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Full text of "Wild, free-roaming horses--an annotated bibliography"

,*v. 



BLM LIBRARY 



88006520 



T/N 295 

Filing Code 4700 

Date Issued March 1977 




TECHNICAL NOTE 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Bureau of Land Management 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
U.S. Forest Service 




WILD, FREE-ROAMING HORSES - AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

by Mark Zarn, Thomas Heller and 
Kay Collins, Research Biologists 
Conservation Library 
Denver Public Library 




Additional copies of Technical Notes are available from DSC, Federal Center Building 50, Denver, Colo., 80225 



Bureau of Land Management Bureau of I 

Library 
Denver Service Center jera! Center 

Denver, CO 80225 



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INTRODUCTION 



,13? 



The purpose of this bibliography is to provide personnel of the U.S. Forest 
Service and U.S. Bureau of Land Management with a comprehensive annotated 
list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the 
limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the in- 
formation included in the bibliography is from articles on domestic horses 
or from data on other members of the Equidae . 

The bibliography is divided into sections for easier use and within each sec- 
tion alphabetically by author. 

At the end of each citation a code appears in parentheses giving the location 
of publication availability. Many of the articles will also be available at 
local public and university libraries. 



AVAILABILITY KEY 



CSU - Colorado State University 
Library 
Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 



DPL - Denver Public Library 
Conservation Library 
1357 Broadway 
Denver, Colorado 80203 



KSU - Kansas State University 
Library 
Manhattan, Kansas 66502 



USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 
Washington, D.C. 20250 



USDI - U.S. Department of the Interior 
Bureau of Land Management 
Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Bureau of land Management 

Library 

: '-"' • 3j £ej /ice Center 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 



Introduction x 

Associations and Organizations 1 

Equine Science 4 

General ..... ........ 17 

History ..... ............. 31 

Legislation -3d 

Management Techniques and Problems . . . 42 

Roundups .................. 46 

Wild Horse Ranges and Refuges ............ 50 



ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

Anonymous. 1970. Help save the mustang! Equestrian Trails. 
26(6):6-7. (DFL) 

This article explains the objectives of the National Mustang 
Association formed in 1965, The Association was formed to 
preserve and protect the "mustangs." A brief history of 
"mustangs" in this century is given. 



Anonymous. 1970. Ranch for wild horses. Chronicle of the 
Horse . 33(47): 42-43. (DPL) 

The National Mustang Association under the direction of Tom 
Holland, president and founder, has bought the 68,000-acre 
Lancaster Ranch near Caliente, Nevada for a wild horse 
preserve and museum. The Association plans to stock the 
ranch with wild horses from overgrazed areas. 



Bock, Diane. 1970. The American mustang. Western Horseman . 
35(10): 36. (DPL) 

This article discusses specific conformation points adopted 
by the American Mustang Association. These conformation 
points were arrived at through research into South American 
registries of native horses, Spanish archives and Western 
histories. 

Brislawn-Edwards Wild Horse Research Farm Newsletter. 1974+ 

Vols. 10+. (248 North Main Street, Porterville, California 
93857). (DPL) 

A periodically published newsletter from the Brislawn-Edwards 
Wild Horse Research Farm in Porterville, California. Research 
findings and news of "Spanish" horses are included along with 
notices of events concerning "Spanish" horses and addresses 
of people involved with breeding "Spanish" horses. 

Hickman, Mickey. 1970. Color on the plains. Horse Lover's 
Magazine . 35(3): 38-39, 62. (DPL) 

The history of the Spanish Mustang, a listing of his char- 
acteristic features, information on his many and unusual 
colors, and a plea to join the registry are all contained 
in the article. 



Hickman, Mickey. 1970. The Spanish mustang. Western Horseman . 
35(10): 150. (DPL) 

A discussion of the Spanish Mustang registry founded in 1957. 
To date 300 horses are registered, not counting current 
foals. Included in the registry are horses descended from 
those acquired by Ferdinand and Bob Brislawn, wild horse 
ranchers . 



International Society for the Protection of Mustangs and Burros. 
Newsletter. Irregular. (140 Greenstone Drive, Reno, Nevada 
89502) . (DPL) 

This newsletter discusses the activities of the society and 
outlines current national events such as new legislation 
concerning wild horses . Violations of laws protecting wild 
horses are mentioned often accompanied by eyewitness accounts 



McMullen, Rosemarie. 1966. The mustang. Western Horseman . 
31(10): 26, 53. (DPL) 

The American Mustang Association was formed to ensure that 
mustangs survive. The goal of the Association is to produce 
the ideal Andalusian type characteristics as the standard 
conformation of the mustang. Shows for these registered 
horses are sponsored by the Association. 



National Mustang Association. 1971. Help save the mustangs I 
Equestrian Trails . 26(7): 27. (DPL) 

The Association explains that they have placed a down- 
payment on a ranch in Nevada to which wild mustangs and burros 
can be taken. They have formed a group whose services are 
offered to ranchers who wish these animals removed from 
their lands . The article describes the need for funds and 
legislation, and explains how they plan to campaign through- 
out the country to save the mustangs. 



Richards, Lawrence P. 1958. The Spanish Mustang Registry. 
Western Horseman . 24(10): 16, 93-94. (DPL) 

The purpose and formation of the Spanish Mustang Registry 
are discussed. The purpose of the organization and registry 
is to ensure that the remaining horses with the character- 
istics of the Spanish "Barb" are registered and preserved. 
They do not want Spanish "Barbs" hybridized with other 
horses as was done in the past to genetically improve the 
strain. 



Tinker, Nancy. 1969. Broomtail registry. Horse Lover's 
Magazine . 33(4): 38-39, 62. (DPL) 

The author relates the fate of what was once over a million 
wild horses, descended from the Spanish Andalusians. She 
describes the efforts of Robert and Ferdinand Brislawn to 
form a breeding herd of mustangs over a period of thirty 
years, gives the standards for which they have aimed, and 
discusses how some of their herd animals have been caught 
in the wild. 



Wild Horse Organized Assistance. Newsletter. Irregular. Reno, 
Nevada. (P. 0. Box 555, Reno, Nevada 89504). (DPL) 

This newsletter alerts members of the organization of 
activities concerning wild horses such as legislation, 
roundups, grants, studies, etc. Members are also urged to 
write letters to appropriate government officials to main- 
tain protection for wild horses. Wild horses that will be 
available for adoption are mentioned in the newsletter. 



EQUINE SCIENCE 



Anonymous. 1971. Family: Equidae. World of Wildlife . 1(5): 
86-89. (DPL) 

The first horse, Eohippus from the Eocene period, is traced 
to the present day Equu s . Mention is made of the changes in 
toes, skull, and dentition. A brief description of the 
general habits of Equus spp. covers their senses, dentition, 
habitat, and digestion. Illustrated with maps, photographs 
and charts. 



Alexander, F. 1963. Digestion of the horse, p. 259-268. In: 
D. P. Cuthbertson, ed. Progress in Nutrition and Allied 
S ciences . Olive and Boyd, Edinburgh. (DPL) 

A review of available literature on horse digestion, this 
article covers gastric digestion, mechanics of gastric 
digestion, digestion in the small intestine, digestion in 
the large intestine, pharmacological studies, and micro- 
biology. Extensive list of references. 



American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1966. Official 
G uide for Determining the Age of the Horse . Fort Dodge 
Laboratories , Fort Dodge, Iowa. n.p. (CSU) 

Thoroughly illustrated with line drawings which depict 
teeth of horses at various ages as generally seen today in 
America. Descriptive legends accompany the drawings. This 
text is based on the premise that teeth provide the most 
precise tool available for the determination of the age of 
a horse. Teeth appear, develop, wear, change form and are 
shed with a regularity that veterinarians have learned to 
recognize with a reasonable degree of accuracy. 



Bell, R. H. V. 1970. The use of the herb layer by grazing 

ungulates in the Serengeti, p. 111-124. In: A. Watson, ed., 
Animal Populations in Relation to their Food Resources . 
Blackwell, Oxford. (DPL) 

The seasonal use of grazing areas by African ungulates has 
developed in a sequential manner dictated by the growth 
form of the vegetative layers in relation to topography. 
The animals are independent of each other's effect on 
vegetation only during the wet season when there is abundant 
forage. Analysis of diet was performed on four of the ungu- 
lates; zebra, wildebeest, topi and Thomson's gazelle. Freshly 



ingested stomach contents were divided into two categories 
of vegetation: dicotyledons and monocotyledons. The zebras 
led the grazing succession. They opened up the herb layer 
for other animals by consuming the coarses, low protein, 
high crude fiber vegetation. To explain the ability of the 
zebra to survive on a low quality diet, the digestive system 
of horses is described and compared to that of the ruminant. 
Diet selectivity, interspecific associations, and alterna- 
tive grazing successions are discussed. The author con- 
cludes that the presence of one species in the grazing 
succession is beneficial to the others. 



Bell, Richard H. V. 1971. A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. 
Scientific American . 225(1): 86-93. (DPL) 

This study examines the migration and grazing- patterns of 
three species of large herbivore (wildebeest, zebra, and 
Thomson's gazelle) in the Serengeti National Park. The 
animals make use of the herb layer in a regular sequence: 
first the zebras graze and trample the coarser, stemmier 
vegetation, they are followed by the wildebeest who in 
turn prepare the area for the delicate, selective grazing 
of Thomson's gazelle. Analysis of the stomach contents of 
the three species revealed that the selected vegetation 
corresponded to their position in the grazing succession. 
The reason for this sequence of grazing is due to the 
differences in the digestive systems of ruminants and non- 
ruminants and body size which has an effect on their rate 
of metabolism. If this grazing succession broke down there 
is a possibility that the Thomson's gazelle might not be 
able to survive. 



Berliner, Victor R. 1959. The estrous cycle of the mare, 

p. 267-289. In: H. H. Cole and P. T. Cupps, eds., Repro - 
duction in Dome st ic Animals . Academic Press, N. Y. (DPL) 

This paper is divided into five parts. Part I is concerned 
with the breeding season of mares; part II the pattern of 
the estrous cycle; part III the physiological and histologi- 
cal changes in the reproductive system; part IV the behavioral 
pattern of the cyclic mare; and part V the adaptations of 
the breeding program to cyclic events. The author discusses 
and comments on the inconsistencies as well as areas of 
agreement within the literature on the estrous cycle of the 
mare. 



Slakeslee, Jodean Kay. 1974. Mother- Young Relationships and 
Related Behavior Among Free-Ranging Appaloosa Horses . M.S. 
Thesis, Idaho State University. 113 p. (DPL) 

Approximately 125 free- ranging Appaloosa horses in Idaho 
were studied by direct observation in a 5,000-acre pasture 
from June through August, 1973. The horses were also 
observed at a 3,000-acre winter pasture in Idaho. The 
author discusses the following areas: the estrus cycle, 
gestation period, changes just prior to parturition, foal- 
ing, post partum activity, imprinting, bringing the foal 
into the group, nursing, recumbency and resting, recognition, 
foal elimination, foal grazing and drinking, foal's explora- 
tory and investigative behavior, and relationships between 
foals and other group members. A well-documented study 
with a thorough list of references. 



Bone, Jesse F. 1964. The age of the horse. Southwest Veteri - 
narian. 17(4): 269-272. (DPL) 

A descriptive article which tells how to determine the age 
of a domestic horse by examining its teeth. Guidelines are 
included. 



Burkhardt, J. 1947. Transition from anestrus in the mare and 
the effects of artificial lighting. Journal of Agricult ural 
Scienc e. 37: 64-68. (DPL) 

Anestrus mares were divided into four treatment groups. The 
Group I mares received an additional period of artificial 
light. Group II mares were exposed to ultraviolet light 
which was gradually increased during a four- week period. 
The light was applied only to their flanks and bellies and 
their eyes were hooded. Group III mares were kept in con- 
finement under normal light conditions. Group IV mares 
were allowed to run in the paddock. In Group I ovarian 
stromal growth, increased vascularity of the cervix and 
vagina, plus shedding of the coat occurred within 15-30 
days from the start of treatment. Follicles appeared soon 
after and the first appearance of estrus occurred about 30 
days earlier than in the other groups. The author concluded 
that light affects reproductive activity in the mare and, 
since irradiation of the ovaries with ultraviolet light did 
not change the normal occurrence of estrus, he suggested 
that the eye was probably the receptor organ. 



