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MUSHROOM CULTURE : its ExteDsion and Improve- 

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" I wiNT, for the first time in my life, some years ago, to stay at a very 
grand and beautiful place in the country, where the grounds are said to 
be laid out with consummate taste. For th^ first three or four days I 
was perfectly enchanted; it seemed something so much better than 
nature that I really began to wish the earth had been laid out according 
to the latest principles of improvement. ... In three days* time I 
was tired to death : a thistle, a nettle, a heap of dead bushes — anything 
that wore the appearance of accident and want of intention — ^was quite 
a relief. I used to escape from the made grounds, and walk upon an 
adjacent goose-common, where the cart-ruts, gravd-pits, bumps, irregu- 
larities, coarse ungentlemanlike grass, and all the varieties produced by 
neglect, were a thousand times more gratifying than the monotony of 
beauties the result of design, and crowded into narrow confines." 

Sydney Smith. 







To understand the aim of this little book, it is 
desirable to take a broad glance at the past and 
present state of our flower-gardens. From about 
twenty years ago, back to the time of Shake- 
speare, the flowers of an English garden were 
nearly all hardy ones : they came from northern or 
temperate regions, in most cases from climates 
very like our own ; they were as hardy as our 
weeds ; they bloomed early in the keen spring air, 
and late in the wet autumn gusts, as well as in the 
favoured summer's day. 

The daughters of the year, 
One after one, thro' that still garden passed. 

Passages from our greatest poets and writers — 
Shakespeare, Milton, Bacon, and others — embody 
the names of the principal classes of flowers used 
in this ancient style of gardening, and show us what 
infinite delight it was capable of aflbrding ; and its 

B 2 

The Wild Garden. 

charms we may yet see in little cottage gardens in. 
Kent, Sussex, and many other parts of England, 
though the scarlet geranium has begun to eradicate 
all the fair blossoms of many a sweet little garden, 
once, and often yet, " embowered in fruit trees and 
forest trees, evergreens and honeysuckles rising 
many-coloured from amid shaven grass plots, flowers 
struggling in through the very windows . . . where, 
especially on long summer nights, a king might 
have wished to sit and smoke and call it his." From 
these little Elysiums, where the last glimpses of 
beautiful old English gardening may yet be seen, 
we will now turn to the modern system which re- 
places it. 

About a generation ago a taste began to be 
manifested for placing a number of tender plants in 
the open air in summer, with a view to the produc- 
tion of showy masses of decided colour. The sub- 
jects selected were mostly from sub-tropical climates 
and of free growth ; placed in the open air of our 
genial early summer, and in fresh rich earth, every 
year they grew rapidly and flowered abundantly 
during the summer and early autumn months, 
and until cut down by the first frosts. The bril- 
liancy of tone resulting from this system was very 
attractive, and since its introduction there has 

I- J I ^. ,j ■ X -J I 7^p^9BHia^smHMai^S9Hi«a^^i9MHBniq 


been a gradual rooting out of all the old favourites 
in favour of the bedding system. This was carried 
to such an extent that of late it has not been un- 
common, indeed it has been the rule, to find the 
largest gardens in the country without a single hardy 
flower, all energy and expense being devoted to 
the production of the many thousand exotics re- 
quired for the summer decoration. It should be 
distinctly borne in mind that the expense for this 
systQm is an annual one ; that no matter what 
amount of money may be spent in this way, no 
matter how many years may be devoted to perfect- 
ing it, the first sharp frost of November merely 

prepares a yet further expense and labour. 

Its highest results need hardly be described ; 
they are seen in all our great public gardens ; 
our London and many other city parks show theni 
in the shape of beds filled with vast quantities 
of flowers, covering the ground frequently in a 
showy way, and not unfrequently in a repul- 
sively gaudy manner : every private garden is 
taken possession of by the same simple beauties. 
Occasionally some variety is introduced. We go 
to Kew or the Crystal Palace to see what looks 
best there, or the weekly gardening papers tell us ; 
and the following season sees tens of thousands of 

The Wild Garden. 

the same arrangements and patterns scattered all 
over the country. I will not here enter into the 
question of the comparative advantages of the two 
systems ; it is enough to state that even on its 
votaries the system at present in fashion is beginning 
to pall. Some are looking back with regret to the 
old mixed-border gardens ; others are endeavouring 
to soften the harshness of the bedding system by 
the introduction of fine-leaved plants, but all are 
agreed that a great mistake has been made in de- 
stroying all our sweet old border flowers, from 
tall Lilies to dwarf Hepaticas, though very few 
persons indeed have any idea of the numbers of 
beautiful subjects in this way which we may gather 
from every northern and temperate clime. 

What is to be done } Every garden should have 
a mixed border, but except in the little cottage 
gardens before alluded to — "umbrageous man's 
nests," as Mr. Carlyle calls them, gardens depen- 
dent on it solely are quite out of the question. It 
is also clear that, base and frightfully opposed to 
every law of nature's own arrangement of living 
things as is the bedding system, it has yet some 
features which deserve to be retained on a small 
scale. My object is now to show how we may, 
without losing the better features of the mixed 


bedding or any other system, follow one infinitely- 
superior to any now practised, yet supplementing, 
both, and exhibiting more of the varied beauty of 
hardy flowers than the most ardent admirer of the. 
old style of garden ever dreams of. We may do 
this by naturalizing or making wild innumerable 
beautiful natives df many regions of the earth in 
our woods, wild and semi-wild places, rougher parts 
of pleasure grounds, etc., and in unoccupied places 
in almost every kind of garden. 

I allude not to the wood and brake flora of any 
one alp or chain of alps, but to that which finds its 
home in the immeasurable woodlands that fall in 
furrowed folds from beneath the hoary heads of all 
the great mountain chains of the world, whether 
they rise from hot Indian plains or green European 
pastures. The Palm and sacred Fig, as well as the 
Wheat and the Vine, are separiated from the stem- 
less plants that cushion under the snow for half the 
year, by a zone of hardier and not less beautiful life, 
varied as the breezes that whisper on the mountain 
sides, and as the little rills that seam them. I allude to 
the Lilies, and Bluebells, and Foxgloves, and Irises, 
andWindflowers,and Columbines, and Aconites, and 
Rock-roses, and Violets, and Cranesbills, and count- 
less Pea-flowers, and mountain Avens, and'Brambies, 

f \ 

8 The Wild Garden. 

and Cinquefoils, and Evening Primroses, and Cle- 
matises, and Honeysuckles, and Michaelmas Daisies, 
and Feverfews, and Wood-hyacinths, and Daffodils, 
and Bindweeds, and Forget-me-nots, and sweet 
blue Omphalodes, and Primroses, and Day Lilies, 
and Asphodels, and St. Bruno's Lilies, and the 
almost innumerable plants which form the flora of 


regions where, though life is yet rife on every inch 
of ground, and we are enjoying the verdure and the 
temperature of our lowland meadows, there is 
a " sense of a great power beginning to be mani- 
fested in the earth, and oi a deep and majestic 
concord in the rise of the long low lines of piny 
hills; the first utterances of those mighty moun- 
tain symphonies, soon to be more loudly lifted 
and wildly broken along the battlements of the 
Alps. But their strength is as yet restrained, and 
the far-reaching ridges of pastoral mountains succeed 
each other, like the long and sighing swell which 
moves over quiet waters, from some far-off stormy 
sea. And there is a deep tenderness pervading 
that vast monotony. The destructive forces, and 
the stem expression of the central ranges, are alike 
withdrawn. No frost-ploughed, dust-encumbered 
paths of the ancient glacier fr^t the soft Jura pas- 
tures ; no splintered heaps of ruin break the fair 


ranks of her forests ; no pale, defiled, or furious 
rivers rend their rude and changeful ways among 
her rocks. Patiently, eddy by eddy, the clear 
green streams wind along their well - known 
beds; and under the dark quietness of the 
undisturbed pines there spring up, year by year, 
such company of joyful flowers as I know not the 
like of among all the blessings of the earth. It was 
spring-time, too ; and all were coming forth in 
clusters crowded for very love. There was room 
enough for all, but they crushed their leaves into all 
manner of strange shapes, only to be nearer each 
other. There was the Wood Anemone, star after 
star, closing every now and then into nebulae ; and 
there was the Oxalis, troop by troop, like virginal 
processions of the Mois de Marie, the dark vertical 
clefts in the limestone choked up with them as with 
heavy snow, and touched with Ivy on the edges — 
Ivy as light and lovely as the Vine ; and, ever and 
anon, a blue gush of Violets and Cowslip bells in 
sunny places ; and in the more open ground, the 
Vetch, and Comfrey, and Mezereon, and the small 
sapphire buds of the alpine Polygala, and the Wild 
Strawberry, just a blossom or two, all showered 
amidst the golden goftness of deep, warm, amber- 
coloured moss." 

lo The Wild Garden. 

This is a picture of but one of innumerable 
and infinitely varied scenes in the wilder parts 
of all northern and temperate regions, at many 
different elevations. The loveliness and cease- 
lessly varying charms of such scenes are indeed 
difficult to describe or imagine ; the essential 
thing to bear in mind is that the plants that go to 
form them are hardy ^ and will thriite in our climate 
as well as native plants. 

Such beauty may be realized in every wood and 
copse and wild shrubbery that screens our '' trim 
gardens." Naturally our woods«and wilds have no 
small loveliness in spring ; we have here and there 
the Lily-of-the-valley and the Snowdrop wild, and 
everywhere the exquisite Primrose and Cowslip ; the 
Bluebell and the Foxglove sometimes take nearly 
complete possession of whole woods, and turn them 
into paradises of vernal beauty ; but, with all our 
treasures in this way, we have no attractions in semi- 
wild places compared to what it is within our power 
to create. A certain number of beautiful plants 
occur amongst the weeds in our woods, and there 
we stop. But there are many countries with winters 
as cold as, or colder than, our own, possessing 
a rich flora ; and by taking thp best hardy exotics 
and establishing them with the best of our own wild 

Explanatory. 1 1 

flowers in wild or half-wild spots near our houses 
and gardens, we may produce the most charming 
results ever seen in such places. To most people a 
I pretty plant in the wild state is more attractive than 

any garden denizen. It is free, and taking care of 
itself, it has had to contend with and has over- 
come weeds which, left to their own sweet will 
in a garden, would soon leave very small trace 
of the plants therein ; and, moreover, it is usually 
surrounded by some d^ree of graceful wild spray 
— the green above, and the moss and brambles 
and grass around. Many will say with Tennyson, 
in " Amphion," — 


I Better to me the meanest weed 

That blows upon its mountain, 
The vilest herb that runs to seed 
! Befflde its native fountain — 

' but by the means presently to be explained, num- 

bers of plants, neither " mean " nor " vile," but of 

I the highest order of beauty and fragrance, and 

clothed with the sweetest associations, may be seen 
to greater perfection, wild as weeds, in the spaces 
now devoted to rank grass and weeds in our shrub- 
beries, ornamental plantations, and by wood walks, 
than ever they were in our gardens. 

My reasons for advocating this system, as I do, 

12 The Wild Garden. 

are as follows : first, because hundreds of the finest 
hardy flowers will thrive much better in the places 
I recommend for them than ever they did in the 
old-fashioned border. Even comparatively small 
ones, like the ivy-leaved Cyclamen, a beautiful 
plant that we rarely find in perfection in gardens, 
I have seen perfectly naturalized and spread all 
over the mossy surface of a thin wood. Secondly, 
because they will look infinitely better than ever 
they did in gardens, in consequence of fine-leaved 
plant, fern, and flower, and climber, ornamental 
grass and dwarf trailing shrub, mutually relieving 
each other in ways innumerable as delightful. Any 
one of a thousand combinations, which this book 
will suggest to the intelligent reader, will prove as 
far superior to any aspect of the old mixed border, 
or the ordinary type of modern flower-garden, as is 
a lovely mountain valley to a country in which the 
eye can see but canals and hedges. Thirdly, be- 
cause, arranged as I propose, no disagreeable effects 
result from decay. The raggedness of the old mixed 
border after the first flush of spring and early sum- 
mer bloom had passed was intolerable, bundles of 
decayed stems tied to sticks making the place look 
like the parade-ground of a number of crossing- 
sweepers with their " arms piled." When Lilies are 


Explanatory. j 3 

sparsely dotted through masses of Rhododendrons 
as I recommend, their flowers are admired more 
than if they were in isolated showy masses ; when 
they pass out of bloom they are unnoticed amidst 
the vegetation, and not eyesores, as when in rigid 
unrelieved tufts in borders, &c. In a wild or semi- 
wild state, the beauty of individual species will pro- 
claim itself when at its height ; and when passed 
out of bloom, they will be succeeded by other 
kinds, or lost among the numerous objects around. 
Fourthly y because it will enable us to grow hun- 
dreds of plants that have never yet obtained a 
place in our " trim gardens," nor ever will be ad- 
mitted therein. I allude to the multitudes of plants 
which, not being so showy as those usually con- 
sidered worthy of a place in gardens, are never seen 
there. The flowers of many of these are of the 
highest order of beauty, especially when seen in 
numbers. An isolated tuft of one of these, seen in 
a formal border, may not be considered worthy of a 
place at any time — in some wild glade, in a wood, 
associated with other subjects, its eflfect may be 
exquisite. We do not usually cultivate Gorse or 
Buttercups, yet Mr. Wallace, the distinguished natu- 
ralist and traveller, says — "During twelve years 
spent amidst the grandest tropical vegetation, I have 

14 The Wild Garden. 

seen nothing comparable to the effect produced on 
our landscapes by Gorse, Broom, Heather, Wild 
Hyacinths, hawthorn, and Buttercups;" and 
these are but a few conspicuous members of our 
indigenous flora, which is by no means as rich as 
those of many other cold countries! In every 
county in the British Isles there are numbers of 
country seats in which one hundred types of vege- 
tation, novel, yet as beautiful as, or more beautiful 
than, those admired by Mr. Wallace, may be estab- 
^shed ; for there are in the colder parts of Europe, 
Asia, and other countries. Heaths handsomer than 
those usually grown, many " wild Hyacinths " be- 
sides the common English one, many finer " Butter- 
cups " than those commonly seen, and numbers of 
Hawthorns besides our common May ; not to speak 
of many other families and plants equally beautiful 
Among the subjects that are usually considered 
unfit for garden cultivation may be included a 
goodly number that, grown in gardens, are little 
addition to them ; I mean subjects like the American 
Asters, Golden Rods, and like plant% yAdcYi merely 
tend to hide the beauty of the choicer and more 
beautiful border-flowers when planted amongst them. 
These' coarse subjects would be quite at home in 
copses and woody places, where their blossoms 

Explanatory. 15 

might be seen or gath^ed in due season, and their 
vigorous vegetation form a covert welcome to the 
game preserver. To these two groups might be 
added subjects like the winter Heliotropes, the hand^ 
some British Epilobium angustifolium, and many 
other plants which, while attractive in the garden, 
are apt to spread about so rapidly as to become a 
nuisance there. Clearly these should only be planted 
in wild and semi-wild places. Fifthly ^ because we 
may in this way settle also the question of spring 
flowers, and the spring garden, as well as that of 
hardy flowers generally. In the way I suggest, many 
parts of every country garden, and many suburban 
ones, may be made alive with spring flowers. 
The blue stars of the Apennine Anemone will be 
«een to greater advantage " wild," in shady or half- 
shady bare places, under trees, than in any con- 
ceivable formal arrangement, and it is but one of 
hundreds of s^veet spring flowers that will succeed 
perfectly in the way I propose. Sixthly^ because 
there can be few more agreeable phases of com- 
munion with nature than naturalizing the natives 
of coimtries in which we are infinitely more 
interested than in those of greenhouse or stove 
plants. From the walls of the Coliseum, the prairies 
of the New World, the woods and meadows of all 

1 6 The Wild Garden. 

the great mountains of Europe ; from Greece and 
Italy and Spain, from the sunny hills of Asia 
Minor ; from the arctic regions of the great conti- 
nents — in a word, from almost every region inte- 
resting to the traveller he may bring seeds or plants 
and establish round his home the pleasantest 
souvenirs of the various scenes he has visited. 

Moreover, the great merit of permanence belongs 
to this delightful phase of gardening. Select a wild 
rough slope, and embellish it with the handsomest 
and hardiest climbing plants, — say the noble moun- 
tain Clematis from Nepal, the sweet C. Flammula 
from Southern Europe, and the magnificent new 
hybrid Clematises, (if the earth be rich and there 
are rocks and banks on which they can be so 
arranged that they will not be overrun by coarser 
kinds, and that their masses of shoots may spread 
and bask in the sun till they glow into sheets of 
purple of various shades) " Virginian creepers " in 
variety, Rubus biflorus, with its whitewashed stems, 
and other kinds ; various species of hardy vines, 
Aristolochias, Jasmines, Honeysuckles — British 
and European, wild Roses, etc. Arranged with 
some judgment at first, such a colony might be left 
to take care of itself; time would but add to its 
attractions, and the owner might go away for tenf 


Explanatory. t 7 

years, and find it more beautiful than ever on his 
return. As much may be said of all the other com- 
binations which I suggest. 

I will now endeavour to illustrate my meaning 
by showing what may be done with a few diverse 
types of northern vegetation. We will take the 
Forget-me-not order to begin with, and as that is 
one far from being as rich as others in subjects 
suited for naturalization, the reader may be able to 
form some idea of what we may do, in this way, by 
selecting from the numerous families of plants that 
grow in the meadows and mountain-woods of 
Europe, Asia, and America. 

The Forget-me-not or Borage family is a well- 
marked and well-known one, containing a great 
number of coarse and ugly weeds, but which, if it in- 
cluded only the common Forget-me-not among its 
beauties, would have some claims to our attention. 
Many persons are not acquainted with more than a 
couple of the Forget-me-nots ; but what lovely 
exotic plants there are in this order that would 
afford delight if met with creeping about along 
our wood and shrubbery walks ! Nature, say some, 
IS sparing of her deep true blues, and generally 
spreads them forth on the high Alps, where the 
Gentians bloom near to the sky ; but there are. 


i8 The Wild Garden. 

obscure plants in this order that possess the truest, 
deepest, and most delicate of blues, and which will 
thrive as well in the positions I allude to as common 
weeds. The Gentians and high alpine plants require 
some care in our sluggish lowlands, but not so these. 
The creeping Omphalodes verna even surpasses the 
Forget-me-not in the depth and beauty of its blue 
and its general good qualities, and runs about quite 
freely in any shady or half-shady shrubbery, wood, 
or rough rockwork. Its proper home is the wood 
or semi-wild spot, where it takes care of itself. Put 
it in a garden, and probably, unless the soil and re- 
gion be moist, it soon perishes. Besides, in the 
border, it would be a not very agreeable object 
when once the sweet spring bloom had passed ; 
whereas in the positions spoken of, in consequence 
of the predominance of trees, shrubs, and tall herbs, 
the low plants are not noticed when out of flower, 
but crawl about unobserved till returning spring re- 
minds those fortunate enough to see them how 
chaste and superior is the inexpensive and natural 
kind of gardening here advocated. 

Another plant of the order is so suitable and use- 
ful for this purpose, that if a root or two of it be 
planted in any shrubbery, it will soon run about, 
exterminate the weeds, and prove quite a lesson 

Explanatory, 19 


in wild and natural gardening. I allude to the 
beautiful Caucasian Comfrey (Symphytum cauca- 
sicum), which grows about twenty inches high, 
and bears quantities of the loveliest blue pendulous 
flowers. It, like many others, does much better in 
a wood, grove, or any kind of shrubbery, than in 
any other position, just filling in the naked spaces be- 
tween the trees and shrubs, and has a quick-growing 
and spreading tendency, but never becomes weedy 
or objectionable. As if to contrast with it, there is 
the deep crimson Bohemian Comfrey (S. bohemi- 
cum), which is sometimes startling from the depth 
of its vivid colouring, and the white Comfrey (S. 
orientale), quite a vigorous-growing kind, blooming 
early in April and May, with the blue Caucasian C. 
I purposely omit the British Forget-me-nots, 
wishing now chiefly to show what we may do with 
exotics quite as hardy as our own wildings ; and we 
have another Forget-me-not, not British, which sur- 
passes them all — the early Myosotis dissitiflora. 
This is like a patch of the bluest sky settled down 
among the moist stones of a rockwork or any 
similar spot before our own Forget-me-not has 
opened its blue eyes, and is admirable for glades 
or banks in wood or shrubbery, especially in moist 

C 2 

20 The Wild Garden. 

For rocky bare places and sunny sandy banks 
we have the spreading Gromwell (Lithospermum 
prostratum), which, when in flower, looks just as if 
some exquisite alpine Gentian had assumed the 
form of a matted hispid bush, to enable it to hold 
its own among creeping things and stouter herbs 
than accompany it on the Alps. Also the dwarf 
spring-blooming Lungworts (Pulmonarias), the 
handsome profuse-flowering Italian Bugloss (An- 
chusa),and the Apennine Hounds-tongue (Cynoglos- 
sum), and that strong old plant the Cretan Borage 
(generally known as Nordmannia cordifolia), which 
opens its lavender-blue and conspicuous flowers in 
early spring, and is tall and strong enough to main- 
tain its position even among Docks or Nettles. It 
would be found to delight in any old lane or by- 
path with the winter Heliotrope or the like, while 
there would be no fear of its becoming a weed, like 
that sweet-scented wilding. 

We will next turn from the Forget-me-not order 
to a very different type of vegetation — ^hardy bulbs. 
Howmany of us really enjoy the beauty which a judi- 
cious use of a profusion of good and cheap Spring 
Bulbs is certain to throwaround a country seat or villa 
garden } How many get beyond the miserable con- 
ventionalities of modern gardening, with its edgings 

Explanatory. %\ 

and patchings, and taking up, and drying, and mere 
playing with our beautiful Spring Bulbs? How 
many enjoy the exquisite beauty afforded by Spring 
flowers of this type, established naturally, and crop- 
ping up full of beauty, without troubling us for 
attention at any time ? None. The subject of deco- 
rating with Spring Bulbs is merely in its infancy ; at 
present we merely place a few of the showiest of 
them in geometrical lines. The little we do leads to 
such a very poor end, that numbers of people, alive 
to the real charms of a garden too, scarcely notice 
Spring Bulbs at all, regarding them as things which 
require endless trouble, as interfering with the 
" bedding-out," and in fact, as not worth the pains 
they occasion. This is likely to be the case so long 
as the most effective and satisfactory of all modes 
of arranging them is quite unused by the body of 
the gardening public ; that way is the placing of 
them in wild and semi-wild parts of country seats 
and gardens, and in the rougher parts of a garden, 
no matter where it may be situated or how it may 
be arranged. It is a way never practised now, but 
which I venture to say will yield more real interest 
and exquisite beauty than any other. 

Look, for instance, at the wide and bare belts of 
grass that wind in and around the shrubberies in 

M The Wild Garden. 

nearly every country place ; generally, they never 
display a particle of plant-beauty, and are merely 
places to be roughly mown now and then. But if 
planted here and there with the Snowdrop, the blue 
Anemone, the Crocus, Squills, and Winter Aco- 
nite, they would in spring surpass iiji attractiveness 
to the tasteful eye the primmest and gayest of 
spring gardens. Cushioned among the grass, these 
would have a more congenial medium in which to 
unfold than is offered by the beaten sticky earth of 
a border : in the budding emerald grass of spring, 
their natural bed, they would look far better than 
ever they do when arranged on the brown earth of 
a garden. Once carefully planted, they — ^while an 
annual source of the greatest interest — occasion no 

trouble whatever. Their leaves die down so early 

in spring that they would scarcely interfere with 

the mowing of the grass, if that were desired, but 

I should not attempt to mpw the grass in such 

places till the season of vernal beauty had quite 

passed by. 

Surely it is enough to have the lawn as smooth as 

a carpet at all times, without sending the mower 

to shave the 'Mong and pleasant grass" of the 

remoter parts of the grounds. It would indeed be 

well worth while to leave many parts of the grass 

Explanatory. 23 

unmown for the sake of growing Spring Bulbs. 
Observe how the poet's eye is caught by the 
buttercups that " shine like gold" there ; and we, 
who are continually talking of our " horticultural 
skill and progress," never so much as get near the 
effect produced by this very glinting field of butter- 
cups, or attain to anything which at all equals it in 
beauty, although our opportunities to do so are un- 
rivalled ! Now suppose a poet, with an eye for natu- 
ral beauty, or an artist, or any person of taste, to 
come upon some spot where a wide fringe of grass 
spreads out in the bay of a shrubbery or plantation, 
and upon this carpet of rising and unshaven verdure 
there were dotted, in addition to the few pretty 
natural flowers that happened to take possession of 
it, the blue Apennine Anemone, the Snowdrop, 
Crocuses, " both the yellow and the gray," as Lord 
Bacon has it, Scillas in variety. Grape Hyacinths, 
Wood Anemone, and any other pretty Spring 
flowers that you found suitable to your soil and 
position — say, for instance, a sprinkling of the 
Sweet Violet — what would you have done for 
him here? Why, more than the gardener has 
ever yet accomplished, because you would have 
given him a glimpse of the choicest vernal beauty 
of temperate and northern climes, every flower 

%4 The Wild Garden, 

relieved by grass blades and green leaves, the 
whole devoid of any trace of man and his mud- 
dlings in the earth, or his exceeding weakness for 
tracing wall-paper patterns, where everything should 
be varied, indefinite, and changeful, as the flowers 
that bloom and die ; and he would acknowledge 
that you had indeed caught the true meaning of 
nature in her disposition of vegetation, without 
sacrificing one jot of anything in your garden, 
but, on the other hand, adding the highest 
beauty to spots hitherto devoid of the slightest 

It is not only to places in which shrubberies, and 
plantations, and belts of grass in the rougher parts 
of the pleasure-ground, and shady moss-bordered 
wood-walks occur that these remarks apply. 
The suburban gardener, with his single fringe of 
planting, may do likewise, to some extent, with 
the best taste. He may have the Solomon's Seal 
arching forth from a shady recess behind a tuft of the 
sweet-scented Narcissus, while in every case he can 
make preparations for wild fringes of strong and 
hardy spring flowers. In front of a shrubbery with 
a sunny aspect is the best of all places for a cheerful 
display in early spring, as the shelter and warmth 
combined make them open forth in all their glory 

Explanatory. %j^ 

under a spring sun, and they cannot be cut off by 
harsh winds as when exposed in the open garden. 
What has already been stated is, I hope, sufficient 
to hint to everybody the kind of place that may be 
used for their culture. Wild and semi-wild places, 
rough banks in or near the pleasure-ground or 
flower-garden, such spots as perhaps at present 
contain nothing but weeds, or any naturally rough 
or unused spot about a garden — ^such are the places 
I recommend. It is true there are thousands of 
places without these, and where every inch of the 
lawn must be mown ; but even on such the 
Snowdrop may be enjoyed in early spring, for its 
leaves die down, or at all events ripen sufficiently 
before there is any occasion to mow the grass. 

I have spoken of the Buttercups ; let us next see 
what may be done with the order to which they be- 
long. It embraces many subjects widely diverse in 
aspect from these burnished ornaments of northern 
meadows and mountains. The first thing I should 
take from it to perennially embellish the wild wood is 
the sweet-scented Virgin's Bower (Clematis Flam- 
mula), a native of the south of Europe, but as hardy 
and free in all parts of Britain as the common Haw- 
thorn. And as the Hawthorn sweetens the breath 
of early summer, so will this add fragrance to the 

26 The Wild Garden. 

autumnal months. It is never to be seen half so 
beautiful as when crawling over some old rockwork 
or decayed stumps of trees ; it is excellent for 
gathering in wreaths for use along with other flowers 
in autumn ; and if its profuse masses of white 
bloom do not attract, its fragrance is sure to do so. 
An open glade in a wood, or open spaces on banks 
near a wood or shrubbery, would be charming for 
it ; while in the garden or pleasure-ground it may 
be used as a creeper over old stumps, trellising, or 
the like. C. campaniflora, with flowers like a cam- 
panula, and of a pale purplish hue, and the beau- 
tiful white Clematis montana grandiflora, a native 
of Nepaul, are almost equally beautiful, and many 
others of the family are worthy of naturalization. 

The fine new hybrids and varieties (in the way of 
C. lanuginosa) will, on good warm sandy soil, spread 
over the ground without any support or training, 
and in the most luxuriant way. In making mixed 
borders, rockwork, fringes of plantation, or anything 
of the kind, we must not be confined by any rules 
except those of the judgment, and must draw from 
all sorts of stores ; therefore these new varieties of 
Clematis should not be overlooked, and if one were 
making a bold rockwork, a grand use might be 
made of them for dressing precipitous points with 

Explanatory. %*j 

richest colour and noblest flowers, putting the roots 
in a position where they could descend at pleasure 
into a rich and deep vein of good earth. The 
warmth of the recumbent position on the stone, and 
the shelter, could not fail to make them feel at 
home, and I can imagine nothing more effective 
than a sheet of these falling over the face of such 
large stones as those in the rockwork at Chatsworth, 
and a few other gardens where large things in this 
way have been attempted. The beauty displayed by 
these large varieties of Clematis when planted in a 
deep light soil is only to be realized by those who 
have seen it. 

Next we come to the Wind Flowers, or Ane- 
mones, and here we must pause to select, for a 
more attractive class of hardy flowers does not 
beautify any northern clime. Have you a bit of bare, 
stony ground, slightly shaded perhaps i If so, the 
beautiful downy white and yellow Anemones of the 
Alps (A. alpina and A. sulphurea) may be grown 
there. Any kind of wood or shrubbery which you 
wish to embellish with the choicest vernal beauty ? 
Then select Anemone blanda,a small but lovely blue 
kind ; place it in open bare spots to begin with, as 
it is very dwarf, and it will at Christmas, and from 
that time onward through the spring, open flowers 

%8 The Wild Garden, 

as large as a five-shilling piece, and of the deepest 
sky blue. The common garden Anemone (A. Coro- 
nana) will not be fastidious, but had better be 
placed in open bare places ; and the splendid Ane- 
mone fulgens, when it can be spared for the pur- 
pose, will prove a most attractive ornament, as it 
glows with the most fiery scarlet. It should have 
an open spot where the herbage is dwarf. Of other 
Anemones, hardy, free, and beautiful enough to be 
made wild in our shrubberies, pleasure-grounds, and 
wilds, the Japan Anemone (A. japonica), and its 
white descendant, A. j. Honorine Jobert, A. trifolia, 
and A. sylvestris, are the best of the exotic species. 
The Japan Anemone and A. hybrida, and the white 
Honorine Jobert, grow so strongly that they will 
take care of themselves even among stiff brushwood, 
brambles, &c. ; and they are beautifully fitted for 
scattering along the low, half-wild margins of shrub- 
beries, &c. The interesting little A. trifolia is not 
unlike our own wood Anemone, and will grow in 
similar places. 

As for the Apennine Anemone, it is simply one 
of the loveliest spring flowers of any clime, and 
should' be in every garden, in the borders, and scat- 
tered thinly here and there in woods and shrubberies, 
so that it may become " naturalized." The flowers 

Explanatory. ag 

are freely produced, and of the loveliest blue. It is 
scarcely a British flower " to the manner bom," so 
to speak, being a native of the south of Europe ; 
but having strayed into our wilds and plantations 
occasionally, it is now included in most books on 
British plants. A. ranunculoides, a doubtful native, 
found in one or two spots, but not really British, is 
well worth growing, being very beautiful, and form- 
ing tufts of golden yellow. 

The beautiful new and large A. angulosa I have 
seen growing almost as freely as Celandine among 
shrubs and in half-shady spots, and we all know how 
readily the old kinds grow on all garden soils of 
ordinary quality. There are about ten or twelve 
varieties of the common Hepatica (Anemone Hepa- 
tica) grown in British nurseries and gardens, and all 
the colours of the species should be represented in 
every collection of spring flowers. 

Many will doubtless remember with pleasure 
the prettily-buttoned white flowers of the Fair 
Maids of France (Ranunculus aconitifolius fl. pL,) 
and in a half-shady rich border it is a beautiful and 
first-class plant ; but I am disposed to think more 
of the double varieties of the British Ranun- 
culuses, because of their greater hardiness and 
vigour. Weed as is the common R. acris, its 

30 The Wild Garden. 

double variety, with the perfectly formed and 
polished golden buttons, is a charming hardy plant, 
flowering profusely, and not of a very transient 
character ; the flowers are even useful for cutting. 
Good also are R. repens fl. pi. and R. bulbosus fl. pi. 
R. montanus is a pretty little species, better 
suited for rockwork, stony ground, or a spot where 
it would be safe from injury ; it is very dwarf and 
neat, and the flowers comparatively large. Quite 
distinct from all these, and of chastest beauty when 
well grown, is R. amplexicaulis, with flowers of 
pure white, and simple leaves of a dark glaucous 
green and flowing graceful outline ; a hardy and 
charming plant on almost any soil. It is, indeed, a 
beautiful and distinct plant, and generally speaking 
so rare, that had I not seen it selling in the Notting- 
ham market for a few pence per tuft (!) some 
months ago, I should not mention it here, for 
usually it is rare even in botanic gardens, and I 
was much surprised to see it selling like Musk- 
Plant or Bachelor's-buttons. 

There is, however, a handsome double variety of 
our fine wild Marsh-marigold sold rather plentifully 
in London during the spring months, and it, unlike 
the single one, is not so generally known or grown 
»as it ought to be. Of the Globe Flowers (TroUius), 

Explanatory. 3 1 

the best are T.. Napellifolius, T. asiaticus, and the 
British T. europseus. These are all rich in colour, 
fragrant, and striking in a remarkable degree. 

The Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis,) should 
be naturalized in every country seat in Britain — it 
is as easy to do so as to introduce the thistle. It 
may be placed quite under the branches of deci- 
duous trees, will come up and flower when they are 
as naked as stones, have its foliage developed before 
the leaves come on the trees, and be afterwards 
hidden from sight. Thus masses of this earliest 
flower may be grown without the slightest sacrifice 
of space, and only be noticed when bearing a bloom 
on every little stem. That fine old plant, the Christ- 
mas Rose, (Helleborus niger,) likes shade or partial 
shade better than full exposure, and should be used 
abundantly, giving it rather snug and warm posi- 
tions, so that its flowers may be encouraged to open 
well and fully. Any other kinds of which there 
was a surplus stock might also be used. And here 
I might incidentally suggest that every time the 
borders of hardy plants are dug over, the trimmings 
and parings of many garden ornaments will do for 
planting in the woods and wilds. 

Of the Monkshoods the less we say the better, 
perhaps. Some of them are handsome, but all of 

3a The Wild Garden. 

them virulent poisons ; and, bearing in mind what 
damage has been done by them from time to time, 
they are better not used at all. Not so the Delphi- 
niums, which are amongst the most beautiful of all 
flowers. They are now to be had in such profuse 
variety that particular kinds need not be named, all 
being good. A " mixed" packet of seed from any 
seedsman would afford a number of fine plants. 
They embrace almost every shade of blue, from the 
rich dark tone of D. grandiflora to the charming 
caerulean tints of such as D. Belladonna; and 
being usually of a tall and strong type, will make 
way among long grasses and vigorous weeds, 
unlike many things for which we have to recom- 
mend an open space, or a wood with nothing but a 
carpet of moss under the trees. 

We have thus seen, from examples of three 
groups, what may be done in the way I propose. I 
might go through all the other orders in the same 
way, but as this is done more systematically further 
on, it is not needful here. I might go from glade to 
glade and bank to bank, and show how a different 
aspect of vegetation might be produced in each ; 
but that will be suggested by the natural orders, 
by the lists of selections, and, better than all, 
by a knowledge of the plants themselves. One 

Explanatory. 33 

of the most delightful phases of the subject is 
that of naturalizing alpine and rock plants on ruins 
and old walls : there are scores of kinds that not 
only thrive on such places, but are to be seen to 
greater advantage on them than in any other posi- 
tions ; but as this is very fully dealt with in an 
illustrated chapter in my "Alpine Flowers/' I 
content myself in the present work with giving a 
carefully drawn up list of the best species that will 
succeed on ruins and old walls. 

