the other 
(Iringos, or would it be best to drown me in the 
lake? My heart sank: was it possible that my 
faithful mozo had turned faithless, too, or was 
he talking merely for effect? I listened breath- 
lessly. Then it occurred to me to stretch myself 
out motionless, pretending not to have regained 
consciousness. Perhaps Todos had a plan of 
some sort. 

The two were close upon me, and I could 
hear my mozo upbraiding the other Indian for 
not having brought the torch. " In such black- 

ness, amtgo 7nifl, it is not possible to see whether 
the white devil is here or not. Vava, tjo and 
get a light ! " he entreated. 

Grumbling drunkenly, Todos's companion 
staggered back to get a light ; I sat up and 
called cautiously, and the next moment my 
faithful servant was at my side. 

" Senor," he whispered, " I am going to place 
my knife underneath you. Take it, as soon as 
the time is safe, and cut your bonds — I, with 
this otTier Indian, will be here to guard you 
until midnight, when they intend to drown you I 
Vou can take the knife in your teeth and use 
it. Meanwhile, 1 will make my companero 
drunk with mescal : he will sleep soundly, and I 
will appear to, so that they will not suspect me. 
When we sleep make your escape : I have left a 
trail of white paper all along the secret passage ; 
follow that, and it will take you out close to 
where I have tied your horse. His mouth is 
gagged, and his feet are wrapped in trapos 
(cloths). Make haste to Patzcuaro, senor, for 
the love of the Virgin : if they get you, once 
you have escaped, they will torture " 

He hurried noiselessly back to the other 
Indian, who now was heard coming, with his 
torch. I shut my eyes and lay motionless while 
the two examined me to see if I was still safely 
bound. Satisfied that I could not move, they 
settled themselves with a torch and a bottle of 
mescal at the far end of the passage. They 
were to guard me until midnight, but, as Todcs 
Santos drunkenly hiccoughed, that was no 
reason why they should not console themselves 
with a few copitas (drinks). 

It was not half an hour until they were both 
snoring drunkenly, and you can imagine that I 
lost no time in getting Todos's sharp knife 
between my teeth ; the cutting of my ropes was 
then an easy matter, and, stealthily following 
the trail of white paper, easily distinguished in 
the greyish darkness, I soon found myself once 
more in the open air. To the sound of music 
and shouting in the plaza I stealthily guided my 
horse around the deserted streets and back to 
the Patzcuaro trail. Then I made the record 
ride of my life to Patzcuaro, which place I 
reached in safety early next morning. 

There Todos Santos joined me late that same 
day, full of glee in having outwitted the si7i 
vergiie?izas who had planned to kill me for 
photographing their idolized picture. Naturally, 
he had not been suspected in connection v,-ith 
my escape ; and, in fact, I believe it was laid at 
the door of that friend of all heretics—///^ 
Devil ! 

A Murder Case in Kano. 

By T. J. Tonkin. 

Doctor Tonkin accompanied the Hausa Association's Expedition to Kano in 1894, which was 

conducted by the Rev. Charles Robinson, now Hon. Canon of Ripon. This sketch illustrates 

the peculiar course of criminal justice in the recently-acquired British territory on the Niger, 

and also shows the respect paid by the Mohammedans of those regions to insanity. 

AXXA-SHi: Hanna-shi:^' (Stop 
him! stop him!) "Shi ya kasshi 
mutum !" (He has killed a man !) 
\\"hv .'^liould I stop him ? It was 
no affair of mine. Killed — had 
he? Well, he had not killed me, so I edged 
my horse out of the way and let the fugitive 

It was a hot January afternoon, and I was 
riding into Kano market with the Sherif Braima 
Bin es Souf. \\c were slowly forging our way 
through the seething crowds that packed the 
narrow passages between the palm-thatched 
sheds when we became aware of a commotion 
approaching us. I thought of the career of a 
fire-engine through the streets of a civilized 
town. Tlie Soudanis, ahvays keen to scent 
death in disorder, rapidly melted away into 
hitherto invisible holes and corners, and the 
road was left clear for the row. 

The main actors held the stage. Ri"ht down 
the centre of the road there tore a man, foaming 
at the mouth, with clothes streaming out behind, 
and fear of death graven on his face. At his 
heels was a guetic of excited pursuers, panting, 
yelling, screaming. They had nearly caught 
him, were reaching out to him, could almost 
touch him. In their frenzy they were calling to 
all and sundry to stop him : to the wary native 
trader disappearing down a side alley, to Bin 
es Souf, to me. 'J'he shouts came short and 
sharp, through the clouds of dust, between the 
ixints. They fell on the ear like blows. 

But /, of all people, why should / stop him ? 
I did not know then that for some time' Kano 
had been wanting a murderer; that an impor- 
tant citizen had been stabbed to death in the 
compound of his own house; and that Kano, 
after looking for the criminal with mui.h anxiety 
and for several weeks, had at length found him. 
I did not know this, so I let him pass. 

But not so Bin es Souf. Swinging his horse 
round on his hind quarters, he" dropped his 
heavy spear on the beam of the shed in front of 
him and barrc-d the way. The wretched man, 
blind with terror, dashed against the barrier. It 

caught him across the chest and hurled him 
backwards. His pursuers closed on him like 
wild beasts. They grabbed him by any hold 
that came handy, and a moment later he was 
being dragged away over the rough ground, 
bump — bump — bump— to the jilace of the 
governor. We followed. 

Passing by the edge of the pool Jakara and 
the piece of land next to the lines of the 
slaughter-houses, and crossing the road that 
leads to the Woman's Gate, we came to a build- 
ing solid and strong ; its heavy walls and 
massive pillars gleaming darkly in the afternoon 
sun. It was the " Wurin Sariki," or place of 
the governor. We dismounted at the back, 
and leaving the horses with our servants made 
our way round. \Vhat had happened was by 
this time widely known, and the building was 
embedded in a crowd like a fly in amber. But 
we had no difficulty in getting through. We 
shoved in at the outside edge. The people, 
looking round to see who pressed them, and 
catching sight of well-known faces, speedily 
made way. 

" Wuri ! Wuri ! " (Room ! room I) "Wuri ! 
ma Ba Turawa ! " (Room for the white men!) 
With a gesture of thanks we entered. The 
court had just arranged itself. In the centre, 
squatting on a ram's skin, was the governor. 
He was a fine-looking man of about forty, with 
a scar over his brow and a slightly grizzled 
moustache. He was pleasant of countenance 
and richly dressed. He wore a robe of native 
silk, red and embroidered. His broad, sinewy 
hands were clasped over one knee. His feet 
were bare, l)ut a pair of morocco-leather slippers 
lay by his duzii (skin). By him sat his scribe, 
with paper, ink-horn, and reed pens. Around 
him were his personal attendants and advisers, 
suitably dressed, yet less richly than he. On 
either side were the guards, in groups — tall, 
muscular countrymen with short, kilt-like 
shirts, sandals dangling from their elbows, 
knives buckled on to their wrists, and broad, 
gleaming spear-blades fully half a head taller 
than themselves. 




^Ve passed over to the governor and saluted. 
" Sanu, Sariki ; Sanu." (Good-day, governor ; 

"Sanukade." (Good-day to you.) 
" Kana lafia ? " (We hoped he was well.) 
" Lafia lau." (He was quite well.) 
" To ! mun gode ! Mun gode Allah ! mun 
gode!" (Ah! that was a relief! We were 
thankful to hear that ! Thankful to God to 
hear it.) 

We had come, we .said, to see this thing 
that he was just about to attend to. The 
pleasure of permitting us to do so was, he 
assured us, so great that he doubted not it had 
come to him direct from Allah. 

That was all right — we were happy — it was 
well — To !*^ — and covering our retreat with 
thanks and amiable smiles we shufifled away to 
the side wall, tucked our robes under us, and 
sat down. We had saluted the governor; the 
case might proceed. 

The prisoner was brought forward. He was 
in a pitiable condition. His clothes were torn ; 
he was smothered with dust ; one of his knees 

Vol, vi.— 5 

* Native expression of satisfaction. 

was bleeding. He was a man in the prime of 
life, tall, straight. His teeth were stained brown 
(the natives of Hausaland chew snuff), and he 
wore a silver ring. The wretched man fumbled 
about aimlessly with his waist-belt, produced 
his snuff case, gazed at it, then let it drop from 
his nerveless fingers. It was picked up and 
laid before the governor, who gravely opened it 
and helped himself to a mouthful. Up to this 
not a word had been spoken. The prisoner, 
who was quite grey with terror, now suddenly 
stiffened himself up, and remained for a moment 
rigid in every muscle, with eyes protruding and 
jaws clenched. We had hardly grasped the new 
phase of affairs before he was down, tossing on 
the ground, with lolling tongue and working 
limbs. It was the result of fright and shock — 
a fit. 

Merely remarking that it was the work of a 
devil, the court waited for him to come round. 
Presently, when he had ceased working, he was 
hauled to his feet, stupid and dazed, and the 
parody of examination was begun. The 
questions were answered for him ; he took no 
part in the proceedings. With absent eye he 


'riiK wini': woki.d ^rAGAZINE. 

looked from one lo anotlK-r of the solid circle 
of faces as if tryiiij^ lo make out what it was all 
about. He was held erect, but his limbs hung 
loose, his head waggled from side to side like 

the son in whose company the old man had last 

been seen. 

"What have you done with our father?" 
Ke told his tale — to his mother and brethren 

'the i'risonkk suddenly stiffened up, with eyes protruding and jaws clenched. 

the head of the little porcelain mandarin of the 
toy shop ; he dribbled at the mouth. 

He was Halledu, son of Yusuff, son of 
Mommadu, a Maalam of Karrango, in the pro- 
vince of Khadeja. That is to say, he had been 
born at Karrango. He was nosv living in Kano, 
in the eastern portion of the town, near the 
house of the Turaki. The Turaki was the man 
who had been murdered. He was an official, a 
collector of taxes in the; city of Kano. He was 
thought to be rich. He was known to be 
careful, and many people supposed he had 
stores of silver dollars buried in his compound. 
I dare say he had. 

One night he (the Turaki) had been talking 
with one of his sons. About ten o'clock, or 
thereabouts, the old man left the hut. He 
usually spent th^ night there, but on this occa- 
sion he d; return. There were lots of 
other huts in l.'jc compound, and his son, think- 
ing he had gone in to somebody else's, did not 
trouble about him, but went to bed. But next 
morning he was found dead, stabbed through 
the heart, and lying by a roughly excavated 
hole, with a cap and the short, sharp implement 
used for digging on the ground beside him. 
The alarm was raised, and the family turned to 

and to the outside world. No one believed 
him. He would most certainly have been 
punished on suspicion but that he was an 
influential man. As it was, matters were allowed 
to drift for a bit. But day by day public 
opinion got more dead against him, and it is 
almost certain that eventually he would have 
been brought to book for his supposed crime 
had not a lucky circumstance intervened. 

He was one day thinking over the business 
(he had done little else ever since the murder), 
when it flashed upon him that when his father 
left him he had been bareheaded, whereas 
when he was found there was a cap beside him. 
For a moment he was staggered, then he rushed 
to the hut which contained his dead father's 
belongings and got that cap. Alas ! it told him 
nothing ; but, stay — what was this ? — a thick lump 
in the hem. Surrounded by every creature in 
that compound, he ripped the stitches and 
tore out the kernel. It was a charm, a few 
lines of writing on tre-lune paper, inclosed in 
a leather case. It was unrolled. The writing 
referred to the merciful and compassionate 
nature of the deity ; but at the bottom, under 
some cabalistic hieroglyphics that formed the 
body, were these words : " Laiya-n Halledu Dan 



Karrango." (The charm of Hallcdu, native of 

For a moment there was a pause while the 
company took in the information and reckoned 
what it meant ; then with one accord and with 
a yell : "YaHalledu! Dan Karrango!" they 
rushed to the compound of the now convicted 
man and began that chase which ended so 
disastrously for the quarry against the beam of 
Braima's spear. 

This, then, was the march of events I gathered 
from the medley of statements, relevant and 
otherwise, that formed the "evidence" taken by 
the court of the governor. The story of the 
crime, so far as I could piece it together, seemed 
to be as follows : — 

The compounds of Halledu and the murdered 
man (the Turaki) were adjoining. On the 
night of the tragedy the Turaki went away to 
that part of the compound over against the 
dividing wall, and began to dig a hole. Halledu, 
wandering about in his compound, and hearing 
the sounds, ran away and got a ladder to look 
over the wall. He got there just in time to 
see —as well as it was possible to see in the 
darkness of the night — the Turaki covering 
something up with earth. Now, Halledu thought 
it was silver that was being buried, and the 
temptation was too strong for him. Slipping 
over the wall, he stuck the unsuspecting old 
man fairly and squarely through the ribs with 
his knife, and then began to poke about for the 

It appeared at the trial that the Turaki, a 
tidy old gentleman, sharing to the full the 
prejudice among upper-class Hausas against 
having their compounds littered, had merely 
dug that hole with the object of burying some 
refuse, so that what Halledu found did not 
come up to his expectations. It is safe to con- 
jecture that he regained his compound a 
saddened as well as an unrewarded man ; but 
he left his cap behind. 

Now, it's a little theory of my own, but I 
don't think that cap was on Halledu's head 
when the deed was committed. I think that 
Halledu, when he peered over the wall, removed 
his cap so that its colour should not betray him, 
and sticking it loosely in his pocket, or holding 
it in his hand, laid the foundation of the- clue 
that ultimately undid him. 

"Allah uk-a-bar." 

The sun had set and the Alkalis from the 
mosques were calling the faithful to prayer. 

" Allah uk-a-bar." 

Allah ! was it as late as that ? How time 
had passed. The prisoner was hurried away to 
the gaol while the court hastily prepared to 
perform the usual ablutions. 

I snatched the opportunity, while the governor 
was arranging his skin for prayer, of compli- 
menting him on the success of his examination, 
and expressing the hope that I should have 
the 0[)portunity of witnessing the outcome of 
his .sagacity. The ways of the enlightened of 
Allah, I assured him, were always of the 
deepest interest to me. A smile of gratified 
pride -lighted up his countenance. 

"Sai ka gani Legita." (You shall see.) 

Picture to yourself a long, narrow courtyard ; 
the high walls built of sun-dried brick, rough 
and brown, the early morning sun just peeping 
over one of them, and making a sort of hard, 
straw-coloured margin along the top of the 
other, and you will get some idea of the State 
prison of Kano, in which I found myself on the 
morning following the events just chronicled. 
A low, groined arch formed the gateway, and 
three or four men, armed with swords, the 
guard. There were fourteen prisoners within. 
All except two were heavily ironed. Most 
of the prisoners had bound fragments of 
cloth round their ankles to prevent their 
fetters galling them ; but some had bad 
wounds in spite of this precaution. In 
some cases the chains connecting the ankles 
were so long that the wearers could not walk 
about without lifting the slack off the ground. 
This they managed by passing a strip of cloth 
round the chain and suspending it from their 
necks. In some cases they had not a long 
enough strip to do it this way ; then they had 
to hold it in their teeth instead. One man 
evidently took a pride in his bonds — he had 
polished them ! 

Halledu was one of the prisoners who was 
not ironed. He was sitting at the top of the 
yard in the same clothes that we had seen him 
in the day before. His feet were still dusty ; 
his beard was beginning to grow. I spoke to 

" Halledu ! " 

He took no notice. 

•' Do you not hear me, Halledu ? Is there 
anything I can do for you ? " 

He kept his eyes fixed on the ground. 

" Have some ' goro ' ? " 

Now, " goro " is the cola nut, which the 
native loves to chew. 

There was no word of response, no lifting 
of the eyes ; but a grimy hand was thrust 
forward and dry, claw-like fingers closed on the 

" And why wasn't he shackled ? " I asked the 
guard — " a murderer ? " 

"No need. O, my master. ' Ya hauka.'" (He 
is mad.) 




nan ! " (Good-day, 

Ab ■* - '.veek later — nine o'clock one morn- 
ing— ine seated in the reception-room of 
the Grand Vizier's house. A friend hailed me. 

" Sanu Legita, kana 
Legita ; you here ?) 

" Ina nan abokina." (I am here, my friend.) 

" Va-i-kean, gidan Halledu yai-zua." (You're 
just in time : H"'' '•'^ people are coming.) 

I knew it, . it is why I was there. 

Presently a message came from the Vizier 
asking me to go inside. I went in and saluted 

" Salaam ! Alckun es Salaam ! " 

The business he was about that morning, he 
told me, was the allotment of Halltdu's house- 
hold as slaves. 

It apj>ears that all his goods had been con- 
fiscated — about three-quarters of them having 
been absorbed by tht: Crown, whilst the re- 
mainder passed over to the family of the 
' lered man as compensation. And now 
.... household, wives, servants, and children 
remained to be disposed of, and — ah ! here 
they were. 

From a narrow, square-arched doonvay, one 
by one, there filed into the room ten or twelve 
women, with several children, the eldest a boy 
about fourteen years of age. 

" To ! " The boy would do for the King- 
beautifully — for a page. " Mohammed " (to 
his major-domo), " stand him on one side." 

"For the King?" 

" For the King." 

Then there was one of the young women, a 
really beautiful girl, wath aquiline features, a tiny 
mouth, and long, sweeping lashes veiling a pair 
of the most dog-like eyes it has ever been my 
fortune to look upon either on this side of the 
world or the other. She, also, was reserved for 
the King, and .several more ; then the rest were 
swept into a heap under the head of "com- 
pensation." For the injured family, the Vizier 
explained to me ; but doubtless one or two of 
them would find their way into his own 
establishment, as also would some of those 
allotted to the King. 

They were removed. One by one they 
passed back through the little, square-arched 
door, then the curtain fell, and the House of 
Halledu "was not." 

There is but one scene more, and that one 
illustrates a distinctive peculiarity of Moham- 
medan beliefs. Loss of reason is a calamity 
attributed to the direct action of the deity. If 
a man be mad, that is enough ; he is treated 


with a degree of respect which in all probability 
he had never commanded in his saner moments. 
Even when insanity comes, or is beheved to 
come, as punishment for crime, the result is the 
same — the case is lifted out of human hands, 

turban, I and my Ishmaelitish friend were picking 
our way to our sheds. 

In a bay, which afforded some slight pro- 
tection from the eddying human stream, there 
stood a man, old, with bowed back and 

^ K'K>l-;ia KD l-OK THE Is 

and the regard which the man may have forfeited 
by his deeds is granted to him again as an 
e.xample of the handiwork of Allah. 

It was so with Halledu ; this superstitious 
tolerance was the last stage of his debacle. 
me give my last glimpse of him. 

I will ask you to imagine again the scene on 
the edge of the market where, a few weeks 
before, the collar of Braima's spear had rattled 
on the barrier of the shed. Once more the 
crowds were surging along in the stifling air and 
the blinding sunlight, and again, in robe and 

shrunken limbs. He stared blearedly at the 
passers-by ; the horses caught his wandering 
gaze, and, steadying for a moment his staggering 
frame, he thrust forward a calabash. 

"An alms ! For Mohammed's sake, an alms ! 
An alms ! " 

The face is familiar, and the voice : it is the 
Malaam of Karrango. 

"What, alive," I .said, "and free?" 

Yes, alive and free — but mad ! 

God had avenged his crime ; what need was 
there for man to interfere ? 

The Hot = Water Ordeal of the Shintos 


"The Wide World" has already published several illustrated articles by this able little Japanese 
ladv. who lives in a ruined Buddhist temple in Tokio, and is a professor of English. She has 
exceptional facilities for procuring photos, and special interviews on such remarkable subjects as these. 

I.A.'^r year in the December number 
oi Thk Wide World appeared a 
-imple description of the wonderful 
tire -walking ceremony that takes 
jilace at the half-\ early festivals of 
the Ofi/dlr, or Houshi Siiinshukyo Temple, in the 
district of Kanda, Tokio. The fire-walking is the 
most impressive of the so-called Shinto miracles. 
'Ihese may be 




divided into two 
distinct classes. 
Of the major 
miracles, which 
are demonstrated 
to the public at 
the great festivals 
in honour of the 
god Otitakt\ there 
are three : the 
Yubana, or ordeal 
by boiling water : 
the Hi-lViitari, or 
round which most 
interest centres ; 
and the Tsurugi- 
U'afari, or ordeal 
by climbing the 
ladder of sword 

On the first day 
of the " Matsuri " 
(or festival), which 
lasts sometimes 
two, at other 
times three, days, 
the simplest of 
the three great 
rites— the Itt/^awa, 
or boiling water 
ordeal — takes 
place. I of 

minor inicrcsi when compared with the fire- 
walking, I propose in this paper to give readers 
of The WiDL World some idea of the 
cuiious spectacle which I witnessed on the 8th 
of April last. 

The chief priest, Yoshimura Seisai, sent me a 
printed invitation or circular to inform me that 
the festival of the Ontake Temple would be 





celebrated on the 8th, 9th, and loth of A[)ril. 
Accordingly, with his kind permission I arranged 
to take the photograi)hs that accompany this 

Like the fire-walking, the Yubana or 
water ordeal is preceded by long and elaborate 
religious services, in which from twenty to thirty 
gorgeously attired priests and devotees take 

part ; and second- 
ly, there is an 
ablutionary per- 
formance accredi- 
ted with purifying 
power, in which 
the devotee who 
is to pass the 
ordeal works him- 
self into an ecstatic 

When I reached 
the temple at 1 1 
a.m. the prepara- 
tions had already 
been made for the 
approaching rite. 
An area was 
marked off before 
the temple be- 
tween the two 
porches. At the 
corners of this 
square bamboos, 
with their pyra- 
midal heads of 
leaves, had been 
stuck in the 
ground. From 
frond to frond 
a hempen rope 
was stretched 
high in the 
air. From this 
rope at different intervals were suspended 
clusters of white paper strips. Beneath this 
again the area was marked off by strong bamboo 
poles to keep out the crowd. The green 
bamboos at the corners were pleasing to the 
god, I was told, and the line of rope hung \vith 
paper was an arrangement to keep away the 
devils or evil influences. 

^ % % "^ 



In the middle of this square stood two great about seventeen priests and devotees into the 
iron cauldrons, towards which many wondering temple. 
eyes besides mine were turned. The youngest devotee was a lad of about ten, 

!■ roil! a\ 



Banners fluttered in the 
throbbed on the Kagura-do ; 
of tiny booths, each under 
huge oil - paper umbrella, 
stood --ound the courtyard of 
the temple selling their wares 
of cakes and cheap and 
grotesque toys to the children 
who pattered in and out of 
the courtyard oblivious and 
careless of the strange cere- 
monies that were taking place 
within a few steps of their 
favourite toy stalls. The little 
ones formed an incongruous 
setting to the whole picture. 

The morning passed 
quietly. As I sat in the 
large guest - room of the 
temple the sounds of chant- 
ing reached me from the 
temple close by, and when 
the priest fluttered in in his 
robes I ventured to ask him 
what was going on that was 
heard and not seen. He 
told me that several of his 
disciples were receiving dip- 
lomas for successful candi- 
dateships in the priesthood. 

At two o'clock the services 
began. The High Priest 
arrayed in white brocade, 
with sprays of gold glinting 
through its snowy folds, 
headed the procession of 

wind. A drum 

and the owners 

the canopy of a 

From a Photo, 

dressed in white, and with the upper robe 

patterned with large crests in gold. 

While the priests and devotees were sti.l on 
bended knees before the 
altar, offering a banquet of 
many courses (each on a 
white wood tray) to the god 
Ontake, four coolies in dark 
blue, patterned with white, 
and wearing yellow crape 
scarves as a distinguishing 
mark, were filUng the iron 
vessels with water from the 
well and bringing in large 
fagots for the fire. The 
wood they lighted under 
each pot between three and 
four, and in an hour or 
so the cauldrons were boil- 
ing over, causing the fire to 
hiss and splutter angrily. 

The courtyard of the 
temple was full, and there 
were numerous Europeans 
and Americans watching 
from the room and veranda 
above. We sat there till 
five o'clock, nearly smoked 
out of our places, for the 
stokers kept up the fires, 
ever and anon taking off 
the hds of the seething 
cauldrons. The afternoon 
was well on the wane when 
our patience was rewarded 
by the sight of a white-clad 




From a Photo, by S. Takebayashi, Tokio. 

figure. He had been praying and washing 
for an hour in the holy bath-house hard by, 
preparing for the ordeal ; for among the Shintos, 
as among the Christians, cleanliness and godli- 
ness seem to go together. 

As the devotee entered the square he clapped 
his hands by way of summoning the notice of 

the god in whose faith he was about to perform 
the miracle. Then he proceeded to make the 
circuit of the boiling cauldron on our left, 
solemnly stopping at the cardinal points to 
pray. Round again he went, this time stopping 
midway between the points of the compass. 
(This man, Kano by name, is the son-in-law of 


Fiorji a Photo, by S. Takebayashi, Tokio, 




From a Photo, hy S. Takebayashi, Tokio. 

the chief priest ; he is stirring the cauldron on 
the right in the photo.) 

An older man now appeared, also dressed in 
a white cotton " kimono " and " hakama," and 
took possession of the cauldron on the left. He 
Went through exactly the same performance, 
saying his prayers north, south, east, and west. 

This round of prayers finished, they both 
vanished to reappear with saucers full of salt. 
Then both made the round of the cauldrons 
again, marking off with a pinch of salt the outside 
edge of the cauldron, north, south, east, and 
west. A second time this was done, the salt 
being deposited at the vice-cardinal points, so 

Vol vi. -6 


From a Plwto. by S. Takebayashi, Tokio, 




thu there were eiuht pinches of salt round the in the photograph. All these preliminaries took 
vessels when iheyliad finished. (The sail may a very long time, and were irksome to those 
!>;.• ciearlv seen 

in the photo 

A flint an<: 
steel were now 
i n t r o d u c e ci . 
Sparks w e r e 
struck olT over 
tlie steaming 
pots, north, 
south, cast, and 
west. This pro- 
cedure was also 
Then the holy 
(i o /i c i\ t h e 
sacred wand to 
which zigzaLi 
strips of paper 
are suspended. 
was brought 
from a stand 
outside the 
mystic square, 
and each man studiously stirred his boiling 
cauldron at the cardinal and vice - cardinal 
points with the Gohei he held. 


Ffoin a rhoto. by\ the uoiling water. \.S. Takebayashi, Tokio. 

who were only 
looking forward 
to the so-called 
miracle. The 
patience of 
m any in the 
crowd was 
somewhat ex 
hausted. The 
ubiquitous and 
t rou blesom e 
Japanese stu- 
dent lifted up 
his voice in 
protest — calling 
out to them to 
hurry up. But, 
not the leasi im- 
pressed by this, 
the men con- 
tinued the stir- 
ring more slow- 
a n d solemnly 
than before. 
As round succeeded round the two men seemed 
to grow more and more engrossed in what they 
were doing. The prayers and salt-dropping, the 


. . : III. ..).; 'i .(,'.'.., i 1 .1; 11:, 1 lUiik 
I'luiH 11 I'lioto. by S. Tti/cibayaski, Tokio. 

iiijiJiES WITH Tin; i;.\Mr.oo uranche.';. 

My next photo, was taken during this part of 
the ceremony. The Gohei were whisked round 
so rapidly that they show but very indistinctly 

flint-striking, and Gohei-stirring formed an ex- 
ceedingly curious and pantomimic spectacle, but 
it was to be followed by a more grotescjue finale. 



The two men now appeared with branches of 
bamboo tied tightly together, and reminding one 
of pictures of birch-rods. Holding these high 
over their heads they stood a moment before 
indulging in the scalding shower-bath. Then 
they began in earnest. The bamboo staff was 
plunged into the boiling water at all the four 
points of the compass and the hot water was 
flunc? over each man's head and shoulders. 
This was done a countless number of rounds. 
The older man, Yamasaki (on the left), seemed 
afraid at first, but the younger man, the chief 
priest's son-in-law, became like one possessed. 
He ceased to walk round the cauldron ; he 
danced, lashing the bamboo madly over his 
head, the scalding liquid falling over him in 
showers. He flung himself madly first to one 
side and then to another of the square, sprink- 
ling the bystanders and alarming not a few. 
The front row of spectators were convulsed with 
laughter. He made for them, striding with one 
great step over the pole that marked off the 
square — and waved his bamboo staff maniacally 
over their heads for a moment. Then he 
sprang back to the cauldron and went his 
round again. 

By this time the older man had warmed up, 
and the two now whirled round the cauldrons 
like wild creatures, whisking their bamboo 
staves (each man had one in each hand) in and 
out of the water and over their heads like 

Not content with drenching themselves, they 
liberally lashed each other. The fires under- 
neath hissed and sputtered ; volumes of steam 
began to hide the men from view. Only 
by the scattering of the water, the angry 
hissing of the fire as it was gradually quenched, 
and the rising steam could one tell that the 
two men were still there and active. (I had 
several snap-shots taken at this stage, but they 
turned out mere clouds.) At last this strange 
rite came to an end, and the two men stood 
forth, drenched to the skin and as red as the 
sun which was then setting, but otherwise none 
the worse for their wild capers and their strange 
game with the scalding douches. The ground 
where they stood was a pool, the iron cauldrons 
were emptied, and the fires were out. They 
disappeared and were seen no more that day. 

When asked the reason of these performances 
the High Priest, Yoshimura Seisai (the surname 

comes first in Japanese), told me that he held 
them at his temple to confute the theory of 
materialism, which denies the existence of any- 
thing but matter. 

" I am the enemy of materialism," he said. 
" Everything has two parts — matter and spirit. 
The spirit of the thing is its active potency. 
When the spirit of the fire is drawn out it 
becomes ' baka ' (a fool) and is harmless. 
When the spirit is drawn out of the boiling 
water my disciples can throw it over themselves 
without being scalded. 

"^Vhat happens to you when your spirit 
leaves your body? You die, do you not?" he 
asked me. " So it is with the fire and the 
water. When the spirit is drawn away from 
both, though both the fire and the water are 
■ materially present, they have no power to burn." 

When asked how the spirit of the fire, which 
he assumed rose from the fire into the water 
when it boiled, was drawn out, Yoshiniura Seisai 
attributed it to the power of his god. And the 
object of the Yiibana and Hi-Watmi rites, 
besides showing that everything was composed 
of spirit as well as matter, was to manifest to 
the unbeliever the existence of the god. 
" For," continued the priest, " as the God 
(Kami) cannot be seen, people cannot easily 
believe he exists without some proof; and my 
proof is that, after long prayer, the god takes 
away the spirit of the fire, and of the hot water, 
so that they are harmless to believers." 

So far the priest's explanation. To scientific 
investigators, putting aside the usual popular 
assumption of mere trickery, there must be 
some other reason why the devotees can pass 
over burning coals and throw boiling water 
over their bodies without harm. Talking the 
matter over with a friend — who has been a 
long time in Japan and has gone into this 
matter — he gave it as his opinion that it was 
su-igestion together with a thick skin that brought 
them scatheless through the fire and the hot water. 

There is the record of one scoffing foreigner 
who crossed the fire and was laid up with burnt 
feet for several weeks. I'he stream of Japanese 
who passed with him on the same day were 

Kano, the man on the right in the last photo- 
graph, told me he felt absolutely nothing the 
whole time he went through these wild per- 

The lliiitor-Cyclist of Colwich : His Mission, and What Came of it 

V,\ H. Powell, of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr Powell was editor of the "Colwich (Kan.) Courier" a remarkable journal with interesting 

readers Going into an adjacent township to collect "copy" for his paper, he was handed a package 

of money, which he was soon afterwards called upon to " stand and deliver " under sensational 

circumstances. Let him tell how he outwitted the emigrant robbers. 

HIS incident I am about to relate 
occurred in the flill of i88S, near 
t olwich, in Sedgwick County, 
xansas. Colwich 

• ■ was a " boom '" 

iDwn — that is to say, a place 
where good farm land is 
sjx)i!ed by sjx-culators cutting 
it up into town lots. There 
was no possible excuse for 
starting a town there except 
that a railroad ran throui^h 
the territory. I believe that 
Colwich, at the height of its 
pros|)erity, could boast of 276 
inhabitants, a town windmill, 
250ft. of fire-hose, a bank, an 
hotel, three stores, a black- 
smith's shop, and the Colwich 
Calorific Brick Company, 
Incorporated. Now, the 
brickyard was the mainstay 
of the town. 

I was publishing a paper 
there. It was called the 
Coi'ivick Courier. I knew 
as much about running a 
paper as a Kiowa Indian about theosophy. I 
was only seventeen years of age, and fresh from 
'"■■• malaria - infected district of Northern 
a; in fact, I was a "tender-foot."' I had 
run away from home and come West. I was now 
endeavouring to emulate 
some dime - novel fancies. 
Fate was against me, and 
some kind citizens tried to 
make a man of me — and an 
editor at the same time. I 
was given the office at Col- 
wich, also a bonus of 25odols., 
and then I was told to wade in 
and I world that Col- 

wich wj:> me coming Metro- 
polis of the West ; and that 
if the people didn't invest in 
town lots at once they would 
lose the golden opportunity 
of their lives. As " the erratic 
kid editor " I was a success. 
All this, however, didnt hurt 
my appetite, and the fact that 
I was not shot was that the 
bullet went wide of its mark ; 


F>o/>! a F/toto.] BROOKLYN. [by W'ooUett. 


Ftoiii a Photo. 

and why I wasn't hanged was because kind 
friends interfered, and the drunken cowboy 
who would have strung me up was arrested. 

My boon companion was 

Mr. B. P. M . More fully 

than this I will not state his 
name. It does not signify, 
anyhow. He was cashier, and 
one of the stockholders of the 
local bank. We lodged to- 
gether at the same house, and 
the fact that I was pretty in- 
timate with Mr. M made 

my adventure possible. 

I rode a bicycle in those 
days — one of those tall affairs 
— 6oin. high. I was an expert 
in following prairie roads, 
which are, to say the least of 
them, peculiar. The roads 
are more like ditches. The 
high winds carry off the sand, 
and in the course of a year 
or so a foot or more of the 
road-bed has been scattered 
to the four winds of heaven. 
It was a practice of mine 
on pleasant ^^'ednesday evenings to wheel over 
to Maize, six miles to the east, to "round up" 
news for my Thursday paper. Maize was only a 
corn and cattle station, with a general merchan- 
dise store and a blacksmith's shop. I made this 
store my head-quarters. It 
was run by the Tapp Brothers, 
who sold almost everything, 
and accommodatingly bought 
anything that the farmers or 
ranchers round about had to 
sell. It was here, then, that I 
gathered my news. The 
f;irmers would congregate at 
the store every night and talk 
about the crops and the herds ; 
and they were a vast fund of 
current information. In no 
time I would have my note- 
book full of such absorbing 
items as: "John Jones is the 
[oroud father of a bouncing 
l)oy," or " Miss Sally Skinner 
entertained her beau last 
night." This reads like rub- 
bish, but I can assure you it 




pleased the paper's patrons, and they would lose 
sleep waiting for the Coia-ier to come out with 
their names in print. 

As I wheeled into Maize one evening I 
passed, about three miles out from Colwich, a 
long string of " prairie schooners." A prairie 
schooner, I should tell you, is a waggon covered 
with a muslin hood. The train had pulled up 
for the night along a high, untrimmed hedge 
fence that skirted the roadway on one side. 

There were twelve waggons in the train. To 
the end gate of each waggon was a feed box, 
and hitched to each gate were two mules. There 
was a savoury 
odour of bacon 
and eggs and 
coffee, for it was 
supper time in 
camp, both for 
man and beast. 
Picketed on the 
prairie close by 
were ihirty or 
forty Texas 
ponies, taken 
along for trading 

I noticed all 
these points, but 
didn't give the 
train more than a 
passing thought, 
for every night 
trains camped 
there, as emi- 
grants were con- 
tinually passing 
overland, either to 
or from die West, 
and many a tin^e 
they strung out 
for nearly a mile. 

I went about my business at Maize, 
probably hurrying through it, as the low 
bank of clouds in the west seemed to presage 
a coming storm — one of those storms that 
hang on the horizon until they gather force 
and then rush forward like a tornado. 

I was about to mount my bike and skim 
homeward when Mr. Tapp suddenly called me 
into his little office, and said, in his abrupt 
way : — 

" Look here, Powell, I have a commission for 
you to-night. In this envelope is a sum of 
money. I got it in a farm deal to-day — spot 
cash, and too late to bank. Something tells 
me there is trouble brewing. I don't like the 
looks of that last emigrant gang who are 
camped below us. Several of the men have 

been hanging around here all the afternoon. I 
haven't a safe, and the safe at the railroad 
station was blown sky-high the other night, as 
you well know. Here is the package. Will you 

take it and deliver it to Mr. M to-morrow 

morning ? Never mind how much there is in 
it. It would make no difference to you whether 
there is 5dols. or soodols. in it. Will you take 
it ? " 

" Certainly," said I. " Hand it over." 
I placed the bulky package in my inside 
coat-pocket, buttoned the coat, and was about 
to leave, when I asked for another envelope 

and put my news notes in 
it and sealed that one, too, 
and placed it in an outside 
coat-{)ocket. I did this for 
no otlier purpose than to 
keep the notes 
intact and free 
from rain if the 
storm came up. 

Then I started 
off. The crowd 
of loafers shouted 
a " Be good to 
yourself " as I 
pedalled down 
the road leading 
to the only high- 
way to Colwich. 
I waved a fare- 
well, and the 
store was soon 
lost in the dark- 
ness. The moon 
was up, and the 
wind was rising 
and dead against 
me. I estimated 
that I would have 
to make haste in 
order to beat the 
storm into Col- 
wich. I bent low 
over the handle- 
bars and endea- 
voured to race 
along. I soon came in sight of the outlines 
of the waggons of the campers, and for the 
first time I began to think over Mr. Tapp's 
fears. If atta'cked I should be helpless 
against such odds, for I had no weapon, and 
to turn back would be useless. They would 
certainly be mounted on their fleet ponies, 
sure-footed as mountain goats, while I had 
to pick out every foot of my road, and the 
danger was increasing every moment, as fleet- 
ing clouds were no\v obscuring the moon. 





I hesitntcd. I thought of tiiakinj; a wide 
detour round the lanipcrs. watiing lliroiigh the 
prairie grass. Tlien 1 reah/ed that if they were 
"laying '" for me they would he ready to thwart 
any move of mine, so I sliook off my fears and 
jKxialled as bravely as I eould lowanls the 
camp. Cold sweat \va> streaming over my lace, 
and I had a regular dose of " tender-foot 

I made a desperate elTort to spurt, when there 
rang out on the air the startling command : — 

"Stop, or you are a dead man ! " 

The commaml was heeded, not by will, hut 
hy force. A rope stretched across the roadway 
had tripped me up, and I got a painful fall, 
with the old wheel on to|i of me. There was a 
concerted rush towards me by a score of men, 
who terrorized me wiiii their curses and jMstol 

*■ Where is that money that was handed you 
to-night?" roared the leader. 

I saw that my movements had been watched, 
and that the gang were fully aware 
that I had been handed the money. 
My life was more valuable than the 
jxickage ; and, furthermore, it had 
been given me as a hazardous risk. 
Vet I thought I might yet outwit them. 

The storm was now bearing down 
upon us, with a roar that could be 
heard miles away. The air was op- 
pressive — as a breath from a furnace. 

"Gentlemen," said I, to gain time, 
•' there is no use denying that 1 have 
been given a sum of money to deliver 
to the bank at Colwich. liut this is 
taking an unfair advantage of a mere 
boy — thirty of you against one, loo. 
Here it is, but I assure you that 1 
shall report you, and you can never 
get safely out of the State witli all 
these waggons." 

"Well," said one of them, with a 
sneer, "someone will have to discover 
you flr^t before you can tell tales. 
Now, be quick with the package." 

I knew that I was to be bound and 
g3gged, and left to the mercy of the 
storm, but I began to gain courage, 
seeing that the gang meant no actual 
violence to me. 

"Well, fellows," said I, passing to 
the ringleader my news notes— on 
the condition of the Maize hog and 
grain market—" here is the envelope. 
Now, don't sfx;nd this swag in riotous 

It was all done as a huge bluff, this 
passing of the wrong envelope to the 

leader. Detection, 1 felt sure, woukl follow 
before they left me. 

lUit at that moment, as fate would have it, 
the storm broke upon us in all its fury. There 
came a mighty blast of sand that cut and stung 
like a thousand whips, 'i'he air was laden with 
all manner of small twigs, while myriads of 
weeds came bowling towards us like a phalanx 
of demons. The clouds seemed to engulf us. 
They were highly charged with electricity, and 
belclied forth continuous flashes of lightning. 
The thunder now drowned the roar of the wind, 
and the elemenls were at their worst. 

Suddenly the frightened ponies stampeded ; 
the mules l)egan pulling at their halters, and, in 
the excitement of the moment, the gang forgot 
me and rushed towards their animals. But it 
was too late. They were gone, the picket 
stakes being like mere toothpicks to them in the 
madness of their terror. 

'I'he cloud of weeds bore down upon the 
frei'izied mules, and in another second .there was 




a scene of wild confusion. The mules dashed 
this way and that way to break loose from their 
halters, and the ropes cut deep into their necks. 
The waggons began to gain momentum under 
the strain, and soon they were following the 
wild plunges of the animals. As the forward 
running gear was uncontrollable the waggons 
described all kinds of circuits, and one after 
another was overturned. Each moment the 
terror-stricken animals grew more violent. The 
campers were [)owerless to do anything, and 
dodged here and there out of the way of the 
swaying vehicles. Here was a mule down, 
dragged about by his companion ; there a 
violent collision between two waggons ; and in 
yet another place two teams were inextricably 
mixed up. Everywhere the waggons were 
dropping their contents, and over this wreckage 
the teams plunged madly. The lightning 
flashed, the thunder roared, and the wind blew 
a perfect hurricane. 

As for myself, I was too frightened to move a 
muscle, and lay where I had fallen instinctively. 
Time after time I was within an inch of death, 
and could feel the graze of a flying waggon-wheel 
or a mule's hoof For five minutes the animals 
plunged about in a small space. Then one 
team got its bearings and headed for the open 
prairie, and was soon lost to view. Others 
followed, and soon all was quiet except for the 
groans of the injured men. 

At last I felt free to rise. At each flash 
of lightning new scenes of horror were revealed 
to me. It was simply indescribable. It would 
take a war correspondent to picture correctly 
that strange battlefield. 

I examined my machine and found it intact 
with the exception of a broken handle - bar. 
Picking my way through the debris I mounted, 
intending to hasten to Colwich and get help for 
the injured. 1 promptly ran up the embank- 
ment and wns 
thrown. Time 
nfter time I 
mounted, only 
to be again and 
again thrown. I 
had lost my 
nerve. Accord- 
ingly I walked, 
or rather ran, 
into the town, 
where I sought 
my CO w boy 
friends, and beg- 
ged of them, 
after briefly re- 
lating my adven- 
tures, to organize From a\ THE MAIN STUEET OF COLWICH- 

a relief corps and go to the succour of those 
fallen in the stampede. 

I remember well the reply I got : " Let them 
go hang ! You can bet that by this time the 
gang have got a team or two quiet, and are now 
'marking time ' for the Indian territory. Leave 
them alone. I'hey have had enough punish- 
ment ; and it will save the county the expense 
of feeding the gang in prison and attending to 
the wounded in the hospital." 

Next I went up to our lodging-house and 

handed to Mr. M- ■ the package of bills. 

There was 3,8oodols. in the package, and I 
was heartily glad to be rid of it. 

At daylight we went out to my would-be 
robbers' camp site. 

The wreckage was gathered up by the 
" bachelor " ranchers, and many a "dug-out" 
dwelling got its first furniture and kitchen outfit 
from that camp; while the blacksmiths got 
enough carriage iron and wheels and good oak 
timber to last them a year or so. The grass 
was laid low for a half-mile square. 

Seven mules had to be shot then and there, 
two recovered from their injuries, and two lay 
dead. Of the men, blood on the grass told the 
story of many a wound. How many limbs 
were broken in that mad stampede we never 

I recovered a few of my news notes, and 
the Cokvich Courier went to press that day 
with a pretty good story of adventure into the 
bargain. The Tapp Ihothers remembered me 
handsomely, and I got salvage from the live 
mules. Altogether it was a very profitable 
night and fairly full of excitement, but I should 
not care to go through it ngain. 

The gang was never heard of afterwards. 
It is supposed that they broke up at once, 
and met again somewhere in the border 
lands of the territory. 


Pioneers of the Year on the Matterhorn. 

\)\ Gl'ORGK \). Ar.RAHAM. 

The well-known climber of Keswick tells how h 
provides some of his own picturesque 

V all the imuiiuaiiis in the (ireat 
IVmiine Alps perhaps none pos- 
sesses such subtle charms" for the 
! mountaineer as the Matterhorn. 
.Situated among the most shapely 
jKuks in the Alps, it rears its snowy crest above 
its sluiK'ndous ridges and precipices in 
such complete isolation and dignity, 
as jX'eply to impress even the most 
afxithetic or " fashionable " visitors to 
the Zermatt \"alley. 

Though thousands of admiring 
tourists gaze from the valley on its 
lo.ooofi. of ''sheer precipice" and 
talk with bated breath of the " fearful 
price " denianded of those who risk 
their necks to scale the giddy summit, 
still, only those who have " rubbed 
shoulders and shaken hands " with the 
great peak can appreciate its full 

Hut not always is the Matterhorn 
IK-ak visible to visitors, for in the early 
summer of 1898 it was seldom to be 
seen from Zermatt, and the {)atient 
and anxious guides were losing their 
^5 a peak day by day. So the 
would-be climber had to fall back on 
some of the sights of the valley, of 
which the (lorner (Jorge is by no 
means the least interesting. The 
photograph here reproduced gives a 
good idea of this wonderful chasm, 
which has been curiously worn in the 
solid rock by the flowii>g water. The 
walk along the narrow staging with the 
torrent gurgling and bubbling sixty 
feet below in inky darkness is (juite 
exciting enough for many of the 
ordinary tourists. Some of the lower 
mountain passes are also available even 
in bad weather, and to those who tire 
of the brass bands and other up-to- 
date luxuries of Zermatt, the walk over 
the Adler Pass to Saas is most en- 

Sna" Fee is one of the most delight- 
ys in Switzerland, and the 
pnoiograph of the " Old Chapel " on the next 
page shows one of the mountaineers' favourite 
resorts on an off day. 

Being one of a party of four climbers who 
had been compelled to resort to these pleasures 
by reason of the continued bad weather, I found 

e ascended the giant of the Zermatt Valley, and 
photographs to illustrate his narrative. 

myself alone early in July, my friends having of 
necessity to return to England, growling as 
Britons only can at their failure to conquer, or 
even see, the great Zermatt Peak. Three fine 
days had been passed in climbing and exploring 
the glaciers above Zermatt ; and our next illus- 

,,',1, — A WONUKKl' L 1. CHA-,.M, CIRHIUSLY U ' )i, 

/''row a Photo, by G. D. Abraham, Kesn'/'ck. 

;■.■ 1 iii; SOLID 

tration shows the great ice-fall on the Corner 
Cilacier, with the leader cutting the steps 
rendered necessary by the steepness of the 

Farther up the glacier becomes complicated 
by a network of crevices which tax the 





From a Photo, by G. D. Abraham, KesT.vick. 

capabilities of the climbers. During these 
excursions the upper snows of the Matterhorn 
had been thundering down in avalanches on to 
the glaciers round its base. Nevertheless, I was 
both surprised and delighted when the two well- 
known guides, Adolf and Joseph Schaller, ex- 
pressed a wish to try the first ascent of the great 
Zermatt Peak for 1898 in my company. 

As a result of this interesting invitation, next 
morning three heavily-laden climbers were 
making tiieir way lazily up the lower slopes and 
through the pine forests, passing bravely en route 
all the allurements of the bier-halles and tea 
gardens. At the Schvvarz See Hotel, lying at 
the foot of Hornli Ridge — which, roughly speak- 
ing, forms the north-east ridge of the Matter- 
horn — a long halt was called, and the guides 
made those devotional exercises in the little 
Catholic church close by without which they 
said no climb of importance could ever be safely 
attempted. Our intention was now well known 
in the Zermatt Valley, and many jokes were 
made at our expense for attempting to scale the 
Matterhorn under such bad conditions. 

We were fully aware of the difficulties to be 
overcome, and to obviate somewhat the danger 

Vol. vi.-7. 

of being carried down in an avalanche, 
our leading guide loaded me up with 150ft. 
of spare rope and some " pitons " to fix in 
case of necessity. The other members of 
the party were heavily laden with firewood 
and provisions. 

Leaving the Schwarz See, we made our 
way along the lower Hornli Ridge, with the 
great peak right in front; and some short 
halts were made whilst Adolf screwed him- 
self and my pocket telescope into awkward 
and amusing attitudes with a view to 
inspecting the entire route. After weary 
flounderings through soft snow, into which 
one of the guides plunged up to his 
neck, we safely reached the climbers' hut 
(10,700ft.), beautifully situated at the foot 
of the final peak. Here all comparative 
luxury came to an end. On this occasion 
the hut was quite blocked up with ice and 
snow, so a vast deal of hacking and cutting 
through its wintry casing had to be done 
with the ice-axes before we could enter its 
chill and damp interior. 

We were truly thankful, however, to find 
the stove-pipe comparatively free from 
snow, and our wood fire soon began to 
thaw everything, so that some agility was 
needed to dodge the melting icicles and 
snow which bespattered us unmercifully 
" from the ceiling. After partaking of a 
mysterious concoction — by way of com- 
pliment called soup — and a hasty inspection of 
the weather in the cold evening air, we were 
soon uncomfortably ensconced between damp 
blankets, an ominous fog filling the hut as our 
warm bodies began to dry our coverings. 

Despite the unfavourable conditions we slept 
as only climbers can, and at midnight had been 
astir some time and finished another mountain 
meal. The roping together was done in the 
hut, and Adolf led us off over the first snow 
in high spirits, for the weather seemed most 
promising, and we were able even to dispense 
with the lantern, as the moon was rising slowly 
behind the highest speak of Monte Rosa on 
our left. The view was truly magnificent. But 
more practical matters soon occupied our full 
attention, as Adolf led the way at a furious pace 
up the first rocks along the ledges to the left of 
the n>ain ridge. 

After crossing some ice-covered rocks we 
soon reached the side of the great " Stone 
Couloir," the scene of so many minor accidents 
and hairbreadth escapes from falling stones 
which, in the season, seem to choose such 
inopportune times to scare the unwary climber. 
From this point nearly all was steep, hard snow; 
and, getting on to the east face by kicking 


steps in llie snow, we made good progress as 
far as the Old Cabane, which is now fallen into 
ruins. U'e had all been casting longing looks 
at the riick-sack containing the eatables, so 
here, at 2.45 a.m., we partook of early breakf:xst 
by moonlight, and listened with some mis- 
givings to the high wind whistling around the 
upper ridges. 

The fading of the stars on the eastern horizon 
reminded us of the value of time, so, after 
plunging up a snow couloir and across some 
steep ice-slopes where holds for both hands and 
feet had to be cut with the ice-axe, we had to 
take to the rocks of the main ridge. The 
photograph on the next page is a near view of 
these rocks, with the climbers ascending the 
lower portion. It was here that we first got a 


Iroiii a J'hoto. by G. D. Abraham, Keswick. 

foretaste of what " Old Boreas " had in store for 
us higher up. The wind was intensely cold, 
and we soon sought shelter by climbing more on 
the left or eastern face of the mountain, where 
our progress was more comfortable, though less 
speedy, until the great Snow Shoulder was 

From here to the top we must climb well on 
the ridge, and it was obvious that a lively time 
was in store for us. So in order to dispel the 
glum, uncertain looks of the guides I suggested 
a third breakfast, and forthwith we made 
internal as well as external preparations for a 
severe battle with the wind, which howled and 
shrieked along the ridge only a few yards 
above us. 

Every available piece of clothing was brought 
into use, and with a loud 
yell of derision in the face 
of the blast, Adolf led 
the way on to the ridge. 
The pale blue moonlight 
was now fading rapidly 
before the brighter glow 
of dawn, until i, 000ft. 
above me the snowy 
peak of the Matterhorn 
suddenly caught the 
golden glow, and a long, 
delicate streamer of 
golden silk appeared to 
fly out from the summit 
as the wind whisked off 
the loose snow from the 
highest point. 

This was now our posi- 
tion. We were astride 
the narrow ridge, and 
with over 4,000ft. sheer 
drop on either side. The 
contrast between the glit- 
tering golden peak above 
and the dark, dismal, 
bottomless-looking depths 
below, with the howling 
wind enfolding us in its 
icy clasp, was quite 
enough to make even the 
stoutest feel just a twinge 
of nervousness. All these 
impressions, however, 
soon vanished before the 
climbing difficulties, and 
our attention was fully 
needed to preserve our 
balance and slowly work 
our way along the crest 
of the ridge to the foot 
of the final peak. 



'Twas a welcome sight to see that the ropes 
fixed here were available, and, with a huge grin 
of delight, Adolf led off up the rope-hung rocks 
at a pace only permissible with the end in view 
of keeping up the natural heat. It was just here 
(500ft. below the top) that the full force of the 
blast was felt. The weather was truly terrific ; 
not a word could be heard between us, great, 
dense clouds of snow were being torn off, hurled 
up the north face, and then carried far out over 
the summit. 

We were very soon 
literally caked in ice. 
and the finer particles 
of snow seemed to 
find their way every- 
where, for my pockets 
were soon full and 
little streams of 
melted snow com- 
menced a cold trickle 
down my back and 
chest. Our progress 
was stopped looft. or 
so higher up by the 
giving way of the fi.xed 
rope ; and the expres- 
sive look on our 
leader's face spoke 
louder than words, or 
even the storm. Hand 
and foot holds seemed 
principally conspicu- 
ous by their absence 
here, so, to reach a 
higher ledge, Adolf 
mounted on my back, 
and after what seemed 
a never-ending grind 
of his ponderous 
" hob-nailers " into my 
tender shoulder blade, 
he managed to reach 
a hold and swing 
himself up into a tiny 
square recess. 

The expression of 
his smiling face, 
beaming through the 
driving snow like a 
red signal lamp, told 
us all was well, and 
with practical help from the rope 
gained his level. Difiiculties soon 


From a Photo, by G. D. Abraham, Keswick. 

we soon 

after this, and a hurried rush up the final snow- 
slope brought us at last, about 7 a.m., as near 
the snow-corniced summit as discretion would 
allow — 14,705ft. above the sea. 

Any chance of a view was hopeless. It was 

quite impossible even to open one's eyes sufii- 
ciently to see farther than the near foreground 
— even if the mist had permitted. I only 
remember a delicate, feather-like snow-ridge 
.forming the outline of the summit ; and then 
we were quickly speeding down the snow to the 
rocks. The top of the Matterhorn was just 
now visible from Zermatt, and our movements 
had been closely watched through the big 
telescope by those who could shake off the 

chains of gentle 
Morpheus as 
early as 7 a.m. 

They told us 
afterwards how 
surprised they 
were to see us 
travelling so 
rapidly on such 
ground; but the 
difference be- 
tween the top 
of the Matter- 
horn in a fearful 
blizzard and the top of 
the Matterhorn through 
the Zermatt telescope 
in warm sunshine is 
obvious. Down and 
down we went, sliding 
over the icy ropes and 
rocks until a sheltered place 
was reached. Here we threw 
off the riick-sacks and set to 
work to thaw our frozen fingers 
and clear the ice from our 
faces whilst the warm sun 
somewhat softened our icy 
garments. The discovery was 
here made that the wine-bag 
was frozen into an almost solid 
mass, and our amusing efforts 
to thaw it by hugging it affec- 
tionately were more picturesque 
than effective. 

Dense black clouds now 
began to gather from the south, 
so our melting operations had 
to be suspended, and we 
rattled down the remaining 
rocks on to the shoulder at our utmost speed. 
Great care was now needed, as the snow had 
become very soft and liable to give way with 
undue pressure. By hanging on to the sharp 
snow-ridge with our left arms, and working along 
and downwards on the right-hand side of the 
ridge, we at last reached the welcome shelter of 



the rocks. NN'c were now comparatively out of 
the clutches of the wind and " jack Frost," and 
very soon our hungry condition reminded us 
that •• Nature abhors a vacuum/' and we had no 
sufficiently scientific member in the party to 
dispute the matter. 

Accordingly the reserve lu.xuries of the day, 

the ridge and rushing across loose snow 
couloirs in utter disregard of the laws and 
rules so dear to certain orthodox authorities on 

Only one place gave us much trouble, and 
here Adolf, who was leading, got stranded on 
an ice-slope covered with loose snow. No 

THE KA;.10US village of ZERMATT, with the MATTEliHORN I'EAK IN IHE llAClvGROUN D. 

From a Photo, hy G. D. Abraham, Kes-au'ck. 

in the shape of three cold and ice-bound 
chickens, were brought out. Very soon a con- 
tinuous stream of well-explored chicken bones 
began to fall from our narrow ledge on to the 
glacier 3,000ft. below. By way of amusement, 
for us, a large bird of the hawk tribe, far below, 
was performing marvellous feats of gymnastics 
by swooping down on the falling morsels, and 
it soon had a rare meal collected, though a 
falling stone upset by the guides almost rendered 
further meals unnecessary. 

The startling swish of a newly- forming 
avalanche on our right, and its augmented 
thunderings far beneath, reminded us of our 
position ; and ere long we were hurrying down 

doubt he would have accompanied the avalanche 
so started down to the glacier below had not a 
timely pull from the rope rescued him from his 
dangerous position. The slope was obviously 
unsafe for us to cross, so we turned back a 
short distance and thus gained an easy rock- 
ridge leading down to our previous route near 
the Old Cabane. In two hours more we arrived 
safely at the " New Hut," and after gathering 
up the luggage plunged downwards through the 
soft snow, until in an hour's time we were 
receiving our friends' congratulations at the 
Schwarz See Hotel, and the hitherto untrodden 
upper snows of the Matterhorn were prepared 
for the coming climbers of the year. 

A Big=Game Trip to Somali land. 

Bv Sir Edmund Lp.chmkrk, Barj-. 

Tnis well-known big-game hunter gives an account of one of his shooting trips in North-East 
Africa, concluding with practical hints to sportsmen who may follow in his steps. The photos. 

were taken by the party. 

N the ist of January last my -wife 
and I, accompanied by an English 
servant, left London for another big- 
game expedition to Western Somali- 
land. Thougi), owing to recent 
disturbances, the country was practically closed 
to sporting parties, I had obtained special per- 
mission to shoot in certain districts ; and, 
arriving on the i8th at Berbera, I found my 
caravan of twenty-four camels and twenty men, 
the latter of whom I had armed with Snider 
carbines in case of trouble, awaiting me. \Ve 


proceeded at once to the interior, reaching 
Mandera on the 21st, and here I stayed two 
days both to rest the camels and also to get a 
specimen of the lesser koodoo, which I had not 
been able to obtain on a previous occasion. I 
was successful in getting a very good pair ' of 
horns the first morning of our arrival, but I saw 
no other specimens except females. 

The country here consists chiefly of bush and 
aloe jungle, with karias or native villages 
scattered sparsely in the district. Leaving 
here, we made a long and very rough and stony 
march to Argaan, pitching our tent under a 

magnificent tree with branches drooping almost 
to the ground. Here I hoped to get a specimen 
of the great koodoo antelope, and next morning 
started at daybreak in quest of my quarry. After 
a long and hot climb, for the koodoo live chiefly 
in the most stony and inaccessible parts of the 
Golis Ranges, we came on a small herd, but 
these being all females I did not attempt to 
stalk them. 

About an hour afterwards, on reaching the 
top of a ridge, we made out another small herd 
of females accompanied by a bull, with very 

fine horns, feed- 
ing at the bottom 
of a gully. They 
made us out, 
however, before 
I could get a 
shot, and started 
off" at a trot round 
the base of the 
hill. It was a 
long shot — 200 
yards — but I got 
a clear broadside 
shot at the bull, 
who was running 
some fifty yards 
in front of the 
others. By great 
good luck I 
dropped him 
stone-dead, the 
bullet from the 
•303 entering 
behind the right 
shoulder and 
passing out on 
the other side. 
Going home we came across a troop of 
baboons sunning themselves on a mountain 
slope. Some were as big as collie dogs, with 
fine silver manes. From Argaan we went on to 
Jalelo, and on the way I saw an ostrich, which I 
did not get, and also shot two gazelle, which 
were welcome as we were nearly out of meat. 

Jalelo is supposed by some to have been the 
site of the Garden of Eden, and we camped in a 
charming spot surrounded by beautiful trees 
and creepers. There are lesser koodoo about 
here, and also oryx and " gerenuk," as the 
Somalis call the Waller's gazelle. 




From a] HERE IS an excellent snap-shot of a wounded oryx antelope. [Photo. 

get no news of the where- 
abouts of the camel, so 
I kept one of them a 
prisoner in camp for 
several days until the 
animal was brought back, 
which was done some 
days later, and then the 
man was released. Leav- 
ing here we went on to 
Daborlok, where another 
camel, finding things 
rather tame, I suppose, 
relieved the monotony by 
tumbling down a dry well, 
from which he was extri- 
cated by means of ropes, 
quite unhurt, and seem- 
ingly delighted with the 
success of his adventure. 
We got to Medda a 
day or two later, and here 
I received news of the 
man-eating lion I was 

r r 


\\"e stayed here several days, and then 
went on to the native town of Hargeisa. 
On the way I shot an oryx antelope and a 
lesser koodoo with very fine horns. This 
was a great piece of luck, as we were 
following the tracks of the oryx, which was 
wounded, when the koodoo jumped up in 
thick bush, and stopping under a tree to 
look round, gave me a splendid shot at 
looyds. A quarter of a mile farther on 
we found the oryx, which had dropped 
after going that distance. I may mention 
that the horns of the best oryx I got in 
Somaliiand measured 35/^ in. ; the best 
Soemmering's mohr 20)^ in. At Hargeisa a 
native, who had quarrelled with some of 
my men, tried to poison the well at which 
we watered our camels and obtained our 
supply for the camp. Fortunately he was 
caught in the act, and I took prompt 
measures to prevent the recurrence of such 
a dastardly act in the future. 

There are plenty of leopards about here, 
but one seldom sees them in the daytime ; 
and the best way of getting them is to tie 
up a goat and sit up over it at night, a very 
uncertain and not very good form of sport ! 
At my next stopping-place, Haraf, we 
heard of a man-eating lion, and also had 
one of the camels stolen ; the occupants 
of a neighbouring village driving it off 
and obliterating the tracks by dragging a 
calico tohe after it. 

I caught the thieves next day, but could 

Prom n Plioto. 



anxious to try conclusions with. One morn- 
ins; at breakfast a native came in in a state 
of great excitement, saying that the lion had 
taken a sheep out of the next village. We lost 
no time in getting to the spot, finding, as 
usual, that not only had slieep and goats been 
driven all over the tracks, but that two men had 
followed the lion for some miles on ponies. 

We soon found the tracks, however, and 
followed them through thick bush about 4ft. 
high for some miles, and at last a magnificent 
black-maned lion, closely followed by another, 
sprang out of the bushes and, giving me no 
chance to fire, bounded off, clearing the low 
bush in splendid style. Following up as 
quickly as we could, we found one of them had 

where I was shooting last year, was moving in 
our direction, I thought it better not to keep too 
far from the coast, and we retraced our steps to 
Hargeisa, shooting oryx, gerenuk, and gazelle 
almost every day along the route. 

At Debis we were joined by my brother, who 
had come out for the trip and to get what shotting 
he could in a month's stay. Debis is a charming 
camp, and, though game is not abundant, there 
is ample variety. During the time we were 
there we got great koodoo, oryx, wild ass, klip- 
springer, gazelle, gerenuk, warthog, and striped 
and spotted hyenas, and here, too, I got another 

We had followed the tracks for more 
than twenty miles before we came up with 

From a\ 

SIR Edmund's triumph over the redoubtable man-eater. 


taken refuge in a thick piece of bush some 
acres in extent. Jumping off my pony, and 
followed by my man, carrying my second rifle, I 
made my way into the scrub ; but so thick was 
it that I had to get within fifteen yards of where 
the lion was crouching, when I dropped him 
with a -577 express bullet in the thick of the 
neck. He proved to be the redoubtable man- 
eater, and was recognised by his thick black 
mane. He was a very fine beast, 8ft. 5in. 
before skinning. On our way home we en- 
countered clouds of locusts, which whirred up in 
swarms as we moved towards camp. 

Hearing that the Mullah, who was causing 
trouble on the other side of the Toyo plain. 

them, for there were two. My wife was riding 
one of our trotting camels, and these I posted 
in a river-bed, thinking she would be out of 
all danger from the lions, which had taken 
refuge in a dense piece of jungle, should either 
of them charge. 

Entering the scrub with my man, we got 
close up to the lions, and I fired at one as he 
moved through the bushes, hitting him rather 
high up behind the shoulder. The thud of the 
bullet and a tremendous roar told their tale, 
and a moment later an imirjense lion sprang 
clear of the bushes and charged straight down 
on the camels in the river-bed. I called to my 
man to fire mv second rifle if he could see the 


lion, and he did so, hitting him a second time, 
but without apparent efl'ect. 

The brute cliarged straight out of the jungle 
to where my wife was on the camel, and then 
crouched down a few yards off, snarling savagely 
and lashing his tail from side to side. 'l"he 
men with her got their carbines ready, fully 

expecting a charge, but, changing his mind, the 
lion dashed back into the jungle to where I was 
trying to force rny way through to the camels, 
and I dropped him dead at six yards with a 
bullet through the head. He was a very heavy, 
thick-set beast, 8ft. 6in. in length. The Uoness 

got away. On our return I found that my 
brother, who had unfortunately left camp before 
we found the lion tracks, had been lucky enough 
to bag a fine koodoo, so that we were all well 
satisfied with the result of our day. 

This was the end of my shooting, as two days 
later we started for the coast, and I had a sharp 
attack of malarial fever, which did 
not leave me till we were nearly 
half-way to India, whence we 
returned home later. 

Travellers intending to shoot in 
Somaliland should go to Berbera 
by a steamer which leaves Aden 
weekly, and start from there. 
The passage occupies sixteen to 
forty-eight hours, according to 
whether the steamer goes direct 
or stops at intermediate ports. 
Camels and men should be 
engaged beforehand through one 
of the merchant firms at Aden. 
Tents, weapons, ammunition, and 
stores should be taken out, and the 
tents should be of green rot-proof 
canvas, with double roof to keep 
out the sun or rain. Personally, 
I have never had any trouble with 
the natives ; if treated well and 
firmly, and clearly given to under- 
stand from the beginning who is 
master, they are generally good 
fellows enough. I always found 
them willing and honest as a rule. 
My own battery consists of a 
double '303, a 10' bore Cosmos 
carrying ball or shot (a most 
useful weapon for stopping a 
charge), a '577 magnum express, 
and a "300 rook rifle with inter- 
changeable shot barrel. The water 
is bad, and a good filter is abso- 
lutely necessary. 

Another good route is over the 
Toyo plain and into the Haud, 
where we went last year, and here 
various game including rhino, can 
be got ; but all species of game 
common to Somaliland, or nearly all, except 
elephant and rhino., are to be found in the locali- 
ties described in this article. The weather from 
November to March is, as a rule, perfect, and 
a cool wind generally tempers the heat, which, 
however, is not extreme at that time of year. 

How the Avalanche Struck Us at Laurie, 

By Mrs. Agnes Porritt, of Laurie, B. C. 

The writer is the wife of an English gentleman in charge of a large silver mine near Laurie, in 
British Columbia. During the winter months Mrs. Porritt is the only woman in a region sixty miles 
in extent, for then the mines cannot be worked owing to the cold and snow. She here describes 
the avalanche or .snow- slide which devastated her home on March loth last, and illustrates her 
article with photos, specially taken by herself and her husband. 

being my little girl, aged five, whom we dress 
more like a boy, so as to avoid petticoats, 
which harbour the snow. 

At 8 a.m. on March loth, while we were 
at breakfast, we heard a terrible sound at 
the back of our house, and to our horror 
saw an avalanche of snow from the upper 
mountain peaks, over 4,000ft. high, sliding 
down rapidly and spreading in all directions. 
My husband said but one word — " Fly ! " He 
seized the little girl in his arms, and I took 
my boy's hand and fled out of the house 
down the slopes towards the railway station. 
Turning back, to watch the fate of our little 
home, we saw a big snow-slide gliding down 
the cliffs in a direct line for our house. As 
it came steadily on it tore down masses of 
large fir trees, which fell with a deafening 


J^rom a] THREATENED HOUSE. {Photo. 


E live near Laurie, in the northern 
part of British Colun:ibia, near the 
giant Selkirk Range. My husband, 
Mr. Eyre Porritt, is manager of some 
silver mines belonging to an English 
firm; but owing to the great height of the n>oun- 
tains and the extreme cold the men can only 
work for seven months in the year, from about 
April to October or November. The miners 
are swung in baskets, suspended by ropes, up 
nearly perpendicular heights, and in winter the 
place is deserted. During the five and a half 
winter months I am the only woman in a dis- 
trict sixty miles round, the only other female 

Vol. vi.-8. 


Ffom a] VALUABLE. IPhoto. 




yrciii a\ 


roar. There is no noise that I can compare 
to the shriek and uproar of those wrenchecl-off 
branches and flyini^ trunks of uprooted trees. 
In breathless suspense we paused to see if these 
masses of timber would crash down on our poor 
little shanty ; but that disaster was happily 
averted by the 
sheds and out- 
houses, which 
formed a sort of 

In order to 
reach the station 
we had to wade 
knee - deep 
through the thick 
snow — which was 
just beginning to 
melt after the 
long winter. After 
some hours of 
tramping through 
blinding storms 
of rain we be- 
came quite ex- 
hausted. My boy 
was terribly 
frightened, but 
the little girl, in 
her father's arms, 
seemed quite un- 
concerned, and 
said: "Why, dad- 
dy, this row must 

be like the Boers' 
war ! " 

For eight terrible 
hours we tramped 
onwards, to the tune 
of a forest moaning 
in pain, as the torn- 
off branches flew 
through space with a 
terrific rush. On the 
level parts the snow- 
slides were 6ft. deep, 
and by noon, on the 
slopes, 9ft. 

I'he snow-sheds, 
85ft. long, at Laurie 
were smashed in, and 
the great timbers of 
the bridges sent flying 
in all directions. The 
destruction every- 
where was awful. 
There was not a 
living soul within six 
miles of us, and as I 
am the only woman who has been seen in or 
near the railway lines and the miners' village 
for nearly six months we could neither get 
assistance nor borrow any dry clothes. 

By sunset we reached the office and shed on 
the railway, where we took shelter for the night, 




from a Photo, 





\ ^^^^"^^^^^^^ 


9^ \J! 

ft --'^L 



.id. J M 

li - 



From d\ 



and next day my husband went back to the 
house and returned with food. Day by day he 
brought clothing and bedding and strips of 
carpet, with the aid of a man, who out of three 
miners was saved from the wreck caused by the 

Fortunately there were three rooms in the 
railway office, where we took refuge, and here 
we remained till the snow melted and the line 
was once more 

The climate 
here in summer 
is perfect and 
the scenery 
glorious, but in 
the depth of 
winter, being so 
far north, the 

sun disappears completely for two months. 
You can imagine my joy, therefore, when June 
and July come, and I can leave this scene of 
magnificent solitude for places farther south, 
where I enter civilization again and meet 
members of my own sex. 

A friend in Portsmouth sends us The Wide 
World, which is a great delight to us here, and 
we pass it on to the miners. 1 thought, Mr. 

Editor, that you 
might like to 
see the photos, 
and hear the 
experiences of a 
lonely woman in 
the very wildest 
and coldest part 
of the great 


T'rovta] THE disaster. [t /loto. 

An Indian Blood Feud. 

Bv "Onk Who Investigated It." 

The following- may serve to convey a fair idea of the work done by our Civil and police officials in 
India. It is^'written by an official of Abbottabad, and is the more interesting in that many phases 

of the investigation are illustrated by actual photographs. 

of Abbottabad, 







\v h i t e 



J-rom a\ 


HE morning of Sunday, January the 
14th of this year, broke cold and 
dismal, and thick, leaden clouds hung 
over the little town of Abbottabad, a 
military station on the north-west 
frontier of the Punjab. I'or days rain, hail, 
sleet, and snow 
had been enga- 
ged in a fierce 
and persistent 
struggle, but it 
now seemed 
evident that 
snow would win. 
I)own the pine- 
clad hills sur- 
rounding the 
pretty canton- 
ment it was 
slowly but surely 
creeping lower 
apd lower, till 
even the Brigade 
Circular Hill, 
that conical little 
mount which is 
the landmark 

The District 
of Police, after 
issuing some 
orders for the 
day to his men, 
drew near his fire 
and, taking up 
the newspaper, 
remarked to his 
wife, with a sigh 
of content : " No 
touring for us at 
present, I fancy." 
"That will be 
delightful," she 
replied ; "and I 
do hope we shall 
be able to give 
ourselves a real 
good rest, as the 
servants seem to think we are in for a heavy 
fall of snow." 

At this moment Baddu Ram, the old bearer, 
silently appeared at the drawing-room door, and 
intimated that the Munshi was outside and 
wished to read a very urgent report to the sahib. 







From a] 






Fro7n a Photo. 

The Superintendent was annoyed ^t having 
his Sunday rest disturbed, so it was with no 
good grace that he rose from his comfortable 
seat and made his way to the private office 
adjoining the house, in the veranda of which 
the vernacular reader awaited him. The man, 
having saluted and followed his chief into the 
room, then sat down cros.s-legged on the floor 
and proceeded to read the following communi- 
cation in Hindustani : — 

"Early on the morning of the nth inst. the 
hamlet of Chapri, on the frontier, was raided 
by a band of two hundred trans-border men. 
Twelve of the inhabitants were killed, a large 
number of cattle, sheep, and goats carried off, a 
quantity of grain destroyed, and, finally, the 
houses were burnt to the ground." Mr. Close 
put a few (piestions to the reader, and, having 
satisfied himself that he understood the facts, 
his language became rather forcible. 

" I must go over at once to the Deputy- 
Commissioner," he said, presently, " and find* 
out what he has heard. This is a serious 
case, and one never knows how far a raid like 
this may go or what the ending is likely to be. 
Let me know immediately if any further in- 
formation is brought in." 

The Munshi saluted and departed, leaving 

morning ? " 

Close to make his way over to the 
Deputy-Commissioner's bungalow, only 
a short distance from his own. 

" Halloa, Millar ! " he exclaimed, on 
arrival at that young bachelor's estab- 
lishment, " have you heard anything 
about that raid at Chapri ? " 

" C)h, yes," was the reply, " I heard 
something about one ; I suppose it's 
not a very serious business, is it? " 

" Serious ! I should think it was. 
\Vhy, you and I will have to be off 
to-morrow morning to look into it." 

"Good heavens ! you don't mean to 
say you think I shall have to go to that 
beastly place in this weather? Why, 
it's over forty miles from here, and 
right up in the hills. We shall be 
snowed up." 

" Of course you must go. There 
would be no end of a row if anything 
further occurred and you had not been 
to inquire into the affliir." 

"Oh, I shall have to go, I suppose, 
but it's an infernal nuisance. I'en to 
one we shall never get through the 
snow. But, at any rate, I'll go ; and 
I suppose I had better make the 
arrangements, as you won't want to 
take your servants away from Mrs. 
Close. AVhat time shall I order the 
to come round for us to-morrow 

" Eight o'clock sharp at my house, and then 
I can call for you. We will drive as far as 
Shinkiari, at a push, so I will send on a pony 
there to-day to ride up to Ahl, where there is a 
bungalow in which we can spend the night, and 
the following morning we will go over to Chapri 
and back to see what the real state of affairs is. 

" Mind you are ready, though," concluded 
the Superintendent, "and I would advise you 
to take plenty of warm things, for we shall have 
to spend at least two nights and a day up in the 
snow. Oh, and by the way, I think it would be 
just as well if you send a wire to Oghi, and 
order the Subadar-Major and twenty-five men 
of the Border Military Police up to Chapri to 
quiet the people, and possibly prevent things 

The remainder of Sunday passed uneventfully. 
Then in the cold, dark night slowly the snow 
drew near and soft, feathery flakes fell silently, 
covering the bare earth with its beautiful mantle. 
Punctually at eight o'clock a tonga carried 
Close off to the Deputy-Commissioner's house, 
where the former received quite a shock ; for 
when Millar came forth dressed for the journey 
his usually slim figure was hardly recognisable. 




In his efforts to follow the advice given him the 
day before he had put on an absurd quantity 
of clothes, so that he looked a perfect Daniel 

A short time later away sped the tonga 
towards the town of Mansehra, both passengers 
wearing fur coats and almost smothering them- 
selves in their thick poshteen rugs (sheep-skins 
embroidered with silk outside). The travellers 
were very disgusted when, on nearing Shinkiari, 
it began to rain heavily. Thunder growled 
ominously in the distance, and on looking back 
they observed that the sky in the direction of 
Abbottabad was as black as night. They 
learned later that a terrific storm of hail, rain, 
and snow had broken over the station, and that 
the lightning had 
struck one of 
the trees in the 
bazaar, doing 
great damage. 

At Shinkiari 
the baggage 
mules and ser- 
vants were in 
waiting; also the 
guard of the 
Border Military 
Police, which 
had that morn- 
ing marched 
down, through 
snow over a foot 
deep, from A hi, 
a distance of 
twelve miles, to 
meet and escort 
the officers. Of 
the regular police 

at this place, the 
Deputy Inspector 
N a n a k C h a n d 
and two con- 
stables had gone 
on to the scene 
of the raid, so 
only two more 
constables were 
selected by the 
to accompany the 
present party. 

At 2.45 p.m. 
all were ready, 
and the cavalcade 
started in the 
pouring rain up 
[P/ioio. the Konsh Glen 
for the village of 
Ahl, proceeding at first along a level road and 
fording the River Siran, through whose icy 
waters the natives calmly waded, laughing and 
talking good-naturedly. About five miles from 
Shinkiari the road began gradually to ascend, 
and a short distance farther on the incline 
became steeper. Meanwhile the rain had 
changed to snow, and half-way up to Ahl the 
ground began to appear white. On and on 
the men and -animals trudged, the snow 
growing thicker and thicker with every step, 
until the whole landscape, as far as the eye 
could see, was one white mass of untrodden 
snow. No road was to be seen, and the only 
tracks to guide the party were the footprints of 
the villagers who had passed up or down the 

From a] 





Frovt a] the kciad 10 ahl, as it ai'i-eaks in summer, 

hill. Rapidly night drew 
and sombre pine trees re 
the greater, and liad it 
not been for the light 
thrown up by the snow 
the weary travellers would 
have fared very badly. 
As it was the animals 
slipped and stumbled over 
the hidden inequalities of 
the ground, and the 
cheerful chattering of the 
natives almost ceased. 

" How much farther is 
it?" Close asked the guard, 
exasperated and tired with 
his pony's stumblings. 

" Oh, quite near," they 
answered, briskly — " only 
about a mile and a half." 

This good news cheered 
the riders greatly, and 
Millar whistled away joy- 
fully, thinking that the 
unpleasant journey would 
soon be over. 

in, the 


" I suppose we have nearly reached Ahl 
now ? " he incjuired, when the party had 
j^^ proceeded about two miles farther on. 

" Yes, only two miles more," answered 
the men, in the same cheerful tone. 

" Isn't it extraordinary," Close remarked, 
" how natives have no conception of 
distance ? Here are these men who have 
this morning marched down from Ahl, and 
yet they have no idea how far it is." 

" No, they just go on till they arrive at 
their destination, never taking any notice of 
the road or the distance," replied Millar, 
and again he whistled a merry tune. 

Just after nine o'clock the benumbed and 
weary officers reached the little rest-house at 
Ahl, and found it consisted of one small 
room, 1 6ft. by 14ft., and a bath-room open 
all round to the outer air. However, they 
were only too thankful to have a roof over 
their heads, so they set to work making 
themselves as comfortable as circumstances 
would permit. The chimney, however, 
smoked so much that they were nearly 
suffocated. The hardy policemen arrived 
as fresh as though they had just tumbled 
out of bed, and now began to help unload- 
ing the animals, carrying baggage, and 
generally making themselves useful in the 
most surprising manner. 

After breakfast the following morning 
[r/ioto. Millar and Close, accompanied by some of 
the guard, proceeded to Euttal, on the way 
heavy clouds to Chapri, being met half-way by Arbab Murad 
darkness all Khan, the Subadar-Major of the Hazara Border 

J'rom a] THE KEST-HOUSE at ahl which the weary OFFlCERi WEKE .-^O GLAl; lu KEACH, 






Military Police, and Nanak Chand, the Deputy 
Inspector of the Regular Police. Only four 
miles had to be traversed between the villages 
ol Ahl and Buttal, but the snow was so 
heavy that progress was slow, and it took the 
party over an hour and a half to cover 
the distance. On arrival, Bahram 
Khan, the chief of Buttal, courteously 
received the officers, and invited them 
into his " serai," where they learnt the 
fullest details of the recent raid and 
the of it. It trans[)ired that the 
hamlet of Chapri, on the border, about 
six miles from Buttal, was a small 
place consisting of five houses. It 
was the home of some Parsawal 
"gujars " (shepherds), who, under their 
leader, Mian Dad, had been driven 
out of independent territory and 
settled within the British border. 

The reason of this flight was a 
between these shepherds and 
a:io:a'jr clan known as the Chichai 
gujars, who also' lived across the 
frontier. The enmity between the 
two factions originated in this wise : — 

A Chichai gujar, Ghazi by name, 
stole a sheep from a relation of Nur 
Jamal, the chief of the Chichais, for 
which theft Xur Jamal raided Ghazi's and burnt it to the ground, 
his wife, children, and cattle perishing 
in the flames — a big price to pay for 
a sheep. The man himself escaped, 
and, collecting a band of Chichai 
gujars, including Tor and Imam Dir, 
and some Parsawals, with Mian Dad 
at their head, he attacked in return 

Nur Jamal's house, killing 
him and most of his 
family, besides destroying 
his property by fire. 
Luckily, Nur J'^iiial's two 
eldest sons did not reside 
with their father, as it is 
a custom among these 
shepherds, who are con- 
stantly at feud with one 
another, to send their sons 
to live in different villages, 
so that, in case of any 
_ sudden onslaught, some 
of the family at least may 
escape to punish the 
enemy. Accordingly, when 
Churah and Shahkhela, 
Nur Jamal's two surviving 
sons, heard of their father's 
untimely end they swore a 
mighty oath that they would never rest till 
they had encompassed the destruction and 
downfall of I'or and Imam Dir and all belong- 
ing to them. 

Tor and Imam Dir were greatly alarmed, as 


liAHKA.M K11A.\ oi 

Jioin a J'/ioto. 

;-.--l.-l A.NCE. 


they knew Nur Jamal's sons to be men as brave 
as they were unscrupulous ; and, casting about 
how to appease their wrath, they hit upon 'the 
plan of assembling a band of Chichais to raid 
the Parsawals, notably the leader Mian Dad 
and a man named Lakhmir. I'his attack on the 
opposite faction would, they hoped, deceive the 
two brothers, and possibly lead them to suppose 
that it was Mian Dad and the Parsawals alone 
who had committed the outrage on Nur Jamal, 
while they. Tor and Imam Dir, were innocent 
of the offence. They pretended also to show 
their friendliness for Churah and Shahkhela by 
giving out that 
they were anxious 
to punish the old 
man's murderers. 

Meanwhile the 
Parsawals, hearing 
what was likely to 
occur, and being 
only a small and 
much weaker clan, 
fled into British 
territory, some 
taking up their 
abode at Chapri, 
while others went 
on to Kagan and 
even as far as 
Cashmere. The 
leader, Mian Dad, 
remained at Cha- 
pri, but this hamlet 
proved to be not 
nearly far enough 
removed from the 
enemy, and some. 
few weeks later 
these unfortunate 
refugees were 
suddenly attacked 
while asleep, 
before the dawn 
of the nth of 
January, by a 
raiding party From a 
approaching the 

houses from two different directions. Mian 
Dad, when asked by the Superintendent to 
give an account of what took place, related the 
following story : — 

"Sahib, five days ago, very early in the morn- 
ing, when it was still dark, I was sleeping with 
my family at home, when all at once I was 
aroused by the sound of a shot fired ; it seemed 
to nie, in the direction of the Musjid. I sat up 
immediately and listened, for I feared that some 
harm had happened to my sons, who were both 

Vo'. vi.-9. 

the right 



passing the night there. I heard a great noise 
as of many people gathered together, and 
started up, for all at once it came into my mind 
that our foes, the Chichais, were upon us. 
Without losing an instant I woke my wife, and 
bade her take the children and creep out of the 
house at the back. Next she was to make her 
way to Buttal with all speed. I then seized my 
sword and rushed out into the courtyard in 
front. Here I almost ran full tilt into the arms of 
my enemy. Imam Dir, but luckily I recognised 
him in time, and stepping back a pace avoided 
the thrust of his spear. Then with all my 

strength I slashed 
at him, wounding 
him in 

" I m a m I) i r 
cried out loudly 
for help, and some 
of his followers 
ran up in hot 
haste. I found 
myself nearly 
surrounded and 
greatly out - num- 
bered, so I fled, 
my servant follow- 
ing me. In the 
half darkness we 
miscalculated the 
width of my field 
and both fell head- 
long down a steep 
incline ; over and 
over we rolled, our 
enemies in full 
pursuit. When at 
last we reached 
the bottom I saw 
my servant quickly 
pick himself up 
and run on ; but 
I am an old man 
and I had no 
breath left in my 
bod)'. In f e a r 
and trembling I 
crawled stealthily along the ground and at 
length drew myself under a bush, hoping to 
escape my pursuers. On they came, however, 
or at least some of them, for the rest had 
remained round the houses to set fire to them, 
and they searched hither and thither, almost 
trampling me under foot in their hurry. Sud- 
denly catching sight of the dim form of my 
servant on ahead, they mistook him for me, 
and passed swiftly onwards, crying, 'There he 
goes ! 




there he goes ! ' 



" My poor servant, he was overtaken a mile 
l;irtlK'r on and cut to pieces. For a long time 
i kept quite still, for I could hear the voices 
of the men who were following my servant on 
the one side, and up the incline, near my 
house, there was a terrible tunmll. Above the 
shouts and yells of the raiders, who hurried to 
and fro pillaging and destroying everything, 1 
could distinguish the crackling of fires, the 
piercing shrieks and screams of helpless women 
and children, and the noise of the cattle, as half 
maddened with 
fear they stam- 
peded, bellowing 
loudly. These 
sounds filled me 
with horror, for 
I did not know 
whether my wife 
and children had 
been able to 
make good their 
escape to Buttal, 
and I felt sure 
that my house 
was in flames 
and niy cattle 
slaughtered. But 
as no good could 
be done by re- 
turning to the 
hamlet alone I ^''^ -y-uiuiu.; u,. iak. 

crept silently and 

cautiously away for some distance ; then standing 
up once more I ran as fast as my legs would 
carry me into Buttal." 

^Iian Dad's house and live stock were of 
course destroyed, and his neighbour Lakhmir 
suffered still more heavily. This man had also 
been aroused by the shot, but on trying to 
escape fiom his house he found it barred by the 
raiders. So returning inside he slipped out 
through a hole in the wall at the rear ; and to 
prevent himself being recognised he actually 
mingled with the enemy, a/id assisted tke»i in 
firing his oivn property. His wife, mother-in- 
law, three sons, and a daughter were inside and 
were burned to death, the cattle meeting a 
similar fate. Lakhmir then took himself off to 
the hills, right glad that he himself at any rate 
had escaped with a whole skin. 

When the shot which had alarmed the hamlet 
was fired an inoffensive stranger passing the 
night at the Musjid was killed, but Mian Dad's 
two sons. Said Khan and ^Iisri, had dashed 
through the Chichais, and, dodging the enemy 
in the darkness, had hastened to the village of 
Sharkul, praying for a "chigha," or pursuing 
party, to come to the aid of Chapri. Mean- 

while other inhabitants of the hamlet had raised 
the alarm at Buttal, the villagers of which place 
also turned out in hot haste, armed to the teeth. 

The relieving party from Sharkul, under the 
leadership of Said Khan and Misri, arrived first 
on the scene of action. 

Discouraged at the fall of two of their men, 
the party left the cattle they had stolen and fled. 
The Buttal " chigha " at the same time followed 
closely on the heels of the marauders going 
north-west, but these had unfortunately had a 

SENT OUT UxO.M l.LliAL <.)\ THE HEl-.L.-j 

From a Photo. 

good start and managed to escape, carrying off 
one hundred goats and sheep with them. When 
the enemy had been driven off and inquiries 
made as to the extent of damage done, it was 
found that the houses of Mian Dad and 
Lakhmir had been completely destroyed by 
fire, six women and children perishing in the 
flames. Three men had been killed and one 
wounded in the fight, while forty head of cattle ' 
and some grain were destroyed ; the raiders, as 
has been mentioned before, possessing them- 
selves of one hundred sheep and goats. 

All these details Millar and Close ascertained 
at Buttal, and they further heard that since the 
raid had taken place the snow had made the 
road between Buttal and Chapri impassable. 
Moreover, as all the people of the hamlet were 
collected at Buttal, and no additional informa- 
tion could be obtained by proceeding to the 
scene of the disaster, it was decided not to pro- 
long the journey. The Khan of Buttal very 
hospital)ly ordered Chinese tea with biscuits 
and chu{)attis for his visitors, the sahibs, who 
afterwards returned to Ahl, very thankful at 
having been spared a longer and more tedious 
ride to the frontier and back. 

A Lady Guest at the Bear=Raising Ranch 

Bv Helen Grev, of Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Bog Kenny, finding that the bears destroyed his stock, decided, with true Western originality, to 
cultivate bears instead of hogs, etc. The bears run wild on his vast ranch, and Mr. Kenny makes five 
thousand dollars a year out of their skins, fat, cubs, etc., besides giving his friends admirable sport. 
Mrs. Grey shot one of the bears herself, and here tells us all about her host and the peculiar 

industry he is engaged in. 

the land of ex- 
pedients, but 
B02; Kenny's 
ranch, where he 

■' raises " and preserves bears 
— making it pay, too — is the 
expedient of expedients. His 
ranch is also the Mecca of 
the city hunter's desire, and 
an invitation to shoot over 
Bog's sixty miles of preserve 
is as eagerly accepted as if 
he were a Royal personage 
rather than just a man and 
a hunter. 

His ranch lies away up 
in the highest of the Coast 
Range of mountains in 
Mendocino County, just on 
the borders of Humboldt and 
along the skirts of the red- 
wood belt, five days' journey 
from San Francisco. One 
travels one day by the " ramshackle " narrow- 
gauge road, through the farming and Ihdian 
lands, and the other four days are one half 
by stage and by horseback the other half 
— when the roads permit. 

It is a country 
of strange tales 
and great sheep 
ranches, and the 
king of all the 
country is the 
stage - driver as 
he lumbers along 
the rough roads 
rolling a quid in 
one side of his 
mouth and a tale 
in the other 
about a hold-up 
here and an upset 
coach there ; an 
Indian massacre 
in the sixties 
down in a hollow 
to the right, or 
of a little " un- 
pleasantness" be- 
cause of a big 

fire only a few years ago. The 
"little unpleasantness" w-as 
the death by rope of a 
stranger near the burning 
district. He may have caused 
the fire and he may not ; he 
surely will never do it again, 
and strangers will be more 
careful of their fires in the 
future in a land where the 
greatest curse are the terrible 
fires that sweep over the hills 
in the dry season. 

I'he driver was particularly 
attentive to me, because Bog 
had told him I was coming 
up as his guest. By the way. 
Bog had enlisted in the 8th 
Californians at the beginning 
of the Spanish War, but he 
never got any farther than 
Oakland, when the company 
was mustered out of service. 
Thus Bog wasted good 
mountain-born patriotism among the sandhills 
of Camp Merritt washing dishes. I had an 
opportunity of doing him a service, and in his 
gratitude he gave me an invitation to visit his 
ranch and shoot a bear. And thus it was that 


From a I'hoto. 


From fi Photo. 





in the soft davs of November I was ridins; over 
a level stretch under the mossy-trunked tan-bark 
oaks and the straight cathedral pines in such 
weather as the gods might have dreamed of, 
with the Pacific a whitish-blue line away to the 
westward and with white fog-wraiths hovering in 
the sweeping red-wood belts, and all around the 
solemn hush of the high mountains. Bog him- 
self was telling me how he came to be a bear 
rancher. A strange industry, truly. 

"We set out to raise pigs and sheep like 
everyone else, but the bears were so thick that 
they carried off the profits, and at length I 
saw that they were the only crop that would pay 
while there was so much waste land about. 
Therefore, I set about making them pay for 
their keep, if they intended to stay on our 
land." This was the way he put it. A less 
simple man would have told of the hardships 
of an unopened wilderness, but I do not believe 
that Bo^ or his mother ever considered how 
they had conquered where most would have 
been conquered. 

His mother had crossed the plains in 49, 
mosifly on foot, with her husband and a train of 
" movers." They kept the first tavern where is 
now the city of Sacramento, at the ford of the 
Sacramento River, where Mrs. Kenny's seven 
children were born. It was the first outpost 
of civilization the returning miner came to ; and 
his call of "Ferry" was as often answered by 
Mrs. Kenny and the boat as by her husband. 
It was not unusual for the Kennys to take in 
500 dollars in gold dust before .their children 
had eaten breakfast. About the only good 

thing her husband 
ever did was to die, 
and then, knowing 
too well the sad 
hereditary inclination 
of the children, Mrs. 
Kenny sold out the 
tavern and moved to 
Humboldt Co. Here 
she was prospering on 
a dairy ranch when 
the Indians came. 
She noticed at night 
after the milking that 
the cows would not 
leave the calves as 
usual, but hung about 
and lowed as the dark- 
ness fell. She knew 
it meant " Indians," 
more by intuition 
than by any other 
faculty ; and she did 
not undress the chil- 
dren, but let them sleep on the floor before the 
fire which she sent blazing out of the throat of 
the wide fireplace. She also took up the secret 
board of the floor which concealed her supply 
of powder and shot, got out her store of 



.%Ui. I;Ou KE.NNV, 
From n\ 





From a.\ on the right, he was wounded by mks. kenny in 

ammunition, and looked to her gun. Scarcely 
was it dark when her barn wa.s burning, and she 
started out with her family of little children. 
The eldest boy carried the baby, while she 
covered their retreat over four miles of rough road 
to the house of the nearest neighbour, fighting 
back the savages and killing three of them. She 
was herself wounded in the thigh, and became so 
weak from loss of blood that she fell in a faint 
over the threshold of the refuge she sought. 
Bog Kenny was that boy who carried the baby, 
who has now grown to womanhood, and it is 
her photograph which was taken with the baby 
bear who would try and run away, and therefore 
had to be chained. All the other children have 
gone to homes of their own but these two, and 
both are very dear to the white-haired old 
woman, who, if she took time to moralize, would 
say that they were the compensation which 
balanced her life of work in the home which 
she made in the wilderness on the top of the 
mountains, where the bears were so thick in the 
old days that they came prowling round her 
garden, so that she watched her little brood lest 
the brutes should carry them off into the woods, 
as well as the sheep and hogs. 

As we rode along Bog told me of the years 
he spent there, and, looking up at the trees, he 
said, " There is a splendid mast this year '' — 
and mast means fat hogs and sheep, deer and 
rattlesnakes, plenty of bear, and fat purses for 
the ranchers. 


" I have been keeping 
a bear for you," Bog said. 
" You will be the first 
woman who has ever shot 
one of my bears," he 

We were approaching 
his preserves, winding up 
and up a narrow trail, and 
in thickets we heard the 
quail calling. From the 
tall trees the squirrels 
scolded at us, and we saw 
occasionally a deer on its 
way to the brook. It 
would stand startled to 
look at us, and then race 
away into the woods. 

For miles we heard the 
distant " hoo, hoo" of the 
dogs as we approached 
through a series of gates, 
each with its own peculiar 
style of fastening of Bog's 
own invention. One fifty 
feet of road was unfinished. 
He had begun it at both 
ends, and the meeting-places were about that 
distance out, and he had never been able to 
make up his mind which end he wai>ted to 
make over. At last (and I was stiff from our 
long ride) we came in sight of the cabin through 
an opening in the trees. My horse, a broncho 
with an Irish disposition, nearly dismounted 
me without any invitation before I had an 
opportunity of seeing the cause of his rebelling 
against government. When I saw no fewer than 
ten half-grown bears and twice as many dogs 
fawning over Bog, and another huge bear stand- 
ing on his haunches, I cannot say how relieved 
I was when a white-haired woman caught the 
broncho's bridle and held him while I jumped 
down, the old lady meanwhile assuring me the 
bears were as harmless as kittens ; nevertheless, 
I was glad to see a chain behind Bruin, with 
one end at his collar and the other round a tree. 
Mrs. Kenny was too hospitable to laugh till we 
were better acquainted, and even then she never 
did laugh without chiding Bog that he had not 
forewarned me of the bears. 

