Filing Code 4700
Date Issued March 1977
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Bureau of Land Management
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
U.S. Forest Service
WILD, FREE-ROAMING HORSES - AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
by Mark Zarn, Thomas Heller and
Kay Collins, Research Biologists
Denver Public Library
Additional copies of Technical Notes are available from DSC, Federal Center Building 50, Denver, Colo., 80225
Bureau of Land Management Bureau of I
Denver Service Center jera! Center
Denver, CO 80225
^9¥b^<^ ~3T>'«€%* Q b5"l~0 § L
The purpose of this bibliography is to provide personnel of the U.S. Forest
Service and U.S. Bureau of Land Management with a comprehensive annotated
list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the
limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the in-
formation included in the bibliography is from articles on domestic horses
or from data on other members of the Equidae .
The bibliography is divided into sections for easier use and within each sec-
tion alphabetically by author.
At the end of each citation a code appears in parentheses giving the location
of publication availability. Many of the articles will also be available at
local public and university libraries.
CSU - Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado 80521
DPL - Denver Public Library
Denver, Colorado 80203
KSU - Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502
USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250
USDI - U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Land Management
Washington, D.C. 20240.
Bureau of land Management
: '-"' • 3j £ej /ice Center
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Associations and Organizations 1
Equine Science 4
General ..... ........ 17
History ..... ............. 31
Management Techniques and Problems . . . 42
Roundups .................. 46
Wild Horse Ranges and Refuges ............ 50
ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Anonymous. 1970. Help save the mustang! Equestrian Trails.
This article explains the objectives of the National Mustang
Association formed in 1965, The Association was formed to
preserve and protect the "mustangs." A brief history of
"mustangs" in this century is given.
Anonymous. 1970. Ranch for wild horses. Chronicle of the
Horse . 33(47): 42-43. (DPL)
The National Mustang Association under the direction of Tom
Holland, president and founder, has bought the 68,000-acre
Lancaster Ranch near Caliente, Nevada for a wild horse
preserve and museum. The Association plans to stock the
ranch with wild horses from overgrazed areas.
Bock, Diane. 1970. The American mustang. Western Horseman .
35(10): 36. (DPL)
This article discusses specific conformation points adopted
by the American Mustang Association. These conformation
points were arrived at through research into South American
registries of native horses, Spanish archives and Western
Brislawn-Edwards Wild Horse Research Farm Newsletter. 1974+
Vols. 10+. (248 North Main Street, Porterville, California
A periodically published newsletter from the Brislawn-Edwards
Wild Horse Research Farm in Porterville, California. Research
findings and news of "Spanish" horses are included along with
notices of events concerning "Spanish" horses and addresses
of people involved with breeding "Spanish" horses.
Hickman, Mickey. 1970. Color on the plains. Horse Lover's
Magazine . 35(3): 38-39, 62. (DPL)
The history of the Spanish Mustang, a listing of his char-
acteristic features, information on his many and unusual
colors, and a plea to join the registry are all contained
in the article.
Hickman, Mickey. 1970. The Spanish mustang. Western Horseman .
35(10): 150. (DPL)
A discussion of the Spanish Mustang registry founded in 1957.
To date 300 horses are registered, not counting current
foals. Included in the registry are horses descended from
those acquired by Ferdinand and Bob Brislawn, wild horse
International Society for the Protection of Mustangs and Burros.
Newsletter. Irregular. (140 Greenstone Drive, Reno, Nevada
89502) . (DPL)
This newsletter discusses the activities of the society and
outlines current national events such as new legislation
concerning wild horses . Violations of laws protecting wild
horses are mentioned often accompanied by eyewitness accounts
McMullen, Rosemarie. 1966. The mustang. Western Horseman .
31(10): 26, 53. (DPL)
The American Mustang Association was formed to ensure that
mustangs survive. The goal of the Association is to produce
the ideal Andalusian type characteristics as the standard
conformation of the mustang. Shows for these registered
horses are sponsored by the Association.
National Mustang Association. 1971. Help save the mustangs I
Equestrian Trails . 26(7): 27. (DPL)
The Association explains that they have placed a down-
payment on a ranch in Nevada to which wild mustangs and burros
can be taken. They have formed a group whose services are
offered to ranchers who wish these animals removed from
their lands . The article describes the need for funds and
legislation, and explains how they plan to campaign through-
out the country to save the mustangs.
Richards, Lawrence P. 1958. The Spanish Mustang Registry.
Western Horseman . 24(10): 16, 93-94. (DPL)
The purpose and formation of the Spanish Mustang Registry
are discussed. The purpose of the organization and registry
is to ensure that the remaining horses with the character-
istics of the Spanish "Barb" are registered and preserved.
They do not want Spanish "Barbs" hybridized with other
horses as was done in the past to genetically improve the
Tinker, Nancy. 1969. Broomtail registry. Horse Lover's
Magazine . 33(4): 38-39, 62. (DPL)
The author relates the fate of what was once over a million
wild horses, descended from the Spanish Andalusians. She
describes the efforts of Robert and Ferdinand Brislawn to
form a breeding herd of mustangs over a period of thirty
years, gives the standards for which they have aimed, and
discusses how some of their herd animals have been caught
in the wild.
Wild Horse Organized Assistance. Newsletter. Irregular. Reno,
Nevada. (P. 0. Box 555, Reno, Nevada 89504). (DPL)
This newsletter alerts members of the organization of
activities concerning wild horses such as legislation,
roundups, grants, studies, etc. Members are also urged to
write letters to appropriate government officials to main-
tain protection for wild horses. Wild horses that will be
available for adoption are mentioned in the newsletter.
Anonymous. 1971. Family: Equidae. World of Wildlife . 1(5):
The first horse, Eohippus from the Eocene period, is traced
to the present day Equu s . Mention is made of the changes in
toes, skull, and dentition. A brief description of the
general habits of Equus spp. covers their senses, dentition,
habitat, and digestion. Illustrated with maps, photographs
Alexander, F. 1963. Digestion of the horse, p. 259-268. In:
D. P. Cuthbertson, ed. Progress in Nutrition and Allied
S ciences . Olive and Boyd, Edinburgh. (DPL)
A review of available literature on horse digestion, this
article covers gastric digestion, mechanics of gastric
digestion, digestion in the small intestine, digestion in
the large intestine, pharmacological studies, and micro-
biology. Extensive list of references.
American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1966. Official
G uide for Determining the Age of the Horse . Fort Dodge
Laboratories , Fort Dodge, Iowa. n.p. (CSU)
Thoroughly illustrated with line drawings which depict
teeth of horses at various ages as generally seen today in
America. Descriptive legends accompany the drawings. This
text is based on the premise that teeth provide the most
precise tool available for the determination of the age of
a horse. Teeth appear, develop, wear, change form and are
shed with a regularity that veterinarians have learned to
recognize with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Bell, R. H. V. 1970. The use of the herb layer by grazing
ungulates in the Serengeti, p. 111-124. In: A. Watson, ed.,
Animal Populations in Relation to their Food Resources .
Blackwell, Oxford. (DPL)
The seasonal use of grazing areas by African ungulates has
developed in a sequential manner dictated by the growth
form of the vegetative layers in relation to topography.
The animals are independent of each other's effect on
vegetation only during the wet season when there is abundant
forage. Analysis of diet was performed on four of the ungu-
lates; zebra, wildebeest, topi and Thomson's gazelle. Freshly
ingested stomach contents were divided into two categories
of vegetation: dicotyledons and monocotyledons. The zebras
led the grazing succession. They opened up the herb layer
for other animals by consuming the coarses, low protein,
high crude fiber vegetation. To explain the ability of the
zebra to survive on a low quality diet, the digestive system
of horses is described and compared to that of the ruminant.
Diet selectivity, interspecific associations, and alterna-
tive grazing successions are discussed. The author con-
cludes that the presence of one species in the grazing
succession is beneficial to the others.
Bell, Richard H. V. 1971. A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti.
Scientific American . 225(1): 86-93. (DPL)
This study examines the migration and grazing- patterns of
three species of large herbivore (wildebeest, zebra, and
Thomson's gazelle) in the Serengeti National Park. The
animals make use of the herb layer in a regular sequence:
first the zebras graze and trample the coarser, stemmier
vegetation, they are followed by the wildebeest who in
turn prepare the area for the delicate, selective grazing
of Thomson's gazelle. Analysis of the stomach contents of
the three species revealed that the selected vegetation
corresponded to their position in the grazing succession.
The reason for this sequence of grazing is due to the
differences in the digestive systems of ruminants and non-
ruminants and body size which has an effect on their rate
of metabolism. If this grazing succession broke down there
is a possibility that the Thomson's gazelle might not be
able to survive.
Berliner, Victor R. 1959. The estrous cycle of the mare,
p. 267-289. In: H. H. Cole and P. T. Cupps, eds., Repro -
duction in Dome st ic Animals . Academic Press, N. Y. (DPL)
This paper is divided into five parts. Part I is concerned
with the breeding season of mares; part II the pattern of
the estrous cycle; part III the physiological and histologi-
cal changes in the reproductive system; part IV the behavioral
pattern of the cyclic mare; and part V the adaptations of
the breeding program to cyclic events. The author discusses
and comments on the inconsistencies as well as areas of
agreement within the literature on the estrous cycle of the
Slakeslee, Jodean Kay. 1974. Mother- Young Relationships and
Related Behavior Among Free-Ranging Appaloosa Horses . M.S.
Thesis, Idaho State University. 113 p. (DPL)
Approximately 125 free- ranging Appaloosa horses in Idaho
were studied by direct observation in a 5,000-acre pasture
from June through August, 1973. The horses were also
observed at a 3,000-acre winter pasture in Idaho. The
author discusses the following areas: the estrus cycle,
gestation period, changes just prior to parturition, foal-
ing, post partum activity, imprinting, bringing the foal
into the group, nursing, recumbency and resting, recognition,
foal elimination, foal grazing and drinking, foal's explora-
tory and investigative behavior, and relationships between
foals and other group members. A well-documented study
with a thorough list of references.
Bone, Jesse F. 1964. The age of the horse. Southwest Veteri -
narian. 17(4): 269-272. (DPL)
A descriptive article which tells how to determine the age
of a domestic horse by examining its teeth. Guidelines are
Burkhardt, J. 1947. Transition from anestrus in the mare and
the effects of artificial lighting. Journal of Agricult ural
Scienc e. 37: 64-68. (DPL)
Anestrus mares were divided into four treatment groups. The
Group I mares received an additional period of artificial
light. Group II mares were exposed to ultraviolet light
which was gradually increased during a four- week period.
The light was applied only to their flanks and bellies and
their eyes were hooded. Group III mares were kept in con-
finement under normal light conditions. Group IV mares
were allowed to run in the paddock. In Group I ovarian
stromal growth, increased vascularity of the cervix and
vagina, plus shedding of the coat occurred within 15-30
days from the start of treatment. Follicles appeared soon
after and the first appearance of estrus occurred about 30
days earlier than in the other groups. The author concluded
that light affects reproductive activity in the mare and,
since irradiation of the ovaries with ultraviolet light did
not change the normal occurrence of estrus, he suggested
that the eye was probably the receptor organ.
Castle, W. E. 1954. Coat color inheritance in horses and in
other mammals. Genetics . 39(1): 35-44. (DEL)
A scientific discussion of the genetics of horse coat color
inheritance presenting a genetic framework for explaining
horse colors in harmony with that derived from the experi-
mental study of other mammals.
