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Full text of "Wife no.19, or the story of a life in bondage. Being a complete exposé of Mormonism, and revealing the sorrows, sacrifices and sufferings of women in polygamy"

WIFE No. 19, 



OR 
THE STORY OF 



A LIFE IN BONDAGE, 

BEING A 

Complete Expos6 of Mormonism, 

AND REVEALING THE 

SORROWS, SACRIFICES AND SUFFERINGS OF 
WOMEN IN POLYGAMY, 

BY 

ANN ELIZA YOUNG, 

BRIGHAM YOUNG'S APOSTATE WIFC. 

WITH INTRODUCTORY NOTES BY 

JOHN B. GOUGH AND MARY A. LIVERMORE. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



SOLD BY SUBSCRIPTION ONLY. 



DUSTIN, OILMAN & CO. 
PUBLICATION OFFICE: HARTFORD, CONN. 

BRANCH OFFICES: CHICAGO, ILL., CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

1 876. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, 

BY DUSTIN, OILMAN & CO., 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



0<oT 



TO THE 



MORMON WIVES OF UTAH. 



I Dedicate this Book to you, as I consecrate my life to your cause. 

As long as God gives me life I shall pray and plead for your deliver- 
ance from the worse than Egyptian bondage in which you are held. 

Despised, maligned, and wronged ; kept in gross ignorance of the 
great world, its pure creeds, its high aims, its generous motives, you 
have been made to believe that the noblest nation of the earth was truly 
represented by the horde of miscreants who drove you from State to State, 
in early years, murdering your sons and assassinating your leaders. 

Hence, you shrink from those whom God will soon lead to your 
deliverance, from those to whom I daily present your claims to a 
hearing and liberation, and who listen with responsive and sympathetic 
hearts. 

But He will not long permit you to be so wickedly deceived; nor 
will the People permit you to be so cruelly enslaved. 

Hope and pray ! Come out of the house of bondage ! Kind hearts 
beat for you ! Open hands will welcome you ! Do not fear that while 
God lives you shall suffer uncared for in the wilderness ! This Christian 
realm is not " Babylon," but THE PROMISED LAND ! 

Courage ! The night of oppression is nearly ended, and the sun 
of liberty is rising in the heavens for you. 

ANN-ELIZA YOUNG. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE, 

BY 

JOHN B. GOUGH. 



SINCE Mrs. Young's pleasant visit to us, I have thought 
much of the important mission to which she has devoted 
herself, and I wish to say, and I do it most cordially, that 
having been reared and educated in Mormonism, from her 
experience and the sufferings she has endured, she is fully 
competent to expose the whole system, and show to the 
public the true side of it, as no other person can or will. I 
need not assure her of my entire confidence in her sincerity 
and ability to carry out the work to which she has devoted 
herself, and the talents God has given her. I believe she 
has been called to this mission, and by her experience and 
intense sympathy with the sufferings of her sex, has been 
wonderfully qualified, and prepared for the work. 

The sympathy of our entire household is with her, and 
we earnestly pray that she may be enabled to overcome all 
opposition, and that God may give her abundant success, 
and that the blessing of many ready to perish may rest 
upon her. 

JOHN B. GOUGH. 

WORCESTER, MASS., July, 1875. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE, 



MRS. MARY A. LIVERMORE. 



I HAVE read the advance sheets of Mrs. Ann-Eliza 
Young's book with painful interest, which has deepened 
into disgust and pity. Disgust at the hypocrisy, brutality, 
and diabolism of the Mormon leaders ; pity for the 
wasted, joyless, sacrificial lives of the poor women who 
immolate themselves on the shrine of Mormonism, in the 
holy name of Religion. 

Born and reared in the midst of these deluded people, 
removed from all counteracting influences, it was inevitable 
that Mrs. Young should accept their beliefs, and be drawn 
into their practices. And it must have required heroic res- 
olution in her to break away from the Mormon Church, 
even when her vision was unsealed to its rottenness, know- 
ing as she did that she would be compelled to flee from 
home, leaving a beloved mother and precious children in 
the hands of the enemy. I congratulate her on her com- 
plete emancipation, on her reunion with her beloved, 
whose obvious peril weighed so heavily on her filial and 
maternal heart, and on the possession of ability to give to 
the world an expos6 of the Mormon horror, such as it has 



IO 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 



never before received. My sympathies are entirely with 
her in ttL"-worfc"~to whiclr-ske-Jias consecrated herself. 

' M , " ^^\ 

I With her awakened conscience, shel could not do other- 
wise llitm aectrthe dismtegr'atiOfl oi me Utah community, 
whose foundations are laid in me degradation of woman. 
May she have the largest success compatible with human 
effort. 

MARY A. LIVERMORE. 
MELROSE, MASS., Oct. 1875. 



TO THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 



SHOULD this book meet your eyes, I wish you most distinctly to, 
understand that my quarrel is not with you. On the contrary, the 
warmest and tenderest feelings of my heart are strongly enlisted in 
your favor. As a rule, you have been uniformly kind to me. 
Some of you I have dearly loved. I have respected and honored 
you all. My love and respect have never failed, but have rather 
increased with separation. I think of you often with the sincerest 
sympathy for your helpless condition, bound to a false religion, 
and fettered by a despotic system ; and I wish from the depths of 
my heart that I could bring you, body and soul, out from the cruel 
bondage, and help you to find the freedom, rest, and peace which 
have become so sweet to me since my eyes have been opened to 
the light of a true and comforting faith. 

Since I have left Utah, I know that some of you have censured 
me severely, and have joined in personal denunciations. But I 
know that you are actuated by a mistaken zeal for the cause which 
you feel yourselves bound to sustain. You, no doubt, regard my 
course with horror. I look upon your lives with pity. 

I have taken the liberty of describing your characters and situ- 
ations. I was not prompted by the slightest animosity toward 
you, but because the public are interested in you, and curious con- 
cerning you, and I felt that I could give to the world a true story 
of your lives, and, at the same time, do you justice, and let you be 
seen as you are in my eyes, which are not dimmed by prejudice. 



12 TO THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

I was driven to the course I am pursuing by sheer desperation, 
as some of you, with whom I have exchanged confidences, well 
know. The motives which have been attributed to me, and the 
charges that have been madeagainst me,are as utterly false and 
foreign to/my nature as darkness is tq light.] You, at least, should 
not m i sj u dge~m e^ Y ou should know rne better, and you do. 
Even your bitter prejudice, and your disapprobation of the step I 
have taken, cannot make you believe me other than I am. You 
know that apostasy from Mormonism does not necessarily degrade 
a person, and sink them at once to the lowest depths of fnfamy. 

If, as is taught, and as I suppose you believe, I have lost the 
light of the gospel, and departed from "the faith once delivered 
to the saints," am I not rather deserving your compassion than 
your censure? Your own hearts and consciences must answer 
that. 

The women of Utah should know that I shall vindicate their 
rights, and defend their characters, at all times and in all places. 
Their sorrow has been my sorrow ; their cause is my cause still. 
My heart goes out to them all, but more especially to you. You 
have been my companions and my sisters in tribulation. Now 
our paths diverge. I go on the way that I have chosen alone, 
while you stay sorrowing together. I wish I had the power to 
influence you to throw off the fetters which bind you, and to walk 
triumphantly forth into the glories of a faith, whose foundation is 
in God the compassionate Father, whose principles are those of a 
tender mercy, whose ruling spirit is love. Alas ! I cannot do it ; 
but I pray that the good Father in His infinite mercy may open 
your eyes to His glory, and lead you forth His children to do His 

blessed will. 

ANN-ELIZA YOUNG. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE DAYS OF MY CHILDHOOD. WHY I EVER WAS A 
MORMON. 

An Important Question. Born in Mormonism. Telling my own Story. 

Joseph Smith's Mission. He preaches a New Dispensation. My 
Parents Introduced to the Reader. The Days before Polygamy. My 
Mother's Childhood. Learning under Difficulties. First Thoughts 
of Mormonism. Received into the Church. Persecution for the 
Faith. Forsaking all for the New Religion. First Acquaintance with 
the Apostle Brigham. His Ambitious Intrigues. His Poverty. His 
Mission-work. Deceptive Appearances. My Mother's Marriage. 
A Brief Dream of Happiness. That Sweet Word " Home." The 
Prophet Smith turns Banker. The " Kirtland Safety Society Bank." 
The Prophet and Sidney Rigdon Flee. A Moment of Hesitation. 
Another " Zion " Appointed. Losing All for the Church. Privation 
and Distress. Sidney Rigdon and his "Declaration of Independence." 

He Excites an Immense Sensation. Mobs Assemble and Fights 
Ensue. Lively Times among the Saints. The Outrages of the 
Danites 31 

CHAPTER II. 

FOUNDING THE NEW RELIGION. ASSASSINATION OF 
JOSEPH SMITH. 

The Saints expelled from Missouri. They cross the Mississippi into Illi- 
nois. Forming a Ne\y Settlement. Arrival in Quincy. A Kind 
Reception. The City of "Nauvoo" Founded. A New Temple Be- 
gun. Great Success of the Foreign Missions. The Saints flock from 
Europe. Thousands assemble in Nauvoo. The Prophet Joseph ap- 
plies for a City Charter. Nauvoo Incorporated. The Saints Petition 
the National Government. The Prophet visits Washington. His 
Interview with President Van Buren. He Coquets with Politics. He 
Stands on the Edge of the Precipice. The Saints in Danger. The 
Prophet Smith nominated for President. He tries to find the " Golden 
Way." Mormon Missionaries preach Politics. The Prophet looks 
towards the Pacific Coast. The Blind Obedience of the Saints. The 
Real Devotion of their Faith. Gentile Opinions. How Boggs was 
Shot in the Head. The Spiritual-Wife Doctrine. Dr. William La\r 
Protests. Terrible Charges against the Prophet. The "Nauvoo Ex- 
positor." The Prophet Surrenders. He is Murdered in Jail. . . 49 



14 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE "REVELATION ON CELESTIAL MARRIAGE." TROUBLE 
AMONG THE SAINTS. 

The Announcement of Polygamy. "Celestial Marriage." Joseph 
"sets himself Right." Mrs. Smith is.very Rebellious. Mrs. Smith's 
Adopted Daughter. The Prophet too fond of Fanny. Mrs. Smith 
takes her in Hand. Marital Storms. Oliver Cowdery called In. He 
goes and " Does Likewise." Joseph first Preaches Polygamy. The 
Saints Rebel. The Revelation given in Secret. Eleven "Adopted 
Daughters" sealed to the Prophet. A Domestic Squall in the Prophet's 
House. Nancy Rigdon Insulted by Joseph. Sidney's Zeal Grows 
Cold. How Celestial Marriage was Introduced. Mr. Noble begins to 
Build Up his Kingdom. The first Plural Marriage. False Position of 
the Second Wife. John C. Bennett. His Profligacy and Crimes. 
He Apostatizes and Writes a Book. Joseph Defends Himself. Apos- 
tasy of an Apostle's Wife. The Prophet in Difficulties. The Revela- 
tion on " Celestial Marriage." 65 

CHAPTER IV. 

AFTER JOSEPH'S DEATH. BRIGHAM YOUNG ELECTED 
PROPHET. 

Kindness of the Gentiles. Strangers in a Strange Land. My Parents 
join thg Saints in Nauvoo. They Purchase Land in the City. Are 
shamefully Defrauded. Joseph's Unfaithful Friends. My Parents left 
almost Destitute. I am Born in the Midst of Troubles. The Saints 
Bewildered. Who should Succeed Joseph? Sidney Rigdon's Claims 
to the Presidency. He returns to Nauvoo. Has Dreams and Visions. 
He Promises to " Pull Little Vic's Nose." The Apostles hear of the 
Prophet's Murder. They hasten to Nauvoo. Brigham begins his 
Successful Intrigues. He Settles Sidney Rigdon. An Extraordinary 
Trial. Brigham's Idea of Free Voting. Women's Suffrage in Utah. 
Why Brigham gave the Franchise to the Women. My own Experience 
as a Voter. Brigham Dictates what I'm to Do. I obey Quietly. How 
Sidney Rigdon was Deposed. Brigham Rules the Church. ... 87 



CHAPTER V. 

MY FATHER'S PLURAL-WIFE. CHILDHOOD IN POLYGAMY. 

Childhood in Mormondom. A striking Contrast. The Sorrows of my 
Earliest Years. How my Mother received Polygamy. Submitting to 
the Rod. Clinging to Love and Home. Resigning all for Religion. 
Strange ways of glorifying God. The Reward of Faithfulness. 
The Prophet Joseph imparts a New Religious Mystery. The Breaking- 
u of a Home. Fears of Rebellion. The Struggle of Faith against 



e trug 
. Brigh 



Nature. Seeking Rest, but finding None. Brigham's " Counsels." 
A New Wife Selected. My Parents enter into Polygamy. The New 
Bride, Elizabeth. The Marriage Ceremony. My Mother Sealed. 
She is to become a Queen. Domeetic Arrangements in Polygamy. 



Bearing the Cross. A First Wife's Sorrows. " Where does Polygamy 
'" The Mormon Husband ; his Position and Privileges. . . 98 



Hurt?' 



CONTENTS. 15 



CHAPTER VI. 

FORSAKING DEAR ZION. WE FIND A NEW HOME IN THE 
FAR WEST. 

A New Home in the Far West. Dangerous Neighbors. Some very Un- 
pleasant Stories. Seeking a New Home. Preparing to Depart. Life 
at Winter-Quarters. A Lively Time in the Temple. " Little Dancin* 
Missy." Bound for Salt Lake Valley. Life by the Way. Songs of 
the Saints. A False Prophecy. "The Upper California." Saintly 
Profanity. A Soul-stirring Melody. The Saints Excited. Beside 
the Camp-Fires. The Journey Ending. Entering Zion. The Val- 
ley of the Great Salt Lake. / no 

CHAPTER VII. 

OUR WELCOME TO "ZION." UTAH IN EARLY DAYS. 

Our Welcome to Zion. Housekeeping under Difficulties. Our First 
Home in Utah. The Second Wife's Baby. The Young Mother. A 
very Delicate Position. Doctors at a Discount. Brigham's Wife 
turns Midwife. An Obedient Woman. Taking Care of the Baby. 
Practising Economy. The Path of the Crickets. Too much Cracked 
Wheat. Building the First Mill. Brother Brigham Speechifies. 
Tea at Five Dollars per Pound. Californian Gold Discovered. Build- 
ing up Zion. Brigham's "Dress Reform." A Rather Queer Cos- 
tume. The Women " Assert " Themselves. Clara Decker Rebels. 
How the Prophet treats his Wives. I ask for some Furs, and am 
Snubbed. How the Prophet doled out his Silk. Eliza Snow and 
Fanny's Finery. The Prophet Snubs Eliza. He Combats the " Gre- 
cian Bend." Dancing among the Saints. Polygamy Denied. How 
the Saints received It. A Nice Little Family Arrangement. . . . 123 

CHAPTER VIII. 

TROUBLES UNDER THE NEW SYSTEM. 

The Sorrows of My Uncle. " It's a Hopeless Fix." A Woman's Argu- 
ment about Polygamy. My Mother "labors" with a First Wife. 
Wife No. 2 " Walks Off." Marrying a Widow and her Two Daughters. 

Mrs. Webb becomes a Wife No. 2. Wife No. i throws Brickbats 
into the Nuptial Chamber. She clears the Field of Extra Wives. 
"Building up the Kingdom." The Atrocious Villanies of Orson Pratt. 

How he has Seduced Innocent Girls. Brigham's Nephew Rebels. 
Trouble in the Prophet's Family. Forgetting a Wife's Face. A 
Woman who liked Polygamy 142 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE HARDSHIPS AND PERILS OF LIFE IN A NEW COUNTRY. 

"Killed by the Indians." How Apostates Disappeared. A Suspicious 
Fact. How Brigham "took care" of the People's Property. The 
Mormon Battalion. Brigham Pockets the Soldiers' Pay. How Pros- 
elytes were Made. Scapegraces sent on Mission. My Father goes to 



1 6 CONTENTS. 

Europe. How Missionaries' wives are Left. Collecting funds for the 
Missionaries. Brigham Embezzles the Money. The " Church Train." 
Joseph A. Young as a Missionary. His Misdoings in St. Louis. 
"What Brother Brown said of Him. The Perpetual Emigration Fund. 
How the Money was Raised. Cheating the Confiding Saints. 
How Brigham Manages the Missionaries' Property. The "Church" 
makes Whiskey for the Saints. The Missionaries bring home new 
Wives. How English Girls are Deceived. My First Baptism. . 160 

CHAPTER X. 

THE UTAH "REFORMATION." "A REIGN OF TERROR." 
THE BLOOD-ATONEMENT PREACHED. 

The Beginning of the Reformation. The Payson Saints Stirred Up. 
What""the Wicked " Saints" had been Doing Secretly. The Old Lady 
who stole a Radish. Confessing the sins of Others. A System of 
Espionnage. Brigham bids them "Go Ahead!" The Story of 
Brother Jeddy's Mule. The Saints receive a terrible Drubbing. 
Great Excitement in Mormondom. How the Saints were Catechized. 
Indelicate Questions are put to Everybody. My Mother and Myself 
Confess. The Labors of the Home Missionaries. Making Restitu- 
tion. Everybody is Re-baptized. _ " Cut off Below their Ears" The 
" Blood-Atonement " Preached. Murder recommended in the Tab- 
ernacle. Cutting their Neighbors' throats for Love. A "Reign of 
Terror" in Utah. Fearful Outrages Committed. Murdered " by ike 
Indians''? Brigham advises the Assassination of Hatten. Murder 
of Almon Babbitt, Dr. Robinson, the Parrishes, and Others. Blood- 
shed the Order of the Day 181 

CHAPTER XL 

"DIVINE EMIGRATION." THE PROPHET AND THE HAND- 
CART SCHEME. 

Early Emigration to Utah. The Prophet Meditates Economy. The 
"Divine Plan " Invented. How it was Revealed to the Saints. They 
Prepare to " Gather to Zion." How the Hand-Carts were Built. The 
Sufferings of the Emigrants. On Board Ship. An Apostolic Quar- 
rel. Base Conduct of the Apostle Taylor. The Saints arrive in Iowa 
City. How the Summer-time was Wasted.. Beginning a Terrible 
Journey. Suffering by the Way. " Going Cheap." They reach 
Council Bluffs. Levi Savage Behaves Bravely. Lying Prophecy of 
the Apostle Richards. How the Emigrants were Deceived. Brigham 
Young sends Help to Them. Two Apostles are Denounced. The 
Prophet in a Fix. He lays His own Sins on the Backs of Others. 
Preparing to Receive the Emigrants 200 

CHAPTER XII. 

BRIGHAM'S HAND-CART SCHEME, CONTINUED. FAILURE 
OF THE "DIVINE PLAN." 

Arrival of the First Train. Fearful Sufferings of the Emigrants. 
Women and Girls toiling at the Carts. The Prophet's "Experiment." 
Burying the Dead. Greater Mortality among the Men. Arrival of 



CONTENTS. 17 

Assistance. Hand-Cart Songs. Scenes in the Camp of the Emi- 
grants. How every Prophecy of the Elders was Falsified. How the 
Tennant Family were Shamelessly Robbed. One of the Vilest Swin- 
dles of the Prophet. Mr. Tennant's Unhappy Death. His Wife 
Views the "Splendid Property" Bought from "Brigham. Brigharrf 
Cheats her out of her Last Dollar. She is reduced to Abject Poverty. 
The Apostle Taylor Hastens to Zion. Richards and Spencer are 
made Scape-goats. Brigham evades all Responsibility. Utter Failure 
of the "Divine Plan." 213 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS' MASSACRE. " VENGEANCE IS 
MINE: I WILL REPAY." 

The Results of the Reformation. The Story of a Fiendish Deed. The 
People's Mouths Closed. How the Dreadful Crime was Hushed Up. 
Judge Cradlebaugh's Efforts to Unravel the Mystery. Who were the 
Guilty Ones? The Emigrants on the Way to Utah. The People For- 
bidden to sell them Food. They Arrive at Salt Lake City. Ordered 
to Break Camp. In need of Supplies. Who was Accountable ? Why 
the Mormons hated the Emigrants. The Story of Parley P. Pratt. 
How he Seduced McLean's Wife. Their Journey to Cedar City. 
Hungry and Weary, but still Pressing On. They Reach the Mountain 
Meadows. Attacked by " the Indians." The Emigrants Besieged. 
Dying of Thirst. Two little Girls shot by the Mormons. An Appeal 
for Help. The Last Hope of the Besieged. Waiting for Death. . 228 



CHAPTER XIV. 

BETRAYED AND MURDERED. TRIAL OF JOHN D. LEE. 

The "White Flag of Peace." Friends in the Distance. A Cruel De- 
ception. Mormon Fiends plan their Destruction. John D. Lee's 
Crocodile Tears. " Lay down your Arms, and Depart in Peace." A 
Horrible Suspicion. The Massacre. The Scene of Blood. No Mercy 
for Women and Children. Robbed and Outraged. Murdered by 
Lee's Own Hand. The Field of Slaughter. Dividing the Property 
of the Murdered Ones. Brigham Young Demands his Share. 
Haunted by Spectres. John D. Lee's Trial. Instigated by Brigham. 
No Justice in Utah. Lee's Confession made to Shield the False 
Prophet. Eight Mormon and Four Gentile Jurors. What was to be 
Expected? 245 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE BLOOD-ATONEMENT. THE DESTROYING ANGELS. 
DANITES AND THEIR DEEDS. 

Sweet, Saintly Sentiments. "He ought to have his Throat cut." Too 
many Gentiles About. The Spirit of "Blood-Atonement" Still Cher- 
ished. Present Position of Apostates. How they used to be "Cut 
Off." " Cutting Men off belo-w. the JEars." How " Accidents " hap- 



1 8 CONTENTS. 

pened to People who "Knew too Much." How Mr. Langford ex- 
pressed his Opinion too Freely. Mormon Friends kindly advise him 
to " Shut Up." "Be on your Guard!" Poetry among the Saints: 
a Popular Song. Human Sacrifices Proposed I How Saints were 
taught to Atone for their Sins. "Somebody" ready to shed their 
Blood. " The Destroying Angels:" who they were, and what they 
did. Saints told to do their own " Dirty Work." People who " ought 
to be Used up." Murdering by Prqxy! Brigham Young proved to 
be the Vilest of Assassins. Hideous Crimes of Porter Rockwell and 
Bill Hickman. How Rockwell tried to Murder Governor Boggs. 
Hickman Confesses his Atrocious Crimes. Six Men Robbed of 
$25,000, and then "Used Up." Another Frightful Assassination. A 
Council of Mormon Murderers. The "Church " orders the Assassina- 
tion of the Aikin Party 262 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FRIGHTFUL DEEDS OF BLOOD. - MORMONISM IN ITS TRUE 
LIGHT. 

The Yates Murder. Brigham and the Leading Mormons Arrested for the 
Crime. Mr. Yates accused of being a Spy. He is Arrested, and his 
Goods Seized. Bill Hickman takes possession of the Prisoner's Body. 
Brigham Embezzles his Gold. Another Saint steals his Watch. 
Hickman carries him to Jones's Camp. He is Murdered there while 
Asleep. Hickman asks Brigham for a Share of the Spoil. The 
Prophet refuses; sticks to every Cent. Hickman's "faith"' in Mor- 
monism is Shaken. His fellow-murderer Apostatizes Outright. How 
Bill was finally "paid in Wives." He tries a little matter of Seven- 
teen. Fiendish Outrage at San Pete. Bishop Snow contrives the 
Damnable Deed The fate of his Victims. A Mysterious Marriage. 
The Feather-beds and the Prophet. Mrs. Lewis comes to Live 
"with Me 277 



CHAPTER XVII. 

TROUBLES IN OUR OWN FAMILY. LOUISE COMES UPON 
THE SCENE. 

Increase of Polygamy. Marrying going on Day and Night. " Taking 
a Wife and Buying a Cow." A Faithful Husband in a Fix. How 
Men get "Married on the Sly." How Wives were Driven Crazy by 
their prongs. My Father Marries Considerably. He " Goes in " for 
the Hand-Cart Girls. Marries a Couple to Begin with. Takes a 
Third the same Month. Rapid Increase of his "Kingdom." How 
the Girls Chose Husbands. Instructing the New Wives in our Family. 
Louise doesn't want to Work. My Father goes on Mission Again. 
Louise Flirts and Rebels. She is Scolded and Repents. Goes to Bed 
and Weeps. Bestows her Goods on the Family. "Lizzie" Inter- 
views Her. She Poisons Herself. Is a " Long Time Dying." She 
gets a Strong Dose of Cayenne. Is sent on her Travels. The Last 
we Heard of Her 250 



CONTENTS. 19 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

INCREASE OF POLYGAMY. MIXED-UP CONDITION OF 
MATRIMONIAL AFFAIRS. 

Christ alleged to be a Polygamist. The Men to save the Women. Mak- 
ing " Tabernacles " for little Spirits. The Story of certain Ladies who 
were Deceived. They Discover a Mystery. Their Fate. Orson 
Hyde's False Prophecy. Throwing Mud at Apostates. Death pre- 
ferred to Polygamy. Frightful Intermarriages. Married his Mother- 
in-law. A Man who Married his Wife's Grandmother, Mother, and 
All. Marrying a Half-Sister. Marrying Nieces and Sisters. How 
Emigrant Girls were Married Off. Frightful Story of a Poor Young 
Girl. Polygamy and Madness. One Woman's Love too Little. 
How English Girls were Deceived. How Claude Spenser committed a 
Damnable Wrong. A Girl who was Martyred for her Religion. How 
the Bereaved Husband Acted. A Man with thirty-three Children. 
"They never cost him a Cent." A Many-Wived Saint. Mixed-up 
Condition of Marital Affairs 306 

CHAPTER XIX. 

THE MYSTERIES OF POLYGAMY. WHAT THE WIVES 
COULD TELL. 

Incestuous Intermarriages. A Widow and her Daughters married to the 
same Man. "Marrying my Pa." The " U. S." Government Con- 
niving at Mormon Iniquities. Beastly Conduct of Delegate George Q^ 
Cannon. Polygamists legislating for Bigamists. Mother and Daugh- 
ter fighting for the same Man ! it is Wicked to Live with an Old Wife. 
A Toting lover Ninety Years Old! A Bride Eleven Years Old. 
Brides of Thirteen and Fourteen Years ! I receive an "Offer "when 
Twelve Years Old! Old Ladies at a Discount: Young Women at a 
Premium. Respect for the Silver Crown of Age. Heber gives his 
Opinion. " Why is She making such a Fuss?" Seeing One's Hus- 
band Once a Year. The Rascality of Orson Hyde towards his Wife. 
When Rival Wives make Friends. A Very Funny Story about an 
Apostle and his Wife. Rights of the First Wife: Brigham Young in a 
Fix. He treats an Early Wife to a Dance. Amelia in the Shade. 
The Prophet becomes Frisky. Poor, neglected Emmeline. How Po- 
lygamy was once Denied. A Mistake which a French Lady Made. 
Milk for Babes . 320 

CHAPTER XX. 

BRIGHAM BUILDS WAGONS BY " INSPIRATION." THE 
CHURCH SETS UP A WHISKEY-STORE. 

Saying "Yes" under Difficulties. A Woman who Meant to have her 
Way. Two Company: Three None. Building Wagons by Inspira- 
tion. My Father despatched to Chicago. He gets rid of his New 
Wives. My Brother sent to the Sandwich Islands. My Mother tells 
her own Story. She Returns to Salt Lake City to see my Father. 
Wifely Considerations. She finds two other Ladies at her Husband's 
Bedside. He likes a good deal of Wives about Him! A Heart dead 



2O CONTENTS. 

to Love. Brigham "asks no odds of Uncle Sam or the Devil." He 
proclaims Martial Law. Fiery Speeches in the Tabernacle. Prepar- 
ing for War. Government Troops Arrive. The Saints quit Salt Lake 
City. The Church Distillery. Brigham shamelessly Robs my Father. 

He fills his own Pockets. My Father, being without Funds, takes 
his Sixth Wife 333 

CHAPTER* XXI. 

GOING THROUGH THE "ENDOWMENT-HOUSE." ! TAKE 
THE MYSTERIOUS BATHS. 

No Physic among the Saints. I am taken Sick. Heber C. Kimball 
recommends "Endowments." How Brigham Murdered his little 
Granddaughter. The Prophet wants a Doctor. Being " administered " 
To. I am Re-baptized. Receive my Endowments. How Saintly 
Sins are Washed Away. Undignified Conduct of Elders. The Order 
of Melchisedec. How I was "Confirmed." To become a Celestial 
Queen. I go down to the Endowment-House. The Mysterious Cer- 
emonies Described. The Veil at last Lifted. The Secrets of the 
Endowment-House Exposed. I enter the Bath. Miss Snow Washes 
Me. She Anoints Me All Over. I dress in a Bed-gown. The " Pe- 
culiar Garment" of the Saints. What the Mormon Girls do about It. 

"Going through" without a Husband. "A Great Shouting for 
Sarah !" 349 

CHAPTER XXII. 

WE CARRY ON THE ENDOWMENT DRAMA. I AM FULLY 
INITIATED. 

In the Endowment-House. How the " Kings and Priests " appeared in 
their Shirts. The Poor Fellows "feel Bad!" The "Gods" hold a 
Conversazione. Michael is sent down to Earth. The " Tree of Life." 

How Raisins grew instead of Apples. Not good to be Alone. The 
Rib abstracted and little Eve made. The Devil dressed in "Tights." 
John D. Lee once a Devil. Eve's Flirtation. She eats Forbidden 
Fruit. Tempts her Husband. Fig-leaves come into Fashion. We 
hide in Holes and Corners. The Devil is Cursed and we are Lectured. 

The Second Degree. Story of a Pugnacious Woman. The Terri- 
ble Oaths of the Endowment-House. Pains and Penalties. Signs 
and Grips. " Good-bye ! " Brother Heber gives me Advice. . . . 362 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE PROPHET MAKES LOVE TO ME. I HAVE OTHER 
VIEWS. 

The Prophet Casts his Eye on Me. He Objects to mv Beaux. " A Low 
Set Anyway." I Didn't Want to Marry the Prophet. He Considers 
Himself an Irresistible Lover. My First Drive with the Prophet. I 
Join the Theatrical Corps. How We "Got Up" our Parts. How 
" Fun Hall " was Built. The Prophet Erects a Theatre out of Temple 
Funds. How Julia Deane, the Actress, Fascinated the Prophet. How 
Brigham Cheated the Actors in his Theatre. The Girls Grumble over 
their Scanty Fare. They want Something Good to Eat. My New 
Beau. Love at First Sight. I am Engaged to My First Husband. 373 



CONTENTS. 21 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

MY FIRST MARRIAGE. A LIFE'S MISTAKE. 

My First Marriage. Wedded to James Dee. Marriage Rites in the En- 
dowment-House. The way in which Plural Wives are Taken. Brig- 
ham sends for Me to help in the Theatre. Repenting of Matrimony. 
I get tired of it in a Month. Cruel Conduct of my Husband. He 
flirts considerably with the Young Girls. I am greatly Disgusted and 
furiously Jealous. He threatens to take another Wife. The Owner- 
ship of Women in Utah. How Newspaper Reporters are humbugged 
by Brigham. How Visitors to Salt Lake are Watched. The Proph- 
et's Spies. How People are misled about Utah Affairs. The Miseries 
of the Women Overlooked 387 

CHAPTER XXV. 

EARLY MARRIED LIFE. MY HUSBAND AND MY MOTHER. 

My early married Life. We go to live with my Mother. Incompatibility 
of Temper. How my Mother had opposed our Marriage. My Hus- 
band does not Admire Her. He goes after the Girls. I don't like it 
at All. I become extremely angry with Him. He is advised to " in- 
crease his Kingdom." How Promises to Wives are broken by Mormon 
Men. How Women are Snubbed and Undervalued. I become anxious 
and Watchful. How Heber comforted his Wives. My Husband sub- 
jects me to personal Violence. He is afraid of Results. My first 
Baby is Born. Zina Young marries into Polygamy. Contrast be- 
tween Mormon and Gentile Husbands. "The Bull never cares for the 
Calves." My Husband nearly strangles Me. I leave him, and go to 
my Parents. Brigham gives me some good Advice. I obtain a 
Divorce. I rejoice at being free Again 398 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

AFTER MY DIVORCE. AFFAIRS AT HOME. 

After my Divorce from Dee. "Is Polygamy good to Eat?" Curious 
Experiences among the Saints. A Man who thought his Heart was 
Broken. How Two Wives Rebelled. The Husband in a Fix. He 
Runs Away from Home. Dismisses his Plural Wife. Being "Sealed " 
to Old Women for Eternity. Nancy Chamberlain's Story. Who is to 
be Brigham's O^een in Heaven? An Old Wife Dresses up as a Ghost. 
How Brother Shaw Replenished his Exchequer. The Battles be- 
tween mv Father's Wives. My Mother Enjoys his Troubles. The 
Story of "a Turkey. A First Wife Asserts Her Rights. My Life at 
South Cottonwood. I Receive Offers of Marriage 412 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

A WALK WITH THE PROPHET. HE MAKES LOVE TO ME. 

How Brigham Travels through the Territory. Triumphant Receptions 
Everywhere. Trying to Establish the "Order of Enoch." How the 
Prophet Insulted his Faithful Followers. " Rheumatism " in the Tem- 



22 CONTENTS. 



per. Grand Doings in the Settlements. We go to meet the Prophet. 

How the Saints were Lectured in the Bowery. How Brigham gave 
Howard a Piece of Land. Howard Insulted by the Prophet. Over- 
looking the Prophet's Lies. Van Etten becomes Brigham's " Friend." 

He Helps Him to Steal a Hundred Sheep. He makes a Big Haul, 
and Escapes to Canada. The Prophet Ogles Me during Service-Time. 

We Take a Walk Home Together. He Compliments My Good 
Looks. Makes Love to Me. Matrimonial Advice. Brigham Wishes 
Me to Become His Wife 426 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

HOW BRIGHAM YOUNG FORCED ME TO MARRY HIM. 

Brigham's Offer of Marriage. I think the Prophet too Old. My Parents 
are Delighted with the Honor. They Try to Persuade Me. I am 
Very Obstinate. Arguing the Matter. How Brigham Found Means 
to Influence Me. My Brothers get into Trouble. The Prophet and 
the Telegraph-Poles. He takes a Nice Little Contract. Then Sells it 
to his Son. Bishop Sharp makes a few Dollars out of It. My 
Brother Engages in the Work. He Becomes Involved in Debts and 
Difficulties. Brigham Threatens to Cut Him Off for Dishonesty. 
My Mother Tries to Excuse Him. Hemmed In on All Sides, I Deter- 
mine to Make One Last Appeal. I fail, and Consent to Marry Him. 440 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

MY MARRIAGE WITH BRIGHAM YOUNG. HOW THE OTHER 
WIVES RECEIVED ME. 

The Prophet Rejoices at my Yielding. My Family Restored to Favor. 
The Webbs Reconstructed. My Prophet-Lover Comes to See Me. 
He Goes Courting " on the Sly," for Fear of Amelia. We are Married 
Secretly in the Endowment-House. I am Sent Home Again. Brig- 
ham Establishes me in the City. Limited Plates and Dishes. We 
Want a Little More Food. The Prophet's " Ration-Day." How the 
Other Wives Received Me. Mrs. Amelia Doesn't Like Me. How the 
Wives' of the Prophet Worry and Scold Him. The Prophet Breaks his 
Word. My Father Remembers the Thousand Dollars 455 

CHAPTER XXX. 

THE PROPHET'S FAMILY CIRCLE. HIS WIVES AND 
CHILDREN. 

The Prophet Marries his First and Legal Wife. How she lives, and how 
Brigham has treated Her. The Prophet's Eldest Son. The Story of 
his Life. His Wives and Families. Mary and Maggie. The Favor- 
ite Wife, Clara. Young " Briggy " and his Expectations. What the 
Saints think of Him. His Domestic Joys. How he visited me when 
Sick, and Scolded the old Gentleman. Brigham and "Briggy "make 
love to Lizzie. Briggy Wins. "John W." He neglects his " King- 
dom." " Won by the Third Wife." The Story of Lucy C. The 
Prophet's Daughters. Alice and Luna. Miss Alice's Flirtations. 
Sweet Language between Father and Daughter. Tragic Death of 
Alice Clawson 468 



CONTENTS. 23 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE WIVES OF THE PROPHET. BROTHER BRIGHAM'S 
DOMESTIC TROUBLES. 

The Wives of the Prophet. Lucy Decker. A Mysterious Disappear- 
ance. Lucy's Boys. Brigham's Wife, Clara. Her Busy Household 
Work. About the Girls. Harriet Cook. She Expresses Unpleasant 
Opinions. Brigham is frightened of Her. He Keeps out of the Way. 

Amelia and the Sweetmeats. How one of Brigham's Daughters 
Scandalized the Saints. How Mrs. Twiss Manages the Prophet's House. 

The Work a Woman can Do. Martha Bowker and her silent Work. 

Sweet and saintly Doings of the Prophet. Concerning Harriet Bar- 
ney. The Wife who bi Served Seven Years " for a Husband. Another 
English Wife of the Prophet. The " Young Widow of Nauvoo." . 484 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE PROPHET'S FAVORITE WIFE. HOW HE CONDUCTED 
HIS LOVE AFFAIRS. 

The Prophet's Favorite Wife, Amelia. How Brigham made Love in the 
Name of the Lord. How he won an Unwilling Bride. A Lady with 
a Sweet Temper. How she Kicked a Sewing-Machine down the 
Prophet's Stairs. She has a new House built for Her. Rather Ex- 
pensive Habits. Her Pleasant Chances for the Future. Mary Van 
Cott Cobb A Former Love of the Prophet's. Miss Eliza-Roxy 
Snow. The Mormon Poetess. Joseph Smith's Poetic Widow. Ver- 
sification of the Saints. Mrs. Augusta Cobb. Emily Partridge. . 497 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

THE DEAD WIVES OF THE PROPHET. HE NEVER WAS 
KNOWN TO SHED A TEAR. 

The Discarded Favorite. The Story of Emmeline Free. A Stupendous 
Humbug. A " Free" Opinion of Mormonism. Amelia comes upon 
the Scene. How Brigham Insulted Emmeline Free. Brigham is 
Ashamed of his Cowardice. I tell him a little of my Mind. Joseph 
A. Expresses his Opinion. Apologizes for his Father. Death of 
Emmeline Free. The Story of Clara Chase. The Prophet's Maniac 
Wife. Ellen Rockwood, and the Cause of her Neglect. A Wife who 
was visited once in Six Months. Margaret Alley. How the Prophet 
treated his Dead Wife. He steals her Children's Property. How he 
Scandalized another Wife, and sent her Home. He " Never shed a 
tear at a Wife's Death." 506 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

THE PROPHET AT HOME. HOW HE LOOKS, LIVES, AND 
ACTS. MORMON PHILANTHROPY AND EDUCATION. 

Brigham at Forty-five and at Seventy-five. Slipping the Yoke. The 
Salt Lake Tribune. Books on Mormonism. Prophetic Philanthropy. 

The New Temple. Paying the Workmen. The Tabernacle. Ad- 



24 CONTENTS. 

vantages of the Presidency. Free Schools and Liberal Education. 
Sharp Practice. The Rich and the Poor. Unconscious Sarcasm. 
Looking into the Future. The Spectacles of Ignorance. Personal 
Habits. The Prophet's Barber. Dinner at the Lion House. The 
Good Provider. Helping Herself. Prophetic Cunning. Evening 
Devotions. A Gift in Prayer. Advice to the Deity. Fatherless 
Children. The Bee Hive. Monogamist vs. Polygamist 517 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

BRIGHAM AS A FARMER. MY NEW HOUSE. TAKING 
BOARDERS. 

One Year after Marriage. Life at the Farm. House-keeping Extraordi- 
nary. Bread and Milk Dinners. Brigham Tries to Catch us Nap- 
ping. Hours of Labor. Dejection. My New House. Parlor 
Stairs. " Wells Wanted." My Mother receives Notice to Quit. My 
Elder Brother Pays her Board. Failing Faith. Taking Boarders. 
The Prophet's Contemptible Meanness. Brigham's Neglect. Rev. 
Mr. Stratton. I open my Heart. The New Religion. Woman's 
Sphere. First Glimpses of the Outer World. Forming Resolu- 
tions 532 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

BREAKING THE YOKE. I LEAVE MY HOME. 

The Workings of Destiny. A Noble Lawyer. A Small Stove and a 
Large Family. Last Interview with Brigham. A Startling Proposal. 

Sickness and Gentile Care. Brigham's Police. A Moral Thunder- 
bolt. My Third Baptism. A Religious Farce. I Decide to Escape. 

A Memorable Day. Removing in Forty Minutes. The Walker 
House. Among the Gentiles. A Perilous Situation. New Hopes. 
Interviewed by Reporters. Unwelcome Notoriety. A Touching Let- 
ter. A Visit from my Father. The Paper War. Overshooting the 
Mark. Sueing for a Divorce. A Tempting Offer, $15,000 and my 
Freedom. The Prophet Astonished 542 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

THE DIVORCE SUIT. PROCEEDINGS IN COURT. BRIG- 
HAM'S AFFIDAVIT. 

I bring an Action against the Prophet. My " Complaint" against Him. 

What the "Complaint" Stated. My Birth and Early Life. My 
Marriage with the Prophet. Exile to Brigham's Farm. Cause of 
Action for Divorce. The Question of Alimony. My Own Affidavit. 

Corroborative Testimony. Opinion of Judge McKean. Brigham 
Young's Reply and Affidavit. The Prophet states the Value of his 
Property. Wonderful Difference of Opinion. Proceedings in Court. 
Judge McKean Sums Up. Order for Allowance and Alimony. - 
Judge McKean Removed. His Order Quashed by the New Judge.-- 
The latest Proceedings 553 



CONTENTS. 25 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

MY ESCAPE FROM SALT LAKE CITY. MY PUBLIC CAREER. 

Thoughts of the Future. The Gentile Papers. A Private Audience at the 
Walker House. Hopes and Fears. I Resolve to Take the Platform. 
Sneers and Ridicule. Brigham is made Acquainted with my Plans. 
Packing under Difficulties. Mj Perilous Escape from Utah. A Noble 
Woman. Arrival at Laramie. Denver. My First Public Lecture. 
A Grand Success. Brigham at Work. A Scandalous Article in the 
Chicago Times. A Mean Lawyer. Lecture at Boston. Kindness 
of the Members of Boston Press. Opposed by George Q^ Cannon. 
Washington Lecture a Success. First Glimps'es of the True Faith. 
Conversion to Christianity 566 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

CHURCH GOVERNMENT. MORMON APOSTLES. - THE OR- 
DER OF ENOCH. 

Mormon Administration. The Earthly Trinity. Filling Vacancies. 
Mormon Apostles. Polygamy made Profitable. The Seventy. Two- 
Dollar Blessings. Astounding Promises. Bishops and Spies. The 
'Order of Enoch. All things in Common. An Apostolic Row. 
How Enoch Works. A Stupid Telegram. Logic Extraordinary. A 
Gigantic Swindle. Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution. Brig- 
harn's Revelations. The Saints Laugh in their Sleeves. "It paj's to 
be a Mormon." Beginning to see through It. The Apostate Pres- 
ident .^r^r-r-rr. . . . -. ^. 577 




THE CONDITION O'KCrRMOTTOMEN. HIGH AND LOW 
LIFE IN POLYGAMY. 

Increasing Light. The Equality of the Sexes. Exaggeration Impossi- 
ble. Likely Saviours. The Present Condition of Mormon Women. 
The Prospects for the Future. Polygamy Bad for Rich and Poor. A 
Happy Family. The Happiness Marred. Sealed for Time Only. 
Building on Another Man's Foundation. The New Wife. How the Old 
One Fared. The Husband's Death a Relief. Asa Calkins's English 
Mission. What Came of It. How to Get Rich. Two Sermons from 
One Text. Dividing the Spoil. No Woman Happy in Polygamy. 589 

CHAPTER XLI. 

MY RETURN TO UTAH. SECRET OF BRIGHAM'S POWER. 
UTAH'S FUTURE. 

I Return to Utah. Reception at the Walk,er House. Greeting old 
Friends. My Love for the Place. Six Lectures in the Territory. 
Brigham's Daughters make Faces at me. My Father and Mother in 
the Audience. The Half not told. Multitudes Pleading for Freedom. 
Eastern Newspaper Reports. Indiscretion. The Poland Bill. 
Increase of Polygamy. The Secrets of Brigham's Power. The Pulpit 
and Press on Mormonism. The Salt Lake City Tribune. A Word to 
the Sufferers. Calls for Help. The Future of Utah 598 




PAGE 

Portrait of Ann Eliza Young (Steel}, Frontispiece. 

Turned out of Doors, 31 

Preaching the New Religion, -. 37 

Joseph Smith, the Founder of Mormonism, 40 

The Night of Terror, 46 

Nauvoo Temple, .... 49 

Burning of the Newspaper Office, 62 

Assassination of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum, 64 

Emma Smith, "The Elect Lady," 65 

The Indignant Wife, 69 

The First Plural Marriage, 72 

Arrival at Quincy, Illinois, 87 

Sidney Rigdon, 90 

My First Vote, 95 

My Father's First Plural Marriage, , 98 

" Do you think /have no Trials?" 107 

Winter Quarters, no 

A Blessing from Brigham, 115 

Singing the Rallying Song, 120 

The Journey to Zion. Crossing the Plains, 121 

Brigham Imitating the " Grecian Bend," 123 

Anointing the Sick with Oil, 125 

The Deseret Costume, 130 

Brigham Refuses my Request, 133 

The Ball in the Bowery, 137 

The Dissatisfied Wife, 142 

The Apostle Orson Pratt, "The Champion of Polygamy," 150 

Joseph Young, Brother of Brigham, and President of the Seventies, 15.1 



28 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Brigham's Brotherly Love, 153 

Discouraging Apostasy, 160 

Brigham Seizing Cattle for the Church, 163 

Apostle Lorenzo Snow, 166 

Apostle C. C. Rich, 166 

Apostle A. Carrington, 166 

Apostle Joseph F. Smith, '.' 166 

Apostle Erastus Snow, 166 

Joseph A. Young Preparing for Missionary Work, 171 

E. Hunter, Presiding Bishop Mormon Church, 172 

Doing Missionary Work, 178 

Awakening the Saints, 181 

"Scene during Reformation," 185 

Dealing with a Weak Brother, 191 

Brutal Assault upon Mrs. Jarvis, 193 

Blood Atonement. Scene during Reformation, 198 

The Emigrants' Landing-Place, " Castle Gardens, New York," ... 200 

Apostle Franklin D. Richards, " Husband of Ten Wives," 202 

Mormon Emigrants on Shipboard, 205 

The Hand-Cart Train, 210 

"Some will Push, and some will Pull," 213 

Relief in Sight, 215 

Arrival of " Hand-Cart Companies" at Salt Lake City, 221 

"Vengeance is Mine." 228 

Parley P. Pratt, 235 

Assassination of Parley P. Pratt, 237 

John D. Lee (Has nineteen wives and sixty-four children), 238 

The Murder of Two Little Girls, 241 

Murdered by Lee's Own Hand, 245 

Murdering the Women and Children, 247 

The Mountain Meadows Massacre, 248 

Scene after the Masaacre, 249 

Using up an Apostate, 262 

Brigham's li Destroying Angel," "Port" Rockwell, 269 

Murder of the Aiken Party, 272 

Brigham Young's Farm-House, 277 

Bill Hickman, Brigham's "Destroying Angel," 279 

Brigham Wooing Widow Lewis, 284 

Only a Wife out of the Way, 290 

Life a Burden 293 

Bird's-Eye View of Salt Lake City, 295 

The New Addition, 297 

Scene in Polygamy. Greeting the Favorite, 305 

The Maniac Wife, 306 

The Happy Home of a Polygamist, 313 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 2p 

PAGE 

Broken-Hearted, 317 

Orson Hyde and Forgotten Wife, 320 

Apostle George Q^ Cannon, Member of Congress (Has four Wives 

and thirteen Children), 322 

Apostle Orson Hyde, 324 

Brigham in a Quandary, 327 

Apostle John Taylor (Husband of Six Wives), 330 

Mormons Burning a Government Train, 333 

A Good Deal of Wives. Too much Attention, 339 

Remains of Adobe Defences, 341 

Mormons Selling Provisions to United States Troops 343 

Brigham's Folly, "The Prairie Schooner," 347 

Taking my Endowments Behind the Curtain 349 

Mormon Baptism, 352 

Mormon Confirmation, 354 

The Endowment House, 356 

The Devil of the Endowment House, 362 

Apostle Willard Woodruff ("Timothy Broadbrim"), 364 

Receiving the Endowments, 366 

Apostle Heber C. Kimball, 371 

My First Appearance in Brigham's Theatre 373 

My First Ride with Brigham, 376 

Brigham's Theatre, 379 

A Life of Unhappiness, 387 

Family Jars, 398 

My Baby Boy, 403 

Strangled by my Husband, 407 

"Grandma, what is Polygamy?" 412 

No Peace with Polygamy, 415 

Old Farm- House at Cottonwood, 422 

Brigham on his Travels, 426 

Brigham Preaching at South Cottonwood, 430 

Breaking the News, 440 

Chauncey G. Webb ("My Father"), 444 

Eliza C. Webb ("My Mother"), 445 

Brigham's Stormy Interview with my Mother, 452 

Amelia tries to Keep Me Out, 455 

Amelia's Display of Temper, 463 

Insulted by her Father 468 

Joseph A. Young, 471 

Maggie Young (Joseph A.'s Discarded Wife), 472 

"Briggy" (The Prophet's Successor), 474 

John W. Young, 477 

Lucy Rebellious, 479 

Kissing Libbie Good Night, 4o 



3O ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Mrs. Alice Young Clawson (Brigham's Eldest Daughter), 482 

Emmeline Serving Brigham and Amelia, 484 

Clara Decker (Wife of Brigham), 486 

The Lion House (Brigham Young's Residence), 490 

The Lion House and Brigham's Offices, 493 

Brigham Looks Amazed, .; 497 

Amelia Folsom (Brigham's Favorite Wife), 498 

Miss Eliza R. Snow (Mormon Poetess), 501 

Zitia D. Huntington (Wife of Brigham), 502 

Zina Williams (Brigham's Daughter), 503 

A Little Conversation with Brigham, 506 

Waiting for Brigham to Keep his Promise, . . . 509 

The Disgraced Wife, 515 

Dinner at the Lion House, 517 

Brigham Young (Full Page Portrait), 520 

Mormon Temple (now Building), 523 

Interior of Tabernacle on Sundays, 524 

Family Prayers at Bee Hive House, 529 

Toiling for Brigham, 532 

Relating my Story to Mr. and Mrs. Stratton, 540 

Alone at the Hotel, 542 

Carrying my Furniture to the Auction Room, 546 

Excitement in Salt Lake City, 548 

Brigham Fined and Imprisoned for Contempt of Court, 553 

Flight at Night, 566 

Escape from Salt Lake City, 570 

View of Salt Lake City, showing Tabernacle, 571 

The Co-operative Store, 577 

George A. Smith, First Counsellor, 578 

Daniel H. Wells, Second Counsellor, 579 

The Old Mormon Tabernacle, 580 

Mormon Tithing Store, and Office of Deseret News, 585 

View of Brigham's Canal, 587 

Polygamy in High and Low Life, 589 

Driven from Home, 594 

Receiving my Friends at the Walker House, . 598 

Reception at Salt Lake City, . 599 

"Not Afraid of the Poland Bill," 603 



CHAPTER I. 



THE DAYS OF MY CHILDHOOD. WHY I EVER WAS A 
MORMON. 

An Important Question. Born in Mormonism. Telling my own Story. 

Joseph Smith's Mission. He Preaches a New Dispensation. 
My Parents Introduced to the Reader. The Days before Polygamy. 

My Mother's Childhood. Learning under Difficulties. First 
Thoughts of Mormonism. Received into the Church. Persecution 
for the Faith. Forsaking All for the New Religion. First Acquaint- 
ance with the Apostle Brigham. His Ambitious Intrigues. His 
Poverty. His Mission-work. Deceptive Appearances. My Moth- 
er's Marriage. A Brief Dream of Happiness. That sweet word 
" Home." The Prophet Smith turns Banker. The " Kirtland Safety 
Society Bank." The Prophet and Sidney Rigdon Flee. A Moment 
of Hesitation. Another " Zion " Appointed. Losing All for the 
Church. Privation and Distress. Sidney Rigdon and his " Declara- 
tion of Independence." He Excites an Immense Sensation. Mobs 
Assemble, and Fights Ensue. Lively Times among the Saints. 
The Outrages of the Danites. 

URING the somewhat 
public career which I 
have led since my apostasy 
from the Mormon Church, 
I have often been asked 
why I ever became a 
Mormon. Indeed, I have 
scarcely entered a town 
where this question has 
not been put by some one, 
almost on the instant of 
my arrival. It is the first 
query of the newspaper 
reporter, and the anxious inquiry of the clergymen, who 
with one accord, without regard to creed or sect, have bid- 




32 AN IMPORTANT QUESTION. 

den me welcome into the light of Christian faith, from out 
the dark bondage of fanaticism and bigotry ; and I have 
often answered it at the hospitable table of some enter- 
tainer, who has kindly given me shelter during a lecture 
engagement. 

Curiosity, interest, desire to gratify a wondering public 
by some personal items concerning me, are the different 
motives which prompt the question ; but surprise is almost 
without exception betrayed when I tell them that I was born 
in the faith. Sometimes I think that the people of the out- 
side world consider it impossible that a person can be born 
in Mormonism ; they regard every Mormon as a deluded 
proselyte to a false faith. 

It is with a desire to impress upon the world what Mor- 
monism really is ; to show the pitiable condition of its wo- 
men, held in a system of bondage that is more cruel than 
African slavery ever was, since it claims to hold body and 
soul alike ; to arouse compassion for its children and youth, 
born and growing up in an atmosphere of social impurity ; 
and, above all, to awaken an interest in the hearts of the 
American people that shall at length deepen into indigna- 
tion, that I venture to undertake the task of writing this 
book. I have consecrated myself to the work, not merely 
for my own sake, but for the sake of all the unhappy wo- 
men of Utah, who, unlike myself, are either too powerless 
or too timid to break the fetters which bind them. 

I intend to give a truthful picture of Mormon life ; to veil 
nothing which should be revealed, even though the recital 
should be painful to me at times, coming so close, as it neces- 
sarily must, to my inmost life, awakening memories which 
I would fain permit to remain slumbering, and opening old 
wounds which I had fondly hoped were healed. Neither 
shall I intentionally tinge any occurrence with the slightest 
coloring of romance ; the real is so vivid and so strange 
that I need 'have no recourse to the imaginary. 

All the events which I shall relate will be some of my 



BORN IN MORMONISM. 33 

own personal experiences, or the experience of those so 
closely connected with me that they have fallen directly 
under my observation, and for whose truth I can vouch 
without hesitation. To tell the story as it ought to be told, 
I must begin at the very beginning of my life ; for I have 
always been so closely connected with these people that I 
could not easily take up the narrative at any intermediate 
point. 

I was born at Nauvoo, Illinois, on the I3th of Septem- 
ber, 1844, and was the youngest child and only surviving 
daughter of a family of five children. 

My father and mother were most devout Mormons, and 
were among the very earliest of Joseph Smith's converts. 
They have, indeed, been closely identified with the Church 
of the Latter-Day Saints almost from its first establish- 
ment. They have followed it in all its wanderings, have 
been identified with its every movement, and their fortunes 
have risen or fallen as the Church has been prosperous or 
distressed. They were enthusiastic adherents of Joseph 
Smith, and devoted personal friends of Brigham Young, 
until he, by his own treacherous acts, betrayed their friend- 
ship, and himself broke every link that had united them 
to him, even that of religious sympathy, which arnpng this 
people is the most difficult to sunder. 

My father, Chauncey G. Webb, was born in 1812, in 
Hanover, Chatauqua County, N. Y. He first heard the 
Mormon doctrine preached in 1833, only a very short time 
after Joseph Smith had given the Book of Mormon to the 
world, and had announced himself as another Messiah, 
chosen by "the Lord" to restore true religion to the world, 
to whom also had been revealed all the glories of "the 
kingdom " that should yet be established on the earth, and 
over which he was to be, by command from the Lord, both 
temporal and spiritual ruler. 

They the old folks embraced the new faith imme- 
diately, and prepared for removal to Kirtland, Ohio, which 
3 



34 THE FIRST RELIGION OF w THE SAINTS.** 

was to be the nucleus of the new church, the "Zion" given 
by revelation to Joseph Smith as the gathering-place of the 
Saints. They were naturally anxious to gather all their chil- 
dren into the fold, and they urged my father, with tearful, 
prayerful entreaties, to accompany them to the city of refuge 
prepared for the faithful followers of the Lord and His 
prophet Smith. 

Like many young people, he had at that time but little 
sympathy with religion. He had given but very little 
thought to the peculiar beliefs of the different churches. 
This world held so much of interest to him, that he had 
considered but very little the mysteries of the future, and 
the world to come. Of a practical, and even to some ex- 
tent sceptical turn of mind, he was inclined to take things 
as they_rfime to him r and was not easily influenced by the 
rinarvellQjis__ox supernatural.^ If left to himself, he might, 
probably, never have embraced Mormonism ; but he yielded 
to the entreaties of his parents, and joined the Mormon 
Church more as an expression of filial regard than of deep 
reltgtogjT conviction, /'i'he Saints wef~ at thaCTime 1m 
humble, spi ri tu al-mi n o3 , God-fearing, law-abiding people, 
holding their new belief with sincerity and enthusiasm, 
and proving their .position, to their own satisfaction at least, 
from the Bible. f/They had not then developed the spirit 
of intolerance which has since characterized them, and 
tHough they were touched with religious fanaticfsm, they 
were honest in their very bigotry. The Mormon Church, 
in its earliest days, cannot be fairly judged by the Mormon 
Church of the present time, which retains none of its early 
simplicity, and which seems to have lost sight entirely of 
the fundamental principles on which it was built. My 
father, although not entering fully into the spirit of his 
new religion at that early period of his saintly experience, 
yet found nothing of the insincerity which he claimed to 
have met in other beliefs ; and having embraced the new 
faith, he was prepared to hold to it, and to cast his lot with 



MY MOTHER'S CONVERSION. 35 

it. So he went with his parents to Kirtland, in 1834, where 
he found the first romance of his life in the person of Eliza 
'Churchill, my mother, then a young girl of seventeen, just 
blossoming into fairest womanhood. 

Never was there a greater mental or spiritual contrast 
between two persons. My mother was a religious enthu- 
siast, almost a mystic. She believed implicitly in personal 
revelation, and never doubted but that the Mormon faith p 
came directly from "the Lord." She "saw visions and 
dreamed dreams," and" at times it would have taken but 
little persuasion to have made her believe herself inspired. 
It was a religious nature like hers, dreamy, devoted, and 
mystical, that, in other conditions and amid other sur- 
roundings, had given to France a Joan of Arc. It must 
have been the attraction of opposite natures that brought 
together in so close a relationship the practical, shrewd, 
somewhat sceptical man, and the devoted, enthusiastic, 
religious girl. It was probably the very contrast that made 
the young man feel such tenderness and care for the home- 
less orphan girl, and made her cling to him, trusting her 
helplessness to his strength. 

Her early life had by no means been so sheltered as his, 
and to her the thought of tender care and protecting watch- 
fulness, through all the rest of her days, was unutterably 
sweet and restful. If her dream could only have been v 
realized- f But polygamy cursed her life, as it has that of 
every Mormon woman, and shattered her hope. 



had but a taste of their realization. 

She was born at Union Springs, Cayuga County, N. Y., 
>n the 4th of May, 1817, but only lived there until she was 
two years old, when her parents removed to Livingston 
County, in the same state. When she was four years old 
her mother died, leaving three little children, the youngest 
a mere baby. Her father, finding it impossible to obtain 
any one to take care of the three as they should be cared 
for, was obliged, much against his will, to separate them, 



36 HOW THE FIRST CONVERTS WERE MADE. 

and put them in the charge of different persons, until such 
time as he was in a situation to make a home for them 
together. But that was destined never to be, and these 
children were never reunited, although they have never 
lost sight of one another ; and to this day the hearts of the 
Gentile and Mormon sisters yearn towards each J2jjif_jind 
the moreTortunate one suffers in sympathy with her sister's 
sufferings^ 

My mother was given into the care of a family of the 
name of Brown, with whom she staid twelve-years. Her 
life with them was rendered most unhappy by the treat- 
ment which she received, and from lack of sympathy. 
Ambitious, and craving knowledge most ardently, she was 
denied all means of procuring a proper education, and was 
reduced to the position of a mere drudge. But her percep- 
tions were keen, her memory retentive, and in spite of all 
drawbacks she managed to learn something ; enough, in- 
deed, to lay the foundation for the knowledge which she 
afterwards acquired, and which stood her in good stead as 
a means of support for herself and her children, after the 
arrival of the Saints in Utah. Whatever came in her way 
in the shape of reading-matter she eagerly devoured, 
whether it was the torn bit of an old newspaper, the inev- 
itable "Farmer's Almanac," or some odd volume of histo- 
ry, biography, or fiction, which had found its way mysteri- 
ously to the New York farm-house of other days ; but 
above all, the Bible and Methodist hymn-books. These 
she had read and re-read until she could repeat large por- 
tions of them from memory. Wesley's beautiful hymns, 
with their earnest, fervid tone, were her special favorites 
among these religious songs, and her young heart glowed 
as she listened to the poetic inspirations of Isaiah and 
those other prophecies, which she believed, although she 
could not understand. 

When she was fifteen years of age, she united with the 
Methodist Church ; and it was while she was in the first 



PREACHING THE NEW RELIGION. 37 

flush of her religious experience that the Mormon mis- 
sionaries came to Avon, the town in which she lived, 
preaching their new doctrines. My mother had very nat- 
urally a great deal of curiojnt^ concerning this new reli- 
gibn7"which was [railed at as a delusion^ and its prophet 
and founder, Joseph Smith, who was called a hypocrite, a 
false teacher, a blasphemer, ajnd^jejraQM^th^ 
Uame that could be heaped upon him, in the bitterness of 
religious persecution. But she was forbidden to attend 
their meetings, and it was many months before she was 
able to listen to one of the sermons. f During this time she 
had grown somewhat into sympathy with these people, and 
had come to feel an interest in them greater than she 
would have felt had she not met with such persistent, and, 
what seemed to her, unreasonable opposition to her often 
expressed wish to hear them and judge of their sincerity 
and truth for herself. J 




NEW RELIGION. 



After a time, however, she found an opportunity of attend- 
ing a two days' meeting, without the knowledge of her 
friends ; and she listened eagerly to Joseph Young as he 
expounded the new doctrine and dwelt upon the glories 
of the " kingdom " which was to be speedily set up upon 
the earth. Predisposed as she already was in its favor, it 

286794 



38 SUFFERING FOR THE FAITH. 

is not strange that she was readily convinced of its divine 
origin, and accepted it at once as the true religion. Before 
the meeting was over, she was numbered among Elder Jo- 
seph Young's converts, and was received into the Mormon 
Church, being baptized by the apostolic hands of his brother 
Brigham. 

When it became known that she had become a convert 
to the obnoxious faith, she was the object of bitter persecu- 
tion. The family with whom she lived were especially 
intolerant, and in their anger resorted to every expedient 
to force her to give up her new faith. They confined her 
in a cellar for several days, kept her upon bread and water, 
and subjected her to other severities of a like nature. All 
this opposition did not move her one particle. She remained 
firm in her chosen faith, and was steadfast and true to her 
convictions of right. All this severity of treatment she 
rather gloried in. Was it not worth while to suffer perse- 
cution, and be treated with contumely and contempt, for 
the sake of the church that had been specially called by the 
Lord to " build up the waste places of Zion " ? Would not 
her reward be the greater by and by? So filled was she 
with the new enthusiasm that nothing had power even to 
render her unhappy ; as she says, she triumphed in perse- 
cution and rejoiced in suffering. 

When her persecutors found that neither arguments nor 
threats could move her, they turned her out of doors, con- 
sidering that they were doing only their duty, since it would 
be a sin to harbor a Mormon. The thought of her extreme 
youth and her unprotected situation did not move them in 
the slightest degree. Their doors were shut against her, 
as their hearts had always been. 

Instinctively she turned towards the people with whom 
she had so lately connected herself, and for whose sake 
she had left home and friends ; they received her kindly 
and hospitably, and she went with them to Kirtland, where 
my father found her when he arrived a few months later. 



WHAT BRIGHAM YOUNG ONCE WAS. " , 39 

It was at this time that the friendship began between my 
mother and^Brigltani Young? which lasted so many years 
a faithful friendship on her part, met, as a matter of course, 
by [unkindness and treachery on his side/] At thatJLime he 
was young and zealous, and seemingly sincere. \ He was 
one of the most successful of the early Mormon Mission- 
aries, and was considered specially gifted.) He was an 
ardent supporter and personal friend of JoSeph Smith, and 
young as he was, had attained a high position in the Church 
of the Saints, being the second of the twelve apostles, all 
of whom were chosen by the Prophet Smith himself. 

Some have considered that his zeal was assumed, and 
that beyond the ambition of attaining a high position he 
had no personal regard for Mormonism. It is believed by 
many of the old Mormons that he always entertained the 
hope of becoming Joseph's successor, and standing at the 
head of the church. (^He has no natural religious nature; 
indeed, he is at times a positive sceptic} He has made the 



church a stepping-stong tn tpmpnml pm^pp r itv T and the 



'Eormon people have been the pliant tools \yitll \\\}\ c ^ 



has carved his fortune. 

In those days he was struggling with poverty, going on 
missions, as the apostles of old were commanded to do, and 
as all these new apostles did, in their first days of apostle- 
ship, "without purse or scrip;" and to my mother the 
"Apostle" Brigham was invested with all the attributes 
which belong to an earnest nature, intensified by deep reli- 
gious faith. In short, he was, as she regarded him, a 
creature of her imagination, and utterly unlike his real self 
as she came at length to know him. 

The year following my father's arrival in Kirtland, and 
his first meeting with my mother, they were married. The 
first few months of their married life were peculiarly happy, 
and they prospered beyond their most sanguine expecta- 
tions. My father was a wheelwright by trade, and directly 
on reaching Kirtland built a wagon manufactory, and 



40 JOSEPH SMITH: PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

started in business for himself. He was eminently suc- 
cessful in his i ndertaking, and made money sufficiently 
fast to suit his o vn ideas and ambitions. He built a cosy 
little house, and carried my mother to it ; and there, for 
the first time since she was a little child, she knew what 
it was to have a home a genuine home ! not a mere rest- 
ing-place, where she felt herself an intruder, but a place in 
which she was mistress, over which love and she held 
absolute and undisputed sway. 

It was during that happy period, the only happy time in 
her whole life, that she fitted herself to teach. She was 
an indefatigable student, and she made the most and the 
best of her time. At that time she studied to satisfy 
her intense craving for knowledge, and as a pleasant recre- 
ation, with no thought that she might some day have to 
turn her studies to practical account. She had not then 
been introduced^tQ the doctrine ofL!!_pIural wives-.-" -arid-its 
rtteficfant r glories, 1 which, being defined, meant miseries 
arid torture. And the definition has never been altered, 
and never will be, until women's natures are most rad- 
ically changed. 

As I said before, my father 
was prospering in worldly af- 
fairs, and when it was "re- 
vealed " to Joseph Smith that 
the 




ad^iflftflta 

f* Prophet J' 



he should add 

IrTat of banker, he assisted 
Smith in founding the " Kirt- 
land Safety Society Bank," 
by promising to deposit all 
^ his money therein ; in short, 

JOSEPH SM,TH, T H/FOUND OK Mo R MomsM.g ivin g Smitha11 that he pOS~ 

sessed outside of his house 

and shop towards completing the amount necessary for a 
capital on which to start the new enterprise. When the 



THE BANK FAILS, AND THE " PROPHET " FLEES. 4! 

bank failed, which it did very shortly after its estab- 
lishment, my father, of course, lost every cent which he 
had invested. He was intensely disgusted With the whole 
proceeding, which, if it had happened in the Gentile 
world, would have been termed swindling, and Smith 
would not have been easily let off by the mere calling of 
names. Many Gentiles, who had suffered by the failure, 
wenT~not so lenient as Smith's followers, and demanded 
that the Prophet should answer to the complaint of swin- 
dling before the United States court. / But, as usual, he 
eluded the officers of justice, and all attempts to arrest him 
were unavailing. <-' f ' PV**.w\A-i 'JAJ I/I j* ^^ ^ 

The poor Saints, although losing, many of them, all 
their hard-earned savings, were still loyal to their leader, 
and excused him on the ground that " he had lost the Spirit " 
for the time, and the revelation was not of divine origin ; 
although he was unconscious of that fact, and received it 
in good faith. My father, however, not so ready to excuse 
what seemed to him an act of premeditated dishonesty, and 
having very little faith in "revelation" at any time, was 
very bitter in his denunciations ; and it was only by my moth- 
er's influence, who still clung fondly to her faith, that he 
did not then renounce Mormonism. Although she has 
never openly acknowledged it, I think that my mother has 
since often regretted her steadfast adherence to the church 
at that time. Her loyalty and persistence brought upon her 
the unhappiness of her life, and finally plunged her into 
such utter misery as only polygamous wives can experi- 
ence. Her religion, that was to be so much to her, brought 
her not one ray of comfort, but in after years blighted her 
domestic life, and laid upon her a cross almost too heavy 
to be borne. But I must do her the justice to say, that 
through it all she has never complained, but has endured 
her sufferings in silence, and met her woes with patience. 

This unfortunate revelation of the Prophet's, together with 
othersomewhat Questionable business transactions, and the 



42 A NEW "ZION" ESTABLISHED. 

consequent growing prejudice of the people of Ohio against 
him and his followers, made it necessary for the Saints to 
seek some other place, where they might build their " Zion." 
It was certain that the Lord did not favor Ohio ; and about 
that time he " revealed " to Joseph that the place he had 
selected in which to establish His temporal kingdom was 
Missouri. This was to be the Mormon Canaan, the land 
Which they the chosen people of the Lord should enter 
and possess. To be sure, He had revealed the very same 
thing concerning Kirtland ; it was there that he declared 
" He had established His name for the salvation of the na- 
tions." But according to the Prophet's later explanation, 
Satan was striving to break up the kingdom, and the spirit 
of " apostate mobocracy " raged and grew hotter, until 
Smith and his confederate, Sidney Rigdo'n, were obliged 
"to flee from its deadly influence, as did the apostles and 
prophets of old ; " and " as Jesus had commanded his fol- 
lowers, when persecuted in one city, to flee to another," so 
these two worthies left the " chosen city of the Lord " most 
unceremoniously, under cover of darkness, pursued by of- 
ficers of the law, and never returned to it again. But from 
Missouri Smith sent messages and exhortations to those of 
the Saints who still remained faithful, "to gather quickly 
to Zion." 

Very many members of the church apostatized at that 
time, and the numbers of the faithful " chosen " were decid- 
edly lessened. Among tb^R w 1 '" t"""i' Vnrf t ThnV"n was 

my mother, who in her almostjanatical blindness.] accepted 
the Prophet's explanation^ and was still willing to be led 
by h : s revelations. My father was held by his affection for 
her rather than by any conviction of the " divine leading " 
of Smith, whom, indeed, he distrusted almost entirely ; and it 
was in compliance with my mother's ardent wish to follow 
her prophet, and to establish herself and family in Zion 
amidst the Saints, that my father finally decided to em- 
igrate with the remnant of the church to Missouri. 



SUFFERINGS OF THE PERSECUED SAINTS. 43 

He settled in Daviess County, about thirty miles from Far- 
West, where the body of the Saints were located, and was 
again tasting the sweets of prosperity and domestic comfort, 
when the Missouri war broke out, and he was obliged to 
remove his family, in the greatest haste, to Far-West for 
their safety, leaving house and property to be confiscated 
by an angry mob. 

This was the second time, since casting his lot with the 
Saints, that all my father's possessions had been suddenly 
swept away /and this last would have discourged him sadly-, 
had it not made him so indignant to see the injustice which | 
was shown by Gentiles to the Mormons;) and he assisted I 
in guarding the lives of the Mormon people, and the remant 
of property which was left to them, until such time as 
tljey could find another home. 

During this time my mother's sufferings were intense. 
^Many of the houses had been burned by mobs, and she, 
and many other women in as severe straits as herself, were 
compelled to live as best they could, exposed to the wind 
and rain, and without any proper shelter, during almost the 
entire winter, with two little children, one a baby only a 
few months old, the other about two years old. ft In addition 
to all the discomforts of the situation, she was always in 
constant terror of an attack by the infuriated mobs, who 
were waging a genuine war of extermination with the suf- 
fering Saints. As is always the^case with a religious war, 
the feeling was intensely bitter./' The Gentiles had no char- 
ity for the Mprmons, and woula neither tolerate their faith 
nor them.J(The Mormons returned the hatred of the Gen- 
tiles with interest, and considering themselves the chosen 
of the Lord, selected by Him to the exclusion of all the rest 
of the world, of course argued that whatever they did could 
by no possibility be wrong, and they returned their ill-treat- 
ment with interest. / 

Although there had been, always, a strong prejudice 
against the Mormons in Missouri, as in other states where 



44 SIDNEY RIGDON'S FAMOUS DECLARATION. 

they had lived, it was not until after Sidney Rigdon made 
his famous incendiary speech, at the commencement of the 
foundation of the new Temple at Far-West, on the 4th of 
July, 1838, that the feeling broke into anything like aggres- 
sive hostilities. 

Rigdon had embraced Mormonism in 1830, and had 
been ever since that time an ardent Saint. He was a 
Campbellite preacher in Ohio at the time of his conversion, 
which was accomplished under the teachings of Parley P. 
Pratt, a man who played quite an important part in the 
ejarTy Mormon history. Rigdon was a very fluent speaker, 
much revered by the Saints on account of his eloquence, 
which, it must be confessed, was decidedly of the "bun- 
combe " order. For a long time he was the intimate friend 
and chief counsellor of Joseph Smith, was connected with 
him in the Kirtland Bank swindle, and escaped with him 
to Missouri. 

It had been revealed to the Prophet Smith that another 
temple must be built to the Lord in the new Zion, since the 
one at Kirtland had been desecrated by falling into Gentile 
hands, and Rigdon was chosen to make the speech on the 
occasion of laying the first foundation-stone of this sacred 
edifice. 

The " Champion of Liberty," as Rigdon was called by 
his admirers, was more bombastic and more denunciatory 
than usual. He surpassed himself in invective, and mad- 
dened the already prejudiced Missourians, who were only 
waiting for some excuse to quarrel with their unwelcome 
neighbors. Among other absurd things, he said : 

"We take God and all the holy angels to witness, that 
we warn all men to come on us no more for ever. The 
man or set of men that attempts it, does so at the expense 
of their lives. / The mob that comes to disturb us we will 
follow until tfte last drop of their blood is spilled, or else 
they will have to exterminate us. We will carry the war 
into their own homes and families. No man shall come into 



GREAT EXCITEMENT AMONG THE SAINTS. 45 

our streets to threaten us with mobs ; if he does, he shall 
atone for it before he leaves the place. We this day pro- 
claim ourselves free, with a purpose and determination that 
can never be broken. No, never ! No, never ! ! No, 
never ! ! ! " 

This speech fired the excitable nature of the Saints, and 
they were aroused to a high pitch of warlike enthusiasm. 
Already, in imagination, they saw Missouri conquered, and 
the church in possession of the entire state. ) There could 
be no doubt of the final 'esult, for this was the Promised 
Land into which they had been led by the hand of the 
Lord. >. 

I With the superstition which characterizes this people j 
they turned every accident or occurrence into some sign 
from Heaven, and it was always interpreted to promise suc- 
cess to them and confusion to their enemies. On this day 
of celebration the Mormons had erected a liberty-pole in 
honor of the occasion ; in the afternoon it was struck by 
lightning, shivered to atoms, and fell, its flag trailing in the 
dust. ..There was rejoicing among the Mormons ; that was 
certainly an omen of the speedy downfall of their enemies. 
It seems now as though if it must be considered an omen 
of anything that it was prophetic of the ujrnntin^ nr\A 
scattering of this people, so soon was it followedj^their 

of bitterness between the two contending 
factions grew more intense daily, and each party^was 
eagerly watching for some acts of violence from the other. 
The next month, at the election, the war commenced in 
earnest. A man named William Peniston was candidate 
for the legislature. The Mormons objected to him on the 
ground that he had headed a mob against them in Clay 
County. The Missourians, aware of this objection, en- 
deavored to prevent the Mormons from voting, and a fight 
ensued, in which the latter proclaimed themselves victo- 
rious. Gallatin, the court town of Daviess County, was soon 



40 THE NIGHT OF TERROR. 

after burned by the Mormons. Then commenced robbing, 
plundering, and outrages of every kind by both parties. It 
was a season of the wildest confusion, and both sides were 
blinded with passion, and lost sight of reason, toleration, 
and, above all, Christian forbearance. It was a positive 
reign of terror. Houses, bar-ns^ and haystacks were burned, 
men shot, and all manner of depredations committed. 




THK NIGHT OF TERROR. 

It is impossible for me to say which party was the prin- 
cipal aggressor ; probably there was equal blame on both 
sides ; but I have been informed that Joseph taught his fol- 
lowers that it was right, and "commanded of the Lord," for 
them to take anything they could find which belonged 
to their enemies, in retaliation for the wrongs which they 
had suffered at their hands. I can the more easily believe 
this to be true, because the spirit ot the Mormon Uhurch 
has always been that of retaliation. The stern old Mosaic 
law, "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth," is in full 
force among them, and is not only advised by the. leaders, 
but insisted upon by them. Indeed, they have added to its 
severity, until now it stands, "A life for an offence, real or 



THE DANITE BAND ORGANIZED. 47 

suspected, of any kind." In support of this they refer to 
the Israelites " borrowing " jewelry from the Egyptians be- 
fore \Jfcey took their flight from Egypt ; and they quote, 
" ~- fU * UQ -^' " " 



hffl fulmar thcrcol; " and as 
Savored- children, 
in fact, his only acknowledged ones, they seem to con- 
sider this text peculiarly applicable to the situation, and all 
the excuse they need to give for any irregularities in the 
way of appropriating other people's property. They are 
merely coming into their inheritance. 

At all events, the people were not slow to obey the com- 
mand of the Lord and the counsel of Joseph, and they dis- 
played their spirit of obedience by laying hold of every kind 
of property which came within their reach. In the midst 
of these troubles, Joseph came out to Daviess County to a 
town called " Adam-ondi-Ahman^ named, of course, by 
revelation, and meaning, when translated, " The valley of 
God in which Adam blessed his children ; " said to be the 
identical spot where Adam and Eve first sought refuge after 
their expulsion from Eden. Upon his arrival, he called the 
people together, and harangued them after this mild and 
conciliatory fashion : " Go ahead ! Do all you can to harass 
the enemy. I jiexer^felt^more of the spirit of God at any 
time than since we commenced this stealing and house- 
burning." My parents were living at Adam-ondi-Ahman at 
that time, and were present when Joseph delivered this 
/"peculiarly saint-like address/} ^\ U\\L^ ^t^h$/*^ If 

About this time the Danite bands were first organized, 
for the purpose of plundering and harassing the people of 
the surrounding country. I have been told this by a person 
who heard the oaths administered at a meeting of the band 
in Daviess County. They were instructed to go out on the 
borders of the Settlements, and take the spoils from the 
"ungodly Gentiles ; " for was it not written, , M The riches of 
the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the people of the house 
of Israel?" 



48 THE PROPHET SMITH TAKEN PRISONER. 

Joseph Smith always denied that he had in any way au- 
thorized the formation of the Danite bands ; and, in fact, in 
public he repeatedly repudiated both them and their deeds 
of violence. At the time of which I speak, however, 
Thomas B. Marsh, who was then the president of the 
w twelve apostles," together with Orson Hyde, who now 
occupies that post, apostatized. Both subsequently returned 
to the bosom of the church, making the most abject sub- 
mission. Poor Marsh died, crushed and broken-hearted. 
Hyde's heart was of tougher composition, and he still lives ; 
but Brigham will never forget or forgive his apostasy. 

While both Marsh and Hyde were separated from the 
church, they made solemn affidavits against Joseph and the 
Mormons in general, accusing them of the grossest crimes 
and outrages, as well as of abetting the Danites and their 
deeds. The cowardly Apostles afterwards declared that 
these affidavits were made under the influence of fear. 
That is very probable, but at the same time there can be no 
real doubt that there was a larger amount of truth in what 
they affirmed than jealous Mormons would be disposed to 
admit. 

The outrages committed by these Danites, and others 
like them, caused the expulsion of the Saints from Missouri. 
Joseph and about fifty of his followers were taken prisoners, 
and between his arrest and imprisonment, and the final 
exodus from the state, there was great suffering among the 
Mormon people. 



CHAPTER II. 



FOUNDING THE NEW RELIGION. ASSASSINATION OF 
JOSEPH SMITH. 

The Saints expelled from Missouri. They cross the Mississippi into 
Illinois. Forming a New Settlement. Arrival in Quincy. A Kind 
Reception. The City of " Nauvoo " Founded. A New Temple Be- 
gun. Great Success of the Foreign Missions. The Saints flock 
from Europe. Thousands assemble in Nauvoo. The Prophet Jo- 
seph applies for a City Charter. Nauvoo Incorporated. The Saints 
Petition the National Government. The Prophet visits Washington. 
His Interview with President Van Buren. He coquets with Poli- 
tics. He Stands on the Edge of the Precipice. The Saints in Dan- 
ger. The Prophet Smith Nominated for President. He tries to find 
the "Golden Way." Mormon Missionaries preach Politics. The 
Prophet looks towards the Pacific Coast. The Blind Obedience of 
the Saints. The Real Devotion of their Faith. Gentile Opinions. 
How Boggs was shot in the Head. The Spiritual Wife-Doctrine. 
Dr. William Law Protests. Terrible Charges against the Prophet. 
The " Nauvoo Expositor" The Prophet Surrenders. He is Mur- 
dered in Jail. 



SOFTER this, crime succeeded 
crime, and the state of affairs 
grew worse daily. The Mor- 
mons were getting decidedly the 
worst of the warfare, and their 
opponents showed them no 
mercy. At the massacre at 
Haun's Mills, for instance, men, 
women, and children were shot 
down in cold blood by a com- 
pany of the Missouri militia, 
the houses plundered and 
burned, and the clothing even 
stripped from the dead bodies. 

There had been inhuman murders in other places, men 
4 




f_ ___. 



NAUVOO TEMPLE. 



5O THE SAINTS EXPELLED FROM MISSOURI. 

and women alike falling victims to the fury of the mobs ; 
there had been a battle fought at Crooked River, and sev- 
eral skirmishes between the Mormons and Missourians, 
exaggerated reports of which had spread through the coun- 
try like wildfire. The whole state was in arms against the 
Mormons. The governor issued an order of expulsion, 
thinking it the surest way to quell the disturbance, which 
had almost grown beyond him, and gave the Saints three 
months in which to leave the state. Every Mormon was 
to be out of the state at the end of that time, except those 
who were in prison. Of them the governor said, "Their 
fate is fixed ; the die is cast ; their doom is sealed^' 

As on the occasion of the removal from Ohio, there was 
considerable apostasy in the church. Many persons grew 
discouraged, and their faith wavered. In following Smith 
they had been led from difficulty into danger, had suffered 
persecution and poverty, and were now driven from their 
homes to seek refuge in some more hospitable spot. Every 
man's hand seemed turned against them, and they had 
grown tired of perpetual warfare. If God had ever called, 
He had surely deserted them now, and there was no use in 
their longer undergoing trial and suffering. 

Those who remained firm were still strong in the faith ; 
stronger, if possible, than ever. Joseph was their Prophet, 
and they clung to him and his revelations with unshaken 
confidence. "Blessed are they who are persecuted for 
righteousness' sake," was a favorite and comforting quota- 
tion at that time./ They were cheered by frequent letters 
from Joseph, written in prison, as they journeyed towards 
Illinois, which was the next point towards which they turned 
their feet, already weary with wandering. On receiving 
the order of expulsion, the Saints pledged themselves never 
to cease their exertions until every one of their faith was 
out of the state ; and to accomplish this within the time 
required, they worked unceasingly, through sickness, pov- 
erty, and privation. 



CRUEL PERSECUTION OF THE HELPLESS. 51 

My mother has often described to me this enforced jour- 
ney. She was always deeply moved, and never spoke of 
it that the hot tears did not rush to her eyes, and her voice 
quiver with indignation. The journey was taken in the 
dead of winter. Many of the women and children were 
already ill from exposure, yet they were obliged to leave 
the state with the rest ; and although everything was done 
for their comfort that could well be done, yet their suffer- 
ings were most intense. They were robbed of their horses, 
and were obliged to make their escape with ox-teams, cross- 
ing those twenty-mile prairies, facing cold, wintry winds 
without even a cover to the wagons. My mother held her 
two infants close in her arms during all the long, tedious 
journey, to keep them from perishing. She had but one 
dress to wear, as she had to leave Daviess County in great 
liaste, taking only her children with her ; and on her arrival 
in Illinois she was entirely destitute, her clothing being lit- 
erally torn in pieces. In the spring of 1839 all were safely 
landed across the Mississippi River, where they were joined 
in April, soon after their arrival, by Joseph and his fellow- 
prisoners, who had " miraculously," as Joseph said, made 
their escape from their enemies. 

The joy of the Saints was very great at his arrival. The 
waning courage was restored, wavering faith was strength- 
ened, and they were all ready to enter the next scheme 
which his prophetic soul should propose, and to follow 
blindly and unquestioningly the next "revelation." 

The feeling of the Mormon people towards the Missou- 
rians is very bitter to this day, and they have never lost an 
opportunity in all these years of injuring them whenever it 
became possible. The memory of the indignities heaped 
upon them, and the sufferings to which they were subjected, 
is still most vivid. Even my mother, notwithstanding the 
fact of her having apostatized, and having now no interest 
or faith in the Mormon Church, can never forgive the Mis- 
sourians. She says, "If the Mormons were the greatest 



52 STEALING WOOD TO MAKE COFFINS ! 

fanatics on the earth, the Missourians cannot be justified in 
the course which they pursued. There is no doubt they 
were exasperated by the actions of the Mormons, and suf- 
fered loss of property, and even life, at the hands of the 
Danite bands ; but they need not, in the cruel spirit of re- 
venge, punish the innocent women and children, for it was 
on these that the blow fell the hardest. It was they, who 
had no part in bringing on the trouble, who were to suffer 
in retribution for the misdeeds of others." 

Notwithstanding all that had taken place in Missouri, 
some of the more enthusiastic Saints believed that it was the 
promised land, and that some time they should come in and 
possess it. Indeed, that belief has prevailed among some 
of the older Mormons until within a very short time. Brig- 
ham has preached it and promised it ; but now he says very 
little about it, and when he does he is wise to add, " if the 
Lord shall will it so." The present indications are, that the 
Lord will not " will it so," and all the Saints have content- 
edly accepted Utah as "Zion," in the face of "revelation." 

In giving, thus briefly, a sketch of the "Missouri war," I 
tell the story as I have always heard it, since I was a child, 
from my parents, who were in the midst of it, and who 
were rendered homeless and poor by it. Although always 
hearing it from the Mormon side, I must, to do the narra- 
tors justice, say they have never attempted to hide any part 
of the provocation which the Saints gave ; and they now 
hold Joseph responsible for it, by his, to say the least, unwise 
teachings. 

Itjsjiot very long since I was talking with a person who 
was with the Mormons in Missouri and Illinois. Hie said 
tfiaTJoseph not only advised his people publicly to plunder 
from the Gentiles, but privately ordered them to do so. At 
one time he was himself sent by the Prophet to steal lum- 
ber for coffins. He went with a party of men down the 
river, loaded a raft with lumber from a Gentile saw-mill, 
and brought it up to the M City of the Saints." Another man, 



STEAL FIRST AND PRAY AFTER! 53 

now a bishop in the Mormon Church, told my mother that 
he was deputed by Joseph to go and take some cattle, and 
drive them to the city. As he was entering the town on 
his return from his successful marauding trip, he was called 
into a house, where there were sick persons, to anoint and 
pray for them in connection with another elder. On meet- 
ing this elder afterwards, he remarked, " I have often won- 
dered that the Lord listened to our prayers in behalf of the 
sick under such circumstances. The elder replied, quietly, 
"/had not been stealing." 

Had such teachings been given by the Gentiles, and fol- 
lowed by their people, it would have been sin. But with the 
Mormons it was always " the will of the Lord," and inHiiT 
name they committed the crimes that produced disaster and 
disgrace among the people of Missouri, and finally resulted 
in their own expulsion from that state. Thus it was that 
at length we find them driven out by violence from among 
a people who at first had received them with the utmost 
friendliness, and forced to seek refuge on the farther shore 
of the Mississippi, despite the promise which Joseph had so 
often given them, " in the name of the Lord," that Missouri 
should be the abiding-place of the Saints. 

Joseph, however, still continued to assert that the Saints 
" should return again and build up the waste places of 
Zion," and pointed out Missouri as the spot which was to 
be the " central stake " from which he was eventually to 
rule all America; but the fact remained that the people 
must have homes until such good time as they might be 
allowed to "come again to their own." 

They had landed at Quincy, Illinois, and had been very 
kindly received by the residents. On'their arrival they at 
once commenced searching for a place to settle, and build 
another " stake ; " and the place finally selected by the 
Prophet was situated on the Mississippi River, about forty 
miles from Quincy. ft was first called Commerce ; but this 
name being considered altogether too matter-of-fact and 



54 HOW NAUVOO, THE NEW ZION, WAS BUILT. 

practical, it was named, by inspiration, NAUVOO, which, 
being translated from the "Reformed Egyptian," the lan- 
guage in w hick all revelations were first given, means 
"The Beautiful.') 

The new city grew rapidly ; another Temple was com- 
menced by command of the Ldrd, and the people were 
adjured not to cease work upon it until it was finished ; all 
the Saints were commanded to gather there as soon as it 
was practicable. Missionaries were sent to Europe, and 
converts flocked from thence to Zion. Never were missioris 
crowned with greater success than those that were estab- 
lished in Europe by the Mormon Church. The elders went 
'first to England, from there to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
Switzerland, France, and they even attempted Italy, but 
with so little success that the mission there was speedily 
abandoned. Indeed, the southern countries of Europe did 
not seem to have taken kindly to the new doctrine of the 
Saints, and evinced but slight interest in the establishment 
of a "spiritual kingdom on the earth," and paid no heed 
whatever to Joseph's revelations. But hundreds of con- 
verts were made among the English and Scandinavian 
people, and they all evinced a strong desire to " gather to 
Zion," and considered no sacrifice too great to be made to 
facilitate their emigration. ( Most of them were from the 
poorer classes, but some ""among them were persons of 
considerable wealth, and many were from the comfortable 
middle class of farmers and trades people. ' 

The people of Illinois were inclined to be very friendly 
with the Mormon people, and to make up by sympathy and 
kindness for the treatment which the Saints had received in 
Missouri. But, as has invariably been the case, the Mor- 
mons, by their own acts, managed to turn these friends into 
enemies, and to embroil themselves in more quarrels. 

The people in the surrounding towns found them trouble- 
some, and most undesirable neighbors ; for in spite of their 
kindly reception, Joseph did not cease his injunctions .to 



HARD-HEARTED FOLKS AT WASHINGTON. 55 

"get all you can from the wicked Gentiles," and the conse- 
quence was perpetual trouble and constant complaint. 

Early on his arrival at Nauvoo, Joseph applied to the 
Illinois legislature for a city charter, which was granted at 
once. This charter was extremely liberal, and by its am- 
biguous wording deceived the legislature, they considering 
it straightforward and honorable, while really it gave Joseph 
unlimited power in the government of the city, without regard 
to state or national laws, and rendered it impossible that he 
could be held prisoner, even if arrested. He had the right 
to release himself: the charter provided for that. 

Before the establishment of the city it was " revealed " to 
Joseph that his people must importune at the feet of all in 
authority for a redress of their wrongs in Missouri. They 
commenced with the justices of the peace ; from them they 
went to the state officers ; finally to the President himself. 
They prepared very carefully, and, as far as possible, very 
accurately, a statement of the losses of the Saints in Mis- 
souri, and Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Elias Higbee 
went to Washington with it, to endeavor to seek redress 
through the agency of Congress. 

Marlin Van Buren, who was President at that time, re- 
ceived them with that peculiar suavity of manner for which 
he was specially noted, that impressiveness which expressed 
so much and meant so little, and listened to them with the 
most courteous patience. But his answer was : " Gentlemen, 
your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you." The 
party returned to Nauvoo disappointed, but in no wise dis- 
couraged, and exceedingly indignant with the government 
and the entire American people, whom they considered 
their enemies from that moment. From the lowest officer 
to the highest, they considered that they had failed to meet 
with the slightest sympathy, and there was no desire shown 
to make any amends to these people. Joseph and the elders 
indulged in more incendiary talk than ever ; but this was 
now devoted entirely against the government. 



56 SAINTS IN " HOT WATER ! " 

"In the name of the Lord God of Israel," prophesied 
Joseph, "unless the United States redress the wrongs com- 
mitted upon the Saints in Missouri, in a few years the gov- 
ernment will be entirely overthrown." And again : "They 
all turned a deaf ear to our entreaties, and now the Lord 
will come out in swift fury and vex the nation." 

The troubles in Illinois culminated, as they had in Mis- 
souri, in political difficulties. The people of Illinois were 
growing exceedingly tired of their new citizens, whom they 
had welcomed so warmly, since their kindness had been 
returned with so much ingratitude by the Mormons ; but 
the political leaders of the state endeavored to curry favor 
with Joseph, and obtain his influence, since it had been dis- 
covered that the Mormon vote was solid. Whigs and Dem- 
ocrats had each tried to secure them, but Smith had his 
own purpose to serve, and he used either Whigs or Demo- 
crats as best suited him. Neither party could rely on him 
or his promises, arid consequently both became exceedingly 
hostile towards him, and were equally zealous in endeavor- 
ing to limit his power. He was, indeed, rendered perfectly 
independent of the state laws by the charter which the gov- 
ernor so readily signed, without being aware what a blun- 
der he was committing ; and the exertions of the Illinoi- 
siahs were directed towards getting this charter repealed. 
Anti-Mormon organizations were formed for the purpose 
of inducing the legislature to cancel the charter, disband 
the Nauvoo Legion, a military organization, of which Jo- 
seph was commander-in-chief, and, if possible, to eventually 
get rid of. the Mormons altogether. The feeling ran quite as 
high as it had done in Missouri, although there were no such 
deeds of violence as that state witnessed. It remained, for 
some time at least, a political rather than a personal warfare, 
and Joseph seemed for many months to maintain his position 
in spite of every exertion of his enemies ; and, in fact, got 
decidedly the best of them in every way. 

Joseph's political career was, to say the least, an intricate 



THE PROPHET NOMINATED FOR PRESIDENT. 57 

and an ambitious one. He aimed at the very highest posi- 
tion which the country could give him. He inaugurated a 
legislature at Nauvoo, in opposition to that of the state ; but 
he took good care that it should be kept from the know- 
ledge of all persons outside of the city, and this same legis- 
lature did, in its way, the most remarkable work. One of 
its acts was to nominate Joseph for the Presidency of the 
United States. 

Clay and Calhoun were at that time rival candidates for 
the Presidency, and Joseph wrote to both of them, asking 
them what course they would pursue towards the Mormons 
in case they were elected. <: Neither of them answered in a 
manner to please him ; they were altogether too indefinite, 
refusing in any way to commit themselves to the Mormon 
cause ; and he gave them both a severe castigation, and 
withdrew his support and countenance from both parties ; 
and with him, of course, went the whole body of the Mor- 
mons. 

He published his own views on the national policy in a x 
pamphlet, and announced himself as Presidential Candidate. 
His followers confidently believed that he would be elected. 
They had no idea that he could fail to attain whatever he 
attempted. Missionaries were sent all over the United 
States, proselyting and electioneering, and the Saints cer- 
tainly worked faithfully to further their Prophet's ambition. 

In the legislative assembly he had those friends and allies 
in training who were to form his cabinet when he should 
reach the White House. Of this assembly, Brigham Young 
was an important, active, and favorite member, and Joseph 
prophesied wonderful things of him. It is said that he even 
named him as his successor as leader of the Mormon 
people. But I think that that story is a little more than 
doubtful. 

In the midst of all this seeking after political influence, 
Joseph Smith must, I think, have had some idea of the 
hopelessness of it all, and some presentiment at least that his 



58 "THE LORD'S FINGER" POINTS WEST I 

failure must be followed by another exodus of the Mormon 
people, for as early as 1842 he began to talk of the superior 
advantages of the Pacific valley as a settlement, and the 
" Lord's finger " seemed turning slowly but surely in that 
direction, and it was not long before the Prophet sent a 
company of men to explore that, then, almost unknown 
country, and not long after he began prophesying that in 
five years' time the Saints would be located " away from the 
influence of mobs." 

The Saints, as usual, received the prediction in good 
faith, and were ready to follow him wherever he should 
lead, notwithstanding that doing so meant giving up home, 
and property, and becoming poor, exiled wanderers. The 
devotion of this deluded, persecuted people to their false 
Prophet was almost sublime. In answer to his " Leave all 
and follow me," came the self-sacrificing words, " Whither 
thou goest we will go ; thy God shall be our God." 

Mistaken, deceived, deluded as they were, the great body 
of this people deserve some charitable regard, since they 
obeyed the dictates of their consciences, and were willing to 
suffer martyrdom for their religion. The great body of 
them are not answerable for most of the crimes committed by 
the command of the leaders, since they were ignorant of 
them, and their hatred of the Gentiles is not so greatly to be 
wondered at, since they suffered the persecution without 
even knowing that there was the slightest cause for it, ex- 
cept their objectionable belief. I feel that I must pay this 
tribute to- the Mormon people. Naturally, they were a law- 
abiding, peace-loving, intensely religious people; their 
peculiar natures, touched a little with fanaticism, having 
that mental organization that not only accepts the super- 
natural, but demands it, made it the more easy for them to 
become the victims of a man like Joseph Smith. 

The belief that they were the very chosen of God ; that 
He revealed Himself to them through their Prophet ; that He 
took special note of their in-comings and out-goings ; that He 



THE REAL INNER LIFE OF THE SAINTS. 59 

led their way in ah their wanderings, sometimes in- thorny 
paths, sometimes through pleasant places, made them pos- 
itively heroic in their devotion. I hold that their earnestness 
and singleness of purpose ought to win them a certain de- 
gree of respect, mingled with the intensest pity that they 
could become the dupes of such unscrupulous, overbearing, 
unprincipled men as their leaders have proved themselves 
to be. They have been blinded by fanaticism, and led by 
false representations. Kept in a community by themselves, 
forbidden any intercourse with the outside world, they 
have known nothing outside of Mormonism except what 
their rulers have chosen to tell them, and that has never 
been the truth. They have believed that every man's hand 
,was against them; that they were literally "persecuted for 
righteousness' sake ; " and they have been taught that the 
Lord commanded them to hate all persons not of their belief, 
and that it was an act pleasing to Him whenever a Gentile 
was put out of the way. Without being murderers at heart, 
they have been taught that murder is a part of their religion, 
a vital portion of their worship. I shall explain that belief 
more fully presently, when I come to speak of the " Blood- 
Atonement." 

The Gentiles have had very little opportunity, until lately, 
of mingling at all with this people ; and they have, quite as 
naturally on their part, judged the Mormons to be a blood- 
thirsty, cruel, dishonest, and licentious people, who not only 
did not merit toleration, even, but ought, indeed, to be ut- 
terly exterminated. No good could possibly come out of 
Nazareth, they thought ; and a person avowing himself a 
Mormon has not been so much an object of hatred as of 
loathing and contempt. 

Mind you, I am not upholding the Mormon faith ; I con- 
sider it the falsest, most hypocritical^.and moot cmcl bflif'f 
under the sun. Although its founder arrogated to it the 
title of the " Church of Jesus Christ," there is nothing Christ- 
like in its teachings or in its practice. ' Its leaders 



60 POOR BOGGS IS SHOT IN THE HEAD. 



have been, and still are, sujDrerneJy^eJfish^a^^ 
their personal aggrandizement, disloyal to the government 
uhcler which they live, treacherous to their friends, revenge- 
ful to their foes; insincere, believing nothing Which they 
teach, and tyrannical and grasping in the extreme, taking 
everything that their lustful eyes may desire, and greedy, 
grasping hands can clutch, no matter at whose expense it 
may be taken, or what suffering the appropriation may 
cause. But the people themselves have no part in the 
treachery, revengefulness, hypocrisy, or cupidity of their 
leaders, and should be judged from an entirely different 
standpoint. 

f In 1842 Governor Boggs, of Missouri, was shot at and 
wtJunded severely in the head. This act was suspected to 
have been done at the instigation of Joseph, and the feeling 
against him grew stronger than ever. It was with consid- 
erable difficulty that his followers prevented his seizure and 
forcible abduction into Missouri. He was very nearly in 
the power of his enemies several times ; but the devices of 
the Missourians were nothing compared to the wiles and 
cunning of the crafty Prophet and his officers. The gov- 
ernor of Illinois attempted to arrest him, but found the 
warrant of apprehension set aside by the charter which he 
himself had signed. In fact, it was found that the law was 
powerless to touch the Prophet, and he could afford to set it 
at defiance. With that charter to uphold him, and the 
" Nauvoo Legion " to defend him, he, for a time, completely 
baffled his enemies. 

About this time an added reason was found for hating and 
dreading the Mormon people and their influence. The 
" Spiritual- Wife " doctrine was hinted at just at this juncture, 
and this created even a greater disturbance than the political 
difficulties had done, since this caused a large apostasy, and 
divided the church against itself. The accusations that 
some of the apostates brought against Smith were dam- 
aging in the extreme. 



THE DOCTOR'S WIFE MAKES AN UGLY " REVELATION." 61 

One of his chief accusers was a man named William 
Law, who had been his earnest friend and one of his coun- 
sellors. The Prophet had had no stancher friend or 
warmer defender than Law, and he was also highly es- 
teemed by all the Mormon people, as well as by Smith him- 
self. He strongly disapproved of some of Joseph's acts, 
and finally felt obliged to withdraw from him altogether. 

After his apostasy, he, with some other disaffected Mor- 
mons, among whom were his brother, Wilson Law, Dr. 
Forster, William Marks, and the Higbee brothers, all men of 
standing and influence among the Saints, commenced to hold 
meetings in a grove on Sundays. This grove was a mile 
from the place where the Mormons held their regular ser- 
vices ; yet parties of the Saints were accustomed to go to the 
other meeting to hear what was said and report to the 
Prophet. So he was kept well informed of the movements of 
the apostates, and their attitude towards him and the church. 

At one of these meetings, William Law electrified and al- 
most stunned his listeners by testifying that the Prophet had 
made dishonorable proposals to his wife, Mrs. Law, making 
the request under cover of his asserted " Revelation," that the 
Lord had commanded that he should take spiritual wives, 
to add to his glory. He also stated that Smith made his 
visit to his wife in the middle of the night, when he knew 
her husband to be absent. Mrs. Law was present, and her 
husband called upon her to testify as to whether he had 
made the statement correctly. She corroborated all that 
he had said, and added that Joseph had asked her to give 
him half her love ; she was at liberty to keep the other half 
for her husband. 

The Higbees testified, at the same meeting, to having 
frequently seen Joseph's horse standing for a long time be- 
fore the door of certain* improper resorts. This statement 
was certainly untrue, and was probably made under a mis- 
take. The greatest excitement prevailed after this meeting, 
and the feeling ran very high between the contending fac- 



62 



THE "NAUVOO EXPOSITOR COMES TO GRIEF. 



tions of the church. Joseph and his adherents, on their 
part, charged some of the apostates with gross immorality, 
and they retaliated by saying they had only followed the 
teachings of Smith. Criminations and recriminations were 
hurled furiously at each other by the two parties. 




BURNING or THE NU.WSP/ 



Law and some of his associates started a paper called 
the "Nauvoo Expositor " which they intended to devote to 
the criticism of Smith's policy, and the denunciation of his 
character. As may be imagined, it was not a very long- 
lived sheet, only one number being issued. Enraged by its 
plain speech, Joseph and some of his followers destroyed 
the building, broke the machinery, and threw away the 
type, in their strenuous endeavors to suppress "the freedom 
of the press." 

Affairs had reached such a crisis, that to allay the ex- 
citement and to explain some of his " peculiar " moral weak- 
nesses, the Prophet found it necessary to produce the famous 
"Revelation," giving the most unbridled license to all the 
worst passions of their nature. This " Revelation " was in- 
tended to silence the noisy clamorings of the Saints ; for who 



HOW "CELESTIAL MARRIAGE" WAS INVENTED. 63 

of them would venture to question the convincing " Thus 
saith the Lord." 

It was only given to the faithful in Zion. Its existence 
was denied loudly, if in any way a whisper of it reached 
the outside world, and the missionaries were cautioned to 
keep utter silence upon the subject. Among the Saints it 
was received most reluctantly. The women, especially, 
felt that a cross was being laid*upon them greater than they 
could bear, and many openly rebelled. They felt that some 
great trouble was come upon them, but they did not 
then know the intense bitterness of it, nor what the moral 
results would be. The majority of them did not believe 
that they would suffer personally from it ; but, alas ! they 
little knew how easy it would be to convince a man that 
positive wrong would become moral right, when all legal 
restrictions were removed, or when the conscience could be 
so easily soothed by the opiate of " Revelation." 

Joseph's career, after producing his * Celestial Marriage " 
cheat, and palming it off on his followers with the blas- 
phemous "Thus saith the Lord," was very short. He was 
induced to surrender himself to the authorities, and with 'his 
brother Hyrum, the Apostle John Taylor, and the Apostle 
Willard Richards, was placed in the Carthage jail. 

It was feared by the Mormons, and by some of the Gen- 
tiles, that attempts would be made to massacre him in prison ; 
but Governor Ford, under whose protection he was, seemed 
to apprehend no danger, and placed no extra guards about 
the prison. He himself went from Carthage to Nauvoo, to 
see personally into the condition of affairs there, and also to 
assert his authority, but took no measures for a redoubled 
care and watch over the prisoners. While he was away the 
jail was attacked, and the Prophet and his brother Hyrum 
assassinated. Their companions escaped with wounds. 

The history of Joseph Smith is one of the most remarka- 
ble on record. From an ignorant, superstitious farmer's 
boy, he became " Prophet, Seer, and Revelator," founder 



64 DEATH OF THE PROPHET SMITH. 

of a new religion, which was to make his name known, not 
only in his own country, but over the world ; made by " Di- 
vine appointment" " God's Vicegerent upon the earth, and 
Religious Dictator to the whole world." So much for his 
spiritual titles. He was no less fortunate in earthly honors ; 
being President of the "Councibof Fifty," chief of the legis- 
lature of Nauvoo, and Mayor of the city ; and at last he 
aspired to the Presidency of the United States a position, 
it is needless to say, which he did not attain. 




ASSASSINATION OF JOSEPH SMITH AND HIS BROTHER HYRUM. 



It is safe to believe that no one man can wear all these 
" honors " without growing somewhat dizzy under them ; and 
it is no wonder that the Prophet Smith overreached himself 
at last, and fell a victim to his overweening ambition and 
stupendous self-esteem, which probably made him believe 
that he could accomplish impossibilities. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE 



REVELATION ON CELESTIAL MARRIAGE." TROU- 
BLE AMONG THE SAINTS. 



The Announcement of Polygamy. " Celestial Marriage." Joseph " sets 
himself Right." Mrs. Smith is very Rebellious. Mrs. Smith's 
Adopted Daughter. The Prophet too fond of Fanny. Mrs. Smith 
takes _her in Hand. Marital Storms. Oliver Cowdery called In. 
He goes and " Does Likewise." Joseph first Preaches Polygamy. 
The Saints Rebel. The Revelation given in Secret. Eleven " Adopt- 
ed Daughters " sealed to the Prophet. A Domestic Squall in the 
Prophet's House. Nancy Rigdon Insulted by Joseph. Sidney's 
Zeal Grows Cold. How Celestial Marriage was Introduced. Mr. 
Noble begins to Build Up his Kingdom. The first Plural Marriage. 
False Position of the Second Wife. John C. Bennett. His Profligacy 
and Crimes. He Apostatizes and Writes a Book. Joseph Defends 
Himself. Apostasy of an Apostle's Wife. The Prophet in Diffi- 
culties. The Revelation on " Celestial Marriage." 

FTER the Revelation on 
Celestial Marriage was 
publicly announced, in 
1852, it was stated that 
Joseph Smith first pro- 
duced it in 1843 ; but there 
were, no doubt, hints of 
this new doctrine at a 
much earlier date. It is 
generally believed, and in 
fact well known by many 
of the old Nauvoo Mor- 
mons, that he had it in 
contemplation at a much 
earlier date ; certain in- 
discretions rendering it necessary that he should find an 
excuse of some kind for acts that were scarcely consistent 
5 




EMMA SMITH, " THE ELECT LADY 



66 THE PROPHET'S " PATERNAL " AFFECTION ! 

with his position as "Vicegerent upon earth," and set him- 
self right, not only with his followers, but with Mrs. Emma 
Smith, his wife, who objected very decidedly to some of his 
prophetic eccentricities. 

Mrs. Smith had an adopted daughter, a very pretty, 
pleasing young girl, about seventeen years old. She was 
extremely fond of her ; no own mother could be more de- 
voted, and their affection for each other was a constant 
object of remark, so absorbing and genuine did it seem. 
Consequently it was with a shocked surprise that the people 
heard that sister Emma had turned Fanny out of the house 
in the night. 

This sudden movement was incomprehensible, since 
Emma was known to be a just woman, not given to freaks 
or caprices, and it was felt that she certainly must have had 
some very good reason for her action. By degrees it be- 
came whispered about that Joseph's love for his adopted 
daughter was by no means a paternal affection, and his 
wife, discovering the fact, at once took measures to place 
the girl beyond his reach. Angered at finding the two per- 
sons whom most she loved playing such a treacherous part 
towards her, she by no means spared her reproaches, and, 
finally, the storm became so furious, that Joseph was obliged 
to send, at midnight, for Oliver Cowdery, his scribe, to come 
and endeavor to settle matters between them. For once he 
was at his wits' end ; he could face an angry mob, but a 
wronged woman made a coward of him at once. 

The scribe was a worthy servant of his master. He was 
at that time residing with a certain young woman, and at 
the same time he had a wife living. He had taken kindly 
to Joseph's teachings, although he by no means coveted 
publicity in the affair ; and after seeing Mrs. Smith's indig- 
nation he dreaded exceedingly lest Mrs. Cowdery should 
discover that he was practising his new religious duties 
with another woman. 

The worthy couple the Prophet and his scribe were 



THE "ELECT LADY" REBELS. 67 

sorely perplexed what to do with the girl, since Emma re- 
fused decidedly to allow her to remain in her house ; but 
after some consultation, my mother offered to take her until 
she could be sent to her relatives. Although her parents 
were living, they considered it the highest honor to have 
their daughter adopted into the Prophet's family, and her 
mother has always claimed that she was sealed to Joseph at 
that time. 

The first public announcement Jo g pph F v< ?r made of his 



belief in thejglurality of wives_was ^t ]S]'n"' t7r>r> j *" T ^^ In 



"a serrnorT one Sunday he declared that it^ was perfectly right 



in the sight ofj:he Lord for a man to havp as, pq^y wi\g 
'as ne "pleased, if he could evade the laws of the land'. 



" People of polygamous nations will be converted to the 

church, and will desire to, gather with the Saints to Zion ; 
and what will they do with their wives? We must have 
polygamy among us as an established institution, and then 
they can bring all their wives, with, them." 

He referred to the Bible .tojmstain his position, and grew 



\ 

rew \ 
npt..,.i .. 



veiy Eloquent : on the subject. He seemed determined not 
only to maintain the doctrine to his own satisfaction, but to 
convince his people of its truth and its desirability. 

As may readily be imagined, it caused the greatest excite- 
ment and indignation in the church ; and many threatened 
to abandon the faith. The women most especially were 
aroused, and they declared they never would accept a doc- 
trine so hateful. It was the first open rebellion against any 
of the Prophet's teachings by his most devoted followers, 
and he was wise enough to see his mistake, and to rectify 
it. Evidently, as he said to certain fpllpwers T it wftfi " t ftr> 
soon for the Lord to reveal Himself upon this subject." 

The following' SabttSlh he arose'" ana saidhe wished to 
retract what he had said the Sabbath before ; he was at 
that time only trying the Saints, to see what they could bear. 

The Revelation at first was made known only to a few of 




68 ELEVEN " ADOPTED DAUGHTERS " OF THE PROPHET. 

Joseph's most intimate friends, and they were solemnly 
bound to keep its existence a secret; but in some way it 
became known very generally that there was such a Revela- 
tion, although it was not given to the world until 1852. It 
is on this ground that Smith's* sons endeavor to palm the 
Revelation on to Brigham, and deny that their father ever 
intended to have polygamy become a church institution. 
The elder Mormons, who were at Nauvoo, among whom 
are my parents, know better than this, however, and also 
know the exact time when the " Revelation " was first talked 
of. .' Jf Smith was not a polygamist, his sons must allow that 
he Was a libertine, or an advocate of free-love principles. 
It makes little difference which ; the results are the same.l 

The wife of the Prophet took no more kindly to this new 
doctrine of Celestial Marriage than did the rest of the 
-MewoTr~w^meh, and no woman~bf them all allowed her 
objections" To become so widely known as Mrs. Smith. SfieT 
new her husband's nature too well to believe in the Divine 
rigrrr of the system, and she fought it persistently during 
HfeTime; 

At one time he had eleven young ladies living in his 
family as adopted daughters, to whohThena3Tbeen sealed 
Tkno^^ Sh' for~some timcTsup- 

Ills iWJe'cl in having them there was purely a 
charitable one. To be sure, some of them had parents liv- 
ing ; yet there was some plausible reason always given for 
having them under his roof, which none of the "Saints dared 
to question, although many of them, especially those who 
were growing disaffected, were dissatisfied with his reasons, 
and suspicious of his motives. Very little was said about 
it openly, until his wife saw something which aroused her 
suspicions, and she remonstrated with Joseph for having 
the girls there ; but with no effect. The girls should remain 
on that point he was decided. 