By these means it is quite practicable to create 
aspects of vegetation along our wood and shrubbery 
walks, and in neglected places, superior to any 
seen in nature, because we may cull from the flora 
of every northern, temperate, and alpine region ; 
whereas in nature comparatively few plants exist 
wild in a restricted space, while the effect of the 
planting which I suggest need be in no sense 
inferior in any one spot to that of the sweetest 
wild of Nature's own arranging. 

It must not be thought that my proposal can 
only be carried out in places where there is some 
extent of rough pleasure-ground, or some approxi- 
mation to what I call half-wild places. Un- 
doubtedly the finest effects may be obtained in 
these ; but excellent results may be obtained from 


34 'The Wild Garden. 

the system in comparatively small villa-gardens, on 
the fringes of shrubberies, and marginal planta- 
tions, open spaces between shrubs, the surface of 
beds of Rhododendrons, etc. In a word, every 
shrubbery and plantation surface that is so need- 
lessly and relentlessly dug over by the gardener 
every winter, may be embellished in the way I 
propose, as well as wild places. As I have said 
in " Alpine Flowers," no practice is more general, or 
more in accordance with ancient custom, than that 
of digging shrubbery borders, and there is none in 
the whole course of gardening more profitless or 
worse. When winter is once come, almost every 
gardener, although animated with the best inten- 
tions, simply prepares to make war upon the roots 
of everything in his shrubbery border. The gene- 
rally accepted practice is to trim, and often to 
mutilate the shrubs, and to dig all over the surface 
that must be full of feeding roots. Delicate half- 
rooted shrubs are often disturbed ; herbaceous 
plants, if at all delicate and not easily recognised, 
are destroyed ; bulbs are often displaced and in- 
jured ; and a sparse depopulated aspect is given to 
the margins, while the only "improvement" tha^ is 
eflfected by the process is the annual darkening of 
the surface by the upturned earth. 

Explanatory. 35 

Illustrations of my meaning^ occur by miles in 
our L6ndon parks in winter. Walk through any 
of them at that season, and observe the borders 
round masses of shrubs, choice and otherwise. In- 
stead of finding the earth covered, or nearly 
covered, with vegetation close to the margin, and 
each individual developed into something like a 
respectable specimen of its kind, we find a spread 
of recently-dug ground, and the plants upon it 
with an air of having recently suffered from a 
whirlwind, or some calamity that necessitated the 
removal of mutilated branches. Rough-pruners 
precede the diggers, and bravely trim in the shrubs 
for them, so that nothing may be in the way ; and 
then come the diggers, who sweep along from 
margin to back, plunging deeply round and about 
plants, shrubs, or trees. The first shower that 
occurs after this digging exposes a whole network 
of torn-up roots. There is no relief to the spec- 
tacle ; the same thing occurs everywhere — in a 
London botanic garden as well as in our large 
West-end parks ; and year after year is the process 

While such is the case, it will be impossible to 
have an agreeable or interesting margin to a 
shrubbery ; albeit the importance of the edge, as 

D 2 

36 The Wild Garden. 

« ■ I ■ I ' ■ ' ' ' 

compared to the hidden parts, is pretty much as 
that of the face to the back of a mirror. Of course 
all the labour required to produce this happy result 
is worse than thrown away, as the shrubberies 
would do better if let alone, and merely surface- 
cleaned now and then ; but by utilizing the power 
thus wasted, we might highly beautify the positions 
that now present so objectionable an aspect. 

If we resolve that no annual manuring or digging 
is to be permitted, nobody will grudge a thorough 
preparation at first Then the planting should be 
so arranged as to defeat the digger. To graduate 
the vegetation from the taller subjects behind to 
the very margin of the grass is of much importance, 
and this could only be done thoroughly by the 
greater use of permanent evergreen and very dwarf 
subjects. Happily, there is quite enough of these 
to be had suitable for every soil. Light, moist, 
peaty, or sandy soils, where such things as the 
sweet-scented Daphne Cneorum would spread 
forth its dwarf cushions, would be somewhat 
more desirable than say, a stiff clay ; but for 
every position suitable plants might be found. 
Look, for example, at what we could do with the 
dwarf-green Iberises, Helianthemums, Aubrietias, 
Arabises, Alyssums, dwarf shrubs, and little conifers 

Explanatory. 37 

like the creeping Cedar (Juniperus squamata), and 
the Tamarix-leaved Juniper ! All these are green, 
and would spread out into dense wide cushions, 
covering the margin, rising but little above the 
grass, and helping to cut off the formal line which 
usually divides margin and border. Behind them 
we might use very dwarf shrubs, deciduous or ever- 
green, in endless variety ; and of course the margin 
should be varied also. 

In one spot we might have a wide-spreading tuft 
of the prostrate Savin pushing its graceful ever- 
green branchlets out over the grass ; in another the 
dwarf little Cotoneasters might be allowed to form 
the front rank, relieved in their turn by pegged- 
down Roses ; and so on without end. Herbaceous 
plants, that die down in winter and leave the 
ground bare afterwards, should not be assigned any 
important position near the front. Evergreen 
Alpine plants and shrubs, as before remarked, are 
perfectly suitable here ; but the true herbaceous 
type, and the larger bulbs, like Lilies, should be 
"stolen in" between spreading shrubs rather than 
allowed to monopolize the ground. By so placing 
them, we should not only secure a far more satis- 
factory general effect, but highly improve the 
aspect of the herbaceous plants themselves. Of 

38 The Wild Garden. 

course, to carry out such planting properly, a little 
more time at first and a great deal more taste than 
are now employed would be required ; but what a 
difference in the result ! In the kind of borders 
I advocate, nearly all the trouble would be over 
with the first planting, and labour and skill could be 
successively devoted to other parts of the grounds. 
All that the covered borders would require, would be 
an occasional weeding or thinning, &c., and perhaps 
in the case of the more select spots, a little top- 
dressing with fine soil. Here and there, between 
and amongst the plants, such things as Forget-me- 
nots and Violets, Snowdrops and Primroses, might 
be scattered about, so as to lend the borders a 
floral interest even at the dullest seasons; and 
thus we should be delivered from digging and 
dreariness, and see our ugly borders alive with 
exquisite plants. The chief rule should be — never 
show the naked earth : carpet or clothe it with 
dwarf subjects, and then allow the taller ones to 
rise in their own wild way through the turf or 
spray. It need hardly be said that this argument 
against the digging applies to two or three beds of 
shrubs, and places where the " shrubbery" is little 
larger than the dining-room, as much as to the 
large country seat, public park, or botanic garden. 

Explanatory. 39 

It would require a long list to enumerate 
the many unattractive places that may be 
beautified by the adoption of this system of 
naturalization. Take for example a common 
ditch shaded with trees. There would be 
no difficulty in enumerating many plants that 
would thrive better in such a position, with a little 
clearing and preparation, than we have ever seen 
them do in any position they now occupy in 
gardens. It would in fact be a perfect paradise 
for such plants as Trillium grandiflorum and other 
inhabitants of dense woods. My friend Dr. Hud- 
son, of Dublin, has converted an old ditch of 
this kind bordering his place at Merrion into a 
very agreeable walk, by simply putting a foot or 
so of coal-ashes and lime-rubbish into it so as to 
form a dry walk ; and the banks of this shady, 
narrow alley, he will convert into " mixed borders" 
of the most charming kind, by selecting plants 
that love, and thrive in, shady sheltered spots, and 
by so arranging them that no two parts of the 
scene shall present the same aspect of vegetation. 

I will next enumerate, and indicate the best 
positions for, the plants suitable for the system. 







Naturalization in our Woods, Semi-wild Places, 

Shrubberies, etc., 








Hare-bell Virgin's Bower. Clematis campaniflora. 
Native country: S. Europe. Habit: a climber. Height: 
6 to I o feet Colour of flower : purplish. Time of flower- 
ing: summer. Manner of propagation: by seed, as in 
all the kinds, to be sown as soon as gathered, division, or 
layers. — Suitable positions : copses, banks, old stumps, 
hedgerows, &c. in ordinary soil 

American Traveller's Joy. Clematis Viorna, North 
America. Climber ; 8 to lo feet ; purple ; summer and 
early autumn ; seed, division, or layers. — Thin low copses, 
open sunny banks, rootwork, hedgerows, etc 

Vine-bower Clematis. Clematis Viticella, South 
Europe. Climber; lo to i6 feet; blue or purple; 
summer and early autumn ; seed or layers. — Fringes of 
woods, copses, hedgebanks ; through wild or semi-wild 
shrubby vegetation on high banks, tall old stumps, or 
high rootwork. 

Sweet-scented Virgin's Bower. Clematis Flammula, 
Southern Europe. Climber; lo to 30 feet; white; 
autumn ; seed or layers. — Excellent for almost every use 
to which a hardy climber may be put, and in the semi- 

44 The Wild Garden. 

wild state for banks, stumps, chalk-pits, hedges, copses, 
and even for planting in masses in grassy places. 

Richer sheets of noble bloom are not to be seen in 
the open air in any northern clime than those produced 
by the new hybrid clematises raised by Jackman of 
Woking and others. They are capable of beautifying 
any position, and seem to conform to almost any mode 
of culture or training — pegged down, trained up on 
stakes, or nailed against walls ; but there is certainly 
no spot which suits them so well as the face of a large 
rock, natural or artificial. Planted in deep good soil, 
above and behind such an object, the shoots will fall 
over the face of the rock in vigorous matted tufts, and 
in due season become so densely covered with flowers as 
to resemble a truly imperial robe of purple. They may 
also be planted so as to fall over the side-walls of rustic 
bridges either over walks or streams, and may be allowed 
to run over the face of bare sunny banks, where they 
would produce a magnificent effiect. The variety best 
known at present is Jackman's (Clematis yackmant)'^ 
but there are many other kinds. 

Meadow Bues. Thalidrums, This large and well- 
marked family is of somewhat too coarse and weedy a 
nature for garden culture ; but, being possessed of a very 
vigorous habit, and being also distinct in aspect, it is 
precisely one of those that are suitable for planting here 
and there in the wildest and roughest parts of our planta- 
tions. Of the rather numerous kinds of these grown in 
our botanic gardens, the most ornamental are the plumy 
Meadow-rue and the fetid Meadow-rue : as these are 
capable of producing distinct and desirable effects, I will 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 45 

speak of them separately. As regards all the other species 
likely to be met with in gardens, and including also any 
plants of the plumy Meadow-rue, they may be planted 
among any coarse herbaceous vegetation. For the most 
part they attain a height of three or four feet, and are as 
easily propagated by division as the common balm. 

Fetid Meadow Bue. Thalictrum fxtidum, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 9 inches to one and a half feet 
high ; brownish ; summer ; division or seed. — A plant 
not worthy of cultivation on account of its flowers ; but 
having very gracefully cut leaves, very like those of our 
own Lesser Meadow-rue — ^and resembling, when grown 
on established plants, those of the Stove Maiden-hair fern 
{Adiantum cuneatum)^ it deserves to be grown, as does also 
the Lesser Meadow-rue, for the beauty of its leaves. It 
is, like diat plant, hardy enough to grow in almost any 
soil or position, but will be seen to greatest advantage on 
open spots or banks with a dwarf vegetation of late 
spring and early summer flowers. In such places tufts 
of it ought to look as well as plants of the Maiden- 
hair fern do among conservatory flowers. It is, however, 
only just to the British Thalictrum minus to say that it 
produces a very similar effect and quite as good, so that 
anybody possessing it need not seek our present subject. 

Fliiiny Meadow Bue. Thalictrum aquilegifoliutn. 
Middle and Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 
5 to 4 feet ; whitish rose or purplish ; summer ; division. 
— Will grow in almost any soil or position, but prefers a 
somewhat humid spot. The variety with purplish instead 
of yellow stamens is a pretty one, and both are well 
suited for a position near wood walks. 

46 The Wild Garden, 

Alpine Wind-Flower. Anemone alpina, Alps. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 4 to 20 inches ; white and purplish on 
the outside of the petals ; summer ; seed and division. — 
On grassy banks, in unmown parts of the pleasure-grounds 
or open spots in woods, in which it ought to attain as 
great perfection as it does in sub-alpine meadows. 

Apennine Wind- Flower. Anemone apennina. 
Europe. Tuber; 3 to 9 inches ; blue; spring; division. 
— Rocks, stony places, in exposed positions, and also in 
bare shady or half-shady places, in groves, and by the 
side of avenues and wood walks. It may, in fact, be grown 
with success wherever the common wood-anemone thrives. 

Pop^y Wind-Flower. Anemone Coronaria, Levant 
Tuber ; 6 to 12 inches ; striped ; spring ; seed and divi- 
sion. — Open sunny places, fringes of shrubberies, banks, 
eta, where there- is a dwarf vegetation. 

Japanese Wind-Flower. Anemone japonica, Japan. 
Herbaceous perennial; 2 feet; reddish ; autumn; division. 
— ^Woods, copses, brakes, amongst masses of Cotoneaster 
and other prostrate shrubs, margins of shrubberies, in fact 
in almost any position and soil 

White Japanese Wind-flower. Anemone Japonica var. 
Honorine Johert, Garden variety. Herbaceous perennial; 
2 feet; white; autumn ; division. — Similar positions to those 
for the preceding, than which it is even a finer plant 

Crowfoot Wind-Flower. Anemone ranunculaidet. 
Middle and Northern Europe. Tuber ; 6 inches ; yellow ; 
spring ; seeds or division. — Does best in chalky or warm 
dry soils, in spots where there is a dwarf vegetation. 

Snowdrop Wind-Flower. Anemone sylvestris, 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i to i^ feet; white 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 47 

spring ; seeds or division. — Margins of shrubberies, 
copses, and by wood-walks associated occasionally with 
the Alpine Anemone, and the finer Crowfoots. 

Hepatioa. Anemone Hepaiica, Europe. Herbaceous 
perennial; 3 or 4 inches; various colours; spring; 
division.— A native of mountain woods, this thrives 
very well in bare places, in shady or open woods and 
shrubberies; also in rocky places, the chief care re- 
quired being to plant it where it& beauties may be seen. 

Tbree-leaved Wind-ilower. Anemone trifoiia, 
France. Tuber ; 6 to 9 inches ; white ; spring or early 
summer ; seed or division. — Suitable for the same uses 
as the wood and Apennine wind-flowers, and for asso- 
ciation with them. 

Aoonite-leaved Orowfoot. Ranunculus aconiHfoiius, 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i to i^ feet; white; 
early smnmer; seed or division. — Similar positions to those 
for the Alpine wind-flower. — It is often found wild in great 
luxuriance in rather low meadows under conditions nearly 
like those enjoyed by our own meadows. 

Iiarge Double Crowfoot. Ranunculus ** dullalus" 
fl, pL Garden variety. Herbaceous perennial ; \ foot ; 
yellow; summer; division. — A handsome double variety, 
which will thrive well by wild wood-walks, and in the 
rougher parts of the pleasure-ground, where the vegeta- 
tion is dwarf. 

Stem-olaspiiig Orowfoot. Ranunculus amplexkaidis, 
Pyrenees. Herbaceous perennial ; ifoot; white; spring 
and early summer ; division. — A lovely subject for 
naturalization in open rocky spots, where there is a 
moist free soil. Near the maigins of a moimtain bog 

48 The Wild Garden. 

would suit it well, though it is yet so scarce that all the 
supply is required for the select rockwork. It might also 
be tried with success in an open bare spot, amidst vegeta- 
tion, not rising above six inches high. 

Glacier Orowf cot. Ranuncitlus glacialis, Lapland. 6 
inches to a foot; white ; summer; seed or division.— Worthy 
of attention where there is stony and cold mountain ground, 
elevated bogs, and the like. In such places one might 
be proud of having naturalized such a high Alpine plant 

Hountain Orowfoot. Ranunculus tnontanus, Austria. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Bare spots, or where the vegetation 
consists of such plants as the spurrey or the shortest 
grasses, and where the soil is somewhat moist and free. 

Spiked Orowfoot. Ranunculus spicattis, Algiers. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 1 J feet; yellow; spring and 
summer; division. — Excellent for association with the 
Snowdrop Anemone, and other choice plants, reaching 
a height of something over one foot, by wood-walks, in 
rather open simny spots. 

Altaian Globe-flower. TroUius cUtaicus, Altai 
mountains. Herbaceous perennial; 2 feet; yellow; 
summer; division. — By shrubbery walks in immown 
places, amidst rather strong-growing, herbaceous vegeta- 
tion, and also in open grassy glades in woods. 

Napelliuhleaved Globe-flower. TroUius napdlifolius, 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 2 or 3 feet; yellow; 
early summer ; division. — A noble plant, useful for 
positions similar to those for the preceding kind, and for 
association with it 

Common Winter Aconite. Eranthis hyemalis. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 49 

Europe. Tuber j 4 inches ; yellow \ winter ; division. — 
Bare places in woods or copses, shady or sunny 
banks, and also under isolated trees, of which the 
branches rest on the grass of the lawn or pleasure- 

Christmas Bose. Hdlehorus niger. Europe, i foot ; 
white; winter; division. — A well known plant, which 
will be seen to greater advantage on sunny, yet sheltered 
grassy banks, than on the margins of shrubberies, if any 
choice as to position may be made. 

Olympian Hellebore. ITelleborus olympicus, India. 
Evergreen perennial ; 2 feet ; green ; winter ; division. — 
Grassy, sunny banks, like preceding, and also for the 
margins of shrubberies, and for broken ground. 

Alpine Columbine. Aquilegia alpina, Switzerland. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 9 to 12 inches ; blue ; early 
summer ; seed or division. — Well worthy of natu- 
ralization in cool, moist, sandy soil, in stony places 
near cascades, and on similar places in elevated posi- 

Canadian Columbine. Aquilegia canadensis, N. 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; red and 
orange; sprii^. and early summer; seed or division. — 
Sandy soils in rather open spots, amidst thin grass and 
not very rampant herbaceous plants. 

Sky-blue Columbine. Aquilegia ccerulea, N. Ame- 
rica. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; blue and 
white; summer; seed or division. — Excellent in very 
sandy, well-drained soil in an open position among herbs 
not too vigorous in habit, and not reaching much over 
one foot high. 

50 The Wild Garden, 

Perennial Larkspur. Delphinium, Gardens are 
now enriched by a multitude of beautiful and vigorous 
varieties of perennial Delphiniums, and new kinds of the 
most delicate and attractive appearance are annually 
raised. Growing from 2 to nearly 6 feet high, per- 
fectly hardy and thriving in ordinary soil, any of these 
plants which may be spared from the garden should be 
planted out in half-wild places amidst herbaceous vegeta- 
tion. They would be particularly appropriate in wide 
open spaces in woods or near wood-walks, associated with 
Pseonies, Asters, and plants of like stature. 

Variegated Monkshood. Aconitum vari^tum. 
Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial j 4 to 6 feet j 
purple and white; summer; division. — Makes noble 
tufts in positions recommended for the Delphiniums, 
and is suited for association with the most vigorous and 
showy herbs. Other kinds of Monkshood are ornamental, 
but they are all so frightfully poisonous that even this 
one is perhaps better avoided. 

White-flowered F»ony. Paonia albiflara. Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; white ; early 
summer; seed or division. — Margins of shrubberies, 
wood-walks, etc. From this species have sprung many of 
the noble varieties of Paeony which are now in cultivation. 

Officinal FflDony. Paonia officinalis andvars, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; red ; division. — Rough 
rocky places, banks, and edges of woods and copses. 

Fine-leaved FflDony. Pceonia tenuifolia, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to i J feet ; red ; early summer; 
division. — Rough rockwork, margins of low shrubberies, 
rocky places, banks, and glades. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Ndturalization. 51 


Pinnate Barren Wort. Epimedium pinnatum. Persia. 
Herbaceous perennial \ 9 to 30 inches ; yellow; spring ; 
division. — Warm half shady spots on the margins of 
shrubberies, or beds of American plants, or naturalized 
in copses, in moist, peat, or vegetable soil. 

Alpine Barren Wort. Epimedium aipinum. South- 
em Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 9 to 12 inches; 
purplish ; spring ; division. — Same positions as for the 
preceding, but amid dwarfer vegetation. 


May Apple. Podophyllum pdtatum. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; white ; early 
summer; seed or division. — Grows quite vigorously in 
half-shady spots on the margins of beds of Rhododen- 
drons, &a, in peat soil An interesting plant, yielding 
the now popular medicine, Podophyllin. 


Large Yellow Water Lily. Nuphar advena. North 
America. Aquatic; yellow; summer; division — ^A 
noble plant for the margins of ornamental water, asso- 
ciated with our beautiful British Water-Lily. 


SafOron-oolonred Poppy. Papaver croceum, Altai 
Mountains. Herbaceous perennial ; i to i| feet ; saffiron^ 
early summer ; seed or division. — Rocky groimd in moisl 
districts, in rather moist sandy soil 

£ 2 

52 The Wild Garden. 

Great Scarlet Poppy. Papaver hracteatum, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; red \ early summer ; 
seed or division. — Open spots in woods j a splendid plant 
in almost any position, growing well in the worst soils. 

NakedHsrtienimed Poppy. Papaver nudicaule, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 9 inches to i^ feet ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed.— Open rocky ground in moist sandy soil 
—a very handsome plant 

Oriental Poppy. Papaver orientals Eastern Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 J to 4 feet ; red \ early summer ; 
seed or division. — Nearly allied to P. bracteatum, and 
also a magnificent plant for naturalization. 

Opium Poppy. Papaver somniferutn. Southern 
Europe. Annual ; 3 to 4 feet ; various ; summer ; seed. — 
The varieties of this are showy in sunny spots in open 
parts of copses and woods, growing in any soil 

Canadian Blood Boot. Sanguinaria canadensis. 
North America. Tuber ; \ foot ; white ; spring or early 
summer ; division. — Bare places in woods and copses. 

Cordate Macleya. Macleya cordata. China. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; brownish ; summer ; 
division. — As single specimens by half-wild pleasure- 
ground walks, growing best in deep sandy loam. 

Callfomian Eschscholtzia. Eschscholtzia califomica. 
North America. Annual ; i foot ] yellow ; all summer ; 
seed. — ^Any place rather open, and amidst rather dwarf 
vegetation. It comes up self-sown year after year. 

Callfomian Platystemon. Platystemon caiifarnicum. 
N.America. Annual; 6 to 12 inches; yellow; summer; 
seed. — On very bare and open spots, where there is a 
spare and minute vegetation, in light soil 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 53 


Plumy Dielytra. Didytra eximia. North America, 
Herbaceous perennial; i foot; flesh- colour; summer; 
division.— Amid rock plants, on the fringes of very low 
shrubberies, on bare banks, or in open rocky spots in 
any soil 

Showy Dielytra. Dielytra spectabilis, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; fine rose; early 
summer; seed or division. — ^Fringes of woods, and 
shrubberies, and all like positions, in almost any soil 

Yellow Oorydalis. Corydalis lutea. Southern 
Europe. Perennial ; i to 2 feet ; yellow ; all smnmer ; 
seed. — Loves stony banks and old ruins, and often 
establishes itself on very high walls not in a ruinous con- 
dition. It is quite at home on very ugly common-place 
rockworks on which little else will thrive. 


AnTiiial Stock. Matthiola annua. Southern Europe. 
Annual; i to 2 feet; red; all summer; seed — Any 
bare open spots in woods or copses, or on stony banks, 
or old ruins. 

Window Stock. Matthiola fenestralis. Southerr 
Europe. Biennial; i foot; purple; late in summer; 
seed.— Sunny margins of shrubberies, and in deep good 

Two-homed Stock. Matthiola bicornis, Greece. 
Annual; 6 to 12 inches; bright rosy purple; summer; 
seed. — ^Warm and bare, or stony open ground amidst low 
vegetation ; it is deliciously scented. 

54 The Wild Garden. 

Emperor Stock. Matthiola semperflorens. Evergreen 
perennial; i to i J feet; summer; seed — Rocky places, 
banks, ruins, fringes of shrubberies, etc. 

Night-Boented Stock. Matthiola tristis. Southern 
Europe. Biennial; i to ij feet; brown; simmier; 
seed. — May be established on the simny sides of old 
ruins and walls, in old chalk-pits, etc 

Alpine Wallflower. Erysimum ochroleucum. Nor- 
thern Europe. Evergreen perennial; \ foot; yellow; 
early simmier ; cuttings, seed, or division. — Bare or stony 
earth in moist soil, and in a fully exposed position. 

Garden Wallflower. Cheiranthus Chdri, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial; 2 feet; rich brown and yellow; 
early summer; seed or cuttings. — ^This, as everybody 
knows, is quite at home on old walls, on many of which 
it is abundantly naturalized. 

White Wall-cress. Arabis albida, Caucasus. Ever- 
green perennial; J foot; white spring; seed, division, 
or cuttings. — ^Anywhere amid vegetation not over i foot 
high. Should be used abimdantly in stony places and 

Sand Wall-cress. Arabis arenosa, Europe. Annual; 
\ foot ; purplish ; seed. — On mossy old ruins or walls, 
or on ground fully exposed, and where the vegetation 
is not much more than 6 inches high. 

Biennial Honesty. Lunaria biennis, Germany. 
Biennial; 2 to 3 feet; purplish; sununer; seed. — On 
warm chalky banks, or slopes, or indeed in almost any 
position in woods, and by walks in half-wild spots. 

Perennial Honesty. Lunaria rediviva, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; purple; early 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 55 

summer ; seed or division. — Margins of shrubberies, beds 
of American plants, and copses. 

Purple Aubrietia. Aubrietia deitoidea, and vars. 
Southern Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 4 inches ; 
purple; spring and early sununer; seed, division, or 
cuttings. — Anywhere amidst very dwarf vegetation : on 
rocky or bare ground, banks or slopes, it should be 
planted in profusion. 

Alpine Mad-wort. Alyssum alpestre. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 4 inches ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed or cuttings. — ^A very neat littie plant to 
establish on bare rocky upland ground, or on ruins. 

Book Mad-wort. Alyssum saxaHle. Russia. Ever- 
green perennial: 12 to 18 inches; yellow; spring and 
early summer; seed, cuttings, or division. — Should be 
abundantly planted on bare and rocky ground, on banks 
and slopes, associated with all showy alpine plants like 
the white Arabis and purple Aubrietia. 

Sweet Alyssum. Alyssum mariHmum. ^outhem 
Europe. Annual ; i foot ; white ; summer ; seed — Stony 
or bare groimd where the vegetation is dwarf and sparse. 

Mountain Mad-wort. Alyssum montanum. Germany. 
Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed, cuttings, or division. — On rocky ground that is 
rather sandy and not too wet, or on bare banks. 

Sea-green Whitlow Grass. Draba aizoides, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; 3 inches ; yellow ; spring ; seed or 
division. — Old ruins, walls, and rocks, on which there is 
a very minute vegetation. It is natvualized in one or 
two places in England. 

Stemless Violet^Cress. lonopsidium acaule. Portugal. 

5<S The Wild Garden. 

Annual ; i to 2 inches ; lilac \ summer ; seed. — Only 
where the vegetation is no larger than mosses, on moist 
sandy slopes, rocky or bare ground. 

Broad-leaved Bastard-Cress. Thlaspi latifolium. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; white ] early spring ; seed 
or division. — Positions similar to those recommended for 
the White Arabis. Good also for low fringes of shrubberies 
or bare parts of copses, associated with early flowers. 

Coris-leaved Candy Tuft. Iberis corifolia. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; white ; 
early summer -, seed or cuttings. — Rough rockwork, stony 
places, or bare banks, fully exposed. The smallest good 
evergreen Candy Tuft It ought to be placed amidst 
very dwarf vegetation. 

Gibraltar Candy Tuft. Iberis gibraitarica. Spain. 
Evergreen perennial ] 1 foot and over ; pinkish ; spring 
and early summer; seed or cuttings. — ^Warm spots on 
banks or rocky places in the milder parts of the country. 

G-arrex's Candy Tuft. Iberis Garrexiana, Pyrenees. 
Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; white \ summer ; seed 
or cuttings. — Same positions as for the preceding kind. 

Crown Candy Tuft. Iberis Coronaria, Southern 
Europe. Annual ; i foot, white ; summer ; seed. — 
Open spots in any aspect in ordinary soil 

Book Candy Tuft. Iberis saxatilis. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial; 6 to 12 inches; white; 
early summer ; seed or cuttings. — Rocks, banks, slopes, 
margins of shrubberies or woods ; best in open spots. 

Tenore's Candy Tuft. Iberis Tenoreana, Naples. 
Probably biennial; 6 inches; white, changing to pale 
purple ; summer ; seed. — Similar positions to the pre- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 57 

ceding, but warmer and always in light, sandy soil, or 
thoroughly well drained sandy loam. 

Purple Candy Tuft. Iberis umbellata. Southern 
Europe. Annual ; i foot ; purple ; summer ; seed.— 
Bare open spots in woods or on slopes, in any soil 

Common Bocket. Hesperis matronalis. Europe. 
Biennial ; i to 3 feet ; various ; summer ; seed. — In 
shrubberies ; the single variety will sow itself very 
freely. The double ones would probably " die out." 

Virginian Stock. Makolmia maritima. Southern 
Europe. Annual ; 6 to 12 inches ; lilac purple ; summer ; 
seed. — Pretty in any spots where it would not be overrun 
by grass, etc. 

Ferofikki's Erysimum. Erysimum Peroffskianum. 
Palestine. Annual ; i to 2 feet ; deep orange ; summer ; 
seed. — Rather bare spaces in copses, and on banks, in 
ordinary soil, " sows itSelf." 

Coris-leaved JaSthionema. ^thionema coridifolium. 
Southern Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 6 inches ; Ulac 
rose ; summer ; seed or division. — Exposed rocks amidst 
dwarf vegetation, or on bare banks. 

Heart-leaved Seakale. Crambecordifolia, Caucasus. 
Tuber ; 4 to 6 feet ; white \ summer ; seed or division.— 
Grassy spaces beside wood and pleasure-ground walks. 
Isolated plants in rich ground are most effective. 

Arabia -like Heliophila. Heliophila araboides. 
South Africa. Annual ; 6 to 9 inches ; blue ; summer ; 
seed.- — Sunny banks and rocky ground, with sparse low 
vegetation, in sandy soil. 

58 The Wild Garden. 


Bastard Hemp. Datisca cannabina. Southern Eu- 
rope. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; yellowish ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Open grassy spaces by wood- 
walks, and in spots where its graceful habit may be seen. 
Male and female plants should be planted together, as 
the female, laden with fruit, is the more graceful of the 
two. The male is the one commonly seen in England, 
but both sexes may be had by raising the plants from 


Common Caper. CappaHs spinosa. Southern Eu- 
rope. Deciduous shrub ; 3 to 4 feet ; white \ summer ; 
seed or cuttings. — I believe this interesting and most 
beautiful, as well as useful plant, may be grown on old 
walls and ruins, in chalk pits, and on the sunny flanks 
of rockwork, in warmer parts of Southern England much 
as it is in various countries warmer than ours. It should 
always be placed in as warm and sunny a position as 
possible, and would be best if arranged so that it should 
project from the face of the sunniest and warmest part of 
the wall or ruin on which it is placed. 


Gum Cistus. Cistus iadaniferus, Spain. Evergreen 
shrub ; 2 to 3 feet ; white ; summer ; seed or cuttings. — 
Rocky ground, stony banks, or almost auywhere in a 
somewhat dry soil 

There are many others of this family that may be used 
in like positions. Even more valuable for rocky ground, 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 59 

slopes, and margins of shrubberies are the numerous kinds 
of Helianthemums. They flourish to greatest perfection 
in chalky or warm soils. 


Two-flowered Violet, Viola biflora, Europe. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; yellow j spring and 
early summer; seed or division. — In moist, rocky, or 
stony places, between the stones in rockworks, etc. 

Homed Viplet. Viola comuta. Pyrenees. Herba- 
ceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; blue ; summer ; seed, 
division, or cuttings. — Rocks, banks, fringes of low shrub- 
beries, or indeed in almost any position where it may not 
be overrun by coarse plants. 

Canadian Violet. Viola canadensis. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 inches ; white, streaked 
with violet ; summer ; seed or division. — ^A vigorous kind, 
good for running beneath fringes of shrubberies and 


American Grass of Parnassus. Pamassia asarifolia. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial j 3 to 6 inches ; 
white ; summer ; seed or division. — ^Would be well worth 
naturalizing in such moist, boggy spots as our own Grass 
of Parnassus delights in. 


Bastard-Box. Folygala Chamabuxus, Austria. 
Eveiigreen trailer ; 3 to 6 inches j yellowish ; early sum- 
mer; division. — Bare rocky places, in a somewhat moist 

6o The Wild Garden. 

peat or fine sandy soil, associated with such dwarf shrubs 
as Daphne Cneorum, and Erica camea. 


Tall Gypsophila. Gypsophila altissima. Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; pinkish ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Banks, rocks^ and stony places. 

Elegant Gypsophila. GysophUa degans. Eastern 
Europe. Annual ; i to 2 feet ; pale rose ; summer ; 
seed. — Same positions as for the preceding kind 

Fanicled Gypsophila. Gypsophila paniculata. Si- 
beria. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 4 feet ; white ; sum- 
mer 'y seed or division. — Rough, rocky places and in thin 

Trailing Gypsophila. Gypsophila prostrata, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; pale rose ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Rocks, banks, and heaps of stony 
rubbish amid dwarf plants. 

Creeping Gypsophila. Gypsophila repms, Pyrenees. 
Deciduous trailer ; 3 to 6 inches ; striped ; summer \ seed 
or division. — Same positions as for the preceding. 

Steven's Gypsophila. Gypsophila Steveni, Iberia. 
Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; white; summer; 
seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies and in open 
spots in thin woods, among strong perennials. 

Alpine Pink. Dianthus aJpimis. Austria. Ever- 
green perennial ; 3 to 4 inches ; red ; summer ; seed or 
division. — In peat or very sandy moist soil, on bare and 
exposed rocky or very stony spots, amid minute plants. 

The beautiful, brilliant, and recently introduced Dian- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 6i 

thus negkctus would succeed in similar positions even 
more freely than this, as it grows well in common soil. 

Carnation. Dianthus Caryophyllus, Europe. Ever- 
green perennial ; i to 2 feet ; various ; summer ; seed, 
layers, or pipings. — The Carnation grows in a wild state 
on walls and ruins, and is worthy of being naturalized in 
such places : also in very rocky ground or stony banks, 
in ordinary sandy or gravelly soil. 

Common Fink. Dianthus plumarius, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; \ foot ; white ; summer ; seed, 
layers, pipings, or division. — On ruins, walls, banks, and 
dry rocks, on any of which the plant will prove more 
enduring than on the level moist groimd. 

Superb Fink. Dianthus superbus. Europe. Ever- 
green perennial; i to 2 feet; pale purple; summer; 
seed or division. — Sandy moist fields, or open spots in 
woods : also on similar soil in rocky or stony places. 

Bock Tnnioa. Tunica Saxifraga, Europe. Ever- 
green perennial ; i foot ; pale purple ; summer ; seed or 
division. — ^Walls, ruins, rocks, or dry, bare, and poor 
soil, on banks or slopes. 

Calabrian Soap-wort. Saponaria caiabrica. Cala- 
bria. Annual ; 6 to 12 inches ; deep rose ; all summer; 
seed. — In half-bare, wild places this popular annual 
would take care of itself, but it is not nearly so ornamental 
as the following perennial kind. 

Bock Soap-wort. Saponaria ocymoides, Alps of 
Europe. Evergreen trailer ; 3 inches ; red ; early summer ; 
seed, cuttings, or division. — Rocks, banks, stony slopes, 
or in tufts on the edges of shrubberies. 
• Lobars Catohfly . SiUne Armeria, Southem Europe. 

62 The Wild Garden. 

Annual; i to \\ feet; red; late summer and early 
autumn; seed. — Slopes, banks, and almost anywhere 
amidst vegetation from 1 2 to 20 inches high. 

Alpine Gstohfly. Silene alpestris. Austrian Alps. 
Evergreen perennial ; 4 to 6 inches ; white ; early sum- 
mer; seed or division. — ^Well-exposed rocky, stony, or 
bare places. A beautiful little plant 

Pendulous Gatchfly. Silme pendula. Sicily. Bi- 
ennial ; i foot ; red ; summer ; seed. — Grows in any soil 
or position, but being rather dwarf, is best in rather 
bare spots or slopes, among spring and early summer 

Dwarf Gatchfly. Silene Fumilio. Germany. Ever- 
green perennial ; . 4 to 6 inches ; rose ; summer ; seed 
or division. — When easily obtainable, would be worth 
trying in moist spots on mountains similar to those 
inhabited by our own Moss Campion. 