Castle, W. E. 1954. Coat color inheritance in horses and in 
other mammals. Genetics . 39(1): 35-44. (DEL) 

A scientific discussion of the genetics of horse coat color 
inheritance presenting a genetic framework for explaining 
horse colors in harmony with that derived from the experi- 
mental study of other mammals. 



Clegg, M. T. and W. F. Ganong. 1969. Environmental factors 
affecting reproduction, p. 473-488. In: H. H. Cole and 
P. T. Cupps, eds., Reproduction in Domestic Animals . 
Academic Press, New York. (DPL) 

The authors review the evidence of the role of environmental 
factors in the reproductive physiology of individual domestic 
animals. Discussion is grouped under four headings: light, 
temperature and humidity, social stimuli, and other factors. 
The introduction covers these four factors as they relate 
to the available evidence on the various species that have 
been studied. The specific animals include the horse, 
rabbit, sheep, cattle, swine, and goat. Most of the evidence 
on the horse concerns the effect of light on the estrus cycle 
of the mare and its effect on the quantity and quality of 
semen from the stallion. The authors state that the specific 
effects of temperature on reproductive activity in the mare 
have not been critically studied. Extensive references. 



Day, F. T. 1940. Clinical and experimental observations on 

reproduction in the mare. Journal of Agricultural Science . 
30(2): 244-261. (DPL) 

"An extended study on the length of the estrus period shows 
variation of from, three to 54 days and diestrus from five 
to 30 days with averages of seven to eight days and 11 to 
16 days, respectively. The time and condition of ovulation 
is pointed out together with its variation by treatments 
with pregnancy urine and gonodotrophic hormones and the 
influence of these upon pregnancy and the length of the 
cycles." Biological Abstracts. 



Denhoff, Gay. 1974. Should the Wild Horse of Alberta be Pro- 
tected? University of Calgary. 25 p., 6 maps. (DPL) 

The author discusses wild horses which inhabit an area just 
east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada. There is a geologic 
description of the area along with a discussion of the types 
of forests found there. The author gives a detailed listing 
of plant species found in each of the ecological zones 



mentioned. The main herbivore wild life in the wild horse 
ranges are elk, deer and moose. Approximate locations of 
herds are given. The author estimates that there are 
roughly a total of 1000-1500 horses in the Alberta Province. 
Feeding and watering habits of wild horses are discussed. 



Edwards, Gladys Brown. 1970. The long and short of it. 
Arabian Horse World . 10(11): 87-94. (DPL) 

The Exterior of the Horse , a book by two French authors, 
Boubaux and Barrier, printed in 1884, is quoted extensively 
on the relationship between the length of a horse's loins 
(lumbar vertebrae) and that of its back (thoracic vertebrae) 
Such problems as foraging are analyzed in some detail. The 
number of lumbar vertebrae is also discussed in relation to 
Arabians, other breeds of horses, zebras, and donkeys. 
Three tables from several sources are reproduced, listing 
the number of vertebrae in these two areas plus those in 
the croup (sacral) for these kinds of equines plus the 
Shetland pony and the Przewalski horse. 



Ensminger, M. E. 1951. Horse Husbandry . Interstate Printers 
and Publishers, Danville, Illinois. 336 p. (DPL) 

A horseman's reference book presented as a high school or 
college textbook. The book covers types, classes, breeds, 
selecting and judging, age, breeding, feeding and disease 
of horses. 



Estes, Richard D. 1974. Zebras offer clues to the way wild 
horses once lived. Smithsonian . 5(8): 100-107. (DPL) 

The paper is based on the findings of the social behavior 
study on Burchell's zebras done by the ethologist Hans 
Klingel over a three-year period in Africa. It describes 
in detail the family social organization of the zebras. 
The article is written for a general audience and is 
scientific in scope. 



Feist, James Dean. 1971. Behavior of Feral Horses in the Pryor 
Mountain Wild Horse Range . M. S. Thesis. University of 
Michigan. 129 p. (DPL) 

"The objectives of this study were to investigate the be- 
havior patterns, social organization, and population struc- 
ture of the wild horses of the Pryor Mountains, Wyoming- 
Montana. To facilitate an accurate account of the population 



structure and social organization, the entire herd on the 
Range was identified as individuals. Documentation of 
daily and seasonal activity patterns, movements, possible 
home ranges and/or territories, dominance interactions, 
leadership, and breeding relationships was made. Qualita- 
tive and quantitative descriptions and photographs of 
stereotyped behavior acts were taken." Behavior patterns 
were analyzed and compared to the behavior of other Equidae 
from other geographical locations. 

Glover, J. and D. W. Duthie. 1958. The nutritive ratio/crude 

protein relationships in ruminant and non-ruminant digestion. 
Journal of A g ricultural Science 50: 227-229. (DPL) 

The author determined that the nutritive ratio of animal 
food was significantly related to the crude-protein content 
of that particular food in both ruminant and non- ruminant 
digestion. This confirms that a relationship exists between 
the total crude protein and digestible protein in ruminant 
feed. It also strongly suggests that there should also be 
a relationship between these two proteins in non- ruminant 
feeds. The author warns that it would be unwise to assume 
a constant relationship between the nutritive ratio and the 
crude protein content of feed until more data are available 
on non- ruminants at low-protein levels. 

Gremmel, Fred. 1939. Coat colors in horses. Journal of 
Heredity . 30(10): 437-445. (DPL) 

A detailed heredity scheme is expounded for color inheritance 
in horses, based upon observations, clinical tests, and 
histological examination. Hypothesis holds that gene com- 
binations on three major loci (probably modified by accessory 
genes) have quantitative and cumulative effects on pigment^ 
production, resulting in various colors and shades. Certain 
color patterns are due to independent dominant genes showing 
no epistasis toward each other. Further details of patterns 
are discussed. 

Groves, Colin P. 1974. Horses, Asses and Zebras in the Wild. 
Ralph Curtis Books, Hollywood, Florida. 192 p. (DPL) 

"The author describes wild horses and their relatives in 
detail— their different varieties, habitats, how they live, 
their prospects of survival, and also a history of those 
species now extinct." 



Hafez, E. S. E., M. Williams and S. Wierzbowski. 1962. The 
behaviour of horses, p. 370-396. In: E. S. E. Hafez, The 
Behaviour of Domestic Animals . Williams and Wilkins, 
Baltimore. (DPL) 

The article discusses six areas of horse behavior: ingestive 
and eliminative behavior, activity, social behavior, sexual 
behavior, schooling and training, and atypical behavior. 
Scientific in scope and illustrated. List of references. 



Hafez, E. S. E., M. Williams, and S. Wierzbowski. 1969. The 
behaviour of horses, p. 391-416. In: E. S. E. Hafez, The 
Behaviour of Domestic Animals . Williams and Wilkins, Balti- 
more. (DPL) 

The article discusses six areas of horse behavior: ingestive 
and eliminative behavior, activity, social behavior, sexual 
behavior, schooling and training, and atypical behavior. 
Scientific in scope and illustrated. List of references. 



Hall, Ron and J. F. Kirkpatrick. 1975. Biology of t he Pryor 
Mountain Wild Horse . Bureau of Land Management, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. Unpublished paper, 21 p. (DPL, USDI) 

"Data regarding population size and dynamics, herd distribu- 
tion, behavior, social structure and food habits were col- 
lected for approximately 130 wild horses in the Pryor Moun- 
tains of south-central Montana, from 1969 through 1973. 
The horses did not have any dominant color description, but 
palaminos, appaloosa and whites were totally absent. Mature 
females had an average weight of 600-750 pounds and mature 
males (5 years and older) ranged between 800-900 pounds. 
The hoof wall was at least twice the thickness as that of 
the domestic horse. There were approximately 130 horses on 
the range. The sex ratio was 60% male and 40% female. A 
10- to 11-year-old horse was considered old. The oldest 
horse was 14 and the average age was 6.4 years. Survival of 
colts was approximately 3-4%. In 1971 the young/adult ratio 
was 11/100 and the young/female ratio was 24/100. In 1972 
the young/adult and young/female ratios were 16/100 and 
24/100 respectively. The rise in the young/adult ratio in 
1971 was due to the removal of 30 adult males. The breeding 
season extended from late March to mid-July with peak activ- 
ity in early May. The gestation period was approximately 
340 days with foaling occurring from early April to July. 
The majority of males and females did not breed until at 
least three years of age. The effects of photoperiod on 
reproduction are unknown with respect to the female and 
probably play an important role in the male. Average harem 



10 



group size was 3.4. The harem was composed of a lead mare, 
a stud whose function was breeding and holding the unit 
together, and other subordinate animals. Larger harem 
groups sometimes contained two males and both of them bred 
on occasion. Males born to the unit were sometimes driven 
off as yearlings, while other groups tolerated young males 
for as long as three years. Stud groups, composed of young 
stallions not yet capable of obtaining a harem had a much 
looser organization than did the harem groups. The stud 
groups were led by a dominant stallion. Individual members 
sometimes joined other all-male groups. The horses in the 
Pryors had seasonal home ranges but did not establish 
territories. In general, distribution was dictated by 
availability of water and forage and weather conditions. 
The major items in the horses' diet were bluebunch wheatgrass 
(Agropyron spicatum) and sandberg bluegrass ( Poa secunda ) ." 



Hanauer, Elsie. 1973. The Science of Equine Feeding . A. S. 
Barnes, New York. 78 p. (DPL) 

Beginning with a complete explanation of the horse's digest- 
ive system and its functions, the author delves into basic 
food requirements, vitamins and minerals. Factors influ- 
encing feeding principals, special cases, changing the diet, 
and feeding schedule are then discussed. A section on 
specialized diets is followed by a section covering diseases 
caused by faulty nutrition. 



Klingel, Hans. 1965. Notes on the biology of the plains zebra 
Equus quagga . East African Wildlife Journal. 3:86-88. (DPL) 

The author observed thirty-nine harem groups and 15 stallion 
groups for two years, another ten harem groups and 22 
stallion groups for one year, for a total of about 500 
animals. The results of the study are outlined in the 
following sections: social structure, seasonal distribution 
and foaling, foaling rate and intervals, sex ratio, and 
age at sexual maturity. 



Klingel, Hans. 1971. A comparison of the social behaviour of 

the Equidae, p. 124-132. In: V. Geist and F. Walther, eds., 
The Behaviour of Ungu late s and its R elation to Management . 
IUCN Publications new series No. 24. International Union 
for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges , 
Switzerland. (DPL) 

In the Equidae two types of social organization have evolved. 
The plains zebra ( Equus quagg a) , mountain zebra (E. zebra ) , 



11 



horse (E. przewalskii ) and possibly also the Asiatic wild 
ass (E. h emionus ) live in coherent family groups, consisting 
of one stallion, with one to several mares and their young. 
Surplus stallions are found in stallion groups. The young 
leave their original families in a set pattern. No terri- 
tories are established in these species. In the Grevy 
zebra ( E. grev yi) and the wild ass (E. african us) the 
the stallions maintain large territories which they, however, 
only defend under certain conditions, i.e. when an estrus 
mare is near the boundary. Apart from the mare- foal rela- 
tionships there are no personal bonds between any two or 
more individuals. Most of the equine populations live in 
areas with marked seasonal variation. In the non- territorial 
species the reproductive groups migrate as units. In the 
territorial species the sexes segregate for part of the 
year, a feature which will certainly influence the repro- 
ductive rate, especially in areas with irregular rainfall. 



Klingel, Hans. 197 2. Social behavior of African Equidae. 
Z oologica African a. 7(1): 175-185. (DPL) 

Two basically different forms of social organization were 
discovered in the equids. Type one is represented by the 
plains zebra, Equus quagga and by the mountain zebra, E. zebra . 
Type two comprises Grevy 1 s zebra, E. grevyi and the wild ass, 
E. africanus . Differences are found between these two 
groups in territorial and family behavior patterns. The 
evolution of equine sociology is discussed. 



McKnight, Tom L. 1959. The feral horse in Anglo-America. 
Geographical Review . 49: 506-525. (DPL) 

"The principal aim of the study on which this paper is 
based was to gather as much information as possible concern- 
ing the current distribution of feral horses in Anglo- 
America and the land-use problems resulting from that dis- 
tribution. Most of the data were gathered by means of a 
questionnaire." A very thorough well-documented section 
on the history of the feral horse leads to the discussion, 
tables, and map of the present population, its problems 
and advantages. 