Not less than 6ft. high, Mrs. Kenny is 
seventy-two years old. Her hair is white, but 
she walks over the rough trails among the 
mountains as flat-backed and as strongly as a 
vigorous young man. Up there near the sky she 
seems to have some eli.xir of youth which keeps 
the fire and the laugh in the clear grey eyes and 
the determination and enthusiasm in the sweet 
old face. She has never bowed her head to fate 



Fioiit a] 


or known that she could bow, and, like her 
original son, she will be a child all her days. 
They have little respect for " city folk " out of 
their own environs. Bog is a Czar in his 
domains, and 
there is no ap- 
peal from his 
law. A dog 
which would 
notice a deer or 
a quail would be 
tolerated on the 
place no longer 
than a man who 
would shoot a 
doe or a year- 
ling. If a mother 
bear be killed, 
her young ones 
must be found 
and carried 
home to be 
raised by hand; 
and out of its 
season no 
animal may be 
killed except the 
rattlesnake and 
the coyote. The 
bears which 
Bog Kenny kills 
must have at- 
tained a certain 

growth, when the 
beast is of the greatest 
market value. From 
October to March 
Mr. Kenny gathers 
his remarkable crop. 
Each bear yields him 
about 5cdols. net, 
and in a good season 
he counts on from 
I20 to 150 bears. He 
cores the pelts care- 
fully, rubbing the soft 
parts with the brains 
of the bear and deer; 
the pelts bring him 
from lodols. to 
5odols. each accord- 
ing to the beauty of 
the skin. A yoolb. 
bear will yield about 
3odols. worth of oil 
and bear steak, which 
is good. There are 
besides the gall and 
the claws, and also 
from ten to twenty cubs (delightful little "cusses"), 
which he carries to San Francisco. On the whole 
he averages about 5,ooodols. a year from his crop 
of bears, and has the pleasure of harvesting it, 



From a) 





dog, so he set about making one. The 
result — ugUer than sin is painted — is 
a dog that stalks bear and cuts off his 
retreat by worrying him and calling for 
help. The dog is a mixture of blood- 
hound, collie, and bull. Not one 
puppy in ten is worth raising, but those 
Mr. Kenny selects to bring up and 
train are the finest bear dogs that can 
be had, and he could sell as many as 
he would for loodols. each. He has 
few to part with, however, for every 
season he loses some dogs, which are 
either killed by the bears or have 
their spirit broken. The latter Bog 
shoots if they cannot be cured, for they 
are useless in breeding and set a bad 
example to the young dogs. 

Starting out early one morning during 
my visit. Bog took from six to ten dogs, 
coupled with Pansy, his pride, and 
the leader. Bog held back the dogs, 
keeping them in hand till Pansy's 
distant "ah-hooing" told him she had 
a trace. Uncoupling the dogs, they 
flew away into the chaparral, which 

rmS IS ONE OF bog's finest beaks. he sold it when VOUN' 

Frovi a Photo. 

which many a rich man would pay a big price 
for. He always invites friends to stay with him 
for a few days' hunting, and gives them the 
finest of sport. But woe indeed to the 
uninvited guest ! He receives food only if 
necessary to prevent actual starvation on the 
journey back whence he came, with a strong 
hint that Bog's sight is not good enough for 
him to distinguish between a bear and a stranger. 
He would shoot a human intruder, I fear, 
almost as quickly as a four-footed one, and no 
jury up there would do aught else but acquit 
him, and congratulate him in the bargain, for 
the mountaineers do not welcome the race of 
wanderers, but no more kindly people exist 
where their friends are concerned. 

Besides his bears and' hogs and sheep, Bog 
Kenny has his dogs, and if he could be vain 
of anything it would be of those same dogs. 
To hunt bear he found no suitable breed of 

From a\ 





From a\ manv of his fellows in hear hunting. [Photo. 

seemed to open of its own volition for Bog to 
pass, wliile I followed among the tangle of 
underbrush and limbs of trees as fast as I could, 
hiving the howling and yelping as a guide. 

When I got near there were ten dogs, with Bog 
intently watching the top of a high sugar-pine. 
Bog was holding one dog by the collar, while 
it struggled and whimpered to escape. The 
other dogs sat on their haunches emitting short, 
frequent howls of excitement. 
Bog had carried my rifle, and 
smiled as he saw me looking at 
the bear, which was two -thirds 
the way up the tall tree, panting 
from its run and rolling its big 
liead from side to side. The brute 
was looking down at us with a 
confident air of safety, and almost 
defied us to attack her if we could. 
I knew Bog's law that a bear must 
be shot in the head, and I knew, 
too, that a missed mark was liable 
to mean a lapsed friendship, so 
I took careful aim at the rolling 
ugly head, and I missed. Bog 
did not say a word and the dogs 
looked surprised, first at me and 
then at Bog, asking what it meant 
that the bear was not brought 
down. I fired again, and the huge 
body came bumping down from 
the tree, bringing branches with 
it as it fell among the howling 
dogs, which rushed at it and 

seemed to glory in its downfall. Leaving the 
bear on the ground, we set about finding 
licr cubs, and it was a long search, for the 
l)ear had been browsing, and the dogs led 
us over a wide course in the chaparral till we 
found two little cubs crying like human babies. 
Bog put them both in his coat-pocket and took 
them home for ]VLiry to raise on milk till they 
were old enough to fend for themselves. When 
they are three years old they are killed, and all 
that are cared for by Mary are hers. Many of 
the best hides, by the way, bear her initials when 
in the spring Bog hauls them down to the 

They were delighted at the cabin that I had 
killed the bear, and when Bog brought home its 
hide they admired it without stint. It is a real 
beauty — a rug now with a tail, if I may say 
so, and a dark cinnamon brown tail at that. 
Scientists class the Mendocino bears in two 
groups, the black and the cinnamon, but Bog 
says they are one species— often children of one 
mother. He ought to know, for he has hunted 
and raised them for nearly thirty years, and 
knows the individual marks they make as high 
as they can reach on the tree trunks. He has 
personal friends among the bears whom he has 
known for years, and who know him ; these he 
will not shoot, because he likes to feel " they 
are there." One of them outwitted him so 
cleverly in a long chase thai she gained his 
admiration, and though he will not let the dogs 
worry her he steals her cubs, but takes care that 
she does not catch him with a baby in his arms. 



Mow Mrs. Porter Outwitted the Apaches. 

(Described by Her to Mrs. L. M. Terry, of Mexico.) 

Mrs. Porter is now living in Arizona, and she here relates how she was visited by a party of frantic 

Apaches on the war-path, who found her alone and unprotected. They met a terrible death at 

Mrs. Porter's hands in a way which even they, cunning as they are, never expected. 

T the time of this narrative I was a 
young woman of twenty -six, Hving 
with my husband (who was a mining 
man) in Western New Mexico, just 
where that territory bounds Arizona, 
and uncomfortably close to the Ute, Navajo, 
and Apache Indian Reservations. With these 
latter Indians (the terror at that time of the 
entire South-West) my adventure deals ; and I 
think you will agree with me that no woman ever 
had a more terrible experience. 
Our little log-cabin, with its 
four rudely-partitioned rooms, 
was very remotely situated, 
almost in the very heart of 
the MogoUon Mountains. Few 
hunting parties had penetrated 
so far west at that time, where- 
fore game was more than plen- 
tiful all around us. Bears, 
pumas, and mountain lions 
wandered fearlessly up to our 
very door ; coyotes and wolves 
nightly howled us to sleep ; 
the woods were full of wild 
turkeys and quail ; and a big 
silvery stream that ran within 
half a mile of our cabin was 
alive with beautiful speckled 

So you see that some few 
advantages attached them- 
selves to our life in the 
wilderness — not the least of 
which was the fact that the 
great ledge which my husband 
and his two partners were ex- 
ploiting was within plain view 
of our cabin door. A pistol- 
shot at any time brought all 
three men in case danger 
threatened, and I considered 
myself as safe as any woman 
could be in that wild region. 

As I said before, the Apache 
Indians were then the terror 
of both New Mexico and 
Arizona. The Utes also had 
been on the war-path for several 
months, and more than one 

Vol. vi.— 10. 

SOME 6ft. 

small village had been the scene of their de- 
predations. But remote mining people, like 
ourselves, had never been harmed in the 
slightest. In fact, more than once I had fed 
and entertained to the best of my ability 
wandering groups of red men, who, with the 
exception of stealing my mirror and all the 
tobacco and whisky that we had within view, 
proved very tractable and even amusing callers. 
Like all " tender-foot " women, however, I 
lived in constant terror of these 
Indians. But after our first 
visit from a deputation of 
Navajo braves I ceased to 
have any dread of them, and, 
in fact, rather looked forward 
to the coming of our Indian 
callers, among whom were 
sometimes included an occa- 
sional squaw or so. To them 
my hair (yellow at that time), 
the manner in which I dressed 
it, my small hand-mirror, and 
our music-bo.x, were things that 
occasioned great wonderment. 
They were like children in 
their unconcealed admiration 
of strange things, and my awe 
of them was soon overcome 
to such an extent that I was 
beguiled into hiring as cook a 
Navajo maiden some 6ft. in 
height, who rejoiced in the 
lengthy name of "Young- 
Woman - with - Eyes - like - the - 
Star-of-the-Evening !" 

The engaging of the damsel 
took place in early spring, and 
I must say that she proved a 
source of much help and great 
amusement to me. Like the 
immortal Barkis, she was " will- 
ing" to the last extent, and 
very quick to learn new ways. 
I will never forget one morning 
when she gravely brought in 
breakfast, attired in her usual 
blanket and the skirt which I 
-EVEs-LiKE-THE-sTAR- Insistcd upou hcr wearing, but 
[^ HEiGH^r°' ''^""''' with her stiff black hair wound 



From a\ 



tightly into my kid curling-strips ! " Young- 
^\"oman-\vith-Eyes like-the-Star-of-the-Evening " 
had no false modesty or pride about her. All 
was fish that came to her net, and, like a child 
or a magpie, anything new, bright, or glittering 
look her imnrrediate fancy, after which " she 
was never happy until she got it I " 

-Dropping the subject of my first Indian 
handmaiden, however (about whom I could 
write whole books, did opportunity offer), I will 
proceed to the matter of my adventure, >vhich 
occurred about a year after " Young \\'oman " 
came to me. 

As luck would have it, a rich streak of gold 
had been discovered by one of our prospectors, 
in a gulch at least five miles away from our 
cabin. My husband was very anxious to 
exploit this new " find," so early on the 
morning of April 15th (I am not likely to 
forget the date) he packed up a small assay- 
ing furnace, with various chemicals, and accom- 
panied by both assistants and a substantial 
lunch, started off for an investigation of. the 
streak. He would not return before nightfall, 
he thought, but in any event I would be per- 

fectly safe, with the protection of " Young 
Woman " and a double-barrelled shot-gun, 
which I kept always loaded in the rack 
against the wall. As a matter of fact, this 
gun was rarely used, and then only for bear. 
The thought of danger from either wild 
beast or man never occurred to me, and 
it was with perfect equanimity that I 
waved good-bye to the men, who were 
ahiKjst out of sight on the mountain trail ; 
then I turned to go back into the house. 
It was a lovely spring morning, and, as I 
■y stood for a moment on the edge of the 
mm great forest so close to our house, I con- 
" gratulated myself on my free, beautiful 
surroundings, so much to be preferred, in 
spite of their wildness and remoteness, to 
the noise, dust, and heat of brick - built 
cities ! As I stood gazing into the vast, 
solemn forest, with its magnificent trees, 
waving ferns, fragrant creepers, and thou- 
sands of sweet, humble, wild flowers, I 
could hear only the song of forest-birds, 
the occasional call of a deer 10 its mate, 
with sometimes the stealthy tread of a 
puma or other forest animal, and now and 
then a meditative " grunt, grunt," which 
indicated that Bruin was hunting an early 
breakfast of grubs or juicy young roots. It 
was all so peaceful and quiet that the long, 
low hoot of an owl, evidently from a dis- 
tance (for it was barely audible), made me 
tremble nervously. For the call of this 
night-bird is hardly ever heard in bright 
daylight, and unfamiliar sounds rarely fail to call 
the attention of forest-dwellers. As I listened, 
the hoot came again — then again and again. I 
shook off a faint superstitious feeling that crept 
over me, telling myself that in the dimmest 
recesses of the forest it could be hardly light 
yet, at this early hour, and the cry of an owl was 
no serious matter, anyway. Then, with thrifty 
thoughts of some sewing I had planned for the 
morning, I went briskly back to the house, got 
out my small sewing machine and materials, 
and prepared for a diligent forenoon. 

I had been sewing peacefully for perhaps an 
hour when " Young Woman " appeared, with 
fishing-rod and bait ; also with the request that 
she might be allowed to go down to the trout 
stream, for there was, she stated, urgent need of 
fish for dinner. I hesitated a moment, for it 
was very lonely in the little cabin, with no 
human soul near, and I felt a queer presenti- 
ment that I ought not to remain alone. But 
one cannot expect an Indian to remain indoors, 
especially when there is fishing to be done. 
"Young Woman," I should say, was a devout 
angler, and I perforce gave an unwilling consent. 



telling her, nowever, that she nmst return when 
the Indians' clock (the sun) told her that it was 

The morning wore away slowly after her 
departure. I cut and sewed away steadily, the 
hum of my small machine dispelling my very 
unusual nervous fears, and I soon forgot to 
wonder what could be keeping " Young 
Woman," who had vowed to return long before 
noon with many fish. The tap-tap of my 
machine and a crooning papoose song which 
"Young Woman" had taught me drowned all 
other noises. My thoughts were miles and 
miles away, so you cannot be surprised when I 
say that the sudden appearance of a hideous, 
grinning, dark face, all streaked with red and 
crowned with huge feathers, close to my own, 
brought me to my feet with a shriek of terror. 
Indians ! The cruel devils had come at last to 
kill me. 

My room was small, and at first sight I 
thought it full of barbarously-attired savages ; 
but as I gave another terrified glance around, 
holding to the wall for support, I saw that there 


were only five. And — oh, merciful Providence ! 
— they were all Apaches, the " demon-people," 
as even the other Indian tribes called them ! I 
had never seen Apaches before, but one look 
sufficed to show me that these grinning, painted 
creatures were on the war-path. The paint 
smeared on their tawny bodies ; the " war 
feathers" stuck through their stiff, black hair; 
the evil, cruel faces, as they jeered at me, and, 
above all, the drying, stiffening scalps which 
dangled from their waists, told that only too 
plainly ! One of the scalps was that of a 
woman, with long, fair hair. . . . Fancy what 
a sight it must have been to me, a woman, 
alone and unprotected, at the mercy of these 
savages ! 

Far worst of all, they had been drinking 
veritable "fire-water" — that awful maddening 
compound of whisky, pepper, and " marihuana- 
herb." A vile odour, worse than that of a 
dozen bar-rooms, filled my little room as I 
gazed, fascinated with terror and aware that I 
could do tiothing! No display of bravery, 
hospitality, or anything else would .save me, for 

a peaceful, call - paying 
Indian brave never comes 
attired in war-paint, with 
scalps decorating his belt ! 
It seems now that I 
must have leaned against 
the wall, ill and weak with 
helpless terror, for hours, 
yet it could have been 
only for a moment. For, 
with a significant gesture 
towards both mouth and 
stomach, one of the bucks 
reached over and shook 
me roughly. " Squaw 
catch fire - water, tobac', 
eat" he grunted, fiercely, 
still clutching my arm. 
"Si-we-ka — Apache braves 
—will eat ! " 

Now, indeed, a faint 
thought of escape dawned 
within me, and I stood up, 
trying to gather together 
my dulled senses. Perhaps, 
I thought, I could put 
their food before them, 
give them whisky, and 
then steal out of one of 
the doors — oh, merciful 
Providence ! — surely I 
could escape somehow ? 
Surely, after all these 
years, I was not to die 
at the hands of Indians — 


people wliom I had fed, and given presents and 
been kind to ! 

Buoyed up by the ihouyht of Hight, I nodded 
my head with some degree of coohiess, and 
answered briskly : — 

" How, Apache braves ! Here is tobacco, 
seat yourselves and smoke the pipe of peace. 
Rest, brave men, until the white squaw can 
prepare and bring you food ! " 

At this they laughed uproariously, and the 
head man, a wicked-looking young buck, slapped 
my arm, and then pushed me into the kitchen, 
whence the only means of egress was a door, in 
which he seated himself, gazing at me steadily 
the while, and playing purposely with the fair- 
haired scalp. Of course, they divined my 
thought of escape, and would prevent it. My 
heart sank, and I could have screamed and torn 
my hair, but still I would not give up. They 
were laughing and making remarks about me, 
the import of which I easily inferred ; still, I 
must not lose heart. Drunken savages that they 
were, I might yet find means to outwit them. I 
would keep my courage ; give them some good 
food and whisky to make them stupid; perhaps 
then they would sleep, or forget me for a moment 
or two, when I could either escape or get my 
hands on the gun. Then, with the shotgun, or 
even my own small revolver, I would igive them 
a fight, woman though I was ! 

Meanwhile I set to work to prepare food for 
my captors. There was slight chance of my 
treacherous maid's return, and no doubt she 
had all along been in league with these same 
Apaches. I carefully and slowly, for every 
moment's delay gave me more time for thought, 
prepared eggs, bacon, biscuit, and coffee, even 
stirring up batter for hot cakes. And all the 
while my head whirled and my \'ery senses 
reeled. How could I get away ? \Vhat was to 
become of me ? 

I was given little time to think, however, for 
loud yells were issuing from my sitting-room ; 
" the brave young men of the Apaches had 

hunger, and wished to eat ! " Other 

sounds there were, also, the smashing of fur- 
niture ; and then, to my anger, thcT piteous 
crying of three kittens of which I was par- 
ticularly fond. Forgetting my own safety in 
the desire to rescue these little creatures, I 
darted, with a dish of food in my hands, into 
the dining-room, closely followed by my Indian 
guard. And what a sight met my eyes ! 

Sideboard, chairs, and table had been 
smashed into kindling wood, which was piled in 
heaps about the room. It was, then, their 
intention to burn the house down, evidently. 
And in the centre of the floor lolled four of the 
bucks, smoking furiously, and yelling in 

drunken mirth at the antics of my poor 
kittens, whom they had, with the usual Indian 
refinement of cruelty, plastered with syrup from 
the sideboard, and then dropped into a mass of 
feathers from a ruined feather-bed ! . . . With 
a heart full of desperation and hopeless fury I 
went backwards and forwards, bringing all that 
the Apaches demanded, watched steadfastly the 
while by the youngest buck. Sprawled about 
on the floor, the savages ate ravenously, dipping 
their painted hands into the various dishes, and 
gulping eagerly all the various bottles of highly- 
spiced condiments. Even in the midst of my 
now almost benumbed terror I marvelled as I 
watched these Indians swallow mouthfuls of 
Worcester sauce. As for the little whisky which 
they found in a small bottle on the sideboard, it 
was as mere water to them ! 

As soon as food had been placed before 
them the Apaches had ordered me to sit on the 
floor with them. My refusal was met with such 
terrible menaces, and such a volley of guttural 
threats, that I ceased to resist, and placed 
myself in a corner near them. Occasionally 
food was handed to me, which I steadily refused, 
and once I was forced to swallow some whisky, 
which mercifully dulled my brain to the horror 
of my situation. Escape, I well knew, was 
impossible. I would merely have to die with 
the best grace I could — nothing else could be 

As they ate, drank, and smoked the bucks 
grew noisier and yelled for more fire-water. 
To their demands I would only shake my head. 
I knew that a stone jug in my husband's 
assaying-room was half-full of whisky, but what 
need to niake these savages any drunker than 
they already were ? Even as I thought, in a 
half-dulled way, of this stone jug, a sudden 
idea struck me, which cleared my brain as 
nothing else could have done. Another stone 
jug in the assay ofiice, side by side with the 
whisky jug, was full to the mouth of cyanide 
solution, a spoonful of which would probably 
kill even an elephant ! 

The young brave, Si-we-ka, now shook me 
savagely, an evil glitter in his horrible red eyes. 

" Fire-water, squaw ! Apache warriors will 
kill white squaw if no find fire-water ! " 

I rose, pretending great reluctance, and 
casting angry glances at the bucks, at which 
they yelled jeeringly, with motions toward the 
dried things hanging at their belts. As for 
Si-ke-wa (who was fully aware of my intention 
to escape at the earliest opportunity), he 
lurched unsteadily behind me, one great 
painted hand on his hatchet, steadying himself 
with the other against the wall as he followed 
close at my heels. 



The little room which my husband used for 
the storage of his assaying and chemical materials 
had no window, but merely one door ; and 
seeing that there was no means of egress for 
me, Si-ke \va leaned stupidly against the door, 
completely blocking it up with his towering 
form, his eyes turned sleepily towards the 
four other bucks, who were now amusing 
themselves by singeing the feather-coats of the 
disconsolate kittens — a performance which 
seemed to amuse 
them not a little I 
Now was my time 
at last, thank God ! 

Side by side 
stood the two jugs, 
one marked plainly 
" Cyanide Solution 
— Poison," the 
other "Whisky." 
With trembling 
hands I hurriedly 
slipped out the 
cork of the cyanide 
jug, and removing 
the stopper of the 
one containing 
whisky, poured 
one-half of the 
jugful of poison 
into the whisky-jug, 
only stopping when 
the liquid reached 
the mouth of the 
jug. Don't think 
that I did this re- 
morselessly ; I do 
not believe that 
anyone can wil- 
lingly administer 
such an awful form 
of death, even to a 
savage. But, I ask 
you, what else was 
to be done ? 


I had, meanwhile, 
pulled about bottles with my left, or unoccupied 
hand, so that Si-ke-wa would not suspect. Even 
as it was, I was dragging forward the filled jug, 
seemingly with much reluctance, when he turned 
to me with a threatening movement, saying that 
the white squaw had better hurry ; for Apache 
lords did not wait on the pleasure of women, 
who were but slaves. 

With shouts of joy the braves greeted my 
entry with the heavy jug of " whisky." I watched 
as they tasted it ; probably they feared trickery. 
But they only nodded their feathered heads. 

The colour, of course, was paler than ordinary 
whisky, but the taste had not been changed. 
In sixty seconds the savages had partaken of it 

to their fill Well, I would prefer not to 

describe the scene that followed. Sometimes 
I wake in an agony of terror at night with the 
whole thing again before me : I can never forget 

it as long as I live 

As the last writhing form straightened out, 
stiff and lifeless, on the floor, I was on the 

point of fainting. 
You will agree with 
me that I had been 
through a scene 
calculated to make 
the stoutest heart 
quail and sicken. 
But I knew that 
other Apaches were 
also on the war- 
path. What more 
likely than that 
they would follow 
these head men ? 
I must at least pre- 
vent the bodies 
being found ! 

With a strength 
born of despair I 
pulled and tugged 
until I got one 
dead Indian after 
another into a 
more or less secure 
hiding-place. How 
I did it I will never 
know I I have a 
faint, indistinct re- 
collection of despe- 
rately hauling and 
tugging at heavy, 
painted things, that 
made awful faces 
at me, and whirled 
hatchets over my 
head — things that 
mouthed at me, and swore to haunt me for 
evermore ! And that is all ! I must have 
fainted away soon after sunset, and was found, 
apparently lifeless, by the returning prospectors, 
to their great horror. 

Search upon their part revealed the five dead 
Indians hidden away and other traces of the 
awful experience through which I had safely 
passed. Yet not altogether " safely," for I was 
brought back to my senses only to lose them in 
raging brain fever, from which I did not recover 
for weeks.- 

Aiy Journey to the Holy City of Meshed, 

Bv J. A. Lee. 

Being the narrative of a journey from Teheran, the capital of Persia, to Meshed, second only to Mecca 

itself in importance and sanctity. Illustrated with photographs. Mr. Lee not only travelled in this 

remote region, but has an eye for the picturesque, and can describe the strange scenes on the way. 

T is getting towards dusk as we pass 
out of the city gate. From the 
great square comes the strain of 
discordant music, the clashing of 
cymbals and beating of tom-toms, a 
cubtoni dating back to .the worship of the sun. 
Avoiding the crowds of townspeople returning 
from Shah Abdul 
Azim, a minor 
place of pilgrim- 
age some few 
miles distant, at 
the entrance to 
whose shrine the 
late Shah was 
assassinated, we 
press forward to 
the distant range 
of hills to join 
the upper pilgrim 
road. We. form 
a small party of 
three: the writer, 
Abdullah the 
servant, and the 
postilion ; for at 
the last moment 
I have decided 
to travel post, 
instead of adopt- 
ing the slower, 
but more com- 
fortable, caravan. 
I bear the 
usual " tezkera," 
or passport, set- 
ting forth my 
name and desti- 
nation, and 
directing the postmasters to furnish me with 
horses at the rate of one keran (nominally 
one franc) per " farsakh " (three and a half to 
four miles) for each A high Government 
official has kindly added a note thereto (which 
1 notice loses effect in like ratio as we get 
farther from the capital) commanding all and 
sundry to render me every assistance. Travel- 
ling post necessarily means travelling as lightly 
equipped as possible ; and if the traveller can 
also avoid clashing with the State couriers, who 
have first call on the horses, and if by dint of 
hard riding he keeps ahead of any others who 


may be using the same road, he will fare pass- 
ably well. 

Distances between the post-stations vary ; 
but roughly speaking they average about twenty- 
five miles ; the horses are changed at each 
station, and returned to their original starting- 
place by the postilion, who ^cts as guide and 

sees that the 
animals are not 
over-ridden. My 
equipment is of 
the most meagre 
description — a 
rug on which to 
rest and sleep, 
a canvas bag 
w h i c h , w h e n 
filled with straw, 
does duty for a 
mattress, a water- 
bottle, a little 
tea, sugar, rice, 
dried biscuit and 
raisins, a small 
samovar (tea 
urn), several 
copper cooking 
pots, a bottle of 
quinine, and a 
few odds and 
ends. These 
necessaries are 
among the three 

The horses at 
the time I am 
speaking of were, 
almost without 
exception, veritable " crocks " — broken-kneed, 
broken-winded, frequently vicious, and afflicted 
with loathsome sores caused by the chafing of 
the saddle, the result of incessant work, over- 
loading, and reckless riding. The lessees of the 
post-houses excused themselves by saying that 
the Government maintenance allowance — none 
too liberal in the first instance — is eaten up 
before it reaches them, and consequently they 
are unable to provide Jsetter animals. 

The post-house — sometimes in the heart of a 
town or village, sometimes standing alone in a 
howling waste — is constructed of four mud 






From a Photo. 

walls surrounding a large courtyard, with a 
square tower rising above the gateway, and 
towers at each corner ; the whole resembling 
a miniature fort. The rooms above the gate- 
way, poetically called the " Mehman Khana " 
(guest-house), are destitute of furniture — but 
not of insects. They have no window frames, 
and in winter are about as draughty as the 
rigging of a ship. 
Even if there 
were no caravans 
and detached 
parties of pil- 
grims and mer- 
chants coming 
and going, it 
would hardly be 
possible to mis- 
take the track, 
for countless feet 
have clearly de- 
fined it. The 
country generally 
is sterile and un- 
speakably mono- 
ton o u s . The 
towns and vil- 
lages are few and 
very far between, 
and one feels that 
the Scottish tra- 
veller must have 

had this route in 
mind when he 
said that the 
whole land is 
divided into two 
portions — one 
being desert with 
salt, and the 
other desert with- 
out salt. 

We had not 
ridden many 
stages before we 
realized that the 
Khorasan farsakh 
is a king among 
farsakhs. Ab- 
dullah tells me 
that a farsakh, 
correctly speak- 
ing, is the dis- 
tance a laden 
mule can walk in 
an hour, but that 
the devil must 
have measured 
the Khorasan far- 
sakh to turn the pilgrim's thoughts from things 

Passing over the preliminary stages we arrive 
at Aradan, the subject of our first photograph — 
a picturesque citadel now uninhabited, and 
perched on the top of a great artificial mound 
of clay. It. forms one of a group of such-like 
structures of which Lasgird, some miles farther 


From a] 


[PI:, I.' 



on, is the most interesting. This " man-roost," 
for by no other word can one describe it, is 
inhabited. Inside is a staircase leading to a 
double storey of mud hovels built on the very 
top of the outer wall. Outside these hovels 
are ledges or balconies constructed of wood 
plastered with mud, and it is a curious sight 
from the distance to see the dwellers squatting 
on the balconies, for all the world like huge 
birds. To prevent the children falling over the 
balconies, or slipping through the gaps between 
the beams, the little ones are secured by ropes 
round the waist. Abdullah calls it " Filth 
Castle," and from a personal inspection I can 
vouch for the fitness of the name. 

Our ne.xt photograph is a general view of 
Semnan, showing the entrance to the mosque, 
as well as the mud-built, dome-roofed houses. 

!■ rem a\ 

SEMNAN — ".NOTKIi iul, lls<jARI 

and the fine minaret. Semnan is noted for 
its gardens, tea-cakes, beautiful women, and 
irritating dialect. No one I have met has ever 
tasted the famous tea-cakes. One traveller, who 
asked for them, was blandly told that the in- 
habitants had run out of them, owing to the 
enormous local consumption and export. He 
was further informed that hard times had caused 
a deterioration in their excellence. A traveller 
once bought .some tablets resembling these cakes, 

but could not eat ihem for the most excellent 
reason that they were composed of fuller's earth, 
clay, orpiment, and other choice ingredients — in 
short, they were nothing more or less than the 
depilatory used by the Persians ! As regards 
the local dialect, it has been likened to the rattle 
of a number of pebbles in an empty gourd. 

As we passed out of the city at night the 
muezzin's voice rang out impressively from the 
minaret the invocation: "Allah ho Akbar" 
(mighty is God). " I bear witness there is no 
God but God. I bear witness that Mohamed 
is the Prophet of God. I bear witness that 
Ali, the commander of the faithful, is the friend 
of God." Which sent the pious Abdullah into 
a train of religious thought. 

Damghan, the reputed site of Hecatompyl^e 
(the city with the hundred gates), is passed, and 

Shahrud next 
claims our atten- 
tion, for one-half 
of the journey 
of 560 miles is 
It is a place of 
great import- 
ance, for here 
converge the 
roads leading 
from Meshed, 
Teheran, Yezd, 
Astrabad, and 
Mazandera n. 
Some three and 
a half miles N.E. 
of the town is 
Bostam, of which 
we give a fine 
photograph. It 
is a place of great 
sanctity, for here 
is buried the 
famous Sultan 
Bayazid, and 
near the mosque 
is a striking min- 
aret similar to 
that of Ispahan. 
Had we been 
travelling by caravan we should have had to avail 
ourselves of the caravanserais en route ; and, in 
fact, I prefer them to the post-houses because 
of their ever - changing life and movement. 
Erected by pious men to shelter the rich and 
poor alike free of charge, they merit a description. 
Picture to yourself a vast square or rectangular 
structure of brick or stone, resembling a 
mediaeval fortress, with projecting towers at the 
angles, and entered -by a strong gate. We enter, 







From a\ 


Mecca and prays. Near the gate a heated 
controversy is going on between a picturesque 
desert Arab and the gatekeeper. Their voices 
rise and fall in vehement anger : they clench 
their hands ; their eyes flash, and there is a 
wealth of gesticulation and abuse. It is not 

the smartof some 
deep wrong that 
moves them thus, 
nor a blood feud, 
but the burning 
question of a 
copper coin 
equivalent to an 
English farthing. 
T h e w o r d y 
conflict looks 
like ending in 
bloodshed, when 
a sedate mer- 
chant intervenes, 
calmer counsels 
prevail, and, 
fmally, a corn- 
pro m i s e is 
effected by the 
gatekeeper re- 
turning some- 


and passing the " seraidar " (the keeper of the 
serai), we see running all round the building 
a number of recesses or cells raised some 3ft. 
above the ground. Behind these are the 
stables, access to which is gained by entrances 
at the corners. In the centre of the court- 
yard there is usually a raised dais or 
platform. Taking possession of one of these 
cells, after it has 
been swept, we 
look out on the 
busy scene before 
us. Strings of 
camelsand mules 
heavily laden 
come and go 
with a tinkling 
and booming of 
bells ; the mule- 
teer sings as he 
rubs down his 
mules ; the mer- 
chant gravely 
and contentedly 
smokes his water- 
pipe after the toil 
and hardship of 
the day, or on 
bended knee 
turns towards 

Vol. vi.-ll. 

thing between a 
farthing and nothing. Peace and quietness 
reign once more, and the wily Arab, in seeming 
absent-mindedness, helps himself to a handful 
of the gatekeeper's dried apricots to sweeten the 
bitterness of the compromise aforesaid. Stray 
donkeys and cows stroll in from the neighbouring 
village with a sort of "just having a look round " 
air, but, in reality, bent on stealthily attaching 

/■'inll! a] THIS IS TllK I'EKSIA.N C.\KA\ANS 




themselves to some Civoured group of animals 
and lielping them witli their barley or straw. 
Or perchance in comes a long string of animals 
carrying corpses packed in rough boxes or felt, 
and all bound for their final resting place in 
sacred soil at Meshed. The spell is then broken, 
and the traveller, if he be wise, will move on. 

Our route now traverses the " Four Stages of 
Terror," and we think of the time when the 
man-stealing Turkomans swept this tract of 
country like a devouring fiame. Dotted all 
round are the little towers where the shepherds 

flew for refuge : the caravanserai 



show the bullet marks of those exciting times. 
Travellers have recorded with what fear and 
trembling these stages were negotiated, and 
with what anxiety the stragglers in the soldier- 
escorted caravans would ask of them, " Where 
is the gun ? "' — the all-powerful gun : although 
it usually happened that the anuiiiunition had 
been left behind ! 

Passing Sabzevar, an important town, we 
reach Nishapur, and proceed to visit the cele- 
brated turquoise mines some thirty six miles 
oft' — the mines from which the world draws 
practically its whole supjjly of these beautiful 
stones. The greater number of the gems are 
found in the alluvial debris. The photograph 
shows the natives engaged in this work close 
to one of the shafts. Digging and blasting are 
also employed, and the latter [)rocess is respon- 


si hie for many stones being so badly broken 
as to be useless. Let not the traveller delude 
himself into the belief that at the mine he will 
be able to buy stones cheaply. Not only 
are the turquoises not cheap, but the tricky 
native "fakes" them in a variety of ways, 
particularly as regards the colour, and it is not 
at all unusual for a purchaser to see the 
beautiful blue colour change gradually into a 
cabbage green. 

Even the dealer in turquoises never buys 
off-hand, but carries the stone several days in 
order to test the durability of the colour ; and 
to secure the right colour in the first instance he 
matches it with a small perfect one set in his 
signet-ring. I could not even procure in Meshed 
what were once so common — fiat pieces of 
turquoise with Koranic words and phrases 
engraved thereon in gold characters, following 
and thereby concealing the flaws and veins. 
Nishapur itself is a veritable Eldorado for the 
numismatist, and many fine coins have I seen 
there, chiefly of the time of Alexander the 
Oreat. On one occasion a peasant offered to 
sell me several exquisite little gold images, 
which he averred he had dug up in Hamadan. 

Our next photograph is that of Kadam Gah 
(the place of the step), the tradition being that 
Imam Reza, the patron saint of Meshed, halted 
here, and, to convince the local fire-worshippers 
of his superiority, left the imprint of his foot 

upon a black 
stone. The 
little groups of 
" saiyids '' (de- 
scendants of the 
Prophet) about 
the mosque 
scowled upon 
ine, so I re- 
frained f r o m 
attempting to 
see the stone. 
Abdullah, who is 
somewhat of a 
sceptic, tells me 
that instead of 
being a foot it 
is nearer a yard 
in size. The 
stately pines are 
well worthy of 
notice ; nowhere 
else in Persia 
have I seen 
pines, and the 
village grey- 
beards say that 
the seed cones 




THE MOSi.LI-, ..t 

Ai^ii.>iL> -.ihi — Ai.iKol JHI': ONLY H.ACK 

FroJit a I'hoto. 

ItKSIA UH1-.KI-, rlM-. 1 Kl-ES GROW. 

were brought 400 years ago by a pilgiim from 
the Himalayas. 

Leaving Kadam Ciah we press on all through 
the night, for in night-travelling lies a charm 
that the day cannot give. The glorious moon 
rises and tones down the harshness of the dis- 
tant hills, the barren rock.s, and the glitter of the 
sand. The air, too, is cool after the day's intense 
heat, and exhilarating to an incredible degree. 
'J'he dried herbs emit aromatic perfumes under 
the horses' hoofs ; and the whole scene is 
plunged in silence. 

We are now nearing our destination, for even 
if I were not cognizant of that fact the 
demeanour of Abdullah would have informed 
me. Generally lax in religious observances, he 
has now become a paragon of piety and con- 
sideration for others, especially when his fellow- 
pilgrims are present. Three times a day he 
lifts his voice in prayer, and the night finds him 
repeating portions of the Koran with irritating 

'I'o the request of the little bands of pilgrims 
whose faces are turned homewards, " We sup- 
plicate your prayers," he answers, with studied 
politeness and unctuousness, " Ba Chashm ! " 
(Upon my eyes be it !) He even alights 
from liis horse and adds a stone to the 
numerous heaps raised by the willing hands 
of countless devotees along the wayside, and 
also attaches a rag to one of the many bushes 
already covered with a varied assortment of 

many colours. He 
says that by so 
doing the Imam 
will plead for him 
in Paradise. I ask 
m y s el f, w i t h a m a ze- 
ment, if this is the 
selfsame Abdullah 
of, say, but two 
days ago ? Is this 
the Abdullah who 
told a poor, totter- 
ing, decrepit pil- 
grim from far-off 
^lazanderan that 
the caravanserai 
was quite close, 
when he knew we 
had left it some 
four hours pre- 
viously, and when 
I remonstrated 
with him for the 
deception, blandly 
said, " It is better 
to give pleasure by 
lying than cause 
despair by speakiijg the truth." Is this the 
Abdullah, I wondered, who induced a whole 
tribe of pilgrims, parched with thirst, to alight 
and drink at a stream which he knew, by bitter 
experience, was undrinkable, and then, because 
they complained, made unkind references touch- 
ing their female relatives ? 

Descending from the hills that give on to the 
plain we see before us with gladness of heart 
the sacred city of Khorasan — Meshed, the 
place of the martyrdom, with its golden domes 
and minarets bright and flashing under the 
eastern sun, a rich gem in a rare setting of 
bright green, in striking contrast to the surround- 
ing waste. Entering by one of the city gates — 
for, like all towns and villages coming within 
the sphere of Turkoman raids, it is surrounded 
by mud walls with turrets at intervals — we are 
struck by the diversity of races and costumes 
and the dense mass of humanity rolling on 
in an endless stream through the principal 
thoroughfares. There are the fierce, well-armed 
Afghan ; the gaunt Turkoman, with his big fur 
cap ; the wild-eyed Bedouin ; the turbaned 
Hindu ; the elegant Persian ; the Turk ; the 
negro; the Mongol ; the Tajik ; the picturesque 
Dervish, with his leopard-skin and battle-axe 
and gourd for the collection of alms — a scene 
of never-failing interest. 

Approaching the Great Mosque, the resting- 
place of the saint whose martyrdom made 
Meshed famous for all time, we cannot but 



admire the splendid Mosque of Gnuhar Shah, 
forming one of the group of buildings whose 
richness surpasses the most noted of tombs to 
which the Mohammedan world pays tribute and 
homage. The monument of Imam, lying to the 
left of the " Sahn," or courtyard, is inlaid with 
gold inside and out. The walls are resplendent 
with jewels, plumes, shields, etc., all studded 
with gems of great value. In spite of the 
vicissitudes through which it has passed, the 
inroads of predatory Uzbegs and Afghans, the 
place is still one great treasure-house into 
which the feet of no infidel or hated " Ferin- 
ghee " dare enter. 

THE f.KEAT MMSV'-K IN 'I UK lliil.V ClI V (JK Ml'.SIlIvlJ— AI.I, THE K 

The massive gates, one of which is shown in 
my next photograph, are covered with inscriptions 
from the Koran in Kufic lettering, engraved in 
gold, and set with beautiful inlaid tiles. The 
boundary line of the precincts of the mosque is 
marked by a chain, beyond which none but 
the faithful must go. The revenues of the 
shrine in money and kind are enormous, besides 
which it possesses landed property all over 

Meshed is noted as being a city like in 
character to the Scriptural cities of refuge. 
Once within the "Bast," or sanctuary, in the 
mosque, the fugitive fleeing from justice is safe, 

and no one can drag 

him forth not even by 
Royal command. 

There seems little 
doubt that the average 
pilgrim goes to places of 
pilgrimage for the sake 
of having what he would 
call a good time, and 
for the material pleasures 
and advantages which it 
confers. The marriage 
laws are very accommo- 
dating as regards the 
number of wives a man 
may have, and special 
facilities and allowances 
are granted in this re- 
spect to pilgrims when 
in Mecca, Kerbela, 
Meshed, and Nejef. 
Then again, if the 
journey be undertaken 
during the month of 
Ramazan, they are 
exempt from fasting. 
The pilgrim matri- 
monially inclined can be 
provided by the " mul- 
lahs " or i)riests with a 
spouse on the shortest 

The pilgrim to Meshed 
can prefix " Meshedi " to 
his name, or " Kerbelai " 
if he visits Kerbelai, and 
" Hajji," the highest title 
of all, if he makes the 
" Haj " or pilgrimage to 

FOR CRllUNALS. \_PllotO 

How a Land=slide was Fought with a Steam=hose, 


An interesting instance of railway ingenuity and resourcefulness in California. A land-slide having 

blocked the track and proved incapable of removal by ordinary labour, a steam-hose was lowered 

into the river and supplied by four engines. In a few days the vast mass was literally melted away 

by the tremendous energy of the jet of water directed with wondrous skill by an old " placer "-miner. 

T the very foot of beautiful snow- 
crested Mount Shasta, in California, 
there springs from among a mossy 
and flowery bed a brisk and noisy 
stream. It leaps and bounds down 

a deep canyon, and grows rapidly in a few miles, 

fed by innumerable springs, all literally bursting 

from the mighty pedestal of the Sierra Nevada, 

on which Mount Shasta rests as 

the crowning monument. 

The slopes of the canyon on 

which this stream lives its glad 

young life are covered with tall, 

straight firs and pines, and in 

summer the air is heavy with the 

scent of flowering azaleas. The 

bed of rocks, over which the 

stream plays, is a favourite abode 

for trout in great abundance. 

The stream grows and grows, 

and by the time it leaves the 

narrow confines of the canyon, 

and enters the open, flat country, 

it is a river. Then it joins with 

other rivers, grows sluggish and 

dirty, and we will leave it to 

find its own way into the Pacific 


The stream is the far-famec'. 

Sacramento. Now the railroad 

connecting California with its 

northern neighbour, Oregon, and 

named after both States, has a 

hard time in getting through the 

canyon through which the young 

Sacramento River frisks so gaily. 

It follows the windings of the 

river closely, crosses it about 

twenty times, and delves through 

more than a dozen tunnels. 

Above the track tower the mighty 

pines, growing straight and stately 

on the mountain sides in the 

light covering of soil made by 

their own debris during many 

yeans, when no engine whistle dis- 
turbed these silent canyons, and 

long before the lumber-man cast 

his covetous eyes on them and calculated them 
up into cubic feet. In half-a-dozen places there 
boils out of the ground delicious, cold, effer- 
vescent soda-water, of Nature's own make, some 
of it of great commercial value for bottling, 
and in other places used locally in connection 
with summer resorts. When the railroad was 
being built it was necessary to cut a shelf, as it 


From a Photo. 



were, on the canyon side, to put the track on. 
Nature did much here, hut did not provide 
mucli in the way of facilities for a raihoad. 
\\"lienever the slope is very steep, and the top 
soil is over a layer of clay, resting immediately 
on the rocky side of the canyon, then trouble 
begins for the railroad. A\'hen the snow melts 
the water softens the clay and loosens it from 
the rock, so tliat in course of time the whole 
mass, subject to these conditions, commences 
to move down. 'J'he extent of a land-slide, of 
course, depends on the angle of the rocky 
foundation ; also on the fineness of the clay 
and its extent on the place where the water 
soaks in, whether high up or low down the 
slope. And, finally, its extent depends on the 
amount of water that enters. 

There are, of course, other conditions that 
may land-slides, but the j)rinciple is the 
same, and the event with which we will deal 

the railway officials during the heavy winter of 
1889-90, but the largely-increased labour gangs 
kept these places open for the trains in most 
cases without any great delay. 

In the last week of January, 1890, however, a 
slide was reported at the north end of the above- 
mentioned tunnel. It was a new place for a 
slide, but it took a lead amongst its brethren at 
once. Measured along the track it was about 
250ft., and covered the north end of the tunnel, 
and part of tlie slush extended into it. The 
break on the slope was about 400ft. above the 
track, and this huge mass had moved down, 
slopped over the track, and now rested 
(piietly with its base on a narrow slip of 
overflow border of the river. The depth of 
the slide covering the track was about 
2Sft. The whole slope had come down very 
quietly, as but few of the trees growing on 
the moved surface were disturbed ; and although 



From a Plioto. 

was just caused in this way. Half-way up the 
canyon, coming from the south, a bridge crosses 
the river on a curve to the right ; and nearly 
immediately ahead of the bridge is a tunnel 
through one of the many spurs of the moun- 
tain which turns and twists the river into a 
snake-like course. After you leave the tunnel, 
through its north end, the track curves sharply 
to the left. There had been a number of places 
where land slides on a small scale had l)f)thered 

they had slid altogether some 50ft. down- 
ward, they stood erect, and apparently solid as 
ever. Of course, a few at the bottom of the 
slide had toppled over and were covered more 
or less by the moved earth. Owing to the forma- 
tion of the ground it would be very difificult to 
transfer passengers, as they would have to walk 
around, not only the slide, but also round the 
spur of the mountain through which the tunnel 
ran. 'I'o build a track around (juite impossible. 



The largest settlement and the division head- 
qaarters was a small town called Uunsmuir, 
picturesquely located in the same canyon about 
twenty miles farther north. From this place, 
however, there was no help to be had. All the 
idle hands that the different lumber camps 
could muster up had already been entered in the 
regular section gangs. So several hundred men, 
together with scrapers, mules and horses, dump 
carts, and other necessaries, were sent post- 
haste from Sacramento, and work begun to clear 
off the track, which was vigorously prosecuted 
day and night. Dozens of engine head-lights 
enabled the night force to work very well. The 
weather had been propitious. There was but 
little snow on the ground to melt, and for 
several days there \vas no rain, but this did not 

all necessary fittings in the way of steam pipes, 
etc. Four freight engines were also brought 
down from Dunsmuir and set out on a spur 
track, right above where the pumps were 
being put up about 600ft. from the slide. 
The suction pipes were dropped into the 
river ; the steam for the pumps was supplied 
from the four engines; a i2in. discharge pipe 
was laid to the land-slide ; a hydraulic nozzle 
connected ; and then this strangest of " hydro- 
pathetic cures " started. It was a success from 
the beginning. There was no stoppage until 
the immense mass was literally washed off the 
track ; also from the mouth of the tunnel ; and 
all the covering soil from the rocky mountain 
side, so that there could be no more slide 
at that point. In order to facilitate the 

rni-.iU-'. WAS NO srolTAGE UNTIL 


From a Photo. 

last. Steady rain soon set in, and as fast as 
the carts moved the dirt away a new sujiply slid 
down to take its place. Other difficulties were 
added to this. Pieces of rotten rock, boulders, 
and stone rolled down continually, and made it 
dangerous for the men and animals to work. 
Moreover, the dirt got so soft and sticky that it 
would not slip the shovels. Time was precious ; 
something had to be done. 

Water "had caused the trouble and water 
should cure it. A clever Western mind 
promptly decided on an original and unex- 
pected course. Twelve steam suction pumps 
were brought from Sacramento, together with 

moving of the dirt from the slope, after the 
track had been practically cleared, wooden 
chutes were constructed leading down below 
the level of track, and discharging into tlie river. 
In this way a tolerably fair road was obtained 
leading by 'the slide, so as to allow of the transfer 
of passengers and even light freight. And still 
the work of washing down the land-slide went on 
uninterruptedly day and night through the chutes. 
The hydraulic nozzle orifice was 6in., and with 
the tremendous power with which the twelve 
pumps driven by the four engines sent_ the 
water thrcrugh the i2in. supply pipe to it, it 
was no wonder that the execution was tre- 



mendous — a peculiar war of the elements, 
indeed. Of course, a great deal of the effect 
was due to the experienced liand that guided 
tiie nozzle. It was an old "placer"-mining man 
who handled the hose, and it was a pleasure 

he was as deft and clever to speed it on its way 
through the chutes to the river in the form 
of licjuid mud, so that it should not clog 
there. Along those chutes men were stationed 
with long shovels to intercept the stone and 

From d\ 



to see how he kept the enormous and melting 
slide moving. With straight shots he would 
.bore holes round a certain part that might be 
slow in moving. Then he would change the 
angle of the stream and gently spray the whole 
mass. Finally selecting a point right above it, 
he would pour in over it for a while a strong, 
continuous stream, that never failed to bring 
the quarry down. When the mass had fallen 

pieces of rock so as not to burden or dam the 

In ten days this immense mass of earth, 
which even under favourable circumstances 
could not have been moved by hundreds of 
shovels in hundreds of days, was cheaply dis- 
posed of, melted and dispersed, and the moun- 
tain had its face so thoroughly washed that it 
will never forget it. 

The Fate of the Pearler ''Ethel.'' 

V>\ (iEORGE StACV, of PeKTH, W.A. 

The author is a member of the staff of the " West Australian," Perth, and he reported the whole of 
the evidence of the case. He personally interviewed many of the actors in this lurid drama. 



^-W^ia^ *' ^ 

From a Photo. by\ 


\D>: E. Black, of Perth. 

T was a peaceful night, late in 
Octol)er, 1899, when the brigantine 
Ethel, employed in the pearling 
industry on the nor'-west coast bf 
Western Australia, weighed anchor 
in Roebuck Bay, and set forth on a visit to 
the fleet of luggers stationed at La Grange 
Bay (otherwise known as the Ninety-mile 
Btach), a locality 
about that distance 
to the south of 
Broome, the centre 
of pearling opera- 
tions. It is from 
the luggers that the 
divers descend in 
search of the valu- 
able pearl-shell and 
its occasional con- 
tents, the much more 
valuable " gems of 
ocean." The Ethel 
— celebrated among 
pearlers for her man- 
o'-war-like neatness, 
her polished brass- 
work, and snowy, 
holy-stoned decks — 
acted as tender to 
the fleet of luggers, 
visiting them periodi- 
cally to supply them 
Vol. vi.— 12. 

with stores, and to carry away from the pearl- 
ing station the accumulated results of the 
labours of the divers and their assistants. 

When the Ethel set sail there was in com- 
mand her owner. Captain J. A. Reddell, to 
whom also belonged the fleet of luggers about 
to be visited. Leslie H. Reddell accompanied 
his father as ship's clerk, and these two, with 



From a 

B tide; captalv reddell stands just ijelow the .MAIN-.%L\M'. 
Photo, hy Dr. F. Black, 0/ Perth, W.A. 



the ship's carpenter (J. S. Taylor), were the only 
Europeans on board. The crew consisted, as 
is usual in pearling vessels, of coloured men, 
who numbered eighteen all told. Included in 
that number were Filipinos, Malays, Japanese, 
an Australian aboriginal, a Chinese cook, and 
a cabin-boy of the same nationality. 

Captain Reddell was a kindly, but withal a 
gruff, old sea-dog. His Chin.'ese cook said of 
him, '• He makee plenty noise with he moot'-- 
no stlikee any man ! " Honest as the day in all 
his dealings, whether with white or coloured 
men, he was universally respected. His bark 
was worse than his bite. Say rather that he 
had no bite, for, unlike 
many men in his posi- 
tion, he refrained from 
all acts of violence 
towards those whom he 
employed. His hurri- 
cane roar, though, was 
enough to make wrong- 
doers tremble. Captain 
Reddell's long, flowing 
white beard and gener- 
ally benevolent appear- 
ance accounted for his 
being affectionately 
nicknamed " Father 
Christmas." He had 
at one time been a 
skipper in the P. and O. 
service and in that of 
the Eastern and Austra- 
han S. N. Co. Later 
he became a Torres 
Straits pilot, but for a 
dozen or so years before 
his death he had |been 
largely interested in the 
pearling industry. Some 
sea - captains seek to 
increase their wealth 
by encouraging the 
members of their crews 

to spend their earnings at the slop-chest ; but this 
was a practice that the old man discouraged, 
seeking rather to induce his men to practise 
thrift. His son — known to the crew as "Jack" 
— was also a popular young fellow. Taylor, the 
carpenter, was a steady - going man, and 
apparently stood well with the mixed lot that 
worked as seamen on the brigantine. 

On the 19th of October, with her course 
shaped for the southward, the Ethel at midnight 
lay '"a painted ship upon a painted ocean." 
The moon was full, the night calm and clear, 
when one of those sea tragedies with which 
fiction abounds, but of which so few authenti- 




From a Photo, by G>ccnhatii &^ Evatis, of Perth, IV. A. 

cated records are extant, was enacted. In a few 
moments the captain, his son, and the carpenter 
were savagely murdered by a mutinous gang of 
the coloured crew. The first intimation that 
anything had gone wrong was the failure of the 
£//ie/ to arrive at La Grange Bay. It was at 
once surmised that the crew had mutinied, mur- 
dered the white men on board, and then made 
off with the vessel. This surmise was, to a certain 
extent, strengthened by the report of the captain 
of the schooner Nellie. He stated that he 
had sighted the Ethel steering north in the 
vicinity of the Lacepede Islands. The Western 
Australian Government thereupon communi- 
cated with the authori- 
ties at Singapore and 
those of the Dutch 
Colonies in the Celebes 
Islands. Requests were 
made that a look-out 
should be kept for the 
missing brigantine and 
her crew. Captains of 
vessels trading in the 
Archipelago were simi- 
larly requested to report 
any trace of the Ethel 
that came to their notice. 
The captain of the Sul- 
tan, a steamer trading 
between Singapore and 
Fremantle, went con- 
siderably out of his 
course in the hope of 
learning something of 
the Ethel — vainly, how- 
ever, as it proved. 
Those on board the 
brigantine who feared 
capture strove to protect 
themselves by altering 
the appearance of the 
craft — quite in accord- 
ance with the best 
precedents of sensa- 
tional "pirate" fiction. She was painted a 
sombre black from rail to water-line, and a stay- 
sail added to somewhat alter the appearance of 
her rig. But this was done too late. The 
captain of the Nellie had identified the run- 
away craft. 

Two months passed. There then came a 
notification from the Dutch at Macassar that 
certain members of the crew of the Ethel were 
then lying in gaol in that port. Inspector Farley, 
chief of the Criminal Investigation Branch of 
the Police Department of \\'estern Australia, 
with several constables, was dispatched to the 
Celebes, returning a few months later with 



Sebia Garcia. 

Jean Baptiste. Maximino Royaz. 

Hugo Magdologo. Itler Perez. Pedro de la Cruz. 

From a Photo. by\ the Filipinos who were charged with the murders. {Greenham i^ Evans. 

Peter Perez, Pedro de la Cruz, Maximino 

Royaz, Sebia Garcia, Hogo Magdologo, and 

Jean Baptiste — all natives of the Philippine 

Islands. These men were 

all put upon their trial for 

the murders of Captain 

Reddell, his son, and the 

carpenter ; while the first 

two were further charged 

with murdering an aboriginal 

known as " Jacky " and a 

Japanese named Ando. 

Poo Ah Ming, the Chinese 
cook, and Abdullah Ben Ali, 
a Malay seaman, told the 
history of those awful hours 
aboard the little vessel. The 
former was asleep in his bunk 
in the galley when he was 
awakened by the sound of 
footsteps. ''They are putting 
the vessel about," he thought, 
sleepily, but he was to know 
better soon. A quarter of 
an hour later, Jean, Hogo, 


From rt] 

the ch 

" El H 

and Ma.ximino came with Peter and Pedro to 

the galley, the door of which Maximino opened. 

Jean stood at the door carrying a sword or 

cutlass, and called, " Cook ! 

cook ! follow me." 

The terrified cook arose, 
and asked, " What's the 
matter ? " 

The reply checked further 
questions : " Don't say too 
much, but follow me. You 
know all bimeby." 

Poo Ah Ming followed. 
When he reached the deck 
Maximino put a long, sharp 
knife to his throat ; but, 
Jean saying something in the 
Filipino language, Maximino 
withdrew the weapon. All 
the Filipinos were armed, 
and Pedro and Peter were 
covered in blood. After 
some little conversation 
among the Filipinos Poo 
Ah Ming was allowed to 
return to his galley, whence 

inese cook of the 

EL." [Photo. 




From a Photo, by Dr. E. Black, of Perth, IV. .-i. 

he watched the mutineers divest themselves of 
their blood-stained clothes and then wash 
themselves. An hour later the cook was again 
sent for. Peter told him to have no fear, and, 
pointing to the closed cabin door, asked, " You 
want to see your master ? " 

Poo Ah Ming, not knowing what dreadful 
thing lay behind that closed door, declined to 
look, and once more returned to the galley. 
Poor, frightened wretch ! Half fearing that he, 
too, would share the fate which he instinctively 
knew had befallen his 
master, he craved sym- 
pathy and companion- 

"I welly fliten," he 
said, plaintively, in court. 
"I want tell Tan Ah 
Que, captain's boy. He 
down fo'c's'le. Hogo 
and Sebia in fo'c's'le, too. 
I think I tell him jump 
in water swim away. Me 
too. Him an' me swim 
away." But a Httle con- 
sideration showed the 
futility of such a step. 
After a while Tan Ah 
Que came on deck. He 
went, as was his wont, 
into the galley for the 
captain's morning coffee. 
"I tell him. No more 
captain. Peter killem 

captain,' " said 
Poo Ah Ming. 
"Then Tan Ah 
Que welly fliten, 
he wantee jump 
in water. I tell 
him No ! Bimeby 
tellee pliceman 

The remainder 
of the crew went 
about their work 
as usual, none 
daring to set 
against their new 
masters, whose 
certificates of 
authority were a 
sharp knife and 
a quick hand. 
During the morn- 
ing Hogo came 
to the cook and 
told him how the 
captain had died. He was reading a chart 
when Peter entered the cabin, unnoticed, 
and struck at him with a long knife. Wounded 
as he was, the old man essayed some sort 
of resistance, but Peter lifted the right arm 
of his victim and stabbed home.. The captain 
fell dead, his long, snowy beard crimsoned with 
his own blood. Almost simultaneously his 
son and the carpenter were struck dead. 
How they died only the murderers could say. 
Hogo claimed to have slain young Reddell, and 

THF. SCIIOij.\l-,l< 
From a\ 






Pedro announced himself to be the killer of the 

During the morning Peter declared himself 
captain. He and the other mutineers remained 
aft drinking spirits which they had taken from 
the store into which they had broken. About 
8 a.m. the anchor was let go, but another pearl- 
ing vessel, the Alto, anchoring not far off, the 
Ethel's cable was slipped some two hours later 
and the vessel headed to sea. Tiiose on board 
the Alio could not have noticed 
the method of getting under way, 
or doubtless they would have 
thought there was something 
amiss, for Captain Reddell was 
not the man to needlessly cast 
away any of his vessel's gear. 
Perhaps it was as well for those 
on board the Alto that they made 
no attempt to investigate ; for 
the mutineers were prepared to 
repel the advances of the crew of 
the Alto with fire-arms had they 

At three o'clock in the after- 
noon Peter ordered the crew aft 
to remove the bodies from the 
cabin. They were laid on the 
deck. Those of the carpenter and 
Jack Reddell were lashed breast 
to breast with chains, the captain's 
feet being bound to those of the 
others by another length of chain. 
A lugger's anchor was then at- 
tached, and Pedro having shown 
his contempt for the corpses by 
kicking them, they were thrown 
into the sea. Water was drawn 
and the deck and cabin cleansed. 

It soon began to dawn on the 
murderers that they had better 
give some explanation to the crew. 
Peter therefore told a circum- 
stantial story of having been attacked by the 
" old man " while on deck, and that the captain 
had fired at him with a revolver, wounding him 
in the side. Peter snatched the revolver and shot 
the captain. Jack and the carpenter had then 
come with revolvers and a gun to avenge the 
murder of the captain, and wanted to shoot 
everybody ; but Pedro had hit them with his 
fist and they fell dead. This was the pretty 
fiction that was to be told by everyone if the 
police asked any questions. 

Thus ran the story of Poo Ah Ming. Tan 
Ah Que, still quaking with fear of the fiends 
with whom he had so long been shipmates 
during that tragic voyage, told much the same 
tale. Abdullah Ben AH narrated how he was 

on watch that awful night when he heard two 
shrill screams from the cabin. He and Sogo, 
another seaman, ran aft, and were met by Pedro, 
who threatened them with the blood-stained 
tomahawk he carried in his hand and ordered 
them for'ard. Later on Hogo brought Abdullah 
some brandy. Fear compelled him to swallow 
his scruples (he is a Mohammedan), and he 
drank. Fear, too, kept him sleepless for the 
remainder of that nisiht. 



The Ethel sailed on 'and on, ever drawing 
nearer " the Malay country." The lust for blood 
in the hearts of Peter and Pedro only slumbered. 
Jacky, the aboriginal — •" Black-fellow " is the 
term used colloquially in Australia — gave way 
to that craving for liquor which he had deve- 
loped by association with the white man. This 
weakness angered Peter, who on the seventh 
day after the murders of the whites walked 
forward to the galley outside which Jacky sat 
eating his midday meal. 

"Didn't I tell you no get drunk?" asked 
Peter, and without further ado fired a revolver 
at the poor black. The shot was not fatal, for 
Jacky cried, " No, Peter ! " meaning, doubtless, 
"Spare me." But Peter was not one of the 



sparing sort ; and, firing again, poor Jacky 
rolled over dead. The burial at sea was but a 
repetition of those a week before. A length of 
rope, an anchor — and overboard ; but not 
before Pedro, as before, had spurned the poor, 
lifeless clay. 

The afternoon wore on. A little before four 
o'clock Ando, the Japanese, was drawing 
drinking-water from the tanks in the hold. As 
he stooped Pedro approached him, and, appar- 
ently without motive, struck him on the head 
with his ever-ready tomahawk, the edge of which 
he had that morning sharpened with an oil-stone. 
Ando saw the blow falling and attempted to 

replace that lying on the bottom of the sea 
hundreds of miles away, it -Aas dropped in sixty 
fathoms. The two whale-boats were launched 
and the ship's compass, chronometers, and 
[)apers, together with a number of rifles and the 
contents of the ship's safe — about ;^2oo in 
West Australian bank-notes and gold, and other 
valuables — also some food and water, were placed 
in them. Then the crew took to the boats, 
which were laid alongside their mother vessel, 
and the work of scuttling began. Peter to star- 
board, Pedro to port, with tomahawks they 
hacked holes in the hull of the doomed vessel, 
along the water-line. Soon the water poured 



From a Photo. 

ward it off, but was only partially successful. 
He fled aft along the deck, Pedro in hot pursuit. 
Near the wheel stood Peter, to whom the 
terrified Japanese clung for protection. But 
Peter pushed away the suppliant, and Pedro 
struck — once, twMce — burying the keen weapon 
in the Asiatic's skull. As before, a rope, an 
anchor, a splash overboard, and the last of the 
Ethel murders was an episode of the past. 

Still the brigantine pushed her nose nearer 
and nearer " the Malay country." Three weeks 
after the murders of the captain, his son, and 
the carpenter land was sighted. No one on 
board knew what country they saw. In that 
impulsive manner with which they had acted 
throughout the mutineers made preparations for 
landing. The vessel's sails were furled, and, an 
anchor having been shackled to the cable to 

into the wounds made in the vessel's side. The 
boats'-crews rowed away, and in a few minutes 
the Ethel sank, to rest 400ft. below the 
surface of the sea. 

The boats were rowed shorevvards. Before 
an attempt was made at landing the master 
mind of Peter had fabricated the story which 
all were to tell. They were to say they were 
shipwrecked mariners and produce the necessary 
proof in the ship's papers. The captain and 
others had been drowned. The story was 
plausible, but useless at the spot they had 
reached, which they learned later was Selaru, 
the southernmost island of the Tenimber group, 
situated about 500 miles west of the nearest 
point of New Guinea. The inhabitants were 
savage and inhospitable, so the " shipwrecked " 
mariners, not daring to land, coasted along until 



they reached a spot called Adeout, a Dutch 
trading station to the nor'ard. Here resided a 
solitary Dutch-Colonial official, his title Post- 
holder, and his duty to represent his Govern- 
ment at the station, at which, at intervals, a 
trading steamer called. Before landing Peter 

to go and inform the authorities of the murders 
as soon as the steamer berthed at the wharf. 
Louis accordingly reported to the Government 
Resident while Poo Ah Ming watched the 
movements of the six Filipinos. The official 
here had received from his superiors ar 

nil lilt. MLKDKKhKS WKKli I .M ri;l SO.\ 1 1 1, 

From a flioio. by E. F. F.dvtutids, Perth. 

varied his fiction, this time instructing the crew 
to declare that the captain had been killed 
because he was a bad man. On arrival at 
Adeout this story was told. But Poo Ah 
Ming's chance had come. He took service with 
the Post-holder as cook. Telling the story in 
court, with many graphic gestures, he said : "One 
day I call Post-holder into kitchen. 'S-s-sh!' 
I say " — he placed one finger on his lips and 
with the other hand outstretched continued : 
" I say to Post-holder, ' I tell you somet'ing. 
No tell Manila man.'" Then he told the 
official of the tragedies on the Ethel. The Post- 
holder, doubtful how to act in the emergency 
that had arisen, sent a prahu — a Malay sailing 
vessel — to a brother official at Sjarra, some 
distance along the coast. After a lapse of 
seventeen days Peter, Pedro, and Jean followed 
the prahu, the rest of the crew remaining at 
Adeout. At Sjarra Peter told the same story he 
had told at Adeout, whither he and his two com- 
panions shortly returned. Thence the whole 
crew were sent by steamer to Banda, one of a 
group of islands about 4deg. S., i3odeg. E. Here 
was stationed a higher official, known as the 
Government Resident. The day before the 
steamer reached Banda Poo Ah Ming arranged 
with another member of the crew, Louis Pereira, 

Macassar the information cabled by the Western 
Australian Government. The six Filipinos 
were therefore arrested by his orders and sent 
to Amboina, a town in the Island of Ceram, 
one of the Moluccas. From Amboina they 
were transferred to the gaol at Macassar till the 
necessary formalities demanded by the Dutch 
Colonial Government could be complied with. 
For nearly three months Inspector Farley 
gathered information, prepared documents, and 
fought the stolid Dutch officials with a patience 
only greater than the apathy of those with whom 
he had to deal. Eventually the inspector 
triumphed. The six prisoners were extradited 
to Western Australia, and were in due course 
tried at Perth, the capital of the Colony, for the 
several murders that had been committed. All 
the prisoners except Sebia Garcia were found 
guilty of the murder of Captain Reddell, and 
were sentenced to death. 

Thus ended one of the grimmest tragedies of 
the sea that have happened of late years, though 
the scene of the crimes has the reputation of 
being the theatre of many such bloodthirsty 
outrages, which the proverbial silence of 
dead men and the loose control of the Dutch 
Government have combined to leave unre 

Odds and Ends. 

The Thieves' Market in Mexico City —A Rattlesnake about to Strike Feeding the Dead in China- - 

The Mariners" Pulpit— Before and After a Bush Fire Some Chinese Snap-shots A Water-cart in 

Northern Russia— A Pitfall for American Troops — Where Saints are Made, etc., etc. 

Perhaps the queerest and drollest market 
in the world is the one shown in the accom- 
panying photo. — the " Thieves' Market " 
of the City of Mexico. In this market one 
can purchase very nearly anything, from a 
diamond ring down to a hair-pin. Here 
you will encounter ancient books, bound in 
vellum, and worth their weight in gold ; 
queer old relics of the days of the Viceroys, 
and, for that matter, relics of Montezuma's 
time ! As for modern articles, you can pur- 
chase everything, from a Yankee egg-beater 
to a modern street-car, and every single 
I article has been stolen. The peons of 
Mexico are, perhaps, the greatest thieves on 
earth, and there is a tale told of some 
enterprising rogues who, after much labour, 
actually succeeded in getting a street-car off 
its track and into this same thieves' market, 
where it was offered to the highest bidder. 
The weekly sales take place on Sundays, and 
they are generally well attended ; for every 
householder who has been robbed during 
the preceding week knows that by attending 
the " thieves' " Sunday auction he is quite 


From a\ 




OME time ago stabbing affrays were 
of such frequent occurrence amongst 
the Bavarian peasants that the 
paternal authorities of that country 
were compelled to forbid the carry- 
ins^ of large pocket-knives, and the gendarmes 
had orders to search any person suspected of 
carrying a knife, and to confiscate it when 
found. In order to avoid being compelled to 
give up their cherished weapons the peasants 
adopted implements such as the one shown in 
our photo. At 
one end is a 
wooden case, , 
containing three 
little instruments 
used in farriery — 
harmless, neces- 
sary things, which 
of course cannot 
be confiscated. At 
the other end, 
however, is a blade 
large enough and 
strong enough to 
do a considerable 
amount of damage 
in a fight. The 
invention of a 
weapon solely for 
the purpose of 
avoiding a vexa- 
tious decree is 
surely unique. 

sure of locatina: his 

property, and 

buying it back again at merely nominal prices. 
That such a market exists speaks volumes 
for the state of law and order in the City of 

2. — THE illlEiE^ 


From a Photo, hy C. B. Waite, Mexico. 



Here is a rattlesnake's head with four fully- 
developed fangs. 'J"he Crotalus horridus is 
one of the most dangerous of the deadly rattle- 
snake family. All rattlesnakes have, beside 
the poison - fangs, 
two rudinientary 
ones, which, if the 
poison-fangs are lost 
in any way, develop 
and supply their 
place. But the 
peculiarly deadly 
specimen whose 
head is here photo- 
graphed has the 
second pnir of fangs 
fully developed 
while the first pair 
is still strong and 
vigorous. He was 
a very large snake, 
and, after being 
killed in the hills of 
Helotes, about 
twenty miles from 
San Antonio, in 
Texas, was sent to 

Dr. R. Menger, who prepared the fangs so as 
to show their relation to the poison glands. 
The photograph was taken by the doctor, and 
supplied by Mr. Arthur Inkersley, of San Fran- 

Here we have a photograph (taken by stealth) 
of that very unicjue custom, the feeding of 

j. — A K.M ILliS.NAKr. -s i;i-:aIi, SHI 

From a Photo by Dr. R. 

food, bags of rice, and pots of tea. Wondering, 
we followed to see what was going to happen. 
In one small remote corner of the graveyard 
are the graves of the Chinese dead, each grave- 
stone marked with 
Chinese characters ; 
selecting each a 
grave, the China- 
men proceeded to 
pour upon it, in 
solemn silence, 
quantities of rice, 
tea, and other 
comestibles, ^^'c 
asked of one of the 
Celestials (our own 
wash - boy for the 
past seven years) 
permissi(jn to take 
a photograph of the 
(jueer scene ; he 
refused with more 
positiveness than 
grace. A\'hereupon 
we retreated to our 
own carriage and, 
aided by an um- 
brella and carriage -robe, got several surrepti- 
tious snap-shots, of which the Chinamen were 
totally unaware. Chin, the wash-boy alluded 
to, explained afterwards that, until the bones of 
his compatriots could be taken back to China, 
they were ' velly much hungry,' not being able 
to rest in the ' Mellican's ' land, for which 

n\IM, TFiF. l-lll.l.V-DKVfl.OPKl) lANO 

Menger, San Antonio, Texas. 


/ rovt a\ 



the dead by the Chinese I "This picture was 
obtained, unknown to the Chinamen participat- 
ing in the queer ceremony, in the cemetery at 
Silver City, New Mexico. At the time we 
happened to be driving on the road to this 
place, our camera fuitunately with us, when we 
encountered divers groups of elaborately attired 
Chinamen, all carrying waiterfuls of cooked 

V„l. vi.— 13. 

reason they are fed, in the manner shown, at 
stated intervals." 

One of the sights not to be missed in Japan 
is a funeral, especially if it be that of a person 
who has occupied some high position ; the 
brilliancy of the colours of the dresses, the 
magnificence of the floral tributes, and the 
of the procession giving it 

immense length 



more the nppearance of some great 
f</c- than the sombre ^vvAV'' tt) which 
English people are aetustomed. 
Nearly all the flowers are arranged 
in pyramid fashion on long poles, 
and each person carries his own 
tribute in the procession. As in 
everything connected with Japanese 
life, gorgeously coloured jiaper lan- 
terns play an important part at a 
funeral, and the ashes of the body 
— which has previously been cre- 
mated —are carried in an urn on a 
magnificent bier. The priests walk 
on each side, the immediate rela- 
tives of the deceased following 

A church, steam laundry, and 
reading-rooms under one roof is 
surely a curiosity. One of the most 
curious churches in the world is 
the Mariners' Church of San Francisco. The 
lower part of the building is a steam laundry, 
while the upper part contains reading-rooms for 
sailors and a church. The pulpit of tlie 
church is also very remarkable. It is built 
exactly like the stern of the clipper ship io/n^:-^ 
America, and has a taffrail, dead-lights, rudder, 
and steering-wheel ; the last serving as a 
reading-desk. On the wall behind the puli^it 
and above it are the words from St. Luke, 
chap, v., verse 3, "He taught the multitudes 
out of the ship." The church is built on piles, 
and is continually settling in the soft mud. 
The lower floor of the church is occupied by 
the Contra Costa Laundry Company, which 

From a\ 




Frmn a\ si ern ok a ship. 

is an enterprising corporation. The rent 
from the laundry com[)any helps to keep 
the church going. After the Sunday services 
are over tea is provided for the sailors by 
ladies, who prepare and serve it in the gallery, 
which is provided with tables and culinary 
utensils. Adjacent to the church are three 
reading-rooms, one for English-speaking sailors, 
another for those who speak French, and a 
third for Germans. The pastor is the Rev. 
Joseph Rowell, who has been in charge since 
1858. The photograph was taken by Mr. 
Arthur Inkersley, of San Francisco. 

The photograph reproduced at the top of the 
opposite page, taken by an American ofificer now 

at Manila, shows a 
cleverly - constructed 
native pitfall in the 
Philippine Islands. 
Failing to defeat the 
American troops in 
open battle, the Fili- 
pinos have fallen 
back upon harassing 
guerilla warfare, which 
looks like lasting for 
years. The United 
States soldiers have 
constantly to contend 
with all manner of 
ambuscades and 
snares, and in this 
photo, we see a typical 
insurgent trap. An 
old stone culvert 
bridging a deep ravine 
was selected, and the 
centre of the bridge 






From a Photo. 

taken riglit out, leaving a chasm about 
8ft. wide right across the road. In the 
ground at the bottom of the ravine were 
driven a number of sharpened stakes, so 
as to impale those who fell through ; 
while the chasm itself was cunningly 
hidden with bamboo strips covered with 
matting, grass, and earth so as to re- 
semble the rest of the roadway. 

A Chinese " squeeze " boat is a curious- 
looking object, 'riiis photograph shows 
the stern of one of these unwieldy 

boats, which are used on the West 
River for the purpose of conveying rice 
past the " Likin," or native Customs 
station. These are situated at various 
points along the river, and they levy 
duty on everything that passes. When 
the " squeeze " boats are loaded the 
whole of the swelling hull is hidden 
below water, and the boat appears to 
be less than half her former size and to 
possess not half her carrying capacity. 
As the usual way of measuring loaded 
boats is to take the length and breadth 
of the deck and to push a long lance 

From a\ 



y. — Tin, rixL'i.iAi^ i)kac;i)n boat festival in china. 
From a Photo. 

into the cargo to ascertain the depth, 
it will be readily seen that the artful 
boatman really pays duty on about 
one-half of his cargo. 

Every year, on the fifth day of the 
fifth Chinese moon, the " Dragon 
Boat " Festival is celebrated through- 
out China wherever there is a suital)le 
stream. From early morning until 
night, long, narrow boats, containing 
from thirty to sixty rowers, race up and 
down the'river. The boats are gaily 
decorated with flags, and the bow of 
each is ornamented with the head of a 
fierce dragon. In the centre of the 
boats men sit beating gongs and 
drums, exciting the rowers to greater 
exertions, and in the bow stands a 
"man giving the proper stroke by means 
of a 'flag which he waves alternately 
from side to side. 



H-. luK AcK.s l-uk.>i:.lJ A NATtKAU 1 RAl' HU.: U 11. U A.M.MALS. 

From a Photo, by Ilcyn, Laramie, Wyo. 

The photo, next shown was taken by a resi- 
dent of Wyoming, and is one of the most remark- 
able natural wonders in a country noted for 
curiosities of this kind. It is situated about 
twentv-five miles west of Laramie, and is locally 
known as the " Lion's Den." It is a large cir- 
cular room or vault in the solid rock about 50ft. 
across at the bottom, and having a round open- 
ing at the top about 15ft. 
in diameter. This cave has 
for ages formed a natural 
trap for wild animals, who 
have fallen into it in great 
numbers. The floor is 
literally paved with horns 
and bones of deer, elk, 
buffalo, and other animals. 
'I'hese can be noticed in 
the photo., which was taken 
from the outside down 
through the opening. 

During the eight months 
of winter in Northern 
Czarland, when the rivers 
and lakes are ice-beund 
and covered with snow. 
tiie supply of water is 
a matter of much con- 
cern to householders. 
Hot-water springs occur in some places ; but 
where Nature has not solved the difficulty 
recourse has to be made to some such a 
contrivance as is shown in the accompanying 
photograph. A barrel is fixed upon runners 
drawn by a pony or reindeer ; in the case of 
the former, often with no more elaborate 
harness than a cord tied to the tail of the 

animal and held 
in the driver's 
hand. A hole is 
cut with a saw in 
the thinnest part 
of the ice — which 
is often from 3ft. 
to 6ft. thick— and 
the water trans- 
ferred to the 
barrel by n)eans 
of a long ladle. 
In this way the 
richer folk have 
their water 
brought to their 
door; their poorer 
merely melt down 
snow in a great 
iron pot heated 
with fir timber. 
These ice-holes aiso give the younger folk an 
opportunity of winter fishing. To catch navaga 
— a little fish of the cod tribe— the young angler 
has merely to tie his bait crosswise on a piece of 
string and jerk the greedy fish up on to the 
surrounding ice. Sterlet can also be caught, but 
for them a hook baited with earthworms must 
be used, they being toothless ground feeders. 


F}Oin d\ 



The next two photos., "Before and After a 
Bush Fire," almost tell their own story. In the 
first one, one walks or drives over fresh ground 
probably every time, so vast is the forest, 
altb.ough near to civilization. It is simply called 
" the Forest," in what is known as "the Western 
District," in Victoria, Australia. The "track" 
through the trees is all that those children have 



F> nm a] 


had to guide them in reaching the spot where 
they are, and it would be small wonder if they 
should lose their way in returning. In the 
distance one can trace the devastation of some 
former fire by the trunks 
of trees lying prone and 
the tops of those still 
standing burnt down 
low. "After the Fire" 
shows a scene of living 
solitude, converted into 
the peacefulness of 
death. A bush fire, or 
(as in this case) a real 
forest file, once begun, 
may continue for 
weeks. Last year for 
quite a fortnight the 
burning of fires was 
smelt a hundred miles 
away; and the previous 
year (when these photo- 
graphs were taken) 
coasting steamers were 
unable to go their usual 
excursions down the 
bay, so black and dense 
was the smoke from 
fires all round, yet the 
seat of the conflagration 
was miles and miles Fromn\ 

away. The men in this 
picture have contrived to 
save a portion of their 
dwelling, but the outstand- 
ing frame-work is all that 
remains to them of their 
"larder." Unless one has 
experienced it, it is almost 
impossible to realize the 
feeling of being amongst 
such gigantic burning trees. 
No one can say which way 
they will fall, and the heat 
from such a fiie has been 
felt and smelt more than 
forty miles away. Cattle lay 
about charred where they 
lay, some on their backs, 
presenting a horrible spec- 
tacle. The white masses 
are still white-hot ashes, 
and the smoky effect, which 
made it a struggle to get 
the photograph (so 
" choky " was it), is well 
shown in the general ha/e. 
This is the kind of place 
young men from I^ng- 
land go to to make a living. There are 
two men near this spot trying to live on vege- 
tables, taking them to market in a dray and 
selling them. Imagine what they went through. 



I Photo. 



From rtl 

Here is a pliotograph of the three-year-old 
son of one of our frontier otticers in Uahichistan. 
Strapped into the little wooden seat in front of 
the driver, he travels from camp to camp 
through the wilds of Baluchistan while his 
father is on tour. A really good riding camel 
will I o \' e r as 
many as six or 
seven miles an 
hour, and this, 
in a part of the 
country where 
there are no 
roads, hut often 
m e r e 1 y long 
stretches of 
" put " (desert) ; 
or, again, dififi- 
cult passes (ko- 
tals), which even 
a camel finds it 
hard to cross. It 
is almost like a 
scene from the 
Arabian Nights 
to see the " Chota Sahib " starting off in the early 
morning upon a fifteen-mile march, accompanied 
by an escort of long-haired, picturesque, rough- 
looking men, armed to the teeth ; or to watch 
him in camp playing with the small son of a 
Sirdar : the fair, sunny face beneath a broad 
white hat, and the dark, turbaned head of the 
little Kurd bent close together as their owners 
lose themselves for the hundredth time in the 
absorbing interest of following the adventures 
of "Gollywog in War." 

For more than 
twenty years locusts 
had not been seen in 
South Africa, and it 
was thought that the 
scourge had passed 
away. For some years 
past, however, they 
have come back and 
done very great 
damage. Often the 
swarms are very small. 
but frequently there 
are immense ones 
which devastate every 
living green thing 
before them. Some- 
times the volume of a 
swarm and the count- 
less myriads that com- 
prise it are incredible 
and incalculable. A 
swarm in one district 

has been known to be constantly passing for 
seventeen days, extending over a width of miles. 
Thirty-eight hands were employed all that time 
in driving, to divert the insects from the culti- 
vated lands. It is impossible to keep them off 
any very large area when they are flying ; but to 

prevent them 
j^-y from settling on 
.^ii n. i)et piece of 
garden, or some 
special crop, fires 
of straw, etc., are 
made, as the 
smoke keeps 
them off to a 
great extent, and 
prevents their 
settling in the 
immediate vici- 
nity. The natives 
collect them in 
sacks and dry 
them in quan- 
tities which last 
for many weeks. 
They are then ground into powder and made 
into a sort of cake. 

Visitors to Norway must have noticed the 
remarkable intelligence of the carriole and 
stalkjuerre ponies. Here is an instance : 
Between Christiansand and the Komsdal 
Valley lies the River Sundal, a river which is 
very popular with anglers. The pony seen in 
the photo, on the next page has crossed the 
river twice daily, Sundays excepted, for the 

last twenty-five 
years. \\' h e n he 
reaches the other 
side he is harnessed 
to a small " kariol " 
and takes the farmer's 
butter and milk to a 
village some miles off. 
returning and re cross- 
ing the strean: in the 
evening. Sometimes 
when the river is in 
flood the boat requires 
\ery careful handling, 
and the pony seems 
fiuite to understand 
this, helping to 
balance the frail craft 
in a most intelligent 

At the time of King 
Frederic the Great of 
Prussia there lived a 
certain butcher in 

l''roiii a Photo. 



IC. — ■■ UHF.X 1 

From a\ 


clever idea, put a chair covered with a 
white apron outside the shop, and the 
people in time became used to this 
announcement of ^'frische Wiirsie " 
(fresh sausages). This is the orij^in of 
the quaint shop si<in seen in our snap- 
shot — a sign which must have puzzled 
thousands of foreigners in Germany. 

■The barrow - trundling milkman of 
London is not seen in Spain. His 
place is taken by a man with a herd of 
erratic goats, and it is probable that 
after a few days in the country visitors 
will not appreciate the change. The 
accompanying photo., which was taken 
in Gibraltar, shows a milkman on his 
round, followed by his queer " cows." 
These he milks as required at the 

P.erlin. He invented a new way of 
making " fresh sausages," and his 
pleasecl customers wislied to have a 
dinner of them as often as there 
were fresli ones available during the 
week. On these particular days the 
butcher then placed himself, clothed 
in a white apron, at the door of his 
shop, so as to be seen by the passers- 
by, and especially in order to let 
them know by this quiet sign that 
there were to be got " frischc 
Wi'irstc " to day. The people soon 
became used to this living advertise- 
ment. One day the butcher hap- 
pened to be ill, and he did not know- 
how to announce the fresh sausages. 
Suddenly his wife, taken with a 




From a Photo. 

customer's door, so freshness and 
freedom from water are assured. 
His hands are not always clean, 
however, and when one learns that 
on their way round the town the 
goats act as most efficient scaven- 
gers, one's fondness for afternoon 
tea seems to be less strong than it 
was at home. 

In the St. Ulrich (Tyrol) work- 
shop one can see the various stages 
that go to the making of a life-size 
saint — for saint and toy-making are 
the industries of this lovely valley. 
One man stands blocking out the 
rough figure, and it strikes a 
stranger with awe to watch the 
energy with wiiich he pounds and 
chisels away without any sort of 
model. A small photograph is 



10.— IN A .SAIN r-.MAKlN(, W l.)KKSIlUl' LH' bl 

generally the only "guide" used. Another 
t\-orkman is putting the final touches to a grave, 
bearded St. Anthony, complete to his cross and 
bell ; a third is busy with a half-finished bust. 
The hours of work are long — from early morning 
until eight or nine at night ; and for wages a 
carver earns, according to his ability, from 
IS. 9d. to 7s. a day. Painting the figures and 
decorating them with gold-leaf is another branch 
of the trade; a painter earns from is. gd. to 
5$. 6d. a day. Walking through the village 
one often sees rich and glowing saints and 
angels put out in the gardens 
or on the walls to diy. The 
figures, by the way, are nearly all 
ordered in advance. In one large 
atelier — Joseph Rifesser's — twenty 
workmen are employed. There is 
no school of carving in St. Ulrich ; 
the boys start as apprentices and 
work their way up. 

It is indeed surprising how the 
development of Canada has grown 
of late years, and more especially 
as regards her sporting charms. In 
some sections colonies of cottages 
have been built, and Canadians, 
Americans, and people from more 
distant countries join in the enjoy- 
ment of fishing and hunting, the 
lakes and the rivers, the moun- 
tains and the valleys. The Thou- 
sand Islands of the magnificent 
St. Lawrence are known the world 
over, but in the Georgian Jiay 
district there are 30,000 islands. 

of all sizes, ranging from a lone 
rock to ten acres in extent. 'I'he 
route taken is through what is 
known as the '' inner channel," 
and all along the scenery is 
picturesque. It is ever changing, 
and the eye has a least that 
delights the soul. It is mar- 
vellous how the steamer wends- 
her way in and out about the 
islands, the majority of them 
densely wooded. In tli^ streams 
brook trout are to be found ; and 
trout, bass, and maskinonge de- 
light all who fish. In the woods, 
deer, bear, fo.\, and partridge wait 
for the hunter — a fact made appa- 
rent by 7,000 hunters journe)ing 
there last year. This large influx 
of men with guns would incline the sports- 
man to think the stock of deer must become 
depleted ; but the Canadian license system is 
strict, and the law is enforced by wardens who 
see to it that the open and close seasons are 
recognised. In addition to thi.s, the dense 
undergrowth that is replacing the cleared tracts 
of land afford s[)lendid protection for the deer. 
Our photograph shows a party of Canadian 
sportsmen camped out. It was taken just 
before they got up to start on a shooting 

























The Wide World Magazine. 

V'ol. VI. 

DECEMBER, 1900. 

No. 32. 

Peter Nissen's Holiday Experience. 


By Orrin E. Dunlap, of Ni.\gara Falls, N.Y. 

Mr. Dunlap, as our readers know, is on the spot, and is well acquainted with all the sensation- 
seekers who gravitate towards the wonderful Niagara River, with its Falls, Rapids, and Whirlpools. 
Here is the latest Niagara feat fully described and illustrated with photographs. 

O Peter Nissen, of Chicago, must be 
"iven credit for the finest small-boat 
trip ever made through the Whirl- 
pool Rapids of Niagara. It was, 
indeed, a remarkable voyage, and 

the one who planned it and carried it out was 

actuated by a desire for thrilling adventure un- 
equalled even in the exciting Niagara region. 

Nissen reached Niagara Falls on Saturday, the 

3olh of June last. Previous to leaving Chicago 

he had shipped his boat over the Grand Trunk 

Railway to Niagara Falls, N.Y., but on arriving 

there he found he would be unable to lower 

it into the river on 

that side of the stream, 

so he had it returned to 

the Canadian side. It 

was then his troubles 

commenced. When 

Nissen arrived at 

Niagara he gave the 

name of F. M. Bowser, 

frankly stating it was 

not his right name, but 

that he intended to 

assume that name for 

the trip. In all that 

was done by him he 

was called Bowser, but 

after he had success- 
fully performed the 

startling feat credit was 

given to him under his 

right name, and for 

this reason he will be 

called Nissen in this 


The day following 

Nissen's arrival at the 

Falls was Canada's 

Dominion Day, which 

was celebrated on the 

Monday following. 

This, with the Satur- 
day half-holiday, made 

Vol. vi.— 14. 

I'lOiit a\ 

practically three days in which Nissen could not 
do business with the Customs on the Canadian 
side, for after shipping his boat from Chicago, 
an American city, to the port of Niagara Falls, 
and then sending it into Canada, he was forced 
to come in contact with Her Majesty's Customs 
authorities before he could get his boat free. 
He was striving hard to make the trip on July 
4th, Independence Day, and on Tuesday suc- 
ceeded in freeing his boat from the Customs on 
payment of 25dols. duty. This much accom- 
plished, he felt confident^of being able to make 
the trip on July 4th. But there had been 

rumours that the 
authorities in Niagara 
Falls, 0<it., would in- 
terfere with his putting 
his boat in the river on 
that side, and all kinds 
of threats were made. 
However, Nissen was 
determined. He won 
the personal favour of 
the officials, but their 
authority was held 
over him in all its 
assumed awful n ess, 
for, truth to tell, in the 
light of past successful 
rapids trips they can 
hardly arrest a person 
on the ground that 
such a trip means sui- 
cide. But the presence 
of adventurers here 
and there was at least 
annoying, and the dig- 
nity of Niagara must 
be maintained. 

But Nissen kept on. 
After paying the duty 
he found that the rail- 
way officials had tele- 
graphed advices from 
Chicago that his boat 






had been wrongly rated, and that the freight 
bill should be nearly 4odols. instead of lydols. 
This Nissen felt was an injustice, but he 
deposited the full amount of the claim under 
protest, and it may be remarked here that the 
day after he had made the trip the overcharge 
was returned to him, and he was about lydols. 
in pocket. After payment of the freight bill 
Nissen set out to get a dravman to haul the 
boat to the Maid of t/w Mist, landing near the 
l-alls. Ten dollars secured a promise of help, 
but the authorities frightened the drayman off, 
and none of the draymen in Niagara Falls, Ont., 
would touch the boat. The world wondered 
what had come over the people of the Niagara 
locality in thus turning down good hard cash. 
But so it was. 

This was a new feature of Niagara life, and 
so Nissen met it by once more sending his boat 
to the New York side on a railway car. Then 
it was taken from the railway and placed over- 
night in a barn on the river bank. Nissen had 
engaged a drayman of Niagara Falls, N.Y., to 
carr)' the boat to the place where he wanted it, 
and he now felt sure of his ground. This dray- 
man was notified that the boat was ready for 
him, but he gave the job up, and once more 
Peter Nissen sought the services of others. In 
Michael O'Rourk he found a man of nerve, and 
lodols. secured the services of Michael with his 
waggon and team. Nissen was to take all risk of 
the boat, and O'Rourk was to run the risk of 
damage to his waggon. The strange craft was 
loaded on to the waggon, and it was hauled 
across the steel arch bridge to the Canadian side 
and to a point near the Falls where a roadway 
leads down to the water's edge. This road is 
quite precipitous and at points very narrow. 
■One wheel of the v.aggon was chained, and the 
descent began. All were hopeful until, when 
about two-thirds of the way down, the reach of 
the waggon broke and the boat capsized, landing 
over looft. from the water. - 

It was now Saturday night. A week had been 
spent and very little accomplished. Nissen 
engaged men to help him at four o'clock on 
Sunday morning, hoping to get the boat into the 
stream, in order that he might make the trip on 
Sunday afternoon, a day on which the great 
majority of trips through the rapids have been 
made. Sunday is usually selected owing to the 
fact that each .Sunday in summer there is a great 
influx of visitors to Niagara. A fierce storm 
broke on Sunday morning, but Nissen and his 
helpers were at work. They laboured until about 
three o'clock in the afternoon, when a police- 
oflicer swept down upon them and made them 
stop work on the ground that they were violating 
the Lord's Day Act, which prohibits all work 

excepting that of actual necessity being done 
in the Dominion on Sunday. 

The boat was just about to drop off the dock 
into the water. Later it was announced that 
Nissen would make the trip on the afternoon of 
the 4th of July, and that afternoon thousands 
of people had gathered on the river banks to 
see the feat performed. The trip was not made 
that day, and all were disappointed. Again on 
Sunday afternoon, July 8th, thousands had lined 
along the banks to see Nissen and his boat go 
down the gorge, and once more they turned 
away disappointed. Still, all appeared to take 
into consideration the difficulties under which 
Nissen was labouring, and no one pro- 
nounced him a " fake." It was then given out 
that Nissen would surely do it on the first after- 
noon after he succeeded in getting his boat into 
the river. When forced to stop work on Sunday 
he arranged for the men to gather under cover 
of darkness that night and push the craft into 
the water. A high wind had been blowing, and 
this had had the effect of raising the water so that 
the boat could easily be launched. Nissen went 
to bed that night full of confidence. He had 
hardly closed his eyes in sleep when he was 
called up on the telephone to learn that his 
boat was in the water. He went back to bed 
and fell asleep, to dream that he was tossing to 
fame upon the dancing, white-capped waves of 
the beautiful Niagara gorge. 

Monday, July 9th, broke with a threatening 
sky. Deep thunder growled as though in warn- 
ing to Nissen to refrain from the trip. The sky 
was overcast with clouds. True it was that the 
boat was in the water, but Nissen wasn't yet in 
the boat. The morning went by, and the people 
in the lively cities on both sides of the awful 
chasm wondered if Nissen really would go even 
if nothing interfered with his plans. That after- 
noon, for the third time in a week, thousands 
gathered on those high and rocky cliffs — the 
people on one side under the Union Jack, those 
on the other under the Stars and Stripes. 

About two o'clock Nissen's boat left the dock 
on the Canadian side in tow of a row-boat, 
which pulled it to a spot on the New York bank 
below the big flour mills. Near here Nissen 
descended the high bank on a ladder, being 
afraid to enter Canada for fear the authorities 
might once more try and prevent the trip. 
From the water's edge he was carried to his 
craft in the row-boat, and when in his craft it 
was evident there was no longer an excuse for 
delaying the voyage. 

Nissen's boat was designed by himself. It 
was unlike anything that had ever before navi- 
gated the waters of the river, and there were 
many misgivings as to how it would stand the 



I-'?\'i!! a\ 

SI1I1-: \1K\\ iiF NISSE.N S BOAT. 

trip. In length the boat was 20ft. It had a 
beam of 6ft., and the boat proper was 4ft. 
deep. With the exception of a cock-pit of 
small dimensions, the deck was covered. 
There were two air compartments in the for- 
ward end, two in the rear end, and one on 
each side of the cock-pit. What was thought 
by Nissen to be a valuable feature of its con- 
struction was the fact that suspended from 
the keel of the boat proper there was an iron 
keel weighing 1,2501b. This iron keel or rod 
was held by five iron straps and lin. bolts. 
Between the bottom of the boat and this iron 
keel there was a rudder and a propeller; the 
latter intended 
to be operated 
by pedals inside 
the cock-pit. 
However, when 
the boat was cap- 
sized in getting it 
down the road- 
way it bent the 
keel so that it 
interfered with 
the propeller 
blades and ren- 
dered it useless. 
The total weight 
of the little 
vessel was about 
4,3001b. Nissen 
was advised to 
provide some- 
thing to which 
he could hold 
fast in case the 
boat capsized, 
and accordingly 
he fixed a lin. 
Manila rope 
about the keel- 

son. This rope 
was long enough 
to be put over 
his shoulders 
like braces. He 
also arranged to 
w ear a cork 
jacket in order 
that he might 
have a chance 
for life should 
he be thrown out 
of the boat. 

It was just four 
o'clock when the 
row-boat pulled 
out of an eddy 
midway between the Falls and the rapids, the 
distance to the rapids from this startii>g-point 
being about a mile. W'hen full out in the current 
of the river the oarsman cast Nissen and his boat 
adrift, and they were at the full mercy of the cur- 
rents. Nissen was seen moving about the deck of 
his strange craft as, with oar in hand, using it as 
a paddle, he tried to keep his boat in the centre 
of the stream, in order that he might be caught 
in the suction of the rapids. Through Swift 
Drift, a rapid place in the river, the boat went 
flying. Here the current is extremely swift, 
and it looked very much as though Nissen was 
soon to be in the rapids. However, after he 


I'' rout a\ 

IN CALMER \VA 1 1-.], 

,i-,,r, , A.MJ ...o i..'Al AI TER A TRIAL TRIP. 


I lO 



1 1 r 

had been carried almost to the rapids his boat 
caught in an eddy on the Canadian side, and 
there he floated until the row-boat again took 
him in tow and sent him out in the stream. 
All this occupied over half an hour, and down 
the river there were rumours that Nissen had 
landed in the eddy, made his boat fast to a 
tree, and backed out. But the crowds were 
patient, and shortly before five o'clock Nissen 
was once more floating towards the rapids. 

As the boat was swept on the current down 
towards the rapids Nissen showed his nerve by 
waving his hand to the people who had come to 
see him do or die. When he was dangerously 
near the rapids he hurried into his cork jacket 
and took his place in the cock-pit. With his oar 
he rescued a long-handled feather-duster from the 
water, and putting his handkerchief on it waved 
to the people on the bridge above. By this 
time he was in a current that was speeding him 
to fame or death at the rate of fifty miles an 
hour, and the rapids were but a half-minute 
away. As Nissen and his boat passed under 
the lower steel arch bridge the scene was one 
never to be forgotten. His boat was floating 
stem on, and he faced down the gorge, his eyes 
taking in tlie waves that were tossing so tumul- 
tuously before him. At exactly five o'clock 
Nissen's boat rode the first grand long swell of 
the rapids, the boat acting like a duck. Its 
steadiness was 
im med iately 
noted, and in- 
stantly from 
thinking he was 
going to be lost 
a feeling that 
he wo u 1 d go 
through in safety 
sprang up among 
the thousands of 
people on shore. 
Nissen would 
have been 
cheered at this 
point, but there 
was no telling 
what the out- 
come was to be, 
and the tongues 
of all were silent. 
In less time than 
it has taken to 
record it Nissen 
had reached the 
first white- 
capped wave of 
the gorge, and 
had bounded Froma\ 

over it with an apparent lightness that raised 
the spirits of all who saw him. Then a second 
later he was right into the terrible waves. His 
boat turned sideways, and in this way drifted 
right into the whirlpool. In going through the 
rapids wave after wave broke over him and his 
boat. They came so fast that all he could do 
was to hang on to his life-rope. One moment 
the boat would be deep down in the trough of 
the waves, the next bounding high in the air. 
It was a frightful, thrilling, and terribly exciting 
ride for the spectators to witness, and the equal 
of It has never been seen at Niagara. 