Clegg, M. T. and W. F. Ganong. 1969. Environmental factors
affecting reproduction, p. 473-488. In: H. H. Cole and
P. T. Cupps, eds., Reproduction in Domestic Animals .
Academic Press, New York. (DPL)
The authors review the evidence of the role of environmental
factors in the reproductive physiology of individual domestic
animals. Discussion is grouped under four headings: light,
temperature and humidity, social stimuli, and other factors.
The introduction covers these four factors as they relate
to the available evidence on the various species that have
been studied. The specific animals include the horse,
rabbit, sheep, cattle, swine, and goat. Most of the evidence
on the horse concerns the effect of light on the estrus cycle
of the mare and its effect on the quantity and quality of
semen from the stallion. The authors state that the specific
effects of temperature on reproductive activity in the mare
have not been critically studied. Extensive references.
Day, F. T. 1940. Clinical and experimental observations on
reproduction in the mare. Journal of Agricultural Science .
30(2): 244-261. (DPL)
"An extended study on the length of the estrus period shows
variation of from, three to 54 days and diestrus from five
to 30 days with averages of seven to eight days and 11 to
16 days, respectively. The time and condition of ovulation
is pointed out together with its variation by treatments
with pregnancy urine and gonodotrophic hormones and the
influence of these upon pregnancy and the length of the
cycles." Biological Abstracts.
Denhoff, Gay. 1974. Should the Wild Horse of Alberta be Pro-
tected? University of Calgary. 25 p., 6 maps. (DPL)
The author discusses wild horses which inhabit an area just
east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada. There is a geologic
description of the area along with a discussion of the types
of forests found there. The author gives a detailed listing
of plant species found in each of the ecological zones
mentioned. The main herbivore wild life in the wild horse
ranges are elk, deer and moose. Approximate locations of
herds are given. The author estimates that there are
roughly a total of 1000-1500 horses in the Alberta Province.
Feeding and watering habits of wild horses are discussed.
Edwards, Gladys Brown. 1970. The long and short of it.
Arabian Horse World . 10(11): 87-94. (DPL)
The Exterior of the Horse , a book by two French authors,
Boubaux and Barrier, printed in 1884, is quoted extensively
on the relationship between the length of a horse's loins
(lumbar vertebrae) and that of its back (thoracic vertebrae)
Such problems as foraging are analyzed in some detail. The
number of lumbar vertebrae is also discussed in relation to
Arabians, other breeds of horses, zebras, and donkeys.
Three tables from several sources are reproduced, listing
the number of vertebrae in these two areas plus those in
the croup (sacral) for these kinds of equines plus the
Shetland pony and the Przewalski horse.
Ensminger, M. E. 1951. Horse Husbandry . Interstate Printers
and Publishers, Danville, Illinois. 336 p. (DPL)
A horseman's reference book presented as a high school or
college textbook. The book covers types, classes, breeds,
selecting and judging, age, breeding, feeding and disease
Estes, Richard D. 1974. Zebras offer clues to the way wild
horses once lived. Smithsonian . 5(8): 100-107. (DPL)
The paper is based on the findings of the social behavior
study on Burchell's zebras done by the ethologist Hans
Klingel over a three-year period in Africa. It describes
in detail the family social organization of the zebras.
The article is written for a general audience and is
scientific in scope.
Feist, James Dean. 1971. Behavior of Feral Horses in the Pryor
Mountain Wild Horse Range . M. S. Thesis. University of
Michigan. 129 p. (DPL)
"The objectives of this study were to investigate the be-
havior patterns, social organization, and population struc-
ture of the wild horses of the Pryor Mountains, Wyoming-
Montana. To facilitate an accurate account of the population
structure and social organization, the entire herd on the
Range was identified as individuals. Documentation of
daily and seasonal activity patterns, movements, possible
home ranges and/or territories, dominance interactions,
leadership, and breeding relationships was made. Qualita-
tive and quantitative descriptions and photographs of
stereotyped behavior acts were taken." Behavior patterns
were analyzed and compared to the behavior of other Equidae
from other geographical locations.
Glover, J. and D. W. Duthie. 1958. The nutritive ratio/crude
protein relationships in ruminant and non-ruminant digestion.
Journal of A g ricultural Science 50: 227-229. (DPL)
The author determined that the nutritive ratio of animal
food was significantly related to the crude-protein content
of that particular food in both ruminant and non- ruminant
digestion. This confirms that a relationship exists between
the total crude protein and digestible protein in ruminant
feed. It also strongly suggests that there should also be
a relationship between these two proteins in non- ruminant
feeds. The author warns that it would be unwise to assume
a constant relationship between the nutritive ratio and the
crude protein content of feed until more data are available
on non- ruminants at low-protein levels.
Gremmel, Fred. 1939. Coat colors in horses. Journal of
Heredity . 30(10): 437-445. (DPL)
A detailed heredity scheme is expounded for color inheritance
in horses, based upon observations, clinical tests, and
histological examination. Hypothesis holds that gene com-
binations on three major loci (probably modified by accessory
genes) have quantitative and cumulative effects on pigment^
production, resulting in various colors and shades. Certain
color patterns are due to independent dominant genes showing
no epistasis toward each other. Further details of patterns
Groves, Colin P. 1974. Horses, Asses and Zebras in the Wild.
Ralph Curtis Books, Hollywood, Florida. 192 p. (DPL)
"The author describes wild horses and their relatives in
detail— their different varieties, habitats, how they live,
their prospects of survival, and also a history of those
species now extinct."
Hafez, E. S. E., M. Williams and S. Wierzbowski. 1962. The
behaviour of horses, p. 370-396. In: E. S. E. Hafez, The
Behaviour of Domestic Animals . Williams and Wilkins,
The article discusses six areas of horse behavior: ingestive
and eliminative behavior, activity, social behavior, sexual
behavior, schooling and training, and atypical behavior.
Scientific in scope and illustrated. List of references.
Hafez, E. S. E., M. Williams, and S. Wierzbowski. 1969. The
behaviour of horses, p. 391-416. In: E. S. E. Hafez, The
Behaviour of Domestic Animals . Williams and Wilkins, Balti-
The article discusses six areas of horse behavior: ingestive
and eliminative behavior, activity, social behavior, sexual
behavior, schooling and training, and atypical behavior.
Scientific in scope and illustrated. List of references.
Hall, Ron and J. F. Kirkpatrick. 1975. Biology of t he Pryor
Mountain Wild Horse . Bureau of Land Management, Salt Lake
City, Utah. Unpublished paper, 21 p. (DPL, USDI)
"Data regarding population size and dynamics, herd distribu-
tion, behavior, social structure and food habits were col-
lected for approximately 130 wild horses in the Pryor Moun-
tains of south-central Montana, from 1969 through 1973.
The horses did not have any dominant color description, but
palaminos, appaloosa and whites were totally absent. Mature
females had an average weight of 600-750 pounds and mature
males (5 years and older) ranged between 800-900 pounds.
The hoof wall was at least twice the thickness as that of
the domestic horse. There were approximately 130 horses on
the range. The sex ratio was 60% male and 40% female. A
10- to 11-year-old horse was considered old. The oldest
horse was 14 and the average age was 6.4 years. Survival of
colts was approximately 3-4%. In 1971 the young/adult ratio
was 11/100 and the young/female ratio was 24/100. In 1972
the young/adult and young/female ratios were 16/100 and
24/100 respectively. The rise in the young/adult ratio in
1971 was due to the removal of 30 adult males. The breeding
season extended from late March to mid-July with peak activ-
ity in early May. The gestation period was approximately
340 days with foaling occurring from early April to July.
The majority of males and females did not breed until at
least three years of age. The effects of photoperiod on
reproduction are unknown with respect to the female and
probably play an important role in the male. Average harem
group size was 3.4. The harem was composed of a lead mare,
a stud whose function was breeding and holding the unit
together, and other subordinate animals. Larger harem
groups sometimes contained two males and both of them bred
on occasion. Males born to the unit were sometimes driven
off as yearlings, while other groups tolerated young males
for as long as three years. Stud groups, composed of young
stallions not yet capable of obtaining a harem had a much
looser organization than did the harem groups. The stud
groups were led by a dominant stallion. Individual members
sometimes joined other all-male groups. The horses in the
Pryors had seasonal home ranges but did not establish
territories. In general, distribution was dictated by
availability of water and forage and weather conditions.
The major items in the horses' diet were bluebunch wheatgrass
(Agropyron spicatum) and sandberg bluegrass ( Poa secunda ) ."
Hanauer, Elsie. 1973. The Science of Equine Feeding . A. S.
Barnes, New York. 78 p. (DPL)
Beginning with a complete explanation of the horse's digest-
ive system and its functions, the author delves into basic
food requirements, vitamins and minerals. Factors influ-
encing feeding principals, special cases, changing the diet,
and feeding schedule are then discussed. A section on
specialized diets is followed by a section covering diseases
caused by faulty nutrition.
Klingel, Hans. 1965. Notes on the biology of the plains zebra
Equus quagga . East African Wildlife Journal. 3:86-88. (DPL)
The author observed thirty-nine harem groups and 15 stallion
groups for two years, another ten harem groups and 22
stallion groups for one year, for a total of about 500
animals. The results of the study are outlined in the
following sections: social structure, seasonal distribution
and foaling, foaling rate and intervals, sex ratio, and
age at sexual maturity.
Klingel, Hans. 1971. A comparison of the social behaviour of
the Equidae, p. 124-132. In: V. Geist and F. Walther, eds.,
The Behaviour of Ungu late s and its R elation to Management .
IUCN Publications new series No. 24. International Union
for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges ,
In the Equidae two types of social organization have evolved.
The plains zebra ( Equus quagg a) , mountain zebra (E. zebra ) ,
horse (E. przewalskii ) and possibly also the Asiatic wild
ass (E. h emionus ) live in coherent family groups, consisting
of one stallion, with one to several mares and their young.
Surplus stallions are found in stallion groups. The young
leave their original families in a set pattern. No terri-
tories are established in these species. In the Grevy
zebra ( E. grev yi) and the wild ass (E. african us) the
the stallions maintain large territories which they, however,
only defend under certain conditions, i.e. when an estrus
mare is near the boundary. Apart from the mare- foal rela-
tionships there are no personal bonds between any two or
more individuals. Most of the equine populations live in
areas with marked seasonal variation. In the non- territorial
species the reproductive groups migrate as units. In the
territorial species the sexes segregate for part of the
year, a feature which will certainly influence the repro-
ductive rate, especially in areas with irregular rainfall.
Klingel, Hans. 197 2. Social behavior of African Equidae.
Z oologica African a. 7(1): 175-185. (DPL)
Two basically different forms of social organization were
discovered in the equids. Type one is represented by the
plains zebra, Equus quagga and by the mountain zebra, E. zebra .
Type two comprises Grevy 1 s zebra, E. grevyi and the wild ass,
E. africanus . Differences are found between these two
groups in territorial and family behavior patterns. The
evolution of equine sociology is discussed.
McKnight, Tom L. 1959. The feral horse in Anglo-America.