Unlike many of the Mormon w^omen, Mrs. Smith was not 
one to accept a cross of this kind submissively. She by no 



MRS. EMMA HAS A WILL, OF HER OWN. 69 

means bowed her head, broke her heart, and silenced her 
lips, and allowed her husband to pursue his licentious course 
without opposition. When Joseph would not send away 
the girls, she said very quietly, but with a determination 
which showed she was making no idle threat, 

" Either those girls leave 
this house to-night, or I 
do." 

" Very well," replied her 
husband, in a passion at 
having his authority ques- 
tioned ; " you may go, then, 
for I intend them to stay." 

Without another word 
she left the house. No 
sooner had she gone than 
he began to consider the 
consequences of her de- 
parture directly it should 
be known, and she would 

, . , . , THE INDIGNANT WIFE. 

keep neither it nor the 

cause which provoked her to the step a secret. The pub- 
licity of the affair was more than he dared meet. He was 
not yet ready to encounter the storm it would raise. Great 
as was his influence over his people, he did not dare risk 
his popularity by such a bold movement as this. Conse- 
quently he followed his wife, and prevailed upon her to re- 
turn, by promising to dismiss the girls, which he did the 
next morning. Th|s wag V. f r gpmnd triumph over his 
practice of the divine ordinance. 

Emma Smith was7 as may be supposed from the above- 
narrated incidents, ail tiieigyjiic, strong-minded woman, i 
possessing-a great influence over Joseph, whose superior 
she was, buih menially and socially, when he married herQ / 
She was fond and proud of her husband during the first / 
years of his success ; but when there was any disagreement 




70 THE PROPHET'S LIKING FOR NANCY. 

'between them, she generally got the better of him, being 
less passionate in temper, .and more quietly decided in man- 
ner. /;5he forced her husband to respect her and her opin- 
ions, although he was notoriously unfaithful to her during 
all their married life. ) 

Several young girts left the church in consequence of the 
dishonorable proposals which the Prophet made to them. 
One of these was a daughter of William Marks, another a 
daughter of Sidney Rigdon. Both these men Rigdon 
especially had been his warm friends and supporters ; but 
this insult offered to their daughters exasperated them be- 
yond measure, and both withdrew from him. Marks joined 
William Law and his apostate circle, and was as bitter in 
his denunciation as Law himself. Rigdon removed from 
Nauvoo, but still avowed himself a w true Mormon," while 
he repudiated Joseph and his teachings. Other young girls 
made affidavits to his offers of" Celestial Marriage," and their 
statements were published in many of the leading papers all 
over the country, creating the most intense excitement. 

Joseph not_On_1y paiH his nrlHrpsgf ft tr> ihp yrmn.g npH un- 

marned women, but he sought "spiritual alliance" with 
many married ladies who happened to strike his fancy, fite _____ 
tattghl lliHIIl Ihat all former marriages were null and void, 
and that they were at periect liberty lo make another choice 
of a husband. The marriage covenants were not binding, 
because they were ratified only by Gentile laws. These 
laws the Lord did not recognize; consequently all the 
women were free. 

Again, he would appeal to their religious sentiments, and 
v their strong desire to enter into the celestial kingdom. He 
, used often to ^-ft"* '** thif m * nni * f while endeavoring to 

/ n ' 1 XT 

convince some avenng or unwilling victim t JNow, my 

'd oocf manT 



dear sister, it islue UUU ^Ulli liusbuiul Is 'd 

very good man, but you and he are by no means kindred 
spirits, and he will never be able to save j, r ou in the celesj 
tial kingdom ; it has been revealed by-4he Spirit that you 
ought to belong to me. 11 



HOW THE WOMEN RECEIVEP POLYGAMY. 71 



_ 

This sophistry, strange as it may' seem, rrad its weight, 
and scarcely ever failed of its desired results. Many a wo- 
man, with a kind, good husband, who loved her and trusted 
her, and a family of children, would suffer herself to be 
sealed to Joseph, at the same time living with the husband 
whom she was wronging so deeply, he believing fondly 
that her love was all his own. 

One woman said to me not very long since, while giving 
me some of her experiences in polygamy : " The greatest 
.trial I ever endured in my life was living with my husTJantU- 
and deceiving him, by receiving Joseph's attentions when- 
ever he chose to come to me." 

This woman, and others, whose experience has been very 
similar, are among the very best women in the church ; 
they are as p-Frminded and virtuous women as any in the 
world. 1 They were seduced under the guise of religion, .. - 



to a cross laid upon them by the divine will. /Believing 
implicitly in the Prophet, they never dreamed oCquestioning 
the truth of his revelations, and would have considered 
themselves on the verge of apostasy, which to a Mormon 
is a most dangerous and horrible state, from which there is 
no possible salvation, had they refused to submit to him and 
to receive his w divine " doctrines. 

Some of these women have since said they did not know 
who was the father of their children ; this is not to be won- 
dered at, for after Joseph's declaration annulling all Gentile 
marriages, the greatest promiscuity was practised; and, 
indeed, .all seffSFoT morality seemed to have been lost by a 
portion at least of the church. Shocking as alT*tKis may 
appear, women that were sealed to Joseph at that time are 
more highly respected tlian any others. It is said, as the 
highest meed of praise which can be given, that they never 
repudiated any of the Prophet's teachings, but submitted to 
all his requirements without a murmur, and eventually they 
will be exalted to a high position in the celestial kingdom. 



72 THE FIRST " PLURAL, MARRIAGE." 

Among the earliest converts to the doctrine of plural 
wives was a Mr. Noble, who, more impressible, or, accord- 
ing to Joseph, "more faithful" than any others, opened his 
heart very readily to receive the teachings of the Prophet, 
and was willing to reduce the teachings to practice. Joseph 
had paid his addresses to Mr. Coble's sister-in-law, a very 
worthy woman, and had succeeded in overcoming her scru- 
ples so far that she had consented to be sealed to him. 




THE FIRST PLURAL MARRIAGE. 

He then advised Noble to seek a second wife for him- 
self, and to commence at once to "build up his kingdom." 
He was not slow in following his Prophet's advice, and 
together the two men, with their chosen celestial brides, 
repaired one night to the banks of the Mississippi River, 
where Joseph sealed Noble to his first plural wife, and in 
return Noble performed the same office for the Prophet and 
his sister. These were the first plural marriagesJhaLever 
took place in the MornKHrChurch. qnd they-w*M^-r>h1igrpfl 
"to be very secretly performed, and kept hidden afterwards. 

The young girl that Mr. Noble married went to live with 
his first wife, and, as a matter of course, this arrangement 



HEART-BROKEN AT HER DAUGHTER'S SHAME. 73 



produced the grpatffi -misery fa bo^i , Qtttff fffg?J_ 

were eompellecPto keep a semblance of regard ; but they 
hated each other with an intensity of hatred that cannot 
possibly be felt outside of polygamy. The first wife pined . 
gradually away, until she was a mere shadow of her former 
Itself. Life for her was utterly' wrecked. Compelled to 
share her home, her husband's affections, and his attentions 
with another woman, and to keep the strictest silence 
through it all, it is no wonder that the poor woman longed 
eagerly for death as a release from all her woes. 

Thecondition of the second wife was, if possible, less 
envTable.^ A son having been born to her after her mar- 
riage to Noble, she was compelled to see herself pointed 
out as anobiect of pity, and her child branded as illegiti- 

^matel She was in a cruelly false position before thcTworld, 

"and ^she was powerless to justify herself; her lips were 
sealed, and she, too, must suffer in silence. Her parents 
were heart-broken aMheir daughter's shame. "~ They~weFer~ 

"-KviTTgln one of the easterii ytaiuy, but thoy came instantly to 
Nauvoo to take their child home. She was compelled to turn 
a deaf ear to all their entreaties to return with them, and she 
could not tell them her secret. Her mother was nearly dis- 
tracted when she was obliged to return home without her 
daughter, heart-broken and disconsolate, and bowed down 
with shame at her supposed dishonor. She remained at 
Nauvoo, and the burden of her life becoming greater than 
she could bear/^sb<rfa^'came insane, -4- a common fate of po- 
lygamous wives,bythe way, and rem^medir maniac until 
fleV deathy/Her son, "nb'w*TPman grown, and living in 
Utah, waTtTTe first child born in polygamy. She was an 

^j innocent, engaging young girl, and a great favorite until 
\j /tthis sad affair occurred ; her sensitive spirit could not en- 
dure the torture ofexistence, and she ^died ijhejfrcst 
to polygamy. 

^rfte frrst. w|fp died soon aft^i^..^iterajjj^_broken-hea 
The husband has had many wives since then ; indeed, he 



^4 VILL ANTES OF JOHN C. BENNETT. 

has been an indefatigable disciple of the Celestial Marriage 
system ; but his many wives have died one by one, until he 
has been left alone. He is living still, and is pointed out 
and referred to with praise as the first man brave enough 
to respond to the call of Joseph Smith and become a polyg- 
amist. 

One of the first persons to be initiated into the plural-wife 
doctrine, if not indeed Joseph's confederate in producing it, 
was Dr. John C. Bennett, at that time Mayor of the city, 
Major-General of the Nauvoo Legion, and a very great 
friend of Joseph, f It is said that the pupil fairly outran the 
teacher, and his success as special pleader for the system of 
Celestial Marriage was so decided that he incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the Prophet, and they quarrelled violently. He 
taught the doctrine to some ladies whom Smith had intended 
to convert himself, and thus coming directly in contact with 
the Prophet and his schemes, a rupture was caused between 
the worthy co-workers. / 

Bennettapostatized. left Nauvoo, and wrote a book called 
" Mormonism Exposed," in which he fully ventilated the 
doctrine of spiritual wives whicli Joseph was about to intro- 
duce into the church, and accused the Prophet of the, 
grossest immoralities. "This ' exposd created a wide-spread 
-*dtn"g"oT indignation, and, to save himself and ,his people, 
Joseph was obliged to deny all Bennett's statements; and 
several of the leading men and women denied them alsoT 
although they knew perfectly well that the greater portion 
of them was true. It is probable that the book would have 
had a much wider influence had not Bennett's character 
been so well known. He was a notorious profligate, and 
was pronounced by Gentiles who had known him before he 
embraced Mormonism to be " the greatest villain unhungyX 

Joseph's only method of defending himself from Bef 
nett's attacks was to assail him in return. The raven was 
taunting the crow for being a blackamoor. He coupled 
Bennett's name with that of a lady of high standing in the 



AN INNOCENT WOMAN ACCUSED. 7.5, 

Mormon community, in the most disgraceful manner, and 
published the scandal to a large congregation of the Saints, 
causing the utmost consternation and dismay. The lady in 
question had always been considered above reproach ; never 
before had suspicion touched her name by even a breath, 
and the accusation which Joseph brought against her seemed 
too horrible to believe. But the Saints could more easily 
credit the scandal than they could believe for one instant 
that their Prophet could be guilty of misrepresentation ; and 
the general conclusion was, that the lady had fallen from her 
virtuous estate, broken her marriage vows, and become a 
creature unworthy of countenance or sympathy. 

Her husband was away from home when the trouble first 
commenced, but returning while the excitement was at its 
height, his indignation and rage at the position in which his 
wife was placed knew no bounds. He realized the situation 
at once, and saw that his wife was suffering from the 
Prophet's jealous anger, and was simply being used as a 
means of revenge and retaliation on his enemy Bennett. 



This has been the Mormon leaden?' rn^P npr nf ^'"g *Vir.g g /^T 
from thejbeginning ; they believe most implicitly in vicarious > ' ' 
suiTcring, and it is with them always the innocent and help- 
less who are punished for the wrong-doings of the more 
powerful. 

The husband of this unfortunate lady came at once to the 
rescue of his injured wife's reputation. He " bearded the 
lion in his den," and defended his wife's character in public, 
hurling the lie at his leader's head, and incurring anathemas 
in return. He did not mind them, however, but still main- 
tained his wife's honor in the face of everything. He was 
nearly insane with grief and rage, but he behaved nobly 
through the whole affair. He was greatly attached to the 
church, and could not make up his mind to forsake it, and he 
grieved over this action of his Prophet, but yet found an ex- 
cuse for him on the ground that he had " lost the Spirit," and 
had been taken possession of by evil influences for a while. 



6 AN ANGRY HUSBAND ATTACKS THE PROPHET. 

/4 

He loved his wife, and considered her terribly wronged and 
sinned against, and he tried by all the tenderness in his 
power to heal the cruel hurt which she had received. His 
own regard for and belief in her turned the tide of public 
opinion again in her favor, and she has been, if possible, 
more highly esteemed than ever since that unfortunate 
accusation. In course of time her husband, who is none 
other than Orson Pratt, one of the twelve apostles, took 
several plural wives, and became so warm in his advocacy 
of the system that he is called " the defender of polygamy." 
Mrs. Pratt has since apostatized, and is working nobly 
against Mormonism and its peculiar system. No woman is 
more highly regarded by Gentiles and Mormons than she. 
Her husband even, although she has steadfastly refused to 
live in polygamy with him, and has fought it from its first 
introduction, still has a high regard for her, although he 
looks upon her as lost beyond redemption. She is now 
an elderly woman, but her energy has not abated one 
whit, and she declares she will never relax her exertions 
towards putting down/ polygamy while she lives. If her 
husband is its " defender," she may be called its w de- 
nouncer ; " and her/ work is the most certain of being 
crowned with ultimate success. 

The days that preceded the Revelation were exciting ones 
in the church. Apostasy prevailed to an alarming extent, 
and the numbers of the faithful were sadly depleted, and 
many more threatened to leave the church, who were finally 
prevailed upon to remain. So intense was the feeling that 
in the summer of 1843 the Prophet, moved by pressure on 
every side, dissatisfaction within the church and hatred and 
indignation without, heightened by Bennett's exposd and 
the corroborating accounts given by apostates, was com- 
pelled to intrench himself behind a divine " revelation " to 
shield himself from public odium and restore the wavering 
confidence of his people. 

It had always been a practice of Joseph, whenever he 



THE "REVELATION ON CELESTIAL MARRIAGE." 77 

met with any difficulty, to receive a "Revelation," which 
immediately put everything straight. On the present occa- 
sion he was equal to the emergency, and received that 
celebrated " Revelation " which then and since has consti- 
tuted the sole authority in the Mormon Church for the 
practice of polygamy. It was at first only communicated 
to a chosen few, and it was not until long after polygamy 
had been practised more or less openly in Utah that Brigham 
Young delivered it to the world in 1852. It was then pub- 
lished in the " Seer" and also in the " Millennial Star" 
under the title of 




\CELESTIAL MARRIAG 

A REVELATION ON THE~T'ATRTARCHAL ORDER OF MATRIMONY, OB 
PLURALITY OF WIVES. 

Given to Joseph Smith, the Seer, in Nauvoo, July 12th, 1843. 

Of all the extraordinary " revelations " given by Joseph 
Smith during his eventful career, this is, perhaps, the most 
remarkable. It certainly prpdw^A-^^eper and more 
lasting influence upon his deluded followers^than all his 
other effusions put together, almough its language is as 
ungrammatical as its tendency is immoral. The opening 
clause is peculiarly absurd. The Book of Mormon, the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and countless " revela- 
tions " had denounced polygamy, and stated how offensive 
the conduct of some of the patriarchs in this respect had 
been to " the Lord." Yet here Joseph is made to ask that 
same "Lord" how he "justified" the very principle that 
Joseph had all along proclaimed that " the Lord " held to 
be " an abomination " ! The Prophet's sons of course point 
to this fact, and say that it was impossible for their father to 
be guilty of such an unparalleled contradiction. The clause 
reads thus : 

" Verily, thus saith the Lord, unto you, my servant Joseph, 
that, inasmuch as you have enquired of my hand to know and 
understand wherein I, the Lord, justified my servants as touching 



78 GENTILE MARRIAGE ANNULLED. 

the principle and doctrine of their having many wives and concis 
bines : Behold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God, and will answer 
thee as touching this matter : Therefore, prepare thy heart to 
receive and obey the instructions which I am about to give unto 
you ; for all those that have this law revealed unto them must 
obey the same ; for, behold, I revenl unto you a new and everlast- 
ing covenant, and if ye abide not that covenant, then are ye 
damned ; for no one can reject this covenant and be permitted to 
enter into my glory ; for all who will have a blessing at my hands 
shall abide the law which was appointed for that blessing and the 
conditions thereof, as was instituted from before the foundations 
of the world ; and as pertaining to the new and everlasting cove- 
nant, it was instituted for the fulness of my glory ; and he that 
receiveth a fulness thereof must and shall abide the law, or he 
shall be damned, saith the Lord God." 

Having made this very pleasant announcement, the Rev- 
elation goes on to declare that all contracts matrimonial 
or other were null and void unless ratified by the Proph- 
et : 

ad. "And verily I say unto you, that the conditions of this law 
are these : All covenants, contracts, bonds, obligations, onths, 
vows, performances, connections, associations, or expectations, that 
are not made and entered into and sealed by the Holy Spirit of 
promise of him who is anointed both as well for/ time and for all 
eternity, and that, too, most holy, by revelation and command- 
ment, through the medium of mine anointed, whom I have 
appointed on the earth to hold this power, and I have appointed 
unto my servant Joseph to hold this power in the last days, and 
there is never but one on the earth at a time pn whom this power 
and the keys of the priesthood are conferred, are of no efficacy, 
virtue or force in and after the resurrection from the dead ; for all 
contracts that are not made unto this end have an end when men 
are dead." 

The third clause is simply a reiteration of the sentiments 
contained in the preceding ; but the fourth announces one 
of the most peculiar tenets of Mormon theology. The 
reader will see that in it the assertion is distinctly made that 
if a man and woman are married by civil contract or accord- 



THE "KEYS" GIVEN TO JOSEPH. 79 

ing to the usage of any of the ordinary sects, although they 
may be among the most faithful members of the Mormon 
Church in every other respect, yet, after death, they shall 
not enjoy exaltation in heaven, they shall not become gods, 
shall not marry or have children, shall have no kingdom or 
priesthood, but shall simply be as the angels servants and 
messengers of the Saints. It reads thus : 

4th. " Therefore, if a man marry him a wife in the world, and 
he marry her not by me nor by my word, and he covenant with 
her so long as he is in the world, and she with him, their covenant 
and marriage is not of force when they are dead, and when they 
are out of the world ; therefore they are not bound by any law 
when they are out of the world ; therefore, when they are out of 
the world they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are 
appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants 
to minister for those who are worthy of a far more, and an ex- 
ceeding and an eternal weight of glory ; for these angels did not 
abide my law, therefore they cannot be enlarged, but remain 
separately and singly, without exaltation, in their saved condition, 
to all eternity, and from henceforth are not gods, but are angels of 
God for ever and ever." 

Thus far the Revelation sets forth the uncomfortable fate 
of those who do not strictly conform to the teachings of the 
Prophet in matrimonial affairs. We now come to the other 
side of the question the rewards which are to crown the 
faithful. The reader will observe that the strictest obe- 
dience is required to be paid to "him who is anointed," and 
who carries the keys. 

6th. "And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife 
by my word, which is my law, and by the new and everlasting- 
covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise 
by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power 
and the keys of this priesthood, and it shall be said unto them, 
Ye shall come forth in the first resurrection, and if it be after the 
first resurrection, in the next resurrection ; and shall inherit 
thi'ones, kingdoms, principalities and powers, dominions, all 
heights and depths, then shall it be written in the Lamb's Book 



8O THE REWARD OF THE FAITHFUL. 

of Life, that he shall commit no murder whereby to shed innocent 
blood. And if ye abide in my covenant, and commit no murder 
whereby to shed innocent blood, it shall be done unto them in all 
things whatsoever my servant hath put upon them, in time and 
through all eternity, and shall be of full force when they are out 
of the world, and they shall pass by the angels and the gods 
which are set there, to their exaltation and glory in all things, as 
hath been sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fulness 
and a continuation of the seeds for ever and ever. 

7th. " Then shall they be gods, because they have no end ; 
therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting, because 
they continue ; then shall they be above all, because all things are 
subject unto them ; then shall they be gods, because they have 
all power, and the angels are subject unto them." 

This is the reward of the faithful. The Revelation, how- 
ever, was intended to be comprehensive and final ; it was to 
meet every case, and there was to be no appeal from its 
decisions. The married couple being united in strict ac- 
cordance with the Revelation, they are now assured of 
salvation and exaltation in the world to come, provided they 
commit no unpardonable sin. In the following x paragraph 
that sin is defined, but the reader must bear in mind that 
theblood of Gentilfs i g tt '* jrpnncant " hlood j the 
of it, therefore, is no crime : 

9th. " Verily, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife 
according to my word, and they are sealed by the Holy Spirit of 
promise according to mine appointment, and he or she shall com- 
mit any sin or transgression of the new and everlasting covenant 
whatever, and all manner of blasphemies, and if they commit no 
murder wherein they shed innocent blood, yet they shall come 
forth in the first resurrection, and enter into their exaltation, but 
they shall be destroyed in the flesh, and shall be delivered unto 
the bufferings of Satan unto the day of redemption, saith the 
Lord God. 

loth. " The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, which shall 
not be forgiven in the world nor out of the world, is in that ye 
commit murder, wherein ye shed innocent blood and assent unto 



EXAMPLES FOR THE SAINTS TO FOLLOW. 8l 

my death after ye have received my new and everlasting covenant, 
saith the Lord God ; and he that abideth not this law can in 
no wise enter into my glory, but shall be damned, saith the Lord." 

In the italicized words, "but they shall be destroyed in 
the flesh," is foreshadowed that terrible doctrine the 
Blood-Atonement ; of which I shall presently speak more. 
It was not long before the Saints were taught openly that it 
was their duty to "destroy in the flesh " all upon whom the 
leaders of the church frowned. 

We come now to the examples which were held up for 
the Saints to follow : 

1 2th. "Abraham received promises concerning his seed and 
of the fruit of his loins, from whose loins ye are, namely, my 
servant Joseph, which were to continue so long as they were in 
the world ; and as touching Abraham and his seed, out of the 
world they should continue ; both in the world and out of the 
world should they continue as innumerable as the stars, or if ye 
were to count the sand upon the sea-shore ye could not number 
them. This promise is yours also, because ye are of Abraham, 
and the promise was made unto Abraham ; and by this law are 
the continuation of the works of my Father, wherein He glorifieth 
himself. Go ye, therefore, and do the works of Abraham ; enter 
ye into my law, and ye shall be saved. But if ye enter not into 
my law ye cannot receive the promises of my Father which he 
made unto Abraham. 

ijth. " God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar to 
Abraham to wife. And why did she do it? Because this was 
the law, and from Hagar sprang many people. This, therefore, 
was fulfilling, among other things, the promises. Was Abraham, 
therefore, under condemnation? Verily, I say unto you, Nay ; for 
I, the Lord, commanded it. Abraham was commanded to offer 
his son Isaac ; nevertheless it was written, Thou shalt not kill. 
Abraham, however, did not refuse, and it was accounted unto him 
for righteousness. 

I4th. " Abraham received concubines, and they bare him 
children, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, because 
they were given unto him and he abode in my law. As Isaac 
6 



82 THE AUDACITY OF JOSEPH SMITH. 

also and Jacob did none other things than that which they were 
commanded, and because they did none other things than that 
which they were commanded, they have 'ente'red into their exalta- 
tion, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones ; and are not 
angels, but Gods. David also received many wives and concubines, 
as also Solomon, and Moses my servant ; as also many others of my 
servants, from the beginning of- creation until this time ; and in 
nothing did they sin, save in those things which they received not 
of me. 

I5th. " David's wives and concubines were given unto him of 
me, by the hand of Nathan my servant, and others of the proph- 
ets, who had the keys of this power; and in none of these things 
did he sin against me, save in the case of Uriah and his wife ; and 
therefore he hath fallen from his exaltation, and received his por- 
tion ; and he shall not inherit them out of the world ; for I gave 
them unto another, saith the Lord." 

The audacity of Joseph Smith in stating as a Revelation 
from God, that "David's wives and concubines \ve\-e given 
him of me by the hand of Nathan . . . m none of these 
things did he sin against me," is scarcely conceivable, when 
it is remembered that in the "divinely inspired" Book of Mor- 
mon it is written, " David and Solomon truly had many 
wives and concubines, 'which thing was abominable before 
me, saith the Lord." " The Lord," however, whom Joseph 
served, seems to have been as inconsistent in this as in many 
other matters. But in case of -difficulty, Joseph was spe- 
cially commissioned "to restore all things." Celestial Mar- 
riage was more exactly defined; and that the whole concern 
should run more smoothly, the keys of the kingdom on 
earth and in heaven were handed over to the Prophet. 

i6th. " I am the Lord thy God, and I gave unto thee my ser- 
vant Joseph, an appointment, and restore all things ; ask what ye 
will, and it shall be given unto you, according to my word ; and 
as ye have asked concerning adultery, verily, verily I say unto you, 
if a man receiveth a wife in the new and everlasting covenant, and 
if she be with another man, and I have not appointed unto her by 
the holy anointing, she hath committed adultery, and shall be de- 



THE "ELECT LADY" RECEIVES ADVICE. 83 

stroyecl. If she be not in the new and everlasting covenant, and 
she be with another man, she has committed adultery ; and if her 
husband be with another woman, and he was under a vow, he 
hath broken his vow, and hath committed adultery ; and if she 
hath not committed adultery, but is innocent, and hath not broken 
her vow, and she knoweth it, and I reveal it unto you, my ser- 
vant Joseph, then shall you have power, by the power of my Holy 
Priesthood, to take her, and give her unto him that hath not com- 
mitted adultery, but hath been faithful, for he shall be made ruler 
over many ; for I have conferred upon you the keys and power of 
the priesthood, wherein I restore all things, and make known unto 
you all things in due time. 

1 7th. " And verily, verily I say unto you, that whatsoever you 
seal on earth, shall be sealed in heaven ; and whatsoever you bind 
on earth, in my name, and by my word, saith the Lord, it shall 
be eternally bound in the heavens ; and whosesoever sins you remit 
on earth shall be remitted eternally in the heavens ; and whoseso- 
ever sins you retain on earth shall be retained in heaven. 

iSth. u And again verily I say, whomsoever you bless I will 
bless ; and whomsoever you curse I will curse, saith the Lord ; for 
I, the Lord, am thy God." 

After all this preamble, the keys committed to Joseph, 
the relation of husfcands and wives under the new dispensa- 
tion defined, " Celestial Marriage " instituted, and a great 
many other matters discussed, we come to what was, no 
doubt, prominent in the Prophet's mind all the while he was 
dictating the Revelation to Elder Clayton, namely, how to 
manage w the Elect Lady," Mrs. Emma Smith. Accord- 
ingly she is made the subject of a special address. She 
is told to " receive all that have been given to my servant 
Joseph." She is forbidden to leave the Prophet, as she had 
threatened to do if he carried out his " celestial " system, 
and certain other very useful hints are given for her guid- 
ance if she would remain in peace. One particular passage 
is said to refer to a matrimonial scene in which a threat was 
held out that the life of the Elect Lady should be terminated 



84 A LITTLE MORE "REVELATION." 

by poison. She is here commanded to " stay herself, and 
partake not" of that which Joseph had offered her. It is, 
however, only right to add that the Mormon exponents of 
the Revelation say that this passage refers to an offer which 
Joseph had made to sacrifice his own personal feelings, and 
to accede to a divorce between Emma and himself. In 
these few lines more is disclosed of the Prophet's domestic 
life and difficulties than he probably was aware of. I give 
these paragraphs in full, that the reader may judge for 
himself. 

f 2Oth. " Verily I say unto you, a commandment I give unto 
mine handmaid Emma Smith, your wife, whom I have given unto 
you, that she stay herself, and partake not of that which I com- 
manded you to offer unto her ; for I did it, saith the Lord, to prove 
you all, as I did Abraham ; and that I might require an offering at 
your hand, by covenant and sacrifice ; and let mine handmaid 
Emma Smith receive all those that have been given unto my 
servant Joseph, and who are virtuous and pure before me ; and 
those who are not pure, and have said they were pure, shall be 
destroyed, saith the Lord God ; for I am the Lord thy God, and 
ye shall obey my voice ; and I give unto my servant Joseph, that 
he shall be made ruler over many things, for he hath been faithful 
over a fe^things, and from henceforth I will strengthen him.y 

2ist. \f l And I command mine handmaid Emma Smith to 
abide and cleave unto my servant Joseph, and to none else. But 
if she will not abide this commandment, she shall be destroyed,/ 
saith the Lord ; for I am the Lord thy God, and will destroy her 
if she abide not in my law ; but if she will not abide this com- 
mandment, then shall my servant Joseph do all things for her, 
even as he has said ; and I will bless him and multiply him, and 
give unto him an hundred fold in this world, of fathers and moth- 
ers, brothers and sisters, houses and lands, wives and children, 
and crowns of eternal lives in the eternal worlds. And again, 
verily I say let mine handmaid forgive my servant Joseph his tres- 
passes, and then shall she be forgiven her trespasses, wherein she 
has trespassed against me ; and I, the Lord thy God, will bless 
lier, and multiply her, and make her heart to rejoice." 



PRIVILEGES OF THE MORMON MEN. 85 

The concluding clauses speak for themselves. The 
reader will see tKat in the twenty-third the Prophet is com- 
pletely set free from all responsibility, and left at liberty, 
without let or hinderance, to follow the dictates of his own 
tbe two concluding paragraphs the wildest 
licentiousness isjpermitted. in the name of " the Lord," to 
ic masculine portion of humanity, if believers in Joseph, 
and the weaker sex are sternly warned of the penalties 
of doubt and disobedience. 

236. " Now as touching the law of the priesthood, there are 
many things pertaining thereunto. Verily, if a man be called of 
my Father, as was Aaron, by mine own voice, and by the voice 
of him that sent me, and I have endowed him with the keys of the 
power of this priesthood, if he do anything in my name, and 
according to my law, and by my word, he will not commit sin, 
and I will justify him. Let no one, therefore, set on my servant 
Joseph ; for I will justify him ; for he shall do the sacrifice which 
I require at his hands, for his transgressions, saith the Lord your 
God. 

24th. " And again, as pertaining to the law of the priesthood : 
If "any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and 
the first give her consent ; and if he espouse the second, and they 
are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified ; 
he cannot commit adultery, for they are given unto him. For he 
cannot commit adultery with that which belongeth unto him, and 
to none else ; and if he have ten virgins given unto him by this 
law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him ; and they 
are given unto him therefore is he justified. But if one or either 
of the ten virgins, after she is espoused, shall be with another 
man, she has committed adultery, and shall be destroyed ; for 
they are given unto him to multiply and replenish the earth, ac- 
cording to my commandment, and to fulfil the promise which 
was given by my Father before the foundation of the world ; and 
for their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the 
souls of men ; for herein is the work of my Father continued, that 
He may be glorified. 

25th. " And again, verily, verily I say unto you, if any man have 






86 THE "ELECT LADY" GETS HER RELEASE. 

a wife who holds the keys of this power, and he teaches unto her 
the law of my priesthood, as pertaining to these things ; then shall 
she believe, and administer unto him, or she shall be destroyed, 
saith the Lord your God, for I will destroy her ; for I will mag- 
nify my name upon all those who receive and abide in my law. 
Therefore it shall be lawful in me v if she receive not this law, for 
him to receive all things whatsoever I the Lord his God will give 
unto him, because she did not believe, and administer unto him, 
according to my word ; and she then becomes the transgressor, 
and he is exempt from the law of Sarah, who administered unto 
Abraham according to the law, when I commanded Abraham to 
take Hagar to wife. And now, as pertaining to this law ; verily, 
verily I say unto you, I will reveal more unto you hereafter ; there- 
fore let this suffice for the present. Behold, I am Alpha and 
Omega. Amen." 

When Joseph released all other wives from their marriage 
contracts, of course Emma was also released. It is said she 
thought of making another choice, and would have done so, 
but the Revelation came in time to prevent it. Joseph offered 
to make the sacrifice, but the Lord told Emma to " abide and 
cleave to my servant Joseph," who had been cunning enough 
to insert these clauses in his "Revelation," so as to hold her 
more closely. It is said that she was shown the first copy 
of it, and burned it ; if so, there must have been another in 
existence, for the one that Brigham Young gave in 1852 as 
Joseph's revelation was identical with that given a few of 
the chosen Saints in 1843. 

I have entered somewhat more into detail regarding the 
early history of Mormonism than I intended in the begin- 
ning ; but I have considered it necessary to do so, in order 
to show to my readers more fully the doctrines I have been 
taught from my infancy, and to give them some idea of the 
Mormon stand-point. T^hey can easily see how things may 
become distorted when looked at from such a one-sided 
"position? 



\ 



CHAPTER IV. 



AFTER JOSEPH'S DEATH. BRIGHAM YOUNG ELECTED 
PROPHET. 

Kindness of the Gentiles. Strangers in a Strange Land. My Parents 
join the Saints in Nauvoo. They Purchase Land in the City. Are 
shamefully Defrauded. Joseph's Unfaithful Friends. My Parents 
left almost Destitute. I am Born in the Midst of Troubles. The 
Saints Bewildered. Who should succeed Joseph? Sidney Rigdon's 
Claims to the Presidency. He returns to Nauvoo. Has Dreams 
and Visions. He Promises to " Pull Little Vic's Nose." The Apos- 
tles hear of the Prophet's Murder. They hasten to Nauvoo. 
Brigham begins his Successful Intrigues. He Settles Sidney Rigdon. 
An Extraordinary Trial. Brigham's Idea of Free Voting. Wo- 
men's Suffrage in Utah. Why Brigham gave the Franchise to the 
Women. My own Experience as a Voter. Brigham dictates what 
I'm to Do. I obey Quietly. How Sidney Rigdon was Deposed. 
Brigham Rules the Church. 

PON the arrival of the Saints 
in Illinois they made Quincy 
their first stopping-place, and 
thence the majority of them 
went at once to Nauvoo, the 
new gathering-place. 

My parents did not accom- 
pany them, but remained in 
Quincy two months. They 
reached that city in a state of 
almost utter destitution, with 
barely clothing enough to ren- 
der them decent, certainly not 
enough to make them com- 
fortable. Their reception by 

the residents of the city, indeed by the people of Illinois 
generally, was very cordial, and my mother often says she 




88 THE PROPHET'S FRIENDS STEAL A LAND-GRANT. 

shall never forget the kindness she received at their hands. 
Literally, she " was a stranger and they took her in, hun- 
gry and they fed her, naked and they clothed her." And 
not only her, but her little ones. / 

My mother was energetic ancVwilling, and she found work 
in plenty, and managed to get together some of the com- 
forts and necessaries of life, when, after a two months' 
sojourn amid these hospitable people, they removed to Pay- 
son, where my father built a carriage manufactory and once 
more commenced business. After three years of remunera- 
tive labor, during which time he had got his business fairly 
established, he concluded to leave it and join the Saints at 
Nauvoo ; he and my mother both the latter more especially 
desiring to be once more in Zion with the " chosen peo- 
ple." (My father had purchased five acre-lots in the City of 

Nauvoo, and felt that he had a material as well as a spirit- 
ual hold upon Zion. The deeds were properly executed, 
and after making sure that everything was right during a 
visit to the city, he made instant preparations to move his 

V family thither. ) 

^ When he rettfrned with his family and prepared to take 
possession of his property, he found it claimed by Dr. Fos- 
ter, a friend and favorite of Joseph Smith, who pretended 
to have^made a verbal contract for the land two years be- 
fore.^ This, of course, brought the property into a dispute 
which could only be settled by the church authorities, Joseph 
himself presiding.) As a matter of course, there was but one 
decision, and what that would be my father knew very 
nearly as well before it was given as he did afterwards. 
Joseph would not decide against his friend ; the rest, seeing 
how his mind was made up, dared not; and the land was 
declared to belong to Foster, who, by the way, such were 
his regard and gratitude for his leader, apostatized not very 
long afterwards, attached himself to Law and his party, 
and finally removed from Nauvoo, denouncing the religion 

', and its Prophet, and, indeed, carried his enmity so far that 

\ 



CONTEST FOR THE PRESIDENCY OF THE CHURCH. 89 

he joined those miscreants to whose violence may be attrib- 
uted the death of Joseph Smith. 

My father was again stripped of his property, by the 
treachery and unjust ruling of the very man whom he had 
so faithfully served. He had enough money remaining, 
however, to purchase other lots, and on the land thus ob- 
tained he built two very comfortable houses, in one of which 
I was born, as I before said, on the I3th of September, 
1844, at the most tempestuous and most critical period in all 
Mormon history. 

Joseph Smith had been assassinated the previous July, 
and his death, sudden and violent as it was, had almost 
paralyzed the people, who were thus left without a leader, 
and who were ill fitted to govern themselves, since they had 
for so long a time given up their wills to the Prophet, fol- 
lowing his instructions as obediently as the most tractable 
children do their parents' behests. They had for so many 
years depended upon him to guide them that they were un- 
fitted almost to think for themselves. Life was a hopeless 
muddle, and they saw no way of making it clearer. Then 
their former friends had turned to enemies, and they began 
to fear that they should be driven from their pleasant homes 
in Illinois, as they had been from Missouri. And with all 
the disturbance outside the church, there were heresy and 
schism among themselves. 

The question who should be the leader in Joseph's place 
was exercising the church. The " First Presidency " was 
composed of Joseph Smith, his brother Hyrum, and Sidney 
Rigdon. Hyrum Smith was killed in prison with his 
brother, and Rigdon, although he had not apostatized, had 
grown cool in the faith, left Nauvoo, and was living at 
Pittsburg, Pa., enjoying life outside of Mormondom, and 
seemingly finding much pleasure in Gentile society. After 
the Missouri episode his enthusiasm was very much chilled, 
and he indulged in fewer rhodomontades against the gov- 
ernment. When Joseph made his advances to his daughter 



9 



PULLING " LITTLE Vic's " NOSE ! 



Nancy, Rigdon was very much offended, and left Nauvoo at 
once. As soon, however, as he heard of Joseph's death he 
made all haste to return and secure for himself the " office " 
ofTrophet, Seer, and Rcvclator," to which he claimed he 
had been ordained. He was not received with enthusiasm 
by~flie Gaiuty, aTid he very soon discovered that whoever 
might step into the dead Prophet's shoes, he, for a certainty, 
would not be allowed to wear them. There was nothing then 
remaining for him to do but to assume that Joseph's mantle 

of prophecy had fallen upon 
his shoulders ; consequent- 
ly, he revelled in visions 
and dreams of the wildest 
and most fanatical kind. 
His prophecies were the 
most wonderful that ever 
were heard, and were so 
very incoherent and incon- 
sistent that serious doubts 
of his sanity were enter- 
tained. There were to be 
tremendous battles ; blood 
was to flow until the horses 
waded in it up to their very 

bridles. All the powers of the earth were to assail the 
Saints, but Rigdon was to lead the faithful to certain vic- 
tory. All the strength of earth was to bow before this little 
band of people and their consecrated leader, and he was, 
as a final act of triumph as he returned from the battle of 
Armageddon, to call in England and "pull the nose of 
little Vic." 

What the young queen, then in the full flush of popular- 
ity, had done to raise this modern Bombastes' ire, remains to 
this day a mystery. It is needless to say that the battles 
have never been fought, nor has her majesty's nose been 
maltreated by Rigdon or any other crazy Mormon fanatic. 




SIDNEY RIGDON. 



BRIGHAM SHOWS THE CLOVEN HOOF ! pi 

At the time of the assassination of Joseph Smith nearly 
all the apostles were away on a mission. On hearing the 
evil tidings from Zion, they hastened there without delay, 
and Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Hyde, and 
Heber C. Kimball arrived soon after Rigdon made his ap- 
pearance, and while he was in the midst of his "revelations." 
From the moment of their arrival his chances were smaller 
than ever, although he still maintained, but in not so public 
a manner as at first, that he held "the keys of David," and 
that he intended to persist in the maintenance of his claims, 
even if obliged to do so forcibly. 

The man for the situation appeared at this juncture in 
Brigham Young. Ambitious himself for the position which 
Rigdon so earnestly coveted, fortune seemed to have placed 
him exactly in the situation to attain it. He was so it hap- 
pened by the merest chance the senior apostle, and that 
gave him authority. Thomas Marsh, who was at one time 
the senior, had apostatized; Patten, the second apostle, had 
been killed by the mob, and this^made the third apostle the 
first or senior of the " twelve." ^The third happened to be 
Brigham Young ; so that, after all, it was a mere chance 
that placed him where he is. Both the Pratts were far 
superior to him in intellect ; and- they and Orson Hyde were 
far ahead of him in mental attainments, such as they were. 
He was a very plain man, entirely uneducated, and had 
been noted for nothing except his fidelity to the Prophet and 
the church and his hard-working disposition. But he was 
shrewd enough to see his opportunity and to seize it, and 
yet to do it in such a manner that neither his associates nor 
the church itself had the least suspicion of his real plan.] 

The first move was to have Rigdon's case settled. He 
was summoned for public trial before the High Council, 
and eight of the apostles appeared as witnesses. Brigham 
Young played a very important part in this trial ; he opened 
proceedings by accusing Rigdon of a determination to rule 
the church or ruin it, and followed up the accusation by 



92 SIDNEY HANDED OVER TO THE DEVIL. 

declaring that he should do neither. All the events of his 
life were passed in review, and although he was not present, 
being detained, it was said, by illness, the case was by no 
means deferred, and he was tried without an opportunity of 
defending himself. At the motion of Brigham, he was 
" cut off from the Church of Latter-Day Saints, and deliv- 
ered over to the buffetings of Satan, in the name of the 
Lord ; and all the people said, Amen." 

There were about ten persons who ventured to vote in 
favor of Rigdon, and they were immediately "suspended" 
from the church for their temerity. This is the way in 
which persons are served even now who venture to disagree 
with Brigham Young. There is absolutely no such tiling 
known among the Mormons as a free expression of opinion. 
Whether it be on religious or political subjects, the decision 
61 the people is governed" oy the wishes of the Jf resident. 
The manner of voting in public assemblies is never varied. 
Brigham prefaces all ceremonies of the kind by an address, 
in\vmch lie manages to let the people know exactly how he 
feels upon the subject under discussion, and they understand 
that they are to feel exactly the same way ; and as there is no 
question of choice, they make themselves fancy they do^e- 
lieve exactly as he does. If they have any question of doubt, 
they stifle it very quickly, and, if they are very good Mor- 
mons, take themselves to task for their wickedness in enter- 
taining a thought contrary to the opinion of their Prophet. 
After the address, Brigham calls for a show of uplifted 
hands, and requests every one to vote. The " contrary 
minds " are then called ; but such is the singular unity of 
this people that there is never a " contrary " mind among 
them. To make this ceremony of voting more humorous, 
the Prophet, in requesting all the people to vote, wittily 
adds, "in one way or the other." This piece of pleasantry 
on Brigham's part is quite appreciated by the Mormons, and 
the "oneway" receives all the saintly votes, to the utter 
.exclusion of " the other." Let any one attempt to take the 



THE PROPHET BRIGHAM S LITTLE TRICKS. 



93 



Presidential joke au serteux, and it becomes anything but 
pleasant for him. He is looked upon with suspicion, re- 
garded as an enemy of the church and its ruler, and if he 
escape serious persecution he may be considered especially 
fortunate. 

In politics there is about the same freedom of opinion, or 
frfj** fvprpgginn, rnthmr.- Alth^n^h n ^mb^n "f r-4a 
pendent action is kept up, since the people are not publicly 
told which way they must vote, yeTthe bishops and ward- 
teachers manage to make it understood very decidedly what 
is ^^tprl r^f tv.^ Faithful " at th* p1 ffl [|rms. The expecta- 



tions, itj^pejfraps qeetflfcss to state, are always realized. 

I have often heard ladies in the ii-ast say mat they^con- 
sidered Utah way in advance of the age in one respect at 
least; that there the equality of the sexes was^ so far re- 
garded that the ballot was in the women's hands, and that 

And I know 

* .-r-! i " cr""""*""*"''^^ '""" "" "' "~ **""-- r* 

that for this one act Brigham Young is commended by 



some of the leaders of the Woman Suffrage party, and he is 
viewed bythem with a lenient ey^J 



"acts oT~gross injustice. If these same radical reformers 
only understood the reason that the franchise was extended 
to Utah women, and the peculiar "freedom" and intelli- 
gence with which they are allowed to exercise this privilege, 
I think they would not be so scathing in their denunciations 
of the Poland bill. To the men and women engaged in this 
reform there seems to be no possibility that there can be 
cases where positive harm would ensue when the ballot was 
given to women ; they evidently believe that with universal 
suffrage will be ushered in the millennium. 

It may have that effect in other portions of the States, but 
in polygamous UtahTTuTe3'"6ver by a treacherous tyrant 
this very right, which "tfiey-eiaim will loosen. me leg* 
political shackles by which women are bound, and render 
them absolutely free, only binds the chains the tighter and 
makes them greater slaves than ever. And the most hate- 



94 HOW BRIGHAM MAKES THE WOMEN VOTE. 

ful part is, that they are helping to tighten their own bonds, 
and are doing it, too, under compulsion. 

The reason of this wonderful act of "justice" on Brigham 
Young's part can easily be given. When the Union Pacific 
Railroad was completed, an(J the influx of miners and 
other outsiders from the Gentile world began to flood the 
Territory and make homes for themselves in the very midst 
of Mormondom, the chiefs of the Mormon hierarchy grew 
very fearful and apprehensive lest the power should pass 
from their grasp into Gentile hands by the gradual change 
of population. By -jjydopUflg... female suffrage^h'ey would 
treble thfor voting power at onceT^ There was no longer 
any hesitation ; the measure was adopted, and so general 
and generous was it, that in Utah to-day every person of the 
female sex, from the babe in the arms to the oldest, bed- 
ridden, imbecile crone, has the right of elective franchise, 
and is compelled to use it. 

To illustrate the intelligence with which women vote, and 
the freedom of opinion in political matters which is allowed 
them, I think I can do no better than give my own first 
experience in exercising the prerogative of a free woman. 

It was the first election-day that occurred after the right 
of suffrage had been, not granted, but commanded. I was 
standing in front of my husband's office, talking with a 
friend, when he came out. His first question, put before he 
had offered either myself or my friend any greeting, was, 

" Have you voted to-day ? " 

"No, Brother Young, I have not." 

" Then I suppose you intend doing so at once." 

"Not at all," I replied; " I have no intention of voting at 
all." \ 

"And why not?" he asked, somewhat angrily. 

" Because I have not yet become sufficiently acquainted 
with the political situation to understand what it is best to 
do, and I prefer not to vote ignorantly." 

" But I wish you to vote," was his peremptory reply. 



HOW BRIGHAM'S WIVES ENJOY THE FRANCHISE. 95 



"Excuse me, please, Brother Young," pleaded I; "I 
don't know who or what to vote for, and I really had much 
rather not." I was quite in earnest. I did not know any- 
thing then of politics, and I must confess I had no interest 
in them. 

" Get into the carriage," com- 
manded he, so sternly that I 
knew I must obey, and further 
parley would be useless. " I 
want you to vote, and at once. 
Mr. Rossitur will take you to 
the polls and tell you how to 
vote." 

Mr. Rossitur, to whose care 
I was committed, was Brig- 
ham's coachman, and was to 
be my political instructor. All 
the information I gained will 
never harm nor help me very 
materially. I was driven to the polls, a ticket was handed 
me, and hustled along without the opportunity of examining 
it, and to this day I am in blissful ignorance of what or who 
I cast my only vote for. I know, however, that among 
other officers they were electing a delegate to Congress, and 
I suppose I must have voted for George Q... Cannon. There 
is an encouraging and inspiring picture for the advocates of 
female suffrage, who are jubilant over the triumph of their 
cause in Utah. A polygamous wife of the President of the 
church conveyed to the polls by her husband's coachman., 
and compelled to cast the vote he gives her without an 
opportunity of exercising her ludgment or her choice, and 
ignorant even of what she is doing. By all means let us 
have the suffrage in Utah, in spite of Judge Poland. 

After the Council had disposed of Sidney Rigdon to its 
satisfaction, and "all the people" had signified theirs by 
saying "Amen," he turned about and prepared to fight 




96 HOW THE "PROFIT" OF THE CHURCH BEGAN HIS REIGN. 

them. His resistance, however, was short and feeble, He 
returned to Pittsburg, and attempted to resurrect the " Lat- 
ter-Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate? a Mormon 
publication that had died some years before. His attempt 
was futile, and he gave up the contest with his failure to 
revive that sheet, and Mormonism has known little or noth- 
ing of him since. 

In the mean time the Twelve Apostles were to rule over 
the church until such time as a change in the Presidency 
should seem necessary. This was Brigham's first step, and 
the rest came easily and naturally enough. To all intents 
and purposes he was as much the ruler of the Mormons as 
he is now, although he did not then arrogate so much to 
himself. He knew very well that it would not do to de- 
clare himself too suddenly ; so he quietly worked and 
waited until he found himself in the position which he now 
holds a position which has never been contested by his 
followers. 

He was always a hard worker, quite successful in making 
converts, and the steady determination of his character, 
which amounted to decided obstinacy, united with a schem- 
ing cunning, helped him very much at this period of his 
life. 

He was shrewd enough not to attempt, as Rigdon had 
done, to play the prophet ; he knew very well that in that 
role he would not meet success. He announced that no one 
should take Joseph's place, and to this day he maintains to 
those who remember what he said then, and contrast his 
past assertions with his present position as head of the 
church " No one can take the place of Joseph ; he is 
in his place as the spiritual head of the church, and will 
always be there, through time and eternity." 

" I am no prophet and revelator, as Joseph was," he used 
to say to the Saints : " but Joseph left revelations enough for 
you to follow for twenty years ; in the mean time, the Lord 
will reveal Himself to those among you whom He may 



HE HAS AN EYE TO THE CASH ! 97 

choose so to honor, and there is no reason why you should 
not all have revelations." 

But, revelations or not, one thing he insisted upon : that 
was, that the Saints were to "build the kingdom up for 
Joseph," and that he kept constantly before them. He next 
proceeded to make the church self-sustaining in a pecuniary 
sense. Each member was to tithe himself or herself one 
tenth of all their property, and place it in the hands of the 
w Twelve " for the use of the church. This tithing fund Brig- 
ham had absolute control of a control that he has taken 
pains never to lose. He instituted other " reforms " in the 
church, and everything he proposed the people acquiesced 
in with a surprising readiness. They yielded to him, 
seemingly, without being aware that they were yielding, 
and he had his own way without opposition, while the poor 
deluded Saints thought he was carrying- out their ideas, in 
part at least. frhey_came under Brigham's yoke] without 
knowing when triey btJlfTlheir necks to receive it, and in less 
than six months after the Prophet's death his mastery over 
the church was as assured as it is to-day. 

7 



CHAPTER V. 



MY FATHER'S PLURAL WIFE. CHILDHOOD IN 
POLYGAMY. 

Childhood in Mormondom. A striking Contrast. The Sorrows of my 
Earliest Years. How my Mother received Polygamy. Submitting to 
the Rod. Clinging to Love and Home. Resigning all for Religion. 
Strange ways of glorifying God. The Reward of Faithfulness. 
The Prophet Joseph imparts a New Religious Mystery. The Break- 
ing-up of a Home. Feais of Rebellion. The Struggle of Faith 
against Nature. Seeking Rest, but finding None. Brigham's " Coun- 
sels." A New Wife Selected. My Parents enter into Polygamy. 
The New Bride, Elizabeth. The Marriage Ceremony. My Mother 
Sealed. She is to become a Queen. Domestic Arrangements in 
Polygamy. Bearing the Cross. A First Wife's Sorrows. " Where 
does Polygamy Hurt ? " The Mormon Husband ; his Position and 
Privileges. 

OFTEN wonder if there 
is a child in Mormon- 




dom, born under the 
flight of polygamy , who 
"Knows what it is ta nave 
a happy, joyous child- 
hood, rendered more 
happy and more joyous 
by the smiling, calm con- 
tent of the mother in 
whose arms its tiny infant 
form lies cradled. I fear 
the cases are as rare as 
happy women are. 
True, childhood always has a certain careless happiness of 
its own, that even the saddest surroundings cannot wholly 
repress ; but even this happiness is embittered by the tearful 
eyes that gaze into trustful baby ones, and the lips that 



yWsi-^swioe. 



RECEIVING THE FIRST PLURAL, WIFE. 99 

quiver with pain, as they try to smile back into laughing 
baby faces., 

In the nappy homes which I have visited since I broke 
the chains that bound me, and came forth a free woman, 
unshackled in thought and untrammelled in action, although 
a wanderer on the face of the earth, with no abiding-place 
where to stay my weary feet, I have been compelled to con- 
trast the difference between ffrij^hnnd i" a tnnnnggmir 
country and in a polygamous one ; and when I have seen 
the mother's face grow almost divine in its radiant con- 
tent as she smiled down into the face of the little one 
sheltered so closely in her heart, I have felt my heart throb 
and ache with jealous anguish for the little ones in Utah, 
and above all for their weary-hearted mothers, to whom 
maternity brings no such joy, and added love, and tender 
care. 

I was consecrated to sorrow by the Baptism of my mnth- 
er's tears upon my baby brow. I never remember on her 
face one such look as I see daily upon mothers* face^ fr>w. 
Mybaby Ka*mIs~wTpe(i away" tears, my baby fingers stroked 
a cheek furrowed by them, and my baby eyes never saw 
beyond the mist in hers. I came to her when the greatest 
misery of her life was about to fall upon her ; and that 
misery came to her, as it came to all the women then, un- 
<l^r Jhfijaiiafi-0. religion something that must be endured 
for Crmsfs^jsaJbe^ And as her religion had brought her 
nbthing~rJut persecution and sacrifice, she submitted to this 
new trial as to everything that had preceded it, and re- 

\w^> Qgivfd-- polygamy _gs a cross laid upon herp but which 

J^-^strength would be given her~to~*bearT"" 

She had never questioned any of Joseph Smith's "reve- 
lations," and she did not dare do so now, although this one 
came to her like a sudden and heavy blow, hurting heart and 
soul, and rendering the thought of life unendurable. Hith- 
erto, although her sufferings had been severe, and her pri- 
vations many, yet through them all she had been sustained 



IOO LIVING UP TO HIS PRIVILEGES. 

by her husband's love. That was hers, and together they 
had shared poverty and tasted plenty. Their sufferings 
had brought them closer together, and whether in plenty 
or poverty, they had been happy in each other and in their 
children, and had made a home, and a cheerful one, 
wherever they had been, one in which the spirit of love 
ruled supreme. Now, her religion told her that she was 
selfish and wicked to try and keep this home and husband. 
The one must be broken g anjd.ftesn1 atejcU foe other shared 
with some one else. \Jhe Lord commandedjgS What a 
blasphemy and satire on Him who is the God of Love, 
that Tie should make His children unhappy, and wreck 
all hopes- of peace and content, for His glory ! It seems as 
though this one act of Smith's alone should have opened 
the eyes of this deluded people, and shown them that their 
false Prophet was not taught of God, as he pretended, and 
they so fondly believed, but that he was impelled by the 
demons of covetousness and lust. But their eyes were 
blinded, and they could not see ; their reason was inthralled, 
and they did not know it was bound ; their wills were obe- 
dient to his, and he held them soul and body, and played 
with them as though they were so many puppets, helpless 
and lifeless out of his hands. 

Being accounted among the specially " faithful," my par- 
ents were among the first to whom polygamy was taught 
by Joseph Smith himself, and my father was commanded 
by him to " live up to his privileges," and to take another 
wife. 

At first, the thought of taking a second wife to share his 
home with the one whom he had first loved, who had been 
the object of his youthful dreams and of his manhood's 
devotion ; who had stood by him, through every reverse, 
with the courage, and consideration, and love which only a 
strong-natured, tender-hearted, earnest-souled woman could 
show under such circumstances ; who was, in every sense, 
a helpmeet, and, above all, the mother of his children, was 



HOW THE REVELATION WAS RECEIVED. IOI 

hateful to him. It took a long time, too, to overcome his 
aversion to the new system. He and my mother had many 
a long, tearful talk over it ; and although they received the 
doctrine, believing that it must be right, they could not for 
some time make up their minds to put it in practice. In 
the mean time Joseph was assassinated, and for a little time 
they were left to each other in peace. But Brigham Young 
was bound to carry out Joseph's revelations, and this one 
relating to the plural wife system was strongly, though se- 
cretly, urged upon the Saints. Both my father and mother 
were visited by Brigham, and " counselled " in regard to 
^the matter/ My mother has often said that the w Revelation " 
Iwas the most hateful thing in the world to her, and she 
Vireaded and abhorred it, but she was afraid to 



\lest she should be found " fighting^^ainjitjthe J-jord^'' /The 
tfrought thaTshe might be obliged to live in a polygamous 
relation with another woman filled her with horror and fear ; 
but she was assured by her religious leader, that the feel- 
ing was merely the effect of her early training, which she 
would soon outgrow under the benign influences of the 
gospel. For several months she struggled with herself over 
this subject, before she could think patiently of it for even a 
minute. She wanted to have it made easy and plain to 
her, for she could not bear to repudiate any of her beloved 
Prophet's teachings. She agonized over it day and night; 
she prayed incessantly to be given the true " spirit " of sub- 
mission ; if it was God's will, she wanted strength to endure 
it ; and she believed she should have it, for surely the kind 
and loving Father would not impose upon his children bur- 
dens greater than they could bear. She had not learned, 
as she has since, that the God of the Mormon belief \vn^ 
flDlrthg heavenly Father whose love the Saviour tnuj^ht, hn+ 
a jealous God, a cruel, avenging Spirit, who demanded, 

^blood-offerings to appease his" a" Wakened wrath. "He" was 

"not trie tender PalClll, all'vviai, all-powerful; and all-lov- 

ing, whom she reverenced and adored. There was little 



IO2 ELIZABETH. 

use in looking towards her people's God for help or com- 
fort. Retribution, and justice untempered by mercy, were 
all He had for His subjects, not children. 

During all these months of wavering doubt and untold 
misery, my father never attempted to influence my mother's 
decision in the least ; she had her battle to fight, and he 
his ; the end was inevitable for both ; but for all this the 
contest was no less severe. Brigham's "counselling" be- 
gan to assume the form of commands, which at last grew 
"so imperative tnat ttiey were oblified-Jn-li^nhpypH - My 
mother did not rebel ; she looked upon it as duty, and she 
was determined to "do it silently and uncomplainingly, if 
not willingly" and cheerfully. My parents consulted to- 
gether regarding the choice of the new wife, and fixed 
upon the person with surprising unanimity. They were 
each anxious to help and comfort the other in this as they 
had been in every other emergency of their lives. My 
father wished, if he must take another wife, to choose^one 
who should be agreeable to my mother, or rather as agree- 
able as one woman could be to another under such circum- 
stances ; and my mother was, for her part, equally deter- 
mined not to oppose him in his selection. But opposition 
was not necessary, as his choice fell upon the very person 
whom my mother wquld have selected, had the task 
rested with her alone.^/ 

A short time after my birth, a Miss Elizabeth Taft came, 
with a younger sister, to live in our house. She was a 
very pleasant, cheery, affectionate person, and all the fam- 
ily became very much attached to her. Father, mother, 
children, all quoted "Elizabeth," and she became almost 
a part of our very selves. She was thoughtful of my 
mother, and tender to us little ones, petting us and indul- 
ging us in our childish whims, and we, in return, loved 
her very dearly. She was a good woman in its highest 
interpretation, and devotedly religious. Naturally enough, 
seeing her so constantly, both my parents thought of her 



"SEALED" FOR TIME AND ETERNITY. 103 

as the new wife. If they must enter polygamy, they knew 
they could do no better than to take her into the family, if 
she could be induced to consider the subject in the same 
light. My father made proposals to her, and my mother 
seconded them. The thought of living in a polygamic rela- 
tion with any one was very unpleasant to her, as indeed it 
is to every true woman ; but she desired to live her religion, 
and believing this to be a part of it, accepted my father's 
proposal, and became his first plural wife when I was about 
a year old. 

Her parents were in Michigan at the time, and Elizabeth 
wished to wait until their arrival ; but Brigham, who, as a 
matter of course, was interested in the affair, counselled 
the marriage to proceed, and of course it was considered 
right and prudent to obey his counsel ; and as he was hur- 
rying forward the endowments in the Nauvoo Temple, pre- 
paratory to leaving for the West, the parties most nearly 
concerned in the matter thought it best to hasten the nup- 
tials. 

My mother was to be "sealed " at the same time, as, ac- 
cording to Joseph's Revelation, her former marriage, having 
been performed in the Gentile form, was not binding. The 
place of sealing was the Temple ; and there, one midwin- 
ter day, in the beginning of the year 1846, my mother was 
sealed to my father for "time and for all eternity," after which 
she gave him Elizabeth as his wife according to the Mor- 
mon marriage formula. It was with a steady voice and 
calm composure that she pronounced the words that gave 
another woman a share in her husband's love ; but it was 
none the less with a heavy, breaking heart. '1 Iniik of-tty- 



Who are happy in undivided h 



__ 

husbands* unshared love ! What if your religion com- 
manded you to give another woman to your husband as a 



mre -, wiio was to have an equal right with you to his at- 
tention and his love; who should bear his name, and be a 
.- mother to his children ;/ that all this should be done "in the 



- 



104 BEAUTIES OF THE " CELESTIAL " SYSTEM. 

or complaint on 



name of the Lord." and without shrinkin 



axe this home to j'ourself, and you will be 



aKTe tn appfpriatp alT~~nf>vf>r 



horror^ of Mnr- 




TrTOmsmT 

January that my father obeyed the " counsel " of 
his Prophet and leader, and in March his new wife's par- 
ents returned, and were shocked and grieved beyond meas- 
ure to find their daughter married into polygamy ; yet, being 
strong in the faith, and much attached to their church and 
their religion, submitted without a murmur, like the good 
Saints they were. 

My mother was so quiet and uncomplaining in the posi- 
tion which she had voluntarily assumed, that she was praised 
by the officious brethren and sisters for submitting with 
such good grace, and was told by them that great glory 
awaited her as a reward, and aUo,^as she had so readily 
made the great sacrifice, she would always be recognized 
as the first wife, which, among the Mormons, is considered 
an exceeding flieal honor^. Une ol the sisters, wno was a 
strong advocate of the new " Celestial " system, said to her : 
You will stand at the head of your husband's kingdom 
as a queen ; no une can ever take your place Irom you, but 

honored to stand by his side through the endless 



'OU Will DC 



ages dt" eternity."' It was by such .nonsensical talk and 

e Mormon leaderstri( 



ird promises asthese that the Mormon leaderstried 
to make polygamy attractive to the women who were al- 
ready married, and render them more willing to enter it. 
Such absurdities may have weight with some worne^, but 
they did not affect my mother^ nor render the cross s^ had 
assumed any more easy to bear. Her husband's undivided 
love during time was better than royal honors in eternity. 

The new wife lived in the family, and to outward appear- 
ance everything was unchanged. Only a few of the "very 
faithful " knew of the new arrangement ; it was deemed 
best to keep it a secret from the majority of the people, to 
whom polygamy was not a fixed fact, and who were waver- 



"DON'T YOU BELIEVE IN POLYGAMY?" 105 

ing slightly in the faith on account of it. The time had 
not yet come to promulgate the doctrine freely, and many 
left Nauvoo for the West quite ignorant that the system 
really existed in their midst.Q I think many of them never { 
would have crossed those endtess plains, and sought shelter I 
under the shadow of the Rocky Mountains, had they known 
what unhappiness awaited them. \ But unchanged as our 
family circle was to those outside it, within was unhappi- 
ness and bitterness of spirit. It was much harder to endure, 
even, than my mother had anticipated. Terrible as was 
the thought, the reality was much more horrible. She 
thought she had counted the cost ; she found she had, in 
her ignorance, been unable to estimate it. Every hour of 
her life her heart was torn by some new agony. She was 
compelled to see many of the tender, wifely little offices, 
trifles in themselves, that she had been accustomed to per- 
form, done by other hands, and she herself always turned 
off with the excuse, " You see, dear, you have the children 
to attend to, and I did not wish to give you trouble." 
Trouble ! as though anything done for him, with a heart 
full of love, could be accounted as such ! That hurt her 
almost as much as to see another doing what it had always 
been her delight to do. 

As is the custom of men in polygamy, my father fell more 
easily into the new arrangement, and even found a certain 
'comfort and content in it, and he wondered very mlUifl jhat 
my mother could not be haprjyas well. Indeed, he was a 
little impatient, after a while7 tnat sne would not sajTslier 
was content and satisfied in the new relation. 

" I don't understand it," he would say ; " you were willing 
at first. What is the difficulty now? Don't you think Eliza- 
beth a good, true girl ? " 

"Yes, indeed," was always the reply ; for my mother was 
too just a woman to do even a rival a wrong. 

" Don't you believe in polygamy, then ? " he would ask, 
determined to get to the bottom of the mystery. 



IO6 THE MORMON MOTHER AND HER BABY GIRL. 

"Yes, I suppose so. I wish to live my religion," was the 
dreary reply. 

" Well, what is to be done about it? " was the next anxious 
question. 

" O, I don't know," my mother would say, in bitter de- 
spair; "but I can't endure this life." 

" And yet you entered it voluntarily. I don't understand 
you ; you are strangely inconsistent." 

Her remonstrance and his comfort never went beyond 
this point. There was nothing more to be said. She had 
protested with unutterable anguish against the life that she 
felt was false and in direct contradiction to every law of 
moral right, although she was told to look upon it as " di- 
vine ; " and the only answer she could get was, " You are 
inconsistent ; you entered the relation voluntarily." The 
very truth of this reply silenced her, but it did not make 
her burdens any lighter or easier to bear. 

She saw that patient endurance was all that was required 
of her, and all she could give. Her husband was hers no 
longer ; she herself had given another woman the same 
right to his care that she had ; and now she turned to all that 
was left her in life that she could call her own her chil- 
dren. Had it not been for us she would have prayed to 
die. I was tin' baby, and she has said that at that time I 
was the strongest tie which held her to life. If it had not 
been for me, lying helpless in her arms, she would have 
taken her life into her own hands, and put an end to it then 
and there * But she could not endure the thought of leaving 
me, her only daughter, her baby girl, alone and un- 
shielded by a mother's care. My brothers, who were quite 
large boys at that time, she thought would not miss her, nor 
need her so much ; and many a time she has knelt with me 
clasped fast in her arms, the tears falHn^ on mywondering 
face, and prayed frantically that \ve both might, die. The 
thoiiglU-4kaJ_sJie had brought a girl into the_world to suffer 
as she was now suffering, to find her whole life's happiness 



K DO YOU THINK I HAVE NO TRIALS? 



.107 



made a wreck by the religion which should be a stay and 
a comfort, drove her almost wild. She had buried one 
little girl, and I have often heard her thank God that He 
had taken her to Himself before life became a terrible bit- 
terness and burden. She often says, in referring to her 
sufferings at that time, and the desperate state she was in, 
she wonders she did not commit suicide ; what kept her * 
from it she cannot tell to this day, unless the thought that 
these polygamous relations did not end with time, but were 

VC MHa _^^^^BaMHaMKMllMMMMI^ MM ^ |VV(MHMv ^^^ _ 

carried on through all eternity. " . 

She had to keep a double guard on her tongue and on 
her actions. She did not like to vex her husband, and 
neither did she wish to grieve the young wife, whose position 



ngw 

BSi 



was no pleasanter than her own. Besides, a husband 
polygamy is very sensitive regarding the treatment of the 
last wife by those who have preceded her, and she knew 
that no act of hers would escape her husband's notice, even 
had she been inclined to ill-treat her rival. 




"DO YOU THINK / HAVE NO TRIALS?" 

Once, very mildly and kindly, she tried to tell some of 
her troubles to Elizabeth, and begged her not to add to her 
sorrow by bestowing so many marks of affection on my 
father in her presence. The young wife turned on her 
quickly, and demanded, bitterly, 



IDS EVEN WORSE THAN I THOUGHT. 

w Do you think / have no trials ? " 

"God forgive me, and help us both ; I know you have? 
was my mother's quick and sympathetic answer. 

After all, what could she say or do? She had influenced 
the girl quite as much as my father had, believing she was 
only doing what was right, and that the act, hard as it was, 
would bring its own blessing with it^ 3&stead, it brought 
what polygamy always does bring the curse of a wrecked 
home and a life's unhappiness. 

A gentleman visiting Salt Lake City for the first time 
once asked me where polygamy hurt the most. 

"It hurts all over, body and soul, mind and heart," was 
my reply. "I can't tell a.^spot that it cloes not hurt.~ 

"It is even worse than I thought," he replied, with a 
shudder. 

The reply which I gave then I would give again. Never, 
until a woman ceases to love her husband, can polygamy 
cease to be anything but a series of cruel stings, alike to 
pride and conscience. 

I have tried to portray a little something of the misery 
that fell upon our family by the introduction of polygamy 
into it,^bjjt I have utterly failed to give an adequate idea of 
i it.l fe pen can possibly depict the heart-breaking suffer- 
JJ ings that are endured by women in this relation^andno one 
can imagine or understand them who has not experienced 
them. And yet, in spite of all this unhappiness, we were 
accounted a moHeTfamily, and were pointed out as the best 
"exponents, pj the' system! r'~* They are so united ! " was the 
admiring verdict. This was due a great deal to my moth- 
er's exertions and her conscientiousness. Having taken 
this new mode of life as a religious duty, she was deter- 
mined not to be found wanting in readiness to perform 
whatever it required of her. A happy, contented spirit 
she could not give ; but she could show patience, long-suf- 
fering, and a calm, though by no means cheerful, face and 
manner. 



MEN GET THE BEST OF IT. 



lop 



Then, my father was very just in the treatment of his 
wives. One did not fare better than the other in any re- 
respect. If he purchased an article of wearing apparel for 
one, he got its counterpart for the other ; in every par- 
ticular they shared alike. His position was by no means 
an enviable one ; still it was preferable to that of either of 
his wives. Men, as I said before, always get the best of it 
become more easiF 



bhes, my lather appeared with both wives, and they de- 
ferred to each other in the most charming way, both of them 
being too sensible and too proud to show the slightest feeling 
where it might be commented on. Then, too, in spite of 
the natural bitterness of feeling between them, there was a 
mutual respect and regard between them, and each was too 
just to lay her troubles at the door of the other. Had these 
two women, with their generous natures and firm princi- 
ples, met on any other ground, they would not only have 
" got along " amiably and quietly as they did, but they 
would have been warm, earnest friends, and the respectful 
regard would have grown into positive affection. As it 
was, they had nothing but kind words for each other, my 
mother, especially, pitying the young wife as she did her- 
self. Elizabeth, was still kind to us children, and gained 
the love which she has held ever since, and which she fully 

"^reserved. Still the introduction of polygamy into our 
midst was not a pleasant thing.' and we little pue^t &vgr> T 
telt InstincfoHy * ^^kfcl^l^I^lC^ 

^^~B'ut w&lwere to be diverted from the contemplation of its 
miseries by a new and absorbing excitement. The Mor- 
mon people were again compelled to move, leaving their 
beautiful new city in the " defiled hands " of the Gentiles ; 
and in the very midst of our first family trouble and unhap- 
piness came the command to seek another Zion, since this 
could no longer be a shelter for the Saints. 



CHAPTER VI. 



FORSAKING DEAR ZION. WE FIND A NEW HOME IN 
THE FAR WEST. 

A New Home in the West. Dangerous Neighbors. Some very Un- 
pleasant Stories. Seeking a New Home. Preparing to Depart. 
Life at Winter-Quarters. A Lively Time in the Temple. "Little 
Dancin' Missy." Bound for Salt Lake Valley. Life by the Way. 
Songs of the Saints. A False Prophecy. " The Upper California." 
Saintly Profanity. A Soul-stirring Melody. The Saints Excited. 
Beside the Camp-Fires. The Journey Ending. Entering Zion. 
The Valley of the Great Salt Lake. 

N the spring of 1846 our 
family left Nauvoo, with 
the large body of the 
Saints, to find a new home 
in the West. The Mor- 
mon people had become 
quite as unpopular in Illi- 
nois as they had been in 
Missouri ; and collisions 
between them and the 
Gentiles were very fre- 
quent. 

Sometimes it was one 
side that was the aggressor, sometimes the other. The 
Saints were indignant at the treachery which resulted in 
Joseph Smith's death. They held the United States gov- 
ernment responsible for it, as well as for the troubles in 
Missouri, and taught disloyalty to the government, and per- 
sonal revenge on all who molested them/ 

The people of Illinois, in their turn, regarded the Mor- 
mons as dangerous neighbors, and getting a hint of the 
new doctrine of polygamy, looked jipon them as grossly 




FLIGHT TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. Ill 

immoral, and accused them of much greater crimes than^ 
tlrey really committed. All sorts of horrible rumors were 
rife, and the Indignation of the people outside knew no 
bounds. 

The Mormon people realized, very soon after Joseph's 
death, that they must seek a new home, and they looked 
with a feeling of positive relief to the unexplored region be- 
yond the Rocky Mountains. They believed that there they 
would find a realization of all that had been promised them 
by their murdered Prophet. At least they would be be- 
yond all interference and molestation, and after all they 
had suffered, they did not care how much space they put 
between themselves and the Gentile world. 

All through the winter of 1845 and '46, my father was 
very busy building wagons for the purpose of transporting 
the Saints and their property to their new and yet unknown 
home ; for their destination was not definitely known to any 
of them at that time. The Apostle Taylor advocated Cali- 
fornia, and, indeed, announced that it would be the Saints' 
objective point when they should leave Nauvoo. He wrote 
an emigration song about it, and all .the way from Nauvoo 
to Winter-Quarters, some of the emigrating party were 
tunefully averring, 

" The Upper California, O, that's the land for me ! " , 

Yet, in spite of Taylor's prophecy and the saintly singing 
of it, they never reached California^ 

It mattered little to me,"at that period of my existence, 
where we went. Home was home wherever my mother 
was, whether it was east, west, or camping on the prairies 
between. Of course I remember but little respecting the 
exodus of the Saints from Nauvoo ; still there are indis- 
tinct recollections of things that happened as early as that 
which sometimes cross my mind, although they are very 
dim. My first distinct remembrance was of Winter-Quar- 
ters, which were then where Council Bluffs now stands. 



ii2 "LITTLE DANCIN' MISSY." 

My father built a log-house there, and we were compar- 
atively comfortable. Our family consisted of my father, 
mother, two brothers, myself, and Elizabeth, the new wife. 
We were together nearly all the time, but when my father 
went into Missouri to work a while at his business, and get 
a little money ahead to take us to our new home, and set- 
tle us, he took my mother, my younger brother, and my- 
self, leaving Elizabeth the new wife and my oldest 
brother at Winter-Quarters. 

Notwithstanding the facts of the enforced emigration, 
the uncertainty of their future, and sacrifices they had been 
compelled to make, the migrating Mormons were not an 
unhappy party, and they managed to make their stay in 
Winter-Quarters lively, if not merry. As a people, they 
have always mixed amusement with their religion in the 
most amusing manner. Dancing was a favorite recrea- 
tion with them, and all their balls were commenced with 
prayer. That custom, by the way, is still continued, and 
the blessing of " the Lord " invoked at every dancing party 
which takes place in Mormondom. The Temple at Nau~ 
voo (I have heard) was used for dancing parties, and 
it was then given out that the exercise was/a religious 
oneJ It was taught to the Saints that recreation was 
positively necessary. Everybody dances among the Saints 
president, counsellors, apostles, elders, and all; and 
they dance with an unction, too, that is very amusing, and 
frequently ridiculous. 

It was while on the way to Salt Lake, when I was only 
about three years old, that I learned to dance. It was 
when I was living in Missouri that I had my first lessons. 
Dancing was the common amusement there, and I re- 
member the negroes used to play. I was active and 
lithe, and very ready at imitations, and had, besides, a 
quick ear for music. I was petted by everybody, and the 
negro musicians took a special fancy to " little dancin' 



A BRIGHT GLEAM IN NIGHT'S DARKNESS. 113 

missy," and they taught me several negro dances, which I 
used to execute to the intense delight of my sable instruct- 
ors, and the amusement of my friends. i/ ^H / '< ***, 

Jhat winter^ in Mis.^onrij in mm of rhf brigh^ spots in ' 
my childhood ? f \ which I am especially fond of looking 
back. It is, indeed, the only really happy time I can recol- 
lect. My father was busy most of the time, and we lived 
very pleasantly and comfortably, for that section of the 
country at that early day ; my mother was more cheerful 
than I had ever know r n her to be, and the atmosphere of 
our home was peaceful. The second wife had been left at 
Council Bluffs, and my mother had her husband's sole care 
and attention, as she had had it in the old days before the 
curse of polygamy was thrust upon her to embitter her whole 
life, and rob her of all that a woman holds most dear, and 
guards most jealously. Its shadow was over her still, and 
she knew she could not escape from it ; but she would take 
what comfort she could, and think no more of past or future 
sufferings than she could possibly help. 

In 1847 a party of the Saints left Winter-Quarters for 
the Salt Lake Valley. My parents had intended to accom- 
pany them, but my father was obliged to remain on account 
of business, and to assist in the final departure of the main 
body of the church. Brigham Young and his family went, 
necessarily, with the first party. Brigham w r as now absolute 
in authority, and he managed the affairs of the Saints so 
arbitrarily that no one dreamed of interfering with him, or 
gainsaying him in the least. He decreed that my father 
should remain at Winter-Quarters, and as a matter of 
course he obeyed. We were there another winter, and 
all the while my mother's heart was setting most strongly 
Zionward. 

It was the 4th of May, 1848, when at last we were fairly 

started for our Rocky-Mountain home. The hearts of all 

the people were filled with eager anticipation, and they said 

"good-bye" cheerfully and heartily to the civilized world, 

8 



114 PICKING FLOWERS BY THE WAY. 

in which were centred all the memories of their past, and 
turned gladly towards that unknown country beyond the 
wild plains and pathless deserts in which were all the hopes 
of their future. 

My father took provisions that would last a year, by 
practising economy, and we had two wagons and three 
yoke of oxen ; there were six of us in the family our own 
selves and Elizabeth. We joined with a train of two hun- 
dred wagons, which was afterwards divided into compa- 
nies of fifties. I suppose the journey must have been a 
tiresome one to the older members of the party, but I en- 
joyed it extremely. I ran along, during a portion of the 
day, by the side of the wagons, picking the flowers by the 
way, and talking to the different members of the train, for 
I knew everybody, and was petted almost as much by my 
fellow-travellers as I had been by my negro friends in Mis- 
souri. It is a wonder that I was not completely spoiled ; I 
daresay I should have been, had it not been for my moth- 
er's sensible and judicious training. I was her idol, the 
one object for which she cared the most in the^ world ; "but" 
lor all that, she ruled me wonderfully, and I yielded her the 
most implicit obedience,^vvmle giving Tier the most passion- 
ate childish love and devotion. 



""' I iLiiiLinbLi hei yii distinctly on this journey ! She occu- 
pied herself a great deal with writing, keeping a literal 
transcript of all that befell us on our journey, mingled with 
the deepest religious meditation and poetic fancies. She 
always wrote in a large book, which she afterwards de- 
stroyed, when we arrived at Salt Lake City. I have always 
regretted the destruction of that book, as I should have 
liked it as a souvenir of that journey to the " Promised 
Land." But she was so shy of having her feelings known, 
and so fearful lest it might fall into some person's hands 
who would not understand her, but who would jeer at her 
for a sentimentalist, that she put it out of the way at the 
very earliest opportunity. Among other things, she wrote 



MY FIRST INTERVIEW WITH BRIGHAM YOUNG. 



a song, which used to be sung in camp, and was a great 
favorite ; but even that is lost. I cannot recall it to mem- 
ory, and my mother will not, as she says it is much better 
forgotten. 

We rested every Sabbath, and always held services. 
Sometimes we staid a week in camp, resting our tired 
oxen, and recruiting our own strength. It was a pleasant 
season of the year, and we could afford to travel leisurely, 




A BLESSING FROM BRIGHAM. 



as we had left Winter-Quarters so early that we had ample 
time to reach Salt Lake Valley before the weather became 
disagreeable, even if we made frequent stops. We had 
plenty of provisions, too, and there was no fear of their be- 
coming exhausted. 

Brigham Young had returned from the new settlement to 
accompany the emigrants and show them the way. We 
travelled in company with him, and I attracted a great deal 



Il6 SONGS OF THE SAINTS. 

of his attention. The two families, Brigham's and our own, 
had lived in adjoining houses in Nauvoo, and I had known 
" Brother Young " from my birth ; he blessed me in my 
infancy, and I was at one time as great a favorite of his as 
any child ever could be ; which isn't speaking very enthu- 
siastically of his affection, to be sure, since he is not noted 
for fondness for children, even his own. I little thought 
then what relation I should one day hold to this man, who 
was older than my father. My future was not foreshadowed 
in that summer journey in search of a home. 

The Saints used to cheer their tedious journey by singing 
from some point or other in the train. I could always catch 
snatches of song ; and on Sunday, while we were encamped, 
the whole body of the Saints would sing their hymns and 
local songs together. Some of these I recollect very dis- 
tinctly, and, even now, find myself humming snatches of 
them, having taken them up quite unconsciously. One of 
them I referred to before, by the Apostle Taylor, who at 
that time was a famous hymn-writer for the Saints. This 
one especially was a great favorite of the younger men in 
the company, and if one voice began it while we were 
journeying on, it would be taken up the whole length of the 
train and sung with great unction. I give it as a specimen 
of the style of hymns that was popular in the church. 

" The Upper California, O, that's the land for me ! 
It lies between the mountains and the great Pacific Sea ; 

The Saints can be supported there, 

And taste the sweets of liberty, 
In Upper California O, that's the land for me ! 

We'll go and lift our standard, we'll go there and be free, 
We'll go to California, and have our jubilee ; 

A land that blooms with endless spring, 

A land of life and liberty, 
With flocks and herds abounding O, that's the land for me ! 



LIGHTENING A WEARY WAY. Il7 

We'll burst off all our fetters, and break the Gentile yoke, 
For long it has beset us, but now it shall be broke ; 

No more shall Jacob bow his neck ; 

Henceforth he shall be great and free 
In Upper California O, that's the land for me ! 

We'll reign,we'll rule and triumph, and God shall be our King ; 
The plains, the hills, the valleys shall with hosannas ring ; 

Our towers and temples there shall rise 

Along the great Pacific Sea, 
In Upper California O, that's the land for me! 

We'll ask our cousin Lemuel to join us heart and hand, 
And spread abroad our curtains throughout fair Zion's land. 

Till this is done, we'll pitch our tents 

Along the great Pacific Sea, 
In Upper California O, that's the land for me ! 

Then join with me, my brethren, and let us hasten there ; 
We'll lift our glorious standard, and raise our house of prayer ; 

We'll call on all the nations round 

To join our standard and be free 
In Upper California O, that's the land for me ! " 

Another one that the Saints used to sing a great deal 
and one that was composed in Nauvoo, to be sung in the 
Temple before the exodus was set to the pathetic air of 
" Old Dan Tucker." I give what I can remember of it. 

" In '46 we leave Nauvoo, 
And on our journey we'll pursue ; 
We'll bid the mobbers all farewell, ' 
And let them go to heaven or hell. 

Old Governor Ford, he is so small 
There is no room for soul at all ; 
He neither can be damned nor blest, 
Though heaven or hell should do their best." 

This song, profane as it may seem, was sung, not once, 
but many times, in Nauvoo Temple, and religious exer- 



Il8 GLORY OF THE LATTER DAY. 

cises in camp were never considered complete without it. 
Why these two songs stand out more prominently in my 
memory than any others with one exception, which I 
shall presently mention I do not know, unless it was be- 
cause the airs pleased me ; the first was bright, stirring, and 
very easily caught ; the other was familiar to me in Missouri. 
When I think of it now, two scenes always come to my 
mind : one, of a little blue-eyed girl, dancing merrily under 
the trees while a band of delighted negroes sang the gay tune 
which the tiny feet were beating out; another, of the same 
little girl, running along by the side of a covered emigrant- 
wagon, with her hands full of half-withered flowers which 
she had picked by the wayside, listening to the old song 
with the new words, which she only half comprehended, 
and involuntarily making her steps keep time to the music. 
The other hymn which I remember was a great favorite 
with the Saints, and whenever they sang it, it had the power 
of awakening the wildest enthusiasm. It is of a style en- 
tirely different from either of the other two. I can't help 
quoting here a verse or two, it is so much a part of the 
memory of this portion of my life. 

" The Spirit of God, like a fire is burning ! 

The latter-day glory begins to come forth ; 
The visions and blessings of old are returning ; 
The angels are coming to vitfit the earth ; 
We'll sing and we'll shout, 1 - with the armies of heaven ; 

Hosanna ! hosanna to God and the Lamb ! 
Let glory to them in the highest be given, 
Henceforth and for ever. Amen and Amen ! 

The Lord is extending the Saints' understanding, 
Restoring their judges and all as at first ; 

The knowledge and power of God are expanding; 
The veil o'er the earth is beginning to burst. 

We'll call in our solemn assemblies in spirit, 
To spread forth the kingdom of heaven abroad, 



THE SAINTS AROUND THE CAMP-FIRE. Up 

That we through our faith may begin to inherit 
The visions, and blessings, and glories of God. 

We'll wash and be washed, and with oil be anointed, 

Withal not omitting the washing of feet, 
For he that receiveth his penny appointed 

Must surely be clean at the harvest of wheat. 

Old Israel that fled from the world for his freedom, 
Must come with the cloud and the pillar amain ; 

A Moses, and Aaron, and Joshua lead him, 
And feed him on manna from heaven again. 

How blessed the day when the lamb and the lion 

Shall lie down together without any ire, 
And Ephraim be crowned with his blessing in Zion, 
As Jesus descends with his chariots of fire. 

We'll sing and we'll shout, with the armies of heaven : 

Hosanna ! hosanna to God and the Lamb ! 
Let glory to them in the highest be given, 
For ever and ever. Amen and Amen." 

This hymn always stirred the Saints to the very depths 
of their natures. It was as appealing and sonorous as a 
battle-cry, as exultant as a trumpet-note of victory. Without 
understanding it, I was powerfully affected by it ; my cheeks 
would glow, my eyes flush with tears, and my little heart 
grow so large that I would almost suffocate. The sublime 
exaltation of the Saints, as they sung this, was felt by me, 
child as I was, though I could not comprehend it. I shut 
my eyes now, and see a large company gathered together, 
in a fast-falling twilight, on a wide plain, that seems as end- 
less as the ocean ; the blue of the star-studded sky is the 
only covering for the heads of this company. In the dusk 
the white-covered wagons look weird and ghostly. Camp- 
fires are burning; men, women, and children are clustered 
together, and the talk goes back to the old days and the trials 
and persecutions which these people have borne, and forward 



120 



THAT SOUL-STIRRING SONG. 




to an independent and happy future, blessed of God and 
unmolested by man. In the glow of anticipation, some one 
strikes up this fervid hymn, the rallying-song of the Mor- 
mons, and the wide plains 
echo back the stirring strains. 
I nestle by my mother's side, 
awed and subdued, but con- 
tent to feel the clasp of her 
hand and meet the loving light 
of her eyes. The song is over, 
and " hosannas " and " amens " 
resound on every side, and out 
of the blue sky the stars smile 
down on the wanderers with a 
calm, hopeful light. 

Never, to the very last, up to 
the time of my abandoning Mor- 
monism and leaving Utah, could 
I hear this hymn unmoved ; and even now the very thought 
of it thrills me strangely. I have heard it sung again and 
again since then ; but it is, nevertheless, indissolubly con- 
nected with that journey across the plains and over the 
mountains. 

Towards the last of the journey some of the Saints began 
to be somewhat impatient, and begged to hasten onward. 
We had occupied nearly the whole summer with the journey, 
and probably crossed the plains more comfortably and with 
less trouble or loss than any train which followed us. Start- 
ing as early as we did, we could move as slowly as we liked, 
with no dread of winter storms overtaking us. The last 
stop we made of any length was at Weber River, where we 
remained a week in camp, fishing, and getting ready for 
the final part of our journey. Our wanderings were nearly 
at an end ; only a few days more and we should reach our 
new home the "Zion" of the promises, the resting-place 
for God's people. Brigham, who did not often indulge in 



SINGING THK RALLYING-SONG. 



AGAIN ON THE WAY. 121 

w revelations," said the place had been pointed out to him in 
a vision, and in the shadow of the mountains the Saints 
should hold their own against the entire world. The pic- 
tures of the mountain-fastnesses which he drew for the 
wandering people, and his assurances of their future safety 
and constantly increasing power, filled them with anticipa- 
tion and exultation. Already they saw the masses of the 
converted from the Gentile world knocking at their doors 
for admission ; this yet unbuilt city in the wilderness was to 
be the Lord's dwelling-place on earth, and to Him here, 
from every nation on the globe, sinners were to come flock- 
ing, whose future glory would add to the brightness of His 
kingdom here and swell His kingdom in heaven. 

From their stronghold in the mountains they were to reach 
out and grasp the whole world. " The fulness of the earth " 
was to be the Lord's through them. Like the Covenanters 
of old, they might have sung, 

" For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God ! 
Thou hast made Thy children mighty 

By the touch of the mountain sod. 
Thou hast placed the Ark of Refuge 

Where the spoiler's foot ne'er trod ; 
For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God." 

_Injspite of all that this devote^ ppople had passed farouffh. 
they. still believed they were the "Chosen of God," to whom 
it was given to ^Tmild the Waste places of Zion, and make 
the desert blossom as the rose." 

There was general rejoicing when at last the camp at 
Weber's River was broken, and we were again on our way. 
The spirit of prophecy broke loose and fairly run riot among 
the leaders. The " Promised Land " was near, the " City of 
Refuge " for the weary-footed Saints was nearly reached, 
where God Himself would cheer his people. The rest of 



122 THE REST AT LAST. 

the journey was accomplished quickly ; lagging footsteps 
hastened and heavy hearts grew light as they neared the 
Mormon Canaan. It was destined not to be a land over- 
flowing with milk and honey, but they had little care for 
that, when, on the 2Oth of September, 1848, they reached 
the Salt Lake Valley, and were welcomed to the Fort by 
the little band who had preceded them into the wilderness. 
They were travel-stained and weary ; but here was home 
at last the " Zion " of their hopes. 



CHAPTER VII. 



OUR WELCOME TO "ZION." UTAH IN EARLY DAYS. 

Our Welcome to Zion. Housekeeping under Difficulties. Our First 
Home in Utah. The Second Wife's Baby. The Young Mother. 
A Very Delicate Position. Doctors at a Discount. Brigham's Wife 
turns Midwife. An Obedient Woman. Taking care of the Baby. 
Practising Economy. The Path of the Crickets. Too much Cracked 
Wheat. Building the First Mill. Brother Brigham Speechifies. 
Tea at Five Dollars per Pound. Californian Gold Discovered. Build- 
ing up Zion. Brigham's " Dress Reform." A Rather Queer Cos- 
tume. The Women " Assert" Themselves . Clara Decker Rebels. 
How the Prophet treats his Wives. I ask for some Furs, and am 
Snubbed. How the Prophet doled out his Silk. Eliza Snow and Fan- 
ny's Finery. The Prophet Snubs Eliza. He Combats the "Grecian 
Bend." Dancing among the Saints. Polygamy Denied. How the 
Saints received It. A Nice Little Family Arrangement. 

TJR own imme- 
diate family were 
welcomed by 
Elizabeth's par- 
ents, who had 
gone on with the 
first body of the 
Sa,ints, and were 
living as com- 
fortably as they 
could under the 
circumstances, in 
the Fort. We 
were their guests 
but a short time ; 
then we moved 
into a tent and our covered travelling-wagon, which consti- 
tuted our first housekeeping establishment in Utah. 




GRECIAN BEND* 



T2 4 



TAKING CARE OF ELIZABETH. 



We were quite in the fashion, however, as nearly all our 
friends were living in the same way. My father commenced 
immediately to build an adobe house, hoping to get us into 
it before the winter set in. When it was finished it was re- 
garded with admiration, and ourselves with envy, since no 
one else had so fine a place. The reason of its superiority 
was, that it was the second house in the place, and the 
other was a miserable affair of a log-cabin, in contrast with 
which our adobe structure was quite a palatial affair. 

Shortly after our arrival at Salt Lake, Elizabeth added a 

sonjfi fk p family. Thi'fi wan o timp nnd an nrr:urjiicFtf'^ r y 

my_mther's spirit i but f*he> V>nr^ it hravply, and showed her- 
self a true Christian, aj|(l P "hr^y^ and sympntb^t-Jr \voman. 
r SKe took all the care of the mother and child, and was as 
devoted to the former as though she had been a daughter. 
If there was any bitterness in her heart towards her, she 
certain1y~ai51iot show it at this crisis ot 1 he_ljTeT It was a 
_ ion for her to be placed in, as any woman can 
realize who will give a thought to the circumstances, a 
woman caring for another during the birth of a child whose 
fathef-tyileFown husband.""" 

For many years the Mormons rejected the aid of physi- 
cians altogether. They applied oil, and "laid hands" on 
all sick persons, without regard to their ailments. If a 
person was ill, the elders were called, and they anointed him 
with consecrated oil ; then they rubbed or manipulated him, 
much after the manner of the modern M magnetic treatment," 
the elders praying audibly all the time.1 In cases of child- 
birth, women used to officiate, and Brigham Young com- 
pelled one of his wives, Zina Huntington, to learn mid- 
wifery, in order that she might attend her husband's other 
wives during their accouchements. The task was extremely 
distasteful to her, as she was not particularly fond of nurs- 
ing ; and as those to be cared for were her own rivals, she, 
of course, relished the work still less. But she was a good, 
conscientious woman, and her reverence for her husband 



ANOINTING WITH OIL. 12$ 

for, strange as it may seem, she did reverence him 
would not allow her to resist any commands he might place 
upon her ; and her generous nature and strict sense of 
justice would not allow her to neglect any one under her 
care, no matter how distasteful the person might be to her. 
She never carried her personal feelings into a sick room, 
and always gave her patient the tenderest, most watchful, 
and motherly care./ The world, Mormon or Gentile, does 
not hold a nobler, truer woman than Zina Huntington 




ANOINTING THE SICK WITH OIL. 

In the absence of physicians, almost the entire responsi- 
bility and care of Elizabeth and the boy, my half brother, 
fell upon my mother. She has often said that in the care 
she gave her at that time, she tried to make amends for 
some of the bitterness of feeling she had shown before. 
She never expected to be reconciled to the family arrange- 
ment ; but as it was inevitable, she was determined to do 
everything in her power to help everyone concerned in it, 
and to make the new home in Zion as peaceful and har- 
monious as possible. It was a difficult task ; but then po- 



126 THE DELIGHTS OF w CRACKED WHEAT." 

lygamy is made up of difficult tasks and trying situations. 
There is nothing else in it, no one palliation for all the 
woe. My mother grew very much attached to the child, 
and he clung to her with loving affection. He is twenty- 
six years old now, but he has always kept his love for 
"Auntie," as he calls my mother, and she has an unflagging 
interest in him. Indeed, all Elizabeth's children are fond 
of my mother, and our two families have been more united 
than polygamous families usually are. This has been due 
to- the common-sense of the two mothers, who, the dupes of 
a false system and a still falser religion, nevertheless knew 
each thaifj2^Qth p r w ^ iW |n hlame for the mutual suffer- 
ing. For twelve years they lived together under one roof, 
eating at the same table, with not an unkind word passing 
between them. It was a matter of conscience with both ; 
they were neither of them resigned to the situation, but 
they believed that it was "right, and they must endure it. 

When we arrived at " the Valley " we found the people 
practising the most rigid economy. The crickets had been 
very numerous, and had almost entirely destroyed the 
crops, devastating whole fields, until they looked as though 
they had been scorched by fire. A few had managed, by 
most desperate exertions, to save some of their wheat ; but 
as there was only an apology for a mill, with no bolting 
apparatus, this wheat was obliged to be eaten without being 
sifted. When I have seen persons eating cracked wheat 
as a delicacy, and heard them speaking of it with the sub- 
dued enthusiasm which some people manifest when talking 
of food, I have thought of the time when this delicacy was 
the only thing that was seen on the tables at Utah for break- 
fast, dinner, or supper, and I have come to the conclusion 
that "delicacies" may, in time, grow monotonous. 

To be sure, we brought flour and other necessaries from 
the Missouri River in considerable quantity, enough to 
have lasted us a long time, had we kept them exclusively 
for our own use ; but on our arrival we divided with those 



OUR FIRST WINTER IN UTAH. 127 

who had none, and ate our share of the coarse bread. As 
soon as possible a good mill was built, and the year after 
we arrived we had our wheaten flour again. Of course 
when once our small store of groceries was exhausted, it 
was quite impossible to procure more in the Territory. 
Everything was used most sparingly, and what had, in the 
States, been looked upon as actual necessaries, were now 
positive luxuries. It was a year of deprivation and self- 
denial, but the Saints bore every cross with patience, and 
were brave to the end. During the time no word of com- 
plaint was heard, and not one seemed to regret the step he 
had taken. There was an exultation and a spirit of free- 
dom that amounted to bravado. Brigham added to this 
spirit by his Sunday discourses in the Bowery, by such 
language as the following : 

" We are now out of reach of our enemies, away from 
civilization, and we will do as we please, with none to mo- 
lest. The Gentiles cannot reach us now. If they try it. 
they will find themselves in trouble.'* 

During the first year we had only the groceries we 
brought with us ; but the following .year some kinds were 
brought in from the States, and although the prices demanded 
were fearfully high, yet buyers were found for all the arti- 
cles. Tea sold for five dollars a pound, sugar for one dol- 
lar and fifty cents a pound ; potatoes brought their weight in 
silver, and potato-balls were brought from California, at a 
great expense, to be used for seed. 

It was at this time that the California mines were discov- 
ered, and the gold-dust actually was more plentiful than 
food or clothing, for a while. 

The first winter was filled with a variety of occupations, 
the men going to the canons for timber, building houses, 
and taking care of stock ; the women knitted, repaired the 
dilapidated clothing, and attended to the household duties, 
necessarily in a very primitive fashion. There wasn't a 
pair of idle hands in the entire settlement. The yarn which 



128 DISAGREEMENTS AMONG THE SAINTS. 

the women used for knitting was made from buffalo wool, 
which we picked from the sage-bush on the journey. The 
carding and spinning were also done by the sisters. 

Our principal food, the first winter, was dried buffalo- 
meat, very poor beef, and the coarse bread of which I have 
spoken, made from the unbolted wheat. Occasionally, as 
a very great luxury, we had dried fruit and a cup of tea ; 
but this was only on state occasions, and at very long in- 
tervals. 

I am sorry to say that bickerings among this Saintly 
queflt than amnng^the (jennies, 



and that there were as many disputes over land and other 
claims in "Zion," as ever there had been in "Babylon." 
They were not above jealousies, either, this "chosen peo- 
ple;" and, indeed, on our arrival at Salt. Lake we found 
trouble between the Apostle John Taylor and Bishop Smart, 
the two men whom Brigham Young had left in authority 
when he left Utah for the States to fetch the remainder of 
the Saints. Each had become jealous of the other, and 
envious of his authority, and it required considerable skill 
and tact to settle the apostolic quarrel and make matters 
smooth again. Jedediah M. Grant was presiding, and 
holding the two factions apart when Brigham arrived ; and 
so well did he manage this most difficult task, that, as a re- 
ward for his faithfulness and patience, Brigham made him 
his second counsellor. It took some time to settle this and 
other disputes, and often the entire Sunday service was de- 
voted to the adjustment of difficulties between the brethren. 
The Fort was by no means large enough to hold all the 
people who had already arrived, and tents would be com- 
fortable for only a few weeks. The work of building went 
on as rapidly as possible, those who were able having log 
or adobe houses, while others of less extensive means "were 
obliged to content themselves with " dugouts," which were 
nothing more or less than holes dug in the ground and 
covered with willow boughs and earth. 



THE PROPHET INVENTS DRESSES FOR THE GIRLS ! 1 29 

Whpnj-hp rlnthingr wore out f as there was no cloth there, 
ancTnowool to make it from, the men wore clothes made of 
deer and antelope skins. It was at this time that Brigham 
undertook to inaugurate a "dress reform " among the women, 
and introduce a most unique Style! of Jit*, ufhuc.m^ . i^cii 
the dress reformers of the East are likely to ttlll in 



their attempts to present a sufficient quantity of novelties to 
meet the demands of their patrons, I would most respect- 
fully recommend to their most favorable notice President 
Young's "inspired" dress, which was called the "Deseret 
costume." i^r 

It is a marked peculiarity of the Mormon Mogulf mat he 
is extremely fond of interfering. J^o matter is too trivial for 
his mind to dwell upon and consider. Nothing is of too 
private or personal a nature for him to refrain from meddling 
with it. From the cuisine of the poorest family in the Ter- 
ritory to the wardrobe of the richest, nothing escapes him, 
and whatever he may say or do, no one dares resent his in- 
terference. 

Not long after the arrival of the Saints in Utah, Brigham 
conceived the idea of a uniform dress, by which the sister 
Saints should be distinguished from the rest of the world, 
and for a while he was enthusiastic on the subject of this 
"dress reform." He not only introduced the idea of this 
dress, but he planned it himself, and was as proud of his 
costume as Worth is of any one of the most gorgeous gowns 
which he sends out from his world-famed establishment. 
Several of the sisters had adopted the Bloomer costume in 
Illinois, and President Young had warmly approved of it. 
He now wanted something more pronounced, and he held 
meetings with the leading ladies who favored his plan, for 
the purpose of deciding in what manner to introduce the 
new costume. There was much excitement over it, and 
most of the sisters were intensely curious concerning the 
proposed style of it, when suddenly it was revealed to them 
in all its beauty. 
9 



130 



CUTTING OFF THE PETTICOATS ! 



The costume consisted of a short dress, which did not fit 
the figure at all, but resembled very closely the modern gored 
wrapper, such as is worn at the present time. It reached 
about half way between the knee and ankle, and was worn 
with long pantalets, made of the same material as the dress 
itself. Over this was worn a long, loose sacque, of antelope 
skin. This costume was certainly peculiar and distinctive 
enough ; but it did not quite suit the Mormon Worth ; it was 

not complete enough ; 
so he added a hat 
eight inches high, 
with a straight, narrow 
brim ; and then he 
viewed his achievement 
with complacent admi- 
ration. 

It must be confessed, 
however, that the large 
majority of the sisters 
did not share his ad^ 
miration ; and even he, 
although he strenuous- 
ly urged the general 
adoption of this cos- 
tume, could induce but 
very few of the sisters 
to wear it. Even Mor- 
mon women will assert 
themselves in matters of the toilette^ and they refused, 
most persistently, to make perfect guys of themselves. It 
was a very unbecoming dress, both to face and figure ; there 
was nothing graceful or beautiful about it, and probably the 
female Mormons have never, in all their lives, come so 
nearly being actually indignant with their Prophet as they 
were when he endeavored to induce them to disfigure them- 
selves by wearing this hideous costume. 




THE DESKRET COSTUME. 



w THE DESERET COSTUME." 13! 

Some of the sisters, however, were quite energetic in 
their efforts to bring about the desired dress reform, and 
they cut their silk dresses and other expensive materials 
after this pattern. It is true, silk was not very common 
in Utah at that time, but a few of the more wealthy had 
brought materials with them for future use ; and the first use 
they made of them was to sacrifice them to one of President 
Young's whims. They did it with an earnestness, and 
even eagerness, that was beautiful to behold or would 
have been, had not one been pained at their delusion. 

But the " Deseret Costume " was not a success. The high 
hat killed it at its birth. It is possible that without this 
addition the rest of the dress might have been tolerated ; 
but as every one who wore it was expected to don the hat 
also, the short-dress mania was of brief existence. Of 
course the material that was used for one of these dresses 
was utterly worthless after that, as nothing could be done 
with it. The dress was in so many pieces that the cut-up 
cloth was good for nothing. 

One or two of the Prophet's wives who wished to serve 
the Lord and glorify Brigham, and who were determined 
to live by "every word that proceeded out of his mouth" 
persevered in wearing the dress, hat, pantalets and all, 
long after every one else had abandoned it ; until at last 
they were compelled to succumb to popular opinion and a 
more prevailing fashion. That was the first and last at- 
tempt of Brigham Young to institute a " dress reform," 
although he has never ceased inveighing in the strongest 
terms against the follies and vanities of the feminine world, 
and assailing the women who followed the fashions. It is, 
indeed, a pet occupation of his when he is in exceedingly 
bad temper ; and the Saints can easily tell when anything 
has gone wrong with him during the week by the ferocity 
with which he attacks the sisters on the subject of dress, in 
the Tabernacle on Sunday. He does not seem to make a 
very decided impression on his listeners, however ; even his 



132 THE GRUMBLING PROPHET AND THE FURS. 

wives and daughters following their own inclinations rather 
than his teachings. The truth is, he says so much about it 
that it is altogether an old story, and has lost all its impres- 
siveness from its frequent repetition. 

His chief topic is retrenchment in dress, and he pleads for 
it *as earnestly as though it were a vital matter with him. 
And he not only preaches economy in the Tabernacle to his 
people, but he practices the most rigid parsimony at home 
with his wives. Except by Amelia, a request for any article 
of wearing apparel is the signal for all sorts of grumbling. 
Once in a while, however, some of his wives will turn sud- 
denly and give him an answer ; though, I must confess, the 
occasions are rare. 

Clara Decker, one of his numerous wives, was sadly in 
want of some furs, and she did not hesitate to ask Brother 
Young to supply her needs. He became positively furious, 
and declared that her extravagance was beyond all endu- 
rance ; she wanted to ruin him ; she was determined to ruin 
him ; all his wives were banded together for his financial 
downfall ; and so on, with endless abuse. She listened to 
him patiently for a few minutes ; then getting tired of all 
this abuse, she interrupted him : 

"If you think, Brigham Young, that I care anything for 
you, except for your money and what little I can get from 
you, you are mistaken. I might have cared more once ; 
but that was a long time ago." 

She then turned and left the room, leaving him petrified 
with amazement. A few hours after a set of furs was sent 
to her room. She quietly took them, and the subject was 
never referred to again. 

The winter after my marriage with the Prophet, I myself 
preferred a similar request, and was met by a similar torrent 
of abuse. Not knowing that this was his usual manner of 
meeting a request from his wives, and not having Clara 
Decker's experience, I was perfectly overcome, and felt as 
though I had committed the unpardonable sin in daring even 



CLARA DECKER SPEAKS HER MIND. 



133 



to think of a set of furs, which, by the way, are actual neces- 
sities in a Utah winter. I burst into tears, and sobbed out, 

" O, don't, Brother Young ! " 

I left the office and went home," puzzled and astonished 
at this new revelation of my Prophet-husband's meanness 
and coarseness. The next time he came to see me he 
brought me my furs. I used them two seasons, when the 
muff needed re-lining, and I ventured to ask him for silk for 




BRIGHAM REFUSES MY REQUEST. 

the purpose, thinking, of course, he could find no fault 
with so modest a request as that. But it seems I had not 
even then tested his full capacity for fault-finding. He 
treated me to a tirade, longer and more abusive than ever. 
He had got my furs for me, and yet I was not satisfied, but I 
must come bothering him again. I knew that he had several 
trunks full of silks, velvets, and laces, that he was keeping 
for some purpose or other, and consequently the material 



134 ELIZA SNOW IS SHOCKED ! 

for re-lining my muff would cost him nothing ; so I did 
not feel that I merited the lecture I was receiving. I said 
nothing, however, beyond making my request, and when he 
had finished he cut off a quarter of a yard of narrow silk 
from an entire piece which he had in one of the trunks, and 
gave it to me with as many airs and as much flourish as 
though he were presenting me with a whole dress pattern. 
It is needless to say that my muff was not lined with that 
piece of silk. 

The trimming of dresses also comes in for a full share of 
Brother Brigham's condemnation ; but he likes to have all 
the scolding and fault-finding to himself. If any one else ven- 

jjkely to dI3=~ 

agree with them, probably from pure contrariness^) "TTe- 
member an incident that iIlustTate'5 Lliis, vvhkJi Luukplace at 
family prayers at the Lion-house one evening. One of the 
Prophet's daughters, Fanny, a very pretty, stylish girl, 
came into the parlor wearing a black wrapper trimmed with 
rows of red braid. The sight of this seemed very greatly 
to exercise Eliza Snow, a proxy wife of Brother Brigham, 
and she exclaimed in a shocked tone, 

" Is it possible that I see one of Brigham Young's daughters 
in a dress trimmed with red? I am more surprised than I 
can tell." 

Brother Brigham couldn't stand this invasion of his prov- 
ince, and called out peremptorily, 

" That dress is well enough. Let the girl alone ; she 
shall wear whatever she chooses. I've seen you in more 
ridiculous finery than that." And this to the woman who 
was the first to adopt, and the last to relinquish, the hat, 
pantalets and short gown of the " Deseret Costume ! " 
Such is Prophetic gratitude ! 

On one occasion he was holding forth on the subject of 
long dresses ; reviling them, of course, and holding up to 
ridicule and contempt the women who wore them. 

" The very next time," said he, growing warm with hii 



BRIGHAM DECLARES AGAINST THE "GRECIAN BEND." 13$ 

subject, " that I see one of my wives with a dress on sweep- 
ing the ground, I will take the scissors and cut it off." 

The very next day, I was passing through a door in front 
of him, when he accidentally stepped upon my train, which 
was a very long one. Of course I expected my dress 
to be sacrificed to the Prophet's promise, but to my great 
surprise, he not only refrained from the threatened applica- 
tion of the scissors, but from any comment, even so much 
as an apology for his awkwardness. 