Odberg, Frank Olof. 1973. An interpretation of pawing by the 
horse ( Equus caballus ) , displacement activity and original 
functions. Saeugetierkd Mitt . 21(1): 1-12. (DPL) 

The original function of pawing was as part of the nutritive 
and grooming behavior and as the marking of territory. Pawing 



12 



was also interpreted as displacement activity; by the 
sight of unreachable food, while eating, while waiting 
before work (racing, pulling the cart), by the stallion 
before serving the mare, and as part of the threat- 
expression. 



Pellegrini, Steven W. 1971. Home Range, Territoriality an d 
Movement Patterns of Wild H or ses in the Wassuk Range of 
Western Nevada . M. S. Thesis, University of Nevada, Reno. 
39 p. (DPL) 

The unique methods of gathering data for this study included 
observations of such signs as tracks, hair deposits, dung 
piles, and shade and rubbing trees. The author studied, 
measured, and then drew to scale the particular hoof prints 
of each horse in a band. Color was determined by correlating 
the tracks of each animal at places where they would lose 
body, mane and tail hair such as rubbing trees and rolling 
places. Sex was determined by urination patterns and tracks 
close together such as a mare and a colt. Movement patterns 
were plotted on maps by following fresh tracks. Validity 
of data was confirmed by visual contact, the use of a blind, 
spotting scope, and aircraft. The author reported that the 
horses in the Wassuk range defended only a small portion of 
their home range as territory. Home ranges of harem groups 
were cube-shaped while that of lone horses was linear. 
There was a good colt crop and survival in 1970 but a very 
poor crop in the preceding ten years. The text contains a 
description and map of the study area plus illustrations 
of variation in hoof prints. Also included are discussions 
on dung piles and stud posts, seasonal movement changes and 
movement in relation to livestock use. No footnotes or 
list of references. 



Simpson, George Gaylord. 1951. Horses: The Sto r y of the 

Horse Family in the Modern World and through Sixty Million 
Years of History . Oxford University Press, New York. 247 p, 
(DPL) 

A scientific survey based on a project of the American 
Museum of Natural History, tracing the evolution of the 
horse from pre-historic forms to the present. The standard 
reference book on horses. The book is illustrated with 
line drawings and has an extensive list of references. 



13 



Smythe, R. H. 1966. The Mind of the Horse . Stephen Greene 
Press, Brattleboro, Vermont. 123 p. (DPL) 

The author, a veterinarian, describes the horse's instincts 
as a herd animal, and cites the adjustments it is required 
to make in carrying out patterns of behavior entirely 
opposed to its natural impulses. Then he examines the 
horse's sensory advantages and handicaps. His chapter on 
vision examines the make-up and placement of the eye in 
various breeds and, with the aid of excellent diagrams and 
photographs, explains how a horse's actions are governed by 
what it is able to see. Equally enlightening are his 
sections on equine hearing, smell and taste, tactile sensa- 
tions, emotions and motivations. 



Smythe, R. H. 1967. The Horse: Structure and Movement . 2nd ed. 
Revised by Peter C. Goody. J. A. Allen, London. 184 p. (KSU) 

The author discusses the anatomic structures which are re- 
sponsible for the appearance of the horse and the relation- 
ship of musculo-skeletal system to movement. The book is 
divided into four sections: bones and joints; skin and sur- 
face contour of the body; functions of certain parts of the 
horse at rest and in motion; and an appendix. Text is sup- 
plemented with illustrations. 



Speelman, S. R. , W. M. Dawson, and R. W. Phillips. 1944. Some 
aspects of fertility in horses raised under western range 
conditions. Journal of Animal Science . 3(3): 233-241. (DPL) 

Fertility data and analysis for 209 mares bred to 14 stallions 
over a 15-year period at the U. S. Range Livestock Experi- 
mental Station, Miles City, Montana are given. Effects of 
several variables on fertility rate for these domestic 
horses are examined. Sex ratios of foals and causes of 
deaths are described. 



Stecher, Robert M. 1962. Lateral facets and lateral joints 

in the lumbar spine of the horse--a descriptive and statisti- 
cal study. American Journal of Veterinary Research . 23(96): 
939-947. (DPL) 

Large size in an animal poses muscular disadvantages for 
locomotion. In the horse and other animals this is compen- 
sated for by stiffness of the posterior spine. Stability 
in the horse is augmented by lateral joints in the lumbar 
region. These lateral joints are unique to all horses, 
domestic, wild, or prehistoric. The joints vary from four 



14 



to seven with the number largely dependent on the length of 
the lumbar spine which is dependent upon the number of 
lumbar vertebrae. The author examined 245 skeletons of 
members of the horse family and found variation in all breeds 
and species. The sources of skeletal material by breed and 
species are listed. The functions of the lateral joints 
are discussed. The text includes photographs and tables. 
Included is a summary in Spanish. 



Storrar, James Andrew. 1974. Feral Horse Habitat Analysis . 
B. S. Thesis, University of British Columbia. (DPL) 

The author discusses competition between cattle and horses 
in the open range and notes that although horses eat more, 
they are more mobile and therefore do less harm to the range, 
Horses that have difficulty surviving through the winter 
are generally those that have been worked during the summer 
and have not had the chance to build up body resources like 
the year-round feral horses. The author feels that more 
research is necessary, that certain branding practices be 
initiated, and that culling of herds be done when necessary. 



Tseregmid, D. and A. Dashdor j . 1973. Wild horses and other 

endangered wildlife in Mongolia. Trans, by Hon. I. Montagu. 
Oryx. 12(3): 361-370. (DPL) 

"Until the middle of the present century Mongolia was little 
affected by man, in the sense of interference with and dis- 
tortion of the natural environment. In 1918 the population 
of this 600,000 square-mile country was only 640,000, with 
9.6 million domestic animals. (The comparable figures 
today are 1,300,000 and 23.4 million.) Thanks to this lack 
of interference and the protective measures of the Mongolian 
People's Republic, Mongolia still has some of the rarest of 
the world's mammals, notably wild horse and camel, Gobi 
bear and Asian wild ass. The most threatened of them is 
the Przewalski horse, which some scientists think is extinct. 
But the two authors believe that it survives in small numbers, 
They urge the need for large reserved areas where livestock, 
which compete for the horses' grazing and water, can be 
eliminated." 



Tyler, Stephanie J. 1972. The behaviour and social organization 
of the New Forest Ponies. A nimal Behavior Monographs . 5(2): 
85-196. (DPL) 

The author spent a total of 3948 hours observing the actions 
and behavior of the New Forest ponies during the years 1965 



15 



to 1968. The New Forest covers an area of 144 square miles 
in Britain of which 103 square miles are under public owner- 
ship. The ponies are believed to be descendants of small 
wild horses indigenous to Britain and are semi-wild; except 
for the annual harvest of young animals and the control of 
stallion numbers they remain free to forage for themselves 
throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the 
structure and stability of the groups, the dominance- 
subdominance relationships within and between groups, and 
the relationships between mares and their foals. Observa- 
tions were also recorded on the daily maintenance activity 
of the ponies such as grazing, resting, grooming and 
elimination. 



Waring, G. H. 1970. Perin atal b ehavior of foals (Equus caballus) . 
Paper read before the 50th Annual Meeting of the American 
Society of Mammalogists . June 18, 1970. (DPL) 

"Rapid behavioral development of the horse does occur rela- 
tive to many mammalian species. It is possible in the first 
few hours of life of a foal to detect abnormalities by 
observing deviations from typical patterns in behavioral 
development." 



Waring, G. H. 1970. P rimary socialization of foals (Equus 
caballus ) . Paper read before the Animal Behavior Society 
at the 21st Annual American Institute of Biological Sciences 
meetings. Bloomington, Indiana, August 29, 1970. (DPL) 

"Although many questions are yet to be answered, horses 
seem to establish primary socialization in the first two 
hours after parturition. The foal's bond to its mother 
remains weak relative to the mare's bond to her foal." 



Waring, G. H. 1971. Sounds of the horse (Equus caballus) . 
Paper read before the meeting of Ecological Society of 
America. September 21, 1971. (DPL) 

"Horses produce a variety of sounds. Among these are 
squeals, nickers, whinnies, groans, blows, snorts, snores, 
and sounds associated with coughing, chewing, flatus, hoof 
beats, and sheath movements. Many, if not all, could act 
in information transfer between horses and facilitate social 
interactions. Furthermore because of the symbiotic relation- 
ship between man and horse, the sounds of the horse function 
at times in inter-species communication aiding in transfer to 
a human handler information about the emotions of the horse, 
thus facilitating the symbiotic relationship." 



16 



GENERAL 



Anonymous. 1958. Abandoned horses on the federal range. Our 
Public Lands . 8(2) :3, 12. (DPL) 

The origin of wild horse herds prior to the Taylor Grazing 
Act of 1934 started with their introduction by the Spanish. 
Later after their numbers were depleted in World War I, 
because many were rounded up for cavalry use, their numbers 
grew again as ranchers turned them loose because power 
equipment had replaced many of their functions. The wild 
bands competed with licensed livestock and game animals for 
forage. "The only way these horses can be controlled is 
through organized roundups, conducted under the abandoned 
and estray animal statutes of the states." The article 
goes on to describe different methods of rounding up wild 
horses. Concern for the extinction of wild horses has 
prompted some people to suggest that refuges for them be 
established. The Bureau of Land Management points out that 
this might not be practical because they are constantly 
moving long distances in search of food and forage and they 
might still compete with other forms of wildlife and domestic 
stock. The Bureau feels that if extinction of the wild 
horse were a possibility, some form of public protection 
would be given them. 



Anonymous. 1960. Canada: 'Please don't kill...'. N ewsweek . 
13 June: 54. (DPL) 

The Canadian Sable Island horses are discussed. Due to 
their starving condition the Canadian government decided 
that they should be sold, a public uproar ensued, and their 
future is still undecided. 



Anonymous. 1968. The vanishing mustang. Colorful Colorado. 
4(l):18-22. (DPL) 

The article opens with a description of a present-day 
airborne roundup. The author goes on to discuss the loca- 
tions of the remaining wild horse population and the prob- 
lems they are faced with such as fences, sheepherders and 
cattlemen. The article closes with a summary of the history 
of the wild horse in this country. 



17 



Anonymous. 1971. The fight to save wild horses. Time . 12 July 
48-51. (DPL) 

Recent roundups of mustangs are discussed giving the tech- 
niques used. Photographs accompany the text. Recent efforts 
of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") have resulted 
in legislation being passed. But the article points out 
that ranchers have found a loophole in the law and by re- 
leasing their branded horses among the wild horses they are 
allowed to round up the entire mixed herd. New legislation 
in Congress would outlaw such capture techniques and would 
provide much tougher protection for the wild horses. 



Anonymous. 1972. Champion of the wild ones. Kappan. 2(2) -17- 
19. (DPL) . 

A brief history of wild horses in the United States and a 
general overview of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") 
and her efforts to save the wild horses. 



Anonymous. 1974. The mustang hunters. Newswee k. 22 April- 78 
(DPL) 

The article discusses several problems that have arisen be- 
cause of the 1971 Wild Horse and Burro Act. A 20 percent 
increase in wild horse population is said to be the result 
of protection afforded by the 1971 Act and is cited as having 
angered cattlemen because their cattle must compete with the 
horses for forage. Another problem is that ranchers are 
rounding up wild horses to sell using part of the Act which 
allows owners of stray horses on public lands to recapture 
them. 



Amaral, Anthony. 1965. The wild horse of Nevada. Nevada High - 
ways and Parks . Spring: 16-21. (DPL) 

According to the author the population of wild horses in 
Nevada fifty years ago was 100,000. Today, the author says 
that Nevada is the only state that has herds of wild horses 
that are remainders of these large herds. Mus tanging as a 
sport and famous mustangers are discussed followed by a 
general history of wild horses in this country and a recent 
history of wild horses in Nevada. 



18 



Amaral, Anthony. 1970. Cinderella horses. Horse Lover's 
Magazine . 34(5) :40, 56. (DPL) 

Melvin Jones, a rancher in eastern Nevada has been capturing 
and converting mustangs into useful cow horses for some years. 
One of his Cinderella horses was Smartie--who was captured 
from a wild herd in central Nevada and rose to become champion 
reined cow horse in the Olympics of that contest at the Cow 
Palace in 1952. Mr. Jones describes how he brings a mustang 
along from wild horse to completed reining horse. 