Late Gatchfly. Silene Schafta, Caucasus. Ever- 
green perennial; 6 to 12 inches; reddish; summer and 
autumn; seed or division. — Positions similar to those 
recommended for Silene alpestris. 

Bose Gampion. Lychnis coronaria, Italy. Ever- 
green perennial; i to 2 feet; rosy purple; summer; 
seed. — Thrives with imusual vigoiu: on dry, warm banks, 
though it grows well in almost any soil 

Dark-eyed Bock Lychnis. Viscaria oculata, Al- 
giers. Annual; i foot; rosy purple with dark eye; 
simimer ; seed. — In good sandy soil in warm positions. 

Balearic Sand-wort. Arenaria balearica, Majorca. 
Evergreen perennial ; i to 2 inches ; white ; spring and 
early summer ; seed or division. — This plant crawls over 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 63 

wet or moist rocks, rooting on them, somewhat as a 
moss would, and forms sheets of starry flowers thereon. 

Mountain Sand-wort. Arenaria montana, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; 4 to 6 inches ; white ; spring and 
siunmer ; seed or division. — In good sandy loam, either 
on bare level ground, or on banks or rocks. 

Bieberstein's Mouse-ear Ghickweed. Cerastium 
Biebersteinii, Caucasus. Evergreen perennial; 2 to 6 
inches ; white ; summer ; seed or division. — Banks, fringes 
of shrubberies, rough, rocky places, or almost any kind 
of situation, in ordinary soil 

Large-flowered Cerastium. Cerastium grandi- 
flarum. Siberia, Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 6 inches ; 
white ; summer ; seed or division. — Similar positions to 
the foregoing ; is not so common as the preceding or 
following kind. 

Woolly Mouse-«ar duckweed. Cerastium tomen- 
tosum. Southern Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 6 
inches; white; summer; seed or division. — Equally 
useful and hardy as the two foregoing kinds. 


Alpine Flax. Linum aipinum. Austria. Herba- 
ceous perennial ; 4 to 9 inches ; blue ; summer ; seed or 
division. — Open rocky places, or fully exposed spots in 
sandy soil, associated with the more vigorous alpines. 

Narbonne Flax. Linum narbonnense, S. France. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — In deep sandy loam amidst mediimi-sized 
herbaceous plants, or on banks, rocky or stony ground. 

64 The Wild Garden. 


Moreni's Mallow. Malva Moreniu Italy. Herba- 
ceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; reddish; late summer; 
seed or division. — Edges of woods, banks, hedges, etc. 

Showy Malope. Malope trifida, var, grandiflora, 
Barbary. Annual ; 2 to 4 feet ; crimson purple ; late 
summer; seed. — Bare spaces in shrubberies, and also 
among coarse annual and biennial plants, in any position. 

Brilliant MalUow. Callirhoe involucrata, N. Ame- 
rica. Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; crimson ; summer ; 
seed. — Open places, associated with choice herbaceous 
and alpine plants, excellent for banks and slopes. 

Vine-leaved Eitaibelia. Kitaibdia vitifolia, Hun- 
gary. Herbaceous perennial ; 5 to 8 feet ; whitish ; late 
summer; division or seed. — Among the most vigorous 
herbs ; in grassy places near wood-walks. 

Fig-leaved Hollyhock. Althceaficifolia, Herbaceous 
perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; yellow or orange ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar positions to those for the preceding. 

Tsnrian Marsh Mallow. Alihaa taurtnensis. 
Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; 
reddish ; summer ; seed or division. — Amidst tall herbs 
by the margin of water, grouped with the foregoing. 

Downy-leaved Lavatera. Lavatera Olbia. France. 
Half shrubby ; 3 to 6 feet ; reddish ; summer ; seed or 
cuttings. — ^A warm nook in a chalk-pit, or a position on 
sunny banks among shrubs, brings out the flowers of this 
plant in great profusion. 

Mallow Bose. Hibiscus Moscheutos. North America. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 65 

Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 4 feet; purplish; late 
summer ; seed or division. — In rich soil in small open 
glades near wood walks ; to be planted in isolated tuits 
or small beds, always in warm positions. 

Military Hibisous. Hibiscus militaris. North Ame- 
rica. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; purple ; 
summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to those 
for the preceding ; a noble plant 

Bose-coloured Hibisous. Hibiscus roseus. France. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; rose ; late summer 
and autumn ; seed or division. — ^Also a very remarkable 
plant, and suitable for positions like those recommended 
for the preceding. 


Large-flowered St. John's Wort* Hypericum ccUy- 
cinum. Southern Europe. Evergreen shrub ; i to 3 
feet; yellow; summer; seed or division. — This well- 
known plant is, it need hardly be said, capable of 
enduring any hardship, or of embellishing any position in 
the wilderness. Any other members of the family that 
may be admired may b£ grown in copses and on the 
fringes of woods in any kind of soil. 


Iberian Crane's Bill Geranium Ibericum, Levant. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; violet ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Woods, copses, shrubberies, by wood walks, 
and in open grassy glades. 

Lambert's Crane's Bill. Geranium Lamberti. Ne- 


66 The Wild Garden. 

pauL Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; reddish; 
summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to those 
for the preceding, but not so very hardy. 

Striped Crane's Bill. Geranium striatum, Italy. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; striped ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies and low banks, 

Wallich's Crane's Bill. Geranium Wailichianum. 
NepauL Herbaceous perennial; i foot; mauve with 
purple veins; summer; seed or division. — Similar 
positions to those for the preceding. 

Manesoavi's Heron's-Bill. Erodium Manescam. 
Evergreen perennial ; 6 inches to 2 feet ; reddish ; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Margins of shrubberies, or rocky 
or stony ground, banks, or by open wood walks, 


Five-leaved Indian Cress. Tropmlum pentaphyllum. 
Southern America. Trailer; yellow; summer; division 
or cuttings. — Banks, copses, or any position where it may 
trail over shrubs, &c., in light soil. 

Showy Indian Cress. Tropceolum speciosum, ChilL 
Trailer ; red and yellow ; summer ; division or cuttings.-— 
Against terrace walls, among shrubs, and on slopes, on 
banks, or bushy rockwork near the hardy fernery; in 
deep, rich, and light soil. In such positions it is a brilliant 
plant well worth any trouble to establish. 


Bowie's Wood Sorrel. Oxalis Bowieana. Cape of 
Good Hope. Bulb ; 6 inches ; scarlet ; spring and sum- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 6j 

xner; division. — In rocky, bare, and sunny places, in 
light dry loam, or very sandy soil. 

Free-flowering Wood Sorrel. Oxaiis fiorihunda. 
Brazil. Evergreen perennial; 9 to i8 inches; red; 
summer ; seed or division. — Among dwarf Alpine plants, 
in almost any soil or position. 


Greater Honey Flower. Melianthus major. Cape 
of Good Hope. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; 
brownish; summer; seed, cuttings, or division. — ^This 
elegant-leaved plant will be found to thrive well on 
slightiy elevated banks, in the south of England, in well- 
drained loam. It may be cut down in winter, but will 
come up the following season. 


Faba-like Thermopsis. Thermapsis fabacea, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed or division. — ^Among strong herbaceous plants, 
by wood walks, on the margins of woods, or in open 
spots in shrubberies or pleasure-grounds. 

Blue False Indigo. Baptisia australis. Carolina. 
Herbaceous perennial, 2 to 3 feet ; blue ; midsummer ; 
seed or division. — ^Woods, copses, banks, among low 
shrubs and stout herbs in any kind of soil 

Cluster-flowered Cytisus. Cytisus capitatus. Aus- 
tria. Shrub ; 2 to 3 feet ; yellow ; summer ; seed or 
cuttings. — In positions similar to the preceding. 

F 2 

68 The Wild Garden. 

Winged Genista. Genista sagittalis. Alps of Europe. 
Small shrub; 6 to 12 inches; yellow; summer; seed 
or division. — In grassy open places and on banks ; also 
on rocks or slopes. 

Shrubby Bestharrow. Ononis fruticosa. France. 
Small shrub ; i to 2 feet ; rose ; early summer ; cuttings 
or seed — Copses, open glades, or rough rocky ground. 

Bound-leaved Bestharrow. Ononis rotundifolia. 
Switzerland Small shrub ; i to 2 feet ; rose ; summer ; 
seed or cuttings. — Similar positions to the preceding. 

Mountain Kidney Vetch. Anthyllis montana. South- 
em Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 4 inches ; pur- 
plish; summer; seed, division, or cuttings. — Bare rocky 
ground and banks, or in short grass, in any soil. 

Two-lobed Gk>at's Bue. Galega biloha. Persia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — ^With the taller and handsomer-flowering 
herbs, in open spaces, in shrubberies, and on the margin 
of woods ; also in long grass and on rough stony ground. 

Officinal Gk>at's Bue. Gal^a officinalis. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; lilac-purple ; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^Amidst long grass or vigo- 
rous herbs, in almost any position and soil, in copses, 
shrubberies, and open spots by wood walks. 

Oriental Gtoat's Bue. Galega orientalis. Levant 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar positions to those for the Officinal 
Goat's Rue and in ordinary soil. 

MontpeUer Milk Vetch. Astragalus monspessulanus. 
France. Evergreen perennial ; 9 inches to i foot ; red or 
purple ; summer; seed or division. — Rocky places, banks 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 6g 

or slopes, where its prostrate shoots may show to greatest 
advantage, m any soiL 

Pontic Milk Vetch. Astragalus ponticus, Tauria.- 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 4 feet j pale yellow ] summer ; 
seed or division. — ^Amidst vigorous perennials ; chiefly 
valuable for the effect of its handsome leaves on bold 
stems ; it thrives in any ordinary soil. 

!Kosy Coronilla. Coromlla varia, Europe. Herba-* 
ceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; pink ; summer ; division. — > 
On grassy banks, stony heaps, rough rocky ground, 
spreading over slopes or any like positions, A fine plant 
for naturalization, thriving in any soil 

GanadiaiL Desmodiiim. Desmodium canadense, Nordi 
America. Herbaceous perennial \ 6 feet ; purple ; sum^ 
mer; seed or division. — ^Associated with the strongest 
herbaceous plants in copses, woods, or any place where a 
vigorous herbaceous vegetation is desired, 

French Honeysuckle. Hedysarum coronarium, 
Italy. Biennial ; 3 to 5 feet; bright red; summer ; seed. — 
Somewhat open places in woods, shrubberies, and copses, 
where it would sow itsel£ 

Bock Hedysajmni. Hedysarum obscurum. Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial; 9 to 18 inches; purplish; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Positions similar to those for the 
Rosy Coronilla ; like it, a valuable plant for naturalization. 
Silvery Vetch. Vicia argentea. Pyrenees. Herba- 
ceous perennial; 9 to 15 inches; pink; summer; seed 
or division. — Rocks, stony places, and thinly clad banks 
in sandy, or ordinary soil. 

Iiarge Flowered Pea. Lathyrus grandiflarus. 
Southern Europe. Climber; 3 to 4 feet; purple; 

yo The Wild Garden. 

summer; seed or division. — Copses, fiinges of woods, 
banks, hedges, margins of walks in the wilderness, 
or any position in which its free-flowering shoots may 
trail over shrubs, or fall over the face of rocks or 
banks : it will grow in almost any kind of soil. 
. Everlastixig Pea. Lathyrus iatifoiius. Southern 
Europe. Climber ; 4 to 8 feet ; rose ; all summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar positions to the preceding. The 
white and the deeper-coloured varieties are even mart 
beautiful than the common one. 

Flaccid Bitter Vetch. Orobus flaccidus. Switzer- 
land. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; blue and lilac; 
spring ; seed or division. — In almost any soil or position 
where the vegetation does not exceed 18 inches. 

Pea-like Bitter Vetch. Orobus lathyroides, Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; violet-blue ; early 
summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to the pre* 
ceding, but will thrive where the surrounding vegetation 
is taller, and in ordinary soil. 

Spring Bitter Vetch. Orobus vemus, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; blue and lilac; 
spring ; seed or division. — Banks, grassy unmown mar- 
gins of wood walks, rocks, fringes of shrubberies, and 
like places ; best in deep and sandy loam, well drained, 
though it will grow in almost any position. 

Many-leaved Lupine. Lupinus polyphyllus, Co- 
lumbia. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 4 feet; blue 5 
summer ; seed or division. — Amidst the tallest and hand* 
somest herbaceous plants, grouped where they may be 
seen from grass drives or wood walks, or in any position 
or soil. There are several varieties, all worthy of culture4< 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization, ji 


Bosy SpirsMt. Spinea venusta. North America. 
Deciduous shrub; 2 J feet to 3 J feet; purplish-rose; 
summer; seed or division. — ^Associated with the hand- 
somer and taller perennials. 

Chili Avens. Geum chilense. Chili. Evergreen 
perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; scarlet ; summer ; seed or divi- 
sion. — In any grassy or rocky places, or on banks. 

MotLhtain Avens. Geum montanum, Alps and 
P)rrenees. Herbaceous perennial ; 8 to 10 inches ; 
yellow ; summer ; seed or division. — In upland pastures 
or boggy places, or on stony ground or banks. 

Indian Strawberry. Fragaria indica, India. Trail- 
ing herb ; 3 to 6 inches ; yellow ; summer ; seed or 
runners. — Rocky places and banks, amidst dwarf Alpine 
plants and trailers in ordinary soil. 

White-stemmed Bramble. Rubm biflorus. Western 
America. A vigorous erect bramble ; white ; summer ; 
seed or cuttings. — ^Warm places in woods, copses, and 
on sunny wood banks, where its large white stems will 
show to great advantage ; also fine for rocky places. 

Kootka Sound Bramble. Rubus nutkanus. North- 
ern America. Shrub; 3 to 6 feet; white; summer; 
seed or cuttings. — ^Almost any positions in woods, shrub- 
beries ; best near the walks ; in all cases allowed to " run 
wild" — ^an excellent subject for naturalization. 

Sweet-scented Bramble. Rubus odoratus. Northern 
America. Shrub ; 4 to 6 feet ; purplish-red ; summer 5 
seed or cuttings. — Similar positions to those for the pre- 
ceding kind, and associated with them. 

jz The Wild Garden, 

Showy Bramble. Rubus spectabilis. Northern Ame> 
rica. Shrub ; 4, 5, or 6 feet ; dark purple ; spring ; 
seed or cuttings. — In warm sunny parts of sheltered 
shrubberies, where its early-blooming tendency may be 
encouraged ; thrives freely in any soil. 

Galabrian Cinquefoil. Potentilla caldbra, Italy. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot \ yellow ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Rocky places and warm banks, where its 
prostrate silvery shoots may be seen to best advantage. 

The numerous showy forms of Potentilla that may be 
easily raised from seed are all excellent for naturalization 
in any position or soil, and well able to take care of 
themselves among long grass and vigorous perennials. 


Fraser's Eyening Friinrose. (Enothera Fraseri. 
Northern America. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; 
yellow; summer; seed or division. — Copses, grassy 
banks, and fringes of shrubberies in any soil 

James's Evening Primrose. CEnoihera Jamesi. 
North America. Biennial; 4 feet; yellow; summer; 
seed. — ^Associated with vigorous herbaceous plants, in 
groups, near grass drives or wood walks. Very sweet in 
the evening, and worthy of being grown in quantity. 

Missouri Eyening Primrose. CEnothera missaun* 
ensis. North America. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; 
yellow ; summer ; seed or division. — Banks, edges of low 
shrubberies, fringes of copses, or rocky ground. 

Lamarck's Evening Primrose. (Enothera Lamarck" 
tafia. North America. Biennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; yellow ; 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 73 

summer; seed. — ^A noble plant, suitable for the same 
positions as those recommended for (E. JamesL 

Swamp Eyening Frimrose. (Enothera riparia. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; 
yellow ; summer ; seed or division. — Positions like those 
recommended for OE. Fraseri. 

Dandelion-leaved Evening Primrose. (Enothera 
iaraocacifolia, Peru. Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; 
white ; summer ; seed or division. — The same positions as 
those recommended for the Missouri Evening Primrose. 

Showy Evening Frimrose. (Enothera speciosa. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; white ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Rocky places, banks, and on 
the margins of shrubberies, in good Ught soil. 

Lindley^s Gk>detia. Godetia Lindleyana, North Ame- 
rica. Annual; 2 feet; rosy-purple; summer; seed. — Banks, 
or any position in which vigorous annuals may be sown. 

Reddish Gk>detia. Godetia rubicunda, California. 
Annual ; 2 to 3 feet ; red ; summer ; seed. — Similar posi- 
tion to the preceding, and in ordinary soil. 

Elegant Clarkia. CZ:;r>&^ ^a/tx. California. Annual; 
I to 2^ feet ; purple ; summer ; seed. — Should be sown 
with showy and vigorous annuals, like the preceding, on 
somewhat bare places in copses, and on slopes. 

Pretty Clarkia. Clarkia pulcheila. North America. 
Annual ; i to 2| feet ; purple ; summer ; seed. — Similar 
positions to preceding, and like it grows in any soil. 


TJmbelled Galandrinia. Calandrinia umbeliata, 
ChilL Eveigreen perennial; 3 to 6 inches; purple* 

74 The Wild Garden: 

crimson ; summer \ seed or division. — ^A gem for chinks 
in rocks, or on very sandy or peaty soils, in op«i and 
bare positions ; it perishes in winter on day. 


Ewers's Stoneorop. Sedum Ewersti, Siberia. 
Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; rose ; late smnmer ; 
seed or division. — Rocks and old walls. 

Orange Stoneorop. Sedum kamtschaticum. Siberia, 
3 to 6 inches ; summer ; deep orange ; seed or division^ 
— Rocky and bare places, and banks. 

Siebold's Stonecrop. Sedum SidfoMiL Japan.. 
Perennial ; 2 to 4 inches ; pinkish ; late summer and 
autumn ; division. — ^Warm, rocky banks. 

Great Stoneorop. Sedum speddbile, Japan. A 
stout perennial ; 15 to 24 inches ; rose ; autumn ; divi- 
sion or cuttings. — In any position where vigorous herbs 
may be grown ; best in open spots, associated with fine 
autumn plants, like Anemone japonica, the Tritomas, and 
the large Statice. 

Webbed Houseleek. Sempervivum arachnoideum. 
Italy. — Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; red ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Rocks and bare stony banks, 
or on mossy old walls and ruins. 

Glaucous Houseleek. Sempervivum cakareum. 
France. An evergreen plant with gkucous rosettes ; 2 
to 8 inches ; pale rose : late in summer ; division. — In 
any position where the common Houseleek may be 
grown, and in any soil A fine plant. 

Hairy Houseleek. Sempervivum hirtum, Italy. 
Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; red ; summer ; see4 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 75 

or division. — ^In rocky or very bare places, in any aspect 
or soil. Bees are very fond of the flowers of this plant. 

Mountain HouflaLeek. Sempervhnim mantanum, 
Switzerland. Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; red ; 
summer; seed or division. — Same positions as for the 
preceding ; both will thrive on walls. 

Soboliferoufl Houseleek. Sempervivum soboliferum,. 
Evergreen perennial; 4 to 6 inches; pale yellow; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^Very bare and fully exposed 
places on rodcy or stony ground. Should be allowed to 
spread into compact tufts. 


Silvery Saxifrage. Saxifraga Aizoon. Pyrenees.: 
Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; white spotted ; 
early summer; seed or division. — Open bare spots on 
folly exposed rocky or bare ground, in any soil 

Two-flowered Saxifrage. Saxifraga biflora. Swit- 
zerland. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 4 inches ; fed ; 
early summer ; seed or division. — Moist rocky, bare spots, 
folly exposed, and in sandy peat or loam« 

Heart-leaved Saxifrage. Saxifraga cordifolia, 
Siberia. Evergreen perennial; $ to 18 inches; rose; 
spring and early summer ; division. — Banks, rough rock- 
work, by wood walks, on wild, sunny slopes. 

Thick- leaved Saxifrage. Saxifraga crassifolia. 
Siberia. Evergreen perennial; i to i^ feet; rose; 
spring and early summer ; division. — Same situations as 
the preceding, and like it grows in any soil. 
. Crustate Saxifrage. Saxifraga crustata. Pyre- 
nees. Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; whitish ; 

^6 The Wild Garden, 

early summer ; seed or division. — On walls, bare rocky 
spots, or where there is a very dwarf and stunted vege- 
tation ; thrives best in a moist, sandy soil. 

Jumper Saxifrage. Saxifraga juniperina, Cau- 
casus. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 4 inches ; yellow ; 
summer ; division or seed. — Same positions as preceding, 
but 1 have no proof that it would grow on walls. 

Long-leaTed Saxifrage. Saxifraga iangifolia, 
Pyrenees. Silvery perennial ; 10 to 18 inches ; white, 
with pink spots ; early summer ; seed. — ^Walls, ruins, 
rocks, and bare exposed spots, in ordinary soil. 

Yellow Annual Saxifrage. Saxifraga Cymbalaria, 
The East Annual or biennial ; 4 to 6 inches ', yeUow ; 
summer; seed. — Rocky, gravelly, or bare places, pre- 
ferring a rather moist soil, and " sowing itself." 

Pyramidal Saxifrage. Saxifraga pyramidalis, Eu- 
rope. Evergreen perennial ; i to 2 feet ; white, with 
reddish dots ; summer ; seed or division. — Same situa- 
tions as those for the long-leaved Saxifrage. 

Bivulet Astilbe. Astilbe rivularis. Nepal Her* 
baceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; whitish ; summer ; 
division. — ^Among plants of striking habit or fine foliage, 
by wood walks, or in glades — ^best in deep soil. 


Buenos Ayres Pennywort. Hydrocoiyk Bonariensis, 
Southern America. Trailer; 2 to 3 inches ; green ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Shrubberies, copses, or banks; de- 
sirable for the peculiarity of its leaves. 

Greater Masterwort. Astrantta major, Europe. 
Perbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; striped red; simi* 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 77 

mer; seed or division. — ^Among the medium-sized her- 
baceous plants in glades, copses, and by wood walks. 

Dwarf Dondia. Dondia EpipacHs, Alps of Europe, 
Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 4 inches; yellow; early 
spring; seed or division. — Banks, or anywhere amidst 
a very dwarf vegetation ; grouped with early flowers. 

Alpine Eryngo. Eryngium alpinum, Switzerland. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 3 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — In glades, copses, margins of shrubberies, etc. 
A noble plant, thriving ever3rwhere. 

Amethystine Eryngo. Eryngium amethystinum. 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; blue; 
summer; seed or division. — Similar situations to pre- 
ceding ; also worthy of extensive cultivation. 

Tall Meadow Saxifrage. Sesdi datum, Austria. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; white; summer; 
seed or division. — Banks, wild walks, margins of shrub- 
beries, etc ; desirable for the beauty of its leaves. 

Slender Meadow Saxifrage. Sesdi gracile, Hungary. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; yellow; summer; 
seed or division. — Similar uses to preceding. 

Matthioli's SpigneL Athamanta Matthioli, Central 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; white ; 
summer ; seed or division. Banks, rough rockwork, and 
bare places. Valuable for its graceful tufts of leaves. 

Cicuta-like Molopospermum. Molopospermum dcu- 
tarium, Pyrenees and Alps. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 
to 5 feet ; white ; early summer ; seed or division. — By 
wood walks, among hardy plants with fine leaves or 
striking habit, or isolated among flowering plants. 

Common Giant FenneL Ferula communis. Southern 

78 The Wild Garden. 

Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 8 to 1 2 feet ; yellow ; 
early summer ; seed or division. — Isolated specimens by 
wood walks, and in glades, or grouped with other striking 
hardy plants. A noble plant 

Glaucous Giant Fennel. Ferula glauca. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 5 to 8 feet; pale 
yellow ; early summer ; seed or division. — Similar positions 
to the preceding ; also a very remarkable plant 

Tangier Giant Fennel. Ferula HngUana. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 5 to 8 feet ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed. — ^Another fine species, suitable for the 
same purposes, and thriving in ordinary soil 

Involuored Snlphnrwort. Peucedanum itwolui' 
cratum, France. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 feet ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Here and there among flow- 
ering plants for its graceful leaves and habit ; on banks 
and bare glades in common, sandy soil 

Long-leaved Snlphnrwort. Peucedanum longifih 
Hum. Hungary. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 5 feet; 
yellow; summer; seed or division. — Similar uses to 
preceding. P. Petteri is also very suitable for like 
purposes ; both thrive in common soil. 

Giant Cow Parsnip. Heracleum giganfeum, Si- 
beria. Biennial; 6 to 10 feet; white; summer; seed. — 
Among the most vigorous herbaceous vegetation, in rich 
soil near river banks, or in any position where a striking 
distant effect is sought 


Naked-stalked Aralia. Aralia nudicaulis. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 5 feet; white; 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization, 79 

summer ; division. — By wood walks, isolated, or grouped 
with fine-foliaged herbaceous plants. 

Berry-bearing Aralia. Aralia racemosa. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 5 feet; white; 
summer; division or seed. — Similar positions to pre- 
ceding, in deep ordinary soil. 


Canadian Dogwood. Comus canadensis. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; yellow ; 
summer; division. — Rocky and bare places, in sandy, 
moist soil ; a singularly pretty plant. 

Northern LinnsBa. Lintuea barealis. Northern 
Europe. Trailer; 2 to 3 inches; flesh-coloured; all 
summer ; division. — In moist rocky dells. 

It need hardly be remarked that many of the shrubby 
honeysuckles are among the most desirable subjects for 


Long-styled Crosswort. Crudandla stylosa, Persia. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to ij feet; pink; summer; 
seed or division. — Rocky places and banks, or in level 
spots where the vegetation is dwarf. 


Bed Valerian. Centranthus ruber. Europe. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; red ; all summer ; seed 
or division. — This and its white variety are admirable for 
banks, on which they frequentiy thrive far better than on 
the level ground, though they thrive well almost anjnvhere. 

8o The Wild Garden. 


Cut-leaved TeaseL Dipsacus ladniatus. Gennany. 
Biennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; purple ; summer ; seed. — In open 
glades, and by wood walks, or on rich banks. 

Long-leaved Morina. . Marina langifolia. Indi^u 
Evergreen perennial; 2 to 3 J feet; reddish; summer; 
seed or division. — Banks and margins of shrubberies, 
and on rough rockwork, near the eye. 

Caucasian Soabious. ScoHosa caumsica, Cau- 
casus. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; pale blue ; 
summer ; seed or division. — By wood walks, and on 
margins of shrubberies, in warm soil 

Grass-leaved Scabious. Scabiosa gramini/oiia. Swit- 
zerland. Herbaceous perennial ; 1 foot ; blue ; summer ; 
division or seed. — Rocky, or very bare places or banks ; 
always in light warm soil. 


Orange-ooloured Hawkweed. Hieradum aurantr 
acum. Europe. Evergreen perennial; 1 to i^ feet; 
orange; summer; seed or division. — In any position 
where the vegetation is not too coarse to hide it 

Plunder's Mulgediuin. Mulgedium Flumieri. France. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; summer and early 
autumn ; blue ; seed or division. — Grouped with the most 
vigorous herbaceous plants, or as isolated tufls in wood 
walks, in deep rich soil. 

Azure Catananohe. Catananche oBrulea. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; blue ; mid- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 8i 

summer to autumn; seed or division.-:- Banks, rocky 
ground, or on fringes of copses or woods. 

Broopiiig Alfredia. Aifredia cemua. Siberia. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; yellow ; summer ; seed or 
division. Grouped with the stoutest and most vigorous 
herbaceous plants in wild places. 

niyrian Ck>ttoxi Thistle. Onopordum iliyricum. 
Southern Europe. Biennial; 6 to 8 feet; purplish; 
summer ; seed. — Shrubberies, copses, or glades in 

French Artichoke. Cynara Scolytnus, Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 8 feet ; purplish ; 
summer ; seed or division. — In glades near wood walks, 
or sloping ground, in dry deep soil. Most effective 
as isolated plants, though always very striking. 

Babylonian Knapweed. Centaurea babylonica, Le- 
vant Herbaceous perennial ; 5 to 10 feet ; yellow ; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Associated with the most vigo- 
rous herbs, by wood walks, in any soil. 

White-leaved Knapweed. Centaurea dealbata, Cau- 
casus. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; purplish; 
summer ; seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies and 
on banks, in ordinary soil 

Mountain Knapweed. Centaurea montana, Austria. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar positions to the preceding. 

One-flowered Knapweed. Centaurea uniflora. South- 
cm Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; purple ; 
summer and. autumn ; seed or division. — Rocky places 
and banks. A handsome mountain plant 

Hungarian Globe T}iistle. Echincfs bannoHcus, 



^% The Wild Garden. 

Hungary. Herbaceous perennial; 5 to 8 feet; blue; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^Woods, copses, or by plea- 
sure-ground walks ; and also for • association with herba- 
ceous plants of some vigour and character. 

Tall Globe Thistle. Echinops exaltatus, Austria: 
Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 8 feet ; white ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar uses to the preceding, and suited for 
association with even more vigorous vegetation. 

Bussian G-lobe Thistle. Echinops ruthenicm, Russia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 8 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — A fine subject for planting in tufts in 
open spots by wood walks, and for association with the 
handsomest and most vigorous herbaceous flowering 

Elegant Liatris. Liatris degans. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; purple ; autumn ; 
seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies, in open sunny 
places on warm soils. 

Dotted Liatris. Liatris punctata. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 feet ; reddish-purple ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Similar uses to the preceding. 

Long-spiked Liatris. Liairis spicata North America. 
Herbaceous perennial; 4 feet; late summer and early 
autumn ; seed or division. — Similar uses to the preceding. 

Caucasian Leopard's Bane. Doronicum caucasicum, 
Caucasus. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; yellow ; 
spring and summer; seed or division. — Rocky places, 
banks, fiinges of low shrubberies in any soil. Best in 
sunny positions, as it flowers early in the year. 

Pearl Cudweed. Antennaria margaritcuea. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; white ; sum- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 83 

mer ; seed or division. — Banks, open spots in copses or 
fringes of low shrubberies, in any soil 

Iiion's Foot Everlasting. Gnaphalium Lemtopodium. 
Switzerland. Herbaceous perennial; \ foot; white; 
summer ; seed or division. — Bare rocky places, in moist 
sandy soil, amidst vegetation not over 6 inches high. 
A most interesting plant for naturalization, in upland 
districts, especially where the rock crops out 

Yellow Everlasting. Hdkhrysum armarium, 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 1 2 inches ; yellow ; 
summer; seed or division. — Bare rocky places or 
banks, on a sandy warm soil, always in positions where 
it may not be overrun by other plants. Perishes on cold 
clay soils. 

Showy Stenactis. Stenactis spedosa. California. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 feet ; purplish ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Among medium-sized, choice herbaceous 
plants, on the fringes of shrubberies, banks, or in rocky 
places, in ordinary soil 

Alpine Starwort. Aster alpinus, Europe. Herba- 
ceous perennial; 6 to 12 inches; purplish; summer; 
seed or division. — An interesting plant for naturalization 
in upland meadows, or in the rougher grassy parts of plea- 
sure grounds, as it grows abundantly in many sub-alpii^e 
pastlires, always much smaller than when grown in rich 
garden soil ; will also suit rocky places, banks, or borders, 
among plants not more than a foot high. 

Italian Starwort. Aster Amellus, Southern Italy. 

Herbaceous perennial ; 2 feet ; purple ; summer ; seed 

or division. — Banks, fringes of shrubberies, or rough rocky 

places, in almost any soil 

G 2 

84 The Wild Garden. 

Heart-leaved Starwort. Aster cordifolius. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; purplish ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Open spaces, glades in woods, 
by wood walks, and on banks, in any soil 

Spreading Starwort Aster diffusus. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; white ; autumn ; seed 
or division. — Similar uses to the preceding. 

Heath-like Starwort. Aster ericoides. Herbaceous 
perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; white ; late summer ; seed or divi- 
sion. — Banks, rough rocky places, fringes of woods or 
copses, in ordinary soil. 

Many-flowered Starwort. Aster floribundus. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 5 feet ; purple ; 
late summer and autumn; seed or division. — Similar 
positions to preceding. 

New York Starwort. Aster Novi Belgii, North 
America, Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; pale blue ; 
autumn ; division. — ^Association with the most vigorous 
herbaceous plants, in copses, fringes of woods, or in 
glades, flowering best in sunny spots. 

New England Starwort. Aster Nova Anglice. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; 6 feet ; purple ; 
autumn; division. — Similar positions to preceding, and 
suitable for association with it 

Pyrenean Starwort. Aster pyrenceus. Pyrenees. 
Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; violet; sunmier; 
division. — ^A very handsome summer-flowering kind, 
suited for banks, fringes of shrubberies, and rocky 
ground, in any position, cold or hot. 

Australian Daisy. Vittadenia triloba, Australia. 
Evergreen perennial; i foot; pale lilac; all simimer; 

■ Ml ■ •— ^w^»"wr'^^""»^^^ig^^^^^p«^caF' 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Nattiralization. 85 

seed. — This pretty plant may be naturalized on the warm 
slopes of old quarries, &c., in the southern and milder 
parts of the country, in light or stony soil 

Gk>lden Bod, Solidago. The numerous species of 
this genus, yellow-flowered, and for the most part tall 
and vigorous herbs, are well fitted for naturalization in 
woody places and copses. Indeed, wild or semi-wild 
places are the only ones for which they are suited. 
They are all as easily propagated as the Michaelmas 
Daisy, and will grow in any soil. 

Ageratum Xhipatory. Eupaiorium ageratoides. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 feet ] white ; 
late in summer ; seed ot division. — Similar positions to 
those for the medium-sized Michaelmas Daisies, and 
suited for association with them in any soil. 

Purple-stalked Eupatory. Eupaiorium purpureum. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 5 feet ; 
purple ; autumn ; seed or division. — Fringes of woods 
and shrubberies, in sunny aspects. 

Winter Heliotrope. Tussilago fragrans, Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; blush ; winter ; division. — 
Naturalization in any wild places in the shade of trees, 
on banks, in lanes, and neglected places. Valuable for 
cutting from in winter or early in spring, but being a fast- 
spreading "weed" should not be planted where its rapid 
increase could prove objectionable. 

Sea Bagwort. Cineraria maritima. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial; 2 feet; yellow; late 
summer ; seed. — Dry sandy banks, in warm rocky spots, 
old quarries, &c. In some parts it will survive on level 
ground, especially in very light soils. 

85 * The Wild Garden. 

Glaucous Bagwort. Othonna chdrifolia, Barbary. 
Evergreen perennial ; i foot ; yellow ; early summer ; 
cuttings. — Banks, borders, or rocky places. Sometimes 
perishes in winter on the level ground in voy cold soils, 
but generally free and hardy. 

Heart-leaved Telekia. Tdekia cordifolia. Hungary* 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; yellow ; summer ; 
division. — ^A vigorous herbaceous plant, suited for asso- 
ciation with Echinops, Rheum, and subjects grown for 
their foliage and character. 

Double Sunflower, Hdianthus multiflorus. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 8 feet ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^The double variety of this 
is that most commonly seen. It is very ornamental, 
and will thrive in almost any soil, in woods and 

Drooping-leaved Sunflower. Hdianthus orgyalis. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; 9 to 10 feet ; 
orange-yellow; autumn; seed or division. — ^An exceed- 
ingly graceful plant, when seen in an isolated tuft, near a 
wood walk. Also suited for association with plants of 
fine leaf and character, in rich soil 

Newman's Budbeckia. Rudbeckia Newmanu South 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^A very showy vigorous plant ; 
fine for fringes of shrubbery, copses, and groups of late 

Bigid Sunflower, Harpalium rigidum. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 3^ feet ; dark yellow ; 
late summer ; division. — A brilliant and showy free-run- 
ning perennial, excellent for copses, fringes of woods^ 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 87 

or almost any position in the wilder parts of a country 
place, thriving in ordinary soil. 

Common Marigold. Calendula officinalis. Southern 
Europe. Annual ; i^ feet ; orange ; all sunpimer ; seed. 
— Suited for ahnost any position or soil in semi-wild 
places, not overrun by very coarse vegetation. 

