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Full text of "The wild garden : or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants; being one way onwards from the dark ages of flower gardening, with suggestions for the regeneration of the bare borders of the London Parks"

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THE WILD GARDEN 



The 

WILD GARDEN 

Or our Grov^es and Gardens made beautiful 

by the Naturalisation of Hardy Exotic 

Plants 5 being one way onwards from the 

Dark Ages of Flower Gardening, with 
suggestions for the Regeneration of the 
Bare Borders of the London Parks. 

By W. ROBINSON, F. L. S. 



THIRD EDITION 

Illustrated by Alfred Parsons 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

NEW YORK: SCRIBNER AND WELFORDf 

188:; 



By the same Author. 
THE ENGLISH FLOWER GARDEN : ITS STYLE 

AND ARRANGEMENT. Followed by an ALPHABETICAL 
DESCRIPTION OF all the PLANTS BEST SUITED FOR 
ITS EMBELLISHMENT, their CULTURE, and POSITION. 
With numerous Illustrations. Medium 8vo. 15s. 

THE PARKS AND GARDENS OF PARIS, considered 

IN Relation to the Wants of other Cities and of Public 
AND Private Gardens. Third Edition. With 350 Illustrations. 
8vo. i8s. 

ALPINE FLOWERS FOR ENGLISH GARDENS. How 

THEY MAY BE GrOWN IN ALL PaRTS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

With Illustrations of Rock-gardens, Natural and Artificial. Third 
Edition. With Woodcuts. Crown Svo. 7s. 6d. 

THE SUB-TROPICAL GARDEN; or, Beauty of Form 

IN THE Flower Garden; with Illustrations of all the finer Plants used 
for this purpose. Second Edition. With Illustrations. Small Svo. 5s. 

HARDY FLOWERS. Descriptions ok upwards of 1300 

OF THE MOST ORNAMENTAL Si"ECiES ; with Directions for their Cul- 
ture, &c. Fourth Edition. Post Bvo. 3s. 6d. 

GOD'S ACRE BEAUTIFUL ; or, The Cemeteries of 

THE Future. Third Edition. With Illustrations. Svo. 7s. 6d. 



Art 



« 







Colonies of Poet's Narcissus and Broad-leaved Saxifrage, etc. — Frontispiece. 



AJf 




Ciihimbines and Geraniums in meadow-grass. 



PREFACE. 



When I began, some years ago, to plead the cause of the in- 
numerable hardy flowers against the few tender ones, put out 
at that time in a formal way, the answer frequently was, " We 
cannot go back to the mixed border " — that is to say, the old 
way of arranging flowers in borders. Knowing, then, a little 
of the vast world of plant beauty quite shut out of our 
gardens by the " system," in vogue, I was led to consider the 
ways in which it might be introduced to our gardens ; and, 
among various ideas that then occurred to me, was the name 
and scope of the " wild garden." I was led to think of the 
enormous number of beautiful hardy plants from other 
countries wliich might be naturalised, with a very slight 
amount of trouble, in many situations in our gardens and 



vi PREFACE. 

woods — a world of delightful plant beauty that we might in 
this way make happy around us, in places now weedy, or half 
bare, or useless. I saw that we could not only grow thus a 
tliousandf()ld more lovely flowers than are commonly seen in 
i what is called the flower garden, Ijut also a number which, 
by any other plan, have no chance whatever of being seen 
around us. This is a system which will give us more 
. beauty than ever was dreamt of in gardens, without interfc^r- 
ing with formal gardening in any way. 

In this illustrated edition, by the aid of careful drawings, 
I have endeavoured to suggest in what the system consists ; 
but if I were to write a book for every page that this contains, 
I could not hope to suggest the many beautiful aspects of 
vegetation which the wild garden will enable us to enjoy at 
our doors. 

Tlie illustrations are, with a few slight exceptions, the 
work of Mr. Alfred Parsons, and the drawing and engraving 
have been several years in execution. They are after 
nature, in places where the ideas expressed in the first small 
edition of the book had been carried out, or where accident, 
as in the case of the beautiful group of Myrrh and white 
Harebells, had given rise to the combinations or aspects of 
vegetation sought. I cannot too heartily acknowledge the 
skill and pains which Mr. Parsons devoted to the drawings, 
and to the success which he has attained in illustrating the 
motive of the book, and such good effects as have already 
been obtained where the idea has been intelligently carried out. 



PHKFACE. vii 

There has been some misunderstanding as to the term 
" Wild Garden." It is a|t[)liud essentially tu Ihu placing of 
perfectly hardy exotic plants in ]tlaces and under conditions 
where they will become established and take care of them- 
selves. It has nothinff to do with the old idea of the 
" wilderness," though it mav be carried out in connection 
witli that. It does not necessarily mean the picturesc[ue 
garden, for a garden may be highly picturesi[ue, and yet in 
every part the result of ceaseless care. What it does mean 
is l)est explained by the winter Aconite flowering under 
a grove of naked trees in February ; by the Snowflake 
growing abundantly in meadows by the Thames side ; by the 
perennial Lupine dyeing an islet with its purple in a Scotch 
river; and by the Apennine Anemone staining an English 
wood blue before the blooming of our blue bells. Multiply 
these instances a tliousandfold, illustrated by many dilferent 
types of plants and hardy climbers, from countries as cold 
or colder tlian our own, and one may get a just idea 
of the wild garden. Some have erroneously represented 
it as allowing a garden to run wild, or sowing annuals 
•promiscuously ; whereas it studiously avoids meddling with 
the garden proper at all, except in attempting the improve- 
ments of bare shrubbery borders in the London parks and 
elsewhere ; Ijut these are waste spaces, not gardens. 

I wish it to be kept distinct in the mind from the ^■ariuus 
important phases of hardy plant growth in groups, beds, and 
l)orders, in which good culture and good taste may produce 



viii PREFACE. 

many liappy effects ; distinct from the rock garden or the 
borders reserved for clioiee hardy flowers of all kinds ; from 
the best phase of the sub-tropical garden — that of growing 
hardy plants of fine form ; from the ordinary type of spring- 
garden ; and from the gardens, so to say, of our own beautiful 
native flowers in our woods and wilds. How far the wild 
garden may be carried out as an aid to, or in connection with, 
any of the above in the smaller class of gardens, can be best 
decided on the spot in each case. In the larger gardens, 
where, on the outer fringes of the lawn, in grove, park, copse, 
or by woodland walks or drives, there is often ample room, 
fair gardens and wholly new and beautiful aspects of vege- 
tation may be created by its means. 



May 28, 188]. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEIi I. 

rA(!K 
EXPLANATORV ......... 1 



CHAPTER II. 
Example from the Forget-me-not Family ... 9 

CHAPTER III. 
Example from Hardy Bulbs and Tubers in Grass . 15 

CHAPTER IV. 
Example from the Globe Flower Order . . . 21 

CHAPTER V. 

Plants chiefly fitted for the Wild Garden . . 32 

CHAPTER VI. 

Ditches and narrow shady Lanes, Copses, Hedgerows, 

AND Thickets ........ 3G 

CHAPTER VII. 
Drapery for Trees and Bushes ..... 43 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

PAGE 

The common Shrubbery, Woods and Woodland Drives . 51 



CHAPTER IX. 

The Brook-side, Water-side, and Bog Gardens . . 67 

CHAPTER X. 

Roses for the AVild Garden, and for Hedgerows, Fences, 

AND Groups . . . . . . . . 81 

CHAPTER XL 

Wild Gardeninc! on Walls or Ruins .... 88 

CHAPTER Xn. 

Some Results . . . . . . . . 92 

CHAPTER Xm. 

A Plan for the Embellishment of the Shrubbery 

Borders in London Parks . . . . .111 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Principal Types of Hardy Exotic Flowering Plants 

for the Wild Garden . . . • . .120 

CHAPTER XV. 

Selections of Hardy Exotic Plants for various Positions 

IN the Wild Garden . . . . . .103 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 



Colonies of Poet's Narcissus and Broad-leaved Saxifrage, etc. 

F'l'ontispiece 
Columbine and Geraniums in meadow-grass .... v 

Large flowered Meadow Rue in the Wild Garden, type of plant 

mostly excluded from the Garden ..... 1 

Night effect of large evening Primrose in tlie Wild Garden 

(ffinotliera Lamarkiana) . ... To face j-iwje 4 

A "mixed border" with tile edging, tlie way in whicli the 
beautiful hardy flowers of tlie world have been grown in 
gardens hitherto, when gfown at all. (Sketched in a large 
(jarden, 1878) ........ 5 

Blue flowered Composite plant ; fine foliage and habit ; type 
of noble plants excluded from Gardens. (Mulgedium 
Plumieri) ......... 6 

W(Jod Anemone , . . . . . . . . 8 

Caucasian Comfrey in shrubbery ...... S) 

The Cretan Borage (Borago cretica) . . . , . 13 

Flowers of Geneva Bugle (Ajuga genevensis). Dwarf Boragewort 14 

Star of Bethlehem in Grass . . , . . . . 15 

The association of exotic and British wild flowers in tlie Wild 
Garden. — The Bell-flowered Scilla, naturalised with our 
own Wood Hyacinth . . . . . . . 17 

The Turk's Cap Lily, naturalised in the grass by wood- walk . 19 

Crocuses in turf, in grove of Summer leafing trees . . . 20 

Group of Globe flowers (Trollius) in marshy place ; type of 

the nobler Northern flowers little cultivated in gardens . 21 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Tlie Mountain Clematis (C. montana) . . . . . 22 

Tlie White Japan Anemone in the Wild Ganleii ... 23 
Anemones in the Riviera. Thrive eij^ually well in any open 

soil here, only flowering later . . . To face pa(je 24 

The Green Hellebore in the Wild Garden . . . . 26 

Tall perennial Larkspurs, naturalised in Shrubbery (18/8) . 28 

Double Crimson Pceonies in grass . . . . . . 30 

Eupatorium purpureum . . . . . , . 32 

The Giant Scabious (8 feet high). (Cephalaria proL'era) . . 33 
Giant Cow parsnip. Type of Great Siberian herbaceous vegeta- 
tion. For rough places only ..... 35 

Foliage of Dipsacus, on hedge-bank in spring ... 36 
The lai'ge white Bindweed, type of nobler climbing jilants, with 

annual stems. For copses, hedgerows, and shridjberies . Si) 
The Nootka Bramble ; type of free-growing flowering shrub. 

For copses and woods ....... 40 

The Yellow Allium (A. Moly) naturalised .... 42 

Periploca gra3ca (climber) . . . . . . . 43 

Large White Clematis on Yew tree at Great Tew. (C. montana 

grandiflora) . . . . . . . . 44 

The way the climbing plants of the world are crucified in 

gardens — wintev effect (a faitJif id sketch) . ... 45 

Climbing shrub (Celastrus), isolated on the grass ; way of grow- 
ing woody Climl)ers away from walls or other supports , 46 
A Liane in the North. Aristolochia and Deciduous Cypress . 4!J 
A beautiful accident. — A colony (;f Myrrhis odorata, established 

in shrubbery, witli white Harebells here and there . . 51 
Large White Achilleas spread into wide masses under shade of 

trees in shrubbery . . . . . . . 53 

Lilies coming uji through carpet of White Arabis . . . 55 

Colony of Narcissus in properly spaced shrubbery . . . 5 7 
The American White Wood-Lily (Trillium grandiflorum) in 

Wild Garden, in wood bottom in leaf-mould . To face page 58 

The Lily of the Valley in a copse ...... 63 

Solomon's Seal and Herb Paris, in copse by streamlet . . 67 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xiii 

I'AfiE 

Colony of lianly exotic Flowers, naturalised by brook-side . 69 
Valley in Somersetsliin', witli Narrissi, ]\rarsli IVIarigolds, and 

Primroses ...... To face ]>a'je 70 

Cyiierus longus . . . . . . . . 73 

The Cape Pond "Weed in an English ditch in winter . . 75 

Day Lily b\' margin of water . . . . . . 7G 

Marsh Marigold and Iris in early spring . . . . 78 

The same spot as in pre^dous sketch, with aftergrowth of Iris, 

Meadow Sweet, and Bindweed ..... 79 

Partridge Berry (Gaultheria) . . . . . . 80 

Wild Eose growin" on a Pollard Ash in Orcliardlciuh Paik, 

Somerset ......... 83 

White Climbing Rose scrambling over old Catalpa Tree 

To face ixvje 84 

Climbing Rose isolated on grass ...... 87 

Arenaria balearica, in a hole in wall at Great Tew . . 88 

Cheddar Pink, Saxifrage, and Ferns, on cottage wall at Mells . 89 

Tlie Yellow Fumitory on wall (Corydalis lutea) . . . 91 
Large Japan Sedum (S. spectabilc) and Autumn Crocuses in the 

Wild Garden 92 

Crane's Bill, wild, in grass . . . . . . . 94 

Large-leafed Saxifrage in the Wild Garden .... 97 

Tiger Lilies in Wild Garden at Great Tew . . To face jkujc 98 

Large-flowered Clematis . . . . . . . 101 

Sun Roses (Cistus) and other exotic hardy plants among heather, 

on sandy slope ...... To face jjacje 104 

"\\'ood and herbaceous Meadow-sweets grouped together in Mr. 

Hewittson's garden . . . . . . .105 

Woodruff and Ivy 108 

Tailpiece . 110 

Dug and mutilated Shrubbery in St. James's Park. Sketched in 

winter o/1879. . . . . . . . Hi 

Colony of the Snowdrop-Anemone in Shrubbery not dug. 

Anemone taking the place of weeds or bare earth . . 115 

Colony of the Summer Snowflake, on margin of shrubbery . 119 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PACE 

The Monkshood, naturalised by wet ditch in wood . . . l:il 

The white Narcissus-like Allium, in the orchards of Provence ; 
type of family receiving little place in gardens which may 
be beautiful for a season in wild places . . , . 123 

The Alpine Windflower (Anemone alpina) . , . .124 

Siberian Columbine in rocky place . . . . .126 

Tall Asphodel in copse . . . . . . .127 

The foliage of the Meadow Saffron in Spring . . .132 

The White-flowered European Clematis (C. erecta) . . 133 

Cyclamens in the Wild Garden ; from nature . . .134 

A South European Bindweed creeping up the stems of an Iris 

in an English garden . . . . . . .135 

A Sea Holly ; Eryngium 138 

Groups of Funkia Sieboldi . . . . . .140 

A hardy Geranium . . . . . . . .141 

Snowdrops, Avild, by streamlet in valley .... 142 

Sun Rose on limestone rocks . . . . . .144 

White Lily in Wild Garden 146 

Everlasting Pea, creeping up stem in shrubbery . . .148 

Type of fine-leaved umbellate plants seldom grown in gardens 149 
The Bee Balm, Monarda. American wood plant . . . 150 

The Great Japan Knotweed (Polygoniuu cuspidatum). (Show- 
ing the plant in flower) . . . . . .152 

Phlomis. Type of handsome Labiates ; admiraljly suited for 

the Wild Garden 153 

The tall Ox-ej-e daisy (Pyrethrum ser(itinum) . . .154 

The Great Reed of Southern Europe (Arundo Donax) . . 155 

Telekia. Type of the Larger Composites, excluded I'lum gardens 

proper . . . . . . . . .150 

Group of Tritoma, in grass . . . . . .100 

A tall Mullein 161 

Ophrys in grass . . . . . . . .163 

Rock ste]3s witli Omphalodes . . . . . .175 

Butterbur and Double Furze on margin of lake . . . 176 



THE WILD GARDEN. 

OXE WAY OXWARD.S FROM THE DARK AGES OF 
FLOWER - GARDEXIXG.' 



CHAPTER I. 



EXPLANATORY. 



About a generation ago a taste began to he 

manifested for placing a nnmber of tender 

plants in tlie open air in smnmer, witli a 

view to the production of showy masses 

f decided colonr. The suhjects selected 

were mostly from sub-tropical climates 

^j]v>-" and of free growth ; placed annually in 

"1- the open air of our genial early sum- 




r^l;-^^/iti- mer, and in fresh rich earth, every year 
they grew rapidly and flowered abun- 
dantly during the summer and early 
autumn months, and 
until cut down 
^ 1 )y the first frosts. 
The showy colour 
of this system was 
very attractive, 

Large-flowered Meadow Rue in the Wild Garden, type of , . •. • j. 

plant mostly excluded from the Garden. and SmCCltS UltrO- 

B 



2 THE WILD GARDEN. 

ductioii there lias been a gradual rooting out of all the ohl 
favourites in favour of this " bedding " system. This was 
carried to such an extent that it was not uncommon, indeed 
it has been the rule, to find the largest gardens in the countrv 
without a single hardy flower, all energy and expense being 
devoted to the production of the few exotics required for the 
summer decoration. It should lie distinctly borne in mind 
that the expense for this system is an annual one ; that no 
matter what amount of money may be spent in this w\ay, or 
how many years may be devoted to perfecting it, the first 
sharp frost of November announces a yet further expense 
and labour, usually more heavy than the preceding. 

Its highest results need hardly be described; they are 
seen in all our great public gardens ; our London and many 
other city parks show them in the shape of beds filled with 
vast quantities of flowers, covering the ground frequently in 
a showy way, or in a repulsively gaudy manner : nearly every 
private garden is taken possession of by the same things. I 
will not here enter into the question of the merits of this 
system ; it is enough to state that even on its votaries it is 
beginning to pall. Some are looking back with regret to the 
old mixed-border gardens ; others are endeavouring to soften 
the harshness of the bedding system by the introduction of 
fine-leaved plants, but all are agreed that a great mistake has 
been made in destroying all our old flowers, from Lilies to 
Hepaticas, though very few persons indeed have any idea of 
the numbers of beautiful subjects in this way which we may 
gather from every northern and temperate clime to adorn our 
gardens under a more artistic system. 

My object in the Wild Gardeyi is now to show how we 



EXPLANATOTiY. 3 

may have more of tlie varied beauty of hardy flowers than 
the most ardent admirer of the old style of garden ever dreams 
of, by naturalising innumerable beautiful natives of many 
regions of the earth in our woods and copses, rougher parts 
of pleasure grounds, and in unoccupied places in almost every 
kind of garden. 

I allude not to the wood and brake flora of any one 
country, but to that which finds its home in the vast fields of 
the whole northern world, and that of the hill -ground that 
falls in furrowed folds from beneath tlie hoary heads of all 
the great mountain chains of the world, whether they rise 
from hot Indian plains or green European pastures. The 
Palm and sacred Fig, as well as the Wheat and the Vine, are 
separated from the stemless plants that cushion under the 
snow for half the vear, bv a zone of hardier and not less 
beautiful life, varied as the breezes that whisper on the 
mountain sides, and as the rills that seam tliem. They are 
the Lilies, and Bluebells, and Foxgloves, and Irises, and 
Windflowers, and Columbines, and Eock-roses, and Violets, 
and Cranesbills, and countless Pea-flowers, and mountain 
Avens, and Brambles, and Cincpiefoils, and Evening Prim- 
roses, and Clematis, and Honeysuckles, and ]\Iichaelmas 
Daisies, and "Wood-hyacinths, and Dafl'odils, and Bindweeds, 
and Forget-me-nots, and blue-eyed Omplialudes, and Prim- 
roses, and Day Lilies, and Asphodels, and St. Bruno's Lilies, 
and the almost innumeralile plants wliich form the flora of 
the northern and temperate portions of vast continents. 

It is beyond the power of pen or pencil to picture the 
beauty of these plants. Innumerable and infinitely varied 
scenes occur in the wilder parts of all northern and temperate 



4 THE WILD GARDEN. 

regions, at many different elevations. The loveliness and 
ceaselessly varying charms of snch scenes are indeed difficult 
to descrilie or imagine ; the essential thing to Lear in mind is 
that the plants that go to form them arc hardy, and will thrive 
in our dim ate as well as natwe jjlanfs. 

Such beauty may be realised in every wood and copse 
and slnnibbery that screens our " trim gardens." Naturally 
our woods and wilds have no little loveliness in spring ; we 
have liere and there the Lily-of-the-valley and the Snowdro]*, 
and everywhere the Primrose and Cowslip ; the Bluebell and 
the Foxglove sometimes take nearly complete possession of 
whole woods ; but, with all our treasures in this way, we have 
no attractions in or near our gardens compared to what it is 
within our power to create. There are many countries with 
winters as cold as, or colder than, our own, possessing a rich 
flora ; and by taking the best hardy exotics and establishing 
tliem in wild or lialf-wild spots, we may produce lieauti- 
ful pictures in such places. To most people a pretty 
plant in a free state is more attractive than any garden 
denizen. It is taking care of itself; and, moreover, it is 
usually surrounded l^y some degree of graceful wild spray — 
the green above, and tlie moss and brambles and grass around. 

By the means presently to be explained, numbers of plants 
of the highest order of beauty and fragrance, and clothed with 
pleasant associations, may be seen j)erfectly at home in tlie 
spaces now devoted to rank grass and weeds, and Ijy wood 
walks in our shrubberies and ornamental plantations. 

Among my reasons for advocating this system are the 
following : — 

First, because hundreds of the finest hardy flowers will 




Night effect of large evening Primrose in the Wild Garden (CEnothera Lamarkiana). 



EXPLANAT0E7. 



thrive iiuicli licLter in rough iiiid AviM places than ever tliey 
(lid in the old-fashioned borcU'r. Even eoniparatively small 
ones, like the ivy-leaved Cyclamen, a heautii'ul ])lant that we 
rarely find in perfection in gardens, I have seen perfectly 
naturalised and spread all ovi-r the mossy surface of a thin 
wood. 

Secondly, l)e(;ause they will look infinitely better than ever 
they did in gardens, in consequence 
of fine-leaved plant, fern, 
and climbei", urass 
and trailing shrub, 
relieving each other 
in ways innumerable 
and delightful. Any 
one of a thousand 
combinations will 
prove as far superior 
to any aspect of the 
old mixed border, or 
the ordinary type of 
modern tloAver-gar- 

^ A "mixed liorder wilh tile edging, the way in which the 

den as is a lovelv beautiful hardy flowers of the world have been grown in 

•^ gardens liitherto, when grown at all. {S/cetc/ieii in a 

mountain valley to /nrgri:an{cn, 1878.) 
a piece of the " black country." 

Tliirdly, because, arranged as I propose, no disagreeable 
elfects result from decay. The raggedness of the old mixed 
border after the first flush of spring and early summer bloom 
had passed was intolerable, bundles of decayed stems tied to 
sticks, making the place look like the parade-ground of a 
number of crossing - sweepers. A\'hen Lilies are sparsely 




THE WILD GARDEN. 



aV.' 



dotted through masses of shrubs, their flowers are admired 
more than if they were in isolated showy masses ; when they 
pass out of Lloom tliey are unnoticed amidst the vegetation, 
and not eyesores, as wdien in rigid unrelieved tufts in borders, 
etc. In a wild or semi-wild state the beauty of individual 
species will proclaim itself when at its height ; and when out 
of bloom they will be succeeded by other kinds, or lost 
among the numerous objects around. 

Fourthlji, because it will enable us to grow many plants 
that have never yet obtained a place in 
our " trim gardens." I allude to the 
multitudes of plants which, not being 
so sho\\y as those usually considered 
worthy of a place in gardens, are never 
seen therein. The flowers of many of 
these are of the hinhest order 
of beauty, especially when 
seen in numbers. An 
isolated tuft of one of 
these, seen in a formal 
border, may not be con- 
sidered worthy of its 
place, while in some 
wild glade, in a wood, as 
a little colony, grouped 
naturally, or associated witli like subjects, its effect may be 
exquisite. Among the subjects usually considered unfit for 
garden cultivation may be included a goodly number that, 
grown in gardens, are no addition to them ; subjects like the 
American Asters, Golden Rods, and like plants, which merely 




I nxrc, 



Blue flowered Composite plant ; fine foliage and habit ; 
type of noble plants excluded from gardens. 
(Mulgedium Plumieri.) 



EXPLANATORY. 7 

overrun the choicer ami more beautiful Ijorder-flower.s Avhen 
planted amonast them. These coarse subjects would be (|uite 
at home in copses and woody places, where their blossoms 
might be seen or gathered in due season, and their vigorous 
vegetation form a covert welcome to the game-preserver. To 
these two groups might be added subjects like the winter 
Heliotrope, the handsome British Willow herb, and many 
other plants whicli, while attractive in the garden, are apt to 
spread about so rapidly as to become a nuisance there. 
Clearly these should only l)e planted in wild and semi-wild 
places. 

Fifthly, because we may in this way settle also the 
question of spring flowers, and the spring garden, as well as 
that of hardy flowers generally. In the way I suggest, many 
parts of every country garden, and many suburban ones, may 
l:)e made alive with spring flowers, without interfering at 
least with the geometrical beds that have been the worthless 
stock - in - trade of the so - called landscape - gardener for 
centuries. The Idue stars of the Apenuine Anemone will Ije 
seen to greater advantage " wild," in shady or half-shady bare 
places, under trees, than in any conceivable formal arrange- 
ment, and it is but one of hundreds of sweet spring flowers 
that will succeed perfectly in the way I propose. 

Sixtklij, because there can be few more agreeable phases of 
communion with nature than naturalising the natives of 
countries in whicli we are infinitely more interested than in 
those of which greenhouse or stove plants are native. From 
the Eoman ruin — home of many flowers, the prairies of the 
Xew World, the woods and meadows of all the great moun- 
tains of Europe ; from Greece and Italy and Spain, from the 



8 THE WILD GARDEN. 

sunny liills of Asia ]\Iinor ; from the alpine regions of the 
great continents — in a word, from almost every interesting 
region the traveller may bring seeds or plants, and establish 
near his home the pleasantest souvenirs of the various scenes 
he has visited. 

Moreover, the great merit of permanence belongs to this 
delightful phase of gardening. Select a wild rough slope, 
and embellish it with the handsomest and hardiest climbing 
plants, — say the noble mountain Clematis from Nepal, the 
sweet C. Flammula from Southern Europe, " Virginian 
creepers " in variety, tlie Nootka Bramble (Eubus nutkanus 
and R. odoratus), various species of hardy vines. Jasmines, 
Honeysuckles — British and European, and wild Roses. 
Arranged with some judgment at first, such a colony miglit 
be left to take care of itself; time would luit add to its 
attractions, and the happy owner might go away for years, 
and find it beautiful on his return. 




CHAPTER 11. 



EX A:\irLE FKOM THE FORGET-.ME-XOT FAMILY. 







^5^.^^ 



r WILL HOW 

,4:-. •i4>i^;»^s^ endeavour to 

mf'^^m T^l&}i^, ■■ illustrate my 

meaninL!: by 
showing what 

Caucasian Comfrej- in shrubbery. Uia V hC (loUG 

witli one type of northern vegetation — 
that of the Forget-me-not order, one far from being as rich 
as others in subjects suited for the wild garden. Through 
considering its capabilities in this way, the reader may be 
al)le to form some idea of what we may do by selecting from 
the numerous plants that grow in the meadows and moun- 
tain-woods of Europe, xVsia, and America. 

The Forget-me-not or Borage family is a well-marked 
and well-known one, containiuG,' a great numljer of coarse 
weeds, 1 tut which, if it possessed only the common Forget-me- 
not, would have some claims on us. Many persons are not 
acquainted with more than the Forget-me-nots; l)ut what 
lovely exotic plants there are in this order that AV(udd atVord 
delight if met with creeping aljout along our \V(jod and 



10 THE WILD GARDEN. 

shrubbery walks ! Nature, say some, is sparing of her deep 
true bhies ; but there are obscure plants in this order that 
possess the truest, deepest, and most delicate of blues, and 
whicli will thrive as well in the wild garden as common weeds. 
The creeping Omphalodes verna even surpasses the Forget- 
me-not in the depth and Ijeauty of its blue and its other 
good qualities, and runs about quite freely in any shady or 
lialf-shady shrubbery or open wood, or even in turf in moist 
soil not very frequently mown. Its proper home is the wood 
or semi-wild spot, where it takes care of itself. I'ut it in a 
garden, and probably, unless the soil and region be moist, it 
soon perishes. Besides, in the border, it would be a not very 
agreeable object when once the sweet s])ring bloom had passed ; 
wliereas, in the positions spoken of, in consequence of the 
predominance of trees, shrubs, atid tall herl)s, the low plants 
are not noticed when out of flower, but crawl about unob- 
served till returning spring reminds those fortunate enough 
to see them how superior is the inexpensive and natural kind 
of gardening here advocated. 

Another plant of the order is so suitable and useful for this 
])urpose, that if a root or two of it be planted in any shrubbery, 
it will soon run about, exterminate the weeds, and prove 
(piite a lesson in wild gardening. I allude to the Caucasian 
Comfrey (Symphytum caucasicum), which grows about twenty 
inches high, and bears quantities of the loveliest blue pen- 
dulous flowers. It, like many others, does much better in 
a wood, grove, or any kind of shrubbery, than in any other 
position, filling in the naked spaces betw^een the trees and 
sliruljs, and has a quick-growing and spreading tendency, but 
never becomes weedy or objectionable. As if to contrast 



EXAMPLE FROM THE FORGET-ME-NOT FAMILY. 11 

M'itli it, there is the deej) crimson Boliemian Comfrcy (S. 
bohemicum), which is sometimes startliug from the deptli of 
its vivid coloiirinu- ; and tlie white Comfrey (S. orientale), (j^nite 
a vigorous-growing kind, blooming early in April ami ^lay, 
with the blue Caucasian C. 

These Comfreys, indeed, are admirable plants for rougli 
places — the tall and vigorous ones thriving in a ditch or any 
similar place, and flowering much better and longer than 
they ever did in the garden proper, in prim borders. There 
are about twenty species, mostly from Southern and Central 
Europe, Asia, and Silieria. 

I purposely omit the British Forget-me-nots, wishing now 
chiefly to show what we may do with exotics quite as hardy 
as our own wildlings ; and we have another Forget-me-not, 
not British, which surpasses them all — the early Myosotis 
dissitiflora. This is lilvc a patch of the bluest sky settled 
down among the moist stones of a rockwork or any similar 
spot, before our own Forget-me-not has opened its blue eyes, 
and is admirable for glades or banks in wood or shrubbery, 
especially in moist districts. 

For rocky bare places and sunny sandy banks we lune 
the spreading Gromwell (Lithospermum pirostratum), which, 
when in flower, looks just as if some exquisite alj)ine Gentian 
had assumed the form of a low Ijush, to enable it to hold its 
own among creeping things and stouter herbs than accompany 
it on the Alps. The Gromwells are a large and important 
genus l^ut little known in gardens, some of them, like our 
native kind, being handsome plants. 

Among the fairest plants we have are tlie Lungworts, 
Pulmonaria, too seldom seen, and partly destroyed through 



12 THE WILD GARDEN. 

exposure on bare dug and often dry liorder. The old 
Pulmonaria (Mertensia virginica) is one of tlie loveliest spring 
flowers ever introduced. It is verv rare in i>-ardens, Imt if 
placed in a moist place near a stream, or in a peat l)ottom, it 
will live ; whereas it frequently dies in a garden. The newer 
and more easily grown Mertensia sibiriea is a lovely plant, 
taller and flowering longer. These two plants alone would 
repay any one for a trial of the wild garden, and will illus- 
trate the fiict that for the sake of culture alone (apart from 
art, beauty, or arrangement) the wild-garden idea is worth 
carrying out. 

Among the many plants suitable for the wild garden none 
look more at home than Borage, a few seeds of which scattered 
over fresh dry ground soon germinate, and form fine ])atclies 
that will flower during the summer. Although only an 
annual, once it is introduced there is no fear of losing it, as it 
comes up somewhere near the same spot each succeeding 
year, and when in bloom the peculiar Solanum-like sha])e 
of the blossoms, and their rich blue colour, make it beautiful. 

The Cretan Borage is a curious old perennial, seldom seen 
in gardens; and deservedly so, for its growth is robust and 
its habit coarse. It is, however, a capital plant for the wild 
garden, or for rough places — in copse, or shrubljery, or lane, 
where the ample room which it re(piires would not Ije be- 
grudged, and where it may take care of itself from year to 
year, showing among the boldest and the hardiest of the 
early spring flowers. 

Thus, though I say little of the Alkanet (Anclmsa) tribe, 
several of which could be found worth a place with our own 
handsome Evergreen Alkanet, and do not mention other im- 



EXAMPLE FROM THE FOKOET-ME-NOT FAMILY. 1 :5 

portant genera, it will be seen that a whole garden nf heauty 
limy 1)0 reaped from this tribe ahme. Any one wlio doubts 
tlu' advantao'es of carrvino' out the idea of the wild garden 
could settle the matter to his satisfaction in a couple of years 
with these plants alone, in a shrubbery, ditch, lane, copse, or 




'I'hu Cretan Horage (Borago Cretica). 

wood, always })roviding that he takes care to adapt each hind 
to the position and the soil. For instance, tlie Giant Conifrey 
will grow six feet high in rich or moist soil in a partially 
shaded ditch, and therefore, once fairly started, might b(> 
trusted to take care of itself in any position. The Caucasian 
Comfrey, on the other hand, grows fi'om eighteen inches to 
two feet high, and is at home in the spaces in a copse or 



14 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



slirubbery. The creeping Forget-me-not (Ompalodes verna) 
is a little plant tliat creeps about in grass or among vegetation, 
not over a span liigli, or forms a carpet of its own — these 
points must be considered, and tlien the rest is gardening of 
the happiest kind only. These Borageworts, richer in Ijlue 
flowers than even the gentians, are usually poor rusty tilings 
in exposed sunny borders, and also much in the way when 
out of flower, whereas in shady lanes, copses, open parts of 
not too dry or impoverished sliruliberies, in hedgerow-lianks, 
or ditches, we only notice tliem in their lieautiful bloom. 







Flowers of Cleneva Bugle 
(Ajiiga genevensis), Dwarf Boragewort. 



^v,■v.■1:i■?^.^>' 




Star of Bethlehem in CJrass. 



CHAPTER III. 



EXAMPLE FROM HARDY BULBS AND TUBEES IN GRASS. 



We will now turn from the Forget-me-not order to a very 
different type of vegetation — liardy l)ulbs and other plants 
dying down after flowering early in the year, like the Winter 
Aconite and the Blood-root (Sanguinaria). How many of us 
really enjoy the beauty which a judicious use of a profusion 
of hardy Spring -flowering Bulbs affords? How many get 
beyond the miserable conventionalities of the flower-garden, 
A\ith its edgings and patchings, and taking up, and drying, 
and mere playing "with our beautiful Spring Bull)S ? How 
many enjoy the exquisite beauty afforded by flow^ers of this 
class, established naturally, without troubling us for attention 
at any time ? The subject of decoratiug w4th Spring-flowering 
Bulbs is merely in its infancy ; at present w^e merely place a 
few of the showiest of them in geometrical lines. The little 
w^e do leads to such a very poor result, that numbers of people, 



16 THE WILD GARDEN. 

alive to the real charms of a garden too, scarcely notice Spriii . 
Bulbs at all, regarding them as things which require endless 
trouble, as interfering with the " bedding-out ;" and in fact, as 
not worth tlie pains they occasion. This is likely to be the 
case so long as the most effective and satisfactory of all 
modes of arranging them is unused ; that way is the placing 
of them in wild and semi-wild parts of country seats, and in 
the rougher parts of a garden, no matter where it may be 
situated or how it may be arranged. This way will yield 
more real interest and beauty than any other. 

Look, for instance, at the wide and bare belts of grass 
that wind in and around the shrubberies in nearly every 
country place ; frequently, they never display a particle of 
]ilant-l)eauty, and are merely places to be roughly mown now 
and then. But if planted here and there with the Snowdrop, 
the blue Anemone, the Crocus, Scillas, and Winter Aconite, 
they would in spring surpass in attractiveness the gayest of 
spring gardens. Cushioned among the grass, these would 
have a more congenial medium in which to unfold than is 
offered by the beaten sticky earth of a border; in the grass of 
spring, their natural bed, they would look far better than ever 
they do when arranged on the bare earth of a garden. Once 
carefully planted, they — while an annual source of the 
greatest interest — occasion no trouble whatever. 

Their leaves die down so early in spring that they would 
scarcely interfere with tlie mowing of the grass, if that were 
desired, but I should not attempt to mow the grass in such 
places till the season of vernal beauty had quite passed liy. 
Surely it is enough to have a portion of lawn as smooth as a 
carpet at all times, without sending the mower to shave the 



EXAMPLE FROM HAKDY BULBS AXD TUBERS. 



17 




•■ lung and pleasant grass " of tlie other parts of the grounds. 
It ^vunld indeed be worth wliile to leave many parts of the 
grass nnniown fur the sake of growing many beautiful plants 
in it. If in some spot where a wide fringe of grass spreads 
out in the bay of a shrubbery ov plantation, and upon this 
carpet of rising and unshaven verdure there be dotted, in 
addition to the few pretty natural 
flowers that happened to take pos- ^^" ' 
session of it, the blue Apeunine ^-<;: 
Anemone, the Snowdrop, the Snow- 4^- -^.^jm 
flake. Crocuses in variety, Scillas, 
Grape-Hyacinths, earlier and smaller 
Xarcissi, the "Wood Anemone, and 
any other pretty Spring flowers that 
were suitable to the soil and position, 
we should have a glimpse of the 
A'ernal Ijeauty of temperate and 
northern climes, every flower re- 
lieved bv grass blades and oreen 

I/O O 

leaves, the whole devoid of any 
trace of man, or his exceeding weak- 
ness for tracing wall-paper pat- 
terns, where everything should lie 
varied, indefinite, and changeful, 
would be evident that the artist had caught the true mean- 
ing of nature in her disposition of vegetation, without 
sacrificing one jot of anything of value in the garden, 
liut, on the contrary, adding the highest beauty to spots 
devoid of the slightest interest. In connection with this 
matter I may as well say here that mowing the grass once 

G 




rhe association of exotic and British 
wild flowers in the Wild Garden. 
— The Bell-flowered Scilla, nat- 
uralised with our own Wood 
Hyacinth. 



In such a garden it 



IS THE WILD GARDEN. 

a fortnight in pleasure g7Vimds, as now pjxictised, is a great 
and costly mistahe. We want shaven carpets of grass liere 
and there, but what cruel nonsense both to men and grass it 
is to shave as many foolish men shave their faces ! There 
are indeed places where they boast of mowing forty acres ! 
Who would not rather see the waving grass with countless 
flowers than a close shaven surface without a blossom i 
Imagine the labour wasted in this ridiculous labour of cutting 
the heads off flowers and grass. Let the grass grow till lit to 
cut for hay, and we may enjoy in it a Avorld of lovely flowers 
that will blossom and perfect their growth before the grass 
has to be mown ; more than one person who has carried out 
the ideas expressed in this book has waving lawns of feathery 
grass where he used to shave the grass every ten days ; a 
prairie of flowers where a daisy was not allowed to peep ; and 
some addition to his hay crop as he allows the grass to 
grow till it is ht for that purpose. 

It is not only to places in which shrubberies, and planta- 
tions, and belts of grass in the rougher parts of the pleasure- 
ground, and shady moss-bordered wood-walks occur that these 
remarks apply. The suburban garden, with its single fringe 
of planting, may show like beauty, to some extent. It may 
have the Solomon's Seal arching forth from a shady recess, 
behind tufts of the sweet-scented Xarcissus, while in every 
case tliere may be wild fringes of strong and hardy flowers in 
the spring sun, and they cannot he cut off l>y harsh winds as 
when exposed in the open garden. What has already been 
stated is, I hope, sufficient to show to everybody the kind of 
place that mny be used for their culture. Wild and semi-wild 
places, rough banks in or near the pleasure-ground or flower- 



EXAMPLE FROM HARDV BULBS AND TUBERS. 



19 



garden, sueli spots as perhaps at present contain nothing but 
weeds, or any naturally ruugh ur unused spot ahout a garden 
— such are the places for them. K\'en where all the lawn 
must be mown the Snowdrop may be enjoyed in early spring, 
for its leaves die down, (ir at all events ripen sufficiently before 
there is anv occasion to mow the grass. 

But the prettiest results are oidy attainable where the 




The I'urk^ Cap Lily, naturalised in the grass by wooJ-«a!k. 

grass need not l)e mown till nearly the time the meadows are 
ninwn. Then we may have gardens of Narcissi, such as men 
never dared to dream about a dozen years ago ; such as no 
one ever thought possiljle in a garden. In grass not mown 
at all We may even enjoy many of the Lilies, and all the 
lovelier and more stately Ijulbous flowers of the meadows and 
mountain lawns of Europe, Asia, and America. 

On a stretch of good grass which need not be mown, and 
on fairly good soil in an}" part of our country, beauty may be 



20 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



enjoyed such as has hitherto only giaddened the heart of the 
rare wanderer on the higli mountain hiwns and copses, in 
May when the earth chikh'en laugh in multitudes on their 
mother's breast. 