In two minutes after his boat had passed 
under the lower steel arch it shot into the 
whirlpool and floated on the current across the 
surface of that broad and strange river pocket. 
Hundreds of people exclaimed that he was not 
in the boat — that he had been lost in the battle 
with the waves. But it was not so. Soon, when 
the boat reached more quiet waters, Nissen 
stood up in the cock-pit and swung his arms, for 
the day was an exceedingly cold one for July, 
and the exposure was telling on him. He 
drifted around the whirlpool four times, and it 
was 58min. after he entered the pool that he 
landed. In those 58min. he passed more time 
on the waters of the Niagara whirlpool than any 
human being is known to have spent there 
before ; and the scene while Nissen and his 



1 1; 


boat were in the whirlpool outrivalled any 
similar scene ever enacted there. 

The prevailing high water had brought down 
vast quantities of driftwood, logs, and timber, 
all of which had lodged in the river pocket. 
And so there was a remarkable collection of 
matter there when Nissen floated into the pool ; 
and after being carried on the current along the 
Canadian shore he was soon swept out right 
into the midst of it. Here occurred an incident 
which was probably far more thrilling than the 
trip through the rapids. As Nissen was being 
swept about the pool, and when well up near 
Che point at the entrance on the Canadian 
side, he observed a boy sitting on a rock fish- 
ing. Nissen had a line with him, and as he 
neared the boy he cast it toward him, but 
it dropped short and fell splashing into the 
Avater. Then the boy looked up : for the first 
time he caught a glimpse of Nissen in his boat 
being whirled about in the great whirlpool which 
seemed about to suck him down, and he plainly 
showed he was frightened. He had not seen 
Nissen and his craft come into the pool, and 
•was unmindful that the trip was to be made that 
day. The spectacle of a boat with a human 
occupant swinging around helplessly in the 
awful whirlpool of Niagara is not witnessed 
every day, and the boy stood like a rock 
petrified with fear. He could do nothing to 
help Nissen, who by this time was again out 
in the main current tumbling, tossing, whirling 
in the awful maelstrom of the Niagara, sur- 
rounded by debris, which formed a greater 
•element of danger than the wild waters through 
which he had passed. 

When Nissen started on his trip he had two 
oars. One he used as a paddle up to the time 
he entered the rapids, where it was lost. The 
other was fastened by four nails to the boat, his 
intention being to use it in the pool, if he 
stopped there. But this latter oar was torn 
from its fastening during the rapids passage and 
lost, so Nissen could only go where the wild 
current carried him. But here is Nissen's own 
story : — 

" T waved my hand to someone at the elevator 
• ic Canadian side," said he, "and just then 
a wave struck me full in the face. It hit me an 
awful blow, like a hammer, and seemingly I was 
under water. My lungs filled twice, and I had 
to cough hard. I did not lose consciousness, 
however. When I came up again I watched 
the waves, and prepared myself for them by 
drawing long breaths and ducking my head as 
I met them. I never suffered after that, but 
they hit me so hard that I was afraid they 
would break my neck. The rapids were worse 
than I thought them. 

" When I got among the debris of the pool I 
was fearful of what might happen. I had read 
stories of the actions of logs in the whirling 
waters of the pool, but I never fully realized 
the extent of the truth of it until a great log 
came dancing close to my boat. One end 
was heavy and water soaked ; the other stuck in 
the air. It tossed up and down, and I felt when 
it came so high above me that it might fall 
right down upon me and my boat. The boat 
stood on end several times. Among the debris 
in the pool was what appeared to be the side of 
a bridge. There was a piece of cribbing also, 
and a great wedge-shaped lump of timber that 
got too neighbourly to suit me. This struck the 
boat several times, and each time my craft 
quivered as though it would break in two. The 
old logs and timbers were dancing about on the 
waters so much that I was afraid they would 
pierce my boat, and I felt it was just like being 
among a lot of rocks. Of course, I watched 
the wood and the waters, but I was helpless, 
for I had to sit quite still at those times or be 
thrown out." 

This was as Nissen remembered it all ; but 
from his position, and while under the intense 
strain, he was unable to make as good a record 
of it as those who were so fortunate as to be 
on the high bank over the pool looking down 
upon the scene. The whirlpool was like a toss- 
ing, heaving sea of logs, timbers, etc., and right 
into it all Nissen and his boat pitched headlong. 
The logs there were two and three times as long 
as the boat, and they were swinging in all direc- 
tions in the currents. It is a wonder his craft 
was not wrecked there, but for nearly an hour 
he was carried about, until the fourth time round 
he swung well in toward the Canadian side. As 
the boat approached the shore three boys started 
to swim out to it, and they soon had hold of a 
rope that Nissen threw to them. One of the boys 
reached the boat and stood upon it for a moment. 
It was not long then before Nissen's boat 
grounded, and he stepped off into 3ft. of water 
and waded ashore. The iron keel prevented the 
drawing of the boat up on the shore. When 
Nissen touched land he was shivering with cold. 
Fifty people stood ready to help him, down in 
that dark and distant point, and clothing was at 
once thrown about him. He was hurried to a 
bonfire and warmed, after which he was helped 
up the high bank, placed in a carriage, and taken 
to his hotel. He had paid his board bill before 
he left to make the trip, and now he opened a 
new account ! 

Next morning the boat was found adrift 
in the pool, but was easily recaptured. How- 
ever, Nissen had no notion of going farther 
down the river in the boat, but in order to get 


1 1 

From a 

it out it was necessary that it be sent out of the 
whirlpool down the river to Lewiston or Queens- 
ton, where the banks are not so high and the 
river is navigable. Nissen made a contract with 
some men to deliver the boat to him at a dock 
in the navigable portion of the river, and on the 
afternoon of Tuesday, July loth, they set to 
work to carry out the'r contract. The boat was 
towed along the Canadian shore round to the out- 
let of the pool at Thompson's Point, where it was 
set adrift and passed out of the whirlpool, as 
pictured in the illustration. It lodged in the 
Canadian eddy immediately below the pool, and 
all the afternoon the men towed it against a 
powerful up-current in order that they might send 
it on its journey. 

It was not until after eight o'clock that night 
that they succeeded in getting the boat again in 
the down-current, and at 8.25 it passed through 
the rapids at Foster's Flats, which is pro- 
nounced the worst bit of water between Lake 
Erie and Lake Ontario. There the boat was 
capsized repeatedly. Telephone messages were 
sent down the river to get the fishermen to 
watch for the boat, but morning dawned and 
the craft was not docked. Employes of the 
Niagara gorge scenic routes reported the boat 
on the rocks in the Devil's Hole eddy, and 
a wrecking gang hurried there. They found 

Vol. vi.— 15. ' 


the boat, which had pounded on the rocks 
all night, and the iron keel was missing. The 
air compartments were partly filled with water, 
and the boat listed badly. It was evident that 
it drew too much water for the shallow places 
over which it had passed. Had Nissen been 
carried out of the whirlpool and farther down 
the river he would have been lost, and he prac- 
tically admitted this himself when he saw the 
boat while it was on the rocks. 

After a couple of hours' work the boat was 
freed from the rocks and eddy and put in the 
current ; then it was carried to the navigable 
portion of the river. There a boatman from 
Queenston, Ontario, put out and caught it, 
and towed it to the dock. Captain Hugh J. 
Mclntyre, of the Ongiara, then took the boat 
in tow, and it was taken to the Lewiston dock. 

If Nissen had any idea of making other trips 
his hopes were destroyed by the condition of 
his boat. He had made the trip in order to 
demonstrate the feasibility of a boat-line from 
the Falls to the whirlpool, thinking that people 
would enjoy the excitement of the trip. He 
has changed his mind, and he, at least, will not 
promote the advancement of such a line of 
boats. Nissen is a bookkeeper by occupation, 
and his trip to Niagara was made during his 

What a Foreigner Saw in Ctiina. 

By W. HoPKVN Reks. 

The author is thoroughly acquainted with China and the Chinese. In the course of years he has: 
amassed a large collection of photographs illustrating many of the quaint and curious phases of 
Chinese life and manners. The photos, here given are a selection from Mr. Rees's collection, with. 

a description of each from the traveller's own pen. 

'S one approaches 
Taku by steamer 
from Shanghai or 
Chefoo one can- 
not fail to notice 
several huge wind -sails on 
land. They are in close 
proximity to the raihvay 
station and shipping wharves, 
and a mile or two away from 
the forts, which were cap- 
tured recently by the Allied 
troops. The country is flat 
for hundreds of miles, and, 
its soil being non-productive, 
nothing can be seen but 
grave mounds, common huts, 
and a wide expanse of mud- 
flats. During the summer 
the whole country is satu- 
rated with tropical rains, and 
huge tracts are covered with 

The Chinese are proverbially industrious, 
however, and keen to find cash even in the most 
unlikely spots. Now, there are many white 
patches in the soil, and the natives have found 


From a Photo, by 

soil " (to use a native expres- 
sion) is worked at very little 
labour, as these wind-sails- 
revolve incessantly, and needi 
no attention from man tO' 
keep them going. From. 
Taku to Tientsin is a dreary 
run, either by boat or train. 
There are thousands of graves 
on every hand, scores of 
coffins cast adrift on the 
mud plain, and vegetation is 

The first picture on the 
next page will convey a very 
good idea of the way in- 
which natives try to cheat 
the evil spirits. The grave 
may be seen in the centre,, 
and on all sides, save one,. 
a high mud wall is built to 
keep away the influences of 
evil spirits. Should the spirit 

in his wanderings come near this grave the- 

natives believe that he will strike against the wall,. 

and move off on the other side, like a Levite. 

" But," you ask the simple-minded Chinamau 


D. Satoiv, Shans-hai. 

from a] 



them productive of salt. Therefore, they dig 
deep, broad trenches, and plant enormous wind- 
sails on the high ground, whereby the very 
primitive machinery used for " cooking the 

"sui)posing the spirit comes from the opposite ; 

I)oiiit of the compass, where no wall exists, \ 

What is thereto prevent his entering the grave \i 

and upsetting the equanimity of the dear i 




From a] the entrance of benign influences. 

departed?" The all-sufficient answer is: "The 
evil spirits never come from that side ; the good 
spirits alone travel from that direction ! " 

Such depth of learning is too intricate for the 
foreign barbarian. Good influences and gentle 
spirits come from the " sunny south," for the sun 
is Yang, the active principle in Nature. Bad 
influences come from the north, known as Yin, 
the female principle in Nature. Poor Eve and 
her sisters have a big debit 
account even in a heathen's 
ledger ! And thus the natives 
maintain that a wall built to- 
wards the north serves as a 
barrier against demons ; whereas, 
a space left on the south side 
permits the entrance of all 
benign influences. They believe 
that by building at a proper angle 
the good will stay, while the evil 
will fly off* at a tangent. 

Speaking of graves naturally 
reminds me of funerals. Last 
April I witnessed one of the 
most gorgeous and expensive 
funeral processions ever seen in 
Tientsin. An old lady had died. 
She had known poverty and toil, 
but her son, who at one time 
had been either a cook or an 
ostler in a prince's house in 
Pekin, had, through means 
which we need not define here. 

secured affluence and a 
high position. Tao Tai 
Chang lives in the largest 
and most handsome 
house in the foreign 
settlement of Tientsin. 
He is manager of the 
railway from Shan Hai 
Kuan — where the Great 
Wall dips into the sea — 
to Pekin, and is the 
managing director of the 
Tang Shan mines, which 
have been worked on the 
best foreign methods with 
European machinery, and 
have been productive of 
untold wealth to the 
shareholders. He is a 
man much respected by 
a certain class of Euro- 
peans — mostly Conti- 
nental — and is of a 
generous disposition. It 
is said that his mother's 
funeral cost him ^30,000. 
The house in this photo, is owned by H. E. 
Chang. The animals and their riders are not 
real, but are made of paper and lacquer. The 
living strive to make the cheerless, shadowy 
regions of the other world as comfortable and 
cheerful as possible for those who have gone 
before, and on this occasion food and drink 
were carried on elaborate trays, while there were 
also provided piles of paper money and paper 

IS left open for 


a funeral procession starting i'JiO.M the house of his EXCELl-r 

the animals and their riders are made of paper and LACi^UEli. 

From a Photo. 




from a] trumpets and intoning prayers. 

clothes, paper houses and sedan chairs, paper 
opium pellets and lamps and gambling requi- 
sites ; paper animals and servants— everything, 
in fact, conducive to the comfort and well-being 
of the dear departed lady, besides plenty of food 
to appease her hunger in Hades. AH these 
were burnt at the grave, and 
in the process transformed for 
her use in the other world. 

Another photo, represents 
a few of the priests who were 
present to sing prayers for 
the dead. The prayers had 
been going on day and night 
for some weeks at the house 
of the deceased, whenever 
any friend called to condole 
with the family. These friends 
brought various gifts, as 
tokens of respect, and several 
hundreds of silk umbrellas 
were seen in the procession, 
the value of which must have 
aggregated hundreds of 
pounds. The priests brought 
their ceremonial robes, mis- 
sals, drums, and trumpets, 
some of the latter being several 
feet long, as may be seen in 
the photograph. Tables 
arrayed with idols of silver, 
incense, and sacred utensils 
other priests, several of whom had been sent by 
the Empress Dowager to show her esteem for 
the son. The {)riests howled their prayers and 

blew their horns in monoto- 
nous intonation. 

The third of the series 
shows the crowds of bearers, 
picked up and dressed for the 
occasion — a motley crowd of 
street - Arabs, all under the 
control of a firm of undertakers, 
which charges the family heavy 
fees, and gives a miserable pit- 
tance to all whom they hire. 
The body, dressed in its best 
silks, was placed in a coffin 
of immense size and thickness, 
which had been lined inside 
with lime and oil, and coated 
on the outside with varnish. 
It was carried on the bier, with 
a huge canopy embroidered 
with silk and white artificial 
flowers thrown over it, to hide 
it from the gaze of the crowd. 
Tens of thousands of people 
were congregated along the 

Taku Road — now in ruins — and the City Road ; 

and the son, although of such high rank, had to 

zva/k behind the body, clothed in common 

white cotton garments. 

The grave was at Tung Chou, near Pekin. 

There are no public cemeteries or graveyards, but 


From a\ 

candles, lamps, 
were carried by 



the dead are buried in ground owned by the 
family or relatives, and thus the whole country, the 
wayside, and fields are thickly studded with the 
abodes of the dead, but no one is buried inside 
a town or city wall. The accompanying photo. 





^ ^:=iii^£f*'~ vtrUm 

> - 

■"""■■■■■■ ■ "■ "■ ^! 

F to 111 a\ 



can build such bridt^cs 
should not be despised, as 
it undoubtedly possesses 
great skill and taste. 

Inside the Ha Ta gate 
of Pekin — close to the 
Legations — hundreds of 
camels may be seen carry- 
ing coal and lime ; and 
you will also notice thou- 
sands of carts — mere 
bo.xes placed on wheels — 
plying for hire to convey 
travellers from various 
parts of the empire. The 
roads, though broad, are 
always in a filthy and mal- 
odorous condition, and, 
with the exception of the 
one near the Legations, 
they are very uneven, the 
deep ruts being often 
dangerous to travellers. 

shows one of the finest pagodas in China, that especially during the night. 

of Tung Chou, near which Her Excellency In the next picture may be seen a 

Lady Chang found a resting-place after a 

long and chequered life. 

Pekin is near Tung Chou. The elevated 
Imperial Road connecting the two cities 
has been constructed of huge blocks of 
stone, but the ceaseless tramp of genera- 
tions of human beings and animals, and 
the heavy wheels of myriads of carts, have 
worn deep ruts into the road, and it is a 
painful experience to travel between these 
two cities in a cart. 

Just outside Pekin, during the winter 
months, scores of sledges may be seen, the 
same as depicted in this photo. In this 
way hundreds of people move about out- 
side the city, and in the old days foreigners 
were wont to go a - picnicking in this 
fashion, for the clear sunshine of a winter 
in North China makes a " day out " a most 
enjoyable break in the monotony of every- 
day life in the great city, which is notorious 
for its evil odours. I have made a journey 
from Tientsin to Tung Chou, a distance 
of eighty miles, on one of these sledges — 
a far quicker and more comfortable means 
of locomotion than a cart. 

The tower in this photo, is that of a 
corner of the city wall. It looks formid- 
able, but is not so in reality. It is built 
of brick, and is a solid structure, but there 
are no cannon within. 

One of two remarkable bridges outside 
Pekin appears in the next photo. They 
are very ancient and artistic. A nation that 



From a\ WAY be seen on the ICE. \_fnoio. 



from a] 


which has only recently been opened. It is a 
restaurant, with private rooms for the aristocracy 
upstairs ; but below the common herd may 
feed in sight of all the passers-by. There are 
thousands of these in Pekin. Notice the 
gaping idlers interested in the despised 
foreigner's attempt to photograph the shop. 
They have plenty of time, and are never in a 
hurry, except when trying to escape from their 
creditors or the police. 

A day's journey to the north brings us to the 
Great Wall. We travel either in an ordinary 
Chinese springless cart, which inflicts torture 
upon the unfor- 
tunates who 
have to go along 
the uneven 
roads, or in mule 
litters or on 
horseback. This 
wall is one of the 
great wonders of 
the world. It 
was completed 
200 years B.C., 
and is 25ft. thick, 
30ft. high, and 
over 1,000 miles 
long. It crawls 
up mountains 
and down dales, 
and in one place 
it stretches over 
the top of a 
mountain which 
is more than 
5,000ft. high. 

In the next picture 
may be seen a part of the 
British Legation grounds 
in winter. The coolies 
are sweeping the snow to 
the side of the broad 
paths, and the trees are 
bare. The winter is in- 
tensely cold, and all the 
rivers are held in the 
embrace of King Frost; 
but the days are almost 
cloudless, and the crisp, 
dry weather in winter 
compensates for and re- 
cruits the bodily strength 
after the enervating 
damp-heat and obnoxious 
odours of summer. Here 
it may be well to state 
that the natives call their 
capital Fei Chtng, the 
ck in Ching being pronounced like the English 
g in gin. It is not right, therefore, to call the 
city Pekin or Peking, as the hard sound of k 
does not at all represent the way in which the 
natives pronounce the name. It is not /V-king, 
but Fei (northern) and Ching (capital). 

Another photograph shows a group of 
missionaries, after a long riv'er journey from 
Tientsin, reaching their destination. The river, 
which near Tientsin is broad and deep, grows 
more narrow and shallow as we approach its 
source. In the early summer the natives turn 
the river into the fields to save them the trouble 


From u\ 


K E -. I A U I< A .N I' I N f K KIN. 




J-roin a\ 



of irrigating the parched earth, in which the There are three boats in the picture, one for 

wheat is waiting for the " early rain." each family. Boxes and baggage and baskets 

I'loiii a I 





F'^m a\ 



may be seen, and the boatmen — a quiet, in- 
dustrious lot — are discharging the cargo. A 
missionary is sitting on a box, using all 
his eloquence to urge the men on, as 
night is drawing nigh ; there are yet four 
miles to the British compound, and highwaymen 
are not unknown in this flat and poverty-stricken 
region. The boats are very low. A small 
compartment at the back is used for cooking, 
and the front room (sometimes two rooms) is 
used as dining, 

ing, and 

mg rooms. The 
passengers have 
to take their 
bedding and 
food and cook- 
ing utensils with 
them. Four or 
five men pull 
the boat by 
along the river 
bank and pull- 
ing a rope which 
is connected 
with the top of 
the mast. With 
no wind they 
travel not more 
than three miles an hour ; with head winds the 
speed is seldom more than one mile an hour, and 
oftentimes our boats have been tied up owing 
to the force of the wind for a whole day with- 
out moving at all. 

The province of Chih-Li is, for the most part, 
a huge plain, and you may travel for many days 
without coming within sight of even a hillock. 


From a 

But in Shantung many mountains relieve the 
monotony of the landscape. The most ancient 
sacred mountain in China, if not in the world, 
is to be found in Shantung, and is known as 
the Tai Shan. Here may be seen a shrine 
built in honour of China's sage, Confucius, 
known to the natives as Kung Fic Tzu, and 
devotees from all the provinces may be met 
with who have come to pay their vows or 
implore the benign influence of the sage on 

their behalf 

In the next 
photograph you 
see the way in 
which foreign- 
ers and well-to- 
do natives climb 
that sacred 
mount. They 
use a frail and 
light palanquin, 
very easy to 
carry and not 
A stone from 
7ai Shan is 
considered to 
be most potent 
to ward off evil 
influences, and 
I have seen in 
Pekin, Tientsin, and inland towns and villages 
many such, as it is believed that neither 
demon, ghost, nor any other evil agent will 
come near a stone from this famous hill. 
Alas ! good and bad spirits are not omnis- 
cient, and It is not an uncommon thing to find 
a brick from the neighbouring kiln plastered 
over or a stone from an adjoining quarry stuck 





Again, the five 
hundred dwindle 
to four hundred 
and eighty or 
four hundred 
and seventy — 
the bankers pro- 
fiting by the 
four long 
two short 


i n to 



on a 

From a] 



board cut for the 
purpose to fit 
the size of the 
cash. A man 
then takes a 
piece of thin 
iron with a hook 
at the end, to 
which is attach- 
ed a string. As 
the cash have 

into the wall, with " Tat Shan " cut therein, and 
in this way they attempt to cheat the devil ! 
This photo, was taken in front of a shrine erected 
to the god of rain, and the idols can be dis- 
tinctly traced. In times of drought — as is the 
case this year in North China — the god is taken 
outside to show him how he has blundered ! 

Near my home there are several headless, 
armless, legless gods of rain (whose temples have 
crumbled to dust), left to their fate by the T)eople 
because some years ago the drought was so great 
that thousands of people died of famine, and hun- 
dreds more would have 
died but for the timely 
aid of a foreigner. The 
idols had failed the in- 
habitants in their hour of 
sore distress, and they were 
left to crumble to pieces. 

The last picture would 
interest any Chinaman, as 
it concerns "cash." It is 
truly "filthy lucre," as, 
after handling a few strings 
of it, one's hands have a 
peculiar odour, resembling 
sulphur, and need much 
cleansing. In inland 
China no other coins are 
used or known. The cash 
are all made of copper, 
of poor quality. Five 
hundred pieces are 
counted as one thousand. 

Vol. vi.— 16. 

small holes in the centre the hook pulls the string 
through the cash, and they are then tied up. 

The men on the left and in the centre are 
counting cash ; a heap of uncounted coins is in 
front of the man in the middle, and near the left- 
hand man the wood on which the cash is placed 
after counting may be seen. The man on the 
right is "stringing the cash," and the table below 
holds the strings of copper coin which are now 
ready for use. The English value of a string of 
cash is elevenpence, and yet you can buy some 
things with only one cash! 

F)Oiu a\ couNTiNc; and stki.ngin' 


Alligator = Hunting in Florida, 

By Athol Maude. 

An entertaining account of a fascinating sport, illustrated with remarkable snap-shots, and 
giving many practical hints to sportsmen who may wish to bag a few ugly "'gators" in the 

backwoods of the lovely State of Florida. 

HERE is nothing more delightful 
or exhilarating in the very wide 
field of sport than a fortnight's 
alligator- hunting in the backwoods 
of Florida. A combination of per- 
fect climate and wild scenery, spiced with just 
an element of danger, forms an efificient tonic 
for the most d/ase of sportsmen in search of 
pastures new. 

The best time for the southward flight is just 
after Christmas, when the balmy Indian summer 
of St. Augustine comes as a paradise after the 
icy winds and snow-strewn streets of New York 
City. You cross the Desprossus Street ferry 
and climb into the 
cars of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad 
Co., taking care to 
have ordered your 
sleeping berth and 
seat in the drawing- 
room car before- 
hand, at a rate 
which does not ex- 
ceed about j^i6. 

This journey, if 
you only know how 
to do it, is probably 
one of the most 
comfortable in the 
world. The whole secret of extracting the maxi- 
mum of comfort at the minimum of trouble is : 
" Don't carry much hand-luggage, as porters 
are mostly conspicuous by their absence, and 
rack accommodation is limited. Z>o;i/ over-tip 
the car stewards, or they will grow careless ; and 
do see that your various berths and seats are 
booked by the conductor.' Having done all 
this and settled yourself in a through car to St. 
Augustine, you proceed to take things easily. 
Passing through Philadelphia you drop into the 
dining-car for lunch ; on reaching the State of 
Virginia you are ready for dinner and bed, 
happy in the knowledge that the morning will 
find you breakfasting in sub-tropical Georgia. 

From a\ 


Breakfast next morning brings with it the 
most enjoyable part of the 1,000-mile trip. At 
the end of the tram de luxe is the observation- 
car — a car made mostly of glass. Here, accom- 
panied by whatever form of tobacco one may be 
most attached to, one sinks luxuriously into 
deck - chairs temptingly placed with a full 
command of the view — and what a view! 
First over the sand-strewn plains of Georgia, 
where the railway - sleepers drop in a dead 
straight line over the far-distant horizon ; past 
litde log-wood huts, huddled together on patchy 
oases, looking for all the world Hke a flock of 
sheep struggling for the hmited shade of the 

few palmetto scrubs 
that stand gaunt and 
haggard in the air. 

Niggers, not 
changed one jot 
since the old plan- 
tation days, hoe 
stolidly at their own 
particular melon 
patches, or lean 
upon broken fences 
to watch the train 
until (and probably 
for a long while 
after) it disappears 
around the bend. 
Tiny piccaninnies scamper at a futile pace 
beside the rushing train, filling the heat- 
drenched air with cries of " Gib cent, one dime, 
please." Past all these you are whirled, until at 
last you cross the border of the promised land 
— which border can be recognised by the 
parched deserts giving way to swampy green 
undergrowths. The track no longer runs over 
sandy plains, but is banked high up on trestles 
overlooking verdant forests, with here and there 
a peep at queer animals and poisonous reptiles. 

This, however, is not our El Dorado. The 
inland swamps are miasmatic and dangerous, 
whereas the backwoods by the sea are as 
healthy as possible. 




In America you don't have to worry about 
your luggage, as there are several large com- 
panies who collect it at the starting-point and 
deliver it right to your hotel at the journey's 
end. Hence the lack of porters at all the 
railway stations. So, having reached St. Augus- 
tine, you only have to jump into the private 
omnibus of the hotel at which you intend 
staying (in my case it was the Ponce de Leon, 
one of the largest and smartest hotels in 
the whole of the States), comforted by the 
thought that your traps will be waiting for you 
in your bedroom. At the hotel the best way to 
live is en pension, at a cost of about 4dols. or 
5dols. a day. By doing this you can stay a few 
days and prepare for 
your trip up-country; 
and then, when you 
do go, the proprietor 
will store your trunks 
for you free of charge 
until you return 

And now comes the 
routine work of en- 
gaging the staff, put- 
ting into working 
order the commis- 
sariat department, and 
buying an outfit ; all 
of which are most 
necessary and by no 
means devoid of in- 
terest. You haggle 
with the nigger-cook 
as to whether you 
shall pay him 50c. or 
75c. a day, though he 
has probably made up 
his mind beforehand 
that he will not get 
more than 50c., and 
is inordinately sur- 
prised when you, in 
the smallness of your 
experience, give him 
75c. The black trapper claims more than the 
white guide, because he can " call out " the 
alligator by a peculiar throaty grunt. Being 
sworn not to divulge the sum received, be gets 
2dols. a day. The white guide claims more 
than the black trapper, because he is a white 
man. He, being also sworn to secrecy, receives 
a couple of dollars ; so each is happy until the 
end of the trip, when pay-day brings them each 
an equal substitute for an equal amount of 
liquor; and the one, being unable to get more 
tipsy than the other, promptly discovers that 
their payments have both been alike. 

From a 


Nor must the sailing boat be forgotten which 
is to bear you to the head - waters of the 
Tolomato River, from whence you strike inland. 
You will want her for a fortnight at least, for she 
will lie up there and act as a sort of base depot 
to the front ; and for this duty her skipper 
will want lodols. a week. To be sure, he will 
come himself and bring his rifle, in order that 
he may amuse himself and eat your rations. 
But at this" you cannot grumble, for at night 
round the camp fire he will enliven you with 
tales, such as only he can tell, of the inter- 
family feuds of Florida. 

So, having engaged our staff of trapper, guide, 
skipper, and cook, we halt, the noble army of 

four, and turn to their 
equipment. In this 
department they 
follow their own 
choice — or, rather, the 
choice of their great- 
grandfathers. The 
iruide shoulders affec- 
tionately an obsolete 
Martini - Henry ; the 
trapper pats with 
pride the stock of a 
cross between a 
Brown Bess and a 
flintlock. As to my- 
self, a light sporting 
rifle, with a couple of 
favourite guns and a 
supply of long-range 
cartridges, are more 
to my fancy. 

The tackle for 
catching alligators 
alive is distinctly 
primitive, and consists 
chiefly of two or three 
long poles, some 20ft. 
in length, at the end 
of which stout shark- 
hooks are attached, 
together with a quan- 
tity of hempen rope and strong boards. The 
rope does double duty : by day it drags the 
" 'gators " from their holes ; by night it is 
placed in a circle round the camp to keep 
the rattlesnakes away. It is quite a curious 
experience in the dead of a backwood's night 
to hear the soft, almost noiseless, sivish, szvis/i 
of the snake as it nears the rope, and then, 
after it has touched, to hear the angry " rattle " 
followed by a rapid retreat. The hairy strands 
of the rope seem to irritate the "rattler "to a 
considerable degree— which is lucky for the 




The camp outfit is equal in simplicity to the 
trapping tackle, and may be shortly summarized 
as follows : Two woollen army - blankets for 
each person, one sewn together at the bottom 
and along two edges to form a sleeping- 
bag, 5dols. ; rubber ponchos, idol, each ; 
rubber lop-boots, with thick soles, suitable for 
ever}' - day and all - day wear, 5dols. a pair ; 
one perfectly water-tight matchbox, a tightly 
corked, large-mouthed bottle is perhaps best ; 
mosquito-nets ; and last, but by no means least, 
a reliable compass. This latter article is most 
important, as in cloudy weather there is nothing 
to guide you in the palmetto scrub-woods or 
amidst grass that rises high above your head, 
while the few watercourses are often so tortuous 
that bearings are easily lost. The whole of the 
above equipment, however, sliould not cost 
more than about 2odols. for each person. 

And now for the hunt. The black trapper, 
accompanied by the cook, starts the day. betore, 
with the scrub cart and the riding ponies. 
Our party, including the skipper, the general 
tackle, and provender, cast off at the jetty head 
and set sail for the head-waters of theTolomato. 
Here everything is tumbled into a couple of 
canoes and piloted up a near-by creek to where 
the horses are already awaiting us. 

The first thing to do after pitching camp is to 
pick up the trail of an alligator " homeward 
bound." Enters upon the scene the blapk 
trapper with news of a fresh track leading away 
from the creek ; which, being translated, means 
that a " 'gator," having laid upon the bank all 
day sunning himself, has gone towards his hole 
in the swamps. So, armed with heavy stakes, 
we follow the trail through scrub and long grass, 
until sure enough we come upon the hole, half 

Fro»i a\ 

"run to earth "—digging out a shv 


.By means of two or three days' work the 
"business" part of the trip has been arranged, 
and it now remains only to ask the guide why, 
in the name of goodness, he wants to go home 
before starting. After much humming and 
hawing he confesses that he has left his chief 
mascotte (the tail of a seven-ringed rattlesnake) 
at home. It would be suicide for him, he points 
ou^ to go without it. " Look at One-eyed Jim," 
he instances, wandering off into a lengthy parable 
of how a certain man left a certain lucky token 
behind and went to an equally certain death ; 
so, being obdurate upon the point, away he 
goes; not that it delays us much, for he will 
meet us on the river bank half-way up, where we 
can put off the dingey for him. 

hidden amidst the prickly leaves. Good ! he 
is there, for the marks are fresh. But we don't 
want him yet. We would sooner get the 
drudgery done first and settle down to sport 
afterwards. Besides, now is the time to catch 
our prey at home — and keep him there ! We 
merely drive three or four stakes in front of the 
hole and thus effectually block the 'gator's only 
means of retreat. By performing this opera- 
tion some halfa-dozen times we make sure of 
keeping the 'gators caged and ready for us upon 
our turning out of camp the next day at five 

Alligator No. i is an " old-man 'gator." 
He has lived the two hundred odd years of his 
life wisely and well, and the time has come for 



him to 'be caught and carried into ignominious 
captivity, where the wants of his old age will be 
seriously considered and his freedom curtailed. 

No wonder, therefore, that he snaps angrily 
at the pole, as it comes cautiously upon him, 
like the tentacle of some huge octopus. It is 

From a] 



His boundless swamps will be exchanged for the 
" 'Gator Pool " of the little museum down at 



But how? 


From a Photo. 

It is easy enough, and immense fun into the 
bargain. Out come the posts through which 
he has already had the last 
glimpse of his ancestral 
home. And it is probably this 
that makes him so grumpy ; 
for he crouches his 12ft. body 
far back into a corner of the 
water - covered floor of his 
cavern, and angrily watches 
the pole as it creeps down the 
tunnel. When he built the 
tunnel loft. long, and the 
cavern at the end of it, he 
' thought he had indeed en- 
trenched himself against his 
implacable foe, man. F>ovia\ 

not to be borne, he argues, snapping viciously 
at the steel hook. The hook embeds itself in 
the roof of his mouth, and before his surprise 
is over he is being pulled, slipping and 
sliding, through the greasy walls of his den. 
At the entrance a hempen loop slips easily 
over his head ; but now his surprise has 
evaporated, and, recognising his tormentors, 
he commences a battle royal for liberty or 
life — he knows not which. 

With a scornful flick of his head he 
dislodges the hook that caught him un- 
awares, and stands stock-still, peeping out 
of his beady eyes for somebody to fall 
upon. He takes no notice of the black 
trapper standing right in front of him, 
noose in hand, ready for a favourable 
" throw " at his tail. Why should he waste 
valuable time on black men ? Not he. 
Such an insult as he has received must 
be properly avenged, he thinks, as he 
makes an open - mouthed rush at the 
captain of the expedition. 

Two more yards and those jaws of his will 





meet through flesh and bone. Six more inches, 
and he is brought straight up on end, to fall 
with a backward thud, by the rope around his 
neck. But he is as game as possible, and 
swings round to face his new tormentor, 
forgetting the existence of the captain in a new 
rush at the guide. Again he is brought with a 
crash to the ground, for has not the noose two 
ends, one on either side of him ? Up he gets, 
fighting, snapping, and foaming at the mouth — 
dashing this way and that, until at last, hauled 
taut and half strangled, he stops to recover his 
breath. The lashing tail gives the black trapper 
a chance to loop a third rope round that ex- 
tremitv, which leaves him triced between the 
three points of a triangle, as it were. 

There comes a lime when even the bravest 
must give in ; and, when a 'gator finds himself 
so hopelessly surrounded by cords, to struggle 

Front a I 

[/ nolo. 

further is worse than futile — it is positively 
painful ; he therefore allows his tail to be 
dragged around and fixed to his snout. He 
watches with apparent apathy as you place 
him on a board and bind him to it. But let 
his tail go for just one second, and a broken 
limb or worse will be your reward. For, as 
Samson's strength lay in his hair, so does a 
'gator's lie in his tail ; and more men than one 
have been fatally injured by that sweep which 
comes upon you like the knife of a guillotine. 
Get near those gleaming fangs and you are 
lost, for through bone and muscle they shear 

He is bound now to the board, with mouth 
wide open ready to receive whatever comes to 
hand. Open, an alligator's mouth cannot be 
forced to ; closed, and your finger will keep it 

From «] 



so. Therefore we give him a stick to snap at 
and then jerk the noose close, leaving him as 
harmless as the board upon which he is 

'Gator No. 2 has gathered wisdom during 
his twelvescore years and ten. He has built 
a stronghold after his own fancy, and feels 
particularly safe. His tunnel turns and twists 
with wondrous cunning, defying all efforts on 
the part of the pole. But we have not been 
paying the black trapper 2dols. a day for 
nothing. With a leer of conscious superiority 


Front a Photo. 



at his white rival 
he make us all 
lie still as logs 
for fifteen inter- 
minable minutes. 
The ropes and 
pole are ready 
placed in posi- 
tion, and, after 
a quick glance 
round to see that 
all is in order, 
he commences a 
guttural call. 
Suddenly the 
water at the edge 
of the burrow 
commences softly 
to lap up and 
down. Mr. 
'Gator, knowing 
water to be a 
good conductor 
of sound, has 
bobbed his head 
below the surface 

lo listen ; it is his breathing that 
causes the water to rise and fall. 

"Grunt, grunt," says the trapper. 
" Grunt," replies the 'gator, splashing 
his way out. 

Poor old chap ! His two hundred 
and fifty years have not taught him 
so very much after all, for, as he turns the 
corner, that wretched pole rouses the devil in 
him, and he snaps just as viciously at the hook 
as did our last victim. 
The fight that follows 
is equally heroic and 
equally futile as was 
the preceding one. 
Another half - hour's 
keen enjoyment, which 
more than repays the 
trouble to which we 
may have been put, 
and victim No. 2 joins 
victim No. i in the 
scrub cart. 

So it goes on. Some are dragged out, some 
are called out, and some have publicity thrust 
upon them by being dug and smoked out. The 
ways are merely the means to the same end. 
Occasionally, of course, a 'gator breaks loose, 
and then there is a scuttle for your life. But 
this contingency is guarded against by one who 
always stands handy with the rifle. And he 
who carries the gun must indeed be reliable, 

mean a life lost 

!. l:.\M. - l:L 1 i;.o 
From a Photo. 

alligator amuck runs faster than a man. Of 
narrow squeaks there are no end. One is illus- 
trated where the 'gator was cornered in some 

long grass and made 
his rush as we ap- 
proached. The photo- 
graph was snapped 
just before he received 
a death-wound in his 

And after that,°who 
can say that alligator- 
hunting is not an ex- 
citing and novel sport 
for even the most 
blase traveller ? 

From a\ A nasty customer who defied us. 


A Church on Wheels. 

Bv Arthur Inkersley, of San Francisco. 

It belongs to Conanicut Island, in Narragansett Bay, and measures i8ft. by 27ft. There is accorrt' 

modation for a hundred worshippers, in fourteen pews and a number of chairs; the aisle is 3ft. wide. 

The interior is quite luxuriously decorated, and yet the church has to be hauled by oxen along rough 

country roads. It is worth £600, but cost only half this sum, thanks to the generosity of the public. 





Bay, and 
part of the little State of Rhode 
l.sland, U.S.A., is a group called 
the Narragansett Isles. The largest 
of the group is Conanicut Island, 
which is so named from Conanicus, a chief of 
the Narragansetts, a once powerful aboriginal 
tribe. Conanicut Island is opposite to and 
near Newport, and is on one of the routes 
between those two fashionable summer resorts, 
Newport and Narragansett Pier. 

Conanicut Island is nine miles in length, and 
its principal village is Jamestown — an active, 
bustling little place, which 
possesses the only hotel 
that was ever moved bodily 
across an arm of the sea. 
" The Bay Voyage," as the 
hotel is named, now stands 
on the shores of Conanicut 
Island, but it was built in 
Middletown, on the Island 
of Aquidneck, distant four 
or fi\e miles across Narra- 
gansett Bay. 

Now, while there is an 
abundance of churches and 
parsons in the more popu- 
lous part of the State of 
Rhode Island, the western 
half, in which Conanicut 
Island is situated, is thinly 
peopled, and has few places 
of worship. In order to 
provide the summer resi- 
dents and the dwellers in 
the outlying district with 
religious opportunities the 
Mission of the Transfigura- 
tion was organized in 1893 at Conanicut Park, 
five miles from Jamestown. This is a summer 
mission, supported and attended by people 
staying in the hotel and adjacent cottages, and 
the services are held in a "Union Chapel." 
The summer visitors, among whom are a good 
many officers of the United States Navy with 
their families, come chiefly during July and 
August, but in the winter only seven families 
live at the Park end of the island. 

It was, therefore, proposed to build a mov- 
able chapel or church on wheels, which might 
be at Conanicut Park during the summer 


Froitt a] ITS construction. [P/io/o. 

season, while for the remainder of the year it 
mi"ht be taken elsewhere to minister to the 
needs of a framing community. Bishop Clark, 
of Rhode Island, strongly favoured the idea, 
and promised to aid its realization in every way 
that he could. Several firms and individuals 
came forward and supplied parts of the proposed 
chapel, such as a bell, a safe for the communion 
plate, an oaken altar, etc. These articles 
were deposited in an old horse-car which was 
used by the workmen employed on the con- 
struction of the chapel. That nothing might be 
lacking, permission was obtained from the 

wardens and vestry of St. 
Matthew's Church, James- 
town, to build the chapel 
on consecrated ground. 

The Chapel of the Trans- 
figuration is a real, practical 
church, light, cheerful, and 
roomy, having fourteen 
pews, space for twenty 
chairs, and an aisle 3ft. 
wide. While the chapel is 
in transit the running gear 
is exposed to view, but, 
when it is at rest, curtain- 
board underpinning is put 
up on the four sides, and 
the tongue is replaced by 
a wide flight of steps. The 
pews, prayer - desk, altar, 
bishop's chair, etc., are of 
oak. On one side of the 
chancel is the organ, which 
is fitted together with 
brass, and on the other is a 
robing - room, with closet, 
wardrobe, toilet-case, and 
mirror. The building is carpeted, the chancel in 
red and the body of the chapel in straw colour. 

The Rev. Charles E. Preston, rector of 
St. Matthew's Church, Jamestown, was the 
originator of the plan of the chapel, and 
its construction. The chapel 
as lightly built as is consistent 
so as to be easily drawn along 
But, at the same time, it is well 
proportioned, and all the details are in keeping 
with its size and purpose. It is i8ft. wide (the 
wheels being 19ft. 3in. from centre to centre; 
and 27ft. long, with a little bay window 2ft. 

is, of course, 
with strength, 
country roads. 



''CH.\ii-i. ui '1 111. 1 I-a;.--- 


From a Photo. 


deep, to 
more room for 
the altar. From 
the floor (which 
is on a level with 
the platform) to 
the ridge-pole is 
18ft., but the 
cross and belfry 
add several feet 
to the height. 
These additions, 
however, may be 
removed when 
the chapel is 
being conveyed 
along the road, 
so that it may 
pass under tele- 
graph and tele- 
phone wires. The 
outside is grey 
and of somewhat 
plain appear- 

Vol. vi.— 17. 

ance ; but inside the decoration is quite 
handsome and the arrangement excellent. 

The designer, too, has contrived to give 
an appearance of spaciousness by leaving 
the interior open to the ridge-pole. The 
pews are comfortable, and will seat a 
hundred persons. The stained glass in 
the windows is of good colour, and all 
appearance of crowding has been avoided. 
The chancel, without reckoning the little 
bay window, is only 5ft. by 8ft. ; but the 
space has been so well arranged that there 
is plenty of room. To the left of the 
chancel is the organ, a small, fine-toned 
instrument, which was presented by the 
makers. Between the organ and the chancel 
is a brass lectern, and opposite this a read- 
ing-desk for morning prayers. The value 
of the entire portable church from belfry 
to wheels with its fittings is 3,ooodols. 
(about ;^6oo); but the money actually 
expended in constructing and fitting it was 
less than half this sum, because the manu- 
facturers of church furnishings gave nearly 
all that was required. The pulpit and 
lectern, the safe, and many other articles 
were given in this way ; while the robes 
for the priest, the cross on the roof, and 
many other things were presented by 

From a 





individuals. The oaken altar was given by the 
Rhode Island branch of the Women's Auxiliary, 
in memory of the Rev. Walter Gardner Webster, 
who perished on the ill-fated steamer Bourgo^ne. 
In February, 1S99, the chapel was ready to 
be moved, and it was decided to take it to its 
first station over the frozen ground. But a 
bliz/ard set in, and the work of moving was 
postponed. On April 17th open-air services 
were held on the church grounds, and the flag 
presented by Elisha Dyer, the Governor of 
Rhode Island, was raised. Next day oxen were 
brought from Middletown and the northern 
part of the island, and twenty of them harnessed 

edifice was drawn up on a plot of ground whence 
it was visible for miles around from Narragansett 
Bay and Rhode Island. 

The first service in the Chapel of the Trans- 
figuration was held on April 23rd, the Sunday 
after the moving, and the consecration took 
place on June 3rd, the Right Rev. Dr. McVickar, 
Coadjutor-Bishop of Rhode Island, ofiiciating. 

The utility of a movable church is apparent, 
especially in America, in the Western States of 
which may be seen churches that were built 
when a considerable population had settled in a 
particular spot, which they afterwards deserted, 
leaving the church absolutely useless. A 


Frotn a\ 


to the chapel-waggon. The rear wheels being 
slightly elevated on planks, as soon as the 
brakes were off the building moved almost 
before the oxen had pulled the chain taut. 
The bell was rung and the chapel rolled into 
West Street, and thence up Cole Street into 
Narragansett Avenue. After passing Bay View 
House a halt was called while a guy-wire was 
cut ; and later it became necessary to remove 
the cross and the bell, so that the building 
might pass under the telegraph-wires. Twice 
the chapel fell into pitt'alls, but was successfully 
extricated. After a stop for luncheon the sacred 

portable church was constructed in Philadelphia 
and sent to Jamaica in the West Indies on the 
British steamer Barnstaple. 

In New York there is a " floating Bethel," 
which is "high" church or "low" church 
according to the state of the tide. The Bishop 
of North Dakota, whose vast diocese is very 
sparsely peopled, has a "cathedral car," which 
is taken from place to place on the railroad. 
This is called "The Roaming Catholic Church"; 
and similarly the Chapel of the Transfiguration 
has been named " The Chapel of the Trans- 
migration." The designer, however, calls it 
" The Go-Chapel," because it so literally 
carries out the command, "Go ye into all the 
world and preach the Gospel to every creature." 
But, though there have been several movable 
chapels, the church on Conanicut Island is the 
first complete one on wheels. 

The Lady Anglers of Santa Catalina. 

By Professor C. F. Holder, of Pasadena, Cal. 

California is remarkable for the great size of its game fish, but these are not monopolized by the 
male anglers. In this paper the well-known Californian writer tells us how the ladies catch huge 
specimens with rod and line, some of them weighing over loolb. The photographs show some of 

the ladies with their imposing catches. 


OME of the largest salmon in north- 
eastern Canada have been taken 
by the wives of the enthusiastic 
members of the angling guild, and 
in the United States it is no un- 
sight in summer to see women 
whipping a trout stream with all the skill and 
devotion of men. 

Angling as a woman's sport is growing in 
favour, and nearly all the large equipment houses 
of the day make rods designed especially for the 
fair se.x. But it is in California that the women 
have made records, capturing fish weighing up 
to i6olb. On May ist, 1899, the 
tournament of the Santa Cata- 
lina Island Tuna Club opened, 
the day being remarkable for 
some notable catches by ladies. 
Early in the morning a large 
school of white sea-bass rushed 
into the little bay of Avalon, 
which was soon filled with the 
boats of anglers, their oarsmen 
vying with each other in their 
efforts to secure good locations 
for their patrons. Among the 
ladies was Mrs. F. V. Rider, wife 
of the secretary of the Tuna 
Club, and some description of 
the boat and tackle used by her 
may be of interest. The boat 
was a wide-beamed yawl, with 
oars, sails, and a two-horse- 
power gasoline engine. Across 
the stern was a wide plank into 
which were fitted two comfort- 
able arm-chairs, side by side, so 
that two anglers could fish at one 
time : Mrs. Rider occupied the 
left, her husband the right, while 
the boatman and gaffer sat for- 
ward. The rod was a twelve- 
ounce split bamboo, very light 
but very strong, and not over 
seven and a half feet in length. 
The reel was a large silver 
and rubber affair, made especially for the 
Catalina fish, and held i, 000ft. of what is 
known as a 21-thread cuttyhunk line. 
The bait was a live sardine, caught in an 
ingenious manner. The white sea-bass had 

driven sardines into the Day in such numbers 
that they formed a black mass about 5ft. below 
the surface, and it was only necessary to toss the 
line and empty hook among them, allow it to 
settle and then jerk it, when a sardine would be 
impaled. The latter would at once rush away, 
while the angler unreeled the line, constituting 
a very tempting lure. 

The angler in question had adopted this pro- 
cedure, when suddenly her reel began to sing, 
and a terrific rush came on the line as a big 
bass struck and carried it out. There seemed 
to be no stopping such a fish, and the first cry 

MRS. F. 


/'';-(!;« a Photo, by Smenson. 

of the reel became a long-con- 
tinued note as feet and yards 
of line ran out. At least 500ft. 
were taken in this first rush 
before the fish was stopped with 
the powerful brake, and then 
began as exciting a contest 
between a woman and a power- 
ful fish as was ever seen. So 
skilfully was the rod handled to meet the rushes 
of the fish that anglers in other boats stopped 
fishing and became spectators. The bass made 
repealed rushes, which took all the line gained, 
and towed the boat along at a rapid rate ; now 


out to sea, aad, when turned, coming in again, 
and crossing the little bay. For twenty minutes 
this contest was continued. Then it was evident 
that the fighting tactics of the angler were 
winning ; the rushes grew less severe, and 
presently the bass rose to the surface and began 
to circle about the boat. Catching sight of the 
boat the fish plunged down again, taking yards 
of line, but the merciless reel gradually brought 
it in. 

A noble fish it was ; nearly 4ft. long, and 
still bearing off, so that the rod bent and all 
the angler's force was 
required to keep the 
advantage. Suddenly 
the gaffer slides his 
weapon beneath the 
fish ; there is a tremen- 
dous struggle, and amid 
flying spray and foam 
he lifts it in as the 
angler unreels and 
slacks, while the look- 
ers-on wave their hats 
and cheer. A moment 
later the oarsman 
weighs the fish : " Fifty- 
one pounds, ma'am ! " 
— the record for sea- 
bass among women. 
In two or three days 
nearly one hundred of 
these fish were taken 
with rods, nine falling 
to the writer's share, 
and each weighing not 
less than 501b. During 
the previous season 
Mrs. ^^'alter Raymond, 
of Boston, distin- 
guished herself by 
taking a tuna, not with 
a rod, as do the men, 
as this is believed to be 
impossible for a lady, 
but with a hand-line. 
The method of fishing 

was to run a launch through a school at full 
speed, trolling the line. In this way Mrs. Ray- 
mond got her strike, the fish taking many feet of 
slack before the launch could be stopped, and 
making a terrific fight. But the plucky fisher- 
woman held on through the fierce rushes, and 
for nearly half an hour she played the fish before 
it began to give out; but she never gave up, and 
gradually brought in the tuna, which was found 
to weigh 1301b. This was the first leaping 
tuna caught by a lady. 

The fish is a cousin of the bonito and macke- 


From a Photo, by Svjenson. 

rel, and isthe most active fish that swims. It is 
capable of making a remarkable fight, and so 
far only thirty members of the Tuna Club have 
taken specimens weighing over loolb. with rod 
and reel, yet these men use a 24-thread line. 
Some of the record catches are : C. P. More- 
house, 2311b. tuna; the fish was played three 
hours and a half; C. F. Holder, 1831b. tuna, 
time four hours ; H. St. A. Earlscliff, i8olb. 
tuna. This fish was killed in five hours, and 
towed the boat twenty miles before it came to 
gaff. Such is the fighting power of this great 

game fish, which is 
caught nowhere but 
at the island. 

Ranking with the 
tuna in size and 
strength, and far ex- 
ceeding it in weight, 
is the black sea-bass, 
which makes its home 
in the dense kelp beds 
which surround the 
islands of Southern 
California. It ranges 
up to 40olb. The 
largest ever taken with 
a rod weighed 3801b., 
and was caught by Mr. 
T. S. Manning, of 
Philadelphia, in 1899. 
This bass, which looks 
as a black bass might 
if it were 5ft. long, is 
taken in smooth water 
30ft. or 40ft. deep, 
within 50ft. of the 
shore. One of these 
monsters was hooked 
and caught by Mrs. 
Henry de Long, of 
San Jose, California. 
She had been told 
that it was impossible 
for a woman to take 
one, but she an- 
nounced one day 
her determination to do so — not with a 
rod, but with a hand-line. With her husband 
and a boatman she went to the location 
called the Fence, which is at the back of 
Avalon and famous for its large fish. The 
bait used was half of a barracuda, lowered 
to within 3ft. of the bottom and supported by a 
cork float. It had not been in the kelp long 
before the float began to bob up and down and 
then disappeared. The angler allowed loft. of 
line to slip away, and then struck what was 
probably the largest fish ever successfully played 




From a Photo, iy Siuenson. 

by a woman. As she hooked the fish the boat- 
man cast off the anchor, and the boat moved 
away behind the fish, which turned directly sea- 
ward, making for a bed of kelp about half a 
mile off shore. By taking a turn around the 
bow she was able to hold the line during a 
number of rushes which certainly tested her 
powers of endurance. 

The fish towed the boat nearly a mile before 
it was stopped, and then it became a struggle to 
the end. But the lady won, bringing the bass 
to the surface, where, as it circled the boat, the 
gaffer slipped his hook beneath it and held it as 
the fish beat the water into foam and deluged 
the occupants of the boat with spray. The 
catch was too large to be taken into the boat, 
so it was fastened behind and towed into 
Avalon Bay, where the angler received an 

The game yellowtail, which ranges from 
T5lb. to 4olb.,' as a rule affords fine and 
exciting sport for lady anglers, many of whom 
have made records. The yellowtail season 
usually begins in April, but May, June, July, 
August, and November are the best months. 
The yellowtail is essentially a fighter ; the reel 
screams loudly as he strikes, and few women have 
landed one with a rod under twenty minutes, the 
fish fighting until it is safely in the boat. The 
writer has seen one spring from a barrel after it 
had been landed ten minutes. A number of 
ladies distinguished themselves in taking yellow- 
tails during the before-mentioned tournament. 
For example, Mrs. John Odell, of Chicago, 

brought to gaff a twenty- 
pounder in eleven 
minutes. Mrs. Alexander 
Dick, of Wilkesbarre, 
captured a 5 5/^ lb. white 
sea-bass ; Mrs. R. C. 
Porter, of Pittsburg, Pa., 
a 1 7 ^Ib. yellowtail ; and 
Mrs. F. V. Rider, of 
Pasadena, landed an i81b. 
yellowtail. All these 
were taken with rod or 
reel, and without assist- 
ance. Mrs. T. S. Man- 
ning, of Sierra Madre, 
took a 1 61b. fish ; Mrs. 
R. J. Dyas, St. Louis, 
one of lylb. ; Mrs. R. A. 
Eddy, of San Francisco, 
two fish — i61b. and 2olb. 
On the last day of the 
tournament ]\Irs. Man- 
ning and Mrs. Rider 


From a Photo, by Sivenson. 



caught with light rods twenty-two 
yellowtails, averaging ijlb. 
Each fish was reeled to the 
boatman's gaft' without aid. l"he 

a prize 


to Mrs. 

the fish 

Tuna Club had offered 
for the largest yellowtai 
bv a ladv, and this fell 
H. M. Hoyt, of Seattle, 
weighing 31121b. 

The latest triumph, however, 
fell to the rod of skilful Miss 
Olive Belle Clark, who is shown 
in the photograph with the superb 
tuna of iiSlb., which she killed 
on June 9th last in ten minutes 
under the hour. Just think of 
ladies being able to vanquish such 
monsters ! 

Up to last year it has never 
been deemed possible for a woman 
to take a leaping tuna ; but it is 
the impossible that often happens, 
and during the tournament of the 
Tuna Club of 1900 three ladies 
took these fish according to the 
rules of the club. Mrs. J. C 
Connor, of Colorado Springs, 
caught one weighing 11 61b. ; Mrs. 
James Gardner one of 
1301b.; and Miss Olive 
Belle Clark, of Los 
Angeles, one of iiSlb., 
the last being played 
for fifty minutes. A 
photograph of IMiss 
Clark is shown here- 
with, with the sturdy 
tuna. Doubtless the 
catches will long 
remain unique in 
the annals of fish- 
ing. All these ladies 
played their fish with 
great skill, for all were 
practised anglers. The 
scene as they were 
taking the fish in was 
extremely exciting, and 
they were surrounded 
by small boats and 


From a Photo, by S'wcnson. 

launches, which kept 
well off, to give them 
opportunity to play the 
fish. When the fish 
were finally brought to 
gaff the cheers were 
loud and hearty, and 
the fair anglers were 
given a rousing wel- 
come by the Tuna 
Club members and the 
anglers of Avalon, who 
crowded the beach to 
see the monsters 
brought in and weighed 
by the judges of the 


From a Photo, bv Swenson. 

The Story of Gomez Gonsalves. 

By Mrs. C. E. Phillimore. 

This lady has lived many years in India, and she here relates for us an amusing and instructive episode 
of a too-perfect native servant whose master kindly appreciated him until the dramatic end came. The 
episode of the tombstone is well known in Bombay, as indeed are all the incidents of the narrative. 

OAIEZ, Gomez, look alive, boy, if 
you want a job ! " called out the 
European manager of Watson's 
Hotel, looking down over the 
veranda railings at a group of 

twenty or thirty " boys " — as they are called in 

India, although some of them were grey and 

wrinkled, and would 

never see forty -five 

again. Not exactly 

the age that we 

call men boys in 

England, but then 

things are managed 

differently in the 

" Coming, sahib, 

coming," Gomez 

answered, hastily, 

putting out a vile- 
smelling cigarette 

that he was smok- 
ing, and giving his 

iwhite short jacket 

a pull here and 

'there and generally 

straightening him- 
self up as he hurried 

to answer the im- 
perative summons. 

Of course he wanted 

work, like all the 

rest of the servants 

waiting there for 

English sahibs ; and 

as they waited they 

lounged, gossiped, 

and smoked on the 

pavement under the 

cool shelter of the 

hotel verandas, out 

of the blinding sun- 
shine and great heat. 

But what Gomez 

wanted (like the 


rest of his fellows) was "a Europe sahib" ; he 
did no/ want one who knew the ways and doings 
of Goanese, Hindu, and Mohammedan butlers. 
Nothing of the sort; he wanted a sahib just 
out — new to the country — who would believe all 
that he (Gomez) told him ; approve of all that 
Gomez bought him ; and be totally ignorant 

of the peculiar 
manner in which 
Gomez could occa- 
sionally augment his 
monthly pay. He 
did not want a 
master who had 
" Forbes's Manual " 
at his finger ends ; 
whose temper, if 
not his liver, had 
suffered from the 
strain of a tropical 
climate, and who 
never listened to 
any excuse, or 
allowed constant 
deaths in his boy's 
family to affect his 

Gomez quickly 
appeared upstairs 
on the veranda, and 
made a profound 
salaam when he saw 
the ' gentleman who 
sought his services. 

The new - comer 
was standing talking 
affably to the busy 
hotel manager. 
Gomez rightly con- 
cluded that he had 
just landed, and had 
never been in India 
before ; and his con- 
clusions were per- 
fectly correct. 



'■ Here is a boy that may suit you, sir," the 
manager said. '' \"ou will find him a smart 
servant : only keep him u|) to his work. He 
knows a fair amount of English, so you will 
have no trouble with him." 

" Much obliged, I am sure," the gentleman 
replied ; " but what salary will he require ? 
And what other arrangements are usually 
made ? A\'ill you give me a little more in- 
formation, if you can spare a few moments?" 

*• Oh ! you can easily settle all that with him 
yourself," replied the manager, airily ; " he 
understands English. I am afraid I must be 
going to see after some new arrivals. Any- 
thing else that I can do for you, I shall be only 
too pleased, sir," and he hurried off downstairs 
to the entrance to meet a party of American 
tourists who were alighting from ticca-gharries, 
piled high with luggage and bundles of rugs, 
sticks, and umbrellas. " Really, new-comers 
are rather exasperating at times, requiring so 
much attention, particularly on a mail morning," 
thought the overworked hotel manager. " Surely 
to goodness he can engage his own boy ! " 

*'\\'hat salary do you require?" Mr. Ellison 
(as we shall call him, though it was not his 
name) commenced, a little nervously. 

" My pay forty-five rupees a month, sahib," 
was the glib reply. 

A mental calculation went on in Mr. Ellison's 
mind as to the equivalent of forty-five rupees in 
English money ; then he went on : " I suppose 
you have travelled before? I must have a boy 
accustomed to travelling, as I am going through 

" Me travel much, .sahib ; me know all through 
India as sahib says— all through country. See 
my chits, sahib. Me travelled with bara uncha 
sahibs, and got great characters if sahib 

A roll of dirty notes, showing much usage, was 
produced and handed to Mr. Ellison, who took 
them rather reluctantly, as if he feared microbes 
from their dirt and evil smell. However, he 
waded through them, and read of the extreme 
honesty, the splendid qualities, and great capa- 
bilities of the applicant. They were signed by 
Civil servants. Army men, and others, so must 
be well worth credence, not to mention several 
eloquent effusions from grateful globe-trotters. 
And to think that you could procure all this 
for forty-five rupees a month 1 It could not be 
called dear; in fact, it was cheap at the price. 
How fortunate to be suited without any further 
trouble '. What a saving of time to bring his 
references in his pocket. ' It really was a quick 
and effective way of supplying one's wants at a 
minimum of trouble. 

" Very well ; then I had better engage you," 

said Mr. Ellison. "When can you commence 
your duties?" 

"Abhi (now), sahib," assured Gomez. "Only 
take little time after tiffin when sahib sleep, but 
come back sharp. Just go and get clothes." 
For Gomez had made up his mind that it would 
be simply flying in the face of a kind Providence 
unless he at once took the good things that the 
gods had sent him. It was something to come 
across a sahib who did not demean himself by 
offering less pay than was asked, for Gomez 
knew by experience that a large proportion of 
even the " heaven-born " were not above that 

After one day's experience Mr. Ellison was 
satisfied that he had found a treasure, as he had 
never been so well served before in all his life. 
He had not a want or a desire that Gomez did 
not seem to anticipate; his valeting and table 
attendance were first-class. 

Mr. Ellison was a plain man, and had had a 
very frugal bringing up, being one of a large 
family in a Midland town ; and he had never 
been used either to luxuries or superfluities in 
his quiet, commonplace life. One day the firm 
he served wanted a traveller, and mentally 
scanning over their employes decided that out 
of them all Robert Ellison was far and away the 
best man for their purpose. He was an un- 
married man, which was decidedly in his favour. 
So that was how it came about that Robert 
Ellison landed in Bombay. 

He stayed on for two months, and transacted 
business profitably. Then, charmed as he was 
with the Presidency and the social life in its 
capital, he decided to start on a tour through 
the country. This decision was communicated 
to Gomez, and the order given to " pack up," 
which was met by the ready response, 
"Achchha (very good), sahib." But later in 
the day, seizing a favourable opportunity, Mr. 
Ellison was informed that before they could 
leave Bombay there must be a warm kit pro- 
cured for his humble servant, Gomez. The 
cold of the hill-tops, the snows of Simla, the 
chills of the wind-sw-ept plains, were a very 
different matter to the moist, hot, zephyr-like 
breezes of Bombay ; but, of course, the sahib, 
being a new sahib, did not understand. That 
was the custom of the country, however. 

Of all this Mr. Ellison was perfectly ignorant, 
but willing to be instructed ; and on the morrow 
a considerable portion of the day was employed 
in procuring warm clothes, boots, warm bedding, 
and other such-like comforts for their trip. 
\Vhat Gomez said was this, " Buy all in 
Bombay, sahib; up country very much more 
money ask. Bombay cheap." 

The gentleman was willing to do so, and 



yielded a ready acquiescence to his guide's 
superior knowledge. But Robert Ellison was, 
like Gilpin's spouse, possessed of a "frugal 
mind," and after Gomez's kit had been fully 
(very fully) bought, there were other items for 
himself — an ice-box, tififin basket, some leather 
trunks, sundry makes of spirit -kettles and 
lamps for providing tea and hot water in 
the train and dak-bungalows ; ugly but very 
expensive helmets, sun umbrellas to ward off 
sunstroke, white dinner suits supplemented by 
silk cummerbunds in startling hues, which he 
might or might not want on his tour, but which 
Gomez impressed on him were " de rigor." 

important. During all this time Gomez had 
lived up to his reputation, and Mr. Ellison grew 
sincerely attached to him, and felt quite grateful 
to him for the care and skill he manifested in 
his service. 

One morning in Delhi he had occasion to 
appreciate and be thankful for such loyalty. 
He had risen, and was lazily lounging in a 
long chair" until Gomez brought his chota- 
haziri (little breakfast), when the paragon 
burst into his room, dragging a sweeper 
whom he had captured red-handed with a 
pair of gold studs belonging to Mr. Ellison 
in his possession. The previous day, when 


The master presently began to count up what 
he had expended, and found it far beyond his 

He therefore informed the faithful boy firmly 
that nothing more must be bought. 

"Just as sahib wishes," was the dutiful 

Next day they started from the Victoria 
Terminus, and were fairly off on their journey. 
From town to town they travelled, sometimes 
only staying a couple of days in a place ; occa- 
sionally a week or two if the city were large and 

Vol. vi.— 18. 

dressing for dinner, both master and servant 
had spent quite half an hour hunting for these 
studs, and they were not to be found. That 
morning Gomez, tired of waiting for his master's 
tray, went to the cook-house to hasten matters, 
and actually found the sweeper with the studs 
in his hands, showing them to a fellow-servant, 
Gomez, horrified at such bare - faced theft, 
seized him, studs and all, and being a much 
bigger, stronger man (because a well-fed one), 
he dragged him into his master's room for the 
sahib to see his wickedness with his own eyes. 



This was Gomez's account ; possibly the 
sweepers would have been very difterent could 
the Englishman have only understood what his 
version was. But, of course, he could not. The 
sahib was from over the " black water," and did 
not understand Hindustani, let alone Mahratta ; 
so he believed Gomez's account entirely, which 
made it bad for the sweeper. The accused 
shook, shivered, and wept copiously, begging to 
be heard, but he could not get in a word, so 
fluent was Gomez's righteous indignation with 
his glib Hindustani and broken English, In 
fact, he had scarcely any breath left to answer 
his master's questions, being so busily engaged 
holding on to the culprit and abusing the 
latter's female relations for some generations 
back. Just then the hotel-keeper appeared, 
anxious to know what all the scuffling was 
about. Gomez began to explain, but the hotel- 
keeper was not a " grififin," seeing that he first 
saw the light of day in India ; consequently, he 
peremptorily checked him with " Chup raho " 
(be silent), and inquired of j\Ir. Ellison what 
was the matter. 

That gentleman told him all he knew— which 
was what Gomez had told him ; but that vigilant 
servant still held the condemning proofs, the 
gold studs. These were shown, proving posi- 
tively the sweeper's guilt. Things began to look 
very black indeed against Mohammed Ali. 

" Send for the police, and give him into 
custody," was the hotel-keeper's advice. 

On hearing this poor Mohammed Ali redoubled 
his sobs and protestations, and wildly clasping 
his hands begged for mercy. Mr. Ellison's 
heart was a very tender one, and spite of his 
misdeeds he was touched by the man's abject 

"What does he say?" he asked, feeling very 

Gomez was about to reply or interpret when 
again he was stopped by the angry " Chup raho " 
of the hotel-keeper. 

" He says, sir, that he is a poor man — a very 
poor man with a large family, and he begs that 
your honour will not prosecute him." 

The sweeper hefe interrupted with some 
forcible assertion, which, of course, was unintel- 
ligible to Mr. Ellison. 

" What does the man say ? " he again 

" He says, sir, that he did not take them — 
never saw them ; but that he found the studs 
secreted in his pugaree, when he took it off the 
window-sill to put it on. To use his own 
expression, 'he swears by the holy beard of the 
Prophet ' that he never put them there." 

" Do you think he did ? " 

" I really cannot say, sir. Most natives will 

thieve if they have the chance ; though I must 
say I have had him for six or seven years, and 
this is the first time I have heard him accused. 
He may or may not have taken them. In a big 
place like this, with so many strange servants 
about, it is impossible to say who is the real 

" But Gomez found him with them in his 
hand showing them to a fellow-servant." 

Another wild burst of unintelligible words, 
and wilder sobs from Mohammed Ali, the 

" That does not prove, sir, that it was he 
who stole them from your room, after all," said 
the innkeeper. 

" Well, we will give him the benefit of the 
doubt," decided Mr. Ellison, tired of the whole 
affair and wishful to be left in peace. 

The hotel-keeper, before leaving the room, 
remarked to Gomez, in anything but a con- 
ciliatory tone : — 

" Look after your master's things, and keep 
them locked up, especially such belongings as 
jewellery; then they w'ill be safe." Then Gomez, 
indignant at being so summarily told to " chup 
raho" by the proprietor, Hew about clearing 
up and packing away every available article. 
Mr. Ellison was very pleased at recovering his 
studs, as he particularly valued them. They had 
been a present to him from the senior partner 
of his firm, and to soothe Gomez's feelings, and 
reward his zeal, Mr. Ellison presented him then 
and there with a twenty-rupee note. 

Next day they resumed their journey, but on 
packing up bet'ore leaving several other small 
things were missing. Gomez wished to summon 
the hotel-keeper, get a search warrant, and have 
a thorough hunt for them; but his master was 
eminently a man of peace, and after the babel of 
tongues and wild exclamations, the maddening, 
bewildering din of yesterday, and the sulkiness 
of Gomez (to put it mildly), even after the gift 
of the twenty-rupee note, because his sahib 
refused to prosecute, and the hotel-keeper's 
scarcely concealed annoyance at the occurrence 
— these things determined Mr. Ellison. He 
would not listen to such warlike advice. 

A gold pencil-case was missing ; also a ring, 
and one or two such things. Despite the 
faithful servant's protests his master went off, 
leaving the missing articles to their fate. Strange 
things are done in India. 

That day Gomez felt very injured. He had 
his trials like the rest of us. It would have 
added so much to his own importance had but 
his sahib been a commissioner, a judge, or even 
a colonel. Some military men were staying at 
the hotel. Their servants were not drawing 
half the pay that he enjoyed, and were doing 



double the work ; but they jeered at him 
because his sahib was only a pate-walla (box- 
man) ; whereas their sahibs were bara sahibs 
(great gentlemen). And did they not wear a 
silver crest, their Huzoor's in their pugarees ? 
Altogether, master and servant were not sorry to 
go northward and bid Delhi good-bye. 

Mr. Ellison was a commercial man, but he 
had taste, and a great admiration for things with 
which people did not always credit him. He 
had day-dreams at forty-two of a nice home of 
his own in the suburbs ; 
and he had imagination 
enough to picture what 
he would like such a home 
to be. So he bought brass 
ware at Benares, inlaid 
copper articles at Delhi, 
lovely needlework in silver 

sides by the big firms. He was invited out to 
clubs, tiffins, Sunday breakfasts, and endless 
dinners ; consequently, all the packing had to 
be left to Gomez. He often told his friends 
how fortunate he was to have such a valuable 
servant. His purchases were all sent off to 
Bombay to await his coming, packed in neat 
w^ood cases, and all he had to do was to write 
the directions, as writing English was not one 
of Gomez's qualifications. 

He was leaving Calcutta for Bombay in a 


and gold tracery at Agra, and more and more 
beautiful art work, until he had a fine collection 
to take home with him. 

After six months' continual travelling he was 
glad to reach Calcutta. Gomez still remained 
— from sea-washed Bombay to the stately man- 
sions of Chowringhee, the perfect ideal of a 
good servant. He saved his master endless 
rupees in all sorts of ways, made bundobusts 
(bargains) for him, and prevented everyone 
cheating him. 

Business was good in Calcutta, and Mr. 
Ellison found himself royally treated on all 

few days, when one morning Gomez complained 
of feeling ill. It would not be true to say that 
he looked pale and ghastly, but it would be true 
to say that that he was of a greenish hue. 

"Dear me! dear me!" exclaimed Mr. 
Ellison ; " I will send for a doctor, and let him 
prescribe for you." 

" No, no, sahib ; you dress, then me go and 
see good Portuguese doctor. Him do me great 

So it was settled. But when Mr. Ellison 
returned, between two and three in the after- 
noon, Gomez was decidedly worse, and the 



kind-hearted man insisted on having a European 
doctor at once, which was done. The doctor 
arrived, examined the patient in Mr. EUison's 
room, and said that he was suffering from a very 
bid attack of cholera. He advised sending the 
man to the hospital at once, and warned Mr. 
Ellison of the danger of infection. He also told 
him to be most careful. Then he took his fee 
and departed, expecting that his sensible advice 
would be inimediatelv acted upon. But Mr. 
Ellison held very peculiar views of his own. He 
had had a slight touch of the ordinary country 
fever in a dak-bungalow whilst on their journey, 
and Gomez had waited on him well, and nothing 
could erase the illusion from his mind that the 
devoted Goanese had saved his life — although 
the railway practitioner who had attended him 
would have been very surprised to hear that his 
life had ever been in any danger. That was 
what he would have said, but not what Mr. 
Ellison thought ; and being inexperienced he 
did not understand the wide difference between a 
slight attack of country fever and a malignant 
cholera seizure, (iomez begged not to be sent 
to the hospital, and to the hospital Mr. Ellison 
was determined he should not go. 

Often your very quiet, unobtrusive man can 
be very obstinate. It was so in this case. He 
ordered a second bedstead to be brought into 
his room, and made up his mind to nurse 
Gomez as Gomez had nursed him. The pro- 
prietor warned him that all bedding must be 
destroyed after being used by a cholera patient, 
and that all such expenses must be borne by 
him. He was informed that his bill would be 
paid. Gomez was put to bed ; the doctor was 
again sent for, and Mr. Ellison prepared to 
watch all night by his bedside. The doctor 
was too surprised for words when he saw the 
state of affairs, but prescribed again for the 
Goanese, and once more warned the Englishman 
of the great risk he was running. 

Meeting the proprietor on the stairs as he 
descended, the doctor remarked: — 

" Peculiar gentleman in No. 95, Mr. Archer. 
He m.ay think himself lucky if he escapes 
cholera. However, he will not listen to my 
advice. I suppose he is new to the country." 

" He must be mad— mad as a hatter," 
exclaimed the proprietor, " to treat any nigsrer 
like that." ^ 

" What : is he a missionary ? " asked the 
doctor, smiling. 

" No, sir, he is a commercial gent." 

" The Goanese will not last until to-morrow. 
He is certainly very bad. Poor fellow, it is 
only a question of hours so far as he is con- 
cerned.'' And the doctor passed out. 

The prophecy was correct. Before midnight 

the Goanese began to sink. Rousing himself 
with the little strength left him, two hours 
before he died, he clasped his arms around 
Mr. Ellison's knees, and entreated "the 
cherisher of the poor, the achha sahib," to go to 
a certain chawl in Bombay, a part that Mr. 
Ellison did not know, get his boxes, and for- 
ward them to his wife in Goa by the next 
steamer. He knew that he was very bad — ■ 
dying ; he was sure now he should die. He 
should never go back ; but would the sahib as a 
last favour do this for him ? 

The sahib promised, and, had Gomez asked 
it, he would have promised to have done far 
greater things for the dying man. Mr. Ellison 
wrote down both the Bombay and Goa addresses 
carefully, and the sufferer was satisfied. 

Before the dawn broke Mr. Ellison was 

" Poor Gomez," he said, " he has been a 
faithful, honest boy to me, and I feel almost as 
though I had lost someone belonging to me. 
I will have him buried decently, like a Christian." 

He knew that Gomez always attended (or said 
he did) the Roman Catholic Church for early 
mass on a Sunday morning, dressed in an irre- 
proachable black suit, white starched shirt-front, 
and white cuffs, showing at least two inches 
below his coat-sleeves. He also wore a felt 
hat, and carried a walking-stick with a silver 

He made the necessary funeral arrangements, 
followed the corpse to its last resting-place, in 
as deep mourning as he would have worn for his 
own brother, and everything was done well and 
in due order. Fortunately he did not take the 
disease, but he had a stiff bill to pay at the 
hotel. He did not begrudge that, however, for 
Robert Ellison was not a man to do things by 

His next visit was to the stonemason, whom 
he instructed to place a stone immediately to 
mark the spot where he had had the faithful 
boy laid. He wrote the inscription himself 
It was — - 

Sacred to the memory of 

Gomez Gonsalves, the Honest Boy, 

who died December 3rd, 1886. 

This stone is erected by his sorrowing Master and l^'riend, 

Robert Ellison. 

The monumental sculptor, seeing this was a 
case of " pay on delivery," bestirred himself, put 
down the stone, took his bill to the hotel, and 
Mr. Ellison paid it. A week later he left for 
Bombay. Before going, however, he found 
time to drive to the cemetery and see that his 
instructions had been carried out ; he also left 
some flowers on the grave. 

" How can people mistrust and disbelieve 
native servants so, I cannot imagine. It is 



beyond me," thought the kind man as he left 
the grave-side. 

Back in Bombay he met different acquaint- 
ances and told his tale, which was received with 
different degrees of sympathy. He was very 
busy, and it was quite a fortnight before he 
found time to fulfil Gomez's last request. One 
day he started, but was a long time finding that 
particular chawl. The gharry walla either could 
not or would not help him in his search, and 
only drove aimlessly about. However, he 
succeeded in finding the place, and asked for 
the tenant of 
the house. It 
was, well — a 
sort of Goa- 
nese boarding- 
house and club 
The members 
paid a few 
annas a month 
when they 
were in em- 
ployment, and 
then, if out of 
work, they 
could rely on 
being provided 
with a home 
until they were 
once more 
earning. All 
and Goanese 
subscribe to 
such clubs; 
they are the 
most indepen- 
dent of all the 
native workers, 
and command 
the best pay 
in the labour 

Mr. Ellison 
explained the 
object of his 
visit, and asked 

that the boxes might be produced, so that he 
could forward them to their destination before 
leaving for England. 

To his surprise the Portuguese in charge of 
the place refused to give them up. Mr. Ellison 
began to get ruffled. He reasoned, persuaded, 
and threatened, but all in vain. 

"I will call in the police," he declared. 

" All right, sahib," the man insolently replied. 

:''^** ■ 


'gave a sudden gasf as he recognised a silver-worked tablecloth. 

That was more than even Mr. Ellison could 
stand. He left the house, got into the gharry, 
and told the gharry walla to drive to the nearest 
police-station. Securing the services of a robust- 
looking chaukida (policeman), he returned to 
the Goanese lodging-house, and again demanded 
the boxes. He was again refused. Then the 
man of law intervened, and ordered the boxes 
to be given" up immediately. Very unwillingly 
the Portuguese obeyed, but sullenly stipulated 
that the boxes should be opened so that the 
English sahib might identify the contents. 

After some 
more parleying 
mainly be- 
tween the Por- 
tuguese and 
the chaukida 
in their own 
language, ac- 
companied by 
fierce looks on 
both sides, the 
quired of 
gentleman : — 
"You can 
easily recog- 
nise your ser- 
vant's clothes ? 
It is not likely 
that he will 
have much 
else in them." 
" Yes, cer- 
tainly," Mr. 
Ellison as- 
sented ; " I 
know the warm 
clothes be- 
cause I paid 
for them, but 
I am dubious 
about white 
raiment, as it 
is all so much 
alike in this 

"Oh! there 
need not be 
much trouble about that. He's a lucky naukar 
(servant) to have so many clothes," the chaukidar 
remarked, as he saw the boxes, their size— and 
actually he had three of them. 

Wisely, Mr. Ellison had requested that the 
police official who accompanied him on his 
charitable errand might speak English. 
The boxes were opened. 
Mr. Ellison gave a sudden gasp, then uttered 



an ejaculation of intense surprise as he recog- 
nised a silver-worked tablecloth that he had paid 
seventy-five rupees for in Agra, and meant taking 
home to his mother as a present. Ne.xt came 
some of his own white flannel suits, which a 
dhobv (washer man) had " lost " in Allahabad, 
and for which the unfortunate man had been 
fined five rupees for losing. At least, this was 
what Gomez had said, and, of course, Mr. Elli- 
son had firmly believed it. Recognising the 
suits, he saw again the poor dhoby's sorrowful 
face, and helpless but vindictive maledictions as 
he was driven off the veranda by that faithful 
Gomez. Next appeared the gold pencil-case, 
ring, etc., "lost" at Delhi, and for the recovery 
of which he had refused so positively to procure 
a search warrant. Then came a diamond ring of 
considerable value which he had left carelessly 
on a dressing table in a railway station waiting- 
room. He had snatched a hasty dinner, but 
missed it before he had finished and had gone 
to recover it at once, but found it gone. On 
acquainting Gomez with his loss an unsuccessful 
search was vigorously prosecuted until his train 
would wait no longer for him, and, annoyed at 
his own carelessness, he tried to forget all about 
it. These and quantities more of his purchases 
he found, which he expected were safely packed 
away in readiness for his return to England. He 
was almost too astonished to explain to the 
chaukidar that these things were all his property. 

" Loot," remarked the chaukidar, with a grin 
that he could not repress. "Man dead, you said, 
sir, so we cannot arrest him." 

The last box contained a great many rupees 
tied up in rags and dirty handkerchiefs. 

" His wages," suggested Mr. Ellison, although 
he remembered at different times filling in 
postal orders to be sent to Gomez's v.ife and 

" What pay did he get ? " inquired the 

" Forty-five rupees a month." 

On counting up the treasure - trove, how- 
ever, had Gomez had ninety rupees a month 
and not contributed to the support of Mrs. 
Gonsalves and the little Gonsalves in Goa — 

still, it would not have amounted to these 

" Backsheesh, sir," remarked the chaukidar, 
thinking how he should not have minded having 
had Gomez's place. 

The chaukidar received a five-rupee note for 
his trouble, but it would have been ten had he 
been wise enough to restrain his grins of amuse- 
ment over the box episode. Ellison returned 
to his hotel a very much more enlightened man 
than he had left it. He had gained a wonder- 
ful insight into the native character in those 
few hours, as well as regaining much valuable 

Back at the hotel he took pen and paper and 
wrote by that night's mail to Calcutta to Pereira 
and Co., monumental 'masons, Calcutta. It was 
short, but to the purpose : — 

"Dear Sirs, — Please remove at once the 
tombstone you put up to Gomez Gonsalves at 
my direction. I have found out that he was 
one of the biggest rogues that ever lived. Have 
it removed immediately and wire me that you 
have done so.— Yours truly, Robert Ellison." 

The firm of Pereira and Co. really consisted 
of one somewhat harassed-looking Portuguese, 
and, after reading the letter, he remarked to his 
son, a boy of sixteen, who assisted him : — ■ 

"Those English travellers must be behoshs 
(fools). He paid me for putting it down, but 
he did not pay me to take it up again. All 
naukars (servants) are rogues if they have the 
chance. He should have looked after him. I 
shall wire him." 

He did so, wiring : — 

" ^Vill you pay expenses of removal ? " 

Mr. Ellison was a mild, equable-tempered 
man, as it is good to be under a torrid zone, 
but the days since Gomez's departure to a better 
land had tried him sorely, so he replied: — 

" Certainly ; wire amount. Reply prepaid." 

That Mr. Pereira was most happy to do, and 
needless to say the sum was telegraphed him at 
once, and then his reply arrived, saying : — 

" I have removed the stone, and what am I 
to do with it?" 

He is still awaiting instructions. 

Where Dogs are Used as Policemen. 

By T- E. Whitby. 

Showing how in the town of Ghent, in Belgium, dogs have been trained to act as policemen, and 
have their regular beats night by night. They have been of the greatest assistance in the pre- 
vention of crime. This artic'e was specially prepared for " The Wide World Magazine," and 
abounds in curious facts, such as the training of the dogs by means of dummy criminals. 

OST people know how prominent a 
part is played by the dog in Bel- 
gium, where he acts as the poor 
| gp^^^ man's horse. By ones, by twos, by 
[ TTiifflr ^1 j-i-jj-ggg^ ^^(j l-,y fours dogs may be 

seen drawing the milk-carts, hauling the vege- 
tables, bringing home the washing — doing any- 
thing and everything, in fact, 
that in other countries falls 
to the lot of the horse or 
donkey. What is more, the 
dog even takes his owner for 
an airing, and what stands in 
Belgium for 'the little don- 
key shay " of Whitechapel or 
the classic Old Kent Road 
is drawn by a team of dogs, 
who move along at a great 
pace, and who generally seem 
happy, willing, and well 

But the Belgian dog has 
not stopped here. He is an 
ambitious creature. He is 
not content to do naught but 
slave. He has, in fact, aspired 
to the law with such good 
effect that he has become 
one of its limbs, and now 
plays the part of policeman, 
and with such good results 
too that crime in the particu- 
lar districts patrolled by him 
is said to have diminished 
by two-thirds since his entry 
into the force ! 

It is at Ghent that the dog 
has become a recognised 
member of the regular town 
constabulary. His introduc- 
tion was the outcome of a 
particulady happy thought of Monsieur van 
Wesemail, Chief Commissioner of Police there, 
who has trained his dogs to a very high pitch of 
efficiency, and who was kind enough to afford a 
representative of The Wide World every help 
in the way of acquiring information about his 
especial hobby and original idea. 

Ghent, it must be explained, is not only pierced 
by canals, but is surrounded by rich farm-houses 
and lands, as well as by luxuriant market and 
horticultural gardens. It is indeed known as a 

" city of flowers," and a great trade is done in 
bulbs. The dock loafers and the stranger " ne'er- 
do-weels " that shipping always brings in its 
train are tempted to innumerable thefts ; while 
the extent of the gardens and fields and the 
isolation of some of the farms make it extremely 
difficult for the authorities to cope with them 
single-handed. Besides this, 
solitary policemen were often 
attacked, and assault and 
battery ended not infre- 
quently in murder. In the 
hope of checking robbery 
and preventing crime M. 
van Wesemail obtained the 
permission of the burgomaster 
to institute a service of dogs. 
The commissioner has most 
carefully arranged every detail 
of their training, which is 
entirely done by kindness ; 
and it is satisfactory to know 
that any human member of 
the force striking a dog 
would be liable to instant 

The dogs are taught by 
means of dummy figures 
made up as much as possible 
to represent the thieves and 
dangerous characters they 
may be likely to meet. How 
much patience is needed by 
him who undertakes this par- 
ticular form of education only 
those who have tried to train 
animals will properly appre- 
ciate. The dog must be 
taught to seek, to attack, 
to seize, and to hold, ditf 
ivithotit hurting seriously I 
The first step is to place the dummy in such a 
position that it shall represent a man endeavour- 
ing to conceal himself. The dog soon under- 
stands that it is an enemy whom he must hunt, 
and enters into this part of his lesson con amore, 
but it is not so easy to teach him not to injure 
it. The teacher lowers the figure to the ground, 
and the dog soon understands that, though he 
may not worry his prey, he must not allow his 
fallen foe to' stir even so much as a finger until 
the order is given. 


From a Photo, by E. Sacre. 



After the dummy 
a living model is 
used, and as this 
process is obviously 
not entirely without 
danger, the person 
chosen for the pur- 
pose is usually the 
one who ministers 
to the pupil's crea- 
ture comforts, and 
for whom the canine 
detective is sure to 
entertain a grateful 
affection. Neverthe- 
less, he is prevented 
at first, by means of 
a muzzle, from an 
exhibition of too 
much zeal. After- 
wards the experi- 
ment is tried on 
other members of 
the force, and in 
four months the 
dog's education as a 

policeman is considered complete, and he takes 
his place with the rest. The animals are also 
taught to swim, and to seize their quarry in the 
water : to save life from drowning ; to scale steep 
walls, and to overcome all obstacles, so that any 
enterprising burglar who goes a-burgling in Ghent 

Ml- L AM:.i r> .i.iLi ' 
j'yojii a I'hoto. 

has a lively time of 
it if he meets with 
one of these four- 
fooled " bobbies." 

There are at pre- 
sent in this old town 
sixteen of these ac- 
complished animals. 
They all belong to 
the sheep-dog breed, 
but besides Belgian 
there are also Rus- 
sian and De la Brie 
dogs. During the 
day they take their 
well-earned rest in 
comfortable loose 
boxes in the garden 
attached to the head 
station of the police. 
But at ten o'clock 
their duties begin, 
and scarcely has the 
hour chimed from 
the old belfry above 
their heads than 
they set up a deafening chorus of barks as if 
to show their eagerness to get to work. They 
are on duty till six next morning, and do not 
seem at all fatigued by their long hours. 
Those who know how thoroughly a dog enters 
into sport of all kinds will quite appreciate the 

by M. LcJcLrzirc. 

From a Photo. hy\ 


[.!/. Ufehvrc. 



J-roiii a J'koto. l<y\ 

WHERE the; eouk-legoeu policemen kesiue. 

[.I/. Lejdn'rt-. 

every way, and tlieir 
private medical man, the 
town " vet," calls fre- 
quently to inquire after 
their health. Each dog 
accompanies a policeman 
on his nightly rounds, and 
walks the regular beat 
with him. The dog is not 
only very fond of his own 
particular comrade, but 
evinces a wonderful pro- 
fessional esprit de corps. 

The night's work begins 
with a tour round the out- 
lying farms, to make sure 
that nothing unusual is 
taking any one of the 
household out at un- 
wonted hours. This 
finished (and it would 
seem to prove a certain 
restraint on " nights out ") 

intense enjoyment the animal feels in this 
new profession. 

They are well fed on soup, meat, rice, and 
bread, the last-named being the best Kneipp 
bread ; and they have a hearty meal twice a 
day, as well as a biscuit and a slice of bread 
before starting on their nightly expedition. 

Moreover, they wear a uniform consisting 
of a leather collar strongly bound with steel, 
and armed with sharp points to repel those 
attacks which might be expected from the 
enemies of law and order. From this hangs 
a medal which bears the dog's name and 
address, with his date of birth. Should the 
intelligent creature be lost or detained this 
visiting-card would serve as a means of 
identification. In place of a helmet this 
very original constable wears a muzzle, 
made of wires so closely set together that, 
while it allows him to drink, he cannot eat. 
This is a prudent measure to prevent his 
being tempted and poisoned. It is fairly 
loose, this muzzle, and is partly attached by 
an elastic band, which allows it to be in- 
stantly snatched off the head. Just as the 
policeman has his mackintosh cape for bad 
weather, so has his four-footed helper, and a 
neat, serviceable little brown waterproof coat 
is ready for him on stormy nights. The 
various muzzles, chains, coats, and collars 
all hang neatly on pegs beneath the names of 
the wearers, and the photograph on the next 
page shows a portion of their dressing-room, 
and the kind madame who is their admiring 
waiting-maid They are well looked after in 

Vol. vi.-19 

"colleagues"— HEKE IS AN OVEK-ZEALOUS 

FroiJi a Photo. l<y] who had to he muzzl 



[M. Lefeln'rc- 



the latter flies off for help, 
travelhng over the ground far 
t[uicker than any heavily- 
)ooted, thickly-clad constable 
can possibly do. 

The dogs work so well and 
so conscientiously that their 
number is to be increased, 
and there is every proba- 
bility that the plan will be 
adopted in other centres. 
Their keep comes to about 
3d. per day, and they cost 
the town altogether about 
1,500 francs per annum, in- 
cluding their doctor's and 
tailor's bill. 

Monsieur van Wesemail 
may certainly be congratu- 
lated on an original idea well 
and ably carried out to a 
completely successful issue. 


From a Photo, by M. Lefebvre. 

the dog is released from the con- 
fining leash, and proceeds to roam 
at large, though he never goes 
much more than 150ft. from his 
master. He searches everywhere, 
exploring every dark corner for 
doubtful characters, and with that 
innate knowledge which makes a 
dog hate a beggar or a tramp he 
seldom makes a mistake. At the 
first glimpse of anything sus- 
picious he barks loudly, warning 
his companion, who has thus time 
to prepare for trouble and come 
to his assistance. These educated 
dog-detectives are an immense 
aid to the police, as well as a 
protection, for should there be 
more ruffians in a party than man 
and dog can manacle comfortably 


From a Photo. I'y M. Lefebvre. 

The Runaway Ferry=Boat. 

By J. E. Mc Kinney, of Newton, Iowa. 

The scene is an Indian Agency on the Columbia River. The official interpreter of the Agency, 
with his wife, the post surgeon and his servant, and the agent's little son, attempted to cross 
the swollen river in a cable ferry-boat near a place where the Columbia fairly races through a 
wild gorge. The boat was suddenly struck by a floating tree, and began racing down to what looked 
like certain destruction. The following tells how its occupants were rescued. 

NE day in July, 1896, Pete Pierre, 
a French-Canadian half-breed, who 
lived in the northern part of the 
Colville Indian Reservation, in the 
State of Washington, hitched up a 
pair of cayuses to a light spring waggon, and 
started down the Columbia River Valley on his 
bi-monthly pilgrimage to the Agency located at 
the confluence of the Spokane and Columbia 
rivers. He was an Indian policeman, and 
made these periodical trips for the purpose of 
making his reports, getting new instructions, 
and receiving the pay and rations allowed him 
by virtue of his office. By previous arrange- 
ment I met him at Marcus, and on this 
particular trip accompanied him. 

I found him very sociable and well versed in 
the ways of life in that country, and a man of 
no ■ little intelligence, as he spoke fluently 
English, French, and Spanish, besides several 
Indian dialects and the Chinook jargon. 

Our way lay down the left bank of the 
Columbia River the greater part of the distance, 
and the scenery w-as ever varying and full of 
interest. On the evening of the third day we 
camped within three miles of the Agency. After 
a hearty supper Pete proposed that we go over 
to a cabin to be seen off the trail a little way, 
and visit a friend of his who lived there, 
Antoine Marchand by name. 

Accordingly off we went, and were pleasantly 
greeted by Antoine and his wife. Both were 
half-breeds, and they cheerfully extended to us 
the customary hospitalities. They had both 
been educated by the Sisters at the mission, 
and were keenly alive to the advantages of 
culture and refinement. He was official inter- 
preter for the Agency. 

After various subjects of conversation had 
been introduced and disposed of, Pete suddenly 
inquired if the cable ferry just below Fort 
Spokane was still in use. The wife, Adeline, 
quickly looked up at her husband, who answered, 
slowly, to the effect that it had been reinstated 
very recently. Seeing that for some reason the 
matter was not precisely pleasant, Pete politely 
turned to talking of something else. But they 

each seemed to have been started on a train of 
thought that was not easily broken. 

Speaking suddenly, the wife said, " Tell them 
about it, Antoine." 

The interpreter got up, then sat down, took 
a tentative pull at his pipe, shifted himself in 
his chair, looked appealingly at her, and said, 
" You tell it." 

As near as I can remember, she related what 
is substantially the following narrative : — ■ 

" Well, you see, we had quite an experience 
with that ferry about three weeks ago, and 
when we think how differently it might have 
ended we feel very thankful indeed, but Antoine 
doesn't like to tell about it." 

Her attention being called to something else 
at this moment, Pete explained to me that the 
ferry for some inexplicable reason had been 
located at the head of a gorge that extends 
from that point to the Columbia River, a dis- 
tance of about two miles. During the June 
" rise " the current is extremely swift and dan- 
gerous through the entire gorge. About half- 
way down is a ledge of rocks in the centre of 
the stream, where it is about one-eighth of a mile 
wide. Just below the rocks are swift rapids, 
and farther down is " Hell Gate " — a veritable 
maelstrom. The banks on each side are 
straight up and down, and range from 50ft. to 
1 00ft. in height. 

"We shouldn't have tried to cross during 
the high water, but Antoine heard the day 
before that his mother was sick, and we felt 
compelled to go to see her if possible. Neither 
of us ever felt safe on that ferry anyway. 

" We shouldn't have taken the baby, but would 
have left him with our neighbours, if we had 
not been afraid mother would have been dis- 
appointed, for she always thought so much of 
him — our little one. 

" We started early in the morning and arrived 
at the Agency at about seven o'clock. Antoine, 
after explaining matters, readily got the agent's 
consent for us to go, but he said he thought it 
would be rather dangerous crossing— more so 
than usual. But he fancied that, by being care- 
ful, we could get over all right. The river was 



running higher than it had been at any time 
this spring, and was bringing down a great many 
logs and trees. 

" U'hen we got down to the landing-place we 
found that the ferryman was unable to go witli 
the boat on account of rheumatism, but as 
Antoine had run the ferry the summer before 
we did not feel afraid to undertake crossing 
without the man." 

To readers who have never seen a cable ferry 
I might say that the kind of boat in use through- 
out that country for ferrying purposes is scow- 
built, from 25ft. to 1 00ft. long, and loft. to 20ft. 
wide, with a flat top with a railing around it. 
The boat is attached by guy-ropes to a pulley 
running on a wire cable from ^in. to lin. in 
diameter, which is stretched tautly across the river 
at some point where there is a good landing-place 
on each side and no return currents at the edge 
of the stream, and also where the anchorage can 
be made secure and yet placed high enough so 
that the cable always clears the water. The 
force of the current striking against the upper 
side of the boat, which is kept at an angle to 
the stream, drives the boat across. To return, 

guy-ropes fastened at each corner on the upper 
side of the boat. 

" Just as we were about to push away from 
the landing the post surgeon's Chinese cook 
appeared on the bank above us and asked us to 
wait a minute for the doctor, as he desired to 
cross over with us. The doctor soon arrived, 
and with him came young Harold, the agent's 
twelve-year-old son, whom his father had sud- 
denly found it necessary to send on some 
errand to the Army post. 