Cup Plant Silphium perfoliaium. North America, 
Herbaceous perennial > 5 to 7 feet ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Association with the tallest and most 
vigorous herbs in rich or deep soil. 

Alpine Lavender Cotton. Saniolina alpina. 
Southern Europe* Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches \ 
yellow; late in summer; division or cuttings. — ^Very 
bare rocky places, or banks, amidst dwarf rock plants. 

Ground Cypress* Saniolina Chamacyparissus, 
Southern Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; 
yellow ; summer ; cuttings. — ^A fine plant for banks, rocky 
places, or the outer fringes of shrubberies. 

Hoary Lavender Cotton. Saniolina incana. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial ; i foot ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed or cuttings. — A variety of the preceding, but 
dwarfer; suited for rather bare banks and rocky 
places, in ordinary soiL 

Hoary Wormwood. Ariemisia cana. North America. 
Shrub; i to 3 feet; yellowish; summer; division or 
seed. — Fringes of woods and shrubberies, or rough 
rocky ground or banks. A vigorous silvery - leaved 

Cape Marigold. Dimorphoiheca pluvialis. Cape of 
Good Hope. Annual; i to 2 feet; whitish-purple; 

88 The Wild Garden. 

summer ; seed. — Sumiy and rather bare banks, or slopes, 
in somewhat dry and good soil 

Noble Achillea* AchUled Eupatorium, Shores of 
the Caspian. Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 5 feet ; yellow ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies, and 
associated with the noblest herbaceous plants, in almost 
any position or soil 

Boey Feverfew. Pyrdhrum roseum, Caucasus. 
Evergreen pereimial ; 2 feet ; rose ; summer ; seed or 
division. — The numerous single and double varieties of 
this fine hardy plant grow freely in almost any soil of 
position, but are most suitable for the low fiinges of 
shrubberies, or low-l)dng banks, in rich soil. 

Marsh Feverfew. Pyrethrum uliginosum. Hungary. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; white ; late in sum- 
mer; seed or division. — A showy late-flowering plant, 
fine for grouping with the best Michaelmas daisies and 
other large and effective plants, in rich moist soil 


FendulouB Bell-flower. Symphyandra pendula, 
Caucasus. Herbaceous perennial ; i to i J feet ; white ; 
summer; seed or division. — Banks or rocky places, 
amidst vegetation not more than about i foot high. 

Bearded Bell-flower. Campanula barbata, Italy, 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; pale blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Banks, rocky places, or in grass. 

Carpathian Bell-flower. Campanula carpatica. Mid^ 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; blue; smnmer; 

*■"■ ^^^F^av-v^v^v-^-M^^^r^^a^^^^^^^^^^^^Vl^^l^^^^^^^i^^^a^lBVnP^iOTIPWF 


Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 8g 

seed or division. — A lovely plant for banks, rocky places, 
or any position in which it may not be overrun by taller 
vegetation. It thrives in any soil 

Fragile Bell-flower, Campanula fragilis. Italy. 
Herbaceous perennial ; J foot ; pale blue \ summer ; 
seed or division. — On dry sunny banks, amidst dwarf 
rock plants, or in crevices in old quarries, &c 

Gurgano Bell-flower. Campanula garganica, Italy. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; blue ; sunmier ; 
seed or<iivision. — Similar uses to the preceding. 

Tall Bell-flower. Campanula grandis, Asia Minor. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; blue ; summer ; seed or 
division. — ^Association with the finer medium-sized her- 
baceous plants, on fringes of shrubberies, and in open 
glades in woods. 

Equal-leaved Bell-flower. Campanula isophylla, 
J North Italy. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; blue \ 

I summer ; seed or division. — Similar positions to those for 

C. fragilis, or C. gaiganica. 

Wall Bell-flower. Campanula muralis. Dalmatia. 
Herbaceous perennial; 8 to 12 inches; pale blue; 
summer ; seed or division. — Rocky places or old quar- 
ries ; if possible, in chinks against a vertical face of rock, 
where it will prove most ornamental. 

Long Bell-flower. Campanula nobilis. China. Her- 
baceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; purple or white ; sum- 
mer; seed or division. — ^Banks and rocky places, or on 
the level ground, on which, however, its large pendulous 
blossoms will not be seen to such great advantage as 
when the plant is somewhat elevated. 

90 The Wild Garden. 

Feaoh-leaved Bell-flower* Campanula persidfolia. 
Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 2^ feet ; blue ; 
summer; division. — Similar positions to those for C* 


Spring Heath. Erica camea. Germany. Small 
shrub ; 6 to 12 inches ; pale purple ; winter ; division 
or cuttings. — Among our wild heaths, or on margins of 
shrubberies, in ordinary garden soil, though it thrives best 
in peat. 

Empetmm-like Menziesia. Menziesia empdriformis. 
North America. Small shrub ; pale red ; summer ; divi- 
sion or cuttings. — ^Very bare rocky places, in moist peaty 
soil ; chiefly suited for moist or upland districts, unless 
when carefully grown in the rock-garden. 

Partridge Berry. Gaultheria procumbens. North 
America. Trailing shrub ; 2 to 4 inches ; white ; sum- 
mer ; division. — Rocky and bare places, or in almost any 
position amidst very dwarf vegetation ; always in rather 
moist soil ; best in that which is somewhat peaty. 


Herbaceous Periwinkle. Vinca herbacea, Hungary. 
Perennial ; i to i J feet ; blue ; summer ; division. — ^Woods, 
copses, fringes of shrubberies, banks, rough rockwork, &c. 

Greater Periwinkle. Vinca major. Southern Eu- 
rope. Trailer; i to ij feet ; blue; summer; division. — 
Similar positions to preceding, but this is a much stronger 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 91 

plant The fine variegated kinds thrive perfectly in 
woods and semi-wild spots, in any kind of soil. 

Lesser Periwinkle. Vinca minor. Europe. Trailer ; 
I foot ; blue ; summer ; division. — Similar positions to 
preceding. There are many varieties, all good. J 


Douglas's Swallowwort. Asdepias Douglasiu North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 feet ; purple ; siun- 
mer; seed or division. — ^Among the finer herbaceous 
plants in copses, on margins of shrubberies, or on 
banks, in rich and deep soil 

Comuti's Swallowwort. Asdepias ComuH. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 5 feet ; purple ; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Similar positions to preceding ; 
but this plant is suited for association with the tallest and 
most vigorous herbaceous subjects. 


Stemless Glentian. Gentiana acaulis. Central 
Europe. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 4 inches ; blue ; 
early summer; division. — Bare rocky places; seldom 
thrives in dry soil. Would grow on bare ground on our 
mountains or high hills as well as it does on the Alps. 

Swallowwort Glentian. Gentiana asdepiadea, 
Austria. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; blue ; 
summer; seed or division. — Amidst the finer dwarf 
herbaceous plants, on the margins of woods and copses, 
on rough rockwork, &c., in ordinary soil ; best, however, 
in pe^t or very light sandy loam. 


gz The Wild Garden. 

Womi Grass. Spigdia marUandica, North America. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to i^ feet; red; summer; 
division. — Now perhaps too rare for naturalization but 
well worthy of trial where there is any moist, sandy, 
peat soil, in a semi-wild place, on the fringes of copses, 
or open bare glades in woods. 


Creeping Fhlox. Phlox reptans. North America. 
Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; reddish ; spring ; 
division. — Bare rocky places, fringes of low copses, or 
wherever there is a very dwarf vegetation. 

Awl-leaved Phlox. Fhlox subulata. North America. 
Evergreen perennial ; 4 inches ; pink ; early summer ; 
division. — Similar positions to the preceding. 


Lined Bindweed. Convolvulus Hneatus. Southern 
Europe. Trailer; 3 to 6 inches; bluish; summer; 
division. — In sandy soil, amidst the very dwarfest vege- 
tation, on slopes, banks, &c 

Dahnrian Bearbind. Calysie^ dahurica, Dahuria. 
Climber; i to 5 feet; pink; summer; division. — In 
copses, hedges, over old stumps, railings, &c. A lovely 
twining plant, hardy and vigorous. 

Pubescent Bearbind. Calystegia pubescms. China. 
Climber; 10 to 15 feet; pale rose; summer; division. — 
Similar uses to preceding ; plant not so vigorous. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 93 


Prostrate GromwelL Lithospermutn prostraium. 
Southern Europe. Evergreen trailer; 6 to 12 inches; 
blue ; summer ; cuttings. — Rocky or bare places, margins 
of copses, banks, &c. ; flourishes best in deep, well- 
drained, sandy loam. 

Bough Comfrey. Symphytum asperrimum. Cau- 
casus. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; blue; ^ 
summer ; seed or division. — In woods and rough 
shrubberies. A 'grand plant for naturalization. 

Bohemian Comfrey. Symphytum bohemicum. Bo- 
hemia. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; red ; early 
^summer; division. — Copses, margins of plantations, by 
wood walks, &c. in ordinary soil 

Oriental Comfrey. Symphytum orientaie. Tauria. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; white ; early summer ; 
seed or division. — Similar positions to those for the Bo- 
hemian Comfrey. 

Caucasian Comfrey. Symphytum caucasicum. Cau- 
casus. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; blue ; sum- 
mer ; division. — In shrubberies, copses, fringes of woods, 
&c, also in more open positions amongst medium-sized 
herbs. A lovely plant for naturalization, and thriving 
freely in any soil. 

Italian Bugloss. Anchusa itaiica. Southern Europe. 
Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; blue; sununer; 
seed or division. — Fringes of woods, copses, &c., or 
among the stronger herbaceous plants. 

Azorean Eorget-me-not. Myosotis azorica. Azores. 

94 The Wild Garden. 

Biennial ; i foot ; dark blue ; autumn ; seed. — In wann 
nooks in sandy, moist soil 

Early Forget-me-not. Myosoiis dissitiflora, Alps. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 6 to 12 inches ; blue ; early 
spring; seed or division. — Rocky places, banks, fringes 
of shrubberies and thin places in copses. 

Creeping Forget-me-not. Omphalodes.vema. Alps 
of Europe. Evergreen perennial; 6 inches; blue; 
spring; division. — In rocky places, fringes of low shrub- 
beries, open spots in copses, by wood walks, &c ; prefers 
a somewhat moist soil 

Apennine Hound's Tongue. Cynoglossum apen- 
ninum, Italy. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; 
blue ; summer ; division or seed. — ^Amongst herbs from 
I foot to 18 inches high, on margins of shrubberies. 

Cretan Borage. Borago cretica, Crete. Herbaceous 
perennial; i to 2 feet; blue; spring; division. — By 
wood walks, or in lawns in quiet shady places. 

Oriental Borage. Borago orienicUis. Turkey. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet; blue ; summer; division. — 
Similar positions to preceding. 

IfOose-flowered Borage. Borago laxiflora, Corsica. 
Biennial; 6 to 12 inches; blue; summer; seed. — In 
bare places, banks, &c ; best in sandy soil ; too small for 
association with the other Borages and Comfreys recom- 
mended ; sows itself freely. 


Fyrenean Bamondia. Ramondia pyrmaka, Pyre- 
nees. Herbaceous perennial; 4 inches; purple; sum- 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 95 

mer ; division. — Moist and warm rocky spots facing 
south, in woods or shrubberies ; should be isolated from 
coarse or creeping plants, and put in spongy loam or 
peat, and never among coarse plants. 

Winter Cherry. PhysaJis Alkekengi. Southern Eu- 
rope. Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; white ; late sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Fringes of copses, or banks near 
wood walks ; best in warm soil. 


Perennial Mullein. Verbascum ChaixiL Southern 
France. Herbaceous perennial ; , 4 to 6 feet ; yellow, with 
brown and purple centre ; summer ; seed or division. — 
A few feet or yards within fringes of woods, or associated 
with the largest and handsomest herbaceous plants. 
Other large kinds are good, but the preceding is a true 

Great Snapdragon. Antirrhinum majus, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; 2 feet ; red ; summer ; seed or 
cuttings. — Rocky places. Although this grows in almost 
any soil, it is on walls and ruins that it becomes 
thoroughly established. 

Bock Snapdragon. Antirrhinum rupestre, — Peren- 
nial ; J foot ; purplish-pink ; summer ; seed. — Rocky and 
bare places, walls, and on banks. 

Alpine Toadflax. Linaria alpina. Austria. Ever- 
green perennial ; 6 to 1 2 inches ; violet ; summer ; seed. 
In bare, open, sandy, gritty, or gravelly spots, in the 
moister and more elevated districts. 

Broom-leaved Toadflax. Linaria gmistafolia. Aus- 

96 The Wild Garden. 

tria. Herbax:eous perennial ; 2 feet ; yellow \ summer ; 
seed or division. — Banks or copses. 

Hartweg'8 Pentstemozi. Pentstemon Hartwegi. 
Mexico. Evergreen perennial ; 2 feet ; red ; summer ; 
cuttings or seed. — Margins of shrubberies, open places in 
copses and on banks ; growing best and enduring longest 
in a light rich soil, not very wet and cold in winter. 

Tufted FentBtemozi. Pentstemon procerus. North 
Amaica. Evergreen perennial ; i foot ; purple ; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Bare and rocky places, or almost 
ainywhere amidst very dwarf vegetation, in ordinary soiL 

Bearded Chelone. Chdone barbata. Mexico. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; orange-scarlet ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Among the finer herbaceous plants on 
margins of shrubberies, in copses, or in rocky places. The 
variety Torreyi is very large and fine. 

Conmion Musk. Mimulus moschatus. Colmnbia. 
Perennial; 9 to 12 inches; yellow; summer; seed or 
division. — Best in somewhat shady -positions, but will 
grow anywhere. 

Many of the varieties of Monkey flower {Mimulus) are 
more ornamental than the species in cultivation. They 
may be naturalized in moist rich soil, on margins of 
shrubberies, and beds of American plants, or in open 
shrubby or heathy places, where there is a moist soil 

Alpine Erinus. Erinus alpinus. Pyrenees. Ever- 
green perennial ; 3 to 4 inches ; rosy purple ; summer ; 
seed. — ^Walls and ruins : grows better in these positions 
than on the level ground. 

Amethystiiie SpeedwelL Veronica amethysHna. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 97 

Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; blue ; 
summer; seed or division. — Margins of shrubberies, 
copses, or anywhere associated with the medium-sized 
herbaceous plants in any soil. 

Austrian Speedwell. Veronica austriaca, Austria. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; light blue ; summer ; seed 
or division. — ^With the neater herbaceous plants on mar- 
gins of shrubberies, banks, and slopes. 

Hoary Speedwell. Veronica incana, Russia. Her- 
baceous perennial; 2 feet; blue; summer; seed or 
division. — Rocky places, or bare banks in ordinary soil. 


Lemon Thyme. Thymus citriodorus. Dwarf ever- 
green ; 4 to 6 inches ; flowers inconspicuous ; division. — 
Rocky and bare places, dry, sandy, or gravelly banks. 

Corsioan Thyme. Thymus corsicus. Corsica. Ever- 
green perennial; i inch; lilac; summer; seed or divi- 
sion. — ^A very diminutive, strongly peppermint-scented 
pl^t, that will creep about amidst the very dwaifest 
vegetation in rocky places, and on moist banks. 

Variegated Common Garden Thyme« Thymus 
vulgaris. Variegated garden variety; evergreen peren- 
nial; I foot; purplish; summer; division. — Banks or 
rocky places, in dry soil* 

Common (Germander. Teucrium Chamcedrys, Eu- 
rope. Herbaceous perennial ; f foot ; purple ; sununer ; 
division. — Banks and fringes of shrubberies, among the 
dwaifer herbaceous plants. 

Hyroanian (Germander. Teucrium hyrcanicum, 



98 The Wild Garden, 

Persia. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 3 feet ; purple ; 
summer; division or seed. — Copses, bare openings in 
shrubberies, among the stronger herbaceous plants. 

(Geneva Bugle. Ajuga gmevensis, Switzerland. 
Herbaceous perennial ; \ foot ; flesh ; summer ; seed or 
division. — Margins of shrubberies, banks, or anywhere 
amongst vegetation not above i foot high, in ordinary 

Oswego Tea. Monarda didyma. North America. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; red ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Margins of shrubberies, copses, or open 
spots in glades, associated with large herbaceous plants ; 
thrives best in sandy loam. 

HoUow-stenuned Monarda. Monarda fisiulosa. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 4 feet; 
purplish ; summer ; seed or division. There are several 
varieties. — Similar soil and positions to preceding. 

Ealm's Monarda. Monarda Kalmiana, North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; purple ; 
summer ; division or seed. — Similar soil and positions to 
those recommended for the two preceding kinds. 

Wind-herb Fhlomis. Phlomis herha-venti. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial ; i to 2 feet ; red ; late 
summer; seed or division. — Sloping banks, margins 
of shrubberies, in tufts by wood walks, in oidinary 

BuBsell's Phlomis. Phlomis Russdliana, Levant. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; brownish ; early 
summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to the 
preceding, but may be put among bolder vegetation. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 99 

Spotted ArehangeL Lamium maculatum, Italy. 
Herbaceous perennial ; r foot ; purple ; summer ; divi- 
sion. — Fringes of plantations, banks, and rocky places. 
The white variety is very showy and good. 

Showy Fhysostegia. Physostegia spedosa. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; pink; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^Among the finer perennials 
on the margins of shrubberies, in copses, or in groups 
by wood walks. 

Imbrioated Physostegia. Physostegia imbricata. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; 
rose; summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to 
preceding, but suited also for association with larger 

Virgiiiian Physostegia. Physostegia virginiana. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; 
red; summer; seed or division. — Similar positions to 
those for P. speciosa. 

Woolly Woundwort. Siachys lanata. Siberia. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; purple; summer; 
division or seed. — Margins of shrubberies or on banks 
in any kind of soil 

Lavender-leaved Zietenia* Zietenia lavandulafolia, 
Levant Evergreen perennial ; i foot ; purple ; summer ; 
division. — Similar positions to preceding; very fi-ee on 
warm and sandy soils. 

Fisher's Dragon's Head. DracocephcUum argunmse. 
Siberia. Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; blue ; siunmer ; 
division or seed. — Rocky places and bare banks, in 
sandy soil or free loam. 

H 2 


loo The Wild Garden. 

Austrian Dragon's Head. Dracocephalum austri- 
acutn. Austria. Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; blue ; 
summer ; seed or division. — Similar soil and positions to 

Prickly-leaved Dragon's Head. Dracocephalum 
per^rinum, Siberia. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; 
blue ; summer ; seed or division. — Banks and rocky 
places, amongst dwarf vegetation, in light, well-drained 

Common ^ Balm. Mdissa officinalis. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; white; all 
summer; seed or division. — ^Margins of shrubberies, 
copses, or in tufts by wood walks. Only desirable for 
the odour of its leaves. 

Alpine Skullcap. Scutellaria alpina. Hungary. 
Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; blue and white; 
summer ; seed or division. — Dry sandy slopes or banks, 
on margins of shrubberies. Best in warm sandy loam, 
but easy to grow in ordinary soil. 

Tartarian Skullcap. Scutellaria lufulina, Tartary. 
Herbaceous perennial ; i to 2 feet ; yellow ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Similar soil and positions to pre- 

Silvery Sage. Salvia argentea, Crete. Herbaceous 
perennial ; 3 feet ; white ; early summer ; seed. — Rocky 
places or banks, in good soil 

Wild Sage. Salvia sylvestris. Europe. Herbaceous 
perennial ; 3 feet ; purplish ; smnmer ; seed or division. — 
In copses, &c, and on rough banks, amongst the coarsest 
herbaceous plants. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization, loi 

Ifarge-flowered Self-heal Prundla grandiflora. 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; f to i^ feet; blue; 
summer; seed or division. — Fringes of shrubberies, 
banks, rocky places, &c, in soils not too wet in winter. 


Knot-flowered Zapania. Zapania nodiflora. South 
America. Evergreen perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; pink ; 
summer ; division or cuttings. — Banks and rocky places, 
amidst dwarf trailing herbs. 


Broad-leaved Bear's Breech. Acanthus latifoHus, 
Portugal Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 4 feet ; purplish ; 
summer ; seed or division. — In isolated tufts by wood 
walks, or grouped with herbaceous plants having fine 
foliage, always in deep rich soil 

Soft Bear's Breech. Acanthus mollis. Italy. Her- 
baceous perennial ; 3 feet ; pale purple ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Similar soil and positions to preceding. 

Bristling Bear's Breeoh. Acanthus spinosissimus. 
Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; pale 
purple; summer; division or seed. — Similar soil and 
positions to preceding. Not so vigorous, but a very 
singular and desirable plant 

Spiny Bear's Breeoh. Acanthus spinosus. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; 3 to 4 feet; pale 
purple; summer; seed or division. — Similar soil and 
positions to preceding. 

loa The Wild Garden. 


European Cyclamen. Cyclamen europcsum, Europe. 
Tuber ; 4 inches ; light red ; summer ; seed. — Rocky 
places and banks amidst very dwarf plants. 

Ivy-leaved Cyclamen. Cyclamen hederafoHum. Eu- 
rope. Tuber; 4 inches; purplish; summer; seed. — 
Similar positions to preceding. I have seen it natura- 
lized with success in woods under the shade of high 
trees. In moss or short grass, but not in the neigh- 
bourhood of coarse herbs, brambles, &c. Other kinds of 
Cyclamen maybe tried, notably C. coiun and C. vemum. 

Jeffrey's American Cowslip. Dodecatheon Jeffreyu 

North America. Herbaceous perennial; i^ feet high; 

j purplish; early summer; seed or division. — Rocky 

places or low banks, in rich light and deep soil. A noble 

plant, as yet rare. 

Mead's American Cowslip. Dodecatheon Meadia. 
, North America. Herbaceous perennial; i to i^feet; 
purplish ; early summer ; seed or division. — Similar soil 
and positions to those for D. JeflfreyL Not so vigorous. 

Small American Cowslip. Dodecatheon integrifolium. 
North America. Herbaceous perennial ; \ foot ; pale 
purple; spring; seed or division. — Rocky places or 
banks, in moist sandy or peaty soil and amid dwarf 

Alpine Soldanella. Soidanella alpina. Switzerland. 
Evergreen perennial ; \ foot ; purplish blue ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Bare rocky places, amidst minute 
vegetation, in moist very sandy soil. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 103 

Aurioula. Primula Auricula. Switzerland. Ever- 
green perennial; \ foot; various; spring; seed or divi- 
sion. — Rocky or bare places. Might be naturalized 
in upland districts wherever the grass is rather short 

Snowy FrimroBe. Primula nivalis, Dahuria. Ever- 
green perennial ; \ foot ; white ; early summer ; division 
or seed. — Bare rocky places, in humid, elevated parts 
of the country, in moist sandy or peaty soil. 

Fairy Frimrose. Primula minima. Southern Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 3 inches ; purple ; spring ; seed 
or division. — Very bare rocky places, in northern and 
elevated parts of the kingdom only, associated with such 
dwarf plants as P. scotica, and the Pinguiculas. 

Large-leaved Primroefe. Primula Palinuri. Ever- 
green perennial; i foot; yellow; early summer; di- 
vision. — Similar soil and positions to those recommended 
for the American cowslips. 

Sikkim FrimroBe. Primula sikkimensis. Himalayas. 
Evergreen perennial ; i to 2 feet ; yellow ; summer ; divi- 
sion or seed. — ^At present a somewhat scarce plant 
May, when sufficiently plentiful, be naturalized in rocky 
places, or on low banks in somewhat sheltered positions 
in moist, deep and light soils. 

. Long-flowered FrimroBe. Primula langifolia. Eu- 
rope. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; red ; sum- 
mer ; division or seed. — May be naturalized in positions, 
and under conditions, in which our own Bird's-eye 
Primula is found to thrive. 

Clammy Frimrose. Primula viscosa. Piedmont 
Evergreen perennial; 3 to 6 inches; purple; spring.; 

104 1^^ Wild Garden. 

division or seed. — Similar soil and positions to those re- 
commended for the Snowy Primrose. 

Book- jasmine. Androsace Chamajasme. Austria. 
Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 3 inches ; pink ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Similar positions and soil to those 
recommended for the Fairy Primrose. 

Woolly-leaved Androsaoe. Androsace lanuginosa, 
Himalayas. Evergreen perennial ; ^ foot ; lilac ; summer ; 
division or seed. — Rocky bare places and banks only, 
in the southern and milder parts of the country, and 
amongst very dwarf trailing herbs, in free soil 

Yellow Androsace. Androsace Vitaliana. Pyrenees. 
Evergreen perennial ; 3 inches ; yellow ; early summer ; 
division. — Positions and localities similar to those re- 
commended for the Fairy Primrose, in light and 
moist soil. 

Willow-leaved Loose-Strife. Lysimachia Epheme- 
rum, Spain. Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 3 feet; 
white; summer; division. — Margins of plantations and 


Broad -leaved Sea Lavender. Statice latifolia, 
Siberia. Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; blue ; sum- 
mer ; seed or division. — Isolated tufts in glades by wood 
walks, and also associated with the finer autumnal 
flowering herbs in almost any position. 

Tartarian Sea Lavender. Statice tatarica, Russia. 
Evergreen perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; pink ; summer ; seed 


Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. J05 

or division. — Rocky places amidst vegetation not much 
over a foot high. 

Priokly Thrift. Acantholimon glumaceum. Armenia. 
Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; rose ; summer ; seed 
or cuttings. — Bare rocky places, banks or slopes, amidst 
vegetation not over 5 inches high. 

Bound-headed Thrift. Amieria cephaJotes, Europe. 
Evergreen perennial ; i to 2 feet ; pink ; summer ; seed 
or division. — Banks, slopes and rocky places, associated 
with Aquilegias and the finer and dwarfer perennials. 

Lady Larpent's Plumbago. Plumbago Larpentce, 
China. Evergreen perennial ; i foot ; dark blue ; sum- 
mer; division or cuttings. — Banks, slopes or rocky 
places, in any soil, amidst dwarf or prostrate plants. 


Virginian Poke. Phytolacca decandra, Virginia. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; purple ; summer ; divi- 
sion or seed. — Isolated tufts near wood walks, associated 
with the largest and most vigorous herbaceous plants ; 
in copses, margins of plantations, &c. Worth planting 
for the sake of its berries. 

Kernel-like Fhytolaooa. Phytolacca adnosa. Nor- 
thern India. Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; 
summer ; division. — Similar positions to preceding. 


Alpine Persioaria. Polygonum alpinum, Switzer- 
land Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; white ; 
summer ; seed or division. — ^Woody places or copses. 

io6 The Wild Gardens 

Brown's Persioaria. Polygonum Brunonis. Nor- 
thern India. Evergreen perennial ; 6 to 9 inches ; pink ; 
summer; division or seed — Slopes, banks, or rocky 
places in any soil 

New Zealand Persicaria. Muhlmbeckia complexa. 
New Zealand. Evergreen climbing shrub ; 2 to 4 feet ; 
yellowish ; summer ; cuttings. — Banks, slopes, or rocky 
places, among twining or trailing plants. 

Siebold's Peraioariai. Polygonum Sieboldiu Japan. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; yellowish green ; 
summer ; division or cuttings.: — Isolated specimens near 
wood or pleasure-ground walks, but most striking in 
the former position; or associated with the most vigorous 
herbaceous plants cultivated for the effect of their leaves 
or habit. 

Whortleberry Persioaria.. Polygonum vaccinifolium. 
Northern India. Perennial ; 6^ to 1 2 inches ; pink ; 
summer; division or cuttings. — Banks, slopes, rocky 
places, or margins of low shrubberies.. 

Emod's Bliubarb. Rheum Emodi, Nepal. Her- 
baceous perennial; 4 to- 6« feet; purple; summer; divi- 
sion or seed. — Isolated tufts near wood-walks, or asso- 
ciated with other noble-leaved plants. The tufts to be 
planted in the grass a few feet or yards from the margin 
of a plantation, in very deep, rich soil 

Palmate Bhubarb; Rheum palmatum, China. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 4 to 6 feet ; whitish ; summer ; 
division or seed. — Similar positions to the preceding, and 
associated with the Acanthuses, etc 

Common Bliubarb. Rheum rhaponticum, Asia. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 107 

Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; white and green; 
summer; division or seed — Similar positions to preceding. 
Wave-leaved Bliubarb. Rheum undulaium. China. 
Herbaceous perennial; 4 to 6 feet; white and green; 
.summer ; division or seed. — Ditto. 


Great Birthwort. Aristoiochia Sipho, North 
America. Deciduous climber ; 10 to 30 feet ; summer ; 
division and cuttings. — A noble plant for covering 
arbours, banks^ stumps of old trees, &c, also wigwam- 
like bowers, formed with blanches of trees.. 


Cypress Spurge. Euphorbia Cyparissias, Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; yellow; 
summer; division or seed — Slopes^ banks, margins of 
copses, or rocky places^ in any soiL 

Glaucous Spurge. Euphorbia Myrsinites. Southern 
Europe. Evergreen perennial^ ; 6 to 9 inches ; yellow ; 
summer; seed or cuttings. — Bare banks and rocky 
places in warm soils. 


Bough Gunnera. Gunnera scabra. South America. 

Herbaceous perennial; 2 to 4 feet; siunmer; flowers 

inconspicuous ; seed or division. — In warm and 

sheltered spots, in very deep and moist soil. Fine foliage. 


Broad-leaved Arrowhead. Sagittaria laHfolia plena. 
North America, Aquatic ; i to a feet ; white ; summer ; 

io8 The Wild Garden. 

division,— In margins of ponds, rivers, boggy ground, or 
any position where there is mud or water. 


Showy Lady's Slipper. Cypripedium spectabile. 
North America, Herbaceous perennial; i foot; white 
and rose ; smnmer ; division. — In places where boggy or 
deep, rich, moist, peaty or vegetable soil occurs. As it 
is rare it is better planted in a somewhat sheltered 
position, where it may escape injury from wind. 


Mealy Thalia. Thalia dealbata, Carolina. Aquatic ; 
4 feet; blue; summer; division or seed. — Planted in 
the water near the margins of streams or lakes in deep 
soil; usually grown as a stove plant, but will be 
found to succeed well in the southern parts of this 


Crested Flower-de-Luee. Iris cristata. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; pale 
blue ; summer ; seed or division. — Low banks and rocky 
places, amidst very dwarf vegetation, in light sandy soil 

De Berg's Flower-de-Luce. Iris De Bergii, Bel- 
gian Hybrid. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; yellow 
and black ; early summer ; division. — Banks, margins of 
shrubberies, copses, groups, or in open glades, and asso- 
ciated with large and handsome herbaceous plants; 
thrives best in rich soil 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 109 

Pale Flower-de-Luoe. Iris flavescens. Southern 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet \ yellow ; 
early summer ; seed or division. — Similar positions and 
soil to preceding ; not so ornamental. 

FLorentme Flower-de-Luoe. Iris flormtina. South- 
em Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 feet ; white ; early 
summer ; seed or division. — Same soil and positions ; an 
excellent plant for naturalization. 

Common Elower-de-Luoe. Iris germanica. Ger- 
many. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 feet ; blue ; early sum- 
mer ; division or seed. — Same soil and positions as for 
I. De BergiL There are many fine varieties. 

Grass-leaved Elower-de-Luoe. Iris graminea, 
Austria. Herbaceous perennial ; i foot ; purplish blue ; 
early summer ; division or seed. — Fringes of shrubberies 
or in rocky places, in ordinary soil. 

Monnier's Flower de Luce. Iris Mannieri, Levant 
Herbaceous perennial; 6 to 9 inches; yellow; early 
summer ; division or seed. — In moist soil in glades and 
open parts of copses, or on fringes of shrubberies. 

Tall nower-de-Luoe. Iris ochroleuca. Levant 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; creamy yellow ; summer ; 
seed or division. — Fringes of woods and copses or 
shrubberies, somewhat within the margin. 

Pale Blue Plower-de-Luoe. Iris pallida, Turkey. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; pale blue ; early 
summer; division or seed. — Similar positions to those 
for the common Iris germanica. 

I>warf Flower-de-Luoe. Iris pumila. Austria. 
Herbaceous perennial ; 3 to 6 inches ; purple ; spring ; 

jio The Wild Garden. 

division. — Bare, low, rocky places, or level banks, always 
amidst dwarf vegetation. Thrives in ordinary soil, but 
best in peat. 

Netted Elower-de-Luoe. Iris reticulata. Iberia.* 
Bulb; 6 inches; blue; spring; division. — Sunny spots 
on low warm banks in well-drained, rich, light soil 

Elder-soented Flower-de-Luoe. Iris sambudna. 
Southern Europe. Herbaceous perennial ; 3 feet ; light 
blue; summer; division or seed. — Similar positions to 
those for Iris De BeigiL 

Violet FLower-de-Luce. Iris subbifiora, Portugal 
Herbaceous perennial ; 2 feet ; violet ; summer ; division 
or seed. — Similar positions to those for Iris germanica, 
but amidst dwarfer vegetation. 

Vairiegated FLower-de-Luoe. Iris variegata. Hun- 
gary. Herbaceous perennial ; 2 to 3 feet ; pale yellow ; 
early summer; division or seed. — Similar soil and positions 
to those for Iris De Bergii, which is probably a variety of it 

Haked-flowered Croous. Croats nudiflarus. South- 
em Europe. Bulb ; 6 inches ; purple ; autumn ; division. 
— In the grass in glades, by wood-walks, &c This plant 
is naturalized in several parts of England. 

Showy GrociLS. Crocus speciosus, Hungary. Btdb; 
3 inches ; purple ; autumn ; division. — In similar positions 
to preceding : also on banks and bare spots near fringes 
of shrubberies, &c, in simny spots. 

Snsian Croons. Crocus susianus, Turkey. Bulb ; 
3 to 4 inches ; yellow ; early spring ; division. — Sunny 
banks, in short grass, in any soil 

Imperati's Croous. Crocus Imperatonius. Italy. 

Hardy Exotic Plants far Naturalization, iii 

Hardy bulb ; 4 to 6 inches ; lilac purple ; very early 
spring. — In short grass not mown till rather late in the 
season, in warm, sunny spots where its early-flowering 
habit may be encouraged. 

The common yellow and blue Crocuses, C. aureus and 
C. vemus may be naturalized with facility in grassy spots, 
as may the Scotch. Crocus, C. biflorus, and indeed most 
of the other species. 


Yellow Stembergia. Sternbergia lutea. Southern 
Europe. Bulb ; 6 to 9 inches ; yellow ; late in summer ; 
division.— Bare places or low banks, well exposed to the 
sun, in grs^velly and dry soil. 

Atamasoo Idly. Zephyranthes Atamasco, North 
America. Bulb ; 6 to 9 inches ; white \ early summer; 
division or seed. — Low banks and rocky places, or here 
and there amidst very dwarf shrubs. 

Hoop-petticoat DaflfodlL Narcissus Bulbocodium. 
Southern Europe. Bulb; 6 inches; yellow; spring; 
division. — Low sunny banks and slopes, near pleasure- 
ground walks. 

Two-coloured Daffodil:. Narcissus bicolor. Southern 
Europe. Bulb ; i foot ; white and yellow ; early sum- 
mer ; division. — In grassy places near wood-walks. 

Peerless DaffodiL Narcissus incomparaitilis. Por- 
tugal Bulb ; I foot ; yellow ; early summer ; division. — 
On banks or slopes, in glades, or almost any position in 
any soil. 

Great DaffodiL Narcissus major. Spain. Bulb; 

iij* The Wild Garden. 

I foot ; yellow ; spring ; division. — In tufts by pleasure- 
ground or wood-walks, in any soil 

Small DaffbdlL Narcissus minor, Spain. Bulb ; 2 
to 4 inches ; yellow ; spring ; division. — Associated with 
the dwarfest bulbous plants, on warm banks, and amidst 
very dwarf vegetation, in light sandy soil 

Sweet-scented DaffodiL Narcissus odarus. Southern 
Europe. Bulb ; i foot ; yellow ; early summer ; division. 
— Fringes of shrubberies, low simny banks, in tufts in 
glades, and by wood walks, in any soil 

Poet's BaffodlL Narcissus poeticus. Southern Eu- 
rope. Bulb; I foot; white; early summer; division. — 
Banks, by pleasure-ground or wood walks, margins of 
shrubberies, or in glades ; in fact, in almost any position, 
and in almost any soil. 