Geographical Review . 49: 506-525. (DPL)
"The principal aim of the study on which this paper is
based was to gather as much information as possible concern-
ing the current distribution of feral horses in Anglo-
America and the land-use problems resulting from that dis-
tribution. Most of the data were gathered by means of a
questionnaire." A very thorough well-documented section
on the history of the feral horse leads to the discussion,
tables, and map of the present population, its problems
Odberg, Frank Olof. 1973. An interpretation of pawing by the
horse ( Equus caballus ) , displacement activity and original
functions. Saeugetierkd Mitt . 21(1): 1-12. (DPL)
The original function of pawing was as part of the nutritive
and grooming behavior and as the marking of territory. Pawing
was also interpreted as displacement activity; by the
sight of unreachable food, while eating, while waiting
before work (racing, pulling the cart), by the stallion
before serving the mare, and as part of the threat-
Pellegrini, Steven W. 1971. Home Range, Territoriality an d
Movement Patterns of Wild H or ses in the Wassuk Range of
Western Nevada . M. S. Thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.
39 p. (DPL)
The unique methods of gathering data for this study included
observations of such signs as tracks, hair deposits, dung
piles, and shade and rubbing trees. The author studied,
measured, and then drew to scale the particular hoof prints
of each horse in a band. Color was determined by correlating
the tracks of each animal at places where they would lose
body, mane and tail hair such as rubbing trees and rolling
places. Sex was determined by urination patterns and tracks
close together such as a mare and a colt. Movement patterns
were plotted on maps by following fresh tracks. Validity
of data was confirmed by visual contact, the use of a blind,
spotting scope, and aircraft. The author reported that the
horses in the Wassuk range defended only a small portion of
their home range as territory. Home ranges of harem groups
were cube-shaped while that of lone horses was linear.
There was a good colt crop and survival in 1970 but a very
poor crop in the preceding ten years. The text contains a
description and map of the study area plus illustrations
of variation in hoof prints. Also included are discussions
on dung piles and stud posts, seasonal movement changes and
movement in relation to livestock use. No footnotes or
list of references.
Simpson, George Gaylord. 1951. Horses: The Sto r y of the
Horse Family in the Modern World and through Sixty Million
Years of History . Oxford University Press, New York. 247 p,
A scientific survey based on a project of the American
Museum of Natural History, tracing the evolution of the
horse from pre-historic forms to the present. The standard
reference book on horses. The book is illustrated with
line drawings and has an extensive list of references.
Smythe, R. H. 1966. The Mind of the Horse . Stephen Greene
Press, Brattleboro, Vermont. 123 p. (DPL)
The author, a veterinarian, describes the horse's instincts
as a herd animal, and cites the adjustments it is required
to make in carrying out patterns of behavior entirely
opposed to its natural impulses. Then he examines the
horse's sensory advantages and handicaps. His chapter on
vision examines the make-up and placement of the eye in
various breeds and, with the aid of excellent diagrams and
photographs, explains how a horse's actions are governed by
what it is able to see. Equally enlightening are his
sections on equine hearing, smell and taste, tactile sensa-
tions, emotions and motivations.
Smythe, R. H. 1967. The Horse: Structure and Movement . 2nd ed.
Revised by Peter C. Goody. J. A. Allen, London. 184 p. (KSU)
The author discusses the anatomic structures which are re-
sponsible for the appearance of the horse and the relation-
ship of musculo-skeletal system to movement. The book is
divided into four sections: bones and joints; skin and sur-
face contour of the body; functions of certain parts of the
horse at rest and in motion; and an appendix. Text is sup-
plemented with illustrations.
Speelman, S. R. , W. M. Dawson, and R. W. Phillips. 1944. Some
aspects of fertility in horses raised under western range
conditions. Journal of Animal Science . 3(3): 233-241. (DPL)
Fertility data and analysis for 209 mares bred to 14 stallions
over a 15-year period at the U. S. Range Livestock Experi-
mental Station, Miles City, Montana are given. Effects of
several variables on fertility rate for these domestic
horses are examined. Sex ratios of foals and causes of
deaths are described.
Stecher, Robert M. 1962. Lateral facets and lateral joints
in the lumbar spine of the horse--a descriptive and statisti-
cal study. American Journal of Veterinary Research . 23(96):
Large size in an animal poses muscular disadvantages for
locomotion. In the horse and other animals this is compen-
sated for by stiffness of the posterior spine. Stability
in the horse is augmented by lateral joints in the lumbar
region. These lateral joints are unique to all horses,
domestic, wild, or prehistoric. The joints vary from four
to seven with the number largely dependent on the length of
the lumbar spine which is dependent upon the number of
lumbar vertebrae. The author examined 245 skeletons of
members of the horse family and found variation in all breeds
and species. The sources of skeletal material by breed and
species are listed. The functions of the lateral joints
are discussed. The text includes photographs and tables.
Included is a summary in Spanish.
Storrar, James Andrew. 1974. Feral Horse Habitat Analysis .
B. S. Thesis, University of British Columbia. (DPL)
The author discusses competition between cattle and horses
in the open range and notes that although horses eat more,
they are more mobile and therefore do less harm to the range,
Horses that have difficulty surviving through the winter
are generally those that have been worked during the summer
and have not had the chance to build up body resources like
the year-round feral horses. The author feels that more
research is necessary, that certain branding practices be
initiated, and that culling of herds be done when necessary.
Tseregmid, D. and A. Dashdor j . 1973. Wild horses and other
endangered wildlife in Mongolia. Trans, by Hon. I. Montagu.
Oryx. 12(3): 361-370. (DPL)
"Until the middle of the present century Mongolia was little
affected by man, in the sense of interference with and dis-
tortion of the natural environment. In 1918 the population
of this 600,000 square-mile country was only 640,000, with
9.6 million domestic animals. (The comparable figures
today are 1,300,000 and 23.4 million.) Thanks to this lack
of interference and the protective measures of the Mongolian
People's Republic, Mongolia still has some of the rarest of
the world's mammals, notably wild horse and camel, Gobi
bear and Asian wild ass. The most threatened of them is
the Przewalski horse, which some scientists think is extinct.
But the two authors believe that it survives in small numbers,
They urge the need for large reserved areas where livestock,
which compete for the horses' grazing and water, can be
Tyler, Stephanie J. 1972. The behaviour and social organization
of the New Forest Ponies. A nimal Behavior Monographs . 5(2):
The author spent a total of 3948 hours observing the actions
and behavior of the New Forest ponies during the years 1965
to 1968. The New Forest covers an area of 144 square miles
in Britain of which 103 square miles are under public owner-
ship. The ponies are believed to be descendants of small
wild horses indigenous to Britain and are semi-wild; except
for the annual harvest of young animals and the control of
stallion numbers they remain free to forage for themselves
throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the
structure and stability of the groups, the dominance-
subdominance relationships within and between groups, and
the relationships between mares and their foals. Observa-
tions were also recorded on the daily maintenance activity
of the ponies such as grazing, resting, grooming and
Waring, G. H. 1970. Perin atal b ehavior of foals (Equus caballus) .
Paper read before the 50th Annual Meeting of the American
Society of Mammalogists . June 18, 1970. (DPL)
"Rapid behavioral development of the horse does occur rela-
tive to many mammalian species. It is possible in the first
few hours of life of a foal to detect abnormalities by
observing deviations from typical patterns in behavioral
Waring, G. H. 1970. P rimary socialization of foals (Equus
caballus ) . Paper read before the Animal Behavior Society
at the 21st Annual American Institute of Biological Sciences
meetings. Bloomington, Indiana, August 29, 1970. (DPL)
"Although many questions are yet to be answered, horses
seem to establish primary socialization in the first two
hours after parturition. The foal's bond to its mother
remains weak relative to the mare's bond to her foal."
Waring, G. H. 1971. Sounds of the horse (Equus caballus) .
Paper read before the meeting of Ecological Society of
America. September 21, 1971. (DPL)
"Horses produce a variety of sounds. Among these are
squeals, nickers, whinnies, groans, blows, snorts, snores,
and sounds associated with coughing, chewing, flatus, hoof
beats, and sheath movements. Many, if not all, could act
in information transfer between horses and facilitate social
interactions. Furthermore because of the symbiotic relation-
ship between man and horse, the sounds of the horse function
at times in inter-species communication aiding in transfer to
a human handler information about the emotions of the horse,
thus facilitating the symbiotic relationship."
Anonymous. 1958. Abandoned horses on the federal range. Our
Public Lands . 8(2) :3, 12. (DPL)
The origin of wild horse herds prior to the Taylor Grazing
Act of 1934 started with their introduction by the Spanish.
Later after their numbers were depleted in World War I,
because many were rounded up for cavalry use, their numbers
grew again as ranchers turned them loose because power
equipment had replaced many of their functions. The wild
bands competed with licensed livestock and game animals for
forage. "The only way these horses can be controlled is
through organized roundups, conducted under the abandoned
and estray animal statutes of the states." The article
goes on to describe different methods of rounding up wild
horses. Concern for the extinction of wild horses has
prompted some people to suggest that refuges for them be
established. The Bureau of Land Management points out that
this might not be practical because they are constantly
moving long distances in search of food and forage and they
might still compete with other forms of wildlife and domestic
stock. The Bureau feels that if extinction of the wild
horse were a possibility, some form of public protection
would be given them.
Anonymous. 1960. Canada: 'Please don't kill...'. N ewsweek .
13 June: 54. (DPL)
The Canadian Sable Island horses are discussed. Due to
their starving condition the Canadian government decided
that they should be sold, a public uproar ensued, and their
future is still undecided.
Anonymous. 1968. The vanishing mustang. Colorful Colorado.
The article opens with a description of a present-day
airborne roundup. The author goes on to discuss the loca-
tions of the remaining wild horse population and the prob-
lems they are faced with such as fences, sheepherders and
cattlemen. The article closes with a summary of the history
of the wild horse in this country.
Anonymous. 1971. The fight to save wild horses. Time . 12 July
Recent roundups of mustangs are discussed giving the tech-
niques used. Photographs accompany the text. Recent efforts
of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") have resulted
in legislation being passed. But the article points out
that ranchers have found a loophole in the law and by re-
leasing their branded horses among the wild horses they are
allowed to round up the entire mixed herd. New legislation
in Congress would outlaw such capture techniques and would
provide much tougher protection for the wild horses.
Anonymous. 1972. Champion of the wild ones. Kappan. 2(2) -17-
19. (DPL) .
A brief history of wild horses in the United States and a
general overview of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie")
and her efforts to save the wild horses.
Anonymous. 1974. The mustang hunters. Newswee k. 22 April- 78
The article discusses several problems that have arisen be-
cause of the 1971 Wild Horse and Burro Act. A 20 percent
increase in wild horse population is said to be the result
of protection afforded by the 1971 Act and is cited as having
angered cattlemen because their cattle must compete with the
horses for forage. Another problem is that ranchers are
rounding up wild horses to sell using part of the Act which
allows owners of stray horses on public lands to recapture
Amaral, Anthony. 1965. The wild horse of Nevada. Nevada High -
ways and Parks . Spring: 16-21. (DPL)
According to the author the population of wild horses in
Nevada fifty years ago was 100,000. Today, the author says
that Nevada is the only state that has herds of wild horses
that are remainders of these large herds. Mus tanging as a
sport and famous mustangers are discussed followed by a
general history of wild horses in this country and a recent
history of wild horses in Nevada.
Amaral, Anthony. 1970. Cinderella horses. Horse Lover's
Magazine . 34(5) :40, 56. (DPL)
Melvin Jones, a rancher in eastern Nevada has been capturing
and converting mustangs into useful cow horses for some years.
One of his Cinderella horses was Smartie--who was captured
from a wild herd in central Nevada and rose to become champion
reined cow horse in the Olympics of that contest at the Cow
Palace in 1952. Mr. Jones describes how he brings a mustang
along from wild horse to completed reining horse.