One of his favorite amusements has been imitating the 
Grecian bend for the benefit of the congregation, and it 
pleased him so much, and seemed so highly entertaining, 
that he kept up the practice long after " the bend " was out 
of fashion. He indulges in the coarsest witticisms, and is 
not above positive~vulgarity afT3~piufanil^, both in language* 
ncT"rncmTir, orten maknlg' himself veiy offensive to me"' 
more refined portiori~6f his a"udience. 



~~~His own practice iy Ulilllely al variance with his teach- 
ings, since he wears the finest broadcloth of the most fash- 
ionable cut, drives the fastest horses, and rides in the most 
elegant carriages in the Territory, and his favorite wife is 
indulged in all the extravagances of the age. And yet a 
large portion of the Saints seem to take no notice of these 
inconsistencies, but receive all that he says as the strictest 
law and the most unimpeachable gospel. 

In place of a distinctive costume, which he hoped to make 
the women adopt, the daughters of Zion fairly rival their 
Babylonian sisters in gaiety and fineness of attire, and the 
remotest allusion to the " Deseret Costume " is never heard 
now in the City of the Saints. It was the last attempt at 
dress reform in Utah. 

Immediately on the arrival of the church in Utah, poly- 
garny~w3s~urged upon the peo"pTe~: Having no feaT^Df-4hg 
ptsige~vvorldMiiLLLhL - y HUJU uu fa iuiiufeTTfrom it7"tKey- 
lauHside all cautionTand pi-cttduitUud piuLliurfttt ujjuily. 
The plural-wives taken in Nauvoo were acknowledged for 



136 LOOKING OUT FOR MORE WIVES. 

the first time, and others were added. The men were con- 
stantly urged to "build up the kingdom," and in order to do 
that they were counselled to " take advantage of their privi- 
leges." If they did not hasten to obey counsel, they drew 
down Prophetic and Apostolic wrath onto their heads, and 
were accused of not " living up, to the privileges. "___It^soon 
became very unpopular for a man to have but one wife, and 
he quickly found himself looking ^out lor another^ In fact, 
^h~e~so"mewhat coarse song, which was much affected by the 
Mormon men, described the state of affairs at the jntro- 
duction of polygamy : 

Some men have a dozen wives, 

And some men have a score ; 
The man that has but one wife 

Is looking out for more." 





Of course dancing-parties were frequent then, even when 
there was nothing but the "Bowery" for a ball-room, with 
the earth for a floor. Joseph Smith had told them that it 
was the will of the Lord that they should " make them- 
selves merry in the dance," and, like the consistent Chris- 
tians they were, they determined that the Lord's will, in 
this matter at least, should be done. They had danced in 
the Temple at Nauvoo, they had danced w r hile crossing the 
plains, and now they commenced again, in the only place 
of worship which the city boasted, which was an open 
space, overarched by boughs of trees. This served as 
tabernacle and dancing-room while the weather permitted ; 
after which the religious services were held at Brigham's 
own house, the dances at the different houses. 

Polygamy became so much the fashion, that ifa man 
attended aparty^with only one, wifr, he felI~a?^^"M^^"^ 
humiliateo!7and would instantly selectsome unappropriated 
young woman, and commence paymgheF^^ardcular and 
"pemliai " attentions. He would dance with her, and in the" 
intervals of the dance talk matrimony to his, usually, not 



FOUR WIVES LIVING IN ONE ROOM ! 



137 



uninterested nor unwilling listener ; the poor wife sitting 
by, watching the progress of the courtshipwith heavy heart 
and a consciousness oi what the result would be. A ladv-^ 
-friend, who had lived that experience, once said to me, 
w I could write volumes on the misery I endured that first 
winter in Utah." Another rmp. r^f^rringr to th^ 



pe"nbd, said, "I have divided my last crust with poly- 
gamy." 




THE BALL IN THE BOWERY. 



It was horrible, the makeshifts that were obliged to be 
resorted to, in order to start the system. A_jipighhor of 
ours had four wives, and only one room to live in. 



trie entire winter. It was used for sitting-room, kitchen,, 
oearoom and parlor, and the interior arrangements defy all 
description. No pen can portray the many ingenious 
pedients adopted to preserve appearances. Modesty am 
decencyforbid my throwing too strong a lig-htTon' 
tatiorT 

This was only one of -many, and was by no means excep-A 
tional. The command had gone forth to take more wives, 
and it did not matter at ail whether there was a place to put 
them in ; they must be taken into polygamy. --- Jj. was kept 
quiet from the outside world, and the elderswho were sent 
out on missions were commanded to keep utter silence on 




138 THE "EXTRA" WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

the subject. Rumors did get out after a while, especially 
after the California miners began to pass through Utah. 
There were no hotels at Salt Lake City at that time, and 
the emigrants who stopped there to rest, before finishing 
their journey, were compelled to become temporary in- 
mates of Mormon families, where they found polygamous 
wives and children as a matter of course. Naturally they 
would grow curious after a time concerning these extra 
women and children, and as the inquiries were sometimes 
quite embarrassing, every subterfuge had to be resorted to 
to keep the guests in ignorance of the system. 

But, try the best they might, they could not prevent sus- 
picions of the truth ; and it was not long before the mis- 
sionaries, both in the States and in Europe, found themselves 
terribly perplexed by all sorts of questions concerning the 
truth of the reports that were coming thicker and faster 
from Utah. They were ordered to deny the rumors, and 
they all did so in the most emphatic manner, up to the very 
time of the publication of Joseph's "Revelation," in 1852. 

In Nauvoo it had been represented to those who had 
been told of the new doctrine that it was optional ; that no 
one need enter the relation unless he chose ; and, conse- 
quently, although they felt it was a cruel doctrine, yet^most 
of the womenflattered themselves that their husbands, 
while they might receive it as a religious truth, would jiever 
practice it. But wEen~the church was located in Utah , 
^way from everybody, where help could never reach "the 
oppressed and miserable, "Hand from whence thenTwas no 
jaosgibility of escape, then polygamy was noTongei^option- 
al, but every man wascompelled to enter it, under pain 
of Brigham's displeasure, and its results. 

That was a miserable winter for the Mormon women ; 
they felt that they had in some way been the victims of false 
pretences, but they did not dare to blame anyone, for fear 
of displeasing " the Lord." It was represented to them that 
this was God's will, and they must submit, else they would 



VICTIMS OF FALSE PRETENCES. 139 

never see salvation. Many of them were exceedingly re- 
bellious, and would have returned to the States had it been 
possible; but they had no means, and no prospect of getting 
any, and they could only stay on and endure in sullen 
silence and inward rebellion, which, after a while, when 



they found there was no escape, became a sort of hopeless 
apathy, which was by no means resignation. 
OlliLis, aUualLil Ijy Ll'Ue religious j'ervors like my 
mother^- accepted the situation because they really be*~ 
lievecl it was commanded Jpy Ijod ; and while they were" 
always unhappy in it, and considered it the greatest cross 
that could possibly be put upon them to "BearTstill mgttFtfae 
best of it, and made it a matter of conscience to be as pa- 

-human 



and charitable as it wa 



nature to be under such circumstances. 



Musi Uf llie 1 men took kindly to the 



ackward about availing themselves 



pie-set them by 




pruFilcg 

their Prophet and his counsellors, and the Apostles fulfilled 
their duty to the utmost by setting an example to their peo- 
ple in this respect. 

The few Saints who had practiced polygamy in Nauvoo 
had done so very secretly ; consequently, when we came to 
Utah, and were he^pnd the reach of the government^ and. 
as the leaders taughtus, no longer amenable to the laws of 
the United States, there were some very strange family rev- 
elations made. I will instance one, in the case of Lorenzo 
Young an elder in the church and a brother of Brigham 
and Mrs. Decker. Mr. Young, who had a wife and six 
children all living, met Mrs. Decker, a very charming and 
fascinating woman, who did not seem to think that the fact 
of her having one husband, in the person of Mr. Decker, 
prevented her from taking Mr. Young for another ; and he 
seemed to find Mrs. Young no obstacle to his union with his 
new love. Each of them had children married, yet both 
declared they had never before met their affinity. 



140 MEETING "AFFINITIES" LATE IN LIFE. 

Mr. Young laid the case before Joseph Smith, and the 
Prophet informed him that no doubt they 'were kindred 
spirits, intended for each other from the beginning of the 
world, and that the day would come when they would be 
united by the bonds of celestial marriage. This was in 
1837, which showed that the idea was in his mind as early 
as that, although it was not reduced to a form and shown to 
anyone until 1843. 

Joseph having given them this much consolation, they 
arranged matters to suit themselves, and seemed quite en- 
chanted with one another. The only difficulty in the way 
was Mr. Decker. It was a puzzle to know how to dispose 
of him. But he and the world must both be deceived, and 
appearances must be kept up. So the wife remained with 
her lawful husband until_Jhg_R^yp'gt*Q;t T ^13 P1lt the 
perplexingltnot ibr theinT and 




Mrs7~D r ecktr was sealed to Brother Young, and Mrs. 
Young to Mr. Decker, who by this means had two wives 
given him in place of the one who was leaving him. 

These mixed families were compelled to live in one house 
until they left the States. They then separated. Their 
children scattered every whej^jnt knnwjnjyjo whomjEgy 
Lbelonge3T and, altogether disgusted and dissatisfied, felt 
strangers than they did~wTth"their par- 
ents, especially as fiJey~T3id~TroJ^JcnoW7*yosiliv!y T , what 
name they were entHledTOnSear'. They were by no means 
the only ones who were perplexed in the same way. There 
had been a queer and intricate mixing up in Nauvoo ; it is 
not at all strange if the attempt at straightening out was a 
difficult one. 

Joseph Smith's sons contend that he was not a polygamist ; 
yet, with all the facts concerning his own life, and his en- 
couragement of what would be considered in most commu- 
nities the broadest kind of license, he either must have been 
a polygamist or something infinitely worse. Certainly the 



DIDN'T KNOW WHO THEIR FATHERS WERE ! 141 

wildest doctrines of promiscuity, as taught bv certain 
socialists of the present day, are no more startling than 
^hose taught by Joseph bmith 1 and have been forced upon 
the pepplti Uy liib'j^iicc^ssor, under the guise of polygamy, 
or, " Celestial Marriage." > 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TROUBLES UNDER THE NEW SYSTEM. 

The Sorrows of My Uncle. " It's a Hopeless Fix." A Woman's Ar- 
gument about Polygamy. My Mother " labors " with a First Wife. 
Wife No. 2 " Walks Off." Marrying a Widow and her Two Daugh- 
ters. Mrs. Webb becomes a Wife No. 2. Wife No. i throws Brick- 
bats into the Nuptial Chamber. She clears the Field of Extra Wives. 
" Building up the Kingdom." The Atrocious Villanies of Orson 
Pratt. How he has Seduced Innocent Girls. Brigham's Nephew 
Rebels. Trouble in the Prophet's Family. Forgetting a Wife's 
Face. A Woman who liked Polygamy. 

HERE was literally no end 
to the muddles in which 
the Mormon people found 
themselves while trying 
to adjust their polygamous 
affairs. 

In our own family it was 
very smooth sailing, as 
there were no superfluous 
members to be accounted 
for, and the two wives 
made the best of their un- 
fortunate situation. But 
the same peace did not 

prevail in all families. I remember one family quite well 

where affairs were strangely mixed, and in which the wife 

exhibited a most amusing inconsistency. 

A brother of my father, Milo Webb, had married a very 

pretty and agreeable woman in Illinois, who was perfectly 




THE SORROWS OF MY UNCLE. 



J 43 



devoted to him, and he returned her love ardently. They 
were both members of the Mormon Church, and had lived in 
the greatest harmony, with not the slightest shadow of dis- 
cord, until 1846, when the " Endowments " were given in 
Nauvoo Temple. 

To those men who were considered worthy to be called 
that holy edifice to receive the sacred rite of the Endow- 
ments, polygamy was quietly taught as one of the require- 
ments of religion, and these faithful brethren were counselled 
not to appear with but one wife ; and of course after this 
many felt ashamed to present 
of their first and unbiassed choice, the mother of their c 



fortunes, th 

ad made her husband's 




consid<JiLU tio saumce too great 1 

no suffering~too~llUeiist; to 1 be endurea ; who hacTfiterally 
taken him " for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer ; " had 
clung to him in sickness and health, in poverty and distress, 
1 as well as in plenty and comfort, and who fondly believed 
that only death should part them. 

If a man dared be true to his better nature, and present 
himself for his Endowments with this wife alone, he was 
ridiculed by the authorities for being so poorly provided for, 
especially by Brigham and Heber C. Kimball, who seemed 
always to supply the buffoonery for the occasions, and 
warned that he need never expect to be received into the 
celestial kingdom until he had entered polygamy, as it was 
quite impossible for him to do so. 

My uncle was"/a conscientious man and a devoted Mor- 
mon, and, like my father, believing the command to be 
from God, dared not disregard it. He made proposals of 
marriage to a young girl named Jane Matthews, and she, 
being taught by the leaders of the church, whom she con- 
sulted in the matter, that, except as a polygamous wife, she 
could not attain to exaltation in the future state, accepted 



i 4 4 



A FAMILY MIXTURE. 



the proposal as the only means within her power of securing 
salvation ; and the two, together with the wife, received 
their Endowments, and were united in the "indissoluble" 
bonds of " Celestial Marriage." 

The wife had given only a reluctant consent to the ar- 
rangement, impelled to this solely by a sense of religious 

dutyjj*"^ "">t V>praiigpg]ie apprnvfil lif (H'tikerHt: Ifw"as 

the first bitter experience of her married life, and she did 
not accept it with the slightest spirit of resignation, but as 
something inevitable. Neither she nor her husband real- 
ized, in any degree, the magnitude of the undertaking, and 
the young girl was still more ignorant of the situation. 
Had they known how utterly wretched the future was to be, 
I believe they would have hesitated a long time before they 
assumed such relations with each other, even if they thought 
they were perilling their salvation by the delay. 

The new wife was brought to the home where so entire 
happiness had reigned, and lived there until the church left 
Nauvoo ; but what a changed home it was ! The spirits 
of Peace and Love that had brooded over it so long, folded 
their white wings and fled, leaving the demons of Discord 
and Hate in their places. 

It was hot long before the first wife discovered that po- 
lygamy was a much more serious matter even than she had 
supposed it to be, and that it grew constantly worse and 
more unendurable, instead of better and more easily to be 
borne, as she had been taught it would become. She grew 
to cordially hate the young wife, and although they were 
compelled to live under one roof, she could not even make 
herself feel like speaking to her ; so they lived without ad- 
dressing one word to each other. She grew nearly insane 
_was wrought uplo~ such a fieiizy by - 

jealousy and despair that she~~colimiilU;d llie-asL flagrant 
"acts of violence. 
~ 7 l'he poor husband found himself in a dilemma from which 
he saw no way of extricating himself. He could not under- 



HOW DO YOU MANAGT5 AFFAIRS? 



stand how such really good women could behave so much 
like fiends. Mmiher r>f th^m^had bad dispositions natu- 
rally, yet both were perfect termagants under the new family 

saw no way of setting matters right; so he applied to my 
father for advice, he having taken his second wife but a 
short time before. I do not know what advice he gave, 
but I think he must have referred him to my mother, for he 
came to her, begging her to assist him in bringing order out 
of the domestic chaos. 

"How do you manage these polygamous affairs?" he 
asked, anxiously: "you do\ not appear to be very un- 
happy." 

" I cannot tell you how I manage," was my mother's re- 
ply. " I am a riddle to myself; but I do assure you that it is 
no easy matter to live in polygamy. Its ways are not f ways 
of pleasantness,', nor are its paths 'peace.' Trials of every 
description grow constantly more numerous." 

w Yet you manage to preserve an outward appearance of 
serenity, which is more than we do. I wish you would see 
my wife and reason with her ; I believe she would listen to 
you. Affairs are horrible with us : my wife hates Jane, and 
it seems impossible to keep them together, since she will not 
even try to conceal her aversion towards her. I don't see 
how I am to keep them together, and yet I cannot afford to 
build another house. It is a most hopeless fix, and I don't 
see the way out." 

Mj/L_mpther promised him that she would see his wife, 
and try to induce her to bear her cross more patiently. hUit 
wHaija. nypocrincai tasK it seemed to ner 1 While her own 
breaking" 



heart was breaking with 

she had^p counsel pati 

man who was bulleiiiit* JlUiii ui^Cise 

seemed heartless and awrvZhSnnc 



same canse 



It 



'iTcIutW and she could not shirk it. She upbraided herself 
fer reluctance, and prayed for more of t^^Spirit. " jl 



10 



146 SHE WOULDN'T ENDURE IT ANY LONGER. 

never occurred to her that the system was false and horrible 
iii the extreme ; she only fejt that she was Jacking in grace 

"and the (rue spiriFbf the Lord. 

^ Very s'huilly ufteTmy uncle's" appeal to her, she visited his 
wife, and found her weeping as though her heart would 
break. Her first impulse was to put her arms about her 
and weep with her. She felt every throb of that poor lacer- 
ated heart, for her own was torn with the same anguish ; 
and for a little while she forgot her mission, and her wo- 
man's instinct predominated, while she indulgedin_j^-pfi^ 

sionate burst of teafsT 

.but lifti lifted al what she feared was a rebellion against 
her God, she soon quieted herself, although her heart still 
ached with a pain which she could not banish or control, 
and as delicately and tenderly as possible introduced the 
object of her call. This brought forth a wild outburst of 
indignant protest from my aunt ; and my mother listened, 
not daring to show her sympathy with the passionate utter- 
ances. There was quiet between them for a while after 
this ; then my mother, having regained control of her voice, 
said, 

" But can you not see that it is your duty to submit to 
the " Order " and be patient. You know very well that when 
we cannot cure an ill, the only thing that remains to be 
done is to endure it ; and we must not rebel against any 
doctrine taught by our leaders, no matter how hard it may 
be to live it." 

"I don't believe ! I can't believe ! I won't believe ! that, 
my\ duty to~stibmil Lu uliyiliiirg'oT'tne kind/' was the quick 
answer ,^nade through stormy gusts of weeping. " I can- 
not live with that woman in the house ; I had_raiherdie at 
once. O, I wish I could ! I wish I could ! Do youknow," 

TbTTthwc^-sh^rtrhlg loUlid rtllli sudl sUddtfimess llidl iny 
mother was fairly startled, " -I- shall ~4ak- measures to 

jn^self of that nuisance if somebody doesn't take her away I 

TcanTehdure It'! Twvrtt endure il aiTy longer P 



I WILL NOT LIVE IN POLYGAMY. 147 

Mother tried to reason with her, but she interrupted her : 

" If any woman pretends that she is satisfied with polyga- 
my/sKe is a hypocrite. I don't believe her ; and she knows 
she isTiul opuakuijj the li ulk." 

My mother knew that-^she designed this remark for her, 
and that she resented her interference ; but she did not let 
her see that she understood her, and determined to make 
one more effort, though she felt; that it was absolutely hope- 
less. 

" We none of us love the doctrine now," she replied ; " but 
yet we must submit to it as a part of our religion a duty 
which that religion lays upon us ; &nd we may grow to like 
it better by and by." 

"Well," was the sharp retort, "it will be soon enough for 
me to comply with its requirements when I know it to be a 
duty. But at present tdo not believe it to be such, and I 
cannot, nor will not, live in polygamy ; on that point I am 
determined, and there is no use arguing with me, for I shall 
not change my mind, I am sure, and I will not consent to 
live in a state against which both conscience and common 
sense rebel." 

This ended my mother's only attempt as missionary in the 
interests of polygamy. She had not been at all successful, 
and she was only too glad to drop the subject ; for her heart 
was not in it, and it must be confessed that in this case she 
was a very unskilful special pleader. 

There was no help for it ; the young wife could not hold out 
against all the opposition that was shown her, even though 
her husband made some pretence of standing by her, and 
she was finally compelled to leave the house. She saw no 
prospect of ever being able to live with her husband again, 
and she concluded that the best thing for her to do was to 
put as great a distance as possible between herself and him ; 
so she went to Salt Lake with the first body of Saints. 

As Brigham had taught the women, if they could not live 
happily with a man, to " walk off," and leave him without a 



148 SAVAGE AFFAIRS ! 

divorce, she, of course, felt freed from her former marriage, 
and after a year or more she married Mr. Levi Savage, a 
single man, with whom she lived very happily for about two 
years, when she died, leaving one child, who is no'w grown 
to manhood. Soon after Mrs. Savage's death, Mr. Webb 
and his wife left the Missouri foV Salt Lake. The husband 
died on the way, and his wife came on into the valley with 
her children. 

Mr. Savage was at that time feeling very much grieved 
over the death of his wife, and was exceedingly pained 
because she had never been sealed to him by the proper 
authorities. He said, "I know she ought to belong to me, 
and I will contend for her throughout all eternity." He 
applied to the priesthood to have the sealing in the Temple 
to my uncle revoked, that she might be sealed to himself. 
He was told by the man who "holds the keys of life and 
death," that he must wait until the Temple in Salt Lake was 
completed. 

Mrs. Webb, however, with wonderful inconsistency, con- 
sidering her former feeling, opposed Mr. Savage's wish by 
every means in her power, and contended that this woman, 
whom she could not and would not live with, ought, now she 
was dead, to belong to her husband ; and she said it was 
very wrong indeed for Mr. Savage to try and rob her dead 
husband of his rights and privileges. She evidently felt 
that there was not the slightest doubt of her ability to endure 
polygamy in a future state, although it was impossible to do 
so in this life. 

After a few years Mr. Savage married a widow and her 
two daughters, and is still living with them, waiting, mean- 
while, for the Temple to be built, when he hopes to have 
this " spiritual controversy " decided in his favor ; for he has 
not given up his first wife, though he has taken three others 
to solace him temporarily until she can be given to him 
spiritually. Judging from present appearances, he will have 
to wait some time, as there seems no prospect of the Temple 
being finished during this generation. 



WIFE NO. I. THROWS BRICKBATS ! 149 

Mrs. Webb found it a most difficult task to provide for 
herself and her children, and becoming discouraged in her 
attempts, listened with more patience to the doctrines of po- 
lygamy than she had done in Illinois. She was instructed 
that it was her duty to marry someone for time, that she 
might raise up more children to her dead husband, to swell 
his "kingdom." She took the instruction with a properly 
meek spirit, and very shortly accepted the proposal of Bishop 
McRae, a distinguished and prominent Mormon, and be- 
came Mrs. McRae number two. 

As may be imagined, Mrs. McRae number one did not 
take kindly to the interloper, and, having a decided objec- 
tion to polygamy, emphasized her objection by throwing 
bricks into Mrs. McRae number two's window, when their 
mutual husband was her guest. She varied her expressions 
of opposition and protest by occasionally sending a pistol 
shot, instead of a brickbat, through the window. 

It may not be out of the way to mention, just here, that 
the heroine of the brickbat and pistol was, and still is, the 
President of the Female Relief Society in her ward, and 
that one of her chief duties is to instruct the young sisters 
in polygamy. I have never heard whether she had a 
shooting gallery attached to the society rooms. 

Her plan of action was quite successful, and she soon had 
the field again to herself; for Mrs. McRae number two, 
after adding two children to her husband's kingdom, de- 
clined any longer to act as a target for Mrs. McRae num- 
ber one, and left her husband voluntarily, and has since 
lived in a state of widowhood. I have often wondered 
whether she had any sympathy for Jane Matthews while 
she was herself the object of persecution. 

I have known all the actors in this polygamic drama, 
except the two who died. I was too young to have any 
but the most indistinct recollection of my uncle, and Mrs. 
Savage, I, of course, could not remember at all. But the 
rest I knew very well, all being intimate visitors at my 
father's house. 



BUILD UP THE KINGDOM I 



"Build up the kingdom, build up the kingdom," has al- 
been the watchword of polygamy. At Nauvoo it was 
whispered into the ears of those who were considered strong 
enough in the faith to receive it unquestioningly, but in Utah 
it is hurled indiscriminately at all alike. " Build up the 
kingdom, whether you can support it or not," is the almost 
literal teaching. The pecuniary condition of a man is 
never taken into consideration. He is expected to take as 
many wives as he can support, {Hen take a few more to 
support themselves and their children. 

The Apostle Orson Pratt is one of the most persistent po- 
lygamists in Utah, and he has nothing to give his wives for 
their maintenance. They struggle on as best they may, 
striving in every way to earn a scanty sustenance for them- 
elves and their children. Some of them live in the most 
wretched squalor and degrading povertyT HeJ" 



ffoes on foreign and home missions, and gathers 
thousands of unsuspecting victims to " z.ion.r i^SjLEay 
i/"is his favorite subjectpand he^grgws^very eloquent while 
discoursing upon it, quoting Scripture freely in ^.support o- 

the glorious system, w 
"BTthe 





it, or that 
duly lu 



.fter""he has_oncecQn.vepteji 
andhmarngd a girl y _ shr is left 
to shift fo 

starve and die of., 

Two, at least, have met this 

fate T orifi a 



English 



whc> 



THE APOSTLE ORSON PRATT, 
" The Champion of Polygamy." 



starved, body and heart, and 

wllO, with herllttle" children, 
''"' 



husband was at Salt Lake, being w entertainjej^Jb j some 
of his rich brothers in t 



THE LITTLE "KINGDOM" OF THE PROPHET'S BROTHER. 



He is still therecpgriiTpd defender ftf thf nnpn1 nf ruly- 
gamy, and is quoted by every one as an authority ; his numer- 
ous and more pressing duties prevent his caring for his family, 
and nowhere in TTtahgj^he wives < j3ao^e wretched or neg- 

lecte > dTt5r"chilciren more ignorant and uncared forrthantlW 

j ti -, .^f^*"**-^. i - _ 

wives and children oT Orso 

oPffie^Beauties arici glories-,"* n pmrygamt^us life, andjthe 
best educatedjmd most able man, intellectually, in Utah. 

Another polygan:rtsf^rnTe > T9wn^T5tcrmp^is"Jo^e^h Ytraag , 
brother to Brigham, and President of the Seventies. He 
has busied himself in " building up his kingdom " ever since 
Joseph Smith gave him that precious piece of counsel in 
Nauvoo. When he was a young man, he married a girl, 
and lived very happily with her until he learned from the 
Prophet Joseph that it was not only his privilege, but his 
duty, to enlarge his kingdom more speedily by marrying 
more wives. 

His first acquisition was a young widow, who listened 
assentingly to his proposals of a " celestial marriage," and 
soon after entered his family as a second wife. However, 
the marriage with her did not avail him much, as she could 
only be his for time. Her former husband died a Mormon,, 
and she and her children 
would belong to him in eter- 
nity. 

He was past the prime of 
life, feeble in health, and com- 
pelled to accept the support 
of his brethren ; yet all this 
did not deter him from doing 
what was required of him 
by his Prophet. About the 
time that he married the 
widow, he took a young girl 
for his third wife, who was 

. JOSEPH YOUNG, BROTHER OF BRIGHAM, AND 
tO be hlS, and hlS PRESIDENT OF THE SEVENTIES. 




152 BRIGHAM'S APOSTATE NEPHEW. 

only, with no former husband "behind the veil " to come 
up "in the morning of the resurrection" and lay claim to 
herself and her children. All his wives lived in one house, 
which had been built for him by the " Seventies," in return 
for his spiritual ministrations in their behalf. 

His first wife did not like the new family arrangement 
any better than other Mormon women who were first wives ; 
but as a matter of course, her liking or disliking was not of 
the least consequence. She fretted herself ill over it, how- 
ever, and was prostrated for months. She had toiled and 
suffered with her husband for many long years, while they 
were journeying about with the Mormons, and she could 
not bear to have the dark shadow of polygamy cast over 
the hitherto unclouded happiness of their domestic life. It 
seemed a terrible injustice. Yet, knowing her husband's 
devotion to the faith, she would not openly rebel, although 
she complied with his demands, that she should receive his 
other wives, with a feeling of intense bitterness, and lived 
in this unnatural relationship with her husband and his other 
wives. 

It is impossible to depict her sufferings ; they can never 
be known or realized outside of Mormonism. It is the very 
refinement of cruelty, this polygamy, and its hurts are 
deeper and more poisonous than any other wounds can be. 
They never heal, but grow constantly more painful, until it 
makes life unendurable. She was prostrated for months 
with nervous debility, seeing all the time her family need- 
ing her constant care, the care that only a mother can give, 
and her husband all the while devoting his energies to 
"building up his kingdom." It is only just to say that he 
was as kind to her as the circumstances would permit. 

After a few years the invalid wife recovered her health, 
and has been permitted to assist in rearing her children to 
respectable men and women who do not believe in poly- 
gamy. One of her sons has apostatized, and once pub- 
lished a paper in Salt Lake City, called "The Daily Press." 



BROTHER BRIGHAM WAXES WROTH. 



153 



This paper was of course offensive to Brigham, containing, 
as it did, some unpleasant truths regarding himself and 
other authorities in the church, and he determined to put a 
stop to its publication. Accordingly he sent for his brother 
Joseph, and said, on his arrival, 

" I want that ' Daily Press ' suppressed." 
Joseph w did not know how it was to be done." 
" I want you to use your influence with your son to ac- 
complish my wish," demanded Brigham. 

" I cannot do it," said his brother ; " my son will do as 
he likes." 

Brother Brigham grew angry. " You must put a stop to 
the printing of that paper ; I will not endure the annoy- 
ance from it any longer." 




BRIGHAM'S BROTHERLY LOVB. 

Joseph's spirit rose to the occasion. If Brigham was his 
superior in the church, he was also a younger brother, and 
he didn't like his peremptoriness of manner ; so he quietly 
answered, 

" I shall do nothing more about it than I have done. I 
have said all to my son that is necessary, and if he does 
not wish to follow my advice, he can go his own way, and 
act according to his own judgment ; I most certainly shall 
not interfere." 



154 A YOUNG BRIDEGROOM OF EIGHTY I 

Brigham was terribly angry, and he raved and stormed, 
while Joseph listened quietly, and then walked out, making 
no answer to his threats and railings. The Prophet evi- 
dently did not succeed in influencing or terrifying either 
brother or nephew, as the "Press" was still published, and 
continued to win popularity. I w,as glad of its success, for the 
sake of the brave young editor, and the mother who reared 
him. She, at least, should find comfort and support in her 
children, although everything else in life has failed her, 
even her religion proving false and fatal to her happiness. 

During his first wife's illness, Joseph added another widow 
to his establishment. Her husband having been killed at 
Nauvoo, she wished to assist him to build up a kingdom, 
and so married Joseph for time. Shortly after another wo- 
man applied for " salvation " at his hands, and " conscience " 
would not allow him to reject her. When he was about 
seventy years of age he added still another to his family, 
being united to her the same day that I was married to his 
brother Brigham, and is still, although over eighty years 
of age, considered in the matrimonial market. 

Joseph had a real romance in his youth, which connects 
him, in memory and feeling at least, somewhat with my 
mother's family. His first love, when he was very young, 
was an aunt of my mother, for whom I was named. He 
was passionately attached to her, but something occurred 
to part them, and she died. Her memory has always re- 
mained with him, and he has always loved her, in spite of 
his extensive matrimonial experience. He told my mother 
that he had had Jane, his first wife, baptized for her, and 
sealed to him for her ; so she is to be his in eternity. 

This venerable polygamist has nothing to support his 
wives upon, or himself, for that matter, except what is 
given him by the " Seventies." In most respects he is a 
very good man, much more conscientious and honest than 
his brother Brigham, of whose conduct towards the people 
he does not approve ; but he has gone mad in his desire to 



I MARRIED YOU TEN YEARS AGO ! 



155 



" build_up his kingdom," and he considers it a duty to con- 
tinue to raise up a young family, who must necessarily have 
to " shift for themselves," both in childhood and later life. 
They can have no father's care or attention, no matter how 
much they may need it, and he evidently does not consider 
how much misery he is entailing on these children. 

Besides thewiye^slhaye mentioned, j^dojio.* ^know how_ 
many hej^^^een^e^led to, whom hrjjflrs nrrt^reTend to 
"alter in the flesh, 7tm^jjom Eeexpects to "resurrect? 
iTngdor 



A very amusing story was told me of Brigham, by a lady 
who vouches for its truth ; and although I cannot, of course, 
corroborate it, I am quite ready to give it credence enough 
to publish it. Brigham met a lady in the streets of Salt 
Lake City, several years since, who recognized him, and 
addressed him as Brother Young, greeting him quite cor- 
dially. 

He scrutinized her closely, with a puzzled expression. 
" I know I have seen you somewhere," he said ; " your face 
is very familiar, but I cannot recall you." 

" You are right," replied she ; " you have most certainly 
seen me before ; I was married to you ten years ago. I 
have never seen you since," she continued, "but my mem- 
ory is more retentive than yours, for I knew you the moment 
I saw you." 

Yerjjewjjiy^n-Qjfih^^ women, 

were ready to listen with^uij^degree^of^patience to theTfirst 
teacttiTYgs^of^^tHe doctrine of pnlyganv^T Th"eyre*belied 
against it in-lbeir heart>yen if thev darecT-sa-v nothing G 



against itjn^tbeir heart>yenif they darecT^say 
th5r_dislike and_disgust of thesysteffif: StilTles^-worc thc}^ 
willing to advise or^g^LJtjieir^usbandsJoJntroduce it ; and 
never was a woman, with one exception, heard to ~s'9y k -iie. -- 






156 A WOMAN WHO LIKED POLYGAMY. 

was happy in it, even if they endured it with any degree 
oTpatience. ^ 

The one exception of which I have spoken was an old 
neighbor of ours, and quite a friend of my mother's, Mrs. 
Delia Dorr Curtis. Both she and her husband were faithful 
Mormons, but he had, for some time after polygamy was 
taught, continued living "beneath his privileges." He was 
constantly reminded of his remissness by the priesthood, 
until at length he felt obliged to yield to their teachings, 
and "obey counsel." When he mentioned the matter to his 
/ wife, she made no objections, but, on the contrary, she en- 
I couraged him in his decision, and proposed their niece, Miss 
\ Van Orden, for his consideration. 

^f Her husband was exceedingly pleased with her sugges- 
tion. " She is the very one I should have chosen," he said 
in reply. He instantly made proposals for his niece, and 
she, being quite willing to marry her uncle, accepted the 
proposals, and was sealed to him at once, Mrs. Curtis giv- 
ing the bride to her husband with an alacrity and willing- 
ness which were rarely seen in similar circumstances. 

About three months after the celebration of the nuptials, 
the first wife of this good elder came to visit my mother, and, 
as is always the case when two Mormon women meet, and 
are together for any length of time, the talk turned on to 
polygamy, and during the conversation Mrs. Curtis re- 
marked, 

" Well, as far as I am concerned, I never have felt any 
of the stings of polygamy." 

" Do you wish me to believe," questioned my mother, in 
surprise, "that you have seen your husband going through 
a courtship and marriage with a young wife, have seen 
him lavish attentions on her that have heretofore belonged 
alone to you, and have never felt the pangs of jealousy?" 

" Yes ; I wish you to believe all that." 

" Well," said my mother, somewhat incredulously, " I 
cannot comprehend it, and if I did not know you to be a 



SHE DEFENDS THE SYSTEM. 15 7 

most truthful woman, I should certainly say I did not be- 
lieve you." 

Mrs. Curtis grew quite eloquent on the subject ; she and 
the other wife lived in one house, not a large one either, 
and the relation between them was amicable in the extreme. 
She had always been fond of Sarah ; she was fonder than 
ever of her now. 

"Why should there be so much trouble in it?" continued 
she, waxing earnest; "the Revelation on Celestial Mar- 
riage is from the Lord ; I know it, and every person might 
have a testimony for themselves if they would cultivate the 
Spirit ; it is wrong and absurd in us to rebel." 

" Yes, to be sure it is," returned my mother, " if one 
knows it to be true. I do not know it ; I merely believe it, 
and I am not sure that I quite do that even. I try to be> 
lieve it, and try to practice it, but I must confess to many 
anxious days and sleepless nights on account of it." 

Mrs. Curtis was horrified at my mother's lack of belief. 
" Why," said she, " if I did not have a perfect knowledge 
of the truth of polygamy, I should lose all faith in the other 
principles of Mormonism, I fear." 

" Not necessarily so," replied mother. " I still cling to 
the faith ; I must not relinquish that ; but polygamy is a 
hard cross to bear." 

" Not at all ! not at all ! " asseverated Mrs. Curtis ; " if 
you only have the Spirit of the Lord to enlighten your mind, 
you will find no difficulty." 

" Well, you certainly are an exception to the general rule," 
said mother. " and you are far in advance of me, though 
I have struggled hard to inure myself to the system." 

"Now let me tell you how we manage," persisted the 
enthusiastic defender of plurality. "When my husband 
intends going to Sarah's apartment, we first kneel down 
and have prayers ; then he takes me in his arms and blesses 
me, and after our usual good-night kiss we part, happy in 
each other's love ; and why should there be any trouble? " 



158 "KEEP YOUR EYES SHUT!" 

"The story you are telling me seems incredible," said my 
mother ; " if it is true, you are really enjoying a very pleas- 
ant dream, from which I pray you may never awaken." 

" O, no fear of that," was the quick reply. " I love Sarah 
too well to ever regret giving her to my husband ; and you 
might be just as happy, if you would take the right view of 
the subject. I am sure, if Sarah had children, I should love 
them as well as my own, and I really cannot see what there 
is in polygamy to cause so much annoyance." 

" Well," said my mother, as tl^ ^^ru/^gptin^pnfjprL K let 
me give you this bit of advice \keep your eyes shut.!' 

My mother did not see her friend again, or even hear 
from her, for a very long time ; but she used often to refer 
to her, and wonder whether " the stings of polygamy " had 
reached her in all that time, or whether she was still as en- 
thusiastic a devotee to the system as she was at the time of 
her memorable visit. 

Some years after Mrs. Curtis's visit, the mother of the 
young wife became our guest. My mother, of course, 
made instant and interested inquiries regarding the welfare 
of the family. She was quite surprised when, in answer to 
them, the lady replied, 

" I do not know what to say or to think about Delia. She 
behaves in the most peculiar manner ; we all think she may 
be insane, and I am very certain she is, for no woman in 
her right mind would conduct herself in the way she does." 

"Why, what is the matter?" 

" You know what a disciple of polygamy she professed to 
be, and how earnest she was that Sarah should join the 
family. She has turned completely about ; you would not 
recognize in her the same person she was before we went 
south to live. She raves wildly about polygamy, and says 
as many things against it as she used to say for it. I never 
heard anyone more bitter in my life. She abuses Sarah in 
every possible way, you know how fond she used to be of 
her, and whips her children shamefully. She has become 



SHE YIELDED AT LAST TO NATURE. 159 

so violent that Sarah cannot live with her any longer, even 
if she dared to, and she does not, for Delia > absolutely ter- 
rifies her in some of her rages ; so she is going to move 
away. I never saw a person so entirely changed in my 
life. It is terrible." 

" What has happened to cause such a change ? " asked 
my mother. 

" I do not know, I am sure," was the sad reply ; " we 
none of us know ; it is a perfect mystery to us ; but of one 
thing I am quite assured : if she goes on in the way she is 
going now, she cannot live long ; she will literally wear 
herself out." 

It was less than a year from this time that we heard of 
her death. It was evident she had not been so strong as 
she imagined, or else the "Spirit" had deserted her. The 
end of this " happy " woman's life was not so different, 
after all, from that of hundreds of her "unhappy" sisters. 
She was another victim to polygamy, that horrible system 
which crushes women's hearts, kills their bodies, and de- 
stroys their s*ouls. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE HARDSHIPS AND PERILS OF LIFE IN A NEW 
COUNTRY. 

" Killed by the Indians." How Apostates Disappeared. A Suspicious 
Fact. How Brigham "took care" of the People's Property. The 
Mormon Battalion. Brigham Pockets the Soldiers' Pay. How Prose- 
lytes were Made. Scapegraces sent on Mission. My Father goes to 
Europe. How Missionaries' wives are Left. Collecting funds for 
the Missionaries. Brigham Embezzles the Money. The " Church 
Train." Joseph A. Young as a Missionary. His Misdoings in St. 
Louis. What Brother Brown said of Him. The Perpetual Emigration 
Fund. How the Money was Raised. Cheating the Confiding Saints. 
How Brigham Manages the Missionaries' Property. The " Church " 
makes Whiskey for the Saints. The Missionaries bring home new 
Wives. How English Girls are Deceived. My First Baptism. 



IE first years of life in a 
new country are full of 
hardships, peril, and ad- 
venture, and all these the 
Mormon people met. 
(I can remember listening 
in round-eyed wonder and 
terror at recitals of Indian 
atrocities, for we were sur- 
rounded by the wandering 
Southern tribes, and they 
were constantly thieving 
from us, and a murder was 
by no means an uncom- 
mon thing. When a man 
the general verdict, as a 




left home 
matter of 



and failed to return, 



course, was, "killed by the Indians." Did an 



HOW APOSTATES WERE " KILLED BY THE INDIANS ! " l6l 

exploring party visit the Territory, and fail to leave it 
again, their fate, if it was ever alluded to at all, was re- 
garded as " massacred by Indians." 

It is a significant fact that most of the persons who thus 
perished were Gentiles, apostates, or people who, for some 
reason or other, were suspected by, or disagreeable to, 
Brigham Young ; and it came presently to be noticed that 
if anyone became ^ttrfed of Mof inoiitsni^rTmpatiento 
i n cre^s1fi'g~~de^potism oI~the^te55erTand returned to the _ 
E^st^px started tsTdo soTTflrlrrvTrrtaMy was jnet by the In- 1 

dians and killed befonTHe'had ^omTyerv farTT^" ~J 

\~The effect was to discourage apostasy, and there was no- 
one but knew that the moment he announced his intention 
of leaving Zion and returning to "Babylon," he pronounced 
his death sentence.) He was never discouraged from his plans, 
nor was any disapprobation of his course expressed. The 
faces were as friendly that he met every day, the voices 
just as kind ; his hand was shaken at parting, and there 
was not a touch either of warning or sarcasm in the " God 
speed " and bon voyage. But he knew he was a lucky man 
if, in less than twenty-four hours after leaving Salt Lake 
City, he was not lying face downward on the cold earth, 
shot to deatli..Jjy_^--iiriemjig..--Fie^^ball, while the stars 
IdoTcecTsorrowfully down, silent witnesses, jQn..this deed of 
iahuman^butchery, and a man rode swiftly cityward, carry- 
ing, the news of the midnight murder to his master, who had 
commanded him in the name of his religion to commit this 
deed, and send an innocent soul before its Maker. " Ah, 
poor fellow ; killed by the Indians," said all his friends ; but 
Brigham Young and Bill Hickman or " Port " Rockwell 
knew better. 

The Indians have been convenient scapegoats and alter- 
nate allies and enemies to Brigham Young. But he has 
managed to make warfare, even with them, a profitable 
thing for himself. 

Indians are notoriously thievish ; the}'' will steal from 
ii 



l62 BRIGHAM " TAKES CARE " OF THE PEOPLE'S MONEY. 

each other, and from their very best friends*, Civilization, 
even, doesn't seem to take the taint from their characters ; 
they positively can't keep their hands off what doesn't be- 
long to them. 

As a matter of course, the Mormons, being their near 
neighbors, suffered very much from their depredations. 
They would often steal an ox, or, indeed, a large number of 
cattle, when they could do so with comparative safety ; the 
owners would soon be on their trail, and would pursue them 
until they reached them ; and sometimes both Mormons and 
Indians would be killed. 

( On occasions like these a proclamation would be issued, 
by the "authorities," for the brethren to fit themselves out 
for a campaign of indefinite length for the purpose of quell- 
ing the M Indian disturbances," and suppressing the trouble ; 
and Brigham, who always has an eye to the main chance, 
generally managed in some mysterious manner to make 
large sums of money out of these " wars," as they were 
called./ 

Sometimes the manner of the money-making was not at 
all mysterious. There is one case in particular which I 
have often heard spoken of by my mother and other Mor- 
mons, who would have disapproved of the proceedings, and 
even called them dishonest, had they dared ; but none of 
them ventured to connect such an adjective as that to the 
Prophetic name. 

At this particular time he became so very anxious for his 
people's welfare, and so earnest in his endeavors to " pro- 
tect " their property, that he sent Captain William Walls, of 
Provo, with a company, to collect all the surplus stock from 
the settlements south of Salt Lake, and drive them into the 
city for safe-keeping, reserving only the necessary teams 
and the milch cows. The orders were very absolute to 
r drive every hoof that cdtild be spared." 

At Cedar City, Iron County, there were three men who 
as absolutely refused to give up their stock, as that was all 



BRIGHAM STEALS THE CATTLE OF THREE SAINTS. 163 

they had to depend upon ; for, being poor men, with large 
families, they naturally preferred to keep what property 
they had where they could look after it themselves, feeling 
certain that they would take quite as careful an interest in 
it as a stranger would. 

The names of these rebellious men were Hunter, Keer, 
and Hadshead. They insisted upon defending their prop- 
erty, and the captain commanded them to be arrested and 
put in irons, and then he started with them for Salt Lake 
City, having previously secured all their stock. When they 




BRIGHAM " TAKES CAKE " OF THE PEOPLE'S CATTLE 1 

arrived at Parowan, they were chained together and confined 
in the school-house, there being no prison or jail in the 
place. 

They were met by George A. Smith, who at that time 
was on a visit to the southern settlements ; and he, thinking 
the men were treated with unnecessary harshness, or- 
dered their irons taken off, and them set at liberty and 
allowed to return to their families without their stock, 
however. These men, after suffering such indignities, 
could live among the" Mormons no longer, and they left for 
California. 



164 THE PROPHET ROBS THE HELPLESS WOMEN. 

Their stock, \vith a large herd of cattle collected in that 
vicinity, was driven to Salt Lake City, where they remained 
until they were in proper order for sale, when Brigham sold 
every one of them to pay a large debt which he owed to 
Livingston and Kincade, Salt Lake merchants. 
^This was his somewhat novel method of "protection." 
The cattle, to be sure, were out of the reach of the Indians, 
but they were equally out of the reach of their lawful own- 
ers, who neither saw them again nor any money which 
accrued from the sale of themA 

Some of the owners ventured to ask if they might be 
turned in for tithing, but the inspired Prophet of the Lord 
replied, "No ; if you had kept them, the Indians would have 
stolen them, and you are as well off as you would have 
been if I had not taken them." So was he, and several 
hundred dollars better off, too. 

This reminds me of another instance of Brigham's faculty 
for "turning things to account," or, as a young Mormon 
quite wittily said, "taking advantage of his opportunities ; " 
although it has nothing to do with the Indians, yet it oc- 
curred at an even earlier date, and was among the first of 
his notoriously dishonest transactions. 

At Council Bluffs, as early as 1846, he counselled five 
hundred of his followers to enlist in the service of the United 
States ; recruits being wanted at that time for the war in 
Mexico. They went without a question, on being assured 
that their families should be cared for. The church at that 
time was camped on the Missouri River, on its way from 
Nauvoo to Salt Lake. 

/The Mormon soldiers commonly called "The Battalion" 
7 sent all their pay to their families, to the care of Brigham 
Young, and he cared for it so well that the poor families 
never received it. John D. Lee brought the money which 
was collected from the soldiers, amounting to several thousand 
dollars, and gave it to Brigham. The families of these sol- 
diers were, many of them, nearly starving, and all of them 



HE DEFRAUDS THE SOLDIERS OF THEIR PAY. 165 

were very poor, needing sadly the money that their hus-\ 
bands had sent them ; and in the face of all this destitution \ 
and suffering Brigham Young bought goods in Missouri to \ 
take out to the Valley, and if a soldier's wife ventured to I 
ask him for anything, no matter how trifling it might be, 
she was rudely repulsed, usually without the slightest ex- 
cuse for not giving her what was rightfully her own. 

C The men served in the army two years, receiving pay all 
the time, which Brigham pocketed, and all the time their 
families lived on the banks of the Missouri in the most 
squalid poverty, while Brigham came to Salt Lake in the 
most comfortable manner possible at that early day, and 
lived on the provisions that he had brought with him, 
bought with the money that was not his. j He lived in what 
would be called luxury for the time andlhe place, by liter- 
ally taking the bread out of the mouths of hundreds of 
needy women and children. 

When these men came to Utah, after having been honorably 
discharged, they, of course, expected to find their families 
there. What was their surprise on learning that they were 
still at Winter-Quarters, and that no arrangements had been 
made for bringing them to the Valley ! The President of 
the church would not allow them to go for them until the 
next spring, and when they did find them in such a wretched, 
helpless condition, it is no wonder that so many of them 
apostatized, and refused to believe in a religion whose chief 
teacher could be capable of such heartless cruelty and mean 
dishonesty. 

fit is asserted, by those who have the best means of know- 
ing, that this war put twenty thousand dollars in Brigham 
Young's pocket ; and yet he is very fond of talking about the 
cruelty and tyranny of the United States government in 
forcing five hundred of the ablest Mormon men into its 
service at a time when they were the most needed, and leav- 
ing the weak and helpless to cross the plains without suf- 
ficient protection. 9 



l66 BRIGHAM YOUNG AS A MISSIONARY. 

The Mormons have always been very enthusiastic on the 
subject of missions. Probably no other church has done 
so much both home and foreign missionary work as the 
Church of Latter-Day Saints. They began by travelling 
about the country, making converts wherever they could, in 
the days when the entire church, could easily be numbered : 
as they increased in numbers they extended their work 
across the ocean, and now nearly all the work is done in 
England, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 

It is a very rare thing nowadays to hear of an American 
convert, and the southern European nations never did take 
kindly to the faith. 

Brigham Young was among the very earliest of mis- 
sionaries, and he was very successful at proselyting. He 
was very different then from the haughty, arrogant blusterer 
of to-day./ He and his brother Joseph were the first Mor- 
mons that my mother ever saw, and I have very often heard 
her describe the peculiar influence they exerted over her, 
and the manner in which they impressed her. ' 

To her they seemed very humble men, of the most ear- 
nest, devoted piety and intense religious zeal, travelling about 
"without purse or scrip," meeting with ridicule, derision, and 
persecution, while they preached "the gospel as taught by 
Christ and his Apostles." They came to a house where 
she chanced to be visiting, and, after seating themselves, 
commenced singing one of those earnest, stirring hymns for 
which the Mormons were at that time celebrated. 

" Hark ! listen to the trumpeters, 

They call for volunteers. 
On Zion's bright and flowery mount, 

Behold their officers. 
Their horses white, their armor bright, 

With courage bold they stand ; 
Enlisting soldiers for their king, 

To march to Zion's land. 




A. CARRINGTON. 



MORMON APOSTLES. 



THE FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE MORMONS. 167 

u We want no cowards in our bands, 

That will our colors fly ; 
We call for valiant-hearted men, 

Who' re not afraid to die ; 
Sinners, enlist with Jesus Christ, 

Th' eternal Son of God, 
And march with us to Zion's land, 

Beyond the swelling flood." 

They were fine singers, both of them, and they threw so 
much fire and fervor into this song that my mother young, 
enthusiastic girl of sixteen made up her mind on the spot 
to enlist and follow this new army to Zion. 

She was baptized and confirmed by Brigham Young 
almost immediately, and to use her own language, w There 
was nothing arrogant, haughty, or tyrannical, either in his 
(Brigham Young's) or Heber Kimball's appearance, as they 
pronounced, in the most fervent manner, such glorious 
blessings upon me, a poor ignorant girl, with no one to 
guide me, but who had given up my little all in this world 
to follow their teachings, which to me at that time meant 
the teachings of Christ." 

No sooner had the Saints become fairly settled in Utah 
than Brigham Young commenced sending the brethren off 
on missions. He had, and still has, a peculiar way of man- 
aging, quite original with himself. A few of the leading 
members of the chureh were sent ; indeed, at that time one 
or more of the apostles was kept in England all the while, 
and different elders were sent to relieve each other, and to 
assist the apostle in taking charge of the " Branches," and 
starting mission churches, which were afterwards held in 
charge by some resident brother, who was appointed elder. 
In addition to these elders, any one who displeased the 
Prophet was " sent on a mission " as a punishment. Did 
the polygamous Prophet fancy a man's wife, he was sent to 
the farthest possible point from Zion, to "enlist" souls for 
the Mormon Church. If any young man is suddenly started 



l68 A NEW DODGE OF THE PROPHET. 

" on a mission " to preach the gospel and win souls to 
Christ, it is safe to argue that " he has been a little wild,' 
and is accordingly exiled for a while. 

My father was sent to England not very long after our 
arrival in the Valley, and he had charge while there of the 
Sheffield branch of the churchu My mother and myself 
lived part of the time in Salt Lake City with Elizabeth and 
her family, and the remainder of the time in Payson. As 
the missionaries are all expected to give their services, and 
as they are obliged to go when ordered, whether they wish 
to or not, the wives have to take care of themselves as best 
they may. They certainly can expect no aid from their 
husbands, and they never receive it from the church ; so, un- 
less they can do something to support themselves while they 
are left in this way, they are pretty sure to suffer discomfort, 
and many times actual want. My mother was equal to the 
occasion, however, and we got on better than most Mormon 
families do whose " head " has gone on a mission. My 
mother taught school most of the time, either in the city or in 
Payson, and during all the time I studied with her. 

Before sending his missionaries to England, Brigham one 
Sunday addressed the people in the Tabernacle very much 
after this fashion : 

"Brethren and sisters, the time has been when we were 
compelled to travel without purse or scrip, and preach the 
gospel. We have had to beg our way of an ungodly world, 
and have gone, like the Apostles of old, trusting the Lord to 
provide for us. And," continued he, waxing excited over 
his subject, " I have travelled on foot the length and breadth 
of the United States with my shoes full of blood. Foot-sore 
and weary, I have often arrived at a house and asked for a 
night's lodging. I was hungry and cold ; yet I was turned 
away ; and many a time I have shaken the dust off my feet 
as a testimony against those people. But now I want the 
elders to travel independent of the Gentile world." Then, 
after reading the names of those whom he had selected to 
go, he proceeded with his address : 



ROBBING HIS OWN MISSIONARIES. 169 

" Brethren and sisters, the missionaries must be supplied 
with the necessary funds to defray their expenses. And I 
want this whole people to come forward and donate freely 
for this purpose. I do not suppose you are all prepared 
to-day, but you can call at the office to-morrow and leave 
the money with my clerk ; or we will have another meeting 
for the purpose of receiving donations, and so give all the 
opportunity of assisting in the noble work of sending mis- 
sionaries to a foreign land." 

As an answer to this appeal there was a large sum raised, 
the people responding generously to this call for assistance, 
and there was sufficient to carry all the laborers to their ap- 
pointed fields. What was the surprise, then, of these men, 
when calling on the Prophet previous to their departure, and 
referring to the subject, they were coolly told by Brother 
Brigham that there was no money for them "not one 
cent " ! 

" But what are we to do ? " said the bewildered and dis- 
appointed men, who had relied on this money to assist 
them. 

" You must go to Bishop Hunter ; I have nothing for you," 
was the careless and heartless reply. 

Accordingly they went to the Presiding Bishop, and after 
telling him their errand, and that they had been sent by 
President Young, he informed them that there was a "church 
train " of three hundred wagons going East, which would 
take them to the frontiers for forty dollars apiece ; " and after 
that," said the bishop, "you must get to your fields of labor 
as best you can." 

Now, the Mormon elders in those days were poor, and 
could barely support their families when they were at home. 
And to be informed, just at the last moment, when they had 
supposed they were well provided for, that they must defray 
their own expenses to England, was really a hard blow for 
all of them. And yet such was their devotion to their 
religion, that each one paid his forty dollars to ride to the 



I7O SCANDALOUS DOINGS OF THE PROPHETS SONS. 

frontier in the "church" wagons, and then made their way 
to England at their own expense. 

The Saints supposed that these wagons were sent out for 
the purpose of bringing emigrants from the Missouri River ; 
but on their return they were loaded with freight, for which 
Brigham received twenty-five* dollars a hundred. Between 
the amount paid for the passage of the missionaries and the 
loads of freight on the return, this "church train" certainly 
paid the head of the church very handsomely for that one trip. 

Among the missionaries to England, during my father's 

residence there, was Joseph A., the Prophet's eldest son, who 

has recently died. He has always had the reputation among 

the Saints of being a very " fast" young man. In order, if 

possible, to cure him of some of his propensities for evil-doing, 

his father decided to send him on a mission, to carry the light 

of the everlasting gospel to the benighted nations of the earth. 

xWhen men of family are sent, it is generally because Brig- 

( ham wants something belonging to them which he cannot 

\ get if they are allowed to stay at home ; and single men are 

I often sent to convert the world, who are not capable of 

Writing their own names in a legible manner. 

But Joseph A. was sent because his father did not know 
what else to do with him ; he had become so dissipated and 
caused so much trouble at home. 

On his way Joseph stopped a few days in St. Louis, after 
which he went immediately to England. He was appointed 
in my father's pastorate, he being at that time pastor over 
several conferences. Everything was moving on harmoni- 
ously, when another Mormon elder, named Brown, arrived 
from America, telling some hard stories abouTJosfeph's con- 
duct while in St. Louis. 

<. Mr. Brown circulated the reports that Joseph had drank 
immoderately, several times had been beastly drunk, and 
had constantly and habitually visited most disreputable re- 
sorts ; in fact, that his conduct while in that city had been 
marked by the most profligate excesses, and that it had also 



MY FATHER " MAKES IT RIGHT FOR JOE I " Ijl 

been notoriously open, very little attempt being made on his 
part to hide it. He seemed to fancy that his personality was 
sufficient protection from scandal, and that the gossips would 
not wag their tongues over the misconduct of a son of Brig- 
ham Young. > 

These reports shocked the English Saints very much, and 
many of them were on the point of apostasy on account of 
it. My father did not doubt that there was some foundation 
for these stories, although he did not think the fellow could 




JOSEPH A. YOUNG PREPARING FOR MISSIONARY WORK. 



be so bad as he was represented ; and he considered it his 
duty to take immediate steps to suppress the scandal, since 
it was doing very great injury to the cause of Mormonism. 
He accordingly represented this view of the case to Mr. 
Brown, who listened earnestly, and seemed quite convinced 
of the truth and justice of what my father had said. He 
took his leave, agreeing to " make it all right for Joe." 



172 



YOUNG " BRIGGY " GETS INTO A FIX ! 



The following Sabbath, at the close of the services, my 
father said, " Mr. Brown will now have the opportunity 
to retract the scandal which he has put in circulation con- 
cerning Joseph A. Young." 

Mr. Brown arose before the thousands of people assem- 
bled there, and acknowledged that he had misrepresented 
the character of the Prophet's "beloved" son, and, in the 
blandest manner possible, made it appear that Joseph was 
perfectly pure, upright, and moral, and entirely above re- 
proach. 

The chief object of this farce was to prevent apostasy ; 
another was to save the Prophet's son from infamy and dis- 
grace. My father, on his return to America, learned that 
Mr. Brown's reports were all true, and were not exagger- 
ated in the least. Yet this dissipated libertine was consid- 
ered sufficiently good to preach the truths of the Mormon 
religion to "a world lying in darkness." 

Brigham Young's sons 
usually 'distinguish them- 
selves while on their mis- 
sions, rather by their aptitude 
at getting into scrapes than 
by the number of converts 
which they make. Brigham 
Jr. " the probable succes- 
sor," or, as he is familiarly 
called, " Briggy " succeed- 
ed in distinguishing himself 
in England. The story pop- 

E. HUNTER, PRESIDING BISHOP. ularly told among the SailltS 

is, that regarding himself, 

without doubt, as a "scion of royalty," and with the egotisti- 
cal assumption and the assurance which characterize his 
father, and which he honestly inherited, he actually ven- 
tured, in spite of the law, to drive the same number of 
white horses before his carriage that the queen had on her 




HE DISTINGUISHES HIMSELF IN ENGLAND. 173 

carriage, and that he was arrested and fined a hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars for the offence. The true account of 
the matter is, that when driving in one of the London parks, 
in a state of inebriety, he committed a trespass, for which 
he was arrested and mulcted in the ordinary fine a few 
shillings, I believe. Brigham, however, is said to have 
profited by the exaggerated story, and to have made capital 
out of it. 

The donations that year had been unusually large, for 
Brigham had announced his intention of " emigrating " a 
larger number than ever before, and, as a consequence, the 
"J^expetjial Emigration Fuml" must be correspondingly 
increased. 

" Brethren and sisters," he commenced one day, in his 
most delicate and refined style, "you must retrench your 
expenses. You have been travelling in a direct line towards 
eternal damnation for a long time ; now you must turn 
about, and show to the Lord and His holy angels that you 
still desire to be numbered among His people. I intend, 
this year, to bring over every Saint from the Old Country, 
and you must take hold and help me. I want the sisters to 
leave off their ribbons and finery, and stop running to the 
stores. I want you, one and all, to_stop using^Je^^coffee, 
andjwKiskey, and thejgapjqiey you would 




thpsej.hinffs you must donate for the emigration of th 

in Europe. Now is the time to manifest your faith by your 

works." 

All the Saints in the Territory were personally called 
upon to assist in the work, and responded generously, if 
not willingly. Poor women contributed their mites, and 
poor men gave of their hardly-won earnings, that could ill 
be spared, as they could barely support their families at the 
best. In England, also, they were made to contribute, and 
many a working man was compelled to donate an entire 
week's wages. The English Saints gave willingly, and 
suffered the privations caused by their generosity cheerfully, 



174 THE PROPHET SETS UP A WHISKEY STILL. 

as they confidently expected to be gathered to Zion that 
year. But their suffering availed them nothing, and their 
generosity was but ill repaid. It was years before many 
of these patient, long-enduring Saints saw the Zion of 
their hopes. 

As the Prophet has a most decided objection to seeing any 
of his followers becoming independent in worldly affairs, 
either because he is afraid they will be able to act without 
counsel or advice from him, and so get beyond his power 
to manage them, or because he is jealous of .their pecuniary 
success, since he has often said that he was the only man in 
the Territory who knew how to make money or how-to use 
it, he always finds some way to put a stop to their growing 
prosperity. His usual method of doing this is by sending 
them on a mission. Of course their business is at a stand- 
still altogether as soon as the heads of it are away ; and it 
either remains quiet ever after, or, if it is sufficiently lucra- 
tive to make it worth while, Brigham manages to get it into 
his own hands, and it is as completely lost to its rightful 
owners as though they never had possessed it. 

For a number of years, two men named Badley and 
Hugh Moon worked a whiskey distillery in Salt Lake 
City, and appeared to be becoming rapidly wealthy. They 
were good Mormons, staunch defenders of Brigham Young, 
ready in every good work with open purses and generous 
deeds, and they were highly respected by the entire body 
of Saints. 

What was the consternation of the church, when, during 
the delivery of a temperance sermon on Sunday, the Presi- 
dent, waxing more personal, more eloquent, and conse- 
quently more abusive, " cursed, in the name of the Lord," 
the men that ran the distillery ! 

They knew very well that these men paid their tithing 
promptly, the greatest virtue a Mormon can possess, by the 
way, and that they were foremost in all charitable works, 
and they marvelled very much that the Prophet should deal 



HE ADULTERATES THE WHISKEY TOO MUCH ! 



so hardly with them. His language was so abusive that 
Badley, who was especially attached to the President Young, 
shed tears during the denunciation. He finally finished his 
anathemas by ordering them to take their families and go 
on a mission to an unsettled portion of the TWritnry, lpayjnor_ 
their homes to "the church," which, of course, meant Brig- 





As soon as they had gone, the Prophet removed the 
apparatus for distilling a few miles from the city, and com- 
menced making whiskey for the church. But, unfortu- 
nately, the church whiskey did not prove to be so good as 
that made by Moon and Badley, and the church distillery 
was short-lived. 

The men who were thus heartlessly ruined and unjustly 
exiled never returned. Their homes were broken up, 
their property taken from them, and themselves and their 
families banished to the wilderness, to gratify the covet^. 
niianfss nnH graspjng of an avariciorm Lyr{nffT"who c;orrL- 
mitted this outrage, as he has all others, with a " Thus saith 
the Lord." 



Brigham's missions may be considered moral "Botany 
Bays," where he sends those persons who in any way incur 
his sovereign displeasure. It is an easy way of punishing 
offenders ; and so common has it become, that lately, when- 
ever a man is sent awax_ojn__thiserrand, the_sontajuees 
mestlon^htcrTarises to every lip is, 



In case of a certain trial which took place some years 
since, Brigham had given his wishes to a portion of the jury 
as to how the case should be decided. After retiring, those 
of the jury who had received instructions from the Prophet 
came to a decision very readily, while those who had not 
been " interviewed " by him could see no justice in the 
way they had decided, and consequently refused to agree 
with the others. 

Brigham was exceedingly angry at this, and took them 



176 "MY WORD IS LAW HERE." 

very severely to task for their disregard of his known 
wishes. 

"Well, Brother Brigham," said one of the obstinate jury- 
men, "the law will sustain us." 

" The law ! " said the Prophet. " What do you suppose 
I care for the law? My word is law here. I wish you dis- 
tinctly to understand that ; and," he continued, " those men 
who decided against my view of the case shall pay the 
penalty." 

Very soon after that, one of these men, whose only fault 
had been that he would not be coerced into committing 
what he knew would be a gross injustice, was sent on a 
mission to China ; another was ordered to Japan, a third to 
the Sandwich Islands, and one quite old gentleman was 
appointed to Las Vegas. This man having grown gray 
in the service of the church, Heber C. Kimball ventured to 
propose that, in consideration of his age, he be allowed to 
remain at home, and his son sent on the mission in his 
stead. The father was actually too feeble to be of any 
service in building up a new place, and Las Vegas was 
considered an important point to secure; so, after much 
deliberation, it was decided that the son should go in his 
father's stead. Seventy-five families were ordered to aban- 
don their homes, and take their departure for a new and 
almost unknown portion of the Territory. 

They expended thousands of dollars in building, fencing, 
an<revery~way beautifying and jmp 

^ 



and jusTas theyweregettiiig^iiicely settled, and had made 
i^ th< 



pronounced it anjutterly unsuitaBIe^plam fti > -ar-^Stalceof 
"ZIcmT' and ordered them all back_again ; so that the years 
passed there^ an J all the expendituregTwere a^jotaTtoss^ 

After the son of the aged juryman had paid the penalty of 
his father's sin, he returned to Salt Lake. He has ever 
since fearlessly expressed his opinion of the Las Vegas 
mission, in terms not very flattering to its originator, and 



MISSIONARIES "ENLARGING THEIR KINGDOMS." 177 

Brigham has been obliged to withdraw the hand of fellow- 
ship from him, very reluctantly indeed, as he had been 
a faithful servant to the President's interest for several 
year 

a comment on his often expressed contempt of the law 
of lawyers, I wish to say just here that his son Alphilus 
Young is at this present time a law student at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, sent there by his father to carry out his 
own ambitious plans for his son's future, and also to have a 
lawyer in the family, since he has ben forced to have so 
much to do with the law in late years.) 

It must not be supposed that none others are sent on mis- 
sions except those who are to be punished, or got out of 
the way for a while. Brigham Young is shrewd, and so 
with these he sends every year prominent members of the 
church. All the apostles, and most of the leading elders;-^ 
have been in the mission work, both in the States and in 
Europe, and it is in response to their efforts that so many 
converts have been made. -v 

The period of my father's stay in England was one spe- \ 
cially marked for success in mission work. Very many of 
the leaders of the church were there then, and mighty ef- 
forts were made to secure converts. They worked day and 
night with unabated zeal, and so great was their success, 
the whole world marvelled at the number of converts who/ 
came yearly to Zion. 

Inthemean time, the families of the 



getting on as best they cmild at homp- deprived not only of 
their husbands society, but of the support which they gave 
~iKem wnen at nome, scanty enough in some cases, I 
assure you, and yet just as much missed as though it had 
been larger, since it was the all ; and above all, there was 
the horrible shadow of polygamy hanging over them ; for 
no wife everj^new how much her husband may have been /, 
moved toXenlarge his kingdom," and the young English // 
girls were^apt to be very much taken with the American / 
12 



178 THE "REVELATION" ON POLYGAMY PUBLISHED. 



elders, and they in turn submitted without much struggle 
to the fascinations of their youthful converts. pVery few of 
the missionaries failed to bring home an EngHsh wife, or 
at least to induce some young girl to emigrate to Zion, with 
the prospect of becoming his wife on her arrival.} 

At first potygamy was not preuched._ Indeed, so very 
rrnrpfhl wprq thf elders not to mention the subject, or else 
BO deny polygamy altogetlier, TliaT many of the girls Sup- 
posed themselves to be thlT^fh*st-ftiTtHTrrty Vives ofthe menT 
married"; and it was nof^mtil^they reached" 
tah, ancTw"ere introduce'3To"fKeir husbands' *' other wjves/ 7 " 

were undeceived . 

strong was theleeling in England, that for some time 

after polygamy was 
openly practiced in 
Utah, the missiona- 
ries denied it, and 
men who had four 
and five waves liv- 
ing quoted largely 
from the Book of 
Mormon, and other 
church works, to 
prove the impossi- 
bility of the existence 
of such a system. 
At length, however, 
they were obliged to 
confess to the truth, 
which they did by 
causing the w Reve- 
lation " to be pub- 
lished in the "Millennial Star" the church organ pub- 
lished at Liverpool. For a while it seemed almost as 
though all the labors of the missionaries would go for 
nothing, so many apostatized. By strenuous effort and 
redoubled endeavor, however, many were still held in th* 




DOING MISSIONARY WORK. 



PRACTICING POLYGAMY FOR CONSCIENCE' SAKE . 179 

church. They were told that polygamy was optional ; that 
while the leaders of the church, many of them, practiced it, 
"for conscience' sake," since the Lord willed it, yet many 
more had not entered the system, and probably never would, 
and that no one need enter it, unless they felt themselves 
especially " called by the Lord." 

In England, as_in^A rnpr l ri1 i f ^fi mp " became much more 
easily reconciled to the doctrine than the women". The 
latter had many bitter 1 hOUrs 6Ver It; and yet each one, as"*""* 
alt" their American sisters before them had dune, thought 
her Husband would not take a polygamous wife, although 
fre might believe in the theory, and uphold those of his 
BrethTeh ~wficT conveHe^' tTTe Iffigoryiiito- pTcrcTtclT~~~TH;y^ 

"had to learn, in the intensest bitterness 'of suffering, what 
other women had learned before them that their hus- 
bands were like the majority of men, who ha 
so persistently thrust in their way. g^fll 

Even now the men who go on missions are very guarded 
in preaching the doctrine, and advocate it only where they 
are very certain that it will be received. They admit its 
existence, but they by no means are willing to confess to 
what an extent it is practiced ; and to this day many of them 
win wives under false pretences. 

/ It was only a few weeks since, a gentleman living in the 
British Provinces, on a visit to some friends in New Eng- 
land, spoke of a visit he had received quite recently from 
a lady friend from England, a relative, I think, who had 
become, converted to Mormonism, and married one of the 
elders of the church, and was on her way to Utah with 
him. She was a very lovely person, and in talking of her 
new religion, concerning which she was very enthusiastic, 
deplored the existence of polygamy as its only drawback 
to a perfect faith. Yet she said her husband had told her 
that it was only a doctrine of the church that was rarely 
practiced, except by the older Saints, who had received the 
Revelation directly from Joseph, and had considered the 



iSo 



I AM DIPPED IN A POND BY BROTHER TAFT. 



adoption of the system a duty ; that in time it would be 
entirely done away with, except in theory, and that at all 
events she need have no fear. 

Great was the surprise of the gentleman on learning that 
she, who so fondly believed herself the only wife of her 
husband, made Number 5 or 6 of his plural wives. The 
poor girl had, w^thou^ dgyht^jearned the truth long before, 
although her rjrjjie^no doubt/would prevent her from in- 
TbrmTng herjjrifn^ hp^<a3ill i i ^he^^55d^DTe^^uped. 

The Mormon mode of managing missions troubled me 
very little during those early days. I missed my father, 
and wished President Young would let him come back ; 
beyond that I had little thought or care. I was busy study- 
ing with my mother, and I of course was taught the ele- 
ments of the religion in which she so firmly believed, and 
on which she so greatly depended ; and, like all children 
of Mormon parents, I was baptized when I was eight 
years old. 

The Mormon people do not baptize or "christen " their 
infant children. When they are eight days old they are 
"blessed," and they are baptized at eight years of age. I 
was baptized by Bishop Taft, my father's second wife's 
father ; and I was exceedingly terrified. I was taken to a 
pond, and the bishop carried me in his arms, and plunged 
me into the water ; and so great was the nervous shock that 
I could not think of it without a shudder for years after. 

My mother was glad when it was over, for I was made a 
child of the church, and by this rite she consecrated me to 
God and the Mormon faith. TozdI still hold loving, 



trustful allegiance : as for, thq Mormon faith, 1 can UQX&L. 
be too~thankiul that I have so entirely freed myself from 
that held me,^5oTrl^and.bod^ 



CHAPTER X. 



THE UTAH " REFORMATION." "A REIGN OF TERROR." 
THE BLOOD-ATONEMENT PREACHED. 

The Beginning of the Reformation. The Payson Saints Stirred Up. 
What the Wicked " Saints " had been Doing Secretly. The Old Lady 
who stole a Radish. Confessing the sins of Others. A System of 
Espionnage. Brigham bids them " Go Ahead ! " The Story of Brother 
Jeddy's Mule. The Saints receive a terrible Drubbing. Great Ex- 
citement in Mormondom. How the Saints were Catechized. Indeli- 
cate Questions are put to Everybody. My Mother and Myself Con- 
fess. The Labors of the Home Missionaries. Making Restitution. 
Everybody is Re-baptized. "Cut off Below their Ears" The 
" Blood- Atonement " Preached. Murder recommended in the Tab- 
ernacle. Cutting their Neighbors' throats for Love. A " Reign of 
Terror " in Utah. Fearful Outrages Committed. Murdered " by the 
Indians " ? Brigham advises the Assassination of Hatten. Murder 
of Almon Babbitt, Dr. Robinson, the Parrishes, and Others. Blood- 
shed the Order of the Div. 



HILE my father was in 
England on mission, my 
mother was urged very 
strongly to go to Payson, 
a town about seventy 
miles south of Salt Lake 
City, and start a school 
there. 

She had taught in Kirt- 
land, and in Salt Lake 
City, and was considered 
a person of superior at- 
tainments by the Saints. 
Her reputation as a teacher was quite extended among 
them, and since her arrival in Utah she had often been 
solicited to resume her profession. She had always hith- 




ING THE SAINTS. 



l82 STIRRING UP THE WICKED SAINTS ! 

erto refused persistently ; but now, finding her time some- 
what unemployed during my father's absence, and wishing 
to add to the family funds, which were running somewhat 
low, she decided to accept the situation, which was fairly 
thrust upon her. Of course I accompanied her to the 
scene of her labors. I had never been separated from her, 
and neither she nor I could endure the thought of being 
parted. 

It was, I think, in January, 1855, that a Mormon, named 
Joseph Hovey, came to Payson to preach. He was a man 
of an excitable temperament, a fanatic in religion, and he 
succeeded in stirring the people up to a state of the most 
intense religious enthusiasm. He held a series of meet- 
ings, which were very largely attended, and such was his 
peculiar magnetism, that he swayed and held the multi- 
tudes who thronged to hear him, notwithstanding he was a 
man of unprepossessing manner, little education, and no 
culture. He commenced by accusing the people of all 
sorts of misdeeds and crimes, and he denounced them in 
the most scathing and the rudest fashion, and they trem- 
bled under his fierce denunciations, and cowered before 
him as before the face of an accusing angel. He accused 
them of theft, of licentiousness, of blackguardism, of lying, 
of swindling and cheating, of hypocrisy and lukewarm- 
ness in their religion, and of every other sin, of omission 
or commission, of which he could think. He represented 
himself as the Lord's messenger, called by Him, and sent 
to warn the people of Southern Utah of the horrors of their 
situation ; their souls were in imminent peril, so weighted 
were they with a load of guilt. " Repent, confess, and be 
re-baptized," was his urgent call, " and all your sins shall 
be forgiven you ; yea, verily, for so hath the Lord prom- 
ised." 

The excitement grew daily, and his work of " Reforma- 
tion," as he styled it, went bravely on. Meetings were 
held, lasting all day and Ia1,e into the night. It was reli- 






THE OLD LADY WHO STOLE A RADISH ! 183 

gious madness run riot. There seemed to be a sort of 
competition as to who should confess the most and the 
oftenest. The people of Payson had been considered as 
good as average communities, but this " Reformation " 
revealed the most astonishing amount of dishonesty and 
depravity among them. 

I was at one of the meetings, and I remember how 
shocked I was as one after another arose and confessed the 
crimes of w T hich they were guilty. It made a very vivid 
impression on my childish mind, and to this day I can recall 
the very expression of the faces and tones of the voices as 
the owners professed their criminality. Many of them 
confessed to stealing flour from a mill ; this, indeed, seemed 
a common peccadillo ; others had stolen lumber for various 
purposes ; and one man said he had stolen a sheep. I re- 
member this man very distinctly ; there happened to be a 
bit of wool sticking to his clothes, on the shoulder, and I 
know I wondered if that was from the sheep he had stolen. 

Some had taken potatoes, some turnips, some others 
parsnips, others had taken all three ; one conscience- 
stricken old lady, who felt impelled to confess, and could 
think of nothing that she had done wrong, was immensely 
relieved when she remembered that she had taken a radish 
without permission ; she seemed, too, to derive much con- 
solation from the fact that "'it had burned in her stomach 
ever since." 

Taking it all in all, it was a time of the wildest confu- 
sion and the intensest ill-feeling. If there were any per- 
sons \vho did not come forward readily, and acknowledge 
their faults, some one would do it for them, telling their 
brothers' and sisters' sins in the public congregation. 

My mother did not approve of the state of affairs, and 
would not countenance them any farther than she was posi- 
tively compelled to do. It was dangerous to express any 
disapproval of the proceedings ; so she was obliged to keep 
quiet, although she would not take active part in the excite- 



184 THAT TROUBLESOME MULE OF JEDDY'S. 

ment. The most fanatical of these blinded enthusiasts did 
not hesitate to threaten the lives of all who dared dissent 
from them, and the person who failed to confess was looked 
upon with suspicion. A close watch was kept upon the 
actions of these persons, and every word that dropped 
from their lips was noted. In fact, the entire church, with 
few exceptions, was converted into a detective force, to 
keep vigilant watch over those few exceptions who were 
found to be " cool in the faith." 

While the excitement was at its height, Brigham Young 
was informed of Hovey's movements, and their results in 
Pay son. The few who were not in sympathy with the ex- 
citement waited anxiously for the Prophet to speak, expect- 
ing, of course, that when he heard the state of affairs, 
there would he a summary stop put to all these fanatical 
proceedings. Many of the surrounding settlements were 
very much exercised over the conduct of the Payson peo- 
ple, thinking they were all going mad together ;. and they 
also waited curiously to see what action Brigham would 
take. He w r as at Fillmore, attending the legislature, when 
he was told of the excitement at Payson, and his repl}' 1 
was, " Let them go ahead ; they won't confess to more than 
they are guilty of." 

As may be supposed, this cavalier manner of treating 
the matter surprised the more thoughtful of the Saints, 
who had counted confidently on his interference ; but their 
surprise increased tenfold, when, the very next winter, 
1856, Brigham and his counsellors instituted a similar re- 
form throughout the entire territory. It is said that this 
latter Reformation was caused by President Jedediah M. 
Grant losing his temper over a mule. 

It seems that Brother Grant was to hold a meeting at Kays- 
ville, and had invited several elders to accompany him. 
To one of these elders he lent a mule, which should bear 
him to the appointed place. When he arrived, the sharp 
eyes of Brother Grant discovered that his mule was heated 



THE BEAST CREATES A SENSATION. 185 

and somewhat jaded ; and although he made no remarks at 
the time, but, on the contrary, was suavity itself, yet he 
did not let the brother go unrebuked. After every one had 
spoken at the meeting, testifying to the utmost good feel- 
ing themselves, and exhorting faithfulness on the part of 
their hearers, Brother Grant arose for the last word. He 
accused the speakers who had preceded him of inconsist- 
ency and hypocrisy ; charged the bishop with inefficiency, 




" SCENE DURING REFORMATION." 

and his people with all manner of crimes, and then per- 
sonally attacked the unfortunate brother for ill-treating his 
mule. He called upon everybody to repent, and " do their 
first works over again," or the judgment of God would 
speedily overtake them. This was the beginning of the 
famous Utah " Reformation," of which the local movement 
at Payson was the immediate forerunner. It was the same 
thing on a much larger scale ; confessions were the order 
of the day, and accusation was as prevalent as confession. 



1 86 A FEW DELICATE QUESTIONS. 

It was a horrible time, and one that never will be forgot- 
ten by those who were living in the midst of the excite- 
ment. An impressionable twelve-years-old girl, I remem- 
ber every detail with wonderful distinctness. 

This tf Reformation" was more systematically conducted 
than Hovey's revival ; a catechism was compiled by the 
leading spirits of the church, and printed by their order, 
and elders were appointed to go from house to house with 
a copy of it, questioning the people. This catechism con- 
tained a list of singular questions, many of which I dis- 
tinctly remember. I dare only mention a few. They were 
after this style : 

"Have you ever committed a murder?" 

" Have you ever stolen anything? " 

" Have you ever been drunk ? " 

" Do you believe in polygamy ? " 

Many were grossly indelicate, others laughably absurd ; 
yet every question was obliged to be answered on pain of 
expulsion from the church. Men, women, and children 
alike were catechized ; many of the little ones did not know 
the meaning of some of the questions which were put to 
them ; but they were obliged to answer them ; whether 
understandingly, or not, it made no difference. 

It was customary to catechize each member of a family 
separately ; but an exception was made in our case, and 
my mother and myself were examined together. There 
was a great part of the catechism that I did not under- 
stand, but I always answered as my mother did, feeling 
sure that what she said must of a necessity be right. When 
the questioning was over, I was exhorted by the visiting 
elder to obey my parents, and to marry into polygamy 
when a little older. 

The elders that acted as "Home Missionaries," whose 
duty it was to catechize the people, were astonished at the 
grossness of some of the immoralities which were brought 
to light. . The private history and secret acts of all were 



" CUT OFF BELOW THEIR EARS ! " 187 

unfolded. People were accused of sins which they never 
had committed, and yet they were afraid to deny them. 
Some of the elders were shocked beyond measure at the 
sickening details revealed, and begged that a stop be put to 
this mania for confession ; but the poor fanatics were urged 
forward by their leaders, and they firmly believed that in the 
fullest and freest confession lay their only hope of salvation. 
They were goaded to the very verge of frenzy. Every 
person throughout the Territory was commanded to be re- 
baptized, even if their sins had not been very grave. It was 
commanded, too, that every person who had committed a 
theft should make good what he had taken ; and I recollect 
a man returning some property to my father which he had 
taken from the family while my father was in England : 
some others confessed to having stolen the fence from the 
farm ; so, it seems, we had suffered from the dishonesty of our 
before presumedly honest neighbors. Throughout the whole 
church there was a general time of accusation, confession, 
restitution, and re-baptism. 

There were many of the Mormon people who did not 
approve of all this unhealthy excitement, and who foresaw 
exactly what results would follow, yet not one of them dared 
venture a protest. It would have been at the risk of their 
lives, as it was publicly advised, not only by Hovey in Pay- 
son, but by men in much more prominent places, to punish 
such persons as ventured a disapproval by " cutting them off 
from the church, below their ears" 

It was during this excitement that the terrible doctrine of 
the Blood-Atonement was first preached. So high did the 
feeling run that people who were guilty of certain crimes 
were counselled to shed their blood to save their souls. 
Said the arch-fanatic Jedediah M. Grant, in the Tabernacle, 
speaking of those who had apostatized or were in danger of 
apostasy, 

"What ought this meek people, who keep the command- 
ments of the Lord, to do unto them ? * Why,' says some one, 



i88 THE "BLOOD-ATONEMENT" PREACHED. 

'they ought to pray to the Lord to kill them.' I want to 
know if you would wish the Lord to come down and do all 
your dirty work ? Many of the Latter-Day Saints will pray, 
and petition, and supplicate the Lord to do a thousand things 
they themselves would be ashamed to do. When a man prays 
for a thing, he ought to be willing to perform it himself." 

In the same sermon he said, 

" What ! do you believe that people would do right and 
keep the law of God by actually putting to death the trans- 
gressors? Putting to death the transgressors would exhibit 
the law of God, no matter by whom it was done. That is 
my opinion." 

Following the expression of his belief, he uttered the fol- 
lowing fervent wish : 

" I wish we were in a situation favorable to our doing that 
which is justifiable before God, without any contaminating 
influence of Gentile amalgamation, laws, and traditions, that 
the people of God might lay the axe to the root of the tree, 
and that every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit might 
be hewn down." 

He was so in earnest that he would have the atonement 
by blood commence at once. Listen to his disinterested 
counsel : 

" I say there are men and women here that I would advise 
to go to the President immediately, and ask him to appoint a 
committee to attend to their case ; and then let a place be 
selected, and let that committee shed their blood." 

On another occasion he said, speaking in his wild, fanati- 
cal manner, 

" We have been trying long enough with this people ; and 
I go in for letting the sword of the Almighty to be un- 
sheathed, not only in word, but in deed." 

Brigham Young, not to be behind his counsellor, assured 
the Saints that this doctrine of throat-cutting and blood- 
shedding was pleasing to the Lord, and that it was a glorious 
and soul-saving belief. He says, 



HUMAN BLOOD TO BE SHED ! 189 

"There are sins that can be atoned for by an offering on 
the altar, as in ancient days ; and there are sins that the 
blood of a lamb or calf, or of turtle-doves, cannot remit, but 
they must be atoned for by the blood of the man." 

Another choice bit from one of his Tabernacle discourses 
is as follows : 

" The time is coming when justice will be laid to the line 
and righteousness to the plummet : when we shall take the 
old broadsword, and ask, 'Are you for God?' and if you are 
not heartily on the Lord's side, you will be hewn down." 

In a sermon" preached from the text, the sweetest and 
tenderest of all the commandments given by Christ, "Love 
thy neighbor as thyself," Brigham Young put this peculiarly 
Christ-like construction on the words : 

" When will we love our neighbor as ourselves ? Any of 
you who understand the principles of eternity, if you have 
sinned a sin requiring the shedding of blood, except the sin 
unto death, should not be satisfied or rest until your blood 
should be spilled, that you might gain that salvation you 
desire. That is the way to love mankind. Now, brethren 
and sisters, will you live your religion? How many hun- 
dreds of times have I asked that question? Will the Latter- 
Day Saints live their religion?" 

He also asked in the same sermon, 

" Will you love your brothers and sisters when they have 
a sin that cannot be atoned for without the shedding of their 
blood? Will you love that man or that woman well enough 
to shed their blood? That is what Jesus meant. 

" The time will come when the law of God will be in full 
force. This is loving our neighbor as ourself : if he needs 
help, help him ; if he wants salvation, and it is necessary 
to spill his blood upon the earth in order that he may b& 
saved, spill it." 

no wonder^that such language as this, pouredinto the 
f-crazed .Saints, shouTd incite thern to 
F5r*a while bloodshed and murder were 




IpO A STORY OF THE "REFORMATION DAYS. 

the order of the day. If any_iej-son or family were supposed 
to be lacking in the faith, aird faITing^o~e^Hibitntie^usual 
blind submission to the teachings of the priesthood, that 
person or family was sure to be visited by some disaster 
whipped, mobbed, or murdered, and their property de- 
stroyed or confiscated to the use of the church. Some in- 
stances came under my own observation, and I tell the inci- 
dents from actual knowledge, and not from mere hearsay. 

A merchant of Salt Lake City, an Englishman, named 
Jarvis, was suspected of being cool in the faith, and to have 
little or no sympathy with the fanatical proceedings which 
attended the Reformation and formed its chief feature. His 
store was entered one evening by Saints in disguise, he was 
pulled over the counter by the hair of his head, dragged 
into the street and thrown into the snow, his store plundered, 
all the money taken away, his house set on fire, and his two 
wives barely given time to escape with their children. As an 
excuse for all this he was accused of having " spoken against 
the authorities, and had entertained Gentiles at supper." 

One of the wives of Mr. Jarvis wrote quite a thrilling 
account to some of her English friends respecting their treat- 
ment ; and as her story is so simply and yet plainly told, I 
shall insert it here, as being the best description I can give 
of it and similar scenes. It is dated from " Weston, Mis- 
souri," the August following the year of the Reformation. 

"After Mr. Grimshaw left Salt Lake, Mr. Jarvis made known 
to Brigham Young his intention to leave the Territory and return 
to the States, with his reasons for so doing ; but his letter was 
never answered. Brigham made some allusion to it in public, 
which seemed to convey the idea that he approved of the course 
Mr. Jarvis had taken, rather than try to leave clandestinely. From 
that time we began to dispose of our property, and dra*w everything 
into as small a compass as possible. As the winter drew on, 
various reports were circulated ; such as, that we intended to dis- 
pose of our large house to the soldiers, and were buying grain to 
store it for them. This is a ' capital ' offence in the Salt Lake 
Valley, for the Mormons protest that no soldier shall sleep in Salt 



" REFORMING A HERETIC ! " ipl 

Lake City one night. It was also said that Mr. Jarvis had sworn 
to take the life of President Young; that he was boarding States 
officers at his house ; and many more such stories, as strange and 
unlikely as they were untrue ; for when Mr. Jarvis wrote to Presi- 
dent Young, he made the offer of all or any part of his property to 
him first, if he chose to purchase it, and told him that he would 
rather sell it to the church than to anyone else. Time passed on, 
and we heard some whispers that something dreadful was going 
to happen to us ; but we thought little about it, and felt perfectly 
safe, until the I3th of January, 1857, wnen ? at half past six in the 
evening, a man knocked at the front door, which was locked, and 




DEALING WITH A WEAK BROTHER. 

asked for some trifling article out of the shop. While Mr. Jarvis 
was attending to him, two men walked in and hastily stepped 
up to him. One of them caught him by the hair and by the 
collar, and pulled him across the counter, saying, 'You are 
my prisoner.' Mr. Jarvis said, 'For what? If you have any 
charge against me, I will go where you wish.' To this no answer 
was returned but oaths and curses. They dragged him on the 
ground some distance, and then brought him back into the door- 
way, all the time trying to strangle him, and threatening to 
shoot him if he made any noise. One of them made a des- 
perate kick at him but missed his aim. 



Ip2 A LADY TELLS HER STORY. 

" In the mean time Betsey and I were undressing the children ; 
and hearing sounds of heavy footsteps and muttering under- 
tones of strange voices and persons struggling in the passage, we 
looked at each other, and rushed to the door, each with a child in 
our arms. I succeeded in pulling open the room door in the pas- 
sage, but I had no sooner done so than a* man who was holding 
the door knocked me back into the* room, flat upon the floor, with 
the baby in my arms, and, shutting the door again, held it fast. 
Instantly I laid the baby on the carpet, and, with all my strength, 
forced open the door, and found myself surrounded by a number 
of ruffians, I believe five or six, v who were all in the dark, for 
they had extinguished the candle, and I calling aloud for Mr. 
Jarvis several minutes. In the end he, gasping for breath, an- 
swered me. 

" When I found where he was, I made a desperate rush at the 
man who was holding him, and the fellow, lifting up his hand, let 
go his hold of him, and he darted out of the open door like light- 
ning, across the street, and" round the corner to a neighbor's house 
to obtain assistance. He got to the door almost exhausted, and 
begged for help ; but no one dared come until the master of the 
house, who' was absent, ^returned. They fetched him, and when 
he heard the particulars of the attack made upon us, he said, ' Sir, 
you must leave my house instantly. I have no sympathy for you. 
I would not protect my own father under the same circumstances.' 
Mr. Jarvis said, 'What have I done?' The man replied, ' You 
have done plenty ; you covenanted to serve the Lord, and you 
are serving the devil, and I should not be surprised to see you with 
your throat cut.' 

"After Mr. Jarvis had made his escape from the fiends, I turned 
to enter the house again, firmly believing that some of them were in 
pursuit of him, and begged to know of the men on the spot what 
they wanted. On stepping forward to enter the door, I found it 
guarded by a man on each side, who pushed me backward into 
the snow. I rose and again attempted to enter the house, but was 
prevented in like manner, when I saw Mrs. M. coming out with 
the babies in their night-gowns, one under each arm, to carry them 
to a place of safety. When I found I could not, after several such 
attempts, force an entrance, I ran round to the back door and got 
in, but no sooner was I in than out again. I was tossed by the 
same ruthless hands as before. Many a time I was knocked down 



TERRIBLE STORY OF TWO WOMEN. 



193 



in the way I have described ; and one of my front teeth was 
loosened, and my limbs most mercilessly bruised. 

" Finding I could not enter to ascertain the state of affairs in the 
house, I determined to let the neighborhood know, and for many 
minutes stood shouting for help, until I was exhausted. I could 
hear that the windows were all being broken, and the furniture 
destroyed ; when I was appalled by hearing Mrs. M. shriek out, 
4 O, Mrs. Jarvis, the house is on fire ! ' I instantly ran in des- 
peration, and got in at the back part of the shop, and O, my 
dear sister, what a scene ! Flames and smoke up to the ceiling; 




BRUTAL ASSAULT UPON MRS. JARVIS. 

the goods in the store, or shop, burning ; and two men, almost 
suffocated, still intent upon the work of destruction carrying 
lighted paper, and setting fire to everything .that would burn ! 

" The thoughts of my three boys sleeping up stairs ; my hus- 
band, I knew not where, perhaps murdered, and seeing 
no hope of saving the house for three rooms were then burn- 
ing ; the thought that to-morrow I and mv children would 
have no home, no shelter, and be penniless, with the snow two 
feet deep, and not a friend that dare open the door to us, they 
dare not do it, however much disposed they might be ; for they 
were threatened with the same, and were told that if they heard 
the cry of fire they were to take no notice ; all these things rush- 
13 



1^4 DOINGS IN THE DARK. 

ing into my mind at once, I grew desperate, and forced my way 
in at the front door, and implored the ruffians to let me fetch my 
children down stairs. They muttered, ' There's none of them 
there.' I said, ' Yes, they are asleep in bed.' Then he said, 
4 Go.' On passing up stairs, I saw on one side the shop in 
flames, and the room, the furniture, and windows broken, and our 
clothes scattered about, on fire. I shrieked out, when a man 
caught me by the throat, and I had to gasp for breath. I saved 
my children in their night-dresses, and the oldest had to run out 
with the snow up to his hips. 

"When we found that the villains were gone, we put out the fire, 
throwing water upon it ; and on one shelf was a large canister of 
gunpowder, within six inches of the flame, of which I did not 
know. I saved the house from being blown up, but I got my 
hands severely burned. Four large windows were broken out, 
one dozen chairs and a table destroyed ; a stove and three tables 
broken ; carpets, clothes, and goods burned in the store ; and 
many silver watches and other substantial things stolen, making 
the damage sustained amount to nearly eight hundred dollars. 
Every day after was a living death, a dying daily. We were 
never safe for an hour. When we appealed to the authorities, 
they advised us to be quiet about it, and ' let it slide.' And so 
we did ; for we could obtain no redress. 

" The outrage upon us was never mentioned in the newspaper. 
We had to pocket the insult, and bear the loss ; and now we are 
thankful we are out of it. We exchanged our property for land 
in the States, hired conveyances, and left on the 22d of April. 
We are now at Weston, eight miles from Leavenworth, where we 
arrived without any interruption ; but we suffered greatly from 
the heat. We shall remain here till Mr. Jams makes arrange- 
ments for our future abode." 

My father knew these people well in England ; they 
were from Leeds, where they were highly respected. I 
have met them quite recently in Burlington, Iowa, where 
they are living in very comfortable circumstances. They 
have outgrown all tendencies towards Mormonism, and are 
now among its bitterest opponents. 

This outrage is somewhat remarkable, because it was 



THE PROPHET COUNSELS MURDER. 195 

unattended by bloodshed, a most extraordinary circum- 
stance, when so many were killed outright who had sinned 
as Mr. Jarvis had. Innocent people suffered, and at that 
time, no Gentile was safe in the Morrnon territory. 

A cousin of mine, whose parents lived in Utah, married 
a man named Hatten, in Illinois. When her mother emi- 
grated with the Saints, she, of course, remained behind 
with her husband, to her mother's great distress. After a 
few years, Mr. Hatten decided to remove to California, and 
he came by the way of Utah, so as to give his wife an op- 
portunity of visiting her relatives, whom she had not seen 
since the exodus from Nauvoo. 

At that time it was considered a dishonor to have a 
friend married to a Gentile she was regarded as lost. 
And for a girl to be taken to California was a still deeper 
disgrace. 

My aunt and her husband were devout Mormons, and 
they grieved over their daughter as over one dead. _My__ 
aunt prayed and wept for her and over her; and my 
uncle the girl's lather even grew desperate nT~triy de* 
span."" He LOii&ultg^Srignam as to the best course which 
he should pursue, and the Prophet's ready reply was, "Put 
HattefTbut of jne way. It is a sin and^a shame to jiave, so 
gbodji woman^ dragged around the world by a Gentile. " 

That was sufficient. ^ln a tew days came the startling 
news that Hatten had been "killed by the Indians." He 
had gone to "FnTmore on a visit, from which he was destined 
never to return. The young wife was almost heart-broken 
at the sudden loss of her husband, but she did not dream 
what was his real fate until long afterwards. She 'sup- 
posed he had fallen a victim to Indian cruelty, as the re- 
ports told her; but when, after many years, she learned 
the bitter truth, she fairly hated jhe religion that, had made 
a martyr ofher husBand, ami-brought sorrow and affliction 
could^jnot get away from it f however; there 
was no place to which she_could go^_ghe had no friends 



Ip6 " NOTHING TO DO BUT ENDURE ! " 

elsewhere ; all the years that had intervened between her 
husband's death and her knowledge of his real fate had 
been passed in Utah, and she had severed herself in that 
time most effectually from her former friends. There was 
nothing to do but to endure ; and that she did, as patiently 
as possible. A few years after her husband's death, she 
married again, but not happily. However, she was speed- 
ily released from this unhappy bondage. Heber C. Kim- 
ball had seen and fancied her, and he went to Brigham 
with the story of her unhappiness, and added, as he fin- 
ished his recital, " She ought never to have married that 
man. I designed her for myself.'" 

"It is not too late," replied his friend, the Prophet; "you 
can have her yet." And Jie made good his word by 
divorcing her from her uncongenial husband, and bestow- 
ing her on Heber. She was too indifferent to care what 
became of her, and she became a Mrs. Kimball without a 
protest. She and her two children are living in Utah now. 

Another victim__io_Jiie Blood-Atonement was a young 
man named Jesse Earl, a musician of rare talent and great 
promise. He was a very intimate friend of the Prophet's 
oldest son, Joseph, and had lived a great deal in the Proph- 
et's family. The reason of his death has never been given ; 
it was only said that his sinswere_r^ast forgivejiess^jexcept 

Apostates were even more hardly dealt with than the 
Gentiles. One of the old Mormons, named Almon Bab- 
bitt, was " killed by the Indians," on his way to the States. 
Mr. Babbitt was among the first seventy apostles appointed 
by Joseph Smith; he had been among those who went up 
to Missouri, to "Zion's Camp," and was an eloquent 
preacher and advocate of Mormon doctrines. After Brig- 
ham came into power, Babbitt became quite disaffected 
towards the authorities, and left Utah to return to the 
States, when he was overtaken by his doom. 

Once in a while some person would become so con- 



FRIGHTFUL MURDERS IN UTAH. 197 

science-stricken for some sin he had committed, that he 
would voluntarily seek to make the "Atonement ; " but those 
were rare cases. I remember hearing of one at the time 
of its occurrence. A Mormon named John Evan had shot 
a man in Council Bluffs. He came at once to Salt Lake, 
visited Brigham, and begged to atone for his crime in the 
usual way. 

Not long after that, he was on his way home one night, 
when suddenly the report of a pistol was heard ; Mr. Evan 
was found dead, and although it was currently reported 
that he had committed suicide, it was well known by the 
better informed that " he had only paid the debt," and given 
his life for another that he had taken by violence. 

The Potter and Parrish murders at Springville, and the 
assassination of Dr. Robinson at Salt Lake, are notorious. 
The Parrish brothers were murdered for apostasy, Dr. 
Robinson because he was a Gentile whose influence was 
extending in the Territory, so popular was he, and conse- 
quently the authorities considered him dangerous. 

More vividly stamped upon my memory than any other 
of the horrible occurrences, is the murder of a woman 
named Jones, and her son, in Payson. They were sus- 
pected of falling away in the faith, and other grave charges 
were brought against them, for which it was deemed neces- 
sary that they should die. One night there was a great 
commotion in the streets of the town ; pistol-shots were 
heard ; there was a sound of hurrying feet, a murmur of 
voices, and a subdued excitement, lasting all night. No 
one dared to venture out to learn the cause, lest their curi- 
osity should be summarily punished. In those days it was 
dangerous to seek to know more than the priesthood chose 
to tell. In fact, everything but a blind following of fanat- 
ical doctrines wa 



The morning following the night of ^whicrT 1 have spoken 
put an end to the suspense. It was proclaimed everywhere 
that the Joneses had been killed, and their dead bodies, 



198 FIENDISH DOINGS AT PAYSON. 

shockingly mutilated, were placed in a wagon, and ex- 
posed to the crowd by being driven through the streets, 
attended by a jeering, taunting mob, who could not cease 
their insults though their victims were still in death. I did 
not see the bodies, nor did my mother, although they were 
driven past our door ; we both shunned the fearful sight. 
But there were plenty of women who did look at them, 
and who gloried in their death as a deed of service to the 
Lord. Mrs. Jones was mixing bread at the time she was 
shot, and the dough still remained clinging to her hands 
after her death. 




BLOOD ATONEMENT. SCENB DURING REFORMATION. 

This was the way that " the Lord " was " worshipped " in 
Utah in 1856 and 1857. T^havc^Jiear^ men sav. "IfJ[ 
apostatize, I hope some of my brethren will love me well_ 
"cnouglTtoslay me." The Saints are by no means a blood- 
thiroty peuplu, "t)ot these are some of the results of the 
teachings during the Reformation. 

It may be a matter of wonder to many how honest- 
hearted people could remain in a church that taught and 
practiced so many and such fearful evils. Concerning the 
murders, the majority of the people knew nothing, and sup- 
posed that the Indians were the assassins, as they were 
always told so. Yet some were sufficiently fanatical to 



CAN BRIGHAM EVER ATONE? 199 

believe that, if Brigham was the instigator, it was quite 
right. "The ancient order of things was being restored." 

I have heard many Mormons declare that they hoped, 
some time, light would be thrown on these dark deeds, and 
the murderers made to pay the penalty of their crimes. 
But those who suspected that the authorities of the church 
were implicated felt that their only safeguard was silence. 
Those living in Utah during the Reformation, and seeing it 
in all its horrors, as I did, know very well the spirit of the 
teachings in the Tabernacle ; and although many may be 
slow to impute the commission of crime to Brigham Young, 
they cannot but admit that his teachings all tended to 
make crime prevalent. And if they do not acknowledge 
his direct agency, they must see that his influence all went 
in the direction of the atonement of sin by blood. As far 
as I am concerned, I do not hesitate to say that I believe 
all these murders lie at his door, and that he will have to 
be personally responsible for them. His hands are red 
with innocent blood, his garments dyed with it, and no 
"Atonement 5 * can ever wash out the damning spots. 



CHAPTER XI. 

"DIVINE EMIGRATION." T^HE PROPHET AND THE 
HAND-CART SCHEME. 

Early Emigration to Utah. The Prophet Meditates Economy. The 
" Divine Plan " Invented. How it was Revealed to the Saints. They 
Prepare to " Gather to Zion." How the Hand- Carts were Built. The 
Sufferings of the Emigrants. On Board Ship. An Apostolic Quar- 
rel. Base Conduct of the Apostle Taylor. The Saints arrive in Iowa 
City. How the Summer-time was Wasted. Beginning a Terrible 
Journey. Suffering by the Way. "Going Cheap." They reach 
Council Bluffs. Levi Savage Behaves Bravely. Lying Prophecy of 
the Apostle Richards. How the Emigrants were Deceived. Brigham 
Young sends Help to Them. Two Apostles are Denounced. The 
Prophet in a Fix. He lays His own Sins on the Backs of Others. 
Preparing to Receive the Emigrants. 



N the history of any people 
there has never been re- 
corded a case of such 
gross mismanagement as 
that of gathering the for- 
eign Saints to Zion in the 
year 1856. 

Until this disastrous 
year the emigrants had 
always made the journey 
across the plains with ox- 
teams, under the charge 
of some of the returning 
elders, who were trium- 
phantly bringing the fruits 
of their labors in foreign vineyards to garner them in Zion. 
The able-bodied walked, and those who were too young, too 
old, or too, feeble to perform the journey on foot, went in the 




t EMIGRANTS' LANDING-PLACE, 
Castle Gardens, New York. 



THE DIVINE EMIGRATION SCHEME. 2OI 

wagons with the baggage. It was in tne same way that the 
Saints themselves made their first journey across the plains, 
and in the proper season of the year was a safe and a pleas- 
ant journey. Tedious and wearisome, to be sure, but in no 
way perilous, as plenty of provisions, bedding, and clothing 
could be carried, not only for the journey, but sufficient to 
last some time after the arrival. 

The cost of emigration in this way was from 10 to 12, 
English money, or nominally $50 to $60 in gold not 
very expensive, surely, for a journey from Liverpool to Salt 
Lake City ; but to Brigham, in one of his fits of economy, it 
seemed altogether too costly, and he set to work to devise 
some means for retrenchment. During the entire winter of 
1855-56, he and his chief supporters were in almost con- 
stant consultation on the subject of reducing the expenses of 
emigration, and they finally hit upon the expedient of having 
them cross the plains with hand-carts, wheeling their own 
provisions ancj baggage, and so saving the expense of 
teams. The more Brigham thought of his plan, the more 
in love he grew with it, and he sent detailed instructions 
concerning _it to the Apostle Franklin D. Richards, the 
Mormon agent at Liverpool, who published it in the " Mil- 
lennial Star? as the new " divine plan " revealed to Brother 
Brigham by the Lord, whose will it was that the journey 
should be made in this manner. 

My father was in England when the " command of the 
Lord concerning them " was given to the gathering Saints, 
and their enthusiastic devotion and instant acceptance of the 
revelation showed how entirely they entrusted themselves to 
the leadership of their superiors in the church, implicitly 
believing them to be inspired of God. They were told by 
Richards, in the magazine, and by their missionaries in 
their addresses, that they should meet many difficulties, 
that trials would be strewn along their path, and occasional 
dangers meet them, but that the Lord's chosen people 
were to be a tried people, and that they should come out 



202 



PREPARING FOR THE PILGRIMAGE. 




APOSTLE FRANKLIN D. RICHARDS, 
Husband of Ten Wives. 



unscathed, and enter Zion with great triumph and rejoicing, 
coming out from the world as by great tribulation; that 

the Lord would hold them in 
special charge, and they need 
not fear terror by night nor pes- 
tilence that walketh at noon- 
day, for they should not so 
much as hurt a foot against a 
stone. 

It was represented to them 
that they were specially privi- 
leged and honored in thus 
being called by the Lord to be 
the means of showing His 
power and revealing glory to 
a world lying in darkness and 
overwhelmed with guilt, de- 
serted by God and given over to destruction. Considering 
the class of people from whom most of the converts were 
made, it is not at all strange that all this talk should impress 
their imaginations and arouse their enthusiasm. Emotion, 
instead of reason, guided them almost entirely, and they 
grew almost ecstatic over the new way in which they were 
called to Zion. 

The United States government was beginning to trouble 
itself a little about Utah ; and in order to make the church 
as strong as possible, in case of an invasion, Brigham was 
anxious to increase the number of emigrants, and requested 
Apostle Richards to send as many as he possibly could. 
To do this, the elders counselled all the emigrants, who had 
more money than they needed, to deposit it with the Apostle 
Richards for the purpose of assisting the poor to Zion. The 
call was instantly and gladly obeyed, and the number of 
Saints bound Zion-ward was thereby nearly doubled. In 
the face of the disaster which attended it, it has been the 
boast of some of the missionaries and elders that this was 



BRIGHAM SUMMONS THE SAINTS. 2O3 

the largest number that ever was sent over at one time. 
So much greater, then, is the weight of responsibility which 
rests upon the souls of those who originated and carried out 
this selfish design, made more selfish, more cruel, and more 
terribly culpable for the hypocrisy and deceit which attended 
it from its conception to its disastrous close. 

Great, however, as was the number of emigrants who 
that year crossed the plains to Utah, as many, if not 
more, have, during various seasons since then, traversed 
the same route ; although, of course, for obvious rea- 
sons, it is difficult to give approximate statistics. During 
the summer of 1862 the same year in which Eliza Snow 
and Geo. A. Smith, the fattest of all fat apostles, together 
with a select company of Saints, wandered off to the 
Holy Land in order to bring it within the dominions of 
Brigham it was said that more Mormons were landed at 
Castle Gardens than during any other previous year. I 
cannot say whether this is true ; but it is a fact that only 
a few weeks ago seven or eight hundred were landed in 
New York, and every few weeks, all through the summer, 
other ship-loads will arrive. 

On the I4th of March, 1856, my father, who was at 
Sheffield, England, engaged in missionary work, received 
a telegram from Richards, telling him to come at once to 
Liverpool for the purpose of taking passage for America in 
the mail-packet Canada, which was to sail for Boston on the 
i5th. He had no time to say good-bye to his friends, but 
made his preparations hurriedly, and left Sheffield as soon as 
possible. On arriving atLiverpool and consulting with Rich- 
ards, he learned that he had been sent for to assist in the 
proposed hand-cart expedition, and that his part of the work 
was to be performed in the United States. He, being a 
practical wagon-maker, was to oversee the building of the 
carts. In twenty-four hours after the receipt of the tele- 
gram his first intimation that he was to be called home 
he was on his way. The passage was unusually rough, 



204 "APOSTLES" EMBEZZLE THE FUNDS. 

and he was glad enough to see the shores of America after 
tossing about on the ocean for fifteen days. He landed in 
Boston the 3Oth of March, and went immediately to Iowa 
City, the gathering-place of the Saints prior to their depart- 
ure for Utah, arriving there the loth of April. 

He expected, of course, to go to work at once, and was 
very impatient to do so, as it was very nearly the season 
when the emigrants should start to cross the plains, and the 
first vessel filled with them was already due in New York. 
He knew that it would be a waste both of time and money 
to keep them in Iowa City any longer than was absolutely 
necessary ; besides which, after a certain date, every day 
would increase the perils of crossing the plains. But when 
he arrived, Daniel Spencer, the principal agent, was east on 
a visit, and did not make his appearance until an entire 
month had expired ; and there was all that valuable time 
wasted in order that one man might indulge in a little pleas- 
ure. What were a thousand or more human lives in com- 
parison to his enjoyment? Less than nothing, it would 
seem, in his estimation. 

Not only were there no materials provided to work with, 
but no provision had been made for sheltering the poor 
Saints, who had already commenced to arrive by ship-loads. 
Their condition was pitiable in the extreme ; they had met 
nothing but privation from the time they left England. The 
trials that had been promised them they had already en- 
countered, but so great was their faith, that they bore it all 
without a word of complaint, and some even rejoicing that 
it was their lot to suffer for the cause of their religion ; they 
were sure they should all be brought to Zion in safety, for 
had not God promised that through the mouth of His holy 
Prophet? Their faith was sublime in its exaltation ; and in 
contrast to it, the cold-blooded, scheming, blasphemous 
policy of Young and his followers shows out false, and 
blacker than ever. To have deceived a credulous people 
by wanton misrepresentation is wicked enough, but to do it 



MISERIES OF THE OCEAN-TRANSIT. 205 

"in the name of the Lord " is a sin that can never be atoned 
for to God or man. It is the height of blasphemy, and I 
fairly shudder as I endeavor to comprehend, in some slight 
degree, the magnitude of such an offence. 

They had been crowded and huddled together on ship- 
board more like animals than like human beings ; their 
food had been insufficient and of bad quality ; the sleeping 
accommodations were limited, and there was not the proper 
amount of bedding for those who were compelled to sleep in 
the more exposed places. Some of the persons who saw 




MORMON EMIGRANTS ON SHIPBOARD. 



the emigrants, say that it was like nothing so much as an 
African slave-ship, filled with its unlawful and ill-gotten 
freight. The air in the steerage, where most of the emi- 
grants were, was noxious, and yet these people were com- 
pelled to breathe it through all the days of the voyage. 
Many were too ill to leave their beds, and a change of 
clothing was out of the question. The entire floor was 
covered with mattresses, and it was impossible to walk about 
without stepping over some one. Men, women, and children 
were huddled in -together in the most shameless fashion. 
Affairs were not much bettered when they arrived at New 



2O6 STRANGERS PENNILESS AND HELPLESS ! 

York ; the Apostle John Taylor,- whose duty it was to pro- 
vide for them there, was too deeply engaged in a quarrel 
with Apostle Franklin D. Richards, as to which of the two 
was higher in authority, to attend to these poor creatures, 
who were thrown on his protection, penniless and helpless, 
in a strange country. But everyone must understand that 
his personal dignity must be attended to and his position 
maintained, if all the poor Saints that were emigrated, or 
dreamed of emigrating, should die of starvation and exposure. 
I think the great body of Saints must have learned before this 
time that it is by no means safe to trust to the tender mercies 
of a Mormon Apostle. When, after a while, the Apostle 
Taylor's imperative personal business allowed him a moment 
in which to think of the unhappy emigrants, he started them 
for Iowa City, where they arrived only to experience a 
repetition of their New York sufferings, and see another 
illustration of apostolic neglect. Nothing had been prepared 
for them either in the way of shanties or tents, and they 
were compelled to camp in the open air, their only roof a 
sky that was not always blue. While in camp, there were 
several very severe rain-storms, from which, as they had no 
shelter, there was no escape ; they got completely drenched, 
and this caused a great deal of severe illness among them. 
They were unprotected alike from burning sun and pitiless, 
chilling rain, and it is no wonder that fevers and dysentery 
prevailed, and that hundreds of longing eyes closed in death 
before they beheld the Zion of their hopes. 

It would have been strange if the faith of some had not 
wavered then ; yet none dared complain. There was noth- 
ing to do but to go on to the end. They were thousands 
of miles from home, with no means of returning, and they 
were taught, too, that it would be a curse upon them to turn 
their backs on Zion. So there they remained through the 
long summer days, waiting helplessly until they should be 
ordered to move onward. 

At length my father saw his way clear to commence his 



BUILDING THE HAND-CARTS. 2Oy 

work, and he went to work with a will, pressing everyone 
who could be of actual assistance into his service. But 
here the trouble commenced again. He was instructed to 
make the wagons on as economical a plan as possible, and 
every step that he took he found himself hedged about by 
impossibilities. The agents all talked economy, and when 
one did not raise an objection to a proposal, another did, 
and difficulties were placed in his way constantly. 

They did not wish to furnish iron for the tires, as it was 
too expensive ; raw hide, they were sure, would do just 
as well. My father argued this point with them until at 