Plaited Snowdrop. Galanthus plicatus. Crimea. 
Bulb ; 6 inches ; white ; winter ; division. — In any 
position where the common Snowdrop succeeds. 

Late Snowflake. Leucojum Hemandezii, Europe. 
Bulb ; I to 2 feet ; white ; early smnmer ; division. — In 
tufts in grassy places near wood and pleasure-ground 
walks, associated with the larger Daffodils. 


Two-rowed Day Lily. Hemerocallis disticha, China. 
Perennial; 2 feet; deep orange; summer; division. — 
Banks, slopes, tufts in glades, or associated in almost any 
position, with the stronger herbaceous plants. Grows in 
almost any soil. 

Yellow Day Lily. Hemerocallis flava. Siberia. 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 1 1 3 

Perennial; 2 feet; yellow; summer; division. — Similar 
I>ositions to the preceding. 

Tawny Day Lily. HemeroaUlis fulva. Levant. 
2 feet; tawny; summer; division. — Similar positions 
and soil to those for H. disticha. 

Grass-leaved Day Lily. Hemerocallis graminea. 
Siberia. Herbaceous perennial; i foot; yellow; sum- 
mer ; division. — Banks, slopes, or fringes of shrubberies, 
amidst very dwarf vegetation. 

White Fiinkia. JFimkia grandiflora, Japan. Her- 
baceous perennial ; I to i^ feet; white; summer; divi- 
sion or seed. — ^Wann banks, or sunny nooks amidst dwarf 
shrubs in good sandy loam. 

Siebold's Funkia. Funkia Sieboldiana. Japan. 
Herbaceous perennial; i foot; whitish; sununer; seed 
or division. — Isolated tufts near pleasure-ground walks. 
Thrives best in deep sandy peat. 

Showy Tritoma. Tritoma Uvaria. Cape of Good 
Hope. Perennial ; 3 to 4 feet ; scarlet and yellow ; late 
in summer; division. — Isolated tufts in glades, or 
associated with groups of the nobler autumnal-flowering 
herbaceous plants by wood walks. 


French Solomon's SeaL Polygonatum intermedium, 
A fine plant resembling our own Solomon's Seal, and 
suitable for similar positions. I have only seen it with 
M. Boreau in the Botanical Garden at Angers. 

Large-flowered Trillium. Trillium grandiflorum. 
North America. Tuber; 6 to 9 inches; white; early 



1 14 The Wild Garden. 

summer ; division. — In moist, depressed, perfectly shel- 
tered and shady nooks, in rich, deep vegetable soil 

BoBe-oolonred Lapageria. Lapageria rosea. Chili. 
Climber; 6 to 15 feet; red; summer; cuttings or seed* 
L — I have been informed that this plant has been success- 

fully established in the south of England in peat beds, 
pnd allowed to twine among shrubs. 


Yellow AsphodeL Asphoddus ItUeus, Sicily. 2 feet ; 
yellow; summer; division or seed. — In copses, margins 
of shrubberies, and associated with medium-sized her- 
baceous plants. 

St. Bruno's Iiily. Czackia (Faradisia) Liliastrum. 
Europe. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; white; 
early summer ; division or seed. — In glades, near wood 
walks, or in the rougher parts of the pleasure-grounds^ 
Till plentiful it would perhaps be best tried in favourable 
spots on low unmown banks in sandy loam. 

Narbonne Star of Bethlehem. Omithogalum nor- 
bonnense. Southern Europe. Bulb ; i to 2 feet ; white ; 
summer; division. — On low banks, associated with the 
finest daffodils. 

Pyramidal Star of Bethlehem. Omithogalum pyra- 
midale. Spain. Bulb; i to 2 feet; white; summer; 
division. — Fringes of shrubberies, here and there among 
dwarf shrubs, and associated with the finer Irises and the 
dwarfer Lilies. 

Byzantine SquilL Scilia amana. Levant. Bulb ; 
3 to 6 inches ; blue ; spring ; division. — On low, waml 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 1 15 

banks, or in a sunny aspect amidst the grass, near the 
fringe of a shrubbery, or on slopes. 

Two-leaved SquilL Scilla bifolia. Europe. Bulb ; 
4 inches; blue; spring; division. — On low banks, in 
light soil ; also associated with the crocuses, snowdrops, 
&c. here and there in the grass. It is very hardy and 
free, but it is better to encourage its early-flowering 
tendencies by placing it in a warm and sunny position. 

Bell-flowered SquilL Scilla catnpanulata. Spain. 
Bulb; I foot; blue; early smnmer; division. — Fringes 
of shrubberies, or in almost any position. 

Spreading SquilL Scilla pattUa, Southern Europe. 
Bulb; I foot; blue; early summer; division. — ^Will 
thrive in positions in which, the bluebell is found, but it 
is best first established on a sheltered sunny bank. 

Italian SquilL Scilla italica. Italy. Bulb; 6 to 
12 inches; blue; early summer; division. — Should be 
first established on warm banks or slopes, amidst very 
dwarf vegetation in light soil. 

Siberian SquilL Scilla sibirica, Siberia. Bulb; 
3 to 4 inches; blue; spring; division. — Bare sunny 
banks, slopes, rocky places, &c. Thrives well in good 
sandy loam, amongst very dwarf vegetation. 

Amethyst Hyaointh. Hyadnthus amethystinus. 
Southern Europe. Bulb; ffoot; blue; early summer; 
division. — Similar positions to preceding. 

Grape Hyacinth. Muscari botryoides. Italy. Bulb ; 
6 inches; blue; early summer; division. — Fringes of 
low shrubberies, and also on banks, associated with the 
finer squills and the amethyst hyacinth. 

I 2 

J 1 6 The Wild Garden. 

Mtuk Hyaointh. Muscari Moschatum, Levant 
Bulb; 6 to 12 inches; brown and yellow; early 
summer ; division. — Bare sunny banks near walks ; only 
desirable for its odour, as the flowers are almost incon- 

Large Yellow Allium. Allium Moly, Southern 
Eiu-ope. Bulb; i foot; yellow; summer; seed or 
division. — Fringes of copses, banks, and woody places. 
Associated with Ramsons (A. Ursinum). 

Neapolitan Allinm. Allium neapolitanum, Italy. 
Bulb ; I foot ; white ; summer ; seed or division. — ^Asso- 
ciated with the finer daffodils on banks, fringes of shrub^ 
beries, and in rough rocky places. 

BrousBonet's Asparagus. Asparagus Brousscneti. 
Canaries. Perennial ; 3 to 10 feet ; white and green ; 
early summer; seed or division. — In shrubberies and 
copses, or among the most rampant climbing plants. Runs 
speedily up the stem of a dead tree or any similar object. 

Esculent Camassia. Camassia esculenta, Columbia. 
Bulb ; I foot ; light blue ; summer ; division or seed. — On 
low banks, margins of shrubberies, and associated with the 
taller bulbous plants in light, well-drained, and warm soil. 

New Zealand Flax. Phormiumtenax. New Zealand. 
Evergreen perennial ; 5 to 6 feet ; buff; summer ; division 
or seed. — This plant is tender in many parts of the country, 
but thrives very well in mild districts in the south and 
west of England and Ireland, in deep rich soil, and in 
shady or half-shady spots, in woods and copses. Where 
it grows well, isolated tufts of it have a fine effect near 
wood walks. 

Hardy Exotic Plants far Naturalization. 117 



Thready Adam's Needle. Yucca JUamentosa^ 
North America. Evergreen herb; 2 to 3 feet; white 
and green ; summer or autumn ; suckers. — Margins 
of shrubberies, on banks or rough rockwork, near cas- 
cades, &c ; and also, as it is a free-flowering kind, for 
association with the nobler herbaceous plants. 

FLaooid Adam's Needle. Ytuca flaccida. North 
America. Evergreen herb ; 3 to 5 feet ; whitish ; sum- 
mer or autumn ; suckers. — Similar uses and positions to 
the preceding ; and, as it flowers more freely and regu- 
larly, it is very valuable as a flowering plant 

Adam's Needle. Yucca gloriosa, America. Ever- 
green shrub ; 4 to 6 feet ; white ; smnmer ; suckers. — 
Isolated specimens by wood walks, on very rough, rocky 
ground, near cascades, &c. ; or grouped with tall herba- 
ceous plants of striking foliage and habit. 

Beotirved Adam's Needle. Yucca recurva. North 
America. Evergreen shrub ; 3 to 4 feet ; white ; 
summer; suckers. — Similar uses and positions to pre- 

Gtesner's TiQip. Tulipa Gesneriana, Levant. Bulb ; 
i^ feet ; striped ; spring ; division. — This, or any of its 
varieties, might be naturalized with the finer daflbdils, or 
hardy bulbs in warm good soil 

Sweet-scented Tidip. Tulipa suaveolens. Southern 
Europe. Bulb ; 6 to 9 inches ; red and yellow ; spring ; 
division. — ^Warm and sunny banks where there is not a 
rank vegetation. 

ii8 The Wild Garden. 

Bough-stemmed Tulip* Tidipa scdbriscapa, Italy. 
Bulb; I to I J feet; red and yellow; spring; division. 
— ^Associated with dafifodils and finer hardy bulbs, on 
banks, Mnges of shrubberies, &c Many of our earlier, 
or bedding tulips, are nearly related to this plant 

Crown ImperiaL Fritillaria imperialism Persia. 
Bulb; 3 feet; yellow; spring; division. — Fringes of 
woods and shrubberies; sometimes in isolated tufts at 
some distance from the margin of wood walks. 

White Lily. Lilium candidum, Levant Bulb; 3 
to 4 feet ; white ; summer ; division. — Fringes of shrub- 
beries, single plants dotted, here and there, in beds of 
Rhododendrons or low shrubs, where they make a fine 
show when in flower, and do not afterwards, as the leaves 
die down, interfere with the general eflfect of the other 

Trumpet Lily. Lilium Icngiflorum. China. Bulb; 
I to 2 feet ; white ; summer ; division. — ^The outer fringes 
of plantations, and beds of shrubs, or low banks and 
slopes, in light and sandy but deep soil 

Orange Lily. Lilium croceum, Italy. Bulb ; 3 to 
4 feet; yellow; summer; division. — Isolated tufts in 
glades, and similar positions to those for the White 
Lily. Like all Lilies, best in deep soil. 

Gk>lden-rayed Lily. Lilium auratum. Japan. 
Bulb ; 3 to 4 feet ; white, with golden stripes and dark- 
brown spots ; summer ; division. — Single plants of this 
fine Lily placed here and there among choice shrubs 
in good soil will produce a very fine eflfect 

American Turban Lily, Lilium superbum. North 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. 119 

America. Bulb; 4 feet; light orange; summer; divi- 
sion. — In shrubberies or the shade of trees planted in peat 


Biilbooodiiim. Btdbocodium vemum, Spain. 
Bulb ; 3 to 4 inches ; purple ; spring ; division. — ^With 
the dwarfest and earliest Crocuses and other spring bulbs 
on warm banks and slopes. 

Cheokered-flowered Meadow Saffron. Colchicum 
variegatutn, Greece. Bulb; 3 to 6 inches; lilac; 
autumn ; division. — ^With the Crocuses and dwarfer bulbs, 
or in any position where our native Colchicum will grow. 

Blistered Helonias. Hdanias buUcUa. North Ame- 
rica. Tuberous perennial ; i foot ; piu^le ; early summer; 
division. — In boggy or moist sandy soil, associated with 
Cypripedium spectabile, Rhexia virginica, and other 
first-rate bog-plants. 

White Veratrum. Veratrum album, Europe. Pe- 
rennial ; 4 to 5 feet ; white ; summer ; division. — ^Asso- 
ciated with fine-foliaged plants, or by itself on fiinges of 
3hrubberies, or in rocky places. 


Heart-leaved Fontederia. Pontederia cordata. North 
America. Aquatic ; 2 feet ; blue ; summer ; division. — 
In water, within a few feet* of the bank of lakes, ponds, 
&c, associated with such plants as the Sagittarias and 
the flowering rush. 

lao The Wild Garden, 


Virginian Spiderwort. Tradescantia virginica. North 
America. Herbaceous perennial; i to 2 feet; blue; 
summer; seed or division. — Naturalization on the low 
fringes of shrubberies, on low banks, rocky places, or 
slopes where there is a heavy soil or otherwise, or on 
level, wet, cold ground, or in bogs. There are several 
varieties, all equally free and hardy in the worst and 
coldest ground. 


Aquatio Qrontiimi. Orantium aquaticum. North 
America. Aquatic ; 10 to 18 inches ; striped ; early 
summery seed or division. — Margins of ponds and 
fountain basins, in rich soil, and kept apart from coarse 
aquatic plants. 

Ethiopian Lily. Calla cethiopica. South Africa. 
Aquatic ; a to 3 feet ; white ; early summer ; seed or 
division. — Ponds and fountain basins in warm districts. 

Marsh Calla. Calla palustris. North America. 
Aquatic ; 6 to 9 inches ; white ; summer ; division. — ^Wet 
muddy soil on margins of ponds, in shallow water, or in 
bogs and marshy places. 

Common Dragon Arum. Arum Drucunculus. 
Southern Europe. Tuber ; i to i ^ feet ; brown ; sununer ; 
'^ division. — ^Among shrubs on the sunny side of walls or 

banks, preferring a warm sandy soil. 

Hairy-sheathed Arum. Arum crinitum, Minorca. 
I to 2 feet ; brown ; spring ; division. — ^Warm spots on 

Hardy Exotic Plants for Naturalization. \%\ 

sunny banks, where it may not be ovenrun by coarse 
plants. This remarkable kind is at present rare in culti- 
.vation, and deserves a favourable position. 


Bulbous Panieizm. Fanicum bulbosum. South 
America. Perennial ; 3 to 4 J feet j seed or division. — 
Low banks and unmown spots in wild parts of the plea- 
sure-ground, or associated with the finer perennials or 
with plants grown for the beauty of their leaves or habit 

Elegant Paniciun. Fanicum capillare, America. 
Annual ; i J to 2 feet ; summer j seed — Banks, slopes, 
fringes of shrubberies, or with strong annuals in almost 
any position. If the Pampas, Anindo Donax, A. con- 
spicua, and other ornamental grasses were grouped in a 
glade, this and the following might be associated with 
them, though less vigorous, in deep, rich, and well-drained 

Twiggy Panic Ghrass. Fanicum virgatum. North 
America. Perennial; 3 to 6 feet; summer; seed or 
division. — Similar uses to preceding. This is an elegant 
plant, intermediate in stature between the small and very 
large ornamental grasses. 

Feather Grass. SHpa fennata. Southern Europe. 
Perennial; i to 2 feet; summer; seed or division.^ 
Banks, rocky places, or unmown spots near wood walks. 

Great Heed Grass. Arundo Donax, Southern 
Europe. Perennial ; 8 to 10 feet ; summer ; division. — 
In isolated tufts in glades open and simny, but sheltered ; 
or grouped with other noble grasses like the Pampas 

122 The Wild Garden. 

Grass or Arundo conspicuay in a deep sandy soil, on a 
free dry bottom. 
Pampas Grass. Gynerium argmteum. S. America. 

6 to 9 feet; autumn; seed or division. — It is need- 
less to recommend this noble plant, which is suited 
for and will adorn almost any position, but attains 
greatest perfection in warm and sunny, but sheltered 
spots, where its long leaves may not suffer from winds. 
It loves a rich, deep, sandy loam. Where wild groups of 
the nobler herbaceous plants are formed, this should 
always be a conspicuous object 

GraoefOl Bamboo. ArundinariafaUata, China, Japan. 
Evergreen shrub ; 6 to 20 feet ; summer ; division only. 
— ^Positions similar to those for Arundo Donax. In south- 
em and western districts, particularly near the sea, this 
plant thrives vigorously, attaining great size and beauty 
of habit 

Greyish Bamboo. Bambusa viridi-glaucescens. China. 

7 to 12 feet ; division. — ^A fine hardy bamboo, which will 
thrive in similar positions and districts to those for 
A. fialcata, growing even more rapidly than that plant 

Brisa-like Brome Grass. Bramus brizcefarmis, 
Sicily. Annual; i to i J feet; summer; seed. — ^A beau- 
tifiil and graceful grass, which it would be well worth 
while to try and establish on rather bare, warm banks, or 
slopes in good warm soil 

Quaking Grass. Briza maxima. Southern Europe. 
Aimual; i to 2 feet; summer; seed. — Might be natura- 
lized with Bromus brizadformis. 






Natuiralization in Various Positions. 



As It 18 desirable to know how to procure as well as 
how to select the best kinds, a few words on the first 
subject may not be amiss here* 

A very important point is the getting of a stock d( 
plants to begin with. In country or other places where 
many good old border flowers remain in the cottage 
garden, many species may be collected there. A 
series of nursery beds should be formed in some by- 
place in which such subjects could be increased to any 
desired degree. Free-growing spring-flowers like Aubrietia, 
Alyssum, and Iberis may be multiplied to any extent by 
division or cuttings. Numbers of kinds may be raised 
from seed sown rather thinly in drills, in nursery beds in 
the open air. The catalogues should be searched every 
Spring for suitable and novel subjects. The best time 
for sowing is the Spring, but any time during the Summer 
will do. Many perennials and bulbs must be bought in 
nurseries and increased as well as may be in nursery beds. 
As to soil, &c, the best way is to avoid the trouble of 
preparing it except for specially interesting plants. The 
great point is to adapt the plant to the soil — in peaty 
places to place plants that thrive in peat, in clay soils 


The Wild Garden. 

those that thrive in clays, and so on. My list of selec- 
tions will to some extent help the reader in this way, 
while the soil suited for every plant has been, so far as 
I could advise, indicated under each in Part IL 

A Selection of Plants for Naturalization in Places 
devoid of any but dwarf vegetation, on bare 
banks, etc. 



Helleborus niger 

Aquilegia, in var. 
Pseonia tenuifolia 
Epimedium pinnatum 

„ alpinum 

Dielytra eximia 
Cheu-anthus alpinus 
Arabis albida 
Aubrietia, in var. 
Alyssum saxatile 
Odontarrhena Carsinum 
Iberis corifolia 


Thlaspi latifolium 
i£thionema coridifolium 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Viola comuta 

„ cucullata 
Gypsophila repens 
Dianthus n^lectus 



Tunica Saxifiaga 
Saponaria ocymoides 
Silene alpestris 
„ Schafla 
Cerastium Biebersteinii 
„ grandiflorum 
„ tomentosum 
linum alpinum 
„ arboreum 
„ flavum 
Geranium Wallichianum 
„ striatum 
„ cinereum 
OxaUs floribunda 
Genista sagittalis 
Anthyllis montana 
Astragalus monspessulanus 
CoroniUa varia 
Hedysarum obscurum 
Vicia aigentea 
Orobus vemus 

„ lathyroides 
Waldsteinia trifolia 

Selections far Naturalization. i %^ 

Potentilla calabra 

Symphyandra pendula 

(Enothera speciosa 

Campanula carpatica 

„ missouriensis 


,, fragilis 

,, taraxacifolia 

„ garganica 

Sedum dentatum 

„ csespitosa 

,, kamtschaticum 

Erica camea 

„ Sieboldii 

Menziesia empetriformis 

„ spectabfle 

Gaultheria procumbens 

„ spurium * 

Vinca herbacea 

Sempervivum calcareum 

Gentiana acaulis 

y, hirtum 

Phlox stolonifera 

y, montanum 

„ subulata 

„ soboliferum 

Lithospermum prostratum 

„ sedoides 

Pulmonaria grandiflora 

Saxifraga Aizoon 
Astrantia major 
Dondia Epipactis 
Athamanta Matthioli 
Comus canadensis 
Scabiosa caucasica 
Hieracium aurantiacum 
Doronicum caucasicum 
Aster alpinus 
Tussilago fragrans 
Achillea aurea 




Myosotis dissitiflora 
Physalis Alkekengi 
Pentstemon procerus 
Veronica austriaca 


Teucrium Chamaedrys 
Ajuga genevensis 
Dracocephalum argunense 
,, austriacum 

Scutellaria alpina 
Prunella grandiflora 
Stachys lanata 
Zietenia lavandulsefolia 
Zapania nodiflora 
Dodecatheon Meadia 


The Wild Garden. 

Primula, in var. 
Acantholimon glumaceum 
Armeria cephalotes 
Plumbago Larpentse 
Polygonum Brunonis 
„ vacdnifolium 

Euphorbia Cyparissias 
Iris cristata 

„ graminea 

„ pumila 

,, reticulata 

y, nudicaulis 

Plants of vigorous Habit for Naturalization. 

Trollius altaicus 
„ napellifolius 

Thalictrum aquilegifolium 

Delphinium, in var. 

Aconitum, in var. 

Pd&onia, in var. 

Papaver orientale 

Macleya cordata 

Datisca cannabina 

Crambe cordifolia 

Althaea ficifolia 
„ nudiflora 
„ taurinensis 

Lavatera Olbia 

Hibiscus militaris 




Melianthus major 

Galega officinalis 

Lathyrus latifolius 

Lupinus polyphyllus 






Thermopsis barbata 
Spiraea, in var. 
Astilbe rivularis 

„ rubra 
Molopospermum cicutarium 
Ferula communis 
„ sulcata 
Peucedanum involucratum 

„ longifolium 

Heracleum eminens 
Morina longifolia 
Dipsacus laciniatus 
Mulgedium Plumiai 
Alfredia cemua 
Onopordon tauricmn 
Cynara Scolymus 
Centaurea babylonica 
Echinops bannaticus 



Selections far Naturalization. 1 09 




Echinops exaltatus 
9, ruthenicus 
„ purpureus 
Aster elegans 

Novi Belgii 
Novae Angliae 
„ ericoides 
Eupatorium purpureum 
Telekia cordifolia 
Helianthus angustifolius 
Haipalium rigidum 
Silphium perfoliatum 
Campantda pyramidalis 
Asclepias Comuti 

9, Douglasii 
Phlox, tall herbaceous vars. 
Verbascum Chaixii 
Physostegia imbricata 
„ speciosa 
Acanthus latifolius 




Acanthus spinosissimus 
Phytolacca acinosa 

yy decandra 
Polygonum Sieboldii 
Rheum Emodi 

,, palmatum 
Gunnera scabra 
Thalia dealbata 
Tritoma Uvaria 
Achillea Eupatorium 
Arundo Donax 

yy conspicua 
Gynerium argenteum 
Bambusa falcata 
El3rmus arenarius 
Veratrum album 
Yucca filamentosa 





Peucedanum ruthenicum 
Carlina acanthifolia 






A Selection of Plants with large or graceful foliage 

suitable for naturalization. 

Acanthus, several species 
Asclepias syriaca 
Statice latifolia 

Morina longifolia 
Polygonum cuspidatum 
Rheum Emodi, & other spec 



The Wild Garden. 


Euphorbia Cyparissias 
Datisca cannabina 
Veratrum album 
Tritomas, in var. 
Thalictrum foetidum 
Crambe cordifolia 
Althaea taurinensis 
Geranium anemonsefolium 
Melianthus major [cus 
Dimorphanthus mandchuri- 
Elymus arenarius 
Bambusa, several species 
Arundinaria falcata 
Yucca, several species 
Verbascum Chaixii 
Aralia spinosa 
Spiraea Aruncus 

„ venusta 
Astilbe rivularis 

„ rubra 
Eryngium, several species 
Ferula, several species 
Seseli, „ 

Chamserops excelsa 
Hibiscus roseus 
Rhus glabra laciniata 
Artemisia annua 
Phytolacca decandra 
Centaurea babylonica 

Lobelia Tupa 
Peucedanum ruthenicum 
Heracleum, several species 
Aralia japonica 

„ edulis 
Macleya cordata 
Panicum bulbosum 

y, viigatum 
Kochia scoparia 
Dipsacus laciniatus 
Aliredia cemua 
Cynara horrida 

,, Scolymus 
Carlina acanthifolia 
Telekia cordifolia 
Echinops exaltatus 

„ ruthenicus 

Helianthus argyrophyllus 

„ orgyalis 

,, multiflorus 

Gunnera scabra 
Salvia argentea 
Arundo Donax 

„ conspicua 
Gynerium argenteum 
Silybum ebumeum 

„ marianum 
Onopordon Acanthium 



dU.I I U 

Selections for Naturalization. \ 3 1 


A Selection of Hardy Plants of fine habit y that may 

be raised from Seed. 

Among suitable haidy plants that may be raised from 
seed, the following are offered in recent seed cata- 
logues : — 

Acanthus latifolius 
„ mollis 
„ spinosus 
Artemisia annua 
Astilbe rivularis 
Campanula pyramidalis 
Cannabis gigantea 
Carlina acanthifolia 
Datura ceratocaula 
Echinops, several species 
Eryngium bromeliaefolium 
„ giganteum 
Ferula communis 
„ tingitana. 
Geranium anemonsefolium 
Gunnera scabra 
Gynerium argenteum 





Helianthus argyrophylliis 
„ orgyalis 

Heracleum eminens 

Kochia scoparia 

Lobelia Tupa 

Morina longifolia 

Onopordon arabicum 
„ tauricum 

Centaurea babylonica 

Panicum, several species 

Phytolacca decandra 

Salvia argentea 

Silybum marianum 
„ ebumeum 

Statice latifolia 

Tritomas, in var. 

Yucca, several species 

Plants for Hedgebanks and Bushy Places, 

Clematis in great var. 
Thalictrum aquilegifolium 
Anemone japonica & vars. 

Delphinium, in var. 
Aconitum, in var. 
Macleya cordata 

K 2 


The Wild Garden. 

Hibiscus militaris 
Kitaibelia vitifolia 
Tropaeolum speciosum 
Baptisia australis 
Coronilla varia 
Galega officinalis 
Astragalus pondcus 
Lathyrus giandiflorus 
,, albus 
Lupinus polyphyllus 
Rubus biflonis 
CEnothera macrocarpa 

„ Lamarckiana 
Astilbe rivularis 
Eryngium amethystinum 
Molopospermum cicutarium 
Ferula, in var. 
Morina longifolia 




Campanula, in var. 
Calystegia dahurica 

„ pubescens 
Verbascum Chaixii 
Pentstemon barbatus 
Veronica, tall kinds in var. 
Phlomis Russelliana 
„ herba-venti 
Physostegia speciosa 
„ virginica 

Dracocephalum, in var. 
Acanthus spinosus 
Statice latifolia 
Phytolacca decandra 
Boussingaultia baselloides 
Aristolochia Sipho 
Asparagus Broussoneti 
Vitis, in var. 
Honeysuckles, in var. 
Ivies, in var. 

Trailers^ Climbers^ etc. 

The selection of plants to cover bowers, trellises, rail- 
ings, old trees, stumps, rootwork, &c. suitably is an im- 
portant matter, particularly as the plants fitted for these 
purposes are equally usefiil for rough rockwork, pre- 
cipitous banks, flanks of rustic bridges, river-banks, ruins 
natural or artificial, covering cottages or outhouses, and 
many other uses in garden, pleasure-ground, or wilder- 

Selections far Naturalization, 133 

Vitis aestivalis 



,» amooriensis 


patens Amelia 

„ cordifolia 


„ Helena 

„ heterophylla variegata 


yf insignis 

„ Isabella 


,, Louisa 

„ T^abrusca 


,, monstrosa 

„ laciniosa 


„ Sophia 

„ riparia 


„ violacea 

„ Si^boldii 



„ vinifera apiifolia 



„ vulpina 



Hedera (the Ivy; all the 



named varieties, both 



green and variegated) 



Aristolochia Sipho 


„ alba 

„ tomentosa 


„ venosa 

Clematis azurea-grandiflora 

Calystegia dahurica 

„ campaniflora 


pubescens plena 

„ elliptica 



„ Flammula 

Asparagus Broussoneti 

\ ,y florida 

Periploca gneca 

„ plena 

Hablitzia tamnoides 

„ „ Standishi 

Boussingaultia baselloides 

„ Fortunei 

Menispeimum canadense 

„ Francofurtensis 



„ Hendersoni 

Cissus orientalis 

'* „ insulensis 

„ pubescens 

„ Jackmani 

Ampelopsis bipinnata 

„ lanuginosa 



„ montana 




The Wild Garden, 

Ampelopsis tricuspidata 
Jasminum nudiflorum 
yy officinale 
y, revolutum 
Passiflora cserulea 

Lonicera Caprifolium 





Spring and Early Summer Flowers for 










Anemone alpina 

„ Sjulphurea 
Ranunculus aconitifolius 
Helleborus niger 

„ olympicus 

Eranthis hyemalis 
Aquilegia alpina 
y, canadensis 
„ caerulea 
Pseonia albiflora 
Epimediiun pinnatum 





Epimedium alpinum 
Papaver croceum 

Dielytra eximia 

yy spectabilis 
Corydalis capnoides 

„ lutea 
Cheiianthus alpinus 
„ Cheiri 

Arabis albida 
Aubrietia deltoidea 
Alyssum saxatile 
Draba aizoides 
Iberis corifolia 




„ correaefolia 

Viola biflora 
„ comuta 

Dianthus neglectus 

Saponaria ocymoides 

Silene alpestris 

Selections for Naturalisation. 135 

Arenaxia balearica 

„ montana 
Ononis fruticosa 
Vicia aigentea 
Orobus flaccidus 

„ cyaneus 

„ lathyroides. 

,, variegatus 

„ vemus 
Centranthus ruber 
Centaurea montana 
Doronicum caucasicum 
Thlaspi latifolium 
Hesperis matronalis 
Erica camea 
Vinca major 
Gentiana acaulis 
Phlox reptans 
„ subulata 
Lithospermum prostratum 
Pulmonaria grandiflora 

„ mollis 

Symphytum bohemicum 



Myosotis dissitiflora 
Omphalodes vema 
Verbascum Chaixii 
Dodecatheon Jefire)d 
„ Meadia 

Cyclamen europa&um 




Cyclamen hederaefolium, 

Soldanella alpina 

Primula Auricula 




„ sikkimensis 

Iris amcena 


De Bergii 



Crocus aureus 





Narcissus angustifolius 









The Wild Garden. 

Narcissus poeticus 

Hyacinthus amethystinus 

Galanthus plicatus 

Muscan botiyoides 

Leucojum pulchellum 

„ moschatum 

Paradisia Liliastrum 

Allium neapolitanum 

Omithogalum timbellatum 

„ ciliatum 

Sdlla amoena 

Tulipa Gesneriana 

yy bifolia 

„ suaveolens 

„ campanulata 

„ scabriscapa 

y, patula 

Fridllaria imperialis 

y, italica 

Bulbocodium vemum 

„ sibirica 

Helonias bullata 

Plants for Naturalization beneath Specimen Trees 

on LawnSy etc. 

Where, as is frequently the case, the branches of trees, 
both evergreen and deciduous, sweep the turf — ^and this, 
as a rule, they should be allowed to do in nearly all cases 
where they are planted in purely ornamental grounds — 
a great number of pretty Spring flowers may be naturalized 
beneath the branches, where they thrive without attention. 
It is chiefly in the case of deciduous trees that this could 
be done ; but even in the case of conifers and evergreens 
some graceful objects might be dotted beneath the 
outermost points of their lower branches. However, 
it is the specimen deciduous tree that offers us the best 
opportunities in this way. We know that a great number 
of our Spring flowers and hardy bulbs mature their foliage 
and go to rest early in the year. They require light and 
sun in Spring, which they obtain abundandy under the 
deciduous tree ; they have time to flower and develop 

Selections for Naturalization. 137 

— - - - - — — "- I I II 

their leaves under it before the foliage of the tree appears; 
then, as the Summer heats approach, they are gradually 
overshadowed by a cool canopy, and go to rest undis- 
turbed ; but the leaves of the trees once fallen, they soon 
begin to appear again and cover the ground with beauty. 
An example or two will perhaps explain the matter 
more fully. Take the case of, say, a spreading old speci- 
men of the handsome Weeping Mountain Elm. Scatter 
a few tufts of the Winter Aconite beneath it, and leave 
them alone. In a very few years they will have covered 
the ground ; every year afterwards they will spread a 
golden carpet beneath the tree ; and when it fades there 
will be no eyesore from decaying leaves as there would 
be on a border — no necessity for replacing the plants 
with others ; the tree puts forth its leaves, covering the 
ground till Autumn, and in early Spring we again see oiur 
little friend in all the vigour of his glossy leaves. In this 
way this pretty Spring flower may be seen to much greater 
advantage, in a much more pleasing position than in the 
ordinary way of putting it in patches and rings in beds or 
borders, and with a tithe of the trouble. There are many 
other subjects of which the same is true. We have only 
to imagine this done in a variety of cases to see to what 
a beautiful and novel result it would lead. Given the 
bright blue Apennine Anemone under one tree, the 
Snowflake under another, the delicately toned Triteleia 
under another, and so on, we should have a Spring 
garden of the most beautiful kind. Of course the same 
thing could be carried out under the branches of a grove 
as well as of specimen trees. Very attractive mixed 


The Wild Garden. 

plantations might be made by dotting tall subjects like 
die large Jonquil (Narcissus odorus) among dwarf spread- 
ing subjects like the Anemone, and also by mixing dwarf 
subjects of various colours : diversely coloured varieties 
of the same Anemone, for example, would look very, 

Omitting the various pretty British plants that would 
thrive in the positions indicated — ^these are not likely to 
be unknown to the reader interested in such matters — and 
confining myself to dwarf, hardy exotic flowers alone, die 
following are selected as among the most suitable for such 
arrangements as that just described, with some litde 
attention as to the season of flowering and the kind of soil 
required by some rather uncommon species. A late- 
flowering kind, for example, should be planted under late- 
leafing trees, or towards the points of their branches, so 
that they might not be obscured by the leaves of the 
tree before perfecting their flowers. 

Anemone angulosa 

Arum italicum 

Bulbocodium vemum 



Corydalis solida 

„ tuberosa 
Crocus Imperati 


„ versicolor 
Cyclamen hedersefolium 
Eranthis hyemalis 
Er3rthronium Dens-canis 
Ficaria grandiflora 
Galanthus plicatus 

Selections far Naturalization. 1 39 

Iris reticulata 

Scilla bifolia 

Muscari botryoides, and 

y, sibirica 


„ campanulata 

„ moschatum 

Sisyrinchium grandiflorum 

Narcissus, in var. 

Trillium grandiflorum 

Puschkinia scilloides 

Tulipa, in var. 

Sanguinaria canadensis 

Plants for very 

Althasa, in var. 
Aphyllanthes monspelien- 

Astilbe rivularis 
Aralia edulis 

„ nudicaulis 
Artemisia, in var. 
Asclepias Comuti 
Asphodelus ramosus 
Aster, in var. 
Baptisia exaltata 
Butomus umbellatus 
Calla palustris 
Caltha palustris fl. pL 
Chrysobactron Hookeri 
Campanula glomerata 
Convallaria multiflora 
Colchicum, in var. 
Crinum capense 
Cypripedium spectabile 
Datisca cannabina 

moist rich Soils. 

Echinops, in var. 
Elymus, in var. 
Epilobium, in var. 
Eupatorium, in var. 
Ficaria grandiflora 
Galax aphylla 
Galega officinalis 
Gentiana asclepiadea 
Gunnera scabra 
Gynerium argenteum 
Helianthus multiflorus pL 

„ orgyalis 

„ rigidus 
Helonias bullata 
Hemerocallis, in var. 
Heracleum, in var. 
Iris, the beardless kinds 

in variety. 
Juncus effiisus spiralis 

„ „ variegatus 

liatris, in var. 


The Wild Garden. 

Lythrum (roseum super- 

Physostegia speciosa 


Phytolacca decandra 

Mimulus, in var. 

Rudbeckia hirta 

Molopospermum cicuta- 

Ranunculus amplexicaulis 


,, pamassifolius 

Mulgedium Plumieri 

Sanguinaria canadensis 

Myosotis dissitiflora 

Sparaxis pulcherruua 

Narcissus, stronger kinds. 

Solidago, in var. 

Nierembergia rivularis 

Statice latifolia 

CEnothera, in var. 

Swertia perennis 


Omphalodes vema 

Telekia speciosa 

Onopordon, in var. 

Thalictrum, in var. 