Bearcroft, Norma. 1966. Wild Horses of Canada . J. A. Auen,
London. 89 p. (DPL)
A popularized book dealing with wild horses in Canada,
covering the introduction of the horse to the western world
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the use of the
horses by Indians and cowboys. The Sable Island Refuge is
discussed in detail. Several interesting aspects of the Sable
Island horses are that they are less than 14.2 hands high
and the herds remain in one or two valleys for their entire
lifetime. The common herd size is a stallion with six mares
and foals. More than one stallion per herd is common in the
winter months. The legal means for rounding up wild horses
in Alberta are outlined.
Beebe, B. F. and J. R. Johnson. 1964. American Wild Horses .
David McKay Company, Inc., New York. 180 p. (DPL)
A juvenile book explaining many aspects of the lives of wild
horses and burros including how they can be utilized after
capture. The book is illustrated with line drawings.
Bell, Carol. 1972. 'Jupiter' meets civilization. Contemporary ,
The Denver Post . 7 May: 22-24. (DPL)
The story of a Pryor Mountain colt culled from the herd and
adopted into a new home. The article discusses how the
colt is progressing with the new owner.
Boone, Andrew R. 1933. The wild herd passes. Travel . 60(4):
20-23, 56. (DPL)
A general article important because of its date. The author
estimates the population of wild horses to be 50,000 in 1933.
Wild horses are praised for their stamina and comments are
made on their grazing habits. The article also discusses
horses' need for water and their ability to dig for water
Soyd, Bob. 1973. Wildest of the wild. American Horseman . 3(7)
18-20, 39-40. (DPL)
The author describes the wild horse of today mentioning
heritage and history. He discusses his experiences as a
wild horse hunter.
Chesson, Ray. 1969. Haylift for hungry broomtails. Our Public
Lands ■ Summer: 5-7. (DPL, USDI)
The story of a haylift to starving wild horses in Nevada
organized by the National Mustang Association with the help
of the International Society for the Protection of Wild
Horses and Burros and the U. S. Air Force.
Crain, Carolyn. 1973. Saving the Symbol of the West; The
Wild Horses . Unpublished bibliographic essay. 18 p. (DPL)
A discussion of the wild horse, concentrating on the struggle
and the controversies surrounding the campaign for federal
protection of the remaining 11,000 wild horses in the ten
western states. Well documented.
Davis, Deering. 1962. The American Cow Pony . Van Nostrand,
Princeton, New Jersey. 166 p. (DPL)
An authoritative book divided into sections covering the
following subjects: the various breeds of horses involved
in the development of the American cow horse, starting with
the Spanish horse, conformation, size and intelligence,
riding, schooling, equipment, and the cutting horse. List
of references .
DeFilippo, Florence. 1970. A plea for the wild horses. Horse -
man's Yankee Pedlar . 8(11): 92-93. (DPL)
The article discusses the estimated 17,000 wild horses which
occupy public lands and how they are being hunted for sport
or slaughtered for dog food which brings four cents a pound.
The need for protective legislation is outlined.
Dobie, J. Frank. 1951. The murderous mustang of the plains.
Saturday Evening Post . 1 December : 32-33 , 130, 132. (DEL)
An exciting account of an encounter with a wild stallion is
followed by a brief history of wild horses on the Western
range. Dobie outlines the typical behavior of a band of
horses and recounts many of his experiences with wild horses
and observations he made during these experiences.
Dobie, J. Frank, Mody C. Boatright and Harry H. Ransom, eds . 1965.
Mustangs and Cow Horses . 2nd ed . Southern Methodist University
Press, Dallas. 429 p. (DEL)
An extensive and informative compilation on mustangs and
mustangers which covers a wide and selected assortment of
material on the range horse in general. It also contains
many fresh first-hand chronicles. Selections include:
Mustang Texas, Mustangs of the Staked Plains, Legendary
Wild Horses, Caballos, A-Riding and A -pitching, A Man and
His Horse, and Horse Heroes.
Gorman, John A. and Gaydell M. Collier. 1972. Free as. ..the
wind. National Wildlife . October, November : 46-48. (DPL)
The article discusses wild horses and says they are neither
livestock nor wildlife, but feral; that is, domestic animals
which have reverted to the wild. Mustangs are small, tough
animals, standing between 13 and 14 hands high and weighing
about 900 pounds. The early history of the horse in North
America and the impact of the Taylor Grazing Act are dis-
cussed. The Nevada preserve for wild horses and the Pryor
Mountain Wild Horse Range are the only two areas where these
horses are protected. Many of the steps made towards the
protection of wild horses have been through the efforts of
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie").
Henry, Marguerite. 1966. Mustang; Wild Spirit of the West . Rand
McNally, Chicago. 224 p. (DPL)
The author presents the early history of the horse in the
West and a biography of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse
Annie") and her fight to preserve the wild horses of the
West. A young adult book.
Henry, Marguerite. 1969. Dear Readers and Riders . Rand McNally,
Chicago. 221 p., illus. (DPL)
In this book the author answers letters inquiring about the
reality behind her fiction and her riding and writing prob-
lems. An entire section is devoted to questions concerning
her book Mustang; Wild Spirit of the West . A young adult
Horseman's Abstracts . 1969-1971. Vols. 1-3. Leisure Abstracts,
Goleta, California. Joan M. Ingalls, ed. (CSU)
An abstracting service of more than 50 popular horse-
oriented magazines. Some references to Spanish mustang and
wild horses are made but the large bulk of material abstracted
concerns breeding, racing, and general horsemanship. "The
function of Horseman's Abstracts is to describe and summarize
the content of current magazine articles, so that the
reader can decide whether he is interested in reading the
Isaman, Judy. 1973. Wild mustangs. Nevada Highways and Parks .
Winter: 20-25. (DPL)
An article about Richard Jeffries, a Nevada biologist, who
studies and photographs wild horses in northern Nevada as
a hobby. Some of Mr. Jeffries general observations are noted
and the text is accompanied by his color photographs of wild
Jackson, Donald. 1969. Mustangs. Life . Jan. 17:42-54. (DPL)
A photographic essay, including an interview with Robert
Brislawn, who has been breeding mustangs in Wyoming since
the 1920' s. Also includes comments of many westerners
and the remarks of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"),
who has worked for protective legislation for the wild
Kania, Al. 1974. Wild and free roaming. American Horseman .
July: 24-25, 45. (DPL)
The author raises the question of the feral U. S. wild horse
designation. He suggests that there may have been horses
here before the Spanish arrived with their horses . He con-
cludes that the present wild horse population is descended
not only from feral animals but also from native horses.
King, Chuck. 1971. A realistic look at the mustang - wild
horse situation. Western Horseman . 36(5):44-45, 156, 158.
The author states that the original mustangs came from
domesticated horses turned wild and that it is unrealistic
to try to trace any of the wild horses of today directly
back to the stock brought to this country by the Spaniards.
To support this conclusion the author discusses horse ranch-
ing and breeding illustrating how horses were bred and as a
result how there could be no pure-blooded Spanish horses
left in the wild. A need for present-day preserves for the
wild horses is discussed.
Laune, Paul. 1964. Mustang Roundup . Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, New York. 154 p. (DPL)
The author grew up in Woodward, Oklahoma and had a great
deal of experience with mustangs in his youth. There is
much horse lore in this book and the role of mustangs in
developing the West is entertainingly set forth. Illustrated
with drawings by the author. Suitable for young adults and
Libman, Joan. 1975. A battle in Nevada may decide the fate of
the wild horse. Wall Street Journal . 4 August: 1, 7. (DPL)
Wild horses rounded up by the Bureau of Land Management to
be put into "foster homes," are being fought over because
the State of Nevada claims that the federal government has
no jurisdiction over them. The article highlights the
various stands of environmental groups, ranchers, and wild
McArthur, J. Wayne. 1973. The wild horse: an asset or a
liability: Western Horseman . 38(6):16-17, 140, 142-143. (DPL)
The author, who spent many years running wild horses in
Wyoming, comments on the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971.
He predicts that the law will allow herds to multiply at a
very fast rate and that the result will be starvation as a
means of population control. He also cites problems of
inbreeding resulting in poorer and poorer horse specimens
because of the pairing of undesirable recessive genes. A
need for research is stressed.
McGriff, Sue. 1969. The wild stallion in fact and fancy.
Chronicle of the Horse . 32 (30) : 26-27 . (DPL)
This is an appraisal of the mustang stallion's conformation,
behavior, and coloring. Their background is described.
The article is illustrated with pictures of three registered
McKnight, T. 1959. The wild horse today. Desert . 22(6) :7. (DPL)
A general distribution map shows where the majority of wild
horses were found at the time of the author's study. He
says that they run in small herds of from five to fifteen in
remote back country. They are described as runty, big-
headed and coarse with agility and stamina. They do not
significantly compete with other fauna and their only natural
predator is man. The author expects their numbers to
dwindle to several thousand.
Moore, Ron. 1969. Mustangs. Western Horseman 34(5): 111, 232-
The author's observations of bands of wild horses in Nevada.
Most, Charles E. 1971. Somebody cared. Our Public Lands .
Spring: 12-13. (DPL)
The story of the first horse officially belonging to the
United States, named "Wild Horse Annie." The horse is a
foal from the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Wyoming and
was rescued from starvation by Bureau of Land Management
O'Brien, Robert. 1957. The mustang's last stand. Reader's
Digest . December: 188-192. (DPL)
A brief description of the history of wild horses in this
country including a section on horse lore. Present efforts
to protect wild horses by people such as Verne Wood, Edward
Gladding and Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") are
Pady, Donald Stuart, comp. 1973. Horses and Horsemanship:
Selected Books and Periodicals in the Iowa State University
Library: An Annotated Bibliography . Iowa State University
Library, Ames, Iowa. 226 p. (CSU)
"The annotated bibliography describes nearly 800 titles
selected from an estimated 1,200 books and periodicals about
horses, covering works that range from those published as
early as 1475 through recent titles of 1972 held by the
University Library. Descriptive annotations accompany each
title." Subjects covered are: bibliographies, history,
breeding, medicine, horseshoeing, riding and racing, sports
and hunting, and horses in art and fiction. Valuable for
the early material covered and unavailable in most other
Rhodes, Richard. 1972. How the West was lost. Esquire . May:
150-155, 184, 187, 188. (DPL)
Some of the battles Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie")
has fought for wild horses are detailed and there is a general
account of how Annie became involved in the battle to save
wild horses. The author outlines his reasons for thinking
that wild horses are declining as the buffalos declined 50
to 75 years earlier.
Ryden, Hope, 1970. America's Last Wild Horses . Dutton, New
York. 311 p. (DPL)
A history of America's horses, from origin to original
extinction, reintroduction by the Spanish, use by the Indians,
up to the present, including commercial exploitation and lack
of protection. The author describes the political struggle
for and against protection of herds and gives opinions on
steps necessary to prevent the extinction of wild horses
Ryden, Hope. 1971. Good -by to the wild horse? Reader's Digest .
May: 227-232. (DPL)
The author, a television documentary producer, first became
interested in wild horses in 1968 when she went to the Pryor
Mountains in Wyoming. She describes the habits of the horses
she filmed and gives background information on the recent
history of the wild horses and summarizes what is being done
to protect them. She stresses that new legislation must be
passed if they are to remain and not be lost forever.
Ryden, Hope. 1971. On the track of the West's wild horses.
National Geographic . 139 (1) : 94-109 . (DPL)
The author describes the area in which wild horses live and
outlines her own experiences with wild horses. The Bureau
of Land Management believes that on public lands on which
wild horses live about 17,000 of the animals survive.