last the agents decided to give up raw hides, and they fur- 
nished him with hoop iron. He was annoyed and angry, 
all the while he was making the carts, at the extreme parsi- 
mony displayed. A thorough workman himself, he wanted 
good materials to work with ; but every time he asked for 
anything, no matter how absolutely necessary it was to 
make the work sufficiently durable to stand the strain of so 
long a journey, the reply invariably was, " O, Brother Webb, 
the carts must be made cheap. We can't afford this expen- 
diture ; you are too extravagant in your outlay ; " forget- 
ting, in their zeal to follow their Prophet's instructions, what 
the consequences would be to the poor Saints, if delayed on 
their way to the Valley, by having to stop to repair their 
carts. 

As soon as was possible they started companies on the 
way. My father strongly objected to any of them starting 
after the last of June ; but he was overruled, and the last 
company left Iowa City the middle of August, for a journey 
across arid plains and over snow-clad mountains, which it 
took twelve weeks of the quickest travelling at that time to 
accomplish ; and in the manner in which these emigrants 
were going it would take much longer. He also opposed 
their being started with such a scanty allowance of provis- 
ions. He insisted they should have at least double the 
amount; but in this attempt, also, he was unsuccessful, and 



2O8 GOING CHEAP ! 

one of the survivors of the expedition afterwards said that 
the rations which were given out to each person for a day 
could easily be eaten at breakfast. They consisted of ten 
ounces of flour for each adult, and hallf that amount for 
each child under eight years of age. At rare intervals, a 
little rice, coffee, sugar, and bacon were doled out to the 
hungry travellers, but this was not often done. Many of 
the people begged of the farmers in Iowa, so famished were 
they, and so inadequate was their food which was sup- 
plied them by the agents. They were limited, too, in the 
matter of baggage, and again my father tried to use his 
influence, but all to no purpose ; so much might go, but not 
a pound more. 

Almost discouraged, and altogether disgusted with the 
meanness and heartless carelessness which were exhibited 
throughout the whole affair, as far, at least, as he had ex- 
perience with it, he yet made one more -attempt to aid the 
unfortunate travellers, whose trials, great as they had been, 
had really not fairly begun. His last proposition was, that 
more teams should be provided, so that the feeble, who 
were not likely to endure the fatigues of the long march, 
should have an opportunity of riding ; but he was met again 
with the inevitable reply, " Can't do it, Brother Webb. We 
tell you we can't afford it ; they must go cheap." It was 
dear enough in the end, if human lives count for anything. 

My father never speaks of those days of preparation in 
Iowa City that he does not grow indignant. It might have 
been averted had not Brigham Young been so parsimoni- 
ous, and his followers so eager to curry favor with him, by 
carrying out his instructions more implicitly than there was 
any need of doing. They were only quarrelled and found 
fault with, and reprimanded publicly in the Tabernacle 
for their faithfulness to him, when it became necessary to 
shield himself from odium in the matter. Nothing more 
would have happened if they had obeyed the instincts of 
humanity, and deferred a little to their consciences, and they 



REMONSTRANCES OF NO AVAIL. 2Op 

certainly would have been better off, as they would at least 
have retained their own self-respect, and the regard of their 
unfortunate charges, which, it is needless to say, they lost 
most completely. 

When some of the last companies reached Council Bluffs, 
better known to most Mormons as "Winter-Quarters," 
there was considerable controversy whether it was best to 
try and go any farther before spring. Most of the emi- 
grants knew nothing of the climate and the perils of the 
undertaking, and were eager to press on to Zion. Four 
men only in the company had crossed the plains ; those 
were captains of the trains Willie, Atwood, Savage, and 
Woodward ; but there were several elders at this place 
superintending emigration. Of these, Levi Savage was the 
only one to remonstrate against attempting to reach Salt 
Lake Valley so late in the season. He declared that it 
would be utterly impossible to cross the mountains without 
great suffering, and even death. 

His remonstrances availed about as much my father's had 
done in regard to their starting. He was defeated and rep- 
rimanded very sharply for his want of faith. He replied 
that there were cases where " common sense " was the best 
guide, and he considered this to be one. "However," said 
he, " seeing you are to go forward, I will go with you, will 
help you all I can, will work with you, suffer with you, 
and, if necessary, die with you." 

Very soon after the departure of the last company of the 
emigrants from Iowa City, my father, with the other elders, 
started for the Valley in mule-teams, intending to return, 
if they found it necessary, to bring succor to the poor wan- 
dering people. In the company with my father were 
Apostle Franklin D. Richards, and Elders W. H. Kimball, 
G. D. Grant, Joseph A. Young, Brigham's oldest son, and 
several others, all of whom were returning to Utah from 
foreign missions, and all of whom had been engaged in 
the expedition. 

14 



2IO SHORT SUPPLY OF FOOD AND CLOTHING. 

They overtook the emigrants at their camp on the North 
Fork of the Platte River, and camped with them over 
night. Richards was told of the opposition which Savage 
had made, and he openly rebuked him'' in the morning. 
He then informed the Saints that " though it might storm 
on the right hand and on the left, yet the storms should not 
reach them. The Lord would keep the way open before 
them, and they should reach Zion in safety." It maybe 
that he believed all this nonsense himself. It\is to be hoped, 
for charity's sake, that he did. If that were the case, how- 
ever, it is a pity that he had not been endowed with a 
little of Levi Savage's common sense. It would have been 
much better for the Saints than all his vaunted "spirit of 
prophecy." 

It is a significant fact, that in the very face of his proph- 
ecy, delivered to the victims of his zeal in the cause of 
Brigham Young, he was anxious to hasten his arrival in 
Salt Lake in order to send assistance back to -the patient 
Hand-Cart emigrants, who, he must have seen, would soon 
be in sore straits for food and clothing. The rations were 
scanty, and would soon have to be lessened ; the nights 
were chilly, and fast growing cold ; and already the seven- 
teen pounds of bedding and clothing allowed to each one 
were scarcely sufficient protection ; and as the season ad- 
vanced, and they approached the mountains, it would be 
totally inadequate. It was fortunate that they did not know 
the climate of the country, and the terrible hardships to 
which they were to be exposed, else their hearts would 
have failed them, and they would have had no courage to 
have recommenced the journey. My father realized it, and 
so did most of the party with him ; yet they had no idea 
how horrible it was to be, else they would have insisted 
upon their remaining in camp until spring. Even the usu- 
ally indifferent heart of Joseph A. was touched, and he 
hurried on to impress upon his father the urgent need for 
immediate assistan.ee. for those poor, forlorn creatures whom 



BRIGHAMS RESPONSIBILITY. 211 

he left preparing to cross the mountains, where they would 
of a surety meet the late autumn and early winter storms, 
and where so many of them must of a certainty perish of 
exposure and hunger. He had no faith in the apostolic 
prophecy, which seemed a mockery to all those who knew 
the hardships of the journey which lay before these faithful 
souls before they could reach the Zion of their hopes. 

My father had been four years absent from us, yet such 
was his concern for the poor people whom he so recently 
left, and who had been his care for so long, that he could 
only stay, to give us the most hurried greetings. Jiis_glad- 
ness at his return^ and our^ responsive joy, were marred by 
fire"thougHt of the sufferings andprivations of those ear- 
ne^trrimple-hearted Saints, 'Who Had literally ^ leiTaTfTTrfbl- 
low the beck oi one whom" they" supposed ^to be "the Prophet 
oTrhe-fcurU. ' Afiei all 'these yearToT absenceT-frr-rM 
"staid IvviTtfays with us, as short a time as it could pos^" 
sibly take to get the relict-train ready witn the supplies. 

44y^^righam-OTmg^riTrai'aiid^uii&LiuiiLuiiBfr have 
been touched, for he really seemed for a while to forget 
himself in the earnestness with which he pushed forward 
the preparations for relief. He fairly arose to the occasion, 
and held back nothing which could contribute to the com- 
fort and welfare of his poor, forlorn followers. Yetjie^waa 
only acting as both justice and decency commanded that he 
jhould act. He was the cause of all this terrible suffering^ 
"and he iclt mat he should be made answerable. Such a 
transaction as this could by no means remain unknown. It 
would be spread over America and Europe, and used as a 
strong weapon against Mormonism and its leader, already 
unpopular enough. He realized the mistake he had made 
when too late to rectify it, and, with his usual moral cow- 
ardice, he set about hunting for somebody on whose shoul- 
ders to shift the blame from his own. Richards and Spen- 
cer were the unfortunate victims, and he turned his wrath 
against them, in private conversation and in public assem- 



212 SHIFTING THE BLAME. 

blies, until they were nearly crushed by the weight of op- 
probrium which he heaped upon them. He was nearly 
beside himself with fear of the consequences which would 
follow, when this crowning act of selfish cupidity and ego- 
tistical vanity and presumption should be known. Love of 
approbation is a striking characteristic of this Latter-Day 
Prophet T and he puffs_and__swells with self-importance at 
every_word he receives, even of the baldest, most insincere 
jlatterv, and he^ringes and crouchesm as servilelTmari^ 
ner as a whipped cur, when any adverse criticism is passed 
uporT^ither Ins -personnel or his actions. A moral as well 
as a physical coward, he dares not face a just opinion of 
himself and his deeds, and he sneaks, and skulks, and 
hides behind any one he can find who is broad enough to 
shield him. 

My father's disgust at a religion which submitted to such 
chicanery, and his distrust of Brigham Young, were so 
great, that he was very near apostatizing ; but my mother 
again held him to the church. She argued and explained ; 
she wept and she entreated, until he said no more about it. 
But though, for her sake, he took no steps towards leaving 
the church and renouncing the faith, he felt daily his dis- 
gust and distrust increasing, and he never again believed 
so strongly in the Mormon religion, and ever after regarded 
Brigham with much less awe and respect than formerly. 



CHAPTER XII. 

BRIGHAM'S HAND-CART SCHEME, CONTINUED. FAIL- 
URE OF THE "DIVINE PLAN." 

Arrival of the First Train. Fearful Sufferings of the Emigrants. 
Women and Girls toiling at the Carts. The Prophet's "Experi- 
ment." Burying the Dead. Greater Mortality among the Men. 
Arrival of Assistance. Hand-Cart Songs. Scenes in the Camp of 
the Emigrants. How every Prophecy of the Elders was Falsified. 
How the Tennant Family were Shamelessly Robbed. One of the 
Vilest Swindles of the Prophet. Mr. Tennant's Unhappy Death. 
His Wife Views the " Splendid Property " Bought from Brigham. 
Brigham Cheats her out of her Last Dollar. She is Reduced to Ab- 
ject Poverty. The Apostle Taylor Hastens to Zion. Richards and 
Spencer are made Scapegoats. Brigham evades all Responsibility. 
Utter Failure of the " Divine Plan." 



HE first Hand-Cart Com- 
panies, which had left 
Iowa City early in the 
season, arrived in the Salt 
Lake Valley the last of 
September. They were 
very much fatigued, and 
were greatly rejoiced when 
their journey was ended. 

The entire company had 
waded every river on the 
route to Salt Lake, and, 
as a consequence, the 
health of almost every 
man and woman was com- 
pletely broken. The married women suffered the least, as 
they only had to assist their husbands in pulling the hand- 




"SOME MUST PUSH, AND SOME MUST PULL.' 



214 THE CAMP OF DEATH. 

carts. The young girls had to pull theirs unassisted, and 
they were literally worn out with the exertion. The chil- 
dren were placed on the carts when they became tired, and 
so added weight to already overburdened wagons. It was 
when the second of these companies came in thaU Brigham 
Young was heard to say, as he rubbed his hands and 
smiled with overflowing complacency, "This experiment is 
a success." 

Alas for Brother Brigham, this remark was overheard by 
some of the emigrants, and it is needless to 'say that their 
faith in "inspiration," and "revelation," was very much 
weakened ; and the subsequent adventures 6f their friends 
and companions, whose arrival had been delayed, by no 
means tended to reassure them, or restore their waning be- 
lief. It was enough to be the victims of a heartless and 
mercenary experiment ; but to be deluded into the belief 
that it was by the direct revelation of the will of the Lord 
made it harder to bear, and there was much bitterness of 
spirit expressed when the people who had endured so much, 
and gloried in the endurance, because jp sn doing thty 
were obeying_tljf commands of ^nd. Iqarned-thai-tkeir suf- 
fenngs were borne merely to help filMhe purses of a false 
pfopiiul and IjE 



When the relief train reached Captain Willie's company, 
they were camped on the Sweetwater, near the Rocky 
Ridges. They had eaten their last provisions, and death 
was staring them pitilessly in the face. The camp was 
filled with dead and dying. There was no help for the 
latter, and the poor souls had lost all desire to live. They 
were waiting, with almost apathetic indifference, for release, 
while those dearest to them were doubly agonized because 
they must see the loved ones perish, and they were helpless 
even to bring comforts to them, or make life easier while it 
lasted. Those who were strong enough, dug one large 
grave in which all the dead were laid together. It was 
the best they could do ; but their hands were no less tender 



THE LAST, LONG SLEEP. 



2IS 



and loving, their hearts no less sore, than if the last 
rites had been as imposing as those of royalty itself. The 
only thing they could do to prepare their dear ones for the 
grave was to close the eyes, the loving eyes that, to the 
very last, had turned longingly Zion-ward; to fold the 
pulseless hands over the silent hearts that, through all the 
hardships and toil, had kept their trust firm and their faith 
bright ; to straighten out the tired feet that, bleeding and 




RELIEF IN SIGHT. 

sore, had yet toiled joyfully along the rugged path that led 
to the fair Canaan of their dreams ; to smooth the tangled 
hair away from haggard faces, where the lines of care lay 
heavily, and yet through which the light of peace divine 
shone serene and pure ; to arrange as decently as possi- 
ble the tattered garments, which were their only clothing 
for the tomb, and to lay them, coffinless, in their cold bed 
in the Rocky Mountains, in their last, long sleep ; then to 



2l6 STARVATION BEATEN AWAY. 

go away and leave them there, with the relentless winter 
storms beating upon them, and no stone to mark their rest- 
ing-place. The road from Winter-Quarters to Salt Lake 
was a via dolor osa indeed. 

Thirteen had died in Willie's camp the day that succor 
reached them ; two more died the next day ; and all were 
buried in one grave. The men succumbed to death before 
the women. The cause, no doubt, was the greater weari- 
ness on account of their more arduous exertions, and their 
wonderful self-denial for the sake of their wives and chil- 
dren. They would work just so long as they could, then 
fall dead in front of their carts, their hands still holding 
them tight in the tenacious grasp of death. There was no 
time for mourning or delay. Hurried graves were dug, 
and the bodies placed therein, hastily covered, then the 
survivors must press on again. Wives left their husbands, 
husbands their wives, parents their children, and children 
their parents, under the frozen earth of the desert and 
mountain ridges. 

When the poor Saints knew that assistance had really 
reached them, that starvation was beaten away and death 
held at bay, their joy knew no bounds. They cried like 
children, men as well as women, and burst forth into prayer 
and songs of praise. They attacked the food like famished 
animals, and ate it with a wolfish greed. The scene is one 
that can never be adequately described. It was full of a 
terrible pathos. It told of a suffering that never can be 
comprehended except by those who endured it. The 
clothing and bedding were then divided between them, and 
they were made comfortable as the)'' could be under the 
circumstances. That night, for the first time for many 
weeks, the sounds of rejoicing were heard through the 
camp. They were not forgotten of the Lord, nor deserted 
by his people ; and again they found heart to sing their 
hand-cart hymns which had been written for them by some 
enthusiastic members of the train. 



THE HAND-CART SONGS. 2 17 

Contrast one of their songs, if you please, with the situa- 
tion when relief from Salt Lake reached them : 

" We're going to Zion with our carts, 
And the Spirit of God within our hearts ; 
The old, decrepit, feeble dame 
Will lend a hand to pull the same ; 

For some must push and some must pull, 
As we go marching up the hill, 
Until we reach the Valley, O ! 

" Our maidens, they will dance and sing, 
Our young men happier be than kings, 
Our strength increasing every day, 
As we go travelling up the way. 

Yes, some must push and some must pull, 
As we go marching up the hill, 
Until we reach the Valley, O ! " 

Rough in phraseology, and rude in structure, it yet 
shows the spirit which animated the converts when they 
first started on their pilgrimage to the promised land. 
Another favorite song had a stirring chorus, as follows : 

u Hurrah for the camp of Israel ! 

Hurrah for the Hand-Cart scheme ! 
Hurrah ! hurrah ! 'tis better far 
Than the wagon and ox-team." 

In this song the " divine plan " was extolled with all the 
enthusiastic fervor with which it was first expounded to 
them by the elders in England. It is needless to say that 
these songs were written in the first glow of the furor, be- 
fore any of the hardships even of the sea-voyage had been 
encountered. They were not sung after the first encounter 
with a mountain storm ; that took the heart out of them. 
Even in the rejoicing at their deliverance, they sang only 
the hymns, making no attempt even to revive the spirit of 
the hand-cart songs. 



2l8 TERRIBLE SUFFERINGS. 

After seeing Captain Willie's company made comforta- 
ble, the relief train started east again in search of Captain 
Martin's company. This they found in camp at Grease 
Wood Creek, twenty miles from Willie's camp. The suf- 
fering in this company was quite equal to that of the com- 
pany just relieved, and precisely the same scenes were en- 
acted. They were wild with joy, and men and women fell 
on the necks of their deliverers with sobs and kisses, call- 
ing them their saviours, and invoking blessings of all kinds 
on their heads. 

The camp was filled with dead and dying, and many had 
been left behind that day, having fallen exhausted in the 
way. The storm had been blinding, and their companions 
could not stop for them ; they could only hasten on while 
daylight lasted, making their slow, painful progress to- 
wards the haven of their rest. My father and his com- 
rades spent the night in searching for those that were left 
behind, and bringing them into camp, where they were 
tenderly cared for. Many of them died very soon after 
being brought in ; others lived, but they were maimed for 
life, feet and hands, in many cases, having been literally 
frozen off. This was the people, "the chosen people of 
God, for whose benefit the Indians, the seasons, nay, the 
very elements themselves, should be controlled." Their 
belief in " prophecy " must have been severely tried by 
this shock. 

Everything had happened to them to make their journey 
hard. Their carts had broken down repeatedly, as my 
father had prophesied they would, and a great deal of de- 
lay had been caused by the frequent stopping for repairs ; 
their cattle had stampeded, so that their supply of milk and 
fresh beef was cut off, and only oxen enough left to allow 
one yoke to a team ; some of the men who dropped behind 
the others, wearied with the journey, were eaten by wolves ; 
very many had died, and others were hopelessly crippled ; 
the winter had set in earlier, and with severer storms than 



EATEN BY THE WOLVES. 2Ip 

have ever been known in all the Utah experience. It seemed 
as if the Lord were punishing priest and people, the one for 
the audacious assumption of power, the other for blind belief 
in, and dependence on, earthly promises, even when pur- 
porting to come from Him. Blasphemous presumption and 
foolish ignorance were alike hateful in His sight. 

-Richards had promised the people that they should find 
supplies at Laramie, but he was unable to reach there with 
them, and on their arrival the Saints found only a message 
telling them that the supplies would be at South Pass. It 
was with heavy hearts that they went on their toilsome way, 
more discouraged than ever they had been before. The 
swift-falling winter storms made matters worse, and it is 
only a wonder that so many survived as did, that every 
one did not perish before aid could reach them. 

The day after reaching Martin's camp, the party from 
Salt Lake pushed on about thirty miles farther east, walk- 
ing most of the way, through a blinding snow, to meet 
Captain Hunt's wagon train. They found the people con- 
nected with this but very little better off than the Hand-Cart 
companies ; they were suffering severely from the intense 
cold, and many had their limbs frozen. Captain Hunt 
might have hastened and reached Salt Lake City earlier, 
but he had been expressly forbidden to pass the hand-carts, 
which shows conclusively enough that those very persons 
who sent the emigrants off at that unfavorable season feared 
for the results. This was the last company that was to be 
relieved, and so my father and his companions remained 
with the train until it overtook the hand-carts at Devil's 
Gate. 

At this point the train was unloaded, and all the goods 
which were going to Salt Lake City, that could actually be 
spared, were left there for the winter, and the wagons were 
filled with the sick and feeble emigrants, who could never 
have reached the Valley but for this aid. The progress 
was necessarily slow, but the people were so much more 



22O ANOTHER PROPHETIC BLUNDER. 

comfortable that the time did not drag so heavily. There 
were very few deaths after the mountains were well crossed, 
and a milder climate reached, and those who were ill grew 
better, although the majority of them have never been well 
since. 

At Fort Bridger, one hundred and thirty miles from Salt 
Lake City, the emigrants were met by an order from ^rig- 
ham Young to winter there and at Fort Supply. A/gen- 
eral feeling of dismay spread over the camp, in spite of the 
joy with which the Saints received the added supplies of 
food and clothing. To be so near their destination, and 
yet to be kept from it, seemed doubly hard, after all the 
sorrow and hardships they had met and endured on their 
way. It did indeed seem as though the way to the land of 
promise was closed, instead of being opened to them. Were 
they, like Moses of old, to die in sight of their Canaan? 
Had they been brought all this way only to perish just out- 
side the walls of their Zion ? 

The places designated by Brigham were totally unfit to 
winter in. Should the poor Saints, in their feeble and 
emaciated condition, attempt it, it was more than likely 
that they would perish before spring. Seeing the utter im- 
practicability of the plan, and touched by the distress of 
the poor people, who were again to be made the victims 
of a prophetic blunder, two or three of the relieving party, 
among them my father, came at once to the city, travelling 
day and night, to have arrangements made to bring them 
to the Valley. 

They were successful in their mission, and an express 
was at once despatched to bring the waiting Saints home. 
When at length they arrived, they were met with gladness, 
and given the warmest welcome. The people in Salt Lake 
City opened their houses to them, and took them gladly in, 
giving them the best and the kindest care. Those of 
the Hand-Cart companies, who had come in first, crowded 
round them, and met them with tears of rejoicing, in which 



MEETING OF HAND-CART COMPANIES. 221 

sorrow mingled. It was then that they began to realize 
their loss. As one after another of their old companions 
came up, and missing some familiar face, inquired for the 
friend so dearly beloved, always the same sad answer came 
" Died on the Plains." Sixty-seven were left on the way 
from the Missouri River to the Valley, which was about 

one sixth^pXjthe number whirl) started. ^ 

XTremember distinctly when these companies came in ; 
their wretched condition impressed me at the time, and 
I have seen many of them since, poor crippled crea- 
tures, stumping about the city, trying to do enough work 




ARRIVAL OP "HAND-CART COMPANIES" AT SALT LAKE CITY. 

to keep soul and body together ; more than that, they were 
not able to do. I have heard, too, from some of them, the 
most harrowing stories of their journey, that terrible, fatal 
journey, which was one of the very worst blunders that the 
Prince of Blunderers, Brigham Young, ever made. 

The recollection is made more vivid because my young- 
est brother, Edward, who went out with a team to assist the 
emigrants, got lost in the snow, and for a week we 
supposed him to be dead. After wandering for some days 
in the mountains, with both feet badly frozen, he was 
found by a mountaineer named Battiste, who kept him, 



222 THE PROPHET'S DISINTERESTED GENEROSITY. 

and cared for him most kindly, until the arrival of my 
father, who had heard, while with the train, that he was 
missing, and had gone at once in search of him. It was a 
narrow escape, and the terrible expedition came near prov- 
ing a tragedy to us as well as to so many others. 

Among the emigrants was a x very wealthy gentleman of 
the name of Tennant. He and his wife were among the 
early converts, and were very earnest Mormons. They had 
for a long time been resolved to come to Zion. and when 
the Hand-Cart scheme was introduced they decided to join 
that company. Humble followers of Christ, they thought 
they could in no better way show their love for Him and 
their devotion to their religion, than by such an act of self- 
sacrifice as this. Possessed of ample means to have crossed 
the ocean and travelled in the most comfortable and even 
luxurious manner, they nevertheless chose to go in this 
way, with the poorest of the Saints, and share with them all 
the hardships and dangers which should attend this toil- 
some, perilous journey. 

Mr. Tennant gave liberally to the emigration fund, in 
order that as many poor Saints as possible might make the 
long-anticipated pilgrimage to Zion, and both himself and 
his wife provided liberally for the comfort of their poor fel- 
low-travellers. A short time before the emigrant company 
left England, the Apostle Richards, in one of his eloquent 
dissertations on the "plan" and its divine origin, said that in 
order to assist the poor to emigrate, President Young had 
given to the Emigration Fund Society an estate in Salt Lake 
City, to be sold for its benefit. He dilated largely upon the 
disinterested generosity of the Prophet, and his desire that 
as many as possible of his faithful followers should be gath- 
ered to Zion during that season. Fired by this act of 
extreme kindness on the part of his revered leader in the 
church, Mr. Tennant at once bought the property, and paid, 
it is said, thirty thousand dollars down for it. There is 
little need, perhaps, of saying that that was immensely more 



SAD DEATH OF MR. TENNANT. 223 

than its real value ; but that fact its purchaser was not aware 
of, as it was glorified by all the apostolic eloquence be- 
stowed upon it, quite beyond recognition. 

On the voyage , and during the journey across the States, 
and the tiresome waiting time at Iowa City, no one was 
more beloved than Mr. Tennant and his gentle, estimable 
wife. Sharing alike with the poorer Saints, no word of 
complaint ever passed their lips. They never for a moment 
seemed to regret their decision to emigrate at this particular 
time, but accepted every fresh hardship as a trial to their 
faith, sent by God Himself to test them, and prove their 
worthiness to enter His glorious kingdom on earth. They 
moved among their companions with kindly faces and words 
of cheer and comfort. They encouraged endurance by their 
example, and made the forced discomforts of some of the 
party seem easier to bear by their voluntary assumption of 
them. As far as they could they alleviated the distress 
which prevailed, and were always ready to perform any. 
deeds of kindness. 

The journey with the hand-carts was doubly hard for 
them, unused as they were to exertion; and day after day 
the wife saw the husband slowly succumbing to fatigue and 
disease, and she powerless to assist him. But, though his 
strength waned and his health failed him, yet his courage 
and his faith remained steadfast and fixed. Whatever came 
he believed would surely be right, and though he struggled 
manfully to keep up until he should reach Zion, yet he was 
overcome, and died at O'Fallon's Bluffs, literally of ex- 
haustion. His last thought was for his sorrowing wife, and 
his last word was of comfort and consolation to her. He 
had one thought to make the parting easier he had pro- 
vided a home for her in Zion ; Brother Brigham held it in 
trust for her, and she would find the comforts to which she 
was used, and rest and peace in the Valley with the chosen 
people. 

The bereaved wife clung wildly to her husband's remains, 



22 4 



A VILE SWINDLE BY BRIGHAM YOUNG. 



with the most heart-broken lamentations. To have him die 
was a misery in itself; but to see the slow, cruel torture 
which he underwent, and to watch him slowly dying such a 
horrible death, was almost unbearable. For a time it 
seemed almost as though she must be left there with him ; 
that her soul would follow his. Happier would it have been 
for her had that fate been hers. The cold earth and pitiless 
winter storms would not be so cold and so pitiless as the 
world was to her, after this loving protecting arm was taken 
from her. A woman, unused to toil and hardship, nur- 
tured in luxury, reared in tenderness and love, she was left 
alone to battle single-handed with the world. And__such a 
world ! whose ruling passion wag av^rice 1 apd_whos de- 
"was anotner j s torture* tip umlil nf Muiihnii i mil 
ruled over by a graspinr. Ifrhfrmis. hrnrtlcfiP tyrant, 
who laughed at a womanV sorrows apd flouted at her 
wrongs. I think ii she had known all that was to ronow," 
she would have lain down on the plain by the side of her 
dead husband, and endured the torture/of a horrible, slow- 
death, rather than have gone on to the years of suffering 
which lay before her. 

It is fortunate, indeed, that the future is so closely veiled 
to us ; else we should all lose heart and courage in this un- 
equal struggle called life, and lay down our weapons, con- 
vinced that it is of no use to struggle longer. Providence 
deals wisely with us, after all, and we are forced to admit it 
at every step of our lives. 

The hurried funeral rites were over, and the man who had 
been so great a benefactor to the people among whom he 
had cast his lot, was left sleeping his last sleep in a strange 
land, and the sorrowing party resumed their weary way, 
saddened by this affliction. Qn_the arrivalat Salt Lake 
Mrs. Tennant at once proceeded to look-after .her property . 
The " magnificent estate" for which, her husband had paid 



DISGRACED FOR LIFE. 225 

and out of repair, and worth not a tenth part of what had 
been paid foi -tfrr^ - _ 

She was shocked and troubled at what seemed such a 
piece of swindling on the part of the President and the 
church authorities, although at first she was inclined to ex- 
onerate Brigham Young and blame Apostle Richards for 
misrepresentation ; but an audience with Brigham soon con- 
vinced her that he was at the bottom of the whole affair, 
and slue felt bitterly enough towards the man who, under the 
guise of religious benevolence, would be guilty of such a 

" uf Li JLkUl V . Jj,ven this poor shelter was not iett her 



very long. The^place^ and ? indeed, most r>f ft* va1i]ahlt 
things which, her ^"shnn^ h?H sent to make their home in 

TZioiimore comfortable, were taken for tithing and on other 
pretences, and in a very few months this woman was com- 
pelled to go out to daily labor to earn her bread, her rightful 
property going to fill the already overflowing coffers of the 
" Prophet of the Lord." Indeed, the entire Hand-Cart expe- 
dition was a good speculation"^ thp President^ and helped 
replenish the 



There is no doubt that Young did repent of this foolish 
step of his, but it was not at all on account of the suffering 
and misery which he entailed upon so many innocent per- 
sons, but because he knew that an act of that kind, becoming 
public, would make him and his religion more unpopular 
than ever, and they were already in sufficiently bad odor 
with the outside world. He could ill afford to make such a 
blunder. It would also work against his influence with the 
Saints themselves, and he was always jealous of his author- 
ity over his people. 

The Apostle John Taylor arrived home before either 
Apostle Richards or Elder Spenser, and he, as a matter of 
course, told his own story, throwing all the blame upon his 
two co-workers, so that when they arrived they found the full 
torrent of the Presidential wrath turned against them. They 
were sadly hurt, for, in their zeal to carry out instructions 
15 



226 RICHARDS RESTORED TO FAVOR. 

and gain the approbation of their leader, they had, they 
affirmed, all through the affair, acted against the dictates 
of humanity and their own consciences. 

He was loud in his denunciations of them ; he cursed 
them "in the name of Israel's God;" he ridiculed them in 
public until they were compelled to hide their heads in very 
shame. Their sole fault was, they had been too faithful to 
him. Spenser never recovered from the disgrhce ; he always 
remained a broken-down, helpless man, seeking no favor, 
expecting none, not even decent treatment, from his master, 
until, after lingering for ten years under the prophetic baji, 
he died heart-broken. Richards has, in a degree, overcome 
the President's feeling towards him, and is gaining favor 
all the time, but he will never stand as high as he did before 
this most unfortunate exhibition. The people will never 
forget his share in it, and those who came to Zion, influ- 
enced by his eloquent appeals and encouraged by his 
prophecies, associate him naturally enough with that unhap- 
py experience. Then, although Brigham Young has par- 
tially restored him to favor by certain acts and kindnesses 
granted to him, yet he has never taken back any of the 
anathemas which he showered upon him, and they are by 
no means forgotten by those who heard them, and have a 
certain influence even now in forming public opinion. 

Notwithstanding the terrible consequences of this " divine 
plan," its originator did not wish to acknowledge that he 
had in any way been mistaken. The plan, he argued, was 
all right ; it only went wrong through mismanagement, and 
he would prove its feasibility to the satisfaction of every 
Saint in the Territory. The plan was "divine," and he 
would "sanctify it to the glory of the Lord." 

So in the April following he sent a company of elders on 
a mission, compelling them to go with hand-carts. These 
were properly made, of good material, strongly finished, 
with iron tires, and everything to make them durable. They 
had plenty of provisions ; so they would not be reduced to 



A MISERABLE FAILURE. 227 

the necessity of eating their own shoes nor biting their own 
flesh in the mad frenzy of starvation, as many a poor fellow 
did in the expedition whose w divinity " they were sent out to 
prove. The season was favorable, and there was no danger 
of their being overtaken by terrible mountain storms, under- 
neath which they would be buried. They were all robust 
young men, too ; better fitted to endure a journey like the 
one ordained for them by their Prophet, than the feeble old 
men and women, the young wives, mothers, and maidens, 
and the tiny, toddling children, who formed a great portion 
of the other company. Then they started fresh, not wearied 
already by a rough sea-voyage, a journey thousands of 
miles across the Continent, to the final starting-point, nor 
reduced by hunger and exposure. They had the advan- 
tage in everything, and yet, although their expedition was 
by no means fatal, it was very far from being a "success," 
such as Brigham expected it to be. 

On his way to Chiqago my father overtook them at Devil's 
Gate. He found them completely jaded and worn out. In 
truth, they were almost dead from weariness. They trav- 
elled slowly, making long stops to rest, and finally they 
reached the Missouri River in a perfect state of exhaustion. 
They left their carts there with the utmost willingness, 
showing wonderful alacrity at abandoning a " divine " 
scheme. To this day they all aver they cannot bear to hear 
the word " Hand-cart " mentioned. It was the last time the 
w experiment " was tried, and after this but little was said 
regarding the divine origin of the plan ; and it is a signifi- 
cant fact that no one has preserved more utter silence on 
the subject than the " Revelator," Brigham Young. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS' MASSACRE. VENGEANCE 
IS MINE: I WILL REPAY." 

The Results of the Reformation. The Story of a Fiendish Deed. 
The People's Mouths Closed. How the Dreadful Crime was Hushed 
Up. Judge Cradlebaugh's Efforts to Unravel the Mystery. Who 
weie the Guilty Ones ? The Emigrants on the Way to Utah. The 
People Forbidden to sell them Food. They Arrive at Salt Lake City. 

Ordered to Break Camp. In need of Supplies. Who was Ac- 
countable ? Why the Mormons hated the Emigrants. The Story of 
Parley P. Pratt. How he Seduced McLean's Wife. Their Journey 
to Cedar City. Hungry and Weary, but still Pressing On. They 
Reach the Mountain Meadows. Attacked by "the Indians." The 
Emigrants Besieged. Dying of Thirst. Two little Girls shot by the 
Mormons. An Appeal for Help. The Last Hope of the Besieged. 

Waiting for Death. 

F all the numberless atroci- 
ties that succeeded the Utah 
Reformation, and were the 
r direct outgrowth of the 
teaching of the revolting 
doctrine of the " Blood- 
Atonement," nothing ap- 
proaches in fiendish bar- 
barity the Massacre at the 
Mountain Meadows, where, 
on the 1 7th of September, 
1857, a company of emi- 
grants from Arkansas and 
Missouri, on their way to 
California, were assassinat- 
ed in the most cruel and treacherous manner, by a band of 
disguised Mormons and Indians, under the leadership of 
officers of the Mormon militia. 

Nearly eighteen years have passed, and until within a 




A HORRIBLE DEED OF BLOOD. 22p 

comparatively short time, little has been definitely known 
concerning the details of the massacre, either by the Gen- 
tile world, or by the mass of the Mormon people, who, to 
give them the justice which they deserve, would have 
shrunk with horror from the very idea that the commission 
of the terrible deed could be laid to the charge of their be- 
loved church. 

I was but a child at the time, but I recollect, perfectly, 
hearing that an emigrant-train had been attacked by the 
Indians, and all members of the band, with the exception 
of a few of the smaller children, killed ; and I remember, 
also, seeing these children, who were said to have been 
taken from their Indian captors by Mormon officers, and 
were to be cared for by the Mormon people. I suppose 
the remembrance is the more vivid because, before their 
arrival in Utah, the people were forbidden by Brigham 
Young and his elders to sell them anything during their 
journey through the Territory, and this was so unusual a 
command that it was a matter of wondering conjecture to 
most of the Mormons, although no one dreamed of ques- 
tioning the justice of the Prophet's mandate. 

Young as I was, I felt the mystery that shrouded the whole 
horrible transaction, and I knew instinctively, as did many 
others, that something was being hidden from the mass of 
the people, by their leaders, which it was not deemed pru- 
dent to reveal ; but the terrible truth was not then even 
suspected by the faithful Saints. I can understand now, 
as I could not then, why all wonder concerning this whole- 
sale murder was speedily hushed up ; why any definite 
mention of it was avoided by the leaders in the church ; 
why, when it was spoken of at all, it was with cautious 
manner, apprehensive glances, and in whispered tones 
under the breath.' Priests and people alike hesitated to 
approach the dreaded subject, and there was an almost su- 
perhuman endeavor on the part of the church authorities 
to erase all remembrance of it from the minds of their fol- 



23O THE PEOPLE S MOUTHS CLOSED. 

lowers. But occurrences of this kind are not easily for- 
gotten, and the memory of that bloody and unprovoked 
butchery is still fresh in other minds besides my own, re- 
tained there so distinctly that neither time nor eternity can 
obliterate it. The very mystery which veiled it made it 
more awful to me, an imaginative, excitable child; and 
though I followed the example of my elders, and never 
spoke of the subject, even to my mother, it haunted me 
perpetually, and I grew absolutely terrified at the con- 
stantly recurring fancies which I drew of it. 

Although the people were so quiet, since there was a 
tacit understanding that they must be so, yet their eyes nor 
ears were never closed, and thought was by no means idle. 
Indeed, as the years have rolled on, what was at first a 
vague suspicion, which it seemed a sin to entertain, has 
grown to a horrible certainty, until to-day it stands forth; 
stripped of all its first mystery, fearfully vivid in its mon- 
strosity, the foulest of all the foul blots upon the unclean 
page of Mormon history. It was a deed unparalleled in its 
atrocity ; unapproachable in the treachery employed by its 
perpetrators ; more horrible in its sickening details than 
the butcheries by the most barbarous savages ; the work 
of fiends rather than of men ; and yet so successful has 
been the "quiet" policy of the Mormon leaders, that I find 
the extent of its horrors but dimly understood east of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Attempts were made by Judge Cradlebaugh to discover 
the perpetrators, and, above all, the instigators of this deed, 
and bring them speedily to justice ; but with a Mormon 
jury, blinded by their bigotry, who were taught from the 
pulpit that allegiance to the church and Brigham Young 
was paramount to all their duties and obligations to the 
government of the United States, whose citizens they 
claimed to be, that perjury to that government would be 
forgiven by the priesthood, indeed was counselled by it, 
and that no Mormon was to be delivered over to Gentile 



WHO ORDERED THE MASSACRE? 231 

justice, no matter what his crime might have been, nor 
how distinctly it was proved, it followed naturally enough 
that the efforts, earnest and untiring as they were, were 
utterly fruitless. 

Judge Cradlebaugh's last attempt to ferret out the affair 
was made in 1859 ; and since that time no action has been 
taken by the government until last autumn, when the long- 
smothered suspicion broke forth into audible accusations, 
and in this new burst of popular demand for justice, the 
supposed leaders were arrested. I inadvertently said " sup- 
posed " leaders ; but it has been shown beyond the possibility 
of a doubt that John D. Lee, a major in the Mormon mili- 
tia, and one of the most active and zealous of Brigham 
Young's devoted adherents, led the attack in person ; that 
many of the victims fell by his hand ; and that he, assisted 
by Bishop Haight and the notorious Dame, acted under 
instructions from "a higher authority" The plans of 
massacre were fully matured, at a council held at Parowan, 
by Brigadier-General George A. Smith, first counsellor to 
Brigham, and a fit servant for such a master, Colonel Wil- 
liam C. Dame, Bishop of Fillmore, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Haight, President of the Cedar City w Stake of Zion," 
Bishop Higbee, and John D. Lee. 

Of all these men, Lee, who is now under arrest, has 
been the most closely identified with the massacre, in the 
public mind, until he has grown to be an object of popular 
aversion, shunned and dreaded. It may seem childish, 
but so strong a hold had this affair taken on my imagina- 
tion, that I have never been able to shake off the feeling 
of terror with which it filled me ; and when, last autumn, I 
was told of his arrest, and knew that he was safe inside 
prison walls, I positively experienced a feeling of relief 
and personal safety, as great as though some enemy of my 
own had been rendered powerless to harm me. I had 
never even seen the man ; but knowing the record of his 
crimes, and always hearing of him in connection with 



232 THE BEGINNING OF A TERRIBLE STORY. 

some deed of bloody brutality, my horror and fear of him 
never diminished, and he remained, what he had always 
been, the ogre of my childish fancies. 

It is a horrible story, sickening in its every detail ; but it 
cannot be told too often, until it shall be known all over the 
country by every person who is ignorant of it now. 

It was early in September, 1857, when it was first an- 
nounced in Salt Lake City that a large emigrant party from 
Missouri and Arkansas had entered the Valley on their way 
to California. As soon as the announcement was made, a 
command was issued by the President of the church, that 
nothing was to be sold to any member of this party, on the 
pain of death. The command was most arbitrary, and was 
totally without precedent, showing beyond a doubt the ani- 
mus of Brigham Young towards this party, and rendering 
it much easier to believe that the terrible tragedy which fol- 
lowed was approved, if not instigated, by him. 

Salt Lake had been for a long time the depot for obtain- 
ing fresh supplies prior to crossing the deserts which sepa- 
rated Utah and California. Every emigrant train which had 
crossed the plains for some years, had made this a resting- 
place, and taken a fresh start from here for the remainder 
of the tedious journey. M^cj^jn^njy_^as_Jef\in this way 
inth-MQrmoncpuntrv. and, as_ 

This train, like all that had gone before it, had laid their 
plans to supply themselves for their journey at Salt Lake 
City, and had only brought a sufficient quantity of provis- 
ions to last them until they reached that point. Greatly to 
their surprise, they found themselves unable to purchase 
anything, and, in addition, were peremptorily ordered to 
break their camp at Salt Lake and move on. All through 
the country of the Saints they were met with sturdy refusals 
to sell them anything. Men who would gladly have placed 
a quantity of provisions at their disposal dared not do it, 
fearing to disobey their Prophet's mandate. In vain the 



WHY WAS BRIGHAM YOUNG SILENT? 233 

emigrants offered them money, wagons, personal property 
of all kinds. Brigham's law was not to be broken, and the 
person who should venture to disregard it pronounced his 
own death sentence. Now and then, however, one more 
humane or more daring than the rest, came to the camp 
at night with a small amount of provisions all they could 
bring without danger of detection ; but what was this little 
to one hundred and fifty hungry men and women, to say 
nothing of the little children who were to be fed? It might 
have met a present want, but it did nothing towards pro- 
viding for future needs. Starvation was staring them in the 
face while they were journeying in the midst of plenty, for 
it is a notorious fact that the harvests never were more 
plentiful in Utah than they were that year. 
<1 Whatever^ may have^been Brigham Young's connection 
wTthlhe niassacrejtselfT whether^TWas^one^at his insti- 
gation or merely witli his connivance, hjmas, tn all in- 



tents and purposes, the mn^nr ^pf these people, and 
should beheld responsible forthjejtJuiea. What right Jap^ 

he, the governor of the Territory of Utah, appointed to office 
by the United States Government, amenable to its laws as a 
citizen, much more so as an office-holder, bound by an oath 
of loyalty to protect every person within the limits of his 
territory, to refuse food to peaceful, law-abiding citizens of 
the same government, knowing, as he did, that here was 
their only opportunity to obtain it, and that certain death 
was their fate if compelled to cross the desert with the scanty 
rations which remained to them ? 

The treatment of these people from the moment of enter- 
ing Brigham Young's dominions until the final tragedy, was 
so barbarous, and attended with so many horrors, that the 
Mormon people, contrary to their usual custom, feel obliged 
to offer some excuse in extenuation. But all the reasons 
which they give, when combined, are entirely insufficient to 
justify the deed. Yet, such as they are, they shall be 
given. 



234 LONGING FOR THE SPOIL OF THE SLAIN. 

The " Reformation " was over, and the doctrine of the 
"Blood-Atonement" was still in full force. Young and his 
confederates were infuriated because United States troops 
were ordered to Utah. They considered this act of the gov- 
ernment an open insult, and they revenged it on the first Gen- 
tiles whom they could reach.' The train was one of the 
largest and richest that had ever crossed the plains. The 
value of their wagons, horses, and stock alone was said to 
be $300,000, and the women of the party had rich, full 
wardrobes and elegant, costly jewelry. J3righam, as you 



_ 
them in some way or other, either honestly or other- 



wise, generally otherwi 

A part of the emigrants were from Missouri, and the 
Mormon people will never regard the Missourians in any 
other light than that of the bitterest enemies. They had 
never, in all the years, forgotten the persecution which they 
received at their hands, and Joseph Smith's death they con- 
sidered unavenged. It was reported that in the train was 
a man who had openly boasted of having been present at 
the assassination of Smith, and that he as openly threatened 
to take the life of the present prophet. This story is gener- 
ally believed to be utterly without foundation, circulated by 
the Mormon leaders to stir up the wrath of the people 
against the emigrants, and to exonerate themselves, if their 
share in the slaughter of these people should ever become 
known. The Arkansas members of the train, also, were 
objects of Mormon vengeance. Parley P. Pratt, one of 
the twelve apostles, and also one of the brightest intellect- 
ual lights in the Church of the Latter-Day Saints, was 
sent on a mission to California, where he proselyted with 
such vigor that many converts were made ; among them a 
Mrs. Eleanor McLean, wife of one Hector McLean, and 
the mother of three children, who was induced to embrace 
Mormonism and polygamy as embodied in the person of the 






APOSTLE PRATT SEDUCES MRS. MCLEAN. 



235 




seductive apostle. The command to "leave all and follow 
me " was readily obeyed, especially as she was personally 
to add to the missionary's 
present pleasure and future 
glory, by becoming one of his 
numerous plural wives. 

As there was no authority 
to marry them in a " legal " 
manner in this Gentile state, 
they were obliged to defer 
that ceremony until their ar- 
rival in " Zion." But in cases 
like this, which were often 
occurring to the missionary 

. , ., . j , . PARLEY P. PRATT. 

baints, it was considered quite 

proper for the pair, who were in haste to wed, to w covenant 
together," and thereafter to be regarded as man and wife, 
without ministerial or judicial aid, until such time as they 
could celebrate their nuptials in the presence of saintly 
witnesses, and after the true saintly fashion. This cov- 
enant the Apostle Pratt and Mrs. McLean were not slow 
to make. 

The news soon reached the husband that his wife was 
going to Utah with the Mormon Elder, and intended taking 
the children with her. This last design McLean frus- 
trated by sending them to some relatives in one of the 
Southern States. He then informed his wife that she was 
at liberty to go where she chose, but that she must go alone, 
as he had placed the children beyond her reach. 

She came to Utah, and immediately on her arrival was 
sealed to Parley, after having lived under a covenant with 
him for months. The mother-heart, however, yearned 
for her children ; neither her new religion nor the fractional 
part of an apostle could fill the void left by the separation 
from them, and she determined to gain possession of them 
and bring them also to Utah. After much entreating, she 



236 THE ADULTERESS STEALS HER CHILDREN. 

succeeded in inducing her new husband to go to the States 
with her for the purpose of finding them. She went alone 
to the place' where her children were at school, leaving 
Pratt in Arkansas, which, by the way, was her husband's 
home. On reaching the town where her children were, 
she was obliged to assume a disguise, as McLean was 
there, having followed his children from California. She 
used every stratagem to obtain them, but only succeeded in 
carrying away one. She quickly made her way with him 
to Arkansas, and joined Parley, who was awaiting her there. 
Together they started to return to Utah, but were overtaken 
by McLean, who, maddened by the breaking up of his 
home, the seduction of his wife, and the abduction of his 
child, determined to wreak summary vengeance on the man 
who, under the guisePoi religion, afld_ln the^"najneof Jjie 
Cord, whom he constantly blasphemed ^y TaTong His holy 
his polluted lips, had wrecked his whole life's" 



ing examined before a magistrate, Mrs. McLean Pratt 
assumed all the responsibility of the abduction of the chil- 
dren, and the Apostle was honorably discharged. His 
friends, however, apprehended danger, and advised him to 
escape, if he could, for McLean was a violent man. They 
also offered him a couple of revolvers for his defence. 

The Apostle fled, but McLean was on his trail. At 
length the wronged husband came within' sight of his ene- 
my, and pursued him like the avenger of blood. Pratt 
left the public road, endeavoring to reach a house not far 
distant; but McLean was too swift for him. Following 
him closely, with revolver drawn, he fired at the saintly 
seducer, but failed to touch him. Furious at Pratt's escape, 
McLean urged forward his horse, and, as he passed his 
enemy, made a lunge with his bowie-knife, and gave him a 
fatal thrust in his side. The wounded man fell from his 
horse instantly, and McLean fired again at the guilty 
wretch as he lay bleeding on the ground, and the ball pen- 
etrated his breast. 



DEATH OF THE ADULTERER, P. P. PRATT. 237 

The bloody deed performed, McLean returned to Fort 
Smith, walked through the town with his friends, and in 
the evening took the passing steamer for the South. He 
took his child and left the mother to return to Utah, now 




ASSASSINATION OF PARLEY P. PRATT. 

doubly widowed and childless. The people of Arkansas 
upheld McLean, and it was considered that he had only 
done his duty in ridding the world of such a wolf in sheep's 
clothing. 

But the Mormons were deeply infuriated ; they held every 
Arkansas man personally responsible for the murder of 
their Apostle, whom they at once canonized as saint, and 
worshipped as martyr, and whose name, to this day, is 
spoken with reverence by them ; and the fact that any of 
these emigrants were from that state, gave them, as they 
thought, an opportunity of revenging Pratt's death, at the 
same time that they avenged the murder of their Prophet. 
Many of them, too, were from the immediate neighborhood 
where McLean resided, and where Pratt was killed ; and 
at least one of the number was said to have been interested 
in his assassination. The fact that Pratt had brought his 
death upon himself w r as not taken into consideration. They 



238 "MOUNTAIN MEADOW DOGS" ON THE TRAIL. 

found no palliation for McLean's action in. his wrecked 
home and blighted life ; though no persons in the world are 
so quick to resent any, even fancied, interference with their 
families as the Mormons. Yet this is saintly consistency. 

At the Parowan council, of which I have spoken, the 
mode of action was fully determined upon, and the plan of 
attack matured to the minutest detail. Meeting with the 
most inhospitable treatment, and unable to obtain provis- 
ions, the emigrants were fairly driven from camp to camp, 
until they reached Cedar City. They camped here only 
one day ; but during their stay they were allowed to pur- 
chase fifty bushels of tithing wheat and have it ground at 
John D. Lee's mill. But this was an insufficient quantity, 
and would be exhausted several days before they could 
reach the nearest point in California where food was obtain- 
able, even if they travelled with the utmost speed, and put 
themselves on the shortest possible rations. 

From Cedar City they proceeded south-west less than 
forty miles, and camped at the Mountain Meadows, which 
they reached after a five . days' journey, so exhausted 
were they. It was a most cheerless and dreary spot, 
and so hemmed in that if attacked they would be com- 
pletely at the mercy of their assailants. The Meadows are 
about a mile and a half long and a mile wide, and are shut 
in on every side by mountains j but at the lower end they 
converge and form a canon. Cane Spring is situated just 
at the mouth of this canon, and about thirty rods above this 
spring, a mound, two hundred feet long and one hundred 
feet wide, shuts out all view. In the midst of this gray des- 
olation of nature, the emigrants settled themselves down 
for a few days' rest and final preparation before they re- 
sumed their perilous journey. 

Beyond the annoyance they had experienced by the 
withholding of provisions, and their enforced march from 
camp to camp throughout the Mormon territory, they appre- 
hended no ill-treatment from the Saints. I do not think the 




JOHN D. LEE, BISHOP IN THE MORMON CHURCH AND LEADER 
THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS MASSACRE 

Has nineteen wives and sixty-four children. 



THE EMIGRANTS ATTACKED BY MORMON FIENDS. 239 

fear of personal danger had entered their minds at all, and 
they were resting quietly at the Meadows, when, on the 
morning of the loth of September, while the women of the 
party were engaged in preparing breakfast, and the men 
in caring for their stock, they were suddenly attacked by 
the Indians. Seven were killed and fifteen wounded at 
the first fire. 

As unexpected as the attack was, they did not lose for 
one instant their coolness and presence of mind. Had they 
done so, the massacre would have been general, and the 
entire party killed on the spot. But with a promptness 
unparalleled in the history of any border warfare, these em- 
igrants wheeled their wagons into an oblong corral, and 
with almost lightning-like rapidity threw up the earth from 
the centre of the corral against the wagon wheels, making 
an excellent and almost impenetrable barricade. 

It had been decided at the Parowan Council to make the 
attack at Santa Clara Canon, at the point where it is crossed 
by the California road, and where the perpendicular walls, 
which it was impossible to scale, and the blockade of their 
own wagons, would preclude the possibility of the escape 
of a single soul. But the Indian allies, "The Battle Axes 
of the Lord," became impatient, and precipitated the attack. 
The liberal promises made to them by John D. Lee, the 
Indian-Agent, of blankets, clothing, rifles, ammunition, and 
trinkets, excited their cupidity ; and so eager were they to 
obtain the promised spoils, that they could not wait to carry 
out the original plan. 

As soon as the barricade was finished, the first fire of the 
Indians was returned, and three of the assailants were 
wounded. They had crept very close to the train, not 
dreaming a repulse possible, and lay concealed in the brush 
along the side of the creek. Two of the Indians died, not- 
withstanding they were taken to Cedar City, where their 
wounds were anointed with consecrated oil by Bishop 
Higbee. For once, at least, the " laying on " of " saintly " 



240 LEE INCITES THE INDIANS TO MURDER. 

hands was not efficacious, and the mortal wounds refused to 
be healed in spite of persistent priestly prayers. 

The leaders of the Mormon militia, at Cedar City, were 
thrown into a state of excitement by the arrival of an Indian 
runner, bringing news of the unsuccessful assault, and they 
at once commenced collecting their forces to go to the 
Meadows to the assistance of their allies. It is said that 
Haight told a man that orders had come from headquarters 
to slay every person in the train. The Cedar City forces 
being considered inadequate, Lee sent to Washington for 
re-enforcements. When the troops were within a short dis- 
tance of the Meadows, they were told that the entire com- 
pany was to be killed, with the exception of the children 
who were too young to remember. 

The Mormons were disguised as Indians, and so sjagcess- 
fullY that the unfortuate besieged had^noTdea~ThgfTheir be- 
siegers were whitemen. The very knowledge 01 this* would 
have disheartened them more than all the perils of their 
situation had power to do, when they supposed they had 
only a savage foe to meet, whom they hoped speedily to 
repulse. Safely intrenched behind their barricade, they 
suffered only for lack of water. The spring was only about 
forty rods distant, and yet they dared not venture to go 
to it, and the water was as unattainable as though it had 
been miles away. Every attempt to obtain a supply was 
frustrated by the reports of cruel guns, hidden behind 
mounds of earth. The whole rim of the basin formed by the 
circling hills was a masked battery sending forth destruc- 
tion every time a form was seen inside the barricade. At 
first it was supposed only the men were in danger, and a 
woman of the party stepped outside the corral to milk a cow. 
She fell pierced with bullets. At length, their thirst be- 
coming intolerable, they decided to send two of the little 
girls to the spring for water. Surely, they reasoned, they 
will be let to go unharmed ; their youth and innocence will 
be their safeguard ; the most barbarous savage would cer- 
tainly be touched, and the hand of destruction stayed. 



TWO LITTLE GIRLS MURDERED BY MORMON DEVILS. 24! 

It might have been, had it been savages with whom they 
were contending ; but no feeling of pity for even the chil- 
dren could enter the hearts of -these "civilized" white men 
who were engaged in the "religious" warfare, and shot 
down their innocent victims in the name of the Lord. 

Hand in hand the little ones advanced towards the spring, 
dre^secMn while, fit lubca fur" such lambsot.>aerrftc& 
Suddenl)TcamS"the ~cracIT7)f SCoTe's oi riHesTand the tiny 




THB MUKDER OF Two LITTLE GIRLS. 

bodies fell, fairly riddled with bullets, in the very sight of 
the frantic parents. It was deeds of this kind which, ac- 
cording to John D. Dee^ " glorined tlif name of j^rae! 7 *" 
God." 

Then the emigrants knew they could not expect mercy ; 

but their courage did not fail them. If aid could only reach 

them ! If there was any way in which they could make 

their situation known ! They might hold out a few days, 

16 



242 NO MERCY TO BE SHOWN ! 

though starvation and the slow, keen torture of unallayed 
thirst stared them in the face. After four days of siege, 
they drew up a prayer for aid, telling how they had been 
attacked by the Indians, and how they were then surrounded ; 
it contained a list of the emigrants' names, their age, place 
of birth, and residence at the time of the emigration. The 
number of clergymen, physicians, and other professional 
men were given ; also the number of Freemasons and Odd- 
fellows, with the rank of each and the name of the lodge to 
which they belonged. The letter was addressed to any 
friend of humanity ; and it was a heart-rending cry of dis- 
tress from souls in mortal straits. Such a cry as that could 
not go unheeded ; it must be answered by speedy relief. It 
was the only expression of despair that ever came from the 
brave hearts in the corral ; but it told of torture beyond de- 
scription ; of suffering that exceeds imagination. 

But how should it find its way outside the barricade? 
How could the world be made to hear this agonized appeal ? 
No sooner was the petition finished than three men all 
honor to their bravery ! volunteered to break through the 
camp, dash past their enemy, and cross the desert to Cali- 
fornia. They more than suspected by this time that a por- 
tion of their assailants were white men, and they knew they 
were in more danger from them than from the Indians. It 
is said that, before these men started on their perilous and 
almost hopeless undertaking, the entire party knelt down, 
and an old, white-haired Methodist pastor prayed for 
their safety. They left the corral in the night under cover 
of the darkness, and passed their besiegers in safety. But 
in some way their flight was discovered, the Indian run- 
ners were placed on their track, and they were mercilessly 
murdered. The first one was killed while lying asleep 
from exhaustion, by an Indian named Jackson, who has 
since boasted of the deed, and who, in years after, led a 
person to the spot where he committed the murder ; the 
body had been burned, but the charred remains of the skull 
and larger bones marked the spot. 



FIEND-LIKE DEEDS OF CERTAIN MORMON WRETCHES. 243 

The appeal was found near the dead body of the man by 
Jackson, who gave it to a Mormon gentleman ; he kept it 
for some time without allowing any one to know that it was 
in his possession ; but one day he showed it to one of the 
men who was nearly concerned in the massacre, and he 
deliberately tore it in pieces on the spot. Its first possessor 
has no sympathy with the deed, and expresses himself 
ready to come forward at any time and testify to the con- 
tents of the letter, of which he is perfectly well aware. In 
speaking of it to a gentleman connected with t the western 
press, he is said to have exclaimed, " I believe that if the 
Masons and Oddfellows knew how many of their brethren 
were in the train, they wouldn't let the accursed murderers 
go unpunished." It must be that in some manner they 
will be punished. 

" The mills of the gods grind slowly," 

to be sure, but they grind with exactness, and retribution is 
certain to follow crime sooner or later. 

The other two men were overtaken at Virgin Hills, 
stripped of their clothing, and told to run for their lives ; a 
shower of arrows was sent after them, wounding them 
severely; one could scarcely crawl, and his captors soon 
overtook him, and, binding him to a stake, piled fagots 
about him and set fire to them, and exulted with fiendish 
glee over the death-agonies of their victim. 

The last one made his way to the camp of the Vagas 
Indians, who, pitying his condition, gave him clothing and 
food. He then tried to make his way to California, but was 
met by Ira Hatch and his band of Mormons and Indians, 
and was put to death by slow torture. 

In the mean time the condition of the besieged grew worse. 
Day by day passed, and their sufferings constantly in- 
creased ; still they kept courageous hearts, and looked for 
the help that must come. Their food was nearly gone, their 
increasing thirst was rendered more unendurable, because 



244 WITHOUT HOPE! 

just beyond they could hear the ripple of the water, as the 
little brook danced on in merry mockery of their sufferings. 
And yet not a murmur of complaint was heard ; men and 
women looked calmly into each other's eyes, and parched lips 
spoke words of cheer and hope, to which, alas ! the heavy 
hearts did not respond. On one thing they were determined ; 
they would die, but they would never surrender. Their 
wives and children should never be given over to such mercy 
as they would meet at the hands of their brutal enemies. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
BETRAYED AND MURDERED. TRIAL OF JOHN D. LEE. 

The "White Flag of Peace." Friends in the Distance. A Cruel 
Deception. Mormon Fiends plan their Destruction. John D. Lee's 
Crocodile Tears. " Lay down your Arms, and Depart in Peace." A 
Horrible Suspicion. The Massacre. The Scene of Blood. No 
Mercy for Women and Children. Robbed and Outraged. Mur- 
dered by Lee's Own Hand. The Field of Slaughter. Dividing the 
Property of the Murdered Ones. Taken to the Tithing-House. 
Haunted by Spectres. John D. Lee's Trial. Instigated by Brigham. 
No Justice in Utah. Lee's Confession made to Shield the False 
Prophet. Eight Mormon and Four Gentile Jurors. What was to be 
Expected. 



'HE morning of the i7th of 
September dawned. The 
hearts of all the doomed 
party were sick with de- 
ferred hope. Suddenly a 
cry of relief broke from 
the corral. A wagon, 
filled with white men, 
bearing a white flag, was 
seen coming down the 
Meadows. Succor was at 
hand. Their terrible tor- 
tures were over. Strong 
men wept like children at 
the thought that their be- 
loved ones, for whom they 

had agonized through all those dreary days and nights of 

siege, were safe at last. 

The deliverers were none other than John D. Lee and 

the officers of the Mormon militia. Immediately upon 




MURDERED BY LEE'S OWN HAND. 



246 CRUELLY BETRAYED. 

their appearance the "Indians" ceased firing, and, in their 
fancied security, the besieged emigrants rushed outside the 
corral to meet their rescuers. How their hearts warmed 
towards Brigham Young and the Mormon people. All the 
wrongs they had suffered at .their hands dwindled into 
insignificance before this last crowning act of humanity. 
Into the sympathizing ears of their saviors they poured the 
terrible story of their sufferings . Lee is said to have wept 
while listening to the recital, and, at the end, assured them 
of his deep sympathy, and promised all the relief in his 
power. 

How much he would be able to do for them he was una- 
ble to say until he had consulted with the Indians, and he 
went back, and pretended to hold a consultation. The 
people were sure he could save them, since he was Indian 
agent, and must necessarily have much influence over them, 
and their joy was unspeakable. He soon returned with the 
welcome news that they were free, but on condition that 
they would lay aside their arms. There was no thought 
of treachery in their hearts, and, without a moment's hesita- 
tion, they complied with the strange conditions. They laid 
aside their trusty rifles, that had stood them in such good 
stead during all the days of the siege ; they gave up re- 
volvers and bowie-knives, faithful companions on their 
dreary journey, and came forth from their intrenchments 
unarmed, and as defenceless as the children themselves. 

As they issued from the corral a guard of soldiers was 
drawn up to escort them to a place of safety. The men 
were separated from the women and children, and were 
placed in front, while the latter were in the rear. It seems 
almost strange that no suspicion of their deliverers entered 
their minds at this. But why should even curiosity be 
aroused? The white flag was waving over their heads, 
and they were under the protection of United States militia. 
Where that flag waved, they were safe and free. 

Notwithstanding their exhaustion, and their weakness 



FIENDISH BRUTALITIES. 247 

from hunger, they marched joyously along, exulting in 
their regained freedom, when suddenly the troops halted, 
and the fatal order to fire was given by Lee, and repeated 
down the line by all the under officers. In an instant it 
flashed across the helpless victims how cruelly they had 
been betrayed, and, with shrieks of the wildest agony, 
they fell bleeding to the earth. Young and old shared the 
same fate. Gray-haired men and beardless boys were 
alike cut down. The Indians, who were ambushed near 
by, joined the Mormons in the work of slaughter, until not 
one of all the men was left. 

And what of the helpless women and children? All the 
womanhood within revolts at the thought of their horrible 







MURDERING THE WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

fate, and my woman's soul cries out in agony at the recital 
of the sufferings of these helpless ones. Some of them 
were killed by their husbands, fathers, or brothers, 
happy souls, who thus escaped the most cruel torture. 
Death was nothing, compared to the fiendish brutalities 
which they suffered before they were allowed to die>. 
Some of the women were too ill to walk. They were 
taken outside the corral, driven up to the scene of the mas- 
sacre, stripped of their clothing, shot, and their mutilated 
bodies thrown down in a pile, with the rest. 



248 MURDERED BY LEE'S OWN HAND. 

To the honor of many of the men be it said, the 
younger ones, especially, they refused to join in this hor- 
rible work, and some of them made efforts to protect these 
helpless women from their fiend-like tormentors. I used 
often, while living in Payson, to see a man named Jim 
Pearce, whose face was deeply scarred by a bullet wound, 
made by his own father, while the brave young fellow was 
trying to assist a poor girl, who had appealed to him for 
succor. Another girl threw herself on her knees before 
Lee's son, and clinging to him, begged for mercy. His 
heart was touched, and he promised to spare her, but his 
father shot her while she knelt. Lee also shot another girl, 
who had drawn a dagger to defend herself from him. 

Even the children were not spared. They shared the 
horrible fate of their parents. In vain they begged for 
mercy. The bloodthirsty brutes to whom they knelt had 
no feeling of pity or compassion. They laughed at their 
entreaties, and mocked their terrified cries. Their little 
throats were cut, and their bodies thrown carelessly in a 
heap. Only seventeen of those supposed to be too young 
to remember any of the occurrences of this fearful day 
were saved ; and of these seventeen, two were disposed of 
after reaching Salt Lake City, for making some remarks 
concerning the massacre, which showed an intelligence 
beyond their years. It is said on how good authority I 
do not know that Daniel H. Wells, mayor of Salt Lake 
City, one of the First Presidency, Second Counsellor to 
Brigham, Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion, killed 
one of these babes with his own official hand. As I said 
before, I cannot vouch for the authenticity of this rumor, 
but those who know the man best are the most ready to 
believe it. He is certainly capable of an act like this. 

The whole affair lasted but about half an hour, when the 
assassins rode away, carrying all the clothing and baggage 
of the emigrants, leaving the bodies to the wolves and 
ravens. But they were past hurt now, and wolves' fangs 



ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THREE VICTIMS. 



249 



or ravens' beaks were powerless to harm, although they 
might lacerate the already mutilated bodies until they 
should be past all recognition. A person who visited the 
field of slaughter eight days after the massacre gave the 
following account of it. He said men, women, and children 
were strewn over the ground, or were thrown into piles. 
Some were shot, others stabbed, and others had their 
throats cut. They were entirely stripped of clothing, and 
their bodies were mutilated by the wolves. There were 




SCENE AFTER THE MASSACRB. 

one hundred and twenty-seven bodies in all. These, with 
the three men who were killed while undertaking to bring 
assistance, another who was shot outside the corral, but 
whose body could never be found, and the two children 
who were murdered at Salt Lake City, made one hundred 
and thirty-three victims of this fearful and unparalleled 
assassination. 

The spoils were carried to Cedar City, and placed in the 
tithing-office there, after the Indians had received their 
share. It is told by a man, who then was a mere boy, that 



250 SELLING THE EMIGRANTS* PROPERTY. 

the night that the spoils were brought into town he and 
two companions slept in the tithing-office. The cellars 
were filled with everything that had been taken from the 
emigrants, and the bloody garments, stripped from- the dead 
bodies, were thrown down ori the floor. One of the men 
connected with the massacre came in, and threw himself 
down to sleep, without perceiving the boys. Scarcely had 
the place become quiet with the peculiar, painful silence 
which night brings, when suddenly the room they were in, 
and the cellar beneath it, where all the plunder was stored, 
resounded with cries, groans, sobs, and the most piercing, 
agonized shrieks. The guilty man jumped from his couch 
and fled out into the night, locking the doors after him. In 
vain the terrified boys tried to force the lock. It remained 
fast and firm, and still the wails and cries pierced the air. 
They were almost dead with terror, and, clambering up to 
the roof, managed to escape from the haunted spot. Noth- 
ing can induce this man to believe that his imagination 
played him a trick. " I know," he says, " that the spirits 
of these foully-murdered men and women were in the 
tithing-house that night." It is not the first time, by any 
means, nor the last, that a Mormon public building has 
been haunted. 

The property of the emigrants was sold at public auc- 
tion, in Cedar City, by Bishop John M. Higbee, and they 
were readily bought by the eager saints. To this day, 
jewelry is worn in Salt Lake City, and teams are seen in 
the streets, that are known to have belonged to the fatal 
emigrant train. A lady in Salt Lake City was one day 
showing a silk dress and some jewelry to some friends, in 
the presence of one of the children who had been saved 
from the massacre. The little one, on catching sight of 
the dress, burst out into a frantic fit of weeping, and be- 
tween the sobs cried out, " O, my dear mamma ! That is 
her dress; she used to wear it. Where is my mamma? 
Why doesn't she come for me ? " It is said that other chil- 



TRYING TO CONCEAL THE CRIME. 251 

dren identified clothing and trinkets which they had seen 
worn by members of the party. Indeed, these children 
remember more than their captors fancy ; else they would 
not have been allowed to have left the Territory, as many 
of them have done, having for the most part been returned 
to their friends in the States. 

My valued friend and travelling companion, Mrs. Cooke, 
had two of them under her charge for some time, and she 
has told me that they recognized John D. Lee, and one of 
them said one day, very quietly, but very determinedly, 
" When I get to be a man I will go to the President and 
ask him for a regiment of soldiers, and I will bring them 
here to kill the men who murdered my father and mother 
and brother, but I \vill kill Lee myself. I saw him shoot 
my sister, and I shall not die happy unless I kill him." Mrs. 
Cooke says they used often, in their childish prattle, to tell 
events of the massacre, which showed that they knew per- 
fectly what part Lee and his confederates had in the affair. 

On their return from the scene of the massacre, the lead- 
ers determined to conceal the crime, but although they 
kept quiet a year, after that they were unable to refrain 
from speaking. Lee himself was the first to disclose the 
fate of the party. Like the Ancient Mariner, he went up 
and down compelling every person whom he met to listen 
to his story of an emigrant train that had been murdered 
by the Indians. By and by it was faintly rumored that the 
Indians were not alone in their work of destruction, but 
that they were assisted by the white men. Then the ru- 
mors grew louder, and some of the participants, overcome 
with remorse, confessed their complicity in the crime. 

A short time since a man died in Sevier Valley, who was 
at the Mountain Meadows. He always imagined that he. 
was followed by spectres, and he grew haggard and worn 
from constant terror. " Brigham Young," he used to say, 
" will answer for the murder of one hundred and twenty 
innocent souls sent to their graves at his command." On 



252 "THE COLD CALM FACES OF THE DEAD," 

his death-bed he besought those watching by him to pro- 
tect him from the spirits that were hovering near him, 
waiting to avenge themselves, and he died in the fearful 
ravings of a horrible terror. Another man, much younger 
than the one referred to above, was also literally haunted 
to death. "Would to God," he would cry in the bitterest 
agony, " that I could roll back the scroll of time, and wipe 
from it the damning record ; the terrible scenes at Moun- 
tain Meadows haunt me night and day. I cannot drive 
them away." He has been known to drive out for a load 
of hay, and return quickly in terror, leaving his team in 
the field. He used to say that the cold, calm faces of the 
dead women and children were never out of his sight. 

And what of the mangled bodies, and " the cold, calm 
faces " that were left upturned to the September sky? They 
were the prey of wolves and vultures ; but the bones were 
collected by an old Mormon, who had no sympathy with 
the deed of blood, and buried in the hollow they had dug 
inside the corral. It was a literal labor of love. Alone 
he performed the last act of kindness, a task which was 
disagreeable enough, and one that of necessity was done 
hurriedly. The wild beasts again dug up the bones, and 
they were strewn all over the plain ; there they remained 
until 1858, when the government sent General Carlton to 
bury the bones decently. A large cairn of stones was 
built by the soldiers to mark the resting-place of the re- 
mains, and General Carlton erected a cross of red cedar, 
on which was inscribed the words, "Vengeance is mine, I 
will repay, saith the Lord." At the other end of the mound 
was a stone, with the inscription, " Here, one hundred and 
twenty men, women, and children were massacred in cold 
blood, early in September, 1857. They were from Arkan- 
sas." The cross was destroyed by the order of Brigham 
Young, after a visit to the spot. It was the first promise 
of payment that he ever rejected ; and this, in spite of his 
destruction of it, will yet be forced upon him. 



THE TRIAL OF JOHN D. LEE. 253 

The trial of Lee, which has taken place since the fore- 
going narrative was written, shows more clearly than any- 
thing I can say, the ascendency which Brigham Young has 
over this people, and the utter futility of expecting any- 
thing like justice in a court where this man's followers are 
allowed to sit on a jury. 

Of what value, think you, do they regard any oaths 
which they may take to serve with fairness, and to be un- 
biassed, except by such testimony as may be offered in 
court? If they are good Mormons, they have received 
their Endowments ; and the oaths which they took when 
they went through with that rite, are a thousand times more 
binding than those that they take in court, which they re- 
gard as a mere form, without meaning, and which they 
are not only allowed by the church to violate, but which 
they are bound to break, unless the cause of the church 
can be furthered by keeping them, in which case nothing 
can exceed their loyalty. 

Unsuccessful as the trial was, it yet has been productive 
of one good result. It has forced the details of this fiendish 
massacre upon the attention of the entire community. There 
is no journal in the country, no matter how small or unob- 
trusive, which has not had brief but concise reports of 
the trial, and which has not expressed decided opinions 
upon the result. 

A greater farce was never played before a larger or 
more disgusted audience than this which has just ended in 
Utah. It is a sarcasm upon justice, a gross, hideous bur- 
lesque from beginning to end. I have seen surprise ex- 
pressed at the termination in some of the eastern journals. 
That shows how little they understand the autocratic man- 
ner in which the Territory is ruled by Brigham Young, 
and how impossible it is, under existing laws, to bring to 
justice any of his followers. I could have prophesied what 
the ending would be from the moment in which the jurors 
were drawn. Eight Mormons and four Gentiles, what 
could it be but "disagreement?" 



254 EIGHT MORMONS AND FOUR GENTILES. 

As earnest as the prosecution was, and as determined to 
sift the matter to the very bottom, and get at the real truth 
of the case, without regard to whoever might be implicated, 
it was balked in every endeavor, not to prove the guilt of 
the prisoner, and others higher in authority than he, but to 
influence the jury to act according to the evidence. In the 
face of the most conclusive evidence, which the defence 
were utterly powerless to refute, and indeed did not even 
attempt to move, the Mormon jurors voted solid for acquit- 
tal, and, to his .endless shame be it recorded, induced one 
Gentile to vote with them. The other three stood firm, 
and would neither be coaxed nor bribed. They saw the 
right, and refused to desert it. Their companion, as many 
another has done, sold his principle for Mormon favor. 
He was in love with a Mormon girl, and hoped, by pan- 
dering to the Mormon leader's desires, to obtain her. It 
will be but a step further into the Mormon Church, and 
when he has taken that step, and gone through the Endow- 
ment House, he will be in the place where he properly be- 
longs, and no doubt will make a willing tool for the priest- 
hood to use. 

The trial strengthened the accounts which have already 
been given of the massacre; and, in fact, established the 
truth of the whole horrible affair, in its most brutal detail, 
and so fully that the defence did not attempt to overthrow 
the proof, but spent its time in assailing the witnesses, and 
trying to prove that the emigrants poisoned an ox, and 
then attempted to sell it to the Indians, who found out the 
treachery, and massacred the party, while Lee and others 
wept and wrung their hands, and prayed that the lives 
might not be sacrificed. 

The prosecution proved that Brfgham Young gave orders 
regarding the disposal of the property of the murdered 
party, and ordered the men who brought him the news to 
say nothing about the matter even to each other. Abso- 
lute silence was imposed upon them, and the ones who gave 



MAKING LEE THE SCAPE-GOAT. 255 

them the orders, themselves followed the "counsel" which 
they gave. The defence failed utterly to prove that Brig- 
ham was ignorant of the affair, and even his deposition, 
from its very weakness, inconsistency, and contradictory 
statements, strengthens the prosecution, and establishes 
more firmly in the popular mind the belief in his complicity 
in the matter, and his approval at least, if not his actual 
instigation. 

There was a feeling throughout the trial that Brigham 
Young and the Mormon Church were arraigned in the per- 
son of John D. Lee, and the defence exhibited their under- 
standing of the case, by endeavoring to clear the authori- 
ties, and paying very little heed to the real defendant in 
the case, rather allowing the odium to rest on him than to fall 
where it more properly belonged. For although Lee merits 
well the title which he bears, that of "Butcher Lee," there 
is no doubt that he was acting under orders from head- 
quarters, and that his blind and unquestioning obedience 
was the effect of religious fanaticism. 

It was expected that his confession would reveal beyond 
a doubt the truth of the whole matter, and place the blame 
where it had belonged. It was well known, that since his 
cavalier treatment by the church, he had been impatient 
of the odium which he had borne for so long a time, and 
had threatened openly to " shift the responsibility from his 
own shoulders, and place it on those whose business it was 
to bear it." His wives and children, hating the disgrace, 
and questioning the President's right to make a scape-goat 
of their husband and father, urged him to make a full con- 
fession, and take only what of blame belonged to him. 
The document was prepared, and was about to be made 
public, when consternation seized upon his counsel. They 
labored with him, and brought such influence to bear upon 
him, that the unsafe paper was destroyed, and another sub- 
stituted in its place, in which Lee merely gave the details 
of the massacre, but failed to implicate any of the higher 
ecclesiasts. 



256 NO JUSTICE IN UTAH. 

The trial had been appointed for the I2th of July, in the 
Second District Court, held at Beaver, Southern Utah, 
before Judge Jacob S. Boreman, who had been trying for 
some time, ever since the passage of an act of Congress, 
the 23d of June, 1874, which presented clashing between 
Federal and Territorial officers, to have some action taken 
toward punishing those persons who were shown to have 
been engaged in this Mountain Meadows assassination. 

Judge Boreman's attempt to bring the Mountain Mead- 
ows' assassins to justice, the first that had been made since 
the failure of Judge Cradlebaugh's essay to find indictments 
against any of the persons connected with the massacre, 
resulted in finding a joint indictment against William H. 
Dame, John D. Lee, Isaac C. Haight, John M. Higbee, 
Philip Klingensmith, William C. Stewart, Samuel Jukes, 
George Adair, Jr., and some others, for conspiracy and 
murder. Warrants for their apprehension were issued, 
but after a long search only two were apprehended Lee 
and Dame. 

Then came another long delay. It was almost impossi- 
ble to obtain witnesses to testify. This was the same 
trouble which had sixteen years before beset Judge Cradle- 
baugh ; and District Attorney Carey, who prosecuted the 
case for the people, was almost discouraged lest he too 
should fail to sustain his case. " Hold your tongues " has 
been so long a vital lesson, that the Mormon people find it 
difficult work to wag them. Over one hundred subpoenas 
were issued, but it was impossible to collect the witnesses. 
Some of the least important obeyed the summons, but those 
who knew the most about the affair, and whose testimony 
would be of the most vital interest and service, failed to put 
in an appearance. Among these, and the witness above 
all others on whom the prosecution relied, was Philip Klin- 
gensmith, formerly a bishop in Cedar City, a participant in 
the massacre, who wished to ease his conscience by a full 
confession. He had been known to talk very freely to out- 



AN IMPORTANT WITNESS. 257 

siders on the subject, and it was he who was driven in such 
terror from the Cedar City tithing-house the night after the 
spoils had been brought thither. Another participant, 
named Joel White, was also among the missing, but, for- 
tunately for the prosecution, both were finally found, and 
brought to Beaver. 

The first week was devoted to legal skirmishing, and the 
preparation of Lee's confession. The counsel had agreed 
that he should confess fully. It was known that the men 
who appeared as actors on this field of carnage were but 
instruments in the hands of their authorities who had 
planned this deed, and the object of the prosecution was to 
obtain a knowledge of the instigators of this " deed of 
deathless shame." 

Failing in this, and feeling assured that Lee was not act- 
ing in good faith,, they refused to receive the statement. 
His own counsel, Wells Spicer, Judge Hoge, and W. W. 
Bishop, were anxious to save their client, no matter what 
other guilty parties might suffer. They were true to his 
interests, and had they been acting by themselves, there is 
little doubt that the confession would have been complete, 
and would have implicated the whole of the First Presi- 
dency. But fearing this, the church attorneys, Sutherland 
and Bates, obtruded their services upon the defence, solici- 
tous to shield this precious trio, Brigham Young, George 
A. Smith, and Daniel H. Wells, no matter at whose 'ex- 
pense. They worked upon Lee's feelings to such an extent 
that they evidently induced him to withhold his original 
statement, and substitute in its place a partial and pal- 
pably incomplete confession. I am certain that this is the 
case, and my belief is strengthened by contrasting the 
opening of the statement, with its somewhat indignant tone, 
and the air of sincerity with which it is invested, with the 
cautious, calculating, insincere tone of the latter portion. 
The statement opens as follows : 



258 JOHN D. LEE'S CONFESSION. 

" It now becomes my painful, though imperative duty, to chron- 
icle the circumstances that led to, and fully describe that unfortu- 
nate affair, known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre, in Utah 
history, which has been shrouded in mystery for the last fifteen 
years, causing much comment, excitement, and vindictive feeling 
throughout the land. The entire blame has rested upon the Mor- 
mon people in Utah. Now, in justice to humanity, I feel it my 
duty to show up the facts as they exist, according to the best of 
my ability, though I implicate myself by so doing. I have no 
vindictive feelings whatever against any man or class of individ- 
uals. What I do is done from a sense of duty to myself, my 
God, and to the people at large, so that the truth may come to 
light, and the blame rest where it properly belongs. 

" I have been arrested on the charge of being engaged in the 
crime committed at the time and place referred to. I have been 
in close confinement over eight months since my arrest. I was 
in irons three months of the time during my confinement. For 
the last seventeen years in fact, since the commission of the 
crime I have given this subject much thought and reflection. 
I have made the effort to bear my confinement with fortitude and 
resignation, well knowing that most of those engaged in this un- 
fortunate affair were led on by religious influences, commonly 
called fanaticism, and nothing but their devotion to God, and their 
duty to Him, as taught to them by their religion and their church 
leaders, would ever have induced them to commit the outrageous 
and unnatural acts, believing that all who participated in the lam- 
entable transaction, or most of them, 'were acting under orders 
which they considered it their duty, their religious duty, to 
obey. I have suffered all kinds of ill-treatment and injury, as 
well as imprisonment, rather than expose these men, knowing the 
circumstances as I do, and believing in the sincerity of their mo- 
tives, as I always have done ; but I have a duty to perform, and 
have, since I was arrested, become convinced that it was not the 
policy of the government, or the wish of the court, to punish 
those men, but rather to protect them, and let the blame rest on 
their leaders, 'where it justly and lawfully belongs. 

" After much thought and meditation, I have come to this con- 
clusion : that I would no longer remain silent on this subject, but, 
so far as I can, bring to light the circumstances connected there- 



BRIGHAM YOUNG'S COMPLICITY. 259 

with, and remove the cloud of mystery that has so long obscured 
the transaction, and seemed to agitate the public mind. Believing 
it to be my duty as a man, a duty to myself, to my family, to my 
God, and to humanity, to cast aside the shackles so long holding 
my conscience, I now submit the facts, so far as I know them, 
stating nothing from malice, or for the purpose of revenge, with- 
holding nothing that I can state of my own knowledge, and will- 
ing that the world may know all that was done, and why the 
acts were committed." 

In this introduction, Lee plainly accuses the leaders of the 
church. The men "were acting under orders." Whose? 
They could not have emanated from the local officers of 
the church, since it would have been in no wise a "reli- 
gious duty " to obey orders from men who were no higher 
in authority than themselves. Alas for Lee's " conscience," 
the shackles were more firmly bound than he supposed. 
His sense of duty to his family, his God, and humanity 
was blunted by the superior sense of duty to the church, 
and he failed utterly to do what he had so faithfully prom- 
ised in the opening sentences of his confession. 

After the disappointing delay caused by the preparation 
of Lee's confession, the trial went steadily on to the end. 
The prosecution brought forward about twenty witnesses, 
who corroborated the incidents of the massacre, and testi- 
fied that the feeling against the party was aroused by 
George A. Smith, who everywhere preceded the train, and 
forbade the people selling them anything, under pain of the 
church's displeasure. 

It was shown, too, that when, on being refused food at 
Cedar City, the last place at which they stopped, they asked 
where they could obtain it, they were told, at Mountain 
Meadows ; which assists in establishing more fully the fact 
that the whole affair was premeditated, and that the party 
were deliberately led to their destruction. 

But it remained for Philip Klingensmith to give the most 
thorough and vivid account of the whole massacre, from 



26O "l FIRED AT MY MAN." 

its very beginning, when the first plans were laid, until the 
day when he and Lee, and a man named Charley Hopkins, 
met in Brigham Young's office. He received them very 
cordially, took them to his barn to show them his fine 
horses, and treated them with great hospitality. He told 
Klingensmith, who had charge of the property, to turn it 
over to Lee, as he was Indian agent, and the disposal of it 
more properly belonged to him. He then turned to them, 
and said, "What you know about this affair do not tell to 
anybody ; do not even talk about it among yourselves." 

Klingensmith, with some others, strongly opposed the 
destruction of the emigrants, and made every effort to pre- 
vent it, but to no purpose ; for Lee had received instructions 
from headquarters^ and their fate was decided. The de- 
scription of the attack, the steady repulse, the decoy from 
the corral, and the wholesale assassination, was given ex- 
actly as it has been narrated, scarcely varying at all, even 
in the slightest detail, ending with the interview with Pres- 
ident Young. 

Five participants in the massacre appeared as witnesses 
during the trial, but not one of them, with the exception of 
Klingensmith, admitted that he fired upon the emigrants. 
In his cross-examination, Judge Sutherland said, "I sup- 
pose you fired over the heads of the emigrants ? " "I fired 
at my man," was the reply, " and I suppose I killed him." 

I think the transaction has never seemed so horribly real 
to the outside public, as it has since this man's testimony 
was published to the world. Given as it was by a remorse- 
ful participant, under the solemnity of a judicial investiga- 
tion, it impressed the people with its reality, and the press 
of the country has been unanimous in its expressions of 
horror, and its desire that vengeance should fall speedily on 
the heads of the guilty instigators. 

The pitiful defence only deepened the feeling of indigna- 
tion, and when, in the face of all the evidence, that was 
entirely unrefuted, the jury disagreed, I think the eyes of 



THE PITIFUL, RESULT. 26l 

the nation were at last opened to the utter futility of ex- 
pecting justice to be done, when Mormons are on trial in a 
Mormon community. 

The end is not yet. One of the chief instigators, George 
A. Smith, has passed on to a higher tribunal, where Jus- 
tice is not blindfold, and from whose decisions there is no 
appeal. The other is left, for what fate no one yet can tell. 
It may be that his punishment will not be given him here ; 
that no earthly judge shall ever pass sentence upon him. 
But, for all that, retribution is none the less certain, and the 
measure of suffering which he has meted out to others shall 
be meted out to him. 

In the mean time Justice will not rest. The spirit of the 
nation, fully aroused, demands a fairer trial, and it will have 
it. A jury must be found who shall not be bound by the 
shackles of bigotry, and held by oaths of disloyalty which 
they dare not break, but who will do their duty honestly, 
faithfully, and loyally. Then, and then only, shall truth 
triumph, and hypocrisy and wickedness meet their just 
reward. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE BLOOD-ATONEMENT. THE DESTROYING AN- 
GELS. DANITES AND THEIR DEEDS. 



Sweet, Saintly Sentiments. " He ought to have his Throat cut." Too 
many Gentiles About. The Spirit of " Blood- Atonement " still Cher- 
ished. Present Position of Apostates. How they used to be "Cut 
Off." " Cutting Men off below the Ears." How "Accidents" hap- 
pened to People who " Knew too Much." How Mr. Langford ex- 
pressed his Opinion too Freely. Mormon Friends kindly advise him 
to " Shut Up." " Be on your Guard ! " Poetry among the Saints : 
a Popular Song. Human Sacrifices Proposed! How Saints were 
taught to Atone for their Sins. " Somebody " ready to shed their 
Blood. "The Destroying Angels:' 1 ' 1 who they were, and what they 
Did. Saints told to do their own " Dirty Work." People who " ought 
to be Used Up." Murdering by Proxy ! Brigham Ycung proved 
to be the Vilest of Assassins. Hideous Crimes of Porter Rockwell 
and Bill Hickman. How Rockwell tried to Murder Governor 
Boggs. Hickman Confesses his Atrocious Crimes. Six Men Robbed 
of $25,000, and then "Used Up." Another Frightful Assassination. 
A Council of Mormon Murderers. The "Church" orders the Assas- 
sination of the Aikin Party. 

IT is only a very few weeks 
since two prominent officers 
of the Mormon Church were 
overheard in the street, in 
Salt Lake City, angrily dis- 
cussing some person who 
had "broken his covenants." 
Said one, 

"He ought to have his 
throat cut." 

"It wouldn't do," replied 
the other; "there are too 
many Gentiles about." 

It is now nearly twenty 
years since the eventful 



s S^^s.yl 

IJ^A.^ 'IN,V& 

$t ; ;.', "^ ; - .,;-:.,; ,,,. ..,>;$ A \ % 



SWEET, SAINTLY SENTIMENTS. A LITTLE MURDER. 263 

" Reformation " and its horrible teachings, and the effects are 
still felt. The principles that Young, and Grant, and 
Kimball, and their fellows taught then have not been for- 
gotten in all these years that have intervened, and it is only 
the presence of a large " Gentile " element that prevents 
the full exercise of the " Blood- Atonement." 

There never has been any real and impartial trial by jury 
in Utah. No twelve men could be found and sworn in who 
would dare to render an unbiassed verdict. This has been 
repeatedly seen in trials which have taken place. So true is 
it, that hundreds of Gentiles who are conscious of the justice 
of their several causes, would never think of bringing them 
into court during the existing state of affairs. They know it 
would be useless. Prejudice runs high ; in fact, so high that 
outsiders are perfectly incapable of realizing it. Still, murders 
have been fewer of late, for President Young knows that the 
eye of Uncle Sam is fixed with no small degree of sternness 
upon the City of the Saints ; and, more important still, Deseret 
has not yet been admitted into the Union as a State ! 

Yet the spirit of assassination still remains ; and were it 
unchecked, hundreds would be added to the already appall- 
ingly long list of men and women foully dealt with and 
sent into eternity without a moment's warning, for no crime 
at all except for daring to differ, if ever so slightly, from 
those in authority. If any person, deceived by the present 
peaceful attitude of the Mormon leaders and their constant 
boast that crime is almost unknown among them, thinks 
that they have altered in their real views at all since the 
days when they first advocated the " Blood-Atonement," he 
is very much mistaken. The feelings that they have been 
obliged to hide are bitterer because they have not dared to 
show them. 

An apostate nowadays is comparatively safe from any 
deeds of violence on their part. The most they can do is 
to abuse him through their newspapers, and curse him in 
the church, and give him over to the tender mercies of 



264 LIFE IN DANGER. GENTILES, BEWARE! 

Satan ; but as " Deseret " newspaper abuse is rarely heard 
outside of the church which it represents, and as the curs- 
ing does not produce physical hurt, and as Satan's mercies 
are to the full as tender as theirs, the Gentile does not mind 
anything about the whole of it, but goes on his way qui- 
etly enough. 

But twenty, fifteen, even ten years ago, an apostate's or 
Gentile's life was worth absolutely nothing. It was difficult 
to tell which of the two they hated with the most deadly 
hatred. The doom of either was irrevocably fixed, and it 
came, swift and sudden, often before he knew that danger 
menaced him. It did not need actual knowledge of a man's 
defection from the church, or that his disapprobation of the 
course pursued by leaders should be openly expressed ; it 
was enough that he should be merely suspected, and his 
.fate was just as certain, coming swift and sure, before he 
had even an opportunity of defending himself. 

A strict surveillance was kept over the movements of any 
: stranger in the city, and if his words or actions displeased 
.the Mormon spies, he never got far beyond city limits on 
.his onward journey before some sad accident befell him, 
which left him lying dead by the road-side. It was well 
when a stranger had any person to caution him against any 
expression of his mind against the people or their religion ; 
above all, against their beloved institution of polygamy, for 
they are very sensitive on this point, hating and dreading 
criticism in the very thing, above all others, that provokes 
and invites it. In this case he might escape with nothing 
more terrible than the consciousness of a spy dogging his 
every footstep and listening to every word. 

In the autumn of 1863, Mr..N. P. Langford, of St. Paul, 
Minnesota (the author of the "Yellowstone Articles," pub- 
lished a few years since in Scribner's Magazine) , in com- 
pany with several others, started from Montana for Salt 
Lake City. While on the journey they fell in with a party 
of Mormons, numbering eight, all men, and all bound 



HOW A GENTILE WAS " SHUT UP." 265 

for Salt Lake City. The two parties travelled together the 
remainder of the way, and became very friendly. As a 
natural consequence of this companionship, the talk turned 
upon Mormonism, and the arguments between them were 
frequent and interesting. 

One of the Mormons, named Cunningham, was a very 
intelligent man, and, while contending that his was the 
only true faith, would argue with Langford, without show- 
ing any ill feeling a very uncommon thing for a Mormon 
to do, by the way, since they are usually so very intolerant 
that they will not listen to an opponent with the least degree 
of patience, but, at the first sign of opposition, lose temper, 
and, instead of fairly arguing the question, shower anath- 
emas on the one who has dared to call their religion in 
question. It must be a weak position that can only be de- 
fended by vituperation. 

At night, while round the camp-fire, the Mormons would 
sing of Brigham as "the word of the Lord," and what 
Langford called a " string of nursery rhymes," in which 
Cunningham would sing the solo, and the rest the chorus. 
The idea conveyed in these rhymes, was, that only in Mor- 
monism was happiness to be found, and that they were glad 
that they were Mormons. 

After the party arrived in Salt Lake City, Cunningham 
called Langford on one side, and said to him, "You boys 
seem to be pretty good fellows, and I do not wish you to come 
to harm, and will give you a word of advice. Here in Salt 
Lake, you must not express yourselves about Mormonism 
as you have when you have talked with me ; for, if you do, 
your lives won't be worth a cent." 

"Why so? " asked Langford. 

"Because you will be assassinated," was the reply. 

Langford thanked him, and followed his advice. Soon 
afterwards he mentioned the fact to a Gentite with whom 
he had business, who in reply said, "You must do as he 
says, or you will never leave the city alive. Do you see 



266 M HE IS A MORMON SPY ! " 

that man with a gray coat? He is a Mormon spy, and is 
evidently watching you, and will watch you as long as you 
remain in the city. I say, as your Mormon adviser did, 
Be on your guard." 

During all the time that Langford was in the city he was 
followed by this man, and he said he felt sure that if one 
word in disparagement, or criticism, of. the Mormon peo- 
ple, or their religion, had crossed his lips, he would have 
been a dead man. He followed the advice he received, 
however, else the readers of Scribner would not have been 
so charmingly entertained afterwards, as they were by his 
readable articles. 

It may seem like digressing somewhat, but I cannot re- 
frain from quoting the " nursery rhymes " which the Mor- 
mons sang by the camp-fire, and which evidently impressed 
Langford with their absurdity. These rhymes are printed 
in the Mormon Sunday-school song-book, and are sung in 
Sunday-schools and religious meetings to the tune of " The 
Bonny Breast Knots." They are a most remarkable piece 
of religious composition. 

" What peace and joy pervade the soul, 
And sweet sensations through me roll, 
And love and peace my heart console, 
Since first I met the Mormons ! 

" They sing the folly of the wise ; 
Sectarian precepts they despise ; 
A heaven far above the skies 

Is never sought by Mormons. 

" To Sabbath meetings they repair ; 
Both old and young assemble there, 
The words of inspiration share : 
No less can suit the Mormons. 

" At night the Mormons do convene, 
To chat a while, and sing a hymn ; 
And one, perchance, repeat a rhyme 
He made about the Mormons. 



SING, "DADDY, I'M A MORMON!" 267 

" The Mormon fathers love to see 
Their Mormon families all agree ; 
The prattling infant on his knee 

Cries, ' Daddy, I'm a Mormon ! ' 

" As youth in Israel once decried, 
To wed with those that Heaven denied, 
So youth among us now have cried, 
' We'll marry none but Mormons.' 

" High be our heaven, the Mormons cry, 
Our place of birth, and when they die, 
Celestialize and purify 

This earth for perfect Mormons. 

" So, while we tread the foeman'sv ground, 
We'll make the trump of freedom sound, 
And scatter blessings all around, 
Like free and happy Mormons. 

[ Chorus to each verse.~\ 

" Hey, the merry, O, the busy, 
Hey, the sturdy Mormons ; 
I never knew what joy was 
Till I became a Mormon." 

I have heard women singing this chorus in some meet- 
ing, because they dared not be silent, when their faces 
belied the words of the song, and who I knew hated the 
life which they were compelled to live, and who had seen 
nothing but the most abject misery since they had entered 
it; whose lives were one long, terrible torture, and who 
would have been perfectly happy had they seen any way 
of escape from it. 

The dangers of non-Mormons in 1863, great as they 
were, were much less than in days just succeeding the 
"Reformation," which days have been rightly called "The 
Reign of Terror." It was a terrible time, indeed, and one 
fairly shudders to recall the blood-curdling atrocities that 



268 DESTROYING ANGELS. 

were committed at that period. All " in the name of the 
Lord," too, and as an exercise of religious faith. The 
Spirit of the New Testament, the Christ-like spirit, breath- 
ing out "peace on earth, good will to men," seemed en- 
tirely lost. The " Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter- 
Day Saints " forgot the sweet song of good-fellowship and 
love that the angels sang at the birth of Him whom they 
professed to follow, and by whose name they were called. 
The angry denunciations of fanatics and religious tyrants, 
and their servile followers, demanding blood and calling 
loudly and openly for the sacrifice of human life, and the 
destruction of all who dared to differ from them, drowned 
the angel voices. 

The old Mosaic spirit of retribution was abroad in all its 
most fearful force. " Altars of sacrifice " were loudly recom- 
mended, and the victims were advised to place themselves 
thereon voluntarily ; if they would not become willing sac- 
rifices, they became involuntary ones, for " somebody" took 
the matter in hand, and saw that the " atonement " was 
made. 

Usually this mysterious " somebody " was one of the 
" Danites," or " Destroying-Angels," a band of men regu- 
larly organized for the purpose of putting obnoxious per- 
sons out of the way. It is said that the band had its origin 
in Missouri, in the early days of Mormonism, before the 
settlement of Nauvoo. But they never became so very 
notorious until the "Reformation " times, when their peculiar 
talents were called into play, and their services into con- 
stant requisition. 

As loudly as the Mormon leaders talked to the people 
about doing their " dirty work " themselves, they, neverthe- 
less, shrank from soiling their own fingers ; so they em- 
ployed others to do their own share, and contented them- 
selves by saying that such a person ought to be " used up," 
and thinking no more of it until they received the news of a 
mysterious death. In this way Brigham Young has " man- 



THE MYSTERIOUS SOMEBODY ! 



aged " a great many murders, of which he would probably 
avow himself entirely guiltless, since his hand did not per- 
form the deed. But though his hand may have no blood- 
stain to haunt him, yet his heart must be terribly weighted 
with the load of guilt, which he cannot shake off, let him 
try as hard as he may. To look at the man, rosy and 
smiling, comfortable in every particular, you would never 
take him to be the hard, cruel despot he is. He looks 
.clean enough outwardly, but within he is rilled with moral 
rottenness to the very core. 

Among the men he has employed, the most notorious are 
Orrin Porter Rockwell, known familiarily as " Port" Rock- 
well, and William, or, as he is called, " Bill " Hickman. 
" Port " was an old friend and ally of Joseph Smith, hold- 
ing very much the same relation to him that " Bill Hick- 
man " has held to the present Prophet. Among other 
things of which he was accused, was the murder of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, of Missouri. 
Joseph Smith and he were 
both accused, the former 
of instigating the murder, 
the latter for committing 
it ; but Smith got free 
without a trial, through 
some quibble of the law, 
and Rockwell proved that 
he was in another place at 
the time of the attempted 
assassination. He was 
always near the Prophet 
in the time of danger, and, in return, Joseph promised 
" Port " that so long as he wore his hair uncut his life 
should be safe. So he still wears his hair long, in braided 
queues down his back, and he says that he shall live until 
every enemy of Joseph Smith is killed. 
His evil deeds will probably equal, if not outnumber, Bill 




BRIGHAM'S "DESTROYING ANGEL," "PORT" 
ROCKWELL, 



27O CONFESSION OF THE MURDERER HICKMAN. 

Hickman's ; but the latter, either touched with remorse at 
the remembrance of all the crimes which he had committed, 
or else annoyed because Brigham was so avaricious and 
parsimonious, and did not give him money enough, or be- 
cause he thought to save his own neck, turned State's 
evidence against Brigham and the other Mormon leaders, 
and made what he calls a " full confession " of his crimes. 
The list of them is perfectly appalling, and he claims that 
he did them all at Young's instigation. 

Among the most famous of the murders was that of 
Lobbs, and the massacre of the " Aiken party" a deed that 
stands in cold-blooded atrocity and treachery next to the 
" Mountain Meadow Massacre," and in which Port Rock- 
well figures also. It was a deed that could be committed 
by no one except the fanatical Mormons, who were drunk 
with " Reformation " excitement, and filled with an insane 
desire for blood-shedding. 

A party of six men, on their way from Sacramento, 
which city they had left in May, 1857, going, as it was sup- 
posed, to join Johnston's army. A part of the way they 
travelled with a party of Mormons who were ordered home 
from Missouri to assist in the "Mormon war." 

The Mormon party took a great liking to them all, and 
the relations between them were very amicable. John 
Pendleton, one of the Mormons, said in his testimony, 
w They were kind, polite, and brave, and always ready to 
do anything that was needed." Unfortunately for them, 
they got impatient at the slowness with which the Mormon 
party travelled, and so they left it, and hurried on. At 
Raysville, a town about twenty-five miles north of Salt 
Lake, they were all arrested on the charge of being gov- 
ernment spies. A few days after their arrest, the Mormon 
party came in, and Pendleton, it seems, instantly recog- 
nized their horses in the public corral. He at once in- 
quired what it meant, and on being told that the party had 
been arrested as spies, he replied, with an oath, that it was 



THE BISHOP " USES UP " A FEW MEN ! 27! 

impossible ; that they knew nothing about the army ; that, 
in fact, they had been their companions nearly all the way. 
" Can't help it ; we shall keep them," was the reply. When 
it is remembered that they had property with them to the 
amount of twenty-five thousand dollars, I think their deten- 
tion will be fully explained. 

They were tried as spies, and nothing being proved 
against them, they were promised safe-conduct out of the 
Territory, but they must be sent by the southern route. 
Four of them went, leaving the other two of their party in 
the city, accompanied by Rockwell, John Lot, a man of the 
name of Watts, and one other man. At Nephi, one hun- 
dred miles south of Salt Lake, Rockwell informed Bishop 
Bryant that the party were to be w used up " there. A 
council was held, and the Bishop appointed four more men 
to assist the four who had the men in charge. Among 
these last appointed was the Bishop's own counsellor, Pitch- 
for, and a man named Bigbee, who is now a Bishop. 
This part} r of four started early in the night, while the 
Aikens' party did not leave until daylight. When they 
reached the Sevier River, Rockwell said he thought they 
had better camp there, for they could find no other camp- 
ing-place that day ; so they stopped. Very soon the other 
party, who had been lying in wait for them, approached, 
and asked permission to camp with them, which was readily 
granted. 

The men were tired, and removing their arms, they were 
soon sound asleep. Their treacherous companions hovered 
over them like greedy birds of prey. Why didn't something 
warn those men of the terrible fate that was in store for 
them? But there came no voice of warning, and still they 
slept on as peacefully and as trustfully as though in their 
own homes among those who loved them ; and still the 
assassins hovered over them, waiting for what they did not 
know. They discussed the manner in which the deed 
should be done, and decided not to use fire-arms. Armed 



272 TOO TRUEl THE STORY OF A BLOODY DEED. 

with clubs, they crept stealthily up to where their sleeping 
companions lay, and dealt furious blows at them while they 
slept. Two of the men died without a struggle ; John 
Aiken was but slightly wounded, and rose to his feet to de- 
fend himsef, but received a shot from the pistol of one of the 
men which laid him senseless. ; A man called the " Colonel," 
believing the whole party were attacked by robbers, made 
his way into the bush, receiving as he went a shot in the 
shoulder from M Port " Rockwell's pistols. He succeeded in 




MURDER OF AIKEN PARTY. 

evading his pursuers, and made his way to Nephi, twenty- 
five miles distant, and arrived, pale and drenched with 
blood, at Bishop Foote's, whose guests the party had been 
during their stay in Nephi. He told his story, which was 
listened to with a surprise and horror that were well 
feigned. 

The three bodies were thrown into the river ; but in some 
miraculous manner, in spite of his wounds, John Aiken 
managed to get ashore, and, hiding in the bush, he heard 
one of the men ask Rockwell "'if all the damned Gentiles 
were dead; " to which the other replied, that they were, all 



"THEY WEPT LIKE CHILDREN!" 273 

but one, but that he ran away. Aiken lay quietly until he 
heard the assassins leave; then he made his way, as best 
he could, through the cold November night, drenched with 
water, sorely wounded, and with very little clothing, back 
to Nephi. He knew who were his attempted assassins, and 
he knew that to go to Nephi was to go directly back into 
the jaws of death ; but he did not know what else to do ; so 
he plodded painfully on until he reached the town, where 
he sank fainting at the door of the very first house which he 
reached. The woman of the house was surprised at his 
appearance, and told him that another one was at Bishop 
Foote's. "It is my brother ! " he exclaimed, and moved away 
from the door. No one attempted to stop him ; all were 
too much shocked at his appearance and manner, and he 
reached Bishop Foote's in safety, where he found not his 
brother, but the "Colonel." 

The meeting between them was heart-rending. They 
wept like children, and, falling into each other's arms, em- 
braced one another with all the tenderness of women. And 
the Mormon men looked on and coolly decided upon the 
manner of their death. 

Bishop Bryant came with condolences and regrets at their 
own misfortunes and the sad fate of their friends, extracted 
the balls, dressed the wounds, and advised them to return, 
as soon as they possibly could, to Salt Lake City. In the 
mean time the murderers were in Nephi, concocting a new 
plan of assassination. It is said that the men had saved a 
watch worth two hundred and fifty dollars, and a pistol. 
When they got ready to leave, a bill for thirty dollars was 
presented to them, which, having no money with them, they 
promised to settle directly on their return to Salt Lake. 
They were told that such an arrangement could not be 
made; so Aiken said, "Well, here is my watch and my 
partner's pistol ; you can take which you choose." With- 
out hesitation the Bishop took the pistol ; so leaving the men 
entirely unarmed. As he gave it to Foote, he turned to 
18 



274 GETTING RID OF THE CORPSES ! 

his friend and said, with the tears rolling down his face, 
" Prepare for death ; we shall never leave this Valley 
alive." 

Previous to their departure, John Aiken had commenced 
to write an account of the affair ; but it moved him so that 
he was utterly unable to proceed with it, and so he got a 
son of Bishop Foote, who had proved a good friend to them, 
to finish it for him. This account, by some mysterious 
good fortune, has never been destroyed. 

They had got but a few miles from Nephi when the 
driver of their wagon a Mormon, and in the plot stopped 
in front of an old cabin, and saying that he must water his 
horses, unhitched them and led them away. Instantly, two 
men stepped from the cabin, and before the doomed men could 
realize the situation, fired at them, killing them instantly ; 
they were then taken from the wagon, and, loaded with 
stone, put in a "bottomless spring," such as is often seen 
in Utah. 

While this atrocious act of villany was going on, Rock- 
well and his men had returned to Salt Lake, and taking the 
remaining ones of the party, had started southward with 
them, plying them with liquor constantly. One of them, 
named Back, feigned drunkenness ; but the other man was 
absolutely insensible when they reached the " Point of the 
Mountain," where it had been decided to make away with 
them ; or, in Danite parlance, "use them up." They were 
suddenly attacked with slung-shot. The drunken man was 
quickly despatched, without the slightest trouble ; but Back, 
who had been suspicious of his companions, and had been 
on the lookout for treachery, leaped from the wagon, and 
succeeded in outrunning his pursuers and in evading their 
bullets. He swam the Jordan, and came down to the city, 
where he told the whole story, creating a tremendous ex- 
citement. Brigham was terribly exercised, and sent at once 
for Hickman, telling him, in his usual refined manner, 
" The boys have made a bad job putting a man out of the 



BRIGHAM'S IDEA OF "A BAD STINK!" 275 

way. They all got drunk, bruised up a fellow, and he got 
away from them at the Point of the Mountain, came back 
to the city, and is telling all that has happened, which is 
making a bad stink." 

He then told him that he must find that man and use him 
up ; that, first of all, he was to go and find George Grant 
and William Kimball, both of whom were " generals " in 
the Utah militia, and consult with them about having him 
taken care of. Hickman found the " generals " decidedly 
disgusted at "Rockwell's mismanagement of the affair," as 
they termed it ; that something must be done, and that at 
once, and asked if Brigham had sent him up. On being told 
that he had, they informed him that they had arranged 
everything, and only wished him to carry out their arrange- 
ments and follow their instructions. 

They had planned with a man with whom Back had 
stayed a great deal on his first arrival in Utah, and in whom 
he had implicit confidence, to invite him to visit him. He 
was to come to town to fetch him to his home, which was 
about twelve miles from the city, and Hickman was to meet 
them on the way and despatch Back. He was to go a cer- 
tain road, which was very quiet, being but little travelled, 
was to drive white horses, and was to go very fast. Hick- 
man and another man named Meacham started out a little 
before sundown, and rode to the appointed spot. About 
dusk, the wagon with the white horses came swiftly along ; 
the two men were talking interestedly, and the poor victim 
of this treacherous plan was entirely off his guard : sup- 
posing himself to be with a friend, no thought of harm had 
entered his mind, and he was entirely unprepared for his 
cruel fate. Hickman and Meacham stepped suddenly out 
into the lonely road, and called to the driver to halt, at the 
same time firing at Back, shooting him through the head, 
and killing him instantly. The body was put into a ditch, 
a rag hung on a bush to mark the spot, and the assassins 
returned to George Grant's house to report their success. 



276 CRYING FOR VENGEANCE FROM THE GRAVE ! 

They found Grant, Kimball, and Port Rockwell all there, and 
after hearing the result of the expedition, all took spades 
and went out and buried the man. The next day Hickman 
gave an account of the affair to Young, who expressed him- 
self as delighted that he had been put out of the way. 

It was fourteen years before the truth of this affair was 
known. It was for a while shrouded in deep mystery, and 
the blood of the innocent victims cried out for retribution 
unheeded and unnoted for all those years. Now their fate is 
known beyond a doubt, and foremost in the list of assassins 
stands the name of Brigham Young. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FRIGHTFUL DEEDS OF BLOOD. MORMONISM IN ITS 
TRUE LIGHT. 

The Yates Murder. Brigham and the Leading Mormons Arrested for 
the Crime. Mr. Yates accused of being a Spy. He is Arrested and 
his Goods Seized. Bill Hickman takes possession of the Prisoner's 
Body. Brigham Embezzles his Gold. Another Saint steals his 
Watch. Hickman carries him to Jones's Camp. He is murdered 
there while Asleep. Hickman asks Brigham for a Share of the 
Spoil. The Prophet refuses; sticks to every Cent. Hickman's 
"faith "in Mormonism is Shaken. His fellow-murderer Apostatizes 
Outright. How Bill was finally " paid in Wives." He tries a little 
matter of Seventeen. Fiendish Outrage at San Pete. Bishop Snow 
contrives the Damnable Deed. The fate of his Victims. A Myste- 
rious Marriage. The Feather-beds and the Prophet. Mrs. Lewis 
comes to Live with Me. 



BOUT this time, when the 
Aiken party were cut off, 
as I have just related, by 
Brigham Young's express 
command, another horrible 
murder was perpetrated 
under circumstances of 
equal atrocity, which has 
since attracted a consid- 
erable amount of public 
attention. 

The reason of the Yates 
murder becoming so noto- 

B RIG H AM YOUNG'S FARM-HOUSE. ri US WaS nOt because it 

was so much worse than 
hundreds of other murders which have been committed in 




278 BRIGHAM EMBEZZLES THE VICTIM'S GOLD. 

Mormondom, but because Brigham Young and other Mor- 
mon officials were arrested as the murderers. Hickman 
turned State's evidence, and it is from his own account that 
I take the leading facts of the assassination. 

Yates was a trader on Green, River, and was accused by 
the Mormons of being a government spy. In those days, 
if no other charge could be brought against a person, he 
was called a "spy;" and this, of course, gave sufficient 
reason for putting him out of the way very summarily. 
The Mormons were also annoyed because, although among 
his stores he had a large quantity of ammunition, he would 
not sell it unless the purchasers bought other goods. They 
then accused him of supplying the army, and arresting 
him, carried him to Fort Bridger, while they took posses- 
sion of his store, stock, &c. 

Hickman was detailed to take the prisoner to the city, 