All planting in the grass should be in natural groups or 
prettily fringed colonies, growing to and fro as they like after 
planting. Lessons in this grouping are to be had in woods, 
copses, heaths, and meadows, by those wlio look about them 
as they go. At first many will find it difficult to get out of 
formal masses, but that may be got over by studying natural 
groupings of wild flowers. Once established, the plants soon 
begin to group themselves in a way that lea^'es nothing t(j 
desire. 







Crocuses in turf, in grove uf Sunnucr leafing trees. 




Group of Globe flowers (Trollius) in marshy place ; type of the nobler 
Northern flowers little cultivated in gardens. 



CHAPTER IV. 



EXAMPLE FROM THE GLOBE FLOWER ORDER. 



Let us next see what may 1)e done with the Buttercup 
order of pLmts. It embraces many tilings widely diverse 
in aspect from these liuniished ornaments of northern 
meadows and muuiitains. The first thing I should take 
from it to embellish the wild wood is the sweet-scented 
Virgin's Bower (Clematis flammula), a native of the south 
of Europe, but as hardy and free in all parts of Britain 
as the common Hawthorn. And as the Hawthorn sweetens 
the breath of early summer, so will this add fragrance 
to the autumnal months. It is never to be seen half so 
beautiful as when crawHng over some tree or decayed stump ; 
and if its profuse masses of white liloom do not attract, its 
fragrance is sure to do so. An open glade in a wood, or open 
spaces on banks near a wood or shrubbery, would be charming 
for it, while in the garden or pleasure-ground it may be used 



22 



THE WILD GARDEN. 




as a creeper over old stumps, trellising, or the like. Cle- 
matis campaniflora, with flowers like a campanula, and of a 
pale purplish hue, and the beautiful white Clematis montana 
grandiflora, a native of Nepaul, are almost ecpially beautiful, 
and many others of the family are worthy of a place, rambling- 
over old trees, bushes, hedgerows, or tang- 
ling over banks. Tliese single wild species 
(if Clematis are more graceful than the 
large Hybrids now common ; tbey are 
very hardy and free. In mild and sea- 
shore districts a beautiful kind, common 
in Algeria, and in the islands on and tlie 
shores of the ]\Iediterranean (Clematis 
cirrhosa), will be found most valuable — 
being nearly evergreen, and flowering very 
early in spring — even in winter in the 
South of England. 

Next in tliis order we come to the 
Wind ilowers, or Anemones, and here 
we must pause to select, for more beauti- 
ful flowers do not adorn this world oi' 
floM'ers. Have we a bit of rich urass not 
niOM'n ? If so, the lieautiful downy white and yellow 
Anemones of the Alps (A. alpina and A. sulphurea) may l>e 
grown there. Any sunny bushy l)aid<; or southern slope 
which we wish to embellisli with vernal beauty ? Then 
select Anemone blanda, a small l)ut lovely blue kind; ])lace 
it in open bare spots to l^egin witb, as it is very dwarf, and 
it will at Christmas, and from that time onward through 
the spring, open its large flowers of the deejDest sky blue. 



The Mountain Clematis 
(C. montana). 



EXA^r^'^K vui)M cloiu-: Fl.o^^•|•:I; oiidkr. 23 

The ciuniiioii unnlcii An.ciiioiu! (A. ( 'ormniria) will iioL l)e 
f;i-ti(li(ins, l.iii jiad iM'tlciUc placed in njicii liarc sainly places ; 
and tlu' s])leniliil Ancnmnf fulLiriis will proxe niosl attractive, 
as it glows with tiery scavh't. Of other Anemones, hardy, 
free, and hcantifnl enough to he made wild in <>nr shrnljheries, 
]ileasnre-gronnds, and wilds, the dapan Ancniunc 'A. j'aponica) 




The White Japan Anemone in the Wild Garden. 

and its white varieties, A. trifolia and A. sylvestris, are the 
hest of the exotic species. The Japan Anemones grow' so 
strongly that they Avill take care of themselves even among 
stiff hrushwuod, brambles, etc. ; and they are beantifully 
fitted for scattering along the low, half- wild margins of shrub- 
beries and groups. The interesting little A. trifolia is not 
unlike our own wood Anemone, and M'ill otow in similar 
places. 



24 THE WILD GARDEN. 

Few plants are more lovely in the wild garden than the 
White Japan Anemone. The idea of the wild garden first 
arose in the writer's mind as a home for a numerous class 
of coarse -growing plants, to which people begrudge room 
in their borders, such as the Golden Eods, Michaelmas Daisies, 
Compass plants, and a host of otliers, which are l)eautiful fur 
a season only, or perhaps too rampant for what are called 
choice borders and beds. This Anemone is one of the most 
beautiful of garden flowers, and one which is as well 
suited for the wild garden as the kinds alluded to. It 
grows well in any good soil in copse or sln-ubbery, and 
increases rapidly. Partial shade seems to suit it ; and in any 
case the effect of the large white flowers is, if anything, more 
beautiful in half- shady places. The flowers, too, are more 
lasting here than where they are fully exposed. 

As for the Apennine Anemone (the wliite as well as the 
blue variety), it is one of the loveliest spring flowers of any 
clime, and should l)e in every garden, in the borders, and 
scattered thinly here and there in woods and shrubberies, so 
that it may become " naturalised." It is scarcely a British 
flower, being a native of the south of Europe ; l)ut having 
strayed into our wilds and plaiitations occasionally, it is 
now included in most books on British plants. The yellow 
A. ranuncnloides, a doul)tful native, found in one or two spots, 
but not really British, is well worth growing, tliriving well 
on the chalk, and being very Ijeautifiil. 

The large Hepatica angulosa will grow almost as 
freely as Celandine among shrubs and in half-shady spots, 
and we all know how readily the old kinds grow on all 
garden soils of ordinary quality. There are about ten or 












^'^ W--'-'l 



MM 




EXAMPLE FRO^r OLOBE FLOWER ORDER. 25 

twelve varieties of tlie common Hepatica (Anemone Hepatica) 
grown in British nurseries and gardens, and ;dl (lie colours 
of llie species should he represented in evcrv collection of 
spring flowers. 

There are many of the Eaimnculi, not natives of r>ritain, 
which would urow as freelv as our native kinds. ISIanv will 
doubtless remember with pleasure tlie pretty button-like 
white flowers of the Fair IMaids of France (Ranunculus 
aeonitifolius fl. pi.), a frecpient ornament of the old mixed 
l}order. This, and the wild form from which it comes — a 
frecpient plant in alpine meadows — may also l)e enjoyed in 
our wild garden. Quite distinct from all these, and of chastest 
beauty when well grown, is 11. amplexicaulis, with flowers of 
pure white, and simple leaves of a dark glaucous green and 
flowing graceful outline ; a hardy and charming plant on 
almost any soil. This is one of the elegant exotic forms of a 
family well represented in the golden type in our meadows, 
and therefore it is welcome as giving- us a strange form 
Such a plant deserves that pains be taken to establish it in 
good soil, in spots where a rank vegetation may not weaken 
or destroy it. 

Of the Globe Flowers (Trollius), there are various kinds 
apart from our own, all rich in colour, fragrant, and hardy 
in a remarkable degree. These are amono- the noblest wild- 
garden plants — cpiite hardy, free of growth in the heaviest of 
soil and wettest of climates, affording a lovely type of early 
summer flower- life, and one distinct from any usually seen 
in our fields or gardens ; for these handsome Globe flowers 
are among the many flowers that for years have found no 
place in the garden proper. They are lovely in groups or 



26 



THE WILD GAKDEN. 









colonies, in cold grassy places, where ninny otliei- ]>lants 
wonld perish. 

The Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyenialis) shonld be 
naturalised in every country seat in Britain — it is as easy to 
do so as to introduce the thistle. It may he placed (piite 
under the Ijranches of deciduous trees, will come up and 
flower when the trees are naked, Avill have its foliage developed 
before the leaves come on 
the trees, and be afterwards '"^'^'""ivr"^'^- •''" 
hidden from sight. Thus 
masses of this earliest flower 
may be grown with- 
out the slightest 
sacrifice of space, 
and only be noticed 
when Itearing a 
bloom on every little 
stem. That fine old 
])lant,the Christmas 
Rose ( Hellel lorus 
niger), likes partial 
shade better thaii full exposure, and should be used abun- 
dantly, giving it rather snug and warm positions, so that its 
flowers may be encouraged to open well and fully. Any 
other kinds might also be used, liecently many kinds of 
Helleborus have been added to our gardens, not all of them 
so conspicuous at first sight as tlie Christmas Eose, yet they 
are of remarkable beauty of foliage and habit as well as of 
blossom, and they flower in the spring. These, too, show the 

They 




The (Ireeii Hellebore in the Wild (iarden. 



advantage of the wild garden as regards cultiAation 



KXAMPLK FROM (ILOBE FLOWRIJ ORDEH. 27 

\\']\] llu'hc much hetfrr in any htsliy places, or copses, or in 
mniually shelf rriny groups on irarm hanks and slopes, even in 
hedge hanks, old i/i/arrics, or rough movnds, than in the ordinary 
garden harder. Of the ditlereiice in tlie effect in tlie tAvo 
cases it is needless to speak. 

Rome of the ^Nronkslioods are very handsome, hnt all ol" 
them virnlent poisons; and, l)earin,u in mind what fatal 
accidents have arisen from their nse, they ai'e l)etter not 
used at all in the ,^ardeii proper. Amongst tall and 
vigorous herliaceous plants few are more suitable for wihl 
and semi -wild places. Tliey are hardy and rohust enougli 
to grow anywhere in sliady (ir lialf-sliady s])ots: and tlieir 
tall spikes, loaded with l)lue flowers, are very beautiful. 
An illustration in the ('ha])ter on the ])lants suited for the 
wild garden sliows the common Aconite in a Somersetshire 
valley in company with the Butterbur and the Hemlock. 
In .such a ]ilace its beauty is very striking. Tlie larger rich 
l)lue kinds, and the blue and white one, are very showy 
grown in deep soils, in Mdiich they attain a great height. 
When out of flower, like many other stately Perennials, they 
were often stiff and ugly in the old borders and l)eds. In tlie 
wild garden tlieir stately beauty Avill be more remarkable 
than ever under the green leaves in copses and by streams. 
And when Hower-time is gone, their stems, no longer tied into 
bundles or cut in by the knife, will group finely with other 
vigorous herbaceous vegetation. 

The Delphiniums, or tall Terennial Larks|)urs, are amongst 
the most lieautiful of all flowers. They embrace almost every 
shade of lilue, from the rich dark tone of D. grandiflora to the 



28 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



eharming can-ulean tints of such as D. Belladonna ; and being 
usually of a tall and strong type, will make way among long 
grasses and vigorous weeds, unlike many things for which we 
have to recommend an open space, or a wood with notliing 

but a carpet of moss under the trees. 

One of the prettiest effects whicli 
I liave ever seen was a colony of tall 
Larkspurs. Portions of old roots of 
several species and varieties had been 
chopped off when a 
l)ed of these plants 
was dug in the autumn. 
For convenience sake 
the refuse had been 
thrown into the neigh- 
l)Ouring shrubbery, far 
in among the shrubs 
and trees. Here they 
grew in half- open 
spaces, which were so 
far removed from tlie 
margin that they were not dug and were not seen. When I 
saw the Larks]iurs in flower they were certainly the loveliest 
things that one could see. They were more beautiful than they 
are in borders or beds, not growing in such close stiff tufts, but 
mingling with and relieved by the trees above and the shrubs 
around. Little more need be said to any one who knows and 
cares about such plants, and lias an opportunity of planting 
in such neglected places. This case points out that one might 
make wild gardens from the mere parings and thinnings of 




Tall Perennial Larkspurs, naturalised in Shrubbery (1878). 



EXAMPLE FKOM GLOBE FLOWER ORDER. 2!) 

the beds and borders in autumn in any place wliere there is 
a collection of good hardy plants. 

The engraving on the next page represents one of tlie most 
beautiful effects obtained in his wild garden by an acquaintance 
of mine who began when he knew very little of plants and 
their favoured haunts, and succeeded well in a not very 
favourable site. Herbaceous Piconies were amongst those 
that succeeded best. The effect was very l^eautiful, either 
close at hand or seen at a considerable distance off. Herb- 
aceous Pseonies are amongst the most free, vigorous, and hardy 
of perennial plants, and with them alone most novel and 
beautiful effects may be carried out in most places where there 
is room. Even in comparatively small gardens, a group or 
two outside the margin of a shrubljery woidd be desirable. 
The effect of the blooms amongst the long grass of the wild 
garden is liner than any they present in borders, and when 
out of flower they do not seem to be in the way, as they often 
are thought to be when in borders and beds. It is almost 
needless to speak here of the great variety of forms now 
obtainable amongst these herbaceous Pieonies, many of which 
are agreeably scented. The older forms were not remarkable 
in that respect, but rather the contrary. In addition to the 
splendour (jf colour for which Pffionies are long and well 
known, there are now many delicately -coloured and tinted 
varieties. The whole race is undeservedly neglected. People 
spend plenty of money on greenhouses which will nevei" pro- 
duce anything so handsome as a well-grown group of herba- 
ceous Pieonies in the open garden ; yet when they are grown 
they are often begrudged a few feet of good soil, though that 
is all they would require for years at a time. My friend's 



30 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Pieonies formed a group that could be seen from a distance ; 
wlieu T saw tliem they were surrounded by long and waving 
grass. I cannot give any idea of the tine effect. 

The Clematis-like Atragene alpina is one of my favourite 
flowers— seldom seen now-a-days, or indeed at any time, out 
of a botanical garden, and till lately not often seen in one. 
It lii<es to trail over an old stump, or through a thin low busli. 

















»rja ^^^ 



hHt"" 



Double Criiiisoii Peeonies in tfrass. 



or over a rocky bank, and it is a perfectly hardy plant. Speak- 
ing of such plants as this, one would like to draw a sharp 
distinction between them and the vari()us weedy and indistinct 
subjects wliich are now creeping into cultivation owing to 
the revival of interest in hardy plants. Many of these have 
some botanical interest, but they can l)e only useless in the 
garden. Our chief danger now is getting plants into cultiva- 
tion which are neither very distinct nor \'ery beautiful, while 
perhaps we neglect many of the really tine kinds. This 



EXAMl'i.K FROM (iLol'.K F]A)\\l-:il OKDKi;. :U 

Atrageiie is a precious plant tur kiw Imsli and liaiik wild 
oardeii. 

Aiuon,u plants which une nevL^- sees, and which, indeed, 
uue never ought to see, in a tiowt-r garden, aw the ]\[eadow 
Eues ; and vet there is a quiet beauty and grace aliout these 
plants which entitle them to some consideration ; and the 
flowers, too, of certain species, particularly tlie one here 
shown in the illustration im ])age 1, are of singular beauty. 
When it is considered that all the species will grow anywhere 
— in anv hedgerow or lane or bvewav, or among coarse grass, 
or in a copse, or under the shrubs, in places usually abandoned 
to common weeds, there is no rea-^on why numbers of them 
should not be rescued from the oblivion of the botanic 
Li'arden. 



CHAPTEE V. 



PLANTS CHIEFLY FITTED FOR THE WILD GARDEN. 




What tirst suggested the idea of the wild 
garden, and even the name to me, 
was the desire to provide a home 
for a great number of exotic plants 
that are unfitted for garden culture 
in the old sense. Many of these 
plants have great beauty when in flower, 
and perhaps at other seasons, but they are 
frequently so free and vigorous in growth 
that they overrun and destroy all their more 
delicate neighbours. Many, too, are so coarse 
that they are objectionable in choice borders, 
and after flowering they leave a blank or a 
mass of unsightly stems. These plants are 
unsightly in gardens, and the main cause of 
the neglect of hardy flowers; yet many are beautiful at certain 
stages. A tall Harebell, for example, stiffly tied up in a 
garden border, as has been the fashion where plants of this 
kind have been grown at all, is at best of times an unsightly 
object ; but the same plant growing amongst the long 



PLANTS FITTED FOR THE WlT.l) GAEDEX. 



UTass in a tliiu wooel is luvelv. 
The Golden -rods and Michaelmas 
Daisies used to overrun the old 
mixed horder, and were with ir 
abolished. lUit even the poorest of 
these seen to£i-ether in a Xew EuQ-land 
wood in autumn fi mn a picture. So 
also there are numerous exotic plants 
of whicli the indi^•idual iiowers may 
not he so striking, Ijut which, grown 
in groups and colonies, and seen at 
some little distance off, afford heauti- 
ful aspects of vegetation, and cpiite 
new so far as gardens are concerned. 
"When I first wrote this book, not 
one of tliese plants was in cultiva- 
tion outside botanic gardens. It was 
even considered by the best friends 
of hardy flowers a mistake to recom- 
mend one of them, for they knew 
that it was the j^redominance of these 
weedy vigorous subjects that made 
people give up hardy flowers for the 
sake of the glare of bedding plants ; 
therefore, the wild garden in the case 
of these particular plants opens up ti i 
us a new world of infinite and stranae 
beauty. In it every plant vigorous 
enough not to require the care of the 
cultivator or a choice place in the 

D 



iP 



^ 



/^ 






ALf 



w^ 



rA:i 



/ \ 



V5«r~ 



£v: 



The Giant Scabious (o feet high). 
(Cephalaria procera.) 



34 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



mixed border Avill find a home. Of sucli plants there are 
numbers in every northern and mountainous country, wliich 
travellers may gather and afterwards grow in their own 
gardens. The taller Achilleas, the stately Aconites, 
the seldom -seen Actreas, the huge and vigorous, but at 
certain seasons handsome, Altlueas, Angelica with its fine 
foliage, the herliaceous kinds of Aralia from the American 
woods, also with fine foliage, the Wormwood family 
(Artemisia), the stronger kinds of American cotton -weed 
(Asclepias), certain of the vigorous species of Asparagus, 
Asters and their allies in great variety, the larger and more 
vigorous species of Astragalus, certain of the larger species of 
Betonica, pretty, and with delicate flowers, but hardly fit for 
the mixed border, various free and vigorous exotic Grasses, 
large and showy Bupthalmums, the handsome creeping Bind- 
weeds, too free in a garden, the most vigorous Campanulas, 
exotic Thistles (Carduus) and their allies, the more remark- 
able kinds of Carex, numerous Centaureas, somewhat too 
coarse for the garden; and among other strong and hardy 
genera, the following are chiefly suitable for the wild garden : 



Cramlie. 

Digitulis. 

Dipsacus. 

Doronicum. 

Echinacea. 

Ecliiiiops. 

Elymiis. 

Ejnlobiuin. 

Eryngiiun. 

Eupatorium. 

Euphorbia. 

Ferula. 

Funkia. 



Galega. 

Helenium. 

Helianthus. 

Heracleum. 

Inula. 

Kitaibelia. 

Lavatera. 

Ligularia. 

Ligusticuni. 

Mulgedium. 

Onopordon. 

Phytolacca. 

Polygonum. 



Rhaponticum. 

Rheum. 

Rudbeckia. 

Scolymus. 

Senecio. 

Sida. 

Silphium. 

Solidago. 

Sonclius. 

Symphytum. 

Veratrum. 

Verbascum. 

Vernonia. 



PLANTS FITTED FOR THE WILD GARDEN. 35 




Giant Cow Parsnip. Type of Great Siberian herbaceous vegetation. 
For rough places only. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DITCHES AND NARROW SHADY LANES, COPSES, HEDGEROWS, 

AND THICKETS, 



Men usually seek sunny positions for 
tlieir gardens, so that even 
v^ those obliged to be con- 
tented with the north side 
of the hill would scarcely 
appreciate some of the 
above - named positions. 
What, the gloomy and 
weedy dyke as a garden ! 
Yes, there are ditches, dry 
and wet, in every district, 
that may readily he made 
more beautiful than many 
-' ^* ' " a " modern flower-garden," 

Foliage of Dipsacus, on hedge-bank in spring. -g^^^ ^^,|^^^ ^^.^^^^d grOW iu 

them ? ]\Iany of the beautiful wood and shade-loving j^lants 
of our own and similar latitudes — things that love not the 
open sunny hillsides or wide meadows, but take shelter in the 
stillness of deep woods or in dark valleys, are happy deep 




DITCHES AND XATtROW SHADY LANES. 37 

between riven rocks, and gaily oc('n]iy the little dark caves 
beneath the ureat boidders on maiiv a horror-stricken nioiin- 
tain gorge, and whicli garland Avith inimitable grace the vast 
flanks of rock that gnard the dark conrses of the rivers on 
their paths throngh the hills. And as these dark walls, 
ruined by ceaseless pulse of the torrent, are beautiful 
exceedingly, liow iniich moiv may we make all the shady 
dykes and narrow lanes that occur everywhere ! For while 
the nymph-gardener of the raA^ne may depend for her novel- 
ties on the strav grains of seeds brouuht in the moss bv the 
robin when building her nest, or on the mercy of the hurrying 
wave, we may place side by side the snowy white wood lily 
(Trillium grandiflorum), whose home is in the shades of the 
American woods, with the twin flower of Scotland and northern 
Europe, and find Ijoth thrive on the same spot in ha^jpy com- 
panionship. And so in innumerable instances. And not only 
may we be assured of numbers of the most beautiful plants of 
other countries thriving in deep ditches and in like positions, 
but also that not a few of them, like the white wood 111}-, will 
thrive much Ijetter in them than in any position in garden 
borders. This plant, when in perfection, has a flower as fair 
as any white lily, while it is seldom a foot high ; but, in con- 
sequence of being a shade-loving and wood plant, it usually 
perishes in the ordinary garden bed or border, while in a 
shady dyke or any like position it will be found to thrive as 
well as in its native woods; and if in deep, free, sandy, or 
vegetable soil, to grow so as not to be surpassed in loveliness 
by anything seen in our stoves or greenhouses. 

Our wild flowers take j^ossession of the stiff', formal, and 



38 THE WILD GARDEN. 

shorn hedges that seam the land, often (heaping them with 
such innnitable grace that half the ecjuservatories in the 
country, with their collections of small red pots and small 
mean plants are stiff and poor compared with a few yards' 
length of their blossomy verdure. The Wild Eoses, Purple 
Vetch, Honeysuckle, and the Virgin's Bower, clamber above 
smaller, but not less pretty, wildlings, and throw a veil of 
graceful life over the mutilated shrubs, reminding us of the 
plant-life in the nest-like thickets of dwarf shrubs that one 
often meets on the Ingh Alpine meadows. Tn these islets of 
bushes in a sea of grass one may gather Howers after they 
have been all browsed down on the turf. Next to the most 
interesting aspects of Alpine vegetation, there is perhaps 
nothing in the world of plant-life more lovely than the delicate 
tracery of low -climbing things wedded to the bushes in all 
northern and temperate regions of the earth. Perishing like the 
grass, they are happy and safe in the earth's Ijosom in winter ; 
in spring they come up as the buds swell, and soon after, 
finding the bushes once more enjoyable, rush over them as 
joyously as children from school over a meadow of cowslips. 
Over bush, over brake, on mountain or lowland copse, holding 
on with delicate but unyielding grasp, they engrave themselves 
on the mind as the central type of grace. In addition to 
climbing Pea-flowers, Convolvuluses, etc., of which the stems 
perish in winter, we have the great tribes of wild vines, noble 
in foliage and often in fruit, the numerous Honeysuckles, 
from coral red to pale yellow, all beautiful ; and the Clema- 
tidie, rich, varied, and lovely beyond description, from those 
of which each petal reminds one of the wing of some huge 



DITCHES AND XARROW SHADY LANES. 



39 



tropical butterfly, to those with small flowers borne in showers 
like drops from a fountain jet, and often sweet as Hawthorn 
blossoms. 

This climbinti' 
be trained and 



vegetation may 
tortured into forms 



never 
be seen 




in Q-ardens, but 
will its beauty 
until we entrust 
it to the garland- 
ino- of shrub, and 
copse, or hedge- 
row, fringes of 
dwarf plantation, 
or groups of 
shrubs and trees. 
All to be done is to 
put in a few tufts of 
any desired kind, and leave tliein 
alone, adapting the kind to the 
position. The large, flesh-coloured 
Bindweed, for example, would be best in 
rough places, out of the pale of the pleasure- 
ground or garden, so that its roots would 
not spread where they could do harm, 
wliile a dehcate Clematis might be placed 
beneath the choicest specimen Conifer, and 
allowed to paint its rich gi-een witli fair 
flowers. In nature we frequently see a Honeysuckle clamber- 
ing up through an old Hawthorn tree, and then struggling 
with it as to which should produce the greatest profusion 



The large white Bindweed, 
type of nobler climbing 
plants, with annual stems. 
For copses, hedgerows, 
and shrubberies. 



40 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



of blossoms — hut in gardens not yet. Some may say that 
this cannot he done in gardens ; l)nt it can he done infinitely 
hetter in gardens than it has ever been done in nature ; because, 
for gardens we can select plants from many countries. We 
can effect contrasts, in which nature is poor in any one place 
in consequence of the comparatively few plants tliat naturally 
inhabit one spot of ground. People seldom remember that " the 
art itself is nature; " and foolish old laws laid down by land- 
scape-gardeners are yet fertile in perpetuating the 
notion that a garden is a " work of art, and there- 
fore we must not attempt in it to 
imitate nature." 

Sometimes, where there are 
Uirge and bare slopes, an excellent 
effect may be obtained by planting 
the stouter climbers, such as the 
Vines, Mountain Clematis, and 
Honeysuckles, in groups or masses 
on the grass, away from shrubs or 
low trees ; while, when the banks 
are precipitous or the rocks crop 
forth, we may allow a curtain of 
climbers to fall over tliem. 

Endless charming; combinations 
may be made in this way in many 
spots near most country houses. The following genera 
are among the climbing and clinging hardy plants most 
suitable for garlanding copses, hedges, and thickets : — Ever- 
lasting Peas (many kinds), the hardy exotic Honeysuckles, 
Clematis (wild species maiiily), the common Jasmine, 




<!S*!^ 



The Nootka Bramble ; type of free- 
growing flowering shrub. For 
copses and woods. 



DITCHES AND NARROW SHADY LANES. 41 

tlu' tlitiil)l(,' Ui'iiialilc, Amines (Ainerican and llie (•(tmiiioii 
varieties), single Ivoses, the A^irginiau creepers (Anipelopsis), 
the hirge Bindweed (Calystegia daliuiiea), Aristolochia Sipho, 
and A. tomentosa, and several ol' the ]ierennial Tro])ieohims, 
T. pentaphylhini, speciosnni, and tuberosum. The hardy 
►Sniihix, too, are very handsome, and the Canadian Moonseed, 
only suita])k' for this kind of gardening. 

Among the families of plants tliat are suitable for the 
various positions enumerated at the head of this chapter 
may be named — Acanthus, any variety, Viola, both the 
sweet varieties and some of the large scentless kinds, the 
I'eriwinkle, Speedwells, Globe Flowers, Trilliums, I'lume 
Ferns (Struthiopteris), and many other kinds, the Lily of 
the Valley and its many varieties and allies, the Canadian 
Bloodwort, the Winter Greens (P}'rola), Solomon's Seal, and 
allied exotic species, the May Apple, Orobus in variety, 
Narcissi, many, the Common Myrrh, the perennial Lupin, 
hardy common Lilies, the Snowflakes, all kinds of Everlasting 
Peas and allied plants, admirable for scrambling through low 
hedges and over bushes, Windflowers, the taller and stronger 
kinds in lanes and hedgerows, the various Christmas Eoses 
wliicli will repay for shelter, the European kinds of Crladiolus, 
such as segetum and Coh^illi, the taller and more vigorous 
Cranes Bills (Geranium), the Snake's Head (Fritillaria) in 
variety, Strawberries of any variety or species, the beautiful 
Plume-leaved Giant Fennel, Dog's Tooth Violets in bare spots 
or spots bare in spring, the Winter Aconite, the Barren Worts, 
for peaty spots or leaf soil, the j\Iay Flower, for sandy poor 
soil under trees, the Dentaria, the coloured and sliowier forms 
of I'rimroses, Oxslips, I'olyantlius, the hardy European Cycla- 



42 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



mens in carefully chosen spots, Crocuses in places under 
branches and trees not bearing leaves in Spring, the yellow 
and pink Coronilla (C. montana and C. varia), the larger 
forms of Bindweed, many of the taller and finer Harebells, 
Star worts (Aster), for hedgerows, and among the taller plants 
the Italian Cuckoo Pint (Arum), and also the Dragons, for 
warm sandy soils, the Monkshoods which people fear in gar- 
dens and which do admirably in many positions ; the different 
species of Onion, also unwelcome in gardens, some of which 
are very beautiful, as, for example, the White Provence 
kind and the old yellow garden Allium (Moly). With the 
above almost exclusively exotic things and our own wild 
flowers and ferns Ijeautiful colonies may be made. 









'I'he Yellow Allium (A. Moly) naturalised. 



CHAPTER VIL 



DKAPEKY FOR TREES AND BUSHES. 




The numerous hardy climbers wliicli we pos- 
sess are very rarely seen to advantage, owing- 
to tlieir l)eing stifHv trained against walls. 
Indeed, the greater number of hardy climbers 
have oone out of cultivation niainlv for this 
reason. One of the happiest of all ways of 
using them is that of training them in a free 
manner over trees ; in this way many beautiful 
effects may be secured. Established trees 
have usually exhausted the ground near their 
base, which may, however, afford nutriment 
to a hardy climbing shrul). In some low trees 
the graceful companion may garland their heads ; in tall ones 
the stem only may at first be adorned. But some vigorous 
climbers could in time ascend the tallest trees, and there can be 
nothing more beautiful than a veil of such a one as Clematis 
montana suspended from the branch of a tall tree. A whole 
host of lovely plants may Ije seen to great advantage in this 
way, apart from the well-known and popular climbing plants. 
There are, for example, man}- species of Clematis which 



44 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



have never come into cultivation, but which are quite as 
beautiful as any climbers. The same may be said of the 
Honeysuckles, wild Vines, and various other families of which 




Large White Clematis on Yew tree at Great Tew. [C. montana grandifiora.) 

the names may be found in catalogues. IMuch of the northern 
tree and shrub world is garlanded with creepers, which may 
be grown in similar ways, as, for example, on banks and 
in hedgerows. The trees in our pleasure-grounds, however, 
have the first claim on our attention in planting garlands. 



DRAPET^Y FOR TRp]ES AND BUSHES. 45 

There would scldtun 1i<' need to fcnr injury to established 
trees. 

Some time a^o T smv a AVeepiiig' AVilloM', on tlu; margin of 
a lake, that had its trunk clothed with Virginian Creeper, and 
the effect in autumn, when 
the sun shone throuLih the 
drooping branches of the 
AVillow — whose leaves were 
just l)ecoming tinged with 
gold — upon the crimson of 
the creeper - covered trunk 
was very fine. The Hoji is 
a very effective plant for 
draping a thin specimen 
Arbor -vita', or Yew tree, but 
the shoots should l)e thinned 
out in spring, and not more 
than three or four allowed 
to climb u]) to the tree. 
When the leader emerges 
from the top of the Imsh, 
and throws its lonu;, o-raceful 
wreaths of Hops over tlie dark green foliage, the contrast 
is most effective. The Wistaria, if planted before its sup])ort 
has become old, will combine with excellent effect with any 
single specimen of not too dense a habit. 

A correspondent, who has added largely to the charms of 
a place in Suffolk l)y means of the wild garden, writes as 
follows : — " Some time aso I disc()^'ered and had removed from 
the woods to the pleasure-grounds a robust round-headed 




The way the climbing plants of the world are 
crucified in gardens — winter efifect (<x faith- 
fnl skfUh). 



46 



THE WILD GARDEN. 




Holly tree, which had been taken entire possession of by a 
wild Honeysuckle, which, originating at the root of the tree, 
had scrambled up through the branches to the top, and there, 
extending itself in all directions, had formed a large head and 
hung in festoons all round — a highly ornamental object 
indeed. The Holly had endured the subjection for many 

years, and still 
seemed to put forth 
sufficient shoots and 
leaves annually to 
ensure a steady sup- 
jiort to its climbing- 
companion. The 
Ijirds also had dis- 
covered that the 
dense and tangled 
thicket created by 
the Honeysuckle was 
a suitable home for 
their young, for in- 
side of it was a regular 
settlement of nests 
of various kinds ; 
and, since the tree has l)een moA'ed it has been taken 
complete possession of again 1jy the bird tribe." The 
Honeysuckle in (piestion" is an example of what might 
1)6 done with such handsome and free growing climbers 
and scraml)ling Eoses. What could be more effective, for 
instance, than a lofty tree -like mass of the purple and 
white Clematis mixed, or either of tliese alone, or, better 




'^My^t 



Climbing shrub (Celastrus), isolated on the grass : way 
of growing woody Climbers away from walls or other 
supports. 



DRAPERY FOR TREES AND BUSHES. 47 

still, a gigantic head of Eoses ? I tlirow out these hints 
for those who choose to act upon them. Draped trees, 
such as I have described, may soon be had. I do not know 
that a better tree than the Holly could be selected for a 
support. Where the trees are not in tlie place in which they 
are wanted, they sliould be moved about the end of August 
to the desired situation, and if some good rich soil — loam and 
decayed manure — is furnislied to the roots at tlie same time, 
it will he in proper condition f(^r climbers in spring. Tlie 
latter sliould be planted pretty closely to the stem of the tree, 
and a start should be made with good vigorous plants, whether 
of Honeysuckle, Eoses, or Clematis. The Eoses and other 
things will want a little leading off at first till they get hold 
of their supporters, but afterwards no pruning or interference 
should be attempted. 

Mr. Hovey, in a letter from Boston, ]\Iass., wrote as 
follows, on certain interesting aspects of tree drapery : — 

Some ten or fifteen years ago we bail occasion to plant three or 
four rows of popular climbers in nursery rows, about 100 feet long ; 
these consisted of the Virginian creeper, the Moonseetl (Menispermum), 
Periploca gra-ca, and Celastrus scandens ; subsecj^uently, it hajj^jened 
accidentally that four rows of rather large Tartarian (so-called) Arbor- 
'\ita\s were planted on one side, and about the same numl)er of rows 
of Smoke trees, Philadelphus, and Cornus tlorida, on the other. For 
three or four years many of these climbers were taken up annually 
until rather too old to remove, and year l)y year the Arbor-^vitits and 
shrubs were thinned out until what were too large to safely transplant 
remained. But the land was not wanted then, and the few scattered 
trees and climbers grew on while cultivation was partially neglected, a 
large specimen being occasionally taken out until the climl)ers had 
fairly taken possession of the trees, and are now too beautiful to 
disturb. It forms the most unic|ue specimen of tree drapery I have 
ever seen. Some of the Arbor-vita^s are entirely overrun with the 
Moonseed (Menispermum), whose large, slightly-scalloj)ed leaves over- 



48 THE WILD GARDEN. 

lap one unotlier from the grouml to tlie top like slates on a roof. 
Over others, the gloomy leaves of the Periploca scramble, and also the 
Celastrus, and on still others the deep green leaves of the Ampelopsis 
completely festoon the tree ; of some trees all fonr and otlier climbers 
have taken possession ; and from among the tops of the Snmach the 
feathery tendrils of the Ampelopsis, and, just now, its deep bine berries 
hold full sway. And these are not all. Tlie Apios tuberosa is 
indigenous, and springs np everywhere as soon as onr land is neglected. 
Tliis has also overrun several trees, and coils np and wreaths each out- 
stretching branch with its little bunches of fragrant brownish coloured 
flowers. It is the Arbor-vita's which give the peculiar l^eanty of this 
description of tree drapery. On the deciduous trees the new growth 
lengthens rapidly, and the branches soon get far apart ; but with 
Arbor-vitiBs, which always present a round compact head, the effect 
is entirely ditt'erent ; they are covered so densely that it is impossible, 
in some instances, to say what the tree is that supports the climljers. 
One Hemlock Spruce (Abies canadensis) has every branch loaded with 
the Apios and profuse with blossoms ; but this one sees happen witli 
other trees. The Smoke tree looks interesting just now, while its 
flowers are fresh, but soon they will fade, and the dry tops will be a 
disadvantage ; but the Arbor-vitse will remain (dothed with the 
foliage, flowers, and berries too, of the Celastrus imtil the autumn 
frosts have shorn them of their beauty, and no falling leaves are 
scattered around. The Arbor-^'itte is the tree I would recommend 
when it is desirable to produce such effects as I have described. When 
such strong-growing climbers as Begonias and Wistarias take possession 
of a shrub they generally injure it ; l>ut the very slender stems of 
Menispermum and Apios die entirely to the ground after the first sharp 
frost, and the slender stems of the others do not appear to arrest the growth 
of the Arbor-vita'S, which are restored when the climbers are down, and, 
after full eight months' rest, are again ready to aid in sustaining tlieir 
more dependent companions. The Honeysuckle, the Clematis, and 
similar plants might, no doubt, be added to the list, and give more 
variety, as well as fragrance and beauty, but I have only detailed the 
effects of what has been done, leaving what might be effected for some 
future trial. 

But tlie noblest kind of climbers forming drapery for trees 
are not so often seen as some of the general favourites men- 
tioned above. A neglected group are the wild Vines, plants 



of the liighest 
beauty, and 
M'liicli, if al- 
lowed to spring 
through the tall 
trees, Avhich 
they \yould 
quickly do, 
would soon 
charm by their 
bold grace. 
Some of them 
are fine in colour 
of foliao-e in 
autumn. Witli 
these might 
be associated, 
though not so ;^ 
fine in form, cer- 



tain free -grow- 



DRAPERY FOR TREES AND BUSHES. 



49 



ing 



species 
of Ampelopsis, 
grown in some 
nurseries. The 
Wistaria is also 
well worth 
growing on 
trees, in dis- 
tricts where it 
flowers freely 




A Liane in the North. .Aristolochia and Deciduous Cypress. 
E 



50 THE WILD GARDEN. 

away from walls. In visiting the garden of INIM. Van Eden, 
at Haarlem, I was surprised to see a Liane, in the shape of the 
well-known Aristolochia or Dutchman's Pipe, which had 
clambered high into a fine old deciduous Cypress. Being 
much interested in this long-estahlished companionship, I 
was able to procure, through the kindness of INIessrs. Van 
Eden, photographs of the tree and its Liane, from wliich this 
illustration was engraved. When I saw it early in spring 
tlie leaves had not appeared on either the tree or its com- 
panion, and the effect of the old rope-like stems was very 
picturesque. The Aristolochia ascends to a height of 35 ft. 
G in. on the tree. 

The tree was a superb specimen, and was not in the least 
injured by the growth of the climlier. What a beautiful 
effect a graceful flowering climber would afford in a similar 
case ! Imagine one of the white-flowered Clematis (which 
may be seen as many as over forty feet in height under suit- 
able conditions) garlanding such a tree, or any tree, with 
wreaths of fragrant blossoms. Strange and lovely aspects of 
vegetation may be created in our pleasure-grounds by the 
judicious use of these climbers, varying according to the trees 
and their position, and also as to tlieir being evergreen or 
summer-leafing. Even where one might fear to injure a 
valuable tree by a vigorous climber, trees may easily be 
found of little value, and much may be done even with the 
old or dead trees. 




A beautiful accident. — A colony of Myrrbis odorata, establisbed in shrubbery, with 
white Harebells here and there. (See p. 60.) 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE COMMON SHRUBBERY, WOODS AND WOODLAND DRIVES. 



It must not 1)6 tliouglit that the wild garden can only be 
formed in places where there is some extent of rough pleasure- 
ground. Excellent results may Ije obtained from the system 
in comparatively small gardens, on the fringes of shrubberies 
and marginal plantations, open spaces l)etween shrubs, the 
surface of Ijeds of Rhododendrons, where we may have plant- 
beauty instead of garden -graveyards. I call garden -grave- 
yards the dug shrubbery borders which one sees in nearly all 
gardens, public or private. Every shrubbery and plantation 
surface that is so needlessly and relentlessly dug over by the 
gardener every winter, may be embellished in the way I 
propose, as well as wild places. The custom of digging 
shrubbery borders prevails now in every garden, and there is 



52 THE WILD GARDEN. . 

ill tlie whole course of gardenmg no worse or more profitless 
custom. Wlien winter is once come, almost every gardener, 
altliougli animated M-itli tlie hest intentions, simply prepares 
to make war upon the roots of everything in his shruhliery 
border. The generally-accepted practice is to trim, and often 
to mutilate the shrubs, and to dig all over the surface that 
must be full of feeding roots. Delicate half- rooted shrubs 
are disturbed; herbaceous plants are destroyed; bulbs are 
displaced and injured ; the roots as well as the tops of shrubs 
are mutilated ; and a sparse depo^Dulated asjiect is given to 
the margins, while the only " improvement " that is effected 
by the process is the annual darkening of the surface by the 
upturned earth. 