Pancratium illyricum 

Trollius, do. 

Pamassia caroliniana 

Vaccinium, do. 

Phlomis herba-venti 

Veratrum, do. 

„ Russelliana 

Plants suited 

Abtroemeria, in var. 
Andromeda, in var. 
Azalea amoena 
Bryanthus erectus 
Calandrinia umbellata 
Calluna, in var. 
Cassiope, in var. 
Chimaphila maculata 
Chrysobactron Hookeri 
Coptis trifoliata 
Comus canadensis 
Cypripedium spectabile 

for Peat Soil 

Dentaria laciniata 
Daphne Cneorum 
Dryas octopetala 
Epigoea repens 
Epimedium, in var. 
Erica, in var. 
Funkia Sieboldii 

„ grandiflora 
Galax aphylla 
Gaultheria procumbens 
Gentians, in var. 
Helonias bullata 

Selections for Naturalization, 141 

Iris nudicaulis, piunila, and 

Ramondia pyrenaica 


Rhododendron, small kinds 

Jeffersonia diphylla 

Schizostylis coccinea 

Lycopodium dendroideum 

Sarracenia purpurea 

Leiophyllum buxifolium 

Sisyrinchium grandiflorum 

Linnaea borealis 

Spigelia marilandica 

Menziesia, in var. 

Trientalis europsea 

Pamassia caroliniana 

Trillium grandiflorum 

Podophyllum peltatum 

Vaccinium, in var. 

„ Emodi 

Zephyranthes Atamasco 

Polygala Chamsebuxus 

„ Candida 

Pyrola, in var. 

Lilium superbum 

Plants suited for 

Adenophora, in var. 
iEthionema cordifolium 
Anemone, in var. 
Alyssum saxatile 
Anthyllis montana 
Antirrhinum rupestre 
Cistus, in var. 
Cheiranthus, in var. 
Campanula, in var. 
Carduus eriophorus 
Cerastium, in var. 
Coronilla, in var. 
Dorycnium sericeum 
Dianthus, in var. 
Echium, in var. 
Erodium, in var. 

Calcareous or Chalky Soil 

Genista,, in var. 
Geum, in var. 
Geranium, in var. 
Glaucium Fischeri 
Gypsophila, in var. 
Hedysarum, in var. 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Hemerocallis, in var. 
Lunaria biennis 
Lupinus polyphyllus 
Onobrychis, in var. 
Ononis, in var. 
Ophrys, in var. 
Othonna cheirifolia 
Phlomis, in var. 
Prunella grandiflora 


The Wild Garden. 

Santolina, in var. 

Trachelium oeruleum 

Saponaria ocymoides 

Trifolium alpinum 

Saxifraga (the encrusted 

Triteleia uniflora 

and the large-leaved 

Tunica Saxifraga 


Vesicaria utriculata 

Scabiosa, in var. 

Vicia, in var. 

Sempervivwm, in var. 

Vittadenia triloba 

Sedum, in var. 

Waldsteinia trifoliata 

Stokesia cyanea 

„ geoides 

Symphytum, in var. 

Zietenia lavandul^folia 

Thermopsis fabacea 

Pyrethrum Tchihatchewi 

Thymus, in var. 

„ roseum 

Plants suited for 

Achilla&a, in var. 
iEthionema cordifolium 
Agrostemma coronaria 
Alyssum saxatile 
Antennaria dioica 
Anthyllis montana 
Antirrhinum rupestre 
Arabis albida 
Aubrietia, in var. 
Armeria cephalotes 
Artemisia, in var. 
Cerastium, in var. 
Carlina acanthifolia 
Cheiranthus, in var. 
Chrysopsis mariana 
Cistus, in var. 

Dry and Gravelly Soil 

Corydalis, in var. 
Dianthus, in var. 
Dracocephalum, in var. 
Dielytra eximia 
Dorycnium sericeum 
Echium, in var. 
Erinus alpinus 
Erodium, in var. 
Eryngium, in var. 
Euphorbia Myrsinites 
Fumaria, in var. 
Geranium, in var. 
Gypsophila, in var. 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Helichrysum arenarium 
Hypericum, in var. 

Selections for Naturalization. 143 

Iberis, in var. 


Jasiohe perennis 

Reseda odorata 

Lavandula Spica 

Santolina, in var. 

Linaria purpurea 

Scabiosa, in var. 

Tiinum, in var. 

Sedum, in great var. 

Lithospermum prostratum 

Sempervivum, in great var. 

Lupinus polyphyllui^ 

Saponaria ocymoides 

Modiola geranioides 

Stachys lanata 

Narcissus, in var. 

Stembergia lutea 

Nepeta Mussinii 

Teucrium Chamsedrys 

Onobrychis, in var. 

I'hlaspi latifolium 

Ononis, in var. 

Thymus, in var. 

Opuntia Rafinesquiana 

Trachelium, in var. 

Omithogalum, in var. 

Tussilago fragrans 

Paronychia serpyllifolia 

„ Farfara variegata 

Plumbago Tarpentse 

Umbilicus chrysanthus 

Polygonum vaccinifolium 

Verbascum, in var. 

Pyrethrum Tchihatchewi 

Vesicaria utriculata 

Plants for Fringes 

Iberis, in var. 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Genista prostrata 
„ sagittalis 
Daphne Cneorum 
Polygonum Brunonis 

„ vaccinifolium 

Santolina Chamsecyparissus 

„ incana 
Ivies, in var. 

of Cascades y etc, 

Cistus, in var. 
Rhododendron hirsutum 

„ femigineum 

Arabis albida 
Alyssum saxatile 
Lithospermum prostratum 
Saponaria ocymoides 
Phlox subulata 
Saxifraga, in var. particu- 
larly the large-leaved ones 


The Wild Garden. 

Pentstemon, several vars. 
Vinca major 


Vinca herbacea 
CEnothera macrocaipa 





Selection of Alpine and 
on Old WallSy RuinSy 

Corydalis lutea 
Cheiranthus Cheiri 

„ „ pi. in var. 

Arabis albida 

lucida vari^ata 
„ blepharophylla 
Aubrietia, all the vars. 
Hutchinsia petraea 
Vesicaria utriculata 
Schivereckia podolica 
Alyssum montanum 
Koniga maridma 
Petrocallis pyrenaica 
Draba aizoides 
„ boeotica 
lonopsidion acaule (north 

side of old walls) 
Thlaspi alpestre 
Iberis, in var. 
Reseda odorata 






Rock Plants for Growing 
very Stony Banks, etc, 

Helianthemum, in var. 
Gypsophila muralis 

„ prostrata 
Tunica Saxifraga 
Dianthus caesius 

Saponaria ocymoides 
Silene acaulis (moist walls, 
to be first carefully 
planted in a chink) 
„ alpestris 
„ rupestris 
Silene Schafla 
Lychnis alpina 

„ lapponica 
Sagina procumbens pleno 
Arenaria balearica 







Selections for Naturalization. 145 



Sedum sexfidum 


campanulata (ruins) 

yy spurium 

Erodium romanum (old 

Sempervivum arachnoi* 







Ononis alba 



Astragalus monspessulanus 



Coronilla minima 








Novae Zealandise 



(moist mossy walls) 



Cotyledon Umbilicus. 



Umbilicus chrysanthus 

Saxifraga bryoides 






„ variegatum 

























































Asperula cynanchica 



Centranthus ruber 


The Wild Garden. 

Centranthus albus 


Veronica saxatilis 

„ ooccineus 

Iris germanica and vars. 

Santolina incana 

„ pumila 

Achillea tomentosa 

Polypodium vulgare 

Symphyandra pendula 

Adiantum Capillus- Veneris 

Campanula Barrelieri 

(on moist warm walls) 

„ fiagilis 

Asplenium Adiantum -ni- 

„ garganica 


„. csespitosa 

„ fontanum 

„ „ alba 

„ septentrionale 

,y rotundifolia 

„ Ruta-muraria 

Antixrhinum rupestre 

,, germanicum 

,, majus 

,y lanceolatum 

„ Orontium 

„ Trichomanes, 

Linaria Cymbalaria 

and vars. 

w » alba 

„ viride 

^ vulgaris 

Ceterach officinarum 

Erinus alpinus 

Matthiola tristis 

Veronica fruticulosa 

A Selection of Alpine and Rock Plants for 


Anemone, in var. 
Helleborus niger 
Cheiranthus alpinus 
Arabis albida 
Aubrietia deltoidea 
., purpurea 
Alyssum- montanum 

Alyssum saxatile 
Draba aizoides 

„ boeotica 
Iberis corifolia 

„ sempervirens 

,, coEreasfolia 
iEthionema coridiiblium 

Selections for Naturalization. T47 




^thionema saxatile 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Cistus, in van 
Polygala Chamaebuxus 
Gypsophila repens 

„ prostrata 

Dianthus, in var. 
Tunica Saxifraga 
Saponaria ocymoides 
Silene alpestris 



Spergula pilifera 
Cerastium, in var. 
Erodium Manescavi 
Oxalis floribunda 
Astragalus monspessulanus 
Fragaria indica 
Potentilla calabra 
CEnothera taraxacifolia 

„ maxginata 
Calandrinia umbellata 
Sedum, in var. 
Sempervivum, in var. 
Saxifraga, in var. 
Hydrocotyle bonariensis 
Dondia Epipactis 
Linnsea borealis 
Hiexadum auiandacum 

Helichrysum arenarium 
Othonna cheirifolia 
Santolina, in var. 
Achillea tomentosa 
Erica camea 
Menziesia empetriformis 
Gaultheria procumbens 
Gentiana acaulis 
Phlox stolonifera 

„ subulata 
Convolvulus lineatus 
Lithospermum prostratum 
Myosotis azorica 

„ dissitiflora 
Omphalodes verna 
Linaria alpina 
Antirrhinum rupestre 
Pentstemon procerus 
Erinus alpinus 
Wulfenia carinthiaca 
Veronica Candida 
Thymus corsicus 
Zietenia lavandulsefolia 
Zapania nodiflora 
Soldanella alpina 
Primula, in var. 
Androsace Chamaejasme 

„ lanuginosa 
Aretia Vitaliana 
Acantholimon glumaceum 



The Wild Garden. 

Armeria cephalotes 
Plumbago Larpentae 
Polygonum Brunonis 

Polygonum vaccinifolium 
Euphorbia Myisimtes 

Selections of Alpine and Rock Plants with Prostrate 
or Drooping Habit, suited for placing so thai 
they may Droop over the Brows of Rocks^ and 
like Positions, 

Arabis albida 

„ procurrens 
Aubrietia, in var. 
Alyssum saxatile 
Iberis corifolia 

„ Tenoreana 
Helianthemum, many 

Gypsophilas, several 
Dianthus deltoides, and 

Tunica Saxifraga 
Saponaria ocymoides 
Cerastium Biebersteinii 
,, grandiflorum 
„ tomentosum 
Callirhoe involucrata 

„ pedata 
Tropseolum speciosum 

„ polyphyllum 
Genista prostrata 


Ononis arvensis albus 
Lotus comiculatus 

„ „ fl. pL 

Astragalus monspessulanus 
Coronilla vana 
Vicia argentea'^ 
Orobus roseus 
Fragaria indica 
Potentilla alpestris 
vema, and nu- 
merous vars. and hybrids 
CEnothera acaulis 

Sediun spurium 












» M^^i^^pg^^- 

Selections for Naturalization. 149 

Saxifraga, hypnoides and 

Thymus Serpyllum, white 



„ oppositifolia, and 

Zietenia lavandulaefolia 


Dracocephalum argunense 

T.tnn»vi borealis 

Zapania nodiflora 

Galium verum 

Plumbago Tjarpentss 

Scabiosa graminifolia 

Lysimachia Nummularia 

Diotis maritima 

Polygonum vaccinifolium 

Artemisia argentea 

Euphorbia Myrsinites 

Campanula Barrelieri 

Salix lanata 

„ carpatica 

„ reticulata 

„ „ alba 

Empetrum nigrum 

„ fragilis 

Polygonum complexum 


y, ,, hiisuta 

Boussingaultia baselloides 

„ gaxganica 

Medicago falcata 

„ muralis 

Lathyrus grandiflorus 

Erica camea 

y, latifolius 


Epigsea repens 

„ „ albus 

Phlox subulata 

Vicia Cracca 

„ reptans 

Calystegia dahurica 


Convolvulus mauritanicus 

„ pubescens 

Lithospermum prostratum 

Vinca major 

Antirrhinum rupestre 

„ minor 

Linaria Cymbalaria 

„ herbacea 

Veronica taurica 

Clematises, the new varie- 

Thjonus lanuginosus 

ties of the lanuginosa 






The Wild Garden, 

List of Alpine and Rock Shrubs ^ etc, suitable for 
Naturalization in Bare, Rocky ^ and Peaty Places^ 
associated with the finer Herbaceous Plants, 



IberiSy in var. 
Helianthemum, in var. 
CistuSy in var. 
Polygala Chamsebuxus 
Genista tinctoria 
Hedera, variegated and 

other curions vars. 
Otiionna cheirifolia 
Erica camea, and all hardy 

species and vars. 
Arbutus Uva-ursi 
Pemettya mucronata 
Gaultheria procumbens 
Andromeda hypnoides 
„ fastigiata 

,, tetragona 

Menziesia caerulea 

polifolia, and 
Daphne Cneorum 
Lithospermum prostratum 
Polygonum vaccinifolium 



Veronica saxatilis 
,, taurica 
Euphorbia Myrsinites 
Salix lanata 
„ reticulata 
„ serpyllifolia 
Empetrum nigrum 
Santolina Chamsecyparis- 
„ incana 
Euonymus radicans varie- 

Rhododendron hirsutum 
y, ferrugineum 

„ Chamsecistus, 
and others 
Bryanthus erectus 
Azalea amoena 
Epigsea repens 
Skimmia, in var. 
Vaccinium Myrtillus 

Juniperus squamata 





Selections for Naturalization. 15 1 

A Selection of Annual Plants for Naturalization: 

Papaver somniferam 
Eschscholtzia califomica 
Platystemon califomicum 
Matthiola annua 

Aiabis arenosa 
Alyssum maritimum 
lonopsidium acaule 
Iberis coronaria 
„ umbellata 
Malcolmia maritima 
Erysimum Feroffskianum 
Heliophila araboides 
Gypsophila elegans 
Saponaria calabrica 
Silene Armeria 
Viscaria oculata 
Malope trifida 
Tropaealum majus 
Linmanthes Douglasii 
Ononis viscosa 
(Enothera odorata 
Godetia Lindleyana 





Clarkia elegans 

„ pulchella 
Eucharidium concinnum 

Amberboa moschata 

„ odorata 
Helianthus annuus 
Dimorphotheca pluvialis 
Gilia capitata 
„ tricolor 
CoUomia coccinea 
Leptosiphon androsaceus 

„ densiflorus 

Nicandra physaloides 
Collinsia bicolor 

„ vema 
Dracocephalum nutans 

„ moldavicum 

Blitum capitatum 
Polygonum orientale 
Panicum capillare 
Bromus brizseformis 
Briza maxima 

„ gracilis 
Agrostis nebulosa 



The Wild Garden^ 

A Selection of Biennial Plants for Naturalization, 

Matthiola, in var. 
Lunaiia biennis 
Hesperis matronalis 
Erysimum asperum 
Silene pendula 
Hedysarum coronarium 
(Enothera Jamesi 

CEnothera lAmarckiana 
Dipsacus ladniatus 
Silybum ebumeum 
Onopordum illyricum 
Campanula Medium 




Verbascum phlomoides 

Ornamental Grasses for Naturalization. 

Agrosds nebulosa 
Briza maxima 
Brizopyrum siculum 
Bromus brizseformis 
Hordeum jubatiun 
Panicum virgatum 
,y bulbosum 
„ capillare 
Arundo conspicua 

Arundo Donax 

„ „ variegata 

Erianthus Ravennse 
Gynerium argenteum, and 

Polypogon monspeliensis 
Stipa gigantea 

„ pennata 
Milium multiflorum 

Aquatic Plants for Naturalization. 

Nuphar advena 
Nymphsea Kalmiana 

„ odorata 
Calla palustris 

Pontederia cordata 
Aponogeton distachyon 
Orontium aquaticum 
Trapa natans 

Selections for Naturalization. 153 


Hardy Bulbs far Naturalization, 



Allium Moly 
„ fragrans 
,, neapolitanum 


£rodi;ea congesta 
Bulbocodium vemum 
Camassia esculenta 
Crinum capense 
Crocus, in great van 
Colchicum, in var. 
Cyclamen, in var. 
Erythronium Dens-canis 
Fritillaria, in var. 
Galanthus plicatus 
Gladiolus communis 

Hyacinthus amethystinus 
Iris, in great var. 
Leucojum vemum 
lilium, in var. 
Merendera Bulbocodium 
Muscari, in var. 
Narcissus, in great var. 
Omithogalum, in var. 
Scilla, in var. 
Sparaxis pulcherrima 
Stembergia lutea 
Trichonema ramiilorum 
Triteleia uniilora 
Tulipa, in var. 
Zephyranthes Atamasco 



List of Plants for Naturalization in Lawns and 
other Grassy Places thai are frequently mown. 

This must of necessity be a limited list — ^being confined 
to subjects that will grow and flower very early in the 
season, and not form tufts or foliage large enough to injure 
the turf. Even with these it will be desirable to refrain 
from rolling or cutting the Grass as early as usual. For this 
and like reasons this is by no means so desirable as other 
ways which I recommend, and which can be carried out 
without check of any kind, and without interfering with 


The Wild Garden. 

anything except indeed the monotonous and uninteresting 
surfaces now seen in every pleasure ground. 

Galanthus plicatus 
„ nivalis 
Leucojum vemtun 
Scilla bifolia, in var. 


Anemone blanda 
Narcissus minor 
Erodium Reichardi 
Sagina glabra 
Crocus, in var. 

Plants for Dotting over Grass in Spots seldom Mown, 
or Mown very late in tlie Season, 

Bulbocodium vemum 
Colchicum, in var. 
Cyclamen hedersefolium 
Galanthus plicatus 
„ nivalis 
Leucojum vemum 
Scilla bifolia 











Anemone apennina 

,, trifolia 
Antennaria dioica rosea 
Anthyllis montana 

Dianthus deltoides 

Erodium romanum 

Fumaria bulbosa 

Helichrysum axenarium 

Iris reticulata 

linum alpinum 

Narcissus minor 

Stembergia lutea 

Zephyranthes Candida 

Hyacinthus amethystinus 

Merendera Bulbocodium 

Muscari, in var. 

Trichonema ramiflorum 

Triteleia tmiflora 










However well people may be acquainted with the 
floral beauties of our fields and woods in Spring or 
Summer, few have any conception of the great 
number of really pretty flowers that may be selected 
from wild places in various parts of the British 
isles, and cultivated with success in a garden. Few 
of us, except working botanists, and they are 
sparsely scattered beings, have much notion of the 
great variety of beauty that may be culled from 
British flowers alone ; and as botanists very rarely 
cultivate wild flowers, they can quite as rarely 
select the kinds best suited for our gardens. Most 
of us have full opportunity of seeing the beauties of 
the fields and hedges ; not so many the mountain 
plants, and few such rare gems as Gentiana vema, 
which grows wild in Teesdale, and here and there 
on the western shores of Ireland, or the mountain 
Forget-me-not, a precious little dwarf alpine that is 

158 The Wild Garden, 

found but rarely in Yorkshire and Scotland. It is 
only by a careful selection from all classes of the 
plants of the British isles that we can hope to 
arrive at anything satisfactory in the way of a 
" garden of British plants." I do not by this mean 
a " scientific " or botanical arrangement of English 
flowers, but a charming little hardy garden, or series 
of beds filled exclusively with the better kinds of 
our native plants, dotted here and th^re with our 
native shrubs, and surrounded, if the situation 
required it or admitted of it, with English 
trees and shrubs, from the sweet gale to the 
fragrant "May," or scarlet-berried Mountain Ash. 
There is nothing difficult in the making of such 
a garden, and I think its charms, to lovers of the 
garden generally, would be very great. In it might 
be exhibited the beauties of some of our prettiest 
spring flowers, of not a few really showy plants and 
neat dwarf shrubs, and of most of the charming 
meadow flowers worth cultivating : while the 
Orchids, which we generally have to seek with 
some little patience, even in good plant districts, 
might also be seen thriving in it. However, the 
best plan of all is to scatter about our own wild 
flowers in the wild and semi-wild places so often 
before alluded to. 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 159 

.' It is not only the curious and rare that may 
afford us interest among the vegetable natives of 
Britain ; among them are included things of a high 
order of beauty, that will flourish and keep their 
own ground without any watching or special pre- 
paration of the soil ; and even for the sake of 
selecting plants wherewith to embellish the mar- 
gins of lakes, rivers, ponds, or beds of fountains in 
our parks, pleasure grounds, or gardens, the subject 
is worthy attention. For the rockwork, too, many 
of our wild flowers are well suited : and, if in 
making a special little arrangement for English 
plants, a bit of rockwork could be introduced, 
and near it, in the shade, a position for ferns, they 
would prove a useful addition. As regards the 
best way of growing them, or utilizing them in 
gardens generally, all will depend upon the size 
or nature of thq place. Many of the plants may be 
grown with advantage in the small villa (or even 
the suburban)' garden, and in a large one with 
plenty of space, a very pretty distinct feature might 
be made of them. In any part of the country 
where the soil or surface of the ground suits the 
,habits of a variety of native plants, it would prove 
-a most interesting employment to collect kinds not 
found in the neighbourhood, and naturalize them 

i6o The Wild Garden. 

therein ; and wherever the natural rock crops 
up in a picturesque way, a great deal of beauty 
may be added to the place by planting these 
rocky spots with wild flowers of a suitable nature* 
There are hundreds of parks and grounds all. over 
the country that would grow to perfection the finer 
wild flowers, in which noticeable kinds are not to be 
seen, and when once a collection is obtained there 
can be little difficulty in making good use of it 

Need we grow weeds to have a fair representa* 
tion of beautiful British wild flowers? No such 
thing ! It will be my pleasant task to look over 
the whole British flora with the reader, to tell him 
where to find and how to grow the rarer kinds, and 
to enumerate all that are ornamental ; and in 
doing so I shall have to name a great variety of 
plants, but not one weedy subject I hope. In 
the season of wild flowers, when many of us stray 
into the fields, or on to the hills, to find many a 
gem which I advfee should be growft in the garden 
instead of being made a mummy of, the more 
beautiful British flowers will prove much more 
delightful in wild and half-wild places near our 
gardens, and scrambling over slopes and through 
hedgerows, alive and full of change, than ever they 
have done in the best herbarium. 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. i6i 

So far as I am acquainted with the labours of 
British botanists or horticulturists, none of them 
have ever attempted a selection from our wild flowers 

as adapted for garden use. The botanist, as a rule, 
deals with things in a wild state only, and therefore 
the subject has never been thought of by him ; the 
horticulturist generally deals only with the useful or 
the conspicuously attractive, and has'never thought 
of culling the higher beauties of our flora. But why 
should this be so } " Botany," says Emerson, " is 
all names, not powers ;" and assuredly, if it does not 
lead us to a real enjoyment of our wild flowers, it 
is barely worthy of a better character. To flatten 
and dry a number of wild plants and leave them 
in dust and darkness is necessary for botanists, but 
it is not likely to cause any wide-spread human 
interest in such things ; and therefore I propose that 
we look through the list of British wild flowers and 
endeavour to rescue the subject from its present 
dry-as-dust character. 

First it will be necessary to have a complete list 
of British wild flowers, which would be found in the 
index to Syme's, Bentham's, Babington's, or any 
other good book on our flora ; but best of all is a 
special list called the '' London Catalogue of British 
Plants/' which used to be published by Pamplin, 


i6a The Wild Garden: 

and is now, I think, published by Dulau, of Soho, 
This is particularly useful, because it gives a full 
list of all the species, and by means of numbers 
indicates their comparative prevalence. The com- 
pilers adopted Mr. Hewett Watson's division of 
Britain into a number of botanical districts, and 
after the name of each species a number is placed, 
which tells the number of districts in which that 
particular plant is found. Thus on the first page, 
" 1 8" is placed after the name of the Marsh- 
marigold, indicating that this strong and beautiful 
herb is found in the eighteen districts, or, in other 
words, that it is very common. The Seakale 
(Crambe maritima) is put down as an inhabitant 
of twelve districts ; and that pretty alpine plant 
the Yellow Draba (D. aizoides), is marked "1.," 
because it is only found wild in one district 
in Britain. 

I think it very desirable that those who wish to 
work at the collecting and culture of wild flowers 
should provide themselves with one or more of these 
lists, simply for convenience sake, as on them may 
be at once marked the kinds we have or want ; and 
I myself have found them very useful to effect 
exchanges, marking the species I had and could 
spare, and sending the list to friends in distant 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 163 

parts of the country, who could collect many kinds 
not in my neighbourhood, and who in their turn 
required many things that I could collect plentifully 
enough : thus we exchanged the Orchids of the 
Surrey hills for the Alpines of the higher Scotch 
mountains, and so on throughout the country. It 
need scarcely be said that every student, cultivator, 
or admirer of British plants should possess himself 
of a manual by which he can identify the species, 
and which will also probably hint where the species 
may be found, and some other useful particulars. 
Another valuable aid to some would be a '' local 
flora," a list of the plants growing in any particular 
neighbourhood, or county, such, for instance, as the 
*' Flora of Reigate," Baines's " Flora of Yorkshire," 
and Mackay's " Flora Hibemica," or the recently 
issued *' Cybele Hibernica ." It might prove in- 
teresting to some to cultivate the best of the local 
plants, even if those from distant parts could not 
be conveniently obtained. 

So much for books ; we will next turn to the 
plants themselves, beginning with the natural 
order of Crowfoots, or Ranunculaces. This 
is the order which brightens the moist hollows 
in the Spring with the glittering gold of the 
lesser Celandine, the meadows in May with Butter- 

M 2 

1 64 The Wild Garden. 

cups, when "those long mosses in the stream 
begin to assume a livelier green, "and the wild 
Marsh Marigold shines like a fire in swamps and 
hollows grey." " Those long mosses in the stream'^ 
of " The Miller's Daughter" are simply some of the 
Water Crowfoots that silver over the pools with their 
pretty white cup-like blossoms in early Summer; 
and it is precisely the same brotherhood which 
burnishes our meadows and " stamps the season of 
Buttercups " with a glistening glory of colour not 
equalled by any tropical flowers I have ever met 
with. Now in going completely through the known 
sipecies of British plants I propose to enumerate 
only those that are really worthy of garden culture, 
and certain to reward our trouble in gathering and 
planting them, and I do not recommend them from 
published plates and descriptions, but from actual 
experience in their culture. 

The first plant named in books of British 
Plants is the Traveller's Joy (Clematis Vitalba), 
the well-known common clematis that streams over 
the trees, and falls in graceful folds from many a 
low tree in many parts of the south of England, and 
which is generally conspicuous enough in autumn 
from the heads of large feathery awns that abound 
on it at that season. It is of course well known 

^^tm^m\ LUmu iWi^B^^^NIBnBe9C9BS9BIBBg 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 165 

and deservedly employed as a garden plant, and 
from its rapidity of growth nothing is better adapted 
for quickly covering objects such as rough 
mounds, &c. However, it may be most tastefully 
used in the shrubbery or wilderness, and parti- 
cularly so on the margin of a river, or water, where 
the long streamers of its wiry branchlets look 
effective and distinct at all times. It is the only 
indigenous plant that affords any idea of the all- 
embracing and interminable twiners or "bush 
ropes," that run about in wild profusion in tropical 
woods ; and in some places in England it grows so 
freely as to become a nuisance. The most natural 
looking and prettiest bower I have ever seen was 
formed by this plant running up a low oak and 
falling down in thick festoons to the ground ; by 
pushing the twiners a little aside in the summer, 
a most agreeable bower was at once formed. 
There is scarcely any end to what may be done 
with it in this way. The plant is to be had fof a 
trifle in most nurseries ; it is abundantly wild in 
the southern counties, and to be had in numerous 

Next we have the elegant lesser Thalictrum (T. 
minus) — elegant, I say, because I have grown it, in 
the open bed, so like the Maidenhair fern that som^ 

1 66 The Wild Garden. 


of our most experienced cultivators were surprised 
at the resemblance, and declared it to be every 
whit as pretty for the open air as the Maidenhairs 
are for the greenhouse; therefore I have recom- 
mended it as the " Maidenhair Fern" for the open 
garden. It only requires to be planted in ordinary- 
soil and left alone till it gets established. Then^ 
when the elegant leaflets unfold, all the g^race and 
distinctiveness of the fern before named will appear 
in the open air, able to withstand all the sun that 
can assail it in our clime, and charming for close 
association with flowering plants. It is wild in 
many parts of Britain, particularly in Scotland 
and North-western England, and rather abundant 
on the island of Ireland's Eye, near Dublin, in 
many parts of the limestone districts of Clare and 
Galway, and rises to a considerable elevation on 
the mountains. It produces very insignificant 
flowers, which should be pinched off" immediately 
when they are noticed, or rather, the flower-stem 
should be pinched off the moment it begins to rise, 
as all the beauty lies in the foliage, and therefore 
the flowers must not be suffered to weaken it in 
any way. It grows about a foot high, or perhaps 
more in rich soil and when well established. There 
are several other species natives of Britain, but 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 167 

none of them nearly so well worthy of culture as 

Next come the windflowers, or Anemones, four 
kinds, all good; two of them — A. nemorosa, 
the wood anemone, and A. apennina, the blue 
anemone — ^indispensable. The wood anemone is 
a charming thing, either in its wild or cultivated 
state, and besides the normal white variety there 
are a red and a bluish one, also a double white 
variety, very desirable, though not common. They 
grow in the open border, on rockwork, &c., quite as 
well as in the shade. As for the blue anemone, it 
is simply one of the loveliest spring flowers of any 
clime and should be in every garden, both in the 
borders and scattered thinly here and there in 
woods and shrubberies, so that it may become "natu- 
ralized." The flowers are freely produced, and of 
the loveliest blue. It is scarcely a true British flower, 
so to speak, its home being the south of Europe ; 
but, having strayed into our wilds and plantations 
occasionally, it is now included in books on British 
plants, and may be easily obtained in most nur- 
series that grow spring flowers or herbaceous plants. 

The Pasque anemone, or Pasque-flower, is 
an important native, bearing large flowers of 
a dull violet purple, silky outside. It is fond 

1 68 The Wild Garden, 

of limestone pastures, and occurs in several dis- 
tricts in England, though it is wanting in Scot« 
land and Ireland. It is, however, a rare plant in 
England, but may be seen occasionally in a garden 
or nursery. Another kind, A. ranunculoides (yellow)/ 
is a doubtful native found in one or two spots. 
It is worth growing as a border plant, and must be 
had from a nursery or garden, as it is not to be 
found wild except in one locality. 

So much for the Anemones, of which the first 
two are the gems. Adonis autumnalis is the very 
pretty and conspicuous-flowered "pheasant's -eye," 
an annual plant of easy culture found occasionally 
in corn-fields, and of which the seed is in- 
cluded in most lists under the name of Flos 
Adonis. It is singular rather than beautiful, and 
though the flowers are very bright, it is not very 

The Ranunculuses, or crowfoots, begin with R. 
aquatilis and its several varieties, and several other 
species of Water Ranunculi with divided leaves. 
Few gardens offer any facilities for cultivating these. 
The most we can do is to introduce them to a pond 
or stream in which they are not already found, or 
add one of the long-leaved or rarer kinds to the 
common kind or kinds ; but their home is in the 


The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 169 

fresh stream, "hither, thither, idly playing," or in. 
the lake or ornamental water, and therefore they 
hardly come among garden plants. I have tried to 
grow all the kinds I could get in a small pond ; 
but the Canadian weed, or the common R. aqua- 
tilis, soon exterminated my rarities, and I was 
compelled to give it up, and look for the varied 
beauty of the water crowfoots in any paissing 
stream. R. Ficaria is the pretty little shining-leaved 
yellow-flowered species which abounds in moist and 
shady land in spring, one of the earliest spring 
flowers that appears, and very common throughout 
Britain and many parts of Europe ; but it is none 
the less beautiful because common, and although 
not fit for the garden, is very pretty in a woody 
waste in early spring. The roots are, to a great 
extent, masses of little cylindrical tubers, by which 
it is easily known. 

R. Flammula (the spearwort) is a native of wet 
marshes and river-sides in all parts of Britain, and 
is well suited for planting by the side of a pond, 
brook, or ornamental water, though not so fine as 
the greater spearwort, R. Lingua, which is a noble, 
strong-growing kind, often growing two or three 
feet high, and bearing large, showy, yellow flowers. 
Jt is very fine near the margins of water, and is 

170 The Wild Garden. 

rather freely scattered over the British isles, but 
not common. These plants are of course only to 
be collected in a wild state, though they are grown 
in some botanic gardens. The others are what we 
would mostly call wild field kinds, and are too apt 
to become dangerous weeds to be admitted to the 
garden. R. acris pleno and R. repens pleno are 
double forms of the wild kinds, and well worth 
growing, from their exceedingly pretty " bachelor's- 
button" flowers, bright yellow, neat, and very 
double. From being double they last longer in 
flower than the single kinds, are well suited for use 
among cut flowers, and are, in fact, very desirable 
border plants. They must be had from a nursety, 
or from a place where herbaceous flowers are 
grown, though possibly they may be found wild 
occasionally, though very rarely. 

Then we have the large marsh marigold (Caltha 
palustris), which makes such a glorious show in 
spring along moist bottoms, or by river banks in 
rich soil — notably on the left bank of the Thames 
as you go to Kew, where, when there has been a 
very high tide during the flowering season, I have 
seen ^he ground for many feet under the water look 
as if strewn with gold, in consequence of the water 
having overflowed the banks and covered numbers 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 171 

of tliese showy flowers when fully expanded. This 
is well worth introducing to the margin of all 
garden waters, or even to moist ground, where it 
is not already established, because it makes a truly 
fine spring-flowering plant. There is a double 
variety sold rather plentifully in Covent Garden in 
early summer, which is very desirable, bearing per- 
fectly double flowers of large size, which, like the 
double Crowfoots last longer than the single blooms. 
TroUius europaeus is the pretty Globe-flower, well 
worthy of a place from its clear yellow colour, 
pleasing outline, and sweetness. Not a common 
plant in England, but rather frequent in the north 
and west, from Wales to the Grampians, and in 
Ireland. It grows nicely as a border plant. That 
ipretty and dwarf little spring flower, the Winter 
Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis), also belongs to this 
order, and is most worthy of culture. It is 
naturalized here and there, and may be had 
abundantly from any bulb merchant or grower of 
spring flowers. 

The English hellebores are barely worth grow- 
ing except in a botanic garden. The common 
columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris) is desirable, and 
often very pretty. It is not very common in the 
wild state, but undoubtedly a real native in several 

17a The Wild Garden, 

counties of England. In one gorge on Helvdlyn 
I have found it ascend almost to the top of that 
mountain, flowering beautifully in most inacces- 
sible spots ; it is rather common in gardens, and to 
be had from the seedsmen. Delphinium Consolida 
is somewhat frequent in the eastern counties ; it is 
an annual, interesting and desirable where a full 
collection is sought, but has hardly quality enough 
for the choice selection. The common poisonous 
aconite (A. Napellus) is rather an ornamental 
native plant, though only locally distributed ; it is, 
however, very commoa in gardens, where it should 
be carefully isolated from any roots likely to be 
used as food, in consequence of the frightfully 
poisonous character of its roots. 

The common Berberis vulgaris, which is rather 
widely distributed, must not be forgotten among 
British plants, for I doubt if there be a more 
beautiful sight afforded by any shrub than by this 
when draped over with its brightly-coloured racemes 
of fruit, which are also so useful in the edible de- 
partment. I remember having been more struck 
with the beauty of several fine old bushes of this 
plant at Frogmore than with any other shrubs in 
the wide gardens there. There is a vulgar but 
quite unfounded prejudice which charges the plant 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 173 

— - I - - - - - - - - - ----- — — ■ _ 

with blighting crops, but it should be in every 
gardetiy and in a large place might be planted in 
the shrubbery or adjacent to the British collection. 
The queenly white Water-lily, so common in our 
rivers, should be seen in all garden waters, not 
thickly planted, but a single specimen or group 
here and there. It is most effective when one or 
a few good plants are seen alone on the water ; 
then the flowers and leaves have full room to de- 
velop and float right regally ; but when a dense 
crowd of water lilies are seen together, they are 
usually poorly developed, and crowd each other out. 
The effect is never half so beautiful as when — 

Some scattered water-lily sails 
Down where the shallower wave still tells its bubbling tales. 