Bearcroft, Norma. 1966. Wild Horses of Canada . J. A. Auen, 
London. 89 p. (DPL) 

A popularized book dealing with wild horses in Canada, 
covering the introduction of the horse to the western world 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the use of the 
horses by Indians and cowboys. The Sable Island Refuge is 
discussed in detail. Several interesting aspects of the Sable 
Island horses are that they are less than 14.2 hands high 
and the herds remain in one or two valleys for their entire 
lifetime. The common herd size is a stallion with six mares 
and foals. More than one stallion per herd is common in the 
winter months. The legal means for rounding up wild horses 
in Alberta are outlined. 



Beebe, B. F. and J. R. Johnson. 1964. American Wild Horses . 
David McKay Company, Inc., New York. 180 p. (DPL) 

A juvenile book explaining many aspects of the lives of wild 
horses and burros including how they can be utilized after 
capture. The book is illustrated with line drawings. 



Bell, Carol. 1972. 'Jupiter' meets civilization. Contemporary , 
The Denver Post . 7 May: 22-24. (DPL) 

The story of a Pryor Mountain colt culled from the herd and 
adopted into a new home. The article discusses how the 
colt is progressing with the new owner. 



Boone, Andrew R. 1933. The wild herd passes. Travel . 60(4): 
20-23, 56. (DPL) 

A general article important because of its date. The author 
estimates the population of wild horses to be 50,000 in 1933. 
Wild horses are praised for their stamina and comments are 
made on their grazing habits. The article also discusses 



19 



horses' need for water and their ability to dig for water 
if necessary. 



Soyd, Bob. 1973. Wildest of the wild. American Horseman . 3(7) 
18-20, 39-40. (DPL) 

The author describes the wild horse of today mentioning 
heritage and history. He discusses his experiences as a 
wild horse hunter. 



Chesson, Ray. 1969. Haylift for hungry broomtails. Our Public 
Lands ■ Summer: 5-7. (DPL, USDI) 

The story of a haylift to starving wild horses in Nevada 
organized by the National Mustang Association with the help 
of the International Society for the Protection of Wild 
Horses and Burros and the U. S. Air Force. 



Crain, Carolyn. 1973. Saving the Symbol of the West; The 

Wild Horses . Unpublished bibliographic essay. 18 p. (DPL) 

A discussion of the wild horse, concentrating on the struggle 
and the controversies surrounding the campaign for federal 
protection of the remaining 11,000 wild horses in the ten 
western states. Well documented. 



Davis, Deering. 1962. The American Cow Pony . Van Nostrand, 
Princeton, New Jersey. 166 p. (DPL) 

An authoritative book divided into sections covering the 
following subjects: the various breeds of horses involved 
in the development of the American cow horse, starting with 
the Spanish horse, conformation, size and intelligence, 
riding, schooling, equipment, and the cutting horse. List 
of references . 



DeFilippo, Florence. 1970. A plea for the wild horses. Horse - 
man's Yankee Pedlar . 8(11): 92-93. (DPL) 

The article discusses the estimated 17,000 wild horses which 
occupy public lands and how they are being hunted for sport 
or slaughtered for dog food which brings four cents a pound. 
The need for protective legislation is outlined. 



20 



Dobie, J. Frank. 1951. The murderous mustang of the plains. 
Saturday Evening Post . 1 December : 32-33 , 130, 132. (DEL) 

An exciting account of an encounter with a wild stallion is 
followed by a brief history of wild horses on the Western 
range. Dobie outlines the typical behavior of a band of 
horses and recounts many of his experiences with wild horses 
and observations he made during these experiences. 



Dobie, J. Frank, Mody C. Boatright and Harry H. Ransom, eds . 1965. 
Mustangs and Cow Horses . 2nd ed . Southern Methodist University 
Press, Dallas. 429 p. (DEL) 

An extensive and informative compilation on mustangs and 
mustangers which covers a wide and selected assortment of 
material on the range horse in general. It also contains 
many fresh first-hand chronicles. Selections include: 
Mustang Texas, Mustangs of the Staked Plains, Legendary 
Wild Horses, Caballos, A-Riding and A -pitching, A Man and 
His Horse, and Horse Heroes. 



Gorman, John A. and Gaydell M. Collier. 1972. Free as. ..the 
wind. National Wildlife . October, November : 46-48. (DPL) 

The article discusses wild horses and says they are neither 
livestock nor wildlife, but feral; that is, domestic animals 
which have reverted to the wild. Mustangs are small, tough 
animals, standing between 13 and 14 hands high and weighing 
about 900 pounds. The early history of the horse in North 
America and the impact of the Taylor Grazing Act are dis- 
cussed. The Nevada preserve for wild horses and the Pryor 
Mountain Wild Horse Range are the only two areas where these 
horses are protected. Many of the steps made towards the 
protection of wild horses have been through the efforts of 
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"). 



Henry, Marguerite. 1966. Mustang; Wild Spirit of the West . Rand 
McNally, Chicago. 224 p. (DPL) 

The author presents the early history of the horse in the 
West and a biography of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse 
Annie") and her fight to preserve the wild horses of the 
West. A young adult book. 



21 



Henry, Marguerite. 1969. Dear Readers and Riders . Rand McNally, 
Chicago. 221 p., illus. (DPL) 

In this book the author answers letters inquiring about the 
reality behind her fiction and her riding and writing prob- 
lems. An entire section is devoted to questions concerning 
her book Mustang; Wild Spirit of the West . A young adult 
book. 



Horseman's Abstracts . 1969-1971. Vols. 1-3. Leisure Abstracts, 
Goleta, California. Joan M. Ingalls, ed. (CSU) 

An abstracting service of more than 50 popular horse- 
oriented magazines. Some references to Spanish mustang and 
wild horses are made but the large bulk of material abstracted 
concerns breeding, racing, and general horsemanship. "The 
function of Horseman's Abstracts is to describe and summarize 
the content of current magazine articles, so that the 
reader can decide whether he is interested in reading the 
original article." 



Isaman, Judy. 1973. Wild mustangs. Nevada Highways and Parks . 
Winter: 20-25. (DPL) 

An article about Richard Jeffries, a Nevada biologist, who 
studies and photographs wild horses in northern Nevada as 
a hobby. Some of Mr. Jeffries general observations are noted 
and the text is accompanied by his color photographs of wild 
horses . 



Jackson, Donald. 1969. Mustangs. Life . Jan. 17:42-54. (DPL) 

A photographic essay, including an interview with Robert 
Brislawn, who has been breeding mustangs in Wyoming since 
the 1920' s. Also includes comments of many westerners 
and the remarks of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), 
who has worked for protective legislation for the wild 
horses . 



Kania, Al. 1974. Wild and free roaming. American Horseman . 
July: 24-25, 45. (DPL) 

The author raises the question of the feral U. S. wild horse 
designation. He suggests that there may have been horses 
here before the Spanish arrived with their horses . He con- 
cludes that the present wild horse population is descended 
not only from feral animals but also from native horses. 



22 



King, Chuck. 1971. A realistic look at the mustang - wild 
horse situation. Western Horseman . 36(5):44-45, 156, 158. 
(DPL) 

The author states that the original mustangs came from 
domesticated horses turned wild and that it is unrealistic 
to try to trace any of the wild horses of today directly 
back to the stock brought to this country by the Spaniards. 
To support this conclusion the author discusses horse ranch- 
ing and breeding illustrating how horses were bred and as a 
result how there could be no pure-blooded Spanish horses 
left in the wild. A need for present-day preserves for the 
wild horses is discussed. 



Laune, Paul. 1964. Mustang Roundup . Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, New York. 154 p. (DPL) 

The author grew up in Woodward, Oklahoma and had a great 
deal of experience with mustangs in his youth. There is 
much horse lore in this book and the role of mustangs in 
developing the West is entertainingly set forth. Illustrated 
with drawings by the author. Suitable for young adults and 
adults alike. 



Libman, Joan. 1975. A battle in Nevada may decide the fate of 
the wild horse. Wall Street Journal . 4 August: 1, 7. (DPL) 

Wild horses rounded up by the Bureau of Land Management to 
be put into "foster homes," are being fought over because 
the State of Nevada claims that the federal government has 
no jurisdiction over them. The article highlights the 
various stands of environmental groups, ranchers, and wild 
horse societies. 



McArthur, J. Wayne. 1973. The wild horse: an asset or a 

liability: Western Horseman . 38(6):16-17, 140, 142-143. (DPL) 

The author, who spent many years running wild horses in 
Wyoming, comments on the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971. 
He predicts that the law will allow herds to multiply at a 
very fast rate and that the result will be starvation as a 
means of population control. He also cites problems of 
inbreeding resulting in poorer and poorer horse specimens 
because of the pairing of undesirable recessive genes. A 
need for research is stressed. 



23 



McGriff, Sue. 1969. The wild stallion in fact and fancy. 
Chronicle of the Horse . 32 (30) : 26-27 . (DPL) 

This is an appraisal of the mustang stallion's conformation, 
behavior, and coloring. Their background is described. 
The article is illustrated with pictures of three registered 
Spanish mustangs. 



McKnight, T. 1959. The wild horse today. Desert . 22(6) :7. (DPL) 

A general distribution map shows where the majority of wild 
horses were found at the time of the author's study. He 
says that they run in small herds of from five to fifteen in 
remote back country. They are described as runty, big- 
headed and coarse with agility and stamina. They do not 
significantly compete with other fauna and their only natural 
predator is man. The author expects their numbers to 
dwindle to several thousand. 



Moore, Ron. 1969. Mustangs. Western Horseman 34(5): 111, 232- 
233. (DPL) 

The author's observations of bands of wild horses in Nevada. 



Most, Charles E. 1971. Somebody cared. Our Public Lands . 
Spring: 12-13. (DPL) 

The story of the first horse officially belonging to the 
United States, named "Wild Horse Annie." The horse is a 
foal from the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Wyoming and 
was rescued from starvation by Bureau of Land Management 
personnel. 



O'Brien, Robert. 1957. The mustang's last stand. Reader's 
Digest . December: 188-192. (DPL) 

A brief description of the history of wild horses in this 
country including a section on horse lore. Present efforts 
to protect wild horses by people such as Verne Wood, Edward 
Gladding and Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") are 
outlined. 



24 



Pady, Donald Stuart, comp. 1973. Horses and Horsemanship: 

Selected Books and Periodicals in the Iowa State University 
Library: An Annotated Bibliography . Iowa State University 
Library, Ames, Iowa. 226 p. (CSU) 

"The annotated bibliography describes nearly 800 titles 
selected from an estimated 1,200 books and periodicals about 
horses, covering works that range from those published as 
early as 1475 through recent titles of 1972 held by the 
University Library. Descriptive annotations accompany each 
title." Subjects covered are: bibliographies, history, 
breeding, medicine, horseshoeing, riding and racing, sports 
and hunting, and horses in art and fiction. Valuable for 
the early material covered and unavailable in most other 
places . 

Rhodes, Richard. 1972. How the West was lost. Esquire . May: 
150-155, 184, 187, 188. (DPL) 

Some of the battles Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") 
has fought for wild horses are detailed and there is a general 
account of how Annie became involved in the battle to save 
wild horses. The author outlines his reasons for thinking 
that wild horses are declining as the buffalos declined 50 
to 75 years earlier. 



Ryden, Hope, 1970. America's Last Wild Horses . Dutton, New 
York. 311 p. (DPL) 

A history of America's horses, from origin to original 
extinction, reintroduction by the Spanish, use by the Indians, 
up to the present, including commercial exploitation and lack 
of protection. The author describes the political struggle 
for and against protection of herds and gives opinions on 
steps necessary to prevent the extinction of wild horses 
today. 



Ryden, Hope. 1971. Good -by to the wild horse? Reader's Digest . 
May: 227-232. (DPL) 

The author, a television documentary producer, first became 
interested in wild horses in 1968 when she went to the Pryor 
Mountains in Wyoming. She describes the habits of the horses 
she filmed and gives background information on the recent 
history of the wild horses and summarizes what is being done 
to protect them. She stresses that new legislation must be 
passed if they are to remain and not be lost forever. 