Illustrations of these bad practices occur l)y miles in our 
London parks in winter. Walk through any of them at that 
season, and observe the borders around masses of shrubs, choice 
and otherwise. Instead of finding the earth covered, or nearly 
covered, with vegetation close to the margin, and each indi- 
vidual plant developed into something like a fair specimen 
of its kind, we find a spread of recently-dug ground, and the 
plants upon it M'ith an air of having recently suffered from a 
whirlwind, or some calamity that necessitated the removal of 
mutilated l)ranches. Eough-pruners precede the diggers, and 
bravely trim in the shrubs for them, so that nothing may be in 
the way ; and then come the diggers, plunging their spades 
deeply about plants, shrubs, or trees. The first shower that 
occurs after this digging exposes a whole network of torn-up 
roots. There is no relief to the spectacle ; the same thing 
occurs everywhere — in liotanic gardens as well as in our large 
West-end parks ; and year after year is the process repeated. 



THE COMMON SHRUBBERY. 



53 



AVhilu sucli is the case, it will he impossible to have an 
agreeable or interesting margin to a shrubbery or plantation. 
What secrets one might have in the central hidden portions of 
these now dug and l)are shrubberies — in the half-shady sj)ots 
where little colonies of rare exotic wildlings might have their 
first introduction to our ^^"ild garden 1 Of course all the labour 
required to produce this miserable result of dug borders is 
worse tlian tlirown awav, as the shrubberies woidd do better 




Large White Achilleas spread into wide masses under shade of trees in shrubbery. 

if let alone, and by utilising the power thus wasted, we might 
liighly beautify the positions that are now so ugly. 

If we resolve that no annual manuring or digging is to be 
permitted, nobody will grudge a thorough preparation at first. 
When a plantation of shrubs is quite young it is well to 
keep the ground open by lightly stirring it for a year or two. 
Then the planting should be so arranged as to defeat the 
digger. To graduate the vegetation from the taller subjects 
behind to the very margin of the grass is of much importance, 



54 THE WILD GARDEN. 

and this could be done best by the greater use of dwarf ever- 
greens. Happily, there is quite enough of these to be had 
suitable for every soil. Light, moist, peaty, or sandy soils, 
where such things as the sweet-scented I)a})hne Cneorum 
would spread forth its dwarf cushions, would l)e somewhat 
more desirable than, say, a stiff clay ; but for every position 
suitable plants might be found. Look, for example, at what 
we could do witli the dwarf- green Iberises, Helianthemums, 
Aubrietias, Arabises, Alyssums, dwarf shrubs, and little 
conifers like the creeping Cedar (Juniperus squamata), and 
the Tamarix-leaved Juniper, in spreading groups and colonies. 
All these are green, and would spread out into dense wide 
cushions, covering the margin, rising but little above the 
grass, and helping to cut off the formal line which usually 
divides margin and 1 )order. Behind them we might use other 
shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, in endless variety; and of 
course the margin should be varied also as regards height. 

In one spot we might have a wide-spreading tuft of the 
prostrate Savin pushing its graceful evergreen branchlets out 
over the grass ; in another the dwarf little Cotoneasters might 
be allowed to form the front rank, relieved in their turn Ijy 
pegged -down Eoses ; and so on without end. Herbaceous 
plants, that die down in winter and leave the ground bare 
afterwards, should not be assigned any important position 
near the front. Evergreen Alpine plants and shrubs, as 
before remarked, are perfectly suitable here ; but the true 
herbaceous type, and the larger bulbs, like Lilies, should be 
in groups between spreading shrubs. By so placing them, 
we sliould not only secure a far more satisfactory general 
effect, but highly inii)rove the aspect of the heihaceous plants 



THE COMMON SHRUBBERY. 55 

tlieiuselves. To cany out such plautiiig properly, a little 
more time at first and a great deal more taste than are now 
employed would be required ; Init what a diti'erence in the 
result! All tliat llie well- covered borders would require 
would be an occasional weeding or thinning, and, in the case 
of the more select spots, a little top-dressing -with fine soil. 
Here and there, between and amongst the plants, such things 
as Forget-me-nots and Violets, Snowdrops and Primroses, 
might l>e scattered altout, so as to give the borders interest 




Lilies coming up through carpet of White Arabis. 

even at the dullest seasons; and thus we should be delivered 
from digging and dreariness, and see our once ugly borders 
alive Avith flowers. The cliief rule should be — never show 
the naked earth : clothe it, and then allow the taller plants 
to rise in their own way through the turf or spray. Here is 
a little sketch of what is meant. A colony of the white 
Arabis carpets the ground in which strong hardy Lilies are 
growing ; and the Lilies are pushing up their bold unfolding 
shoots. The latter are none the worse in winter for this light 
carpet of foliage over the l)order; and then for a long time in 
spring it is bedecked with white flowers. Indeed, in fiairlj^ 
good seasons it l)looms in winter too. It would take a big 



56 THE WILD GARDEN. 

book to tell all the charms and merits belonging to tlie nse 
of a variety of small plants to carpet the ground beneath and 
between those of larger growth. It need hardly be said that 
this argnnient against digging applies to two or three beds of 
shrubs, and places where the " shrubbery" is little larger than 
the dining-room, as much as to the large country seat, public 
park, or botanic garden. 

There are great cultural advantages too, in leaving tlie 
whole of the leaves to nourish the ground and protect it from 
frost or heat. I append a note from a correspondent inquiring 
about what he sujjposes practical difficulties, and an answer 
to them : — 

Ydu draw a pretty picture of what a ^jlinibbery border sliould be 
and biiw it j^bould be kept in winter. There .shouhl be no digging, 
and the fallen lea\es should be left. I fully agree, except as to the 
leaves. Theoretically, it seems quite right to allow the leaves to lie 
and decay amidst the surrounding plants, but in practice it does not 
answer. There are, for instance, in most gardens such things as slugs 
and snails. These delight in a leafy covering, and, protected from 
frost by the shelter, will prey upon the perennial green leafage and 
the starting crowns of the herbaceous plants, and do an immense 
amount of mischief. Then there are usually in gardens in Avinter, 
especially in hard weather, blackbirds and thrushes, which in their 
efforts to obtain food set all notions of tidiness at defiance. A troop 
of fowls would hardly turn a flower border more topsy-turvy than 
would a few of these birds. The first storm that came would whirl 
the disturbed leaves all over the place, much to the disgust of the 
cultivator, and the hardy plants would find that the theory of a natural 
dressing of leaf manure had broken down. I detest the forking of 
borders so common in winter. A moderate stirring of the surface 
first with a two or three-tined rake is good, then a dressing of soot or 
guano, or both, and over all a thin surfacing of old pot soil, or the 
rough screened jjroduce of the rubbish heap, or, in fact, any kind of 
refuse soil that may offer. I think that most cultivators will agree 
that such a plan Would answer Ijetter than the natural, but very 
inoperative leaf-dressing. — A, 



THE COMMON .SHEUBBERY. 



57 



How do the swarming herbs of the woods and copses of the 
world exist in spite of tlie shigs ? A good protection for them 
is hard gravel walks and paths, where they lay their eggs 
without danger. Against the door one may dn wliat one 
likes, liut not one leaf would I ever allow runiuVL-d iiuni 
a clump of shrubs or trees on my lawn or in my pleasure 
ground. I would prefer the leaves all over the place to a 
dug l)order, Imt I would, if need l)e, meet that difticulty by 




liPi 



Colony of Narcissus in properly spaced shrubbery. 



scattering a light dressing of soil over them. In what I 
should call a properly managed shrubl)ery or clump, with the 
bushes well spaced, and their liranches resting on the ground, 
with low shrubs between, and evergreen and other herbs, 
there are natural impediments to the leaves rushing ab()ut in 
the way you suppose. This is a subject of the greatest interest 
and the utmost practical importance. Our annual digging 



58 THE WILD GARDEN. 

luutilatioii, scriipiii<;- away of leaves, and exposing on bare 

sloppy borders plants that in Natnre shelter each other, and 

are shielded from bitter frost and Ijurning heat by layers of 

fallen leaves, gradnally sinking into excellent light surface 

soil for the yonng roots, are ignorant and brutal practices that 

must be given up by all who really look into the needs of our 

hardy garden flora. 

With reference to tiiis point, I piint this letter from an 

observer of what goes on in the woods of New England. 

Our own woods are full of lessons, and so it is in all countries. 

Mr. Falconer's letter is very suggestive of the revolution in 

method which must be carried out in the yardens of the 

future : — 

I go into the woods in the spring time, and find tliem carpeted 
with Dog's-tooth Violets, Wood Anemones, bhie and purple Hepaticas, 
Spring beauty, Trilliums, Blood-root, Star-flowers, False Solomon's 
Seal, Gold Thread, trailing Arbutus, wild Ginger, and a host of other 
pretty little flowers, all bright and gay, arising from their bed of 
decaying herbage and tree leaves, and many of them are in perfection, 
too, before a tree has spread a leaf ; and thus they glow and revel in 
their cosy bed, fed and sheltered 1 ly their tree friends. When their petals 
drop and their leaves are mature, the trees expand their leafy canopy 
and save the little nurslings from the torture of a scorching sun. And 
early as the earliest, too, the outskirts of the woods and meadows with 
hosts of Violets are painted blue and white, and speckled everywhere 
with Bluets, or little Innocents, as the children call them. Woodsias, 
tiny Aspleniums, and other Ferns are unfolding their fronds along the 
chinks among the stones ; the common Polypody is reaching over 
blocks and boulders ; and even the exposed rocks, with their rough 
and Lichen-bearded faces, are aglow in vernal pride. Every nook and 
cranny among them, and little mat of earth upon them are checkered 
with the flowery print of the Canada Columbine, the Virginia Saxifrage, 
and the glaucous Corydalis. But to the carpet. What can be prettier 
or more appropriate than the Partridge-berry (Mitchella repens), the 
Twin-flower (Linnsea borealis — does well with us), Creeping Winter 
Green (Gaultheria proiumbeus), Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-LTrsi), 



THE COMMON SHRUBBERY. 59 

Cowberry (Vacciniuin Vitis-idseu), Dwarf Cornel (Cornus canadensis), 
Fringed Polygala (P. paucifolia), the Connnon Pipsissewa (Cliiniapliila 
lunbellata) witli it^; shining deep green heaves, tlie Sjjotted Pipsi^sewa 
(C macuhita), the sombre -luxed Pja'oha and Gakx, and that bright 
and easily -grown Club Moss ( Lycopodium luciduluni) ? Add to 
these such plants as Winter Aconite, Apennine Anemone, Creej)ing 
Forget-me-not, and the like, together with a few of the most suitable 
kinds of the host of bulbous ornamental plants which A\-e now possess, 
and our shrubbery carpets may be replete with garden jewels. It is 
now generally conceded that shrubs thrive better in beds whose surface 
is undisturbed than Avliere it is annually loosened bv digging or ijoint- 
ing. This, coupled with a yearly top-dressing of decayed leaf-soil or 
light rich vegetable heap compost, is ec|ually beneficial fur i]w slirubs 
and tlicir carpet. 

" One day last spring, when strolling through the Medford 
wood, I came ii]ion an open meadow with a high bank — 
cleared timber land — on one side. Adown this bank in a 
rough and rocky course, came a little stream of water, bordered 
on both sides with streaks and patches of Blood-root in its 
gayest state. The large and showy blossoms, clasped erect 
in their own leaf- vases and sparkling in the sun, while the 
sward and other vegetation around were yet dormant, had a 
cheerful influence indeed. True, near by in the IioILjw, the 
malodorous Skunk Cabbage was rank in leaf and flower, and 
the Indian Poke Avas rushing out its plaited, broadly oval 
leaves, and away in the streamlet a few Marsh Marigolds 
'•littered on the water. But the Blood -root is neither an 
aquatic nor a bog plant, but most at home in the leaf-mould 
beds and linings of rich woodlands." 

" Hereabout, a little wild flower (Erythronium americanum) 
more commonly known as Dog's-tooth Violet, is a charming 
plant, with variegated liandsome leaves, and comely flowers 
in earliest spring. In low copses in rich deposits of A'cgetable 



60 THE WILD GARDEN. 

mould it grows around here in the utmost profusion. In 
one phice by the side of a wood is a sort of ditch, which is 
filled with water in winter l)ut (hy in summer, and wherein 
is collected a mass of leaf-soil. Here the Erythronium runs 
riot, and forms the densest kind of matted sod, all bespeckled 
with yellow l)lossoms before a bush or tree has spread a leaf. 
Then blackberry bushes get a growing and sprawling every- 
where, the trees expand their leafy shade, and Grrass and 
weeds grow up and cover the surface of the earth. But all 
too late for evil, the Adder's-tongue's mission for a year is 
ended ; it has Ijlossomed, matured, and retired. The next 
densest mass I know of is in a low piece of cleared timber 
land, where, besides the profusion in the hollow, the carpet 
extends, thinner as it ascends, for many yards up the slope of 
the hill. As garden plants they are at liome anywhere, under- 
neath bushes, or in any out of-the-way corner, merely praying 
to be let alone. But what I desire to urge is their naturalisa- 
ation in your rich woodlands, where Anemones and Primroses, 
Buttercups and Violets, grow up and flower together." 

I cannot better conclude this cliapter than by showing one 
of the most interesting aspects of vegetation I have ever seen.^ 
It was in an ordinary shrubbery, forming a belt round a 
botanic garden. In the iinier parts, hidden from the walk 
probably from want of labour, the digging had not been carried 
out for some years. Some roots of the common Myrrh 
(Myrrhis odorata), thrown out of the garden in digging, had 
rooted by accident and spread into a little colony. The plant 
grows freely in any soil. Among the graceful tufts of ]\Iyrrh 
were tall white Harebells, and the effect of these, standing 

1 See illustration on p. 51. 



THE COMMON SHRUBBERV. 61 

above the elegant spreading foliage of tlie Myrrh in the shade 
of the trees, was very beautiful. Note particularly that the 
front of the slirulibery in which this exquisite scene was 
discovered was as stiff and liideous as usual in winter — raw 
earth, full of mutilated roots, and shrubs cut in for the con- 
venience and according to the taste of the diggers. The beds 
in tlie botanical arrangement near were ugly beyond description. 
Longleat is one of the first places in whicli the idea of 
the wild garden was practically carried out and ably by the 
forester, Mr. Berry. With such a fine variety of surface and 
soil, the place naturally offers numerous positions in which 
the plants of other countries as cold or colder than our own 
could be naturalised, or so planted that they would increase 
and take care of themselves in the woods. A forester's duties 
and opportunities are generally such as make it extremely 
difficult for him to carry out such an idea. To know the 
plants even that are likely to succeed is, in itself, a species of 
knowledge which every planter does not possess ; however, 
the idea was clearly understood and carried out well, so far 
as possible in the face of rabbits, which are the great destroyers 
of almost all flowering ground vegetation. To get the neces- 
sary quantities of subjects necessitated a little nursery in 
which a sufficient numl)er could be raised of the more vigorous 
perennials, bulbs, and climbers. If this new idea in gardening- 
be carried out on the old dotting principle of the herbaceous 
border, its great value and its charming effects cannot be 
realised. To do it rightly we must group and mass as Nature 
does. Though we may enjoy a single flower or tuft here and 
there, the true way is natural fringes and masses of plants, 
one or two species prevailing in a given spot ; in that way we 



62 THE WILD GARDEN. 

may secure several important ends — distinct effects in different 
places, a variety as we walk along, and better means of meeting 
the wants of a plant, inasmuch as, dealing with a group, or 
mass, or carpet, we can best observe the result of our judgment 
in putting them in any soil or place. Therefore, although the 
quantity of vigorous hardy flowers essential for making good 
effects in a place of this size has not yet been planted (Mit, 
some very charming effects have been obtained. Among the 
features that Mr. Berry is working to introduce are vigorous 
hardy exotic creepers on old and inferior trees. Thorn, and 
other bushes of little value. Many are already planted, but 
will be some time before they show their full beauty — among 
them Japanese and other Honeysuckles, Virginian Creepers, 
Clematis, Wistarias, and others. A part of the arboretum is 
more particularly devoted to this kind of decoration, and will 
eventually form a very Avild wood and wild garden, where 
the Poet's Narcissus may be found among Sweet Briers, Lilacs, 
and many kinds of fragrant - flowering shrubs and vigorous 
perennials. While carrying out the scheme of wild gardening, 
pure and simple, that is to say, tlie naturalisation of foreign 
hardy plants, opportunity has been taken to establish beautiful 
native kinds wliere they do not happen to be present in sufti- 
cient al)undance. Tluis the Lily of the Valley has been 
brouglit in quantities and planted in wide-spreading colonies 
along the drives, and so have the Meadow Saffron and tlie 
Snowflakes and Daffodils. To group and scatter these in a 
natural and easy way has required considerable care, the 
tendency of tlie men being invariably, and almost in spite 
of themselves, to plant in stiff and set or too regular masses. 
Few things are more delightful to anyl^ody who cares 



THK COMMON SIIHUBBEIIY. 



63 



altnut liavdy ])liints tlian natnralisiii^- the Lily of the Valley 
in pleasant spots about a coimtiy house, it is in every gar- 
den, of course, and very often so crowded and so starved that 
it seldom flowers well. A bare garden border is not so suit- 
able for it as that in wliich it may be found in a thin wood, 
or in little openings in a copse, where it enjoys enough 
light, and gets shelter too. Frequently the fresh wood soil 
would be more welcome to it than the worn-out soil in a 
garden ; also by planting it in various positions and soils, we 




Tlie Lily of tfie Valley in a copse. 

may secure an important difference as regards blooming. 
In a cool woody place it would bloom ten days later 
than in an exposed warm garden border, and this difference 
could lie increased by carefully selecting the position. Apart 
altogether from the wild garden and its charms, this difference 
in the time of blooming of the Lily of the Yalley would be a 
great advantage to all who have to provide cut flowers, inas- 
much as it w^ould give them late l)loom in plenty without 
trouble. However, giving reasons for the naturalisation of 
the Lily of the Valley is surely unnecessary. The only sur- 



64 THE WILD GARDEN. 

prising tiling is that it has not been done to a large extent 
already, because it is so very easy and so very delightful. 
Eecently a good many different varieties of Lily of the Valley 
— nearly as many as twenty — have been collected, and are 
beginning to be cultivated by some of our growers of herbaceous 
plants. The difference in these is not owing to soil or situa- 
tion. When grown in the same place they manifest differ- 
ences in length of spike and size of foliage ; and also in time 
of blooming. In some the spike is short, and in others nearly 
one foot long. This important fact should, of course, be noted 
by any who would, in places where the Lily of the Valley 
does not grow wild, interest themselves in establishing it. 

There are advantages in wood- culture for many hardy 
plants — the shelter, shade, and soil affording for some things 
conditions more suitable than our gardens. The warmth of 
the wood, too, is an advantage, the fallen leaves helping to 
protect the plants in all ways. In a hot country plants that 
love cool places could be grown in a wood whei'e they would 
perish if exposed, Mr, G, F. Wilson has made himself a 
remarkably interesting and successful wild garden in a wood, 
from W'hich he sent me in the autumn of last year (1880) a 
flowering stem of the American Swamp Lily (L. superbum) 
eleven feet liigli. No such result has ever l)een seen in any 
garden or border of the ordinary type. These Lihes of his 
grow in a woody bottom where rich dark soil has gathered, 
and where there is shelter and shade. 

Placing every plant in one border with the same condi- 
tions as to soil and exposure was a great mistake. A great 
many beautiful plants haunt the woods, and we cannot change 
their nature easily. Even if we should grow them in open 



•rill': ( O.M.MOX SHRUBBKKY. ()5 

})laces tlii'ir lilouiii will not l)e so ciuliiring as in tlu' wood. 
.V curious instance of ilic advantage of planting in a wood is 
at Bodorgan in Anglesey, where a niucli later Mooni was 
gathered off a colony of the popular Hoteia japonica, owing 
to ])laniing it in a cool wood. A little woodland i)lanting 
may indeed be A\(irlh doing for the sake of a prolonged or 
later bloom, e\en fn)m plants that thrive in sunny places. 

Tup: Okchaed Wild Gakden. 

Although three years have elapsed since the illustrations 
of this book were connueneed, I regret to issue it without a 
satisfactory one showing the beauty which iiiay l)e obtained 
in the orchard from flowers in the grass or fences around. 
In our orchard counties — pity it is that all our counties are 
not worthy of the name within the possibilities of their 
position and climate — one may now and then see a cloud of 
Daffodils or a tuft of Summer SiiowHake, enough to suggest 
what happy }ilaces they would l»e for many Inilbous flowers 
in the urass. 

A AVlLD (JRCHAUD. 

A correspondent of the " Garden " writes : — 

After reading in tlie " Garden "' of November 1 6, about the Bullace 
there named, and tlie Cranberries, tlie idea struck me of adding unto 
our Orchard in Sussex '•' a wild Orchard," witli fruit trees sucli as follows, 
viz. — Quince, Medlar, Mulberry, Bullace, Crab, Pyrus Maulei, Bar- 
berries, Blackberries (the large kinds for preserving), Filberts, and in a 
suitable place. Cranberries. All these, besides the interest of cultivating 
them, would yield fruit for preserving, etc. For instance, we have old- 
fashioned receipts for making an excellent Bullace cheese, Crab jelly. 
Quince jelly, etc. 1 venture to trouble you with a \iew to asking if 

F 



66 THE WILD GARDEN. 

you can suggest any other similar fruit-bearing trees or shruLs, as we 
should like to carry out our idea well. Our house is in Sussex, l)etween 
Midhurst and Haslemere. — C. S. R. 

[An excellent idea ! There are many fruits which could 
be grown this way that people do not usually give space to, 
and this applies to the varieties of cultivated fruits, as well as 
species that are never cultivated. The natural order to which 
most of our fruit trees belong contains many other species, not 
without merit as fruits, scattered throughout tlie temperate 
regions of the northern world. These trees and shrubs happen 
also to be most beautiful of flowering trees and shrubs in 
spring, and are well worthy of culture on that account alone. 
In Japan, North America, and even the continent of Europe, 
one frequently sees fruits that are never seen in our gardens ; 
such fruits will be quite at home in the wild orchard. For 
the sake of growing one family of fruiting bushes alone — the 
fruiting brambles of America and other countries — a consider- 
able piece of ground might be prufitaljly devoted. Even 
amonccst the Enolish wild Blackberries there is considerable 
variety and a good deal of unrecognised merit. Such plants 
can only be grown fairly where there is considerable space. 
If so much iDcauty and interest, and even good fruit, may be 
found in one neglected family, it suggests how interesting the 
subject is when considered in relation to the great number of 
our hardy fruit trees and shrubs. A good feature of such a 
garden would l)e plantations of such Apples and Pears as are 
most remarkable for the beauty of their flowers and fruit, 
some being much more striking in that respect than others.] 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE BROOK-SIDE, WATEK-SIDE, AND BOG GARDENS. 




ISTearly all 
landscape gar- 
deners seem to 
have p u t a 
hidier value on 
tlie lake or fisli- 
|)()nd than on 
tlie lirook as an 
ornament to the 
garden ; but, 
while we allow 
that many places 
are enhanced in 
heautv and dig- 
nitv, bv a broad 
expanse of water, 

Solomon's Seal and Herb Paris, in copse by streamlet. nianV pictUrCS 

might be formed by taking advantage of a brook as it 
meanders through woody glade or meadow. No such beauty 
is afforded by a pond or lake, which gives us water in repose — 



68 THE WILD GARDEN. 

imprisoned water, in fact ; and altbuugli we obtain breadth 
by confining water, still, in many cases, we prefer tlie brook, or 
water in motion, as it ripples between mossy rocks or flower- 
fringed banks. The brook -margin, too, otters opportnnities to 
lovers of hardy flowers which few other situations can rival. 
Hitherto we have only used in and near such places aipuitic 
or bog plants, and of these usually a very meagre selection ; 
but the improvement of the brook-side will be most readily 
effected by planting the banks with hardy flowers, making 
it a wild garden, in fact. A great number of our finest herb- 
aceous plants, from Irises to Globe-flowers, thrive best in the 
moist soil found in such positions ; numbers of hardy flowers, 
also, that do not in nature prefer such soil, would exist in 
perfect health in it. The wild garden illustrated by the 
water-side will give us some of the most charminu,- garden 
pictures. Land ])lants would have this :uh;intage over water 
ones, that we could fix their position, whereas water plants 
are apt to spread everywhere, and sometimes one kind 
exterminates the rest ; therefore it might, in many cases, be 
better not to encourage the water or water-side vegetation, l)ut 
to form little colonies of hardy flowers along the banks. The 
plants, of course, should be such as would grow freely among 
Grass and take care of themselves. If different types of 
vegetation were encouraged on each siile of the water, the 
effect would be all the better. The connnon way of repeat- 
ing a favourite plant at intervals would spoil all : groups of 
free hardy things, different in each place as one passed, would 
be best ; Day Lilies ; Phloxes, which love moisture ; Irises, 
mainly the beardless kinds, whicli love wet places, but all 
the flne Germanica forms will du ; Gunnera; Aster; Anieri- 



P.ROOK-SIDE. WATKINSTDK. AND 1500, ({AEDENS. 



fi!) 



can swaui}) Lilies in peaty or boggy soil ; the deep rose-coloured 
vavioty of the Loosestrife ; Golden Rods ; the taller and stouter 
1 Sell-flowers (Campanula) ; the Spider Wort (Tradescantia 
virginica), of whieli there are a good many forms, differing 




Colony of hardy exotic Flower?, naturalised by brook-side. 

in colour ; the Broad-leaved Saxifrages ; the Compass plants 
(Silphium) ; Everlasting Peas ; IMonkshood ; the Goats Eues 
(Galega) ; Baptisia ; the free-flowering Yuccas ; the hardiest 
flame-flowers (Tritoma) ; the stouter kinds of Yarrow (Achillea) ; 
the common perennial Lupin — these are some of many types 
of hardy flowers which would grow freely near the water-side 



70 THE WILD GARDEN. 

apart wholly from the plants that natural]}' freipient sucli 
places or which are usually placed there. With these hardy 
plants too, a variety of the nobler hardy ferns would thrive, 
as the Struthiopteris ; the finer types of the Unil)ellate order 
(Ferula and others) would also come in well liere. We will 
now consider the plants that naturally belong to such situa- 
tions so to say. 

Water-plants of northern and temperate regions, associated 
with those of our own country, add much beauty to a garden 
if well selected and well grown. A great deal of variety 
may be added to the margins, and here and there to the sur- 
face, of ornamental water, by the use of a good collection of 
hardy aquatics arranged with taste ; but this has not yet 
been fairly attempted. Usually we see the same monotonous 
vegetation all round the margin if the soil be licli ; in some 
cases, where the bottom is of gravel, there is little or no 
vegetation, but an unbroken ugly line of washed earth be- 
tween wind and water. In others, water-plants accumulate 
till they are only an eyesore — not submerged plants like 
Anacharis, l>ut such as the Water Lilies when matted to- 
gether. A well-developed plant or gi'ouj) of plants of the 
queenly Water Lily, with its large leaves and noble flowers, 
is an object not surpassed by any other in our gardens ; but 
when it increases and runs over the whole of a piece of water 
— thickening together and being in consequence weakened — 
and water-fowl cannot make their way through it, then even 
this plant loses its charms. No garden water, however, 
should be without a few fine plants or groups of the Water 
Lily. Where the bottom does not allow of the free develop- 
ment of the plant, earth might be accumulated in the spot 






— - 






-■^ "l^nz 





i^i^ 




Valley in Somers;et-.hire, with Narcissi, Marsh Marigolds, and Primroses. 



BKOOK-SIDE. WATER -SIDE, AND I'.OG flAEDENS. 71 

where it was desired to encourage the growth of the Nyni- 
phtTpa. Tliiis arranged it woulil not spread too imidi. But it 
is iiut dillifult to prevt'iit tin: plant I'rom spreading; indeed 
I have known isolated plants, and groups of it, remain of 
almost the same size for years. The Yellow Water Lily, 
Xuphar lutea, though not so beautiful as the preceding, is 
well worthy of a place; and also the little K pumila, a 
variety or sub-species found in the lakes of the north of 
Scotland. 

Then there is the tine and large X. advena, a native of 
America, which pushes its leaves boldly above the water, and 
is very vigorous in habit. It is very plentiful in the Man- 
chester Botanic Garden, and will be found to some extent in 
most gardens of the same kind. The American AVhite "Water 
Lily (Xympha?a odorata) is a noble species, which would 
prove quite hardy in Britain. It is a pity this noble aquatic 
plant is not more frequently seen, as it is quite as fine as our 
own Water Lily. Eose-coloured varieties are spoken of, but 
are not yet in cultivation here. 

One of the prettiest effects I have ever observed was 
afforded by a sheet of Yillarsia uAinphaoides belting round 
the margin of a lake near a woody recess, and l^efore it, more 
towards the deep water, a group of Water Lilies. The Vill- 
arsia is a charming little water-plant, with its Nymphsea-like 
leaves and numerous golden-yelloM- flowers, which furnish a 
beautiful efiect on fine days, under a bright sun. It is not 
very commonly distributed as a native plant, though, where 
found, generally very plentiful. 

Xot rare — growing, in fact, in nearly all districts of 
Britain — but beautiful and sinc:jular, is the Buckbean or 



72 THE WILD GARDEN. 

INIarsli Trefoil (IMeiiyanthes trifoliata), with its flowers deeply 
fringed on tlie inside witli white lilaments, and tlie round 
unopened buds blushing on the top with a rosy red like that 
of an Apple-blossom. It will grow in a bog or any moist 
place, or by the margin of any water. For grace, no water- 
plant can well surpass Equisetum Telmateia, whicli, in deep 
soil, in shady and sheltered places near water, often grows 
several feet high, the long, close-set, slender branches depend- 
ing from each whorl in a singularly graceful manner. It will 
grow on the margins of lakes and streams, especially among 
water-side bushes, or in boggy spots in the shade. 

For a bold and picturesque plant on the margin of water, 
nothing equals the great Water Dock (Rumex Hydrolapa- 
thum), which is rather generally dispersed over the British 
Isles; it has leaves quite sub -tropical in aspect and size, 
becoming of a lurid red in tlie autumn. It forms a grand 
mass of foliage on rich muddy banks, and, unlike many water- 
plants, lias the good quality of not spreading too much. The 
Cat's-tail (Typha) must not he omitted, l)ut it should not be 
allowed too much liberty. The narrow -leaved one (T. 
angustifolia) is more graceful than the common one (T. lati- 
folia). Carex pendula is excellent for the margins of watei', 
its elegant drooping spikes being quite distinct in their way. 
It is rather common in England, more so than Carex pseudo- 
cyperus, which grows well in a foot or two of water or on the 
margin of a muddy pond. Carex paniculata forms a strong 
and thick stem, sometimes 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, somewhat like a 
tree Fern, and with luxuriant masses of drooping leaves, and 
on that account is transferred to moist places in gardens, and 
cultivated by some, though generally these large s]iecimens 



RPvOOK-STDE. WATKh'-SIDK. AND D'X; (JAIiDHXS. 



-*?Ji> 



arc difficult to remove and soon perish. Scirpus lacnstris 

(the Bulrush) is too distinct a plant to be omitted, as its 

stems, sometimes attaining a. height of more than 7 it. and 

even 8 ft., look very imposing : and Cypeius longus is also a 

desirable plant, reminding 

one of the aspect of the 

Papyrus when in flower. It 

is found in some of the 

southern counties of England. 

Poa aquatica might also be 

used. Cladium Mariscus is 

another distinct and rather /}j^i0il 

scarce British aquatic whiidi 

is wortli a place. 

If one chose to enumerate 
tlie plants that grow in 
British and European waters, 
a very long list might be 
made, luit those which pos- 
sess no distinct cliaracter or 
no beauty of flowei' would 
l)e useless, for it is only by a judicious selection of tlie 
very best kinds tliat gardening of this description can give 
satisfaction ; therefore, omitting a host of inconspicuous water- 
weeds, we will endeavour to indicate others of real worth for 
our present purpose. 

Those who have seen the flowering Rush (Butomus umbel- 
latus) in blossom, are not likely to omit it from a collection of 
water-plants, as it is conspicuous and distinct. It is a native 
of the greater part of Europe and Russian Asia, and is dis- 




Cyperus Longus. 



74 THE WILD GARDEN. 

persed (n'er the central and southern parts of England and 
Ireland. Plant it not far from the margin, and it likes rich 
mnddy soil. The common Arrow Head (Sagittaria), very 
freipient in England and Ireland, l)ut not in Scotland, might 
l)e associated with this ; but there is a very much finer doulde 
exotic kind, which is really a liandsome plant, its flowers 
white, and resemblino;, but larger than, those of the old white 
Double Eocket. This used to be grown in abundance in the 
pleasure gardens at Eye House, Broxbourne, where it filled a 
sort of oblong basin, or wide ditch, and was very handsome in 
flower. It forms large egg-shaped tubers, or rather receptacles 
of farina, and in searching for these, ducks destroyed the 
plants occasionally. Calla palustris is a beautiful bog-plant, 
and I know notliing that produces a more pleasing effect over 
rich, soft, boggy ground. It will also grow by the side of 
water. Calla sethiopica, the well-known and beautiful Lily 
of the Nile, is hardy enough in some places if planted rather 
deep, and in nearly all it may be placed out for the summer ; 
but, except in quiet waters, in the south of England and Ire- 
land, it will not thrive. However, as it is a plant so generally 
cultivated, it may be tried without loss in favourable positions. 
Pontederia cordata is a stout, firm-rooting, and perfectly hardy 
water-herb, with erect and distinct habit, and blue flowers, 
not difficult to obtain from botanic garden or nursery. The 
Sweet-flag will be associated with the Water Iris (I. Pseu- 
dacorus), and a number of exotic Irises will thrive in wet 
ground, i.e. I. sibirica, ochreleuca, graminea, and many others. 
Aponogeton distachyon is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
a singularly pretty plant, which is hardy enough for our 
climate, and, from its sweetness and curious beauty, a most 



BROOK-SIDE, WATER-SIDE, AND BOG GARDENS. 75 

desirable plant to cultivate. It frequently succeeds in water 
not choked Ly weeds or innliiess. ami wlierever there are 
springs that tend I(» keep the watei' a lilUe warmer than usual 
it seems to thrive in any part of the country. The Water 
Ranunculuses, which slieet over our pools in spring and early 
sunnner with such silvery beauty, are not w(ulh an attempt 
at cultivation, so I'amlding are they ; and the same applies to 
not a few other things of interest. Orontium aquaticum is a 
scarce and handsome acpiatic for a choice collection, and as 




'rhe Cape I'cind Weed in an English ditch in winter. 

beautiful as any is the Water Violet (Hottonia palustris). It 
occurs most frequently in the eastern and central districts of 
England and Ireland. The best example of it that I have 
seen was on an expanse of soft mud near Lea Bridge, in Essex, 
where it covered the surface with a sheet of dark fresh green, 
and must liave looked better in that position than when in 
water, though doubtless the place was occasionally flooded. 
A suitable companion for the Marsh Marigold (Caltha) and 
its varieties is the very large and showy lianunculus Lingua, 
which grows in rich ground to a height of tln-ee feet or more. 



76 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



rr Nvith this water-garden we combine the wild garden of 
land plants — herbaceous, trailers, etc. — some of the loveliest 
effects possible in gardens will be produced. The margins of 
lakes and streams are happily not upturned by the spade in 
winter ; and hereabouts, just away from tlie water-line, almost 
iuiy vigorous and really hardy flower of tlie thousands now in 

our gardens may be grown and will after- 
wards take care of itself. The Globe- 
flowers alone would form beauti- 
ful effects in such positions, and 
would endure as long as the Grass. 
Near the various Irises that love 
the water- side might be planted 
those that thrive in moist 
ground, and they are many, 
including the most Ijeautiful 
kinds. Among recently in- 
troduced plants the singular 
Californian Saxifraga peltata 
is likely to prove a noble 
one for the water- side, its 
natural habitat being beside 
mountain watercourses, dry 

Day Lily by margin uf water. in thc autumn wlieU it is 

at rest ; both flowers and foliage are effective, and the 
growth very vigorous v,-]\en in moist ground. It would 
require a very long list to enumerate all the plants that 
would grow near the margins of Avater, and apart from 
the aquatics proper ; but enough has been said to prove that, 
given a strip of ground beside a stream or lake, a garden of 




iinooK-SIDK, WATKIf-SJl)!-:. AND I'.OC CAIiDKXS. 77 

the must (luliglitt'ul kind could Ite I'urined. The juxtapositiini 
of [)hiuts inhahitiiio- dil'tereiit situations — water-phints, water- 
side pLiuts, and Liud-iilaiils iliriNini; in iiadst grouuLl — woidd 
prevent what wuuhl, in many cases,. Ije so undesirable — a 
general admixture of the "whole. Two distinct classes of effects 
could be obtained, the beauty of the Howers seen close at 
hand, and tliat of the more conspicuous kinds in the distance, 
or from tlie otlier side of tlie water of a stream or lakelet. 

An interesting point in favour of the wild garden is the 
succession of effects which it may afford, and which are sug- 
gested by the illustrations on the next pages, both showing a 
sticcession of life on tlie same spot of ground. In gardens in 
early summer at present the whole of the portion de\'oted 
to flower -gardening is dug \\\) raw as a plouglied field, just 
when the earth is naturally must thickly strewn with flowers. 
A very little consideration and oljservation will sufhce to 
make it clear that a succession of effects may be secured 
Avithout this \iolent disfigurement of our gardens in the 
fairest days of early sunmier. These are not the days for 
diyuinu' or i»lantin<i- either, and the svstem that necessitates 
them is pernicious in its effects on our gardens. 

It is equally an enemy of all peace or rest for the gar- 
dener, who, having trenched, dug, enriched, planted, and sown, 
through the autumn, wintei', and spring, might certainly begin 
to look for the fruits and flowers of liis labour, when he has 
to face the most trying effort of all — the planting of the 
flower-garden in May and .June with a host of flowers tun 
tender to be committed to the earth at an earlier season. 

The bog -garden is a home for the numerous children of 
the wild that will not thri\e on our harsh, bare, and dry 



78 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



fjarden borders, Ijut must he cushioned on moss, and associated 
with tlieir own relatives in moist peat soiL Many l)eautiful 
plants, like the Wind Gentian and Creeping Harebell, grow- 
on our own bo^s and marshes, much as these are now 
encroached upon. P)Ut even those acquainted with the l^eauty 
of the plants of our own liogs have, as a rule, but a feeble notion 
of the multitude of charming plants, natives of northern and 
temperate countries, whose home is the open marsh or Ijoggy 
wood. Tn our own country, we liave l)een so long encroach- 



|i^ 









■■"J^'UVHi' Will ' 







Marsh INIarigold and Iris in early spring. See p. 77., 

ing upon tlie bogs and wastes that some of us come to regard 
them as exceptional tracts all over the world. But when one 
travels in new countries in northern climes, one soon learns 
what a vast extent of the world's surface was at one time 
covered with bogs. In Nortli America day after day, even 
by the margins of tlie railroads, one sees the vivid blooms 
of the Cardinal -flower springing erect from the wet peaty 
hollows. Far under the shady woods stretch the black bog- 
pools, the ground between being so shaky that you move a 
few steps with difficulty. One wonders how the trees exist 
witli their roots in such a bath. And where the forest vege- 
tation disappears the American Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia), 



P.ROOK-SIDE. WATKH-SrOK. ANJ) BO(i (iARDEXS. 7!) 

Golden Cinl) (Orontiuni), Water Anim (Calk palustris), and 
a host of other liandsonie and interestmg bog-plants cover 
the uround fur hundreds of aeres, with perhaps an occasional 
slender bush of Laurel ^Magnolia (Magnolia glauca^ among 
them. In some parts of Canada, where the painfully long 
and straight roads are often made through woody swamps, 
and wliere the few scattered and poor liabitations offer little 
to cheer the traA'eller, he will, if a lover of plants, find con- 




The same spot as in opposite sketch, with aftergrowth of Iris, Meadow Sweet, 
and Bindweed. (See p. 77. 

servatories of beauty in the ditches and pools of black 
water beside the road, fringed with the sweet-scented Button- 
Ijush, with a profusion of stately ferns, and often filled with 
masses of the pretty Sagittarias. 