and Yates's money nine hundred dollars in gold was 
given him to carry to Brigham Young. His watch was 
"taken care of "by some one at Bridger. Hickman was 
accompanied by a brother of his, a Gentile, who was on a 
visit to him ; Meacham, the one who was connected with 
him in the murder of Back ; and a man of the name of 
Flack. On their way they were met by Joseph A. Young, 
who informed them that his father wanted Yates killed, and 
that he, Hickman, was to take him to Jones's camp, where 
he would receive further orders. The party arrived at 
camp that evening about sundown, and that night Yates 
was murdered as he lay asleep by the camp-fire. 

Hickman and Flack carried the news and the money to 
Brigham. He was very affable until Hickman suggested 
that, as they had been to much expense, he thought part of 
the money ought to come to them. His manner changed 
at once ; he reprimanded the men very severely, and told 
them that the money was needed for the church ; it must go 
towards defraying the expenses of the war. Flack aposta- 



THE DEVIL'S DIRTIKST WORK. ANOTHER "ANGEL!" 279 




LL HICKMAN, BRIGHAM'S "DESTROYING 

ANGEL." 



tized at once ; renounced .Mormonism on the spot ; it evi- 
dently didn't "pay" well enough to suit him, and Hickman 
himself was disgusted with the meanness of his master. 
He said that Brigham never 
gave him one dollar for all the 
" dirty work " he had done for 
him ; he never made him the 
slightest present. But he paid 
him, it is said, in wives. I 
think he had seventeen, and a 
large number of children. 

It was a class of men like 
this that the Reformation 
brought to the surface, and 
capital tools they made for a 
corrupt and bloodthirsty priest- 
hood. They were earnest dis- 
ciples of the " Blood- Atonement," and could slay an apos- 
tate or a Gentile with no compunctions of conscience. Yet, 
bad as they were, they did not equal in villany the men 
who employed them, and then refused to pay them. 

Everything, even the most trifling, that a person did, 
which was at all offensive to any member of the priesthood, 
was accounted apostasy, and punishment administered as 
speedily as possible. Hundreds of innocent victims have 
been sacrificed in this way, merely to gratify a petty, per- 
sonal revenge, or to remove some person who chanced to 
be distasteful. Fanaticism and bigotry were at that time at 
flood tide, and some of the most revolting and heart-sick- 
ening crimes were committed. Many of them were un- 
known outside the places where they occurred, and so 
common were they that, beyond an involuntary feeling of 
horror, and a vague sort of wonder as to who would be the 
next victim, nothing was thought of them; until, after the 
excitement began to die away, and the people had time to 
recall the scenes of horror, they began to realize, to a cer- 



28O HORRIBLE CRIMES IN THE SETTLEMENTS. 

tain extent, what they had been passing through. Some 
of the crimes were almost too shocking even to mention ; 
they could not be given in detail. 

Among the victims to priestly hatred and jealousy was a 
young man about twenty years of age, in San Pete County, 
named Thomas Lewis, a very quiet, inoffensive fellow, 
much liked by all who knew him, very retiring in his man- 
ners, and not particularly fond of gay society. He lived 
with his widowed mother, and the very sweetest, tenderest 
relations that can exist between a mother and child existed 
between them. 

Contrary to his usual habit, he attended a dancing-party 
one evening at the urgent and repeated entreaties of his 
friends, and during the evening he was quite attentive to a 
young lady-friend of his who was present, and with whom 
he was on terms of greater intimacy than with any other 
in the company. She knew his shy, retiring disposition, 
and seemed to take pleasure in assisting him to make the 
evening a pleasant one ; just as any good-natured, kindly 
girl will do for a young fellow whom she likes, and who she 
knows is ill at ease and uncomfortable. 

It happened that Snow, the Bishop of the ward in which 
the Lewis family lived, had cast his patriarchal eye on this 
young girl, and designed her for himself; and he did not 
relish the idea of seeing another person pay any attention to 
his future wife. He had a large family already, but he 
wished to add to it, and he did not choose to be interfered 
with. 

Lewis's doom was sealed at once ; the bewitched Bishop 
was mad with jealous rage, and he had only to give a hint 
of his feelings to some of his chosen followers, who were 
always about, and the sequel was sure. He denounced 
Lewis in the most emphatic manner, and really succeeded 
in arousing quite a strong feeling of indignation against him 
for his presumption in daring to pay even the slightest atten- 
tion to a lady who was destined to grace a Bishop's harem. 



THE SAN PETE OUTRAGE. 28l 

The closest espionage was kept upon him by the Bishop's 
band of ruffians, and one evening a favorable opportunity 
presented itself; he was waylaid, and the Bishop's sentence 
carried out, which was to inflict on the boy an injury so 
brutal and barbarous that no woman's pen may write the 
words that describe it. 

He lay in a concealed spot for twenty-four hours, weak 
and ill, and unable to move. Here his brother found him 
in an apparently dying state, and took him home to his 
poor, distracted mother, who nursed him with a breaking 
heart, until after a long time, when he partially recovered. 

He then withdrew himself from all his former friends, and 
even refused to resume his place at the table with the family. 
He became a victim of melancholia, and would take no 
notice of what was occurring around him. He staid with 
his mother for several years, when he suddenly disap- 
peared, and has never been heard of since ; his mother and 
brother made every effort to find him, but they could not 
obtain the slightest clew to his whereabouts. 

Whether this victim of priestly rule is dead or living must 
for ever remain a ,mystery. It is probable that the emis- 
saries of Bishop Snow have put an end to his existence. 
Yet during the whole of this affair the bishop was sustained 
by Brigham Young, who knew all about it. He has held 
his sacred office as securely as though the stain of human 
blood was not on his conscience ; he has been sent on a 
mission to preach "the everlasting gospel of Jesus Christ to 
the poor benighted nations of Christendom," and he has 
also taken more wives, which were sealed to him by 
Brigham Young in the Endowment House. 

_But_a_still_greater marvel is, thatthe^_jotlier_of_Biah.op 
Snow's poor victim still retains her faith in Mormonism, and 
since the cruel and disgraceful tragedy whiV.^_^pl'lvvVi )'"i "^ 
her-auUj'TTas beensaled__toBrigharn Young as one of his 
Hs~ri'oTpitv that moved flim to marry her, nor a de^" 



sire to comfort her and lighten her burdens ; but it was because- 
uiii thai lie C&uld advance nis own mierests. 



282 A MATRIMONIAL WATER-COURSE ! 

Mrs. Lewis is never mentioned among his wives, yet he was 
sealed to her about two years after his marriage to me. 
Brigham's matrimonial experiences hardly find a place here, 
but as Mrs. Lewis's alliance with the Prophet came about in 
a way through this tragedy, it may not be out of place even 
in this chapter on " Blood-Atonement." 

San Pete was filled with so many sad memories to Mrs. 
Lewis, after the terrible fate of her son, that she could not 
remain there, reminded as she constantly was of the affair ; 
so she removed to Provo, where she bought herself a very 
pleasant home, and, being a woman of considerable wealth, 
was living very comfortably, when Brigham commenced 
building a factory so near to her that it spoiled the beauty 
of the place and made it quite unpleasant. The agents then 
proposed to bring the water-course through her front yard 
an arrangement to which she objected most emphatically. 
The agents, shocked at her unwillingness to have her prop- 
erty spoiled for the sake of Brother Brigham's factory, 
rushed in breathless haste to the Prophet, and told him of 
Mrs. Lewis's rebellion. He instantly formed a plan of in- 
ducing her to surrender. He went at once to Provo, and 
presented himself to Mrs. Lewis with an offer of marriage, 
saying at the same time, " I know you have had a great 
deal of trouble, Sister Lewis ; you have suffered much for 
the sake of the gospel, and I pity you. I desire to do some- 
thing for you ; I wish in some way to comfort you ; so I 
think you had better become a member of my family." 
/* She was an old lady, with children all grown, and was 
perfectly independent of them or any one, and certainly had 
no need to marry for support. As the Mormons believe 
that no woman can enter heaven except some man go 
through the ordinances with her, very many are sealed in 
their old age to secure salvation ; but as her husband had 
been a good Mormon, and they had attended to all the im- 
portant matters, she was saved without prophetic interven- 
tion. She had no need to marry for a husband who should 



;L 



THE PROPHET MAKES LOVE TO THE WIDOW. 



283 



look out for her welfare, as her children were ready and 
willing to do anything she needed done in the way of busi- 
ness. So she informed Brother Brigham that she didn't see 
why she should marry at all. 

But Brother Brigham assured her that he wanted to marry 
as well for his own happiness as hers. He wanted her 
always near him, and it should be his first pleasure and 
business to look out for a nice place of residence for her, 
where he might look after her constantly. In fact he played 
the devoted and anxious lover with all theTearnestness ol a 
youth 



ho is wooing his first innamorata, an 




The Prophet'searnestness was not without effect, and 
Mrs. Lewis took her lover's proposal into serious considera- 
tionTwhile he waited^anxiqusly for an answer, with one"eye 
on the co vetecL front y nrf ^ * hi * ^^^ r Spring at thp w^^^wj- 



jwho actually concluded tn ar.rept; his prQposals. an^ absurd 
as it may seem, became o^ of ^ i>g "'""* ^ 
1 He was asnamed of himself after it was all over, and 
requested his bride to say nothing about " the transaction 
between them," as it was better that, for the present at 
least, no one but themselves should know anything about it. 
"They would not understand, you know," murmured he in 
his most drivellingly sweet accents. r hetrouble was, 

tr>r> 



saw the water-course running through the oncjrejttvfront 
yard 7>TffieJtasT"Mrs. Young'sThome. 

IrOTvefyshort time he began to talk about his farm-house, 
and extolling it as a most desirable residence. I was living 
there at the time, yet he said " it was plenty large enough 
for two families, and everything was arranged with such 
perfect convenience ; " so he begged that she would move 
there at once. He grew eloquent over the beauties of the 
situation, and said, " It is a perfectly splendid place, the 
nicest farm-place I ever saw in my life. I would give any- 



28 4 



AN OLD GOOSE AND HER FEATHER-BEDS I 



thing if my duties would permit me to live there ; but I am 
kept away by circumstances, and cannot even think of it as 
a permanent residence, ardently as I long to do so." He con- 
tinued, "You can raise all the fowls there that you desire ; it 
is a beautiful place for raising ducks and geese, and you 
may make as many feather-beefs as you wish." 

What greater inducements could he hold out to her? 
Dear to every old housekeeper's heart are her plump, soft, 
billowy feather-beds. We moderns are stifled by them ; 
they are oppressive, and suggestive of dust ; but she pats 
their rotundity with loving hands ; gives them many punches 




BRIGHAM WOOING WIDOW LEWIS. 

of affection, and builds a structure that is wonderful to be- 
hold in which she hospitably smothers her chance visitor, 
and, while he is sweltering in its embraces, tells him 
proudly that " that bed is live geese ! " The pride of Mrs. 
Lewis's heart was her feather-beds she wavered. 

Her sons were very reluctant to have her leave her own 
home, and expressed themselves quite strongly on the sub- 
ject when she mentioned it to them and asked their advice. 
Yet, in spite of their disapprobation, she concluded to go. 
Her husband was also her Prophet, and it might be that he 
spoke from inspiration. At all events, she would give heed 



TOO BUSY TO SEE HIS NEW WIFE ! 



to his words, and regard his wishes ; else what punishment 



deaf tocher children^; protestations, who, by the way/cuTT "' ' 



ard the call to the farm as 




Weneither of us likecTTliis arrangement 
firm believers in the theory that no one hcmse 
yet built large enough for two families. Yet we knew 
that it would not be wise to say anythi-ng to Brigham ; so 
we were as quiet as w r e could be, and awaited his own time 
for our separation, Mrs. Lewis was a very kind, patient 
woman, and I got very fond of her, and we got on admira- 
bly together in our forced companionship, and managed to 
live together until my house in the city was finished, which 
was about four months after she arrived at the farm. 

She said that she told Brother Brigham, most decidedly, 
that she had strong objections to moving into a house with 
another family, and he told me that he was intending to 
have me go to the city immediately, and that I would prob- 
ably be gone before she arrived at the farm. She post- 
poned her removal for some weeks after that, hoping 
that I w r ould have gone by that time, and the coast entirely 
clear. She found on her arrival that Brigham had grossly 
misrepresented, affairs at the farm. Nothing at all was as 
he had described it to her. This hoary old Claude Mel- 
notte deceived his ancient Pauline most cruelly in the vivid 
pictures which he drew of the elegance of her future resi- 
dence. 

She made it her first business to visit the Prophet and 
ask for some repairs to be made, which, by the way, 
were sadly needed, but he declared that he had no time 
to attend to them the same answer that he had made to my 
requests ever since I had lived there. _A busier man than 
Brigham Young, when hejwishes to be particularlyenF""^ 
HIM '1j ^rrn-juTrr "jam, ' I- believe; and his business is 
Always trTemost pressing, when any ot his wlves~ask him. 
to do anything for their comtbrt. ~| 



286 HOW BRIGHAM CHEATED THE OLD LADY. 

When she had lived at the farm a year, she told me that 
BlJglicUli lidd liPVflr keen trT see her nnr.p during all 
time: but that hq fond g 



was using it for factory purposes^ The water-course ran 
through her yard, her house was made an ofrice,jmd the 
Jvhol^^ajEe^yjaa,SQjch^Ja^d- and so entirely spoiled as a 
residence, that she never r.nuld pn then; agai" tfl-tivg Sh 
must, whether she would or not, live there until Brigham 
choseTto move her someaadiere else, or until nerrrnlHren 
could find some phicejbr her to go t;p^ She supports herself 
entirely, independently of the man who has swindled her 
out of her home and her property ; and the only, assistance 
she receives is from her children, who are very kind to her, 
annoyed as they were at her for giving up her home, and, 
above all, allowing it to fall into Brigham Young's hands. 
His duck-and-g-Qpgg g*y wai p 11 "nif^pfogo"*^^ rna^ 
use of merely to induce her to go to the farm ; and when 
she got there she very soon found that she would have _ 
those lovely feather beds, not, at least, by raising the._ 
fowls to supply the feathers. The Prophet's imagination 
had evidently run away with memory when he ardently 
painted the glories of the farm to his bride. This poor old 
lady was made a tool for the gratification of Brigham 
Young's avarice, as her son had been the victim to one of 
his followers jealous an^er. _She has little tn |^y p Mr>r- 
monism for. Its two leading doctrines, the "Celestial 
Marriage- " and " Blood-Atonement," nave, pretty thoroughly 
shut out happiness from her life, and rendered her in her old 
age lonely and dependent. 

A man named Thomas Williams came early to Utah, was 
a good Mormon, and embraced polygamy. He was a 
lawyer, and had acquired both wealth and influence in his 
profession. He was, however, a very independent man, 
and a man of very decided opinions. He had differed from 
Brigham on many political questions, and he was a warm 
friend and staunch adherent of Judge Stiles, who had drawn 



"DAMN MORMONISM, AND ALL MORMONS!" 287 

upon himself the displeasure of the " boys " by his just and 
impartial judgments. Indeed, Williams had his office 
with the judge, and that was a crime, when Judge Stiles's 
standing was taken into consideration. Williams was also 
in possession of knowledge concerning some murders that 
had taken place, had spoken very openly of them, and was 
becoming actually dangerous to Brigham and the other 
leaders, so dangerous that Brigham went to his parents 
and complained of him and his acts, and ended by saying, 
" If Tom don't behave himself, and stop making me trouble, 
I must have him attended to." 

Soon after that Williams apostatized, and expressed him- 
self very openly concerning the Mormon church and its 
leaders, although he knew that it must come to their ears, 
and that they would try, at least, to punish him for what 
they would consider his wickedness and profanity. He 
seemed to have lost all fear, as he had previously lost all 
belief in or respect for them. He started for California 
soon after his apostasy, designing to stay there, and to send 
for his family to join him, so soon as he should be fairly 
settled.' He was waylaid and killed by the "Indians" on 
the plains. His body was fearfully mutilated, and left 
hanging for the birds of prey. It was very well known, 
however, at Salt Lake, that the "Tnclians " eTi^a^ethTTrThls" 
assassination were white, and that Williams was murdered 
by the express order of the church authorities, who knew 
that he would prove a most dangerous enemy. 

His fate was a direct contradiction to Brigham's famous 
sermon on apostates, preached a few years before. Here 
is what he says about " independent apostates." 

"When a man comes right out like an independent devil, 
and says, 'Damn Mormonism, and all Mormons,' and is off 
with himself to California, I say he is a gentleman, by the 
side of the nasty, sneaking apostates, who are opposed to 
nothing but Christianity. I say to the former, 'Go in 
peace.'" 



288 THE PROPHET AND HIS BOWIE-KNIFE. 

Williams was certainly independent enough, but his in- 
dependence did not save him. 

In this same sermon, which was preached particularly 
against the " Gladdenites," as the followers of Gladden 
Bishop were called, a man who differed from Brigham in 
certain points of the Mormon belief, and who would not 
concede that he (Young) was the proper successor of Jo- 
seph Smith, he said, 

"When I went from meeting last Sabbath, my ears were 
saluted by an apostate preaching in the streets here. I 
want to know if any one of you who has got the spirit of 
Mormonism in you, the spirit that Joseph and Hyrum had, 
or that we have here, would say, 'Let us hear both sides 
of the question. Let us listen, and prove all things.' What 
do you want to prove? Do you want to prove that an old 
apostate, who has been cut off irom the church thirteen 
times for lying, is anything worthy of notice? We want 
such men to go to California, or anywhere they choose. I 
say to these persons, 'You must not court persecution here, 
lest you get so much of it you will not know what to do 
with it. Do NOT court persecution. We have known 
Gladden Bishop for more than twenty years, and know him 
to be a poor, dirty cuss.' 

"Now, you Gladdenites, keep your tongues still, lest 
sudden destruction come upon you. I say, rather than that 
apostates should flourish here, I will unsheathe my bowie- 
knife , and conquer or die. Now,_you nasty apostates, 
clear out, or judgment will be laid to the line and righteous- 
ness to the plummet. If you say it is all right, raise your 
hands. Let us call upon the Lord to assist us in this and 
every other good work." 

"I will unsheathe my bowie-knife," has been a favorite 
threat of his, and it has been unsheathed hundreds of 
times. But some one of his Danite followers is called upon 
to use it, and when the murders are laid at his door, he 



DROWNED IN THREE INCHES OF WATER. 289 

stands coolly and boldly up, and his lying tongue says, I 
did not do these deeds. 

For six or seven years, the spirit of slaughter seemed to 
stalk about in the beautiful Utah valleys, and human blood 
was shed on the slightest provocation. Did one man bear 
a grudge against another, he died in some mysterious man- 
ner, a Mormon court of investigation could never discover 
how. Was a man obnoxious to any of the church officers, 
he disappeared, and was never heard of again ; or, like 
John V. Long, a clerk in Brigham's office, who was the 
only person who heard the conversation between Brigham 
and the messenger sent from George A. Smith, just before 
the Mountain Meadow massacre, and who -wrote out the 
instructions which the man was to carry back, was found 
dead in a ditch, " dr -owned" in three inches of "water, "ac- 
cidentally," of course, since that was the decision of the 
Mormon jury. Did a man suspect his wife of infidelity, 
either she or her suspected lover, or both, fell a victim to 
his fury. Sometimes the suspicion was without foundation, 
but would be discovered too late, as in the case of the hus- 
band who murdered a Dr. Vaughan in San Pete for sup- 
posed intimacy with his wife. 

The man was an enthusiastic Mormon ; his wife, a lovely 
woman, whose reputation had always been irreproachable. 
Dr. Vaughan was a friend of both, until the husband fan- 
cied that he was too fond of the wife. He went at once 
to Salt Lake City, took counsel of the Prophet, returned 
home, and shot the doctor dead as he was leaving church. 
He found out afterwards that his suspicion was unfounded, 
and that he had murdered an innocent man, who had never 
wronged him, even in thought. He was haunted by re- 
morse until his death. Yet he had only followed the teach- 
ings of his religious leader. 

Such were the results of the teaching of the Blood- 
Atonement doctrine in Utah. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

TROUBLES IN OUR OWN FAMILY. LOUISE COMES 
UPON THE SCENE. 

Increase of Polygamy. Marrying going on Day and Night. "Taking 
a Wife and Buying a Cow." A Faithful Husband in a Fix. How 
Men get " Married on the Sly." How Wives were Driven Crazy by 
their Wrongs. My Father Marries Considerably. He " Goes in " 
for the Hand-Cart Girls. Marries a Couple to Begin with. Takes a 
Third the same Month. Rapid Increase of his "Kingdom." How 
the Girls Chose Husbands. Instructing the New Wives in our Fam- 
ily. Louise doesn't want to Work. My Father goes on Mission 
Again. Louise Flirts and Rebels. She is Scolded and Repents. 
Goes to Bed and Weeps. Bestows her Goods on the Family. 
" Lizzie " Interviews Her. She Poisons Herself. Is a " Long Time 
Dying." She gets a Strong Dose of Cayenne. Is sent on her 
Travels. The' Last we Heard of Her. 




OTHER immediate ef- 
fect of the " Reformation " 
was to increase the prac- 
tice of polygamy. To alter 
an old rhyme to suit the 



hen were those wed who 
never wed before ; 
nd those who once were w< 
now wed the more." 



Marrying and giving in 
marriage was carried on 
to such an extent, that, as 
in the old days of the first 
"Endowments " in Nauvoo 
Temple, the ceremony of sealing was literally going on 
day and night. "The man who refuses to enter poly- 



ONLY A Wire OUT OF THE WAY. 



NO HEAVEN WITHOUT POLYGAMY. 2pl 

gamy will^e eternally damned," announced Brigham 
^foung trom the Tabernacjg. "^Who marries but of the 
(^fdi^'fflallTes^fgr^lieTr,'' supplemented Heber C. KimBairT 
Polygamy was preached from the platform, and taught by 
the ward-teachers in private. It was not only advised, it 
was commanded, and no one dared of disobeying the pro- 
phetic mandates. 

There was scarcely a family in the Territory at that time 
which was not increased by a plurality of wives. Men 
married in the most reckless fashion, with nothing in the 
world on which to support their families. Girls went to the 
Endowment Ilpuse,, in JLhe^jaa^ning^Jo^kg, tjhe ir "Endow- 
incuts, wttrTlno""iclea of marrying, and came away'irTthC" 
afternoon sealed to some brother whose fancy they had 
taken, or who, being advised by Brigham or Heber to avail 
"himself of his "privileges," had left the matter in apostolic' 
hands, and submitted to everything, even to the choice of a 
wife. 

Wives did not know when their husbands would bring 
home another woman to share their home and their hus- 
band ; for the clause in the " Revelation " that declared that 
a man should seek his wife's consent to a plural marriage, 
and that she should herself give the new wife to her hus- 
band, " even as Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham," was merely 
a dead letter, and was not minded in the majority of cases. 
Indeed, the men many times did not consider it. at all neces- 
sa7ylio~inTbrm tKewives^oflheir intentions, nnri tht^ pnnr 
T women wuultt know IToTnTn^o^trie"!!^ marriaga^until the 
husband brought home his latest acquisition, or until she 
was informed of it by some outsider. 

Tho"se were the days when even the most trussing wives ^ 
lost fajth_JJL_ thelr^Tiusbancls ij; L^lieja--oternn , oft-repeated 
promises were broken, evidently without the slightest qualm 
of conscience ; when the tender, watchful affection of the 
husband and father was swallowed up in mad desire of 



ONLY A WIFE ! 



possession of the brute. There weretragedies enacted then 
that thg. w" r1 ^ ppver will )y*ar of | wf>roen die?~oT~broken 




hearts, and their sad fMtpshrjngbt nn pflnfr. or 
or remorse to the men whawere as much, the murctef ers as 
tKoTTgJTt^y had deliberately taken their lives with the knife, 
the ! bullet^, or the poisoned cup. 

" Only a wife " out of the way ; and what did that matter ? 
plenty more Were to be naa lor the asking. " T thjpk ^0 
more of taking a wife than I do of buying a cow," was OQE 
of Heber Kimball's delicate remarks, made from the stand 
in the Tabernacle to a congregation of several thousand. 
Most of his hearers thought even less of it, for they would 
have had to pay money for the cow ; and as for the other, 
he had only to throw his handkerchief to some girl, and she 
would pick it up and follow him. 

All the finer feelings and sensibilities of man's, nature 
were kilted by this horrible sjystem. Hpj-pgarHf>4 women's 
suffering with utter indifference ; he did not care for their 
affection ; their tears bored 
Tguchea Illni. He" 
which h^ucg^ba&JjQf. the ^Xj, and spoke jpf his. wives as 
"my womtM^-fomy* heifjejc&y^ or, if he, a Heber Kimball, 
my cowe." He was taught that they__were_Jus inferiors, 
dependent on hmT'rMr pv^ryilirfigj pypn.-/m Oiiiii^fjjfiirp ex 

^ he considered that it was sufficient that he gave 

"them his name ; the rest they might get for themselves. He 
believed that the Mormon Church was to bring about the time 
"when seven women shall lay hold on one man, begging to 
be allowed to be called by his name," and should promise to 
eat their own bread and wear their own apparel. The latter 
they have been not merely allowed but obliged to do ever 
since they entered the system, and poor and scanty have 
been both bread and apparel in the majority of cases. It 
makes, in short, a brute of what might be a man. 

I know a first wife who was driven to such utter despera- 




HOPE GONE FOR EVER ! 



293 



tion by the total neglect of her husband, that she determined 
to take her own life, since it had grown such a burden that 
it was intolerable to bear. 

One night, in the dead of winter, the snow falling thick 
and fast, and the wind sweeping down the mountains and 
through the canons, cutting to the very bone, as only a 
mountain wind can, she wrapped a tattered 1 shawl about 
her, and rushed madly through the night and the snow to 
the river, intending to lay down her life and her miseries 




LIFE A BURDEN. 

together. With a wild prayer for mercy, she was about to 
throw herself into the water, when she was restrained by a 
strong, imperative hand, and her husband's voice, hissing 
angrily in her ear, bade her go home and not make a fool 
of herself. 

He was on his way home, or, rather, to his first wife's 
house, for a change of linen, that he might attend his second 
and more favored wife to a party, when he caught sight of 
the flying figure, and, suspecting her intentions, followed her 
swiftly, and was just in season to prevent her from taking 
the fatal step. 



294 



MARRYING ON THE SLY. 



He had no word of^ympatkvJbx. hrr ; nn _the_ contrary. 
he was angered at what he called her objsjEJn^c^J^and de^ 

.ternrirTStionlEo make^a fool of herself." Her anguish of 
heart brought no response of tenderness from him ; he ma9e 

"Tier returnhorneVjet the articles of apparel which he wished, 
uT3"assTst him in his preparations for taking herrival out 
for the"~ g ' 

is so strong in every woman utterly lailed her, and she went 
away to seek the death she coveted, leaving her little baby 
wailing piteously in its cradle. 

My mother had a friend whose husband had, for a long 
time, withstood the desires and counsels of the priesthood, 
and had incurred their marked displeasure by neglecting 
for so long to "live up to his religion," and "avail himself 
of his privileges." At the time of the Reformation, how- 
ever, he did not dare neglect his " duty " any longer, and 
decided to take a second wife. Neither did he dare tell his 
first wife of his determination, for he knew how entirely she 
loved and trusted him, and he knew, too, how bitter an 
opponent she always had been to polygamy. He knew as 
well how many times he had assured 'Tier that she had noth- 
ing to fear ; that he would be faithful to her, as he had 
promised to be in the old days when he married her, and 
before God had vowed to " cleave to her only until death 
should them part." And he felt how bitter would be her 
sorrow, how justly indignant her feelings towards him, how 
intense her anger, and he did not dare to brave it all ; so he 
stole quietly away to the Endowment House one day, leav- 
ing his true and confiding wife illjn her bed, and fresh from 
Rer sick I'Oum, look. Lhe blasphemous vows wEicrT claimed 

Jojbjnd Jijm"T(raiiuLliei wuiiJcUi fui tiTfie_anidrf^eternity. 



_ 
The first wife knew nothing of what had transpired until 



ing that she must find it ouF sooner or later, thought it her 
duty to break the news to her as quietly as possible. 

She was almost maddened by the intelligence, and at first 



GOD HELP ME IF IT'S TRUE ! " 



295 



she utterly refused to believe it. \\. coulcLngtbe possible_that 
the husband of her youth, thejnarijwhorn she had so loved 
and trusted, wouj3T^trayJbrJ^^ advantage 

of her illness to skulk away and take another wile, ancl 
tKafTToo, after* all rTTsTepeated promises to her. 

"It can't be true," she cried," wringing her hands, and 
growing deadly pale. "It t'sn't true ! I can't believe it. I 
won't believe it. O my God, help me if it is true. Tell me 
that it isn't ; that you are mistaken." 

But no such assurance could be given her, and her friend 
tried in the gentlest manner to comfort her ; but what con- 
solation could she bring that would heal a shattered faith 
or bind up a broken heart? 

This story has had-inany^^jriany repetitions since then, 
until now it has got f bp " qn n1d,oid story OiLeii told."" 

It was all very well for this man to take this step as~a 
religious duty, if he had been sincere. But would he, or 
would any true man who believed fully that he was obey- 
ing the revealed law of God, and doing what he did for 
conscience' sake, be afraid to meet any opposition, from 
whatever quarter it might come ? Is not this very lack of 
courage a tacit acknowledgment that he does not believe in 
its divinity at all, and that conscience stings, rather than 
approves him for his cowardly act? 

Another wife, whose husband had promised her as faith- 
fully that he would not take another wife, did take one in 
the same way, and under precisely the same circumstances. 
jDnJiejinng^hejiew^^ 

in the insane hospital. Still another, who was as bitter an 

either 



"crT'Trnrsysteiii of" 7 " Celestial Marriage 
oi*~trTe~TrtrIeF two! was one day invited^ byTieFTiusKand to "> 
go for a drive. Touched by this unusual act of kindness, 
for he had been anything but kind to her, since he could 
not obtain her consent to his taking another wife, she 
quickly made herself ready, and went with him. He 
drove her to the insane asylum, and left her, and_ 



2p6 DISPOSING OF THE HAND-CART GIRLS. 

still an inmate ^f tbP pln^p. n1tb" 1inrVl 



I could cite hundreds of such cases that occurred during 
the first years that directly iollowecl me Reformation, "antr~ 
UiUL have 1 multiplied since, until the recital oi them would 

"till a large volume ; but I will, instead, Ttejl- a Httl-e what the"" 
* Reformation," and -the subsequent "(Celestial Ordinance^ 
fever, did for our own family. 

II added several more to our circle in a very short time. 
My father was counselled, as were most of the Mormon 
men, to take some of the " Hand-Cart girls," as they must 
be provided for some way. My mother had already had 
her burden given her ; and after she had been obliged to see 
another woman taking the love and care that by right be- 
longed to her, and her alone, she grew indifferent on the 
subject, and declared that a lew wives, more or less, would 
make little difference to her now, and she would be as well 
satisfied with one fourth of a husband as with one half. 

JThat is generally the way first wives argue; if there js 
to be a plurality of \vives, it may as well be half a dozen 
as one. The hurt comes with ihe first pmrai wile f no suP 
fering can ever exceed the pain she feeTsJhen. 

The i5e"C6rid wiie~was made ill, "however, by the new 
arrangement ; it was the first time she had felt the hurt of 
being superseded ; but she bore it very patiently, and made 
no complaint. After she recovered from her illness, she 
joined my mother in her^ efforts to make friends with the 
other wives, for two had already been added to the family, 
and placed under the same roof with us. 

The Hand-Cart girls, not being disposed of rapidly 
enough to. satisfy the authorities, they urged them to make 
proposals to the brethren, which, by the way, they were 
not at all backward in doing. One young lady selected 
"our" husband, to use my mother's expression; and to 
quote from her description, "as it was done in obedience to 
counsel, we extended our arms to receive her, the third one 



RAPID INCREASE OF MY FATHERS KINGDOM. 



297 



that we had welcomed within the month. Our 'kingdom' 
was increasing, but each individual share of husband was 
growing 'small by degrees and beautifully less.' " 

This last acquisition proved to be anything but an agree- 
able one, and she made plenty of trouble for us all. When 
she offered herself to my father, after having been coun- 
selled by the* authorities to do so, he received her proposi- 
tion somewhat coolly and cautiously, for, to tell the truth, 
he would much have preferred to make his own selection, 
and Louise (for that was her name) would, most emphati- 
cally, have not been 'his choice. Yet he would have been 
openly ridiculed, and held up to derision in the Tabernacle, 
had he ventured to refuse ; so there was nothing to do but 
to take her, and make the best of it. 




THE NEW ADDITION. 

He had been so long absent that his affairs were by no 
means in a flourishing condition, and he needed all the as- 
sistance he could obtain from his wives. My mother and 
Elizabeth were both hard-working women, and as hard as 
they had labored during their husband's absence, they did 



298 LOUISE FLIRTS TOO FREELY. 

not relax their exertions in the slightest now that he had 
returned. My mother took the young wives at once under 
her protection, and commenced teaching them to be useful. 
The two first ones proved very nice girls, and worked with 
a will, showing a great readiness and aptitude at learning, 
and a genuine desire to do their part. 

But the "free-will offering," as Elizabeth and mother 
always called Louise, did not love work, and she would 
not do it. She said she was a milliner, and had once been 
an actress, and declined "to soil her hands with menial 
labor." That was her speech in refusing to assist about 
tljfiJiousehold work. 



There_wafL nnme lin-ia fnVt^n in ttr" riir ring- 
household machinery on account of this ; but 



men are expected to exercise patience, and there was very 
little fault found audibly, although it was quite apparent 
that the new wile Was unhappy, and that all the rest weflT 

> cft5gTISted with h,ej e?fifljmga anrj indnrpnrp. whirTT 
amounted to laziness. 

My father was appointed to another mission in the States, 
directly after he was married to Louise, and he left his 
entire family living all together on a farm about seventy 
miles west of Salt Lake City. 

During his absence Louise made herself disagreeable in 
every possible way. It actually seemed as though she had 
made up her mind to annoy us all as much as possible, and 
that she tried every expedient she could devise to accom- 
plish her intentions. 

My mother was particularly annoyed by her familiarity 
with the men employed on the farm, and remonstrated 
with her on her undignified behavior. She was very im- 
pertinent, although mother had spoken to her in the kind- 
est possible way, and informed her that she should do as 
she pleased ; that she was my father's wife, and her rights 
in the house were equal to any other person's. 

Fortunately, my father remained away but a short time, 



MALINGERING ! 299 

and on his return he was speedily made acquainted with the 
state of affairs. He disapproved of her conduct quite as 
much as my mother had done, and treated her with such a 
marked coolness that she demanded the cause. He told her 
that he was greatly displeased with her, annoyed particularly 
at her lack of respect for herself, him, or his family, and 
that he did not feel at all like acknowledging her as his wife 
unless she would most decidedly behave in a more becoming 
and dignified manner. 

She was very penitent, and promised all sorts of things if 
he would only allow her to remain in his family ; she went 
about the house the very personification of grief and humil- 
ity, until my father was called by church business to Salt 
Lake City. No sooner was he fairly started than she deter- 
mined to create a sensation in the family. 

She shut herself up in her room, after announcing that 
she wished to be left quit and not intruded upon by any one. 
However, one of the younger wives entered her room on 
some pretext or other, and found Louise in bed. 

" Are you ill ? " she inquired. 

"O, no; only heart-broken !" was the reply, in the most 
doleful tone which she could possibly assume, and a great 
display of grief in the shape of a pocket-handkerchief which 
she applied to her eyes, then flourished in the air, and then 
returned to her eyes. After some more conversation, Eliza 
came out with a pair of valuable ear-rings in her hand. 
Mother asked her where she got them. 

" Louise gave them to me," was the reply. 

" Isn't that a sudden freak of generosity ? " inquired my 
mother. 

"She says she shall never want them any more, and she 
cried when she said it," was the answer. 

Louise had always seemed to like Eliza better than she 
did any of the other wives, and my mother at once fancied 
that there was some trickery going on, and that Louise was 
trying to win Eliza over to her. I was a little curious my- 



30O HOW I GOT A WATCH AND CHAIN. 

self, as girls of thirteen are very apt to be when anything 
unusual is going on in the family which they do not fully 
understand ; so I determined to visit Louise myself, and see 
what was the matter with her. 

She was very pathetic in her conversation with me, and 
made me quite miserable by the recital of her wrongs. 
Somehow I felt as though I was personally to blame for all 
her misery, and yet I didn't see how that could be. She 
gave me her watch and chain, which I had always admired 
and coveted, and told me she had done for ever with such 
gewgaws. I was so delighted with the jewelry that I quite 
neglected to be properly sympathetic, and rushed off to show 
my gift to my mother, and tell her what Louise said. 

She began to be a little startled by this new development 
of affairs, and aske4 Lizzie, the third wife, to go up to her. 
Lizzie -was not a great favorite with Louise, and my mother 
did not anticipate that she would receive such fine presents, 
to say the least. She came back, saying that Louise said 
she was going to die, a'nd then she wished her wardrobe 
divided among the family. She also wished that my mother 
would come to her. She at first felt inclined to refuse, but 
upon consideration, and being urged by the different mem- 
bers of the family, she went, and found her groaning with 
pain, real or pretended. She couldn't tell which then. 

"What is the trouble? " she asked. 

"O,"said Louise, with a groan, "I am dying. I shall 
never cause any more trouble in your family." 

" It is not right for you to talk in that manner," replied my 
mother; "if you are ill, I will do all I can to relieve you." 

" I don't want anything done ; I only want to die : my 
husband does not love me, and I cannot live ; all I desire is 
death," wailed the woman. 

"It is not always so easy to die when we desire," was my 
mother's somewhat crisp reply, as she was a- little annoyed 
by what she considered Louise's " foolishness." 

"But I have made sure," answered she; "I have taken 
poison." 



THE HUSBAND " SETTLES " THE MATTER. 30! 

" You surely cannot be so wicked as that," was mother's 
surprised reply. "You are certainly telling me a falsehood." 

Louise called on all heaven to witness the truth of what 
she had said, and made so many solemn asseverations to the 
truth of her having poisoned herself, that my mother began 
to fear that she had really done so, and that the affair was 
much more serious than she had supposed, for she had really 
no idea that Louise would do so desperate a thing as that, for 
she seemed altogether too fond of the good things of this life 
to relinquish them voluntarily. We had all considered be- 
fore this that Louise was giving us a taste of her dramatic 
powers, and that it was a piece of very poor acting, after all. 
But if she really had taken her life into her own hands, 
determined to throw it away so recklessly, she must be 
looked after at once. 

So everything that could be thought 'of as an antidote to 
poison was given to her ; she all the time groaning and 
screaming with pain. There was no physician within thirty 
miles, and our nearest neighbor lived five miles away. My 
brother was summoned from the hay-field, where he was at 
work, and sent for our father. There was not a horse to be 
had, as it happened, and my brother started on foot to try 
and overtake father, who had set out on horseback some 
hours before. He would necessarily travel very slowly, 
however, as he was driving cattle. The boy had to climb 
high mountains, and consequently made but slow progress ; 
yet, on descending, he ran as fast as possible, and suc- 
ceeded in overtaking his father when about fifteen miles 
from home. He was perfectly exhausted by his efforts, and 
fell fainting at his father's feet, after he had managed to gasp 
out, "Father, Louise has poisoned herself!" 

It was some time before he recovered sufficiently to tell 
the whole story, which my father instantly pronounced a 
hoax. " However," he said, " I will go back and settle the 
difficulty." 

During all the time that elapsed between my brother's 



-3O2 IT'S YOUR FAULT I'M NOT DEAD ! 

departure and his return with his father, Louise was con- 
tinuing the tragedy in a way that was calculated to frighten 
the whole family. She reached out her hand and bade us 
all farewell, at the same time exhorting us to greater piety. 
She said it had been her desire to do right, but she knew 
she had failed in her most earnest endeavors ; this she 
regretted, as she was now nearing her end, and had no 
means of rectifying her past wrong-doing. Yet she wished 
to die in peace with all, and she forgave the wrongs she had 
received at the hands of some members of the family. 

After talking on in this strain for some time, until, indeed, 
she had exhausted the topic and could find no more to say, 
she tried her hand at acting a kind of -stupor ; from which she 
soon aroused, however, and recommenced her exhortation, 
and ended by informing my mother that she had never 
understood her, and had never sufficiently appreciated her, 
and that she would rather die than be the cause of con- 
tention. 

My mother at last was beginning to understand her most 
thoroughly now ; and losing all patience with her, and feel- 
ing very indignant at her shallow attempt at deception, which 
was beginning to be very patent to us all, said, 

" It seems to me you are a long time dying, Louise ; I feel 
quite satisfied that you are deceiving us all, and as I do not 
care to be duped any longer, we'll call the farce ended for 
you can't make a tragedy of it, try hard as you may." 

" It is your fault that I am not dead," Louise answered, her 
eyes flashing suddenly, and a great deal of the old-fashioned 
spirit in her will ; f * if you hadn't administered an antidote, 
against my will, I should be dead now." 

We none of us could restrain a smile at her mention of the 
w antidote," for salt and water, salt and vinegar, and mustard 
and water, were the only medicines we had given her. 
With these very simple remedies, none of which had the 
slightest effect on the patient, my mother's " medicine 
box" was exhausted, and there was nothing else which she 
could do, except to abandon the case, which she did. 



THERE S NOBODY DEAD I 303 

Her friends, the hired men, came in at night anxiously 
inquiring after Louise. We were all totally undeceived by 
that time, and one of the wives replied to their questions, 
that they need have no fears about her, as she no doubt 
would outlive all the rest of the family ; and 'they had all 
decided to " leave her for Mr. Webb to deal with." The 
men thought this very heartless, and said they had feared 
they should find her dead. 

My mother, who had overheard the last remark, replied, 
rather sharply, that nothing would kill her unless it was 
the mixture she had administered, for she was positive that 
she had taken no poison. Her object had been to frighten 
the family, and she had succeeded admirably. She had 
turned the house topsy-turvy, and sent Edward off on a 
wild-goose chase, and we were all getting quite angry. 

About nine o'clock in the evening my father returned. 
My mother met him at the door. 

" There's nobody dead ! " was her greeting. 

" I didn't expect there was," he replied, passing her and 
entering Louise's room. 

"What are you in bed for? " was his inquiry. 

At first she declined to reply to him, but on his repeating 
the question, and insisting on an answer, she told the same 
story that she had told to the rest of us. He was as scep- 
tical regarding the truth of it as the rest of us had been, 
but said that he would suggest the free use of cayenne pep- 
per, and asked my mother to make her some tea of it. I am 
afraid there was a little malice in her heart, as she asked if 
she might make it as strong as she liked. 

"Yes," he replied; "give her a strong dose. She shall 
have enough to make her sick of her nonsense." 

There was no further assurance needed, and I fancy 
there never was a stronger decoction mixed than the one 
my mother prepared for the impostor. At first Louise de- 
clared she would not take it ; but my father insisted upon 
it, telling her that he knew nothing better for people who 



304 A BIG DOSE OF CAYENNE. 

had poisoned themselves, and she was compelled to swal- 
low the whole of it. 

There was no need, after that, for her to pretend illness, 
for she was sick enough for one hour to thoroughly frighten 
her, and to satisfy the rest of the family, who felt that she 
deserved just the punishment* she was getting for the de- 
ception she had practiced, and the fright she had caused, 
which was genuine for a while. 

My mother was specially angry because my brother was 
made very ill by his long run after his father, and he came 
very near losing his life in consequence. After Louise had 
recovered somewhat from the paroxysms of pain into which 
she had been thrown by the cayenne pepper, my father had 
a serious talk with her, and told her that she must no longer 
consider herself a member of his family. Her conduct had 
been such that she had forfeited all right to consideration, 
and he would not have such a woman as she had proved 
herself to be in the house with his wives and his young 
daughter ; so she must go away and find a home for herself 
elsewhere. 

She had not expected this, and she suddenly changed 
her tactics, and begged to be allowed to remain in the family 
in any capacity whatever. She confessed that she had 
been trying to frighten us all, and that she had taken no 
poison, but had got up the scene in order to create sympa- 
thy for herself. She professed great sorrow at her actions, 
and again pleaded to be allowed to remain. 

But my father was inexorable ; and, in spite of tears, en- 
treaties, and protestations, she was taken to Salt Lake City, 
and we none of us ever saw her again, although we heard 
of her several times. She married again in a very short 
time, and in three weeks was divorced from her second 
husband, to whom she had been sealed "for time and eter- 
nity." After leaving this husband of three weeks, she 
went to the southern part of the Territory, and married 
another man, whom she persuaded to take her to St. Louis. 



MONEY AND WIFE GONE ! 



305 



While there she suddenly went away one day, taking her 
husband's money and leaving him behind. When next 
heard from, she was on her way to England. Her last hus- 
band made no attempt to follow her, but returned to Utah 
without either money or wife, yet entirely reconciled to the 
loss of one, since it had been the means of ridding him of 
the other. 




Louise was the only one of all my father's wives who 
ever made the least trouble. The rest of them were good 
Women, doing their best to make thing's pleasant. They 

did not like a polygamous life, and only endured it because 
they thought they must. They were n o t Ji a ppy women, 



In polygamy are happy, however loudly they 
may claim to be, and they made no pretence of being. 
JSI either did they quarrel with each other, or complain ot^ 
one another to their husband. Whatever difficulties, they 
might have they settled among themselves, and did not 
trouble any outsi^^ra. Tn fact, in my father's family the 
best side of a polygamous life was shown, but the best side 
was by no means a bright one. 

This episode of Louise shows the absurdity of marrying 

without previous acquaintance, ana also tne miseries trTaT 

maybe endured by other wives when there is one bad 

woman in their midst. 

20 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



INCREASE OF POLYGAMY. MIXED-UP CONDITION 
MATRIMONIAL AFFAIRS. 



OF 



Christ alleged to be a Polygamist. The Men to save the Women. 
Making "Tabernacles" for little Spirits. The Story of certain Ladies 
who were Deceived. They Discover a Mystery. Their Fate. Or- 
son Hyde's False Prophecy. Throwing Mud at Apostates. Death 
preferred to Polygamy. Frightful Intermarriages. Married his 
Mother-in-law. A Man who Married his Wife's Grandmother, 
Mother, and All. Marrying a Half-Sister. Marrying Nieces and 
Sisters. How Emigrant Girls were Married Off. Frightful Story of 
a Poor Young Girl. Polygamy and Madness. One Woman's Love 
too Little. How English Girls were Deceived. How Claude Spen- 
ser committed a Damnable Wrong. A Girl who was Martyred for her 
Religion. How the Bereaved Husband Acted. A Man with thirty- 
three Children. " They never cost him a Cent." A Many- Wived 
Saint. Mixed-up Condition of Marital Affairs. 

HE '^Reformation " was pro- 
ductive of nothing but 
"evth The most revolting" 
and blasphemous doctrines 
were taught, and between 
Blood-Atonement, Massa- 
cres of the Gentiles, and 
the worst phases of Polyga- ' 
mous Marriage, there was 
nothing good in the Terri- 
tory. The whole system 
of Mormon religion was a 
mass of revolting crime 
and wickedness. Bigotry 
was at flood-tide, and fa- 
jiaticism ruled reason. The very thought of it brings a 
shudder. The most ho7nr3te~things'weTe~ taught from the 




THE MEN TO SAVE THE WOMEN. 307 

pulpit, and decency was outraged every time a Mormon 
leader opened his mouth to speak. 

They were all maniacs on the subject of Celestial Mar- 

of i{ did floj stop witfr mere absurdities ; it became the most 
fearful profanity. There was not a pure character mult"" 1 ' 
the Bible history which their dirty hands did not besmear, 
and their foul tongues blacken. Not content with bringing 
up "Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob," and David and Sol- 
omon, as their examples in the practice of polygamy, Brig- 
ham Young, in one of his sermons, delivered during the 
intensest heat of the excitement, declared that "Jesus 
Christ was a practical polygamist ; Mary and Mai Lha, lire 
sisters of Lazarus, were his plural wives, and Mary Iviag- 
dalen was another. Also, the bridal feast at Cana of Gal- 
ilee, where-Jtssti^-tuTned Ihe Water into wirifi, W33 6n the" 
occasion of one of his own marriages. 

They appealed to women through their maternal as well 
as through their religious natures. Not only did they teach 
them that they could never be saved except by the interven- 
tion of some man, who should take upon himself the duty 
of resurrecting them at the last day, but they were also 
told that floating through space were thousands of infant 
spirits, who were waiting for bodies ; that into every child 
that was born one of these spirits entered, and was thereby 
saved ; but if they had no bodies given them, their wails 
of despair would ring through all eternity ; and that it was, 
in order to insure their future happiness, necessary that as 
many of them as possible should be given bodies by Mor- 
mon parents. _Jf_a__yvoman refused to marry into poly- 
gamy, or, being married, to allow her husband to take 
other wives, these spirits would rise up in judgment against 
"her, because she had, by her act, kept them in darkness/ 

No one dared to neglect the counsel of the priesthood. 
Whoever ventured to do so was charged at once with apos- 
tasy. Men and women alike were ruled by the arbitrary 



308 MAKING "TABERNACLES" FOR LITTLE SPIRITS. 

will of one man. There is no despotic monarchy in the 
world where the word of the sovereign is so absolute as in 
Utah. And never, in the whole history of Mormonism, 
has the despotic rule been so arbitrary as it was during 
the period of, and for a short time after, the Reformation. 

It was a terribly trying time for women a time that 
they have never forgotten. More misery was crowded into 
a few months than they had endured before in a lifetime, 
and the misery that began then will be life-long. No one 
outside of Utah and Mormonism can understand it in the 
least, because nowhere else is there a possibility of such 
wretchedness to exist. Only women living in a polyga- 
mous community, under the rule of a religion whose funda- 
mental principle is the plural-wife system, can fully take in 
the utter helplessness and hopelessness of the situation a 
situation from which escape, at that time at least, was next 
to impossible. 

If they did escape, the tongue of calumny pursued them 
relentlessly, and the vilest reports that the tongues and 
hearts of vile men could devise were spread concerning 
them. 

In 1856, during the Reformation, and when converts 
were pouring into Zion almost from every quarter of the 
earth, were several lovely and refined ladies, who had been 
drawn thither by the seeming earnestness and deep reli- 
gious fervor of the Mormon people whom they had seen. 
Especial pains had been taken to bring these ladies into the 
church, for they were a much finer type of women than are 
generally found among the later converts, and nothing was 
ever told them of the existence of the plurality system. 
Among the converts were a Miss Potter, Mrs. Brownhead 
and three daughters, and Miss Stayner, who were filled 
with enthusiasm concerning their new faith, and came to 
Zion most zealous Saints. 

But when, on their arrival, they discovered that poly- 
gamy was in open practice, they were distressed beyond 



ORSON HYDE S LYING PROPHECY. 309 

measure, and sought immediate refuge in the military camp. 
They were women, all of them, of fine social standing, and 
had left hippy" and lUJLUiluus .huiii.Bb 10 CoMe 1 16 Zion, im-" 
pelled by a sense of religious duty. The beastly god 
which the Mormons so devoutly worshipped had never been 
even alluded to in their presence. 

As a matter of course, their flight enkindled Mormon 
wrath, and for a while it burned fiercely. They heaped 
every term of opprobrium upon them that they could think 
of, and defamed them in every possible way. There was 
nothing too gross or too indecent for them to say concerning 
them ; and in addition to this wholesale defamation of their 
characters, they were properly cursed, according to the 
Mormon liturgy, and all manner of evil was prophesied 
concerning them. Orson Hyde was inspired one Sunday, 
in the Tabernacle. tn~Toretfl| fRfff *V Q , i^i 1 h? rrnphrnfrl 
that they would perish miserably on the way to California, 
where they had gone under the protection of Colonel Stej> 
toe and his command. It was, no doubt, a great disappoint- 
ment to the Apostle that, -in spite of his prophecies, they 
arrived safely in California, were married to men of wealth 
and position, and are now happy wives and mothers, with 
no thought of Mormondom to mar their happiness, except 
an occasional burst of thankful feeling that they succeeded 
in escaping from it. It may be a satisfaction for my read- 
ers to know It is certainly for me to tell that he not only 
proved a false prophet, but was publicly punished by one 
of the officers for the scandalous reports he had put in 
circulation regarding these ladies. 

Calumny and scandal are among the readiest of the 
Mormon weapons, and its leaders are specially skilled in 
their use, as every person who has ever thwarted Brigham 
Young, or one of his satellites, knows to his or her sorrow. 
They not only lie themselves, but they hire others to do it 
for them. Occasionally, in this game of mud-throwing, 
they get bespattered, but not until they have bedaubed their 



3IO MARRIED HIS OWN SISTER ! 

victim very thoroughly. It is no wonder that suicides have 
been so common among the Mormon women : if they left 
*Zion," it must be at the sacrifice either nf life or repu- 
tation, and in the hopeless apathetic state into which they 
were sunk, it was easier to die than to struggle^ ~ 
' " i3ftti Woman, who arrived from England during the " Ref- 
ormation," and who was to be rushed into polygamy, actually 
killed herself rather than become a plural wife : she had 
been given to a Mr. Goodsall, and was living in his family, 
awaiting the time when she was to be sealed ; and one 
morning, but a few days before the time appointed for the 
ceremony, she was found with her throat cut, a razor lying 
by her side. She saw nothing but wretchednesjsLjafiJbre 
her, and put an end to her life rather than follow priestly 
" counsels." It was better so than to face the misery life 
would bring. 

Even the laws of consanguinity were not respected at 
tlnt_t*Ttih1f* timf and relatives intermarried in a manner 
that would shock even the most lax-moralled community. 
Uncles and nieces were married ; one man would marry sev- 
eral sisters ; and it was a very common thing for a mother 
and daughter to have the same husband. In one family, 
at least three generations were represented among the 
wives grandmother, mother, and daughter; and a case 
actually occurred in Salt Lake City where a man married 
hi.s half sister, and that, too, with the full knowledge ancl 
approval of Brigham Young. The man stood high in the 
Mormon Church, and George D. Watt was quoted all 
through the Territory as a good Saint. He certainly 
availed himself of his privileges to the fullest extent. He 
has since apostatized. 

Bishop Smith, .of -Brigham City, marriedjgm-Q.f jiis own 
nieces. Bishop Johnson, of Sgringville, outdid his brother 
Thf*""firit one was the daughter 



of an elder brother ; the other five were sisters, and daugh- 
ters of Lorenzo Johnson. He first married the eldest one, 



HOW PATRIARCH BROWER WENT A-COURTING ! 31! 



Mary, who was only fifteen at the time ; then he asked that 
all the others might be given to him, to be sealed to him 
when they should grow up. The 3'oungest one was only 
two years old . at the time that her fatherpromiseci her to 
her-mcte^and She Was onl^jdbou^yi^teen^^hen she^vas 
sealed to him. 

All this is sanctioned by the President; else, of course, it 
would not occur ; and h,e_does not hesitate to say that he 

sees no rpnsrm W hy pprsnns who ^rt> rifely 



not marry ; they c^rtainl^onghi- to thinfr mnrp of pnrV. 
man ot strangers ; and all that he can SPP that stands in the 
" way ot such marriages being of very frequent dccurrence 
is popular prejudice. He has said that he, as far as he is 
personally concerned, would not enter upon such a rela- 
tionship, but prejudice alone, and not principle, would re- 
strain him. 

There are very many families where two or more sisters 
are plural wives to one man. This is the case in Brigham's 
own family. Among his first plural wives were ' Clara 
Decker and Lucy Decker ; and two of his daughters, 
Luna and Fanny, are the wives of George Thatcher; 
two, Mary and Caroline, were married to Mark Croxall, 
and two, Alice and Emily, to Hiram Clawson. 

Among the early emigrants were two Scotch girls, sis- 
ters, named McDonald. They had been but a few days in 
Salt Lake City, when a Mr. Uriah Brower, a would-be 
patriarch, presented himself before them with an offer of 
marriage. One of the girls favored the suit, but the other 
was more capricious, and not so easily suited with the pros- 
pect of a polygamous life. She hated the man for pro- 
posing marriage, herself for being an object of his patri- 
archal passion, and w r as annoyed at her sister for her willing- 
ness to accept him. She had yet to learn that women are 
by no means free agents in Utah, and have__yj 
in the settlement oT llieh owiF affairs ; their destinies 
their own hariHs", but aie "entirely Ul the mefcy.of 



312 STORY OF A DESOLATE WOMAN. 

some man's caprice, or the commands of the priest- 
hood. 

Her lover was determined ; and seeing that it was abso- 
lutely of no use for her to go on saying " No," since she 
must succumb, sooner or later, she gave an indifferent con- 
sent, and was sealed to him at the same time with her 
sister. She was miserably unhappy, and the very next day 
she applied for a divorce from him, saying she could not, 
and would not, remain his wife. She obtained the divorce ; 
but, having no parents and no home, she was forced to live 
wherever she could, and she found existence anything but 
an easy o-r pleasant task. In a short time another good 
brother, seeking to enlarge his kingdom, offered to take 
her ; and she, poor girl ! nqLJcnowing what else to do, and 
almost desperate in her loneliness and desolation, consented 
to marry a second time in polygamy. 

Her new husband already had thrcre wives, and she was 
placed in the same house with them. Her situation then was 
worse than even before. Being the last comer, all the rest 
turned against her, and she had to endure the hatred of 
them all. She was ill-treated in every way, but for a long 
time bore all the wrongs which were inflicted upon her in 
silence. After the birth of her child, she determined to 
leave at all hazards ; so again applying for a divorce from 
her second husband, which was as easily obtained as her 
first one had been, she took her child and went away to 
earn a living for herself and him. She went out to ser- 
vice ; she did washing and cleaning ; indeed, she left no 
stone unturned to obtain an honest livelihood, and bring up 
her child properly. 

After a time her first husband presented himself, and told 
her that as he had married her "for time and for eternity," 
he should hold her to the first marriage contract ; that he 
could do so, since her second husband was no higher in 
the priesthood than he. He insisted on her returning to 
him ; and the poor woman, seeing no way of escape, was 



INSANE ! 



313 



sealed again to him, and was taken to his home, a misera- 
ble, comfortless placeTwhere he had live wives aln 
living" in^povert^and the most terrible degradation. Hud* 
died tog^th^4tke-s^rrnany animals, they respected neither^ 
thtr-hrws of decency ntU HioialiLy. Hannah was there but 
a short time betore-"5frFl5ecame hopelessly insane. She is 
living still, but the light of reason has gone out for ever, 
quenched by the horrors of a system which she always 




THE HAPPY HOMH OF A POLYGAMIST. 

loathed. Her sister, Margaret, still drags on a miserable, 
hopeless existence, not much better off than the poor, un- 
fortunate maniac. She is a moral and physical wreck, and 
owes her depraved condition to the cause that made her 
sister a mental ruin. 

Ljfe_0ened brighUy__ejipjigh4W-tfreT3e^^ 
among the Scottish hills, but the curse of Mormonism 
found them"~Tnnr~and then there was nothmffjiitLwretch- 
edness anT~despair for 

Incidents like these have multiplied from the beginning 



314 CLAUDE SPENCER DOES THE DEVIL'S WORK. 

until now ; and yet, in the face of all this misery, the world 
is assured that Mormon women are comfortable and con- 
tent ; that they find no fault with polygamy ; indeed, that 
they prefer the system rather than dislike it ; and the world, 
against all reason and common sense, believes what it is 
told. 

Elder Orson Spencer, now dead, one of the strong pil- 
lars of Mormonism, whose letters and theological works 
are much quoted among the Saints, while on his first mis- 
sion to England became the guest of a gentleman of con- 
siderable property and good social position, and the father 
of two interesting daughters, both of whom were recent 
converts to the Mormon faith. The young ladies were 
finely educated, possessed of more than ordinary tal- 
ents, and had always been tenderly attached to each 
other. 

When the young missionary from Zion became an in- 
mate of their father's house, they, with all the zeal of new 
and enthusiastic converts, vied with each other in showing 
him every hospitable attention, for the sake of the glorious 
gospel which they supposed he came to preach, and before 
very long the elder of the sisters found herself becoming 
deeply interested in him for his own sake. 

The interest was apparently mutual ; it ripened into 
love. Mr. Spencer made a formal proposal to the father 
for the daughter's hand, and very soon after the lovers 
were married. The young wife was perfectly happy ; she 
was devoted to her husband, and it seemed to her that life 
could hereafter hold nothing but happiness for her, she 
rested so securely in her husband's love, that his care 
would compass her about, and his strength sustain her, all 
through her days. She was living her first romance, and 
sweet enough she found it. Ah, if the hard reality had not 
been so soon to follow it ! But Mormon marriage soon kills 
all the romance of a woman's nature, and either kills her 
at the same time, or leaves her hopeless, apathetic, her finer 



MAKING LOVfe TO A SISTER-IN-LAW. 315 

nature crushed within her, bearing life because she must, 
and not because it holds anything for her of love, or care, 
or sweet tenderness of any kind. It is oftener this way 
than the other ; alas, for the poor victims that such is the 



case 



Mr. Spencer had lived among a people who teach and 
practice the doctrine of a plurality of wives. His own 
father had brought home eight brides to grace his domestic 
circle, four of them in one day. The high-priest of his 
religion, the man to whom he had always listened as the 
mouthpiece of God, not only preached that it was the 
privilege and duty of every Saint to wed many wives, but 
practiced what he preached. 

No wonder, then, that the disciple believed he should be 
living beneath his privileges if he contented himself with 
the love of one woman. His sister-in-law was a remarka- 
bly pretty girl, and fervent in her devotion to the new faith 
she had espoused. In time, perhaps, if caution was exer- 
cised in the manner of teaching, she might be won to a 
cordial belief in the doctrine of plural marriage a doc- 
trine which the missionary Saints, with damnable wisdom, 
had not proclaimed openly in England at that date. 

This young brother, imitating the prudent course of his 
colleagues, preached only those truths which he thought 
would be received most readily. Such portions of the gos- 
pel as might be considered hard doctrine by the new con- 
verts he left to be learned by them after their arrival in 
Zion. His growing admiration for his charming sister-in- 
law he kept to himself; but when the time arrived for his 
return home with his wife, he had succeeded in making ar- 
rangements for her sister to accompany them. In the mean 
time, however, another young lady, also a new convert, 
had attracted his favorable notice, and as she was to form 
one of a large company who were about to start for Amer- 
ica, he kindly, and disinterestedly, of course, offered to 
take her under his own care. 



3l6 DEATH TO THE SOUL ! 

During the voyage across the ocean, and the hurried 
journey through the States, nothing worthy of note oc- 
curred. True, Mr. Spencer was very attentive to the young 
ladies who were travelling under his protection ; but his 
young wife loved him too well, and believed in him too im- 
plicitly, to have any thought 'that he was actuated by other 
motives than brotherly affection and Christian kindness. 
At the Missouri River, where the emigrants took leave of 
civilization, and commenced their long journey over the 
plains, the members of the little party were thrown more 
closely together than before ; and now even the all-confiding 
wife could not fail to see that her husband demeaned him- 
self as a lover towards the two girls, her sister and her 
friend, and that they by no means discouraged his at- 
tentions. 

Her reproachful questioning regarding his conduct 
brought out an explanation of the doctrines of plurality, and 
an avowal of his intention to marry the girls as soon as they 
reached Salt Lake. He said that they had both embraced 
the great truths of their religion fully, and were willing and 
anxious to be sealed to him as their savior for time and 
eternity. The poor wife, with all her faith in her husband, 
her sister, and her religion, shattered at one blow, but, 
alas for her, with a heart throbbing with a love that could 
not die, never rallied from the shock she received when 
her doom was thus pronounced by the lips of the one 
dearest to her. 

Day afterday, as they continued their toilsome journey, 
her strengttrHeclined, and^it was 1 eTidenf, even to the eyes 
oT~strangeTg7THat she was cryiTrg? -Her_hgfoand. however. 
_saw nnthin&jvyjisjTjoiibled with no anxieties/lHe was-too 
much absorbed inKi? loVG f6r the two giHsTwhose souls 
he proposed to save, to have "any Lime ui LhuugtYrTo" spare 
for his dying wife. The days lengthened into weeks, and 
still the lamp of life burned lower, while the love that had 
outlived faith and hope was yet strong enough to torture 



LAST HOURS OF A DYING WIFE. 



317 



her with vain longings to hear again the tender words that 
were never spoken now, and to lean, in her mortal weak- 
ness, on the arm that she, so short a time ago, had fondly 
hoped would be her support, even down to the brink of 
death. It is easy to say of love unworthily bestowed, 

" I would pluck it from my bosom, 
Though my heart were at the root : " 

but many a wronged and forsaken wife could tell you that 
these are only idle words. 




KKN-HBARTKD. 



Many may wonder if the dying girl's sister had no com- 
punction, no remorse for the part she was playing in this 
tragedy. None ; for so completely was she carried away 
by the fanaticism with which she had been inspired, that she 
actually believed she was doing God service in trampling 
on the holiest feelings of her own nature, and inflicting 
upon her sister the most cruel wrong that one woman can 
suffer at the hands of another. 

The weary journey was ended at length, and the wan- 
derers reached the Valley which was henceforth to be their 



318 AN "ARISTOCRAT." OH! 

home. The wife lived only just to enter the city, of which 
she once fondly dreamed as a heaven upon earth. From 
the Zion of her earthly hopes she passed nn tr> *b p H ' 11P ^ nn j 

"wrlere the mercy and love of a God kinder than the one 
^h"e""h"ad been taught to worship healed every earth-wound, 
trtr"l5rbught infinite peace to the broken heart. 

Just two weeks from the day of her death there was a 
double bridal in Salt Lake City. The bereaved and sor- 
rowing husband was united in marriage to the equally 
afflicted sister and her friend, the young lady who accom- 
panied them from England. I have often wondered if there 
was a ghost present at that bridal, and if the white, dead 
face of the wronged and murdered wife did not look in sad 
reproach at them all as they took upon themselves the vows 
that bound them together, not only for time, but for eternity. 
In a party from England which followed this other com- 
pany very shortly, was a family named Right, who had, 
among other children, two lovely daughters. Such girls as 
they bright, refined, and pleasing in manner and dispo- 
sition could not remain long without lovers in a place 
where marriageable men were so plentiful as in the Mormon 
Zion. They were very intimate with Brigham Young's 
family, and it was not long before the elder became the 
plural wife of David Candland, a prominent Mormon elder, 
and a confidential friend of the Prophet. He had had many 
wives, but only two were living at the time of his marriage 
with Miss Right. He had thirty-three children, who, he 
boasted, had never cost him a cent, and the pretty young 
wife was installed as " mother" over his not very promising 
Ibrood. He was, as he was pleased to term himself, an 

' " aristocrat," and would not descend to the performance of 
menial labor ; but, as the family must live somehow, the 
wives have to get along as best they can, but they live in the 
depths of poverty and degradation, while he enjoys prophetic 
favor, stands high in the church, and is a Beau Brummel in 
dress. He has recently commenced the study of law, prob- 
ably at the Prophet's instigation. 



HOW LITTLE GIRLS WERE MARRIED. 



319 



The other sister became the fourth wife of Mr. Charles 
Bassett, at that time a prominent merchant in Salt Lake. 
The third wife was cast aside to make room for her, and for 
some time she was the favored one, indulged in every whim, 
and petted and flattered until her head was nearly turned. 
But, as has happened with other favorite wives, her reign 
was short, and she was compelled to stand on one side and 
seeanoLb^ta^^^T 10 ^ Mr~ti^H- w hen he tired of his 
fourth victim, married his niece and adopted daughter a 
mere girl, only fourteen years old. She is the present favor- 
ite, and everything that she can possibly desire is lavished 
upon her nothing is too fine or too expensive for her; and, 
in the mean time, the woman whose place she took and 
who was herself the usurper of another woman's kingdom 
goes out to work to support herself and her children. Her 
eldest daughter a girl just in her teens, not much older 
than her father's new wife has been compelled to go out 
to service. 

This is the fate (and not an uncommon one) of two young 
girls who supposed they were marrying two of the best men 
in the "kingdom." These men were popular preachers, as 
regular as the Pharisee in attending to all their religious 
duties, and loud and earnest in their defence of the glorious 
institution of polygamy, which "institution" they so brightly 
adorn. ' 



CHAPTER XIX. 



THE MYSTERIES OF POLYGAMY. WHAT THE WIVES 
COULD TELL. 

Incestuous Intermarriages. A Widow and her Daughters married to the 
same Man. " Marrying my Pa." The " U. S." Government Con- 
niving at Mormon Iniquities. Beastly Conduct of Delegate George 
Q. Cannon. Polygamists Legislating for Bigamists. Mother and 
Daughter fighting for the same Man ! It is Wicked to Live with an 
Old Wife. A Young lover Ninety Years Old! A Bride Eleven 
years Old ! Brides of Thirteen and Fourteen Years ! I receive an 
" Offer " when Twelve Years Old ! Old Ladies at a Discount : Young 
Women at a Premium. Respect for the Silver Crown of Age. Heber 
gives his Opinion. " Why is She making such a Fuss ? " Seeing One's 
Husband Once a Year. The Rascality of Orson Hyde towards his 
Wife. When Rival Wives make Friends. A Very Funny Story 
about an Apostle and his Wife. Rights of the First Wife : Brigham 
Young in a Fix. He treats an Early Wife to a Dance. Amelia in the 
Shade. The Prophet becomes Frisky t Poor, neglected Emmeline. 
How Polygamy was once Denied. A Mistake which a French Lady 
Made. Milk for Babes. 



HE marriage of mother 
and daugllUJl 10 Ufte man" 
was of so common an 
occurrence that it ceased 
to be regarded as any- 
thing out of the ordi- 
nary course of events. 
f"Ka3 some school- 
mates, two sisters, whose 
mother was married to 
a Mr. McDonald, and 
when she gave herself to 
him, it was with the ex- 
press understanding that 
the daughters should be 

sealed to him as soon as they were of a proper age. The 
little girls knew of the arrangement, and used to talk very 




ORSON HYDE AND FORGOTTEN WIFE. 



A PRETTY DELEGATE TO SEND TO CONGRESS I ?2I 

openly of "marrying Pa," and irj_very much the same way 
they Would speak ot theirintention to take tea with a friend. 

That mother must have taken a great deal of comfort with 
her children ! Fancy her feelings ; knowing- that R^ a^ 
bringing up her daughters as wives for her own husband ! 

Wives 'amTnTolliers, living outside of polygamy, can any- 
thing be more revolting to your ideas of womanly purity, 
more thoroughly opposed to all the sweet tenderness of the 
maternal instinct, than cases like this? And yet, horror- 
stricken as you are by them, they are by no means excep- 
tional, but are of frequent occurrence. And it is in your 
own country that these outrages against all womanhood 
occur, under your own government, upheld by your own 
chosen legislators tacitly, at least since in this time, as 
in the days of Christ's actual presence on earth, those who 
are not for are against. . And if your government and its 
rulers refuse to do, or even fail to do without refusing, any- 
thing to eradicate this foul blot upon national purity and 
honor, why, they are in so far encouraging its presence, and 
rendering it daily more difficult of eradication. 

For the tide of evil that set so strongly in those terrible 
days of 1856 has never been stayed. It still rolls on with 
all the added filth and abomination which it has gathered in 
its course, until it is one reeking mass of the foulest im- 
purities. 

Incest, murder, suicide, mania and bestiality are the chief 
"beauties" of this infamous system, which are so glow- 
ingly alluded to by its eloquent expounders and defenders. 

And George Q^. Cannon, one of its ablest apostles, 
himself a practical polygamist, being the husband of four 
living wives, three of whom he grossly neglects, goes to 
Washington from Utah as Congressional Delegate from that 
Territory, and helps to make the laws which send George 
Smith, of Massachusetts, to State Prison for three }^ears for 
the crime of having two wives ! Is it that bigamy is a pun- 
ishable offence, and poly gamy is not? If so> George Smith 

21 



322 



BIGAMY VerSUS POLYGAMY. 




APOSTLE GEORGE Q. CANNON, 

MEMBER OF CONGRESS. 
[Has four wives and thirteen children. ] 



has only to take two more wives and he can, perhaps, enjoy 
the confidence of the government and the protection of its 
laws as fully as the Apostolic George Q^ 

If the gentleman in Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, who has 
' recently been indicted for 
marrying his deceased wife's 
niece had only married six 
of his own nieces, he might 
now be enjoying his liberty 
and his youthful brides' so- 
ciety, with all the freedom 
which is accorded to Bishop 
Johnson, of Utah that is, 
if he, too, had lived among 
the Saints in Utah. 

The relation between 
mother and daughter, when 
one becomes the rival of the other, is by no means the 
pleasantest in the world, and it is usually the case that the 
mother has much the worse time. She sees herself neg- 
lected for a younger and fairer woman by the man in 
whose service she has expended both youth and beauty, and 
sees the daughter whom she has so carefully and tenderly 
nurtured, and who should now be her stay, and her comfort, 
and the pride of her maternal heart, usurping her place in 
her husband's affection and in her home, and striking a 
blow at her happiness that is fatal. She can turn neither to 
husband nor daughter for comfort, and the religion which 
should be her stay is but a mockery, since it brings all the 
misery and desolation into her wrecked life. 

The leaders of her religion teach openly that it is not 
right for husbands to live with their wives after they are 
advanced in years ; and they also teach that a man is mar- 
riageable until he is a hundred years old. This has always 
been a strong point with them, and in urging polygamy, in 



OLD WOMEN AT A DISCOUNT. 323 



the " Reformation " times, they used to 
to choose for their husbands men of experience, who would 
have the power of resurrecting them, rather than a young 
man WtRJs^"'pos7fidTiiir^ "fixed'. They 

carried the practice of this doctrine to the same extreme that 
they carried everything else.^On^^nlh,uaiasticelder secured 
for a wife a girl ofeleven years, and bridesoi' thirteen and 
fourteen were often seen, especially in Southern Utah, where 
lEeexcitement was most intense, and rose almost to frenzy. 
I was about twelve years of age, and my father had several 
offers for me from different church dignitaries ; but however 
easily he might be beguiled himself into the snares set by 
the lecherousTeaders of Mbrmonism and poly gamy jTeTiacT 
~nb idea of making his little girl a victim ; and though I was 
duly advised by teachers and catechists to marry into poly- 
gamy when I was a little older, I gave very little heed to the 
advice, and set about making my own romance, just as girls 
everywhere do, in my imagination. 

It is painful to one used to the finer courtesies of life to 
see how age is neglected in Utah, and the want of respect 
that is shown towards it, especially towards women, who 
have passed out of the sunshine years of life, and are enter- 
ing the shadow. When I came East, one of the strangest 
things to me was the deference that was paid to age, it 
was so unlike anything I had been used to ; and when I 
saw an old couple clinging together, with no dread shadow 
of polygamy between them, with only the prospect of death 
to part them, I have been thrilled through and through with 
the sweetest, strangest emotion. I could scarcely believe 
my own senses ; it seemed impossible that irj this world such 
devotion could exist, and I could only wonder and weep, 
and thank God that, in the world that I had been taught to 
look upon as so wicked and depraved, there was such a 
thing as love, and devotion, and thoughtful care for women, 
and that every added wrinkle or silver hair brought more 
tender care and tenderer devotion. In the light of affection 



324 



WHAT IS SHE MAKING SUCH A FUSS FOR? 



like this, well-tried and long-enduring, the hateful form of 
polygamy would rise up before me more monstrous, more 
hideous, more revolting than ever. 

Think, in contrast to this, of a woman who has lived with her 
husband during all the years of her fresh and mature woman- 
hood, being left alone, when she becomes deserted by the hus- 
band whom she has loved so well and so long, at the com- 
mand of the priesthood ! Heber Kimball used to say, when he 
knew of a woman grieving over the neglect of her husband, 
"What is she making such a fuss for? She has no business 
with a husband." Who can blame the disciples when the 
leader sets the example? Brigham Young's first living 
wife, his only real and legal wife, a woman of his own 
age, is entirely neglected by him, and long ago ceased to 
be his wife but in name. 

Sometimes these old and middle-aged ladies do not see 
their husbands once a year, and yet they may not live half 

a mile apart. A few years 
since, at a large party at the 
Social Hall in Salt Lake 
City, Orson Hyde, one of the 
twelve apostles, met the wife 
of his youth, the mother of 
many of his children. He had 
escorted some of his younger 
wives there, and she came 
with a friend. It chanced that 
they were seated near each 
other at the table, and were 
compelled to speak ; they 
shook hands, exchanged a 
very commonplace greeting, and that was all that passed 
between them. Neither is this an isolated case ; it very 
often occurs that an elderly lady attends a party with 
friends, and meets her husband there with one or more 
younger wives ; and sometimes both she and they have 




APOSTLB ORSON HYDE. 



THE NEXT ADDITION TO HIS KINGDOM:" 325 

to watch their mutual husband while he plays the agree- 
able to some young girl who has taken captive his wander- 
ing fancy, and whom he intends to make the next addition 
to his kingdom. 

It is then that wives, who have heretofore been rivals, 
join their forces against a common enemy ; and the young 
woman who is engaging the attentions of the already much- 
married but still marriageable beau, is sure to suffer at the 
hands of the new allies, who have so recently struck hands 
in a common cause. She, of course, knows this instinc- 
tively, and she revenges herself by "drawing" on her admirer 
by every art in her power, until he becomes so marked in 
his devotion that the entire company know, as well as the 
wives themselves, what his intentions are ; and, in addition 
to the pique caused by his neglect, they have to endure the 
congratulations of friends upon the approaching alliance. 
In cases like this, the first wife does not feel so much pain 
as the younger one, and the whilom favorite, who, no 
matter how she has snubbed her before, comes now to seek 
her sympathy. She would be something more than human, 
if, with the sadness of her heart was not mingled a little 
feeling of pleasure that she was getting her revenge in see- 
ing the jealousy and suffering of her late rival. 

To return to the encounter between Hyde and his wife. 
There is a little romance attached to their separation which 
I have just been reminded of. When Joseph Smith first 
taught polygamy, and gave the wives as well as the hus- 
bands opportunity to make new choice of life-partners, Mrs. 
Hyde, at that time a young and quite prepossessing woman, 
became one of the Prophet's numerous fancies, and he took 
great pains to teach her most thoroughly the principles of 
the new celestial doctrines. It was rumored, at the time, 
that she was an apt and willing pupil. Hyde was away on 
a mission at the time, and when he returned, he, in turn, im- 
bibed the teachings of polygamy also, and prepared to 
extend his kingdom indefinitely. In the mean time it was 



326 THE DANCING-PARTY. IN A FIX. 

hinted to him that Smith had had his first wife sealeJ to him- 
self in his absence, as a wife for eternity. Inconsistent as it 
may seem, Hyde was in a furious passion. Like many 
other men, he thought it no harm for him to win the affection 
of another man's wife, and make her his " celestial " spouse ; 
but he did not propose having his rights interfered with even 
by the holy Prophet whose teachings he so implicitly followed, 
and he swore that if this was true he would never live with 
her again. But he did live with her for several years after 
the exodus from Nauvoo and the settlement of Utah. 
Finally, the old affair was revived, and I think Brigham 
himself informed his apostle that she was his wife only for 
time, but Joseph's for eternity ; and as she was no longer 
young, and other wives were plentiful, he left her to care 
for herself as best she could. 

Although the Mormons have from the very commence- 
ment been very fond of parties, and of amusements gen- 
erally, they are much more enjoyed by the men than 
by the women, although both attend. Occasionally some 
very curious scenes are witnessed, which, after all, are 
not at all amusing to the persons most nearly concerned. 
For instance : a man takes two wives to a ball, and, if 
he be a lover of peace, he is at his wits' ends how to 
preserve it. He must treat each one alike, as nearly as 
possible ; dance with each one an equal number of times, 
and see that each one is equally well served at supper. The 
beginning of sorrow comes with the vexed question, which 
he shall dance with frst. That, however, is quite easily 
settled, since custom, or, rather, Mormon etiquette, demands 
that he shall give the older wife the preference. It may be 
she is not the favorite; but that does not matter: on this 
one point etiquette is rigid, and even the Prophet himself 
dare not defy it. 

He had invited Amelia, the present favorite, and Emmeline, 
whose place in the priestly heart Amelia had taken, to 
attend a ball with him. It was a very strange thing to do, 



"BRIGHAM, WON'T YOU DANCE?" 327 

for generally, when Amelia went with him, he devoted 
himself exclusively to her. But on this occasion he had 
brought Emmeline along, too. Early in the evening, one 
of the committee of management came bustling up, with a 
"Brother Brigham, won't you dance?" 

"Well, I suppose so," was the reply. Then he hesitated 
for a moment. There sat both Emmeline and Amelia, the 
former looking quietly unconscious, yet wondering very 
much, as she afterwards told me, " what Brother Brigham 
would do," and enjoying his dilemma immensely, while the 




BRIGHAM IN A QUANDARY. 

latter looked very stately and dignified, and also threaten- 
ing. There stood the Prophet, inclination pulling him one 
way, etiquette and duty the other. He hesitated a moment 
longer; then, walking up to Emmeline, said, ungraciously 
and gruffly, "Come along and dance ; " and, without offering 
her his arm, walked on to the floor, leaving her to follow. 

As is the custom at balls which Brigham and Amelia 
grace with their presence, one of his satellites instantly 
begged for the honor of Amelia's hand in the dance, and 
led her at once as vis-ti-vis to her husband. During the 



328 "I'j.T, DANCK WITH MY WIFK." 

entire dance he did not address one word to Emmeline, and 
was evidently made very wretched by the demeanor of 
Amelia, who snubbed him most decidedly, and would take 
no notice of all his attempts to win her back to good humor. 

At the end of the dance he led Emmeline to her seat as 
hastily as possible, left her without a word, and endeav- 
ored, with all the art which he possessed, to propitiate his 
angry favorite. Presently, the ubiquitous manager was at 
his elbow again : 

" Another cotillon, Brother Brigham ; will you dance 
again ? " 

"With pleasure," answered the delighted President. 
Then, turning quickly to Amelia, he offered his arm in the 
most impressive manner, saying, 

" Noiv I will dance with my wife ;" and led her off in 
triumph, as pleased as any young fellow at the opportunity 
of showing his devotion to her. He was vivacity itself 
during the dance, and finally succeeded in "coaxing a smile 
from the capricious tyrant of his heart. As deeply hurt as 
Emmeline was by his rude boorishness of manner towards 
herself, and the insult conveyed to her by the remark to 
Amelia, which she overheard, she could not help being 
pleased at seeing the punishment he was receiving at the 
hands of the outraged favorite. 

A system that engenders feelings like this can surely not 
be called, with any degree of propriety, a heavenly system, 
and religion is outraged every time, its name is used in 
connection with it. It panders to the baser passions of 
men, and crushes the graces of Christian faith and chanty 
out of every woman's heart. It engenders malice, and 
strife, and envyings, and hatred, and backbiting, and all 
that is worst in the masculine or feminine heart. It makes 
men selfish and mean, and women wretched and degraded. 
It takes from one the dignity and poise which come from 
absolute self-control, and from the other the sweet, refined, 
womanly assurance which comes from self-respect. Talk 



HOW JOHN TAYLOR LIED AT BOULOGNE. 329 

of its " celestial " origin ! It is the devil's own device for 
rendering men and women both less godlike and pure. 
And the cunning of his device is shown in the religious 
mask which he puts upon its frightful face, and the Chris- 
tian robes with which he hides its horrible deformity. 
It began by deception, it has been fostered by lies. 
When the first rumor of its existence as a religious ordi- 
nance among the American Saints was first exciting Eu- 
rope, and the American missionaries were assuring their 
converts that the rumor was false, and was started by tneir~ 
"enemies to injure them and their cause, the most eloquent" 
and remarkable denial of it was made by the Apostle John 
Taylor, at Boulognc-sur-Mer, where there was at that time 
quite a large and successful mission. 

' The Apostle Taylor was the husband of five wives, all liv- 
ing in Salt Lake ; yet that slight matter did not hinder him 
from most emphatically repudiating the charge brought 
against the church. He quoted from the Book of Mor- 
mon, dwelling particularly on the passage that expressly 
commands that a man shall have but one wife ; then mentions 
the Bible command that a man shall take a wife and cleave 
to her only; and made the sermon so strong and so con- 
vincing that no further proof was asked by those who 
heard him. His manner was impressive. He was sor- 
rowful, he was indignant, he was reproachful; he was elo- 
quent, and fervent, and almost inspired, thought those who 
heard him. He was logical and convincing in what he 
said. In short, hewas a consummate hypocrite, lying in 
of (rffdtft a j^ntHing 1 pf^pl^j with n 
an unblushing fac 



fle employed a French lady one of his converts, and 
a most charming and cultured person to translate the 
sermon for him into her own language. He then had it 
published, and distributed largely through the country. 
Very many were kept from apostatizing by this tract, and 
a large number announced their intention of at once 



330 



A CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN WOMAN. 



gathering to Zion. Among them was the lady who had 
translated the sermon for Taylor, and who, influenced 

by the spirit of the discourse, 
and the seeming earnestness 
of the missionary, had be- 
'come more zealous than ever 
in her devotion to her new 
and ardently beloved faith. 
Imagine, if you can,Jier 




horror OP 



APOSTLE JOHN TAYLOK. 
[Husband of Six Wives.] 



which found her there, and 
discoj(ere^\hat m she not only 
had been grossly deceived.. 
but,in her ignorance, had 
helpecT to deceive so many 
others ; for it was through the 

influence of her translation of Taylor's denial that nearly 
all the party with whom she emigrated had come. 
Shlfapolstatized at once, but she was conscience-stricken 
at the part she had so unwittingly played, and could not be 
comforted. A more remorseful, grief-stricken woman was 
never seen, and she felt all the more deeply the harm that 
had been wrought, when she saw how powerless she was 
to undo it. No effort of hers could ever bring these un- 
happy people from the infamous community in which they 
found themselves, and a part of which they were destined 
to become. For with them, the men especially, as with all 
others who remain under the baleful influence long, the 
end was certain. They first endured, and then embraced ; 
pity was left out altogether, although God knows there is 
no condition that calls for pity as does that of the polyga- 
mous wife. The lady herself left Utah, but her people 
were forced to remain. I wonder how those poor wives, 
decoyed into a strange country by priestly promises, and 
deceived by priestly lying, could bear ever again to look in 



WHEN THE TRUTH BECAME KNOWN. 331 

the face, or listen to the voice, of the man who had so 
wickedly misled them. 

When the missionaries were asked why they denied so 
stoutly the existence of the system, when it must be sooner 
or later discovered that they were falsifying, they excused 
themselves by saying that the people could not then stand 
such strong doctrine, and they must give them only what 
they could safely take ; that in good time the Lord would 
open their hearts to receive his truth, the "good time" 
which the brethren referred to being after they had left 
their own country, crossed the United States, and put 
themselves outside the pale of civilization, and were lit- 
erally in the power of the church. When they had gone 
so far that retreat was impossible, then they would tell 
them the truth, knowing that they could not choose but 
listen. 

As long as they possibly could they denied it in the mis- 
sions abroad, but, by-and-by, it became so notorious that it 
must be acknowledged; and in the face of all the denial, 
all the asseverations that there was no such institution, and, 
according to the laws of God and man there could be no 
such institution, the Millennial Star suddenly published 
the " Revelation," having given no warning of what it was 
about to do. 

The excitement among the Mormons through Europe, in 
England especially, was intense, and it took all the elo- 
quence and sophistry of the entire missionary board to pre- 
vent a general apostasy. Hundreds did leave the church, 
and many more were on the point of doing so. But the 
ingenuity of the Mormon Elders, which seems never to fail 
them, came to their rescue. They explained that this "Rev- 
elation " forced no one into polygamy ; it only established it 
as a church institution that might be availed of by anyone 
who chose to enter the "Celestial Kingdom," but that it was 
entirely optional. In fact, the same arguments that were 
used to win single and special converts were used to con- 



332 THEY CALLED IT, OPTIONAL ! 

vince the masses ; and, strange as it may seem, all this 
sophistry had actual weight, and many worthy and sensible 
men and women stayed by the church who would have 
abandoned it in disgust, had they known the truth as it was 
forced upon them afterwards. But, as I said a little while 
since, the system begun in deception and fraud fattened on 
lies apd treachery. May it meet with a speedy death, 
brought on by a surfeit of its favorite food. 



CHAPTER XX. 



BRIGHAM BUILDS WAGONS BY "INSPIRATION." THE 
CHURCH SETS UP A WHISKEY-STORE. 

Saying " Yes " under Difficulties. A Woman who Meant to have her 
Way. Two Company : Three None. Building Wagons by Inspira- 
tion. My Father despatched to Chicago. He gets rid of his New- 
Wives. My Brother sent to the Sandwich Islands. My Mother tells 
her own Story. She Returns to Salt Lake City to see my Father. 
Wifely Considerations. She finds two other Ladies at her Husband's 
Bedside. He likes a good deal of Wives about Him ! A Heart dead 
to Love. Brigham " asks no odds of Uncle Sam or the Devil." He 
proclaims Martial Law. Fiery Speeches in the Tabernacle. Prepar- 
ing for War. Government Troops Arrive. The Saints quit Sail 
Lake City. The Church Distillery. Brigham shamelessly Robs my 
Father. He fills his own Pockets. My Father, being without Funds, 
takes his Sixth Wife. 

OME time before our 
family bereavement by 
the loss of Louise, my 
mother and I went to 
Skull Valley, about 
seventy miles from Salt 
Lake City, where my 
brothers were keeping 
a herd-ground. 

We had intended to 
go by ourselves ; but 
one of the young wives, 
who was very much at- 
tached to my mother, 
begged to be allowed 
to go. She appealed 
first to my father, and 
he, in turn, referred her to my mother. 




ORMONS BURNING A GOVERNMENT TRAIN. 



334 THE FIFTH PART OF A HUSBAND. 

I shall never forget the look of desperation on my moth- 
er's face, the hunted look in her eyes, as she came to me 
after the request had been made and before she had given 
her answer. She told me of the new proposal, and 
added, in a bitterer tone than I had ever heard her use 
before, 

" Why can't she see and understand that I want to make 
my escape from this confusion and trouble, and go away 
alone?" 

But she could not see, and as she was kind and affec- 
tionate, and my mother was quite well aware of her regard 
for her, she could do nothing but say "yes," although it 
was a great cross for her to be obliged to do so. 

Here was the end of all her sweet dreaming. She had 
thought to go quietly away, taking me with her, and we 
two living with " the boys " at the herd-ground. To be 
sure, there was only a log-cabin there ; but what did that 
matter? She would rest in her children's love, which at 
least was her very own ; and with them about her, she 
would forget, as far as possible, the horrible system that 
had brought so much unhappiness to her. Fond as she 
was of my father, it was much easier for her to be separated 
from him in this way, than it was to be under the same 
roof, and see him bestowing attentions, that used to be hers 
exclusively, on others. Dear as the husband was, yet she 
took very little comfort with a fifth part of him ; and she 
longed to get away where she could live in memory the old 
happy days over again, and, with her children's arms about 
her, forget the suffering the later years had brought, ig- 
noring all but the very present, and close her eyes to the 
future, which promised but little better, after all, since what 
was her greatest cross here was to follow her into the 
hereafter. 

I wonder sometimes, knowing as I do now what she 
suffered, and realizing it as I could not then, that she did 
not cry out in the bitterness of her sorrow, as one Mormon 



GOING TO SKULL VALLEY. 335 

woman whom I know did, " O, if I could only believe 
n ft nri eternal sleep, I think I should be better 



able to pn^jirp ; but fr> fl"'nk that we have got to live on 
eTernally under this curse of polygamy, almost drives me 
mad.*"' Ur like anotner, equally desperate and miserable^ 
" I would kill myself if I thought death would end my mis- 
ery ; but as long as I must suffer, it might as well be here 
as anywhere. O for the anticipation of one hour of peace 
and rest ! " 

Ever since my father's return from his mission my mother 
had begged to be allowed to go away, to have a home by 
herself; but somehow my father could not bring himself to 
let her go until now. She was the balance-wheel in the 
domestic machinery, and things seemed to go smoothly 
when she was round about. She was always prepared for 
any emergency; and both my father and the other wives 
instinctively turned to her when anything was wrong. She 
was so strong, so helpful, so self-reliant, and so patient, 
that she seemed, some way, the protector of us all. I think, 
if my father had not seen her so very much in earnest, and 
so determined to go at all hazards, that his consent would 
not have been won ; but finding it useless to oppose her, he 
gave a reluctant consent. 

Then there was a little season of quiet joy between us 
two ; for we did not dare make any very open demonstra- 
tions, for fear of hurting the feelings of those whom we were 
going to leave behind us. Our joy was short-lived, how- 
ever, for it was decided to take a third with us ; and though 
we liked her, yet she would be what the children call a 
" spoil-sport ; " and we didn't want any one outside of our 
very selves. 

So we went, we three, leaving the others in Salt Lake 
City, where they did not remain long after we left, but, to 
my mother's great annoyance, followed soon after to Skull 
Valley. 

Very soon after our removal, Brigham conceived the idea 



336 MAKING ROOM FOR THE OTHER WIVES. 

of establishing an express company, and called on my father 
to go to Chicago and superintend the construction of wagons 
and carriages for this purpose. They were to be built after 
plans which Brigham himself had drawn from "inspira- 
tion," and he insisted that the designs should be closely and 
faithfully followed ; so he sent my father to see that this was 
done, he being a practical wagon-builder. 

Like the labor he had been engaged in for the four 
previous years, we expected that this would be called 
"mission" work, ajjOJETwas no! to receive 



services ; they were to be given for fhegood of the " king- 
jioiftr*- This would mnl:^ the fifth veaT ^ hfH < -p'"-- n*y 
from, us, working for the "church 



th> hftiiftf fg if bin Iqfrqrs;. He had no time, of course, to 
devote to his family, or to labor for its support ; he must 
give his strength, and his time, and his labor to Brigham 
Young. During the three months that he had been at 
home, he had added as many wives to the family-circle ; but 
there were no added means with which to care for them ; so 
that now, when he was called to go away and leave them 
for an indefinite length of time, it was considered expedient 
to send the whole family to us, tp 7 remain during his ab- 
sence. 

More log-rooms were added to the cabin, and down came 
the whole flock, so that we were all together again. My 
mother has said, since then, that she never, in her whole 
life, felt so rebellious as she did then. She had become so 
entirely disgusted with polygamy, that even the fact that it 
was an important adjunct to the religion to which she was so 
devoted, did not reconcile her to it one bit. She hated it; 
she hated everybody connected with it ; and she dIH not care 
"tf^sTie^never saw liei rmsTSand again in the world. She 
woaW not pray for nis saie return," lor she saicT s"he~~3id not" 
desire it, and she would not add heartless prayer to her list 
of hypocrisies? 
She kept all tfitsr rebellion within her own heart, and I 



SENT TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 337 

am sure that none of the wives knew at all the depth and 
intensity of her feelings at that time. An added sorrow to 
my mother came, when, about the same time that my father 
went to Chicago, my eldest brother was sent on a mission to 
the Sandwich Islands. She mourned his departure deeply, 
and even I could not comfort her. He was sent for five 
years, that was the time designated in his order, and 
my mother was so broken in health and spirits that she did 
not believe she should be alive when he returned. He was, 
however, immediately recalled on account of the opening of 
the Mormon War, with all other missionaries away from 
home. 

In the autumn we heard that my father was coming 
home ill ; he had got " leave of absence " from the head of 
the church, and was coming home to be taken care of. As 
soon as we heard the news, my mother suggested to Eliza- 
beth that she should return to Salt Lake City, and prepare 
for his reception at the home there. She went at once, and 
my mother was going on quietly with her many duties, when 
a messenger arrived in haste from the city for my mother, to 
convey her to the husband who was calling for her. 

I think I shall let her give the incident in her own 
words : 

"At first I declined going; so rebellious was I, and so 
bitter, that I actually felt that I could not go. There was a 
momentary feeling of triumph, that, in sickness or in trouble, 
my~~husbaiid turned lo me, his 6ne~7rue wife, for relief 
and CotTlfoTt; that, however he might regard his younger 
wives while well and comparatively prosperous, he had no 
thought for them now ; yet this feeling failed to move me, 
as instantly, choking it almost before it became a defi- 
nite thought, came the bitter impulse 'Let him alone ; leave 
him to suffer : you have not been spared ]~ why should you~Be 
^ei-dml lliaii he lias been;* Let him leel what it is to 



need, and long for, and even starve for some one's love and 
care, and yet have it denied him in all his longing and his 
22 



33 THE MUCH-MARRIED MAN FALLS SICK. 

need ; ' and for a moment I was actually glad that I had 
the power to inflict this pain. 

" ' Let one of the other wives go,' I replied to the messen- 
ger's repeated and more urgent request. ' I don't see how 
I can leave.' 

" ' But you must,' was the imperative reply of the man ; 
'your husband is very sick, and has sent for you, and I 
shall take no one else.' 

" In a moment I relented. I felt ashamed of my selfish 
heartlessness ; something of the old-time feeling came over 
me, and, with a sudden revulsion of emotion, such as only 
women ever feel, I was as anxious now to go to him as I 
had before been indifferent. After all, he was my husband, 
mine as he could never be anyone's else. I had a claim 
on him that none of the rest had, and he had a claim on me 
too. It seemed now as though I could not get to him 
quickly enough. I made my preparations in feverish haste, 
with fingers that trembled with nervous impatience, and in 
a short time was on my way. 

" The journey seemed so long and tedious ! and yet we 
made it very quickly; but to me, whose heart outran the 
very swiftest conveyance, it was inexpressibly tiresome. I 
expect I wearied the patience of my driver by requesting 
him constantly to 'go faster,' and perpetually asking if we 
were not almost there. Lectured to myself the pleasure 
of having my husband, for a TittleTwtiilt: everTr~aTTl:ny own 
again. I would make the most of it. I would forget, 
there had~~verbeen-the-stigntest 
sHadbW between u? 



Polygamy should, in that sick c ha na- 




me ; he had chosen me out of all 
panion of his sick hours. Th his "sick-room, at least, my 
sway should be absolute, and I would not give up one bit 
of my authority to anyone else. There, at least, as in the 
days of long ago, he should be ' mine, mine only ; ' but, 
alas ! he could never again be * for ever mine.' In spile of 



A GOOD DEAL OF WIVES. MUCH ATTENTION ! 339 

my impatience, I was more really happy than I had been 
for years. I felt more like myself than I had since that fatal 
day in Nauvoo, when, after long and prayerful consultation, 
we decided that duty and right demanded that we should 
enter polygamy, and made the choice of the first plural 
wife. I was coming to my own again, and my life was 
positively glorified by the thought. His illness, rather than 
distressing, gladdened me. I should have, of course, the 
exclusive care of him, and he should miss nothing of the old 
love and tenderness in my regard for him. For the time, 
at least, we should be all in all to each other. 




A GOOD DEAL OF WlVKS: TOO MUCH ATTENTION. 

" We arrived at last, and I hurried to the sick-room of my 
husband, with my heart full of tenderness for him, my eyes 
brimming over with loving tears. But, in my dreamings, 
I had forgotten, or had ignored the fact, that others had the 
same right to minister to him, to care for him, to remain 
with and watch over him, that I had ; and when I entered 
the room, the tenderness was driven from my heart, the 
tears from my eyes, and I stood there a polygamic wife, in 
presence of three of my husband's other wives, who had the 



340 A SHARE OF A HUSBAND ! 

same privileges of his room that I had, and who were doing 
their utmost to make the invalid comfortable. 

"I was a good nurse, and, on account of my experience, 
the others deferred to my opinions and advice, but insisted 
upon sharing my labors. My husband made no objections ; 
indeed, I daresay he would have been contented had the 
whole five of us been dancing attendance on him. I worked 
faithfully and hard in the sick-room, but very mechanically, 
and, in a dazed, bewildered sort of way. All the heart 
had gone out of my work. Feeling seemed entirely dead. 
I hadn't thejslightest emotion torthe man who lay before 
jnejhere, and I was as indifffirrr^TlI^^ though he 

had been an,, ejotire .stranger. 

w I don't think it was heartlessness ; I know it was not. 
It was because my heart had been tortured into numbness. 
and Ijio-lojnger had any jgpjw^r^o^feeT Ifne had died, I 
do not think I^sKould have shed a tear. The fountain of 
tears was absoj_u^d^frezen_ 2 _and not one would have rioweoT 
had he lain before me cold, and mute, and motionless^ I 
should have been as rigid as the white face set in death, on 
which my dry eyes would have looked vacantly and wonder- 
ingly, as on some strange, unaccustomed features. 

" I did not wish that he might die ; I was simply indiffer- 
ent. With the last flickering light that burned up so brightly 
for a little while, until it entered the sick-chamber and was 
met by the chilling breath of the ghostly presence of poly- 
gamy, my life's romance went out for ever. The life or death 
of one man could not change the face of the world to me. 
Where I had thought I was strong, I was weak ; my dream 
was broken ; life was henceforth a dead level of mere exist- 
ence. My only thought was to get away. I took my 
daughter, as soon as I could with decency leave, and went 
on a visit to some relatives in Southern Utah, saying fare- 
well to my domestic circle, without one regret." 

Yet even this separation was of short duration, for just 
about that time came the famous " move to the South," 



"NO ODDS OF UNCLE SAM OR THE DEVIL." 34! 

which every Salt Lake City resident will remember many 
of them to their sorrow. 

In 1857 there was a prospect of United States troops 
being sent to the Territory, and Brigham determined to 
resist them. In a public speech on the 24th of July, the 
day celebrated by the Mormon Church as the anniversary 
of their first entrance into the Valley, he said, "God is with 
us, and I ask no odds of Uncle Sam or the devil." 

When it was ascertained beyond a doubt that the United 
States troops were on the way, he counselled every warlike 
preparation to be be made. Business was suspended ; an 
adobe wall was built back of the city for protection against 




REMAINS OF ADOBE DEFENCES. 



Johnson's army ; the elders on missions were ordered home 
at once, and all the people turned their attention to the task 
of repelling the invasion. "For," said Brigham, "they 
SHALL NOT enter the Valley." He issued a proclamation, 
forbidding all armed forces from entering the Territory, 
and martial law was also proclaimed. 

The latter part of the winter the Mormons received a visit 
from Colonel Thomas S. Kane, of Philadelphia. He had be- 
fore this proved his friendship for the Saints, and was respect- 
ed and listened to accordingly. It is supposed the colonel 
convinced Brigham that he was not yet strong enough to 
conquer the United States, and advised a change of tactics. 



34 2 THE SAINTS GO SOUTH. 

At all events, directly after his departure, Brigham began 
to talk of going south ; he said he did not know where he 
should go; perhaps to the desert "wherever the Lord 
should direct." 

Satisfied that it would be better not to fight, I suppose he 
thought when the snow melted it would be impossible to keep 
the army out ; therefore he issued orders to the Saints to 
pack up and take their flight. They obeyed the command, 
some going only thirty miles, others going three hundred ; 
in fact, they were scattered along all through the southern 
settlements. In direct contradiction to his assertions made 
in the Tabernacle, everything was left standing not even 
a tree or a stack of hay being burned. This move south 
brought our family together again under one roof, and we 
remained together until the church was recalled. 

After the departure of the Saints from Salt Lake, the 
troops passed through ; but they interfered with nothing : 
no spirit of retaliation was shown for all they had endured 
through the past winter. 

Nearly the entire summer was spent in the move south, 
and in August, Brigham notified the people that he was 
going back, but that " others might do as they pleased." 
All that could do so returned to their homes at once ; others 
went when circumstances would permit ; having been living 
from March until August in tents, wagons, or in the open 
air, they were glad to return. The people \vere poor, and 
dependent on their labor for sustenance, and could not well 
afford the time for this flitting ; yet they obeyed Brigham 
implicitly, asking no questions and hazarding no objections. 

With the return to the city our family was again divided. 
My mother was urged to go to Pay son, and re-open her 
school, which she had relinquished on my father's return 
from Europe. She decided to do so, and the people fur- 
nished a dwelling-house for her, and she and I commenced 
living our old cosy life again. We had occasional visits 
from different members of our family, and the first summer 



BRIGHAM PUTS MONEY IN HIS PURSE. 343 

that we were there, one of the younger wives, while on a visit, 
increased our already somewhat numerous family by giving 
birth to a daughter, and, in addition to her school duties, my 
mother performed the several offices of cook, housekeeper, 
and nurse, until she was able to return home. 

In the mean time, affairs in Salt Lake City had assumed 
their usual quiet. The troops were camped about forty 
miles from Salt Lake, in Cedar Valley. They called the 
station Camp Floyd. While they remained in the Terri- 
tory, some of the Saints, wishing to dispose of their produce, 
sold a large quantity to the troops, and were well paid for 




MORMONS SELLING PROVISIONS TO UNITED STATES TROOPS. 

it. Brigham heard of it, and the very next Sunday forbade 
their selling any more, and cursed all those who had had 
dealings with our enemies, as he called those men who had 
respected the honor of their government and spared the 
people who had so injured them. 

It was not long before it was whispered that Brigham had- 
agents in Camp Floyd selling tithing flour and lumber ; 
taking large contracts, and obtaining large prices. But in< 
the meanwhile he did not relax his severity towards his 
people. The bishops were ordered to withdraw the hand 
of fellowship from every person in their wards who traded, 
at Camp Floyd. It was a sure sign of apostasy to Be 



344 THE CHURCH LIQUOR STORE. 

seen there at all, on any errand whatever ; yet the church 
teams started from the tlthing-office, loaded with flour, in 
the night, and it was known that Brigham received large 
sums of money from the government in payment. 

In this, as in everything else, he was determined to have 
the monopoly. If there was a^iy money to be made, he 
must make it. He could not endure to see a dollar go into 
another man's pocket. I believe the sight was positive 
pain to him. This incarnation of selfish greed is made 
absolutely miserable by the prosperity of another, and he 
takes speedy measures to put a stop to it, as he did in the 
case of Moon and Badly, the distillers, whom he sent to the 
south on missions, and also in the affair with Mr. Howard, 
whose distillery he took possession of in the same manner, 
after having declared that it ought to be burned down, and 
the machinery destroyed. 

After Howard was well out of the way (in England, I 
think) , Brigham started the distillery again in the "church's " 
interest, which, as he represents the church, meant him- 
self. And over the door he placed as a sign the All-seeing 
eye, with the inscription, " HOLINESS TO THE LORD. Zi- 
ON'S CO-OPERATIVE MERCANTILE INSTITUTION. WHOLE- 
SALE LIQUOR-DEALERS AND RECTIFIERS." His whiskey 
was not nearly so good as Howard's, but he got as much 
money for it ; so what did he care about the quality ? 

More fortunate than either Mr. Moon or Mr. Badly, 
Mr. Howard returned from his mission ; but he has ever 
since been an enemy to the Prophet, who, by the way, still 
runs the distillery. 

Mention having been made of the President's " Improved 
Carriages," I think they deserve a more extended notice, 
coming, as they do, under the head of Brigham's sublime 
failures. He had purchased the contract for carrying the 
mails from Independence, Missouri, to Salt Lake City; so 
he decided to run an express between these two points, to 
be called "B. Young's Express," for the purpose of carry- 



BUILDING CARS BY INSPIRATION. 345 

ing passengers, freight, and the mails. He wanted the 
assistance of my father in preparing the train, and although 
the latter was very much averse to leaving his family again 
so soon after his return to them from his four years in Eng- 
land, yet he was, of course, overcome by the pressing elo- 
quence of his leader. 

It was very necessary that he should enter at once into 
some lucrative business, as his family was large, increased 
recently by the Prophet's orders ; and when he informed 
Brigham of the necessity of instant and remunerative labor, 
he was informed that this would be the most profitable un- 
dertaking in which he could engage, and gave him to 
understand that he would be well remunerated for his ser- 
vices. 

It is by this time a well-established fact among the 
Saints taking his word for it merely that Brigham 
Young knows how to do everything. Therefore no one 
will be surprised to learn that he understood all about 
wagon and carriage building, and nothing could be more 
natural than that he should produce plans representing the 
manner in which the carriages should be built. These de- 
signs, with the most minute instructions, covering several 
sheets of foolscap, were laid before my father, and he ven- 
tured to suggest that there might be some slight alterations 
which would be for the better ; but he was met with the 
sharp and abusive reply, that " there must not, on any con- 
sideration, be the least variation from this plan." Brigham 
insisted that it should be adhered to in every particular. 
He became very much elated, and made use of all his 
magniloquence in describing the ease and comfort with 
which passengers might cross the plains in one of his car- 
riages, saying, " They will be just as comfortable as though 
they were at home in their own parlors." 

Father said no more, but .pocketed the plans, and started 
East with them, quite certain what the result would be. 
When he arrived in Chicago he presented the Prophet's 



346 EXCUSE FOR A BAD "REVELATION." 

model to every carriage-maker in the city, and they only 
laughed very heartily over it. They said they had never 
seen anything like it, which was true enough, as it bore not 
the slightest resemblance to anything on the earth, or in 
the heavens above, or the waters beneath. It was most 
decidedly "unique and only.". They all declined to under- 
take the work, knowing that it must prove a failure. Fi- 
nally, however, a Mr. Schuttler, being anxious to secure 
the Utah trade, consented to try two of them, on condition 
that my father should render constant assistance, not feel- 
ing exactly safe to proceed in so important an undertaking 
without the aid of a Mormon who was supposed to know 
more about it than himself. The orders were to build four- 
teen carriages, besides a train of wagons. Schuttler's 
wagons being ordered by the Prophet, of course there was 
no difficulty about them. 

When the two carriages were ready for transportation, 
they entirely filled a railway car. If my father had fol- 
lowed directions, and had the entire fourteen made, he must 
have chartered seven cars to convey them to the frontiers. 
These nondescript affairs were the amusement of all the 
passengers on the train. As they found no passengers at 
the frontiers, except " Uncle Sam's troops," the carriages 
were filled with freight ; and I believe the wreck of one 
of them reached Salt Lake City the following year, after 
peace had been made with the government. The Prophet 
was satisfied with the two, and ordered no more built ; his 
w revelation " had proved a great failure, and owing to the 
rebellion, the mail contract was taken from him. He laid 
the entire failure to the United States troops, although it 
would puzzle a person of less acute perceptions than he to 
discover how the one had anything to do with the other. 
When a " revelation " fails, there must be some excuse, 
some reason for it, and President Young is never at fault 
for one ; whether a valid one or not, it seems to make little 
difference. 



THE "PROPHET PROFITS BY HIS FAULTS. 



347 



Those who were so fortunate as to see one of those car- 
riages in its entirety, say that no one could form any idea 
of them without seeing them, and that the only way to 
get an adequate idea of the size would be to take the di- 
mensions of a " Prairie Schooner," and multiply them by 
five. 

The wagons proved a success, as they were loaded with 
freight for Salt Lake merchants, for which they paid twen- 
ty-five cents a pound ; and those wagons that came through 
with my father brought no less than five thousand two 
hundred and fifty dollars' worth of freight for the Prophet. 




RIGHAM'S FOLLY. "THE PRAIRIE SCHOONER.' 



It is a poor plan that does not enrich him ; he seems, 
in some way or other, to make money out of his very 
failures. 

After my fathers recovery from his illness he presented 
his accounts for the Prophet's inspection, and expected an 
immediate settlement, and his promised pay ; instead of 
which, he was quietly informed that his services were to 
be a gratuity to the church, and at the same time he was 
presented by the Prophet with a bill from the express com- 
pany for bringing his trunk of clothing through. 
" While in Chicago, he had sent two hundred and fifty 
pounds of freight home for the family's use, and they 
would not let my mother have it until she had paid the full 



348 MY FATHER MARRIES HIS SIXTH WIFE. 

freight-charges. 1$he clerks told her that "this was Presi- 
dent Young's order, and they dared not disobey." Mother 
afterwards said that she believed the clerks saw the injus- 
tice of the whole proceeding, yet were powerless to do 
otherwise than according to their orders. 

A man that hajj littmyHj^w-arn himself nnt in thft service 
of Brigham Young could not be permitted to send a few_ 
of the necessaries of life to his family, nor even a trunk of 
linen, used on a journey For this man, without paying" 
freight, and that when they came in wagons which he had 
helped to build, and that gratuitously, for the aggrandize- 
ment of the church, or, to be more exact, of the man who 
was constantly crying, " Give,.^iv*!land was yetjieyer 
satisfied. A man of our acquaintance, .who had been sim- 
larly swindled, said, in* referring to the subject, '"Brigham 
Youngjy 11 ^ roll^the King of heaven of His 
els if 



Twas the unfortunate termination of this " business ar- 
rangement " with the Prophet that decided my mother to 
resume teaching again ; but when my father was again in 
business, he was so urgent that my mother should return 
to Salt Lake, that, a little while before my sixteenth birth- 
day, we went there again to live. 



CHAPTER XXL 



GOING THROUGH THE "ENDOWMENT-HOUSE." I TAKE 
THE MYSTERIOUS BATHS. 

No Physic among the Saints. I am taken Sick. Heber C. Kimball rec- 
ommends " Endowments." How Brigham Murdered his little Grand- 
daughter. The Prophet wants a Doctor. Being " administered " 
To. I am Re-baptized. Receive my Endowments. How Saintly 
Sins are Washed Away. Undignified Conduct of Elders. The Or- 
der of Melchisedec. How I was " Confirmed." To become a Celes- 
tial Queen. I go down to the Endowment-House. The Mysterious 
Ceremonies Described. The Veil at last Lifted. The Secrets of the 
Endowment-House Exposed. I enter the Bath. Miss Snow Washes 
Me. She Anoints Me All Over. I dress in a Bed-gown. The 
*' Peculiar Garment " of the Saints. What the Mormon Girls do 
about It "Going through" without a Husband. "A Great Shout- 
ing for Sarah ! " 




HEN I was about sixteen 
years old, I was very 
ill, and my mother, her 
fears for the life and 
welfare of her only 
daughter always on 
the alert, became very 
anxious, and, indeed, 
almost ill herself in 
her concern for me. 

According to Mormon custom, I was 
" administered to " by the anointing and 
laying on of hands, but all to no avail. 
Bishop Taft, the one who had baptized 
me in my childhood, Isaac Groo, the 
Bishop's counsellor, and Elder Samuel 
Hardy labored earnestly and long, and " wrestled in 




TAKING MY ENDOWMENTS 
BEHIND THE CURTAIN. 



35 BRIGHAM MURDERS HIS GRANDDAUGHTER. 

prayer" over me, all to no avail. I grew worse, rather 
than better, and my family feared I should fall into pul- 
monary consumption. 

The idea of employing a regular physician seemed never 
to^5ccur to any of thern! Indeed, at that time it was con- 
-srttere"3 the surest sign ol a weakening of faith to resort to 
medical aid, and no Mormon in good standing would ever 
entertain the suggestion for a moment. Latterly, however, 
a great deal of this nonsense has been done away with, 
under the subtle Gentile influence that is working through- 
out Utah, in Salt Lake City more especially, and some of 
the young Saints are actually studying for the medical pro- 
fession. Brigham used to denounce physicians in the most 
wholesale manner in the Tabernacle, and declare that they 
should never enter heaven, but that he would himself close 
the doors against them. 

He was so bitter at that time that he would allow none 
of his family to employ medical aid in any emergency. A 
little granddaughter of his, a child of one of his daugh- 
ters, took some poison that her mother had prepared to 
exterminate rats with. Brigham was sent for, and when 
he arrived he found a physician there, preparing to admin- 
ister to the child in the usual manner. He rudely turned 
him out of doors, saying that he would care for the child 
himself; that no doctor should be allowed to worry her; 
and his "care," as usual, consisted of the laying on of 