25 



Ryden, Hope. 1971. On the track of the West's wild horses. 
National Geographic . 139 (1) : 94-109 . (DPL) 

The author describes the area in which wild horses live and 
outlines her own experiences with wild horses. The Bureau 
of Land Management believes that on public lands on which 
wild horses live about 17,000 of the animals survive. 
Illustrated with many of the author's photographs. 



Ryden, Hope. 1971. Mustangs; A Return to the Wild . Viking 
Press, New York. Ill p. (DPL) 

The sentimental journey of a woman tracking with a camera 
the few wild horses left in the West. Interesting text 
accompanied with photographs . 



Ryden, Hope. 1972. The Wild Colt; the Life of a Young Mustang . 
Coward, McCann & Geoghagen, Inc., New York. n.p. (DPL) 

A children's book explaining the life of a colt in a wild 
horse band. Profusely illustrated with the author's 
photographs . 



Sampson, Arthur W. 1952. Range Management; Principles and 
Practices . J. Wiley, New York. 570 p. (DPL) 

This book is divided into four parts . Part one deals with 
general concepts, world practices and problems, physiological 
principles and plant ecology as applied to range problems, 
characteristics of U. S. grazing lands and the historical 
development of grazing in America. Part two discusses forage 
plants as a basis of range production. Part three discusses 
improvement and management, natural and artificial reseeding, 
control of noxious woody plants, selection and control of 
the various kinds of livestock, standards of range use, 
range inventories and management plans , economics and 
physical and social aspects . The fourth and final part 
considers the protection of the land resources and range 
livestock, including timber reproduction, the use of 
shade trees and shelter belts, stock-poisoning range plants, 
foraging and predatory wildlife on the range, soil erosion 
and control and the general administrations of the public 
lands. Extensive references throughout. 



26 



Sinclair, John L. 1971. The mustangs of Lucero Mesa. New 
Mexico . Winter: 4-13. (DPL) 

A discussion of the McKinley Ranch mustangs that live on 
Lucero Mesa in New Mexico. An account of these Andalusian 
mustangs and their Old World heritage is followed by a dis- 
cussion of how they got to the New World and how they dis- 
persed into New Mexico. The Spanish Mustang Registry and 
mustangs on the McKinley Ranch are mentioned. 



Smith, Charles Hamilton. 1841. Feral horses of America, p. 
173-185. In: Charles Hamilton Smith, The Naturalist's 
Library. Mammalia. Vol. XII. Horses . W. H. Lizars , 
Edinburgh. (DPL) 

A valuable account of wild horses as they were known to the 
author in 1841. The South American wild horses are 90% bay 
and 10% zains in color. Their only predators are the puma 
and jaguar. If a carnivorous animal is detected by a wild 
horse herd they crowd together and then the stallions rush 
forward to trample him to death. The wild horses of the 
Western United States congregate in thousands because of the 
great abundance of food. These herds belong exclusively to 
the prairie, avoiding mountains and woods. 

Spencer, Dick. 1959. Plight of the mustang. Sports Afield . 
December: 28-29, 91. (DPL) 

The mustang of the West has been pushed into the most unde- 
sirable grazing areas available. A result of this poor grazing 
is a small and scrubby physical appearance. The efforts of 
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") to prevent motorized 
vehicles from being used to round up horses have resulted in 
Federal legislation forbidding their use. The author recom- 
mends the establishment of wild horse refuges and thinning 
herds on these refuges as necessary. 



Stoddart, Laurence A., Arthur D. Smith and Thadis Box. 1975. 

Range Management . 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 532 p. (DPL) 

"Defining the science of range management and presenting the 
principles that are basic to the management of range land 
ecosystems, this text has become a classic in its field. 
The new edition now includes worldwide examples. Rangeland 
resources are identified, and important principles in the 
fields of plant physiology, ecology, economics, and animal 
nutrition are related to the management of range lands. The 
authors discuss multiple uses of rangeland, including 



27 



wildlife, water, forestry and soil stability. Principles 
and practices of manipulating vegetation are presented, 
including both chemical manipulation and biological controls 
McGraw-Hill 



Thomson, David. 1972. One final fight for America's wild 
horses. True; The Man's Magazine . February: 27-29, 33, 
82-85. (DPL) 

The author investigates wild horses in the Douglas Mountain 
area of Colorado. He interviews two veteran ranchers in the 
area who feel that the new federal law will cause them hard- 
ship because of the multiple use concept of sharing leased 
land with wild bands of horses . According to one of "the 
ranchers , if the law means that ranchers would lose their 
grazing permits then there is a possibility that ranchers 
would shoot the horses whereas in the past they protected 
them because they could occasionally catch them and sell 
them to ranchers. An historical account of the wild horses 
and the author's first-hand account of seeing wild horses 
in the Douglas Mountain area conclude the article. 



Trueblood, Ted. 1975. Disaster on the western range. Field and 
Stream . 79(9): 14, 22-23. (DPL) 

The author feels that the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 
needs to be amended to give range managers adequate means 
to control these animals. If not amended the author points 
to the following five results which will ensue: extermina- 
tion of two endangered species; the Sonoran pronghorn and 
the desert bighorn sheep; devastation of forage plants 
essential to both domestic livestock and big game; damage to 
watersheds; bankrupting of ranchers; and eventual decimation 
by starvation and disease of the horses and burros themselves. 
In light of this the author goes along with the recommendation 
of the majority of the members of the Wild Horse Advisory 
Board that aircraft be used to control the growing numbers 
of horses. Examples of substantial increases in horse popu- 
lations are cited as reasons for allowing the administrators 
of the range, i.e. the Bureau of Land Management and Forest 
Service, more control over the numbers in the herds. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. 1973. In Touch with People , 
U. S. Department of the Interior Conservation Yearbook Series 
No. 9 . "Free Spirit on the Move." p. 83-87. U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. (DPL) 

A capsulized summary of how horses got to the New World and 
their history since then. Emphasis is placed on recent 

28 



aspects of the wild horse problem and what has been done for 
them. A thorough discussion of the Pryor Mountain wild 
horses . 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management, 
n.d. Fact Sheet: Wild Horses . 1 p. (DPL) 

A short fact sheet, answering questions about wild horses 
such as: what and where they are located; how they got there; 
how many there are; what is being done for them; and the 
Bureau of Land Management's policy on them. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 
1974. Wild Horses in Colorado 1974 . 7 p., 2 maps, mimeo. 
(DPL) 

The maps show the locations of the horses. A table shows 
the breakdown within each area of numbers of mares, colts, 
yearlings, harem studs, studs and unidentified horses. A 
207o increase in horse population occurred from 1973 to 1974. 
The statistics were gathered by airborne surveys. 



Varner, Carroll. 1974. Velma Bronn Johnston (Wild Horse Annie) . 
Unpublished bibliographic essay. 11 p. (DPL) 

The author discusses the life of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild 
Horse Annie") and what she as an individual has accomplished 
for wild horses. List of references. 



Walter, Beverly. 1959. Wild Horse Annie fights to save the 
mustang. Desert Magazine . June: 4-7. (DPL) 

This article outlines the early phases of the wild horse 
controversy and Mrs. Velma Johnston's ("Wild Horse Annie") 
invo lvement . 



Weiskopf, Herman. 1975. Wild West Showdown. Sports Illustrated . 
42(18) :82-88, 91-92, 94. (DPL) 

The author interviewed Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse 
Annie") at her home in Reno, Nevada. The author's account 
of Mrs. Johnston's life gives an up-to-date historical picture 
of her efforts and other efforts to preserve and protect wild 
horses. The victories and setbacks of the struggle are out- 
lined. Particular attention is paid to legislative issues 



29 



concerned with wild horses. Personal anecdotes about Mrs 
Johnston's life are found throughout the article. 



Westin, Jeane. 1971. "Wild Horse Annie" madonna of the mustangs 
Horseman . May: 62 -64. (DPL) 

The story of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), how 
she got interested in wild horses and what she has done to 
further their cause. 



Wood, Nancy. 1969. The wild horses — heritage or pest? 
Audubon . November: 46-51. (DPL) 

The article discusses why cattlemen and Bureau of Land 
Management officials find wild horses free loaders in federal 
and private lands . Horses produce no profit like big game 
do, therefore it is most expedient to get rid of them. The 
435,000-acre wild horse preserve on Nellis Air Force Base in 
Nevada and the Pryor Mountain Preserve along the Montana- 
Wyoming border are the two areas where horses are protected. 
The total number of wild horses remaining in the U. S. is 
estimated to be 17,300 by the Bureau of Land Management. 
The early history of horse roundups by western cattlemen, 
roundups during World War I, and roundups in the 1920' s are 
outlined. The population of wild horses in 1925 was said 
to have been one million and by 1930 it was estimated that 
the population had dropped to around 100,000. 



30 



HISTORY 

Clark, L. H. 1966. They Sang for Horses : The Impact of the 
Horse on Navajo and Apache Folklore . University of Arizona 
Press, Tucson. 225 p. (DPL) 

A small illustrated folio volume exploring the impact of the 
horse on Navajo and Apache folklore. Very soon after the 
horse was introduced to the Navajos and Apaches in the early 
part of the seventeenth century it quickly became the main 
source of wealth among these primitive peoples and exercised 
a dominant influence over their cultures . This dominant 
economic influence naturally became infused with the regional 
folklore. Discussion of Indian veterinary efforts with 
horses and of their equine husbandry. The work contains 
color reproductions of illustrations made by famous Indian 
artists . 



Cook, J. H. 1919. Wild horses of the plains. Natural History . 
19:104-110. (DPL) 

A former Indian scout recalls his experiences with wild 
horses as well as Indian knowledge which was passed on to 
him. He describes the horses of 1870 and 1880: "the average 
weight was about 800 pounds, the colors that predominated 
among them were cream, buckskin, or mouse -co lor, they had a 
few black stripes about the legs above the knees, or hocks, 
and a black stripe along the middle of the back, extending 
from the mane to the tail, the stallions did not have a 
shaggy appearance." A predator of the weakened animals and 
colts was the wolf. Early capture techniques are mentioned. 



Crowell, Pers . 1951. Cavalcade of American Horses . McGraw-Hill, 
New York. 311 p. (DPL) 

A background of how man developed the horse from a wild, 
untamed animal to its present high degree of usefulness. 
The author discusses the horse not only as a close companion 
to man but as one of the most useful animals in the advance 
of civilization. The book covers history and legend as well 
as the story of individual breeds. 



Denhardt, Robert Moorman. 1975. The Horse of the Americas . 

University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. 286 p. (DPL) 

The narrative tells something of the history of the western 
horse and the part he has played in the development of the 
Americas . 



31 



Dobie, J. Frank. 1952. The Mustangs . Little, Brown, Boston. 
376 p. (DEL) 

A highly anecdotal history of the wild horses of the American 
West, examining the theories of their origin, and relating 
incidents of their capture and use by both Indians and whites . 
A comprehensive presentation of the horse's introduction, 
spread, influence, zenith and disappearance. Thorough 
documentation and extensive list of references. 



Haines, Francis. 1964. How the Indian got the horse. American 
Heritage . 15(2): 16-21, 78-81. (DPL) 

The author outlines the two theories on how the Indian got 
the horse. The earliest theory was that horses lost from 
early Spanish expeditions had, by natural increase, stocked 
the western ranges with wild bands that supplied the various 
Indian tribes with their animals. The more recent theory, 
based on historical evidence, is that the Indians gradually 
got horses from the Spanish and later from each other and 
not from free -roaming bands. 



Haines, Francis. 1971. Horses in America . Crowe 11, New York. 
213 p. (DPL) 

A popular historic survey on the various types of horses 
found and bred in America for different purposes. The 
early history of the horse in America and how it spread is 
outlined. A modest list of references. 



Howard, Robert West. 1965. The Horse in America . Follett 
Publishing Company, Chicago. 298 p. (DPL) 

A brief survey of the role of the horse in North American 
culture and history. The author carries the story from 
Eohippus up to today's leisure-time riding and racing 
horses. He discusses the roles of Conquistadores , Indians, 
the military, cattlemen, and various other groups in the 
horse's history in this country. 



Hunt, F. and R. Hunt. 1949. Horses and Heroes; the Story of 
the Horse in America for 450 Years . Scribner, New York. 
306 p. (DPL) 

This book concentrates on the Spanish horse, its influence 
and contribution to the American way of life from its 
earliest arrival on the continent to the present. 