Illustrated with many of the author's photographs.
Ryden, Hope. 1971. Mustangs; A Return to the Wild . Viking
Press, New York. Ill p. (DPL)
The sentimental journey of a woman tracking with a camera
the few wild horses left in the West. Interesting text
accompanied with photographs .
Ryden, Hope. 1972. The Wild Colt; the Life of a Young Mustang .
Coward, McCann & Geoghagen, Inc., New York. n.p. (DPL)
A children's book explaining the life of a colt in a wild
horse band. Profusely illustrated with the author's
Sampson, Arthur W. 1952. Range Management; Principles and
Practices . J. Wiley, New York. 570 p. (DPL)
This book is divided into four parts . Part one deals with
general concepts, world practices and problems, physiological
principles and plant ecology as applied to range problems,
characteristics of U. S. grazing lands and the historical
development of grazing in America. Part two discusses forage
plants as a basis of range production. Part three discusses
improvement and management, natural and artificial reseeding,
control of noxious woody plants, selection and control of
the various kinds of livestock, standards of range use,
range inventories and management plans , economics and
physical and social aspects . The fourth and final part
considers the protection of the land resources and range
livestock, including timber reproduction, the use of
shade trees and shelter belts, stock-poisoning range plants,
foraging and predatory wildlife on the range, soil erosion
and control and the general administrations of the public
lands. Extensive references throughout.
Sinclair, John L. 1971. The mustangs of Lucero Mesa. New
Mexico . Winter: 4-13. (DPL)
A discussion of the McKinley Ranch mustangs that live on
Lucero Mesa in New Mexico. An account of these Andalusian
mustangs and their Old World heritage is followed by a dis-
cussion of how they got to the New World and how they dis-
persed into New Mexico. The Spanish Mustang Registry and
mustangs on the McKinley Ranch are mentioned.
Smith, Charles Hamilton. 1841. Feral horses of America, p.
173-185. In: Charles Hamilton Smith, The Naturalist's
Library. Mammalia. Vol. XII. Horses . W. H. Lizars ,
A valuable account of wild horses as they were known to the
author in 1841. The South American wild horses are 90% bay
and 10% zains in color. Their only predators are the puma
and jaguar. If a carnivorous animal is detected by a wild
horse herd they crowd together and then the stallions rush
forward to trample him to death. The wild horses of the
Western United States congregate in thousands because of the
great abundance of food. These herds belong exclusively to
the prairie, avoiding mountains and woods.
Spencer, Dick. 1959. Plight of the mustang. Sports Afield .
December: 28-29, 91. (DPL)
The mustang of the West has been pushed into the most unde-
sirable grazing areas available. A result of this poor grazing
is a small and scrubby physical appearance. The efforts of
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") to prevent motorized
vehicles from being used to round up horses have resulted in
Federal legislation forbidding their use. The author recom-
mends the establishment of wild horse refuges and thinning
herds on these refuges as necessary.
Stoddart, Laurence A., Arthur D. Smith and Thadis Box. 1975.
Range Management . 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 532 p. (DPL)
"Defining the science of range management and presenting the
principles that are basic to the management of range land
ecosystems, this text has become a classic in its field.
The new edition now includes worldwide examples. Rangeland
resources are identified, and important principles in the
fields of plant physiology, ecology, economics, and animal
nutrition are related to the management of range lands. The
authors discuss multiple uses of rangeland, including
wildlife, water, forestry and soil stability. Principles
and practices of manipulating vegetation are presented,
including both chemical manipulation and biological controls
Thomson, David. 1972. One final fight for America's wild
horses. True; The Man's Magazine . February: 27-29, 33,
The author investigates wild horses in the Douglas Mountain
area of Colorado. He interviews two veteran ranchers in the
area who feel that the new federal law will cause them hard-
ship because of the multiple use concept of sharing leased
land with wild bands of horses . According to one of "the
ranchers , if the law means that ranchers would lose their
grazing permits then there is a possibility that ranchers
would shoot the horses whereas in the past they protected
them because they could occasionally catch them and sell
them to ranchers. An historical account of the wild horses
and the author's first-hand account of seeing wild horses
in the Douglas Mountain area conclude the article.
Trueblood, Ted. 1975. Disaster on the western range. Field and
Stream . 79(9): 14, 22-23. (DPL)
The author feels that the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971
needs to be amended to give range managers adequate means
to control these animals. If not amended the author points
to the following five results which will ensue: extermina-
tion of two endangered species; the Sonoran pronghorn and
the desert bighorn sheep; devastation of forage plants
essential to both domestic livestock and big game; damage to
watersheds; bankrupting of ranchers; and eventual decimation
by starvation and disease of the horses and burros themselves.
In light of this the author goes along with the recommendation
of the majority of the members of the Wild Horse Advisory
Board that aircraft be used to control the growing numbers
of horses. Examples of substantial increases in horse popu-
lations are cited as reasons for allowing the administrators
of the range, i.e. the Bureau of Land Management and Forest
Service, more control over the numbers in the herds.
U. S. Department of the Interior. 1973. In Touch with People ,
U. S. Department of the Interior Conservation Yearbook Series
No. 9 . "Free Spirit on the Move." p. 83-87. U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. (DPL)
A capsulized summary of how horses got to the New World and
their history since then. Emphasis is placed on recent
aspects of the wild horse problem and what has been done for
them. A thorough discussion of the Pryor Mountain wild
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management,
n.d. Fact Sheet: Wild Horses . 1 p. (DPL)
A short fact sheet, answering questions about wild horses
such as: what and where they are located; how they got there;
how many there are; what is being done for them; and the
Bureau of Land Management's policy on them.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management.
1974. Wild Horses in Colorado 1974 . 7 p., 2 maps, mimeo.
The maps show the locations of the horses. A table shows
the breakdown within each area of numbers of mares, colts,
yearlings, harem studs, studs and unidentified horses. A
207o increase in horse population occurred from 1973 to 1974.
The statistics were gathered by airborne surveys.
Varner, Carroll. 1974. Velma Bronn Johnston (Wild Horse Annie) .
Unpublished bibliographic essay. 11 p. (DPL)
The author discusses the life of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild
Horse Annie") and what she as an individual has accomplished
for wild horses. List of references.
Walter, Beverly. 1959. Wild Horse Annie fights to save the
mustang. Desert Magazine . June: 4-7. (DPL)
This article outlines the early phases of the wild horse
controversy and Mrs. Velma Johnston's ("Wild Horse Annie")
invo lvement .
Weiskopf, Herman. 1975. Wild West Showdown. Sports Illustrated .
42(18) :82-88, 91-92, 94. (DPL)
The author interviewed Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse
Annie") at her home in Reno, Nevada. The author's account
of Mrs. Johnston's life gives an up-to-date historical picture
of her efforts and other efforts to preserve and protect wild
horses. The victories and setbacks of the struggle are out-
lined. Particular attention is paid to legislative issues
concerned with wild horses. Personal anecdotes about Mrs
Johnston's life are found throughout the article.
Westin, Jeane. 1971. "Wild Horse Annie" madonna of the mustangs
Horseman . May: 62 -64. (DPL)
The story of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), how
she got interested in wild horses and what she has done to
further their cause.
Wood, Nancy. 1969. The wild horses — heritage or pest?
Audubon . November: 46-51. (DPL)
The article discusses why cattlemen and Bureau of Land
Management officials find wild horses free loaders in federal
and private lands . Horses produce no profit like big game
do, therefore it is most expedient to get rid of them. The
435,000-acre wild horse preserve on Nellis Air Force Base in
Nevada and the Pryor Mountain Preserve along the Montana-
Wyoming border are the two areas where horses are protected.
The total number of wild horses remaining in the U. S. is
estimated to be 17,300 by the Bureau of Land Management.
The early history of horse roundups by western cattlemen,
roundups during World War I, and roundups in the 1920' s are
outlined. The population of wild horses in 1925 was said
to have been one million and by 1930 it was estimated that
the population had dropped to around 100,000.
Clark, L. H. 1966. They Sang for Horses : The Impact of the
Horse on Navajo and Apache Folklore . University of Arizona
Press, Tucson. 225 p. (DPL)
A small illustrated folio volume exploring the impact of the
horse on Navajo and Apache folklore. Very soon after the
horse was introduced to the Navajos and Apaches in the early
part of the seventeenth century it quickly became the main
source of wealth among these primitive peoples and exercised
a dominant influence over their cultures . This dominant
economic influence naturally became infused with the regional
folklore. Discussion of Indian veterinary efforts with
horses and of their equine husbandry. The work contains
color reproductions of illustrations made by famous Indian
Cook, J. H. 1919. Wild horses of the plains. Natural History .
A former Indian scout recalls his experiences with wild
horses as well as Indian knowledge which was passed on to
him. He describes the horses of 1870 and 1880: "the average
weight was about 800 pounds, the colors that predominated
among them were cream, buckskin, or mouse -co lor, they had a
few black stripes about the legs above the knees, or hocks,
and a black stripe along the middle of the back, extending
from the mane to the tail, the stallions did not have a
shaggy appearance." A predator of the weakened animals and
colts was the wolf. Early capture techniques are mentioned.
Crowell, Pers . 1951. Cavalcade of American Horses . McGraw-Hill,
New York. 311 p. (DPL)
A background of how man developed the horse from a wild,
untamed animal to its present high degree of usefulness.
The author discusses the horse not only as a close companion
to man but as one of the most useful animals in the advance
of civilization. The book covers history and legend as well
as the story of individual breeds.
Denhardt, Robert Moorman. 1975. The Horse of the Americas .
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. 286 p. (DPL)
The narrative tells something of the history of the western
horse and the part he has played in the development of the
Dobie, J. Frank. 1952. The Mustangs . Little, Brown, Boston.
376 p. (DEL)
A highly anecdotal history of the wild horses of the American
West, examining the theories of their origin, and relating
incidents of their capture and use by both Indians and whites .
A comprehensive presentation of the horse's introduction,
spread, influence, zenith and disappearance. Thorough
documentation and extensive list of references.
Haines, Francis. 1964. How the Indian got the horse. American
Heritage . 15(2): 16-21, 78-81. (DPL)
The author outlines the two theories on how the Indian got
the horse. The earliest theory was that horses lost from
early Spanish expeditions had, by natural increase, stocked
the western ranges with wild bands that supplied the various
Indian tribes with their animals. The more recent theory,
based on historical evidence, is that the Indians gradually
got horses from the Spanish and later from each other and
not from free -roaming bands.
Haines, Francis. 1971. Horses in America . Crowe 11, New York.
213 p. (DPL)
A popular historic survey on the various types of horses
found and bred in America for different purposes. The
early history of the horse in America and how it spread is
outlined. A modest list of references.
Howard, Robert West. 1965. The Horse in America . Follett
Publishing Company, Chicago. 298 p. (DPL)
A brief survey of the role of the horse in North American
culture and history. The author carries the story from
Eohippus up to today's leisure-time riding and racing
horses. He discusses the roles of Conquistadores , Indians,
the military, cattlemen, and various other groups in the
horse's history in this country.
Hunt, F. and R. Hunt. 1949. Horses and Heroes; the Story of
the Horse in America for 450 Years . Scribner, New York.
306 p. (DPL)
This book concentrates on the Spanish horse, its influence
and contribution to the American way of life from its
earliest arrival on the continent to the present.
Hunt, John Clark. 1972. The wild horses. Westways . September:
24-29, 79. (DPL)
Early maps of the West detail where wild horses were once
found. The name Wild Horse was applied to springs, mountains,
canyons , flats , lakes , points , ridges , creeks and mesas .