"As soon as all were on board the Chinaman 
gave the boat a quick push from shore with a 
long pole, Antoine went to the wheel, the 
current soon caught us, and we moved swiftly 
towards the other shore. 

" On getting a little more than half-way over 
Antoine having dodged, by skilful manage- 
ment, several floating logs and trees, we found 
that, for the remainder of the distance, our way 
appeared clear. But all at once, not four rods 
directly above us, a huge pine tree — top, roots, 
and all — shot half out of the swift-flowing water, 
and inmiediately bore down upon us. It had 
been taken under by some current some distance 


the angle of the boat is simply reversed ; the 
speed is regulated by changing the degree of 
the angle ; and to stop the boat at any point 
it is simply headed straight up-stream. This is 
all done by means of a wheel, which, when 
turned, alternately shortens or lengthens the 

above us and had approached unnoticed. That 
we were in great danger all of us saw at once. 

" Antoine gave the wheel a quick turn or two ; 
the current struck the boat with more force, 
and we shot ahead. The branches of the tree 
top just brushed the rear end of the boat, and 



we felt easier. But just then a cry from the 
shore behind us caused us to look that way, and 
we saw plainly that the cable was sagging down- 
stream. The sudden strain had been too much. 
In less time than it takes to tell it, the anchor 
on that side was pulled up, the cable dropped 
with a sivish into the water, and its weight hung 
on the upper side of the boat, threatening to 
swamp us. 

" But Antoine seized the axe they always 
keep near the wheel and cut loose the guy-ropes 
at one corner, and thus freed us from the cable. 

" We were now drifting down-stream in mid- 

through sheer fright. They struck out straight 
for the shore. When about one hundred yards 
from the boat one of them suddenly sank from 
sight. His mate became frantic, and half 
raising himself out of the water sank back, and 
was drawn under with the other. We soon 
rounded the bend above the rapids and realized 
that if anything was to be done it must be done 
quickly, for -if we were once fairly in the rapids 
there would be no hope for us. 

" Each of us eagerly scanned the cliffs on 
either side. They seemed to rise straight up 
from the water's edge ; so the men laid aside 

'we saw antoine cling to a branch and slowly drag himself ox shore. 

current at a rapid rate. The doctor, thinking of 
the oars, went to the lower side of the boat wheie 
they were usual'y kept for an emergency like 
this. But he found them— gone. 

"There was nothing we could do apparently, 
and we soon entered the gorge. The boat 
swung round first one way and then the other. 
For some reason the horses on board became 
unmanageable, and they seemed about to plunge 
over the railing at the end. Thinking that it 
would be safer for us, Antoine cut the harness 
loose from the waggon, the doctor dropped the 
rail, and they quickly jumped into the water 

their coats, vests, and shoes, and resolved to 
prepare for the worst. 

" When we were about three hundred yards 
above the rapids, and the current had swung us 
out a little nearer the north wall of the gorge, 
we noticed a break in the cliff a little farther 
down, where it looked as though a strong man 
might make a landing if he could manage to 
swim to it. Seizing the end of a coil of rope 
we luckily found in the boat Antoine tied it 
round his waist and plunged in. The doctor and 
the Chinaman took care that the rope should 
pay out without any hitches. For a httle while 



Aiitoine made good headway, tlien the rope 
ceased to be drawn out and he made no progress. 
" I knew that he was very Hable to be taken 
with the cramp, and my heart ahnost stood still ; 
but he kept struggling on and soon gained a little 
more, but it was terribly slow, and we were fast 
drifting down nearer in line with the little gulch. 
But we could see that the bottom of it came 
down to the water's edge. That gave us hope ; 
and, best of all, there were a few good - sized 
pine trees growing there. If Antoine could 
only reach it before the current could carry 
him past it would be an easy matter for him 
to make the rope fast to a tree, and we 
could soon have the other end fast to the 
boat, and if the rope were strong enough 
we would be safe. Antoine was now making 
good headway, too ; but just as I had realized 
all this, and when Antoine was within only a 
few yards of the mouth of the little gulch, and 
we were all intently watching him, we saw him 
stop and look towards us. The doctor gave a 
quick exclamation, cast towards me an appeal- 
ing look, and pointed to the rope which they had 
alreadv fastened to the corner of the boat. In 

the rope from his waist, put it round the 
tree, and tied it there. He had not realized 
what that sudden jerk he had felt in the rope 
had meant, but as he glanced our way and saw 
us floating on down-stream faster than ever, and 
the part of the rope near him lying limp on the 
ground, it came to him all at once. 

" For a minute he seemed dazed, then he 
started up wildly and appeared about to throw 
himself into the water again. But we called to 
him and waved him back. Then he turned, 
scrambled up the side of the gulch, and dis- 
appeared. But we soon saw him at the top of 
the cliff running along the edge calling to us. 
He had got almost even with the boat when he 
suddenly stopped and stood for half a minute, 
as though rooted to the ground ; then, pointing, 
he yelled out : — 

" ' Look ahead of you ! ' 

" Just below us at the head of the rapids, and 
right in our course, the top of that ledge of 
rocks projected above the water not more than 
six inches, and before we could take in this new 
situation the boat was driven straight on to the 
rock, end first With a heavy, grating noise that 


an instant I saw that the rope was too short. 
It would not reach. Before I knew what I 
was doing I dropped the baby, grabbed the axe, 
and cut the rope loose. Standing there we saw 
Antoine make a few desperate strokes, reach out 
his hand, cling to a low-hanging branch of one 
of the trees, and slowly drag himself on shore. 
Without looking around, he quickly removed 

end raised out of the water, while the other 
swung round, and there we were, fairly caught 
and held fast. 

" We saw at once that, if we could just stay 
there, there was still a chance of rescue, as some 
way would surely be found to get us off. The 
doctor had us all go to the upper end of the 
boat, and thus by our weight help to hold it to 



the rock. We were near enough to the shore 
to make out what Antoine said to us, but he 
had some difficulty in understanding us, as the 
wind (what there was) was against us. 

"After consulting as best we could it was 
decided that it would be well for Antoine to 
start back up the river, as he would be sure to 
meet someone coming down. The Indian 
who halloaed to us when the anchorage pulled 
up had bounded away to give the alarm. 

" He had not got beyond the little gulch 
when he met the agent and two or three 
Indians coming down at the top of their speed. 
He quickly explained the matter to them, and 
the Indians were sent back at once and told to 
bring down a light row-boat belonging to the 
ferryman, some coils of rope from the Agency 
store, and anything else that might be useful 
that was handy to get. 

" Antoine, accompanied by the agent, returned 
to the top of the cliff opposite us. After 
greeting us the agent told us to be of good 
cheer, and to make ourselves as comfortable as 
we could, and that they would soon have us on 
shore, as they had sent for a boat and some 

" We were glad to accept this encouraging 
advice, and the doctor fixed a seat for us with 
the robes from the waggon, then we all sat 
down and tried to wait with patience. But 
none of us could quite see just how the rescue 
was going to be managed. It would be useless 
to try and get the ferry-boat ashore, even if it 
could be got off the rock, after being made fast 
to the shore with ropes, for there was no land- 
ing-place. The row-boat could easily be got to 
us from above, but it would be impossible to 
row it back even to the mouth of the little 
gulch. Neither could a loaded row-boat be 
taken through the rapids below us. But we 
each tried to take the best possible view of 
it all. The doctor joked, and told stories 
with Harold. The Chinaman, too, tried to 
smile and look pleasant, and said that ' bimeby 
be all litie,' while the baby laughed and crowed 
at the water curling and racing and foaming all 
around us. 

" After talking a little while the agent and 
Antoine walked back to the little gulch and 

before we 
and I were 
' Nearer My 

seemed to scrutinize carefully the distance 
between us. To help while away the time I 
finally commenced to sing to the baby, and, 
hardly knew it, the doctor, Harold, 
singing ' Rock of Ages,' then 
God to Thee.' Suddenly a shout 
from Antoine gave us notice of the coming of 
the row - boat above the bend. ^Ve saw the 
agent signal them to land at the gulch, which 
they did, although it was not an easy matter, 
and I wondered how in the world Antoine had 
managed to land there. 

"In a short time they made a rope fast to the 
prow of the boat ; then one of the Indians took 
a single paddle and jumped in. The others 
pushed the boat out into the stream and paid 
out the rope hand over hand, while the Indian 
guided it astern towards us, and soon reached 

" Harold, the baby, and I were quickly placed 
in the centre of the boat. Those on shore 
were signalled that we were ready, and we were 
soon landed, drenched to the skin. By this 
time others had arrived, and they had plenty of 
help, and in their eagerness they had drawn us 
against the current a little faster than was 
really necessary, so that a perfect sheet of water 
came over the side of the row-boat. 

" Another trip brought the doctor and the 
Chinaman and also the robes and wraps safely 

" I suppose none of us could be held ac- 
countable for the state of mind we found 
ourselves in after undergoing such a strain ; but, 
after various demonstrations of thankfulness, 
we walked back to the Agency, and Antoine, 
the baby, and I were soon brought home. 

" The water rose a foot higher in a few hours; 
the ferry-boat floated away, and pieces of it and 
of the waggon were afterwards found far down 
the Columbia. The horses were never seen 
afterwards so far as we know. Next day we got 
word that mother was better and would soon be 

Congratulating the couple on their fortunate 
escape in so dangerous an adventure, we bade 
them " good-night," and returned to our camp. 
The next day, on our mentioning the affair, the 
agent confirmed the story in every particular. 

The Great Festival of Jeyasu at Nikko 

Bv Yki Theodora Ozaki, ok Tokio. 

Here is another of those curious Japanese Festivals which our able lady representative knows so well 

how to describe. It is remarkable to hear of a Pagan ceremonial on this scale in progressive Japan, 

and it proves that the people are not yet wholly given over to silk hats and frock-coats. The 

photographs illustrate almost every phase of the great procession. 

I OR the greater part of the year Nikko, 
famous for it.s magnificent temples 
ind beautiful scenery, lies like a 
sleeping child in the lap of the green 
hills, lulled by the murmurs of 
abundant rills and waterfalls, and sheltered by 
thousands of fragrant trees. 

In the stillness of these stately woods the 
priests chant their prayers and burn incense in 
the temples round the Mausolea of Jeyasu and 
Jemitsu, the first and third Shoguns (war lords) 
of the Tokugawa dynasty, who lie buried in these 
groves. But a great awakening comes to this 
secluded valley on the 2nd of June, when the 
priests and people rise in a body to meet the 
spirits of Jeyasu, Hideyoshi, and Yoritomo, the 
three great figures of Japanese history, who are 

supposed to come to earth and take up their 
abode in three great palanquins. 

On the evening of the day preceding the 
festival the three sacred chairs are carried down 
from a pavilion behind the Yomei-mon (of 
Jeyasu's mausoleum), where they stand side by 
side all the year round. At least fifty men are 
needed to support each palanquin ; and it is a 
wonderful sight to see the three chairs one after 
the other borne down the steep stone steps 
leading from the Ni-o-mon (Gate of the Two 
Kings) along the walled court to the Futawara 
Temple, accompanied by at least 150 guards 
with huge white lanterns, which in the twilight 
look like full moons pulled out of shape. The 
Omikoshi or palanquins are deposited in the 
Futawara Temple on the night of the ist of 


From a Photo. 




From a\ 


June, and on the following day are carried in a 
great procession to the last temple, O Tabisho, 
where seventy-five offerings of food and wine 
are presented to the three deified spirits, and a 
religious dance is enacted before the palanquins. 

It is this procession of the 2nd of June 
which is the occasion of the great festival. The 
peasantry from far and near pour into Nikko, 
while numbers of Europeans come up from 
Tokio and Yokohama to witness the spectacle. 
Towards eleven on the morning of the 2nd 
one hears the mighty throbbing of the temple 
drums, and as the great Nikko bell tolls out 
the hour of midday all eyes turn towards the 
avenue from which the procession is to come. 

Suddenly, from the opposite direction, a 
crowd of men rush past, dragging along a tree. 
Madly they race, shouting as they go, and 
tearing the tree to pieces. The tree is a sacred 
sakaki tree, cut down for the purpose, and the 
way is thus prepared for the procession. 

One has not long to wait. The procession is 
seen just coming under the huge stone Torii, 
in front of the Ni-o-mon gate, heading down the 

It is hard to make anyone understand by 
written words the wonderful colouring of the 
whole picture. In the days of the glory of the 
Tokugawa family the splendour of this pageant 
must have been indeed great. New garments 
were furnished on every occasion for all taking 
part in the ceremony ; whereas nowadays the 
old robes do duty season after season, and 
those who wear them are snatched for the day 
from the field, the forest, and the workshop, 
and consequently do not always preserve the 
Vol. vi.— 20. 

gravity and dignity due 
to the occasion. 

First come one hun- 
dred lancers, with two 
guards in advance. 
They form two lines. 
Those on the right are 
in soft green and blue, 
patterned with the Japan- 
ese phoenix in white. 
Those on the right wear 
blue and terra-cotta. All 
wear peculiar helmets 
and carry long lances. 

Now comes a strange 
figure walking alone. He 
wears a blood-red, long- 
nosed mask, and carries 
an enormous spear, while 
his dress is of pale green 
brocade which gleams 
with gold thread. He is a 
mythological being called 
a Tengu, and is god of the hills and woods. Tengu 
is followed by two Shishi, a lion and a lioness, 
a la Japonaise. No European would know what 



Front a\ procf.ssion passes. 

THE (.Kl-.Ar 


J 54 




these curious niasks were intended to represent 
unless he were told. Each " animal " is made 
up of an enormous red head with gaping mouth 
and glinting metal teeth. The long body is 
composed of tawny-coloured cloth thrown over 
two men. These Shishi are symbolical of great 
strength, and to them is given the power of 
devouring any devil that may be lurking about 
on mischief bent. 

Three Shinto priests, dressed in vivid yellow, 
are followed by eight priestesses, or sacred 
dancing women, each wearing a blue satin kimono, 
embroidered with large figures. Over this falls 
a white gauze robe, with long sleeves and side 
wings. One of these sacred dancers sits 
in the little shrine that stands at the 
foot of the ascending avenue leading to 
the Jeyasu's tomb, always ready to go 
through tlie stately paces and arm- 
waving which are supposed to please 
the great spirit. These women, like 
the Roman vestals of old, are never 
supposed to marry. 

Behind the sacred dancers come two 
Shinto priests on horseback, with one 
attendant and four horse-boys, imposing 
figures in their white silk robes and 
strange head -gear. Next come three 
sacred horses, caparisoned gaily in old 
red and fawn trappings adorned with 
much crimson silk fringe. Behind tlie 
horses are fifty gun-bearers in royal 
blue carrying old-fashioned matchlocks 
wrapped in scarlet cloth ; then fifty 
archers in a shade of butcher's blue and 
equipped with bows and arrows as big 
as themselves. Behind these walk fifty 
spearmen with long spears, also dressed 
in blue, with a broad white line on the 
sleeve running from shoulder to wrist. 
Like the current of a great river the 
procession swung past, the various and 
multi-coloured figures coming and going 
in ever-varying succession. 

A strange regiment now burst into view 
— a hundred men, clad in wonderful suits 
of old Japanese armour, helmeted and shielded 
like the curious figures one sometimes sees in 
museums and the collections of antiquities. 
Each man carried two swords, and their shields 
slung over their shoulders are made of scales of 
brass woven in with red silk. But soon the 
scene was changed. Like sunshine after 
storm, immediately following the stern array of 
armoured men come twelve children robed in 
scarlet brocade and white. On their heads they 
wear tall sprays of flowers secured to metal caps. 
Parents send their children gladly to take part 
in these festivals, in the belief that by so doing 

the children earn the blessing of the gods \n 

Fifty masked men now claim our attention. 
They are clothed in red and brown, and some 
wear the most hideous masks imaginable. Here 
and there a woman's gentler face is seen among 
the masks, but most of them are of demoniacal 
expression. — some half-bird and half-animal. 
This queer parade of masks is a humorous and 
burlesque representation of the many different 
aspects of human nature, and the wearers carry 
out the idea well — unconsciously, no doubt — 
by the divers ways in which they carry them. 
Some push the masks back upon their fore- 


From a\ 



heads, thereby lessening the grotesque effect;, 
others wear them jauntily, moving their heads 
from side ^o side so that all might see : only a 
few were serious. . 

A priesdy cortege led by four Shinto priests 
in vivid yellow and white, carrying huge fan.S) 
like standards, next come by. Behind these 
again ride two Shinto priests, the first carrymg a 
sacred sword, the second a sacred flag. Several 
attendants on foot guard each precious object. , 

All eyes are now directed to eleven huge 
lances with banners streaming in the breeze; 
and each borne by five men in white, heralded 

I :;(! 


from a] 

tHfc.St A'lTfc 

.'.■L.AS7S, IN Slkri-ED TUNICS, iS LtD -iHE (iKEV 

F>0)n a\ IN THE BREEZE." [Pholo. 

by two guards. The foremost of these 
remarkable standards is crowned with a 
golden trident ; the next two hold metal 
discs with a rim signifying flames held 
towards the heavens. On the first three 
standards are carried the divine symbols, 
the Royal insignia. The rest cleft the 
sky with great points like spears. The 
banners attached, imprinted with large 
crests, were of many colours — purple, 
green, and yellow, all mellowed into 
soft art tints by Time. A large drum 
carried by three men, and a bell by 
one man, then went past. 

Then came one of the most incon- 
gruous parts of the festival : a grey 
monkey with a crimson face. The 
monkey, besides being one of the signs 
of the Far Eastern- zodiac, was always a 
great favourite in ancient times, and 
probably Jeyasu the Shogun is known 
to have had a pet monkey in his life- 

A glorious bit of colour suddenly 
broke the monotony of the stretch of 
white in the shape of twelve musicians 



From ci\ 



lacquered and 
clamped with 
gold. Then a 
Shinto priest fol- 
lows, holding on 
high the gohei, 
generally a staff 
with zig-zag 
strips of paper 
attached. To 
this wand is attri- 
buted the same 
power as that 
given to the sign 
of the Cross in 
the days of early 
Christianity — 
the power of dis- 
persing evil. 
Hence it is car- 
ried before the 
sacred palan- 
quins to clear the 

a robes of old brocade ; the full 
rousers a lovely shade of purple, 
nd the upper gown brown, re- 
ieved with magnificent crests. In 
louble file they march along play- 
ng on their flutes and reeds — that 
trange minor piping which be- 
;omes so familiar if one is in the 
labit of visiting religious festivals 
n Japan. 

Like great flamingoes walking 
lere and there in the midst of 
his flock of musicians were four 
nen robed in brilliant scarlet. A 
rain of about a yard and a half 
vas gathered into their girdles 
iisplaying an apple-green under- 
rain. These were dancers, I dis- 
;overed later in the day, who were 
dance before the palanquin 
ihrines when they were deposited 
n the temple, O Tabisho, the 
joal of the entire procession. 

Ten men in dark blue and 
■vhite now pass, each carrying a 
lawk carved in wood and painted 
50 as to look very real. Hawking 
tvas much in vogue in ancient 
times ; and, therefore, just as 
when Jeyasu was in the flesh, 
a hawking party attended his 
spirit to-day. 

Behind the hawkers two huge 
stands for the palanquins appear. 
Very heavy they are, black 


Frciii n\ TTKIPS OF I'Apek attached." 





«ray. Thnv Shiiuo priests arc followed by fifty 
men atlireil in blue and white and carrying huge 
umbrellas wrapjK-d in white. Directly behind 
ihcm iv U^rnc the chief sacred pal.ui(]iiin, in which 
ihe >pirit of the illii>ttious Jeyasu is thought to 
h,iv.- cnlhnincd itself. *I"he car is of elaborate 
wtirknuinship in some gildetl metal. A golden 
jK.-.u*Kk cnnvns the centre, and the roof is 
studdeil with the Tokugawa crest in raised work. 
Ihc car itself is closed on all sides. Metal 
mifTon; are hung round - six on each side. 

I>'>wn the glen from the Ni o-mon (Gate of 
the Two Kings) jiast the beautiful vermilion 
l\i:;od.» of the Signs of the Zodiac, with the 
;:i.-!it .rvrtomerias waving their branches as it 

look half mad, and stagger to the side of the 
path under the great strain, grunting forth 
strantje sounds. Sonutinics thev seem about to 
stagger in among tlie bystanders, much to the 
latter's discomfiture. 

The attendant guards in picturesque blue and 
white gowns, however, fan the overcome bearers 
in the right direction, and the great car, glinting 
ill the sunlight, passes on, its pendant ornatnents 
jingling at each step. The men are sut)posed to 
he filled with a divine afflatus, and not to know 
what they are doing or whither they are going. 
]:)Ut in reality, 1 fear, the cause is a liberal applica- 
tion of sake (rice wine), imbibed beforehand. 

The second palanquin, in which rests the 



in blessing over this devotion to a great Past, 
the massivc iizx was borne on the shoulders of 
fifty men, who were panting and groaning 
beneath the great burden. Now the great car 
seemed to Ix: crushing them to the earth. Then 
the)' would make a mighty effort, and the car 
would l>e held high triumphantly. 'Jhe i)eople 
declare that this imjiulsive way of carrying the 
car is due to the will of the great spirit within. 
When that wills the car to be heavy, the bearers 
-■"• -ll but crushed ; and again, when the spirit 
-. it, the car becomes light and the men 
hft It high with joy. 

It is ver)- alarming to the spectator to witness 
the heavy movements of the car. 'I'he bearers 

spirit of Yoritomo, first Shogun of Japan, is 
preceded by a much less numerous retinue. 

Lastly comes the third, in which Hideyoshi, 
the great adventurer and ruler, was enshrined. 
It is preceded by the same retinue as the 
second chair, and three Shinto priests and a 
Yamabushi (Nature worshipper) bring up the 
rear. 'i'he whole procession winds its way 
along the avenues to the Miya, or temple, 
called O Tabisho, wh-ere the big gates are 
thrown open and the brilliant pageant enters. 
'l"he great palanquins are rushed up the steps 
of a pavilion opposite the gate on the left, and 
deposited side by side. The banners, sacred 
horses, etc., are dispersed round the courtyard, 




From a Photo. 

which fairly glows with the hundreds of strange 
and picturesque figures. 

The priests in white, the sacred dancing 
women, the no-dancers, the musicians, and all 
who take a personal part in the subsequent 
service, assembled in a large hall opposite the 
pavilion where the palanquins are. Along the 
length of the hall facing the palanquins in the 
pavilion runs a low table. On this are offered 
the Shichi-jin-go-sai, or twenty-five offerings of 
food. All kinds of birds, fish, rice-cake, and 
wine are laid on the holy banqueting dais for the 
three great spirits. On lacquer trays ornamented 
with flowers and leaves, and dressed in thick, 
white paper, the food is passed up from hand to 
hand by an array of priests in white silk robes. 
'J'he wme is served in graceful jars of chased 
gold. The elaborate ceremonial and austere 

simplicity of the priests' gowns 
are greatly enhanced by the dim 
light of the hall. 

When all is served a large scroll 
is unrolled, and the officiating priest 
reads aloud the contents on bended 
knees, before the table spread with 
food, the congregation prostrating 
themselves meanwhile. Next the 
priestesses rise one by one, enter 
the temple, and dance before the 
table, waving an open fan in one 
hand and a wand ornamented with 
a cluster of little bells (suzu) in 
the other. The four men dancers 
in scarlet and green now come 
down into the courtyard and 
range themselves in a line just 
outside and at right angles to 
the stone square immediately 
before the pavilion. At the same 
time the twelve musicians from 
the other side of the square strike 
up their pipes and reeds. 

The dancers stand as still as 
statues till a certain note in the 
music is reached. Then the fore- 
most one strides forward step by 
step and at last takes his place 
at one corner of the square. As 
he moves on another advances to 
the post just vacated, and at last 
the four men stand in place, one 
in each corner. Keeping time to 
the music's rhythm they pace back- 
wards and forwards, whirling their 
radiant draperies, on which the sunlight falls, 
with so much precision and in such unison as to 
show how completely the weird music possesses 
their spirits and commands their movements. 

The way in which they manage their long 
trains when they reach the corners of the 
stone square and have to turn is quite won- 
derful. Not only do their feet dance, but their 
arms also. Like great scarlet wings in their 
long, falling sleeves, the four pairs of arms spread 
and swoop, and fall and fold in the course of 
the figure, with a grace and lithe strength that 
hold one breathless. With this striking picture 
the pageant ends, and the procession during the 
course of the afternoon wends its way back 
again through the Nikko groves, taking the 
three great cars to their resting-place behind 
the Yomei-mon of Jeyasu's mausoleum. 


Diver Smate and the Octopus. 

l-KANK S. Smith, ok Nookat, Terang, Victoria. 

Diver Smale is one of the most experienced subaqueous craftsmen in the Colony, and this is 
undoubtedly his most exciting experience. He was obliged to signal "All right" in response to 
anxious messages from above lest his mates should endeavour to haul him up whilst he was. held 
fast by the horrible tentacles of the " old-man " octopus which attacked him. 


''" smillicrn coast of Auslialia, and 
>M- jurtirulaily that of \'ictoria, 
one of the favourite liaunts of the 
tii<.a«Jed ortopus. In fact, there is 
scarcely a mile of the western shore- 
line of the Colony where the sea bather may 
nol exjKct to fmd one or more of the eight 
Ion-, shmy tentacles of this repulsive and justly- 
dreaded creature winding themselves round his 
le^ Fortunately, the great majority of the 
ortopi encountered are small, with bodies no 
bigger llian a flattened lemon, and tentacles 
like small whip-lashes. These juveniles are 
found very often in the shallow pools left by 
ihe receding tide, where 
children dabble in the sum- 
mer ; and the shining white 
legs of the small bathers 
form an irresistible attrac- 
tion for the hideous little 
beasts. Shooting through 
the clear water, they send 
the terrified youngsters 
squealing to their nurses or 

But ever)- now and then 
a gigantic '"old-man" oc- 
topus is encountered, and 
then the matter assumes a 
serious aspect The full- 
grown octopus keeps away 
from shallow water as a rule, 
and is only dangerous when 
interfered with. Fishermen 
drawing in their lobster-pots """ " ' "' 

occasionally find one of 
them enveloped by a writhing, many-tentacled 
monster, which cannot be removed until the ten- 
Ucles are cut to pieces. Sometimes in their efforts 
to gel the pot free the fishermen find to their dis- 
may that the horr Dg has transferred itself 
to the side of their t^oai, and is a menace to its 
safety. The body of the octopus, too, is so tough 
that only a very keen, strong knife can pierce it. 

The three chief coastal towns of Victoria are 
Warmambool, Portland, and Port Fairy; and at 
all three narrow escapes from the embraces of 
the octopus are recorded. The one now to be told 
occurred at Port Fairy, and is a good example 
of presence of mind securing an escape (though 
but a hairs-breadth one) from an awful death. 

Port Fairy stands just where the River Moyne 
enters the sea ; and, as is usual with Australian 


rivers, the navigation of the stream is impeded 
by a bar. Contracts have been let at various 
times for dredging and deepening the passage 
into the river: and it was in connection with 
one of these that Diver Smale nearly lost his 
life in a struggle with an octopus. 

The first illustration reproduced in this 
narrative shows the river after the bar has been 
passed. The town of Port Fairy, by the way, is 
one of the oldest in Victorian history, and the 
ruinous l)uildings on the right are relics of the 
early settlers. 

The second photo, shows a small fleet of 
fishing-boats crossing the bar on their way from 

1 Mr, iii\ iA< .11. iM-. AiiEK THE BAR HAS BEEN PAS.SED. 

From a Photo, by Jordan. 

the barracouta grounds. 'Couta fishing, I should 
tell you, is one of the chief industries of the 
quiet little town, and huge hauls are made all 
the year round almost. The adventure with the 
octopus occurred near the leading boat. 

To deepen the passage into the river it was 
necessary to blast away a fairly large area of 
rock ; and Diver Smale — one of the best and 
most experienced men in Victoria — was engaged 
for the work. Operations were commenced 
from the pier ; out later on a large, flat-bottomed 
barge was fitted up and moored nearly over 
the patch of rock that was to be displaced. 

Curiously enough, the only danger appre- 
hended by the diver was from sharks, which are 
fairly plentiful along the coast, but which 
generally keep away from the broken water. 



From a Photo, iy] 


llil. LAI.. JUi:, b_L;.E ur 1111. 

Occasionally, however, a twelve or sixteen- 
footer sneaks right into the harbour ; and during 
a previous contract the diver had had a rather 
narrow escape from misadventure. 

The work progressed without incident for 
several days, and arrangements were almost 
completed for the setting of a big blast. Two 
more charges of dynamite were to be put in, 
and on the eventful afternoon Diver Smale went 
over the side with his crowbar to place these in 
position. He put down the holes, and came up 
for the cartridges and a breath of fresh air. 
Then he went down again. There was about 
2oft. of water, and he walked a few feet to the 
ledge of rock upon which he was operating. 
His crowbar was standing up in the ooze, and 
he was fixing the last cartridge, when he felt a 
slight tug at his left arm. 

Thinking that he had caught the line with his 
elbow he tried to move his arm back to free it, 
but found to his surprise that it was held firmly 
to his side. Standing up straight he attempted 
to turn round, but to his horror he discovered 
that soinetJmig was holding him back ! 

At the same moment he felt something like a 
rope slip round the same arm, below the elbow, 
and encircle his waist. Instinctively he held 
his right arm out straight, and to that movement 
he owed his life. 

The instant he felt the second clasp the 
dreadful fact flashed across his mind that he was 
in the grip of an octopus, and he peered into 
the darkness to try and localize his foe. Grad- 
ually he gathered that the creature was attached 
to the ledge of rock underneath which he had 
been boring ; and the wonder was that he had 
not encountered it before. From the length 
and strength of the two tentacles that v/ere 
around him the diver knew that the octopus 
was one of the largest of its kind, and all hope 
of tearing himself free by force vanished. How- 
ever, he tried to strain forward, but found that 

Vol. vi.— 21. 

\ J or dan. 

all he did was to nearly lift 
himself off his feet, while 
ihe two sinewy tentacles 
still held him as though he 
were bound by ropes of 

Speaking afterwards of 
the experience, Diver Smale 
said that his first sensa- 
tion was one of horror and 
dread ; and, had he given 
way to it, his end would 
have been inevitable and 

" You see," he said, 
" with an octopus you have 
no chance to get at your 
foe. A shark is bad, but you can fight him and 
he comes fair at you. I never met a tiger ; but 
I'd sooner meet one in a fair open fight any day 
than an octopus." 

Nerving himself, the diver hastily considered 
the situation. His eye caught sight of the 
crowbar, still sticking upright, and by edging 
slowly sideways he managed to grasp it. 
Then began the struggle. 
" It was bad enough," said Mr. Smale, " to 
have to overcome the octopus, but all the while 
I was tormented by the fear that my mates on 
the barge would get alarmed and try to pull 
7116 up." 

There was good reason for this fear, as, under 
ordinary circumstances, the diver should have 
been ready to come up in a quarter of an hour 
at the latest. 

This time had now passed, and the men on 
the barge pulled the signal-rope. Sticking his 
bar firmly in the ooze, the diver signalled to be 
left down. Then he turned his attention to the 
octopus, and tried with the bar to prise the 
tentacles off his arm. But his utmost efforts 
failed to make the monster relax its grip in 
the slightest. 

Then a new scheme came into the unfortunate 
man's head ; and he prodded viciously at the 
body of the octopus, now flattened against the 

To his dismay the only result of this was to 
make the monster detach a third tentacle from 
the rock and wind it round his legs — instead of, 
as he hoped, withdrawing the slimy ropes 
altogether from his body. 

This fresh calamity made the diver almost 
sick with despair. He could not move now, 
and the danger was always present that a fresh 
tentacle would envelop his right arm, or, worse 
still, coil round the air-pipe and suffocate him. 
Either of these calamities would have sealed his 
doom in a few moments. 



There was another tug at the signal-rope, and 
ihis, b^iid llie diver afterwards, acted as a tonic. 
Once more he signalled "All right," and his 
pu/zled mates sat waiting on the barge 
above discussing the probable cause of his 

Almost desperate now. the diver was on the 
point of signalling the "Pull up" and trusting 
to the rojK^ to tear him loose ; but he soon 
abandoned th.e idea as practically committing 
suicide. Afterwards they all agreed that the 
rope would have parted under the strain, and 
this would undoubtedly have ended the matter 
ver>" (juickly. 

rhc thought of being pulled free of his 

-, ■'.y. I.r.hl: ANL> his .MATtS on the barge. ii, ; 

From a Photo, by Foyk. 

captor, however, suggested another way out of 
the difficulty. " Why not pull octopus and all 
up with him ? " This was at least feasible, and 
brave and resolute Diver Sniale set to work to 
put it into operation. He gouged away again 
at the body of the animal, but with little effect. 
Then he tried a dig at the end of one of the 
tentacles on the rock, which are fitted with 
cup-.shaped suckers. Three or four digs were 
given, when the tentacle slowly cast itself loose 
from the rock and, searching about, soon coiled 
itself round the diver's body. 

The tentacles were now evenly divided— four 
on the rock and four on the body of the diver ; 
who at once attacked another. Digging away 
at the ends of the tentacles with all 1iis might 

he found another and yet another of the long, 
slimy ligaments grasping him, and his only fear 
was for his free arm or the air-pipe. 

Fortunately both escaped, and the last remain- 
ing tenaclc but one wound itself round him just 
when his mates above had again signalled him. 
He had been down three-quarters of an hour, 
and despite the repeated " All rights " they were 
becoming very anxious. 

" And well I knew they would be," says the 
diver. " So, after signalling ' All right ' again I 
jammed the bar under the last tentacle, and I 
can tell you I felt thankful when it left hold of 
the rock and I had the horrible brute on the 
top of me altogether. I didn't wait long to 

signal the 'Pull up.'" 

" Yes," said one of his 
mates afterwards, " we had 
decided to give him five 
minutes longer, and then 
we'd have pulled up, 
whether or no." Of course, 
they had not the faintest 
idea of the awful battle 
that was going on nearly 
beneath them. 

When the "Pull up" 
signal was given it was 
quickly attended to, and 
soon the diver was drawn 
up to the edge of the 
barge. The sight that 
met the astonished gaze 
of the men on the deck 
was weird in the extreme. 
Scarcely anything of the 
diver could be seen for 
the interlaced folds of the 
octopus's tentacles, which 
were wound round his 
body in seemingly endless folds. 

Hastily drawing him on board they unscrewed 
the helmet, to discover the ghastly, colourless 
face of the diver, who had swooned with 
exhaustion and dread. 

It was found impossible to get the octopus 
off him except by cutting the tentacles to 
pieces. The diving dress was then removed, 
and the diver soon revived. Then, in broken 
and disconnected sentences, he related his ex- 

This octopus was the largest ever found along 
the coast, its tentacles alone measuring about 
12ft. in lengdi. Unfortunately they were so 
cut to pieces that the octopus could not be 

Fighting the Prickly Pear. 

By a. p. Corrie, of Oakey, West Line, Queensland. 

The plagues of Australia are many—the rabbit, for example, and the "dingo," or native dog. But have 

you heard of the prickly pear cactus as an enemy engaging the serious attention of a Government ? 

In this paper Mr. Corrie describes the whole of this curious war of extermination, illustrating it 

by means of photos., of which many were specially taken for " The Wide World." 

HE settlers of Australia seem 
to get double their share of 
toil and trouble. Pioneering calls 
for the military instinct, the 
fighting faculty. Innumerable foes 

have to be fought and vanquished before the 

way is clear for the onward march to prosperity, 

peace, and rest. Some of these foes are 

peculiar to Australian soil, but the worst are 

imported from other lands. 
And these foreign foes 

have shown such tenacity, 

such power of aggressive 

movement, that (in the case 

of the rabbit now held in 

check) the fortunes of war 

between settler and pest were 

held in the balance for a 

time. In Northern Queens- 
land to-day the stock-owner 

is waging war with the tick 

fever which attacks his herds 

of cattle. This is an imported 

pest. The sheep-owner fights 

the "dingo," or native dog, 

which decimates his flocks. 

This is a purely Australian 

pest. The wheat - grower 

wrestles w'ith the " rust " 

which, when the season is 

damp and humid, appears in 

his crop and depletes his 

grain harvest. Then the 

dairyman has to struggle 

with the problem of tuber- 
culosis, or consumption in 

cattle, which in the lowlands 

of the Australian coast is not uncommon 

what shall I say more? 

Time would fail me to write the whole 

catalogue of woes ! 

One of the most powerful obstacles in the 

matter of land settlement in some parts of 

Australia is the prickly pear. It has grown to 

be a fearful pest. Apparently, too, it has come 

to stay. It has taken possession of whole tracts 

of country. In the spirit of triumph it has 

thrown down the gauntlet to the struggling 

niE AUTHOK, MR. A. 1 

J-rotna] watched 


settler who, in many instances in the parts 
alluded to, gains his land by conquest, having 
to fight a pitched battle for every acre he calls 
his own. But sometimes it happens the brave 
settler fights a losing battle, and is vanquished 
in the end. 

One has only to get an idea of the pear's 

prodigious power of expansion to grasp the 

situation. Its methods of reproduction involve 

a calculation startling in its 

possible results. 

A single fruit brings forth 
thirty, si.xty, and even several 
hundred-fold of good repro- 
ductive seed. Each seed may 
produce a single plant. Each 
plant yearly throws out many 
leaves. They grow out of 
last year's leaves along the 
edge in the form of a hand, 
and from the sides also — a 
group of five or si.x, in the 
manner shown in the photo- 
graph ; and each new leaf 
f^ will bring forth next season 
— when it elects to grow fruit 
in place of leaves — as many 
as twenty fruit, each bearing 
its full complement of seed. 
But settlers could cope even 
with the abounding fertility 
of the prickly pear if it were 
C not for its marvellous vitality 

* and the way it clings to life. 

Chop it up by the roots, 
stand it upon its head, and 
yet it accommodates itself 
conditions with maddening 
leaves immediately strike 
inverted position the whole 
waxes fat, and fruitful, and 




to its altered 
readiness. The 
root, and in its 
plant flourishes — 

multiplies. It is, to all intents and purposes, 
an "air " plant. 

It is this fact that makes the war such a 
hopeless one, for where the pear has overrun a 
tract of country it has, with the means at present 
available, gained the upper hand. The diffi- 
culty simply resolves itself into this : If one 


/•'lom a] 


plant rccjuircs so 
much vital ciKryy 
to cMcriuinatc ii, 
how much labour 
will Ix' required for 
a whole field ? Hut 
the settler does not 
usually slop to work 
the statement out : 
he does some odd 
job about the place, 
and tries to forget 
the perplexing 

All herbage may 
drooj). die, and dis- 
ap{K-ar in the oven 
of an Australian 
drought, but the 
pear survives, flour- 
ishes, and carries on 
Its processes of expansion and reproduction with 
unconcern. In the fierce " struggle for life " 
when a drought is devastating the land this pest 
is a living example of the survival of the 
" unfittest." 

It is interesting to know that this plant was 
brought to our afflicted shores for the same 
reasons that the pestilential rabbit was brought, 
viz., either for use or ornament. But it has 
cruelly cheated the hopes of the simple idealists 
who brought it hither, for it has become a 
plague and a pestilence. And the question of 
its extermination in the Colony of Queensland, 
at least, is a question of national importance. 

And yet there are enthusiasts in other parts 
of the world who risk life and limb, spend large 
sums of money, and travel far and wide in 
search of wild cacti, 
to which family the 
prickly pear belongs. 
Of course, we are 
aware that in Pales- 
tine, Mexico, I^eru, 
etc., the prickly pear 
is a source of in- 
come to the inhabi- 
tants. The fruit has 
a commercial value. 
With us in Australia 
it has no value. 
Great harvests of 
fruit o the 

grout... ,...^ rot, or 
are partly eaten by 
wild birds such as 
the emu, plain tur- 
key, and '• native 
companion," and 

riii: wiDi: world m.\('.azixe 



the seed is, in this 
way, sown broadcast 
over wide areas. 
An enterprising 
grower in a northern 
area of New South 
Wales (near the 
Queensland border') 
fancied he saw gold 
in the pear plant, 
and he went in for 
pig-rearing on a large 
scale. It was his 
intention to feed his 
pigs on boiled pear 
mixed with pollard. 
Had the scheme 
succeeded there 
would, undoubtedly, 
have been a fortune 
in it, for there is 
in the locality to feed all the 
country. But in practice the 
Looked at from 




I-'roni a Photo.\ handling imi'OSSiulf.- [by the Author. 

swine in the 

idea was a melancholy failure, 
all points, then, the pear is no friend to Australia, 
but an unmitigated nuisance and a dangerous 
foe to settlements. Thus war to the knife is 
the watchword. 

AVe will now consider how we fight the foe. 
The weapons of our warfare with the prickly 
pear are illustrated in the photographs which go 
with this article. Speaking generally, there are 
two ways of fighting it, viz., the tnechanical and 
the cheniical. Firstly, the mechanical. Hoes, 
spades, pitchforks, axes, firewood, and flames 
are the weapons of the mechanical method of 
attack. Decidedly carnal weapons of warfare, 
you will say; somewhat primitive also ; but they 

are powerful even to 
the breaking down 
of strongholds of 
prickly pear. The 
plan is costly, how- 
ever, and this is its 
chief objection. 

One of the photo- 
graphs shows a bush- 
man's contingent 
(not the South 
African type) armed 
to the teeth. The 
men were photo- 
graphed on the scene 
of action, standing 
like true Britishers 
without a murmur 
under fire — the fire 
of a tropical sun. 
Their captain is at 



1 lit >;en u Hi> HGiii' I III' 


From a Photo, by the Author. 


hand, and they are ready at the word of command 
to make a spirited attack upon the foe hidden 
from view, in an ambush of timber and loni; 
grass. The next is a picture of a characteristic 
prickly pear fighter — an eccentric man, with a 
strong aversion to being photographed. 

Knowing his pet aversion we sent the second 
person as an advance guard to engage him in con- 
versation while the writer with his field-gun — the 
camera — made an attack upon his left flank. The 
pear-fighter saw the movement, and inquired if we 
were "taking levels." The pear-fighter is seen with 
his weapon in hand, the hoe with 
which the pear is dislodged. Having 
been chopped up by the man who 
wields the hoe the pear is thrown 
upon drays by means of pitchforks, 
for you dare not handle the plant. 

Besides the formidable thorns 
seen in the first photograph given 
on the preceding page there are 
hairy spines gathered in circular 
clusters over the surface of the 
leaf, as shown in the other illustra- 
tion. The spines themselves make 
the circumference of the tiny 
circles that dot the leaves. 

At the head of each, forming 
a crown of thorns, there is also a 
bristling line of fierce spines which 
pierce the fiesh and come away in 
little groups of ten or a dozen the 
moment they are touched ; and 
before proceeding with his work 
the operator must carefully extract 
them, for they are both painful 

Cattle roaming over fields overrun with the 
pear are tempted, when grass is scarce, to live 
upon the pest. It is regarded as a bad omen. 
For a little while they thrive, but afterwards fall 
away, and in the end drag out a miserable 
existence, eventually dying. The larger thorns 
as well as the hairy spines become embedded in 
the windpipe and intestines of the pear-eating 
animals, and although stock acquiring the taste 
become passionately fond of the prickly pear, it 
kills them in the end. 

After having been cut up by the roots the 

and irritating. 


From a Photo- ] photographed. [by the Author. 

1 66 



mass crushes the lower layers of pears, and 
sends the juice trickling along the surface in 
(juite a stream. In pits the pear ferments, and 
the entombed plant becomes a squashy, oozy, 
decomposing mass, which sinks from day to 


From a Photo, by the Author. 

pear is carted in drays to be burnt or else pitted. 
When it is to be burnt rude platforms are made 
by rolling logs together. 

Upon these platforms the pear is piled in 
great heaps of two or three hundred tons. The 
plants are handled with pitchforks, and the 
stocks built up as illustrated in the photograph. 
It is a funeral pyre, and when one sees the 
mass, with the sap exuding at the base, he 
mar\-els how such a heap of water-logged 
vegetable matter can possibly be consumed by 
fire. But a practical demonstration removes 
all questionings from his mind. At nightfall a 
firebrand is applied to the logs, which soon 
become a glowing mass. Fierce flames leap up 
the sides of the doomed pile of prickly pear ; 
angry tongues of fire pierce the hissing, steam- 
ing, spitting mass, and in the course of one 
night the whole is licked up. Perhaps a single 
hundredweight of ashes remain where once 
stood a pile of two or three hundred tons. 

Firewood, however, is not always obtainable, 
for in Australia there are the timberless plain- 
Ian' ' ' veldt of Australia. Here, too, the 
pear .shes. Cremation being no longer 

possible, pits are dug, and this plan of disposal 
i-s an imitation of the orthodox mode of 
Christian burial. Three and four hundred tons 
of the acCTirsed stuff, fruit and plant, are, at 
times, cast into the pits. The weight of such a 

day. The pears at the top rear their heads in 
defiance, and would live if left alone, but when 
the mass has subsided sufficiently these saucy 
top-crust pears are smothered with a thick layer 
of earth. 

So under the mechanical head there come two 
methods of getting rid of the pear, viz., burning 
^x\d pit/iiig. Burning is the most thorough. 

Secondly, we have the chemical method of 
destruction. Under this head come poisons — 
such as arsenic and bluestone. If a slit is made 
in several leaves, or a hole bored in the trunk 
of the prickly pear plant and arsenic or blue- 
stone in sufficient quantity be placed therein, 
the poison will, in due time, be absorbed, and 
the plant will languish and perhaps die. This 
way of working is, however, much too slow. 
The settler could never overtake the pear in the 
struggle. Something quicker is needed ; some- 
thing cheaper also. This has been the long-felt 
need of those on pear-afflicted lands. Experi- 
ments, however, are being conducted which 
promise to have a successful issue ; and if 
expectations are realized the present system of 
prickly pear w^arfare will be completely revolu- 
tionized. Older methods will be discarded as 
worthless, and a new era will dawn for the pear- 
fighter in Australia. 

Spraying for the destruction of orchard pests 
is now general. The fruit-growing world has 



''the I'UlbUMNCj SuLU 1 luN IS .MADE IN A 4U<j-i.,.Ai.; .' jA 

From a Plwto. ly the Author. 

said with one voice, " Let us spray." This is 
the secret of the new prickly pear warfare. 
The idea was borrowed from orchard practice, 
and should it prove as efficacious as it promises 
no campaign will thereafter be conducted on 
the old hoe-and-pitchfork lines. The poisoning 
solution is made in a 400-gallon tank, which is 
carried on a dray to the pear-infested field. Each 
operator carries a metal vessel which is strapped 
to his shoulders like a soldier's knapsack. In- 
side this vessel is a pump, also a small reservoir 
about the size of a ilb. coffee tin. By means of 
a rod held in one hand the pump is worked and 
the poisonous solution is 
forced into the reservoir. 
There is no means of 
escape for the air in the 
reservoir, and it is there- 
fore compressed as the 
solution is forced in. This 
elastic cushion of air serves 
as an ejecting force when 
the spraying commences. 
In one hand of the oper- 
ator is a rod, at the end of 
which is a " rose," which 
produces a miniature 
shower of rain. By means 
of this rod a spray sur- 
charged with poison is 
brought to play upon the 
doomed plant. Before 
this operation commences, 
however, the pear plant is 

hacked with blades fastened to long 
handles (for it's advisable not to 
touch the pear with less than a 4ft. 
pole), and the butt is pierced with 
a sharp instrument. The poison is 
admitted by these wounds and the 
sap distributes it throughout the 
plant, bringing about arsenical 
poisoning. In a few days the plant 
shows signs of distress. The leaves 
droop, the plant withers, and in the 
course of ten days or a fortnight is 
lying prostrate — a shrivelled, devita- 
lized, whitened heap of ruins. At last 
the defiant foe has found more than 
its match. Of course the seeds in 
the ground when the spraying is 
done, and also the untouched 
leaves upon the ground, will grow, 
and after the first operation atten- 
tion is needed in order to finish 
the good work of extermination. 

As to the cost. Spraying costs 
from 23. 6d. to los. per acre for land 
not in hopeless possession of the 
pest. There are, however, belts of brigalow scrub 
so completely under dominion of the pear that 
eradication would entail an expenditure equal to 
^10 an acre under the hoe-and-pitchfork mode of 
warfare, and from 30s. to ^3 under the system of 
spraying. This land is not worth reclaiming at the 
price, but if the pest is not driven from these haunts 
the surrounding country will always be liable to 
attack. So for the sake of immunity from the pest 
these strongholds may have to be demolished. 
But the first tasks are to stop the progress of the 
pear, and exterminate it on runs where it has 
not yet produced the abomination of desolation. 


From a Photo.] iMAn's back. 


[by the Author. 

Three Amateur Aeronauts. 


Kv Mrs. \\i)i,iKsoHN, of Naples. 

This terrible accident, partly described in the sole survivor's own words, caused a great sensation in 
Naples thi- summer. The article tells a remarkable tale of heroism and endurance, and is illustrated 

with photos, of the balloon and its occupants. 

tecupo, describe the adventure in his own 
words : — ■ 

" Never," he said, after reaching his home on 
the following evening, "was a pleasure excursion 
begun with keener enjoyment. As we gradually 
rose, with the splendid panorama of Naples 
spread out below us, the sky a turquoise blue, 
the air calm, and the sunset hues lending greater 
beauty to the scenery, it seemed as though 
nothing could disturb the feelings of delight of 
Pellizzone and myself, both new to the sen- 

" Quite absorbed by the spectacle before us, 
we neither of us thought about the condition of 
the balloon, which was anything but good, nor 

i-i'.. •> 1 M".> I r.i_ti Li, "IHK mjLK StKVlVuK, UHll 

From a] hours in the water. [PItoio. 

N Sunday evening, the 15th of 
July last, the balloon " Najjoli " 
-ceiidcd in beautiful weather 
:;om the arena in the grounds 
of the Exhibition of Hygiene 
at Naples, in the presence of thousands of 
spectators. Captain Venni, an infantry 
officer, managed the balloon, and was 
nccom|)anied by Count Montecupo and 
Signor Salvatore Pellizzone, a reporter of 
the paper Don Marzio. The balloon rose 
at alx)ut 7 p.m., and, after attaining a 
height of 4,000ft., was impelled by a gentle 
norlh-easterly breeze out to sea between 
Capri and Ischia. Spectators in the villas 
on the hills behind the city watched the 
l>alloon until dusk, growing smaller and 
smaller as it receded, and some observed 
that the bay was very empty of craft, and 
therefore f;:lt some an.xiety as to the de 
scent, for the expedition was a mere 
pleasure trip, and it was usual for the 
aeronaut to come down before nightfall. 
This an.xiety was unfortunately justified, 
for when the ballon reached the sea it was 
far frr, " '.elp, and two of its occupants 

pensr;. _ 
But we wil 

survivor, Count Mon- 


Frovi a] 




did we remember that we had brought no life- 
belt or other means of safety with us. As we 
rose the wind grew stronger, and drove us 
farther out over the sea, which, smooth as a mirror, 
lay below us vast and empty of craft. Drifting, 
as we were, farther and farther from any land, 
Captain Venni decided to descend at all costs, 
for it was impossible for such a balloon to keep 
up much longer. We asked the Captain 
whether we might not reach the coast of Capri, 
but he said, with a sad smile, ' We will content 
ourselves with that illusion.' 

"Slowly we sank towards the water as twilight 
came on. At 8 p.m. we dipped for the first 

ourselves afloat while holding on. The wind 
increased in force ; the water grew rough ; the 
balloon swerved and spun from left to right ; 
and the car plunged us ever and again into the 
water, loosening our hold, which with difficulty 
we regained. 

" Pellizzone began to breathe hard ; Captain 
Venni, knowing the awful danger, could not 
speak one word of comfort. 

" Three hours passed thus. Suddenly Pelliz- 
zone exclaimed, gasping with the horror of the 
moment, 'Who will have strength to hold out 
till dawn ? ' 

" The moon rose, lighting up the sea. Then 



time. Car and occupants alike were plunged 

into the water. We sank to our necks, but the 

balloon speedily rose a little, lifting us above 

the surface. Again we fell, this time up to our 

knees, ancf as the balloon did not lift again \ve 

were obliged to stand on the edge of the car 

and hold on by the ropes by which the car was 

attached. In the dim light, the moon not 

having yet risen, we saw the Palermo mail-boat 

and another vessel passing at no great distance, 

and we made frantic efforts to attract their 

attention, but without avail. 

" Meanwhile the balloon dragged us along on 

the surface of the water. Capri was far away 

on the horizon. We still kept up our spirits ; 

poor Pellizzone especially joking and laughing. 

But after passing half an hour in this pitiable 

condition the car sank away from our feet, and, 

as the balloon spun round and round, we were 

whirled about giddily in the water. We now 

began to undress as far as possible so as to keep 
Vol. vi.— 22. 

the wind got up. All at once the balloon spun 
round, and twice we were thrown off the ropes 
and sank. When I rose to the surface I found 
that one of the ropes was twisted round my 
arm ; the balloon had reached the water and 
floated like a ship. I looked around — my com- 
panions had disappeared ! Soon, in the moon- 
light, I could distinguish them struggling at a 
distance, and heard their pitiful cries for help ; 
but I was dragged farther and farther away and 
could do nothing. That call for help rings still 
in my ears ! Two young lives so tragically lost ! 
I called and called again, but there was no reply. 
Twice I fainted, but recovered my senses. What 
ghastly solitude ! No help ; nothing but death 
awaiting me ! I fixed my thoughts on those 
dear ones who would never see me again. But 
strong indeed is the love of life. The emptying 
balloon was slow in overwhelming myself and the 
car, and, in order to rest my limbs, strained in 
the effort to keep my balance, I crept from rope 




to rope until I reached the net, between whose 
meshes I got my head, arms, and legs, and so 
rested my body, till my weight drew down the 
balloon on that side, tending to suffocate me. 
So I went back to the car, which floated beneath 
ihe surface of the water, and with two pieces of 
cn-V ■ ••- >- '1 to it I managed to keep myself 

" So passed the dreadful hours till dawn. 
With the light I saw some fishing-boats on the 
horizon. I found I was off Cape Misenum. I 
tried to call, but was so weak that my voice 
would not carry to the boats, though they were 
fast drawing nearer. Fortunately, one of the 
boatmen saw the floating balloon and steered 
towards it As the boat came closer I let go of 
the car and, collecting all my strength, swam 
towards my rescuers. They at length caught 
sight of me, and rowing hard, soon reached me 
and picked me up." 

The fishermen took off the Count's wet 
things and partially clothed him, bruised and 
cold as death as he was. His watch, which 

was in his waistcoat pocket, had stopped at 
1 1. 20 p.m. the night before. He had been 
e/eve?i hours in the water. Just after he was 
rescued a steamer, which had been sent out in 
search of the aeronauts during the night, came 
up, and the medical man on board attended 
to the Count's bruises and restored him with 
hot tea. The fisher-boat then took him 
on shore at Cape Misenum, where the 
lieutenant on guard at the powder-magazine 
lent him some clothes, and after a short 
rest he went by rail to Naples, where his 
friends and relations, who had been looking for 
news of him all along the coast, had their 
anxiety relieved by his appearance. The relatives 
of the other two voyagers were utterly over- 
whelmed with grief at their tragic fate. Two 
steamers sent out found no trace of them except 
the jacket which Pellizzone had worn. The 
balloon was taken on board at the same time as 
the Count, and was subsequently delivered to 
its owner, who had resigned its guidance to poor 
Captain Venni. 

A Religious Pair in Burma. 

By M. C. Conway-Poole. 

Illustrated with photographs taken by the writer, an officer of the Burma Police, who writes with 

knowledge and authority. The spectacle is not only extremely pretty and picturesque, but it is here 

described with the sympathy of one who thoroughly understands these charming people. 



HE first striking object which meets 
the eye of the globe-trotter approach- 
ing Rangoon from the sea is the 
gilded pile of the Syriam Pagoda, 
situated some five miles away on 
He will 

probably be told that the 
Shwe Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon, which will 
shortly appear round the bend on the opposite 
side of the river, is vastly superior to it ; but his 
informants know little of the Syriam Pagoda 
beyond the fact that it is useful as a beacon to 
the pilots who have to direct vessels through the 
tortuous channel of the Rangoon River. And 
so the globe-trotter will forget the Syriam Pagoda 
until he passes it again on his return to Europe. 
To the ordinary traveller, and, indeed, to the 
majority of Anglo-Burmans (excepting a few 
officials), Syriam is an unknown land. 

The pagoda is four miles from the village 
itself. Syriam is a group of huts ; it was once 
the capital of a kingdom, as its half-buried 
boundary walls and gateways suggest even to 
the most casual observer. Besides having been 
the head-quarters of a Talaing dynasty, it has 
also been occupied by the Siamese ; and the 
ruins of a cathedral and a few tombstones mark 
where the Portuguese had their settlement a 
hundred and fifty years ago. Nor is it inacces- 
sible, for it is served three times a day by a small 
steam ferry from Rangoon. But it is at the 
time of the Burmese New Year, when the 
annual Pagoda Festival is held, that Syriam 
should be seen. Not only will the visitor 
be privileged to enjoy the prettiest scenery of 
Lower Burma, but he will then see the people 
decked out in their best — a cosmopolitan 
throng, among whom nearly all the nations of 
the East will be represented. He will learn more 
of the inner life of the people from a day's visit 

to this feast than he would 

from a month's stay in the 
hackneyed tracts of Ran- 
goon or Mandalay. 

Yesterday the gilded 
spire of the pagoda looked 
strangely incongruous amid 
its rustic surroundings ; to- 
day it is the kernel of a vast 
city teeming with human 
life. And to-morrow it 
will be isolated among 
a silent thicket of bam- From a Photo.\ 

boos. The jungle round the pagoda has been 
cleared, shops and booths constructed, and tem- 
porary streets marked out. Thirty thousand 
visitors have arrived, for the paddy crop has 
been a good one. Those from the villages 
round have come to lay in stock for the New- 
Year, to visit the theatres, and meet their friends. 
A few have come to make offerings and worship 
at the pagoda. The people from Rangoon have 
come, for the most part, to sell their wares to 
the jungle folk, and to return richer both 
spiritually and materially. Booths have been 
erected for the pilgrims, and they consist of 
stakes driven into the ground, with a roof 
composed of paddy straw held between cross- 
sticks. It is in these that the worshippers sleep 
who do not desire to take part in the gaieties of 
the night, and they are as cramped for room as 
sardines in a tin. For officials, the pagoda 
trustees, and families of note, booths of a more 
spacious and substantial design have been put 
up : they occupy three sides of a square as 
exclusive as any in Mayfair or Belgravia. Here 
are quartered the Burmese magistrate and the 
special police force on duty at the festival. In 
the centre of the square stand the triangles 
to which thieves and pickpockets are bound 
and publicly punished with stripes if detected 
practising their caUing on this tempting occasion. 
In a large gathering like this any sign of 
disorder has to be checked and justice meted 
out without delay, or serious consequences 
might ensue. Twenty -five Indian Military 


\by the Author. 


Police and an equal number 
of Detective Hurnian Police 
is not an overwhelming force 
when one takes into account 
that among the 30,000 who 
come to the festival there are 
criminals from all parts ot 
Hurma. and, further, that a 
considerable amount of pro- 
jKrtv and valuables is being 
kept in flimsily-constructd.! 
temp)orarv- booths. 

The Burmese villager can 
satisfy all his wants at this 


[/'_)' the Author. 


From a Photo, by the Author. 

Street to themselves ; and 
in these, for a few pice, 
the jungle-wallah can regale 
himself on chillies, rice, 
and fried meat, which is 
sold to him on bamboo 
skewers, precisely as cat's 
meat is purveyed in Eng- 
land. Or he can treat him- 
self to a dish of " koukswe " 
— a Celestial innovation, 
by the way — which is com- 
posed of pork, stewed with 
onions, vermicelli, and chil- 
lies. If there were no 
chillies in it the Burman 

pagoda feast. There is a street of 
shops which are occupied by silk- 
sellers and cloth-sellers, with all 
the latest fashions from Rangoon : 
there is a street devoted to the 
sale of miscellaneous goods, such 
as plates, cooking utensils, jugs, 
lamps, school slates, umbrellas, 
books of ballads, baskets, and 
lacquer ware. The sellers of 
slippers, sandals, and — luxury o( 
luxuries I — English machine-made 
leather shoes do a roaring trade. 
Then there are the shops which 
sell dc the little ones — such 

dolls ; cw.a iiiasks too. But it is 
the young bloods or " kalathas " 
(who look upon this religious feast 
as we would upon a carnival) that 
are among the most numerous 
purchasers of the masks. Eating- 
houses naturally have a whole 

v<;.aAK -.MAKi.xC, ILKCHA.^K^ ink Ull. 

From a Photo, by the A uthor. 



would say there was no taste. These "restau- 
rants " are chiefly kept by Chinamen, who, 
it is whispered, sell opium and intoxicating 
liquors on the quiet. The rustic who wishes 
to try a new sensation can even indulge in 
ice-creams (which are mostly ice), sold by 
itinerant Mohammedans. The butchers' shops 
and slaughter-house are in the jungle half a 
mile away ; they are run by Chuliahs from 
Madras and Mohammedans from Chittagong. 
If beef were exposed for sale within the 
confines of the festival there would pro- 
bably be serious disturbances, for there are 
many Hindus amongst the visitors. 

There is no better place 
than this for studying the 
trend of this most pic- 
turesque people. Jack 
Burman is like a butter- 
fly : he flutters resplen- 
dent in the sun, and 
when night comes droops 
and dies. Wherever 
there is money to be 
spent or wasted you will 
find Jack Burman ; wher- 
ever there is money to 
be made you will find 
the foreigner. With the 
exception of the gold-leaf 
sellers and the play actors, 
the majority of those who 
are profiting by this fes- 
tival are foreigners, and 
they are being paid with 
money borrowed by Jack 
Burman, at a high rate 
of i.iterest, from the 
Chetties, who are also 

As night comes on the 
fun increases. There is 
hardly room to force 
one's way along the 
dusty streets, from which 
since disappeared. The air 

cover) of 
the box 



Froju a Photo. 

be the elephant, prawn, turtle, tiger, crab, and 
rat. You stake your money and the play begins. 
Three gigantic wooden dice, upon the sides 
of which the six animals are painted, are 
shaken in a tin box (with a flat 
the dimensions of a footstool ; 
is then placed inverted on the 
ground, while those who have not yet staked 
are again exhorted to do so before it is too late. 
The canister is then cautiously raised. "Two 
prawns and a tiger ! " And the happy backer 
of the crustacean gets back his stake and its 
value twice over, while the man who has put his 
money on " tiger " recovers his stake doubled. 

The money which has 
been placed upon the 
other animals, however, 
is swept by the operator 
into his till, which is 
generally a lacquer betel- 
nut box. It is not until 
daybreak that the rattle 
and clatter of the dice- 
boxes will terminate. 

Many are the won- 
derful sights which the 
jungle-wallah is permitted 
to see for a copper coin. 
Dwarfs, giants, a big- 
headed baby, a double- 
headed goat — in fact, 
most of the monstrosities 
that may be seen at an 
English fair. A little 
Brahmin who is all body 
and no legs, and who 
keeps repeating " ram " 
to the accompaniment of 
his own cymbals, makes 
a lot of money, for Jack 
Burman is broad-minded 
enough to appreciate re- 


by the Author. 

ligious fervour, even on 

the grass has long 
is full of the din 
of rival bands — Burmese bands — in which the 
sound of many drums predominates. To-night 
the laws are relaxed, and petty gambling is 
" winked at " by the authorities. A row of 
hang-dog-looking men line the streets. Some 
have tables on which the thirty-six animal game 
is being played — a species of roulette in which 
different animals take the place of numbers. 
The less ambitious ones preside over the six 
animal game. The operator has a cloth with a 
rough representation of six animals painted on 
it, and this is spread out upon the ground in 
front of him. The favourite animals appear to 

the part of people whose 
religion may not be identical with his own. A 
fakir from Benares, who has allowed his finger- 
nails to grow through the palms of his hands, 
also benefits by visiting this Buddhist festival. 

A Surati from Bombay has come down with 
a phonograph, and for one anna offers to repro- 
duce the voice of the great /r/wa donna, Ma 
Twaygalay. Poor fellow, he will hardly defray 
the rent of his booth. Jack Burman from the 
jungle laughs and suggests that there is a girl 
hidden under the table ; he is not going to 
waste an anna on a swindle. His friend is of 
the same opinion, and both cross the street " to 
make their fortunes " at a low table behind 
which a mild-looking old Burman squats and 



not satisfy the L.C.C., nor 
would the reckless petroleum 
flares which shed their light 
over the scene be pleasing 
to a member of the Fire 
Brigade Committee. 

Above all the din one can 
now hear the creaking of 
bullock-carts : they are bring- 
ing those who are visiting the 
festival, because they have 
heard that Maung Kyaw 
Zan's and Sabe Nyun's 
famous dramatic companies 
have come across from Ran- 
goon. There are some hun- 
dreds of these carts filled 
with radiant girls, who are 
smiling through the dust 


From a Pluto, by the A uthor. 

invites the crowd to name under 
which of three lacquer cups he 
has (apparently) placed a small 
ball. Our jungle friends win 
once or twice ; they ultimately 
depart with empty pockets. Little 
do they know that the mild- 
looking old gentleman is none 
other than Saya Soh, the con- 
jurer, and that the ball is 
generally in the palm of 
his hand 1 This is Jack 
Bunnan all over : speak 
the plain truth, and he is 
sceptical ; lie to him 
adroitly, and no one is 
more easily gulled. But 
Saya Sob's triumph is 
transient ; it is not long 
before a police-officer re- 
quests him to confine his 
attention to the perform- 
ance of tricks which are 
openly and avowedly 

Nor are the young folk 
unprovided for. Primi- 
tive-looking roundabouts 
and a "great wheel," 
i5fL in diameter, are well 
patronized by the little 
ones. The stability of 
these structures would 

From a I'hoto.] 

IS O.N' THli LE.'-T. 


From a Photo.] 

i- . ..I, .1 


. Ill S TO THE 

\/>y the Author 


[l>y the Ariihor. 

and discomfort of their 
journey as only Burmese 
girls can smile. Those 
that are better off have 
rigged up hoods over the 
carts, but the hoods do 
not prevent them from 
peering out and favouring 
us with arch glances as 
they rattle by. 

Two theatres, capa- 
cious halls of matting, 
fitted with stage and 
scenery, have been pre- 
pared for the reception 
of the actors. You pay 
at the entrance. The 
audience sit on the 
ground, and come pro- 
vided with their own 
mats : all smoke — even 
the tiny children. For 
those who do not wish 




From a Photo.'] 


to spend so much there are two alfresco Ayokthay 
Fives, or marionette performances, open free to 
all, the expenses being defrayed by the pagoda 

What a crowd it is, to be sure ! Burmese, 
Shans, Talaings, Kachins, Aracanese, Karens, 
Chinese, Pathans, Sikhs, Punjabis, Hindus, 
Bengalis, Madrasis, Chittagonians, Parsees, 
Choringhees, and Zerbaddis.* These are some 
of the races who jostle against us as we make 
our way towards one of the four long flights of 
stone steps which lead up to 
the pagoda platform. 

The steps are lined with 
lepers and cripples, who obtrude 
their deformities and pester us 
for alms. Their lead is loyally 
followed by strings of Payagyuns 
and Sandalas. The Payagyuns 
are pagoda slaves, whose duty 
it is to serve at shrines and 
pagodas. Some of them — those 
from Pagan, in Upper Burma 
— are of Royal descent ; but that 
is " another story." The San- 
dahs, whose uniform is rags, 
gain a living by digging graves 
and preparing corpses for burial. 
The silver coin placed in the 
mouth of departed Burmans is 
their perquisite ; they are veri- 
table ghouls. They are com- 
pelled to subsist by alms : it 

a Sandala conceals his iden- 
tity and sets up as a cultivator 
or as a shop-keeper they say 
he becomes a leper. Al- 
though caste prejudices do 
not exist in Burma no 
religious - minded Burman 
will marry a pagoda slave, 
much less a Sandala. 

With the assistance of a 
sturdy little Burman police- 
constable in khaki uniform, 
blue puttees, regulation boots, 
and Ghurka cap, we run the 
gauntlet of these vultures, 
and reach the pagoda plat- 
form with the minimum of 

Up here all is subdued 
and quiet. The personal and 
spiritual wants of bond-fide 
worshippers alone are pro- 
vided for ; there are one or 
two stalls of light refresh- 
ments, such as cakes, lemonade, oranges, pickled 
tea, cheroots, and the indispensable betel-nut. 
And there are stalls at which gold-leaf, incense, 
and candles may be purchased. 

Near the entrance to one of the small shrines 
an "anyein" has established itself. Now, an 
anyein is a miniature orchestra, which discourses 
soft music while a child sings. If a rich man 
is unable to sleep he sends for one of these. 
The orchestra usually consists of a metallaphone 
(with notes of bamboo !), a harp, a small drum. 

[by the Author. 

* The child of an Indian and a Burman is 
called a Zerbaddi. 

From a Photo. 


[By the Author. 



Frew a Phcito.\ 



and a flute. The players are always men or 
boys. Women never play musical instruments. 
Mr. Kipling is in error when he places a guitar 
in the hands of a Burmese girl : you might as 
well e.xpect ice in the Irawaddy. This gentle 
music in no way disturbs the devotions of 
the worshippers, most of whom are women and 
aged men. 

Watch that young girl carrying her sandals 
respectfully in her hand : she is wearing a silk 
skirt which is wrapped closely round her. It 
is of a light shade of green, and harmonizes 
delightfully with the salmon-pink of her loosely 
fitting silk jacket ; the moonbeams and the light 
of countless candles glisten in 
friendly rivalry on the diamonds 
that encircle her neck. See, 
she was born on a Friday : she 
has taken up her position at 
the side of the pagoda directly 
opposite the carved wooden post 
which bears the word " Friday "' 
in gold Burmese characters. 
The Burmans say that people 
lx)m on a Friday are over- 
talkative ; but the young lady 
sitting with her feet reverently 
tucked away from sight is very 
quiet She has set up and 
lighted her little packet of can- 
dles and her incense sticks \ a 
bright yellow patch just above 
her marks where she has affixed 
her oflTering of gold-leaf. Her 
lips are moving ; she is silently 
praying — this Friday's child. 
Her mother, who has been wor- 

shipping at the other side of the 
pagoda, now joins her, and they 
walk away together. They hesitate 
as they pass an old Burman who 
is squatting behind a low table. 
He looks kindly at them over his 
spectacles, and their bashfulness 
vanishes. Mother and daughter 
seat themselves opposite him, and 
the girl produces from the inner 
pocket of her jacket a piece of 
mahogany-coloured palm leaf — a 
veritable maze of symbols and 
figures— and hands it to the sooth- 
sayer, for such he is. This is her 
horoscope, cast at the time of her 
birth. The old man scans it care- 
fully, and his eyes wander from the 
girl to her mother. VVe will not be 
so unchivalrous as to go and listen 
to what he is so earnestly whisper- 
ing to them. In striking contrast 
to this is the garrulous palmist seated a few 
feet away, who is loudly proclaiming the virtues, 
talents, and roseate prospects of the stupid 
rustic whose horny hand he holds in his own. 

Away on our right we can hear the subdued 
hum of distant human voices intermingled with 
muffled boom of the theatre drums, which is the 
now and anon wafted to us across the evening 
air. Behind us are groups of silent worshippers, 
the soft patter of naked feet, and the faint, melo- 
dious strains of the anyein ; while above our 
heads broad bars of moonlight push through 
the stiff, fan-shaped leaves of the toddy palms as 
they gently bow together in the night breeze. 

\by the Author. 


Front a Photo. Ly the Author. 

Cloud = Bursts in Arizona, 



Showing how meteorological conditions combine to afflict the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 
sudden deluges lasting but a few minutes doing damage almost incredible to dwellers in more tem- 
perate climes. Mr. Lindberg is an authority, but the photos, speak even more impressively than he. 

Arizona, U.S.A., were very scarce 
twenty years ago when the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company built its 
track through that American State. 
In a vague way everybody knew that it was a hot 
and dry region, but exactly how dry or how 
hot it was difficult to ascertain. We all knew 
the story about the soldier who had lived in 
Yuma, died, and went to Hades, and after 
spending his first night there, sent for his 
blankets next morning. This was much more 
definite information than you could get about 
the rainfall, for instance. The Mexican 
and Indian aborigines talked about a rainy 
season, but if you asked for particulars 
about how many days it rained, and how 
much rain fell every year, they would very 
likely say it never rained. The prospectors, all 
working in the hills, would talk about cloud- 
bursts that lasted for a few minutes, adding 
that they never occurred on the plains. In 
short, the information on these topics was not 
of a highly scientific order, and as a conse- 
quence the railroad officers and all 
working on the line were full of 
curiosity to learn what the rainy 
season really was and how it would 
affect the newly finished track. 

I may here state that long 
stretches of open desert plains, 
nearly level to the eye, were tra- 
versed by chains of hills or low 
mountains, and that the one was 
as barren' as the other. Lizards 
were the principal inhabitants ; 
cactus — in beautiful variety — the 
adornment ; and for use, there was 
the mesquite, whose beans the 
Indians gathered yearly for food, 
and whose roots were laboriously 
dug out of the ground for fuel. 
The balance was apparently sand, 
except in a few corners in the 
canyons, where now and then a 
cotton-wood tree could be found. 
The heat was so intense that the 
sand burned the feet of the la- 
bourers through their boots. The 
glare of the sun, too, and the 

Vol. vi.-23. 

reflection of sand nearly blinded the men as yet 
unused to this climate, most of them coming 
from California, drawn hither by the building of 
the railroad. The daily work in hand all along 
the line was mostly to adjust the rails and take 
the kinks out of the track caused by the 
enormous expansion of the rails owing to the 
fierce sun. 

After a day's hard work a hand-car with its 
crew of surface men was going towards its 
comfortable, double-roofed house located at 
a siding, a short distance off, just where the 
track entered a row of hills. All were thinking 
of their supper and rest when a wonderful sight 
just left them mind enough to ask each other, 
" Where did ^/ia( come from ? " They had just 
rounded the first curve beginning the ascent 
into the hill region when they suddenly beheld 
a vast sheet of water where once was the dry 
plain. The track, too, was covered with dead 
sticks and twigs and remnants of cactus, and, 
worst of all, at one point the track was broken 
off abruptly, a couple of rail-lengths being 
turned off at right angles to the original line. 


from a Photo. 



The cmUuikment on which the track was 
laid here was not high, hiil it was all gone ; and 
at the break lliere was a depth of water of 
about jifl. and nearly 40ft. wide. Aiiparcntly 
some mighty collection of water had broken 
loose, for as far as the eye could reach it was all 
water. While still deliberating about what to 
do the men iliscovered that the water was 
falling rapidly. The track was cleared from the 
dV^r/j. T!>2 two rail-lengths were swung back 
and temporarily connected ; danger signals were 
put up to stop all trains, and the men then 
carefully propelled their hand-car to their siding 
and from there reported by wire to the super- 
intendent that the tirst wash - out had taken 
place on the new line ; adding that ;/^ rai'u had 
fa/Un .' Next morning a prospector came in 

First of all the regular track labour gangs were 
doubled in size and extra gangs camped in 
between them in the most ditricult districts— 
that is, in the foothills and canyons. Then, 
again, instead of large trains with men, trainload 
after trainload of cross-ties were sent in and 
either left on cars at sidings or unloaded along 
the track. 

The reason for this move will be obvious to 
the reader if he will take a trip with me over 
the line and visit some of the wash-outs. Leaving 
the level plain, we will wend our way over many 
curves in among the hills ; and we need go but 
a short distance before we come to a stop. A 
waterway in the track was provided by the 
foresight of the engineer of construction, but 
the I oft. he thought ample is now represented 



/ /■=;;; a\ 

1 KKAKS ul- THE ll.oorj — " NAIl.S SI.UMj I.IKIC A ROPE ROUND A TREi;, 


'' •• -•■- - iiad coffee with the labourers 

before they went to work ; and he casually asked 
if the cloud-burst had shown itself to them. 
It had. 

It was late in the season when the first wash- 
out occurred, but the others followed so 
rapidly in so many different places at the same 
time, and in such large numbers, that the 
railroad company was puzzled as to what to 
do. I suspect it even thought that it had struck 
the wrong country to go through. All the 
hands that could be gathered in the few settle- 
ments on the line were engaged and large gangs 
of men sent from California to repair the track, 
but tho trains with these men on were ofteri 
' n between wash-outs, so that it was a 

lively time ; but order issued soon out of chaos. 

by a break in the track of a clear 60ft., and the 
spoiling of a bank of 5ft. to 6ft. in height for 
several hundred feet on both sides. 

The filling for this bank, so laboriously 
scraped up by man and beast — aye, even the 
very ground itself whence this filling was taken 
— has now gone floating down a stream that 
probably only lived a few hours of a wild, 
merry, and destructive life. The curious ways 
in which these short-lived currents treat the 
track are too numerous to mention, but when 
you see rails stuck like telegraph-poles in the 
ground or slung like a rope round a tree, you 
either think you are the victim of practical 
joking or that your eyes want seeing to ! The 
whole truth is that when the water struck the 
track in these cases, as in many others, it 



bunched the cross-ties up on the rails, hanging 
on by the heads of the spikes. This collecting 
of many ties in one place forms a strong obstacle 
to the onrushing water, and is very apt to break 
the plates of some rail-joint. It now depends 
on but very little to first float this raft of 
bunched-up ties with one or more rails on and 
afterwards land it in all shapes on the most 
unexpected places. 

When you consider that three inches of rain 
often falls in one of the cloud-bursts, and you 
remember that that means a downpour of three 

We had better walk to the nearest shelter, for 
the sun is getting hot. 

Do you hear that ? An engine whistling ! 
Well, it cannot come to us, so we will have to 
walk to it. Sure enough, a work train at the 
other end of the break. Do you notice how it 
is made up ? A car of ties ahead of the engine ! 
Where are they going to put the ties ? There is 
no embankment. Not even a shelf on the side 
of the hill wide enough for the track. You are 
right, and furthermore no horses or mules ; no 
scrapers or ploughs, and none to be had for 

From a\ 



hundred tons of water on the area of one acre, 
then, and then only, do you wonder no more 
about the pranks of rails, but take them as 
matter of course. 

We continue on our quest of wash-outs, and 
move higher up among the hills, and begin to 
find a higher class of wash-outs, so to speak, as 
we round the last curve, until we finally get into 
the canyon proper, where there is no track at 
all. What little soil there ever was is all gone 
— literally melted away like sugar when the 
water comes in contact with it. And the track? 
Not a sign of it. Some telegraph-poles on the 
hill indicate that it was once in that neighbour- 
hood, as the wires were strung alongside of it. 

hundreds of miles in number enough to make a 
showing on this work. 

Now see. The quickly-learned experience 
has shown the railroad folks that you must do 
without what you can't have, and use what you 
do have. So they do not make an embankment 
of earth, but of ties. See how neatly and snugly 
they lie up against the side-hill, and how well 
they support the track, where yesterday was a 
neat but treacherous earthen bank. We will go 
on board the train and get into the shade of the 
caboose whilst the last car of ties is being 
dumped off. 

That funny box on wheels, next to the 
caboose, in between that and the engine, is the 

I So 


. . X i.Mj wAMi-or I - iHi; -.wM, HAS v.ees taken awav ai- mii.etiiiii;. 

waier-car ! " What ! "' you may ask, " hauling there to spend the night. 
water round on a road where there is so Through the canyon and 

much water that it washes the very road away ? " of the range of hills up w 
Yes! that is true, 
but water is 
ver)' scarce — it 
has lo be hauled 
with every en- 
gine on its run. 
as the distanf'i- 
between t 
stations is tou 
great ; and, be 
sides, out of 
these cars the 
water- barrels of 
all the labour 
gans^s are filled. 
You see, to ge' 
water you have 
to bore several 
hundred feet 
deep, and in 
most cases th 
water is so in 
preer* ' • 

either for drink- 
i n g or engine 
purposes. The 
water that 
washed the track 
yesterday is 
gone — has dis- 
appeared as 
quickly as it 
came. The sur- 
face you see is 
as scorched as 
ever, with the 
rare exceptions 
of some patches 
here and there 
of adobe (clay) 
soil on which it 
lingers until 
evaporated by 
the glorious sun. 
Do not let us 
fret over spilled 
water. We will 
ride on this 
train to the 
populous city of 
Benson (popu- 
lation 300), 

down the other side 
hich we worked so 

)e used 


From a Photo. 



laboriously during the day we now see still more 
wash - outs, but these temporarily repaired. 
Here long and high embankments have been 
washed away, and the repaired track in all its 
glory is revealed to us as we curve in and out 
among the desolate hills. How these long and 
high cribbings would squeak and groan when 
trains passed over them ; but that was all the 
trouble they gave ; faithfully they kept their 
place, never causing an accident while they 
lasted. But many a passenger looked and 
probably was frightened when he noticed the 
apparently frail and insecure support over 

The railroad is now so well protected that 
wash-outs as here described seldom occur. 
In hundreds of places artesian wells have been 
bored; reservoirs to gather and distribute water 
have been built, and regions which twenty years 
ago looked too desolate to live in are now bloom- 
ing and producing enough to make the residents 
enjoy life. 

Nevertheless, waste stretches are to-day, 
as then, held in undisputed sway by cactus, 
lizards, and sand, and the stillness of the desert 
is only broken once a year — now as then — after 
the ground has had its yearly bath, when 

]• roll! il\ 



which he was riding. For years the railroad 
company spent hundreds of thousands of 
dollars, bridging, bulkheading, ditching, and 
changing the track before they felt secure 
against this paltry three inches of water, that 
comes and goes so quickly that you would not 
notice it unless right in it except for its effect. 
Just think of it — only about one-eighth of 
London's yearly rainfall ! But remember, it 
falls in most cases within an hour or two. 

thousands of toads come from their hiding- 
places and sing their praise and thanksgiving 
songs in honour of this wonderful country. 
How large these toads are I dare not say. Let 
it suffice that I have had to carry a sun-dried 
hind-leg of one with me for a long while in 
order to prove that I had not exaggerated my 
description, and that even when I produced 
said hind-leg both it and I were looked upon 
with suspicion. 

how the Mecca Pilgrimage is Conducted. 

\\\ A. E. Wort. 

It is a fascinating subject with which the writer deals — the great pilgrimage to Mecca ("El 
Hadj"i. which takes place every year, and attracts followers of the Prophet from every part of the 
East, from Malaya to Morocco. The author lived in Jeddah for more than two years, and is 
perfectly acquainted with every detail of the pilgrim traffic, having constantly associated with 

"Hadjis" who had made the pilgrimage a dozen times. 

I is indeed extraordinary how devout 
very Mohamnicdan is when per- 
: Tming his "Hadj,"' or pilgrimage to 
Mecca (which, according to his 
religion, must be undertaken at 
lenst once during his lifetime) ; and more 
especially so when that Mohammedan is of the 
poorer class. The hardships and dangers he 
has to encounter during his travels to and from 
the Holy City should guarantee (as he thoroughly 
believes it does) absolution from all his sins, 
and on his death a triumphal entry into 
Paradise. It matters little to the Mohammedan 
how far from Mecca he resides : his sole aim in 

life is to visit the Holy City of his religion 
at any risk, and if he dies in attempting to 
reach the goal, he dies very happy, with the 
same assurance as if he had completed his 
pilgrimage. Instances have been known where 
it has taken poor pilgrims many years to reach 
Mecca, having made their journey in sniall 
stages as best they could ; but, once the desired 
journey is completed, it matters very little to 
the Hadji (as he is then called) whether he lives 
to return to his home or not. 

Pilgrims are constantly arriving at Jeddah, 
the Red Sea port of Mecca, although the 
ceremony takes place once a year only ; and, 

"<'> ^ r^ 





From a Photo. 



should they happen to miss the great event by 
a few clays, they will wait on for another year 
until the next Hadj takes place. 

It is very interesting to study the different 
classes of pilgrims and their customs, some 
being of a very savage nature, whilst others are 
just as harmless. 

Followers of Mohammed arrive from India, 
Persia, the Malay Settlements, Arabia, Turkey, 
Egypt, Russia, Tunis, Tripoli, Morocco, and 
Algeria. But it is from our own Empire of 
India that the most poor and, at the same time, 
most harmless pilgrims come, for not only are 
they quiet individuals as a rule, but they go 
their journey unarmed, whereas the North 
African and other pilgrims are armed to the 

Whatever may be their difficulties before 
arriving at Jeddah, it is at this port that their 
real troubles begin. They are charged extor- 
tionate prices by the boatmen who land them 
from the steamers, and more often than not 
robbed of any valuables they may possess. 
If they should escape the wily boatman they 
have still to contend with the unscrupulous 
broker, and also the Bedouins who convey the 
pilgrims to Mecca with their camels and 

It is the Indian [)ilgrim who suffers most, for 
he is not in a position to piotect himself, the 
Indian (Government not allowing him to carry 
arms of any kind ; and although they are 
British Indian subjects they get very little pro- 
tection after once landing at Jeddah. In lots 
of instances they return to that port without 
food or money, and with very little clothing. 
It can easily be imagined what state the pil- 
grim is in after his Hadj is completed, for during 
the whole time he is on the journey his ablu- 
tions are very few and far between, and his 
filthy condition, together with the stagnant 
water he is compelled to drink, aids the 
cholera, plague, small-pox, and other diseases 
which are always prevalent. 

Caravans, consisting of 500 to 2,000 camels, 
start daily from Jeddah for Mecca, until a 
week before the Hadj commences, the start 
always being made in the evening, and it is 
during the night, while the unsuspecting pilgrim 
is asleep, that he is attacked by the Bedouin, 
robbed, and sometimes murdered for the sake 
of his property. Readers of this article may 
wonder why a railway has never been laid in 
order to facilitate the travelling ; but it must be 
borne in mind that the Arab has a great dislike 
to steam, or anything in the shape of machinery, 
and it was as a protest against disinfecting 
machines being brought into the country 
that the English, Russian, and French Consuls 

were shot in May, 1895. The English Vice- 
Consul was killed and the others seriously 
wounded. This acfof violence was committed 
by a party of Bedouins, who undoubtedly were 
acting under instructions ; but it was the 
general opinion of those on the spot that 
the murderous attack was really intended to be 
made on the' quarantine doctors and sanitary 
officials, who at the time were endeavouring to 
keep down disease by ordering all pilgrims' 
clothing to be disinfected after their return from 

On arrival of the caravans at Mecca the 
pilgrims anxiously await the Hadj, the exact date 
of which depends on the moon being seen by 
the priests from a certain spot. This year the 
ceremony was performed in the early part of 
April ; but as it occurs twelve days earlier every 
year, it will be the end of March in 1901 when 
the next Hadj takes place. 

The first illustration shows the Mosque 
of the Haram (The Sacred), together with the 
court and the edifice of the Kaaba, at Mecca, 
during the time of prayer. It is towards the 
Kaaba, by the way, that every Mohammedan in 
the world turns when saying his prayers. The 
Kaaba is a square structure covered with a 
magnificent black fabric, embroidered with 
heavy gold bands. It incloses the Holy Carpet, 
or Mahmal, as it is called. Each year a new 
carpet is supplied by the Khedive of Egypt 
or the Egyptian Government, and a guard of 
soldiers is sent with it to Mecca. After the 
pilgrimage is over the old carpet is cut up and 
distributed among the more fortunate Hadjis as 
tokens of their pilgrimage. Before the pilgrims 
leave Jeddah for Mecca they have their heads 
shaved, discard their ordinary clothing for a 
single white shroud (more like a large Turkish 
towel), and wear sandals, boots and shoes being 
prohibited by the religious laws of Islam. 

Mecca itself is a fine city, fifty miles from 
Jeddah, and has some handsome buildings, 
more especially those of the Grand Shereef, the 
Vali, and resident officials. But the sanitation 
of the place is very bad indeed, partly owing to 
the scarcity of water. Therefore, when the 
enormous gathering takes place yearly, there is 
little wonder at the high death-rate and spread 
of disease. 

The first day of the Hadj is spent by the 
pilgrims visiting the Mosque and the Kaaba, 
nearly the whole time being taken up in prayers. 
They then visit and fervently kiss the holy 
black stone (Hajar el Eswat), which is part of 
the ceremony. Then they return to the Mosque 
to partake of the holy water. This completes 
the progVamme for the first day, and the pil- 
grims are allowed to take their first food. 



ONE OF T.fl \ .\ 


From a Photo. 


Nearly all the pilgrims continue their prayers 
throughout the night. Next day a procession 
is formed and a movement made in the 
direction of Moona. At Mount Arafat (en 
route to Moona) a halt is made, and on 
the spot marked x in the above illustration 
every Hadji offers up a sacrifice by the killing 
of either a sheep or goat. It is generally on 
this day that cholera breaks out, owing to the 

poor pilgrims eating the carcasses which have 
been left in a broiling sun, they having no other 

In the photo, below we have another view of 
the camp at Mount Arafat, showing the manner 
in which the better-class pilgrims live in tents, 
while the poorer ones are without cover of any 

From Mount Arafat the caravan proceeds to 


From a Photo. 




Froju ft Photo. 

Moona, where the feast of Kourban-Bairam 
takes place. Our next illustration shows the 
\'alley of Moona and the building " Shaitan " 

to keep the devil {afrit) from appearing in the 
midst of such a sacred gathering. 

So far as the pilgrimage is concerned it is 


Mohammed's tomb at Medina (an extremely rare photogkai'h). 

From a Photo. 

(or Devil's dwelling), the rough stone structure 
on the left side of the photograph. It is an 
obligation on the part of all pilgrims to hurl a 
few stones at this accursed dwelling, in order 

Vol. vi.— 24 

brought to a close at Moona, the majority of 
the Hadjis returning to Jeddah in order to take 
steamer, to their respective countries. The 
wealthier and more religious Hadji, however, is 



nol contcnuti unless he visits t!ie other Holy 
Cily ol' Medina, and Molianmied's Tomb, as 
sliown in ihe illuslralion. 

These pili;rinis return ri\i Venibo in the Red 
Sea, where there are always steamers to convey 
thcin to their de,stinations. Should cholera or 
pl.igue have broken out during this time the 
international quarantine law requires all the 

illustration shows the arrival of the Mahmal 
in Cairo after its journey to Mecca and 

It is pleasing to note that of late years the 
pilgrim traftic has greatly improved ; for not 
only has the Board of Trade laid down a law 
that every pilgrim shall have a comfortable 
space on board British steamers, but the 


Fro))t a Photo. 


pilgrims bound for Egypt, Turkey, and North 
Africa to perform ten to twenty days in 
quarantine at Tor before allowing them to land 
at .Suez or even enter the Suez Canal. 

The .Mahmal, or Holy Carpet, generally 
returns to Eg)-pt with the last pilgrim steamer, 
and the latter always carries with her the 
destitute Egyptians, whose passage is paid by 
the Eg)-ptian Government. The accoinpanying 

sanitary officials do all in their power to prevent 
what at one time was a disgrace to civilization. 

The pilgrimage to Mecca will undoubtedly 
remain an everlasting institution to the Moham- 
medan religion ; and it is to be hoped that still 
greater measures will eventually be taken to 
prevent the spread of disease, for which this 
famous yearly pilgrimage is unquestionably 

The Hunt of the Man = Monkey. 

By Percy Longhurst. 

Related to the writer by an actual eye-witness, Captain Bywater, late commander of the Inman 

liner " City of Brussels." The Rajah of Sarawak, Sir Charles Brooke, accompanied the party. A 

specimen of this rare monster was found, and it was thought he might be taken alive. He took 

refuge in a tree, however, and this brought about a strange and tragic denouement. 

O R N E O is comparatively little 
known. Although part of it is in 
the hands of the Dutch, and part 
under the dominion of the famous 
Rajah of Sarawak, most of this vast 
island is in the hands of native rulers, who 
possess more or less independent control of 
their country. 

Rich in minerals, and gifted by Nature with 
the most luxuriant vegetation, its climate is far 
from being suitable for Europeans, and this is 
probably the reason why so little is known of 
its enormous extent. Wild animals of all kinds 
abound in the extensive forests ; and good 
sport is obtainable with the buffaloes, tigers, 
and pachydermatous animals that abound — not 
to speak of the many varieties of deer. All 
have heard of the terrible orang-outangs that 
are found in this and the neighbouring islands ; 
but in the interior and the more remote parts of 
Borneo there exists an animal which has been 
seen by but few Europeans. To the natives — 
by whom it is looked upon with terror — it is 
known as the " Mai-as," or " man-monkey." 

This extraordinary animal is emphatically 
distinct from any other variety of the ape family, 
and is different from the rest, not only in its 
habits and appearance, but is also gifted with a 
really high degree of intelligence — far and away 
above that of the chimpanzee. Marvellous are 
the stories told by the natives of the intelligence, 
strength, and cruelty of the " man-monkey " ; and 
these stories, extraordinary as they undoubtedly 
are, can no more be dismissed with contemptuous 
disbelief than can be the now-proved stories 
respecting the African gorilla. 

Unlike other members of the ape family, the 
Mai-as is ungregarious ; a number of families 
do not herd together, but a party will be made 
up of perhaps a dozen females with only one 

As far as brain power is concerned the 
Mai-as is far and away in advance of any other 
animal, wild or domesticated, and the instances 
that can be cited to prove this are so extra- 
ordinary that they cannot be considered solely 
as the result of brute instinct, but must be 
elevated to the higher plane of reason. The 
Mai-as (amongst the natives the term " Mai-as" 
is applied solely to the male) builds himself a 
house in the trees, made of boughs, interlaced 

and thatched with grass and bamboos, while his 
females sleep in the branches of neighbouring 
trees. His ordinary mode of progression is by 
means of the hind legs, the arms being seldom 
used for getting over the ground. 

In strength and bulk, although not in height, 
he is superior to the terrible black gorilla of 
Central Africa, while in appearance, at a short 
distance, he looks like a short and very broad 
native, being a brownish-black, and standing 
about 4)2 ft. high. In the face he is far less 
repulsive than his neighbour the orang-outang 
or the chimpanzee. 

No other ape possesses the marvellous 
muscular development of the Mai-as. His 
strength is tremendous, and terrible stories are 
told of his extreme physical power and his 
fondness for making use of it. With a single 
jerk of one of his enormous hands he has been 
known to wrench, clean from its socket, the 
arm of some unfortunate native who has been 
unlucky enough to get within his reach. 

The Mai-as is let severely alone by the 
natives ; and even the Malays, probably the 
bravest race of men in the world, fight shy of 
attacking this terrible man-monkey, unless in 
overwhelming numbers and out in the open 

It is from this creature, without any doubt, 
that the derisive name of the " Wild Man of 
Borneo " is derived. Let me hasten to assure 
my readers that all that has been stated of the 
existence and habits of the Mai-as is perfectly 
true ; the above facts, and the following story 
of the hunt of the monster, having been given 
me by an eye-witness, a British sea captain, 
a man of plain words and unimpeachable 

Captain Bywater had been captain of one of 
the trans-Atlantic liners some years ago, and, 
leaving the shipping company, had, in 1884, 
been engaged to take command of a small steam 
yacht, owned by an English gentleman, who, 
with a number of friends, intended taking a cruise 
of several months in and about Malaysia. One 
of the party had heard of the Mai-as, and it had 
been arranged to try and secure a live specimen 
for presentation to the London Zoo. 

An uneventful cruise of some weeks brought 
the yacht to Borneo, and, steaming up to 
Sarawak, the Englishmen landed and waited 




u|)on llu* Kajali, Sir Charles Hronkc. to obtain 
his permission before setting out on the Mai-as 
hunt. Permission to hinit was readily given ; 
but when the Rajah heard of the object of their 
projectetl ex^K-dition he became so interested 
that he determined to accompany them himself, 
and so, with fifty stalwart Malays as guards and 
an ei]ual number of Dyaks as beaters, the party 
set out on their dangerous journey. 

On the second morning after the start a 
somewhat exciting incident took place. The 
captain of the yacht was in advance, when the 
native guide immediately 
in front of him suddenly 
stopjx'd and, shouting. 

guide ; and so strong was the blow, and 
so keen the edge of the weapon, that it shore 
clean through the huge reptile and the head 
dropped to the ground, where the evil jaws 
continued opening and shutting with spasmodic 
malignity, while the huge body writhed and 
crashed through the undergrowth. 

After this adventure the party proceeded with 
greater caution, and as they neared the locality 
wherein it was supposed was the home of 
the Mai-as, the Dyaks and Malays spread them- 
selves out in advance of the party of Englishmen, 

Beware — danger in 

front," sprang hurriedly 
backwards unsheathing as 
he did so his long, keen, 
narrow-bladed sword. 

" Where ? " exclaimed 
the Englishman, pressing 
forward, and as he blun- 
dered on he put his foot 
on what appeared to be a 
dead tree lying across the 
track, with the intention 
of clambering over it. 

" Take care I take 
care!'' shouted the Malay, 
excitedly, as the sailor, 
unable to see anything 
which would warrant such 
alarm, was actually trying 
to get over the dead tree. 

" Take care," yelled the 
Malay again, and grabbing 
the Englishman by the 
shoulder he pulled him 
backward. Then, in 
answer to the indignant 
astonishment in the sailor's 
face, he pointed to the ob- 
struction across the path. 
"Big snake," he said, 
laconically, and glided 
away among the under- 

The Eng" ' : gazed 
at the dir:.. ,.;uwnish- 
black object lying in front of him, witii an 
incredulous face. Suddenly he noticed the 
thmg moving, and then a long, black head 
appeared, pomting slowly here and there as 
the monster, aroused from his sleep by the 
voices, drowsily endeavoured to ascertain the 
cause of the commotion. Suddenly a flash 
of lightning seemed to descend on the 
reptile's neck : it was the sword of the Malay 



beating the forest, and all the while keeping a 
sharp look-out for the dreaded man-monkey. 
All moved with the greatest caution, and the 
keen, anxious faces of the natives showed that 
they considered the business in hand to be no 
child's play. 