32 



Hunt, John Clark. 1972. The wild horses. Westways . September: 
24-29, 79. (DPL) 

Early maps of the West detail where wild horses were once 
found. The name Wild Horse was applied to springs, mountains, 
canyons , flats , lakes , points , ridges , creeks and mesas . 
The early relationships of horses to settlers and Indians 
are documented by the writings and experiences of early 
explorers such as Pete Barnum, a famed mustanger who caught 
more than 15,000 mustangs between 1904 and 1914 and was the 
inventor of the circular canvas horse trap. The article 
closes with a discussion of current legislation that has been 
passed to protect the wild horses. 



Johnson, J. J. 1943. The introduction of the horse into the 
Western hemisphere. Hispanic American Historical Review . 
23(4):587-610. (DPL) 

A we 11 -documented article tracing the horse's arrival in the 
New World. The author states that second voyage brought 
horses to Espanola in the New World, they were later dispersed 
to Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Cuba. There is a thorough dis- 
cussion of the types of horses that were brought from Spain 
as well as the ancestry of these horses . 



Roe, Frank Gilbert. 1955. The Indian and the Horse . University 
of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. 434 p. (DPL) 

"This is a carefully documented account of the Indian pony, 
that hardy little animal which, despite its "hang -dog" 
appearance and apparent lack of intelligence, possessed an 
almost unbelievable speed and endurance which allowed its 
rider to run down the fastest buffaloes in the herd or leave 
his cavalryman pursuer far behind. It is also the story of 
the American Indian and his relation to this animal which 
broadened his horizons and developed his abilities as horse 
master and selective breeder, even though he had previously 
known only the dog as a domesticated creature. But more 
than this, it is a historical comment on one of the most 
turbulent and fascinating eras of American frontier history." 



Schuessler, Raymond. 1970. When the Indian got the horse! Horse 
World. 37(11) :66-67, 137-138. (DPL) 

Some contemporaries considered the American Indian among the 
world's best horsemen, led by the Sioux and Comanche tribes. 
The author examines the many ways in which possession of the 
horse changed the social structure of the Indian culture. He 



33 



quotes reports from the Spanish and from Indian tribes . 
The remarkable stamina of these horses and the Indian methods 
of horse training are discussed. These ranged from riding 
out the bucks to very gradual gentling methods. 



Smith, Bradley. 1969. The Horse in the West . World Publishing 
Company, New York. 255 p. (DPL) 

The author, a photographer for "Life" and other magazines, 
has chosen four breeds to represent the horse in the West: 
Arabian, Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, and Appaloosa. He 
gives a separate section to each breed, covering history, 
legend, development of the breed in the West, qualities and 
conformation, and a modern view that concentrates on a few 
ranches and breeding farms. Each block of text is followed 
by a picture essay of the breed with color photographs show- 
ing the breeds of today. The book also includes a history 
of Western horses since the time of Columbus, picture essays 
on the horse in art and the wild horse of the Pryor Mountains, 
Wyoming, and a map showing the spread of the horse through 
the West. 



Wissler, Clark. 1914. The influence of the horse in the devel- 
opment of the Plains culture. American Anthropologist . 16(1): 
1-25. (DPL) 

A discussion of the relation of the European horse to the 
culture of the Plains Indians . A general resume of the 
literature at hand provides approximate dates of horse intro- 
duction into various tribes and is followed by a comprehensive 
section on the means through which the Indians acquired the 
horse. The author covers tribal customs and habits and 
their relation to the introduction of the horse. An example 
of this is the migration habits of tribes before and after 
the horse became a part of their culture. Thoroughly 
documented. 



Worcester, D. E. 1944. The spread of Spanish horses in the 

Southwest. New Mexico Historical Review . 19:225-232. (DPL) 

This article expounds the generally accepted theory that the 
Plains Indians did not acquire horses through strays being 
lost by Spanish expeditions, as has been suggested by some 
writers, but rather that Spanish ranches supplied both the 
horses and the horsemanship to the Indians of the Southwest. 
There is nothing to suggest that there were mounted Indians 
in the Southwest before the 17th century, nor any reason to 



34 



believe that the natives of that region learned to use 
horses except from the Spaniards. Well documented. 



Worcester, D. E. 1945. Spanish horses among the Plains tribes. 
Pacific Historical Review . 14:409-417. (DPL) 

This article theorizes that the northward spread of the use 
of horses was from tribe to tribe and man to man rather than 
capture from roaming herds. It is possible that wild horses 
may have entered some sections of the Plains in advance of 
the knowledge of horsemanship, but there is no evidence of 
any tribe learning to use horses except from horsemen of 
other nations. The Indians acquired considerable knowledge 
of horsemanship and knew which horses to use for war expedi- 
tions based on hoof features. 



Wyman, Walder D. 1945. The Wild Horse of the West . Caxton 
Printers, Caldwell, Idaho. 348 p. (DPL) 

This book places primary emphasis on events since 1890, but 
goes back to the original introduction of horses by the 
Spanish. It maintains that distribution of horses to Indians 
was primarily by means of northward movement of Spanish 
strays. It details the influence of horses on Indians and 
stockmen up to the present time. 



Zeuner, Frederick E. 1963. The horse, p. 299-337. In Frederick 
E. Zeuner, A History of Domesticated Animals . Hutchinson, 
London. (DPL) 

A definitive coverage of the earliest known domestications 
of the horse, concentrating on its development in different 
geographical areas. The article is scientific and well 
documented with an extensive list of references. 



35 



LEGISLATION 



Anonymous. 1959. Good news for the mustang: President signs 
Baring Bill. Desert Magazine . November: 4. (DPL) 

The article discusses the passage of the anti-airborne 
roundup law, popularly known as the Baring Bill. This law 
prohibits the mechanical capture of wild horses and burros 
on public land. The bill also makes it illegal for pet food 
suppliers to pollute desert water holes . The fine for vio- 
lating this law is $500 and/or six months in jail. Mrs. 
Velma Johnston's remarks on this news are included. 



Anonymous. 1959. Wild Horse Annie. Time . 74 (4): 15. (DPL) 

A discussion of the pending legislation concerning airborne 
roundups and how Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") 
has been the champion of the wild horse cause. 



Anonymous. 1971. California wild horses. Chronicle of the 
Horse . 34(22): 32. (DPL) 

State Senator Beilenson of California introduced a bill pro- 
hibiting exploitation of threatened wildlife, which he recently 
amended to include wild horses. The bill was introduced to 
discourage the practice of trapping and killing Nevada 
mustangs for commercial purposes. Importation of wild 
horses to California slaughter houses is now against the law. 



Anonymous. 1971. They kill horses .. .don' t they. Colorful Colo - 
rado . May, June:4R-6R, 8R, 10R, 12R, 14R, 16R. (DPL) 

The Colorado House Agriculture Committee voted unanimously 
to indefinitely postpone action on a wild horse protection 
bill that had passed overwhelmingly in the Senate. As a 
result the year-round open season on wild horses remains in 
effect. The early history of the horse in the new world is 
mentioned, including early capture techniques such as creasing, 
which meant shooting the horse in the withers, which would 
stun him until he could be roped. The recent decline of the 
wild horse is discussed along with the efforts of Mrs. Velma 
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), to save them for future 
generations . 



36 



Anonymous. 1974. Wild horse rights: return of the mustangs. 
Colorado Business . 1(4): 23 -24. (DPL) 

The article discusses the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971. 
According to the Act, November 15, 1974 was the last date 
private citizens could claim wild horses. They now all 
belong to the United States. The Bureau of Land Management 
is now authorized to take a census of the herds in given 
localities and to allocate each herd enough land to sustain 
it. Ranchers are distressed because in some cases they must 
now share leased federal land with wild horses and they are 
forbidden to round up wild horses to sell to rendering plants 



Barber, Ted. 1974. Wild horses on welfare. Western Horseman . 
April: 80-84, 161-162. (DPL) 

The author confronts the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 
(PL 92-195) and says that allowance must be made for air- 
borne roundups for good management practice. 



Brandon, William. 1972. Wild horses of the West. Sierra Club 
Bulletin . September :4-10, 37. (DPL) 

A discussion of why the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 was 
passed overwhelmingly and why wild horses have claimed so 
much recent attention and publicity. The history of the horse 
starting with the Spanish is chronicled to its gradual dis- 
appearance in the 20th century. The efforts of Mrs. Velma 
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") are outlined. The author calls 
attention to the necessity for a serious study of wild horse 
habits. He claims that wild horse refuges or reserves, several 
of which have been established in recent years, are only a 
partial solution to the problem. 



Jennings, Josh. 1972. Wild Horse Annie: a western legend. High 
Country News . 4(26) :4-5. (DPL) 

The author interviews Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"). 
The interview is a personal account of her efforts to protect 
wild horses. The specific steps that were taken towards 
getting legislation passed for the protection of wild horses 
are outlined. 



Johnston, Velma B. 1970. Legislation requiring immediate action, 
Northeast Horseman . April: 7 -8. (DPL) 

Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") urges legislation to 
protect and control wild horses and burros. She feels they 



37 



are the target of exploitation, starvation and slaughter 
and cannot be saved through slow step-by-step procedures. 
At the end of the article is the bill which she wishes 
introduced in the Senate. She urges that all horse lovers 
write to Senator Henry M. Jackson and urge him to schedule 
early hearings on Bill S-3358 for the protection of wild 
horses and burros . 



Johnston, Velma B. 1970. Mustang protective legislation. 
Chronicle of the Horse . 33 (51): 11. (DPL) 

Hunters are getting around laws against capturing wild horses 
and burros with airplanes and mechanized means by turning 
domestic horses out on the range, then wild horse hunters 
may chase the mixed herd of wild and domestic horses by any 
means, claiming ownership of the animals. Mrs. Velma 
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") urges support of law S-3358 
introduced by Senator Hansen of Wyoming which would remove 
jurisdiction over the animals from state and local agencies 
to the federal authorities . 



Johnston, Velma B. 1972. The fight to save a memory. Texas Law 
Review . 50(5) : 1055-1064. (DPL) 

A discussion by Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") of 
her involvement in the wild horse controversy and what 
legislation has been passed since her interest in wild 
horses began in 1950. There is a brief history of horses 
in the U. S. and a thorough discussion of the Wild Horse 
and Burro Act of 1971 (PL 92-195). 



Johnston, Velma B. and M. J. Pontrelli. 1969. Public pressure 
and a new dimension of quality — horses and burros. Trans - 
actions of the Thirty-fourth North American Wildlife and 
Natural Resources Conference . 34:240-252. (DPL) 

A brief history of horses in the United States is followed 
by the personal story of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse 
Annie") and the steps she took in her fight to save the 
wild horses. This testimony is full of key events and 
their dates; e.g. the Nevada law prohibiting airborne 
roundups passed in 1953. 



Pontrelli, M. J. 1969. Protection for wild mustangs. Defenders 
of Wildlife News . October, November, December : 444 -446 . (DPL) 

Senator Frank E. Moss introduced a bill (S-2166) concerning 
the protection and preservation of wild horses, specifically 



38 



the Spanish Barb and the Andalusian. The bill, if passed, 
would place these horses on the endangered species list. All 
wild horses would then be rounded up and the Barb and 
Andalusian would be separated out to be preserved in pro- 
tected areas; the remaining wild horses would be separated 
out and disposed of. Dr. Pontrelli finds the following 
problem with this proposed legislation: "since all horses 
are to be rounded up and since most evidence points to the 
fact that no pure blooded Barb and Andalusians are in the 
wild, then a strict interpretation of the bill would call 
for the virtual elimination of all wild horses." He goes on 
to outline the points he feels are important for legislation 
concerned with the protection and preservation of wild 
horses . 



Public Law 86-234 . 1959. Statutes at Large , Vol. 73, p. 470. (DPL) 

An amendment to the United States Code, Chapter 3 of Title 18, 
which prohibits the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt 
certain wild horses or burros on land belonging to the United 
States, and for other purposes. 



Public Law 92-195 . 1971. Statutes at Large , Vol. 85, p. 649- 
651. (DPL) 

A law requiring protection, management, and control of wild 
free-roaming horses and burros on public lands. This law 
places all wild free-roaming horses and burros under the 
jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior or the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 



Tyler, Chuck, ed. 1970. Youth news. Horse and Rider . 9(6): 72 (DPL) 

Howard H. Caudel, Grand Junction, Colorado, urges readers to 
write Secretary Walter J. Hickel, Department of the Interior, 
to urge protection for wild horses in the Bookcliff Mountains 
of Colorado. According to the author they are presently the 
target for Sunday afternoon cowboys who round them up. 