The early relationships of horses to settlers and Indians
are documented by the writings and experiences of early
explorers such as Pete Barnum, a famed mustanger who caught
more than 15,000 mustangs between 1904 and 1914 and was the
inventor of the circular canvas horse trap. The article
closes with a discussion of current legislation that has been
passed to protect the wild horses.
Johnson, J. J. 1943. The introduction of the horse into the
Western hemisphere. Hispanic American Historical Review .
A we 11 -documented article tracing the horse's arrival in the
New World. The author states that second voyage brought
horses to Espanola in the New World, they were later dispersed
to Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Cuba. There is a thorough dis-
cussion of the types of horses that were brought from Spain
as well as the ancestry of these horses .
Roe, Frank Gilbert. 1955. The Indian and the Horse . University
of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. 434 p. (DPL)
"This is a carefully documented account of the Indian pony,
that hardy little animal which, despite its "hang -dog"
appearance and apparent lack of intelligence, possessed an
almost unbelievable speed and endurance which allowed its
rider to run down the fastest buffaloes in the herd or leave
his cavalryman pursuer far behind. It is also the story of
the American Indian and his relation to this animal which
broadened his horizons and developed his abilities as horse
master and selective breeder, even though he had previously
known only the dog as a domesticated creature. But more
than this, it is a historical comment on one of the most
turbulent and fascinating eras of American frontier history."
Schuessler, Raymond. 1970. When the Indian got the horse! Horse
World. 37(11) :66-67, 137-138. (DPL)
Some contemporaries considered the American Indian among the
world's best horsemen, led by the Sioux and Comanche tribes.
The author examines the many ways in which possession of the
horse changed the social structure of the Indian culture. He
quotes reports from the Spanish and from Indian tribes .
The remarkable stamina of these horses and the Indian methods
of horse training are discussed. These ranged from riding
out the bucks to very gradual gentling methods.
Smith, Bradley. 1969. The Horse in the West . World Publishing
Company, New York. 255 p. (DPL)
The author, a photographer for "Life" and other magazines,
has chosen four breeds to represent the horse in the West:
Arabian, Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, and Appaloosa. He
gives a separate section to each breed, covering history,
legend, development of the breed in the West, qualities and
conformation, and a modern view that concentrates on a few
ranches and breeding farms. Each block of text is followed
by a picture essay of the breed with color photographs show-
ing the breeds of today. The book also includes a history
of Western horses since the time of Columbus, picture essays
on the horse in art and the wild horse of the Pryor Mountains,
Wyoming, and a map showing the spread of the horse through
Wissler, Clark. 1914. The influence of the horse in the devel-
opment of the Plains culture. American Anthropologist . 16(1):
A discussion of the relation of the European horse to the
culture of the Plains Indians . A general resume of the
literature at hand provides approximate dates of horse intro-
duction into various tribes and is followed by a comprehensive
section on the means through which the Indians acquired the
horse. The author covers tribal customs and habits and
their relation to the introduction of the horse. An example
of this is the migration habits of tribes before and after
the horse became a part of their culture. Thoroughly
Worcester, D. E. 1944. The spread of Spanish horses in the
Southwest. New Mexico Historical Review . 19:225-232. (DPL)
This article expounds the generally accepted theory that the
Plains Indians did not acquire horses through strays being
lost by Spanish expeditions, as has been suggested by some
writers, but rather that Spanish ranches supplied both the
horses and the horsemanship to the Indians of the Southwest.
There is nothing to suggest that there were mounted Indians
in the Southwest before the 17th century, nor any reason to
believe that the natives of that region learned to use
horses except from the Spaniards. Well documented.
Worcester, D. E. 1945. Spanish horses among the Plains tribes.
Pacific Historical Review . 14:409-417. (DPL)
This article theorizes that the northward spread of the use
of horses was from tribe to tribe and man to man rather than
capture from roaming herds. It is possible that wild horses
may have entered some sections of the Plains in advance of
the knowledge of horsemanship, but there is no evidence of
any tribe learning to use horses except from horsemen of
other nations. The Indians acquired considerable knowledge
of horsemanship and knew which horses to use for war expedi-
tions based on hoof features.
Wyman, Walder D. 1945. The Wild Horse of the West . Caxton
Printers, Caldwell, Idaho. 348 p. (DPL)
This book places primary emphasis on events since 1890, but
goes back to the original introduction of horses by the
Spanish. It maintains that distribution of horses to Indians
was primarily by means of northward movement of Spanish
strays. It details the influence of horses on Indians and
stockmen up to the present time.
Zeuner, Frederick E. 1963. The horse, p. 299-337. In Frederick
E. Zeuner, A History of Domesticated Animals . Hutchinson,
A definitive coverage of the earliest known domestications
of the horse, concentrating on its development in different
geographical areas. The article is scientific and well
documented with an extensive list of references.
Anonymous. 1959. Good news for the mustang: President signs
Baring Bill. Desert Magazine . November: 4. (DPL)
The article discusses the passage of the anti-airborne
roundup law, popularly known as the Baring Bill. This law
prohibits the mechanical capture of wild horses and burros
on public land. The bill also makes it illegal for pet food
suppliers to pollute desert water holes . The fine for vio-
lating this law is $500 and/or six months in jail. Mrs.
Velma Johnston's remarks on this news are included.
Anonymous. 1959. Wild Horse Annie. Time . 74 (4): 15. (DPL)
A discussion of the pending legislation concerning airborne
roundups and how Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie")
has been the champion of the wild horse cause.
Anonymous. 1971. California wild horses. Chronicle of the
Horse . 34(22): 32. (DPL)
State Senator Beilenson of California introduced a bill pro-
hibiting exploitation of threatened wildlife, which he recently
amended to include wild horses. The bill was introduced to
discourage the practice of trapping and killing Nevada
mustangs for commercial purposes. Importation of wild
horses to California slaughter houses is now against the law.
Anonymous. 1971. They kill horses .. .don' t they. Colorful Colo -
rado . May, June:4R-6R, 8R, 10R, 12R, 14R, 16R. (DPL)
The Colorado House Agriculture Committee voted unanimously
to indefinitely postpone action on a wild horse protection
bill that had passed overwhelmingly in the Senate. As a
result the year-round open season on wild horses remains in
effect. The early history of the horse in the new world is
mentioned, including early capture techniques such as creasing,
which meant shooting the horse in the withers, which would
stun him until he could be roped. The recent decline of the
wild horse is discussed along with the efforts of Mrs. Velma
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), to save them for future
Anonymous. 1974. Wild horse rights: return of the mustangs.
Colorado Business . 1(4): 23 -24. (DPL)
The article discusses the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971.
According to the Act, November 15, 1974 was the last date
private citizens could claim wild horses. They now all
belong to the United States. The Bureau of Land Management
is now authorized to take a census of the herds in given
localities and to allocate each herd enough land to sustain
it. Ranchers are distressed because in some cases they must
now share leased federal land with wild horses and they are
forbidden to round up wild horses to sell to rendering plants
Barber, Ted. 1974. Wild horses on welfare. Western Horseman .
April: 80-84, 161-162. (DPL)
The author confronts the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971
(PL 92-195) and says that allowance must be made for air-
borne roundups for good management practice.
Brandon, William. 1972. Wild horses of the West. Sierra Club
Bulletin . September :4-10, 37. (DPL)
A discussion of why the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 was
passed overwhelmingly and why wild horses have claimed so
much recent attention and publicity. The history of the horse
starting with the Spanish is chronicled to its gradual dis-
appearance in the 20th century. The efforts of Mrs. Velma
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") are outlined. The author calls
attention to the necessity for a serious study of wild horse
habits. He claims that wild horse refuges or reserves, several
of which have been established in recent years, are only a
partial solution to the problem.
Jennings, Josh. 1972. Wild Horse Annie: a western legend. High
Country News . 4(26) :4-5. (DPL)
The author interviews Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie").
The interview is a personal account of her efforts to protect
wild horses. The specific steps that were taken towards
getting legislation passed for the protection of wild horses
Johnston, Velma B. 1970. Legislation requiring immediate action,
Northeast Horseman . April: 7 -8. (DPL)
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") urges legislation to
protect and control wild horses and burros. She feels they
are the target of exploitation, starvation and slaughter
and cannot be saved through slow step-by-step procedures.
At the end of the article is the bill which she wishes
introduced in the Senate. She urges that all horse lovers
write to Senator Henry M. Jackson and urge him to schedule
early hearings on Bill S-3358 for the protection of wild
horses and burros .
Johnston, Velma B. 1970. Mustang protective legislation.
Chronicle of the Horse . 33 (51): 11. (DPL)
Hunters are getting around laws against capturing wild horses
and burros with airplanes and mechanized means by turning
domestic horses out on the range, then wild horse hunters
may chase the mixed herd of wild and domestic horses by any
means, claiming ownership of the animals. Mrs. Velma
Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") urges support of law S-3358
introduced by Senator Hansen of Wyoming which would remove
jurisdiction over the animals from state and local agencies
to the federal authorities .
Johnston, Velma B. 1972. The fight to save a memory. Texas Law
Review . 50(5) : 1055-1064. (DPL)
A discussion by Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie") of
her involvement in the wild horse controversy and what
legislation has been passed since her interest in wild
horses began in 1950. There is a brief history of horses
in the U. S. and a thorough discussion of the Wild Horse
and Burro Act of 1971 (PL 92-195).
Johnston, Velma B. and M. J. Pontrelli. 1969. Public pressure
and a new dimension of quality — horses and burros. Trans -
actions of the Thirty-fourth North American Wildlife and
Natural Resources Conference . 34:240-252. (DPL)
A brief history of horses in the United States is followed
by the personal story of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse
Annie") and the steps she took in her fight to save the
wild horses. This testimony is full of key events and
their dates; e.g. the Nevada law prohibiting airborne
roundups passed in 1953.
Pontrelli, M. J. 1969. Protection for wild mustangs. Defenders
of Wildlife News . October, November, December : 444 -446 . (DPL)
Senator Frank E. Moss introduced a bill (S-2166) concerning
the protection and preservation of wild horses, specifically
the Spanish Barb and the Andalusian. The bill, if passed,
would place these horses on the endangered species list. All
wild horses would then be rounded up and the Barb and
Andalusian would be separated out to be preserved in pro-
tected areas; the remaining wild horses would be separated
out and disposed of. Dr. Pontrelli finds the following
problem with this proposed legislation: "since all horses
are to be rounded up and since most evidence points to the
fact that no pure blooded Barb and Andalusians are in the
wild, then a strict interpretation of the bill would call
for the virtual elimination of all wild horses." He goes on
to outline the points he feels are important for legislation
concerned with the protection and preservation of wild
Public Law 86-234 . 1959. Statutes at Large , Vol. 73, p. 470. (DPL)
An amendment to the United States Code, Chapter 3 of Title 18,
which prohibits the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt
certain wild horses or burros on land belonging to the United
States, and for other purposes.
Public Law 92-195 . 1971. Statutes at Large , Vol. 85, p. 649-
A law requiring protection, management, and control of wild
free-roaming horses and burros on public lands. This law
places all wild free-roaming horses and burros under the
jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior or the
Secretary of Agriculture.
Tyler, Chuck, ed. 1970. Youth news. Horse and Rider . 9(6): 72 (DPL)
Howard H. Caudel, Grand Junction, Colorado, urges readers to
write Secretary Walter J. Hickel, Department of the Interior,
to urge protection for wild horses in the Bookcliff Mountains
of Colorado. According to the author they are presently the
target for Sunday afternoon cowboys who round them up.