Southwards and seawards, the bog-flowers become tropical 
in size and brilliancy, as in the splendid kinds of lierbaceous 
Hibiscus, ^vhile far north, and west and south along tlie 
mountains, the beautiful and showy Mocassin-flow^er (Cypri- 
pedium spectabile) grows the queen of the peat bog. Then 
in California, all along the Sierras, there are a number of 
delicate little annual plants growing in small mountain bogs 



80 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



long after the plains have become quite parched, and annual 
N'egetation has (-[uite disappeared from tliem. But who shall 
record the beauty and interest of tlie flowers of the wide- 
spreading marsh-lands of this glolje of ours, from those of the 
\'ast wet woods of America, dark and brown, and hidden 
from the sunbeams, to those of the breezy uplands of the high 
Alps, far above the woods, where the little bogs teem with 
Nature's most brilliant flowers, joyous in the sun :* No one 
worthily ; for many mountain-swamp regions are as yet as 
little known to us as those of the HimahiA'a, M'ith their giant 
Primroses and many strange and lovely flowers. One thing, 
however, we may gather from our small experiences — that 
many plants commonly termed " alpine," and found on high 
mountains, are true bog-plants. This must be clear to any- 
one who has seen our pretty Bird's-eye Primrose in the wet 
mountain-side bogs of Westmoreland, or the Bavarian CTcntian 
in the spongy soil by alpine rivulets, or the Gentian ella 
(Gentiana acaulis) in the snow ooze. 

Bou'S are neither found or desired in or near our <'ardens 
n(jw-a-days, but, wherever they are, there are many handsome 
flowers from other countries that will thrive in them as freely 
as in their native A\'astes. 




Partridge lierry (Gu;iltheiia). 



CHAPTER X. 

HOSES FOE THE WILD GARDEN, AND FOR HEDGEROWS, 
FENCES, AND GROUPS. 

The wild Eoses of tlie world, had we no other plants, wonld 
alone make l)eautiful wild warden?. The unequalled ^raee of 
the "Wild Eose is as remarkable as the beauty of bloom for 
which the Eose is gro^vn in gardens. The culture is mostly 
of a kind which tends to conceal or suppress the grace of 
shoot and foliage of the Eose. Therefore the wild garden 
may do good work in bringing before the many who love 
gardens, but have fewer chances of seeing the Eoses in their 
native haunts, the native grace of the well-loved Eose, which 
even in its obesity, and trained into the form of a mop, still 
charms us. The Eev. H. jST. Ellacombe writes : — 

I lifive liere a very large and thick Box bush, in tlie centre of 
which there lias been for many years an Ayrshire Rose. The long 
branches covered with flowers, and resting on the deep green cusliion, 
have a very beautiful effect. Other Eoses may be used in the same 
way. The Musk Rose of Shakesjieare and Bacon would be particularly 
well suited for this, and would climb up to a great height. Rosa 
scandens or sempervirens, Rosa multiflora, and perhaps some others, 
might be grown in the same way ; and it would be worth while to 
experiment ^\'it]l other garden forms, such as Aimee Vibert, purple 
]^)0ursault, etc. If grown against a tree of thin foliage, such as a 

G 



82 THE WILD GARDEN. 

Robinia, they would grow quicker and flower sooner ; but this is not 
necessar}'', for even if grown near a thick-foliaged tree tliey will soon 
bring their branches to the outside for the light. But besides climl)ing 
Roses, there is another way in which Eoses may be combined with 
trees to great advantage, viz. by planting some of the taller-growing 
bushes in rough grassy places. These would grow from 6 feet to 10 
feet high, and would flower well iu such a position. For such a 
purpose the old Dutch Apple Rose (Rosa villosa var. pomifera) Avould 
be verj' suitable, and so would R. cinnamomea, R. fraxinifolia, R. 
sallica, R. rubifolia, and the common monthlv China. And if "rowers 
would rear the perpetual and other Roses by autumnal cuttings instead 
of by budding, they might have hundreds and thousands of fine Roses 
which would do well planted in the woods and plantations. 

Another correspondent, Mr. Greenwood Vim, writes refer- 
ring to the preceding note : — 

I have two large exotic Hawthorns — round-headed standards, 
growing close together, so that their edges touch, forming, as it were, 
two gentle hills with a valley between, and sloping down to within 
about 6 ft. of the lawn. Of these one is Crataegus Crus-galli ; the 
other C. tanacetifolia. Behind, and j)artly through these, climbs a very 
old Noisette Rose — all that now remains of an arched trellis — producing 
a vast number of bunches of white flowers, six or eight together, and 
about lA in. or 2 in. across. The old gnarled stem of the Rose is 
scarcely noticeable amongst those of the Thorns till it reaches the top 
of them, whence it descends between the trees in a regular torrent of 
blossom, in addition to occupying the topriiost boughs of the Cockspur 
Thorn. The general effect is almost that of a large patch of snow 
between two bright green hills — a combination very common in the 
hio'her districts of Switzerland. A smaller plant of the same Rose has 
recently been trained up a large Arbor-vitas which, from moving, has 
lost its lower branches for some 4 ft. or 5 ft., and has its stem clothed 
with Ivy. It is now festooned with snowy flo-\\-ers hanging down from 
and against the dark green of the Arbor -vittx; and Ivy, forming a 
charming contrast. It seems a great pity that we do not oftener thus 
wed one tree to another — a stout and strong to a slender and clinging 
one as Virgil in the " Georgics" talks of wedding the Vine to the Elm, 
as is, I lielieve, done to this day in Italy. 



ROSES YOU THE WILD (lARDEX. 



83 



"We have," sayi? a correspondent, " a pretty extensive col- 
lection ol' 
Eoses. but 
one (if the 
most attrac- 
tive speci- 
mens on the 
place is an 
old double 
white Ayr- 
shire Eose, 
growing in 
a grou]) 
of common 
Laurel inthe 
shrul3beries. 
We cannot 
tell how old 
the plant 
may be, but 
it has prob- 
ably been in 
its present 
situation for 
thirty years, 
struo-o-ling 
the best \vay 
it could to 
keep its 
place among 



Wild Rose growing on a Pollard Ash in Orchardleigh Park, Somerset. 




84 • THE WILD CxARDEN. 

the tall-growing Laurels, sometimes sending out a shoot 
of white Howers on this side and sometimes on that 
side of tlie clump of l)ushes, and sometimes scraml)ling 
up to the to2:)s of the tallest limbs and draping them 
with its blossoms throughout June and -Tuly. Nearly 
three years ago we had the Laurels headed down to within 
six feet of the ground, leaving tlie straggling limbs of the 
Eose which were found amongst them, and since then it has 
grown and thriven amazingly, and now fiiirly threatens to 
gain the mastery. We had the curiosity to measure the 
plant the other day, and found it rather over seventy feet in 
circumference. Witliin this space the plant forms an irregular 
undulating mound, nearly in all parts so densely covered with 
Eoses that not so much as a hand's breadth is left vacant any- 
where, and the Laurel branches are quite hidden, and in fact 
are now dying, smothered by the Eose. A finer example of 
luxuriant development we never saw. The plant has been a 
perfect sheet of bloom for a mouth or more, and there are 
thousands of buds yet to expand, and hundreds of Ijunches of 
buds have been cut just at the opening stage — when they are 
neater and whiter than a (lardenia — to send away. The tree 
has never received the least attention or assistance with the 
exception of the removal of the Laurel tops before mentioned, 
to let the light into it. It is growing in a tolerably deep and 
strong dry loam, and this, together with head room, seems to 
be all it requires. We record this example simply to show 
of what the Eose is capable without much cultural assistance. 
No doubt, in order to produce fine individual blooms certain 
restricted culture is necessary ; but almost any variety of 
Eose will make a aood-sized natural bush of itself, and as for 




S^^'-^^^ii-^W' 




AVhite Climbing Rose scrambling over old Catalpa Tree. 



ROSES FOR THE WILD GARDEN. 85 

Lhc eliniliiiig or pilku' Ifoses, the less tliey are touched the 
l)etter. Of course we are not rtlluiliiig to the Eosery proper, 
but of Itoses iu their more natural aspect, as wlien phnited to 
hide fences, cover rockeries, or as striking objects on kxwns. 
Except against walls, and in similar situations, there is no 
occasion to prune climbing Eoses. Left to themselves, they 
make by far tlie grandest display, and to insure this it is only 
necessary to provide them with a good, deep, strong soil at 
the beginning, and to let them have a fair amount of liglit on 
all sides. Wliether planting be carried out with the object 
above described, or for the purpose of co^■ering naked tree 
stumps or limbs, or for draping any unsightly object whatever, 
liberal treatment in the first instance is the main thing. A 
good soil makes all the difference in time and in the permti- 
nent vigour of the tree, and were Ave desirous of having a 
great Eose tree (whether it be a common Ayrshire or a Gloire 
de Dijon, tliat we expected to produce thousands of blooms in 
a few years), we should, if the soil were not naturally strong 
and deep, provide a well-drained pit and fill it with two or 
three good cartloads of sound loam and manure ; thus treated, 
the result is certain, provided an unrestricted growth be per- 
mitted." 

Eoses on grass are a pleasant feature of the wild garden. 
No matter what the habit of the rose, provided it be free and 
hardy, and growing on its own roots, planting on the grass 
will suit it well. So treated, the more vigorous climbers 
would form thickets of liowers, and graceful vigorous shoots. 
They will do on level grass, and be still more picturesque on 
banks or slopes. 

The following description, [)y Mr. E. Andre, of Eoses in 



86 THE WILD GARDEN. 

the Riviera is suggestive of what we may obtain in our 
own climate later, by using the free kinds on their own roots, 
or on stocks equally hardy and not less vigorous, as in the 
case of the Banksian Eoses mentioned below : — 

On my last excursion from Marseilles to Genoa, I was greatly 
struck, as any one seeing them for the first time would be, with the 
magnificence of the Roses all along the Mediterranean shores. The 
Rose hedges, and the espalier Roses, especially, offer an indescribably 
"orgeous sight. Under the genial influence of the warm sun of Pro- 
veuce, from the Corniche to the extremity of the Riviera di Ponente, 
that is as far as the Gulf of Genoa, and protected to the north liy the 
mountains, which gradually slope down to the sea -coast, Roses attain 
the size of Pseonies, and develop a depth and brilliancy of colour and 
fragrance of unusual hiteiisity. But this is in part due to another 
cause, or rather two other causes, which lead to the same result, the 
main point being the choice of suitable subjects for stocks to graft 
upon. These stocks are, Rosa Banksise and Rosa indica major. The 
Banksian Rose presents three varieties, namely. White Banksian, pro- 
ducing a profusion of small white flowers, scarcely so large as those of 
the double-flowered Cherry, and of a most delicious fragrance ; Yellow 
Banksian, with still larger clusters of small nankeen -yellow scentless 
flowers ; Chinese Thorny Banksian, flowers less numerous and ab(jut 
three times as large as in the two jn-eceding, and of the most grateful 
odour. These three forms attain an unsurpassable vigour in this region. 
In two years one plant will cover an immense wall, the gable of a house, 
or climl) to the top of a tall tree, from which its branches hang like 
flowery cascades, embalming the air ar(jund with a rich perfume during 
the months of April and May. Now, if these be taken for stocks upon 
Avhich to bud some of the choicer Teas, Noisettes, and Bourbons, the 
growth of the latter will be prodigious. The stock should be two years 
old, having well ripened, though still smooth, wood. In this way such 
varieties as Gloire de Dijon, Marechal Niel, Lamarque, Safrano, Chroma- 
tella, Aimee Vibert, le Pactole, and all the Teas, attain such dimensions 
as to be no longer recognisable. 

Rosa indica nuijor is almost naturalised throughout the whole of 
this region. It possesses the additional claim to faAour of flowering 
nearly all the winter, forming beautiful hedges of dark green shining 
foliage, from which thousands of clusters of lovely flowers rise, of a 



EOSES FOR THE AVILD OAEDEN. 



87 



tender delicate transparent pink, or a]nuj?-t pure wliite, with a brighter 
tinge in the centre and at the tips of the petals. This Rose is an ever- 
green, and makes an excellent stock for gi-afting or budding. It is 
eitlier planted iu nursery bed.-*, where it quickly throws up a stem suit- 
aide for standards in the same way as we employ the Dog Rose, or in 
hedges, and left to its naturally luxuriant growth to produce its own 
charming floAvers in rich pi'ofusion, or rows of cuttings are put in where 
it is intended to leave thnii, and >ubsoi|Ut'ntly budded with some of tlie 
varieties of the' diverse trilies we have named. 



^>^^'' 




Climbing Rose isolated on grass. 



CHAPTER XL 



WILD GARDENING ON WALLS OR RUINS. 



TiiEitE are many hundred species 
of mountain and rock plants 
which will thrive much better 
on an old wall, a ruin, a sunk 
fence, a sloping bank of 
stone, Avitli earth behind, 
than they do in the most 
carefully prepared border, 
and therefore their culture 
may be fittingly considered 
here, particularly, as once 
established in such positions 
they increase and take care 
of themselves unaided. In- 
deed, many an alpine plant 
which may have perished 
in its place in the garden, 
would, thrive on any old Avail, near at hand, as, for example, 
the pretty I'yrenean Erinus, the silvery Saxifrages of the 
Alps, pinks like the Cheddar Pink, established on the walls 




Arenaria balearica, in a hole in wall at 
Great Tew. 



AVILD GARDENING ON WALLS OR RUINS. 



8f) 



at Oxford, many Stonecrops and alliiMl plants, the Aubrietia 
and AraLis, 

A most interesting exani})le of "wall gardening is shown 
on the opposite page. In the gardens at Great Tew, 
in Oxfordshire, this exquisite little alpine plant, which 
usually roots over the moist surface of stones, estal)lished 
itself high up on a wall in a small recess, where half a brick 
had been displaced. The illustration tells the rest. It is 





z^:^^^--, 





'Mm 

Cheddar Pink, Saxifrage, and Ferns, on cottage wall at IMells. 

suggestive, as so many things are, of the numerous plants 
that may l)e grown on walls and such unpromising surfaces. 

A mossy old wall, or an old ruin, would afi'ord a position 
for many rock -plants which no specially prepared situation 
could rival ; l»ut even on well-preserved walls we can 
establish some little beauties, wdiich year after year Mill 
al)undantly repay for the slight trouble of planting or sowing 
them. Those who have observed how dwarf plants grow on 
the tops of mountains, or on elevated stony ground, must 
have seen in what unpromising j^ositions many tiourish in 
perfect health — fine tufts sometimes springing from an 



90 THE WILD GARDEN. 

almost imperceptible chink in an arid rock or Ijoulder. They 
are often stunted and diminutive in such places, l)ut always 
more lonu-lived than when f'rown viijorouslv upon the 
ground. Now, numljers of alpine plants perish if planted in 
the ordinary soil of our gardens, and many do so where much 
pains is taken to attend to their wants. This results from 
over-moisture at the root in winter, the plant being rendered 
more susceptiljle of injury by our moist green winters 
inducing it to make a lingering growth. But it is interesting 
and useful to know that, by placing many of these delicate 
])lants where their roots can secure a comparatively dry and 
well-drained medium, they remain in perfect health. Many 
])lants from latitudes a little farther south than our own, and 
from alpine regions, may hnd on walls, rocks, and ruins, that 
dwarf, ripe, sturdy growth, stony firmness of root medium, and 
dryness in winter, M'hich go to form the very conditions that 
will grow them in a climate entirely different from their own. 
In many parts of the country it may be said with truth 
that opportunities for this phase of gardening do not exist; l)ut 
in various districts, such as the AVye and other valleys, there 
are miles of rock and rough wall-surface, where the scattering 
of a few pinches of Arabis, Aubrietia, Erinus, Acanthus, 
Saxifrage, Violas, Stonecrops, and Houseleeks, would give rise 
to a "arden of rock blossoms that would need no care from 
the gardener. Growing such splendid alpine plants as the 
true Saxifraga longifolia of the Pyrenees on the straight sur- 
face of a wall is quite practicable. I have seen the rarest 
and largest of the silvery section grown well on the face of a 
dry wall : therefore there need be no doubt as to growing the 
more common and liardv kinds. 



WILD GARDENING OX WALLS OR RUINS. 



91 



A tew seeds of the Cheddar Pink, Cor examph;, sown in a 
mossy or earthy chink, or even covered with ;i (hist n( line 
soil, would soon take root, li\inLi; for years in a dwaif and 
perfectly healtliful state. 'I'he seedling roots A'igoronsly into 
the chinks, and gets a hold which it rarely relaxes. A list of 
many of the plants wliieli will grow on walls will l)e found 
amoii''' the selections near tlie end of the hook. 









"I^^^m 










The Vellow Fumitory on wall (Corydalis lulea). 







Large Japan Sedum (S. spectabile) and Autumn Crucuses in the Wild Garden. 



CHAPTER Xll. 



SOME RESULTS. 



In addition to Longieat, and other cases previously men- 
tioned, a few of the results obtained, where the system 
was tried, and so far as known to nie, may not be without 
interest. How much a wild garden intelligently and taste- 
fully carried out may effect for a country seat is fairly 
well shown in a garden in Oxfordshire. Here is one of 
the earliest, and probably one of the largest wild gardens 
existing, and which, visiting it on the 27th May, I found 
full of novel charms. No old-fashioned garden yields its 
beauty so early in the year, or over a more prolonged season, 
than the wild garden, as there is abundant evidence here ; 
but our impressions shall be those of the day only. It 
may serve to throw light on the possibilities of garden 



SOME RESULTS. 93 

embellishment in one way at a season when there is a great 
blank in many gardens — the time of "l)ed(lnig out." Tlie 
maker of this had no favourable or iu^'iting site with 
which to deal ; no great variety of surface, which makes 
attempts in this direction so much easier and happier ; no 
variety of soil, which might enable plants of widely different 
natural habitats to be grown ; only a neglected plantation, 
with rather a poor gravelly soil and a gentle slope in one 
part, and little variety of surface beyond a few gravel banks 
thrown up long before. The garden is, for the most part, 
arranged on each side of a Grass drive among rather open 
ground, few trees on the one hand and rather shady ground 
on the other. The most beautiful aspect at the end of IMay 
of a singularly ungenial spring, which had not allowed the 
I'ieonies to unfold, was that of the German Irises, with 
their great Orchid-like blossoms seen everywhere through 
the wood, clear above the Grass and other herbage, stately 
and noble flowers that, like the Daffodils, fear no weather, 
yet with rich and delicate hues that could not be surpassed 
by tropical flowers. If this wild garden only should teach 
this effective way of using the various beautiful and vigorous 
kinds of Iris now included in our garden flora, it would do 
good service. The Irises are perfectly at home in the wood 
and among the Grass and wild flowers. By-and-by, when 
they go out of flower, they will not be in the way as in a 
" mixed border," tempting one to remove them, l»ut grow and 
rest quietly among the grass until the varied blossoms of 
another year again repay the trouble of substituting these 
noble hardy flowers for some of the familiar weeds and wild 
plants that inhabit our plantations. 



94 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



In tlie wild garden the fairest of our own wild flowers 
may be happily associated with their relatives from other 
countries. Here the sturdy Bell -flowered Scilla (S. cani- 
panulata) grows wild with our own Bluehell (S. nutans); the 
wliite and jiink forms also of the last-named look beautiful 
here associated with the common well-known form. The 
earlier Scillas are of course past ; they are admirably suited 
for the wild garden, especially S. Ijifolia, which thrives freely 
in woods. The Lily of tlie Valley did not inhabit the wood 

before ; therefore it 

/ : t'M: 



was pleasant to thin 
out some of its over- 
matted tufts and carry 
them to the wild 
garden, where thev 
are now in fullest 





Crane's Bill wild, in grass. 



'^^i beauty. It is associated with its tall and 
stately relation the Solomon's Seal. The 
Solomon's Seal, wliich is usually effective 
when issuing forth from fringes of shrubberies, 
is here best arching higli over the Woodrufi' 
and other sweet woodland flowers, among 
which it seems a giant, with every leaf, and stem, and blossom 
lines of beauty. The additional vigour and beauty shown by 
this plant when in rich soil well repays one for selecting suitable 
spots for it. The greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus) and its 
double form are very pretty here with their tufts of golden 
flowers ; they grow freely and take all needful care of them- 
selves. The same may be said of the Honesty, the common 
forms of Columbine, and Allium Moly, an old-fashioned plant, 



SOME RESULTS. 95 

and one of tlie nmny subjects at home in the wihl garden, and 
wliich are better left out of the garden proper. The myriads 
of Crocus leaves dying off without the indignity of being tied 
into Itundles as is common in gardens, the dense growth of 
Aconite and Snowdrop leaves, of coloured and common 
I'rinu'oses and Cowslips, suggest the [)eauty of this wild 
garden in spring. The yet unfolded buds on the many tufts 
and groups of the numerous lierbaceous Piconies, promise 
nolile effects early in Jmie ; so do the tufts of the splendid 
Eastern Poppy (Papaver orientale) and the Lilies, and Sweet 
Williams, and Adam's Needles, and many other subjects, 
that will show their blossoms above or among the summer 
Grass in due time. Among the best of the Borageworts 
here at present, are tlie Caucasian Comfrey (Symphytum 
caucasicum), an admirable wood or copse plant, and red- 
purple or Bohemian Comfrey (S. bohemicum), which is very 
handsome here. And what lovelv effects from the Foroet- 
me-nots — the wood Forget-me-not, and the Early Forget-me- 
not (M. dissitillora) are here ! where their soft little clouds of 
l)lue in the Grass are nnich prettier than tufts of the same 
kind surrounded by the l)rown earth in a prim l)order. Here 
the pushing of the delicate Grass blades through tlie blue 
mass and the indefinite wav in which the frinijes of the tufts 
mingle with the surrounding vegetation are very beautiful. 

The onlv noticeal)le variation of surface is that of some 
gravel l»anks, which are properly covered witli Stonecrops, 
Saxifrages, and the like, which would, as a rule, have a poor 
chance in the Grass, Surfaces that naturally support a very 
sparse and dwarf vegetation are valuable in a garden, as they 
permit (jf the culture of a series of free-growing alpine and 



96 THE WILD GARDEN". 

rock r)lants that would not l)e able to liold their own amono- 
Grass and ordinary weeds and wild flowers. One of the 
happiest features of this wild garden results from the way 
in which dead trees have been adorned. Once dead, some 
of the smaller branches are lopped off, and one or more 
climbers planted at the base of the tree. Here a Clematis, 
a climbing Eose, a new kind of Ivy, a wild Vine, or a 
Virginian Creeper, have all they require, a firm support on 
which they may arrange themselves after their own natural 
habit, without being mutilated, or without trouble to the 
planter, and fresh ground free to themselves. What an 
admirable way, too, of growing the many and varied species 
of Clematis ! as beautiful as varieties with flowers as large as 
saucers. Even when an old tree falls and tosses up a mass 
of soil and roots the wild gardener is ready with some 
subject from his mixed border to adorn the projection, and 
he may allow some choice Bramble or wild Vine to scramble 
over the prostrate stem. A collection of Ivies grown on old 
tree-stems would be much more satisfactory than on a wall, 
and not liable to robe each other at the roots, and interfere 
with each other in the air. Ferns are at home in the wild 
garden ; all the strong hardy kinds may be grown in it, and 
look better in it among the flowers than in the " hardv 
Fernery " properly so called. Even more graceful than the 
Ferns, and in some cases more useful, because they send up 
their plume-like leaves very early in the year, are the giant 
Fennels (Ferula), which grow well here, and hold their own 
easily among the strongest plants. The common Fennel is 
also here, but it seeds so freely that it becomes a troublesome 
weed, and shows a tendency to overrun plants of greater 



SO-ME KESULTS. 97 

value. This reniiiuls lis of certain sulijects that should be 
introduced with I'autioii into all Imt the remotest parts of the 
wild garden. Such plants as Heracleuni, Willow Herb, and 
many others, that overcome all obstacles, and not only win 
but destroy all their fellows in the strujigie for life, should 
only be planted in untlving ])(i>itinns. islands, hedges, small 



-^S'ff' 




Large-leafed Saxifrage in the Wild (larden. 

l)its of isolated wood or copse, where their effects might l)e 
visible for a season, and where they might ramble without 
destroying. In short, they never should l)e planted where 
it is desired to encourage a variety of beautiful sul)jects. 
liabbits — dreaded vermin to the wild gardener — are kept 
out here effectually by means of wire fencing. The presence 
of these pests prevents all success in the wild garden. The 
encouragement of creatures that feed on slugs is desirable, as 
these are the most potent cause of mischief to liard}^ flowers. 

H 



98 THE WILD GARDEN. 

To succeed with the wild garden, one should have a good 
collection of hardy flowers from which it can be supplied. 
Here one has been formed, consisting of about 1100 species, 
mostly arranged in borders. From these, from time to time, 
over- vigorous and over-abundant kinds may be taken to the 
wilderness. In a large collection one frequently finds species 
most suited for full liberty in woods. Tlie many subjects 
good in all positions, may increase in these l)orders till 
plentiful enough for planting out in some quantity in the 
wild garden. The wild garden here lias l)een wdiolly formed 
by the owner, who planted with his own hands the various 
subjects that now adorn it throughout the year. It has 
been done within four or five years, and therefore many uf 
the climbers have not as yet attained full growth. 

Tew Park will long be interesting, from the fact that it 
was there J. C. Loudon practised agriculture before he began 
writing the works which were such a marked addition to the 
horticultural literature of England. The Grove there is a 
plantation of fine trees, bordering a wide sweep of grass, 
wdiich varies in width. This grove, unlike much of the rest 
of the ground, does not vary in surface, or luit very little, so 
tliat one of the greatest aids is absent. Originally this now 
pleasant grove was a dense wood, with Gout-weed mainly on 
the sround, and troublesome flies in the air. A few vears 
ago the formation of a wild garden was determined upon, and 
the first operation was the thinning of the wood ; light and 
moving air were let into it, and weak or overcrowded trees 
removed. This, so far, was a gain, quite apart from the 
flowers that were in good time to replace the few common 
weeds that occupied the ground. Of these the unattractive 



SOME RESULTS. 99 

Gout-weed was the most abundant, and the first thing to do 
was to di'j; it up. It was found that by deeply digging the 
ground, and sowiug tlie wood Forget-me-not in its place, this 
weed disappeared. Who would not exchange foul weeds for 
Lilies of the Yallev aud AVood Forget-me-nots ! The effect of 
broad sheets of this Wood Forget-me-not (Myosotis sylvatica) 
beyond, and seen above the long waving Grass gradually 
receding under the trees, was very beautiful ; now (June) its 
beauty is not so marked as earlier, when the colour was fuller, 
from the plants being more compact ; but one charm of the 
wild garden is that the very changes of plants from what may 
be thought their most perfect state, may be in itself the 
source of a new pleasure instead of a warning, such as so 
often occurs in the garden, that we must cut them down or 
replace them. 

iSTot to mow is almost a necessity in the wild garden : 
considering that there is frequently in large gardens much 
more mown surface than is necessary, many will not regret 
this need. Here the Grass is desi^nedlv left unmown in 
manv iilaces, and therebv much labour is saved. Of course 
it may be cut when ripe, and most of the spring flowers have 
past and their leaves are out of danger ; even in parts where 
no flowers are planted the Grass is left till long enougli to cut 
as meadow. Except where actually required as a carpet. Grass 
may often be allowed to grow even in the pleasure ground ; 
quite as good an effect is afforded by the unmown as the mown 
Grass — indeed, better when the long Grass is full of flowers. 
Three-fourths of the most lovely flowers of cold and temperate 
regions are companions of the Grass — like Grasses in hardi- 
ness, like Grasses in summer life and winter rest, like them 



100 THE WILD GARDEN. 

even in stature. Whatever plants may seem best to associate 
with in gardens, an innnense nun:iher — more than two 
thousand species of those now cultivated — would thrive to 
perfection among our meadow Grasses, as they do on the 
Grassy breast of the mountain in many lands. Some, like 
the tall Irises or Columbines, will show their heads clear 
above the delicate bloom of the ( irass ; others, like the 
Cerastiums, will open tlieir cups below it, in this way 
multij^lying the variety of effects that may be obtained. 
The varieties of Columbine in the Grass were perhaps tlie 
prettiest flowers at the time of my visit. The white, purplish, 
and delicately -variegated forms of this charming old plant, 
just seen above the tops of the long Grass, growing singly, 
in little groups, or in spreading colonies, were sufficient in 
themselves to form a wild garden for June. Established 
among the Grass, they will henceforward, like it, take care of 
themselves. The rosy, heart-shaped blooms of the Dielytra 
spectabilis are recognised at some distance tlirough the Grass, 
and, so grown, furnish a bright and peculiarly pretty effect. 
Tree Pa^onies succeed admirablv, and their oreat heads of 
flower quite light up this charming wilderness. I'lants of the 
Goat's Beard Spinea (S. Aruncus) are very stately and grace- 
ful, even now, before their flowering, being quite G It. high. 
In a few weeks, when the numerous flowers are open, they 
will present quite another aspect. In the wild garden, apart 
from the naturalisation of free-growing exotics, tlie establish- 
ment of rare British flowers is one of the most interesting 
occupations ; and here, under a Pine tree, the modest, trail- 
ing Linmea borealis of the northern Fir- woods is beginning 
to spread. The Foxglove was not originally found in the 



SOME RESULTS. 



10] 



iiei"hl)oiiili(»(t(l ; now llio ordinnrv kind and the various other 
forms of tliis fino wild fiower adorn tlie woods. In tliis wny 
also the Lily of the Yallcv has heen introduced and is spread- 
ino- rapidlv. ^lanv clinddnii- Eoses ami various other climbers 
have been ])lanted at the bases of trees and stumps, but, 
though thri\ing, the plantation is as yet too young to show 
1 lie good effect that these will eventually produce. There is 




Large-flowered Clematis. 



no finer picture at present to be seen in gardens than a free- 
growing flowering creeper, enjoying its own wild way over an 
old tree or stump, and sending down a rain of flower -laden 
shoots. A Clematis montana here, originally trained on a 
wall, sent up some of its shoots through a tree close at hand, 
where, fortunately, they have been allowed to remain, and 
now the long shoots hang from the tree full of flowers. The 
large plumes of the noljler hardy Ferns are seen here and 



102 THE WILD GARDEX. 

there tliroiigh the trees and Grass, and well they look — better 
here among the Grass and flowers, partially shaded by trees, 
than in the hardy Fernery, which is so often a failure, and 
when a success, often " too much of a muchness," so to say. 
The wild garden of the future will he also tlie true home of 
all the more important hardy Ferns. The rivals of the Ferns 
in beauty of foliage, the Ferulas, and various other um- 
belliferous plants with beautifully cut foliage, have also their 
homes in the wild garden. The Welsh Poppy thrives, as 
might be expected, admirably in the grove, its rich yellow 
cups just shoAving above the meadow. 

In another part of the grounds there is a raised walk 
quite away from trees, open and dry, with sloping banks on 
each side. This may be called a sun-walk, and here quite a 
different type of vegetation is grown ; Scotch Ptoses, Brooms, 
Sun Eoses, Rock Eoses, etc. It is quite recently formed, and 
will probably soon accommodate a more numerous and interest- 
ing flora. Such an open sunny walk, with dry banks near, is 
a capital position in which to carry out various phases of the 
wild garden. Peculiarly suitable, however, in such a position 
is a good illustration of the vegetation of the hot, rocky, and 
gravelly hill-sides of the Mediterranean region, and this is 
quite easily represented, for the various leguminous plants 
and dwarf Pea-flowered shrubs, such as the Spanish Broom, 
many of the beautiful Eock Eoses (Cistus), the Sun Eoses 
(Helianthemum), and the Lavenders, will, with a host of com- 
panions, for the most part thrive quite as well on a sunny 
sandy bank in England as in Italy or Greece. In the wild 
garden it is easy to arrange aspects of vegetation having a 
geographical interest, and a portion of such a sunny bank as 



SOME RESULTS. 103 

i nllude lo uii^lit l»e worthily funiisluMl with the various 
niniiiatic jiliints (nearly all hardy) which one meets with on 
tlie wild liill-. sides of Southern France, and which include 
Tliynie, Bahn, Mint, Eosemary, Lavender, and various other 
old oarden favourites. 

True taste in the garden is iuihai)pily much rarer than 
many people suppose. Xo amount of expense, rich collec- 
tions, good cultivation, large gardens, and plenty of glass, will 
suffice ; all these and nnich more it is not difficidt to see, but 
a few acres of garden showing a real love of the beautiful in 
Nature, as it can be illustrated in gardens, is rare, and when it 
is seen it is often rather the result of accident than design. 
This is partly owing to the fact that the kind of knowledge 
one wants in order to form a really beautiful garden is very 
unconmion. Xo man can do so with few materials. It is 
necessary to have some knowledge of the enormous wealth 
of beauty which the world contains for the adornment of 
gardens ; and yet this knowledge must not have a leaning, or 
liut very partially, towards the Dryasdust character. The 
disposition to " dry " and name everything, to concern oneself 
entirely with nomenclature and classification, is not in ac- 
cordance with a true gardening spirit — it is the life we want. 
The garden of the late Mr. Hewittson, at Weybridge, con- 
tained some of the most delightful Ijits of garden scenery 
Avhich I have ever seen. Below the house, on the slope over 
the water of Oatlands Park, and Ijelow the usual lawn beds, 
trees, etc., there is a piece of heathy ground which, when we 
saw it, was charming beyond any power of the pencil to show. 
The ground was partially clad with common Heaths with 
little irregular green paths through them, and abundantly 



104 THE WILD GARDEN. 

naturalised in the warm sandy soil were the Sun Koses, 
which are shown in the foreground of the ]ilate. Here and 
there among the Heaths, creeping aliout in a perfectly 
natural-looking fashion, too, was the (Jentian l)lue Cromwell 
(Lithospermum ])rostratum), witli other hardy plants suited 
to the situation. Among these naturalised groups were tlie 
large Evening Primroses and Alstrcemeria anrea, the whole 
being well relieved by bold bushes of flowering shrubs, so 
tastefully grouped and arranged as not to show a trace of 
formality. Such plants as these are not set out singly and 
without preparation, but carefully planted in beds of such 
naturally irregular outline, that when the plants l)econie 
established they seem native children of the soil, as much as 
the Bracken and Heath around. It is remarkable how all 
this is done without in the least detracting from tlie most 
perfect order and keeping. Closely-shaven glades and wi(U^ 
Grass belts wind about among such objects, while all trees 
that require special care and attention show l)y their health and 
size that they find all they require in this beautiful gardeu. 
It is more free from needless or offensive geometrical-twirling, 
barren expanse of gravelled surface, and all kinds of puerilities 
— old-fashioned and new-fangled — than nny garden I liave 
seen for years. 

The following, from a correspondent, shows wliat may lie 
done with few advantages as to space or situation : — 

We have a ilell with a small stream of sjiiini,^ water nuniiiiL; 
tlirough it. When I first came to Brockhurst I found this stream 
carried underground by a tile culvert, and the valley sides covered 
with Rhododendrons, the soil between carefully raked and kept free 
from weeds, so that it was only during springtime that flowers relieved 
the sombre eff'ect of this primness. After five years this has all been 




Sun Roses (Cistus) and other exotic haidy plants among heather, on sandy slope. 



SOME r!KsrT/rs. 



10; 



changed into wlial I tliink ymi WdiiM call a wild ,L;ai'ili'ii. ainl \vv 
]ia\e clieerfuliicss and ln'auty all tlu- yt-ai' nmiid. 

Ill tlie first jilacf tlu- liidnklft was ludui^lit to the surt'ace, iuul its 
Loiirse fringed with inaisli plants, siu'li as Marsh Marigolds, Forget- 
me-nots, CVlandiiies, Irises, Pi-i mioses, and Kanumuluses, together 
with Osnuunlas, Hart's-tongnes, and other Ferns. Many large-growing 



Carexes and ornamental T! 



nsh<-s are als( 



I liere. Little llats were formed 




Wood and tierbaceous Meadow-sweets grouped together in Mr. Hewittsnu's garden. 



and filled with peat, in which ( Vprijiediiuns, Trilliums, Orchises, 
Solomon's Seal, and many rare bog plants find a home. In the valley 
we have planted hnlhs by thonsands — Crocuses, Snowdrops, Daffodils, 
Narcis.?i, etc. The Rhododendrons were thinned and interspersed with 
Azaleas, Ancnbas, and other handsome-foliaged shrubs, to give bright- 
ness to the sjiring flowering, and rich colour to the foliage in autumn. 
In the spaces between we introduced wild Hyacinths everywhere, and 



106 THE WILD GARDEN. 

in patches amongst these the Red (Jampion, together with vvcvy other 
]tretty wilil flower we couhl obtain — Forget-me-nots, Glolje- flowers, 
(Jolunri lines, Anemones, Primroses, Cowslips, Polyanthuses, Campanulas, 
Golden Rods, ete. All the bulbs which liave bloomed in the green- 
houses are planted out in these spaces, so that there are \u>^y large 
clumps of choice soils of Crocus, Tulip, Narcissus, and Hyacinth. We 
have also planted Ijulbs very extensively, and as they have been 
allowed to grow on undisturbed we have now large patches of Daffodils, 
Narcissi, and other spring flowers in great beauty and exuberance. 
When we trim the garden all tlie spare plants are brought here, where 
they form a reserve, and it is thus gradually getting stocked, and all 
the bare ground covered witli foliage and flowers. Lastly, iov autumn 
blooming we raised large quantities of Foxgloves in every colour, and 
the larger Campanulas, and these were pricked out everywhere, so tliat 
we have a glorious show of Foxglove flowers to close the year worth all 
the trouble. A wild garden of this sort is a very useful reserve 
ground, wliere many a plant survives after it has been lost in tlic 
borders. Such spare seedlings as the Acpiilegias, Campanulas, Primulas, 
Trolliuses, and other hardy plants can here find space until wanf('(l 
elsewhere, and one can frecj[\iently find blooms for bouc^uets in the 
dell Avlien the garden flowers are over. The Lily of the Valley and 
Sweet Violet also flourish here, creeping over heaps of stones, and 
Hower more freely than they do in more open situations. A^isitors 
often say tliat the dell beats all the rest of the garden for beauty, and 
it certainly gives less trouble in the attainment. 

Brockhurst, Didslmry. In (hvnh'n. Wm. Brockbank. 

THE WILD GARDEN IN AMERICA.i 

Probalily many of your readers will ask, "What U a Mild garden /" 
When I came to London, al)out fifteen years ago, "flower-gardening" 
liad but one mode of expression only, viz. " bedding out," and that in its 
harshest form — ribbons, borders, an<l solid masses of flowers of one 
colour and one height. The old hardy flowers had been completely 
swept away ; the various and once popular race of so-called florist's flowers 
were rarely or never seen. As a consequence, gardens were indescrib- 
ably monotonous to any person with the faintest notion of the in- 
exhaustible charms of the plant world. This kind of flower-gardening 
has the same relatidu to true art in a garden which the daubs of colour 

1 A letter written by re([uest, in the Rural New Yorker, July 1876. 



SOME KESUI/rS. 107 

on ail Indian's blanket havi- to tin- best pictures. In fighting, some 
years later, in tlie various' journals njicn tn me, tin- battle nf nature 
and variety against this saddening and blank nKmotony, I was occasion- 
ally met by a ridicule of the old-fashioned mixed border which the 
bedding plants had supplanted. Now, a well -arranged and varied 
mixed border may Vie made one of the most beautiful of gardens ; Imt 
to so fijrm it re(|uires some kncjwledge of plants, as well as good taste. 
Nevertheless, the objection was just as concerned the great majority of 
mixed borders ; they were ragged, unmeaning, and even monotonous. 

I next began to consider the \'arious ways in which hardy plants 
might be grown wholly apart from either way (the bedding plants or 
that of the mixed border), and the vsild (jurden, or garden foriiu'd in 
the wilderness, grove, shrubbery, copse, or rougher parts of the pleasure 
garden, M-as a ]iet idea which I afterwards threw into the form of a 
book with this name. In nearly all our gardens we have a great deal 
of surface wholly wasted — wide spaces in the shrubbery fre(|uently 
dug over in the winter, plantations, grass- walks, hedgerows, rough 
banks, slopes, etc., which hitherto have grown only grass and wee<ls, 
ami on these a rich garden flora may be grown. Hundreds of the 
more vigorous and handsome herbaceous plants that exist will thrive 
in these jilaces and do further good in exterminating weeds and pre- 
venting the need of digging. Every kind of surface may be embellished 
by a person vrith. any slight knowledge of hardy plants — ditch-banks, 
gravel-pits, old trees, hedge-banks, rough, grassy places that are never 
mown, copses, woods, lanes, rocky or stony ground. 