See how the author of " Childe Harold" chances 
inadvertently to note the beauty of the Water-lily 
when isolated, compared to what it is when choked 
together in a river bed or garden water. With it 
should be associated the yellow Water-lily (Nuphar 
lutea), and if the small and rare Nuphar Pumila 
can be had, so much the better. 

Among the poppies, the only one really worth 
gfrowing as a garden plant is the Welsh Poppy 
(Meconopsis cambrica), which grows so abundantly 
along the road sides in the lake district It is a 

J 74 The Wild Garden. 

pretty perennial of a clear yellow, and thrives well 
at the bottoms of walls and such positions. Some 
might care to grow the large Opium Poppy (P^ 
somniferum) ; its finer double varieties are doubt- 
less very good, but these can scarcely be called 
British. The Homed Poppy of our sea shores is 
distinct and curious, and on that account might be 
grown in a garden ; but it must be treated as an 
annual or biennial. Corydalis solida is a pleasing 
and dwarf spring flower, scarcely a native, or very 
rare; and the seakale, really ornamental when 
in flower, is well worthy of a place on a wild 

In the natural order Cruciferae, Thlaspi alpestre 
(a pretty Alpine), Iberis amara (a fine white 
annual), Draba aizoides (a rare and beautiful 
Alpine), Koniga maritima, the sweet Alyssum, and 
Dentaria bulbifera, rare, pretty, and curious ; Car- 
damine pratensis, the ladies' smock, and its double 
variety ; Arabis petraea, a sweet dwarf alpine ; 
the common wallflower, and the single rocket 
(Hesperis matronalis) will be found the most orna- 
mental, and all of them are worth growing. Any 
Flora of the United Kingdom will tell their habitats. 
None of the mignonettes found in Britain are worthy 
of cultivation. 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 175 

All the British Helianthemums or rock roses are 
-worthy of a position on the rockwork, and the 
annual kind H. guttatum^ is a singularly pretty 
thing, with black spots at the base of its clear yellow 
petals. Of the Violets, in addition to the sweet 
violet, which should be grown on a north aspect, 
V. lutea and V. tricolor will be found the most distinct 


and worthy of culture. The Droseras, or sun-dews, 
are very pretty, but cannot be long preserved in a 
garden ; nor have I ever seen the pretty Polygalas 
cultivated with success. The very dwarf trailing 
Frankenia laevis (Sea Heath) runs over stones, and 
looks neat and mossy on a rockwork. 

In the Pink tribe, the scarce, single, wild Car- 
nation (D. Caryophyllus), D. plumarius, by some 
supposed to be the parent of the garden pinks, and 
D. caesius, the Cheddar Pink, which does so nicely 
on an old wall or on rockwork, D. deltoides, the 
maiden pink, the common soapwort (Saponaria 
officinalis), the sea bladder-campion (Silene mari- 
tima), Silene acaulis, the beautiful little alpine that 
clothes our higher mountains, the com cockle 
(Lychnis Githago), the Ragged Robin, and the 
alpine lychnis ; the vernal sandwort (Arenaria 
vema), Arenaria ciliata, found on Ben Bulben, in 
Ireland, and Cerastium alpinum are the best, and 

176 The Wild Garden. 

these are all worthy of culture. The last is as 
shaggy as a Skye terrier, and does not gfrow more 
than an inch high. I have found it thrive out of 
doors in a garden near London, though people 
generally treat it as a delicate alpine plant, and 
grow it in frames. 

A really ornamental species of Flax is not by 
any means a common inmate of British gardens, 
but a pretty species occurs in some of our eastern 
counties, and may be seen in most botanic gardens 
and some nurseries. This is Linum perenne, a 
pretty blue-flowering, medium-sized border plant. 
There is a pure white variety, which is fully equal 
to the blue, or even better, because pure white 
border flowers are not so plentiful. Both are quite 
hardy and perennial, well suited for rockwork or 
the most select mixed border. There is also a 
rose-coloured . variety, but whether the '* rose" be 
worthy of that name or not I cannot say, as I 
have not flowered the plant. The Perennial 
Flax, or any of its varieties, will be found to 
thrive in any place where the grass is not mown 
as well as on borders. Seed is offered by 
various seedsmen, so that there need be no 
difficulty in raising plants of this most desirable 
British species. None of the other British Flaxes 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. \t*i 

are worthy of cultivation. The common flax is 
sometimes found wild, but it is not a true, or at all 
events is a very doubtful, native. 

In the natural order Malvaceae, we have several 
showy plants, but none particularly worthy of 
garden cultivation, except it be Lavatera arborea 
(the Sea Lavatera), which is sparsely distributed 
along the south and west coasts, and on the Bass 
Rock in the Frith of Forth. It is a plant of 
vigorous habit and noble leaves, which might be 
used with advantage in what is nowadays called 
the subtropical garden, or, indeed, in almost any 
position, for it is a plant of very distinct habit. It 
grows five or six feet high when in a favourable 
situation. The best of the mallows is the Musk 
Miallow (M. moschata), which bears a profusion of 
rather showy flowers in summer. It is not an un- 
common English plant, and would not discredit 
the mixed border. The Marsh Mallow (Althaea 
officinalis) will of course be cultivated for other 
reasons than its beauty, which is not very 
striking. The Marsh Mallow is found in the south 
of England, but does not go far north, nor is it 
very common, whereas the common mallow is to 
be seen everywhere, except perhaps in the extreme 


178 The Wild Garden. 

Among the Hypericums there is something to 
admire ; indeed, nearly all of them possess some 
beauty, and might find a place among low shrubs ; 
but by far the best is H. calycinum, or " St. John's 
wort," a kind which is not perhaps truly British 
naturally, but which is to be seen in many gardens, 
and is now naturalized in several parts of England 
and Ireland in bushy places. The very large and 
showy flowers of this species, combined with its 
dwarf and neat habit, make it fit for a place in any 
garden, and it is particularly adapted for rough 
rockwork, or will crawl away freely under and near 
trees, &c. ; though of course, like most things, it 
will best show its beauty when fully exposed to 
the sun and air. It is a plant that can be had 

In the Geranium order there are a few pretty 
things for the garden — notably, G. pratense, G. 
sylvaticum, and G. sanguineum, with its fine variety 
G. lancastriense. This variety was originally found 
in the Isle of Walney, in Lancashire, and some 
writers have made it a species under the name 
of G. lancastriense, but most good botanists now 
consider it a variety of G. sanguineum. Both 
plants are well worth growing in a garden. The 
latter is widely distributed in Britain, and yet is 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 179 

not very general. It is what might be called a 
local plant, while G. lancastriense must now be 
sought for in nurseries or botanic gardens. G. 
sanguineum makes a very pretty border plant of 
dwarf and compact habit. G. phseum is a species 
with flowers of a peculiar blackish colour, and is 
more curious than beautiful. It is wild in some 
parts of Westmoreland and Yorkshire, and is worth 
a place in a full collection from its distinctness, if 
nothing else. 

The common Oxalis (O. Acetosella) is the 
prettiest among its British allies ; and a chaste little 
plant it is, too, when seen luxuriating in shady, 
woody places, along hedge-banks, &c. It cannot 
be cultivated to perfection fully exposed, but in all 
gardens where there is a little diversity, or any 
half-wild, shady spot, it might be introduced with 
advantage. Some say it is the shamrock of the 
ancient Irish, but they are certainly wrong. Estab- 
lished custom among the Irish during the expe- 
rience of the oldest inhabitants, and everything 
that can be observed or gleaned, tend to point to 
the common trifolium as the true shamrock. 

In the Pea tribe there are a few plants of great 
merit, and the first we meet with is the very pretty 
dwarf shrub Genista tinctoria, or Dyer's genista. 

N 2 

1 8o The Wild Garden. 

This is an exceedingly neat little shrub, very low 
and dwarf, but vigorous in the profusion of its 
bright yellow flowers. It ought to be in every 
garden, and would be equally at home on the select 
rockwork, the border, or among very dwarf shrubs. 
It is rather frequent in England, but rare in Scot- 
land and Ireland. It can be had from most shrub 
nurseries. Its two allies, G. pilosa and G. anglica, 
are also neat and interesting little shrubs, and 
though not so decidedly ornamental as the Dyer's 
genista, they are well worth a place in an interest- 
ing collection of dwarf British shrubs. 

Most people who admire wild flowers must 
have been struck with the beauty of the common 
Restharrow, which spreads such a sheet of delicate 
colour over many a chalk cliff and sandy pasture 
or roadside. It bears garden culture willingly, and 
is prettier when in flower than numbers of New 
Holland plants, which require greenhouse pro- 
tection and ceaseless expense to keep them alive 
at all. There is a smoother, taller, and more bushy 
form of this sometimes admitted as a species, G. 
antiquorum, which is also a very ornamental plant, 
and well suited for the mixed border. These 
plants grow very freely from seed, and are of the 
easiest culture. 

Juwwi I J. i|.^^..llLXJ.W U,M m^MitaFm^m'^^m^m^mm^mmfmKgmif^mm 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. i8i 

Among the Medicagos there is a good deal of 
coarse vigour ; but one of them, while not lacking 
vigour, I have found a very lovely plant for large 
rockwork or for the mixed border. M. falcata has 
decumbent stems, and forms a dense, wide-spread- 
ing mass upon the ground, the whole plant being 
covered with yellow flowers. Now, if M. falcata 
be planted on a rough rockwork, or any other 
position from which it can let fall its luxuriant, 
low-lying growth, it will prove a most ornamental 
object, and is of an almost perennial duration 
and great hardiness. Founci only in southern and 
eastern England. The other Medicks and their 
allies possess some beauty, but scarcely sufficient 
to warrant their garden culture, and all of them are 
Inferior to M. falcata. 

None of the Clovers or Trifoliums can be recom- 
mended for garden culture, because the most 
showy kinds are common in our fields ; and there- 
fore whatever garden space we can spare for wild 
flowers had better be devoted to things we are not 
likely to meet with every day. Here again it may 
be said that Trifolium repens is the true shamrock, 
and has been so since the days of St. Patrick. 
Some say that it is of comparatively recent intro- 
duction to Ireland^ but without either proof or 

i8a The Wild Garden. 

probability on their side, as it reaches nearly as 
far north as the Arctic circle ; and why it should ' 
avoid such a genial spot as the green isle, we 
not informed. Though comparatively common, 
the lotus or bird's-foot trefoil is so thoroughly dis- 
tinct and beautiful, that it must not be omitted in - 
" The Garden of British Wild Flowers," flowering- 
as it does nearly the whole summer, and keeping- 
so dwarf and neat in habit. There are several 
forms. I know of no better plant for the front 
edge of the mixed border. The lady's fingers, or 
Anthyllis vulneraria, is rather a pretty thing found 
in chalky pastures and dry stony places in England, 
and often grown as a farm plant. 

The three British kinds of Astragalus are worthy 
of cultivation, and still more so is the allied genus, 
Oxytropis. Both O. campestris and O. uralensis 
are neat dwarf plants, the foliage of the last being 
quite silvery, and its habit one of the neatest. The 
first is only found in one spot among the Clova* 
mountains in Scotland ; the second is rather 
common on the Scotch hills. Hippocrepis comosa 
is rather like the bird's-foot trefoil, both in habit 
and flower, and is well worth a place among the 
choice dwarfs. Not found in Scotland or Ireland, 
but rather abundant in some parts of England. 

■•"■ ■ ■^^■^^■■■M^iwsHiwippBaaaBe 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 183 

Of the several kinds of Vicia, or vetch, two at 
least are eminently worthy of culture — ^V. Cracca 
and V. sylvatica. The first of these makes a 
charming border plant if slightly supported on 
stakes when young, so that it may have hidden its 
supports by the time the flowers appear. I have 
grown this a perfect wide-spreading mass of bluish 
purple, and it is one of the most conspicuous of 
herbaceous plants. The other kind is of a climb- 
ing habit, but most elegant when seen running 
up the stems of young trees or over bushes. This 
is found in most woody hilly districts of Britain 
and Scotland, and V. Cracca is common every- 
where in this country. Among British peas 
decidedly the best is the Sea Pea, Lathyrus 
maritimus, which makes a remarkably hand- 
some plant in rich deep ground ; and, indeed, its 
large bluish purple flowers make it attractive on 
any soil. It. occurs on the coast of southern and 
eastern England, of Shetland, and of Kerry, in 
Ireland. The seeds are edible, and have been 
used ere now by the country people as food. 

In the Rose order both the Spiraeas will repay 
attention ; certainly S. filipendula, which, in addi- 
tion to its pretty flowers, has leaves cut somewhat 
after the fashion of a fern, and may indeed be used 

184 The Wild Garden. 

in that capacity in the flower garden: it would 
furnish somewhat of the effect of a Blechnuxn. 
The double variety is very desirable. It is found 
freely enough in England, but does not go far into 
Scotland ; nor is it recorded from Ireland. Dryas 
octopetala, a plant found on the limestone moun* 
tains of North England and Ireland, and abun- 
dantly in Scotland, makes a neat border plant in 
light free soil and where the air is pure. About 
Edinburgh I have noticed .pretty edgings made 
of it in some of the nurseries. Very near London 
it does not seem to do well ; but in all cases it is 
worthy of a trial, being an interesting and distinct 
wild flower. 

As for the blackberry, raspberry, dewberry, and 
cloudberry, many may desire to cultivate them in 
the shrubbery, and very interesting it is to observe 
the differences between some of the sub-species 
and varieties of blackberries, and the beauty, both 
in fruit and flower, of the family. The cloudberry 
can only be grown in a cold, wet, boggy soil, and 
is almost impossible of culture as a garden plant, 
except in moist and elevated spots. The dew- 
berry, distinguished principally by the glaucous 
bloom on the fruit when ripe, is of easy culture. 
Of the Potentillas, P. rupestris, white-flowered. 

fft ■ I J . B^vij ■> ■■ * nwm^^^^^^mi^^^'^^m^^^mmm^Km^^^^'^/ma^a^H^mmmKmmmitfmKmHK^ 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 185 

found on the Breiddin Hills in Montgomeryshire, 
and the large golden-yellow-flowered P. alpestris, 
found on the higher limestone mountains, are the 
test. P. fruticosa, found in the north of England 
and in Clare and Galway, in Ireland, makes a 
neat, free flowering bush ; and the marsh poten- 
tilla (P. Comarum) will do well in boggy ground, if 
you have such, though it is more distinct than 
pretty. As to the wild roses, it is difficult to make 
any selection, because of their great interest. All 
the species and varieties that could be collected 
would surely prove of great interest in the shrub- 
bery, as would all the British trees and shrubs of 
the Rose family. 

Everybody at all familiar with our native plants 
knows the common Willow-herb (Epilobium an- 
gustifolium), so showy, and so apt to become a 
disagreeable weed in some places. But if properly 
placed in some out-of-the-way spot, where it cannot 
overrun or interfere with rarer and less vigorous 
plants, it becomes a real ornament, even when 
contrasted with the most showy of exotic herbs. 
Even the botanist, in describing it, says, " a hand- 
some plant" — an expression very rarely used by 
gentlemen who write on English botany. Though 
very widely distributed over Britain, it is not what 

1 86 The Wild Garden. 

would be called a common plant ; but in no case 
can there be any difficulty in obtaining it. Planted 
and allowed to have its own way in a shrubbery, or 
any other position you care little about, it will 
furnish a rich display with its purplish red flowers 
in summer. Behind the late Sir Joseph Paxton's 
fine house at Chatsworth, there is a little private 
garden, and the shrubbery that . encloses this ex-, 
hibits an abundance of the Willow-herb, planted 
there by Paxton, who, though he enjoyed the 
noblest tropical plants near at hand in the great 
conservatory and Victoria Regia house, yet was 
alive to the charms of this fine native plant. 
There are many other kinds, but none of them so 
worthy of culture as this. 

The Evening Primrose (^Enothera biennis), de- 
serves a place from its fragrance ; and, as it is apt 
to go wild, it is as well to place it in some out-of- 
the way spot, where it may be found when desired, 
and yet not have an opportunity to become a weed. 
I observe it has quite covered waste building 
ground near Westminster. As for the Marestail, 
it is an aquatic plant, in general outline somewhat 
resembling the Equisetums, and suited for the 
curious and interesting collection rather than the; 
ornamental ; it flourishes healthfully in a ditch, 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 187 

margin of pond, or fountain basin, placed in a pot, 
which will prevent its running about too much. 

Next we have the distinct and showy purple 
Loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria), a ditch and marsh 
plant, abundant in many parts of Britain. There 
is a variety of this plant known in nurseries and 
gardens by the name of L. roseum superbum, 
which should be in every garden, whether the 
owner takes an interest in English plants or not. 
This, planted by the side of ornamental water, 
nlakes a splendid object, and is also a first-rate 
border plant. The colour of its long spikes of 
flowers is of the most charming character. So, 
whatever you do in British flowers, do not forget 
Lythrum roseum superbum, or, in more correct 
language, the fine rose-coloured variety of the 
common Loosestrife. It may now be had in the 
nurseries, and is used as a flower-garden plant in 
s6me parts of the North. It may be easily 
raised from seed, which is offered in some 

The common Herniary (Herniaria glabra) and. 
Scleranthus perennis are two very dwarf green. 
s|)reading plants, found in some of the southern 
and central counties of England, and which would 
furnish a neat Lycopodium^-like effect on rockwork 


i88 The Wild Garden. 

or anything of the kind. Their flowers are almost 
inconspicuous, but the habit is neat, and the tone 

Then we come to the Roseroot (Sedum Rhodioia) 
and the tribe of neat, pretty, and interesting 
Sedums, every one of which is worthy of a place on 
the rockwork or rocky bed in the "garden of 
British wild flowers" — from the common stonecrop, 
which grows on the thatch of cottages and abun- 
dantly in many parts of Britain, on walls and rocky 
places, to that little gem for a wall or rockwork, the 
thick-leaved Sedum dasyphyllum of the south of 
England. This last is perhaps not truly native in 
Britain, but can be readily had wherever collections 
of these plants are grown. The Roseroot is so 
called from the drying root-stock smelling like 
roses. The Orpine or Livelong (Sedum Tele- 
phium) is also a flne old plant of this order. 

Grow the British sedums on a little slightly rocky 
or elevated bed, but they will do quite well on the 
fully exposed level ground ; only keep them free 
from weeds, or, from their diminutive size, they 
may become exterminated by these, or even by the 
common stonecrop, which usually makes a vigorous 
attempt to grow through and choke up the smaller 
members of its family. If you have any old 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 189 

walls or buildings try and establish a few of the 
smaller kinds on these ; and while it is very in- 
teresting to have rare plants established in such 
places, you will find that the timid and tenderer 
kinds will always survive on them ; whereas they 
may get cut off by the winter when on level ground 
or in pots. This is particularly true of the charm- 
ing little Sedum dasyphyllum, which everybody 
having an old wall, or mossy old building of any 
kind, would do well to endeavour to establish, by 
putting a young plant in a suitable chink with a 
little sandy soil around it. Once it has seeded, in 
all probability the plant will become firmly esta- 
blished ; the seedlings raised on the wall are sure 
to live long and perpetuate themselves. 

Not a few small and delicate plants that can 
hardly be preserved long in a garden in any other 
way may be grown on a wall. If you are a fern- 
grower, you will know how difficult it is to establish 
the little Wall Rue (Asplenium Ruta-muraria) in 
pots, pans, or any way in the hardy fernery ; but 
by taking a few of the spore-bearing little fronds, 
and putting a little of the "fern-seed" into the 
chinks of an old wall, you will soon establish it ; 
and in like manner it is quite possible to cultivate 
the Ceterach and the graceful Spleenwort (often 

190 The Wild Garden. 

erroneously called the Maiden-hair), only that the 
wall must be somewhat older and richer, so to 
speak, to accommodate these than the Wall-rue. 
Indeed, this little fern will grow on a wall that is in 
perfect condition, as may be seen by any person 
driving past Lord Mansfield's place at Highgate, 
where the high garden-wall that runs for some dis- 
tance parallel with the road running from Hamp- 
stead to Highgate is covered in its upper part with 
this plant, and would be so lower down, and more 
abundantly, were it not for the depredations of 
plant-collectors. In a moister district, or on an 
older wall, it would, of course, be far more luxu- 
riant ; but the fact that you may establish it on a 
sound wall is worth relating. Nothing could be 
more interesting than to see an old wall covered 
with ferns, draped here and there with Linaria, and 
studded in spots with the Sedum above recom- 
mended for this purpose, or with others. 

The Sedums are succeeded in the natural classi- 
fication of British plants by the Saxifrages — 
beautiful, most interesting, and very neat in habit, 
like the Sedums in size, but distinct and even n^ore 
indispensable for the garden. First, there is the 
Irish group of Saxifrages, the London Pride and 
its varieties ; and the Killarney saxifrage, S. 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 191 

Geum and its interesting varieties, both species 
very pretty for rockwork and borders. 

Next we have the mountain S. stellaris and 
S. nivalis, and the yellow marsh S. Hirculus, 
and the yellow S. aizoides, which fringes the 
rills and streams on the hills and mountains in 
Scotland, and the north of England and Ireland, 
all interesting and worthy of a trial — but far 
surpassed by the purple Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
which opens its vivid purplish-rose flowers soon 
after the snow melts on its native rocks in the 
Scotch Highlands, and as far north, among the 
higher mountains of Europe, Russian and Central 
Asia, as the Arctic circle. It bears garden culture 
well, either as a pot plant in the cold frame or pit, 
on the rockwork, or in patches in the front of a 
border. In planting this it would be well to exca- 
vate holes a couple of feet deep, filling them again 
with a mixture of broken stone and earth, so that 
when the roots descended among these evaporation- 
preventing stones, they might find a good substitute 
for that moisture and that nutriment which they 
enjoy among the dS^^m and in the chinks of their 
native rocks. The purple saxifrage should be 
planted in the full sun. 

This caution is the more necessary in conse- 

192 The Wild Garden. 

quence of nearly every person who grows these in- 
teresting dwarf plants, keeping them in a shady- 
position, in which they soon perish, or never look 
such far-glistening ornaments as when grown in the 
full sun, and supplied with a sufficiency of water. 

The meadow Saxifraga granulata differs in most 
respects from most of the other members of the 
family that are in cultivation, and is worth grow- 
ing ; its double variety, which may be seen in many 
cottage gardens, is much used in some places for 
the spring garden, and is in all respects a most de- 
sirable garden plant It flowers so abundantly 
that the very leaves are hidden by the profusion of 
rather large double flowers. I have noticed it fre- 
quently in small cottage gardens in Surrey, and it 
may now be had easily from the nurserymen. It 
is a pleasing and much admired subject for the 
spring garden. 

The dense green moss-like Saxifrages are a 
most important group for the garden, in conse- 
quence of the fresh and living green which they 
assume in winter, when everything else begins to 
look lamentable and ragged — when the fallen 
leaves rush by, driven by the wet gusts of autumn 
— and when geraniums and all the fleeting flower- 
garden plants are cut off by the frost. They grow 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 193 

on almost any soil or situation, and may be grown 
"w^ith ease even in large towns, provided always 
t:Iiat they are fully exposed to the sun, and get a 
few thorough waterings during very dry summers. 
TThey are dotted over with white flowers in early 
Summer, the stems of which should be cut off as 
soon as the flowers perish ; but to me their great 
beauty is in Autumn, when they glisten into various 
tints of the most refreshing g^reen, and all through 
the winter, when they remain in the same condi- 
tion, or emerge from the deepest snows verdant as 
leaves in June. S. hypnoides, abundant in Scot- 
land, Wales, and northern England, with its varieties, 
is our most important plant in this way ; and S. 
caespitosa, found on some of the higher Scotch moun- 
tains, is nearly allied to it, and of nearly equal merit. 
There is no necessity for going to the Scotch or 
any other mountains for these mossy Saxifrages, 
as they are grown a great deal here and there — may 
be had from many nurseries — and seed is offered 
in some catalogues. 

Green is attractive to many people, especially 
in winter, and to those whose eyes require refresh* 
ment after severe mental exertion or sedentary* 
work — ^a very large class indeed, nowadays. In 
towns it is difficult to get shrubs to retaiii> 



194 The Wild Garden. 

their verdure, in consequence of smut and other 
adverse influences ; in all places these mossy- 
Saxifrages will afford it most attractively if 
planted on some borders near the window, or 
better still, on a rather flat-lying fringe of rockwork 
opposite them. I have seen a gentle bank, facing 
the drawing-room window of a house, covered most 
effectively in this way, having it studded with a few 
*' rocks," and then planting it with a variety of these 
mossy Saxifrages and a few other perpetually green, 
hardy dwarf plants. In winter it was most refresh- 
ing to look upon — more attractive than the ever-' 
green shrubs beyond it. 

Next we have the beautiful Grass of Parnassus 
(Parnassia palustris), a distinct and charming native 
plant, rather frequent in Britain in bogs and moist 
heaths. I have grown it very successfully in a small 
artificial bog, and still better in six-inch pots in 
peat soil, the pots being placed in a saucer of water 
during summer, and preserved in a cold frame in 
winter. It is, however, much better to '* naturalize" 
it in moist grassy places than to grow it in this way. 

The Spignel or Baldmoney (Meum athamanti- 
cum), which is found in the Scotch highlands, in 
Wales, and the north of England, and has most 
elegantly divided leaves, being very dwarf and neat 


The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 195 

in habit^ is a most desirable border or rock plant. 
The flowering stems should be pinched out, as it is 
for the much-dissected leaves only that the plant is 
Avorthy of cultivation. In the whole of the umbelli- 
ferous ordet there is hardly another plant worthy 
of cultivation, if we except the Sea-holly (Eryn- 
gium maritimum), a striking subject, and the Sweet 
Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) an interesting old plant, 
often cultivated in old times and gardens for various 
uses ; not a rare plant, but most plentiful in the 
hilly parts of the north of England. The rest of 
the order are best admired in their wild haunts, like 
a great many other British plants. 

The Linnaea borealis is one of the prettiest and 
most distinct things among our native plants, and, 
moreover, highly attractive to all who know anything 
about botany, in consequence of its being named 
after the great master of natural science, Linnaeus 
himself, who was very fond of this plant, which 
trails about so prettily in fir woods in the North. 
It is found, though rarely, in Scotland ; but being 
a favourite plant with many, may be purchasysd in 
many nurseries. The only question is, how to keep 
a plant so interesting and pretty ? To place it in 
the ordinary earth of our dry southern gardens 
would be a ready way of extinguishing it ; but by 

O 2 

196 The Wild Garden, 

a little management it may be grown quite readily 
by anybody. I have grown it in three different 
ways. First in the open garden, planted in deep 
silvery peat, and covered with a hand-glass, 
rubbed over with a half-dry paint brush, to furnish 
the necessary amount of shade. In that way it did 
very well, — luxuriantly, in fact. The glass, nearly 
quite close at all times, preserved the desired 
moisture around the plant, and it never required any 
attention, except to remove weeds now and then. 

Of course anybody can follow the same practice. 
As a painted handlight is not a very ornamental ob- 
ject, it would of course be better to place it in some 
shady or out-of-the-way spot. Such will also accord 
better with its character. Another equally successful 
way is to plant it in a moist, cool, shady, cold frame, 
such as you would use for bringing on a batch of 
young hardy ferns — the frame to face the north 
instead of the south, as is usually the case. By 
putting some peat and leaf-mould in the back of 
such a frame, and planting a nice little specimen 
or t^o of the Linnaea, I have had it nearly fill 
the frame. In a like kind of frame it may be 
grown to perfection in pots of peat, the peat to 
be kept very moist. In such, when it becomes well 
established, the graceful shoots hang in a mass 

_j J i^T'-iwwrm uip i»^^H)^iep^y«*Mw^^m^-^«^w7S^pK^ne7^^nie^<^V 


7J4^ Garden of British Wild Flowers, 197 

over the pot, and then it may be removed for some 
time to the outside of a window on the shady side 
of a house, the pot being placed in a saucer con- 
stantly filled with water. Thus you may enjoy, 
even without leaving the house, a plant that any 
botanist would be grateful to you for growing, so 
much do botanists admire it, while it is at the same 
time pretty enough to ensure admiration from those 
unlearned in plants. 

That the Heath family is likely to afford much 


interest I need hardly remind any person who has 
seen the wide spread of beauty on our heaths and 
mountains in summer or autumn. But of the variety 
of loveliness which exists among our native heaths 
few people have any idea : not ^ven the sportsman 
or botanist, who continually wanders over their 
native wilds, or the plant collector, with a quick 
eye for everything attractive or noble in the way of 
a plant. The species themselves are of course very 
beautiful ; but from time to time sports have ap- 
peared amongst them which nurserymen have pre- 
served ; and thus, where you see a good collection 
of these, the variety of gay colour is quite sur- 
prising. Though I knew all the species and ad- 
mired them, I had no idea of the beauty of colour 
afforded by the varieties till I visited the Comely- 

198 The Wild Garden. 

bank nurseries at Edinburgh a few years ago/ and 
there found a large piece of ground covered with their 
exquisite tints, and looking like a most refined flower-^ 
garden. But if all this beauty did not exist, the 
charms of the usual form of the species, as spread out 
on our sunny heaths, should suffice to warrant their 
culture on the rockwork or among dwarf shrubs. 

As for the Ericas, all are worthy of a place, 
beginning with the varieties of the common ling 
(Calluna vulgaris) — ^the commonest of all heaths. 
It has "sported" into a great number of varieties, 
many of which are preserved in nurseries, and 
these are the kinds we should cultivate. Some of 
them are better, brighter, and different in colour ; 
others differ remarkably in habit, some sitting close 
to the ground in dense, green, tiny bushes ; others 
forming fairy shrubs of a more pyramidal character, 
and all most interesting and pretty. These tiny 
shrubs and their allies in size might form a sort of 
edging or marginal line round a bed of choice 
shrubs planted in peat, as they frequently are and 
must be in gardens. I will merely mention the 
varieties pygmaea, pumila, and coccinea. Then we 
have the "Scotch heather" (Erica cinerea), the 
reddish purple showy flowers of which are very 
attractive, but far surpassed in beauty of colour by 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 199 

a variety of the same plant called coccinea ; and 
there is also a white variety, as there is of Erica 
Tetralix, to which is also closely related the Irish 
E. Mackaiana, a plant named after Dr. Mackay of 
Dublin, who found so many of the plants in Ireland 
that connect its flora with that of south-western 
Europe. Next we have a ciliated Heath (Ei 
ciliaris), a very handsome species, with flowers as 
large as those of St. Daboec's heath, and the Irish 
heath (E. hibernica), one of the most valuable of 
all hardy plants, in consequence of its blushing into 
masses of rosy red in our gardens in early spring. 
It is found in some of the western counties of Ire- 
land, and of course after it had been discovered in 
other European countries. This forms a neat, 
low- lying bush ; grows on almost any soil, and is 
one of the most valuable of dwarf shrubs ; ad- 
mirable for making an edging round a bed of 
choice shrubs or anything else, for the rockwork or 
for the mixed border. Finally, we have among 
these interesting things the Cornish Heath (E. 
vagans), and from what has been said of the family 
it will be perceived that a very interesting bed or 
group might be made from these alone. Indeed, 
they would be most desirable to introduce wherever 
the soil is peaty or not over arid, and might be 

aoo The Wild Garden. 

grown anywhere by excavating a bed and filling it 
with peat : but our great object should be to make 
the most of natural advantages, and as many per- 
sons must have gardens suited for what are called 
American plants, they would find it worth while to 
devote a spot to the British Heaths and their 

Nearly allied to them we have the interesting 
bog Vacciniums, which may be cultivated in marshy 
or peaty ground. To these belong the cranberry, 
bilberry, and whortleberry ; and for some of these 
and the American kinds, people have ere now made 
artificial bogs in their gardens. The little creeping 
evergreen, Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, or bearberry, is 
very neat in the garden or on rockwork. It is found 
in hilly districts in Scotland, northern England, and 
Ireland, and maybe had from the nurserymen. Then 
the Marsh Andromeda (A. polifolia), found chiefly in 
central and northern England, bears very pretty 
pink flowers, and grows freely in a bog or peat-bed. 
The very small English Azalea procumbens is also 
an interesting native which some people try to cul- 
tivate, and where they succeed nothing can be more 
satisfactory, for the plant forms a cushiony bush not 
more than a couple of inches high. In Britain it is 
found only in the Scotch highlands* I have only 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, aoi 

r 111 I 

once seen this firmly established in cultivation. 
Few people who admire what are called American 
shrubs can have failed to notice from time to time 
the beautiful St. Daboec's Heath (Menziesia poli- 
folia), a plant found rather abundantly on the 
heathy wastes of the Asturias and in south-western 
France, and also in some abundance in Connemara, 
in Ireland. It is usually associated with American 
plants in our nurseries and gardens, preferring peat 
soil and the treatment given to such subjects. It is 
an elegant and beautiful plant in every way, and 
should be in every garden. The flowers are usually 
of a rich pinkish colour, but there is a pure white 
variety equally beautiful, while quite distinct from 
the commoner one. It is grown in every nursery, for 
its great beauty, and is therefore to be had without 
trouble. The very rare blue Menziesia of the Sow 
of Athol, in Perthshire, is also very desirable if you 
can get it, and I think it is sold in the Edinburgh 

The Pyrolas^ or Winter-greens, are charming 
native plants, some of them deliciously fragrant, 
and all interesting, but they are difficult to culti- 
vate. P. rotundifolia and P. uniflora are among 
the best, and both are rare. Should any reader 
attempt their culture, it will be well to bear in mind 

aoa The Wild Garden. 

that light free leaf-mould, with sand and a little 
good loam, are necessary : they delight in a light 
spongy sort of soil, with good drainage, abundant 
moisture, and shade. Vinca minor and V. major 
are too well known to need recommendation ; there 
are now some finely variegated forms of the larger 
periwinkle, and a white-flowered kind of the smaller 
one is not uncommon. 

One of the most precious gems in the British 
flora is the vernal Gentian (G. verna), which grows in 
Teesdale and in a few places on the western shores 
of Ireland. The blue of this flower is of the most 
vivid and brilliant description ; it is in fact the 
bluest of the blue, one of the most charming of all 
Alpine flowers, and should be in every garden of 
hardy plants. It may be grown well in sandy loam 
mixed with broken limestone or gravel, and indeed 
is not very particular as to soil, provided that it be 
mixed with sharp sand or grit, kept moist, and well 
drained A very important point in the cultivation 
of this plant is to leave it for several years undis- 
turbed. It is best suited for a snug spot on rockwork, 
where, however, it should not be placed, unless there 
is a good body of soil into which its roots may de- 
scend and where they will find moisture at all times. 
It cannot be too well known that rockworks, as 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 203 

generally made, are delusions — ugly, unnatural, and 
quite unfit for a plant to grow upon. The stones 
or "rocks" are piled up, with no sufficient quantity 
of soil or any preparation made for the plants, so 
that all really beautiful rock-plants refuse to grow 
upon them, and they c^re taken possession of by 
weeds and rubbish, which also often refuse to 
grow upon the " rockwork," because they cannot 
lay hold of it, so to speak. They are generally 
made either too perpendicular or too ambitiously, 
even in tne best gardens in England^-masses of 
rock being used merely to produce an effect, or 
masses of stone piled up without any of those 
crevices or deep chinks of soil into which rock- 
plants delight to root in a native state. 