U. S. Congress. House. 1959. Amendment of Title 18, United
States Code, To Prohibit the Use of Aircraft or Motor Vehicles
to Hunt Certain Wild Horses or Burros on Land Belonging to
the United States. House Report 833 to accompany H.R. 2725,
86th Congress, 1st session. (DPL)
This is the House report concerning H.R. 2725, a bill to pro-
hibit the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild
horses or burros on lands belonging to the United States.
U. S. Congress. House. 1971. Protection, Management, and
Control of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public
Lands . House Report 681 to accompany S. 1116, 92nd Congress,
1st session. (DPL)
A conference report concerning the disagreement between the
House and the Senate regarding S. 1116, a bill requiring the
protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming
horses and burros on public lands.
U. S. Congress. House. 1971. Requiring Protection, Management
and Control of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public
Lands . House Report 480 to accompany H.R. 9890, 92nd
Congress. 1st session. (DPL)
The House's report concerning H.R. 9890, a bill to require
the protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming
horses and burros on public lands.
S. Congress. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs
1971. H.R. 795 and H.R. 5375, Legislation to Authorize the
Protection, Management, and Control of Free-Roaming Horses
and Burros on Public Lands. Hearings before a subcommittee
of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of
Representatives, on H.R. 795, H.R. 5375 and Related Bills,
92nd Congress, 1st session. (DPL)
Testimony concerning legislation designed to authorize pro-
tection, management, and control of free-roaming horses and
burros on public lands.
U. S. Congress. Senate. 1959. Wild Horses and Burros . Senate
Report 802 to accompany H.R. 2725, 86th Congress, 1st session.
The Senate's report concerning H.R. 2725, a bill to prohibit
the use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild
horses or burros on lands belonging to the United States.
U. S. Congress. Senate. 1971. Protection, Management and Con -
trol of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on Public Lands .
Senate Report 242 to accompany S. 1116, 92nd Congress, 1st
The Senate's report concerning S. 1116, a bill to require the
protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming
horses and burros on public lands.
U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs. 1971. S. 862, S. 1116, S. 1090, and S. 1119 To
Authorize the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary
of Agriculture to Protect, Manage, and Control Free-Roaming
Horses and Burros on Public Lands . Hearings before a sub-
committee of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs,
Senate, on S . 862, S. 1116, S. 1090, and S. 1119, 92nd
Congress, 1st session. (DPL)
Testimony concerning legislation to authorize protection,
management, and control of free-roaming horses and burros
on public lands .
U. S. Department of the Interior and U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. 1974. A Report to Congress by the Secretary of
the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture on Administra -
tion of the Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act, Public
Law 92-195 . 58 p., appendices. (DPL, USDA, USDI)
The report fulfills section 10 of public law 92-195, The
Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act. The review presents
the progress made and the problems encountered by these two
agencies in their administration of wild horses and burros.
It also contains considerations for legislative changes which
will assist the agencies in meeting the intent of the 1971 Act
in a more effective, humane, and cost -conscious manner. Two
amendments to the 1971 Act are being considered. The first
amendment would permit the use of aircraft or other motorized
vehicles to be used for the protection, management, and con-
trol of wild horses and burros . The use of such equipment
would be in accordance with humane procedures prescribed by
the two secretaries . The second amendment would authorize
the two secretaries to sell or donate excess animals to
private individuals or organizations. Extensive appendices.
MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND PROBLEMS
Cook, C. Wayne. 1975. Wild horses and burros: a new management
problem. Rangeman's Journal . 2(1): 19-21. (DPL)
The author was Chairman of the National Advisory Board for
Wild Free -Roaming Horses and Burros and has been on the Board
since it was formed after the passage in 1971 of the Wild
Horse and Burro Act. In this article Dr. Cook gives a brief
description of the wild horses, their early numbers and con-
trol, their management and recent population figures, and
finally their present control under the Wild Horse and Burro
Act. The main focus of the article is on the inadequacy of
the present federal legislation, namely the 1971 act and how
it needs to be changed. Dr. Cook suggests several changes.
He suggests that the Wild Horse and Burro Act be amended to
include provision for control and to allow aircraft, if
necessary, , to implement this control. The ownership of
horses and burros should be transferable to individuals and
the law should be amended to provide for the complete re-
moval of horses and burros from certain areas and the estab-
lishment of ranges where they can be managed appropriately.
Dudley, Aaron. 1970. Nevadans ponder plight of wild horses.
Western Livestock Journal . 49(3) :1+. (DPL)
A confrontation occurred between those concerned with the
future of the wild horse and members of the Nevada State
Cattlemen's Association and Nevada Wool Growers at their
combined convention, held in Winnemucca, Nevada, in
November. Stockmen suggested that the horses supposed to
be wild are simply those turned out and owned by ranchers.
Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild Horse Annie"), known for her
protective efforts, defined a wild horse as those "one
generation removed from the domestic animal and. . .unclaimed.'
She was joined in her efforts by the President of the Nevada
chapter of the National Mustang Association, Newcastle,
Utah. Academic support came from an assistant professor of
biology, Dr. Michael Pontrelli, at the University of Nevada
who, together with his students, had been collecting field
data on the mustangs for several years. Ranchers expressed
their lack of understanding over public concern for 9,000
"worthless" mustangs and state game officials explained that
they did not fall under the heading of wildlife. Lack of
management was seen as the chief cause of the mustang prob-
lems, but no one present knew from what source management
funds would come.
Hall, Ron. 1972. Wild Horse: Biology and Alternatives for
Management, Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range . Bureau of
Land Management, Billings District. 67 p. (DEL)
"Population dynamics, distribution and behavior data were
collected on the horse herd in the Pryor Mountains, Montana.
Population data were collected by aging and sexing 124
horses. Additional sex data were collected by using a
spotting scope. Distribution and behavior information was
collected through observations for one year. Distribution
of the horses is dictated by water, forage and weather con-
ditions. The horses have seasonal home ranges but do not
establish territories. Home ranges vary in size with the
size being dependent upon available forage. Breeding season
seems to be a function of the green-up which brings mares
into heat. Average harem group is three to four (3.4)
animals. Range trend has been sharply downward for several
years. Management will consist of population control and
proper distribution. Distribution will be accomplished
by water manipulation and/or feeding."
Hall, Ron. 1974. Wild horse capture techniques . Bureau of
Land Management. 24 p., illus. Draft. (DPL)
The author discusses and accompanies with illustrations the
following capture techniques: water, dry, holding facilities,
drug immobilization, and roping. The author concludes by
saying, "regardless of the technique used, the manager must
have intimate knowledge of the behavior of the horses on
the terrain in which they live. The manager must use all
the ingenuity at his disposal to humanely capture horses
while attempting to keep costs within fundable levels."
National Advisory Board for Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros .
Proceedings . Irregular. U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, and U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau
of Land Management, Washington, D. C. (USDA, USDI) .
The proceedings of the National Advisory Board which contain
current information on pending legislation and lawsuits,
recommendations of the Board, population status of wild
horses and burros, current management reports of the Bureau
of Land Management and Forest Service and other pertinent
Reavley, William. 1974. Wild horse board suggests sweeping
changes. Conservation News . 39 (22) : 12-14. (DPL)
The decisions of the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory-
Board made at the Reno, Nevada 1974 meeting are discussed.
To deal with the increasing populations, the Board's plan
was as follows: "A series of 'intensive management units'
(or wild horse refuges) would be established throughout
representative ranges in the West, with the exact number yet
unknown but possibly varying between 10 and 20. The remainder
of the wild horse and burro populations not in the designated
management areas would then be removed from the balance of
the public domain." Vehicles such as helicopters would have
to be used to round up the left-over horses and burros and
those not claimed would be sold to defray the cost of rounding
them up. This plan is in conflict with existing legislation.
Remsberg, Charles. 1967. One man's fight to save the mustangs.
True; The Man's Magazine . April :52-53, 86-90. (DPL)
Outlines the early controversy in the Pryors where the Bureau
of Land Management and the Tillett family disagreed over the
outcome of wild horses grazing on federally leased land.
Seals, Samuel J. 1972. Murderers Creek Wild Horse Area, Bio -
logical Unit Management Plan, Malheur National Forest; Pro -
posed Final Draft . U. S. Forest Service, 51 p., maps. (DPL)
"The objective of this plan is to provide for the protection,
management and control of wild, free -roaming horses in a
natural ecological balance on the Murderers Creek Wild Horse
Area." Very good data is contained in the study which in-
cludes habitat and population dynamics. Resource and non-
resource conflicts are discussed and an action plan for
keeping the herd at less than 100 animals concludes the
paper. Well documented with a bibliography.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management.
1973. Proposed Wild Free -Roaming Horse and Burro Management
Regulations. Final Environmental Statement . 73-35. 133 p.
This publication describes and discusses the environmental
impact of regulations to implement the Wild and Free-Roaming
Horse and Burro Act, PL 92-195. It discusses proposed regu-
lations for the protection, management, and control of wild
free-roaming horses and burros on national resource lands
administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The proposal
describes the system of management that would be used and
contains criteria and procedures for the program. Adverse
environmental effects such as limiting the availability of
forage and habitat to other grazing animals is discussed.
Alternative management proposals are listed. Comments on
the draft environmental statement are included.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management.
1974. Livestock Grazing Management on National Resource
Lands . Final Environmental Impact Statement. 3 vols. misc.
paging. (DPL, USDI)
"This is a programmatic statement relating to the livestock
grazing management program administered by the Bureau of
Land Management (BLM) and analyzes the environmental impact
of this program on the national resource lands (NRL) , public
lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This
statement will provide a broad description of, and the al-
ternatives to, the livestock grazing management program, and
their impacts on the environment. It will serve as the
foundation for subsequent environmental analyses and state-
ments that may be required. It will identify factors needing
close attention in such analyses to obtain definitive infor-
mation." (Note: Because of a pending lawsuit more specific
information will be forthcoming in the near future.)
Anonymous. 1949. Wyoming circuss F'R dudes: the horse roundup
by aircraft. Illustrated London News . 215:1030-1031. (DPL)
A pictorial essay of a 1949 Wyoming roundup which used air-
craft as a means of rounding up the wild horses.
Anonymous. 1958. Mustang murder. True; The Man's Magazine ,
June: 54 -5 7. (DPL) '
A description of a wild horse roundup in Nevada aided by
aircraft and pickup trucks. The legality of rounding up
wild horses in various states and on federal lands is
Anonymous. 1973. Federal mustang protection tested. . .horses
brutalized in Idaho roundup. Mainstream . 4(2):3-4. (DPL)
This article, accompanied by photographs, summarizes the
Howe, Idaho wild horse roundup where a large band of horses
were run off a cliff and left there to die. The ineffect-
iveness of PL 92-195 for protecting wild horses is discussed.
Anonymous. 1974. Wild Horse & Idaho Justice. Humane Society
of the United States News . Autumn: 2. (DPL)
The article discusses the Howe, Idaho horse roundup. Because
the Idaho State brand inspector ruled that the wild horses
rounded up on public lands were privately owned by the
ranchers who rounded them up, the Humane Society is concerned
that the 18 surviving horses may be returned to the ranchers.