Presently a loud shout from one of the Dyaks 
brought the party up all standing, and with their 
fingers on the triggers of their rilles (for there 



was no telling how the Mai-as might resent their 
intrusion) the Englishmen advanced to where 
the native had perceived the hideous an'imal 
standing at the foot of a tree. 

Slowly the Mai-as began to climb the tree, in 
the lower boughs of which could be seen his 

"the englishmen advanced to where the native hao perceived the 


house, constructed of thick branches cunningly 
interlaced. Then began the trouble to induce 
him to descend, and if possible to drive him to 
the open country ; for in the dense forest there 
was but small chance of surrounding him and 
taking him alive, as the Englishmen wished. 
Stones, clods of earth, and sticks were hurled at 
him, and then he leisurely descended. As his 
assailants hurriedly retired he reached the 
ground and disappeared along one of the 
forest paths. 

For hours the party followed at a respectful 
distance, until at last the Mai-as emerged from 
the forest into the open and made straight 
for a small pond, with the evident intention of 
quenching his thirst. Silently and quickly the 
hunters spread themselves out between the 
pond and the forest ; and when the Mai-as, 
having drunk his fill, turned to go back home 

he saw his way barred. Then turning h^ made 
off at great speed across the open. 

Hard at his heels came the hunters, until the 
Mai-as caught sight of a solitary palm tree not 
a mile away. Reaching it he climbed up, in 
spite of the slippery trunk and the absence of 
branches. About 30ft. above the ground the 
creature stopped, and, holding on by his arms 
and legs, watched his pursuers, who, having 
treed their game, were now 
engaged in discussing how to 
secure it. It was suggested 
that the tree be cut down 
and the Mai-as secured as it 
fell, but no tools were at 
hand, and no one, moreover, 
felt at all inclined to risk a 
hand-to-hand encounter with 
the huge animal. 

At last it was decided that 
the Mai-as be induced (if 
possible) to descend from the 
tree, and then, after breaking 
its leg with a bullet to disable 
it, to attempt to stun it by a 
blow on the head, and while 
insensible to bind it with 
strong ropes. It was by no 
means a satisfactory plan, but 
the Englishmen were anxious 
to secure the brute, if possible, alive. 
And no other method of doing so sug- 
gested itself. 

This having been settled, the next 
move was to get the Mai-as down. There 
was nothing to throw at it ; and, accord- 
ing to the natives, its strength was so 
great that it would be able to remain in 
its present position for an incalculable 
period. At length, tempted by a bribe of 
^200, a young Malay offered to climb the tree, 
and by irritating the animal induce it to 

The brave fellow fiist fixed on his hands and 
feet coverings of hide with strong thorns 
fixed therein to enable him to get a hold of the 
slippery bark, which offered no projections or 
footholds whatever; and taking with him a "shoot- 
mg-iron," he resolutely began the ascent. This 
" shooting-iron " is really a blow-pipe, somewhat 
similar to that used by the Indians of the River 
Amazon, but having a sharp spear-head firmly 
fixed at one end in such a manner as not to 
interfere with the passage of a dart through the 
hollow pipe. 

Breathlessly the onlookers watched the young 
man as, foot by foot, he crept up the tree, until 
when within about 8ft. of the Mai-as (who 
so far had showed no inclination to move) he 



nust-d his weapon and prodded the animal in 
the leg whereupon the luii;e creature retreated 
liitjher up the tree. The Malay crept after him, 
and rejKaled his spear thrust, and again the 
Mai-as retreated, while the daring hunter 
followed him. 

Afraid that the tree would not l)ear his pon- 
derous weight if he went any 
higher — it was already beginning 
lo sway dangeiously — the Mai-as 
stopjK'd and, leaning down, 
slretehc'd out one hand, and 
with a lightning-like movement 
grasjvd the iron spear - head 
Then heconniienced 
to pull, and hand 
over hand, hanging 
on solely by his mus- 
cular legs, he com- 
menced to haul up 
the wretched Malay, 
who was powerless, 
the blow-pipe being 
attached to his wrist 
by a strong leather 

Little by little the 
powerful brute drew 
up the man until, 
holding the blow- 
pipe with one hand, 
he reached down 
with the other and 
WTeathed his huge 
hand in the thick, 
luxuriant hair of the 
miserable native, 
who, paralyzed by 
fear, could do no 
more than gaze at 
the savage face of 
his captor with 
terror-striclcen eyes. 
Spell - bound with 
horror, the Englishmen below then saw the 
Mai-as with a single twist wrench the Malay 
from the tree and commence to swing his 
victim backwards and forwards by the hair, 
chuckling all the time with fiendish satisfaction! 


Too fascinated with horror to use their rifles 
and slay the monster or else kill the man and 
put a merciful end to his sufferings, the hunters 
watched the wild man swinging the Malay 
faster and faster until, with an unearthly yell of 
devilish malignity, he hurled him down. The 
wretched man turned over and over as he fell, 

and came to the 
ground with a heavy 
thud that sent a 
sickening thrill 
through the hearts 
of the watchers. 
They rushed to the 
spot, but it was too 
late — the man was 
stone dead. 

Furious with rage 
one of the English- 
men raised his rifle 
and, hastily sighting, 
fired. The bullet 
struck the Mai-as 
fairly in the ribs 
under the left arm, 
and with a cry the 
brute slid to the 
ground, where for 
one brief moment 
he supported himself 
against the tree, with 
one hand on the 
wound. Then with 
a groan, quite human 
in its intensity, he 
pitched forward on 
his face, dead. 

It should be men- 
tioned that the party, 
after the unsuccess- 
ful hunt related, re- 
linquished the idea 
of securing a live 
.specimen, and the 
dead body of the monkey having been skinned 
and the flesh removed, the skeleton was brought 
back to England, where it remains in the 
possession of the owner of the yacht who had 
organized the expedition. 

Life in Mendi=land. 

By T. E. Leslie Alldridge. 

As the late Miss Mary Kingsley clearly indicated, there is a vast amount of utter savagery rampant 

in our "old possessions." In the following article this is clearly brought out and described, besides 

being illustrated by photographs. The author has devoted much study to this subject. 

HE Colony of Sierra Leone is the 
oldest of our possessions in West 
Africa, and, although acquired by 
us in 1787, still remains practically 
unknown to the majoricy of people 
in this country. In the following article I shall 
try to give the readers of The Wide World 
]\Iagazine some idea of the country, its people, 
and their customs. 

Before describing the photographs in detail, 
however, it may be as well to state to which 
part of the Colony the customs — which will be 
described in detail farther on — belong, and to 
give some general idea of the country and its 
inhabitants. To the south-east of Sierra Leone 
lies a district which has been given the general 
name of Mendi-land, although it includes several 
other countries. The subjects dealt with in 
this article belong to Mendi-land and the 
countries immediately inland. 

The country is very varied, and ranges from 
undulating plains to dense forests, swamps, and 
morasses, which give place, as one goes far- 
ther inland, to a 
somewhat moun- 
tainous region. 
The people gene- 
rally are of a cheer- 
ful and kindly dis- 
position, and very 
ready to listen and 
learn. They are, 
however, extra- 
ordinarily super- 
stitious, and every- 
body wears some 
sort of fetish or 
saraka, which they 
obtain from the 
Morimen. These 
Morimen are itine- 
rating magicians, 
and make more 
money than any- 
one else in the 
country, as they 
do nothing without 
being well paid for 

it. They are the sole purveyors of the written 
fetishes. Some of the wealthier families, who 
are able to afford this luxury, will have innumer- 
able strips of paper, where it can be obtained, 
or bits of cotton-tree wood, covered with magical 
hieroglyphics, hanging from the palm rafters of 
their huts. 

The customs in vogue among the natives are 
both curious and interesting, more especially 
those of the " Poro," the " Bundu," and the 
" Bundu devil." Poro is a system of native 
Freemasonry amongst men and boys, and the 
photographs of the Poro boys and Bundu 
girls deal with these customs during the juvenile 
stages of probation. The boys shown in the 
illustration of the Poro (first photo.) are in their 
dancing costumes. The dress is very peculiar. 
A hoop encircles the waist, from which depends a 
cascade of fibre reaching to the ankles ; a netting 
of country cotton is over the body ; a curious 
head-dress of fantastic device, not unlike the 
front of a mitre, is usually worn ; bangles of 
iron, copper, or brass are on their wrists, and 

From a] 





Till': wini-: world magazine. 

some scbl)clis, or fetish charms, hang from their 
necks. The daiuiiig is performed to the beat- 
ing of the sanyhoi, or tom-tom. Dancing and 
singing lo this accom|Kiniment are the principal 
anuisenienls of the Mendis after dark, and very 
often they are kept up during the entire night. 
When the boys have com|ileted their training 
and ceremonies in tlie Poro they are then 
eligible to attend I'oro meetings. All assemblies 
and consultations of chiefs upon secret country 
matters, whether of war, peace, or what-not, 
first Like place in a Poro bush. Every large 
town where there is an important chief has 
its jKilitical I'oro bush, which is sacred except 
to the Poro people, as in the case with a 
lodge of I->eemasonr)-. The places wherein 
the children are kept are always selected 
in some secluded spot in tlie big bush, 
which they clear sufficiently of timber to suit 
their requirements. After this wigwams — not 
huts— of palm-leaves and wattles are erected 
quickly, ever\ thing being of the most primitive 
description. These retreats are always spoken 
of as the Poro bush and the Bundu bush. The 
approach to aPoro bush is readily distinguish- 
able from the Poro emblem, which is con- 
spicuously put about the public bush-paths. 
This emblem is called " Kane," and is a pretty 
little mossy fern, which is entwined round 
shrubs and the trunks of trees. Sometimes, 
where an elaborate display is desired, very long 
ro|xrs of this twisted fern are suspended from 
the branches of tall trees, gracefully forming a 
series of delicate festoons, and transposing that 
part of the forest into a 
miniature fair)-land. 

No indication is given 
as to the girls' where- 
abouts, concerning which 
there is always a great 
deal of secrecy and mys- 
tery. Now and then, 
however, there reverbe- 
rates through the stillness 
cf the forest a weird 
sound, which, once heard, 
can never be forgotten. It 
is one long-drawn, low 
note, which presently grows 
louder and then gradually 
dies away. This unvary- 
ing chant, or rather wail, 
peculiar to the Bundu 
girls, alone betrays the 
neighbourhood of their 
encampment. These 
young Bundu girls are 
under the entire control 
of some of the elderly 

women of the town to which the Bundu is 
affiliated, and the country laws in connection 
witli the Bundu are so excessively severe, that 
for any man to attempt to penetrate within its 
sacred precincts would probably mean death to 
him or, at all events, his being sold into 

It is in the Bundu that the girls are initiated 
into certain secret country customs ajjpertaining 
to their se.\. W'hilst there all Bundu giris 
wear round their waists several ropes of bugle 
beads, made from a very thin cane, and upon 
their high coiffure is usually a cluster of 
circular seeds resembling a bunch of large 
black grapes, both the beads and the seeds 
having a fetish signification, and, except upon 
special occasions, this may be said to form 
their entire costume. Any persons having 
the means can send their girls to this Bundu 
or, in reality, convent. It not infrequently 
happens that a child of nine or ten years of age 
is betrothed before entering the Bundu, and is 
kept there at the expense of her j^afici' until she 
is of a marriageable age, when, amidst great 
rejoicings in the town and the firing of guns, the 
killing of cattle, sheep, or goats, the girl is re- 
moved from the Bundu and presented to her 
husband, her body having previously been 
greased over until it has assumed a high polish 
by way of decoration. She is adorned with as 
many ornaments of silver, of the most hetero- 
geneous description, as can be borrowed from 
the friends of the family for the occasion — long 
silver chains, to which are attached big silver 

mii liEl.l.IiS IJI- 1 HK liLMJL liAI.I.Ki. 




pla(}ues, containing some Mori fetish charm ; 
long silver armlets, also, as well as silver bangles, 
and anything and everything in the way of 
country-made silverwork, all very massive and 
rough, but all of silver. As may be supposed, 
the contrast of so much brightened silver against 
the polished ebony body is exceedingly striking, 
and, although very barbaric, it all looks remark- 
ably fine. 

The betrothal consists of an arrangement 
with the child's parents for the barter of the 
girl, which is fixed by custom at one head of 
money — nominally ^3. This sum is paid in 
palm oil, palm kernels, country cloths, country 
iron, or whatever may 
be the currency in 
the locality. In the 
Bandi country, just 
beyond Mendi, an 
ordinary slave, 
whether man, woman, 
or child, can be 
bought for 200 coun- 
try irons — value in 
English money, 
i6s. 8d. Amongst 
many other accom- 
plishments which the 
girls are taught in the 
Bundu is dancing, 
and in the illustration 
on the preceding 
page we see five 
young Bundu girls as 
they appeared after 
going through a 
series of dances 
under a broiling sun, 
the thermometer re- 
gistering i2odeg. F. 
The dancing costume 
consists of a netting 
of country cotton 
worn over the body. 
Long, bushy bun- 
ches of palm - leaf 
fibre are suspended 
from thickly -plaited 
bangles of the same fibre round the arms and 
wrists, and various charms hang from the neck. 
Short knickerbockers of country cloth are tied 
above the knees by palm-leaf string, to which 
are fastened small pieces of hollow, native iron, 
which have small rings loosely hanging from them, 
and these, jingling as the dance goes on, give 
out a rich and not unpleasant sound. The chief 
feature, however, is the "dressing" of the 
girls' faces, which means that they are covered 

with strange devices, produced by the smearing 
Vol. vi.— 25. 


From a Photo. 

on with the finger of a substance called 
wojch, which is composed of white clay and 
animal fat. 

The girls dance to the music of the segureh 
— a small gourd with a longish neck, covered 
loosely with a netting of hard seeds strung upon 
thread. The instrument is shaken by the 
women. The girls not only dance together in 
a miniature ballet, but execute very excellent 
pas seals in the most creditable and elegant 
manner, each trying to outdo the other in ob- 
taining the greatest share of approbation, which 
is always very lavishly bestowed. Often after an 
unusually well-performed and difiicult dance — 

a pas seiil generally 
— some of the elderly 
women present rush 
excitedly into the 
arena, embrace the 
successful dancer, 
and at once com- 
mence to besmear 
her face, neck, and 
shoulders with a 
liberal supply of 
grease, amidst frantic 
yells and gesticula- 
tions of delight from 
the admiring onlook- 
ers, many of whom 
manage to find some 
trifle to present to 
the dancers after the 
performance is over. 
At the conclusion 
the girls are escorted 
back to their place 
of concealment, the 
whole entertainment 
being conducted in 
the most orderly and 
decorous manner, to 
which the most fas- 
tidious person could 
take no exception. 

The next photo- 
graph shows the awe- 
inspiring Bundu 
"devil." The Bundu devil is a "medicine" 
woman who is believed to be capable of 
casting spells, for good or for evil, over the 
destinies of the men. Generally speakmg, the 
Bundu devil is located in all large towns, and 
makes her appearance when she is specially 
called out to look into some misbehaviour 
on the part of the men, or upon some 
gala occasion or on the visit of strangers 
of note to the town. She naturally inspires 
much awe among the people and commands the 












y- rom a \ 


VllA. CO>l"lME. 


greatest respect from all classes. 
is strange, but all Bundu devils 
attired, the only difference 
being in the shape of the 
head-piece, which allows of 
some variation. No part 
of the flesh may be visible, 
so the arms and legs are 
encased in cloth, the ends 
of which are sewn up. In 
each covered hand the 
•' devil " carries a little 
bunch of twigs, with which 
she goes through a kind 
of du- ' ' ow, as she 
does I r a syllable. 

Her dress is made of 
long, shaggy fibre, dyed 
black, and over her head 
she wears a grotesque 
wo ask. Occasion - 

.'-■ indulges in a 

but, owing to the 
great heat thus caused, a 
little of this exercise goes 
a very long way, and she j.,„„ ^ 

Her costume pec 
are similarly of 

retires after a few moments to some quiet 
part of the town, when her attendant, who 
is always present with a large country mat, 
unrolls it and encircles the "devil," who is 
then able to remove her mask and obtain 
a little air away from the vulgar gaze of 
the madding crowd. One of the finest 
specimens of these Bundu devil masks may 
be seen in the Ethnographical Section of 
the British Museum. 

We next have a photograph of a Nafari 
"devil." The Nafari devil is a man with a 
grotesque costume. His legs, face, and 
hands are covered with cloth, together with 
his waist, while the remainder of his body 
is covered with long fibre. 

The next photograph is, perhaps, the 
most interesting of all. It represents four 
Tasso men. Tasso men are members of 
a secret society known as the "Tasso." 
About this society a great deal of mystery 
exists, and the brotherhood is regarded with 
a veneration amounting to awe by the 
people. Tassos are found only in the 
Imperri - land, Sherbro, in the Colony of 
Sierra Leone. This photo, was taken at 
the crowning of the Sokong of the district 
in 1895. The power vested in these Tasso 
men is immense, and gives them prece- 
dence next to the Sokong, and even entitles 
them to raise objections, if they see fit, to 
the laws proposed by that chief. 

Tasso is purely a Sherbro institution, 
uliar to Imperri. They are practically heads 
the Poro, or order of native Freemasons. 





Each big chief of a town has his Tasso man, 
and on very important occasions, such as the one 
mentioned above, he attends with his chief In 
the photograph are to be seen four Tasso men 
who attended with their chiefs in this way. 
These latter formed part of the bodyguard of the 
Sokong, and took a prominent part in the 

It is necessary to observe carefully the 
costumes worn by these men, and more particu- 
larly their enormous head-gear, which is about 
3ft. in height. It is a great weight, and is 
consequently removed whenever the men are 
not actively engaged. These head-pieces are 
erected on a foundation of plaited cane. 
Directly above the part that fits the head will 
be observed a skull and thigh-bones. These 
belonged to defunct Tassos, and can only 
be renewed from other departed members of 
the brotherhood. The whole is surmounted by 
a gigantic bouquet of feathers gathered from 
all kinds of birds. The bouquet or plume 
of feathers is quite 3ft. in diameter. The 
dress of these men is of the usual barbaric 
description, made up of a network over the 
body, from which hang various skins of animals. 
Bunches of fibre from the waist form a short 
skirt, while attached to the knees are several 
pieces of hollowed native iron, from which 
depend rings of similar metal that jingle as the 
men move about, making a considerable noise. 
The Tassos do not dance. That part of the 
ceremony is undertaken by the " Laga " and his 
followers, who are subordinate to the Tassos. 
It is only necessary for a single Laga to be 
present in attendance 
upon several Tassos. The 
clothing of the Laga is 
very scanty, consisting 
merely of a cloth tied 
round the waist and hang- 
ing nearly to the knees. 
On his head is a peaked 
cap, not unlike a dunce's 
cap in shape, and in one 
hand he carries a shield. 
The whole of his black 
body is bedaubed with 
white spots. The Laga 
has about fifty boys in 
attendance. These boys 
rush madly round the 
town, headed by the Laga, 
to notify the people of 
what is about to take 
place, and to call them 
together or warn them 
to get into their houses. 
If a Tasso dies in a town 

he must not be interred there, but in the 
bush, as the law is that no woman must look 
upon a dead Tasso. Consequently when one 
dies in a town a Poro, or law, is immediately 
placed upon that town compelling the women 
to withdraw from it until the burying is over. 
Poro law is go imperative that the inhabit- 
ants of a town can be sent into the bush in a few 
minutes, but it occasionally happens that natural 
curiosity will induce a woman to secrete herself 
and thereby, in disobedience to the Poro 
law, become acquainted with some of the ex- 
ternal mysteries of the Poro. The supersti- 
tion in such cases is that sickness follows, and 
during her illness the lady confesses what she 
has done and seen. She is then carried into 
the Poro bush and initiated into the Poro 
rites, and henceforth all such women are re- 
garded in the same light as Poro men, and 
are practically native Freemasons. 

The next photograph shows a slave-dealer 
with his slaves, captured in the Konno country. 
His stock-in-trade consisted of a man and a 
woman tied together by a rope round their 
necks. The woman, who was suckling an 
infant, was in no way related to the man, and 
both of them had been purchased like cattle 
and strung together. When captured by the 
police the dealer was taking his purchases to 
the Susu country to be exchanged for cows. 
He was quite hurt at the idea of his " legitimate 
purchases" being taken from him, and volun- 
teered the statement that he had paid eight 
pieces of cloth for the man, the same quantity 
for the woman, and two pieces for the baby. 

/•roi/i a] 






A piece of cloth was probably worth three 
shillings. The active state of the slave trade is 
largely due to the Sofas. For instance, in 1894 
they made a raid into the Konno country, burnt 
all the towns and villages, and either killed or 
captured the inhabitants. Indeed, the slave 
trade is rife all over the country from one end 
of it to the other, but there is something more 
than a glimmer of hope that the suppression of 
it, although naturally surrounded with seemingly 
insuperable difficulties, is gradually but surely 
being brought within a 
measurable distance. 

Following the photo- 
graph of the slave-dealer 
with : ds is a pic- 

I a native bridge, 

- -f the most remark- 
able suspension bridges 
in the world. This bridge, 
known ■ a Yenketti, 
spans i;agweh and 

Schli rivers. Its construc- 
tion is both curious and 
ingenious. It is made 
entirely of coarsely inter- 
woven rattan canes, some- 
thing in the form of the 
letter V, the sides being 
supported by extra long 
canes depending from the 
high trees upon both sides 
of the river, the elevation 
at both ends being some 
25ft. above the water, but 

dropping in the centre to 
about 12ft. It is hardly 
necessary to remark that 
the oscillating and elastic 
properties are such as to 
entirely absorb one's un- 
divided attention while 
groping an exceedingly 
unsteady and fitful pas- 
sage through this swing- 
ing and dangerous open- 
work structure. 

The photograph imme- 
diately after the Yenketti 
bridge shows two balen- 
jeh players and their in- 
struments. The balenjeh 
is composed of pieces 
of hardwood of varying 
lengths, which are fastened 
on to a bamboo frame. 
Under these pieces of 
wood are placed gourds 
of different sizes. It 
will be seen in the picture that the strips of 
wood are fairly small at one end and become 
larger as the other end is approached, so 
that the piece at the extreme end is quite a 
small log. As the pieces of wood increase in 
size so the gourds become bigger and bigger. 
This enables the player to produce a sort of 
scale by tapping the wooden portion with his 
sticks. The sticks are small pieces of cane 
about I ft. long, with round tops made of 
hardened india-rubber. Round their wrists the 


l-'roni a] 






Frovi a Plioto. 

players wear small ornaments of native iron, and 
the jangling of these, together with the weird 
noise produced from the 
balenjeh, forms a not un- 
pleasant sound. 

The drums in the next 
photograph, although instru- 
ments of music, are more 
used to sound an alarm or 
to call the people together. 
These drums are only beaten 
on very special occasions, 
and are never taken out of 
the town. The body of the 
drum is made of wood, 
while over the top is 
stretched the skin of some 
animal. In the photograph 
the sticks of the drum to the 
left will be noticed lying on 
the ground, while the other 
two are stuck between the 
pegs in the top right-hand 
side. The huts in the back- 

mens of native habitations. 
They are of the description 
common to most parts of 
Africa, with mud walls and 
roof of palm-thatch, and 
are either beehive or 
parallelogram in form. 
The last photograph 
represents two native 
women fishing. The one 
to the right holds the net 
in her hand. Close exami- 
nation shows the net to 
be not at all unlike the 
shrimping - nets of this 
country. In fact, the 
shape is almost identical. 
To the left is a native 
bridge composed of tree- 
trunks and logs of wood. 
The background of the 
picture shows the 
luxurious vegetation, so 

common in tropical countries, growing down 

to the very water's edge. 

ground are typical speci- y.>w«rt] 



The Sugar Cane Industry in Natal. 

By James Cassidy. 

An interesting and comparatively new industry of South Africa, pictured by photographs, and 

every process described by the author. The " Garden Colony," as Natal is called, has attracted 

the notice of all the world lately as the battleground of Boer and Briton; and this article will 

help you to realize how rich is the country so recently overrun by the enemy. 

\i; R\' interesting history is that of 
-.he fust attempts of the Natal 
I "olonists to produce sugar. It is 
^ca^cely fifty years since Mr. Holden 
wrote : " Sugar is now beginning to 
auract attention ; it is thought that it may be 
grown advantageously. One gentleman has 
planted several acres .... Two years ago 
(1S4S) I purchased a few plants, which were 
brought to this place from the Isle of Bourbon. 
I planted them in two different situations, and 
one failed, whilst the other brought forth 
abundantly, producing canes 6ft. long and 6in. 
in circumference, which, by proper care, might 
even have been much larger." 

The gentleman who had planted the " several 
acres " was a Mr. Morewood, and it was he who 
thus inaugurated the first Natal Sugar Estate, on 
the Compensation Flats, on the Umhlali, about 
thirty-five miles north of Durban. He reaped 
his first crop in 1851. Very rough and ready 
were the implements used in the early manu- 
facture. An old mast was hewn into a pair of 
wooden rollers for crushing the canes, and an 
ordinary iron Kaffir cooking-pot, of about three 
L " opacity, was utilized for boiling the juice, 

b.-- ;.._ day of small things has passed away, and 
to-day the buildings of the most important sugar- 
mill in Xatal (Mount Edgecombe) covers some 
20,000 square feet ; besides which there are out- 
buildings. The machinery is worked by an 
80-h.p. engine, and the estate of about 12,000 
acres (about 5,000 under cane) is intersected by 
nine miles of tramways. " Mr. Morewood in 
workmanlike fashion," says Mr. Don, "began 
cultivating his land with the plough. In after 
years this was to a great extent discarded by 
Natal planters, partly, no doubt, because newly 
cleared good bush-land did not require it, and 
could be holed and planted at once with suc- 
ces=:. Five-and-twenty years later, when lands 
< V estates were becoming exhausted and 

morr ever requiring treatment with the 

ploUj,,., I., .J less experienced planters were dis- 
posed, notwithstanding, to fall in easily with the 
ideas of Mauritian brethren, then arriving in the 
Colony, and who, unaccustomed to the imple- 
ment, looked askance at its utility. Now, however, 
ploughing is recognised by all as an essential 
operation on every well - cultivated property, 
except when virgin bush land is being cropped. 

The sugar cane is found growing wild in 
Manicaland (in Portuguese territory), and was 
probably cultivated there ages ago. The cane 
shows a density of from ydeg. to ladeg. Beaume, 
and yields from 6 per cent, to 9 per cent, of 
sugar. We learn from our mistakes, and so buy 
our experience. The early planters bouglit 
theirs dearly. They imagined, for example, that 
the cane would only grow well on flats, but they 
found that the soil on these was often poor, and 
tliat the canes were exposed to the risk of fire, 
owing to periodical grass burnings prevalent in 
the country. Then they selected alluvial flats 
on river-banks, but there the frost blighted their 
cane-fields and the floods wrecked their mills. 

It is said that on one occasion one of these 
rivers, the Ungeni, rose 28ft., and submerged 
the cane-fields of a pioneer estate, rushing 
through the factory to the depth of 9ft., and 
(among other havoc) carrying the heavy battery 
of boiling pans right out of the masonry. " An 
amusing incident," says Mr. Don, "occurred at 
the height of the flood, when a large elephant 
was swept past the mill, trumpeting furiously." 

We are in this article enabled to reproduce a 
set of photographs which give a very graphic 
idea of the sugar cane industry in Natal. The 
first one shows the preparing of the tops for 
planting cane. Sugar cane is planted by putting 
one or two joints of the top of the stem into 
the ground. Very slow is the cane in its 
growth, and there are special conditions neces- 
sary to a good or even a moderate yield. The 
prime condition is facility for irrigation. Two 
years must pass before the cane arrives at 
maturity, so that the number of adventurers in 
sugar is limited. 

The Natal cane is precisely the same as that 
grown in Madeira, but the Madeira farmers are 
far greater adepts at sugar cane growing than 
are the Natal farmers. They (the Natalites) do 
not understand the art of irrigation as do the 
peasants of the famous little isle. It is, per- 
haps, not so well known as it deserves to be 
that the green leaves of the cane constitute 
a valuable food for cattle both in Natal and 
Madeira. The cane thrives best in a warm, 
moist climate, with prevalent sea breezes and 
moderate intervals of hot, dry weather. The 
"arrow," or flowering stem, is without joints, 
and bears a panicle of soft, silky flowers. 



easily ; we will 
not return, we 
will stay here." 
The few who did 
go back took with 
them grand news 
of the land in 
which they had 
been working, 
and ship-load 
after ship-load of 
Indians was 
landed upon the 
shores of Natal, 
so that to - day 
one of the big- 
gest problems of 
the Colony is 
what to do with 
the coolies and 
how to stop the 
foreign immigra- 

Frotn a Photo. by\ 


[/. E. Middlcbrook. 

The soil required for successful cane grow- 
ing is a fertile marly soil, not too heavily 
charged with common salt or other saline 
ingredients. The presence of lime is of 
primary importance. Some of the species of 
cane are highly ornamental. There are two 
methods in vogue for propagating the cane— by 
suckers, or by cuttings of the stems which will 
throw out shoots at their joints from eyes or 
buds, as no cultivated cane seems to ripen its 

In our picture we notice that the workers are 
Indian women, employed upon the easiest part 
of the sugar industry. These people are quite 
black, with long hair and European features. 
Their business is to cut off the tops of the 
cane, with two or three of the upper joints, 
and to strip off the leaves should they 
not have been previously stripped off. The 
Indians or coolies were brought into Natal 
owing to the difficulty in the supply of 
labour. " Why should we toil all day and 
every day for the white man, the invader of our 
country?" asked the Kaffir. "We will work 
only when we like on the plantation or farm, 
and as necessity may require," asserted the 
aborigines in and around the Colony. So it 
came about that contracts were entered into by 
the sugar-planters with the Indians to employ 
their labour for a certain number of years. 
Then arose another difficulty : the time came 
for the coolies to depart. " But this is a good 
land," said they, " not so crowded as that from 
which we have come. The climate is better, 
the soil yields well, we are able to live more 


Our second 
photograph of the Natal sugar industry gives a 
capital idea of the planting of the cane by male 

In the quite early days of the industry the 
canes were planted in holes dug by the hand. 
Now the hoe is very freely used both in pre- 
paring the land and in tlie actual planting ; but 
perhaps the most usual plan at the present time 
is to prepare the land by means of ploughs 
drawn by cattle, as the price of labour does not 
admit of hand hoeing. Sometimes the canes are 
planted in trenches formed by a plough about 
eight to twelve inches deep, the earth being 
banked up upon the margin and well manured. 
The distance between the holes or trenches 
must always be such as to afford free access of 
air to the plants and convenient space for the 
labourers employed in tending them and clear- 
ing the giound from weeds. In the matter 
of actual difference between holes and rows 
much variation is noticeable on different planta- 
tions. Look at the man shown to the extreme 
right of the second photograph. Observe that 
he holds the cane longitudinally, and that is 
precisely how it is planted — not, as many imagine, 
like a stick stuck upright in the ground. Two 
or more slips are laid longitudinally at the 
bottom of each hole, and covered with earth to 
the depth of one or two inches. In about a 
fortnight more or less the sprouts appear a little 
above the earth, and then a little more earth from 
the bank of the trench is put into the hole, and 
as the plants continue to grow the earth is 
occasionally filled in, a little at a time, until, 
after four or five months, the holes are eventually 



J- r . If. .; I /:.' 


filled up. There is no uniform time for bringing 
the cane to perfection. It is an affair of 
circumstances altering cases. There is scarcely 
a system as to the time of planting, many 
planters performing the operation at the most 
convenient, rather than the most seasonable, 
time. In the centre of the photograph a thick- 
handled, arrow-headed hoe is to be seen plainly, 
and it is with 
this implement 
that the coolies 
are working the 
holes. " The 
sugar planta- 
tion," wrote a 
obser\er, when 
visiting one in 
Queensland for 
the first time, 
"is a pretty and 
homely object 
scenery. The 
mills, with their 
lofty chimney- 
stacks, are gener- 
ally on the banks 
of a river, whose 
dense scrub has 
been cleared. At 
a distance the 
' T'jjjs display the 
lovely tints of a 
young cornfield, 

and tlie narrow 
paths give an air 
of occupation 
and industry, 
which at once 
strikes the eye 
accustomed to 
the open forest 
or half - cleared 
farms. The plan- 
tation crops are 
always green, and 
always delightful 
to look upon." 

ITi e stems 
vary in height, 
when the cane is 
matured, be- 
tween 6ft. and 
14ft., and are 
divided by pro- 
minent annular 
joints into short 
lengths. Long, 
narrow leaves 
sprout from each joint, but as the canes 
approach maturity all those of the lower joints 
fall off. In some plantations it is not an 
unusual custom to run a fire through the cane 
ready for cutting, to clear it of dry leaves and 
other rubbish, the cane being none the worse for 
the ordeal, although it naturally loses its exterior 
colour and bloom. The young leaves, as 

{J. E. Middlebrook. 




I'rom a Fhoto. hy J . K. Middlebrook. 




J-ioia a Photo, /y] 


already mentioned, are utilized in Natal. The 
maturity of the cane is indicated by the skin 
becoming dry, smooth, and brittle ; by the cane 
becoming heavy ; the pith grey, approaching to 
brown, and the juice sweet — and glutinous. 

The canes which grow immediately from the 
planted slips are called " plant canes " : it is 
usual in the West Indies to raise several crops 

in successive 
years from the 
same roots. The 
canes sprouting 
up from the old 
roots or stoles are 
known as " rat- 
toons." An ex- 
pert upon the 
sugar industry 
has recorded his 
opinion that the 
rattoons are not 
so vigorous as the 
original plant 
canes, but they 
afford better 
sugar, and that 
with less trouble 
in clarifying and 
concentrating the 
juice. Inquiring 
into the practices 
of the old AVest 
Indian Colonists 
we find that they were accustomed to plant one- 
thiid of the cane grounds every year, so as to 
obtain one crop from plant-cones and two from 
rattoons. Some planters, it is asserted, under 
favourable circumstances, raised rattoon crops 
for more than twenty years successively from the 
same stoles. The cutter who understands his 
business severs the cane as near to the ground 

[/. E. Middlebrook. 

From a Photo, hy^ 
Vol. vi.— 26. 


[/. E. Middlebrook. 




From a Photo, by J. E. Middlebrook. 

as possible, because the richest juice is found 
in the lower joints. Sometimes cutters, after 
cutting off the canes level with the ground, 
think well to cut the stumps down a few inches 
below the surface of the ground, afterwards 
covering them up with mould. One or two of 
the top points of the cane are cut off and the 
remainder is divided into pieces about a yard 
long, tied up in bundles and carried to the mill, 
unless, as is now very general, it is destined to 
conveyance by the automatic carrier. No 
portion of the sugar cane is useless : the leaves 
serve as food for cattle, and the dried leaves 
and certain sec- 
tions of cane as 
fuel and manure. 
The photo- 
graph at the 
bottom of the 
preceding page 
aflfords a very 
-J. uju - arting of 
the cane from the 
field to the tram- 
station. This is 
a very convenient 
which obviates a 
large amount of 
laljour. And the 
same may be said 
for the system of 
tramways which 
now obtains. As 
already stated, 
over nine miles 
of tramways 
intersect the 

famous Mount Edgecombe Sugar Estate. The 
loading-up of the trams and trucks suggests, at 
hrst sight, an English " Harvest Home." 

The automatic cane-carrier, or cradle, is an 
ingenious arrangement, incessantly supplied by 
the coolies, who deposit their burden in its 
sloping trough, along which it is carried by an 
endless revolving band up to those who feed 
the rollers. The cane, if we take the Mount 
Edgecombe Mills as a model, is crushed by two 
sets of rollers, which extract from 75 per cent, 
to 80 per cent, of the juice, varying from gdeg. 
to i2deg. Beaume. The juice passes through 


From a Photo, by J. E. Middicbrook. 





J-'roni a Photo, by J . E. Middlebiook. 

the usual evaporating processes, and reaches the 
vacuum pans at a density of about 2odeg. The 
average yield of an acre of canes is from one 
and a half to four tons. A fair average price 
for sugar-land within a practicable distance of a 
mill would be ^10 i^er acre to purchase or ^i 
per annum to rent. There are no taxes, and 
to break up such land would cost from ^3 to 
^\ per acre. The most lecent edition of the 
Official Handbook of South Africa states that 
" It is only a coast-belt, ranging from perhaps 
six to twelve miles inland, that contains the soil 
and that is otherwise suitable for cane-urowing 
in Natal. Admittedly a large portion of this is 
not suitable : but besides what is now success- 
fully cultivated there are various large tracts of 
superior land to be found. Indeed, from the 
Tugela to the Umzimkulu land is, or could be 
made, available to grow all the sugar South 
Africa is likely to consume for many years to 
come. Unfortunately," concludes the writer, 
" some of the best for the purpose has been 
long under a sort of Chancery bondage, as 
native or mission reserves, and it is high 
time steps were taken . by the Government 
to bring about the utilization of such lands 
for the increase of production of the Colony. 
Among other promising localities mention may 
be made of the Lower Umzimkulu, where, in 
addition to excellent fields for cultivation, water- 
way facilities would be invaluable." 

The last illustration brings us to the manu- 
factured article, put up in Natal bags, made 
of strong grass, and holding from 4olb. to 
5olb. each. The coolies are loading the 

finished product on to the rail for shipment. 
By -the -bye, the cost of the Indian coolie 
labourer, all included, averages about one 
shilling per day. Of recent years a good few 
shipments of Natal sugar ha\ e gone to Australia 
and a few to India. 

All estates having factories grow cane on 
their own account with one or two exceptions, 
the owners of which have leased their land 
with the view of making their factories " central" 
ones. There are many growers of cane — fifty 
to sixty — who get their sugar manufactured on 
satisfactory terms at conveniently situated fac- 
tories. Some of these planters reap canes 
yielding from five to six hundred tons of sugar 

Many cane-growers now believe the true and 
only scientific method of cane-juice extraction 
to be by the diffusion process — this being 
simply the dissolving out of juice from the cane 
by means of hot water. There is i2lb. to 131b. 
of sugar in loolb. of well-grown canes ; of this 
crushing mills express only 51b. to 81b. of sugar, 
according to the condition of the canes and 
the power of the mills. It stands to reason 
that if the canes are dry, as they are sometimes 
liable to be in Natal, though not necessarily 
wanting in saccharine matter, the extraction of 
juice by rollers is minimized, and probably half 
the sugar they contain is left in the megass. 
By diffusion, on the other hand, nothing, or 
practically nothing, is lost ; and the drier the 
season and the canes may be the better will the 
juice extraction be as compared with the 
hitherto existing mode of extraction by pressure. 

Odds and Ends. 

Buried in Birds -Road-making in Hayti— Niagara Rapids by Night— Moving a Railway Station- 
Travel Episodes in East Africa, etc.. etc. 

The internal means of 
communication in Hayti 
are simply execrable. 
There are no bridges what- 
soever, and the so-called 
roads are little better than 
indifferent bridle - paths. 
Between Port au Prince 
and Jacmel, a distance 
of about eighty miles, a 
track is kept open over 
which the mails are con- 
veyed on pack - mules. 
Our photo, shows a 
number of H a y t i a n 
soldiers " making-up " a 
road, as a welcome 
change from constant 
revolutions. They are 
dumping down fagots in 
a swamp through which 
the road passes, this extra 
attention being rendered 
necessary by the fact that 
President Simon Sam will 
shortly pass along with his 
suite on an official tour 
through the island. And 
as it is an unwritten law that all Haytian Presi- 
dents must die violent deaths, it would not do 


Ht H.\S Kll.I.i-I) 

HE CAN I'L'l 11 1 


C A LI I-O R NT AX " game-hog " forms 

the subject of this photograph 
-ome parts of California, 
especially in marshy lands 
on the river, 
se are found in 
The man 



wild duck . 
extraordinary numbers 
shown in the picture is what is 
known in California as a "game- 
hog," that is, he slaughters all the 
game he possibly can, without caring 
what use he can make of the dead 
birds, or w^hether he exterminates the 
species or* not. The man certainly 
seems to have killed far more birds 
than he can jjut to any good use. 
The people who shoot birds for the 
market are called " market hunters," 
and, not content with ordinary 
weapons, rig up great blunderbusses 
on rests, and destroy scores of birds 
al a single shot. The methods 
employed by " sportsmen " such as 
these are tending to render game 
scarce even in so new and thinly 
settled a State as California. The 
Dhotograph was supplied by Mr. 
-Arthur Inkersley, of .San Francisco, 


From a Photo. 



■WALKING HAYSTAC. , I . i_ 1_- - Ij ...,...•, LOADED WITH HAY, 

From a Photo, by Marquis Conrad de Castelthoiiiond, Florence. 

for President Simon Sam to perish ingloriously 
of suffocation in the fathomless mud of his own 

Now about the " walkiny haystacks " seen in 
the next photo. Travellers in the province of 
Naples are often greeted by strange and odd 
sights, and it is not one of the least of these to 
see a liaystack perambulating along a road with- 
out any motive-power visible, even if the spec- 
tator be close to it, and particularly if he be in 
the wake of the phenomenon. The mystery is 
only explained after a careful scrutiny under 
the stack, when the four little hoofs of a 
donkey, away underneath, may be discovered ; 
later, the head, and often just the nose, may be 
seen after a journey round the hill of hay. It 
is a marvel how 
the poor animal 
keeps his balance 
at any time with 
such a load, but 
he never seems 
surprised when 
the wind bowls 
over the stack to 
w h i c h he is 
bound, and he 
then finds his 
weary limbs 
pointing to the 
sky. On the con- 
trary, on such 
occasions he 
seems to enjoy 
the rest, till the 
load is rolled 
back again to 
proceed on its 
tottering way. 

The four men 
prominent in the 
next picture 
appear to be 
standing quite at 

ease, whereas the fact is they are working 
in one of the most dangerous spots 
humanity is ever called upon to labour. 
The life-raft on which they are standing 
is in the upper rajjids of Niagara, not 
more than 600ft. from the brink of the 
American Fall. The current at the place 
where they are rushes towards the Fall at 
the awful- rate of thirty miles an hour, and 
one false step or movement would mean 
death. Each man has a life-line tied about 
his waist, and this line is carefully guarded 
by men on the bridge to the right in the 
photograph. The men are sinking a pier 
for a temporary bridge over the rapids. 
The bridge to the right is to be rebuilt. 

One of the thoroughly new and novel features 
visitors have found at Niagara this year is the 
illumination of the famous whirlpool rapids by 
means of powerful electric lights placed along 
the shore, and by a search - light of great 
power operated from a specially-designed car 
on the Niagara (lurge Railroad. At the old 
Buttery elevator, a point where the water tosses 
wildest, forty arc lamps have been placed, 
and the turning of a switch sends their beams 
across the waters in beautiful style. The 
search-light travels down the gorge from the 
city, throwing its beams here and there in 
the inky darkness ; picking out this spot of 
beauty, then that ; lighting up the bridges, the 




From a] thirty miles an hour. [F/toto. 




waves, the banks ; and as the eye follows 
the bright beam scenes of wondrous beauty 
are beheld, even familiar points appearing 
quite new and weird under the influence of the 
rays of the electric light. Near the whirlpool 
the search-light car stops. WhsLt is known as a 
divergent door is placed before the bright light, 
and the rays fall on the dancing, racing waters 
from shore to shore. These were the condi- 
tions when the picture presented herewith was 

The territories of New 
Mexico and Arizona are 
blessed, or cursed, at 
frequent intervals during 
the rainy season with 
cloud-bursts. These 
cause great damage, and 
often there is great loss 
of life, ruin of buildings, 
the drowning of cattle, 
and so on. At these 
times the streets of 
various New Mexican 
towns are submerged ; 
houses are washed away 
by the floods, and there 
are general scenes of /.yo,!^" 

devastation and ruin. Here is a photo, of what 
is often seen, owing to these dangerous cloud- 
bursts — the moving of a railway station. In 
this particular case the station - house in its 
entirety was placed on trucks, an engine hitched 
before it, with an accompanying derrick, and 
then the entire building was wheeled for a mile 
to where higher ground would provide a safer 
and less easily submerged location. 

The ingenious life-saving apparatus of which 




From a Photo, by P. Bro^vn. 

we give a photograph is the invention of Signor 
A. Beha-Castagnola, of Lugano, and is now on 
show at the Paris Exhibition. As will be seen, 
it somewhat resembles a tennis racket, made 
with two broad ends instead of one. It is 
constructed of solid cork, strengthened with 
wood, and covered with sailcloth. The " Sal- 
vator Beha," as it is called, is serviceable for 
quite a variety of 
purposes. It can 
be thrown over- 
board tc a drown- 
ing person, or 
may be used to 
assist soldiers in 
crossing an un- 
fordable river. It 
forms a useful 
support for per- 
sons learning to 
swim, whilst a 
number of these 
lifebuoys fas- 
tened together 
would serve as a 
raft in case of 
shipwreck. Even 
a single buoy will 
support the 
weight of two 
persons in the 
water. The appa- 

ratus weighs only 4i<lb. to gib., according 
to size. 

In Arlon, the chief town of the Belgian 
province of Luxemburg, a curious old custom 
is observed on the first Sunday in Lent. 
All the newly- married couples of the pre- 
ceding year are then called upon to give 
thanks in various practical ways for the 
happiness which has, or is supposed to 
have, fallen to their lot. The brides are, 
naturally, very busy on the days preceding 
this particular Sunday, baking innumerable 
cakes and buying oranges and various sweet- 
meats. All the wedding guests who suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a tiny fragment of the 
ribbon-garter stolen from the bride on the 
wedding day must now receive from the 
bride herself newly-baked cakes called bretzel 
or fastenboJmen. The potency of the silken 
fragment, even if it consists of only a single 
thread, is considered indisputable in bringing 
about the tying of the nuptial knot to all 
unmarried owners. But above all things the 
town children are not left out of the general 
rejoicings. In fact, it is their special day, 
and they make the most of it, you may be 
sure. Early in the day they assemble in one 
of the stjuares of the old town, and then, headed 
l)y two policemen — who thus give the ceremony 
quite an official appearance — they form a joyous 
procession which wends its way through the 
streets of the town. When the children reach 
the home of a newly-married couple a halt 
is called and they sing an old folk - song. 
As seen in tl e photograph the happy couples 


From a Photo. i>y Ihcodorc Kuliu, Arlon. 




l->oin a i'hoto. 

appear at the window and tlirow down cakes, 
sweets, and oranges in abundance to the 
children, who scramble for them. At the right 
and left are the policemen, and in the fore- 
ground one of the picturesque little milk-carts 
drawn by a dog, who will no doubt also get 
his share of the good things. After singing and 
waving their thanks to bride and bridegroom 
the merry procession forms up again and passes 
on to the next couple, and so on till all the 
newly married have been visited, 'i'he children 
return home positively laden with good things, 
and already looking forward to the next year. 

One of the chief trials to the nerves during 
a journey in East Africa consists in fording the 
many rivers which cross your path. For one 
thing, you never know their approximate depth. 
One day the bed may be quite dry, and then, with 
not more than two minutes' 
warning, a rushing, mighty 
torrent comes roaring down 
upon you. I know no 
stranger or more surprising 
sight than such a visitation. 
The state of these rivers 
depends entirely upon the 
amount of rain which has 
fallen in the mountains 
perhaps fifty miles off. 
There may not have been 
cloud for weeks 

1 where you are, 

but the floods come down 
upon you just the same. I 
have crossed these rivers in 
a variety of ways, and do 
not know which is the most 
disagreeable. Generally I 
went over on mule-back, 
and the mule disliked the 
job almost as much as I did. '/.,;,'„7«'] 

Tlie bed being thickly strewn with 
loose round boulders, which he could 
not see under water, his foothold was 
necessarily insecure, and- he would go 
slip[)ing or skating along with a con- 
stant menace of toppling on his nose. 
I was nearly always wet through by 
the time I reached the opposite bank, 
but very thankful to find myself safe 
after all the lurching and stumbling 
and hesitation on the part of the 
beast. Another mode of transit was 
to be carried over on men's shoulders. 
In our photograph Mr. J. j. Harrison, 
the well-known explorer, is being taken 
across in this wav. He is in charge of 
three Somalis, and seems as comfort- 
able as though he were in an arm- 
His difficulties, however, have iiot yet 
Presently one of the men will step 
into a pool or cpiag, and there will be a frantic 
scramble and struggle. I once nearly had a bad 
ducking in this way, my shikari having sunk 
knee-deep in mud just as we were reaching the 
bank ; but he managed to projiel me forward, 
and I just caught the edge of terra jirma as 
I fell. The second photograph illustrates the 
passage of baggage-camels. They dislike it 
even more than a mule does, and need all 
sorts of persuasion, both moral and physical, 
to induce them to advance. One man tugs at 
his camel's nose, another belabours it on the 
back, and all keep up a yell of insults and 
alarming noises. It is a picturesque and 
amusing sight when you view it in safety from 
the other side. 


v_^v..ji:,Lo Civw^nl 












(see page 217.) 

The Wide World Magazine. 

Vol. VI. 

JAx\UARY, 1901. 



The Mystery of the Paumben Wire. 

Bv H. Hervev, L.\te of the Indian Government Telegraphs. 

This kind of incident has often been dealt with in fiction, but not often related as an incident of 
office routine by an Indian Government official. The catching of the wire-tapper was a delicate 
and difficult matter, but Mr. Hervey contrived it in a very dramatic manner. One of the native 
merchants suborned a telegraph operator to intercept trade messages to his rival in order to make 

large sums, paying so much for each message stolen. 

AM writing of a time shortly after I 
joined the Indian Government Tele- 
graph Department, a period when 
telegraphy in that country, while 
past its actual infancy, might yet be 
said to be in its first youth. The needle instru- 
ments had given place to the Morse Sounder, 


and we worked "open circuit," station-by-station, 
employing immense battery power to overcome 
the lack of insulation due to the absence of 

British India, espe- 
cially the south-western 
littoral, carried on a 
considerable trade with 
the Farther East. 
Houses of business — 
mostly native — were 
represented by agents 
and correspondents at 
every mercantile centre 
from Singapore to 
Yokohama ; and the 
arrival of the weekly 
China mail steamer at 
Galle, in Ceylon, would 
consequently have the 
effect of flooding the 
telegraph wires, those 
of the east coast lines 
notably, with a vast 
number of messages, 
which more or less con- 
gested the traffic and 
kept our signallers hard 
at it nearly all night. 
You see, the ship 
generally made Galle 
Harbour during the 
afternoon, and oppor- 
tunity was, moreover. 

Vol. vi.— 27. 


taken of the comparative lull in ordinary work 
after 6 p.m. or so to clear off the mail matter 
right away. Many of these despatches were, of 
course, destined for other places — even London ; 
but a goodly proportion came to the Madras 
coast firms, many of which were located at 
Negapatam, the scene of this story. 

Now, the more influential merchants of 
Negapatam belonged chiefly to a particular 
"trader sect" called Nattukotai Chetties ; but 

not to mystify the 
average English reader, 
I will refrain from de- 
scribing them at greater 
length. Individuals or 
companies of these men 
worked independently ; 
there were no " rings " 
or "corners." It was 
each one for himself; a 
case of diamond cut 
diamond ; a struggle to 
outvie and outdo. A 
great deal depended, 
therefore, on the China 
mail telegrams. For 
instance, if A got cer- 
tain information regard- 
ing such and such a 
transaction before B, so 
much the better for A ; 
but if C happened to 
know that A and B 
were interested in cer- 
tain shipments or deals, 
and if he could put in his 
oar so as to " yank " the 
market and thus throw 
both A and B out, why, 
C scored heavily, and 
so the roguery went on. 



The trade prosperity of Negapatam had been 
increasing by leaps and bounds, and when I 
was apponited to the charge of that sub-division 
the commercial importance of the port had risen 
to an unprecedented height. Depending so 
much as they did on the wires for their financial 
well-being, it goes without saying that we men 
of the Telegraph Department were objects of 
special interest and solicitude to the Nattu- 
kotais ; and when the weekly China mail 
arrangement had been set going, resulting in 
such "a " boom " to local trade, the spirit of 
rivalry and greed of gain prompted the more 
unscrupulous among them to sound us as to 
whether we could be induced by means of bribery 
to divulge the nature of the news received by 
competing firms or individuals. Many attempts 
were made to suborn the staff; the bribes in 
most cases consisting of substantial sums of 
money. A few of our signallers had been all 
but seduced ; and to one — a native, named T. V. 
Pillay — the crime of accepting " illegal pecuniary 
considerations," and disclosing a message, had 
been brought fairly home. In consequence he 
was promptly dismissed the service. The fate 
of their erring comrade had a deterrent effect on 
the others ; and though 'the "shaky" ones had 
been weeded out, transferred, and their places 
filled up by senior men, inducements were, 
nevertheless, still being surreptitiously held out 
to the new-comers. But there was no more 

When I assumed charge, the officer whom I 
relieved had been ordered by head-quarters to 
make me peruse the file of "Bribery Case" 
correspondence, and give me all the " tips " and 
warnings necessary, so as to place me on my 
guard against possible assaults on my own 

I had not been a week in charge before the 
attempt was made. The telegraph office was a 
large building, and I temporarily occupied 
quarters in the east wing. For a day or two I 
had noticed a respectable-looking native hang- 
ing about the gates, and, curious to know his 
business, I went out and accosted him, in 
English ; for I perceived he was of the educated 

" ^^'hat do you want ? " I asked. 

He salaamed profoundly, and answered me in 
a low voice. "My master, sir," said he, "wished 
to visit your honour on a very particular 

" Who is your master ? " 

"A. M. R. R. Chettiar, sir." He had named 
one of the wealthiest shipowners and traders in 
the port ! 

" I am ready to see him at any time during 
office hours," I replied, shortly. 

" He cannot leave his warehouse in the day, 
sir ; and, therefore, sent me to ask if your 
honour w'ould consent to see him at night." 

" What time ? " I asked, sharply. I smelt a 
rat ; besides which, the story of his not being 
able to leave liis place of business at any time 
he chose was a palpable lie. 

" At ten o'clock this night, sir ! " 

"Very well; tell him to come." 

Punctual to the minute, A. M. R. R. Chet- 
tiar, who was worth something like two lacs of 
rupees, slunk into my quarters accompanied by 
his emissary ; while two more of his men took 
up their posts at the door. I will curtail my 
story by merely stating that, after a world of 
Oriental circumlocution, the great man came to 
the point. Whisperingly he told me that it was 
of vital importance to him to have information 
with regard to certain expected shipments 
made by V. A. R. C. Chettiar, his great rival. 
Particulars, it appeared, would be duly tele- 
graphed to that individual on the arrival of the 
next China mail at Galle ; and so, if he (my 
visitor) could be placed in possession of 
such information, he could forestall his com- 
petitor in the market, and thus reap con- 
siderable advantage for himself. He ended 
by offering me a bribe of a thousand rupees ; 
and as he spoke, his follower cautiously 
displayed two currency notes for five hundred 
rupees each, holding them to the lamp so as to 
insure my comprehension of their value. And 
here was I in the receipt of two hundred rupees 
— a little overp{^2o in those days — per mensem ! 
But, thank God, I was proof against the tempta- 
tion. I incontinently refused to fall in with the 
proposal, and sent them away, baffled and dis- 
appointed. I took no further action in the 
matter, for unfortunately I had no witnesses. 
I was sorry that I did not temporize and ask 
the merchant to call again ; in which case I 
should have had some witnesses concealed in 
the room. As it was, I had spoken my mind 
pretty freely, so there was very little chance of 
the experiment being repeated. 

For the purpose of enabling the reader to 
understand, I must mention that the two wires 
were terminated on stout wooden posts : one 
in front, holding the southern line ; and the 
other to the rear of the building, with the wire 
continuing on to Pondicherry and elsewhere. 
A " leading " wire, insulated with gutta-percha, 
came from both terminals across the roof to a 
skylight over the signal-room, through which 
they dropped to the instrument table. The 
house had a flat, terraced roof ; and to the west 
other buildings joined on. The terrace alluded 
to was seldom used ; an outside stairway led up 
to it, but people rarely ascended there. 



Mail night came round. The warning tele- 
gram announcing the signalling of the China 
steamer flashed through the office during the 
afternoon, and preparations were made for 
coping with the inevitable rush of work. I 
came into the signal-room after dinner, resolved 

effect ; most of it ran to earth at the point 
of leakage, wherever that was. A serious 
fault existed somewhere, and I warned the 
line-runner to be prepared to start out at dawn. 
After setting things going again, I made a move 
that I had never made before : I went up on to 


to spend the best part of the night there. The 
flood of messages had already commenced to 
pour in. One signaller was hard at it, receiving 
away from Paumben to the south ; while his 
fellow was equally busy at the other instrument 
sending to Pondicherry on the north. 

Matters were progressing swimmingly, when 
suddenly Paumben " broke down." The gal- 
vanometer needle showed beats, but they failed 
to work the sounder. I hastened to the instru- 
ment, and at length, by means of much adjust- 
ing, I managed to revive the beats; they 
were weak and almost unreadable. However, 
Paumben was within my jurisdiction, so calling 
up my assistant there I told him to follow my 
example and increase his battery power by 
twenty cells — the reserve always kept handy in 
case of accidents. This accession of electro- 
motive force, however, had no appreciable 

the terrace to satisfy myself that the joint 
between the line and leading wire was intact. 
A connection of this nature always constituted 
a vulnerable point in a circuit. I clambered 
up the stone steps, and my head had barely 
reached the terrace level when there, at the 
farther side, I saw two crouching figures 
suddenly rise, frantically gather up something, 
clear the parapet, run along the flat roof of 
the adjacent buildings, and lose themselves in 
the gloom ! 

For the moment I was struck speechless with 
astonishment, but at the same time I realized 
that the skulkers had got beyond my reach, so 
my first impulse was to hurry down for a lantern 
by which I could examine the spot where the 
fellows had been lurking. On entering the 
signal-room I found the receiving signaller again 
in difficulties. His sounder was " locked " : 




and my local native assistant was desperately 
screwing away at the relay and springs. 

" What's the matter ? " I asked. I guessed 
the cause, for one glance at the tell-tale needle 
told me that the incoming beats were far too 
powerful ; naturally enough, too, for now the 
" fault " was off : 

" Paumben beats suddenly become too strong, 
sir," answered the assistant. 

" Uncouple the extra twenty cells," I said. 

This accomijlished, I got Paumben, though I 
could only read him on my needle. 

" Reduce your battery to original strength," 
I signalled. 

It was done, and, after a little readjustment, 
the normal stale of affairs was restored. 

" Bring a lantern and follow me, Mr. Lall," I 
said, leading the way out. 

Mounting to the terrace, we went to the spot 
where I had seen the two men. " They were 
sitting here," I continued to Lall, directing the 
lantern's ray^ "'"^ ^i^e place. 

" What c ■)■ have been doing, sir ? " 

" Heaven knows ; we are here to find out." 

We searched diligently everywhere, but dis- 

covered nothing to guide us, even 
to a surmise. We went to the ter- 
minals and carefully examined the 
connections ; both were perfect. 
Then we followed the leading wires 
from post to skylight ; there was 
nothing wrong with the Pondicherry 
lead. We next examined the other, 
working back from skylight to ter- 
minal, and when we had reached 
the spot where I had seen the 
men we detected that the outer 
insulating casing had been removed 
for about a quarter of an inch, and 
the well-cleaned copper core glit- 
tered in the rays of the lantern ! 
Further examination showed several 
turns of very thin copper wire on 
the core, which the evil-doers had 
had no time to unwind. We found 
a similar piece of thread-like wire 
on the floor, and, on following this 
up, we discovered the end wrapped 
round the terminal lightning wire. 
This had provided them with their 
" earth ! " The mystery remained 
a mystery no longer. Scoundrels 
who evidently knew what they 
were about had tapped the wire, 
and I had disturbed them in the 
very act of intercepting messages ! 

" Not a word ! " I whispered to 
Lall. " Come with me to the 
signallers' quarters." They were 
all bachelors — steady, trustworthy Eurasians. 
Still, I wished to satisfy myself that none of 
their number had a finger in the affair. No, 
they had not ; the four men comprising the 
second watch were calmly asleep in their cots ; 
the other watch were on duty in the signal-room. 
The staff was composed of eight men, excluding 
Lall, the assistant. 

I roused up one of the peons, who slept all 
in a row in the front veranda, and much to his 
astonishment I ordered him to transfer himself 
and his mat to the terrace for the rest of the 
night, giving no reasons for the injunction. 

All was going on well in the signal-room, so, 
taking Lall aside, I proceeded to talk the matter 
over with him. " \Vhat do you make of it ? " 
I asked. 

"There is but one solution, sir." 
" T. V. Pillay ? " I said, inquiringly. 
• " Yes, sir ; no doubt, under the influence of 
a bribe, he has been reading off the mail 
messages. There is no one in Negapatam who 
knows the Morse alphabet besides our own 
men. The G.S.L Railway still use the right- 
and-left needle, you know." 



" True. But Pillay must have had a suit- 
able instrument and battery — portable ones too, 
for they hustled off all their plant with the 
greatest ease, and were gone before I could get 
near them. Is it possible that they have con- 
trived to get at yours ? " 

"No, sir, mine are safe in the store-room, 
under lock and key. But," added Lall, scratch- 
ing his head reflectively, " it may be that he 
has got possession of an old battery and sounder 
which were sold last month in the periodical 
auction of condemned stores." 

" Portable ones ? And in working order ? " 
I asked, eagerly. 

"Yes, sir; but they were worn, and your 
predecessor condemned them. I have the 
auction sales return on my file." 

" Come along and show it to me." And we 
went into his office. He promptly produced tlie 
return, which showed that a portable battery and 
sounder had been purchased for 
two rupees by a copper-smith 
named S. Archarry. 

By 3 a.m. the China mail 
messages had been disposed of 
and I went to bed. After a 
rather late breakfast I requi- 
sitioned one of the office peons 
to guide me to Archarry's 
house. The copper-smith 
owned to the purchase of the 
articles ; but when I offered to 
buy them back for double the 
sum he had given, he was 
thrown off his guard and told 
me that he had recently dis- 
posed of both sounder and 
battery to another native. 
When asked to name the pur- 
chaser he became reserved, 
and I had some difficulty in 
eliciting the information, but at 
length he reluctantly gave it to 
me in a whisper. " It was T. 
V. Pillay, sir," he continued, in 
a low voice. " Hold me in- 
demnified from trouble in this 
matter. T. V. Pillay is under 
powerful protection ; he came 
here late in the night with A. 
M. R. R. Chettiar to buy those 
things. I suspected they re- 
quired them for some special 
purpose, so I demanded fifty rupees, which, to 
my astonishment, the merchant paid me. I am 
afraid he will do me some mischief if he hears 
that I have told you this, so I rely on your 
honour's word not to let me suffer for having 
given you the information." 

" Have no fear," I said, reassuringly. " For 
the rest, keep your own counsel, and don't 
breathe a syllable on the subject to anyone." 

At the end of the street I told the peon to 
show me where the former signaller, T. V. 
Pillay, lived, whereupon he conducted me to a 
distant part .of the town. As I walked along I 
resolved, if possible, to catch T. V. Pillay in his 
den red-handed, with the implements of his 
nefarious night's work still in his possession. 
That accomplished, I entertained some vague 
idea of putting the case into the hands of the 
police ; but from the outset I was governed by 
an ardent desire to retain the game in my own 
hands, and thus reap as much credit as possible 
for myself. 

But now, however, I received a serious check ; 
T. V. Pillay's house was empty. It had been 
vacated early that morning by him, his wife, and 
child, and no one could tell me where they had 


gone '— not even his old mother-in-law, who 
remained in charge. Though exceeding my 
rights, I went inside, and under pretence of 
searching for some document which might (I 
explained to the crone) be the means of 
obtaining certain back allowances, which had 



...... in dispute at the time of Pillay's dismissal, 

I routed and peered into every nook, corner, 
and receptacle, but Tailed to find that portable 
batten- and sounder. So, flinging a few rupees 
to the woman to defray the cost of purification 
(for I had polluted the house by entering it), I 
returned to the office feeling greatly dispirited. 

Nothin-; of note happened till next China 
mail ni^^ht. The influx of traffic had barely 
commenced when the beats broke down as they 
did on the last occasion. Making sure that the 
tamperers were again on the roof, I, Lall, and 
the four "off" signallers armed ourselves with 
sticks ; and while two men blocked our stair- 
case I and the others cautiously crept to the 

water-shed for thirsty wayfarers to drink at, and 
the man lives on charity." 

I penetrated to the very end of the town line 
without discovering anything ; but, nevertheless, 
I strongly suspected that the mischief was being 
perpetrated within its limits ; and, also, that my 
ai)proach had been noticed, and the ruffians 
had concealed themselves in time. I was 
determined, however, to foil them when next 
China mail night arrived. To understand the 
situation I must mention that the southern line 
— the one affected — formed a right angle on 
starting from the office, and another angle 
farther along. The annexed diagram will better 
explain what I mean. 


C/Uc* ^Z. 


^^^^^;;77;77n:^ V> ' '^/'////V/^^^^ 


door of the next building, knocked up the 
inmates — a Portuguese family — told them that 
we were after thieves, and obtained permission 
to ascend to their roof. Arrived there, we 
stealthily pushed forward and peered over the 
dividing parapet on to our terrace. Not a soul 
was in sight ! We vaulted over and thoroughly 
searched the whole arta. I called to the two 
below to hasten up with a lantern, and then 
we examined the joints and leads, and found 
all correct. The leakage was not here ; the 
meddlers were tapping the wire at some other 
lX)int. But where? 

We underwent the same trouble again, and 
when I had set things going after a fashion, I 
took a couple of peons and ladders with me 
and inspected the town lines, sending a man up 
each post with a lantern to ascertain if any fault 
existed. We noticed nothing unusual, except 
that on a piece of waste ground there stood, 
immediately under the wire, a small palmyra- 
leaf hut which had not been there before. 

" Halloa ! " I said to my followers, " when 
did this spring up ? And who's the tenant ? " 

" He is a ' Jogi ' (religious fanatic) from 
Ramaisweram, sir, and has obtained the magis- 
trate's permission to build the hut. It is a 

Strong in my belief that the trick was being 
put in practice between points X and Z, I 
resolved to prepare to cut out that portion 
should communication break down on the 
coming mail night ; accordingly the next day I 
set to work and ran up a line of light wire on 
stout bamboos as shown by the dotted line, with 
a view of bringing it into circuit in place of the 
exisMng line X Z, the moment the beats failed. 
I tested the new piece by actual working, and 
found it perfect. The distance was about three- 
quarters of a mile. I then gave my men the 
fullest instructions, and when China mail night 
came round I had a pony ready saddled for the 
line-man to gallop out on to Z for the purpose 
of throwing off the thin wire bridge and joining 
on the temporary line. All was ready, and the 
influx commenced. We looked for the usual 
break-down ; but, no, Paumben beats continued 
steady and strong. I stared at Lall; Lall stared 
at me ; seven, eight, struck, and still there was 
no diminution in the Paumben current. Then 
something flashed across my mind. I had been 
in the country long enough to gain a pretty 
considerable insight into the native's infernal 
cunning and perseverance — especially where 
his pecuniary interest is concerned. I ordered 



the man whom I had told off for the job 
to ride as hard as he could pelt to Z, dis- 
connect the permanent and put on the tem- 
porary line, and remain there till further 
instructions. At the same time I had my own 
horse saddled and held in readiness. After the 
lapse of a quarter of a hour, by which time I 
judged that my man must have done what was 
necessary at Z, I and Lall brought the tem- 
porary line-lead to the instrument instead of the 
permanent one thrown off. Pamnben beats at 
once became unreadable ! 

"Do nothing, Mr. Lall 1 " I exclaimed, as 
I rushed out to my 
horse ; " I'll be re- 
sponsible for the 
delay ! I'll be back 
in half an hour ! " 

Mounting, and 
bidding a peon and 
my horsekeeper to 
race after me, I tore 
up the by-road along 
which I had erected 
my temporary line ; 
and when I had pro- 
ceeded half the dis- 
tance, there, at the 
foot of one of the 
bamboos, I espied 
several natives hud- 
dled together. They 
were evidently too 
engrossed to notice 
me ; the sound of 
gallo[nng hoofs being 
nothing unusual. 
The darkness fa- 
voured me ; I dashed 
up to them, threw 
myself out of the 
saddle, and before 
they could realize 
what had happened 
I had the satisfaction 
of dropping upon 

Master T. V. Pillay — who turned out to be the 
" Jogi " inhabitant of that hut. He had a small 
box in front of him, on which were placed the 
portable sounder and battery, together with a 
lantern, paper, and pencil. A thin wire, lead 
dangled down from above ; and another, wrapped 
round a stone, and lying in a hole full of water, 
constituted his "earth." I seized and held 
him prisoner. The others fled, and when my 



followers came panting up I consigned the 
culprit, together with all his paraphernalia, 
to their care for conveyance to the office ; 
while I hastened on to Z, where with the aid 
of my man, who wms squatting at the foot of 
the post, I restored the original connections and 
returned to the office. 

I will not describe the dry-as-dust magisterial 
investigation into the case. Suffice it to say 
that, owing to some legal quibble, T. V. Pillay 
got off, with police supervision for six months. 
He never troubled us again, and I never saw 
him thereafter. At the trial, however, it came 

out that A. M. R. R. 
Chettiar had engaged 
to pay T. V. Pillay 
five rupees for copies 
of all trade messages, 
and twenty rupees for 
messages addressed 
to his great rival, V. 
A. R. C. Chettiar. 

T. V. Pillay had 
built that hut imme- 
diately under the 
wire, and close to a 
post. Secure in his 
" Jogi " disguise, he 
intended tapping the 
telegraph systemati- 
cally every week. 
Then, seeing the 
erection of the tem- 
porary line, he had 
acumen enough to 
guess the reason for 
it ; so, on the third 
occasion, he had 
transferred himself to 
a point in that tem- 
porary line, ready 
and able to repeat 
the process, but 
never dreaming that 
I should look for 
him there. Happily 
I did, however, with results disastrous to the 
" message-thief." 

Mr. Blissett, my chief, was pleased to compli- 
ment me on my share in the business, though 
at the same time he considered my action as 
" rather erratic." However, he passed my bill 
of expenditure, and when the annual promo- 
tions came out I was gratified to find that I had 
not been passed over. 


The Queer Christmas Festivities in Mexico. 

1>\ -Mrs. L. M. Terry, of Mexico Citv. 

" Wide World " readers know that there is no more able exponent with pen and camera of the 
glowing life of pleasure-loving Mexico than the author of this article, who has so often enabled us 
to shake off the gloom of our own climate and attend with her some gorgeous iiesta, whose details 
are those of the Middle Ages rather than of to-day. In this paper Mrs. Terry gives us a very 
interesting glimpse of the Christmas festivities in the Mexican capital, and incidentally shows us 
something of the inner life of a high-class Mexican family. 

gS] X Ik'sta-loving Me.xico the Christmas- 
tide, with its accompanying ciuaint 
" posadas " and other celebrations, 
is not limited to two or three days, 
or even a week, as in our own 
Anglo-Saxon lands. No, in Mexico the first 
"posada,'' or Christmas celebration, is held on 
l)eccmber 17th. This marks the beginning of 
the Christmas holidays, which last thencefor- 
ward steadily until the "aho nuevo," or "New 
Years Day."' 

There are, of course, the rejoicing, jollity, and 
present-giving that always mark Christmas in 
whatever Christian land ; but in Mexico the 
principal Christmas celebration takes the form 
of posadas, for which ceremony there is really 
no exact equivalent in English, and a posada 
must be described before the uninitiated can 
fully understand what it is. 

\"ery nearly every Mexican family, of what- 

one posada. In the very conservative and 
old-fashioned Mexican families only dear 
friends, relatives, and one's own paisatws or 
country people are invited to share the posada 
season. With the more up-to-date Mexicans, 
however, certain foreigners are sometimes very 
Avelcome. Owing to this fact we ourselves were 
asked to attend the posadas given at the house 
of a popular and well-known Mexican General. 
You may be assured that we lost no time in 
accepting for the entire nine nights. It isn't 
every day that foreigners have a chance to see 
the Mexican posada given on its native heath. 
Besides which, "el General" and his wife are 
known far and wide for their lavishness and 
skill in entertaining their many guests, the 
posadas at their house being particularly enjoy- 
able and "de buen gusto." 

Long before it is posada-time signs and 
tokens of the coming fiestas begin to be seen in 

1);.:vi:;g 'i 


J->o>u a Photo, by C. B. Il'aite, Mexico. 

ever standing, gives a series of posadas on 
varying scales of grandeur, and to these functions 
numerous guests -both men, women, and 
children— are invited. This series must con- 
tinue throughout the entire nine nights, only 
ending on Christmas Eve, and the accepting 
guest is expected to be present at each and 
every performance ; for it is a sign of great dis- 
respect or bad manners to be absent from even 

the shops, as well as the markets and plazas, and 
also in the streets, where many little booths are 
shooting up, like so many mushrooms, for the 
display of various cunning posada presents — 
such as dukes, vari-coloured candles, and other 
wares. The markets fairly teem with tooth- 
some things, and on all sides you hear the dis- 
consolate notes of distressed ducks and turkeys, 
as they are driven along the streets, awaiting 



purchase and subsequent demolition by the 
celebrators of Christmas. In the big Zocalo 
and the plazas of "San Merced" and "San 
Juan " scores of mountain Indians are laden 
with fir- bushes and small trees for the posada 
tables ; and there are even huge trees for the 
" foreigners' " delectation. And everywhere, in 
all the booths, shops, and markets, are hanging 
all sorts, sizes, shapes, colours, and conditions 
of that purely Mexican Christmas toy, the 

For as little as ten cents you can buy a huge 
top-shaped pihata, made of many-coloured 

IN ALL Till, 1' i 

From a Photo. l>y\ 


tissue - paper, decorated with gold lace and 
fringing, and so trimmed up generally with gay 
ti.ssue flowers and leaves that you would never 
think of or suspect the big earthen " olla " or pot 
which is hidden under all this adornment, 
destined as it is for the holding of all sorts of 
good things — small fruits of all kinds, nuts, 
candies, tejocotes (small apples), and even small 
unbreakable presents and toys. Or, if you 
desire a really expensive pifiata, thirty-six 
cents will make you the proud possessor of a 
large and very chubby clown, attired in all the 
colours of the rainbow, whose gay-frilled paper 
coat and Turkish trousers conceal a like big 
pottery vessel for the storing, until breaking- 
time arrives, of the various dulces and toys. 

Our friend the General's palatial home is all 
en fete upon our arrival, the night of the first 
posada ; the entire lower part of the house 
has been thrown open to guests, and most 
brilliantly decorated and illuminated. The 

patio, or courtyard, is especially beautiful with 
its vari-coloured lights, the walls being almost 
covered with the exquisite crimson " Noche 
Bueno," which is the Christmas decorative 
plant of Mexico, taking among the Mexicans 
the place of our own holly, of which none is to 
be found throughout Mexico. 

Stringed orchestras are playing Hungarian 
waltzes, quaint Mexican and Spanish danzas, 
and even the Sousa marches and polkas, mean- 
while delicious refreshments are being served, 
and guests are regaled with sundry peeps at 
the mysterious big pihata which hangs in 

solitary state in 
one of the sa- 
loons. Although 
the posada is 
almost entirely a 
" g r o w n - u p " 
affair, there be- 
ing only a few 
children present, 
still, in Mexico, 
no gathering 
seems to be com- 
plete without the 
presence of one 
or more children. 
And great is the 
delight of the 
General's small 
grandch ildren 
over the " piiiata 
tan magnifica " 
which so soon is 
to be enjoyed 
and — broken ! 
Very early, 
for the children's sake, adjournment is made 
to the pihata-room, the servants congregating 
in the background. Even one small and 
mucli-furbelowed baby is gurgling and crow- 
ing from its nurse's arms as though in eager 
anticipation. The assembly complete, all who 
are present join hands and circle about the big, 
glittering toy as it swings from the ceiling, 
scintillating and glittering with its many adorn- 
ments. Then a long pole is given to one of 
the children, her eyes being first blindfolded, 
and everyone rushes gaily out of her reach when 
she is admonished to strike very carefully in 
the direction of the pifiata — " con mucha 
fuerza " (with much force), so that it will 
immediately break. 

Very naturally, the efforts of this small 
" Mexicanita " fail, as well as those of the other 
little ones, who have not the requisite strength 
to reach the pifiata. Then comes the turn of 
the grown-ups. One by one we are blind- 

f.quivai.ent of our CHUISTMAS trf.fs-- 
RESENTS, Eic. \C. l>. Il'aitt; Me.i'ko. 



folded, turned round three times, and then told 
to "strike I" Amid shrieks of wild hilarity 
from the elders and yells of glee from the 
children the bobbing pihata is finally located 
and struck at viciously. Presto— bang ! The 
gav tissue coverings and pretty gold lace and 
spangles are torn from top to bottom : the 
concealed pottery vessel breaks into a hundred 
pieces, and down upon one's poor, astonished 
liead tumbles a tremendous rain of oranges, 
nuts, tejocotes, small candles, tops— all sorts of 
liny presents, in fact — and all kinds of dulces 
and good things I And then, of course, everyone 
present must needs scramble for whatever he or 
shie may wish, with the children shrieking in the 
midst of the mad viclce. 

The breaking of the pifiata is a lengthy pro- 
ceeding. When it is all over, and one is duly 
ashamed of one's tumbled hair and garments, 
sticky fingers, and generally demoralized appear- 

that there is a still more elaborate pinata, and 
newer and even more beautiful decorations in 
the shape of great palms and ferns, mixed in 
most effectively with the vivid leaves of the 
" Noche Bueno " plant. Also, on various 
stands about the room are quaint little objects 
in china, tinsel, and other forms, that are handed 
about to guests in much the same way that 
cotillon favours are bestowed. There are 
cunning little pails and barrels, sometimes filled 
with wee candies ; tiny French statuettes, no 
longer than one's finger ; even exquisitely made 
dolls and many other charming dainties, which 
you are expected to carry home with you as a 
" recuerdo " (memento) of the posadas given 
at " la casa de Vd " (your house), as the hos- 
pitable Mexicans so gracefully phrase it. 

Meanwhile, the posada-nights come and go 
(each must be an expensive business for our 
host), and it is close on to the final posada of 


From a Photo, by C. B. [Vaitc, Mexico. 


ance, the children are taken away, and, sobriety 
and dignity once more restored, the other 
guests troop off merrily to the ball-room, where 
dancing goes on gaily until the wee small hours 
of the morning, when a delicious supper is 
sened and many healths and toasts are drunk. 
It is long after four o'clock when the still fresh 
orchestra begin to play the music for the very 
last dance, beautiful " La Golondrina," and you 
take one final "vuelta" before wrapping up for 
the journey home through the chilly Mexican 
dawn, having participated in and enjoyed from 
start to finish your very first Mexican posada. 
Next night's festival is much the same, except 

Christmas Eve. The houses and shops are 
decorated. Many more booths have sprung 
up as if by magic in the Zocalo, and even in 
the humbler quarters of the town are numberless 
pottery and toy-selling stalls, where one can buy 
anything in the way of Mexican pottery, from a 
lovely Guadalajara water-bottle down to a tiny 
pottery burro, or donkey, with or without its 
peon rider. There are exquisite Venetian-look- 
ing jars, in terra-cotta and black, from far-away 
Oaxaca ; all sorts of " oUas " and " casuelos " 
from Potosi ; pretty vases and tiny pitchers 
and jars from Madre de Dios and Puente ; 
for every district of Mexico has its own distinc- 



tive and peculiar pottery. There are remarkable 
blue and white pottery pigs, and some strange 
and wonderful birds, no doubt intended to 
represent the extinct "dodo," since they are 
like unto no known bird of the present day. 
There are also woolly lambs that bleat piteously 
upon being duly pressed, and flocks of chickens, 
ducks, and turkeys in their natural plumage, all 
made (and well made too) by the clever, if 
untutored, fingers of Indians, who excel in all 
such work as this. 

Numberless other stalls and booths, grouped 
about the Zocalo and under the Portales, are 
filled with all sorts of wooden and basket-work 

Mater "' is to be given there to-night by members 
of the Italian Opera Company, and a grand 
orchestra of a hundred pieces will play. Even 
at the early hour of seven many people are 
flocking through the entrances, intent upon 
securing good places before the great crush 
begins. Others are hurrying through their 
Christmas Eve duties and pihata-filling, with a 
view of getting to church for even a little while 
before it is time for the last posada of to- night — 
naturally the most important of all [)osadas, as 
you will soon see. 

Shortly after the " Angelus " hour church 
services are in full swing, and the streets are 

/•'/ om a Photo. by\ 


[C. D. II 'aite, Mexico. 

toys, bird-cages, more woolly lambs, dogs, cats, 
and even more wonderful " dodos " ! Hanging up 
also, in full view of the passing multitudes, are 
numerous " tilmas," " rebozos," and sombreros 
for both men and women, together with all 
things imaginable for the children. Fruits of all 
descriptions (you can purchase strawberries and 
oranges every day of the year in Mexico City) 
jostle gaily-painted drums for boys: exquisitely 
fine Indian-wove baskets in all colours are mixed 
indiscriminately with huge, luscious pines from 
Vera Cruz; and over the great piles of aguacotes 
(Mexican butter-fruit) hang dozens upon dozens 
of little wooden guitars, drums, and mandolines; 
while scattered all about the stalls are dulces or 
candies of all sorts — "just the thing for the 
pifiatas," as the vendors will tell you. 

All the churches (of which there are believed 
to be several hundred) in the City of Mexico 
are open and brilliantly lit up : the Cathedral 
itself is particularly gorgeous, for the " Stabat 

consequently almost deserted. Not so the 
approaches to "el Catedral," however, which 
are so jammed that you can scarcely make your 
way through in ascending to a little point of 
vantage known to you, up in one of the old 
Cathedral galleries overlooking the principal 

It is a very enormous building — the Cathedral 
of Mexico ; but even so, its vast interior is one 
dark, solid mass of worshippers, as you look 
down from your lofty perch. Large candles 
burn brightly all over its great expanse, lighting 
up niches wherein repose the ashes and relics of 
numerous saints and martyrs, as well as ex- 
Presidents and other noted men of Mexico. 
Double rows of candles mark the spots where 
are stationed figures of the Virgin, with the 
Child Jesus in her arms ; and a constantly 
moving multitude, at intervals kneeling and 
crossing themselves, point out to you the place 
of the "Holy Family" and the little manger 


wherein a chubby, linloed Christ Child is sleep- 
iiv.;. LiiMrded by His mother, and the figures 
representing the " ^^■ise Men who came from 
afar to \vorshi|) Him." 

Solemnly, reverently, the great muUilude 
move about, from the figure of one saint to 
another, while the orchestra plays selection after 
selection of great masses and oratorios. As 
vet, however, there is no vocal music, for the 
'•Stabat Mater" will not be given until after ten 
o'clock. Before ten you must be at your 
posada. So, with one last look at the 
brilliant church and the great crowd that are 
flocking in and out of it, you slip away ; great 
church ceremonies can be seen every day by 
the foreign spectator; but posadas — no ! 

All the guests are gathered in the house of 
the Cieneral, and one glance at them will show 
you that this last posada is very different from 
those gay and frolicsome ones that you have 
already attended. All the faces are solemn. 
People are talking in very subdued voices. 
There is no sound of laughter ; and piled up 
on tables are scores of small candles, all ready 
for lighting, and any number of prayer-books, 
which contain the special posada Mass which is 
to be sung to-night during the procession. 

Soon we are motioned to pass into an apart- 
ment which we have not seen before — a very 
large and richly-decorated room, with a beauti- 
fully-tiled floor, dark velvet hangings and many 
valuable old paintings on the walls. Underneath 
one of these pictures, a magnificent, dull-toned 
" Our \jidy of Sorrows?," is a resplendent altar, 
hung all in blue and white, and bearing many 
religious relics, pictures of the Saints and a 
large crucifix. Over all 
glimmers the subdued 
light of many fine candles. 
At the foot of this altar 
are the images of the 
" Holy Family," placed 
on a small wooden litter, 
so that the statuettes can 
be carried at the head of 
our procession when it 
starts. I'he images are 
small, carved out of ivory, 
and show the Virgin, with 
the Babe in her arms, as 
well as St. Joseph, and 
the donkey on which the 
flight from Bethlehem was 

AI. ests pause to 

bow ana cross themselves 
in front of these figures, 
after which we all kneel 
in rows of two and two, 

as the orchestra begins to play a prelude to the 
])osada Mass. 'J'hen our host and hostess hand 
round the tiny lighted candles, which each kneel- 
ing person holds carefully in the left hand. Then 
j)rayer-books are distributed and the chanted 
Mass begins, led by the orchestra. 

Just behind the figures of the " Holy Family " 
kneel the General and his senora, chanting from 
the same prayer-book and holding aloft their 
small pink candles. In rows of two behind them 
kneel their guests, the children of the family, and 
the house servants, all devoutly singing responses 
to the Mass, and uttering at intervals loud 
"Aniens." Meanwhile, our own candles burn 
steadily, and we sing " Amen " at fitting in- 
tervals, listening eagerly for the final " Amen " 
of this particular Mass, after which our proces- 
sion is to begin its promenade over the entire 
house, from basement to attic — aye, even to the 
flat-topped roof of the mansion ! 

Soon the signal is given by the entire party 
standing up, bowing, and crossing themselves. 
Fresh candles are lighted and distributed. Two 
bearers reverently take up the figures of the 
Holy Family and pass out with them into 
the patio, the orchestra playing away behind 
them, while in a solemn row follow the 
remainder of the procession, singing loudly, in 
such voices as God has given them, " Ora Pro 
Nobis." Meanwhile our obstinate little candles 
flicker, go out, and are re-lighted again. 

In this solemn fashion do we parade the 
various sitting-rooms, patio, and all the different 
apartments on the first floor, our procession 
now chanting a new prayer, the burden of which 
seems to be that the Holy Family are asking 


from a Photo, by C. B. IVnite, Mexico. 



admittance and lodging, which all refuse them. 
Therefore, we are obliged to move on until 
an abiding-place can be found. So from one 
room to another, one floor to another, do 
we go, still chanting requests to be admitted, 
only to be refused at the door of each and 
every room. In the great sala (drawing- 
room) have we been refused : even the tiled 
kitchen, with its rows of pottery vessels and 
charcoal brazero, cruelly turns us out. In the 
servants' room they will have none of us, and 
so on we go again, singing — this time bent on 
finding a resting-place on the flat roof, where 
(as the senora informs us) a small stable with 
its corresponding manger has already been 
prepared for the reception of the 
holy emblems. 

The time of our procession has 
been well planned, for just as we 
emerge upon the roof, chanting 
and carefully shielding our lights 
from the night winds, we hear the 
city clocks pealing out dramatically 
the first stroke of twelve. Our 
posada is now over. The music 
is changed, and fervent " Hosan- 
nahs " go up from both orchestra 
and procession ; the Holy Figures 
are carried quickly to a small stable 
built in the centre of the flat roof 
and placed within it. Then all of 
us stand close about the manger 
and join in a Mexican "Gloria in 
Excelsis," while above us the great 
bright stars shine almost as bril- 
liantly as they did on that won- 
drous night at Bethlehem. All 
below and around us the tre- 
mendous, deep - toned Cathedral 
-•Wis lead thousands of other 
chimes in rejoicing clamour, 
announcing to the great, wide- 
awake city at our feet that another 
Christmas morn has come. 

The ringing of the midnight 
bells lasts for many minutes, and, 
in addition, there is the banging 
of fireworks and the crimson and 
yellow streaks of rockets against 
the cold, blue-black of the Mexican 
sky. From our lofty height we 
cannot hear the cries which, being 
translated, would mean " Merry 
Christmas," but we know that they 
are there even though uttered in 
foreign tongues. 

And soon, when it grows very 
chilly indeed on the roof, and the 

,, ' . ONE OF THE H 

small members of our procession From a Photo. by\ 

have been spirited away by their nurses, we 
again march downstairs and proceed to wish each 
other " Felicidades '' and " Merry Christmas," 
and otherwise make merry, all solemnity being 
now over. 

Having been duly " refreshed," dancing is 
next on the list, and so we adjourn to the great 
brilliant ball-room, where Mexican danzas are 
the order of the day. The quaint Indian 
"jarabe" follows on the heels of the exquisite 
Spanish "jota," these latter being performed by 
expert professionals, whose dancing is a thing 
not soon to be forgotten. And then follow 
more danzas, with a few waltzes sandwiched in 
between to break the monotony, until, at four 




o'clock, we are taken in to a Christmas dinner 
sucli as we liave never seen or lieard of hefore, 
with all its savoury, peppery Mexican dishes and 
"pulque compuesto." 

Ixiden with many tiny " recuerdos " of the 
occasion we are driven home at five o'clock 
on Christmas morning, very tired and sleepy 
people, as you can imagine. But we have, at 
any rate, seen from start to finish our first 
Me.xican posada, and have been entreated to 
come again //r.v/ Christmas ! . . . . Christmas 
Day itself is a season of church-going, so far as 
the higher-class Mexicans, and even foreigners, 
are concerned ; but in the humbler peon 
streets of the city various crude celebrations are 
being held, and some very elaborate " floats " 

are being propelled about, to the 

great joy of numerous poor In 

dians, to whom these festivities 

represent all the Christmas that 

///<y ever know— there is no turkey 

and no plum-pudding for them ; 

most of them are partaking of 

their usual meal of frijolis and 

tortillas, washed down with a 

centavo's wortli of pulque, think- 
ing themselves lucky to get even 

that. We are able to add some 

dulces and fruit to the repast of 

three small peon boys, who, half 

clad and shivering, are eating their 

Christmas lunch of tortillas and 

beans on the ground ; after which 

we pursue a very elaborate " fioat,"' 

and secure the bearers' permission 

to photograph it— for a considera- 

Some good-natured "padre" 
has lent the float designers several 
figures of the Saints; and with 
these, some moss from Chapul- 
tepec cypresses, artificial flowers, 
candles of different sizes, streamers 
of various colours, and a big liberty- 
cap arrangement, covered with 
gilded sticks, the peons have made 
their float or triumphal group. 

Under the canopy of streamers 
and artificial flowers, placed so as 
to be visible to all, is a figure of 
the Virgin, gaily adorned in blue 
and white velvet and lace, with a 
mantilla over her head, and a 
string of blue beads about her 
waxen neck. In her arms sleeps 
the Child Jesus, and bowing 
before him are elaborately-attired 
figures of the Wise Men, with 
their gifts at their feet. Scat- 

tered indiscriminately about are the figures 
of small waxen cherubim, and the general /oui 
cnseiiibk of this particular float, the most 
elaborate one we have seen in peon-town, by 
the way, is so striking to the populace that, as it 
is again picked up and carried through the 
streets hundreds of Indians follow it, bowing 
and crossing themselves before the figures, 
and resenting with scowls and frowns the near 
approach of foreigner " Gringos." 

Near the Plaza of Santo Domingo we 
encounter two more "floats," fearfully and 
wonderfully made, and representing " Quien 
sabe" -ivhatl It is an easy matter to give 
j)hotographs of them, but to explain them would 
be far beyond the power of mortal man ! We 

IRKOS (donkeys) prancing OVER ITS CRAGGY SIDES." 

From a Photo, by C. B. Ilaiie, Mexico. 



asked the Indian bearers just what the floats 
meant. They individually and collectively 
shrugged their shoulders, lifted an eyebrow or 
so, and gave voice to indifferent " Pues, quien 
sabe's ? " (who knows ?). We nevertheless give 
descriptions of these wonderful articles ; there 
are some imaginative persons who can perhaps 
unravel their mystery. 

One of them, a pyramid of dark cloth and 
cypress moss, had small lambs and several 
burros prancing over its craggy sides. A small 
house, adorned internally with tissue-paper 
roses, decorated the top of the pyramid, and 
two vividly-coloured paintings at the bottom of 
the heap gave an air of distinction and bril- 
liancy to the whole. One painting showed a 
farmer and his 
oxen at work, 
with a small girl 
offering him 
pulque ; while 
the one on the 
left represented 
a Mexican 
woman making 

The other 
float, upon 
which three or 
four Indians 
had climbed, 
" so that their 
pictures might 
also be taken," 
simply showed 
a small, flower- 

decorated house and a few crags, on top of 
which an orchid (a real one) bloomed. A 
very large burro had been placed on one side, 
below the orchid, while on the other side 
pranced several small kids. The little houses 
built into both these floats were entirely empty, 
and our solution is that they were meant for 
the occupancy of the homeless Holy Family 
on the night before Christmas ; for every peon 
firmly believes that on the night of Christ's birth 
the saints and holy spirits descend to earth 
and seek shelter, just as the Holy Family did on 
the night when Christ was born. 

With " floats " in peon-town and church 
services in the city portions of Mexico, Christ- 
mas-day celebrations in Mexico City are over ; 

though on and 
on certain feasts 
and small pri- 
vate celebrations 
are held until 
New Year's Day, 
when, with one 
final feasting and 
great occasion, 
the holidays are 
passed and gone, 
and the Mexi- 
cans return to 
the even tenor 
of their ways. It 
will then be a 
whole week or 
ten days before 
another fiesta- 
day comes along 


Frovi a Flwto. by C. B. IVaite, Mexico. 

Vol. vi.— 28. 

The Lion that Turned the Tables. 

Bv \.. Campbell, of Nairobi, British East Africa. 

This narrative gives one a glimpse of the exciting episodes incidental to the progress of such great 
undertakings as the Uganda Railway. The man-eating lion was known to be near. The railway 
carriage containing the three keen sportsmen was shunted on to a siding so dilapidated as to cause 
the waggon to heel over, and after dinner the hunters settled themselves down to pass the night 
comfortably. What dreadful thing happened in the night we must leave Mr. Campbell and Mr. 

Huebner to tell. 

.\ Wednesday, June the 6th of this 
year, the Assi-stant Superintendent 
of Police, Mr. C. H. Ryall, was 
travelling in his private carriage on 
the new Uganda Railway, from 
Makindu to Nairobi. His coach was attached 


Front a] ok the victim. [P/io/o. 

to the usual " up-mixed " train, and he travelled 
in company with two friends. One of these 
w-as Mr. Huebner, of Messrs. Huebner and 
Co., general merchants, bankers, and transport 
agents, of Nairobi, and he was formerly Imperial 
German Vice-Consul at Mombasa. Mr. Ryall's 
second companion was Mr. A. Parenti, manager 
for Messrs. Bienenfeld and Co., at Nairobi, 
whom the police officer had invited into his 
carriage. On arrival at the station known as 
Kimaa, situated at mile 255 of the ever- 
advancing line— which, by the way, traverses 
one of the finest game districts in the heart 
of Africa— the servant of Mr. Ryall reported 
having seen a large lion and two cubs quite 
close to the station. This report was also 
confirmed by the station-master at Kimaa. 
Mr. Ryall, who was a very keen sportsman 
and an excellent shot, with difficulty persuaded 

the two friends above-named to stay the night 
with him. The inducement he held out was 
that he would have his carriage detached from 
the train, and he also promised that they 
would all have a thorough search for the lion 
next morning, afterwards continuing their 
journey to Nairobi on one of the up-trains 
on the following afternoon. This they both 
consented to do. 

Mr. Ryall, therefore, had his carriage 
detached and placed on the siding, not quite 
opposite the station, but only a few yards away. 
Here I must tell you that the siding, being in 
bad condition owing to the late heavy rains, 
caused the carriage to stand at a slight angle 
tilted sideways. 

The three friends had dinner in the carriage, 
and spent the evening in pleasant conversation. 
At about eleven o'clock at night they decided 
to go to bed. Mr. Ryall first offered his own 
bed to Mr. Huebner, but that gentleman refused 
it, saying he preferred sleeping in the top 
berth over the table on the other side 
of the carriage ; Mr. Parenti also refused it, 
saying that he really could not deprive Mr. 
Ryall of his bed. He further said that he 


/''rom a] victim. [Photo. 



would sleep on the floor with his feet towards 
the door leading into the carriage from the end. 

After a few jokes had been passed they all 
three settled down to sleep, it being decided 
that Mr. Ryall should keep the first watch. In 
order to do so he left the door open, and also 
left a window open on each side of the carriage. 

I will now let Mr. Huebner tell the rest of 
this terrible narrative in his own words : — 

" I went to sleep shortly after 1 1 p.m. I don't 
know how long I slept, but I woke up with a 
start some hours later. The first thing I heard 
on becoming conscious was a slight cry from 
Mr. Ryall, and, on looking over the edge of 
my bed, I was horrified and sickened to see a 
huge lion in the space between the table and 
Ryall's bed. The great brute had his hind legs 
on Parenti'.' prostrate body and his front legs on 

how I did it ; it must have been sheer 
terror. I literally jumped on to the lion's 
back, as there was no space on the floor not 
occupied by the immense creature. I then tried 
to open the second sliding door communicating 
with the bathroom and servants' quarters, but to 
my horror found it held fast by the coolie 
servants of Mr. Ryall. Putting forth all my 
strength, I at last succeeded in opening the 
door sufficiently to let me pass through. I 
closed it again behind me with feverish eager- 
ness, after which the coolies tied the door fast 
with their turbans. Shortly afterwards the 
carriage lurched slightly sideways, and we 
saw the lion jump through the open window, 
carrying Mr. Ryall's limp and swaying body 
with him. As he leaped, the dreadful 
monster broke the side supports of the 


ryall's CHEST." 