U. S. Congress. House. 1959. Amendment of Title 18, United 

States Code, To Prohibit the Use of Aircraft or Motor Vehicles 
to Hunt Certain Wild Horses or Burros on Land Belonging to 
the United States. House Report 833 to accompany H.R. 2725, 
86th Congress, 1st session. (DPL) 

This is the House report concerning H.R. 2725, a bill to pro- 
hibit the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild 
horses or burros on lands belonging to the United States. 

39 



U. S. Congress. House. 1971. Protection, Management, and 
Control of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public 
Lands . House Report 681 to accompany S. 1116, 92nd Congress, 
1st session. (DPL) 

A conference report concerning the disagreement between the 
House and the Senate regarding S. 1116, a bill requiring the 
protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming 
horses and burros on public lands. 



U. S. Congress. House. 1971. Requiring Protection, Management 
and Control of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public 
Lands . House Report 480 to accompany H.R. 9890, 92nd 
Congress. 1st session. (DPL) 

The House's report concerning H.R. 9890, a bill to require 
the protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming 
horses and burros on public lands. 



S. Congress. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs 
1971. H.R. 795 and H.R. 5375, Legislation to Authorize the 
Protection, Management, and Control of Free-Roaming Horses 
and Burros on Public Lands. Hearings before a subcommittee 
of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of 
Representatives, on H.R. 795, H.R. 5375 and Related Bills, 
92nd Congress, 1st session. (DPL) 

Testimony concerning legislation designed to authorize pro- 
tection, management, and control of free-roaming horses and 
burros on public lands. 



U. S. Congress. Senate. 1959. Wild Horses and Burros . Senate 

Report 802 to accompany H.R. 2725, 86th Congress, 1st session. 
(DPL) 

The Senate's report concerning H.R. 2725, a bill to prohibit 
the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild 
horses or burros on lands belonging to the United States. 



U. S. Congress. Senate. 1971. Protection, Management and Con - 
trol of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public Lands . 
Senate Report 242 to accompany S. 1116, 92nd Congress, 1st 
session. (DPL) 

The Senate's report concerning S. 1116, a bill to require the 
protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming 
horses and burros on public lands. 



40 



U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular 
Affairs. 1971. S. 862, S. 1116, S. 1090, and S. 1119 To 
Authorize the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary 
of Agriculture to Protect, Manage, and Control Free-Roaming 
Horses and Burros on Public Lands . Hearings before a sub- 
committee of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 
Senate, on S . 862, S. 1116, S. 1090, and S. 1119, 92nd 
Congress, 1st session. (DPL) 

Testimony concerning legislation to authorize protection, 
management, and control of free-roaming horses and burros 
on public lands . 



U. S. Department of the Interior and U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. 1974. A Report to Congress by the Secretary of 
the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture on Administra - 
tion of the Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act, Public 
Law 92-195 . 58 p., appendices. (DPL, USDA, USDI) 

The report fulfills section 10 of public law 92-195, The 
Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act. The review presents 
the progress made and the problems encountered by these two 
agencies in their administration of wild horses and burros. 
It also contains considerations for legislative changes which 
will assist the agencies in meeting the intent of the 1971 Act 
in a more effective, humane, and cost -conscious manner. Two 
amendments to the 1971 Act are being considered. The first 
amendment would permit the use of aircraft or other motorized 
vehicles to be used for the protection, management, and con- 
trol of wild horses and burros . The use of such equipment 
would be in accordance with humane procedures prescribed by 
the two secretaries . The second amendment would authorize 
the two secretaries to sell or donate excess animals to 
private individuals or organizations. Extensive appendices. 



41 



MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND PROBLEMS 



Cook, C. Wayne. 1975. Wild horses and burros: a new management 
problem. Rangeman's Journal . 2(1): 19-21. (DPL) 

The author was Chairman of the National Advisory Board for 
Wild Free -Roaming Horses and Burros and has been on the Board 
since it was formed after the passage in 1971 of the Wild 
Horse and Burro Act. In this article Dr. Cook gives a brief 
description of the wild horses, their early numbers and con- 
trol, their management and recent population figures, and 
finally their present control under the Wild Horse and Burro 
Act. The main focus of the article is on the inadequacy of 
the present federal legislation, namely the 1971 act and how 
it needs to be changed. Dr. Cook suggests several changes. 
He suggests that the Wild Horse and Burro Act be amended to 
include provision for control and to allow aircraft, if 
necessary, , to implement this control. The ownership of 
horses and burros should be transferable to individuals and 
the law should be amended to provide for the complete re- 
moval of horses and burros from certain areas and the estab- 
lishment of ranges where they can be managed appropriately. 



Dudley, Aaron. 1970. Nevadans ponder plight of wild horses. 
Western Livestock Journal . 49(3) :1+. (DPL) 

A confrontation occurred between those concerned with the 
future of the wild horse and members of the Nevada State 
Cattlemen's Association and Nevada Wool Growers at their 
combined convention, held in Winnemucca, Nevada, in 
November. Stockmen suggested that the horses supposed to 
be wild are simply those turned out and owned by ranchers. 
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), known for her 
protective efforts, defined a wild horse as those "one 
generation removed from the domestic animal and. . .unclaimed.' 
She was joined in her efforts by the President of the Nevada 
chapter of the National Mustang Association, Newcastle, 
Utah. Academic support came from an assistant professor of 
biology, Dr. Michael Pontrelli, at the University of Nevada 
who, together with his students, had been collecting field 
data on the mustangs for several years. Ranchers expressed 
their lack of understanding over public concern for 9,000 
"worthless" mustangs and state game officials explained that 
they did not fall under the heading of wildlife. Lack of 
management was seen as the chief cause of the mustang prob- 
lems, but no one present knew from what source management 
funds would come. 



42 



Hall, Ron. 1972. Wild Horse: Biology and Alternatives for 
Management, Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range . Bureau of 
Land Management, Billings District. 67 p. (DEL) 

"Population dynamics, distribution and behavior data were 
collected on the horse herd in the Pryor Mountains, Montana. 
Population data were collected by aging and sexing 124 
horses. Additional sex data were collected by using a 
spotting scope. Distribution and behavior information was 
collected through observations for one year. Distribution 
of the horses is dictated by water, forage and weather con- 
ditions. The horses have seasonal home ranges but do not 
establish territories. Home ranges vary in size with the 
size being dependent upon available forage. Breeding season 
seems to be a function of the green-up which brings mares 
into heat. Average harem group is three to four (3.4) 
animals. Range trend has been sharply downward for several 
years. Management will consist of population control and 
proper distribution. Distribution will be accomplished 
by water manipulation and/or feeding." 



Hall, Ron. 1974. Wild horse capture techniques . Bureau of 
Land Management. 24 p., illus. Draft. (DPL) 

The author discusses and accompanies with illustrations the 
following capture techniques: water, dry, holding facilities, 
drug immobilization, and roping. The author concludes by 
saying, "regardless of the technique used, the manager must 
have intimate knowledge of the behavior of the horses on 
the terrain in which they live. The manager must use all 
the ingenuity at his disposal to humanely capture horses 
while attempting to keep costs within fundable levels." 



National Advisory Board for Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros . 
Proceedings . Irregular. U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, and U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau 
of Land Management, Washington, D. C. (USDA, USDI) . 

The proceedings of the National Advisory Board which contain 
current information on pending legislation and lawsuits, 
recommendations of the Board, population status of wild 
horses and burros, current management reports of the Bureau 
of Land Management and Forest Service and other pertinent 
material. 



43 



Reavley, William. 1974. Wild horse board suggests sweeping 
changes. Conservation News . 39 (22) : 12-14. (DPL) 

The decisions of the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory- 
Board made at the Reno, Nevada 1974 meeting are discussed. 
To deal with the increasing populations, the Board's plan 
was as follows: "A series of 'intensive management units' 
(or wild horse refuges) would be established throughout 
representative ranges in the West, with the exact number yet 
unknown but possibly varying between 10 and 20. The remainder 
of the wild horse and burro populations not in the designated 
management areas would then be removed from the balance of 
the public domain." Vehicles such as helicopters would have 
to be used to round up the left-over horses and burros and 
those not claimed would be sold to defray the cost of rounding 
them up. This plan is in conflict with existing legislation. 



Remsberg, Charles. 1967. One man's fight to save the mustangs. 
True; The Man's Magazine . April :52-53, 86-90. (DPL) 

Outlines the early controversy in the Pryors where the Bureau 
of Land Management and the Tillett family disagreed over the 
outcome of wild horses grazing on federally leased land. 



Seals, Samuel J. 1972. Murderers Creek Wild Horse Area, Bio - 
logical Unit Management Plan, Malheur National Forest; Pro - 
posed Final Draft . U. S. Forest Service, 51 p., maps. (DPL) 

"The objective of this plan is to provide for the protection, 
management and control of wild, free -roaming horses in a 
natural ecological balance on the Murderers Creek Wild Horse 
Area." Very good data is contained in the study which in- 
cludes habitat and population dynamics. Resource and non- 
resource conflicts are discussed and an action plan for 
keeping the herd at less than 100 animals concludes the 
paper. Well documented with a bibliography. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 

1973. Proposed Wild Free -Roaming Horse and Burro Management 
Regulations. Final Environmental Statement . 73-35. 133 p. 
(DPL) 

This publication describes and discusses the environmental 
impact of regulations to implement the Wild and Free-Roaming 
Horse and Burro Act, PL 92-195. It discusses proposed regu- 
lations for the protection, management, and control of wild 
free-roaming horses and burros on national resource lands 
administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The proposal 



44 



describes the system of management that would be used and 
contains criteria and procedures for the program. Adverse 
environmental effects such as limiting the availability of 
forage and habitat to other grazing animals is discussed. 
Alternative management proposals are listed. Comments on 
the draft environmental statement are included. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 
1974. Livestock Grazing Management on National Resource 
Lands . Final Environmental Impact Statement. 3 vols. misc. 
paging. (DPL, USDI) 

"This is a programmatic statement relating to the livestock 
grazing management program administered by the Bureau of 
Land Management (BLM) and analyzes the environmental impact 
of this program on the national resource lands (NRL) , public 
lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This 
statement will provide a broad description of, and the al- 
ternatives to, the livestock grazing management program, and 
their impacts on the environment. It will serve as the 
foundation for subsequent environmental analyses and state- 
ments that may be required. It will identify factors needing 
close attention in such analyses to obtain definitive infor- 
mation." (Note: Because of a pending lawsuit more specific 
information will be forthcoming in the near future.) 



45 



ROUNDUPS 



Anonymous. 1949. Wyoming circuss F'R dudes: the horse roundup 
by aircraft. Illustrated London News . 215:1030-1031. (DPL) 

A pictorial essay of a 1949 Wyoming roundup which used air- 
craft as a means of rounding up the wild horses. 



Anonymous. 1958. Mustang murder. True; The Man's Magazine , 
June: 54 -5 7. (DPL) ' 

A description of a wild horse roundup in Nevada aided by 
aircraft and pickup trucks. The legality of rounding up 
wild horses in various states and on federal lands is 
discussed.. 



Anonymous. 1973. Federal mustang protection tested. . .horses 
brutalized in Idaho roundup. Mainstream . 4(2):3-4. (DPL) 

This article, accompanied by photographs, summarizes the 
Howe, Idaho wild horse roundup where a large band of horses 
were run off a cliff and left there to die. The ineffect- 
iveness of PL 92-195 for protecting wild horses is discussed. 

Anonymous. 1974. Wild Horse & Idaho Justice. Humane Society 
of the United States News . Autumn: 2. (DPL) 

The article discusses the Howe, Idaho horse roundup. Because 
the Idaho State brand inspector ruled that the wild horses 
rounded up on public lands were privately owned by the 
ranchers who rounded them up, the Humane Society is concerned 
that the 18 surviving horses may be returned to the ranchers. 
Senators Abourezk and Gude have filed claims for the horses 
on behalf of the American people and the final decision as 
to where the horses go is up to the Department of the Interior, 

Amaral, Anthony. 1970. Mustanging with Pete Barnum. Nevada 
Highways and Parks . Fall:8-10, 31, 35-37, 42. (DPL) 

An interesting and well-illustrated article about Pete 
Barnum, one of the all-time great mustangers in Nevada, 
responsible for inventing the circular canvas trap. 