The right way is to have more soil than "rock," to 
let the latter suggest itself rather than expose its un- 
covered sides, and to make them very much flatter 
than is the rule, so that the moisture may percolate 
in every direction, and that the rockwork may 
more resemble a jutting forth of stony or rocky 
ground than the ridiculous half-wall-like structures 
which pass for rockworks in this country. I have 
grown this Gentiana verna very well in well-drained 
pots, giving it plenty of water in summer^ and also 
in the open border in fine sandy soil, the surface 

204 The Wild Garden. 

being studded here and there with small stones, 
among and around which this lovely plant made 
its way and flowered " deeply, darkly, beautifully 
blue" every season. It is abundant in mountain 
pastures in central and southern Europe ; it is, in 
fact, a true Alpine, and may now be had in various 

The Marsh Gentian (G. Pneumonanthe) is also 
a lovely plant, more so perhaps than many would 
think this dull clime capable of producing. It 
should have a moist spot in a border, and is not 
difficult to find in the north of England ; it also 
grows, though less plentifully, in central or southern 
England. The Brighton Horticultural Society is 
in the habit of giving prizes for collections of wild 
plants, and thereby doing much harm by causing 
a few rude collectors, anxious to win a few shillings, 
to gather bunches of the. rarest wild flowers, and 
perhaps exterminate them from their only habitats. 
When at one of its meetings a few years ago, I 
observed among the collections competing for a 
paltry prize large bunches of this beautiful Gentian, 
which had been pulled up by the roots, to form 
one of one hundred or more bunches of wild 
flowers torn up by one individual. To exhibit our 
wild flowers at a "flower show," where they are 


The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 205 

contrasted with hosts of Geraniums and showier 

subjects, is a very doubtful way of attracting people 

to study them ; but to give prizes for the rarest 

plants of a locality, which in consequence are 

exterminated to form part of a collection of this 

kind, is very reprehensible. The system is bad, 

root and branch, and should be discouraged by 

every lover of wild flowers, as well as any other 

plan that would cause quantities of our rarest plants 

to be exterminated. 

In the Gentian order we have also the beautiful 

Buckbean or Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), a 
plant that will grow on the margin of any water or 
ditch or moist spot ; it even grows and flowers in 
a moist border. It is a well-known and widely- 
distributed plant — everywhere over Britain, in fact; 
nevertheless, too much cannot be said in praise 
of this singularly beautiful native, with its flowers 
deeply and elegantly fringed on the inside with 
white filaments, and its unopened buds tipped with 
apple-blossom red. It is not often seen in a garden, 
though no plant, British or exotic, is more worthy 
of that position. It would be worthy of culture if 
a stove were necessary for its preservation ; but, as 
it is accommodating enough to grow strongly under 
the same conditions as the water-cress, and is even 

2o6 The Wild Garden. 

less fastidious than that, there is nothing to prevent 
all from enjoying its beauty. Villarsia nymphae- 
oides is also another capital water plant, with float- 
ing, small, water-lily-like leaves, which are dotted 
in July with a profusion of yellow flowers — so 
much so as to produce a very showy effect on a 
piece of garden water ; and on such it associates 
very well with the white water-lily. In fact, the 
prettiest effect I have ever seen on any ornamental 
water was produced by this plant lining a small 
shrub-bordered bay, a group of water-lilies appear- 
ing on its outer or deep-water side. Seen from the 
opposite shore the effect was charming — large 
queenly water-lilies in front, then a wide-spreading 
mass of green thickly sprinkled with starry yellow, 
and behind all the green healthy shrubs which came 
to the water's edge on the shores of the little bay. 

Jacob's Ladder, or Greek Valerian as it is some- 
times called, also belongs to the Gentian order, and 
is an ornamental border planty» but its variegated 
variety (Polemonium caeruleum variegatum) is of 
the highest character and value. It resembles a 
variegated fern, each pinnate leaf being decidedly 
and well marked, and the plant forms a capital 
subject for edgings, or the flower garden in any 
way. It is much used in fine flower gardens. 


The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 207 

and also in borders for bedding out. The 
flower-stems must be prevented from rising, as it is 
in the foliage that its beauty consists; and by 
allowing it to flower we of course tend to prevent the 
spread of the leaves and plant by the roots, or what 
may in fact be called " lateral extension." Besides, 
the rising flower-stems would destroy the "fern-like" 
illusion. Whether British flowers are collected or 
not, this will prove a decided acquisition to any 
garden. Do not buy it in the form of a small and 
sickly plant if you can help it, as it may " go ofi"" 
in the winter before becoming established ; and 
buy it or have it sent in spring— in the montH of 
March or April — when it may be planted in rich 
light earth, and allowed to grow away at once. It 
is propagated by division of the roots. 

Most worthy of notice, in the Stellate or Galium 
tribe, is the little white-flowering Woodruff" (Aspe- 
fula odorata), which bears its white flowers pro- 
fusely in many British woods in spring, and I have 
seen it flowering very abundantly among the trees 
and shrubs round some of the Colleges at Oxford. 
It should be known to every garden, in consequence 
of the sweet smell it yields when dried, and kept 
for a long time. There is no plant more worthy of 
culture for this purpose alone, the dried stem being 

ao8 The Wild Garden. 

as fragrant as the sweetest new hay, and continuing 
to give forth its odour for a long period^an in- 
definite one, so far as I know. It is fond of slight 
shade, and worth planting where not found in a 
wild state. When green, the "haulm" of this plant 
betrays no noticeable fragrance, but begins to emit 
it very soon after it is cut, and merely requires to 
be placed on some dry shelf or half-open drawer, 
where it may become quite dry and ready for use. 

The common Red Valerian, as it is called, or 
Centranthus ruber botanically, is a really orna- 
mental garden plant, and makes a conspicuous 
object on banks, borders, or large rockwork. 
As it may be readily raised from seed, there can 
be no difficulty in procuring it, and it should be 
noted that there is a fine deep red as well as the 
ordinary, variety, and also a pure white, and all the 
three are really ornamental plants. Their best use 
is for studding here and there on diversified or 
sloping banks, in wild and half-wild spots. They 
are also useful in the picturesque garden. Like 
the Wallflower, they do well on old walls, &c., and 
thus have become " naturalized" in many parts of 
the country. It is the first plant that occurs wild in 
newly-opened chalk-pits. 

The composite or Dandelion family is generally? 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 209 

so ragged in appearance, that I scarcely like to in- 
troduce it here. Some unattractive members of the 
family are so commonly seen wherever we walk 
abroad, that the greatest care must be made in select- 
ing garden subjects from it The Hieraciums are in 
some cases showy and fine plants. • Here I will 
merely mention H. aurantiacum, a neat border 
plant; and distinct in colour, and pass on to 
Silybum marianum, the milk thistle; Carduus 
eriophorus, a noble thistle, found chiefly in the 
limestone districts of the south of England — and 
to the great, woolly, silvery cotton-thistle, or Scotch 
thistle, as it is often called. These are sure to be 
useful, especially now, when people are begin- 
ning more to admire plants of noble or distinct form 
and habit Though frequently selected as the 
thistle of Scotland, the Onopordum is not a native 
of that country; so the Scotch thistle is a more 
dubious vegetable than the Irish shamrock. But, 
if you search the whole vegetable kingdom, you 
will not find among plants that are at home in our 
climate anything more distinct than this Cotton 
Thistle. A single specimen, standing in the midst 
or in front of g^een shrubs, produces a noble effect, 
and the plant should be in eveiy garden. Easily 
raised from seed, and once established in a garden, 

iiio The Wild Garden. 

it sows itself. Then the precaution should be taken 
of thinning down the young seedlings, or you may 
have far too many of them. One isolated plant or 
a group or two is quite sufficient for ordinary 
gardens ; but where there is sufficient space, it, with 
many other fine wild plants, might be naturalized 
with great advantage by simply sowing a few of the 
seeds in any waste or half-wild spot, or in the 
shrubbery. The Milk thistle, with its shining green 
leaves and white markings, is also very desirable 
among the British plants, though scarcely so much 
so as the great cotton or Scotch thistle. 

Everywhere the common corn-flower, Centaurea 
Cyanus, makes a beautiful garden plant, if sown in 
autumn and allowed to flower with all its accumu* 
lated vigour in spring. Sown in spring, it is far 
inferior. I know of nothing more beautiful than a 
large group or small bed of the various coloured 
forms of Corn-flower in full bloom in spring and 
early summer ; the bloom is so prolonged and 
vigorous, the flowers so pretty and so useful for the 
usual purposes of cut flowers. It is common, and 
easily had from any seedsman.. One of the pret- 
tiest of all dwarf trailing silvery plants is the 
tomentose Diotis maritima, which is found on the 
southern shores of England, coming up as far as 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers, 21 r 

Anglesea on the west and Suffolk on the east, but 
generally a rare plant in this country; it may, 
however, be had in nurseries, and is worthy of a 
plate in every garden, and especially in every col- 
lection of variegated or silvery leaved plants. 

The common Tansy is too coarse for any place 
but the herb ground, but there is a variety with 
leaves cut into numerous segments, and crisped up. 
as elegantly as the New Zealand Todea superba, 
and this should be provided with a nook, its flower- 
ing stems requiring to be pinched off when they 
show. The name of this tansy is Tanacetum 
vulgare crispum. The double variety of Pyrethrum, 
now so frequent in our flower gardens, is a native 
plant — or, at least, the single or normal form of the 
species is. The Sea Wormwood (Artemisia mari- 
tima), is a neat silvery bush, freely distributed on 
our shores, and worthy a place in our gardens. 
There is a deep rose-coloured variety of the 
common Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium rosea)-r-pity 
one cannot avoid these hard names — ^which should 
be in every garden, and there is a very pretty 
double white variety of the " Sneezewort" (Achillea 
Ptarniica), which will be found highly ornamental. 
At ifr. Paul's Cheshunt nurseries I noticed it 
being cut extensively for wedding bouquets, durihjg 

P 2 

212 The Wild Garden. 

the past summer — the flowers are so purely white 
and neat. 

Perhaps some readers may regret that I do not 
give the English names of all the plants, and 
that I do not is explained by the fact that they 
have no English names in a great many in- 
stances ; and would it not be a foolish barbarism 
to give awkward translations of the Latin names ? 
Many people have an idea that every plant has, or 
should have, a " common name," whereas such only 
belongs to plants that have been much noticed by 
the people either for their beauty or " virtues." 
Now, as hundreds of plants are so inconspicuous, 
or so rare that they were never noticed till the 
sharp-sighted botanist took them up and gave them 
a Latin name, which is on the whole the best, because 
the language is fixed, and common to the learned 
of all countries, it will be readily seen why we have 
not English names for all our plants. However, 
the next member of this natural order Compositae, 
or the Daisy order, which I shall notice, is endowed 
with several common names, such as "Moun- 
tain Cudweed," " Cat's Ear," and " Mountain Ever- 
lasting," — the botanical one being Gnaphalium 
dioicum. It is a beautiful dwarf plant, admirable 
for rockwork or the front of a border, or in any 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. %\% 

way amongst alpine plants, and abounds on moun- 
tains in Scotland, Wales, and many parts of Eng* 
iand. There is a variety called G. d. roseum, to be 
had in some nurseries, that has its dwarf flowers 
delicately tinted with rose ; a most desirable thing. 
Neat edgings are sometimes made of this plant ; 
so that there should be no difficulty in procuring 
it, even supposing we cannot find it wild ; but it v& 
a popular plant wherever Alpines are grown, and 
therefore not difficult to obtain anywhere. Gna- 
phalium margaritaceum is a common old plant in 
gardens, its flowers having been often dried for 
"everlastings," and altogether it makes a re- 
spectable, though not first-rate, border-plant, 
and should be in the "garden of British wild- 

We will now turn to the extensive Harebell order, 
where we shall find much beauty with little or no 
raggedness — ^from the Harebell which swings its 
bonny blue flower above the blast-beaten turf on 
many an upland pasture, to the little prostrate Ivy 
Campanula (C. hederacea), which is rather plentiful 
in most spots in Ireland and Western England. 
The giant Campanula (C. latifolia) is one of the 
handsomest, and is pretty frequent. The spreading 
Campanula (C. patula), of the central and southern 

dl4 The Wild Garden. 

counties of England is also very ornamental. C 
Trachelium is also good, and indeed nearly all the 
members of the family are of a character superior 
to that of most of our wild plants ; but none of 
them surpass in beauty the common Harebell^ 
which> although it may look struggling for exis- 
tence on comparatively poor or exposed pastures 
and elevated spots, yet, when transferred to a gar- 
den, makes a vigorous plant and flowers profusely 
—a mass of pleasing colour. It is capital for the 
border or large rockwork. 

The little Ivy Campanula had better be grown in 
a pot or peat soil, or in some moist and slightly 
.shaded spot where it may not be overrun by tall 
plants. If you grow it in a pot, stand that in a saucer 
of water, and then the tiny Ivy-like shoots will fall 
down over the edge of the pot, and when dotted over 
with its pale blue flowers will look very interesting, 
especially to those acquainted with our native plants. 
Both this plant and the even more interesting Linnaca 
borealis may be grown well on the outside of the 
window, with a north or shady aspect during the 
seven warmest months of the year, by planting them 
in pots of peat earth, and standing these in pans of 
water. In winter they would be better placed in ^ 
cold frame or pit To be able to cultivate things 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. %\j^ 

so interesting to the botanist, and to all who know 
plants, as these are, would surely be more gratifying 
than any amount of such subjects as we see dis- 
played in every window. 

The Ivy-leaved Cyclamen, or the common Cycla- 
men (Cyclamen hederaefolium), a native of 
Southern Europe, but not supposed to be truly 
British^ has been found in several places, apparently 
wild, and as such is generally included among 
British plants. Being a very beautiful one, it is in 
all respects worthy of a place. You cannot, per- 
haps, easily find it wild in England, but it is not 
difficult to obtain, and a lovely plant it is when 
seen in flower. A ring of it planted round a small 
bed of choice shrubs forms a pretty sight, and it 
may be naturalized in all parts, in bare places, 
in woods and shrubberies. Like those of all 
the Cyclamens, the flowers are singularly pretty, 
and being densely produced in low masses, both 
rosy purple and pure white, they are invaluable 
ornaments to the autumnal garden. The Water 
Violet (Hottonia palustris), which bears such 
handsome whorls of pale purple flowers, sent 
up on its erect stems from its dissected leaves 
submerged under the water, is a choice plant 
for a fountain-bed or pond. Though .usually 

ii6 The Wild Garden. 


supposed to grow under water, I have seen quan* 
titles of it growing most luxuriantly on soft mud- 

I had almost forgotten our native Primroses and 
Cowslips, but surely there is no need to plead for 
these and their numerous and beautiful varieties 
The Bird's Eye Primrose of northern England — 
one of the sweetest of our native plants, is, how- 
ever, very rarely seen in gardens. It would thrive 
well in wet spots on pastures and heaths, and also 
in bare moist spots by the side of rivulets, and in 
the bog bed, and on rock work, as would the 
smaller and beautiful Scotch Bird's Eye Primrose. 

The Loose-strifes, or Lysimachias, are sufficiently 
ornamental for cultivation ; L. Nummularia, the 
Creeping Jenny of the London windows, trailing 
its luxuriant leaves where few other plants would 
thrive so well. The upright-growing species L. 
thyrsiflora fs very desirable for the margin of water 
in consequence of the curious habit it has of half- 
hiding its flowers among the green of its leaves- 
A mass of it by a river, or pond, or ditch, looks 
very distinct and pleasing. Finally, we have in the 
Primula order the beautiful Trientalis of the north, 
a wood plant, and somewhat difficult to cultivate, 
but one that may be well grown in shady and 

The Garden of Briiisk Wild Flowers. 217 

• ■ ■ ■! II I - - — ^^^^— ~^^^^* 

halfr-shady spots in peat soil — a position among 
Rhododendrons etc., will do well 

Of the Thrift family, certainly the most valuable 
plant isra deep and charming rose-coloured variety of 
the common Thrift (Armferia vulgaris). Everybody 
knows the Thrift of our sea-shores, and of the tops 
of some of the Scotch mountains, with its pale pink 
flowers ; but the variety I allude to is of a deep and 
showy rose, and one of the sweetest things you can 
employ in a spring garden as an edging plant, or in 
clumps here and there in borders. This kind is 
sold and known as Armeria vulgaris rubra, or A. 
rubra. The conmion kind is not worth growing 
beside it, but the white variety is. Any of the 
British Statices that may be collected are worthy a 
place in a collection of wild flowers. In the Goose- 
foot and Dock order Atriplex portulacoides and 
Polygonum Bistorta will be found the best. The 
first is a silvery-looking shrubby herb, frequent on 
the sea-shores ; the second a showy herb, most 
plentiful in the north. Euphorbia Lathyris is the 
distinct-looking and handsome Caper Spurge, which 
is established here and there with us ; it is worthy 
of a place, though not for the beauty of its flowers. 
Nor must we forget the common Hop (Humulus 
Lupulus), which I need hardly say, is very oma* 

Ii8 The Wild GardeH. 

mental when well grown over a bowef, or in any 
other position where it may have an opportunity to 
become fully developed. 

The beautiful " Poet's Narcissus " (Narcissus 
poeticus), hawked about the streets of London so 
abundantly in spring, is generally included in native 
plants^ though not considered truly British ; but 
whether it be so or not, such a distinctly beautiful 
plant should be in every garden. The Snowflake 
(Leucojum aestivum) occurs in several of the south- 
eastern counties, and makes a handsome border 
bulb ; the dwarf, sweet, and fine vernal Snowflake 
has been recently found in Dorsetshire in some 
abundance ; while thecommon Snowdrop is perfectly 
naturalized in various parts of the country. These, 
it need hardly be said, should all be in any living 
collection of British wild flowers, and with them the 
Daffodil and the Wood-tulip (T. sylvestris). This 
last is found most frequently in some of the eastern 
counties of England, but may be had readily from 
the nurserymen, who sell it as T. florentina and cor- 
nuta. Lloydia serotina is an extremely rare little 
bulbous plant, found in North Wales. It is also 
known as Anthericum serotinum. 

A Gladiolus (G. illyricus) has recently been 
found in the New Forest, near Lyndhurst ; it is 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 219 

worthy of culture, and indeed is, or was, a favourite 
plant in many gardens before it was discovered as 
a British plant, having formerly been introduced 
to our gardens from central and southern Europe. 
The spring Crocus (C. vemus) is abundant in 
the neighbourhood of Nottingham, and other parts 
of England and Ireland ; and the less known 
but equally beautiful autumn Crocus (C. nudiflorus) 
is also naturalized in Derbyshire, about Nottingham, 
and in a few other places. It is quite needless to 
praise either. The blue or normal form of the 
vernal crocus is, or ought to be, in nearly every 
garden ; but the autumnal crocus is quite of rare 
occurrence in gardens, and should be introduced to 
all, because it opens its handsome flowers when most 
others have perished or are perishing, and closes 
the season of flowers so well opened by the spring 
crocus. It is equally easy of culture with the spring 
crocus, but, being so much scarcer, deserves to 
have a good position, good soil, and some watch- 
fulness, to prevent its being dug up by care- 
less workmen, that it may increase, and be- 
come a conspicuous autumnal ornament in our 

The embellishment of water is really much more 
,of an important subject than is generally supposed 

aao The Wild Garden. 

It is true that by following the directions of the 
garden books, or even the best examples that we 
see of water in our public gardens, nothing to boast 
of can be done, but nevertheless, by a tasteful selec- 
tion of really good and hardy water plants, and above 
all, a judicious disposition of them, a great deal of 
exquisite beauty may be produced. Hitherto this 
has been very badly performed by the designers of 
pieces of water, or by those who plant the margins 
of them. Usually you see the same monotonous 
vegetation all round the margin if the soil be rich ; 
in some cases, where the bottom is of gravel, there 
is little or no vegetation, but an unbroken ugly line 
of washed earth between wind and water. In others 
aquatic plants accumulate until they are a nuisance 
and an e3^esore ; and I do not simply mean the be- 
low-surface weeds, like the Anacharis, but the White 
Lily when it gets too profuse. Now a well developed 
plant, or group of plants, of the queenly Water 
Lily, floating its large leaves and noble flowers, is 
an object not surpassed by any other plant in our 
gardens ; but when it increases and runs over the 
whole or a large part of a piece of water, and 
thickens together, and the fowl cannot make their 
way through in consequence, then even the queen 
of British water plants becomes a nuisance. No 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. %%\ 

garden water, however, should be without a few fine 
plants or groups of the Water Lily, and if the bottom 
did not allow of the free development of the plants 
a lot of scrapings or rubbish might be accumulated 
in the spot where it was desired to exhibit the 
beauties of Nymphaea, and, thus arranged, it could 
not spread too much. But it is not difficult to pre- 
vent the plant from spreading ; indeed, we have 
known isolated plants and groups of it remain of 
almost the same size for years. Where it in- 
creases too much, reducing it to the desired limits 
is of very easy accomplishment, either by cutting off 
the leaves or by trimming the roots in the bottom. 
The yellow Water Lily, though not so beautiful as 
the preceding, is worthy of a place ; and also the 
little Nuphar pumila, a variety or sub-species 
found in the lakes of the North of Scotland, if you 
can get it In collecting these things, the true and 
the only way is to get as many as possible from 
ordinary sources at first, and then exchange with 
others who have collections, whether they be the 
curators of botanic gardens or private gentlemen 
fond of interesting plants. With a little perseverance 
many good things may soon be collected in this way. 
I have already (at page 206) mentioned the beau* 
tiful effect of a sheet of Villarsia nymphsoides 

%22 The Wild Garden. 

belting round the margin of a lake near a woody 
recess, and before it, more towards the deep water, 
a fine group of water lilies. The beauty of this 
Villarsia is very insufficiently developed in garden 
waters. It is a charming little water plant, with 
Nymphaea-like leaves and numerous golden-yellow 
flowers, which furnish a charming effect on fine 
days when the sun is " out." It is not very com- 
monly distributed as a native plant, though where 
found generally very plentiful, and not difficult to 
obtain in gardens where aquatic plants are g^own. 
It is in all respects one of the most serviceable of 
hardy water plants. 

Not rare — growing, in fact, in nearly all districts 
of Britain — but exquisitely beautiful and singular 
is the Buckbean or Marsh Trefoil, before alluded to, 
with its flowers elegantly and singularly fringed on 
the inside with white filaments, and the round un- 
opened buds, polished on the top with a rosy red 
like that of an apple blossom. In early summer 
when seen trailing on the soft ground near the 
margin of a stream, this plant is very beautiful, and 
should be grown in abundance in every piece of 
ornamental water. It will grow in a bog or any mdist 
place, or by the margin of any water. Though a 
rather frequent native plant, it is not half sufficiently 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 22^ 

grown in garden waters ; but, indeed, these are in-, 
variably neglected. 

If you have ever seen the Flowering Rush (Buto- 
mus umbellatus) in flower, you are npt likely to 
omit it from a collection of water plants, as it is 
conspicuous and distinct. It is a native of the 
greater part of Europe and Russian Asia, and dis- 
persed over the central and southern parts of Eng- 
land and Ireland. Plant it not far from the margin ; 
it likes rich muddy soil. The common Sagittaria, 
prevalent, very prevalent in England and Ireland, 
but not in Scotland, might be associated with this; 
but there is a very much finer double kind to 
be had here and there, and which is probably 
a variety of the common kind. It is really a fine 
plant, its flowers being white, and resembling, but 
larger than, those of the old white double rocket. 
It grows in abundance in the tea or pleasure 
gardens of the Rye House at Broxbourne, 
where it fills a sort of oblong basin or wide 
ditch, and looks quite attractive when in flower. 
Its large tubers, or rather receptacles of farina, 
are frequently discovered and destroyed by wild 
fowl, which suggests that it might be worth plant- 
ing as food for such birds. 

Among bold and picturesque plants for the 

a24 The Wild Garden. 

water*side, nothing equals the great Water-dock 
(Rumex Hydrolapathum), which is rather genersdly 
dispersed over the British isles, and has leaves quite 
sub-tropical in aspect and size, becoming of a lurid 
red in the autumn. It forms a grand mass of 
foliage on rich muddy banks. The Typhas must 
not be omitted, but they should not be allowed to 
run everywhere. The narrow-leaved one is more 
graceful than the common one. Carex pendula is 
very fine for the margins of water, its elegant 
drooping spikes being quite distinct in their way. 
It is rather common in England, more so than 
Carex Pseudo-cyperus, wjiich grows well in a foot 
or two of water, or on the margin of a muddy pond. 
Carex paniculata forms a strong and thick stem, 
sometimes three or four feet high, somewhat like a 
tree-fern, and with luxuriant masses of falling 
leaves, and on that account is transferred to moist 
places in gardens and cultivated by some persons, 
though generally the larger specimens are difficult 
to remove and soon perish. Scirpus lacustris (the 
" Bulrush") is too distinct a plaiit to be omitted, as 
its stems, sometimes attaining a height of more 
than seven and even eight feet, look very imposing ; 
and Cyperus longus is also a desirable thing, re- 
minding one of the aspect of the Papyrus when in 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 225 

' ■ ' ' -'■ -- - I , 11 

flower. It is found in some 61 the southern counties 
of England. Cladium Mariscus is also another 
distinct and rather scarce British aquatic which is 
worth a place. 

As for the Ferns, it is needless to mention them, 
considering the immense attention that has been 
paid them of late years. Whole nurseries are now 
almost exclusively devoted to the production of 
British ferns and their varieties. My object is to 
encourage the culture of things that are compara- 
tively neglected, and however graceful and beauti- 
ful ferns may' be, and however indispensable the 
fernery, as an adjunct to the flower-garden, my 
readers have but to attempt the culture of the 
handsome British flowering-plants, combined,' if the 
cultivator so desires it, with the best alpines, spring 
flowers, and herbaceous plants of all countries, to 
find infinitely more enjoyment therefrbm than ferns 
are capable of affording. 

But though ferns are not in need of advocacy, 
their allies the Equisetums are, some of them being 
of graceful and distinct habit. One of the -most 
strikingly distinct and' elegant plants in the Oxford 
Botanic Garden grows profusely along by the wall, 
in the shady fern border, in that very old and most 
interesting botanic garden. It is the British Equi- 


226 The Wild Garden. 

setum Telmateia, or "Great Equisetum," which^ 
grows pretty commonly in the greater part ofq 
England and Ireland, attaining its greatest developn: 
ment in rich soil and in shady spots. It there 
attains a height of three or four feet, and the num- 
bers of slender branches depending from each 
whorl look most graceful. It should be planted in 
a shady place, near water if convenient, but it 
thrives famously in deep moist soil, in any position 
in a garden where ferns thrive, and as it associates 
well with them, in or near the fernery will be found 
a good position for it. The wood Equisetum (E. 
sylvaticum) common all over Britain, is conside- 
rably smaller than the preceding, but even more 
graceful ; indeed, sufficiently so to warrant its being 
grown in pots, though it thrives well in any shady 
moist position. The long simple-stemmed Equi- 
setums, or Horse-tails, are also interesting to culti- 
vate in wet or marshy spots, or by the sides of 
water, but are not so graceful or ornamental as the 
species above-named, which are as well worth 
growing in a garden as the costliest productions of 
tropical climes, which entail endless 'work and a 
perpetual cost to maintain. 

Passing by the numerous British Willows and 
the few British Pines, we come to the interesting 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. %%"] 

order of Orchids — everywhere beautiful and sin- 
gular, whether gorgeously developed, as in the hot 
or moist East, or small and tiny on the Kent and 
Surrey hills, where the Bee Orchis produces its 
peculiar flowers so abundantly. Now, many of these 
small British Orchids are, in my opinion, as pretty 
as many of those cultivated in the stove or green- 
house. It is most interesting to see and to collect 
them when wild, and still more so to cultivate 
them. If you can succeed in growing the British 
Orchids, you are not likely to fail with any other 
hardy plants. They are the most difficult of all to 
cultivate, but amongst the most interesting things 
which can be grown. In many or most parts of the 
country the Bee Orchis and some other rare ones do 
not grow ; how interesting it would be in such dis- 
tricts to have the Bee Orchis to show in one's garden ! 
I have never seen our Orchids grown in more than 
half a dozen gardens, but, nevertheless, have no 
doubt that they can be very well grown therein, be- 
cause I have cultivated the Bee Orchis and the Fly 
Orchis and the Hand Orchis, and a number of other 
British Orchids, for several years, and flowered them 
annually too. People generally make a mistake 
by putting them in pots. If the plants should 
make a good attempt to grow there, the long fleshy 

Q 2 

228 The Wild Garden. 

roots that some species produce have no chance 
of finding a suitable, steady medivim in which to 
thrive. The pot with its soil is liable to vicissitudes 
from want of water, and from the hot dry jur of 
summer always playing upon its porous surGsice. 
Therefore, though pots are the usual resource even 
in a botanic garden, Orchids never do well in them, 
but usually live for a year or two and then perish. 

I succeeded with them by devoting a small bed to 
their culture, in a somewhat open but sheltered spot. 
The first thing I did was to. dig some chalk into 
the bed, so as to give the plants the constituent in 
which they are found most abundantly. Of 
course, I should not have had to do this if the 
soil were chalky ; and as numbers of my readers 
must have gardens upon chalky soils, I . may 
assure them that they will have no difficulty in 
growing the choicest British Orchids. Then I 
planted the various kinds, and succeeded with 
every one of them except the parasitic one, which, 
indeed, it was vain to attempt. I allude to those 
kinds that are parasitic on the roots of trees, 
though apparently depending on their own roots 
in the ground. 

My only difficulty was to imitate, to some extent, 
the state of the surface of the ground which exists 

The Gar dm of British Wild Flowers. 22,g 

where they live in a wild state. I knew that the 
surface dressing oC stunted^ storm-beaten grass 
among which tiiey nestle prevents the ground from 
cracking, hinders a good dieal of evaporation, and 
also^sheltdrs the plants ia winter — in short, keeps 
the surface open, 'natural, and healthy. To plant 
grass ovei" a bed in a garden would never do, be- 
cause the shelter and richness of the ground would 
induce it to grow so sthjng that unless we were to 
look after and - shorten it very frequently there 
would be ho chance of keeping it within bounds; 
and if we did not do that, it would soon 
smother all the- Orchids. I found a s/ubstitute 
in cocoa-fibre mixed with a good sprinkling of 
silver sand and a little peat to give it some 
weight and consistency. An inch or two of this 
material was spread over the bed, and it suc- 
ceeded perfectly in answering my ends, i,e., it pre- 
vented cracking and evaporation, and kept the 
surface in an open, healthy state. Of course I 
inserted the plants firmly and without injuring 
their roots — ^a great point. Few people know how 
to plant anything beyond a strong bedding plant 

If one of these Orchids which are accus- 
tomed to send their fleshy roots down belOw moist 
accumulations of broken chalk in search of food, 

23© The Wild Garden. 

were to be planted like a bedding plant, it would 
soon perish. I made the ground quite firm, then out 
a straight deep little trench with a straight trowel, 
and against the flat side of this little cut placed, 
lengthwise of course, the spreading hand-like roots 
of my Orchids, pressing the soil firmly but gently 
against them, and being particular that the ''neck'* 
or collar of the plant was nicely pressed round and 
firm — a thing that is worth attending to in every 
case of planting. If you examine a plant after 
some people have inserted it, you will find the 
whole of the top of the ball loose, and perhaps un- 
covered by soil — a state most conducive to an early 
death or stunted growth if the weather prove dry ; 
therefore always plant firmly, and try and place the 
roots and neck of the plant as much as possible in 
the condition that plants enjoy in a wild state. 

Well, in this way I have grown and freely 
flowered the most curious and beautiful Bee Orchis, 
the Spider Orchis, the Fly Orchis and a dozen others 
less difficult to cultivate. The marsh Epipactus 
palustris is one of the easiest native Orchids to 
cultivate, growing well in an artificial bog or moist 
border ; whilst most of the Orchises will do well 
under the treatment above described. The Bee, Fly, 
and Spider Orchids belong to the genus Ophrys. 

The Garden of British Wild Flowers. 1231 

^■' M_,^ . - ■ I I I II ■ I 

The common Orchis maculata, found almost every- 
,: where in the British islands, is one of the freest to 
, I grow in a garden; it makes large tufts of the 
, greatest beauty in a stiff good loam, and I have 
found it grow with ease in almost any position; 
It wants no chalk, though it does not refuse to 
grow in it. The best wild spread of it I have 
ever seen was in some meadows in Buckingham- 
shire, where there was "a strong bloom of this 
sweetly-coloured Orchid for almost every flower- 
head of grass in the fields ; and I need hardly say 
the effect was of the most beautiful description. 
Lately nurserymen have been offering a plant 
which they think a variety of this, under the 
name of O. maculata superba. This is in reality 
the true British Orchis latifoHa, a noble species, 
easy to grow in a moist spot, and producing long 
spikes of bloom. O. militaris and O. fusca are 
among the handsomest species ; but all are inte- 
resting, even when not pretty, from the early 
spotted O. mascula to the Butterfly Orchis, both 
of which are of easy culture in a garden. 

Perhaps the rarest and finest of all the British 
Orchids is the Lady's-slipper, nearly extinct, but 
still probably to be found in the North, though too 
rare to be looked for in the hope of transferring it 

aj* The Wild Garden. 

to the garden. Some of our nurserymen supply it, 
and they get their supplies from the> Continent, 
where it is a widely distributed plant. It should 
be planted in broken limestone and fibrous loam, 
on the eastern side of a rockworlc When well 
grown it is a beautiful plant, quite as much so as 
some of the 'CypripediumS gfowh in the Orchid 
house, biit, being perfectly hardy, is of course far 
more interesting and suitable for the British garden. 
The most important thing with regard to the 
Orchids is the procuring of them in a suitable 
state for planting. When they are gathered in a 
wild state, the roots should be taken up as carefully 
as possible, and transferred to their garden home 
quickly and safely. They are very often sold 
cheaply in Covent Garden, but the roots are 
generally mutilated, not ohly from careless and 
shallow taking up, but from being so tightly bound 
round with moss and matting that any bit of root 
they had when taken up is bruised to death. I 
got a capital stock by finding one of the men who 
collected ferns and wild plants for Covent Garden, 
showing him the kinds I wanted, and telling him 
not to bind them up individually, but to lay them 
in loose layers iii moss, having taken th^m up care- 
fully, with the roots or tubers entire. Of course, if 

The Garden af British Wild Flowers. 233 

I lived near localities in which the rarer and more 
interesting Orchids are found, such as many parts 
of Kent and Surrey, I should gather them myself, 
using a very strong spade, or instrument, to get 
them well up out of the firmly-bound ' chalky 

Amonig native bulbs there are some very inte- 
resting. The Snake's Head (Fritillaria Meleagris) 
is abundant in some parts of the south and east of 
England, and it is in all respects worthy of the 
best attention in a garden, though it requires very 
little beyond being planted and allowed to grow 
away undisturbed. I know of nothing prettier in 
the Spring Garden than the singular suspended 
bells of the English Fritillary, often so prettily 
spotted, and occasionally white. The white form 
is sometimes called F. praecox, and being of a 
good white, it is a most desirable plant to en- 
courage in every garden, the large, white, drooping 
bells being so distinct from most other hardy plants 
that flower at the same season. Of the British 
Alliums, A. triquetrum, found somewhat abun- 
dantly in the island of Jersey, is best worthy of a 
place, its white flowers striped with delicate green 
being pretty. The two British Squills, though not 
so ornamental as some of the Continental species, 

^34 ^>^ Wild Garden. 

so conspicuous among spring flowers, must not be 
forgotten in a full collection, nor the varieties of 
the wood hyacinth, and there are several of interest^: 
both white and pink. The Two-leaved Lily-of- 
the-valley (Convallaria bifolia) is a diminutive and 
sweet little herb, found in only a few localities. In 
Lord Mansfield's woods, near Hampstead, I gathered 
it a few months ago, and it is abundant there in a 
well-shaded spot. It does well either on border, 
or rockwork, or in the wilderness. It is common 
on the Continent, and may be readily had from 
some nurseries, and in all botanic gardens in this 

The common Lily-of-the-valley is a true native 
plant, abundant in some counties, though wanting 
in others. It is surely needless to recommend it to 
my readers as a garden ornament, but I may sug- 
gest that it might be " naturalized" in many woods 
and shrubberies with the best effect — it is so in- 
teresting to meet with things like this in an appa- 
rently wild state. The handsome, graceful Solo- 
mon*s-seal (Polygonatum multiflorum) and the 
Lily-of-the-valley should be planted to establish 
themselves in a wild or semi-wild state in every 
place which possesses the smallest resemblance to 
a shrubbery or wood ; nothing can be more grace-