The tendency has always been to suppose that a plant from 
another country than our^ own was a subject retjuiring much attention, 
not thinking that the conditions that occur in such places as men- 
tioned above, are, as a rule, quite as favourable as those that obtain 
in nature throughout the great northern regions of Europe, Asia, and 
America. Here some common plants of the woods of the Eastern 
States are considered rarities and coddled accordingly to their destruc- 
tion. It is quite a phenomenon to see a flower on the little Yellow 
Dog's-Tooth Violet, which I remember seeing in rpiantity among the 
grass in your noble Central Park. When one has but a few specimens 
of a plant, it is best no doubt to carefully watch them. But an 
exposed and carefully dug garden border is the worst place to grow 
many wood and copse j^lants (I mean plants that grow naturally in 
such places), and in many uncultivated spots here the American 
Dog's-Tooth Violet would flower ([uite as freely as at home. Your 



108 



THE WILD riARDEN. 



beautiful little Mayrt(jwer, Epigpea repejis, we liave never succeeded in 
growing- in our best American nurseries, as tliey are called, whicli 
grow vdur Rliododendrons and otlier fioweriiiiT; shrubs so well. If a 
number of young plants of this were put out in a sandy fir-wood, 
under the shrubs and pines, as they grow in New Jersey, we should 
succeed at once. Your l)eautiful Trillium grauditloruni is usually 
seen here in a pour state ; luit I have seen a plant in a shady position 
in a shrubbery, in rich, moist soil, ([uite two feet through and two 
feet high. 

I mention these things to show tliat tlie wild garden may even 
have a<lvantages from the point of view of cultivation. Another 




Wuodruft and Ivv. 



advantage is the facilities it atl'ords us for fujoying representations of 
the vegetation of other conntries. Here, for example, the j)oorest soil 
in the most neglected copse will grow a mixture of golden rods and 
asters, whicli will give ns an aspect of vegetation everywhere seen in 
American woods in autumn. This to you may appear a very common- 
place delight ; but as we have nothing at all like it, it is welcome. 
Besides, we in this way get the golden rods and coarser asters out of 
the garden proper, in which they nsed to overrun the choicer jjlants, 
and where they did much to disgrace the mixed border. So, in like 
manner, you may, in New England or New Jersey, make wild gardens 
of such of our English flowers as you love. For example, the now 
numerous and very handsome varieties of our Primroses, Polyanthuses, 
and Oxlips would probably succeed better with you in moist places, in 
woods, or partially shaded positions, than in the open garden. There 



SOME KKSULTS. 10!) 

caul>e IK) (Iniil>t in wliidi jKisilidii lIu'V wdulil Link Lest. Bui Ift lis 
.suppose fur a nuiiui'iit that llicic was in) dtlicr olijecL Ini' the wild 
"ardcn in America lliaii umwiiiL; tiie iiiaiiv lovdv wild tlowcr.s tliat 
inhabit the land, it is sullicicnt. Here some of your wildlin^s arc, the 
darlings of our rock-garden _L;rowers, though we are far tinm |nisscssing 
all the hi'ight Howcrs an<l graceful trailers that aduin the lings and 
Wddds and heaths nf the Kastern States. It wnuld ln' ninst wise, in 
case of possessing a little liil nf wnnd or copse, adorned naturally with 
the trailing Partridge Berry, and the rosy Lady's Slipper ((Jyju'ipediuni 
acaule), which I noticed growing so plentifully, to jireserve the spot 
as a wild garden, and add to it such home and foivign, free and 
handsome hardy plants, as one could ohtain. 

It is ini])ossible in this letter to sjieak nf tlu' \ai-ious kinds of 
\\ild gardens, hut the opportunity which the system otters for eni- 
ludlishing mol shady places is one which should make it interesting 
to the people to whose language belongs the term " shade trees." 
Usually flower beds and borders are in the full sun — a very projier 
arrangement in a cool country. But even in our climate, there are in 
the warm months many days in which the woodland shade is sought 
in preference to the open lawn, and when the fully-exposed garden is 
deserted. Therefore, it is clearly desirable that we have flowers in 
shady as well as sunny places. Many plants, too, l(.i\e the shade, and 
we (jnly require to plant the most suitable of these to enjoy a charm- 
ing wild garden. It need not be pointe(l out to Americans that a vast 
iiiunl)er of herbaceous jdants naturally inhabit woods. In America, 
where shade is such a necessity, the wild garden in the shade will be 
the most delightful retreat near the country house. In it many of the 
plants common in the gardens of all northern countries will, witlujut 
wearisome attention, flower in the spring. 

For the early summer numths flowers of a somewhat later period 
^vill be selected, as, for exam})le, the later Irises- — lovely hardy flowers, 
the tall Asphodel A. ranmsus, the Day Lilies (Hemerocallis), the 
Solomon's Seal and some of its allies, the Veronicas, tall Phloxes, the 
great Scarlet Poppy (Papaver bracteatum), Symphytums in variety ; — 
these are all free-growing ami admirable plants for the wild wood-garden. 
Mulleins (Verbascum), Salvias, Harebells (Campanula), Willow herbs, 
tall Lupines, Geianiums, Sjiurges, Meadow Rues, Columbines, Del- 
phiniums, and the latest \\ind flowers (Anemone). 

Later still, and in the sunny days, would come the various beauti- 
ful everlasting jieas, various ])lants of the Mallow tribe, the Poke 



110 



THE WILD (4ARDEN. 



Weeds, broad-leaved Sea Lavender, and otlier vigorous kinds, the Globe 
Thistles, Acanthuses, the free-flowering Yuccas, such as Y. flaccida and 
Y. filanientosa, the common Artichoke, with its nol)le flowers ; and in 
autunni, a host of the Golden Rods and Michaelmas Daisies. These 
are so common in America that adding them to tlie wild garden would 
probably be considered a needless labour ; Init the substitution of the 
various really beautiful species of aster tnr those ccimmonly found and 
of inferior beauty M'ould well repay. In case it were thought desir- 
able in making a wild garden in a shady position to grow plants that 
do not attain perfection in such positions, they might be grown in the 
more open parts at hand, and sufficiently near to be seen in tlie picture. 




CHAPTER XIIL 



A PLAN FOR THE l-LMF.ELLISILMENT OF THE SHRUBBEIIY 
BORDERS IN LONDON PARKS. 







In the winter sea- 
son, or indeed at 
any other season, 
one of the most 
melancholy things 
to be seen' in our 
parks and gardens 
are the long, hare, 
naked slirul)heries, 
extending, as along 
the Bayswater 
Eoad, more or less 
for a mile in a place; the soil greasy, black, seamed with the 
mutilated roots of the poor shrubs and trees ; which are 
none the better, l)ut very mucli the worse, for the cruel 
annual attention of digging up tlieir young roots M-ithout 
returning any adequate nourishment or good to the soil. 
Culturally, the whole thing is suicidal, both for trees and 
plants. Tlie mere fact of men having to pass through one 



Dug :ind mutilated Shrubbery in St. James's Park. 
Sketched in iinntcr of i^-]g. 



112 THE WILD GARDEN. 

of those slirubberies every autumn, and, u.s tliey fancy, 
" prune " and otherwise attend to unfortunate shrul:)s and 
low trees, leads to this, and especially to the shrubs taking 
the appearance of inverted besoms. Thus a double wrong is 
done, and at great waste of labour. Any interesting life that 
might l^e in the ground is destroyed, and the whole appear- 
ance of the shrubbery is made hideous from the point of view 
of art; all good culture of flowering or evergreen shrubs 
destroyed or made impossible. This system is an orthodox 
one, that has descended to us from other days, the popular 
idea being that the right thing to do in autumn is to dig the 
shrul»l)ery. The total abolition of this system, and the adop- 
tion of the one to he presently described, would lead to the 
happiest revolution ever effected in gardening, and be a per- 
fectly easy, practicable means for the aljolition of the inverted 
besoms, and the choke-muddle shrubbery, and these awful 
wastes of black soil and mutilated roots. 

Two ideas should lie fixed in the mind of the improver, 
the one being to allow all the beautiful shrubs to assume 
their natural shapes, either singly or in groups, with sufficient 
space between to allow of their fair development, so that the 
shrubbery might, in the flowering season, or indeed at all 
seasons, be the best kind of conservatory — a beautiful winter 
garden even, with the branches of most of the shrubs touching 
the ground, no nmtilation whatever visible, and no hard dug 
line outside the shrubs. This last improvement could easily 
be effected l)y forming a natural fringe, so to say, by breaking 
up the usual hard edge from good planting ; by letting, in 
fact, the edge be formed by well-furnished shrubs projected 
beyond the hard line, and running in and out as they do on a 



KMBELLTSHj\mNT OF SHRUBBERY BORDERS. 113 

liil] copse, or as the box bushes sometimes do on a Sussex 
down. Here care, variety in selection, taste and skill in 
grouping, so as to allow different subjects, whether placed 
singly or in groups, or little groves, being in a position where 
tliey may grow well and be seen to advantage, would lead 
to the most charming results in the open-air garden. With 
sufficient preparation at first, such shrubberies would be the 
cause of very little trouble afterwards. 

Now, such beauty could be obtained without any further 
aid from other plants ; and in many cases it might be desir- 
able to consider the trees and shrubs and their effect only, 
and let the turf spread in among them; but we have the 
])rivilege of adding to this beautiful tree and shrub life 
another world of l)eauty — the bulbs and herbaceous plants, 
and innumerable beautiful things which go to form the 
ground flora, so to say, of northern and temperate countries, 
and which light up the world with loveliness in meadow 
or copse, or wood or alpine pasture in the flowering season. 
The surface which is dug and wasted in all our parks, and 
in numljers of our gardens, should be occupied Avitli this 
varied life ; not in the miserable old mixed border fashion, 
with eacli plant stuck up with a stick, but with the plants in 
groups and colonies between the shrubs. In the spaces where 
turf would not thrive, or where it might be troublesome to 
keep fresh, we should have irises, or narcissi, or lupines, or 
French willows, or Japan anemones, or any of scores of other 
lovely things which people cannot now find a place for in our 
stiff' gardens. The soil which now does little work, and in 
whicli the tree-roots every year are mercilessly dug up, 
would support myriads of lovely plants. The necessity of 

I 



114 THE WILD TxARDEN. 

allowing abundant space to the shrubs and trees, both in the 
young and the adult stage, gives us some space to deal with, 
which may be occupied with weeds if we do not take care of 
it. The remedy, then, is to replace tlie weed by a beautiful 
flower, and to let some handsome hardy plant of the northern 
world occupy each little space ; keeping it clean for us, and, at 
the same time, repaying us by abundant bloom, or fine foliage 
or habit. This system in the first place allows the shrubs 
themselves to cover the ground to a great extent. In the 
London parks now every shrub is cut under so as to allow 
the digger to get near it ; and this leads to the most comical 
and villainous of shapes ever assumed by bushes. Even the 
lilac bushes, which we see so horril)ly stiff, will cover the 
ground with tlieir l)ranches if allowed room enough ; there- 
fore, to a great extent, we should have the branches them- 
selves covering the ground instead of wdiat we now see. But 
open spaces, little l)ays and avenues running in among the 
shrubs, are absolutely essential, if we want to fully enjoy 
what ousfht to l^e the beautiful inhabitants of our shrul) 
garden. Such openings offer delightful retreats for hardy 
flowers, many of which thrive better in semi-shady spots 
than they do in the open, wliile the effect of the flowers is 
immeasurably enhanced by the foliage of the shrubs around. 
To carry out this plan well, one should have, if possible, a 
good selection of the shrubs to begin witli, although the 
plainest shrubbery, which is not overgrown or overcrowded, 
may be embellished with hardy plants on the ground. The 
plan may be adopted in the case of new shrubberies being 
formed, or in the case of old ones ; though the old ones are 
frequently so dried up and overcrowded that great alterations 



EMBELLISHMENT OF SHHUEliERY TlORPErtR. 115 

would liave to be made lier(> and tlicr(\ In the case of 
young slirubberies it is, of course, necessary at first to keep 
the surface open for a while until the shrubs have taken hold 
of the ground ; then the interesting colonics to which we 
alluded may he planted. 

An essential thing is to abolish ntterlv the old dotting 




Colony of the Snowdrop-Anemone in Shrubbery not dug. Anemone taking 
the place of weeds or bare earth. 

principle of the mixed border, as always ugly and always bad 
from a cultural point of view. Instead of sticking a number 
of things in one place, with many labels, and graduating them 
from the back to the front, so as to secure the stiffest imagin- 
able kind of arrangement, the true way is to have in each 
space wide colonies or groups of one kind, or more than one 



116 THE WILD GARDEN. 

kind. Here is a little bay, for example, with the turf running 
into it, a handsome holly feathered to the turf forming one 
promontory, and a spreading evergreen barberry, with its fine 
leaves also touching the "round, forminu; the other. As the 
turf passes in between those two it begins to be colonised 
with little groups of the pheasant's-eye Narcissus, and soon in 
the grass is changed into a waving meadow of these fair flowers 
and their long grayish leaves. They carry tlie eye in among 
the other shrubs, and perhaps carry it to some other colony 
of a totally difl'erent plant behind — an early and beautiful 
boragewort, say, with its bright blue flowers, also in a 
spreading colony. Some might say. Your flowers of narcissi 
only last a certain time ; how are you going to replace them ? 
The answer is, that they occupy, and l)eautifully embellish, a 
place that before was wholly naked, and worse than naked, 
and in this position we contend that our narcissi should be 
seen in all their stages of bud and bloom and decay without 
being hurried out of tlie world as soon as their fair bloom is 
over, as they are on the border or in the greenhouse. They 
are worth growing if we only secure this one beautiful aspect 
of vegetation where before all was worse than lost. We also 
secure plenty of cut flowers without troubling the ordinary 
resources of the garden. 

We might then pass on to another, of the German iris, 
occupying not only a patch, but a whole clump ; for these 
enormous London parks of ours have acres and acres on 
every side of this greasy dug earth which ought to sparkle 
with flowers; and, therefore, a very fine plant might be 
seen to a larae extent. And how nnich better for the 
gardener or cultivator to have to deal with one in one 



EMBELLISHMENT OF SHRUBBET^Y BORDERS. 117 

place than Le tormented witli a liuiulred little "dots" of 
tlowers — alpine, rock, wood, copse, or meadow plants — all 
mixed up in that usually wretched soup called the "mixed 
border " ! No plants that require staking ought to be used 
in the way we are speaking of. Day lilies, for example, 
are good plants. In some hold opening what a fine effect 
we could get l)y having a spreading colony of these therein ; 
scores of plants might be named, that want no sticking, for 
such places. Each plant having a sufficient space and 
forming its own colony, there is much less doubt in case 
of alterations as to what should be done. In fact, in the 
case of an intelligent cultivator, there should be no doubt. 
Observe the advantage of this plan. Instead of seeing the 
same plants everywhere, we should pass on from narcissi to 
iris, from iris to bluebell, and thus meet with a different kind 
of vegetation in each part of the park or garden, instead of the 
eternal monotony of privet and long dreary line of " golden- 
feather " everywhere. The same kind of variety, as suggested 
for the flowers, should be seen among the shrubs. The 
sad planter's mixture — privet, laurel, etc. — taking all the 
colour and all the life and charm out of the shrubbery, should 
be avoided ; so, too, the oppressive botanical Inisiness, with 
everything labelled, and plants classified out of doors as they 
are in an herbarium. They should be put where they would 
look well and grow liest. Well carried out, such a system 
would involve labour, and, above all things, taste at first ; but 
it would eventually resolve itself into the judicious removal 
of interloping weeds. The labour that is now given to dig 
and mutilate once a year and keep clean at other times of the 
vear would easily, on the plan proposed, suffice for a much 



118 THE WILD GARDEN. 

larger area. More intelligence would certainly be required. 
Any ignorant man can dig around and mutilate a shrub and 
cliop up a white lily if he meets it ! But any person tauglit to 
distinguish between our coarse native weeds and the beauti- 
ful plants we want to establish, passing round now and then, 
would keep all safe. 

On a large scale, in the London parks, such a plan wouhl, 
be impossible to carry out without a nursery garden ; that is 
to say, the things wanted should be in such abundance, that 
making the features of the kind we suggest would be easy 
to the superintendent. The acres and acres of black surface 
should themselves afford here and tliere a little ground 
where the many hardy plants adapted for this kind of garden- 
ing might be placed and increased. This, supposing that a 
real want of the public gardens of London — a large and well- 
managed nursery in the pure air — is never carried out : the 
wastefulness of buying everything they want — even the 
commonest things — is a costly drawback to our London 
public gardens. At the very least we should have 100 
acres of nursery gardens for the planting and replanting of 
the London parks. So, too, there ought to be intelligent 
labour to carry out this artistic planting; and with the now- 
awakened taste for some variety in the garden, one cannot 
doubt that a few years will give us a race of intelligent 
young men, who know a little of the plants that grow in 
northern countries, and whose mental vision is not begun 
and ended by the ribbon border. 

The treatment of the margin of the shrubbery is a very 
important point here. At present it is stiff — the shrubs cut 
in or tlie trees cut in, and an unsightly border running 



EMBELLISHMENT OF SHRUBBERY BORDERS. 



11!) 



straight along, perhaps with a tile edging. Well, the right 
way is to have a broken margin, to let the shrubs run in and 
out themselves, and let tliem form tlie margin; let them 
come to the ground in fact, not stitiiy, and here and there 
growing right outside the ordinary bcjundary, in a little group. 
Throw away altogether the crowded masses of starved pri^■et 
and pruned laurel, and let the turf pass right under a group 
of fine trees where such are found. This turf itself might be 
dotted in spring Avith snowdrops and early flowers ; nothing, 
in fact, would be easier than for any intelligent person, who 
knew and cared for trees and shrubs, to chano'e the monotonous 
wall of .shrul)bery into tlie most delightful of open-air gardens ; 
abounding in beautiful life, from the red tassels on the top- 
most maples to flowers in the grass for children. 




Colony of the Summer SnowHake, on margin of shrubbery. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING 
PLANTS FOR THE WILD GARDEN. 

Wherever there is room, these plants should be at first 
grown in nursery beds to ensure a good supply. The number 
of nursery collections of hardy plants being now more numer- 
ous than they were a few years ago, getting the plants is not 
so difficult as it once was. The sources of supply are these 
nurseries ; seed houses, who have lists of hardy plant seeds — 
many kinds may be easily raised from seed ; botanic gardens, 
in which many plants are grown that hitherto have not 
found a place in our gardens, and were not fitted for any 
mode of culture except that herein suggested ; orchards and 
cottage gardens in pleasant country places may supply 
desirable things from time to time ; and those who travel 
may bring seeds or roots of plants they meet with in cool, 
temperate, or mountain regions. Few plants, not free of 
growth and hardy in the British Islands without any atten- 
tion after planting, are included here : — 

Bear's Breecll, Acanth^is. — Vigorous perennials witli noble foli- 
age, mostly from Soutliern Europe. Long cast out of gardens, tliey are 
now beginning to receive more of the attention tliey deserve. In no 
position will they look better than carelessly planted here and there 
on the margin of a shrubbery or thicket, where the leaves of the 
Acanthus contrast well with those of the ordinary shrubs or herbaceoiTs 



HAKDY EXOTIC FLOWERTNd PLANTS. 



121 



vesetation. Tliou-li quite liunly in all snils, tlicy tlower iiinst freely 
in free loamy sdils. Not vnryiiij;- very iiiiich in diai'acter, all nhtaiii- 
ul)le hardy species would j^'roup well toj^ctluT. The most vigorcjus 
kind at present in cultivation is one called A. latif<jlius, almost ever- 
green, and a fine plant when well established. Few plants are more 
fitted fur adorning wild and semi -wild places, as they grow and 
increase without care, and are for foliage or bloom unsurpassed by any 
of the numerous plants that have been so long neglected through tlieir 
not being available in 
any popular system of 
" Hower gardening." 

Monkshood, Aco- 
nitum. — These are 
tall, handsome peren- 
nials, with very poison- 
ous roots, which make 
it danger'ous to plant 
them in or near 
gardens. Being usually 
very vigorous in con- 
stitution, they spread 
freely, and hold their 
own amongst the 
strongest herbaceous 
plants and weeds ; 
masses of them seen 
in flower in copses or 
near hedgerows atfi ird a 
very fine effect. There 
are many species, 
nearly of equal value 
for the wild garden. 
Coming from the plains 
and mountains of Siberia and Northern Europe and America, they are 
among the hardiest of plants. When spreading groups of Aconites are in 
bloom in copses or open spaces in shrubberies, their effect is far finer 
than when the plants are tied into linndles in trim borders. The old 
blue-and-white kind is charming in half-shady spots, attaining stately 
dimensions in good soih The species grow in any soil, but are often 
.somewhat stunted in growth on clay. 




'J"he Mon]<shood, iiauiralised by wet ditch in wood. 



122 THE WILD GARDEN. 

Bugle, Ajuga. — Not a very iiuintToiis family so far as represented 
in gardens, but some of the species are valuable for the wild _i,'arden, 
notably Ajuga genevensis, which thrives freely in ordinary soils in 
open and half- shady places among dwarf vegetation, and affords 
beautiful tufts and carpets of l)lue. It spreads rapidly and is hardy 
everywhere. The plants mostly come from the cool uplands and hills 
of the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. 

Yarrow, Achillea. — A numerous family of hardy plants spread 
tlirougli Northern Asia, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, etc., but 
more in Soutliern than in Central or Northern Europe. In the Alps 
and Pyrenees numerous species are found. The Golden Yarrows (A. 
Eupatorium and A. filipendulina) are stately herbaceous plants, witli 
liroad handsome corymbs of brilliantly showy flowers, attaining a height 
of 3 feet or 4 feet, and growing freely in any soil. These are well 
worthy of naturalisation. Various other Achilleas would grow 
quite as well in copses and rough places as the common Yarrow, 
l)ut we know of none more distinct and brilliant than tlie preceding. 
The vigorous white-flowering kinds are superb for shrubberies, where 
tlieir numerous white heads of flowers produce a singularly pleasing effect 
under the trees in summer. With few exceptions these plants have 
never been grown out of botanic gardens, many of them being thought 
too coarse for the mixed border. They are, nevertheless, remarkablj^ 
l)eautiful both in flower and foliage, and many effects never before seen 
in gardens may be obtained by massing tliem under trees in shrubberies 
or copses, as a rule allowing one species to establish itself in each place 
and assume an easy natural boundary of its o\vn. The small Alpine 
species woidd be interesting plants for stony or bare rocky places. 

Allium. — A most extensive genus of plants scattered in abundance 
throughout the northern temperate and alpine regions of Europe and 
Asia, and also iu America. Some of the species are very beautiful, 
so mucli so as to claim for them a place in gardens notwithstanding 
their disagreeable odour. It is in the wild garden only, however, that 
this family can find a fitting home ; tlrere species tliat do not seem 
attractive enough for the garden proper would afford novel effects at 
certain seasons. One of the most desirable effects to produce in the 
wild garden would be tliat of the beautiful white Narcissus-like Allium 
of the south of Europe (A. neapolitanuni). The sheets of this in the 
Lemon orchards of Provence will be remembered with pleasure by 
many travellers. It would thrive in warm and sandy soils : there is an 
allied species (A. ciliatum) which does well in any soil, affords a 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 



123 



similar eftect, and produces myriads of star-like white flowers. 
Numerous singular eft'ects may be pi-oduced from species less sliowy 
and more curious and vigorous, as for exampli- lln- old yellow A. Moly. 




The white Narcissus-like Allium, in the orchards of Provence ; tj^pe 
of family receiving little place in gardens which may be beautiful 
for a season in wild places. 

Alstrcemeria. — All who care for hardy iiuwers must admire the 
Leauty of Alstroemeria aurantiaca, especially when it spreads into Ixdd 
healthy tufts, and w1k-u there is a great variety in the height of the 
flowering stems. A valualde (piality of the plant is, that in any light 
soil it spreads freely, and it is quite hardy. For dry places between 
shrubs, for dry or sandy banks (either wooded or bare), co^jses, or 
heathy places, this plant is admirable. I have noticed it thriving in 
the shade of fir trees. It is interesting as beinu a Soiith American 
plant, thriving in any open soil. 

Marsh Mallow, Althmi. — These are plants rarely seen out of 
botanic gardens now-a-days, and yet, from their vigour and showy 
flowers, they may aftbrd unique effects in the wild garden. The 
common Hollyhock is an Altluea, and in its single form is typical 
of the vigorous habit and the numeroiis showy flowers of other ram- 
pant species, such as A. ficifolia. A grou}> of these plants would be 
very eflective seen from a wood walk, no kind of garden arrangement 
being large enough for their extraordinary vigour. It is not a numer- 
ous genus, but there are at least a dozen species, ])rincipally found on 
the shores and islands of the Mediterranean, and also in Western Asia. 

Alyssum. — In s^jring every little shoot of the wide tufts and flakes 



124 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



of these plants sends up a little fountain of small golden flowers. For 
bare, stony, or rocky banks, poor sandy ground, and ruins, they are 
admirable. Alyssiun Wiersbecki and A. saxatile are strong enough 
to take care of themselves on the mai^gins of shrubberies, etc., where 
the vegetation is not very coarse, but they are more valuable for rocky 
or stony places, or old ruins, and thrive freely on cottage garden walls 
iu some districts ; some of the less grown species would be welcome 
in such places. There are many species, natives of Germany, Russia, 
France, Ital^', Corsica, Sicily, Hungary, and Dalmatia ; Asia, principally 
Siberia, the Altai Mountains, Georgia, Persia, and the entire basin of 
the Caspian, is rich in them. 

Windflower, Anemone. — A numerous race of dwarf herT)s that 




The Alpine Windflower (Anemone alpina). 



contribute largely to the most beautiful effects of the mountain, wood, 
and pasture vegetation of all northern and temperate climes. The 
flowers vary from intense scarlet to the softest blue ; most of the exotic 
kinds would thrive as well in our woodlands and meadows as they do 
in tlieir own. There is hardly a position they may not adorn — warm, 
sunny, bare banks, on whicli tlie Grecian A. blanda might open its 
large Iduc flowers in winter ; the tangled copse, where the Japan 
Windflower and its varieties might make a bold show in autumn ; 
and the shady wood, where the Apennine Windflower would contrast 
charmingly with the Wood Anemone so abundantly scattered in our 



IIAItDY EXOTIC FLOW'KlilXC IM.ANTS. 125 

iiwii woiiils. T]n' HeiKitiras shmild lie cnnsiilcrcd as bi'l(iiigiu<;' t<i tlic 
same gciius, not InruvttiiiL;' tin- lliuiuaiiaii oir', A. aiigulnsa. Tin- 
Hepaticas thrive best and are seen l^est in liall'-wuddy places, where the 
spring 8U11 may elieer tlieni bypassing through the branches, which after- 
wards become leafy and shade tliem fi'um the scorching heats of summer. 

St. Bruno's Lily, Antliericvm. — One of the most lovely as])ects 
of vegetation in the alpine meadows of Europe is that affordeil l)y the 
delicate wlnte flowers of the St. l>runo"s Lily in the ({rass in early 
summer, looking like miniature white Lilies. All who have seen it 
would no (hmbt like to enjoy the same in their turfy lawns or Grassy 
places, and there shonhl be no difticultv in establishing it. The .large- 
flowered or major variety might lie tried with advantage in this way, 
and the smaller-flowered kinds, A. Liliago and its ^•arieties, are equally 
suitable. Tliey are not so likely to tind favour in gardens as the larger 
kind, and therefore the wild garden is the home for them, and in it 
many will admire their graceful habit and numeron.s flowers. All the 
sjiecies best worth growing are natives of the alpine meadow.s of Europe 

Alkanet, Anchusa. — Tall and handsome herbaceous plants, with 
numerous flowers of a tine blue, admirable for dotting aljout in open 
places in suimy glades in woods or copses. They mostly come from 
Southern Europe and Western Asia. A. italica and A. capensis are 
among the most usefuL The English Anchnsa sem])er\irens, rare in 
some places, is an excellent wild garden plant. 

Snapdragon, Antirrhinum. — The common Snapdragon and its 
beautifully spotted A'arieties are easily naturalised on old walls and 
ruins by sowing the seed in ohl or mossy chinks. Antirrhinum 
Asarinnm, rupestre, and niolle do well treated in the same way. 
Proljably many other species would be fonml good in like places. 
About two dozen species are known, but comparatively few of these are 
in cultivation. They mostly come from the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Columbine, Aquilegia. — Favourite herbaceous plants, generally 
of various shades of blue and purple, white, and sometimes Itright 
(U'ange. The varieties of the common kind (A. vulgaris), whicli are 
very numerous, are those most likely to be naturalised. In elevated 
and moist ilistricts some of the beautiful Eocky Mountain kinds would 
be worth a trial in bare places. In places where wild gardens have 
been tormed the ett'ect of Columbines in the Grass has been one of the 
most beautiful that have been obtained. The flowers group themselves 
in all sorts of pretty ways, showing just above the long Grass, and 
possessing great variety of colour. The vigorous and handsome A. 



]2fi 



THE AVILD OARDEN. 



chrysantha of Westevn America is the most hardy and enduring of 
the American kinds. The species are of a truly northern and alpine 
family, most alnmdant in Siberia. 

Wall Cress, Arabis. — Dwarf alpine plants, spreading in hal)it, 
and generally producing myriads of white flowers, exceedingly suitable 
for the decoration of sandy or rocky ground, where the vegetation is 
very dwarf. With tliem may be associated Cardamine trifolia and 

Thlaspi latifolium, 
which resemble the 
Arabises in habit and 
flowers. All these are 
particularly suited for 
association with the 
purple Aubrietias, or 
yellow Alyssums, and 
in bare and rocky or 
gravelly places, old walls, 
sunk fences, etc. 

Sandwort, Are- 
naria. — A most import- 
ant family of plants 
for the wild garden, 
though perhaps less so 
for lowland gardens 
where more vigorous 
types flourish. There 
are, however, certain 
species that are vigorous 
and indispensable, such 
as A. montana and 
A. graminifolia. The 
smaller alpine species 
are charming for rockj- 
places, and the little creeping A. balearica has (pite a peculiar 
value, inasmuch as moist rocks or stones suttice for its support. 
It covers such surfaces with a close carpet of green, dotted with 
numerous star-like flowers. Some of the smaller species, such as 
Arenaria c;espitosa (Sagina glabra var.), better known as Spergula 
pilifera, miglit be grown in the gravel, and even used to convert 
bare and sandy places into carpets of Mossy turf. In certain 




Siberian Columbine in rocky place. 



H.AKDY EXOTIC KLOWKlJlXCi PLANTS. 



127 



positions in largo gardens it \vonl<l bo an inijuovfniont to allmv 
the very walks or drives to become covered with very dwaif 
plants — plants which could be walked upon witli little injury. The 
surface would be dry enough, being drained below, and would Ix' 
more agreeable to the feet. Removing any coarse weeds that established 
themselves would be much easier than the continual hoeing and scraping 
required to keep the walk bare. Of course this only refers to walks in 
rough or picturesque 
places — the wild gar- 
den and the like — in 
Avhicli formal l>are 
walks are somewhat 
out of place. 

Asphodel, Asjoho- 
delus. — The Asphodels 
are among the plants 
that have never been 
popular in the mixed 
border, nor are they 
likely to be so, the 
habit of the species 
being somewhat coarse 
and the flowering period 
not long, and yet they 
are of a stately and 
distinct order of beauty, 
which well deserves to 
be represented in open 
sjiaces, in shrubberies, 
or on their outer fringes. 
The plants are mostly 
natives of the countries 
round the Mediterranean, and thrive freely in ordinary soils. 

Lords and Ladies, Arum. — Mostly a tropical and snb-tro])ical 
family, some of which grow as far north as southern Europe. These 
are cpiite hardy in our gardens. The Italian Arum is well worthy of 
a place in the wild garden, from its line foliage in winter. It should 
be placed in sheltered half-shady places where it would not suffer 
much from storms. The old Dragon plant (A. Dracontium) grows 
freely enough about the foot of rocks or walls in sandy, or dry, peaty 




Tall Asphodel in copse. 



128 THE WILD GAEDEN. 

place.s. The nearly allied Annii Lily (C'alla icthiopica) is ipiite hardy 
as a water and water- side plant in the southern counties of England 
and Ireland. 

Silkweed, Asdepias. — Usually vigorous perennials, ^\hh \-ery 
curious and ornamental flowers, common in fields and on river banks 
in North America and Canada, where thej' sometimes become trouble- 
some weeds. Of the species in cultivation, A. C'urnuti and A. Douglasi 
could l>e naturalised easily in rich deep soil in wild 2)laces. The 
showy and dwarfer Asclepias tuberosa requires very warm sand soils 
to flower as well as in its own dry hills and fields. A good many of 
the hardy species are not introduced ; for such the place is the wild 
garden. Some of them are water-side plants, such as A. incarnata, the 
Swamp Silkweed of the United States. 

Starwort, Aster. — A very large family of usually vigorous, (iften 
showy, and sometimes beautiful perennials, mostly with bluish or 
white flowers, chiefly natives of North America. Many of these, of an 
inferior order of beauty, used to be planted in our mixed borders, 
which they very much helped to bring into discredit, and they form a 
very good example of a class of plants for which the true place is the 
copse, or rough and half-cared-for j^laces in shrubberies and coi:)ses, and 
by wood-walks, where they will grow as freely as any native weeds, 
and in many cases prove highly attractive in late summer and autumn. 
Such kinds as A. pyrenseus, Amellus, and turbinellus, are amongst the 
most ornamental perennials we have. With the Asters may be grouj^ed 
the Galatellas, the Yernonias, and also the handsome and rather dwarf 
Erigeron speciosus, which, however, not being so tall, could not fight 
its way among such coarse vegetation as that in which the Asters may 
be grown. Associated with the Golden Rods (Solidago) — also common 
plants of the American woods and copses — the best of the Asters or 
Michaelmas Daisies Avill form a very interesting aspect of vegetation. 
It is that one sees in American woods in late summer and autumn 
when the Golden Rods and Asters are seen in bloom together. It is 
( )ne of numerous aspects of the vegetation of other countries which the 
" wild garden" will make possible in gardens. To produce such effects 
the plants must, of course, be planted in some quantity in one part of 
a rather open wood, and not repeated all over the place or mixed up 
with many other things. Nearly 200 sjjecies are known, about 150 
of which form part of the rich vegetation of North America. These 
fine plants inhabit that great continent, from Mexico — where a few are 
found — to the United States and Canada, where they abound, and even 
\\l^ to the regions altogether arctic of that quarter of the world. 



HARDY EXOTIC I'LUWERIXG PLANTS. 129 

Milk Vetch, Astrdf/alu!^.— An enormously numerotis family of 
beautiful liardy plauts, represented to but a very sli<j;lit extent in our 
gardens, though hundreds of them are hardy, and many of them among 
the most pleasing of the many Pea flowers which adorn the hills and 
mountains of the ntnlhern world in Asia, Europe, and America. They 
are mostly suited for rocky or gravelly situations, or bare banks, though 
some of the taller sj)ecies, like A. galegiformis, are stout enough to take 
care of themselves among the larger perennials. This plant is valuable 
for its handsome port and foliage, though its flowering equalities are not 
such as recommend it for the garden proper. The numerous species 
from the Mediterranean sIku'cs and islands could be successfully intro- 
duced on banks and slopes in our chalk districts and in rocky places. 
A. ponticus, a tall kind, and A. monspessulanus, a dwarf one, are both 
worth "I'owiiiL!;. 

Masterwort, Asfrantia. — This is an elegant genus, of which few 
species are known, five being European — found in Italy, Carinthia, 
Greece, and the centre of Europe — others from jSTorthern Asia. They 
are among the few umbellates with attractive and distinct flowers, and 
yet they are rarely seen in gardens. In the wild garden they are quite 
at home among the Grass and medium -sized lierbaceous plants, and 
partial shade prolongs their cpiaint beauty. In fact they are far more at 
home in the thin wood or copse than in the open exposed mixed border. 

Blue Rock Cress, Auhrietia. — Dwarf Alpine plants, with purp- 
lish flowers, quite distinct in aspect and hue from anything else grown 
in our gardens, and never perishing from any cause, except being over- 
run by coarser subjects. They are admirable for association with the 
Alyssums and Arabises in any position where the vegetation is very 
dwarf, or in rocky bare places. There are several species and varieties, 
all almost equally suitable, but not differing much in aspect or stature 
from each other. The Aubrietias come chiefly from the mountains of 
Greece, Asia Minor, and neighbouring countries. Wherever there is 
an old wall, or a sunk fence, or a bare bank, evergreen curtains may 
be formed of these plants, and in spring they will be sheeted witli 
purple flowers, no matter how harsh the weather. 

Great Birthwort, Aristolochia Sipho. — A noble plant for cover- 
ing arbours, banks, stumps of old trees, etc., also wigwam-like bowers, 
formed with branches of trees. It is American, and will grow as high 
as thirty feet, A. tomentosa is distinct and not so large in leaf. These 
will scarcely be grown for their flowers ; but for covering stumps or 
trees they are valuable, and afi"ord a distinct type of foliage. 

K 



130 THE WILD GARDEN. 

Virginian Creepers, Ampelopsis. — Although thi« chapter is 
mostly devoted to herbaceous plants, the Viroiuiaii Creeper and its 
allies are so nseful for forming curtains in rocky places, ravines, or over 
old trees, that they deserve mention here. These plants are not very 
distant relations of the vine — the wild American vines which are 
worthy of a place in our groves, garlanding trees as they do in a grand 
way. Some noble in colour of leaf are growTi in nurseries — U. Huni- 
Iwldti being remarkable both for colour and size of leaf. 

Bamboo, Bamhusa. — In many parts of England, Ireland, and 
Wales, various kinds of Bamboos are perfectly hardy, and not only 
hardy, but thrive freely. In cold, dry, and inland districts, it is true, 
they grow with difficulty — all the greater reason for making the best 
use of them where they grow freely. Their beauty is the more 
precious from their being wholly distinct in habit from any other 
plants or shrubs that we grow. The delicate feathering of the young, 
tall, and slender shoots, the charming arching of the stems, have often 
been fertile in suggestion to the Japanese artist, and often adorn his 
best work. They may be enjoyed with all the charms of life in many 
wardens. The wild garden, where the climate is suitable, is the best 
home for Bamboos. They are so tall and so enduring at the roots that 
they will take care of themselves among the tallest and strongest plants 
or bushes, and the partial shelter of the thin wood or copse preserves 
their abundant leaves from violent and cold wimls. Along by cpiiet 
Grass walks, in sheltered dells, in little bogs, in the shrubbery, or in 
little lawns opened in woods for the formation of wild gardens, the 
Bamboo will be at home. Tlie commonest kind is that generally 
known as Arundinaria falcata (sometimes called Bambusa gracilis) ; 
but others, such as Bambusa Metake, B. Simmonsi, and B. viridis- 
glaucescens, are of eciual or greater value. They all delight in rich, 
light, and moist soils. 

Baptisia. — A strong Lupin-like plant seldom grown in gardens, 
but beautiful when in bloom for its long blue racemes of pea flowers, 
c^rowin" three to four feet high ; it will hold its own in strong soil. 

Borage, Borago. — A genus seldom seen out of Botanic gardens, 
where they form part of the usual distressing arrangements honoured 
with the name of " scientific." Among the best kinds for our purpose 
are B. cretica and B. orientalis, even the well-known annual kind 
will be found a pretty plant, naturalised and useful for covering 
mounds. 

Bell-flower, Camimnula. — Beautiful and generally blue-flowered 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 131 

lu'i'lis, vai'viiig iVdiu a few inclics to 4 I'l. in lieight, and abiuulantly 
scattered in nortliern ami li'ni])crat(' ciinntrii'S. Many kinds arc in 
iiiltivafiiiii. All tlif nic(liuiu-pi/(Ml and large kinds thrive very well in 
rough places, woods, copses, or shrubberies, among grasses and other 
herbaceous plants ; while those smaller in size than our own harebell 
(C. rotundifolia) are ipute at home, and very pretty, on any arid f)r 
hare surfaces, such as sandy baidvs, chalk pits, and even high np on 
old walls, ruins, etc. In such positions the seeds have only to be 
scattered. ('. rainmculoides and C. lamiifolia do fin(dy in shrubberies 
or copses, as, indeed, do all the tall-growing kinds. Where there are 
white varieties they should be secured ; many people will begin to see 
the great beauty of this lamily for the first time when they see them 
"rowino- amons the "rass or herbs. The effect is far more beautiful 
than can be obtained in the garden pro]X'r. 