hands not a very energetic or efficacious mode of treat- 
ing a poisoning case. The agonized parents dared not 
interfere, and in a fe^ 



most terrible agony^and distress, an inno 
aneToTg u Liy . - 



was Brigha^TouTT^weTr ITnglTnm Young ill is 
another person. In his variableness of opinion he reminds 
one very forcibly of the dignitary treated of in the some- 
what profane epigram, 



DOCTORING THE PROPHET ! 35! 

" The devil was sick ; 

The devil a monk would be : 
The devil got well ; 

The devil a monk was he." 

Whenever he has any ailment, a doctor is summoned at 
oiiCj__cinU-c!Til < irig his illness, a little over a year* Since, he 
"e"mpluyed~ at least halfa dozen, keeping Lhun iu LUiisiaiil 
consultation, so great was his terror, and so absolute his 
horror of fatal consequences. 

But when I was so ill, the Prophet was in the best of 
health, and was indulging in the bitterest invectives against 
physicians and all who employed them ; and my mother, 
great and all-pervading as her affection was for me, and 
anxiously troubled as she was concerning my restoration 
to health, would have been shocked and grieved beyond 
measure, had any one proposed to her to seek medical 
advice concerning my condition. I was "in the hands of 
the Lord," and I was to be left there, for Him to do with 
me as He would. 

When it was found that being " administered to " did no 
good in my case, Heber C. Kimball advised that I receive 
my " Endowments," promising that then I should surely be 
fully restored to health. This was considered as a very 
great favor, since, outside of Brigham Young's and one or 
two other official families, no young persons are given their 
Endowments. My mother was overjoyed, and considered 
the bestowal of this honor a special interposition of Prov- 
idence on my behalf. As a matter of course, I shared her 
feelings most fully. I had always been taught to anticipate 
the time when I should receive my Endowments as the most 
important epoch of my religious life, when I should be 
taken fully into the bosom of the church. 

It was necessary, in order to receive these rites, that I 
should be re-baptized. Remembering my childish experi- 
ence, and the terror which I suffered, I must confess that I 



352 I AM DIPPED AGAIN. 

dreaded, in my weakened state of health, that portion of 
the ceremony, and I grew quite nervous over it before the 
day arrived on which that rite was to be performed. I was 
reassured on one point, however. The pond experience 
was not to be repeated, but I was to be baptized in the 
Twelfth Ward font, which made it seem much less formi- 
dable, and divested it of half its terror. 

On the day appointed I was taken to the Twelfth Ward 
meeting-house by my mother, where we met Isaac Groo, 
who was to baptize me. I was half frightened, and wholly 
awed, and very nervous; but my ardent desire for the re- 
establishment of my health gave me a sort of bravery and 




MORMON BAPTISM. 



endurance, so that I was quite calm, and behaved myself 
very well, considering the unnaturally excited state which 
I was in. 

The ordinance of baptism, as administered by the Mor- 
mons, does not differ very materially from that of the Bap- 
tist churches. It is always by immersion. Nothing else is 
ever considered efficacious. It must be a literal "watery 
burial," and a resurrection therefrom. The officiating elder, 
with his candidate for the rite, repairs to some place which 
has been previously appointed, and where there is a suffi- 
cient quantity of water to immerse the entire person. Not 



WATERY ! 353 

the least portion of the body must be left above the purifying 
fluid, else it could not be termed a " perfect burial with 
Christ." In the early days it was necessary to perform this 
ordinance in the open air, in some river or pond ; but lately 
fonts have been built in most ward meeting-houses, so that 
it can all be done under cover, and there is less danger of 
suffering ill results from exposure. 

The elder officiating takes the candidate by the hand and 
leads him or her, as the case maybe down into the 
water, until a sufficient depth is attained ; he then raises his 
hand, and, calling the person by name, commences the 
ceremony as follows : " Having authority given me of 
Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Amen." He then plunges 
the candidate under the water, bringing him forth into the 
newness of life, and fully prepared to enter upon a series of 
ordinances, all of which are attended with covenants calcu- 
lated to bind the person more strongly to the church. 

Following the baptism comes the confirmation, or the 
laying on of hands for the reception of the Holy Ghost. It 
is usually administered directly after the first rite, and at 
the same place ; but I was so ill and weak that I was taken 
directly home, and the elders came there to confirm me. 
They were Bishop Taft and Isaac Groo, and they certainly 
gave me every cause to be thankful to them for the prodi- 
gality of their promises. I certainly never have had occasion 
to be grateful on account of their fulfilment. 

In the Church of Latter-Day Saints the " Melchisedec " 
and " Aaronic " priesthood are authorized to perform the or- 
dinance of baptism, but the latter has no power to administer 
in spiritual things. Hence only a priest after the holy order 
of the Son of God, or the order of Melchisedec, can per- 
form the ordinance of confirmation, or laying on of hands 
for imparting the Holy Ghost, which is to lead the new- 
born Saint into all truth, and teach him the things to 
come ; thus protect him from all falsehood and imposition, 
2 3 



354 RECEIVING GIFTS AND GRACES. 

and placing him in the most perfect state of progression 
which, if real, would be a state of the highest felicity and 
most assured salvation. 

Two or three elders lay their hands upon the head of the 
person to be confirmed, one of whom acts as a mouthpiece 
for the rest, and pronounces the blessings and promises, 
generally exhausting his full list of mercies upon him whom 
they are receiving into full Sainthood. There are two 
essentials in this ordinance which are never omitted "I 
confirm you a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of 




MORMON CONFIRMATION. 

Latter-Day Saints," and, "I also confer upon you the Gift 
of the Holy Ghost." 

Oftentimes the elder becomes so thoroughly filled with 
inspiration that he cannot cease his blessing until he has 
sealed the young Saint up to eternal life, with a perfect 
assurance that he shall " inherit all the blessings of Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, with a fulness of the holy priesthood 
after the order of an endless life ; " thus placing him be- 
yond the possibility of falling from grace or missing the 
celestial gate : though he may wander from the fold and 
become bewildered in fogs and darkness, yet in the consum- 
mation of his mission to earth he will find his way back to 



GOING TO THE ENDOWMENT-HOUSE. 355 

the fold of Christ ; and as it is supposed that the Word of God, 
spoken by the mouth of His servant, cannot fail, will inherit 
thrones, principalities, and dominions, be made King and 
Priest unto God and His Christ, and reign upon the earth. 

The person, having reached this high plane in the king- 
dom of God on the earth, is considered properly prepared to 
receive the higher and holier ordinances, which are to be 
kept entirely secret, and are accompanied by the strongest 
and most binding covenants, which cannot be broken with- 
out incurring the severest penalties. 

I was promised everything that I could wish ; indeed, I 
was quite overcome by the magnitude and number of special 
blessings that was promised me. First of all, as that was my 
most earnest desire, I was to have perfect health bestowed 
upon me at once. I was to go on w from grace to glory," 
in full saintship, and my last days were to be better than 
my first. I am glad to say that this portion of the blessing 
promises to be fulfilled, although by no means in the man- 
ner that was intended when the blessing was bestowed. I, 
of course, could not be a King or Priest, but I should be a 
"Celestial Queen," with all the glory, emoluments, and 
perquisites which attend that very exalted, but somewhat 
mythical, position. Having thus settled my future to their 
evident satisfaction, they left me fully prepared to receive 
my Endowments. 

I was now all eagerness to receive my Endowments. If 
the first step could have so sudden and marked an effect on 
me, what would not the greatest, the most important step of 
all, do for me ! My faith in it and its virtues was almost sub- 
lime. I could scarcely wait for the next day to come the 
day that had been appointed for me to enter into the full 
fellowship of the church, the full glory of the Lord, and the 
eternal heirship to heavenly things. 

The morning came, however, and, with a heart filled 
with hopeful anticipation, I took my way to the Endowment- 
House [carrying a lunch and my Temple-robes, which had 



35^ PREPARING FOR THE CEREMONY. 

to be specially prepared for this occasion] , where, in the 
absence of a regular Temple, the rites were performed. I 
expected something solemn and awful ; something elevating 
to the spirit, and ennobling to the mind. How I was disap- 
pointed, everyone who has entered the Endowment-House 
with feelings similar to my own will understand. In place 
of the awjs-which I expected to find the rites enj nw pd with,, 
tKey^vvere ridiculous and farcical in the extreme. 
_J-4iaYjiea*4-peisuiis ypealc of the solemnity of their feel- 
ings on the occasion of taking their Endowments, but, with 
all respect to their truthfulness, I am always incredulous in 




THE ENDOWMENT-HOUSE. 



the extreme. I think either their imagination must have 
got the better of their common sense, or they could have 
had very little of the latter commodity to begin with, else 
they would have seen through the very thin tissue of ab- 
surdities which they are obliged to witness with unmoved 
features, for to laugh in the Endowment-House would be the 
most fearful sacrilege. For my own part, I was in a most 
uncomfortable frame of mind. I wanted to laugh ; every- 
thing seemed so ridiculous ; and yet all the while I was 
conscience-stricken at my own levity. I thought it must be 
my own wicked heart, and not the rites themselves, and I 



OFF WITH OUR SHOES ! 357 

was constantly upbraiding myself for lack of spiritual grace ; 
and yet I could not alter my feelings in the least. The only 
thing that in any degree overcame my disposition to laugh, 
was the horror at the oaths which I was obliged to take. 
They were fairly blood-curdling, they were so awful ; and 
even now a shudder runs through my whole frame as I 
recall them. 

The Endowment rites are nothing more nor less than a 
drama, founded partially upon the Bible, but more upon 
Milton's Paradise Lost. It represents the Creation, the 
Fall, and the final Restoration of Man to his first glory. To 
speak in stage parlance, the " different lines of business " 
are taken by the leaders of the church, who always sustain 
the same characters. The following is a list of the dramatis 
2>crsonce at the time that I took my Endowments : 

ELOHIM, or Head God, . . . . Brigham Young. 

JEHOVAH, Heber C. Kimball. 

JESUS, Daniel H. Wells. 

MICHAEL, or Adam, W. C. Staines. 

SATAN, . . . W. W. Phelps. 

APOSTLE PETER, Orson Pratt. 

APOSTLE JAMES, John Taylor. 

APOSTLE JOHN, Erastus Snow. 

WASHER, Dr. Sprague. 

CLERK, David O. Calder. 

EVE, Miss Eliza R. Snow. 

TIMOTHY BROADBRIM, a Quaker, . . Wilfred Woodruff. 

DEACON SMITH, a Methodist, .... Orson Hyde. 

PARSON PEABODY, a Presbyterian, . . Franklin D. Richards. 

ELDER SMOOTH-TONGUE, a Baptist, . . Phineas H. Young. 

FATHER BONIFACE, a Catholic, . . . George A. Smith. 

When I entered the Endowment-House, I was made, first 
of all, to take off my shoes, for the place was too holy to be 
desecrated by outside dust. Having done this, I gave my 
name and age, the names of my parents, and date of bap- 
tism and confirmation, to the officiating clerk, who entered 
them all in a large book. Several other persons of both 



358 SISTER, PASS ON 



sexes were present, and after all had been similarly cate- 
chized, and their answers noted, we were asked to produce 
our bottles of oil, for we had been instructed, among other 
things, to bring with us a bottle of the best olive-oil : these 
were taken from us ; our bundles of clothing were handed 
to us again, and we were told to '" pass on." 

We entered a large bath-room, which was separated in 
the middle by a heavy curtain, for the purpose of dividing 
the men from the women. The men passed to one side of 
the curtain, the women to the other. In our room were 
several large tubs filled with water, and Miss Eliza R. Snow 
and two or three other women were in attendance. I was 
received by Miss Snow, who placed me in one of the tubs, 
and washed me from my head to my feet, repeating certain 
formulae to the effect that I was washed clean from the blood 
of this generation, and if I remained firm in the faith, should 
never be harmed by any of the ills that beset the world, and 
which soon were to be showered in terrible profusion upon 
the earth. -Plagues, pestilence and famine should cover 
the earth, and be let loose in its every corner, but I should 
be passed by unscathed, if I was true to my religion the 
only revealed religion of God. After I had been wiped dry, 
she proceeded to anoint me with olive-oil. As she did so, 
she repeated, solemnly, 

*' Sister, I anoint your head, that it may be prepared for 
that crown of glory awaiting you as a faithful Saint, and the 
fruitful wife of a priest of the Lord ; your forehead, that your 
brain may be quick of discernment ; your eyes, that they may 
be quick to perceive the truth, and to avoid the snares of the 
enemy ; your ears, that they may be quick to hear the word 
of the Lord ; your mouth, that you may with wisdom speak 
the words of eternal life, and show forth the praise of the 
immortal gods ; your tongue, to pronounce the true name 
which will admit you hereafter behind the veil, and by which 
you will be known in the celestial kingdom. I anoint your 
arms to labor in the cause of righteousness, and your hands 



I AM WELL OILED. 359 

to be strong in building up the kingdom of God by all man- 
ner of profitable works. I anoint your breasts, that you 
may prove a fruitful vine to nourish a strong race of swift 
witnesses, earnest in the defence of Zion ; your body, to 
present it an acceptable tabernacle when you come to pass 
behind the veil ; your loins, that you may bring forth a 
numerous race to crown you with eternal glory, and 
strengthen the heavenly kingdom of your husband, your 
master, and crown in the Lord. I anoint your knees, on 
which to prostrate yourself, and humbly receive the truth 
from God's holy priesthood ; your feet, to run swiftly in the 
ways of righteousness, and stand firm upon the appointed 
places. And now I pronounce your body an acceptable 
temple for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit." 

As may be imagined, I was literally besmeared with oil 
from my head to my feet. I breathed it, smelled it, tasted 
it ; it ran into my eyes, and made them smart fearfully, and 
dripped in any but an agreeable manner from my hair. I 
was fairly saturated with it ; was cognizant of nothing else ; 
and I was so nauseated from it that I could scarcely go on 
with the ceremonies. I got a distaste for it then that I have 
never got over, and to this day even the sight of it makes 
me ill. 

After the washing and anointing, I was given a garment 
which I was to^d to put on, and charged, after once assum- 
ing it, that I must never leave it off. When it became 
necessary to change, I must take off one side, then put 
the fresh one in its place ; then I could drop the soiled one 
altogether, and get the fresh one on as soon as possible. 
So long as I wore it, I was free from danger, and even from 
death. Disease should not assail me, and neither shot nor 
the assassin's knife should have power to harm me ; all 
should be turned one side. Every good Mormon wears this 
garment, and is very superstitious about allowing it off. It 
is said that Smith never would have been killed had it not 
been that he left off this charmed garment when he went to 



360 " POMPS AND VANITIES " OF THE MORMON GIRLS. 

Carthage. Had he allowed it to remain on, the balls of 
the murderers would have been utterly powerless to harm 
him. 

There is nothing elegant about this garment ; on the con- 
trary, it is quite ugly, and the young Saints who assume it 
dislike it terribly for its plainness and awkwardness. In 
shape, it is like a child's sleeping-robe, with the waist and 
drawers combined, and reaches from the neck to the feet. 
It is of white, bleached muslin, and untrimmed. Latterly, 
some of the younger daughters of Brigham Young, and 
other young ladies of the Mormon bon ton, have instituted a 
reform, and, to the horror of the older ones, who are not 
given over to the "pomps and vanities," &c., have had 
their garments cut shorter, low in the neck, and short- 
sleeved, and elaborately trimmed. Of course the majority 
of the people, who have known of this innovation, have 
been terribly scandalized ; but all to no avail. Mormon 
girls, like girls of the world, object to making guys of 
themselves ; and neither " counsel " nor ridicule can affect 
them when once their minds are made up on the subject of 
dress. They will suffer for that what they will not for their 
religion. 

Mine, of course, was made after the true orthodox fashion. 
Over it I wore a white night-gown and skirt, and on my 
feet white stockings and white linen shoes. My Temple 
robe was the last to be donned. It is a long, loose, flowing 
robe of homespun linen, falling to the ankle, and at the 
top plaited into a band, which passes over the right shoulder, 
and is fastened under the left arm ; it was girdled by a 
white linen belt : the cap, which accompanies it, is a simple 
square of linen, or muslin, gathered in one corner to fit the 
head ; the remainder falls down over the back of the head, 
like a veil. 

While all this washing and robing was going on on one 
side of the curtain, the same things were being done on the 
opposite side. I suppose we could hear the murmur of 



SHOUTING FOR SARAH ! 361 

voices and the splash of water; but everything was quiet 
and subdued, and the most perfect order reigned. 

When we were all ready, a name was secretly given to 
each one of us, which was the name by which we were to be 
known in the celestial world, and which was to be told only 
to the man who should take us through the veil. If a 
woman was married, her husband took her through ; if not, 
some brother kindly performed the office for her, and he 
was rewarded for hia^kindness by having the young Saint's 
celestial name whispered confidingly in his ear. I was not 
married ; so Elder Samuel Richards took me through, and 
I told him my name, and, by the way, he was the only 
person who ever knew it until after my apostasy, as I never 
told it to either of my husbands. 

THiTirlirvrjitbit n~ thr hnrhnnd In i In " IT -11111 rrl " Vih 
wife by her Endowment name, so it is rat^ej necessary that 
he should know it. Consequently, when he fa 



her, she is permitted to whisper her name to him through 
the veil, and after that it must be spoken no more between 
them until he shall call her by it on the morning of 'the final 
resurrection. If the Mormon doctrine were true, there would 

hf^a tpighty ghfHJtJPg for "Sarah" af ffraf ti'mn, in nunpy 

person whose name I have heard was always called the 
same. It was the name that was given me, and I have 
known many others who received it. It certainly will make 
the husband's work at that time much lighter, since he need 

il" 



CHAPTER XXII. 

WE CARRY ON THE ENDOWMENT DRAMA. I AM 
FULLY INITIATED. ' 

In the Endowment- House. How the " Kings r.id Priests " appeared in 
their Shirts. The poor Fellows "feel Badf" The "Gods" hold a 
Conversazione. Michael is sent down to Earth. The " Tree of Life." 

How Raisins grew instead of Apples. Not good to be Alone. The 
Rib abstracted and little Eve made. The Devil dressed in "Tights." 

John D. Lee once a Devil. Eve's Flirtation. She eats Forbidden 
Fruit. Tempts her Husband. Fig-leaves come into Fashion. We 

.hide in Holes and Corners The Devil is Cursed and we are Lectured. 

The Second Degree. Story of a Pugnacious Woman. The Terri- 
ble Oaths of the Endowment-House. Pains and Penalties. Signs 
and Grips. ; ' Good-bye ! " Brother Heber gives me Advice. 




FTER our names had been 
given us, Miss Snow an- 
nounced that we were 
ready, in answer to a ques- 
tion from the other side of 
the curtain. We were ar- 
ranged in a row facing it, 
when it was suddenly with- 
drawn, and we were stand- 
ing face to face with the 
men. The sight that met 
our eyes was very funny, 
and I had all I could do 
to keep my features de- 
cently straight. I looked 
out from under my eyelids, 

for I did not dare give a good, square, honest look ; it would 
have been altogether too much for my gravity ; but from 
my stolen looks I found that the men, over their new gar- 



L OF THE ENDOWMBNT-HOUSB. 



THE "KINGS AND PRIESTS" IN THEIR SHIRTS. 363 

ment of protection, wore a shirt only. On their feet were 
white socks and white linen shoes. The cap was of white 
linen, in shape exactly like those worn by stonemasons, 
and tied by a knot in front. They were certainly no more 
beautiful in appearance than we women, and, as is gener- 
ally the case in embarrassing circumstances, were much 
less at their ease. 

We were all conducted into another room, where we 
were seated opposite each other. We remained quiet for a 
few moments, getting used to the situation and our clothes, 
I suppose. Suddenly the silence was broken by voices in 
conversation. The persons who were carrying it on were 
concealed ; but by listening intently we discovered that it 
was Elohim in conversation with Jehovah, and he was de- 
scribing the creation of the world. His description was 
taken mainly from the first chapter of Genesis. The Gods 
then decide to visit the earth and see the works of their 
hands. This they do* and seem quite satisfied with the 
results of their labors ; but they decide that it is necessary 
to place a ruler over the brute creation, since they must be 
governed and brought under the control of a superior order 
of intelligence. 

The Gods continue their discussions, and Michael the 
Archangel is called and given control of "the earth and 
all that therein is." The brute creation is to be subject to 
him ; the fruits of the earth shall yield abundantly for his 
sustenance. Of all these he is free to partake, with one 
single exception : he shall not eat of the fruit of a tree 
which stands in the middle of the garden. 

This tree is represented by a small evergreen, on the 
branches of which are tied apples, raisins, oranges, or 
bunches of grapes, as may happen. The fruit on the oc- 
casion of my passing through was raisins. 

Michael or Adam, as he is now called finds his new 
abode rather a lonesome place, in spite of its beauty ; and 
even the knowledge of his power over all about him does not 



THE RIB ABSTRACTED LITTLE EVE MADE. 



prevent him from longing for companionship. The Gods, 
too, decide that it is not good for him to be alone ; and as 
there is nothing on earth that is sufficiently near an equality 
with him to be admitted to an intimate friendship, it is de- 
termined to give him a companion created specially for him. 
A profound slumber falls upon him, and we were all told at 
that time to feign sleep also, which we did. Elohim and 
Jehovah then make their first visible appearance, and go 
through the form of taking a rib from Adam's side, and on 
the instant appears Eve, in the person of Miss Eliza R. 
Snow. 

At this point we were told to wake up, and instantly 
every Adam present appro- 
priated to himself an Eve, 
and, led by the chief Adam 
and his bride, we all marched 
about, looking at our new 
kingdom and marking all 
its beauties. It was then 
that Adam became separated 
from Eve, and wandered off 
by himself, very much after 
the fashion of husbands of 
the present day; and while 
he was away, Satan entered 
and commenced a desperate 
flirtation with the coy and 
guileless Eve. The Garden of Eden is represented by 
painted scenery and furnishings. 

It requires some imagination to invest this place with 
all the beauty that is supposed to have belonged to the 
original garden ; but as it is the best Eden that can be 
provided, we, like all the rest of the Saints, were obliged 
to be content with it. Satan was for many years rep- 
resented by W. W. Phelps, who has recently died. Much 
to his own surprise and great chagrin, he saw his end 




APOSTLE WILLARD WOODRUFF. 
["Timothy Broadbrim."] 



A FIRST-RATE DEVIL. 365 

approaching ; for he had always claimed to be immortal, 
and on a seal-ring which he wore while in the Endowment- 
House was inscribed the blasphemous legend, 

" The Lord and I 
Shall never die." 

I do not know who has succeeded him ; but I know that 
in the Temple at Nauvoo, John D. Lee used frequently to 
assume the character, and I have heard old Mormons say 
that " he made a first-rate devil." I think no one who has 
watched his career will doubt that. Since, however, Brig- 
ham has recently cut him off from the church, it is hardly 
probable that he will ever again be able to make his ap- 
pearance in his old character at the Endowment-House. 

Satan was dressed in a tight-fitting suit of black, slashed 
with pink, pointed shoes, helmet, and a hideous mask. 
His costume, with the exception of the mask, resembled 
very closely the dress always worn by the stage Mephistoph- 
eles. I think he must have had different costumes, since 
it has been described several times, and the descriptions 
have varied in every case. 

Eve seemed decidedly pleased with his attentions, and 
prattled on to him in artless gaiety. He, in turn, showed 
her the tree of the forbidden fruit, and tempted her to taste 
it. She did taste it, and finding it pleasant, offered it to 
Adam, who, by the time the mischief was done, returned 
to look after his wife. It required but little coaxing on her 
part to induce him to take the fruit, and he also found it 
agreeable. At this juncture they seemed to discover their 
condition of supposed nudity, and instantly they produced 
white linen aprons, with fig-leaves stitched upon them, and 
proceeded to put them on. All the rest of us did the 
same. 

The pattern of this apron, by the way, was said to have 
been given to To^ph S" 1 ' 11 * 1[ y '''T'Oati^n It was a square 
"bt white linen, measuring about eighteen inches, on which 



366 FIG-LEAF FASHIONS. 

were to be sewn nine fig-leaves cut from green silk. Those 
who first took their Endowments had their aprons made 
after this model ; but there were afterwards many inven- 
tions sought out for improving the Lord's pattern, one of 
which was to paint them. Over these painted aprons fancy 
fairly ran riot. The borders would be whatever color the 
person making them might choose, and were red, yellow, 
or blue, as the caprice dictated, with white centres filled 
with green leaves. The shape of these leaves was as varied 
as the people who wore the aprons. Some resembled the 
oak leaf, some the fig, a part the burdock, and others were 
like nothing else that ever was seen under the sun. A com- 
pany going through their Endowments thirty years since, 
presented, it is said, a decidedly fantastic appearance. 
Alter trying every conceivable mode of making the aprons, 
they have settled down to the " revealed pattern " as the 
best every way. 

After the aprons were on, the voice of Elohim was heard 
calling Adam ; but he was afraid, and hid himself with Eve. 
All the rest of us were supposed to follow their example, 
and there was a most undignified scurrying behind sofas, 
chairs, or any other article of furniture that was convenient. 
It was like nothing so much as the old game of "hide-and- 
seek," and it was a rare piece of fun to see men and women 
scudding in every direction about the room. It was like a 
good old-fashioned frolic to me, and I actually laughed 
aloud, much to my discomfiture and Heber Kimball's horror, 
who reproved me afterwards, and told me it was very 
wrong. "For," said he, "these things are sacred, and 
make me feel as solemn as the grave, and I can scarce re- 
frain from shedding tears every time I see them." 

I was properly penitent, but I know I thought at the time 
how very easily Brother Heber was moved. 

The devil was then cursed, and he fell upon his hands 
and knees, and wriggled and hissed in as snake-like a man- 
ner as possible ; we were all brought out from our several 



FIRST DEGREE. THE DEVIL IS PUT TO FLIGHT. 367 

hiding-places, the curse was pronounced upon us, which 
doomed us to leave the beautiful garden, and earn our bread 
by the sweat of our brows. We were then driven into 
another room, which was called the world ; and then we 
had taken our "First Degree." 

We found the world a very bewildering place. We were 
drawn hither and thither, and tossed about by every con- 
flicting wave of circumstance. Our friend, the devil, did 
not leave, but was our constant visitor, urging us to new 
deeds of sin. We were waited upon by representatives of 
the different sects, each descanting upon his peculiar plan 
of salvation, and its advantage over all the rest. The 
Quaker advocated his non-resistance doctrine. The Meth- 
odist gave a graphic, but not very refined description of 
the future torments of those who did not take his road to 
heaven. The Presbyterian gave his belief in foreordina- 
tion and election in the very terse lines, 

" You can if you can't ; 
If you will you won't ; 
You'll be damned if you do ; 
You'll be damned if you don't." 

The Baptist expatiated upon the virtues of immersion 
and close communion, and insisted upon predestination 
as the principal basis of religion ; the Catholic called for 
observances of fasts and prayers to the Virgin Mary. 
Each grew more clamorous in recommending his special 
creed, and the discussion waxed fast and furious, even the 
peaceful Quaker shouting his " good will to men " with a 
red face, an angry voice, and excited manner, when Satan 
entered, filled with delight at the disturbance, end urging 
them on to renewed contention. 

Then the apostles began to visit the earth, and comfort 
its afflicted tenants with plans of the true, revealed religion 
that was to be their salvation. They put the devil to flight, 
and the representatives of the " false religions " cowered 
and shrank away before the truth which they brought. 



368 THE MYSTERIOUS OATHS AND SIGNS. 

We were then given certain signs, pass-words, and grips, 
arranged in a circle, and told to kneel ; the women were 
also required to cover their faces with their veils; then we 
were bidden to raise our right hands heavenward, and take 
the oath of implicit dBediencC and ""inviolable secrecyT JThe 
"women" promised Entire sub jectioirTo^tlielrhusba^s* will ; 
.-the 'men ttlat they~would take no w^oTir3Tr'as~a wife without 
the express permission of the priesthood. We all promised 
that we would never question the commands of our authori- 
ties in the church, but would grant them instant obedience ; 
we swore also to entertain an everlasting enmity to the 
United States~government, and to disregard its laws so far 
as possible ; we sworethat we would use ev^ry exertion 16 
* avenge the death oTour Prophet Joseplx_JBjnith and his 
brother Hyrum upon the Cjgntile race, by whose means they 
were brought to their unhappy fate, and to teach our chil- 
dren to foster this spirit of revenge also ; and last of all, we 
s^voFe never to reveal" the mysteries" of the Endowment 
~House.~~ 

Thcjgeaking of this latter oath was to be followed by the 
most horrible penalties ; torture of the mosf excruciating 
kind was to be inflicted upon anyone who should disregard 
this ualh Ills' bowels should be torn from him while he was 
' yet alive ; his throat should then be cut from ear to^ear ; his 
heart and his tongue cut out ; and in the world to come he 
should inherit eternal damnation. There should be, nor 
could be, no chance of salvation for him. 

These promised penalties are by no means mere forms of 
words, given merely to add impressiveness to the ceremony. 
The " Blood-Atonement " shows that they are carried out, 
and hundreds of cases could be cited in addition to those 
already given, to prove that the Endowment-House penalties 
are by no means dead letters in the Mormon Church law. 
The cutting of every Gentile and apostate throat, and the 
" sending to hell across lots," that have been so openly and 
emphatically urged from the stand by Brigham Young and 



THE SECRET OF THE VEIL. 369 

others, is only a public expression of the mysteries of the 
Endowment oaths. 

Brother Heber endeavored to add weight and emphasis 
to this horrible rite by delivering a discourse to us on the 
duty of keeping quiet, even to our husbands or wives, on 
the subject ; from the time we left the room we were in, the 
transactions therein must not be mentioned, or even hinted 
at, to anyone. He then entered upon a dissertation of the 
glories of the Celestial Kingdom, and fairly outdid himself 
in coarseness and vulgarity. It was then announced to us 
that the talk finished the ceremonj' of the " Second Degree," 
and we were told to enter the next room, for the purpose of 
having the " Third Degree " of the Order of Melchisedec 
Priesthood conferred upon us. 

In this room a portion of the scenes of the last were re- 
peated : the devil encouraged the ministers of the conflicting 
denominations to visit the new inhabitants of earth, and urge 
their religions on them once more. The apostles stop the 
proposed visit, and explain still further the doctrines of the 
true faith ; they organize a new church, which is, of course, 
the " Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints." 
Our Temple robes were changed ; resting afterwards upon 
the left shoulder and fastening under the right arm which 
was a sign that we were now received into the true church, 
and subject to the will of its leaders. Another grip was 
taught to us, and we then received the " Third Degree," 
and were ready to " pass through the veil." 

The men, of course, went through first, and they were 
permitted then to take us women through. 

The room we were in was divided by a muslin partition, 
in which was a door; in this door was a hole just large 
enough to pass the hand through, and over this hole was a 
curtain of muslin. The persons who were behind this mus- 
lin partition which was supposed to represent "the veil" 
were invisible to us, although they could see us dis- 
tinctly. 

24 



37 WHAT THE WOMEN WHISPERED TO THE MEN. 

A man approached the door as if seeking admittance, and 
the Apostle Peter, appearing at the opening, asked who 
was there and what was wanted. He was told that some 
one wished to enter. The applicant was told to come near, 
and, as he approached, hands came through the opening in 
the door, and cut a mysterious 1 mark on each breast of the 
man's garment, another over the abdomen, still another over 
the right knee. The garments of all the applicants were 
treated in the same mysterious manner, and the women were 
told to copy them in their own when they went home. It 
was also commanded them that whenever other garments 
were made, these marks must be placed on them. 

After the garments had been cut, the applicant for ad- 
" mission gave the last grip which had been taught them, 
through the slit in the partition, and whispered his or her new 
name to those behind who were waiting to hear it, and was 
then permitted to go "behind the veil." The women were 
then taken through, the married ones by their husbands ; 
I, as I have before said, by Elder $amuel Richards, brother 
of Apostle Franklin D. Richards, of Hand-Cart memory. 
Several remained to be sealed, but as I had not that cere- 
mony to go through, I was permitted to go away. 

I was perfectly exhausted by what I had passed through, 
and quite dissatisfied. It was so different from what I ex- 
pected that I was saddened and disappointed by it all. My 
feelings of the morning had undergone a most radical 
change. I was no longer buoyed up by the enthusiasm of 
religious fervor ; that had died away, and I was as hopeless 
and apathetic as I had before been eager and buoyant. 

I was too tired to go home at once ; so I went to Heber 
Kimball's to rest. When he returned from the Endowment- 
House he found me there, and he asked how I felt since I 
left the House ; if I had found peace and help. I told him 
no ; that I felt worse, if possible, than ever. It was then 
that he reproved me for the levity which he had seen me 
show, and told me he feared I did not take my Endowments 



HOW TO BURY A SAINT. 



371 




in the right spirit. I began to think that that might be the 
case, and that the fault lay with me and my understanding, 
and possibly the ordinance was not such a farcical proceed- 
ing as it had seemed to me ; and I took the reproof so humbly 
and with such good grace, that Brother Heber grew abso- 
lutely hopeful for me. 

It is claimed that the 
mysterious rites were taken 
from Masonry, and that 
the Endowments are a 
direct outgrowth of the 
secret society. Brigham 
Young delights, I know, 
to speak of it as "Celes- 
tial Masonry," but I am 
very sure all good Masons 
would repudiate it and its 
teachings. 

In regard to the oaths 

of secrecy which I took at that time, I do not consider that 
I am doing anything wrong in breaking them; I am sure I 
shall in no way be held accountable for so doing. I took 
them because I felt that I must. I did not know what I 
was promising until after the oath was given me, while 
I listened with uplifted hand. I was bound to secrecy, but 
I feel that right and justice demand that I shall break these 
bonds. I consider it a duty to expose, as far as I possibly 
can, the wickedness, cruelty, blasphemy, and disloyalty of 
the leaders of the deluded Mormon people. 

All Mormons who have received their Endowments are 
buried in their robes caps, shoes, apron, and all. It is 
held necessary in order to insure their entrance into the 
Celestial Kingdom. One of the authorities in the church 
was once asked what would become of the Mormon children 
who should die before they were old enough to receive their 



'APOSTLE" HEBER C. KIMBALL. 



372 HOW BAPTISTE " DISAPPEARED." 

Endowments, and consequently were buried without the 
robes. 

He replied that their parents, or whoever had the power 
of resurrecting them, must prepare the clothing, and when 
their dead came out of their graves they were to clothe them 
with the sacred robes. 

A few years since a man named Baptiste was discovered 
robbing the dead of their garments, and as a matter of 
course the greatest excitement prevailed. He was imme- 
diately " made away with," his house searched, and a large 
number of robes discovered. Some said that he was put on 
a little island in the lake, and left to perish. Others said 
that Porter Rockwell looked after his interests. But cer- 
tain it is that he " disappeared," and was never seen again. 
The garments were identified, and the friends of the dead 
began taking up the bodies and replacing the robes. Brig- 
ham ordered them to desist, telling them that "under the 
circumstances their friends would be taken care of in the 
resurrection ; " so most of the robes were never restored. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



THE PROPHET MAKES LOVE TO ME. I HAVE OTHER 
VIEWS. 

The Prophet Casts his Eye on Me. He Objects to My Beaux. " A Low 
Set Anyway." I Didn't Want to Marry the Prophet. He Considers 
Himself an Irresistible Lover. My First Drive with the Prophet. 
I Join the Theatrical Corps. How We " Got Up " our Parts. How 
" Fun Hall " was Built. The Prophet Erects a Theatre out of Temple 
Funds. How Julia Deane, the Actress, Fascinated the Prophet. How 
Brigham Cheated the Actors in his Theatre. The Girls Grumble over 
their Scanty Fare. They Want Something Good to Eat. My New 
Beau. Love at First Sight. I am Engaged to My First Husband. 

OON after I took my 
Endowments, Brig- 
ham Young showed 
his consciousness of 
my existence. He 
had always seen me 
frequently, but had 
regarded me and 
treated me as a child. 
He seemed suddenly 
to realize that I had 
grown to be a young 
lady, and the first 
intimation he gave 
of it was by interfer- 
ing with my beaux. 
Like most girls of my age, I was very fond of gay socie- 
ty ; liked honest admiration and attention ; and I should like 
to know what girl of seventeen does not, whether she be 
Mormon or Gentile? 

I was at that time quite intimate with Emmeline Free's 
children, and I knew nearly all of the rest of Brigham Young's 




Mv FIRST APPEARANCE IN BRIGBAM'S THEATRE. 



374 " A LOW SET ANYWAY ! " 

children ; but Emmeline's were nearer my own age, and 
circumstances had thrown us more together. Emmeline 
had a younger brother, Finley Free, who was at one time a 
great friend of mine ; indeed, as many boys and girls before 
us have done, I suppose we fancied we were in love with 
each other. Finley was a jolly fellow, full of fun, and we 
agreed capitally. Emmeline used to throw us together in 
every possible way, for, I suppose, like most women of 
a somewhat romantic turn of mind, she was fond of match- 
making, and having no other convenient couple at hand, 
she amused herself with us. 

Brigham saw me often at Emmeline's, and twice at the 
theatre, always with Finley Free. He was always very 
pleasant to me, and I quite liked him, until one day he went 
to my mother, and told her that he wished her to stop my 
going about with Finley Free ; that I ought not to have any- 
thing to do with "those Frees ; " they were " a low set any- 
way," and didn't amount to anything, either the boys or 
girls a rather peculiar remark for him to make, when his 
favorite wife at that time for that was before the reign of 
Amelia opened was one of those selfsame Frees of whom 
he spoke so contemptuously to my mother. 

Of course I didn't like this interference at all, and I con- 
sidered myself quite a martyr to the Mormon priestly rule. 
I expressed my opinion of the Prophet very freely, and, I 
have no doubt, very foolishly, and I spoke of him in a man- 
ner that fairly horrified my mother, who considered me 
nearly as profane and blasphemous as if I had found fault 
with the overrulings of Providence. The Mormon people 
bow as humbly, and say as resignedly, "Thy will, not mine, 
be done," before a fiat of Brigham Young's as they do be- 
fore a mysterious dispensation of the Lord's ; and I honestly 
believe they would dare question the justice of God sooner 
than that of Brigham Young. The latter holds them so com- 
pletely, body and soul, that they shrink before his displeas- 
ure in absolute terror, and regard religiously his every 
slightest wish. 



w THAT HATEFUL OLD THING ! " 375 

All the girls of my acquaintance knew of the trouble, 
and, naturally enough, all sympathized with me ; and a 
more rebellious set of mortals was never seen. We in- 
dulged in the most incendiary talk, and turned the torrent 
of our wrath especially against polygamy. One girl sug- 
gested that, as the old men always interfered with the girls' 
"fun," it was more than likely that it was because they 
wanted them for themselves ; and ended by turning to me, 
and saying, w Perhaps Brother Brigham means to marry 
you himself." 

K But he won't," said I, angrily ; " I wouldn't have him 
if he asked me a thousand times, hateful old thing." 

My spirit was warmly applauded by my auditors, and 
we" all enteTTd into a solemn compact, then and ^nyn-Yrrr 
nevcr, to enter polygamy. How fnrhin^f \\ 1V11B \\^\ ftnr 
"futures were unrevealed to us ! I look back now to that time, 
and then think of the girls as they are to-day, most of them 
polygamous wives, hating' tKe-'bonda^e in which, tlvey -are.- 
held, yet wearing their galling fetters with a hopeless sort 
of patience, that is, after all, only silent endurance; for it 
would avail nothing if they should cry out in despair and 
desperation ; they would only be treated with greater neg- 
lect, insulted oftener and more openly, or else held up to 
public ridicule by their religious leader, to whom the un- 
happy husbands of these complaining wives women who 
dared to be wretched when Mormonism declared they 
should not had related their domestic grievances. 

It may seem rather strange that such a simple affair as a 
school-girl's indignation-meeting should be reported to the 
Prophet. But it was ; and, among other things, my un- 
lucky speech was repeated to him. Most men would have 
laughed at it as mere girlish nonsense and folly, and never 
have thought of it again, much less spoken of it ; but not so 
Brigham Young. No affair is too trivial to fail to be of 
interest to him; and, besides, in this speech of mine girl 
as I was his vanity was sorely hurt. If he has one 



37^ 



MY FIRST DRIVE WITH BRIGHAM. 



weakness above all his other weaknesses, U_Js hisjvanity 

regarding tll M p*"**- ^" pnrmnrrpc r>ir^r my CPY ; nnrl tp fry** 

his fascinations called in question was a sore hurt for his 
pride. 

What cowards we all are, to be sure ! I was as brave as 
you please in making my declaration of independence to my 
mates, with whom, at that particular period, I was some- 
thing of a heroine ; btit when called upon to defend that dec- 
laration, I am ashamed to say, I left it to take care of itself, 
and employed myself in stammering out excuses for its ex- 
istence. 




FIRST RIDB WITH BRIGHAM. 



I was going home one day, and was walking leisurely 
along, when the presidential carriage, with the President 
himself as the sole occupant, stopped at the edge of the side- 
walk. Brother Brigham gave me a very kindly greeting, 
and said, "You are some distance from home; get in and 
ride with me ; I will carry you there." 



"YOU SAID YOU WOULDN'T MARRY ME." 377 

I knew the invitation was equivalent to a command ; so I 
got reluctantly into the carriage, feeling very small indeed, 
and hating myself that I did not refuse. As we rode along, 
he suddenly burst out with, "I heard you said you wouldn't 
marry me if I wanted you to ever so much." 

I was so surprised that it nearly took away my breath. 
I managed to stammer out a very incoherent, lame reply, 
and grew every minute more embarrassed. He said no 
more to me on the subject, but was very pleasant, and took 
me home to my mother, who was quite surprised to see me 
appearing in that style. I think Brigham's mind was made 
up from that time that I should one day be his wife ; not, I 
think, from any particular affection which he cherished for 
me, but to punish me for my foolish speech, and to show 
me that his will was stronger than mine, and that he did not 
choose to be set at defiance even by so insignificant a person 
as myself. 

The autumn in which I was eighteen years of age, he 
sent for me to come to the theatre as a member of the com- 
pany, for he wished to make an actress of me. At the 
same time he told my mother that he thought I had better 
stay at the " Lion House," which is where the larger part 
of the family live, as our own house was so far away from 
the theatre that it would be extremely inconvenient for me 
to live there, as I would be obliged to be back and forth 
from the theatre every evening, and often through the day. 
He wished me to enter upon my new duties at once, and as 
I had no thought of disobeying him, I went immediately on 
receiving the summons. I did not see why I should be sent 
for, as I had no particular talent or taste for the stage, and 
I knew absolutely nothing about the art of acting. I never 
had the slightest training or preparation for it, but plunged 
into it, entirely ignorant of what I was undertaking. I did 
"juvenile business," with an occasional "soubrette" part 
as a variation ; but in the latter line I was not nearly so 
successful. Several of Brigham's daughters were acting at 



378 "FUN HALL." 

the time. The most prominent were Alice, who did "lead- 
ing" business, and Zina, who was "leading juvenile." 

At that time the theatre was a church affair. All the 
actors and actresses were Mormons, with the exception of 
an occasional "star," and all of them played without sal- 
aries. They were selected from the first families in the 
city by the owner of the theatre, who, of course, was Brig- 
ham Young, and spent literally all their time in studying, 
rehearsing, and preparing wardrobes, which they furnished 
themselves. The honor of being selected by Brother Brig- 
ham to amuse him and assist him was supposed to be suffi- 
cient remuneration. 

The theatre, by the way, has been, and still is, a prolific 
source of revenue to the Prophet. Theatricals have always 
been largely patronized by the Saints, and rank with dan- 
cing as an amusement. They were introduced into Nauvoo 
by Joseph Smith, and as soon as possible after the arrival 
in Salt Lake Valley they were commenced. The actors 
were all amateurs, and the playing, no doubt, was some- 
thing quite extraordinary ; but it was a recreation, and for- 
tunately the audiences were not critical. Dramatic effects 
are very much liked by this people, and they would reduce 
everything to a play, if possible. They certainly make it 
a part of religious service ; for what is the " Endowment," 
if it is not a drama, and a very silly one at that? 

The first Utah theatricals were held in a building called 
"Social Hall," but after a time the Prophet became im- 
pressed that another building was required. So, taking 
"Amusements" as a text, he delivered a sermon on the 
proposed new building. He said he should christen it 
"Fun Hall," as he thought that would be the most appro- 
priate name that could be given it. "It is," he said, "to be 
a place where the Saints can meet together and have all 
the fun they desire. And no Gentiles shall ever desecrate 
its sacred stage with their tragedies. It is built exclusively 
for ourselves and our own holy fun." 



BUILDING A THEATRE WITH CHURCH-FUNDS. 



379 



This was good news to a people who were already be- 
coming very weary with the exactions of their priesthood. 
Now, the Prophet said, it was the will of the Lord that we 
should have a little relaxation from the constant, wearing 
toil, which was beginning to be almost unendurable. The 
Prophet further enlightened us how it was to be built. 
" We can borrow some of the * Temple fund,' for present 
use," he explained ; "but that will be a matter of but small 
moment, since we can so soon replace it." So " Fun Hall " 




RIGHAM'S THEATRE. 



was built with the tithing, and any Saint could have access 
to the amusements given there by paying whatever en- 
trance fee Brigham demanded. It did not retain its name 
after it was finished, but was called " Brigham's Theatre." 

As soon as it was completed it was dedicated, after the 
usual Mormon fashion. The choir sang, and the singing 
was followed by earnest and lengthy prayer from some 
good brother, I have forgotten which one, after which 
Brigham rose, and said, 

"Through the help of the Lord, we have been able to 



380 THE PROPHET IN LOVE WITH A PRETTY ACTRESS I 

build this theatre. I know that it is as good a building as 
any of the kind that was ever built, and I am not going to 
have it defiled like the Gentile theatres. I will not have 
a Gentile on this stage. Neither will I have tragedies 
played. I've said that before, and I mean it. I won't 
have our women and children coming here to be frightened 
so they can't sleep at night. I'll have a Saints' theatre, for 
the Saints, and we'll see what we can do ourselves." 

Yet, in flat contradiction to all this bombast, it was not 
three months before tragedies were represented on that 
stage, and, the very first winter, a Gentile actor was en- 
gaged, who played there through the entire season. Gen- 
tile players and Gentile plays have been continued up to 
this day, and let me assure you there is no more apprecia- 
tive admirer of the actresses who visit Salt Lake than Brig- 
ham Young. He has fallen a victim to the charms of sev- 
eral, but he never was so impressed as he was with Julia 
Deane Hayne. He was madly in love with her, and, for a 
while, Amelia's position seemed a little precarious. He 
bestowed every attention upon the lady, had her portrait 
painted on his sleigh, and made her an actual offer of mar- 
riage, which she refused on the spot, without even taking 
time for consideration. His regard for her never ceased, 
and I have heard, on what seemed very good authority, 
although I cannot vouch for its truth, that after he heard 
of her death he had one of his wives baptized for her, and 
then sealed to him for her; so he is sure, he thinks, of 
possessing her in the next world, although he could not 
induce her to look kindly upon him here. No doubt she 
will be properly grateful when she finds out that he has 
taken care of her future welfare, and has assured her sal- 
vation, and fixed her position in the next world. 

Since the theatre was first opened, all or nearly all the 
" stars " have played there, on their way to California. 
We have had all the actors and actresses, from Forrest and 
L.e Clerq to Lydia Thompson and Dickie Lingard, and the 



HOW BRIGHAM SWINDLED THE ACTORS. 381 

entertainments have varied from tragedy to a "variety show." 
We have had as musical entertainments everything from 
opera to negro minstrelsy. We have had Gentiles in the 
stock company ; and some of our Mormon girls, who have 
made success in their profession, have slipped away to 
other places, renounced Mormonism, and are making fine 
positions for themselves in the outside world. A Miss 
Alexander, especially, who was one of our most promising 
actresses, became a very great favorite in California, where 
she played for some time. 

The theatre has been a source of wealth to Brigham. 
Built by money extorted from the people for the avowed 
purpose of erecting a Temple to God, it, of course, was no 
expense to him, personally ; and yet, although built by the 
church money, he has appropriated it as private property, 
and he pockets every dollar that is made at the theatre, and 
devotes it exclusively to his own use. For a long time his 
actors, except the Gentile ones, whom he was obliged to 
pay, cost him nothing, and as everyone furnished his or 
her wardrobe, the owner of the theatre was put to very 
little expense in carrying it on. 

Now he has to pay even his Mormon players. He tried 
a short time ago to return tothe old system again, but he 
failed utterly, as the actors would not listen to such a prop- 
osition for a moment, and he did not dare to press it, lest 
he should lose some of the best members of his company. 
The younger Mormons are not afraid to leave Utah, and 
the church ; and, thrown as they constantly are with people 
from the outside world, the " Babylon," which they have 
been taught to dread and look upon with fear and horror, 
as a place full of all kinds of lying abominations, and wick- 
edness of every sort, they have many opportunities of 
learning of that same world and what it offers. This Gen- 
tile intercourse is doing more than anything else to break 
the tyrannical yoke of a corrupt priesthood, and liberalize 
the minds of the Utah people. 



382 MY THEATRICAL LIFE. 

In the days of my own dramatic experiences, the Gentile 
element by no means predominated, and we all worked for 
the good of the Prophet. I was never enthusiastic over my 
profession, and never made a brilliant success in it, though 
I was something of a favorite, and had very pleasant things 
said of me, not only in the Salt Lake, but even in the Cali- 
fornia papers, by some persons who had seen me act. 
Whatever it was that kept me from being an absolute fail- 
ure I never knew. It certainly was not because I had pre- 
pared for my profession, for I had not; and I only went 
through the parts assigned to me as I fancied they should 
be given, and I never attempted any stage tricks or man- 
nerisms. If I had, my doom would have been sealed. I 
fancy that my adherence to nature, and a constant refrain- 
ing from striving for effect, had a great deal to do with my 
popularity ; for I was liked, even though I was no artist, 
and it is not egotism for me to say it. I was glad to be 
liked, and I am glad still, and I knew that the liking was 
genuine and honest, and I returned it, too. My public was 
like a party of friends, and I was always on the best of 
terms with them, and grateful to them for giving me so 
much encouragement. 

Then the company were all my friends. It was almost 
like a family ; and I do not believe there was ever a theatre 
where there was less of envyings, and jealousies, and 
strifes, than there was among us. I look back to those 
days as among my pleasantest recollections ; for, in addi- 
tion to my happy theatrical life, I then first realized the 
romance of love. 

As had been proposed by Brigham when he summoned 
me to the theatre, I spent most of the time at the Lion 
House with the family. Most of them I had known from 
my earliest childhood ; so I was not among strange people, 
but rather among good friends. I went home every Sun- 
day, and once or twice during every week, and called it 
living at home ; but I visited in the Prophet's family. 



WE GRUMBLE WITH OUR BREAD AND BUTTER. 383 

They lived there in the most frugal manner. There was 
enough on the table, but the fare was not so varied as 
might have been, and the younger ones, especially, used to 
get very tired of the constant repetition of dishes. We usu- 
ally knew just what we should find on the table ; for, what- 
ever else was absent, bread and butter and dried peach- 
sauce were always there. It got rather monotonous after a 
while ; and I must confess I used to enjoy rushing off to my 
mother and getting something good to eat, and " the girls " 
used to enjoy going with me, when I would take them. 
They grumbled as much as they dared over the home fare ; 
but they did it very quietly among themselves, as they did 
not dare to have their complaints reach their father's ears, 
for he would not endure grumbling from them any better 
than he would endure it from any of his people. 

But it was a very funny sight, if one could only have 
seen it as I did, to watch the girls when the bell rang for 
tea or for breakfast. They would all jump up from what- 
ever they happened to be doing, and, striking various atti- 
tudes, would exclaim, " Bread and butter and peach-sauce." 
Sometimes the tone assumed would be tragical in the ex- 
treme ; sometimes it would be pathetic, sometimes despair- 
ing, sometimes expostulatory ; and the attitudes would all 
agree with the tone. Then all the way down the long hall 
that led to the dining-room, as long as they could without 
being perceived and reproved by any of the elder members 
of the family, they would march along, and chant, in sub- 
dued tones, in a doleful sort of wail, "bread and butter and 
peach-sauce." I once suggested that it sounded like a 
dirge. 

" Don't we wish it were ! " answered one, quickly ; "but in 
that case, my dear, we should put more spirit into our per- 
formance." 

I little thought, in those days, that I should ever be in a 
position to " wail " in earnest over the Prophet's parsimony 
in those days when I " assisted " his daughters at their daily 



384 NEW LIFE. MY FIRST LOVE APPEARS. 

performances. I think I should have put more heart into 
my wailing, and sorrowed quite as much for my own sake 
as for the lack of luxuries on the prophetic table. But the 
fun that we got out of it, and the knowledge that we should 
be disapproved of if our grumblings were known, gave a 
relish even to the monotonous fare, and we endured it as 
we could not if we had not the memory of the frolic to assist 
us. Nothing is hard to endure if you can in some way 
make a jest of it, not even " bread and butter," and the 
dryest of dried peach-sauce. 

It was while I was acting that I met my first husband, 
Mr. James L. Dee. He was an Englishman, a very hand- 
some fellow, and a very great favorite with all the girls. It 
was one of those romantic affairs called " love at first sight," 
and I surrendered at discretion, without attempting to resist 
the hold which the new fancy took on me. We met acci- 
dentally at the house of a mutual friend, and the chance 
meeting soon ripened into a friendship, and that into a nearer 
relation. My whole life was brightened by the new, sweet 
glory that had swept in in such a torrent upon me. It took 
on a new look, and even the most common things were 
invested with a strange, novel interest. Nothing seemed 
natural. Everything in my life had deepened and broad- 
ened in the light of my new experience. Commonplace 
people grew interesting, commonplace events stirring. 
The whole world was tinted with the rose-color of my ro- 
mance. I was very happy. My friends did not approve of 
my lover at all, and they all advised me not to encourage 
his attentions. They saw that he was in no way my equal ; 
but I was so blinded that I would not see what they pointed 
out to me. There was disparity in disposition and in tem- 
perament, all of which promised, to those who could see 
and understand the matter, unhappiness if we came into a 
closer relationship. 

But what girl of eighteen ever thinks seriously of these 
things ? I was, I suppose, no more unwise than all 



MY LOVE AND MY LOVER. OPPOSITION. 385 

girls of that age are, nor any more unreasonable. I had a 
touch of romance in my nature, and I did what so many 
women do who are in love. I made an ideal ; then I set 
myself to find some living person to invest with all the vir- 
tues and graces, mental, moral, and physical, of my imagi- 
nary hero. I found the person, and straightway set myself 
to worship. But he was a very different person from the 
one of my creation ; the one was brave, gentle, noble, 
kind, and steadfast; the other well, time will show what 
he was. 

But all the winter, after I went on to the stage, I was 
loving this imaginary being, and calling it James Dee. I 
grew ambitious, and I acted better all the time. I think, 
perhaps, if I had remained on the stage, and had not lost 
my ideal, I should have accomplished something in my 
profession. Love does make a woman ambitious. If she 
never had before, in all her life, a desire to be, to do, to 
excel, she has it now. She wants to do something to make 
herself the better worth his taking. There is such a sweet 
humility about a woman's love ! She is always depreciating 
herself, always growing shy and timid in the light of the 
superior wisdom which she insists that her lover must 
possess. 

It is very sweet to worship in this way, but it is disas- 
trous. It is bad for both lover and beloved. But girls, in 
their first romance, don't take this into account. 

My parents did not forbid my engagement, although 
they plainly told me they did not approve of it ; and after 
they found that I was determined, they gave a reluctant 
consent, but they counselled silence on the subject, hoping 
that I might see something in my lover which should induce 
me to change my mind. They were wise enough, not to 
tell me the reason, but I knew it intuitively, and the very 
knowledge that they were hoping that I might give him 
up made me only the more determined to cling to my 
lover in spite of them all. And I did. I never wavered 
25 



386 THE HAPPY HOURS OF MY FIRST LOVE. 

in my devotion for a moment. I gave him the truest love 
a woman can give a man ; th x e entire wealth of my affec- 
tion I lavished on him ; and r^ repaid it as men of his 
class, selfish, overbearing, and domineering, usual 
It in neglect and abuse when once 1 was m nis 



But he showed none of that domineering spirit in the 
days of our early acquaintance ; he deferred |to me in the 
slightest matter ; he professed to love me very tenderly, 
and I believe he did love me as well as he was capable of 
loving anything, or anybody, outside of himself. At all 
events, I found nothing to miss in his care for me, and af- 
fection towards me, and for the few months preceding my 
marriage, everything in my life was tinted with the softest 
rose glow. 




CHAPTER XXIV. 

MY FIRST MARRIAGE A LIFE'S MISTAKE. 

My first Marriage. Wedded to James Dee. Marriage Rites in the 
Endowment-House. The way in which Plural Wives are Taken. 
Brigham sends for Me to help in the Theatre. Repenting of Matri- 
mony. I get tired of it in a Month. Cruel Conduct of my Hus- 
band. He flirts considerably with the Young Girls. I am greatly 
Disgusted and furiously Jealous. He threatens to take another 
Wife. The Ownership of Women in Utah. How Newspaper Re- 
porters are humbugged by Brigham. How Visitors to Salt Lake are 
Watched. The Prophet's Spies. How People are misled about 
Utah Affairs. The Miseries of the Women Overlooked. 



WAS married in the 
Endowment- House, 
on the 4th of April, 
1863. 

As persons are not 
allowed to enter the 
inner rooms of that 
mysterious place for 
the purpose of going 
through any of the 
rites or ordinances of 
the church in their 
customary dress, we, 
of course, wore our 
Temple-robes during 
the ceremony. We 

A LIFE OF UNHAPPINKSS. Carried OUr robes 

with us, and dressed there, not appearing outside in our 
sacred clothing. 

I must confess I no longer regarded the Endowment- 
House with the awe which I had felt previous to my first 




388 MY WEDDING-DAY. A MORMON MARRIAGE. 

visit there, and the whole manner in which everything was 
done was so very stagey, that, I failed to be impressed at 
all on this my second visit, although the object of my pres- 
ent visit naturally made me feel more solemn than I other- 
wise should. 

The marriage service, which is not long, was performed 
by Brigham Young. We first gave our names, ages, na- 
tive town, county, state, and country, to the Elder John 
Lyon, who acts as scribe in the Endowment-House, and he 
carefully recorded them, as he does those of every couple 
who come to be sealed. We then went before Brigham 
Young, who was waiting for us, and the following cer- 
emony made us man and wife : 

"Do you, Brother James Dee, take Sister Ann-Eliza 
Webb by the right hand, to receive her unto yourself, to be 
your lawful and wedded wife, and you to be her lawful and 
wedded husband, for time and for all eternity, with a cov- 
enant and promise on your part that you will fulfil all the 
laws, rites, and ordinances pertaining to this holy matri- 
mony, in the new and everlasting covenant, doing this in 
the presence of God, angels, and these witnesses, of your 
own free will and accord?" 

"Yes." 

"Do you, Sister Ann-Eliza Webb, take Brother James 
Dee by the right hand, and give yourself to him to be his 
lawful and wedded wife, for time and for all eternity, with 
a covenant and promise on your part that you will fulfil all 
the laws, rites, and ordinances pertaining to this holy mat- 
rimony in the new and everlasting covenant, doing this in 
the presence of God, angels, and these witnesses, of your 
own free will and accord?" 

"Yes." 

" In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the au- 
thority of the holy priesthood, I pronounce you legally and 
lawfully husband and wife, for time and for all eternity. 
And I seal upon you the blessings of the holy resurrection, 



HOW THE CEREMONY IS PERFORMED. 389 

with power to come forth in the morning of the first resur- 
rection, clothed with glory, immortality, and everlasting 
lives ; and I seal upon you the blessings of thrones, and 
dominions, and principalities, and powers, and exaltations, 
together with the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 
And I say unto you, Be fruitful and multiply and replenish 
the earth, that you may have joy and rejoicing in your 
prosperity in the day of the Lord Jesus. All these bless- 
ings, together with all other blessings pertaining to the new 
and everlasting covenant, I seal upon your heads, through 
your faithfulness unto the end, by the authority of the holy 
priesthood, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. Amen." 

The scribe then entered the date of the marriage, 
together with the names of my mother and the one or two 
friends who accompanied us. 

When the marriage is a polygamous one, the above ser- 
vice is prefaced in the following manner. The wife stands 
on the left of her husband, the bride at her left hand. The 
President then puts this question to the wife : 

"i^re you willing to give this woman to your husband, to 
be his lawful <* ^H(l^jy^^o^ime~aTid for all etemii j y?- 
If you are, you will manifest it by placing her right hand 
wtthimhe right hand of foilf "MiSband."" The ^ right hands 
oTlhe bridegroom ~and bride being thus joined, the wife 
taTcgyhei husband by the left arm, as if in the attitude for 
walking, and the ceremony then proceeds in the manner 
which TTiave quotecT 

Mine was not a polygamous marriage. I had married a 
man with no wife, and who assured me that I should be 
the only one, and I was correspondingly happy. I had 
seen so much wretchedness about me, and so much unhap- 
piness in my father's family, where polygamy showed only 
itsTJest :"side, that I was glad to escape it. To be the only 
one who had right to my husband's care seemed so blissful ! 
and I was sure that very many women were envying me 



39 MY HONEYMOON. FIRST REGRETS ! 

because I was so fortunate. I acted the evening of my 
marriage, and the news of it having got out, I was greeted, 
when I made my appearance, with the most tumultuous 
applause. Cheer after cheer arose, and it was some min- 
utes before I could speak my lines. Every time I appeared, 
there was a repetition of this scene, and I was fairly em- 
barrassed, so persistent was the applause. There was the 
more excitement, probably, because I had kept my ap- 
proaching marriage a secret, and but very few, even of my 
personal friends, knew anything about it. I had stolen a 
march on the public, and not having the opportunity for 
congratulating me on my engagement, they made up for it 
by congratulations on my marriage. For once I was the 
central figure on the stage, and all my superiors gave way 
to me with a graceful good nature. 

I remained in the theatre a month after my marriage, 
during which time I learned that I had made a fatal mis- 
take in my marriage. I was forced to see, what my friends 
had tried to show me before, and the honeymoon was not 
over before I bitterly regretted my headstrong wilfulness. 
I loved my husband, but he made me terribly unhappy. 
He was accustomed to indulge in furious fits of anger, 
which fairly frightened me, during which he would talk 
shamefully to me, and threaten me with all kinds of ill 
treatment. T 1 parted, too, that thoughj_wasjbound to him, 
he still considered himself, and was considered, an unmar- 
ried man, as tar us his right to marry again was concerned ; 
and he soon became quite a noted gallant among the young 
^rlsJbestowmgnim them the attentjpflg that he had ffjven 
me in our unmarried days, "^ treating- me in the indi 
ferent, matter-of-fact manner, tinged with a " help-it-if-you- 
can " air, which most Mormon men assume towards their 
helpless wives. '^VheneVeT"RT wishe^jparfrcuIarTy to tor- 
turejjiii, he would threaten to take another wile, and name 
ovei tliiisgirla^jiornhe s"aid he particularly fanciedT 

I had one friend/oFWtiuin I was very fond: He~t>ecame 



BEARING THE CROSS I BECOME JEALOUS. 39! 

jealous of my affection for her, and in order to win me 
from her, and to break up our friendship, he pretended 
very great interest in her. He would leave me to go home 
by myself from the theatre, and would go off with her and re- 
main a long time ; then, on his return, would tell me what 
he said was the conversation between them, in which he 
would represent her as making the most ardent love to 
him, until, at last, I fairly came to hate her. I would not 
see her if I possibly could help it, and I was anything but 
cordial to her when we did meet. I believe now that my 
husband lied to me wickedly and deliberately ; and yet, 
such was the effect of all his influence on me, that to this 
day I cannot see my old friend that a feeling of the most 
intense bitterness does not rise up in my heart against her. 
I never could get back the old feeling of affection for her, 
even though I felt that I was wronging her by my unjust 
treatment ; but polygamy does not tend to make one wo- 
man just towards another. Suspicions, jealousies, heart- 
burnings, strifes of all kinds are engendered by this system, 
and it serves to lower the moral tone of women as well as of 
men. Both are sufferers alike in this respect, although pos- 
sibly in a different degree. The women have all through 
the more conscience in the matter, though they grow bitter, 
and spiteful, and revengeful, while " bearing the cross." 

I know I did, although I was only threatened by my 
husband ; and I presume I annoyed him greatly by my 
tears and reproaches. A wrmnn inVTm 
enough for tears^Jhnt ;r 10 ltf " -* 
they only bring upon her the ridicule of all the.,Mormon 
men, from her husband at home to Brigham in the Taher=_ 
"Hacle . This is the sympathy the "Head of the Church" gives 
her in public. Said he, in one of his most famous sermons : 

" It is said that women are tied down and abused ; that 
the_y are misused, and have not the liberty they ought to 
have ; that many of them are wading through a perfect 
flood of tears, because of the conduct of some men, to- 
gether with their own folly. 



392 HOW BRIGHAM "LIBERATED THE WOMEN. 

" I wish my own women to understand that what I am 
going to say is for them as well as for others, and I want 
those who are here to tell their sisters, yes, all the women 
of this community, and then write it back to the States, 
and do as you please with it. I am going to give you from 
this time to the sixth day of October next for reflection, 
that you may determine whether you wish to stay with your 
husbands or not ; and then I am going to set every woman 
at liberty, and say to them, 'Now, go your way my wo- 
men with the rest go your way.' And my wives have 
got to do one of two things : either round up their shoul- 
ders to endure the afflictions of this world, and live their 
religion, or they may leave, for I will not have them about 
me. I will go into heaven alone, rather than have scratch- 
ing and fighting around me. I will set all at liberty. 
' What ! your first wife, too? ' Yes, I will liberate you all. 
I know what my women will say. They will say, 'You 
can have as many women as you please, Brigham.' But I 
want to go somewhere, and do something, to get rid of the 
whiners." 

Following his Prophet's lead comes Jedediah Grant, in 
this fashion : 

" We have women here who like anything but the Celes- 
tial Law of God; and if they could break asunder the cable 
of the Church of Christ, there is scarcely a mother in Israel 
but would do it this day." 

This in a tone of the sternest reproof, as though to hate 
a system which makes them the most abject slaves, under 
a most terrible master, was a crime. When women go to 
Brigham Young (as now and then one is foolish enough to 
do, before she gets thoroughly to know her Prophet and 
his peculiarities of temper and manner) , and tell him of 
their unhappiness, and ask his advice, he whines, and pre- 
tends to cry, and mimics them, until they are fairly outraged 
by his heartless treatment, and their indignation or grief 
gets the supremacy over their other trouble. Then he tells 



MINE, BODY AND SOUL!" 



393 



them to go home, and make the best of things, and not 
make everlasting fools of themselves ; or something else 
equally refined and consoling. They may consider them- 
selves fortunate, indeed, if he does not refer to the inter- 
view in his next Sunday's sermon, and tell the names of the 
unhappy women, with coarse jests and unfeeling comments, 
which render them doubly wretched, since their husbands, 
incensed at them for complaining, and knowing that they 
are perfectly safe from priestly indignation or rebuke, make 
them feel the weight of their displeasure by grosser neg- 
lect or more brutal treatment. 

The entire ownership of womeri fa pnwliw rr.r>rp f\\]]y 
assumed by their husbands than it is in Utah. A woman 
is obliged to submit to every exaction from him, to 4/rant 
every request, obey every demand. In return, she nerd ex- 
pect nothin 



not even support. "You are mine, body and 
soul, but you have no right to claim anything from me 

'trroreihan what I choose to give you," is the attitude of 

every man in polygamy towards his wives. A "blessed" 

systejnv_suxel^_I- It is no wonder that Brigham talks about 

THewomen's " rounding up their shoulders " to bear it, and 
one certainly fails to feel the surprise which " Jeddy " proba- 
bly imagined he would arouse when he announced that the 
" mothers in Israel," unhappy and desolate, would break 
" the cable of the church " asunder if they could. This 
fanatical follower of Brigham Young never spoke a truer 
word in his life, whether he spake by inspiration or not. 
There was not a woman, then, who would not have broken 
her chains if she could, let the whole Mormon Church call 
these fetters what they might, and there is not a woman 
among them to-day who would not slip her fetters if she 
knew how. Itjs_alljyery well for the Mormon leaders and 

Jheir sympatbirprs in tho Gentile world to hay UiaL Lhi 

_B[omen ar*> ro^ft^pd, anH pypn happy, in polygamy; the 



one knows he speaks what is not true; the other tells 

lo him, refusing to use his eves., jiisears, or 



394 "WHY NEED WE MEDDLE?" 

Newspaper correspondents visit Salt Lake City, and when 
they arrive they are brimming over with disgust and indigna- 
tion towards this system and the people who follow it ; but, 
by-and-by, a change comes over them ; theirj^ead^^ arc in- 
formed that the Mormons are a thriving, industrious people, 
their meif brave, hospitable, shrewd, and hard-working ; 
th^wenrelTquiet and peaceful, evidently well reconciled to" 
their peculiar marital relating : thnt Brigham Young is 
notjmch a bad fellow, after all, and his sons are jolly, free- 
handed, generous men, with plenty of keenness, and a 
great deal of knowledge of the world ; and then the peo- 
ple who read their letters wonder at the changed tone, and 
find themselves thinking more leniently of this people and 
its peculiar social system than ever before, and they say, 
"If all this is true, why need we meddle? " But it is riot 
true, not one word of it, and these same men who are 
writing these letters know it; but, in some way, they get 
to working in the Prophet's interests before they leave the 
Territory. He manages to get hold of them if they are 
of any ability, and able to influence the public, and if they 
are easily influenced themselves they soon see things as he 
intends they shall see them. I suppose his manner "of influ- 
encing them differs, but I think it will be readily under- 
stood. 

The truth is simply this : the Mormon people are abso- 
lutely~airaid to have the outside world" come to"o~~rtese 
to them ; they let them see just sojueh-r -but ot one-bit- 
more. The leaders act as showmen, also as mouthpieces, 
antt~tfre* mass of the people are but a cunningly manipu- 
lated lot of marionettes, who perform certain antics for a 
curious public, while the shrewd wire-puller sits behind, 
and orders every movement, and makes every speech. 
There has been, until very recently, no such thing as getting 
at the absolute truth concerning these people ; but lately, 
since the Gentile element has been so largely increased in 
Utah, and in Salt Lake City especially, it has been useless 
for the Saints to attempt to hide their real condition. 



ARE MORMON WOMEN UGLY? 395 

A Mormon wife-beater is as mercilessly exposed through 
the columns of the Gentile papers as the Gentile offender of 
the same class, and the nefarious dealings of Mormon offi- 
cials are publicly reproved in a manner that does not tend 
to make them comfortable in the least. The miseries caused 
by this cursed system are fully ventilated, and the true con- 
dition of things revealed. When flippant newspaper corre- 
spondents, after a visit to the valley oi the faints, go away 
and write in terms of ridicule of the Mormon women, calling 
them fearfully ugly in looks, they little know what bitter, 
hard, cruel experiences have carved the deep lines round the 
eyes and mouths, and made the faces grow repulsive and 
grim, and taken from them all the softness, and tenderness, 
and grace which glorify a happy woman's face, even if she 
be ever so plain of feature. If these men, who write so 
carelessly, could only see the interior of the lives that they 
are touching with such a rough, rude hand, they might be, 
perhaps, a little more sympathetic in tone. It is no wonder 

that the women of Utah are not beautiful ; there is nothing 
in all their lives to glorify or beautify their laces, to add at 

jiITto~their mental_ojj3hysical charm or grace. They are" 
pretty enough as children ; as young girls they can compare 
favorably wjt^ g r\y g* rl s I haw y^n i>r i the East ; but just 
so soon as they reach womanhood the curse of polygamy is 
forced upon them* and from that moment their lives are 
changed, and they grow hard or die one of the two in 
their^struffffles to become inured "to this" unnatural Lte7 
This system either kills its victims outright, or crushes out 
every bit of hope and ambition from them, leaving them 
aimless and apathetic, dragging out existence without the 
least ray of present happiness or future anticipation to 
Tighten it. 

-Hhw^B taught from my earliest childhood that there was 
nothing good outside of the Mormon Church ; that the 
Gentile men were bad to the core, possessing neither honor 
nor manly virtues of any kind, and that every Gentile 



396 "IF HE DOES, I'LL KILL HIM!" 

woman was so vile as to be utterly unworthy of mention ; 
that goodness was unknown among them, and that certain 
destruction awaited them and those who associated with 
them. My mother mourned over her friends and relatives 
outside of Mormonism as lost souls, and she prayed almost 
literally " without ceasing " that they might be shown the 
true way before it was too late. She could not govern her 
natural affection. She must love them ; they were her very 
own, and were very dear to her ; but I really think, es- 
pecially in the days of the intense religious excitement, that 
she almost hated herself for loving them so truly and so 
well. She wrote them the most pathetic letters of entreaty, 
filled with alternate pleadings and arguments, begging 
them to come to Zion, and "make sure of their souls' salva- 
tion." They, in turn, pitied her delusion, but had no hope 
that she would ever escape from it ; they little knew that 
the child, whose future they were deploring, would one day 
be the means of leading that mother out of the bondage in 
which she was held, through many tears and much tribula- 
tion, to the light of a brighter, more comforting faith. 

Conscience and an almost superstitious belief in her re- 
ligious leaders made her cling to her religion long after reason 
taught her that it was a delusion, and made her accept as a 
sole means of salvation a practice which her whole soul 
revolted against. It is well that the Mormon leaders call it 
a " cross." It is simply that, and the hopelessness of it 
renders it the more difficult to bear. There is no prospect 
of laying it down, and, unlike the cross of the old legend, it 
never becomes flower-wreathed. It grows heavier as the 
days go on, until it bows its bearer down to the very ground. 

I learned the misery of even a mon^gajnicjnarriage under 
polvgamic laws ; jind, though I never expressed myself so 
openly on the subject, f yet felt an intense" sympathy witha 
friend of mine, who, when told that her husband thought of 
taking another wife, replied, with the fire flashing from her 
black eyes, "If he does, I'll kill him!" It is not at all 



BEING " SCHOOLED " FOR THE FUTURE ! 397 

likely she would have kept her word ; she would probably 
have settled down, as so many women like her have done, 

which is not easy to sufcdue 



but she has never been tried ; her husband seems as indif- 
ferent to llie cliUl ms of Hie marriageable young ladies about 
foi as she Luuld desires-yet chc ncvai fujj uilliLlj uuf*-. 
How iiall She 1 , Whetr sire knuws her "Husband is constantly 
admonished that he is not "living up to his privileges." 
The sword above her head is suspended by a hair ; it is a 
miracle if it does not fall at last. I know every pang of 
anxiety, every heart-throb of sick expectation, for I had that 
selfsame torture for two years, without a moment's cessa- 
tion. I do not know how I bore it ; but I suppose I was only 
being schooled for what came afterwards. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

MY EARLY MARRIED LIFE. MY HUSBAND AND MY 
MOTHER! 



My early married Life. We go to live with my Mother. Incompatibil- 
ity of Temper. How my Mother had opposed our Marriage. My 
Husband does not Admire Her. He goes after the Girls. I don't 
like it at All. I become extremely angry with Him. He is advised to 
" increase his Kingdom." How promises to Wives are broken by 
Mormon Men. How Women are Snubbed and Undervalued. I 
become Anxious and Watchful. How Heber comforted his Wives. 
My Husband subjects me to personal Violence. He is afraid of 
Results. My first Baby is Born. Zina Young marries into Poly- 
gamy. Contrast between Mormon and Gentile Husbands. "The 
Bull never Cares for the Calves." My Husband nearly strangles me. 
I leave him, and go to my Parents. Brigham gives me some good 
Advice. I obtain a Divorce. I rejoice at being free Again. 



HEN I was first mar- 
ried, we went to live 
in the house with my 
mother, greatly to her 
delight, as she could not 
bear a separation from 
me. We had always 
been together so closely, 
more like sisters than 
like mother and daugh- 
ter, and both of us 
dreaded very much to 
have this sweet relation- 
ship broken. I had been 
her comfort when every' 
other stay had failed her ; 
her hope when she was 
She had lived in me and for me, 




FAMILY JARS. 



almost utterly hopeless. 



LIVING WITH A MOTHER-IN-LAW. 



399 



and my happiness and welfare had been her constant thought. 
Shejiad opposed my marriape as a duty, and because she 
thought she saw only misery for me in the relation : tint for 
a want of sympathy for me, for it really hurt her more to 
oppose me than it did me to persist in spite of her oppo- 
sition. I had been her companion in all her wanderings, 
and the confidante alike of her sorrows and joys, and it was 
hard for her to think of parting from me, even though I 
might be not very far away ; still our interests were natu- 
rally somewhat divided when I came to give the first place 
in my heart to another. 

My husband owned a house, but it was rented ; so until it 
was vacated we had a part of my mother's house, where we 
kept house quite cosily, and should have been very happy, 
had not my husband's temper and desire to torment me 
made life almost unbearable. I tried, as far as I could, to 
hide my unhappiness from my mother ; but I did not suc- 
ceed. Her motherly eyes were too keen, her maternal in- 
stinct too unerring, to be deceived by my silence, although 
she respected my reticence, and said nothing to me ; but she 
showed her sympathy in a hundred nameless ways. My hus- 
band knew of her opposition to our marriage, and he did not 
like what he termed her interference ; though why a mother 
cannot look after her daughter's interest withoutbeing ac- 
cused of interfering is even now a mystery to me, especially 
when, seeing that her advice is not regarded, she withdraws 
jail "interference," and makes the best of the rrja^fcr that 
shecarT 13 ut some persons never forget, and my husband 
was one of those ; and it used sometimes to seem to me as 
though, in his treatment of me, he was revenging himself 
for the opposition shown to him by my friends. 

I used to hear of his attentions to other girls, and I was 
furious, while I knew I was powerless. My visitors 
many of whom came only when they had anything to tell 
used to tell me that they saw James at the theatre with this 
young lady, or met him going home with that, or that he 



4<X> STORMY INTERVIEWS. 

passed them walking with another, until I was madly jeal- 
ous of every girl of my acquaintance. I no longer took 
pleasure in their society, for I saw in each one a probable 
rival, and a possible addition to our household. It was no 
consolationjo_me to remember thatjpy hiishanrfhad prom- 
ised me never to take another wife; I had learned : jyjiflt 
the promise of a man living under polygamic laws 
amounts to. It is given as a sort of sedative, and if it 
soothes temporarily, that is all that is required of it. It is 
considered no sin to break a promise of this kind ; indeed 
it would rather seem that it is accounted sin for" lillll Lu kucp 
it; and I knew that my husband was, as well as other "men, "" 
occasionally reminded that it was his duty to make his 
kingdom larger as speedily as possible, by taking another 
wife, or more than one if he liked. - 

We had many very stormy interviews on this subject ; 
he used to discuss my callers, and especially the pretty 
girls, as most Mormon men discuss women, with reference 
to their " points," as jockeys would talk of horses, or im- 
porters of fine stock. Polygamy does not tend U^enjiance 
the value of womanly dignity and grace, and very_little 
respecrtbr^theTSris either expressed or lelt by one brought 
up under its baneful influence. 

It is strange how quickly men, in a poly gampus ^commu- 
nity, lose that chivalrous courtesy which characterizS_men 
elsewhere. It seemed so strange to me to see the defer- 
ence shown to my sex when I left Utah, and came, for the 
fir^time^injny^life, among people living undeTmonogamic 



laws. I was particularly struckJ>jM:^ 

sideration which men showed towards their wives and chil- 
dren ; and I wondered to see the women, claiming, with a 
confidence that assured me they were used to it, and con- 
sidered that it belonged to them, their husbands' attention 
and care. It was strange, too, to see the deference shown 
to a woman by the young men and boys ; and when once, 
in a car, I saw a manly little fellow, about twelve or thir- 



MY HUSBAND AND I. 40! 

teen years of age, rise with a rare grace, and give his seat 
to an old lady, the tears sprang to my eyes, such an unac- 
customed sight was it. I contrasted that boy with the 
youth of Utah, and I felt with a new indignation flashing 
through all my veins, and a new sorrow tugging at my 
heart, the curse that polygamy was to the young men, as 
well as to the young girls, who are growing up under the 
teachings of that baneful system. It is horrible ! It fouls 
and poisons the stream at its very source (and it adds muc 
and filth as it crawls alonffi its slimy way) . sending up its 
noxious vapors ? until i{ has bred a most pestilent moral 
malaria, which nothing but tt^e f pr>1 r 



liberty and education shall ever dispel and purify. _ 

Why cannot men and women, outside of this terrible 
system, see the horrors of it, and work for its overthrow? 
My soul cries out in very agony sometimes, ' Is there no 
help for this great evil ? ' Everywhere the world seems so 
dead to it ! the enormity does not seem to manifest itself 
unto them. They speak lightly of Mormonism, as of 
something to ridicule or laugh at, rather than to condemn. 
God knows there is nothing laughable or ridiculous in it to 
its victims. It is the most pathetic, tragic earnestness and 
reality. 

I am not imagining situations, and growing pathetic over 
creations of my own fancy. I know what I say, for I have 
suffered it. There is not a pang, not a throb of anguish 
which I have depicted that I have not felt myself. 

My health, which was never very good, gave way under 
the terrible mental and physical strain to which I was sute 
jected, and I was in danger of becoming a confirmed inva- 
lid. My physical condition did not make my husband 
more tender or thoughtful, but he seemed to consider it a 
wrong towards himself, and took an aggrieved tone be- 
cause of it. He had worthy examples, to be sure ; for_Brig- 
am himself grumbles_ loudly- wjien one of his wives falls 



4O2 MATRIMONIAL FIGHTING. - BLOWS ! 

plains that " he never_rnarries_a woman__thaL-&be~-dQesa!t- 
get sick to shj^_-work J IL_Ji&ber C. Kimball, on being 
called once to see one of his wives who had broken her 
arm, accosted her, on his entrance to her room, with, 
"Why didn't you break your neck at once, and done with 
it?" And it is a jiotnrirms fact that two of Orson Pratt's 
ofneglect 



high in authority set the example, what-CQ]iTfi^ r on 
'of the followers!* 
' Although m^rhusBand had often threatened me with per- 
sonal violence, in addition to the insults and persecution he 
was constantly subjecting me to, he never offered any until 
about a month before my baby was born. He made some 
request of me which I was totally unable to grant, and in 
his fury at what he termed my stubbornness and rebellion, 
he struck me violentlv.andljell insensible before him. 

Then he was frightened for once ; he raised me up, 
carried me to my bed, and used every exertion to bring me 
to myself. He was afraid the blow was fatal, and he was 
remorseful enough. When, 'at last, I regained my senses, 
he begged my forgiveness, poured out a torrent of self- 
reproaches, and for a little while was more like my old 
lover, the man whom I had cared for so tenderly, than he 
had been since our marriage. I very quickly forgave him : 
it was so sweet to feel the old tenderness again, that I could 
in a moment forget all that had passed between, and I 
readily agreed not to let my family know of this last out- 
rage. He knew, as well as I, that my father and brothers 
would take me from him, and he really did not wish to lose 
me ; and as for me, he was my husband, and the father of 
my unborn child, and for the sake of the little life which I 
held in trust, I could not bear to go away from him. I 
had hoped, O, so fondly ! that the child would bring us 
nearer, and I could not give up the hope ; and when he 
stood before me so penitent, and so tender, I was ready to 
feel that he had always been the same. 



THE " LITTLE FELLOW " ON MY HANDS ! 



43 



But I was doomed to disappointment ; after the birth of 
my child, it seemed as though the fits of passion were more 
frequent and of longer duration. He neglected me, and 
was scarcely at home at all. _3,.d^ no * rf \T? fo r my babvy 
seeming to consider it a rival, and my love for it seemed to 
anueTTiim. But what a comfort the baby was to me I How 
1 loved it! Allthe tjldfi, , of _ my affection, that had been 
so rudely repelled, turned towards it, and I felt that all the 
interest of my life was centred therein. Like all Mormon 
~~ wonten, robbed of a husband's love and care, I should live 




MY BABY-BOY. 



in arid for my child. I knew very well that as far as re- 
gaining my husband's real affection was concerned if, in- 
deed, I had ever possessed it, the future was hopeless ; so 
I expected nothing from it further, and resigned myself to 
the inevitable more quietly than I could have believed I 
ever should have done ; but my child made resignation 
more easy. 

The little fellow was very bright and winning, and I 
used to imagine that he understood my feelings, and sym- 
pathized with me in his baby way. The little hands stray- 



404 CROSS ABOUT A BABY ! 

ing over my face and neck were full of sweet comfort ; the 
blue eyes raised to mine in baby confidence were full of 
love ; the little mouth which I covered with kisses never 
failed to smile back at me, and I even forgot to cry under 
the sweet, restful influence which the dimpled, rosy little 
bit of humanity brought into my heart. 

But this exquisite happiness was of short duration ; for, 
after a few months, my baby grew very ill ; and God only 
knows how I suffered then. I watched over him day and 
night, and my devotion to him angered my husband be- 
yond measure. He had no sympathy with or for me in 
those days of trial ; and in addition to seeing my baby pin- 
ing away, until it seemed that it must some day drift out 
of my clinging arms into the great unknown, unexplored 
sea beyond, I had to endure the constant abuse from the 
man who should at that time have been my stay and my 
comfort. But what Mormon mother ever gets the tender 
care from her baby's father that other happier mothers get? 
No time or place is so sacred that polygamy does not obtrude 
its ugly presence. A mother may not mourn for her child 
without feeling the heartless intrusion, as the following 
little instance will show. 

A man named Thomas Williams emigrated from England 
with his wife and children, all eager to reach " Zion," the 
promised land of the Saint's inheritance. He was a very 
devout Mormon, and was easily induced to accept poly- 
gamy. He took for his second wife Zina Young, a daughter 
of Brigham and Zina Huntington, an enthusiastic, consci- 
entious believer in polygamy, and a genuinely good, gen- 
erous girl, of the most kindly impulses, but, unfortunately, 
wrongly trained, as all girls are under this system. 

His first wife never had believed in the plural-wife sys- 
tem, and was never reconciled to her husband's second 
marriage. She mourned bitterly about it; and, very nat- 
urally, her feelings towards her rival were not kindly or 
pleasant. The husband knew this perfectly well ; and yet, 



MY BOYS ! 405 

when her little baby died, and she was almost mad with 
grief, he insisted on bringing the second wife to the funeral 
as one of the family. The mother was almost beside her- 
self at what she considered this insult to her dead child, 
and she declared that Zina should not come. ^Her husband, 



of course, overruled her ; for when, in polygamy n 
ever have her -own way? But Mrs. Williams refused to 
recognize her, and would not allow her to sit in the room 
with her and the child. 

I was spared this torture, for there was no second wife 
to measure my misery, and God was good, and spared my 
child. He repaid all my anxious care, and put the child 
into my arms well and comparatively strong, at the same 
time that he intrusted another helpless one to my care. I 
had lost, at that time, much of my faith in my religion. I 
think I should have lost my belief in God Himself, had my 
baby been taken from me. But He knew how much I could 
bear, and he spared me this last bitter sorrow. 

I had been at first jealous of the little new-comer for the 
other baby's sake, who was only a little over a year old 
when the second one came ; but I soon found that I had love 
enough in my heart for the two. My boys ! How fond, 
and proud, and even happy I was with them ! 

The measure of my love seemed to be the measure of 
their father's indifference, and even hate. He used to either 
take no notice of them at all, which I infinitely preferred, 
or he would handle them so roughly that the little things 
would shriek with pain and terror, and I would be almost 
frantic with fear lest he should kill them in his mad frolics^, 
which usually ended in a fit of temper because they cried 
at his rude treatment. 

As I was on my way East, I witnessed a little scene that 
called up painfully the contrast between this father's indif- 
ference and another father's care. In one car was a lady 
with two children ; one a little girl about eight years old, 
and a cunning baby boy, who was just beginning to lisp in 



406 THE BULL AND THE CALVES ! 

that wonderful baby prattle that is so sweet to hear. As we 
stopped at a station, a gentleman came in, his face beaming 
with pleasure and expectation. '* The moment the children 
saw him, the little girl cried out with joy, " O, my dear papa 
-Xhas come ! " and simultaneously mother and child clasped 
"; their arms about his neck and kissed him. The baby threw 
up his arms, and crowed out, "Papa, papa !" and as he took 
he little fellow in his arms, and fairly rained kisses over the 
rosy, delighted little face, the tears sprang to my eyes, and I 
had fairly to hide my face, for my cheeks were moist, and 
my mouth would quiver, as I thought of the father's love, 
of which my children were robbed of which all children 
in Utah are robbed by a fiendish system, given by a 
corrupt priesthood under the guise of a " Revelation " from 
God. 

What a sarcasm on the infinite, tender, all-pervading 
love of the Divine Father ! 

Such a scene as this would be simply impossible in Utah, 
among that community whose religious leader says, in his 
peculiarly refined style and expression, when his lack of 




\ father 
A, A upon, 

^ J and w 

frfy withoi 
busv i 



^i^^ 

alyes^J 



Wfl1 ; thp hull npvpr takesarryj^ar^of his calves 
whose chief apostles allow their children to grow up 
without support or training from them, since they are too 
busy in extolling thebenntif;{^of^ poly gamy to the new con- 
vertsTtcPgi ve e v'eh ^de^gjiJt--attetttioft--ta4he ichn^nmjvho m 
the}' have summoned into_Jlie^JworkL_iinder this " glorious 
institution." 

* Two weeks before baby was born, I was sitting one 
morning with the elder boy on my lap, my husband being 
in the room, when one of my father's wives' children, a 
little fellow about three years old, came toddling in. Mr. 
Dee, happening to want something, asked the child to get 
it for him. The article in question was on a shelf, out of 
the child's reach, and to get it he would have to stand on a 
chair, and even then his tiny fingers could but just touch it. 



A LITTLE FAMILY LOVE-SCENE. 407 

There was a heavy jar on the shelf, which I feared he 
might pull down upon himself, and I remonstrated against 
his trying to get it. I offered to reach it myself, but my 
husband instantly turned and forbade my leaving my chair, 
saying that the child should bring him what he desired. 

" But he must not," I cried, in an agony of terror. 

" I tell you he shall," was my husband's answer. 

The child stood looking from one to the other, half crying 




with fear, and yet scarcely daring to disobey the command 
that had been given to him. 

" Louis, fetch it to me instantly," commanded he again. 

" Louis, you shall not," said I, half rising from my chair. 

In an instant, my husband, maddened with fury that I 
should dare to contradict him, seized me by the throat, and 
threw me back into the chair. The screams of the terrified 
child brought my mother into the room at once. She 
snatched the baby from my arms, which I still held clasped 



408 NEARLY STRANGLED BY MY HUSBAND. 

convulsively, while my husband's fingers were tightening 
about my throat. I was dizzy with pain, and almost suffo- 
cated from the grip ; but my maternal instinct was stronger 
than the pain, and I never relaxed my hold on my child. 

My mother called my father, and he came and rescued 
me from the infuriated man who held me, and carried me 
into my mother's room. Until that time they had known 
nothing of the treatment which I received from my hus- 
band. They knew that I was unhappy, but so was every 
woman ; so I was by no means isolated in my misery. But 
I had managed to keep from them all knowledge of the 
violent treatment I had received at his hands. Their indig- 
nation at finding it out was beyond all bounds ; for when 
once it was known, my tongue was loosened, and I poured 
into the sympathizing ears of mother and father the whole 
story of my wrongs. I left nothing untold, and it was 
such a relief to let loose the torrent of misery that had been 
so long pent up in my heart ! 

My parents and brothers decided at once that I must 
leave him ; and indeed, I was afraid, both for myself and 
for my children, to return to him again. He tried to see 
me in every possible way, but was refused admittance to 
my mother's rooms. The door of communication that led 
between her rooms and those I had previously occupied 
was securely locked, and he was bidden by my father to 
vacate the rooms as speedily as possible. He then de- 
manded to see me; he tried threats, entreaties, every 
means that he could devise, but I was carefully guarded, 
and he could gain access neither to me nor the children. 

He was loud in his threats to take the children from me, 
and I was in terrible fear lest he should in some way gain 
possession of them. I knew that it would not be love for 
them which would impel him, but a desire to strike me 
where it would wound me most ; and he knew that he 
could reach me in no other way so surely as through my 
children. Since he had become convinced that I would 



i WAS DIVORCED! 409 

never return to him, that of my own free will I gave him 
up for ever, he seemed possessed by a spirit of fury, and 
vowed all manner of vengeance on me. 

In order to get me out of his power, my parents deter- 
mined that I should be divorced from him without delay, 
and, like conscientious church people, they consulted Pres- 
ident Young. He and George Q^. Cannon, who was also 
in our confidence, both took very active measures in my 
behalf. There were two ways in which I could procure a 
divorce one from Brigham, which was considered valid 
in the church, but I suppose would not stand the test of 
law ; the other from the Probate Court. Brigham strongly 
advised the latter, as, in case my husband should ever 
apostatize, he could not take, my children from me. He 
behaved, all through the affair, in such a kind, friendly 
manner that my confidence in him was fully secured. I 
had at that time no thought of what the future would bring, 
and certainly never dreamed of any closer relationship with 
him. My whole thought was to get free from my husband, 
and to have my children so securely that he could not take 
them from me. They were my only thought, my only 
care. 

I say this because, since I have renounced Mormonism, 
Brigham Young and his followers have said that I left my 
first husband on purpose to become his wife a statement 
which no one better knows to be false, than Brigham him- 
self. He it was who counselled me to go to the regular 
courts, rather than depend on his divorcement, which he 
knew would not stand out of Mormondom, and he and his 
apostle Cannon rendered me the most valuable and untiring 
assistance, which I accepted gladly, as I would have 
accepted aid from any quarter in this extremity. 

I was divorced in 1865, and the decree stands to-day in 
the Court Records of Utah. Since the memory of my Mor- 
mon friends seems so treacherous, I will copy the records 
here as they stand. They may also convince some doubt- 



410 WHAT THE COURT DECREED. 

ers who seem to place Brigham Young's denial before my 
complaint, and pin their faith to him, while regarding me 
doubtfully as a possible adventuress. 

"PROBATE COUNTY DOCKET. L^ a ^ e 5-] 

" Great Salt Lake County. Ann Eliza Dee vs. James L. Dee. 

" In Divorce. 

"1865. December pth. Petition filed; summons and notice 
issued, returnable on 23d inst., at 10 p. M. 

" December 23d. Case called ; returns made and decree made 
dissolving bonds of matrimony, and giving to plaintiff the custody 
and control of her children. Costs taxed to defendant. 

" 1866. March 3.d. Court ordered execution against defend- 
ant for costs of suit. 

" March 8th. Execution issued for $20.50, returnable in 20 
days. 

" March 28th. Execution returned ; no property found ; clerk's 
fees paid by C. G. Webb, in meat. 

\_Page 516.] 
"RECORDS OF PROBATE COURT, GREAT SALT LAKE COUNTY. 

" 1865. Dec. 23d. Ten o'clock, A.M. Court opened. Rec- 
ords of 1 6th and 2oth insts. read and signed. 

" The case of Ann Eliza Dee -vs. James L. Dee, in divorce, was 
called up. This case came up for hearing upon the petition of 
Ann Eliza Dee, formerly Ann Eliza Webb, and upon the investi- 
gation thereof ex parte, the defendant, James L. Dee, failing to 
appear, C. G. Webb and Ann Vine being sworn and examined, 
the allegations in the plaintiff's petition were taken as confessed, 
and thereupon, after hearing the evidence and being fully advised 
in the premises, it was ordered and decreed by the court that the 
bonds of matrimony heretofore existing between the said parties 
be, and the same are hereby, for ever dissolved. That said Ann 
Eliza shall have and retain the custody and control of her two in- 
fant children, James Edward and Lorenzo Dee, during their minor- 
ity, and that defendant pay costs of suit. 

(Signed,) "E. SMITH, 

of Probate Court? 



ONLY BABY ARMS ! 41 1 

If anyone doubts my copy, they can examine the records 
lor themselves. 

My Christmas that year was a merrier one than I had 
seen for several years. My children were mine, my very, 
very own ; and no one could take them from me. I clasped 
them in my arms. I kissed them again and again in an 
ecstasy of affection. Henceforth I was father, mother, 
all to them ; no one would dispute with me for their affec- 
tion, no one claim their love. I was supremely, selfishly- 
happy. True, my romance had died ; my idol, with its feet 
of clay, was broken ; but maternal love took the place of 
the girl's romance, and the little souls which had been 
given into my charge were more beautiful than any idol 
which I had been able to build for myself. I was saddened 
by all my disappointments, quieted by all my trials, sub- 
dued in spirit by the constant exercise of patience. I had 
lost my girlish gaiety and vivacity, but I had gained the 
poise and assurance of womanhood, and was, I hoped, better 
fitted to be a good mother to my children, which, at that 
time, was the only ambition I had, and my only interest for 
the entire future was in them. I dreamed for them, I 
planned for them, lived in them ; and I am only regretful 
that anything ever divided my interest with them. 

But after the one shadow was lifted, before the other fell, 
I was royally happy, happier than I ever was in my life 
before, circled about as I was by clinging baby arms, and 
held by tiny baby hands. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



AFTER MY DIVORCE. AFFAIRS AT HOME. 

After my Divorce from Dee. "Is Polygamy Good to Eat?" Curious 
Experiences Among the Saints. A Man Who Thought His Heart was 
Broken. How Two Wives Rebelled. The Husband in a Fix. He 
Runs Away from Home. Dismisses his Plural Wife. Being " Sealed " 
to Old Women for Eternity. Nancy Chamberlain's Story. Who is 
to be Brigham's Queen in Heaven. An Old Wife Dresses Up as a 
Ghost. How Brother Shaw Replenished his Exchequer. The Bat- 
tles Between my Father's Wives. My Mother Enjoys his Troubles. 
The Story of a Turkey. A First Wife Asserts Her Rights. My 
Life at South Cottonwood. I Receive Offers of Marriage. 

FTER my divorce, I 
went with my mother 
to live at my father's 
farm in South Cotton- 
wood. 

Here, I think, I was 
happier than I had 
ever before been in my 
life. My health was 
much improved, and 
what with the care of 
my children and the 
portion of the house- 
hold duties which I 
assumed to assist my 
mother, my days were 
well filled. My boys 
were growing healthy, hearty, rollicking fellows, and they 
returned my care with all the love which the most jealous 
heart could desire. 




"GRANDMA, WHAT is POLYGAMY?" 



DO YOU LIKE POLYGAMY? 



4*3 



How thankful I was that they were not girls I I knew 
too~well the troubles of my sex in polygamy tn wish tp V>t-;r>g" 
one girl into the world, who, under the system* would be 
-Sm^^^d^sffcTrcerta^ 1 made up my mind 

to teach my boys to shun it, even if it was a vital part of 
my religion. I was willing to accept all else that Mormon- 
ism taught, and to teach its underlying principles to my 
boys; but that I could teach them was right. 

Young as they were, they realized something of poly- 
gamy from hearing it constantly talked of; for when any 
two women meet, it is the chief topic of their conversa- 
tion, and they knew enough to discover that it was some- 
thing that was decidedly unpleasant ; but what it was, they, 
of course, had not the slightest idea. Still, with the curi- 
osity natural to children, they were determined to come to 
the truth of it some way or other. 

One day, my youngest boy, then a little over three years 
old, astonished my mother by asking, very abruptly, 

"Grandma, do you like polygamy?" 

"Not at all," was the reply, wondering what would come 
next. 

"Is polygamy good to eat? " was the next inquiry of this 
youthful investigator. 

My mother thought that it was not very palatable; at 
least she had not found it so, and as far as her observation 
went, she had not seen anyone who relished it particularly. 

The men had their " crosses " in polygamy as well as the 
women, and I must confess that I was wicked enough to 
enjoy their small " miseries," they seemed so insignificant 
beside their wives' ; but as is the case generally, I fancy, 
they bore them with much less patience. The chief mascu- 
line troubles seem to be, that thev cannotTwith alllKeir lr?=- 



make their plural wn 



ielightfuland so esf 
to entire familyJiappinesS) anet" that they cannot mako the 
wives, or wife, they already have, welg&me-with any great. 



414 A NICE YOUNG WIDOW ! 

show of cordiality the proposal to add another to the family 
circle. 

Not very long before my^ apostasy, while visiting at the 
house of a friend, I was introduced to a man, who, my 
friend afterwards told me, was almost heart-broken at the 
dreadful conduct of his wife. My sympathies went out 
at once to the sufferer, and I inquired what indiscretion, or 
crime, his wife had been guilty of. " O," said my friend, 
" she is determined that he shall not take another wife, and 
fights against it all the time, and he has just buried two 
children ; and, all together, he is completely bowed down by 
grief." 

This was before I had dared to give my honest opinion, and 
I was silent ; but my heart ached for the poor mother whose 
babies were dead, and whose husband, not content with her 
love, was denouncing her to his friends because she was 
unwilling to have polygamy added to her other burdens. 

A man in Utah, whom I knew very well, married a young 
widow for a second wife, his first strongly disapproving of 
the principles of polygamy. She had by no means a sub- 
missive spirit, and she sought revenge by the only means 
in her power by tormenting her husband in all possible 
ways. 

He, like all good Mormon brethren, intended to build up 
a "celestial kingdom" after the " divinely ordained plan," 
and he wished his wives to live together. There was no 
use talking, he said ; they must agree well enough for that, 
as he did not intend to build another house. So he com- 
menced this plan ; but he found, after a few days, that what- 
ever it might be in the future, it was far from "celestial" 
here. There was no such thing as peace in the house. 
His Prophet had often told him that if he could not rule 
his earthly kingdom, he never would be fit to be a king in 
the world to come ; and as he was very ambitious for royal 
honors, he was in terrible grief and perplexity. But how 
to govern two unruly women was quite beyond him. His 



KEY-HOLE SECRETS ! 



415 



first wife was a very independent woman, with a habit of 
speaking her mind quite freely ; and the second had a fiery 
temper, which she did not hesitate to display when she 
considered occasion demanded. 

In a few weeks he found that he must separate them ; so 
he divided the house, giving each one her apartments the 
first wife receiving the principal share, as she had several 
children. But he had not bettered matters, it seemed. 
He had intended dividing his time equally between the two ; 




No PEACE WITHIN POLYGAMY. 

but the first wife was so opposed to this arrangement that he 
offered to give her two thirds of his time, which, strange as 
it may seem, did not satisfy her, and made the second wife 
very angry, until, between them both, the poor man was 
driven almost to his wits' ends. 

They had a peculiar way of finding out each other's 
secrets; and when the husband was visiting one, the other 
would apply her ear to the key-hole of her rival's apart- 
ments. On certain occasions, when the first wife was too 



41 6 NANCY C. TELLS A NAUGHTY STORY. 

much engaged to attend to the key-hole herself, she would 
place her little daughter a child not more than six years 
old there, and bid her tell her what she heard. Imagine 
the effect on the child. It seems impossible that any woman, 
however jealous or curious, would take this means to satisfy 
her curiosity. Of course the child told the mother the most 
ridiculous things, which she affected to believe, and told to 
her husband on his next visit to her; in consequence of 
which some of the bitterest quarrels ensued. 

As soon as possible the husband built a second house, a 
few rods from the other, and removed the last wife thither, 
hoping then for a little respite. But he was hoping against 
hope ; for the trouble would never be quieted while the 
cause remained, and the two women could never come 
within speaking distance without a fearful quarrel, which 
often ended in personal violence, blows being exchanged, 
hair pulled, and dresses torn in the struggle. 

Every experiment was in vain. After running away from 
home once himself, and coming back on account of his chil- 
dren, whom he really loved, he found himself obliged to 
send Number Two away, when quiet was again restored, 
although it was secured at the expense of his "kingdom." 

Thj> fault jvas not with either of the women ; each^one_ 

vjfas goodenouh by herself j but"^ was in the accursed 

^vsTenTTwnlc^" 



passions to the surface, and made_of each wpman who f 
alone^_wpjilcLhave been a comfort to hrr husband a fiend, 

jmd a constant torment to him. 

Some of the Mormon brethren are so anxious to increase 
their kingdom that they frequently have very old ladies 
sealed to them. As they are all to be rejuvenated in the 
resurrection, and as the sealing is done for K eternity" alone, 
it will be all right in the future, and the discrepancies in age 
will go for nothing. Even Brigham Young himself has not 
hesitated to avail himself of his privileges in this peculiar 
direction, if Nancy Chamberlain's story can be believed. 



HOW A WOMAN "FREED HER MIND!" 417 

Nancy Chamberlain is a very old*, half-crazed woman, 
known, I fancy, to every Mormon in the Territory, who 
solemnly declares that she was sealed to Brigham in 
Nauvoo, and that she had the promise of being promoted 
to the place of first wife. She lived in his family for a long 
time, but she grew old, and infirm, and useless, and he 
turned her out of the house some years ago ; and now she 
lives as best she may, going about from house to house, and 
doing light work to pay for her support. 

She considers it her duty every little while to go and 
"free her mind," as she calls it, to Brigham's wives, telling 
them that they may usurp her place and defraud her of her 
rights in this world, but she shall be Brigham's queen in 
heaven. She is an eccentric old woman, but there is no 
doubt, I think, about her having been sealed to the Prophet. 
He has a great many old ladies that he expects to resurrect, 
and assign them to their true position in the eternal world. 

These old ladies are sometimes as exacting as their 
younger sisters, and the husband has all he can do to pacify 
them and keep them quiet ; but not all of them have my 
mother's experience and that of my old acquaintance, Mr. 
Ramsay. He was a very devout follower of Brigham's, 
and, when he was about forty years of age, he was sealed 
to an old lady eighty years of age, who had no husband, 
and consequently no hope of salvation, until he very kindly 
became her savior. He had three wives already, but that 
was a trifle not worth mentioning to a man expecting to 
people a world some time in the future ; so, as this woman 
who was called Catherine would count one on the list, 
she was taken, and brought into the house with his other 
wives. 

The first of these women, who had always been a slave 
to her husband and his wives, was now called upon to take 
the sole charge of this last selection, which she did willingly 
enough. But it was a difficult matter to please Catherine. 
No woman could do more to keep the peace than Mrs. 
27 



418 A BELLIGERENT WIFE. 

Ramsay, who -was one of the sweetest tempered, kindest 
hearted women in the world, yet in this case it seemed to 
require superhuman exertions. Catherine complained of 
her food, her clothing, and her situation generally ; but the 
principal cause of complaint was, that Mr. Ramsay was not 
sufficiently attentive to her. 

" I am your wife," she used to say, in a querulous, piping 
voice ; " I have rights and privileges equal to any other 
wife, and you must and shall spend one fourth of your time 
with me." 

This not being Mr. Ramsay's view of the case precisely, 
he would reply, 

" It is true you were sealed to me, but it was not for time, 
but for eternity ; and I cannot give you any part of my time 
here. I am willing that you should be taken care of in my 
family, and that should satisfy you." 

But that did not satisfy her, and she determined to make 
him all the trouble she could. One of her first freaks was 
to personate a ghost ; and, robing herself in white, she 
visited different apartments of the house while the family 
slept, more particularly where the husband was. Failing 
to bring him to terms by this mode of action, she tried some- 
thing more desperate, and actually set the house on fire ; it 
was soon discovered, however, and not much harm was done. 
Mr. Ramsay had been very patient with her, and viewed 
all her pranks in as charitable a light as possible, saying, 
" it was somebody's duty to exert themselves in her behalf, 
for she was surely worth saving ; and as for her queer ac- 
tions, she was nothing but a child anyway ; so the best thing 
was not to mind them." Yet this last act of hers made him 
consider her a very dangerous person, and he advised her 
to seek a home elsewhere, which she was very soon forced 
to do, as he went to the southern part of the Territory with 
his other wives, and left her behind. 

She consoled herself by thinking that although she had 
no husband on earth, she was provided for hereafter, and 



AX IMPECUNIOUS POLYGAMIST. 419 

was very complacent over the reflection, which seemed to 
afford her wonderful consolation. Mr. Ramsay must be 
acquitted of having married the old lady for money, as she 
was very poor, and he gained nothing at all by his mar- 
riage. It was really an act of kindness on his part, and 
real conscientious regard for her future. 

Not so unselfish was Brother Shaw, a Mormon whose 
poverty might be estimated by the fact that he had been 
twenty years in Brigham's service as a laborer. His impe- 
cuniosity was no bar to his entering the Celestial Kingdom, 
and setting up a realm of his own, over which he should 
be ruler. He had already married two wives, when a very 
old lady, possessed of considerable property, arrived in 
Zion, and Brother Shaw decided that she needed salvation 
at his hands, and proposed marriage to her. 

She saw through him at once, but fearing for her salva- 
tion, she accepted the proposal, and was " sealed." This 
was her first offer in Zion, but she feared, at her time of 
life, she might never have another ; so she allowed herself 
to be installed as third wife in the Shaw family. Her 
money was found very useful for the support of the entire 
family, and was spent very freely until it was all gone, 
when she, like the rest, was obliged to live in great destitu- 
tion. She certainly has paid handsomely for her " exalta- 
tion." 

In a family where all were so peacefully inclined as in 
our own, ''trying" occasions are rare; but they would 
occur sometimes, and I think my mother took a 
cious pleasure in seeing my fat'Ker^ctbe*'**^ n hnnt i 
fHatJhaa occurred to make ^plurality " a trial. frTe. tried n.^ 
hard as possible to be just, and had always been very par- 
ticular in dividing everything equally between his wives. 
One must have no more than the other. There must be 
the most perfect exactness in everything. I believe he 
thinks he has dealt out the most even-handed justice, 
although he used occasionally to be accused of a partiality 



42O STORY OF A CHRISTMAS TURKEY. 

for his third wife, especially by those comforting persons 
who liked to talk to the other wives about him. 

One year he had a turkey presented to him two or three 
days before Christmas. He was away from home on re- 
ceiving it, and he returned quite late at night to my mother's 
house with his gift. He was in a dilemma. Here he was 
with a turkey on his hands, and not feeling rich enough to 
buy the requisite number in addition to give one to each wife. 
He could not decide at which house to have the fowl roasted. 
He would have liked to have had the table of each wife 
graced with just such a bird, but that was out of the ques- 
tion, and it was equally impossible for all to dine together 
that day. He was unable to solve the problem ; so he con- 
cluded to leave it for accident to decide. 

On arriving home he placed the turkey quite out of 
sight, as he supposed, and retired. 

My mother, in her rounds of morning work, discovered 
a suspicious-looking bundle, and, although a little curious 
concerning it, did not open it. but carried it to my father, 
with the wrapper on, at the same time asking him what 
it was. 

"It is a turkey," was his reply. 

As he said nothing else, she hastily returned it to its 
place, concluding that she had stumbled on positive proof 
of his partiality for some other member of his family ; and 
remembering all he had said about equal justice, she re~ 
solved that she would find out all about the affair, and, if 
her suspicions were correct, would not submit with patience, 
but would "speak her mind," if the heavens fell. She 
opened the battle by saying, 

" I think it very strange indeed that you should purchase 
a turkey for only one table, and leave the others destitute ; 
and I also think it a very unjust proceeding on your part ; 
if one portion of the family is to have a Christmas turkey, 
the others should receive the same attention." 

" Hold on, my dear," interrupted my father ; " not so fast, 



A HUSBAND IN A FIX. 42! 

if you please. You shouldn't jump at conclusions in such 
a hasty manner. I didn't buy the turkey ; it was given me 
by a friend." 

"O," said my mother, quite mollified, "is that so?" 
And she was preparing to be quite amiable, when, unfor- 
tunately, she happened to recollect that he had asked her 
at breakfast if she had not better have some chickens killed 
for Christmas, and she returned to the charge with renewed 
vigor. 

"What are you going to do with it?" demanded she. 

" Why, you may have it if you wish," said he ; K I am 
sure I don't know what else to do with it." 

Although she was quite prepared to wage warfare for 
her rights to the very last, my mother really was not pre- 
pared for such willing surrender, and, determined not to be 
outdone in generosity, she replied, 

" O, I really do not care about it. I have chickens, you 
know, and I like them equally well ; in fact, I think I pre- 
fer them. But," she continued, with a beautiful stroke of 
diplomacy, " I would like to decide which of the other 
wives shall have the turkey, if you will allow me, since 
you have given me the privilege of refusing it." 

My father was glad enough to leave the disposition of 
the turkey with her, as he did not really know any better 
what to do with it than before, and if she decided for him, 
all responsibility would be off his shoulders. So he said, 
with very great cordiality of tone, 

"All right. I have given it to you, you know. You 
shall make what disposition you please of it." 

" Thank you," said she, with equal graciousness of man- 
ner ; " I should like Elizabeth to have it. She deserves it, 
and needs it, too, and would be very grateful for it ; and 
then, too, you see, she, being next to me, would claim it by 
right of seniority." 

"Wisely said," was my father's rejoinder, delighted to 
have it settled so amicably. So he carried the turkey to 



4 22 



CHICKENS, BUT NO TURKEY. 



Elizabeth as his Christmas offering, and she received it, as 
my mother thought she would, % gladly and thankfully. 

Our Christmas dinner, with the chickens, and my moth- 
er's delectable puddings and pies, was a success, and we 
didn't even miss the turkey, though we did have a good 
laugh over it, and my mother was jubilant, because she 
had kept it from gracing the tables of the younger wives, 
since, according to her ideas of justice, if any partiality 
was to be shown, it should be given in the order of "senior- 




OLD FARM-HOUSE AT COTTONWOOD. 

ity." I have no doubt that the other tables were well set, 
in some way or other, but we none of us saw the bills of 
fare. "Father's turkey" was for a long time the standing 
jest at home. 

During this time at South Cotton wood, while I was 
teaching my children, helping my mother, and getting all 
these peeps into the inside experiences of polygamy, my 
own life running along in the smoothest channels it had 
ever known, a great change was preparing for me. I had 



EASE AND CONTENTMENT. 423 

no thought nor premonition of it, as I went blithely about my 
daily duties, happy and content in the quiet life which I 
was leading in my mother's companionship, and in my dar- 
ling children's love. I dreamed of nothing beyond this 
peaceful life; I wished for nothing else. Such a sweet 
restfulness had taken possession of me, and I pictured my- 
self growing old in this quiet spot, with my strong, brave 
boys near me to make my rough path smooth, and to help 
my faltering footsteps over the stony places with their strong 
arms that would encircle and hold me then, as I encircled 
them now. The improvement of my health was a source 
^ofjrreat joy to me. " rneVeT Was o well in my life. The 