Ryall's chest. His huge jaws were closed right 
over the left breast and heart of the unfortunate 
man. I'he sliding door was slowly closing 
behind him owing to his extra weight and the 
already sharp angle at which the carriage was 

" It is impossible fairly to describe my feelings. 
I was positively stricken dumb with horror and 
terror at the awful sight. After a few moments 
I saw that poor Ryall was already dead, and as 
I could only see on the floor a confused heap of 
clothes, blankets, boots, and rifles, I naturally 
believed that Parenti also had been killed. 
There was only one thing to do, yet I marvel 

window in his passage. I then shouted to see if 
Parenti were still alive, and after several moments 
received a reply from him about fifty yards away 
in the bush. For Parenti, I must tell you, had 
run away this distance after jumping through 
the carriage window under my bed, on the 
opposite side to that through which the lion had 

It is only necessary to add that both Messrs. 
Parenti and Huebner escaped without a scratch 
or bruise anywhere, except in the case of the 
former, who slightly cut the palms of his hands 
in jumping through the window. But Parenti's 
escape was miraculous, indeed, if ever the word 





mav fairly be used. The man-entinq lion had 
literally to walk on him to get at the unfortunate 
Ryall, and it must be noted that when Mr. 
Huebner looked the lion was partly standing on 
the prostrate Parenti. 

The mangled body of the strangely-chosen 
victim was recovered 
next day about half a 
mile from the station. 

In conclusion, I beg 
to state that the above 
story is absolutely true 
in ever)' word, and can 
be vouched for both by 
Messrs. Huebner and 
Parenti, as also by the 
Indian servants of Mr. 
Ryall and the station- 
master at Kimaa. The 
broken condition of the 
carriage and the terrible 

A reward of one hundred 
pounds sterling" is offered 
for the destruction of the 
Man-eating" lion at Kimaa. 
(Signed) F. Rawson. 

Acting Chief Engineer, 

Uganda Railway. 
Nairobi, 27th June 1900. 

state of the floor would no doubt be certified to 
by any of the ofificials of the Uganda Railway at 

A public notice (here reproduced in reduced 
facsimile) was posted offering one hundred 
pounds reward to the person who should kill 

the dreaded monster ; 
but though this reward 
was and is still at the 
time of writing being 
offered by the Acting 
Chief Engineer of the 
Uganda Railway, no 
one has yet succeeded in 
earning it and ridding us 
of so dangerous a pest. 
The brute, by the way, 
has since taken away 
several natives, and 
wounded many others 
besides Indian employes. 


In the Land of the ''King of Kings.'' 

Written and Illustrated ry Victor Goedorp, of Paris. 

Here is another of M. Goedorp's fascinating articles on Abyssinia, in which he describes, among many 
other things, an audience of the Emperor Menelik and a fishing excursion made by His Majesty. The 
photographs are quite unique, and were secured, in many cases, with considerable difficulty. For 
example, the photograph of the Empress Taitou (who is said to measure 6ft. round the waist !) is 
quite unique. Her Majesty is bitterly hostile to Western progress. 

The time 

HE throne of Menehk 
of Abyssinia, " King of 
Kings " and Lion of 
Judah, is not accessible 
to the common herd, 
necessitated and the 

that must perforce be 


incurred, to say nothing of the risks 
to be undertaken and the difficulties 
to be contended with, make for- 
midable obstacles even for the 
richest and the most daring. 

He who would journey in the 
land of the Negus must not imagine 
that he is going to start on a trip 
to " lovely Lucerne." Imagine the 
passport system of Russia about 
100 per cent, worse, and you will 
get an excellent idea of what 
awaits you in Abyssinia. We pub- 
lish here a facsimile of a passport 
granted by King Menelik. The 
chief characteristic of this document 
is the fact that it fails to bear the 
signature of the great monarch. As 
a matter of fact, his seal is all that 
is necessary. 

The traveller in Abyssinia must 
have the terms of his passport accu- 
rately translated to 
him ; otherwise some 
unpleasantness is al- 
most sure to occur. 
M. de Bonchamps, 
sent by the Minister of 
the Colonies to meet 
the Marchand mis- 
sion on the right arm 
of the Nile, was given 
a passport which ran 
as follows : " M. de 
Bonchamps has my 
authority to plant my 
flag on the Nile from 
Baro to the AVhite 
Nile ! " 

From the moment 
that one sets foot in 
Abyssinia one's chief 
surprise is that of 

)f- * <« A. c - Tt 00-. > t A"-)'' ' XX>>^ 
Ǥt7- ^^^ r.aT-.y, -t d^- f 




seeing so few Abyssinians. 
This sounds paradoxical, 
but is perfectly true. As a 
matter of fact, from Harrar 
to Addis-Ababa one meets 
more Gallas than Abys- 
sinians, and even at Addis- 
Ababa, the seat of Govern- 
ment, the natives are not 
in the majority. This is, 
of course, not the case 
throughout Abyssinia, for 
the towns of Aukober, 
Gondar, and Ascoum are 
almost entirely populated 
by natives. In my first 
article on Abyssinia I spoke 
of the resources of Abys- 
sinia, and I enumerated the 
various goods sold in the 
market of Addis-Ababa. 

Here is a photograph of 
the market-place. The build- 
ings surrounded by a pali- 
sade are Menelik's chief 
Customhouse. I had the 
good luck to get into the 
place, an extremely difficult 
matter, and I was able to take 


Fiom a Photo, 





i'lvin a] IVOKY AKE THE CHIEF EXrORTS. \Photo. 

a photograph — 
" on the sly " — 
showing the ele- 
p h a n t tusks 
brought long dis- 
tances and lying 
in delightful dis- 


From a\ curious seat of the judge. 

on the 
sinias Custom- 
houses are 
mostly concern- 
ed with such 
articles of mer- 
chandise as 
skins, coffee, 
ivory, and musk. 

It has often been said that Abyssinia possesses 
important gold mines ; but, whether this be 
true or not, so far only one has been discovered, 
and that in the province 
of I^ekat. Menelik, upon 
being informed of this 
find, at once took the 
advice of M. Ilg, who 
is at the same time his 
engineer, his architect, his 
secretary, and his Premier, 

:it for M. Comboul, 

ng expert, who came 
post-haste to Abyssinia. 
He found gold right 
enough, but even with 
native labour the precious 
metal when laid bare 
cost a third more than 
its value in Europe ! 
In the market-place there 
is a rough cabin of such 
extremely rudimentary 

architecture, that one's curiosity as to 
its use is at once aroused. It serves 
the double purpose of pigeon-house 
and trapper's hut, and it is there that 
the judge, who settles disputes among 
the merchants, sits to hear cases. 
On market days, too, a representative 
of the chief Customs' ofifice levies the 
duties determined by Imperial edict. 

In Europe we have four seasons ; in 
Abyssinia there are but two, the drv 
and the wet. The latter season is held 

in dread by the 
Aby ssinians, 
and King Mene- 
lik himself sets 
the example of 
taking precau- 
tions to guard 
against the 
ravages of the 
tropical rain by 
directing the 
drainage works 
in person. Nor 
is it an uncom- 
mon sight to 
see this stout 
but active mon- 
arch hard at 
work building 
a house. He 
is seen on the 
right of our pho- 
tograph under 
the traditional 
red umbrella, emblem of his might, directing 
the work of a house and giving his orders like 
any member of the Institute of British 

observe THE 


h'ro:n a\ 





Architects. The 
immense build- 
ing in the next 
gives a good 
idea of Ethio- 
pian architec 
ture. It is the 
largest house in 
Abyssinia, and 
is used as the 
adera s e d, or 
Imperial dining- 
room. Here 
Menelik loves to 
collect his offi- 
cers and soldiers 
and entertain them at gorgeous banquets. It 
is, indeed, an interesting sight to see these 

From «] 


ters are ordi- 
narily received. 
Imagine a huge 
square room 
painted white, 
reached by a 
wide wooden 
staircase. At the 
bottom was a 
platform, cover- 
ed with Eastern 
carpets a n d 
cushions, which 
formed Mene- 
lik's throne. As 
a matter of fact, 
the Lion of 
Judah possesses a more imposing seat than this 
in the shape of a huge oak chair, which cost 

BEAMS, ETC. [Photo. 


/•'roil! a\ 



over 5 
At the 

dusky warriors drinking their national hydromel 

out of huge cowhorns and feasting on bo?ido, 

which is nothin" 

less than raw beef 

very strongly 


The ceremonial 
connected with the 
audience which 
Menelik accords 
to Europeans is 
extremely simple. 
One day, when I 
went with M. Jules 
Moquet, who 
wanted to obtain 
an agricultural 
concession, they 
ushered us into the 
room where the 


European Minis- From a] capital. 


;. [P/ioio. 

0,000 francs and comes from France, 
foot of the throne was another carpet, 

embroidered with 
the design of a 
lion, and two 
chairs for the visi- 
tors completed the 
furniture of Mene- 
lik's reception- 
room. When we 
entered several 
Abyssinian priests, 
squatting on the 
ground, read verses 
from the sacred 
books. \Ve did not 
seem to disturb 
them much. They 
just raised their 
eyes for a second, 
iP/toto. and then went on 



with inappropriate ques- 
tions in order to give 
time for reflection is 
characteristic of Abys- 
sinian chiefs. 1 confess I 
was surprised to find 
King Menehk resorting 
to this strategy, but, as a 
matter of fact, quite apart 
from the professional 
necessity for such tactics, 
his mind is not easily 
concentrated on serious 
subjects. I hastened to 
assure His Majesty that a 
French cow could easily 
give at least eight and often 

had scarcely 
King entered 
we had not 


From a\ the frenxh ambassador. [Phoio. 

with their reading, evidently de- 
lighted to give us a proof of their 
religious fervour. Ten minutes 
passed before the Negus's in- 
terpreter, Grazmatch Joseph, 
came to warn us of Menelik's 
approach, and he 
spoken before the 
by a door which 
:to noticed. 

iic settled himself comfortably 
on his cushions and the conversa- 
tion began. He allowed us to 
talk for several minutes without 
interruption, then he suddenly 
stopped the in- 
terpreter and 
asked : — 

*' Tell me, do 
the cows of your 
country really 
give more milk 
than ours ? " 

As the ques- 
tion had nothing 
whatever to do 
with what we 
were talking 
about it rather 
surprised us at 
first, but we re 
membered tha' 
the habit ot 
interrupting seri- 
ous arguments 

f>-oin a 

tKIAL master's FAVOUKIIE iMULE. [Photo. 

sixteen tmies as 
much milk as its 
Abyssinian equi- 



From a\ 

,!■, I IMn-.(, I'ARTV. 

(menelik sits 
) IPhoio. 

" I must 
some French 
cows," remarked 
the Lion of 

We expressed 
our humble plea- 
sure to find His 
Majesty so inter- 
ested in agricul- 
tural questions. 

" The fortune 
of my country 
lies in the land," 
he replied. 



chanism he understood it as well 
as we did, and for two days 
talked of nothing but his new 
plaything. He even had it 
taken over to M. Ilg, with the 
command " that he was to make 
some French butter at once." 
Madame Ilg was very hurt at 


From a Photo. 

" Quite so," we answered, " but 
in Abyssinia the farmer possesses 
nothing but very rudimentary 
implements with which to make 
the land productive." 

" Yes," said Menelik, " it would 
be an excellent idea to introduce 
European methods of agriculture 
into Abyssinia, but my people 
would soon 
break the imple- 

We then told 
him ihat, know- 
ing his great 
interest in agri- 
cultural matters, 
we had brought 
him a centrifugal 
churn, and we 
proceeded to 
show him how 
to use it. The 
Negus could not 
believe his eyes 
or ears. To make 
butter in an 
hour seemed to 
him utterly im- 
possible ! 

" I must have 
a proper demon- 
stration of this 
machine to-mor- 
row," he said. 

He was hugely 
interested, and 
quite under- 
stood the causes 
which brought 
about the result. 
After we ' had 
thoroughly ex- 
plained the me- 


Fro^n d\ was crowned. \JPhotO. 

her husband 
being treated 
like a vulgar 
cook, but M. 
Ilg, though he 
was much an- 
noyed, did what 
he was bid. M. 
Ilg is a wise 
man, who knows 
his Negus. 

As we left the 
audience -cham- 
ber we noticed 
the Emperor's 
mule, and had 
a good oppor- 
tunity of exam- 
ining its gor- 
geous trappings 
of red leather 
incrusted in 
gold and mar- 
vellously work- 
ed. The beast's 
collar consisted 
of a very mas- 
sive silver chain, 
studded with 
precious stones, 
and the saddle 
was quite a 
work of art. 
The Abyssinian 






who was holdiiT' the mule remarked : " I am 
quite sure that in your country mules don't 
carry such fortunes on their backs." 

A few days after our audience of 
the King we had an opportunity of 
assisting at a "sport," at which Menelik 

had Ions desired to 

his hand. 

.^ ......^ .. try 

Someone had told him that there was 
no easier way of killing fish than by 
exploding dynamite under the water. 
He wouldn't believe it possible, but all 
the same determined to try the ex- 
|>eriment in the River Okaki, which 
literally teems with fish. 

A great crowd followed the King of 
Kings on his way to "fish." In an 
hour a dozen cartridges were exploded 
and over six hundred fish floated dead 
to the surface, to the great surprise of 
the Ethiopian audience. His Majesty 
was literally astounded by the result. 

On our way back from the fishing 
excursion we came upon the pathetic 
sight shown in the next photograph — 
hordes of (ialla slaves, weak and ill, 
bringing wood to the Imperial Palace 
in token of thei-- "'^mission to the 
Royal despot. ] ndeed, a melan- 

choly sight to see these troops of men 
marching dejectedly over the arid plains 
of Abyssinia. Our interpreter ex 
plained that Menelik had to make use 
of these people in some way or another, 
and that he made them contribute in 
this way to the construction of th^ 
various buildings in (luebi. As :i 
matter of fact, it is not long .since 
MeneUk left Entotto, his former capital. 

The Abyssinians 
deeply deplore 
the change, and 
every year a vast 
crowd collects 
round the old 
Christian church, 
the only build- 
ing left, one of 
the finest in 
Ethiopia. It was 
here that Mene- 
lik and Taitou 
were crowned. 

The Abyssinian 
church of Harrar 
is not half so fine 
and all the pub- 
lic buildings of 
Harrar are primi- 
tive and barbarian. Look at the photograph 
of the entrance to Ras Makonnen's palace, for 
example, with its weird lions standing sentinel 
above it, and the dried elephants' 

-^ 1 tails — ample proof of the lack 

of resource possessed by the 
decorators of Harrar. 



From d\ NoiicE the hanging elephants' tails. [Photo. 

Dambu 's Diversion, 


By F. H. Kelly, Barrister- at- Law, and Ex- District-Commissioner of the 

Gold Coast Colony*. 

Mr. Kelly here describes one of those tragi-comic incidents which are constantly turning up to vex 

and jeopardize the lives of officials in what may be termed the more "savage" of our Colonies. That 

Dambu's outbreak did not end fatally was the merest chance. He played hide-and-seek with great 

success, and the manner of his discovery was distinctly peculiar. 

HE recent military operations in 
Ashanti have demonstrated the re- 
markable strength and endurance of 
our Hausa soldiers. That the Hausa 
soldier, when led by an English 

officer, is one of 

the finest fighting 

men in the world 

cannot be denied; 

and the soldier 

whose escapade I 

am about to re- 
late must only be 

accepted as a fair 

type of that loyal 

and distinguished 

body of men in 

so far as the 

possession of 

great bodily 

strength is con- 

The man's 

name was Dambu, 

and he was 

arrested by the 

Civil police for a 

serious assault 

committed in the 

town of Elmina, 

in the Gold Coast 

Colony. He was 

marched off to 

the Castle and 

duly locked up 

in the police cell, 

the door of which 

was about three 

inches in thick- 
ness, and covered 

with iron plates. 

The possibility of 

a prisoner breaking 

imagined, the door being 


Dambu was the only occupant of 

cell, and he remained perfectly quiet 

about two hours, when the attention 



could hardly be 
of such massive 




the police corporal in charge was attracted 
by a rending sound, quickly followed by a 
crash. The cell door fell to the ground, much 
of the woodwork being splintered, and the iron 
plates — a quarter of an inch in thickness, mark 

you— twisted into 
fantastic shapes. 
The prisoner 
rushed out with 
the swiftness of 
a hare and dis- 
appeared in the 
direction of the 
courtyard of the 
Castle. The wreck- 
age presented the 
appearance of 
having been 
caused by the 
mad rush of a 
wild elephant. 

That Dambu, 
who vi'as only 
about 5ft. 6in. in 
height, should 
have accomplished 
such destruction, 
quite unaided and 
without the assist- 
ance of any tools 
whatever, seemed 
little short of a 
miracle ; and pro- 
fessional strong 
men in Europe 
would, I imagine, 
have an exceed- 
ingly tough rival 
if he were to 
appear on the 
scene. The 
prisoner rushed 
through the Hausa guard -room, snatched a 
Martini rifle from the stand, and continued 
his headlong career through the courtyard 
and into one of the sleeping apartments, which 
contained several cubicles for the accommoda- 
tion of the soldiers. 


From a Photo, by Actinus, Gold Coa^t. 



Ill the ordinary course of events the man 
could not have ' become possessed of any 
cartridges. The magazine, however, had been 
o\erhauled only a few days previously, and I 
had reason to believe that some of the men had 
not accounted for all the cartridges that had 

proceed alone and endeavour to induce him to 
give up the rifle and evacuate his temporary 

Fortified with the belief that he would not, 
unless greatly provoked, fire at a white man, I 
entered the spacious apartment. Guided by 


been " ' lying about the floor ; some of the 

case- ^ given way, owing to the rotten 

state of the wood, and the contents deposited 
all over the place. The cartridges surrepti- 
tiously appropriated were probably intended for 
hunting purposes. 

I felt some doubt as to whether the man was 
bluffing, or whether he really had previously 
secreted some cartridges. If he had done so, 
then the probabilities were that the rifle was 
loaded. However, I decided to take for granted 
that the rifle was loaded, and in that case I felt 
satisfied that, if a black policeman or another 
soldier were sent to effect his arrest, there would 
be almost certain bloodshed. Therefore, I 
thought the belter plan would be for me to 

the feeble ray of light that penetrated the place 
I groped my way cautiously. Suddenly I came 
upon a rifle-barrel, which projected through the 
half-opened door of one of the cubicles. It was 
hardly 3ft. from my breast, and the probabilities 
were that if I attempted to seize it the escaped 
black would consider me guilty of an "unfriendly 
act," and in the excitement of the moment fire. 
On the other hand, I felt that, even if I did 
succeed in seizing it, I should be a mere 
plaything in the hands of a man who had so 
recently given such a remarkable exhibition of 
prodigious strength. 

By the aid of signs and gestures (he could 
speak very little English) I did all that lay in 
my power to persuade the man to leave his 



retreat, but the attempt was in vain. I suppose 
the thought occurred to him that such a pro- 
ceeding might prematurely interfere with his 

Feeling satisfied that no good purpose was to 
be served by remaining in such close proximity 
to the barrel of his rifle I retreated, walking in a 
leisurely manner, so as to convince him that I 
was not suffering from any nervous agitation ; 
for, whatever my feelings may have been, I 
quite appreciated 
the importance of 
preserving a calm 
demeanour. Ex- 
perience has taught 
me that an appa- 
rent contempt for 
danger is often 
one's best safe- 
guard, either when 
altogether unarmed 
or else pitted 
against overwhelm- 
ing odds. After 
taking a few steps 
I safely emerged 
from the apart- 
ment. For some 
moments I felt 
puzzled as to what 
measures it would 
now be advisable 
to adopt, since my 
mission had not 
been attended with 

At last the idea 
occurred to me 
that the pangs of 
hunger might 
render this danger- 
ous fugitive a little 
more submissive 
and cause him to 
surrender. With 
this object in view 
I gave instructions 
for the entrance to the apartment to be bar- 
ricaded and a sentry placed in charge. I 
then took my departure from the scene of 
operations, feeling proud of my achievement in 
circumventing the enemy. 

In order to reach my quarters I had to cross 
the courtyard, and. on approaching the other 
side, whom should I see but Dambu himself — 
the man I believed to be safely locked up 
across the way ! His glaring eyes were peering 
through a doorway, but directly he perceived 
me in the semi-darkness — for it was now nearly 

lUb 1j1.a:;;.\i, eves ueke ieeiciMj 1 iikulc^h a dookwa'i'. 

eight o'clock in the evening — he disappeared. 
The mystery of his escape I was never able to 
solve, but I assumed that he must have been 
acquainted with some secret passage. I at 
once raised an alarm, and announced that I 
had just seen the man at large whom we all 
believed safely shut up and guarded by a 
sentry. My statement was greeted with sceptical 
glances on every side, but nevertheless I felt 
confident that my eyesight had not played me 


Search parties 
were at once in- 
stituted, for I con- 
sidered that the 
presence of a re- 
bellious Hausa 
soldier in our 
midst, armed with 
a rifle (and it was 
reasonable to sup- 
pose that he was 
in possession of 
cartridges, too), 
was, under the 
peculiar circum- 
stances of the 
case, hardly con- 
ducive to pleasant 
and peaceful 
slumbers. The 
idea also occurred 
to me, since I 
saw his somewhat 
distorted features 
in the doorway, 
that the man 
might be suffering 
from a fit of mad- 
ness, and in that 
case he would be 
doubly dangerous. 
When the others 
fully realized that 
I had actually seen 
the late prisoner 
I think they began 
to feel some sneaking respect for him, and 
to appreciate the absolute necessity of his 
re-capture and confinement in a place of safety 
with as little delay as possible. About three 
hours were spent in searching every nook and 
corner of the Castle, from turret to basement — 
not a slight undertaking when it is remembered 
that there were scores of apartments to be 
visited. But the search was fruitless. Dambu's 
place of concealment still remained undis- 

That he could not have eluded our vigilance 



and escaped from the precincts of the Castle 
allogether I felt confident : for there were only 
two exits, and at each of these strong guards 
were stationed. 1 was beginning to despair of 
being able to eflect his re-capture, at all events 
until"" daylight ; but at the same time I did not 
feel justified in postponing the search, for, after 
all, the risk was a very real one that he might 
appear in any part of the Castle during the 
night and make 
his presence felt 
in a ver)' terrible 

The search, 
therefore, was 
continued, but I 
thought that I 
would enjoy a 
brief respite from 
my labours and 
take a promen- 
ade on one of 
the battlements. 
A brother official 
walked by my 
side, and with 
him I discussed 
the situation in 
all its perple.xing 

Suddenly my 
eyes lighted 
up>on a small, 
oblong - shaped 
structure, about 
3ft. in height 
and 2ft. in 
breadth. It 
occupied one 
corner of the 
battlement, and 
was built of 
brick and 
cemented on 
the inside. But 
for what purpose 
it was originally 
intended I could never understand. 

I suggested to my companion, in a jocular 
sort of way, that the mysterious Hausa soldier 
might have concealed himself in the "well," as 
we were pleased to call the unsightly structure. 
The mere idea, however, was ridiculous enough 
to cause a .smile on his usually inscrutable 
countenance. I don't know why, but I lifted 


the lid, and to our -unspeakable amazement 
our quarry presented himself, hut in a most 
extraordinary manner. He must have slid into 
the aperture, hind-quarters first, as his feet 
seemed to be embracing his neck, and then he 
must have carefully replaced the lid. 

With some difficulty the captive was untied, so 
to speak, and extricated from his ludicrous posi- 
tion. After being secured with handcuffs and leg- 
irons he was ex- 
amined by a doc- 
tor, who certified 
that he was per- 
fectly sane, but 
suffering from 
the effects of ex- 
cessive indulg- 
ence in alcohol. 
On the follow- 
ing day he made 
his appearance 
in the dock, and 
after several 
serious charges 
had been proved 
against him he 
was sentenced 
to the w e 1 E 
merited punish 
m e n t of six 
months' hard 
labour. Accord- 
ino; to the evi- 
dence adduced 
in court Dambu 
had been drink- 
ing heavily be- 
fore his arrest, 
and it is quite 
probable that 
he was suffering 
from delirium 
when he broke 
out of the cell 
and took refuge 
in the cubicle. 
If that were so, then I incurred far more 
risk than I had imagined when I visited 
him, for he did possess some cartridges. If 
his delirium had been of longer duration 
he would assuredly have " run amok," and 
then I dread to think what the consequences 
might have been — probably death to several 
of us. 

Hoisting the Flag in a Savage Isle. 

By " An Offical who was Present." 

Here is an amusing account of a quaint State ceremonial- nothing less than the hoisting 
of the Union Jack over the little Polynesian island of Niue, which lies far out of the beaten 
track of ships. We are fortunate in being able to reprodiice actual photographs of the 

interesting King, with his Queen, Court, and people. 

O Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
Queen of Great Britain, the first 
kingdom of all the kingdoms of 
the world. We, the Chiefs and 
Rulers and Governors of Niue- 
Fekai, desire to pray Your Majesty, if it be 
your pleasure, to stretch out towards us your 
mighty hand that Niue may hide herself in 
it and be safe." 

Thus wrote Fataaiki, King of Savage Island, 
thirteen years ago, and " the first kingdom of 
all the kingdoms of the world," having taken 
thirteen years to think about it, and having 
received two other letters even more pressingly 
worded, reluctantly consented to stretch out her 
mighty hand. 

Perhaps something more than pure philan- 
thropy led her to consent. Five years ago, 
when the Germans began to show a feverish 
haste in developing their plantations in Samoa, 
and the supply of labour from the Melanesian 
Islands began to fail. Savage Island was dis- 
covered to have a value. Alone of all the Poly- 
nesian races, the Niueans were found to possess 
a love of travel and a 
positive liking for hard 
work. But, just as 
the Germans began to 
cast eyes upon them 
as a promising recruit- 
ing ground for planta- 
tion labourers, war 
broke out in Samoa, 
and the Niueans, who 
had a separate quarter 
in the town of Apia, 
went in a body to 
our Vice-Consul and 
claimed his protection 
as British subjects. It 
was impossible to 
turn away people who 
are our fellow-subjects 
by inclination, and, 
to put the thing at 
the lowest, our need 
of plantation labour- 
ers is tenfold greater 
than that of the Ger- 
mans. When, there- 

fore, last November the Samoa Convention 
brought about a division of interests between 
England and Germany, Savage Island was 
thrown into the English scale, and the Imperial 
Commissioner, who was sent out to obtain the 
consent of the natives of Tonga to a British 
protectorate, took the little island on his w-ay. 

Niue Hes too far out of the track of steamers 
for any definite news of its impending fate 
to have reached it. Beyond the account of 
Captain Cook, whom the natives attacked "with 
the fury of wild boars," and a few reports 
scattered through the journal of the London 
Missionary Society, little was known of the 
island, though there are several traders and a 
missionary upon it. But our curiosity was 
somewhat damped by two days' steaming from 
Tonga across that tempestuous sea miscalled 
the Pacific in a seaway that would have tried 
steadier vessels than H.M.S. Porpoise. 

A grey cloud - bank, stretching north and 
south for thirteen miles across our patli, pre- 
sently grew in density till it took shape as a 
solid island about 200ft. high, without a hill or 



From a Photo. 



a depression to break the monotony of the sky- 
line. Looking at it one might ahiiost believe 
the native legend tlial the god, Alau'i, having 
entangled his fish hook in a fissure of the reef, 
hauled it bodily out of the water. For a coral 
reef it was. densely covered with timber, but so 
honeyconilx^d with caverns that it is as hollow 
as a sponge. Before the anchor dropped a fleet 
of little canoes had swarmed round the ship, and 
from one of these there boarded us a youth who 
announced himself to be the .son of the late 
King, and to be ready, despite his exalted 
rank, to act as pilot. But his thoughts were 
elsewhere, and, from the attentions that he paid 
to the captain's black steward, we gathered that 
it was not from public spirit that he had volun- 
teered his services, but that the only spirit 

off all the men were seen running down to the 
water with planks to build a landing-stage, 
leaving the women and children chattering 

As soon as we landed messengers ran off to 
the four points of the compass to summon the 
King and head men to a solemn council on the 
morrow, and we were left free to do the sights. 
The people were quite unlike any other natives 
in Polynesia. Instead of being dignified and 
decorous like the Tongans and Samoans, the 
men — grey-headed elders and all ■ — behaved 
like a lot of schoolboys ; and (alas for the 
picturesque !) they all wore European clothes 
without boots. In this, and in the fact 
that most of them could speak a few words 
of English, the handiwork of the London 



Fro7n a Photo. 

potent enough to draw him forth from the shore 
was that which is kept in the steward's pantry. 
We anchored on the brink of a submarine 
precipice— nineteen fathoms under the bow and 
sixty-three under the counter— and banked our 
fires until we should be free to depart from so 
dangerous an anchorage. 

The cliff above us was crowned by the 
neatest little village in all tlie South Seas. A 
terrace of white-walled, thatched cottages fronted 
th" — all, except the church and mission 
b'u . . exactly alike in size and shape, even 
to the fixed Venetian shutters that covered the 
windows. Behind them was the thick bush, 
but the grass that covered every inch of the 
street was trimmed like a lawn, and waving 
palms threw a lacc-work of shade over all. A 
crowd, as gay and noisy as a flock of parrots, 
lined the cliff-edge, but as soon as our boat put 

Missionary Society was to be seen. Nor could 
one be an hour on shore without noticing that 
it was an island of women. In every doorway 
sat a girl plaiting a straw hat ; and women were 
moving about in every quarter of the village. 
But, except a few who were trading with the 
ship, not a man was to be seen. 

When we asked our guide what had become 
of them he swept his hand comprehensively 
round the horizon. They were everywhere, it 
seemed, except at home where they ought to 
have been. In all innocence they went forth, but 
came back after labouring a year in the white 
man's vineyard with a vocabulary and with 
morals which, in the missionary's opinion, far 
outweighed the money in their pockets. 

Hard by this village of Alofi the road has to 
mount a steep bluff, and though the only carts 
in the island belong to the traders, they deter- 





Froin a Photo. 

mined to grade the road for wheel traffic. A 
few charges of dynamite would have done the 
job in a day, but, having no dynamite, they set 
to work in the only fashion they could devise, 
which was to light big fires on the limestone 
rock and then break away the calcined surface 
with hammers a few 
inches at a time. 
That road will be 
finished some day, 
but it will not be in 
our time, nor in theirs. 
Ten was the hour 
fixed for the audi- 
ence, and at ten we 
marched to the village 

thermometer at 88deg. is 
trying to the temper, 
and when our messenger 
returned from the Royal 
quarters to say that the 
King was still dressing, 
we were sorely tempted 
to begin the proceedings 
without him. 

It afterwards proved 
that the old gentleman 
was not to blame. He 
had fastened, in ample 
time, the last button of 
a militia uniform lately 
imported for him by a 
trader, but an officious 
Samoan teacher had 
made him take it off 
again and don a Samoan 
mat - petticoat as more 
respectful to so exalted a 
personage as the Queen's 
Commissioner. His 
Majesty had cheerfully 
submitted to the change ; 
but when it came to depriving him of his military 
helmet, plumed with cock's feathers, the worm 
in him had turned, and he had his way. 

At last a shout brought us to the door of the 
school-house, where we had taken shelter from 
the sun, and we were fain to confess that the 



wh ere the 
^o are crowned. 
AVe assumed the best 
dignity we knew, for 
we expected to find 
the entire Court 
assembled. But there 
was no Court. A few 
men were busy rigging 
two rough awnings 
facing one another, 
and the usual crowd 
of women and boys 
were chattering in th ■ 
shade. To be made 
to wait in full-dress 
uniform with the 

Vol. vi.— 29. 


From a Photo. 

Royal procession 
was worth waitiiiL; 
fur. At its head 
marched a dis- 
orderly rabble of 
officers, armed 
with curious, 
paddle - shaped 
clubs and spears. 
IJehind them was 
a remarkable-look- 
ins old gentleman 
in a home-made 
uniform bespat- 
tered with yellow 
anchors and 
rounded off with 
an ancient and 
battered beaver 
top - hat. Their 
Majesties followed 
him — the Queen, a 
fat girl of eighteen, 
and the King, an 
elderly and one- 
eyed bridegroom 
of seventy-six. 

Her ^iajesty wore her bridal dress of white 
muslin and a bonnet of artificial roses. She 



Frcm a] shaped clubs." [Pkoto. 

was of humble 
origin, and the 
King had played 
Cophetua to her 
beggar maid but 
two months before 
our arrival, against 
the wishes of his 
people. For, 
despite his plain- 
tive manner, he 
concealed a tena- 
cious obstinacy 
which wore down 
all obstacles. He 
had, it appeared, 
no sort of right to 
the throne, and 
when he first 
broached the idea 
of his election to 
his fellow-council- 
lors he was met 
with a flat refusal. 
They had got on 
very well for two 

J'foiii a\ 

I • , 1 ■■.',>. 11 Ml !, 1 : ill IIRESS OF WHITF, MUSLIN 
AMI A l;(i\M-. 1 111- Ak I II li_L\L ROSFS.' [Photo. 

Prom a Pholo. 

years without a King, they said, and why, if they 
had to choose one, should they elect him ? But 
Tongia was like the drops of water that wear 
away the stone : it took him just two years of 
monthly councils to win his point, and then the 




From a\ bridegroom of seventy-six." 

council sighed wearily and elected him. 

now pursuing the question of a Royal 

in like fashion. If they 

were wise they would vote 

him a Civil list without 

further ado, and so add 

years to their own lives. 

Modesty has never 
stood in His Majesty's 
way. He began life under 
the name of Folofonua, 
which means " Horse " — 
the most terrible of God's 
creatures known to the 
men of those days ; in 
middle life he changed 
it for Puleteaki (Cireat 
Ruler) ; but when he 
would be King this was 
not good enough for him, 
and he revived in his own 
favour the ancient title of 
Tongia, which is more 
potent still. 

Gracefully lifting his 
Samoan petticoat King 
Tongia took his seat From'a{ 

under his awning in a windsor chair, and 
his staff sat themselves down in a stiff row 
on the forms behind him. The Com- 
missioner's speech was translated by Mr. 
Lawes, the missionary, and the Commis- 
sioner presented a portrait of the Queen. 
The King gazed at it in silence for several 
minutes, and was then observed to fumble 
in his waistband. It afterwards transpired 
that he was looking for a florin with which 
to tip the Commissioner ; but as there are 
no pockets in a Samoan mat the coin had 
probably tumbled out during the course of 
the procession, and the Commissioner had 
to go without his honorarium. 

W'e adjourned to the school-house for 
the signing of the treaty which was to con- 
stitute the Protectorate, and here diffi- 
culties arose. Every Niuean is an orator, 
and there was not a man or woman in all 
that assembly who had not come primed 
with a speech. If the Commissioner had 
allowed one of them to open his mouth we 
should still be sitting on that village green, 
unless kindly death had put an end to our 
sufi"erings. No sooner were we within 
doors than three orators began to address 
the crowd at once. The number presently 
increased to eleven, and the audience 
began, on their own account, to break 

AND ONE-EYED what passes for silence in Niue. 

\Photo. r^y^^ King's officers who were sent out to 

He is quell the riot added to it by brandishing their 

stipend paddle-clubs over the heads of the talkers, with 




THE Win;-: world maCiAZINE. 

loud shouts. There was worse to come. The 
hcnd nun of vilhiges numbered eleven ; they all 
wanted to sign the treaty, and there was not 
room in the document for more than three 
signatures. They are so jealous of one another 
that tor a longtime they could not be persuaded 
to agree upon three representatives, and one of 
these was so tremulous with indignation that 
he could not hold the pen. 

Happily there was a diversion. A party of 
bluejackets had landed to erect the flag-staff, 
and in a moment the orators were left to 
harangue the empty air. Before the sailors hod 
time for resistance the picks and sliovels were 
gentiy wrested from their hands, and the people 
fell to with a will upon the grave of their own 
independence. The bluejackets grinned, and 
accepted their promotion as foremen of works 
with their usual adaptability ; and the happiest 
relations had been established between em- 
ployers and employed when one of the orators, 
baulked of his prey, burst in upon the group 
with a paddle-shaped club, and scattered the 
volunteers like chaff before a fan. 

And now the King, having said his say and 
signed his treaty, betook himself in procession 
to the mission-house, and expres.sed a wish to 
visit the ship — the first man-of-war to anchor in 
Niuean waters. Upon this the eleven head men 
declared that, if he went, they must go too; and, 
since each would have brought a friend with 
him, and each friend two cousins, the captain 
wisely stipulated that the head men would be 
welcome only if they found their own convey- 
ance (the number of canoes 
is limited), and that none but 
the King and Queen should 
take passage in his gig. 

All went well until the 
boat neared the gangway, 
and then the Queen, having 
taken whispered counsel 
with her consort, began to 
take off her boots. At the 
foot of the ladder there 
stood a bluejacket, who 
throughout this protracted 
manoeuvre preserved an 
admirable composure, and 
when Her Majesty paddled 
up the steps in her stock- 
ings he took his place in 
the procession carrying the 
Royal boots, to the great 
discomposure of his com- 
rades in the guard of honour. 

There was much specula- 
tion on board as to the mean- 
ing of the Queen's proceed- 

ing — whether it was part of some religious cere 
mony or merely the fear of tripping over her high 
heels ; but, personally, I incline towards the 
simple theory that her boots were tight. The 
Royal pair expressed polite astonishment at the 
fittings and armament of the ship, but at the 
sight of the chart-room, which is fitted with a 
small brass stove for cold weather, the King's 
admiration was unbounded. "It is the finest 
kitchen I have ever seen,'' he declared, and he 
became quite irritable when the interpreter 
tried in vain to persuade him that it was 
used for other purposes than cooking. With 
the pertinacity that had won him the throne, 
and would shortly procure him an income 
suitable to his needs, he stuck to his point 
that it was a cook-house, and the finest cook- 
house of his experience. One thing only 
displeased him on that great and glorious day. 
He had seen the Jack that was to be hoisted on 
shore, and he liked it, until he caught sight of 
the red ensign flaunting from the fore. That, 
he said, was the flag for him, and it was not 
until a diplomatic assurance had been given 
him that the red ensign would stamp him as a 
second-class sort of potentate that he became 
reconciled to his fate. But this disappointment 
abated not one jot of His Majesty's gratitude to 
the captain, which, but for the intervention of 
the interpreter, would have taken the practical 
form of a tip, for he had contrived to provide 
himself with two dollars since he had found him- 
self penniless at the audience earlier in the day. 
His subjects, meanwhile, were revelling in 


From a Photo, 




Froin a\ 



the strains of the drum and fife band, the first 
that had ever landed on their shores. It was a 
day of high revel : natives were still pouring 
into the village, and at the hour appointed for 
the ceremony of hoisting the flag fully three- 
quarters of the population must have been 
assembled on the green. When the guard of 
honour landed the crowd was reduced by 
wide-eyed curiosity to the nearest approach to 
quietude and order that the island had ever 
known. The proclamation was read ; the 
guard presented arms; the band played; and, 
while the group of gold-laced officers stood at 
the salute, the flag went slowly aloft to the 
thunder of the guns from the ship. Then the 
people broke into revel, and to know what 
public rejoicing is like in Nine you must 
watch a school breaking up for the summer 
holidays, and multiply it by as many figures 
as you can think of 

Each quarter of the village had prepared its 
special ovation. While the women sang 
songs in chorus improvised on the spot, the 
men fought mock duels in most realistic 
fashion with clubs and spears ; and, all the 
while, round the outer circle, three aged ladies 
capered solemnly with their hands clenched 
aloft. We felt a genuine solicitude for the 
mental health of one of these old dames, who 
proved, on inquiry, to be the sister of the 
elder of the yellow anchors, who had now 
broken out in a " fore-and-aft " cocked hat, 

hastily improvised in pnper 
on the model of that worn 
. by the naval officers. W hen 
exhausted by excessive 
dancing she produced a 
wooden drum, on which 
she played until she had 
got her breath, and then 
she whipped a nose -flute 
from her bosom and blew 
plaintive notes upon it 
with one nostril. At the 
end every performer 
solemnly shook hands 
with the Commissioner and 
laid an offering at his feet, 
until his arm hung limp 
by his side and the pile 
of presents had risen above 
his knees. That was our 
" send-off"." As the island 
faded away astern it was diffi- 
cult to believe that we had not 
dreamed the whole adventure, 
and thatNiue, with its cargo of 
amiable and industrious little people, still batdes 
with the ocean rollers there to the eastward. 


From- a\ 



Abducting a White Elephant. 

Bv Edward TEnnuxx. 

The wild beast trade contains almost more romance and adventure than any other. Here is the 
history- of the kidnapping of one of the sacred white elephants of Siam by an agent of the late 
Mr. William Cross, of Liverpool, the head of the famous wild beast importing business. Barnum 
had a so-called white elephant, and his great rival, Adam Forepaugh, commissioned Mr. Cross to 
procure him a really genuine white elephant at any cost. The narrative of the abduction of 
Riman Mankan reads more like fiction than an astute business " deal." 

SUPPOSE I may conclude that 
every reader of The Wide World 
M.\c..\ziNE has heard of William 
Cross, of Eiverpool, the great 
wild-stock trader. In like manner, 
I may a.ssume that the nanie of P. T. Barnum 
is equally iamiliar, as that of a veritable " King 
of Showmen and Prince of Public Enter- 
tainers." Such being the case, it is only neces- 
sary to add that the peculiar story which has 
recently come to my knowledge (through the 
medium of Mr. W. Simpson 
Cross, the present head of the 
great Liverpool firm) bears 
directly upon the former 
gentleman, and indirectly 
upon the latter. 

Barnum was an extensive 
purchaser from the Liverpool 
menagerie, the majority of his 
performing animals having 
been trained at that great 
breaking - school. Moreover, 
the two men were on terms 
of intimate friendship, which, 
despite the "white elephant 
affair," remained unbroken 
until the death of Mr. P. T. 
Barnum. Mr. Cross, by the 
way, died in April of this 

In 1884, when the great 
Barnum show was e.xciting 
the interest of half England, 
its famous proprietor capped 
his former enterprise by secur- 
ing a Siamese white elephant 
—that mysterious, sacred beast before whom Kings 
and peasants alike made obeisance, and an animal 
which, in a land where bigotry and idolatry 
reigned .supreme, was worshipped as an im- 
mortal god. The white elephant was the fetish of a 
hundred tribes. So long as these beasts remained 
within the borders of Siam, so long was Siam 
a country protected from evil. But once allow 
them (so it was held) to be stolen away by 
those devilish white men from the Western 
world— to whom Brahma and Buddha were 
unknown gods — and a great black curse 


c ^ 


^^K£y|4 ^ 



^^^^^H||j^4^ ' wM. ,£m 









/'><;;« a Photo, by Bro^mi, Barnes, and Bell. 

itself into a 

would fall upon the land, a curse visionary and 
indefinite, but in its terrorizing vagueness even 
the more horrible to contemplate. 

A\'ith views such as these implanted in the 
minds of a fanatical, religion-haunted race, it is 
little wonder that white elephants had been 
scarcely more than a name in Europe and 
America; and that they were popularly included 
in a category with such mythological beasts 
as griffins and ♦dragons. When, therefore, the 
news arrived that Barnum had really secured a 
genuine specimen, excitement 
waxed high as to its appear- 
ance and characteristics, and 
a considerable concourse of 
Pressmen and naturaUsts 
awaited its arrival in Liver- 
pool. At length it turned up, 
an undersized brute of a light 
mouse-colour, and, save for a 
patch or two of pink flesh 
under its ears, of ordinary 
elephantine appearance. 
Frankly speaking, the expect- 
ant onlookers were disap- 
pointed. In their own minds 
they had doubtless conjured 
a vision of yet a third Jumbo, 
this time possessed of a skin 
of dazzling whiteness ! 

In due season the "cele- 
brity " was dispatched to 
London, where he was 
greeted with that degree 
of enthusiasm which, tem- 
pered with cynicism and 
scepticism, speedily resolves 
mere disdainful tolerance. 
Great hopes had been inspired in the public 
mind, which, so far, remained unfulfilled. 
What Barnum's visitors really wanted was 
an elephant whose external whiteness was 
more visible to the naked eye, so to speak. 
Sanger, the circus proprietor, too, aided and 
abetted the general discontent by parading a 
7vhite-7vashed elephant through the rtreets as an 
advertisement of his own show. Indeed, 
of the two, people preferred Sanger's joking 
white elephant ; at all events, there was no 



doubt as to its actual hue ! So, having failed 
to impress the British public, Barnum made 
arrangements to ship his spotted freak across 
the "herring-pond." 

Upon the arrival of the news in America that 
the elephant was eventually to visit that con- 
tinent Mr. Cross received a cable from Adam 
Forepaugh, the great Philadelphian showman, 
commissioning him to secure a genuine white 
elephant at any cost, and to land it in tlie 
States prior to the advent of Toung Taloung — 
as Barnum's specimen was called. It so hap- 
pened that during the previous eighteen months 
Cross.'s Bangkok agent had been straining every 
endeavour to smuggle 
one of these rare beasts 
out of Siam ; and, 
almost simultaneously 
with Forepaugh's cable, 
came the message that 
he had at length suc- 
ceeded, and that an 
animal whose native 
name was Riman Man- 
kan (Tiger -eater) was 
already on his way to 
Liverpool, via Mar- 
seilles. The manner 
in which the agent 
secured Riman Man- 
kan is herewith detailed 
for the first time. 

Some thirty miles 
north of Bangkok, in 
a small village called 
Kyahtsaw, situated on 
the banks of a main 
canal, there resided a 
certain Siamese poten- 
tate of the name of 
Tuan Chan. Chan 
was a typical Eastern 
nabob — wealthy, 
arrogant, and imbued 

with a massive and deep - rooted sense of 
his own supreme importance. In moments 
of acute depression, or when the hand 
of sickness was sore upon him, he would, 
perhaps, admit the existence of a Being even 
more powerful than himself But, in the usual 
way, Tuan Chan deemed himself omnipotent ; 
the personification of Divine wisdom and 
mundane strength. In appearance he was 
short and squat, and utterly devoid of those 
distinguished characteristics which he advanced 
as his own peculiar speciality. If you 
stroll along Limchouse Causeway in the early 
hours of the evening you may behold Tuan 


From a Photo. 

Chans by the dozen. Now, Tuan Chan pos- 
sessed a white elephant. 

This sacred and entirely over-rated beast 
was just blossoming into its early youth, and 
was really a very creditable specimen of its 
breed. The merest child would have acknow- 
ledged its creamy tint, and would have revelled 
in the gentle and affectionate disposition 
which it invariably displayed. Indeed, had 
it been of a less confiding nature, and had it 
exhibited characteristics more in keeping with 
its bulk and racial precedent, it is most likely 
that it would, even at the present moment, be 
gracing the elegant stables of His Excellency 

Tuan Chan. But it 
put its trust in a man 
• — a white man, too — 
who, had the beast 
been aware of the fact, 
was the ambassador of 
Mr. AVilliam Cross. 
And therein lay its fate 
of transportation and 
continuous and degrad- 
ing captivity. 

It has already been 
surmised, perhaps, that 
this pachyderm was 
none other than Riman 
M a n k a n h i m s e 1 f , 
though his somewhat 
blood-thirsty name en- 
tirely belied his actual 
size and f igh t i ng- 
weight. He was little 
more than five feet in 
height, and owing to 
circumstances over 
which he had no con- 
trol, his tusks had, so 
far, not commenced to 
sprout. This semi- 
deity resided under 
the charge of one, 
Shoaw - Att - Hpaw, 
whose exclusive duties were to minister to the 
wants of the fetish, and keep a strictly super- 
vising eye upon his every movement. In order 
to avoid subsequent misunderstanding, the fact 
had been definitely impressed upon Shoaw-Att- 
Hpaw that if any calamity — avoidable or other- 
wise—befell the important Riman Mankan, he, 
Shoaw, would be bastinadoed into a sulphurous 
eternity. As a natural consequence, therefore, 
he watched Riman Mankan with a strict and 
tireless eye ; and — at any rate, until he 
succumbed to the fascinations of a certain 
specious- luxury — he scarcely allowed the 
elephant out of his sight for a second at a time. 



As previously staled, Mr. Cross's Bangkok 
agent was on the look-out for an opportunity 
to purchase or steal a wliilc elephant, and the 
radi.tnt charms of Riman Mankan had some- 
how come to his knowledge. So he decided to 
journey to Kyahtsaw to investigate the con- 
ditions under which the " tiger-slayer "' existed, 
and also to note the opportunities of judicious 
bribery and tlie possibilities of midnight elope- 
ment. A main canal runs from Bangkok to 
Kyahlsaw, so the agent chartered an unsinkable 
Uirge, which he manned with a crew of low- 
down Malayan assassins. He did not, of course, 
engage his natives on account of their mur- 
tlerous and blood-loving tendencies, but merely 
i>r the reason that he was unable to 
procure any other variety. Even the Malay 
Peninsula has its limitations ! 

In due season he reached the small township, 
where he assumed a devout counten- 
ance and a pair of up-to-date re- 
volvers ; the former he displayed 
somewhat ostentatiously, but the latter 
lie screened from vulgar observation. 
He visited the various shrines in the 
district, and expressed his humble 
admiration thereat. In profuse terms 
he declared his respectful feelings 
towards the high and mighty Tuan 
Chan. In fashion thus diplomatic, 
he obLiined a gracious permission to 
inspect Riman Mankan, and was 
delighted with its imposing appear- 
ance. He eyed Shoaw-Att- Hpaw, 
and considered him good for a bribe. 
Before risking the admission which 
any such offer would necessary entail, 
however, he decided to learn some- 
thing of .Shoaw's habits and general 
characteristics. So he told off one of 
his Malayan ruffians to watch the 
elephants i, whilst he himself 

lounged by inc banks of the canal to 
await developments. 

After about ten days' inaction 
he learned some startling news. 
On the outskirts of the village there lived 
a Chinese individual who ran a private 
opium den, and whose cliejiteie had 
already extended to the hitherto immaculate 
Shoaw-Att- Hpaw. One evening a week would 
Ihis errant keeper steal off to enjoy the madden- 
mg delights of the narcotic, leaving his 
priceless charge under the supervision of an 
understudy. The elephant-stables, however, 
were situated in the immediate precincts of 
Tuan Chan's palace, and any attempt at forcible 
abduction would not only prove futile, but 
dangerous to the last degree. The agent, there- 

fore, decided to resort to strategy, and with the 
barest outline of a scheme in his mind he paid 
a visit to Rao-Ah-Hin-Mah, the overseer of the 
Chinese opium-den. 

If there is one good feature in connection 
with a Chinaman — especially if he keep an 
opium-den— it is his entire willingness to accept 
a bribe, and to prove quite faithful until someone 
else bids higher. Moreover, in this particular 
instance there lay an additional advantage in 
the agent's dealing with a foreigner — particularly 
one of Chinese extraction — for the reason that 
neither religious scruples nor haunting tradition 
need constitute a bar to successful negotiation. 
To Rao-Ah-Hin-Mah a white elephant was 
much the same sort of beast as an ordinary 
common elephant, and he was dazed with no 
visions of intensified Hades or everlasting 
Vesuvius consequent on the loss of Riman 




Mankan. So, between them, the agent 
the Chinaman concocted a very pretty 
whereby the Chinaman was to derive 
stantial pecuniary benefit — half down 
half when possession of the elephant 
obtained. To cement the amicable relations 
between them the agent threatened to throttle 
Rao with his own pigtail unless everything 
passed off in satisfactory fashion. There is 
nothing like rounding off the corners of stern 
business with little pleasantries of this nature. 

A few evenings later Shoaw-Att-Hpaw turned 
up at the Chinese den in pursuit of his favourite 



vice, and ere long was deep in the throes of 
the overpowering drug. Then it was that 
Rao-Ah-Hin-Mah accosted him, and filled 
his mind with vague suggestions of possible 
abduction of the elephant, hinting at the fearful 
risk of leaving it behind, even for the space of 
one single evening. Would it not be better, 
insinuated the wily Chinaman, to bring it along 
with him and to keep it in sight during the entire 
visit? Then, indeed, there could be no likeli- 
hood of subsequent unmentionable complica- 
tions. Moreover (and this was an artful move) 
under such conditions he could come much 
oftener — could, indeed, call in in the daytime 
whilst giving the elephant his daily exercise. 
Surely the opium-tainted atmosphere would even 
prove beneficial to so sacred a beast ! Shoaw-Att- 
Hpaw tendered no reply, and eventually departed 
engrossed in deep 
thought. He 
could scarcely re- 
collect whether he 
had received a 
Divine message or 
a mere earthly 
warning, but with 
the silly conceit of 
the East hedecided 
to treat it as the 
former, and to 
avert a sudden and 
painful exodus 
from the delights 
of existence by 
taking his charge 
to the forbidden 
haunt and thus 
insure its security. 
Next evening, 
there fo re, he 
turned up with 
the precious ele- 
phant, and insisted 

on its being chained to the wall by his side. 
In a few moments Riman Mankan was as 
entirely unprotected as though he wandered 
abroad in the wilds of Trafalgar Square ! 

Two days later Shoaw-Att-Hpaw and bis 
elephant paid another afternoon call, and this 
time Cross's agent was ready to receive the 
interesting pair. He waited until the Siamese 
was well under the influence of the drug, 
when he took charge of Riman Mankan, 
and conducted him kindly to the inclosure 
behind the hu . There the astute agent's 
Malayan confedt. 'es were waiting, having 
with them some buckets of inky-looking liquid 
for transforming purposes. Mops were ready 
to hand ; thj lephant was speedily swilled 

with the clinging stain ; and in a few 
moments' time not even Tuan Chan himself 
would have recognised his beloved fetish. Then 
was Riman Mankan paraded to the canal and 
boarded on the capacious barge ; and well 
within a couple of hours he was safely on his 
way to Bangkok. A Malay was left behind to 
prevent the too speedy resurrection of the luck- 
less Shoaw-Att-Hpaw, who, as soon as he 
realized the full horror of his position, made 
speedy tracks for the interior and became a 
brigand ! 

It is needless to observe, perhaps, that a 
fearful uproar was occasioned in the palace of 
Tuan Chan when the news was bruited abroad 
that Riman Mankan was missing. Steps were 
taken in the first instance to secure the person 
of Shoaw-Att-Hpaw, the main idea of the 


enraged Nabob being evidently to avenge the 
loss without delay and to take measures to 
counteract it later on. In all probability it was 
this one saving fact which insured the success 
of the abduction, for Bangkok was thirty miles 
away, and the barge proceeded after the 
leisurely fashion of the classic tortoise. Then, 
too, a stay of some eight hours became 
necessary in the Siamese capital before a 
vessel could be chartered for Singapore, 
and, in the meantime, Riman was gradually 
resuming his normal tint. At length, how- 
ever, Mr. Cross's agent shipped him in 
safety, and not until then did he feel altogether 
secure. * Singapore was reached just as an 
English vessel was on the point of departure, 



and Riiuan Mankan, white elephant and alleged 
tiger-killer, was honoured with a deck cabin, as 
befilled his exalted rank. During the sea 
voyage he was decidedly inclined towards 
nulancholy, and contracted a playful habit 
of casting his food on the deck and 
rendering it unfit for further use by means 
of a vigorous application of his ponderous 
foot. After a time, however, he grew more 
cheerful, and resigned himself to his inevitable 
lot. At Marseilles he was formally handed 
over to Mr. William Cross, who person- 
ally conducted him to Liverpool. From th 
city he was almost immediately transhipped 
the States aboard the City of Chester, arrivin 
safely at Philadelphia some 
considerable time before 
Barnum's specimen put in a 
belated appearance. 

elephant, that same appearance was in no 
measure due to surreptitious " faking." Great 
was his delight, therefore, when he found a 
beast whose hide was of a decided ash-colour — 
as unlike the piebald mammoth which he had 
actually imagined as a tiger is unlike a jaguar. 
Poor Riman Mankan — or " Light of Asia," as he 
had been rechristened — was subjected to a severe 
and unpleasant scrutiny by the assembled jour- 
nalists, but was, of course, pronounced genuine, 
even by that sceptical band. And next morning 


Adam Forepaugh, the consignee, was awaiting 
the advent of Riman Mankan with a feeling of 
considerable trepidation. News had already 
reached him of the doubtful reception accorded 
to Barnum's Toung Taloung in England, and of 
the more than whispered hints which had been 
thrown out concerning bleached feet and painted 
white sjiots. He later confessed that in his 
own mind he had conjured a vision of a 
similar beast — a spotted freak whose only claim 
to "whiteness" lay in the external evidence 
of a few small skin discolorations. At the 
same time, he daringly invited a large contingent 
of American Pressmen to meet the City of Chester 
"' •' ; docks, intent upon emphasizing the fact 
• hatever might be the appearance of the 

the news had flashed from Washington to 'Frisco 
and from Pacific to Atlantic that Forepaugh was 
in possession of a genuine white elephant — the 
actual degree of whiteness varying with the 
enthusiasm displayed by the individual Pressman 
sending the message. Light of Asia even- 
tually toured the States, and was admired by 
tens of thousands of sightseers, from the 
aristocrats of Philadelphia to the savants 
of Boston, and on to the millionaires of 
New York and Chicago. Barnum, too, drew 
tremendous crowds when he courted compari- 
son by " starrmg " Toung Taloung ; but the 
honours, of course, were held by Adam Fore- 
paugh, through the mediurr of Cross, of 

In and About Pekin. 

By J. Thomson. 

Mr. Thomson is the well-known photographer of Grosvenor Street, as well as a great authority on 
China, he having journeyed for two years through the Empire, and taken several thousands of 
photographs. In this paper he reproduces a few of his own photos., and tells precisely what they show. 

HE scheme for clearing "The Central 
Flowery Land " of aliens, otherwise 
Van-kuei-tze, i.e., Foreign Devils, so 
named by the natives, appears to 
have been deliberately planned by 
the Empress-Dowager and her party, but not so 
fully matured as it might have been had she 
waited for the reorganization of her army and 
complete rearming of all available forces after 
the modern fashion. The fatuity of the scheme 
does not seem to have occurred to the minds of 
the F^mpress and her princely colleagues, Ching 
and Tuan. They were both at first adherents 
of the Empress, approving her policy. It would 
appear that Prince Tuan has since broken faith 
and set up a standard of his own, always with 
the amiable determination to exterminate 

The methods of the Chinese Government are 
little understood by foreigners. The Govern- 
ment is supposed to be made up of a partner- 
ship between Shangti, the supreme ruler who 
manages the affairs of the heavens above, and 

Hwangti, the Imperial Sovereign of China 
who rules the world below. As a business 
arrangement it is as simple as it ought to be 
effective, and, so far, has not done badly, 
though it now looks as if it might drift into 
liquidation at any moment. It is an extremely 
ancient custom among the Chinese to regard 
their Emperor as supreme in all that section of 
the world worth ruling, so that up to this day 
many of them view all other nations as more or 
less barbarous, whilst all are quite unable to 
realize the potentialities of the Great Powers of 
the West. 

There is a curious relic of the Celestial 
partnership in " The Open Altar of Heaven," 
shown in the illustration, and intimately asso- 
ciated with Shangti and Hwangti of the Chinese. 
It is situated in the Chinese city, and consists of 
a circular altar of white marble rising in three 
terraces. It is ascended at the four cardinal 
points by flights of nine steps. The number of 
pillars in the balustrade, the steps, ^nd the 
curious stones in the pavement are all symbolical. 

y-^om a riwto. iiy\ 


[/. Thoiiison. 


.'. crj 


ond arranged in multiples of three and nine. It 
is here that the Emperor, as High Priest, offers 
sacrifice at the Winter Solstice and communes 
with the Supreme Lordof Heaven. It is indeed 
an ancient form of worshipping 
the Deity, and is the most im- 
portant of all the religious State 
ceremonies of the Chinese, ex- 
cepting perhaps the Imperial visit 
(at the vernal equinox) to the 
Temple of Earth adjoining. This 
temple was dedicated to a defunct 
partner in the firm, a deified 
Emperor named Sien-nung-tang. 

The Kwo-toze-keen, or National 
University, stands to the west of 
the Great Lannisary of Pekin. 
On the right and left of the cen- 
■ ' ' " ■' re are rows of two 
, jj^ht marble tablets, 
which the complete text of 
the nine Chinese classics has 
been engraved, an idea repeated 
from the Han and Tang dynas- 
ties, each of which had a series 
of monuments engraved with the 
classics in the same way as shown 
in the photograph. 

The city of Pekin stands on a 
plain sloping down seawards, and 
is divided into two parts — the 
Tartar quarter and the Chinese 
city — the whole surrounded by a 
wall over twenty miles in length. 

The first photo- 
graph shown, 
taken from the 
wall, shows that 
the majority of 
the houses rise 
to a modest uni- 
form level. The 
respective height 
of the dwellings 
is strictly in keep- 
ing with the 
social grade of 
their tenants, 
who may not raise 
their abodes a 
single line of 
bricks higher 
than the law pre- 
scribes. Thus 
patents of nobili- 
ty, as well as civil 
and military rank, 
are allotted a 
correct scale of 
elevation in architecture culminating in the 
comparatively lofty Government buildings, and 
temples, and above all the Imperial Palace. The 
condition of this vast Oriental city is wholly 



From a Photo. hy\ tablets. [/. Thomson. 





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■ — :^S!S«-ef- ' ^>/3 


front a Photo, by J. Thomson. 

insanitary. There is no system of drainage ; 
Nature is left mistress of the situation, though 
fully handicapped by the cramped conditions of 
Chinese life and surroundings. Wiiile the 
drainage of the city is left to take care of itself, 
however, rules of politeness regulating daily inter- 
course among the citizens are observed with the 
utmost precision. The streets are unswept 
save on occasion of the passage of the Emperor ; 
and the atmosphere after rain when the sun 
shines is full of evil odours. Yet, curiously 
enough, the 
people seem to 
thrive and multi- 
ply. On the other 
hand, when the 
wind sweeps 
down from the 
frozen steppes of 
Mongolia, death 
claims its victims 
by the score. 
They are found 
just on that pave- 
ment below with 

no more cover mg 

waste products of Celes- 
tial city life. The Chinese 
as a whole are not moved 
to compassion by such 
scenes as these, and the 
dead are stolidly carted 
away out of sight. When 
death invades their homes 
the Chinese are con- 
strained to comply with 
the most minute observ- 
ances', not with the merci- 
ful view of relieving pain, 
but to secure the living 
against the evil conse- 
quences of incorrect death 
or burial. That is to say, 
all the observances are 
intended to get the spirit 
of the defunct out of the 
house and keep it out. 

The city and its strong 
but antiquated defences 
have been so frequently 
described as to require 
nothing further at my 
hands. Hatred of foreign- 
ers here is frantically in- 
tense. The rulers of* this Celestial capital attri- 
bute most of the evils that befall the people to 
the presence of aliens, and so goad them to such 
acts of barbarism as have been recently com- 
mitted. When all is known it will probably be 
found that there were among the officials two or 
more contending parties in Pekin, thus affording 
a convenient Oriental arrangement for shifting 
responsibility from one to the other. 

The Legation, or " Liang-Kung-fu," 
so named by the Chinese owing to its having 



It 1 1 f 

to withstand the 
cold than a coat 
of sun-dried mud. 
But these are 
only beggars, the 

From a Phoio. bv\ the roman catholic cathedra 





From a Photo, by J. Thomson. 

formerly been the residence of the Duke Liang, 
is, or rather was, hedged round by a wall, and 
entered by the gateway shown in the photo- 
graph on the preceding, page. The grounds 
cover an area of five acres. It is within this 
space that our unfortunate Ambassador, Sir 
Claude Macdonald, and his wife, together with 
hundreds of other foreigners, were imprisoned 
and besieged. The German Legation stands in 
an adjoining plot of ground, and is now invested 
with tragic interest. Another prominent build- 
ing in Pekin is the Roman Catholic Cathedral 
within the walls of the Imperial city on a site 
granted in perpetuity by the 
Emperor Kanghi. This site 
was confiscated during a time 
of persecution, and restored 
after the war in i860. The 
church carried a tower which 
was never finished, as its eleva- 
tion rudely violated all sense of 
propriety in the native mind. 
The cathedral was a subsequent 
erection on the site of the 
church which was destroyed by 
fire in 1S64. The height of 
the structure proved a great 
source of annoyance to the 
Chinese, and they objected to 
it on the score that " such a 
mission settlement should not 
Ije used as a sanctuary where 
evil-doers could take refuge and 
defy the law." 

During autumn the plain 
about Tientsin is frequently 

flooded. At the 
time this [)hoto- 
gra])h was taken 
families might 
have been seen 
squatting on the 
top of mounds 
of moist clay, 
waiting until the 
flood should 
subside, living 
meanwhile on 
fish and such 
provisions as 
they were able 
to rescue from 
the whirling 
waters. One 
Chinaman told 
me that the 
houses were 
built of mud 
and millet stalks 
and settled down in their mounds when 
the flood came, holding together the forma- 
tion and effects of the owner until the 
waters retired and enabled him to erect his 
homestead anew. 

The mule-litter here shown is a convey- 
ance much used for long journeys from 
Pekin, mainly in the direction of Mongolia, 
through the Nankow and other passes. It is an 
uncomfortable mode of travelling, as one is 
being constantly banged about at all angles, 
and at the risk of dislocation of joints, unless 
the interior of the litter is well padded. 


From a Photo, by J. Thomson. 

The Vendetta of Musoh'no. 

By Giovanni Dalla Vecchia. 

An Italian journalist who has recently arrived in England from his native country with first-hand 
information of this extraordinary affair gives an account of. the notorious outlaw, Giuseppe 
Musolino, who, escaping from prison under dramatic circumstances, commenced a terrible 
" vendetta " against his accuser and all those who had been instrumental in securing his 
conviction. The brigand has defied all the efforts of the authorities for over two years, 
secure in his haunts in the mountains of Calabria. The illustrations are from sketches 
by an Italian artist who is thoroughly familiar with all the phases of the vendetta. 

HE Calabrian language is a perfect 
mosaic of Greek, Albanian, Arabian, 
Spanish, and Italian. In many 
country places modern Greek is still 
spoken, and Italian is only used in 
the towns among the 
better class of people. 
The townspeople have 
great difificulty in under- 
standing the vernacular 
of the mountaineers. 

The character of the 
people is likewise a 
mixture of good and 
bad qualities. Properly 
trained, the Calabrese 
is a very useful and 
intelligent member of 
society. Left to him- 
self, to his mountains, 
and to his superstitions, 
he remains what has 
been not improperly 
called " the unpolished 
child of Nature." At 
times he is as hard 
as the rock of his 
mountains, and at other 
times as effete as an 
Oriental. The Cala- 
brese is energetic, yet 
indolent ; generous, yet 
vindictive ; devout, yet 
without fear of God. 
He reflects the nature 
of his mountains — hard 
to approach, but, once 
friend, a friend for ever. 

The mountains of 
Calabria offered to 
the brigands, until 
nearly forty years ago, 
a secure base for their maraudings. 

The forest of Si la has been on many occa- 
sions a celebrated place. Forty years ago it 
was the abode of the largest band of brigands 
ever known. It took the Italian Government 

nearly five years to rid that place of them. 
Even nowadays the name of Sila inspires terror 
in man}', though to some poetical or venture- 
some persons it may suggest a less awful feeling. 
It is said that a French lady, enchanted with 

the weirdness of that 
country, once spoke 
admiringly of it to 
the late King of Italy. 
Umberto, who had 
anything but a poetical 
mind, answered: 
" That place, no doubt, 
is grand, and its wild- 



ness awe-mspinng 


for myself I would like 
to see potatoes grow- 
ing there." It was on 
the mountains of Cala- 
bria that Garibaldi, 
the popular hero of 
Italy, formed in 1862 
his army of volunteers 
with which he intended 
to march to Rome. 
Now, the heights of 
the Calabrian Moun- 
tains are the secure 
abode of many out- 
laws, or latitanti, as 
they are called there. 
This security is greatly 
due to the propensity 
of the people to 
protect and assist 
those who are wanted 
by the police, what- 
ever may be the crimes 
of the brigands. Forty 
years of Italian life 
has done but little to 
counteract the mis- 
chievous tradition of the past centuries. 

In the conception of the people a brigand is 
not an evil-doer, but merely a man who loves 
liberty and intends to enjoy it after his own 
fashion. A brigand in Calabria, therefore, has 



very Hltle to fear from the j^eople, ami the 
mountaineers are wilUng to supply his wants, not 
throiijih fear, but from jnne sympathy. These 
remarks are necessary by way of introduction to 
the remarkable narrative that follows. 

Calabria now enjoys the doubtful privilege 
of shielding from the authorities Giuseppe 
Musolino, one of the latter-day brigands, very 
often called in the Italian papers Fultimo 
bri>:,aHte. The old style of brigands was en- 
tirely composed of men who, above everything 
else, were robbers. The modern kind, however, 
is chiefly composed of men who have fled from 
justice and are more 
animated by grudges 
against authorities and 
individuals than by 

Giuseppe Musolino, 
whose doings in civilized 
Italy at this day seem 
positively incredible, is 
still very young, having 
been born only twenty- 
four years ago, in a 
small village in the 
province of Reggio — 
Calabria. Of his youth 
very little is known. In 
1897 he had a quarrel 
with one Vincenzo Zoc- 
cali, of the same place. 
Ace I ' „' to one 
accou:,:, ,.c was the 
aggressor; according to 
another, he was waylaid 
by his foe and stabbed. 
Two days after this 
quarrel Vincenzo Zoc- 
cali was fired upon 
while he was opening 
his stable door. The 
wounded man denoun- 
ced Ciiuseppe Musolino 
and a cousin of his 
(Musolino's) as the 
ass.iilants. " ' had left 

the villag- ;dden themselves. Eventually 

the police arrested them several months after- 
wards. They strongly protested that they were 
innocent, but the jury decided they were guilty, 
and consequently Musolino was condemned to 
twenty-one and his cousin to seven years' 

As soon as the sentence was pronounced a 
young married woman, a cousin of Musolino, 
cried out, " Oh, you wicked men, you have to- 
day condemned an innocent man," and soon 
after this dramatic scene she dropped down 


dead. Musolino, horrified at this distressing 
denouement, shouted from the dock to his 
accuser : " Hear me, Zoccali. The jury have 
condemned me to twenty-one years' imprison- 
ment. I shall be forty-two when I have served 
my time. I will look at once for thee, and, 
wherever thou mayest be, I will eat thy heart 
and wash my hands in thy blood. Shouldst 
thou be dead by that time, I shall eat the hearts 
of thy children." To which awful threat Zoccali 
calmly replied, tauntingly, " Thou hast twenty- 
one years' imprisonment to do ; and that is 
enough for the time being." 

It was a full declara- 
tion of vendetta, given 
and accepted after the 
fashion of the country. 

Musolino had not, 
however, to wait twenty- 
one years to commence 
his vendetta, because he 
succeeded in escaping 
from prison, with six 
other prisoners, a few 
days after his sentence. 
The first thing he did 
after he recovered his 
liberty was to go to a 
priest and have a Mass 
said in honour of St. 
Joseph, " who had in a 
dream told him how to 
get out of the prison." 
Musolino's six com- 
panions were one after 
the other arrested, but 
he himself is still at 
large defying all 

On regaining his free- 
dom Musolino took to 
the mountains at once 
and made the wild 
heights of Sila his 
home. From there he 
wrote to the authorities 
informing them that he 
would do no harm to anyone but to those who 
had caused him to be wrongly condemned. 

A month was hardly passed when Musolino 
started to gratify his revengeful feelings by 
killing the two principal witnesses at his trial. 
Then he went to another part of the country, 
where he killed the son of his accuser. 
Then he sought other victims to further 
satisfy his thirst for revenge. He is quite a 
personage now. He often receives the visits of 
persons who wish to make his acquaintance. 
To one of these he lately said, " When I have 



finished my vendetta I will leave the country 
and live peacefully elsewhere." Musolino has 
even written his life in a poem of twelve lines, 
the last two being to the following effect : 
"Now that I a'.n again on the mountains, I 
want liberty for myself and death for my 

Before he was arrested this extraordinary 
brigand was poor ; now, however, he has plenty 
of money, which has been given to him by 
sympathizers of all classes. Everybody speaks 
of Musolino as a most kind-hearted fellow, 
and very devout withal. 
Undoubtedly, to an 
English mind, this com- 
bination of character- 
istics will appear incon- 
gruous, yet in Italy no 
one seems surprised at 
the popular favour be- 
stowed by the Calabresi 
upon a person who has 
already seven murders 
to his account and who 
is determined to kill a 
few more : for example, 
the ex-Deputy Camagna, 
who was the lawyer of 
the accuser at his trial, 
and Signor Francesco 
Fava, a public notary, 
who, as Mayor of Santo 
Stefano, gave at the 

trial a very bad account 
of Musolino's past con- 
duct. The last-named 
gentleman has been re- 
cently assailed and 
wounded in his own 
house by two young out- 
laws, who acted for their 
friend Musolino. 

The police have been 
after Alusolino for the 
last two years ; but no 
one seems disposed to 
give them information 
Hkely to lead to his 

arrest ; indeed, rich and poor alike are doing 
their best to help him. The women have a 
strong liking for the brigand, and whenever 
they hear that Musolino is in their neighbour- 
hood they go to him with baskets of food. It is 
said that the " romantic hero " never accepts 
any food from anyone, but out of courtesy he 
now and then condescends to accept some fruit 
from his female admirers. 

The police, themselves unable to get at 
him, have promised a reward of 10,000 lire for 


Vol. Vi.— 30. 

his arrest. Only two persons, however, have 
yet attempted to betray Musolino, and both of 
these had the worst of the bargain. A labourer, 
Angalone by name, told the police of the 
whereabouts of Musolino, and arranged with 
them for his arrest. He was so sure of himself, 
that he spoke openly of what he would do with 
the 10,000 lire. But Musolino, having heard 
of this, came down from the hills one night and 
went straight to Angalone's house. "Angalone," 
said the dreaded outlaw, calmly, "you were 
going to sell me to the police. You deserve 

to be killed, but for 
the love I bear to your 
children I will spare 
your life. However, I 
will give you a little 
lesson." And without 
further ado he emptied 
his double-barrelled gun 
against Angalone's leg, 
and the unfortunate 
man fell, terribly 
wounded, on the ground. 
Musolino approached 
him, gave him a kiss 
on the forehead, and 
then went sadly away. 

The second case is 
even more dramatic. 
Musolino was living on 
the very top of a hill, 
and had with him an- 
other outlaw and friend 
— a young man, Prince 
by name. Now, the 
police knowing of this 
fact induced Prince to 
betray his friend. Prince 
arranged with the police 
that on a certain even- 
ing he would drug 
Musolino so that he 
could be easily arrested. 
An inspector of the 
police with his posse 
took up a position five 
or six miles from the 
spot where Musolino was, there to wait the call 
of the betrayer. The latter put a strong dose 
of opium in Musolino's macaroni and then 
sent word to this effect to the police. The 
opium, however, did not have the expected 
effect, and Prince at once informed the police 
of this failure. The inspector, however, 
decided to proceed to where Musolino was 
and 'try to arrest him. He told Prince to, 
go back at once to Musolino and at ?i 
certain time to strike a. match, apparent!^: to, 

THE WIDE WORLD MAGAZINE. a chtiT, but really as a signal for the 
.kMicc to close in upon the outlaw. By one 
oVkKk, the darkest hour of the night, the police 
had occupied positions commanding M the 
luths bv which escape was possible. 1 rmce, 
Ivh.. was standing beside Musolino, lighted his 
ciuar as arranged, and then laid himself on the 
grounil. A policeman, contrary to the orders 
he had received, broke the silence by shouting, 
-Who ^oes there?" "Musolino, by the 
Virgin Marv," shouted the brigand, boldly, in 

however, attempted to answer him with his 
carbine, but before he could use his weapon he 
fell to the ground mortally wounded in the lower 
parts of his body. Musolino told hundreds of 
friends he did not intend to kill that poor soldier, 
but only to wound him in the legs so that he 
himself could proceed on his way unmolested. 
As a matter of fact, he bound up the wounds of 
the stricken carabineer and had him removed 
to the house of a friend. When he heard of 
his death Musolino wept bitterly. It is even 


reply : for he is never afraid to utter his name 
either to friends or foes. Then with his 
revolver he shot thrice at the traitor Prince, 
saying, " Take the wages of thy services to me." 
Musolino afterwards ran away, followed by 
the police, but owing to his better know- 
ledge of the locality he eluded their pursuit 
once more. Farther on, however, he met a 
carabineer who was walking in his direc- 
tion. As h-': rould not avoid him the 
desperate n .uted, "I am Musolino. I 

want to pass — let me pass" The carabineer, 

said that he was present at the funeral, and that 
some women of the neighbourhood joined with 
him in intercessory prayer. Musolino, strange 
to say, is very devout to his patron saint, St. 
Joseph, to whose special protection he thinks 
he owes all his successes in life. Hardly com- 
plimentary to St. Joseph I 

Yet another two crimes. They were committed 
while I was writing the foregoing paper. Some 
time ago Musolino, being very ill and thinking 
that his end was near, sent a peasant called 



Marta, who had assisted him during his illness, 
to inform his mother and sister that he wished 
to see them for the last time. Marta accepted 
this errand ; but, instead of going to Muso- 
lino's relatives, he went to the police, and 
informed them as to the whereabouts of Muso- 
lino, and the ease with which they might 
seize him this time. The police decided to 
surprise the brigand in the middle of the night, 
but Musolino was not going to be caught. With 
marvellous acumen, considering the circum- 
stances, he had Marta shadowed all the way, and 
when the informer was seen entering the police- 
station Musolino was at once told that instead 
of a visit from his mother and sister he would 
most likely have one from the police if he 
remained any longer in that place. Ill as he 
was, his friends removed him to another part of 
the mountain. When the police reached the place 
indicated by Marta 
of course they found 
the brigand gone. 
Once more they were 
too late. Musolino, 
as soon as he re- 
covered his health, 
sent word to Marta 
to inform him that if 
he ever crossed his 
path again it would 
be the end of him. 
Vague though the 
threat was, it was a 
sentence of death. 
On the last day of 
August Marta was in 
a field with others 
thrashing wheat. 
From behind a hil- 
lock suddenly sprang 
Musolino, accom- 
panied by two other 
brigands. The great 
outlaw shouted, 
" Marta, at last we 
meet ; thy end has 
come." Before Marta 

had time to reconcile himself to the situa- 
tion Musolino shot him dead. In his body 
twelve bullets were found. Musolino intended 
to do the work thoroughly. 

A number of peasants were present on the 
spot, and others arrived, attracted by the sound 
of the gun. ' Musolino stood there gazing 
fiercely upon the corpse of his victim. After a 
little while he said : " Listen, friends, I am 
Musolino, and this one who has fallen you 
know. He betrayed me some time ago to the 
police, and now he has received his reward. (jO 
to the authorities and inform them of what you 
have seen, and if any of you ever think to 
play false with me, you both see and know what 
you may expect." Then he calmly walked away, 
accompanied by his two colleagues, Giovanni 
Foti and Stefano di Lorenzo. These are 
the same two outlaws who, early in August, 

assaulted and wound- 
ed the late Mayor of 
St. Stefano, and who 
have now definitely 
joined the company 
of Musolino. 

Musolino once was 
asked whether he ever 
dreaded falling into 
the hands of the police. 
"Never," he replied. 
" I have with me a 
strong poison ready 
for use, and whenever 
escape becomes im- 
possible I will kill 
myself with it." 

P.S. — Musolino is 
as popular and evasive 
as ever. At the 
moment of writing he 
has just killed his 
fifteenth victim, and 
has a price of ^^1,200 
put upon his head by 
a despairing Govern- 


Our Climbs in the Himalayas, 

l>v Uk. and iMks. Bullock Workman. 
t are enabled, by arrangement with Mr. Fisher Unwin to place before our readers a 


i jm 

World of Himalaya. 

rocks, carrying all before it, and spreading destruction 
and ruin in its path. 

We laboured under a great disadvantage in our 
Himalayan travel in not knowing enough Hindustani 
to talk freely witli the head men of the different tribes. 

Srinagar is the starling-point for a number of inter- 
esting routes in the Himalayas, and we arrived there 
early in May, 1898, with the intention of visiting 
Ladakh and Nubra. Our Kashmiri khansaniah, or 
cook, exhibited a number of chih, which gave him 
credit for a greater degree of efificiency than he ever 
displayed in our service. We cut his perquisites and 
commissions on purchases down from some 500 per 
cent, to 100 per cent., and with this he was well satisfied. 


From a Photo, by Maull &' Fox. 

Himalayas is very different from 
mountaineering in Switzerland 
or the Tyrol. In the Hima- 
layas there are no villages and 
hotels within a few hours of the summits; 
no shelter-huts, and no corps of guides. 
The mountaineer must go fully provided 
with mountaineering and camping outfit 
into the savage and trackless wastes. He 
must brave fatigue, wet, cold, wind, and 
snow on peaks whose bases rest on but- 
tresses higher than the summit of Mont 
Blanc. Worst of all, he must wrestle with 
the lialf barbarous coolies, on whom he has 
to rely for transport. The mountain flanks 
too are constantly scored by avalanches of 
snow and rock, which thunder down at all 
hours of the day. Immense landslips are 
frequent, filling the valleys and damming 
back the water from the melting snows. 
Later, this bursts the unstable barrier thus 
formed, and tears downwards with terrific 
force, a living mass of water, mud, and 


From a Photo, by Maull ijr' Fox. 



We reached Leh on the 27th of June, in 
time for the rehgious festival or miracle play, 
which was to take place at the Buddhist 
monastery of Himmis, twenty-five miles away. 
We secured as interpreter a well - known 
character, whom we will call Mr. Paul, a sly 
and cunning Madrasi who had settled in this 
remote spot and married a Ladakhi lass. He 
always dressed in European style, and his wife 
was richly clad in native costume, her peyrac, or 
head-dress, falling below the waist behind, and 
being richly studded with turquoise. 

Mr. Paul, like many Madrasis, was a 
Christian, and a source of 

great anxiety to the self- 

sacrificing Moravian mis- 
sionaries of Leh. His re- 
putation went far towards 
minimizing the slender 
harvest their patient 
endeavours had succeeded 
in gathering. However, 
when on the march, Mr. 
Paul was an ornament to 
the party — mounted on an 
active Nubra i)ony, with 
white Ellwood topee, 
tweed riding-coat, knicker- 
bockers and gaiters, and 
English boots with pointed 

At noon on the 4th of 
July we left Leh to cross 
the Kardong Pass. We 
were able to procure only 
a few riding yaks, and we 
encamped for the night at 
a spot four hours above 
Leh. At this point we 
mounted yaks for the 
first time. The gait of 
the yak is easy, but he 
is very sure-footed. 
Often in passing boggy 
and treacherous j)laces our yaks would 
examine footprints and walk round the bad 
places, choosing in every case a firm foothold. 
On steep mountain-sides we have seen yaks go 
in safety over places without a semblance of a 
path, and where even experienced mountaineers 
would proceed with caution. It was interest- 
ing to note that, above 15,000ft., the yaks 
seemed to suffer quite as much from exertion 
and altitude as their human attendants. 

At Changlung the upper road through the 
Sasser Pass to Yarkand, in Central Asia, leaves 
the Nubra Valley and passes through a grand 
Himalayan region. From it none of the four 
chief giants are visible, but mountains of the 

respectable height of 21,000ft. to 25,000ft. lie 
all around, and present a complexity of form, 
outline, colour, fa/i, precipice, glacier, and 
moraine; with deserts, livers, valleys, and 
yawning chasms. 

Our baggage was carried by three yaks and a 
dozen ponies — most of the latter half-starved, 
wretched-looking beasts. The drivers were none 
too attentive ; and so, left to themselves, the 
ponies were constantly throwing their loads, 
jamming them one into another, or smashing 
them against the rocks. 

From Changlung, over the Sasser Pass, and 


Froiti a Photo. l>y Dr. B. II 'orkvian. 

down to Sasser— a three days' journey — the 
path is strewn with many fresh carcasses and 
the bleaching skeletons of many thousands of 
ponies fallen by the way. These afford plenty 
of occupation to the vultures, so that anyone 
desiring to investigate the anatomy of a pony 
could not do better than camp for a few weeks 
in this equine graveyard. In some places these 
skeletons covered the ground in groups of from 
twenty to fifty, as might be seen after a severe 
battle. We saw no human skeletons, but an 
Englishman who had been over the route told 
us he had seen two. 

Crossing the Purkutse Pass, 14,000ft., we had 
a glorious view of Noon Koon, 23,540ft., and 



thence descended to Sum. ^\ hile we were 
waiting for the coolies the hmbardar, or head 
Uuin, very thoiiglufully brought us a brass 
drinking vessel full of milk, and a cabbage with 
which to satisfy the cravings of our appetites. 

In our experience the difficulties of moun- 
taineering reached their acme in Sikkim, whose 
mountains have remained a terra incoi!;nita only 
to be gazed at from afar. Among the causes 
which contribute to discourage investigation 
are the expense of the trip and the reputed 
disinclination of the Government to grant the 
necessary passes and assistance to persons 
desirous of visiting the heights bordering 
on the forbidden lands of Nepal and 
Tibet, ^^"e reached Darjeeling in the middle 
of September, 1898, with the Swiss guide, 
Rudolf Taugwalder, of Zermatt, and an 
outfit ordered in London. The Deputy- 
Commissioner summoned his subordinate, the 
magistrate, and handed over our case to him. 
Now, the magistrate had had no experience of 
such matters, but he ordered his hahu to call in 
for consultation two sirdars who were loafing 
about the Darjeeling streets. They had never 
been within miles of the places we were inquir- 
ing about, and when asked a question the 
principal sirdar would place one hand over 
his heart and raise the other aloft, turning 
up his eyes with a pathetic expression, 
as if to say, "\Miat you wish to do is 
beyond the range of human possibility." Then 
the Political officer said a good deal about 
the difficulties of the route ; of the density 
of the rhododendron forests beyond the Giucha 
la; of the obstructions caused by rivers; and 
of steep and slippery paths which would make 
the proposed route almost impassable to a 
woman. Having assured him that we were 
accustomed to such difficulties and would take 
all risks, it was arranged that a sirdar and forty- 
five coolies should be equipped at our expense 
— each with cap, jersey, woollen trousers, 
gloves, socks, putties, boots, thick woollen 
blanket, and snow-glasses. They were to be 
provisioned for eight weeks, with 2lb. of rice 
per coolie per day ; besides tea, salt, butter, 
chillies, and rum in liberal quantities. They 
were also to have mutton when the snow was 
reached, and four large tents to protect them 
from the weather. Fifteen more coolies were 
to be paid and provisioned to carry supplies for 
the forty-five. 

It was immediately noised abroad in the 
bazaar that a large expedition was afoot. Stories 
of fabulous wealth floated through its dusty 
mazes, and its merchants were excited to fever 
heat. By the 5th of October, however, all 
arrangements were completed. The magistrate 

assisted us to secure the services, at two rupees 
a day, of a native cook, who never showed the 
least knowledge of cooking, and never succeeded 
in boiling an egg or in warming tinned meats. 
He could never even start a fire with any 

On arrival at Chia Banjan the Sikkim sirdar 
was awaiting us with sixty or more coolies — how 
many we never knew, as some were always 
straggling behind, and others were reported as 
having bolted. As to the rest, judging from 
their appearance, it would have been difficult to 
match them in any gaol in India. 

That day was spent in dividing out rations 
and clothing. Nine sheep were purchased by 
the sirdar at double the usual price, and at day- 
light on the nth of October we were ready for 
the start. We camped that night in a thistle- 
covered field five miles from our starting-point. 
Although the weather was warm, the greater 
part of the coolies had donned their thick 
clothing, including woollen gloves. Thus the 
boots and socks which we furnished them as 
protection against snow and cold were being 
worn out when they were not in the least 

Towards evening the sirdar informed us 
through the interpreter that the coolies would 
not go on unless, in addition to their already 
varied diet, curry should be supplied them. 
How curry was to be obtained in this wilderness 
he did not explain. After a time he said that 
if they could have an ox at Jongri they would 
go on. They acted throughout as though they 
were on a junketing excursion. 

The next day our valiant hirelings managed 
to cover another five or six miles, and having 
reached an altitude of 14,800ft., they dumped 
our baggage down on the wet grass and betook 
themselves to a shelter lower down. Next 
morning we broke camp in two inches of snow, 
and marched in a heavy snowstorm i, 000ft. 
lower to where four shepherds' huts stood. We 
reached these about noon, wet to the skin, the 
snow having turned to rain. Here, on the 
sloping surface, soaked and oozing with water, 
we set up our tent in the rain, the coolies 
bringing wood and water for themselves, but 
nothing for us. And we had, in four days, 
accomplished twenty miles ! 

As we were powerless against what looked 
like systematic opposition we started for Dar- 
jeeling on the morning of the 17th. The 
coolies now rnoved, with alacrity and ease, 
twelve to fifteen miles a day. At Darjeeling we 
laid the case before the Political officer, but got 
no redress. 

On three of the mornings after leaving Chia 
Banjan the views were something not to be 



forgotten. To the west, far within Nepal, 
Everest, with its giant sisters, rose straight and 
creamy from a lapis lazuli plinth of hill and 
cloud. As the rising sun gilded the chain, and 
its rays fell in a golden shower on the plinth, 
the towering white god of snow seemed to float 
upward from a billowy world of mauve vapour. 
To the north, over Sikkim, stood forth with 
chalky whiteness the wonderful ramps of Jannu, 
Kabru, and Kinchinjanga ; while to the east, 
the eye, sweeping over the border of Tibet, 
lighted upon the fair cone of sacred Tchumu- 
lari. Thus in a glance were included the three 
great peaks of Nepal, Sikkim, and Tibet. 

On returning from a cycling tour in Java we 
readied Srinagar on the 22nd of June, 1899, 
and immediately went to work to complete 
preparations for a three months' expedition to 
the northern regions of Baltistan. Our parly 
consisted of the writers : the famous guide, 
Mattia Zurbriggen, of Macugnaga ; and four 
camp servants. On the 
I St of July we stepped 
aboard the doongas for 
Bandipura. Towards 
which ever great mountain 
range one is headed, the 
first two or three marches 
out of Srinagar can gener- 
ally be covered by boat. 
The choice is between 
two evils — the discomfort 
of thirty-six or more hours 
on a doonga, or of several 
hot and dusty marches in 
the " Happy Valley " to 
the foothills. From the 
doonga there is no retreat 
until the journey's end. 
One can at least stand 
erect, however, which is 
more than can be .said of 
the sampan of Indo-China 
and Siam. It would be 
quite possible to exist 
quite comfortably in a 
doonga for a day or two 
did the hanxi or boatman 
adhere to his agreement. 

We pitched our first 
camp at Tragbal, on a 
knoll overlooking the 
silver sheet of Woolar 
Lake. Now, the mosquito 
here is an insect of noble 
proportions and gigantic- 
voice. He attacks one 
with persistent virulence 

r . A STUDY IN EXl'KESSIO.. 5 - Mt 

from sunrise to sunset; From a Photo, by] 

and unlike his confrere of the tropics, this 
valiant denizen of the Deosai leaves his victim 
to rest at night, and is in full possession of 
both breathing and buzzing apparatus on an 
elevated plateau of 13,000ft. to 14,000ft. 

At length we vvere in Baltistan. The lean 
but fairly staunch ponies supplied by our good 
friend of the Gilgit Commissariat had finished 
their work without much damage. The only 
endurable camping-ground at Skardu being 
occupied, the choice for us fell between a 
ploughed field partially shaded by a trio of 
sickly apricots and a small, treeless grass-plot, 
where even a double fly-tent was powerless 
against the blazing July sun. 

After a short march we reached pastoral, 
straggling Shigar, watered by mountain rivulets 
and famous for fruit. After we had pitched our 
humble tents on the polo ground a message 
was brought that the Rajah would favour us 
with a visit after dinner. He came — a gentle. 

VILLAGERS. [Z>n B. Workman. 



refined iiHli\: wiili a courtesy perfectly 

in keepini; wiili ihc ^■inrn o( native opinion as 
to the position of wonun in India, he handed 
the saliih a sweet-snielHng nosegay of welcome, 
favouring the inem-sahib with a mere dignified 
bow. He ofiered to get up a polo gymkhana 
for us, luit the hills were " a-callin','' and we 
started for Askole next day. At Askor Nullah 
village the Shigar coolies were exchanged for 
a lot of loud-mouthed Haltis, who were to take 
our kit over the pass. 

.At 15.000ft. several of them broke down 
with mountain sickness, and at 15,800ft. we 
were obliged to bivouac on a narrow, wind- 
swept ledge of the arete, which rose between 
two deep nullahs with precipitous walls, down 
which rock avalanches were thundering at all 
hours of the night. To this mountain-music 
were added the groans of the air-sick coolies. 
Elated at ilie prospect of 8,000ft. of descent, 
however, they forgot their sickness, and 
presently glissaded with tents and packs down 
the long snow valleys in the most hilarious 
manner. After eleven hours of hard marching 
we reached, at sunset, the rope bridge which 
spans the river before Askole. Accustomed to 
contend with the roughest of paths, the Askole 

people are good mountaineers, but they are 
great cowards, and have an aversion to ice, 
preferring a difficult and tiresome route over 
moraine. They rather resemble Polish Jews in 
dress and appearance. 

The Biafo and Baltoro glaciers, for exploring 
which Askole is the starting-point, are said to 
be the two largest outside the Arctic regions. 
Our plan was to follow up the Biafo some thirty- 
five miles to its origin at the Hispar Pass and 
then return to Askole. The head man of the 
seven Askole villages took three days to collect 
and equip coolies. W^e started on the i6th of 
July with fifty-five men, in charge of Lambardar 
Kinchin, a shivering, cringing fellow not 
possessed of the pluck and persistence neces- 
sary to lead his compatriots. Of the fifty-five 
coolies under his orders he said he could only 
control the actions of seven, who came from his 
own village. His c/iiV of recommendation bore 
Sir W. Martin Conway's signature, and had 
doubtless changed hands more than once. 
Zurbriggen is certain he was not with the 
Conway party. 

For the first six or eight hours' march the 
surface of the glacier was much broken, con- 
sisting of immense truncated seracs, separated 


From a Photo, by Dr. B. Workman. 



from one another by deep 
hollows. We encamped 
at 11,775ft. For miles 
above this place the seracs 
became larger, higher, and 
more pointed. The cre- 
vasses were longer and 
wider, and with few bridges 
from bank to bank. Our 
second day might be called 
a day lost in the seracs. 
\Ve attacked a reach of 
huge seracs which pro- 
jected like a gigantic white 
tongue among the dark- 
coloured ones forming the 
sides. Here hours were 
spent cutting steps up and 
down and around the great 
honeycombed pinnacles, 
which projected 50ft. or 
6oft. above our trail, to 
say nothing about the 
depths to which .they 
descended below it. 
With much loss of time 
we succeeded in getting 
the coolies through the 
serac?, until we came to 
two tall ones separated by 
a deep crevasse, between 
which, on the side of one 
of them, Zurbriggen had 
to cut a gallery some 30ft. 
long, which took him more 
than half an hour to 
complete. Meanwhile we 
sat cooling off on a beauti- 
ful blue s^rac. Some of the 
older coolies, who were 

destined to become irritating spokesmen, began 
to protest and babble about returning. Their 
complaints, however, were answered with con- 
siderable asperity by us and by Zurbriggen, who 
was doing all the work. Owing to the projection 
of the ice-walls the coolies could not easily follow 
whilst loaded, so it was necessary to bring their 
loads through the passage first. To do this 
Kinchin and our bearer stationed themselves 
in the gallery and handed the different 
packs — some of which weighed over sixty 
pounds — to Zurbriggen, who stood at the most 
dangerous point, with one leg often astride the 
crevasse and his foot braced against the opposite 
serac. He would then pass the packs on to two 
camp servants stationed on the shelf below, 
finally the two sheep came, and one, owing to 
some inadvertence, fell into a crevasse and dis- 
appeared. Fortunately it lodged unhurt on a 


FiomaPhoto. by\ the crevasse after the rescue of the sheep. {D^-.B. Workman. 

projecting shelf, and Zurbriggen was lowered to 
its rescue. After this we came to a crevasse 
which could not be jumped and apparently had 
no bridges, so, as the weather was becoming 
thick and the day was on the wane, it was 
decided to return to camp for the night. It was 
amusing to see with what ease and agility 
the coolies returned unaided, in two hours, 
over a track which had taken seven hours to 
cut through in coming out. 

All the camping-places on the Biafo, as far as 
Ogre Camp, are good, and, as regards scenery, 
leave nothing to be desired. The crevassed 
windings of the glacier trend ever onward until 
they merge into the white pall of Snow Lake, 
where the bordering heights spread out and join 
hands in a peerless cirque of weird, ice-covered 
towers. • 

In the solid ice of the glacier, where no 



From a Photo, by Dr. B. Workman. 

traces of crevasses appear, irregular apertures 
occur leading down to unknown depths. Into 
one of these, of a diameter not much greater 
than a man's head, a pebble was dropped, 
and was heard to resound for several 
seconds until lost in the depths. 

Ogre Carnp 
is situated on 
the southern 
spur of the 
Biafo Moun- 
tains, whose 
needles pierce 
the blue 9,000ft. 
or more above 
the glacier, and 
at least 23,000ft. 
above the sea. 
The camp was 
so named by 
Sir Martin Con- 
way. It con- 
sists of a small, 
projection from 
a rock slant, 
overhanging the 
glacier by about 
2 o o f t., with 
three terraces, 
on each of which there is' room for a moderate- 
sized tent. On the middle terrace a rock cairn, 
built by Sir Martin Conway's party, stands intact. 
This spot, at 14,650ft., commands the glacier in 
three directions. Here we passed three nights 
and two days, detained by the weather. 

:i.v con'.vay's cairn at ogre cami (i4,Cj^r i.; -here the explorers passed three nights and two days. 

From a Photo, by Dr. Ji. IVorkiiian. 