Red. Valerian, CentnoifJtus rubrr. — This showy and pleasing 
plant is only seen in highest perfection on elevated banks, rubbish- 
heaps, or old walls, in which positions it endures much longer than on 
the level ground, and becomes a long-lived perennial Avith a shrubby 
base. On the long bridge across the Nore at Col. Tighe's place, Wood- 
■ stock, Kilkenny, it grows in abundance, forming a long line on the 
wall ahovQ the arches ; of course it could be easily grown on ruins, 
while it is invaluable for banks of all kinds, chalk pits, etc., and 
also for the level ground, except in heavy cold soils. Some of the 
larger Valerianas would grow freely in rough places, but none of them 
are so distinct as the preceding. 

Knap-weed, Ccnfaurca. — Vigorous perennial or annual herbaceous 
plants, seldom so pretty as autumn-sown plants of our corn bluebottle 
(C. Cvanus). They are scarcely important enough for borders ; hence 
the wild wood is the place for them. Among the most suitable kinds 
may be mentioned macrocephala, montana, babylonica, and uniflora, 
the last more suitable for l)aid<s, etc. 

Mouse-ear, Cemstium. — Dwarf spreading perennials, bearing a 
profusion of white flowers. Half a dozen or more of the kinds have 
silvery leaves, which, with their flowers, give them an attractive 
character. Most of these are used as bedding plants, but, as they will 
grow in any position where they are not choked by coarser plants, 
they may be employed with good eft'ect in the wild garden. 

Wallflower, Cheirtcntlnis. — The varieties of the common wall- 
flower attbrd c[uite a store of beauty in themselves for the embellish- 
ment of rocky places, old walls, etc. Probably other species of 



132 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Cheirantlnts will be fmmd to grow on ruins quite as well, but at 
present we are not quite sure of these. The clear yellow Erysimum 
ochroleucum is very like a wallflower in type, and thrives well in dry 
sandy places. With these might be associated Yesicaria utriculata. 

Meadow Saffron, Cokhicum. — In addition to the meadow 
saffron, plentifully dotted over the moist fields in A'arious parts of 
England, there are seA^eral other species which could be readily 
naturalised in almost any soil and position. They would be particularly 

desirable where 
subjects that flower 
in autumn would 
be sought ; and 
they are charming, 
seen in tufts or 
colonies on the 
lawn or in the 
pleasure-gr(.)und. 

Crocus.— One 
or two Crocuses are 
naturalised in Eng- 
land already, and 
there is scarcely one 
of them that willnot 
succeed thus if pro- 
perly placed. They should not be placed where coarse vegetation would 
choke them iip or prevent the sun getting to their flowers and leaves. 
Some of the delicately-tinted varieties of vernus are w^ell worth dotting 
about in grassy places and on sunny slopes, if only to accompany the snow- 
drop. C Imperati is a valuable early-flowering kind, and the autumnal 
flowering ones are particularly desirable ; but we must not particularise 
where all are good. " In the plantations here," writes a correspondent, 
" on each side of a long avenue, we have the common Crocus in every 
shade of purple (there are scarcely any yellow ones) growing literally 
in hundreds of thousands. We have no record of when the roots were 
originally planted (and the oldest people about the estate say they have 
always been the same as far as their recollection goes) ; but they grow 
so thickly that it is quite impossible to step where they are without 
treading on two or three flowers. The effect produced by them in spring 
is magnificent, but unfortunately, their beauty is but short-lived. I 
have transplanted a good many roots to the wild garden, to the great 




The foliage of the Meadow Saffron in Spring 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWER IXG PLANTS. 



133 







improvement of tlie size of the individual blooms ; tliey are so matted 
together in the sliruhheries I have mentioned, and liave remained so 
long in the same placi', lliat the flowers are small." 

Virgin's Bower, Ukmatis. — Mostly climbing or trailing plants, 
free, often luxuriant, sometimes rampant, in habit, with bluish, violet, 
purple, white, or yellow flowers, produced most pi'ofuselj', and some- 
times deliciously fragrant. They are most suited for covering stumps, 
planting on rocky places, among low shrulis in copses, for draping over 
the faces of rocks, sunny banks, or the bmws of sunk fences, covering 
objectionable railings, 
rough bowers, chalk 
pits, hedges, etc., and 
occasionally for isolat- 
ing in large tufts in 
oj)en spaces where 
their effect could be -=C^- 
seen from a distance. 
Xot particular as to 

soil, the stronger kinds .^-^^ White-flowered European Clematis (C. erecta). 

will grow in any 

ground, but the large-flowered new hyljrids will thrive best in warnr, 

rich, deep soil. 

C. Viorna, C flanimula, montana, campaniflora, Yiticella, and 
cirrhosa, must not be omitted from a selection of the wild kinds. The 
new garden hybrids will also be useful. 

Dwarf Cornel, C'ornus canadensis. — This charming little bushy 
plant, singularly beavitiful from its white bracts, is a very attractive 
subject for naturalisation in moist, sandy, or peaty spots, in which our 
native heaths, Mitchella repens, Linna-a borealis, and the Butterworts 
would be likely to thrive. It would also grow well in moist woods, 
where the herbaceous vegetation is dwarf. 

Mocassin Flower, Cypripedium spedabile. — The noblest of hardy 
orchids, found far north in America, and thriving perfectly in England 
and Ireland in deep rich or vegetable soil. Wherever the soil is not 
naturally peat or rich vegetable matter this fine plant will succeed on 
the margins of beds of rhododendrons, etc. It should be sheltered bj'- 
surrounding bushes, and be in a moist position. Others of the genus, 
and various other hardy orchids, are worthy of naturalisation ; but the 
mocassin flower is the best as well as the most easily tried at present. 

Sowbread, Cyclamen. — It was the sight of a grove nearly covered 



134 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



with Cyclamen hedeKefoliuiii, near Montargis, in France, that tirst 
turned my attention to the " Wild Garden." Both C. hedersefoliuni 
and C. europanim may be naturalised with the greatest ease on light, 
loamy, or other warm and open soil. C. vernum, C. Coum, and C. 
repandum, are also well worthy of trial. Nothing can he more agree- 
able to the lover of hardy plants than endeavouring to naturalise these 
charming flowers, now rarely seen out of the greenhouse. The best 
positions would be among dwarf shrubs, etc., that would afford slight 
shelter, on- banks or sunny open spots in copses or woods. Bare or 
dug borders they abhor, and a sunny Avarm exposure shoi;ld be chosen. 
In the case of C. hedera) folium (and perhaps some of the others) ground 
under trees, bare, or with a very scant vegetation of herbs, etc., would 
do quite well if tlie soil were free and warm. There is scarcely a 




Cyclamens in the wild garden ; from nature. 



coimtry seat in England in whieli tlie hardy Cyclamens, now almost 
entirely neglected by the gardener, could not be naturalised. 

The Giant Sea-kale, Grambe. — " C. cordifolia is a very hue 
perennial, ]>ut its place is on the turf in rich soil. It has enormous 
leaves, and small whitish flowers in panicles. Here it is one of the 
finest ornaments in a wild garden of about five acres, associated with 
Rheums, Ferulas, Gunneras, Centaure;i babylonica, Arundo Donax, 
Acanthus, and others." 

Bindweed, Calystecjia. — Climbing plants, with handsome whitt- 
or rosy flowers, often too vigorous in con&titution to be agreeable in 
gardens, as is the case with our common bindweed. C. dahurica, some- 
what larger than the common hind, is verv handsome when allowed 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERINCJ PLANTS. 



135 



ti) trail tliruiigli 8lirul)S, in rough places, or over stumps, rustic 
bridges, etc., ami douljtless sundry other species will in time be found 
(■((ually useful. 

The pretty little Eosy Bindweed that one meets often upon the 
shores of the Mediterranean is here depicted at home in an English 
garden, creeping up the leaves of an Iris in Mr. Wilson's garden at 
Heatherbank, Weyl>ridge Heath. It is a great privilege we have of 
being able to grow the fair flowers of so many regions in tnir own, and 
without caring for them in the sense, and with the 
troubles that attend other living creatures in menageries, 
aviaries, etc. This is an advantage that we do not evi- 
dently consider when we put a few 
plants in lines and circles only, ob- 
livious of the infinite beauty and variety 
of the rest. This beautiful pink Bind- 
weed is the representative, so to speak, 
of our own Rosy Field Bindweed in the 
south, but nevertheless it is perfectly 
hardy and free in our own soils. Its 
botanical name is Convolvulus al- 
tlia3oides. 

Marsh Calla, Calla jndustris. — A 
creeping Arum-like plant, with white 
flowers showing above a carpet of glossy 
leaves, admirable for naturalisation in 
muddy places, moist bogs, on the nuirgins 
of ponds, etc. 

Rosy Coronilla, Cownilla varia. — 
Europe. On grassy banks, stony heaps, 
rough rocky ground, spreading over 

slopes or any like positions. A very A South B:uropean Bindweed creeping 
, ." T ,. ^1 • • up the stems of an Iris in an English 

tine plant lor naturalisation, thriving garden. 
in any soil. 

Giant Scabious, (Jcphalaria. — Allied to Scabious but seldom 
grown. They are worth a place in the wild garden for their fine 
vigour alone, and the numerous pale yellow ttoAvers will l)e admired by 
those who do not limit their admiration to showy colours. 

Coral-wort, Dcntaria. — Very slioAvy perennials, the purplish or 
white llowers of which present someAvhat of the appearance of a stock- 
flower, quite distinct both in habit and bloom, and very rarely seen 




"^X 



136 THE WILD GARDEN. 

in onr gardens ; they will be found to thrive well and look well in 
peat soil beneath rhododendrons, and towards the margins of clumps 
of American shrubs. 

Leopard's Bane, Downicum. — Stout, medium-sized, or dwarf 
perennials, with hardy and vigorous constitutions, and very sliowy 
flowers ; well suited for naturalisation among herbaceous vegetation, in 
any position where the beauty of their early bloom can be enjoyed. 

American Cowslip, Dodecatheon. — All who care for hardy 
flowers admire the beautiful American cowslij:) (D. Meadia), found in rich 
woods in Pennsylvania, Ohio, to Wisconsin and south-westward, in 
America. This would be a charming plant to naturalise on rich and 
light sandy loams, among dwarf herbs, low shrubs, etc., in sheltered 
and sunny sjiots. Jeffrey's American cowslip (D. Jeffreyanum), a 
vigorous-growing kind, is also well Avortli a trial in this way, though 
as yet it is hardly plentiful enough to be spared for this purpose. 

Fumitory, Fmnaria, Diehjtra. — Plants with graceful leaves and 
gay flowers suited for association with dwarf subjects on open banks, 
except D. spectabilis, which in deep peat or other rich soil will grow a 
yard high. The simjde- looking little Fumaria bulbosa is one of the 
dwarf subjects which thrive very well under the liranches of specimen 
deciduous trees, and Corydalis lutea thrives in every position from the 
top of an old castle to the bottom of a well shaft. I saw Dielytra eximia 
naturalised in Buckhurst Park, in a shrubbery, the position shady. Its 
effect was most charming, the plumy tufts being dotted all over witli 
flowers. Had I before wished to naturalise this, I should have put it 
on open slopes, or among dwarf plants, but it thrives and spreads 
about with tlie greatest freedom in shady spots. The blossoms, instead 
of being of the usual crimson hue, were of a peculiar delicate pale rose, 
no doubt owing to the shade ; and, as they gracefully drooped over the 
elegantly-cut leaves, they looked like snowdrops of a faint rosy hue. 

Delphinium, Perennial species. — Tall and beautiful herbaceous 
plants, M'ith flowers of many exquisite shades of blue ami purple. 
There are now numerous varieties. They are well suited for rich soil 
in glades, copses, thin shrubberies, or among masses of dwarf shrubs, 
above which their fine spikes of bloom might here and there arise. 

One of the iirettiest effects which I have ever seen among natu- 
ralised plants was a colony of tall Larkspurs (Delphiniums). Portions 
of old roots of several species and A'arieties had been chopped dtt' 
where a bed of these plants M-as being dug in the autumn. For 
convenience sake the refuse had been tlirown into the neiohbouriu" 



HAEDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 137 

shrubbery, for in juiiiiiil; the shrulis uiid tall trees. Here they grew in 
certain half- open little spaces, wliieli were so for removed from the 
maro'in that they were not dug and were not seen. When I saw the 
Larkspurs in flower they were certainly the loveliest things that one 
could see. Thej^ were more beautiful than they are in borders or beds, 
not growing in smdi close stiff tufts, and mingling with and relie\-eil 
by the trees above and the shrubs amund. Little more need be .said 
to any one who knows and cares about such plants, and has an oppor- 
tunity of planting in such neglected places. This case points out 
pretty clearly that one might make wild gardens fr(jm the mere parings 
and thinnings of the beds and borders in autumn, in any place where 
there is a collection of good hardy plants. The cut on p. 28 does 
scant justice to the scene, whieh, perhaps, it is not in the power of 
wood engraving to illustrate. 

Pink, Dianthus. — A numerous race of beautiful dwarf mountain 
plants, ^^ith flowers mostly of various shades of ro.se, sometimes sport- 
ing into other colours in cultivation. The finer mountain kinds would 
be likely to thrive only on bare stony or rocky ground, and amidst 
A'ery dwarf vegetation. The bright D. neglectus would thrive in any 
ordinary soil. Some of the kinds in the way of our own D. csesius 
grow well on old walls and ruins, as do the single carnations and 
pinks ; indeed, it is probable that many kinds of pink would thrive 
on ruins and old walls better far than on the ground. 

Foxglove, Digitalis. — It need not be said here that our own 
stately Foxglove should be encouraged in the wild garden, jiarticularly 
in districts where it does not naturally grow wild ; I allude to it here 
to point out that there are a nundier of exotic species for which a 
place might be found in the wild garden — some of them are not very 
satisfactory otherwise. The most showy hardy flowers of midsummer 
are the Foxglove and the French willoAV (Epilobiuin angustifolium), 
and in wild or rough places in shrubberies, etc., their eft'ect is beautiful. 
In such half shady places the Foxglove thrives best ; and, as the French 
willow is much too rampant a plant for the garden proper, the proper 
place for it too is in the wild garden. It is a most showy jilant, and 
masses of it may be seen great distances off. The delicately and 
curiously spotted varieties of the Foxglove should be sown as well 
as the ordinary wild form. 

Hemp Agrimony, Eupatorium. — Vigorous perennials, with 
white or purple fringed flowers. Some of the American kinds might 
well be associated with our own wild one — the white kinds, like 



138 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



iiroinaticuiu and agenitoides, being very beautiful and distinct, and \\\'\\ 
worthy of a place in the best parts of the wild gai'den. 

Sea Holly, Eryngium. — Very distinct and noble-looking per- 
ennials, with ornamental and usually spiny leaves, and flowers in 
heads, sometimes surrounded by a bluish involucrum, and supported 
on stems of a hue amethystine blue. They would be very attractive 
on margins of 8hrul)beries and near wood -walks, thrive in ordinary 
free soil, and will take care of themselves among tall grasses and all 
but the most vigorous herbs. 

Heath, Erica, Menziesia. — Our own heathy places are pretty rich 
in this type, but the brilliant Erica carnea is so distinct and attractive 

that it well deserves naturalisaticm among 
them. The beautiful St. Daboec's heath 
(Menziesia polifolia) deserves a trial in 
the same way, as, though found in the 
west of Ireland, it is to the majority of 
English gardens an exotic plant. It will 
grow almost anywhere in peaty soil. 

Barren-wort, Epimedium. — -Inter- 
esting and very distinct, but compara- 
tively little known perennials, with pretty 
and usually delicately tinted flowers, and 
singular and ornamental foliage. They 
are most suitable for peaty or free moist 
soils, in sheltered, positions, among low 
shrubs on rocky banks, etc., and near the 
eye. The variety called E. iiinnatum 
elegans, when in deep peat soil, forms tufts of leaves nearly a yard 
high, and in spring is adorned with long racemes of pleasing yellow 
flowers, so that it is well worthy of naturalisation where the soil is 
suitable. 

Globe Thistle, Eclunops. — Large and distinct perennials of fine 
port, from 3 feet to 6 feet high, with spiny leaves and numerous 
flowers in spherical heads. These will thrive well in almost any 
positi(jn, and hold their ground amid the coarsest vegetation. Being 
of a " type " c^uite distinct from that of our indigenous vegetation, they 
are more than usually suited ft)r naturalisation. Eclunops exaltatus 
and E. ruthenicus, are among the best kinds, the last the best in colour. 
May-flower, Epigaa repetis. — A small creeping shrub, with pretty 
and delici(msly fragrant flowers, which appear soon after the melting 




A Sea Holly ; Eryngium. 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 139 

of the snow in N. Anu-rica, ami arc tlicre as welcnnic as the liawtlinrn 
with lis. In its native, countrv it inhabits woods, mostly in the shade 
of pines ; and usually, wherever I saw it, it seemed to form a carpet 
under three or four layers of vegetation, so to speak — that is to say, 
it was beneath pines, medium-sized trees, tall Lushes, and dwarf scrub 
about 18 in. lii,uh, while the plant itself was nut more than one or 
two inches high. In dur gardens this plant is very rarely seen, ami 
even in the great American jdant nurseries, where it used to grow it 
has disappeared. This is no wonder, when it is considered how very 
different are the conditions which it enjoys in gardens compared with 
those which I have above described. Without doubt it can be natu- 
ralised easily in pine woods on a .sandj' soil. 

Dog's-tooth Violet, Enjthronmm. — A few days ago I sa^v a 
number of irregular clumps of these here and there on a gently slop- 
ing bank of turf, and, in front of clumps of evergreens, they looked 
tj^uite charming, and their dark spotted leaves showed up to much 
better effect on the fresh trreen Grass than thev do in borders. They 
were all of the red \ariety, and required a few of the white form 
among them to make the picture perfect. 

So writes a correspondent in Ireland. This beautiful plant, some 
years ago rarely seen in our gardens, adorns many a dreary slope in the 
Southern Alps, and there should be no great difficulty in the way 
of adding its charms to the wild garden in peaty or sandy spots, 
rather l)are or under decidu(tus vegetation. 

The Winter Aconite, Erantliishyemalis. — Classed among British 
plants but really naturalised. Its golden buttons peeping through the 
moss and grass in snowdrop time form one of the prettiest aspects of 
our garden vegetation in spring. It will grow anywhere, and is one 
of the plants that thrive under the spreading branches of summer- 
leafing trees, as it lilo(.)ms and perfects its leaves before the buds open 
nn the beech. On many lawns, spring gardens might be formed by 
planting some spring flowering plants that finish their growth 
before the trees are in leaf. Another advantage of such positions 
is, that the foliage of the tree prevents any coarser plants taking 
possession of the ground, ami therefore these little spring plants 
have the ground to themselves, and wander into natural little groups 
in the moss and grass, sometimes covering the surface with a sheet of 
blossoms. 

Punkia. — ^I have spoken of the conditions in the wild garden 
being more suitable to many plants than those which obtain in what 



140 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



might seem choice positions in borders, many of the pLants attain- 
ing greater beauty and remaining longer in bloom in the shade and 
shelter of shrubby places than when fully exposed. As an instance 
of this, I saw Funkia coerulea the other day, showing a size and beauty 
in a shady drive at Beauport, near Battle, which I never saw it attain 
under other circumstances. The plant was over a yard high, and bore 
many stately stems hung with blue flowers. The Funkias are exceed- 
ingly valuable iilants for the wild garden, not being liable to accidents 
which are fatal to Lilies and other plants exposed to the attacks of 
slugs and rabbits. 




Groups of Funkia .Sieboldi. 



Snakes-head, Fritillaria. — The beautiful British snakes-head 
(F. Meleagris) grows wild, as most people know, in ]neadows in various 
j)arts of England, and we should like to see it as well established in 
the grassy hollows of many a country seat. A^'arious other Fritillarias 
not so pretty as this, and of a peculiar livid dark hue, which is not 
like to make them popular in gardens, such as F. tristis, would be 
worthy of a position also ; while the Crown Imperial would do on the 
fringes of shrubberies. 

Giant Fennel, Ferula. — Noble herbaceous plants belonging to 
the parsley order, with much and exquisitely divided leaves ; y\\\&\\ 
well developed forming magniticent tufts of verdure, reminding one 
of the most finely-cut ferns, but far larger. The leaves appear very 
early in sjiring, and disappear at the end of summer, and the l)est use 
that can be made of the plants is to plant them here and there in 
places occupied T)y spring and early summer flowers, among -which 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 141 

tliev wcHild produce ;i very fine etl'ect. With the Fcrulas mit,dit l)e 
grouped another handsome umbelliferous plant (Molopospernuim cicu- 
tarium) ; and no doubt, when we know the ornamental qualities of the 
order better, we shall find sundry other charming i)lants of similar 
character. 

Ferns. — Xo plants may l)e naturalised more successfully and with 
a more charming eft'ect than ferns. The royal ferns, of wliich the 
bold foliage is reflected in the marsh waters of Northern America, will 
do well in the many places where our own royal fern thriA-es. The 
graceful maidenhair fern of the rich woods of the Eastern States and 
the Canadas will thrive perfectly in any cool, shady, narrow lane, 
or dyke, or in a shady wood. The small ferns that find a home on avid 
alpine cliffs may be established on old walls and ruins. Cheilanthes 
odora, which grows so freely on the sunny sides of walls in Soiithern 
France, would be well worth trying in similar positions in the south 
of England, the spores to be sown in mossy chinks of the walls. The 
climbing fern Lygodium jialmatum, which goes as far north as cold 
Massachusetts, would twine its graceful stems up the undershrubs in 
an English wood too. In fact, there is no fern of the numbers that 
inhabit the northern regions of Europe, Asia, and America, that may 
not be tried with confidence in various positions, preferring for the 
greater number such positions as we know our native kinds to thrive 
best in. One could form a rich and stately type of wood -haunting 
fern vegetation without employing one of our native kinds at all, 
though, of course, generally the best way will be to associate all so 
far as their habits and sizes will permit. Treat them boldly ; put 
strong kinds out in glades ; imagine colonies of Daffodils among the 
Oak and Beech Ferns, fringed by early Aconite, in the spots over- 
shadowed by the branches of deciduous trees. Then, again, many of 
these Ferns, the more delicate of them, could be used as the most 
graceful of carpets for bold beds or groups of floA\-ering plants. They 
would form part, and a very 



important part, of what we 
have written of as evergreen 
herbaceous plants, and 
might well be associated 
with them in true winter 
gardens. 

Geranium, Geranmm, 
Erodium. — Handsome and A hardy Geranium. 




142 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



ratlier dwarf perennials, mostly with bluish, pinkisli, or dee-p rose flowers, 
aflniirable for naturalisation. Some of the better kinds of the hardy 
geraniums, such as G. ibericum, are the very plants to take care of 
tliemselves on wild banks and similar places. With them niiglit be 
associated the fine Erodium Manescavi ; and where there are very 
bare places, on which tliey would not be overran by coarser plants, tlie 
smaller Erodiums, such as E. romaiuini, might be tried with advantage. 
Goat's Rue, Gnlerin. — Tall and A'igorous but graceful perennials, 

with very numerous 
and handsome flowers, 
pink, blue, or white. 
G. otticinalis and its 
white variety are among 
the very best of all tall 
Ijorder flowers, and 
they are equally useful 
for planting in rough 
and wild places, as is 
also the blue G. orien- 
tal is and G. biloba. 
They are all free 
Ljrowers. 

Gypsophila, Gtjp- 
.•<op]i,ila and Tunica. — 
Vigorous l)ut neat per- 
ennials, very hardy, 
and producing myriads 
of flowers, mostly 
small, and of a pale 
})inkish hue. They are 
best suited for rocky 
or sandy ground, or 
even old ruins, or any 
positi(^n where they will not be smothered Ijy coarser vegetation. 
Similar in character is the pretty little Tunica saxifraga, which grows 
on the tops of old walls, etc., in Southern Europe, and will thrive on 
bare places on the level ground with us. 

Gentian, Gentiana. — Dwarf, antl usually evergreen, alpine or high- 
pasture plants, with large and numerous flowers, mostly handsome, and 
frequently of the most vivid and beautiful blue. The large G. acaulis 




Snowdrops, wild, by streamlet in valley. 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERINli PLANTS. 143 

(Gentianella) wnnld grow as freely in moist places on any of our own 
mountains as it docs on its native liills ; as, indeed, it would in all 
moist loams, where it could Jiot lie choked by coarse and taller subjects. 
Tlie tall willow Gentian (G. asclepiadea) is a handsome plant, which, in 
the mountain woods of Switzerland, may be seen bloomiii,^ anion.i; long 
grass in shade of trees, and this fact is suggestive as to its use in this 
country. 

Snowdrops, Galantltus. — The charms of our own Snowdrop 
when naturalised in the grass are well known to all, but many of the 
new kinds have claims also in that respect, such as Elwesi and G. 
plicatus. It is surprising how comparatively few people take 
advantage of the facility with which the Snowdrop grows in grass, so 
as to have it in pretty groups and colonies by grass-walks or drives. 
The accompanying illustration, which shows it on the margin of a 
streamlet in a Somersetshire valley, shows that it is not particular as to 
situation. It suggests the many places it may adorn other than the 
garden border. 

Cow Parsnips, Heracleum. — Giant herbaceous plants, mostly 
from Northern Asia, with liuge divided leaves, and umbels (sometimes 
a foot across) of white or whitish flowers. They are very suitable for 
rough places on the banks of rivers or artificial water, islands, or in 
any position in which a very vigorous and liold tyjje of foliage may be 
desired. In arranging them it should be borne in luind that their 
foliage dies down and disappears in the end of summer. When 
established they sow themselves, so that seedling plants in abundance 
may be picked up around them. In all cases it is important that their 
seed should be sown immediately after being gathered. But it is also 
important not to allow them to monopolise the ground, as then they 
Ijecome objectionable. To this end it may, in certain positions, be 
desirable to prevent them seeding. 

Day Lily, Hemerocallis. — Vigorous plants of the lily order, with 
hjug leaves and graceful habit, and large and showy red-orange or 
yellow flowers, sometimes scented as delicately as the primrose. There 
are two types, one large and strong like flava and fulva, the other short 
and somewhat fragile like graminea. The larger kinds are superb 
plants for naturalisation, growing in any soil, and taking care of them- 
selves among coarse herbaceous plants or brambles. 

Christmas Rose, Helleborus. — Stout but dwarf perennials, with 
showy blooms appearing in winter and spring when flowers are rare, 
and with handsome leathery and glossy leaves. They thrive in almost 



144 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



any position or soil ; bnt to get the full benefit of their early-blooming 
tendency it is desirable to place them on sunny grassy banks in tufts 
or groups, and not far from the eye, as they are usually of unobtrusive 
colours. They form beautiful ornaments near wild wood walks, 
where the spring sun can reach tliem. Tliere are various kinds useful 
for naturalisation. 

Sun Rose, Helianthemum. — Dwarf spreading shrubs, bearing 

myriads of tlowers in a variety 
of showy colours. The most 
tasteful and satisfactory way of 
employing these in our gardens 
is to naturalise them on banks 
or slopes in the half-wild parts 
of our pleasure-grounds, mostly 
in sandy or warm soil. They 
are best suited for chalk districts 
( ir roclvy ones, where they thrive 
most luxuriantly, and make a 
very brilliant display. There 
are many varieties, mostly differ- 
ing in the hue of tlie flowers. 

Perennial Sunflower, 
Helianthus, RudbecMa, Silphium. 
— Stout and usually very tall 
perennials, with showy yellow 
flowers, the best known of which 
is Helianthus multiflorus fl. pL, 
of which plenty may be seen in 
Euston Stj^iiare and other places 
in London. As a rule these 
are all better fitted for rough, 
places than for gardens, where, 
like many other plants mentioned in these pages, they will tend to 
form a vigorous herbaceous covert. H. rigidus is a brilliantly showy 
plant, running very freelj* at the root, and an excellent subject for 
naturalisation. H. giganteus, common in thickets and swamj^s in 
America, and growing as high as 10 ft., is also desirable. The showy 
and larger American Rudbeckias, such as laciuiata, triloba, and also 
the small but showy hirta, virtually belong to the same type. All 
these plants, and many others of the tall yellow-flowered composites that 




Sun Rose on limestone rocks. 



HARDY EXOTTf 1- LOWERTXi i T'T.AXTS. 145 

one sees conspicuous aiiiouL; herbaceous vegetation in America, would 
jii'iKluce very showy cH't'cts in autunni, and might perhaps more 
particuLirly interest those who only visit their country seats at that 
time of year. The Silphiums, especially the compass plant (S. 
laciniatum), and the cup plant (S. perfoliatum), are allied in general 
aspect and character to the Helianthuses, and are suitable for the same 
purposes. 

St. John's Wort, Hypericum. — Tlie well-known St. John's wort 
has already in many places made good its claim as a wilderness jslant, 
and there is scarcely one of its numerous congeners which will not 
thrive in vrild. and rough places, in any soil. They haA^e all the same 
bright yellow flowers as the St. John's wort, and are nearly all taller. 
Some of the newer kinds have the handsome large flowers of the St. 
John's Wort. It should be noted that the common St. John's Wort so 
exhausts the soil of moisture that it may be the cause of the death of 
trees, and should therefore be looked after. Many places have too 
much of it, as they have of the common Laurel. 

Rocket, Hesperis. — The conmion single Rocket (Hesperis mat- 
ronalis) is a .showy useful jilant in copse or shrubbery, and very easily 
raised from seed. 

Evergreen Candytuft, Iberis. — Compact little evergreens, form- 
ing spreading bushes from 3 inches to 15 inches high, and sheeted with 
white flowers in spring and early summer. There are no plants more 
suitable for naturalisation in oj^en or bare places, or, indeed, in any 
position where the vegetation is not strong enough to overrun tliem. 
They, however, attain greatest perfection when fully exposed to the 
sun, and are admirable for every kind of rocky or stony ground and 
banks. 

Iris, Fhur de Lis. — These plants, once so well known in our gardens, 
rivalling (or rather exceeding) the lilies in beaut\-, are varied and 
numerous enough to make a wild garden by themselves. The many 
beautiful varieties of germanica will grow in almost any soil, and may 
be used with good effect in woods, copses, by Avood walks, or near the 
margin of water. I. sibirica, rather a common kind, will grow in the 
water ; and, as this is not generally known, it is worthy the notice of 
any one taking an interest in aquatics. It is probable that others of 
the beardless kinds will also do well -with their roots below the water, 
and if so, they will one day much imjirove the rather poorly adorned 
margins of artificial waters. On the other hand, I. pumila, and the 
varieties of germanica, are often seen on the tops of old walls, on 

L 



146 



THE WILD GARDEN, 



tliatclied roofs, etc., on the Continent, flowering profusely. Tliese facts 

tend to show how many ditfinvnt positions may he adorned hy the irises. 

Common Lupine, Luimms pohjphyllus.— Amidst the tallest and 

handsomest herhaceonsplants,gronp- 
ed where they may he seen from grass 
drives or wood walks, or in any 
position or soil. Excellent for islets 
(ir rivfr banks, in wliich, or in 
copses, it spreads freely. There are 
several varieties, all worthy of culture. 
Honesty, Lunaria. — This, 
which approaches the Stocks in the 
aspect of its fine purplish violet 
flowers, is quite removed from them 
Ijy the appearance of its curious 
peed-vessels. It is one of the most 
valuable of all plants for naturalisa- 
tion, and may he said to form a 
type by itself. It shoAVS itself freely 
in dryish ground or on chalk Ijanks, 
and is one of the prettiest objects 
to be met with in early summer 
in wood or wild. 

Lily, Lilium. — There are many 
liardy lilies that may be naturalised. 
The situations tliat these grow in, 
from the high meadows of Northern 
Italy, dotted with the orange lily, 
tu the woody gorges of the Sierras 
in California, rich with tall and 
fragrant kinds, are such as make 
tlu'ir culture in copses, woods, rough 
grassy places, etc., a certainty. In 
woods where there is a rich deposit 
of vegetable matter tbe great 
American Lilium superbun:, and 
no donl>t some of the recently- 
discovered Californian lilies, will do well. The European lilies, 
dotted in the grass in the rough unmown glades, W(Uild not grow 
nearly so large as they do in the rich borders of our cottage gardens ; 




HARDY P^XOTir- FLOWETiTXri PLANTS. 147 

liiit tlic effect of t lie siiiglr large lildiniis nf tlie orange lily just level 
\\ ith the tops of the grass, in early sunuiu-r, where it grows wild, is at 
least as heautiful as any aspect it has hitherto presented in gardens. 
Along the hed of small rivulets, in the bottom of narrow gorges densely 
shaded by great Thujas, Arbutus trees sixty and even eighty feet high, 
and handsome large-leaved evergreen oaks on the Sierras, I saw in 
autumn numbers of lily stems seven, eight, and nine feet high, so one 
could imagine what pictures they formed in early summer ; therefore 
deep dykes and narrow shady lanes would afford congenial homes for 
various fine species. No mode of cultivating lilies in gardens is equal 
to that of dotting them through beds of rbododendrons and other 
American plants usually ])lanted in peat ; the soil of these, usually 
and very unwisely left to the rhododendrons alone, being peculiarly 
suited to the majority of the lily trilie. As for the wild garden, Mr. 
(t. F. Wilson sent me a stem of Lilium superbum last year (1880) 
grown in a rirh woody bottom, 11^ feet high I 

Snowflake, Leucojum. — I have rarely seen anything more Ijeauti- 
ful than a colony of the summer Snowflake on the margin of a tuft of 
rhododendrons in the gardens at Longleat. Some of the flowers were 
on stems nearly 3 feet high, the partial shelter of the Ijushes and good 
soil causing the plants to be unusually vigorous. Both, the spring and 
summer Snowflakes (L. vernum and L. a?stivum) are valualjle plants for 
wild grassy places. 

Gentian Lithosperm, Lithospermum prostratum, — A very dis- 
tinct, prostrate, hairy, half-shrubby plant, with a profusion of flowers 
of as fine a blue as any gentian. Thrives vigorously in any deep sandy 
soil, and in such well deserves naturalisation among low rock plants, 
etc., in sunny positions. Probably other species of the genus will be 
found suitalde for the same purpose. 

Lychnis. — Handsome medium - sized perennials, with showv 
1 dooms, mostly of a brilliant rose or scarlet colour. If the type 
was only represented l)y the rose campion it would be a valuable 
one. This is a beautiful object in dry soils, on which it does not 
])erish in winter. They are most fitted for association with dwarf or 
medium-sized perennials, in open places and in rich soil. 

Honeysuckle, Lonicera. — Such favourites as these must not be 
omitted. Any kind of climbing Honeysuckle will find a happy home 
in the wild garden, either rambling over stumps or hedgerows, or 
even planted by themselves on banks. 

Pea, Lathyrus. — Much having lieen lately written concerning the 



148 



THE WILD (lARDEN. 



wild garden and its suitable occupants, I venture to suggest Latliyrus 
pyrenaicus as an addition to tlie list. Most cultivators of flowers are 
aware of tlie raniljling habits of the greater number of plants of the 
Le<Tuminous tribe, but in that particular L. pyrenaicus eclipses them 
all It produces an immense cjuantity of bright orange- coloured 
blossoms, but the principal difficulty connected with its thorough 
development is the selection of an appro^sriate ])lace for it, for a well- 
established plant of this species 
will ramble over, and by its 
density of growth prevent every 
plant and shruli that comes 
within its reach from thriving ; 
indeed, it is a greater rambler 
than the Hop, the Bindweed, 
or the Bryony, and is decidedly 
more handsome. Tying up or 
training such a plant is out of 
the question ; but there are 
many rough places in the wild 
garden where it would be quite 
at home and form an attract- 
ive feature. Every kind of 
Everlasting Pea is excellent 
for the wild garden, either for 



scrambling over hedgerows, 




the grass.- 



Everlasting Pea, creeping up stem in shrubbery. 



stumps, or growing among 

-J. W. 

Monkey -flower, Mima- 

lus. — " Wandering one day in 
the neighbourhood of " Gruigfoot/'a ciueer-shaped hill in Linlithgowshire, 
my eye was attracted by a small burn whose banks were literally jewelled 
throughout its visilde course with an unfamiliar yellow flower. A 
nearer approach showed me that it was the garden Mimulus (Monkey- 
flower), the seed of which must have escaped from some neighbouring 
cottage garden, and established itself here, in the coldest part of the 
British Isles. I took the hint, and have naturalised it by the banks 
of a small stream which runs at the foot of my garden, and I strongly 
recommend your readers to do the same. It mingles charmingly with 
the blue Forget-me-not, and is equally hardy."— S. in Garden. 

Grape Hyacinth, ilfifsca?-/.— These free and hardy little bulbs 



HARDY EXOTIC Fr.OWERTXC PLANTS. 



149 



are easily natumliseil ami vtTV lianilsDino, willi tlicii- little .spikes (if 
flower.s of many shades of lilu(>. 

Forget-me-not, Mijosntis, — There is one exotic s^secies, M. dissi- 
tiHora, not inferior in beauty to any of our handsomest native kinds, 
and which is well woi'tliy of naturalisation everywhere, thriving best 
on moist and sandy soil. 

Molopospei'miim eicutarium.^ There is a deep green and 
fern-like beauty dis- 
played profusely by 
some of the Umbel- 
liferous family, but I 
have rarely met with 
one so remarkably at- 
tractive as this species 
It is a very ornamental 
plant, with large, 
deeply -divided leaves 
of a lively green colour, 
forming a dense irregu- 
lar bush. The tlnwers, 
which are in.signiheant 
and of a yellowish- 
white colour, are borne 
in small roundish 
lunbels. Many of the 
(dass, while very ele- 
gant, perish quickly, 
£et shabbv indeed l:>v 
the end of June, and 
are therefore out of 
place in the flower 
sarden ; but this is firm 
in character, of a fine rich green, stout yet spreading in habit, growing 
more than 3 feet high, and making altogether a most pleasing bush. It 
is perfectly hardy, and easily increased by seed or division, but rare as 
yet. It loves a deep moist soil, but will thrive in any good garden 
soil. It is a fine subject for isolation or grouping with other hardy 
and graceful-leaved Umbelliferous plants. 

Stock, Mafthiola. — Showy flowers, mostly fragrant, peculiarly well 
suited for old ruins, chalk pits, stony banks, etc. Some of tlie annual 




Type of fine-leaved umbellate plants seldom grown in gardens. 



150 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



kinds are pretty, and some of tlie varieties common in gardens assume 
a bush-like cliaracter when grown in the positions above named. With 
tlie Stocks may be associated the single rocket (Hesperis matronalis), 
wliicli thrives freely in shruljberies and copses. 

Bee Balm, Moncmla. — Large and very showy herbaceous plants, 
with scarlet or purple flowers, conspicuously beautiful in Auierican and 
Canadian woods, and capital subjects for naturalisation in woods, copses, 

etc., or anywhere among medium-sized vegeta- 
tion, thriving best in light or well-drained 
soils. 

Mallow, Malva, A Ithwa, MalojJe, Kitaibelia, 
Gallirhoe, Sida. — • Plants of several distinct 
genera may be included under this type, and 
from each very shoAvy and useful things maj' 
be obtained. They are for the most part sub- 
jects which are somewhat too coarse, wlien 
closely examined, to be planted in gardens 
generally ; but among the taller vegetation iu 
wild shrubberies, copses, glades iu woods, etc., 
they will furnish a magnificent effect. Some 
of the Malvas are very showy, vigorous-grow- 
ing plants, mostly with rosy flowers, and would 
associate well with our own handsome M. 
moschata. The Althaeas, close allies of the 
common single hollyhock, are very vigorous 
and fine for this purpose, as are also the Sidas and Kitaibelia vitifolia. 
The Malopes are among the best of the annual subjects for naturalisa- 
tion. The Callirhoes are dwarf, handsome trailers, more brilliant than 
the others, and the only ones of the type that should be planted on 
l>are banks or amidst dwarf vegetation, as all the others are of the 
most rampant charactei'. 

Mulgedium Plumieri — A herbaceous jJant of fine and distinct 
port, Ijearing purplisli-l)lue Ijlossoms, rather uncommon among its kind. 
Till recently it was generally only seen in Ijotanic gardens, but it has, 
nevertheless, many merits as a wild garden plant, and for growing in 
small grou]is or single specimens in <piiet gn-en corners of pleasure- 
grounds or shrubberies. It does best in rather rich ground, and in 
such a position will reward all wh<i plant it, being a really hardy an<l 
long-lived perennial. Tlie foliage is sometimes over a yard long, and 
the flower-stems attain a height of over six feet in good soil. 




HARDY EXOTIC FLOWKHIXU PLANTS. 151 

Water Lily, N'ljmplicea atxl Nuphar. — Two ikiMo Nurtli Ameri- 
can plants Wfll deserve naturalisation in our waters, associated with 
our own beautiful white and yellow water lilies — -the large Nuphar 
advena, which thrusts its yreat leaves well out of the Avater in many 
parts of North America, and the sweet-scented Nymph;ea odorata, which 
Hoats in crowds on many of the pine -1 ordered lakes and lakelets of 
New England, to a, non-hotaniral oliscrver seeming verv like our own 
water lily. 