46 



Amaral, Anthony. 1971. The wild horse--worth saving? National 
Parks and Conservation Magazine . March: 21-24. (DEL) 

The author discusses a roundup of 70,000 Nevada wild horses 
in 1950, a roundup which he believes was the last massive 
roundup of feral horses in the United States. Current legi- 
slation is discussed as ineffective because there is little 
authority given to make sure it is enforced. The mustang of 
today is not the tough, hot-blooded descendent of the Spanish 
horse; those mustangs disappeared before the turn of the 
century. Today's wild horse is a mixture of many things, 
made up of a conglomeration of eastern breeds from Europe, 
along with Spanish and North African blood. A great number 
of the "American" horses came from ranchers and farmers who 
released them onto the prairie. The author recommends that 
the government be periodically allowed to round up excess 
horses „ 



Bundy, Gus . 1953. Rounding up wild horses. National Humane 
Review . March: 16-20. (DPL) 

This article describes the early truck and airplane roundups 
which were common in Nevada in the late 1940' s and early 
1950' s. The article is accompanied by the author's photo- 
graphs . 



Clark, Gibbons. 1946. Yakima Indian riders round up wild 
horses. American Cattle Producer . July: 28, 33. (DPL) 

The Indians rounded up horses in 1946 and sold them to finance 
sports and other activities of the all-Indian American Legion 
Post there. The horses were forced from their home range to 
confuse them and due to their being in strange new surround- 
ings and flustered with excitement, they became tired. In 
this panicked condition they were easy to capture and herd 
into corrals. Local Indian reservation and forestry officials 
estimate that there were more than 5,000 wild horses roaming 
over the Fort Simcoe and Medicine Valley areas. 



Cotterman, Dan. 1973. Wild horse massacre. Horse and Rider . 
August: 28-31. (DPL) 

A discussion listing the events surrounding the Howe, Idaho 
wild horse "massacre" which occurred in February, 1973. 
According to the American Horse Protection Association the 
"hunt" violated two federal laws and an Idaho State anti- 
cruelty law. Bureau of Land Management negligence concerning 
the enforcement of the two federal laws was claimed by 



47 



several wild horse organizations. The author points out that 
the federal laws are inadequate because there is no provision 
for the acquisition of funds to carry out and enforce the 
laws. There is a thorough discussion of problems brought 
about by the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 and its relationship 
to the use of "National Resource Lands." 



Riordan, Marguerite. 1970. Wild horse swindle. The Cattleman . 
55 (9): 151. (DPL) 

In the early 1900 's the United States Livestock Company was 
organized to sell wild horses running in Arizona. The 
company sold bills of sale to people who were willing to try 
to catch the animals. The ease of capture was misrepresented, 
and many people lost their savings or homes. Some of their 
stories, and the results of the swindle, are recounted. 



Santee , Ross. 1958. The last run. Arizona Highways . November: 
26-35. (DPL) 

This article discusses the "good old days" of wild horse 
chases and roundups . 



Schuessler, Raymond. 1962. The massacre of the mustangs. Hoofs 
and Horns . February: 8-9, 27. (DPL) 

This article points out that as early as 1805 wild horses 
were being rounded up and killed to control their populations 
The author traces the decline of the wild horse to the 
present day. 



Schuessler, Raymond. 1970. The massacre of the mustang. Pony . 
22(253) :22-23. (DPL) 

The savage and proud wild horses of America who toiled 
dutifully when domesticated and literally pulled and carried 
America to prosperity, have gradually declined in numbers since 
the turn of the century. The mustangs at one time numbered 
five to seven million: their interference with cattlemen and 
the cattlemen's successful campaign to exterminate them are 
described. The article estimates that there are 20,000 wild 
horses in the West which are not protected in any way. 



48 



Wilson, George G. 1974. Slaughter of wild horses. Defenders 
of Wildlife News . 49 (2) : 104-106 . (DPL) 

The Howe, Idaho wild horse roundup is discussed in detail 
with first-hand photographs and descriptions by people who 
were actually there. The court history of the case is 
outlined. 



49 



WILD HORSE RANGES AND REFUGES 



Anonymous. 1963. The West: a home on the range. Newsweek . 
2 September: 30-31. (DPL) 

The article concerns itself with the formation of a wild 
horse range in the northeast corner of Nellis Air Force 
Base in Nevada. The article points out that the range is 
a tribute to the hard work of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild 
Horse Annie") in behalf of the wild horse. 



Anonymous. 1968. The last roundup? Newsweek . 13 May:95-96. (DPL) 

The herd of 200 horses in the Pryor Mountain Range on the 
Montana -Wyoming border will be culled to 30 horses in order 
to protect the over -used range. This Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment decision is annoying the local citizens who want to see 
the herd kept at 100 so they "won't inbreed and spoil the 
mustang blood." 



Anonymous. 1969. Wild horse refuge. Chronicle of the Horse . 
33 (8): 15. (DPL) 

A discussion of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range of 31,000 
acres along the Wyoming -Montana border where wild horse herds 
will be protected and maintained. 



Anonymous. 1973. Last of the wild horses. Horse and Horseman . 
April:24-29. (DPL) 

This article discusses the relocation of the Pryor Mountain 
wild horses that were culled from the herd because of over- 
population. "Inbreeding, encroaching civilization and a 
scarcity of grazing forage have trimmed the numbers of the 
spirited little beasts." The article goes on to discuss the 
wild horses of the Pryor Mountains that may be sold because 
they are "defoliating the range." The date of June 14 has 
been picked to auction off the horses and the controversy is 
drawing a great deal of attention. 



Bruemmer, Fred. 1967. The wild horses of Sable Island. Animals . 
10:14-17. (DPL) 

A discussion of the wild horses of Sable Island in Canada. 
These horses are believed to be descended from New England 
horses, liberated on Sable Island more than 200 years ago. A 



50 



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brief history of the island and its inhabitants is given. 
There is a thorough account of the island's present inhabi- 
tants, the wild horses, presently protected by the 
Canadian government . 



Gilluly, Richard H. 1971. The mustang controversy. Science 
News . 99(13) :219-220. (DPL) 

The mustang controversy is clouded with emotionalism. 
Neither side, those who want them eliminated vs. those who 
want them left alone, have substantial arguments or research 
to back them up. The new pending legislation would estab- 
lish wild horse sanctuaries on public lands. One such 
range has been established in the Pryor Mountains. The Bureau 
of Land Management is worried about competition between the 
horses and wild life species in the area. The author points 
out that much research is needed on wild horses and their 
:, >•:.;• natural habitat. 



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Grover, Dorys Crow. 1964. Haven for wild horses. Western 
Horseman . December: 28, 107-110. (DPL) 

The State of Nevada has the only wild horse refuge in the 
nation. It comprises 435,000 acres in the northeast corner 
of Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. It will be administered 
by the Bureau of Land Management and the size of the herd 



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will be about 200 horses. A general discussion of wild 
l 1 '"' '^ horses in the West concludes the article. 

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Klataske, Ron. 1970. Wild horse range. Wyoming Wildlife . 34(9): 
10-15. (DPL) 

The events leading to the establishment of the Pryor Mountain 
Wild Horse Range are outlined. First, an advisory committee 
was established to formulate a series of guidelines for the 
: • Bureau of Land Management to follow in administering the 

range. These guidelines included: that the size of the herd 
should be maintained at no less than 100 head; that if culling 
were necessary the diseased, deformed or branded animals 
should be culled, leaving the horses with roan, mouse and 
buckskin color characteristics; and that supplemental feeding 
.'•y •. .*. would be avoided if possible. 






Moorhouse, James A. and Gene Nodine. 1967. Wild horse haven. Our 
Public Lands . Fall:4-6. (DPL) 

The authors trace the first conquistador's horses to the 
"multicolored, short -coup led, grass -bellied animal" used by 



51 



of Land igement 

2nv ' ; . ral Center 
- 

the Indians and known today as wild horses. In 1967, an 
estimated 17,000 remained in nine western states. A 394,000- 
acre reserve known as the Nevada Wild Horse Range was 
established in 1962 with cooperation from the Department of 
the Interior, the Air Force and the Nevada Fish and Game 
Commission. 



Most, Chuck. 1969. Wild horses of the Pryors. Our Public 

Lands . Fall: 18-21. (DPL) ; Defenders of Wildlife News . 45(1): 
69-72. (DPL) 

In 1968 controversy arose concerning the outcome of a 200- 
head herd of wild horses in the Pryor Mountains on the 
Mont ana- Wyoming border. The Bureau of Land Management, 
concerned about worsening rank's conditions in the area, 
suggested these alternatives: maintaining the greatest 
number of horses, maintaining fewer horses to further 
reduce competition with deer, and remove all the horses 
and manage the area for wildlife. Finally a 32,000-acre 
Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range was established in 1968 
and a citizen's advisory committee was appointed to study 
the range and make recommendations to the Bureau of Land 
Management for future management. The committee's recom- 
mendations are included. 

■ 

Riley, J. 1969. The mustangs. West; Los Angeles Tim es. 27 July: 
8-11. (DPL) 







-■ ,■•■-.* 



The article describes the efforts of the Tillett family to 
protect the mustangs from the Bureau of Land Management, 
the State Fish and Game Department and the Livestock Com- 
mission. The efforts of Mrs. Velma B. Johnston, "Wild 
Horse Annie," of Reno, Nevada, who has worked with the 
Humane Society and the Tilletts, are also described. The 
Tillett Ranch comprising 9,000 acres, plus adjacent federal 
land, is located on the Montana-Wyoming border. 

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Scher, Zeke. 1969. Reprieve for the mustangs. 1969. Empire; 









The Magazine of the Denver Post . 12 October : 10-13 . (DPL) 






Mainly a report on the establishment of the Pryor Mountain 
Wild Horse Advisory Committee and their recommendations for 
the range. 



■ 



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52 






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Q&am Service Cents?. 



Schwartz, Barney. 1949. A kingdom for wild horses. Nature 
Magazine . 42(1):8-12, 50. (DPL) 

As early as 1950, photographer Verne Wood started promoting 
a plan for a state-controlled refuge for wild horses in 
Wyoming. He used his wild horse pictures for publicity. 
The proposed refuge would be controlled by fish and game 
wardens, and "some four hundred head would be permitted to 
live without danger of being rounded up by professional 
horse-hunters." The author goes on to describe the aspects 
of the horse roundups. He maintains that the refuge would 
become a great tourist attraction. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 
1968. Information Sheet; Pryor Mountain Horse Area . 2 p. 
mimeo. (DPL) 



The information sheet discusses the deterioration of the 
range in the Pryors and outlines the reasons for decreasing 
the wild horse populations. Three management alternatives 
are listed followed by a brief discussion. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 

Denver Service Center. 1969? Resources of the Pryor 

Mountain Wild Horse Range . Manuscript. Vol. l:Text. 69 p. 
Vol. II: Photographs, n.p. (DPL) 

A thorough study of the resources of the range in the Pryor 
Mountains, Wyoming. Soil information, plant species, hunt- 
ing harvest statistics, animal species and population 
dynamics are among the topics covered. The objectives of 
the report were "to evaluate existing resource information 
and data available on the wild horse range; to technically 
assess the vegetation, soil and moisture relationships using 
this assessment as a basis for recommendations relating to 
rangeland--watershed management and habitat management; and 
to identify the need for additional data." Color photographs 
give a specific and general overview of the range condition. 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management: 

Susanville District. 1973. Wild horses and burros, n.p. (DPL) 



A report which evaluates the present horse and burro situa- 
tions in the Susanville District of California. Based on 
research of the present populations; including the range 
condition and competition with other animals, the report 
recommends the implementation of certain management practices, 
Populations were determined by use of aerial survey counting 
techniques . 



53 



U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management, 

Susanville District. 1974. Wild Horses and Burros, Environ - 
mental Analysis . 52 p. (DPL) 

A summary of an 18-month study of the wild horses and burros 
of the Bureau's Susanville District in California. The 
study indicates definite over-grazing and competition prob- 
lems in that area. Population counts reported were partially 
determined by aerial surveys. Eight alternative recommenda- 
tions are made based on the study. 



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