^colorliad come bacic to my cheek, the sparkle to my eve. 



_^ 

frolicsome days when I had gone merry-making with my 
old companions, had won friends in the theatre, and had 
wailed " with the girls " over the monotonous fare of the 
Prophetic table. I was a child with my children, and it 
would be difficult to tell which of us got the most scoldings 
and pettings from the fond grandmamma. 

She was happy, too, at having me with her again ; and 
though she sorrowed at my sorrow, she could not regret 
anything that brought me back to her, so long as it did not 
make me utterly unhappy ; and she recognized as well as I 
the fact, that my life was fuller^ and freer without my hus- 
bandjLhan with him, and that mychildren "were better ott T 
chances ofjbecoming the menthat bot]t 



she and I wished them to becomeTunder my guidance alone, 
than under the Tnfljrence~oT"s'uch a fatI~eTa^theirs. ~THeV 
would never have felt a strong, steady, guiding hand7bu 
would have been, as their mother had been before them, the 
victim of alternate passion and rough good nature, that was 
easily shaken. 

I had very many offers of marriage. A moderately pre- 



424 MY PERSISTENT SUITORS. 

possessing woman in Utah is sure not to be long without 
them ; and I knew that I was that, at least, but I could not be 
brought to look with favor upon any of my suitors. I did 
not care to try matrimony again, 
not becor 



was afraid tojyeven a monogamic alliance, again^. 
knevv thatm Utah the step from monogamyjtp polygamy is 
very short, and very easily taken. My answer was the 
same to one and all "I have my children ; I shall live for 

them alone iJhey are my only lovesr" 

Some of them appgcfiyd^tcT'Trry" father and mother to use 
their influence to make me change my mind ; but they re- 
fused to interfere, saying that I probably knew my own 
mind, and, if I did not wish to marry, that was quite 
enough. 

I usually had my own way ; and when I knew that any 
of my persistent suitors had turned to my parents for sym- 
pathy and assistance, I laughed to myself to think how little 
of either they would receive. To tell the truth, they es- 
pecially my mother were no more anxious for me to marry 
V than I myself; and I knew that so long as they had a home, 
K my children and I should share it. I was not allowed to 
xv feel that we were in any way a burden, and, to tell the 
i truth, I did honestly try to do all in my power to assist my 
mother, and make life easier for her to bear. 

" I shall never, never leave you," I used to say, as I 

would nestle at her feet, and lay my head in her lap in the 

old childish fashion a habit that I could not bring my- 

i self to abandon, even though I was a mother myself, with 

two bouncing boys to curl down in my own lap in the same 

. loving way, begging for caresses. ' 

"God willing, we will never be parted, my darling." 

"Never! never!" cried I, with loving enthusiasm, as I 

felt her hand on my head, resting in tender benediction there. 

I kissed the hand that had grown hard with toil for me and 

for others ; and together we sat with no premonition of the 



BRIGHAM ON HIS WAY TO COTTONWOOD. 425 

future that was so near, and that was to change the whole 
current of both our after lives. 

Br^hamYoung^aJuLsome of the apostles WJMI coming to 
South Cotton woodtoh old a meeting. But what was that 
to-me-? How did it affect mel/vnen he came or went? I 
itacl ao"pail liui lui hi nis movements. Life wasftulhiiig tu 
me beyond my mother and children ; and all the Prophetic 
coming and going would not cause a ripple on the surface 
of my placid life. 

So I thought, as I lay cradled in my mother's arms that 
summer evening in the old farm-house at Cottonwood ; and 
the stars, as they looked down upon me there, revealed 
nothing more to me. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

A WALK WITH THE PROPHET. HE MAKES LOVE TO 
ME. 

How Brigham Travels Through the Territory. Triumphant Receptions 
Everywhere. Trying to Establish the "Order of Enoch." How the 
Prophet Insulted his Faithful Followers. " Rheumatism " in the Tem- 
per. Grand Doings in the Settlements. We Goto Meet the Prophet. 

How the Saints were Lectured in the Bowery. How Brigham gave 
Howard a Piece of Land. Howard Insulted by the Prophet. Over- 
looking the Prophet's Lies . Van Etten Becomes Brigham's " Friend." 

He Helps Him to Steal a Hundred Sheep. He makes a Big Haul, 
and Escapes to Canada. The Prophet Ogles Me during Service-Time. 

We Take a Walk Home Together. He Compliments My Good 
Looks. Makes Love to Me. Matrimonial Advice. Brigham Wishes 
Me to Become His Wife. 



N Brigham Young's ar- 
rival at South Cotton- 
wood, he was very 
warmly welcomed, all 
the people turning out 
to join in the demon- 
strations. 

This is the usual cus- 
tom ; consequently his 
travels through the 
Territory are a perfect 
ovation. He is gen- 
erally accompanied by 
some members of his 
family ; perhaps one or 
more of his wives, and 

BRIGHAM ON HIS TRAVELS. one of his SOnS. It 

has lately always been 
Brigham, Jr., his intended successor, who is taken along, to 




THE RECEPTION OF BRIGHAM. 427 

be initiated into the proper method of doing things ; one or 
more of his counsellors ; some of the apostles, and whoever 
else he may choose to invite to join his party. They go in 
carriages, and form in themselves quite a procession. 

He is met outside of every settlement which he visits by a 
company of cavalry ; and a little farther on, just outside the 
entrance to the town, he is met by another procession, 
sometimes of the children alone, but oftener, in the large 
settlements, where they are ambitious to " do the thing up in 
shape," of the entire population who are able to turn out, 
men, women, and children, headed by a brass band, all 
ranged along to give greeting to the Prophet. They are 
arranged in different sections, each section having its appro- 
priate banner. The elderly and middle-aged men are all 
together under the banner " Fathers in Israel." The women 
of the same ages are ranged under their banner, " Mothers 
in Israel." The young men are proud enough of the in- 
scription whicrT^heirs carries. " I )^f<*nders of Zion ; " and 
the^ r oung girls are fresh and lovely under their banner, 
"The Daughters of Zion, Virtue;" while the little Wee 
bitsTtKal ai'd plUCed last oi all, are "The Hope of Israel." 
Other banners bear the inscriptions, " Hail to the Prophet; " 
" Welcome to our President ; " " God bless Brigham Young ; " 
" The Lion of the Lord ; " and others of a similar nature are 
seen along the line of the procession. 

As the President and his escort pass down the long line, 
the band plays, the people cheer, men wave their hats, 
women their handkerchiefs, and the young girls and chil- 
dren toss bunches of flowers; and their Prophet if he 
chances to be-in a good humor bows and smiles to them as 
he passes ; and everything is gay, and bright, and merry, 
and the people are very happy because of the success of 
their Prophet's reception. 

Now and then their gaiety has a dash of cold water from 
the object of all the display, and they see all their prepara- 
tions go for nothing, and are made to feel that all their labor 



428 THE PROPHET OUT OF TEMPER. 

has been in vain, as happened not long ago in Salt Lake 
City. Brigham had been on a long trip through Southern 
Utah, endeavoring to establish the "United Order of 
Enoch," with but indifferent success, it must be confessed, 
in consequence of which he was in anything but good hu- 
mor with his "rebellious people." 

On his return he was met at the station by thousands of 
his people, who had gathered in unusual numbers, and 
with unusual display, to meet him. As he stepped from 
the car, cheers arose from the mass of people, the band 
played, and "all eyes were turned on him, anxiously watch- 
ing for a recognition. What was their surprise and chagrin 
to see him step from the car to his carriage, enter it, close 
the door, and drive away without the slightest notice of 
their presence, seemingly oblivious to everything about him ! 

The Saints returned to their homes feeling exceedingly 
hurt and grieved, but the next Sabbath their Prophet en- 
deavored to soothe their outraged feelings and smooth mat- 
ters over with them, in the following "explanation : " 

"Brethren and sisters, you may have felt hurt at my not 
recognizing your greeting on my arrival. If so, I am 
sorry ; but I had just had an attack of rheumatiz in my 
left foot." 

The apology was accepted ; there was nothing else to be 
done. The Prophet had made what he considered the 
proper amende, though some of the brethren were so irrev- 
erent as to remark afterwards that they " guessed the ' rheu- 
matiz ' was in his temper," on account of his failure to gull 
the people with his last " effort for their spiritual " and his 
temporal " advancement." 

Usually he is in high good humor, and beams on his fol- 
lowers with the most patronizing and reassuring of smiles, 
accepting all the homage as though it were his by "divine 
right." Royalty itself could assume no more the manner 
of receiving only what it is entitled to, than this ex-glazier, 
who used to work for " six bits " a day, and who begged 



OFF FOR A GOOD TIME. 429 

the farmer for whom he had done two half days' work to 
give him a new coat, since his old one was too "rusty" to 
go on a preaching tour in, and the " spirit " had suddenly 
called him from the haying field to a Methodist meeting in 
the neighboring town. 

While on his journeys, he is always taken to the best house 
in the place, and everything is done for his comfort ; his fol- 
lowers are taken by other residents of the town, a dance is 
given in the evening, which takes the place of the usual 
" reception " elsewhere ; he is serenaded by the bands and 
parties of singers, and all night the militia keep sentry 
about his headquarters. Altogether it is quite a gay thing 
to go visiting the settlements, and no one likes it better than 
the Prophet himself. It is the grand event of the year to 
the Saints, and they make such extensive preparations for 
the occasion, that many of them have to "live very close," 
as they express it, for months afterwards. 

As a matter of course, I helped "welcome the President" 
to Cottonwood ; so did all the family ; and, as we were all 
old friends, we were glad to see him personally, as well as 
spiritually, my mother especially being overjoyed, for there 
was always the warmest friendship between them; indeed, 
their friendship dated back to the days before they went to 
Kirtland. At Nauvoo they had been next door neighbors, 
and he used to be very fond of playing with the "baby." 
Since then he had helped the " baby " to escape from a do- 
mestic thraldom which was harder than she could endure, 
and she was grateful to him accordingly. I think neither 
mother nor daughter would have joined so heartily in the 
welcome, had they known what misery the visit was to 
bring. 

The Sunday services are always largely attended, and 
as no house is sufficiently capacious to hold all who assem- 
ble to listen to the Prophet, the meetings are held in the 
" Bowery," which is a sort of improvised tabernacle, with 
open sides, and roofed over .with branches of trees. He 



430 



OVERHAULING THE SAINTS. 



usually makes this the occasion for reprimanding the people 
for their sins, dwelling particularly on the extravagance of 
women in dress, and the habit, among some of the men, of 
whiskey-drinking. He came out very strong this time, and 
the poor Cottonwood Saints were exposed to a merciless 
fusillade from the Prophet's tongue. He was more than usu- 
ally denunciatory and scathing, and he made this the occa- 
sion for abusing Mr. Howard, the owner of the distillery. 
After he had got well warmed up, he said Howard had not 
a cent in the world which he had not given him, and added, 




BRIGHAM PREACHING AT SOUTH COTTONWOOD. 



w I even gave the poor, mean scapegrace the very land he 
lives on." 

This was more than Howard could bear, even from his 
Prophet, and he jumped to his feet, excitedly shouting, 

"It isn't so, and you know it isn't. I bought the land of 
you, and gave you twelve hundred dollars for it." 

" You lie ! " roared Brigham ; " I gave it to you." 

"Yes, for twelve hundred dollars," was Howard's reply. 

"I never got a cent for it," screamed Brigham. 

"You're the liar, and you know it," retorted Howard. 

I don't know how long this Sabbath-day quarrel would 



THE PROPHET'S BAD MEMORY. 431 

have lasted, had not Brigham happened to think it was a 
little out of order, and also to discover that Howard, who 
was in a great rage by this time, was bound to have the 
last word. He stopped the dispute, and, turning to the 
congregation, said, 

" Is there no one who will remove that man from this 
place?" 

Instantly ten or fifteen men started to their feet, and 
rushed towards the offender; but a man named Van Etten, 
being much nearer to him than any of the others, reached 
him first, and led him out of meeting ; so there was no 
opportunity for any of the others to exercise their zeal in 
the Prophet's behalf. At the close of the services, Brig- 
ham publicly thanked Brother Van Etten, and called him 
"the only friend in the congregation." 

The following Sabbath, the party were at Willow Creek 
holding meeting, and as what he was pleased to term 
" Howard's insult " was rankling in his memory, he could 
not refrain from referring to it in his sermon, which he did 
in the following truthful manner : 

" I was never so insulted in my life as I was at Cotton- 
wood last Sabbath. I called seven or eight times for some 
of the brethren to lead Howard out, and not a man re- 
sponded but Brother Van Etten. I know how it is ; you 
and they are all bought with Howard's whiskey." 

Now, the news of the encounter had reached Willow 
Creek before the Prophet and his party, and nearly every 
one present knew that Brigham had only called once for 
his opponent to be taken away, and that his call had been 
f promptly responded to. But they attributed his misstatement 
to the Prophet's bad memory. They knew, too, that none 
of them were bought with Howard's whiskey ; but perhaps 
Brigham thought they were, and it was only "one of his 
slight mistakes ; " so they let it go for what it was worth, 
and the Prophet felt better after venting his ill-temper. 

It was soon after this that Howard was sent on the mis- 



432 BRIGHAM'S THIEVING FRIEND. 

sion that has been referred to in a previous chapter. Van 
Etten's fortune was made from that moment. The Proph- 
et's heart was full of blessings for him, and found vent in 
the following benediction : 

"The Lord will bless you, Brother Van Etten, for so no- 
bly coming forward in my defence. You are the only man 
out of several thousand that paid any attention to the insults 
I received. I want you to understand that/from this time I 
am your friend." 

The Cottonwood Saints were very much surprised at 
Brigham's warmth, for Van Etten was well known as a 
worthless, dissipated character, and if Brother Brigham 
found any good in him, it was more than anyone else had 
succeeded in doing. 

The Prophet and Van Etten were ever after bosom 
friends ; let the latter do what he would, Brigham would 
shield him from all difficulty. One instance of this protec- 
tion of his -protege came directly under my notice. Van 
Etten stole a hundred sheep from my brother, who prose- 
cuted him for it. When the trial came on, the evidence 
was as clear as possible against him ; yet Brigham con- 
trolled the whole affair, and his " friend " was released. 
All who knew the facts concerning the case were aston- 
ished that even Brigham should do sjdch a very unjust 
thing as to clear him ; but at that time the Saints did not 
dare to criticise the Prophet's actions as they do now, and 
all they said was, "There probably is something good 
about Van Etten that Brigham has discovered which we 
were unable to see." * 

Finally, the Prophet's intimate friend took several thou- 
sand head of sheep to herd for different parties, and a 
short time after, the owifers heard that he had left the coun- 
try ; they went instantly to look after their sheep, but not a 
trace of them could they find. Van Etten, sheep and all, 
were gone, and they never returned again to the "Valley 
of Ephraim." It was afterwards found that he was in 



UNDER FIRE OF BRIGHAM's EYES. 433 

Canada ; he also was in debt nine thousand dollars at the 
co-operative store* Brigham's pet institution. I never heard 
Brigham say whether he missed his friend or not ; in fact, 
he never mentioned him after this last escapade. 

I had noticed, during the morning service, that memora- 
ble Sunday at Cottonwood, that Brigham looked often at me ; 
but I thought nothing more of it than that mine was a very 
familiar face, and consequently he was drawn towards it 
for that reason. Still there were others in the congrega- 
tion that he knew ; so mine was not the only face he looked 
at for recognition. I began to be a little uneasy under his 
scrutiny. I thought that possibly there was something 
about my appearance that displeased him. Possibly he did 
not approve of my dress. I knew he considered himself per- 
fectly at liberty to criticise any sister's dress when he felt 
so inclined, arid I did not know but I was to be the subject 
of his next outbreak. That he was not looking at me indif- 
ferently or carelessly I knew very well, from the bent brows 
and keen gaze that I felt was making the most complete 
scrutiny, and I wished he would look somewhere else. I 
fidgeted about in my seat, I looked at my little boy who 
was sitting beside me~, and pretended to arrange some arti- 
cle of his clothingT I did everything but to jump up and 
run away, and I even wanted to do that, to get out of the 
reach of those sharp eyes, and that steady, unflinching gaze. 
I am sure he saw my discomfort ; but he was pitiless, and 
all the while the speaking was going on he scarcely turned 
his eyes from me a moment. I tried to be unconscious, to, 
look in every direction except his, but the steady eyes 
would always bring mine back again in spite of myself. I 
felt his power then as I never had felt it before, and I 
began to understand a little how it was that he compelled 
so many people to do his will, against their own inclina- 
tions r I learned the lesson better still subsequently. 

After the services he came up to me and greeted me very 
cordially. I was surprised, for he hacj been so ruffled over 
28 

I 



434 "MAY i WALK HOME WITH you?" 

the Howard matter that I did not expect he would regain 
his spirits so easily. . 

"Are you well?" said he. 

"As you see," I replied, laughing, and looking up at 
him. 

" May I walk home with you ? " 

"If you wish ; I should be much pleased," said I. I was 
pleased, too, for I knew that in bringing him home with me 
I should be conferring the greatest happiness on my mother. 
He took my little boy's hand, and led him along, and as 
he looked down at him, he said, 

" A pretty child. What are you going to do with him? " 

"Make a good man of him, if possible," was my reply. 

"A better one than his father proved to be, I trust." 

" God grant it, else he will not be much of a comfort to 
me," said I, the tears starting to my eyes. 

"You are very much improved since you left Mr. Dee," 
said he ; " do you know it? You are a very pretty woman." 

"Thank you," said I, laughing, yet embarrassed at this 
wholesale fashion of complimenting ; " if you can only tell 
me I am a good woman, I should like that, too." 

" Yes, you are that, I believe, and a good mother ; and 
you were a good wife, only that foolish fellow didn't have 
the sense to half appreciate you." 

"Thank you again. I don't know that I can take all 
you tell me, since I am not sure that I deserve such high 
praise." 

" You are your mother's girl ; there can be but one con- 
clusion to draw from that. But tell me about yourself; are 
you happy ? " 

"Very," said I, earnestly. "I never was happier in my 
life." 

" What makes you specially happy just now ? " 

" O, my children, my mother, my quiet life, after all the 
trial and weary struggling to make the best out of the very 
worst." 



A MATRIMONIAL CONTROVERSY. 435 

" Then you don't regret your divorce ? " 

" Indeed I do not ; and now, Brother Young, let me thank 
you for your kindness in helping me to regain my freedom, 
and above all to keep my children. You must be content 
with gratitude, for I can repay you in no other way." 

He looked at me a moment ; a peculiar smile flitted across 
his face ; he opened his lips as if to say something ; closed 
them again ; looked at me more scrutinizingly than ever ; 
turned away, and was silent for a moment. Then he asked 
me, quite abruptly, 

" I suppose you have had offers of marriage since your 
separation from Mr. Dee." 

"Yes, many," I replied, answering his question very 
frankly, as I did not suspect that he had any motive in 
questioning me, except a friendly interest ; and I was as 
honest in my confidences to him as I should have been 
with my father. 

" Do you feel inclined to accept any of them ? " was his 
next question. 

"No, not in the slightest degree ; none of them move me 
in the least." 

" And you haven't a preference for any of the suitors ? " 

" I assure you, no." 

" Never had the slightest inclination to say ' yes ' to any 
offer that has been made ? " 

" Not a bit of inclination ; all my lovers have had a rival 
affection to contend with." 

"For whom?" was the question, quick and sudden, as if 
intending to take me by surprise by its abruptness. 

I laid my hand on my boy's head. " For him, and for 
the other dear child that God gave me ; I can have no room 
for other love while I have them to care for. They fill my 
heart exclusively, and I am so glad and happy because of 
- it, that I should be jealous if I saw the least hint of regard 
for anyone creeping in. I couldn't love anybody else ; I 
wouldn't." 



436 BRIGHAM GIVES ME SOME ADVICE. 

" Then you think you will never be induced to marry?" 

"Never in my life," I said, vehemently. 

Brigham laughed a little, and replied, " I have heard a 
very great many girls talk that way before." 

"Yes, but I am not a girl ; I am a woman ; a woman, too, 
with hard, bitter experiences ; a woman who has lost faith 
in mankind, and hasn't much faith in matrimony ; a mother, 
too, who will not give her children a rival." 

"No, but you might give them a protector." 

"They don't need it; my love is sufficient protection. 
Besides, they are boys, and will be my protectors in a few 
years. So, you see, I do not need to marry for protection 
for myself or them." 

"But supposing it were shown to be a duty." 

"It can't be. I should not recognize a duty of that kind. 
I consider myself old enough, and sufficiently experienced, 
to judge of my duties without any assistance." 

He bent his eyes on me again with a keen, questioning 
look, and said, very kindly, " Child, child, I fear you are 
very headstrong. Don't let your will run away with you." 

" No danger," I replied ; " it is not crossed often enough 
to make it very assertive." 

"A spoiled child, eh?" , 

"Possibly. My will seems to be everybody's way at 
home." 

" Well, my child, I want to give you a little advice. I 
have known you all your life, and have had an interest in 
you from your birth. Indeed, you seem like one of my 
own family, you were always in and out so much with my 
children ; and I am going to speak to you as I would to 
one of my girls. You will probably marry again, some 
time, though you say now you won't." 

"No," I interrupted ; "I shall not marry. I mean what I 
say when I tell you so." 

"Yes, I know it ; but you will ; now mark my words, and 
see if you don't." 



A QUEER WAY OF LOVE-MAKING. .437 

"Well, don't feel so sure that you send somebody after 
me," said I, slyly hitting him for his known propensity for 
" counselling " the brethren to take certain sisters as plural 
wives. 

"You needn't be afraid of my sending anybody. I 
promise you I won't do that," was his answer. 

" Good ; then I shall not be obliged to say 'no ' to them, 
and so, perhaps, hurt your feelings as well as mortify 
them," said I. 

" Still, I believe that you will marry again some time. It 
is in the nature of things that you should. Women of your 
age, and your looks, don't stay single all their lives ; not a 
bit of it. Now, my advice is this : when you do marry, 
select some man older than yourself. It doesn't make so 
much difference whether you're in love with him, if you 
can respect him and look up to him for counsel. Respect 
is better than romance, any day. You've tried the one, 
now give the other a chance. You didn't succeed so well 
with the other experiment that you care to try that over 
again, I know. You had your own way, too, if I remem- 
ber rightly. It wasn't such a smooth one as you thought it 
was going to be. I knew you was doing the wrong thing 
when I saw the man. I could have told you so, but you 
didn't ask my advice. Now I'm giving it to you without 
asking, for I don't want you to make another mistake. So, 
when you choose again, remember what I say, and get a 
husband whom you can look to for good advice." 

We had reached home by that time, and I thanked him 
for his interest, and promised to heed his advice if I found 
it necessary ; but I was sure I should not, for I was firm in 
my determination not to marry. 

I had no idea at all of Brigham's real object in thus 
sounding me, and drawing me out. It never occurred to me 
that he could want me for himself. I should just as soon 
have thought of receiving an offer of marriage from my 
own father, or to have heard that he (Brigham) was going 



438 THE PROPHET ON HIS GOOD BEHAVIOR. 

to marry one of his own daughters. Then I knew, too, 
that there had been a great deal said in the outside world 
respecting the practice of polygamy among the Saints, and 
I thought, from conversations I had heard, that the United 
States Congress had taken some action in the matter, and 
that he, being the Head of the Church, was watched pretty 
closely by government officials. Then he was so old, 
much older than my father, that the thought, had it pre- 
sented itself, would have been scouted as absurd. I re- 
peated the conversation to my mother, who seemed amused 
by it, but did not give any more serious thought to it than I 
had done. 

Brigham was uncommonly jovial that day, and made 
himself particularly agreeable. He was unusually gracious 
to my father, revived old memories, and joked with my 
mother; petted and praised the children, and was very pa- 
ternal in his manner to me. He showed himself, altogether, 
in his very best light, and made his visit very pleasant. 

During the afternoon service he studied me in the same 
way that he had in the morning ; and several times, when I 
caught his eye, he looked quite amused. I supposed he 
was thinking of our conversation at noon, and was much 
more at my ease than I had been in the early part of the 
day during the first service. 

After service in the afternoon, Brigham told my father 
that he wished to see him on important business. They 
were closeted together for two hours, talking very earnestly. 
I supposed it had to do with church matters, as my father 
was one of the leading men in South Cottonwood, and had 
been so long a prominent member of the Mormon Church 
that it was by no means strange that Brigham had so much 
to say to him. I thought, possibly, they might be discuss- 
ing the Howard affair ; but beyond that I thought nothing. 
I certainly had no idea that I was the siibje.r.t nn^er_discus- 
sion ; thaTliiy future was being planned for me without any 
regard to my will in the matter. Had I known it, I should 



HK WANTS TO MARRY ME. 439 

by no means have gone about my duties with such a light 
heart, nor frolicked so gaily with mv children. 

At the end of the two" hours my mother was called into 
the room, and the discussipn was resumed. After a short 
time all came out. Brigham went away, bidding us all good-~ 
bye with much cordiality, and with an added impressiveness~ 
in_his manner towards me. 

When he had gone, my father told me the subject of their 
long conversation. 

Brigham Young had proposed to him for me as a wife. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



HOW BRIGHAM YOUNG FORCED ME TO MARRY HIM. 

Brigham's Offer of Marriage. I Think the Prophet Too Old. My 
Parents are Delighted with the Honor. They Try to Persuade Me. 
I am Very Obstinate. Arguing the Matter. How Brigham Found 
Means to Influence Me. My Brothers get into Trouble. The 
Prophet and the Telegraph-Poles. He Takes a Nice Little Contract. 
Then Sells it to His Son. Bishop Sharp Makes a Few Dollars Out 
of- It. My Brother Engages in the Work. He Becomes Involved in 
Debts and Difficulties. Brigham Threatens to Cut Him Off for Dis- 
honesty. My Mother Tries to Excuse Him. Hemmed In on All 
Sides, I Determine to Make One Last Appeal. I Fail, and Consent 
to Marry Him. 

ROSE to my feet shocked 
beyond expression. 

I looked from my 
father to my mother, 
hoping that they were 
merely jesting with me ; 
for I had no idea that 
what they told me could 
be true ; it was too mon- 
strous an absurdity. But 
the expression of their 
faces did not reassure 
me. I saw that they 
were in earnest ; that it 
was true; and I burst 
out into a passionate fit 

A CRUSHING BLOW. BRIGHAM WISHES TO MARRY ME. ., 

of weeping. 

My mother came to me, and took my hand and caressed 
it in her own, and my father tried to reassure me. 




BRIGHAM CONFIDENT OF SUCCESS. 44! 

"Why, my dear, what is the matter ? Are you crying 
because the Head of our Church the most powerful and 
influential man among us has made you an offer of mar- 
riage? Why, it is nothing to cry about, surely." 

But I felt that it -was something to cry over something, 
indeed, over which to shed the bitterest tears that could be 
wrung from my heart's deepest anguish. I felt outraged, 
betrayed; to think, after our conversation that very day, 
but a very few hours before, when I had told him frankly 
my reluctance and abhorrence at the very idea of marrying 
again, that he should go deliberately and propose for me, 
showed a lack of delicacy and consideration which greatly 
surprised me. It was quite evident that he looked upon my 
assertions as girlish affectation that a good offer would 
speedily overcome. He was so confident of his success with 
the women he chose to woo, that he had no idea of meeting 
any settled opposition. He had, as I afterwards learned, no 
conception of feminine delicacy or sensitiveness ; laughed at 
it as ridiculous, and called the women who exhibited it " sen- 
timental fools." I had nothing to hope from his mercy, but 
I did not know it then. When my first passion of grief had 
spent itself, I turned to my father, still holding my mother's 
hand, and said, 

" What answer did you make him? " 

"I told him that I would lay the proposition before you, 
and tell him what your decision was. He said that he had 
talked with you on the subject of marriage, and that you 
told him no one had proposed for you whom you fancied ; 
that he was glad you were not easily pleased and suited 
with every new-comer, for he intended to place you in a 
position where you would be vastly the social superior of all 
your present lovers." 

"Didn't he tell you that I said I never should marry 
again ? that my life was to be devoted to my chil- 
dren ? " 

"Yes; he said you mentioned something of that sort, but 



44 2 " I CANNOT, CANNOT MARRY HIM ! " 

that he didn't take any stock in it ; all girls talked so ; it was 
their way of playing the coquette ; he understood it, and he 
liked you better for your coyness." 

"I told him decidedly," I replied, "that I was a girl no 
longer, but a woman, who knew her own mind, who had 
arrived at the ability to make her own decisions through 
terrible suffering ; that the thought of marriage was dis- 
tasteful to me. I wonder if he needs to be told more plainly? 
If so, you may go to him, since you told him you should 
leave the decision with me, and tell him that I say to him, 
No, as I have said it to all my other suitors, and that I do 
not even thank him for the position he intended to confer 
upon me, for he knew I did not want it. Does he think I 
have escaped one misery to wish to enter another? ' Posi- 
"\vondeT what lie thinks there is particularly fine' 
a p[ijgjjvjfr even to Brigham Young? I have 
not seen so much happiness in the system, even amongjiis 
wives, that I care to enter it. And I never, never can." 

My father interrupted me. "You are excited, now, my 
daughter. Be calm, and think the matter over reasonably. 
Don't decide in this hasty manner." 

" I might think it over, reasonably, as you call it, for the 
rest of my life, and the conclusion I should arrive at would 
be the same. I never will, of my free will and accord, 
marry Brigham Young ; and you might as well tell him so 
at once, and have the matter settled." 

" But, my dear child," said my mother, stroking my hair 
fondly, and looking at me with anxious eyes, " suppose it 
was your duty ? " 

"O, mother, mother! have you turned against me, too? 
Am I to fight you all, single-handed, alone? Won't you, 
at least, stand by me?" 

" I would, gladly, my only, my darling daughter, if I was 
sure that it would be right." 

"Do you doubt the right of it? Can you doubt it? Or 
do you think it would not be wrong to stifle all natural 



MY PARENTS AGAINST ME. 443 

feelings, all aversion to another union, above all, to him? 
Would it be right, do you think, to give myself to a man 
older than my father, from whom I shrink with aversion 
when I think of him as my husband, who is already the 
husband of many wives, the father of children older, by 
many years, than myself?" 

" But he is your spiritual leader." 

" That is no reason why he should be my earthly hus- 
band. I cannot see what claim that gives him to my affec- 
tion." 

"The doctrines of our church teach you to marry." 

"Do you want to get rid of me?" I asked, suddenly, 
raising my head and looking her full in the face. I dared 
not enter into religious discussion with her, for I felt so 
bitterly that I should be sure to say something to shock her ; 
and then I knew that,. in argument, I should be fairly 
worsted ; so I made my appeal on personal grounds, and 
touched her heart, as I was sure I should. She threw both 
arms about me, and sobbed as violently as I had done. 

"You know I do not. How can you say that? I was 
only saying what I did, because I thought it was for your 
good here and hereafter. Did P consult my own feelings, 
no one should have you except myself; but I think of your 
welfare before my selfish desires." 

"6, mother, I can't, I can't/' I cried in a sudden 
agony, as the thought of all such a marriage involved, 
rushed across me. 

" Don't fret so, child," said my father, speaking for the 
first time since my mother had joined in the conversation. 
"I will tell Brother Brigham how you feel, and perhaps he 
will give up the idea. But he seemed to have set his heart 
on it, and I don't know how he'll take it." 

"Why, I belong to you, father. Tell him so, and that 
you can't give me away to anybody." 

My father smiled a little at me, grew grave again, and 
went away. 



444 



A YEAR OF ANGUISH AND TORTURE. 



He told Brigham how averse I was ; and he only laughed, 
and said I should get over it, if I only had time. He would 
not give me up, but he would not hasten matters ; he would 
leave me in my parents' hands, and he hoped they would 
induce me to listen favorably to his proposals. The last 
remark was made with a peculiar emphasis and a sinister 
smile, which every Saint who had had dealings with him 
knew very well, and whose meaning they also knew. It 
meant, " Do as I command you, or suffer the weight of my 
displeasure." He sent a message to me, which, though 
seemingly kind, contained a covert threat ; and I began to 
feel the chains tightening around me already. I felt sure 
that I could not free myself, but I would struggle to the 
end. 

Thus began a year of anguish and torture. I fought 
against my fate in every possible way. Brigham was 
equally persistent, and he tried in every way to win me, a 
willing bride, before he attempted to coerce me. He told 
my parents, and myself, too, that he had always had great 
interest in me, and had intended to propose for me so soon 

as I was old enough ; that 
when he sent for me to the 
theatre, and proposed my 
being at the Lion House, it 
was that I might become 
familiar with the place and 
its inmates, and so not feel 
strange when he should bring 
me there as a wife. It had 
been his intention to have pro- 
posed for me then; but he 
had just married Amelia, and 
it had made such a hue-and- 
cry among the Gentiles, es- 
pecially as he had taken her directly in the face of the late 
congressional law against polygamy, that he did not think it 




CHAUNCEY G. WEBB. 
["My Fatli^r."] 



MORE INFLUENCES BROUGHT TO BEAR. 



445 



wise to add another to the list just then ; so he said nothing 
of his intentions, and before he knew anything of my en- 
gagement, I was ready to be married. It was a great 
shock to him ; but as matters had gone so far, and as he 
was in such a questionable position before the government, 
he thought it best not to interfere, as he most assuredly 
would, had he known my intentions earlier. Now I was 
free, and he was at liberty to tell me, what he had wanted 
to tell me long before, that he loved me. 

Finding that this declaration of affection failed to move 
me, he tried another tack. He asked my father, if a house 
and a thousand dollars a year would make me comfortable, 
as he wished to settle something on me when I married 
him, taking for granted that I should do so. 

My mother and father both favored his suit, and labored 
with me to induce me to view it in the same light. Brig- 
ham was our spiritual guide ; it might be that in refusing 
him I should lose all hopes 
of future salvation. That 
was my mother's plea. My 
father's was, that Brigham 
was able to hurt him pecun- 
iarily. And then came my 
oldest brother, who added 
his influence in Brigham's 
favor by telling me that Brig- 
ham had it in his power to 
ruin him, and was very angry 
with him, and had threatened 
to " cut him off from the 
church," which was, to a 
person in his position, the 
happen. 

The trouble between them was of Brigham's own mak- 
ing, and I will give it, as briefly as I can, to show how 
I3righam managed to get everything out ofKis people' 




ELIZA C. WEBB, 
[Mv Mother.] 



very worst thing that could 



446 THE PROPHET'S LITTLE CONTRACT. 

without paying for it, and, at the same time, show the 
amount of honor which he has v in business matters. 

In 1860 the first telegraph line was extended from the 
Atlantic States to the Pacific, passing through Salt Lake 
City. Feramorz Little, a nephew of the President, took a 
contract to furnish about one hundred and fifty miles of 
poles, at three dollars each. According to Brigham's state- 
ment, Little was unable to fill the contract until the Prophet 
came to the rescue, and secured three dollars and a quarter 
each, by furnishing one hundred miles of sawed poles, 
although, in truth, the sawed timber was not so good as 
common round poles. 

Six years later, a rival company commenced putting up 
a new line. Brigham negotiated for a contract, and suc- 
ceeded in securing nearly eight hundred miles, extending 
from Denver City westward, at the very gratifying price 
of eight dollars a pole. It is very generally believed that 
Brigham and one of the new company had a previous un- 
derstanding to divide the profits on this magnificent job. 

He then sub-let the whole contract to Bishop John Sharp 
and Joseph A. Young, his eldest son, who has recently 
died, at three dollars a pole ; and my brother Gilbert took 
about four hundred and fifty miles from Green River to 
Denver at the very reasonable price of two dollars and a 
half a pole. He was then the owner of ten freight wag- 
ons, with six mules to each wagon ; but, in order to fill his 
contract, he found himself compelled to purchase six addi- 
tional teams, at a cost of seven thousand dollars, which, 
with tools, provisions, and general outfit, increased the sum- 
to nearly eleven thousand dollars, which he was obliged to 
borrow, paying a very heavy interest five per cent, a 
month ; but that, of course, was his own fault, not the 
Prophet's. 

Brigham was anxious to have the work done immedi- 
ately, which is not at all strange when one remembers 
that he would make five dollars on each pole, and fr~ 



HIS ARRANGEMENT WITH MY BROTHER. 447 

had sent for my brother, and urged him to take the job, 
telling him that he knew of no one so suitable, for Gilbert 
had such a fine business reputation ; adding that he was 
certain that the blessing of God would rest upon him, for 
it was His will that all the Saints should accumulate riches. 
After all this, and very much more talk of the same kind, 
Gilbert was induced to take the contract, my father giving 
security for the borrowed money. 

My brother left Salt Lake City with his outfit as early as 
the snow would permit him to cross the mountains. When 
he had got his wagons loaded with poles for the first time, 
Brigham telegraphed for him to stop work and return 
to the city. He immediately complied with the order, and 
found, on his. arrival, that there was a prospect of the new 
company compromising with the old, and putting up no 
line. They now desired to buy off all contracts. Brigham 
would clear on the contract one hundred thousand dollars, 
if the line was put up, and of course could compromise for 
no less. Sharp and Joseph A. wanted forty thousand 
dollars, and my brother ten thousand, if they gave up the 
contract. Brigham said that, in justice, Gilbert ought to 
have twenty thousand dollars, to pay the expenses of the 
delay, &c. 

Of course it was cheaper to put up the line than to com- 
promise at this cost, and he returned to his work, having 
lost twelve days. His expenses at this time were about one 
hundred dollars a day. He had thirty men employed, at 
sixty dollars a month and their board, and he also had 
grain to furnish for one hundred mules. Brigham prom* 
ised to pay for all this delay, but as usual he failed 
to do so. 

My brother than began to furnish the poles, and suc- 
ceeded in delivering about twenty-five miles a week. For 
two months he received his pay quite regularly, and every- 
thing went on swimmingly. When he was about one hun- 
dred miles from Denver, having completed about three 



448 A SHARP PIECE OF BUSINESS. 

hundred and fifty miles, he was sent for to give up his con- 
tract on the eastern line, and take a contract on the north- 
ern line instead. That was between Utah and Montana. 
Gilbert was much averse to the change, as he had finished 
the most difficult portion of his work, and passed through 
where the timber is the least accessible. But Brigham in- 
sisted, and wrote, promising to make it all right with him 
if he would come back, and go up north, and furnish one 
hundred miles or more of poles. Finally he sent Joseph 
A. down to my brother, who succeeded in persuading him 
to return. 

While on his way back, he met Mr. E. Creighton, the 
superintendent of the line, with a company of men, setting 
the poles which he had furnished. Being desirous of giv- 
ing thorough satisfaction, he sent Mr. Lorenzo Ensign, 
with three teams, loaded with good poles, to exchange for 
any poor timber which did not satisfy. Those teams con- 
tinued with the pole-setters until Mr. Creighton sent them 
back, remarking that he did not find it necessary to change 
one pole a day, and that he was entirely satisfied with the 
timber. I mention this because Brigham afterwards said 
that the contract was not well filled, and made this an 
excuse for not paying my brother. Those three teams 
remained with the pole-setters about four weeks, and, as I 
before said, were dismissed by one of the owners of the line. 

Gilbert returned home in August, and, on starting for the 
north, Joseph A. asked him to set the poles that he should 
furnish on the Montana line, at the same time agreeing to 
pay him a dollar apiece for setting, and three dollars for the 
poles. That was fifty cents more than he received on the 
eastern line, but it would scarcely pay him for a move of six 
hundred miles, to a country where timber was in very high 
mountains and rough canons. 

Removing from the east of course broke the original 
contract ; but as Gilbert had all the confidence in the world 
in the word of Brigham and of Joseph A., he neglected to 



" HUNT UP SHARP AND JOSEPH A. 449 

make a new written agreement. After he had furnished 
the poles for about one hundred miles, my younger brother 
who was farming at the time took his team, and, after 
hiring six men, went to set the poles, paying his men two 
dollars a day and their board. They worked four weeks, 
for which they never received one dollar. 

When my youngest brother was about leaving for home, 
Gilbert gave him an order on Sharp and Young for one 
thousand dollars. While Gilbert was in the East he had 
sent orders for money every month for my youngest brother 
to collect and disburse. Those orders were promptly paid, 
and he had no thought that this one would not be paid as 
promptly. He called at Brigham's office, and presented the 
order, and was curtly informed by Brigham that he must 
" hunt up Sharp and Joseph A." 

On inquiring for their office, it could not be found. The 
day following he chanced to meet Bishop Sharp, who re- 
ferred him to Joseph A. He called at the latter's residence 
three times without seeing him ; finally, four days after, my 
brother succeeded in meeting him in his father's office. He 
was told to sit down in the outer room, where he was left 
alone for two hours ; then he was called into the private 
office, and told that there was no money for him. 

" But," said he to Brigham and Joseph A., "I must have 
the money ; I have ten men who have already been waiting 
five days for their pay, and I am still paying them, or am 
under obligation to do so, and their board in the city also ; 
and none of this can be done without money." 

After a little more consultation Brigham said, "We can 
give you a draft on New York, which you can cash with 
some of the bankers or merchants in the city. 

My brother then asked for time to inquire on what terms 
he could cash the draft ; but was told that merchants would 
often pay a percentage on such paper, and that it was 
always as good as money. He then asked, if he was obliged 
to have it discounted, if Sharp and Young would lose the 
29 



450 MY BROTHER RUINED BY BRIGHAM. 

amount, but was told that he need not be so particular, for 
he must take the draft or nothing, .since they had no money. 
He took it then, as he saw very plainly that they did not 
intend to give him anything else, and presented it to every 
banker and merchant in Salt Lake City, but could find no 
one who would take it. On a second call at Walker 
Brothers', he succeeded in cashing it at three per cent dis- 
count. Meeting Joseph A. afterwards, he told him he 
should charge him with the thirty dollars. Joe replied, "All 
right ; " yet neither he nor Gilbert ever received another dol- 
lar from them, though they were in the boys' debt two 
thousand dollars. 

When Gilbert returned from the North he found it diffi- 
cult to pay his men, and also to meet his other expenses. 
He spent the winter trying to get his pay, during which my 
younger brother, Edward, took the teams and went to Cali- 
fornia for freight, hoping by that means to save Gilbert from 
bankruptcy. The trip not proving successful, the spring of 
'67 opened very dark for us financially. Gilbert saw no 
way but to sell his teams. I remember his coming home 
one night, feeling extremely dejected, and telling us he had 
sold sixteen of his best mules for less than half the amount 
he had paid for them, and expected the remainder to go at 
a still lower price. 

In the spring of 1868 he was forced into bankruptcy by 
Captain Hooper, one of his principal creditors. This same 
Captain William H. Hooper had the good fortune to be one 
of the Prophet's favorites, although he was by no means a 
Mormon at heart, and Brigham knew it ; still, as he liked 
him, and as Hooper made sufficient pretence to pass for one, 
it was all right. 

When Gilbert delivered up his papers to the assignees, 
they readily discovered a large indebtedness on the part of 
Sharp and Young. At a meeting of the creditors, Brig- 
ham, who took the responsibility of the whole affair, under- 
took to have everything his own way, and, as my younger 



IN A FEARFUL, RAGE. 45! 

brother remarked, "literally rode over the whole company 
rough-shod." Among other statements, he said, 

" Gilbert Webb's poles were many of them condemned," 
which was utterly false. He then said he had never writ- 
ten to Gilbert while he was East. In face of this the let- 
ter was produced and read before the company. He then 
said he was sure he had no recollection of it, and asked 
George Q;. Cannon who was his clerk at that time if he 
remembered it. Cannon replied that he believed he did. 
Previous to this, when Gilbert saw that he must lose every- 
thing, he considered it his duty to pay off his men, also to 
pay the notes which my father had signed, and to save him 
from utter ruin. At this Brigham's rage knew no bounds ; 
he wanted Hooper to have his pay first. One of Gilbert's 
creditors was a Mr. Kerr, a Gentile banker, whom he paid 
without consulting the Prophet, which greatly enraged him. 
In speaking of it to my mother, he manifested all the 
growling propensities of an old " cur ; " saying that Gilbert 
had paid all the notes due to Gentiles, and left his friend 
Hooper to take his chance with the rest of the creditors, and 
he intended to disfellowship him for it. 

This was when he was " counselling " my parents to use 
their influence with me in his behalf. 

"If you do that, Brother Young," said my mother, "I 
shall find it very hard to forgive you ; although Gilbert may 
have erred in judgment, he designed to do right. Would 
you, President Young, like to have his father ruined in the 
crash? The notes held by Mr. Kerr were signed by him." 
He said, w If his father signed the notes, he ought to pay 
them.* 5 

"Well," replied my mother, with considerable spirit, "if 
Gilbert had been paid for his work, he would have been 
able to have paid all his debts." 

He was very angry at this, and said, " What do you 
know about business, I'd like to know?" 

" I know enough to know when my children are ill-used 



452 



A SPIRITED CONTEST. 



and cheated, Brigham Young," said she, quickly. "I 
wonder how you would like to have one of your sons cut 
off from the church, and treated in the manner in which you 
have treated Gilbert." 

" I should think it perfectly right if one of my boys had 
done wrong and needed punishment." Yet it is well known 
that there are no more unprincipled men in the Territory 
than his eldest sons ; but there never have been the slightest 
signs of their being disfellowshipped. 




BRIGHAM'S STORMY INTERVIEW WITH MY MOTHER. 



After a still more spirited contest with my mother, the 
Prophet took his departure in a great rage, saying he 
should see if " Gilbert would pay his Gentile debts in pref- 
erence to paying the brethren." 

AlHhis was forjhe_2urpose of influencing me, and I saw 
that I must yield. There was nothing butruin in storg'for 
usjt_j. persisted in my refusal. ^THjTloss ot property wa"5"- 
by no meansso dreadful a tHjngto^ mvbrother -broujKru 
to believe that there was no salvation outside oTMormonism 



ONE LAST APPEAL. 453 

as being cut off from the church and receiving the Prophet's 
curse, and he was heart-broken at the prospect. 

I made up my mind to make one last appeal myself to 
Brigham Young, and see if I could not touch his heart and 
induce him to resign his claims to me, and not to punish my 
family because I could not bring myself to become his wife. 
I was sure that I could move him. I would make myself 
so humble, so pathetic, before him. I would do all I could 
to serve him. I would never forget his kindness to me ; 
but I could not marry him without bringing great unhappi- 
ness upon myself. I should also fail to bring happiness or 
comfort to him. I would be so eloquent that he could not 
refuse to listen to me. 

I went up to the city to visit a friend, quite determined to 
make this appeal to him, but my courage failed me. Two 
or three times I started to call to see him, but I would only 
get in sight of his office, and turn back faint and trembling. 
One day I saw him coming towards me in the street, and I 
determined to screw up my courage and speak to him. 
But when I reached him my tongue refused to speak the 
words, and I only faltered out a common-place greeting. 
All my eloquence was frozen under the chilling glance of 
the steely-blue eyes, which had not a ray of sympathetic 
warmth in them. No one who has ever been under his 
peculiar influence but will understand me when I say that 
in his presence I was powerless. My will refused to act, 
and I went away from him, knowing that I never could say 
to him what I felt. 

I returned home, feeling, more than ever, that my doom 1 
was fixed. My religion, my parents everything was 
urging me on to my unhappy fate, an J I had grown so 
that 1 i'elt it was easier to succumb aF 
ight any longer. I began, too, to be super- 
stitious about it ; I did not know but that I was fighting the 
will of the Lord as well as the will of the Prophet, and that 
nothing but disaster would come as long as I was so rebel- 



454 No ALTERNATIVE I MUST YIELD. 

lious. The thought struck me, in a sudden terror, " What 
if God should take my children, to punish my rebellious 
spirit?" It was agony. "Not my will, but thine," was my 
heart-broken cry, more desperate than resigned, how- 
ever, and I went to my mother and told her that I had 
decided. I would become the wife of Brigham Young ! 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

MY MARRIAGE WITH BRIGHAM YOUNG. HOW THE 
OTHER WIVES RECEIVED ME. 

The Prophet Rejoices at my Yielding. My Family Restored to Favor. 
The Webbs Reconstructed. My Prophet- Lover Comes to See 
Me. He Goes Courting " on the Sly," for Fear of Amelia. We 
are Married Secretly in the Endowment-House. I am Sent Home 
Again. Brigham Establishes Me in the City. Limited Plates and 
Dishes. We Want a Little More Food. The Prophet's " Ration- 
Day." How the Other Wives Received Me. Mrs. Amelia Doesn't 
Like Me. How the Wives of the Prophet Worry and Scold Him. 
The Prophet Breaks His Word. My Father Remembers the Thou- 
sand Dollars. 



Y acceptance of his suit 
was carried to him at 
once, and he was tri- 
umphant, although he 
did not show it, except 
by an added suavity of 
manner, and a dispo- 
sition to make jokes, 
which, of course, every- 
one was expected to 
laugh at as heartily as 
he did himself. 

My family were re- 
stored to favor, although 
my brother did not re- 
ceive his money ; and 
AMELIA TRIES TO KEEP ME OUT. everything "went merry 

as a marriage-bell " for 

everybody, except myself. I had promised to marry him, but 
I was not resigned. I still fought against it, but the conflict 
now was all internal. I did not dare admit anyone to my con- 




45 MARRIED TO BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

fidence, not even my mother. So I had to struggle alone 
with my impending fate, all the time suffering the stings of 
conscience as well ; for I thought I must be terribly wicked 
to fight so hard against what was represented to me as the 
direct will of God ; and, what was worse, I could not pray 
for forgiveness, for I could not give up my feeling of des- 
perate rebellion. 

I had an early visit from my affianced husband, and dur- 
ing that visit he told me his plans. We were to be married 
very secretly, as, he said, he wished to keep the matter 
quiet for a while, for fear of the United States' officials. I 
found out afterwards, however, that it was fear of Amelia, 
for she had raised a furious storm a few months before; 
when, as I previously said, he married Mary Van Cott, to 
whom, by the way, he was paying his addresses while he 
was wooing me, and he did not dare so soon encounter an- 
other such domestic tornado. 

He was very anxious to have the affair over as soon as 
possible ; so we were married the 7th of April, 1869, at the 
Endowment-House. Heber C. Kimball performed the cere- 
mony, and JL_^^s-4he_vvifieof the head of the Mormon 

Church ; 



ly powerful man, who_was the object of interest both in 
America and Europe ; who was regarded with a strange, 
curious interest by outsiders ; who was dreaded by his own 
people, and who ruled them with an absolute sway. I little 
thought into what publicity this new relationship would 
bring me. 

After the ceremony was over, Brigham took me back to 
my mother's house, where I was to remain for the present, 
until he should deem it prudent to let Amelia and the United 
States government know that I was his wife. Before our 
marriage, he had given me some very pretty dresses, and 
a small sum of money, as a wedding-gift; but I never 
got such a present again afterwards. After I had been his 
wife three weeks, he made me his first call ; stayed a few 



A PROPHETICAL HONEYMOON. 457 

minutes, and then went away. A few days after, he came 
and asked me to go to drive with him. I went, and he took 
me round all the by-ways where he would see few or no 
people, and where he thought there would be no danger 
that Amelia would hear of it. He did not enjoy the drive 
one bit, for he was in constant terror lest he should be dis- 
covered. He was anxious and distrait; while I, on the 
contrary, was in the highest spirits. I laughed and chatted, 
and made myself as pleasant as possible. I could afford to 
do it, for he was suffering all those torments for my sake, 
and although he had no idea that I discovered his fears, I 
did very readily, and was jubilant in proportion to his 
misery. I didn't feel specially complimented, to be sure ; 
but, as I did not desire his attentions, and was happier with- 
out them, I did not allow my pride to receive a very severe 
wound, but was exceedingly gracious to him, the more 
nervous and absorbed he got. 

I remained at home about a month, during which time, 
he said, he was having a house prepared for me in the city. 
I saw but little of him during that time, and sometimes I 
would almost forget that he had any claim upon me. Then 
I was happy indeed ; but the thought would force itself 
through everything, and I would become saddened again. 
During the year of struggle, I had lost my health again, 
and I was by no means the light-hearted, bright-eyed 
woman he had looked at so intently that memorable Sunday 
at Cottonwood. I had grown thin and languid, and had 
lost all interest in life, except in my children. I should not 
have thought that I would have proved sufficiently attractive 
to have made him persevere so in his determination to marry 
me. But I believe that, at the last, he was influenced en- 
tirely by pique and wilfulness. He would have his own 
way, and, after that, it was little matter what came. 

At last he came to me, and told me that he was ready for 
me to move into the city, and invited my mother to come and 
live with me an offer which she accepted, because she 



458 POOR LIVING AND CHEAP CROCKERY. 

did not wish to be separated from me, and not because she 
had no home of her own, or wa.s at all dependent upon him 
for support. He had wanted me to go to the Lion House to 
live ; but on that point I was decided. I would stay at my 
father's house, but I would not go there ; so he had made a 
home for me in the city. Such a home as it was ! A little 
house, the rent of which would have been extremely moder- 
ate had it been a hired house, furnished plainly, even meanly, 
when the position of the man whose wife was to occupy it 
was considered. It was the very cheapest pine furniture 
which could be bought in the city, and the crockery was 
dishes that Brigham had left when he sold the Globe bakery. 
There were very few of these, and they were in various 
stages of dilapidation. My carpet was an old one, taken 
from the Lion House parlor, all worn out in the centre, 
and, it being a large room, I took the out edges and pieced 
out enough to cover two rooms, and the other floors were 
bare. I had no window curtains of any sort, and there 
being no blinds to the house, I had to hang up sheets to 
keep people from looking in. 

I told him several times that I was insufficiently supplied ; 
but for a long time he made some excuse or other for not 
giving me more. At last he sent me a very few additional 
ones ; so that, although there was still a lack of what I ac- 
tually needed, I managed to get along by a great deal of 
contriving. 

We lived very sparely, even poorly, as did most of the 
wives, except the favorite, and one or two others, who 
asserted their rights to things, and got them after a great 
deal of insisting. I could not insist, and so I got very little. 
As I made little or no fuss, and rarely complained to him, 
he took advantage of my quiet tongue, and imposed upon 
me fearfully. He said, up to the very last of my living with 
him, that I was the least troublesome of any wife he had 
ever had ; and he should have added, the least expensive, 
for he spent but very little money for me. 



THE PROPHET'S "RATION-DAY!" 459 

I began to find out, very soon, what a position a neg- 
lected wife has, and my heart ached and longed for free- 
dom. The thraldom was worse than I had fancied, for I 
supposed that I should, at least, have had the comforts of 
life, such as I had been accustomed to ; but I was disap- 
pointed even in that. Then I felt that I was bound to this 
kind of existence for life. Tkerejwas no escape from it. I 
was shut in by every circumstance, as by a wall of ada- 
mant, and the more I struggled to get free, the worse I 
should be hurt. There was nothing to do but simply to 
endure ; to die if 1 could,~to" live if IlnusU A pleasant 
state- of rninrlj -ewrly, for? Lridr of fl 1'ew'mbnths. 

Thu pi'iiiLipal iiiLat-wfardhrtre Turnished to us was pork ; 
we had it on all occasions. Very rarely, indeed, we had a 
piece of beef ; but months would elapse between his times of 
sending it, and we got to look upon it as a very great 
luxury. He had what he called "Ration-Day" once a 
month, when the different families were given out their 
allowance for the month. This allowance for each family 
was five pounds of sugar, a pound of candles, a bar of soap, 
and a box of matches. I found this entirely inadequate, and 
so part of the time unheard-of liberality ! I was allowed 
to draw sugar twice a month. Our bread we had from the 
Prophet's bakery. Once in six months his clerk got a few 
of the commonest necessaries of life, and each of us had a 
few yards of calico, and a few yards of both bleached and 
unbleached muslin. 

I could not get anything else out of him, except by the 
hardest labor, and the little that I got was given so grudg- 1 
ingly that I hated myself for accepting it ; and many a 
time I would have thrown the pitiful amount back in his 
face, but stern necessity would compel me to accept the 
money and overlook the insult. I can scarcely look back 
to those times, now that I am so far beyond them, without a 
lowering of my self-respect ; the hot blood tingles to the 
very ends of my fingers as I recall the insults I receive^ 



460 TWO WIVES WHO WOULD NOT SPEAK TO ME. 

from that man while I was his wife, an _^ ,the nttpr_power- 
lessness of my situation, that would not let me resent 



Wfren my marriage to him was known by the other 
wives, as it was on my removal to the city, he took me to 
the Lion House, to visit the family there. I was very 
kindly received by most of them, Emmeline Free and Zina 
Huntington being especially my friends. Two of them, 
however, Eliza Burgess and Harriet Cook, would not 
speak to me. 

The latter had been a servant in my mother's family in 
Nauvoo, and Brigham had, indeed, married her from our 
house. She used to take care of me when I was a baby, 
and she was so angry when she heard that Brigham had 
married me, that she wished with all her heart that she 
had choked me when she had a good chance ; that she 
certainly would had she known what my future was to be. 
Eliza Burgess, though not the first, and never a favorite 
wife, used to be terribly exercised whenever Brigham added 
another to the family. She would go about, crying bit- 
terly, for days, and would sometimes shut herself up in her 
room, refusing to see anyone. Her sorrow was the joke 
of the family, since no member of it could see what reason 
she had for indulging in it. She had but just got over 
mourning his alliance with Mary Van Cott, when she was 
called upon to grieve over his union with me. ____ ^ 

She knew me perfectly well, as she had been a^n inmate 
of the Lion House for some years, and used to see me con- 
stantly the winter I was at the theatre, and spent so much 
of my time there ; but on the occasion of my first visit after 
my marriage, she utterly ignored my presence, and would 
neither look at me nor speak to me. Of course I noticed 
it, and I knew the reason very well. I had no hard feel- 
ings towards her, for I knew her suffering was genuine. 
She got no attention from her husband, and her starved 
heart cried out for the love that was lavished on others. 



"THERE, MADAM!" 461 

After I had gone, one of the wives Aunt Zina, I think 
it was asked why she did not speak to Ann-Eliza. 

w O," she said, "I will by-and-by, when I feel like it." 

I was in and out several times, and yet Eliza preserved 
the same demeanor towards me, until one morning she 
astonished me by coming up abruptly and saying, " Good 
morning." 

I answered her greeting, and she went away as suddenly 
as she came, but evidently quite satisfied with herself. She 
" felt like it," I presume ; had grown more reconciled to my 
position in the family ; and was willing to recognize me as 
a member of it. 

My first encounter with Amelia was somewhat amusing. 
It happened not long after my marriage. She had not got 
over her anger at her lord for taking Mary Van Cott, of 
whom, by the way, she was terribly jealous, when fuel 
was added to the fire of her fury by my introduction to the 
world as another Mrs. Young. She was terribly bitter 
towards us both, though I think she hated Mary with a 
more deadly hatred than she felt for me. I think she con- 
sidered Mary her most dangerous rival, but for all that she 
was not drawn towards me at all. It was not that she 
disliked me less, but Mary more. 

j^vvas walking one da}r.^ith a friend, and we were on 
our- way to the gardens which join the Prophet's residence, 
which are, by the way, the very finest in the city. Amelia 
'was just in front of us, and she evidently judged from our 
conversation where we were going to. She kept just about 
so far in front of us, taking no notice of me at all until she 
reached the garden gate, when she went in, shut it with a 
slam, and called out, 

"There, madam ! I'd like to see you get in now." 

I made no answer, but reaching through the gate, I 
managed, with the assistance of my friend, to open the 
gate and go in. We passed Amelia as she stood examining 
a plant, and as we passed her we did not discontinue our 



462 "WASN'T SHE JUST AWFUL?" 

conversation, but kept on laughing merrily over some girl- 
ish reminiscences which we had recalled while on the way. 
In a few minutes more we heard her scolding the head- 
gardener fearfully. As we returned, I stopped where the 
old man was, and said, 

"What is the matter, Mr. Leggett?" 

"O," said he, "it is Mrs. Amelia. Did you hear her 
scolding me just now? Wasn't she just awful? She's that 
mad because you came in, that she had to let out on some- 
body, and I suppose I came the handiest. But ain't she a 
master hand to scold, though? Why, you'd ought to hear 
her give it to me sometimes. I'm pretty well used to it, and 
don't mind very much. It's some consolation to think that 
Brother Brigham gets it worse than I do, and when he's 
round, I'm safe." 

Just once, after that, Amelia spoke to me. It is cus- 
tomary, on Brother Brigham's birthday/ for the wives to 
have a dinner in his house. It is held at the Lion House, 
and all the family assemble to do honor to its head. At 
one of these dinners Amelia sat directly opposite me, and 
during the dessert she reached the cake-basket to me, and 
with as freezing a tone and manner as she could assume, 
asked, 

"Will you have some cake?" 

I declined, #nd that ended our conversation the last, 
and indeed the only one I ever had with her, for the first 
encounter could scarcely be called a " conversation," since 
the talking was all on one side. 

She was even ruder to Mary Van Cott than to me. One 
day, while Brigham was furnishing Mary's house, he had 
taken her up to the family store in his carriage, to select 
some articles which she needed for her housekeeping. 
They had finished making their selections, and were just 
preparing to enter the carriage, when Amelia came sailing 
down upon them. She took in the position of affairs at 
once, and stepping directly between the Prophet and 



HOW MRS. AMELIA RULES HER LORD ! 



4 6 3 



Mary, elbowed them out of the way, got into the carriage, 
slammed the door, and ordered the driver to carry her 
home. The coachman hesitated a moment, looked at 
Brother Brigham, who never said a word; then at Mary, 
who was furious at the insult, but showed it only by her 
flashing eyes and deepening color ; then back to Amelia, 
who scowled at him, and repeated, "Home, I say," and 
started off, leaving the two standing together. They 
walked home, and Brother Brigham had a nice time after 
it. Amelia treated him to a lecture longer and stronger 




AMELIA'S DISPLAY OF TEMPER. 

than usual, not sparing her rival in the least, but calling her 
every sort of name she could think of that was not compli- 
mentary in character, and threatening her recreant lord with 
all sorts of torments if he went out with that w shameless 
creature " again ; while Mary felt so outraged by Amelia's 
act, 'and Brigham's cowardice in not resenting it, that he 
was obliged to use all his Jincsse to appease her wrath. 
This carriage episode reminds me of something that 



4 6 4 



WHAT THE PROPHETS WIVES ARE LIKE. 



occurred in George Q^. Cannon's family. This family is 
no more united than many others in Utah, and they have 
occasional disputes among themselves, which are not al- 
ways settled in the most amicable manner. At one time, 
two of his wives wanted the carriage at once. They would 
not use it together, and neither one would give up to the 
other. In the struggle to get possession of it, a sort of free 
fight ensued. Blows were exchanged, hair pulled, finger- 
nails used indiscriminately, and one of the women lost off her 
dress in the contest. I_think that the " apostolic " husband^ 
fails to mention these little domestic .scenes in Washington, 
jwK^v^~^~ p ^T T f[TfRtipg therejjj^m-tb^be^'it^s of Mormon- 
ism, and the_peace~~arntTjnityof the peopleTin the Territory. 
1 must say tharguuh scenes of violenclTcKriiul. often occur" 
in Brigham's family, as most of his wives feel the dignity 
of their position too much to allow the world to see any 
disagreement between them, even when it exists. There are 
some very fine women among the Prophet's wives women 
that, outside of Mormonism, would grace any social circle. 
Educated, cultivated women, who by some strange circum- 
stance have been drawn, first into the church, then into the 
Prophet's harem. I think nothing better shows the peculiar 
power which Brigham Young possesses, than a look at the 
women who are and who have been his wives. Ignorant 
as he is, coarse and vulgar _ajs_Ji-js. he hasat least suc- 
ceeclecr~~m winning women of refinement, of delicate sensi- 
bilitiesVas" wives ; and in. jnany cases it has been done' 



without the slightest attempt at coercion on his part. He~ 
had the shrewdness to select such women, and the power 
ne haTTjet-thrcr ability to augreciate them ; 



and r~EavT no hesitation m saying, from my own experi- 
ence with and knowledge of them, that more unhappy and 
wretched women do not exist in the world, than the more 
cultured* and delicate wives of Brigham Young. These 
women are rarely his favorites, and it is a mystery why he 
took them, unless it was that he might " add to his glory," 
and swell his kingdom. 



HOW " OUR v HUSBAND " DIVIDED HIMSELF. 465 

I was always treated very kindly by the other wives, with 
one or two exceptions, and I have the pleasantest and kind- 
est recollections of them all. Most of them I had known 
from my childhood, and they were old and intimate friends 
of my mother's ; and I have no doubt, had they dared to 
have done so, they would have expressed open sympathy 
for me in my trials, and I am sure in their hearts they 
respect me for the step I have taken, and would like to find 
a way of retreat for themselves if it were possible. 

My husband called to see me at my new residence when- 
ever he could find opportunity, which was not very often, 
and he repeated the drive, which was no more comfortable 
for him than the first one had been. I did not care es- 
pecially about it, and was glad when I got home. With 
the exception of those drives, I never went anywhere with 
him alone ; for, with the exception of Amelia, and occasion- 
ally Emmeline, which occasions constantly grew rarer, 
he never went with only one wife, but took two or more. 

The first winter that I was married to him, the Female 
Relief Society, to which I then belonged, gave a ball, and 
all the ladies were to invite the gentlemen. I ventured to 
ask Brother Young. He was my husband, and whom else 
should I invite? He accepted my invitation, apparently 
with much pleasure, and arranged to call for me on the 
appointed evening to take me to the hall. He was punctual 
to his appointment, but when he arrived he was accom- 
panied by another wife. I suppose he knew the fact of his 
being at the ball would be reported to Amelia, and that she 
would be very angry if he went with me alone. I was very" 
much annoyed at the circumstance, and really a little hurt 
that he could not take me somewhere just once without 
someone else along. I said nothing, however, and was as 
cordial to the other wife as I should have been had she 
accompanied him at my express invitation. 

I never learned to hate anything in m}' life as I did the 
word " economy," while I was Brigham Young's wife. It 
30 



466 "CHILDREN SHOULD GO BAREFOOT." 

was thrown at me constantly. I never asked for the small- 
est necessary of life that I was not accused of extravagance 
and a desire to ruin my husband, and advised to be more 
economical. I had a mind to reply, several times, that I 
did not see how I could be, without denying myself every- 
thing, and literally going without anything to eat or to 
wear. I held my tongue, however, and "possessed my 
soul in patience." I was, in fact, a perfect Griselda ; and 
my husband had got so used to such unquestioning obe- 
dience and submission from me that I think he never was so 
surprised in his life as he was when I rebelled. I am sure 
he would have expected rebellion from any or all of his 
wives sooner than from me. And I am quite sure that he 
was no more surprised than I was. 

Before our marriage he had professed a great interest in 
my boys, and had promised to do many things for them. I 
had counted very much on his assistance in training them, 
but as soon as I was really married to him he seemed to 
forget all his promises. He looked upon my children as 
interlopers, and treated them as such. He scolded me for 
spending so much time and money on them; he would 
allow them to wear only clothes of home-spun cloth, and 
gave them each one hat and one coarse, heavy pair of shoes 
a year. When they needed more I had to contrive some 
way to get them myself; the first time I ever asked him for 
shoes, he said, "They didn't need shoes; children ought 
always to go barefoot ; they were healthier for it ; " and yet 
I noticed that none of his own children were compelled to 
do so. I did not allow mine to do so, either, and I am in- 
debted to my father for many things to make me and the 
children comfortable, and the shoes that Brigham " couldn't 
afford " to buy were among them. Had I been alone, I 
probably should never have told my parents of my po- 
sition ; utn_mQther _jmMw-jwjth_pie t an(l^hesa^w_these______ 

Prophet-with purpose ; yj^_strange 
akeherfaith in herreligion. l^Ee 




HE DIDN'T FORGET THE THOUSAND DOLLARS. 467 

admitted that she could not understand his behavior, and 
yet she counselled patience, thinking that in some way 
things would come right some time. I had not so much 
faith about the " coming right," so far as I was concerned, but 
I had not then begun to doubt my religion. My father had 
no faith at all ; for he remembered the one thousand dollars 
a year, not a cent of which had been seen at the end of my 
first year as his wife. Yet no one of us dared at that time 
to question the Prophet's action, although we were all in- 
dignant at his breach of faith. , 

We found afterwards that the promise he made my father 
regarding the "settlement" was the standard promise which 
he made to all his wives before he married them, and the 
fulfilment was, in most cases, the same. 



CHAPTER -XXX. 

THE PROPHET'S FAMILY CIRCLE. HIS WIVES AND 
CHILDREN. 

The Prophet Marries his First and Legal Wife. How she lives, and 
how Brigham has treated Her. The Prophet's Eldest Son. The 
Story of his Life. His Wives and Families. Mary and Maggie. 
The Favorite Wife, Clara. Young " Briggy " and his Expectations. 
What the Saints think of Him. His Domestic Joys. How he visited 
me when Sick, and Scolded the old Gentleman. Brigham and " Briggy " 
make love to Lizzie. Briggy Wins. " John W." He neglects his 
" Kingdom." " Won by the Third Wife." The Story of Lucy C. 
The Prophet's Daughters. Alice and Luna. Miss Alice's Flirtations. 
Sweet language between Father and Daughter. Tragic death of 
Alice Clawson. 



RIGHAM'S very first 
wife is not living ; 
she died some time 
before he became a 
Mormon, and before 
his marriage to Ma- 
ry-Ann Angell, his 
present legal wife. 

He was quite young 
when he married 
first, and was a sort 
of preacher among 
the Methodists, and 
by preaching, beg- 
ging, and occasion- 
ally working at his 
trade as glazier, or as 
a day-laborer at farming, he managed to pick up a very 
scanty living for himself and his wife, whose name was 
Miriam Works. My great grandfather, Gilbert Weed, 
married them in Auburn, Cayuga County, New York, near 




INSULTED BY HER FATHER. 



A RATHER OLD w BOY ! " 469 

which place they lived for some years. Mv grandfather 
usedtoassert that Brigham was the laziest man that ever 
lived, ano'that he would noT do any work so long as he 
cu irttr live without it. As may be imagined, his family 
Wer'e not in the most comfortable circumstances in the 
world, and poor Mrs. Young had by no means the easiest 
time. She died quite early, and the gossips' verdict was, 
"Died of discouragement." She left two daughters, both 
of whom are still living, and both are in polygamy. Eliz- 
abeth, the elder, is the first wife of Edmund Ellsworth ; 
there are three wives besides her. The second daughter, 
Vilate, is the first wife of Charley Decker, who has two 
plural wives since he married Vilate. These girls, with 
their husbands, were among the very first of the Saints to 
arrive in the Valley. 

Brigham was married to his first living and only legal 
wife, Mary- Ann Angell, in Kirtland, Ohio, in the year 
1834. She is a native of New York State, and is still a 
pleasant, rather good-looking woman, though much sad- 
dened by the neglect of her husband, who rarely, if ever, 
visits her, and lately by the tragic death of her eldest 
daughter, and the still more recent death of her eldest son, 
Joseph A. Young, which has broken her very much. She 
is 3Vrvn*_j2ip ^g^ of frer hijsfrand. nearly seventy-three, and 
consequently is counted an old lady, while he is, according 
to Mormon theory, "a boy." Her mind is somewhat 
clouded, and this, like her sadness, is caused by the decline 
of her husband's affections, of whom she is very fond. 
She has been entirely devoted to him, and gave him as 
honest love when she married him, long before there was 
the slightest prospect of his ever occupying the position he 
holds now, as she has ever felt for him since his elevation 
to be the leader of the Mormon people ; and she is repaid 
as it might be expected she would be, after listening to one 
of her husband's sermons to the women of his church. 

Said he, on one occasion, when he felt called upon to 



470 BRIGHAM'S OPINION OF THE OLD WOMEN ! 

reprimand the complaining sisters, " The old women come 
snivelling around me, saying, ' I have lived with my hus- 
band thirty years, and it is hard 'to give him up now.' If 
you have had your husbands that length of time, it is long 
enough, and you ought to be willing to give them to other 
women, or give other women to them ; you have no busi- 
ness with your husbands, and you are disobeying God's 
commands to live with them when you are old." He cer- 
tainly sees to it that his wife does not " disobey God^s cornF" 
manfis" which, from his^blasphemous lips, means__sjmply 
his own inclinations. She has moved about to suit her 
husband's" caprice, just as he has chosen to move. They 
lived first of all in the old white house on the hill, not very 
far from where the Prophet's buildings now stand. When 
the Bee-Hive was finished she lived there, but as the num- 
ber of plural wives increased, she was moved back again 
to the old house, to make room in the other building for 
the new-comers. She lived there until quite recently, when 
her husband had her removed to the old school-house be- 
hind the Bee-Hive, a dilapidated, cheerless place, not 
nearly so good as the house she has left. It is, indeed, 
little better than a barn, and is furnished very scantily. 
There she lives, and there she will probably remain until 
her death, unless some of her children see that she is better 
cared for. 

She took no more kindly to polygamy than did any other of 
the Mormon women ; but she was among the very earliest 
sufferers. I have known her all my life ; she lived in the next 
house to where I was born, in Nauvoo, and I used to visit at 
her house, with Alice Clawson, when I was engaged at the 
Prophet's theatre. She was always very kind to me, and I 
have had for her a real regard and sympathy, which in- 
creased after I became a member of her husband's family. 
She is a very reticent woman, neither invites nor gives con- 
fidence, has few intimate friends, and visits but little. _JHer_ 
hair is iron-gray ; her eyes intensely sad ; herface wears an 



THE PROPHETS FIRST-BORN. 



471 



habitually-melancholy expression, with a touch of bitterness 
about the mouth; ana she is rather tall in figure/Her 
husband's wives regard her very differently, but most ot~ 

tf eat Ti'er withresect. She has had five children 




JOSEPH A. YOUNG. 



^ 
Joseph A., Brigham, Jr., Alice, Luna, and John W.- 

Joseph A., commonly 
called "Joe," who died dur- 
ing the past summer, was 
well known throughout the 
Territory, and was by no 
means particularly respect- 
ed. He was very dissipa- 
ted, and indulged in nearly 
every kind of vice. He has 
been what is called a w fast 
young man," and was sent 
to Europe on a mission to 
cure him, if possible, of his 

bad habits ; but it scarcely had the desired effect, for he came 
home as wild as ever. He'was in my father's " Conference " 
in England, and behaved himself quite well there, although 
there was an unpleasant scandal about him while there, which 
has been before alluded to. In business matters he was as 
shrewd and as unprincipled as his father, and managed, with 
the assistance of the latter, to accumulate a large amount of 
property. Ambitious as his father is for his sons, he never 
dared to do anything which should advance "Joe " in the 
church, for he knew very well that the people would not 
tolerate it for an instant, for his eldest son was by no means 
a favorite among the Saints. He, of course, held church 
offices, but he would never have been any higher in author- 
ity, and certainly would never have succeeded his father as 
Head of the Church, even though he was the eldest son. 

He was a professed polygamist, although, strictly speak- 
ing, he was a monogamist; for although he had three 
wives, he only lived with one. His first wife, Mary, called, 



\ 

472 "MARY JOE" AND "ENGLISH MAGGIE." 

to distinguish her, "Mary Joe," has several children, but 
neither she nor they were troubled much with Joseph's 
attention. She is an independent, high-spirited woman, 
and would not show in the least that she was troubled by 
his neglect. She goes about her business in a matter-of- 
fact way, and shows that she is able to take care of herself, 
as she succeeded in making her husband furnish the means 
to support herself and her children, whether he was willing 
to or not. She used to say that she could herself earn a 
comfortable living for them all, but so long as she had a 
husband who was able to do it, she would not do it, and 
she did not. 

She is a decided contrast to poor little English Maggie, 
his second wife, who is in delicate health, unable to take 

care of herself and her child, 
and who is fretting herself 
into her grave for the husband 
whom she loved so dearly, 
but who was so utterly unwor- 
thy of such devotion. She 
and her child live in a poor 
little room, shabbily furnish- 
ed, and her husband never 
visited her. She is allowed 
the merest pittance on which 
to live, but the sum is so pit- 

MAGG.E YOUNG. jf u lly sma H tna t it doCS not 

[Joseph A.'s Discarded Wife.] * ,/.,./, 

supply even the needs of life, 

and the little woman suffers for them sometimes. She is 
a patient creature, never complaining of her lot ; used never 
to reproach her husband ; just living on and bearing her 
burdens as best she might; hoping for nothing in this 
world, but trusting that somehow the things that are so 
wrong here may be put straight hereafter. 

Dear, patient, gentle, loving " Maggie Joe ! " My heart 
goes out to her with a pitying tenderness, and I only wish 




CLARA STENHOUSE YOUNG. 473 

it was in my power to put some happiness into her desolate 
life. I suppose she thinks of me as pityingly as I do of her, 
thinking that my feet have strayed into dangerous places, 
and that my soul is lost for ever by my action. he is one 
of the many martyrs to polygamy and a false religion.*"- 
The merry-eyed., round-faced, gay-hearted girl, that came 
among the Saints so ffiw yp^ra ag"> r anr| w^ wnn by the 
attractive young elder, is little like the sad-eyed, haggard 

woman, the broken-hearted, deserted wife I wonder if 

Joe Young's heart ever smote him as he looked at her, and 
saw the wreck that he had made. His third wife, Thalia 
Grant7~he neglected so entirely, that she left him in dis- 
gust. 

His fourth wife, Clara Stenhouse, was so fortunate as to 
be the favorite. He was devoted to her exclusively, and 
she was delighted because she had succeeded in inducing 
" Joe " to renounce polygamy to this extent : he lived with 
her, to the exclusion of all his other waives, and promised 
that he would never take another. He said that she 
was the, only one he ever really loved, although he had 
been much attracted by the other two. Still, her life with 
him was not always smooth sailing ; for when he was in- 
toxicated, which sometimes happened even to this son of 
a Prophet, he was rather abusive, though by no means 
so much to her as he was to the two others. Once, 
however, he forgot himself so far as to chase her about the 
house, and point a pistol at her. She immediately left him, 
and returned to her father's house. When he recovered, 
and found she had gone, he was deeply penitent, and he 
went for her at once. At first she refused to return with 
him, but he was so full of remorse, and begged so hard, 
and promised so fairly, that she relented and went. I think 
he never repeated the occurrence. 

Clara had everything that she could desire ; a nice house 
finely furnished, carriage, jewels, elegant clothes, and not 
a wish that she expressed but was instantly gratified. A 



474 



YOUNG " BRIGGY ! 



contrast, indeed, to poor little Maggie, living in want, 
dying for lack of care, and starving, body and soul alike, 
for sufficient food and for the ' love which another woman 
won from her, just as she won that same husband's love 
from Mary. 

Just now Brigham, Jr., or " Briggy," as he is familiarly 
termed among the Saints, is the most conspicuous member 
of the Prophet's family, as it is well known that Brigham 
Young intends that he shall be his successor. He is taken 

everywhere by his father, who 
seems determined that the 
Saints shall not lose sight of 
him ; and he already " assists " 
^10 dSffffircutjneetings, and his 
B^weak voice^is .ojten heard 



piping 



and 



Order of Enoch," and other 



" BRIGGY." 
[The Prophet's Successor.] 



of the elder Brigham's pet in- 
stitutions. He apes his father 
in manner, and, as nearly as he 
can, in matter, and his parent 
is quite proud of him. There 
was some murmuring among the Saints when Brigham's 
intentions towards him were first known to them, but they 
say very little now, but he and his father both know they 
are opposed to him. I think there would have been open 
rebellion if either of the other sons, especially Joe, had been 
thought of as the future ruler. 

" Briggy " is not so quick and bright as either of the 
others, nor so well qualified for taking care of himself 
without the assistance of the tithing-office and other church 
perquisites ; but he is infinitely better-hearted, kindlier in 
impulse, and is the most popular of them, although that is 
not according him a very high place in public estimation. 
He has been "on a mission," and had his " little fling" be- 
fore he settled down to the dignity of his present position. 



SCOLDING THE OLD GENTLEMAN. 475 

As he is such a preacher of polygamy, he also practices 
it, and is the husband of three wives, of whom the third is 
the favorite. Their names are Kate Spencer, Jane Car- 
rington, and Lizzie Fenton. He does not abuse his wives 
as Joseph A. does, and although the first two have occasion 
to complain of neglect, since he is completely tied to Lizzie's 
side just now, yet he does not allow them to want, but sees 
that they have what they need to make life comfortable. I 
think he has more feeling for the physical suffering, at least, 
of women, than his father, or either of his brothers has. I 
know once, while I was Brigham's wife, when I was very 
ill, he came to see me, and was shocked at the condi- 
tion in which he found me. I had sent several times to my 
husband, telling how ill I was, and asking for things which 
I really needed ; and no attention had been paid to my 
requests, and he had not seen fit to come near me. -He re-_ 
sented my illness as a personal wrong done to himself; and 
when told by a friend of mine, a little before this visit from 
Briggy, he had remarked, "That's the way with women ; 
the minute I marry 'em they get sick to shirk work." That 
is the sympathy he always shows to a woman who is ill. 
When "Briggy" learned how I was neglected, he went at 
once for his father on my behalf, although I had not the 
slightest idea of his intention. He found his father break- 
fasting at the Bee-Hive House ; and, before several of the 
wives, he burst out, 

" Father, I think it is shameful, the way you are treating 
Ann-Eliza. She is fearfully sick, and if you don't have 
something done for her, she'll die on your hands. I've been 
down to see her, and I know." 

The old gentleman didn't say anything, and "Briggy" 
turned on his heel and left the room. That day I received 
a portion of the things for which I had sent so many days 
before. I was quite at a loss to know why they had come 
so suddenly, and it remained a mystery to me until, some 
time after, Lucy Decker told me about " Briggy's " attack 



476 RIVAL LOVERS. BRIGHAM AND M BRIGGY ! " 

on his father. She said that, although they were frightened 
at the fellow's temerity, they delighted in his spunk, and had 
liked him better ever since. I have been grateful to him 
ever since I knew of that occurrence, and found that he had 
constituted himself my champion. 

Lizzie, Briggy's third wife, is a native of Philadelphia, 
and she came to Utah with John W. and Libbie, Johnny's 
third wife. She was a fine-looking girl, tall and rather 
large, with a bright, intelligent face, and vivacious, fascina- 
ting manners. Both old Brigham and young Brigham were 
smitten with her at once, and commenced paying her the 
most marked attentions, and for a long time a fierce rivalry 
existed between the father and son. Lizzie lived with Mrs. 
Wilkison before her marriage, and her courtship by Brig- 
ham and Briggy was very funny, and quite exciting to the 
lookers-on, who were anxious to see whether youth or ex- 
perience would win. 

First the old gentleman would come, driving down in 
fine style with his spanking team ; then Briggy would come, 
rather on the sly, and spend the remainder of the day, after 
his parent was well out of the way. He always seemed 
bent on having the last word, and, finally, he won the young 
lady. This double courtship went on for several months, 
much to the delight of the spectators, whose sympathies 
were, for the most part, with Briggy, and who were de- 
lighted when the young fellow won. 

Lizzie has two children^ and is the favorite wife ; but she 
is very unhappy^ .a^-4iai^xiCte^..hea^r^ her_say^ She has 
seen other "favorite" wives neglected for another, and al- 
though her husband certainly has as yet given her no rea- 
son to doubt his affection for and his fidelity to her, yet 
even he may be tempted from her side. I have not so much 
sympathy for her, however, as I have for those poor girls ~ 
\vho are educated in Monnonism, and know nothing else, 
(or she, was anEastern born and educated girl, and entered 
polygamy with her'eyes openT 




THE PROPHETS APOSTATE SON. 



477 




JOHN W. YOCNG. 



John W. is the third son and the youngest child of Mary 
Ann Angell. He is the best looking of the three, has the best 
address, and has seen the most of the world ; for although 
he has never been sent on a mission, he has been East a 
great deal, and has been more 
in contact with the outside, 
Gentile world, than any of the 
others. If any Eastern busi- 
ness is to be done, requiring 
the presence of some person 
from Utah, Johnny is always 
the one to go. He is a shrewd 
business fellow, with more 
finesse than Joe., and a great 
deal of tact, which makes him 
very successful. He passes 
for quite a good fellow among 
those who meet him casually, 

and I found him quite well known among the newspaper 
fraternity when I came East. One reporter, whom I met, 
told me that John W. had offered him money to keep his 
name before the public while he was here ; and told the 
same man that I was a poor, weak creature that would 
never amount to anything. It was, probably, a desire that 
the " royal blood of Young " should be honored ; and as 
that blood coursed through his veins, the honor to the sire 
would be honor to the son. 

Johnny is not an enthusiastic Mormon, by any means, 
and I am quite sure if he were anybody's son but Brigham's, 
he would be regarded with suspicion as an " apostate ; " but 
he is "President of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion," and 
his belief is never questioned by his father. I think he 
holds to the church because he finds it a good thing ; but 
if Brigham were to die, and Briggy to fail in the succession, 
I don't think he would stick by it long. Its emoluments are 
convenient ; with its doctrines and beliefs he has no sym- 
pathy ; indeed, I fancy he is totally indifferent to them. 



47$ TEALING A COUSIN'S HUSBAND. 

Like all the rest, he has embraced polygamy, but has been 
for some time 'a monogamist. Like the other two brothers, 
also, he has been won by the third wife, who holds him entirely 
now. He says openly that she is the only woman that he ever 
loved ; that he married the others to please his father, who 
was quite anxious for him to " build up a kingdom." He 
does not hesitate to declare the " kingdom business a hum- 
bug," and prefers the society of his third, whom he now 
considers his only lawful wife, to that of either or both 
the others. The first wife, Lucy Canfield, has several 
children, and she is the cousin of his third wife. She is a 
spirited woman, like Joseph A.'s first wife, and when she 
found that her husband did not love her, and had said that 
he did not, she made no fuss about it, but quietly took her 
children, went away, and as speedily as possible was di- 
vorced from Johnny, saying she would not be any man's 
wife by simple toleration. 

The second wife, Clara Jones, cries her eyes out over 
her husband's defection, but will not be induced to leave 
him. He supports her, I believe, but never sees her, 
and says he shall never live with her again. She really 
loved the graceless, handsome fellow, and will be called by 
his name, and be his wife, even if she cannot have his 
attention. 

Johnny met his third wife in Philadelphia, while on a visit 
there to his first wife's relatives. She was a very pleas- 
ing woman, and he an attractive fellow, and they fell in 
love with each other. She knew very well his matrimonial 
situation, but that did not deter her from accepting his atten- 
tions, nor from accompanying him to Utah under promise 
of becoming his wife upon their arrival. He was to discard 
his other wives, and be true to her. She did not seem to 
think that she was betraying her cousin, and bringing 
misery to her ; she only thought of herself, and the gratifi- 
cation of her own ambition ; for, apart from her love for 
Johnny, which I have no doubt was genuine, she knew very 



SHE WOULDN T KISS ! 



479 



well that she should gain wealth, at least', as the wife of one 
of Brigham Young's sons. She and Lizzie Fenton came, 
and as soon as possible she was united to Johnny. 

It took the latter some time to arrange his matrimonial 
affairs successfully, and occasionally a " scene " would 
occur in this somewhat divided family. She had been 
married but one week when Johnny first met her ; but 
as Gentile marriages are " null and void " under the 
Saintly rule, her conversion to Mormonism divorced her 
at once, at least from the Mormon point of view, 
and rendered her per- 
fectly at liberty to go to 
Utah with Johnny, who 
was also, by the Mor- 
mon law, justified in 
taking her. 

After they were mar- 
ried, Johnny placed her, 
for the time, in the house 
with his other wives, and 
they submitted to her 
presence with all the pa- 
tience of good Mormon 
women. It required but 
a very short time, how- 
ever, for them to dis- 
cover that the last was Lucy REBKLUOUS _ 
the only wife he cared 

to recognize ; in fact, he nearly-ignored the existence of all, 
exceptjiis " dear Libbie," and he felt it an imperative Huty 
to see that she was treated with the utmost deference by the 
otnerjwives. Une night, as he and Libbie were aboutT 
withdrawing from the family circle to their own room, he 
insisted that his first and second wives should, on bidding 
Libbie " good night," kiss her. And when Lucy declined 
to comply with his request, he became very much exas- 




4 8o 



THE DAUGHTER OF A PROPHET. 



perated, and threatened to shut her up in some dark closet, 
as is sometimes done with disobedient children, unless she 
would obey him. Johnny felt 
that he must not compromise 
his dignity by yielding the 
point, and such rebellion must 
not go unpunished. And, as 
she still remained obstinate, he 
put his threats into execution. 
She remained in her prison 
until she feared to be longer 
away from her children, and 
was forced to yield to his 
wishes, and kiss Libbie good 
night. 

It was not long after that 

when Lucy left him, and sought a divorce, which Johnny's 
father readily granted. 

The only acknowledged Mrs. John W. Young lives in 
elegant style, accompanies her husband on all his Eastern 
trips, and makes herself, by_dress a^^therwise^^as^attrac- 




KISSING LIBBIE GOOD NIGHT. 



the-.Qlhers, that she only holds him so long as she shall 
prpAZ more fascinating than any other woman. 

Alice Clawson was theTbest known oi any^of Brigham's 
daughters. She was the elder of Mary-Ann Angell's girls, 
and was for many years a leading actress at the Salt Lake 
theatre. She had no special dramatic talent, but she was a 
good worker, and so succeeded quite well in her profession. 
Being Brigham's daughter also gavd her a decided prestige, 
and she never made her appearance but what she was 
warmly applauded. She was quite pretty, being rather 
small and slight, with blue eyes and fair hair, and had all 
her father's ambition. 

She was quite a favorite with gentlemen, and had several 
little " affairs " before she was safely married to Hiram B. 



ALICE AND HER LOVERS. 481 

Clawson, who was, at the time of her marriage with 
him, her father's confidential clerk, and the stage man- 
ager and " leading man " at the theatre where she was en- 
gaged. 

In 1851 a Mr. Tobin visited Salt Lake, and fell a victim 
to Miss Alice's charms, and was engaged to her. Soon 
after their engagement, he went away, and did not return 
until 1856. While he was away she flirted quite des- 
perately with another young gentleman, and was reported 
engaged to him ; but her father sent him off to convert the 
Sandwich Islanders, and took him out of the reach of Miss 
Alice's charms. 

Soon after Mr. Tobin's return, the engagement between 
them was broken, and her father's ire was so great against 
him that he was obliged to leave Salt Lake City. He and 
his party were followed, and while they were in camp on 
the Santa Clara River, three hundred and seventy miles 
south of Salt Lake, they were attacked, and narrowly 
escaped with their lives, leaving all their baggage behind 
them, and having six horses shot. Some of the party 
were wounded, but fortunately all escaped. I met Mr. 
Tobin in Omaha, and he gave me an account of the whole 
affair. 

He broke his engagement because he was displeased with 
her for flirting. It was not long after this before she mar- 
ried Clawson, who was the husband of two wives, but 
still aspired to the hand of Alice, which the Prophet was 
much opposed to ; but Alice would have him in spite of 
her father. Some years after he married one of her half- 
sisters. 

Theoretically she was a polygamist ; practically she hated 
it, and I know that her married life was very unhappy. 
She had several children, but was not called a very good 
mother. 

The circumstances of her death, which occurred a few 
months since, are sad in the extreme. 
31 ' 



482 



FOUND DEAD ! 




She was in the street, one day, and met her father, who 

happened to be in one of 
his ill-humors, and was only 
waiting for some one to vent 
it on. Alice, unluckily, was 
the victim. She was always 
very fond of dress, and was 
inclined to be somewhat 
"loud" in her style. She 
was dressed, this day, to 
pay some visits, - and was 
finer than usual. Her fa- 
ther looked at her from head 
to foot, then said, in the most 
MRS. ALICE YOUNG CLAWSON. contemptuous manner which 

he could assume, 

nWI hpqvens. Alice ! What are you rigged outin that 
style for? ^You look li^jijjrjisjitute." 

She faced him with an expression so like his own that it 
was absolutely startling, and, with terrible intensity, re- 
plied, 

"Well, what else am I? And whose teachings have 
made me sor" 

passed on, leaving him standing gazing after her 
in surprise. Not long after, she was found dead in her 
bed, with a bottle, labelled " poison," by her bedside. 
Tired of life, she had thrown it carelessly aside, for it was 
of little worth to her. Neither husband nor father was 
miirjTjrgjnfViHn-ghp^ with her mntliei__ before hei',-&-ia, 

tiowonder that she did not wish to live to grow old. 
"""It has been said that at one time sHefwalT greatly in her 
father's confidence, and that she has assisted many a scheme 
which served to enrich her father, who used her to advance 
his own interests, without regard to her youth or sex. Of 
the truth of this I have no means of knowing, but as far as 



SELF-WILLED LUNA. 483 

I had any experience with her, she was an amiable, kind- 
hearted woman, ambitious and proud, and a strong hater 
of the polygamic life which she was forced to lead. 

Luna Young was a bright, gay girl, the pet and the rul- 
ing power of her mother's house. She is very pretty, and 
extremely imperious. She is blonde, like Alice, but by far 
the more beautiful and self-willecl. She has all her father's 
strength of purpose, and the two strong wills used* often to 
clash, and it was rarely that hers was subdued. Her fa- 
ther found her the most difficult of all the girls to manage, 
and yet- he seemed more fond of her than of her more 
yielding and obedient sister. 

She is a plural wife of George Thatcher, and endures, 
although she by no means loves, polygamy. 

The children of Mrs. Angell Young are better known to 
the world than any of the others, and of these five, the 
ones that the public are most familiar with are John W. 
and Alice, both of whom seem very widely known by rep- 
utation ; John W. from his constant contact with the Gen- 
tiles, and Alice from the position which she so long held in 
the theatre, and which brought her so constantly before the 
public for so many years. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



THE WIVES OF THE PROPHET. BROTHER BRIGHAM'S 
DOMESTIC TROUBLES. 

The Wives of the Prophet. Lucy Decker. A Mysterious Disappear- 
ance. Lucy's Boys. Brigham's Wife Clara. Her Busy House- 
hold Work. About the Girls. Harriet Cook. She Expresses Un- 
pleasant Opinions. Brigham is frightened of Her. He Keeps out 
of the Way. Amelia and the Sweetmeats. How one of Brigham's 
Daughters scandalized the Saints. How Mrs. Twiss Manages the 
Prophet's House. The Work a Woman can Do. Martha Bowker 
and her silent Work. Sweet and saintly doings of the Prophet. 
Concerning Harriet Barney. The Wife who " Served Seven Years " 
for a Husband. Another English Wife of the Prophet. The 
" Young Widow of Nauvoo." 

UCY DECKER was the 
wife of Isaac Seeley, 
and had two children 
before she became a 
convert to Mormonism, 
and removed to Nau- 
voo. The husband had 
been esteemed a fine 
young man, and to all 
appearances they were 
living quite harmoni- 
ously, when Brigham 
saw her, and fell in 
love with her. He soon 
persuaded her that See- 

SHRVING UKIGHAM . , , . i 

D AMEL, A. ley could never give her 

an " exaltation " in the 

eternal world; but that, if she would permit him, he 
would secure her salvation, and make her a queen in the 




A MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCE. 485 

"first resurrection." She was bewildered by the promises, 
and consented to become " sealed " to him secretly. 

In some way or other, Seeley found out the true state of 
affairs, and was exceedingly indignant, and made some 
very unpleasant threats of vengeance against Brigham 
Young for breaking up his family. Brigham at once com- 
menced endeavoring to turn the tide of public opinion 
against him, by resorting to his always ready weapon, his 
tongue, and insinuating things against him ; among others, 
he took care that the impression should get abroad that he 
had threatened to kill his wife. These reports gained little 
credence among those who knew him well; yet Brigham, 
with Joseph to help him, was sure to succeed in his efforts 
to ruin the man, or to drive him away, so that he should 
no longer stand in his light, and Seeley suddenly disap- 
peared. 

All sorts of rumors were afloat respecting his disappear- 
ance ; some said he was driven from Nauvoo at the point 
of the knife ; others said he was dead ; others, that he left 
voluntarily, disgusted with the entire proceedings ; at all 
events, he has never appeared to interfere with his wife's 
later domestic arrangements. 

Lucy lives in the * Bee Hive," which is supposed to be 
Brigham's own particular residence, at least his private 
office and own sleeping-room are there, and he takes his 
meals there except his dinner. She has always had the 
charge of this house, and has always been quite highly 
valued by her husband on account of her numerous domes- 
tic virtues, for she is a superior housekeeper, and even 
Brigham finds great difficulty in getting a good opportunity 
to find fault with her. It has been Brigham's custom always 
to keep the " Bee Hive " for his exclusive use, and none of 
his wives were allowed there, except Lucy Decker, who 
had^the charge. But after he married Amelia, before her 
house was finished, he brought her to board there with 
him, contrary to all precedent; and Lucy Decker was not 



4 86 



IT SAVES THE WAGES ! " 



only obliged to cook for them, but to wait upon them at 
the table, in the capacity of a servant, and Amelia never 
recognized her in any other way, never speaking to her as 
an equal, but ordering her about at her caprice, and the 
husband allowed it. But then it is no uncommon thing in 
marry a woman for a servant ; it is more 



economical than to hire them, it saves tne "wages. 

WEen^TCucy Decker's sons, Brigham's children, grew up, 
they accepted mercantile situations, as he expects all to 
work, which is certainly all right; but they were not al- 
lowed to stay with their mother without paying him the 
same amount for board that they would have to pay else- 
where. A married daughter is also allowed to remain with 
her mother under the same conditions. 

She is a short, fleshy woman, with a pleasant, small- 
featured face, dark eyes and hair, and as practical and 
matter-of-fact in manner as you please. 

She has seven children Brigham-Heber, Fanny, Ernest, 
Arthur, Mira, Feramorz, and Clara. Fanny is the plural 
wife of George Thatcher, who also numbers her half sister, 
Luna, among his wives. Heber and Ernest are both mar- 
ried, but have, as yet, but one wife each. They do not 
seem in a hurry to add to their kingdom. 

Clara Decker is the young- 
er sister of Lucy, and was 
" sealed " to Brigham at the 
same time. She is a very 
intelligent, prepossessing wo- 
man, and for some time 
was quite a favorite with her 
husband. Like her sister, she 
is short and stout ; but she 
has a very sweet, benevo- 
lent face, which truly mirrors 
/S^v^^ ^P ker character. She is an in- 
DECKER. defatigable, but a quiet work- 




WIFELY SORROWS IN THE PROPHET'S MANSION. 487 

er, and the good she does, not only in the Prophet's 
household, but out of it, cannot be estimated. In spite of 
her multitudinous home cares, she finds time to visit the 
sick and comfort the afflicted, and there is no woman more 
universally beloved than she. 

She has been of great service to her husband in assisting 
him in the management of his large family, and in addi- 
tion to her own family of children, she has the care of 
Margaret Alley's. She has been as tender and kind to them 
as to her own, and since their own mother's sad death they 
have received an untiring and affectionate maternal care 
from her. When her husband has taken a new wife, she 
has often been applied to to assist him in preparing the 
housekeeping outfit, which she always does willingly and 
cheerfully, never manifesting the least jealousy, nor making 
herself disagreeable in any way. Her griefs she keeps to 
herself, and gives a kindly, cheery countenance to her 
family and the world. 

She has long since lost all love for her husband, and 
although she retains her faith in the underlying principles 
of her religion, is by no means so blinded by bigotry as 
not to see its faults. She expresses her opinions rarely, 
but when she does, they are given decisively, and her hus- 
band is not at a loss to understand her meaning. He has 
a high regard for her services, and I really believe accords 
her more respect than he does most women. She never 
appears in public with him, being always ton 



gaged " at home. - __~' , 

ISo one can Icnow Clara Decker without loving her ; she^ 
has a nature that wins affection spontaneously, and that 
holds it after it is won. She has three children, all girls 
Nettie, Nabbie, and Lulu. Nettie is married to Henry 
Snell, and is the only wife. Clara and her children are 
inmates of the Lion House. She has more room than the 
othe'rs, as her family numbers so many members. 

The third "wife in plurality " was Harriet Cook, to whom 



Of, 

488 BRIGHAM'S TROUBLESOME WIFE. 

the Prophet was sealed at Nauvoo before the church left 
that place for the west. She was at that time rather a 
good-looking girl, tall and fair, with blue eyes, but with a 
sharp nose, that so plainly bespoke her disposition that no 
one was surprised to hear, not very long after her mar- 
riage, that her husband had found he had " caught a Tartar." 
She was in my mother's employ at Nauvoo, and I think 
there is where the Prophet became enamoured of hen She 
does not hesitate to say that " Mormonism, polygamy, and" 
/?Ke whole of it, is a humbug, aricT may go to the devil" "Tor 
~all her?* Her husband neveT~attempts to "argtlfi Hiiy Lheo- 
logicaTqntstion with her, but gets out of the way as speedily 
as possible, letting her abuse religion and him as much as 
she pleases behind his back. 

Brigham, finding her so ungovernable, and being quite 
unable to exact submission or obedience from her, refused 
to live with her ; and, although she still lives at the " Lion 
House " with the other wives, avoids her as studiously as 
possible, and will not even notice her, unless positively 
compelled to do so. 

She has one son, Oscar, whom his father calls a repro- 
bate, and has entirely disowned ; a wild, headstrong, unruly 
fellow, now nearly thirty years of age. He speaks of his, 
father rr^jJnHj" find "thpjnld map," Qr>/ Tnpfnry expresses 
his disgust at his hyprocrisy and meanness, which he sees 
through very clearly7~ He~js_rip rnore afraid to speak his 
mindjHan his_mother, of whose tonguejciot only Brigham, 
Tnit the ^>ther wives, stand in dread ; and when she com- 
mences battle they act on the principle that " discretion is 
the better part of valor," and leave the field to her. 

The son has been married, but his wife has left him. 

A few years ago Brigham bought a house at St. George, 
quite an important Mormon settlement, four hundred miles 
south of Salt Lake City, intending to settle some one of his 
wives there. He asked me if I would go, but I declined. 
He then proposed to one or two others, but they had no 



THE HOUSEKEEPER AT ST. GEORGE. 489 

more of a mind to go than I had. Lucy Bigelow at last 
decided to try St. George as a residence, and she has re- 
mained there ever since. Lucy was married to him when 
she was very young, and she has been one of the w Society" 
wives in the past. She was exceedingly pretty, quite enter- 
taining, and a very graceful dancer. She is not very tall, 
but has quite a pretty figure, brown hair, blue eyes, and an 
exceedingly pretty mouth. 

Her position as housekeeper at St. George has been no 
sinecure, .for Brigham and Amelia have been in the habit 
of passing a portion, at least, of the winter there, and Lucy 
Bigelow's position there has been very much what Lucy 
Deckers was at the Bee Hive, that of servitor, entirely. 
When Brigham comes she receives no more attention than 
a housekeeper would ; and no one, ignorant of the fact, 
would ever imagine she had held towards him the position 
of wife. She does not sit at the table with them, but cooks 
for them, and looks after their comfort generally. 

She is quite a prudent housekeeper, and every year puts 
up a large quantity of preserves, which Amelia and her 
party being very fond of, would speedily put out of the way ; 
and when the presidential visits were ended, poor Lucy 
would have no sweetmeats left for her own use, or to give to 
her friends when they came to see her. On the occasion of 
a late visit, she was so annoyed at her treatmentTTinth T>y 



Brigham and Amelia, the former being particularly cap- 




sudden and startling plainness, that tfiey leit the house in 
"aliurry. ^ThurSuutliei n wife is to be commended ibr her* 
spirit. She does not show it often ; and probably, had the 
insults come alone from her husband, she would have 
borne them quietly, as she has done for nearly thirty years ; 
but she could not endure the same treatment from Amelia, 
and she very justly rebelled. 

She has three daughters, Dora, Susan, and Toolie. 
Dora is the only wife of Morley Dunford. She scanda- 



490 THE HOUSEKEEPER OF THE PROPHET'S MANSION. 

lized the Saints, and aroused the ire of her father, by going 
quietly off with her lover to the Episcopal clergyman to be 
married. According to Gentilelaws she is legally married, 
but according to Mormon laws she is not securely tied. 
Still, she seems satisfied. Susie is married to Almy Dun- 
ford, and is also an only wife. 

One of the most important wives, although by no means 
the recipient of any of her husband's attentions, is the 
housekeeper at the " Lion House," Mrs. Twiss. She was a 
young widow living in Nauvoo when Brigham discovered 




BEE-HIVE HOUSE. BRIGHAM YOUNG'S RESIDENCE. 

her, and recognizing her useful qualities, had her sealed 
to him as soon as he could arrange for it. She is not very 
attractive in personal appearance, having a round face, 
light blue eyes, low forehead, and sandy hair, which is in- 
clined to curl. In figure she is short and stout. But she 
is an energetic worker, and as a servant Brigham values 
her. 

She never complains of her position, but she is no better 
content with it than any other neglected wife in polygamy. 
She is kind to the other wives, and has an amiable, quiet 



FOR BRIGHAM. 49! 

disposition, although she is exceedingly firm and resolute. 
She has no children of her own, a circumstance which 
grieves her very much, but she has adopted a son, of whom 
she is very fond, and who is a very great comfort to this 
childless, unbeloved wife. 

Martha Bowker is another of the Prophet's "sickly 
wives," of whornEe is so ibnd 01" sneering ; and the fact 
tort L'liP !b ^ii lnV l .[Hc!""rT""niffirirnt tt7 prtvehidc her frcin ran 
ceiving care or sympathy from her husband. He married 
her when she was very young, and never has treated her 
with much consideration. Why he married her, unless it 
was because he was anxious to " build up his kingdom " as 
quickly as possible, and so took every available woman he 
could find, will always remain a mystery. She is plain, 
but very quiet and sensible. She never interferes with any- 
one, and worships her husband at a distance. I think it 
must be true, in his case at least, that " familiajntyjbreejds 
contempt," for the wives who have been the favorites stand 
less in awe of him, have less faith mTimi, an3" areTTess 
easily deceived by his pretensions than those whom he has 
neglected, and who do not understand him thoroughly. 
The less attention a wife has paid her, the greater is her 
veneration for her husband. Her respect for him seems 
to increase in proportion to the snubs she receives. Mrs. 
Bowker Young is by no means accomplished, moderately 
well educated, and is by no means intellectually brilliant. 
She says but little, but displays considerable hard com- 
mon sense when she does speak. She is somewhat of a 
nonentity in the " Lion House," where she lives, keeping 
very much to herself, and not making her presence felt. 
She has an adopted daughter, but no children of her own. 

Among all the wives that Brigham claims, there is none 
the superior of Harriet Barney Young, who, in spite of all 
her personal charms and graces of mind, has never been a 
favorite with the Prophet. She is too good and noble-minded 
for him to appreciate. There is too little of the flatterer 



492 THE WIFE IN THE COTTAGE. 

about her. She is tall and stout, but very graceful in every 
movement. Her eyes are a clear hazel, with a soft, sad 
expression in them that is almost pathetic. Her hair is 
light-brown, and her face wears a peculiarly mild, sweet 
look. She is a person that anyone in trouble would be 
drawn towards, and would involuntarily rely on and confide 
in. She is always ready, with the tenderest sympathy, to 
comfort sorrow and distress ; and her acts of kindness, which 
are very numerous, are always unostentatiously performed. 
She was married before she met Brigham, and was the 
mother of three children ; but becoming convinced that 
Mormonism was right, and receiving it, polygamy and all, 
as a divine religion, given direct from God, she considered 
it her duty to leave her husband, and cast her lot with this 
people. She brought her children with her, determined to 
bring them up in the true faith, and she was, in every 
regard, an earnest, conscientious, devout Christian, who 
would never shirk a duty, no matter how painful it might 
be, and would never do anything which she considered 
wrong, no matter how much she might suffer for her per- 
sistence in the right. 

She loves her husband with all the strength of an earnest 
devotion, and his careless treatment of her seems to make 
little difference in the depth of her affection. She knows 
her love is hopeless, but she cherishes it, nevertheless, and 
is content to worship with no hope of return. She is a de- 
vout Mormon, and all she has seen, heard, and suffered, 
has not shaken her faith one whit. She believes that "this 
people" is destined to come up "out of great tribulation," 
and she accepts her own share without a murmur. 

She formerly lived at the Lion House with her children, 
but latterly she has occupied a cottage near the Tabernacle. 
She likes this new arrangement infinitely better, as her 
situation in the large family was particularly trying. Brig- 
ham's own children have always been extremely haughty 
and arrogant to those not of the " royal " blood ; and al- 



THE PROPHET'S HAREM. 



493 



though Harriet's children were good and amiable, they, as 
well as their mother, were rendered very unhappy. She 
supports herself and family now by sewing ; but is happier 
in this than in living in dependence, and receiving favors 
which are grudgingly bestowed. Her husband is by no 
means a frequent visitor at her cottage, but she never re- 
proaches him with neglect. 

She has had one child since her marriage to the Prophet, 
a son, whose name is Howe. 




LION HOUSE AND BRIGHAM'S OFFICES. 

Eliza Burgess, the wife who is said to have "served 
seven years " for her husband, is an English woman, a na- 
tive of Manchester, and came to Nauvoo with her parents 
among the very earliest of the Mormon emigrants. They 
had not been long in this country before her parents died, 
and she was left alone. Mrs. Angell Young took her into 
the family as a servant, and she came to the Valley with 
her. She was very attentive and faithful to the Prophet, 
whom she regarded with the greatest veneration ; and when 



494 SERVING SEVEN YEARS FOR A HUSBAND. 

he, noticing her devotion, offered to become her "savior," 
and secure for her "everlasting salvation," the poor girl was 
completely overcome, and entered her new relation with the 
most sacred reverence and joy. It is almost painful to see 
the dumb worship which she accords to her master, and the 
cavalier manner in which it is received. For a long time 
she was an inmate of the Lion House, and assisted Mrs. 
Twiss in the household labors. She has lately been pro- 
moted to the position of housekeeper at Provo, where the 
Prophet has an establishment for the convenience of himself 
and his party when he is making a tour of the settlements. 
This wife is faithful to all his interests, and unflagging in 
her zeal to serve him. The moment she finds that she is in 
any way necessary to his comfort, she works with a new 
earnestness. She is honest and upright, and is in every 
way worthy of the love of a good man. Yet she lives on, 
starving for the love that is denied her, and " wearying " 
for a husband who absents himself from her for a year 
at a time. 

She has one son, Alphilus, a bright young fellow, who 
is at present a student in the law-school of the Michigan 
University. 

Besides Eliza Burgess, the English wife, Brigham has but 
one other who is not American. This is Susan Snively, who 
is a German, and who has been one of his useful wives. 
She is a woman now considerably past middle age, and 
carries her nationality very decidedly in her face. She is 
of medium size, has dark hair, bright eyes, dark complex- 
ion, and a stolid, expressionless face. She is decidedly 
the plainest of the wives, and one of the most capable. Her 
nature is kindly, and she is a genuinely good woman, quiet 
and unassuming. She is not the slightest bit assertive, and 
would remain in a corner unnoticed all her life, unless some 
one discovered her and brought her out. In her busy days, 
she was a good housewife, could spin, dye, weave, and 
knit, and make excellent butter and cheese. 



THE PROPHET'S GERMAN WIFE. 495 

She was married to Brigham in the early days of poly- 
gamy, when she was a young girl ; indeed, most of his 
wives were taken between 1842 and 1847, and she has 
proved herself a good wife in every sense of the word. She 
has lived at the farm a great deal ; for eight years she was 
sole mistress there, and a harder worker never lived. She 
paid special attention to the dairy, making all the butter and 
cheese for the entire family. She has done a great deal for 
all the wives and children, and they have not hesitated to 
call on her for services, so cordially and freely has she 
given them. The farm was very large, and required many 
laborers, and these all boarded at the farm-house, and 
Susan had them to look after, which she did faithfully. 
Everything that she did was done to promote, as far as 
possible, the interests of the Prophet and his family. 

At last, under such a constant strain of incessant labor, 
she broke down completely, unable any longer to endure 
the strain. Her strength failed; her health was destroyed; 
her once strong constitution undermined, and she was forced 
to seek refuge in the " Lion House," and take her chances 
with the numerous family. After she had given all her 
strength, and the best part of her life, to the service of her 
" master," she was of no more use to him, and she might 
live or die, as she saw fit. It mattered nothing to him. She 
said once to me, K How I should like a drive ! and how much 
good it would do me ! We have plenty of carriages, to be 
sure, yet I am never allowed to ride." Tears trembled in 
her eyes, and her voice shook as she made her complaint ; 
and I wished it were in my power to gratify her. I did pity 1 
her lonely and neglected condition with all my heart. 

Her only earthly comfort is an adopted daughter, whom 
she dearly loves. She never had any children of her own, 
and she lavishes all her maternal affection on this attractive 
young girl, who returns her love, and calls her "mother." 

She still clings to her religious faith with a sort of hope- 
less despair. If that should fail her, she would be desolate 



496 YOUNG WIDOWS IN NAUVOO. 

indeed. She suffers in the present, hoping for a recompense 
in the future. 

Young widows seemed to have abounded in Nauvoo, 
judging from the number that have been " sealed " to the 
Prophet and his followers. So many men died in defence 
of the church, that the wives must, of necessity, fall to some- 
one's care, and the protectors were easily found. Margaret 
Peirce was another of Brigham's fancies, and was sealed to 
him soon after the death of her husband. Her health has 
been very delicate for some years ; consequently she is not in 
favor with her husband. She has one son, Morris, whom 
she absolutely worships. He is now about twenty years 
old, but he is still her baby. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE PROPHET'S FAVORITE WIFE. HOW HE CONDUCT- 
ED HIS LOVE-AFFAIRS. 

The Prophet's Favorite Wife, Amelia. How Brigham made Love in the 
Name of the Lord. How he won an Unwilling Bride. A Lady with 
a Sweet Temper. How she Kicked a Sewing-Machine down the 
Prophet's Stairs. She has a new House built for Her. Rather Ex- 
pensive Habits. Her Pleasant chances for the Future. Mary Van 
Cott Cobb. A Former Love of the Prophet's. Miss Eliza- Roxy 
Snow. The Mormon Poetess. Joseph Smith's Poetic Widow. 
Versification of the Saints. Mrs. Augusta Cobb. Emily Partridge. 



HE favorite wife of the 
Prophet, Amelia Fol- 
som, is a woman about 
forty years of age, and 
was a New England 
girl. 

She was born at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, 
and with her parents, 
who were converts to 
Mormonism, came to Utah. She is tall, 
of a good figure, has rather regular fea- 
tures, brown hair, bluish-gray eyes, and 
a querulous, discontented expression, with 
a very great deal of decision indicated 
by the mouth. And, indeed, in spite of 

JR.GHAM LOOKS AMAZED. all that ^ l av i s hed Upon her, she is not 

happy. She did not wish to marry Brigham, as she had a 
lover to whom she was fondly attached ; but he wished to 
32 




MAKING LOVE IN THE NAME CF THE LORD. 



marry her, and that settled her fate. Her parents favored 
his suit, and urged it strongly ; but she was bitterly opposed 
to it, and it was months before she would yield to their 
united desires. 

He was a most arduous and enthusiastic lover, and dur- 
ing all the time that his suit was in progress, his carriage 
might be seen standing before the door of her parents' 
house several hours at a time every day. He evidently did 
not intend that absence should render her forgetful of him. 
He promised her anything that she might desire, and also 
agreed to do everything to advance the family interests. 