About six hours above Ogre Camp the Biafo 
opens into Snow Lake, a huge basin of ice and 
snow, unique, we believe, in the Himalayas. 
The diameter is apparently from four to six 
miles. This is encircled by unexplored, un- 
named ice - peaks, varying in height from 
2o,cooft. to probably 25,oooit. At the entrance 
of Snow Lake we roped, as it was necessary to 
move with caution. With all due care we were 
constantly in snow and crevasses to above the 
knees, and one of the party will not soon forget 
the sensation she felt on disappearing up to her 
shoulders in a crevasse. Zurbriggen said : 
" Pull on the rope and push back with the 
feet." Finally, by strenuous 
efforts on her part and 
hauling on that of the 
guide she came out again. 
This form of exercise con- 
tinued until half-past four, 
when we began the ascent 
of an ice-slant, where each 
step had to be cut. 'i'his 
took some time at a height 
of over 16,000ft., after the 
tumbling gymnastics of the 
afternoon. Finally we 
pitched our tents on the 
ice-shelf bv the light of the 
sinking sun in the most 
glorious ice-world possible 
to imagine. As the sun 
flung its last flames of fire 
on the towering ice-pin- 
nacles, and the purple 
fangs of what might be 
called the Himalayan 
aurora shot upwards from 
the dull horizon to the 
blue zenith ; and as the 
twilight silence of the 
Arctic regions fell on the 
snow-land, one felt, not 
only the overwhelming 
beauty, but also the intan- 
gibility of a scene that 
seemed in no way of this 

By six o'clock on the 
29th of July we were off 
to the Flispar Pass — a river of pure white 
driven snow, 1-ounded by chains of lofty, name- 
less snow-mountains. 

Our return to Askole was honoured by the 
presence of the seven head men and their 
families, who received the caravan standing on 
the mud hut-tops, clothed in their best rags 
and adorned with their most striking jewellery. 
And so ended a hard l)ut very interesting trip 

of eighteen days among Himalaya's grand and 
silent snow fields. 

On the 5th of August we again left Askole 
for the Skoro La Range, with thirty fresh 
coolies, under the leadership of Lambardar 
Kinchin, who had his battered umbrella' under 
his arm as usual. As we headed for the ice 
the coolies again began to clamour, and finally 
threw down their loads. In vain we told them 
they would have rock shelter on the farther 
side ; their fear of the ice was so great that they 
would not go upon it. We therefore decided 
to encamp where we were, on the edge of the 
glacier. There, on a moraine ledge, barely 


safe from falling boulders, we made them 
build up rock terraces for our tents. Our 
tent-ledge was as a tiny footstool to the great 
white, serac-studded ice-falls that streamed in 
glittering masses from the bases of two great 
snow-kings. We were in a vast basin of ice 
and rock, surmounted by snowy peaks, where 
the silence was broken only by the music of 
the ice-streams and the roar of the avalanche. 




From a Photo, by Dr. B. Workman. 

On the morning of the 7th of August, accom- 
panied by two of the more valiant coolies as 
jx)rters, we started across the glacier. An 
ordinary Swiss guide would have been puzzled by, 
and doubtless have lost some hours finding his 
way through, the labyrinth of seracs and crevasses 
that confronted us. Not so Zurbriggen, how- 
ever. He led us in and out, over and around 


From a Photo, by Dr. B. Workman. 

them, as if a path existed, and in less than three 
hours we were taking a light breakfast on a 
sloping snow plateau. Above the snow-slopes 
of the main peak we had to pick our way for an 
hour, when the final snow aretes began. Our 
porters, who had been complaining of their 
heads, and asking to return during the last 
thousand feet, threw down their loads and 

went to sleep on the 
rocks. W^e were five and 
a half hours from camp 
to summit, which we 
placed at 1 8,600ft. The 
view was very beautiful, 
particularly towards the 
north and east, where 
Masherbrun was clearly 
seen raising its great 
white ramparts heaven- 
ward, and beyond, ridge 
upon ridge of the wonder- 
ful heights of Korakoram 
and Hunza. We named 
the mountain the Sieg- 
friedhorn. With the 
assistance of the porters 
a strong cairn was built 
on the rock summit, 
which is a ledge 20ft. or 
30ft. wide crowning the 
ragged, shaly wall which 
falls away into a perpen- 
dicular precipice into the 
Skoro Nullah several 



thousand feet below. In this cairn we left our 
cards, inclosed in a glass jar, bearing our names, 
the height of the mountain, and a record of the 

As to our coolies, we were soon face to face 
with a crisis similar to the one that had wrecked 
a costly expedition in Sikkim. Therefore, with- 
out more waste of words, the sahib began to 
bombard the crowd vigorously with small stones, 
which lay plentifully at hand. This had the 
effect of compelling them to resume their loads, 
and the train slowly continued its upward march. 

The morning of August xith saw us off on a 

steep, crevassed ice-slopes overhanging a basin 
a thousand feet below to hear Zurbriggen 
calling to the stupid fellows- to move with 
care and keep the rope taut between them, 
adding that if one mis-step were made we should 
all perish. And yet in a most critical place they 
sat down to take the snow out of their boots ! 

We felt the cold quite severely for the first 
three hours, after which the sun reached us. 
There was no rock work. The ascent from our 
camp to the summit was over a succession of 
ice and snow slopes. We reached the summit, 
19,450ft., at ten o'clock — four hours from camp. 

I I ■,: 1 AT TKIUMI'U- 

I'lOin u Plioto. by] 

— MOUNT BULLOCK WORKMAN, I9,450FT. [Dr. B. IVorkiuaii. 

pioneer ascent of Mount Bullock Workman. A 
short, steep stretch of moraine and glacier 
brought us to a bold, crevassed ice-slope, which 
we ascended in zig-zags, cutting steps for about 
an hour. We were roped from the beginning of 
the slope, and had the same two coolies with us 
as porters, for they were willing for the extra 
compensation they received to run the risk of a 
second ascent. They had now become fairly 
expert in placing their hobnail-booted feet in 
the cut steps, but they had to be constantly 
watched and admonished not to crowd one 
upon another. It was not pleasant on the 

Except for some headache and loss of breath on 
sudden exertion we suffered in no way from 
the altitude. One should move slowly and 
steadily throughout, avoiding spurts. We 
named the peak Mount Bullock Workman, and 
left our cards, with the name given and a record 
of the ascent, in a glass jar in the snow at tiie 
highest point. The summit of the mountain 
consisted of a long crest of driven snow, so 
narrow that not more than two persons could 
comfortably stand abreast on it. On the west 
the slope ran sharply down some 2,000ft. to a 
glacier. We had not expected to find the view 


so grand, or so uninterruptedly beautiful, as it 
proved to be. To the north the great castel- 
lated rock-peaks of the Hiafo and Hisfiar lined 
themselves against the pure cerulean back- 
ground, and the peerless Nanga Tarbat of cloud 
renown illumined the western horizon with 
golden beauty, her towering sunmiits rising to 
meet the deep blue of a cloudless sky. Among 
other details of the glorious view were nine 
known and named summits. 

We were, later on. selecting a place to pitch 
the tent.s, on the left bank of the Askor torrent, 
when our attention was attracted by a peculiar 
rumble above. Far up the gorge, and just 
below the glacier, appeared a dark, serpentine 
object, coming towards us, with a high, crested 
front. There was barely time for tlie coolies to 
snatch up their loads, which fortunately had not 
iK-en opened, and carry them 50yds. up the 
incline, when it was upon us — a dark, slate- 
coloured mas.s, 6ofl. wide and 20ft. or 30ft. 
high, consisting of mud and stones of every 
she, some of them many tons in weight, which 
were rolled over one another as if they were 
pebbles. A moment more, and the lofty front 
of the avalanche shot by with irresistible force 
and a crashing, demoniacal roar. The rock- 
packed banks of the river crumbled into the rush- 
ing torrent, and large boulders toppled into and 
joined the mad procession. Rock masses, loft. 
or 15ft. in diameter, lyin^ in its course were 
swept away and seen no more. 

On our return to the Shigar Valley we decided 
if possible to climb Koser Gunge, a grand 
mountain of over 20.000ft. Not knowing how 
long we might be detained on the mountain, a 
sheep had been ordered, and the lambardar 
brought it late on the evening before our 
departure ; for village chiefs prefer to exhibit 
their live stock at dusk or by the faint light 
of the young moon. It was a lively-look- 
ing sheep, but on the following morning, 
after walking a few steps, it absolutely refused to 
stir. No amount of coaxing, beating, dragging, 
or punching with'an alpenstock was of any avail, 
and we were compelled to hire a coolie to carry 
it on his shoulders to the first encampment. 
VoT the first 1,200ft. above the camp we had to 
do .some almost perpendicular rock work, and 
then escalade a steep arete leading to the hori- 
zontal one. Now we were crawling along a narrow 
ledge with great abysses beneath, and again 
climbing through a slippery chimney and back 
to the ridge, where perhaps a formidable rock 
presented itself. But Zurbriggen always inspires 
confidence, and when one sees him coolly attack 
a dizzy, untested gallery one follows without 

The snow grew deepcT as we ascended, and 
soon reached well o\er the tops of our mountain 
boots. Suddenly a strong gust of wind, ac- 
companied by sleet, blew off the mem-sahib's 
treasured Ellwood topee, although fastened with 
elastic, and down it bounded over the slant of 
the great arete, and across lower snowtields, 
where it disappeared towards a huge crevasse 
nearly i,oooft. below. It bore on its front a 
specially-made Touring Club de France badge, 
which had travelled in many lands of Europe, 
Africa, and Asia, but was doomed to succumb 
to the elements on Koser Gunge. 

By noon we had reached 20,000ft. Every 
step was now in snow to our knees, and beneath 
the snow there was solid ice. Every step had 
to be dug or trodden out by Zurbriggen, and 
the waiting for this in the wind and snow was 
more than bitter. The lifting of our feet from 
one knee-deep step to another w'as accomplished 
with panting. We could not stop to get our 
food from the tififin basket, and even the 
chocolate and kola biscuit we had in our 
pockets were scarcely procurable with half- 
frozen fingers. 

The mem-sahib screamed to Zurbriggen that 
she must change her gloves, as she could no 
longer feel her ice-axe. We halted, and he 
rubbed her hands vigorously and pounded her 
feet, which were almost destitute of sensation. 
In place of her fur gloves he lied on lined 
rubber mittens, which, whilst icy cold at first, 
restored the circulation after a time. 

We found the snow portion of Koser Gunge 
to be not simply one peak, but a tremendous 
scheme of endless ridges, slopes, aretes, and 
domes. On this dangerous incline, where the 
wind was whirling snow in clouds over us, the 
endurance of a Kashmiri found its end, and 
the sickened second porter sat down, turning 
his back to the roped procession. There came 
a tug at the rope, and, looking up, we saw 
Zurbriggen with two-inch icicles on his beard, 
waving his hands and vociferating loudly. It 
seemed hours, and w-as actually some minutes, 
before that coolie was released, and we saw him 
crawl downwards, shambling in the deep tracks, 
and bearing our extra coats and food — in the 
wrong direction. 

We reached our goal at three o'clock — 
2i,oooft. We had the satisfaction of being the 
first to conquer Koser Gunge, noblest of Shigar 
peaks. We were out thirteen hours from the 
start to the return to camp. By the ascent of 
the Siegfriedhorn, Mount Bullock Workman, and 
Koser Gunge three successive world's rnoim- 
taineering records for women — viz., i8,6ooft., 
ig,45oft., and 21,000ft. — were established 

How We Got the Bison Out of the Elephant Pits. 

By a. W. Strachan. 

The wild elephants of India are Government property, and when a new " labourer " is required 
he is trapped in a pit of ingenious construction. But it often happens that wild bison fall in 
instead ; and in this paper we are told how these animals are liberated from the pits — a task of 

peculiar and delicate nature. 

E^^' parts of India afford greater 
scope for the sportsman and the 
naturalist than the district of Malabar 
called North VVynaad. It is situated 
on the Bromagherri Hills — a spur of 
the Neilgherries — at an elevation of about 
4,oooft. A great part of the country is covered 
with teak forest, the timber of which affords 
the chief industry. The rest is mostly jungle, 
although at one time there were extensive 
clearings planted with coffee, which then con- 
stituted a thriving trade. 

From some cause the coffee trees almost 
entirely died out, and the ubiquitous bamboo 
and lantana (locally known as " The Curse of 
India ") reign in its stead. Efforts are now 
being made to revive the coffee-planting in the 
district. Considerable areas have been recently 
cleared and in due season blossom forth with 
the bloom and the odour of the fragrant coffee 
plant. Jungle, however, greatly predominates, 
and affords cover to numerous herds of wild 
elephants and bison, as well as to tiger, panther, 
pig, and other Indian big game. 

The shooting in this region is strictly pre- 
served by Government, and the invaluable 
elephant is under special protection. Although 
roaming at large, and 
to all intents and 
purposes perfectly 
wild, the elephants 
are really the pro- 
perty of the Govern- 
ment, and are the 
stock from which the 
supply of working 
elephants is ob- 
tained, a large 
number being re- 
quired for the work 
of moving the enor- 
mous trunks and logs 
of teak wood. The 
capture is effected 
chiefly by pits, 
covered over and 
concealed by light 
spars and brush- 
wood. The unwary 
elephant, treading 
upon this covering, 
is precipitated into 

the pit, where- he has to remain till assisted out 
and led away to be tamed and trained by 
his captors. The pits, however, are not dis- 
criminating as to the kind of prey they entrap, 
provided it is heavy enough to break through 
the treacherous covering. Thus it is that the 
bison is, not infrequently, found in them. Not 
being "wanted," these beasts are, with some 
little trouble and excitement to those engaged 
in the work, set at liberty, only perhaps to meet 
a more tragic fate from a rifle bullet. 

The Indian bison, or, more properly, gaur, is 
not by any means an easy animal to get on 
terms of intimacy with, as it regards the genus 
" homo," or anything connected with him, with 
a bitter hatred. This it shows by inhabiting 
the most inaccessible tracts of country, where it 
is least likely to be disturbed by its greatest 
enemy — the sportsman with his attendant 
shikari. During the dry season, however, it is 
forced to descend to the lower ground in search 
of water, and is then frequently incautious 
enough to fall into the elephant pits, and thus 
afford an opportunity for a close though, on its 
own part, decidedly unwilling interview. 

Through the kindness of the forest officer of 
the district in which I reside I was enabled to 

'a forest guard came in- and reported a ''fall' of three bison about four miles off.' 


witness the release of iwo of these splendid 
animals, which 1 shall endeavour to describe, 
although well aware that no words of mine can 
convey any adequate idea of the grandeur of the 
bison in its wild state. 

I had gone to the elephant "kraals " to see 
two elephants which had been captured the 
previous day, and, while I was there, a forest 
guard came' in and reported a " fall "' of three 
bison about four miles off. As it was too late 
to release them that day I was asked if I W(;uld 
care to be present at their liberation the follow- 
ing morning. Never before having had an 
opportunity o{ seeing a bison, thi.s was too good 
a one to miss, and I did not hesitate long 
before answering in the affirmative. 

I left the bungalow next morning at about 
7. ;c, armed with a rifle in case of accidents, 
arriving at the kraals about eight, where I found 
a " pad ■' elei>hant waiting to take me the 
remainder of the journey. To the uninitiated, 
elephant-back is a most uncomfortable mode of 
travelling, and I strongly recommend any person 
who is liable to be troubled with mal-dc-mer 
never to attempt it. The motion is very similar 
to that experienced while " sailing on the 
briny," and it is rather apt to be accompanied 
with the same disagreeable symptoms and 

Our path for the first two miles led through 
dense jungle, with an almost impenetrable under- 
growth of vines and other creepers — the probable 
haunt of panthers or even a tiger, and certainly 
known to be inhabited by a "rogue" elephant, 
whose depredations had caused great consterna- 
tion amongst the jungle tribes of natives. One 
feels tolerably secure, however, when perched 
on the back of a nine-foot elephant, and the 
possibility of a tiger or even a " rogue " had 
not the intimidating effect it might otherwise 
have had ; nevertheless, it would have been 
decidedly awkward had my steed taken it into 
his' head to run away with me, as a "pad" 
does not afford a very secure hold in such an 

From the heavy jungle we emerged into an 
open, grassy tract of country, interspersed here 
and there with "- • lated tree or clump of 
bamboos. Thi iie long grass were in- 

numerable tracks of elephants, and underneath 
one shady tree could be seen the impressions 
of three of their unwieldy bodies, where they 
had lain down with their backs to the trunk, 
probably to obtain shelter from the scorching 
midday sun. .Soon I heard human voices, and 
after forcing our way through some under- 
growth we came in sight of a gesticulating and 
excited crowd of natives, indicating that we had 
arrived at our destination. My elephant was 

made to kneel, and 1 was not sorry to slide off 
his broad but uncomfortable back. 

The natives informed me that one of the 
three bison had managed to escape during the 
night, having succeeded in jumping out of the 
pit, which story I scarcely credited at first, 
thinking it possible that they had killed it 
(which they are very liable to do if they have 
an opportunity) and had hidden all trace of the 
remains. As subsequent events proved, how- 
ever, it was not such an impossible story as it 
seemed, and, the pits being 12ft. deep, it will 
give some idea of the wonderful agility of this 
apparently unwieldy animal. 

Within a radius of about fifty yards were five 
of these pitfalls, the dimensions of which are : 
12ft. square at the top, 9ft. square at the bottom, 
and 12ft. deep; about two-thirds of the depth 
being filled up with soft grass and small branches, 
to break the fall and prevent injury to any 
animal that is unfortunate enough to fall in. 
They are wonderfully concealed, these traps, the 
soil being carried to a distance of several yards, 
and the mouth of the pit carefully covered with 
grass and dead leaves resting on a framework of 
bamboo ; the whole being suppoited by a branch 
of a tree, about the thickness of a man's 
arm, placed across the middle. When com- 
pleted, the surface so exactly resembles its 
surroundings that even the elephants — who are 
credited with such wonderful sagacity — fail to 
detect its treacherous nature. 

According to the story of the watchmen the 
three victims were members of a herd of ten or 
twelve bison, two falling in during the stampede 
caused by the disappearance of the first. 

I w^ent boldly up to interview one of the 
captives of the two occupied pits, and had just 
caught a glimpse of a sleek, hairy body, when I 
was rather astonished, not to say alarmed, by 
the sudden appearance of a ferocious-looking 
head through the covering of the pit, and within 
a couple of feet from where I was standing. 
Being quite unprepared for such a reception, 
which was accompanied by a most intimidating 
snort, I confess to having beat a hasty and 
undignified retreat to the nearest tree, much to 
the amusement of the spectators. Having 
satisfied myself that my would-be assailant was 
not waiting for me on the other side of the tree, 
I advanced again with more caution, only to be 
greeted in the same fashion. This time, how- 
ever, I was prepared, so his second attempt at 
intimidation proved futile 

I could not obtain a good view of the huge 
captive until the covering of the pit had been 
removed, when he stood fully exposed to view, 
with every muscle quivering with suppressed 
energy and baffied rage. I could not but 


admire the splendid proportions of the bison, 
which are certainly unequalled by any other 
member of the bovine race. The deep chest de- 
noted great strength and wonderful powers of 
endurance, while the comparatively slender limbs 
betokened great activity and speed ; the rapidity 
with which a 
wounded bison 
charges, by the 
way, is well known 
to most Indian 
sportsmen. His 
grey - brown coat 
was as smooth 
and glossy as that 
of a well-groomed 
horse, and his 
white "stockings " 
had scarcely a 
stain on them in 
spite of his having 
passed the night 
in the cramped 
confinement of his 
prison. His face 
was of a dark 
chocolate - brown 

colour, mergmg 
into black on the 
neck and shoulders, where the hair was rather 
longer than that of the rest of the body. The 
grey " busby " surmounting the head and coming 
down almost to between the eyes gave him a 
particularly savage look, which was heightened 
by the steely-blue colour of the eyes, 

Meanwhile the coolies had been dispatched 
to cul brushwood and tie it in bundles, with 
which to fill the pit. I occupied the interval by 
trying to make a sketch of the captive, an 
attention which he resented most strongly, 
showing his indignation by making several vain 
attempts to reach me. When he found he could 
not do that he did his best to knock down the 
sides of the pit by charging them repeatedly, 
but, of course, he only succeeded in scraping 
the hair and skin off his forehead and muzzle. 
He made a very bad subject for a sketch, as 
nothing would induce him to keep still so long 
as there was a human being within sight. As 
the coolies were constantly going and coming 
he was kept continually on the move. 

Though a comparatively young animal he 
must have stood at least seventeen or eighteen 
hands at the shoulder, but he had not the 
great stretch between the curves of the horns 
which is so noticeable in old bulls, whose 
" heads " are so much coveted by sports- 
men. He seemed utterly bewildered by the 
presence of so many of his hated enemies, and 

Vol. vi— 31. 



quite at a loss as to what his ultimate fate 
would be. 

In about an hour sufficient brushwood had 
been cut for our purpose, and the process of 
filling in the pit commenced. The first bundle 
was thrown in at his back, but, catching sight of 
it out of the corner of his eye, he turned in a 
twinkling, pinning it against the side of the pit 
before it had time to reach the bottom, and 
evidently under the impression that he had got 
one of his tormentors at last. Had it been a 
man instead of a bundle of brushwood he would 
have fared very badly indeed, as, after butting it 
into a shapeless mass, he got one of his horns 
under it, and, with a twist of his powerful neck, 
tossed it high into the air. 

After this little display of temper he looked 
up with an air of defiance which was undoubtedly 
a challenge to mortal combat to one or all who 
cared to accept it. As no one seemed ready 
to gratify him in this way he continued his 
murderous assaults on the first five or six 
bundles. It seemed then to penetrate his thick 
cranium that he was only expending his energy 
uselessly, besides making rather a fool of him- 
self. He was quite oblivious to the fact that 
his supposed tormentors were in reality his 
benefactors, and that all was being done for the 
purpose of effecting his release. After this he 
sulked iii one corner of his prison until only his 



head was L-\posed to \ie\v, and he became 
aware that he was graduilly being buried aHve. 
'I'hen he recommenced his struggles, which 
gradually became weaker and weaker, as the 
yielding contents of the pit became deeper 
and movement more difficult. Then, with 
tongue hanging out and gasping for breath, he 
lav down completely exhausted, though by this 
time he could easily have scrambled out had he 
been capable of sufHcient effort. We gave him 
a rest for a bit, and I felt sorry for the poor 
beast as he lay, panting and subdued, and witli- 
out a trace of his recent ferocity left. When he 
seemed to have recovered a little one of the 
coolies prodded him from behind with a bamboo 
(for which exhibition of courage the said coolie 

blindly into the open pit that had been so 
recently occupied by his more fortunate com- 
panion, and followed by many unflattering 
native remarks. As he stood on the edge of 
the pit before taking himself off he afforded a 
splendid ojiportunity for a " snap-shot," and I 
only wish I could have obtained a photograph 
of him. 

The other captive was more active than 
the one whose release 1 have attempted to 
describe, and actually succeeded in getting its 
forelegs over the edge of the pit, causing con- 
sternation amongst the coolies who were near 
at hand. It hung in this position lor several 
seconds trying to work itself out, but the smooth 
sides afforded no hold for the hind feet, and 


was greeted with tremendous applause), when, 
with a great struggle, the big bison managed to 
get his forelegs over the edge and worked him- 
self out. 

At first he stood and gazed about him with a 
bewildered stare, utterly ignoring the howling 
and jeering natives who were peering from 
behind the stems and from amongst the branches 
'" e trees in the vicinity; those on the 

grwun.^ ready to swarm up like monkeys should 
the necessity 

After grasping the fact that he was really on 
/erra firina once more, and free at that, the 
bison walked wearily off, almost stumbling 

the strain on the forelegs forced it to drop 
back into its prison. 

Not to weary the reader with a repetition of 
details, suffice it to say that this animal 
succeeded in jumping out before the pit was 
halffilled, and then he disappeared into the 
jungle almost before I had time to realize what 
had happened. 

As it was now late in the day I did not wait 
to see the pits re-covered, but got on the back 
of the elephant once more and returned 
leisurely to the '■ kraals," and from thence to 
the bungalow, after having spent a most de- 
lightful day. 

A Lady Mountaineer in the New Zealand Alps. 

By Forrest Ross, of Wellington, N.Z. 

These are the sentiments of one who loves to wander "far from the madding crowd" and this one 

may easily do amid the superb scenery of the New Zealand Alps. Special attention may be drawn 
to the photographs accompanying this article, for they will be found exceptionally bright and interest- 
ing, besides illustrating a phase of climbing very different from that prevailing in Europe. 

From a Photo.] 



HOSE who have known nothing but 
the soft deHghts of a civihzed bed, 
be it 

fied fo u r- 
poster or 
humble truckle, cannot 
even imagine the charms 
of bivouacking in the 
wilds. We live on the 
other r.ide of the world, 
in a country that has 
wide breathing spaces, 
where for miles there is 
no trace of the humanity 
that presses so close 
upon you in the older 
lands. Into some 
strange corners of this 
new country my hus- 
band and I have at 
times found our v.-ay, 
and a few reminiscences 
of our camp life may 
be interesting to those 
who, like the gentlemen 
of England, "sit at 
home at ease." 

Our wanderings 
began — not ended, as 
is generally the case — 

with our 

for the trip 


No Paris toilettes were 
In fact, I looked out 
some old clothes, took 
a considerable tuck in 
a serge skirt, and in- 
vested in a ferocious 
pair of boots, which 
weighed down my new 
kitchen scales in the 
most alarming manner. 
Our relations, who 
looked upon our newly- 
acquired taste for moun- 
taineering as a phase of 
lunacy, made sarcastic 
remarks about these 
boots, and insisted on 
referring to our "great 
feat " on the glacier for 
many days after our 

There were no hotels 
on the glacier. The 
nearest house was miles 
and miles away, so that 
tents were wanted and 
sleeping - bags. What 
struggles, physical and 
mental, we had over 
those sleeping - bags ! 



From a Photo, by Mr. M. Ross, 

The sailmaker wlio concocted 
them was nearly driven out 
of his mind by the compli- 
cated instructions, and even 
ihen he sent them home, the 
evening before we started, 
large enough to accom- 
modate Chang, the Chinese 
giant : 

However, we, with "tack- 
ety" boots, old clothes, 
tinned meats, and all the 
rest of our "properties," 
found ourselves one golden 
autumn evening deposited 
on the moraine that skirts 
the monarch of our moun- 
tains, Aorangi, which is, 
freely translated, " the cloud- 
piercer." Our man, a cheer- 
ful, sturdy fellow, with a 
repertoire of the first verses 

of all the comic songs extant, 
had gone ahead with the 
tents, and we camped for 
the night after a hot tramp, 
in the valley between the 
moraine and the mountain, 
with the starry skies for our 
counterpane. As I sat on a 
boulder and looked back on 
the trip so far it seemed a 
series of hairbreadth escapes. 
Across a foaming, raging 
river, in a wooden box that 
ran along a wire rope ; over 
great embankments of stones 
of various sizes — huge boul- 
ders which I sidled round 
or crawled over, and which 
gave a sickening little wobble 
as I got on top of them — 
and across fan -shaped slips 
of finer debris that slid and 
moved perpetually, and 
threatened to carry me down 
to the foot of the moraine. 
All these I had negotiated 

Our resting-place was a 
tiny flat, covered with scanty 
scrub and stunted trees. 
F"ragrant shrubs made a 
luxurious mattress, and 
soon, after sipping some tea, 
I was lying under a big 
opossum rug in serene 
comfort, looking up with 

M;\V ZEALAND Cl.l.Mlil-K.T lilVoU.-\C liEFoRE THE ASCENT OF A M'.v. l-l;.Aiv. 

From a Photo, by Mr. M. Ko:s. 



sleepy eyes between the sparse branches at 
the sky. It was Sundny evening, and only 
half-past six, the time of church bells in the far- 
off towns. Here, instead, was the tinkle of a 
little mountain stream foolishly hurrying over 
its boulders to the great glacier that would 
freeze its music into silence. Now and then 
came a rattle of stones down the huge moraine 
bank, as if someone were coming to disturb us. 
Two tiny tailless birds chirped a serious con- 
ference on a twig above our heads. I felt sure 
their discussion had special reference to us ; 
otherwise all was silent in our camp. Above, 
the sky was strewn with rosy swathes of 
clouds ; and filling up 
the opening made by the 
meeting slopes of moun- 
tain and moraine was the 
most exquisite of all our 
snow-peaks. Mount de la 
Beche, flushed with the 
sunset. As I watched it 
the lovely colour paled 
and faded until there was 
only the cold white of the 
snow to be seen. Over 
the dark spur in front 
was a brilliant star that 
looked down on the in- 
truders with a winking 
curiosit)^ A tveka — one 
of our quaint, flightless 
birds — also wanted to 
know our business, and 
carried its thirst for in- 
formation to the verge of 
impertinence (as some 
humans doX for it crept 
up a. id actually pulled 
my hair ! 

There was infinite con- 
trast between the peace 
of this night and the 
clamour of a succeeding 
one. We had our tents 
j)itched farther up the 
moraine, and there I was 
to stay while my two 
companions went explor- 
ing up the glacier. I 
buckled my husl)and's 
"swag" on him in the 
grey dawn, and waved a 
cheerful adieu to the two 
little black figures as they 
disappeared over the crest 
of the moraine. Then I 
sat down to moralize. 
They were to be away 

for two days and nights, that was the rub, and 
though I had laughed at the idea of nervous 
fears, I was not so brave inwardly. However, 
my fortitude was not put to the test of 
spending the nights alone under that grim, dark 
mountain, for my companions came back, with 
a howling .storm behind them. And then 
followed a terrible night I All the furies seemed 
to be let loose in that little mountain camp, and 
their rage specially directed against our two in- 
offensive tents. The thunder pealed and rattled 
and roared about us, and across our eyes, 
through the canvas of the tent, the lightning 
flashed. Every now and then came a great 


From a Photo, by Mr. M. iVc.w, 





crash as if the mountain-side were giving way, 
and we knew that far up in the glaciers above 
an avalanche had fallen. As I lay, with my 
boots as a pillow, and the rain dripping 
in a sort of fluid melody on my face, I 
found myself fast becoming a fatalist, 
prepared for the worst that could befall. 
My husband crawled out into the darkness 
at intervals to tighten the ropes of the 
tent, which at times seemed to be bound 
to go with the gale. During the night, 
when the rain began to ooze tluough our 
tent, he rigged up, amid ill-timed laughter, 
a protection from the wet. It consisted 
of an empty biscuit-tin, into which I put 
my head, and on which the drops fell 
with a maddening tinkle. I feel sure no 
woman ever showed to such disadvantage 
as I did the next morning when, wet, limp, 
and haggard from want of sleep, I emerged 
from my tin and my rug and demanded 
fair-weather prophecies. It was still rain- 
ing, but our man, by dint of some miracle, 
brought me hot coffee. 

But even that midnight orgie of the 
elements was not enough to frighten us. 
The mountains had us in their grasp ; their 
fascination was upon us. Each summer, 
when the town grew hot and dusty, and 
work dreary and commonplace, the white 
serenity of the ice -world was a Lorelei 
to us. 

On our second trip we had a Glasgow 
man with us. He had never been intro- 
duced to our mountains, though he had 
climbed many a " steih brae" in Bonnie 

Scotland. But his quiet, 
intense enthusiasm was 
lovely to behold. He 
adapted himself charmingly 
to circumstances, too. On 
our journey he was the 
" show " member of the 
party in a knickerbocker 
suit of Harris tweed and 
a pair of hand - knitted 
stockings of marvellous 
colour and design. But in 
camp he was ready to turn 
a deft hand to any " ploy," 
from sliding down a snow- 
slope — a wildly exciting 
pastime — to cooking a 
breakfast sometimes under 
very adverse circumstances. 
We once had to boil the 
billy with a spoonful of 
kerosene and the oil out of 
a tin of sardines ! 
On this trip we saw the New Year in up in 
our mountain camp, miles beyond where we 
first slept out on the moraine. C)ur bivouac 


THE BIVOUAC KOCK O.n iiu-. i.A>,.i.\N lil.ACIER. 

From a Photo, by Mr, M, iio:s. 



here was a bare rock, pitched down the snow- 
slope at some far-distant time. It had landed 
in such a manner that part of it overhung the 
ground and formed a cave. This was our 
refuge — dry, fairly warm, and comparatively 
safe ; though I confess I had always an uneasy 
feeling that it might settle down flat some night 
while we lay beneath it ! 

We had a very jolly smoking concert on New 
Year's Eve as we lay at the open mouth of our 
cave. Now and again, between the songs, 
recitations, and stories, there were pauses and 
long looks at the loveliness before us. A break 
in the moraine disclosed the long length of the 
range. Peak beyond peak, curve beyond curve, 
the mountains of the Southern Alps rose, 
mystically beautiful in the silver moonlight. In 
the western sky still floated a wraith of the 
sunset glory, and the summit of Aorangi was 
faintly flushed. From a great ice-cliff near us 
— very close, apparently, in that clear air — 
thundered down avalanche after avalanche, with 
magnificent roar, sending up showers of ice- 
spray that glittered in the moonshine. None of 
the party will ever forget that won- 
drous night. 

A year or two later the summer 
found us once again among our 
beloved mountains. To get into 
training, my husband and I resolved 
to take a stroll up the Mueller 
moraine and spend the night at the 
head of the glacier. It was a hot 
summer's day, and we were not 
sorry when, late in the afternoon, 
after hours of scrambling over, up, 
and round the most incoherent of 
rocks, we found ourselves at our 
journev's end. This was marked 
by a large square block of stone in 
a little oasis of green Alpine flowers 
and shrubs. Once, years ago, a 
survey party had camped there, and 
we found traces of their fire and 
the remnants of their 
under the overhanging rock 

Here we resolved to spend the 
night. After a supper hastily eaten 
(for the air was chill) we turned into 
our sleeping-bags, under which we 
had laid a quantity of leaves and 
fern. I had the rucksac stuffed 
with the same for my pillow. It 
was a much pleasanter cushion than 
my boots, which were most unsym- 
pathetic things to rest one's head 

We must have looked extra- 
ordinary creatures lying there in 

the amber twilight, far up in the amphitheatre 
of the mountains. Had anyone passed by 
they would have seen two yellow, shiny bundles, 
terminating in hatted heads with white scarves 
tied over the hats to keep the cold out. 

It was an exquisite golden evening, calm and 
clear. Only one tiny cloud rested on the 
mountain across the glacier valley. We lay and 
planned great things for the morrow. A fine 
snow-peak barred the head of the valley, and we 
resolved to try and climb it. True, we had left 
the Alpine rope behind, but all our straps 
buckled together would make a fair substitute. 
Meditating on the glories on attaining the 
summit, I fell asleep. 

When I woke again it was still night, and 
the wind was rising. A drop of rain fell plop 
on my face, and then another, and we knew we 
were in for a wetting. Mufiling ourselves up in 
our sleeping-bags and blankets, we let the rain 
pour down on us till the dawn came— misty, cold, 
and dreary, but infinitely welcome. Packing up 
our swags, we said au revoir to our invisible 
peak, and trudged over the moraine back to 



From a Photo, hy Mr. M. Ross. 

2 So 



Frarii a Photo, by Mr. A/. Ross. 

the Hermitage in the pourin^^ rain. 
We arrived there in time to have 
a bath, to change, and to walk 
in to with the most non- 
chalant air we could as.sume, as if 
sleeping under a rock and walking 
six miles over a moraine in the 
wettest of weather were everyday 

In our southern wonderland we 
can supply the traveller with any 
variety of scenery, hot lakes and 
cold lakes, glaciers and cataracts, 
ice-fK-aks and volcanoes. On our 
way to ascend one of the latter we 
f»assed a memorable night. 'J'here 
were five of us, and, as usual, I 
was the only woman. \Ve had 
reached our c^mp late one sunny 
afternoon. We had intended to 
go farther on, but felt that were 
we to do so we should be certain 
to fare worse. Probably our weary 
limbs emphasized the attraction 

of the little ravine, covered with scanty 
bushes and surrounded by the high 
cliffs cut down long ago by the rush- 
ing river. Close to the high, steep 
banks on the other side the river 
roared and foamed over its boulders, 
and the thunder of an unseen cataract 
was ever on the air. But through the 
narrow gorge the distant ranges were 
faintly purple, and in the V-shaped 
opening above our camp rose our 
mountain — lovely Ruapehu — with the 
glaciers on his broad breast golden in 
the sunset, and a trail of amber, like 
a glorified flame, waving from the 
cliffs around the crater. 

That night, as we sat outside our 
tents, we told stories and related 
strange experiences till a yawn from 
someone suggested turning into our 
tents. My husband and I had our 
own Alpine tent, in which the bottom 
was waterproof and attached to the 
sides. True, it is tiny, and one 
cannot do one's hair unless a seat is 
taken immediately under the ridge- 
pole ; but, in case of a storm, it cannot 
blow away unless we go with it, which 
is, in times of tempest, an infinite 
consolation. Our companions had an 
ordinary tent, and the evening being so 

■'%^ ■■' 


: I ■ ■ ' . ■ .', , h I 1,11 

J'toiii a i'lwto. by Mr. M. Ross. 




calm — so deceitfully calm — they pitched it in 
such a manner as evinced rather their trust in 
Providence than their skill in camp-craft. In- 
deed, they tied it down to stones with red tape, 
pilfered from a trusting Government : and made 
a soft surface to lie upon by digging up the 
sand and volcanic ash with their ice-axes. 
They even tucked the edges of the tent inside, 
and shovelled more sand upon them to keep 
them down. And then these silken Sybarites 
stood outside and chuckled over the delicious 
nest they had made and the sweet slumber they 
would enjoy therein. 

As I lay down in my tent I heard a whisper- 
ing wind steal up the gorge and flap the canvas 
impatiently. Again it came, louder and louder, 

Bill!" And then a melancholy "Blow it 1 " 
came from Bob. 

Frequent smokes whiled away the hours some- 
what, after the hapless trio had given the tent 
u[) as a hopeless case. I must have slept. 
Towards dawn I woke to hear a great gust 
sweep up the gorge, and a wild cry, " She's 
scudding under bare poles now ! " 

I dressed and crawled out into the tem- 
pestuous grey dawn. Never shall I forget the 
sight. Where the tent had stood so bravely 
the evening befoie there was a heap of canvas 
and sand, from the middle of which rose a 
melancholy pole with a towel fluttering from it. 
Up on a ledge of the cliff squatted three weird, 
haggard figures, with hats lied down over their 

.!^- '^^i-y 

From a Fhoto. by Mr. M. Ko'-s. 

until a gale was sweeping through our mountain 
camp. It tore angrily at our tent, but could 
not stir it, and then it began to take its fun out 
of the other tent. The sand began to rise in 
clouds. As I lay shaking with suppressed 
laughter I could hear objurgations loud and 
deep, nipped in the bud apparently, because the 
speaker's mouth got filled with sand and ashes. 
Presently the sides of their tent flapped loudly. 
One of the bits of red tape had snapped, and 
all the sand that was lying on the edge of the 
canvas was blown about inside the tent. 

All night long people seemed to be crawling 
about tethering tin plates, and saddles, and 
towels, and anything that might fly away. All 
night long the three men wearied for day. " Is 
that dawn, Bob?" I heard a sad voice ask from 
the centre of the sand storm, and another 
sadder still came, after a match had been struck, 
from the outer darkness where the owner was 
chasing a tin pannikin, "Only tw'elve o'clock. 

ears, and collars of their coats turned up. 
They were crouching over a tiny fire that sent 
half-hearted flames in every direction save under 
the billy that hung above it. The trio looked 
like shipwrecked sailors waiting for a passing 
vessel, their signal of distress the towel stream- 
ing from the pole that rose above the ruins of 
their tent. 

That night when, our volcano climbed, we 
lay down to sleep experience had made our 
comrades wise. 

" What have you chaps fastened it to to- 
night ? " called out my husband, and the answer 
came back, with drowsy content in its tones, 
" To Ruapehu ! " 

Near our great Sutherland waterfall that comes 
down over its 2,000ft, of grim granite, not far 
from Milford Sound, there is a little hut in which 
I spent a night of terror. I was alone in my 
hut, for my husband was sleeping out at the 
foot of'a mountain not far away which he hoped 



to ascend the next 
niornini;. I had 
stayed up with the 
men in the other 
hut (there were two, 
not far from each 
other) as long as 
politeness per- 
mitted. Hut at last 
tiieir struggles to 
conceal their yawns 
and find fresh topics 
of conversation 
were too pitiful to 
disregard, and, 
escorted by two of 
the men with lighted 
matches across the 
dividing strip of 
tussock and scrub, 
I gained my sane 
turn. After m y 
comrades had bade 
me a cheery " good- 
night,"' and endea- 
voured, vainly, to 
close the door, I 
made the discovery 
that my hut was 
haunted with most 
unpleasant ami sub- 
stantial rats I They 
played leap-frog 
across me, they ate 
my candle, they 

made noisy and vigorous attempts to rifle 
vnlise of some figs, and they sneered at 
feetjle efforts to frighten them. I buried 
head under the rug and 
longed for dawn. U'hen 
it came I should not have 
Ijeen surprised to see my . 

hair grey. "^'v^^' 

Another disturber of 
our Alpine slumbers is 
the kea, our Mount Cook 
parrot. It comes " not 
in single spies, but in 
battalior,-." .ind is, with- 
out d' ..J most im- 

Froiit a\ 


m V 


pertinent, inquisi- 
tive, and at certain 
seasons noisy of 
birds. When the 
first streaks of dawn 
are seen above tlie 
Ball hut on the 
Tasman Glacier, 
and the tired moun- 
taineer is sunk in 
delicious and well- 
earned repose, these 
birds fly down from 
the heights and seat 
themselves along 
the ridge of the tin 
roof. Then the 
ringleader says 
"Off!" and down 
they go, clutching 
with their claws at 
the iron, and screech- 
ing and squawking 
at the top of their 
voices as they slide. 
Keas are intensely 
imitative, and I am 
convinced these 
gymnastic perform- 
ances are simply 
efforts at trying a 
little glissading on 
their own account. 
Over and over again 
the performance is 
repeated, the keas growing more uproarious 
each time, until some infuriated tourist in 
pyjamas rushes out and throws anything he 

can lay his hands on 
at his persistent tor- 
mentors. Then they will 
go a little distance away, 
put their fierce, hand- 
some heads on one side, 
and shriek an oppro- 
brious and contemptuous 
" Kea ! " at him — a re- 
mark that is equivalent 
to the "Garn" of the 
Colonial larrikin. 



i, f^ 


■' 4>'8,». 

\ ■ ■'■':".. ■ 

■ J 

Hi --' ■-.''■'/.■ -'^SH| 









.-- .it 

From a ritoto. hy\ MOUNTAIN HUT. {Mr. M. Ross. 

My New Guinea Cruise. 


By Cecil Vaughan, Government Medical Officer, Samarai, Eastern Division, 

British New Guinea. 

This narrative of adventure is but typical of many incidents in the lives of Government 
officials, traders, missionaries, and others whose days are spent in remote regions. Dr. 
Vaughan's struggles, first with the engine of his launch and then with some of the cruellest and 
fiercest savages in the world, must arouse our keen sympathy, -and one is glad that he and his 
brave " boys " came safely through so terrible an experience. 

\V0 years ago, in an interview with 
Sir William Macgregor, in Sydney, 
I gathered from him that suitable 
land for the cultivation of rubber 
could be had on the Musa River, 
situated on the north-east coast of New Guinea. 
Forming a small syndicate of three, a cutter 
of six tons was ordered to be built, and as soon 
as she was completed I set sail, in company 
with a crew of two men, for New Guinea. Of 
the voyage of the Nabua (for so she was named) 
and my first journey up the river I shall not 
speak, but will confine my narrative to what 

during her adventurous voyage along the Austra- 
lian coast. Arriving safely at Samarai, after 
narrowly escaping a most destructive hurricane, 
I took in a full cargo of stores, and proceeded to 
the Musa River. 

This little vessel, after making many tri[)s, 
during which she conveyed over seventy tons of 
cargo, including a four-roomed house and stores, 
some forty miles up a swift and shallow river to 
Superfaro, the site of my plantation, was hauled 
up the bank for a general cleaning and refitting. 
This work was carried out bv mv crew whilst I 
was occupied for three weeks visiting the villages 


II "jMusa," in which dr. vaughan had 


overtook me subsequently some eight months 
after, when I had established myself on the river. 

In an oil-launch, called the Musa, built 
specially for my work, I made a second voyage 
to New Guinea from Sydney, a distance of some 
1,500 miles. Her dimensions were : length, 
35ft. ; beam, 9ft. iiin. ; depth of hold, 4ft. ; and 
draught, 2ft. She had a roomy and spacious 
cabin, in which an engine of four horse-power 
was placed. 

The accompanying photograph, taken from 
the deck of the ss. Moresby by Mr. Max Thiel 
of Herbertshohe, New Britain, will give your 
readers some idea of the smallest ocean-going 
steamer in existence. Her tiny size was the 
subject of much comment in nautical circles 

above us, at the foot of Mount Suckling : and 
on my return I had to wait anotiicr fortnight 
for the river to rise to get the Musa off the 

Telling the men to put two months' provisions 
on board for the two liative boys who were to 
form my crew, and a week's provisions for 
myself, and taking with me all the specimens 
I had collected to submit to my directors 
in Sydney I made all arrangements for a 
return to Samarai, intending, if a vessel were 
available, to make a short visit to Sydney, 
the better to lay my future plans before the 
company, and at the same time to recruit my 
health, which had suffered from repeated attacks 
of malarial fever. 



I left Siiperfaro on the qtli of June last at 
threi o'clock in tlie afternoon, the engine at 
first working j)erfectly, and mucli the better for 
its deaninii : but, when scarcely two miles from 
the housed it came to a dead stop, and the 
hovs, who were always prepared for such an 
enierjiency. threw the anchor overboard. I 
examnied the en-ine, tried the electric con- 

start the engine again. Away she flew round at 
a fearful velocity. 

You can hardly appreciate my delight when we 
hove up anchor and made for the sea. Steering 
for the channel which I had navigated over and 
over again, and believing that it had remained 
unaltered, we suddenly, without any warning, 
ran aground. ^^'aga, my head boy, jumped 


nections. and found that every detail was 
correct, so I decided to set it going again, which 
I did successfully, reaching within a mile or two 
of the river's mouth, when the engine broke 
down again. 

The sun had nearly set, so I determined to 
anclior for the night. At daybreak on the 
following morning all my efforts to start the 
engine failed, so I set to work to fit in a new 
electrode. Then came a serious misfortune. 
\\"hilst unscrewing the binding screw I broke 
the head of it. I was now at my wits' end ; it 
would be impossible to get back without a 
dinghy or canoe, and before me lay a journey of 
180 miles to .Samarai by sea. 

.Silting down to work again with a settled 
determination, I tried to punch the broken 
screw through with the point of a marlins{)ike ; 
but the more I hanunered the firmer the steel 
screw became embedded in the soft brass cast- 
ing. When I found that this would not answer 
I placed the steel spring electrode and brass 
casting in a small hand-vice, then with a piece 
of copper wire I bound the two parts together 
as tightly as possible, with the combined 
strength of my crew and myself I'ending the 
electrode backwards and forwards I found that 
it held firmly ; and so, replacing it in the 
explosion chamber, and locking it, I tried to 

overboard, and we then found that there was 
scarcely i8in. of water under the vessel's bow. 
He tried the depth of the water around for a 
space of 50ft. with a like result. Besides, we 
found that it was just at the end of the ebb tide, 
so we decided to have breakfast. 

Waiting until 2 p.m., I sent Waga into the 
water to take soundings in the old channel, and 
as I watched him from the deck I saw the place 
was quite altered through tlie then prevailing 
south-east winds. The sand had been washed 
in by the heavy rollers over the sand-spit which 
lay parallel with the shore at low tide. Waga 
then moved off in another direction, straight in 
front of the river mouth, and where the current 
seemed to be the strongest. Here he found 
deeper water. 

1 ran below and started the engine, and bid 
fair to be in Samarai in two days and a half 
Steering a direct course for the Spear Islands, a 
distance of twelve miles, the engine was several 
times on the point of stopping, but by rushing 
to the throttle-valve and supplying more or less 
air as it was required we reached to within 
two miles of the siiore, when another stoppage 
occurred. I made several attempts, with the 
assistance of the boys, to start the engine again, 
but there was not the slightest response to our 
efforts. Tired out with the day's exertions, I 



came up on deck to consider the best way to 
reach an anchorage for the night. Without mast 
and without sails it seemed hopeless, but happily 
Waga came to the rescue with a large oar, and 
by much hard sculling we reached a sheltered 
bay as darkness was coming on. Here we 
anchored for the night. 

I decided to remain at this anchorage and 
take all the cells to pieces, clean the zincs and 
carbons, and then try the engine again. This 
work occupied all next day, and when it was 
completed I was too tired to make an attempt 
to try the engine, so I left it until the following 


After a good night's rest I rose with a light 
heart to turn the fly-wheel to get the primary 
explosion. I worked away till out of breath, with 
an aching pain in my back and arm, hoping all 
the time that the very next turn would see us 
on our way, but at last I gave it up in despair. 
Putting my hand to the switch to turn off the 
electric current, I found I had forgotten to put 
the current on, so all my labour had been in 
vain. I-ooking at Waga, w^ho, panting and 
exhausted with his exertions, and yet blandly 
smiling, sat meekly in front of me, I apologized 
for my mistake and roundly abused myself for 
being such an idiot. It was now late enough 
for breakfast, so, getting little Jackey to boil the 
billy and serve up the " tinned dog," we sat 
down on the deck and refreshed ourselves, fully 
believing that we had come to the end of our 

You may wonder at my faith in the engine 
after so many repeated failures, but I had 
experienced th.e same difficulties on two or 
three other occasions, when my efforts had 
resulted in the engine working successfully for 
two or three days without a stoppage, and for 
this I was hoping in this instance. 

Once more I went to the engine, turned on 
the current, and set the fly-wheel in motion, but 
again without response. 1 tried a little more 
naphtha brought down through the vaporizer 
and a little more air ; and then I turned the 
fly-wheel again, but still without result. 

At last I gave it up. Waga said the Devil- 
devil had got into the engine. Waga and I 
held a consultation. He proposed we should 
try to manage with the oar to reach Cape Nelson, 
as we should then be in sight of any vessels 
which might be on their way to the Mambare, 
carrying diggers to the goldfields. To this I 
cheerfully agreed — the more readily, perhaps, 
because all the labour would fall upon him, as I 
did not know how to scull. Carrying this into 
effect, we had by nightfall reached Alaclaren's 
Harbour, about three or four miles from the 

The following morning some canoes hove in 
sight, and the idea struck me that the natives 
might be induced to tow us. When these 
ungainly canoes, with wide-spreading outriggers,' 
came skimming towards us like huge tarantulas, 
I called to the natives to come alongside. We 
then traded with them, giving them tobacco for 
their yams and taro, and in this way we soon 
established friendly relations. I then suggested 
to them that if they would tow us round Cape 
Nelson I would give each man in the canoe 
three sticks of tobacco. I'hey readily agreed. 
Selecting the largest canoe, which had twelve 
paddles, we gave them our tow-line, and all 
went merrily for the first hour, the natives treat- 
ing the whole affair as a joke, and we on board 
laughing and chaffing with them to keep up the 
delusion that there was really no labour attached 
to the undertaking. Soon, however, the drag 
of our heavy boat on their ill-made canoe and 
their inherent disgust for prolonged labour told 
on them, and they gave up pulling altogether. 
We coaxed them, offered a bigger reward, and 
even threatened, whereupon they gave another 

At last they refused to pull another stroke. 
To leave us on the weather-side of a reef, five 
or six miles from the land, was more than I was 
prepared for, so I promised a further increase of 
toL-.cco. They set to work again, and at this 
moment we sighted the topsail of a small cutter, 
showing over the low point of land at Cape 
Nelson. I told Waga to get a blanket and 
make it fast to the oar. I rushed below to 
fetch my Winchester to fire it as a signal. We 
waved the blanket to and fro and fired several 
shots in (juick succession, without attracting the 
attention of the cutter, which sailed away out of 
sight to the north. 

In the meantime we had forgotten the natives 
who were towing us. It was evident from the 
manner in which they had been working 
at the paddles that we had completely frightened 
them with our noisy demonstration. Looking 
over the side I saw we were passing over a reef 
I hailed the natives and told them to stop, 
instead of which they pulled with greater 
vigour. Fearing that we m.ight strike a gibber, 
I rushed to the tow-line and commenced to 
haul the canoe to us, in order to stop them. 
This movement, which was intended to protect 
my vessel, completely demoralized the natives, 
and, with the exception of one old man, they 
jumped overboard frantically and made for the 
shore. He, pluckier than the others, was 
attempting to undo the tow-line. I stopped 
pulling on it, and tried to pacify and calm him, 
telling him I only wanted them not to go on any 
farther, and held up some tobacco to give him. 



Believing this to be a ruse on my part to 
make him a prisoner, lie would have none of it, 
and he also dived into the water. We were 
now left in possession o\ the canoe, but, without 
anvone to pull it, it was of no use to us, so I 
last it adrift. Waga took to the oar again. I 
watched the natives swim off to the canoe and 
t.ike charge of it, paddling away towards their 
homes as fast as they could, urged on by then- 
fears. That evening at eight o'clock we suc- 
ceeded in reaching an anchorage between two 

We had now rounded Cape Nelson, and being 
unwilling to remain, waiting on the chance of a 
vessel coming to our relief, I decided to push 
on and try and reach a mission station at 
Wanigala, about eighteen miles farther on, in 
Collingwood Bay. For the ne.xt two days we 
made little progress, as we had a strong current 
against us. Some canoes came out from the 
shore on the third day, and then went back 
again. Looking through a small pair of opera- 
glasses I could distinguish another canoe 
coming from the direction we had come. After 
a short parley amongst themselves some half- 
dozen canoes struck out from the shore towards 
' iunch. Coming within hail, I asked them 

.y would tow us. To this they replied 

that they were afraid we would kill them — at 
the same time gradually lessening the distance 
between us. Through the glasses I recognised 
the old man who had stuck to his canoe to the 
last. I called out to him and held out some 
tobacco which Waga brought me, and told him 
I wished to pay his men for their work of the 
other day. After much hesitation they came 
alongside. I gave him seventy-two sticks of 
tobacco, which was double the quantity promised 
and equal to 7s. 6d. in money. After this we 
were on friendly terms again, and the natives 
shouted out that they were all prepared to tow 

The largest canoe was chosen, and once more 
we moved on at a more rapid pace, reaching a 
snug anchorage before nightfall. Paying the 
natives liberally for their work, they left us, 
promising to return on the morrow. Fearing 
that we should not see them again until they 
had smoked all the tobacco I made an early 
start in the morning, with Waga sculling, hoping 
that when they saw us going away they would 
come out to us. We had made little headway 
when the south-east wind sprang up, and we 
had to return to our anchorage again. 

My surmise with regard to the natives turned 

oTjt to be correct. We saw nothing of them 

day. Other natives from the opposite 

dire. ■ :ne and brought their women with 

them is always a sign that fighting is not 

intended. W'e traded with them, buying some 
fi-sh, of which I was in need, my supply of a 
week's provisions having by this time run very 
low. Any natives that came by greeted us 
with the cry of " Orokaiva," which signifies 
peace. I felt more confident in their goodwill 
than 1 had done for the past few days. 

The following morning we had an early visit 
from the natives who had towed us to this 
anchorage. They offered to help us again and 
take us to the mission, where assistance could 
be obtained. Running out the tow-line we 
made another start, but before we could round 
the point of the reef the wind and sea had 
risen. 1 he canoe, although a large one, was 
old and could not stand the strain. I heard it 
creaking and groaning as it laboured against the 
sea. The natives, too, finding that there was 
more strain than on the previous occasion, 
refused to proceed farther and turned back, 
towing us to our old anchorage. I paid them 
for their work and told them that if there was 
no wind I should want them next day. 

Next morning, finding the tide to be at flood, 
we struck out over the reef without the assist- 
ance of the natives, and were just in time to 
secure another anchorage before it came on to 
blow worse than ever. The natives did not 
venture out in their canoes. Waga suggested 
that we should make a sail. We had no canvas 
and no mast, however. Thinking it over, it 
struck me that two blankets sewn together and 
made fast to a bundle of spears would make a 
square sail and the oar would do for a mast. I 
am thankful now that this " sail," poor as it was, 
was made, in view of events that followed. 

The next morning a canoe with three natives 
came from the shore, armed with long spears, 
decorated with small feathers tied to a piece of 
line, which hung as a pennant from the head of 
the spear, and was made fast to the middle. 
The natives were painted with red and black 
pigment on their faces. Up to the present 
none of these warlike decorations had been 
seen. One of the savages called out to me that 
canoes were coming to tow us, and we were not 
to go away by ourselves. I beckoned to him to 
approach, which he would not do, replying that 
we w^ould kill him. I could not understand 
how their friendship had suddenly changed 
to distrust. I knew this boy who was acting as 
spokesman, for on my previous journeys along 
the coast I had frequently anchored here and he 
had often visited my ship. He had also worked 
on the goldfields, having been kidnapped by the 
diggers, and he spoke a few words of English. 
Strange to relate, he had been in the same camp 
with Waga. 

After manv assurances that I would do him 



no harm he came alongside. I made a proposal 
to him ihat if lie would take Waga to the 
mission station I would give each of his crew a 
tomahawk and some tobacco. After consulting 
with his mates he agreed. Writing out a note 
on a slip of paper (using a bullet for a pencil, as 
I had no writing materials on board), I informed 
the missionary of my difficulties with the engine, 
and asked for his help. I gave the boys some 
tobacco for a smoke and handed Waga my Colt's 
revolver, warning him to be careful of the 
ammunition, as the six cartridges which I gave 
him were all that I had for that weapon. I 
foolishly made this statement in the presence of 
the natives; dearly I had to pay for it afterwards. 
When Waga had left I felt more cheerful, and 
settled down with Jackey to await his return. 
Tliis happened sooner than I expected. About 

a signal prearranged, but that I watched too 
carefully and the natives had not the courage to 
act upon it. At this moment I heard a shot 
fired, and looking over in the direction from 
which the sound came my eyes were taken off 
the men in front of me just for a moment. This 
was the opportunity they had been waiting for. 
The native who was sitting over the toma- 
hawk jumped up and raised it to strike me. I 
was too quick for him. Covering him with my 
rifle, he took a jump off the canoe into the sea, 
but before he touched the water I shot him 
through the body. The other natives following 
suit quickly swam away out of reach. Jackey's 
cries now attracted my attention. He was 
calling out : " My brother, my brother — shoot, 
master, shoot ! "' Looking in the direction of the 
shot I saw W'aga swimming towards the ship 


four in the afternoon some canoes came along 
to trade; I would only allow one canoe to come 
alongside at a time. This is a precaution which 
all the traders on this coast adopt if they have 
no white comrade. I noticed at the bottom of 
the canoe just then alongside a European 
tomahawk. I pointed to it, and asked one of 
the natives what he was doing with it in the 
canoe. He at once made an attempt to hide it 
by drawing a mat over it. My suspicions were 
aroused by this action and t kept my Win- 
chester across my knees, ready for any emer- 

I watched the native in front of me. He was 
excited, and every now and then would raise 
his hand as if clutching a spear, dropping the 
fore-arm and making the niuscles rigid as if in 
the act of quivering a spear ready to throw. It 
struck me afterwards that it was very much like 

with the spears from a crowd of natives on 
the shore falling thick around him. He was 
holding the revolver well above his head to save 
it from getting wet — even in this moment of 
peril remembering my instructions to be careful 
with the ammunition. I covered his retreat by 
firing rapidly into the natives, and when \Vaga 
got alongside I could see that he was much 
exhausted with the loss of blood from two ugly 
wounds, one on the forehead and the other 
between the shoulder-blades. 

The natives had now got well out of reach, 
so, taking Waga below, I attended to his wounds, 
and made him relate to me how he came to be 
in such a plight. He said, " When we left in 
the canoe this morning we pulled away some 
three miles from here around the next point, the 
boys then telling me that it would be better to 
land and walk through the bush. They said 





' w o 



it was a long way l>y water. \\'ish;ng to got there 
.luitklv and i\ turn to you, I followed their ad\ ice 
and struck out with them through the bush. I 
kepi well behind, and the lliiee natives with nie 
kept talking very excitCi i seemed to dis- 

aiiree upon some project ulucii on<i ot them was 
urging upon the others. I'hey stopped for a 
moment until I came up with them, and then 
told me that they saw signs in the bush of 
ii>)-.tile natives from * ''- - ■ 'liages of whom they 
were atraiil. so it woi. wise to return to the 

canoes aiul go by water. ^Ve got back to the 
bi-ach. I took 
my seat in 
m i d d 1 e of 
c a n o e. 1 
natives sat 
front of me 
one btrhind. 

" \\ hen we had 
got .some distance 
out to sea the boy 
in the bow pre- 
tended to sight a 
fish near the 
( anoe. We 
all jumped 
uj) to look. 
1 had no 
sooner done 
so than I re- 
ceived a blow 
on mv head 
with a paddle 
which knock- 
ed me into 
the water. At 
the same time 
I felt a sharp 
pain in my 
back. 'I'his I 
kn» w to be 
a spear thrust. 
I quickly put 
my hand to 
my back and 
j)ulled it out. I had the presence of mind to 
swim under water and away from the canoe ; 
drawing my revolver, I came to the surface and 
fired at my enemies. Taking to their paddles they 
soon made good their escape. I then swam to 
the shore. I hesitated for a moment when I 
landed as to how I should act— whether to go 
on to the mission station or come back to the 
ship. I thought rjf my litde brother and you, 
and in case of an attack from the natives how 
hard it would go with you. If the natives had 
not already attacked ycu, you would be off your 
guard, not knowing of their assault upon me. 


" 1 decided then to return, and struck into 
the bush so as not to be observed. I had not 
proceeded very far when I heard voices. 1 
quickly tore off my clothes and hid myself in 
the thick scrub under a large tree. The voices 
came nearer, and then seemed to go away. 
Waiting some moments longer, I climbed into 
the big tree to look about me. Not very far 
from my hiding-])lace the natives were running 
about from bush to bush, thrusting their 
long spears into the thickest of them to 
see if they could discover me. 

" Unable to do 
so they departed, 
and when I was 
sure no stragglers 
were left behind 
I came down and 
very carefully 
made my way 
towards the vessel. 
When you heard 
my shot I was 
then seen by the 
natives, and you 
saw me attacked 
by them with their 

WHiilst Waga 
was repeating his 
adventures to me 
I was dressing his 
wounds and keep- 
in>z a look-out 
through a port- 
hole. My rifle 
was lying at my 
side. Telling 
Wa^a not to be 
startled if he 
heard a report 
in the cabin, I 
covered a native 
who was dodging 
from tree to 
ree along the 
our vessel all the 

: TREE.", 

coming nearer 


shor( , 

time. He had a stone club on one shoulder 
and a spear in his hand. W'aiting until I 
could make certain of my aim, I fired. He 
was hit. For a moment he halted, and then 
spinning round two or three times he fell 
to the ground. We were not molested again 
that day or the next, although some distance 
away, on the opposite side of the small bay in 
which we were anchored, I could distinguish 
some natives along the beach hunting for their 
dead. I could not tell how many natives were 
killed, but of two I was certain. 



On the morning ef the third day after this 
attack, Waga feehng a Httle better, I decided to 
move on. It struck me the engine might 
possibly work after its rest. When the anchor 
was up I tried it and, to my astonishment, away 
she went at full speed. We ran out of the bay 
some three miles from the anchorage, when the 
accursed thing stopped again. Fortunately we 
were in shallow water, so I dropped the anchor, 
as Waga was quite unfit in his wounded con- 
dition to work the oar. 

About 1 1 a.m. a strong wind sprang up, which 
soon caused a choppy sea, so I determined not 
to leave my anchorage. ]\Iy attention was then 
drawn to the shore. Hundreds of canoes were 
collecting, and some natives ran out on to the 
shore reef and yelled that they were coming to 
trade with me, and that I was not to be 
frightened, as they had no intention of attacking 
me. I replied by firing at them. There was 
too much movement of the little vessel to make 
certain of my aim. I let the natives know, 
however, that if they came within reach I 
would shoot them. The natives from the 
canoes, which had been arriving from all 
directions, landed on a long, sandy beach to 
hold a council of war. This did not take long. 
I watched them keenly as they rushed to their 
canoes to attack me. They pushed off from the 
shore, yelling and shouting frantically. I waited 
until they were well within reach, and for a time 
I could not help withholding my fire to watch 
their tactics. They advanced in a long line, 
abreast of one another and with their bows 
pointing towards me, which, together with the 
tossing and pitching of the launch, gave me but 
a slender chance of hitting them. The warriors 
stood erect in the canoes with their long shields 
covering their bodies. I counted from ten to 
twelve in each canoe, and as there were at least 
eighty canoes, this must have represented a force 
of fully a thousand men. I waited until they were 
within about three hundred yards of me, when 
one of the leading canoes getting out of 
command showed her broadside with ten men 
in a line. I took aim as carefully as I could 
and fired. There was a yell of derision. I 
had missed. Then I fired another shot, with 
the same result. The canoes now spread out 
to surround me. I took a third shot at the 
same canoe. This time I was more successful, 
for I struck the steersman, who tumbled help- 
lessly out of the canoe. This acted as an 
immediate check upon the whole flotilla. They 
stopped, rested on their paddles for a few 
moments, and then began slowly to retreat to 
the shore. 

Encouraged by this result, I kept up a steady 
fire upon them as they retired, which completed 

Vol. vi.— 32. 

their discomfiture for the time being. Waga 
came to me, touched me on the shoulder and 
said : '■ Master, do not fire so much. We have 
only a few cartridges left, and these natives have 
not done with us yet. They will attack again 
with greater fury and courage." I told Waga I 
did not care, and that I still had enough to give 
them a lesson.' Further, when that was finished 
I had five cartridges left in my revolver, and 
rather than fall into their hands I would shoot 
myself. " No, no, master ; you kill Jackey 
first, then you kill me ; after that you may 
kill yourself. We do not wish to fall into 
their hands. We would be put to fearful 
tortures and then roasted alive. It is better 
that we put up the sail and go away." 
This advice I thought was good, and I 
decided to act upon it. I looked over to 
the shore. The natives had again collected on 
the beach and were in a great state of excite- 
ment, brandishing their spears, jumping over 
one another, yelling and shouting, and working 
themselves into a state of mad frenzy for another 
attack. For a moment I felt very uncomfort- 
able. Not wishing my boys to see this, how- 
ever, I set them to work to erect the mast and 
prepare the sail. The natives were watching 
our every movement, and when they saw what 
our intention was they rushed to their canoes 
and came out to the attack again. This time, 
owing to their haste, their system of attack was 
not so well organized, and when they got within 
range they were massed together, which gave me 
a better opportunity of firing into them with effect. 
Availing myself of this advantage I kept up a 
rapid fire while Waga and Jackey hove up the 
anchor. My rifle now became so hot that I 
had to pour water down the barrel to cool it. 
Still they continued to approach, but the sail 
being now spread I perceived, to my intense 
satisfaction, that we were gradually increasing 
our distance from them. All my attention was 
now directed to the navigation of the boat. I 
remembered I had a hammock made of double 
canvas on board. Bringing this up on deck 
I set to work to undo the seams. Waga, 
in the meantime, was making a mizzen-mast 
out of a bundle of spears tied together, 
and then lashed on to the standard of the 
steering-wheel. In a short time we had 
hoisted this primitive sail, which sent us 
ahead at an increased rate of speed. The 
natives were still giving chase, and we could 
hear their yells of rage and disappointment at 
losing their prey. Smoke signals were rising 
from the headlands, which were answered for 
miles along the coast, apprising the natives 
everywhere of the fight which was going on. By 
five in the evening we had left our pursuers far 








behind. Yet we could still hear their war- 
cries carried to us on the wind : and for weeks 
after this sound never left us, so great an 
impression had it made on our nerves. My 
boys came several times to me to say that they 
coiild iiear the natives coming after us ; and 
although I experienced the same sensation I 
did no"t admit it to them, but assured them that 
it was impossible, as we were too far away now. 
During the excitement of the fight I had 
kept cool and collected, as also did the boys ; 
but when it was all over our nerves were quite 
unstrung, and the reaction completely un- 
manned us. Up to this time none of us had 
had anything to eat. I called Jackey and told 
him to prepare some food. After it was cooked, 
however, none of us could eat it ; so, telling 
Jackey to come to the wheel and advising 
Waga to rest his wounds, Avhich he told me were 
him pain, I turned into my bunk and, 
utterly exhausted, fell into a sound 
and did not wake until daylight. 
I went on deck I found poor little 
still at the wheel, and he told me 
that soon after I went below he too had 
fallen asleep, so our good little ship had taken 
care of herself all through the night, running 
before the wind on a course of her own. The 
high mountain peaks of the great Owen Stanley 
range, which rise to a height of 13,000ft., 
could just be distinguished through the clouds, 
glowing in the purple light of the early morn. 
That was all we could see of the land, and 
it gave us no clue to our position. I had 
no knowledge of the coast -line beyond the 
Musa River. Waga had, however. He spent 
some six months on the goldfields of the 
Mambare, but could give me no course to 
steer for the Mitre Rock, which marks the 
approach to the low-lying lands at the mouth 
of the river. I aimed at reaching this 
place, knowing that I could secure help there ; 
but if I passed it, it meant going on to the 
German settlements, as, without charts and 
proper sails to enable me to steer any course 
other than before the wind, there was no other 
alternative. As long as the south-east wind 
continued we followed the coast-line from point 
to point, near enough to distinguish any houses 
which might lie on the shore. We were afraid 
that the natives might attack us if we ventured 
too close, and the odds against us would have 
been much greater here, as we began to realize 
that we must have passed the British boundary, 
and we knew that the natives of German New 
Guinea were armed with bows and arrows, 
whereas we had only to contend against spears 
and tomahawks in our last encounter. 

Reaching an uninhabited island, which I now 

take to have been one of the Longuerue 
group, we came to an anchorage. I told Waga 
to swim ashore and cut a spar for a mast, as 
this would give us the use of the large oar, of 
which we had begun to feel the need. The wind 
now had left us entirely, and for three weeks we 
drifted slowly towards a low-lying point to the 
north-east. All this time, my provisions being 
cjuite exhausted, I had to live exclusively on 
boiled rice, which is by no means an agreeable diet 
for a white man. I took this point to be Cape 
Cretan, which lies on the northern extremity of 
the Huon Gulf. It turned out, however, to be 
a group of coral islands known as the Tami 
group. At last, when we got near them, we 
saw some canoes approaching, and my boys 

were much afraid, 
with us now, master, 
and killed. Nothing 
them not to be afraid, 
be very far now from 


It is all 


We shall be attacked 
can save us." I urged 
I was sure we could not 
the German settlements. 
As soon as the canoes came near enough, Waga, 
evidently greatly relieved, drew my attention to 
the fact that the natives were wearing calico, and, 
therefore, must be civilized. He was correct, 
for presently we were addressed in very good 
English, and asked where we had come from. 
To our joy we heard from these natives 
that a missionary was living on the island, 
and if we would give them a "paper talk" 
they would take it to him. Tearing . off a 
piece of paper from a biscuit tin, I wrote 
across it, " Are we in the right direction for 
Frederich Wilhelms Haven?" A short time 
after a procession of canoes came out to us, and 
the missionary, dressed in white, with a huge 
umbrella shading him from the sun, was seen 
sitting on the platform of the leading canoe. 
He came on board and we shook hands. I 
related to him the events of the past few weeks. 
Although he treated me with courtesy and ex- 
pressed his sympathy for our troubles, he 
refused to believe that we were not running 
away from New Caledonia ! He repeated my 
story to the natives who had come out with him, 
and they, wishing to show in some practical 
way their feelings for us, jumped on board the 
launch with their paddles and quickly brought 
us to the anchorage inside the atoll. 

An abundance of cooked native food was 
brought to my boys, and when I offered to pay 
for it they would not accept it. The missionary 
invited me to lunch, and I was introduced to 
his wife. I had to repeat my story over again 
to her. The next day was Sunday. I was not 
aware of this at the time, as I had lost all count 
of the days. 

On the Monday morning I purchased a large 
native sail for a tomahawk. The mast was 



given in with it, as well as 
Taking in fresh water and 
of yams, I got my sailing 
missionary for the seat of 
ment at Frederich Wilhel 
sail at 3 p.m., accompanied 
by the islanders. I had a 
run before me, and was for 
reefs to encounter on the 

rope for the rigging. 
an abundant supply 

directions from the 
the German Govern- 
ms Haven, and set 

for a short distance 

four hundred miles 
:-tunate in having no 

way. With a fresh 

Jumbobo and anchored for the night. The 
next day it rained in torrents and we remained 
locked up in the cabin. The following morn- 
ing there was a dead calm. Getting under 
way with the oar we reached the entrance to 
Frederich Wilhelms Haven about lo a.m. In 
another two hours I was comfortably housed in 
the club. My hospitable hosts, the German 
officials, received me kindly, and before the day 



easterly wind which was then blowing, in three 
days we were carried to Astolabe Bay, which 
was very near the end of my journey. 

I steered well into the bay, and although I 
had received instructions to look out for the 
roofs of the houses at Stephansort, I could not 
see any sign of habitation. Standing out again, 
the wind shifted to the north-east. Steering as 
close as the wind would allow, I only just 
escaped being driven on shore on a rocky head- 
land at the northern extremity of the bay. The 
wind had been freshening all the time and 
night was coming on. In fear of losing the 
settlements, I ran under a small island named 

was spent I knew every white man on the settle- 

By the courtesy of the commander, Captain 
Dunbar, I was offered a passage to Sydney in 
the German gunboat Moetve. My health had 
suffered from the privations I had endured, but 
the sea voyage in a comfortable ship, and the 
exceedingly kind attention I received, restored 
me, and I landed in Sydney feeling none the 
worse for my experience. Waga and Jackey, 
who had proved their mettle and had so 
courageously stood by me in the hour of 
danger, are, I am proud to say, still with me, 
prized and honoured for their faithfulness. 

The Ghost Dance of the Poncas. 

Bv ^\■. R. Draper, of Wichita, Kan. 

An impressive description of a weird Pagan ceremonial, illustrated by photographs of the leaders 

and the dance itself -which, by the way, was intended to celebrate the uprise of the Indian and 

the annihilation of the " Pale-face." Mr. Draper points out the rarity of these photographs, the 

one of the dance in progress being the only print ever taken. 

1 AX DING YELLOW," the Ponca 
liulian prophet, came to the open- 
ing of his tepee, jerked a rough 
brown hand to his forehead, and 
scanned the prairie anxiously. As 

he drew his tall figure to its full height and 

threw his gaze to the south a smile spread over 

his cracked and wrinkled face. Then, hastily 

assuming a sober look, he retired to the 

sacred tepee and began again his long task of 

making medicine. The little dust cloud grew 

larger and nearer. Other clouds formed in all 

directions, and before the sun hid its face behind 

the surface of tall grass a hundred waggon-loads 

of Indians had arrived and pitched their tepees 

round that of the old prophet. They jabbered 

lo each other in their own tongue, and scowled 

fiercely at the few white men who had ridden 

along to witness the gathering. There was a 

scurrying about that would do credit to a 

gathering of commercial travellers, but all the 

time the flap of the standing yellow tepee 

remained closed. The Indians went by in 

groups, and pointed mysteriously at it. Some 

would bow their heads while near it, others 


■/\' ' 



J^rom a Photo. 


II! M iri jli.T), THE MEDICINE 

Fro}ii a Photo. 

would not go near at all. 
It was evident that they 
regarded the old prophet 
with respect, and even fear. 
For he was the cause of 
this session of redskins. 
Ke and Humming Bird, 
another medicine man, 
had sent word to the 
Indians that the time had 
come for them to dance. 
The Great Spirit had at 
last spoken, and all was 
to be well with their souls. 



From a\ THE DANCE. 



Now, if there is anything queer 
Indian of the SoutlvWest it is hi 
Most people think that 
the wild reservation 
Indians have no religion, 
but they were never more 
mistaken. The savage 
who hangs around the 
Government store and 
draws his rations with 
clock-like regularity may 
be slow when it comes 
to tilling the ground, but 
he fairly bristles with 
interest when you men- 
tion religion. It is a 
boon companion to him, 
never sleeping, but often 
so silent that it is not 
evident to the casual 

The Ponca Indians 
who live on their reserva- 
tion in the northern part 
of Oklahoma, Territory Froma\ 

about an 
s religion. 

are very superstitious, but they never 
engaged in the Ghost Dance of ten years 
ago when all the Indians of the western 
half of the United States were dancing it. 
It was the belief of the Indians then that 
if they engaged in this dance the Great 
Spirit would fulfil a promise which some 
Indian prophets claim to have been made 
to them when they went on a visit to the 
other world. This promise was that the 
white people should all be killed, all dead 
Indians returned to life, and the game 
restored to the earth — a belief which is the 
Indians' heaven and the basis of all their 

Of course, the time passed for the pro- 
mised end of the world, yet 'nothing 
happened. Some of the Indians were 
transformed into sinners, according to the 
Indian code of ethics, but a majority of 
them yet held faith ; they gave up the 
dance, but they did not forget the pro- 
mises. Standing Yellow was then a great 
prophet among the South-West tribes, and 
his people of the Ponca tribe had implicit 
faith in him. When the Otoes and the 
Arapahoes began to have Ghost Dances 
the Poncas grew restless and visited their 
prophet. But he shook his head and said 
the time for the dance had not yet arrived. 
When it did he would inform them. The 
Poncas refrained from the Ghost Dance 

This was the reason for the recent gather- 
ing of the Poncas on their reservation. Standing 
Yellow had sent out the long-looked-for message. 




It was carried from tepee 
to tepee by Humming 
Bird, the medicine man. 
Standing Vel!o\v said 
that a crow liad flown 
over his wigwam and 
plucked out his heart. 
Then with a new heart 
he was carried into a 
cloud, and finally ap- 
peared before the Master 
of Life. After a long 
talk about his faithful- 
ness the Master bade 
him start the Ghost 
Dance, and said further 
that he would then come 
down and wipe the white 
people from the earth. 
This is the version given 
by the prophet, and 
his people said it must 
be so. 

It was long before 
daylight that the Indian 
camp was astir. Dark 
forms, wrapped closely 
in heavy red blankets, 
dodged between the 
tents and bent over 
small fires. Inside the 
thick canvas the Indian 
dancers were putting on 
the sacred paint. The 
squaws outside were frj'ing a scant breakfast. 
Medicine men scurried in and out of the tents 
with great cans 
full of the sacred 
paint. They 
daubed a big 
warrior twice on 
the nose and 
three times on 
the chin, ran a 
yellow line 
across each 
cheek, and a red 
figure shaped 
itself on his 
forehead. Some- 
times this figure 
was a crow, then 
an eagle, again 
a snake — any- 
thing the fanciful 
medicine man 
cared to make it. They claimed that this paint- 
ing was done by inspiration. It certainly was 
far from being artistic, judged by the civilized 



FiOin a Photo. 

Standpoint. At dawn 
the Indians, 500 strong, 
were ready for the great 
dance. All their pent-up 
enthusiasm broke loose. 
It had been a ten-year 
struggle, hoping against 
hope as it were that 
this time would hasten 
the end. Now the wish 
was gratified. 

The stillness of the 
fresh morning air was 
suddenly broken by the 
beating of a huge drum. 
It came from the direc- 
tion of the river, and 
thither all the Indians 
rushed. There they 
beheld Standing Yellow 
on his pony. He raised 
his hands in a tragic 
manner and commenced 
to talk. The Indians 
listened with breathless 
interest. His speech was 
a long harangue against 
the whites and a story 
of his impossible trip to 
the clouds. He recited 
with great impressive- 
ness how the Great 
Spirit received him, gave 
him the dance, and 
told him the world was soon to end. Then 
he commanded Humming Bird, as the chief 


I'rom a] feather-bone in their mouth." \Phoio. 

medicine man of the tribe, to show the Indians 
the dance as he had been taught by the prophet, 
Standing Yellow. It was below the dignity of 



From d\ 



Standing Yellow himself to teach them the 

They formed in a rough circle. On their 
breasts they wore nothing, but from the waist 
hung a white sheet. Their hair fell loose over 
their shoulders. Humming Bird wore a broad- 

brimmed hat and a linen duster, 
hands the dancers car- 
ried wreaths of feathers, 
and some of them held 
the feather-bone in their 
mouth. They danced 
up and down, moving 
from left to right. All 
the time they followed 
the medicine men in the 
strange chant : — 

We are coming, Yellow Man, 
The crow will bring us there ; 
It has b;en a long time — • 
We are coming. 

The dancers hopped 
higher and faster, and 
chanted their weird song 
louder as the sun's rays 
fell straighter upon them. 

In their 

Then they commenced to fall from exhaustion 
and excitement. The medicine men said that 
it was the work of the Great Spirit. While they 
lay in the dust and heat of the dancing circle 
no one went near them, as they were supposed 
to be communing with dead relacives. Some 
lay in the trance for hours, and then went on 

with the dance. At night 
fires were built in the 
circle, and the dancers 
kept on until midnight, 
when all went and 
bathed in the river. At 
daybreak they were again 
ready for the dance. 

This performance was 
kept up for six days, 
during which time dele- 
gates from all the other 
tribes in Oklahoma ap- 
peared and engaged in 
the dance. This was 
one of the largest Ghost 
Dances ever held in the 
South-West, and the first 
in ten years. 


Front a Phoio, 

Among the Giant Redwoods of Santa Cruz. 

Hv Hakrv Cornell, ok Pasadena, Cal. 

This article points out now remarkable it is, and how little realized, that quite close to the great 
city of San Francisco there is a bewildering forest of primeval redwood trees — wonderful giants over 
300ft. high and 6oft. or 70ft. in girth, among which the wanderer may get hopelessly lost, as was 
the case with the Austrian scientist mentioned herein, who nearly lost his life. These giant red- 
woods are threatened with extermination, but they have secured powerful champions in the author 

and his friends. 

^ROBABLY no city in the world 
except San Francisco has within a 
' short distance a forest that is one of 
ilie wonders of the world — a forest 
where there are trees that were 
giants hundreds of years ago, and that to-day 
challenge the admiration of every country. 
Within a few miles' ride of San Francisco 
one may enter the great redwood forest 
of Santa Cruz, which, strange to say, has 
only recently been thoroughly explored, and 
which has many sections still comparatively 
unknown. This is particularly true of what is 
called the Great Basin — a region in which rise 
several of the brooks and streams which provide 
San Francisco with its water. This basin, 
which embraces about sixty square miles, has 
been found to contain some of the most remark- 
able trees in the State of California, and it was 
the attempt of tree-loving citizens to protect the 
forest that led to the startling report of a tree- 
chopper concerning his discovery of a man com- 
pletely lost in this forest 
of giants, within a few 
miles of a city counting 
its inhabitants by hun- 
dreds of thousands. 

This remarkable forest 
is at present attracting 
widespread attention, a 
gigantic petition being 
signed in California, ad- 
dressed to the President, 
and requesting that the 
forest be set apart as a 
national park. If this 
is not accomplished, five 
years will unquestionably 
see its complete destruc- 
tion by wood - choppers, 
who are fast converting 
the trees, 60ft. in circum- 
ference and 300ft. in 
height, into railroad ties. 
The effort to save it is 
in itself a curiosity. 
A society called the 
Sempervirens Club has 
been formed, and 
thousands of persons 
all over the State are 

joining it, and a petition is being signed for the 
saving of the trees which, it is said, will rival 
all the famous petitions which have been 
submitted to Congress in the past ten years. 
The class of people who have become members 
is suggestive of success, as the leading men 
and women of the State are taking the matter 
up. It is believed that the astonishing spectacle 
will be seen of a club with a membership of 
half a million people all appealing for the 
preservation of forests. 

The forest is of redwood, or Semper viretts, 
and lies in the great basin of the Santa 
Cruz Mountains. It seems incomprehensible 
that anyone could be lost in such a place, so 
near a city, yet a few years ago an Austrian, 
who was travelling through America, wandered 
into the Great Basin, became confused, and 
almost died before he escaped. For ten 
days he roamed about among the giants, and 
undoubtedly discovered some of the largest 
trees, which are from 60ft. to 70ft. in diameter, 


/■;•(?/« a Photo, by A. P. Hill. 



"shows the march 01-- TUF. Ill, I.\K1 :; .\M) 

From a Photo, by} tkees.' 


[A. P. Hill. 

and from 250ft. to nearly 400ft. in height. The 
Austrian was a botanist, and learning from the 
men living on the mountains that giant trees 
were to be seen there, he entered from the east 

and camped the first night 
beneath them. For four or five 
days he studied the flora of this 
wonderful spot, and probably 
was one of the first to fish in 
the fall of Big Creek, one of the 
most beautiful places in the 
Great Basin. At the end of 
this time his provisions gave out 
and he attempted to leave the 
forest, but, becoming confused, 
he evidently walked in a circle 
and got hopelessly lost. No 
photographic record was kept of 
his wanderings before he was 
rescued, as he had no camera ; 
but the Sempervirens Club 
recently sent a party through the 
forest in the interests of the 
movement for the preservation 
of it, and Mr. Andrew Hill took 
the photographs which accom- 
pany this paper. The secqnd 
photograph shows the gigantic trees and the 
march of the tie-maker and the destruction of 
the noble trees. In the third illustration are 
shown the fires set by the men to burn the under- 


From a Photo, by A. P. Hill. 



THK ;.;i£r.;i EKS i'F thi 


From a Photo, by A. P. Hill 

brush, but the fires also destroy the growth of 
centuries. The lost man is said to have taken 
refuge in a gigantic tree similar to the one shown 
in the fourth picture, in which are seen the 
members of the Sempervirens Club who made* 
the recent trip through the forest. This tree 
is nearly 400ft. high and 62ft. in circumference. 
The hole in the 
interior, burnt 
out to kill it, is 
as large as many 
a house ; while 
if the tree were 
cut off level the 
top would serve 
as a ball-room or 
the foundation 
of a large house. 
^^'hat the age of 
giant is 
;. .., impossible 
to tell, but that 
it dates back far 
beyond the 
Christian Era 
few who have 
seen it will doubt. 
The density of 
the forest into 
which the Aus- 
trian wandered, 
almost to his 
death, is shown 

in the next illus- 
tration, where 
the Sempervirens 
Club is making 
its way. These 
trees are of ordi- 
nary size, but are 
growing so 
closely together, 
and are so inter- 
woven with brush 
and undergrowth 
and young trees, 
that it is exceed- 
ingly difificult to 
make headway. 
Even at midday 
a strange gloom 
settles down over 
it. The sun can- 
not penetrate the 
leafy canopy, 
perfect stillness 
reigns, and no 
one would sus- 
pect that but a 
few miles distant was one of the largest and 
most populous cities in the United States. That 
the forest to-day is an ideal camping-place is 
shown by the camp of the Sempervirens Club in 
the accompanying photograph, where the trees 
have been cleared away, and an open space, sur- 
rounded by the giants of the forest, was selected 



l<roni a Photo, by] difficult to make headway." iA. P. Hill. 



THli HEAi<-i,.L ,Ai; 1 i.Ks i-AMl' OF THE TREE-CHAM l-|()N->. j 10 ...1 

From a Photo, iy] trips were made. 

as the head-quarters of the party. From this 
point radiating trips were made, the campers 
finding their way back by marks or bk'izings 
made on the trees. The Austrian, though a 
skilled mountaineer, was as com- 
pletely lost as though he had been 
in the heart of Africa, and when 
he was fmally discovered by the 
woodman he had almost given up 
hope. The previous day he had 
eaten a trout which he had killed 
ivifk a stone ; and he was subsist- 
ing also upon frogs and a kind of 
small salamander. It was found 
that he had walked in a circle, 
crossing and recrossing the same 
points several times. He supposed, 
of course, that he was travelling in 
a straight line — a common error 
of people in similar situations. Four 
or five times he must have almost 
touched the edge of the forest, 
when five minutes would have 
taken him to the open country, 
where he could look down on 
ranches and farms innumerable. 

Some forest men, or those who 
live in the dark region, profess to 
believe that there is some subtle 
attraction about a great forest 

which prevents the lost victims 
from escaping and causes them 
to walk in a circle. 

The Austrian, when fully re- 
covered, stated that there were 
trees in the basin which would 
be the wonder of the world ; 
and having seen the great 
eucalypti of Australia, he be- 
lieved that these were even 
higher. In the next picture is 
seen one of the largest trees in 
perfect condition, which is more 
imposing and larger about the 
trunk than any of the Australian 
trees. The tree shown is 70ft. 
round, and is estimated to be 
350ft. in height. Careful and 
conservative observers state 
that without doubt some of the 
trees of this basin are 400ft. or 
more in height. There is one 
factor that points to the con- 
clusion that these trees will not 
become extinct. Whenever 
they are cut down shoots im- 
mediately sprout from the roots. 
Such a tree observed by the 
writer was used as a dancing 
pavilion, and all around the circumference grew 
trees from 40ft. to looft. high — sprouts from the 
old tree, forming a perfect wall, above which could 
be seen the stars and the blue vault of the heavens. 


\A. P. Hill. 


From a Photo, by A. P. Hill. 

Ships That Have Been Wrecked by Whales, 

Bv Professor C. F. Holder, of Pasadena, Cal. 

The very possibility seems remarkable, but in this paper the well - known Californian writer gives 

many extraordinary instances, including the destruction of the sailing ship " Essex," two thousand 

miles from land. The photographs show some of the stranded monsters. 

' > one can read the history of whaling 
and not be impressed with the fact 
that it is one of the most dangerous 
trades in the world, and yet the 
natalities fall far below those of the 
men wiio catch codfish for a living on the banks 
of Newfoundland ! The whale is the largest 
living animal, and has the power to crush not 
only small boats and their occupants, but even 
to disable the largest vessel. The huge and 
unwieldy animal, however, does not know its 
power, and fights at random — that is to say, in 
the majority of instances ; but it is evident that 
certain old whales have well-defined ideas of 
attack — a fact admirably illustrated by the 
wrecking in August last of a vessel near San 

The coast of California is remarkable for its 
whales, especially the Santa Catalina Channel of 
Los Angeles County, which is a highway for 
these huge creatures, which breed in the shallow 
waters of the Gulf of California and make their 
pilgrimage north. So many were seen in former 
years that whaling stations were established 
along the shore, and from San Diego to 
San Francisco observation poles were to be 
seen, on which watchmen were stationed to 
give the signal when a whale appeared, 
whereupon the boats would go out. But the 
Californian grey whale proved to be too much 
of a fighter. Boats were wrecked and lives lost 
all along the shore, and often when a whale was 
securely harpooned it would tow the boats so 
far out to sea, or at so rapid a rate, that the 
whalers were obliged to cut away and so 
lose their prize. So the whale fisheries of 
the Californian coast have gradually been 
abandoned, and, as a result, the whales have 
increased in proportion, so that in crossing the 
Santa Catalina Channel one or more of these 
monsters of the deep is an almost daily sight. 

During the past five years a number of curious 
incidents have been related about these whales. 
For example, a yacht becalmed was surrounded 
by them, the huge creatures, from 6oft. to Soft. 
in length, lying on the surface, and one of them 
so near the vessel that it could be touched. 
Another rubbed its back against the keel, utterly 
demoralizing the crew by its antics. Captain 

Alec Smith, of the ss. Falcoti, one of the 
steamships of the Wilmington Transportation 
Company, told the writer that he was, on one 
occasion, so persistently followed by a monster 
whale, that he was obliged to make for shallow 
water. At the time he was captain of a pilot 
boat, and was sailing off shore when a whale 
suddenly appeared alongside, so near that its 
breath became a nuisance. 

Suddenly it sank, and, placing itself beneath 
the vessel, raised her so that she heeled over 
to port. The captain went about as soon as 
possible, hoping to give the great animal the 
slip ; but the whale joined him at once, and 
continued to rub its colossal carcass against the 
keel and to lift the yacht-like ves^l. Thus 
menaced, the perplexed captain bore away for 
shore, abandoning the trip, and, of course, ex- 
pecting to get rid of the whale in shallow water. 
The animal, however, followed him for five 
miles with extraordinary persistency, and was 
not far away when the captain dropped anchor 
on the edge of the kelp. What its object was 
it would be difficult to say ; but in the case 
of the whale which followed the ship Fabnoiith 
from San Francisco to a South American port, 
3,000 or 4,000 miles, and could not be driven 
away, it was evident that the animal thought the 
vessel was a fellow-whale of some kind. When 
they finally parted company in shallow water 
the live monster's back was scarred and scored 
by bullets and large shot, fired into it by the 
irate skipper. 

These whales were peaceful, but this is no 
criterion for others, as within a month of the 
present writing an immense whale deliberately 
wrecked a large yacht. Another is reported to 
have made a similar attempt on a ferry-boat in 
San Francisco Harbour, and as this is written 
word is received that the steamer Hermosa, 
of the Wilmington Transportation Company, 
crashed into the back of a huge whale, 
having by far the best of the meeting. 
In this instance the contact was accidental. 
The whale evidently was rising to spout just as 
the steamer came along, and the vessel crashed 
into the huge body with a force that sent the 
fireman head over heels and threw several of 
the passengers headlong on to the deck, for the 



moment quite demoralizing them. The whale 
was estimated at 60ft. or 70ft. in length, and 
when struck it lashed the water into foam as 
though in great agon3\ The steamer was unin- 
jured, however, the shock being comparable to 
that of running upon a sand-bank. The cut- 

the spot, reaping a great harvest. The wound 
made by the steamer's prow was plainly visible ; 
the whale had been rammed and killed. The 
same steamer ran into a large whale two years 
ago, and undoubtedly killed it, as the body of a 
large specimen was found dead a few days later 



From a Photo, by Sivetison. 


water gave the giant a terrible blow, laying open 
its back in a long, deep cut. 

Three days later fishing-boats from San Pedro 
sighted the dead body of a whale, and the 
following day it was seen in the breakers off 
Redondo Beach — a favourite resort. The huge 
mass could be distinguished for a long distance, 
and at low tide it was 
stranded high and dry. 
Then began a remark- 
able pilgrimage. People 
came from far inland to 
oee the monster, and it 
was surrounded by an 
ever - increasing crowd. 
Men, women, and chil- 
dren climbed upon its 
back, many being seen in 
this strange place at one 
time. The original finders 
hauled the dead cetacean 
beyond high-water mark, 
and it at once became 
the centre of interest and 
a means of revenue. Rail- 
way trains carried large 
crowds of curious and 
sensation - loving sight- 
seers; and carts, waggons, 
and vehicles of all descrip- 
tions transported people to 

not far away from the scene of the collision. 
The huge carcass was towed into Goat Harbour, 
Santa Catalina Islands, where it was cut up and 
the skeleton removed. 

In the case of the pilot-boat Bonita, off San 
Francisco, the vessel itself was deliberately 
ramn*ied by the angry monster. The Bojiifa is 


one of the fleet of San Francisco pilot-boats, the 
fastest and largest of them all— and considered 
especially seaworthy ; her skipper, too, is con- 
sidered one of the most careful men in the 
service. The boat had four pilots aboard and 
a crew of five men. They were cruising off and 
on about I'wc miles south-east of the Parralone 
Islands when the shock came. There was litde 
wind, but a heavy swell, and the man at the wheel 
and the watch did not dream of disaster, when 
suddenly a terrific crash came, as though the 
vessel had been rammed from astern. Every 
man went down : the wheel whirled so violently 
that it hurled the helmsman to the deck with 
force sufficient to render him insensible. The 

all endeavours were useless, the cabin was 
nearly full in fifteen minutes. 

The captain determined to stay by his boat, 
and sent Swanson, Wallace, and Miller to the 
pilot-boat Grade S., which had come up, a 
boalkeeper only remaining with him. The 
Bonita floated two hours or more on account 
of tlie air under her decks, and then she began 
to show signs of dissolution. At three o'clock 
she took a heavy list to port and the two men 
pulled away. " For a couple of hours," said 
Captain Scott, " we hung on to the main sheet 
and then, as it looked as though she might go 
down at any moment, we cast off. At 3.10 a.m. 
she was in her death-throes. She took a list 

From a Photo. \ 



{by S'-.v 

men below were thrown from their berths, and 
the pilot, a man named Swanson, rushed 
up believing that another vessel had struck 
them ; indeed, this was the belief of all 
hands. But as he reached the deck he saw the 
body of a gigantic whale, at least Soft, in 
length, lying alongside as though stunned. 
c..,],! -ly fj^g monster began to lash the water 
.. as though injured. The Bonita im- 
mediately began to settle down by the stern. 
The boats were ordered away, and an examina- 
tion showed that the whale had charged the 
vessel like a mad bull, crushing in the rudder- 
head and tearing all the timbers away. Every 
effort w-as made to save the yacht, the men 
manning the pumps, while the whale was beating 
the water into foam not 200ft. distant. But 

to port, gave, two or three heavy rolls, then 
careened to starboard, and finally settled down 
head first. The last thing I saw of the Bonita 
was the end of her main boom, which was 
sticking straight up like a mast." 

All this time numbers of whales were playing 
about, and when the whale which struck the 
yacht finally made off. Captain Scott said that it 
left a trail of vivid phosphorescence which could 
be plainly followed for a mile or more. The 
captain, who had stood by the boat through 
the night, was picked up by the steamer 


Not ten days later this school of whales, 
which had attracted the attention of all out- 
going and incoming vessels, entered the Golden 
Gate and began disporting in the smooth waters 



of San Francisco Bay, much to the astonish- 
ment of the thousands who make the trip from 
Oakland and other points. So enormous were 
the animals that it was difificult to avoid them, 
and there was not much surprise felt when the 
steamer Sati Rafael, Captain McKenzie, with a 
large number of passengers on board, collided 
with a large whale while crossing from Sausalito 
to San Francisco. The shock was very severe, 
and many people who were standing were thrown 

It was not known whether the animal had 
rammed the boat or whether the latter had 
merely run into the monster. Be this as it 
may. Chief Engineer Jones was of the opinion 
that the whale nearly sent the vessel to the 
bottom. When the shock came the San Rafael 
seemed to rise as on a heavy sea, then to list 
heavily to port. The engineers and firemen 
rushed on deck, and for a moment there was 
great excitement. The pumps were sounded 
and the vessel found to be all right. Then 
someone shouted to look astern, and there, with 
its tail high out of water, was a gigantic whale. 
It so happened that W. A. Coulter, a well-known 
artist, was aboard, and he gives the following 
account : — 

" The whale had been in the bay for nearly a 
week, but whether it is the one that sank the 
pilot- boat Bo7iita or not, neither I nor anyone 
else can tell. The leviathan rose in front of the 
ship about 20yds. away. Not a thing could be 
done, and before the wheel could be swung 
over we struck the mammal. The shock felt 
exactly like that of running into a mud-bank. Our 
progress was not retarded to any great extent. 
We must have passed clear over the whale, as it 
came up astern, spouted, and then disappeared." 