Senators Abourezk and Gude have filed claims for the horses
on behalf of the American people and the final decision as
to where the horses go is up to the Department of the Interior,
Amaral, Anthony. 1970. Mustanging with Pete Barnum. Nevada
Highways and Parks . Fall:8-10, 31, 35-37, 42. (DPL)
An interesting and well-illustrated article about Pete
Barnum, one of the all-time great mustangers in Nevada,
responsible for inventing the circular canvas trap.
Amaral, Anthony. 1971. The wild horse--worth saving? National
Parks and Conservation Magazine . March: 21-24. (DEL)
The author discusses a roundup of 70,000 Nevada wild horses
in 1950, a roundup which he believes was the last massive
roundup of feral horses in the United States. Current legi-
slation is discussed as ineffective because there is little
authority given to make sure it is enforced. The mustang of
today is not the tough, hot-blooded descendent of the Spanish
horse; those mustangs disappeared before the turn of the
century. Today's wild horse is a mixture of many things,
made up of a conglomeration of eastern breeds from Europe,
along with Spanish and North African blood. A great number
of the "American" horses came from ranchers and farmers who
released them onto the prairie. The author recommends that
the government be periodically allowed to round up excess
Bundy, Gus . 1953. Rounding up wild horses. National Humane
Review . March: 16-20. (DPL)
This article describes the early truck and airplane roundups
which were common in Nevada in the late 1940' s and early
1950' s. The article is accompanied by the author's photo-
Clark, Gibbons. 1946. Yakima Indian riders round up wild
horses. American Cattle Producer . July: 28, 33. (DPL)
The Indians rounded up horses in 1946 and sold them to finance
sports and other activities of the all-Indian American Legion
Post there. The horses were forced from their home range to
confuse them and due to their being in strange new surround-
ings and flustered with excitement, they became tired. In
this panicked condition they were easy to capture and herd
into corrals. Local Indian reservation and forestry officials
estimate that there were more than 5,000 wild horses roaming
over the Fort Simcoe and Medicine Valley areas.
Cotterman, Dan. 1973. Wild horse massacre. Horse and Rider .
August: 28-31. (DPL)
A discussion listing the events surrounding the Howe, Idaho
wild horse "massacre" which occurred in February, 1973.
According to the American Horse Protection Association the
"hunt" violated two federal laws and an Idaho State anti-
cruelty law. Bureau of Land Management negligence concerning
the enforcement of the two federal laws was claimed by
several wild horse organizations. The author points out that
the federal laws are inadequate because there is no provision
for the acquisition of funds to carry out and enforce the
laws. There is a thorough discussion of problems brought
about by the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 and its relationship
to the use of "National Resource Lands."
Riordan, Marguerite. 1970. Wild horse swindle. The Cattleman .
55 (9): 151. (DPL)
In the early 1900 's the United States Livestock Company was
organized to sell wild horses running in Arizona. The
company sold bills of sale to people who were willing to try
to catch the animals. The ease of capture was misrepresented,
and many people lost their savings or homes. Some of their
stories, and the results of the swindle, are recounted.
Santee , Ross. 1958. The last run. Arizona Highways . November:
This article discusses the "good old days" of wild horse
chases and roundups .
Schuessler, Raymond. 1962. The massacre of the mustangs. Hoofs
and Horns . February: 8-9, 27. (DPL)
This article points out that as early as 1805 wild horses
were being rounded up and killed to control their populations
The author traces the decline of the wild horse to the
Schuessler, Raymond. 1970. The massacre of the mustang. Pony .
22(253) :22-23. (DPL)
The savage and proud wild horses of America who toiled
dutifully when domesticated and literally pulled and carried
America to prosperity, have gradually declined in numbers since
the turn of the century. The mustangs at one time numbered
five to seven million: their interference with cattlemen and
the cattlemen's successful campaign to exterminate them are
described. The article estimates that there are 20,000 wild
horses in the West which are not protected in any way.
Wilson, George G. 1974. Slaughter of wild horses. Defenders
of Wildlife News . 49 (2) : 104-106 . (DPL)
The Howe, Idaho wild horse roundup is discussed in detail
with first-hand photographs and descriptions by people who
were actually there. The court history of the case is
WILD HORSE RANGES AND REFUGES
Anonymous. 1963. The West: a home on the range. Newsweek .
2 September: 30-31. (DPL)
The article concerns itself with the formation of a wild
horse range in the northeast corner of Nellis Air Force
Base in Nevada. The article points out that the range is
a tribute to the hard work of Mrs. Velma Johnston ("Wild
Horse Annie") in behalf of the wild horse.
Anonymous. 1968. The last roundup? Newsweek . 13 May:95-96. (DPL)
The herd of 200 horses in the Pryor Mountain Range on the
Montana -Wyoming border will be culled to 30 horses in order
to protect the over -used range. This Bureau of Land Manage-
ment decision is annoying the local citizens who want to see
the herd kept at 100 so they "won't inbreed and spoil the
Anonymous. 1969. Wild horse refuge. Chronicle of the Horse .
33 (8): 15. (DPL)
A discussion of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range of 31,000
acres along the Wyoming -Montana border where wild horse herds
will be protected and maintained.
Anonymous. 1973. Last of the wild horses. Horse and Horseman .
This article discusses the relocation of the Pryor Mountain
wild horses that were culled from the herd because of over-
population. "Inbreeding, encroaching civilization and a
scarcity of grazing forage have trimmed the numbers of the
spirited little beasts." The article goes on to discuss the
wild horses of the Pryor Mountains that may be sold because
they are "defoliating the range." The date of June 14 has
been picked to auction off the horses and the controversy is
drawing a great deal of attention.
Bruemmer, Fred. 1967. The wild horses of Sable Island. Animals .
A discussion of the wild horses of Sable Island in Canada.
These horses are believed to be descended from New England
horses, liberated on Sable Island more than 200 years ago. A
brief history of the island and its inhabitants is given.
There is a thorough account of the island's present inhabi-
tants, the wild horses, presently protected by the
Canadian government .
Gilluly, Richard H. 1971. The mustang controversy. Science
News . 99(13) :219-220. (DPL)
The mustang controversy is clouded with emotionalism.
Neither side, those who want them eliminated vs. those who
want them left alone, have substantial arguments or research
to back them up. The new pending legislation would estab-
lish wild horse sanctuaries on public lands. One such
range has been established in the Pryor Mountains. The Bureau
of Land Management is worried about competition between the
horses and wild life species in the area. The author points
out that much research is needed on wild horses and their
:, >•:.;• natural habitat.
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Grover, Dorys Crow. 1964. Haven for wild horses. Western
Horseman . December: 28, 107-110. (DPL)
The State of Nevada has the only wild horse refuge in the
nation. It comprises 435,000 acres in the northeast corner
of Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. It will be administered
by the Bureau of Land Management and the size of the herd
■ - ■ :
will be about 200 horses. A general discussion of wild
l 1 '"' '^ horses in the West concludes the article.
\ *•'■■: .■
Klataske, Ron. 1970. Wild horse range. Wyoming Wildlife . 34(9):
The events leading to the establishment of the Pryor Mountain
Wild Horse Range are outlined. First, an advisory committee
was established to formulate a series of guidelines for the
: • Bureau of Land Management to follow in administering the
range. These guidelines included: that the size of the herd
should be maintained at no less than 100 head; that if culling
were necessary the diseased, deformed or branded animals
should be culled, leaving the horses with roan, mouse and
buckskin color characteristics; and that supplemental feeding
.'•y •. .*. would be avoided if possible.
Moorhouse, James A. and Gene Nodine. 1967. Wild horse haven. Our
Public Lands . Fall:4-6. (DPL)
The authors trace the first conquistador's horses to the
"multicolored, short -coup led, grass -bellied animal" used by
of Land igement
2nv ' ; . ral Center
the Indians and known today as wild horses. In 1967, an
estimated 17,000 remained in nine western states. A 394,000-
acre reserve known as the Nevada Wild Horse Range was
established in 1962 with cooperation from the Department of
the Interior, the Air Force and the Nevada Fish and Game
Most, Chuck. 1969. Wild horses of the Pryors. Our Public
Lands . Fall: 18-21. (DPL) ; Defenders of Wildlife News . 45(1):
In 1968 controversy arose concerning the outcome of a 200-
head herd of wild horses in the Pryor Mountains on the
Mont ana- Wyoming border. The Bureau of Land Management,
concerned about worsening rank's conditions in the area,
suggested these alternatives: maintaining the greatest
number of horses, maintaining fewer horses to further
reduce competition with deer, and remove all the horses
and manage the area for wildlife. Finally a 32,000-acre
Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range was established in 1968
and a citizen's advisory committee was appointed to study
the range and make recommendations to the Bureau of Land
Management for future management. The committee's recom-
mendations are included.
Riley, J. 1969. The mustangs. West; Los Angeles Tim es. 27 July:
The article describes the efforts of the Tillett family to
protect the mustangs from the Bureau of Land Management,
the State Fish and Game Department and the Livestock Com-
mission. The efforts of Mrs. Velma B. Johnston, "Wild
Horse Annie," of Reno, Nevada, who has worked with the
Humane Society and the Tilletts, are also described. The
Tillett Ranch comprising 9,000 acres, plus adjacent federal
land, is located on the Montana-Wyoming border.
Scher, Zeke. 1969. Reprieve for the mustangs. 1969. Empire;
The Magazine of the Denver Post . 12 October : 10-13 . (DPL)
Mainly a report on the establishment of the Pryor Mountain
Wild Horse Advisory Committee and their recommendations for
Q&am Service Cents?.
Schwartz, Barney. 1949. A kingdom for wild horses. Nature
Magazine . 42(1):8-12, 50. (DPL)
As early as 1950, photographer Verne Wood started promoting
a plan for a state-controlled refuge for wild horses in
Wyoming. He used his wild horse pictures for publicity.
The proposed refuge would be controlled by fish and game
wardens, and "some four hundred head would be permitted to
live without danger of being rounded up by professional
horse-hunters." The author goes on to describe the aspects
of the horse roundups. He maintains that the refuge would
become a great tourist attraction.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management.
1968. Information Sheet; Pryor Mountain Horse Area . 2 p.
The information sheet discusses the deterioration of the
range in the Pryors and outlines the reasons for decreasing
the wild horse populations. Three management alternatives
are listed followed by a brief discussion.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management.
Denver Service Center. 1969? Resources of the Pryor
Mountain Wild Horse Range . Manuscript. Vol. l:Text. 69 p.
Vol. II: Photographs, n.p. (DPL)
A thorough study of the resources of the range in the Pryor
Mountains, Wyoming. Soil information, plant species, hunt-
ing harvest statistics, animal species and population
dynamics are among the topics covered. The objectives of
the report were "to evaluate existing resource information
and data available on the wild horse range; to technically
assess the vegetation, soil and moisture relationships using
this assessment as a basis for recommendations relating to
rangeland--watershed management and habitat management; and
to identify the need for additional data." Color photographs
give a specific and general overview of the range condition.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management:
Susanville District. 1973. Wild horses and burros, n.p. (DPL)
A report which evaluates the present horse and burro situa-
tions in the Susanville District of California. Based on
research of the present populations; including the range
condition and competition with other animals, the report
recommends the implementation of certain management practices,
Populations were determined by use of aerial survey counting
U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management,
Susanville District. 1974. Wild Horses and Burros, Environ -
mental Analysis . 52 p. (DPL)
A summary of an 18-month study of the wild horses and burros
of the Bureau's Susanville District in California. The
study indicates definite over-grazing and competition prob-
lems in that area. Population counts reported were partially
determined by aerial surveys. Eight alternative recommenda-
tions are made based on the study.
GPO 839 -759
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