Promises had no weight with her. He then had recourse 
to " Revelation ; " he had been specially told from heaven 
that she was created especially for him, and if she married 

anyone else she would be 
for ever damned. The poor 
girl begged, pleaded, protest- 
ed, and shed most bitter tears, 
but all to no purpose. His mind 
w r as made up, and he would 
not allow his will to be crossed. 
She had been converted to 
believe in special revelation, 
and to look upon Brigham as 
the savior of all the Mormon 
people, and to think that diso- 
bedience to him was disobedi- 
ence to God, since God's commands came through him. 
In answer to her pleading, he said, " Amelia, you must be 
my wife ; God has revealed it to me. You cannot be 
saved by anyone else. If you marry me, I will save you, 
and exalt you to be a queen in the celestial world ; but if 
you refuse, you will be destroyed, both soul and body." 

This is the same argument he used to win me, and the 
one he has always in reserve, as the last resort, when, 
everything else fails to secure his victim. 







AMELIA FOLSOM. 
[Brigham's Favorite Wife.] 



AMELIA DEMOLISHES A SEWING-MACHINE. 499 

Of course she yielded ; what else was she to do ? It was 
a foregone conclusion when the courtship commenced. 
She was married to him the 23d of January, 1863, more 
than six months after the anti-polygamy law had been 
passed by Congress, and the marriage was celebrated 
openly, and in defiance of the law. 

Since the marriage, Amelia has ruled with a hand of 
iron, and she has her lord in pretty good subjection. She 
has a terrible temper, and he has the benefit of it. On one 
occasion he sent her a sewing-machine, thinking to please 
her ; it did not happen to be the kind of a one which she 
wanted; so she kicked it down stairs, saying, "What did 
you get this old thing for? You knew I wanted a ' Singer-.' " 

She had a Singer at once. 

I was once present when she wanted her husband to do 
something for her; he objected, and she repeated her de- 
mand, threatening to "thrash him," if he did not comply. 
It is, perhaps, unnecessary to say that she was not obliged 
to ask him again. I know he is afraid of her, and that she 
holds him now through fear, rather than love. She accom- 
panies him to the theatre, and occupies the box, while the 
rest of the wives sit in the parquet. She goes with him 
on his visits to the settlements, and drives out with him 
constantly. 

She has a beautiful new house, elegantly furnished, and 
Brigham has very nearly deserted the "Bee-Hive," except 
during business hours, and spends most of his time at 
Amelia's residence. She dresses elegantly, has jewels and 
laces, and has saved ten thousand dollars out of her " pin-* 
money," which she placed in bank. I am delighted at her 
success in getting so much ; the other wives have succeeded 
in getting nothing but their living from him, some scarcely 
that; and I, for my part, congratulate Amelia on her good 
management. It was a hard struggle for her to marry 
him, and all she gets will never half repay her for the suf- 
fering she has endured in the past, even if she has grown 
contented now. 



5OO AMELIA ASSERTS HER "RIGHTS." 

She is rather careless in her treatment of the other wives, 
but gets along the best with v the " proxies." When she 
lived at the " Bee Hive," she dined at the " Lion House," 
with her husband and the other wives. She and Brigham 
sat at a table by themselves a small table, standing at 
the head of the dining-room. The other wives, with their 
children, sat at a long table, running nearly the entire 
length of the room. The fare at this table was very plain, 
while the other was loaded with every delicacy that the 
season would afford. When strangers dined with Brigham, 
the difference in the fare was less noticeable, and the long 
table would be amply provided for, so as to make a good 
impression upon the visitor. Amelia is not well ; indeed, 
she is at times quite an invalid. She has no children. 

About six months before my marriage to the Prophet, he 
took a pretty young widow, Mary Van Cott, for a wife, 
much to Amelia's distress, who had considered herself the 
last for so long, that she was quite unprepared for the intro- 
duction of a rival. She was very bitter in her denunciations 
both of Brigham and Mary, and commenced at once to 
make friends with some of the other wives. She said to 
Aunt Zina, I believe, that she knew now how Emmeline felt 
when Brigham took her. Emmeline had been the favorite 
wife for years, and was really fond of her husband, and it 
was a terrible blow to her when he deserted her for another. 

For some time Brigham's fickle affections hovered about 
Mary, but Amelia, with a determination which but few 
Mormon women possess, fought against her rival until she 
compelled her lord to withdraw his attentions from the new 
wife, or to bestow them on the sly. Mary felt very much 
hurt and aggrieved, but she has managed to hold her own 
sufficiently to get a very pretty cottage house, which is very 
daintily furnished, and which she makes very attractive. 

She has two children, one by a former husband ; the 
other, a pretty little girl, three or four years old, the 
youngest of Brigham's children, and who is always called 



BRIGHAM S LAST BABY 



501 



"Baby." After I left it was said she very nearly de- 
cided to take the same step. She was very discontented, 
and the treatment she received from the Prophet and his 
family was not such as to encourage her to stay with him. 
Her own people, who are devout Mormons, became aware 
of her intention, and finally succeeded, by a great amount 
of persuasion, in inducing her to try a little longer. Brig- 
ham, too, found out what step she was contemplating, and 
knowing that opinion would set strongly against him if two 
of his wives should leave him so nearly at the same time, 
added his arguments to theirs, and also agreed to fix her 
house, and give her more things, among which was a grand 
piano, if she would not bring another scandal upon him. 
For the sake of her child she decided to remain, but she is 
in a state of mental rebellion, which may break out at any 
time. She is, since my defection, the last added member 
of the family. 

Miss Eliza R. Snow is the first of Brigham's " proxy " 
wives, and is the most noted of all Mormon women. She 
was one of Joseph Smith's 
wives, and, after his death, 
was sealed to Brigham for 
time, but is to return to Jo- 
seph in eternity. She was 
the founder of the " Female 
Relief Society," is the mo- 
tive power of the w Woman's 
Exponent," although Miss 
Green acts as editor, per- 
sonates " Eve " in the " En- 
dowments," and is a poetess 
of no inconsiderable merit. 
She writes hymns for all 
occasions, and most of her poems are full of a strong reli- 
gious fervor. She is a thorough Mormon, and believes 
absolutely every portion of the doctrine, and might con- 




Miss ELIZA R. SNOW. 
[Mormon Poetess.] 



502 



BRIGHAM S IDEA OF FAMILY RIGHTS. 



tend with Orson Pratt for the title of " Defender of Poly- 
gamy." 

Brigham regards her very highly, because she is of such 
inestimable service in the church. She lives at the " Lion 
House," where she has quite a pleasant room, in which she 
receives most of her company. She is the most intellectual 
of all the wives. 

Zina D. Huntington 
was formerly the wife 
of a man named Henry 
Jacobs, who was at one 
time a Mormon. Brig- 
ham was attracted 
towards the wife, sent 
the husband off on a 
mission, and had Zina 
sealed to him. Dr. 
Jacobs apostatized, not 
at all fancying this ap- 
propriation of his fam- 
ily. She is a very no- 
ble woman, and has 
spent her life in the 
service of her ungrate- 
ful husband and the church. She is firm and unyielding 
in her religious faith, and as devout a believer in Mormon- 
ism to-day as she was at her first conversion. She has 
been very useful in the family, acting as physician, nurse, 
and governess, as her services have been required. She is 
perfectly unselfish, and her whole life is devoted to others. 
She is a large, fine-looking woman, with a somewhat 
weary and sad expression, but her face still shows signs of 
mental strength and superiority. 

She has one daughter, Zina, who was formerly an actress 
in the theatre, and has since married an Englishman of the 
name of Thomas Williams. She was his second wife, and 




ZINA D. HUNTINGTON. 
[Wife of Brigham.] 



HE MUST TAKE THE MOTHER TOO ! 



503 



her introduction to the family was strongly resented by the 
first wife, who would never notice her in any way. They 
lived apart, and the husband divided his time equally be- 
tween the two. A few months ago he died very suddenly 
at Zina's, while sitting at the table. When the news was 
conveyed to the first wife, she had the remains brought to 
her, arranged for the funeral without consulting Zina, and 
refused to allow her to ride in the carriage with her to the 
burial. Poor Zina was almost heart-broken, for she dearly 
loved the man whom her fa- 
ther's religion taught her to 
call husband, and she was 
ready to do anything to con- 
ciliate the first wife. She is 
a noble girl, and as conscien- 
tious as her mother. Not very 
long before I left her father, 
we were talking about the 
practice of polygamy. I ex- 
pressed myself strongly and 
bitterly against it. She, in 
turn, defended it. She knew, 
she said, that it brought great 
unhappiness, but that was because it was not rightly lived. 
The theory was correct, but people did not enter it in the 
right spirit. She has certainly suffered from it since then, 
although I believe she tried, to the best of her ability, to 
"live it right." But she, no more- than any one else, could 
make right out of wrong. 

When Mr. Williams asked her in marriage, Brigham 
said he might have her if he'd " take the mother too." So 
Zina, the mother, went to live with Zina, the daughter. 
But Brigham grew ashamed of his meanness toward her, 
and finally gave her a house and lot. 

Years ago, when Brigham was on a mission to New 
England, he met a very charming lady in Boston, Mrs. 




ZINA WILLIAMS. 
[Brigham's Daughter.] 



504 ASKING TO BE SEALED TO CHRIST. 

Augusta Cobb, and at once his elastic fancy was charmed 
for a while. She was a woman of fine social position, cul- 
tured and elegant, the head of a lovely establishment, with 
a kind husband, and a family of interesting children ; but 
she became enamored of the Prophet, accepted the Mormon 
religion, and came to Nauvoo with him, where she was 
sealed as his wife. She is still a very stylish, elegant 
woman for her age, but for several years past she has been 
grossly neglected by the Prophet. Her religious enthusi- 
asm has increased until it is almost mania, and, finding 
that her husband was wearying of her, and seeking new 
faces, she begged to be released from him for eternity, and 
be sealed to Jesus Christ, who, her church told her, was a 
polygamist. 

Brigham, with all his blasphemous audacity, dared not 
do that ; so he quieted her by telling her that he was not at 
liberty to do that his authority did not extend so far ; but 
he would do the next best thing, and seal her to Joseph 
Smith. She consented, and now belongs to Brigham only 
for time, "having been transferred to Joseph for eternity." 

Her family still remember her fondly, and grieve over 
her delusion. One of her relatives a granddaughter, I 
think sent word to me, a short time since, that she wished 
to see me, to ask about Mrs. Cobb, for it had been a long 
time since they had heard from her directly, and it would 
be such a comfort to meet one who had seen her so recently. 
I have not yet met the lady, but shall take the first oppor- 
tunity to see her, though I can, I fear, tell her little that 
will satisfy her. 

Another proxy wife, Emily Partridge, was a young, 
childless xvidow, very patient and gentle, and very pretty, 
too. She belonged to Joseph Smith, and was among those 
whom Brigham todk. For some time she lived at the farm, 
but not understanding dairy work, she did not suit her hus- 
band. She is willing to work, and do whatever she can 
do, but is no more able than the rest of the world to accom- 



SHE COULD ONLY SUBMIT. 55 

plish impossibilities. He was so angry at her want of suc- 
cess at the farm, that he said, in speaking of her, "When I 
take another man's wife and children to support, I think 
the least they could do would be to try and help a little." 
To be sure, he is the earthly father of those children, but 
he makes a decided distinction between them and those he 
calls his own. There are five children, Emily, Carlie, 
Don Carlos, Mary, and Josephine. Emily is plural wife of 
Hiram B. Clawson, her half-sister Alice's husband ; Carlie 
and Mary were both married to Mark Croxall, the Western 
Union telegraph operator. He was very fond of Mary, 
who has since died. Carlie he treats with the utmost indif- 
ference, and neglects her openly. A while ago he became 
very much enamored of a Danish girl, and would allow 
Carlie to go home alone from the theatre or other place of 
amusement, while he went off with this girl, who was Car- 
lie's inferior in every way. The poor girl is heart-broken 
at this careless treatment, but what can she do? There is 
nothing for any Mormon woman to do but to submit, and 
let her heart break in the mean while. The sooner it is 
over, and she is out of her misery, the better. Very few 
care how soon they die. Life is not pleasant enough to be 
clung to very tenaciously. 

Emily Partridge lived at the w Lion House " for several 
years, enduring every indignity at the hands of the family. 
Now she has a cottage outside, which Brigham gave her, 
telling her, when she moved into it, that he should in future 
expect her to support herself and children. 

This woman ends the list of Brigham's living wives, but 
some that have died have had such a career, and been so 
well known, that I cannot refrain from mentioning them. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 



THE DEAD WIVES OF THE PROPHET. HE NEVER 
WAS KNOWN TO SHED A TEAR. 

The Discarded Favorite. The Story of Emmeline Free. A Stupen- 
dous Humbug. A "Free" Opinion of Mormonism. Amelia comes 
upon the Scene. How Brigharn Insulted Emmeline Free. Brigham 
is Ashamed of his Cowardice. I tell him a little of my Mind. 
Joseph A. expresses his Opinion. Apologizes for his Father. 
Death of Emmeline Free. The Story of Clara Chase. The Proph- 
et's Maniac Wife. Ellen Rockwood, and the Cause of her Neglect. 
A Wife who was visited once in Six Months. Margaret Alley. 
How the Prophet treated his Dead Wife. He steals her Children's 
Property. How he Scandalized another Wife, and sent her Home. 
He " Never shed a tear at a Wife's Death. 



OR many years the fa- 
vored wife, the one who 
ruled over her husband, 
and reigned in the fami- 
ly , was Emmeline Free. 
The Prophet married 
her when she was quite 
young, having first to 
overrule the objections 
of her parents, who, al- 
though Mormons, were 
much opposed to poly- 
gamy. She was a will- 
ing convert, for she had 
been taught that Brig- 
ham Young was a near 
approach to divinity, 
and she had unbound- 
child, for she was 




A LITTLE CONVERSATION WITH B 



ed reverence for him ; and the 



A WOMAN'S OPINION OF MORMONISM. 507 

little more than that, was flattered and delighted at the 
Prophet's wish to have her for a wife. 

Those who knew her at the time of her marriage say 
that she was an extremely lovely girl, and I can well 
believe it, for she was a very prepossessing woman. She 
was tall and graceful, with brown eyes, and fair hair that 
waved naturally. Her face was pleasant in expression 
and very bright, until it became saddened by her husband's 
desertion of her for Amelia. 

I used to see a great deal of her. I visited at her house 
when I was a girl, was intimate with her children, and saw 
more of her while I was a member of the family than of 
any other. In virtue, I suppose, of her former position, 
Brigham never neglected her as he did some of his other 
wives, and she always retained a certain influence over 
him. She was not afraid of him, and had long since 
ceased to regard him with awe. I once entered the Proph- 
et's office when she was there; she was talking quite 
earnestly, and did not stop on my entrance ; she concluded 
her conversation by saying, 

"Well, I've lost faith in the whole thing. I consider 
Mormonism a stupendous humbug, and all the people who 
have been made to believe in it, terrible dupes. I've no 
patience with it any longer." 

Her husband " our " husband at the time laughed as 
though he considered it a good joke, and turned the con- 
versation, making it general, so that it included me. I 
think he did not wish such " heresy " talked before his 
young wives, lest it should engender discontent in their 
hearts. He needn't have been troubled about me, for the 
mischief was already done. I had begun to think things 
out for myself, and I had arrived very much at the same 
conclusion that Emmeline had, although I had not dared 
to express my opinion to any one. 

Once during my married life with him, Brigham invited 
Emmeline and myself to go with him to Brigham City, 



508 HOW BRIGHAM DECEIVED EMMELINE. 

where he was to hold a conference meeting. There was 
a large party, and we went with the usual pomp which 
attends such occasions. I enjoyed it better than I did most 
of the excursions I took with him, because I was very fond 
of Emmeline, and preferred to have her rather than any 
of the other wives. I think she felt the same way toward 
me, because she knew that I was her champion ; moreover, 
she was quite aware of my feeling toward " our " husband, 
and the difficulty he had had in inducing me to become his 
wife, and she did not consider me in any degree her rival. 
We arrived one afternoon, and everything was most 
amicable. He was unremitting in his attentions to Emme- 
line, and I was very happy to see her happy, and enjoyed 
myself very much with some of the younger members of 
the family. In the evening he told Emmeline that he 
should expect her to accompany him to church the next 
day. 

The next morning he arose very early, and drove away 
in a buggy alone ; in a little while he returned with Ame- 
lia, breakfasted with her, and started away again. In the 
meantime Emmeline, who had not heard of Amelia's 
arrival, was preparing to accompany her husband to 
church : she dressed with unusual care, and made herself 
look very pretty. She waited impatiently, but he did not 
come. I knew of the arrival, and when I went up stairs 
and saw Emmeline waiting with her bonnet on, I asked 
her if she was not going to start soon, as it was getting 
late. 

"I am waiting for Brother Young," said she. 

"He has gone long ago," said I. "I thought you 
knew it." 

"Gone, without me? Why, that's funny, when he 
made such a point of my going with him." 

"Yes; but that was before Amelia came." 

Emmeline's face changed expression in a moment. 
"She here?" 



A DISAPPOINTED WIFE. 509 

" Yes ; she came this morning. * Brother Young went 
to the depot to meet her." 

"Then he must have known she was coming. Can I 
never go any where without having her thrust in my face ? 
I thought for once I should be spared the infliction." 

She took off her things, and I laid mine aside, too, and 
in place of going to the grand conference meeting and 
listening to " our " husband's eloquence, we had a confer- 




WAITING FOR BRIGHAM TO KEEP H 



ence of our own, and that morning I came nearer to 
Emmeline's heart than I ever had before. She talked to 
me unreservedly and unrestrainedly, and told me events in 
her history that were full of thrilling interest, but which 
were given me in confidence, and which I cannot give again 
to the world. I think the dead eyes would haunt me for 
ever, and the dead lips would move in ghostly reproach if 
I betrayed her even now. Dear, loving heart, that beat 



5IO "l THINK BRIGHAM FELT ASHAMED," 

so wearily through all the years, I hope you are meeting 
your reward now, cradled in the infinite love of a Divine 
Father ! Tears dimmed my eyes and moistened my cheeks, 
when I read, a few days since, of your death ; but they 
were tears of joy at your glad release, and not such bitter 
tears of indignant sorrow as I shed that morning over the 
story of your wrongs. 

I think Brigham felt ashamed and a little conscience- 
stricken. I know he was decidedly uncomfortable when 
he met his insulted wife again. He tried every means in 
his power to propitiate her, and I never saw him assume 
so abject a manner before. Amelia returned that day, and 
he told Emmeline that he did not know of her intention to 
come down, that he had not expected her at all. He also 
told her that the reason he paid so much attention to 
Amelia was, that he might " save her soul." 

Emmeline did not believe him when he told her he did 
not expect Amelia, and she told him so very plainly. He 
then came to me, and said, 

" Emmeline 's real mad at me isn't she ? " 
"Yes," said I, "but no more than you deserve. I think 
it's too bad in you to take her for a pleasure trip, and then 
get Amelia here at the first stopping-place." 

" I didn't get her here. I didn't know she was coming." 
" Well, all I can say is, it looked like it ; you certainly 
went to the station to meet her." 

" I just went down to see who had come, that's all. Seems 
to me you're taking Emmeline's part pretty strong ain't 
you?" 

"Yes, I am, for I think you've treated her badly." 
" Guess a little of the mad is on your own account 
isn't it?" 

" Not a particle of it. Amelia doesn't interfere with me." 
He laughed and went out. Presently Joe made his 
appearance, probably sent by his father. 

" So Emmeline is cutting up rough about Amelia's com- 
ing, is she? " he asked of me. 



THE MANIAC. 511 

" Not at all ; she's indignant, but that's no more than is to 
be expected; but as for 'cutting up rough,' as you term it, 
she's too much of a lady to do that." 

"Well, it's too bad to have this fuss ; but I suppose I'm 
to blame for the whole affair. I was coming down, and I 
didn't want to come alone, so I asked Mary, Alice, and 
Amelia to come along too. I never thought of Emmeline 
when I asked Amelia." 

"Mary" was Joseph A.'s first wife, Alice was his sister, 
and the two were very intimate with Amelia. This story 
sounded very well, but I didn't believe it, neither did 
Emmeline, when she heard it. It was too evident that Joe 
had been sent by his father to endeavor to make peace. Be 
that as it may, Amelia did not put in an appearance again 
during the trip. 

Emmeline had been an invalid for years, and I was not 
surprised to learn of her death. When I heard of it, I felt 
as I always do when I hear of the death of any Mormon 
woman. I thank God to think their misery is over. She 
had eight children, Marinda, Ella, Louise, nicknamed 
" Punk " by her father, Hyrum, Lorenzo, Alonzo, Ruth, 
and Delia. 

Marinda is the only wife of Walter Conrad. Ella and 
Louise are both married out of polygamy, one to Nelson 
Empy, the other to James Harris. Hyrum, so far, con- 
tents himself with one wife. 

Clara Chase is usually spoken of as "the maniac." She 
died mad several years since, leaving a large family of 
children. She married him when quite young, but she 
never was a firm believer in Polygamy, indeed, she dis- 
trusted the principles of it from the very beginning, and 
had many struggles of conscience before she could make 
up her mind to marry the Prophet, and she suffered per- 
petual remorse ever after. She had a peculiar face, low- 
browed and dark, and it was rarely lighted up by any 
pleasurable motive. There was on it an expression of fixed 
melancholy that seldom varied or changed. 



$12 "YOU HAVE SENT ME TO HELL ! " 

Knowing her aversion to the system, and her distrust of 
it and of him, Brigham at first treated her with a very 
great deal of consideration. He gave her an elegant room, 
nicely furnished, and placed in it a large portrait of himself. 
He tried to make her surroundings as cheery as possible, 
and so wean her from the melancholy into which she had 
fallen. As long as he devoted himself personally to her, 
she was comparatively cheerful and content, and tried her 
best to be happy ; but when he neglected her she was 
almost desperate, and wandered about in a half-dazed 
fashion, weeping and moaning, and calling on God to for- 
give her. 

Just before her last child was born, her fits of remorse 
were terrible. She endured untold agonies, and accused 
herself of having committed the unpardonable sin, and she 
knew salvation was denied. Those who were about her at 
the time, say that it was heart-rending to hear her. 

Just at this time, when her husband should have given 
her the most love and tenderest of sympathy, he was, more 
than ever, harsh, cruel, and unfeeling, and treated her with 
such marked coldness and contempt, that she went insane, 
and raved constantly. " I am going to hell ! I am going to 
hell 1 " was her agonized cry. " Brigham has caused it ; 
he has cursed me for ever. Don't any of you go into poly- 
gamy ; mind what I say ; don't do it. It will curse you, 
and damn your souls eternally." When she saw her hus- 
band, she cursed him as the cause of her downfall. " I 
have committed the unpardonable sin ; you have made me 
do it. O, curse you ! curse you ! You have sent me to 
hell, and I am going soon." To her children, as they 
gathered round her, she cried, " O, don't follow my ex- 
ample ! Don't go into polygamy, unless you wish to be 
cursed ! Don't let my children do as I have done," she 
would say to those about her. No help could avail her. 
Brigham and his counsellors " lafd hands " on her. A doc- 
tor was called, but all to no purpose. She died in the midst 



"NO HELP COULD AVAIL HER." 513 

of her ravings. Her children's names were Mary, Maria, 
Willard, and Phoebe. Mary is dead. Maria is the wife of 
William Dougall. Phoebe is the only wife of Walter Batie. 
Willard, the only son, has just graduated with honors at 
West Point. 

Ellen Rockwood was one of the least regarded of the 
wives. She was a little woman, in delicate health, and 
very fond of fancy-work. She was the daughter of the 
warden of the penitentiary, one of Brigham's faithful officers. 
Her influence with the Prophet was very small, as she had 
no children, and was regarded as of little consequence on 
that account. Still, I do not think that Brigham ever posi- 
tively ill-treated her. He used to call on her very cere- 
moniously once in six months. 

Margaret Alley, who was never much of a favorite, died 
in 1853. She was morbid in temperament, and, before her 
death, became very melancholy, owing to the neglect of her 
husband. She had two children, Eva and Mahonri-Mori- 
anchamer. 

One of Brigham's "proxy" wives was Jemima Angell, a 
relative of Mary Ann Angell, his first living and legal wife. 
Her husband had died, leaving her with three children ; and 
when she came to Nauvoo, Brigham found them. He 
wanted a servant, and she wanted salvation. The dis- 
coveries were simultaneous, and she was very soon persuaded 
to be sealed to him. All the while they were in Nauvoo, 
" Aunt Mima " worked untiringly, and on the arrival at 
Salt Lake he gave her a lot of land for her children. One 
of her sons built a house on it, but she did not occupy it, as 
she could not be spared from Brigham's kitchen. She 
worked until she became broken down in mind and body, 
and then Brigham sent her to her daughter, who was mar- 
ried to a poor man, and had a large family of children, yet 
was willing to take her mother, and do the best he could by 
her. She died very soon, and the daughter's husband 
telegraphed the news of the death to Brigham ; also the 
33 



514 ''HE END OF "AUNT MIMA!" 

time they should arrive with the body for burial. They 
lived fifty miles from Salt Lake, in the Weber Valley, and, 
as they could not obtain a coffin there, they put the body 
into a box to convey it to her husband, who, when they 
arrived, was not at home ; at least, he could not be found ; 
and what is called the " Eagle Gate," or the entrance to the 
Prophet's premises, was closed against them. They could 
not gain admittance for hours ; and, in the mean time, all 
that was left of " Aunt Mima " lay in a pine box in an open 
wagon, with every avenue to her husband's house closed 
against her. 

Finally, even Brighana grew ashamed, and allowed him- 
self to be found ; and when they asked him where they 
should take her, said, very carelessly, " O, I suppose she 
might as well go to her sisters', upon the hill ! " She was 
taken there, and decently buried, though Brigham grumbled 
about the expense. 

In the mean time, the land that he had given her had in- 
creased in value, and when the children went to take pos- 
session of it, he refused to let them have it, although it 
would have been a God-send to poor Mrs. Frazier, with her 
large family of children. But his avarice is so inordinate 
that no amount of suffering stands in the way of his self- 
enrichment. Once he is bent on obtaining a piece of prop- 
erty, he does not care whom he defrauds to obtain it. 

At the time he was sealed to Lucy Biglow, he had her 
sister sealed at the same time. She was very pretty, and 
he had seemed very fond of her. But suddenly his fond- 
ness cooled, and he treated her in the most shameful man- 
ner. He heaped every indignity upon her, and finally sent 
her back to her parents, saying she had been untrue to him. 
She protested her innocence ; but all in vain. He would 
not, or professed not, to believe her, and talked harshly and 
cruelly to her when she attempted to vindicate herself. 

Her parents were very much grieved, and were tossed 
about with conflicting doubts. They wanted to believe their 



THE DISGRACED WIFE. 515 

daughter, and, in their hearts, I believe they did ; yet they 
dared not dispute Brigham. They took the poor, heart- 
broken girl home, and she fairly pined to death under the 
disgrace that her husband tried to attach to her name. 

Besides those wives whom I have already mentioned, 
there have been very many more who have been married to 




THE DISGRACED WIFE. 



him w for eternity." I should be sorry even to guess their 
numbers. There was also one wife, who, during " Reforma- 
tion" times, was said to have "run away to California " [a 
thousand miles away through an uninhabited country, and 
before the era of railways in the West] ; but it was whispered 



5l6 HE NEVER SHED A TEAR! 

among wicked Gentiles that really she paid the full penalty 
of the Endowment-Oaths, and in^the Endowment-House, too, 
her throat being cut from ear to ear, and the other horrible 
performances gone through, on account of some indiscretion, 
or want of faith. Of course, I do not vouch for the truth of 
this statement. I simply give it in common with much else 
for what it is worth. 

I have heard Brigham say, in speaking of the number 
of wives and children that he had buried, "that he never 
shed a tear at anyone's death ; " and I believe that, if every 
friend he had in the world lay before him, cold and still 
and with frozen pulse, he would look on unmoved and in- 
different, and never shed a tear, so utterly heartless is he. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



THE PROPHET AT HOME. HOW HE LOOKS, LIVES, AND 
ACTS. MORMON PHILANTHROPY AND EDUCATION. 

Brigham at Forty-five and at Seventy-five. Slipping the Yoke. The 
Salt Lake Tribune. Books on Mormonism. Prophetic Philanthropy. 

The New Temple. Paying the Workmen. The Tabernacle. 
Advantages of the Presidency. Free Schools and Liberal Education. 

Sharp Practice. The Rich and the Poor. Unconscious Sarcasm. 

Looking into the Future. The Spectacles of Ignorance. Personal 
Habits. The Prophet's Barber. Dinner at the Lion House. The 
Good Provider. Helping herself. Prophetic Cunning. Evening 
Devotions. A Gift in Prayer. Advice to the Deity. Fatherless 
Children. The Bee Hive. Monogamist vs. Polygamist 

NLESS I pause and look 
back almost to my very 
babyhood, and contrast 
Brigham Young as he 
then was with the Brig- 
ham Young of to-day, 
I can scarcely realize 
the change that has 
taken place in this man. 
As I recollect him first, 
he was a man in the 
prime of life, with rather 
a genial face, and a 
manner which, though 
abrupt at times, had 
nothing of the assump- 
tion and intolerance 
which characterize it 

now. Indeed there was, at that time, a semblance of hu- 
mility, which served his purpose well, by strengthening the 
confidence of the people in him. 




DINNER AT THE LION HOUSE. 



518 THE MORMON MESSIAH. 

Had he claimed, at that auspicious point in his career, 
when accident placed him at the head of this peculiar sect, 
that he was the peer of Joseph Smith, upon whom had de- 
scended the mantle of that martyred saint, his pretensions 
would have been treated as contemptuously as were Sidney 
Rigdon's. His shrewdness plainly showed him that, and 
his cunning and tact pointed out to him the surest way of 
gaining an ascendency over his followers. 

He taught them that Joseph was their Messiah ; that he 
was only acting in his place until he should be restored to 
them in person ; which, strange as it may seem, many still 
believe will occur, and actually watch for his visible pres- 
ence among them again. Still, that belief does not obtain 
so generally as it did during the first years after Joseph's 
death. The gradual change in the President has not been 
without its effects, and there is now very much more of the 
material than of the spiritual in the Mormon belief. 

Nearly everything that was done by him in those earlier 
days was done in the name of the Lord and Joseph, and 
he was constantly in the habit of expressing his intentions 
of carrying out "brother Joseph's" plans. Gradually, as 
he could without its being too closely observed and com- 
mented on, he dropped "brother Joseph," and made his own 
desires the law by which the people were to be ruled. 
Yet so quietly and subtly was this done, that the Saints 
never knew when they passed from the rule of Joseph 
Smith and superstition, to the absolute despotism of Brig- 
ham Young, which has been indeed a " reign of terror." 

The absolute belief which he used to express in Joseph, 
and his unquestioning faith in his works and mission, he 
expected every one to yield to him in turn ; and he and his 
immediate followers and associates have taught and insisted 
upon this blind subjection so long, that the Mormon people 
have neglected to use their reasoning powers, until they 
have become so blunted, that the majority of them are inca- 
pable of arriving at any conclusions by their own unaided 
effort, or of forming any independent opinions. 



DISCUSSING BRIGHAM'S MERITS. 519 

In the early days, in his intercourse with the people, he 
was one of them, a sharer in their adversity, a compan- 
ion, and a friend. Now, he holds himself apart from them, 
looks upon himself as above and beyond them, as some- 
thing better than they, and they partake of his own de- 
lusion, and assist him in his self-deception. 

Now and then one keener than the rest sees the change, 
and deplores it. Rough old Heber C. Kimball could never 
become reconciled to it, and, more honest and more daring 
than the others, used to express himself very freely. 

" Brigham's God is gold," he said one day to the apostle 
Orson Hyde ; " he is changed much since he and I stood 
by each other, in the old days, defending the faith. He 
has become a selfish, cold-hearted tyrant, and he doesn't 
care at all for the old friends who have stood by him and 
loved him. What do you think of that, Brother Orson ? " 

" That sort of talk may do for Brother Heber," was the 
reply, " but it would not do for Brother Orson. He could 
not express himself m that manner with impunity, so he 
will say nothing." 

At forty-five Brigham Young was a common looking, 
very ordinary appearing man, in no way the superior of 
the majority of the church, and decidedly the inferior of 
some of the members. He was homely in speech, neither 
easy nor graceful in manner, and dressed very plainly in 
homespun. 

Brigham Young, at seventy-five, has the appearance of 
a well-preserved Englishman, of the yeoman class. There 
is less bluster in his manner than formerly, but more inso- 
lent assumption. He is still the mental inferior of some of 
the officers of his church, but in crafty cunning and mali- 
cious shrewdness he is far in advance of any of his asso- 
ciates. He is not more finished and elegant in his mode of 
speecji, but he says less, and consequently has won the 
opinion of having grown more pleasing in his address. 
He is arrogant to his inferiors, and unpleasantly familiar to 



$20 APING THE GENTILES. 

the very few whom he desires for any reason to conciliate. 
He dresses in the finest of broadcloth, fashionably cut, is 
more finical than an old beau, and vainer and more anx- 
ious than a young belle, concerning his personnel. He 
says that this change in his mode of dress has been brought 
about by his wives. I have no doubt that Amelia may 
have had some influence in that direction ; still his own 
inclinations probably had just as much to do with it. 

Since he has allowed himself to see and be seen by more 
of the outside world than he formerly did, he has grown to 
appear more like the Gentiles, concerning whom he sneers 
so loudly, even while aping their manners and customs. 
He is impatient of criticism, and as sensitive to public opin- 
ion as though he were not constantly defying it. He is at 
once ambitious and vain, and, like all persons who turn 
others to ridicule, is very sensitive to anything approaching 
it when it is directed towards himself. He reads every- 
thing that is written against him. I think no book has ever 
been published, exposing him and his religious system, 
which he has not perused, from the title page to the con- 
clusion. He loses his temper every morning over the Salt 
Lake Tribune, the leading Gentile paper of Utah, and 
longs for a return of the days when one word of his would 
have put a summary and permanent end to the existence of 
this sheet, by the utter annihilation of everything and every- 
body connected with it. But the time is forever past when 
the "unsheathing of his bowie-knife," or the "crooking of 
his little finger," pronounced sentence upon offenders, and 
the Gentile paper and its supporters flourish in spite of him. 

I remember once going into his office, and finding him 
examining the advertising circular of a book on Mormon- 
ism, written by a lady who had for a time been a resident 
of Utah. He commenced reading it aloud to me in a 
whining voice, imitating the tone of a crying woman. 
Yet, notwithstanding this attempt to make a jest of it, I 
knew that the publication of this book annoyed him exces- 







BRIGHAM YOUNG. 



PROPHETIC BEGGING. 521 

sively, and that he was both curious and anxious concern- 
ing the contents, and the effect they would produce ; for, 
with all his professed contempt for Babylon and its Gentile 
inhabitants, he is very sensitive concerning the opinions 
which are held concerning him by these unregenerate souls. 

Unscrupulous and avaricious, he has made even disasters 
profitable to himself. After the tragical hand-cart expedi- 
tion, he sold the hand-carts that remained when the emi- 
grants had all got in for fifteen dollars apiece. This was 
to go to the "church fund," which virtually means "Brig- 
ham's private purse." It has been already related how he 
made his "improved carriage scheme" more than pay for 
itself several times over, although they did not survive the 
first trip. 

As " Trustee in Trust " of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
the Latter-Day Saints, all the money of the church passes 
through his hands, or, more properly speaking, into them, 
since it is rarely known to leave them again. The tithing- 
fund, and the subscriptions for various church purposes, 
are all given into his keeping ; and although the sums of 
money gathered in this way have been very large, none of 
it has ever been appropriated to the cause for which it was 
supposed to be intended by those sacrificing souls who de- 
nied themselves that the Lord might be served. 

He is as inexorable a beggar to-day as he was forty 
years ago, when he was a humble follower of Joseph 
Smith, preaching the new gospel to whoever would hear 
him, and being fed and clothed by whoever would supply 
his wants. He made no hesitation in letting these wants be 
known, and he would request that they should be relieved 
in the name of the Lord. 

" Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these 
my little ones, ye have done it unto me," has been the stan- 
dard leaching of the Mormon missionaries from the very 
earliest days ; and no one could enlarge on this passage 
more eloquently than Brother Brigham when he was in 



522 RAISING THE WIND. 

need of a new coat, or a small sum of money, or even a 
supper and a night's lodging. 

He is as eloquent now, when talking on the subject of 
giving, with this exception in his style of address, that he 
now demands instead of asks, and it is disastrous to refuse 
him. He begs for the missionaries, and the poor men never 
get a cent of the thousands of dollars that are raised for 
them. He begs for the Temple, which is his pet subject, 
whenever there is nothing else to beg for, and the amount 
of money which he has raised for the building ought to 
have erected several very imposing edifices. 

Many years ago he levied contributions upon the English 
Saints for tlYe purchase of glass for the Temple windows. 
The sum desired must be collected at once. The Lord was 
soon coming to enter upon his earthly kingdom, and the 
place must be prepared for him. Missionaries preached, 
and laymen exhorted ; they astonished even themselves by 
their eloquence, as they dwelt upon the beauty of Zion, the 
city of the Lord, and the glory that was to descend upon 
his chosen people. Those who were not moved by their 
oratory were impelled by their command ; but, for the most 
part, the money was given voluntarily. Working men and 
women took a few pennies from their scant wages, and gave 
them with wonderful readiness, and then suffered from cold 
and absolute hunger for days after. But they suffered with 
painful joyousness and devotion, since they were giving it 
to the Lord, who had chosen them out of all the world for 
his very own people, and who would make their self-denials 
here redound to their glory and grace when at last they 
should arrive in his presence. 

At that time, the foundation walls of the Temple were 
barely above the ground, and the work has progressed very 
slowly since. At any rate, the glass has not been bought, 
and there seems very little probability of window material 
being needed at present ; and if the Lord is not to visit the 
Saints until his home is completed, even the younger 



ARCHITECTURAL INSPIRATIONS. 



523 




MORMON TEMPLE NOW BUILDING. 



members of the present generation will not be likely to 
see Him. 

The "Tabernacle," 
where the Saints wor- 
ship at present, is one of 
Brigham's few " inspira- 
tions," and is as great a 
success as are most of 
his inspired ideas. It is 
an ugly-looking build- 
ing, oval in shape, with 
a sort of arched roof, 
which shuts down over 
it, like the lid of a wick- 
er-work basket. It is 
very commodious, which 
is its chief recommenda- 
tion, holding comforta- 
bly twelve thousand persons. In this w inspired " edifice, 
every law of acoustics is outraged, and only a small por- 
tion of the congregation can hear what the speaker is say- 
ing. It is two hundred and fifty feet long, one hundred 
and fifty feet wide, and eighty feet high, while there is not 
a column in it to obstruct the view, and the interior view is 
flat and expansive. 

The organ claims to have been built by a good Mormon 
brother, assisted by a large number of mechanics ; and is 
said to be the largest ever built in the United States. It is 
placed at the end of the Tabernacle, directly back of the 
speaker's stand, and the seats for the choir are arranged on 
each side of it. 

This building, in which the Saints are to worship until 
the more pretentious Temple is finished, is ugly in the out- 
ward appearance, cheerless in the interior, very inconven- 
ient in its arrangements, and practically useless unless the 
walls are draped so as to render the voices of the speakers 



524 BALANCING ACCOUNTS. 

audible; but wheu the new building which is said by 
Brigham to be of Divine architecture shall be completed, 
it is probable that these things will be vastly improved. 

In the mean time the begging goes on, but the work 
moves slowly. Large contributions come flowing in, but 
the Temple does not advance visibly ; while Brigham adds 
house to house, field to field, increases his bank deposits, 
and lives as well as any man in his position would wish to 
live. 

The people will take no bpnds from him ; and as it would 




INTERIOR OF TABERNACLE ON SUNDAYS. 

seem like questioning the Lord's anointed, he is supposed 
to administer the financial affairs under the direction of the 
Lord, no statements are ever required of him. Once in a 
while, however, he goes through the form of a settlement 
of accounts, which he simplifies immensely, by a system 
all his own. It is said that at onetime he balanced his 
account with the church by ordering the clerk to place two 
hundred thousand dollars to his account for services ren- 
dered, which was exactly the sum of his indebtedness to 
the church. This was in 1852 ; and in 1867 he repeated 
this peculiar financial operation ; this time . making his ser- 



A LIBERAL SALARY. 525 

vices liquidate an obligation for nine hundred and sixty- 
seven thousand dollars. 

It is worth while to be President of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-Day Saints at a salary like that, and it is 
no wonder that he desires to keep it in the family, and is so 
anxious to appoint a successor. 

But on the other side, see at what terrible rates the poor 
people must have been taxed to have paid for the support 
of this one man and his family, between the years 1847 
and 1867 a period of just twenty years one million 
one hundred and sixty-seven thousand dollars, nearly sixty 
thousand dollars a year. This does not include many 
grants of land and other property, made to him by the ter- 
ritorial legislature, nor his compensation by the United 
States government as governor and Indian agent. Although 
a very ignorant man himself, able neither to read nor write 
the English language correctly, he has always been a bit- 
ter opponent of free schools and liberal education* 

"I will not give a dollar," he says, "to educate another 
man's child. If you school your children, there is great 
danger of their becoming blacklegs and horse thieves," he 
announced on one occasion, yet he seems quite willing that 
his own should take the risk. All of them have received 
a certain amount of education, enough to make them pre- 
sentable in society, and some have had quite superior ad- 
vantages. One son has just graduated at West Point, 
another is a student at the Michigan University Law 
School, and a third has just entered Cornell University. 

Every attempt that has been made for the establishment 
of free schools he has fiercely battled against, and the 
other officers of the church have invariably followed his 
lead. He assures his people that education is the bitterest 
foe to labor. If they allow their children to be taught any- 
thing they will no longer be of any service to their par- 
rents. He dilates largely upon this subject in the Taber- 
nacle. 



526 BRIGHAM ON EDUCATION. 

"I am utterly opposed to the schools," he said, in one 
address. "They have been introduced into the States in 
consequence of the tyranny of the rich over the poor. But 
instead of keeping the people poor, and then providing 
free schools for them, I would have the rich put out their 
money to usury by giving the poor employment, that they 
may be able to sustain themselves and school their own 
children. It is the duty of the rich to use their means, as 
I have done myself, in building factories, railroads, and 
other branches of industry, in order that the laboring peo- 
ple may have a chance to work together, and improve their 
condition ; the rich taking their portion, and all growing 
wealthy together." 

There is an unconscious sarcasm in this last sentence 
that is positively sublime. That one expression, " as I have 
done myself," is the supremest satire. I do not believe 
there is anywhere a man so suspicious of his workmen, so 
penurious in his dealings with them, so anxious to cut their 
wages down to the very lowest penny, as is Brigham Young. 
I know men who have been in his employ for years, and 
have never received the least remuneration. They have 
worked on and on, and when at last they have brought a 
bill against him for their labor, they have been met with 
one equally large on his side for house rent, or goods from 
the co-operative store, or are told that their labor is to go 
toward paying their tithing. 

If all the rich men use their means, " as I have done 
mine," therefore there will be very little chance of the 
poor man being able to educate their children at all : which 
is exactly what Brigham Young wants. Had he spoken 
the truth he would have said, "I am opposed to free schools. 
They will rend this dark veil of superstition which envel- 
ops you, and let in the light of reason, and this will loosen 
my hold on you. If you educate your children you make 
better men and women of them, but they will not be such 
blind slaves to me as you have been. The day that sees 



THE FAMILY DINNER. 527 

knowledge generally disseminated throughout this commu- 
nity sees my power broken, my 'opportunities' gone, and 
therefore, with my consent, we will have no free schools." 

Unlettered and uncultured as he is, he recognizes the 
power of education, and that is why he is such a bitter op- 
ponent to general culture, and why, at the same time, he 
takes special care that his own children shall lack no ad- 
vantages. 

His personal habits are quite simple, and he is very 
regular in his mode of living. He rises usually about 
seven o'clock, dresses and breakfasts very leisurely, and 
appears at his private office about nine. He examines his 
letters, dictates replies to his secretary, reads the morning 
papers, or has them read to him, and attends to some of 
his official business. His barber comes to him at ten 
o'clock, and for the time he is engaged exclusively at his 
toilet. The presence of visitors never interrupts this im- 
portant event of the day. The rest of the morning he 
devotes to callers, and to such business as requires his own 
personal attention. At three he dines, and it is then that 
he meets his family for the first time in the day. Dinner 
is served at the Lion House, and the appearance of Brig- 
ham Young's family at dinner is very similar to that at a 
country boarding-house, when the gentlemen are all away 
at business in town, and the wives and children are left 
together. At a short table, running across the head of the 
long dining-room, Brigham sits with his favorite wife by his 
side. In the days when I first used to be at the Lion 
House, as a partial guest and partial resident, Emmeline 
Free occupied this place of honor ; but after Amelia's ad- 
vent, poor, loving Emeline was thrust aside. When Brig- 
ham brings guests to dine with him, they have seats at this 
table also. At a long table, running lengthwise of the 
room, all the other wives are seated, each with her children 
about "her. At the sound of the large dinner-bell, they all 
file in, seat themselves quietly, grace is said by the "pre- 



528 HELP YOURSELF, LADIES. 

siding patriarch" from his table, and the meal goes on. 
The family table is plainly spread, and supplied with the 
very simplest fare, while the smaller one is laden with 
every delicacy that the markets will afford. These, how- 
ever, are only for the President and his favorite wife, and 
the rest of the family must be satisfied merely to look at 
them, and enjoy the dainties by proxy. 

A very amusing incident took place once at this family 
dinner. One of the wives, not usually considered among 
the most spirited ones, who, like all the rest, had sub- 
missively taken the food which had been set before her for 
years, was one day seized by the spirit of discontent. She 
had taken a fancy that she should like some of a particular 
dish which graced her husband's table. She did not ex- 
press her wish, but quietly rising from her place, went 
straight to the other table, helped herself to the coveted 
article, and returning as quietly as she came, took her seat, 
and resumed her meal, amidst looks of consternation from 
the other wives, and of indignant amazement from her 
husband. Surprise made him absolutely speechless for the 
moment ; but I fancy she was properly reproved in due 
time, for she never attempted a repetition of the act. 

When strangers are invited to dine, the tables are more 
uniform in their appointments. The usual contrast between 
the one at which the Prophet and his favorite sit, and that 
around which the other wives and their families are gath- 
ered, is not nearly so marked. There is an air of abun- 
dance, and even of luxury, on these occasions, which gives 
the Prophet the reputation, among his guests, of being, 
what is called in New England parlance, " a good pro- 
vider." 

If only some of these deluded visitors could accidentally 
happen into the same room at a similar meal, they would 
see the true state of affairs ; but Brigham's family are never 
visited accidentally. Indeed, it is but a short time since 
visitors have been allowed in the Lion House at all, for the 



A STRANGE FAMILY GATHERING. 



529 



Prophet has always maintained the strictest privacy regard- 
ing his family. 

After dinner they see no more of him until " family pray- 
ers." At seven o'clock the bell is rung, and the wives and 
children gather in the large Lion House parlor. Not only 
are the wives who live in the house expected to be present, 
but those who have homes outside are also supposed to 
attend evening worship. Not all of them avail themselves 
of this privilege, and the outside attendance is somewhat 




FAMILY PRAYERS AT "THE LIOM HOUSE. 



irregular. I used to go whenever I felt inclined, which 
was very seldom ; and the longer I was a member of the 
family, the more infrequent became my attendance. 

Brigham sits in the centre of the room, at a large table, 
on which is an ornamental " astral " lamp. The wives and 
their respective families are ranged around the room, in the 
order in which they appear at the table. When all are 
seated, Brigham reads a few passages of Scripture, all 
kneel down, and he makes a long prayer. 
34 



530 THE PROPHET'S PRAYERS. 

He was formerly said to have a special "gift" for prayer, 
and he has not lost it; butv somehow his prayers never 
inspired me with veneration. He prays with great unc- 
tion, and, I suppose, unconsciously to himself, some of his 
patronizing manner slips into his appeals to the throne of 
Divine Grace, until his petitions always seemed to me to be 
very much like advice to the Deity rather than entreaties 
for the Divine blessing. If he chances to be in a good 
humor, he chats a little while before leaving the room ; but 
if not, he goes away directly prayers are over, and that is 
the last that is seen of him by the household until the next 
day at dinner. 

Some of his children are almost strangers to him. They 
know nothing of fatherly affection, and while they feel that 
they have, socially, a sort of prestige, by being so closely 
related to him, they feel, personally, only a dread and fear 
of him. He never invites their confidences, nor shows 
himself interested in their affairs ; all this would be quite 
incompatible with his ideas of prophetic dignity. 

The Lion House, where most of the wives live, is a long, 
three-storied house, at the very left of what is known as the 
Prophet's Block. It receives its name from the stone figure 
of a lion crouching over the front portico. There is a stone 
basement ; then the main building, of wood, with peaked 
gable, narrow pointed Gothic windows, and steep roof. In 
the basement are the dining-room, kitchen, laundry, and 
cellar. The parlor is on the principal floor, and the rest 
of the house is taken up by the apartments of the wives, 
each wife having a greater or less number of rooms accord- 
ing to the size of her special family. 

Next to the Lion House is a low building, which is used 
as the "Tithing-Office." Here all the clerks have their 
desks, and receive visits from the Saints who come on 
church or personal business. Adjoining that is Brigham's 
private office, where he receives his own visitors. At the 
extreme right is the Bee-Hive House, a large building, 



CHANGING VIEWS. 531 

which has always been used as Governor Young's official 
residence. 

Lucy Decker has always had the care of it, and has 
lived there with her children. No wife was ever permitted 
to share her husband's apartments there, until the reign 
of Amelia was opened. She has lived there since her 
marriage, and has been virtually the recognized " head of 
the harem." It is extremely probable that when her new 
house is fully finished, the Bee-Hive House will be the 
official residence only in name, and the household there 
will see less of him than ever. 

Polygamist, as he professes to be, he is, under the influ- 
ence of Amelia, rapidly becoming a monogamist, in all 
except the name. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



BRIGHAM AS A FARMER. MY NEW HOUSE. TAKING 
BOARDERS. 

One Year after Marriage. Life at the Farm. House-keeping Extraor- 
dinary. Bread and Milk Dinners. Brigham Tries to Catch us Nap- 
ping. Hours of Labor. Dejection. My New House. Parlor 
Stairs. " Wells Wanted." My Mother receives Notice to Quit. 
My Elder Brother Pays her Board. Failing Faith. Taking Board- 
ers. The Prophet's Contemptible Meanness. Brigham's Neglect. 
Rev. Mr. Stratton. I open my Heart. The New Religion. Woman's 
Sphere. First Glimpses of the Outer World. Forming Resolutions. 



FTER we had been 
married a year, Brig- 
ham decided that I 
should go to "The 
Farm" to live. He 
has several farms 
among his landed pos- 
sessions, but this one, 
which supplies the Salt 
Lake City family with 
milk, butter, cheese, and vege- 
tables, is always spoken of as 
" The Farm." It is about four 
miles from the city, within 
pleasant driving distance, but 
is by no means a desirable place 
of residence. 

Every one of the wives who had been compelled to live 
there had become confirmed invalids before they left the 
place, broken down by overwork ; and the prospect was not 
a pleasant one to me, never strong, and unused to hard, 
continuous labor, such as I knew I should be obliged to 




TOILING FOR BRIGHAM. 



AWAY FROM CIVILIZATION. 533 

perform as mistress of the farm-house. But, as it was my 
husband's will, I went, without a word of protest. I had 
one bit of- comfort my mother was to accompany me. 

Outwardly, my new home had a lovely appearance, and 
Brigham never tired of descanting on its beauties to any 
one who would listen to him. These expressions of admi- 
ration would have been reasonable enough, had not the 
eulogistic owner insisted on its comfort and convenience, as 
well as on its beauty ; but he was just as earnest in recom- 
mending it for those virtues which it did not possess, as he 
was in lauding it for its pleasant exterior. And, indeed, 
with its somewhat irregular architecture, its wide verandas, 
vine-draped and shaded, its broad, low windows, and 
beautiful surroundings, it is one of the pleasantest looking 
places that one would care to see. 

It is built after one of the Prophet's own plans, and he 
says that it cost twenty-five thousand dollars. Possibly it 
did ; but I am certain that, with the same amount of money, 
I could build a house that should vastly exceed that in ex- 
ternal beauty and interior appointments. 

The walls are very thin, and the sun and heat penetrated 
in summer, and the cold in the winter, making it at once 
the warmest and the coldest house I ever saw. That might 
have been a recommendation, had the temperature been 
regulated to suit the seasons; but, unfortunately for our 
comfort, it was hot when we wished it cool, and vice versa. 
My mother hazarded an opinion to this effect in Brigham's 
hearing, and he was greatly scandalized by it. He in- 
formed her that she had been so long away from civiliza- 
tion that she was not a proper judge of what a house ought 
to be ! They both left " civilization " at the same time. 

Housekeepers will understand something of its inconven- 
ience, when I tell them that the stairs leading to the second 
story- went directly from the parlor; that all the sleeping 
rooms were up stairs, and that, in order to reach them, we 
had to pass through a dining-room thirty feet, and a parlor 



534 AN AMIABLE VISITOR. 

forty feet in length; that hired men, family, and visitors 
were all compelled to use the same staircase. If any 
member of the family was ill, everything needed for the 
invalid had to be carried from the kitchen to the sick room, 
rendering the care of the invalid tiresome in the extreme. 

The duties of housekeeper at w the Farm " were neither 
slight nor easily performed. There were butter and cheese 
to make from forty cows, all the other dairy work to attend 
to, besides cooking for twenty-five or thirty men, including 
the farm laborers and the workmen from the cocoonery. I 
know at least six women who have been completely broken 
down under the work at the farm-house, and neither my 
mother nor myself have ever recovered from the illness 
contracted there from overwork. My mother made the 
butter and cheese, and took charge of the cooking. I 
assisted in the latter, took care of the house, did the wash- 
ing and ironing, and was allowed the extreme pleasure of 
carrying the farm supplies to the other wives every week. 

We had occasional visits from Brigham. He was very 
fond of coming unexpectedly, and at all sorts of irregular 
hours, hoping, evidently, that some time he might catch us 
napping. He was so addicted to fault-finding, and so easily 
displeased, that we took no pleasure in his visits, and I 
grew to be positively unhappy every time his approach was 
heralded. If his coming had brought any comfort, I should 
have looked eagerly forward to his visits; as it was, I 
dreaded them, and grew ill with nervousness and appre- 
hension every time he came to us. 

I remember one day, when he visited us, he came about 
noon, just as mother had placed dinner for the workmen 
upon the table. He walked up and down the dining-room, 
surveying every dish with a critical eye, until we began to 
fear that something must be terribly amiss. He professed 
to be such a connoisseur in all matters relating to the cui- 
sine, and was so frank, to say the least, in the expression 
of his opinions, and so careless of the terms which he em- 



HARD WORK AND POOR FARE. 535 

ployed, that we dreaded the remarks which were almost 
certain to follow this critical scrutiny. 

After the men were seated at the table, Brigham called 
my mother into the adjoining room. "You cook too good 
food for those men," he said; "it is too rich for their 
stomachs." 

" I wish to give them something which they can eat, and 
I try to do so," replied she. "They work hard, and I 
surely can do no less than give them palatable food ; yet if 
you do not approve of my manner of providing for them, I 
will make any change you may suggest, if I can satisfy 
the men with the fare." 

" It don't make any difference whether they are satisfied 
or not," was the answer. " I say it is healthier for them to 
have bread and milk, and you must give it to them." 

" Shall I give them this, and nothing else, three times a 
day?" inquired she. 

"Well, once in a while you may set on a little butter, 
too," was the generous reply. 

"But are they to have no meat?" 

" Perhaps I will allow them a little occasionally, but they 
are much better off without it." 

This is a specimen of the interference to which we were 
constantly subjected. 

At another time, he told my mother that six o'clock was 
too early an hour to give the men their supper in summer. 
It was a waste of time, he said ; they ought to work in the 
fields two or three hours longer, at the least. My mother 
reminded him that after supper there were the forty cows 
and other stock to be cared for. He said that could as well 
be done after dark as before ; there was no danger of the 
men hurting themselves with work ; nobody ever did, that 
was in his employ. They all were leagued together, men 
and >vomen alike, to swindle him, and his wives were as 
bad as the rest. 

My mother told the overseer what Brigham had said, and 



53< PROPHETIC STAIRS. 

he replied that, even for the Prophet, he should not ask the 
men to do another hour's work a day; they were over- 
worked already, and they should leave off work at six 
o'clock each day, as they always had done. That ended 
the matter, and the tea hour was unchanged. 

I lived here for three years and a half, long, uneventful 
years, and how I hated my life ! It was dull, joyless, 
oppressed, and I looked longingly back to the dear old days 
at Cottonwood, the restful days that never could come again. 
Even the love I bore my children was changed. It was no 
less tender, no less deep, but it was less hopeful and more 
apathetic. I clung to them in a kind of despair, and I 
dreaded the days, which must inevitably come, when my 
clinging arms could no longer infold them, when my love 
alone would cease to satisfy. 

I could not tell my feelings to my mother, for, although 
she was as sensitive to Brigham's captious fault-finding as I 
was, habit was very strong upon her, and she could never 
separate him from her religion. 

At the end of the three years and a half, he told me one 
day that he was building a house for me in town, which he 
intended to have me remove to as soon as possible. It was 
out of no feeling of regard for me, or care for my comfort, 
which influenced him ; he simply wished to put some one 
else in the farm-house, and it was necessary that I should 
move, to make room for the new comer. I knew all this 
perfectly well, yet I was so happy at the thought of getting 
out of all the drudgery of the past years, that I was per- 
fectly indifferent to the motives which induced him to make 
the change for me. 

When he told me of the house, I said I had one request 
to make of him, which I hoped he would grant. 

"What is it?" inquired he. 

" Are there to be chambers in my new house ? " 

"Yes, certainly." 

" Then will you please not to build the stairs from the 



MY NEW HOUSE. ANNOYING MY NEIGHBORS. 537 

parlor. Let them go out of any other room in the house, 
but do not disfigure that one. Besides being ugly," I con- 
tinued, " it is inconvenient, and excessively annoying to be 
obliged to pass through the best room at all times, and on 
every occasion." 

"You can have stairs out of every room in the house, if 
you want them," was the reply. 

I was quite satisfied, for I thought that equivalent to a 
promise that my parlor should be left as I wished it. He 
told me that he was spending five thousand dollars on my 
new house, and, from his description, I fancied it must be 
a very charming place. 

Visitors to Salt Lake City are always taken to see " Ann 
Eliza's house," and much is made of the fact that it was 
built expressly for my use ; but the following equally im- 
portant facts are carefully concealed : 

Taking a view of it from the street, it was an exceedingly 
pretty cottage, with an air of cosiness about it, which fre- 
quently called out remarks from passers by, who thought 
" Sister Ann Eliza very fortunate in her home." Inside it 
was very inconvenient, and badly arranged, being built 
after the stereotyped prophetic plan. The rooms were very 
small, the kitchen being scarcely large enough for a doll's 
house, measuring ten feet one way, by six feet the other. 
And yet in this room all the washing, ironing, and cooking 
for the family were to be done. Then, to my bitter disap- 
pointment, the only stairs in the house ascended from the 
parlor ! That, too, in the face of my expressed wish. 

There were no facilities for obtaining water, and we were 
compelled to depend upon our neighbors' wells. Naturally 
enough, this annoyed them, and they used frequently to say 
that Brigham Young was abundantly able to provide a well, 
and they did not care to furnish water for his family, or any 
portion of it. Speaking to him concerning these matters 
was worse than useless, for I never could influence him in 
the slightest, while every suggestion which I ventured to 



538 BRIGHAM'S MEANNESS. 

make irritated him extremely ; so I held my peace, after one 
or two attempts to change things a little, so that the house 
should be more convenient. 

I had scarcely got settled in my new home, when he told 
me that my mother must leave me ; he could not afford to 
support her any longer. This, too, when she had worked 
herself ill in his service, and had asked no reward for her 
labors except the privilege of staying with me, her only 
daughter ; the child from whom she had never been sep- 
arated for any great length of time. 

I cried bitterly after my husband had left me, but I would 
not tell my mother what he had said. I knew she would 
be sorely grieved, and that she would go away at once. 
Her independent spirit would not permit her to remain a 
pensioner on this selfish man's unwilling bounty. 

I could not live without her. I leaned on her in piteous 
dependence, and looked to her for all the comfort I had 
outside of my children. In addition to the dread and dis- 
like which had grown up in my heart toward my husband, 
I was beginning to lose faith in the religion which he rep- 
resented. His petty meannesses, his deceit, his unscrupu- 
lousness, his open disregard for the truth, all were so utterly 
at variance with the right, that I could no longer look upon 
him as a spiritual guide and director. 

I looked about me, and on every side I saw so much of 
misery, that I felt it must be a false faith indeed, which 
brought such unhappiness to its followers. Yet I knew no 
other religion, and I groped about in a state of spiritual 
bewilderment, tortured by many conflicting doubts. 

I did not dream, then, of trying to get out of it ; my 
only thought was how to live with the least misery, and my 
best comfort was to keep my mother. 

Finding that I did not tell her, after repeated orders from 
him to do so, he threatened to send her away himself. In 
great distress of mind, I went to my elder brother, who 
offered to pay me five dollars a week for my mother's board, 



A FRIEND IN REV. MR. STRATTON. 539 

and on those terms Brigham expressed his willingness that 
she should remain with me. 

I now began to find it difficult to make him provide even 
the commonest necessaries of life for me, and I plainly saw 
that I must take things into my own hands, and earn my 
own support, and that of my children. I asked permission 
of my husband to take boarders, and he granted my re- 
quest with amazing readiness ; so I went to work in good 
earnest, and soon succeeded in filling my house. As it 
chanced, all my boarders were Gentiles. Brigham knew 
this perfectly well, yet he did not seem in the least con- 
cerned about it. Indeed, of so little importance was I, or 
my actions, that he never troubled himself to come near 
me after he had given his consent that I should support 
myself in the way I considered the easiest. The last time 
that he ever visited me was months before I left my home. 

Previous to the time of receiving these new inmates into 
my family, I had one acquaintance outside the Mormon 
Church. This was Mr. Howard Sawyer, a Gentile gentle- 
man, to whom I was introduced while visiting at Mrs. Ra- 
chel Grant's. Some time after I had commenced my work 
of self-support, I met him again at the house of Mr. Na- 
thaniel V. Felt, a Mormon. The Rev. Mr. Stratton, pas- 
tor of the Methodist church in Salt Lake, was with him, 
and he introduced us at once. He had previously told Mr. 
Stratton that I spoke very freely on the subject of Mormon- 
ism, and that he need not hesitate to question me, as he 
would find me very frank and honest in the expression of 
my opinions. 

Mr. Stratton was the first representative of a religion 
outside the Mormon belief whom I had ever met, and I lis- 
tened anxiously to every word he said, hoping to find some 
ray of light and cheer. As he talked, I felt very strongly 
drawn toward the world which he and Mr. Sawyer repre- 
sented, and I longed to know more concerning it. I was 
much impressed by this interview ; and at its close, Mr. 



540 DEEPER DESPAIR. LONGING FOR COMFORT. 



Stratton expressed a wish to see me again, and to have 
his wife meet me. I was struck by his very manner of 
speaking of her. I had never heard a woman referred to 
in so deferential a tone before, and I wondered at it. 

As the days went by, I grew more miserable, and longed 
inexpressibly for the comfort, which neither my people nor 
their religion for it had ceased to be mine could give 
me. I remembered Mr. Stratton's kindly words, and I 
ventured to send him a message by Mr. Graham, one of 
my boarders, asking if I might see him and his wife, and 
talk with them. 

An urgent invitation to visit them came by way of speedy 

reply ; and in response, 
I spent an entire after- 
noon at their house. 
They received me so 
cordially that my heart 
went out in love toward 
them at once. I talked 
to them unreservedly, 
and opened my soul to 
them. I told them of 
my childhood, my re- 
ligious training, my 
unhappy domestic ex- 
perience, and all the 
occurrences of my 
marriage to Brigham 
Young. They listened with earnest sympathy, and when 
I finished my story were overflowing with words of pity 
and consolation. I shall never forget them in my life. 
They were the sweetest words which had ever been spoken 
to me, for they helped me to see the way out of bondage. 
It was the first glimpse I had ever had of domestic life 
outside of polygamy, and the deference which the husband 
showed to the wife, the confidence she displayed in him, 




RELATING MY STORY TO MR. AND MRS. STRATTON. 



RISING HOPES. NEW RESOLUTIONS. 54! 

and her perfect ease in his presence, were very strange to 
me. The equality on which they seemed to stand puzzled 
me. I could not understand this religion which regarded 
woman as an independent soul, with a free will, and capa- 
bility of judgment. The inferiority of women is so strongly 
insisted upon by the Mormon doctrine that I supposed it 
must be the same everywhere, and the first view which I 
got of this sweet household was a revelation to me. 

I carried home a braver and stronger heart than had beat 
in my bosom for many a long day. I went about my daily 
duties as quietly as though there were not a resolution form- 
ing in my mind which was speedily to overturn my whole 
life, and bring me into a new and strange existence. 

Meanwhile my destiny was working itself out in a way I 
knew not, turning my feet into unexplored paths ; and I 
did not yet see where I was straying, nor what the near 
future was holding in store for me. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 



BREAKING THE YOKE. I LEAVE MY HOME. 

The Workings of Destiny. A Noble Lawyer. A Small Stove and a 
Large Family. Last Interview with Brigham. A Startling Proposal. 
Sickness and Gentile Care. Brigham's Police. A Moral Thun- 
derbolt. My Third Baptism. A Religious Farce. I Decide to 
Escape. A Memorable Day. Removing in Forty Minutes. The 
Walker House. Among the Gentiles. A Perilous Situation. New 
Hopes. Interviewed by Reporters. Unwelcome Notoriety. A 
Touching Letter. A Visit from my Father. The Paper War. Over- 
shooting the Mark. Sueing for a Divorce. A Tempting Offer, $i 5,000 
and my Freedom. The Prophet Astonished. 

FTER a person has 
made up his or her 
mind to take any step 
in a new direction, it 
seems as though every 
event of the life points 
the same way. It is al- 
most as if decision had 
been forced upon him, 
and the course of ac- 
tion was inevitable. 

It was but a very few 
days after my first 
memorable visit to 
Mr. and Mrs. Stratton, 
when I received in my 
family a gentleman and 
his wife by the name of Hagan. Mr. Hagan was a 
lawyer of considerable repute in Salt Lake City, and I 
found both himself and his wife very pleasant inmates of 
my home. 

My family had increased so, that it was quite impossible 
to do the necessary amount of cooking on the very small 




ALONE AT THE HOTEL. 



MY LAST VISIT TO BRIGHAM. 543 

stove which was in my " toy " kitchen. I made up my 
mind to ask Brigham for another, since, as I was working 
hard to support myself, he ought to be willing to assist me 
to this extent. 

I called one day at his office, the last call I ever made 
him, by the way, and preferred my request. He looked 
at me for a moment in evident surprise. 

"I believe you are keeping boarders." 

"Yes, I am," was my reply ; "and that is why I want the 
stove. I cannot do the necessary cooking on the one I 
have." 

" If you want a cooking-stove, you'll get it yourself. I've 
put you into a good house, and you must see to the rest. I 
cannot afford to have so many people calling on me for 
every little thing they happen to think they want." 

I was much distressed and disturbed after this interview. 
I had known that I must take care of myself for some time, 
and I had gone about it bravely and willingly, and I felt 
that this rebuff was in every sense undeserved. Never, 
during my whole married life, had I made one unnecessary 
request; and, however much I might have "cost him," as 
he used to say in speaking of the very small amount he 
spent for me, I felt that I had more than repaid in hard, 
unceasing labor. If he does not wish to support us, why 
does he place us in the position to expect support from him, 
was my bitter thought. I did not seek the position of 
wife to him ; it was forced upon me ; and I was now com- 
pelled to endure the indignities which he chose to heap 
upon me. 

Mrs. Hagan's kindly eyes discovered my distress, and 
she instantly begged my confidence. I gave it unreserv- 
edly and fully. She asked leave to tell her husband, and 
he, indignant at the treatment I was receiving, consulted 
with other lawyers, and all agreed in advising me to bring 
a suit against Brigham for divorce and alimony. 

Mr. Hagan assured me that if I did not gain the suit I 



544 A STARTLING PROPOSITION. DARK DAYS. 

should have found a way of getting out of my life in Mor- 
monism ; that it would be a test case, showing how the po- 
lygamous wives of Mormons stood in the law, and that I 
would find ready sympathy from the outside world. 

This proposal, although it startled me, came at a time 
when I was more ready to entertain it than I should have 
been at any other period. My mother had discovered Brig- 
ham's feelings toward her, and had left my house to return 
to my father's farm at Cotton wood, and I was grieving over 
her absence ; still, had she been with me, I should have said 
nothing to her on this subject ; for, although she was losing 
confidence in Brigham Young, she still clung to her re- 
ligion, while I had not one spark of faith in it remaining. 

In the mean time Mr. Hagan went to California for a 
short trip, begging. me to decide upon the matter before his 
return. The more I thought upon the subject the more 
perplexed I grew, until I fairly broke down under the 
weight of nervous anxiety, and became very ill. My board- 
ers took all the care of me through my sickness. I was 
entirely dependent on them for every care. Not one mem- 
ber of Brigham's family came near me, and I was as ut- 
terly neglected by them as though they had not known of 
my existence. 

Those days of struggle were dark indeed, and oftentimes I 
did not know which way to turn. Perils and miseries faced 
me on every side. I was in doubt as to which was the true 
religion, or whether any were true. The question fre- 
quently arose, What would become of me if I apostatized? 
My church taught me that I should be given over to eternal 
damnation. And although I had ceased to regard my 
church and its teachings, yet I had a slight feeling of su- 
perstition left, and in my weak state I could but portray to 
myself the horrors of my situation if what it taught were 
really true. 

At this juncture, I received a visit from the Ward Teach- 
ers, whose duty it is to visit each family in the city, and ex- 



MY THIRD BAPTISM. A RELIGIOUS FARCE. 545 

amine the different members as to their spiritual welfare. 
They are an inferior order of ecclesiastics, who serve' the 
various purposes of religious instructors for the weak and 
ignorant, revenue officers to gather tithing, and general 
police to spy out and report irregularities or weakness of 
faith among the brethren. 

The spokesman began by asking, " Sister Young, do you 
enjoy the spirit of our religion ? " 

"No, sir, I do not" was my reply. 

If a thunderbolt had fallen among them they could not 
have been more surprised. They argued with me, coun- 
selled me, prayed with me, and finally I concluded to make 
one more attempt to cling to Mormonism. They begged 
me to be rebaptized, and I consented, although I had little 
faith in the ordinance. 

Accompanied by a friend, I went to the Endowment 
House, where they have a font in which this rite is per- 
formed. We waited two hours for those in charge to get 
the names and ages of a lot of Danes, who were to be bap- 
tized for their dead relatives. My patience and very doubt- 
ful faith were about exhausted. At last they were ready, 
and I, as a wife of the President, was honored by being 
first taken. The men officiating were talking and laughing 
as if engaged in an every-day affair, while I was trying to 
feel solemn and to exercise faith, a signal failure, I assure 
you. I was led into the water by a great strapping fellow, 
who mumbled a few words over me and plunged me in. I 
was taken from the water gasping for breath, and placed in 
a chair. Some more words were spoken over me, and the 
farce ended. Everything was done in such a business-like 
manner, with an utter absence of anything of a devotional 
nature, that I was thoroughly disgusted, and made no fur- 
ther effort to believe in Mormonism or its ordinances. 
Mr.-Hagan, on his return, found me fully determined on 
following his advice. I was ready to renounce my religion 
and leave my home. I did not know all that was included 
35 



54 6 



REMOVING IN HASTE. 



in my resolution, else I might have faltered in my new de- 
termination. My plans were quickly laid, and with the 
assistance of the friends whom I had found in this hour of 
trouble, were carried into instant execution, before they 
could be discovered by Mormon spies. 

On the 1 7th of July, 1873, I sent all my furniture to an 
auction-room, leaving my house stripped and desolate. It 
was done so quickly that no one had time even to suspect 




CARRYING MY FURNITURE TO THE AUCTION ROOM. 

my intention. Arrangements having been previously made, 
three furniture vans came at the same time, and in forty 
minutes my entire household goods were in charge of the 
auctioneer. They were sold the next day, and I realized 
three hundred and eighty dollars from the sale. The furni- 
ture was worth almost nothing, being old and worn, and of 
common quality at its best ; but my friends bought it at large 
prices, "to help the young apostate," as the Tribune said. 



IN A HOTEL FOR THE FIRST TIME. 547 

I had sent the elder of my boys to his grandmother, the 
younger remained with me, and together we went to Mr. 
Stratton's house, where we passed the afternoon. In the 
evening Mr. and Mrs. Stratton took us to the Walker 
House, the Gentile hotel, which I have ever since claimed 
as my Salt Lake City home. 

Imagine, if you can, my feelings, on being alone with 
my little child, in a strange place, under such peculiar cir- 
cumstances. I had abandoned my religion, left father, 
mother, home, and friends, deliberately turned away from 
them all, knowing that the step I was taking could never 
be retraced. My heart cried out for my mother, who I 
knew would be more sorely stricken with my action than 
any one else in the world. I would have spared her if I 
could, but I was powerless to act in any other manner. 

It was the first time in my life that I had been in a hotel ; 
and, as I was among people who I had been taught were 
my bitterest enemies, I was overwhelmed by a sense of 
desolate helplessness. I did not know what my fate would 
be. Every footstep in the halls startled me ; for I expected 
that each would bring some one to summon me to a dreadful 
death. I fully believed that was to be my last night on 
earth, so I prepared for death ; but the agony of suspense 
was awful. I had been taught that no deed was too bad, 
no outrage too dastardly, for the Gentiles to commit upon 
the Mormons ; and here I had allowed myself to be placed 
so fully in their power that they might do with me as they 
pleased, and my fate would never be known. 

Does any one wonder that I did not seek refuge with 
some Mormon friend, of whose sympathy I was sure? No 
Mormon would have dared to give me shelter. I was in 
open rebellion against their leader, and had I remained 
one day among them, my doom would have been irrevoca- 
bly fixed. 

Neither did I dare to remain with my friends, the Strat- 
tons ; for in so doing I should expose them to Mormon fury, 



54 A DREARY NIGHT. EXCITING TIMES. 

and endanger their lives and their home. So I sought 
the only place of refuge open to me with untold fear and 
dread. 

I laid awake all night wishing for the day to dawn, yet 
fearing that I should never see it; and when the first ray 
of light came through my windows I was relieved and 
hopeful. 

With morning came a new excitement. The news of 




EXCITEMENT IN SALT LAKE CITY. 

my flight from home had gone abroad, and the morning 
papers were full of it, the Mormon journals abusing, the 
Gentile journals praising and congratulating me. This part 
of the experience had never suggested itself to me. It had 
never occurred to me that it would be made a public matter, 
and I shrank from the very thought. I felt myself a marked 
object. Reporters called on me, seeking interviews for the 
California, Chicago, and New York papers, and questioned 



AN AGONIZING LETTER FROM MY MOTHER. 



549 



me until I was fairly bewildered. I had gone to bed a poor, 
defenceless, outraged woman, trying to find my way out of 
a false life into something truer and better, and I arose to 
find that my name had gone the length and breadth of the 
country, and that I was everywhere known as Brigham 
Young's rebellious wife. 

People who were curious to see one of the wives of the 
Prophet, swarmed into the hotel. I could not leave my 
room, nor did I dare to do so, nor to allow my children out 
of my sight for nearly two months. The Mormon papers 
commenced to assail me in every way, while the Gentile 
papers came unanimously to my defence. In the midst of 
it came this most heart-rending letter from my mother : 

"Mr DEAR CHILD : You can never know how dear you are to 
your grief-stricken mother. Your death would have been far 
preferable to the course you are taking. How gladly would I 
have laid you in your grave, had I known what was in your heart. 
I now pray that you may be spared for repentance and atonement ; 
for, as sure as you are living, a day of repentance will come ; a 
day of reckoning and of sorrow, such as you have never imagined. 
Now, let me entreat of you to pause, and retrace your steps before 
it is too late. The Lord, my Father, grant that you may listen to 
your mother's last appeal, and flee from your present dictators, as 
you would from the fiends of darkness. 

"You will never know the effort I am making to write this. 
When I first received the blow, it struck me down like a flash of 
lightning, and the first I remember, I was praying for your death 
before you sinned past redemption. My much-loved child, come 
to your mother, and try to smooth her pathway to the grave. I 
should pray to be laid there at once, if I did not hope to save you 
yet. The path you are pursuing leads to the lowest depths of 
woe, and I pray, every moment of my life, that you may speedily 
be arrested. Oh, how could you turn against us? How could 
you break our hearts? Your father's house, and your brother Gil- 
bert's' house, are both filled with weeping friends, who are de- 
ploring your fate ; and I implore you, in the name of all that is 
sacred, to come back to us. You seem to be encircled in a cloud 



55O WAR COMMENCED. 

of almost impenetrable darkness, but the Lord our God is able to 
remove the veil, and enlighten jou in his own way. I can only 
pray for you. 

"My heart is broken, my dear and much-loved child. I loathe 
the sight of food, and sleep has forsaken my eyelids. The idol is 
rudely broken that I have worshiped so long. My fault has been 
in loving you too well, and having too great anxiety for your 
welfare. 

" I pray you to forgive me for all the wrongs you imagine I 
have done you in bringing you up as I have done. I have ever 
been laboring, teaching, and instructing with the best of motives, 
with an eye to your interests. I shed the bitterest tears I ever did 
in my life. God grant you may never have cause to shed such 
tears. If I can ever be the least comfort to you, do not fear to let 
me know. I close by repeating, come to the arms of your heart- 
broken but still anxions 

" MOTHER." 

If she agonized over the writing of that letter, so I did 
over the reading. I longed to flv to her ; but even to make 
her happy I could not violate my conscience, and go back 
into the old bondage of darkness again. 

My father came at once to see me ; and although he at 
first disapproved of my course, yet when the Mormon 
press commenced to assail me, he came over to my side 
at once. 

Brigham and his friends commenced their usual method 
of warfare against a woman who opposes them, by instigat- 
ing slanders of all sorts for the Gentile papers outside of 
Utah to publish. They found a ready assistant for their 
noble and generous attempt in the person of a fellow of low 
repute, employed as item-gatherer for the Salt Lake Her- 
ald, who had recently been converted to Mormonism through 
the agency of Brigham Young's purse, and was now ready 
to do any foul work for his master. 

His first act was to send a dictated falsehood to the San 
Francisco Chronicle. He was a telegraph operator, and, 
through Brigham Young, who, it is alleged, virtually con- 



BRIGHAM TRIES TO COMPROMISE. 551 

trols the Associated Press and the Western Telegraph Office 
in Utah, he had access to wires, and sent all the scandalous 
messages which his employer dictated, until it became so 
plainly apparent that he was serving Mormon interests, that 
the papers refused to publish any more of his misstate- 
ments. 

As a reward for his labor, he was promised a daughter 
of Mayor Wells as his wife. The young lady has not yet 
acquiesced in the arrangement, and he still hangs about 
Salt Lake, despised alike by Mormons and Gentiles. 

The Gentile element in Salt Lake made itself strongly 
felt in my favor, and the Gentile press combated bravely 
the scurrility of the Mormon organs. Ladies and gentle- 
men called on me with offers of sympathy. All the persons 
connected with the hotel were kindness itself. Mr. and 
Mrs. Stratton stood by me nobly, and I have never ceased 
to thank God for raising up such friends in my time of need. 
I shall always hold them most specially dear, although 
our paths in life have so diverged that we rarely meet. 
Through General Maxwell, who was so kind as to come 
forward with offers of assistance, I brought suit for divorce 
against Brigham Young. 

Surprised, as every one was, by this action, I think no one 
was more astonished than the Prophet himself. He would 
have looked for rebellion from almost any other wife sooner 
than from me, I had been so quiet and acquiescent during 
all my married life with him. He was annoyed by the 
publicity of the affair ; for, although he likes notoriety, and 
courts it, he did not care to appear as defendant in a suit for 
divorce, on the grounds of neglect and non-support. It 
would not sound well in the Gentile world. 

He tried to effect a compromise with me, and through his 
son-in-law, Hiram B. Clawson, offered me fifteen thousand 
dollars and my freedom if I would carry the suit no further. 
I will confess that the offer tempted me. I could take my 
children and go away quietly with them, and avoid the 



552 A LEGAL FIGHT COMMENCED. 

notoriety which I so hated. If it had been my own individ- 
ual case alone, I should hav.e eagerly accepted the offer, 
and made the compromise. But when I thought how much 
was involved, how many other lives would be affected by 
the decision which would be given in my case, I put all 
thought of settlement aside. I would not now be bought by 
the man who refused to care for me when it was his duty to 
do so ; and I said to my lawyers, and General Maxwell, 
K Go on." There was no further delay, and the legal fight 
commenced at once. As so much has been said concerning 
this trial, and as it seems so generally misunderstood, I will 
devote-a chapter to the legal points, and an epitome of the 
court proceedings, as far as they have reached, so that the 
general public may more fully understand what I sought, 
and what grounds I had to justify my action. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 



THE DIVORCE SUIT. PROCEEDINGS IN COURT. - 
HAM'S AFFIDAVIT. 



BRIG- 



I bring an Action against the Prophet. My " Complaint " against Him. 

What the " Complaint " Stated. My Birth and Early Life. My 
Marriage with the Prophet. Exile to Brigham's Farm. Cause of 
Action for Divorce. The Question of Alimony. My own Affidavit. 

Corroborative Testimony. Opinion of Judge McKean. Brigham 
Young's Reply and Affidavit. The Prophet states the Value of his 
Property. Wonderful Difference of Opinion. Proceedings in Court. 

Judge McKean Sums Up. Order for Allowance and Alimony. 
Judge McKean Removed. His Order Quashed by the New Judge. 
The Latest Proceedings. 

N the 28th of July, 1873, 
I commenced an action 
for divorce against Brig- 
ham Young in the Dis- 
trict Court of the Third 
Judicial District of Utah, 
and the "Complaint" 
was served upon him 
by the United States 
marshal. 

This " Complaint " set 
forth, with the usual pro- 
lixity of all legal instru- 
ments, the grievances 
which I had appealed to 
the law to remedy ; but, 
as it would be utterly 
impossible, in the cir- 
cumscribed limits of these pages, to give that document 
entire, I shall present the reader with as succinct a resumg 
of its contents as I possibly can. 




BKIGHAM FINED 



\ND IMPRISONED FOR CONTEMPT 
OF COURT. 



554 STATING MY CASE. 

It was addressed " To the Hon. James B. McKean, Judge 
of the Third Judicial District Court, in and for the Terri- 
tory of Utah, and County of Salt Lake, in Chancery sit- 
ting," and the following are the several items which it con- 
tained : 

It began by stating who and what I was ; that I was born 
at Nauvoo, Illinois, but had, since the year 1848, been res- 
ident in Utah ; that I was the wife of Brigham Young ; and 
that I was married to him on the 6th of April, 1868, when 
I was in my twenty-fifth year, and was the mother of two 
children by a former marriage, one four and the other 
three years of age ; that neither I nor my children had any- 
thing to depend upon, a fact of which Brigham was well 
aware, and also that my children were boys, still living. 

That Brigham had lived with me for about a year after 
our marriage, treating me with some degree of kindness, 
and providing, though inadequately, for my support ; and 
that I had always fulfilled my duties as a wife toward him. 

That about a year after our marriage he began to neg- 
lect and ill-treat me ; that during the year 1869 he sent me, 
against my wishes, to a farm, four miles distant from Salt 
Lake City, where, for three years and a half I was com- 
pelled to labor until I was completely broken down in 
health ; that my only companion was my mother ; that, 
except the limited fare which the defendant allowed me, he 
appropriated all the proceeds of the farm ; and that on the 
few occasions when he visited the farm he treated me with 
studied contempt, objecting even to my aged mother re- 
maining with me, after her health was destroyed by over- 
work on his farm. 

That toward the end of 1872 Brigham removed me to a 
house in Salt Lake City, where, however, he seldom visited 
me ; that when I called upon him to ask a supply of the 
necessaries of life, he used the most opprobrious language 
toward me, and gave me so little that I had to work con- 
stantly to support myself and children. 



SEEKING A SEPARATION. 555 

That for five years past my health had been so bad that 
I was now altogether unfitted to labor, and was in constant 
need of medical advice ; that Brigham knew it, but repeat- 
edly refused to furnish me with assistance, medicine, or 
food, so that I was obliged to rely upon the charity of 
friends ; that Brigham had declared he would never do 
anything more for me, and said that henceforth I must sup- 
port myself, notwithstanding that he was the owner of sev- 
eral millions of dollars ; that, as President of the Mormon 
Church, he occupied a very important position, and I be- 
lieved that his monthly income could not be less than forty 
thousand dollars. 

That I had been compelled to sell my furniture, and all 
my household goods, in order to obtain the necessaries of 
life ; and that, for a year previous to that date [1873], Brig- 
ham had entirely deserted me. 

Further, I stated that it was impossible for our union to 
continue ; that I prayed for a separation, and also an allow- 
ance, as all I possessed consisted of about three hundred 
dollars, and my children were dependent upon me for sup- 
port ; I asserted that I had secured the aid of Messrs. F. 
M. Smith, A. Hagan, and F. Tilford as my counsel; that 
I had been informed that twenty thousand dollars would be 
a reasonable compensation for their services ; and I there- 
fore prayed the court to direct a subpoena, commanding 
the defendant, Brigham Young, to appear to answer to my 
suit; that, pending it, he might be ordered to pay me 
a thousand dollars a month from the date of riling this 
bill, a preliminary fee of six thousand dollars to my courv- 
sel, and that' after the final decree he should pay them the 
remaining fourteen thousand, and all the expenses of the 
court. 

Furthermore, I prayed, that after our legal separation, he 
might be ordered to support myself and children suitably ; 
and that for that purpose the sum of two hundred thousand 
dollars might be set aside from his estate. 



556 THE PROPHET'S INCOME. 

This bill, the substance of which I have given above, 
was signed by my solicitors, (Smith, Hagan, and Jilford, 
and to it the following was appended : 

" TERRITORY OF UTAH, ^ 

County of Salt Lake, 5 ss ' 

"Ann Eliza Young, being first duly sworn, deposes and 
says : That she is the complainant in the above entitled 
action ; that she has heard read the foregoing bill of com- 
plaint, and knows the contents thereof, and that the same 
is true of her own knowledge, except the matters and 
things therein stated on information and belief, and as to 
those she believes them to be true. 

"ANN ELIZA YOUNG. 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me, this ipth day of 
July, A. D., 1873. JOSEPH F. NOUNNAN, Clerk."" 

A motion for an allowance and counsel fees was noticed 
for hearing at the same time, and the service was by the 
same officer. This document was headed with all due 
form and ceremony. It stated, I, Ann Eliza Young, the 
plaintiff, being duly sworn, alleged : 

That I was the wife of Brigham Young, the defendant ; 
that while I was living with him, and performing the work 
mentioned in the bill already filed, he acquired enormous 
property, of the value of several millions of dollars, and 
was now the owner of at least eight millions. 

That I had no means of knowing his exact income, but 
was sufficiently informed to allege that it was at least forty 
thousand dollars a month. 

That the facts stated in the bill were true ; that I and my 
children were penniless; that knowing the power and in- 
fluence of Brigham, that he had the disposition to harm 
me, and that my life would be unsafe in any private house, 
I had taken refuge in the chief hotel in Salt Lake City, 
the Walker House, about the i5th of July, where I had 



FURTHER AFFIDAVITS. 557 

since resided ; that my expenses were very large, but that 
I had no income, and that my health was too feeble to allow 
me to work. I therefore prayed the court to grant me the 
items included in the bill already filed. 

This affidavit was signed by me, and countersigned by 
Joseph F. Nounnan, the clerk of the court. 

Attached to it was an affidavit, signed C. M. Turck, 
making, upon oath, a statement of the destitute condition in 
which I was previous to the time when I left my private 
residence and went to the Walker House. 

Of this affidavit it is needless for me to speak in detail, 
further than to say that it more than fully establishes to the 
utmost all that the previous bill and affidavit affirmed. 
Other affidavits were made by gentlemen who knew me 
well, one by Mr. Malcolm Graham, and another by my 
medical adviser, J. M. Williamson, both of which fully 
confirmed my own statements. 

James B. McKean, judge of the court, was absent tempo- 
rarily on account of sickness at that time, and Judge Em- 
erson, of the First District Court, presided for him. Judge 
McKean had held that, in equity cases, the United States 
marshal was the proper officer to serve process, but the 
defendant came into court at the time appointed for the 
hearing, and moved to quash the service of the process, on 
the ground that the " territorial marshal," and not the United 
States marshal, was the proper officer to serve the process 
in the case. Reversing the rule administered by Judge 
McKean, the judge temporarily presiding held the motion 
good, and quashed the service. 

Therefore new process was issued, and placed in the 
hands of the territorial marshal, accompanied by an order 
to the defendant to appear and answer to the motion for an 
allowance and alimony. This was regularly served, and 
at the day appointed the defendant appeared by counsel, 
and, for cause against the motion, filed his demurrer to the 
bill, on the ground that the District Court had not jurisdic- 



55 BRIGHAM DENIES OUR MARRIAGE. 

tion of the subject of divorce in Utah Territory. Two days 
were occupied in the argument of this question, and it was 
taken under advisement for ten days longer. At the end 
of that time the presiding judge came into court, and held 
that this court had no jurisdiction in matters of divorce, and 
denied the motion. 

The case then stood over, by an agreement between the 
counsel, until the following May, 1874. The Supreme 
Court of the Territory, at its term held in that month, in 
the case of Cast vs. Cast, decided that the district courts of 
the territory had jurisdiction in actions for divorce and ali- 
mony, thus reversing the opinion of Emerson, justice in 
this case. The case being afterwards in July, 1874 
called on for hearing on the demurrer to the complaint in 
the District Court, McKean, presiding, overruled the de- 
murrer, and gave the defendant leave to answer. 

Thereupon my counsel asked and obtained leave to 
renew the motion for an allowance and alimony pending 
the suit which had been denied. It is proper also here to 
state, that on the 24th of June, 1874, Congress enacted a 
law expressly conferring authority in divorce cases on the 
District Court of the Territory ; but this law only affirmed 
by legislation what the Supreme Court had already decided 
to be the law. 

On the 24th of August, 1874, Brigham Young filed 
an answer, of which the following is a correct summary : 

He denied that at any time he had been married to me. 

That at the time when my affidavit alleged that this mar- 
riage to me took place, I was really the wife of James L. 
Dee, never having been legally divorced from him, but 
that he [Brigham] believed at the time of alleged marriage 
in April, 1868, that I had been properly divorced from Dee. 

He alleged his previous marriage with Mrs. Mary Ann 
Angell Young, at Kirtland, Ohio, on the loth of January, 
1834, and that the said legal wife was still living, of which 
fact I, complainant, was aware. 



BRIGHAM'S STATEMENT. 559 

He admitted his marriage with me, after the custom of 
the Latter-Day Saints, but denied that the marriage was 
legal, in any sense acknowledged by the laws of the land. 

He then proceeded to deny every one of the counts in 
my complaint, seriatim, winding up with the following 
statement : 

" Defendant denies that he is or has been the owner of 
wealth amounting to several millions of dollars, or that he 
is or has been in the monthly receipt from his property of 
forty thousand dollars or more. On the contrary, defendant 
alleges that, according to his best knowledge, information, 
and belief, all his property, taken together, does not exceed 
in value the sum of six hundred thousand dollars, and that 
his gross income from all of his property, and every source, 
does not exceed six thousand dollars per month. 

"Defendant further says, that at the time of the said alleged 
marriage, this defendant had, and still has, a very large 
family ; that his said family now consists of sixty-three per- 
sons, all of whom are dependent upon this defendant for 
maintenance and support. 

" Whereof the defendant prays judgment of the court that 
he be hence dismissed with his costs herein. 

"WILLIAMS, YOUNG & SHEEKES, and 
HEMPSTEAD & KIRKPATRICK, 

Defendant's Attorneys " 

To the replication of defendant, which was very lengthy, 
denying or explaining away every point in the bill which I 
had filed, the following was appended : 

"TERRITORY OF UTAH, ^ 
County of Salt Lake. $ ss> 

"Brigham Young, being duly sworn, on his oath says: 
That he has heard read the foregoing answer, and knows 
and understands the contents thereof, and that the same is 



560 THE TRIAL PROCEEDS. 

true of his own knowledge, except those matters therein 
stated on his information and belief, and as to those matters 
he believes it to be true. Affiant further says that he is the 
defendant in the above entitled suit. 

"BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me this 25th day of 
August, 1874. 

"Jos. F. NOUNNAN, Clerk:' 

The court then gave me, or my counsel for me, leave to 
renew the motion for alimony as asked ; and notice having 
been given, the motion was by agreement fixed for hearing 
on the 3d day of October following. My counsel also filed 
a motion to strike out portions of the defendant's answer, 
and on the hearing of the motion for alimony, insisted upon 
submitting it to the court. When the motion was called for 
hearing, I offered to submit a number of affidavits bearing 
on the question of alimony, which were filed and served with 
the original complaint. The defendant objected to the read- 
ing of them, on the ground that they had not had sufficient 
notice of them by the notice renewing the motion, and they 
were withdrawn. 

The defendant then offered to read affidavits in support 
of his answer, but as they had not been served, and their 
contents not made known prior to the hearing, they were ob- 
jected to and excluded. It also appeared that the affidavits 
were addressed to other matters of defence than those set up 
in the answer. 

The hearing was then had upon my complaint and the 
defendant's answer, my counsel at the same time submitting 
their motion to strike out certain objectionable portions of the 
answer, and insisting that such portions should be disre- 
garded by the court, and treated if the motion were well 
founded as out of the answer. 

The questions involved were argued, and on the 23d day 



PLURAL MARRIAGES ILLEGAL. $6l 

of February, 1875, the judge decided the motion for alimony, 
pending the suit, in an elaborate written opinion, of which 
the following is an accurate summary : 

The Judge, Jas. B. McKean, laid down nine general 
axioms tending to demonstrate that the defendant's pleas 
were invalid; that a marriage solemnized in Utah, after 
Mormon fashion, would be legally valid, provided the 
parties married were competent to enter into that engage- 
ment ; that the court could not grant a divorce if the marriage 
were proved bigamous or polygamous ; that the court had 
power to grant alimony, and intended to do so to the extent 
of one twelfth of what the defendant admitted his income to 
be, or one eightieth according to my assertion. 

He then summed up the statements of both parties to the 
suit. He gave the substance of my " Complaint," and then 
took into consideration Brigham Young's reply. 

Then he considered the defendant's denial that any mar- 
riage had ever taken place between us ; his statement that, 
at the time when I alleged that our marriage took place, I was 
actually the wife of Jas. L. Dee, never having been properly 
divorced from him ; and also his admission that we had 
been married polygamously in April, 1868. 

The judge gave quotations from various sources to prove 
that this marriage was legal and binding according to the 
laws of the Territory and of the United States, notwithstand- 
ing that the forms of the Mormon Church were used ; pro- 
viding, always, that we were both competent to enter into 
the contract. 

He discussed the assertion of defendant that he was also 
incompetent to marry while his lawful wife, Mary Ann 
Angell, was still living. This, the judge explained, was 
the admission of felony ; as, if admitted, it would prove that 
the defendant had entered into a bigamous marriage. Such 
statements he, the judge, said should be admitted as evi- 
dence, so far as they were to defendant's prejudice, but 
must be proved true before they could be admitted as evi- 
36 



562 BRIGHAM ARRESTED FOR CONTEMPT OF COURT. 

dence against the plaintiff. The defendant must prove that 
the plaintiff was the wife of another man, and that he him- 
self was the husband of another woman, on the 6th of April, 
1868. 

The judge stated, that in order to prove the allegations 
made on both sides, it would be necessary to summon wit- 
nesses, procure documentary evidence, &c., which would 
involve very great expense. He should, therefore, allow 
alimony, and a certain amount for costs of prosecution. 

He quoted legal precedents to show what amount should 
be considered reasonable ; and then he summed up, and de- 
creed that, after considering all circumstances, the court 
had concluded to order defendant to pay three thousand 
dollars for the prosecution of the suit, and also five hundred 
dollars a month for the maintenance of plaintiff and her 
children, from the day of the filing of the "Complaint." 
The order was accordingly made. 

In deciding the question, it will be seen that virtually the 
court disregarded portions of the answer, and, to that ex- 
tent, sustained the motion to strike out those portions, though 
it did not formally pass on that motion. 

The defendant excepted to the decision, and shortly after- 
ward filed a notice of appeal, and bond to stay proceedings 
under the order. 

The copy of the order directing the payment of the ali- 
mony was duly served personally on Brigham Young ; and 
demand having been made upon him for the allowance made 
for my attorney's fees, and payment refused, he was arrested 
in proceedings in contempt, and brought before the court. 

His answer to the proceedings consisted of a showing that 
he had taken an appeal, and filed a bond for a stay, &c., 
and, therefore, he was not in contempt. The court held it 
not to be an appealable order, and adjudged that he pay a 
fine of twenty-five dollars, and be committed to custody for 
one day, which was complied with. 

Thereupon he caused the amount then due under the 



ONE DAY IN CUSTODY. $63 

order to be paid. My allowance he had been given twenty 
days to pay, and this portion of the order had not been com- 
plied with, and had not become due, except five hundred 
dollars, which was paid, when Judge McKean was removed 
by President Grant, and David P. Lowe, an ex-congress- 
man from Kansas, was appointed chief-justice, and succeeded 
to the position. 

Shortly after Judge Lowe entered upon his duties, pro- 
ceedings were begun by counsel to bring the defendant up 
again in contempt, for refusing to comply with the order 
as first stated. On appearing, he again showed cause, by 
claiming his right of appeal, as in the former hearing ; and 
objected, also, that the district courts had no jurisdiction of 
matters of divorce at the time of the bringing of the suit ; 
that the order was null and void ; that there was no con- 
tempt. 

The court held, in deciding the matter, that it had juris- 
diction ; that the order was not appealable. In the course 
of his summing up, he said, " The complaint and answer 
are each upon oath, and it appears from the record as well 
as from the statement of counsel in argument, that the order 
for alimony and expenses was made upon the complaint and 
answer alone, without any other evidence or show ing -what- 
ever. It is the general doctrine of the courts in divorce, 
that before temporary alimony can properly be awarded, 
the marriage must be admitted by the parties, or established 
by proofs. In the very recent case of York vs. York, 34 
Iowa, 530, it is said, 'Alimony is a right that results from 
the marital relation, and the fact of marriage between the 
parties must be admitted or -proved before there can be a 
decree for it even pcndente lite'" He then decided that 
the order was erroneously made, and dismissed the proceed- 
ings against the defendant. 

The case now stands, therefore, on the motion (not yet 
formally passed upon) to strike out portions of the defend- 
ant's answer. The defendant has also filed a motion to 



564 LIVING AS HUSBAND AND WIFE. 

vacate and set aside the original order granting the alimony, 
and the two will probably be heard together. 

My counsel, for me, insist that I am entitled to the ali- 
mony upon the following grounds : 

ist. That it is alleged in the complaint that the plaintiff 
and defendant were married at a time and place designated. 
The defendant admits that a marriage ceremony did take 
place, and sets up new facts to show that the marriage 
which actually occurred was invalid. On this state of facts 
the plaintiff insists that, pending the question as to the 
legality of the marriage, she is entitled to alimony. 

2d. It is denied by the plaintiff that the new matter in 
the answer ought to be disregarded; first, because it is 
badly pleaded ; and, second, it is an attempt on the part of 
the defendant to take advantage of his own wrong, to wit, 
the assertion that he had a lawful wife living, which a court 
of equity will not permit. The defendant admits that he 
was married to the plaintiff; that they lived and cohabited 
together as husband and wife ; that he supported and main- 
tained her as such ; avers that he never deserted or ill- 
treated her; and, in fine, clearly shows that a relation of 
marriage existed in fact between them. 

3d. The plaintiff claims that she will succeed on the 
merits ; first, because the defence on the new matter ought 
to be disregarded as badly pleaded, and inadmissible under 
any form of plea ; second, because the marriage of the de- 
fendant to Mary Ann Angell cannot be proved, and never 
was a lawful marriage. There was cohabitation, but no 
marriage according to law. This will appear if the true 
state of facts is ever reached in the trial. And the first 
alleged marriage must be shown to have been a lawful 
marriage. In Case vs. Case, 17 Cal. Rep., 598, the law is 
well stated on this point. 

As to the allegation in the answer, that the plaintiff had 
a lawful husband living at the time of the alleged union be- 
tween plaintiff and defendant, it is sufficient to say that she 



THE LAST LEGAL STEP. 565 

was divorced from James L. Dee by the Probate Court of 
Utah, and that it was done under the statute, and that the 
Supreme Court of Utah had previously decided that such 
court had exclusive jurisdiction in divorce matters. While 
this decision was probably erroneous, it was made by the 
highest tribunal of the territory, and was not appealable ; 
hence it was the law. 

More than this : the act of Congress of June 23, 1874, 
provided that all judgments of the Probate Courts of Utah 
which had been executed, or which had not been appealed 
from, should be held good. So that, upon the facts, there 
is nothing in the allegation that plaintiff had a husband 
living at the time of the marriage between the plaintiff and 
defendant. 

It is only right to say, that in the opinion of the ablest 
lawyers of the West, Judge Lowe, in holding that the new 
matter in an answer is only denied " at the trial" has mis- 
conceived the California case which he cites, and mistakes 
the law. In injunction cases the pleadings are treated as 
affidavits by express provision of the California statutes ; but 
no case can be found in California or elsewhere, under the 
code, where a pleading is treated as true in one stage of a 
case, and false in another. Such a doctrine would be ab- 
surd under any system of pleading that has ever existed. 

The last legal step that has been taken, so far, was taken 
by me in making an affidavit for the purpose of proving 
that the defendant perjured himself, and which will furnish 
the foundation for his prosecution for the crime. With this 
affidavit, the case is stayed for the present. 



CHAPTER ' XXXVIII. 

MY ESCAPE FROM SALT LAKE CITY. MY PUBLIC 
CAREER. 



Thoughts of the Future. The Gentile Papers. A Private Audience a* 
the Walker House. Hopes and Fears. I Resolve to Take the Plat- 
form. Sneers and Ridicule. Brigham is made Acquainted with my 
Plans. Packing under Difficulties. My Perilous Escape from Utah. 
A Noble Woman. Arrival at Laramie. Denver. My First 
Public Lecture. A Grand Success. Brigham at Work. A Scan- 
dalous Article in the Chicago Times. A Mean Lawyer. Lecture 
at Boston. Kindness of the Members of Boston Press. Opposed 
by George Q. Cannon. Washington Lecture a Success. First 
Glimpses of the True Faith. Conversion to Christianity. 

S soon as I had fully de 
cided that compromise 
was impossible, I began 
to consider my future. 
I felt able to take care 
of myself and my chil- 
dren, if I could see the 
way to do it. I was not 
afraid to work, and I 
felt a new impulse stir- 
ring within me which 
made me strong. Life 
was my own, and I 
would do the best I 
could. 

The thought of a pub- 
lic career had never oc- 
curred to me. I had 

no ambition to gratify, and I had already gained more noto- 
riety than I cared for. I was keenly sensitive to what was 
said about me, and many of the newspaper paragraphs, 




MY FLIGHT AT NIGHT. 



MY TALK AT THE WALKER HOUSE. 567 

wittily written, by persons who neither knew me nor under- 
stood the situation in which I was placed, wounded me 
deeply. 

The Gentile papers in Utah were, without exception, 
friendly to me, and I am sure kindlier words were never 
given than they have sent after me, since the very day I 
came out from under Brigham's control. 

During my residence at the Walker House I was re- 
quested to give some account of Mormonism to the residents 
of the hotel and a few of their friends. I consented to do 
so, and an evening was appointed. I prepared a simple 
history of my life, and introduced, in the course of it, an 
epitomized description of the Mormon religion and its rites ; 
and when the evening arrived, and I entered the parlors of 
the Walker House, I was startled to see the number of per- 
sons who had assembled to listen to me. I stood for a mo- 
ment gazing in sudden bewilderment ; the blood rushed to 
my face, and my first impulse was to run away and hide 
myself in my own room. But the applause which greeted 
me, the smiling, reassuring faces which were turned towards 
me, and the sympathy which I read in them all, gave me 
courage. 

My audience listened with the closest attention, and 
when, after a while, I grew more accustomed to my strange 
position, and ventured to look up, I saw tears on more than 
one cheek, and when the last word was read, and I laid my 
manuscript down, I was surrounded by my newly made 
friends, all enthusiastic in their demonstrations of sympathy. 

Previous to this involuntary public appearance, it had 
been suggested to me that I should take the lecture platform 
against Mormonism. I shrank from the very mention of it, 
and replied to the friends who proposed it that I could not, 
and would not, do it. To parade myself and my troubles be- 
fore the world seemed such an indelicate thing to do ! But 
when it was shown me that I might make of myself a power 
against Mormonism which should be felt, and which should 
open people's eyes to the enormity of the religious system 



568 "FAIR PLAY FOR WOMEN." 

which was tolerated by the government, I hesitated no 
longer. 

I wish it to be distinctly understood that I did not under- 
take this work with a view to self-aggrandizement, or to 
gratify an inordinate ambition. Nothing has wounded me 
more, since I commenced my labors, than the oft-repeated 
accusation, that I was "trying to make capital" out of my 
position as the wife of Brigham Young. I have seen that 
accusation within a few months in the Woman's Journal, 
the leading organ of woman suffrage in Boston, in an arti- 
cle written by one of its editors and part proprietors, who, 
in the same article, commended Brigham Young to public 
favor because he gave the suffrage to women. 

"Making capital" out of her woes, and, above all, her 
domestic infelicities, is something no woman of delicacy 
could do ; and had I been governed by no motive except 
one so unworthy, I should deserve all the contemptuous 
criticism which I have been treated to by this apostle of 
"Fair Play for Women." 

Does any one think that, for the sake of emolument, I 
could thus open my heart to the rude gaze of a curious 
public, bear all the slurs, slights, jeers, and aspersions that 
are cast at me by malicious Mormon and thoughtless Gen- 
tile papers, be made a by-word of, have my name on every 
vulgar lip? Never. My womanhood revolts at the idea. 

As a means of support, I would never have undertaken 
it. When I saw it was a duty, I adopted it without hesita- 
tion, and I shall never cease my labors as long as I have 
strength to work. While I have a hand or a voice, Mor- 
monism and Polygamy shall find in me a relentless foe. I 
will never rest, God helping me, until either I, or this hell- 
ish system, so fraught with misery, go down in the contest. 

When my decision was fully made, I confided it to my 
father, who was my constant visitor. He gave me the 
warmest encouragement ; but it was a terrible blow to my 
mother, who considered that I was setting the final seal to 
my future and eternal misery. 



MY PERILOUS ESCAPE. 569 

I discovered, after my arrangements were made, that my 
intention had become known to the Mormons, who were 
threatening me with all sorts of vengeance if I insisted on 
carrying out my plans. It had been arranged that I should 
make my first appearance in Denver, and as I was exten- 
sively advertised there, the news of my proposed lecture 
had been telegraphed to Salt Lake, so that the date of my 
departure was made public. 

I did not dare to leave Salt Lake by rail, nor would my 
friends allow it, and all our final arrangements were forced 
to be made with the greatest secrecy. I did not venture 
even to take my own trunk. A new one was bought, car- 
ried to a friend's room, my clothing conveyed to the same 
room, a piece or two at a time, packed as we could find 
opportunity, and then taken to a carriage, and carried out- 
side the city. 

On the evening of the 27th of November, I went with 
my father, and one or two friends, to the house of Mr. and 
Mrs. Stratton. We left the hotel by the back door, for the 
front entrance was closely watched, although it was not 
expected that I would attempt to leave the city until the 
next morning. About eleven o'clock we left the Strattons', 
and started, ostensibly to walk home. A carriage was in 
waiting at the corner. We got in, called for Mrs. Cooke, 
who was to be my travelling companion, and were driven 
rapidly out of the city. I was to take the cars on the Union 
Pacific road at Uintah, and thus avoid travelling at all on 
the Utah railroad, where I should be sure to be recognized. 

The night was intensely dark ; we could not see our 
hands before our faces, and, as we plunged on through the 
night and the darkness, we were a gloomy and a'pprehen- 
sive party. We were not sure how closely we had been 
watched, or whether we had succeeded in eluding Mormon 
vigilance. Even then, the "Danites," those terrible minis- 
ters of Mormon vengeance, might be upon our track, and 
I could not cast off the feeling that every moment brought 
us nearer and nearer to some dreadful death. 



570 A MIDNIGHT RIDE. 

Twice during the night we were lost. The last time, 
we missed our way, and went several miles up a caiion, 
and I felt sure- that we were betrayed, and that our driver 
was carrying us to certain destruction. I spoke to him, 
without letting him know my suspicions, and told him we 
were going wrong. He turned about, and drove rapidly 
back, and we reached the mouth of the canon just as the 
day dawned. Confusion vanished with the darkness, our 
driver found the right road, and by fast driving we reached 
Uintah just as the train came up. Tickets and checks had 
been secured at Ogden, and with a hurried "good by "to 




Mv ESCAPE FROM SALT LAKE CITY. 



my father, I jumped on board the train, with Mrs. Cooke, 
and we were off. 

I can never describe my sensations when the train began 
to move. With the new sense of freedom came a feeling 
of such utter loneliness that, for a moment, I was bewil- 
dered by the situation, and, turning to Mrs. Cooke, I said, 
helplessly, "What shall I do?" 

" Keep up a brave heart, and think of the work before 
you," said she. 

Her experience in Mormonism had been no pleasanter 
than mine, and she was as glad to get away from it as I 



FRIENDLY CALLS. 5^1 

was. For twenty years she had taught Brigham's children, 
and acted in the Mormon theatre, and had never received a 
cent of remuneration. Her husband, a member of the 
special police force, was killed on duty, and after his death 
the prophet, through his counsellor, Daniel H. Wells, 
swindled her out of the two thousand dollars which the city 
had granted her, and tried to get her house from her. She 
put the matter into a Gentile lawyer's hands, and still re- 




VIKW OF SALT LAKE CITY, SHOWING TABERNACLE. 

tains her home. She was with me several months, a de- 
voted and faithful companion. 

Our first stopping-place was at Laramie, Wyoming Ter- 
ritory, where we were to await the arrival of my agent 
from Salt Lake. My presence in town was soon discov- 
ered, and I received many friendly and congratulatory 
calls. After my lecture every hospitality was shown me, 
and I felt fresh courage, so kindly was my- reception, and 
so genuine were all the expressions of interest. 

My agent arrived in a day or two, and we set out for 
Denver. The news of my escape from Utah had been 



572 A GRAND RECEPTION AT DENVER. 

telegraphed, and on my arrival, I found myself eagerly ex- 
pected. I was visited by the editors of the different papers, 
who assured me of the friendly feeling toward me, and 
offered me the use of their columns. The clergymen all 
came to see me, and spoke generous words in my behalf 
from every pulpit in the city. They all literally "took me 
on trust." I shall never forget the earnest, spontaneous 
kindness which I met from the professional men of Denver. 

The night on which I was to give my first lecture, the 
5th of December, 1873, was extremely cold, and the snow 
fell heavily. I was discouraged and despondent, for I had 
come to consider this first evening as prophetic of my future 
career, and I saw failure before me. I did not know 
whether I should be able to reach the church, the storm was 
so furious ; but as a faithful few had promised to be in attend- 
ance, let what might happen, I determined to make the trial. 

My forebodings had been utterly useless. Long before 
the church doors were opened a large crowd was in wait- 
ing, and before the hour for beginning the lecture arrived 
the house was full, and hundreds had gone away unable to 
gain admission. As I looked into the crowded house, be- 
fore I came on the platform, my courage almost left me. 
But while hesitating, the thought of the poor women whose 
cause I was to plead, came vividly into my mind, and with 
a firm step, and beating heart, I walked onto the platform, 
and stood facing my first audience, who greeted me with 
tumultuous applause. 

I have never spoken more effectively in my life than I did 
that night. It seemed to myself almost as though I was 
inspired. I forgot myself in my subject, and new indigna- 
tion thrilled me as I told my story of bondage, such as my 
hearers never dreamed of, and unveiled the horrors of the 
Mormon religion. I made no attempts at oratorical effects, 
I worked up no dramatic "points." Naturally and simply 
as I could, I said what I had to say, without a single 
rhetorical flourish. 



BRIGHAM HEARD FROM. 573 

The lecture was a success. After it was over, my audi- 
ence crowded around me, with such earnest words of com- 
mendation, that I felt my first victory won. Since that 
memorable evening I have addressed hundreds of a