Captain McKenzie stated that it felt as 
if the Sa7i Rafael struck the whale twice, while 
Chief Engineer Jones said the vessel will not 
require to go on the dry dock for a year to come, 
as the whale must have scraped all the barnacles 
off her bottom. 

These incidents are sufficiently startling in 
their nature to impress themselves upon those 
who actually had the experiences herein related. 
But they fall into insignificance before the 
appalling catastrophe which befell the ship 
Essex in the South Pacific some years ago. She 
was an old-fashioned whaler out for a long 
cruise, and at the time of the accident she- was 

in mid-Pacific, 2,000 miles or more from land. 
The ship was sailing under reduced sail at mid- 
day, looking for whales, when suddenly the cry 
came, and before the men could lower the boats 
a huge sperm whale came up directly under the 
bows and spouted. 

The next moment the cutwater of the heavy 
ship struck it so violent a blow that the men 
were fearful that the masts would go by the 
board. The whale darted off at great speed, 
and the men did not expect to see it again ; but 
suddenly the look-out shouted that the whale 
was coming at them. All hands leaped into the 
rigging and witnessed a strange sight. The 
whale, which was of colossal size, had determined 
to wreak its vengeance upon the ship and give 
blow for blow. It was coming along the surface 
at a terrific pace, headed for the ship, throwing 
the water into high walls on either side— a 
mighty, living engine of destruction. 

" Hard aport ! " shouted the captain, and up 
into the wind came the old ship, but it was too 
late to save her. The huge, blunt head of the 
whale struck her fairly in the bow, breaking in 
the heavy timbers. The water poured into the 
doomed vessel as though through a funnel, and 
in five minutes she was down at the head. 
There was no time to save anything. The men 
sprang to the boats, threw in a few kegs of 
water and some provisions within reach, and 
shoved off, and in ten minutes from the time 
the whale rammed the Essex her bow rose high 
in the air, showing a ghastly wound — in fact, 
the entire bow was crushed in, and in that 
upright position she went down, stern first. 
The encounter had been so sudden that the 
men were simply stupefied. Ten minutes before 
they were aboard a staunch ship ; now they 
were castaways in open boats 2,000 miles 
from land, out of the course of ships, and with 
but a few days' provisions. 

The subsequent experiences of these men 
were most harrowing. They kept together for 
days, but were at length separated in a gale of 
wind, all but one boat being lost ; at least, 
the others were never heard of. The crew of 
this boat rowed and sailed for the South 
American coast. Many died, and the story is 
one of mad men, starvation, and other horrors. 
But, finally, after giving up all hope, the few 
survivors of the whale's fury were picked up by 
a ship and carried into a South American port. 

The Coicman Flood as I Saw It 

Bv William Averitt, of Coleman, 'I'exas. 

This narrative of an eye-witness conveys a terribly vivid idea of the effects of one of those disastrous 
•• cloud-bursts " which occasionally break over a town in the Western States, wreaking havoc on a 
scale which seems quite incredible to dwellers in other lands. The author is an inhabitant of the 
stricken town of Coleman, and his photographs were taken on the spot and at the time, with an 
enterprise and an eye for effect which are typically American. 

UXDAV, July 15th, 1900, was a 
singular day in Coleman, Western 
Texas, though the inhabitants were 
not much impressed at the time. 
All day the clouds brooded, and at 
times settled down until they brushed the sur- 
rounding hills with their wings. It did not 
rain, but the leaves continually dripped with 
moisture. The atmosphere was oppressive, and 
made one feel like sleep- 
ing all the time. 

At nightfall the rain 
set in slowly and 
steadily, but between 
midnight and day-dawn 
many were awakened 
by heavy thunder in the 
west, which jarred the 
earth until the windows 
rattled in the sashes. 
Those who got out of 
bed witnessed a won- 
derful display of elec- 
tricity through the 
glistening sheets of rain, 
while the streets ran full 
of bubbly waters. 

Monday dawned with 
nothing unusual. The 
water had drained from 
the streets. The re- 
ceding storm-clouds 
^ •:-:- in the east, throw- 
- iuick over the 
heavens a skin of wast- 
ing vapour, and leaving 
a clear streak in the 
west, clean-washed and 
freshly blue as only the 

sky looks just after a storm. Herd's Creek, 
which runs from west to east across the country, 
• a distance of half a mile encircles the town 
on me north, was brimming full. The main part 
of Coleman rests upon an elevation, but there 
were many residences, a saloon, and a waggon 
yard down in the valley. As was usual when 
the creek was up, .several people went down to 
look at it. 

Just before daybreak there had been a cloud- 

From a,\ 


burst six miles above the town, and a flood was 
coming down the already full creek and spread- 
ing over the entire bottom. But the town had 
no warning. 

Two boys first discovered the flood stealing 
down through the trees in a pasture a mile 
above the town, and they hastened to give the 

A few minutes later, walking up the street, I 

beheld in amazement 
that the creek had 
broken over the valley 
extending a mile north 
and was rushing down, 
floating large wheat - 
stacks like boats in 
the Mississippi River. 
Several houses were 
already surrounded. 

I hurried down to 
the railroad embank- 
ment which curves the 
valley. There was a 
family by the name of 
Pate, consisting of a 
man, his wife, and two 
little girls, camped be- 
tween the creek and a 
Men were 
up and down 
the railroad track shout- 
ing to this family to 
climb the trees, for all 
saw that they could not 
get out, as the slough 
was already inundated. 
Theo. Dunman happen- 
ing to be on a swift 
racer dashed down be- 
fore the wall of water crying to them to climb 
the trees. I could see them running about like 
people on a burning vessel ; but for some reason 
never to be known they made no attempt to 
climb the pecans, but got into their waggon. 

The first wall, loft. high, of dirty, smoky- 
looking water came down like dust before a 
sand-storm, and the water backed up into 
Head's waggon yard. A woman came running 
out of a house on the hillside pleading with the 






men on the bank to save a one-legged man and 
his paralytic wife who were in one of the camp 
houses already surrounded by water. A dozen 
men rushed to their rescue, but a sudden swell 
in the flood raised the entire house and bore it 
madly away from them. A hundred yards 
below two young men, Harry Hubert and Perry 
Rascoe, seeing the house going to pieces and 
the old couple drowning, plunged in and tried 
to get to them, but they themselves had to be 
rescued, and came out with arms and legs cut 
by floating barbed wires. 

A boy straddling a covered waggon was 

were crying. The parents begged the men to 
take their children out. Not thinking that there 
was any danger in the world, and more in order 
to pacify the children than anything, the men 
stopped, and Spath took a little girl before 
him and boy behind him on his horse, whilst 
Enlestine took a girl behind him and started 
for town. If the men had lost no time in 
picking up the children they would have been 
out before the flood came down and over- 
whelmed them ; and even if they had left the 
children where they were they would have been 
safe, for the house did not wash away. Just 


seen far up the creek, coming floating down the 
windings of the current of the "Slough, halloaing 
at every breath. Just as he came alongside the 
town he caught an overhanging limb, and the 
next moment the waggon went to pieces. 

Crawford Jackson and Ode Spath had gone 
down from town to the road, crossing below to 
look at the creek. Whilst there they were 
joined by John Enlestine, bar-tender at the 
saloon. Heck Rogers, owner of the saloon, 
had come down and let Enlestine have his 
horse to ride to town to breakfast. As the men 
started off to town they were attracted to the 
Schoolcraft family occupying a two-story house 
on a rather high bank of the creek. The whole 
family were greatly excited and the children 

Vol. vi.-33. 

as the two men were entering the slough the 
first wall of water came down and engulfed 
them. The horses struggled for a minute and 
then became tangled in the wires of torn-up 
fences. Suddenly the horses and their burdens 
all disappeared together, and the water rolled 

Crawford Jackson took charge of Miss Ethel 
Brown, sixteen years old, step-daughter of 
Schoolcraft, and the two started to town. 
Jackson was cool, and exercised the most 
judgment of any that were caught in the water. 
When the wave struck them they were between 
the two currents. He seized the young lady 
and swam with her to the nearest mesquite, 
and after lifting her up on to the limbs he 



felt doubtful that it would hold up the weight ot 
both against the current; so he left her and 
swam some two hundred yards to an old barn, 
which he climbed on to. From this point he 
saw Sjuth, Enlestine, and the children go under. 
About this time the saloon gave way, drifted 
50ft-. and then lodged. Heck Rogers, who 
was in it, became frightened, and made his 
way out, and, as he could not swim, he was 
washed against the mcsquite occupied by Miss 
Rrown. He seized a limb and climbed up 
beside her, where they both remained till the 
water subsided. 

About the third swell of the flood the waggon 
in which the Pate family had sought refuge 
went whirling down the stream. The occupants 

of the tree he remained motionless for five 
minutes as if resting. Then he wheeled sud- 
denly and broke out of the swiftness only to 
narrowly dodge being borne down by a racing 
house. Beautifully gliding, he swam across the 
more quiet back-waters until he struck earth, 
and then mounted the hill, staggering with 

The flood was now at its height. All its 
victims had gone to the bottom, and nearly all 
the people of the town were on the railroad 
track. Women with blanched faces were hurry- 
ing hither and thither, and mingled with the din 
of the freshet were the cries of those who had 
dear ones caught by the awful waters. By -the 
aid of glasses many people could be seen in 


From a Photo. 

were thrown out, the mother and two little girls 
drowning before the eyes of men on the 
embankment, who were melted to tears at the 
awful sight, but were powerless to help them. 
The man swam a long way, but gradually 
succumbed to the current and barbed wires. 

Amid all the confusion that prevailed, spell- 
bound by a sad fascination, I could not long 
keep my eyes away from a horse that was 
swimming for his life, evincing striking intelli- 
gence in his efforts. Sucked and tossed about 
in the middle of the current, he got himself in 
the protection of a large pecan, and with his 
head where the current was broken by the body 

trees. The harvest in the valley had been 
abundant, and everywhere the on-rushing flood 
was decked with golden sheaves. The entire 
valley bottom was a floating tangled web of 
barbed wires from the destruction of fences. 
On every hand horses, cattle, and hogs were 
swimming and struggling, only to be caught by 
the wires and drowned. I saw cattle in the 
swiftest of the current unable to get out, borne 
on with only their heads and often only noses 
above water, many drifting this way for miles 
before they struck ground and got safely out. 

The water subsided rapidly, and as soon as 
it was low enoueh to wade search was instituted 



for the bodies of the drowned. The old 
couple were first found ; then Mrs. Pate and 
her two little daughters. Among the drifts, 
lodged on some bushes, was found John 
Enlestine ; and 15ft. away lay the body of the 
little girl whom he had lost his life trying to 

preceding the heavy rains had camped along 
the creek to be near the water. He had toiled 
through the heat of the harvest season— all for 
nothing but to come to this. 

Thus Coleman, with sad heart, gathered up 
the victims. Many found much of their pro- 



save. Under some tall pecans near a high cliffy 
where was piled the wreck of houses, furniture, 
waggons, fences, and grain, lay Ode Spath, a 
Christian gentleman ; and near him were found 
the two children for whom he too had sacrificed 
his life. 

The last victim found was Mr. Pate. He 
swam far before he sank, so was washed into a 
slough far below the others. He had a great 
gash across the temple, evidently cut by wire or 
drift. A few weeks before I had worked with 
this man in the harvest field. He had just 
come to this country, and during the drought 

perty that had been carried away, but it was 
damaged until almost worthless. One man 
found a bo.x containing four thousand dollars, 
which was returned to the owner. Benevolent 
people made up money and reimbursed those 
made destitute by the disaster. 

The catastrophe was so strange and sudden 
that nobody had ever seen anything like it. I 
could hardly understand where so much water 
came from, as it was only fifteen miles to the 
head of the creek. But it did come and go, 
and that with an aspect so unreal that it all 
seems even now like a troubled dream. 

Odds and Ends. 

An Ostrich as Watchman— Quick Growth in Victoria— A Weird Sight in Tuscany— Big Game Fish in 
Red Lake The Forty-Horse Harvester— Fishing with Cormorants — A Village Fete in Alsatia. 


•^ - 


HE above is a kind of machine that 
is used on the Western prairies of 
the United States 
in the harvesting 
of wheat. Forty 



horses are drawing it, as one 
may see by counting them. 
The machine harvests the 
grain, thrashes it, and puts it 
up in bags ready for market. 
All of these things it does as 
it is drawn along through the 

If there is one thing that 
the average American fisher- 
ikes to do more than 
anoltier it is to capture a 
great big muscallonge when 
he goes out for a day's sport. 
The muscallonge of American 
waters is a very lively, delicious 
fish, and to get one at the 
end of a trolling line is signifi- 
es. ' ' re is fun ahead. 

T; _ — onge shown in 

the accompanying picture is 
an extra large one. It weighed 
42j^lb. In length it was 
49in. ; girth, 23i^in. It was 
gaught by Bill Sharp, in Red 

2. — A SAI 

-FIF.D AN'.LFR Will! A 

From a Photo. 

42^1.1;. iiii/i 

I i,,\m;ii \,PIioto. 

son County, New York, October 31, 
fishermen who catch muscallonge 
capture such big fellows, but 
they may well be satisfied with 
smaller ones, for any kind 
of a muscallonge carries glory 
with it. 

To Jacksonville, Florida, 
United States of America, be- 
longs the distinction of having 
the most novel watchman in 
the world, in the person of 
Napoleon, a ferocious male 
ostrich, I oft. high and weigh- 
ing over 40olb. Napoleon did 
not receive his position 
through political influence or 
because of long service. In 
one night, by an exhibition of 
his prowess, he won his 
laurels and was justly elected 
to the post of watchman. 

When the farm was estab- 
lished the owners added as 
an especial attraction speci- 
mens of many rare birds and 
animals capable of easy 
domestication. Among the 
former was a flock of over two 
hundred golden and other 



varieties of pheasants. 
Knowing the " darky's " 
natural characteristic 
weakness for chicken, the 
owners feared for their 
latest purchases. The 
pheasants they knew would 
be tempting, because all 
birds look like chickens 
to coons, and these re- 
sembled nice fat yellow- 
legged roosters, and so 
would become doubly 
tempting. Nor were the 
fears of the owners 
groundless. The "cullud '' 
population rapidly passed 
through the stages of 
hearing, investigating, and 
finally seeing. At this 
stage of the game the 
owners of the ostrich herd 
took steps to prevent the 
loss of their property, and 
Napoleon was called into 
requisition. It is a well- 
known fact that amonu; 
ostriches, as among all 
herds of animals, there 
is one male always 
He patrols the camp 
giving at intervals his 

!■ nun a\ 



"All's well." 
entire night. 

chosen as sentry, 
every little while, 
cry or noise for 
This is done throughout the 
Moreover, if anything should 
alarm this sentry, his knowledge of it is com- 
municated to his companions in a series of yells 
as he advances to the attack. His uproar 
arouses his fellows in the herd, and they follow 
to his support. 

Acting on this knowledge, it was determined 
to leave the farm in the charge of an ostrich, and 
Napoleon was the bird chosen for the position. 
Napoleon, as already stated, stands nearly loft. 
high, and weighs over 4001b. During the daytime 
he is violent enough for ordinary purposes, but 
at night he seems to take on the character of a 
demon. He is friend with no man ; even his 
keeper, George Campbell, who has occupied the 
position for years, and who uses a large fork to 
protect himself whenever occasion necessitates 
his entering Napoleon's pen. To see his keeper 
force him slowly back into his pen every morning 
is one of the sights of the farm. 

The proof that the manner and choice of 
guard and guardsman was correctly made was 
given one night not long ago. Shortly before 
midnight the attendants were awakened by the 
most terrific series of noises that have emanated 
for years around tliis vicinity. Mingled with 

the roars of Napoleon were the agonizing shrieks 
of a human being. Rushing to the pens they 
saw the cause. There careering wildly was a 
negro, and at his heels followed Napoleon. 
The ostrich would strike and roar, the negro 
would make zig-zag turns and yell. In the 
bright moonlight the negro's face was blanched 
with the fear of death, and hds cries for help 
when he saw his enemy advancing would have 
turned the stoniest-hearted cut-throat to mercy. 
Not so the bird, who, seeing his prey about to 
escape, redoubled his efforts to strike him. 
Finally, reaching the fence, he made an attempt 
to get over, but the bird with a strenuous effort 
struck him. Had it caught the negro squarely 
it would have killed him. Fortunately for his 
life, it was a glancing blow, but it struck upon 
the thigh, ripping it open and exposing the 
bone. It was feared he would bleed to death, 
but medical attendance prevented this. Notwith- 
standing the lesson taught, Napoleon still nightly 
makes his rounds, and his roar for "All's well" 
has acquired a double meaning among the 
dusky folk of the neighbourhood. 

In the Tuscan towns there exists a confra- 
ternity called the Misericordia. Visitors to 
Florence, or Lucca, or Pisa will never forget 
the black, masked figures stealing through the 
streets, carrying in the daytime sick or wounded 
persons to the hospital, and at night, armed with 




torches, bearinE; the dead to their last home. 
The accompanying photo, shows a sick man 
being taken from his home to the hospital. The 
idea of the black dress and cloak, the mask 
which covers face and head, with two holes 
only for the eyes, and the big hat which completes 
the disguise, is simply the 
old injunction to do good 
by stealth. As head-quarters, 
the confraternity have a large 
house in the principal street 
of each town, where the carts 
for carrying the sick and the 
dresses of the members are 
kept. There is always some- 
one on duty there, and 
directly the news comes of 
an accident or of anyone 
requiring assistance, the big 
bell of the Misericordia is 
heard far and wide. About 
a dozen men or so rush 
helter-skelter into the house 
almost before the bell has 
finished ringing, and in a 
couple of minutes they have 
donned t sses, drag- 

ged a cart out ol the stables, 
and started on their errand 
of mercy. The funeral of a 
member of the Misericordia 
is a very impressive sight. 
It takes place at night, and 
you may see hundreds and 
hundreds of weird black ^^^^r " ' "'" 

beings, each carrying a 
huge torch, following the 
gigantic funeral car, draped 
with black velvet and gold 

A Victoria (B.C.) cor- 
respondent writes as fol- 
lows : " Inclosed please 
find photograph of one of 
our Western suburban 
streets, which was cleared 
only a matter of some 
three or four years before. 
It may be of interest per- 
haps as showing the tre- 
mendous rate at which 
vegetation springs up in 
this province, though the 
climate is as temperate 
as that of England her- 

Here are some bright 
and interesting snap- 
shots from China. The 
some Chinese boatmen 
to a house-boat on the North 
River, after pulling the boat up-stream for 
about two hours. They each have a rope, 
which is fastened to a main rope, which in 
its turn is fastened to the extreme top of the 

first photo, shows 






burst, so I give vent to my voice and 
am once more saved." 

Fishing by the aid of cormorants 
is much carried on in China. The 
accompanying photos, were taken on 
the North River, in the Kwang-tung 
province. The birds, which are most 
ungainly and ugly, are taken out into 
the stream on a raft made of four 
bamboos lashed together. Before 
starting a piece of string or brass is 
fixed round the neck of each bird, so 
that it cannot swallow the fish after 
diving and catching it : the bird 
therefore returns to the raft and the 
fish is seized by the fisherman, who 
puts it into the basket seen in the 
picture. At the end of the day the 

L. — LllI.Mi.Si; IJDAT llALLi-.ICb lU.lUKM.'.G To TIILllC 

From a Photo. 

mast! The passengers were always 
very glad to see them going on shore 
to tow, as otherwise they would have 
been poling the boat along, and when 
doing this they utter the most fearful 
shrieks. A boatman once furnished 
the reason for this as follows : "If I 
retain my breath my chest would 



Frojii a] TO DIVE. [Photo. 

string or other impediment is 
removed, and the birds are fed. 
The price of a good fishing cor- 
morant varies from three to six 
dollars, according to its temper. 
Some of them, by the way, are sulky 
and frequently will not work. 

Here we see a village festivity in 
the country some miles out of 
Strasburg. In this district the old 
customs are kept up to a greater 
extent than one might expect. 
There are many curious old usages 
in connection with baptisms, mar- 
riages, and funerals, and the typical 
Alsatian costume has by no means 
died out. On this particular festive 


... aj 


occasion the young people put on their 
best, and went in procession to visit the chief 
people of the village. The band went first, 
and when they reached the farm they 
played a serenade to the owners. Then, 
according to etiquette, a waltz was started, 
in which everyone joined, and after that 
the farmer and his wife ordered jugs of 
country wine, and refreshments were offered to 
the guests. Then they went back to their 
village square, and dancing began around a 
tree in front of the inn. There are always 
plent)' of " wall-flowers," and often the j)rettiest 
girls are left to 
stand out if they 
a're not rich. 
Under the tree 
stands a table, 
where the land- 
lord deals out re- 
freshment to the 
thirsty. At dusk 
the dancers ad- 
journed to the big 
-'-room of the 

, where they 
kept up the ball 
until late. 

A great branch 
of industry is the 
fisheries of Upper 

1 Lower Bur- 
A Burman, 
one might almost 
say, lives entirely 
on fi sh. Our 
photograph shows 

a fishing net of peculiar construc- 
tion hanging over the waters of 
the Irawaddy. These nets are 
used for catching small fish, which 
are pounded up with salt and 
converted into a vile - smelling 
decoction called " ngapee," which 
is greatly relished by every Burman 
and eaten at every meal. The net 
is lowered into the water to a 
certain depth, where it is allowed 
to remain. Swarms of small fish 
are soon floating about within 
its meshes, attracted by a bait 
which is freely scattered about 
or hung below the water wrap- 
ped in muslin bags. After a 
certain time has elapsed the 
net is drawn up again by a 
Burman who works a weighted 
lever from the shore. These nets 
seen working during the fishing 
season along both banks of the Irawaddy. 
When the hilsa — perhaps the most delicious 
of fish and also the most bony — comes into 
season the Burmese fish for them on these 
rafts, and also out of boats, from which they 
are caught in hundreds. A boat has been seen 
in the creeks near Bassein filled up to the 
gunwale in three or four hours, much as are 
the mackerel and herring boats off the west 
coast of Ireland. We believe that no crime 
attaches to the taking of the life of a fish as it 
does to that of animals in the Buddhist code. 




ICKAULli l; i i.^lil.Mj ;il 1 AK.VI L.-. iS illt. 1 KAW .KDU V. 





(SF.E I'ACE 320.) 

The Wide World Magazine. 

Vol. VI. 

FEBRUARY, 1901. 

No. 34. 

On the Heels of an Army. 


Bv \V. Wood, Deputy-Assistant Commissary (Late Indian Unattached List). 

This official, whose portrait we reproduce, wanted to accompany the Munipore punitive expedition, and 
set off more or less on his own account, taking with him as guide a Khuki hillman and his wife, 
Mah Shive, who played a very important part indeed in subsequent events. Mah Shive and the 
author got separated from the caravan and fell among the hostile Khukis, who were holding a strange 
orgie. Mr. Wood and his faithful companion escaped only by ingenious daring. 

OWARDS the end of March, 1891, 
I was in Madras. A very hot 
summer was approaching ; already 
the heat was intense, and getting 
worse every day. I was in Govern- 
ment em[)loy, and there seemed no means 
j)0ssible of getting away 
from the awful grill. Ones 
thoughts naturally turned 
to the cool hill resorts with- 
in a night's journey by rail 
from Madras ; but for me 
there seemed no chance of 
getting away, and I was 
making up my mind to grin 
and bear it, as I had had 
to do for already over 
twenty hot seasons in India 
and Burma, when one 
morning Madras was 
startled by the news of the 
terrible massacre at Muni- 
pore, the details of which 
the world now knows well. 
Mrs. Crim wood's marvel- 
lous escape, (Grant's heroic 
exploit, the trial of the 
]\Iunipore Rajah, etc., are 
all matters of history ; but 
of the avenging force, their 
operations and experiences, 
little has been written — 1 
suppose because the whole 
affair began and ended .so rapidly that it was 
all over before the general public knew what 
was going on. 

My first thought on reading the startling news 
Avas that it opened up a chance of my getting 
away from Madras to the cooler atmosphere of 
the Munipore hills, and so I lost no time in 
sending off a letter to head-quarters volunteering 
my services in connection with any punitive 
force which might be dispatched to the scene of 

the tragedy. My services were accepted, and I 
Vol. vi.— 34. 

llll! AUTHOR, MR. W. WOOD, 
/■'rout a] COMMISSARY 

was ordered to proceed forthwith to Myingyan, 
in Upper Burma, to join an expedition then 
forming at that place under General Graham. 

Embarking on the first direct steamer for 
Rangoon, I reached there in four days, pushed 
on at once by rail to Mandalay, and thence by 

river steamer down the 
Irawaddy to Myingyan. 
Altogether a week had not 
elapsed from the time ot 
my leaving Madras until 
the date of my arrival in 
Myingyan, so that you can 
imagine my annoyance at 
fmding on my arrival that 
General Graham's force had 
marched, or rather steamed, 
away the previous day, and 
that every available steamer 
in Burma capable of navi- 
gating the shallow water of 
the River Chindwin had 
been pressed into his 
service. No other boat 
could be made available for 
at least seven days, and I 
was therefore condemned 
to eat my heart out in sus- 
pense. Howe\er, to make 
the best of my time, I 
looked up all the natives 
who had ever been in or 
near the territory I was so 
anxious to reach. I had a good colloquial know- 
ledge of Hindustani, Tamil, and Burmese, also 
a smattering of several other dialects, and I was 
fortunate enough to know a little of the Panthay 
language, a sort of bastard Chinese. I found a 
few of this race who had travelled several times 
over the Munipore border, and between their 
opium-drugged stupors they regaled me with 
accounts of the different tribes I should probably 
meet there, but in particular of the Khuki tribe, 
the most .savage and cruel race of all the frontier. 

IN INDIA. [Photo. 



At last a steamer was found to go up tlie 
river with reserve supplies. \N'e started, and 
slow work it was. Since the departure of 
Cieneral Ciraham the river had fallen consider- 
ably, and the channel was becoming more and 
more shallow every day, consequently the 
steamer, a large, heavy, flat-bottomed affair, 
was continually grounding, causing whole days 
of delay. In about twice the time we should 
have covered the distance we reached Kendat, 
a jx)int beyond which the water was too shallow 
to allow of the steamer's further passage. The 
cargo was then transferred to open boats. 
These were merely canoes or dug-outs, one of 
which I secured and continued my journey up 
the Chindwin till we reached the Vua River, 
a mountain torrent flowing down from the 
Munipore hills ; up this stream we literally 
had to push our way to Tammu, the base of 

operations at the foot of the hills. 

In this dug-out I spent five days and night.s, 

the three boatmen having to 

work like slaves to pole the 

lK)at against the rapid stream, 

and drag it by ropes over a 

number of rapids. 

The scenery was of 

indescribable gran- 
deur, but the nights 

were made hideous 

with the human-like 

shrieking of mon- 

kevs, the howlinsr of 

jackals and hyenas, 

and the appalling 

buzz of never- 

ceasing swarms of 


The country we 

were going through 

i« noton'ous for its 
■_ver, small- 

fx;x, and other deadly 

diseases. Several 

times we passed 

ruins over which 

vegetation was 

rapidly growing. 

They had been 

populous vil- 
lages once, but 

had either been 

decimated by 

sickness or pil- 
laged and des- 
troyed by the 

hill tribes higher 

up. H u m a n 

bones became a 



fomiliar sight, showing that bodies had re- 
ceived but very indifferent burial or had never 
been buried at all, in either case forming ready 
provender for the wild beasts with which the 
surrounding jungle abounded. I continually 
took quinine, but for all that I spent one day 
in the boat almost delirious with fever, after 
\Vhich I doubled my doses and did not get a 
return of it. 

On the sixth morning the boatmen, point- 
ing to a muddy spot on the bank, exclaimed, 
"Tammu :" "Surely," I thought, "this cannot 
be Tammu ; they must be mistaken." But as 
they proceeded to moor the boat and settle 
down to their cooking I had to believe them, 
and proceeded forthwith to investigate the place. 
Climbing up the bank, I found a couple of 
newly-made huts and a few Burmese watchmen, 
from whom I ascertained that this was the 
nearest point of the river to Tammu, which was 
some six or eight miles away close up to the 

base of the 

They found 
me a Burmese 
cart drawn by a 
pair of enor- 
mous water- 
buffaloes, by 
whose aid I 
soon found my- 
self at Tammu. 
There the Chief 
of the Commissariat in- 
formed me that all his 
transport had gone 
forward with General 
Graham, and nothing was 
to be had there to help me 
forward. I learned that 
our troops had already 
reached Munipore and had 
inflicted condign punish- 
ment on those in arms 
against us. Also that 
Munipore had been taken 
and that the Rajah was a 
prisoner. Nevertheless, I decided 
to push on if possible. The civil 
officer was good enough to help 
me in obtaining coolies to carry 
my kit, and being furnished with a 
.Sepoy escort I proceeded again on yet 
another phase of my journey, and was 
soon over the border making the best 
of my way up the narrow, precipitous 
track into the heart of the mountains 
forming the barrier between Burma 
and Assam. 



I had not been able to obtain any sort of 
riding animal for love or money, and conse- 
quently had to foot it to the best of my ability, 
so that everlasting grind uphill took it out of me 
more than I had bargained for ; yet the desire 
to be at the front spurred me on to get over as 
much ground as possible daily, and as we got 
higher and higher the increasing coolness of 
the atmosphere was a great relief — though the 
absence of water between the stages made it 
very trying. My water-bottle was always ex- 
hausted long before we reached a fresh supply. 

Among the coolies furnished me was a well- 
formed, athletic-looking young fellow, whom I 
found to be a Khuki hillman, and accompany- 
ing him was an exceedingly well-favoured young 
woman of mixed Indian and Burmese blood. 
I entered into conversation with these, ascer- 
taining that the man went by the name of 
Koham and the woman Mah Shive. I also 
elicited from them some of their history. 
Koham, in one of the raids made by his tribe 
on the villages of the lowlands, had secured this 
girl and carried her off with him to his native 
hills. She became passionately fond of him 
and he of her ; but as a chief of his tribe 
wanted to take the girl for himself, Koham 
determined to desert his own people and live a 
peaceful life on the plains — which, however, to 
a stranger, are exceedingly unhealthy. The 
never-absent fevers are bad enough, but a very 
malignant type of cholera, always prevalent, is 
still worse. Any native stricken down with both 
diseases together is said to have the devil, and 
invariably dies, which, considering the absence 
of any kind of medical treatment, is not to be 
wondered at. Koham had not been long on 
the plains before the fever got hold of him. 
The money offered him for his porterage to 
Munipore, and the prospect of the change of 
climate, had induced him to venture once more 
into his native hills, for he considered that, 
under British escort, both he and his wife would 
be free from molestation by his own people. 

On the third day I noticed Mah Shive carrying 
her husband's load ; she said Koham was not 
well, and was rather down in the mouth about 
it. We halted shortly after, when, having dined, 
I set about looking up a small stock of drugs I 
had brought with me, among which was a certain 
patent medicine said to be a sure specific for 
cholera. While thus occupied Mah Shive came 
to me in great grief, tearing her hair and 
exclaiming that Koham had the devil. I tried 
to calm her by offering to do the best I could 
to cure him. Knowing the superstition of the 
Asiatic mind, and the effect of mind over the 
body in sickness, I determined to accompany 
my treatment with a little mystery and form, 

and promised Mah Shive that if she did exactly 
as I directed her, her husband might possibly 

Taking my drugs with me, I hastened off to 
where Koham was lying, and sure enough found 
him in a burning fever, and undoubtedly in the 
firm grip of cholera. With a little pretended 
incantation I administered a dose of the ciire, 
and instructed Mah Shive to fill three vessels 
with water, place them within reach of the 
patient, and light a fire near his feet, which on 
no account was to be allowed to go out, or the 
charm would be broken. I diluted some acid, 
and with sundry turns and passes poured some 
into each of the water-vessels. I had had 
cholera myself some years before, and had a 
vivid recollection of the burning thirst which 
consumed one as Nature drew on the system for 
moisture to expel the cholera poison, and I 
attributed my recovery to having been allowed 
to drink acidulated water ad lihiliiiii. 

Putting three additional doses of the cure 
into separate phials, I told Mah Shive to 
administer one after the emptying of each water- 
vessel, and leaving her some stimulating oil 
(after showing her how to rub his limbs with it 
during the cramp), I retired to rest, intending to 
visit them again during the night. When I did 
awake, however, it was broad daylight. Outside 
the rough hut in which I had rested was the 
escort ready to march and my servant with my 
breakfast ; but to my great astonishment, just 
outside the door sat Mah Shive and Koham. 
I sprang up and went outside, when Mah Shive 
threw herself at my feet with the wildest expres- 
sions of gratitude. Koham's recovery had been 
simply marvellous. He was, of course, too 
weak to walk, but with his wife's assistance had 
crawled round to thank me and inform me of 
the arrangements they proposed for the convey- 
ance of my kit onwards. 

Koham knew some friendly villagers near by, 
two of whom Mah Shive had brought ; they 
said they would give him shelter until he re- 
covered his strength, while Mah Shive was to 
proceed with me in his stead. She would be 
back again in a week if all went well, and they 
could then return to Tammu together under the 
protection of some of the returning convoys of 
sick and wounded. I could understand how 
hard it must have been for the poor creatures 
to suggest the plan, which, under the circum- 
stances, I had no alternative but to accept. 

So Koham was carried away, and we were 
soon plodding on again up the everlasting hills, 
much later than we should have been. The 
road was very steep ; we had been some hours 
on the way ; it was already late in the afternoon, 
and we had not covered more than half the 




distance to the ne.\t halting-place. Mah Shive 
kept to me, carrying one of my trunks. I 
could See the burden was too much for her, 
and I accommodated my progress to hers, 
resting frequently and giving her assistance in 
lowering and raising her load. She had from 
the morning been almost hysterical in her 
thanks to me for her husband's cure. The 
Sepoys of the escort were becoming impatient 
to get on faster, and although at least two of 
them should have remained behind us, and had 
orders to do so, somehow or other (probably 
by Liking shorter cuts than the zigzag i)athway) 
they had pas.sed us without being aware of it. 
Presently we realized that we were alone, and 
much behind the escort and the remainder of 
the party. 

AVe struggled on our best to try and overtake 
them, but in the growing dusk got on to the 
wrong track. My thirst was intense, and I told 

Mah Shive that I could not pos- 
sibly get any farther without water. 
She plucked some leaves and gave 
me them to chew for the sake of 
the moisture they contained ; then 
we struggled on still farther, till 
presently my companion suddenly 
halted. She had recognised where 
we were. We had unconsciously 
reached the approach to a large 
Khuki village, where, as Mah 
Shive explained, she had passed 
several months with her husband. 
She opined that, owing to the 
close proximity of British troops, 
the village would now be deserted, 
and proposed that if this were 
really so we should take refuge 
there for the night. 

It was now quite dark, and 
there were indications of a heavy 
thunderstorm approaching. 
Therefore I readily fell in with 
her proposal, and we left the track, 
branching off into a small side- 
track not much bigger than a 
rabbit-run, descending the side of 
■ a very steep hill, until presently 
Mah Shive desired me to wait 
while she reconnoitred. She soon 
returned with the information 
that there was not a soul in ' the 
village, so we hastily entered and 
set about getting some food and 
drink. While thus employed my 
companion was telling me of a 
mysterious place near by, used 
by the Khuki tribes for their 
demon worship, the approaches 
to which were always concealed by movable 
rocks — so cunningly, indeed, that none 
but the elders of the tribe knew how to 
open them. Their dead were usually left in 
this place, and her husband had told her that 
at certain times of great excitement orgies in- 
describable were carried out in this subterranean 
cave or passage running right through a portion 
of the hills. 

Before we had finished our repast the 
threatened storm burst, and we took shelter in 
the huts nearest to hand. The village consisted 
of some two or three hundred huts, clinging 
like fungi to the side of the hill. The huts, 
composed entirely of bamboo and grass, were 
all of one style — one end of the joists of the 
floor resting on the hillside and the other 
fastened to long, upright posts planted in the 
hill lower down. On this platform the small 
huts were erected. I liad taken possession of 




one of these and Mah Shive of another close 
by. The thunder-storm was raging with all the 
violence which only those can understand who 
have had experience of the tropics. The 
electric discharges seemed to burst forth right 
out of the ground, and the rain was falling in a 
perfect deluge. 

After watching the storm for some time I lay 
down, fully dressed, with my helmet as a pillow. 
1 tried to overcome the stench from the rotting 
litter with which the floor was covered ; but it 
was more than I could bear. So I set to work 
to clear a space to lie down on, raking and push- 
ing it away with my hands and feet. Ugh 1 
How horribly the stuff did smell. I lay down 
again, this time on the rough, open bamboo- 
work, through which I could see all around 
outside at each flash of lightning. The wind 
whistled through the openings, making me shiver 
with cold ; but before long a much worse feeling 
than cold crept over me — an intolerable irrita- 
tion as if I were being stung in every pore of my 

'I'he sensation was horrible, and, almost 
frenzied, I rushed outside and stood in the 
pouring rain to get some of the vermin washed 
away. While thus engaged I heard peculiar 
sounds rising from the depths below — a weird 
sort of chanting ; and whilst listening to this I 
became aware of a muffled sound close by, as of 
a number of animals creeping through the sur- 
rounding bush. Springing back into the shelter 
of the hut I lay down and watched between the 
interstices of the floor, and soon made out 
figures moving rapidly along down the hillside. 
From what little I could see during the 
flashes of lightiiing there appeared great 
numbers of them, filing along one after the 
other, shapeless and silent. 

I lay there wet through and chilled to the 
bone, yet my skin was on fire from the renewed 
attacks of the vermin again devouring me. The 
inaction was intolerable. At length the proces- 
sion disap[)eared and the rain ceased. Scarcely 
knowing what I was about, the mad impulse 
seized me to follow them, and I rushed out of 
the hut, across the small open space below, and 
then down a passage in the rocks where the 
])rocession had disappeared. Nothing was to 
be seen. They had moved rapidly, and I 
followed c]uickly in the direction of the chanting 
sound still rising from below. I continued my 
descent until I saw a glare of light at a point 
whence the sounds seemed to proceed. Then, 
creeping forward, I made out the mouth of a 
large cavern with a stream of monstrous-looking 
beings bearing torches and spears just issuing 
from it. 

I hastily drew aside into the bushes and 

watched as well as I could. A procession of 
two or three hundred evil - smelliii;^ beings 
shortly passed. They were clad from head to 
foot in skins, from which only their arms ap- 
peared. They soon passed, proceeding up the 
hillside in the direction of the village. I then 
crept as near to the mouth of the cavern as pos- 
sible. Working my way on to a projecting rock 
sheltered by hushes, I lay within a few feet of 
the entrance and could see inside for a long 
distance. The place seemed to be the bed of 
a torrent which at one time must have had a 
passage right into and through a section of the 
mountain range. I could then hear the sound 
of running water, but it must have found 
another channel for its course now, as the bed of 
the cavern was dry, except here and there where 
some slimy wet patch appeared. It was now 
filled with a crowd of the same horrible-looking 
creatures I had seen, carrying on some sort of 
frenzied dance and working themselves into 
such a state that many were falling to the 
ground and lay as if dead. 

With my whole attention absorbed by the 
spectacle before me I was greatly alarmed at 
feeling a grip on my arm. It was Mah Shive. 
In whispers she told me that she also had been 
watching the procession through the village, 
and was intending to come and warn me to 
hide in the jungle as soon as they were suffi- 
ciently clear of us, but was alarmed to see me 
leave my hut and rush after them, to what she 
considered certain destruction. 

Determined to save me if possible, she rushed 
out after me, but, miss-ng her footing, fell quite 
2oft., and lay stunned lor a while. Fortunately, 
the leaves and bushes had broken the force of 
her fall, saving her from more serious injury. 
Regaining consciousness, she had gathered 
herself together and started again in pursuit of 
me, but soon had to hide to avoid the torch-lit 
procession proceeding back up the hill. Knowing 
the place and the people, she concluded that 
the party had been sent to search for us in the 
village, information of our sheltering there- 
having reached them somehow. The entrance 
to the gorge below would be closed and con- 
cealed, and, consequently, if we were to escape 
at all it could only be by following the Khukis 
disguised as one of themselves, as we were now- 
trapped in the heart of the rendezvous of the 
Khuki tribes. 

She remembered having heard from her 
husband that the cavern had another outlet on. 
the opposite side of the hill. She had there- 
fore conceived the plan of disguising ourselves 
under their skin robes, and attaching ourselves 
to the "crowd, passing out with it at which ever 
outlet they followed. Several of these skins. 


had been flung aside by the party going up to 
the village, as they were an impediment to them 
in climbing the precipitous track. She had 
secured two of these, and now proposed tlial 
we should each put one on, enter the cavern, 
and join in the revels of the horrid herd still 
within sight. 

I was myself in a condition of mind as excited 
and maddened as the Khukis themselves, and 
prepared for anything rather than the continued 
creeping and hiding. Lying by my side, Mah 
Shive with her teeth tore off the sleeves of my 
coat and shirt, and bedaubed my arms, as well 
as her own, with mud. Then working ourselves 
each beneath a skin we slid down and silently 
entered the cave, which, by this time, was 
becoming empty in our immediate proximity, 
except for those still lying on the flooi. 

From the yells and shouts of the fanatics, as 
Mah Shive afterwards informed me, the present 
gathering was an unusual one, for the purpose 
of swearing themselves in, as it were, to imme- 
diate vengeance against the white man and all 
who assisted him. It seems that there had 
been many of their tribe in the ranks of the 
Munipores who fell during the onslaught of 
our troops. 

The skin coverings we had thrown over our- 
selves completely enveloped us from head to 
foot, and only the arms were exposed through 
slits at the sides. Holes near the top served 
for seeing and breathing through. Seizing 
torches from those on the floor, we advanced 
in as good an imitation of the Khukis as we 
could. The floor was strewn with human bones, 
while grinning skulls w^.e piled up along the 
sides and skeletons dangled from above. The 
passage through seemed eternal — I have no idea 
how long it was. That night altogether seemed 
to me endless. 

Keeping on the outskirts of the crowd, we 
passed on with it with sensations like those of 
nightmare. The close, fetid atmosphere, the 
difficulty of breathing under the evil-smelling 
coverings, the smoke from the torches, and the 
dust created by the swirling crowd made it an 
appalling experience, but it was to become 
worse yet. 

The passage was now narrowing at every step, 

soon became hemmed in as those who 

..... ..ropped down exhausted recovered and 

pressed on from the rear. The stench from 
this mass of filthy savages was overpowering. I 
had no idea which was my guide, and I simply 
had to let myself go with \he crush. At last 
we approached the end of the passage, indicated 
by feeling a current of fresh air' blowing in 
sharply. Presently we had to crawl, as the 
overhanging rocks got lower and lower, until at 

last we wriggled out into the open air. I found 
that my companion had remained close by me 
all along, and as we got a little separated from 
the crowd she led me into a densely-wooded 
part of the jungle, where we threw ourselves 
down and crawled away right into the thick 
undergrowth, penetrating as far as we possibly 
could. She urged me on farther and still 
farther. I frequently heard the hiss and rustle 
of a disturbed snake, but at the risk of being 
bitten or stung by venomous reptiles she still 
urged me to crawl on. The use of the skins 
now became apparent, for without them we 
could never have penetrated through the thorny 
creepers. The hard hide formed a shield from 
the thorns for the head and shoulders, though 
the arms naturally suffered very much. 

We continued like this until we slipped into a 
small pit left by the torn-up roots of a large tree 
blown down at some time by the wind. Here 
Mah Shive said we had better remain until day- 
break. ^^'e were just below the surface of the 
hillside and covered over by a dense growth of 
bush and creepers, and as well hidden as could 

Scarcely had we reached this spot, however, 
before we heard the approach of more Khukis, 
very excited and searching for us, as Mah Shive 
at once understood from their shouting to one 
another. It was the party which had been sent 
to the village. Having found my packages 
there, they had traced my boot-prints here and 
there in the mud right back and into the cavern. 
This information was rapidly conveyed to all, 
and an excited and eager search ensued. Mah 
Shive briefly whispered to me this information, 
and warned me on no account to make any 
noise, as our lives now entirely depended on 
maintaining a death-like silence. 

The search became closer and closer. We 
could hear the Khukis crawling like snakes 
under the brushwood, thrusting their spears 
into every corner. Several times their spears 
penetrated within a few inches above our bodies, 
but owing to the depression in which we lay 
and the darkness they failed to reach us. Still 
the search continued all the remainder of that 
awful night. We lay there breathless, for we 
well knevf the cruel torture and death that 
awaited us if they succeeded in capturing us. 
By degrees the search in our vicinity ceased and 
the sounds of the searchers got farther away, 
yet we dare not move, for it was more than 
probable that some had remained to endeavour 
to detect us by their silence. Still we lay, and 
after a while the sounds died away altogether. 

Suddenly there broke on our ears the most 
glorious music I have ever heard — the sound of 
an English bugle, some distance away over the 



hills, sounding the advance. That sound, we 
knew, was enough to cause the Khukis, wherever 
they were, to place themselves as far from it as 
possible ; for, after all, the bloodthirsty Khuki is 
a great coward, only delighting in cruelties 
when there isn't much danger to his own skin. 

Our surmises that some were still remaining 
on the watch proved correct, for at the first 
sound of the bugle we could hear a rush here 

evening to find me, but the storm had rendered 
their efforts fruitless. He was in great distress, 
the whole escort making sure of a court-martial 
and severe punishment for their neglect. In 
their fear they had not even reported the matter, 
and begged of me not to do so in order to save 

and there as of .someone 
who had suddenly re- 
membered an appointment 

The day was just break- 
ing, and we now con- 
sidered it safe to move. \\'orking our way out 
of the undergrowth we soon found a spot near 
some running water, where we washed off some 
of the mire with which sve were begrimed and 
pushed on towards the direction of the bugle 
sounds, which could now be heard in the dis- 
tance playing a quick march. Hastening for- 
ward we soon struck a track along which the 
troops would pass, and presently sighted a 
battery of artillery, with mules carrying moun- 
tain guns. A gunner's great-coat formed a ready 
cloak to my disreputable appearance. I pro- 
ceeded with them to the ne.xt halting-place, 
where later on during the day my servant 
turned up with the remainder of my kit, and I 
was enabled to have a thorough purification. 

The havildar of my escort also arrived, and 
explained that they had returned the previous 


them from punishment. This I readily pro- 
mised, and thus it was that no notice of the 
Khukis' rendezvous was taken, and I have never 
heard, from that day to this, of the cave having 
been discovered. 

Cholera had broken out among the troops, 
and every effort was made to clear them all 
away from the pestilential region as quickly 
as possible. I soon had work enough to do 
with the returning force, all parties of which 
suffered severely on their return river passage to 

Mah Shive rejoined her husband, and they 
came back together to Tammu, where, before I 
left, I had quite an ovation from the natives 
around, who looked on me as a worker of 
miracles owing to my chance success in the 
cure of Koham. 

Vol. vi.— 35. 

Mr. Pratt and Nis Travels in China. 


\\\ r. 1). Kl.NNV 

and humour in some of 

the wildest and least 
Wide World" readers. 

This amusing narrative of adventure, hardships 

accessible regions of the Chinese Empire may be cordially recommended to 
It offers a st'rikingly vivid yet droll idea of the episodes of travel in those parts, and the remarkable 
rhoto£rraphs taken by Mr. A. E. Pratt himself, will also be found of interest. The author has been 
honoured by the Royal Geographical Society. The completion of his paper appears next month. 

jiR. I'RAl r inlroduccd himself to us 
at Kia-ting-fu, in native dress, trying 
to look as much like a Chinee as was 
possible to his peculiarly Saxon per- 
sonality. As to the pigtail, he smiled 
and confessed : " Ves, I wore the pigtail, too — 
attached to a skull-cap, to be i)ut on and off 
at convenience."' His smile developed into a 
laugh when he thought of the astonishment he 
afforded the natives, with 
his blue eyes and fair 
complexion over the 
Celestial scheme of dra- 
pery. He always speaks 
of blue eyes as a dis- 
advantage to the explorer 
in China and Tibet. 
There are Englishmen 
who will say that they 
would not wear the pig- 
tail for anything, but, as 
a rule, they are gentle- 
men who have never left 
home except for a Conti- 
nental trip on cushions. 

Not to mention his 
journeys in Northern 
Asia and in North and 
South America, Mr. A. 
E. Pratt has travelled 
more than 10,000 miles 
in China and Tibet, 
largely in places hitherto 
nnvisited by Europeans. 
The results of his work, 

geographical and scientific, are well known all 
over Europe and America. On his most 
dangerous and remote journeys he has never 
been accompanied by more than one European, 
and on some of the worst of them by natives 
only. He has done it all unarmed, and not 
one corpse has been left on the track to assist in 
magnifying his success. If the pigtail lias 
assisted results like these, then, for once, let us 
applaud the pigtail. Mr. Pratt's work has at 
present an additional interest in the fact that, 
on his four journeys across China, he went in 
and came out every time by the Yang-tse, 
through the British " .sphere of influence." 

There are character and local colour in the 
photograph of the " Pig Going to Market." 
Observe the proud owner, on the other side of 
the barrow, balancing his treasure, with the 
coolie wheeling the couple. The one-wheel 
barrow is about the most democratic form of 
family carriage in China — especially when the 
pig finds a seat in it. It is a peaceful and 
homely scene, curiously like some within the 

J'loiiia] Tins IS Hcnv the chinaman and his pig go to market iogether. \Fhoio. 

United Kingdom. This fundamental unity of 
human nature and human destiny always appeals 
to Pratt, and his sympathetic vision of it has 
largely helped him to get round and round the 
earth through all sorts of tight places without 
the loss of a man for the defence of his life or 
the advancement of his purpose. 

Scenes like the above, however, are common 
enough on the Lower Yang-tse, and Europeans 
are common enough to know them well : 
therefore, let us proceed to I-Chang, where 
unfamiliar China really begins on this route. 
I'or a long time it has been the farthest 
treaty port on the Yang-tse, about 1,150 miles 


from Shanghai. It is about here that the 
young ladies who go out as missionaries 
meet their first serious shocks from native 
manners. On the Lower Yang-tse they are in 
handsome steamers, surrounded by European 
things ; but at I-Chang they pass into Httle 
boats, worked by natives, and as these natives 
go higher up the river they gradually throw off 
more and more of their clothes until a state of 
things is reached somewhat like Paradise, but 
with all its disadvantages and none of its 
beauties. Stepping out of his boat at I-Chang, 
Pratt walked over a dead man, lying unnoticed 
under the feet of the public. A piece of next 
morning's news was to the effect that during the 
night, in one street alone, nine girls had com- 
mitted suicide to escape from their future 
mothers-in-law. When the future wives are 
.selected the men's mothers often take them 
home to be made perfect, and these are nine of 
the results. 

From I-Chang Pratt made extensive journeys 
in various directions. Probably the most 
interesting were to the forests of Chang-Young, 
where he went to catch moths. The work had 
to be done at night, and the place was literally 
alive with tigers. On his way through the trees 
at midnight he often heard dried twigs crackling 
near him under the feet of bounding tigers, and, 
as he could not be sure which way the)' 
bounded, the doubt must have been rather 
exciting. More than once he stumbled over 
tlae actual lair and touched it with his hands, to 
lind it still warm. Reaching a suitable glade in 
the forest, he made a light and " sugared the 
trees " to attract the moths, while the tigers 
nmst have been glaring at him from among the 
foliage. However, let us not make the narra- 
tive more exciting than is necessary ; he declares 
that 'the tigers in that district positively to 
attack men. 

On another of his journeys from I-Chang one 
of his men, in search of butterflies, trampled on 
a few square feet of a cornfield, for which he 
had to pay compensation far beyond the real 
value. After that, every peasant in the [)lace 
found that he had a few s(}uare feet trampled. 
Pratt went on paying, but the more he paid the 
more he found he had still to pay, and he saw 
every prospect of having to buy up all the corn 
in the place while still leaving it all in the posses- 
sion of the sellers. When he refused to pay 
more the natives looked on it as depriving them 
of a legitimate source of income, and then the 
local priest put out a proclamation ordering that 
he be tortured for four days, without food, and 
then murdered. He barely escaped with his 
life, and read the proclamation on the trees as 
he passed. We must not leave this neighbour- 

hood without a word about the remarkable cow 
of I-Chang that yielded water instead of milk. 

'Phe Englishwoman setting up house in 
I-Chang has a few things to learn, including the 
ways of the milkman. In various places the 
milkman has .his various methods of transport ; 
but in I-Chang the cow herself is the carrier, 
providing her own vessel, and reducing her 
owner's trouble to a minimum. The saving of 
labour, however, is not the reason for making the 
cow carry her own milk to the buyer's door. 
At home the Chinese dairyman's environment is 
not too clean ; his cans are not " washed in 
boiling water each time they are used," as the 
sanitary committees of our own excellent cor- 
porations have it. His cows are not officially 
inspected for tuberculosis, and their houses are 
not built to provide so many cubic feet of space 
per animal. Though these reasons may seem 
strong enough, there is another stronger than 
all of them together : there is no law limiting 
the percentage of water, and the native milkman 
is— well, very much like our own, but much 
more clever. 'Phis is wliy every European in 
I-Chang insists on having the cow milked in 
front of his door. Even then the certainties 
are not always secured, as we shall see. 

At first Mrs. Pratt was surprised to find the 
milk so thin, but the Chinee convinced her that 
it was entirely the cow's fault, and that probably 
the Chinese cow was not so well up to her 
business as her British sister, assisted by Western 
ideas. 'Phis afforded a working hypothesis for a 
time, not to mention the compliment : but the 
more completely it was accepted the more that 
cow of I-Chang fell below the ideal cow, adding 
more and more water to her milk every day. 
'Phis went on until it was about " one milk and 
sixteen water " ; then Mrs. Pratt insisted on 
c}uestioning the compliment and overhauling 
the hypothesis ; but the Chinee reinforced his 
theory by explaining that Chinese cows had a 
way of varying the consistency of their milk. 
Why not ? He defied any cow on earth to 
maintain uniformity. 'Pheoretically, his position 
was quite sound, and he challenged the com- 
pletest investigation. Mrs. Pratt went repeatedly 
to watch the cow milked ; but the milk was as 
watery as before. '\\'hen the lady grew tired of 
investigating it was nearly all water. 

W'hile this went on at the Pratt household 
other households supplied by the same cow 
were puzzled by the same problem and the 
same theories in explanation of it- The amaz- 
ing peculiarities of that cow became recognised 
by all — or else the still more amazing peculiari- 
ties of the milker. 'Phe families investigated 
individually, still there was the water ; they in- 
vestigated collectively, and the water went on 


increasing. They totalled up the (quantities 
of " milk ■■ derived by them from their cow, 
and found that no three respectable cows 
could yield such a sum of real milk, 
not to mention the quantities yielded by 
her to natives and other persons outside the 
investigating circle. The possible dishonesty 
of the thing now ceased to have any interest in 
face of the deeper interests of the problem (as 
a problem) : and many felt quite desirous that 
the water should keep up its high level, lest the 
problem should disappear, unsolved, and leave 
Europe to face another Chinese puzzle. 

All this went on in Pratt"s absence, and when 
lie returned from Tibet he found himself con- 
hxmted by a puzzle which was generally con- 
>idcrtd far more ditificult than any he had had 
to solve among 
the Lamas. He 
sat down to it 
qui tly in front 
of his door, 
smoking his 
pipe. The first 
milking left 
everything as be- 
fore : the second 
and third were 
still more closely 
watched, and 
still the milk was 
nearly all water. 
Then he noticed 
that one of the 
milker's arms 
worked at times 
a little differently 
from the other. 
A clue : 

" Let me look 
into your right 
sleeve."' The 
China m a n 
looked up as 
innocently as 
possible. " Let me look into your right sleeve." 
The Chinaman objected. Pratt persisted, and 
found a long, thick bamboo tube hidden up in 
the wide sleeve. It was half full of water, and 
had an ingenious stopper, with a pliant conduit 
leading from it to the milking vessel. The 
Chinaman had been milking that tube instead 
of the cow all the tmie. 

The rest of our illustrations are all from 
Western China and the borders of Tibet. The 
'• Bow Sweep " represents a characteristic scene 
in the great gorges between I-Chang and 
Chung-King, where the Yang-tse rises and falls 
as much as 6oft. in a night, choking and whirling 

past cliffs 2,oooft. high, with little wicks burning 
along the water to light the souls of the drowned. 
The denuded-looking trees have been stripped 
for fuel, as is common along the Yang-tse. It is 
Pratt's boat you see on the way up. See how 
the water sweeps down against her stem. The 
solitary man is on the look-out for rocks. At 
the other end of the rope are seventy " trackers," 
who work these boats over the 400 miles of 
rapids between I-Chang and Chung-King. In 
some places these men, with the rope attached 
to them, creep along a ledge of 2ft. on the face 
of the cliff many hundreds of feet above the 
rocks and whirlpools. A sudden jerk of the 
rope, and they all might come hurling down. 

'I'he " bow sweep " is really the rudder, set in 
front and worked by hand as a lever on a 

From a\ 

l; J.-.T 1;A1II.[NC \Vn H TH 


swivel over the bow. \\'hen the boat is about 
to get engulfed in a whirlpool six or seven men 
plunge in the great lever and change the course 
in less than half the time required by the best 
of rudders astern. As a matter of fact, it is 
nearly impossible to go up through these gorges 
and currents in small boats without the " bow 
sweep," which is quite Chinese, and far ahead 
of all Western ideas for its purpose. As an 
illustration of the current, it takes twenty-nine 
days to go up these 400 miles from I-Chang to 
Chung-King, and less than two and a half days 
to come down. 

Our next scene is about 500 miles higher up 



on the Yang-tse, between Sin-fu and Chung- 
King. It is one of countless villages just like 
it along the river in those regions ; but it has 
the distinction of an uncommonly enterprising 
thief for one of its inhabitants. One night, 
when Pratt and his crew of seventeen were 
asleep at anchor before the village, this man 
swam to their boat, carrying a bamboo pole 

Here, as elsewhere in China, are men who 
are ready and anxious to steal and swindle at 
every opportunity, yet who are ready to commit 
suicide if they cannot meet a gambling debt or 
one contracted in the course of commerce. 
Lend a few cents to a Chinese labourer, and he 
may turn up • to repay you after five years, 
though he is equally ready to rob you of fiftv 

IT W.^S AT Till 


From a Photo. 

with a hook at the end. The cabin windows 
had been left open for air, and he hooked a lot 
of Pratt's clothing and other property. Then 
he swam astern and cleared all he could from 
the natives, swimming ashore with the lot. The 
traveller woke to find that he must look up 
anotiier outfit, and that some of his men must 
go naked. That was on the way up. 

On the way down the enraged crew put oft' 
in a " sampan," ahead of the boat, and pro- 
ceeded to make war on the villagers for the 
stolen property. The issue of the fight appeared 
doubtful for a time, but when Pratt came up he 
saw his men rushing for their lives down a 
straight street to the boat, followed by an ever- 
increasing mob, who bombarded them with 
stools, sticks, and stones. The air was thick 
with missiles, and when the last of the fugitives 
had come aboard there were some wounds to 
be mended. Had the boat not been ready 
they must have lost their lives. Of course, 
they recovered none of their property. 

times the amount every day in the meantime. 
The sreat thing with the Chinee is his desire to 
get what belongs to you without your knowing it. 
And yet his scrupulous honour, when you do 
happen to know, is no doubt one of the means 
on which he relies to rob you when you do not 
know. At first it looks like a moral con- 
tradiction in the native character, but after more 
experience you find that the " honesty " is 
mainly to assist the other thing. 

Here is the Chinese Tiger-god. This ferocious 
deity in carved timber, with whiskers and 
eyebrows of porcupine quills, is one of the 
sacred structures that occupy the seventy or 
more temples on the mountain of Omei-Shan, 
in Ssu-Chuan, about a day's journey from Kia- 
ting-fu. The predominant outlines are those of 
the tiger, but the pious artist has evidently tried 
to impart an additional fierceness. He has also 
tried to mingle the human expression with that 
of the tiger, as if to combine the higher intelli- 
gence of man with the greater cruelty of the 



hcast in his pursuit of a i)ious ideal. The 
combination expresses a certain type of the 
Chinese mind with singular exactness. It also 
>tands more or less for the local Pan, mi.xing 
man and tiger, instead of man and goat. The 
difiVrence between the goat element and the 
tiijer element suggests the difference between 
the East and the \Vest. 

Happily (though almost unhappily) the 
pilgrims from Tibet were numerous on the 

and a third high. In these excesses they might 
think it equally virtuous to make short work of 
a " foreign devil," especially if they caught hiiu 
tampering with their idols. 

Of these idols there were scores upon scores 
on Omei, as varied as they were numerous ; and 
some of them might have been photographed 
easily enough. But Pratt had set his heart on 
the divine tiger, which was too far out of the 
light. How to get that photograph without 

, .;1:. ^ACU1:.U lIGLK-ly 

,.ii,. ii^.'.ii Ki>ivbu }iis Lilt, lu lAivL mis rniirot.RAi'H). 

mountain when Pratt was there. On one 
occa.sion at least he wished they were less 
numerous. They had come all the way from 
Ehassa — some of them about a thousand miles 
farther : and they roamed amid the grotesque 
temples in scowling bands, with quaint costumes 
and strange ritual. As luck would have it, 
" The glory of P>uddha " (i.e., a local pheno- 
menon in atmospheric refraction) happened to 
be then "on," exciting the visitors to those 
exquisite excesses of piety in which they some- 
times throw them.selves over the cliffs a mile 

losing his life became a rather exciting question. 
He watched his opportunity, however, and one 
fine day, when he thought the furies were fewer,, 
he turned the face of the monster to the light. 
The camera went " click," and here is the result 
in the pages of The Wide World. 

Next came the business of putting back the 
god and packing away the photographic tackle. 
No time was lost, but before the work was done 
a crowd of pilgrims gathered round the adven- 
turer, howling with rage at the sight of liis 
profane hands on the precious monster. While 


tliey were screaming and threatening, and 
evidently deciding his fate, he managed, chiefly 
by means of his Chinese costume, to sUp 
through the throng and make a very short cut 
down the mountain, leaving his native servants 
to follow with the camera. Strange to say, the 
camera also came back safely, though he ex- 
pected never to see it again. Probably they 
were afraid it contained some kind of particu- 
larly potent fiend that could be even more 
terrible than the tiger. 

The pagoda next seen stands near the main 
temple on Omei-Shan, over the edge of a 
precipice a mile and a third high, and almost 

cast ? \\'ho did the work ? The present 
environment, alike as regards the inhabitants 
and their resources, would make the local pro- 
duction quite impossible. There are no rail- 
ways, of course, and there is no place within 
a thousand miles in any direction where the 
thing could -now be made. The natives have 
no explanation to offer ; they are rather sur- 
prised at being asked. Even the most learned 
Chinee is commonly content to look at an 
object like this every day of his life without once 
considering whence, or how, or why it came. 

No race in the world can well be more 
influenced, by ancestral considerations; yet 

scarcely any can be so 
ignorant or so indifferent 
regarding their national 
antecedents, especially iw 
the historical sense; 
another of the Chinese 
puzzles. Since this bronze 
elephant is sacred to 
Buddha, it is natural to 
assume that it is not 
more than 2,500 years 
old, that being the 
approximate period of 
Buddhism. But even 
that is by no means cer- 

tam, since things of the 


Fioiii a Pkoto. 

perpendicular.. Part of the temple also appears 
in the photograph, with slabs of ornamental 
bronze inlaid into the walls, which are of timber. 
These slabs are relics from the ruins of an 
(;lder and evidently much better structure on 
the same site ; and their workmanship, in that 
remote part of China, is something of a puzzle 
- though not so puzzling as the enormous and 
beautifully cast elephant of bronze on the same 

This structure, supposed to be Indian work, 
is cast in huge sections and adjusted with 
striking minuteness and artistic truth. How 
were the sections got up ? Where were they 

HAN A .Mill, I M 

kind were put up for 
religious purposes even 
before Buddhism. 

From the edge of the 
awful cliff, close to the 
pagoda, the " Glory of 
Buddha" is seen. It is 
a set of concentric rain- 
bow sections, sometimes 
with a shaft of the same 
colours running across 
the middle of them. 
As an instance of atmo- 
spheric refraction it is magnilicent, but the 
pious natives put it to the credit of Buddha, 
and pilgrims travel thousands of miles on foot 
or by caravans to be made holy by the sight of 
it. It is seen only in favourable conditions ot 
the atmosphere, but that does not diminish 
the natives' belief in its divinity, and there is 
no use in trying to explain to them that atmo- 
spheric refraction is older than Buddha. When 
the "Glory" is " full on " the pilgrims have most 
excited prayer-meetings at the very edge of the 
cliff, and some of them often leap over, to be 
mangled below among the segments of divine 

(To be continued.) 

My Experience as a '' Girl= Diplomat '' in Peru. 

Hv Elizabeth I . Banks, Formerly Secretary to the American Minister in Peru. 

Here is a distinctly entertaining account of the experiences of the well-known American lady 
journalist, whose personal narratives have already attracted attention in this country. Miss 
Banks is the only American lady who has ever been employed by her Government in this way, 
and her experiences, her doings in Lima, the queer " revolution," the awkward blunders, and the 
weird antics of the Minister make up a very bright and amusing paper. 

rr was during the Administration of 
President Harrison that I receiYed 
the appointment as secretary to the 
EnYOY Extraordinary and Minister 
™ Plenipotentiary of the United States 
to I'eru. ^\'hen this post was offered to me I had 
l>een a " newspaper-girl '' in a large \\'estern 
town for about six months. Loud and hearty, 
indeed, were the con- 
gratulations showered 
upon me by the editors 
and reporters of that par- 
ticular newspaper ; and 
what " write - ups "' they 
gave me, to be sure ! 
•• Our Girl - Diplomat ! " 
"The Administration 
'lakes the Pick of Our 
Staff: " — that was the 
way they headed the 
columns they published 
about me, along with my 
photograph. Then 
hundreds of other papers, 
throughout the East and 
the West and the North 
and the South, sounded 
my fame and praises : so 
It was with a great 
-h of newspaper 
:...... jvcts that I started 

off on my journey to 
the Land of the Incas, 
thousands of miles away 
from my home. 

I have since heard 
that Mr. Blaine, who was 
then Secretary of State in 
the President's Cabinet, 
smiled dubiously and 

made a rather discouraging remark about what 
might happen if the United States went in for 
" school-girl diplomacy." He is dead now, and 
I bear him not the least malice. I am sure that 
I never did my country any harm while I was a 
"diplomat,^' though, on the other hand, I have 
no reason to believe that I ever did it any 
particular good ! My position, I should here 
state, was not strictly an "official" one, for I 


Front a Photo, by the London Stereoscojiic Co. 

was not to be Secretary of Legation, but only 
"secretary to the Minister." Still, I was looked 
upon somewhat in the light of a heroine, and 
became a sort of nine days' wonder; for I was, I 
believe, the only American woman who had ever 
been employed in a clerical capacity at any of 
our Legations. 

After a three weeks' voyage on the Atlantic 

and the Pacific I arrived 
in Lima, the Peruvian 

In a strange-looking 
house, built of mud, or 
" adobe " as it was more 
elegantly called (over the 
portal of which was a 
shield bearing a picture 
of the Ainerican Eagle 
and the inscription: 
" Legacion de los Estados 
Unidas "), I took up my 
residence with the mem- 
bers of the Minister's 
family — the only Ameri- 
can girl in that whole 
large city, and a curiosity, 
as I soon learned, to all 
the inhabitants. 

The second day after 
my arrival there, wish- 
ing to go to a shop to 
buy a reel of cotton, I 
looked in my Anglo- 
Spanish dictionary to 
find the Spanish term 
for that article. I found 
it was " algodon," so I 
wrote it down on a slip 
of paper that I might 
not forget it, and then 
donning my light covert jacket and gaily 
trimmed white straw hat, I left the Legation to 
go shopping in a town where I knew but one 
d of the language of its inhabitants - 
algodon — cotton to sew with." In and out 
among strange, weird - looking women, each 
wearing a peculiar black garment, which draped 
the head, neck, shoulders, and hips, and fell 
gracefully over the black skirt, I made my way, 



the one bright-looking object in the sombre 
throng, till, looking back, I saw the Jamaican 
negro major-domo of the Legation rushing 
after me, wildly gesticulating and with a look 
of horror on his ebony face. 

" Senorita ! Senorita I " he cried, in the good 
Enf'lish he had learned as an old servant to 
previous American Ministers, " you must not 
'^o to shop alone ! His Excellency sent me 
after you 1 It is not the custom of this country ! 
I will go with you ! " 

" Go back ! Go back ! " I answered, with 
severity and dignity. 
" I will not take you 
out shopping with 
me! I'm just going 
to buy a spool of 
cotton ! I know the 
Spanish word for it. 
It is 'algodon'!" I 
made this last an- 
nouncement rather 
proudly, but never- 
theless the major - 
domo insisted on 
accompanying me. 

" You cannot go 
out here without a 
servant with you ! " 
he explained, entreat- 
ingly. " The Peru- 
vian ladies, either 
young or old, never 
do ; and if you go 
out alone the Peru- 
vian gentlemen will 
speak to you I " 

" But I will go out 
alone in broad day- 
light," I answered. 
" I'm an American 
girl and can take 
care of myself, and 
1 won't have anybody 
tagging round after 
me ! " The head of 

our domestic staff said nothing in reply, and 
having bought my " algodon " with him stand- 
ing by my side, I went back to the Legation, 
where, under the outstretched wings of our 
emblem bird, there took place a new Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

After that I wandered where I would through- 
out the city. It was at first suggested that I 
should don the "mania," the national female 
garment of Peru, which I have already de- 
scribed ; but, finally, I decided this would 
never do, since, robed in that garment, I might 
be mistaken for a Peruvian girl who dared to 

Vol. vi.— 36. 


be unconventional and go out alone, in which 
case the high-caste Peruvian ladies would be 
horrified and give me a wide berth, and the 
chivalrous Peruvian " gentlemen " would insult 
me ! I'herefore, when I took my walks abroad 
I dressed just as I would have dressed for a 
morning or- afternoon stroll in New York or 
London, and my Anglo-Saxon costume proved 
to be my shield and protection. Once, it is true, 
a Peruvian officer, wearing his full regimentals, 
stop[)ed in the street, looked at me in astonish- 
ment, swept the ground with his military hat, 

and said, in his 
musical Castilian, 
"Ah! Senorita 
Bonita ! " Now, this 
form of salutation, 
which I had learned 
meant in English, 
" Oh ! pretty girl ! " 
was the Peruvian 
gentleman's method 
of attracting the 
attention of a woman 
whose acquaintance 
he wished to make. 
I drew myself up 
haughtily, looked 
him full in the 
face, and said, 
defiantly : — 

" Sefiorita Ameri- 
cana ! " for I had 
learned 'the Spanish 
for "American girl." 
Then, gathering 
together all my spirit 
and all my Spanish 
forces, I said, angrily 
and rapidly : " Sefior- 
ita Americana, Lega- 
cion de los Estados 
Unidas ! " 

I think he under- 
stood then that I 
was a " girl-diplomat " 
at the American Legation, for he incontinently 
sped away, and never after that was I addressed 
in the street by male Peruvians who had not 
been properly introduced to me at the Legation. 
The first few weeks of my experience as 
a diplomat were very disappointing to me, 
because nothing seemed to happen. I had 
always thought of a diplomatic life as one of 
exciting experiences, where there would always 
be despatches to send off to the home Govern- 
ment concerning war or rumours of war, 
accounts, of double-dealings with the heads of 
the country to which one was accredited, and a 




continual plotting and counter-plotting with 
underhand methods, and possibly a sort of 
secret service : but the days went calmly 
by and I did not seem to be doing 
niuch in the way of "experiencing things." 
In flict, the only relaxation and change from 
eating, sleeping, and doing nothing (which was 
the Peruvian method of spending the time) was 
the assistance I could render the Minister in 
the daily writing of his diary, which we both 
thought would be interesting for friends and 
relatives in America to read. 

But just when I thought I would actually 
die from pure ennui something happened. 
One morning, between five and six, I was 
awakened from my sound sleep by so violent 
a rocking of my bed that I was tumbled 
out upon the floor, from which I hastily tried 
to rise, rubbing my eyes in wonder and terror. 
From the streets there came sounds of terrible 
groanings and rumblings and hoarse cries and 
shouts as of thousands of people. 

" It's one of those South American revolutions 
which they are always having down here ! " I 
thought, as I dressed myself in short order, 
though I tumbled down and reeled round and 
round in my efforts to do so. I was really glad 
of the revolution, because I thought it was 
going to break up the almost unbearable 
monotony of my diplomatic 

Through the door of my bed- 
room I rushed out into the hall, 
then across* the court-yard or 
patio, as it was called, to the 
legation offices in the same 
building, while up from the 
streets there rose the cries and 
shouts of the multitude. 

" Save us ! Save us ! " came 
the shrieks in Spanish. I 
doubted not that these cries 
came from the hapless victims 
who were being mowed down 
by the soldiery and the mob. 
I felt very sorrv' for them, but, 
being a diplomat, and apparently 
the only member of the American 
I-egation that was awake, I felt 
I must do my duty. For myself 
I had no fear. I knew that no 
one would dare to harm those 
who lived under the protecting 
wings of the American Eagle. 
i fairly threw the tin cover off 
my typewriter on to the floor, 
and sitting down began to 
pound out a despatch to the 
Washington Department of 

State, my idea being to finish it up and then 
give it to the Minister to send by cable. 

" To the Honourable James G. Blaine, Secre- 
tary of State, Washington, U.S.A. From the 
American Minister in Lima, Peru. — A revolution 
broke out at five this morning and nobody 
knows what it is about. The streets run with 
blood, the populace cry ' Save us ! Save us ! ' 
while the soldiers run them through with 
bayonets. It is likely the President of Peru, 
will be beheaded and his head stuck up on the 
top of a pole in front of the Cathedral, as it is 
customary to treat Presidents during revolutions. 
All the staff and family of this Legation are 
safe. Will wire you again later." 

Thus ran the first despatch which I, as a 
diplomat, ever wrote for the Department of 
State. Just as I was pulling it out of my type- 
writer loud and excited noises were heard in 
the Legation itself. Then I heard a scufQing 
and a banging of doors, and the black major- 
domo's voice calling loudly, almost tearfully : — 

" Sehorita ! Seiiorita ! Where are you ? " 

" Have you searched in every room ? " came 
the voice of the Minister. " Surely she cannot 
have gone out on one of those rambles of hers 
at this time in the morning ! '"' 

" I have searched in all the house-part, your 
Excellency, and she does not go to the Legation 





rooms until eleven o'clock ! " returned the 

Another scuffling, more shouts, but not from 
the street now. Only from the Legation rooms 
came evidences of excitement. I started towards 
the door and shouted across ihe pa/i'o : — 

" I'm all right ! Nothing's happened to me, 
and I've got it all ready for you to cable ! " 

" What ready ? \A'hat cable ? " shouted the 
Minister, as he came running round the court- 
yard accompanied by the scared-looking major- 

"The despatch to Washington about the 
revolution ! Please see if it's all right, so that 
we can get it off ! " 

" What despatch ? What revolution ? " ex- 
claimed the Minister. " Great heavens, has the 
poor girl gone mad ? " Then turning to the 
major-domo he asked, in a terrified sort of way: 
" \\illiam, do earthcjuakes send people crazy ? " 

" I'm not mad ! "' I said, indignantly. "They've 
got a revolution down in the streets, and I've 
written a despatch about it ! Haven't we been 
waiting for a revolution these many weeks ? " 

" There's an earthquake, senorita ! " said the 
major-domo, respectfully. 

"An earthquake!" I repeated, half-dazed. 
Then I turned to the Minister. 

" I'm sure there's a revolution, though it's 
(luieter now. They always calm down one 
minute and then break out again ! My first 
intimation of it was when my bed rocked and I 
heard the rumble of the cannons ! Come here 
to the window and I'll prove to you there's a 
revolution ! " 

We looked out of the window. Not a soul 
was in the street, and the Minister began laugh- 
ing uproariously as he read my despatch. 

" It was just an earthquake, senorita ! " said 
the major-domo, trying hard to maintain a 
solemn and respectful look on his face. " When 
the earthquakes come, all the people run into 
the streets and shout and pray ' Save us ! ' and 
when the earthquake goes away, they go back 
to their houses again and go to sleep." 

I am sure I am not now and was not then 
either bloodthirsty or war-loving in my disposi- 
tion, but my chagrin at discovering that my 
" revolution " was nothing but an earthquake 
was many a day in passing off, and it certainly 
was rather annoying to have the Minister occa- 
sionally repeat, "The streets run with blood, the 
populace cry ' Save us ! ' while the soldiers run 
them through with bayonets ! " after which he 
would shake with laughter and declare that 
being a diplomat in Peru was not so devoid of 
excitement as he had thought. 

The first time I went to church in Lima I 
noticed that I seemed to be the centre of a 

great deal of attention from the congregation, 
and that the minds of the worshippers were 
very much distracted. However, as I had by 
that time become accustomed to creating a 
sensation wherever I went, because I was the 
only American girl in the town and also because 
of my, to them, peculiar style of dressing, I sat 
down quietly with the other women. Suddenly 
I felt someone meddling with my hat and, look- 
ing up, I saw a lady with a beautiful face and 
wearing the finest and most richly embroidered 
manta I had ever seen. She pulled the hat- 
pins from my hat and placed them in my hand, 
then took my hat off, and, putting it on the seat 
beside me, smiled, patted me on the shoulder, 
said " Si ! Si ! " and went back to her kneeling 
stool. I was very much astonished at this 
strange procedure, but I said never a word. 
Indeed, how could I, not knowing the language 
of the country ? The service over, I left the 
church, and, still carrying my hat-pins and my 
hat, walked along the pavement towards the 

" Si ! Si ! Ah ! Senorita ! " I heard a 
melodious voice say behind me, and with that 
the same beautiful lady took the hat-pins and 
hat from my hand, placed my hat on my head, 
pinned it tightly, and, patting me again on the 
shoulder, glided away. I afterwards learned 
that by going to church wearing a hat I had 
broken one of the strictest rules of Peruvian 
etiquette, and that had it not been known that 
I was a member of the American Legation I 
might have lost my hat altogether. This little 
incident was repeated by the Peruvian lady to 
all her friends, and the fact that I had not 
even attempted to replace my hat of my own 
will after I had got outside the church re- 
dounded, it seemed, very much to my credit, 
and I became, in a sort of way, what one might 
term "the fashion." Unknown ladies, walking 
with their servants, passing me on the street, 
would take from the bouquets which the 
servants (never the ladies) carried wonderful 
sprigs of tuberoses and other flowers and 
smilingly place them in my hand, saying, 
" Senorita Americana, Si ! Si ! " forcing them 
upon me and then, bowing, go on their way. 

It was all very sweet and pretty, but this 
being a continual heroine and a curiosity to the 
inhabitants soon palled upon me. I was 
always finding new barriers known as " customs 
of the country " over which I must leap, if I 
would not give up altogether my native-born 

When I accepted the position of secretary 
to the American Minister I was not well 
acquainted with that gentleman — indeed, I had 
only seen him once, and that was when we drew 



up our contract. I could not, of course, be 
expected to know an\thing about his peculiari- 
ties or fads or fancies any more than he could 
know mine, and I had not been in Peru but a 
ver}' few days when I came to the conclusion that 
he certainly had a very strange and eccentric way 
of dictating his despatches and his diary. We 
only worked two or three hours each day, but 
those hours soon became to me times of terror. 
I had travelled on the same ship with the 
Minister and had noticed nothing peculiar about 
him, so I was not prepared for any develop- 
ments of eccentricity when we got started in 
our dipomatic career. 

On the third day after our arrival, there being 
an American mail going out, the Minister sat 
down to go over some despatches which the 
First .Secretary of Legation handed to him. 

" Now, about this note to the State Depart- 
ment — Great Scot ! This is enough " And 

with that the Minister, red in the face, jumped 
off his chair like an automaton, landed on the 
floor, and began stamping with his feet, after 
which he executed a hornpipe dance. 

I stared at him in amazement. Was this the 
way diplomats of all nations carried on, or was 

it a peculiar and distinct phase of 
American diplomacy ? ^Vas the Minister 
in a temper, and had I possibly offended 
him all unwittingly ? 

" 1 hope I haven't done anything to 
offend you," I said, meekly and quietly. 

" No, not a thing ! ' answered the 
Minister, doing a reversible waltz over 
towards the window. 

"Can 1 do anything for you?" I again 
asked, solicitously. 

"No! no! no!" shouted the Minister; 
" you can't do a thing ! Nobody can 
do anything ! I wish they could ! " 

After a polka of the two-step order and 
a sort of a shake-down, such as I had 
seen them do at the end of a country 
dance, the Minister seemed to "come 
to," and, walking over to his desk, went 
on with his instructions, quite sanely and 

" You must not mind me when I 
get to taking on like that ! " he said, 

Not mind him I Then my worst fears 
were confirmed ! He was a madman ! 
Or, stay ! Was he subject to fits ? 
Whatever it was, there surely was not a 
very pleasant outlook for me. If it were 
neither madness nor fits, but only a new 
kind of eccentricity, even then I didn't 
see how I could stand it if he were taken 
that way often, and I gathered from 
the way he spoke that he was. 

The days passed on, and the poor man was 
seized daily, sometimes hourly, with his strange 
convulsions. At first I thought I would speak 
to the First Secretary about it, and ask 1 m 
what was the name of the Minister's peculiar 
physical trouble, but this gentleman had not 
met the Minister till he came to Peru, and so 
could not know any more than I. There was 
the Minister's wife, but it is not etiquette to 
speak of the peculiarities of a man to the 
members of his immediate family. 

Occasionally a day would pass and no 
symptoms of the disease would show themselves, 
then I would think joyously that perhaps the air 
and climate of Peru were doing something for 
my unfortunate chief, but the next day the 
jumping and stamping, and strange, almost 
profane, exclamations would come on again. 
We would sit down quite calmly to work on the 
" Diary of a Diplomat," when suddenly the 
aforesaid diplomat would topple over his ink- 
bottle, clench his fists, beat his breast, dance 
out into the middle of the f^oor, and then, 
perhaps, run into the room where the First 
Secretary sat. What puzzled me most was that 




on such occasions the First Secretary laughed 
long and loudly when the Minister descended 
upon him in these paroxysms, and I called it very 
rude and unkind of the First Secretary to do this. 
As for me, I never laughed. I was too terrified to 
do aught but wonder ; and I sometimes, in my 
heart, blamed the 
United States 
(jovernment for 
sending so very 
eccentric a gentle- 
man abroad to 
represent our 

lliings went on 
like this for about 
two weeks, when 
one day while the 
Minister and I 
were in the office 
a Peruvian gentle- 
man, one of the 
great dignitaries of 
the State, dropped 
in, and, being in- 
troduced to me, 
we began to try 
to carry on a con- 
versation in the 
little Spanish I 
had then learned, 
and also by 
numerous gesticu- 
lations. In the 
midst of the con- 
v e r s a t i o n up 

jumped the Minister and began his St. Vitus' 
dance actions. I really thought it was too bad 
that he could not have contained himself till the 
Peruvian gentleman had taken his leave. A 
pretty story this statesman would go back and 
tell at the Peruvian State Department ! I 
thought he might get frightened and leave with- 
out ceremony, but to my astonishment he only 
smiled slightly, and said, laconically : — 

" Ah, Pulga ! " 

" Si, si, Pulga ! " answered the Minister, 
giving a kick against the desk, and then starting 
off again on a prance about the room. • The 
Peruvian gentleman began to talk excitedly in 
Spanish, which I knew the Minister did not 
understand any more than I did, and I left the 
room to call in the Legation interpreter* 


" Pulga ! Pulga ! " I repeated lo uiysclf, 
" what does that mean, and what has that got 
to do with the Minister's peculiar affection ? " 
I repeated it several times so as not to forget it 
while I made my way to my room to get my 
x'\nglo- Spanish dictionary. Frantically turn- 
ing the leaves I 
finally found the 
following: "Pulga 
— a peculiar kind 
of flea which in- 
fests South Ameri- 
can countries in 
great numbers, and 
is more trouble- 
some to human 
beings than to 

The poor Mini- 
ster ! I laughed 
until I cried, and 
then I laughed 
again thinking of 
his antics and his 
evident desire that 
I should be kept 
in ignorance of 
the cause ! 

Human fleas ! 
Had hey not been 
the bane of my 
own existence ever 
since I had landed 
in that terrible 
country ? Had I 
not talked the 
matter over with the chambermaid, and tried all 
sorts of home-made remedies she recommended 
for the curing of their bites ? Truly, the 
Minister was not the only member of the family 
who had suffered and in silence, if " silence " 
his actions could be called ! 

This estimable Jamaica negress, later on, told 
me that no foreigner could hope to get rid of 
fleas or become indifferent to their attentions 
under at the least a year's residence in Peru. 

Why do I tell this story here at the end 
instead of at the beginning of these, my 
" experiences " ? Well — because I did not have 
the patience to remain the year which was 
necessary for my acclimatization, and one day 
I said, "I am going home porque puls^a f" 
Thus ended my career as a "girl-diplomat." 

After Twenty Years. 

Ev .Mrs. William P. Nve, of Canton, Ohio. 

Truth is. indeed, stranger than Fiction. When you have read the pathetic narrative here related 
by a devoted daughter of Mr. Wilbur Sturtevant, the long-lost husband and father, you will probably 
admit that it is one of the most romantic true stories of real life you have ever read. " Wide 
World " readers will be glad to know that Mr. and Mrs. Sturtevant are still alive and well, and their 

story is widely known on the " other side." 

go to 


HEV were a family of four: the 
mother and bread-winner ; Emma, 
the sister-mother of thirteen or so ; 
and the two little girls, Myrta and 
Myra, who were just beginning to 
ol. They were a happy family, too, 
living their quiet life in the little village of 
Chagrin Falls, upon the picturesque Chagrin 

The most interesting event of the week was 
the arrival of the fat letter 
from far - away " papa," 
which must first of all be 
read by the mother. Then 
Emma, with two eager lis- 
teners at her knee, would 
tell the interesting news it 
contained and the messages 
to each little sister, and 
they would say : — 

" Oh, I wish papa would 
romr- home! When do you 
he will ? " 

" When he is rich, and 
that will be soon, I know," 
was the confident answer. 

Early in the spring of 
1876, when Myra was still 
a baby and Myrta only two 
years older, Wilbur Sturte- 
vant left his little family to 
go to Colorado. He had 
before him a business 
career in Cleveland, Ohio, 
but the close confinement 
of ofifice-work was telling 
upon his health. He resolved to endeavour to 
regain it, and at the same time to prospect in 
the rich mining district about Leadville. 

Discouragement after discouragement met 
him, however. His wife, who had been most 
tenderly reared— an only daughter of w^ealthy 
parents— bravely came to the rescue and 
supported the litde family at home. Her father 


Frotti a ] 


had recently died, and it was discovered that 
nothing remained of his large fortune. Her 
girlhood and young womanhood had been 
particularly free from care or sorrow ; but now 
all was changed. When sorrows come, they 
come not in single spies, but in battalions. A 
short time after her father's death Mrs. Sturte- 
vant lost her mother also ; then, when she was 
depending most upon the cheer her husband's 
letters brought, they suddenly ceased to come — 

most terrible blow of all. 

Weeks passed into 
months, months dragged 
themselves wearily on until 
almost a year had been 
spent — a time of heart 
sickness, of loneliness, of 
hope deferred and bereave- 
ment. But at last the long 
period of waiting seemed 
over. One day there came 
a letter with the old familiar 
postmark, but it was ad- 
dressed in a strange hand. 
It contained meagre news 
— only the information that 
the writer held valuable 
papers belonging to Wilbur 
Sturtevant, whom he sup- 
posed to be dead. The 
letter went on to say that 
the papers would be for- 
warded upon receipt of ten 

W^hen they came they 
proved to be merely letters : 
those the family themselves had written mainly, 
the wifely ones, Emma's girlish ones, and those 
printed by the children. At a later date there 
developed the scrawl of their first schooldays. 
The packet also contained the gifts sent at the 
last Christmastide ; these and the later letters 
had never even been opened. 

They were valuable papers to him who had 

AS DEAD. {Photo. 



cherished them so carefully ; but the mother 
could not help thinking that the man who had 
sent them to her, and who was so eager to 
obtain the money for them, knew more than he 
cared to tell. Every effort that her slender 
means would allow was put forth to find some 
news of the lost husband. But it was all to no 
avail ; not the slightest trace of him could be 
found, and presently, herself almost dead with 
grief, she mourned him as dead. 

The lingering hope that he might be living 
was kept alive by Emma's ardent faith in the 
lost father and belief that he would return. 
She was his favourite daughter — a lovely child 
of eight when he went away. For five years 
his letters served to keep his dear memory 
bright in her heart ; then followed the years of 
silence. Emma had blossomed into young 
womanhood when, one day, she began a letter 
to her grandmother, her father's mother : — 

" Dear Grandma, — Do you know, grandma 
dear, I still think that papa will come back to 
us ? Whenever I see a strange man upon the 
streets of our little town, the first glimpse of 
him makes my heart beat more rapidly. I 
never hear the whistle of the train coming into 
the station but I think, ' Perhaps.' Yes, Fm 
sure some day he will " 

Here there was an interruption ; the letter 
(which is before me as I write) was never 
finished. Some weeks later fever claimed the 
writer as its victim, and death came to her when 
life seemed more full of hope and promise than 
the incomplete letter, which is now folded away 
in Emma's, little Bible, kept by the mother as 
one of the most precious of all things. 

Then, indeed, was that mother desolate. The 
cottage home that had been so dear seemed to 
mock her. The vines which grew upon its 
walls had been trained by Emma's hands ; the 
anemones and hepaticas, which blossomed as 
soon as the snow left the ground, were brought 
from the woods by Emma when she was beau- 
tiful and bright and well. The hedge of roses 
along the lane ; the lilac bush ; the syringas and 
the lilies of the valley — all seemed to speak her 
name, for she had loved them and they her. 

When the first great grief had passed the 
mother remembered the dead daughter's wish — 
that the little sisters might have a better educa- 
tion than that afforded by the high school of 
Chagrin Falls. So in the spring of 1888 Mrs. 
Sturtevant took her remaining daughters to the 
college town of Oberlin. Here a quiet life, which 
lasted for eight long years, was entered upon. 

It was during these years in Oberlin that 
there occurred a circumstance of peculiar 
interest to this narrative — something which 
comes with reluctance from the pen, because 

the credulity of both the Editor and the readers 
of The Wide World Magazine will be sorely 
taxed. The writer can only repeat what has 
already been said in the letter which accom- 
panies this manuscript, that the following is 
strictly true in every detail. 

When Mrsr Sturtevant went to Oberlin there 
accompanied her a young woman, who became 
engaged to an Oberlin student and married liim. 
After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Goldbach 
made their home some eight miles from Oberlin, 
at Elyria, Ohio. Mrs. Sturtevant had never 
been to see them in their new home, when one 
Friday night, after school, she determined to 
leave the house in the girls' care and visit Mrs. 
Goldbach over Sunday. She had not previously 
written, nor did she know definitely in what 
part of the town her friend lived ; but without 
asking the way she went directly to the right 
house. Her ring was answered by the young 
wife herself, who exclaimed — rather inhospitably, 
perhaps — " Why, Mrs. Sturtevant ! How did you 
happen to come to-night "I " 

As they went through the hall, however, the 
young hostess clearly showed her guest that 
she was welcome, and it was not until after 
supper that her first surprised exclamation was 

"Shall I tell Mrs. Sturtevant?" she asked 
her husband. 

" I don't know why not," was the reply. 
"Some peculiar coincidence has brought her 

Then Mrs. Goldbach told her story. When 
she was ill she had for a nurse a woman who 
was a spiritualist. She was very desirous that 
Mrs. Goldbach should use her " planchette," 
but the latter looked upon it as the greatest 
nonsense, and when she consented it was only 
that she might be amused during the long winter 
evenings. This " planchette " was a rude, home- 
made affair, perhaps two feet in length, having 
printed upon it the alphabet, the numerals, and 
the words " yes " and " no." Another bit of a 
board, triangular in shape, served as a pointer. 
It was upon this that the finger-tips were rested. 
When a supposed message was being given it 
moved smoothly over the larger board, but 
when pushed voluntarily there was apparent 

On Thursday of that week, whenever any 
member of the household sat down to the board 
there was spelled out one name. In the even- 
ing Mr. and Mrs. Goldbach sat down, and again 
that same name appeared. This time there was 
more : " Tell Mary, to-morrow." After a pause 
the pointer went to the number nine, then again 
came to the name which had appeared so often ; 
it was " Wilbur Sturtevant." Friday had come, 




and a few hours before nine Mrs. Sturlevant 
unex|H?ctedly appeared at Mrs. C.oldbach's door. 

When nine o'elock came 
Mrs. Slurtevant, thinking 
she was doing something 
most foohsh, but imjielled 
by curiosity, sal down with 
Mr. Goldbach. Scarcely a 
moment passed before she 
gave her entire attention to 
the strange thing that was 
happening beneath her 
fingers. Tlie board readily 
spelled her husbands 

"Ask whatever you wisli 
to know,"' said Mr. Gold- 

"I can't," Mrs. Sturte- 
vant replied, shortly. 

So he asked the ques- 
tijns instead. Mrs. Gold- 
bach sat at a table and 
wrote in pencil each letter 

almost at the same 
whclniinsj; tidings. 

of the message as it was 


time there came over 

Nearly twenty years had 
now passed since Williur 
Slurtevant left the place 
where he had so many 
friends, and now they 
learned that out in sunny 
California, on the Sierra 
Madre foot - hills, there 
lived a shrewd but kindly 
character whose name was 
A\'ilbur Sturtevant. Doubt 
could not long remain. 
Every day brought new 
and convincing proofs of 
his identity, and finally 
there came a long letter 
which contained a sad 
story of betrayed friend- 
ship, of treachery, of hope- 
lessness, and homelessness. 
During all those years the 
lost husband and father 
had never sought to con- 
ceal his identity and never 
even had 

changed his 


The following is a ])art 
of it :— 

'•Murdered in mine— Indian— hunting-knife." Away back in the first days of his mining 

Mrs. Sturtevant did not accept the popular life his health began to mend, and after long 
belief that this phenomenon was due to spirits, waiting fortune began to favour him in still 

another way. He confided 
to a supposed friend the 
knowledge of a rich 

but from that time until 
six years later there lin- 
gered in her mind not the 
slightest doubt that her 
husband was dead. But 
you may dismiss this inci 
dent from your mind if you 

In 1896, the year that 
both daughters were to be 
graduated — a time when 
money was greatly needed 
■'le little household — 
came the happy news 
the widow of Wilbur 
.■^jiurtevant, who had served 
three years as lieutenant 
in the Civil War, was 
granted a pension and 
back pay besides for six 
rears. A Government 
live had worked upon 
tne case, and as no trace 
of Wilbur Sturtevant could 
be found, it was decided 
that his widow was en- 
titled to a pension. But 
never filled up, nor was the 


Fjom a Photo, hy Bateham, Norivalk, O 

the papers were 
money drawn, for 

mineral find. ' How rich 
it really was he was not so 
well aware as his con- 
fidant, who thought that 
for such high stakes a 
treacherous game was 
quite worth while. 
were lawless days in the 
Western mining towns, and 
with comparative ease the 
scoundrel succeeded in his 
evil purpose. Making an 
ally of the postmaster of 
the little mining camp near 
Eeadville, he wrested from 
Mr. Sturtevant by fraudu- 
lent means the valuable 
claim. At the same time 
there were stolen from the 
poor man's camp many of 
his personal belongings, 
among which was a packet 
of letters. More than that, 
letters to him and from him were intercepted, 
and in this way the unsuspecting victim was 



systematically cut off from all communication 
with his friends. 

After weary waiting for letters and months of 
despair and discouragement, Sturtevant left 
that part of the country, and vowed in his 
heart never to return or to seek to know any- 
thing of the home people who had cruelly 
deserted him, as he supposed, because of his 
unsuccessful career. This morbid fancy was 
strengthened by the fact that some time later he 
saw some of his old associates, who failed to 
recognise him. Nor is there little wonder that 
in this typical Western man, with bronzed skin 
and cowboy attire, there was nothing to remind 
former acquaintances of the well-dressed city 
man, who was their minister's son. However, 
he conceived the idea that they did not care to 
know him, and from that time on he made no 
effort to communicate with the people in the 

The narrow escapes and thrilling adventures 
encountered during those years of the castaway's 
Western wandering life might easily fill a 
volume, but they must be passed by, as must 
also the account of the two - thousand - mile 
journey which the family took to meet the long- 
lost and ever-loved husband and father. 

Before they left Oberlin many were the 
laughing remarks made by Mrs. Sturtevant's 
friends about the "infallible planchette." But 
the mystery was not then explained, and perhaps 
only partially so a few months later when the 
re-united family were together once more in 

What a meeting ! The writer of these lines 
says Sturtevant will not attempt to describe it. 
It was October. The San Gabriel Valley had 
received the first welcome rain of the season 
and the sun had taken on its former aspect of 
pitilessness for one day. When night came 
the family were glad to rest out on the terrace 
in front of the cottage to catch any faint breeze 
that might be blowing from the Sierra Madre 
Mountains. It seemed breathless, yet every 
now and then the long strips of bark split from 
the eucalyptus trees, and their leaves moved 
ever so slightly, sending forth the pungent odour 
that yesterday's rain had made more distinct. 

Mr. Sturtevant was sitting with his chair 
tilted against a tree, and his sombrero was on 
his knees. The moon-lit sky silhouetted his 
fine pro