Daffodil, Narcissus. — Most people have seen the common dali'odil 
in a semi- wild state in our woods and copses. Apart from varieties, 
there are more than a score distinct species of daffodil that could be 
naturalised (piite as easily as this in all parts of these islands. We 
need hardly suggest how charming these would be, flowering in early 
spring and summer in the rougher parts of pleasure grounds, or along 
wood-walks, or any like position. 

Bitter Vetch, Orohus. — Banks, grassy unmown margins of 
wood -walks, rocks, fringes of shrubberies, and like places, with 
deep and sandy loam, well drained, will grow the beautiful spring 
Bitter Vetch or any of its varieties or allies perfectly. 

Evening Primrose, Enotliera. — Among the largest-flowered and 
handsomest of all known types of herbaceous vegetation. The yellow 
species, and varieties like and allied to the common Evening Primrose 
(CE. biennis), may be readily naturalised in any position, from a rubbish- 
heap to a nice, open, sunny copse ; while such prostrate ones as 
QL. marginata and (H macrocar})a will prove very fine among dwarf herbs 
on banks or in open sunny places, in light or calcareous soil. These 
noble and delicately-scented flowers are very easily grown and very 
beautiful in any position. They, however, from their height and bold- 
ness, and the freedom with which they grow in almost any soil, are 
peculiarly suited for the wild garden, for shrubberies, copses, and the 
like, sowing themselves freely. 

Cotton Thistle, Onoimrdon. — Large thistles, with very handsome 
hoary and silvery leaves, and purplish flowers on fiercely-armed stems. 
No plants are more noble in port than these, and they thrive freely in 
rough open places, rubbish-heaps, etc., and usually come up freely from 
self-sown seeds. 

Star of Bethlehem, Onutho(jaliun. — Various handsome hardy 
species of this genus will thrive as well as the common Star of Bethle- 
liem in any sunny, grassy places. 

Creeping Forget-me-not, Ohiphaludes. — The creeping Forget- 



152 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



me-not, Omplialodes verna, is one of the prettiest plants to be natural- 
ised in woods, copses,- or slirubberies, running about witli the greatest 
freedom in moist soil. It is more comjiact in habit and lives longer 
on good soils than the Forget-me-nots, and should \w naturalised round 
every country place. 

Wood Sorrel, Oxalis. — Dwarf plants with clover-like leaflets and 
pretty rosy or yellow flowers. At least two of the species in cultiva- 
tion, viz. 0. Bowieana and 0. floribunda, might be naturalised on sandy 
soils amidst vegetation not more than 5 inches or 6 inches high ; and 
the family is so numerous that probably other members of it will be 
found equally free growing. 




The Great Japan Knotweed (Polygonum cnspidatum). 
(Showing the plant in flower.) 



Polygonum cuspidatum — If, instead of the formal character 
of much of our gardening, plants of bold types similar to the above 
were introduced along the sides of woodland walks and shrubbery 
borders, how much more enjoyable such places would be, as at almost 
every step there would be something fresh to attract notice and gratify 
the eye, instead of which such parts are generally bare, or given up to 
weeds and monotonous rubbish. 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 



153 



Pseony. — Vigorous lierbaceous pLniits, with large and si)lt'n(li(l 
flowers of various shades of crimson, rosy-crimson, and wliite, well 
calculated for producing the iinest eifects in the wild garden. There 
are many species and varieties, tin- llowers of some of the \arieties 
being very sweet -.scented, doulilc, and amimg the largest llowers we 
kmiw of. Fringes of shrubberies, open glades in A\oods or copses, and 
indeed almost any wild place, may be adorned by them ; and they may 
also be advantageou.sly groupe<l or isolated on the grass in the rougher 
parts of the pleasure-ground. I never felt the beauty of the fine 
colour of Poeonies till I saw a group of the double scarlet kind fidwering 
in the long Grass in Oxfordshire. The owner had placed an irregular 
group of this plant in an u-nnidwu glade, quite away from the gar<Ien 
proper ; and yet, seen from the lawn and garden, the effect was most 
brilliant, as may be imagined from the way in which such high colours 
tell in the distance. To be able to produce such effects in the early 
summer for six weeks or so is a great gain from a landscape point of 
view, apart from the immediate beauty of the flowers when seen close 
at hand. 

Poppy, Pnpaver, in var. — The huge and flaming Papaver orientale, 
P. bracteatum, and P. lateritium, are the most important of this type. 
They Avill thrive and live long in almost any position, but the proper 
place for them is in open spots among strong herbaceous plants. For 
the wild garden or wilderness the Welsh Poppy (Meconopsis eambrica) 
is one of the best plants. It is a clieerful plant at all seasons ; perched 
on some i:ild dry wall its mas.ses of foliage are 
very fresh, but when loaded with a profusion of 
large yellow blossoms the plant is strikingly 
handsome ; it is a determined coloniser, ready to 
hold its own under the most adverse circumstances. 
Its home is the wall, the rock, and the ruin. 
It even surpasses the Wallflower in adapting itself 
to strange out-of-the-way places ; it will spring 
up in the gravel walk under one's feet, and seems 
(juite happy among the boulders in the coi;rtyard. 
It looks down on one from crevices in brick walls, 
from chinks where one could scarcely introduce 
a knife-blade, and after all it delights most in 
shady places. No plant can be better adapted 

. , 1 1 TT • Phlomis. — Type of hand- 

for naturahsnig on rough stony banks, old quarries, ^^^^^^ Labiates ; admir- 
gravel pits, dead walls, and similar places, and ably suited for the wild 

garden. iSee p. 154.) 




154 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



/-T<^ 






a.'-' 



X? 



A. 



.1? 



The tall Ox-eye Daisy 
(Pyrethrum serotinuni). 



its large handsome flowers will lend a charm 
to the most uninteresting situations. 

Phlomis — Showy and stately her- 
baceous or half-shrultliy jilants, with a pro- 
fusion of handsome yellow or purplish 
tlowers. Excellent for naturalisation in 
warm open woods, copses, banks, etc., grow- 
ing well in ordinary soil. 

Virginian Poke, rhytolacca dccan- 
ilra. — A tall, robust perennial, within con- 
spicuous flowers and long dense spikes of 
purplish berries. It will grow anywhere 
and in any soil ; but is most imposing in 
lich deep ones. The berries are relished 
by birds. It is fine for association with 
the largest and stoutest herbaceous plants 
in rough and half-wild places. 

Physostegia — Tall, erect, and beau- 
liful herbaceous plants, mostly with deli- 
cate rosy flowers ; natives of North 
America, thriving in any soil. They are 
among the most x'leasing things for plant- 
ing in llalf-^\•ild jdaces, where they will 
not spread rampantly, nor perish (piickly. 

Lungwort, Pubnonuiia. — Dwarf 
])lants of the borage family, with showy 
blue nr pinkish Idossoms. Easily natural- 
ised in Avoods or copses, in which position 
the common lilue one must be familiar to 
many in tlie woods of England and Frame. 
The varieties are common in cottage gar- 
dens ; tliey grow in any soil. 

The tall Ox-eye daisy, Pyrefhrum 
serotinmn. — This fine autumn flower- 
ing pliant, for years left in the almost ex- 
clusive possession of the Botanic Gardens, 
is one of the handsomest things Ave have. 
It grows 5 or 6 feet high, and floAvers 
late in the year, Avhen floAvers are scarce. 
It is A'ery picturesque in habit. 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWKIUXC PLANTS. 



155 



Bramble, Hiilni.'^. — Altliou.uli we luivc 
nearly fifty kinds (ir reputed kinds ot 
lininilde native in Britain, sonic of tlic 
exotic si)ecies, entirely distinct from our 
own. are Avell Avortliy of naturalisation 
among low slirubs and tall herbaceous 
plants. One of the most charming plants 
we know for natui'alising in shady woods 
is the large, -white-iiowered Eulnrs Xut- 
kanus, Avith A\hich might be tastefully 
associated the deep rose-coloured Rubus 
odoratus, and the early spring -iiowering 
R. spectabilis ; while the very striking 
white- stemmed R. bifiorus is a grand 
object for warm slopes, sunny sides of 
chalk and gravel pits, etc. 

The Great Reed; Arundo Donax. — 
This nolde reed I do not like to omit here, 
it is so beautiful in the southern counties 
of England, though in cold soils and hard 
Avinters it may perish. Where the hardier 
Bamboos find a jilace this will be welcome, 
though in our country it is only in the 
Avarmer parts that it attains the dignitA 
of port it possesses in the south of Europe. 

Rhubarb, Rheum. — There are several 
species of rhubarb in cultivation in ad- 
dition to those commonly grown in gar- 
dens. They are much alike in port and 
in the size of their leaves, R. palmatum and 
Emodi being the most distinct. The rhu- 
barbs are hue things for association Avitb 
large-leaved herliaceous plants in deep 
soils. 

Rose, Rosa. — As in the case of 
branddes, Ave have many more kinds of 
A\ ild roses in England than is commonly 
supposed, but of course nobody ever thinks 
of planting such things in gardens or 
shrubberies, Avhere such gems as privet 



A 



/\ 



^ 



sm 



^Sf^'S-^A-*^ 



rlie ( ^reat RcccI of .Southcni Fairope 
(Arundo Donax). 



156 THE WILD GAEDEN. 

usually make up the Tiudcrwouil. There are scores of the roses 
of northern and temperate countries which would thrive as well in 
our woodlands ; but as these are not to he obtained in nnr nurseries, 
it is iTseless to mention them. Any species of rose from a northern 
country might be tried ; whilst of roses commonly cultivated the 
climbing races — such as the Boursault, Ayrshire, and Sempervirens — 
are the most likely to be satisfactory. The Damask, Alba gallica, 
and hybrid Cliina, being hardy and free, would do, as would Felicite 
Perpetuelle, Banksipeflora, the Garland roses, Austrian briar, berberi- 
folia, and microphylla rubra plena. Pruning, or any other attention 
after planting, should of course not be thought of in connection with 
tliese. We have seen masses of wild roses the effect of wliich was 
hner than anything we have ever seen in a rosery. Rosa Brunoniana 
is a very tine free and hardy species from India. 

Sea Lavender, Statice. — Vigorous perennials, with a profusion of 
Ijluisli lavender-coloured bloom, thriving freely on all ordinary garden 
soils. 8. latifolia, and some of the stronger kinds, thrive in any 
position among tlie medium-sized herbaceous plants. 

Spiraea, Kjiiw-a- — Handsome and usually vigorous herbaceous 
plants, with white or rosy flowers, and generally ornamental foliage. 
Such beautiful kinds as venusta and palmata it is most desirable to try 
in wild places among the stouter and medium-sized jierennials, where 
sufficiently plentiful to be spared for this purpose. S. Aruncus is, 
perhaps, the finest plant for tlie wild garden. Mr. Ellaiii planted out 
some spare stock of 8. japonica in a wood at Bodorgan, and with 
tlie happiest effect. The plants grow and llower freely, the flowers 
appearing a fortniglit later in the moist cool wood than on plants of 
the same kind on a north garden border ; therefore they prolong the 
season of this favourite flower. They are planted in an irregular 
group, as such things slKuild generally be, the effect being much 
better than that obtained by the connnon dotting plan. 

Golden Rod, Solidago. — Tall and vigorous perennials with yellow 
flowers, showy when in bloom, and attractive when seen in America in 
autumn, mingled with the blue and lilac Asters of that country, but 
larely ornamental as gro'mi in gai'dens. These, like the Asters, used 
to be grown to excess in the old borders ; but the only position they 
are flt for is in rough wild places, where in many cases it would be 
easy, with their aid and that of the Asters, to form that mixture of 
Golden Rod and Michaelmas daisies which is one of the prettiest efl'ects 
of American vegetation in autumn. 



HAEDY EXOTIC i LuWEKlNU I'LANTS. 157 

Catch-fly, Silene. — Dwarf ur spreudiii*^; plants, allied to tlie pinks, 
and UL'iierallv with A\liite oi' rosv flowers. The choice mountain kinds, 
such as S. Lagasca), alpestris, Schafta, etc., are among tlie most charm- 
ing subjects that can l)e naturalised on rocky places or banks, associated 
Avith very dwarf subjects. Such fine annual or biennial kinds as 
S. Armeria or S. pendula are anumg the best for this purpose, and 
might be easily established by scattering a few seeds in such j)laces. 

Bloodwort, Sanguinaria canadensis. — This little plant, which 
abounds in the woods of Canada and North America, and which is 
verv rarely indeed seen well groA«i in our gardens, Avill thrive under 
the branch&s of deciduous trees as Avell as the Avinter aconite, and in 
spring will produce an efl'ect as beautiful as singular. 

Squill, Scilla. — Several kinds of ScUla, closely allied to the 
common bluebell, Avould do quite as well in our Avoods as that Avell- 
knoAvii native plant, notably S. campanulata, S. bifolia, S. sibirica, etc. 
Bifolia and .sibirica Avould be better on sunny banks or sheltered 
frincres of shrubberies Avith a good aspect. The tall kinds Avould do in 
AA'Oods or copses like the Idueliell. With the dwarfer squills might be 
associated the grape liyacintli and tlie amethyst hyacinth (Hyacinthus 
amethystinus). 

Comfrey, Hynvphytum. — Herbaceous plants of the borage order, 
usually vigorous, and with handsome blue floAvers. One of the hand- 
somest spring flowers is Symphytum caucasicum. and it is also one of 
the easiest things to naturalise, running about Avith the greatest freedom 
in shrubbA- or any Avild places. Coarse kinds, like S. asperrimum 
(unfit iox garden culture), thrive apace among the largest plants in 
wild places, and there look quite beautiful AA'hen in flower. 

Scabious, Scabiosa, Cephalaria, Knautia. — Sometimes handsome 
and usuallv free-groAving herbaceous plants, bluish, purplish, or 
yelloAsish in tone. Among these may be seen, in botanic and other 
gardens, plants suited for naturalisation, but scarcely Avorthy of a place 
in the garden. The fine S. caucasica aa-ouM thrive amidst coarse 
vegetation in ^ood soil, as would the Knautias. 

Stonecrop, Sedum. — Minute and usually prostrate plants, mostly 
Avitli white, yelloAv, or rosy floAvers, and occurring in multitudes on 
most of the mountain chains of northern and temperate countries. 
There are few of these interesting and sometimes very pretty plants 
that Avould not gxoAv on the top of an old Avail, or thatched house, or 
stony bank, or bare gi'ound, as AA'ell as our conmion Stonecrop. All 
groAv in any soil, are as easily increased as any weed, and groAV any- 



158 THE WILD GARDEN. 

where if they are not too much overshadowed liy trees and coarse ve<i;e- 
tation. Such kinds as S. spuriuni, S. puh-helluni, kanitschaticuin, and S. 
spectabile are among the most ornamentaL Tlie hxst, being a stout 
herbaceous plant, wouhl be worth associating with such in wild places. 
Tliere are nearly 100 species of stonecmp in cultivation in Britain. 

Saxifrage, Saxifmga. — A very extensive genus of plants, alran- 
dantly distributed on mountains in northern countries. For our 
])resent purpose they may be broadly thrown into five sections — the 
mossy section, represented in Britain by S. liypuoides ; the silvery 
section, represented by S. Aizoon ; the London Pride section, by the 
Kerry saxifrages ; the Megasea section, by the large cabbage-leaved S. 
crassifolia ; and the oppositifolia section, distinguished by its rosy-purple 
flowers. With the exception of the Megasea and oppositifolia sections, 
which have rosy flowers, most of the saxifrages have white blossoms 
spotted with red ; a few are yellow, and all are very hardy, and the 
easiest to grow of all alpine flowers. The mossy, silvery, and purple 
saxifrages may be naturalised with the greatest ease on bare rocky or 
miiuntainous grounds, amidst dwarf vegetation ; but, as the places in 
which this kind of ground occurs are comparatively few, the Megaseas, 
and the Kerry saxifrages, are probably the most generally useful, as 
they cfm fight their way amongst coarse grass and other common herbs. 
There are probably nearl}' 150 species in cultivation in the botanic 
gardens of England, though in many private gardens they are very 
little known. 

Houseleek, Sevipewunmi. — Veiy dwarf and succulent plants, 
with their fleshy leaves arranged in dense rosettes, and mostly with 
curious but seldom conspicuous flowers, abounding in mountainous 
regions, and very hard\'. The greater numljer of these grow cpaite 
as freely as the common Houseleek in any arid soil, and in any position 
where the vegetation is not taller than themselves, such as on bare 
sandy banks, gravelly heaps, etc. There are about fifty hardy kinds 
in cultivation in the gardens in this country. 

Meadow Rue, Tlialidnnn. — Tall and vigorous herbaceous plants, 
mostly without any beauty of flower when closely examined, but often 
attbrding a pleasing distant effect when seen in masses, and hence 
desirable for this mode of gardening, though seldom siiitable for 
a position in the garden proper. They grow in any soil, and should 
be placed among rank herbs and coarse vegetation, not in the fore- 
ground, which might be occupied by more brilliant subjects. There 
are many kinds not differing much in aspect ; some of the smaller ones 



HAT^DY KXOTTC KT.OWERINc PLANTS 



159 



in the way nf our own British T. luiuus, deserve a place amon^' dwarf 
vegetation for the elegance of their leaves. With these last may be 
associated the Italian Iso])yruni thalictroides, wliicli is handsome in 
tiower and elegant in leaf. ' 

Spiderwort, Tradesccmti(( riryinica. — A handsome and distinct 
North American perennial, with purple, blue, or white flowers, attain- 
ing a height of l| feet or 2 feet. An admirable subject for naturalisa- 
tion on almost any soil, thriving perfectly on the wettest ami coldest, 
and therefore suited for many jilaces where other perennials woidd 
make little progress. 

Wood Lily, TrilUimi. — Very singular and beautiful American 
wood plants, of which T. grandiflorum is worthy of special attention, 
thriving in shady places in moist rich soils, in woods and copses, where 
some vegetable soil lias gathered. 

Globe Flower, Trollius. — Beautiful plants of vigorous habit, 
with large handsome flowers, of a fine golden colour, like those of the 
buttercups, but turning inwards so as to form an almost round blossom, 
([uite distinct in aspect. Few subjects are more worthy of a position 
in gTassy glades where the soil is rich, 
although tliey will grow in ordinary soil. 
There are several di.^tinct kinds suitalde, 
thouo-h there is little difference in their 
appearam-e. 

Tulip, Tulipa. — Various kinds of 
Tulips might be naturalised with advan- 
tage bv wood Avalks and in the rougher 
parts of the pleasure grounds. In 
sucli positions they would not attain 
such a size as the riclih'-fed garden 
flowers, biit that would make them 
mme the less attractive to those who 
care about the wild garden. 

Telekia, Telekia cordifolia. — A 
vigorous herliaceous plant, suited for 
association with Echinops, Rheum, 
and subjects grown for their foliage 

and character. It is very free in Xelekia. Type of the Larger Composites. 

"rowth, and has lar^re foliage and excluded from gardens proper, 

sunflower-like flowers. 

Flame - Flower, Tritoma. — Flame Flowers arc occasionallv 




IGO 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



planted in excess, sd as to neutralise the good effect they might othei'- 
wise produce, and they, like many other flowers, have suffered from 
being, like soldiers, put in straight lines and in other geometrical form- 
ations. It is only where a fine plant or group of plants is seen in 
some green glade that the true Leaiity of tlu- Flame Flower is seen, 
especially at some little distance off. Altliougli not exactly belonging 
to the very free-growing and extremely hardy genera of plants recom- 
mended for the wild garden, they are so free in many soils that they 
might with confidence be recommended for that purpose, and our sketch 




Group of Tritoma, in grass. 



shows a picturesque group of them planted in this way. It would lie 
delightful if people having country seats would study inore the effects 
to be realised from certain types of plants. For instance, a well and 
tastefully placed group of these Flame Flowers would for a long time 
in autumn be a most effective feature in the landscape of a country 
seat ; and there are various other plants to which the same remark 
applies, though j)erhaps to none better than these in the later months 
of the year. 

Showy Indian Cress, Tropceolum speciosum. — Against terrace 
walls, auKjng shrubs, and on slopes, on banks, or bushy rockwork near 
the hardy fernery ; in deep, rich, and light soil. This is a brilliant 
plant, well worth any trouble to establish. Many fail to establish it in 



HARDY EXOTIC FLOWERING PLANTS. 



1(51 



tlie garden proper, Imt moist, shady, and busliy places, will suit it 
better. 

Mullein, Verhascmn. — ^Verbascuni vernale is a noble plant, 
wliiLli lias been slowly spreading in our collections of hardy plants 
f(jr some years past, and it is a plant of 
peculiar merit, I first saw it in the Gar- 
den of Plants, and brought home some 
roots whicli gave rise to the stock now in 
our gardens. Its peculiarities, or rather 
its merits, are that it is a true perennial 
species — at least on the warm soils, and 
in tlus respect cpiite unlike other Mulleins 
which are sometimes seen in our gardens, 
and oftener in our hedgerows. It also has 
the advantage of great height, growing, 
as in the specimen shown in our illus- 
tration, to a height of about 10 feet, or 
even more. Then there are the large and 
green leaves, whicli come up rather early 
and are extremely effective. Finally, the 
colour is good and the c[uantity of yellow 
flowers with purplisli filaments that are 
borne on one of these great branching 
panicles is something enormous. The 
use of sucli a plant cannot Ije difficult 
to define, it being so good in form and so 
distinct in habit. For the back part of 
a mixed border, for grouping with other 
plants of remarkable size or form of 
foliage, or for placing here and there in 
open spaces among shrubs, it is well 
suited. A bold group of it, airanged on 
the Grass by itself, in deep, light, and 
well-dressed soil, would be effective in a 
picturesque garden. It is also known in 

gardens by tlie name of Verbascum Chaixii, wliich name, we believe, 
was given to it at Kew. 

Periwinkle, Vinca. — Trailing plants, with glossy foliage and 
handsome blue flowers, Avell known in gardens. They are admiraljle 
plants for naturalisation, growing in any position, shady or sunny. 

M 




A tall Mullein. 



162 THE WILD GARDEN. 

There are variously-coloured and very pretty varieties of V. minor, 
while the variegated forms of both species are handsome, and may be 
naturalised like the green kinds. 

Speedwell, Veronica.- — Herbaceous plants, usually rather tall 
(l|- feet to 3 feet), in some cases dwarf and neat alpine plants with 
blue flowers in various shades ; are among the hardiest of plants, and 
will grow in any soil. All the taller kinds are admirably suited for 
naturalisation among long grass and other herl)aceous vegetation. A 
great number that are in cultivation in borders are only fit for this 
purpose. The dwarf kinds are equally suitaltle for bare places, or 
among other dwarf plants. 

Violet, Viola. — A numerous race of dwarf and interesting plants, 
thriving freely in our climate, in half- shady places, rocky spots or 
banks, fringes of shrubberies, or almost any position. The very hand- 
some bird's-foot violet of N. America (V. pedata) would thrive in sandy 
level places or on rocky banks. In this family occur a good many 
kinds, such as V. canadensis, which, not being fragrant, or nnt possess- 
ing sufficient charms to ensure their* general cultivation in gardens, are 
peculiarly suited for this sort of gardening. Our cnTi sweet violet 
should be abundantly naturalised wherever it does not occur in a 
wild state. 

Adam's-Needle, Yucca. — Although these scarcely come into this 
selection, yet their fine liabit and their hardiness give them a charm 
for us even in a Avild garden. A legitimate aim, on the part of any 
one carrying out this to any extent, would be to try and develop a 
sub-tropical aspect of vegetation in certain places. In such a case the 
Yuccas could not be dispensed with. The free-flowering kinds (Y. 
flaccida and Y. filamentosa) should not be omitted, as they are more 
likely to spread and increase than the larger ones ; all such plants are 
better held together in groups. 



CHAPTER XV. 



SELECTIONS OF IIAIIDY EXOTIC PLANTS FOR VARIOUS POSITIONS 
■ IN THE WILD GARDEN. 

As it is (lesiralile to kuDw 
how to procure as well as 
how to select the best kinds, 
a few words on the first 
? subject may not be amiss 
Jiere. 
jlMlK A very important point 
is the getting of a stock of 
plants to begin witli. In country or other places 
where many good old border flowers remain in the 
cottage gardens, many species may be collected 
therein. A series of nursery beds should be formed 
in some by -place in which such subjects could be 
increased to any desired degree. Free -growing 
spring - flowers like Aubrietia, Alyssum, and Iberis, 
maybe multiplied to any extent by division or cuttings. 
Numbers of kinds may be raised from seed sown rather thinly in drills, in 
nursery beds in the open air. The catalogues should be searched every 
Spring for suitable subjects. The best time for sowing is the Spring, but 
any time during the Summer will do. Many perennials and bulbs must 
be bought in nurseries and increased as well as may be in nursery beds. 
As to soil, etc., the best way is to avoid the trouble of preparing it 
except for specially, interesting plants. The great point is to adapt the 
plant to the soil — in peaty places to place plants that thrive in peat, 
in clay soils those that thrive in clays, and so on. Among coarse 
vegetation the best way is to dig the ground deeply before planting, so 




Ophrys in grass. 



164 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Tlie ground 



as to allow the planted subjects to become well establislied, 

is so dried, and exhausted and impoverished in some woodland places 

with coarse weeds, that so much preparation is necessary. 



A selection of Plants for Naturalisation in 'places devoid of any hut 
dwarf vegetation, on hare hanks, etc., and in foorisli soil. 



Dielytra eximia. 

,, formosa. 
Cheirautlius alpiuiis. 
Arabis albida. 
Aiibrietia, in var. 
Alyssuin saxatile. 
Odontarrlieiia carsinum. 
Iberis corifolia. 

„ sempervirens. 

„ correfefolia. 
Tlilasjii latifoliiiin. 
^thioiiema coridifoHuiii. 
Heliaiitheiuum, in var. 
Viola cornuta. 

„ cucullata. 
Gypsopliila rejjens. 
Tunica Saxifraga. 
Saponai'ia ocynioides. 
Silene alpestris. 

„ Scliafta. 
Cerastium Biebersteinii. 
„ grandiliorum. 
,, tomentosuni. 
Linum alpinum. 

„ arboreum. 

„ flavum. 
Geranium Wallichianuni. 
„ striatum. 
,, cinereum, and 
otliers. 
Oxalis floribunda. 
Genista sagittalis. 
Aiitliyllis montana. 
Astragalus monspessu- 

lanus. 
Corouilla varia. 
Hedysarum obscurum. 



Vicia argentea. 
Orobus vernus. 

,, latliyroides. 
Waldsteinia trifolia. 
Potentilla calabra. 
ffinotliera speciosa. 

,, missouriensis. 
„ taraxacifolia. 
Sedum dentatum. 

,, kamtschaticum. 
,, Sieboldii. 
,, spectabile. 
„ sinirium. 
Sempervivum calcareum. 
„ liirtuni. 

,, montanum. 

„ soboliferum. 

„ sedoides. 

Saxifraga Aizoon. 
„ cordifolia. 
„ crassifolia. 
,, crustata. 
„ longifolia. 
„ C'cityledou. 
,, rosularis. 
Astrantia major. 
Dondia Epipactis. 
Atliamanta Mattliioli. 
Cornus canadensis. 
Scabiosa caucasica. 
Hieracium aurantiacum. 
Doronicum caucasicuni. 
Aster alpiniis. 
Tussilago I'ragrans. 
Achillea aurea. 
Symjihyandra pendula. 
Campanula carpatica. 



Campanula fiagilis. 
„ garganica. 

„ cajspitosa. 

Gaultheria procumbens. 
Vinca lierbacea. 
Gentiana acaulis. 
Phlox stolonifera. 

,, subulata. 
Lithosijermum prostra- 

tum. 
Pulmonaria grandiflora. 

„ mollis. 

Myosotis dissitiflora. 
Pliysalis Alkekengi. 
Pentstemon jirocerus. 
Veronica austriaca. 
,, Candida. 
,, taurica. 
Teucrium Chamsedrys. 
Ajiiga geuevensis. 
Scutellaria ali)ina. 
Prunella grandiflora. 
Stachys lanata. 
Zietenia lavandulsfolia. 
Dodecatheon Meadia. 
Acautliolimon glumacenni. 
Armeria cephalotes. 
Plumbago Larpentse. 
Polygonum Brunonis. 

,, vaccinifolium. 

Euphorbia Cyimrissias. 
Iris cristata. 
,, graminea. 
,, immila. 
,, reticulata. 
,, nudicaulis. 



Plants of vigoro^is Jiahit for the Wild Garden. 



Trollius altaicus. 

„ napellit'olius, or 
any other kind. 
Thalictrum aquilegifolium. 
Delphinium, in var. 
Aconitum, in var. 



Pseonia, in great var. 
Papaver orientale. 

„ bracteatum. 
Macleya cordata. 
Datisca cannabina. 
Crambe cordifolia. 



Althaea iicifolia. 

„ nudiflora. 

,, taurinensis 
Lavatera Olbia. 
Galega officinalis. 

„ biloba. 



SELECTIONS OF IIAEDY EXOTIC PLANTS. 



165 



LathjTUS latifolius. 
„ graudiflorus, 

and any others. 
Lupinus polyphyllus. 
Tlierniopsis baiLata. 
Spiraea Aruncus. 
Astilbe rivularis. 

„ rubra. 
Moloposperniuni cicuta- 

rium. 
Ferula communis. 
„ glauca. 
„ tingitana. 
„ sulcata. 
Statice latifolia. 
Peucedanura 

involucratum. 
„ longifolium. 

Heracleum Havesceus. 
„ giganteum. 

Dijisacus laciuiatus. 
Mulgedium Plumleri. 



Alfredia cernua. 
Onopordon tauricum. 
Centaurea babylonica. 
EchiuoiJS bannaticus. 
„ exaltatus. 
,, rutlienicu.s. 
„ purpureus. 
Aster elegans. 
„ Novi Belgii. 
„ Xovce Angliffi. 
„ pyrenanis. 
,, ericoides, and any 
other good kinds. 
Eupatorium purpureum. 
Telekia cordifolia. 
Helianthus angustifolius. 
,, multiflorus. 

,, orgyalis. 

Harpalium rigidum. 
Silphixim perfoliatum. 
Campanula, all the tall and 
strong gi-owing kinds. 



Asclepias Cornuti. 

„ Douglasii. 
Verbascum Chaixii. 
Physostegia imbricata. 

,, speciosa. 

Acantlius latifolius. 
„ spinosus. 
,, spinosissimu.s. 
Phytolacca deeandra. 
Polygonum Sieboldii. 
Rheum Emodi. 

,, palmatuni. 
Achillea Eupatorium. 
Bambusa falcata. 
Veratnim album. 
Yucca lilamentosa. 
, , flaccida. 
,, recurva. 
,, gloriosa. 
Peucedauum ruthenicum. 
Astragalus pouticus. 



Hardy Plants with fine foliage or (jraceful habit suitable for 
Naturalisation. 



Acantlius, several species. 
Asclej)ias syriaca. 
Statice latil'olia. 
Polygonum cusi^idatum. 
,, sachalinense. 

Rheum Emodi, and other 

kinds. 
Euphorbia Cj'parissias. 
Datisca cannabiua. 
Veratrum album. 
Cranibe cordifolia. 
Althwa taurineusis. 
Elymus arenarius. 
Bambusa, several species. 
Arundinaria falcata. 
Yucca, several species. 



Verbascum Chaixii. 
Spirfea Aruncus. 
Astilbe rivularis. 

,, rubra. 
ErjTigium, several si)ecies. 
Ferula, several species. 
Phytolacca deeandra. 
Centaurea babylonica. 
Actcea, in var. 
Cimicifuga racemosa. 
Peucedauum ruthenicum. 
Heracleum, several species. 
Aralia japouica. 

, , edulis. 
Macleaya cordata. 



Panicum bulbosum. 

„ virgatum. 
Dijisacus laciniatus. 
Alfredia cernua. 
Carliua acanthifolia. 
Telekia cordifolia. 
Echinops exaltatus. 

,, rutlienicus. 
Helianthus orgyalis. 

,, multiflorus, 

and vars. 
Silybum eburueum. 
, , Mariauum. 
Onof)ordon Acanthium. 

,, arabicuiu. 



Plants for Hedge-hanJcs and like Places. 



Clematis in great var. 
Thalictrum aquilegifolium. 
Anemone japouica and 

vars. 
Delphinium, in var. 
Aconitum, in var. 
]\Iacleaya cordata. 
Kitaibelia vitifolia. 
Tropaeolum speciosum. 



Galega 



Baptisia australis. 
Coronilla varia. 

officinalis, both 
white and pink forms. 
Galega bilolm. 
Astragalus ponticus. 
Lathyrus grandiflorus. 
„ rotun<lifoIius. 
„ latifolius. 



Lathyrus latifolius albus. 
Lupinus polyphyllus. 
Rubus biflorus. 
(Enothera Lamarckiaua. 
Astilbe rivularis. 
Ferula, in var. 
Campanula, in great var. 
Calystegia daliurica. 
,, pubescens. 



166 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Verbascnni f'lmixii. 
Pentsteniou liarljatus. 
Veronica, tall kinds in var. 
Pliloniis Russelliaiia. 
„ lierba-venti. 
Pliysostegia speciosa. 
„ virgiuica. 



Acanthus spinosns. 
Lilies, common kinds. 
Narcissus, common kinds 
Scillas, in van 
Statice latifolia. 
Phytolacca decandra. 
Aristolochia Siplio. 



Asparagus Broussoneti. 

,, officinalis. 

Vitis, in var. 
Honeysuckles, in var. 
Leucojum, in var. 
Fritillary, in var. 



Trailers, Climbers, etc. 

The selection of plants to cover bowers, trellises, railings, old trees, 
stumps, rootwork, etc., suitably, is important, particularly as the plants 
fitted for these purposes are ecpially useful for rough rockwork, pre- 
cipitous banks, flanks of rustic bridges, river-banks, riiins, covering 
cottages or outhouses, and many other uses in garden, pleasure- 
ground, or wilderness. 



Vitis ffistivalis. 

„ amooriensis. 

,, cordifolia. 

,, heterophylla variegata 

„ Isabella. 

,, Labrusca. 

,, laciniosa. 

„ riparia. 

„ Sieljoldii. 

,, vinifera apiifolia. 

,, vulpina. 
Aristolochia Sipho. 

,, tomentosa. 



Clematis, in great variety, 
both sjjecies and hybrids. 

Calystegia dahurica. 

,, puliescens plena. 

Wistaria sinensis. 

Asparagus Broussoueti. 

Periploca grreca. 

Hablitzia tamnoides. 

Boussingaultiabaselloides. 

Meuispermum canadense. 
,, virginicum. 

Cissus orientalis. 
,, pubescens. 



Ampelojisis bipinnata. 
,, cordata. 

,, hederacea. 

,, tricuspidata. 

Jasminuni nudiHonim. 
,, officinale. 

,, revolutuni. 

Passitlora ccerulea. 
Lonicera Caprifolium. 
„ confusa. 
,, tlava. 
„ japonica. 
,, Periclymenum. 



Sfriny and early Summer Floirers for Naturalisation. 



Anemone alpina. 

„ „ sulphurea. 

„ apennina. 
„ blanda. 
,, Coronaria. 
,, fulgens. 
,, Hepatica. 
,, ranuncnloides. 
,, trifolia. 

Ranxuiculus aconitifolius. 
,, amplexicaulis. 

,, montanus. 

Helleborus niger. 

,, olympicus.and 

many other 
kinds. 
Erantlus hyemalis. 
Aqnik'gia vulgaris. 
PiKonia, many kinds. 
Epimedium pinnatum . 



Pajiaver croceum. 
,, bracteatum. 
,, orientale. 
Dielytra eximia. 

,, spectabilis. 
Corydalis capnoides. 

,, lutea. 
Cheiranthus alpinus. 

,, Cheiri. 

Aral)is. 

Aubrietia, various. 
Alyssum saxatile. 
Iberis corifolia. 
„ sempervirens. 
,, correai'folia. 
Viola cornuta. 
Saponaria ocymoides. 
Silene aljiestris. 
Arenaria montana. 
Ononis fruticosa. 



Vicia argentea. 
Orobvis flaccidus. 

,, cj'aneus. 

„ lathyroides. 

,, variegatns. 

„ vernus. 
Centranthus ruber. 
Centaurea montana. 
Doronicum caucasicum. 
Thlaspi latifolium. 
Hesperis matronalis. 
Erica carnea. 
Viuca major. 
Gentiana acaulis. 
Phlox reptans. 
Pulmonaria grandiflora. 

,, mollis. 

Symphytum boliemicum. 
,, caucasicum. 

Myosotis dissitiflora. 



SELECTIONS OF HARDY EXOTIC PLANTS. 



-lC^7 



Omphalodes verua. 

Verbascuni Cliaixii. 
Dodecatlieon Jeffrey!. 
,, Meadia. 

Cyclamen enroi)aniiii. 
Cyclamen liederDefolium. 
Primula, in var. 
Iris amceiia. 

„ oristata. 

„ De Bergii. 

„ Haveseens. 

,, tlorentina. 

., gernianica. 

,, graminea. 

,, oeliroleiica. 

„ ]iallida. 

,, saiiilnieina. 

„ sub-billora. 



Iris variegata, aiul many 

other kinds. 
Crocus aureus. 
,, speciosus. 
,, versicolor. 
,, susianus, and many 
others. 
Narcissus angustifolius. 
,, Bulbocodium. 
, , bicolor. 
,, iucomparabilis. 
,, major. 
,, moutanus. 
, , odorus. 
,, poeticusfe vars. 
Galautlms, in var. 
Leueojum inilchellum. 

,, veruum. 

Paradisia Liliastriim. 



Ornithogalum umbellatum. 

Seilla aiiHi'iia. 
,, bifolia 
,, cainiianulata. 
,, patula. 
„ italica. 
,, sibii'ica. 
Hyacinthus amethystinus. 
Muscari botryoides. 

„ mosehatum, and 
various others. 
Allium neapolitanum. 

,, ciliatnm. 
Tulipa Gesueriana. 
, , suaveolens. 
, , scabriscapa and 
many others. 
Fritillaria, in var. 
Bulbocodium vernuin. 



Plants for Naturalisation beneath specimen Trees on Lawns, etc. 

Where, as is fref|uently the case, the branches of trees, both 
evergreen and deciduous, sweep the turf — and this, as a rule, they 
shoukl be allowed to do where they are planted in ornamental 
grounds — a great nunil)er of pretty sjiring flowers may be naturalised 
beneath the branches, where they thrive without attention. It is 
chiefly in the case of deciduous trees that this could be done ; but 
even in the case of conifers and evergreens some graceful objects might 
be dotted beneath the outermost points of their lower branches. How- 
ever, it is the specimen deciduous tree that oft'ers us the best opportuni- 
ties in this way. We know that a great number of our spring flowers 
and hardy bulbs mature their foliage and go to rest early in the year. 
They require light and sun in spring, which they obtain abundantly 
under the deciduous tree ; they have time to flower and develop their 
leaves under it before the foliage of the tree appears ; then, as the 
summer heats approach, they are gradually overshadowed by a cooL 
canopy, and go to rest undisturbed ; but, the leaves of the trees once 
fallen, they soon begin to appear again and cover the ground with 
beauty. 

An example or two will perhaps explain the matter more fully. 
Take the case of, say, a spreading old specimen of any summer-leafing 
tree. Scatter a few tufts of the winter Aconite beneath it, and leave 
them alone. In a very few years they will have covered the ground ; 
every year afterwards they will spread a golden carpet beneath the 
tree ; and when it fades there will be no eyesore from decaying leaves 



168 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



as there would be on a border — no necessity for replacing the plants 
with others ; the tree puts forth its leaves, covering the ground till 
Autumn, and in early spring we again see our little friend in all the 
vigour of his glossy leaves and golden buttons. In this way this 
pretty sjiring fiower may be seen to mucli greater advantage, in a 
much more pleasing position than in tlie ordinary way of putting it in 
patches and rings in beds or borders, and with a tithe of the trouble. 
There are many other subjects of which the same is true. We have 
only to imagine this done in a A'ariety of cases to see to what a beauti- 
ful and novel result it would lead. Given the bright blue Apennine Ane- 
mone under one tree, the spring Snowflake under another, the delicate 
blue and pencilled Crocuses, and so on, we should have a sjjring garden 
of the most beautiful kind. Tlie same plan could be carried out imder 
the branches of a grove as well as of sjiecimen trees. Very attractive 
mixed plantations might be made by dotting tall subjects like the 
large Jonquil (Narcissus odorus) among dwarf spreading jjlants like 
the Anemone, and also by mixing dwarf plants of various colours : 
diversely cohjured varieties of the same species of Anemone, for 
example. 

Omitting the various pretty British plants that would thrive in the 
positions indicated — tliese are not likely to be unknown to the reader 
interested in such matters — and confining the selection to dwarf, hard}', 
exotic flowers alone, the following are selected as among the most 
suitable for such arrangements as that just described, with some little 
attention as to the season of flowering and the kind of soil recj[uired by 
some rather uncommon species. A late- flowering kind, for example, 
shoiild be planted under late -leafing trees, or towards the points of 
their branches, so that they might not be obscured by the leaves of 
the tree before peifecting their flowers. 



Auemone 


angulosa. 


>> 




apeuniua. 
blauda. 


55 




Coronaria. 






fulgeiLs. 

Hepatica. 

stellata. 


3^ 




sylvestris. 
tril'olia. 


Arum 


italicuiii. 


Bulbocod 


iiiiu vuriuiin. 


Corydalis 


solida. 


}) 




tuberosa. 



Crocus Imperati. 

,, bitlorus. 

,, reticulatus. 

,, versicolor, and 
many others. 
Cyclamen liedertefolium. 
Erantliis hyenialis. 
Erythroniuni Dens-canis. 
Ficaria grandiHora. 
Snowdroji, all the kinds. 
Snowllake, all the kinds. 
Iris reticulata. 
Grape Hyacinths. 



Grajje Hyacinths Muscari, 
any of the numerous k inds. 
Narcissus, in var. 
Pusehkinia scilloides. 
Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Scilla bifolia. 

,, sibirica. 

,, campanulata. 
SisjTincliium gi-anditlo- 

rum. 
Trillium grandiHorum 

(peat or leaf soil). 
Tiili23a, in var. 



SELECTIONS OF HARDY EXO'I'K' PLANTS. 



11)9 



Plants for. very vioist rich Soils. 



Altliffia, in var. 
Astilbe riviilaris. 
Aralia edulis. 

„ mulicaulis. 
Artemisia, in var. 
Asclepias Cornuti. 
Aspliodelu.s ranio.-ius. 
Aster, in var. 
Baptisia exaltata. 
Butonms luuljellatu.s. 
C'alla palustris. 
Caltlia palustris ti. pi. 
Campanula glomerata, and 

large kinds. 
Convallaria multiflora. 
Colcliicum, in var. 
Ci'inuni cai)ense. 
Cyx)ripediuin sjiectaljile. 
Datisca cannaMna. 
Ecliinops, in var. 
Elymns, in var. 
Epilobium, in var. 



Eupatorium, in var. 

Ficaria grandiflora. 

Galax apliylla. 

Galega officinalis. 

Gentiana asclepiadea. 

Heliantlius multitlorus, 
single and double forms. 

Heliantlius orgyalis. 
,, rigidus. 

Helonias bullata. 

Hemerocallis, in var. 

Heracleum, in var. 

Iris ochreleuca. 

Liatris, in var. 

Lythnim (roseuni super- 
bum). 

Miniulas, in var. 

Moloposperiuuni cicuta- 
rium. 

Mulgedium Plumieri. 

Narcissus, stronger kinds. 



ffinotliera, large kinds. 
Oini)lialodes verna. 
On()j)ordon, in var. 
Phlomis lierba-venti. 
„ Russelliana. 
Pliysostegia speciosa. 
Phytolacca decantlra. 
Rudbeckia liirta. 
Ranunculus ainplexicaulis. 
,, iiarnassit'olius. 

Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Solidago, in var. 
Spirrea Aruncus. 
Statice latifolia. 
Silpliiuui, in var. 
Swertia pereunis. 
Telekia speciosa. 
Tlialictruin, in vai-. 
Trollius, in var. 
Vaccinium, in var. 
Veratrum, in var. 



Plants suited for Peat Soil. 



Alstroemeria, in var. 
Calluna, in var. 
Chimaijbila maculata. 
Clirysobactron Hookeri. 
Coptis trifoliata. 
Cornus canadensis. 
C3'pripedium spectabile. 
Dentaria laciniata. 
Daj^line C'neorum. 
Dryas octopetala. 
Epigffia repeus. 
Epimediuni, in var. 



Funkia Sieboldii. 

,, grandiflora. 
Galax apliylla. 
Gaultlieria procumbens. 
Gentians, in var. 
Helonias bullata. 
Iris midicaulis, puniila, 

and vars. 
JettVrsonia diphylla. 
Linntea borealis. 
Podophyllum peltatuni. 



Podophyllum Emodi. 

Polygala Chanuebuxus. 
Pyrola, in var. 
Hardy Heaths, in var. 
Ramondia pyrenaica. 
Sisyriuchium grandiflo- 

rum. 
Spigelia marilandica. 
Trieutalis euro])?ea. 
Trillium grandiflorum. 
Lilies, in var. 



Plants suited for Calcareous or CJialbj Soil. 



Adenophora, in var. 
^thionema, in var. 
Anemone, in var. 
Alyssum, in var. 
Antliyllis montana. 
Antirrhinum, in var. 
Cistus, in var. 
Cheiranthus, in var. 
Camiiauula, in ^ar. 
Carduus eriophorus. 
Cerastium, in var. 
Corouilla, in var. 



Dorycnium sericeum. 
Dianthus, in var. 
Ecliium, in var. 
Erodium, in var. 
Genista, in var. 
Geum, in var. 
Geranium, in var. 
Gypsoj^hila, in var. 
Hedysarum, in var. 
Helianthemum, in var. 
Lunaria biennis. 
Lupinus ]iolypliyllus. 



Onobrychis, in var. 
Ononis, in var. 
Ol)hrys, in var. 
Othonna cheirifolia. 
Phlomis, iu var. 
Prunella grandiflora. 
Santolina, in var. 
Sapouaria ocymoides. 
Saxifraga (the encrusted 

and the large-leaved 

kinds). 
Scabiosa, in var. 



170 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Sempervivuni, in var. 
Sednm, in var. 
Symphytum, in var. 
Tliermopsis fabacea. 
Thymus, in var. 



Trachelium coeruleum. 
Trifolinm alpinum. 
Triteleia uniflora. 
Tunica Saxifraga. 
Vesicaria iitriculata. 



Vicia, in var. 
Vittadenia trilolia. 
Waklsteinia trifoliata. 
geoides. 



Plants suited for Dry and Gravelly Soil. 



Achillffia, in var. 
iEthionema cordifolium. 
Agrostemma coronaria. 
Alyssum saxatile. 
Antennaria dioica. 
Anthyllis montaua. 
Antirrhinum rujiestre. 
Arabis albida. 
Aubrietia, in var. 
Armeria cephalotes. 
Artemisia, in var. 
Cerastium, in var. 
Carlina acanthifolia. 
Cheiranthus, in var. 
Chrysopsis mariana. 
Cistus, in var. 
Corydalis, in var. 
Dianthus, in var. 
Dracocephaluni, in var. 
Dielytra eximia. 



Dorycnium sericeum. 
Eehium, in var. 
Erodium, in var. 
Eryngium, in var. 
Eui3horl)ia Myrsinites. 
Fumaria, in var. 
Geranium, in var. 
Gypsophiha, in var. 
Heliantlieinum, in var. 
Heliehrysum arenarium. 
Hypericum, in vai'. 
Iberis, in var. 
Jasione perennis. 
Lavandula spica. 
Linaria, in var. 
Liuum, in var. 
Lupinus polyphylhis. 
Modiola geranioides. 
Narcissus, in var. 
Nepeta Mussinii. 



Onobrychis, in var. 
Ononis, in var. 
Ornithogaluni, in var. 
Plumljago Larpenta?. 
Polygonum vaccinifolium. 
Santolina, in var. 
Scabiosa, in var. 
Sedum, in great var. 
Sempervivum, in great var. 
Saponaria ocymoides. 
Stachys lanata. 
Tencrium Chamaxlrys. 
Thlaspi latifoliuni. 
Thymus, in var. 
Trachelium, in var. 
Tussilago fragrans. 

„ Farfara variegata. 
Verbascum, in var. 
Vesicaria utricxilata. 



Selection of Plants for Growing on Old JFalls, Ruins, or Bochj Slopes. 



Achillea tomentosa. 


Centranthus ruber coccin- 


Lychnis Flos Jovis. 


Alyssum montanum saxa- 


eus. 


)j 


lappouica. 


tile (walls and ruins). 


Cheirantlnis alpinus. 


Malva 


campanulata. 


Antirrliinum rupestre. 


„ C'heiri. 


Sautol 


na lanata. 


„ majus. 


„ ,, pleno. 


Saponaria ocymoides. 


„ Orontium. 


Coronilla minima. 


Saxifrf 


ga bryoides. 


Arenaria balearica. 


Corydalis lutea. 




caryophyllata. 


„ crespitosa. 


Cotyledon Umbilicus. 




CcBsia. 


,, ciliata. 


Dianthus cresius. 




crustata. 


,, graminifolia. 


„ deltoides. 




cnscutfeformis 


„ montana. 


„ monspessulanns. 




diapensioides. 


„ verna. 


„ petrous. 




Hostii. 


Arabis albida. 


Draba aizoides. 




intacta. 


„ petrasa. 


Erinus alpinus. 




ligulata. 


Asperula cynanchica. 


Erodium romanum. 




longifolia. 


Cami)annla Barrelieri. 


„ Eeichardii. 




i:)ectinata. 


„ rotundilblia. 


Gypsojihila muralis. 




pulchella. 


„ fragilis. 


„ prostrata. 




retusa. 


„ fragilis lanu- 


Helianthemums. 




Rhei. 


ginosa. 


Hutchinsia petrsea. 




rosularis. 


„ garganica. 


Iberis. 




Rocheliana. 


„ pumila. 


lonopsidium acanle. 




sarmentosa. 


„ pumila alba. 


Koniga maritima. 


Sedum 


acre. 


Ceutrantlins rulier. 


Linuni alpinum. 


)j 


aureum. 


„ „ albus. 


Lychnis alpina. 


>» 


Aizoon. 



SELECTIONS OF HAEDY EXOTIC PLANTS. 



171 



Sedum album. 



aiiglicuiu. 

arenariuiii. 

brevifoliuin. 

californicum. 

cceruleuni. 

(lasypliylluni. 

elegans. 

Ewersii. 

farinosum. 

globiferum. 

Heuffelli. 

liirtuni. 



Seduni liispaniciim. 
„ kair.scliaticum. 
,, iiiontaiuun. 
„ limit iceps. 
,, piliferuiu. 
„ iiulclinini. 
„ sempervivoides. 
Sempervivuni araclinoid- 
eiiiii. 
„ sobolifenim. 

., spuriiim. 

,, sexaiigiilare. 

„ sexfidum. 



Sempervivuni tectonim. 
Sileiie alpestris. 

„ rupe.'<tris. 

„ Scliafta. 
Sj'mphiaiidra iiciidula. 
Tlilaspi alpestre. 
Thymus citriodorus. 
Tiicliomanes, and var.s. 
Tunica Saxifraga. 
Umbilicus clirysantluis. 
Veronica fruticulosa. 

„ saxatilis. 
Vesicaria utriculata. 



A Selection of Annual and Biennial Plants for Xatiiralisation. 



Papaver somuiferum. 
Eschsclioltzia californica. 
Platystenion californicum. 
Matthiola annua. 

„ bicornis. 

Arabis arenosa. 
Alyssum inaritimum. 
Iberis coronaria. 
„ umbellata. 
Malcolraia maritima. 
Erysimum Perotfskianum. 
Gypsopliila elegans. 
Saponaria calabrica. 
Silene Armeria. 
Viscaria oculata. 
Malope trifida. 
Limnantlies Doiiglasii. 
Ononis viscosa. 
(Enotliera odorata. 
Godetia Lindleyana. 
„ rubicuuda. 



Godetia tenella. 
Clarkia elegans. 

„ pulchella. 
Eucharidium conciunum 

granditlorum. 
Amberboa moscliata. 

„ odorata. 

Heliantlius aunuus. 
Dinioi'ijliotlieca pluvialis. 
Gilia cajiitata. 
,, tricolor. 
Collomia cocciuea. 
Leptosiplion androsaceus. 

„ densiflorus. 

Nicandra pliysaloides. 
Collinsia bicolor. 

,, verna. 
Dracoceplialum nutans. 

,, moldavicum. 

Blituni capitatum. 



Polygonum orientale. 
Panicum capillare. 
Bromus briza:^formis. 
Briza maxima. 
„ gracilis. 
Agrostis nebulosa. 
Matthiola, in var. 
Lunaria biennis. 
Hesperis matronalis. 
Erysimum asperum. 
Silene pendula. 
Hedysarum coronarium. 
CEnotliera Jaiiiesi. 
Oenothera Lamarckiana. 
Dipsacus laciniatus. 
Silybum eburneum. 
Onopordum, in var. 
Campanula Medium. 

„ „ rosea. 

Yerbascum phlomoides. 



Agrostis nebulosa. 
Briza maxima. 
Brizopyrum siculum. 
Bromus brizseformis. 



Grasses for Naturalisation: 

Hordeuni jubatum. 
Panicum virgatum. 

„ bulbosum. 

,, capillare. 



Polypogon monspeliensis. 
Stipa gigautea. 
„ jiennata. 
^lilium multiflorum. 



Some of (jur nnliler grasses, like tlie Pampas and tlie New Zealaml 
reeds, have not the qualities of perfect hardiness ami power nf increase 
without care in our climate, which would entitle them to a place in 
these selections. They belong to the garden propt-r. 



Aquatic Plants for Naturalisation. 



Nuphar advena. 
Nymphffia odorata. 



C'alla palustris. 
Poutederia cordata. 



Aponogeton distachyon. 
Orontium aquaticum. 



172 



THE WILD GARDEN. 



Hardy Bulbs for Naturalisation. 



Allium Molj'. 



fragrans. 

, , iieapolitaniiiii. 

,, ciliatuiu. 
Brodifea coiigesta. 
Bulbocodium venmiii. 
Camassia esculenta. 
Crinum capense. 
Crocus, in gi-eat var. 
Coldiicuni, iu var. 



Cyclamen, in var. 
Eiytlironium Dens-canis. 
Fritillaria, in var. 
Gladiolus communis. 
Hyacinthus ametliystinus. 
Iris, in great var. 
Leucojum, in var. 
Lilium, in var. 
Merendera Bulbocodium. 
Muscari, in var. 



Narcissus, iu great var, 
Ornithogalum, in var. 
Scilla, in var. 
Snowdrops, in var. 
Sparaxis jndclierrima. 
Sternbergia lutea. 
Tricliouema ramitlorum. 
Triteleia uniflora. 
Tulijia, in var. 



List of Plants for Naturalisation in Laicns and other Grassy Places 

not frequently mown. 

This must of necessity be a limited list — being confined to sul)jects 
tluit will grow and flower early in the season, and not form tufts or 
foliage large enough to much injure the turf. 



Bulbocodium vernum. 
ColcliicTim, in var. 
Cyclamen liederaifolium. 
Sno\vdroi)s, all. 
Leucojum veruuni. 
Scilla bifolia. 

,, alba. 

,, sibirica. 

, , italica. 

, , amcena. 
Anemone apennina. 



Anemone ranunculoides. 

, , blanda. 

,, trifolia. 

Antennaria dioica rosea. 
Antlij'llis montana. 
Dianthus deltoides. 
Erodium romanum. 
Fumaria bulbosa. 
Helichrysum arenarium. 
Iris reticulata. 
Linum alpinum. 



Narcissus minor. 

, , bicolor. 

,, Bulbocodium. 

,, juncifolius, and 

many others. 
Sternbergia lutea. 
Hyacinthus ametliystinus. 
Merendera Bulbocodium. 
Muscari, iu var. 
Trichonenia ramiflorum. 



Climbing and Tioinincj Plants for Thickets, Copses, Hedgerows, and Trees. 



Ampelopsis bipinnata. 

,, cordata. 

,, hederacea. 

, , tricuspidata. 

Apios tnberosa. 
Aristolochia Sipho. 

„ tomentosa. 

AsparagTis Broussoneti. 
Calystegia dahurica. 
Cissus orientalis. 
Clematis flammula. 
,, montana. 



Clematis Viticella, and 

others. 
Hablitzia tamnoides. 
Jasminum nudiflorum. 

„ officinale. 

Lathyrus grandiflorus. 
,, latifolius. 
„ rotundifolius. 

„ tuberosus and 

others. 
Louicera Ca|irifolinm. 
„ confusa. 
,, tlava. 



Louicera japonica. 

,, Periclymenum. 
Menispermum canadense. 
„ virginicum. 

Perijjloca grasca. 
Roses, single, in great var. 
Smilax, hardy kinds. 
Tanms communis. 
Tropaeolum pentaphyllum. 

„ speciosum. 

Vitis, various. 
Wistaria frutesceus. 

„ sinensis. 



These selections are only proposed as aids to those dealing with 
special positions. The most valuable selection and best guide to the 
material for the lieginner will be found in Chapter XIV., on the prin- 
cipal types of Hardy Exotic Plants for the wild garden. 



RABBITS AND WOODS. 173 



RABBITS AND WOODS. 



This sad subject has been kept for the hx.'^t, as the only disa<i;ree- 
able one in connection with the wihl garden. All I have to say of 
it is, there should be no rabbits in the wild garden ; but the following 
suggestions may prove useful. 

The subject should be presented in a practical light to landowners 
and preservers of game, and if it can be shown that the preservation, 
or rather toleration, of rabbits on an estate is a dead loss both to the 
proprietor and his tenants, probably more active measures would l)e 
taken for their extermination. It is incalculable the injury they do to 
young trees alone ; indeed, where they j^revail there is no chance of 
getting up cover except at an exti'avagant cost. Hares are less 
destructive, if they damage trees at all ; and it is said by experienced 
gamekeepers that they never thrive so well where rabbits abound. 
And as regards pheasants, they drive them away by eating down the 
evergreen cover so necessary to their existence in the way of shelter in 
winter. Pheasants will not remain in a wood where there is not 
shelter of this kind ; and nothing are they more partial to than the 
Holly, which ought to abound in every wood, but which the ralibits 
destroy first. Here are two sorts of game — hares and pheasants — which 
many can never have enough of, and the existence of which is directly 
interfered with by the rabbits ; they should be encouraged at the 
expense of the latter — not to speak of the expense incurred year after 
year making up losses in plantation, and the expense of wire-netting 
and labour, etc., in protecting the trees. The extermination of rabbits 
in this country is not such a difficult matter as might be imagined. 
When it was determined here a few years since to reduce their numbers 
to a minimum on the farm lands and woods, it did not require more 
than a couple of years to do so by shooting and ferreting during the 
season ; and they are now principally confined to one part of the 
estate — an extensive tract of waste land not of much use for any other 
purpose. I feel pretty certain that a few active poachers would under- 
take to clear an estate of its rabbits in a marvellously short time, and 
would be glad to pay a handsome consideration for the privilege of 
loing so. In whatever degree rabbits contribute to our food supply — 
and it is not much — they certainly destroy a great quantity of our coin 
crops, and are no profit to gentlemen or game preservers, and there is 
therefore no excuse for their existence. 

Hungry rabbits, like hungry dogs or starving men, will eat almost 



ci 



174 THE WILD GAEDEN. 

anything that can be masticated and swallowed. Rabl)its, as a rule, 
prefer to nibble over a pasture that contains short, sweet, wholesome 
grass, and a proportion of clover, dandelion, and daisies, but in and 
about woods where rabbits are numerous, the grass, from Ijeing closely 
and constantly eaten off, gradually disappears, and at the approach of 
winter is succeeded by moss, a very cold, watery, and innutritions 
substitute ; then rabbits are diiven to seek food from other sources 
than grass, and the bark of small trees, the leaves, stalks, and bark of 
shrubs, and the protruding roots of forest trees, are eaten almost indis- 
criminately. Amongst evergreen shrubs, rhododendrons and box are 
generally avoided, but I have known newly-planted hybrid rhodo- 
dendrons to be partly eaten l)y rabbits. The elder is distasteful, and 
American azaleas are avoided. I have frecpiently seen Yew trees 
barked ; mahonias are devoured in these woods as soon as planted ; 
and periwinkle, which is named amongst ral)bit-proof plants, is generally 
eaten to the ground in severe weather. Some of the bulbs and flower- 
ing plants named l)y your correspondent may well escape in winter, 
because they are not seen above ground, and where they grow, other 
more agreeable herbage appears, so their immunity consists in being 
inaccessible in a hungry time. Wliere rabbits are permitted, the fact 
that they require food daily, like other creatures, should be recognised. 
In the absence of wholesome food they will eat simply what they can 
get. A certain portion of grass land should be retained for them and 
managed accordingly ; a few acres might be wired round, or, to be 
more explicit, surrounded with wire-netting, to the exclusion of rabbits, 
until the apju'oach of wintry weather, when it could l)e thrown open 
for them. If this cannot be done, and frosty weatlier sets in, when 
the mischief to shrubs is consummate<l, trimmings of quick hedges 
should be scattered about, and an allowance of turnips, carrots, or 
mangold wurzel made and doled out daily in bad weather. In my 
experience rabbits prefer newly planted trees and shrubs to those 
established. I have even had the fronds of newly-planted Athyrium 
Filix-fcomina eaten, while other ferns have been untouched. There is 
one hint I may give your rabbit-preserving readers : certain breeds of 
wild rabbits are much more prone to bark trees than others. The 
barking of trees is an acquired propensity more common to north- 
country rabbits than others. I should advise the destruction of those 
rabbits whose propensity for shrubs is very marked, and try warren or 
common rabbits from the south of England ; Imt the best advice I can 
give is to have no rabbits at all. — J. S. 



RABBITS AND WOODS. 



175 



A correspoiuleiit who lias given niucli attention to tlie subject 
(Saliiioniceps) gives the following, as among the most rabh it-proof of 
plants : — " Most of the Lily family are," he says, " rejected by them, 
including Daffodils, Tulips, Snowdrops, Sno-\vflakes, Lilies, Day Lilies, 
Asphodels, and others, and they cannot Ije too extensively plaiitt-d ; 
but even in that tribe the Crocus (which is also named in the article 
in cj^uestion) is greedily devoured. I gave — in an early nmuber of 
your paper (see pp. 9 and 88, Yol. I.) — a list of all rabbit-proof trees, 
shrubs, and flowers then kno\ra to me, and I regret that, though keep- 
ing a watch ujion the subject, I have not been able to add a single 
species to tlie list given below." 



AndrosEemum officinale. 


Hollies. 


Primrose, in var. 


Anemone coronaria. 


Honesty (Lunaria). 


Roses. 


„ japouica. 


Iris. 


Ruscus aculeatus. 


Arabis. 


Lignstrum vulgare. 


„ racemosus. 


Artemesia Abvotamim. 


Lilies (oonimou orange 


Scilla. 


Asphodelus albus. 


and white kinds). 


Solomon's Seal. 


Aubrietia. 


Lily of the Valley. 


Lonicera, in var. 


Berberis Darwiuii. 


Lycium barbarum. 


Staehys lanata. 


Canterbury Bells. 


Mahonia Aquifolium. 


Symphoricarjjus 


Cineraria maritima. 


Monkshood. 


„ racemosits 


Columbine. 


Muscari. 


Syringa persica. 


Common and Irish Yews. 


Narcissus. 


„ vulgaris. 


Deutzia scabra. 


Ornithogalum. 


Tritoma. 


Dog's-tooth Violet. 


Pansies. 


Violets. 


Elder. 


Periwinkle (large and 


Weigela rosea. 


Euonymus. 


small). 


Winter Aconite. 


Fuchsia. 


Phlox, in var. 


Woodruff. 


Hibiscus syriacus. 


Poppy. 


Yucca gloriosa. 



Lists, however, and considerations of the above sort, are a poor 
substitute for what is realh" recj^uired in such cases — the extermination 
of pests which are destructive alike to field crops, to trees and shrubs, 
and to plants, and which offer at best a very scanty return for the 
havoc they commit. 






ipf- 









FINIS. 



INDEX. 



Acanthus, 120 

Aceitlent, a beautiful, ol 

Achillea, 122 

Achilleas, large white, 53 

Aconite, the Winter, 139 

Aconitum, 121 

Adam's Xeedle, 162 

Ajuga, 122 

Alkanet, 125 

Allium, the Wliite, 123 

Allium, the Yellow, natural- 
ised, 42 

Alstra;nieria, 123 

Althaea, 123, 150 

American Cowslip, 136 

American Swamp Lily, 64 

American Wliite Wood Lilv, 
59 

Ampelopsis, 130 

Anchusa, 125 

Anemone, 124 

Anemone, Blue Apennine, 17 

Anemone fulgens, 23 

Anemones in the Riviera, 25 

Anthericum, 125 

Antirrhinum, 125 

Apennine Anemone, 7 

Aquilegia, 125 

Arabis, 126 

Arenaria, 126 

Arenaria balearica on a wall, 
88 

Aristolochia Sipho, 129 

Arum, 127 

Arundo Donax, 155 

Asclepias, 128 

Asphodel, 127 

Aster, 128 

Astragalus, 129 

Astrantia, 129 

Atragene Alpina, 30 

Aubrietia, 129 

Bamboo, 130 

Rjmbusa, 130 

Baptisia, 130 

Barren-wort, 13S 

Bear's Breech, 120 

Bedding System, the, 2 

Bee Balm,'l50 

BeU-flower, 130 

Bindweed, 134 

Bindweed, a South European, 

135 
Bindweed, large white, 39 
Bitter Vetch, 151 
Blood-root, 15 



Bloodwort, 157 
Blue Ajiennine Anemone, 17 
Blue Rock Cress, 129 
Bog Garden, 77 
Bog Gardens, 67 
Bohemian Comfi-ey, 11 
Borage, 12 
Borage family, '.i 
Borago, 130 
Borago cretica, 13 
Bramble, 155 
Bramble, the Xootka, 40 
Brookside Gardens, 67 
Bugle, 122 

Bulbs, hardy, for naturalisa- 
tion, 172 
Bulbs an<l Tubers in grass, 15 

Calla palustris, 135 
Callirhoe, 150 
Calystegia, 134 
Campanula, 130 
Candjimft, Evergi'een. 14.'. 
Cape Pond Wee(l, 75 
Catch-fly, 157 
Caucasian Comfi-ey, 9, 10 
Celastrus, 46 
Centaurea, 131 
Centiauthus ruber, 131 
Cejihalaria, 157 
Cephalaria procera, 33 
Cerastium, 131 
Cheddar Pink, 91 
Cheddar Pink, Saxifrage, etc., 

on wall, 89 
Cheiranthus, 131 
Christmas Rose, 143 
Clematis, 133 
Clematis erecta, 133 
Clematis flammula, 21 
Clematis, large white, on Yew 

tree, 44 
Clematis, the mountain, 22 
Clematis, the White-flowered 

European, 133 
Climbei-s, 166 

Climbing plants crueitied, 45 
Climbing plants for WiW 

Garden, 8 
Climbing Rose isolated on 

grass, 87 
Colchicum, 132 
Colony of iljTi-his odorata, 51 
Colony of Xareissus in shrub- 
bery, 57 
Colony of Summer Snowflake, 

119 

N 



Columbine, 125 

Columbine, the Siberian, 126 

Columbines in Grass, v 

Comfrey, 157 

Comfreys, 11 

Common Lujiine, 146 

Copse, Lily of the Vallev in 
a, 63 

Copses, 30 

Coral-wort, 135 

Cornus canadensis, 133 

Coronilla varia, 135 

Cotton Thistle, 151 

Cow Parsnip, the Giant, 35 

Cow Parsnips, 143 

Crambe, 134 

Crane's Bill, wild, 94 

Creeping Forget-me-not, 151 

Cretan Borage, 13 

Crocus, 132 

Crocuses, 17 

Crocuses in turf, 20 

Culture in Woods, 64 

Cyclamen, 133 

Cyclamen, 1%-j-leaved, 5 

Cyclamens in the Wild Gar- 
den, 134 

C\i>erus longus, 73 

Cypripedium spectabile, 133 

Daffodil, 151 

Day Lily, 143 

Day Lily by margin of water, 

76 
Delphinium, 136 
Dentaria, 135 
Dianthus, 137 
Dielytra, 136 
Digitalis, 137 
Digging shrubbery borders, 

51 
Ditches, 36 
Dodecatheon, 136 
Dog's-tooth Violet, 139 
Doronicuni, 136 
Drapery for trees and bushes, 

43 
Dug and mutilated shrubbery 

in St. James's Park, 111 
Dwaj-f Cornel, 133 

EcHixops, 138 

EUacombe, Rev. H. X., on 

the Rose, 81 
Bnothera, 151 
Epigtca rcpens, 138 



178 



INDEX. 



Eiiinieiliuiu, 138 
Eranthis liyeiiialis, l:!',i 
Erica, 138 
Eryngiiim, 138 
ErythroiiiuiH, 139 
P^uiiatoriuiu, 137 < 
Evening Primrose, 151 
Evening Primrose at niglit, 4 
Evergreen Candytnft, 145 
Everlasting Pea,' 148 
Exotic and Britisli Wild 

Flowers in the Wild Gai-- 

den, 17 

Ferns, 141 

Ferula, 140 

Flame Flower, 159 

Fleur de Lis, 145 

Flowers, Si>ring and early 

Summer, 166 
Forget-me-not, 149 
Forget-me-not, Creeping, 151 
Foxglove, 137 
Fritillaria, 140 
Fumaria, 136 
Fumitory, 136 
Fumitory, the Yellow, on 

wall, 91 
Funkia, 139 
Funkia Sielioldi, group of, 140 

GALA>fTHl'S, 143 

Galega, 142. 

(iardens of the future, 58 

Gentian, 142 

Geranium, 141 

Geranium, a hardy, 141 

Geraniums in Grass, v 

Giant Comfrey, 13 

Giant Cow Parsnip, 35 

Giant Fennel, 140 

Giant Scabious, 33, 135 

Giant Sea-kale, 134 

Globe Flower, 159 

Globe Flower order, 21 

Globe Flowers, 25 

Globe Flowers, groiip of, 21 

Globe Thistle, 138 

Goat's Rue, 142 

Golden Rod, 15ti 

Grajie Hyacinth, 148 

Grape Hyacintlis, 17 

Grass, double Crimson Pieo- 

nies in, 30 
Grass, Star of Bethlehem in, 

15 
Grassesfrn- naturalisation, 171 
Great Siberian ^■egetation, 

type of, 35 
Green Hellebore in the Wihl 

Garden, 26 
Gromwells, 11 
Gypsophila, 142 

Hardv flowers by brook-side, 

69 
Heath, 138 
Hedgerows, 36 
Helianthemum, 144 
Helianthus, 144 
Hellebore in Wild Garden, 26 
Helleborus, 143 
Henierocallis, 143 
Henii) Agrimony, 137 



Hejiatica angulosa, 24 
Hepatiea, common, 25 
Heracleum, 143 
Herb Paris and Solomon's 

Seal in copse by streamlet, 

67 
Hespei'is, 145 
Honesty, 146 
Honeysuckle, 147 
Hop, the, 46 
Houseleek, 158 
Hovev, Mr., on tree drapery, 

47 ' 
Hyi)ericum, 145 

Iberis, 145 

Illustrations, list of, xi 
Indian Cress, showy, 160 
Iris, 145 

Japan Anemone in the Wild 

Garden, 23 
Jajian Knotweed, 152 
Japan Sedum in Wild Garilen, 

92 

Kitaibelia, 150 
Knap-weed, 131 
Knautia, 157 

Landwort, 126 
Large Achilleas, 53 
Large Bindweed, 39 
Large-flowereil Clematis, 101 
Large-leafed Saxifrage, 97 
Larkspurs, ]>erennial, 27 
Lathyrus, 147 
Lavender, Sea, 156 
Leopard's Bane, 136 
Leucojuni, 147 
Liane in the north, 49 
Ijilies through carpet of 

White Arabis, 55 
Liliuni, 146 
Lily, 146 

Lily, American Swaniji, 64 
Lily, American White Wood,59 
Lilv of the Vallev in a copse, 

63 
Lily, Wood, 159 
Lilv, Water, 151 
Lily, White W(.>od, 37 
Lithospei'mum prostratum, 

147 
Longleat, Wild Garden at, 61 
Lonicera, 147 
Lords and Ladies, 127 
Luuaria, 146 
Lungwort, 154 
Lungworts, 11 
Lujiine, connnon, 146 
, Lychnis, 147 

I Mallow, 150 
Malope, 1.50 
Malva, 1.50 
Marsh C'alla, 135 
Marsh Mallow, 123 
Marsh Marigold and Iris in 

early spring, 78 
Masterwort, 129 
.Matthiola, 149 
May-flower, 138 
Meadow Rue, 158 



MeadowRue in Wild Garden, 1 
Meadow Rues, 31 
Meadow Saffron, foliage of, 132 
Menispermum, 47 
Menziesia, 138 
Mertensia virginica, 12 
Milk Vetch, 129 
Mimulus, 148 
Mocassin Flower, 133 
Molopospermum, 149 
Monarda, 1.50 
Monkey-flower, 148 
Monksiiood, 121 
Moonseed, 47 
Mountain Clematis, 22 
Mouse-ear, 131 
Mowing Grass, 17 
Mulgedium Plumieri, 6, 150 
Mullein, a tall, 161 
Muscari, 148 
Mvosotis, 149 
Myrrh, 60 

M\Trhis odorata, a colony of, 
51 

Narcissus, 151 

Narcissus, colony of, in shrub- 
bery, 57 

New England, woods of, 

Niglit ettect of Eveiung Pi 
rose, 4 

Nootka Bramljlc, 40 

Nuphar, 151 

Nursery for Londim Pa 
118 

Nymphica, 151 



5S 
Prim- 



'arks. 



(Enothera Lamarkiana, 4 
Omphalodes, 151 
Omphalodes \erna, 10 
()nii]iorilon, 151 
Orchard Wild Garden, 65 
Ornithogalum, 151 
Orobus, 151 
O.xalis, 152 
Ox-eye Daisy, the tall, 154 

PEONIES in grass, 30 

Pifcony, 153 

Papaver, in var., 153 

Partridge Berry, .sO 

Pea, 147 

Pea, Everlasting, 148 

Perennial Larksjiurs, 27 

Perennial Larkspurs natur- 
alised in slirubbbery, 28 

Periwinkle, 161 

Phlomis, 153 

Physostegia, 154 

Phytolacca decandra, 154 

Piiik, 137 

Plants, Annual and Biennial, 
for nattiralisation, 171 

Plants, Aquatic, 171 

Plants chiefly fitted for the 
Wild Garden, 32 

Plants, climbing and twining, 
for cojises, thickets, hedge- 
rows, and trees, 172 

Plants for l)are banks, 164 

Plants for calcareous or 
chalky soil, 169 

Plants, hardj-, with fine foli- 
age, 165 



INDEX. 



170 



I'hiiits tor lieilgi' -banks and 

like i>Iaces, liif) 
I'laiits for moist rit-li soils, 

I'lants for naturalisation bc- 

iieatli s]ie(.Mnicii trees on 

lawns, 107 
I'lants for naturalisation in 

lawns and other i;rassy 

jilaces, ]7- 
I'lants for iieat-soil, l(i'.i 
I'lants for the WiM Gai'den, 

120 
I'lants of vi;;-orous lialiit for 

the Wild Garden, liU 
Plants, selections of, for old 

walls, ruins, or roekv slopes, 

170 
Plants, selections nf hardy, 

hi:! 
I'lants suited for .Iry and 

gra\elly soil, 170 
Polygonum cuspidatum, 102 
Pojipy, l.W 

Primrose, K\vning, l.'il 
Pulnionaria, lo4 
Pyrethrum serotinum, 154 

Rabbits and AVoods, 17.'i 

Reasons Jor the system, 4 

Red Valerian, l:'.l 

Reed, the Great, l.j") . 

Results, '.>2 

Rheum, 16'j 

Rhubarb, 15."> 

Riviera, Anemones in the, 2'> 

Rocket, 14:, 

Rosa, 155 

Rose, 155 

Roses for the Wild Garden, 

heilgerows, fences, and 

groups, SI 
Roses in the Riviera, S5 
Rosy Coronilla, 1S5 
Kullus, 155 
Rinlbeckia. 144 
Rusli, tlowei-ing, 7:'. 

Sanguisakia canadensis, 157 

Saxifraga, 15S 

Saxifrage, 15S 

Scabious, the Giant, '■'•■'• 

Scabious, 157 

Scilla, 157 

Seillas, 17 

Sea Holly, VoS 

Sea-kale,' the Giant, 1:J4 

Sea Lavender, 15ii 

Seduni, 157 

Sem]>ervivum, 15S 

Shady Lanes, 30 

Shrubbery bonlers, digging 

of, 51 
Shrubbery, margin of, lis 



Shrubborj-, Perennial Lark- 

si>urs naturalised in. 2S 
Sida, 1.50 
Silenc, 157 
Silkweed, 12.S 
Siljihium, 144 
Snakes-heail, 140 
Snapdragon, 12.') 
Snowdrop, 17 
Snowdroji - Anenioni'. i-olony 

of, in shrubbery not dug. 

115 
Snowdrojis, 14:! 
Snowdrojis, Wild, by stn-am- 

let, 142 
.Snowflake, 17, 147 
Soils, KiSi, 170 
Solidago, 1.5ii 
Solomon's Seal, Is 
Sowbread, l:s:> 
Speedwell, 102 
Spiderwort, 15Si 
S]iira'a, 150 
Sjiring Flowers in tlic Wild 

Garden, 7 
Squill, 157 

Star of Bethlehem, 151 
Star of Bethlehem in grass, 15 
Starwort, 12n 
Statice, 150 
St. Bruno's Lilv, 125 
St. John's Wort, 145 
Stock, 149 
Stonecrop, 157 
Sunflower, Perennial, 144 
Suu Rose on limestone rocks, 

144 
Sun Roses, 104 
Symphytum, 157 

Telekia cordifolia, 15;i 

Tew Park, '.is 

Thalictrum, 15S 

Thickets, 30 

Tiger Lilies in Wild Gai'ileu at 

Great Tew, US 
Tradescantla virgiuica, 150 
Trailers, KiO 
Trees and Bushes, drajiery 

for, 43 
Tree drapery, 'Mr. H(i\ev on, 

47 
Trillium, 159 
Trit<ima, 159 
Tritoma, group of, 100 
Trollius, 21, 25, 159 
Tropitolum speciosuni, 100 
Tnliji, 1.5H 
Tunica, 142 
Turf, Crocuses in, 20 
Turk's Cap Lily, 19 

V.\LLEY in Somersetshire, 70 
Verbascum, 101 
Veronica, 102 



Vetch, Bitter, 151 
Viuca, 101 
Vines, Wild, 48 
Viola, 102 
Violet, 102 

Virgin's.Bower, 21, 133 
Virginian Creepers, 130 
Virginian Poke, 1.54 



Wai.i. Cress, 120 
Wallflowei-, 131 
Water Dock, Great, 72 
Water Lily, 151 
Water Lilv, Yellow, 71 
Water Plants, 70 
Waterside Gardens, 07 
White Arabis, Lilies coming 

n]> through carpet of, 55 
White Clematis on Yew tree, 

44 
White Climbing Rose over 

old Catiilpa tree, S4 
White Lily in Wild Garden, 

140 
Wild Garden in the oj-r-liai-d, 

05 
Wild Garden, .Jajian .Knenicjue 

in the, 23 
Wild Garden, plants cliicfly 

fitted for, 32 
Wild Garden, plants for, 120 
Wild Garden in America. 100 
W^ild gardening on walls or 

ruins, 88 
Wild Garden, where to obtain 

plants, 120 
Wild Orcliard, 05 
Wild Rose on a Pollard .\.sh, 

S3 
Wild Vines. 4S 
Willow Herb, 7 
Wilson, Jlr. G. F. , and wood- 
culture, i;4 
Windflower, 124 
Winter Aconite, 15 
Winter Heliotrope, 7 
Wistaria, 45 

Wood and herl)aceous Mea- 
dow-sweets, 105 
Wood-culture, 04 
Wood-culture at Bodoigan, 05 
Wood Lily, 159 
Wood Plants, American, 150 
Woo<Irutf and Ivy, lOS 
Woods and woodlanil drives, 

51 
Woods of Xew F.ngland, 5S 
Wood Sorrel, 152 
Wye Valley, 90 



Yarrow, 122 

Yellow Allium naturalised, 42 

Yucea, 102 



Printed hy R. & R. Clark-, Edinburgh. 



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SB 439 . R5a laaa 

Robinson, W. 1838-1935. 
The wild garden 



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SB 439 . R5a 1883 
Robinson, W. 1838-1935- 



The wild garden 



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